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Full text of "Historic dress in America, 1607-1800; with an introductory chapter on dress in the Spanish and French settlements in Florida and Louisiana"

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With an Introductory Chapter on Dress in the Spanish and 
French Settlements in Florida and Louisiana 

BY • 



illustrations in colour, pen and ink, and half-tone by 










Copyright, 1904, by 


Published November, 1904 





"Fashion wears out more apparel than the man," and happily 
for us some relics of by-gone days have been preserved intact and 
placed in our hands for the preparation of this book — veritable 
documents of history on the subject of Dress in America, which 
should teach you "the nice fashion of your country," and help you 
"to construe things after their fashion." 

For these interesting old garments and also for the valuable 
portraits and family papers most generously entrusted to us for our 
work I take this opportunity to express, in behalf of Miss Steel and 
myself, our appreciation and sincere thanks. 

Elisabeth McClellan. 

Philadelphia, October, 1904. 





The Spaniards in Florida and California, i565-i764....:'.r:'. :.M.'.,. **^| 
The. French Settlements in Louisiana and the MississiPi>i FA;L^te;-y;\> ,- ; 

1680-1764 i.'.ii: :::[:. . '; ' ;.'' "32 


The English Colonies in Virginia, Maryland, the Barbadoes, and 

the CaROLINAS, 1607-1700 on 

The English Colonies in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hamp- 
shire, Maine, and Rhode Island, 1620-1700 79 

The Dutch and English in New York, Long Island, the Jerseys, 

Delaware, and Pennsylvania, 1621-1700 117 


Women's Dress, 1700-1800 173 

Reign of Queen Anne i8i 

Reign of George 1 190 

Reign of George II 193 

Reign of George III 202 

After the Revolution 255 

Children's Garments, 1700-1800 279 

Men's Apparel, 1700-1800 295 

Reigns of Queen Anne and George I 299 

, Reign of George II 307 

Reign of George III 316 

After the Revolution 328 

Legal Dress in the Eighteenth Century 335 

Uniforms in America, 1775-1800 340 


INDEX 397 





1. (In colours) Gown of red brocade worn in the Barbadoes Colony about 

1685. Lent by Mrs. Rachel St. Clair Miller Frontispiece. 

2. (Initial) Spanish galleon 25 

3. Spanish gentleman, end of sixteenth century 26 

4. Spanish soldiers with rapiers and arquebuses, middle of sixteenth century 27 

5. Fernando De Soto, in Spanish armour of the sixteenth century 29 

6. Sieur de La Salle, in French costume of 1680 29 

7. Pedro Menendez de Aviles, in Spanish dress, 1565 29 

8. Sir Francis Drake, in the dress of an English sea-captain, 1586 29 

9. French peasant women 34 

10. Jesuit missionaries 35 

11. (Initial) Sir Walter Raleigh 43 

12. Captain John Smith, 1616 44 

13. Sir Edwyn Sandys, 1607 45 

14. George Sandys, Secretary of the Virginia Colony, reign of Charles 1 45 

15. Sir Isaac Pennington, reign of Charles 1 45 

i6. Sir John Pennington, reign of Charles 1 45 

17. A farthingale, 1607 47 

18. Ordinary dress of a boy, 1602-1676 47 

19. Dress of a colonial governor, reign of Charles 1 49 

20. Dress of a colonial lady, reign of Charles 1 49 

21. Costume of a planter's wife, reign of James 1 49 

22. Costume of a gentleman planter, reign of James 1 49 

23. Ordinary dress of a little girl, 1602-1676 52 

24. EngUsh mariner, 1650 and after 53 

25. Countryman in doublet, 1660 and after 54 

26. Soldier in cuirass and morion, seventeenth century 55 

27. Silver frontlet worn by the Queen of the Pamunkeys 57 

28. Silver mace, used in the House of Burgesses, Virginia 57 

29. Sir George Percy, second governor of Virginia 57 

30. Steel vambrace dug up near Jamestown 57 

31. Doublet worn in the reign of James 1 59 

32. Indoor dress of an English gentlewoman, reign of Charles 1 65 




33. Outdoor summer costume of an English lady, reign of Charles 1 65 

34. Back view of outdoor dress, reign of Charles 1 68 

35. English lady in hood and apron, reign of Charles 1 69 

36. English gentlewoman in winter dress, furs and mask, reign of Charles I.. 69 

37. A peddler, from an old print 73 

37J. Monmouth cap 74 

38. (In colours) Lady of quality in the fashionable dress of William and Mary's 

reign 75 

39. (In colours) Typical dress of a child in the seventeenth century 75 

40. (In colours) Outdoor dress of a tradeswoman, end of the seventeenth cen- 

tury 75 

41. (In colours) Workingman, end of seventeenth century 75 

42. (In colours) A gentleman in the reign of Wilham and Mary 75 

43. (Initial) A Puritan dame .^ 83 

44. Mandillion of black silk, 1620 and after 85 

45. Photograph of a doublet, reign of Charles I 87 

46. Photograph of a doublet, reign of James 1 87 

47. Typical winter costume of a lady, 1640 90 

48. Boy's doublet of white linen embroidered with gold silk, reign of Charles I 91 

49. Bodice of white satin, reign of Charles I 91 

5o» 51, 52, 53» 54- Boots, 1595-1660 94 

5S» 56, 57- Boots, 1660-1690 95 

58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65. Shoes, 1610-1695 96 

66. Puritan colonist of the Massachusetts Bay Company 97 

67. Puritan woman of the Massachusetts Bay Company 97 

68. An English gentleman of about 1666 97 

69. A lady of the same date (1666) in walking hood and fur tippet 97 

70. 71. Cannons or breeches fastenings, 1650 99 

72. Lady's glove with embroidered cuff, seventeenth century loi 

73. Head, after Hollar, showing fashionable style of hair-dressing, reigns of 

Charles I and II loi 

74) 75) 76, 77. Gloves worn in the seventeenth century loi 

78. Man in buff coat and bandolier, 1620-1660 103 

79, 80. Points with aiglets, 1650-1660 104 

81. Samuel Sewell, Governor and Judge of Massachusetts Colony 105 

82. Sir John Leverett, Governor of Massachusetts 105 

83. 84, 85, 86, 87. Various forms of the buff coat 107 

88, 89, 90. Gorgets, 1620-1645 108 

91. John Winthrop the second, 1640 in 

92. Sir John Leverett, about 1680 in 

93. John Winthrop, Governor of Massachusetts Colony in 1629 m 

94. James Winslow, Governor of Plymouth Colony, 1644 in 



95. (Initial) Dutch colonist in New Amsterdam 121 

96. Peter Stuyvesant, Governor of New York Colony, 1647 123 

97. Sir Edmond Andros, Colonial Governor of New York, 1674-1681 123 

98. Henry Hudson, 1609 123 

99. Sir William Keith, Governor of the Province of Pennsylvania, 17 17 ... 123 

100. Dutch woman in working dress, seventeenth century 126 

loi. (In colours) Dutch lady of New Amsterdam, about 1640 127 

102. (In colours) Patroon, about 1640 127 

103. (In colours) Dutch lady, about 1660 127 

104. (In colours) English gentleman, end of reign of Charles II 127 

105. Dutchman in working dress, about 1650 129 

106. Dutch girl in fur cap and fur-trimmed jacket, 1641 131 

107. Dutch lady, hair arranged in puffs at the side, 1645 131 

108. Little Dutch girl, middle of seventeenth century 131 

109. Little Dutch boy, same period 131 

1 10. Dutch lady in fur cap and mantle, 1644 13 1 

111. Swedish lady in pointed fur cap and ruff, 1640 131 

112. 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120. Hats, 1606-1692 135 

121. Coif of a Dutch matron, late seventeenth century 136 

122. Dress of an English gentlewoman, 1640 137 

123. Swedish woman in clogs, 1640 137 

124. Dutch lady in outdoor dress, 1640 137 

125. EngUsh lady in house dress, 1640 137 

126. Dutch lady in wide-brimmed hat and ruff, 1645 141 

127. EngUsh lawyer, seventeenth century 141 

128. EngUsh woman in silk hood and tippet, 1640 141 

129. Dutch lady in fur tippet and hood, middle of seventeenth century 141 

130. Boy in periwig, about 1680 141 

131. English woman in coif and kerchief, 1640 141 

132. Portrait of Uttle girls in seventeenth century, reign of Charles I 145 

133. Portrait of two Dutch boys, middle of seventeenth century 145 

134. Periwig of Charles II, 1660 147 

135. Periwig of William III, 1690 147 

136. Campaign wig, 1684 147 

137. Coat and full breeches of buff brocade, 1681 149 

138. Coat and full breeches of dark red flowered silk, 1681 149 

139. Coat and breeches of silk trimmed with fancy braid, reign of James II. . . 149 

140. Jeremias Van Rensselaer, end of seventeenth century 153 

141. KiUaen Van Rensselaer, first patroon of New Amsterdam, 1695 153 

142. Sergeant-at-law, reign of Charles II 156 

143- Quaker gentleman, 1682 157 

144. Quaker lady, 1682 : 157 



145. Huguenot lady, 1686 157 

146. Huguenot gentleman, 1686 157 

147. Sergeant-at-law, reign of James II 159 

148. Count Zinzendorf in preacher's robe 161 

149. Samuel Bradstreet in judge's robe, about 1670 161 

150. Lady Fenwick, in widow's mourning, reign of William and Mary 161 

151. Elisabeth Boehler, Moravian lady in Pennsylvania, 1787 161 

152. Moravian coif 164 

153. Reticule of white silk embroidered in crepe flowers 165 

154. Waistcoat of Count Lemcke, about 1798 165 

155. 156. White silk pocket cases embroidered in colours, about 1790 165 

157, 158. Moravian cap of lawn worn over a coif 167 

1 59. Specimens of colonial silver, seventeenth century 169 

160. Specimens of pewter ware, carved knife boards, etc., seventeenth century 169 

161. (Initial) Lady in sacque, early eighteenth century 177 

162. (In colours) Colonial costume of 17 11, of buff chine silk, from an original 

gown lent by Mrs. Rachel St. Clair Miller 179 

163. (In colours) Gentleman in costume of 1702-1720, reign of Queen Anne. . 179 

164. (In colours) Colonial costume of reign of George I, from an original gown 

lent by Mrs. Samuel Chew 179 

165. (In colours) Man in dress of a gentleman in the reign of George 1 179 

166. 167. Colonial fashion baby, 1720 183 

168, 169. Camlet hood, taken from an original garment of about 1702 185 

170. Short sacque, early eighteenth century 187 

171. Colonial dress, worn in Pennsylvania in the reign of George 1 191 

172. White satin wedding gown, 1760 191 

173. Lutestring gown worn in Philadelphia in 1760 191 

174. Colonial dress of buff chine silk worn in the Barbadoes Colony in reign 

of Queen Anne 191 

175. Lady in a cardinal, early eighteenth century 194 

176. 177, 178, 179, 180, 181. Caps, 1744-1745 195 

182. Man in a Roquelaure, reign of Queen Anne 197 

183. Back view of a yellow damask gown, reign of George I 197 

184. Green brocade gown, worn in Massachusetts Colony, reign of George I . . 197 

185. Back view of gentleman's dress, reign of George 1 197 

186. 187, Hooped petticoats, 1721-1750 199 

188. Pair of stays, about 1770. Lent by Miss Sarah Bache Hodge 200 

189. Clog, eighteenth century 201 

190. Patten, eighteenth century 201 

191. Riding hat of fawn-coloured felt, reigns of George II and III 202 

192. Colonial gown of kincob brocade, worn in Massachusetts about 1735. 

Lent by Miss Archie Newlin 203 



193. Colonial gown worn in Virginia, about 1775 203 

194. Riding mask, eighteenth century 205 

195. (In colours) Colonial gown of camlet, worn in the Massachusetts Colony, 

1725. Lent by Mrs. Charles Hacker 207 

196. (In colours) Gown of kincob brocade, time of George II 207 

197. (In colours) Young gallant in full dress, 1740 207 

198. (In colours) Colonial gown of green taffeta, worn by Mrs. Wilimina 

Weemys Moore, about 1740. Lent by Miss Sarah Brinton 207 

199. House-maid in sacque, apron and clogs, middle of eighteenth century 209 

200. Mrs. Catharine Van Rensselaer in the popular style of cap, about 1770. . 211 

201. Mrs. Nathaniel Appleton in an every-day dress. From photograph lent 

by Mrs. Cutter 211 

202. Mrs. Nathaniel Appleton, Jr., showing a peculiar cap of 1784. From 

photograph lent by Mrs. Cutter 211 

203. Mrs. Mary Faneuil of Boston, about 1750 211 

204. A Watteau gown of fawn-coloured silk brocaded with coloured flowers 

worn in Pennsylvania about 1752. Lent by Mrs. WiUiam Bacon 
Stevens 215 

205. Crimson brocade gown worn by Mrs. Faithful Hubbard of the Massa- 

chusetts Colony, 1750. From a photograph lent by Mrs. Cutter 215 

206. Another view of the green kincob gown over a white satin skirt with 

apron and stomacher of white silk embroidered in colours 215 

207. Back view of the kincob gown showing the Watteau plaits 215 

208. Lady's silk shoe, about 1775 217 

209. 210, 211. Diagram of white satin gown worn by Mrs. St. Clair about 

1760 218 

212. (In colours) Wedding gown of a New England Quaker lady, about 1750. 

Lent by Mrs. Charles Hacker 219 

213. (In colours) Gown of rich brocade worn by Mrs. Michael Gratz about 

1750. Lent by Miss Miriam Mordecai 219 

214. (In colours) Suit of uncut velvet worn by Robert Livingston of Clermont, 

reign of George II. Lent by Mrs. David E. Dallam 219 

215. (In colours) Back view of Watteau gown of fawn-coloured silk.'?i^gj*j=^^^^2^ 

216. Beaver hat and short cloak, middle of eighteenth century I 221 

217. Back view of suit of uncut velvet worn by Robert Livingston of Clermont. 

Lent by Miss Anna Griffith 223 

218. Back view of white satin wedding gown of Mrs. St. Clair 223 

219. Everyday costume of a young lady, flowered chintz over a quilted petti- 

coat, about 1770 223 

220. Elderly man of business in a coat of strong fustian over nankeen breeches, 

1 7 70-1 790. From a coat lent by Miss Sallie Johnson 223 

221. Group of colonial garments, eighteenth century 227 



222. Calashes, Quaker hats, Quaker bonnet, riding hat, etc., eighteenth 

century 227 

223. Lady in capuchin, with fur trimmings and muff, reign of George III 229 

224. Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Izard, 1780 231 

225. Portrait of the West family, 1799 231 

226. 227. Calashes, 1765  233 

228. (In colours) Dress of blue lutestring worn by Mrs. St. Clair, 1760. Lent 

by Mrs. Rachel St. Clair Miller 235 

229. (In colours) Suit of dark satin worn by Robert Livingston of Clermont. 

Lent by Miss Anna Griffith 235 

230. (In colours) White satin wedding gown of Mrs. St. Clair, 1760. Lent by 

Mrs. Rachel St. Clair Miller 235 

231. (In colours) Suit of uncut velvet, waistcoat of quilted satin, worn by 

Robert Livingston, of Clermont, reign of George III. Lent by Miss 

Anna Griffith 235 

232. Quaker cape and cap, 1780 237 

233. Embroidered reticule 239 

234. Ladies gloves of doeskin, 17 17. Lent by Mrs. William H. Dreer 239 

235. Bead reticule and paste buckles. Lent by Mrs. John Biddle 239 

236. Bonnet of muslin made over reeds, 1780. Lent by Mrs. John Biddle... 239 

237. Crepe shawl with printed figures, late eighteenth century 239 

238. Linen pocket embroidered in colours, 1752 239 

239. Colonial jewelry and snuff-box. Lent by Mrs. Howard Gardiner 239 

240. Lady's slipper of green and white taffeta. Lent by Mrs. WiUiam H. 

Dreer 239 

241. Fan painted by Gamble, 1771. Lent by Mrs. Charles Hodge 239 

242. Typical dress of a country girl, 1780 246 

243. Night-rail, eighteenth century 252 

244. Gown of mauve crepe, end of eighteenth century. Lent by Miss Janethe 253 

245. Front view of Watteau gown of fawn-coloured silk, brocaded in flowers. . 253 

246. Gown of white embroidered mushn worn in 1790. Lent by Mrs. George 

Knorr 253 

247. CaUco short sacque, late eighteenth century 253 

248. Gown of glazed buff chintz, 1795. Lent by Mrs. Cooper Smith 253 

249. Riding habit, about 1785 260 

250. Mrs. Pennington in Quaker dress, 1780. From a portrait lent by Mrs. 

Howard Gardiner 261 

251. Catharine Schuyler Van Rensselaer, 1795. Lent by Mrs. J. K. Van 

Rensselaer 261 

252. Mrs. Hill in Quaker dress, 1785 261 

253. Dutch lady of the New York Colony, 1765. Lent by Mrs. J. K. Van 

Rensselaer 261 



254. Summer costume, 1790-1795 264 

255. (In colours) Suit worn at the court of France by William West, Esq., of 

Philadelphia, 1778. Lent by Francis Hemsley, Esq 265 

256. (In colours) Lady's costume of the prevailing French fashion, 1777-1779 265 

257. (In colours) Gentleman's suit of drab cloth, 1786 265 

258. (In colours) Muslin gown with flowing skirt and long sleeved bodice, 

1790 265 

259. Woman in typical working dress, 1790-1800 268 

260. White satin wedding slippers, 1800. Lent by Mrs. Schaeffer 269 

261. Cups and saucers, owned by Robert Treat Paine. Lent by Mrs. William 

H. Dreer 269 

262. Group of slippers, 1735-1780 269 

263. Blue brocade wedding slippers, 1771. Lent by Miss Helen Morton 269 

264. Wine glasses and point lace belonging to Governor Wentworth, 1717- 

1730. Lent by Mrs. William H. Dreer 269 

265. Back of mauve crepe shown in figure 341 273 

266. Silk pehsse with quilted border, 1797. Lent by Frank W. Taylor, Esq. 274 

267. 268. Seventeenth century utensils 275 

269. (Initial) Boy and girl after Sir Joshua Reynolds, late eighteenth century 283 

270. (In colours) Girl in red stuff gown and mushn cap, about 1730 285 

271. (In colours) Child in printed gown and embroidered cap, about 17 10 285 

272. (In colours) Child in gown of white damask linen, about 1720 285 

273. (In colours) Little boy in blue suit, about 1740 285 

274. (In colours) Boy in brown velvet suit and cocked hat, about 1760 285 

275. (In colours) Boy in blue ribbed silk suit worn in Pennsylvania about 

1756 285 

276. (In colours) Child in buff printed cambric dress, about 1760 285 

277. (In colours) Child in sheer muslin gown, with cap to match, 1790 285 

278. (In colours) Little girl in cloak, muff and hat, after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 

about 1780 285 

279. (In colours) Young girl in muslin gown trimmed with embroidery, about 

1790 285 

280,281. Child's stays. Lent by Mrs. Gummere 287 

282. Portrait of young girl in Philadelphia, about 1760 289 

283. Miss Hill of Philadelphia, 1756 289 

284. Portrait of a child in New York, about 1700. Lent by Mrs. J. K. Van 

Rensselaer 289 

285. Christiana Ten Broeck, early eighteenth century 289 

286. Baby dress and cap, 177 1. Lent by Mrs. George Knorr 291 

287. Boy in ordinary dress, 1790 292 

288. 289. Front and back views of a "flying Josie," late eighteenth century. 

Lent by Mrs. Schaeffer 293 



290. Suit of blue silk worn by a little boy about 1756 293 

291. Child's dress of buff chintz worn in Pennsylvania, 1710 293 

292. White shift with plaited sleeves 293 

293. Child's dress of damask linen worn about 1720 293 

294. (Initial) Man in long trousers and riding boots, late eighteenth century.. 299 

295. Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, reign of James II. Lent by Mrs. J. K. Van 

Rensselaer 301 

296. Jan Baptist Van Rensselaer, reign of George I. Lent by Mrs. J. K. 

Van Rensselaer 301 

297. A genuine Roquelaure, middle of eighteenth century. Lent by Frank 

W. Taylor, Esq 303 

298. 299, 300. Wigs, 1700-1750 304 

301. William Penn, by Benjamin West 305 

302. George Washington, by Gilbert Stewart, 1797 305 

303. Back view of suit of dark satin worn by Robert Livingston 308 

304. Rev. George Whitefield, latter half of eighteenth century 309 

305. Rev. Jacob Duche, D.D., late eighteenth century 309 

306. Dr. Ezra Stiles, late eighteenth century 309 

307. Rt. Rev. Richard Challoner, Vicar Apostolic of the English Colonies in 

America, 1756 309 

308. Jonathan Edwards, second half of eighteenth century 309 

309. Rt. Rev. Samuel Provoost, D.D., First Bishop of New York, late eight- 

eenth century 309 

310. Back view of coat of light brown velvet, reign of George II 313 

311. Front view of same 313 

312,313. Front and back views of coat of brown twilled cotton jean, typical 

summer garment of a Friend 313 

314. Gentleman in banyan and cap, middle of eighteenth century 315 

315. John Penn, in fur-trimmed coat 317 

316. Thomas Penn as colonial governor 317 

317. Patrick Gordon as colonial governor 317 

318. James Hamilton, Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania, 1783 317 

319. 320, 321, 322. Boots, 1702-1784 319 

323. James Logan in judicial robe, 1745 321 

324. Fisher Ames, middle of eighteenth century 321 

325. John Jay in robe, as Chief Justice of the United States 321 

326. Nathaniel Appleton of Boston, by Copley 321 

327. Henry Laurens, by Copley 321 

328. Man in working garb, 1750 323 

329. John Hancock, Governor of the Massachusetts Colony, reign of George 

III 325 

330. Samuel Shoemaker, Mayor of Philadelphia, and his son, 1789 325 




331. Portrait showing the plain but handsome costume of a gentleman in 

Pennsylvania at the outbreak of the Revolution 325 

332. Portrait of a Quaker gentleman, 1774 325 

333. Sporting dress, about 1733 327 

334. Suit of velvet vi^ith raised figures, vt'orn by Robert Livingston about 

1770. Lent by Miss Anna Griffith 329 

335. Pistols with silver mounting, about 1765. Lent by Mrs. John Biddle.. 329 

336. Cap worn by Governor Taylor of New York, 1730 329 

337. Silk waistcoat, 1780. Lent by Mrs. Krumbhaar 329 

338. Double-breasted waistcoat of figured silk, about 1790 329 

339. Working man, last half of eighteenth century 331 

340. (In colours) Brown broadcloth suit worn by Mr. Johnson of German- 

town, 1790. Lent by Miss SalUe Johnson 333 

341. (In colours) Mauve crepe gown worn by Mrs. Sartori of San Domingo. 

Lent by Miss Janethe 333 

342. (In colours) Dress of fine glazed buff cambric owned by Madame Cheva- 

leir, end of eighteenth century. Lent by Mrs. Cooper Smith 333 

343. (In colours) Man in short- waisted, high- collared coat and nankeen 

breeches, end of eighteenth century. Lent by Frank W. Taylor, Esq. 333 

344. (In colours) Muslin dress trimmed with tambour embroidery worn in 

Philadelphia, 1797 333 

345. Doctor of Civil Law, end of eighteenth century 336 

346. Summer coat of dark blue silk with nankeen breeches, late eighteenth 

century 337 

347. Back view of brown broadcloth coat worn by Mr. Johnson about 1790. 

Lent by Miss Sallie Johnson 337 

348. Front view of same over nankeen waistcoat 337 

349. Coat of brown twilled cotton, over white silk embroidered waistcoat 

and brown satin knee breeches, worn in Philadelphia about 1790. 
Lent by Mrs. John Biddle 337 

350. Judge in scarlet robe, end of eighteenth century 339 

351. Dress of ordinary seaman, 1775 341 

352. Portrait of Washington, drawn from Hfe by Du Simitifere 343 

353. Henry Laurens, drawn from life by Du Simitifere 343 

354. W. H. Drayton, Esq., drawn from life by Du Simitiere 343 

355. Gouverneur Morris, drawn from life by Du Simitiere 343 

356. Silhouette of John Randolph of Roanoke 347 

357. Silhouette of Washington, showing fine net over hair and queue 347 

358. Silhouette of Bishop White, showing knickerbockers 347 

359. Silhouette of Alexander Hamilton 347 

360. Silhouette of James McClellan, of Connecticut 347 

361. Uniform of Light Horse Troop of Philadelphia, 1775 349 




362. Commodore Barry of the United States Navy 351 

363. Paul Jones of the United States Navy 351 

364. Camp at Valley Forge, showing military cloak and great coat 351 

365. General Warren in dress of a minute-man 355 

366. General Daniel Morgan in buckskin coat of the Virginia Rangers 355 

367. Comte De Rochambeau in dress of a French officer, 1791 355 

368. Uniform recommended by Washington in the early part of the Revolu- 

tion 359 

369. A minute-man 359 

370. Dress of First Company, Governor's Foot Guard, Connecticut 359 

371. Dress of First Pennsylvania Infantry 359 

372. Dress of Second Pennsylvania Infantry 359 

373. Uniform directed by Minister of War, 1785 359 

374. Uniform of the Light Infantry, 1782 359 

375. Front view of uniform recommended by Minister of War, 1785 359 

376. Major General Pinckney in uniform 363 

377. Major General St. Clair in uniform 363 

378. General O. H. WiUiams in uniform 363 

379. General Andrew Pickens in uniform 363 

380. General Montgomery in uniform 367 

381. General Francis Marion in uniform 367 

382. General Israel Putnam in uniform of a Continental trooper 367 

383. General Philemon Dickinson in uniform 367 

384. General John Sullivan in uniform 367 

385. Uniform of an American officer, 1796 376 



. Spanish and French Settlements 




Florida 1565 Spanish^ 

Acadia 1605 French 

Quebec 1608 French 

Louisiana 1680 French 

Texas (afterwards a part of the Spanish 

Province of Mexico) 1692 ^Spanish^cf 

Mississippi Valley 1699 French 

California 1769 SpanislkV 

Banks of the Delaware 1637 Swedish 

Pennsylvania 1. 1683 German 



\ Virginia 1607 English ^^■""^ 

1-Massachusetts 1620 English i — 

1) ( New Amsterdam 1621 Dutch V 

rNew York 1664 English S^^"^ 

k^New Hampshire 1623C Englislf •— ~- 

iTBarbadoes t 1625 English . 

<;^ Maryland J 1633 EnglishJ*" 

Connecticut . . . j 1635 English '--^ 

Rhode Island A 1636 English •--— 

The Carolines. '. i'655, English ^ — 

) °^ew Jersey 1664, English <-— 

^ • Pennsylvania 1682 - Enghsh ^-^ 

,»- Delaware^. 1682, English, i — * 

Georgia 1732 English <^^ \ 



Spanish. Philip II r 1556-1598 

Philip III 1598-1621 1.. 

Philip IV 1621-16653^ 

Charles II 1665-1700 •■ '^ 

French. Louis XIII 1610-1.643 3 

Louis XIV 1643-1715 'l 

Swedish. Christina 1633-1654(9 

Charles X 1654-1660 ^^b 

Charles XI 1660-1697 S- 

German. Frederick WiUiam, Elector of Brandenburg 1640-1,688 

Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, afterwards King Frederick 

I of Prussia 1688-1713 -t> "*» 

Leopold I, Emperor of Germany 1658-170^ ,' ^o^ 

Dutch. Maurice, Stadtholder i587-»ie'25 u. - 

Frederick Henry i625-i64_2^>: 

William II 1647-165'a ' 

U^iited Provinces of the Netherlands 1650-167 2 

William of Orange, afterwards William III of England 1672-1702^ 

English. James I 1603-1625 -* 

Charles I 1625-1649 

Commonwealth under Cromwell 1649-1653 

Protectorate under Cromwell 1653-1660 > 

-Charles II T660-1685 

James II 1685-1689 

William and Mary 1689-1702 

S^Queen Anne » .1702-1714""^^" 
George I 1714-1727 
George II 17 27-1 7 60 
George III 1760-1820 


George Washington 1789-1797 

John Adams .1797-1801 


The Spaniards in Florida and California 

1 565-1 764 

Figure 2. 
A Spanish Galleon. 

" Those were the days of dreams and legends, 
Continents were new." 

HE first settlement in North America was the 
Spanish post of St. Augustine in Florida, founded 
by Pedro Menendez de Aviles in August, 1565. 
Unsuccessful attempts had been made to colonize* 
Florida both by the French and the Spaniards 
from very early in the sixteenth century, but the 
hostility of the native Indians had prevented 
the founding of anything like a colony. Menen- 
dez (Figure 7) found a small Huguenot mission 
when he landed, which he immediately de- 
stroyed,, putting the people and Jean Ribaut, 
their leader, to death in the most heartless manner. Horribly cruel, 
deplorably superstitious, and very short-sighted in their policy were 
these early Spanish settlers, but their costumes, as represented by the 
great contemporary painters, Vargas, Roelas, Velasquez, Murillo, 
Moro and others, must have been strikingly picturesque. 

Parkman says: "Month after month, and year after year the 
adventurers came, a procession of priests and cavaliers, crossbow- 
men and arquebusiers (Figure 4), and Indian guides laden with 

They came in search of fabulous riches which, according to some 

* Pioneers of France in the^New World, by Francis Parkman. 

/ . 




Spanish Munchausen, the soil of the interior contained, and also to 
bathe in the waters of a river of perpetual youth, a fable in which 
even their leaders believed. 

/ The dress of a Spanish gentleman of this period consisted of a 

' doublet and slashed breeches, with long silken hose and -shoes of 

, Cordovan leather slashed on the toe, a ruff of lace at the neck, and a 

•silk hat with high soft crown and narrow brim. The dress of a 

Spanish soldier is shown in detail in 

Sir Francis Drake (Figure 8), in 
1586, stopped at St. Augustine on his 
way from the West Indies to join Sir 
Walter Raleigh in Virginia (Figure 11), 
and made a reconnoissance of the har- 
bour, but the Spaniards fled at his 
approach. He destroyed a few houses 
and outposts in order probably to 
inspire the inhabitants with a whole- 
some respect for the English navy, and 
went on his way rejoicing in the cap- 
ture of a pay-chest containing ;i^2,ooo. 
St. Augustine at that time is described 
as "a prosperous settlement with a council house, church and 
handsome gardens." Some traces of the Spanish occupation are 
yet to be seen and the old castle or fortress built in 1620 is still 

It was never the policy of Spain to make her colonies self- 
supporting ; they were not allowed to raise or manufacture even the 
necessaries of life, everything must be imported from the mother 

Later in the seventeenth century, settlements were also made in 
California, where the Spaniards established missionary and military 

Figure 3. 
A Spanish Gentleman, End of Six- 
teenth Century. 



stations in 1698, and Spain had for a time two flourishing colonies 
in the territory now embraced within the limits of the United States. 
In Spain and France, as well as in England and the Low Coun- 
tries, the prevailing types of _costume during t he sev en teenth cent urvt 
were very much alike, and the people in all the Colonies of America,! 
following the fashions of their time, wore doublets, farthingales, ruffs, ' 
bands, hoods, riding-masks, etc., full descriptions of which are given' 
in the glossary and throughout Part I, with many illustrations. / 


HajoO'trJ. 1568. 

Figure 4. 

Spanish Soldiers of the Middle of the Sixteenth Century, with Rapiers and Arquebuses 

(from a Contemporary Print). 

During the reign of Charles II of Spain his kingdom was con- 
tinually at war with England. The Spanish population of St. 
Augustine numbered about three hundred people and fifty Franciscan 
friars in 1665, when Captain John Davis, the notorious English 
buccaneer, landed and destroyed the town. After this the Spanish 
Government established a fort at Pensacola to protect its interests 



in Florida, but finally the two kings, Charles II of England and 
Charles II of Spain, made a treaty for the suppression of buccaneer- 
ing, causing a marked decline in that lawless but romantic profession 
which has furnished plots for many an exciting tale. In "The Buc- 
caneers of America" * a portrait of Sir Henry Morgan shows a very 
rich costume of slashed doublet and embroidered baldrick. Francis 
Lolonais, a fierce-looking buccaneer of French extraction, is por- 
trayed in a very short doublet trimmed with a row of square tabs 
round the waist. \ 

The records we find of the Spanish rule in Florida, which lasted 
until 1763, when that province was ceded to Great Britain in ex- 
change for Havana, captured by the English the preceding year, 
bear witness to the charms of the women, their lovely expressive 
black eyes, clear brunette complexion, and carefully arranged hair. 
"At mass they are always well dressed in black silk basquinas with 
little mantillas (or black lace veils) over their heads. The men are 
in military costume." Dancing, as in all the Spanish provinces, 
was a favourite amusement, and the Posey Dance, now obsolete, 
was very popular many years ago. It is thus described : f 

"The ladies of a household arrange in a room of their dwelling 
an arbour decked with garlands of flowers and lighted with many 
candles. This is understood by the gentlemen as an invitation to 
drop in and admire the decorations. Meanwhile the lady who has 
prepared it selects a partner from among her visitors and hands him 
a bouquet of flowers. The gentleman who receives this posey be- 
comes for the nonce the king of the ball, and leads out the fair donor 
as queen of the dance. The others take partners and the ball thus 
inaugurated may continue several successive evenings. Should the 
lady's choice fall upon an unwilling swain, which seldom happened, 
he could be excused by paying the expenses of the entertainment." 

* By John Esquemeling. 

t History and Antiquities of St. Augustine, by George R_E"airbanks. 

Figure 5. 

Figure 6. 

Figure 7. 

Figure S. 



These assemblies were always informal and frequented by all 
classes, all meeting on a level, but were conducted with the utmost 
politeness and decorum, for which the Spanish character is so dis- 

^The customs, as well as the costumes, of their native land were 
followed by these Spanish colonists, and as both California and 
Florida closely resemble Spain in climate and vegetation, the old 
modes of life were found particularly appropriate. 

With the Spanish colonies, Texas may be included, for although 
this territory was the subject of numerous political intrigues between 
the Spanish authorities and the French in Louisiana, in 1692 it 
became a part of the Spanish province of Mexico. 

The French Settlements 


Louisiana and the Mississippi Valley 


"A gay and gallant company 
Those voyagers of old." 

Undeterred by the failures and reverses of previous explorers, the 
French King Louis XIV sent out an expedition under Robert Cavalier 
de La Salle (Figure 6) in 1680, to discover if possible a water- 
way across the continent through which ships might pass to the 
South Sea, as the Pacific Ocean was called in those days. 

La Salle experienced many hardships on the way, but finally 
reached the Mississippi River and sailed southward to its mouth in the 
Gulf of Mexico. At this point a wooden column was raised, hymns 
were sung, and La Salle proclaimed, "In the name of Louis the 
great King of France and Navarre, fourteenth of that name, I do 
take possession of this country of Louisiana — from the mouth of 
the river St. Louis and along the river Colbert, or Mississippi, 
from its source beyond the country of the Sioux as far as its mouth." 
A cross was raised by the side of the column and in the ground at 
its foot was buried a leaden plate bearing the arms of France and 
the inscription, "Ludovicus Magnus Regnat." 

By this discovery La Salle had proved that ships from Europe 
might sail to the vast interior of the continent. He now hoped to 
colonize the valley of the Mississippi, and add a new lustre to the 
crown of France. 



Father Hennepin, writing in 1683, says: "Le Sieur de la Salle 
appeared at Mass very well dress'd in his scarlet cloak trimmed 
with gold lace."* A picture of the fashionable cloak of that period , 

is given in Figure 3. 

Discouraged by many hardships, on their way up the Mississippi 
River some of La Salle's men mutinied and killed the great explorer, 
but, despite his failure to found a colony at the outlet of the Mis- 
sissippi, he stands out in history as the foremost pioneer in North 

Trading posts and mission stations grew up in many places, 
and were gradually augmented by bands of emigrants from other 
parts of the country. 

Louis XIV still cherished the ambition to found a Colonial Domin- 
ion on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, so dramatically claimed 
for him by La Salle, — a colony which in time might rival the flourish- 
ing English settlements on the Atlantic coast. Accordingly, in 1698, 
he sent out to Louisiana a squadron of two frigates and two smaller 
ships bearing a company of mariners and about two hundred colonists. 
Among the latter^Bcre many ex-soldiers of the French army accom- 
panied by their w^^s and children. Others were artisans, labourers, 
and needy adventurers. "They were all supplied with necessary 
clothing, provisions, and implements for beginning a settlement in 
the remote solitudes of Louisiana." 

In 1704, twenty unmarried women were sent out under the charge 
of two nuns, and shortly after their arrival in Louisiana were married 
to bachelor colonists. The same ship brought troops to reinforce 
the garrison, and four priests. 

' The costume of these early French settlers was somewhat motley ^ ^ 
in its composition. The women were dressed in coloured bodices \ 
and short gowns of handmade woolen stuffs, or of French goods of ' 
finer texture. In summer most of them went without shoes, but in i 

♦Description of Louisiana 1683, translated by J. G. Shee. 




, winter and on holidays they wore Indian moccasins gaily decorated 
I with porcupine quills, shells, and coloured beads. Instead of hats 
( they wore kerchiefs of bright colours interlaced with gay ribbons 
1 or wreathed with flowers. 

I >/ The men wore long vests drawn over their shirts, leggings of 
buckskin or of coarse woolen cloth, and wooden clog shoes or moc- 
casins of heavy leather. In winter they wrapped themselves in long 
( capotes or overcoats with capes and hoods which could be drawn 
(Over their heads, thus serving for hats. In summer their heads were 

covered with blue handkerchiefs 
worn turbanlike as a protection from 
mosquitoes as well as from the sun. 

The French settlements were 
usually small villages on the edge 
of the prairie or in the heart of the 
woods. They were always near the 
bank of a river, for the watercourses 
were the only roads, and the light 
canoes, such as the Indians used, the 
only means of travel. In these 
villages the French settlers lived like 
one family, ruled by the village 
priests and the elders of the com- 
munity. Their houses were built along a single narrow street, and 
close enough together for the villagers to carry on a neighbourly 
gossip, each from his own doorstep. 

Adjoining the village was a large enclosure, or common field, 
for the free use of all the villagers. It was divided into allotments, 
one for each household, the size proportioned to the number of per- 
sons in the family. 

The village traders always kept a small stock of French goods, 
laces, ribbons and other useful and ornamental articles, which they 

Figure 9. 
French Peasant Women (from a Con- 
temporary French Print). 



exchanged with the settlers for the products of the forest. Some of 
the young men became voyageurs or boatmen in the service of the 
traders. When the wood-rangers returned once a year to their village 
homes, great was the rejoicing, and old and young gathered around 
them to hear the story of their adventures. These French settlers 
took characteristic delight in amusement and "had almost as many 
holidays as working days." * 

Indian converts lived in amicable intercourse with the settlers, 
learning from them to culti- 
vate the ground, and to 
manufacture various useful 
articles from the hair of the 

Many of the original set- 
tlers married Indian women; 
their descendants were called 
half-breeds or Gumbos, the 
latter being a nick-name given 
to them by the French. The 
language of the Louisiana 
colonists was a patois, a cor- 
rupted provincial French. 

Among them were a few carpenters, tailors, stone-masons, 
boat-builders, and blacksmiths, the latter capable of repairing a 
firelock or a rifle. 

The city of New Orleans was founded in 171 7 and rapidly grew 
in size and importance. For many years a "rude semblance of a 
Court" was maintained and social amusements of various sorts 
could be engaged in, even duelling and brawling, for some of the 
Louisiana colonists were of noble birth and many were military 
officers. "All the people shared alike the harmless merriment and 

* Discovery of the Old Northwest and Its Settlement by the French, by James Baldwin. 

Figure id. 
Jesuit Missionaries. 



frolic of the carnival. All, too, observed the self-denying ordinances 
of the Lenten season which terminated in the festival of Easter." 

The treaty of Paris, in 1764, gave to the English Government 
the Illinois and Louisiana colonies as well as the province of Acadia, 
in Nova Scotia,* originally peopled by Normandy peasants whose 
pathetic story Longfellow has made so familiar to us. More than 
six hundred of the Acadian exiles were sent to Louisiana, where they 
had at least the comfort of hearing their native language, and where 
the customs and pursuits were more congenial than in the northern 
colonies. The quaint costumes and the peculiar head-dresses worn 
by Normandy peasants at the end of the seventeenth century are 
minutely described in Mrs. Stothard's "Letters written during a 
tour through Normandy, Brittany and other parts of France," 
illustrated in colour by her husband. This book was published in 
London in 18 18, and is the earliest authority on the subject I have 
found. The descriptions are not quoted here, as there is not any 
evidence that very elaborate peasant dress was ever worn in . the 
American colonies, f 

* Thus named by a company of Scots who planted a settlement there in 1622. 
t For Spanish and French costumes, see Racinet's Le Costume Historique and Kretch- 
mer's Trachten der Volker. 





I 607-1 700 

During the Reigns of 

James I, Charles I and II, James II, and 

William and Mary 



Tobacco is but an Indian weed, 

Grows green in the morn, cut down at eve. 

It shows our decay, 

We are but clay. 
Think of this when you smoke tobacco! 

The pipe that is so lily white, 
Wherein so many take deUght, 

It breaks with a touch, 

Man's life is such; 
Think of this when you take tobacco! 

The pipe that is so foul within. 

It shows man's soul is stained with sin; 

It doth require 

To be purged with fire; 
Think of this when you smoke tobacco! 

The dust that from that pipe doth fall, 
It shows we are nothing but dust at all. 

For we came from dust, 

And return we must; 
Think of this when you smoke tobacco ! 

The ashes that are left behind. 
Do serve to put us all in mind 

That into dust 

Return we must; 
Think of this when you take tobacco ! 

The smoke that doth so high ascend, 
Shows that man's life must have an end; 

The vapour's gone, 

Man's Hfe is done; 
Think of this when you take tobacco ! 

— Thomas D'Urfey, 17 19. 

The English in Virginia, Maryland, the 

Barbadoes, and the Carolinas 

I 607-1 700 

Figure ii. 

AMESTOWN in Virginia was the first_actual 
settlement of the EngHsh people in America. 
The Virginia Company, of which Sir Edwin 
Sandys was President, was formed under the 
patent of King James I. The first ships sent 
over arrived in 1607, at the mouth of the James 
River, where a fortified village was built, and 
trade established with the surrounding Indians. 
One hundred colonists came in the first expedi- 
tion, a great number of them being men of 
quality. As Captain John Smi th, in his delightful "History of the 
Virginia Settlement," puts it: 

"We had far too many gentlemen adventurers amongst us, and 
of a necessity some of these must needs be not quite all we could 
wish as reliable companions. Out of one hundred colonists there are 
fifty-two gentlemen adventurers besides Master Robert Hunt, the 
Preacher, and Masters Thomas Wotton and William Wilkinson, 
the Chirurgeons. We had four carpenters, twelve labourers, a black- 
smith, a sailor, a bricklayer, a mason, a tailor and a drummer, four 
boys and some others." 




The Company in London advised each emigrant to provide him- 
self with the following articles of dress : 

A Monmouth cap, 
Three shirts, 
One suit of canvas, 
One pair of garters, 
Four pairs of shoes. 

Three_fal]iii^Jtiands, ^"\^ 
One waistcoat, 
One suit of frieze, 
One suit of broadcloth, 
Three pairs of silk stockings, 

One dozen pairs of points. 



From original prints in this book of Captain John Smith's, we 
get the costume of the gentleman adventurer, similar in style, of 

course, to the garments 
worn by men of rank in 
England during the reign of 
James I. A portrait of Sir 
Edwin Sandys, or Sandes 
as it is sometimes written, is 
given in Figure 13, show- 
ing the prevailing dress 
of an English gentleman, 
a brocade doublet, a lace- 
trimmed ruff, and a pointed 
beard. The strange fashion 
which was conspicuous at 
King James's Court, of padding and stuffing the breeches, called 
farthingale breeches on account of the resemblance to that most 
disfiguring but popular article of fashion worn by women in the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James I, was probably followed in a modified 
form by these gentlemen adventurers, as the padding was supposed 
to be a protection against rapiers and arrows. 

Stays were also worn by men in those days beneath long-waisted 
doublets; and ruffs too were used, although they gradually dimin- 
ished in size and stiffness (Figures 11, 15, and 21). 

Figure 12. 

> ; % • • • • 

Figure 13. 

Figure 14. 

i-IGURK 15. 

Figure 16. 




Figure 17. 
The Farthingale. 

In the portraits of the Earl and Countess of Somerset,* so often 

reproduced, may be seen the costumes worn by the nobility of this 

time, but there were no radical changes in 

English costume from 1550, the middle of Eliza- 
beth's reign, until the accession of Charles I 

in 1625. If any change of fashion appeared in 

the early days of life at Jamestown, the tailor 

of the Company was probably responsible for 

it, and the old adage, "Cut your coat according 

to your cloth," was very likely his inspiration. . 

The present of a cloak of raccoon skins from King Powhattan to 

Captain John Smith must have been very acceptable as, according to 

Stith, the first winter was very damp and cold. 
The first women to come to Virginia 
were Mrs. Forrest and her maid Anne Bur- 
roughs, who, soon after her arrival, married 
John Laydon. This was the first English 
wedding on American soil.f Figure 21 
represents the style of dress worn by Mrs. 
Forrest. Her maid's costume was of similar 
cut, but of linsey-woolsey, with cuffs and 
falling band of plain linen. 

As early as 1621 the Company resolved 
to establish a free school for children. The 
costumes of children given in Figures 18 
and 23 are taken from a picture of a 
Dame's School in England by A. de Bosse, 
In 1622 the College, afterward known as "William and Mary," 

was first talked of, but it was in this year that occurred the horrible 


Figure 18. 

Ordinary Dress of a Boy 
at this Period, 1 602-1 676 
(from a Contemporary Print). 

* Fairholt's History of English Costume. 

t History of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia, by William Stith. 


massacre of the English by the Indians which sadly reduced their 
numbers. However, the survivors struggled valiantly on, and gradu- 
ally comfortable houses were built, even for the labouring men, 
while the houses of the people of quality could boast of many con- 

In 1624 an attempt was made to produce silk from the mulberry 
trees which flourished in Virginia, and skilled workmen were sent 
over by Nicholas Farrar from France to raise silkworms, but the 
effort was not successful. 

King James died in 1625 and the accession of Charles I proved 
a blessing to the Virginia Colony, for the new king left the affairs 
of government to Sir Edw in_Sandys and the Virginia House of Bur- 
gesses which held its meetings in the church at Jamestown. The 
Representatives coming in barges from their plantations along the 
river were usually accompanied by their wives and daughters, who 
embraced these opportunities to show off their fine apparel (Figures 
20, 21, 32, 33, 35, 36). ■;^ery gay and elaborate the finery of that 
period seems, even from our twentieth century standpoint. 

In the body of the church, facing the choir, sat the Burgesses in 
their best attire, with starched ruffs or stiff neckbands (Figure 22) 
and doublets of silk or velvet in bright colours. All sat with their hats 
on in imitation of the time-honoured custom of the House of Com- 
mons (Figures 15, 19, and 22).* These same Burgesses, however, did 
not approve of too general a display of fine clothing, it seems, for 
among many astute laws passed by them was the following, to 
prevent extravagance in dress: "Be it enacted that for all public 
contributions every unmarried man must be assessed in church 
according to his own apparel, and every married man must be 
assessed according to his own and his wife's apparel." 

The years from 1625 to 1642 were marked with great prosperity 
and progress, and when Berkeley was sent over with the title of English 

* Old Virginia and her Neighbours. 




Governor, the inhabitants of Virginia numbered eighteen thousand 
EngHsh and three hundred negroes. 

At that time London fashions were strictly followed by the quality, 
and seem to have been not only the chief amusement of the women, 
but matter of great moment to both sexes (Figures 13, 14, 19, 20, 

2>^, ZZ^ 35. 36). 

The fashionable costume in England during the reign of Charles 
I, made familiar to us by the magic brush of Vandyke, was pictur- 
esque in the extreme. 

>/ A gentleman of those days wore a doublet of satin or velvet with 
large loose sleeves slashed up the front (Figures 45, 46); the collar 
covered by a falling band of richest point-lace with the peculiar 
edging now called Vandyke (Figures 14 and 16), and a short cloak 
worn carelessly over one shoulder. Bands were called " peccadilles " 
when trimmed with this pointed lace, so fashionable in the middle 
of the seventeenth century, and it is interesting to read that the fash- 
ionable London thoroughfare, Piccadilly, gets its name from a shop 
where ''peccadilles" were made and sold in the reign of Charles I. 
Under slashed doublets, loose shirts of Holland linen were worn. 
(See portrait of Sir George Percy [Figure 29], second Governor of 
the Virginia Colony.) The breeches, fringed or pointed, met the 
tops of the wide boots (Figures 51, 55), which were ruffled with lace, 
lawn, or soft leather. A broad-leafed Flemish beaver hat, with a 
rich hatband and plume of feathers (Figure 19), was set on one side 
of the head, and a Spanish rapier hung from a most magnificent 
baldrick or sword-belt worn sash-wise over the right shoulder. In 
troublous times the doublet of silk or velvet was frequently exchanged 
for a buff coat (Figures 83, 84, 85, 86, 87) which was richly laced, 
sometimes embroidered with gold or silver, and enriched by a broad 
silk or satin scarf tied in a large bow either behind or over the hip, 
in which case, the short cloak was perhaps dispensed with; in some 
instances the buff jerkin without sleeves was worn over the doublet 



(Figure 87). The beard was worn "very peaked with small up- 
turned mustaches; the hair long on the neck." 

George Sandys, the celebrated traveller, a younger brother of the 
President of the Company in London, was sent over to Jamestown 
in the capacity of treasurer. During his stay in the colony, he trans- 
lated ten books of Ovid. This was the first poetical achievement in 
America. The portrait of him (Figure 14) shows the slashed doublet 
and the Vandyke collar of this reign. 

x/ A gentlewoman of the same time wore V 
a long soft skirt, with a low-cut bodice 
finished with square tabs about the waist 
(Figures 20, 32, 49), full sleeves a little 
below the elbow, with soft ruffles of rich 
lace, a wide collar of the same lace being 
worn over the shoulders but allowing the 
throat and neck to show. Soft breast-knots 
of ribbon were also much worn. The hair 
was usually curled over the brow, falling to 
the shoulders in rather tight ringlets, and ar- 
ranged in a knot at the back (Figures 20, 73). 
Earrings were very popular in England 
in Vandyke's time, not only for women but 
for men, as we may see by the numerous 
specimens in his portraits. In his famous 
painting of Charles I in the National Gallery in London, the King is 
represented with a pear-shaped pearl-drop in one ear. This was the 
most advantageous way of displaying a pearl of more than usual 
beauty, but the origin of the fashion of piercing the lobe of the ear 
has been ascribed by many authorities to the common belief that it 
was a cure for weak eyes. Tradition also associates the fashion with 
navigators and seamen. Probably it was thought to be a safe way 
of carrying precious stones found in perilous adventures by land and 


Figure 23. 
Ordinary Dress of a Little 
Girl of the Period 1602-1676 
(from a Contemporary Print). 



sea, but there is not any evidence that earrings were at any time a 
fashion favoured by men in the Colonies of America. 

Mr. Bruce, in his "Economic History of Virginia," remarks: "The 
incongruity of shining apparel with the rude surroundings of new 
settlements in the wilderness does not seem to have jarred upon the 
perceptions of the population except so far as it implied an unnecessary 
expenditure, and this view was only taken when the resources of the 
Colony were seriously impaired. 

"About the middle of the century 
a law was passed prohibiting the 
introduction of silk in pieces except 
for hoods or scarfs, or of silver, gold 
or bone lace, or of ribbons wrought 
in gold or silver. All goods of this 
character brought into the colonies 
were confiscated and then exported." 
v' The typical workingman's cos- 
timie of this period consisted of loose 
breeches and jerkin of canvas or 
frieze; hose of coarse wool, shoes of 
tanned leather tied in front; hat of 
thrums or felt. "The carpenters, the 
labourers, the blacksmith, the mason, 
and the bricklayer" of the Virginia 
Company were in all probability 

dressed in this way. The tailor and the drummer may have worn 
their breeches fastened at the knee with points, and all these useful 
members of the Company wore aprons of dressed leather when at 
work. Mariners, according to contemporary authorities, wore a 
similar costume (Figure 24). 

Randle Holmes, another contemporary authority, gives the follow- 
ing picture of a countryman in 1660, showing that the hat, doublet. 

Figure 24. 
An English Mariner (from a Contem- 
porary Print). 



and short breeches of the reign of James I were worn in country 
districts of England as late as the Restoration; the short breeches 
probably being of leather and the hose of stout woolen clotli. 

Bishop Coleman tells us that in the Jamestown Settlement 
"church services, according to the English ritual, were held daily by 

the Reverend Robert Hunt, formerly rector 
of a living in Kent. Soon after the arrival 
of the Colonists sent over by the Virginia 
Company, in 1607, an altar was erected 
under the shade of the forest trees, and 
the emigrants gladly attended the cele- 
bration of the Holy Communion. English 
churchmen came to Massachusetts in 1623; 
to Maryland in 1629;. Lord Baltimore 
wrote that four clergymen of the Church 
of England were in his province with 
decent maintenance in 1676." Surplices 
were very expensive in the Colonies; 5000 
pounds of tobacco was the price paid for 
three of them in Virginia, and probably 
they were not available in every parish. 
Regular services were held in New Eng- 
land in 1638, in South Carolina in 1660, 
in New York in 1674, in New Jersey in 
1678, and in Pennsylvania in 1694.* 
These dates are quoted to show that in the English Colonies, under 
English rule, tjie clergy wore, as in England, the customary dress of 
the period: a black coat (ancestor of the cassock), full breeches to 
the knee, silk hose fastened with points, a soft brimmed hat, and 
plain stock or falling band for outdoor wear; the white surplice with 
bands and a close cap of black silk or velvet in church. Bishops 

* History of the American Church. 


Figure 25. 

Countryman in Doublet (from a 

print by Randle Holmes, 1660). 



ordinarily wore the usual full-sleeved white robes with black stoles. 
Out-of-doors long full cloaks were worn universally for protection from 
the weather. 

Figure 26. 
Soldier in Cuirass and Morion (from an Old English Print, Seventeenth Century). 

Hard, indeed, must have been the lives of the pioneer clergy of 
every denomination in America before 1700, and in remote parts 



they were probably constrained to wear whatever they could have 
made at home. The general outlines of the accepted dress of the 
times, given here, are based upon careful historical research. Further 
details will be found in the authorities quoted. 

Close-fitting black caps were worn habitually by the clergymen 
of all denominations. Instead of the white surplice, the black Geneva 
or preaching gown was adopted by Non-conformists, Presbyterian 
ministers and Puritan divines in all the Colonies. 

The Roman Catholic Church was represented chiefly by the 
Jesuits, a missionary priesthood, who habitually adopted the dress 
of the people with whom they sojourned. Maryland was the active 
centre of Catholicism in the Colonies. When Father Greaton of the 
Jesuit Order was sent from there to Philadelphia and founded the 
Parish of St. Joseph in that city, we are told that he entered the 
Province of Penn in the dress of a Quaker.* But this did not happen 
until 1 73 1. 

<;^^^Maryland was settled in 1633 by Lord Baltimore, whose ambition 
was to found a commonwealth in the Colonies where Roman Catholics 
might escape the oppressive legislation to which they were subjected 
in England. He brought with him his wife, children, and many 
servants, and following the English customs of living, naturally brought 
over the prevailing costumes of his day. 

That armour was sometimes worn by the Colonists, ample proof 
is given in the early records. In the archives of the first colony of 
Jamestown it is stated, among the proceedings of the Virginia Com- 
pany, that 

Brigandines, alias plate coats 100 

Jacks of mail 40 

Jerkins or shirts of mail 400 

Skulls 2000 

Calivers and other pieces, belts, halberts, swords, 

* History of Old St. Joseph's, Philadelphia, by Martin I.J. Griffin. 

V/ \ 


Figure 27. 

Figure 28. 

Figure 29 

Figure 30. 



were sent out from London upon request of the Burgesses, July 17, 
1622. In the Historical Society at Richmond, portions of a steel 
vambrace are preserved which were dug up at Jamestown in 1861 
(Figure 30). 

At the time of the first Colony in America, heavy plate armour 
had gone out of use, and back and breast plates with overlapping 

FiGXTRE 31. 

A Doublet of Satin Trimmed with a Narrow Galloon and Points of the Same Colour with 
Padded Lining, 1600-25 (^^ign of James I). 

tuilles or tassetts to protect the thighs, and helmets for the head, 
were generally worn. Whole suits of armour may have been worn 
on occasions, but so great had been the improvement in firearms 
that armour was no longer a safeguard, according to Fairholt, and 
in the time of Charles I, stout buff coats thick enough to resist a 


sword thrust, under a cuirass and a gorget (Figures 88, 89, and 90) 
affording special protection for the throat and chest, a helmet of 
metal, and breeches and boots of tough leather, formed the customary 
uniform of the soldier. The armour of a mounted officer, judging 
from effigies on old English tombs and from prints of the day, was 
more formidable, the arms and legs being encased in steel, at least 
all that part of the body not hidden by the saddle. Pictures of 
buff coats (Figures 8t„ 84, 85, 86, and 87), and drawings of a 
pikeman and a musketeer are given (Figures 26 and 78). 

There is an anonymous pamphlet called "A Perfect Description 
of Virginia," printed in Force's Tracts, which shows the inducements 
set forth in England to bring people to the Colony. The great ad- 
vantages of the country, its resources, agricultural and even educa- 
tional, are announced in glowing terms, and one citation at least bears 
directly upon the history of costume. In describing the fine house 
of one, Sir John Harvey, the author says: "He sows yearly stores 
of hemp and flax, and causes it to be spun, he keeps weavers, and 
hath a tan house, causes leather to be dressed, hath eight shoemakers 
employed in their trade." 

After the execution of King Charles I, a great many of the 
Cavaliers of England sought a haven of refuge in Virginia and 
Maryland. They were followed by many other representatives of 
distinguished families who could not brook the rule of Cromwell. 

We realize how luxurious life in Virginia had already become for 
the prosperous, when we read that Governor Berkeley (against whom 
Bacon rebelled in 1675) retired to his rural estate of "Green Spring" 
near Jamestown from 1652 to 1660, where he had an orchard of more 
than two thousand fruit trees — apples, pears, peaches, and apricots — 
and a stable of seventy fine horses. Here he lived in ease, entertain- 
ing Cavalier guests and drinking healths to King Charles, until re- 
called to Jamestown as Governor. In 1661 he went to London and 
remained a year. While there he saw the performance of his play, 


"The Lost Lady," described by Pepys in his diary. This play con- 
tained the following mention of the costumes of the day: 

" Observe with me how in that deep band, 
Short cloak, and his great boots, he Ipoks 
Three stories high, and his head is the 
Garret where he keeps nothing but hsts of 
Horse matches and some designs for his next clothes." 

In the first part of the reign of Charles II, doublets were worn ^ 
much shorter and opened over a Holland shirt, which hung over the . 
waistband of the loose breeches, the latter as well as the large full 
sleeves were ornamented with points and "ribbands" (Figures 29 and 
68). The falling collar was also of lace. With this costume a high- 
crowned hat with plume of feathers was sometimes worn (Figure 19). 

A year or so later the fashion of petticoat breeches, trimmed with 
"many rows of loops of ribbon overlapping like shingles," came into 
vogue for a short time (Figure 68). A certain Captain Creedon ap- 
peared in the street of Boston with this fantastic garb, much to the 
astonishment of the pedestrians, we are told. Probably this particu- 
lar style was more popular with the gayer Colonists in ^^rginia and 
the Carolinas, who kept in touch with the Court fashions. 

Later in the same reign (Charles II) "the doublet was worn much 
longer with sleeves to the elbows, finished with hanging ribbands 
from under which the ruffled sleeves of the shirt hung out." Thus »^ 
the doublet became transformed into a coat, and in an inventory 
of apparel provided for the King in 1679, a complete suit of one 
material is mentioned as "coat and breeches." Neck-cloths were 
worn toward the close of this reign. 

For a few years extending into the reign of James II, a long coat 
reaching to the knees and closely buttoned down the front came into 
fashion. Full breeches hanging in full folds over the garters were 
worn with this style of coat (Figures 137 and 138). 

"The gowns of the ladies of the English Court at this period 


were cut very low, with slashed sleeves, and were trimmed with lace 
and jewels"* (Figures 20, 32 and 49). Long gloves reaching to the 
elbow were worn with low cut dresses (Figures ^^ and 35). 

The fashion of wearing patches came in towards the end of the 
reign of Charles I, and continued in vogue until George Ill's day. 
They are mentioned in 1650. "Our ladies have lately entertained a 
vain custom of spotting their faces out of affectation of a mole, to 
set off their beauty such as Venus had; and it is well if one black 
patch will serve to make their faces remarkable, for some fill their 
faces full of them, varied into all manner of shapes." Patches are"^ 
associated with the fashion of powdering the hair (i 720-1 778), but 
when Mrs. Pepys was permitted by her husband to wear a patch 
we have his word for it that she looked "very pretty." It "is not 
likely that the extreme of this fashion, as described in Bulwer's satirical 
lines, was seen in the Colonies : 

" Her patches are of every cut, 
For pimples or for scars. 
Here's all the wandering planets' signs 
And some of the fixed stars; 
Already gummed to make them stick 
They need no other sky." 

A seventeenth century author gives the following concise definition 
of the muff, which figures so frequently in English portraits of the 
day: "A fur worn in winter in which to put the hands to keep 
them warm. Muffs were formerly only for women: at the present 
day they are carried by men. The finest muffs are made of martin, 
the common of miniver. The country muffs of the cavaliers are made 
of otter and of tiger. A woman puts her nose in her muff to hide 
herself. A muff-dog is a little dog which ladies can carry in their 
muffs." It is not easy to imagine the pioneer men of the Colonies 
carrying muffs; in fact even a Patroon would have found one sadly 

* Book of Costume by a Lady of Rank. (London, 1846.) 


inconvenient in the days when "a musket with six shoots of powder" 
was his constant companion. Towards the end of the century, how- 
ever, when the peaceful days of William and Mary's reign afforded 
a life of comparative luxury, the fashion at its height in England 
was followed in the Colonies by men as well as by women, with whom 
muffs have ever been deservedly popular (Figure 36). 

Mr. Fiske, speaking of Virginia hospitality at that early date, 
suggests that "in the time of Bacon's Rebellion (1675) your host 
would have appeared, perhaps, in a coat and breeches of olive 
plush or d^rk red broadcloth, richly embroidered waistcoat, shirt 
of holland,' long silk stockings, silver buttons and shoe buckles, I u^ 
lace ruffles about neck and wrists, and his head encumbered with a 
flowing wig; while the lady of the house might have worn a crimson 
satin bodice trimmed with point-lace, a black tabby petticoat, and ^ 
silk hose with shoes of fine leather, gallooned. Her lace head-dress 
would be secured with a gold bodkin, and she would be likely to 
wear earrings, a pearl necklace, finger rings set with rubies or dia- 
monds, and to carry a fan." 

This description may be very nearly correct of the man's dress 
in regard to colour and material, but the style of the coat described 
is of a later period. To the feminine mind a few items are needed to 
complete the costume of the lady. For instance, all the pictures of 
the time show the bodice and skirt of the same material, up to the 
reign of James II ; after that a long skirt still matching the bodice 
was looped over a gay petticoat sometimes richly trimmed with 
lace or gimp (Figures i, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 32, 33, 35, and 36). 

The Barbadoes and Carolina settlements date from 1650. The 
Colonists of these Southern ports, being mostly Cavaliers who had 
seen something of Court life in London, very soon surrounded them- 
selves with comforts and luxuries unknown to the first-comers in Vir- 
ginia. We read that the Barbadoes Colony resembled a litde Court 
in itself, the planters maintaining large households and many slaves. 

* Old Virginia and Her Neighbours. 


There was frequent intercourse with the settlements in Virginia and 
Maryland. The brocade gown in the frontispiece was the property of v 
an English lady who came to Barbadoes when James II was on the 
throne of England. Figure 104 depicts a gentleman of the same date. 
The following description of the articles of dress is quoted from 
Mr. Bruce's "Economic History of Virginia," but may be reasonably 
considered typical of all English Colonies in America from 1660 to 1700: 
— *^'The shirt was made of holland, blue linen, lockram, dowlas 
and canvas, according to the quality desired; holland representing 
the most costly and canvas the least expensive. The buttons used 
on the shirt were either of silver or pewter, and in many cases were 
carefully gilded. 

— "The stockings were either of silk, woolen or cotton thread, 
worsted or yarn. The shoes worn by men were made of ordinary 
leather, or they were of the sort known as French Falls (Figures 19, 
51, 53, and 55). The shoe buckles were manufactured of brass, 
steel or silver. There are many references to boots, the popular 
footwear of the planters, who were accustomed to pass much of 
their time on horseback (Figures 50, 54, and 57). 

"""^The periwig was worn in the latter part of the century (Figures 
134, 135, 140, and 141). In 1689 William Byrd forwarded one to 
his merchant in London with instructions to have it altered. 
'^""The covering for the heads of men consisted of the Monrnouth 
cap, the felt, the beaver or castor, and the straw hat, occasionally 
with a steeple crown. 

""^ "The neck-cloth, or cravat, was of blue linen, calico, dowlas, 
■muslin or the finest holland. The band or falling collar was made 
either of linen or lace, in keeping with the character of the suit 
(Figures 16 and 82). 

^ "The material of the coat ranged from broadcloth, camlet, 
fustian, drugget, and serge, which became less expensive with the 
progress of the century, to cotton, kersey, frieze, canvas, and buckskin. 



When of broadcloth, it was lined with calico or coarse linen. There 
are numerous references to the stuff coat, and the smock, and to the 
serge or linen jacket (Figure 48). 

—-"The outer garment used in riding was usually a cloak of camlet. 
The buttons of the coat and waistcoat were made of various materials, 
from silk thread to brass and pewter, silver, gimp and mohair. 

. , "Over the ordinary coat, a great-coat of frieze was worn in 

cold weather, or, on special occasions, a substitute was found in a 
cloak of blue or scarlet silk. 

— "Waistcoats in 1679 were made of dimity, cotton or drugget, flannel 
or penistone, of a great variety of colours, white, black, and blue being 
the most popular. 

— "The breeches for dress occasions were of plush or broadcloth; 
for ordinary wear, of linen, common ticking, canvas or leather. 
There are references in inventories of the period to serge breeches, 
lined with linen or worsted, with thread buttons, and also to cal- 
limanco breeches with hair buttons. Occasionally the whole suit was 
of plush, broadcloth, kersey or canvas, or the coat was made of 
drugget, and the waistcoat and breeches of stufE cloth. Olive col- 
oured suits were very popular. 

=,— "Handkerchiefs were of silk, lace, or blue linen. Gloves were 
made of yarn, or of tanned ox-, lamb-, buck-, dog-, or sheepskin, and 
were of local manufacture. The hands of children were kept warm 
by mittens." 

— It was the habit of the wealthy planters to have even their plainest 
and simplest articles of clothing made in England. Mr. Fitzhugh, 
of Stafford County, Virginia, instructed his merchant in London, in 
1697, to send him two suits of an ordinary character, one for use in 
winter and the other in summer. The exact measurements for the 
shoes and stockings needed were to be guessed at, and the only 
direction given as to the two hats ordered was that they should 
be of the largest size. 
The lists sent out to England show that costly garments were 




imported for the planters' wives. Many of the gowns worn in Vir- 
ginia must have been as handsome as those worn by the women of 
the same class in England. There are numerous allusions to silk 
and flowered gowns, to bodices of velvet brocade and satin, trimmed 
with lace (Figures 32 and 49). 

—^Petticoats were of serge, flannel, or tabby, a kind of coloured 
silk cloth. They were also made of printed linen or dimity and 
trimmed with silk or silver lace. An outfit of gown, petticoat, and 

green stockings, composed of 
woolen materials, is frequently 
mentioned in the inventories. 
" For outdoor wear, women of 
all ranks wore hoods and mantles. 
The hoods were made of camlet, 
sarsenet, or velvet, often trimmed 
with fur (Figures 34, 35, 36, 40, 
67, 69, 128, 129, and 144). The 
mantles of silk (Figure 128) or 
tippets of fur (Figures 47, 69, 
and 129) were worn over the 

Hose varied very much in 
colour, being white, scarlet, or 
black. They were held in place 
by silk garters. 

Shoes of the finest quality were either laced or gallooned (Figure 
36). Wooden shoes with wooden heels were also worn. 

Aprons were of muslin, silk, serge, and blue duffel (Figures 35 
and 144). Small fans, many of which were richly ornamented, were 
favourite items of dress in the toilets of planters' wives (Figure 20), 
and silver and gilt stomachers were not unknown. Perfumed powders 
were imported and used in the English Colonies. 

T^.OTnfcin de Hooftflft. J6/3. 

Figure 34. 
Back View of Outdoor Dress (from a Con- 
temporary Print). 


r < 




About 1661, we are told, a young English lady set out for Vir- 
ginia, furnished with the following articles of clothing: 

"A scarf, white sarsenet and a ducape hood, a white flannel petti- 
coat, two green aprons, three pairs of gloves, a long riding scarf, a 
mask and a pair of shoes." 

"The wardrobe of a rich planter's wife in Virginia, Mrs. Sarah 
Willoughby, consisted of a red, a blue, and a black silk petticoat, a 
petticoat of India silk and a worsted prunella, a striped linen and a , i^X 
calico petticoat, a black silk gown, a scarlet waistcoat with silver 
lace, a white knit waistcoat, a striped stuff jacket, a worsted pru- 
nella mantle, a sky-coloured satin bodice, a pair of red paragon 
bodices, three fine and three coarse hoUand aprons, seven handker- 
chiefs, and two hoods. The whole was valued at fourteen pounds 
and nineteen shillings. 

"The wardrobe of another Virginia lady, Mrs. Frances Pritchard, 
was quite as extensive. It included an olive-coloured silk petti- 
coat, petticoats of silver and flowered tabby, of velvet, and of white 
striped dimity, a printed calico gown lined with blue silk, a white 
striped dimity, a black silk waistcoat, a pair of scarlet sleeves, a 
pair of holland sleeves with ruffles, a Flanders lace band, one 
cambric and three holland aprons, five cambric handkerchiefs, and 
I several pairs of green stockings."* 

— Aprons were at least on one occasion conspicuous articles of dress. 
Although some historians discredit the episode, in a history of cos- 
tume we can hardly omit the story of Bacon's very ungallant behav- 
iour to the ladies of Jamestown, whom he compelled to stand in a 
white-aproned row to screen his men while they worked on the en- 
trenchments, as a protection from the Burgesses, who could not shoot 
without injury to the women.' We may at least safely conclude that 
every woman of consequence was expected to have a white apron 
in her wardrobe. 

* Bruce's Economic History of Virginia. 


s=-The favourite ornaments of women at this time were pearl neck- 
laces, gold pendants and earrings, and rings of various kinds. It 
was customary to leave mourning rings to a large number of relatives 
and friends. One lady, Mrs. Elizabeth Digges, in her will desired 
that eight should be distributed among the members of her intimate 
circle. A gentleman of Middlesex bequeathed twenty-five pounds 
sterling for the purchase of rings of the same character; sixteen 
pounds of this sum were to be expended in such as would cost one 
guinea apiece. 

A rich planter of Lower Norfolk County, at his death, was in 
possession of "a sapphire set in gold, one ring with a blue stone, 
another with a green stone, and another still with a yellow stone, 
two hollow wrought rings, a diamond ring with several sparks, a 
mourning ring, a beryl set in silver, and an amber necklace." 

As real pearls were very costly, a Frenchman, named Jacques, 
invented a substitute for them in this century (seventeenth). He 
had observed that the water in which small fish, called "ablettes," 
had been washed, contained a quantity of silvery particles, and by 
filling hollow blown glass beads with this sediment, he succeeded in 
producing an admirable imitation ; but about twenty thousand white- 
bait were required to supply one pound of this essence of pearls.* 
"•- — Small gold and silver bodkins were used by the wives of the 
planters for the purpose of keeping the head-dress in place. 
^^''-' Plantation life, even toward the end of the century, gave but few 
opportunities for display. There were no towns where, as at Wil- 
liamsburg in the following century, the leading families might gather 
at certain seasons and show off their fashionable costumes. The 
church of the parish was the social centre of each community. It 
was there that fine clothes could be exhibited on Sundays, while at 
weddings and other festal meetings, the most costly suits and dresses 
were worn. 

* History of Fashion in France. 



The store, which every planter of importance maintained on his 
place, was a notable feature of colonial life. A list of the articles 
for sale in one of those rural establishments is almost as varied as 
the advertisement of one of our city department stores to-day. For 
instance, the Hubbard store in York County in 1667 contained: 

Lockram, canvas, dowlas, Scotch cloth, blue linen, oznaburg, 
cotton, holland serge, kersey and flannel in bales, full suits for adults 
and youths; bodices, hoods and laces 
for women ; shoes, gloves, hose, cravats, 
handkerchiefs, hats and other articles 
of dress. Hammers, hatchets, chisels, 
augers, locks, staples, nails, sickles, bel- 
lows, saws, knives, flesh forks, por- 
ringers, saucepans, frying-pans, grid- 
irons, tongs, shovels, hoes, iron-pots, 
tables, physic, wool-cards, gimlets, com- 
passes, needles, stirrups, looking-glasses, 
candlesticks, candles, funnels, 25 pounds 
of raisins, 100 gallons of brandy, 20 gal- 
lons of wine, 10 gallons of aqua vitce. 

The contents of this store was 
valued at ;^6i4 sterling, a sum which 
represented about $15,000 in our present 

Mr. Fiske says: "One can imagine how dazzling to the youthful 
eyes must have been the miscellaneous variety of desirable things. 
Not only were the manufactured articles pretty sure to have come 
from England, but everything else, to be saleable, must be labelled 
English, insomuch that fanciers used to sell the songsters unknown 
to England, if they sang particularly well, as English mocking birds." 

It was the habit of the early Virginia planters from time to time 
to purchase silver plate in England. This they looked upon as a 

Figure 37. 
A Peddler (from an Old Print). 




sort of wealth which could never lose its value, and pieces of such 
plate engraved with the crest of the original owner, have in many 
cases been handed down as family heirlooms, even to the present 
day. Candlesticks and snuffers, castors for sugar, pepper, and 
mustard, saltcellars and beakers are frequently mentioned in the 
wills of the latter part of the seventeenth century. 

In one instance dishes weighing eighty and ninety ounces apiece 
and a case containing a dozen silver-hafted knives and a dozen 

silver-hafted forks are specified. Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Digges bequeathed two hundred and sixty 
ounces of silver plate to her friends and rela- 
tives. Specimens of old silver, etc., are shown 
in Figure 159. 

We read also of the following musical 
instruments among the household goods of the 
richer planters: Virginals, hand-lyres, cornets, 
violins, recorders, flutes, and hautboys. 

In the kitchen, various utensils were in use, 
being made of brass, tin, pewter, wood, clay, and copper. 

Another feature of colonial life was the itinerant peddler, who 
travelled from plantation to plantation carrying the latest fashions 
and, oftentimes, the latest piece of gossip. He was always sure of 
a welcome from the people of every class, from the mistress and 
master at the hall fireside to the maids and men in the servants' 
quarters, for his pack contained, like that of Autolycus, wares to 
suit all needs and tastes. 

Figure 37^. 
Drawn from an Origi- 
nal Monmouth Cap at the 
Rolls Hall, Monmouth, 

" Lawn as white as driven snow; 
Cypress black as e'er was crow ; 
Gloves as sweet as damask roses; 
Masks for faces and for noses ; 

Pins and poking-sticks of steel; 

What maids lack from head to heel; 

Come buy of me, come; come buy, come buy; 

Buy lads, or else your lasses cry: come, buy." 

Bugle-bracelet, necklace-amber, 
Perfume for a lady's chamber; 
Golden quoifs and stomachers, 
For my lads to give their dears; 



There is not much to be said about dress among the American 
Indians. However, the costume of the Queen of the Pamunkeys, who 
accompanied her husband, Totto Potto Moi, to a conference with 
the Enghsh in Virginia, and who was a lady of some distinction, is 
worthy of description. She wore a turban made of a wide plait 
of black and white wampum and her robe was of deerskin, with 
the hair on the outside, ornamented (from the shoulders to the feet) 
with a twisted fringe six inches deep. An effective but rather an un- 
comfortable dress for the season, as this conference took place in 
May (1677). 

The King of the Pamunkeys was afterward killed in fighting with 
the English under Colonel Edward Hill. His wife, the Queen, made 
an appeal to the House of Burgesses, whereupon Charles II sent to 
her, in recognition of her husband's services, a crown consisting of 
a red velvet cap with a silver plate as a frontlet, to which were 
attached many chains. During the latter part of the year 1800, 
the Pamunkeys determined to move westward, and, being under 
stress of weather, and, also, it is supposed, lacking food, came to 
Mr. Arthur Morson, who gave them shelter and protection for a time 
on his plantation. Upon leaving, they expressed their gratitude 
by presenting their benefactor with this crown, their greatest treas- 
ure, which still existed in the original shape. The cap becoming in 
time moth-eaten, the chains lost and scattered, the Administrator 
of the Morson Estate sold the frontlet to the Association for the 
Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, and it was placed in the Histori- 
cal Society's rooms for safe-keeping (Figure 27). 

For descriptions and pictures of the native Indians, the reader 
is referred to Schoolcraft's exhaustive history, which illustrates the 
life and customs of the various tribes in North America from the 
landing of Columbus to the middle of the nineteenth century.* 

* History of the Indian Tribes of the United States, by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, LL.D. 







During the Reigns of 

James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II, and 

William and Mary 


YEARE'S Gifte." 

As I on a New Yeare's day- 
Did walcke amidst the streate, 
My restless eyes for you my hart, 

Did seke a fayring mete. 
I sercht throughout the faire 

But nothing could I fynde: 
No, no, of all ther was not one 

That would content my mynde. 
But all the boothes were filled 

With fancyes fond attyre, 
And trifling toyes were set to sale, 

For them that would requyre. 
Then to myself quoth I, 

What meanes theise childish knacks; 
Is all the faire for children made. 

Or fooles that babies lackes ? 
Are theise the goodly gifts, 

The new yeare to beginne; 
Which friends present unto their friends, 

Their fayth and love to winne? 
I se I came in vayne. 

My labour ail is lost, 
I will departe and kepe my purse, 

From making any cost. 
But se my happy chaunce, 

Whilest I did hast away; 
Dame Vertue doth display her booth, 

My hasty feete to stay. 
I joyfuU of the sight, 

Did preace unto the place, 
To se the tricke and trimmed tent, 

For such a ladye's grace. 
And after I had viewed 

Eache thing within her seate, 


I found a knotte of peerlesse points 

Beset with posyes neate. 
Theise points in number twelve, 

Did shew themselves to be: 
The sence whereof by poet's skil, 

I will declare to the. 

1. With meate before the set, 

Suffice but nature's scant; 

2. Be sure thy tongue at table tyme, 

Noe sober talke doe want. 

3. Let word, let thought, and dede. 

In honest wise agree: 

4. And loke the pore in tyme of nede, 

Thy helping hand may see. 

5. When foes invade the realme. 

Then shew thy might and strength: 

6. Tell truth in place wher thou dost come 

For falshed failes at length. 

7. Be fast and firm to friende. 

As thou wouldst him to be: 

8. Be shamefast there wher shamefuU dedes 

Be offred unto the. 

9. Weare not suche costly clothes. 

As are not for thy state: 

10. Heare eache man's cause as thoh he wer 

In wealth thine equall mate. 

11. In place thy maners shewe. 

In right and comly wyse: 
^ .12. From the let p'eace and quietnesse, 
*And wars from others ryse. 

With these twelve vertuous points, 

Se thou do tye thee round. 
And lyke and love this simple gifte, 

Till better may be found. 
Yet one point thou dost lacke. 

To tye thy hose before: 
Love me as I love the, and shall 

From hence for evermore. 

— Farwell, 

The English in Massachusetts, Connect- 
icut, New Hampshire, Maine, 
and Rhode Island 

I 620-1 700 

Figure 43. 
A Puritan Dame. 

Two carpenters 

One fustian worker and silk dyer 

One lady's maid 

Two printers and publishers 

One tailor 

N 1620 came the first English settlers to Massa- 
chusetts — the Pilgrims, or Separatists, as they 
are sometimes called, in their sombre coloured 
garments, of the same shapes and fashions, 
however, as those in vogue at the gay court of 
Charles I, the superfluous trimmings, knots of 
bright ribbon, rich laces and feathers, being 
conspicuously absent. 

In this company of one hundred and four 
Pilgrims, which arrived at Plymouth, Decem- 
ber 20, 1620, were the following: 

One wool-carder 
One cooper 
One merchant 
Four seamen 

One soldier 
Two tradesmen 

Ten adult servants 
One lay reader 
One hatter 
One physician 
One smith 

The Pilgrims, like the Roundheads in England, were minded 
to discourage extravagance, and made strict laws to control fashions 
of dress. Three years later they were followed by the Puritans of 
the Massachusetts Bay Company, who, according to Weedon, settled 
first at Cape Ann and afterward removed to Salem. This Company 
was a large and rich organization and provided each man with a 
suitable outfit: 



Four pairs of shoes A green cotton waistcoat 

Four pairs of stockings A leather belt 

A pair of Norwich gaiters A woolen cap 

Four shirts A black hat 

Two suits of doublet and hose of Two red knit caps 

leather lined with oil skin Two pairs of gloves 

A woolen suit lined with leather A mandillion or cloak lined with cotton 
Four bands and an extra pair of breeches were 

Two handkerchiefs allotted each man (Figure 44). 

There were many women in this band of settlers, but no men- 
tion is made of their garments. 

This outfit was much more liberal than that provided by the 
Virginia Company, but the climate of Massachusetts was bleak and 
cold compared with that of Virginia, although the air apparently agreed 
with Francis Higginson, who wrote the following letter from Boston 
in 1629: 

"But since I came hither on this voyage I thank God I have had 
perfect health and I, that have not gone without a cap for many years 
together neither durst leave off the same, have now cast away my cap, 
and do wear none at all in the day time; and whereas beforetime 
I clothed myself with double clothes and thick waistcoats to keep me 
warm even in summer time, I do now go as thin clad as any, only 
wearing a light stuff cassock upon my shirt and stuff breeches of one 
thickness without lining." 

This company of Puritans, which numbered about two hundred, 
eventually founded Boston and other places in the neighbourhood: 
Charlestown, Watertown, Dorchester, Roxbury, Mystic, Lynn, etc. 
They kept in touch with the Mother Country and imported many 
comforts, which the Plymouth Bay Company eschewed. 

About 1630 a body of this Massachusetts Bay Company, com- 
posed chiefly of yeomen of Dorsetshire, England, settled in Connect- 
icut. They were mostly Church of England people of the repre- 
sentative Anglo-Saxon type, and in their laws we find few restrictions 
concerning dress, although at the dawn of the Revolution the people 



of Connecticut were among the first of the Colonists to renounce 
foreign luxuries and augment the use of homemade articles. We 
read that "master-tailors were, paid 12 pence, inferior 8 pence per 
day, with dyett." 

In 1634, the Mas- 
sachusetts Court forbade 
the purchase of "Any 
apparell, either woolen, 
silke, or lynnen with any 
lace on it, silver, golde, 
silk, or thread." They 
shall not "make or 
buy slashed clothes, other 
than one slashe in each 
sleeve and another in the 
backe" ; there shall be no 
"cutt works, imbroid'd 
or needle work'd capps, 
bands & Rayles; no 
gold or silver girdles, hatt 
bands, belts, ruffs, beaver 

In 1636 lace was for- 
bidden; only the binding 
of a small edging on 
linen was allowed. 

Points were the usual fastenings in use during the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. Sometimes they had metal tags at the ends 
and were more or less ornamental. Frequent mention is made of 
them by Shakespeare: 

"Their points being broken, down fell their hose;" 
"With one that ties his points," etc. 

Figure 44. 
A Puritan Cloak or Mandillion of Black Silk with 
Small Embroidered Buttons. The original garment 
from which the drawing is taken is in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, London. 


Like their successors, the modern suspenders, they were often 
very dainty and were appropriately given as love tokens. 

Margaret Winthrop, in a letter to England written from Massa- 
chusetts, gives a note of daily wear: "I must of a necessity mike 
me a gown to wear every day and would have one bought me of good 
strong black stuff and Mr. Smith to make it of the civilest fashion 
now in use. If my sister Downing would please to give him some 
directions about it, he would make it the better."* Slight as is this 
note, it proves that Dame Winthrop was not indifferent to the pre- 
vailing fashions, and we know that English gentlewomen of that 
time were dressed as in Figures 21, 32, 33, 35, and 36. The familiar 
portrait of Governor Winthrop in a ruff and long hair indicates that 
he had not adopted the dress of the strict Puritans (Figure 93). Un- 
fortunately, no portrait of his wife has been handed down to pos- 
terity, and we are left to conjecture that the dress of "good strong 
black stuff" to "wear every day" was made of durant, something 
after the fashion of Figure 21, or, perhaps, like that of the Puritan 
gentlewoman in the initial letter of this chapter, which represents 
a typical Puritan of the Massachusetts Bay Company. 

Abundant evidence of the various styles of dress of English women 
in the reigns of Charles I and II is preserved in the clever sketches 
of Hollar. They are invaluable to the historian. 

Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) went from Cologne and Antwerp 
to London in the train of the Earl of Arundel, English Ambassador, 
in 1635, and was appointed teacher of drawing to the young Prince, 
afterwards Charles II. A volume of sketches by the royal pupil, to 
which Hollar had given the finishing touches, may be seen among 
the Harleian manuscripts at the British Museum. In 1640 ap- 
peared his "Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus, or the Severall Habits 
of English Women from the Nobilitiee to the Country Women as 
they are in these times." 

* Margaret Winthrop, by Mrs. Earle. 



In 1643 appeared a second book, ''Theatrum Mulierum," in 
which are represented the various styles of dress in the leading 
nations of Europe. On the accession of Charles II, Hollar was 
appointed His Majesty's Designer. 

His books are now very rare. Copies may be seen in the Library 
of the British Museum, but I do not know of any in a public library 
in this country. The "Theatrum Mulierum" shows the costumes 
of the women of Holland in the seventeenth century, specimens of 
which are given in Figures 106, 107, no, 124, and 126. 

In the Colony at Plymouth a manifesto against long hair was 
published, in which it was called an impious custom and a shameful 
practice for any man who had the least care of his soul to wear long 
hair. An old song about the Roundhead Puritans runs thus: 

"What creature's this? with his short hair. 
His httle band, and huge long ears, 
That this new faith has founded ? 
The Puritans were never such, 
The Saints themselves had ne'er so much — 
Oh such a knave's a Roundhead." 

The majority of the Puritans, however, were very much in earnest 
on the subject of reform in dress, and it has been said they expressed 
their piety not only in the choice of sombre hues and simplicity of 
cut, but even worked into the garments religious sayings and quota- 
tions from Holy Writ. As Fairholt puts it, "they literally moral- 
ized dress." 

"Nay Sir, she is a Puritan at her needle too, 
She works religious petticoats; for flowers 
She'll make church histories: besides 
My smock sleeves have such holy embroideries, 
And are so learned, that I fear in time 
All my apparel will be quoted by 
Some pure instructor."* 

* The Citye Match. Jasper Mayne, L. 1639. 



This fashionable custom in England is also mentioned by Ben 
Jonson. "The linen of men and women was either so worked 
as to resemble lace or was ornamented by the needle into repre- 
sentations of fruit and flowers, passages of history," etc.* 

The inventories of about 1641 
show that 

3 suits of clothes were valued at £^ 

3 coats " 

2 6s. 

I hat and doublet " 


4 pairs of shoes " 


4 " " stockings" 


I stuff petticoat was 


2 pairs of linen breeches 

I 6s. 

In 1652 is found the first 
mention of shoemaking, at Salem. 
It was about this time that the 
General Court of Massachusetts 
passed sumptuary laws to repress 
the spending of too large a pro- 
portion of income on apparel. 
Weedon says: ''When the Court 
was not occupied with grave 
business of State, it devoted itself 
to correcting morals and regulat- 
ing dress. The function of dress 
in the minds of the anxious Fathers was not only to cover and protect 
people, but to classify and arrange them. The same conserving 
prejudice which marked their treatment of labourers and apprentices 
controlled their notions of dress. Social prestige, . rank, caste, and 
breeding were to be formulated in the garments of the wearer. It 
was not only that the precious capital of the community was wasted 
by expensive dressing, but the well ordered ranks of society were 

* Every Man out of his Humour. 

Figure 47. 
Typical Winter Costume of a Lady of the 
Period, 1640. 

Figure 48. 


jostled and disturbed by the glitter of lace and the show of silken 
hoods, the tramp of strong boots." 

Mrs. Lake, who came over with the Dorsetshire Company in 
1635, sent out to England for the following articles for the furnishing 
of the new household of her daughter, who married John Gallup 
of the same settlement in 1645. We give the list in full as thor- 
oughly typical of the time: 

" A peare of brasse Andirons 
A brasse Kittell, 
2 grate Chestes, well tnade, 
2 armed Cheares with rushe bottums, 

2 carven Caisse for Bottels wch my Cuzzen Cooke has of mine 
A Warming Pann, 
A Big Iron Pott, 
6 Pewter Plates 

2 Pewter Platters, 

3 Pewter Porringeres 

A small Stew Pann of Copper 

A peare of Brasse and a peare of Silver Candle-sticks (of goode plate) 

A Drippe Panne 

A Bedsteede of carven Oake (ye one in wch I sleept in my father's house, 
with ye Vallances and Curtayns and Tapestry Coverlid belongynge 
& ye wch my sister Breadcale hath in charge of Mee) 

Duzzen Napekins of fine linen damasque & 
2 table cloathes of ye same. Also 8 fine 

Holland Pillowe Beeres and 4 ditto sheetes. 

A skellet, 

A pestel & mortar 

A few Needels of different sizes 

A carpet (that is, a table cover; the name was universally applied thus) 
of goodly stuff and colour, aboute 2 Ell longe. 

6 Table knifes of ye beste Steal with such handles as may bee. 

Also 3 large & 3 smal Silvern Spoones, and 6 of home." 

We are told that Mrs. Lake left a wardrobe of considerable extent 
and richness, besides a goodly list of linens and other household 
treasures, with several carved chests to contain them, all of which she 
bequeathed to friends and relatives: "To my daughter Martha 
Harris," she says, "I give my tapestry coverlid and all my other 



apparell which are not disposed of to others particularly, and I give 
unto her my mantel and after her decease, to all her children as 
their need is."* This "mantel" was supposed to have been Russian 
sable, even then as costly as it was rare, and presumably brought 
from the far East, perhaps China. 

We read also in "Colonial Days and Ways" that "all the better 
class among the Colonists seem to have disproportionately liberal sup- 
plies of 'mantels and pettycotes' of velvet or brocade, with other 'gar- 
ments to consort therewith,' but this was not due so much to vanity 
as to thrift, the best being literally the cheapest in the days when 
the fine fabrics were so honestly made as to wear for decades and 

Figure 50. 
Reign of Elizabeth, 
1595-1603 + . 

Figure 51. Figure 52. 

Reign of Charles I, 1625 + 

Figure I53. Figure 54. 

During the Commonwealth, 

I 649-1 660. 

the cost of carriage was the same for a coat of frieze as for one of 
velvet." Mrs. Smith throws a new light on the subject, which also 
helps us to understand the wills and inventories in which these beauti- 
ful old stuffs were handed down as family heirlooms. Fortunately 
for this book of costume, some Colonial garments have been pre- 
served in their original fashion, while, of course, others bear the 
marks of many alterations to suit the times. 

In 1638 an order was passed by the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts : 

"No garment shall be made with short sleeves, and such as have 
garments already made with short sleeves shall not wear the same 

* Colonial Days and Ways, by Helen Evertson Smith. 



unless they cover the arm to the wrist ; and hereafter no person what- 
ever shall make any garment for women with sleeves more than half 
an ell wide." 

The town records were full of prosecutions, acquittals, and con- 
victions for offences against these laws. In Salem in 1652 "a man 
was presented for excess of bootes, ribands, gould and silver laces, 
and Ester Jynks for wearing silver lace"; while in Newbury in 1653 
"two women were called upon to pay taxes for wearing silken hoods 
and scarves, but were discharged on proof that their husbands were 
worth two hundred pounds each." 

"John Hutchins' wife was also discharged upon testimony of 
her being brought up above the 
ordinary ranke." "The latter," 
observes. Weeden, "is an interesting 
instance showing that rank as well as 
property condoned these offences." 

Any one of less estate than two 
hundred pounds was held to strict 
account • in dress. The women 
offended especially by wearing silk 
and tiffany hoods; but they also 
wore broad-brimmed hats (Figure 43) 

Figure 55. 

Reign of 

Charles II, 

1660 -I- . 

Figure 56. 

Reign of 

James II, 

1685 + . 

Figure 57. 
Reign of 
William III, 
1690 + - 

Under the stiff bodice of a 
gown a lady wore a petticoat either of woolen stuff or of rich silk 
or brocade. The ruff had given place to a broad collar, plain or 
embroidered, falling over the shoulders (Figures 20 and 2>s)' y 

As leather was much used, a tannery was almost the first industry ^ 
started in every settlement. In 1676 the price of shoes was regu- 
lated by law. "Five pence half penny a size for all pleyne and 
wooden heel'd shoes, and above seven pence half penny a size for well 
wrought 'French falls.'" Wooden heels were worn all through 
the seventeenth century. Even at this early date, Lynn, Massachu- 
setts, was the centre for the manufacture of shoes, which were 




usually made with broad straps and buckles; women's shoes being 
of neat leather or woolen cloth and occasionally of silk. 

During the seventeenth century leather clothing was much worn, 
especially by labourers and servants. The excellent brain-tanned 
deerskin, which the Indians taught the Colonists to prepare, served 
well for garments. Hampshire kerseys were used for common wear. 
Monmouth caps and red knit caps are mentioned among the articles 
used by the lower classes, and the mandillion, or over-garment, 
fastened with hooks and eyes, is frequently spoken of. Irish stock- 
ings, so often mentioned in this century, have been compared to 
modern socks, but they were of cloth and were very warm. While 
rich apparel is noted here and there, in spite of statute law, it is evi- 
dent that the great majority of the people dressed plainly. Their 


/6/0.- /6/0.- /6A0. IbUi. IbUJ. Ihb3.- IbZXr l69Fr-- 

Fig. 58. Fig. 59. Fig. 60. Fig. 61. Fig. 62. Fig. 63. Fig. 64. Fig. 65. 

frugality and abstinence made a foundation on which sumptuary 
statutes could be based. 

Doublets were worn by both sexes ; they were always lined 
or padded for extra warmth (Figure 31). The sleeves were often 
slashed and embroidered extravagantly, as indicated in the "re- 
straining acts" of the Pilgrim Fathers. Falling bands at the neck 
were very common, and often they were embroidered. A deep 
linen collar was sometimes preferred in place of the bands. 

" This pretty new fashion indulge him to wear 
There's no law in bands, I may venture to swear, 
But they set ofif an old fashion face I declare. 
Which nobody can deny, deny, which nobody can deny." 

Shoes were ornamented with rosettes (Figures 59 and 61). A 
beaver or felt hat covered the head. Embroidered gloves were 

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always worn with full dress, the flaps of the gauntlets being richly 
figured or fringed (Figures 72, 74, 75, 76, and 77). Swords were 
suspended from embroidered shoulder-belts. Gold and silver lace 
was often used for trimming. 

In the Massachusetts Colony, armour was provided for the emi- 
grants. Bandoliers, horn flasks, corselets, and pikes are mentioned 

In an old book called an "Abridgement of the laws in force and 
use in Her Majesty's (Queen Anne) Plantations of Virginia (viz.) of 
Jamaica, New England, Barba- 
does, New York, Maryland, Caro- 
lina, etc., London 1709," will be 
found under the heading "Ammu- 
nition, Or Laws Concerning the 
Colonial Militia": "I. an. 1662. 
Every man able to bear arms shall 
have in his house a fixed gun, 2 1. 
of powder and 8 1. of shot, at 
least, to be provided by the Master 
of the Family, under the Penalty 
of being fined 80 1. of tobacco. 

II. an. 1666. Every County shall 
be empowered by their By-Laws to make such provision of ammu- 
nition at the county charges as their several occasions require. 

III. Captains of foot and horse shall take a strict account of 
what arms are wanting and represent the same to the Colonel," 
etc. This affords valuable proof of the familiarity with firearms 
expected of the Colonists in everyday life, also of the early origin 
of the American militia. With regard to the latter organization, 
we read under the date of 1660 as follows: 

"Every person neglecting to appear at the Days of Exercising 
the Militia shall be fined 100 1. of Tobacco." 

Figure 70. Figure 71. 

Cannons or Breeches Fastenings (from an 

Old Print, 1650). 


"Ten long guns or muskets with one Barrel of gun powder and 
Bullets proportionable shall be kept in each garrison as a Reserve 
and Defence for the same." 

"For the better taking alarms upon 'the approach of Indians the 
frequent shooting of guns at Drinkings is prohibited." 

"Six shoots of powder each man is required to bring with him 
on Training Days or pay a fine. The latter to be put aside for the 
purchase of Drums and Colours." 

A portrait of Sir John Leverett, Governor of the Massachusetts 
Colony in 1673, in the Essex Institute at Salem, depicts a buff 
coat of dressed leather with metal fastenings, like ornamental 
hooks and eyes, down the front; a falling collar of linen tied with 
little tassels, and a very magnificent pair of embroidered gloves, 
which Sir John is holding in one hand, while on a table beside him 
is a hat ornamented with a long feather (Figure 82). Probably the 
portrait was taken when he was a Colonial soldier, for history 
records that he went to England in 1644 and took the side of the 
Parliament against the King, but after his return to Boston he filled 
several important offices, and in 1676 was magnanimously knighted 
by Charles II in acknowledgment of his services to the New England 

/ The women of New England in the last quarter of the seven- 
teenth century were well, if not handsomely, dressed. Undoubtedly 
the gentlewomen of that time had brocades and silks for festive occa- 
sions and fur-trimmed cloaks and hoods for the cold season, but 
the ordinary dress was a short gown of camlet over a homespun 
petticoat with a long white apron of linen. The sleeves of the gown 
were supplemented by mittens reaching to the elbows and leaving 
a part of the fingers and thumbs bare. The cloak worn at that time 
was short, with a hood to cover the head, which was thrown back in 
meeting; and those who wore hats took them off. The matrons 
wore caps habitually and the young women had their hair curled 

Figure 74. 

Figure 77. 

Figure 75. 



and tied back with a ribbon or arranged in a soft coil at the back, 
with short curls on the forehead. 

Scarlet robes are said to have been worn by the judges in the 

Figure 78. 
A Man in Buff -coat and Bandolier, 1620-1660. 

Massachusetts Colony. Mrs. Earle gives a picture of one stated to 
have been worn by Judge Curwen, of Salem, during the gruesome witch 




trials, but the garment in question is so exactly like the cloaks worn 
by the women of the Puritan days that one is tempted to think it was 
borrowed from his wife for these solemn occasions. However, scarlet 
was a favourite colour for men in those days, and a very romantic 
story has recently been written by Mrs. Austin about the red riding 
cloak worn by Governor Bradford, 2d, about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. 

Mourning for the dead was attended by various solemn cere- 
monies in the Colonies. 
Judge Sewall, of Mas- 
sachusetts (Figure 81), 
describes minutely the 
funeral of Lady Andros, 
the wife of the Governor 
(Figure 97), on the loth of 
February, 1688, to which 
he had been invited by 
the "Clark of the South 
Company." "It took 
place between 7 and 8 
P. M. probably. The 
hearse, surrounded by 
torch bearers, was drawn 
by six horses, and es- 
corted by a guard of 
soldiers from the Governour's house to the South Meeting House 
where the body was placed before the pulpit, with six mourning women 
by it. There was a great noise and clamour to keep the people out of 
the house, which was made light with candles and torches." He tells 
of himself that he went home, and about nine o'clock heard the bell 
tolled again for the funeral. He missed the sermon, whether pur- 
posely or not is not told, but knows that the text was "Cry, all flesh 

Figure 79. 
Points with Aiglets 
Drawing Together a 
Slashed Sleeve. 

Figure 80. 
Points with Aiglets or 
Tags Fastening a Buff-coat 
and Sleeve Together (from 
an Old Print, 1650-1660). 




is grass." After naming a number of the people who were present, 
he remarks, "Twas warm thawing weather and the wayes extreame 
dirty. No volley at placing the body in the tomb." On Saturday, 
February nth, another entry in this instructive diary reads: "The 
next day the mourning cloths of the pulpit is taken off and given 
to Mr. Willard." Frequent mention is made throughout this diary, 
and others of the time, of the gloves, scarves, and mourning rings 
given friends and relatives at funerals, and there is evidence that the 
general custom of wearing black as a token of sorrow was followed 
throughout the Colonies, the women wearing gowns and hoods of 

Figure 83. Figure 84. Figure 85. Figure 86. 

Various Forms of the Buff Coat. 

Figure 87. 

black stuff with trimmings, cuffs, and veils of crepe, at least such 
was the ''customary woe," but it was observed with less formality 
by the Non-Conformists than by the Orthodox Church people. Little 
children were dressed in black and wore black ribbons for a time, 
and it was not unusual for the servants of a household to be dressed 
in black when the head of the family died: as in nearly every other 
respect, English ways and English customs were very closely fol- 
lowed throughout the Colonies in America. In the Philadelphia 
Library there is preserved, among many other interesting relics of 
the past, an old hatchment formerly used in the Dickinson family. 



— probably brought from England, — which was placed over the 
doorway when a death occurred in the family. Another specimen 
is also to be seen at Christ Church, Philadelphia. 

The portrait of a widow given in Figure 150 represents Lady 
Mary Fenwick, in high widow's cap and tippets, black dress and 
veil, in one hand holding a portrait of her husband, Sir John 
Fenwick, who by an act of attainder was beheaded 27th of 
January, 1696, without a trial, for conspiracy in favour of James 11. 
Lady Fenwick made the greatest exertions to save her husband's 
life and became an object of much interest to the Jacobite Party. 
The cap is of the shape known as the ''commode" in William and 
Mary's reign (Figure ^S). 



Figure 88. 

Figure 89, 


Figure 90. 

Though the Massachusetts General Court admonished men 
against long hair and inveighed against excess in apparel in 1675, 
the laws in this direction were dropping into disuse in many districts. 
In the same year the grand jury threatened the selectmen of Ded- 
ham with prosecution for their neglect in enforcing the sumptuary 
statutes. These worthy burghers did not relish the work "of strip- 
ping silken hoods and ribbands from irate dames and of arraigning 
the great boots of dandies. There is no record to show that they 
heeded the mandate of the grand jury." 

The inventories in Boston prove that sumptuous dress was in 
fashion notwithstanding the written laws against it. Robert Rich- 


bell, in 1682, leaves two silver hilted rapiers and a belt worth ;^i2. 
His wardrobe contained a satin coat with gold flowers, and blue 
breeches, £/\.\ a stuff suit with lace, several other suits, all accom- 
panied by seven cravats and seven pairs of ruffles and ribbons, valued 
at £t. 

Periwigs came into fashion at the Restoration, 1660. Richbell 
must have vexed poor Judge Sewall sorely, for he was the possessor 
of three. 

We know that silver buttons were very common in the Colonies 
in the seventeenth century, and gold ones were also used. Captain 
Hudson, whose dress was modest in comparison with Richbell' s, 
had two suits equipped with them. In a trading stock, mention is 
made of 4 gross of silver and gold buttons valued at £3 12s. 
A curiosity of the time was "Beggars' velvet," 14 yards worth 21s. 

The long periwigs introduced into England from France in the 
latter part of Charles II's reign were promptly assumed by the women 
of fashion, together with the plumed hats of the same period. Pepys 
records the fact thus: 

"Walking in the gallery of Whitehall, I find the Ladies of Honour 
dressed in their riding garbs, with coats and doublets with deep 
skirts, just for all the world like men's, and their doublets buttoned 
up the breast, with periwigs and hats on, that only for a long petti- 
coat dragging under their men's coats, no body would take them for 
women on any point whatever, which was an odd sight and a sight 
that did not please me." 

About 1680, the long straight coats, which took the fickle 
fancy of Charles II for a time, were introduced into New England. 
They were made without a collar and were worn with a neck-cloth 
which fastened with a silver buckle under the hair in the back. 
Specimens of this fashion are given in Figures 137, 138, photographed 
from the original garments in the South Kensington Museum. They 
belonged to Sir Thomas Isham (1657-1681), third baronet, who 


was born at Lamport in Nottinghamshire. When still a boy he wrote 
a diary in Latin, by the command of his father, which gives a vivid 
picture of the everyday doings of a family of the period. This diary 
was translated and privately printed (1875) by the Rev. Robert 
Isham, rector of Lamport, where the original is still preserved. Isham 
succeeded to the Baronetcy in 1679. He is described as a young 
gentleman of great expectations. Figure 137 represents the suit of 
light brocade prepared for his wedding, which he never wore, as he 
died after a brief illness on the day fixed for the ceremony. 

Weedon again records: "In the inventories of women, house-linen 
generally formed an important part. Mistress Anne Hibbins in 
1656 had relatively more of the luxuries her sex cherishes in all periods. 
A gold wedding ring at i6s., a ring with a diamond at 8s., a 'taffaty' 
cloak at {^2 los., a black satin doublet at los., a green wrought cup- 
board cloth with silk fringe at 15s., 5 painted callico curtains and 
valiants at ;^i los., show that Anne loved the things hated by the 

"In William Paine's stock in 1660 were silk wares in two boxes 
at ;;^3i 14s. These occasional luxuries stand out conspicuously. 
Usually the assorted merchandise of the traders is in solid wares 
and goods for the everyday use of everyday people. The women 
selected them carefully and conscientiously. In 1647 one writes: 
'She have three peeces of stuf, but I think there is but one of them 
yt you would like yrself . It is pretty sad stuf, but it have a thred of 
white in it; it is 3 quarters broad and ye priz is 5s. 6d ye yard.' "* 

Towards the close of the seventeenth century we note a tendency 
to display in all inventories and descriptions left by the wealthy 
colonists of New England, as well as those in the same period in 
Virginia, Maryland, and the Carolinas. It was the reign of William 
and Mary in England, and the Colonies were not subject to any form 
of oppression. Intercourse between the two countries was frequent, 

* Weedon's Economic History of New England. 

Figure 91. 

Figure 92. 

Figure 93. 

Figure 94. 


and every ship brought over comforts and luxuries, also fine clothes 
made by fashionable London tailors, wigs from the popular wig- 
makers, etc. It is quite safe to conclude that fashions in the Colonies 
were never more than a year behind those of old England. 

Children in the New England Colonies, as elsewhere at that time, 
were dressed as much like their parents as possible. The baby 
clothes of the seventeenth century were marvellous specimens of 
needlework. The earliest garments I have seen are the christening 
blanket, shirts, and mitts said to have been worn by Governor Brad- 
ford, of Plymouth, and now exhibited at Salem in the Essex Insti- 

A portrait of Robert Gibbs, aged four and a half, painted in Bos- 
ton in 1670, also one of John Quincy, at a little more than one year 
of age, painted in 1690, show the long hanging sleeves usually worn 
by children under ten years of age (Figure 39). There is also a por- 
trait of Jane Bonner at the age of eight, painted in 1700, which 
looks almost like a diminutive court lady, with stiff stomacher, ruffles 
of point-lace, and a necklace of pearls; in one hand a fan, a rose in 
the other.* 

New England by this time included New Hampshire and Maine, 
settled in 1623 by an English Company in search of gold, and Rhode 
Island, founded by Roger Williams in 1636. 

The attitude of the New England Colonists towards the Mother 
Church is not clearly outlined in all the authorities of the time; and, 
in order to prevent anachronisms in costuming a story of that period, 
it may be well to explain here that the emigrants who came over in 
1630 under Governor John Winthrop, and who the day before they 
embarked sent an address to the "rest of the brethren of the Church 
of England" calling the Church their "dear mother," had, notwith- 
standing their dutiful address, when they arrived in America, allowed 
a sense of freedom to overcome their allegiance, and, following the 

* Child Life in Colonial Days, by Mrs. Earle. 


example of the Pilgrims of Plymouth and the Puritans of Salem, 
established separate churches, choosing their own officers. The 
Plymouth settlers had not openly renounced the authority of the 
Church of England, but they had laid aside the established ritual. 
Endicott followed this example and organized the first New England 
Church at Salem. A few members of that Colony objected, but he 
had them arrested and sent to England. From that time (1630) 
Non-Conformist Churches were established in every New England 
settlement. A simple method of choosing their leaders was adopted. 
Each member wrote his vote on a piece of paper, stating the Lord 
moved him to think this man is fit to be pastor, and this one to be 
teacher. The first pastor thus chosen was Skelton, with Francis 
Higginson, whose journal is quoted on page 84, for teacher. The 
choice was confirmed by a number of the leading members of this 
Company laying their hands on them in prayer. 

With the disuse of the English ritual came the abandonment of the 
white surplice during the service, but the Geneva gown (Figures 148, 
149), or preaching gown as it was often called, was worn in the pulpit, 
not only by the Puritan Non-Conformists, but also by the Presbyte- 
rians, who adopted it even before they came to the Colonies. A 
close-fitting black cap or coif is seen in many of the pictures of New 
England divines. 

From "The Judicial History of Massachusetts" I have gleaned 
the following account of lawyers in the New England Colonies: 

"It was many years after the settlement of the Colony, before 
anything like a distinct class of Attorneys at Law was known. And 
it is doubtful if there were any regularly educated Attorneys who 
practiced in the Courts of the Colony at any time during its exist- 
ence. Several of the Magistrates, it is true, had been educated as 
Lawyers at home, but they were almost constantly in the magistracy, 
nor do we hear of their being ever engaged in the management of 
cases. If they made use of their legal acquirements, it was in aid 


of the great object which they had so much at heart — the estabhsh- 
ment of a rehgious Commonwealth, in which the laws of Moses were 
much more regarded as precedents than the decisions of Westminster 
Hall, or the pages of the few elementary writers upon the Common- 
law which were then cited in the English Courts. It was thus, 
therefore, that the clergy were admitted to such a direct participation 
in the affairs of the Government, and that to two of their number was 
committed the duty of codifying the laws by which the Common- 
wealth was to be governed thereafter. 

''There were Attorneys, it is true, and there were lawyers, and 
all the concomitant evils growing out of the bad passions involved 
in litigation, and there was a law against barratry, passed in 1641, 
because even then there was barratry practiced in the Courts. The 
profession seems to have now but little favor in the public mind, 
although for the first ten years of the Government there were no fees 
allowed to the 'patrons,' as they were called, who defended or aided 
parties in their suits." 

This statement explains the similarity in the dress of judges, 
governors, and clergymen of this period of colonial history, as will 
be noticed in the portraits of the day, given in Figures 91, 92, 94, 
and 149. 






with brief mention of 

the Walloons, Huguenots, and Swedes, as well as of the 

Quakers and German Settlers 

to which is added an account of the dress of English 

Lawyers in the Seventeenth Century 



The Old Man's Rehearsall, What Brave Days He Knew, 
A Great While Agone, When His Old Cap Was New. 

When this old cap was new, 

'Tis since two hundred yeere; 
No mahce then we knew, 

But all things plentie were: 
All friendship now decayes 

(Beleeve me, this is true). 
Which was not in those dayes 

When this old cap was new. 

Good hospitalitie 

Was cherisht then of many; 
Now poor men starve and die 

And are not helpt by any: 
For charitie waxeth cold. 

And love is found in few: 
This was not in time of old 

When this old cap was new. 

Where-ever you travel'd then, 

You might meet on the way 
Brave knights and gentlemen 

Clad in their countrey gray. 
That courteous would appeare, 

And kindly welcome you: 
No puritans then were 

When this old cap was new. 

Our ladies in those dayes 

In civil habit went. 
Broad-cloth was then worth prayse, 

And gave the best content; 
French fashions then were scorn'd, 

Fond fangles then none knew. 
Then modistie women adorn'd 

When this old cap was new. 


A man might then behold 

At Christmas, in each hall 
Good fires to curbe the cold, 

And meat for great and small; 
The neighbours were friendly bidden, 

And all had welcome true; 
The poore from the gates were not chidden 

When this old cap was new. 

Blacke-jackes to every man 

Were fiU'd with wine and beere; 
No pewter pot nor kanne 

In those days did appeare: 
Good cheare in a noble- man's house 

Was counted a seemely shew; 
We wanted no brawne nor sowse 

When this old cap was new. 

We took not such delight 

In cups of silver fine; 
None under the degree of a knight 

In plate drunke beere or wine: 
Now each mechanicall man 

Hath a cup-boord of plate, for a shew. 
Which was a true thing then 

When this old cap was new. 


The Dutch and English in New York, 
Long Island, the Jerseys, Delaware, 

and Pennsylvania 


Figure 95. 

A Dutch Colonist in New 


VEN in a study of costume it is difficult to draw 
a distinct line between the Dutch and English 
elements in the Colony of Manhattan. 

To an English seaman belongs the honour 
of discovery in 1609. When Henry Hud- 
son, sometimes called Hendrick (Figure 98), 
brought the first ship to the mouth of the 
river which bears his name, he was a navi- 
gator of experience, well known to the mer- 
chants of Holland, who on this occasion 
had engaged him to make the voyage, and 
it is likely that he had under him as many Dutch as English sailors 
in his ship, "The Half-Moon." After a few weeks spent in exploring 
the adjacent country, he returned with an enticing report of a great 
many fur-clad animals near the shore. The trading proclivities of 
the Dutch merchants were at once aroused and they hastened to 
send over men to establish trading posts. But the first Colonial 
settlement was in 1621, when the great West India Company was 
chartered by the States General of Holland and given the monopoly 
of the American tiade. 

Peter Minuit, who was appointed Governor in 1626, arrived with 
a large number of colonists, men, women, and children, with cattle 


and household goods. Many of this company were Walloons of 
French extraction whose forefathers had been driven from their 
homes in Flanders and Belgium during the Inquisition, and had 
afterward formed an industrious community in Holland. They 
were skilled in various trades and were a valuable acquisition to the 
new colony, but they do not appear to have worn a distinctive dress. 

In 1628 an act was passed in Holland giving to every man who 
raised a company of fifty colonists and brought them to America 
a large tract of land and the title of Patroon. In fact, many privi- 
leges were granted as an inducement to form a settlement in the 
. Colony, and the Patroons became very rich and very powerful. A 
thousand square miles were included in the estate of Patroon Van 
Rensselaer (Figure 141). Fine cattle were imported, fruits, wheat, 
rye, buckwheat, flax, and beans were cultivated. The religious 
toleration prevailing in this Colony induced men from New England 
to remove there, and the Huguenots from France also sought shelter 
from persecution in New Amsterdam, as the town was called under 
the Dutch supremacy (Figures 145, 146). 

In spite of the hardships they had endured before they reached 
the safe shelter of America, these people were distinguished for a 
happy, thrifty temperament and gentle manners, and knew many 
graceful accomplishments in the way of lace-making and embroidery, 
which they cheerfully taught to their neighbours. They are said 
to have been the first to weave carpets and hangings of odds and ends 
"V of material. They were also versed in the concoction of delicate 
coloured dyes, which they used for their garments and house decora- 

The Huguenots settled also in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, the 
Carolinas, and in Virginia, and their descendants have taken a con- 
spicuous part in the development of our country. 

Almost from the outset, Manhattan was a cosmopolitan com- 
munity, and costumes were as varied as the wonderful tulips in the 

Figure 96. 

Figure 97. 




Dutch gardens. As there were neither sumptuary laws nor rehgious 
restrictions to control the manner or material of dress, we find the 
prevailing fashions among the citizens, both Dutch and English, very 
elaborate. The mercantile spirit ever pervading New York prob- 
ably stimulated the wearing of fine clothes. 

We read of the stalwart Peter Stuyvesant, Governor of New 
Amsterdam for many years, that "he was never otherwise than fault- 
lessly dressed and always after the most approved European standard. 
A wide drooping shirt collar fell over a velvet jacket with slashed 
sleeves displaying full white linen shirt sleeves. His breeches were 
also slashed, very full and fastened at the knee by a handsome scarf 
tied in a knot,|and his shoes were ornamented with large rosettes."* 
The leg which he lost in battle was replaced by a wooden one with 
silver bands, which accounts for the tradition that he wore a silver 
leg. Mrs. Lamb, in her "History of New York," says of Governor 
Stuyvesant that "he had sterling excellence of character, but more 
knowledge than culture," also that "his whole heart and soul became 
interested in the country of his adoption. In bearing he seems 
to have been somewhat haughty and exacting. One of his contem- 
poraries recorded that, during his inauguration speech as Governor 
of New Amsterdam in 1647, he kept the people standing with their 
heads uncovered for more than an hour while he wore his chapeau, 
as if he were the Czar of Muscovy. Habitually he wore a close cap 
of black velvet on his dark hair, which imparted a still deeper shade 
to his dark complexion, and his stern mouth was not hidden by the 
slight mustache which he wore" (Figure 96). 

From the same authority we learn that Governor Stuyvesant's 
wife, Judith Bayard, "was a beautiful blonde and followed the French 
fashions in dress, displaying considerable artistic skill in the per- 
fection and style of her attire." Also that "the purity of morals 
and decorum of manners for which the Dutch were distinguished 

* History of New York, by Mrs. Lamb. 




had been ascribed to the happy influence of their women, who mingled 
in all the active affairs of life and were consulted with deferential 
respect." As early as 1640 we read of many richly furnished houses 
with well-kept gardens and choice conservatories in Colonial New 
York. Governor Schuyler called his town house ''White Hall," 
and he owned a beautiful country-seat in the neighbourhood, for 
which, it is said, he paid 6400 guilders in 1659. 

Markets were held every Saturday 
in 1656 and after, where laces, flax, 
linen, linsey-woolsey, duffels, etc., were 
sold by the farmers' wives. 

The annual Fair, or Kermiss, was 
an occasion of festivity which attracted 
the people in their holiday garments 
from the neighbouring villages. It was 
inaugurated on the 20th of October, 
1659, and usually lasted six weeks. 
The working garb of the Dutch peasant 
women consisted of a short woolen 
petticoat with a loose jacket of red 
cotton or blue Holland, a white ker- 
chief folded around the shoulders, and 
a close white cap. In Figure 100 a 
sketch is given in which the long white 
apron of coarse homespun linen is 
caught up with the petticoat for convenience. 

The Dutch women of the Manhattan Colony were marvellous 
housewives. They cDncocted medicines and distilled perfumes from 
the plants in their flourishing gardens. They instructed the maids 
in carding and weaving, for the woolen garments worn by the family, 
as well as the household linen and underwear, were usually made 
under the home roof. Moreover, they had a shrewd knowledge 


Figure ioo. 
A Dutch Woman in Working 
Dress (from a Contemporary Print, 
Middle of Seventeenth Certury). 




of mercantile pursuits and often carried on business for themselves 
and invested their savings in trading ventures. Their houses were 
scrupulously neat; white curtains usually hung in the leaden sashed 
windows, and pots of flowers stood on the ledges, while a great loom 
was placed under the sloping roof of the back stoop. Every family 
in the Colony made a coarse cloth called linsey-woolsey, the 
warp being of linen and the woof of 
wool, which they kept ready to be 
finished off by one of the itinerant 
weavers. About the middle of the 
seventeenth century we read of a rattle- 
watch dressed in a costume of blue 
cloth with facings of orange, and armed 
with lanterns, rattles, and long staffs. 
The duty of this company of watch- 
men was to patrol the town by day as 
well as by night. In the early days of 
the Colony a licensed herdsman was 
put in charge of all the cattle of the 
community. The distinctive badge of 
his office was a twisted cow's horn 
fitted with a mouth-piece suspended 
by a green cord across his shoulders. 
The ordinary working dress of a man 
was probably of homespun linsey- 
woolsey with hose of hand-knitted yarn. Monmouth hats of 
thrums were commonly worn in all the Colonies (Figure 3 7 J). 

Mrs. Van Rensselaer, in her "Goode Vrow of Mana-ha-ta," aptly 
describes the quaint costumes of the Dutch people in New York. 
We will borrow her description of Dutch babies. "Upon the birth 
of a child, the infant was wrapped in swaddling clothes and put 
into an elaborately embroidered pocket, which was trimmed with 

Figure 105. 
A Dutchman in Working Dress 
(from a Contemporary Painting, 
Middle of Seventeenth Century). 


frills of ribbon, the colour indicating the sex of the child. A tiny 
ruffled cap confined its ears closely to its head, and the baby was 
wrapped so firmly in its bands that it could move neither hand nor 
foot, and was laid in its cradle, or hung suspended on a nail in the 
wall without fear of its stirring from any position in which it might 
be placed. The birth of an infant was announced to the neighbours 
by hanging an elaborately trimmed pincushion on the knocker of 
the front door, the colour of which denoted the sex, blue indicating 
a boy and white a girl. This cushion was usually provided by the 
grandmother and was handed down as an heirloom from one genera- 
tion to another to serve for similar occasions." 

All authorities tell us of the many petticoats worn by a bride one 
over another, and of the bridal crown which in Holland was a token 
of the wealth of the family. It was made often of silver and adorned 
with jewels, but when the family was not rich, it was of pasteboard 
covered with embroidered silk. Only matrons wore coifs, and they 
varied with the rank and affluence of the wearer (Figures 121, 131). 

The inventory of the wife of a respectable and well-to-do Dutch 
settler in New Netherlands, Vrouentje Ides Stoffelsen, in 1641 con- 
tained a gold hoop ring, a silver medal and chain, and a silver under- 
girdle to hang keys on; a damask furred jacket, two black camlet 
jackets, two doublets, one iron-gray, the other black; a blue 
petticoat, a steel-gray lined petticoat, a black coarse camlet-lined 
petticoat, one of Harlem stuff, a little black vest with two sleeves, 
^ a pair of Damask sleeves, a reddish morning gown, not lined, four 
pairs of pattens, one of Spanish leather; a purple apron and four 
blue aprons, nineteen cambric caps and four linen ones, a fur cap 
trimmed with beaver, nine linen handkerchiefs trimmed with lace, 
two pairs of old stockings and three shifts. Pictures of fur-trimmed 
jackets and of fur caps are given in Figures 103, 106, no, in. 

Officials could easily be distinguished by their dress. The leather 
aprons worn by labourers and craftsmen were often dyed red, and 

i-lGURE Io6. 

Figure 107. 




^B^^ "^'^^r'^^^^^^m 

^^M^§^-  -5^^^ ^^^^^^^^^1 

■k|v, . "^^''^^II^^^^H 








1 •?,'>• VV;;r*;i - ■■■''W^'^^S^^ 

Figure 108. 

Figure 109. 

Figure ho. 




when the wearer was not at work, one corner was usually tucked 
under his belt. 

Different concoctions of bark taught them by the Indian squaws 
were used by the women to dye their homespun petticoats and short 
gowns (Figure 100). 

The caps, chatelaines, and gowns of the well-to-do matrons were 
of costly materials and invariably of bright colours. The garments 
of the men, too, were of satin, velvet, and silk, trimmed with lace and 
fur. Buttons and buckles were often of gold set with precious stones. 

The samare or loose jacket with "side laps" or skirts reaching 
to the knee, sometimes with elbow sleeves turned back and faced, 
was worn by the Dutch ladies over a waistcoat and petticoat. A 
picture of one trimmed with fur is given in Figure 103. The pre- 
vailing shapes of coats and hats were not unlike the English. Late 
in the seventeenth century coats had long wide tails with wide cuffs. 
Hats were large and low of crown (Figures 42, 104). 

Dr. Jacob de Eange and his wife (New York, 1682) left lists of 
their wardrobes which are documents of great value to a history 
of costume. 

One under petticoat with a body of red bay, 

One under petticoat, scarlet 

One Petticoat, red cloth with black lace 

One striped stuff petticoat with black lace 

Two coloured drugget petticoats with white linings, 

One coloured drugget petticoat with pointed lace. 

two coloured drugget petticoats with gray linings 

One black silk petticoat with ash gray silk lining, 

One potto-foo silk petticoat with black silk lining, 

One silk potoso-a-samare with lace, 

One tartanel samare with tucker 

One black silk crape samare with tucker 

Three flowered calico samares, 

Three calico nightgowns, one flowered, two red, 

One silk waistcoat, one caUco waistcoat 

One pair of bodice, 

Five pairs white cotton stockings, ^/^ 


Three black love hoods, 

One white love-hood 

Two pair sleeves with great lace 

Four cornet caps with lace 

One plain black silk rain cloth cap 

One black plush mask, 

Four yellow lace drowlas 

One embroidered purse with silver bugle and chain to the girdle, and silver 

hook and eye. 
One pair black pendants, gold nocks 

One gold boat, wherein thirteen diamonds & one white coral chain, 
One pair gold stucks or pendants each with ten diamonds. 
Two diamond rings. 
One gold ring with clasp beck 
One gold ring or hoop bound round with diamonds 

Dr. de Lange's wardrobe was abundant, but not so rich: 

One grosgrained cloak lined with silk, 
One black broadcloth coat. 
One black broadcloth suit. 
One coat lined with red serge 
One black grosgrained suit 
One coloured cloth waistcoat with silver buttons 
One coloured serge suit with silver buttons 
Three silk breeches 
Three calico breeches 
Three white breeches 

One pair yellow hand gloves with black silk fringe 
Five pairs white calico stockings 
/ One pair black worsted stockings 
One pair gray worsted stockings 
One fine black hat, one old gray hat, one black hat. 

When in 1664 the Enghsh sailed into the harbour and made 
bloodless conquest of the Colony, they introduced but few changes 
in the mode of living. In 1675 Manhattan was re- taken by the 
Dutch, and affairs of government and life went on as before for another 

"The colours in the Dutch gowns were almost uniformly gay — 
in keen contrast to the sad coloured garments of New England. 
We hear of Madam Cornelia de Vos in a green cloth petticoat, a 



red and blue 'Haarlamer' waistcoat, a pair of red and yellow sleeves, 
and a purple Tooyse' apron." 

Figure 121 shows a coif or cap worn en New Amsterdam. It 
is made of gray and white brocade and trimmed with silver lace 
of an elaboratif pgLtlift*n, -put owMSX across the top. Around the 

Figure 112. 

Figure 113. 


Figure 114. 

Figure 115. 

Jajnet JC . 

Figure 116. 

face is a plaited ruffle of lace held in place by three rows of silver 
wire run through the plaits. 

The children, too, were gaily dressed, as we can see in the Dutch 
contemporary portraits (Figures 108, 109, 132, and 133). 

A leading man of New Amsterdam, a burgomaster, had at the 
time of his death, near the end of the Dutch rule, this plentiful num- 

Figure 117. 

Figure 118. 


Figure 119. 

Figure 120. 

ber of substantial garments: A cloth coat with silver buttons, a 
stuff coat, cloth breeches, a cloth coat with gimp buttons, a black 
cloth coat, a silk coat, breeches and doublet, a silver cloth breeches 
and doublet, a velvet waistcoat with silver lace, a buff coat, with 
silk sleeves, three grass-green cloaks, several perukes, "tets and fox- 
tails after the genteelest fashion." 



One romantic element in the history of New Amsterdam not found 
in the other colonies is that of the pirates who carried on a vigor- 
ous business at sea and brought into the shops and markets many 
rich stuffs captured from the ships returning to England and France 

from the East Indies. The government 
made no effort to interfere with_ them, 
and sometimes, as in the case of Captain 
Kidd, these maritime marauders finally 
settled down and became respectable 
citizens. We are not surprised to read 
that Captain Kidd started housekeeping 
in New York with three hundred dollars' 
worth of plate. 

The English again conquered New 
Amsterdam and, under Sir Edward 
Andros, as Governor (Figure 97), it 
became an English colony, and was 
called New York in honour of the Duke 
of York, brother of Charles II. 

There were Dutch and English set- 
tlements likewise in Long Island, the Jerseys, and Delaware, 
more or less under the jurisdiction of the Governor of New York, 
where doubtless the costumes, like the customs, reflected both 

Figure 121. 
Coif of a Dutch Matron 
(from the Original Garment, late 
Seventeenth Century). 


In 1638 a colony of Swedes was sent out to America with instruc- 
tions to settle the land not belonging to the Dutch and English. Select- 
ing a spot on the west shore of the Delaware, they built a fort and 
called the settlement New Sweden. In 1656 the Dutch sent a com- 
pany from New Amsterdam to establish a trading post on the Dela- 
ware, and they founded the town which is now known as New Castle. 

Figure 122. 

Figure 123. 

Figure 124. 

Figure 125. 




Frequent skirmishes followed between the Swedish and the Dutch 
settlers (Figures 95, 106, in, 123, 124, also 100, 105), and finally 
the English claimed, by virtue of a patent from Charles II in 1664, 
all the land from the west side of Connecticut River to the east side 
of Delaware Bay, which was named for Thomas West, Lord Dela- 
ware, one of the early Governors of Virginia; and thus all the col- 
onies of America came under English rule. This was in the latter 
part of the reign of Charles 11. 

In Figures i, 68, and 69 we have the characteristic dress of the 
English gentleman and gentlewoman of this date, and in Figures 
10 1 and 102 the typical costume of a Dutch Patroon and his wife. 


When the Quakers came to Pennsylvania with William Penn, 
they had not adopted any distinctive style of dress. From choice 
only were the colours rather grave than gay, for no strict rules had 
been formulated at this time (1682) prohibiting the use of bright 
colours or trimmings by the Quakers. The sash of sky-blue silk 
worn by Penn, either as a badge of office or mark of his rank, is an 
agreeable note of colour. This sash is described as made of silk 
network and as being of the size and style of that of a military officer. 
In an old English publication we read: "This sash is now in the 
possession of Thomas Kett, Esq., of Seething Hall, near Norwich." * 

Shoe and stock buckles were usually of silver, and the ruffles 
at neck and wrist were of linen, either plainly hemmed or trimmed 
with rich lace. Heels were rather high, the toes of the shoes square.] 
A gentleman of our day would seem to modem eyes very gaily dressed 
in such a costume as the first followers of the benign Founder of 
Philadelphia habitually wore (Figures 143, 144). 

However, a certain neatness and staidness distinguished both 
the men and the women from the earliest days of this Quaker colony, 

* Hone's Every Day Book. 



although family portraits still in possession of their descendants 
prove that gowns of blue and red satin were not infrequently worn 
by members of the Society of Friends previous to 1700. There was 
nothing of the so-called Quaker simplicity about Penn's household. 
Pennsbury, his beautiful manor on the banks of the Delaware, 
was furnished and maintained on a substantial and most liberal scale. 
Costly silver, fine china, rich curtains and rugs made it a fitting 
abode for a royal governor. The twelve-oared barge in which Penn 
usually made his journeys to town was also stately and imposing. 

Although the hats of the Quakers (Figures 117, 118, and 143) 
were of a shape similar to those worn by King Charles and his cour- 
tiers, they were put on the head with a certain rigidity, and the fact 
that they were never doffed in deference to rank or the fair sex may 
have added a touch of grimness and austerity to the expression of the 
broad brims in striking contrast to the graceful plumed hats worn 
by cavaliers and used by them to express every degree of courtesy. 

" The Quaker loves an ample brim, 
A hat that bows to no salaam." 

In 1693 Penn, with the welfare of the province always in mind, 
put into his book, "Some fruits of Solitude," a message of counsel 
in matters of dress. "Choose thy cloaths by thine own eye, not 
anothers. The more simple and plain they are, the better. Neither 
unshapely nor fantastical, and for use and decency, not for Pride." 

Mrs. Gummere, who has made an exhaustive study of Quaker 
dress, says that green aprons were so m^<^h worn by Friends at this 
period as to be regarded "almost as badges of Quakerism"; also 
that Friends not only called their cloaks by the popish title "Car- 
dinal," but wore them in red and all bright colours. 

"Wigs were as generally worn by genteel Friends as by other 
people" (Figures 13I1. and 135). This was the more surprising 
because they religiously professed to exclude all superfluities, and 




yet nothing could have been offered to the mind as so essentially- 
useless."* In the year 1685, William Penn wrote to his steward, 
James Harrison, requesting him to allow Governor Lloyd, his 
deputy, the use of his wigs in his absence. 

In England there were but few striking changes in the fashion- 
able dress of the upper classes from the end of the reign of Charles 
II to the end of the reign of William and Mary. 

The straight square-cut coats were worn opening over waistcoats 
of equal length reaching to the knees ; the breeches were held in place 
beneath the knee by long stockings, which were drawn up over 
them ; long neck-cloths of Flanders or Spanish point-lace were used ; 
the shoes, the upper leather of which rose considerably above the 
instep, were fastened by a small strap over it, passing through a 
buckle placed rather on one side ; the hat was bent up or cocked 
all round and trimmed with feathers (Figures 118, 119, 120); 
fringed gloves and monstrous periwigs, which it was the fashion to 
comb publicly, completed the habit of the beaux of London in the 
reign of William and Mary. 

"The ladies seem to have adopted some of the Dutch fashions," 
says a contemporary writer. "The stomacher appeared more formally 
laced. The sleeves of the gown became straight and tight, and ter- 
minated with a cuff at the elbow in imitation of those of the male 
sex. Rows of flounces and furbelows, or falbalas, bordered the 
petticoat, which was disclosed by the gown being looped completely 
back. The head-dress was exceeding high in front, being com- 
posed of a cap, the lace of which rose in three or more tiers 
almost to a point above the forehead, th e hajr being combed up 
and disposed in rows of wavy curls one above the other (Figure 
38). Hair powder was used occasionally, but not generally. Muffs 
were carried by both sexes. They were very small and orna- 
mented often with large bows of ribands. 

* The Quaker : A Study in Costume, by Amelia Mott Gummere. 


"The dress of the commonalty underwent no change" (Figures 
40, 41) * 

We find the same costumes in the colonies. In Tod's "History 
of New York" is the following description of the fashions about 
1695 (reign of William and Mary): 

"Broadway on a Sabbath morning, as the bells were ringing 
for Church, must have presented an animated and even brilliant 
spectacle far exceeding that which modern beaux and belles pre- 
sent. In these days, however, both ladies and gentlemen shone 
rich as Emperor moths. These worshippers, whom we imagine 
ourselves watching, come in groups moving down the wide shaded 
street, some entering Trinity, others turning into Garden Street and 
passing into the new Dutch Church on that thoroughfare. Both 
places of worship are equally fashionable. The Dutch Church 
is the wealthier, but then Trinity has the Governor's pew, and the 
prestige that comes of State patronage and emolument. Let us 
describe, as showing the fashions of the day, the dress of this group 
bearing down abreast of the church yard. They are Nicholas Bay- 
ard and Madam Bayard, William Merritt, Alderman and Madam 
Merritt, and Isaac de Riemer. Bayard, who has been Secretary 
of the Province, Mayor, and Colonel of the City Militia, wears a 
cinnamon coloured cloth coat with skirt reaching quite to the knee, 
embroidered four or five inches deep with silver lace, and lined with 
sky-blue silk. His waistcoat is of red satin woven in with gold. His 
breeches, of the same colour and material as his coat, are trimmed 
with silver at the pockets and knees. Dove coloured silk stock- 
ings and low shoes adorned with large silver buckles cover his nether 
extremities. His hat, of black felt, has a wide flapping brim and 
is adorned with a band of gold lace. His full-bottomed wig is plenti- 
fully powdered with starch finely ground and sifted, to which burnt 
alabaster or whiting has been added to give it body, and is scented 

* Knight's Pictorial History of England. 




with ambergris. A steinkirk of fine muslin encircles his neck, the 
ends of which are laced and tucked into his expansive shirt bosom. 
The latter is of fine holland adorned with colebatteen ruffles, the 
waistcoat being left open to better display them. He carries a cane, 
too, with a; gold head elegantly engraved in cypher and crown, but 
the sword, with its gay sword knot, then an almost indispensable 
adjunct to a gentleman's dress, in deference to the day has been 
left behind. The two other gentlemen are dressed much in the 
same style except that there is a pleasing variety in style and colour. 
Merritt, for instance, wears a salmon coloured silk drugget coat, 
with silver brocade waiitcoat and small clothes, while De Riemer 
has a sagathie cloth ^fat with waistcoat and breeches of drap du 

Figure 134. 

Figure 135. 

Figure 136. 

Periwig of Charles II, 

Periwig of William III, 

Campaign Wig, 

' 1660. 



"But if the gentlemen are thus brilliant, what is to be said of the 
ladies, who are apt to lead the sterner sex in matters of personal 
adornment? Instead of a bonnet. Madam Bayard wears a 'front- 
age ' (commode), a sort of head-dress formed of rows of plaited mus- 
lin stiffened with wire one above the other, and diminishing in size 
as they rise. She, too, wears the steinkirk, or neck-cloth. The 
bodice of her purple and gold atlas gown is laced over very tight 
stays, and the gown itself is open in front to display the black 
velvet petticoat edged with two silver orrices and high enough to 


show the green silk stockings and beautiful embroidered shoes of 
fine morocco." 

"My high commode, my damask gown, 
My lac'd shoes of Spanish leather. 
A silver bodkin in my head, 
And a dainty plume of feather." 

— "Young Maid's Portion." 


Very little is said by the early authorities on the costumes of 
lawyers and judges in the Colonies, but there are numerous indica- 
tions of the fact that scarlet, the judicial colour in England, was 
worn on the Colonial bench, and Martin, in his "History of the 
Bench and Bar in Pennsylvania," states that undoubtedly the courts 
were conducted with much of the state and formality of the Mother 
Country. It will be interesting in a study of the dress of the day to 
recall the complicated costumes of the English law courts, although 
the pomp and display therein detailed were not even possible in the 
enforced simplicity of the early Colonies. In New England, Vir- 
ginia, Maryland, the Barbadoes, and the Carolinas, as well as later 
in New York and even in Pennsylvania, the forms and ceremonies 
of government were as similar to the English code as circumstances 

In the Southern Colonies especially it is probable that much for- 
mality was observed in the dress of lawyers and judges; at all events 
we do not read of any departure from the English methods of pro- 
cedure in documents of the Colonies. 

In a historical sketch of the English law courts by Inderwick,* 
we find a description of the gradual changes in legal dress 
and customs in England during the Colonial period. In the 

* The King's Peace, by F. A. Inderwick. 







time of Charles I questions relating to the attire of the common- 
law judges were involved in so much doubt and surrounded with 
so many contradictory precedents and traditions that the judges re- 
solved to simplify matters by conference. The result of their delib- 
erations was a decree dated June 6, 1635, which, although it could 
not have direct application to the Colonial courts in every particu- 
lar, throws important light on the ceremonies and etiquette to which 
every English lawyer of that date was accustomed. We therefore 
quote the extract from State Papers given by Mr. Jeffreson : * 

"The judges in Term time are to set at Westminster in the Courts, 
in their black or violet gowns, whether they will, and a hood of the 
same colour put over their heads, and their mantles above all; the 
end of the hood hanging over behind; wearing their velvet caps, 
and coyfes of lawn, and cornered cap. The facing of their gowns, 
hoods and man^js, is with changeable taffata; which they must 
begin to wear wKi Ascension-day, being the last Thursday in Easter 
Term, and ccmlnue those robes until the feast of Simon and Jude. 
And Simon and Jude's day, the judges begin to wear their robes 
faced with white furs of minever; and so continue that facing until 
Ascension-day again. 

"Upon all Holydays, which fall in the Term and are Hall dayes, 
the judges sit in scarlet faced with Taffata, when Taffata facing is 
to be worn, and with furs, or minever, when furs or minever are to 
be worn. 

"Upon the day when the Lord Mayor of London comes to West- 
minster to take his oath, that day the judges come in scarlet, and 
upon the fifth of November, being Gunpowder Day, unless it be 
Sunday, the judges go to Westminster Abbey in scarlet to hear the 
sermon, and after go to sit in Court and the two Lords Chief Justices, 
and the Lord Chief Baron, have their collars of S.S. above their man- 
tles for those two days. 

* A Book about Lawyers, by John Cordy Jeffreson. 


"When the Judges go to St. Paul's to the sermon, upon any Sunday 
in the Term time, or to any other pubhc church, they ought to go 
in scarlet gownes; the two Lords Chief Justices and the Lord Chief 
Baron in their velvet and satin tippets; and the hood is to be pinned 
abroad towards the left shoulder. And if it be upon any grand 
dayes, as upon the Ascension-day, Mid-summer day, All Hallows- 
day, or Candlemas-day, then the two Lords Chief Justices and the 
Lord Chief Baron wear collars of S.S. with long scarlet casting-hoods 
and velvet and satin tippets. 

"At all times when the judges go to the Council-table, or to any 
assembly of the Lords in the afternoons in Term time, they ought 
to go in their robes of violet or black, faced with taffata, according 
as the time of wearing them doth require ; and with tippets and scar- 
let casting-hoods, pinned near the left shoulder, unless it be Sunday 
or Holyday, and then in scarlet. In the circuit the judges go to church 
upon Sundays in the fore-noon in scarlet gownes, hoods, and man- 
tles, and sit in their caps. And in the afternoons to the church in 
scarlet gownes, tippet and scarlet hood, and sit in their cornered caps. 

"And the first morning at the reading of the commissions, they 
sit in scarlet gownes, with hoods and mantles, and in their coyfs 
and cornered caps. And he that gives the charge, and delivers the 
gaol, doth, or ought for the most part, to continue all that assizes 
in the same robes, scarlet gown, hood, and mantle. But the other 
judge, who sits upon the Nisi Prius, doth commonly (if he will) 
sit only in his scarlet robe, with tippet and casting-hood; or if it 
be cold he may sit in gown and hood, and mantle. 

"And when the judges in the Circuit go to dine with the shireeve, 
or to a publick feast, then in scarlet gowns, tippets, and scarlet 
hoods; or casting off their mantle, they keep on their hood. 

"The scarlet casting-hood is to be put above the tippet, on the 
right side, for Justice Wolmsley and Justice Warburton, and all the 
judges before, did wear them in that manner, and did declare that 



by wearing the hood on the right side, and above the tippet, was 
signified more temporal dignity; and by the tippet on the left side 
only, the judges did resemble priests. 

"Whenever the judges or any of them are appointed to attend 
the king's majesty, they go in scarlet gowns, tippets, and scarlet 
casting-hoods; either to his own presence, or at the council-table. 

"The judges and sergeants when they ride circuit, are to wear 
a sergeant's coat of good broad-cloth, with sleeves, and faced with 
velvet. They have used of late to lace the sleeves of the sergeant's 
coat thick with lace and they are to have a sumpter, and ought to 
ride with six men at the least. 

"Also the first Sunday of every term, and when the judges and 
sergeants dine at my Lord Mayor's, or the shireeves, they are to wear 
their scarlets, and to sit at Paul's with caps at the sermon. 

"When the judges go to any reader's feast, they go upon the 
Sunday or Holyday in scarlet; upon other days in violet, and the 
sergeants go in violet, with scarlet hoods. 

"When the judges sit upon Nisi Prius in Westminster, or in Lon- 
don they go in violet gowns, and scarlet casting-hoods, and tippets, 
upon Holydays in scarlet." 

"This order," Jeffreson says, "deserves attentive perusal, for it 
throws light upon departed manners, exemplifies the obsolete pomp 
of the law, and recalls the days when the humblest judge of assize 
was required to ride circuit with an imposing body-guard." 

The author of "The King's Peace" records that "in the matter of 
courts, of officers, and of costumes, the judges of the Common- 
wealth differed but little from their predecessors, except that the 
King's Bench was called the Upper Bench, a name by which it also 
seems to have been occasionally known in previous reigns. The 
Keepers of the Great Seal wore a robe described by Whitelock, the his- 
torian of the epoch, as a ' handsome velvet gown ' closely resembling 
that worn by Lord Bacon in the portrait in Lord Verulam's collection." 




The same authority gives the modification of legal dress which 
followed towards the close of the seventeenth century. "The Com- 
mon Law judges wore their scarlet, as we know from certain peti- 
tions presented to the Protector, praying that the judges who went 
circuit in their scarlet, and were at times escorted by a troop of horse, 
should no longer be permitted to 'affright the country with their 
blood-red robes and their state and pomp.' Sergeants wore their 

coifs and striped gowns; but the 
Bar, under the rank of sergeant, 
wore their own hair trimmed in 
such device as was prescribed by 
fashion and not forbidden by the 
regulations of the Inn to which 
they belonged. The head-dress 
of the judges, the sergeants, and 
the Bar had from the very earliest 
periods been fixed and determined. 
The judges wore the coif and vel- 
vet cap over their own hair, and 
with their beards and moustaches 
as they thought fit. Sergeants 
wore the coif, while counsel wore 
a serious dress of the costume 
of the period. Ruffs were in fash- 
ion during the reigns of Elizabeth 
and James I, when judges and counsel wore them. These were sup- 
planted by a broad lace collar, which was in fashion under Charles I, 
and by white linen bands under the Commonwealth. In the reign of 
Charles II the monarch and people of position assumed the periwig, a 
fashion imported from France, where it was patronized by Louis XIV, 
and gradually left off wearing beards and moustaches. Some of the 
judges, but not all, accordingly wore the judicial robes with the 

Figure 142. 
Sergeant-at-law, Reign of Charles II. 




periwig in place of the coif; and this diversity of head-dress among 
the judges continued during the reign of James II, when Sir Thomas 
Street, one of the judges who was in office in 1688, still wore his own 
hair with the coif and the black velvet cap. The Bar, being younger 
than the judges, took more generally to the prevailing fashion, and 
wore first the long and then the short wig. In course of time, under 
William III, all classes of the community, including bishops and 
clergymen, wore the long or the short 
wig, judges and counsel being included 
in the number; and the sergeants, to 
indicate their status, wore a black 
patch on a white silk ground, fastened 
on to their wigs as a substitute for the 
black cap and the white coif. The 
lawyers, however, who followed the 
public taste in assuming periwigs, failed 
to follow it in leaving them ofiF. The 
bishops, who continued to wear their 
wigs long after the public had ceased to 
do so, gave up the practice some fifty 
years ago; but the judges and counsel 
have continued till to-day the bands of 
the Commonwealth along with the head- 
dress of the Restoration, which is no 
more any portion of ancient or tradi- 
tionary legal costume than were the ruffs of Queen Elizabeth or the 
lace collars of Charles I. And thus it happens that, by a very per- 
versity of conservatism, that head-dress, which in the seventeenth 
century was worn alike by kings and by courtiers, by clergymen and 
by soldiers, by Jeffreys on the Bench and by Titus Gates in the dock, 
has become in the nineteenth century the distinct characteristic of 
the advocate and the judge. King James I, interfering with the 

Figure 147. 
Sergeant-at-law, Reign of James II. 


Inns of Court, as with most other of his subjects' affairs, had ordered 
that barristers were not to come to the hall of their Inn with their 
cloaks, boots, swords, spurs, or daggers, showing their ordinary 
habits were those of the gentlemen of the period, and further that 
none were to be admitted into the Society who were not gentlemen 
by descent. These directions were repeated by Charles I, and seem 
to have been very generally followed, and it was not, I conceive, till 
the middle of King Charles' reign, if not later, that counsel under 
the rank of sergeants, when employed in court, took to wearing silk 
or stuff gowns, and thus became 'gentlemen of the long robe.' " 

I feel obliged to quote these items of legal costume and customs 
in full, not being able to determine with exactness how nearly they 
were followed in the Colonies in the seventeenth century. In Figure 
127 a picture from a contemporary print is given of a lawyer in his 
wig and parliament. The illustrations (Figures 142 and 147) are 
also taken from authorities of the time. Much has been said in 
print of the circuit and the county courts. It is well known that all 
the pomp and dignity were observed that those occasions permitted 
in the Colonies, but very grave offences and questions of State were 
carried before the court in England. 



The Mennonites, or German Quakers, who settled Germantown 
in Pennsylvania under the hospitable encouragement of Penn (1683), 
were speedily followed to America by other German sects from the 
Palatinate or the low countries on the Rhine. They were the last 
people to found colonies in the New World, for as a race they had 
but little of the spirit of adventure in their composition. 

Well equipped with implements for farming, the emigrants care- 
fully selected the fertile country near the Blue Mountains, and, once 
established as colonists, they were joined by large numbers of their 

i-IGURE 148. 

JlGUKE 149. 

Figure 150. 

Figure 151. 



countrymen. In 1703, it is said there were nearly three hundred 
thousand Germans in Penn's province. At the time of the Revolu- 
tion they warmly supported the struggle for independence- 
Coming chiefly from the low countries along the Rhine, their 
costumes were not especially picturesque, but they were distinctive 
in character, and the fashion of them changed less frequently than 
in some other parts of Germany, so that for many years after their 
arrival in America they wore the quaint caps and head-dresses, 
clumsy boots, and odd looking cloaks of an earlier period.* 

Not only in Pennsylvania, but in New York, Maryland, New Jer- 
sey, Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia, the Germans also founded 
pastoral settlements. 

The clothing of the new settlers consisted of "home-made cloth, 
woven from tow, made from flax grown on the virgin soil." Their 
costume did not admit of much change, and the men were dressed 
chiefly in shirt, trousers, and coat. In warm weather the shirt and 
trousers sufficed; in cold weather an additional top coat was worn 
for protection. The women wore short full skirts with dark bodices 
laced over coarse white shifts. | Shoes were made to last a long time, 
and were worn only when absolutely necessary. Cobblers travelled 
through the country among the settlers and mended their shoes, 
in that way procuring a livelihood. 

There were various sects among the German colonists: The 
Dunkers, whose doctrine was very much the same as the Mennonites, 
who still wear a peculiar costume; the Schoenkfelders from Silesia, 
who emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1734; the Moravians, who came 
to Georgia in 1735 and founded in 1790 a large and important settle- 
ment at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where they still practice the pic- 
turesque rites of their doctrine. The Moravians have many interest- 
ing customs, but their costume is decidely conservative, and resembles 
the accepted Quaker dress in sobriety of colour and simplicity of cut. 

* See Trachten der Volker, by A. Kretschmer. 


1 64 


A Moravian community was divided into a number of choirs or 
bands. One object carefully kept in view was the avoidance of 
all unnecessary adornment in dress. Among other things, jewelry, 
lace, parasols, and fans were forbidden. The bonnets worn by 
the Sisters were usually of white straw with plain ribbon, the colour 
of which formed the distinction of the choir. White was worn by 
the widows, blue by the married women, rose colour by the unmar- 
ried, and red by girls from fourteen to 
eighteen years of age. The male choirs 
were not distinguished by any badges, but 
they all wore very simple clothing, generally 
gray or brown. Mourning was never worn, 
as it was thought that death, or "returning 
to one's native land," as Zinzendorf called 
it, was not a proper subject for sorrow. 
Two curiously fashioned palls used for 
the funerals of children are still preserved 
with the archives of the Moravians at Lititz. They are made of 
white damask linen and the inscription: 

"Jesus er Mein Heiland lebt 
Ich wird auch 
Das Leben schauen," 

is embroidered thereon in ribbon gathered in a scallop pattern to 
form letters. They are bound around the edges with a broader 
ribbon — pink for the girls and blue for the boys. Similar palls were 
used for adults. A minute pillow used at infant baptisms is also 
to be seen. A wedding dress is still preserved of white satin trimmed 
with gauze roses and ribbon- work like the bag in Figure 153. It 
has a short waist and little puffed sleeves and was worn about 1790. 
The lady who wore it had also a white gauze shawl made to wear 
three-cornered-wise, with only one corner embroidered in an elab- 
orate pattern, which she wore with a black velvet dress. She is 

Figure 152. 
Moravian Coif (from an 
Original Garment). 

Figure 153 

Figure 154. 

Figure 155. 

Figure 156. 




described as attending church in this garb, accompanied by a page 
carrying her train and a foot-stove. 

A portrait of Count Zinzendorf and also one of the Countess 
are in possession of a direct descendant in Philadelphia. The wife 
wears a close-fitting cap with ribbons of blue (the distinctive trim- 
ming for a Moravian matron) (Figure 151) tied under her chin. 
The unmarried women were called Sisters. They dressed usually 
in white with a "nice handkerchief" pinned about the shoulders 
and a close-fitting cap with rose-pink ribbons, the hair all brushed 
back out of sight. 

Figure 157. 

Figure 158. 

Moravian Cap of Lawn Worn over the Coif. 

Before the Revolution, earthenware, paper, and linen were made 
at the cloister at Ephrata, Pennsylvania. In the Sister-House there 
may be seen at the present day the blocks of wood used instead of 
irons for smoothing linen. In Figures 155 and 156 are shown pic- 
tures of two white satin note cases, which were worked before 1790 
for birthday gifts, each intended to hold a roll of bank-notes. The 
initials are done in hair and the flowers in silk. 

Count Lemcke, the friend of Zinzendorf, brought over the first 
piano used in America. It was small enough to be carried under 
the arm, and he is said to have carried it with him when invited 
to evening parties. This piano may now be seen in the Smithsonian 
Institute at Washington. 


Count Zinzendorf, the promoter and founder of the Pennsyl- 
vania settlement of Moravians, lived for a time in Philadelphia, and, 
according to his portraits, dressed simply in the fashion of his day 
in Germany. The long coat with many buttons and no collar or flaps, 
white shirt sleeves gathered into a band at the wrist, and a cravat 
or stock of plain white linen remind one of the portraits of William 
Penn about fifty years earlier. A portrait of him in a preaching 
gown is given in Figure 148. 

The dress of the Seventh Day Baptists is peculiar and interesting. 
It consisted of a sort of cassock over which hung a stole, both back 
and front, and a close-fitting hood with large capes, or flaps. A 
picture of one of these hoods may be seen in a scholarly book, "The 
German Pietists in Provincial Pennsylvania," by Mr. Julius F. 
Sachse, where the curious customs of the German religious com- 
munities before 1700 are graphically described. 

J'lGUKL l^(.). 




1 700- 1 800 

During the Time of 

Queen Anne, George I, II, and III of England, 

Presidents Washington and Adams 

of the United States 


"The fickle head-dress sinks, and now aspires 
A towery front of lace on branching wires; 
The curling hair in tortur'd ringlets flows, 
Or round the face in labour'd order grows. 
How shall I soar, and on unwearying wing 
Trace varying habits upward to their spring? 
What force of thought, what numbers can express 
The inconstant equipage of female dress? 
How the strait stays the slender waist constrain. 
How to adjust the mantua's sweeping train? 
What fancy can the petticoat surround. 
With the capacious hoop of whalebone bound? 
But stay presumptuous Muse! nor boldly dare 
The toilette's sacred mysteries declare; 
Let a just distance be to beauty paid; 
None here must enter but the trusty maid. 
Should you the wardrobe's magazine rehearse, 
And glossy manteaus rustle in thy verse; 
Should you the rich brocaded suit unfold. 
Where rising flowers grow stiff with frosted gold, 
The dazzling Muse would from her subject stray, 
And in a maze of fashions lose her way." 

— " The Fan:' 


Women's Dress 

1 700-1 800 

"SnuflE or the fan supply each pause of chat." 

N THE first half of the eighteenth century, which 
was the most prosperous and comfortable period 
of Colonial life in America, fashion was a con- 
spicuous element. 

Merchant ships from China and the Indies 
brought to all the seaport towns rich silks, 
tissues, and embroidered gauzes, as well as 
beautiful china and tapestry. These im- 
ported stuffs were known by odd sounding 
names, corruptions of the places of their 
manufacture. Thus, for instance, we have 
Nankeen, made in Nankin, China; and calico, 
originally a silken material first imported from Calicut in India. 
Uninterrupted-^intercourse with England and France enabled 
the Colonists to keep up with the prevailing fashions in dress, which 
at that time became most whimsical and capricious. But as there 
were many people in England who, like Mrs. Hardcastle, "only en- 
joyed London at second-hand," and depended on the letters of their 
friends for descriptions of the fashions, so many of the leading families 
in the Colonies also living remote from seaport towns were content 
to follow at a distance the bewildering transitions prescribed by 
la mode. 


Figure 161. 
A Sacque, Early Eight- 
eenth Century. 


Before the days of fashion plates, jointed dolls were dressed in 
the latest style and sent from Paris to London every month. Not 
quite so often, but at regular intervals, similar dolls were sent to the 
Colonies. The mantua-makers of the day copied them for their 
fashionable patrons. In "The Spectator," the anxiety caused by 
the delay in the arrival of one of these dolls in London is described: 
"I was almost in despair of ever seeing a model from the dear country, 
when last Sunday I overheard a lady in the next pew to me whisper . 
to another that at the Seven Stars in King Street, Covent Garden, 
there was a Mademoiselle completely dressed just come from Paris. 
I was in the utmost impatience during the remaining part of the 
service, and as soon as ever it was over, having learnt the milliner's 
address, I went directly to her house in King Street, but was told 
that the French lady was at a person of quality's in Pall Mall and 
would not be back again until late that night. I was therefore obliged 
to renew my visit this morning and had then a full view of the dear 
puppet from head to foot. You cannot imagine how ridiculously 
I find we have all been trussed up during the war and how infinitely 
the French dress excels ours." 

This puppet, we are told, was dressed "in a cherry coloured gown 
and petticoat with a short 'working' apron, her hair was cut and 
divided very prettily with several ribbons stuck up and down in it. 
The milliner assured me that her complexion was such as is worn 
by all the ladies of the best fashion in Paris. Her head was extremely 
high. Her necklace was of an immoderate length, being tied be- 
fore in such a manner that the two ends hung down to her girdle." 
Though the fashion dolls were longer in their voyage to the Colonies, 
they were apparently expected with the same eagerness described 
by the London satirist. Could the representative of her tribe whose 
portrait may be seen in Figures i66 and 167 speak, she would surely 
tell us that she received a warm welcome and was entertained by 
the people of "the best fashion in Philadelphia." Her costume 




proclaims that she arrived during the reign of George I, probably 
about 1720. Mrs. Vanderbilt, in her "Social History of Flat bush," 
says: "We have a vivid remembrance of the old age of one of these 
fashion-dolls which had been sent from Paris to a fashionable mantua- 
maker in New York. When the dress was changed as to style, the 
dressmaker sold the doll to one of her customers, and 'Miss Nancy 
Dawson' passed into the obscurity of humbler dollies, who had never 
been sent as ministers plenipotentiary from the Court of Fashion." 



"Tho' stiff with hoop 
And armed with ribs of whale. 

" Invention we bestow, 
To change a flounce, or add a furbelow." * 

Queen Anne came to the throne of England in 1702, and for the 
first eight or nine years of her reign, dress differed but little from 
that introduced under William and Mary (Figures 38, 42), but in 
1 71 1 two striking changes are noted. The extravagantly high head- 
dress and cap, the "tower and commode," so scathingly satirized 
in "The Spectator," gave way to a simple arrangement of natural 
hair, noticeable in the portraits by Knellerf of Queen Anne and the 
ladies of her Court. This change is applauded by Addison, who 
says: "I remember several ladies who were once near seven feet 
high, that at present want some inches of five." 

We read that these gigantic commodes held their place at Ver- 
sailles in spite of the disapproval of the old monarch, who protested 
in vain against towering head-dresses. In 17 14, two English ladies 
with their hair worn low having been presented at the French Court, 
Louis XIV said to the wives of the courtiers, "If Frenchwomen 
were reasonable beings they would at once give up their ridiculous 

* Rape of the Lock. t Born 1646; died 1723. 


head-dresses and wear their hair in the English fashion." How 
could the court ladies bear to be called "ridiculous," especially by 
their king? They very soon made their appearance in the king's 
circle with their hair dressed low.* For once, at least, England 
set the fashion for France — a pleasing turn of the tables! 

The next transformation was the hoop, invented by a mantua- 
maker named Selby, in 1711, and destined in one form or another 
to hold its sway over feminine taste for many years. Dresses which 
had been looped back over contrasting petticoats were hung out over 
these most awkward inventions. At first they were rather flat in 
front and in the back (Figure 162), projecting out on each side over 
the hips to such an extent that the wearer was often obliged to enter 
a door sideways. Mr. Wingfield, in his "Notes on Civil Costume 
in England," remarks that "in a sedan chair a lady would some- 
times pull up her hoop on both sides of her like wings." As sedan 
chairs were used in all the English colonies of America, fashionable 
colonial dames probably resorted to the same expedient. 

The sacque, the name in use for many years to designate the 
loose over-dress, at this time hung in wide plaits from the shoulders 
to the ground over the large hooped petticoat. It was open in front 
and worn over a petticoat and stomacher of the same material, 
although a contrast of colour and of material was also popular. This 
garment was invariably worn by women of fashion in England 
and France, and in the Colonies for at least half of the century. It 
survived several generations of change. At first it was long and 
full as in Figure 161, then short to the knees and very full (Figure 
170); later it became a graceful, stately garment, transformed by 
a few curved lines and worn over a laced stomacher and satin 
petticoat trimmed with flounces (Figure 204). This charming variety 
of sacque is usually called a "Watteau." Sacques were made in 
all materials and worn by all classes until 1777. 

* History of Fashion in France, by Challomcl. 




"Let your gown be a sacque, blue, yellow or green, 
And frizzle your elbows with ruffles sixteen; 
Furl oflf your lawn apron w,ith flounces in rows, 
Puff and pucker up knots on your arms and your toes; 
Make your petticoat short, that a hoop eight yards wide 
May decently show how your garters are ty'd. 

But mount on French heels when you go to a ball, 
'Tis the fashion to totter, and show you can faU."* 


Figures 168 and 169 show the style of hood in general wear by 
women of all ranks from 1690 to 1750. The original hood, lent 

Figure i68. Figure 169. 

A Camlet Hood; taken from an Original Garment of about 1702. Reign of Queen Anne. 

to US for this book, is made of drab camlet and lined with silk to 
match, for it belonged to a Colonial Quakeress. The fashionable 
dames of that time made them of gay silk, according to contemporary 

* The Beau's Receipt for a Lady's Dress. 



authority. The hood, which in the previous reign was commonly 
of black silk, velvet, or sarsenet, we. now find of various colours ; and 
cherry coloured hoods were all the rage in 171 2. A group of ladies 
in coloured silk hoods at the theatre is thus described: "One of them 
was blue, another yellow and another philomot; the fourth was of a 
pink colour and the fifth was of a pale green. I looked upon this 
little parti-coloured assembly as upon a bed of tulips."* 

From advertisements of this date (17 12) in England, we can form 
some idea of the garments sent to the Colonies. In one of the papers 
we read of a black silk petticoat with a red and white calico border, 
a red and dove coloured damask gown flowered with large trees, a 
yellow satin apron trimmed with white Persian muslin, and head- 
cloths with crow-foot edging. 

An Isabella coloured kincob gown flowered with green and gold; 
a dark coloured cloth gown and petticoat with two silver orrices; 
a purple and gold atlas gown; a scarlet and gold atlas petticoat edged 
with silver; an underpetticoat edged with gold; a black velvet petti- 
coat; an aflejah petticoat striped with green, gold and white; and 
clogs laced with silver are also mentioned. 

In the same year were advertised "a green silk knit waistcoat 
with gold and silver flowers all over it, and fourteen yards of gold 
and silver thick lace on it; and a petticoat of rich strong flowered 
satin, red and white all in great flowers or leaves, and scarlet flowers 
with black specks brocaded in, raised high like velvet or shag."f 

A lady's riding suit of this period is described as consisting of 
"a coat and waistcoat of blue camlet trimmed and embroidered 
with silver, with a petticoat of the same stuff, by which alone her sex 
was recognized, as she wore a smartly cocked beaver hat, edged with 
silver and rendered more sprightly by a feather, while her hair, curled 
and powdered, hung to a considerable length down her shoulders, 
tied like that of a rakish young gentleman, with a long streaming 

* '^^^ Spectator. f Pictorial History of England. 

sFlGURE 170. 



scarlet riband." * But powder was not in general use by ladies at 
this time. 

In Queen Anne's day patches meant more than one would sup- 
pose; they were not used simply to enhance the beauty of the com- 
plexion, but were worn as political badges. The ladies with Whig 
sympathies wore these patches on the left-hand side of the face, the 
Tories on the right. Mr. Andrew Lang has suggested that a revival 
of this fashion in England during the South African War would have 
greatly facilitated conversation. "If Pro-Boer ladies would only 
profess their opinion by way of patches, we should know where we 
are and could make no such mistakes as now occasionally occur in 

Patch boxes (Figure 159) were carried, filled with patches of 
every shape; under the lid of the box was placed a small glass to assist 
the fair lady in adjusting them. These boxes were made of silver, 
ivory, and tortoise shell, and were often, like the snuff-boxes of the 
same period, very costly. 

"That little modish machine," as Addison called the fan, was 
an indispensable article of fashionable dress. Flory, in his "History 
of the Fan," says: "We can scarcely imagine the rouged and pow- 
dered beauty of the eighteenth century without the fascinating trin- 
ket in her hand. Both in England and in France it had gradually 
become the mirror of the life and pleasure of the time. Political 
and social events, literature, music, and the fashions and follies of 
the day, were depicted upon them. Some were covered with words 
and bars from operas, or with scenes from popular plays, others 
bore the rules of various games, within decorative borders of playing 
cards." A picture of a fan painted by Gamble representing a scene 
from Ovid is given in Figure 241. "There were calendar fans, 
fortune-telling fans, fans with riddles and charades, political and 
social caricatures." One is noted representing the separation of 
America from England. 

* The Spectator. 

Figure 171. — Shows a gown of yellow damask brocade worn over a blue quilted 

satin petticoat. Reign of George I. 
Figure 172. — Shows a white satin wedding gown worn by Mrs. St. Clair in 

Philadelphia, 1760. 
Figure 173. — Picture of a blue lutestring gown worn by the same lady. 
Figure 174. — Is a very interesting dress of buflF chine silk-; with coloured flowers, 

worn by Lady Stuart in the Barbadoes Colony in the reign of Queen Anne. 
(Photographed from original garments.) 

Figure 171. 

LiGUKE 172. 

Figure 173. 

Figure 174. 



About 1720 temple spectacles came into use; afterward "bridge 
spectacles," without any side supporters and held on solely by nip- 
ping the bridge of the nose. Perspective glasses, with long handles 
of tortoise shell or silver, were carried by gallants in London, 

A mask of black velvet (Figure 194) was often worn in winter 
with a silver mouth-piece to keep it on ; green silk masks were used 
in summer for riding in the sun on horseback, while for young girls 
in the Colonies they were made of linen and tied on under their hoods. 


At this time hooped petticoats were less exaggerated. Scarlet 
cloaks with hoods, called ''cardinals," were worn out-of-doors 
(Figure 175). The hair was still worn low and was often covered by 
a much frilled cap or flat hat of moderate dimensions (Figure 195). 
During the next decade the caps became smaller, but the hats larger 
(Figure 216). 

The use of powder, according to Mr. Wingfield, was never 
general in England, although it was worn on all occasions of cere- 
mony in the reigns of George II and George III by both sexes, 
and was extremely fashionable from 1760 to 1776; but it was not 
habitually worn in home life with everyday costumes. 

In 1735 we notice a change in the shape of the hoop, which was 
now made to project all around like the wheel farthingale, the petti- 
coat being worn short and the gown without a train (Figure 196). 

Lace tippets were now much worn, some having diamond solitaires 
to hook them together. Very broad laced tuckers, with diamond 
necklaces and earrings, were popular. Diamond and paste buckles 
were also very fashionable. 

Mrs. Delany, who has been called not only the woman of fashion 
in her own age, but "the woman of fashion of all ages," records some 
charming costumes. The following is dated 1738 (when hoops were 



"After much persuasion and many debates within myself I con- 
sented to go with Lady Dysart to the Prince's birthday, humbly 
dres't in my pink Damask, white and gold handkerchief, plain green 

ribbon and Lady Sun- 
derland's buckles for 
my stays." The stays, 
evidently meaning the 
stomacher, were on this 
occasion straps of white 
silk covered with a lac- 
ing through which a 
handkerchief was 
passed. This costume 
is not unlike the yellow 
damask gown (Figures 
164 and 183) worn in 
Philadelphia in 1740. 

Head-dresses at this 
time were made of three 
lace ruffles tucked to 
stand up in front. 
"Caskades of ribands" 
and artificial flowers 
were used as trimming. 
They were worn over 
powdered hair pinned 
up quite short in the 
back, and sometimes large curls were worn hanging down on the 
shoulder, as in Figure 198. 

In another letter Mrs. Delany says: "I go to-morrow to pay my 
salutations to their Royal Highnesses at Carlton House in my Irish 
green Damask and my worked head; on the birthday, which is Tues- 



Figure 175. 

Lady in a Cardinal (after Hogarth, Early Eighteenth 





day next, in a flowered silk, I bought since I came to town, of a 
pale deer-coloured ground, the flowers mostly purple, and mixed with 
white feathers. I think it extremely pretty and very modest." The 
latter is not unlike the Colonial gown represented in Figures 
218, 230. "Ruffles are much the same, large at the elbows and 
pretty narrow at the bottom. I think they pin their gowns rather 
closer than before; hoops are as flat as if made of pasteboard, and as 
stiff, the shape sloping from the hips and spreading at the bottom 
(Figures 164 and 183), enormous but not so ugly as the square hoops 
(Figure 162). There are hopes that they will soon be reduced to a 
very small size. Heads are variously dressed, pompons with some 
accompaniment of feathers, ribbons or flowers; lappets in all sorts 
of curli-murlis ; long hoods are worn close under the chin, or tied 
with bows and ends behind." 

Figure 176. 

Figure 177. 
Caps, 1744. 

Figure 178. Figure 179. 

FlGXTRE 180. 
Caps, 1745. 

Figure 181. 

Long aprons were worn in 1740, then short ones, and before 1752 
long ones again. In the same year (1740) we hear of a successor to 
the hood under the name of "capuchin." 

The description which Mrs. Delany gives of a marvellous toilet 
worn by the Duchess of Queensbury, in 1741, is worth transcribing 
as a curious specimen of needle- work. "It was of white satin em- 
broidered, the bottom of the petticoat brown hills covered with all 
sorts of weeds, and every breadth had an old stump of a tree that 
ran up almost to the top of the petticoat broken and ragged and 
worked with brown chenille, round which twined nasturtiums, honey- 
suckle, periwinkle and afl sorts of twining flowers, which spread 


and covered the petticoat; vines with the leaves variegated as you 
have seen them by the sun, all rather smaller than nature, which 
made them look very light. The robings and facings were like green 
banks covered with all sorts of weeds, and the sleeves and rest of 
the gown loose twining branches of the same sort as those on the pet- 
ticoat. Many of the leaves were finished with gold, and part of the 
stumps of the trees looked like gilding of the sun. I never saw a 
piece of work so prettily fancied and am quite angry with myself 
for not having the same thought, for it is infinitely handsomer than 
mine and could not have cost much more." 

French curls (Figure 196), the mode in 1745, were described 
as looking like eggs strung in order on a wire tied around the 
head. They were not always false, but could be made of the 
natural hair. The crtpe toupee was also a contemporary fashion. 
Later came in the Italian curls (Figure 184), which had the effect 
of scollop shells and were arranged back from the face in several 
shapes. In the tete de mouton, or tete moutonee, the hair was curled 
close all over the back of the head. 

In the summer of 1745 Gipsy straw hats appeared, being tied 
under the chin (Figure 195). 

We find that in 1745 the hoop had increased at the sides and di- 
minished in front; and a pamphlet was published in that year en- 
titled "The Enormous Abomination of the Hoop Petticoat as the 
Fashion now is" (Figure 184). The hoop of this period was a great 
bell-shaped petticoat or skirt of the dress stiffened by whalebone. 
The material was placed directly upon it, so that, being a part of the 
gown itself, it was customary to speak of "a damask hoop" or "a 
brocade hoop." 

Deportment was quite as important as dress in the fashionable 
world of the eighteenth century. Those were the days of back- 
boards and of most unyielding stays. 

The expression "she bridles well," which occurs in letters of this 



time (1747), alludes to a manner of carriage which is now almost 
unknown. "One of the first lessons in deportment at that period 
was to hold up the head on entering a room, and to keep the chin 
in, which is expressed by 'bridling,' and then, having curtseyed 
at the door, to advance deliberately towards the person who had the 
first claim to greeting — to sink low gradually — to rise slowly and 

The Boston ''Evening Post" advertised in November, 1755, 
"horse hair quilted coats to wear with negligees." 

It is difficult to determine the exact limitations of a negligee. 

1721+ 175°+- 

Figure i86. Figure 187. 

Hooped Petticoats. 

It was worn in full dress and was another variety of the sacque. The 
advertisement quoted suggests an outdoor garment, a quilted coat 
worn under it for warmth. 

" Put on her a sheperdee 
A short sack or negligee 
Ruffled high to keep her warm 
Eight or ten about an arm."f 

A garment which became very popular about 1756 was a cloak 
made of satin or velvet, black or any colour, lined or trimmed with 
silk, satin, or fur, according to the fancy, with slits for the arms to 

* Mrs. Woolsey's Notes to Autobiography of Mrs. Delany. 
t Poem printed in New York, 1756. 



pass through, and a hood Kke a capuchin. These cloaks were worn 
by everybody and were called pompadours (Figure 216). 

Night-gowns or night-rails correspond to our modern dressing- 
gowns and were worn without hoops. One is represented in Figure 
243 with a short cape over a skirt instead of a sacque. 

An historian of Connecticut tells us that "the dress of the middle 
period can hardly be praised for its simplicity or economy. In the 
upper circles it was rich and extravagant, and among the females 

Figure i88. 
Stays, 1770. 

of all classes there was a passion for gathering and hoarding articles 
of attire. It was an object of ambition to have a chest full of linen, 
a pillow-beer of stockings, and other articles in proportion, laid by." 
The inventory of the effects of Mrs. White of Norwich,* taken 
August 16, 1757, contained "gowns of brown duroy, striped stuff, 
plain stuff, black silk, crape, calico and blue camlet; a scarlet cloak, 
blue cloak, satin flowered mantle, and furbelow scarf; a woolen 

* History of Norwich, by F. M. Caulkins. 



Figure il 
Clog, Eighteenth Century (from an Old Print). 

petticoat with calico border, a camlet riding-hood, long silk hood, 
velvet hood, white hood trimmed with lace, a silk bonnet, and nineteen 
caps; a cambrick laced handkerchief, silk do, linen do, sixteen hand- 
kerchiefs in all; a muslin laced apron, flowered laced apron, green 
taffety apron, fourteen aprons 
in all; a silver riband, silver 
girdle and blue girdle, four 
pieces of flowered satin, a par- 
cel of crewel, and a woman's 
fan; a gold necklace, death's 
head gold ring, plain gold ring, 
sett of gold sleeve buttons, gold 
locket, silver hair peg, silver cloak clasps, and a stone button set in 
silver; a large silver tankard, a silver cup with two handles, a cup 
with one handle, and a large silver spoon." 

We know that a salmon-coloured tabby 
made with a sacque and coat (probably, 
in this case, waistcoat or stomacher) was 
the correct thing in 1759, as an order for 
one for his wife is preserved in Washing- 
ton's own writing. In the same order we 
read of "a cap, handkerchief and ruffles of 
Brussels or Point lace to be worn with the above negligee, to cost ;i^2o." 

Also two fine flowered aprons 

One pair women's white silk hose 

Four pairs thread hose 

Six pairs women's fine cotton hose 

One pair black satin shoes y 

One pair white satin shoes of smallest 5's 

Four pairs calamanco shoes 

One fashionable hat or bonnet 

Six pairs women's best kid gloves 

Eight pairs women's best mits 

One dozen round silk laces 

Figure 190. 
A Patten (from the Origi- 
nal in the Museum at Memo- 
rial Hall, Philadelphia). 



One black mask 

One dozen most fashionable pocket handkerchiefs 

One piece of narrow white satin ribbon with pearl edge 

Four pieces of binding tape 

Six thousand miniken pins 

Six thousand short whites 

Six thousand corking pins 

One thousand hair pins. 

The following note from Washington's manuscripts shows the 
relationship between a sacque and a night-gown: "Mrs. Wash- 
ington sends home a green sack to get cleaned, or fresh dyed of the 
same colour; made into a handsome sack again, would be her choice, 
but if the cloth wont afford that, then to be thrown into a genteel 
night-gown."* The latter being the old-fashioned name for a 


In 1760 gowns began to be worn with a close-fitting bodice ending 
in a long point in the back (Figures 209, 210, 211, and 213), the 

skirt sewn on with a multiplicity of fine 

gathers, still opening over a petticoat, the 

latter often beautifully quilted. Aprons 

Figure 191. were worn, too, according to the dictates 

Riding-hat of Fawn-col- ^^ ^^ Occasionally stomacher and 

oured Felt. The original is -' •' 

in the Museum at Memorial apron matched, as in Figure 206. Sleeves 

Hall, Philadelphia. Reigns of .,, . 1 • 1 m e ^ 

George II and III. wcrc Still trimmed With ruffles 01 lace, 

but often were edged with narrow cuffs 
turned back, the lace falling from underneath (Figures 205 and 230). 
Every lady of fashion wore an etui, or ornamental case, hanging 
from the waist, intended to hold thimble, scissors, and scent bottle. 
The snuff-box, the pomander, a box with perforated holes in the lid 
and used for perfumes, and the pouncet box, of a similar nature, were 
among the elegant accessories of the toilet of the eighteenth century 

* Writings of George Washington, edited by Wm. C. Ford. 

W X) o 

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t« p 

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"^ ^ C5 

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for both sexes. (See Figure 159.) Physicians made use of the po- 
manders to carry disinfectants; sometimes they had them inserted in 
the handle of their canes, and a tap on the floor as they entered a 
sick-room would scatter the powder through the atmosphere. 

The recipe books of the time, written by each housewife for her 
own use and pleasure, have in many cases been handed down to 
posterity. Turning over the yellowed leaves of one written in the 
careful penmanship of the eighteenth century by a notable New York 
dame, an aroma of agreeable spices seems to 
emanate from the pages as we read the following: 

"Pot Pourri 
"Dry your violets in a sunny window. Have 
ready a quarter of a pound of finely powdered 
bay salt. When the roses are out, gather all 
kinds, and dry in the same way. Then add 
them to the violets, putting layers of salt be- figx;reTq4 

tween each layer. a Riding-mask, Eight- 

/-ii iiiri 1 11 eenth Century. 

"Gather a good deal of lavendar, also the 
leaves of the verbena, and, if possible, myrtle and orange blossoms. 
After all the flowers and salt have filled the jar, its contents should 
be constantly stirred for a month." 

Here is another recipe from the same book: 

"Take a Seville orange, and stick it as full as possible of cloves. 
Put it in a jar. Pick the rose leaves when full blown, but before they 
are ready to drop, and spread the petals to dry in the sun. When 
dry mix them with a little bay salt, some cinnamon, ground cloves, 
lemon peel, and powdered musk. Stir for some time until well mixed." 

Old India jars filled with pot pourri stood in almost every house, 
and lent a subtle fragrance to the draperies and carpets. This custom 
was of the same origin as the use of pomanders. 

Research on the subject of wedding veils at this period has pro- 


duced nothing more satisfactory than the following passage from 

Mr. J. Cordy Jeffreson's ''Brides and Bridals": 

"The origin of the English bride's veil is one of those disputed 

questions which will never be settled. What of late years became 

the most conspicuous feature of her costume may be nothing 

more than a milliner's substitute for the flowing tresses, which in old 

times concealed not a few of the bride's personal attractions and 

covered her face when she knelt at the altar. This opinion is 

supported by the fact that Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James 

I, was not thought to require an artificial veil, since nature had 

given her such an abundance of circumfluent hair. Heyward says 

of this wedding: 

'At length the blushing bride comes with her 
hair disheveled aslant her shoulders.' 

"It may be a mere amplification of the coif which medieval brides 
used to wear between the garland and the hair, of such a coif, for 
instance, as Margaret Tudor wore under the coronet at her wedding 
with the King of Scotland." 

In the early years of the reign of George III the veil and wreath fell 
so completely out of vogue that they were for a time seldom seen on 
brides of the "best ton." Horace Walpole, an earnest social reformer 
in all trivial matters, was pleased by the neglect of old matrimonial 
forms. He mentions that his niece Maria had never appeared more 
lovely than when he watched the alternate blushes and paleness of 
her unveiled face during her celebration of marriage with the Earl 
of Waldegrave. The bride wore a hat and a white and silver gown, 
and when the marriage service had been performed in the drawing- 
room of a private mansion in Pall Mall by Dr. Keppel, the bridal 
party sat down to dinner, which was over at eight o'clock in the eve- 
ning. "It was," wrote Walpole to George Montague, "as sensible 
a weddmg as ever was." This wedding took place in the last year 
of the reign of George II. 




In the Colonies the veil does not seem to have been a necessary 
article of a bride's costume. Several beautiful wedding gowns which 
have been handed down with care 
from early in the eighteenth cen- 
tury are of coloured brocade or 
damask (Figures 184, 213). 

Orange-blossoms were not 
used as wedding flowers until a 
comparatively modern date, 
although orange trees were grow- 
ing in England at the time of 
Henry VIII. 

We read of an English bride * 
in 1769 who wore "a sacque and 
petticoat of the most expensive 
brocaded white silk, resembling 
network enriched with small 
flowers, which displayed in the 
variations of the folds a most deli- 
cate shade of pink; a deep and 
pointed stomacher trimmed with 
gimp; sleeves closely fitted the 
elbow, from which hung three 
point-lace ruffles of great depth ; 
a handkerchief of the same lace 
covered the shoulders, fastened 
in front with a large bow of white 
satin ribbon and a bunch of deli- 
cate pink rosebuds. A triple row 
of pearls tied behind with a nar- 
row white satin ribbon completed 

Figure 199. 
Maid in Sacque, Apron, and Clogs. 
.Eighteenth Century. 


* Mrs. Joseph Nollekens, wife of the noted sculptor. 




the costume, although I beUeve a lace apron, previously worn by 
the bride's mother, was put on, but the fashion of wearing aprons 
in full dress had gone out at that date. 

"The hair was arranged over a high cushion, with large curls on 
either side, and ornamented by a small cap of point lace with plaited 
flaps to match the ruffles in the sleeves. 'sThe shoes were like the gown 
and were ornamented with spangles arid square buckles with heels 
three and one-half inches in height." 

Lady Susan O'Brien, living in the Colonies, was kept informed 
by her cousin. Lady Sarah Lennox, of the latest changes in fashion in 
England. In 1766 she says:* 

"I think that by degrees the French dress is coming into fashion, 
tho' 'tis almost impossible to make the ladies understand that heads 
bigger than one's body are ugly; it is growing the fashion to have 
the heads moutonee. I have cut off my hair and find it very con- 
venient in the country without powder, because my hair curls 

naturally I wear it very often with three rows of curls 

behind and the rest smooth with a fringe toupe and a cap ; that is, en 
paresseuse. Almost every body powders now, and wears a little hoop. 

"Hats are mostly left off; the hair down on the forehead belongs 
to the short waists [waists were apparently very long at the time 
this letter was written, 1766], and is equally vulgar with poppons 
[or pompons], trimmings, beads, garnets, flying caps and false hair. 

"To be perfectly genteel, you must be dressed thus: Your hair must 
not be cut off, for 'tis much too pretty, but it must be powdered, curled 
in very small curls and neat, but it must be high before and give your 
head the look of a sugar loaf a little. The rest of the hair must be 
drawn up straight and not frizzled at all for half an inch above the 
rest. You must wear no cap and only little, little flowers dab'd in the 
left side; the only feather permitted is a black or white suUane perched 
up on the left side and your diamond feather against it (Figure 218). 

* Lady Sarah Lennox to Lady Susan O'Brien in America, January 9th, 1766. 

P'IGURE 200'. 

Figure 201. 

Figure 202. 

Figure 203. 


"A broad puffed ribbon collier (Figure 206), with a tippet ruff, 
or only a little black handkerchief very narrow over the shoulders; 
your stays very high and pretty tight at bottom, your gown trimmed 
with the same straight down the robings, and a narrow flounce at bot- 
tom to button with a compere to be loose at the fore part of your 
robing. The sleeves long and loose, the waist very long, the flounces 
and ruffles of a decent length not too long, nor so hideously short as 
they now wear them. No trimming on the sleeve but a ribbon knot 
tied to hang on the ruffles." 

Artificial flowers were worn in full dress. We learn from the 
newspapers of the day that "the biziness of making flowers" was 
a thriving one in Boston. Teachers in the art of flower making are 
often advertised in the Boston papers. We read, too, that Benjamin 
Franklin's sister and her daughter made a practical use of this ac- 
complishment in the following extract from a letter from Mrs. Mecom, 
dated Boston, 1766: 

"And I have a small request to ask. It is to procure me some 
fine old linen or cambric dyed into bright colours, such as red and 
green, a little blue but chiefly red, for with all my art and good old 
Benjamin's memorandums, I cannot make them good colours. My 
daughter Jenny, with a little of my assistance, has taken to making 
flowers for ladies' heads and bosoms with pretty good acceptance, 
and if I can procure these colours, I am in hope we shall get some- 
thing by it worth our pains. It is no matter how old the linen is. 
I am afraid you never had any bad enough." 

From a letter of Mrs. Mecom to Mrs. Franklin dated February 
27th, 1766, we take the following: "We are now supplied not only 
with necessary but creditable clothing, for brother has sent each of 
us a printed cotton gown, a quilted coat, a bonnet, each of the girls 
a cap and some ribbons. Mine is very suitable for me to wear now, 
being black and purple cotton, but the girls' are light coloured."* 

* Letters to Benjamin Franklin from his Family and Friends, 1751-1790. 


The name bonnet, from the French bonnet, was often used through- 
out the eighteenth century in speaking of caps and hoods, but the 
first actual bonnet was the successor of the Gipsy hat in the latter 
part of the century, and in 1798 we read that "straw bonnets were 
in full fashion." 

A New England authority tells us that "cushions stuffed with 
wool and covered with silk, used in dressing the hair, made a calash 
(Figures 222, 226, 227) necessary instead of a bonnet. This was 
large and wide, and an awkward article of attire, but often shrouding 
a health-beaming face in its depths, needing no other ornament than 
its own good humored smile."* 

A gentleman of the courteous old school remarked of this fashion 
of the calash, "It was like looking down a green lane to see a rose 
blooming at the end." 

From the "History of Norwich" quoted above we give the fol- 
lowing description: "Women of mature age wore close linen caps 
(Figure 253). Parasols and umbrellas were unknown or of rare 
occurrence, but a fan nearly a foot and a half in length, and spread- 
ing like the train of a peacock, was often carried to keep off the 
sun as well as to catch the air. At one period feathers were much 
worn upon the head, surmounting a high turban of gauze or muslin 
raised on wire and adorned also with ribbon. 

"A lady in full dress for great occasions displayed a rich brocade 
with open skirt and trained petticoat trimmed with lace; an em- 
broidered stomacher and full ruffles at the elbows. Hood and scarf 
were of silk. No sumptuary laws restrained the feminine taste for 
rich attire at this period. When the ladies walked out, they threw 
the end of the train over the right arm. The foot was dressed in a 
silk stocking, a sharp-toed slipper, often made of embroidered satin, 
and with a high heel " (Figure 240). In winter beaver hats were worn 
over a lace cap, as in Figure 216, or with the brim curved downwards 

* History of Norwich, by F. M. Caulkins. 



by broad ribbon strings tied under the chin (Figure 195). Loose 
cloaks trimmed with fur were the fashion in the middle of the 
eighteenth century, also long Roquelaures with short capes or a 
hood on the shoulders, like those worn by the men. 

In Massachusetts, we are told, "ladies wore caps, long stiff stays, 
and high-heeled shoesV Their bonnets (hoods) were of silk or satin, 
and usually black. Gowns were extremely long-waisted with tight 
sleeves. Another fashion was a very short sleeve with an immense 
frill at the elbow. A large flexible hoop, three or four feet in diameter, 
was for some time quilted into the hem of the gown, making an im- 
mense display of the lower person. A large round cushion, stuffed 
with cotton or hair and covered with black crape, was laid across 
the head, over which the hair 
was combed back and fastened. ' 
It was almost the universal cus- 
tom, also, for women to wear gold 
beads, thirty-nine little hollow 
globes, about the size of a pea, """""Figure 208. 

strung on a thread and tied round ^ Lady's shoe, of a Comflower-blue Serge 

Silk, Bound with White Ribbon. 

the neck. 

"Working women wore petticoats and half gowns, drawn with 
a cord round the waist, and coarse leather shoes; though they generally 
had a pair of 'Lynn shoes' for Sunday."* 

In Watson's famous "Annals" we read: "The women in Phila- 
delphia wore caps (a bare head was never seen), stiff stays, hoops 
from six inches to two feet (Figure 184) on each side, so that a full- 
dressed lady entered a door like a crab. High-heeled shoes of black  
stuff with white silk or thread stockings, and in the miry times of / 
winter they wore clogs, galoshes, or pattens (Figures 189 and 190). - 

"Ladies often had their hair tortured for four hours at a sitting, 
in getting the proper crisped curls of a hair curler. Some who 

* History of Lynn, Mass., by Lewis and Newhall. 



designed to be inimitably captivating, not knowing they could be sure 
of professional services, where so many hours were occupied upon 
one gay head, have actually had the operation performed the day 
before it was required, then have slept all night in a sitting posture to 
prevent the derangement of their frizzles and curls. This is a real 
fact, and we could, if questioned, name cases. They were of course 

FiGTTRE 211. Figure 210. 

Plan of White Satin Dress shown in Figures 218 and 230. Reign of George III. 

rare occurrences, proceeding from some extra occasions, when there 
were several to serve, and but few such refined hair dressers in the 

"This formidable head work was succeeded by rollers over which 
the hair was combed from the forehead. These again were super- 
seded by cushions and artificial curled work, which could be sent out 




to the barber's block like a wig to be dressed, leaving the lady at 
home to pursue other objects, thus producing a grand reformation 

Figure 216. 
Beaver Hat and Short Cloak, Middle of Eighteenth Century. Reigns of George II and III. 

in the economy of time and an exemption from former durance 


"When the ladies first began to lay off their cumbrous hoops, 
they supplied their place with successive succedaneums, such as these, 
to wit: First came bishops — a thing stuffed or padded with horse 
hair; then succeeded a smaller affair under the name of Cue de Paris, 
also padded with horse hair. How it abates our admiration to con- 
template the lovely sex as bearing a roll of horse hair or a cut of cork 
under their garments! Next they supplied their place with silk or 
calimanco, or russell thickly quilted and inlaid with wool, made into 
petticoats; then these were supplanted by a substitute of half a dozen 
petticoats. No wonder such ladies needed fans in a sultry summer, 
and at a time when parasols were unknown, to keep off the solar 

Other articles of female wear are mentioned: "Once they wore 
a 'skimmer hat' made of a fabric which shone like silver tinsel; it 
was of a very small flat crown and big brim, not unlike the late Leg- 
horn flats. Another hat, not unlike it in shape, was made of woven 
horse hair woven in flowers, and called 'horse hair bonnets,' an article 
which might again be usefully introduced for children's wear as an 
enduring hat for long service." Watson had himself seen what was 
called a "bath bonnet," date unknown, "made of black satin, and 
so constructed to lie in folds that it could be sat upon like a chapeau 
bras,^^ and observes that "it would be a good article for travelling 
ladies!" This and the "musk melon bonnet," evidently a modifica- 
tion of the calash, used before the Revolution, had numerous whale- 
bone stiffeners in the crown, set an inch apart in parallel lines and 
presenting ridges to the eye, between the bones. The "pumpkin hood " 
was made in the same manner with wadding between the ridges for 
cold weather. 

"A 'calash bonnet,'" according to Watson, "was usually formed 
of green silk; it was worn abroad covering the head, but when in 
rooms it could fall back in folds like the springs of a calash or gigtop ; 
to keep it over the head it was drawn up by a cord always held in the 



hand of the wearer." When the calash was at the height of popularity, 
however, it appeared in many varieties of material and colour. I 
have seen mention of a pink dimity calash and of a flowered Persian 
worn over high heads, without disturbing the erection, and blue 
and brown calashes may be seen in the Museums in Philadelphia. 

"The wagon bonnet, always of black silk, was an article exclusively 
in use among the Friends. When on the head it was thought to look 
not unlike the top of the Jersey wagons, having a pendent piece of 
the silk hanging from the bonnet and covering the shoulders. The 
only straw worn was that called the 'straw bee-hive bonnet,' worn 
generally by old people." Interesting specimens of bonnets may 
be seen in the Museum of Memorial Hall, Philadelphia, ranging from 
the calash and the pumpkin hood to the wagon bonnet mentioned 
by Mr. Watson, but the exact date of the latter is hard to determine. 

Mrs. Gummere, in a very brilliant book on a very sombre sub- 
ject, published recently,* says: "It has been with the Quaker bonnet 
as with every other garment the Quaker has ever worn — the cut 
originated in that centre of all ideas of fashion, and the abode of 
taste, Paris, while the expression of Quakerism lay simply in the 
absence of any superfluous adornments. In this one idea lies the 
secret of Quaker dress." Doubtless the author is right, but who 
can look upon even a picture of a Quaker bonnet without sighing 
for the superfluous adornments? 

Although no rigid laws had been passed by the Quakers forbid- 
ding the use of gay colours, members of the sect were recommended 
to abstain from them, and soft grays, dull drabs, sage greens, and 
sombre browns were so generally worn by Friends that they were 
thenceforth associated with them. We read in many instances of 
the careful pains even the strictest of Friends took to match these 
solemn colours. Figure 250 is the portrait of a beautiful Quaker 
lady in a gown of sage silk. 

* The Quaker, a Study in Costume. 


"The Quaker simplicity of garb was but another name for the 
finest and costhest raiment that could be produced, the richest sombre 
coloured silks, the most delicate lawn, the finest broadcloth. A modest 
splendour which cost more thought and care than the ordinary habili- 
ments which were denounced by the sect as pomps and vanities of 
the world," says that gentle historian, Mrs. Oliphant. But the use 
of sheer cambric in caps, handkerchiefs, and aprons gave to the dress 
of the Quaker maids and matrons a dainty air of unpretentious re- 
finement for which they have ever been distinguished. 

The cape in Figure 232 is of pale gray silk lined with white cam- 
bric. It is taken from an original garment of about 1775. The cap 
is of finest linen cambric sewed with the invisible stitches of early 
days and worn by that distinguished colonial dame of Pennsylvania, 
Deborah Norris Logan, at the close of the eighteenth century. The 
combination may at first seem an anachronism, but in point of fact 
the Society of Friends followed with reluctant footsteps the changes 
of fashion, and while caps of the style of Figure 232 were probably 
worn at the close of the century and even later, the cape is of a 
shape worn by Quaker dames as early as 1775 and as late as 1800. 

A delightful instance of departure from Quaker costume on an 
especial occasion is thus told by Mrs. Gummere:* 

"A Quaker Wedding. 

"In the month of May, 1771, Isaac Collins of Burlington, New 
Jersey, married Rachel Budd, of Philadelphia, at the 'Bank Meeting' 
in that city. His wedding dress was a coat of peach blossom cloth, 
the great skirts of which had outside pockets. It was lined through- 
out with quilted white silk. The large waistcoat was of the same 
material. He wore small clothes, knee buckles, silk stockings, and 
pumps. A cocked hat surmounted the whole. 

"The bride, who is described as 'lovely in mind and person,' 

* The Quaker, a Study in Costume. 




wore a light blue brocade, shoes of the same material, with very- 
high heels, not larger 
than a gold dollar, and 
sharply pointed at the 
toes." In Figure 263 a 
photograph of the orig- 
inal shoes worn on that 
occasion is given. "Her 
dress was in the fashion 
of the day, consisting of 
a robe, long in the back, 
with a large hoop. A 
short blue bodice, with 
a white satin stomacher 
embroidered in colours, 
had a blue cord laced 
from side to side. On 
her head she wore a 
black mode hood lined 
with white silk, the large 
cape extending over the 
shoulders. Upon her re- 
turn from meeting after 
the ceremony, she put on 
a thin white apron of 
ample dimensions, tied in 
front with a large blue 

Cloaks for outdoor 
wear were used with 
some changes of form, under the successive names of "pompadours," 
"Roquelaures," "cardinals," and "capuchins," throughout the eight- 

FlGURE 223. 

Lady in Capuchin with Fur Trimmings and MuflF, 

1780. Reign of George III. 


eenth century. "Umbrellas to keep off the rain were not known 
at this time, but a few people used quitasols, which were about 
the size of the present parasols. They were of oiled muslin, 
and were of various colours. They must, however, have been but 
rare, as they never appear in any advertisements," according to Mr. 
Watson, who is also responsible for the following statement: 

"In those days dress was discriminative and appropriate, both 
as regards the season and the character of the wearer. Ladies 
never wore the same dress at work as on visits; they sat at home or 
went out in the morning in chintz, and brocades, satins and mantuas 
were reserved for evening wear or for dinner parties. Robes or 
negligees, as they were called (Figures 192, 204, and 207), were 
often worn in full dress. Muslin gowns were not worn at all." 

During the reign of George III, women of fashion began to wear 
their hair high again. In 1775, it was worn absurdly high, rolled 
over a framework of wire and surmounted by a large cap, turban, 
or hat with tall feathers; this fashion was never quite as exaggerated 
in the Colonies as in England, but many ancestral portraits testify 
to its popularity. For instance, the portraits of Mrs. Duer and Mrs. 
Izard in "The Republican Court" show this extreme of fashion. 

Virginia was always one of the gayest of the Colonies. In the 
Diary of Philip Fithian, this description of festivities in 1774 is given: 

"A Virginia Ball and Virginia Belles (1774). 
"Tuesday, January 18. Mrs. Carter and the young ladies came 
home last night from the ball, and brought with them Mrs. Lane. 
They tell us there were upward of seventy at the ball; forty-one 
ladies; that the company was genteel; and that Colonel Harry Lee, 
from Dumfries, and his son Harry, who was with me at college, were 
also there. Mrs. Carter made this an argument, and it was a strong 
one indeed, that to-day I must dress and go with her to the ball. 
She added also that she desired my company in the evening when 

Figure 224. 




^^^Tl-^ . ^^*>U i-i^B*^ 

w ^^m 










Figure 225. 



she should come home, as it would be late. After considering a while, 
I consented to go, and was dressed. 

"We set away from Mr. Carter's at two. Mrs. Carter and the 
young ladies went in the chariot, Mrs. Lane in a chair, and myself 
on horseback. , 

"As soon as I had handed the ladies out I was saluted by Parson 
Smith. I was introduced into a small room where a number of gentle- 
men were playing cards (the first game I have seen since I left home) 

Figure 226. 


Calashes, 1765. 

Figure 227. 

to lay off my boots, riding-coat, &c. Next I was directed into the 
dining-room to see young Mr. Lee. He introduced me to his father. 

"With them I conversed till dinner, which came in at half after 
four. The ladies dined first, when some good order was preserved. 
When they rose, each nimblest fellow dined first. The dinner was 
as elegant as could be well expected when so great an assembly were 
to be kept for so long a time. For drink, there were several sorts 
of wine, good lemon punch, toddy, cider, porter, &c. 

"About seven, the ladies and gentlemen began to dance in the 


ball-room,— first, minuets, one round; second, jigs; trl4|i rll!s; 
and last of all, country-dances. They struck up marches occasionally. 
The music was a French-horn and two violins. 

"The ladies were dressed gay and splendid, and when dancing, 
their silks and brocades rustled and trailed behind them." 

The minuet, from the French menuet, — so called from the small 
steps taken in it,— was invented in France about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, and throughout the eighteenth century was the 
favourite dance of all ceremonious occasions in the Colonies as well 
as in Europe. 

The same diary also contains valuable items of contemporary 
costume and allusions to the fashionable deportment taught to the 
young ladies of the Colonies and absolutely essential to the proper 
setting off of the costumes then in vogue. 

"Friday, June 24. — To-day Mr. Christian's* dance takes place 
here. He came before breakfast. Miss Jenny Washington came 
also, and Miss Priscilla Hale while we were at breakfast. Miss 
Washington is about seventeen. She has not a handsome face, but 
is neat in her dress, of an agreeable size, well proportioned, and has 
an easy winning manner. She is not forward to begin a conversa- 
tion, yet when spoken to she is extremely affable, without assum- 
ing any girlish affectation, or pretending to be overcharged with wit. 
She has but lately had an opportunity for instruction in dancing 
yet she moves with propriety when she dances a minuet, and without 
any flirts or capers when she dances a reel or country-dance. Her 
dress is rich and well-chosen, but not tawdry, nor yet too plain. She 
appears to-day in a chintz cotton gown with an elegant blue stamp, 
a sky-blue silk quilt (Figure 213), and spotted apron. Her hair 
is a light brown, it was craped up, with two rolls at each side, and 
on the top was a small cap of beautiful gauze and rich lace, with an 
artificial flower interwoven. Her person and carriage at a small 

* Mr. Christian was evidently a dancing master. 




distance resemble not a little my much respected Laura. But on 
close examination her features are something masculine, while those 
of Laura are mild and delicate, Mr. Christian very politely requested 
me to open the dance by stepping a minuet with this amiable girl. 
I excused myself by assuring him that I never was taught to dance. 
Miss Hale is about fourteen, and is a slim and silent girl. She has 
black eyes and black hair and a good 
set of eyebrows, which are esteemed in 
Virginia essential to beauty. She looks 
innocent of every human failing, does 
not speak five words in a week, and I 
dare say from her carriage that her 
modesty is perfect. She is dressed in 
a white Holland gown, cotton, quilted 
very fine, a lawn apron, has her hair 
craped up, and on it a small tuft of 
ribbon for a cap. She is but just 
initiated into the school, and only hob- 
bles yet. Once I saw her standing. I 
rose immediately and begged her to 
accept my chair. She answered most 
kindly, 'Sir, I thank you.' That was 
all I could extract from this wonder of 
the sex for the two days she staid, and 
I seemed to have an equal share in the 
favours of her conversation. So that in 
describing the mental faculties of Miss 
Hale, it is sufficient to say that I think she is far removed from most 
of the foibles of women. Some time after these, came Colonel Lee's 
chariot with five young misses." 

In England, in the first half of the eighteenth century, it was the 
custom of the noble patrons of the different theatrical companies 

Figure 232. 
Quaker Cape and Cap, 1780. 


to bestow their cast-off suits upon their favourite actors. As national 
distinction was utterly disregarded in dramatic productions of the 
day, and histories of costume were unknown, the heroes and heroines 
of classic lore, as well as of Shakespeare, were dressed in the fashion- 
able garb of the passing hour. We hear of even Garrick appearing 
as OtheUo in a regimental suit of George II's body-guard, with a 
flowering Ramilie wig; and of Barry in the same role (in 1765) 
dressed in a fuU suit of gold-laced scarlet, a small cocked hat, and 
silk stockings. 

More striking still must have been the Othello of James Quin 
in a large powdered major wig and a blackened face. Fancy Lady 
Macbeth in a hoop eight yards in circumference, which, as we read, 
was the costume Mrs. Yates assumed in the part. 

Barton Booth, an actor of note in the early part of the century, 

took pains to encase the soles of his shoes in felt when acting the 

ghost in Hamlet, but Pope records of his impersonation of Addison's 

Cato in 1712: 

" Booth enters, hark the universal peal! 
But has he spoken? not a syllable. 
What shook the stage and made the people stare? 
Cato's long wig, flowr'd gown and lacquer'd chair." 

Mrs. Cibber as Juliet, in a white satin gown with an enormous 
hoop, does not seem to have been thought unseemly attired. 

Even John Kemble, the author of many reformations in stage 
effects, appeared as Hamlet in a modern court dress of rich black 
velvet with deep ruffles, with the pendent riband of an order on his 
breast, and mourning sword and buckles; his hair was powdered 
and, in the scenes of feigned distraction, flowed dishevelled in front 
over his shoulders.* 

The first theatre in America was at WiUiamsburg, Virginia, which 
was inaugurated by the London Company of Comedians under the 
management of Mr. Lewis Hallam in 1752. The play was "The 

* Annals of the English Stage, by Dr. Doran. 

Figure 233. 

Figure 234. 

Figure 236, 


Figure 235. 

Figure 237. 

Figure 240. 

Figure 239. 

Figure 241. 



Merchant of Venice." The unfortunate Signor Antonio probably 
dressed in a ruffled shirt, knee buckles, long coat, and buttoned waist- 
coat, with a powdered wig, after the manner of Mr. Clarke at the 
Haymarket Theatre in London; while Shylock stood whetting his 
wicked knife in a very long-tailed coat and a falling band of linen, 
in imitation of Macklin, w^ho was delighting English audiences 
with his representation of the part about that time. Opera glasses 
came into use early in this century (eighteenth). 

Miss Sarah Eves, of Philadelphia, remarks in her journal (January 
5, 1773) : "The poor Doctor thought his clothes were not good enough 
to wait upon us in, therefore he delays his visit until he gets fitted 
up in the Macaronia taste I suppose." This was the popular name 
for a dandy at the time Miss Eves wrote, the Macaronis being a class 
of fops in London who introduced a particular style of dress in 1772. 
The name originated in the following manner. A number of young 
men of fashion who had visited Italy formed an association called 
"The Macaroni Club," in contradistinction to the "Beefsteak Club" 
of London. As the fashion of this time was to wear long waistcoats 
and coats with wide and heavy skirts, they wore theirs exceedingly 
short, and the whole dress of very close cut. Their wigs were 
remarkable for an enormous club, or turned-up bunch of hair be- 
hind. They had little cocked hats, swords dangling about their 
heels at the end of long straps, and sticks with large tassels. Their 
stockings were covered with coloured spots and their dress generally 
piebald in the same manner. 

In 1773 an alteration took place in their dress, consisting chiefly 
in elevating the hair to an enormous height, with large curls ranging 
on each side of it, and in wearing immense bunches of flowers at the 
breast. They attracted much attention during the few years of their 

* Fairholt's English Dress. 


"Ye belles and beaus of London town, 

Come listen to my ditty; 
The muse, in prancing up and down, 

Has found out something pretty. 
With little hat, and hair dress'd high, 

And whip to ride a pony. 
If you but take a right survey, 

Denotes a Macaroni. 

" Five pounds of hair they wear behind 

The ladies to dehght, O! 
Their senses give unto the wind. 

To make themselves a fright, O! 
Thus fashion who does e'er pursue 

I think a simple tony, 
For he's a fool, say what you will, 

Who is a Macaroni." 

This ballad was popular in the streets of London at this time, 

and was probably sung by the English soldiers in the Colonies. It 

suggests a close connection with the national air, "Yankee Doodle," 

which so many writers have attempted to explain without, however, 

settling the vexed question. 

"Yankee Doodle came to town 
Riding on a pony 
With a feather in his hat. 
Upon- a Macaroni" 

can be traced to the time of Charles I, and has been ascribed to the 
pen of a cavalier poet in derision of Cromwell. But this version 
does not seem any more palpable than other explanations, and "a 
feather in his hat" is not suggestive of Cromwell. 

According to the Century Dictionary, it is said to have been first 
applied in the Colonies to a Maryland company of militia distin- 
guished for its showy uniform. 

The Lydia Fisher jig, sung to the same tune, runs: 

" Lucy Locket lost her pocket 
Lydia Fisher found it, 
Not a bit of money in it 
Only broidery round it." 


We give a picture of a beautifully embroidered linen pocket, 
made by a colonial lady, which would be well worth finding even as 
empty as that of Lucy Locket (Figure 238). This pocket was intended 
to be worn outside the dress, as the careful needlework proclaims. 
The original is in the Essex Institute at Salem, Massachusetts. It 
was worked and worn by Mrs. Samuel Wodkind about 1750. A 
similar pocket made of printed cotton is in the Museum of Mem- 
orial Hall, Philadelphia. 

According to Fairholt, the Macaroni style of costume was quite 
the rage with the town (London). Everything that was fashionable 
was a la Macaroni. Even the clergy had their wigs combed, their 
clothes cut, "their delivery refined," a la Macaroni. The shop 
windows were filled with caricatures and other prints of this tribe; 
there were portraits of "Turf Macaronis," "Parade Macaronis," 
"Macaroni Parsons," "Macaroni Scholars," and a variety of other 
species of this extended genus. Ladies set up for female Macaronis. 
Their costume was scarcely so distinctive as that of the men ; it was 
chiefly known by the high head-dress, large bunch of flowers, and 
an exceedingly wide and spreading sleeve hanging with deep ruf- 
fles from the elbow. 

"No ringlets now adorn the face, 
Dear Nature yields to art, 
A lofty head-dress must take place, 
Abroad in ev'ry part. 
*^ Patch, paint, perfume, immodest stare, 

You find is all the fashion. 
Alas, I'm sorry for the fair, 

Who thus disgrace the nation."* 

I have not met with a single notice of a female Macaroni in the 

The English country people of the eighteenth century were rather 
picturesque in costume. When dressed for church or a country fair, 

* Fairholt's Satirical Poems on Costume. 



the young women wore flowered chintzes with muslin kerchiefs and 
aprons. The short skirts showed clocked stockings, usually of a 
bright colour. Their shoes were strong but not clumsy in pattern, 
and the little muslin caps they wore under their hats were extremely 
pretty and becoming. 

On these occasions the men wore breeches to the knees, coats 
of homespun, waistcoats usually of some contrasting colour, buckled 
shoes, and cocked hats. 

When at work, the damsels generally wore short skirts of a coarse 
woolen, material tied round the waist over short sacques of calico, 
with kerchiefs about the neck. (Figures 247 and 259.) 

The men wore knit jerkins or blouses of coarse linen, such as 
oznaburg or dowlas, leather boots pulled up over coarse woolen 
breeches, and Monmouth caps. Homespun linsey-woolsey was 
much in use for both sexes. 

The domestics of a household were always clothed by their mas- 
ters. A letter of Mistress Hannah Penn, written in 1700, requests 
that "ten yards of frieze for servants and some four or six skirts" 
be sent by barge from Philadelphia to Pennsbury, where she was 
preparing for her husband's return. The following items tell us 
what Washington ordered from England for the servants at Mt. 
Vernon in 1759: 

8 doz. pairs of plaid hose sorted, 

4 " Monmouth caps, 
25 yds. broadcloth to cost about 7s. 6d. 
15 " coarse double thick broadcloth, 

6 " scarlet broadcloth, 
30 " red shalloon, 

12 doz. white washed waistcoat buttons, 
20 " " " coat 

40 yds. coarse jean or fustian for summer frocks for negro servants, 
li doz. pairs strong coarse thread hose fit for negro servants, 

I " pairs coarse shoes and knee buckles, 

I postillion cap, 

6 castor beavers. 


The livery worn by his servants was of scarlet faced with 
white, the colours of the Washington coat-of-arms. 

The following notices from newspapers of 1740 to 1772, show 
the usual dress of servants and slaves in the Colonies: 

"Now in the custody of Thomas Smith, Sheriff of Cape County, 
a run-away negro man, who goes by the name Jupiter Hazard, is 
about twenty-seven years of age, but very black, of a middle size 
and well built. Had on when taken up, a flannel shirt, leather breeches 
with a fob in the waistband, shoes and stockings, both very good, 
the stockings of a blue colour, bathmetal buckles, a good felt hat 
and worsted cap. He speaks English like a country born negro 
who has lived some time among the Dutch. 

"He had a bundle with him which contained two white shirts, 
a dimity jacket and breeches, a white handkerchief, a linen cap, a 
pocket-book with four dollars in it, and a pair of silver knee buckles 
marked N. S." 

"Ran away on the 20th from Nathan Watson, of Mount Holly, 
an Irish servant man, named Christopher Cooney, a short well-set 
fellow, about twenty-six years of age, of a pale complexion, short 
brown curled hair, had lost one of his under fore teeth, and has had 
his right leg broke, and walks with his toe turned outward. Had 
on when he went away, a new castor hat, a red great coat, a light- 
coloured fustian coat and jacket, new copper coloured broadcloth 
breeches, lined with leather, new black and white yarn stockings, 
old shoes, newly soled. He was some time past a hostler at Jonathan 
Thomas's, in Burlington. Whoever takes up and secures said ser- 
vant, so that his master may have him again, shall have forty shil- 
lings reward, and reasonable charges, paid by 

Nathan Watson." 

From the "Pennsylvania Gazette," 1773: 

"Ran away from the subscriber, an English servant girl named 
Christina Ball, but calls herself Caty for shortness, about twenty 
years of age, brown skinned, black eyes, and hair lately cut short, 
a little stoop-shouldered. Her cloathes are very ordinary, a brown 



cloth petticoat, other coarse shifts and a striped caHco short gown; 

any other cloathes uncertain. Whosoever takes her up, and con- 
fines her in any gaol 
within twenty miles of 
this city shall have twenty 
shillings reward, and 
three pounds if taken up 
at any distance further, 
paid by 

Henry Neill." 

The advertisements 
in the early newspapers 
in America are a valua- 
ble contribution to the 
history of costume. I 
will give a few from the 
leading papers of differ- 
ent parts of the Colonies 
early in the eighteenth 

Among quaint and 
curious advertisements, 
we find this one of 
Thomas Peck's, advertis- 
ing goods sold by him at 
the Hatt & Beaver, Mer- 
chant's Row, in Boston. 

"A fresh assortment 
of Linen Linings, suita- 
ble for Beaver, Bea- 
verett. Castor, and Felt 
Hatts, Tabby ditto. Mohair Lupings, Silk Braid ditto, flatt and 
round silk lace and Frogs for Button Lupes, plain and sash Bands, 

Figure 242. 

Typical Dress of English Country Girl, 1780. (End 

of the Eighteenth Century.) 


workt and plain Buttons, black Thread, Gold and Silver Chain, 
yellow and white Buttons, hard and light Brushes, Velures, Cards, 
large and small bowstrings, Looping Needles, Verdigrees and 
Coperas, a good assortment of mens and boys felt Hatts, Castor 
ditto.— He likewise sells logwood." 

From the "New York Gazette" of May 9, 1737, we learn of a 
thief's stealing "one gray Hair wig, one Horse Hair Wig, not worn 
five times, marked V. S. E., one brown Natural Wig, one old wig 
of Goats Hair put in buckle." "Buckle" meant "to curl," and a 
wig was "in buckle" when it was rolled on papers for curling. Other 
advertisements tell of the dress-stuffs of the time with the weird names 
chilloes, betelles, deribands, tapsiels, that were familiar enough 
over the shop counters in colonial New York. 

Here is another curious old advertisement: 

"May II, 1 761. Imported by John and Thomas Stevenson 
and to be sold at their shop at the Sign of the Stays, opposite the 
South Side of the Town-House, Boston, at the very lowest prices. Viz. 

"Lawns of all sorts, Strip'd and Flowr'd kenting Handkerchiefs, 
cotton and linen ditto; silk and gauze ditto; Cambricks, Calicoes 
and printed Linens — white and coloured Threads; silk, worsted, cot- 
ton and thread stockings, Women's silk and worsted Mitts — Broad- 
Cloths; German Serge — Thicksets; Fustians, Jeans, Pillows and 
Dimities— Broglios, Dorsateens, Venetian Poplins, flowr'd and plain 
Damasks, Prussianets, Serpentines, Tammies, strip'd stuff, Camblets, 
Callimancoes, Shalloons and Buckrams, — Worsted Caps, Garters, 
Needles and Pins — white brown and strip'd Hollands — white and 
checked Linnen Diaper, Bed-Ticks, Tartans, Plaids Breeches and 
Jackets Stocking Patterns, Cotton and ^silk gowns. Stock Tapes, 
Leather Breeches, Mens' and Women's Leather Shoes, &c., &c." 

The following is also of interest: 

"Just imported from London, and to be sold by 

"Daniel Boyer, Jeweller, 

"At his Shop opposite the Governor's in Boston. 

Best Brilliant and Cypher Earing and Button Stones, Binding 


Wire, Brass and Iron ditto, Brilliant and cypher ring stones. Brass 
stamps. Garnets, Amethysts, and topaz. Buckle and ring brushes, 
Ring and buckle sparks. Money scales and weights. Locket stones 
& Cyphers, Small sheers & Flyers, Ruby and white foyle. Screw 
dividers. Coral beads, Blow pipes. Coral for Whistles, Shoe and 
knee Chapes, Draw plates. Moulding sand, Rough and smooth 
files. Crucibles and plack pots. Borax and Salt-Petre, Pommice 
and Rotten-stone, &c. 

Where also may be had, some sorts of Jewellers and Goldsmith work, 
cheap for cash." 

That Paul Revere was at one time a dentist, we learn from the 
following startling advertisement in the "Boston Gazette," December 
19, 1768: 

"Whereas many Persons are so unfortunate as to lose their Fore- 
Teeth by Accident, and otherways, to their great Detriment, not 
only in looks, but speaking both in Public and Private : — This is to 
inform all such that they may have them replaced with artificial 
ones, that looks as well as the Natural, and answers the end of speak- 
ing to all Intents, by Paul Revere, Goldsmith, near the head of Dr. 
Clarke's Wharf, Boston. 

"All Persons who have had false teeth fixt by Mr. John Baker, 
Surgeon-Dentist, and they have got loose (as they will in time) may 
have them fastened by the above who learnt the Method of fixing 
them from Mr. Baker." 

Here is an invoice of goods imported in 177 1: 

"Imported in the Neptune (Capt. Binney) and to be sold by 
Daniel Parker, Goldsmith, At his Shop near the Golden-Ball, Boston, 

"An Assortment of Articles in the Goldsmith's and Jewellers 
Way, viz. brilliant and cypher'd Button and Earing Stones of all 
Sorts, Locket Stones, cypher'd Ring Stones, Brilliant Ring Sparks, 
Buckle Stones, Garnetts, Amethysts, Topaz, and Sapphire Ring 
Stones, neat Stone Rings sett in Gold, some with Diamond Sparks, 
Stone Buttons in Silver, by the Card, black ditto in Silver, best Sword 
Blades, Shoe and Knee Chapes of all sizes." 


Another invoice by the same ship contains the following list: 

"Broad Cloths, German Serges, Bearskins, Beaver Coating, 
Half Thick, red Shagg, 8 qr. Blankets, Shalloons, Tammies, Dur- 
ants, Calimancoes, worsted Damasks, strip'd and plain Camblets, 
strip'd Swanskins, Flannell, Manchester Velvet, Women's ditto, Bom- 
bazeen, AUopeen, colour'd Duffels, Hungarians, Dimothy, Crim- 
son and green China, Cotton Check, worsted and Hair Plush, Men's 
and Women's Hose, worsted caps, mill'd ditto, black Tiffany, 
Women's and Children's Stays, cotton Romalls, printed Linnen 
Handkerchiefs, black Gauze ditto, Bandanoes, Silk Lungee Rom- 
alls, Cambricks, Lawns, Muslins, Callicoes, Chintz, Buckrams, Gu- 
lick Irish and Tandem Holland, Men's and Women's Kid and Lamb 
Gloves, black and white Bone Lace, Capuchin Silk and Fringe, Gar- 
tering, Silk and Cotton Laces, strip' t Ginghams, Yellow Canvas, 
Diaper, Damask Table Cloths and Napkins, Bedtick, Garlix, Sole- 
tare necklaces and Earings, Tapes, Women's Russel Shoes, sew- 
ing Silk, Looking Glasses, Ticklenburg, English and Russia Duck, 
English and India Taffety, Grograms, English and India Damask, 
Padusoys, Lutestrings, black and white Satin, Rich Brocade, Gauze 
Caps and Ruffles, Shades and handsome Silk Cloakes, &c., &c., &c." 

Of interest, too, is this advertisement from the "Pennsylvania 
Gazette," 1773: 

"John Marie 
"Taylor from Paris. 
Humbly acquaints the Gentry and Public that he has taken a house 
in Gray's Alley, between Walnut and Chestnut Streets, the fourth 
door from Second Street, and has provided good workmen. He 
has had the pleasure of pleasing some of the most respectable gentle- 
men in London, and hopes by the strictest attention and most par- 
ticular punctuality to give general satisfaction. 

"N. B. At said Maries', gentlemen's cloaths of all colours cleaned, 
all spots taken out, and made equal to new, without the tedious and 
disadvantageous method of ripping or washing them." 

The following notice is rather amusing: 


"William Lang, 
"Wig-Maker and Hair Dresser, 
Hereby informs the Public, that he has hired a Person from Europe, 
by whose assistance he is now enabled, in the several Branches of 
his Business, to serve his good customers, and all others, in the most 
genteel and polite Tastes that are at present in Fashion in England 
and America. In particular, Wigs made in any Mode whatever, 
such as may grace and become the most important Heads, whether 
those of Judges, Divines, Lawyers, or Physicians, together with 
all those of an inferior Kind, so as exactly to suit their Respective 
Occupations and Inclinations. Hair-dressing, for Ladies and Gen- 
tlemen, performed in the most elegant and newest Taste — Ladies 
in a particular Manner, shall be attended to, in the nice, easy, gen- 
teel and polite Construction of Rolls, such as may tend to raise 
their Heads to any Pitch they may desire, also French Curls, made 
in the neatest Manner. He gives Cash for Hair." 

In the Museum at Memorial Hall, Philadelphia, are some jute 
braids once worn under nets by women of the Colonies. 

The following notices from various newspapers in different parts 
of the Colonies, appearing at the dawn of the Revolution, prove 
that the people of that day were not wholly given up to the vanities 
of the world. 

This, from a New England paper about 1768, is a proof of 
the patriotic spirit of the dames of colonial days: 

"In a large circle of very agreeable ladies in this Town, it was 
unanimously agreed to lay aside the Use of Ribbons, &c., &c., 
&c. for which there has been so great a Resort to Milliners in times 
past. It is hoped that this resolution will be followed by others 
of the Sex throughout the Province — How agreeable they will ap- 
pear in their native Beauty, stript of these Ornaments from the pre- 
vailing Motive of Love to their Country." 

Another notice reads: 

"We must after all our Efforts, depend greatly upon the Female 
Sex for the introduction of Economy among us; and those who 


have the Pleasure of an Acquaintance with them assure us that their 
utmost Aid will not be wanting. 

''So strong is the Disposition of the Inhabitants of this Town 
to take of the Manufacturers that come from the Country Towns, 
especially Womens and Childrens Winter Apparel, that nothing 
is wanting but an Advertisement where they may be had in Town, 
which will be taken in, and published by the printers of this Paper 
gratis." * 

Mrs. Caulkins tells us that "with the prospect of war with 
the Mother Country before them, many of the inhabitants of Boston 
decided upon a non-importation system, and a non-consumption 
of articles on which heavy duties were laid. It was the practice 
then, as it is at this day, in the Colonies as well as in England, to 
dress in black clothes on mourning occasions. It was decided to dis- 
continue such dresses, and the custom of wearing black on these 
occasions was generally laid aside; the only sign made use of was 
a piece of black crape about the hat, which was in use before, and 
a piece of the same stuff around the arm. 

"An agreement to this effect was drawn up and very generally 
signed by the inhabitants of the town, also by some members of 
the Council and Representatives. This would affect the sale of 
English goods, and none were to be purchased except at fixed prices. 
At the same time another agreement was very extensively signed 
to eat no lamb flesh during the year. This was to increase the sheep 
in the country, and consequently to encourage the manufacture of 
woolen goods, which were imported from England in large quanti- 

"The practice of wearing expensive mourning dresses was soon 
very generally laid aside. It was further proposed 'to give no other 
gloves than are of the manufacture of the country in lieu of white 
ones, that are seldom drawn on a second time.' It was suggested 

* The days of the Spinning Wheel in New England. Extracts from Colonial Papers. 



to the glovers that, 'it might not be amiss if some peculiar mark 
were put upon them, as a bow and arrow, or pine tree, instead of the 
usual stitching on the back,' and a great number of the respectable 
tradesmen of the Town came into a resolution to wear nothing but 
leather for their working habits. Instead of the rich cloth Roque- 
laures, even the magistrate and the colonel were satisfied with cloaks 
of brown camlet lined with green baize, and the greatest lady in 
the land had her riding hood also of camlet. As the great struggle 

for liberty gradually overshadowed the 
land, and the sacrifices necessary to con- 
summate the Revolution began to be ap- 
preciated, a decided change took place in 
regard to dress, amusements, and dis- 
play. Women discarded all imported 
ornaments, and arrayed themselves wholly 
in domestic goods. Fine wool and choice 
flax were in higher estimation than silk 
and laces, and the hearts of the patriots 
as well as the laudations of the poet 
were given to beauty in homespun gar- 
ments. Gentlemen also that had been 
accustomed to appear in society in the 
daintiest costume, following the example 
first set by the women, discarded their 
shining stocks, their cambric ruffles, silk stockings, silver buckles, 
and other articles of foreign production, and went back to leather 
shoestrings, checked handkerchiefs, and brown homespun cloth. 

"The encouragement of home manufactures and the rejection 
of all imported luxuries were regarded as tests of patriotism. Com- 
mon discourse grew eloquent in praise of plain apparel and Labrador 
tea. The music of the spinning wheel was pronounced superior 
to that of the guitar and harpsichord. Homespun parties were given 

Figure 243. 

Figure 24 

Figure 245. 


Figure 248, 



where nothing of foreign importation appeared in the dresses or 
upon the table. Even wedding festivities were conducted upon 
patriotic principles." * 

After the Battle of Bunker Hill, the colonists everywhere were 
too seriously engaged to give much attention to the fashions, only 
the Tories, who persisted in shutting their ears to the spirit of Rev- 
olution now rife in the Colonies, and spreading in ever-widening 
circles about them, continued to import the fashionable novelties 
from England. On that July morning in 1776 when the Declara- 
tion of Independence was read to an eager crowd in the State House 
yard in Philadelphia, the colonial period of American history came 
to an end. 


Philadelphia in the winter of 1777 was the scene of much gaiety. 
The Tories of the Colony, refusing even then to take a serious view 
of the situation, amused themselves and the British officers stationed 
there with Sir William Howe, by a series of dances and routs which 
had "an appropriate closing" in the famous Mischianza given by 
Major Andre and the other members of Howe's staff, probably with 
the desire to return some of the hospitality received, although Major 
Andre himself called it "the most splendid complimentary enter- 
tainment ever given by an army to their Commander." The splen- 
dour of this ball, preceded by a regatta on the Delaware and the 
absurd mock tournament, has been so often described that it is not 
necessary to dwell upon it here. The costumes of the knights and 
ladies were designed by Andre as well as the tickets of admission. 
The original drawing made for the ladies' costumes and one of the 
tickets for the occasion are In the possession of the Philadelphia 
Library Company. 

During the Revolutionary period (i 776-1 783), and, in fact, for 

* History of Norwich, Connecticut, by Frances Mainwaring Caulkins. 


the remaining y^ars of the eighteenth century, patriotic Americans 
who wished to be very fashionable imported their finery direct from 
Paris, and French taste prevailed both in furniture and dress. 

Depreciation of the currency was one of the many trials entailed 
by the breach with England. 

Speaking of the high prices during the Revolution, Mrs. Bache 
(Sarah Franklin), in writing to her father, says: "I have been ob- 
liged to pay fifteen pounds and fifteen shillings (£15 15s.) for a com- 
mon calamanco petticoat without quilting, that I once could have 
got for fifteen shillings. I buy nothing but what I really want, and 
wore out my silk ones before I got this." (Philadelpl\ia, |5ia§ "> 

A few months later she says: "A pair of gloves a 
lars. One yard of common gauze twenty-four dollar 

The hoop skirt, which had held its own for so mai 
ouj; of fashion in 1778. 

About this time hair in Paris was worn extravagantly high, but 
as we do not notice the extreme of this or, in fact, of any of the 
French styles in the portraits of the day in this country, it seems more 
than likely that they did not. find favour in American eyes. 

A letter from Miss Franks; one of the reigning belles in Ameri- 
can society, describes a new thing in bonnets to her sister, Mrs. Hamil- 
ton, living in the neighbourhood of Philadelphia: "I shall send you 
a pattern of the newest bonnet ; there is no crown, but gauze is raised 
on wire and punched to a sugar loaf at the top. The lighter the 
trimming the more fashionable. (Figure 236.) 

"Nancy Van Horn and myself employed yesterday morning 
in trying to dress a rag baby in the fashion, but could not succeed; 
it shall go, however, as it will in some degree give you an opinion 
on the subject. 

"As to the jacket and the pinning in of the handkerchief, yours 
you say reaches to the arms. I know it, but it must be pinned up 

* Letters to Benjamin Franklin from his Family and Friends. 


to the top of the shoulders and quite under the arms as you would 
a girl's Vandyke (Figure 259). 

"The fuller, it sets, the handsomer it is thought. Nobody ever 
sets a handkerchief out in the neck, 'and a gauze handkerchief is 
always worn double and the longest that can be got; it is pinned 
round the throat, as Mrs. Penn always did, and made to set out 
before like a man's shirt. : The ladies here always wear either a pin 
or a brooch as the men do."* 

Chintz gowns were the usual wear for mornings at home, even 

, when admiring British officers were about, for Sally Wister, writing 

ir^l^j^ dt)untry home of her father in 1778, says to Deborah Norris: 

^r near seven, dress'd in my light chintz which is made 

i^enton handkerchief and linen apron." f Quilted 

petticoats wSfe still very fashionable at this time. 

Caps of a great variety of shapes were worn on all occasions by 
the women of this period (Figures 200, 201, 202, and 219). A pic- 
ture of one of a striking style is given (Figure 202) which was worn 
by Mrs. Nathaniel Appleton in Massachusetts, in 1784. 

Many of the English memoirs and letters mention the "great- 
coat," which came into use in 1786, and so pleased Queen Char- 
lotte that she commanded Miss Bumey to celebrate it in verse. The 
result was not remarkable as a poem, but interesting as a note on 
popular costume. 

"The garb of state she inly scorn'd 

Glad from its trappings to be free'd, 
She saw thee humble, unadorn'd, 
• Quick of attire, — a child of speed. 

"Still, then, thrice honour'd Robe! retain 
Thy modest guise, thy decent ease. 
Nor let thy favour prove thy bane 

By turning from its fostering breeze." 

* Letter written from Long Island to Mrs. Hamilton of Woodlands near Philadelphia, 
t Pennsylvania Magazine, vol. vii. 


As Miss Burney speaks later of wearing a "white dimity great- 
coat as usual in the morning," it was probably another form of the 
negligee, the ancestress of our tea gown (Figure i6i). Of the same 
nature, too, were the gowns which Maria Dickinson mentions; writ- 
ing of an evening spent at Fairhill, the country-seat of Isaac Norris 
near Philadelphia, she says: 

"It was the custom to disrobe and put on one of the soft warm 
gowns of green baize provided for each guest," then follows a charm- 
ing description of innocent gossip over the fire. This letter is dated 
January i, 1787. 

Quaker dress was at this time noticeable for uniform simplicity 
of cut and sober colouring, although, as we see by the followir^^x- 
tract from a letter, lilac satin was allowed on occasions. ^BJD©- 

"Phila. 23 Sept. 1783. 

"We reached the antiquated building on Front street ere they 
made their appearance, and being seated very advantageously, we 
soon had the pleasure of seeing them enter. The bridegroom in a 
full suit of lead coloured cloth, no powder in his hair, which made 
him look tolerably plain. The bride was in lilac satin gown and 
skirt with a white satin cloak and bonnet. It would be needless to 
enumerate the variety of dresses which made their figures on this 
occasion. Suffice it to say that all looked much in the smartness 

especially neighbor G , who had procured an enormous large hat 

which made him the most conspicuous person present" (Figure 220). 

For this amusing letter I am indebted to Miss Anne H. Wharton, 
the author of the delightful biography of Martha Washington, as 
well as other well-known books on the colonial period. 

There are very few portraits of Quakers of this period ; two, how- 
ever, of old ladies in their muslin caps and plain silk gowns are repro- 
duced in Figures 250 and 252. Mrs. Pennington, sister of the Mayor 
of Philadelphia, wears a dress of sage green under her kerchief. In 
the original painting the colouring is very attractive. The other 


portrait is copied from an engraving, but there is great charm in the 
delicate face. The white sheer cap is fastened with a white ribbon 
bow and the dress is probably of gray silk (Figure 252). 

After the proclamation of peace with Great Britain, while Adams 
was Minister to the English Court, his wife wrote full accounts of 
the prevailing styles there for the benefit of her gay friends in the 
United States. In 1786 she wrote: 

"To amuse you then, my dear niece, I will give you an account 
of the dress of the ladies at the ball of Comte d'Adhemar. There 
was as great a variety of pretty dresses, borrowed wholly from France, 
as I have ever seen; and amongst the rest, some with sapphire-blue 
satin waists, spangled with silver, and laced down the back and seams 
with silver stripes; white satin petticoats trimmed with black and 
blue velvet ribbon; an odd kind of head-dress, which they term the 
'Helmet of Minerva.' I did not observe the bird of wisdom, how- 
ever, nor do I know whether those who wore the dress had suitable 
pretentions to it. 'And pray,' say you 'how were my aunt and cousin 
dressed?' If it will gratify you to know, you shall hear. Your 
aunt, then, wore a full-dress court cap without the lappets, in which 
was a wreath of white flowers, and blue sheafs, two black and ,blue 
flat feathers (which cost her half a guinea apiece, but that you need 
not tell of), three pearl pins, bought for Court, and a pair of pearl 
earrings, the cost of them — no matter what ; less than diamonds, how- 
ever. A sapphire blue demi-saison with a satin stripe, sack and 
petticoat trimmed with a broad black lace; crape flounce, etc., leaves 
made of blue ribbon, and trimmed with white floss; wreaths of black 
velvet ribbon spotted with steel beads, which are much in fashion 
and brought to such perfection as to resemble diamonds; white rib- 
bon also in the Vandyke style, made up the trimming, which looks 
very elegant; and a full dress handkerchief, and a bouquet of roses. 
'Full gay, I think, for my aunt.' That is true, Lucy, but nobody 
is old in Europe. I was seated next the Duchess of Bedford, who 




had a scarlet satin sack and coat, with a cushion full of diamonds, 

for hair she had none, 
and is but seventy-six 
neither. Well now for 
your cousin: a small 
white leghorn hat, bound 
with pink satin ribbon; 
a steel buckle and band 
which turned up at the 
side, and confined a large 
pink bow; a large bow 
of the same kind of rib- 
bon behind; a wreath of 
full blown roses round 
the crown, and another 
of buds and roses within- 
side the hat, which, be- 
ing placed at the back 
of the hair, brought the 
roses to the edge; you 
see it clearly; one red 
and black feather with 
two white ones, com- 
pleted the head-dress. A 
gown and coat of Cham- 
beri gauze, with a red 
satin stripe over a pink 
waist, and coat flounced 
with crape, trimmed with 
broad point and pink 

ribbon; wreaths of roses across the coat, gauze sleeves and ruffles." 
As costumes similar to those described by Mrs. Adams may be 

7 /'>• 
Figure 249. 
A Riding Habit about 1785 (from a Contemporary 

Figure 250. 

Figure 251. 

Figure 252. 

Figure 253. 



seen in Racinet, Pauquet, and other books of French costume, it is 
not necessary to give pictures of them here. 

The small proportion of the people in America in the latter years 
of the eighteenth century who could truthfully be called gay lived, 
of course, in the large towns and cities; the majority lived quietly in 
the country on their large estates or plantations. The ''History of 
Durham, Connecticut," * describes the home customs as well as the 
home costumes of rural New England from 1776 to 1800. 

"The inhabitants were generally clad in fabrics manufactured, 
that is made by hand, in the family. There was woolen cloth spun 
in the house but fulled and dressed at the clothier's shop. There 
was brown tow cloth, and streaked linen for the males, with bleached 
linen for shirts. In the summer they generally wore brown tow 
or linen trowsers and frock; the latter being a kind of over shirt. 
The fulled cloth worn in the winter time though often coarse was 
warm. It was sometimes very decent in appearance when made 
of fine wool, well spun and well dressed. The females were clad 
in streaked linen or checked linen, on week days, and in chintzes and 
it may be muslins and silks on the Sabbath. The wedding gowns 
if not muslin were sometimes brocade or lutestring. Near the close 
of the last century silk was reeled and woven in Durham. For a 
considerable time the women wore cloaks of scarlet broadcloth. In 
the year 1800 women might be seen on the Sabbath riding or walking 
in the street or sitting at church having on these cloaks; a very comely 
and comfortable article of dress. Chaises were introduced into, Dur- 
ham about 1775 or '80. For some years there were only three chaises 
in the town. The people went to meeting on horseback, the women 
sitting behind the men on pillions. While this fashion continued 
every house had a horse-block. A characteristic of the houses built 
in the first half century after the settlement of Durham was the large 
kitchen fireplace, which in some cases was seven or eight feet in 

' * By Chauncey Fowler. 



width, having sometimes one and sometimes two ovens in it, admitting 
back logs two or three feet in diameter, and three or four children 

into the chimney 'corners.' 
The large and steady fire 
on the hearth in such a fire- 
place shone on the faces of 
many a family circle, gath- 
ered together on a winter's 
evening. To many a large 
family of eight or ten chil- 
dren the hearth-stone was 
a load stone to draw them 
around it. There was 
knitting for the mother 
and the elder daughters. 
There were the slates for 
the older sons. There were 
apples and nuts for the 
younger children, or it may 
be a lesson in spelling. 
There were the two vol- 
umes from the Town 
Library for the father and 
others. There was story 
telling and song singing. 
There was the mug of 
cider enlivened by red pep- 
per against cold. There 
was the family Bible and 
there was prayer before 
retiring to rest. In short, there were family government, family 
instruction, family amusement, and family religion." 

Figure 254. 

A Summer Costume, 1 790-1 795 (from a Contem- 
porary Portrait). 



On the occasion of the inauguration of Washington as President, 
in New York, his dress is described as of fine dark brown cloth of 
American manufacture, with white silk hose, shoes with silver buckles, 
and a dress sword. The ball which followed brought out all the 
j&nery the women of the young Republic could afford. This is the 
description given in "The Republican Court": 

"New York, 1789. Inauguration Ball. 
" The costume of the time is very well illustrated by the portraits 
of the day, of which fortunately there are many, but some readers 
may be interested in the remarks on the dresses of the women which 
form a portion of Colonel Stone's description of the First Inaugura- 
tion Ball. "Few jewels," he says, "were then worn in the United 
States, but in other respects the dresses were rich and beautiful, 
according to the fashion of the day. We are not quite sure that we 
can describe the full dress of a lady of rank in the period under con- 
sideration, so as to render it intelligible, but we will make the attempt. 
One favorite dress was a plain celestial blue satin gown with a white 
satin petticoat. On the neck was worn a large Italian gauze hand- 
kerchief, with border stripes of satin. The head-dress was a pouf 
of gauze, in the form of a globe, the creneaux or head piece of which 
was composed of white satin, having a double wing, in large plaits, 
and trimmed with a wreath of artificial roses, falling from the left 
at the top to the right at the bottom, in front, and the reverse behind. 
The hair was dressed all over in detached curls, four of which, in two 
ranks, fell on each side of the neck, and were relieved behind by a 
floating chignon. Another beautiful dress was a perriot made of 
gray Indian taffeta, with dark stripes of the same colour, having two 
collars, the one of yellow, and the other white, both trimmed with 
a blue silk fringe, and a revere trimmed in the same manner. Under 
the perriot was worn a yellow corset or bodice, with large cross 
stripes of blue. Some of the ladies wore hats a VEspagnole of white 




satin, with a band of the same material placed on the crown, like 

a wreath of flowers on the head-dress above mentioned. This hat, 

with a plume, a popu- 
lar article of dress, was 
relieved on the left side, 
having two handsome 
cockades, one of which 
was at the top and the 
other at the bottom. On 
the neck was worn a 
very large plain gauze 
handkerchief, the end of 
which was hid under the 
bodice; after the manner 
represented in T r u m - 
bull's and Stuart's por- 
traits of Lady Washing- 
ton. Round the bosom 
of the perriot a fall of 
gauze, a la Henri IV, 
was attached, cut in 
points around the edge. 
There was still another 
dress which was thought 
to be very simple and 
pretty. It consisted of a 
perriot and a petticoat, 
both composed of the 
same description of gray 
striped silk, and trimmed 

round with gauze, cut points at the edges in the manner of herrisons. 

The herrisons were indeed nearly the sole trimming used for perriots, 

Figure 259. 

Woman in Typical Working Dress, 1 790-1800 (taken 

from Original Garment at Stenton, Philadelphia). 



caracos, and petticoats of fashionable ladies, made either of ribbons or 
Italian gauze. With this dress they wore large gauze handkerchiefs 
upon their necks, with four satin stripes around the border, two of 
which were narrow, and the other broad. The head-dress was a 
plain gauze cap, after the form of the elders and ancients of a nun- y 
nery. The shoes were celestial blue, with rose coloured rosettes. Such j/ 
are descriptions of some of the principal costumes, and although 
varied in divers unimportant particulars, by several ladies, according 
to their respective tastes and fancies, yet as with the peculiar fashions 
of all other times, there was a general correspondence — the tout 
ensemble was the same." 

A perriot was evidently an overdress. The name betrays the 
French influence, and as it is always mentioned in connection with 
a petticoat it probably opened in front like a polonaise or sacque. 

It was so much the custom of the women of that time to write verses, 
that the following lines by Mrs. Warren* on the frivolities of 1790 
have more interest on account of the theme than the literary style 
could possibly claim: 

"Woman's Trifling Needs. 

"An inventory clear 
Of all she needs Lamira offers here; 
Nor does she fear a rigid Cato's frown 
When she lays by the rich embroidered gown, 
And modestly compounds for just enough — 
Perhaps, some dozens of more flighty stuff; 
With lawns and lustrings, blond and Mechlin laces, 
Fringes and jewels, fans and tweezer-cases ; 
Gay cloaks and hats of every shape and size, 
Scarfs, cardinals, and ribbons of all dyes; 
With niflfles stamped, and aprons of tambour, 
Tippets and handkerchiefs, at least three score; 
With finest muslins that fair India boasts, 
And the choice herbage from Chinesan coasts; 
(But while the fragrant Hyson leaf regales, 

♦Poems Dramatic and Miscellaneous. 


Who'll wear the homespun produce of the vales? 
For if 'twould save the nation from the curse 
Of standing troops ; or — name a plague still worse — 
Few can this choice, dehcious draught give up, 
Though all Medea's poisons fill the cup.) 
Add feathers, furs, rich satins and ducapes, 
And head-dresses in pyramidal shapes; 
Sideboards of plate and porcelain profuse, 
With fifty dittos that the ladies use; 
If my poor treacherous memory has missed, 

Ingenious T shall complete the list. 

So weak Lamira, and her wants so few. 

Who can refuse? — they're but the sex's due. 

In youth indeed, an antiquated page 

Taught us the threatenings of an Hebrew sage 

'Gainst wimples, mantles, curls, and crisping-pins, 

But rank not these among our modern sins: 

For when our manners are well understood, 

What in the scale is stomacher or hood? 

'Tis true, we love the courtly mien and air, 

The pride of dress and all the debonair; 

Yet Clara quits the more dressed negUgee, 

And substitutes the careless polanee; 

Untill some fair one from Brittania's court, 

Some jaunty dress or newer taste import; 

This sweet temptation could not be withstood, 

Though for the purchase paid her father's blood. 

Can the stern patriot Clara's suit deny ? 

'Tis beauty asks, and reason must comply." 

The portrait by Copley of Mercy Warren, reproduced as a frontis- 
piece to her biography in the popular series "Women of Colonial 
and Revolutionary Times," represents her in a brocade sacque richly 
trimmed with lace and a small fly cap, under which the hair is 
arranged low and without powder. 

Mr. Wansey, the English traveller, describes a visit to the theatre 
in Philadelphia, which he said was "as elegant and convenient and 
large as Covent Garden. I should have thought myself still in Eng- 
land judging by the appearance of the company around me. The 



ladies wore small bonnets of the same fashion as those I saw in Lon- 
don — some of chequered straw; many had their hair full dressed, 
without caps, as with us, and very few had it in the French style. 
The younger ladies appeared with their hair flowing in ringlets on 
their shoulders (Figure 254). The gentlemen had round hats, coats 
with high collars, cut quite in the English fashion, and many coats 
of striped silk." 

In 1795 a very decided change in women's dress is noted. Soft 
clinging materials superseded the stiff brocades and rustling silks. 
Gowns were made with narrow 
skirts and short bodices with long 
tight-fitting sleeves; the shoulders 
were generally uncovered, but 
muslin or gauze handkerchiefs 
were sometimes worn in the 
house, while for outdoor wear, long 
scarfs were put on around the 
shoulders and fell to the feet in 
front. Hair was worn in loose 
curls, generally caught up with a 
comb or knot of ribbon. Caps 

for elderly people were made in a variety of styles (Figures 224, 
225, 253, 259). 

In her memoirs, Elizabeth Bowne takes the trouble to describe 
just how the gowns of her day were made. In 1798 she writes to 
her family: 

"The gown patterns I shall enclose, the one with a fan back is 
meant to just meet before and pin in the robings, no strings, belt 
or anything. The other pattern is a plain waist with strips of the 
same stitched on, and laced between with bobbin or cord. I have 
a muslin done so with black silk cord, which looks very handsome, 
and I have altered my brown silk into one like the other pat- 

FlGtTRE 265. 

Back of Mauve Cr6pe. 



tern. I was over at Saco yesterday and saw one Mary (King) had 
made in Boston. It was a separate waist, or rather the breadth did 

not go quite up. The waist 
was plain with one stripe of 
cording let in behind and the 
rest of the waist was perfectly 
plain. The skirt part was 
plaited in box plaits three of a 
side, which reached to the 
shoulder straps and only enough 
left to meet straight before, and 
is one of the patterns I have 

In Figure 341 the picture of 
a dress is given which has an 
interesting story connected with 
it (Figure 265). 

The owner. Mile. Henrietta 
Madeline 1' Official de Wofoin 
(afterwards Mrs. Sartori), was a 
god-daughter of Queen Marie 
Antoinette, her father being an 
officer at the Court of Louis 
XVI, who was sent to San 
Domingo on official business 
just before the outbreak of the 
French Revolution. Soon after 
occurred the insurrection of the 
Negroes against the whites in 
San Domingo. M. de Wofoin 
managed to escape to this country, but lost all traces of his daughter 
in the excitement and knew nothing of her fate. He made his way 

Figure 266 

Pelisse of Sage-green Silk with Quilted Border 
(from an Original Garment of 1797). 

Figure 267. 


to Trenton, New Jersey, and while there wandered one day into the 
market-place, where he met his daughter's old black nurse. She 
told him that she had brought "Mademoiselle" to America and also 
to Trenton. Shortly after young Sartori, who had been sent from 
Rome by his father to visit this country, arrived at Trenton and fell 
in love with Mademoiselle. They were married and lived at Lam- 
bertville, New Jersey. Mrs. Sartori died at the age of forty, having 
been the mother of fifteen children. The original gown from which 
this picture is taken has been most kindly lent to us for this book, 
by a direct descendant of the heroine of the story. 

A dress of a quaint cut and of a fine glazed cotton unknown 
to-day came from Martinique with Madame Chevalier, who be- 
came a pensioner at Christ Church Hospital, Philadelphia, in the 
last years of the eighteenth century (Figures 248, 342). 

This fashion of short waists and narrow skirts for women (Figures 
341, 342, 344) and high-collared coats short at the waist for men 
marked the end of the eighteenth century. 


I 700-1 800 


In a frock neatly trimmed with beautiful lace, 
And hair nicely dressed, hanging over her face, 
Thus decked, Harriet went to the house of a friend, 
With a large little party the evening to spend. 

"Ah! how they will all be delighted, I guess. 
And stare with surprise at my elegant dress"; 
Thus said the vain girl, and her Httle heart beat, 
Impatient the happy young party to meet. 

But alas! they were all too intent on their fun 
To observe the gay clothes this fine lady had on; 
And thus all her trouble quite lost its design, 
For they saw she was proud, but forgot she was fine. 

'T was Lucy, though only in simple white clad 
(Nor trimmings, nor laces, nor jewels she had). 
Whose cheerful good-nature delighted them more 
Than all the fine garments that Harriet wore. 

'Tis better to have a sweet smile on one's face 
Than to wear a rich frock with an elegant lace. 
For the good-natured girl is loved best in the main 
If her dress is but decent, though ever so plain. 

-J. T. 


Children's Garments 

1 700-1 800 

HE clothes of the children of the eighteenth century- 
were marvellously made and quaintly resembled 
the garments of their parents. From many 
authorities we learn that children wore stays in 
Colonial times, and one interesting specimen, of 
which a picture is given in Figures 280 and 281, 
has been most kindly lent for this book. This 
particular pair of stays was evidently worn by a 
child of about two years old. One little gown 
Figure 269. q£ which I Cannot learn the exact history, 

although it belonged to the family of James Logan, is made with 
elbow sleeves and square neck, the bodice evidently to be worn over 
stays, and the skirt opening over a petticoat. This is made of 
flowered chintz. (Figure 271.) Another child's dress is made in 
the same style, but the bodice opens over a sort of stomacher in 
front, and the material is of heavy damask linen. The sleeves of 
this gown are finished at the cuffs with three tiny buttons, worked 
over with linen thread (Figure 272). 

Dresses of a little later period, probably 1750, are made with even 

greater skill, of fine white cambric with low necks and short sleeves 

fastened up with buttons and loops of narrow tape on the shoulder. 

They are ornamented with groups of the very tiniest tucks, with 

13 283 


cording and tambour embroidery. Caps, which babies wore both by 
day and night, are also of exquisite needlework. Socks, worked with 
the initials of the baby, were knitted of fine white silk. One little 
pair of this kind is owned by the Pennsylvania Society of Colonial 
Dames, which was worn in babyhood by Isaac Norris, Speaker of 
the Continental Congress. Little mitts of linen were worn by these 
babies too. The pictures given here are of mitts worn in Pennsyl- 
vania by babies of the Norris and Logan families (Figures 272, 277). 
One minute pair is marked in red silk with the initials J. L. in mono- 
gram. A quaint little gown of buff chintz with flowers in different 
colours scattered over it is given in Figure 276. This was worn by 
a child of two years in the West family. 

In the Museum of Memorial Hall, Philadelphia, there is a child's 
quilted hood of about 1760 made of dark blue silk, and some charm- 
ing little gowns and caps of even earlier date may be seen in the 
Museum of the Colonial Dames at Stenton, Philadelphia (Figures 
271, 272). 

Very interesting are the infant dress and cap shown in Figure 
286, not only on account of the skilled needlework, but also for the 
history associated with them. The baby for whom these clothes 
were made so beautifully grew in time to be a patriotic doctor in New 
York, and being called upon one day, in 1789, to apply a fly blister 
to the chest of our great Washington, he mounted the poultice on a 
piece of white kid and decorated the edges with a pattern in gold 
leaf. As he was in the act of placing the plaster the illustrious patient 
startled him by the question, "Will it draw any better for the decora- 
tion, young man?" We are told that the doctor finished his work 
in great confusion, but he lived to be proud of the opportunity which 
has lent an additional interest even to his baby clothes. It must be 
confessed that our picture fails to show the exquisite drawn- work 
where the threads of sheerest muslin have been drawn at intervals 
to form a stripe of open work and a delicate pattern embroidered 

Figure 270 

Figure 271 Figure 272 Figure 273 Figure 274 

Figure 275 

Figure 276 Figure 277 

Figure 278 

Figure 279 



on the filmy mesh (Figure 286). A simple everyday slip of printed 
cotton, white ground with a pin dot of red, belonged to .the same 

■Until the latter part of the eighteenth century it was customary 
to dress children exactly like their parents. This we learn from old 
portraits, and very uncomfortable must the powdered wigs and lace 
stocks have been at a Royal Juvenile Party such as Queen Caroline 

Figure 280. 

Figure 281. 

A Child's Stays, 

delighted in giving for the diversion of her large family of prince- 
lings, where the children were dressed in miniature copies of their 
parents' court costumes.f 

In the Colonies the dress of the children was strangely elaborate. 

In the collection of Washington's manuscripts (edited by Ford) are 
two lists of clothes ordered for the Custis children at the tender ages 
of four and six, which would startle a modern nursery. Washington 

* Samuel Holden Parsons Lee, born in Connecticut, 1771. 
t Chronicles of Fashion. 


ordered for young Custis, his stepson (aged six), the following outfit 

from England in 1759: 

One piece Irish Holland at 4s 

Two yards fine cambric at los 

Six pocket handkerchiefs small and fine 

Six pairs gloves 

Two laced hats 

Two pieces India Nankeen 

Six pairs fine thread stockings 

Four pairs coarser thread stockings 

Six pairs worsted stockings 

Four pairs pumps 

One summer suit of clothes to be made of something light and thin 

One piece of black hair ribbon 

One pair handsome silver shoe and knee buckles 

One light duflfel cloak with silver frogs 

And for little Nellie Custis, then at the age of four, the following 
articles were ordered: 

Eight yards fine printed linen at 3 s 6d 

One piece Irish Holland at 4s 

Two ells of fine Holland at los 

Eight pairs kid mits • 

Four pairs gloves 

Two pairs silk shoes 

Four pairs Calamanco shoes 

Four pairs leatheV pumps 

Six pairs fine thread stockings 

Four pairs fine worsted stockings 

Two fans 

Two masks 

Two bonnets 

One stiffened coat of fashionable silk made to pack thread stays 

One-half piece of flowered Dimity 

Two yards fine cambric at los 

Two caps 

Two pairs ruffles 

Two tucker bibs and aprons, if fashionable. 

In addition to this order for suitable clothing and materials, the great 
man, under whose beneficent care it was the good fortune of the 

Figure 282. 

Figure 283 

Figure 284. 

'^ Figure 285. 




Custis children to come, added los. worth of toys, six little books for 
children beginning to read, one fashionably dressed baby, los. id., 
and other toys, los. 

In New England, too, children were most richly attired; and we 
read with amazement of a boarding-school outfit provided for two 
maidens of Norwich. 

"The daughters of General Huntington wei-e sent successively 
at the ages of twelve and fourteen years to finish their education at 
a boarding-school in Boston. The lady who kept the establishment 
was of high social standing, and made a point of taking her pupils 
often into company, that their manners might be formed according 
to the prevailing codes of politeness and etiquette. Of course the 

Figure 286. 
Baby Dress and Cap, 1771. 

wardrobe prepared for the young ladies was rich in articles of orna- 
ment and display. One of the daughters who had been carefully 
fitted out with twelve silk gowns, had been but a short time in Bos- 
ton when her instructress wrote to her parents requesting that another 
dress should be procured for her, made of a certain rich fabric that 
had recently been imported, in order that her appearance in society 
might be equal to her rank. A thirteenth robe of silk of an exquisite 
pattern was therefore immediately procured and forwarded." * 

"Little misses at a dancing- school ball (for these were almost 
the only fetes that fell to their share in the days of discrimination) 
were dressed in frocks of lawn or cambric. Worsted was then thought 

* History of Norwich. 



dress enough for common days,"* the famous annalist tells us, in 
speaking of Philadelphia children in the Revolutionary period. 

Marie Antoinette was the first mother to disregard the estab- 
lished court fashion. She had a simple suit of jacket and trousers 

made for the Dauphin, but the 
Chronicle of Fashion assures us that 
"even this, probably the most sen- 
sible of all the ill-fated Queen's 
innovations in dress, was reviled 
as if the paraphernalia of full dress 
was a moral obligation." 
\ In the portraits of English chil- 
dren in the latter part of the century, 
we become familiar with costumes 
at once simple and picturesque, as 
in Figures 269, 277, 278, 279, 287. 
Copley's well-known family group, 
and the picture of his family by Ben- 
jamin West (Figure 225), are satis- 
factory evidence of the adoption of 
these appropriate fashions for the 
children of the Colonies. 

Figures 284 and 285 are photo- 
graphed from portraits of two little girls in the New York Colony 
during the reign of Queen Anne, in gowns so stiff and so unsuitable 
they would have baffled even the graceful brush of a Reynolds or 
a Romney. 

Figure 287. 
Boy in Ordinary Dress, 1790. 

* Watson's Annals. 


During the Time of 

Queen Anne, George I, II, and III of England, 

Presidents Washington and Adams 

of the United States 


"A portly person, with three-cornered hat, 
A crimson velvet coat, head high in air. 
Gold-headed cane and nicely powdered hair, 
And diamond buckles sparkling at his knees, 
Dignified, stately, florid, much at ease. 
For this was Governor Wentworth, driving down 
To Little Harbour, just beyond the town, 
Where his great house stood, looking out to sea, 
A goodly place, where it was good to be. 
It was a pleasant mansion, an abode 
Near and yet hidden from the great highroad; 
Sequestered among trees, a noble pile. 
Baronial and Colonial in its style! 

Within, unwonted splendours met the eye, 

Panels and floors of oak, and tapestry; 

Carved chimney pieces, where, on brazen dogs. 

Revelled and roared the Christmas fire of logs; 

Doors opening into darkness unawares, 

Mysterious passages and flights of stairs; 

And on the walls, in heavy gilded frames. 

The ancestral Wentworths, with old Scripture names. 

Such was the mansion where the great man dwelt. 

He gave a splendid banquet served on plate 
Such as became the Governor of the State 
Who represented England and the King, 
And was magnificent in everything." 

— " The Poet's Tale." 


Men's Apparel 

I 700-1 800 

ERIWIGS and cocked hats were the character- 
istic features of the dress of men in the first 
half of the eighteenth century. 


Under Queen Anne the hats worn by men 
were smaller and were regularly cocked on 
three sides, and the cuffs of the coats were 
Figure 294. very wide and long, reaching almost to the 

wrist. The broad sword belt had vanished, and 
the sword hilt could be seen beneath the stiffened skirt of the square- 
cut coat (Figure 163). Blue or scarlet silk stockings, with gold or 1/ 
silver clocks, were much worn, as were also shoes with red heels and ,. 
small buckles (Figure 163); velvet garters were worn over the stock- 
ings below the knee, being fastened on one side by small buckles 
(Figure 163). Campaign wigs imported from France now became 
popular. They were made very full with long curls hanging 
towards the front (Figure 163). When human hair was scarce, a 
little horsehair supplied the place, in the part least in sight. 

In 1706 a peculiar cock of the hat came into fashion called the'^ 
Ramilie, and a long plaited tail to the wig with a great bow at the top 
and a small one at the bottom known as the Ramilie wig (Figure 299). 
Those who did not wear powder and who objected to the 



enormous expense or weight of the fashionable wigs, wore their own 
hair in long curls to resemble them, but the long popularity of the 
uncomfortable fashion of the periwig is indeed astonishing. 

Dr. Granger in his Life of Charles II, speaking of the fashion 
when it first came into vogue, says: "It was observed that a periwig 
procured many persons a respect and even veneration which they 
were strangers to before and to which they had not the least claims 
from their personal merit," and he quotes the amusing anecdote of a 
country gentleman who employed a painter to place periwigs upon 
the heads of several of Vandyke's portraits. Large wigs were 
worn until the middle of the eighteenth century. A plain peruke 
imitating a natural head of hair was called a short bob. 

A facetious barber in London had the following rhyme painted 
on the sign over his door: * 

"Oh Absolom, Oh Absolom, 
Oh Absolom my son, 
If thou hadst worn a periwig 
Thou hadst not been undone." 

The ridiculous long wigs of 1710 were decidedly expensive. One 
is mentioned in "The Tatler" costing 40 guineas. 

We read that in Philadelphia early in the eighteenth century men 
were wearing "cocked hats, and wigs, coats with large cuffs, big 
skirts, lined and stiffened with buckram. The coat of a beau had 
three or four large plaits in the skirt, wadded almost like a coverlet 
to keep them smooth, cuffs very large up to the elbows, the collars 
were flat and low, so as readily to expose the close plaited neck-stock 
of fine linen cambric and the large silver stock-buckle on the back 
of the neck, shirts with hand ruffles, sleeves finely plaited, breeches 
close fitted, with silver, stone or paste buckles, shoes or pumps with 
silver buckles of various sizes and patterns, thread, worsted and silk 
stockings. The very boys often wore wigs, and their clothing in 
general was similar to that of the men." 

* Hone's Every Day Book. 

.^■^dtf^^^^^l^^^H^' '^^^buhhhp 






^ ?^^ 




In the year 17 19 Jonathan Dickinson, a Friend, in writing to 
London for his clothes, says, " I want for myself and my three sons, each 
a wig — good light bobs." 

The reign of George I 
ofEers no distinctive changes 
for remark. Wigs held 
their ground, and in 1720 
white hair for the manu- 
facture of them "brought 
a monstrous price." 

Heavy cloaks or Roque- 
laures were still worn by 
men and were often 
trimmed with fur. Men- 
tion is made in letters from 
New England about 1720 
of a striped camlet cloak 
lined with a plain colour. 
Drugget was also used for 
the purpose (Figure 297). 

The ordinary costume 
of gentlemen during the 
reigns of Queen Anne and 
George I' is thus briefly 
summed up by M. Planche 
in his "History of British 
Costume." He says: 
"Square cut coats and long 
flapped waistcoats with 
pockets in them, the latter 
meeting the stockings, still drawn up over the knee so high as entirely 
to conceal the breeches, but gartered below it; large hanging cuffs and 


Figure 297. 

Taken from a Genuine Roquelaure, Middle of 

the Eighteenth Century. 



lace ruffles. The skirt of the coat stiffened out with wire or buckram 
from beneath which peeped the hilt of the sword deprived of the 
cord and splendid belt in which it swung in the preceding Reigns. 
Blue or scarlet silk stockings with gold or silver clocks. Lace neck- 
cloths, square-toed, short quartered shoes, with high red heels and 
small buckles; very long and formally curled perukes (or periwigs), 
black riding wigs, and night cap wigs; small three cornered hats 
laced with gold or silver galloons, and sometimes trimmed with feathers 
comprised the habit of the noblemen and gentlemen from 1702 to 1724." 
As in all ages and all climes, variations of the prevailing style 
were indulged in by gay young men about town. The pet extrav- 
agance at this period was beautiful lace in ruffles and neckties. 

Figure 298, 
Periwig with Tail, 1700. 

Figure 299. 
Ramilie Wig, 1730. 

Figure 30x3. 
Bag Wig, 1750. 

Queen Anne had a zealous care for the English church in America 
and took personal pleasure in sending beautiful services of silver to 
parishes in all her colonies. Many of these may be seen to-day with 
an historic inscription and the Queen's initials engraved in the simple 
script of her time. In her reign the dress of the English clergyman 
was inconspicuous but distinctive, and with slight modifications was 
worn by the majority of clergymen in America. Knee-breeches fitting 
close, buckled shoes, long black coats, and wigs were the prevailing 
characteristics in everyday life. In connection with the portrait 



of Bishop White of Pennsylvania given in Figure 358, it is interesting 
to recall the story told by himself of his appointment as chaplain to the 
Continental Congress. He was riding with a friend when a messen- 
ger from Congress overtook him. He hesitated for a few moments, 
realizing the danger of enrolling himself with the cause of the patriots, 
but after a short deliberation he turned his horse's head and accom- 
panied the emissary to General Washington's headquarters before 
Yorktown.* It was a brave step which he never regretted, and his 
name has ever been associated with the early sessions of our Congress 
in Philadelphia. Bishop White was consecrated at Lambeth Palace 
in 1787, and, despite his republican partisanship, amid many tokens 
of good will on the part of the king and others. 


There are numerous authorities for the costume of George II's 
reign, but the versatile genius of Hogarth I alone has furnished us 
with sufficient material for a study of the dress of all classes and con- 
ditions of the English men and women of his day. His "Five Orders 
of Periwigs" gives us the favorite varieties of that style of head-gear, 
which was certainly a very expensive fashion, for in 1734 we read 
that in the Colonies periwigs of light gray human hair were four 
guineas each. Light grizzle ties were three guineas, and other colours 
in proportion, down to twenty-five shillings. Light gray human 
hair cue-perukes were from two guineas to fifteen shillings each, and 
bob perukes of the same material a little dearer, real gray hair 
being most in fashion, and dark of " no estimation." 

The court dress of noblemen in 1735 is described as a coat made 
of coloured velvet or fine cloth laced with gold or silver, breeches to 
match; waistcoat of rich flowered silk of a large pattern on a white 
ground. Wigs were still worn with large curls standing up from 
the forehead (Figure 296). 

* Simpson's Lives of Eminent Philadelphians. t Born 1697; died 1764. 



Fairholt in his "History of English Dress" says: "By the cock 
of the hat, the man who wore it was known; and they varied 

from the modest broad 
brim of the clergy and 
country-man to the 
slightly upturned hat 
of the country gentle- 
man or citizen, or the 
more decidedly fash- 
ionable cock worn by 
merchantmen, and 
would - be - fashionable 
Londoners; while a 
very pronounced a la 
militaire cock was 
affected by the gallant 
about the court." All 
of these styles may be 
seen in the pictures of 
Hogarth. These hats 
were usually made of 
soft felt with a large 
brim caught up by 
three loops of cord to 
a button on the top. 
Being soft, they could 
be crushed under the 
arm and each flap 
could be let down at 
pleasure in case of 
wind, or rain, or sun. Mr. Wingfield speaks of a hat "unlooped 
although it doth not rain," and observes that in one of Cibber's 

Figure 303. 
Back View of Figure 229, Middle Eighteenth Century (from 
the Original Costume). 

Figure 304. 

Figure 305. 

P'iGURE 306. 

Figure 307. 

Figure 308. 

Figure 309. 



comedies we find a footman ''unlooping his hat to protect his 
powdered head from the wet." 

To use the snuff-box gracefully was an accomplishment considered 
necessary to the young man of fashion on his entrance into the gay 
world of the eighteenth century. Made of every sort of metal, adorned 
with precious stones or costly miniature paintings, the snuff-box was 
in great demand, and considered as indispensable on occasions of full 
dress as the fan. Many of these boxes which were used in the Colonies 
have been preserved. In Figure 239 is given a picture of one owned by 
Madame Le Comte, for the fashion of using snufif was not confined 
to men. 

A beau of this time is spoken of as "appearing in a different style 
of wig every day, and thus perplexing the lady to whom he was 
paying his addresses, by a new face every time they met during 
the first months of their courtship. Hats could be moulded in so 
many different cocks as to change the whole appearance of the 
wearer." * 

Hats had broader brims (Figure 197) and "were cocked triangu- 
larly, and pulling them off by way of salutation was invariably the 
fashion for all who had any breeding," according to a famous letter- 
writer of that day. Boots were worn for riding, with large broad 
tops which reached half-way up the thigh. 

The fashionable costume for men in the Colonies, identical with 
the prevailing style in England, was not subject to quite as many 
changes as the dress of the women. 

In 1740 a "jockey coat" was ordered from Boston of fine cloth 
with waistcoat and breeches to match. It is "to be trimmed plain, 
only with a button of the same sort as that of the waistcoat but pro- 
portionately bigger." The same gendeman ordered "as much three 
pile black velvet as is made for men's wear, and the best that can 
be had for the money, as much as will make a complete suit." In 

* The Spectator. 


addition to this he desires a^ght-gown of a deep crimson Genoa 
damask lined with the same colour. 

About this time there was a slight change in shoes. Square toes 
went out of fashion and were replaced by pointed toes for both sexes. 
(See Figures 229, 231.) Buckles became the ambition of all classes, 
and were worn of every size and shape. 

Claret coloured cloth was at that time considered the correct 
thing for suits, and light blue with silver button-holes and silver garters 
at the knees, was also very fashionable between 1740 and 1751. 

Pigtails came into fashion about the middle of the eighteenth 


" ' But pray what's that much Hke a whip, 
Which with the air does wav'ring skip 
From side to side, and hip to hip?' 
'Sir, do not look so fierce and big 
It is a modish pigtail wig.' " 

Instead of swords, many of the gay young sparks carried long 
oak sticks with ugly faces carved on the handles. 

One of the marked characteristics of the men of fashion in the 
eighteenth century was a mincing air. We read of Horace Walpole 
that "he always entered a room with that style of affected delicacy 
which fashion had made almost natural; with chapeau-hras be- 
tween his hands as if he wished to compress it, or under his arm; 
knees bent, and feet on tip-toe as if afraid of a wet floor." * 

About 1740 the large cocked hat and full-bottomed wig went 
out of style, and the lace cravat with long ends, which had been in 
fashion for about thirty years, gave place to a small black cravat 
worn with a ruffled shirt front (Figure 197.) There was a change 
in the coat also. A broad coUar which turned back round the neck 
contrasted strangely with the total want of collar in the earlier style, 
while the cuffs became very deep, reaching above the elbows and not 
very wide at the wrists. The coat itself fitted close to the body with 
skirt reaching to the calf of the leg. This change of style did not 

* Miss Hawkins' Memoirs. 

Figure 310. 

Figure 311. 

Figure 3:: 

Figure 313. 




long remain popular even in England. In prints of 1744 we again 
notice the wide cuffs and wider hat brims of a few years before. 

About 1750 muff- 
tees, or little woolen 
muffs of various 
colours, were used by 
men in the Colonies. 
They were "just big 
enough to admit both 
hands and long enough 
to screen the wrists, 
which were then more 
exposed than now ; for 
they wore short sleeves 
to their coats on pur- 
pose to display their 
fine plaited linen shirt 
sleeves with their gold 
cuff buttons and on oc- 
casions ruffles of lace." 
(Figures 182, 214,) 

In the summer sea- 
son men often wore 
calico morning gowns 
at all times of the day in 
the street as well as at 
home, A damask ban- 
yan was much the same 
thing by another name. 

We can hardly 
wonder that in Virginia and the southern colonies the hot wigs and 
cumbrous petticoats prescribed by fashion were often found too 


^s^l^^ ,^.j 

Figure 314. 
Gentleman in Banyan and Cap. 


uncomfortable for daily wear, and we read with a certain sense of 
relief, of a negligee costume of banyans and nightcaps adopted by 
the planters and their wives. 

The climate must be remembered as a potent inducement to go 
without the long curled wigs and wadded coats; and, alas, the discom- 
fort of stiff stays and voluminous petticoats in an American summer! 


In 1760, when wigs were powdered, they were frequently sent for 
that purpose in a wooden box to the barber to be dressed on his block- 
head. "Brown wigs," for which a brown powder was used, were 
worn, but were less fashionable than "the white disguise." 

On ceremonious occasions, if wigs were not worn, the hair was 
craped, curled, and powdered by barbers. 

About 1770, when wigs went out of favour and the natural hair 
was preferred, it became the fashion to dress it in a queue, or to 
wear it in a black silk bag tied with a bow of black ribbon (Figures 
303^ 318, 352, 353, 354, 355). 

With the queues belong frizzled sidelocks, and toupees formed of 
the natural hair, or in the absence of a long tie a splice was added 
to it (Figures 352, 353, 354, 355). Such was the general passion 
for the longest possible whip of hair, that sailors and boatmen used 
to tie theirs in eel skins to aid its growth. 

A curious silhouette of Washington by Folwell represents him 
with what is supposed to* be a fine net worn over hair and queue 
to keep the powder in place (Figure 357). 

A colonial item of interest is gleaned from Washington's manu- 
scripts. In 1759 he ordered from England for his own use: 

"A New-market great coat with a loose hood (Figure 364) to it, 
made of Blew Drab or broadcloth with straps before, according 
to the present taste — let it be made of such cloth as will turn a good 
shower of rain." 

Figure 315. 

Figure 3x6. 

i-ir,URF. 31; 

Figure 318 




''A light summer suit of Duroy by the measure, 
Four pieces best India nankeen, 
Two best plain beaver hats at 20s. 
One piece of black satin ribbon, 
I sword belt, red morocco or buflf, no buckles or rings," 

are also ordered on the same date. 

In Watson's "Annals of Philadelphia" we read: "Coats of red 
cloth were considerably worn, even by boys, and plush breeches 
and plush vests of various colours, were in common use. Everlasting, 
or durant, made of worsted, was a fabric of great use for breeches, 
and sometimes for vests 
which had great depend- 
ing pocket flaps, and the 
breeches were very short 
above the stride because 
the art of suspending 
them by suspenders was 
unknown. It was then 
the test of a well-formed 
man, that he could by 
his natural form readily 

keep his breeches above his hips, and his stockings without garter- 
ing, above the calf of the leg. 

" In the time of the Revolutionary war many of the American officers 
introduced the use of Dutch blankets for great coats (Figure 364). 
Large silver buttons worn on coats and vests were a mark of wealth. 
Some people had the initials of their names engraved on each button. 
Sometimes they were made out of real quarter dollars, with the coinage 
impression still retained; these were used for the coats, and the 
eleven-penny-bits for vests and breeches. One old gentleman wore 
an entire suit decorated with conch shell buttons, silver mounted." 

In New England before the Revolution, "powdered wigs full and ( 
curled were worn by clergymen and other dignitaries (Figures 304, 



Figure 319. Figure 320. Figure 321. Figure 322. 


306, 307, 308, 317, 326, 329). A full-dress suit for a gentleman 
was usually made of silk, with trimmings of gold and silver lace, 
the waistcoat often richly embroidered."* Roquelaures and great 
coats were worn of cloth or camlet in all the colonies. 

Mr. Sydney George Fisher, the historian, despite his Quaker 
ancestry, exclaims with unwonted enthusiasm : "Those were brave days 
when the judges on the bench wore scarlet robes faced with 
black; when the tailor shops, instead of the dull-coloured woolens 
which they now offer, advertised, as in the New York Gazetteer 
of May 13, 1773, 'scarlet, buff, green, blue, crimson, white, sky 
blue, and other coloured superfine cloths'; when John Hancock, of 
penmanship fame, is described in his home in Boston with a red 
velvet skull-cap lined with white linen which was turned over the edge 
of the velvet about three inches deep, a blue damask dressing-gown 
lined with silk, a white stock, satin embroidered waistcoat, black satin 
breeches, white silk stockings to his knees, and red morocco slippers, "f 
V- ^\ ^y Thf^,,:fi^st umbrellas to ki^p off the ram were df oiled linen, very 
coarse and clumsy, with rattan sticks. Before their time some physi- 
cians and ministers used an oiled linen cape hooked round their shoul- 
ders, looking not unlike the big coat-capes now in use. They were 
only used for severe storms, like modern water-proofs. 

We believe it was about the year 1771 that the first efforts were 
made in Philadelphia to introduce the use of umbrellas in summer 
as a protection from the sun. "They were then scouted in the public 
'Gazette' as a ridiculous effeminacy. On the other hand, the 
physicians recommended them to keep off vertigoes, epilepsies, sore 
eyes, fevers, etc." 

Watches were worn in fob pockets with seals attached by a ribbon, 
but they were not in common use until the end of the century. { 

* History of Norwich, by F. M. Caulkins. 

t Men, Women, and Manners of Colonial Days. 

X Watson's Annals. 

FiGtTRE 323. 

Figure 324. 

Figure 325. 

P'IGURE 326. 

Figure 327. 




Of New York in the eighteenth century we read: "Whether it be 
in the journals of visitors or in private correspondence, we always get 
the impression of a lively and 
cheerful town, where people like 
to come and from which they 
are sorry to go away. In the 
old days, indeed, there was a 
restful sense of leisure which the 
rapid pace of modem life has 
ruthlessly destroyed."* 

Although the style of living in 
colonial New York was comfort- 
able, with little display, when we 
come to the subject of dress, we 
find the case was very different. 
Early in the eighteenth century 
the streets of New York were gor- 
geous with elaborate costumes. 

Gay masculine garments are 
described in inventories: Green 
silk breeches, flowered with sil- 
ver and gold, silver gauze 
breeches, yellow fringed gloves, 
lacquered hats, laced shirts and 

From 1760 to 1770, gentle- 
men in Massachusetts were wear- 
ing "hats with broad brims 
turned up into three corners 
with loops at the sides; long 
coats with large pocket-folds and cuflfs, and without collars 

* Dutch and Quaker Colonies, by Fiske. 


Figure 328. 
Working Garb, Middle Eighteenth Century, 


(Figures 327 and 334.) The buttons were commonly plated, but 
sometimes of silver, often as large as a half-dollar. Shirts had 
bosom and wrist ruffles; and all wore gold or silver shirt-buttons 
at the wrist united by a link. The waistcoat was long, with large 
pockets; and the neckcloth or scarf was of fine white linen or figured 
stuff broidered and the ends hanging loosely on the breast. The 
breeches fitted close, with silver buckles at the knees. The legs 
were covered with gray knitted stockings which on holidays 
were exchanged for black or white silk. Boots with broad white 
tops, or shoes with straps and large silver buckles, completed the 
equipment."* It seems strange indeed that, during the eighteenth 
century when men had so much fighting on hand, they should have 
paid such attention to dress and fashion, but abundant proof 
exists in the letters and diaries of the day that every detail, the width 
of the cuff, the length of the cravat, the size even of the button-holes, 
was to the masculine mind a matter of grave import. Apparently 
the sword knot received as much attention as the sword. Even "the 
greatest American," in his youthful days, paid exact attention to details. 
"Memorandum: To have my coat made by the following direc- 
tions; to be made a frock with the lapel breast, the lapel to contain 
on each side six button-holes, and to be about five or six inches wide 
all the way, equal, and to turn as the breast of the coat does, to have it 
made very long waisted and in length to come down below the bend 
ef the knee. The waist from the arm-pit to the fold to be exactly as 
long or longer than from thence to the bottom, not to have more than 
one fold in the skirt and the top to be made to turn in, and three 
button-holes, the laps at the top to turn as the cape of the coat, 
and bottom to come parallel with the button-holes, the last button- 
hole in the breast to be right opposite to the button on the hip."t 
At this time Washington was only a boy of fifteen. 

* History of Lynn, Mass., by Lewis and Newhall. 

t The writings of George Washington, edited by W. C. Ford. 

Figure 329. 

Figure 330. 

Figure 331. 

FiGUKE 332. 




We learn that English tradesmen were apt to take advantage of 
their colonial customers, and that Washington had occasion to protest 
against things being sent to him from London that were unfashionable 
and inferior in quality. We give his letter of September 28th, 1760: 

''And here gentlemen, I cannot forbear ushering in a complaint 
of the exorbitant prices of my goods 
this year all of which are to come to 
hand. For many years I have im- 
ported goods from London as well as 
other ports of Britain, and can truly 
say I never had such a penny-worth 
before. It would be a needless task 
to enumerate every article that I have 
cause to except against. Let it suffice 
to say that woolens, linnens, nails, 
etc., are mean in quality but not in 
price, for in this they excel indeed, 
far above any I have ever had. 

"Let us beseech you gentlemen to 
give the necessary directions for pur- 
chasing of them upon the best terms. 
It is needless for me to particularize, 
the sorts, quality or taste I would 
choose to have them in, unless it is 
observed. And you may believe me 
when I tell you that instead of getting 
things good and fashionable in their 

several kinds, we often have articles sent us that could only have been 
used by our forefathers in the days of yore, 'tis a custom I have some 
reason to believe with many shopkeepers and tradesmen in London, 
when they know goods are bespoke for exportation, to palm some- 
times old and sometimes very slight and indifferent goods upon us. 

Figure 333. 
Sporting Dress, Middle Eighteenth Cen- 
tury (after Highmore). 


taking care at the same time to advance lo, 15 or perhaps 20 per 
cent, upon them. My packages, per the ' Polly,' Capt. Hooper, are 
not yet come to hand, and the Lord only knows when they will 
without more trouble than they are worth." 

According to Fairholt, the costume of the ordinary classes during 
the greater part of the eighteenth century was exceedingly simple, 
consisting of a plain coat, buttoned up the front, a long waistcoat 
reaching to the knees, but having capacious pockets with great over- 
lapping flaps, a plain bobwig, a hat slightly turned up, and high 
quartered shoes. 

We read that, in 1 746, flat cocked hats were worn by English sailors, 
and twenty years later, hats of glazed leather or of woolen thrums, 
closely woven, and looking like rough knap; and their "small clothes," 
as we would say now, were immense wide petticoat-breeches, open 
at the knees, and not extending below them. Labouring men wore 
ticklenberg linen for shirts, and striped ticken breeches, and in winter 
heavy coats of gray duroy. The leathern breeches worn by men and 
boys were made without any opening flaps, and, according to Watson, 
were so full and free in girth that the wearers ordinarily changed 
the rear to the front if any signs of wear appeared. Aprons of leather 
were used by all tradesmen and workingmen. 

In a paper of 1771, a reward of ten pounds is offered for the arrest 
of a man named William Davis who robbed the church at Wilmington 
of its hangings and had a green coat made of them. Green was very 
fashionable at this period. 


At his second inauguration, in Philadelphia, 1793, Washington's 
costume was " a full suit of black velvet," cut in the fashion of Figure 
302, "his hair powdered and in a bag; diamond knee buckles and a 
light sword with, gray scabbard. Behind him was Jefferson, gaunt, 
ungainly, square-shouldered, with foxy hair, dressed in a blue coat, 

Figure 335. 

Figure 336. 

Figure 334. 

Figure 337, 

Figure 338. 




small clothes, and vest of crimson ; near by was pale, reflective Madison 
and burly, bustling Knox." Unfortunately for us, their dress on that 
occasion is not de- 
scribed. Adams was 
clad in a full suit of 
fine gray cloth. 

Powder, worn for 
a hundred years, went 
out of fashion in 1794, 
but the hair was still 
worn in a queue tied 
with a black ribbon. 

The following list 
of a gentleman's outfit 
gives an insight into a 
fashionable wardrobe 
at this time : 

"A light coloured 
broadcloth coat, with 
pearl buttons ; breeches 
of the same cloth; 
ditto, black satin ; vest, 
swansdown buff 
striped ; ditto, mole- 
skin chequer figure ; 
ditto, satin figured; 
ditto, Marseilles white; 
ditto, muslinet figured ; 

Undervest, faced with a Workingmanm the Last Half of the Eighteenth Century 
' (from a Contemporary Print). 

red cassimere; two 

ditto, flannel; one pair of flannel drawers; one ditto; cotton 

ditto; one pair black patent silk hose; one ditto; white ditto; one 


Figure 339. 


ditto; striped ditto; ten or a dozen white silk hose; three pair of 
cotton hose ; four pair of gauze ditto ; twelve neckerchiefs ; six pocket 
handkerchiefs, one of them a bandanna; a chintz dressing gown; 
a pair of silk gloves; old kid ditto." 

Coats for men became shorter in the waist and all the garments 
were worn fitting more closely to the figure. The tails of the coats 
were cut away in front and were quite long in the back. Although 
a few people might have been seen wearing cocked hats after 1800, 
a soft, low-crowned straight-brimmed hat came into fashion in 1794. 
At that time waistcoats were cut low over ruffled shirt fronts. Soft 
stocks were worn around the neck, finished with a bow and ends 
under the chin. 

Inventory of the wearing apparel of a gentleman in Connecticut 
at the end of the eighteenth century : 

I Great Coat 3 pr. Old Breeches 

I do do 16 Cotton & Linen Shirts 

I Black Coat 4 pr. Worcested Hose 

I Common do  4 Linen & Cotton do 

5 Old Coats 2 pr. plaited do 

4 pr. black Breeches 2 pr. black silk do 

5 pr. velveteen do i Morning Gown 

3 worcested waistcoats 3 pr. Cotton breeches 

1 velvet do, i bufif 5 pocket Handkerchiefs 

I Eider down do i pr. Gingham Trowsers 

I plaid Gown 7 waistcoats 

1 Coatee 3 Neck handkfs. 

2 Hats I White waistcoat 

7 pr. Woolen Hose 3 Under Waistcoats 

I pr. Boots 2 pr. leather mittens 

4 pr. Shoes i pr. woolen do 

I pr. overalls i pr. hnen and leather Gloves 

A great-coat of blue camlet with several short capes, long of waist 
and large of button, was the popular garment in severe weather. 
Trousers of leather and leggings of deer-skin supplemented the coat 
as a protection against storms. An extra pair of stocking legs well 
tucked into the low shoes was a homely substitute for leggings, and 



overshoes of very heavy leather were sometimes worn over the 
ordinary shoes. 


Martin mentions a portrait of James Logan as Chief Justice of 
the Province of Pennsylvania which represents him in gown, bands, 
and wig. The original colour of the gown is hard to determine in 
the portrait. In shape it represents an academic gown, and may 
have been worn in more than one capacity, as that distinguished 
colonist played many parts in his day. The dignified garment in 
question would equally become the governor and the chief justice. 
(Figure 323.) 

In his diary, under date of 1787, Manasseh Cutler, describing a 
visit to the State House, says: "In this Hall the Courts are held and 
as you pass the aisle you have a full view of the Court. The Supreme 
Court was now sitting. This bench consists of only three judges. 
Their robes are scarlet, the lawyers' black. The Chief Judge McKean 
sitting with his hat on, which is the custom, but struck me as being 
very odd and seemed to derogate from the dignity of a judge."* 

Among other customs brought over from England by the legal pro- 
fession is the practice still in use of carrying briefs and papers in bags. 
"Lawyers' bags," an English authority asserts, "were, until a compara- 
tively recent date, green, but leaders of the chancery and common law 
bars carried red bags. Chancery juniors, it is stated, were permitted 
to carry blue bags, etiquette forbidding them to carry bags of the 
same colour as their leaders." f 

In those days (latter half of the eighteenth century) it was the cus- 
tom of the Supreme Court to hold sessions in the various counties. 
When the Supreme Court came to Harrisburg (1777-78) to hold 
court, numbers of the citizens of the place— as many as two hundred 

* Life, Journab and Correspondence of Rev. Manassah Cutler, LL.D. 
fThe King's Peace, by Inderwick. 



people at a time — would go out on horseback to meet the judges and 
escort them to town. The sheriff with his rod of office and other public 

Figure 345. 
A Doctor of Civil Law, End of the Eighteenth Century (from an Old Print). 

officers and members of the bar would attend on the occasion, and 
each morning while the Chief Justice was in town the sheriff and 

Figure 346. 

Fig UK E 347. 

Figure 348. 

Figure 349. 




constables escorted him from his lodgings to the court-room. When on 
the bench, he sat with his hat on and was dressed in a scarlet gown. 
A " Grand Federal Procession " took place in Philadelphia on 
the  Fourth of July, 1 788, which is described at length in the 
''Pennsylvania Gazette," July 9, 1788. A great ship on wheels 
represented the Constitution, and in it was seated Chief Justice 
McKean in his robes of office, and the judges of the Supreme 

Figure 350. 
A Judge in Scarlet Robe, End of the Eighteenth Century (from an Old Print). 

Court in their robes of office. Had there been any decided change 
prescribed for the robes of the judges and lawyers in the framing 
of the Constitution it would have surely been emphasized in the 
procession, but as a matter of fact among the printed articles in 
Congress on the subject of the Judiciary, not a word regarding robes 
or etiquette is given. The portrait of Chief Justice McKean, which 
hangs in the Law School of the University of Pennsylvania, depicts 


him in a scarlet gown. It is a recent portrait, but was painted under 
the direction of the family. The red robe of the English Court was 
evidently worn throughout the eighteenth century in America. 

John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, was appointed to that of&ce by Washington in 
1789. The full-length portrait of him in his robe is reproduced in 
Figure 325. According to a contemporary authority, this robe is the 
black silk gown with facings of salmon-coloured satin with a white 
edge, given with his degree of Doctor of Laws by Columbia Uni- 
versity and worn by the Chief Justice during the term of his high 
ofi&ce under the Government.* 



The history of the American Navy, according to good authority, 
dates from the twenty-second of December, 1775, and the history 
of its uniform from the fifth of September, 1776, when the Marine 
Committee of the Continental Congress made the following regula- 
tions regarding it: 

Captains^-A blue coat with red lapels, slashed cuffs, a stand-up 
collar, flat yellow buttons, blue breeches and a red waistcoat with 
yellow lace. 

Lieutenants — A blue coat with red lapels and round cuffs faced, 
a stand-up collar, yellow buttons, blue breeches, and a plain red 

Masters — A blue coat with lapels, round cuffs, blue breeches, and 
a red waistcoat. 

Midshipmen — A blue coat with lapels, round cuffs faced with 
red, a stand-up collar, red at the buttons and buttonholes, blue 
breeches, and a red waistcoat. 

* Life and Works of Gilbert Stuart. 



Marines — A green coat faced with white, round cuffs, slashed 
sleeves and pockets, with buttons round the cuffs, a silver epaulet 
on the right shoulder, skirts turned back, buttons to suit the facings, 
white waistcoat, breeches edged with green, black gaiters and garters. 

The men were to have green 
shirts if they could be procured. 

Common sailors and seamen 
wore loose breeches and short 
square-cut jackets, according to 
Watson and other authorities. 
(Figure 351.) 

The British troops estab- 
lished in America had been kept 
continually on the alert at dif- 
ferent points to protect the in- 
habitants from the dreaded on- 
slaught of the Indians, but a 
time of comparative quiet gave 
the commanders an opportunity 
to observe a certain hostile atti- 
tude the citizens had evinced 
toward the soldiery. This new 
phase of feeling in the Colonies 
was duly mentioned in official 
despatches, but was so little 
heeded that England felt a slight 
shock of alarm at the news of the 
bold measures of the colonists in 

Boston in 1768, and the spreading discontent which was becoming 
manifest in all directions. General Gage was ordered in June to send 
a force "sufficient to assist the magistrates and revenue officers in 
enforcing the law." Under Colonel Dalrymple the 14th and 29th 

Figure 351. 
Dress of an Ordinary Seaman, 1775. 


Foot* and one company of artillery with five guns arrived at Boston and 
demanded quarters in the town, which the citizens flatly refused to grant, 
and Gage, feeling the throbbing pulse of rebellion, withdrew the com- 
mand and found quarters for the troops at the King's expense. Shortly 
after this the 64th and 65th regiments were sent as reinforcements, 
but they were not able to awe the ''mob of Boston," which devoted 
every spare moment to drilling. They found an opportunity to 
practise the skill thus acquired under their leader, Samuel Adams, 
in the riots of 1770, which resulted in the withdrawal of both British 
battalions from the city. The tax on tea and its consequences on 
the sixteenth of December, 1773, proved a harbinger of the coming 
trouble. Gage returned from a visit to England, where his chief 
object had been to explain the tension of affairs in America, with 
more troops and the title of Governor of the Province of Massachu- 
setts. Ten thousand men were then ordered to America instead of 
the twenty thousand asked for by Gage. 

Meanwhile the Provincial Congress had met at Cambridge and 
passed resolutions for the collection and manufacture of arms, 
and General Gage, hearing that a quantity of powder and ammu- 
nition had been stored at Concord, sent the flank company of his 
garrison to seize it. This was the nineteenth of April, 1775, 
forever memorable in American history. 

Paul Revere's gallant ride had not been in vain. The British troops 
found a body of militia drawn up on the village green at Concord 
to protect the stores, and after a fierce skirmish the Redcoats were 
obliged to retreat, followed for about fifteen miles by the Provincials, 
whose numbers were augmented at every point on the road by "patriots 
in homespun." This battle of Lexington brings us to the organization 
of the Continental army, which was strongly urged by the Provincial 
Congress. The militia troops before Boston had already shown 

* For the uniforms of these British regiments, see Her Majesty's Army, by Walter 
Richards, with coloured plates. 

FiGrKE 352. 

Figure 353. 

Figure 354. 

Figure 355. 



good metal in their composition ; many of them had fought in the French 
and Indian War. The Continental army began to drill and manoeuvre 
with redoubled energy, although in the eyes of the British army "their 
equipment was deficient and their discipline very faulty indeed." 

Contemporary letters written from Boston before the Revolution 
give a vivid picture of the situation. 

"The people in England have been taught to believe that five 
or six thousand regular troops would be sufficient to humble us into 
the lowest submission to any parliamentary act, however tyrannical. 
But we are not so ignorant in military affairs and unskilled in the 
use of arms as they take us to be. A spirit for martial skill has strangely 
catched from one to another throughout at least the New England 
colonies. A number of companies in many of our towns are already 
able to go through the military exercises in all its forms with more 
dexterity and a better grace than some of the regiments which have 
been sent to us, and all our men from twenty to sixty years of age 
are either formed or forming into companies and regiments with 
officers of their own choosing, to be steadily tutored in the military 
art. It is not doubted but by next spring one hundred thousand 
men will be well qualified to come forth for the defense of our liberties 
and rights should there be a call for it. We have besides in the New 
England Colonies alone a number of men who, in the last war, were 
made regulars by their services over your troops now in Boston. I 
cannot help observing to you here that we have in this town a company 
of boys from about ten to fourteen years of age who in the opinion 
of the best judges can go thro' the whole military exercises with more 
dexterity than a great part of the regulars have been able to do since 
they have been here."* 

An interesting description of the dress and arms of the famous 
Minute Men is given in the History of Woodbury. f 

* Extract from a letter of Charles Chauncey to Richard Price, Boston, January lo, 1775. 
Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, Boston, 1903.- 

t History of Ancient Woodbury, Connecticut, by William Cothren. 


"As the militia rallied on the several calls and detachments, at a 
minute's or an hour's warning, in whatever clothes they happened 
to have on, with whatever weapons of war came first to hand, or 
had descended to them from their fathers, they often presented a 
very grotesque appearance. They wore small-clothes, coming down 
and fastening just below the knee, and long stockings with cowhide 
shoes, ornamented by large buckles, while not a pair of boots graced 
the company. The coats and waistcoats were loose and of huge 
dimensions, with colours as various as the barks of the oak, sumach, 
and other trees of our hills and swamps could make them, and their 
shirts were all made of flax, and, like every other part of the dress, 
were homespun. On their heads were worn large round-top and 
broad-brimmed hats. Their arms were as various as their costumes; 
here and there an old soldier carried a heavy queen's arm, with which 
he had done service at the conquest of Canada, twenty years pre- 
vious, while by his side walked a stripling boy with a Spanish fuzee, 
not half its weight or calibre, which his grandfather may have taken 
at Havana, while not a few had old French pieces, that dated back 
to the reduction of Louisburg. Instead of the cartridge-box, a large 
powder-horn was slung under the arm, and occasionally a bayonet 
might be seen bristling in the ranks. Some of the swords of the 
officers had been made by our province blacksmiths, perhaps from 
some farming utensil; they looked serviceable, but heavy and un- 
couth. Such was the appearance of the Continentals, to whom a 
well-appointed army was soon to lay down their arms." 

It is more than likely that the hardest fighting of the war of the 
Revolution ^was done by men dressed in hunting shirts of dressed 
leather, with leather breeches and buckskin shoes. At Bunker Hill 
the British regiments engaged were the flank companies of the 4th, 
loth, i8th, 22nd, 23rd, 35th, 59th, 63rd, and 65th, the entire strength 
of the 5th, 38th, 42nd, 47th, and-52nd, and two battalions of marines;* 

* History of the British Army, by J. W. Fortescue. 

Figure 356. 

Figure 359. 

Figure 360. 




these men, in the splendid uniforms of the British regulars, formed 
a striking contrast to the oddly dressed Continentals. General 
Washington, who had been 
chosen unanimously for the 
Commander-in-Chief of the Con- 
tinental Army, July 2, 1775, took 
command of the strangely as- 
sorted company before Boston, 
and later of the three thousand 
men from Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia, and Maryland. 

A few of the provincial regi- 
ments were equipped with uni- 
forms, notably the New Jersey 
Infantry, under Colonel Schuy- 
ler, which went by the name of 
the Jersey Blues, from their coats 
of blue cloth faced with red ; gray 
stockings and buckskin breeches 
completed the costume. The 
Virginia Infantry, of which 
Washington was colonel, adopted 
the Whig colours, blue and buff; 
coats of dark blue faced with buff, 
with waistcoats and breeches of 
buff. This was Washington's 
uniform when he took command 
of the army at Cambridge. 

(July, I775-) 

From the ''History of the 
First Troop City Cavalry," which on many occasions had the honour 
of escorting the Commander-in-Chief, the following account is taken: 

Figure 361. 
Uniform of the Light-Horse Troop of Phila- 


"Uniform of the Light-Horse of the City of Phila- 
delphia. * 

"A dark brown short coat, faced and lined with white; white 
vest and breeches; high-topped boots; round black hat, bound with 
silver cord; a buck's tail; housings brown, edged with white, and 
the letters L. H. worked on them." And arms: "A carbine, a pair 
of pistols and holsters, with flounces of brown cloth trimmed with 
white; a horseman's sword; white belts for the sword and carbine." 

In the early part of this year (1775), Captain Markoe presented 
to the Troop a handsome silken standard. It is of great historic 
interest as being the first flag which bore upon it the thirteen stripes, 
symbolizing the thirteen colonies then asserting their rights and 
ultimately struggling for their independence. Its first recorded duty 
brought the Troop early into the notice of General Washington, who 
passed through Philadelphia June 23, 1775, and was escorted by 
the Troop as far as New York, on his journey to the camp at Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts. 

In order that reliable descriptions of the uniforms worn by the 
soldiers from 1775 to 1800 may be had, extracts from contemporary 
official papers, reprinted under the supervision of the Quartermaster- 
General of the United States (Washington, 1895), are quoted verbatim. 

Resolved. That thirteen thousand coats be provided 

and one thereof be given to each non-commissioned Officer and 
Soldier of the Massachusetts forces. 

Resolved. That each coat be faced with the same kind of cloth of 
which it is made; that the coats be made in the common, plain way, 
without lappels, short and with small folds. (Proceedings of Massa- 
chusetts Provincial Congress, July 5, 1775.) 

Resolved. That the Committee of Supplies 

are to cause all the coats to be buttoned with pewter buttons, and that 
the coats for each Regiment, respectively, have buttons of the same 

* Afterwards known as First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry. 

Figure 362. 

FiGUKK 363, 

^^^■MBIIIII 1 III I'll JI^^K^ „<!~^ rVJ*^ 


:*yi^ \ '■■* 

; ^-, ■*'%^.. -^^^^^^^^^ V  '''• 


g^sii*--,.^ ..- ••  _^^ -. 

Figure 364. 


number stamped on the face of them. — (Amer. Archives, Vol. II, 4th 
series, p. i486.) 

To prevent mistakes the General Officers and their Aids de Camp 
will be distinguished in the following manner: The Commander-in- 
Chief by a light blue ribband, worn across his breast, between his 
coat and waistcoat; the Majors and Brigadiers General by a pink 
ribband worn in like manner; the Aids de Camp by a green ribband. 
(General Orders, Headquarters, Cambridge, July 14, 1775.) — {Amer. 
Archives, Vol. II, 4th series, p. 1662.) 

every Major of Brigade will be distin- 
guished by a green ribband 

(General Orders, Headquarters, Cambridge, July 20, 1775.) — (Amer. 
Archives, Vol. II, 4th series, p. 17 10.) 

As the Continental Army have unfortunately no uniforms, and 
consequently many inconveniences must arise from not being able 
always to distinguish the commissioned Officers from the non-com- 
missioned, and, the non-commissioned from the privates, it is desired 
that some badges of distinction may be immediately provided; for 
instance, that the field Officers may have red or pink colored cock- 
ades in their hats; the Captains yellow or buff, and the subalterns 

The sergeants may be distinguished by an epaulette or stripe 
of red cloth sewed upon their right shoulders; the Corporals by 
one of green. (Gen. Orders, Headquarters, Cambridge, 23 July, 
ij'j$.)—(Amer. Archives, Vol. II, 4th series, 1775, p. 1738.) 

It being thought proper to distinguish the Majors from the 
Brigadiers General by some particular mark, for the future the 
Majors General will wear a broad purple ribband. (Gen. Orders, 
Headquarters, Cambridge, 24 July, 1775.)— (^wer. Archives, Vol. II, 
4th series, 1775, p. 1739.) 

The General also recommends it to the Colonels to provide Indian 
boots or leggings for their men, instead of stockings, 


especially as the General has hopes of prevailing with the Continental 

Congress to give each man a hunting shirt 

(General Orders, Headquarters, Cambridge, August 7, 1775.)— (^wer. 
Archives, Vol. Ill, 4th series, p. 248.) 

The enlisted men of the ist Virginia Regiment of Infantry were, 
however, in the year 1775, uniformed at their own expense in hunting 
shirts, leggings, and white bindings on their hats. — {Amer. Archives,- 
Vol. IV, 4th series, p. 92.) 

Resolved. That when the Green Mountain Boys are raised, each 

of them shall be furnished with a coat, and be 

requested to purchase green cloth for that purpose, and red cloth 

sufficient to face these coats (New York 

Prov. Congress, Aug. 15, 1775.) — (Amer. Archives, Vol. Ill, 4th 
series, p 530.) 

Resolved. That Clothing be provided for the new Army by the 

Continent and paid for by stoppages out of the soldiers wages 

That as much as possible of the cloth for this purpose be dyed brown 
and the distinctions of the Regiments made in the facings. — (Res. Con- 
gress, Nov. 4, 1775.) — (Amer. Archives, Vol. Ill, 4th series, p. 1907.) 

The Colonels upon the new establishment to settle as soon as 
possible with the Quartermaster General the uniform of their respec- 
tive Regiments that the buttons may be properly numbered and the 
work finished without delay. (General Orders, Headquarters, Cam- 
bridge, Nov. 13, 1775.) — (Amer. Archives, Vol. Ill, 4th series.) 

It is recommended to those Corps which are not already supplied 
with uniforms, to provide hunting shirts for their men. (General 
Orders, Headquarters, New York, May 6, 1776.) — {Amer. Archives, 
Vol. VI, 4th series, p. 426.) 

The General being sensible of the difficulty and expense of pro- 
viding Clothes, of almost any kind, for the Troops, feels an unwilling- 
ness to recommend, much more to order, any kind of Uniform; but 



as it is absolutely necessary that men should have Clothes, and appear 
decent and tight, he earnestly encourages the use of Hunting Shirts, 
with long breeches made of the same cloth, gaiter fashion about the 
legs, to all those yet unprovided. (General Orders, Headquarters, 
New York, July 24, 1776.)— (^wer. Archives, Vol. I, 5th series, p. 677.) 

Resolved that, for the further encouragement of the non-commis- 
sioned Officers and soldiers who shall engage in service during the 
war. A suit of Clothes be annually given to each of said officers and 
soldiers; to consist, for the present year, of two linen hunting shirts, two 
pairs of overalls, a leathern or woolen waistcoat with sleeves, one pair 
of breeches, a hat or leather cap, two shirts, two pair of hose and two 
pair of shoes. (Continental Congress, Oct. 8, 1776.) — {Amer. Archives, 
Vol. II, 5th series, p. 1392.) 

the Congress of the United States have 

further resolved to give annually to each man one 

complete suit of clothing, which, for the present year, is to consist of 
two linen hunting shirts, two pair of stockings, two pair of shoes, two 
pair of overalls, a leathern or woolen jacket with sleeves, one pair of 
breeches, and one Leathern cap or hat. (General Orders, Headquarters, 
October 24, 1776.) — {Amer. Archives, Vol. Ill, 5th series, p. 331.) 

In 1 777, and subsequently, the uniform for the four regular regiments 
constituting the Corps of Artillery was a blue or black coat reaching to 
the knee, and full trimmed, lappels fastened back, with ten open-worked 
button-holes in yellow silk on the breast of each lappel, and ten large 
regimental yellow buttons, at equal distances, on each side; three 
large yellow regimental buttons on each cuff, and a like number 
on each pocket-flap. The skirts to hook back, showing the red 
lining, bottom of coat cut square, red lappels, cuff linings, and 
standing capes; single-breasted white waistcoat, with twelve small 
yellow regimental buttons, white breeches, black half gaiters, white 
stock, ruffied shirt, and at the wrists, and black cocked hat bound 
with yellow; red plume and black cockade, gilt-handled small sword 
and gilt epaulettes. — {Mag. Amer. Hist., Vol. I, p. 473.) 


Congress, by resolution of March 23, 1779, "authorized and di- 
rected the Commander-in-Chief, according to circumstances of sup- 
pHes of Clothing, to fix and prescribe the uniform as well with regard 
to color and facings as the cut or fashion of the Clothes to be worn 
by the troops of the respective States and regiments, woolen overalls 
for winter and linen for summer to be substituted for the breeches." 

In accordance with the above Resolution, the following General 
Order, dated Headquarters, Moore's House, 2 Oct., 1779, was pro- 
mulgated by General Washington: 

"The following are the uniforms that have been determined for 
the troops of these States respectively, so soon as the state of the 
public supplies will permit of their being furnished accordingly; and, 
in the meantime, it is recommended to the Officers to endeavor to 
accommodate their uniforms to the standard, that when the men 
come to be supplied, there may be a proper uniformity. 

New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Con- 

Blue, faced with white; buttons and linings white. 

New York and New Jersey. 
Blue, faced with buff; white linings and buttons. 

Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virglnia. 
Blue, faced with red ; buttons and linings white. 

North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 
Blue, faced with blue; buttonholes edged with narrow white lace 
or tape; buttons and linings white. 

Artillery and Artillery Artificers. 
Blue, faced with scarlet; scarlet linings; yellow buttons, yellow- 
bound hats. Coats edged with narrow lace or tape, and buttonholes 
bound with same. 

Light Dragoons. 
The whole blue, faced with white; white buttons and linings." 



Resolved. That the following articles be delivered as a suit of 
Clothes for the current and every succeeding year of their service 
to the Officers of the line and staff, entitled by any Resolution of 
Congress to receive the same, viz: one hat, one watch coat, one body 
coat, four vests, one for winter and three for summer, four pairs of 
breeches, two for winter and two for summer, four shirts, six pair 
of stockings, three pair thereof worsted and three of thread, four 
pair of Shoes. — {Journals of Congress, Nov. 25, 1779.) 

As it is at all times of great importance both for the sake of appear- 
ance and for the regularities of service that the different military 
ranks should be distinguished from each other, and more especially 
at present: — 

The Commander-in-Chief has thought proper to establish the 
following distinctions and strongly recommends it to all the Officers 
to endeavor to conform to them as speedily as possible. 

The Major Generals to wear a blue coat with buff facings, yellow 
buttons, white or buff underclothes, two epaulettes, with two stars 
upon each and a black-and-white feather in the hat. 

The Brigadier Generals, the same uniform as the Major Generals 
with the difference of one star instead of two and a white feather. 

The Colonels, Lieutenant Colonels, and Majors, the uniform of 
their regiments, and two epaulettes. . 

The Captains, the uniforms of their regiments and an epaulette 
on the right shoulder. 

The subalterns, the uniform of their regiment and an epaulette 
on the left shoulder. 

The Aides de Camp, the uniforms of their ranks and Corps, or 
if they belong to no Corps, of their General Officers. 

Those of the Major Generals and Brigadier Generals to have a 
green feather in their hat. Those of the Commander-in-Chief a white 
and green. 

The Inspectors, as well Sub as Brigade, the uniform of their ranks 
and Corps, with a blue feather in the hat. , 

The Corps of Engineers and that of Sappers and Miners, a blue 
coat with buff facings, red lining, buff undercloaths, and the epaulettes 
of their respective ranks. 


Such of the Staff as have Military rank, to wear the uniform of 
their ranks and of the Corps to which they belong in the line. Such 
as have no military rank to wear plain coats, with a cockade and 

All officers, as well warrant as commissioned, to wear a cockade and 
side arms either a sword or genteel bayonet. (Headquarters, Short 
Hills, Sunday, June i8, 1780.) 

As it is much wished to establish uniformity in the corps; the 
officers are directed not to make any changes in the dress of them- 
selves or their men 'till orders are given for a general rule. 

The feathers directed to be worn by Major Generals are to have 
the white below, the black above; it will be best to have one feather 
the upper part black. It is recommended to the officers to have 
black and white cockades, a black ground with a white relief, em- 
blematic of the expected union of the two armies. (Headquarters, 
Precaness, July 19, 1780.) 

As nothing adds more to the beauty and appearance of a Corps, 
than exact uniformity of dress, the General recommends it thus early 
to the "Field Officers" newly arranged to fix upon a fashion for the 
regimental clothing of the officers of their respective corps (if it is 
not already done), confining themselves to the ground, facing, linings 
and buttons already assigned to the States to which they belong. 

The General sees with concern the difficulties which the Officers 
labor under in procuring Cloth. It is not therefore his wish that 
those who are already furnished should run themselves to the expense 
of new uniforms, if their old are not exactly conformable, but that 
they should in future comply strictly with the regimental fashion 
and, if possible, get their old clothes altered to it. It has a very odd 
appearance especially to Foreigners to see the same corps of officers 
each differing from the other in fashion of the facings, sleeves and 
pockets of their coats. 

An attention to these minutiae has been thought proper in all 
services; it becomes peculiarly so in ours at this time as we shall 
more than probable take the field next campaign in conjunction with 

Figure 376. 

FiGUEE 377. 

P'IGURE 37». 

Figure 379. 



our Allies, composed of the first troops in Europe, who will receive 

impressions and form opinions from the first view 

Strict attention is to be paid to the order of the i8th of June last, 
distinguishing the rank of officers by their badges. (Headquarters, 
Totoway, Nov. 15, 1780.) 


January 5th, 1781. 

The Committee of Officers appointed to fix upon the fashion of 
the Massachusetts' uniform, have reported thereupon, and it is as 
follows : — 

The color of the coats, waistcoat, linings and buttons, to be agree- 
able to the General Orders of the 2nd of October, 1779. 

The length of the coat, to the upper part of the knee-pan, and 
to be cut high in the neck. As 3 is to 5, so is the skirt to the waist 
of the coat; or divide the whole length of the coat into 8 equal parts, 
take 5 for the waist and 3 for the skirts. 

The lappel, at the top of the breast, to be 3 inches wide, and the 
bottom 2xV inches; the lappel to be as low as the waist, and its wing 
to button within an inch of the shoulder seam with a small button 
on the cape. The epaulette to be worn directly on the top of the 
shoulder joint on the same button with the wing of the lappel. A 
round and close cuff, three inches wide, with four close worked but- 
tonholes. The cape to be made with a peak behind, and its width 
in proportion to the lappels. The pocket flaps to be scollopped, four 
buttonholes, the two inner close worked, the two outer open worked, 
and to be set on in a curved line from the bottom of the lappel to 
the button on the hip. The coat to be cut full behind, with a fold 
on each back skirt, and two close worked buttonholes on each. 

Ten open worked buttonholes on the breast of each lappel, with 
ten large buttons, at equal distance ; four large buttons on each cuff, 
four on each pocket flap, and four on each fold. Those on the cuffs 
and pocket flaps to be placed agreeable to the buttonholes; and those 
on the folds, one on the hip, one at the bottom, and two in the centre, 
at an equal distance with those on the lappel. The coat is to button 
or hook as low at the fourth buttonhole on the breast, and is to be 


flaunt at the bottom with a genteel and military air. Four hooks 
and eyes on the breast as low as the coat is allowed to button. The 
skirts to hook up with a blue heart at each corner, with such device 
as the Field Officers of each Regiment shall direct. The bottoms 
of the coat to be cut square. The waistcoat to be single-breasted, 
with twelve buttons and holes on the breast, with pocket flaps, four 
close worked buttonholes and four buttons, which shall appear below 
the flaps. The breeches are to be made with a half fall ; four buttons 
on each knee. The small buttons on the waistcoat to be of the same 
kind with the large ones on the coat. The number of the Regiment 
is to be in the centre of the button, with such device at the Field 
Officers shall direct. The epaulettes to be worn agreeable to his 
Excellency the Commander-in-Chief's orders of June i8, 1780. 

A fashionable military cock'd hat, with a silver button loop, and 
a small button with the number of the Regiment. To wear a black 
stock when on duty and on the parade. 

No edging, vellum lace, or indeed any other ornaments which are 
not mentioned, to be added to the uniform. No officer is to be per- 
mitted, at any time, to wear any other uniform than that of his Regi- 
ment. — {Review Orders, by H. Whiting, p. 164.) 

The clothier is, if practicable, to obtain worsted shoulder knots, 
for the non-commissioned officers; the sergeants are to be distin- 
guished by one on each shoulder; and the corporals by one on the 
right shoulder; and in the meantime it is proposed that a piece of 
white cloth should be substituted by way of distinction. (General 
Orders, Headquarters, Newburgh, May 14, 1782.) 




June 17, 1782. 

The Honorable Brigadier-General Paterson, having expressed 
his wish that some honorary mark of distinction should be worn 
by each Non-commissioned Officer or Private in his Brigade, 
who has served in the Army of the United States a certain 
length of time; and has also made a present of materials for 
that purpose: — 

The Commandant thinks proper to direct, that each Non-Com- 
missioned Officer and Private, who has served four years in any 
Continental Regiment, shall be entitled to wear one stripe of white 
tape, on the left sleeve of his regimental coat, which shall extend 
from seam to seam, on the upper part of the sleeve, three inches 
from and parallel with the shoulder seam, so that the tape may form 
a herring-bone figure. 

That none presume to wear the badge of distinction, but by the 
immediate permission of the Colonel or Commandant of the Regiment, 
who, on its being made to appear to his full satisfaction, that the 
man who applies for the badge has served four years, as above, will 
please to order this honor publicly conferred on him. The Com- 
mandant further directs, that when any Non- Commissioned Officer 
or Soldier shall complete eight years service, he shall have the addition 
of another stripe set on one inch below the first. 

As emulation is essential to promote discipline, the Commandant 
wishes, by all laudable measure, to kindle the flame in every breast; 
and considers that punishment, as well as reward, is absolutely neces- 
sary in all government; to promote which design, he directs that 
these marks of distinction, in the first instance, be for all who have 
actually served as above, without discrimination of character; but, 
that after the publication of this order, none who shall commit a crime 
for which they are punishable by a Court Martial, shall be entitled 
to this honorary badge for four years from the time they were found 
punishable; and should any one who is honored with the badge be 
so lost to a sense of honor, which every soldier ought to possess, as 
to fall under the sentence of a Court Martial, he is to be divested 
of this badge of honor at the head of the Regiment, and excluded 


from wearing it until he shall retrieve his character, by four years' 
unblemished service. {Review Orders, by Henry Whiting, p. 220.) 

Honorary Badges of distinction are to be conferred on the veteran 
non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the Army, who have served 
more than three years with bravery, fidelity and good conduct, for 
this purpose a narrow piece of white cloth, of an angular form is to 
be fixed to the left arm on the uniform coats. Non-commissioned 
officers and soldiers who have served with equal reputation more 
than six years, are to be distinguished by two pieces of cloth, set on 

parallel to each other in a similar form whenever 

any singularly meritorious action is performed, the author of it shall 
be permitted to wear on his facings, over the left breast, the figure 
of a heart in purple cloth or silk, edged with narrow lace or binding. 
(Headquarters, Newburgh, Aug. 7, 1782.) 

In order to prevent misapplication of the honorary badges of dis- 
tinction to be conferred on the non-commissioned officers and soldiers 
in consequence of long and faithful service, through any mistake or 
misapprehension of the orders of the 7th inst., the General thinks 
proper to inform the Army that they are only attainable by an unin- 
terrupted series of faithful and honorable services. 

The badges which non-commissioned officers and soldiers are 
permitted to wear on the left arm as a mark of long and faithful 
service, are to be of the same color with the facings of the corps they 
belong to and not white in every instance as directed in the orders 
of the 7th instant. (General Orders, Headquarters, Newburgh, 
Aug. II, 1782.) 

The Honorable Secretary of War having been pleased to direct 
that the uniforms of the American Cavalry and Infantry shall in future 
be blue ground with red facings and white linings and buttons: The 
General gives this early notice that provision may be made accordingly 
before the Army shall receive their clothing for the present year. 


The Corps of the Artillery is to retain its present uniform, and the 
Sappers and Miners will have the same. (Headquarters, Newburgh, 
Dec. 6, 1782.) 

The non arrival of the clothing imported from Europe renders 
the greatest economy in that article doubly necessary. The Com- 
mander-in-Chief therefore recommends that the business of turning 
and repairing the coats of last year should now be considered as a 
primary object, in doing which a certain model as to the fashion 
and length, (for the coats ought to be made something shorter than 
at present) will be established by the commanding officer of the 
corps, from which there must be no deviation 

It is expected scarlet cloth for cuffs, capes and perhaps half facings 
will be furnished. (Headquarters, Newburgh, Feb. 24, 1783.) 

Notwithstanding the proposed alteration in the uniforms of the 
Infantry and Cavalry it appears necessary from inevitable circum- 
stances that all the Light Infantry companies should be cloathed in 
blue coats faced with white until further orders. (General Orders, 
Headquarters, Newburgh, March 3, 1783.) 

The regiments which have not turned and repaired their coats 
are to draw lots for the scarlet cloth which arrived yesterday. (General 
Orders, Newburgh, April 14, 1783.) 

When the Revolutionary War ended, one regular regiment of 

Infantry and two companies of the corps of artillery 

were retained in service. (General Orders, Headquarters, West 
Point, 23 Dec, 1783.) The Uniform of the infantry regiment was 
dark blue, with white facings, white linings, black cocked hats, white 
hat bindings, white worsted shoulder knots, white buttons, silver 
epaulettes for Officers, white cross belts, black stocks, white under 
dress, black gaiters, and black plume. The artillery uniform re- 
mained as heretofore; dark blue faced with scarlet, scarlet linings, 
yellow buttons, yellow binding for black felt cocked hat, and yellow 
edging of buttonholes; white under dress, gold epaulettes for Officers; 
and yellow worsted shoulder knots for non-commissioned officers and 



buff belts, white cravats and black plume, with red top. — (Mag. Amer. 
Hist., Vol. I, p. 482.) 

The coats of the musicians remained red with blue facings, blue 
waistcoats and breeches, silk epaulettes for Chief Musician. (General 
Orders, War Dept., N. Y., 30 Jan., 1787.) — {Mag. Amer. Hist., Vol. 
I, p. 482.) 

The Infantry Officers were now required to wear half boots, white 
pantaloons and white vests, double breasted. (General Orders, 
Headquarters, Loftus Heights, 19 January, 1791.) 

During the period of the confederation the troops retained substan- 
tially the revolutionary uniforms. The cavalry had brass helmets 
with white horsehair. (Secty. War to Q. M. Genl. Saml. Hodgden, 
4 Aug., 1792.) — {Mag. Amer. Hist., Vol. I, p. 483.) 

Their swords were "long horseman's sword, steel mounted." 
Officers of Artillery and Infantry had swords of sabre form respec- 
tively yellow mounted and steel mounted, two feet six inches in length 
for each company officer, and three feet in length for each field 
officer. — {Mag. Amer. Hist., Vol. I, p. 483.) 

The officers being arranged to the four sub-legions it now becomes 
expedient to give those Legions distinctive marks, which are to be 
as follows, viz: 

The first Sub-legion, white binding upon their caps with white 
plumes and black hair. 

The second Sub-legion, red binding to their caps, red plumes 
with white hair. 

The third Sub-legion, yellow binding to their caps, yellow plumes 
and black hair. 

The fourth Sub-legion, green binding to their caps, green plumes 
and white hair. (General Orders, Headquarters, Pittsburgh, 11 Sept., 


The Officers will wear plain cocked hats with no other distinctive 
marks, but the plumes of their respective Sub-legions, except in actual 
service or action, when they will wear the same caps with the non- 
commissioned officers and privates of their respective Sub-legions. 
(Gen. Orders, Headquarters, Pittsburgh, Sept. 12, 1792.) 

The following Select Corps shall be immediately drafted from the 
Legion the respective pay-masters will deliver to the Cap- 
tains or officers commanding companies Two pairs linen 

overalls, two pairs of shoes and two shirts for each non-commissioned 

officer and private (Gen. Orders, Headquarters, 

Greenville, June, 30, 1794.) 

Paymasters will also furnish the commanding offi- 
cers of each troop of Dragoons with two shirts and two pairs of linen 
overalls per man 

The garrison duty men will parade for Review tomorrow 

fresh shaved and well powdered All such as have five months 

and upwards to serve will be furnished with two pair of linen over- 
alls, two shirts and two pairs of shoes per man. Those whose term 
of service will expire on or before the ist of December next with 

one pair of shoes, one pair of overalls, and one shirt per man 

(Gen. Orders, Headquarters, Greenville, July i, 1794-) 

The Deputy Quartermaster will issue all the bearskins to the 
Sub-legionary Quartermasters for the use of the Battalion Com- 
panies. (Gen. Orders, Headquarters, Greenville, July 9, 1794-) 

In 1794 the artillery received helmets, with red plumes. (Secty. 
War to Quartermaster benl. Saml. Hodgden, 14 July, 1794.)— (if fl^. 
Amer. Hist., Vol. I, p. 484.) 

The commanding officers of the respective Sub-legions, will 
make out a particular return to the Adjutant General of the number 


of Non-commissioned officers and soldiers entitled to sum- 
mer clothing, and who have not already been furnished that 

the whole of the troops may appear in the most soldierly condition. 

On the 4th July the Commanding Officers of Corps will cause 

the uniforms to be repaired, and the Hats and Caps properly deco- 
rated. The Acting Quartermaster will procure bearskins for cover- 
ing the hats and caps. (General Orders, Headquarters, Greenville, 
June 26, 1795.) 

The following uniform for the officers of Infantry is to be ob- 
served and adopted until otherwise regulated. Coats reaching to 
the knee and full trimmed, scarlet lappels, cuffs and standing capes, 
white buttons and trimmings, lapels and cape two inches, and cuffs 
three inches wide. Vests and breeches white, the former with short 
flaps and three buttons. Black stocks or cravats. Cocked Hats, 
and full boots with black tops. (General Orders, Headquarters, 
Greenville, i6th Feb., 1796.) 

In 1799 the white plume was again prescribed for the Infan- 
try (Gen. Orders, Headquarters, Loftus Heights, 2 Jan., 

1799.) — {Mag. Amer. Hist., p. 485.) 

The uniform of the Commander-in-Chief to be a blue coat, with 
yellow buttons, and gold epaulettes, each having three silver stars, 
with lining, cape and cuffs of buff — in winter buff vest and breeches; 
in summer, a white vest and breeches, of nankeen. 

The coat to be without lappels, and embroidered on the cape 
and cuffs and pockets; a white plume in the hat, to be a further dis- 
tinction. The Adjutant General, the aids and secretaries of the 
Commander-in-Chief, to be likewise distinguished by a white plume. 

The uniform of the other General Officers to be a blue coat, 
with yellow buttons, gold epaulettes, linings and facings of buff 
— the underclothes the same with those of the Commander in Chief. 

The Major generals to be distinguished by two silver stars in 


each epaulet, and except the Inspector General, by a black and white 
plume, the black below. 

The Brigadier to be distinguished by one silver star on each 
epaulet, and by a red and white plume, the red below. 

The Aids, of all general officers, who are taken from regiments, 
and the officers of inspection, to wear the uniform of the regiments 
from which they are taken. 

The aids to be severally distinguished by the like plumes, which 
are worn by the general officers, to whom they are respectively at- 

The uniforms of the aids of the commander in chief when not 
taken from regiments, to be a blue coat with yellow button, and gold 

epaulet, buff lining and facings the same under-clothes with 

the commander-in-chief. 

The Inspector General, his aids, and the officers of inspection 
generally, to be distinguished by a blue plume. The Quartermaster 
General and other military officers in his department, to be distin- 
guished by a green plume. 

The uniform of the Infantry and artillery to be a blue coat with 
white buttons and red facings, white underclothes and cocked hats 

the length of the officers coats to reach the knees, the coats 

of the Infantry, to be lined with white, of the artillery with red. The 
uniform of the Cavalry, to be a green coat, with white buttons, lin- 
ings and facings; white vest and breeches and helmet caps. 

Each Colonel to be distinguished by two epaulettes; each Major, 
by one epaulet on the right shoulder, and a strap on the left. All 
the Field Officers, (except as above) and the Regimental Staff, to wear 
red plumes the Officers of companies are to wear red plumes. 

Captains to be distinguished by an epaulet on the right shoulder; 
Lieutenants by one on the left shoulder; cadets by a strap on the 
right shoulder. The epaulets and straps of the regimental officers 
to be of silver. 

Sergeant Majors and Quartermaster Sergeants, to be distinguished 
by two red worsted epaulets; Sergeants by a like epaulet on the 
right shoulder; Corporals by a like epaulet on the left shoulder; 
the flank companies to be distinguished by red wings on the shoulders. 



The coats of the Musicians to be of the colors of the facings of 
the corps to which they severally belong. The Chief Musician to 

wear two white worsted epau- 
lets. All the Civil staff of the 
Army, to wear plain blue coats, 
with yellow buttons, and white 
underclothes. No gold or sil- 
ver lace, except in the epaulets 
and straps to be worn. 

The commissioned officers, 
and cadets to wear swords. 

All persons belonging to 
the Army to wear a black 
cockade with a small white 
Eagle in the centre. The 
cockade of non-commissioned 
officers, musicians, and priv- 
ates to be of leather, with 
Eagles of tin. The regiments 
to be distinguished from each 
other, numerically. The num- 
ber of each regiment to be ex- 
pressed in the buttons. (War 
Office, Philadelphia, 9 Janu- 
ary, 1 799-) 

From "The Uniform of the 
Army of the United States" 
(Washington, 1895) is taken 
the following description of 
the uniform of an officer from 
1776 to 1799: "A blue coat, 
with red facings and white 
bindings and white buttons and button-holes, white waistcoat and 
breeches, white gloves, white epaulettes. Cocked hat bound with 

Figure 385. 
Uniform of an American OfBcer, 1796. 


white, black pompon. Powdered hair in queue tied with narrow 
black silk ribbon. High black silk stock, ruffle of white shirt show- 
ing at neck and wrists." (Figure 385.) 

The short-waisted coats and high collars which marked the end 
of the eighteenth century were specially noticeable in the uniforms, 
both military and naval, and form a very striking contrast to the long- 
waisted garments which characterized the close of the seventeenth 

For uniforms of the French officers in America during the Revolutionary period see 
Our French Allies, by Edwin M. Stone. For uniforms of the French troops at this period, see 
Racinet, Costumes Historiques, vol. v. 

The uniforms of a Hessian dragoon and of the Brunswick Troopers in America during 
the Revolutionary period are given in American History from German Archives, by Mr. J. G. 



Adonis wigs.— Made of fine white 
hair, were very fashionable and very 
expensive in the early part of the 
eighteenth century. 

Aggrapes. — From the French agrape, 
" a clasp or buckle " ; also " hooks and 

Aiglet or Aiguillette. — A metal tag or 

point to a lace. 

Aigret or Egret.— A tuft of feathers 
worn on the head. Fly caps with 
egrets were advertised in Boston, 

Ala mode. — A plain soft glossy silk 
often mentioned in advertisements in 
Colonial newspapers under various 
speUings— ' ' elamond , " " ahmod , ' ' 
"olamod," " alemod," "arlimod," 
"allamode," and " ellimod," are 
some of the variations. It was used 
throughout the eighteenth century. 

AUapine. — A strong woolen stufif spelled 
often "ellapine," "allpine," and 
" alpine," and very popular for 
men's wear during the first half of 
the eighteenth century. 

Amazeen. — (under various spellings) — 
A strong corded silk in use from the 
time of Elizabeth to George III. 
Often advertised in Colonial papers. 

Aprons. — First worn for use by the 
careful housewife as well as servants 
and workingmen, the apron became 
by some unaccountable freak of 
fashion late in the sixteenth century 
an article of full dress. In 1659 we 

read that green aprons went out of 
fashion. Aprons were worn in 1744 
so long that they nearly touched the 

Artois. — A long cloak made with sev- 
eral capes and used by men and 
women in 1790. 

Atlas. — A soft silk with satin surface, 
made in the East. 

Baise, Baize, or Bayes. — A coarse 
woolen cloth made at Colchester in 
the days of Queen Elizabeth. Ad- 
vertised in Colonial papers in all 
colours, and used for the clothing of 
servants and negro slaves. 

Balandrans or Balandranas. 

with armholes. 


Band. — A collar of lace or linen stiffened 
with starch or underpropped with 
wire. When allowed to fall upon 
the shoulders, it was termed a falling 

Band-box. — Originally made to hold 
bands — whence the name. 

Bandekyn. — A fabric of silk and gold 

Bandileers. — Cases of wood or tin, each 
containing a charge of powder, 
strung round the neck of a soldier. 

Band-strings. — Were usually of ribbon 
or of cord finished with tassels; the 
latter were often decorated with 
pearls and other jewels. 




Banyan. — Originally an Anglo-Indian 
name for a loose coat. A morning 
gown or wrapper worn by both sexes, 
usually of bright-coloured cloth or 
damask. Weread that these garments 
were much worn in Virginia, and were 
sometimes lined with a rich material, 
and thus could be worn either side 

Barlicoms. — A dress fabric used in 
the Colonies. " Check'd barhcorns " 
were advertised in 1755. 

Barragon or Barracan. — A corded 
stuff suitable for summer wear. 
Made originally in the Levant, of 

Barratine. — A stuff, probably of silk, 
used for petticoats, stomachers, and 
"forehead clothes" as early as 1697. 

Barrow-coat. — A form of swaddling 
cloth wrapped about an infant's 
body and turned up and fastened 
at the bottom to keep the feet warm. 

Barry or Barrie. — An under-skirt or 

Barvell. — A coarse leathern apron used 
by workingmen. 

Batts. — Heavy low shoes laced in front. 
Sent to the New England Colonists 
in 1636 and after. 

Beard-boxes. — Were made of paste- 
board and worn at night over a 
beard to keep it in shape. 

Bearer. — A roll of padding placed like 
a bustle at either hip to raise the 

Bearing cloth. — Old name for a Chris- 
tening blanket. 

Bell-hoops. — Stiffened petticoats in the 
shape of a bell were fashionable in 

Biggin. — Probably a corruption of be- 
guine, "a nun," and sometimes 
spelled "begin." It was a close cap 

worn always by young children and 
sometimes by grown people before 

Binder. — A band of flannel worn by 
babies under the shirt, sufficiently 
tight to give some support to the 

Birdet. — A silk stuff made in China 
or India. "Strip'd and plain bir- 
det" was advertised in New Eng- 
land in 1737. 

Bishop. — A sort of bustle stuffed with 

Blodms.— (Old English)— Sky-blue. 

Bob-wig. — A short close wig worn by 
men and boys of all classes on or- 
dinary occasions from about 1725 
to 1780. 

Bodice or a paire of Boddies. — A sort 
of stays, an article of apparel worn 
often by dandies and in general use 
by women in the seventeenth cen- 

Bodkin. — A large pin for the hair, 
usually of gold or silver. 

Bombards. — Padded breeches. 

Bombazin, Bomberzeen, or Bombax. 

— A mixture of silk and cotton, fre- 
quently advertised in old papers. 

Bone-lace. — Usually of linen thread 
made over bobbins of bone, whence 
the name. 

Bonnet. — We read of silk bonnets as 
early as 1725 in New England, and 
in 1760 of satin bonnets, quilted 
bonnets, and Kitty Fisher bonnets, 
also of Quebeck and Garrick bon- 
nets, but they do not appear in the 
portraits of the day, and were prob- 
ably not as fashionable as hoods and 
hats until late in the eighteenth 

Bonnet-paper. — A stiff pasteboard used 
for the frames of bonnets and hats. 



Bosom-bottle. — A small flat glass bot- 
tle, sometimes covered with silk to 
match the gown, concealed in the 
stomacher of the dress to hold water 
for flowers, so generally worn by 
ladies in the last half of the eight- 
eenth century. 

Brawls or Brouls. — A blue and white 
striped cotton cloth made in India, 
advertised in newspapers 1785 to 

Breast Knot or Bosom Knot. — A 

dainty touch of coloured ribbon 
worn from 1730 and for the remain- 
der of the century. 

Breeches. — Were worn by the early 
Colonists, of dressed leather, but 
afterward they were made of every 
material. At first the shape was 
loose, fastened in at the knee and 
waist, but before the end of the 
eighteenth century they were worn 

Breeches-hooks. — A device upon 
which the breeches were hung to 
keep them in shape, mentioned in 
the middle of the eighteenth cen- 

Brigandine. — A plate coat. 

Broadcloth. — A fine woolen cloth with 
a smooth surface, mostly used for 
men's garments, and always regarded 
with respect by the lower classes. 

Ye wha are fain to hae your name 
Wrote in the coney Book of Fame 
Let merit nae pretension claim 

To laurelled wreath! 
But hop ye weel, baith back and wame 

In gude Braid claith! 
Braid claith lends fock an unco heese! 
Makes many kail-worms butterflies! 
Gives mony a Doctor his degrees 

For little skaith. 
In short you may be what you please, 

Wi gude Braid Claith! 

— Robert Ferguson. 

Buff-coat. — A leather outer garment 
made exceedingly strong, sometimes 
J of an inch in thickness. Much 

used in the Civil Wars in England 
and by the Colonists of that period. 

Buffin. — A coarse cloth first made in 
Elizabeth's reign. 

Buffonts. — A piece ot gauze or lace 
worn over or round the neck, and 
puffed out over the breast like a 
"pouter pidgeon." In New Eng- 
land papers of 1771 "Gauze Buf- 
fons" were advertised. 

Bugles. — Glass beads used in trim- 
mings very early in the Colonies. 

Burgoigne. — The front part of a head- 
dress next the hair. 

Caddis or Cades. — A woolen tape, often 
woven into garters, and in common 
use in the seventeenth century. 

Calash. — From the French caliche, a 
hood made to pull over the head, 
introduced into England in 1765 by 
the Duchess of Bedford and very 
popular in the Colonies. Possibly 
a revival of the old fashion seen 
in the recumbent effigies of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries. 

Calico. — Originally Calicut, from the 
town in India whence it was im- 
ported; later the name was applied 
to a cotton fabric in general wear 
at the time of the Revolution. To- 
wards the end of the century calico 
was worn by people of all conditions. 
The French calicoes imported were 
very fine and delicate in colouring, 
and were often used for trimming 
plain materials. 

Calks. — Clogs with spiked soles to keep 
one from slipping on the ice. 

Callimanco. — According to Fairholt, a 
glazed linen fabric showing a pattern 
on one side only, but described by 
some writers as a fashionable woolen 
material with a fine gloss. It was 
undoubtedly popular in the Col- 
onies. "Callimanco gounds" are 
mentioned in America in 1666. 



Callot. — A plain cap or coif. 

Camlet or chamlet. — A fabric made of 
wool or silk, sometimes of both, 
much used for cloaks and petticoats 
in all the Colonies. The name is 
derived from the place of its manu- 
facture on the banks of the River 
Camlet in England. 

Campaign-wigs. — Were very fashion- 
able at the end of the seventeenth 
and beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
turies. They were full and curled 
towards the front. 

Cannons. — Garters or breeches- fas- 

Canvas. — A stiff woven cloth of flax 
or hemp. 

■Cap. — The general name for a popular 
head covering of both sexes. 

"Any cap whate'er it be 
Is still the sign of some degree." 

Capuchin or Capucine. — A cloak with 
hood like a Capuchin monk's, fash- 
ionable in the early part of the eight- 
eenth century. 

Carcanet. — A necklace set with stones 
or strung with pearls. 

Cardinal. — Cloak with a hood like the 
mozetta worn by cardinals which 
came into use early in the eighteenth 

Casket-girls. — Name given to the girls 
sent out by the French Government 
to Louisiana, each provided with a 
small trunkful of clothing. 

Cassock. — A loose coat, like a jerkin, 
worn by men. 

Catgut. — A cloth woven in cords and 
used for lining and stififening gar- 

Cathedral Beard. — According to Ran- 
dle Holmes, this style of beard was 
worn by dignitaries of the Church. 

It was cut square and broad at the 

Caul. — A net to confine the hair. The 
back part of a wig or a woman's cap 
is sometimes called a caul. 

Caushets. — Corsets. 

Cherridary. — An Indian cotton stuff 
like gingham. (1712 and after.) 

Chicken-skin. — Chicken skin gloves 
were worn in bed to keep the hands 
white as late as the reign of George 

Chin-band or chin-cloth. — A muffler 
of lace worn by ladies of the time 
of Charles I. 

Chints or chintz. — (From the Hindoo 
"chint," i. e., spotted cloth) — cotton 
printed in several colours. 

Clocks. — The plaits of a ruff, also 
ornaments on stockings. 

Clogs. — Overshoes of various materials 
worn in the Colonies throughout the 
eighteenth century. 

Cloth of Bodkin. — A rich cloth inter- 
woven of silk and gold. The name 
is a corruption of Baldach, the an- 
cient name of Bagdad, whence it 
was brought. 

Clout. — A coarse kerchief worn on the 

Cockers, Cocurs, Cocrez. — Laced high 
shoes or half-boots ; also thick stock- 
ings without feet. 

Coif or Quoif . — A close-fitting cap. 

Colbertine, Colberteen, or Colbat- 
teen. — A lace resembling network, 
named for Monsieur Colbert, super- 
intendent of the French King's 
manufactories. Randle Holmes de- 
scribes it as "an open lace with a 
square grounding." It ultimately 
became cheap and unfashionable. 



Swift, in "Cadens and Vanessa," 

"The difference between 
Rich Flanders lace and Colbertine." 

Collaret. — A puff made of soft ribbon 
worn around the throat ending in a 
bow beneath the chin. 

Commode. — A lady's head-dress made 
on a frame of wire two or three tiers 
high fitted to the head and covered 
with tiflfany or other thin silk. It 
came into fashion in England during 
the reign of William and Mary. 

Copatain. — A sugar-loaf hat, "a capped 
crown hat." 

Cordevan. — A leather of goatskin, ori- 
ginally from Cordova, Spain; some- 
times spelt " cordewayne," whence 
"cordwainer" or "cordiner," a 
shoemaker. , 

Comet. — A cap, apparently a Dutch 

Corselet. — A light body armour. 

Cote. — In old English was a woman's 

Cravat. — A neck-cloth and often a very 
costly article of dress. Governor 
Berkeley of Virginia ordered one 
from England in 1660 which was 
to cost five pounds. 

Cremesyn. — Crimson velvet. 

Criardes. — Name given to paniers of 
stiffened linen, which creaked with 
every movement. 

Crocus. — A coarse stuff worn by slaves 
and working people. 

Crosscloth. — A part of a woman's head- 
dress worn across the forehead. 
Worn in Maryland in 1642 and 
Massachusetts in 1647. 

Cue de Paris. — According to Watson, 
a sort of bustle padded with horse- 

Cuirass. — Armour for the breast and 
back (name derived from cuir) 
made of leather or of metal fastened 
with leather thongs. 

Curch or Curchef.— A plain close-fit- 
ting cap worn by women in the 

Curli-murli. — A fantastic curl or twist. 

Cypress, Cyprus, Sipers, Sypress, or 
Syphus. — The material, found un- 
der all these spellings, is described 
in 1678 as a fine curled stuff, part 
silk, part hair, and of a cobweb thin- 
ness. It was used like crape for 

Dag- wain. — A rough material used for 
coverlets for beds, tables, or floors. 

Damask or Damascus. — A fabric 
woven in elaborate patterns of silk, 
wool, or linen. Wool damask was 
used for curtains and bed hangings 
in Colonial days. 

"Damask white and azure blewe 
Well diapered with lilies new." 

— " The Squire of Low Degree." 

Dauphiness. — A certain style of man- 
tle advertised in Boston in 1755. 

Deriband or Deribund. — A thin ma- 
terial made in India. 

Desoy or Sergedesoy. — A coarse silken 
material used in the eighteenth cen- 
tury for men's clothing. 

Dimity, Dimothy, or Demyt. — This is 
a fine ribbed cotton fabric made first 
in Damietta, used throughout the 
Colonial period and until the present 

Domex. — A heavy coarse linen, like 

Doublet. — A garment usually made of 
two thicknesses of stuff, whence its 

Dowlas. — A heavy linen originally from 



Drawers. — Summer breeches. 

Drugget. — A fabric of wool used for 
heavy coats, etc. 

Ducape. — A heavy corded silk of plain 
colour mentioned in inventories from 
1675. It was durable and very 

Duck. — A strong linen fabric without a 

vDuffels or Duffals. — A woolen stuff 
originally made in Flanders, used 
in the Colonies in 1672 and after. 

Durant. — A woolen fabric, sometimes 
called "everlasting." 

Dussens. — A sort of kersey. The Mas- 
sachusetts Bay Colonists were sup- 
plied with " 100 sutes of Norden 

Embroidery. — Variegated needlework 
used for decoration of dress. From 
the French hroder. 

"Embroidered was he, as it were a mede 
All of fresh flowers, white and red." 

— "Canterbury Tales." 

Engageants.— Deep double rufHes 
hanging down to the wrist. 

"About her sleeves are engageants." 

— "Mundus Muliebris," 1690. 

Eschelles or Echelles. — A stomacher 
laced or ribboned in the form of a 

Face-painting.— Portrait painting. 

Falbalas or Furbelows. — Rows of plait- 
ing or puffs, fashionable in the time 
of William and Mary. A puckered 

Falding. — A kind of coarse cloth — like 

Fall. — A falling band, a large collar, 
worn in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. 

Fallals.— Full soft ruffles used for 

Farthingale. — The under supporter of 
the wide gown or petticoat worn in 
the time of Elizabeth and James I. 
Made like a circular cushion stuffed 
with hair, and worn just below the 

Farthingale Breeches. — Stuffed out 
like a farthingale, supposed to be a 
protection from poniard thrusts 
and for that reason encouraged by 
James I. 

Favourite. — A lock dangling on the 

Felt. — A fabric of wool and hair. Felt 
hats were first made in England in 
the days of Henry VIII. 

Firmament. — An encircling ornament 
for the head set with gems. 

Fly-fringe. — A very popular trimming 
made of tufts of silk to match or 
contrast with the gown. In fashion 
all through the Georgian Era. 

FoUette. — A very Hght fichu. 

Fontange. — A knot of ribbon worn on 
the head-dress, so called for Mile. 
Fontange, who first wore it. Some- 
times confused with the Commode, 
on top of which it was usually worn. 

Fote or Foot-mantel. — An outer skirt 
worn by a woman on horseback to 
keep her gown clean. 

French Fall. — A sort of shoe. 

Frieze. — A thick and warm woolen 
cloth in use since the fourteenth 

Frilals. — Borders of ornamental rib- 

Frontlet. — A piece of stuff worn under 
the hood and projecting beyond it 
over the forehead. 

Furbelows. — An ornamental trimming 
for women's gowns, described as a 
puckered flounce. 



Fustian. — A species of cloth, originally 
made at Fusht on the Nile, used 
for jackets and doublets as early as 
the fifteenth century. It had a warp 
of linen thread and a woof of thick 

Fygury. — An old name for silk diapered 
with figures of flowers and fruit. 

Galloon or Galon. — A kind of lace 
made of silk woven with cotton, gold, 
or silver, or of silk only. 

Gamoshes. — High boots worn about 

Garters. — The New England Colonists 
were furnished with Norwich garters. 
In the time of James I garters were 
small sashes of silk tied in a large 

Gauze. — A transparent silk texture in- 
vented at Gaza in Palestine, whence 
its name. 

Gelofer or Gillofer. — The old name for 

carnation pinks. 

Gloves. — Were worn on all occasions 
of ceremony by both sexes in early 
Colonial Days. They were often 
embroidered in gold or silver. We 
read of perfumed gloves in England 
in 1631. 

"One gives to me perfumed gloves, the 

best that he can buy me. 
Live where I will, I will have the loves 

of all that come nigh me." 
— "A Fayre Portion for a Fayre Maide." 

Glove Tightens. — To keep the long 
gloves in place, were made of plaited 
hair as well as of ribbon. 

Goffering. — The mode of ironing the 
plaits of a ruff over heated poking 
or goffering sticks. 

Golosh. — A shoe with soles of wood or 
leather kept on by straps over the 

Gorget. — An ornamental neckband 
which was full and broad in front, 
worn as early as 1642 in the Col- 


onies. Metal gorgets were worn 
with armour. 

Grain. — Scarlet (a colour). 

Grassets or Grazzets. — A dress stuff in 
use from 171 2 to 1768. 

Greaves. — Armour worn to protect the 
front part of the legs. 

Gridelin. — A soft blue gray colour 
fashionable in the eighteenth cen- 

Grogram. — A rough fabric of silk and 
wool with a diagonal weave. Coun- 
try women wore gowns of it in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
in England and it was much used 
in the Colonies. 

Hair-clasps. — Worn to keep the back 
hair in place, made of various metals, 
and often set with pearls, etc. 

Hair-lace. — A fillet for the hair, much 
worn in the eighteenth century. 

Haling-hands. — Mittens for sailors and 
workingmen. The palms were often 
lined with leather. 

Hanaper or Hamper. — A wicker bas- 

Hand-ruffs. — Ruffles for the wrist. 

Hanger. — A small sword worn by gen- 
tlemen with morning dress in the 
seventeenth century. 

Hatch. — A locker in which clothing was 
kept and which generally stood at 
the foot of the bed and was used as 
a seat. 

Hive. — A sort of straw bonnet shaped 
like a bee-hive. 

" Upon her head a platted hive of straw 
which fortified her visage from the 

Hoods. — (from the Anglo-Saxon Hood) 
— Were worn with great variations 
of fashion by both sexes from the 
eleventh to the eighteenth century 
Replaced by caps and hats in the 
reign of George II. 



Hookers. — The name given to certain 
sects who eschewed the use of but- 
tons. Mennonites or Dunkers. 

Hoops. — In the Colonies followed all 
the English changes of shape, and 
were worn by old and young. (1712- 

Hum-Hum. — A coarse cotton fabric 
brought from India, used for lining 
coats, etc., 17 50-1 7 70. 

Inkle. — A woolen tape or braid. Used 
as a trimming and sewed on in pat- 

Iron-pot. — Familiar name of the iron 
head-piece worn by Cromwell's sol- 

Isabella colour. — Dirty white. 

Jack-boots. — Were introduced in the 
seventeenth century. 

Jacket. — A popular garment worn in 
the Colonies from 1641 and after. 

Jean. — A twilled cotton cloth used both 
for underwear and for outer gar- 
ments. Summer suits for men were 
often made of jean in the Colonies. 

Jerkin. — Another name for jacket or 

Jerkinet. — A similar garment for 

Joseph. — A lady's riding-habit but- 
toned down the front. When worn 
open this garment was popularly 
called a " flying Josie." 

Jumps. — A loose bodice for women, 
also a loose coat or jacket for men, 
reaching to the thighs, buttoned' 
down the front, with sleeves to the 

Kendal. — A green woolen cloth or baize 
first made at Kendal in England. 

Kenting. — A fine linen fabric. 

Kersey. — (under various spellings) — 
A fine woolen material. 

Kincob or Kinkhaib. — A rich Indian 
stuff of silk, brocaded in flowers and 
large figures. 

Kirtle. — A loose gown or tunic. 

Kist. — A chest. 

Knop. — A button. 

Lace. — A lacing cord (the name came 
from lacier, "to fasten"). In the 
earlier days, trimming woven with 
gold and silver thread and put on 
in flat rows. In its later sense sig- 
nifying that delicate and beautiful 
fabric which is one of the most ad- 
mirable ornaments of costume. 
Mechlin, a favourite lace in the Col- 
onies, was made in Flanders; point- 
lace or French point, also much 
worn, was made in Alenfon. 

" Your snowy wrists do Mechlin pendants 

And do the smartest wigs adorn thy 

— " The Test 0} Love," Nicholas Amherot. 

Lappets. — The lace pendants of a lady's 
cap or head-dress. Very fashion- 
able in the last half of the eighteenth 

Lawn. — A delicate fabric used as early 
as Elizabeth's day. 

Leno. — A thin linen fabric used for caps. 

Levite. — Another name for a polonese, 
and made of dimity and muslin, 
often bordered with chintz or calli- 

Linset. — The stool on which a woman 
sat when spinning. 


insey-wolsey. — A coarse woolen stuff 
first made at Linsey in Suffolk, 
England, and very popular in the 

Liripipes. — Long streamers of gauze 
or ribbon attached to a head-dress 
and often hanging to the feet. 

Loo masks. — Half masks covering the 
face to the nose only. 



Loretto. — A silk material used for 

Love -lock. — A long ringlet of hair 
worn on the left side of the head. 

Lustring. — A soft silk, plain or 
flowered, in general wear for many- 

Macaroni. — Nickname for a London 
fop. Whence arose the use of the 
word in the contemporary doggerel 
of Yankee Doodle and its applica- 
tion as a name in the American 
Revolution to a body of Maryland 
troops remarkable for showy uni- 
forms. (1770-1775.) (Century 

Mandillion. — An outer garment. The 
New England Colonists wore them 
lined with cotton and fastened with 
hooks and eyes. 

Mantee. — A coat with sleeves which 
hung open from the throat showing 
the stomacher and petticoat beneath. 

Mantua. — A form of sacque for out- 
door wear, sometimes name of ma- 
terial for making sacques. We read, 
for instance, of yellow mantua silk 
in 1 741. 

Masks. — As a protection from the sun 
and wind, were worn by women and 
children in all the colonies. 

Mercury. — The name for a certain kind 
of cap for women in fashion about 
1760 in Boston and elsewhere. 

Mittens. — Were made of heavy cloth 
and of dressed skins as well as 
knitted of wool. 

Mitts. — Fingerless gloves made of kid 
or silk and often of lace-work for 
summer wear. Mitts made of cot- 
ton or linen like the dress were but- 
toned to the shoulder of the gown 
and were in fashion after the Revolu- 

Mode. — A contraction of "alamode," 
a thin silk. A mantle with a hood 
fashionable in the eighteenth cen- 
tury was also called a '' mode." 

Modesty-piece. — A piece of lace worn 
across the upper part of the stays. 

Monmouth Cap. — A popular headgear 
mentioned in the outfits of the Col- 
onists. Made originally in the old 
parts of the town of Monmouth, 
which is still known as the Capper's 

Monteroe or Mountero Cap. — Made 
with a low crown and flap which 
could be turned down for protection. 

Morion. — A head-piece of armour intro- 
duced from Spain and worn by Eng- 
lish soldiers in the latter half of the 
sixteenth century. 

Mouches. — Black patches were thus 
called because they looked like flies. 

Mufifetees or Wristlets. — Were worn 
when the coat sleeves were short, 
by men and women in the time of 
William and Mary. 

Muffs. — Have been in use from early 
in the seventeenth century to the 
present day. For many years they 
were carried by both men and women 
and made of woolen stuff, fur, and 
feathers. We read that Judge Dana 
of Boston carried one until after the 

Murry. — Mulberry colour. 

Nabob. — A thin East India stuff. 

Nankeen. — A cotton cloth of a yellow 
colour imported from China and 
named for Nankin, where it was 

Neck-cloths. — Worn by both men and 
women in the Colonies. 

" Before your glass each morning do you 
And tie your neck -cloth with a critic's 

Neckstock. — A stiffly folded cravat 



worn close to the throat, finished 
with a buckle at the back. 

Negligee. — A loose gown or sacque 
open in front over a handsome petti- 
coat; and, in spite of its name, was 
not only in high fashion for many 
years, but was worn in full dress. 

Night-rail. — A dress unconfined at the 
waist and closed only at the neck — 
literally night-gowns, which the 
ladies adopted as a morning costume. 

"Three night-gowns of rich Indian stuff." 
— "Mundus Muliebris." 

None-so-Prettys. — Fancy tapes. 

Orange-butter. — A pomade used in the 
Dutch Colonies. 

Orrice. — A lace or gimp trimming 
woven with gold and silver thread. 

Oxford Gown. — The academic gown 
worn usually on public occasions by 
men in authority, chiefly as a badge 
of office in the Colonies. 

Oznaburg. — A coarse linen made in 
Hanover and named for a province 
of that name. 

Paduasoy. — A rich smooth silk made 
originally at Padua. 

Palisade. — A wire sustaining the hair 
next to the first knot. Part of the 
commode head-dress. 

Paniers. — Were made of hoops of 
straw, cane, or whalebone fastened 
together by tapes. 

Paragon. — A stuff used for common 
wear in the seventeenth century. 

Patches. — First introduced towards the 
end of the reign of Charles I and 
varied into all manner of shapes. 

Pattens. — A sole of wood on iron rings 
fastened to the foot by leather straps. 

Pelerine. — A small cape with long ends 
in front. 

Penistone. — (under various spellings) — 
A coarse woolen stuff made in Eng- 
land in the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries. 

Pennache. — A bunch of tassels or nar- 
row ribbons. 

Perpetuana, Petuna, or Perpets. — A 

glossy woolen stuff like lasting worn 
by the Puritans in 1629 and after. 

Persian. — A thin silk used for linings 
of cloaks and hoods or for summer 
gowns. Sold in New England in 
the eighteenth century. 

Petticoat. — (Originally petty-coet) — A 
garment worn universally and made 
of every sort of material. Quilted 
petticoats were advertised as early as 
1720 in the Colonies. 

Philomot. — Colour of a dead leaf. 

Pig^tail Wig. — Wig with a plaited tail 
tied with a ribbon, worn very gener- 
"* ally in the middle of the eighteenth 

Pilgrim. — A cape or ruffle fastened to 
the back of a bonnet to shield the 
neck; usually made of thin silk. 

Pillion. — The extension of a saddle on 
which a woman rode before the days 
of side-saddles. 

Pinner. — Usually a child's bib or apron 
and mentioned often in the seven- 
teenth century, but caps fastened on 
with pins were also called pinners in 
the eighteenth century. 

Pins or Pinnes. — Were sold for one 
shilling and four pence a thousand 
in the early Colonial days. 

Plumpers. — Very thin round and light 
balls to plump out and fill up hollow 

Points. — Ties or laces of ribbon or 
leather decorated with tags and used 
instead of buttons to fasten garments 
together. They were in general use 



until late in the seventeenth century, 
both for armour and civilian's dress. 

Polonese. — A long-sleeved coat-like gar- 
ment for women opening down the 
front, finished often with a large 
hood at the back of the neck. 

Pomander. — A perforated ball or box 
filled with perfumes, used to pre- 
vent infection. 

Pompadour or Pompadore. — Was a 

word in constant use in the eighteenth . 
century. We read of Pompadore 
shoes, laces, caps, aprons, sacques, 
stockings, and head-dresses. 

Pompon .^-An ornament made of arti- 
ficial flowers, feathers, tinsel, etc. 

Pretintailles. — L7aFge-riit-out patterns 
laid on a dress as trimming. iTrtfe^^ 
duced in the time of William and 



-A close woolen stuff like 

Puce Colour. — Colour of a flea, 
given by Louis XVI. 


Pug. — A short cape with hood attached 
and usually made of silk, velvet, or 

Pump. — A shoe with a thin sole and 
low heel, first mentioned in the six- 
teenth century. 

Purl. — A species of edging used on 
caps, collars, cuffs, etc. 

Qualitie. — A coarse tape for strings or 
binding, used in all the Colonies be- 
tween 1700 and 1800. 

Rail or Rayle. — A loose garment (old 
English), but later applied only to 

Ramall or Romall. — A neckerchief or 
small shawl to be worn over the 

Ramilie. — A wig bushy at the sides, a 
braided tail in the back with a large 
bow at top and small bow at the 
end. (1708 and after.) 

Rash. — A wool fabric of inferior quality. 

Ratteen. — A heavy woolen material 
something like drugget. 

Rayonn€. — A species of hood. 

Robings.— -The ornamental part of a 
gown, such as lapels, reveres, etc. 

Rocket or Rochet. — A long woolen 
mantle trimmed with fringe. 
Brought from Devon or Cornwall. 

Roquelaure or Roquelo. — A cloak for 
both men and women, named for 
the Duke of Roquelaure, mentioned 
in New England papers of 1730. 
Made of all heavy materials and 
generally of bright colours. Often 
two small capes of the same material 
finished the garment on the shoul- 

Roses. — Ornaments in the form of roses 
made of ribbons, lace, and even 
jewels. One of the pet extrava- 
gances of the seventeenth century. 
Worn on shoes, garters, and hat- 
bands. We read of an EngHsh gal- 
lant who paid 30 pounds for a pair. 

Round-cord Cap. — A cap which was 
tied on with a fine cord back of the 

Ruflles. — Of lawn and lace were worn 
in the sleeves and in the front of the 
shirts until after 1800. 

Russel or Russet. — A twilled woolen 
stuff like baize, much worn in the 

"Our clothing is good sheepskins 
Gray russet for our wives 
'Tis warmth and not gay clothing 
That doth prolong our lives." 

— "Coridon's Song." 

Safeguard. — An outside petticoat worn 
over the dress as a protection from 



mud or dust in riding by women in 
the Colonies. (1650 and after.) 

Sagathy or Sagathie.— A durable 
woolen stuff. 

Samara or Semnar. — A lady's jacket. 
Originally a Dutch garment. " It had 
a loose body and side flaps, or skirts 
which extended to the knee, the 
sleeves short to the elbow, turned 
back and faced" (Randle Holmes). 
The samare was often made long 
and was worn opening over a petti- 
coat and waistcoat very much like 
the English sacque. 

Sarsnet, Sarsenet, or Sarsinet. — A thin 
silk still in use, but dating from the 
thirteenth century. 

Satin Jean. — A thick cotton cloth with 
a glossy surface used for shoes and 
similar purposes. 

Say or Soy. — (from the French soie) — 
Originally a silk and wool material. 
It is mentioned in Colonial lists 
from 1629 to 1768. 

Serge. — A twilled fabric of either wool 
or silk, often of both. 

Shades. — ^A head covering, or a stuff 
suitable for headgear. We read 
in 1766 of "painted lawns and 
chequer'd shades." 

Shadow. — A sunshade either worn on 
the head or held in the hand, (i 580- 
1647 ^.nd after.) 

Shag. — A heavy woolen cloth with a 
long nap. (1632 and after.) 

Shagreen. — An untanned leather with 
a granular surface often made of 
sharkskin and dyed green. 

Shalloons. — A woolen fabric not unlike 
the modern challis and made in 
Chalons, France. 

Sherry-v allies. — A sort of legging worn 
in riding, to protect from mud, but- 
toned up outside the trousers. 

Shift. — A shirt or chemise, usually of 
fine linen. This undergarment was 
in Colonial days often made with 
long sleeves which were laid in fine 
plaits with a knife when laundered. 

Shoepack. — A shoe shaped like a moc- 
casin, without a separate sole, made 
of tanned leather and much worn 
during the Revolution. 

Skilts. — Short full trousers reaching 
just below the knee, full half a yard 
wide at the bottom. Worn during the 
Revolution by the country people. 

Slyders or Slivers. — Overalls. 

Smock. — A shirt of heavy linen worn 
by farm labourers and workingmen. 
Before 1700 a shift was often called 
a smock. In "Mundus Muliebris" 
we read: 

"Twice twelve day-smocks of Holland 
Twelve more for night, all Flanders 

Snuff. — Came into general use in Eng- 
land in 1702. 

Snuff-boxes. — Were carried by both 
men and women for the greater part 
of the century. 

Solitaire. — A broad black ribbon intro- 
duced from France in the time of 
Louis XV worn close around the 
throat, apparently to protect the coat 
from the powdered wig. Sometimes 
it was tied to the back of the wig 
and brought round and tucked in 
the shirt ruffle. According to ad- 
vertisements in the American news- 
papers, it was much worn in the 

Sorti. — A knot of small ribbon peeping 
out between the pinner and bonnet. 

Spagnolet. — A gown with narrow 
sleeves, a PEspagnole. 

Spanish Paper. — A red colour with 



which the ladies of Spain painted 
their faces. It was made up into Httle 
books and a leaf was torn out and 
rubbed upon the cheeks, the Vermil- 
lion powder which covered it being 
transferred to the face. It was in 
use at the end of the eighteenth cen- 

Stamin or Stammel. — A heavy cloth 
like linsey-woolsey. 

Startups or Startop. — A sort of buskin 
for ordinary wear worn in the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries by 
country folk. 

Stayhooks. — Small ornamental hooks 
stuck in the edge of the bodice on 
which to hang an etui. 

Steinkirk. — A cravat folded with care- 
less grace. Name given by the 
French to commemorate the battle 
in 1692. 

Stirrup-hose. — Were worn on horse- 
back to protect the nether garments. 
They were wide at the back and 
fastened with straps to the girdle. 

Stock. — A stiff neck-cloth buckled at 
the back of the neck, successor to 
the cravat. 

Stock-buckle. — Buckle which fastened 
the stock. 

" The stock with buckle made of plate 
Has put the cravat out of date." 

Strap Cap. — A cap which fastened with 
flaps under the chin. 

Sultane. — A gown caught up with but- 
tons and loops. 

Swanskin. — A fleecy cloth like Canton 
flannel, used for linings, etc. 

Tabby. — A sort of watered silk. 

Tabinet or Tabaret. — Another name for 
poplin, used for petticoats, and also 
for covering furniture. 

Taffeta. — A rich cloth used first in the 

sixteenth century and considered a 
luxury in the Colonial days. 

Taminy. — A woolen stuff like alpaca, 
made in Norfolk, 1653 and after. 

Tassets. — Splints of steel fastened to 
the corselet as a protection for the 
thighs. Worn until late in the seven- 
teenth century. 

Thrum. — The extremity of a weaver's 
warp, often about nine inches long, 
which cannot be woven. Caps and 
hats knitted of this material were 
called thrums. 

"And her thrum'd hat and her muffler 

Tiffany. — A heavy silk fabric. (1792 and 

Tippets. — A neck covering made of a 
variety of materials worn for orna- 
ment, of gauze and tissues, and for 
warmth, of fur. 

Tongs. — Overalls of coarse cotton or 

Tufftaffeta. — A taffeta with a chenille 
stripe, worn in New England. 

Tuly. — A shade of red. 

Turban also Turbin. — A head-dress for 
women made of gauze and trimmed 
with feathers, very fashionable in the 
Colonies. (1760 and after.) 

Trollopee. — Another name for negligee. 

Vambrace. — The piece of armour 
which protected the forearm from 
elbow to wrist. 

Vampay. — A short hose or sock of wool. 

Veil. — One of the most ancient articles 
of female attire, the couvre chef 
of the Anglo-Saxon ladies and an 
important part of the conventual 



costume, but retaining its place in 
the wardrobes of women to-day. 

Whisk. — A collarette or cape to cover 
the neck and shoulders, usually 
made of muslin trimmed with lace 
and worn with low-cut gowns, in 
the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. We read of Tiffany whisks 
in 1660. 

Whitney. — A heavy coarse stuff used 
for coats, cloaks, and petticoats, 
1737 and after. 

Whittle. — A blanket shawl with fringe, 
worn in 1665 and after, in the Col- 

Worsted. — A woolen cloth first made 
at Worstead in England in the reign 
of Henry I. 



Ablettes, 72 

Acadian exiles, 36 

Actors in America, 238 

Adams's, Mrs. Abigail, letter from England, 

describing the fashions, 259 
Adventurers, 33, 43 
Advertisements in colonial newspapers, 245- 

Andre, Major, 255 
Andros, Sir Edward, 136 
Aprons, 53, 68, 71, 100, 130, 195, 202 
Armour, 56, 59, 60, 99 
Arquebusiers, 27 
Artificial flowers, 213 
Artisans, 33 
Attitude of the Colonists in New England 

towards the English Church, 113, 114 

Baby-clothes, 283 

Back boards, 196 

Bacon's Rebellion, anecdote of, 71 

Baize, gowns of, 258 

Baldricks, 51 

Baltimore, Lord, 56 

Bandoliers, 99, 103 

Bands, 51, 64 

Banyans, 315 

Barbadoes, 63 

Basquinas, 28 

Bath bonnets, 222 

Bayard, Nicholas, costume of, 144 

Bayard, Madam, costume of, 147 

Beards, 44 

Beaver hats, 190, 214 

Berkeley, Sir Wm., Governor of the Virginia 

Colony, 48, 60, 61 
Bishops, 222 
Blacksmith, 53 
Boarding-school outfit, 291 
Bobs, 300, 303 
Bodices, coloured, ^^ 
Bodices, pair of, 190 
Bonnets, 202, 214, 222, 225, 256, 273 
Boots, 64, 312, 324 
Bowne's, Elizabeth, descriptions of dress in 

1798, 273 
Breeches, 53, 61, 67, 143 

Bricklayer, 53 

Bridal veil, 206, 209 

Bridge spectacles, 193 

Bridling, 196 

Brigade Orders, West Point, 369 

Broad-brimmed hats, 95, 312, 323 

Buccaneers, 27, 28 

Buckle, 247 

Buckles, 311 

Buckskin breeches, 346 

Buckskin shoes, 346 

Buff coats, 59, 60, 107 

Burney, Miss, verses on a great-coat by, 257 

Burroughs, Anne, 47 

Buttons, 64, 67, 109, 324 

Calash, 214, 222, 233 

California, 26, 31 

Campaign wig, 147, 299 

Canes, 205 

Cannons or breeches fastenings, 99 

Capes, 34 

Capotes, 34 

Caps for women, 100, 193, 214, 217, 257 

Capuchins, 229 

Cardinal, 140, 193, 194, 229 

Carpenters, 53 

Cavalier, Robert, Sieur de La Salle, 32, 33 

Cavahers, 63 

Chaises, 263 

Chapeau bras, 312 

Chatelaines, 133 

Chief justice, robe of a, 335 

Children, dress of, 17th century, 47, 52, 113, 

Children, dress of, i8th century, 283, 292 
Chintz gowns, 257 
Church services, 17th century, 54 
City troop, uniform of the, 350 
Cleaning estabhshment, 249 
Clergymen, dress of, 17th century, 54, 114, 115 
Clergymen, dress of, i8th century, 304, 307 
Cloaks, 100, 103, 193, 217, 229, 252, 263 
Clogs, 34, 186, 217 
Coats, 17th century, 61, 109, 143 
Coats, i8th century, 312, 332 
Cockades, 376 




Cocked hats, 143, 299, 328, 332 

Cocking the hat, various forms of, 308, 311 

Coif of a Dutch matron, 130, 136 

Coifs, men, 152, 156 

Coifs, women, 164 

Colebatteen ruffles, 147 

Colonial militia, 99 

Colonial period, end of, 255 

Commode, 108, 147, 181 

Connecticut settlers, 84, 85 

Continental soldiers, uniform of, 359 

Cordovan leather, 26 

Corselets, 99 

Countryman, 17th century, 54 

Cravats, 312 

Creedon, Captain, 61 

Cue de Paris, 222 

Cuffs, 143, 202 

Cuirass 60 

Curli-murHs, 195 

Curls, 194 

Curtsey, 199 

Curwen, Judge, 103 

Cushions for the hair, 214, 217 

Custis children, clothes ordered for, 288 

Dances, 234 

Delany, Mrs., 193 

Delaware settled, 136 

Delaware, Swedes on the, 136 

Dentists, 248 

Deportment, 196 

Dickinson, Maria, letter quoted, 258 

Discriminative dress, 230 

Domestics, 244, 246 

Doublets, 28, 44, 51, 59, 61, 96, 109 

Drake, Sir Francis, 26 

Drummer, 53 

Dutch babies, 129, 130 

Dutch bridal crown, 130 

Dutch bride, 130 

Dutch children, dress of, 135 

Dutch merchants, 121 

Dutch peasant women, dress of, 126 

Dutch settlers, 121 

Dutchman, working dress of, 129 

Dyes, 122, 133 

Earrings, 52 

Encouragement of home manufactures, 252 

Enghsh gentleman, dress of, 17th century, 44, 

51, 52, 139, 143 

English gentleman, dress of, i8th century, 299 
English gentlewoman, dress of, 17th century, 

52, 139, 143 

English gentlewoman, dress of, i8th century, 

English rule in all the Colonies, 139 
Etui, 202 
Eves, Miss Sarah, journal of, 241 

Falbalas, 143 

Falling bands, 61, 96 

Falling collars, 61, 96 

Fans, 68, 189, 214 

Farthingale, 47, 193 

Farthingale breeches, 44 

Fashion dolls, 178, 181, 256 

Feathers in the hair, 195, 214 

Fenwick, Lady Mary, 108 

First Troop City Cavalry, uniform of, 349 

Fithian, Phihp, diary of, 230, 234 

Flounces, 143 

Fob pockets, 318 

Forrest, Mrs., 47 

Franks, Miss, 256 

French curls, 196 

French falls, 64 

French settlers, dress of, 33, 34 

French taste prevalent in America, 256 

Frocks or overshirts, 263 

Full dress in New England (middle of 18th 

century), 214, 217 
Funeral of Lady Andros, 107 
Furbelows, 143 
Fur caps, 130 
Fur-trimmed jackets, 130 

Galloon, 68 

Gauntlets, 99 

Geneva gown, 56, 114 

George III, dress in the reign of, 202, 316 

German settlers, 160, 163 

Gipsy hats, loi, 196, 214 

Gloves, 67, 96, 99, 100, 256, 323 

Gold beads, 217 

Gold lace, 99 

Gorget, 60 

Gray hair fashionable, 307 

Great-coats for men, 316, 319, 320, 332 

Great-coats for women, 257, 258 

Green aprons worn by Quakers, 140 

Gumbos, 35 

Guns, 99, 100 . 

Hair-dressing, 217, 218, 230, 250 

Hair powder, 143, 193, 331 

Half-Moon, The, 121 

Hampshire kerseys, 96 

Hatchments, 107 

Hats, 95, 135, 140, 143, 332 

Head-dresses, 143, 194 

Helmets, 59 

Herrisons, 268 

Hibbins, Mistress Anne, no 

Higginson, letter from, 84 

High heels, 139 

High prices during the Revolution, 256 

Hogarth, 307 

Holland, dress of the women, 89 

Holland shirts, 51, 61, 64 

Hollar, Wenceslaus, 86 

Home Life in New England, i8th century, 263 



Homespun parties, 252 

Hoods, 34, 68, looTTbS, 152, 185, 186, 214 

Hooks and eyes, 96 

Hoop, the, 182, 193, 195, 217, 256 

Hooped petticoats, 182, 193, 196, 199 

Horn flasks, 99 

Horse-blocks, 263 

Horsehair bonnets, 222 

Hose, 68 

Household servants, 244 

Hubbard store, contents of, 73 

Hudson, Captain, 109 

Hudson, Henry, 121 

Huguenots, the, 122 

Hunting shirts, 346, 354 

Inauguration ball, description of, 267 
Inauguration costumes of Washington, 267, 

Irish stockings, 96 

Isham, Sir Thomas, wedding suit of, no 
Italian curls, 196 

Jackets, 130 

Jefferson, Thomas, suit worn by, 328 

Jersey Blues, uniform of the, 349 

Jerseys (the) settled, 136 

Jesuit missionaries, 25, 26 

Jewelry, 17th century, 72 

Jockey coat, 311 

Judges, costume of, 152 

Jute-braids, 250 

Keeper of the Great Seal, 155 
Kerchiefs, 34 
Kitchen utensils, 74 
Knit caps, 96 

Labourers, 53, 133, 328 

Labrador tea, 252 

Lake, Mrs., 93; list of household articles, 93; 
fur mantle, 93 

Lange, Dr. Jacob de, wardrobe of, 134 

Lange, Mrs. de, wardrobe of, 133 

Lappets, 195 

La Salle, Robert Cavalier, Sieur, 32, 33 

Law Courts in England, 17th century, 151 

Lawyers' bags, 335 

Lawyers in the Colonies, 17th century, 114, 
115, 148; i8th century, 335 

Leather breeches, 328, 332, 346 

Legal costumes, 17th century, 148; 1 8th cen- 
tury, 335 

Legal customs, 17th century, 148; i8th cen- 
tury, 335, 336 

Leggings, 34, 332 

Lemcke, Count, 167 

Leverett, Sir John, Governor of the Massa- 
chusetts Colony, 100 

Light Horse of Philadelphia, uniform of the, 

Livery at Mt. Vernon, 245 
Lolonais, Francis, 28 
Long Island settled, 136 
Long waistcoats, 303 
Lynn, shoes made at, 95; worn by women, 217 

Macaroni costume, 241 

Macaronis, the, 241, 243 

Maine settled in 1623, 113 

Mandillion, 84, 85, 96 

Manhattan, gay costumes in, 122 

Manifesto against long hair, 89 

Mantillas, 28 

Mantles, 68 

Marie Antoinette, Queen, makes a reform in 
dress of children, 292 

Maryland settled, 56 

Masks, 193 

Mason, 53 

Massachusetts Line, Orders for, 365 

Massachusetts: Settled in 1620, 83; Order of 
the General Court of, 94, 95, 108; dress 
of women, 95; a religious commonwealth, 

Menendez de Aviles, Pedro de, 25 
Mennonites, 160 
Militia, dress of the, 346 
Mincing air, 312 
Minuet, the, 234 
Minuit, Peter, 121 
Minute-men, dress of the, 346 
Mischianza, 255 
Mittens, 67, 100 
Mitts, children's, 284 
Moccasins, 34 
Mocking birds, 73 
Monmouth caps, 44, 64, 96 
Moravian caps, 167 
Moravians, 163, 164, 167 
Morgan, Sir Henry, 28 
Morions, 55 
Moro (1500-1778), 25 
Mourning dress and customs, 17th century, 

104, 107, 108 
Mourning dress, i8th century, 251 
Mourning rings, 72, 107 
Muff-dogs, 62 
Muffs, 62, 143, 190 
Murillo(i6i8-i682), 25 
Musical instruments, 74 
Musk-melon bonnet, 222 

Neckcloths, 64, 109, 143, 147, 324 

Negligees, 199, 230 

Net worn over a queue, 316 

New England, 17th century, dress of the 

women, 100 
New Hampshire settled in 1623, 113 
New-market coat, 316 
New Orleans, 35 



Non-conformists, gowns of, 114 
Nonnandy peasants, 36 

Oak sticks, 312 

Opera glasses, 241 

Ordinary people, dress of, i8th century, 328 

Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus, 86 

Orrices, 147, 186 

Outfit of fashionable man, 331 

Outfit of the Massachusetts Bay Colonists, 84 

Outfit of the Virginia Colonists, 44 

Overalls, 357 

Overshoes, 335 

Pamunkeys, King of the, 77 

Pamunkeys, Queen of the, 77 

Parasols, 214 

Pastors, choosing, in thd Massachusetts 

Colony, 114 
Patch boxes, 189 
Patches, 62, 189 
Patriotic agreement, 251 
Patroons, 122 
Pattens, 130, 201, 217 
Pearls, 52, 72 
Peccadilles, 51 
Peddlers, 74 
Penn, William, 139; advice on dress, 140; 

blue sash, 139; wigs, 143 
Pennsbury, 140 
Pepys, 109 
Percy, Sir George, Governor of Virginia 

Colony, 51 
Perfumed powders, 68 
Perfumes, 202, 205 
Periwigs or wigs, 64, 109, 140, 143, 147, 159, 

299, 300, 307, 312, 315, 319 
Perriot, 267, 271 
Perspective glasses, 193 
Petticoat breeches, 61 
Petticoats, 68, 130, 193, 202, 217 
Pigtails, 312 
Pikes, 99 
Pillions, 263 

Planters' wives, dress of, 17th century, 71 
Plymouth pilgrims, 83 
Pockets, 242 

Points, 53, 54, 59, 85, 104 
Pohtical badges, 189 
Pomander, 202 
Pompadours, 200 
Pompons, 195, 210 
Posey dance, 28 
Potpourri, 205 
Pouncet box, 202 
Powder, hair, 143, 193, 331 
Preaching gown, 56, 114 
Presbyterians, gown worn by, 114 
Pritchard, Mrs. Frances, wardrobe of, 71 
Provincials, uniforms of the, 346 
Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Co., 83, 84 

Quaker aprons, 140 

Quaker bonnets, 225 

Quaker hats, 140 

Quaker settlers in Pennsylvania Province, 139 

Quaker weddings, description of, 226, 258 

Quakers, dress of the, 139, 140, 225, 226, 229, 

Quakers, portraits of, 258 
Queensbury, Duchess of, a wonderful gown of, 

Queues, 316, 331 
Quilted petticoats, 202, 257 
Quitasols, 230 

Ramilie wig, 299, 304 

Rapiers, 109 

Restraining Acts of the Pilgrims, 96 

Revere, Paul, a dentist, 248 

Rhode Island settled 1636, 113 

Richbell, Robert, 109 

Riding dress, 17th century, 109 

Riding sxiit, a lady's, i8th century, 186 

Ringlets, 273 

Rings, 72, 130 

Robings, 196, 273 

Roelas, Juan de Las, 1558-1625, 25 

Rollers, 218 

Roquelaures, 229, 303, 320 

Rosettes, 96 

Roundhead Puritans (old song), 89 

Ruffled shirts, 332 

Ruffles, 139, 147, 195, 202 

Ruffs, 26, 44, 159 

Russell, 222 

Sacque, 182, 187, 201, 202 

Sailors, dress of, 328 

Samare, 133 

Sandys, George, 52 

Sandys, Sir Edwin, 44 

Sartori, Mrs., story of dress worn by, 274 

Scarfs, 214 

Scarlet cloaks worn by women, 263 

Scarlet robes worn by Judges, 103, 152, 335 

Scarlet stockings, 299 

Scent bottles, 202 

Sedan chairs, 182 

Sergeant-at-law, reign of Charles II, 156; 

reign of James II, 159 
Servants, i8th century, 244, 246, 268 
Seventh Day Baptists, 168 
Shoe-buckles, 64, 139 
Shoemaking at Salem, 90 
Shoes, 64, 68, 95, 96, 139, 143, 217, 328 
Shifts, 130 
Shirts, 51, 61, 64 
Short-waists, 273, 274 
Shoulder belts, 99 
Silver lace, 99 

Silverware (17th century), 74 
Skimmer hat, 222 
Slashed sleeves, 51, 96 



Slaves, dress of, 245, 246 

Sleeves, 94, 143, 202, 217 

Slippers, 214 

Smith, Captain John, 44 

Snuff-boxes, 202, 311 

Snuff, use of, 311 

Spanish gentleman, dress of, i6th century, 26 

Spanish painters, 25 

Spanish point-lace, 143 

Spanish settlers, 25 

Spanish soldiers, i6th century, 27 

Spanish women, dress of, 28 

Spectacles, 193 

Square toes, 139, 311 

St. Augustine, 25, 26 

Stays, 190, 217 

Steinkirk, 147 

Stock buckles, 300 

Stockings, 64, 68, 143, 214, 217, 299 

Stocks, 332 

Stoffelsen, Vrouentje Ides, inventory of cloth- 
ing, 130 

Stomachers, 143, 182, 202 

Store in the Virginia Colony, contents of a, 73 

Striped silk, coats of, 273 

Stuyvesant, Peter, Governor of New Am- 
sterdam, 125 

Sumptuous dress, 109 

Surplices, 54 

Tabby, 68 

Tailors, 53, 249 

Tanneries, 95 

Tassetts, 59 

Temple spectacles, 193 

Tete moutonee, 196 

Texas, 31 

Theatre, first, in America, 238 

Theatrical costumes, 238 

Theatrum Mulierum, 89 

Thrums, 53, 328 

Tiffany hoods, 95 

Tippets, 155, 193 

Tow cloth, 263 

Tower and commode, 181 

Traders, 34 

Tradesmen, dress of, 328 

Training Day, 100 

Treaty of Paris in 1764, 36 

Tuilles, 59 

Turbans, 214 

Umbrellas, 214, 320 
Undergirdle, 130 

Uniforms, military, 1 775-1800, 340 
Uniforms, naval, 1 775-1800, 340 

Vandyke collar, 52 

Vandyke edging, 51 

Vargas, Luis de (1502-1568), 25 

Velasquez, Diego (1599-1660), 25 

Vests, 34 

Virginia ball, 230 

Virginia Company, 43 

Virginia Infantry, uniform of the, 349 

Vos, Madame Cornelia de, 134 

Wagon bonnet, 225 

Waistcoats, 67, 143, 186, 303, 307, 324, 332 

Walloons, the, 122 

Walpole, Horace, 206 

Wansey's, Mr., description of dress at the 
theatre in Philadelphia, 272, 273 

Warren's, Mrs. Mercy, 271; verses on dress, 

Washington, George, dress of, first inaugura- 
tion, 267; second inauguration, 328; uni- 
form of, 349 

Washington, Mrs., 268 

Watches, 320 

Waterproof capes, 320 

Watteau, the artist, 190 

Watteau sacque, 182 

West Point, Brigade Orders, 369 

Whig colours, 349 

White, Bishop, anecdote of, 307 

White, Mrs., inventory of, 200 

Wig makers, 250 

Wigs and periwigs, 64, 109, 140, 143, 147, 
159, 299, 300, 303, 307, 312, 315, 319 

Willoughby, Mrs. Sarah, wardrobe of, 71 

Winthrop, Margaret, 86 

Wister, Sally, dress of, 257 

Wooden heels, 68, 95 

Wooden shoes, 68 

Worked head, 194 

Workingman, dress of, 17th century, 53, 54 

Workingman, dress of, i8th century, 244, 328, 

Yankee Doodle, 242 
ZiNZENDORF, Count, dress of, 168 



Authorities Consulted 

Calendar 0} Virginia State Papers, Richmond, 1875. 

History 0} the Virginia Settlement, Captain John Smith, London, 1624. 

First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia, William Stith, Williamsburg, 1747. 

Virginia Vetusta, Edward D. Neill, Albany, 1885. 

Virginia Carolorum, Edward D. Neill, Albany, 1886. 

Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, Philip Alexander Bruce, 
New York, 1896. 

Old Virginia and Her Neighbors, John Fiske, Boston, 1897. 

History of the Barbadoes, John Poyer, London, 1808. 

A True and Exact A ccount 0} the Island of the Barbadoes, Richard Ligon, London, 

Annals 0} the Swedes on the Delaware, John C. Clay, Philadelphia, 1835. 
Economic and Social History 0} New England, 1620-1789, William B. Weeden, 

Boston, 1890. 

History of Norwich, Connecticut, Frances Mainwaring Caulkins, Norwich, 1866. 

History and Antiquities of Boston, Samuel Drake, Boston, 1856. 

History of Lynn, Massachusetts, Alonzo Lewis and James R. Newhall, Boston, 

Life of William Penn, Samuel M. Janney, Philadelphia, 1852. 
The Germans in Pennsylvania, WiUiam Beidelman, Easton, 1898. 
The Story of Louisiana, Maurice Thompson, Boston, 1889. 
Colonial Days and Ways, Helen Evertson Smith, New York, 1900. 
Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America, John Fiske, Boston, 1899. 
New Jersey as a Colony and as a State, Francis Bagley Lee, New York, 1902. 
Social History of Flatbush, Mrs. Vanderbilt, New York, 1881. 
History of New York, M. J. Lamb, New York, 1877. 
A Short History of the English Colonies in America, Henry Cabot Lodge, New 

York, 1 88 1. 
A Story of the City of New York, Charles Burr Todd, New York, 1888. 
Goode Vrow of Manahatta, Mrs. John King Van Rensselaer, New York, 1898. 
Discovery of the Great Northwest, James Baldwin, New York, 1901. 
History of the Antiquities of St. Augustine, Florida, George R. Fairbanks, New 

York, 1858. 
Description of Louisiana in 1683, Father Hennepin, New York, 1888. 
Men, Women and Manners in Colonial Times, Sidney G. Fisher, Philadelphia, 1898. 



Annals of Philadelphia, John Watson, Philadelphia, 1829. 

Annals of New York, John Watson, Philadelphia, 1846. 

Letters to Franklin by his Family and Friends, 1 751-1790, New York, 1859. 

Child Life in Colonial Days, Mrs. Alice Morse Earle, New York, 1899. 

Costume of Colonial Times, Mrs. AUce Morse Earle, New York, 1894. 

Life of Margaret Winthrop, Mrs. AUce Morse Earle, New York, 1895. 

Dolly Madison, Mrs. Goodwin, New York, 1896. 

The Writings of George Washington, edited by Wm. Chauncey Ford, New York, 

Martha Washington, Anne Hollingsworth Wharton, New York, 1896. 
The Quaker, a Study in Costume, Mrs. Francis Gummere, Philadelphia, 1902. 
Colonial Days and Dames, Anne Hollingsworth Wharton, Philadelphia, 1898. 
Journal and Correspondence of Abigail Adams, New York, 1841. 
Diary of Sally Wister, Philadelphia, 1902. 
UEvantail, Octave Uzanne, Paris, 1882. 

UOmbrelle; le gant; et le Mouclwir, Octave Uzanne, Paris, 1883. 
Son Altesse, la Femme, Octave Uzanne, Paris, 1885. 
Autobiography and Correspondence of Mrs. Delaney, Boston, 1880. 
Diary of Madame D'Arblay, London, 1842. 
History of the United States, Thomas Higginson, Boston, 1875. 
The Republican Court, Rufus W. Griswold, New York, 1855. 
Pioneers of France in the New World, Francis Parkman, Boston, 1865. 
Discovery of the Great West, Francis Parkman, Boston, 1869. 
The Spectator, London, 1712. 

Pepys' Diary, edited by H. B. Wheatley, London, 1896. 
Evelyn's Diary, edited by H. B. Wheatley, London, 1879. 
Table Talk of Samuel Rogers, New York, 1856. 
Nollekins and His Times, John T. Smith, London, 1895. 
Trachten der Volker, A. Kretchmer, Leipzig, 1864. 
Cyclopedia of Costume, J. R. Planche, London, 1876. 
Pictorial History of England, Charles Knight, London, 1841. 
History of English Dress, Mrs. Hill, London, 1893. 
Annals of Fashion by a Lady of Rank, London, 1847. 
Yester-year, Ten Centuries of Toilette, A. Robida, London, 1892. 
History of Fashion in France, Augustin Challamel, London, 1882. 
Institutions, Usages et Costumes du lyieme siecle, Paul Lacroix, Paris, 1880. 
Institutions, Usages et Costumes du iSieme siecle, Paul Lacroix, Paris, 1878. 
Costume in England, F. W. Fairholt, London, 1846. 

England in the Eighteenth Century, WiUiam Connor Sydney, New York, 1891. 
Notes on Civil Costume in England, Hon. Lewis Wingfield, London, 1889. 
Le Costume Historique, A. Racinet, Paris, 1891. 
Memoirs of Lady Sarah Lennox, London, 1902. 
Civil Costume in England, Charles Martin, London, 1842, 


Men, Maidens and Manners a Hundred Years Ago, John Ash ton, London, 1888. 

Brides and Bridals, John Cordy Jeffreson, London, 1872. 

Mundus Muliebris and The Fop's Dictionary, Mary Evelyn, edited by her father, 

London, 1690. 
Percy Society Publications, London, 1849. 

Their Majesties' Servants, or Annals of the English Stage, Dr. Doran, London, 1865. 
Glossary of Words, Phrases, Names and Allusions, Robert Nares, London, 1828. 
Chronicles of Fashion, Mrs. Stone, London, 1848. 
Gainsborough, Sir Walter Armstrong, London, 1898. 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Sir Walter Armstrong, London, 1900. 
Hogarth, John and Joshua Boydell, London, 1798. 
Romney, Sir Herbert Maxwell, London, 1902. 
The Every Day Book, William Hone, London, 1826. 
The King's Peace, a historical sketch of the English Law Courts, F. A. Inderwick, 

Q. C, London, 1895. 
A Book about Lawyers, John Cordy Jeffreson, Barrister at Law, London, 1867. 
Bench and Bar of Philadelphia, John Hill Martin, Philadelphia, 1883. 
Sketches of the Judicial History of Massachusetts, 1630-1775, Emory Washburn, 

Boston, 1840. 
A History of the American Church, Rt. Rev. Leighton Coleman, D.D., Bishop 

of Delaware, New York, 1903. 
History of the American Episcopal Church, Rt. Rev. William Stevens Perry, 

D.D., Bishop of Iowa. 
A Book about the Clergy, John Cordy JeflFreson, London, 1870. 
A Book about Doctors, John Cordy Jeffreson, New York, 1861. 
Diary of Samuel Sewall, Massachusetts Historical Collections, Boston, 1878. 
Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles, D.D., LL.D., New York, 1901. 
Diary of Manasseh Cutler, Cincinnati, 1888. 

History of the British Army, Hon. J. W. Fortescue, London, 1902. 
History of Our Navy, John R. Spears, New York, 1897. 
Uniforms of the United States Army, 1775-1900, Pubhshed by the United States 

Government, Washington, 1900. 






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