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Sketches of tl)c Armies of tijc JJotomnc onb of tl)e 





Complete Lists of its Officers and Men. 






Entered According to Act of Congress in the Year 1865, by 

Louis N. BOUDRTE, 

In the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
Northern District of New York. 


so often displayed unsurpassed 

Patriotism, Fortitude 

and Valor in the 

trying vicissitudes of , 
Military Life; and who, 
on so many bloody Fields 

of Battle, have heroically up 

borne the Starry Banner, and hare 

vindicated #s authority in the pres 

ence of its enemies, are these 

His- tone Records of their 


DEDICATED by their 


HEAP QUARTERS, Fifth N. Y. Cavalry, 1 

Near Staunton, Va., June oth, 1865. / 

Chaplain, Fifth N. Y. Cavalry, 

Dear Sir: We, the officers of the Fifth New York Cavalry, 
desirous to possess true and full Historic Records of the Regiment, 
since its organization, do respectfully request you to prepare the 
same for publication in such form, that ourselves and the men of 
this Command may be able to procure them. 

Pledging you our assistance in the accomplishment of this diffi 
cult labor, we remain 

Respectfully Yours, 

(Signed). A. II. WHITE, Col.; T. A. BOICE, Lt. Col. ; E. J. BAR 
KER, Major; H. A. D. MERRITT, Major; 0. W r . ARMSTRONG, Sur 
geon, and others. 

CAMP Fifth New York Cavalry, 1 
Near Staunton, Va., June Gth, 18G5. / 
Col. A, II. WHITE, Lt. Col. T. A.. BOICE, and others, 

Dear Sirs: I cheerfully undertake the "difficult labor," which 
you request me to perform for several reasons, viz: first, because 
you request it. Second, because I believe it to be the duty of 
every regiment to prepare a correct history of its services in this 
war, for future reference. Third, because my services as chaplain 
of the regiment, for nearly three years of its active campaigning, 
have afforded me an ample opportunity to know its character and 
history. A diary of all the remarkable events of that period, 
written during the lull of battle; in the halt of the march; 
through the respite of hospital labor; in the loneliness of the 
prison (where I was confined three months), and during the quiet 
ness of the camp, will be invaluable in this enterprise. I pledge 
myself to search out diligently, and to state faithfully, the facts of 
our eventful history. Hoping that among these records in future 
days, we may spend many happy and profitable hours , living 
over again some of the glorious experiences of our military life, 
I remain, Very Respectfully Yours, 

Louis N. BOUDRYE, 
Chaplain, Fifth N. Y. Cavalry 



I. Chaplain Louis N. Boudrye, Frontispiece. 

II. Colonel 0. DeForeet, 29 

III. Colonel John Hammond, 75 

IV. Colonel A. H. White 117 

V. Lieutenant Colonel T. A. Boice, 185 

VI. Surgeon L. P. Woods, 233 


I. Battle of Brandy Station, 81 

II. Burial of Sergeant S. W. Sortore, 132 

III. Our Chapel Tent, 247 

IV. Libby Prison, Richmond, Va., 257 

V. Interior View of Libby Prison, 257 

VI. Our Scout, Approaching Hagerstown, Md., 281 


I. Officers at Time of Muster Out 202 

II. Commandants of the Regiment, 204 

III. Non-Commissioned Staff, 204 

IV. Strength of Command at Various Dates, 205 

V. Full Statistics 206 

VI. Engagements and their Casualties, 212 

VII. Men Killed in Action, 216 

VIII. Men Mortally Wounded in Action, 218 

IX. Men Discharged by Reason of Wounds, 219 

X. lletired Officers 221 

XI. -Men who Died in Rebel Prisons, 27 



Our Cavalry Deficient at Bull Run. This Arm Recruited. Organ 
ization of the Fifth New York Cavalry. Hon. Ira Harris 
lends his Name and Influence. Early History of Regiment. 
On Staten Island, New York. Flag Presentation. Speech of 
Senator Harris. Regiment Leaves the State. In Baltimore. 
In Annapolis. At Camp Harris. July Ibth to Dec. Slst, 
1861, 17 


Discipline and Drill. First Bivouac. At Harper s Ferry. Win 
chester. Its Appearance then. First Capture made by the 
Regiment. Col. Turner Ashby (Rebel) in the Valley. Fight 
with him at Harrisonburg. Gallant Conduct of the Fifth. 
First Casualties. Cavalry towing Infantry across a River by 
hanging on the Horses Tails. Battle of Front Royal. Thfl 
Flanker Stonewall Jackson. The Regiment Engaged. A 
Portion of it cut off. Great Daring. Belle Boyd, the female 
Rebel Spy. Letter of Charles H. Greeuleaf. How Gen. 
Banks saved his army. Result of Retreat. Jan. to May 26M, 
1862, 23 


Rebel Army Crossing South of Blue Ridge. Successful Advance 
on Martinsburg. Services and Sufferings of the Cavalry. 


Cavalry Battle of Orange Court House. Fifth New York Boys. 
Terrible Dealers in Hardware Reconnoissance to Louisa 
Court House. Gen. Stuart s Adjutant General and Important 
Dispatches from Gen. Lee Captured. Reconnoissance through 
Snicker s Gap and to Berryville. Capture of a Rebel Camp, 
one Stand of Colors and much Spoil. Charge on a Sutler s 
Shanty. Sword Presented to Gen. J. P. Hatch. Interesting 
Correspondence. May 31s/ to December 31s/, 18G2, ._ 35 


Mosby, the Guerrilla. His men. Picketing against him at Chan- 
tilly. Building Winter Quarters at Germantown. Descrip 
tion. Mosby at Fairfax Court House. Fight at Chantilly. 
At Warrenton Junction. Congratulatory Order of Command 
ing General. Fight at Greenwich. Capture of a Howitzer. 
Gallant Conduct of Lieut. Barker. Jan. 1st to June }4lh, 
1863, 46 


Gen. Lee Invades Maryland and Pennsylvania. Breaking Camp 
at Fairfax Court House. Fidelity of. the Horse. March over 
Bull Run Battle Field. Reorganization of the Cavalry Corps. 
Kilpatrick in Command of the Third Division. Cavalry Battle 
of Hanover, Pennsylvania. Battle of Gettysburg, Third Day. 
Attack on Rebel Train in Monterey Pass. Battle of Hagers- 
town. Battle of Boonsboro . Attack on Rear Guard of Rebel 
Army at Falling Waters. The Invaders Expelled from Free 
Soil. June 19U to July 14/7t, 1863, 61 


Lee s Invasion, a great Failure. He is not Pursued very Vigor 
ously. Reasons Why. We Recross the Potomac. The Gun- 
Boat Expedition. Battle of Culpepper Court House. Lee 
flanks Meade. We Retreat from the Robertson and Rapidan 
Rivers. Kilpatrick Surrrounded at Brandy Station. His 
Brilliant Charge. Battle of Buckland Mills. The Armies 


Swing like Pendulums. Skirmish at Stevensburg. Several 
Days Fighting at Raccoon Ford. Change is the Soldier s Life. 
Excitement about ReSnlisting as Veteran Volunteers. Build 
ing Winter Quarters. July loth to December Blst, 1863,.. 72 


Life in Winter Quarters. Its Duties and Pastimes. Its Interest 
ing Scenes. Dangerous Picketing between the Rappahannock 
and the Rapidan. Frequent Attacks by Guerrillas. Kilpat- 
rick s Second Raid to Richmond. Col. Dahlgren s Part of the 
Work. Full Account by Lieut. Merritt, who accompanied 
Dahlgren. Object of the Raid. General Plan. Dahlgren g 
Command. Successful Capture of Rebel Pickets on the Rapi 
dan. Honor to Lieut. Merritt s Command. Capture of a Rebel 
Court Martial. Conduct of Prisoners. The Faithless Negro 
Guide. He is Hung. Property of Mr. Seddon, Rebel 
Secretary of War. His Negroes. Their Depredations. Our 
Soldiejs falsely Accused of Pillaging. Henry A. Wise wisely 
Skedaddles. Within a few Miles of Richmond. Cooperation 
with Kilpatrick Impossible. Preparation to Attack Richmond. 
Nature of the Fight. Withdrawal. Casualties. Terrible 
Night s March. Meet a Rebel Ambulance Train. Crossing 
the Pamunkey. The Mattapony. Marching and Fighting. 
The Ambuscade, Dahlgren Killed. Road Barricaded. In 
Straits. Ammunition Exhausted. Preparation to Disperse. 
The Party Broken up. The Cabin in the Woods. The Surren 
der. A Baptist Preacher. The Parson s Robbery and Apolo 
gy. Dahlgren s Remains. Arrival at Libby Prison. Casual 
ties of the Fifth New York. Synopsis of Kilpatrick s March. 
The Terrible Tornado. January 1st to May 2d, 1864 90 


Army of the Potomac. Good Condition. First Steps of the 
Great Campaign under Gen. Grant. The Fifth New York opena 
the Battle of the Wilderness at Parker s Store. Detailed at Army 
Headquarters. Scenes at the Hospital. Lines of Battle. 
Second Day. Lee breaks our Lines twice. Is Repulsed. 


Col. Hammond Ordered to Germnnia Ford. Is Placed in Com 
mand of Provisional Brigade of Cavalry. Brings, up Rear on 
First Left Flank Movement. Skirmishes on the Ny and Po 
Rivers Affair at the Ma; tapony. Sergeant Sortore Killed. 
His Burial. Battle of Mil ford Station. A Stratagem at Little 
River. Vast Forests of Virginia. Battle of Ashland Station 
Dark, Muddy March along the Pamunkey Tedious March in 
Rear of a Supply Train. Men Sleep on their Horses. At 
Charles City C. H. Fight at White Oak Swamps. May 3J 
to June IQth, 1864,....: 120 


Crossing the James River. Pleasant Scene. The Wilson Raid. 
First Day. Battle of Nottoway Court House. The Danville 
Railroad. What -we Destroyed. The Contrabands. Battle 
of Reams Station. The Swift Retreat. Awful Scenes. The 
Author s Personal Adventures. Is Dismounted in the Woods. 
Travels by Night and Rests by Day. Narrow Escapes. Assist 
ed by Negroes. Pieaches our Lines Safely. Casualties of the 
Raid. The Division Ships for. Geisboro Point, D. C. June 
17 th to August 9th, 1804, 143 


To the Shenandoah Valley. Exciting Scene in Snicker s Gap. 
Battle of Summit Point. Battle of Kearneysville Station. 
Crossing into Maryland. Old John Brown air in Charlestown. 
Skirmishes near the Opequan. Battle of Winchester. Drive 
the Enemy through Front Royal. Up Luray Valley. Raid 
to Staunton and Waynesboro . Cavalry Fight at Tom s Brook. 
Battle of Cedar Creek. Sheridan s Ride. Upparalleled Cap 
tures by the Regiment. Gen. Custer s Congratulatory Order. 
Reconnaissance to Rood s Hill. Spirited Engagement near Mt. 
Jackson. Regiment Detailed Escort of General Sheridan. 
The Fruit of Sheridan s Work in the Valley. August \2(h to 
December 31s/, 1864, 162 



General Sheridan s Last Raid. Up the Valley Battle of 
Waynesboro . Many Prisoners. In Charge of the Regi 
ment. Rosser Annoys Rear of Column. Battle of Rood s 
Hill. Rosser Defeated. Fall of Richmond. Lee Surren 
ders. Suburbs of Winchester. Rebel Soldiers Anxious to 
be Paroled. Expedition to Staunton. Preparation to Muster 
out the Regiment. Camp Illumination. Last Order of Col. 
White. Journey to Hart s Island, N. Y. Harbor. The Fifth 
New Yo.rk Cavalry is No More. January 1st to July 26th, 
1865, 190 


Regimental Items. Tables : Officers at Time of Muster Out. 
Commanding Officers. Non-commissioned Staff. Exhibit of 
Strength on Monthly Returns. Full Statistics. Former Oc 
cupations of our Men. Their Places of Birth. Marches of 
the Regiment. Counties Traversed. Escort Duty. Gen 
erals under whom we Served. Burial of Our Dead. Tables: 
Engagements and their Casualties. Men Killed in Action. 
Mortally Wounded. Discharged by Reason of Wounds. List 
of Retired Officers 200 


Mementos to Officers. Col. 0. DeForest. Col. John Hammond. 
Surgeon Lucius P. W T oods. Major A. H. Krom. Major E. 
J. Barker. Capt. L. L. O Connor, 224 


Influence of Campaigning on our Men. Who can best Resist the 
Evils. Means Employed. The Mail Bag. The Spelling 
School. Literary Classes. Our Chapel Tents. Our Tempe 
rance Club. Meetings for Religious Worship. The Effect on 
our Discipline, 242 




Life in Southern Prisons. Personal Experience of the Author. 
Capture. Gen. Stuart. Incidents of March to Staunton, Va., 
from Pennsylvania. Libby Prison, Richmond. Cruelties of 
Managers. State of Rooms. Vermin. Rations. The Soup. 

Water. Richmond Papers. "Skirmishing." Bone Cut 
ting. The Debating Club. "Libby Lice-I-see- em," (Lyceum). 

The Weekly Libby Chronicle. Literary Classes. Religious 
Services. The Author Preaches to our Prisoners in Pember- 
ton Castle. Wretched Condition of our Men. Release. 
What he Brought with him. Diary of Sufferings at Salis 
bury, N. C Untold Wretchedness at Andersonville, Ga. 
List of Men who Died in Rebel Prisons, 251 


Our Scout. With Gen. Stahel. Guides Cavalry Corps from Fair 
fax C. H. to Frederick City, Md., June, 1863. Ordered to Watch 
Movements of Rebel Army, Marching on its Grand Invasion of 
Pennsylvania. In Disguise he Visits Rebel Gen. Stuart. 
Captures Rebel Army Mail, with Important Dispatches, at 
Hagerstown, Md. Carries Dispatches from Gen. Grant to 
President Lincoln, during Battle of the Wilderness. Among 
the Rebels near Weldon & Petersburg R.R. Hard Tramp 
through Woods and Swamps. The Colored Guide. Gladly 
Reaches our Lines Again, 276 


Company Registers. Organizations. Officers. Interesting In 
cidents in Personal Adventures of the men, 287 


Complete Roster of the Regiment ; each company given alpha 
betically, 310 



Selections from the Files of the Libby Chronicle. Prospectus. 
Kansas Brigade s Version of John Brown. South Window, 
No. 1. Conundrums. Castle Thunder, in Three Parts, a 
Poem. Facts and Fun. News of Libbj. South Window, 
No. 2. The Libbyad, a Poem. Petition to Governor Bradford 
of Maryland. Who is Responsible for Non-Exchange of Pris 
oners. South Window, No. 3. The Soldier and the Gentle 
man. The Irruption, a Poem, 335 


Our Cavalry Deficient at Bull Run. This Arm Recruited. Organ 
ization of the Fifth New York Cavalry. Hon. Ira Harris 
lends his Name and Influence. Early History of Regiment. 
On Staten Island, New York. Flag Presentation. Speech of 
Senator Harris. Regiment Leaves the State. In Baltimore. 
In Annapolis. At Camp Harris. July 26th to Dec. 31st, 1861. 

The first battle of Bull Run clearly demonstrated the 
importance of the cavalry arm of the service, and that the 
enemy s cavalry, including his notorious Black Horse, was 
far superior to ours. Fully aware of our deficiency the 
authorities went directly to work to reenforce this weak arm 
and to invigorate it with new life and discipline. Recruit 
ing officers at once appeared in every section of the loyal 
north, whose calls were made for cavalrymen, who would 
be expected to take the field against the proud chivalry, 
whose success, thus far, had made them more defiant and 
confident than before. 

On the twenty-sixth of July, 1861, the secretary of war 
authorized Col. Othniel De Forest, of New York city, to 
raise a regiment of cavalry for the field service. With 
earnest zeal the colonel began the work assigned him, and 
by the last of September he had gathered on Staten 
Island, New York, the nucleus of a fine cavalry brigade. 
From this assemblage of recruits Col. De Forest organized 


the Fifth New York Cavalry, known as the First Ira Har 
ris Guard, in honor of Senator Ira Harris, of Albany, 
under whose patronage the organization was commenced 
and completed. New York City had contributed liberally 
of men, though whole companies and parts of companies 
were raised in Essex, Wyoming, Allegany, Tioga and 
Orange counties. A few men were also obtained from the 
states of Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Jersey. No 
bounties were theu paid to recruits, and a bounty of only 
one hundred dollars was promised to be paid by the United 
States, at the expiration of term of service. 

On the first of October, on Staten Island, New York, the 
field and staff of the regiment were mustered into the service 
of the United States for three years, by Capt. L. S. Lamed, 
of the United States army. The muster took effect from 
that date. The regiment was now quartered in common, or 
A tents, furnished by the United States, and the place 
where the boys received their first lessons in discipline and 
drill was called Camp Scott, after the old veteran, who, at 
that time, was closing his active military labors. The first 
and second battalions received their horses during the month 
of October, and began to be instructed in mounted drill. 

October 31s. The regiment was inspected for the first 
time by Lt. Col. D. B. Sackett, of the United States army. 
The last company had now been mustered in, and the com 
mand stood with a strength of 1,064, besides the officers. 
On this day of inspection the regiment was also mustered 
in for pay, preparatory to receiving its first remuneration 
from the government, which came on the sixth of Novem 
ber. At that time the government had not yet learned to 
deal in paper money, and the boys received their pay 


wholly in gold and silver, though it was the last time they 
were cumbered with the precious metals. 

Monday, November \\th, was a memorable day for the regi 
ment, which was I hen presented with two beautiful flags, 
One by the common council of the city of New York, and 
the other from the hands of Misses Kate Harris and Mary 
F. Blake. A stand had been erected in the centre of the 
plain, at Camp Scott, in front of which, at the appointed 
time, the regiment was formed into a hollow square, the 
officers, some thirty in number, in full dress uniform, 
advancing to the front, Col. De Forest occupying the centre 
of the group. 

At the unfurling of the colors, Senator Harris, who was 
present, arose on the stand, and spoke as follows : 

Col. De Forest, Officers and Soldiers of the Ira Harris 
Guard: I am here to-day to perform a most pleasing 
service. It is one of the proudest moments of my life. 
To-morrow, 1 many of you will depart for the seat of war, 
there to take part, actively and successfully, I trust, in the 
great encounter in which our country is now engaged with 
treason and rebellion. The rest of you will soon follow. 
Before you go, I desire to place in your hands and commit 
to your keeping a most sacred deposit one which I am sure 
you will be ready to defend with your hearts best blood. 
Look upon that standard. Behold these stars and stripes. 
As the star of Bethlehem has been, for ages, the great 
centre of religious hope, so these stars and stripes are the 
emblem of all we hold dear as Americans. Upon these the 
patriot rests his best hopes. They are the great beacon- 

x The regiment did not go as was expected. 


light of oppressed humanity throughout the world. And 
yet these stars and stripes so precious in the eyes of every 
true American and now tenfold more precious than ever 
before were, a little while ago, at Fort Suniter in one 
of the states represented by these stars, basely, ignoinini- 
ously shot down. This outrage was committed, not by a 
foreign foe this could have been endured but by the 
coward hands of traitors. This was too much to bear. At 
their country s call, hundreds of thousands of patriotic 
men have gone forth to revenge the insult and suppress this 
most atrocious rebellion the most atrocious that the world 
ever saw. Hundreds of thousands more are ready to go 
whenever their country needs them. Neither men uor 
money shall ever be wanting until this great rebellion is 
utterly extinguished. This is the great and noble erra-nd 
upon which you go. I think I know the men to whom I 
speak. They are brave men they are patriotic men. I 
trust and believe there is not one of you who would not 
pour out his blood like water, to save his country from 
destruction and dishonor. How gladly would I go with 
you. Did my circumstances permit, I would march with 
you to-morrow, and share with you the perils and the glory 
of the patriot soldier. But though I cannot go, I rejoice 
that my name and honor are to go with you. I know they 
will be safe in your hands. Col. De Forest, as the represent 
ative and leader of this noble band of men, I commit this 
standard to your hands. Keep it stand by it defend it, 
even with your life. Let it be rent and marred in the 
intensity of the conflict to which you go, but let it never be 
dishonored by the polluting touch of a traitor s hand. And 
I ask you both you and the men of your command now 


and here, in the presence of this large assemblage, to record 
your vow, that, God helping you, this banner shall not pass 
from your hands until it shall wave in graceful triumph 
over the very grave of treason. And, -colonel, I have yet 
another equally delightful office to perform. The duty has 
been assigned me of presenting to you this other flag. It 
comes from delicate hands. It is the united gift of love 
and patriotism. Take it with you, and, when far away 
upon the tented field, let it be to you for a memorial of the 
loved ones you leave behind you. And when you come to 
meet the foe in battle, let it, with talismanic power, nerve 
your arm to strike heavier, deadlier blows in your country s 
cause. And now, colonel, officers and men, farewell ! I 
shall watch your movements with the intensest interest. 
Whatever my humble efforts can accomplish for your wel 
fare or comfort shall be done. But the life of a soldier is 
no holiday life. I know you will endure hardships as good 
soldiers that you will brave even death itself in a cause 
so glorious. Some of you will fall in battle. Oh, it is a 
glorious death thus to die. Some of you most of you, I 
hope will live to return. But come not back, I charge 
you, until you come covered all over with glory, to receive 
the plaudits of a grateful country. 

To this profoundly impressive address, which was fre 
quently interrupted by cheers from the whole regiment, 
Col. De Forest made a very touching and appropriate response. 
This was followed by an outburst of enthusiastic cheering. 

November \Sth. The regiment took its departure from 
the state, and after a pleasant journey by rail road without 
accidents, reached Baltimore on the 19th. During their 
stay in the Monumental city the 3d battalion drew horses 


and equipments, and on the 25th the regiment made its 
first march, from Baltimore to Annapolis. During their 
stay here most of the men were quartered in St. Mary s 
College and yard. .On the 28th they left this capital and 
pitched their tents about three miles from the city, and 
named the place Camp Harris. 


Discipline and Drill. First Bivouac. At Harper s Ferry. Win 
chester. Its Appearance then. First Capture made by the 
Regiment. Col. Turner Ashby (Rebel) in the Valley. Fight 
with him at Harrisonburg. Gallant Conduct of the Fifth. 
First Casualties. Cavalry towing Infantry across a River by 
hanging on the Horses Tails. Battle of Front Royal. The 
Flanker Stonewall Jackson. The Regiment Engaged. A 
Portion of it cut off. Great Daring. Belle Boyd, the female 
Rebel Spy. Letter of Charles II. Greenleaf. How Gen. 
Banks saved his army. Result of Retreat. Jan. to May 26th, 1862. 

The winter at Camp Harris was not spent in vain. 
Under the instructions of a thorough disciplinarian, and of 
excellent drill masters, the regiment had become versed in 
the tactics of war. Horses as well as men had learned the 
" certain sounds" of the bugle, and were masters of evolu 
tions and dispositions required of them. Thus the founda 
tion of a career destined to be important and glorious was 
laid, and the command was only waiting for the opportunity 
of practicing in the field what it had learned in camp, and 
of achieving what had been fondly hoped by its friends. That 
time soon came. The last day of March, 1862, found them 
breaking up their winter quarters and preparing for the 
realities of field service. On that day the 1st and 2d 
battalions marched to Annapolis Junction, and entered into 
their first bivouac. The first April they were at the Relay 


House, and on the 2d at Harper s Ferry. Until the ninth 
April the battalions were separated from each other, and sent 
from one post to the other as though the authorities did not 
know where they were really needed. They alternated 
between Ellicott Mills, Washington and Harper s Ferry, until 
at length the whole regiment bivouacked together amid the 
rough scenes of the John Brown raid. On the 10th Cos. 
F and L escorted Maj. General Rosecrans to Winchester, 
Woodstock, Paris, and returned again to Harper s Ferry. 

During aheavy rain, which made the roads almost impassa 
ble, and the weather uncomfortable, the regiment marched, 
on the 20th April, to Winchester. This was then a beautiful 
town. "Grim visaged war," with her fire and sword, had 
not yet desolated the fine public buildings, nor destroyed 
the beautiful shrubbery and foliage of the streets. But 
Winchester was then as rebellious and aristocratic as it was 
beautiful. Thoroughly loyal Union families were there, 
but they were like angel s visits, "few and far between." 
It is true it cost something to be loyal there, but the virtue 
of loyalty is a possession well worthy its expense. 

The regiment remained not long to luxuriate in this 
pleasant locality, but moved on the 22d to Strasburg, where 
it remained two days, moving to Woodstock on the 24th. 
On the 26th the men received their pay from the govern 
ment, and were prepared to march to New Market the next 
day. On the 29th, while on a scout, they captured four 
prisoners. This was the first capture the regiment ever 
made, and, at that time, it was considered a big thing. 

May 2d. Co A made a reconnoissance from Harrisonburg 
toward Port Republic, running into General Jackson s camp. 
In the skirmish and flight that followed, they had one man 


captured, the first man ever lost from the regiment in an 

M<iy 3<7. The regiment advanced to Harrisonburg, and 
reported to Brig. Gen. John P. Hatch, commanding cavalry 
in the valley. On the 5th the whole force fell back to New 
Market and bivouacked. 

J/c/y oth. Col. Turner Ashby, a young dashing Rebel 
officer, with a force of picked cavalry, had been playing mis 
chief with our outposts for several weeks. His exploits had 
been so daring, quick, and so generally successful, that he 
had made himself a great name, and become a terror to our 
forces. During the day it was reported that Ashby with 
his men was coming down the pike from Harrisonburg. In 
the afternoon a detachment of the Fifth New York was sent 
out to check any advance that might be made. Within 
about five miles of Harrisonburg, they encountered the re 
doubtable Ashby. Our men all eager for a fight, fell like a 
whirlwind upon the enemy, and using their sab res with terrible 
effect, soon scattered and turned them back in confusion. 
And now commenced a scrambling race. Clouds of dust arose 
from the road, which almost entirely enveloped both the 
pursued and the pursuers. Occasionally the Rebels rallied, 
but were swept away again, and finally chased into the sub 
urbs of the town, badly defeated. The conflict cost them 
3 men killed, 5 wounded and 7 prisoners, besides several 
good horses captured. On our side we lost Asahel A. Spencer,. 
Co. E, killed, who was the first victim of the regiment, 
offered to the God of battles. William Mills, Co. I, was 
wounded. Sergeant Wm. H. Whitcomb, Co. M, was cap 
tured, but escaped through dint of Yankee ingenuity. " The 

Rebels had stripped off his arms and were using the i 


corus language with which the Yankee prisoner is usually 
saluted," when he informed them that they had been pursued 
by only a dozen Yankees whom they might all capture by 
dashing back upon them. They charged back, were scattered, 
and some of them captured by our boys, and Whitcomb 
escaped. Adjutant Hasbrouck was here captured and taken 
to Richmond. 

One correspondent says of the affair: "The brilliant 
charge, of which you were informed by telegraph, has estab 
lished beyond a cavil the reputation of the Ira Harris Guard. 
Hereafter the Kebels will not forget that there is cavalry 
in this division capable of driving back their mounted 
guerrillas in confusion and consternation; capable of using 
the sabre, the proper instrument of the trooper, in close 
hand to hand conflict. This is the first time that we have 
heard from this body of New York cavalry, and they have 
made a good report of themselves, and done honor to their 

Another writer says: "I asked one of the prisoners, 
if he thought our boys could fight well. He said: Only 
that regular cavalry ; they fought like devils. That regu 
lar cavalry was the glorious New York Fifth." 

After returning from this successful encounter, some of 
our men, while bathing in the river near New Market, were 
attacked by bushwhackers, and two men of Co. I were killed 
and one of Co. L captured. 

The day following this affair, the news was received of 
the evacuation of Yorktown, and the army was in a great 
jubilee of rejoicing. Consolidated band? visited Generals 
Banks, Williams and Hatch, and made the town echo with 
patriotic music. They also visited and serenaded the Fifth 


Xew York in honor of their gallant charge yesterday. As that 
had been the first cavalry charge of the war, where sabres were 
used, and with such signal success, the affair created much 
comment at the time in military circles. 

On the 12th the whole force fell back to Woodstock, and 
continued as far as Tom s Brook on the 14th, at which time 
quite a skirmish was fought at Woodstock by our cavalry. 
As. our army fell back, its rear was closely followed and 
frequently attacked by Ashby s force. Consequently a strong 
guard was required. On the 21st, Gen. Hatch, with about 150 
of the Fifth, made a successful attack upon this force, driving 
them many miles, killing, wounding and capturing several 
and returning without the loss of a man. 

Meantime, Co. II, which had been detached with Brig. 
Gen. Sullivan in the Luray Valley, during the last of April, 
had fought several spirited skirmishes with the enemy and 
now rejoined the regiment. While in the Luray Valley 
they had witnessed a curious modus operaudi, where a force 
of our infantry and cavalry was hard pressed by the enemy 
on the bank of the Shenandoah river, which was so high. as 
to be unfordable. As a last resort the cavalrymen plunged 
into the stream, swimming their horses, and towed across 
the infantrymen who clung to the animals tails. 

May 23 d. Gen. Banks had been lying securely a few days 
in and about Strasburg, when he was unexpectedly informed 
by messengers of the Fifth N. Y. Cavalry, that a sudden 
attack had been made by the great flanker, Stonewall 
Jackson, upon Col. Kenly s force at Front Royal. Companies 
B and D had been sent to Col. Kenly during the afternoon 
arriving just as the Rebels began to pour down the valley 
and the hills upon this devoted garrison. The cavalry was 


immediately ordered to charge the enemy. Quickly obeying 
the order, a splendid charge was made with great force. 
Had bravery been sufficient to win, the Ira Harris Guard 
would have again succeeded, but, greatly outnumbered, 
flanked and almost surrounded, with a large number killed, 
wounded and captured, the remnant was driven back upon 
our main force which was now retreating at a rapid rate. 
In this charge fell the young and brave Lieutenant Dwyer, 
Co. B, mortally wounded. Capt. A. II. White, Co. D (after 
ward Colonel), and Adjutant Griffin, while gallantly leading 
their men, fell into the enemy s hands. 

Gen. Banks, in his report to the war department, says: 
"Information was received on the evening of May 23d, that 
the enemy in very large force had descended on the guard 
at Front Royal, Col. Kenly, First Md. Regiment, commanding, 
burning bridges and driving our troops through Strasburg, 
with great loss. Owing to what was deemed an extravagant 
statement of the enemy s strength, these reports were received 
with some distrust; but a regiment of infantry, with a strong 
detachment of cavalry and a section of artillery, were imme 
diately sent to reenforce Col. Kenly." 

Meanwhile preparations were made to fall back to Win 
chester as rapidly as possible. Col. De Forest with six 
companies of the regiment and Col. Tompkins with an equal 
number of his regiment the First Vermont, with a detach 
ment of Zouaves d Afrique (Gen. Banks body guard), and 
a section of Hampton s battery, were ordered to cover the 
rear and to destroy stores not provided with transportation 
at Strasburg. But before this could be accomplished the 
enemy had pushed a force between our main army and this 
rear guard. Swift and desperate charges were made, but 


a junction could not be effected and our men were threatened 
with annihilation. Middletown and Xewtown Cross Roads 
were the scenes of fearful encounters, but the noble band 
was beaten back every time. At length, breaking away 
from the enemy, this guard took to the fields toward the 
Little North Mountains, hoping, by a circuitous route around 
the enemy s flank, to be able to join Gen. Banks at Winches 
ter, where Col. Toinpkins with some artillery joined him 
next day. Col. De Forest, encumbered with a train, was not 
so fortunate, but was compelled to pass over the rugged 
mountain roads for several days, reaching our army 
at last by way of Cherry Run and Clear Spring, and bringing 
in with him a train of 32 wagons and many stragglers. Gen. 
Banks, after a hasty and disastrous retreat, fell back into 
Maryland at Williamsport and Falling Waters. Belle Boyd, 
the noted Rebel female spy, was undoubtedly instrumental 
in causing our defeat. It was afterwards ascertained that 
she was the bearer of an extensive correspondence between 
Rebels outside and inside our lines. 

The following letter from one of our brave boys, will 
show how Gen. Banks saved his army from utter destruc 
tion at Strasburg: 

WILLIAMSPORT, MD., May 26, 1862. 

Dear Father and Mother : You have probably heard by 
this time of the three days fighting from Strasburg 
and Front Royal to Martinsburg. Our company and com 
pany B were ordered to Front Royal in the mountains, 
twelve miles from Strasburg, last Friday, and when we got 
within two miles of our destination we heard cannonading. 
The major 1 ordered the baggage to stop, and our two com- 

1 Maj. P. G. Vought, commanding Detachment. 


panics dashed on, and found several companies of our 
infantry and two pieces of artillery engaged with several 
thousands of the enemy. Just as we arrived on the field, 
Col. Kenly, who had command of our forces, rode up to me, 
and ordered me to take one man and the two best horses in 
our company, and ride for dear life to Gen. Banks head 
quarters in Strasbuvg for reenforcenient. The direct road to 
Strasburg was occupied by the enemy, so I was obliged to 
ride around by another, seventeen miles. I rode the seven 
teen miles in fifty-five minutes. Gen. Banks did not seem 
to think it very serious, but ordered one regiment of infantry 
and two pieces of artillery off. I asked Gen. Banks for a 
fresh horse to rejoin my company, and he gave me the best 
horse that I ever rode, and I started back. I came out on 
the Front Royal turnpike, about two miles this side of 
where I left our men. Saw two men standing in the road, 
and their horses standing by the fence. I supposed they 
were our pickets. 

They did not halt me, so I asked them if they were 
pickets. They said no. Says I, " who are you ?" " We are 
part of Gen. Jackson s staff." I supposed they were only 
joking. I laughed, and asked them where Jackson was. 
They said he was in the advance. 1 left them and rode 
toward Front Royal, till I overtook a soldier, and asked him 
what regiment he belonged to. He said he belonged to the 
Eighth Louisiana. I asked how large a force they had, and 
the reply was " twenty thousand." I turned back and drew 
my revolver, expecting either a desperate fight or a southern 
jail; but the officers in the road did not stop me, and I was 
lucky enough not to meet any of their pickets. But if it 
was not a narrow escape, then I don t know what is. When 


I got out of the enemy s lines, I rode as fast as the horse 
could carry me to Gen. Banks, .and reported what I had 
seen and heard. He said I had saved the army. 

In less than an hour the whole army was in motion 
toward Winchester. After I left Front Royal to take the 
dispatch to Strasburg, our two companies of cavalry, who 
were covering the retreat of infantry and baggage, were 
attacked on three sides by about three thousand of the 
enemy s cavalry. Our boys fought like devils, till nearly 
half of them were killed or wounded, and then retreated to 
Winchester. Capt. White, William Watson, Henry 
Appleby, and nine or ten men of my company are killed or 
taken. William Marshall is all right, except a slight sabre 
cut in the shoulder. 

We had a fight at Winchester, got licked and retreat 
ed. Our company and company E were ordered to cover 
the parrot gun battery, and bring up the rear. We rode 
all the way from Winchester to Martinsburg, with cannon 
shot and shell flying around us faster than it did at Bull 
Run. We crossed the Potomac last night. It was so dark 
that we could not find the ford, and had to swim our horses 
across. We have got our batteries in position on this side, 
and the rear of the army is crossing. 
From your son, 


Co. D. Fifth X. Y. Cavalry. 

Thus ended this famous retreat. It cost the govern 
ment about 50 wagons, which were either abandoned or 
destroyed, about nine hundred European rifles left at Stras 
burg and large quantities of medical and hospital stores, 
including surgeons instruments, destroyed and abandoned at 


Strasburg and "Winchester. The army was considerably demo 
ralized. Discouraged with their defeats many of the boys 
took advantage of their sojourn in Maryland to take 
French furloughs, though some of them afterward returned 
to their commands. 


Rebel Army Crossing South of Blue Ridge. Successful Advance 
on Martinsburg. Services and Sufferings of the Cavalry. 
Cavalry Battle of Orange Court House. Fifth New York Boys. 
Terrible Dealers in Hardware. Reconnoissance to Louisa 
Court House. Gen. Stuart s Adjutant General and Important 
Dispatches from Gen. Lee Captured. Reconnoissance through 
Snicker s Gap and to Berryville. Capture of a Rebel Camp, 
one Stand of Colors and much Spoil. Charge on a Sutler s 
Shanty. Sword Presented to Gen. J. P. Hatch. Interesting 
Correspondence. May Blst to December 31st, 1862. 

"With the valley cleared of the Yankee army, the Rebels 
began to throw their forces across the Blue Ridge to attack 
our main army in front of "Washington, leaving only a 
strong picket line at the foot of the valley, opposed to our 
army in Maryland. It soon became necessary to advance 
across the river, and ascertain what was in our front. The 
regiment, which had been divided in the retreat, now 
advanced from Harper s Ferry and from Williamsport. 
The former column met the enemy at Charlestown, and 
drove him; and the latter advanced on Martinsburg, drove 
the pickets through the town and captured several prisoners, 
a wagon, muskets, ammunition and an American flag. 
They also recaptured several of our officers and men lost at 
Front Royal, among them Adjutant Griffin. Several 
engines and cars were also captured from the enemy, who 


appeared to have been taken wholly by surprise. This 
encouraging advance took place the last day of May. On 
the fourth of June the regiment advanced to Winchester, 
where its fragments were reunited. However, companies 
B and D, which had distinguished themselves at Front 
Royal, were detached from the regiment, to serve on a bat 
tery. (See register of companies). Not much was accom 
plished during the month. 

On the sixteenth the regiment received pay, marched to 
Micldletown on the twenty-seventh and to Front Royal the 
thirtieth. This march was continued to Flint Hill, the 
fifth of July, and on the sixth, at Sperryville, a squad of 
Rebel cavalry was encountered and a fight ensued, our boys 
scattering the enemy. The regiment was here joined by 
Major Gardner, who had been detached with Companies C, 
F, G, and L, on the 19th of June. 

July 8th. The regiment marched to Games Cross Roads, 
advancing on Culpepper Court House on the twelfth, where 
it had a skirmish with the enemy, drove them through the 
town and captured fifteen prisoners. The sixteenth the 
boys enjoyed an all-day march through an all-day rain, to 
Rapidan Ford. The next day they marched into Orange 
Court House, expelling, after a short skirmish, the enemy 
that was in town. Being the first Union troops that had 
ever visited this place, they were objects of excited obser 
vation. But to the intense satisfaction of the people, they 
left on the eighteenth, and returned to Rapidan Ford. 
While on pickett at Barnctt s Ford, a large portion of 
Company A was captured. 

This was a season of great suffering among our men and 
horses for want of rations and forage, especially the former. 


Being almost constantly on the move, and most of the time 
on the extreme out-posts, it was not possible to bring them 
supplies. Of the cavalry in general, one correspondent 
makes this remark : " They picket our outposts, scout the 
whole country for information, open our fights, cover our 
retreats, or clear up and finish our victories, as the case 
may be. In short, they are never idle, and rarel} 7 find rest 
for either men or horses." And he might have added, 
"are often sadly in want." During the remainder of July 
no force of the enemy was encountered, but the regiment 
was almost constantly on the march, having passed and 
bivouacked by the following places : Sperryville, Wood- 
ville, Culpepper Court House, James City, Wolftown, and 
into the Luray Valley, by way of Swift Run Gap, to Luray, 
Woodville again, and back to Culpepper Court House near 
which they bivouacked until the 1st of August. On this day 
they marched to Raccoon Ford. At this place was concen 
trated quite a force of cavalry, under Gen. Crawford, pre 
paratory to an important movement. During the month 
Gen. Hatch was removed from the command of the cavalry 
in this department. Gen. John Buford succeeded him. 

August 2d. Gen. Crawford with the 1st Vermont, 1st 
Michigan and the 5th New York advanced at an early hour 
to reconnoitre the force and position of the enemy about 
Orange Court House. Scarcely a Rebel appeared until the col 
umn approached the town. Without opposition the advance 
entered the town, whose streets they found deserted, while 
a stillness like that of death seemed to reign all around. 
But suddenly volley after volley broke the stillness, and 
proclaimed the presence of a heavy force of the enemy. 
On reaching the suburbs of the town, a strong flanking party, 


consisting of Cos. G and H, under command of Capi. 
Hammond, was ordered around to the left toward the Gor- 
dousville road, whither they dashed off with spirit, under 
their gallant leader. 

The main column encountered a heavy charge of the 
enemy in the street, which, at first, drove our fellows back a 
little. Rallying from the first shock, they now dashed back 
upon the enemy, and a fierce conflict from pistols and car 
bines followed. Shots flew in every direction, killing horses 
and men alike. The fight was furious in the narrow streets; 
and just as the enemy s column began to waver, Capt. 
Hammond, who had fought the enemy at the depot, and was 
now partially surrounded, with drawn sabres charged upon 
the rebels in his front, crying as he flew forward, " give 
them your hardware, boys !" And they did the work most 
heroically. Tremendous were the blows they dealt, and 
the street was strewn with unhorsed men whose heads dis 
played fearful gashes from the Yankee sabres. Lieutenant 
Penfield, Co. H, with a thorough knowledge of sabre exer 
cise, with a long, strong arm, and a courageous heart, did 
terrible execution in this fray. The enemy could not 
stand these " hardware " dealers, and fled in the utmost 
confusion, leaving their dead and badly wounded in our hands. 
The great number of these only showed how determined 
and gallant had been our attack. Fifty prisoners were cap 
tured, including a major, a captain, and two lieutenants. 

During this fight, Col. De Forest had a very narrow escape 
with his life, and was indebted for his preservation to bugler 
Bohrer, of Co. I.i 

1 See Register of Co. I. 


This engagement clearly proved our superiority over the 
enemy s cavalry, which, in this instance, consisted of their 
best Virginia regiments lately under Col. Ashby. 

Heavy reinforcements having been received by the enemy, 
and our work having been accomplished, our cavalry fell 
back to the Rapidan, where the Rebels ceased pursuing. 
Here were rested our victorious squadrons. 

On the 4th the regiment inarched to Culpepper and to 
Madison Court House on the 5th, bivouacking near the town. 
From Wolftown to Stannards on the 7th we formed a line of 
pickets; and on the 9th was fought the memorable battle of 
Cedar or Slaughter Mountain. Only a few of the regiment 
were engaged in this battle, one of those being killed. A 
slight skirmish was fought with the enemy on the 10th as 
they fell back toward Gordonsville. 

August \\tli. The regiment marched to Culpepper Court 
House and found the town full of our wounded from the battle 
of the 9th. 

August Vlth. On a reconnoissance to Barnett s Ford on 
the Rapidan and back to Culpepper. Paid off on the 15th 
and marched to Mitchell s Station on the 16th, preparatory 
to a swift move on the enemy s lines. 

August \lth. Detachments of the Fifth New York and 
First Michigan, Col. Broadhead commanding, marched out- 
early on a bold reconnoissance to Louisa Court House, where 
they captured Gen. Stuart s Adjutant General and several 
very important dispatches. Gen. Pope in his report speaks 
of this affair as follows: 

"The Cavalry expedition sent out on the 16th in the direc 
tion of Louisa Court House, captured the Adjutant General 
of Gen. Stuart, and was very near capturing that officer 


himself. T Among the papers taken was an autograph 
letter of Gen. Robert E. Lee to Gen. Stuart, dated Gordons- 
ville, August 15th, which made manifest to me the disposi 
tion and force of the enemy and their determination to 
overwhelm the army under my command before it could be 
reenforced by any portion of the army of the Potomac." 

Having spent a night in chasing through the confederate 
lines, our men returned to their own side of the Rapidan. 
Gen. Pope s army was falling back across the Rappahannock, 
and the regiment marched to Barnett s Ford on that river, 
and held the crossing. 

August 20th. The regiment advanced to Kelly s Ford, 
and took part in a general engagement. They were ordered 
to support a battery, which was exposed to a fearful fire. 
The colonel encouraged his men by a short address, and they 
did their work well. 

On the 22d we marched to Fayetteville, continued the 
march to Warrenton the next day, and on the 24th partici 
pated in a severe engagement at Waterloo Bridge. Our 
men suffered from the Rebel batteries which were brought 
to bear upon them. During the fight a shell took effect iu 
our ranks killing instantly three horses belonging to the 
three officers of Co. I but fortunately only a few men were 

On the 27th Cos. I, K, & L, were detached as orderlies 
and escort of Gen. Heintzelman ; the balance of the regiment 
was made escort of Gen. Pope. On the 28th Company M 
was detailed escort of Gen. Banks, and the main body of the 
regiment marched to Bull Run Bridge and camped. 

His belt was captured. 


August 29th. To-day commenced what has generally been 
known as the second Battle of Bull Run, better named 
Groveton. The Rebels were in overwhelming force, driving 
Gen. Pope before them. Our lines fell back, and on the 30th 
the conflict was renewed on the field of the first Bull Run. 
The field though hotly contested, avas again won by the enemy, 
and though not panic-stricken we were compelled to retreat. 
Gradually on the 31st our forces fell back toward Washington. 

September 1st. Generals Kearney and Stevens distin 
guished themselves on the bloody field of Chantilly, and both 
lost their lives. The regiment reached Fairfax Court House. 

The retreat was continued and the regiment camped at 
the Arlington House on the 5th. The Rebel army now 
moved into Maryland, and on the 17th and 19th was fought 
the memorable battle of Antietam. 

October 8th. Lt. Col. Johnstone with one hundred and ten 
men went out with the brigade on a reconnoissance to the 
Rappahannock, returning, without meeting the enemy, on 
the llth. 

October 15^/L Another expedition went out under Maj. 
Hammond, marching the first day to Chantilly, then on to 
Aldie, White Plains, and back to Centreville on the 19th. 
During this expedition skirmishes were fought at Leesburg, 
Upperville and Thoroughfare Gap, ending with a running 
fight from Haymarket to Warrenton whither we drove the 

On the 20th the regiment was ordered on picket at Chan 
tilly, where it continued patrolling and picketing the 
country until the twenty-eighth, when it went to Centre 
ville, and next day to Manassas Junction and back to 


October 30tft. We patrolled to Pleasant Valley, and 
closed the month by picketing by detachments at Pollock s 
Church, Anandale and Centre ville. This work was very 
dull, and yet very wearing. The weather was becoming 
cold and unpleasant, and picketing and scouting were not 
very desirable. However,. the month of November was 
wholly devoted to this work, so that there was scarcely a 
day of rest. The journal of movements runs as follows : on 
the first to Ceutreville ; second to Bull Hun battle field and 
picket; third to Gainesville; fourth to Buckland Mills; fifth 
to New Baltimore and have a fight; sixth to Buckland 
Mills; seventh to Gainesville; eighth through Hopewell 
Gap, after a skirmish; ninth to Aldie and Middleburg; 
tenth to Hopewell Gap; eleventh through Thoroughfare 
Gap with a fight, and to Aldie; twelfth to Middleburg on 
patrol; thirteenth to Hopewell Gap; fourteenth to Aldie, 
where we rested on the fifteenth. Such was the cavalry 
service in those days. On the sixteenth we had a skirmish 
at Upperville, and returned to Hopewell Gap next day, and 
on to C handily the eighteenth. Here we met with a little 
rest, the monotony of which was broken by an expedition to 
the Blue Ridge and into the Shenandoah Valley and back. 
This expedition, in command of Gen. Stahel, commenced its 
march November 29th. The men of the Fifth New York 
Cavalry were commanded by Capt. Krom, Company G. In 
Snicker s Gap a Rebel picket was captured. On arriving at 
the Shenandoah river at Snicker s Ferry the Rebels annoyed 
our men and prevented rapid crossing, by firing from the 
houses beyond the river. Capt. Krom, with his men, 
dashed across the river, though the water was deep and the 
current swift. On reaching the bank the Rebels were 


furiously charged and driven. Our men pursued them at 
the utmost speed of their horses for about three miles, 
when they came upon the Rebel camps, which the enemy 
attempted to defend. Their effort failed. Our men being 
reenforcedj the enemy was beaten and fled, leaving in our 
hands one captain, two lieutenants, thirty-two men, one 
stand of colors and several wagons, one of them filled with 
tents, and others with provisions. Several ambulances also 
were taken laden with articles which had been taken by 
White s men, in a recent raid into Poolsville, Maryland. 
Sixty horses and fifty head of cattle were also captured in 
this gallant charge. The expedition returned on the 30th 
through Leesburg, Goose Creek, Broad Kun to Chantilly. 

December \st. To our old duty again on picket until the 
4th, near Chantilly. On the 10th we picketed at Centre- 
ville, and did the same duty on the Bull Kun battle field, 
on the 12th. Marched to Chantilly the 13th and picketed 
till the 28th. Being relieved from this duty, we were 
immediately sent on a scout to Union Mills and Fairfax 
Station, spending the night at Fairview. 

December 29th. Stuart s raiders came through our lines 
and passed near our camp on their return. The regiment 
was sent in pursuit. We followed them about six miles, 
but found their force too strong for us to attack. On the 
30th we returned to Chantilly on picket, and ended the 
year by falling back to Fairfax Court House, where the 
boys, actuated by mischief and with a desire of having 
something with which to celebrate the coming New Year, 
made a charge upon a sutler s shanty, which resulted in 
the capture of much spoil and in a general victory. 

The following correspondence will explain itself: 


2i> CAVALRY BRIGADE, 3d Army Corps^ \ 
Near Fort Scott, Fa., December 3d, 1862. 

To Brig. Gen. JOHN P. HATCH : 

General : The accompanying sabre is presented to you by 
the officers of the First Vermont and Fifth New York Cav 

We have served under you while you commanded the 
Cavalry in Virginia a period of active operations and 
military enterprise during which your courage and judg 
ment inspired us with confidence, while your zeal and 
integrity have left us an example easier to be admired than 

We, who have passed with you beyond the Rapidan, and 
through Swift Run Gap, are best able to recognize your 
qualities as a commander. 

Accept, therefore, General, this testimonial of esteem, 
offered long after we were removed from your command, 
when the external glitter of an ordinary man ceases to affect 
the mind, but when real worth begins to be appreciated. 

On behalf of the Officers of the Fifth New York. 

Lt. Col. 5th New York Cavalry. 

Oswego, N. Y. Dec. 15th, 1862. 

To the Officers of the Fifth New York and First Vermont 
Regiments of Cavalry : 

Gentlemen : A very beautiful sabre, your present to my 
self, has been received. I shall wear it with pride, and will 
never draw it but in an honorable cause. 

The very kind letter accompanying the sabre has caused 
emotions of the deepest nature. The assurance it gives 
of the confidence you feel in myself, and your approval of 


my course when in command of Banks Cavalry, is particu 
larly gratifying. You, actors with myself in those stirring 
scenes, are competent judges as to the propriety of my course, 
when it unfortunately did not meet with the approval of my 
superior ; and your testimony, so handsomely expressed, 
after time has allowed opportunity for reflection, more than 
compensates for the mortification of that moment. 

I have watched with pride the movements of your regi 
ments, since my separation from you. When a telegram 
has announced that " in a Cavalry fight, the edge of the sabre 
was successfully used, and the enemy routed," the further 
announcement that the Fifth New York and First Vermont 
were engaged, was unnecessary. 

Accept my kindest wishes for your future success, 
sharp sabres and a trust in Providence, will enable you to 
secure it in the field. 

Yery truly, my friends, 

Your obedient Servant 

Brigadier General. 


Mosby, the Guerrilla. His men. Picketing against him at Chan- 
tilly. Building Winter Quarters at Germaritown. Descrip 
tion. Mosby at Fairfax Court House. Fight at Chantilly. 
At Warrenton Junction. Congratulatory Order of Command 
ing General. Fight at Greenwich. Capture of a Howitzer. 
Gallant Conduct of Lieut. Barker. Jan. 1st to June 14th, 1863. 

The campaign of 1862 had ended, and the two great armies 
had constructed their winter quarters facing each other, 
along the line of the Rappahannock, the Rebels occupying 
the south bank above and below the heights of Fredericks- 
burg, and the Federals stretching their camps for many 
miles on the northern shore above and below Falmouth. 
Between this line and that of the defenses of Washington 
lies a vast territory, which abounds in creeks, marshes, deep, 
sombre forests, with only here and there a village or settle 
ment. A little to the west runs the chain of the Bull Run 
Mountains, with their ravines and caverns. This is a very 
fit hiding place for guerrillas and bushwhackers, who, in con 
siderable numbers, infest the country, and commit their 
depredations on our lines. These guerrillas consist mostly 
of farmers and mechanics, residents of this region of country, 
who are exempt from the Rebel conscription. They gene 
rally follow their usual avocation during the day, and congre 
gate at certain localities at night ready for any work proposed 


by their leader, though each is often found to act quite 
independently of the rest. Their commander-in-chief is 
John S. Mosby, who, as a Rebel soldier who had known him 
from childhood up informed the writer, had always been a 
sort of guerrilla deserting from his home in mere boyhood 
fighting duels as a pastime roving the country far and 
wide in search of pleasure orprofit andfindingnow hischief 
delight in the adventures of guerrilla life. Under such 
leadership this guerrilla force has become very formidable, 
and a strong picket line was necessary at some distance from 
the defenses of Washington. 

January 1st, 1863. The regiment celebrated this anni 
versary by marching from Fairfax Court House to Chantilly, 
and was there posted on picket, to guard against the incur 
sions of Mosby and his gang. The peculiar nature of the 
force opposed to us requires special pains in the picketing. 
The main reserve, established from one to two miles from 
the line of videttes, is so situated as to be within easy striking 
distance of each picket relief at least when this can be 
done so as to render speedy assistance in case of an attack 
on any portion of the line. 

The boys will not soon forget the dreary, dangerous hours 
they spent along this picket line. In fancy they will see 
themselves shivering around a miserable fire among the 
piics, compelled often to sit or lie down in snow or mud. 
In this plight they hear the summons to be ready to stand 
post. Mounted upon their shivering horses, the poor fel 
lows with nothing cheering but their courage, go out to sit 
in the saddle for two hours, facing the biting wind, and 
peering through the storm of sleet, snow or rain, which pelts 
them in the face mercilessly. Happy if the guerrilla does 


not creep through bushes impenetrable to the sight, to in 
flict his cruel blows. The two hours expired, relief comes 
and the vidette returns to spend his four, six, or eight 
hours off duty as best he may. 

January 5th. At a post called Frying Pan, the pickets 
were attacked by guerrillas, and quite a number of men 
were captured. The nature of the country is such as to 
afford the enemy the greatest possible advantage. Deep 
ravines, skirted by massive foliage summer and winter, give 
him shelter, while his knowledge of every road and foot 
path gives him a fine opportunity to escape with his booty 
in case of pursuit. 

January 6th. Several men were captured and one wounded 
on picket near Cub Run. The guerrillas are very active. 
The utmost vigilance on our part cannot secure us perfectly 
from their depredations. The only way to rid ourselves of 
this plague would be to scour the entire country with a 
large force, arrest every male inhabitant able to carry a 
musket, and burn to the ground every building, including 
houses, where these bushwhackers reside or find refuge. To 
so stern a punishment, falling upon innocent and guilty 
with like terror, the government is not willing to resort. 
If the war is to continue long this would prove to be true 
policy, saving the lives of many of our brave boys. 

January Wth. From the Chantilly mansion, owned by 
one of the Stuarts, the regiment moved to Germantown, 
pitching camp on a pine-covered knoll. The streets are 
laid out quite regularly by companies, a space averaging 
about 25 or 30 feet being occupied by each company. The 
men construct stockades of logs about 3 feet high, on which 
they place their tents, called A tents, on account of reseni- 


blance to that letter. Chimneys are made of stone, or of 
hricks found in the remains of destroyed houses in the 
neighborhood, and sometimes of sticks of wood carefully 
laid in mud, which is by no means very inferior mortar. 
With this material the crevices of the stockades are also 
well plastered, making the soldier s cabin quite tight and 
warm, if he is not too idle to supply himself amply with 
fuel. In front of the tents is a street which has to be 
corduroyed or it will become impassable for mud, and just 
across the street are the stables for the horses. These are 
usually covered with a thick thatching of pine boughs, which 
afford a tolerable shelter for the cavalryman s trusty friend. 

January \\th. The regiment went on a scouting party 
to Brentsville, and returned by way of Bristoe Station and 
Manassas Junction. 

January 12th. A false alarm aroused the entire camp, 
which consists of a brigade of cavalry, composed of the 
First Virginia (Union), Eighteenth Pennsylvania and Fifth 
New York regiments of cavalry. 

January 13th. Another false alarm disturbed our usual 
rest; and before quieting down again we were sent on 
picket, to remain about five days. \Ye were relieved on 
the 17th. 

January 17th. Sergt. Maj. Gall and 1st Sergt. Bryant, 
Company G, went to Buckland Mills with a flag of truce. 

January 20th. Companies E and G went on picket at 
Frying Pan, dismounted, that they might be the better 
prepared for guerillas should they appear. 

January 21th. The same companies were ordered out 
on a scouting party to Herndon Station, and captured a 


sutler s wagon, which was being smuggled into the Rebel 
lines, and some prisoners. 

January 26th. Mosby made an attack on the 18th Pa. 
on picket near Chantilly Church, capturing 11. The Fifth 
N. Y. was sent in pursuit of the guerrillas. Having reached 
Middleburg, Maj. Hammond, iu command, ordered a charge 
through the town, which was executed handsomely and with 
entire success, resulting in the capture of 25 prisoners 
and the scattering of Mosby s men. The entire party, save 
one man captured, returned safely to camp, after a journey 
of 34 miles. 

January 29/7i. We resumed picketing this morning, 
only a small portion of the regiment remaining in camp. 

January 30/A. The regiment was relieved from picket 
until further orders. The object, doubtless, is to give us other 
work to do. 

February 2d. We were ordered out on a scout. Passed 
through Centreville about sundown. Followed the pike 
over the Bull Hun battle field, by Gainesville and New Balti 
more, arriving at W r arrenton, as the town clock struck 12 
of the night. No force of the enemy was fouud in town. 
One hundred muskets were captured and destroyed. Patrols 
were sent to Waterloo Bridge and Sulphur Springs. The 
country appeared to be clear of the enemy. Having accom 
plished the object of our scout we returned to camp, after 
a cold, dreary journey. 

February Sth. The regiment was again sent out to scout 
the country. At Bristoe Station companies F and H, with 
Capt. Penfield in command, were sent to Warren ton. On 
their way at New Baltimore they encountered quite a force 
of the enemy, with which they had a spirited skirmish, 


which was repeated but with less energy at "Warrenton, 
next day. The main body of the regiment on the 10th 
drove in the enemy s pickets near Spotted Tavern, where 
they captured two prisoners. 

February llth. The regiment moved to within four 
miles of Falmouth, and then turned northward through 
Stafford Court House. It pursued its journey through 
Dumfries, Wolf Run Shoals, Fairfax Station and Court 
House, reaching camp on the 13th, after a very fatiguing 

February 18^/t. Company G was sent on a scout to Hern- 
don Station. 

February 2\st. Received orders to resume picket duty. 

February 25th. During the night the 18th Penn. lost 
twenty men and thirty horses on picket, by Mosby. 

February 2Qth. Major Bacon, with one hundred and fifty- 
one men, started on a scout, passing through Centreville. 
Not being able to cross the Bull Run bridge, he returned to 
Centreville, where were rendezvoused other cavalry. 

February 27th. The whole command under Col. Wynd- 
ham moved to Bealeton Station and thence to Falmouth. 
The going was horribly muddy, many horses giving out by 
the way. This was the most remarkable feature of the 
expedition. After resting ourselves and animals for a few 
days at Falmouth, the expedition returned to camp by way 
of Stafford Court House and Wolf Run Shoals r arriving 
March 3d, very much exhausted. 

March 1st. Capt. Farley with seventy-two men was sent 
on a scout to Aldie, and returned without meeting the 

March 9th. About three o clock A. M., Mosby and his 


gang, led by Sergeant J. F. Ames, 1 formerly of company L, 
of this regiment, having safely passed by the pickets, 
entered Fairfax Court House. Without scarcely firing a shot, 
they captured fifty fine horses and about thirty prisoners, 
including Brig. Gen. Stoughton, and Capt. Barker, Fifth 
New York Cavalry. The brigade was sent in pursuit of 
the dashing party, each regiment taking different routes; 
but they returned at night unsuccessful, the Fifth New 
York having gone to Herndon Station. Such a raid, five 
or six miles within our lines, resulting in such a heavy loss 
to us, reflects very uncreditably upon some of our military 
leaders, while it shows how wily a foe we have to contend 
with. It is thought that not a few of the inhabitants of 
the region are more or less engaged in the business of giy- 
ing Mosby important information, which lays the founda 
tion of his success. 

March 12th. We sent two hundred men on picket, 
averaging the number from the different companies. 

March 14th. Maj. White with first battalion went out at 
night as a reserve for the pickets. We are almost constantly 
on duty. One small brigade of cavalry is doing the duty 
that one division should do. 

March 15^. We moved our camp a little below Fairfax 
Court House on a fine elevation, which overlooks the sur 
rounding country. Before night snow and hail began to fall, 
and a terrible night was experienced. The mercury at 5 
p. M. stood at 28 30 . 

March ISth. The regiment went on picket for 24 hours. 

after deserting to Mosby, was called Big Yankee. 
He became efficient for the Rebels and was finally killed. 


March 23cZ. Went out on picket again. About 5 p. M. 
Mosby made an attack on the pike, introducing himself 
by shooting the first vidette he came to through the head. 
The main reserve being alarmed, formed and pursued this 
force about three miles. Here a barricade of trees is 
thrown across the road, back of which the guerrillas had 
formed themselves. Our column was stopped by a fire of 
carbines and pistols, and by a flank fire from the woods. 
At this inopportune moment the Rebels made a charge, 
which broke our column. Our boys were then driven back 
furiously. Some horses giving out, the hapless riders were 
captured. By the heroic exertions of Major White and 
the arrival of the reserve from Frying Pan, the boys were 
rallied and the Rebels again driven back, and pursued for 
eight miles. But they escaped after inflicting upon us very 
serious injury. For some reason the regiment never acted 
with so little concert, and was never so badly beaten by so 
small a force, supposed to be about eighty strong. Every 
one felt mortified at the result of this day s work, and 
resolved to retrieve our fortunes on some more fortunate 

March 25th. Maj. Gen. Stahel took command of this 
cavalry division, composed of three brigades. The third 
brigade is composed of the 1st Virginia, 18th Pennsylvania 
and Fifth New York. 

March 21th. We went on picket with Maj. Bacon for 
2-1 hours. 

March 30^. Picket duty again with Maj. White. 

April 2d. Maj. Bacon went out again with the regiment 
on picket. The three regiments of the brigade do picket 
duty by turn, being on duty one day and off two. 


April 6th. We sent out one hundred men for picket. 

April \2th. The 3d brigade paraded for muster, under 
orders from Col. De Forest, who was assigned to the com 
mand as acting brigadier general, the seventh inst. His 
command appeared well on parade. He rides his horse 
beautifully, and presents a very soldierly bearing. 

April \ltli. The 18th Pennsylvania was transferred to the 
2d brigade, and the 1st Virginia, with which we were so 
often associated in 1862, was transferred to the 3d brigade. 

April 18^/t. Our brigade made a reconnoissance to Cat- 
lett s Station. 

April 2lst. The regiment received the new and beautiful 
flag, ordered for us by the city of New York, in November, 
1862. For some reason unknown to us, it has been long 

April 21 tli. Gen. Stahel, with the 2d and 3d brigades and 
a light battery of four guns, moved out about 6 A. M. on a 
reconnoissance. As each regiment wended its way from its 
camp to Fairfax Court House, the place of concentration, 
presenting the appearance of a vast serpent, winding its 
folds through its accustomed path among the hills, the 
morning sunlight fell with magical effect upon the scene, 
producing, an impression which the beholder does not soon 
forget. The force moved on to two miles beyond Middle- 

April 2%tli. The regiment being detached, moved out two 
miles, sent patrols to Upperville, and rejoined the division, 
with which we moved to Rectortown, Salem, White Plains, 
and back to Middleburg. Thirty-five prisoners were 
captured, mostly guerrillas of Mosby s gang. 

April 2Sth. The division moved east of Aldie and 


bivouacked for a few hours. After dark we moved back to 
our camps at Fairfax Court House, arriving after midnight. 
The boys made the old hills ring with shouts of delight on 
returning to their tented homes. 

May 1st. Col. De Forest, with the 3d brigade, moved to 
Bristoe Station. The command had two days rations. 

May 2d. The regiment was ordered to reconnoitre as far 
as Rappahaunock Station ; and having accomplished its 
task, returned to Warrenton Junction. 

May 3d. At an early hour the 1st Virginia cavalry, 
while feeding and watering their horses, were surprised by 
a force of Rebels, consisting of detachments of the Black 
Horse Cavalry, Mosby s and other guerrilla forces, with 
Mosby commanding in person. Our boys, being thus dis 
mounted, fled to a house near by, where they fought with 
terrible earnestness, but to great disadvantage. All efforts 
of Mosby to make them surrender were in vain. Finding 
that he could not intimidate them with bullets, he ordered 
the torch to be applied, and the house was set on fire. At 
this critical moment, the Fifth New York, which had bivou 
acked in a grove at a short distance from the scene of action, 
with Maj. Hammond commanding in person, descended like 
an avalanche upon the guerrillas. Mosby was heard to 
exclaim, " My God ! it is the Fifth New York !" A hand 
to hand encounter now took place, where Yankee sabres 
were used with fearful effect, and soon the Rebels broke and 
fled, entirely demoralized and panic stricken. Gen. Stahel, 
in his dispatch to Gen. Heintzelman, says : " The Rebels, who 
fled in the direction of Warrenton, were pursued by Maj. 
Hammond, Fifth New York Cavalry, who has returned and 
reports our charge at Warrenton Junction as being so terrific 


as to have thoroughly routed and scattered them in every 
direction. I have sent in 23 prisoners of Mosby s command, 
all of whom are wounded the greater part of them badly. 
Dick Moran (a notorious bushwhacker) is among the number. 
There are also three officers of Mosby s. The loss of the 
enemy was very heavy in killed besides many wounded, who 
scattered and prevented capture. I have no hopes of the 
recovery of Maj, Steele, 1 of the 1st Virginia. Our loss is 
one killed and fourteen wounded." 

Templeton, a Rebel spy, was killed. In the Richmond 
Sentinel of May 16th, we find this interesting notice of the 
fight : " About the 1st of May, near Warrenton Junction, 
Mosby, with his company, fell in with the First Virginia 
regiment, so called, which has been a long time looking for 
him. A fight ensued, which resulted in the capture of the 
whole regiment. As Mosby was making off with his prize, 
however, the First Vermont 2 and Fifth New York beset 
him and recaptured the Virginia Yankees. Mosby s loss 
was small, and he wants to know whether the First Virginia 
is looking for him again." 

The following Complimentary Order was issued: 


Department of Washington, 

Fairfax Court House, May 5, 18G3. 


When soldiers perform brave deeds a proper acknowledg 
ment of their services is justly their due. The commanding 

1 He was a noble officer and a splendid soldier. His wound 
proved mortal. His funeral services were attended with military 
honors, Sunday, May 31st. 

2 The First Vermont was not engaged. 


general therefore desires to express his gratification at the 
conduct cf the officers and men of Col. De Forest s com 
mand, who were engaged in the fight at Warrenton Junction, 
on Sunday, May 3d, 1863. By your promptness and 
gallantry the gang of guerrillas who have so long infested 
the vicinity, has been badly beaten and broken up. The 
heavy loss of the enemy in killed, wounded and prisoners, 
proves the determination of your resistance and the vigor of 
your attack. 

Deeds like this are worthy of emulation and give strength 
and confidence to the command. 

By command of 

HENRY BALDWIN, JR., Major and A. A. G. 

This order was followed by another of similar import by 
3iaj. Gen. Heintzelman, commanding the department. 

May 8th. Capt. Me Masters, with six men, was attacked 
and pursued by a squad of the Black Horse Cavalry, while 
on his way from the picket lines to Fairfax Court House. 
One of his men was captured, and another, Sergt. Mur 
phy, Company C, was drowned while endeavoring to ford 
Bull Run. 

May \\th. A scouting party, of the regiment went to 
Rappahannoek Station. They saw a few Rebels, but had no 
encounter with them. 

May 13^L The pickets were driven in by the enemy, 
with some confusion. Bands of guerrillas like so many 
ravenous beasts and birds of prey, hover around our lines, 
attacking wherever an opportunity offers plunder. 

May 15*7t. We were ordered to Kettle Run, a little 


south of Bristoe Station, and we camped along the rail 

May \ltli. A scouting party, under Capt. Hasbrouck, 
went to Brentsville, and toward Dumfries, and returned with 
out meeting any force of the enemy. 

May 25th. While the main portion of the regiment was 
picketing along the rail road a sufficient number of men 
remained in camp to care for it. To-day the camp was 
moved about a half mile north into a piece of woods, with a 
clean, grassy field just in front. 

May 30*7*. Between seven and eight o clock A. M. the 
cavalry pickets and reserves were startled by artillery firing, 
just below them on the rail road. A train laden with 
rations and forage had passed on its way to the llappahan- 
nock, but a few moments before. It was soon ascertained 
that the guerrillas had carefully unfastened one of the iron 
rails, in the woods, and by means of a wire fastened to it, 
and extended at some distance from the road, a man had 
drawn the rail out of place just as the engine was approach 
ing it, and thus stopped the whole train. A mountain how 
itzer had been placed in position, which immediately 
plunged a shell through the train. The infantry guard oil 
board the train fled in confusion, leaving the whole ground 
to the Rebels, who destroyed the train by fire. But the 
cavalry had been aroused, and detachments of the First 
Vermont and Fifth New York, each in separate routes, 
commenced a vigorous pursuit of the enemy. Mosby, who 
commanded in person, did not anticipate so sudden an attack 
as was made. The detachment of the Fifth, after going 
about two miles, came within range of the howitzer, which 
sent a slnll, that exploded in the midst of the solid -column. 


Fortunately no one was hurt, except that Lieut. Boutelle, 
Company A, was suddenly dismounted by the killing of his 
horse. The nature of the ground was unfavorable for a 
cavalry charge. The enemy, however, showed no disposi 
tion to fight but fled toward Warrenton as rapidly as possible, 
firing an occasional shot., but without inflicting injury. 
Eagerly the boys spurred on their chargers, and were soon 
joined by the Vermonters, who added fresh excitement to 
the pursuit. The Rebels, finding themselves too closely 
followed, and knowing that something desperate must be 
done, suddenly turning at the head of a narrow lane, brought 
their artillery into position and commenced firing. " That 
gun must be silenced or captured," cried Lieut. Barker, 
of Company H, "and who will volunteer to charge it with 
me?" About thirty brave men promptly responded, and 
suiting the action to the words, " charge, boys !" he rushed 
furiously forward at their head, but fell severely wounded 
before a murderous discharge of grape and canister, which 
killed three men and wounded several others. But before 
the piece could be reloaded the surviving cojnrades were 
crossing sabres with the gunners over the gun. The con 
flict was a fierce one, but of short duration; the boys in blue 
retaking the twelve pound howitzer, which had been cap 
tured by the Rebels from the lamented Col. Baker at Ball s 
Bluff. Among the enemy s wounded and captured was a 
Capt. Haskins, formerly in high rank in the British army, 
who had run the blockade and espoused the Rebel cause. 
He received his death wound as follows : Having wounded 
Geo. H. Jenkins, private of Company F, he roughly cried 
out, " Surrender, you damned Yankee." " I will see you 
damned first," was Jenkins characteristic reply, at the 


same time lodging a pistol ball in the captain s neck. The 
Rebels were completely routed, and pursued as far as the 
jaded condition of our horses would permit. In the corre 
spondence of Mr. George H. Hart, we find the following 
quotable sentence : " The troops fought gallantly, and the 
Fifth New York ably sustained its claim to the title of the 
Fighting Fifth; nor were the First Vermonters behind 

This engagement has been known as the battle of Green 
wich, from a little village near by, bearing that name. 

June 10^. Adjutant Gall, with a small party, encoun 
tered a squad of Mosby s men at Middleburg and captured 
Lieut. Turner in command. 

June \ih. The regiment returned to camp at Fairfax 
Court House, from Kettle Kun 3 and awaited further orders. 


Gen. Lee Invades Maryland and Pennsylvania. Breaking Camp 
at Fairfax Court House. Fidelity of the Horse. March over 
Bull Run Battle Field. Reorganization of the Cavalry Corps. 
Kilpatrick in Command of the Third Division. Cavalry Battle 
of Hanover, Pennsylvania. Battle of Gettysburg, Third Day. 
Attack on Rebel Train in Monterey Pass. Battle of Hagers- 
town. Battle of Boonsboro . Attack on Rear Guard of Rebel 
Army at Falling Waters. The Invaders Expelled from Free 
Soil. June 19U to July 14th, 1863. 

The disastrous battle of Chancellorsville had been fought 
and Gen. Lee resolved upon a grand invasion of the north 
ern states. His intention was fairly understood in the 
early days of June. It now became necessary to concentrate 
as large a force as possible to meet and drive back the invad 
ers. Consequently General Stahel s cavalry division was 
detached from the defenses of Washington, to be incorpo 
rated into the great Army of the Potomac. 

June 19^7i. Orders for breaking up camp were received 
and the work immediately commenced. Surplus baggage, 
which always accumulates during winter quarters, was put 
into parcels and sent to our northern homes, by express, or 
boxed up to be sent to Alexandria for storage, under the 
charge of the quartermaster of that post. This done, our 
tents were soon struck and sent to the rear with the baggage, 
and we were left to bivouac as best we could, until the 


orders to march should be received. To the young soldier 
this was a new era in military life. His tent now is bounded 
only by the far off horizon, and covered by the canopy of 
heaven. Rolled up in his woolen blanket or rubber poncho, 
having sought the shelter of a leafy tree (if such a desirable 
spot was accessible), he lies down with a stone, or, perhaps, 
his saddle for a pillow, while his faithful horse stands as a 
watchful guardian by his side. It is often the case, that a 
cavalryman has nothing to hitch his horse to but his own hand, 
and though the animal will walk all around him, eating the 
grass as far as he can reach, yet it is worthy of note, that an 
instance can scarcely be found where the horse has been 
known to step upon his master. 

June 2~Lst. The regiment moved with the division about 
noon on the Little River turnpike. Passed through Cen- 
treville, and over the Bull Run battle field, the aceldama 
of America. Evidences of the terrible conflict of the past 
are still visible on every hand. Unexploded shells and 
pieces, solid shot, broken muskets, and remains of gun- 
carriages, graves, and bones of unburied heroes, tell their 
sad stories as we pass. A skull is kicked along by the 
horses as they move over the muddy way ! No one seems to 
care much about it, for worse sights have so often been 
seen before. 

After passing through Gainesville, we bivouacked near 
Buckland Mills. 

June 22d. The line of march was resumed with the 
early sunlight, passing through New Baltimore, and arriv 
ing at the beautiful village of Warrenton about noon. No 
force of the enemy was here encountered, as had been 
expected. Small scouting parties were sent out in various 


directions, and the division bivouacked for the afternoon and 
night in the fields adjacent to the town. 

June 23d. Journeyed back to. Fairfax Court House after 
making quite a halt at Gainesville to issue rations, and rest 
our animals. It was after midnight when we arrived. 

June. 24:th. Division moved about 3 p. M. toward Lees- 
burg, stopping for the night about one mile beyond Draines- 

Jane 25th. The march was resumed at an early hour. 
A little beyond Broad Run the column turned to the right, 
striking the Potomac a little below Edward s Ferry, where 
we forded. On reaching the Maryland shore, the 3d brig 
ade with a section of the 9th Michigan battery and one 
brigade of infantry, was sent to Poolsville, and thence by 
Mouocacy Ford to Licksville, where we bivouacked. 

June 2Qth. This force moved on to Adamstown, Jefferson, 
Birkinsville, through Crampton s Gap, where the infantry 
and artillery remained, though the cavalry moved on near 
Ehorersville, where we spent the night. 

June 27th. The brigade moved at.4 p. M. to Birkinsville, 
Middletown, Frederick City, and three miles and a half 
north on the Emmettsburgh road, where we bivouacked 
with the remainder of the division, at daybreak. 

June 2Sth. Gen. Pleasanton reviewed the division, and 
reorganized the entire force. We are now the Third 
Division of the Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac, with 
the gallant Kilpatrick in command. The first brigade 
consists of the 1st Vermont, 1st Virginia, 18th Pennsylva 
nia and 5th New York, Brig. Gen. Farnsworth command 
ing. Brig. Gen. Custer commands the 2d brigade, com 
posed of Michigan regiments. 


Gen. Buford commands the first division and Gen. Gregg 
the second division ; the whole force forming the most 
efficient cavalry corps ever organized on this continent. 
To-day Gen. Meade superseded Gen. Hooker in the com 
mand of the Army of the Potomnc. 

June 29th. At 10 A. M., with its new commander, the 
division moved to Pennsylvania, passing through Walkers- 
villc, Woodsboro , Ladiesville, Mechanicsville, Tan ey town, 
and finally Littlestown, Pa., where we were received with- 
the greatest demonstrations of joy by the people. A large 
group of children, on the balcony of a hotel, waving hand 
kerchiefs and flags, greeted us with patriotic songs, while 
the men made the welkin ring with their cheers. How 
different was such reception from that we had been accus 
tomed to have given us by the inhabitants of Virginian 
villages ! 

June 30^L The column moved early to Hanover, where 
we were again enthusiastically received by the citizens, who 
furnished refreshments liberally to the troopers, as each regi 
ment entered and passed through the town. This enjoyable 
state of things continued until about 10 o clock ; and while 
the Fifth was receiving the attentions of the people, the 
sudden report of a cannon was heard from one of the neigh 
boring hills. At first this was taken as a friendly salute 
for our troops, but the deception was soon removed by a 
fierce charge of Rebel cavalry under immediate command of 
Gen. Stuart, upon the unsuspecting column in the street, 
sending terror to the people, especially to the ladies and chil 
dren, who were paying their compliments to their defenders. 
With his accustomed coolness and bravery, Maj. Hammond, 
in command of the regiment, quickly withdrew from the 


street to the open field near the rail road depot, ordered the 
boys into line and led the charge upon the Rebels, who 
then possessed the lowii. The charging columns met on 
Frederick street, where a hand to hand conflict ensued. 
For a few moments the enemy made heroic resistance, but 
finally broke and fled, closely pursued by our men. They 
rallied again and again but were met with irresistible onsets, 
which finally compelled them to retire behind the hills 
under cover of their guns. 

In less than fifteen minutes from the time the Rebels 
charged the town, they were all driven from it, and were 
skulking in the wheat fields and among the hills of the 
vicinity. The dead and wounded of both parties, with many 
horses, lay scattered here and there ahmg the streets, so 
covered with blood and dust as to render identification in 
many cases tery difficult. Meanwhile, Gen. Kilpatrick, 
who was several miles beyond the town, at the head of the 
column, when the attack was made, arrived upon the field, 
and took personal charge of the movements. These were 
ordered with consummate skill, and executed with prompt 
ness and success. His artillery, well posted on tta hills facing 
the Rebels, and well supported, soon silenced the guns of 
the enemy, and compelled him to retire in the direction of 
Lee s main army. He left not less than 25 dead in the 
streets and fields, and his wounded by far exceeded this 
number. We captured 75 prisoners, including Lt. Col. 
Payne, who commanded a brigade, and one stand of colors, 
the flag of the 13th Virginia cavalry. This was the trophy 
of Sergt. Burke, Company A. Our entire loss was nine 
killed, thirty-one wounded and a few prisoners. Among 
the killed was Adjutant Gall, who fell while gallantly 


charging the enemy in the street. The fatal ball entered 
his left eye, and passed through his head, killing him in 

The citizens of Hanover, who so nobly cared for our wound 
ed in the hospitals during and after the battle, and assisted 
us in burying the dead, will long remember that terrible 
last day of June. 

The brave boys, who had so valiantly defeated the enemy, 
though taken by surprise, built their bivouac fires and spent 
the night on the field of their recent victory. 

July 1st. At 11 A. M. the 1st brigade moved to Abbotts- 
town, to Berlin, and pursued Rebel cavalry from this place 
to Ilosetown, capturing several prisoners, and returned to 
Berlin at midnight* and bivouacked. 

July 2d. The division moved to within two miles of 
Gettysburg, thence to New Oxford and Ilunterstown, where 
we fought till dark. This was the extreme right wing of 
our army, while engaged in that great conflict, which decid 
ed the fate of the Rebellion and saved the Republic from 

July 3cf. During last night we moved from the right to 
the left flank of our army, about 2 miles from Gettysburg, 
near Little Round Top. The remaining portion of the 
cavalry corps was left to attend to Stuart and his troopers, 
who still threatened our right. Kilpatrick s work was with 
infantry. His division, however, was reenforced by Gen. 
Merritt s regular brigade of the first division. About 10 A. 
M. Kilpatrick sent out his skirmishers upon the Rebel right 
flank and rear. The design was to create a panic, if possi 
ble, and force the enemy back upon his trains. About 3 
p. M., during the most terrific cannonade ever known upon 


this continent, a large force of Rebel infantry was seen 
advancing, with the evident intention of sweeping away the 
cavalry, and of then turning our position on Little Round 
Top, occupied by our artillery with infantry support. To 
defeat this design of the Rebel chief, became Kilpatrick s all 
animating theme. Quickly making the best possible disposi 
tion of his command, he ordered Gen. Farnsworth to charge 
these serried ranks, which must be broken. Placing the Fifth 
New York in support of Elder s Battery, which was exposed 
to a very hot fire, and ordering the First Vermont, First 
Virginia and Eighteenth Pennsylvania, into line of battle, 
he led them gallantly on to the unequal contest. 

Though this charge was not entirely a success, its well 
directed blow prevented the flank movement, which prison 
ers asserted, was the intention of their leader, and thus the 
cavalry added another dearly earned laurel to its chaplet of 
honor, clearly earned because many of her bravest champions 
fell upon that bloody field. Gen. Kilpatrick, in his official 
report of this sanguniary conflict, says: "In this charge 
fell the brave Farnsworth. Short and brilliant was his 
career. On the 29th of June a general, on the 1st of July 
he baptized his star in blood, and on the 3d, for the honor 
of his young brigade and the glory of his corps, he yielded 
up his noble life." 

During this charge a shell passed through the body of 
Daniel Hurley, Company C, killed a horse, and afterward 
explode d, wounding John Buckley of the same company, 
and several others. Elder s battery was handled with his 
usual skill, and with wonderful effect, silencing two or three 
times a Rebel battery that could not be seen, a thing but 
very seldom accomplished. 


Before the sun went down on that day of carnage, it was 
evident that the Union arms had been victorious, after three 
days almost incessant fighting, and our tired and nearly 
worn-out boys that night rested quietly upon the fields so 
dearly won. 

July 4th. Having gathered his troopers together, Kilpat- 
rick addressed them a few words of cheer, assuring them 
that their noble deeds would not be passed by unrequited, 
and that he trusted their future conduct would be but a 
copy of the past. Having received orders to intercept the 
Rebel trains, which were known to be on the retreat south 
ward, the whole division was moved to Ernmettsburgh, to 
Monterey Springs and to the summit of the South Moun 
tains, where the train was encountered, passing through the 
gaps. The night was pitchy dark, and the rain fell fast, 
before the train guards were met. For some time they 
kept up a desultory fire upon us, but finally yielding to 
our superior skill and determination, a train of 200 wagons, 
mostly loaded with plunder from the stores and granaries 
of Pennsylvania, fell into our hands, and about 1,500 
prisoners, among whom were several wounded. Most of 
the wagons were destroyed. 

July bth. Moved to Smithburg about 8 A. M., and sent 
the prisoners to Boonsboro . About sundown we shelled the 
forces of Gen. Stuart approaching us from the mountain 
passes. This done, we marched to Cavetown, and thence to 
Boonsboro , where we bivouacked and rested. 

July 6th. Moved -to Hagerstown and held the place in 
advance of Gen. Stuart. His approach was met with deter 
mined resistance, and a heavy battle wjvs the result. Had 
not Gen. Ewell s corps come down upon us we could have 


managed the cavalry alone, though they were compelled to 
fight desperately, as this was their only way of retreat. Charges 
and counter-charges were frequent during the day. One 
reporter says, " Elder gave them grape and canister, and 
the Fifth New York sabres, while the First Vermont used 
their carbines." 

In one of these charges, made in the face of a very 
superior force, Capt. Penfield, at the head of his company 
(H), had his horse shot down under him, and, while strug 
gling to extricate himself from -the animal, was struck a 
fearful blow of a sabre on the head, which came near 
proving fatal. Thus wounded, with the blood running down 
upon his long beard and clothes, he was made a prisoner. 
It was here the gallant Captain Dahlgren lost his leg 
while leading a charge. 

Before the heavy infantry force which was now attacking 
us, we retreated to Williamsport, fighting all the way. 
From Williamsport, having joined Gen. Buford, we fell 
back to Timball s Cross Roads. 

July 1th. The division moved to Boonsboro and bivou 

July Sth. The Rebel cavalry under Gen. Stuart, supported 
by Hood s infantry, attacked our pickets along the Antietam 
Creek, and drove them in with some confusion. 

About noon a furious battle was raging near Boonsboro . 
Buford and Kilpatrick united their respective divisions in 
the work of repelling this attack. Over the broad plains, 
it was a splendid sight to witness the manrouvrings of 
these cavalry chiefs. The struggle was desperate Stuart 
fighting for^the safety of the Rebel army, and our boys for 
the South Mountain pass. About sundown, after a brief con- 


sultation between Duford and Kilpatrick, their bugles were 
ringing with the order for a concentrated and united charge; 
and with a wild shout those invincible squadrons fell upon 
the enemy, driving his broken lines from the field, which 
he left strewn with his dead and dying. With the laurels 
of another glorious victory, our boys returned to their 
bivouac, and sought the repose they had so well earned. 

After the battle Col. De Forest assumed command of 
the brigade. 

July 10*7*. The regiment moved to Jonathan Doub s 
house and bivouacked. . 

July \\tli. We moved out two miles, drove in the enemy s 
pickets, and returned to our bivouac. 

July 12th. Gen. Kilpatrick moved his division to Hagers- 
tuwn, and, after a skirmish with the enemy, occupied the 

July 14*7i. At 4 A. M. the division moved in pursuit of 
the retreating Rebel army, which, it was ascertained, was 
crossing the Potomac as rapidly as possible. The third 
division swept away what vestiges of it remained at Wil- 
liamsport, and, following it down the river, struck the rear 
guard, under Gen. Pettigrew, at Falling Waters. The 
battle was short, but disastrous to the Rebels. Many a 
poor fellow never gained the long looked-for Virginia shore. 
One brigade of infantry, two battle flags, and two pieces of 
artillery fell into our hands. Gen. Pettigrew was mortally 
wounded. In the charge made upon the Rebel. earth works, 
constructed to protect this . important crossing, the 6th 
Michigan cavalry, .Major Weber commanding, covered 
itself with immortal honor. By the boldness of their 
charge, and by the destructive fire of Pennington s battery, 


these remains of the once boastful invading army, were 
made to feel that they could fight us at much better advan 
tage upon their own soil than upon ours. 

As the last foot of the invaders disappeared on the 
southern shore of the Potomac, our boys built their bivouac 
fires and rested themselves and their weary animals near the 
scene of their victory 


Lee s Invasion, a great Failure. He is not Pursued very Vigor 
ously. Reasons Why. We Recross tlie Potomac. The Gun- 
Boat Expedition. Battle of Culpepper Court House. Lee 
flanks Meade. We Retreat from the Robertson and Rapidan 
Rivers. Kilpatrick Surrrounded at Brandy Station. His 
Brilliant Charge. Battle of Buckland Mills. The Armies 
Swing like Pendulums. Skirmish at Stevensburg. Several 
Days Fighting at Raccoon Ford. Change is the Soldier s Life. 
Excitement about RePnlisting as Veteran Volunteers. Build 
ing Winter Quarters. July 15th to December 31st, 1863. 

The enemy was now fairly expelled from the free states 
which he had insolently entered a few days before. His 
losses had been immense in men and material of war. He 
had failed in every important minutiae of his plan. Instead 
of weakening the Union cause as he fondly hoped by the 
pomp and promise of his entry into Maryland, he had 
increased our numbers and strengthened our hands in the 
good work. He was now returning to his own place, with a 
demoralized and beaten army, whose ranks had been thinned 
by desertions and by unprecedented casualties in battle. He 
had barely escaped annihilation. To pursue him as closely 
as possible, harrass his rear and do him all further damage 
in our power, was the course adopted by the commanding 
general } the main body of the Kebel army escaping as 
best it could through the valley towards Staunton and 


Gordonsville, their cavalry meanwhile taking possession of 
the gaps in the Blue Ridge to prevent flank movements. 
Our pursuit was not as vigorous as it would seem it might 
have been. But it must be remembered that our infantry 
had made many forced marches, describing in its route a 
line resembling the circumference of a circle, while that of 
the Rebel army was like the diameter. Our cavalry had 
not only defeated the Rebel cavalry in many battles and 
skirmishes, but it had met the solid columns of their infantry 
also, as at Gettysburg. Consequently our movements were 
not as rapid as they might otherwise have been, owing to 
the fatigue of our men. 

July 15M. The division moved up the river to Williams- 
port, swung around to Hagerstown, and bivouacked for the 
night at Boonsboro ; men and horses came to their rest with 
a wonderful relish. 

July IQth. "Boots and saddles" at an early hour, and 
the whole division was soon in the saddle, where we might 
be said to live, move, and have our being^ and we were again 
on the march. We revisited Rhorersville, recrossed Cramp- 
ton s Gap, and bivouacked near the Potomac at Berlin. 
Before night the first brigade moved to Harper s Ferry and 
bivouacked in the yard of the ruined arsenal. 

July \.lth. This morning we crossed the Shenandoah on 
the new wire bridge, passed around the foot of Loudon 
Heights, and followed the Potomac to opposite Berlin, 
where we were joined by the second brigade, which crossed 
on pontoons. The division then moved to Lovettsville, 
Wheatland, Purcelville, Va., and halted for the night. 

July 19M. The division moved to the following places : 


Snickersville. Bloomfield and Upperville, where we stopped 
and rested. 

July 20th. The 5th and 6th Michigan, with the 5th New 
York, under Col. Town, of the 1st Michigan, marched to 
Ashby s Gap, expelled therefrom a force of the enemy, 
after a brief skirmish, and occupied the Gap. The Fifth 
New York returned to Upperville. From this time until 
September, the headquarters of the third division were 
near Warrenton, while picketing was performed by the 
regiments in rotation, along the line of the Rappahannock, 
opposed to Stuart s cavalry, whose headquarters were at 

September 4th. To break the monotony of picketing, and 
to subserve the cause, a most novel scheme was uow under 
taken, known as Kilpatrick s Gun-boat Expedition. The 
object was to destroy a part. of the Rebel navy (?) anchored 
in the Rappahannock, near Port Conway, opposite Port 
Royal. This peculiar warfare, which required dash .and 
boldness, was waged by the troopers with complete success, 
and they returned to their old bivouac fires, to enliven the 
weary hours with stories of the long march down the river, 
and their successful attack upon the gun-boats of the enemy. 

September loth. A grand advance of the Union army 
had been ordered by its chief, in which the cavalry was to 
take a prominent part. Accordingly, at an early hour, 
Gen. Pleasantou moved his corps, crossing the Rappahan 
nock with Gregg s division at Sulphur Springs, Buford s at 
Rappahannock Bridge and Kilpatrick s at Kelly s Ford. 
The enemy s pickets were easily driven before this mighty 
host, and dispositions were made to attack Stuart at Culpep 
per, a naturally strong and fortified position. Pleasanton. 


with the first and second divisions, moved directly on 
the enemy from Brandy Station, where they had concen 
trated. Over the plains they moved on, sweeping every 
thing before them, until within a mile of the town, where 
they were checked by the stubborn and determined resist 
ance of the Rebels. Not long had this equal contest con 
tinued, when Kilpatrick s artillery was heard thundering in 
the enemy s right flank and rear, on the road from Stevens- 
burg, whither he had led his swift squadrons. Under this 
well directed fire the enemy fell back into the town; and, 
before he had time to reform his broken line, and in spite 
of a heavy fire from his artillery, the Fifth Xew York and 
First Vermont, with detachments from other regiments, 
charged into the streets of the town, capturing three 
Blakely guns, and throwing the boast of the chivalry into a 
perfect rout. They hastily retreated in the direction of 
Pony Mountain and Rapidan Bridge, whither they were 
pursued closely by our victorious boys. Several prisoners 
fell into our hands. The way having thus been prepared, 
the Army of the Potomac advanced across the Rappahan- 
nock. Gen. Meade making his headquarters at Culpepper. 

September 14^7t. The cavalry advanced and took posses 
sion of the fords along the Rapidan and the Robertson 
rivers. This was not done without opposition, the enemy 
defending these important crossings with vigor and perti 
nacity. The regiment encountered a tremendous shelling 
at Somerville Ford, on the Robertson. 

September 2 2d. While on a reconnoissance in Madison 
County, the regiment had quite a skirmish at Brookin s 
Ford, on the Rapidan. 

September 2bth. A detachment of the regiment. Captain 


Farley commanding, while on a scout, encountered a con 
siderable force of the enemy at. Hazel River Bridge, and a 
sharp skirmish ensued. 

October 8th. The regiment reconnoitred along tho Rob 
ertson river, and met the enemy at Ceighrsville, where a 
short fight followed, resulting in the retreat of the enemy 
across the river. 

While we were thus picketing and scouting along these 
streams, living sumptuously on a country that had not yet been 
impoverished by the march of armies, Gen. Lee, whose army 
lay mostly south of the Rapidan, crossed the river, moved 
to Mtidison Court House, and by a rapid flank movement on 
our right, compelled us to beat a hasty retreat, which was con 
tinued until Gen. Meade s main army occupied the heights 
of Centreville. 

October 10/A In the early morning a heavy force of the 
enemy came down upon the regiment, picketing along the 
Robertson river, at Russell s Ford. The flank movement of 
the enemy was discovered and quick work was required. 
Swift messengers from officers in high command brought 
orders to retire with promptness, but in good order, if possi 
ble. Our men, in many instances, were compelled to leave 
their palatable breakfasts of roast lamb, sweet potatoes, fine 
wheat bread, milk and honey, &c., with which the country 
abounded, and to attend to the stern and always unpleasant 
duties of a retreat, with the enemy pressing heavily upon 
us. A sharp skirmish had taken place at the ford, which 
was continued at intervals on our march to James City, 
where a battle raged with fury and slaughter. Though 
engaged for many hours during the day the casualties of the 
regiment were not very great. 


October ll/7t. Skirmishing was continued to-day at almost 
every step of our march. On the Sperryville pike to Cul- 
pepper, the enemy pressed us closely. From this point the 
cavalry corps separated, Gregg with his division, falling 
back by way of Sulphur Springs, Buford by Stevensburg, 
leaving Kilpatrick on the main thoroughfare along the rail 
road by Brandy Station. Scarcely had Kilpatrick moved 
out of Culpepper, when Hampton s division of cavalry made 
a furious attack on his rear guard with the hope of breaking 
through upon the main column and scattering it, or of 
retarding its progress, so that a flanking column might fall 
upon him ere he could reach the safe shore of the Rappa- 
hannock. Gallantly repelling every attack the command 
moved on, without expending much of its time or material, 
until opposite the residence of the Hon. John Minor Botts, 
when a few regiments, including the Fifth New York, sud 
denly wheeled about, and facing the pursuing foe, charged 
him with pistol and sabre, thus checking his advancing lines. 
On arriving at Brandy Station Kilpatrick found his com 
mand to be in a most critical situation. 

Already Gen. Fitzhugh Lee s division of cavalry held the 
only road upon which it was possible for Kilpatrick to 
advance. Stuart, with a portion of Lee s and Hampton s forces, 
threatened his left flank, assisted by artillery well posted on 
the hills. Behind him were Hampton s Legions. Buford, 
having fallen back more rapidly than Kilpatrick, had before 
passed on toward the Rappahannock, leaving his right flank 
perfectly exposed, where sharpshooters were already making 
themselves a source of great annoyance from the woods. 

This was a situation to try the stoutest hearts. Nothing 
daunted by this formidable disposition jf an enemy very 


superior in numbers, Kilpatrick showed himself worthy to 
command the brave men who composed his division. Form 
ing his force in three lines of battle, assigning the right to 
Gen. Davies, the left to Gen. Custer, and placing himself 
in the centre, he advanced with terrible determination to the 
contest. Having approached to within a few hundred yards 
of the enemy s lines, his band was ordered to strike up 
Yankee Doodle, to whose inspiring notes was added the 
blast of scores of bugles, ringing forth the charge. Fired 
with a sort of frenzy, and bearing aloft their colors, this 
band of heroic troopers shook the air with their battle cry, 
while their drawn and firmly grasped sabres flashed in the 
light of the declining sun. Gen. Custer, pulling off his cap, 
gave it to his orderly, and thus led on the charge, while his 
yellow locks floated on the breeze. Ambulances, forges and 
cannon, with pack trains, non-combatants and others, all 
joined to swell the on-flowing tide, before which the Rebel 
lines broke in wild alarm. Kilpatrick thus escaped serious 
injury, defeated his pursuers, and presented to the beholders 
one of the grandest sights ever witnessed in the New 

His division soon after joined that of Buford, and together 
they engaged the enemy in a series of brilliant charges, which 
materially checked his advance. At night they recrossed 
the Rappahannock in safety. 

The cavalry continued its retreat, covering the rear of 
the infantry, to the old field of Bull Run, where it was 
expected a third battle would be fought. One night, while 
the regiment lay bivouacked near Bristoe Station, a caisson 
was accidently set on fire, causing a rapid explosion of the 
ammunition it contained. The consequence was a wide- 


spread alarm, which brought every cavalryman to his horse, 
ready to meet the foe, who was supposed to have made a 
powerful attack. 

October IQth. The regiment was sent to test the Eebel 
pickets at Groveton, with whom we had a slight skirmish. 

October Yitli. The work of yesterday was repeated. 

October ISth. A third time the regiment skirmished 
with the pickets at Groveton and advanced to Gainesville. 

October 19th. The Kebel army having spent its time 
in tearing up and destroying the rail road, refusing to 
attack, Gen. Meade ordered a general advance. Kilpat- 
rick marched through Grovetou and Gainesville, meeting 
the enemy in overwhelming force at Buckland Mills. Had 
it not been for great skill and daring his entire command 
would have been annihilated. As it was, he narrowly 
escaped, saving all his guns, but leaving some of his men 
in the enemy s hands. 

Before our advancing army, Gen. Lee gradually retreated, 
receiving a terrible shock at Rappahannock Station, which 
sent the remains of his army across the Rappahunnock. 
It is quite singular to remark how these great armies have 
been swinging like huge pendulums during the present 
season. In June they swung from the Rappahannock, Va., 
to the Susquehanna, Penn.; then back to the Rapidan ; 
afterward almost to the Potomac, then back to the Rapidan 
again. It is eneouraging to notice that the swing of the 
Rebel army toward the north, shortens at every move, 
giving indications of its waning power. 

In the early part of November our army laid its pontoons 
across the Rappahannock, and advanced upon the enemy, 
driving him from the line he had selected for his winter 


quarters. Many of their huts, already completed, fell into 
our hands. 

November 8th. The regiment had a spirited skirmish 
with the enemy, in driving him from Stevensburg. 

From a correspondent of a New York daily, we quote the 
following description of this affair. "I must be allowed to 
mention, that Kilpatrick s division, or rather Davies brig 
ade of that division, was engaged in quite a brisk encounter 
with Haniptun s division of llebel cavalry, on Sunday the 
8th inst., in the vicinity of Stevensburg. I allude to it 
here, because, as yet, it has scarcely been noticed at all in 
any papers that I am aware of, although it was one of the 
most spirited and handsomely managed affairs that has 
occurred during the late movements. There was no very 
severe fighting, it is true, but the ease with which the 
enemy was driven from his position, and the short duration 
of the fight, were mainly attributable to the adroitness used 
in the disposition of our forces, and the intense eagerness 
and animation with which our men went up to the attack. 
A battery of the enemy which occupied a commanding 
position at Stevensburg, right in the line of our advance, 
was started off at a double quick, almost without firing a 
shot, by sending a regiment round to the right, which came 
in upon it from an unexpected quarter, and threw the gun 
ners into instant alarm for the safety of their guns; and 
when they had taken up a new position find were busily 
shelling our troops coming up in front, Major Hammond, 
commanding the regiment just mentioned, with about 
twenty of his men, again compelled them to decamp by 
coming up under cover and unseen to within easy carbine 
range of them, and thus picking off the artillerists." 


The regiment camped among the pines, whence they had 
driven the enemy. 

November 17th. The regiment was ordered to picket 
along the Rapidan, extending our videttes from Morton s 
Ford near to Germania. 

November I8th. A squad of Hampton s cavalry, dressed 
in our overcoats, surprised and attacked the 18th Pennsylva 
nia, near Germania Ford, capturing many prisoners, and their 
headquarters wagon. Capt. McGuinn, Company A, in charge 
of the nearest reserve, assisted in beating back the Rebels, 
who fled across the river. 

November 2lst. The paymaster appeared with his green 
backs, and though the rain has fallen almost incessantly 
none have been heard to murmur. Whatever trouble or 
difficulty the soldier has, pay-day is sure to take it all 
away at least if his accounts are all right. 

November 22d. The men are sending their money home 
to their friends. Some foolishly squander theirs away, but 
most men of the regiment put a proper estimate on their 

November 24^. A grand movement of the army toward 
the Rapidan was commenced, at an early hour. Our divi 
sion moved toward Raccoon Ford. A heavy rain having 
set in, the troops were countermarched to their wet 

November 26th. The movement commenced and aban 
doned on the 24th was to-day resumed. Gen. Meade, 
desiring to cross his main force at Germania Ford, ordered 
the cavalry to attack the Rebel lines along the upper fords, 
and, if possible, compel them to busy themselves with us. 
Our division broke camp early, and reached the river about 


nine o clock at Morton s Ford. The fortifications on the 
high hills along the river swarmed with Rebels. They 
opened their heavy batteries upon us. The division moved 
up the river toward Ilaccoon Ford, most of the time 
exposed to the artillery fire. Shells fell fast near the solid 
column, spattering mud all over our Thanksgiving suits, 
for this was Thanksgiving day. Our flying artillery occa 
sionally replied. -This artillery duel was continued all the 
day, and yet not a man was injured. How wonderful is 
the preservation of human life on occasions like this ! At 
night we bivouacked in the woods about a mile from the 
ford. The ground was wet and the weather cold, and we 
were compelled to make fires sparingly, lest the enemy 
might discover our position, and give us a Thanksgiving 
supper of shells, as he had done for our dinner. 

November 21th. Early in the morning the division 
crossed the river at Ilaccoon Ford, having discovered that 
the enemy had abandoned his works in the night. Fitz- 
hugh Lee s cavalry, however, was encountered approaching 
at no great distance from the river, compelling our boys to 
return after a sharp skirmish. 

November SQth. We still continue by the river, exchang 
ing occasional shots, and sometimes volleys, with the pickets 
on the other side. Now and then the batteries open. 
Just before sundown the Rebels saluted us with a rapid 
shelling, which made the woods and hills resound. We 
bivouac among the pines, when off duty, where moss is 
plentiful for our carpets. Our fare would be quite pleasant 
if it were not for the biting frosts of the nights. 

December 2d. Gen. Meade is returning from his unsuc 
cessful affair in the wilderness about Mine Run. His 


expedition has been attended with great fatigue and suffer 
ing, and some losses. 

December 3d. As was expected, we were relieved from 
this position and taken back to our old camps, near Stevens- 
burg. Our camp began to assume a delightful appearance, 
with its rows of shelter tents, and an occasional wall tent, 
when about 3 p. M. the woods were ringing with bugles, 
sounding u boots and saddles/ Tents were taken down, 
and the brigade moved out in the direction of the river to 
meet the enemy, who was supposed to be crossing the river 
to attack us in heavy force. It proved to be a fright of the 
pickets stationed along the river. We were soon back in 
our old spot again, putting up our shelters. 

Change is the soldier s life. It marks his daily experi 
ence. Now he lies securely in his wood-surrounded home, 
then he revels in the pomp and terror of the battle ; now 
he suffers from the long march or the extra duty, then he 
grows weary with long waiting and anxious fears. His life 
is a moving panorama, which presents every shade of color 
ing, and every phase of human experience. 

December ^th. Quite an excitement was created among 
the men, by an effort made to ascertain what number of 
them are willing to reenlist under the orders recently issued 
by the War Department, respecting Veteran Volunteers. 

A large majority of the men present are ready to reenlist 
for a new term of service. Though they have seen hard 
service, and long, they are unwilling to return to the quiet 
pursuits of civil life while the conflict goes on. They want 
to join in the last conflict and to swell the final shout of 
victory, over the downfall of this Rebellion. Every one 
appears to be in the best of spirits. 


December 5th. A large mail was received, after a sus 
pension of several days. These are always occasions of great 
rejoicing, in camp life. Our mail bags are great instruments 
of power. 

December Sth. A large detail of the regiment went out 
on picket to the Rapidan. A squad of eighteen recruits for 
the regiment was received this evening. 

December 15//i. Our boys on picket near Germania Ford 
are becoming quite familiar with Rebel pickets on the other 
side the river. Papers are exchanged, coffee is given for 
tobacco } and visits of the Rebels among us, and of our boys 
among them, are quite frequent. 

December 17th. A cold, freezing rain has fallen all day; 
arid the men, wet, cold, hungry and tired, returned from 
picket. The pines were lighted up with the lurid light 
of our fires at night. 

December ~L8th. Moved camp to the hill known in this 
region as The Devil s Leap, where we expect to build our 
winter quarters. 

December 20th. The main portion of the regiment went 
out on picket. 

December 23d. The cold is intense and we are suffering 
for the want of winter quarters. We have just received 
orders to build them. We are camped on a crest of hills, 
which was very thickly wooded with fine timber just before 
we took possession. The wood had been purchased by the 
Rebel authorities at a high price, with the hope that this 
would be their winter quarters The forest is quickly 

December 27th. The men are busily engaged in the work 
of constructing their log cabins. Every man has suddenly 


become a mason or a carpenter, and the hammer, the axe 
and the trowel are being plied with the utmost vigor, if not 
with the highest skill. 

December 3lst. The Adjutant s quarters are crowded with 
work. He is making out or giving instructions to others to 
make out, discharge papers, muster out and muster in rolls 
for the men, who are enlisting as Veteran Volunteers. 
A gentle rain fell this morning, and has continued, with some 
wind, so that all day long the Heavens have wept over the 
departing year. 


Life in Winter Quarters. Its Duties and Pastimes. Its Interest 
ing Scenes. Dangerous Picketing between the Rappahannock 
and the Rapidan. Frequent Attacks by Guerrillas. Kilpat- 
rick s Second Raid to Richmond. Col. Dahlgren s Part of the 
Work. Full Account by Lieut. Merritt, who accompanied 
Dahlgren. Object of the Raid. General Plan. Dahlgren s 
Command. Successful Capture of Rebel Pickets ^011 the Rapi 
dan. Honor to Lieut. Merritt s Command. Capture of a Rebel 
Court Martial. Conduct of Prisoners. The Faithless Negro 
Guide. He is Hung. Property of Mr. Seddon, Rebel 
Secretary of War. His Negroes. Their Depredations. Our 
Soldiers falsely Accused of Pillaging. Henry A. Wise wisely 
Skedaddles. Within a few Miles of Richmond. Cooperation 
with Kilpatrick Impossible. -Preparation to Attack Richmond. 
Nature of the Fight, Withdrawal. Casualties. Terrible 
Night s March. Meet a Rebel Ambulance Train. Crossing 
the Pamunkey. The Mattapony. Marching and Fighting. 
The Ambuscade. Dnhlgren Killed. Road Barricaded. In 
Straits. Ammunition Exhausted. Preparation to Disperse. 
The Party Broken up. The Cabin in the Woods. The Surren 
der. A Baptist Pj-eacher. The Parson s Robbery and Apolo 
gy. Dahlgren s Remains. Arrival at Libby Prison. Casual 
ties of the Fifth New York. Synopsis of Kilpatrick s March. 
The Terrible Tornado. January 1st to May 2d, 1864 

After the great excitement of an active campaign with its 
long marches and almost constant fighting, life in winter 
quarters seems quite too dull. For some weeks at least, 
until somewhat accustomed to his new home, the soldier 


feels more or less uneasiness. However, this life is not 
without its duties nor its opportunities for employment. 
Several days are consumed in making our quarters comfort 
able and convenient. Our northern friends would wonder 
to see the skill and taste exhibited in the construction and 
internal arrangements of our cabins. 

The day is ushered in with the reveille, well executed by 
the bugle corps, which has been reorganized, and drilled 
for the purpose. At the blast of these bugles we are called 
to our breakfast, dinner and supper. Roll call is sounded 
and the men of each company fall into line and are 
accounted for. The bugle sounds to call the orderly ser 
geants to assemble at the adjutant s quarters to receive any 
special orders he may have to communicate. By the bugle 
the camp guard is assembled, inspected and ordered to its 
posts of duty. At water call the men lead out their horses 
to the watering. Drill call sends them to the field to learn 
the tactics of war. 

Thus call after call to duty is sounded at intervals 
throughout the day, ending with the taps, which calls for 
the blowing out of lights, and the seeking of rest, which 
night demands. To these duties and excitements come the 
days of picketing, when a large detail is sent out, leaving 
behind a number just sufficient to care for the camp. These 
are generally men too sick for hard duty, or whose horses 
are unserviceable. 

"While in camp checkers and cards afford a pastime to 
many, but a large number spend their hours in reading and 
writing. We usually receive a daily mail. Thus our time 
is filled with some kind of employment, and even our camp 
life is far from monotonous. 


January \st. The morning was fair and beautiful, but 
the day ended with the coldest weather ever known to our 
veterans, while in Virginia. The rcenlisted men, number 
ing one hundred and eighty-one, were mustered in. Others 
will reenlist before many days. 

January 3d. The paymaster has paid his compliments to 
the veterans, and they abound in greenbacks. 

January 7th. Sent out a picket detail of three officers 
and fifty-six men. 

January IQth. The camps of this grand army occupy a 
large territory, stretching from Stevensburg to two or three 
miles beyond Brandy Station. The roads are becoming 
almost bottomless. However, long trains of forage and 
commissary wagons may be seen passing to and fro with 
horses and mules in mud from " stem to stern." Caval 
cades of mudded horses and riders traverse the camps and 
adjoining fields in various directions. Large flocks of 
crows with their high-perched videttes when alighted, or 
their regular line of march when on the wing, leave an im 
pression upon the soldier s mind. These sights are of daily 

January 19^7t. The regiment is picketing near the Rapi- 
dan, a little below Germania Ford. A line of pickets ex 
tends across to the Rappahannock a little below Fields 
Ford. The peninsular territory below this line and be 
tween the rivers abounds in thick underbrush and deep 
ravines, through which guerrillas creep up and attack our 
pickets. Patrols are sent out daily from the picket reserves, 
on the main roads to the fords of the rivers, to drive out 
any force of the enemy that might seek to advance upon us 
from that direction. To-day our patrol was attacked by a 


considerable force concealed in bushes by the road side. 
Under very great disadvantage, our boys defended them 
selves as best they could, but suffered quite severely. This 
was near Ely s Ford, Rapidan. 

January 2 2d. Our boys were out again patrolling toward 
the Rappahannock, and were attacked by bushwhackers near 
Ellis Ford. As on the 19th inst., one man was killed, 
several wounded and captured. Among the latter were 
several veterans, who were daily looking for their 35 days 
furlough promised in their reenlistment. They will have a 
dreary furlough in southern prisons. 

January 31s. Our chapel tent was dedicated this even 
ing by Chaplain E. P. Roe, 2d New York Cavalry, who 
preached an excellent sermon to a large audience. 

February 6th. The 2d Corps made a demonstration on 
the Rebel lines at Raccoon and Morton s Fords, fighting all 
day. Gen. Hays greatly distinguished himself in some 
of the charges made on the enemy s fortifications. Mean 
while Kilpatrick s cavalry crossed the river at Culpepper 
Mine Ford, and reconnoitred along the plank road. At 
Hampton s Cross Roads a squad of the enemy was encoun 
tered and quickly dispersed. A few prisoners fell into our 

February 7th. The regiment returned to camp at 2 P. M., 
after a journey of about 35 miles. 

February 13th. Sixty-eight recruits joined the regiment. 
Our ranks are thus being filled. 

February 2lst. A large temperance meeting in the chapel, 
aud a large number signed the pledge. 

February 23<7. A grand review of a portion of the army 
before Generals Meade. Pleasanton, Kilpatrick and others, 


took place on the plains between Stevensburg and Pony 
Mountain. The infantry, artillery and cavalry appeared in 
their best uniform and with flying colors, presenting an im 
posing spectacle. The exercises closed with a cavalry skir 
mish and charge. 

February 24th. The paymaster occupies the chapel for 
paying the regiment. 

February 2Qth. The long-looked-for veteran leaves-of-ab- 
sence and furloughs made their appearance, but had not 
been in camp thirty minutes before they were sent for from 
brigade headquarters. They are doubtless detained for 
some wise purpose, but many fail to see the point. 

February 28th. The whole division under Kilpatrick, 
accompanied by Col. Dahlgren, who was intrusted with a 
very important position in the expedition, set out on a great 
raid to Richmond. We append the following full and 
interesting narrative of the raid, by Major Merritt (then 
Lieutenant), who accompanied Col. Dahlgren, and was with 
him at his death. 


Kilpatrick s second raid upon Richmond was made with 
the purpose of releasing our officers and men confined in 
Libby Prison, Castle Thunder and Belle Island, and to 
destroy the mills, workshops, materials, stores and govern 
ment property of the Rebels in that city and vicinity, and 
the rail road communications. The plan also comprehended 
the capture of Lee s reserve artillery at Frederick Hall 
Station on the Virginia Central rail road. 


In the execution of this general plan, Col. Dahlgren s 
command, diverging from the main column to the right at 
Spottsylvania Court House, was to inarch by Frederick 
Hall, capture and destroy the artillery, cross the James 
river at Columbia Mills, send a party to destroy the rail 
road bridges where the Danville road crosses the Appomat- 
tox river, and move upon Richmond from the south, in^ the 
hope of gaining possession of the bridges spanning the river 
between Manchester and the city by surprise, dash over and 
release the prisoners, while the main force under Kilpatrick 
occupied the enemy s attention on the north side of the 

The expedition of Col. Ulric Dahlgren marched from 
Gen. Kilpatrick s headquarters at Stevensburg, Va., on the 
evening of Sunday, February 28th, 1864. It comprised 
detachments from the 2d New York, 5th New York, 1st 
Vermont, 1st Maine and 5th Michigan regiments of cavalry 
of the 3d division cavalry corps, army of the Potomac, in 
all four hundred men. The detachment of the Fifth New 
York under command of Lieut. Merritt, Co. K, consisted of 
Lieut. Robert Black and forty men selected from companies 
I and K. This party left camp about 3 p. M., being sent 
in advance with orders to capture the enemy s videttes at 
Ely s Ford on the Rapidan river, and, if practicable, their 
picket reserve also, the object being to secure the passage 
of the river and open the way for the march without the 
alarm s being communicated to the enemy. 

"We proceeded to within two miles of the ford and halted 
until dark, when Lieut. Merritt, with fifteen dismounted 
men and two scouts, sent from headquarters, waded the 
river about one mile above the ford, and, aided by the 


darkness, the night being stormy, succeeded in approaching 
and securing the two videttes guarding the ford, and, after 
much difficulty, ascertained the position of the reserve. A 
large fire built in a ravine on the banks of the river some 
distance below the ford, evidently intended to deceive us, 
caused some delay ; but we finally discovered that their 
picket reserve were in a house some distance back from the 
river. We proceeded silently to this house, surrounded it, 
and, rushing in, after a brief struggle, captured the whole 
party, sixteen men, a lieutenant, and the officer of the day, 
who had halted for the night on his tour of inspection. 
His report of the vigilance and efficiency of his picket was 
probably never made. Only two shots were fired, and no 
alarm raised, as we afterward ascertained that the enemy 
were not aware that we had crossed the river until the 
column had passed Spottsylvania. 

Lieut. Black, with the remainder of the men, was left 
on the opposite bank of the river, with directions to throw 
out a few skirmishers on the edge of the stream, and move 
down as close as possible without discovery, and to be pre 
pared either to cross or cover our party as circumstances 
rendered necessary. Securing our prisoners we returned to 
the river and found the advance of Dahlgren a column 
across, we having immediately communicated our success. 
Twenty-three of our men were sent to the rear in charge of 
the prisoners. Col. Dahlgren, in recognition of our success, 
assigned to us the advance of the expedition, which duty 
we performed throughout. 

Taking the Chancellorsville road we passed through 
Spottsylvania Court House and, bearing to the right, 
marched without incident, until we came to the vicinity of 


Frederick Hall Station, about 3 p. M. Monday. Here we 
found the reserve artillery, numbering 83 pieces of every 
calibre, parked, with a small brigade of infantry guarding 
it, Approaching through the woods with the utmost cir 
cumspection, we came within 300 yards of the camp with 
out discovery. A rapid but thorough reconnoissance demon 
strated the impossibility of capturing their guns with our 
small force, and we saw the necessity of withdrawing from 
the dangerous vicinity without attracting the notice of the 
enemy. To accomplish this we had to pass around the base 
of a small hill on the edge of the camp. Here there was a 
house, and we observed a number of men moving about, 
and from the character of the ground suspected the pres 
ence of a battery also. It was of course necessary to 
ascertain whether this suspicion was correct, and to capture 
the men. In order to save the valuable time it would have 
required to deploy skirmishers, and as the only probable way 
of preventing the alarm of the camp, our detachment vol 
unteered to charge the hill, Major Cooke, 2d New York, 
deploying a squadron to cover us in case of need. Separat 
ing in two parties we charged on opposite sides of a gorge 
running into the hill, and approached the small house in 
such a manner as to surround it. After a few shots, tho 
party who had retired inside the building, when, to their 
utter amazement they discovered our character, surrendered 
themselves prisoners., and we learned with almost equal 
astonishment and no little amusement, that we had captured 
a court martial, securing the entire party, president, judge 
advocate, members of the court, witnesses, prisoner, and 
orderlies in attendance. Among them was a Col. Jones, 1st 
Maryland Light Artillery, two majors and the usual com- 


plement of captains and lieutenants, the whole party 
numbering about thirty, with several fine horses. The 
Rebels were engaged in artillery practice when we approached 
their camp, and the regular and continued discharge of their 
guns served to inform us that we remained undiscovered. 

Nearly all the prisoners subsequently escaped from us 
during the night, as we were unable to guard them properly, 
and, in fact, Col. Dahlgren did not desire to be encumbered 
with them. The judge advocate, Lieut. Blair and another, 
however, adhered to us most faithfully until the final break 
ing up of the expedition. Lieut. Blair afterwards visited us 
in Libby Prison, and tendered his testimony in our favor, 
but without mitigating the severity of our imprisonment in 
any way. 

The rail road was torn up about one mile from Frederick 
Hall, and we then proceeded on our march. A heavy storm 
prevailed during Monday night. The rain fell in torrents 
and rendered the roads almost impassable. Men and horses 
were beginning to suffer for rest and refreshment. The 
woods being dense increased the difficulties of the march, 
and about three o clock Tuesday morning, it became neces 
sary to make a brief halt in order to close up the column, 
which was scattered several miles in the rear, struggling 
through the mud holes of the miserable swamp road. At 
the halting place we captured six wagons loaded with 
forage for Lee s army. 

We now learned that we were about three miles from 
Dover Mills, and ten miles below Columbia Mills. The 
guide, a negro, had misled us during the night, and, to 
obviate the delay of retracing our steps, Col. Dahlgren, on 
the representations of the negro that an excellent ford was 


to be fouled at Dover Mills, concluded to cross at that point. 
After two hours halt we again moved on, and soon reached 
Dover Mills, but only to meet disappointment. The -negro 
had deceived us, no ford existed at this point nor any means 
of crossing the river. He then stated that the ford was 
three miles below : this was obviously false, as the river was 
evidently navigable to and above this place, as we saw a 
sloop going down the river. 

This man was sent from headquarters to guide us and was 
considered faithful and reliable. I afterwards learned that 
he came into our lines from Richmond, in company with 
several officers who escaped from Libby Prison by Col. 
Streight s tunnel, and whom he piloted through. He was 
born and had always belonged in the immediate vicinity of 
Dover Mills, was very shrewd and intelligent, and it would 
seem impossible that he should not know that no ford 
existed in the neighborhood, where he had seen vessels 
daily passing. Col. Dahlgren had warned him that if 
detected acting in bad faith, or lying, we would surely hang 
him, and after we left Dover Mills, and had gone down the 
river so far as to render further prevarication unavailing, 
the colonel charged him with betraying us, destroying the 
whole design of the expedition, and hazarding the lives of 
every one engaged in it, and told him that he should be 
hung in conformity with the terms of his service. The 
negro became greatly alarmed, stated confusedly that he 
was mistaken, thought we intended to cross the river in 
boats, and finally said that he had done wrong, was sorry, 
etc. The colonel ordered him to be hung. a halter strap 
was used for the purpose, and we left the miserable wretch 
dangling by the roadside. His body was afterwards cut 


down and buried by Capt. Mitchell who had remained 
behind some time to complete the destruction of some mills 
and grain. 

At Dover Mills we halted about two hours on the 
property of Mr. Seddon, the Rebel secretary of war. No 
Union troops had ever been here before, and our appearance 
created great excitement and consternation among the 
whites, while the contrabands flocked about us in great 
numbers, nearly wild with joy. The negroes invariably 
came with the request that we would visit their master or 
overseer, and arrest or punish him for his cruelty. "We of 
course declined the office of redressers of grievances of this 

The ties of affection we sometimes hear about, binding 
master and slave together under the patriarchal institution, 
evidently did not exist in Mr. Seddon s neighborhood, how 
ever it might be elsewhere. 

At this point we destroyed a number of fine mills, several 
canal boats with army supplies, and a large amount of flour, 
meal and grain. A lock of the Richmond and Lynchburg 
canal was also blown up. Besides this, we captured a large 
number of fine horses. In fact our command had been 
able to keep well mounted from the number of horses 
secured up to this time. The barn of Mr. Seddon was 
burned, whether by accident or design is not known. It 
was not done by order of Col. Dahlgren. The negroes on 
this estate, as well as those of a Mr. Morson near by, were 
greatly excited and exasperated, and invited the soldiers to 
plunder, themselves setting the example. Some excesses 
were committed but the officers exerted themselves to the 
utmost to drive the soldiers from both these houses. The 


greatest damage was done by the negroes, who seemed 
frantic for plunder and revenge; it was especially so with 
the women. They invaded both mansions screaming for 
silk dresses, breaking furniture, and tearing everything to 
pieces they could lay hands upon. Pantries and closets 
were thoroughly ransacked, judging from the appearance 
of the ground outside the house. They said they were 
nearly starved, overworked and cruelly beaten without 
cause, and certainly exhibited a most miserable condition. 
The extent of the damage I did not observe, having been 
sent by Col. Dahlgren to search a house near by for Rebel 
correspondence, upon information given by negroes, and 
only returned a moment before we resumed the march. 
But it is certain that nothing of the character charged upon 
us by the Richmond authorities and newspapers, ever 
occurred, such as wholesale plundering, wanton destruction 
of private property, carrying off plate and jewelry, etc. 
On the contrary the soldiers were restrained to the utmost, 
and were forced to return such plundered articles as were 
found in their .possession. It was impossible to prevent 
some acts of disorder being committed upon the pro 
perty of so prominent a Rebel official as Seddon, espe 
cially under the example and imitation of his own house 
servants; but as to carrying off his plate and his wife s 
jewelry, I can say that I observed in the possession of one 
soldier only, anything resembling such articles. One man 
had a sugar basin, cake basket, and couple of candlesticks, 
all apparently plaited ware of a very cheap description, of a 
pattern found in every shop window. These I ordered the 
man to throw down upon the lawn, and they were left lying 
there. If Mrs. Seddon s plate and jewelry were all of the 


same character and value, she will be able to replace them 
without difficulty and at very slight expense. 

Sergt. D. II. Scofield, company K, learned that Gen 
Henry A. Wise was stopping in the neighborhood, and, after 
some search, discovered his whereabouts. He went to the 
place just as the redoubtable ex-governor mounted his 
horse. Scofield made after him, and quite an exciting chase 
ensued. The hero of Hatteras Island was not inclined to a 
personal encounter even with a single man, and, being well 
mounted, succeeded in making his escape into the woods. 

Unable to cross the James, there was but one way 
open to us the western pike, running along the river and 
approaching Richmond from the west. Leaving a small 
force under Capt. Mitchell, 2d New York cavalry, to burn 
some mills and stores, Dahlgren pushed rapidly on with the 
rest of his command (halting only to dispose of the negro 
guide) until we arrived within seven miles of the city and 
in sight of the outer line of fortifications. Here we halted 
about three P. M. at a cross road. Kilpatrick had been 
engaged on the Brook pike, the northern approach to the 
city, during the morning. We heard his guns for some 
time, but they had finally ceased, earlier in the day. Dahl 
gren immediately dispatched scou^ to communicate with 
him ; they never returned. We ascertained that the outer 
line of work in our front was held by a picket only, and made 
preparations to attack at dark. We had little hope of ?c- 
complifihing more than a reconnoissance. Kilpatrick had 
evidently withdrawn, and we could not hope to enter the 
city with our small party from this direction. The locomo 
tive whistles on the opposite side of the James indicated . 
that reinforcements were rapidly coining in from the direc- 


tion of Petersburg. But Dahlgren observed that we could 
gain some information of the ground and character of the 
defenses which might be useful at a future day, and besides, 
we were all unwilling to withdraw without at least an 
attempt to carry out the object of the expedition, however 
improbable the chances of success. We learned from per 
sons coming from the city, whom we arrested, that Gen. 
Kilpatrick had retired after the attack in the morning, and 
the scouts having failed to report Lieut. Reuben Bartley, 
United States signal corps who accompanied the expedition, 
was, towards evening, sent out with a party to endeavor to 
find Kilpatrick or co.mmunicate with him. He proceeded 
across the country to the Brook pike and approached to within 
a few miles of the city, but without success. He ascertained, 
however, that a large force of Rebel cavalry was out, and 
had great difficulty in avoiding several parties. As soon as 
evening set in Lieut. Bartley endeavored to open communi 
cation with rockets but his signals were not replied to. 

Before attacking the enemy it was necessary to dispose 
of the ambulance containing signal rockets, materials for 
burning bridges, &c., together with the negroes several 
hundreds having followed us, on foot and mounted, some 
with bundles containing their movable possessions, some 
with an extra horse taken from the plantation in renumera- 
tion for services rendered, others barefoot and almost naked, 
but all happy in the conviction that they were free. They 
were sent off in the direction of Hungary Station and 
awaited us near an old church which the signal officer had 
selected for observations. 

Arrangements being completed, at dusk, we moved down 
upon the enemy s pickets, who hastily retired, evidently in 


surprise. "We pursued them rapidly inside the outer Hue 
of defenses earthworks substantially constructed, but 
not mounted. The first real opposition we met was near the 
Second line. Here they had rallied a considerable force, 
and evidently intended to make a stand under the protec 
tion of a piece of woods where the road made a bend. Our 
charge in column was received with a heavy volley, and it 
became necessary to deploy, to dislodge them. Our men in 
the advance were quickly formed on the right of the road 
as skirmishers, and by gaining a position well up on the 
flank of the enemy, assisted materially in driving them out, 
which was done after three charges led by Col. Dahlgren 
and Major Cooke. The Rebels, consisting entirely of in 
fantry, including the Richmond City battalion, broke across 
the fields for the town. Our men were dismounted and 
pursued them with the utmost impetuosity. The small 
column kept mounted on the pike alone maintaining their 
formation. It was a scrub race, across fields, fences and 
stone walls, we pressed after them, rallying, and scattering 
them repeatedly as they attempted to dispute our advance 
whenever a wall or house afforded shelter. Between for 
midable works, over rifle pits, ditches and every obstruction, 
with a cheer, a run and a volley from our Spencers, we 
crowded them back to the edge of the city. Here we 
encountered a heavy force formed in line of battle. It was 
now dark and the gas lights burning. We were inside the 
city limits, though the houses were scattered. Many of our 
boys expected at last to see the inside of the Rebel capital. 
But the force in front was soon found to be too great for us 
to contend with. Formed in skirmish line we could not 
entirely cover them. Still our men advanced gallantly to 


the attack, and even forced them back somewhat from their 
position, stubbornly holding all we ghined. Their right 
rested upon a hill descending abruptly into a swampy flat. 
This we could not turn in consequence of our small num 
bers, and the colonel soon decided to withdraw. He said 
we had gone " far enough" and indeed had militia ardor 
been any of the most ardent, we would have found it quite 
too far. Leaving Capt. Mitchell with a strong party to 
cover our rear and check either pursuit or attack, Dahlgren 
proceeded to collect his scattered force, picking up all the 
wounded we could find in the dark. Having no means of 
conveyance, the assistant surgeon of the 2d New York was 
left in charge of them, and fell into the enemy s hands. 

We retired leisurely and without the slightest annoyance 
from the enemy. Their loss was variously stated by their 
newspapers to be from forty to seventy killed and wounded, 
including several officers. We had but one officer wounded, 
Lieut. Harris, 5th Michigan cavalry. Our looses in all 
could not be ascertained but probably did not exceed a 
dozen or fifteen. 

The route now pursued was in the direction of Hungary 
Station, on the Central rail road, taking up the signal officer 
and the rest sent away in the afternoon. We were obliged 
to force a citizen to become our guide, as the scout, sent from 
headquarters for that purpose, although assuring us that he 
knew every foot of ground within thirty miles of Rich 
mond, proved utterly inefficient. No one engaged in that 
night s march will ever forget its difficulties. The storm 
had set in with renewed fury. The fierce wind drove the rain, 
snow and sleet. The darkness was rendered more intense by 
the thick pines which overgrew the road, and which dashed 


into our faces almost an avalanche of water at every step. 
Using unfrequented wood roads we were halted frequently 
to remove trees fallen across the path, and to trace the course 
with our hands, for even the sagacity of the horses was often 
at fault. Tired and exhausted the men fell asleep upon their 
horses. It became necessary to march by file, and at every 
turn of the path to pass the word down to " turn to the right" 
or keep to the left of the tree. It was utterly impossible to 
see a yard in advance. Slowly and laboriously we toiled 
through the jaded animals stumbling and falling down, 
and when we finally reached Hungary Station, discovered 
that Capt. Mitchell and his party had become separated 
from us. They were unable to track us, although following 
close in our rear, but, more fortunate than ourselves, suc 
ceeded, after hiding in the woods all night, in making their 
way to Kilpatrick, w r hom they joined next day near White 

Lt. Bartley had been informed by contrabands, that Gen. 
Kilpatrick had gone down the peninsula, with a large force 
of the enemy in his rear. Concluding, therefore, that it 
was impracticable to join him, Dahlgren, after consultation, 
decided upon making for Gloucester Point to join G.en. But 
ler s army. We crossed the Chickahominy at McClellan s 
bridge, and, soon after, came upon a rebel ambulance train 
returning to Richmond with wounded from the scene of an 
attack made that night, upon the 2d Brigade of Kilpatrick s 
Division. For some time they were not aware of our char 
acter, but were loud in their boasts that they had driven off 
the Yankees their surprise was ludicrous when Col. Dahl 
gren informed them that we were Yankees, and asked " if 
they did not think they were a nice lot of fellows." De- 


taining them long enough to enable MS to close up our own 
men, and after conversing with some of our wounded in the 
ambulances, but failing to gain any information to guide us, 
we dismissed them, and anticipating immediate pursuit, 
proceeded rapidly towards the Pamunkey river. We reached 
Hanovertown ferry about 8 o clock A. M. Wednesday. The 
river was very high, and the flal-boat used at the ferry had 
been removed, but we discovered it hidden among the 
bushes on the opposite bank. Several of the boys stripped 
off their clothing and two succeeded in swimming over and 
bringing back the boat. The tow rope was found, and quick 
ly stretched across and made fast. Several hours were con 
sumed in crossing. As soon as all hands were over we 
continued our march for the Mattapony river, encountering 
and dispersing several small parties of the enemy. 

After driving out a party of Rebels at Ayletts, we crossed 
the Mattapony about 2 p. M. using the ferry boat, (fortu 
nately discovered some distance down the river), for. the 
men, and swimming the horses. The crossing was effected 
in about an hour. When half the party had "crossed an 
attack was made upon us, but it was easily repulsed by a 
few skirmishers. 

After crossing the Mattapony until we reached the scene 
of final disaster, we were engaged in constant skirmishing 
with the enemy, who had collected from every point to op 
pose our march. But a single road was available, and at 
every point of woods we were assailed by a volley from 
shot guns, carbines and rifles. Our flankers were captured 
almost as soon as sent out. The enemy invariably declined 
coming to close quarters, scattering before our repeated 
charges. Notwithstanding the annoyances, our progress, 


though slow, was steady until about 6 P. M., when we were 
forced to make a long halt to feed both horses and men, 
both being utterly prostrated with fatigue and hunger. We 
stopped soon after crossing the Anseamancock creek, and a 
few miles from King and Queen Court House. Corn was 
procured in ample quantity from a barn near by, and the men 
proceeded to cook their first meal for nearly thirty-six hours. 
Our party had become reduced to about seventy men. Seve 
ral had been captured during the day, and a few wounded 
and left from necessity. Nearly all the effective force was 
with Capt. Mitchell, and consequently lost the night before. 
One hundred to one hundred and fifty contrabands still ad 
hered to us. Ammunition was mostly exhausted, the ma 
jority of the men having none at all. Some were slightly 
wounded, or so much exhausted as to be useless, but we 
still hoped to succeed in reaching Gloucester Point, opposite 
to which we would find some of Gen. Butler s army. After 
three hours rest we aroused the men, not without exertion, 
and after getting them mounted, resumed the march. The 
night was again stormy, a drizzling rain falling. The road, 
as usual, ran through thick pine woods, rendering every ob 
ject invisible. 

The first evidence of the enemy s being in advance was 
the absence of three men sent upon picket a short distance 
ahead of our halting place. Very soon after the discovery 
we were challenged. The advance guard consisted of but 
six men, all that could be spared from the column. Col. 
Dahlgren had ridden to the head of the advance guard a 
moment before we were challenged by the enemy. He was 
immediately followed by Major Cooke. I responded to the 
challenge by demanding " who are you ?" The word was re- 


pcated and the colonel immediately called out, surrender or 
we will shoot you" and snapped his pistol, the cap only 
exploding. The next instant a heavy volley was poured in 
upon us. The flash of the pieces afforded us a momentary 
glimpse of their position stretching parallel with the road 
about fifteen paces from us. Every tree was occupied, and 
the bushes poured forth a sheet of fire. A bullet grazing 
my leg and probably striking my horse somewhere in the 
neck, caused him to make a violent spring sideways. I was 
aware of some one dropping beside me, and attracted by a 
movement upon the ground, demanded who it was. Major 
Cooke replied, that his horse had been shot. Neither of 
us knew, at the moment, of the death of Dahlgren, though 
he was not four feet from us when he fell. A scout 
who had been somewhat in advance, now returned and 
reported that the road was barricaded two hundred yards 
ahead, and was impassable. In a moment a heavy fire was 
opened upon the flank and rear of our column. Major 
Cooke desired me to go back and assist the colonel to take 
care of it. We both supposed he had escaped, as not a 
groan was heard, and everything was invisible in the dark 
ness. Leaving Major Cooke, who was extricating himself 
from his horse, I rode back to the column. Dahlgren was 
not there, and I now knew that he had fallen, as there were 
but four in the group ahead when the volley was fired 

Instantly ordering all who had ammunition to fire into 
the bushes to check a charge, which would have routed us, 
the column was moved ahead, until a slight opening in the 
thick woods enabled us to turn off the road and form into 
line. The road was grade 1 down about four feet with 
perpendicular banks supported by cedar boughs interlaced, 

110 HiSTOiiic RECORDS. 

in a manner irequently seen in Virginia. Ordering the 
fence thrown down, the men were immediately brought into 
line, facing the road. Major Gooke had now returned. 
We soon discovered that we were in a small clearing on 
rising ground surrounded by the forest. Moving back a 
few yards for more space, we massed the negroes compactly 
in the rear, and awaited the enemy. The men stood per 
fectly firm though almost all of them were utterly destitute 
of ammunition, and fully aware of the hopelessness of our 
position. After a time we discovered that the enemy did 
not propose to attack us. We were aware that two battalions 
of cavalry were at King and Queen Court House, which we 
hoped to flank by a road about two miles from the town. We 
were now cut off from this road by the force ahead and the 
barricades. There was no other road in the vicinity but the 
one we had been marching upon. The country was broken 
up in rough hills, thickly wooded, or dense jungles, render 
ing it utterly impracticable to make our way across the coun 
try mounted. We were also cut off from the rear, and could 
not retrace our steps, and soon discovered that we were 
entirely surrounded. The two prisoners, during the con 
fusion, had made their escape, as well as the citizen guide 
whom we had pressed into service, and the enemy were 
aware that our ammunition was exhausted. An inspection 
showed that less than thirty rounds remained in the whole 
party. I had but a single pistol cartridge myself, which I 
had reserved for a last recourse. 

Under these disastrous circumstances, Major Cooke, after 
a consultation with Lt. Bartley and myself, decided upon 
the necessity of breaking up the party in the hope of get- 
ing through the enemy s line dismounted, and by spreading 


out in twos and threes, to baffle pursuit, and accomplish the 
remaining twenty-five miles which we estimated to be the 
distance to Gloucester Point. Major Cooke and myself 
together made a careful reconnoissance, and found that we 
were closely surrounded by a large force. Their fires could 
be seen at several points, and so near were they that their 
voices, in conversation, were plainly audible. The men were 
dismounted, and ordered to drive their sabres into the 
ground and picket their horses to them, it being impossible to 
kill the animals without attracting notice. The Spencer car 
bines were destroyed by removing and throwing away, or 
burying the chambers, and breaking the magazine tubes. 
The men were instructed to take only the:r belts, revolvers 
and haversacks, that they might not be impeded by a heavy 
load which would be soon abandoned, affording evidence of 
the trail, and assist pursuit. As soon as these arrangements 
were silently made, we desired them to select companions 
and to form into parties of three or four, when we gave them 
the points of direction as nearly as could be determined, 
and bade them good bye. One of the men made a collec 
tion of cartridges and brought me a charge for two revolvers. 
I shall never forget the kind act. 

About forty men departed in this manner, the rest, being 
too much exhausted, remained on the ground and surren 
dered themselves next morning. The negroes we had to 
abandon to their fate. After all who could do so, had with 
drawn, Major Cooke, Lieut. Bartley, myself and three 
scouts, took our departure, which we effected by creeping 
on hands and knees for about half a mile, between the 
different parties and posts of the Rebels. We traveled 
until daybreak when we secreted ourselves in a jungle of 


young pines, where we passed the day principally in sleep, 
which we greatly needed. When night returned we re 
sumed our journey. After traveling several miles we con 
cluded to stop at an isolated cabin to procure food. We 
entered the place and found art old man, overseer of the 
plantation, and his wife. They consented with apparent 
willingness to give us supper, and prepare a supply of food 
to carry with us, for which we offered to pay liberally. The 
old man built a blazing fire and we all gathered around the 
hearth to infuse a little warmth into our benumbed limbs. 
Suddenly the door was opened and before we could grasp 
our pistols from beneath our clothing, where we had carried 
them, to keep them dry, the room was filled with soldiers, 
who demanded our surrender, and we were forced to comply. 

The leader of the party was the owner of the plantation, 
captain of home guards, and Rev. Mr. Bagley, pastor of a 
Baptist church. This gentleman of three-fold calling took 
us to his own house near by, where a plentiful supper was 
already prepared for his band, -who had been beating the 
woods all day in search of our fugitives. The chagriu 
occasioned by our escape from their well contrived ambush 
had stimulated their exertions, and they had been rewarded 
with almost complete success, only three of our party 
making good their escape. The country was completely 
aroused. Every man, and even women, children and dogs 
took part in the search. 

We were apparently objects of great interest. Numbers 
came to gratify their curiosity with a view of us. Our 
captors guarded us most assiduously, pistol in hand, or, while 
engaged at supper, kept them beside their plates. Major 
Cooke asserts that the parson said grace with a cocked revol- 


er in his hand. After supper we were removed to the "best 
room," where shake downs were prepared, and we viewed 
with great satisfaction the arrangements for a good night s 
rest. Our slumbers were guarded by five vigilant parti 
sans, sitting cross kneed with leveled revolvers. Twice 
during the night I was aroused by the ceremony of 
changing guard, but found them always on the alert, a 
pistol being brought to bear upon me the moment my eyes 
opened. They were withal courteous enough, except that 
they would inflict upon us their views on the secession and 
war questions, and scoff at the folly of attempting to conquer 
the South, and while treating us with no small degree of 
deference, would assert their profound contempt for Yankees 

Next morning, after a breakfast the precise counterpart 
of supper, and which I hold in grateful remembrance to 
this day, and reverted to in imagination many a time during 
subsequent days of short commons, the parson politely but 
firmly demanded our watches, and other articles of personal 
property, which were handed over with no little reluctance 
and indignation. Seeming to think that some apology was 
necessary for conduct so plainly in violation of both clerical 
and military character, he explained that hia loss had been 
very great, and " that it was his only means of making him 
self whole." Besides, he remarked, if he did not get the 
plunder it would be taken from us in Richmond, and he 
might as well have it as the officials there, who were all 
thieves and rascals. Well, perhaps the parson was right. He 
certainly estimated his Richmond friends at the true stand 
ard of morality. 

From these people we learned the particulars of Dahl- 


gren s fate. 1 His body was found perforated with five 
bullets, and his death had been instantaneous. One of them, 
a physician, an intelligent, and in appearance, respectable 
man, assured me that the remains were buried in a decent 
manner. He said that the best joiner in the neighborhood 
had been employed to make the coffin, which was of stained 
wood, the best material available. He also stated that it 
was the universal wish to give a fitting burial to so gallant 
a soldier. It was an after thought which doubtless euiiuated 
from Richmond, to disinter, and heap wrath and indignity 
upon the senseless corpse of a dauntless foe. We were 
subsequently informed that the body had been mutilated 
before burial by a Lieut. Hart, 7th Virginia cavalry, who 
severed one of the fingers to possess himself of a valuable 
ring worn by the colonel; but the act was regarded as so 
disgraceful, that several soldiers of the same regiment who 
witnessed the act and informed us of it, said that the 
scoundrel deserved to be shot. 

After breakfast Friday morning, March 4th, we were 
turned over to Capt. Magruder of the cavalry, who escorted 
us to Richmond, a distance of forty miles, where we arrived 
Saturday evening, footsore and hungry, to be transferred to 
the tender mercies of Major Thomas P. Turner, and his 

1 As our book goes to press (November, 1865) we find a telegram 
in the papers, relating to the remains of Col. Dablgren, which we 
gladly insert in our pages. The search for his remains was long 
and earnest, and finally successful. " Philadelphia, Penn., Nov. 
1st. The remains of Col. Ulric Dahlgren laid in state in Inde 
pendence Hall during the night and the funeral took place this 
morning. Among the distinguished mourners were Admiral 
Dahlgren, Generals Meade and Humphries and Major Henry." 


fellow Samaritan, Inspector Dick Turner, who provided us 
with a dungeon in the cellar of Libby Prison, where we 
were considerately informed we should remain until 
arrangements were completed to hang us. 

It would be improper to conclude this paper without 
alluding to the good conduct of the men of the Fifth New 
York. Through the entire raid their behavior elicited fre 
quent and earnest commendation from Col. Dahlgren, and 
reflected credit upon the regiment. But all connected with 
the expedition did their duty well, and if gallantry or 
endurance could have won success they would not have 
failed to grasp it. All entered ardently into the spirit of 
the enterprise, inspired by the example of the " one legged 
colonel," whose noble memory no Rebel vandal can ever 
mutilate or tarnish. 

Casualties of the 5th N. Y. Cavalry. 

Lieut. II. A. D. Merritt, Co.K, captured, escaped from prison, Co 
lumbia, S. C., November 28, 1864. 

Corp. Alfred Richards, Co. I, captured, survived, and was exch d. 

Pvt. Charles F. Smith, " " " " " " " 

" John A. Luudin, " " " " " " " 

Corp. George Munroe, " K, " " " " " 

Pvt. John Phillips, " " " " " " " 

" James D. Dowd, " " " " " " 

" David Howe, ." " " " " " " 

" Franz Briell, " " " " " " 

Sgt. John Hardy, " I, died at Andersonville, Qa. 

Pvt. Frank Wood, " " " " 

Herman Harmes, " " " < " 

Farrier James Welsh, 4< K, " " " " 

Pvt. George Tresch, " " " " " " 

March <ith. A detail of the regiment for picket remained 


here when the raiders left. To-day they were attacked 
near Fields Ford, by bushwhackers, and severely handled. 

March \\th. Our pickets were again attacked near 
Southard s Cross Roads, but succeeded in driving the enemy 
away, after a brief engagement. 

March \2th. Just before dark, our weary raiders returned 
to camp, making the hills resound with their shouts of joy. 
From them we learn the following particulars. Kilpatrick 
moved his command rapidly, reaching the fortifications of 
Richmond in the afternoon of March 1st. A vigorous 
attack was made on these fortified lines, while the general 
waited to hear from Dahlgren, who, by the perfidy of a 
guide, failed to fulfill his part of the programme. At night 
Kilpatrick withdrew, crossed the Chickahominy at Meadow 
Bridge, and, in the midst of a drizzling storm of sleet and 
hail, bivouacked with his weary troopers. Scarcely had 
the bivouac fires begun to illuminate the darkness of the 
night, when Hampton s Legions made a desperate attack 
upon our forces. All that dreary night our men marched, 
and, continuing their journey the next day, they passed by 
Old Church, where they scattered the last band of Rebels 
that hung upon their rear. The march was continued 
down the Peninsula. Annoyed only occasionally by bush 
whackers on their way, our boys finally found safety and 
rest in the department of General Btrtler, near Yorktown. 
The division was brought in transports to Alexandria, 
whence it marched to its camps at Stevensburg. 

March ~L4:th. The veterans left this morning for home on 
their thirty-five days furloughs. They were a happy com 

April 22d. Our division of cavalry, with a large force 


of infantry, appeared in review before Lieut. General 
Grant, on the Plains of Stevensburg. The army is very 
enthusiastic over its corumander-in-chief. Some change 
has recently taken place in our cavalry. Gen. Kilpatrick 
has been assigned to a larger command in the west, and Gen. 
John H. Wilson succeeds him. Gen. Davies is also removed 
to some other position, and Col. Mclntosh commands the 
first brigade, which is now composed of the 18th Pennsyl 
vania, 1st Connecticut, 2d New York, and 5th New York. 

April 29th. Orders were issued early this morning to 
break up winter quarters, preparatory to the campaign, 
which is about to open. The regiment moved about half a 
mile, near brigade headquarters, which are in the house of 
a Mr. Ross. 

May "Id. The day had been fine until about five P. M., 
\vith only an occasional cloud, which floated lazily through 
the sky. At this time a terrible commotion of the elements 
was observed in the west, and heavy clouds of dust arose 
from the hills about Culpepper, and swept down over the 
plains in the direction of our camps. In an incredibly 
short time from its appearance, the tornado struck us, with 
a fury and force seldom witnessed. Scarcely a tent was left 
standing, while pieces of tents, shelters, boards, articles of 
clothing, papers, &c., were flying on the wings of the wind. 
At times the dust suffocated and blinded us. Horses broke 
loose from their fastenings and ran about in wild dismay. 
Men laughed at each other s calamities or ran to each 
other s relief. This carnival of winds continued about twenty 
minutes, and was followed by a cold rain, which fell upon our 
unsheltered heads. With much difficulty some shelters were 
replaced, and a tolerable night s rest was enjoyed. 


Army of the Potomac. Good Condition. First Steps of the 
Great Campaign under Gen. Grant. The Fifth New York opens 
the Battle of the Wilderness at Parker s Store. Detailed at Army 
Headquarters. Scenes at the Hospital. Lines of Battle. 
Second Day. Lee breaks our Lines twice. Is Repulsed. 
Col. Hammond Ordered to Germania Ford. Is Placed in Com 
mand of Provisional Brigade of Cavalry. Brings up Rear on 
First Left Flank Movement. Skirmishes on the Ny and Po 
Rivers. Affair at the Maitapony. Sergeant Sortore Killed. 
His Burial. Battle of Milford Station. A Stratagem at Little 
River. Vast Forests of Virginia. Battle of Ashland Station 
Dark, Muddy March along the Pamunkey Tedious March in 
Rear of a Supply Train. Men Sleep on their Horses. At 
Charles City C. H. Fight at White Oak Swamps. May M 
to June IGth, 1864. 

The Army of the Potomac had never been in as good 
condition as Gen. Grant found it in the spring of 1864. 
All winter long its ranks had been filling up, and its drill 
grounds around the camps had been thoroughly trodden. 
" Numbers and thorough discipline" had been the motto of 
its masters. The rank and file were largely made up of 
veterans, who had seen service for three years of hard cam 
paigning, and who had reenlisted for three years more, if 
their services were needed all that time. This was a great 
element of power. The supplies from the quartermaster 
and commissary departments were abundant and generally 


satisfactory. Great confidence was reposed in our military 
leaders, who had shown themselves worthy of the positions 
they occupied. The Lieutenant General, under whose im 
mediate superintendence this army was about to move, was 
everywhere received with the most enthusiastic applause, 
while no one doubted but that he could plan a campaign 
and execute its movements with an ability equal to any 
general of the age. 

Such was the Army of the Potomac on the 3d of May, 
when it received orders to be ready to move at 12 o clock 
that night. Day by day, as we had watched the smoke 
ascending from the camp fires of the Rebel army just across 
the rapid river, we had gathered fresh inspiration ; and we 
knew that but a short journey would bring us face to face 
with our confident enemy, whom we expected to drive be 
fore us. 

The order for preparation to move was obeyed readily 
throughout our canips, and but a few minutes past 12 at 
night the bugles sounded To Horse," and the cavalrymen 
were ready for the march. The third division moved down 
to Germania Ford, where it forded the stream early on the 
morning of the 4th, and the rising sun shone upon its flags, 
already borne over earthworks which the enemy had used 
on former occasions, but which we now found deserted. 
The enemy s plan seems to have been this to place no 
obstacle to our advance, and when the army was fairly 
across the river, and had entered the wilderness country, to 
fall upon it, break its ranks, and compel a hasty and disas 
trous retreat. But in this he had mistaken his subjects, as 
the sequel proved. 

The cavalry advanced on the plank road toward Chan- 


cellorsville, just beyond Wilderness Tavern, where the plank 
road from Orange Court House intercepts this. Here the 
Fifth New York was detached from the division and ordered 
to proceed to Parker s store, where it was to establish a 
strong line of pickets. Meanwhile the cavalry corps, now 
under command of Gen. Sheridan, set out on a grand raid 
toward Ilichmond, often meeting and defeating the enemy s 
cavalry, and killing its chief, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart. 

May 5th. Occasional shots were fired during the night, 
and, at the break of clay, a heavy column of Rebel infantry 
made its appearance on our front. The whole line soon 
became desperately engaged. This was the first blow of 
the great battle of the Wilderness. For this honor the 
regiment paid dearly. Having sent word to General 
Meade that a heavy column of infantry was advancing, and 
that he would " check them as long as possible," Col. 
Hammond kept the regiment well in line, encouraging the 
men with his presence and action. Many of the men were 
dismounted, and their Spencer carbines made the dense 
woods ring, and told with fearful effect upon the enemy. 
Prisoners, afterwards captured from this attacking division, 
swore that a whole brigade must have been in their front. 
Fighting with a daring rarely equaled, and compelled to fall 
back before superior numbers, we nevertheless held them at 
bay for five hours, until relieved by a portion of the 6th 
Corps. Our service had been most important to our army, 
but the regiment had suffered a loss of 13 killed, 22 
wounded, and 24 known to have been captured, besides 15 or 
20 from whom tidings have never since been heard. They 
were probably killed. Among those known to have been killed 
was Captain L. McGuinn, Co. A, a most gallant young 


officer. A correspondent of the N. Y. Herald makes his 
bow to the regiment, on this occasion, and says: 

" The Fifth New York Cavalry was detached from Colonel 
Mclntosh s command for duty under the immediate orders 
of General Meade. This was a compliment well earned by 
its gallant conduct at Parker s store. It is under the com 
mand of Colonel Hammond, one of the best officers in the 

The regiment having reported to General Meade, was 
ordered to bivouac just in the rear of the old Wilderness 
Tavern. But now came the care of the wounded. In am 
bulances, when they could be secured, or on stretchers, they 
were conveyed to the hospital, established only about a milo 
in rear of the line of battle, at a small house in the woods. 
Some of the poor fellows were fearfully mangled. Private 
Anon Jones, Co. A, had his left arm completely fractured 
from the elbow to the shoulder. He died from the ampu 
tation. 1st Sergeant Cross, Co. L, had likewise a broken 
arm. Private Charles Westerfield, Co. B, had a fractured 
thigh, which, however, was saved from the amputating blade. 
But the most terrible wound to look upon was that of pri 
vate John W. Slyter, Co. K. A ball had passed through 
his mouth, tearing it out at least one inch back on both 
sides, breaking out most of his teeth, and cutting the 
tongue down to the root, though the end still hung to its 
place, a helpless appendage. He survived the awful shock, 
and was afterwards transferred to the Invalid Corps, subse 
quently known as the Veteran Reserve. But time would 
fail us to specify even a hundredth part of the mutilation 
which was presented at the hospital on that terrible day. 
In the deep wilderness the battle was raging fiercely. 


From the battle line to the hospital was constantly passing 
a train of ambulances laden with our suffering comrades, 
wounded in every conceivable manner from the crown of the 
head to the soles of the feet. Occasionally a groan escaped 
from some poor dying fellow, whose last word or little token 
of remembrance, such as a daily perused Testament, or cher 
ished portrait, had been deposited with some more fortunate 
comrade to be sent to friends far away, to testify that even 
in death they were not forgotten. Remarkable, however, is 
the stillness of the hospital. How calmly the brave boys 
endure the wounds received in defense of their beloved 
country ! How cheerfully even they approach the amputat 
ing table, to awake from the operation with the painful 
consciousness of loss of limbs, which no artificer can 
fully replace. 

Now and then there comes from the battle fiel<}. a 
wounded man who is able to walk, and who supports with 
one hand its bloody, mangled mate. At times, two men 
may be seen approaching, supporting between them their less 
fortunate companion, whose bloody garments tell that he had 
faced the foe. By every means possible our wounded were 
brought from the field of carnage to be cared for at the 
hospital, but in the vast multitude of disabled ones many 
were left, who afterwards suffered from fires which broke out 
and ran far and wide among the dry leaves of the woods. 

The line of battle to-day was somewhat in the form of a 
horseshoe, General Grant having the inner circle. His 
headquarters, near General Meade s, were well up toward 
our extreme right. General Lee s attack was mostly on the 
extreme wings, but with greater fury on our left. Amid 
the roaring of the musketry, which continued till late at 


night, the regiment sought rest not a mile from the line of 
battle, near our left flank. 

May 6th. The opening day looked on the renewal of tho 
conflict. Each antagonist, rousing every slumbering element 
of power, seemed resolved upon victory or death. All day 
long they struggled for the mastery. So dense was the 
forest where they fought, that artillery could scarcely be 
used, and the lines of battle were only a few yards apart. 
About noon General Lee threw a heavy force upon our left 
with the design of turning our position. The onset was 
partially successful. The 9th corps (General Burnside s) re 
ceived the shock, and was broken ; but the repulse was only 
momentary. Bringing up his reserve and gathering his 
broken lines, the general hurled them against the exultant 
foe. driving him back, and regaining the ground which had 
been lost. 

Gen. Lee, having failed upon our left, repeated the 
operation with redoubled fury, upon our right, just at night. 
His endeavor, for a time, gave promise of success. The 
old Gth corps, in which the utmost confidence had been 
placed by the commanding general, was posted in this im 
portant position. Notwithstanding its former prestige, it 
could not withstand the terrible blows that were dealt upon 
it. For a time, the rout that followed threatened disaster. 
General Grant s headquarters were soon within musket 
range of the advancing Rebels, and doubtless would have 
been removed to a safer place, had not the general " resolved 
to fight it out on this line." His band was quickly advanced 
in the woods as far as possible, where it struck up Yankee 
Poodle. Inspired by the notes, which sounded clearly on 
the evening air, our men were reformed, and, with a wild 


shout of battle, they charged the enemy, and drove him 
back to his former lines. 

The regiment had been ordered from the left to the right 
wing, just in time to prevent the stragglers from our broken 
lines passing far to the rear. After our position was 
reestablished we rested for the night. 

May 1th. Early this morning, the following order was 
received : 

HEADQUARTERS, 6th Army Corps, \ 
May 7th, 1864. / 

COL. HAMMOND, Commanding 5th N. Y. Cavalry : 

Gen. Sedgwick directs (in accordance with orders from 
headquarters Army Potomac and General Grant) that you 
move forward and remain as far as possible near Germania 
Ford, and report immediately any movements of the enemy. 
Be sure that no force of the enemy crosses the plank road 
without notifying General Sedgwick at once. 

By command of Major General Sedgwick, 

Major and A. A. A. G. 

The regiment marched to the ford on receiving the order, 
and picketed the road, with two other cavalry regiments, 
which we found posted on arriving. At 2 p. M. an attack 
was made with cavalry and light artillery, on the two regi 
ments above mentioned. They broke and fled, exposing 
our left, thus compelling us also to fall back, which we did 
quite rapidly down the river, nearly as far as Ely s Ford. 
On our way toward the plank road again, at no great dis 
tance from the river, Colonel Hammond received another 


HEAD QUARTERS, 6th Army Corps, 1 
May 7th, 1864. / 

Commanding Officer of 22d N. Y. and 2d Ohio Cavalry : 

You will report immediately to Lt, Col. Hammond, Fifth 
New York Cavalry, who is hereby ordered to take command 
of all the cavalry on the Germania plank road. 

By command of Major General Sedgwick, 

Major and A. A. A. Gr. 

Having made such disposition of his command as was 
necessary to check any further advance of the enemy, Col. 
Hammond moved the regiment, near the spot where we 
bivouacked last night, arriving late. While we were cook 
ing our suppers by our bivouac fires, suddenly the wilder 
ness before us became vocal with deafening cheers, extending 
up and down our vast army lines. Lee had been outgene 
raled, his lines driven back, his right almost broken, and 
Grant was prepared for his first left flank movement. Be 
fore we slept, still another important order was received. 

HEAD QUARTERS, 6th Corps, > 
May 7th, 1864. / 

COL. HAMMOND, Commanding Cavalry : 

You will please remain with your command near the old 
Wilderness Tavern, until you are notified by Maj. Gen. 
Hancock, that his corps and pickets are withdrawn. Gen. 
Hancock s pickets are to be withdrawn at 2 A. M. (two 
o clock A. M.) Upon being so notified you will follow the 
2d Corps. 

By command of Major General Sedgwick, 

Major and A. A. A. G-. 


May 8th. The night had been occupied in removing the 
wounded to Fredericksburg. But for want of transporta 
tion, so great was the number of wounded, a considerable 
number of the worst ones, who probably could not have 
borne the journey, and others, were left behind. A surgeon 
and a corps of nurses were ordered to remain with them. 
The remains of those hospitals presented one of the most 
sickening sights ever witnessed. Here were some recent 
dead, some dying, and some of the most mangled and torn 
which the battle leaves living. Resigned to their fate we 
left them to move forward to other scenes of conflict. As 
soon as we had fallen back they fell into the enemy s hands. 
About eight o clock our rear guard left old Wilderness 
Tavern, and moved on to Chaucellorsville, which became 
our extreme right wing. 

May 9th. Sent out on a reconnoissance to Ely s Ford. 
Returned to Chancellorsville to bivouac at night. 

May 10th. Our horses had long been denied their usual 
allowance, in fact, we had been without grain for several 
days. We were compelled to search for the best grazing 
the country afforded, which we found near Mr. McGee s, on 
the Fredericksburg road. At night we were ordered on 
picket at the Old Foundry. 

May 11th. Returned to McGee s to graze our horses and 

May 12th. Moved to Chancellorsville. and found grazing in 
the neighborhood. The fields and woods show signs of 
Hooker s great battle here a year ago. Bodies and bones 
of unburied men, and of those only partially buried, may be 
found on every hand. 

May lth. All these days the grand army has been fighting 


about Spottsylvania Court House. Just at night the regi 
ment marched through terrible mud and dark forests, near 
army headquarters, not far from Spottsylvania. 

May 15th. The regiment was ordered to the extreme left. 
Grazed our horses near Massaponax Run, and advanced near 
the church that bears this name, where we had a slight 
brush with the enemy. 

May 16^7i. Advanced beyond the church, and drove the 
enemy s cavalry across the Ny river, after a lively skirmish. 
A heavy force of the enemy was found on our front. 

May 17th. The following order in General Meade s own 
handwriting was received and preserved : 

Headquarters. Army of the Potomac, "> 
1, 30p.M., May 17th, 1864. f 

COL. HAMMOND, Fifth New York Cavalry : 

Colonel: Your dispatch reporting a superior force of the 
enemy at Guineas Station received. I send you Lieut. 
Col. Chamberlain, 1st Massachusetts, with 1,200 men from 
Dismounted camp. You will take command of these men 
and endeavor to drive back the enemy s cavalry and destroy 
the depot at Guineas. Also advance on their right flank 
and ascertain all you can of the enemy s position and force. 

Respectfully Yours, 

Major General. 

Among the men above mentioned were about one hun 
dred and fifty of our veterans. This combined force 
advanced as ordered, and found the enemy strongly posted 
on the banks of the Po river. A severely contested engage 
ment followed, in which we lost Capt, Bryant (captured, 


though at first supposed killed), and others. The main 
force returned to its bivouac, and the Fifth spent the night 
on picket. 

. May 1.8th. Another reconnoissance was made to the Po, 
where the enemy still continues in force. A short skirmish 
followed. Our men returned unhurt. 

May 19^/i. Orders were received this afternoon to be 
ready to move at eleven at night. The column of cavalry, 
with a battery of artillery, moved out precisely at the hour, 
in the direction of Bowling Green. Having gone about 
four miles, the main column was countermarched, though 
the Fifth continued to near Fredericksburg, and returned, 
traveling all night. 

May 20th. At noon our mail arrived, the first we have 
received since the campaign opened. There were at least 
two bushels of letters ! And what eager boys waited for 
the home messages, as each company s mail was being 
sorted out ! Scarcely a man but had a letter, and some 
had ten or twelve. A large mail was sent away before 
night. Orders were received this p. M. to be ready to move 
for the accomplishment of the task which was abandoned 
last night. 

May 2~Lst. Expecting to move in the night the men 
had sought an early sleep, as usual, upon the lap of earth, 
from which they were aroused about one o clock, and were 
soon on the march. The night was pleasant. A few shots 
with scattered pickets were exchanged on the way, until we 
reached the Mattapony river, at a point below Guineas 
Station, where the road on which we were marching crosses 
the rail road. Here quite a force of the enemy made its 
appearance. The day had now dawned. The Fifth New 

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York had the advance. Flankers were sent out, and the 
advance guard was placed in command of 1st Sergt. S. W. 
Sortore, Company E, who moved boldly forward. Enter 
ing the woods, which skirt the river, along whose banks 
runs the road to Bowling Green, another road was found 
turning to the right across the river, which the fleeing 
Rebels had taken. The sergeant advanced to cross the 
bridge, but found that a portion of it had been removed, 
rendering it impassable. He had no sooner halted, than a 
fatal bullet from a Rebel, concealed in the thicket beyond, 
pierced his manly breast. In less than fifteen minutes he 
was dead. Wrapped up in his blanket, we buried him 
under a beautiful swamp willow, only a few of his many 
friends being permitted to assist in his burial. While this 
was being done, the bridge had been rebuilt, companies A 
and 13 had been sent out to drive the Rebels back and 
picket this road, and the column had passed on toward 
Bowling Green. A short halt was made in this pleasant 
little village; and the column moved again to Milford 
Station, which was taken after a severe engagement. The 
regiment behaved handsomely in this fight, which resulted 
in the capture of six officers and sixty-six privates, and the 
dispersion of the entire force which guarded the station. 
In the depot were found some stores of the Rebel quarter 
master and commissary, which were readily appropriated. 

On the ground whence we had driven the enemy by hard 
fighting, we built our bivouac fires and rested. 

May 22<7. About 3 p. M. we were ordered to New Bethel 
Church, across the Mattapony, where we found excellent 
grazing for our horses. * 

May 23J. "Boots and saddles" sounded at three o clock, 


and by daylight the column was in motion, toward Hanover 
Junction. Not Tar from the North Anna river, just below 
Mt. Carrnel Church, the enemy in force was encountered. 
A desperate fight ensued, which resulted in a general en 
gagement, during which the Rebels were driven from their 
strong position along the North Anna. The battle contin 
ued till nine o clock at night, ending with a terrible 

May 2th. We were ordered to the extreme right, where, 
after crossing the North Anna, we had a flying skirmish 
with the enemy s cavalry. 

May 25th. The regiment reconnoitred the enemy s po 
sition on the Little river. Fell back from the river to the 
Virginia Central rail road, which our men are effectually 
destroying. The fire of the ties, culverts and bridges makes 
a line of lurid light along the evening sky. 

May 2Gth. We rested in bivouac until about sundown, 
when we were joined by the division, just returned from 
Sheridan s great raid, which commenced with the opening 
of the campaign. At night we skirmished with the enemy 
at some of the upper fords of the Little river, and made a 
feint of crossing. To complete the deception, fences, boards, 
and everything inflamable within our reach, were set on 
fire to give the appearance of a vast force, just building its 
bivouac fires. 

While we were thus making a feint of lively work on the 
right, and keeping the attention of the enemy, General 
Grant effected his third left flank movement, which brought 
his base of supplies at White House Landing. 

After the accomplishment of our stratagem we fell back, 
crossed the North Anna river on a bridge, which we de- 


stroyed behind us, and bivouacked, about two hours past 

May 27th. Three or four hours only had the weary boys 
to rest, and the bugles sounded the advance. Over vast 
plains, generally thickly wooded, the column passed, and, 
after seeing the smoking ruins of Chesterfield Station, it 
halted for another rest. As we travel from point to point 
over this Old Dominion we are peculiarly impressed with the 
vastness of its forests, which cover thousands of acres of as 
fine arable land as can be found upon the continent. How 
different is this from the impressions we had formed of 
Virginia when reading of its early settlement, and of its 
agricultural advantages. But when we look into its system 
of land owning wherein we find one individual monopo 
lizing a vast territory , ; and into its worse system of labor, 
we need search no further for the causes of this backward 
ness in agricultural pursuits. Who does not sincerely hope 
that the time is at hand when the rich acres of this great 
state shall be more properly divided among its inhabitants, 
and. when freed from a burden and curse which has long 
paralyzed their energies, instinct with new life and enter 
prise, the people will realize the true dignity of labor. 
Then will the almost interminable forests disappear, and in 
their places the industrious yeoman will behold his rich 
fields of waving grain. Then too, along its now useless 
streams and swift water courses, will spring up the factory 
and the mill, whose fabrics will bring wealth and prospe 
rity to the nation. 

Nay 2$th. Our march was resumed at an early hour, and 
continued as usual through vast woods, with only here and 
there a plantation. For want of forage and rest, many 


horses gave out by the way. It is wonderful how long these 
faithful animals carry their riders with their kit, even after 
overtaxation of muscles has nearly destroyed them. On 
they plod, fearful of being abandoned by their mates, until 
strength has entirely departed, and they quiver beneath 
their load, and would fall, if not relieved. 

On a march like this, these "played out" horses are 
invariably shot, lest they might fall into the hands of the 
enemy, and, in a few weeks of care, become serviceable. 

The column halted for the night at a small settlement 
called Mangohick, where a good rest was enjoyed. 

May 29/7*. A pleasant march brought us at an early hour 
to Locust Grove, near the Pamunkey river. Some corn was 
foraged from the surrounding country for our horses. 

May 80th. Gradually, by almost constant fighting, our 
noble army has been advancing through the enemy s 
country, until to-day our artillery is plunging its shells 
very near the door of the Rebel -capitol. Our forces have 
taken possession of Mechanicsville, and established their 
lines not far from Cold Harbor. 

About ten A. M. the regiment was detailed to march to 
Dunkirk, to guard a supply train, which was expected. 
The journey was performed and the train brought in 
before night. 

May 3Ist. We moved early to Dabney s Ferry, where we 
crossed the Pamunkey on pontoons, and advanced toward 
Hanover Court House. The enemy s outer cavalry pickets 
were encountered at Signal Hill, whence they were driven, 
after a lirely skirmish. Gen. Rosser, a Rebel cavalry 
chieftain, here took a prominent position against us, " fight 
ing," in the language of his friends, " for his altars and his 


fires." His residence was in the neighborhood. So was 
also that of Gen. Wickham, another Rebel cavalryman. 
After scouting the neighborhood, and picketing the main 
roads, till dark, the whole division was moved toward 
Hanover Cotlrt House. 

June 1st. The enemy strongly contested our advance, 
and quite a skirmish was fought at the Court House. In 
the early morning this force was driven, and the division 
moved on to Ashland Station on the Virginia Central rail 
road. The object of this move was to destroy the two rail 
road bridges across the South Anna river. The second 
brigade was sent to do this work of destruction, while the 
first was to engage the enemy. The plan succeeded, but a 
fierce battle was fought at Ashland, by the first brigade. 
Several times our boys were partially surrounded ; but the 
ceaseless fire of their carbines and the grape and canister 
of the artillery, mowed fearful gaps in the enemy s lines, 
and strewed the ground with slain. While gallantly riding 
up and down our lines, directing the operations and encour 
aging the men, Major White, of the Fifth, received a 
dangerous wound through the body, which was feared would 
prove fatal to his valuable life. Col. Hammond received a 
bullet, which flattened upon his scabbard, but cracked the 
bone just above the ankle joint. It was a narrow escape. 
When the force fell back, Dr. Armstrong volunteered to 
remain with Major White, who could not be removed. This 
noble act was never forgotten. Crowned with recent victory 
the division returned to Signal Hill, and bivouacked. 

June Id. After so hard fighting and marching the boys 
very naturally expected a little rest. Well, they got a little, 
and a very little rest it was. The time for an abundance of 


that luxury had not yet come. The day was spent broiling 
under a scorching sun. At 5 p. M., just as rain began to 
fall, the bugles sounded for another move. Compelled to 
throw away preparations for supper, which could not be 
taken, we were soon in line waiting the word to march. 
The rain fell faster, and a cold wind arose, which made the 
prospect of a march through mud and darkness rather un 
pleasant. But wrapped up carefully in our rubber coats or 
ponchoes, the soldier s invaluable garments, from which 
rolled the rain drops that pattered upon us, we were kept 
comfortably dry and in tolerably good humor. However, 
the march was a hard one. We moved to Dabney s Ferry, 
and turned to the right down the river, arriving at Liuney s, 
where we stopped, about 12 o clock that night. 

Jane 3d. About 10 A. M. firing was heard in the direc 
tion of Salem Church, and messengers soon announced that 
the Rebel cavalry had advanced and attacked our pickets. 
The division was immediately moved to the scene of action, 
and the Rebels were again beaten and repulsed in a fair open 
field fight. They had the advantage of some hastily con 
structed breastworks, from which our men drove them with 
a charge. In this fight was killed the gallant Col. Preston, 
of the 1st Vermont; and Col. Chamberlain, of the 8th New 
York, was wounded. The regiment spent the night on 

June 4th. After we were relieved from picket, this morn 
ing, we bivouacked on an eminence called Mt. Pisgah. 
Here a large mail was received. 

June Qth. We have passed these few days pleasantly. 
Our horses. are improving on newly brought forage, and the 
men rejoice in full rations. Bands of music have enter- 


tained us with patriotic airs during our evening hours, and 
we have gained new strength and inspiration for coming 

Reveille* was sounded about daylight, and the regiment 
was marched to Old Church, whence we were sent to picket 
along the Paniunkey. 

June 7th. Continued all day on picket. The lines are 
quiet and our work is pleasant. 

June Sth. Relieved from picket by the 3d New Jersey 
Cavalry, a regiment that has quite recently been assigned to 
our brigade. The regiment moved near brigade headquar 
ters, and went into camp. 

June IQt/i. The whole brigade was called out this after 
noon to repel an attack upon the pickets. After a brief 
skirmish, the lines were reestablished and the brigade 
returned into camp. A brigade of colored troops occupy 
Old Church. They have fortified themselves with strong 
and beautifully constructed earthworks. They are fine 
appearing soldiers. 

June llth. The brigade was aroused by an early reveille", 
and moved out toward Cold Harbor. At Shady Grove the 
enemy s infantry was encountered, charged and driven into 
their earthworks. Our boys behaved gallantly in the 
charge, some of them urging their horses over the fortifi 
cations. A few of them never returned. The regiment 
was in camp again about noon. The few days past have 
presented signs of another flank movement. 

June 12th. We were ordered on picket about three miles 
from Old Church. 

June 13M. We began to withdraw our pickets about two 
o clock this morning, and an advance guard was pushed to 


Allen s Mill. By daylight the whole brigade concentrated 
there, and moved on through woods and fields, over deserted 
camps and fortifications, making but a short halt for break 
fast. A few prisoners v/ere captured by our advance and 
flankers. At noon we halted again a few minutes near 
Hopkin s Mill on Black Creek. Our march was continued 
across the Richmond and York river rail road, between 
Dispatch and Summit Stations, and, about sundown, wo 
crossed the sluggish Chickahominy, on pontoons, at Long 
Bridge. One can never forget the sombre appearance of 
the dense and gigantic forest through which we passed, 
known as the White Oak swamps. This name can never 
be spoken without a shudder by those who have campaign 
ed it long in these malarious woods. 

When night came on we were ordered to be rear guard 
of a large train. And, Oh ! deliver cavalry from such a 
job as this, especially when the roads are almost impassable, 
and in the. night. Our progress was exceedingly slow, and 
had it been steady it would have been more tolerable. But 
it was halt, advance, halt, advance, with this variety occur 
ring at every five or ten rods, and the halts were frequently 
much longer than the advances. To relieve the tired horses, 
when a halt occurred, some men would dismount, and sink- 
ing to the ground through exhaustion, would quickly fall 
asleep. With the utmost difficulty they were aroused when 
the column moved. Others slept in their saddles, either 
leaning forward on the pommel of the saddle, or sitting quite 
erect, with an occasional bow forward, or to the right or left, 
like the swaying of the flag on a signal station. The horse 
of such a sleeping man will generally keep his place in the 
column, and the man will very seldom fall ; though occa- 


sionally this will happen, and the poor fellow awakes only 
to find himself deep-set into a mud hole, while general mer 
riment is produced among the. beholders. As no one is 
hurt, the man is soon remounted, and the journey pursued. 

With all these experiences we traveled until after mid 
night, and finally bivouacked and sought rest. 

June 14M-. Four hours rest was all we got, not half what 
weary men needed. But to the bugle s shrill call every one 
must answer. After a very hasty meal the march was 
again resumed, and we finally halted at Charles City Court 
House, in sight of the flags and tents of army headquarters. 
While resting here, by the crumbling walls and chimneys 
of once opulent and tasty dwellings, we read in the scorched 
trees and in the general desolation, a few pages of Rebellion s 
record of sorrow. Plaving grazed our horses, and received 
forage and rations, we moved back to St. Mary s church, 
where we bivouacked about eleven o clock at night. So 
near to us were the pickets of the enemy that we were 
ordered to build no fires, and the boys ate their supper 
without the usual coffee. 

June \5th. The division moved by daybreak toward the 
White Oak swamps. Just beyond Smith s store, in the 
edge of the swamps, a strong column of Rebel infantry was 
encountered. So masterly had been conducted this flank 
movement across the James river, that the Rebels were 
deceived as to its object. Expecting that a strong force 
would advance on Richmond by way of Malvern Hills, on 
the north side of the James, they had sent a corresponding 
force to meet it. It was this force which we met. A 
hotly contested battle followed. Engaged with numbers 
far greater than our own, and infantry at that, we suffered a 


heavy loss and were compelled to fall back, which we did in 
good order, bringing most of our dead and wounded from 
the field At St. Mary s Church was established a hospital, 
and in the fields and woods adjoining, the division went 
into bivouac. A heavy picket line was thrown out in the 
direction of the swamps. 

June ~LQth. The regiment was detailed on picket this 
morning, where it remained all day. At night all the 
pickets were withdrawn, and the division was moved to 
Wyanoke Landing on the James, where we arrived after a 
long, toilsome march, a few hours before day. 


Crossing the James River. Pleasant Scene. The Wilson Raid. 
First Day. Battle of Nottoway Court House. The Danville 
Railroad. What we Destroyed. The Contrabands. Battle 
of Reams Station. The Swift Retreat. Awful Scenes. The 
Author s Personal Adventures. Is Dismounted in the Woods. 
Travels by Night and IU sis by Day. Narrow Escapes. Assist 
ed by Negroes. Reaches our Lines Safely. Casualties of the 
Raid. The Division Ships for Geisboro Point, D. C. June 
17th to August 9M, 1864. 

June \7tli. After about three hours rest we were started 
on the march again, and about a mile below Wyanoke, and 
a little above Fort Powhatan, the division crossed the James 
on a pontoon bridge. This was as pleasant a scene as we 
had ever witnessed. The broad, smooth river, the crafts of 
various kinds which had collected at this point and floated 
so quietly on the water, the long bridge, which, swayed by 
the current of the stream, formed a gentle, graceful curve, 
the long lines of cavalry slowly moving to the opposite 
shore, and, poured over all, the glad sunshine of the Sab 
bath morning, presented a scene so much in contrast to 
those rough experiences, through which we had just passed, 
that every one was delighted. A short rest was enjoyed on 
the southern bank, during which were issued forage and 
rations. At three P. y under a sweltering sun, our march 
was resumed in the direction cf Petersburg. Great destruc- 


tion of property was visible on the march. People, fright 
ened by the advance of the Yankee army, had forsaken 
their houses and fled. Such places were destroyed. Had 
the inhabitants remained at home, the houses, at least, 
would not have been molested. About sundown we passed 
Prince George Court House and bivouacked about two 
miles beyond. "With great difficulty the boys obtained 
water for their coffee, most of them being compelled to 
take it from Che tracks of the horses where they had been 
led to watering, in the swamps near by. 

June ISth. The division moved early, in a southeasterly 
direction, to the region of the Black Water swamps. The 
regiment was sent on picket not far from Mt. Sinai Church. 
As the country abounded in milk, honey, corn, wheat, meat 
and sorghum, the command lived well. 

June 2lst. These days have been spent quietly on picket. 
This afternoon an order was issued to prepare to move early 
to-morrow morning. 

June 22(7. About three o clock A. M. Gen. Wilson s 
division, reenforced by Gen. Kautz s brigade of cavalry 
with fourteen pieces- of flying artillery, including two 
mountain howitzers, was ready for a raid. At a rapid rate, 
principally through by-paths, and unfrequented ways, to 
avoid any force of the enemy, the command advanced, 
striking the Weldon rail road at Reams Station. Here the 
depot and about a mile of track were destroyed. This work 
was quickly done, and we moved on in a westerly course to 
Dinwiddie Court House, where we turned our faces north 
ward. At Gravelly Run a short halt was made and our 
horses were watered. About sundown the Southside rail 
road was reached a little west of Sutherlands, and destruc- 


tion of ties, rails, culverts, bridges, &c., began in earnest. 
The night was soon illuminated by the destroying fires. 
Our march now lay along the rail road, and was continued as 
far as Ford s, where we halted about eleven p. M., after 
capturing two trains, one passenger and one freight. The 
engines, having been set on fire by means of rails and 
boards piled around them, made the night hideous with 
their unearthly shrieks, which continued for several hours, 
disturbing the rest, which, weary and sleepy, we sought in 
vain to enjoy. 

June 23J. At early light we were on the move again, 
engaged in the work of destruction. The great heat and 
drought were very favorable to our enterprise, though men 
and beasts suffered much for the want of water. A few 
rails or sticks of wood laid along the track and ignited, suf 
ficed to make the destruction complete. Here and there the 
road was torn up, the ties heaped together and set on fire, 
while the iron rails were laid crosswise upon the burning 
piles. They were thus effectually destroyed. Telegraph 
posts were cut down, and the wire was twisted and broken. 
One regiment after another was detailed to perform this labor, 
and such was the wisdom of the arrangement, that the main 
column was not impeded in its progress, while the work 
was going on. Uninterrupted in our progress, we advanced, 
beyond Blacks and Whites, crossed the Little Nottoway 
creek, and encountered the enemy in pretty strong force, 
not far from Nottoway Court House. Intent on harassing 
our column, the enemy engaged us with spirit and determi 
nation. The battle continued until about eleven p. M. The 
regiment was on the skirmish line and fought with its usual 
vigor. While the main force of the enemy was here en- 


gaged, a feebler attack was made on our rear guard at 
Blacks and Whites. Meanwhile, Gen. Kautz, who had been 
detached during the night from the main column at Ford s, 
had made a successful detour around the enemy, who vainly 
supposed he was fighting the whole force of raiders at Not- 
toway, and without opposition, was destroying the junction 
of rail roads at Burkesville. Thus far Gen Wilson s plans 
had worked admirably, and success followed in our train. 

June 24:th. As our object was not to fight the enemy un 
less compelled to do so for defense, and, having driven him 
as far from our line of march as suited our purpose, we 
abandoned this road, and struck out through the country by 
Hungrytown, and reached the Danville rail road at Meher- 
rin Station about four o clock p. M. Here Gen. Kautz 
rejoined the division, and the whole force bent its energies 
to the destruction of this important thoroughfare. The 
work was comparatively easy, owing to the peculiar con 
struction of the road. Across the ties a heavy timber, 
generally of pine, is notched in and fastened, upon which 
lie the rails, thin pieces of iron similar to the tire of a 
heavy wagon wheel. The labor of tearing up and burning 
could be done in half the time it would take on the ordinary 
roads. Decidedly encouraged by such advantages, the boys 
applied themselves faithfully to the accomplishment of their 
task. Every foot of the road was destroyed from Meherrin 
to Keysville, where we arrived about eleven p. M. and 

June 25th. The Keysville depot and a store near by it 
were burned this morning. The day has been very warm. 
Many horses "played out" by the way. They were invari 
ably shot, and replaced by horses and mules captured in the 


country. Scouting parties and flankers are constantly re- 
pleuishing the column with installments of fresh, fat animals, 
which the people have not the time or adroitness to hide 
from the swift-inoving Yankees. This afternoon our ad 
vance, commanded by Gen. Kautz, reached the Staunton 
river, and made a desperate assault upon the force guarding 
the rail road bridge. For a time there was a promise of 
success, and our men took possession of the bridge, but 
before the torch could be effectually applied they were com 
pelled to fall back before murderous discharges of grape 
and canister from a Rebel battery. The project of destroy 
ing this valuable bridge had to be abandoned. In the 
vicinity of Roanoke Station, the division bivouacked late 
at night. 

June 2Qth. Up to this time, including Roanoke Station, 
we had burned ten important stations, and several smaller 
depots. About fifty miles of rail road track, including 
several bridges and culverts, had been completely destroyed. 
Though we had lost many horses, our numbers were made 
good fron? our captures by the way. Our column had been 
reenforced 6y hundreds of contrabands, who flocked to our 
banners from the country far and near. Our loss of men 
had been very slight, and mostly in wounded and captured. 
Our train had been enlarged by the addition of several fine 
carriages and barouches, in which our worst cases of sick 
and wounded were carried. Our tout ensemble was encour 
aging, and though far out in the enemy s country, hopes 
were entertained of a safe and speedy return. From Roa 
noke Station the column moved before daylight, in a south 
easterly direction, by Wylliesburgh, and thence to Christian- 
ville, a fine little village, where was found a great abundance 


of corn for our horses. From this place our course was di 
rectly "facing the east," and about eleven p. M. we halted for 
rest along a nearly dried up stream called Buckhorn creek. 

June 21th. Our journey was resumed early, and at ten 
A. M. we crossed the Meherrin river at Stafford s Bridge. 
Our course bearing a little to the north, brought us at night, 
after receiving a refreshing shower, in the vicinity of Stur- 
geonville, where we halted 

June 28f/i. As usual we were in the saddle before the 
dawn, and on our march homeward. About twelve M. we 
crossed the Nottoway river at Double Bridges. Our course 
now became a little more northward, and contrabands 
flocked to us in unusual numbers. There was no end of 
the interesting tales they had to tell, which, at times, excited 
our admiration, and then incited to tears. To us most of 
them came destitute of all things, except the hope of liberty. 
This was the circle of all their thoughts. For this the 
gray-haired slave, bending with the infimities of many toil 
some years, was " toting" his grandchild on his arm and on 
his head by turns, along the column. The mother, with 
her young babe clinging to her breast, traveled through 
the woods and brush, the heat and dust, hoping for better 
days. Young men and maidens, with more of the European 
than the African in their features and complexion, plodded on 
their way, happy to be among those whom they recognized 
as their deliverers. 

At night the column encountered a heavy force of Rebel 
infantry at Stony Creek Station on the Weldon rail road. 
All night the battle raged fiercely, with only now and then 
an interval of rest. Those who were not engaged on the 
battle line were compelled to stand to horse, and to shiver 


with the cold, which was peculiarly felt in that locality. It 
was an awful night of fatigue and doubt. 

June 29th. Before the dawn of day Gen. Wilson moved 
forward such a portion of his force as he thought might be 
spared from the skirmish line, leaving the second brigade to 
bring up the rear. The enemy made a desperate charge on 
this brigade, which threatened it with annihilation. A 
large number fell into the enemy s hands, and the remainder 
were thrown into much confusion, but escaped. About ten 
A. M. the whole command was within three or four miles of 
Reams Station, on ground made familiar by our outward 
passage just one week previous. It was hoped that assist 
ance would be rendered us by our. main army, as we were 
not far from its left wing. This had been promised us by 
Gen. Meade. But assistance failed to come in time. 

Regiments were deployed to ascertain the position and 
strength of the enemy. It was soon found that he was not 
only able to resist our passage, but also to surround and 
annihilate us if we remained long within his reach. At 
noon orders were issued to abandon the entire train. Forges 
and wagons were burned, and the ambulance train was 
parked near the banks of Rowanty creek, and hospital 
flags placed over it. All wounded and sick who could ride 
were mounted; all others must be left behind. It was a sad 
hour. Ngver had the boom of cannon sounded more 

The advance of the retreating column moved about one 
mile from the ambulances and there awaited orders. The 
road was literally packed, and for rods in the woods on either 
side, wherever a man could ride, was a mass of human 
beings with anxious, throbbing hearts. About three o clock 


Gen. Wilson passed through the column, though it was diffi 
cult to make a way for him, and as soon as he reached the 
front the entire crowd moved forward. What followed can 
not be described. Think of such a force of cavalry, at the 
utmost speed of their horses, over a road with six inches of 
dust in places, on one of the warmest, sultriest days ! There, 
too, were the contrabands mostly dismounted, men, women 
and children, who knew that to be captured was death, or 
worse than death ! It was well, perhaps, that the blinding 
dust should partially hide the scene from view. 

No halt was made until we came to Stony creek, a dis 
tance of five or six miles from Rowanty. Here the creek 
is quite deep, and the banks rocky and precipitous. The 
bridge is very narrow. It was hoped that no heavy force 
of the enemy had followed us. The scattered fragments of 
regiments were called together, with design to hold the 
bridge. The men were almost completely demoralized, at 
least one third having either thrown away or lost their arms 
in the flight. Scarcely had the work of reorganization been 
completed, when the pursuing foe, with cavalry and artil 
lery, came upon us. We were in no condition to resist him, 
though some men fought bravely. Panic-stricken, nearly 
all soon broke ranks, and fled as best they could. And 
such a sight ! Down the steep banks of the creek, men 
urged their weary steeds, until they fell headlong into the 
splashhig water. Some were pushed off the bridge, falling 
on others in the stream. Men and horses mingled in al 
most every conceivable shape, struggled to reach the oppo 
site bank, while bullets whizzed among the trees, and shells 
screamed over our heads. (Diverging from the main tenor 
of this narrative at this point, the author wishes to give a 


few days of personal adventures and experiences. He is 
constrained to do this, as it will represent, in the main, 
the experience of hundreds of others). 

Driving down as far as my horse would go without fall 
ing, I dismounted, and, as I knew the animal could not 
carry me much further on account of exhaustion and lame 
ness, I concluded to leave him. Down the crevice of the 
rocks near the water s edge, I reached a retreat safe from 
falling horses and flying bullets, and, for a moment, thought, 
/ will surrender. But I had tasted the prisoner s bitter 
cup, and I resolved to go forward so long as I could put 
one foot before the other. I stepped into the stream, with 
water to my waist. Near the opposite bank the water was 
deeper, and, striking a slimy log on the bottom, I fell prone 
into it. Struggling toward the shore, the branch of an 
overhanging tree caught my hat and flung it down the 
stream. At length upon dry ground I stood, a sorry picture 
of a sorry Yankee, weak from exhaustion, heavy with water 
in my clothes and boots, and hatless ! Raising my right 
foot by the toe of my big boot, I poured out the water at 
the knee, and while endeavoring to do the same thing with 
my left boot, I beheld a large riderless bay horse, rising 
from the creek and coming toward me. I seized him by 
the bridle and mounted into the saddle, joining the column 
with new hope. 

This horse belonged to the 1st District of Columbia cav 
alry, as I knew by the sixteen shooter that he carried. I 
had not gone far before I discovered that he was nearly 
exhausted, and would soon give out. While reflecting on 
my own wretchedness, I saw a man a little to the left of 
the column, riding a mule that had neither saddle nor bri- 


die, and the man himself had nothing on but an army shirt ! 
I was compelled to laugh in spite of myself, and soon 
became willing to be hatless and destitute. I had cut away 
all the baggage from the saddle, to make the burden of my 
horse as light as possible. However, on arriving near Sap- 
pony creek, he failed me completely. Two men of the 
regiment, Charles T. S. Pierce, company G-, and Oscar L. 
Barden, company B, were near me at the time. Their 
horses were nearly in the condition of mine. "We resolved 
to share each other s fate, to leave the column, and on foot, 
by night marches, to reach our lines if possible. We were 
in a dense forest. Imploring Divine aid in our hazardous 
journey, we moved about a mile from the road, and stopped 
for the night among thick bushes. We heard the rear of 
our column as it passed Sappony bridge, we also heard the 
pursuers, who fired into the woods in every direction, but 
we were quiet and safe. 

June 30^. We suffered from the chill of the night. 
The day has been spent in Wood-tick bivouac, so named 
from the numberless wood-ticks that have infested the 
place. Nothing but a wild pig, with which these forests 
abound, came near our resting place. We are not much 
burdened with luggage, having but one overcoat, two pon- 
choes, two haversacks and one canteen. I have a good map, 
but we have no compass. We have also matches and ink. I 
carry my journal and Greek Testament, Pierce carries a 
Bible and Hymn book and Barden has thread and needles. 
Our store of eatables consists of about a half pint of rice, a 
quarter pound of coffee and sugar mixed (no cup to cook 
these in), five pounds of flour and a little salt. 

As soon as night came on we began to travel, guided by 


the stars, which here and there peeped through the thick 
foliage of the forest. Our course was northeast. At eleven 
o clock we came to Sappony creek, which we crossed 
yesterday. Bad as was the water, we drank of it freely, 
having had but one canteen of water since yesterday about 
seven p. M. Here we mixed about half of our flour into 
dough. Fearful that if we built a fire we might be disco 
vered by the scouting parties that were hunting for us, we 
repaired to a deep ravine, skirted with many bushes, where 
we made a small fire of dry sticks and leaves, on which we 
laid our dough which was smoked and charred horribly. 
This was our only staff of life, and all we had to eat for 
nearly forty-eight hours. Thus ended with us the month 
of June on the banks of the muddy Sappony. 

July 1st. About one o clock A. M. we crossed the Sappony 
on a fallen tree. We afterward traveled as rapidly as we 
could, through swamps, tangled brushwood and briars, occa 
sionally through a field, until daylight, when we sought the 
shelter of tall, thick -grown brackberry briars, in the edge 
of a field. At nine o clock p. M. we came out of our hiding 
and resting place, and moved on as the night before. 
Emerging from a thick wood, we came upon a herd of 
cows in a yard, where we vainly sought to get some milk. 
As they were doubtless accustomed to be milked by women, 
as are cows generally in Virginia, we could not approach 
them. Following a footpath we found a cherry tree with 
cherries, which relished well. But we had no sooner com 
menced regaling ourselves, than a tall, heavy, shadowy man 
dressed in light gray, was moving toward us up the path. 
On discovering us he moved away rapidly. We traveled on 
probably quite as rapidly as he, as we soon saw that the 


neighborhood had been alarmed. Lights were seen at the 
houses, and dogs made hideous howlings. With terrible 
pictures of blood-hounds before our thoughts, we quickened 
our steps. This danger passed, and we were thankful; and 
our joy was still more increased, when, led by the voice of 
singing frogs, we found excellent water in a field. On 
leaving this place of refreshing we entered the woods-under 
a beautiful arch of foliage and soon came to Stony creek. 
Laying aside our garments, and rolling them up in tight 
bundles, we crossed safely over. The water was about four 
and a half feet deep. 

July 2d. About three A. M. we came in sight of several 
picket fires just ahead of us. We flanked them by turning 
to the left. At daybreak we came into a large field, and 
sought refuge in a thicket, though not far from a house. 
We had but just fallen asleep, when we were aroused by 
footsteps approaching and voices distinctly heard. Soon 
the black faces of two slaves appeared through the bushes. 
This gave us hope. One of them afterward disappeared, 
the other continued coming toward us. Before he had seen 
us, I spoke at a high whisper, " come here," when his big 
black eye, with its surrounding pure white, fell excitedly 
upon us. 

"You re not afraid of Yankee soldiers, are you?" I inter 

"Oh, no, massa," and he walked up by our side. 

"What s your name?" 


" Tom what ? Have you no other name ?" 

"Dunne, massa, dey allers calls me Tom." 

"Well, who lives here? 


" Major Malone, whose son is in the Rebel army." 

" How far is it to Reams Station ?" 

" Two miles an half." 

We now saw that we were in a critical position, within 
the Rebel army lines, and on the premises of a prominent 
Rebel. From Tom we learned that Rebel soldiers frequently 
came to the house during the day, though not generally at 
night. He promised to get us some bread, which he did, 
for which we gave him some money. He also promised 
to guide us at night across a ford of Rowan ty creek, by a 
way that would soon lead us across the Weldon rail road. 
The time set for starting was nine o clock. During the 
day several cavalrymen were seen passing on the road, 
which, at one point, was visible to us, and, at one time, a 
cavalryman rode directly toward us, stopping only a few 
paces from us. We could hear the breathings of his 
horse, as we lay almost breathless, on the ground. In this 
condition we longed for the night. It came at length, but 
with it came no Tom, for what reason we never learned. 
This was a sore disappointment. 

July 3d. Having waited for Tom, in vain, until after 
midnight, we finally started, guided only by the stars. 
Rowanty creek was soon reached, but at a place so wide 
and apparently deep, that we durst not undertake to ford. 
We followed it, until day brought us into a large, muddy 
dismal swamp. We crossed as we had done at Stony creek. 
After retiring in the depths of the swamp, we kindled a fire 
at the roots of an ancient oak, and cooked the last flour we 
had into bread. Until evening we remained in the swamp, 
disturbed now and then by the cries of wild hogs, eagles 
and foxes. When darkness came we moved out of the 


woods, passed by a farm house, and, having crossed a well 
traveled road, arrived at the Weldon rail road. This was 
at a deep cut, where we could not cross. A picket fire 
could be distinctly seen at our left. Rapidly we followed 
the road to the right, until, coming to a depression in the 
bank, we slid down to the track below. We now found the 
opposite bank too steep and high to climb. Undaunted, we 
moved on along the track, and found a place, where, by 
means of bushes and roots of trees, we got out of this dan 
gerous spot. After traveling a few hours the heavens 
became overcast with clouds, and we were compelled to 
advance by guess, and finally to stop altogether. 

July 4th. We had waited for the morning sun in vain, 
for clouds so obscured the light as to render the points of 
the compass very doubtful. However, as we had lost time 
during the night, we concluded to travel as best we could. 
Along a swamp we found some ripe berries, which we en 
joyed. We had not marched long before two Rebel soldiers 
were seen advancing in a path that would intersect ours at 
no great distance. We were quickly hidden under the 
bushes, which abounded. While the boys slept, I made a 
short reconnoissance, in which I ascertained that we were 
only a stone s throw from the Weldon rail road again, and 
near the picket post, whose fire it was probable we had seen 
the night before. Cautiously we moved out of this place, 
and continued through the woods to a plantation. In a 
cornfield a negress was at work. Of her we inquired for 
direction. Said I, "which way is east?" 

"Dunno, massa." 

"Which way is west?" 

A like answer. 


" Well, where does the sun rise ?" 

"There," pointing with her finger. 

Her master s name was John Slay. Beyond that she 
seemed to know very little. 

Our next point of interest was the Jerusalem Plank Road. 
While standing in the edge of the woods, consulting as to 
whether it were best to travel much more hy day, out rode 
from the thick forest a cavalryman, whose gingling sabre 
and accoutrements bespoke danger to unarmed men. He 
rode quite rapidly by, within three rods of us, and we 
rejoiced to have escaped his observation. As he disap 
peared we lost no time in seeking a quiet, secluded spot, 
where we waited for the night. Night came on with bright 
stars, and we journeyed joyfully. At nine P. M. we arrived 
at another plantation. A light was seen through the cre 
vices of a log shanty, and the low voices from within were 
taken for those of negroes. I knocked at the door, and a 
voice said, "come in." Opening the low door, I invited a 
pure African out, and learned that there were none but 
slaves present. With haste the women began to prepare us 
some supper, while we waited without. We were soon 
invited in, and sat down to a dish of fried pork and corn 
bread hot from the ashes, to which we did ample justice. 
This was the first meat we had tasted since the morning of 
June 29th. After supper we paid them well, their eyes 
sparkling with delight. From them I obtained a hat. The 
faithful man Alison then guided us through Jones Hole 
Swamp, and we crossed the Jerusalem Plank Road near Dr. 
Proctor s. Alison then left us, wishing us all prosperity, 
and returned to his master, Fred Raines. 

July 5th. We traveled some during the morning at the 


right of the plank road, and rested but little during the 
day. At sundown we made inquiries of some colored people, 
and of a Union white man, a rare article in that part of 
Virginia, who informed us that our pickets were only about 
three miles ahead of us near Lee s Mills, and that the 
country abounded with guerrillas. We were cautioned to keep 
in the woods and avoid the road. When darkness came, 
we advanced. Weary of briars and bushes, on reaching the 
road, we followed it, carefully watching every suspicious 
object. Soon something was seen moving ahead of us, 
which was afterward discovered to be a man. Hoping it 
might be one of our own men, we quickened our footsteps, 
and on overtaking him, what was our surprise to find him 
to be a Rebel soldier, with his musket on his shoulder. 
My first thought was : this is doubtless a guerrilla, and 
though alone, by a whistle or other signal, up will spring 
from the thick bushes along the way as many helpers as he 
desires. However, I knew that alone he could not harm us 
materially, as we walked up by his side, so near that he 
could not take his musket down, before we could seize him. 
On approaching him, he turned his head about, and said, 
" You re Yankees, I reckon." We made no reply but 
walked on in sad silence. On making a turn in the road wo 
came in sight of several fires. I broke the oppressive 
silence by saying, " There s a Yankee camp, I think." 
" Yes," replied the stranger, "and there s a Yankee picket 
just ahead of us, and I am going to give myself up to them 
as a prisoner." The vail was at once lifted from our pros 
pect, and we entered into a friendly conversation. I found 
that he belonged to the 2d North Carolina cavalry, and had 
come from Reams Station, since our fight there. While 


conversing together, we suddenly came to a stop, at the cry : 
" Halt ! Who comes there ?" " Friends," cried I. We 
were soon safely, with our Rebel friend, within the lines of 
the 3d New Jersey cavalry, where we found old acquaint 
ances, and received all proper attention. 

Almost completely exhausted, we were gladly welcomed 
to the leafy abodes of our old comrades, where we enjoyed 
full rations and undisturbed sleep. 

July Sth. We reached the regiment, encamped near 
Light House Point, this afternoon. From them we learned 
that June 29th, Gen. Wilson retreated south to Jarrett s 
Station, crossed the rail road, then by an east, northeast, 
north course, reached our lines after two or three days. Gen. 
Kautz, more familiar with the country, struck through the 
woods north of Stony creek, reaching our lines the morn 
ing of the 30th. The loss of the command was nearly one 
thousand men (mostly captured), with the whole artillery 
and train. Nothing was saved that went on wheels. The 
loss is less than had been feared, as many, who were account 
ed lost, afterward came in as did the writer of these lines. 

July \1th. As it needed it, the cavalry has been recruit 
ing its energies in quiet camps for several days. However, 
many of our men were disabled by the raid and have been 
Bent to hospitals, and many dismounted fellows have gone 
to Camp Stoneman, at Geisboro Point, D. C. These latter, 
numbering a little less than one hundred, were engaged 
in those memorable battles and skirmishes with the Rebel 
invaders of Maryland and the District of Columbia, com 
mencing with the battle of Maryland Heights, July 6th, 
and ending with the battle of Kernstown, the 24th, at 
which time Col. Mulligan was killed. 


What remained of the regiment with the division, waa 
sent out at half past three P. M., to picket along Powell s 
creek at Cooke s Mill, several miles down the river. This 
duty was very easy. 

July 15f/i. We were relieved from picket, and returned 
to camp again near Light House Point. 

July 25th. The brigade moved at dusk, to the picket 
lines at the Gurley House, nearly south of Petersburg. The 
regiment went on duty, after arriving, establishing its lines 
nearly parallel with the Weldon rail road. We found the 
Rebel pickets very quiet and friendly, and a pleasant inter 
course was enjoyed. 

July 30th. The dawn was ushered in with a terrible 
explosion and cannonade, making the earth tremble beneath 
our feet. To these was added a rapid musketry. Expecting 
an attack, the cavalry withdrew its pickets, and made pre 
paration for any emergency. The enemy did not make his 
appearance on our front. Our infantry lines were engaged 
for several hours, but the great mine explosion ended very 
disastrously to our cause, with a loss of many men. We 
returned on picket at night. 

August 1st. We were relieved from picket, and went into 
camp near brigade headquarters. 

August 5th. For some days the first division of cavalry 
has been leaving this department, and taking transports for 
Camp Stoneman, District of Columbia. This morning the 
third division received orders to march to City Point, where 
we were embarked on transports, with our horses. This 
was a slow, toilsome job. It was nine o clock p. M. before 
we were aboard. 

August 6th. The men have enjoyed the day s sail, down 


the James, up Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac, to Kettle 
Bottom, where we cast anchor for the night. 

August 7th. "We weighed anchor at early light, and ahout 
three p. M. we were landed at Geisboro Point. "We went 
into camp near Camp Stoneman. 

August 9th. The boys were made glad by the presence of 
the paymaster and his greenbacks. Our time is mostly 
occupied in exchanging our poor horses for good ones, and 
remounting our dismounted men. This looks like work 
ahead for the cavalry. 


To the Shenandoali Valley. Exciting Scene in Snicker s Gap. 
Battle of Summit Point. Battle of Kearneysville Station. 
Crossing into Maryland. Old John Brown air in Charlestown. 
Skirmishes near the Opcquan. Battle of Winchester. Drive 
the Enemy through Front Royal. Up Luray Valley. Raid 
to Staunton and Waynesboro . Cavalry Fight at Tom s Brook. 
Battle of Cedar Creek. Sheridan s Ride. Unparalleled Cap 
tures by the Regiment. Gen. Custer s Congratulatory Order. 
Reconnoissance to Rood s Hill. Spirited Engagement near Mt. 
Jackson. Regiment Detailed Escort of General Sheridan. 
The Fruit of Sheridan s Work in the Valley. August 12th to 
December 21st, 1864. 

August \2th. Orders were issued to the division, to bo 
ready to move at sundown to its new field of duty. At 
the appointed hour the bugles were ringing clearly, and 
the rested cavalrymen were soon gladly on the march. It 
was after nine o clock before these well equipped and tho 
roughly disciplined squadrons had traversed the streets of 
the nation s capital, laden with the hopes of every loyal 
heart. We were now to enter upon a field of operations 
the glory of which would eclipse all that the cavalry had 
yet accomplished. 

Until eleven o clock we continued our march up the Poto 
mac to Chain Bridge, where we crossed into Virginia again, 
and bivouacked about three miles from the river. 

August 13th. Before daylight the regiment was detailed 


to escort Col. Chipman, a dispatch bearer to General 
Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley. Great speed was 
necessary, and the regiment moved accordingly. The 
line of march led us through Drainesville, Leesburg, 
Hamilton, Purcelville and Snicker s Gap. A very brief 
halt was made near Goose creek, where we forded in pretty 
deep water. Near Leesburg a slight attack was made on 
our rear guard by a squad of White s guerrillas, who were 
easily dispersed 

Before reaching Snicker s Gap, we were informed by 
the inhabitants, that Mosby with a strong force was in 
the vicinity. We expected to meet him in the gap. It 
was night, and not a breath of air stirred the heavy foliage 
of the trees. No sound was heard save the song of the 
katydid and the heavy tramp of our horses on the hard 
road. The moon shone brightly, flooding the mountain tops 
with her silvery beams. The woods wore that sombre, 
weird appearance, so often spoken of in fairy tales. Our 
feelings were doubly excited by the expectation, that from 
the shady nooks or dark crevices of the rocks, would flash 
the deadly weapons of our enemy. But our passage was 
performed without meeting him. From the summit of 
the gap, the Shenandoah Valley, filled with the hazy light 
of the moon, presented a scene that was perfectly enchant 
ing. We forded the broad, shining Shenandoah river, at 
Snicker s Ferry. Near Berryville we saw the burning 
remains of a supply train which Mosby had captured and 
destroyed that day. We entered within our lines near the 
Opequan creek, and, tired and sleepy, we halted about three 
A. M. within two miles of Winchester. This was the 
longest march ever performed by the regiment in the same 


time : we had traveled about seventy-five miles in twenty- 
two hours. 

August l&th. This afternoon we moved through Win 
chester, to Milltown, and camped near the creek. 

August 16^/t. Reveille" sounded before daylight, and, 
breaking camp, at sunrise, we moved to Berryville. Here 
we joined the division, with which we moved toward 
Ashby s Gap, marching till midnight. 

August \lth. Moved through White Post, and back to 
Winchester. Gen. Sheridan s army was falling back from 
Cedar creek. The third division was detailed to picket the 
main roads, which centre at Winchester and to bring up 
the rear of the army. The Fifth was sent on the Romney 
pike to Petticoat Gap. The picketing was quiet until dark. 
The Rebels now advanced upon us at nearly every point. 
From a high hill near Milltown, our artillery opened upon 
the advancing column of the enemy. In consequence of 
our line s retreating on the Valley pike, before we could 
be apprised of the fact, the Rebels entered the town, thus 
flanking us completely. No time was lost, however, in fall 
ing back over the hills, northwest of town, passing through 
the embankments of Fort Milroy. We rejoined our forces 
on the plains below, and tog^her we continued retreating 
toward Summit Point, on a dirt road, east of the pike. 
About midnight we halted for rest not far from Wadesville. 

August 18^. The column was set in motion early, and a 
heavy rain came down upon us. The division halted at 
Summit Point, and the regiment was sent back to picket 
along the Opequan. 

August 19^. Our boys on picket were attacked by a 
strong party of Rebel cavalry, and forced back nearly two 


miles. Reinforcements were sent out and the Rebel ad 
vance was checked. 

August 20th. Relieved from picket, and bivouacked near 
Summit Point. The lines were quiet. 

August 2lst. As has been so often the case on the Sab 
bath, it was not possible to pass the day without an engage 
ment. About eight o clock our pickets were driven in, and at 
nine a strong force of infantry and cavalry confronted us at 
the Point. Boldly they came out of the woods into an open 
field, and flaunted their miserable flag into our faces. But a 
well directed shell from our artillery, which exploded among 
".hern, sent them " kiting" to the woods again. However, a 
force far superior to ours in numbers compelled us at length 
to retreat, which we did in good order. We arrived at Charles- 
town about sundown, but left the village to our right, and 
halted in the fields almost in sight of the steeples of its 
churches. Here we found our infantry also falling back, 
with its main column headed toward Halltown. 

August 22d. Our horses, which had stood all night 
saddled and ready for a move at a moment s warning, were 
in use with the first light of morning. The enemy s 
cavalry, displaying a little more daring than was their wont, 
advanced upon us with considerable show of fight. Their 
infantry was within short supporting distance. A spirited 
skirmish took place, and, under the circumstances, we fol 
lowed the advice of the poet, who sings : 

" He who fights and runs away, 
Will live to fight another day." 

We retreated to Halltown, and moved with the head of the 
column to the left, and finally halted pretty well up the 
river, opposite Maryland Heights. Within our bivouac 


was planted the Rebel battery that had killed Col. Miles, 
commanding Harper s Ferry, on a former occasion. The 
spot was pointed out to us by a Mr. M., a citizen in the 
neighborhood, who presented us an anomaly commonly met 
with in this region of country, of a man making high pro 
fessions of Unionism, and yet earnestly pleading for Se 

August 23rtf. Under light marching orders, the division 
went out on a reconnoissance in the vicinity of Puffield s 
Station, on the Baltimore and Ohio rail road, and engaged a 
heavy force of the enemy s infantry. The fight was spirited 
but brief, and our forces returned to camp after a few hours 
of marching and fighting. 

August 25^A. One day s uninterrupted rest had been en 
joyed as a rare luxury; but this morning at three o clock the 
hills and woods were ringing with reveille". At five the 
division was in motion in the direction of Shepardstown, not 
far from which we were joined by the first division of cavalry. 
This united force moved to Kearneysville Station, near 
which, the enemy, under Breckenridge, was met advancing 
towards Maryland in heavy force. Seldom are forces so 
suddenly and furiously engaged. The artillery of both 
parties was immediately brought into position, and the hills 
resounded with the rapid discharges of screaming shell and 
sweeping grape and canister. Before the quick firing 
of our Spencers, and our swift charges, the enemy s 
column at first recoiled and gave us a decided advantage 
over him. But we were at length compelled to retreat 
before superior numbers, that were lapping around our 
flanks. In this engagement the regiment behaved with its 
usual gallantry. Lieut. Greenleaf, in command of Co. A, fell, 


mortally wounded, but was carried from the field. Nearly 
all our dead and wounded remained in our own hands, and 
were taken back with us. We returned to our old bivouac 
and erected our tents with hopes of a good night s rest. 
But before dark we were ordered to pack up and make 
preparations for a night s march. 

At ten P. M., the regiment alone, accompanied with a 
brigade staff officer, moved to the Potomac, which wo crossed 
on pontoons at the foot of Maryland Heights. The division 
moved also, but by some other route. We marched until 
three A. M., and halted to rest our weary animals and our 
selves at the memorable Antietam creek, near Autietam Fur 

August 2Qth. At one P. M. we resumed our march to Sharps- 
burg, nearly every house of which bears marks of the great 
battle that was fought here in 1862. Turning to the right, 
the column passed over the main portion of the battle field, 
and bivuacked a few rods beyond Keedysville. At half past 
nine p. M., through pitchy darkness, we were counter 
marched to Sharpsburg. On the way we encountered one 
of the worst thunder storms ever witnessed. The rain fell 
in torrents, driven by a strong wind. The frequent light 
nings cleft the darkness, and left us blinded and in greater 
darkness than before. The thunder roared and shook the 
earth beneath us. Some of our horses became quite un 
manageable, and rendered our march perilous as well as un 
comfortable. On the wet ground, after this shower, we 
bivouacked in the fields near the town, having sent out a 
few pickets towards the river. 

August 27th. We picketed in front of Sharpsburg till 
twelve M., and were tWtn sent up the river about three miles, 


to picket some fords near Mercersville, where we continued 
till next morning. 

August 28th. Sunrise found us with our pickets with 
drawn, and in line of march towards Sharpsburg, where we 
joined the division. Again our faces were turned towards 
Virginia, and we were soon on its "sacred soil," having forded 
the Potomac a short distance below Shepardstown. Slowly 
and safely we advanced to Charlestown, halting by the rail 
road to allow the inliintry to pass through the town before 
us. With flying colors our brave boys entered this very 
rebellious village, arid the bands struck up the air of Old 
John Brown, and played lustily as they marched through 
the streets, where but a few years past gathered the chivalry 
to witness the execution of Old Ossawatomie. The cavalry 
at last marched on in rear of the infantry, and encamped in 
the woods not far from town. 

Up to this time our work in the valley had been very 
discouraging. It had been constant marching and fighting, 
but always retreating. The Rebels had had things nearly 
all their own way. However, we had prevented their cross 
ing again into Maryland ; and now, for some reason, they 
were falling back to the line of the Opequan creek. Gen. 
Sheridan, with some reinforcements, was now advancing to 
make battle in terrible earnest, and to push the enemy, if 
possible, fur from the states he was so anxious to invade. 

August 30th. The regiment was made sad this morning 
by the departure of Col. Hammond from its command. 
(See Mementos). In a field near our camp, the regiment 
was formed into a hollow square, and the colonel took 
formal leave. He undertook to speak a few words, but was 
choked by emotion. He rode forwdtt to the officers, who 


were formed in front and centre, and shook hands with 
them. He then addressed a few parting words to the men, 
and with three cheers proposed by Lieut. Col. Bacon, he 
passed out of the square, and left us. The regiment was 
immediately formed in line of inarch, and, with the division, 
advanced to Berryville, where we made an early bivouac. 

September 2d. As we have not full feed for our horses, 
our men are compelled to forage through the country, and 
occasionally squads of them are attacked and captured. 

During the night our position was flanked on the right, 
and this morning early we retreated on a back road by way 
of Myerstown, and returned to the pike not far from 
Charlestown. It was hoped we might here have a few days 
rest, and preparations were made for comfortable shelters, 
but about sundown the woods rang with "boots and sad 
dles." Again we advanced on Berryville, which we reached 
about ten p. M. We found the place occupied by the enemy, 
who retreated after a brief skirmish. 

September 3d. The division advanced this morning to 
Millwood and White Post, encountering a heavy force of 
the enemy a little beyond, from which we retired without 
an engagement. The rear of the column spent the night 
near Millwood. 

September kth. The command was made happy this 
morning with the news : " Atlanta is ours !" The enemy s 
cavalry, having taken possession of the pike between us 
and Berryville, we retreated to its vicinity by means of a 
circuitous route toward the Blue Ridge. On arriving we 
found that the enemy held the town in force. Our artillery 
was used quite extensively, the regiment supporting a bat 
tery. There was some musketry on the skirmish line, on 


which the regiment lay all night, having been relieved from 
the battery. 

September 5/A. The enemy was expelled from Berryville, 
and retired to the Opequan. The Fifth New York was 
sent on picket. A cold rain storm made mud for us and 

September lih. The day dawned bright and beautiful, 
after the storm. The division went out on the White Post 
road some distance, and turning to the right, proceeded as 
far as the Opequan, where we had a heavy skirmish with 
the enemy. Returned to Berryville at night. 

September th. The regiment spent yesterday and to-day 
on picket. The division has gone into camp on the north 
side of the pike. A large force of our infantry is also 
camped near by; and some of them are busy building earth 
works across the pike about one mile east of Berryville. 

September Wth. The regiment was relieved from picket, 

September 13th. The first brigade advanced toward Win 
chester on the pike, encountering the Kebel pickets at the 
Opequan. A quick dash was made upon their reserve, 
within two miles of Winchester, which, after a short 
skirmish, resulted in the capture of the 8th South Carolina 
volunteers. Sixteen officers, including their colonel, fell 
into our hands, and also their battle flag. The brunt of the 
engagement was borne by the 3d New Jersey and the 
2d Ohio regiments of cavalry. 

At the expiration of eight hours from the time the brigade 
moved out, we were back into our camps. This was one 
of the most brilliant exploits ever performed by the brigade. 

September 15^7i. The regiment went out again to the 
Opequan and skirmished with the enemy s pickets. 


September IQth. Spent the day on picket 

September 1.7th. At one A. M. several regiments of the 
1st brigade made another reconnoissance to the Opequan. 
The Fifth went mostly through the woods and fields. 
Crossed the creek at Burnt Factory, where a skirmish com 
menced and continued, until we returned to the creek, on 
the pike. We then fell back to camp near Berryville. 

September ISth. Regiment on picket. 

September 19f/i. General Sheridan had at length per 
fected his arrangements for a general move upon the enemy. 
At one A. M. the "general call" was sounded, tents were 
struck, and all due preparation made for the march. At 
two o clock a splendid force of infantry, cavalry and artil 
lery, was advancing toward Winchester. The 2d Xew York 
had the advance, followed by the Fifth. Before daylight 
the Rebel cavalry pickets were charged at the Opequan, 
and driven hastily before us. Believing that this was noth 
ing more than a repitition of the many reconnoissances 
and raids, we had recently made, the Johnnies were 
scarcely prepared for the onset that was made upon them. 
Passing around a heavy barricade across the pike, the 
cavalry waited not for the infantry supports, but dashed up 
the road, and charged the enemy s fortifications. Before 
they had fairly time to recover from this unexpected blow, 
they were struck by the strong lines of our eager infantry 
men, and shells from our batteries just in position, fell fast 
among them. And now commenced one of the most brilliant 
engagements of the war. 

Our first attack, so unexpected and furious, gave us the 
enemy s first line of works. This was a decided advantage, 
both in demoralizing ihe foe, and in giving us a better 


position. The contestants soon became engaged throughout 
the entire line, extended for four or five miles across the 

About ten o clock, by a persistent effort to keep his army 
well in hand, and by planting his artillery on the hills and 
chosen positions in front of Winchester, General Early, 
commanding the Rebel forces, succeeded in checking our 
advance. A terrible contest now followed. Forward and 
backward, advancing and receding, surged those living lines 
of men like the foamiug waves of ocean. But, at length, 
the cavalry, the first division on the right, the third on 
the left, succeeded in driving in and enveloping the extreme 
wings of the Rebel army. At this the centre of their line 
began to waver, and, ere long, the whole force was in a 
swift retreat through Winchester, leaving their dead and 
wounded behind-them. The battle had raged from morning 
till nearly sundown, and the field was strewn thick with 
the wrecks of recently proud, brave men. 

Five distinct charges had the regiment made during the 
day, four of these against infantry. In one of these charges, 
Capt. Farley, company C, while gallantly rallying his men, 
lost his right leg, which was taken away by a solid shot 
or shell. It was amputated above the knee. In another 
charge, led by Gen. Mclntosh in person, the general 
received a fearful gunshot wound in the left leg, which was 
amputated below the knee. We had sustained a heavy loss, 
the bitterness of which was mitigated by the glorious success 
which had crowned our effort. 

Notwithstanding the fatigue of our horses and men, we 
were sent in pursuit of the retreating army. Swinging 
around Winchester to the left, we tame up to the pike just 


above Milltown, and advanced beyond Kernstown, where we 
bivouacked for the night. 

September 20th. The division advanced to Newtown, 
and, turning to the left, struck the Front Royal pike at 
Nineveh, which we followed to Crooked Run, where the 
enemy was met, and a slight skirmish followed. 

The command bivouacked early in the grassy fields. 

September 21st. The division was early on the move. 
The morning was chilly and foggy. The North Fork She- 
nandoah was crossed without opposition, and the enemy was 
found in considerable force on the South Fork. He was 
quickly driven from his strong position, leaving his spades 
and pickaxes in the trenches he was constructing. We 
pursued him rapidly through Front Royal, and halted to 
feed our horses in the fine corn fields beyond the town. At 
three p. M. we moved up the Luray pike to Asbury Church. 
This road is exceedingly romantic, with the broad, clear 
river on one side, and the lofty, precipitous rocks on the 

At the church we halted, and received one of the 
most fearful shellings, through which we ever passed, from 
the Rebel batteries posted on a high, commanding hill. 
Several regiments of the brigade broke before this fire, but 
the Fifth New York received high commendation for stand 
ing firm. We built our bivouac fires by the church at 

September 22d. In the night the Rebels retreated up the 
valley, and early in the morning we gave them pursuit. 
We followed them to Milford creek, where we found them 
strongly intrenched in an impregnable position. All day 
we skirmished and fought with them. The Fifth New 


York was engaged till night, when the division fell back, 
and left us on picket. 

September 23<f. This morning the whole division moved 
back toward Strasburg, stopping by the river near Water- 
lick Station, Manassas Gap rail road. Here we received 
Gen. Sheridan s dispatches announcing his great victory at 
Fisher s Hill. They were read to the division, and the air 
was rent with the vociferous cheering of our men. At night 
we were again advanced up the Luray Valley, halting after 
midnight near Milford creek. 

September 24th. During our absence the enemy had 
abandoned his strong position at Milford, and was fleeing up 
the valley. Before sunrise we resumed our march. Near 
Luray where the valley becomes broad and beautiful, the 
enemy was encountered in force and driven, about one hun 
dred prisoners falling into our hands. They were all loud 
in their denunciations of Gen. Early, the "apple-jack 
bibber," as many of them called him. On the hills beyond 
Luray we went into camp. But scarcely had we cooked 
our suppers, when "boots and saddles" hurried every man 
to his horse, and in an incredibly short time the whole 
force was in motion. This move was made in hopes of cap 
turing the enemy, who had gone up the mountains toward 
the Shenandoah Valley, but, finding it occupied by our 
forces, was compelled to descend to the Luray again. How 
ever, night came on too soon, and, in the darkness, the enemy 
slipped out of our hands. We forded the river, and 
bivouacked about nine o clock, in a settlement, called Mas- 

September 25^. This bright Sabbath morning found us 
vigorously pursuing our march over the Massanutten inoun- 


tains, through a gap from which a splendid view is obtained 
of the two valleys, which this range separates, the Luray 
and Shenandoah. About ten A. M. we arrived in the 
vicinity of New Market, where we met our supply train. 
Commissaries and quartermasters were in great repute just 
then, as were also the sutlers with their scanty supplies at 
enormous prices. We were camped a few hours in the 
woods. Here we received a good mail. 

About 2 p. M. the whole command started up the valley, 
halting near our vast infantry camps at Harrisonburg, about 
eleven o clock. 

September 26th. This morning the cavalry moved up 
the valley, reaching Staunton at dusk. Not far from town, 
on the road to Waynesboro , we bivouacked, after a very 
fatiguing journey. 

September 27th. At ten A. M. the regiment was detailed 
to escort Gen. Custer to his new command, lately Gen. 
Averill s, known among us as the Second division. This com 
mand was near Port Republic. On the way the regiment had 
a fearful skirmish with the enemy at Mt. Meridian. How 
ever, it succeeded in getting through, with the general unhurt. 

September 28th. The boys were early on their way to 
rejoin the division, which they did at night, just after the 
battle of Waynesboro , in which a good number of the 
regiment were engaged. The division was now retreating, 
and a long, dreary march was before us. We passed 
through Staunton, and followed the pike down about two 
miles ; then turning to the left, we followed a rough, crook 
ed road that led us to the Glade, a small valley near the 
foot of the North or Shenandoah mountains. We journeyed 
all night long, and halted for breakfast at Spring Hill. 


September 29tk. From this halt the regiment was rear 
guard of the column. A slight attack was made on us and 
repelled. Many of our horses gave out by the way and 
were shot. The division took possession of Bridgewater 
about noon. The regiment was on picket till night, when 
it camped near the town. 

October 2d. During our rest here our horses have fared 
well with the forage, which is abundant all around us, and 
the men have obtained very comfortable subsistence from, 
the country. Meanwhile, General Wilson has been removed 
to a large command in the western army, and General 
Custer has superseded him in the command of the Third 

At noon the command broke camp, and soon after the 
enemy s cavalry made a dash on our pickets and succeeded 
in penetrating the town. They were, however; driven back 
with some loss. Nearly all the afternoon skirmishing 
and cannonading have been going on. The regiment 
had a dark, unpleasant night s picketing along this danger 
ous line. 

October 3J. On picket till five P. M. We then joined 
the brigade near Dayton and went into camp. 

October th. In retaliation for the murder of Capt. Meigs, 
son of Quartermaster Gen. Meigs* near Dayton, by some 
citizen guerrillas, the regiment was ordered to report to 
Capt. Lee, provost marshal of the division, to burn every 
building within a circle of three miles from the scene of 
the murder. This was the most heart-sickening duty we 
had ever performed. Splendid mansions in great number, 
in the vicinity, were laid in ashes; but before the work 
of burning the town commenced, the order was coun- 


termanded. The execution of such orders, however just 
and right, has a very demoralizing effect upon the men. 

October Gth. On falling back from the upper portion of 
the valley, Gen. Sheridan ordered all stacks or ricks of hay 
or grain, or the same in barns, to be destroyed by fire. 
Grist mills were to share the same fate. This, precaution 
was to prevent the enemy s ever returning to subsist his 
army on this fruitful country. The march of our army 
could now be traced by the heavy smokes,, which rose on 
the air. 

On leaving Dayton this morning two grist mills were 
destroyed. The enemy followed very closely on our rear. 
Not far from Turleytown near Brock s Gap, he made a 
strong attack, in a position very advantageous to himself. 
By dint of effort and fine fighting he was prevented from 
doing us much injury. The regiment lay all night on the 
skirmish line. 

October 7th. We continued falling back on the moun 
tain road, and were rejoined by a squadron of the regiment, 
that was sent to Brock s Gap last evening, was cut off, but 
succeeded by great exertion and good fortune, to pass 
unhurt through the enemy s lines. At Forestville our 
column was attacked by a strong force. During the skirm 
ish we lost seven forges, including ours, several ambulances, 
and a few men. Here Sergeant Whitney, company F, then 
in command of the company, lost his life by a fatal bullet, 
while gallantly struggling to repel the enemy. 

We continued our march to Columbian Furnace, near 
which we bivouacked for the night. 

October 8th. As usual we were early on the move. The 
rear guard was attacked several times on the way. We 


reached Fisher s Hill bsfore sundown, find were sent on 
picket toward Tom s Brook. 

October 9th. Annoyed by the frequent attacks of the 
enemy on our rear guards and pickets, Gen. Custer resolved 
to drive him from the vicinity. So facing about with his 
division, this morning he advanced upon Generals Rosser 
and Lomax in a fine position near Tom s Brook. This 
was a pure cavalry fight, and one of the most spirited of 
the war. Having properly planted his artillery, and dis 
posed his force as advantageously as possible, the general 
ordered the bugles on the entire line to sound the advance, 
and leading the Fifth New York in person, he made a dash 
on the enemy s central position in the road. Our color 
bearer, Sergeant Buckley, company C, displayed his usual 
bravery, bearing our flag close by the side, and, at times, 
ahead of the general s. With a shout and a dash, with 
thundering artillery and gleaming sabres, with trusty car 
bines and Yankee grit, our boys scattered the enemy before 
them, and won a complete victory. On the pike the First 
division, Gen. Merritt commanding, made a clean sweep of 
the enemy s cavalry on their front. 

October llth. This afternoon we moved to the pike, 
passed through Strasburg, and camped, after dark, near 
Belle Grove, Gen. Sheridan s headquarters. 

October I3th. The enemy made an attack on our cavalry 
pickets on Cedar creek. The regiment was sent out to 
reenforce the pickets. After some cannonading and skirm 
ishing, the enemy withdrew, and the pickets were reestab 

October 14th. The regiment went on a reconnoissance to 
Lebanon church, where the enemy was met, and, after a 


slight skirmish, we returned to the north bank of Cedar 

October 15th. Went on picket along the creek. 

October IQth. We were relieved by the 1st Connecticut, 
and came back to the brigade, where we went into camp. 

October I9th. About four o clock A. M. we were aroused 
from our slumbers by an attack on our cavalry pickets at 
the right of our line. This was followed by the discharge 
of signal guns down the Rebel lines, ending with a fearful 
and surprise attack on the 8th corps (Gen. Crook s), which 
occupied our left. Here the men were killed and captured 
in their tents, and nearly the whole camp, with sutlers 
wagons, trains, and several pieces of artillery, fell into the 
enemy s hands. Driven back in confusion, panic-stricken, 
the left of the 19th corps (Gen. Emory s), was uncovered 
and exposed to a withering fire from the exultant foe. Many 
of our brave fellows fell while contesting this central and 
important position. But our fortified lines had to be 
abandoned, and the old 6th corps (Gen. Wright s) came 
under the flank fire of the advancing columns. 

Nine o clock, and our lines had been driven back about 
three miles, and disaster had followed us at every step. A 
deep gloom had settled upon the army. The absence of 
Gen. Sheridan was deeply felt by all. But about ten o clock, 
loud cheering in the rear, taken up by centre and front, 
announced that the hero of the Shenandoah had arrived 
upon the field of carnage. His black charger, reeking with 
foam, and covered with dust, had brought him in quick 
haste from Winchester. 

" The first that the general saw were the groups 
Of stragglers and the retreating troops. 


What was done, what to do, a glance told him "both ; 

Then, striking his spurs with a terrible oath, 

He dashed down the line mid a storm of huzzas, 

And the wave of retreat checked its course there, because 

The sight of the master compelled it to pause." 

The tide of battle immediately turned. Every man became 
suddenly transformed into two men, and the general s pres 
ence gave a foretaste of victory. The meeting of the 
generals was exceedingly affecting. Hats and caps were 
thrown into the air, and tears fell from their eyes like rain. 
Old gray-headed heroes sobbed like girls. Ouster,- the dar 
ing, terrible demon that he is in battle, caught Sheridan in 
his arms, but was unable to utter a word ! It was no time 
for sentiment. While consulting with his generals the 
alarming intelligence reached Sheridan that the enemy s 
cavalry was rapidly moving to flank him on the right. 

" Custer, I can trust you with the work of driving back 
this force," he said, after looking around him for a moment. 
No time was lost, and the work was successfully performed. 

Inch by inch the Rebel lines gave way, until about sun 
set, when our artillery opened along our entire line with a 
galling fire. Then came the impetuous charge of our entire 
force, with the usual war-cry, more terrific than cannon s 
awful bellowing, and then, too, came the disastrous rout of 
the enemy. At this juncture the ever-ready Third division 
of cavalry made a grand dash at the fugacious Johnnies. 
A glance to the rear showed them closed in a solid body, 
their sabres flashing dimly through the smoke of that terri 
ble field. No cheering now ; nothing but the thundering 
tread of the columns, announcing our approach to the enemy, 
as we swept into the fire. The creek had been forded, and 


only half a mile, before we could reach the guns that were 
belching shot and shell at our troopers. The bugles again 
sounded the charge, and with a cheer we rode straight for 
the foe. It was a maddening time. The Rebels delivered 
one fierce volley, and the next instant the pitiless sabres of 
our men and the iron heels of the horses were doing their 
work. For three miles the charge continued, the bloody 
ground, the broken muskets, the dead and wounded, told 
its ferocity. Only the darkness of night put an end to the 
slaughter. Never in this war was so much gained. Sheri 
dan s victory was complete. 

Interesting accounts of extraordinary valor in the regiment 
may be found in the chapter of registers of companies. 
The following article, with receipt, from a New York daily, 
will show how the regirne nt -behaved on this memorable day : 

Among the regiments that participated in Sheridan s vic 
tory of October 19th, none equaled the success of the Fifth 
New York Cavalry. The following interesting and important 
receipt for property, captured by the regiment has been issued : 

Headquarters First Brigade, ") " 
Third Cavalry Division,0ct. 21st, 1864. f 

Received of the Fifth New York Cavalry, commanded by 
Major A. H. Krom, twenty-two pieces of artillery, fourteen 
caissons, one battery wagon, seventeen army wagons, six 
spring wagons and ambulances, eighty-three sets of artillery 
harness, seventy-five sets of wagon harness, ninety-eight 
horses, sixty-seven mules, captured in action in the battle 
of the 19th of October, 1864, on Cedar creek, Va. 

Colonel Commanding Brigade. 
Adjutant s General s Office, Oct. 25, 1864. 
[A true copy.] E. D. TOWNSEND, A. A. Gr. 


To this receipt might have been added two battle flags 
and many prisoners. The following congratulatory order 
was issued and promulgated to his division by General 
Ouster : 

Headquarters,Third Division, Cavalry Corps, \ 
Middle Military Division, October 21, 1804. / 

Soldiers of the Third Cavalry Division: 

With pride and gratification your commanding general 
congratulates you upon your brilliant achievements of the 
past few days. 

On the ninth of the present month you attacked a vastly 
superior force of the enemy s cavalry, strongly posted, with 
artillery in position, and commanded by that famous "savior 
of the Valley," Rosser. 

Notwithstanding the enemy s superiority in numbers and 
position, you drove him twenty miles, capturing his artillery, 
six pieces in all , also his entire train of wagons and ambu 
lances, and a large number of prisoners. Again, during 
the memorable engagement of the nineteenth instant, your 
conduct throughout was sublimely heroic, and without a 
parallel in the annals of warfare. In the early part of the 
day, when disaster and defeat seemed to threaten our noble 
army upon all sides, your calm and determined bearing, 
while exposed to a terrible fire from the enemy s guns, 
added not a little to- restore confidence to that portion of 
our army already broken and driven back on the right. 

Afterwards, rapidly transferred from the right flank to 
the extreme left, you materially and successfully assisted in 
defeating the enemy in his attempt to turn the left flank of 
our army. Again ordered on the right flank, you attacked 
and defeated a division of the enemy s cavalry, driving him 


in confusion across Cedar creek. Then changing your front 
to the left at a gallop, you charged and turned the left 
flank of the enemy s line of battle, and pursued his broken 
and demoralized army a distance of five niiles. Night 
alone put an end to your pursuit. 

Among the substantial fruits of this great victory, you 
can boast of having captured five battle flags, a large num 
ber of prisoners, including Major Gen. Ramseur, and forty- 
five of the forty-eight pieces of artillery taken from the 
enemy on thattday, thus making fifty-one pieces of artillery 
which you have captured from the enemy within the short 
period of ten days. 

This is a record of which you may well be proud, a record 
won and established by your gallantry and perseverance. 
You have surrounded the name of the Third cavalry division 
with a halo as enduring as time. 

The history of this war, when truthfully written, will 
contain no brighter page than that upon which is recorded 
the chivalrous deeds, and glorious triumphs of the soldiers 
of the Third division. 


Brigadier General Commanding. 

Ofl&cial: Chs. Siebert, Captain and A. A. G. 

On the 19th of September we gave the Rebels a thorough 
whipping at Winchester; on the 19th of October we repeated 
the operation with a double dose on Cedar creek, each time 
with the 19th corps in the centre of the line, giving us an 
arithmetical assemblage worthy of remembrance by the 
American people. 

It was quite late at night when the pursuit was discon 
tinued, and the troops returned to their "old campground." 


October 2Qth. The division went out on a reconnoissance 
to Tom s Brook on the mountain road, but captured only a 
few stragglers. The column returned to camp but the Fifth 
was left on picket at the Cedar creek neighborhood. Major 
Boice took command. 

October 2lst. The 2d Ohio relieved us about sundown, 
and we came near brigade headquarters into camp. 

On the 25th and 31st we took our tour at picketing. 

November 5th. The regiment went out on a reconnoissance 
toward Roinney. It returned at night, alter.a tedious, cold 
and fruitless march. 

November Sth. The whole army broke camp and moved 
near Kernstown, where it is expected we may build winter 

November 9th. The first brigade was sent out on the 
mountain road near Zion Church, where a picket line was 

November 12th. The enemy s cavalry drove in our pickets 
this morning, and made their appearance very near our 
camp. The First brigade went out and drove them beyond 
Cedar creek, after an exciting engagement. Col. Hull, of 
the 2d New York, while pushing on at the head of his men, 
was killed. He was a gallant young officer, who had but 
recently borne the eagle. He was generally lamented. 

We returned to our camps at night, after severely 
punishing the enemy. 

November 13th. A reconnoissance was made to Cedar 
creek, but the enemy was not discovered. 

November 21s/. The Second and Third divisions started 
up the valley on a reconnoissance. The whole force bi 
vouacked in and about Woodstock at night. 


November 22d. The advance, at Edinburg, captured the 
Rebel outpost of pickets this morning, and as rapidly as pos 
sible the whole force advanced to the Shenandoah beyond 
Mt. Jackson, where a strong picket line was encountered. 
The Second division was moved across the river, with a 
portion of the Third division, and advanced in skirmish line 
near Rood s Hill, where it developed the power of the enemy, 
who came out in three well-formed lines of battle. To 
ascertain the position and force of the enemy was all we had 
intended. Having accomplished this to our satisfaction, all 
we desired was to escape from this force with the least possi 
ble injury. This was not done, however, without a hard- 
fought battle. In this engagement the regiment performed 
deeds of the most wonderful daring, preventing a flank 
movement on the column by the enemy s cavalry. About 
three P. M. we succeeded in dealing our pursuers such 
a blow, as to enable us to fall back unmolested. The main 
force returned to Woodstock, and halted for the night 
The Fifth, however, was left to picket the rear along Stony 
creek. The night was very cold, occasioning some suffering. 

November 2od. A cold march, over frozen ground, brought 
us back again to our camp near the sources of the Opequan, 
about three miles from Kernstown. 

November 2lh. This evening, after feasting on our 
Thanksgiving chickens and turkeys, sent us by Our friends 
in the north, the regiment was made doubly thankful by 
receiving an order from General Sheridan detailing us for 
his escort. 

November 25th. Obedient to the order, we reported to 
General Sheridan at nine A. M., and were ordered into camp 
near his headquarters at Kernstown. 


Quite an effort was made by some high officials to get the 

regiment back to the brigade, but the general said, " What 

I have written, I have written." 

As our campaigning is now ended for the season, with 

pleasure we append the following result of Gen. Sheridan s 

work in the valley : 

Prisoners captured at Winchester (well) 2,200 

Prisoners captured at Winchester (wounded) 2,000 

Prisoners captured at Fisher s Hill 900 

Prisoners captured on the march beyond and since and 

before the battle 1,600 

Prisoners captured at Cedar creek % 2,000 

Total prisoners 8,600 

Cannon captured near Martinsburg 2 

Cannon captured on the Opequan 5 

Cannon captured at Fisher s Hill 21 

Cannon captured in cavalry battle 11 

Cannon captured at Cedar creek 50 

Total 89 

Small arms captured at Winchester 6,000 

Small arms captured at Fisher s Hill 1,100 

Small arms captured at Cedar creek (say) 5,000 

Total 12,100 

Caissons captured at Winchester 4 

Caissons captured at Fisher s Hill 9 

Caissons captured at Cedar creek (say) 12 

Total 25 

Wagons captured at different points 160 

Wagons captured at Cedar creek 100 

Total 200 

December 1st. The regiment escorted the general to 
Sheridan hospital near Winchester, where we witnessed 


the ceremony of a flag raising, a flag presented by the Union 
ladies of the town. There was a large and brilliant assem 
blage of smiling ladies, and gayly dressed officers, and not a 
few of our brave boys seated on benches and chairs, who 
had lost arms, legs, health, &c., for the proud flag, whose 
floating to-day they cheered with happy voices. 

December 14/7i. "We escorted the general to his new head 
quarters at the Logan mansion in Winchester. The regi 
ment was ordered to build winter quarters, which work was 
begun near the town on west side of the road to Martins- 
burg. Nearly the whole army has constructed or is con 
structing its winter quarters. 

December 31s. The old year is dying, with the pure 
white snow for her winding sheet and the hoarse winds for 
her requiem. These are solemn hours to the Christian 
soldier. Memory recalls the terrible dangers through 
which he has passed and the awful scenes he has witnessed. 
His heart swells with gratitude to the Great Preserver for 
the gift of safety, and he prays for courage and strength to 
be faithful and efficient until his work is done. 



General Sheridan s Last Raid. Up the Valley Battle of 
Waynesboro . Many Prisoners. In Charge of the Regi 
ment, Rosser Annoys Rear of Column. Battle of Rood s 
Hill. Rosser Defeated. Fall of Richmond. Lee Surren 
ders. Suburbs of Winchester. Rebel Soldiers Anxious to 
be Paroled. Expedition to Staunton. Preparation to Muster 
out the Regiment. Camp Illumination. Last Order of Col. 
White. Journey to Hart s Island, N. Y. Harbor. The Fifth 
New York Cavalry is No More. January 1st to July 2Gth, 1805. 

January 10?7t. Several of General Sheridan s scouts, ac 
companied by a detail of the regiment, made a demonstra 
tion on the Rebel pickets, near Edinburg, capturing a good 
number. Returning they tarried too long at Woodstock, 
where they were attacked by a large force, the prisoners 
liberated and some of the party captured. 

January 2?,d. An affair quite similar to the above oc 
curred at Edinburg. Our loss was larger than before. 

February 23c?. The regiment went out on a reconnois- 
sance to Newtown, White Post, Millwood, and returned at 
eleven o clock at night, without seeing even the semblance 
of an enemy. 

February 27/7i. A grand cavalry movement was com 
menced to-day, the fruit of which will compare favorably 
with any other movement during the war Gen. Sheridan, 
with the cavalry of the valley, moved out toward Staunton 


about ten o clock. The regiment accompanied him. The 
column moved as rapidly as possible up the Valley pike, 
which is one of the finest highways of the country, and in 
good condition at all seasons of the year. 

March 1st. The advance reached the vicinity of Waynes- 
boro , the headquarters of General Early, commanding 
llebel forces. Here the Third division again proved itself 
worthy of the renown it had acquired. With his usual 
daring Gen. Custer advanced his division upon the Rebel 
camp. All resistance was fruitless. Our men swept around 
this ill-starred army and enveloped them like fish in a 
net. Gen. Early barely escaped, by cunningly dodging 
into a thicket, pursued closely by the horsemen. His staff 
officers and nearly his entire force fell into our hands, 
making a total of about 1,400 prisoners. His artillery, 
camp and garrison equipage and stores were either appro 
priated to our own use or destroyed, mostly the latter. This 
was but the beginning of achievements, which place the 
name of Sheridan among the first heroes of modern times. 

Encumbered by so great a crowd of prisoners, the general 
concluded to send them to the rear by way of Winchester. 
This was no small task, to guard upward of a thousand 
men nearly a hundred miles through a country infested by 
guerrillas, and by the forces of General Rosser. This task 
was committed to the Fifth New York, with detachments of 
other regiments, and a promiscuous lot of dismounted men, 
and of men whose ^horses were well-nigh "played out," 
making a command about one thousand strong. 

Retaining with himself such of the regiment as were 
orderlies for his staff officers, messengers, color bearers, &c., 
the general pursued his journey over the Blue Ridge, cap- 


hired cities and prisoners, destroyed rail roads, canals and 
other public property, eluded the enemy by the swiftness of 
his motion, and, after inflicting irreparable injury, rested 
his brave, tired squadrons near White House Landing. 
But he was ready for the opening campaign near Peters 
burg, where he covered himself and his men with glory, at 
Dinwiddie, Five Forks and Appomattox, surrounding the 
enemy at last and compelling him to a hasty surrender. 
From this digression we return to the main body of the 

The roads from Waynesboro , cut down by the train, the 
pontoon wagons and the artillery, and trampled by the long 
lines of cavalry, were almost impassable. Along these the 
guard and prisoners floundered, traveling in the fields 
where they could, and finally rejoiced to have struck the 
firm macadamized pike near Staunton. Here supplies of flour 
and meat were obtained in abundance, and the command 
was prepared to undertake its long, perilous march to Win 

At Mt. Sidney a considerable body of Rosser s men 
made their appearance, and attacked the rear guard. They 
were repelled after a brief skirmish, during which Edward 
Morton, company M, had a ball wound his horse and another 
pass through his canteen full of sorghum, letting out the 
contents. Occasional shots were exchanged with these 
pursuers, who hung on our rear, all the way. At Lacey 
Springs, their numbers having been increased, they made 
quite a demonstration. This was renewed with new zeal 
and numbers at New Market, while the force was gathering 
on every side to contest the passage of the Shenandoah near 
Mt. Jackson. On the morning of the seventh of March, the 


command was ready to cross the river. The Fifth was 
again rear guard. G-cn. Rosser, intent on releasing the 
prisoners, had collected his force, and, coming down Rood s 
Hill, charged on the column. Col. Boice, commanding the 
regiment, suddenly changed direction, held his men in good 
line, each reserving his fire until the enemy had approached 
within a few rods, then ordering and leading the charge, 
he fell with a crushing blow upon the enemy. The John 
nies, not expecting such a dash, wheeled about and under 
took to fly, but weje prevented doing so rapidly on account 
of the mud of the field where they were. A hand to haud 
contest of unusual excitement followed, in which the most 
daring deeds were done. Col. Boice, having emptied every 
chamber of his revolver, unhorsed six Rebel troopers with 
the butt. The affair resulted, not in the release of the 
prisoners as fondly hoped by Rosser, but in the capture of 
thirty- five of his men, the killing of quite a number, and 
the dispersion of his entire force. Our boys went on their 
way rejoicing, and crossed the river unmolested, while a 
few of the beaten Rebels grinned at them from Rood s Hill, 
beyond carbine range. 

The remainder of the march was quite pleasant, and the 
arrival of the column at Winchester, the eighth of March, 
was hailed with a salute from the First Maine battery. 

The regiment returned to camp, and the prisoners were 
sent on to Harper s Ferry. The regiment was now subject 
to orders from Gen. Hancock, who had the temporary com 
mand of the forces in and about Winchester. 

March 13^A. The regiment went on a reconnoissance to 
Berryville. Deserters from the Rebel lines are daily coming 
in our own, and giving themselves up. 


March 16th. The paymaster is making us a friendly call, 
and is relieving himself freely of " stamps," as the boys 
call his greenbacks. 

March 29th. The regiment had the honor of being 
reviewed by two generals with their staffs, namely, Hancock 
and Torbert. Gen. Hancock was heard to say, " Well 
done/ on witnessing some swift evolutions, which gave 
the boys peculiar satisfaction. 

April 3d. Swift telegrams announce Gen. Sheridan s 
victorious battles below Petersburg, and the fall of Rich 
mond ! Batteries rend the air with their salutes, and 
bands of music fill the intervals with joyful airs. The 
evening has been made luminous with fireworks from the 
signal tower on Logan mansion, and bonfires in the streets. 

AfirilStli. Midnight! and the booming cannon announce 
the surrender of General Lee and the army of Northern 
Virginia. Aroused from their slumbers the soldiers and 
some citizens rush to Gen. Hancock s headquarters, a happy, 
almost crazy throng. The Logan mansion shines with an 
illumination, the signal tower blazes with fireworks, bells 
ring, bands discourse patriotic music, flags are paraded 
through the streets, and the multitude grows hoarse with 
cheering. The whole night is filled with jubilation. 

April l&th. All are filled with gloom at the news of the 
assassination of our beloved President last evening. Thus 
the bitterest cup is tendered to the lips of the people in the 
midst of their highest joy over past victories. Freedom s 
noblest champion, a nation s great chief, falls a martyr to 
his cause ! 

April 21th. It has been a busy day, breaking up winter 
quarters, and removing into a grassy field about a mile from 


town near the Romney pike. We are now merged into a 
Provisional brigade of cavalry, under command of Col. 
Reno. Before leaving sight of Winchester, we should say, 
that though it does not appear as when first visited by the 
regiment in 1862, it still presents some objects of interest. 
Near by it on the Romney pike are the ruins of the man 
sion of James M. Mason (Mason and Slidell), once the 
headquarters of Gen. Banks. 

On the north side of the town, in an old cemetery, is the 
grave of " Major Gen. Daniel Morgan, who died in 1808," 
of revolutionary fame. The marble slab is of poor quality, 
and has been wantonly broken piece by piece, for the sake 
of relics, until the inscription is partially obliterated. 

To the east of this cemetery is the Union soldiers sleeping 
place, a parterre enclosed with a neat board fence, and 
whose straight rows of graves with their uniform head 
boards, painted white with black inscriptions, present a 
scene thrillingly interesting. This graveyard is contiguous 
to the Winchester cemetery, whose monuments and tomb 
stones show marks of the many battles which have been 
fought in this vicinity. 

April 29^/i. Fragments of the Rebel army are constantly 
coming in, even guerrillas, who were scarcely expected to 
give up their work so soon. They, too, are eager for their 
parole, sick at heart with the war, and glad to return to 
more peaceful pursuits. 

A salute was fired to-day on the reception of a telegram 
announcing the surrender of Johnston and his army to 
Gen. Sherman. 

May 4th. At seven this morning the regiment moved out 
with a brigade of infantry, the whole in command of Brig. 


Gen. Duval, on the way to Staunton. The march was per 
formed quietly, resembling more a picnic party, than an 
assemblage of warriors. 

We were everywhere received with cordiality, having 
nothing to offer but " peace and good will " to all law- 
abiding citizens. Farmers are in their fields, mechanics in 
their shops, merchants display their scanty stores, and a new 
life is manifested on every side. 

May $th. The expedition reached Stauuton, and camped 
in an about the town. It is remarkable how readily paroled 
llebel soldiers affiliate with us, and how anxiously those who 
are not paroled seek their papers. The rank and file of the 
llebel army will return to a cordial submission to our laws, 
more readily than the people generally, who have simply 
looked on the conflict. 

May VZtli. The regiment went out with two days rations 
and forage, under light marching orders, to Lexington, 
where they captured or arrested Ex-Governor Letcher, and 
brought him to Staunton, arriving on the 20th. This ex 
pedition was quite a relief from the monotonous life, which 
we are now living. There is not enough to do to keep up 
our energies. And as the war is over, and we have accom 
plished the work we came out to do, there is a very general 
desire that we may be mustered out and sent home at an 
early day. Several officers and men have sought to dissi 
pate the ennui of our situation, by visiting Weyer s Cave, 
near Port Republic on the South Fork Shenandoah. 

June Sth. Under order No. 83, Adjutant-General s Office, 
mustering out all men whose term of service expires pre 
vious to October 1st, we lost quite a large number of our men 
to-day, who left us for home. It was hard in many in- 


stances to sever the attachments that have been formed 
during our peculiar life and acquaintance. 

Jane \1tli. The regiment gladly obeyed orders to return 
to Winchester. We commenced our march at five P. M., with 
the design of marching mostly in the cool of evening and 
night, and of resting during the heat of day. Our march 
was pleasantly performed, and we reached Winchester 
about noon of the 15th, and Ditched our tents in Camp 
Hammond, which we had left. 

July 15th. Busy preparations are being made and are 
nearly completed for the mustering out of the regiment. 
Consequently general gladness prevails in camp. This 
inward joy was manifested this evening by a grand camp 
illumination. Candles were placed in rows upon the tents 
and carried up into the trees of the woods where we are 
encamped. Bonfires were built in the company streets, and 
torches were carried in procession. Several officers of the 
field and staff were cheered, and Col. White was called out 
for a speech, which he made. The entertainment closed by 
hanging and burning Jeff. Davis in effigy. Those who wit 
nessed the novel scenes of the evening will not soon forget 

July IStJi. This morning the regiment received the last 
general order ever issued to it. 

HEAD QUARTERS Fifth X. Y. Cavalry, 
In the Field near Winchester. 

In compliance with orders from the commanding general 
the regiment will leave Stevenson s Station this p. M. at 
three o clock, en route to New York city, for final discharge. 

Transportation will be furnished for officers horses to place 
of muster out. The regiment will march for the depot at 

. Cavalry, ~\ 

Vinchester, Va., > 
ly ISth, 1865. J 


twelve M. Every officer and enlisted man will be in camp 
to march promptly at that hour. En route home and until 
final discharge, it is earnestly hoped the regiment will sus 
tain its good name. 

After four years of hardship and honor you return to 
your state to be honorably mustered out of service and to 
return once more to a peaceful life among your friends and 
loved ones. In a few days you will be scattered and the 
Fifth New York Cavalry will be no more. The hardships 
you have endured ; the comforts of which you have been 
deprived ; the cheerful and prompt manner in which you 
have always done your duty, and the successes you have 
met with on the battle field, have won the admiration of every 
general officer under whom you have served. Surpassed by 
none, equaled by few, your record as a regiment is a glo 
rious and an honorable one. 

May your future lives be as prosperous and as full of 
honor to yourselves, as the past four years have been to your 
country, to your state and to the Fifth New York Cavalry. 

Col. Comd g 

5th N. Y. Cavalry. 

The regiment was ready to move at the appointed hour, 
and at three P. M. the train that bore many a happy heart, 
moved from Stevenson s Station toward Harper s Ferry. 

July 19^7t. Our muster out papers all bear this date. 
In the City of Brotherly Love at " Cooper Shop," the regi 
ment was entertained with an excellent supper. Cheerfully 
we pursued our journey to the metropolis, where we tarried 
not long, and on the afternoon of the 20th, we were neatly 
encamped on Hart s Island, New York harbor, awaiting our 


turn with the paymaster. The Fifth Regiment of Cavalry, 
Fifth Infantry and Fifth Artillery, N. Y. Vols., met to 
gether for the first time on Hart s Island. 

July 25th. The first and second battalions and Co. I of 
the third were paid this afternoon and evening, and many 
of the men took boat from the island for home. 

July 26th. The remaining three companies of the regi 
ment were paid this morning, and the Fifth New York 
Cavalry was no more, except in story. 


Regimental Items. Tables : Officers at Time of Muster Out. 
Commanding Officers. Non-comrnissioned Staff. Exhibit of 
Strength on Monthly Returns. Full Statistics. Former Oc 
cupations of our Men. Their Places of Birth. Marches of 
the Regiment Counties Traversed. Escort Duty. Gen 
erals under whom we Served. Burial of Our Dead. Tables: 
Engagements and their Casualties. Men Killed in Action. 
Mortally Wounded. Discharged by Reason of Wounds. List 
of Retired Officers. 

In passing from the diary of the regiment, we intro 
duce the reader to what may seem more dry and uninterest 
ing, yet not less important, to a vast array of statistics. To 
any one but a member or friend of the regiment it may 
seem to have been unnecessary to appropriate so much space to 
these numbers. Our apology if indeed any be needed 
shall be brief. We look upon such tables as invaluable to 
correct and full history. Figures often reveal more than 
narration. Great pains have been taken (o present them in 
an attractive form, and one convenient for reference, and 
no time has been spared in making them reliable. Not less 
than three months of hard labor have been consumed in the 
compilation of these tables, one of them alone "engage 
ments and their casualties" having occupied nearly one- 
third of that time. 

Were the historian supplied with such data from each 


regiment, which has participated in our terrible struggle, 
an incalculably interesting and valuable history of this 
rebellion might be compiled at no distant day. But it is to 
be feared that in many instances not even the number 
much less the names, of our noble defenders, who have 
fallen in the conflict, will ever be known to posterity. 
While it is a noble thing to die for one s country, it is an 
ignoble thing for survivors not to chronicle the deeds and 
names of their less fortunate companions. We have en 
deavored to do justice to the memory of our comrades in 
these pages, and if, in any way, we have failed to do it well, 
let it not be attributed to a want of devotion to them or to 
the facts of history. 

With thoughts like these we are doubtless prepared to 
enter upon the perusal of the following statistics. 




Officers of the Regiment at Time of Muster-out, July 19, 65. 





Amos H White l 


1 st Lieut 

Sept 26 1801 

Theodore A Boice 2 

Lieut Col .. 


June 15 l^til 

Elmer J Barker 


Sept 19 1801 

Henry A D Merritt, 4 


Oct. 9 ist.i 

Liberty C Abbott 



Aug. 2G, 1801. 

Fred M Sawyer 6 


Aug. 22, 1801. 

Dewitt H. Dickinson, 
Joseph A. Phillips, 

Regt. Q. M.,.. 
Regt. Comm., 


Oct. 18, 1802. 
May 3, 1802. 

Orlando W. Armstrong, 6 ... 
Isaac N. Mead, 

Ass. Surgeon, 


Mar. 18, 1803. 
Dec. 20, 1862. 

llichard H. Goodell, 


May 9, 1804. 

Louis N. Boudrye, 7 
Co. A. 
Frazer A Boutelle " 



Jan. 31, 1803. 
June 1, 1861 

Michael Hayes, 

1st Lieut., 


Aug. 15, 1861. 

William T. Boyd, 
Co. B. 
Jabez Chambers ^ 

2d Lieut., 
Captain , 



Dec. 19, 1803. 
Aug. 21, 1861. 

Samuel McBride 12 

1st Lieut 

Hosp St 

Sept 23 1861 

Edward Price 

2d Lieut 


Aug 12 1861 

Co. C. 
Benj. M. Whittemore, 13 
William Leahcv. 14 .... 

1st Lieut.... 

Private, . 


Sept. 10, 1861. 
Auz. 11. 1861. 

1. Captured May 23, 62, Front Royal. Wounded in foot June 30, 63, Han 
over, Pa. Shot through body June 1, 64, Ashland, and captured. 

2. Captured July 18, 62, Barneit s Ford. Again captured Oct. 25, 63, by 
Mosby, and received five wounds while escaping Irom captor. 

3. Severely injured by falling of horse, in charge, Feb. 9, 63, New Balti 
more. Received two grape shot wounds May 30, 63, Greenwich. 

4. Received three sabre cuts March 23. 63, Chautilly, and captured. 
Captured again March 2, 64, near Richmond with Col. Dahlgren. Escaped 
from prison, Columbia, S. C., Nov. 28, 64, Aid was 30 days in reaching our 

5. Captured July 18, 62, Orange C. H. Wounded in right hand slightly, 
Oct. 19, r 63, Buckland Mills. 

6. Remained voluntarily with Major White, who was supposed to be mor 
tally wounded, June 1, 64, Ashland, and captured. 

7. Captured July 5, 63. Monterey Pass, Pa. Released Oct. 7, 68. 

8. Severely injured by falling of horse, in charge. June 30, 63, Hanover, Pa. 

9. Wounded slightly and captured June 30, 63, Hanover, Pa. 

10. Captured June 29, 64, Reams Station. Escaped from prison, Coluin bia, 
8. C., Nov. 4, 64, and was 21 days in reaching our lines. 

11. Captured July 6, 63. Hagerftown, Md. 

12. Severely wounded May 3, 63, Warrenton Junction. 

13. Captured June 29, 64, Reams Station. Escaped from prison, Columbia, 
8. C., Nov. 4th, 64, and was 21 days in reaching our lines. 

14. Wounded in arm March 23, 63, Chautilly. 



Officers of the Regiment at Time of Muster-out, July 19, 65. 






Patrick Tiffany 

2d Lieut...... 

1st Lieut., 
2d Lieut., 

Captain ... 


Private, . 


2d Lieut. 



2d Lieut. 

2d Lieut. 


2d Lieut. 

Aug. 8, 1861. 

Sept. 26, 1861. 
Sept. 23, 1861. 

Aug. 26, 1861. 
Aug. 31, 1861. 
Aug. 26, 1861. 

Aug. 30, 1861. 
Sept, 12, 1861. 
Oct. 6, 1862. 

Aug. 22, 1861. 
Sept. 1, 1861. 
Sept, 9, 1861. 

Oct. 1, 1861 
Oct. 1, 1861. 
Oct. 1, 1861. 

Sept. 26, 1862. 
Sept. 4, 1861. 
April 8, 1863. 

Oct. 16, 1861. 
Sept. 15, 1861. 
Oct. 9, 1861. 

Sent. 3. 1861. 

Co. D. 
Hansom A. Perkins, 
Jeremiah J. Callanau, 1 
Co. E. 
Foster Dickinson 2 

Matthew Strait, 3 

1st Lieut., 
2d Lieut., 

1st Lieut., 
2d Lieut., 


Addison S. Thompson, 4 
Co. F. 
William D. Lucas, 5 
Merritt N Chafey, 

John K. Jeffrey, 6 

Co. G. 
John H. Wright 7 

William H Knight 8 . 

1st Lieut., 
2d Lieut., 


Abijah Spafford 

Co. II. 
Eugene B Hayward, 9 
Lucins F. Renne ^ 

1st Lieut,, 
2d Lieut., 


Clark M Pease 

Co. I. 
Edmund Blunt, Jr., 11 
Christopher Heron 

1st Lieut , ... 
2d Lieut., 

1st Lieut., ... 
2d Lieut., 

Captain. . 

William H. Conklin,.... 

Co. K. 

Laurence L. O Connor, 
Thomas O Keefe 

Nathaniel M. Talmage, 
Co. L. 
George C. Morton,... 

1. Sabre cut in right hand June 30, 63, Hanover, Pa 

2. Wounded in left leg June 1, 64, Ashland. 

3. Sabre cut on wrist Oct. 11, 63. Brandy Station. Gun shot in thigh 
March 1, 64, near Richmond. Wounded slightly in hand Sept. 19, 64, Win 

4. Captured March 23, 63, Chantilly. Escaped from guards the 24th. Re 
captured aud paroled the 25th. 

5. Captured July 7, 63, near TVilliamsport, Md. Released March, 1865. 

6. Wounded slightly Oct. H, 63, Brandy Station. 

7. Captured June 30, 63, Hanover, Pa. 

8. Captured Sept. 3, 64. White Post. Escaped from prison, Columbia, 
b. C., Dec. 28, 64, and was 18 days in reaching our lines. 

9. Wounded in left arm Aug. 2. 62. Orange C. #., and bv a shell slightly 
in the thigh March 1, 64, near Richmond. 

10. Slightly woundc-d by guerrillas in left shoulder Mav 15 62 Tom s Brook 

11. Wounded iu left ear Aug. 35, 64, Kearneysville Station. 


Officers of the Regiment at Time of Muster-out, July 19, 65. 





William H. Whitcomb, 1 
Peter McMullen 2 

1st Lieut., 
M Lieut 


Oct. 1, 1801. 
Nov 18 1861 

Co. M. 
Wilbur F. Oakley, 3 



Oct 23 18G1 

William G. Peckham,* 
Justus Travis, 

1st Lieut., 
2d Lieut., 

Aug. 31, 1861. 
Sept. 20, 1861. 

1. Captured May 6, 62, Harrisonburg. Escaped by stratagem. Again captured 
July 6, 63, Hagerstown, Md. Wouuded in neck slightly, May 5, 64, Parker s 

2. Slightly wounded in left hand, May 5, 64, Parker s Store. 

3. Wouuded in head, Oct. 10, 03, Janies City; aimin in head Aug. 25, 64, 
Kearneyeville Station. 

4. Wounded in breast, June 1, 64, Ashland. 

Officers who have Commanded the Regiment. 


Rank at 
Time of 


Rank at 
Time of 

Date of Taking 

Date of Relief 
from Command. 

Robert Joh nst one 
John Hammond, 
William P. Bacon 
Abram H. Krom, 
Elmer J. Barker, 
Theo. A. Boice, 
Amos H. White, 


Lt. Col., 
Lt- Col., 
Major, ... 
Lt. Col.. 

Lt. Col., 
Lt. Col., 
Captain , 

Oct. 1, 1801. 
Sept. 10, 1861. 
June 1, 1863. 
Aug. 30, 1864. 
Sept. 12, 1864. 
Oct. 19, 1864. 
Oct. 21, 1864. 
Dec. 19, 1864. 

Sept. 10, 1862. 
June 1, 1863. 
Aug. 30, 1864. 
Sept. 12, 1864. 
Oct. 19, 1864. 
Oct. 21, 1864. 
Dec. 19, 1864. 
July 26, 1865. 

Non- Commissioned Staff > July 19, 1865. 





Co. PRO 


Dennis O Flaherty, 1 
William C. Page, 2 ... 
Michael Dunigan, 3 .. 
Charles B. Thomas, 
Stephen D. Green, 4 .. 
David F. Wolcott,... 
Dennis O Brien, 

Sergt. Maj., 
Hosp. St.,.. 
Q.M. Sergt., 
Com y Sergt 
Saddler Sgt. 
Vetr ySrgn. 


July 2, IbOl 
Jan. 16, 1863 
Sept. 15, 1861,.. 
Sept. 21< 1861,... 
Aug. 22, 1861,... 
March 10, 1862,. 
Aug. 22, 1862,... 


1. Captured Hanover, Pa., June 30, 63. Again Oct. 29, 63, Thoroughfare Gap. 
2. Captured Oct. 11. 63, Brandy Station. 3. Captured Oct, 10, 63, Russell 8 
Ford. 4. For a long time Rrigade, and Division Bugler. 



The following will exhibit the Non- Commissioned Staff in the 
order in which they were appointed from the organization 
of the regiment : 

SERGEANTS MAJOR, John Greenback, Reg t, from Co. 
K ; Jaines Seddinger, 1st Battalion, B ; George T. Smith, 1st 
Batt, B; Richard C. Stananought, 2d Batt., C; Warner 
Miller, 3d .Batt, I; Alexander Gall, 3d Batt., I; Richard C. 
Stanauought, Reg t; Alexander Gall, Reg t; Fred M. Saw 
yer, Reg t, C ; Lewis J. Gorham, Reg t, H. 

HOSPITAL STEWARDS, Samuel McBride, Joseph Par- 
melee, Richard Marion, Isaac N. Mead. 


F. Haviland, 1st Batt. ; Fred Paul, 2d Batt. ; Alfred K. 
Wilson, 3d Batt,; Dewitt H. Dickinson, Reg t; David H. 
Scofield, Reg t, K. 

COMMISSARY SERGEANTS, Miles L. Blanchard, 1st 
Batt. ; William Banta, 2d Batt, ; Daniel Hitchcock, 3d Batt. ; 
Merritt N. Chafey, Reg t, F. 

CHIEF BUGLERS, Luke S. Williams, F ; Conrad Bohrer, 
I ; Julius C. Lauib, I ; Robert Heisser, D ; Louis Erdman, M. 

SADDLER SERGEANTS, John J. Bush, IstBatt. ; William 
B. Vincent, 2d Batt., G ; Asahel S. Lohman, 3d Batt., M. 


VETERINARY SERGEANTS, James Jelly, 1st Batt., B. ; 
A. D. Styles, 2d Batt., F.; William G. Edwards, 3d Batt., L 

Whole number on Muster Rolls, as shown by monthly returns of the 
folio icing dates: 






I Enlisted 

October, 1861,... 
January, 1862,... 
April, 1862, 
July, 1862 



October, 1863,... 
January, 1864,... 
April, 1864, 
July, 1864,..., 



October, 1862,... 
January, 1863,... 
April, 1863, 
July, 1803,... 



(October, 1864,... 
January, 1865,... 
April, 1865, 
Julv. 19. 1865.... 






Statistical Record of the Regiment. 

Original number of men, 1064, 

Recruits added, 1074, 

Original number of officers, 50, 
Whole number of officers, ... 124, 
Original officers remaining, 4, 

Officers from the Ranks, 36, 

" killed and mortally 

wounded, 5, 

" wounded, 22, 

" captured, 19, 

" died of Disc ise,.... 4, 
" dismissed by Court 

Martial, 10, 

" discharged by order 

War Department,. 5, 

" resigned 37, 

" discharged at ex 
piration of term,.. 13, 
Enlisted men killed and 

mortally wounded, 75, 

Enlisted men wounded, 23G, 

" " captured 517, 

" " killed acci 

dentally,.... 18, 
" " died in Rebel 

Prisons, 114, 

" " died of Dis 
ease 90, 

Enlisted men discharged by 
reason of 

wounds, 25, 

" " discharged for 


Disability, .. 295. 
" * discharged at 


ofterm, 302, 

" " discharged by 
order of 
President,... 2, 
" " transferred to 
other Com 
mands, 103, 

" " deserted, 325, 

" " reenlisted in 

1864, 212, 

Number of Battles fought, .. 52, 
" Skirmishes " .. 119, 
" " Wounds receiv 
ed in action,. 320, 
Men lost in action and 

never heard from, 18, 

Men remaining.July 19, 65, 694, 
Original Veterans remain 
ing 167, 

Original horses remaining,.. 7. 

Former Occupations of its Members. 

That the regiment might have constituted a very respect 
able colony in itself, fully able to go and possess the land 
and to establish therein the various trades and occupations 
necessary to progress in all the departments of human thought 
and activity, may be inferred from the following avocations 
which it represented, with the comparative number of men 
belonging to each. Farmers 578, laborers 226, clerks 65, 
boatmen 54, blacksmiths 50, carpenters 38, sailors 38, shoe 
makers 29, teamsters 28, mechanics 25, painters 16, soldiers 
16, machinists 14, tailors 14, butchers 13, printers 12, 


coopers 11, masons 9, molders 9, millers 9, bakers 9, stu 
dents 8, lumbermen 7, tinsmiths 6, harness makers 6, stage 
drivers 6, showmen 5, hatters 5, merchants 5, engineers 5, 
hostlers 5, barbers 5, artists 5, stone cutters 5, wagon 
makers 5. ministers 4, lawyers 4, spinners 4, bartenders 4. 
wheelwrights 4, mariners 4, book keepers 4, carmen 4, 
cigar makers 4, tobacconists 3, ship carpenters 3, sleigh- 
makers 3, sawyers 3, peddlers 3, seamen 3, curriers 3, coach 
men 3, carriage makers 3, farriers 3, wagoners 3, saddlers 
3, wool carders 3, bricklayers 2, wire-workers 2, bloomers 2, 
waiters 2, sawmakers 2, sailmakers 2, jewelers 2, upholster 
ers 2, expressmen 2. grocers 2, shoebinders 2, spinners 2, 
cabinetmakers 2, musicians 2, brushmakers 2, joiners 2, 
teachers 2, miners 2, veterinary surgeons 2, firemen 1, en 
gravers 1, fishermen 1, paperinakers 1, wood choppers 1, 
roofers 1, file cutters 1, telegraph operators 1, apothecaries 1, 
clothiers 1, mill hands 1, salesmen 1, burnishers 1, tanners 
1, boiler makers 1, grooms 1, brewers 1, lithographers 1, 
gardeners 1, porters 1, morocco dressers 1, packers J., jailors 
1, locksmiths 1, grainers 1, dressers 1, confectioners 1, cooks 
1, druggists 1, doctors 1, travellers 1, coppersmiths 1, 
colliers 1, iron-masters 1, pailmakers 1, millwrights 1, book 
binders 1, drovers 1, cobblers 1, watchmakers 1, cotton 
makers 1, caulkers 1, manufacturers 1, hewers 1, curry 
comb makers 1, minstrels 1, hotel keepers 1, blockmakers 1, 
gilders 1, axemakers 1, making in all 126 different occupa 

States and Countries represented, 

It is not strange that so many men, representing so many 
and varied walks of life, should have sprung from many 
different states and countries j nor is it a matter of minor 


importance to ascertain what regions have contributed 
thought and muscle for the great work of crushing this 
gigantic rebellion. The men of the Fifth New York Cavalry- 
had their birth in the following places : 

New York 797, Pennsylvania 91, New Jersey 39, Massa 
chusetts 32, Vermont 31, Connecticut 18, Ohio 8, Mary 
land 4, Michigan 4, Maine 3, New Hampshire 3, Illinois 2, 
South Carolina 2, North Carolina 1, Mississippi 1, Delaware 
1, District Columbia 1, Rocky Mountains 1, Ireland 221, 
Germany 75, Canada 65, England 62, Scotland 12, Prussia 
12, France 8, Switzerland 3, Poland 2. Wales 2, Spain 2, 
Sweden 2, Australia 1, Italy 1, Belgium 1, Denmark 1, 
Saxon}? 1, Nova Scotia 1, New Brunswick 1. 

The tallest man ever in the regiment was Jacob H. Ten 
Eyck, Co. M, 6 feet 4 inches; the shortest, John Catlin, 
Co. A, 4 feet 5 inches. 

Journeyings of the Regiment. 

If you take a map of the United States or a good War 
map, and a pencil, I will enable you to trace the contour of 
the country in which the regiment has fought its battles 
and made its marches. Place your pencil on the memorable 
field of Gettysburg, Pa., and move due east to Hanover, 
thence southeasterly to the head of Chesapeake bay. Follow 
the bay to the mouth of James river, and up the river to 
Fort Powhatan on south side. From the fort, strike a 
straight line to Jarretts Station on the Weldon and Peters 
burg rail road, and bearing due west, pass through Christian- 
ville. thence a little north of west to Roanoke Station, where 
the Danville and Richmond rail road crosses the Staunton 
river. Here you may rest awhile for you are more than 
half way round. Following the rail road northward to Burkes- 


ville, we will go west to Apporaattox Court House ; strike a 
straight line to Lexington on the James, west of the Blue 
ridge and thence north to Moorefield. Now draw your line 
northeastly through Martinsburg ; continue it through 
Hagerstown, Md., and back again to Gettysburg. The ter 
ritory inclosed by this line has been traversed by the regi 
ment, and some portions of it many times. 

I insert the counties through which the regiment has 
marched, beginning with those we have traversed most fre 
quently and with which we are best acquainted : 

Fairfax, Va., Culpepper, Frederick, (in these the regi 
ment spent three successive winters,) Clarke, Jefferson, 
Loudon, Prince William, Fauquier. Madison, Orange, Spott- 
sylvania, Shenandoah, Rockinghaui, Augusta, Warren, Page, 
Stafford, Rappahannock, Berkeley, Hampshire. Hardy, Ca 
roline, Hanover, King William, New Kent, Henrico, Charles 
City, Louisa, Rockbridge, James City, York, Gloucester, 
Prince George, Diuwiddie, Nottoway, Prince Edward, Ap- 
pomattox, Charlotte, Mecklenburg, LunenbuTg, Brunswick, 
Sussex, and King George; Montgomery, Md., Frederick, 
Carroll, and Washington; York, Pa., and Adams. 

Escort Duty for Generals. 

The regiment was appointed escort for Gen. Pope, August 
27, 62, and served till Sept. 4, 62. It was appointed 
escort for Gen. Sheridan, Nov. 24, 64, and occupied the 
position till April, 65. 

Generals under ichom the Regiment has served. 
Gen. N. P. Banks, commanding Army of the Shenandoah. 
Gen. John Pope, commanding Army of the Potomac. 
Gen. Heintzelman, commanding Defenses of Washington 


Gens. Hooker and Meade, commanding Army of the 

Gen. P. H. Sheridan, commanding Army of the She- 

Gens. Stoneman, Pleasanton and Torbert, commanding 
Cavalry Corps. 

Gen. John P. Hatch, commanding Cavalry with Gen. 

Gen. John Buford, commanding Cavalry with Gen. Pope. 

Gen. Stahel, commanding Cavalry Division under Gen. 

Gens. Kilpatrick, John H. "Wilson, George A. Custer 
commanding 3d Division, Cavalry Corps. 

Gens. Elon J. Farnsworth (killed July 3, 63, Gettys 
burg), Henry E. Davies, Jr., J. B. Mclntosh (wounded in 
left leg, amputated, Sept. 19, 64, Winchester), commanding 
1st Brigade, 3d Division, Cavalry Corps. 

The following Colonels, acting Brigadier Generals, have 
also commanded us, Wyndham, De Forest, John Hammond, 
and C. M. Pennington. 

Burial of our Dead. 

By reference to the table of " Men killed in Action," it 
will be seen that many of our brave comrades were left un- 
buried on the bloody fields were they fell, many of whose 
bones have doubtless bleached in the sun and rain, through 
the wilderness and along the river courses of Virginia. But 
fortunately we were permitted to perform the solemn rites 
of burial and pay the last honors to some of them, the 
memory of whose graves will frequently call forth the sym 
pathetic tear, and stimulate us to the performance of heroic 
deeds. To thee, laud of our birth ! and to thee, proud 


Flag of the free, we feel unwonted love, since you have 
both been bathed with the pure blood of our noble dead ! 

We have endeavored to indicate the resting places of our 
companions by rude head-boards with their names engraved 
or cut thereon, though often nothing has been left to iden 
tify the precious remains, except the tree that waved in 
mournful requiem over them, or the rock that stood as their 
eternal safeguard. Around those quick-made graves we 
were often compelled hastily to assemble, and from them, 
perhaps, more hastily to retire, with no funeral note or word, 
but not without a purpose. Occasionally the military salute 
has been fired, the brief eulogium and prayer been pronunc- 
ed, 1 and we have left our comrades to slumber, but not to be 
forgotten. In some instances we have learned, with satis 
faction, that the enemy had given our dead a decent inter 
ment, and we are conscious of having often returned the 
favor. Whenever it has been possible the remains of our 
comrades have been embalmed and sent home to their 
friends, to niolder by the side of kindred dust. 

1 See Burial of Sergt. Sortore, p. 133. 


Engagements and their Casualties. 






! Men 





Port Republic, . 




40 ! 


May 2, 62,.. 
May 2, 62,.. 
May 4, 62, . . 
May 6, 62,.. 
Mav 6, 62,.. 
May 8, 62,.. 
Mav 14, 62,.. 
May 21, 62,.. 
May 23, 62, . . 
May 24, : 62,.. 
Mav 24, 69,.. 
May 25, 62,.. 
May 29, 62, . . 
May 31, 62, . . 
May 31, 62,.. 
July 6, 62,.. 
July 12, 62, . . 
July 17, 62,.. 
July 17, 62,.. 
JulVis, 62,.. 
July 18, 62,.. 
Aug. 2, 62,.. 
Aug. 9, 62,.. 
Aug. 10, 62,.. 
Aug 17, 62,.. 
Aug. 20, 62,.. 
Aug. 24, 62,.. 
Aug. 28, 62,.. 
Aug. 29, 62, . . 
Aug. 30, 62,.. 
Sept.. 1, 62,.. 
Srp|.19, 62,.. 
Sept.22, 62,.. 
Oct. 16, 62,.. 
Oct. 17, 62,.. 
Oct. 18, 62, . . 
Oct. 18, 62, . . 
Nov. 5, 62,.. 
Nov. 5, 62,.. 
Nov. 8, 62,.. 
Nov. 11, 62,.. 
Nov. 12, 62,.. 
Nov. 16, 62, . . 
Nov. .), 62,.. 
Nov. 30, 62, 
Nov. 30, 62, . . 
Dec. 18, 62, . . 
Dec. 31, 62, . . 

Jan. 5, 63,... 
Jan. 6, (53, . . 
Jan. 26, 63, . . 
Feb. 9, 63, . . 
Feb. 10. 63. . . 




Skirmish,. . 
Battle, ... 


Conrad s Store, Luray Valley 
Buckingham Furnace, " 
Conrad s Store, ... 

. i 
i ., 



1 1 

2 15 
1 .. 

1 4 

Harrisonbur ir 

Columbia Bridge, Luray V y 

Front. Royal 


Newtown Cross Roads, 

Harper 8 Ferry, 

Cluirlrstown, . . 



2 9 



Cul pepper C. H.,. 
Ornn- e 0. II., 

Liberty Mills 

Rnpidan Station 
Barnett s Ford. Rapidan, 
Orange C. II.,. 

Cedar Mountain, 

Cedar Mountain, 

Louisa C. H., 

Kelly s Ford, Rappahannock. 
Waterloo Bridge, 


Skirmish, . . 
Battle, .... 


.. ] 
1 .. 

. . 2 
1 .. 

Groveton, . 

Bull Run, 


Antietain, . . . 

Aehby s Gap, 


Thoroughfare Gap, 
Hay Market, 
New Baltimore, 


Cedar Hill,. 

Hopewell Gap 

Thoroughfare Gap, 




Snicker s Gap,. . 

Berry ville,.. 


Cub Run, 

Frying Pan, 

11 ; 


!! i 

Cub Run, 


New Baltimore, 


Warrentou, . . 



Engagements and their Casualties, continued. 






(. oin in. 

Enlist d 




!f d Ui 
E H 5 


Spotted Tavern 









Feb. 10, 63, 
March 4, (53, 
March 23, 1 63, 
April 28, 63, 
May 8, 63, 
May 30, 63, 
June 10, 6-3. 
June 30, 63. 
July 2, 63, 
July 3, 63, 
July 4, 63, 
July 5, Y>3. 
July 6, 63, 
July 8, 63, 
July 11, 63, 
July 26. 63, 
Sept. 4. 63, 
Sept. 13. 63, 
Sept. 14, 63. 
Sept. 22. Yd. 
Sept. 25, 63, 
Oct. 8, 63, 
Oct. 10, 63, 
Oct. 10, 63, 
Oct. 11, 63, 
Oct. 11, 63, 
Oct. 16, 63, 
Oct. 17, 63, 
Oct. 18, 63, 
Oct. 18, 63, 
Oct. 19, 63, 
Nov. 8, 63, 
Nov. 18, 63, 
Nov. 26, 63, 
Nov. 27, 63, 

Jan. 19, 64, 
Jan. 22, 64. 
Feb. 6, 64, 
March 1, 64, 
March 2, 64, 
March 2, 64 
March 2, 64, 
March 4, 64, 
March 11, 64, 
May 5- 61. 
May 6, G4, 
Mav 7, 64, 
May 15, 64, 
May 16, 64, 
May 1-. Y,i. 
May is. ill, 
May 21. 64, 
May 21, 04, 






















Chautillv . . . .. 




White I lains 

Warrenton Junction, 
Green \vich ... . . 







Hanover. Pa 

1 Inn UT-= town. Pa., 

Gettv~l>ur" Pa 

Skirmish, . . 
Battle, .... 




: 2 

















Monterey Pass, Pa., 

Smithbur", Md , 

II.-iuM ivtown, Md., 
Boonsboro , Md., 


Skirmish, . . 



H.agorstmvn Md ,, 

Ashbv s Gap, 

Port Con way, 

Culpepper C. H., 

Somerville Ford, Robertson,. 
Brookiu s Ford. Rapidan,. . . . 
Hazel River Bridge, 

Russell s Ford, Robertson, . . . 
James City 




Sperrvville Pike, 


Braud y Station, 











Battle, .. 



Battle, . . 

Battle, .... 

Skirmish, . . 

Battle. . . 






Buckland Mills 


Germania Ford. Rapidan, 
Raccoon Ford, Rapidan, 
Raccoon Ford, 

Ely s Ford, Rapidan.. 

Ellis 1 Ford. Rappahannock. . . 
Hampton s Cross Roads, 
Defenses of Richmond, 
Hanover Town 


Stephonsville,. .. 

Field s Ford, Rappahaunock. 
Southard s Cross Roads, 
Parker s Store, 
Wilderness . 

Germania Ford, 

Massaponax Church, 
Ny River, 

Po River, .... 

Po River, 

Mattapony River, 

Milford Station,. 



Engagements and their Casualties, continued. 













Killed. | W 
Wounded. T 7- 



Mt, Carniel Church, 
North Anna lliver, 
Little River, 
Signal Hill, 


May 23, 04, . 
May 24, 64, . 
May 20, 04, . 
May 31/04,. 
June 1, 64,. 
June 1, 64,. 


















Hanover C. H. 

Ashland Station, 


2 3 

Salem Church, . 






June 3, 04, . 
June 10, 64, . 
June 11, 64,. 
June 15, 64,. 
June 19, 64,. 
June 23, 64, . 
June 28, 64, . 
June 25, 64,. 
June 28, 04, . 
June 29, 04,. 
Tune 29, 64, . 
Tune 29. 04,. 
July 0/04,. 
July 7/04,. 
Tulv 10. 01.. 
Inly 12/64,. 
Julv 15. 64.- 
July 18/64,. 
July 24, 64, . 
Aug. 17, 64,. 
Aug. 19, 64,. 
Aug. 21, 04,. 
Aug. 22/04,- 
Aug. 23/04,- 
Aug. 25, 04, - 
Sept, 2, 04, - 
Sept. 4, 04, 
Sept. 7, ;04,. 
Sept. 13, 04, . 
Sept, 15, 04, 
Sept. 17, 04,- 
Sept. 19, 64,- 
Sept, 20, 04. 
Sept. 21, 04, 
Sept. 21 64,- 
Sept. 22/64,- 
Sept. 27/04,- 
Sept. 28/OV 
Oct. 2. 6V 
Oct. 6/61,- 
Oct. 7/64, 
Oct. <. 6V 
Oct. 13, 64, 
Oct. 14/64,- 
Oct. 19, 64, . 

Nov. 12. ,. 

Nov. 22/64,. 

Bethel Church, 


Shadv Grove, 
White Oak Swamps, 
White House Landing, 




Blacks and Whites, 
Nottoway C. H 
Roanokc Station, 

Stony Creek Station 

Reams Station, 
Rowanty Creek, 
Stony Creek,. 

Skirmish,. . 


Man-land Heights, 

Battle, .... 












Marvland Heights, 

Toll Gate 

Snicker s Ferry, 





Winchester . 

Opequnn Creek, 

Summit Point 


Dwffield Station 
Kearneysville Station, 
Berrvvillc, ... 

Battle, . . 

Battle, ..." 




Berry ville 
Opequan Creok 

Opequan Creek, 

()pc(|iian Creek,. 

Opeijiian Creek 

Crooked Kun, 
Front Royal,. 
Asburv Church, . 

Battle, ..." 




Buttle, . . . 




Milford, Lnray Valley, 
Mt Meridian,. 

WEyutrtjboro , 

Brock s Gap, 

Forestville,. .. 

Tom s Brook, 

Cedar Creek 

Lebanon Church, 
Cedar Creek, 
Cedar Creek 

Mt. Jackson, 



Enfjcifjements and their Casualties, concluded. 













Wound. (1. 


Woodstock, 160 

Jan. 10, 65, 
Jan. 22, 65 
March 5, 65, 
March 5, 65, 
March 6, 65, 
March 7, 65, 
March 31, 65, 
April 1, 65, 
April 3, 65, 
April 6, 65, 
April 8. 65, 
April 9, 65, 

Battle, . . . 

Edinbnn* 161 
Mt. Sidriev,. . 162 








Lacev Springs, 163 

New Market, 164 
Hood s Hill,. 165 

Pimviddie C. H., 166 

Five Forks, 167 
Sweet House Creek, 168 
Harper s Farm 169 

Appornattox Station, 170 

Appomattox C. H., 171 
Casualties with no Engag t... 




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Mementos to Officers. Col. 0. DeForest. Col. John Hammond. 
Surgeon Lucius P. Woods. Major A. II. Krom. Major E. 
J. Barker. Capt. L. L. O Connor. 

No pains have been spared by the author to secure docu 
ments in which honorable mention had been made of officers 
and privates for meritorious conduct in battles, but with 
only partial success. Such as have been obtained are 
inserted, though many names ought to have been added to 
this list, whose deeds were glorious, and would embellish 
the pages of any history. 


We have been furnished with an interesting account of 
the presention of a horse to Col. DeForest, clipped from a 
New York daily, which we are pleased to give in this place. 
It is as follows : 

" The friends of Col. DeForest met yesterday (October, 
1861), in front of his dwelling, No. 97 East Forty-ninth 
street, and presented him with a very acceptable token of 
their appreciation of him as an officer, and also of his 
unequaled efforts in raising the brigade to which he is 
attached. The present was a splendid light dappled gray 
stallion, well known as the General Jackson of Cherry 
Valley. He is seven years old, a noble animal, and was 


purchased specially for his new owner. About 1.500 men 
of the brigade almost entirely from the country, fully 
uniformed, and preceded by their own splendid band of twenty- 
eight pieces, were drawn up in front of the block in which 
Col. DeForest resides, the intended present held by a groom, 
being immediately in front. The Hon. D. B. Taylor then 
stepped out upon the front steps of the building and form 
ally presented to the colonel, who was standing by his side, 
the donation, accompanied by the following remarks : 

" Colonel DeForest : The kind partiality of your immediate 
friends and neighbors have imposed upon nie the pleasing 
duty of presenting to you in their name something which 
shall be calculated to keep their memories ripe with you in 
the midst of the excitements and dangers to which you 
have so gallantly dedicated your immediate future. * * 

<; These men, you will in a few short days lead into a battle 
field such as the good people of this heretofore favored land 
would give all but their country s life to avoid. But the 
sad fiat has gone forth j it is a struggle between our 
country s existence, with all the bright hopes of returning 
happiness, and its death with the surest certainty of ever 
lasting woe and ruin. Terrible is the issue, but we must 
contemplate it solely with the stern eye of philosophy, and 
that, too, quickly. Our independence was achieved by 
precious blood and countless treasure, and by the same con 
sideration can it now only be preserved. It seems that the 
tree of Liberty must be nourished by the blood of its sub 
jects; to this conclusion, however sad, must every honest 
conviction turn. You, sir, will soon lead your column to 
its position in the long line of battle, and to bear you 
proudly on, we, whose every pulse beats high with hopes 



for your success, place you upon the back of this field horse 
and pray that the God of Battles may hold the rein, until 
victory shall be proclaimed throughout our whole country. 
Should Providence, in its inscrutable wisdom, cause you to 
perish in the great conflict before you, we feel a holy assur 
ance that you will fall with your face to the heavens, and 
your feet to the foe. Go on, then: adieu! but the living 
God grant that your mission may be fulfilled, and your 
glorious and happy return give us cause for a day joyous, 
far more joyous than this ; let this be the day of hope, that 
the fulfillment. 

" Col. DeForest then mounted the horse as the band struck 
up an appropriate air, and when the music ceased, evidently 
with a good deal of emotion, very happily returned his 
thanks for the manifestation toward him, and fully pledged 
himself that if the God of Battles spared his life he would 
faithfully fulfill the wishes of his friends. 

"After the cheering had ceased, a call was made for Sen. 
Ira Harris of Albany, after whom the Guard take their 
name. He soon appeared upon the balcony, and, being 
presented by Mr. Taylor, addressed the officers and soldiers 
for a few moments with much feeling, telling them that 
although he was too far advanced in life to join them as a 
soldier, he felt great satisfaction in being able to send his 
name. He doubted not it would be seen where rebellion 
was strongest and treason most defiant, and he was perfectly 
willing to trust it in the keeping of such officers and such men. 



The application of Col. Hammond for muster out was 
endorsed as follows : 

HEAD QUARTERS, Third Cavalry Division, 
August 30th, 1864. 
[Respectfully forwarded, approved]. 

Col. Hammond is a most valuable and worthy officer and 
has served with great credit to himself and benefit to the 
service but the regiment would be left in the hands of a 
good officer * should he be mustered out, while the reasons 
urged by Col. Hammond for his leaving service are of so 
grave a character as to deserve the serious consideration of 
the major general commanding the department. 

J. H. WILSON, Brig. Gen l. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Cavalry Forces, 

Middle Military Division, 

Charlestown, Va., Aug. SQth, 1864. 

I am constrained to approve this application under the 
circumstances ; but I am pleased to mention from personal 
observation that he is one of the most accomplished officers 
I have known in service, and the country can ill afford to 
lose the services of such an officer at this time. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Brig. Gen. Vols. Com d g Cav y. 

A few days after Col. Hammond took leave of his com 
mand, he received the following letter : 

HEAD QUARTERS, Third Cavalry Division, 1 
Near Berryville, Aug. Blst, 1864. / 

My Dear Colonel: I am sorry you took your final fare 
well from the division without letting me see you again ; I 
cannot, however, allow your absence to prevent my sending 

1 Lt. Col. Wm. P. Bacon 

, ) 
, > 
. ) 


after you my sincere regrets at losing you, and my best 
wishes for your prosperity and happiness. 

It is no flattery to say, your loss cannot be repaired in 
this command except by your return to it, and I must earn 
estly hope for its sake and the cause, that circumstances may 
so shape themselves as to allow you speedily to rejoin us 
with increased rank and authority. 

There may be something personal in it, but your absence 
gives me special pain. Our cause, the country s, needs not 
only the support of stout arms and brave hearts, but that of 
every pure and moral nature in the land. When one such 
as yourself leaves the service, there is, therefore, a double 
loss, with more than the ordinary difficulties to overcome in 
repairing it. There are plenty of men who wish to advance 
themselves, but few that are worthy of the places to which 
they aspire. 

In writing you this letter permit me to assure you the 
sentiments I express are shared by Gen. Sheridan as well as 
by every member of my staff. 

With sentiments of the highest regard, I am, Colonel, 
Very Truly Your Friend, 


Brig. Gen l. 

Shortly after his departure from the regiment, the fol 
lowing letter appeared in the Essex County (N. Y.) Re 
publican. Its contents were approved by those who had 
been the colonel s military companions. 

It is seldom we are called upon to chronicle as painful 
an event as that which separated Col. John Hammond from 
the Fifth New York Cavalry, After so long a term of 
service with him, we had learned not only to respect, but to 


love him, while we admired the great virtues which so hap 
pily blend in him. It is no wonder that there was not a 
dry eye among the officers who shook his hand in farewell 
greeting yesterday, nor difficult to account for the emotion 
which choked his utterance when he undertook to address 
us a few parting words. 

It is not often we comment upon the private or public 
virtues of living men, but in this case our justification lies 
in derogating from our general rule. 

The early call of our county for patriot soldiers, found 
nowhere a heartier response than in the heart of John 
Hammond, of Crown Point, Essex Co., N. Y. Gathering 
together the young men of his neighborhood, a company 
of as effective men as ever drew a sabre was formed, known 
as company H, Fifth New York Cavalry, and John Ham 
mond was chosen its captain and leader. To his men the 
captain devoted his attention and means. Mutual confidence 
and respect increased with discipline in camp and service 
in the field. It was soon discovered that Capt. Hammond 
was no ordinary military leader. Gradually he rose from 
one post of trust to another. While a major he had com 
mand of the regiment more than a year. At the earliest 
vacancy he was commissioned lieutenant colonel, and soon 
thereafter colonel, and no man ever bore the spread eagle 
more worthily. Had not his term of service expired at a 
time when the call of his family was nearly imperative, we 
doubt not he would soon have borne the star. The com 
mendations he has received from both division and brigade 
commanders, are known to us all, and are such as any man 
might be proud of. His fame is unsullied and extensive, 
his record fair and imperishable. 


Few men combine in themselves so many qualifications 
of the true man and soldier. His patriotism was not a 
mere matter of name, as the sacrifices he made for his coun 
try fully attest. All who came in contact with him felt 
that this was the ruling motive of all his action. As a 
disciplinarian he was strict without being severe, and thor 
ough. In preparation for, and during, a battle, none could 
excel him. 

His plans were quickly made and well executed. 
His selection of positions, and disposition of forces always 
exhibited great sagacity and military genius. He held 
his men in perfect control. His clear voice went like 
magic through the ranks, while his manly form, always in 
the thickest of the fight, elicited the warmest enthusiasm. 
His equanimity of mind was never overcome by his celerity 
of motion, but seemed to be equal. Rarely is so great pru 
dence found with so undaunted courage. He had an 
indomitable will that would not brook defeat. The word 
impossible he never knew, when difficulties came between 
him and duty. He was ambitious, yet humble. 

Added to all these mental qualifications was that perfect 
physique, which made John Hammond the model soldier. 
As an equestrian we have nevBi* seen his superior. His 
power of endurance also was very great. For three long 
years of active service he has stood with the regiment mid 
storm and sun, mid fatigue and danger. He was no wan 
derer from his men, nor lover of ease at the expense of 
duty. For this the men honored him; and they loved him 
because in all his promotions he never forgot their wants, 
nor stood aloof from them. He was always the affable yet 
dignified John Hammond they had known in days past. 


We hope the men of his late command will never forget his 
last words to them: " God bless you." 

Long live Col. John Hammond, and long be remembered 
among us his military and social virtues. 


HEAD QUARTERS Fifth New York Cavalry, 1 
Winchester, Va., July Wth, 1865. / 

Intelligence having been received of the death of Dr. 
Lucius P. Woods, late surgeon of this regiment, a meet 
ing was this day convened, and a committee, consisting of 
Major H. A. D. Merritt, Chaplain L. N. Boudrye and Capt. 
L. C. Abbott was appointed to prepare fitting resolutions 
expressive of our sorrow. The following were submitted 
and approved. 

Resolved. That we, the officers of the Fifth Regiment of 
Cavalry, New York State Volunteers, have heard with most 
profound sorrow, of the death of our late surgeon, Dr. 
Lucius P. Woods, at Winsted, Conn., May 30th, 1865, 
and desire to convey to his bereaved wife and friends our 
sympathy, and to express our sentiments of esteem and 
respect for the memory of our late comrade and friend. 
Appointed to this regiment, December 24th, 1861, he 
shared with us, during three years active service, its vicis 
situdes, dangers and privations. Devoted to the duties of 
his vocation, he added to rare professional skill the most 
untiring industry. Insensible to fear, indefatigable to 
alleviate suffering, he was ever to be found where the battle 
raged most fiercely, ministering to the wounded, shunning 
not the post of danger, if it were but the post of duty. 

Conscious of declining health, and viewing with calmness 
and resignation the rapidly approaching termination of his 


life, ne persevered, until strength failed him, in the dis 
charge of his responsible and arduous duties. Finally, 
enfeebled and dying, he returned to the peaceful scenes of 
home, and to the loved home circle, to meet the final change. 
Happily his earnest patriotism was rewarded with a know 
ledge of the triumph of the cause to which he gave his life. 

Resolved, That in the several positions of surgeon of the 
Fifth New York Cavalry, surgeon-in-chief of the First brig 
ade, Third cavalry division, surgeon-in-chief of the Third 
cavalry division and medical director of the Cavalry corps, 
Army of the Shenandoah, Dr. Woods earned the commen 
dation, respect and affection of all who knew him, from the 
soldier in the ranks to the major general commanding. 

Resolved, That as a friend we found in him every quality 
that could endear him to us and embalm his memory in our 
minds. To the refinement of the gentleman he added 
social and Christian virtues rarely equaled, and while his 
loss will be deplored by all, to ourselves, peculiarly his 
friends, it is irreparable. We will cherish his memory and 
strive to imitate his example. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions, signed by the 
officers of the regiment, be transmitted to Mrs. L. P. 
Woods, to whom we tender our sincere condolence. May 
" He who tempereth the wind to the shorn lamb," comfort 
and sustain her ; and may the blessed thought that he has 
given his life for his country mitigate the anguish of her 

Interesting extracts from Dr. Woods letters from the 
army, are here inserted. 

" HARTWOOD CHURCH, VA., Sept. 5/7t, 1863." 

" I returned yesterday after a three days expedition after 


gun-boats ! 1 We all laughed at the order, sending cavalry 
after such craft, but I am happy to say, that the object of 
the expedition was accomplished. We left camp at two 
o clock A. M., marched all day and all night, till three 
o clock next morning, when we made a furious charge upon 
Rebel infantry. They ran so fast as to disarrange the gen 
eral s plan of attack. The morning was so dark we could 
not see one rod in advance. We captured twelve or four 
teen prisoners, and Gen. Kilpatrick gave orders in their 
hearing to have the whole command fall back, stating that 
the gun-boats would be alarmed and the expedition be a 
failure. The general took particular pains to allow half 
the prisoners to escape and get across the Rappahannock. 
After falling back two miles, we were counter-marched 
toward the river, near which we were formed in line of 
battle. We sat there on our horses waiting for daylight. 
Then the flying artillery of ten guns, supported by the old 
Fifth New York and First Michigan, dashed at a full run 
down to the river bank, wheeled into position and gave the 
Rebels a small cargo of hissing cast iron, which waked them 
up more effectually than their ordinary morning call. They 
soon came to their senses, apd for half an hour sent over to 
us what I should think to be, by the noise they made, tea 
kettles, cooking stoves, large cast iron hats, &c. But our 
smaller and more active guns soon silenced theirs and drove 
their gunners away, when we turned our attention to the 
boring of holes in their boats with conical pieces of iron, 
vulgarly called solid shot. I assure you I can recommend 
them as first class augers, for they sank the boats in time 

1 See page 74. 


for all hands to sit down to breakfast at half past nine 
o clock. The repast consisted of muddy water, rusty salt 
pork and half a hard cracker, termed by us an iron clad 
breakfast. We were absent from camp three days and had 
only nine hours sleep." 

" August 29^, 1864." 

" I was quite astonished yesterday at receiving a paper, 
signed by nearly all the officers of the regiment and approved 
by Gen. Mclntosh, offering me the colonelcy of the regi 
ment. I am now surgeon-in-chief of the division." 

" February 12th, 1865." 

" To Colonel Hammond : My official business is done by 
a clerk and I simply sign my name. The reason : a terrible 
cough, drenching night sweats, swollen feet and limbs and 
diarrhoea. Are not these sufficient to palsy the brain and 
hand ? Often have I tried with my will to arouse my 
system to action and my mind to its duty, but as I crawled 
to bed I almost cursed the sluggish brain that balked my 

We gladly insert the following tribute to Dr. Woods, in 
a letter from Col. Hammond to Dr. H. M. Knight, of Lake- 
ville, Conn. 

" It will be impossible for me to think of writing any 
thing that would do justice to the memory of one I loved so 
much. I could but poorly give you an idea of the many 
trials and hardships as well as incidents of a pleasing 
character, through which myself and dear friend have 
passed together. 

" His frankness and determination won him a host of 
friends wherever he went. He was ever quick to appre 
ciate worth and kindness, and ever as ready to resent a 


wrong or injury. ******! w iH close by saying that 
Dr. Woods was ever in my mind the most perfect type of a 
man I ever met." 

Dr. Woods graduated at the medical college of Pittsfield, 
Mass., in November, 1855. 

CAPTAIN (afterward Major) A. H. KROM. 
From the Oweyo Times* of May, 1864, we clip the follow 
ing memorial : 

HEAD QUARTERS Fifth New York Cavalry, ") 
Fairfax Court House, Va., May 19fA, 1863. / 

This has been a high day for the officers and men of 
company Gr ; and well might it be so, for the boys were 
about to consummate a noble enterprise, and true merit was 
about to be rewarded. We may as well tell the story plain 
ly. Capt. Kroni had distinguished himself as a man and 
soldier in camp and in battle. On the 3d instant, during a 
severe engagement with Maj. Mosby s Rebel band, at War- 
renton Junction, Va., Capt K. narrowly escaped with his 
life, bearing away two fearful wounds, one in his left leg, 
the other in the face. His horse was killed under him; 
but he had used his sabre with terrible . effect upon the 
enemy, as only the man with a brave heart and strong arm 
can do. From that time he has been a cheerful sufferer in 
our hospital. He will doubtless recover, as is the strong 
desire of all his companions in arms. His absence from the 
company did not obliterate his memory from the boys. 
They have been busy raising funds among themselves, 
every man in the company contributing freely, and to-day 
we see the result a beautiful sash, sicord and belt for the 
captain. At six o clock p. M. the ceremony of presentation 


took place. The company were all present, drawn up in 
line before the captain, who had been brought to his camp 
quarters on a stretcher, and seated in a large arm chair se 
cured for the occasion. Many officers of the regiment were 
present, while ladies assisted in making the company com 
plete. The sword was presented by Lieut. Krohn, company 
Gr, who read the following address : 

"Esteemed Commander: The men who have the pleasure 
and honor of being under your command; men who have 
learned to respect you for your uniformly kind and generous 
conduct toward them, who have learned to love you as only 
soldiers can love their benefactor in the midst of danger 
and trial ; men who now admire you for your tried courage 
and undaunted bravery in battle ; these men have gathered 
around you to-day to express their deep gratitude to the 
kind Providence that has preserved your life to this hour, 
and to present to you a token expressive of their high ap 
preciation of your military genius and valor. And what 
better could we give to one who has distinguished himself 
with the sabre in so many engagements, and especially on 
the 3d instant, at Warrenton Junction, Va. ? where you 
valiantly fought, and gloriously fell, bleeding from the 
wounds that remove you, only temporarily, we trust, from 
our mdist? 

What better could we present to such a hero than 
this sword ? 

" Captain, take this : I present it on behalf of these men, 
who desire never to have a better commander ; who pray 
God to restore you speedily to strength and to command 
again, that, with you, they may march on to conquest and 
to victory, and, if need be, to death, scattering the enemies 


of our beloved country, and bearing aloft the Stars and 
Stripes in proud triumph/ 

The captain not being able to respond on account of his 
wounds, the chaplain of the regiment, who stood by, spoke 
as follows : 

In behalf and by request of the captain, I wish to make 
a few remarks in response to the sentiments expressed by 
the company and the gift presented. He looks upon this 
as one of the proudest days of his history, and the most 
memorable since he entered the service of his country. For 
nearly two years he has been your commander, while the 
very best of feeling has existed between you and him from 
the first to the present, only with an increase of respect and 
affection. He has occasion to-day to entertain the hope that 
the future, in this respect, will be but a repetition of the 

" As to his gratitude for your kindness so generously ex 
pressed in the gift of this hour, it cannot be told. When 
a man is overwhelmed with a sense of thankfulness, words 
are not adequate to the task of uttering the pent-up emo 
tion. And his gratitude is greatly multiplied as he recog 
nizes in this gift an expression, not only of personal regard 
toward him, but also of devoted loyalty to the cause of the 
Union, and of attachment to the good old flag, which he 
feels you are determined to bear forward until it shall wave 
in triumph over every land and sea. Men, you behold 
your captain, wounded and disabled; but he wishes me 
to say to you that he hopes the time is not far distant r 
when his wonted strength and vigor will return to his now 
somewhat withered limbs when again, at the shrill 
battle-notes of the bugle, he shall be permitted, with you, 


to leap forward to glorious Conflict. Though wounded 
he is not killed. In conclusion, allow me, on his behalf, to 
bow to you all most heartfelt thanks." 

After this ceremony, the numerous guests and all the 
company were richly entertained with a sumptuous supper, 
gotten up by the captain. Thus ended an interesting 
chapter in the annals of company G-, Fifth New York 

LIEUTENANT (afterward Major) E. J. BARKER. 

From one of the April (1864) numbers of the Essex 
County Republican, we extract an interesting account of 
a sword presentation to Lieut. Barker, at a large meeting, 
held at Hammond s Corners, Crown Point, when the vete 
rans of company H were welcomed by the people, on their 
veteran furloughs. 

Hervey Spencer, Esq., having been requested by com 
pany H, on behalf of the company, presented to Lieut. E. 
J. Barker a beautiful sword, purchased by the members 
of the company for gallant conduct in battle, particularly 
that of Greenwich, May 30th, 1863. 

Mr. Spencer, in an able manner, addressed the young 
lieutenant, giving a short sketch of his gallant and manly 
bearing since entering the service, reminding him of the 
due appreciation of his conduct and bravery, by the brave 
men of his command, and as a testimonial of their love and 
esteem of him whom they had followed even to the can 
non s mouth, presented him with this beautiful sword. 

Lieut. Barker, made a short but eloquent reply. 

He thanked them for this token of their regard for him. 
He said he had simply done his duty. That without their 


cooperation lie could have done nothing. He again feel 
ingly thanked them for their beautiful present, and assured 
them that when they returned to the field, that it should be 
faithfully wielded by him in the defense of his country, as 
long as armed treason existed within her borders. 

The gallant lieutenant was heartily cheered and congratu 
lated for his very appropriate and elegant remarks. 

LIEUT, (afterward Capt.) LAURENCE L. O CONNOR. 

WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington D. C., 1 
April 2d, 1863. / 

Sir: I am directed by the secretary of war, to acknow 
ledge the vigilance and fidelity with which it is reported, 
you have in the discharge of your duty, as Provost Mar 
shal at Fairfax Court House, watched contrabandists and 
prevented or broken up their disreputable and disloyal 

Your integrity and efficiency in the discharge of your 
duties merit and will receive the commendation of this 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

Assistant Secretary of War. 
Lieut. O CONNOR, 5th N. Y. Cavalry, ") 
Provost Marshal, Fairfax, C. H., Va. i 


Influence of Campaigning on our Men. Who can best Resist the 
Evils. Means Employed. The Mail Bag. The Spelling 
School. Literary Classes. Our Chapel Tents. Our Tempe 
rance Club. Meetings for Religious Worship. The Effect on 
our Discipline. 

Many unavoidable influences have a very detrimental 
effect upon the niind of the soldier. His frequent expo 
sures to the extremes of heat and cold, of hunger and thirst, 
of fatigue and excitement, with the general wear and tear 
of military life, debilitate body and mind together. Only 
men of the most steady habits, and of naturally strong phy 
sical constitutions, can at all resist these influences; and 
even such men are more or less affected. Such influences 
the soldier experiences on the difficult and dangerous 
picket; on the long, tedious march, through rain, dust, or 
snow; in the fierce conflict of battle, and, more emphatically 
still, in the dreary dungeon, and by the barbarous treatment 
of the enemy while a captive in his hands. Under the 
above exigencies, the cavalry suffers more than the infantry 
it is more constantly on duty, and, when in captivity, feels 
more poignantly the effects of the weary foot marches to 
which our prisoners have been so often subjected. 

Aside from these influences, affecting the entire mental 
manhood, are others which have only a moral bearing. 


First, and, perhaps, most important of these, is the remo 
val of the wholesome and normal restraints of virtuous soci 
ety, of home and its hallowed associations. These influences 
muy not he entirely forgotten by the soldier, but in few 
cases only do they control him. Neither must it be ig 
nored that his business, in great part, is demoralizing. He 
is taught and disciplined for one thing to destroy and kill. 
Moreover, he is often compelled to execute orders of re 
taliation for acts of brutality and murder, perpetrated by 
the enemy. 1 However noble may be the object sought, or 
wholesome the influence of the chastisement visited upon 
the evil-doers, these military necessities are far from being 
promoters of morality in the actors. While we doubt not 
that the ultimate influence of war is salutary on the body 
politic and social of a nation, yet it must be conceded that 
the actors in war, soldiers in camp and field, are them 
selves more or less demoralized. And this must be said 
even of our army, the most intellectual and moral army 
ever known in the history of nations. Soldiering makes 
some men; it ttuinakes many. 

This regiment has had occasion to feel a due proportion 
of evil influences, which are inseparably connected with 
active military service. But there has been displayed a 
strong disposition to resist and overcome them; so that 
while evils have abounded among us, we are not without 
some tokens of mental and moral strength, as well as growth 
and development. These have been manifested, while in 
camp, through the mail-bag, which carried, on an average, 
about one hundred and tweutv-five letters per day; also in 

1 See page 176. 


literary classes, established in the spring of 1863, in men 
tal arithmetic, phonography and French, which were kept 
up as long as camp life permitted, and evinced remarkable 
application and scholarship. Mention must also be made of 
what the boys of the Old Fifth will never forget, of the 
spelling school, which was held regularly once a week, and 
called out crowded audiences of happy, thoughtful fellows. 
The following account of "Our First Spelling School in 
Camp," is drawn partially from my diary and was published 
in February, 1864, in the New York Christian Advocate 
and Journal. 

Efforts had been put forth for several weeks to get the 
men out to the newly-erected chapel tent for religious ser 
vices; also for classes in reading, writing, spelling, arith 
metic, phonography, etc., but the number secured did not 
appear commensurate to the occasions. Finally, while re 
peatedly asking myself the question, "What can I do 
more?" my mind alighted upon what promised to meet the 
exigency of the times. Immediately I announced at the 
meetings, and to individuals whom I met, that on Monday 
night, Feb. 15th, there would be a spelling school in the 
chapel. By the sparkle of many an eye I quickly saw that 
I had pulled on the right string. The appointed time for 
our first spelling school in camp drew near but too tardily. 

The evening was fine and the chapel full. We soon 
addressed ourselves to the business of the occasion. It was 
a season of intense enjoyment. The "choosing of sides" 
and the " spelling down," how much they reminded us of 
schoolboy days ! Every one was happy in that remem 
brance, and joyful in the new throbbings of intellectual life. 
The short intermission for rest, after the severe conflict, in 


which troop "A" missed fire eleven times, and troop "B" 
ten, was spent in social parley, and ended with the " Star- 
spangled Banner," sung with an unusual zest. 

Spelling was continued with such interest that the shrill 
roll-call took us all by surprise, and we dispersed, each 
feeling that long would be remembered the spelling school, 
at which our pedagogue was the chaplain, and our spelling- 
book, the Army Regulations I 

I regard this enterprise as a great success in my line of 
duty as chaplain. For, 

First. Anything that will stimulate the mind toward 
general improvement, must be beneficial. The peculiar 
trials, habits and labors of the soldier, very naturally be 
numb his intellect, and, in a great measure, incapacitate 
him for mental and moral improvement. Hence ordinary 
influences fail to reach him. Something peculiar must be 
tried. This was furnished by the spelling-school movement. 

Second. Memories of childhood s innocence and youth s 
impressive lessons at the home fireside, at the church and 
school, are the most potent influences which can be brought 
to bear on the soldier s heart and conduct. These may be 
aroused, to a certain extent, by the chaplain s ordinary labor, 
but to a much greater extent by this novel spelling-school 

Third. The chaplain s influence in the regiment is pro 
portionate to his real acquaintance with the men. This he 
may gain by various means : by distributing papers from 
tent to tent; by visiting the sick at the hospital and at 
their quarters ; by the public services for preaching ; by 
the Sunday school or Bible class, and other social, religious 
assemblies ; but in all these he appears in his official capa- 


city, and the soldier who is so disposed, has ample opportu 
nity to prepare himself to repel every approach. Not so 
when the chaplain comes as the schoolmaster, the good- 
natured schoolmaster of bygone days. The chaplain thus, 
though not with the intention of the spy, approaches una- 
wures to the heart of the soldier, and then has power to do 
him good. While I do not ignore any ordinary means of 
chaplain s service, I heartily rejoice in the spelling-school 

Our second spelling school in camp, Providence per 
mitting, will be held on Monday evening, Feb. 22d, the 
anniversary of Washington s birthday. 

For all these privileges we were much indebted to the 
U. S. Christian Commission, which furnished us with 
large flies or paulous and stoves, with which we were able 
to construct rude, but comfortable chapel tents. These 
tents were built of large logs or trees, notched at the ends, 
and thus fitted one on the other, for the walls, while the 
whole was covered over by means of the flies furnished by 
the Commission. By a careful application of mud that 
Virginia mortar with which every soldier is so familiar - 
to the crevices between the logs, then by flooring with pine 
boughs, or boards, as opportunity allowed, we secured 
places for our public assemblies, resembling those of our 
pioneers in the western wilds, and rivaling for comfort, if 
not for architecture, those of our northern homes. In 
these chapels were also evidenced our moral and religious 
tendencies. Not only to the classes and schools did the 
boys turn their attention, but night after night many could 
be seen wending their way from their tents to the meetings 
for temperance, and for religious worship. An honorable 



scroll, superscribed with a total abstinence pledge, contains 
the names of upward two hundred men of the regiment. 
On this subject I quote from my diary. 

February 2lst, 1864. It is gratifying to see that notwith 
standing the almost universal custom of dram drinking in 
the army, the subject of temperance meets with general ac 
ceptation when it is fairly presented to soldiers. On Wed 
nesday evening, the 17th instant, I lectured on the trite sub 
ject of the " physical and mental influences of intemper 
ance." A lively interest was awakened. I at once pro 
posed the organization of a temperance society. At least 
one-half the audience voted for it. A committee was ap 
pointed, who drafted the following preamble and pledge : 

<; We, the undersigned members of the Fifth New York 
Cavalry, desiring to strengthen each other against the evils 
of intemperance and to save therefrom our comrades in 
arms, if possible, do hereby form ourselves into a society 
to be known as The Fifth New York Cavalry Temperance 
Club, and agree to conform to the following pledge: I 
hereby, solemnly pledge myself, on the honor of a gentleman 
and soldier, to abstain entirely from the use of all intoxicat 
ing liquors." 

This evening our chapel was crowded for a temperance 
meeting. Chaplain Roe, Second N. Y. Cavalry, gave us a 
spicy talk on the degrading influences of intemperance. 
Mr. James H. Bond, of Co. A, followed him, giving us 
" bits " of personal experience, and deepening the interest 
already awakened. I then offered the pledge. The invi 
tation was promptly responded to and by greater numbers 
than had been expected by the most sanguine. Several 
made remarks as they came up to the noble work. One 


said, " How glad will mother be when she hears of this." 
Another, " My wife would rejoice to know what I am doing." 
Some one asked, " When a soldier deserts the country s 
cause we shoot him ; what shall we do to him who deserts 
this cause ?" " Shoot him," was the almost unanimous 
reply. One officer came forward, saying, " he could not 
bear being stumped by a private." The work went on 
gloriously. Forty-seven names were on our list before the 
meeting closed ; forty-three in the column, " for life," and 
four, " for term of service." 

The meeting was one of intense interest I think we 
never can forget it. At a later date I wrote as follows : 
ninety-five have given their names. Our meetings are 
large and interesting. A pledge also against profanity is 
being circulated with success. 

April 29th, 1864. Before leaving our old camp ground, 
this morning, the two-hundredth man signed the pledge, in 
consequence of which, Mr. Doggett, the owner of the 
place, who was present, changed the name of the eminence 
from "The Devil s Leap" to "Temperance Hill," a name 
which it truly deserved and which should go down to his 
tory. Some remarkable instances of reform from intemper 
ance as well as from profanity might be mentioned, while 
the Christian would delight to hear recitals of reforms even 
more radical and far-reaching. Meetings for divine wor 
ship, which have been numerous during winter quarters, 
whether held in chapels, rudely constructed by our own 
hands, or under " the clouded canopy or starry decked 
heaven," in woods or fields, have been generally well at 
tended. These agencies have had no small influence on the 
discipline and consequent efficiency of the regiment. 


Life in Southern Prisons. Personal Experience of the Author. 
Capture. Gen. Stuart. Incidents of March to Staunton, Va., 
from Pennsylvania. Libby Prison, Richmond. Cruelties of 
Managers. State of Rooms. Vermin. Rations. The Soup. 

Water. Richmond Papers. "Skirmishing." Bone Cut 
ting. The Debating Club. "Libby Lice-I-see- em," (Lyceum). 

The Weekly Libby Chronicle. Literary Classes. Religious 
Services. The Author Preaches to our Prisoners in Pember- 
ton Castle. Wretched Condition of our Men. Release. 
What he Brought with him. Diary of Sufferings at Salis 
bury, N. C. Untold Wretchedness at Andersonville, Ga, 
List of Men who Died in Rebel Prisons. 

Life in southern prisons presents us by far the darkest 
picture of the war. The cruel treatment of prisoners during 
the dark ages of the past, seems but as a pleasant pastime, 
compared to that inflicted upon our brave men at Richmond, 
Salisbury, Columbia, Andersonville, and at other places, by 
the professedly chivalrous people of the south. The statis 
tics of these pages show, that while the enemy killed but 
seventy -five of our men in battle, he killed one hundred and 
fourteen in his prisons. Though this proportionate loss 
may not exist in every regiment which has participated in 
this struggle, yet the world will stand aghast at the figures, 
if a correct computation is ever made, exhibiting the 
amount of mortality occasioned by this cause alone. 

The outlines of prison life are too well known throughout 


the country to warrant us in giving more than a brief 
sketch of personal experience, by men of the regiment. The 
author, who, with hundreds of others, sojourned for a season 
in the famous Libby Prison, rejoices in an opportunity of 
publishing in these records, a few letters, which set forth 
what he saw, what he did and what he endured while 
among the Rebels. 

July 17th, 1863. / 

My Dear P. R. : I never wrote you under so embarrassing 
and peculiar circumstances; nor do I know that my letter 
will ever be of any avail. I am a poor, wretched prisoner 
of war ! Early Sunday morning, the 5th instant, near 
Monterey Gap, Pa., during Gen. Kilpatrick s raid on the 
Rebel train, retreating from Gettysburg, I was surrounded 
by the enemy and captured. Others with me shared the 
same fate. It was hard to say, " I surrender." It was 
Jenkins cavalry that had done the deed. Being a chap 
lain and my horse my own and not the government s, it was 
promised me that as soon as I reached Gen. Stuart s head 
quarters, I would be released and none of my property 
would be molested. True as the chivalry are able to be to 
their promises, on reaching the general, I was immediately 
released of my horse and of all hopes of liberty. A per 
sonal interview with the general and earnest pleadings were 
in vain. Gen. S. is a fine looking officer. His features are 
distinct in outline, his nose long and sharp, his eye kceu 
and restlessly on the lookout. His complexion is florid. 
He wears a gray plush hat with a black feather ; has plain 
uniform, and a short bowie knife by his side with ivory 
handle, attached to his person by a golden chain. He seems 
to trust no man to do what he can possibly do himself. But 


there is more chivalry in the exterior than in the interior, I 

Baffled at every point, dismounted and dispirited, I spent 
a miserable Sabbath, I assure you, traveling nearly all day 
over the Catoctin mountains into Maryland. 

Monday evening, the 6th, after a dreary day of marching 
and fasting for our rations were short and poor, the 
column had halted and the prisoners sought sleep on the 
soft grass. I had just fallen into a doze, when I was 
roused up by a strange voice, calling " Chaplain Fifth New 
York Cavalry." Looking up, I beheld a Rebel lieutenant, 
with whom I had conversed a little during the day, who 
stepped up toward me with a cup of smoking hot coffee and 
a fine piece of warm bread. " There, chaplain, I thought you 
might be hungry, and brought you this for your supper." 
I was quite overcome with gratitude at an act so unexpected 
and so rare, and my heart leapt up for joy, as at the sight of 
the first flower of spring. That, I think, was a noble man, 
though he was a Rebel, and I have not found another 
among them like him. On Wednesday, the 8th, we were 
put across the Potomac at Williamsport. The Rebel army 
was very much discouraged and demoralized. The officer 
of the guard on reaching the "Old Virginy Shore," flung 
his sword on the ground, exclaiming with much feeling, 
C{ Lie there, and I never will cross this river again on an 
expedition of this kind." Many Rebels appeared to feel as 
he did. 

Near Washington Springs, not far from Winchester, we 
spent two days to rest. There were about 200 officers, prison 
ers, with me, and about 4,000 privates. While at the 
Springs we heard of the fall of Yicksburg. An amusing 


and interesting incident here took place. A little slave 
mulatto boy, about twelve years of age, was asked whom he 
liked best, the " Rebs " or the " Yanks ?" Scarcely willing 
to answer, as there were more Rebels around him than 
Yankees, he hung his head down a little while, but 
finally looking up with his large, intelligent eyes, he said, 
"The Yanks." All joined in a hearty laugh over the un 
expected answer. I then asked, " Why do you like the 
Yanks best?" "Because they don t sell me," was the 
quick and emphatic reply, astonishing us all at his wisdom 
and understanding. 

At Winchester I had an interview with Gen. Iniboden. 
I failed to obtain relief, but obtained a storm of abusive 
words. With varied experiences I have come up this valley, 
traveling in all, since my capture, about 200 miles, on an 
average of twenty miles per day. The soles of my feet are a 
complete blister. To-morrow we expect to take the cars at 
Staunton for Richmond. If I ever get a chance, I will 
send you my letter, if not, I will try to preserve it. 

Ever yours, 
L. N. B., Chaplain 5th N. Y. Cav. 

LIBBY PRISON, Richmond, Va., 1 
September 1st, 18G3. J 

My Dear P. R : I hope you have received my former 

letter which I sent secretly by ,who was more fortunate 

than the most of us, and got away on a special exchange. 
On the 23d ultimo, I received two of your letters. Oh ! 
what joy they were to me in my prison house. Every flag 
of truce boat brings and carries mail, but we have to write 
only one page for a letter, and it has to be read in the office 
below, before it can pass. Yours meet the same fate before 


reaching me. You say you are very anxious to know how 
we fare. I will tell you. As we expected when I wrote 
you, we reached this place on Saturday evening, the 18th 
July. From the depot we were marched to the prison, 
which stands on the corner of 20th and Gary streets. It is 
a large brick building, about 135 feet long and 105 feet 
wide, three stories high on Gary street, and four stories 
high back on the canal. Next to the street is a row of cells 
under ground. On the corner of the building is a sign 
with "Libby & Son," from which the prison takes its name. 
Two heavy walls divide the building into three nearly equal 
parts making nine large rooms above ground. By means 
of openings or doors through these walls, access may be 
had from one room to the other. You will shudder when 
I tell you that these rooms are so infested with vermin, 
that you cannot escape their loathsome presence. The 
windows around us are mostly barred, though some are not. 
So much, then, for the place where we live, I mean, stay. 

I will now give you some specimens of the men who rule 
over us. On arriving at the prison, we were unceremoni 
ously introduced to Dick Turner, who, having conducted us 
into the reception hall, fell to pillaging us. I was quickly 
delivered of my poncho, haversack and canteen. My 
money was not taken, for what little I had was Confed.; 
that they did not want. Those who had greenbacks were 
soon relieved of their burden, unless their treasure was 
concealed. While this work was going on, Turner took a 
piece of shell from a lieutenant s pocket, which he was 
putting in his own. The robbed man said, " I did not 
know that you had a right to take such things." " No 
right?" retorted Dick angrily, and at the same time, hit 


the lieutenant a fearful blow with his hand upon the face, 
nearly knocking him down, and then ordered him to be 
put into a cell. 

During the warm summer days, the prisoners discovered 
a scuttle hole through the roof, through which we could 
climb by means of a ladder, where, in the cool of the even 
ing, we could spend a few moments, freed from the stench 
and heat of the rooms below, and have an opportunity of 
looking at the bright sky overhead. Dick Turner, having 
learned that we could thus obtain a few inspirations of pure, 
fresh air, came into our rooms furiously mad, and forbade 
our going on the roof again. They sometimes say they 
starve us because they have not sufficient bread, but why 
can t they give us air ? The guards who patrol about the 
prison and live in tents across the way, are generally after 
the same pattern of Turner. If a man steps near the win 
dow, to view the scene beyond, or breathe a purer atmos 
phere, he is at once told to step back, or is fired on. These 
are the men (if it be proper to call them so), at whose beck 
we are driven to and fro, and on whose cruel hands we 
depend for our daily bread. 

I will now tell you what they furnish us to eat. In the 
morning they bring us about twelve ounces of bread and 
three ounces of boiled beef. At night they bring us about 
a pint of rice soup, in such pails, and of such sort, that to 
get it down at all, we must do so without either seeing, 
smelling or tasting. This is all we have to live upon, not 
enough to average one meal per day. I have been so weak 
from hunger, as to be compelled to lie down much of the time, 
and unable to rise, without a painful dizziness in my* head. 

One night they brought our soup to us late. It was 



Upper and Lower Room.- > *, ; 


dark and could not be seen. The next morning wherever 
a sediment could be found in pails or cups, big maggots 
took the place of rice. The soup was made of old bacon. 
Many prisoners were sick at the thought of what they had 

The water we have to drink is from James river, and in 
consequence of recent rains, it is so roily, that to fill a cup 
and let it stand an hour, you can find half an inch of mud 
on the bottom. It is with difficulty we can use it at all. 

After we had been in prison about a week, they brought 
in stoves and wood, gave us our rations raw, bread ex- 
cepted, added a little salt and vinegar, and we did our own 
cooking. Though this adds much to the heat of our rooms, 
we prefer to make our own soup. The prisoners are divided 
into messes, each using the stoves by turns. A table has 
also been constructed, with benches along side, which ren 
der our meals more acceptable. These are the only seats 
in our rooms, except in one room, where they have bunks, 
which are used for sitting and sleeping. 

About the last of July an arrangement was made, where 
by we could send out money by the prison authorities, and 
purchase such groceries as we chose. Some had money, 
and they have been living well. For one dollar green 
backs, we can get from five to ten dollars Confed. Capt. 
Hamlin had five dollars sent him from home, which the 
authorities detained, and for which they gave him thirty- 
five dollars Confed. At this rate of exchange, the enor 
mous figures attached to the things we purchase, are not 
so very large prices after all. Piles of vegetables, bread 
and fruit, are brought in about every other morning, and 
it is estimated that the GOO officers now confined in Libby, 


expend on an average of $650 Confed. daily. Tliis is a 
great privilege which most of the prisoners enjoy. How 
ever, some have no money, and are compelled to live on 
their scanty rations. 

Yours, at times very lonely, 

L. N. B., Chaplain 5th N. Y. Cav. 

LIBBY PRISON, Richmond, Va., > 
October 5tk, 1863. / 

My Dear P. R. : In my last I gave you a description of 
our fare, I will now tell you how we spend our time. We 
are generally roused in the morning by the cry of black 
Ben: "All four copies of de morning papers! Great 
news in de papers !" He finds a ready sale for his insigni 
ficant sheets, which are as free of literary taste as they are 
of truth, though we have to pay twenty-five cents per copy. 
Between the reading of these and the performance of our 
toilet, the morning hours pass away. Then comes the work 
in bones, bones from the beef supplied us. You would 
wonder to see the crosses, rings, books, boxes, stars, hearts 
&c., which I have already manufactured with an old jack- 
knife and a little file. Some of the prisoners spend all their 
time in this work. In fact, bone on the brain is a disease 
almost as universal as that other which prompts to "skir 
mishing/ a habit the prisoners have of taking off their 
clothes and -picking them. This is done to keep down ani 
mal life, which, here, is very exuberant. But this mere 
change between bone cutting and "skirmishing," became too 
monotonous, and some of us have organized a debating society, 
which is known as "The Libby Lice-I-see- em," (Lyceum). 
In this body grave questions are discussed, besides those 
that are not so grave, and many moments are whiled away 


pleasantly. The subject of Mesmerism attracted very able 
debaters, who entertained us several days with instructive 
speeches and some amusing experiments. From these 
debates sprang the idea of mock trials and lectures, which 
have displayed no little amount of humor, wit and literary 

The debating club have also organized a newspaper asso 
ciation, and have appointed me editor-in-chief of the 
weekly Libfy Chronicle. 1 This is now the great focus of 
attraction. Friday morning of each week at ten o clock, if 
you could peep into the east room, upper floor, you would see 
it filled with an attentive audience, while the columns of the 
Chronicle are being read, of course, from manuscript. 

To aid in the quickening of our intellectual life, a few 
days ago, an opportunity was offered for purchasing books 
from the city, and immediately Libby Prison was converted 
into one of the highest literary institutions of the south. 
You will hardly believe me, when I tell you that we have 
classes in arithmetic, algebra and geometry, in philosophy, 
history, theology and medicine, while the languages, Greek, 
Latin, German, Italian, Spanish and French, are each stu 
died with peculiar delight. My French class alone numbers 
about one hundred members. And last, but not least, comes 
the class in phonography, which can boast of nearly two 
hundred. In this we have no books. But by means of a 
poncho, thrown over a shelf, a narrow blackboard is made, 
on which, with a piece of chalk, I delineate the mysterious 
characters, which the prisoners readily learn. Already 
articles for the Chronicle have been received, in phonographic 

1 See Appendix. 


You see that many of us are very busy, especially when 
you add to the above studies and occupations, the hours 
spent in singing and in religious worship. From two to 
four sermons are preached per week, alternating between the 
nine chaplains who are prisoners here. Every evening an 
hour is devoted to a meeting for social worship in which 
many take a lively interest. These interesting seasons are 
often followed by a reunion for singing, during which the 
prison walls are made to echo with our. best patriotic airs, 
sung with a zest seldom known elsewhere. Chaplain 
McCabe, one of the most impressive singers I ever heard, 
generally takes the lead. I have often wondered, that the 
authorities did not veto this privilege, as the guards around 
the prison are often heard to curse and hiss with madness, 
at the sentiments of our songs. 

Having thus spent the day and evening, we seek rest 
upon the hard floor, along which the prisoners lie, close- 
packed, like sardines in a can. To the hard floor and the 
" pesky varmints" many sleepless hours are devoted, which, 
however, are frequently beguiled by the cracking of jokes, 
and the calling up, by means of catechetical questioning 
and answering, all the humorous scenes and incidents of 
the day. Sleep at last comes with dreams of home and bet 
ter days; but we awake again to the reality of prison life. 

Yesterday which was Sunday I was permitted to visit 
Pemberton Castle, across the way from Libby, where I 
preached to about 1,800 of our brave boys, who were cap 
tured at Chickamauga, and whose officers are in Libby. 
I found these men in the most wretched condition. On 
being brought here they were stripped of overcoats, blank 
ets, ponchoes, haversacks and canteens. Their rooms are 


filthy and full of vermin, even worse than Libby. The 
stench from the rear, unchecked by any doors, floods the 
rooms with a nausea the most sickening and deadly. These 
poor, half-naked men, spend their nights walking to and fro 
in the rooms, unable to sleep from the cold, which, at this 
season of the year, is quite intense. Their rations are less 
than those given to the officers in Libby. During my stay 
in the Castle I found nearly 200 men, so sick, that they 
were not able to raise their heads from the dirty floor, 
where they lay without blankets, nor even a stick of wood 
for a pillow. I was so much affected on seeing them aa 
almost to incapacitate me to preach to them. At the close 
of the services they brought me a package of about 175 
letters for their friends, which the authorities refused to 
transmit for them, and which I promised to send a few 
at a time through the channel open to the officers. I 
enjoyed the walk to and from the Castle, and rejoiced on 
reaching my room in Libby, that my condition was so de 
sirable, compared to that of others. 

There are some rumors that the chaplains are soon to be 
unconditionally released. It may be so. 

Yours hopefully, 
L. N. B., Chaplain 5th N. Y. Cav. 

On Board Flag-of-Truce Boat, New York, 
In the James, off City Point, 

ew York, "| 
oint, Va., V 

7M,1863. J 

My Dear P. R. : 1 am free ! This morning about three 
o clock, the sergeant of the prison guard, entering my room 
with a candle in his hand, cried out, " Are there chaplains 
in this room?" I quickly answered in the affirmative. 
" Pack up, and come down." was quickly said in his usual- 


ly gruff way. Such packing up ! it took not many moments. 
I hastily stuffed the files of the Lilly Chronicle in my 
boot legs, carefully secured in my coat pocket 123 letters 
from the prisoners of Pemberton Castle and of Libby, 
which were brought me as soou as it was known I was 
going, put my Spanish grammar under my arm, hid my 
treasures of worked " bones " in my pants pockets, and drew 
around me, over all, a shawl which they had not purloined 
from me. There were fears that we would be searched as we 
had been upon entering Libby. Those of my friends, who 
knew how many documents and letters I had on my person, 
sought to have me leave them, as their discovery by the 
authorities would cost me prolonged imprisonment, and, 
doubtless, too, in a dingy cell. But I had promised our 
poor fellows in the Castle that I would care for their letters, 
and was bound to do so at any cost, nor was I willing to 
leave behind me the pages to which I had devoted so many 
hours of careful study. I ran a fearful risk. We were 
not searched, and the precious relics are mine. The letters 
I will seal, put stamps on them, and mail them on reaching 
Washington. A little before daybreak we bade good bye 
to our friends and fellow-sufferers, sad to leave them there, 
and turned our backs on Libby. On passing to the street, 
the guard were crying out, as was their custom at stated 
periods of the night, " Post No. 1, all s well," " Post No. 
2, all s well," &c. It was the first time we had seen the 
"all s well" in the light it then appeared. 

Only eight of us were released, Chaplains Jos. T. Brown, 
6th Md. Vols.; E. C. Ambler, 67th Pa. Vols.; D. C. Eber- 
hart, 87th Pa. Vols.; James Harvey, 110th Chio Vols.; 
E. W. Brady, 116th Ohio Vols; Geo. H. Hammer, 12th 


Pa. Cavalry; 0. Taylor, 5th Mich. Cavalry, and myself. 
Chaplain C. C. McCabe, 122d Ohio Vols., was compelled 
to remain, sick in the hospital. Before sunrise we left the 
Rebel capital for Petersburg, where we changed cars for 
City Point, and at twelve M., for the first time, after many 
long days of waiting, we beheld our glorious starry flag, 
floating at mast head on the flag-of-truce steamer. A few 
moments more and we were beneath its protecting folds 
and among our friends. Too much cannot be said in praise 
of Major Mulford, agent of exchange, on board the New 
York, who sought by every means in his power to make 
us comfortable and happy. The rest of the story I will 
tell you when I come, as I expect a leave of absence on 
arriving at Washington. 

Yours, for Home and the Flag, 

L. N. B., Chaplain 5th N. Y. Cav. 

The following account of prison experience will be found 
full of interest : 

I was captured in the fight at Cedar creek, the 12th JNo- 
vember, 1864, by the 4th Virginia Cavalry. They took my 
horse equipments, pocket book, knife, trinkets, boots and 
spurs, and marched me off with about 150 other prisoners 
from our division, to Rosser s headquarters near New Mar 
ket, where was served out to us a pint of flour each, all we 
got for thirty-six hours. Here we were stripped and 
searched. When remonstrance was made, they said they 
were looking for commissions. Our good clothes were taken 
from us and we were obliged to take their filthy rags. On 
the 15th we were sent from New Market to Staunton, a 
distance of forty-three miles, where we arrived the 17th, 


almost naked, having been robbed and plundered the whole 
of the way, even to the cutting off of our buttons. Here 
we were served with rations, four crackers and one quarter 
pound of beef to each man, and closely confined in a strong 
log guard house. The 21st we were put on a freight train 
and sent to Richmond, being eighteen hours on the cars. 
Here we were confined in Libby Prison one night. Next 
morning we were stripped and searched again, meanwhile 
receiving the greatest abuse. After the search we were 
placed in Pemberton Castle. We suffered very much for 
want of food and clothes, it being piercing cold. 

December 3r/. Served out two days rations, consisting 
of one small loaf of bread and one fifth of a cod-fish. Next 
day we were crowded in freight cars and sent to Danville, 
where we arrived at eight o clock p. M., and were confined 
in the cars all night, without being able to get a drink of 
water; and some of the men were in the greatest filth. 

December btli. Changed cars. A few others and myself 
were put in a car with fifty embalmed bodies. Changed 
cars again at Greensboro , and, at ten o clock at night, were 
put on a freight train, with one hundred men in each car, 
and so closely packed that it was not possible to sit down. 
Two men died in the night from suffocation. At three 
A. M. next day we arrived at Salisbury, N. C. and mr\de a 
stand in the road, mud ankle deep, until nine o clock, when 
we were marched to prison. It was once a cotton mill, sur 
rounded by a high fence, strongly guarded, and commanded 
by three twelve pounders. It is a hard place. Being the 
last batch, we have no tents nor any kind of shelter yet, and 
from sixty to eighty dying every day from actual starvation. 

December 7th. It rained and froze hard last night, and poor, 


half-naked men are in a miserable plight. It is heart 
rending to see some of them, with their famished looks and 
mere skeleton forms. 

December 8th. The guard (68th N. 0. regiment) received 
orders to fire on any of us seen walking about the yard, or 
going to the rear after sundown. That night they killed 
two men and wounded another. In the morning they shot 
a man in a tent asleep. I reported the sentry to Major 
Gee, in command. He questioned the sentry about it, 
whos<3 excuse was. that he had three niggers in line and 
never expected such a shot again, but he happened to miss 
them and killed this man. He was praised for the act and 
received a forty days furlough. 

December 10/A. We feel the cold very much. The ground 
is covered with snow. Men are to be seen almost frozen 
to death hands and feet frozen, in several cases in 
every direction. A great many died during the night from 
exposure and want of food. We have been kept seventy- 
five hours without rations, and in the meantime the Rebels 
tried to persuade us to enlist, by offering a bounty of fifty 
dollars, one loaf of bread, and a canteen of whiskey " the 
largest bounty," they said, " ever offered in the Confede 
racy." They got some recruits men who were afraid of 
starving to death, and enlisted to save their lives. 

December IQth. Several escaped, myself in the number. I 
got within twenty miles of our lines, was recaptured, and 
brought back to prison again. We are tunneling, and ex 
pect soon to make another break. 

January 4f/i. Eighty-six men in the dead house, who 
died during the night. Thirty of my men* died since I 

1 He had charge of a division of one thousand men. 


came here. Four companies of Yanks that were enlisted 
here, from, time to time, and fully equipped, in Florence, 
killed their Kebel officers, hung their Sergeant Major for 
interfering, seized four pieces of artillery, and effected their 
escape to Gen. Sherman s lines. 

January 9/7t. Quarter rations, consisting of meal, made 
from corn and corn-cobs ground together, and baked into 

January 12th. I have several men without any kind of 
shelter. A great many have dug holes in the ground to 
live in, working at them with a part of a canteen, a nail, or 
piece of iron, or any thing they can get, not being allowed 
any tools. Thirty-nine men died last night. The commis 
sary has nothing to issue to the prisoners, no food of any 
kind. There is plenty outside the prison, but not for us. 

January 18th. Three table-spoonfuls of molasses issued 
to each man, and one quart of vinegar to every hundred 

January 20th. One of my men dropped dead while trying 
to eat some soup, made of rice and water. Another tunnel 
is finished. Ten of us escape from prison, are seen and 
fired on by the guard. Three men, with myself, got as far 
as Morgantown, a distance of eighty-four miles, when we 
were recaptured and brought back to prison again. 

January 28th. A man, sent out to the dead house for 
dead, comes to life in the dead cart on his way to be buried, 
and is brought back to the hospital, where he recovers. 

January 30<7i. The Ilebs are trying to get more recruits. 
Last night a man was robbed of seventy dollars in green 
backs and three hundred in Confed. that he was fortunate 
enough to secure, in hopes of sometime making his escape. 


February 3d. Two men only allowed to go once a day to 
bring the allowance of wood for each hundred men. 

February 5th. Sixty-five men escaped over the fences last 
night. It is thought the guard assisted them, as some of 
them also are missing. 

February Sth. There have been, up to this date, five thou 
sand seven hundred and fifty deaths in this prison, out 
of nine thousand, in less than three months. 

February Ilth. Men suffering very much from scurvy. 
The small-pox has also broken out. Got one quart of vine 
gar to each hundred men to-day. 

February 14th. Capt. Porter, 13th Mass., Maj. Howard, 
4th N. Y. Mounted Rifles, and a Capt. of the 146th N. Y. 
S. Vols., whose name I don t remember, commenced issuing 
a few blankets the government sent us last November, but 
were kept in Richmond, until the cold is nearly over, by 
the Rebel authorities there. 

February 18th. Three hundred prisoners came here from 
Andersonville and Charlotte. Pants, blouses and shirts 
were issued by the above-named officers, one hundred of 
each to a division, consisting of one thousand men. 

February 20th. I am making out rolls of the men able 
to bear a journey. We are going to to be paroled when 
these rolls are finished. 

February 22d. Sending sick to Richmond. The rest 
were fallen in on the square ; a parole was read to us and about 
noon we left the prison, marched to South Atkin, six miles 
from Salisbury, and camped for the night. 

February 23rf. Marched out early. Passing through 
Lexington a lady gave me a gingerbread cake that was most 
acceptable. Four miles beyond the town we camped. 


February 24th. Marched along the railroad. A great 
many men gave out, not being able to stand the march. We 
passed through Thornasville, then on to High Point, 
where we camped for the night. 

February 26th. Having reached Greensboro we were 
put on the cars and sent to Goldsboro by way of Ila- 
leigh, where we had to wait until parole papers were made 
out. I had to pay forty dollars (Coufed.) for my dinner 
there on the 27th. Parole papers made out, we were put 
on board cars for Wilmington, where we arrived safely. 
The moment we beheld the Old Glory, three enthusiastic 
cheers burst from one and all. It was gladdening to think 
we were under its protection once more. The dear old 
flag, may it never lose a star ! 

On getting into town, the U. S. Sanitary Commission did 
everything they could to alleviate our suffering. 

March 1st. I drank my first cup of coffee since my im 
prisonment. It is reported, that when Gen. Schofield, 
commanding department, saw our wretched condition from 
starvation, he gave orders to put the prisoners he took on 
capturing Wilmington, on quarter rations, and reduce them 
to skin and bones. 

March 3d. Left Wilmington on the Escort. 

March 5th. Crossed the Bar and embarked on the Her 
man Livingston for Annapolis, Md., via Fortress Monroe. 

March 10th. Disembarked at our destination, received 
compensation money, &c., &c., and got things comfortable 
once more. (Extracts from the Diary of John Evans, Esq., 
of the Fifth New York Cavalry). 

Chaplain : You can never know how much we have suf 
fered. Tongue cannot tell nor pen describe the suffering and 


misery endured by our soldiers at Andersonville, Ga., 
where I was confined. You would not believe it, if it were 
told. I would not, had I not been there. But God has 
been good to me in sparing my life. (Extract from a letter 
of William P. Smith, company C, Fifth New York Cavalry, 
dated Parole Hospital, Yicksburg, Miss., April 12, 1865). 

The following list of the men of the regiment, who 
died in Rebel prisons, has heen prepared with much 
care, and must prove intensely interesting to their friends 
and surviving comrades. These important data were mostly 
secured from men, who had returned to us, and who had 
watched their less fortunate fellow-sufferers, as mind and 
body gave away under the sufferings and destitution of 
their wretched imprisonment. 

Some information was also obtained from official docu 
ments from the War Department, at Washington, D. C. 




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Our Scout. With Gen. Stall el. Guides Cavalry Corps from Fair 
fax C. H. to Frederick City, Md., June, 1863. Ordered to Watch 
Movements of Rebel Army, Marching on its Grand Invasion of 
Pennsylvania. In Disguise he Visits Rebel Gen. Stuart. 
Captures Rebel Army Mail, with Important Dispatches, at 
Hngerstown, Md. Carries Dispatches from Gen. Grant to 
President Lincoln, during Battle of the Wilderness. Among 
the Rebels near Weldon & Petersburg R.R. Hard Tramp^ 
through Woods and Swamps. The Colored Guide. Gladly 
Reaches our Lines Again. 

At the time of the Rebel invasion of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania, in 1863, I was chief scout of Gen. Stahel, 
commanding division of cavalry in Defenses of Washington. 
June 24, 1863, I guided the cavalry from Fairfax Court 
House on its way into Maryland. We forded the Potomac 
at Young s Island, two miles below the mouth of Goose 
creek, and marched to Frederick City. I put up at the 
Dill Hotel, the headquarters of the general. At eleven p. 
M. the general sent forme. Obeying the summons, I found 
him with Major Kcphart, Captains Kidd and Chauncey, of 
his staff, engaged in drawing sketches and routes of the 
enemy from a large map, spread out before them. Rising 
from his seat the general bade me a pleasant " good eve 
ning/ and added : 

" Sergeant, I have a very hard trip for you. If you 


think it can be accomplished, I wish you to commence it 
to-night, for, if it is to be done at all, now is the time/ 

" Well, general," I replied, saluting him, " I am ready to 
do all in my power to help the cause, and if we are to 
commence the work to-night, the sooner we get to business 
the better." 

He then directed uie to repair to the Potomac near 
Williamsport, to watch the movements of the enemy, to 
ascertain his strength and the routes taken by the different 
columns, &c., and to communicate all serviceable informa 
tion to himself, or to Gen. Meade, who had just assumed 
command. I was to take as many men as I needed, to 
mount them on horses secured by his order, to take such 
routes as, in my own judgment, were best, and to return only 
when I thought the interest of the service so required, or I 
should receive further orders from him. 

My horse was soon ready, and, after receiving the gene 
ral s order for ten picked men out of Col. Price s brigade, I 
bade him good bye, and set out to Middletown, near which 
Col. Price was then encamped. It was ten A. M. when I 
presented my order to the colonel, with the request that the 
men should be taken from the 1st Michigan Cavalry, each of 
ten companies to furnish its bravest and best man. These 
gallant troopers were soon ready, and, having reported to 
me in due style, we began our toilsome march over the 
South Mountain for Boonsboro , which we reached at four 
A. M. next day. 

Here we learned that the Rebels were crossing the river 
at two points, Falling Waters and Williamsport, but their 
advance had not yet entered the town. We spent the day 
riding up and down the river on different roads, watching 


their movements. At night I left my men at the United 
States Hotel, kept by a good Union man named Smith, and 
started for Hagerstown. I soon found that the main body 
of their army was moving towards Chambersburg, Pa. 
Having spent the night in the vicinity, I returned early 
next morning, and dispatched a messenger to the general 
with what information we had obtained. 

These proceedings occupied our time until Saturday night 
of that week, when Gen. Stuart, commanding Rebel cavalry, 
came into Hagerstown. 

I was very anxious to learn all about his force, and the 
movements contemplated, and resolved upon a plan to see the 
general himself, or some of his staff. 

Of a Union man I procured a suit of raglings, knocked 
off one boot heel to make one leg shorter than its mate, and 
put a gimblet, a tow string and an old broken jack-knife in 
my pockets. My jewelry corresponded with my clothes. I 
adopted the name of George Fry, a harvest hand of Dr. 
Farney s, from Wolftown, on the north side of the mountain, 
and I was a cripple from rheumatism. Having completed 
arrangements with Dr. Farney, Mr. Landers and other Union 
men, that they might be of service to me in case the Rebels 
were suspicious of my character, I hobbled away on my 
perilous journey, and entered the city, by leaping the high 
stone wall which guards it on the north side, near the 
depot, just as the town clock struck one. 

It was a clear starlight night, and the glistening bayo 
nets of the sentries could be seen as they walked their 
lonely beat. Scarcely had I gained the sidewalk, leading 
to the centre of the town, when the sentry cried, "Halt! 
who goes there?" "A friend," I replied. "A friend to 


north or south?" "To south, of course, and all right." 
" Advance then," was the response. I told him I had come 
in to see our brave boys, who could whip the Yankees so 
handsomely, &c., and we fell to discussing the war ques 
tions of the day. In the midst of our colloquy, up came 
the officer of the guard, who, after asking me a few ques 
tions, said : " Had you not better go with me to see Gen. 
Stuart?" "I should reelly like ter git a sight of the gini- 
ral," I quickly replied, " for I never seen a reel giniral in all 
my life." I was soon in the presence of the general, who 
received me very cordially. I told him who I was and 
where I lived when at home. : Wolftown ?" remarked the 
general, ; have not the Yankees a large wagon train there?" 
I told him they had, and, turning to one of his staff, he said, 
" I must have it, it would be a fine prize." I noted his 
words, and I determined, if I possessed any Yankee wit, to 
make use of it on this occasion. " Giniral," said I, "you all 
don t think of capterin them are Yankee wagons, do you?" 
" Why not ? I have here 5,000 cavalry and sixteen pieces of 
artillery, and I understand the train is lightly guarded." 

I told him they came there that afternoon, with twelve 
big brass cannon and three regiments of foot soldiers, and 
if he was to try to go through the gap in the mountain, 
they would shoot all the cannon off right in the gap, and 
kill all of his men and horses. The general laughed, and 
said I had a strange idea of war, if I thought so many men 
would be killed at once, and added, that I would not be a 
very brave soldier. I replied, that many times I had felt 
like going into the Confederate army, but my rheumatism 
kept me out. 

After a while the general concluded not to try the train, 


and I was heartily glad, for he would have taken 2,000 
wagons easily, as they were guarded by not more than three 
hundred men. 

He then gave orders to have the main body of his cav 
alry move toward Green Castle, and I distinctly heard him 
give orders to the major to stay in town with fifty men as 
rear guard, and to send on the army mail, which was ex 
pected there about six the next evening. I made up my 
mind that it would be a small mail he would get, as I pro 
posed to myself to be postmaster for once. 

After seeing the general and his cavalry move out of 
town, I went directly for my horse, which I had concealed 
in a safe place some distance from the city, and surveyed 
the ground to see which way I could best come in to cap 
ture the mail, and determined to charge the place on the 
pike from Boonsboro and made my arrangements to that 
effect. I got a Union man by the name of Thornburgh to 
go into the town arid notify the Union people, that when 
the town clock struck six p. M. I would charge in and cap 
ture the Rebel mail, at the risk of losing my own life and 
every man with me. I had now but eight men, two hav 
ing been sent to the general with dispatches. 

I then returned to Boonsboro , and found my men waiting 
for me. I told them my intentions, and offered to send 
back to his regiment any man who feared to go with me. 
But every one bravely said he would not leave me, nor 
surrender without my order. I ordered them to bring 
their horses, and we were soon on the road. It was a 
moment of thrilling interest to us all, as we approached 
Hagerstown, and lingered to hear the signal strokes of that 
monitor, in the old church tower. At the appointed time 


With. his brave men, approaching Hagerstown. 


(we had entered the edge of the town), with a wild shout 
we dashed into the street, and the major and his fifty braves 
fled without firing a shot. We captured sixteen prisoners, 
twenty-six horses, several small arms, and a heavy army 
mail, which contained three dispatches from Jeff. Davis, 
and two from the Rebel secretary of war, to Gen. Lee. 
All this substantial booty we safely carried within our lines, 
without the loss of a man or a horse. 

Many thanks are due to Dr. C. R. Doran, and to Robert 
Thornburgh, for their kind and timely assistance, and also 
to Misses Susie Carson and Addie Brenner, who did so 
much for the comfort of our brave men. I still have in my 
possession some choice flowers, preserved from a bouquet, 
presented me by Miss Carson the evening we captured the 
Rebel mail ; and though the flowers have faded, me c:ood 
deeds done by the giver will ever grow bright through 
coming time. All honor to the brave Union ladies. 

/Saturday, Muy 1th, 1864. I left Gen. Grant s headquar 
ters, accompanied by G. M. Cline, Gen. Meade s chief of 
scouts, with important dispatches for President Lincoln, 
Quartermaster Gen. Meigs, Surgeon Gen. Barnes, and 
others of the Department. The fighting was terrific on the 
right and left wings when we started. It was two p. M. 
Crossed the Rappahannock at U. S. Ford. We traveled^ all 
night through the enemy s country. We could see their sig 
nal rockets, sent up along the line of signal stations, from Belle 
Plain to Guineas Station, on the Richmond and Fredericks- 
burg rail road. We reached the Potomac at four next 
morning at Acquia creek. Fearing the guerrillas, should 
we remain on the Virginia shore, we constructed a raft of 
drift wood and boards, on which, by great exertion, pad- 


dling under a broiling sun, we succeeded in crossing the 
river, which, at this point, is several miles wide. By trav 
eling afoot about five miles, we met a Union guard, who 
conducted us to Capt. Russell, company A, First Purnell 

The captain entertained us with a good dinner, which 
relished well after over twenty-four hours hard toil, minus 
our rations. After dinner we hailed a schooner, bound up 
stream, and Capt. Russell sent us out to her in his row- 
boat. It proved to be the General Hunter of Baltimore. 
The captain informed us that he had a case of small-pox 
aboard, and strove to warn us away. But we were too 
anxious to get to Washington with our dispatches to be 
delayed by one case of small-pox. Light breezes, or no 
breeze at all, delayed us, and we did not reach the capital 
till seven A. M. on the 9th. We were landed at the navy 
yard, whence we were sent to the War Department in the 
private carriage of the officer in command. 

The authorities had not heard from the army in three 
days and eventful days they had been as Mosby had 
cut off all communication by way of the Orange and Alex 
andria rail road. 

After delivering our messages and receiving answers, 
with other dispatches for Gen. Grant, Gen. Meigs sent ug 
down the river aboard the steamer Lizzie Baker. We 
were landed at night, near Acquia creek, and traveled to 
Fredericksburg. Seeing camp fires in and about the 
town, we expected to meet the Rebels, but were gladly 
disappointed in finding them to be our own. 

The next morning, the 10th, we had the pleasure of tak 
ing breakfast with Lieut. F. A. Boutelle of the Fifth New 


York Cavalry, chief ambulance officer of the division 
Having secured horses and an orderly, we started for Gen. 
Grant s headquarters, which we reached about eleven A. M., 
near Spottsylvania Court House. The fighting was very 
heavy during the day, and continued through the night. 

May ll^A, near Spottsylvania Court House. Our men cap 
ture eight generals, forty-five pieces of artillery, and seven 
thousand prisoners. 

August 3<M, 1864. It had been reported that the Rebels 
were constructing a cross rail road from Stony Creek Station, 
Weldon & Petersburg rail road, to the Southside rail road- 
I was sent to ascertain the fact, in company with James Hat- 
tan, one of General Grant s scouts. As neither of us knew 
the country, we procured a darkey guide. We had pro 
ceeded but a short distance from our lines, at a point near 
Lee s mills, on the Blackwater river, when a squad of 
Rebels saw us, and gave us chase. Being on foot, we soon 
reached thick woods, and escaped. We traveled nearly all 
night, and, getting near our destination, we started for a 
large farm house, to make some inquiries, when a picket 
cried out "halt!" As we did not obey him, he fired, and 
thus aroused a whole regiment, that was soon in the saddle. 
We took to the woods again. We spent considerable time in 
trying to cross the Indian swamp, but in vain. Here we lost 
our guide, who, desiring to visit his wife at her master s, Mr. 
Dunn, whose house was under Rebel guards, was either 
killed or captured. By a new route we traveled on toward 
Stony Creek Station, till daybreak. At this time we sought 
the nearest ravine, where we crept into a few bushes, and 
sought rest. Though we were much exposed during the 
day, much Rebel cavalry prowling about, and, some of the 


time, very near us, yet from a faithful darkey, whom we 
saw, we secured both food and drink, and received all 
needed information about the new cross rail road, which was 
not yet being built. 

Under the darkness of night, we started back for our 
lines, and crossed the Indian swamp near Mr. Sterling 
Saunder s farm, and soon arrived at Mr. Charles Kean s, 
where we found a darkey prepared for a promenade with his 
Dinah, it being Sabbath evening. He was dressed in grand 
style, with black coat, white pants and vest, standing collar, 
and a splendid beaver. He sported a big cane, with a brass 
knob on the handle. Thus caparisoned, he did not relish 
the idea of becoming guide. But excuses were useless, and 
he must show us across the big swamp called Jones Hole. 
The night became very dark, and we were compelled is feel 
our way much of the time. This was no easy task, as we 
were obliged to walk on fallen trees, some lying in the water, 
and others three or four feet above. By a misstep, Mr. 
guide went off one of these logs into mud and water. It 
was difficult to restrain laughter, when the poor fellow 
crawled out, to think, had it been day, what a sudden change 
of color his white pants and vest must have undergone. 
Having reached terra firma on the opposite side of the 
swamp, we gave the guide a five dollar greenback, and sent 
him back to his Dinah. We crossed the Jerusalem plnnk road 
just south of Captain Proctor s farm. house, and reached our 
lines about twelve I., at Burnt Mills, near the Norfolk rail 
road. We were furnished horses and an orderly, and made 
our way to General Grant s headquarters, glad to be within 
our own lines once more. C. A. P., 

Co. G ? Fifth New York Cavalry. 


Company Registers. Organizations. Officers. Interesting In 
cidents in Personal Adventures of the men. 

In this connection is given only an epitome of each com 
pany, in which may be found the dates of the appointments 
or commissions of its officers ; an account of its organiza 
tion ; the leading events of its history, and a brief mention 
of a few men, who, for special acts of bravery, or for pecu 
liar misfortunes, are deemed worthy of this notice. It would 
be a pleasure to mention here all those men, who possessed 
the " stuff of which heroes are made," and who have always 
performed their duty so well, but the space allotted us will 
not permit it 



Augustus?. Green, Captain, August 15th, 1801. Re 
signed, November 5th, 1862. 

Thomas Burns, 1st Lieutenant, August 15th, 18G1. Re 
signed, May 21st, 1862. 

Henry Wilson, 2d Lieutenant. August 15th, 1861. 1st 
Lieutenant, May 21st, 1861. Captured, July 18th, 1862, 
Barnett s Ford. Resigned, December 28th, 1862. 

Luke McGuinn, 2d Lieutenant, May 23d, 1862. Captain, 


November 5th, 18G2. Killed, May 5th, 1864, Parker s Store. 

Frazer A. Boutelle, 2d Lieutenant from Sergeant, 

September 10th, 1862. 1st Lieutenant, December 20th, 

1863. Discharged, Expiration of Term, September 1st, 

1864. Captain, November 14th, 1864. 

Theodore A. Boice, 1st Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
December 29th, 1862. Captain, Company B, December 
20th, 1863. 

William T. Boyd, 2d Lieutenant, December 20th, 1863. 

Michael Hayes, 1st Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
November 14th, 1864. 

This company formed the original nucleus of the regi 
ment, and was raised by Captain Green, in New York city. 
It was mustered in the service of the United States, August 
15th, 1861, at Staten Island, N. Y., by Captain L. S. Lamed, 
5th U. S. Infantry. The first recruit of the company was Fra 
zer A. Boutelle, its present captain. It was engaged alone in 
the first action recorded in our history, May 2d, 1862, near 
Port Republic. It there lost the first prisoner ever made 
from the regiment John Beaumont. 

Sergeant C. A. Maguire, August 30th, 1862, distinguished 
himself as bearer of dispatches from Gen. Pope to Gen. Mc 
Dowell, having to traverse the enemy s lines between Ma- 
nassas Junction and Gainesville, compelled to fight much of 
the way, assisted by only ten men, yet accomplishing his 

Sergeant T. McGiveran had three horses killed under 
him, and Sergeant W. Murray four. A solid shot taking 
away the horse s head of the latter, June 1st, 1864, at Ash 
land, while falling, he coolly exclaimed, " Be jabers, this is 
a fine way to dismount a man !" 


Sergeants T. Burke and W. Herrick, June 30th, 1863. 
at Hanover, Pa., captured a Rebel battle flag and several 

John Catlin, bugler, a boy sixteen years old, March 7th, 
1865, Rood s Hill, captured General Rosser s chief bugler, 
a tall man, and secured his bugle as a memento of the war. 

Nearly the whole company was captured, on picket, at 
Barnett s ford, Rapidan, July 18th, 1862. 

Original number of men, at time of muster in, 76; whole 
number, 183 ; men killed in action, 2; mortally wounded, 2; 
wounded, 26; number of wounds, 35; men captured, 58; 
missed in action and never heard from, 1 2 ; died in Rebel 
prisons, 6; died of disease, 7; veterans, 2 16; veterans re 
maining, July 19th, 1865, 12 ; whole number of men 
remaining, 63. 



Lyon Isaacs, Captain, August 21st, 1861. Resigned, May 
18th, 1862. 

David Abohbot. 1st Lieutenant, August 21st, 1861. Re 
signed, May, 1862. 

Philip Dwyer, 2d Lieutenant, August 21st, 1861. Mor 
tally wounded, May 23d, 1862, Front Royal. Died, May 25th. 

Alfred W. Creamer, Captain from 1st Lieutenant Co. E, 
May 2d, 1862. Resigned, January 12th, 1863. 

Jeremiah Collins, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, May 
24th, 1862. Left by Special Order, December 13th, 1862. 

1 These men were probably killed. 

2 These veterans are men who were originally with the regi 
ment, and who reenlisted in the early part of 1864. 


Abram H. Hasbrouck, Captain from 2d Lieutenant Co. 
G-, January 12th, 1863. Left by Special Order, December 
26th, 1863. 

Samuel McBride, 2d Lieutenant from Hospital Steward, 
December 13th, 1862. 1st Lieutenant, July 27th, 1863. 

Llewellyn N. Stevens, 1st Lieutenant, January 9th, 1863. 
Resigned, June 1st, 1863. 

Frederic Von Klitzing, 2d Lieutenant, May 19th, 1863. 
Resigned, September 6th, 1863. 

Jabez Chambers, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, Sep 
tember 1st, 1863. 1st Lieutenant, March 28th, 1864. Cap- 
tain, December 9th, 1864. 

Theodore A. Boice, Captain from 1st Lieutenant Co. A, 
December 20th, 1863. Major, September 15th, 1864. 
Lieutenant Colonel, November 14th, 1804. 

Edward Price, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, Decem 
ber 9th, 1864. 

Capt. Isaacs organized this company in New York city, 
commencing the work in July, 1861. It was mustered into 
the service of U. S., August 21st, 1861, Long Island, N. 
Y., by Capt. A. P. Green. 

The company suffered terribly with company D, May 23d, 
1862, at Front Royal. 

These two companies were afterward detached from the 
regiment, to serve on Crosby s battery, which they did 
till October 1st, 1862. Meanwhile they were engaged, 
September 19th, at Antietam. 

October 9th, 1864, the company assisted in capturing six 
pieces of artillery and the enemy s train. October 19th, 
1864, it captured four pieces of artillery. 

Capt. Chambers, September 19th, 1864, captured seven 


prisoners. Sergeant C. Statley was twice wounded and once 
captured, but escaped from his guards. 

John Braden was twice captured, but effected his escape 
each time, and has had three horses killed under him in 

Original number of men, 84; whole number, 190; men 
killed in action, 5; mortally wounded, 2; wounded, 27; 
number of wounds, 33; men captured, 44; missed in action 
and never heard from, 2 ; died in Rebel prisons, 10 ; died of 
disease, 2 ; killed accidentally, 3 ; discharged by reason of 
wounds, 7 ; veterans, 12 ; veterans remaining, July 19th, 
1865, 8 ; whole number of men remaining, 59 

Original horses remaining, 1. 


Ira Wright, Captain, August 8th, 1861. Left by Special 
Order, September 22d, 1862. 

Henry L. Bogardus, 1st Lieutenant, August 8th, 1861. 
Resigned, June 1st, 1862. 

Charles J. Farley, 2d Lieutenant, August 8th, 1861 
Captain, September 22d, 1862. Wounded twice, October 
19th, 1863. Wounded in foot, August 25th, 1864. Lost 
right leg, and slight wound in head, September 19th, 1864. 
Discharged, Expiration of Term, January 16th, 1865. 

Edward Whiteford, 1st Lieutenant, June 1st, 1862. 
Resigned, November 12th, 1862. 

Benjamin M. Whittemore, 1st Lieutenant from Sergeant. 
November 13th, 1862. Captain, January 16th, 1865. 

Joseph B. Grice, 2d Lieutenant from Sergeant Co. J. 
September 22d, 1862. Left by Special Order, May 7th, 1863. 


Robert A !arper, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, May 
7th, 1863. Left by Special Order 377 A. G. 0., November 
1st, 1864. 

William Leahey, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, No 
vember 14th, 1864. 1st Lieutenant, January 16th, 1865. 

Patrick Tiffany, 2d- Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, Janu 
ary 16th, 1865. 

This company was raised in New York city, by Captain 
Wright, and was mustered into the service of the United 
States, September 3d, 1861, at Staten Island, N. Y.. by 
Captain L. S. Lamed. It won great praise during the 
second battle of Bull Run, by carrying dispatches at night 
through the enemy s lines, from General Pope to General 

Sergeant McNulty was severely wounded and captured, 
March 13th, 1864, Ely s Ford, but escaped, saving his 
money, a considerable amount, in the bottom of one of his 
boots. The Rebels undertook several times to take his 
boots from him, as was their custom to do, but he plead 
successfully on account of his wounds. He was captured 
again, June 28th, 1864. Escaped from prison, Greensboro , 
S. C., and was five weeks in reaching our lines. 

The following captures were made by the company, 
October 19th, 1864, at Cedar creek : 

Lieutenant Leahey, one headquarters medical wagon; 
Sergeants Tiffany and Highland, two pieces of artillery and 
twenty prisoners; Harvey Rickert, one piece of artillery ; P. 
J. Geraty, seven prisoners and one wagon ; Sergeant W. H. 
Norcott, one caisson and six prisoners ; Corporal J. Farrell, 
one gun and limber and six horses; Sergeant John Buckley, 


one gun and six horses ; the same by James Perry, who was 
accidentally and mortally wounded, February 27th, 1865. 

John Stein was four times captured, and died in prison. 

Original number of men, 76; whole number, 188; men 
killed in action, 7 : mortally wounded, 2 ; wounded, 23 ; 
number of wounds, 29; men captured, 43; missed in action 
and never heard from, 2 ; died in Rebel prisons, 9 ; died of 
disease, 6; killed accidentally, 3 ; veterans, 22; veterans re 
maining, July 19th, 1865, 14; whole number of men re 
maining, 60. 

Original horses remaining, 1. 


Thomas Coyle, Captain, August 21st, 1861. Died of dis 
ease, November 24th, 1861 

Amos H. White, 1st Lieutenant, September 21st, 1861. 
Captain, December 9th, -1861. Major, January 30th, 1863. 
Lieutenant Colonel, September 15th, 1864. Colonel, No- 
ember, 14th, 1864. 

Seth B. Ryder, 2d Lieutenant, September 29th, 1861. 
1st Lieutenant, June llth, 1862. Captain, January 30th, 
1863. Captured, October 10th, 1863, and a prisoner till 
March, 1865. Discharged, Expiration of Term, May 15th, 

George H. Nichols, 1st Lieutenant, March, 1862. Re 
signed, June llth, 1862. 

William Watson, 1st Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
February 13th,1863. Left by Special Order, July 2 7th, 18 63. 

Edward J. McArdle, 2d Lieutenant, February 2d, 1863. 
Resigned, June 1st, 1863. 


Henry J. Appleby, 2d Lieutenant from Q. M. Sergeant 
June 1st, 1863. 1st Lieutenant, July 27th 1863. Dis 
charged, Expiration of Term, September, 1864. 

Charles H. Greenleaf, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
July 27th, 1863. Mortally wounded, August 25th, 1864. 
Died next day. 

Ransom A. Perkins, 2d Lieutenant from Commissary 
Sergeant, September 15th, 1864. 1st Lieutenant, Novem 
ber 14th, 1864. 

Jeremiah J. Callanan, 2d Lieutenant from Sergeant, 
November 14th, 1865. 

This company was formed by Captain Coyle, of men en 
listed in the states of Massachusetts and Connecticut, and was 
mustered into the service of the United States, October 1st, 
1861, at Staten Istand, N. Y., by Col. D. B. Sacket, U. 
S. Army. 

With company B, it performed the peculiar work attached 
to a battery, from June to October, -1862. 

Sergeant C. H. Greenleaf, May 23d, 1862, carried dis 
patches from Front Royal to Gen. Banks at Strasburg. 
By bravery and skill, he gave timely notice of Stonewall 
Jackson s flank movement, whereby he saved Gen. Banks 
army, which led the general to recommend him for promotion. 
He was mortally wounded in action, while in command of 
company A, fighting bravely. 

H. A. Smith received four sabre cuts, May 23d, 1862, 
and was captured. Wounded again and captured, June 
23d, 1864, at Nottoway Court House. 

Corp. John Walsh, October 19th, 1864, at Cedar creek, 

See his letter, page 31. 


recaptured the colors of the 15th New Jersey Vols., for 
which he received the " Medal of Honor," awarded by 

Original number of men, 82; whole number, 161; men 
killed in action, 3 ; mortally wounded, 1; wounded, 23; 
number of wounds, 27; men captured, 59; missed in action 
and never heard from, 3; died in Rebel prisons, 10; died 
of disease, 7; killed accidentally, 1; discharged by reason 
of wounds, 1; veterans, 16; veterans remaining, July 19th, 
1865, 15 ; whole number of men remaining, 45. 



William P. Pratt, Captain, August 15th, 1861. Major, 
July 1st, 1862. Resigned, January 30th, 1863. 

Alfred W. Creamer, 1st Lieutenant, September 17th, 
1861. Captain Company B, May 2d, 1862. 

William H. Williams, 2d Lieutenant, November 7th, 

1861. 1st Lieutenant, May 2d, 1862. Captain, May 28th, 

1862. Resigned, February 7th, 1863. 

William P. Dye, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, May 
2d, 1862. 1st Lieutenant, May 28th, 1862. Captain, 
February 7th, 1863. Resigned, September 3d, 1864. 

Daniel B. Merriman, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
May 28th, 1862. 1st Lieutenant, February 7th, 1863. 
Discharged for physical disability, March 29th, 1864. 

Liberty C. Abbott, 2d Lieutenant from Q. M. Sergeant, 
June 30th, 1863. 1st Lieutenant, March 29th, 1864. 
Captain, November 14th, 1864. Major, May 2d, 1865. 

Foster Dickinson, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, May 
21st, 1864. 1st Lieutenant, November 14th, 1864. Cap 
tain, June 1st, 1865. 


Matthew Strait, 2d Lieutenant from Corporal, November 
14th, 1864. 1st Lieutenant, June 1st, 1865. 

Addison S. Thompson, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
June 1st, 1865. 

Major Davidson raised this company in Allegany county, 
N. Y., and it was mustered into the service of the United 
States, August 31st, 1861, at New York city, by Captain 
S. B. Hayman, U. S. Army. 

Asahel A. Spencer was the first man of the regiment, 
killed in action, May 6th, 1862, Harrisouburg. 

The company has lost two 1st Sergeants, killed in action, 
E. S. Dye and S. W. Sortore, and their commissions of 
2d Lieutenants reached the regiment just after their deaths. 

John Leiser deserted from the Hebel army and joined 
this company. He was a true and brave soldier. (See 
Table Men who died in Rebel Prisons.) 

Henry W. Monroe, June 30th, 1863. at Hanover, Pa., re 
ceived a gunshot wound through his body, so that stones of 
cherries he had eaten that morning passed through the 
wound. He got well. 

Corporal Charles A. Miner, October 9th, 1864, Tom s 
Brook, while pursuing the enemy, emerged from a piece of 
woods, in sight of eight Rebels. He cried out " Come on 
boys !" looking back as though he were leading a company 
of men. Without firing a shot the Rebels fled, leaving a 
wagon loaded with hay, and six mules. He was killed by 
the falling of the walls of Union Hotel, Winchester, 
December 16th, 1864. 

Major L. C. Abbott, October 9th, 1864, captured six pri 
soners, by making a sabre charge upon them. 

Lieutenant M. Strait, September 19th, 1864, had a button 


of his coat driven into his left hand, by a bullet. He 
fought bravely, October 9th, 1864, capturing General 
Rosser s headquarters wagon, and securing tie general s 
private saddle. October 19th, he captured a brass battery 
of six guns. 

S. K. Ford joined the company, August, 1861, but dis 
played no soldierly qualities until October 9th, 1864. He 
then captured five prisoners, and October 19th he fought 
desperately, eliciting general admiration, but was severely 
wounded through the right lung. 

Lieutenant A. S. Thompson. October 6th, 1864, Brock s 
Gap, had his horse killed under him and was surrounded by 
the enemy. He managed to secrete himself in bushes until 
night, though so near the Rebels as to hear them converse, 
and escaped through their picket line, under cover of the 
darkness. He has had three horses killed under him. Ser 
geant S. T. Uptegrove, October 6th, 1864, was captured, 
stripped of all his clothing, and only old rags replaced, and 
almost starved. He escaped from Rebels during the fight at 
Tom s Brook, October 9th. 

David F. Wolcott was promoted to Saddler Sergeant, for his 
fidelity as a soldier and a man. 

L. C. Smith had three horses killed under him in action. 

Original number of men, 94; whole number, 169; men 
killed in action, 5; mortally wounded, 2; wounded, 27; 
number of wounds, 39 ; men captured, 41 ; died in Rebel 
prisons, 7; died of disease, 7; killed accidentally, 2; dis 
charged by reason of wounds, 1 ; veterans, 36 ; veterans 
remaining July 19th, 1865, 31; whole number of men re 
maining, 60. 

Original horses remaining, 1. 



"Washington Wheeler, Captain, August 30th, 1861. 
Major, July 1st, 1862. Resigned, September 26th, 1862. 

Levi Curtis, 1st Lieutenant, August 30th, 1861. Cap 
tain, July 1st, 1862. Resigned, January 22, 1863. 

William D. Lucas, 2d Lieutenant, August 30th, 1861. 
1st Lieutenant, July 1, 1862. Captain, January 22, 1863. 

Edward D. Tolles, 2d Lieutenant from Commissary Ser 
geant, July 1st, 1863. 1st Lieutenant, July 22d, 1863. 
Resigned, October 29th, 1863. 

William B. Pickett, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
January 22d, 1863. 1st Lieutenant, October 30th, 1863. 
Discharged, Expiration of Term, October 15th, 1864. 

Walter C. Smith, 2d Lieutenant from private, October 
30th, 1863. Discharged, Expiration of Term, October 15th, 

Merritt N. Chafey, 1st Lieutenant from Regimental Com 
missary Sergeant, November 14th. 1864. 

John K. Jeffrey, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, No 
vember 14th, 1864. 

This company was organized in Wyoming county, N. Y., 
by Captain Wheeler, and was mustered into the service of the 
United States, September 21st, 1861, at New York city, by 
Captain S. B. Hayman, U. S. Army. 

George II. Jenkins, May 30th, 1863, shot an English 
officer, who was working a Rebel howitzer. (See account of 
that engagement, page 59). 

Q. M. Sergeant D. J. McMillan has been six times 
wounded, receiving three sabre cuts, June 30th, 1863, and 


three gunshot wounds afterward, one through the left 
lung, October 19th, 1863. 

Eugene Pratt received eight wounds in one engagement, 
March llth, 1864, from the musket of a guerrillas three 
musket balls and five buck shot. 

William H. Nieman, captured, October 19th, 1863, was 
not released till April 28th, 1865. 

Original number of men, 92; whole number, 189; men 
killed in action, 5; mortally wounded, 4; wounded, 23; 
number of wounds, 34; men captured, 43; missed in action 
and never heard from, 2; died in Rebel prisons, 10; died 
of disease, 6; killed accidentally, 3; discharged by reason 
of wounds, 4; veterans, 9; veterans remaining July 19th, 
1865, 8; whole number of men remaining, 66. 


Abrani H. Krorn, Captain, August 1st, 1861. "Wounded 
twice, May 3d, 1863. Major, December 5th, 1863. Dis 
charged, Expiration of Term, October 21st, 1864. 

Wallace M. Boyer, 1st Lieutenant, August 30th, 1861, 
Resigned, July 1st, 1862. 

Eugene B. Gere, 2d Lieutenant, August 27th, 1861. 
1st Lieutenant, July 1st, 1862. Wounded, August 2d, 
1862. Resigned, November 19th, 1862. 

Abram H. Hasbrouck, 2d Lieutenant, September 20th, 
1862. Captain, company B, January 12th, 1863. 

James Bryant, 1st Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, Novem 
ber 19th, 1862. Captain, December 5th, 1863. Captured, 
May 18th, 1864. Discharged, Expiration of Term, Janu 
ary 18th, 1865. 



Philip Krohn, 2d Lieutenant from Sergeant, January 
12th, 1863. 1st Lieutenant, December 5th, 1863. Dis 
charged, Expiration of Term, May 15th, 1865. Three 
times captured, July 17th, 1862; August 10th, 1863; 
June 1st, 1864. 

John H. Wright, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
March 29th, 1864. Captain, January 12th, 1865. 

William H. Knight, 2d Lieutenant from Sergeant, Janu 
ary 12th, 1865. 1st Lieutenant, June 1st, 1865. 

Abijah Spafford, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, June 
1st, 1865. 

Captain Krom enlisted this company in Tioga county, 
N. Y. It was mustered into the service of United States, 
September 30th, 1861, Staten Island, N. Y., by Captain 
Lyon Isaacs. 

John Mooney had five horses killed under him in action, 
during campaign of 1864, yet was not wounded nor hurt 

Sergeant Charles A. Phelps has been employed in the 
secret service, as scout, by Generals Stahel, Kilpatrick, 
Pleasanton and Meade. 

Sergeant N. W. Barnum, at the battle of Five Forks, 
bore General Sheridan s flag, which was pierced by two 
bullets, and the standard grazed. 

Oscar E. Farnham, captured, June 27th, 1864, made 
his escape by jumping from cars, while moving at the rate 
of twenty miles an hour, between Augusta, Ga., and Savan 
nah. He was thirty-four days in reaching General Sher 
man s army, assisted by negroes, on his way. 

P. H. White and R. Dinehart, October 9th, 1864, cap- 
tured one piece of artillery. 


S. Lynch, October 19th, 1864, captured one piece of 

John Evans, March 7th, 1865, had a ball pass through a 
pack of cards and several plugs of tobacco, lodging against 
the skin opposite his heart. 

Sergeant B. G. Wilmot was captured, rejoined the regi 
ment, and was captured again the same day, May 17th, 1864. 

Original number of men, 95; whole number, 155; men 
killed in action, 6; wounded, 22; number of wounds, 32; 
men captured, 48; missed in action and never heard from, 
2 ; died in Rebel prisons, 9 ; died of disease, 7 ; discharged 
by reason of wounds, 2; veterans, 27; veterans remaining 
July 19th, 1865, 25; whole number of men remaining, 56. 


John Hammond, Captain, September 14th, 1861. Major, 
September 26th, 1862. Lieutenant Colonel, March 24th, 
1864. Colonel, July 3d, 1864. Discharged, Expiration of 
Term, September 3d, 1864. Fore-finger of his right hand 
broken by a pistol ball, September 13th, 1863 ; Leg bone 
just above right ankle cracked by a Minie ball, June 1st, 
1864, at Ashland. 

Jonas A. Benedict, 1st Lieutenant, October 22d, 1861. 
Died from amputation of right arm, resulting from the bite 
of a man on thumb, December llth, 1861. 

James A. Penfield, 2d Lieutenant, October 22d, 1861. 
1st Lieutenant, December llth, 1861. Captain, September 
26th, 1862. Wounded by sabre cut in head, and captured, 
July 6th, 1863. In prison till March, 1865. Commis 
sioned Major, March 29th, 1864. Resigned, May 2d, 1865. 

John (T. Viall, 2d Lieutenant, December llth, 1861. 1st 


Lieutenant, September 26th, 1862. Captain, Company M, 
April 2d, 1864. 

Elmer J. Barker, 2d Lieutenant from Sergeant, Septem 
ber 26th, 1862. 1st Lieutenant, November 6th, 1863. Cap 
tain, March 29th, 1864. Major, November 14th, 1864. 

Eugene B. Hayward, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
November 6th, 1863. 1st Lieutenant, March 29th, 1864. 
Captain, November 14th, 1864. 

Lucius F. Renne, 1st Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, No 
vember 14th, 1864. 

Clark M. Pease, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, No 
vember 14th, 1864. 

This company was organized in Crown Point, Essex 
county, N. Y., by John Hammond, assisted by C. F. Ham 
mond, Esq., who furnished all the original horses for the 
company to the number of one hundred and eight. It was 
mustered into the United States service, October 18th, 

1861, at New York city, by Captain Bankhead, U. S. Army. 
It was detached from the regiment, to cooperate with in 
fantry in the Luray Valley, during the early part of May, 

1862. While there it participated in several sprightly 
skirmishes with the enemy. 

Lieutenant E. J. Barker distinguished himself, May 
30th, 1863, by leading a charge on one of Mosby s how 
itzers, where he fell wounded with two grape shot. 

Abram Folger, June 30th, 1863. captured Lieut. Colonel 
Payne, Rebel, in a tan vat, where the colonel had fallen. 

Sergeant S. J. Mason, with nine men, guarded the neu 
tral ground between the two armies, where General Lee 
surrendered his army to General Grant, April 9th, 1865, 
at Appomattox Court House 


John P. Durno, 0. T. Cornell, D. H. Bobbins, all en 
listed in this company at Winchester, Va., in the spring of 
1862, and were all discharged at the same place, at expira 
tion of term of service, without ever having been wounded 
or hurt, except that Robbins was a prisoner about five 

Original number of men. 106; whole number 198; men 
killed in action, 6; mortally wounded, 2; wounded, 31; 
number of wounds, 34 ; men captured, 65; missed in action 
and never heard from, 2; died in Rebel prisons, 15; died 
of disease, 12; killed accidentally, 2; discharged by reason 
of wounds, 4; veterans, 28; veterans remaining, July 19th, 
1865, 22; whole number of men remaining, 47. 

Original horses remaining, 4. 



George A. Bennett, Captain, September, 1861. Re 
signed, June, 1862. 

Edward C. Woodruff, 1st Lieutenant, September, 1861. 
Resigned, April 6th, 1862. 

George C. Morton, 2d Lieutenant, September 3d, 1861 
1st Lieutenant, May 6th, 1862. Captain, June 21st, 1862. 
Discharged by Special Order 70 A. G. 0., February 12th, 

William B. Gary, 2d Lieutenant from Sergeant, May 6th, 
1862. 1st Lieutenant, June 21st, 1862. Captain, March 
17th, 1864. Discharged, Expiration of Term, October 
23d, 1864. 

Eugene Sullivan, 2d Lieutenant from Sergeant, June 
21st, 1862. Left by General Orders No. 7 Army of Poto 
mac, March 24th, 1864. 


Robert Black, 1st Lieutenant from 2d Lieutenant, com 
pany K, March 17th, 1864. Discharged by Special Order 
No. 471 A. G. 0., December 28th, 1864. 

Christopher Heron, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
March 29th, 1864. 1st Lieutenant, January 13th, 1865. 

William H. Conklin, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
January 13th, 1865. 

Edmund Blunt, Jr., Captain from Captain company M, 
June, 1865. 

This company was formed by Captain Bennett of men 
enlisted in New York city, Orange county, N. Y., and in 
Plainfielcl, N. J. It was mustered into the service of the 
United States, September 27th, 1864, at Staten Island, N. 
Y., by Captain L. S. Lamed. It was the escort of General 
Heintzelman, then in command of Defenses of Washington, 
from August 27th, 1862, to September 1st, 1863. A por 
tion of the company was in the advance with the lamented 
Colonel Dahlgren, on General Kilpatrick s raid to Rich 
mond, March, 1864. (See account, page 94). 

Bugler Conrad Bohrer, August 2d, 1862, saved the life 
of Colonel DeForest, who was beset by a dozen Rebels. 
But Bohrer s horse being shot, he fell, and an enemy thrust 
him through the body with a sabre. The enemy, being 
finally beaten and driven, the body of this dauntless bugler 
was recovered and honored with a military burial, where 
he fell. 

Robert Campbell, October 20th, 1864, captured fourteen 
prisoners in a squad near Cedar creek. 

Lewis II. Crandall was poisoned, October, 1864, at Harri- 
sonburg, dying soon after. 

Original number of men, 90 ; whole number, 190 ; 


men killed in action, 8 ; wounded, 6 ; number of wounds, 8 ; 
men captured, 20; died in Rebel prisons, 10; died of dis 
ease, 10; discharged by reason of wounds, 2; veterans, 3; 
veterans remaining, July 19th, 1865, 3; whole number of 
men remaining, 57. 



William P. Hallett, Captain, October 1st, 1861. Re 
signed, December 16th, 1862. 

Zolman J. McMasters, 1st Lieutenant, October 9th, 1861. 
Captain, December 16th, 1862. Died of disease, September 
24th, 1863. 

Laurence L. O Connor, 2d Lieutenant, October 16th, 
1861. 1st Lieutenant, December 9th, 1862. Resigned, 
August 16th, 1863. Captain, March 5th, 1864. 

Henry A. D. Merritt, 2d Lieutenant from Sergeant, com 
pany L, December 9th, 1862. 1st Lieutenant, August 16th, 
1868. Captain, November 14th, 1864. Major, November 
14th, 1864. 

Robert Black, 2d Lieutenant from Sergeant, September 
1863. 1st Lieutenant, company I, March 17th, 1864. 

William H. Whitcomb, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
company M, May 21st, 1864. 1st Lieutenant, company L, 
November 14th, 1864. 

Thomas O Keefe, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, No 
vember 14th, 1864. 1st Lieutenant, June 1st, 1865. 

Nathaniel M. Talmage, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
June 1st, 1865. 

Captain Hallett organized this company in New York 
city, and it was mustered into the United States service, 


September 27th, 1861, at Staten Island, N. Y., by Captain 
L. S. Lamed. It was detailed as Body Guard for General 
Heintzelnian, August 27th, 1862, until September 12th, 
1862, and as escort for General Emory, commanding 19th 
Army Corps, September, 1864, and continued with the 
general until April, 1865. 

Lieutenant H. A. D. Merritt, in command of part of this 
company, and of company I, distinguished himself with Col- 
oriel Dahlgren, by whose side he rode, when the Colonel 
was killed, on Kilpatrick s raid to Richmond, March, 1864. 
(See his narrative of the raid, page 94). 

Sergeant D. H. Scofield, October 19th, 1864, captured the 
colors of the 12th Virginia Infantry, for which labor he re 
ceived from the Secretary of War, the u medal of honor," 
awarded by Congress. 

Michael Kenney has driven a team of six mules since 
the organization of the regiment, and retains four of the 
original animals. 

Original number of men, 104; whole number, 164; men 
killed in action, 2; mortally wounded, 1; wounded, 8; 
number of wounds, 13 ; men captured, 31 ; missed in action 
and never heard from, 2 ; died in Rebel prisons. 11 ; died of 
disease, 5; killed accidentally, 1; discharged by reason of 
wounds, 1; veterans, 17; veterans remaining, July 19th, 
1865, 9; whole number of men remaining, 60. 

Charles Arthur, Captain, September 27th, 1861. Left 
by Special Order, October 24th, 1862. 

Charles C. Suydam, 1st Lieutenant, September 27th, 
1861. Resigned, May 6th, 1862. 


Augustus Barker, 2d Lieutenant, September 27th, 1861. 
1st Lieutenant. May 6th, 1862. Captain, October 24th, 
1862. Captured by Mosby, March 9th. 1863, at Fairfax 
Court House. Killed by guerrillas, at Kelly s Ford, Sep 
tember 14th, 1863. 

Frank A. Monson, 1st Lieutenant, October 24th, 1862. 
Captain, September 14th, 1863. "Wounded in arm, May 
3d, 1863, at Warrenton Junction. Resigned, July 12th, 1864. 

Albert 13. Waugh, 2d Lieutenant from Sergeant. October 
24th, 1862. 1st Lieutenant, September 14th, 1863. Dis 
charged, Expiration of Term, October 23d, 1864. 

George C. Morton, Captain, July 19th, 1864. 

William H. Whitcomb, 1st Lieutenant from 2d Lieutenant 
Company K, November 14th, 1864. 

Peter McMullen, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, No 
vember 14th, 1864. 

The original men of this company were mostly from New 
York city. Captain Arthur organized the company, and it 
was mustered into the United States service, September 
27th, 1861, at Staten Island, N. Y., by Captain L. S. 
Lamed. It has been in all the engagements of the regi 
ment. It was detailed, with companies I and K, as Body 
Guard for General Heiutzelman, August 27th, 1862, report 
ing to the regiment again, with company K, September 
13th, 1862. 

John McEwan, on picket near the Rebel lines, accompa 
nied and directed General Lee to the house where he held 
his first interview with General Grant, and surrendered his 

Original number of men, 79; whole number, 164; men 
killed in action, 4; mortally wounded, 1; wounded, 9; 


number of wounds, 12; men captured, 39; missed in action 
and never heard from, 1; died in Rebel prisons, 10; died 
of disease, 12; discharged by reason of wounds, 2 ; vete 
rans, 12; veterans remaining, July 19th, 1865, 10; whole 
number of men remaining, 44. 



James P. Foster, Captain, October 1st, 1861. Resigned, 
August 28th, 1862. 

Samuel Ten Broeck, 1st Lieutenant, October 1st, 1861. 
Captain, August 28th, 1862. Died of disease, July 4th, 

George S. Clough, 2d Lieutenant, October 1st, 1861. 
Resigned, May 6th, 1862. 

Eugene D. Dimmick, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
May 9th, 1862. 1st Lieutenant, August 28th, 1862. Cap 
tain, July 4th, 1863. Wounded in right hand, July 6th, 
1863. Discharged by reason of wound, November 6th, 1863. 

Edmund Blunt, Jr., 2d Lieutenant, September 26th, 
1862. 1st Lieutenant, July 4th, 1863. Captain, Novem 
ber 14th, 1864. Transferred to company I, June, 1865. 

Wilbur F. Oakley, 2d Lieutenant from 1st Sergeant, 
July 4th, 1863. 1st Lieutenant, November 14th, 1864. 
Captain, January 12th, 1865. 

John G. Viall, Captain from 1st Lieutenant company H, 
April 2d, 1864 Appointed Assistant Quartermaster of 
Volunteers, June 18th, 1864. 

William G. Peckham, 1st Lieutenant from Sergeant 
company E, January 12th, 1865. 

This company was raised by Captain Foster in New York 


city, and in the counties of Greene and Columbia, and it 
was mustered into the service of the United States, October 
31st, 1861, at Staten Island, N. Y., by Captain A. H. 
Krom. It was escort for General Banks, from August 
28th, 1862, till September 21st, 1862, when it reported to 
the regiment. 

E. B. Warner had five horses killed under him in action, 
in one day, September 19th, 1864, at Winchester. He 
was not hurt himself. 

Sergeant W. H. Whitcomb had two horses killed under 
him in action, and six mortally wounded. 

Original number of men, 86; whole number, 186; men 
killed in action, 2; mortally wounded, 2; wounded, 11; 
number of wounds, 14 ; men captured, 26 ; died in Rebel 
prisons, 7 ; died of disease, 9 ; killed accidentally, 3 ; vete 
rans, 13 ; veterans remaining, July 19th, 1865, 10 ; whole 
number of men remaining, 77. 


Complete Roster of the Regiment ; each company given alpha 

The following abbreviations are used : Veterans, by small CAPITALS ; Prison 
ers of War, by the letter a ; Died of disease, by the letter b ; Killed accidentally, 
by the letter c , Missed iu action and never heard from, by the letter d ; Num- 
oer of wounds received in action, by the figures 1, 2, 3, &c. 

Allon, Solomon, 
Allison, John, 
Avery, Edward, 
Bolt, James V., 1. 
Brandt, George, 
Babby, Justin, a 
Bernhardi, Fred. W., c 
Burke, Thomas, 
Beaumont, John, a 
Bond, James II., 
Bro, Joseph, 
Barwick, Thomas, 
Branch, Ruthvin L., 
Brown, Amos, 2. 
Boyd, William T., a 
BOICE, THEO. A., 5. a 
Bates, George, a 
Bradford, Landon, 
Buckman, Augustus 
Brittell, Erwin, 
Bradley, Peter, 
Bibbins, John E., 
Burns, Michael, 

Company A.* 

Boutelle, Frazer A., 
Calvin, Henry, 
Cavanaugh, James, 
Chadwick, William, 
Crowlej , James, 
Clark, William, 
Coon, Samuel C., 
Crandall, Charles A., 
Chaffee, Alpheus, 6 
Chadwick, Francis B., 
Clooney, John J., 1. 
Cooper, Edward. 
Clinton, Robert, 
Donohue, Patrick, 
Donohue, James, 
Duncan, Alexander, 
Dougherty, Charles, 
Day, Edgar, b 
Douglass, John, 
Eldridge, Thomas, 
Flemmings, David, 
Flagg, Hubert, 

Freeman, William, 
Farley, James, a 
Goodwin, Rollin C., a 
Gallagher, Jamee H., 1. 
Glodell, John, 
Going, James, a 
Gillespie, Patrick, 
Golden, Charles, a 
Gcbo, Edward, 
Goodrich, Calvin J., 
Gregory, George A., 
Halpln, Joseph, 
Hall, Benjamin F., a 
Hare, Cornelius, 
Hacket, Uri, 
Hay, Asa, 

Hennessey, William, 
Hathaway, Charles A., 
Holloway, William H., 
Hanberry, John, 
Hassett, William, 
Hallenbeck, Tunis, 

* This Company had in all 183 Men. 



Heinsler, Henry, 
Ueiler, John, a 
Hopkins, Merlin J., a 
Hopkins, William H., 
ledell, John B.. 
Innells, Robert, 
Invin, Robert, 
Jones, Anson, 1. 
Jones, Luther W., 
Jones, Julius, 
Johnston, Robert, a 
Jenks, George E., 1. 
Kenuey, Thomas S., 
Kelley, John, 
Lamport, John H., a 
Leary, Daniel, 
Leddy, Bernard, 
Lively, William H., 
Lougeway, Antoiue. a 
Lord, William E., 
Lappan, William H., 
Malley, John, a 
Michaels, Charles A., b 
Marron, John. 6 
McCarrou, William J., 
Moon, John, 
McKeon, Arthur, 
McNeve, Patrick, 1. a 

Muller, Charles, 
Morehouse, Edward A., 
Merrill, Henry, 
Morgan, William, 
Milspaugh, William, 
Mohan, James, 
McCauley, Robert, a 
McCormick, Michael, a 
McCormack, William, 
McDermott, Thomas, 
Murphy, William, 
Neil, Arthur, 1. a 
Norman, Merritt, 
Nealoii, Patrick, a 


O Connor, Thomas, a 
OTarrell, James, 


O Brien, John, 
O Counell, James, 
Otis, Henry, 
Peck, Jeremiah, 
Pierson, William H., 
Pulcipher, William P., 
Phillips, Christopher, d 
Pierre, Francois, 
Plunkett, Robert, 
Peet, Edward D., b 
Rickey, James, 
Ritchie, Thomas, 1. 
Rodgers, William, 
Romaine, Constantino, 
Ryan, Peter, 
Reed, Alexander E., 
Ryan, Thomas, 

Ryner, John, 
Stickney, Moses, 
Simmonds, Chas. F., 6 
Schreidner, George, 
Sinclair, Donald, 
Smith, Charles A., 
Stevenson, John H., 
Sullivan, John, 
Sutherland, Charles, 
Sinclair , Robert, 
Smith, David, 
Salter, Alexander, 
Spargi, Francis, 
Taylor, William, a 
Taylor, Alexander, 
Thompson, James, 
Tripp, John, 
Tappan. William H., 
Terbush, Launcelot B. 
Tyrrell, Seth, d 
Taylor, Abel T., 
Van Kirk, Thomas W., 
Van Osdale, Lewis, a 
Williamson, George, 
Wandell, Andrew, a 
Wetmore, Dennis, 
Wales, Selden D., 
Wilbur, George F., a 
WYNN, JAMES, 1. a 
Winchell, James N., 
Wilson, John, 
Woods, William, 
Woods, John, 
Zimmerman, Baldwin, 



Company B.* 

Avist, Henry P., 

Dewey, Matthew, 

Jones, Joei, 

Alderdice, William, 

Dillon, John, 

Jelley, James, 

Abel, Fredrick, 1. 

Driscoll, James, 

Kelley, James, a 

Billings, Calvin, 

Denniston, Saml. M.,1. 

King, Louis, 

Brown, William, 

Davenport, Keyes, 

Leech, Thomas S., 

Bradahaw, Gust s. W., 

Dougherty, William, a 

Lamarsh, Peter, 


Decker, Charles, 

Leno, Thomas, 


Day, Michael, 

Laven, John, 

Borst, Edward S., a 

Duffey, James, 

Latour, Joseph, a 


Dana. Henry L., 

Latour. Solomon, Jr., 

Brown, George, 

Dubois, John B., a 

Lathrop, Mervin, 1. 


Depew, Job, 1. 

Lewis, Cyrus B., 

Burnap, Tracy, 

Ducat, Joseph, Jr. 

Lewis, James, 1. a 

Balcom, Myron B., 

Dubois, Henry, 

Lynch, John, 

Burt, Edmund, Jr., 

Ellis, Charles, 

Lanuey, Patrick H., 

Barden, Oscar L., 

Eddy, Albert, 

Levy, Bernard, 1. 

Buffington, Henry P., 

French, James, 

Laguna, Miguel, 

Buffiugton, Nathan H., 

Ford, William V., a 

Miles, Silas, a 

Bouxcries, John, 

Feeney, Thomas, 

McChale. Michael, 

Bradshaw, John, 

Freeman, Hugh, 

McCormick, Robert, 

Barrilla, Francis, 

Ferguson, John II., 

McNalley, Edward, 


Fowler, John A., 

McChale, James, 

Cooney, William, 

Fero, Peter H., 1. 

McCaw, John, 

Criddle, William, c 

Goggaus, John, 

McManus, John, 

Coleman, Michael, 


McCarty, James, 

Christian, Robert, a 

Gorton, Cornelius, a 

Miller, Amos, 

Chaffee, Hanson G., 1. 

Graham, Edward, 1. 

Morse, John L., a 

Chaffee, Otis II., 

Green, Jackson, 

Mills, Francis, 

Chaffee, Edwin E., 1. 

Green, John, 

Martin, Edward A., d 

Cole, Orlando, 1. 

Hayes, Charles, 

Major, Benjamin, 

Cole, Avery, 

Huller, Christian, 

Murphy, Daniel, 

Corbin, Levi H., 

Hank, Edward, 

More, Adam, 

Cortes, William, 

Hogan, James, 

Mowbray, William R M 

Cann, Edward, b 

Horr, John, 

Moran, William, 

Crum, Henry, 

Hutching Simeon, A., a 

Manning, Mortimer F., 

Coffin, German, 

Hogle, Martin V., 

Mahar, Robert, 

Curalier, Peter, 

Hay, Wellington, 

Morrissey, John, <f 

Carlos, John, 

Hay, William, 

Newland, Francis, 

Collins, Jeremiah, 

Hannan, James, 

Northaway, Erastus, 

Dyke, John, 

Isaacs, David, 

Neddo, John B. 

This Company had in all 190 Men. 



O Blenis, Charles, 
O Connell, Lewis, 
O Douuell, James, 
O Connell, James, 
Page, William C., a 
Putnam, Charles E., 
Place, Armstrong B., 
Pray, John II., 
Qumn, Joseph, 
Reeves, William P., 
Reed, John, 
Reed, Gorman H., 
Rosenbrock, Joseph, 
Richards, Samuel, 
Roach, James M., 
Rix, Silas A., a 
Runciman, John R., a 
Richards, Thomas, 
Richards, Herman, a 
Rooney, John, a 
Rooney, Michael, 

Snyder, Edward, 
Sheardown, J. M., 1. a 
Smith, John S., 1. 
Stewart, Charles, 
Surprise, Nelson, d 
Scafe, Robert, 
Smith, Amos B., 
Stafford, John, 1. 
Scully, William, 
Son, William M., 
Strong, Harvey J., 
Smith, George T., 
Smith, Edmund, 
Scddinger, James, 
Scherry, Jacob, 
Sauerwein, Albert, 
Shugare, Daniel, 1. 
Tunnerhill, James, 
Updyke, John R., 
Ward, Edward, 

Walsh, William, 
Waghorn, John. 2. a 
Whalen, James, 
Wood, Oscar, 
Wilkins, David, 1. 
Welsh, Andrew, 
Waggoner, George, 
Whaley, George T., b 
Winch, Clark, 1. 
Wilbur, Willis, 1. c 
Whipple, Elisha W., 
Whipple, Frank, 
Wheeler, Ellas W., 
Williamson, William, 
Whitaker, Aaron, 
Walsh, James, 
Wayne, William, 
Walker, Charles H., 
Westerfield, Charles, 1. 
West, William, 
Young, John, 
Young, William, 1. a 



Adams, James, 
Bateson, John, 
Bakeman, William H., 
Brothers, Charles, a 
Biesell, Aimer, 
Billiugs, Calvin, 
Bureau, Joseph B., a 
BURGESS, A. D., 1. a 
Brennan, William, 1. 
Bogue, Fred S., a 
Barry, "William. 
Bigelow, Ephraim, d 
Bigelow, Henry, b 
Beardsley. William P., 
Brown, Charles, 
Curtis, B. N., 
Clarke, James W., 
Conkliu, Gardner, 1. a 
Creightou, William, 
Cooper, Louis, 
Caldecott, Joseph, 
Church, Charles L., a 
Campbell, Levi C., 
Cavanaugh, Joseph, 
Caple, Elijah, 
Clare, Simon, 
Duvall, Robert H., 
Doty, George W., 
Douglass, Joseph, 
Dailey, Anthony, 
Doyle, Cornelius, 
Doyle, James, 
Driscoll, John, 
Donohne, Florence, 
Devoe, John, 
Dudley, John, 
Durand, Ferdinand, 

Company C.* 

Desiletz, Felix, 1. 
Flitchard, George, 
Farrell, James, 
Fuller, Percival, 
Fitch, Edward H., a 
Fairchild, Henry, 
Ferris, Almou F., 
Fiuau, Patrick, a 
Finley, Martin, b 
Gaffney, Philip, 
Greenwood, William, 1. 
Gregoire, Simia, 
Gardner, John, 
Haley, Michael, 
Halley, Michael, 
Hodge, Charles, 
Hogan, Philip, 
Hickok, George C., 1. a 
Hogan, Patrick, 
Hayes, Timothy, c 
Haley, Michael, 
Hurley, Daniel, 
Holdridge, William, 
Hickey, William, 
Hand, Laurence, a 
Hill, Henry, 
Hughes, Michael, 
Harrington, Philip, 
Johnson, Charles, 
Jones, David, 
Jeandro, Elijah, 
Keefe, Edward, 

King, Theodore, 
Kistner, John, 1. 
Ketchum, Charles, b 
Kelley, William, 
Keuney, Patrick, 
Leeuey, George, a 
Leonard, Bartholomew, 
Lincoln, Patrick Q., a 
Lauray, George C., 
Lucha, John, a 
Lahue, Napoleon, a 
Murphy, Michael, c 
Meagher, John, 
Michaels, James, a 
Morrell, Isaac, 
Mornement, Mark D., 
Meade, Sylvester, 2. a 
Montgomery, Thomaa, o 
Manor, William, a 
Miller, Rockwell D., d 
Moore, Orlando, 1. 
Moran, Edward, 
Mead, Edward, b 
Mitchell, Thomas, 
Mack, Michael, 
Marshall, Milton C., 
Mason, George, 
McCormick, William, 
McCoy, Allen B., 
McComb, James, b 
McKissick, David, 
McGlade, Joseph, 
McLane, John, 
McDade, Jaines, 1. 

* This Company had in all 188 Men. 



McNearney, Charles, 
McGrath, William, 
Norman, Adeodat, 
Norman, Edward, 
Newton, Horace, 
Nolan, Thomas, 
O Meara, Daniel, 
O Connor, Timothy, 
O Connor, Patrick, 
Owen, Leonard, Jr., a 
Pease, Henry W. 
Perry, James, c 
Rickerts, John B., 
Rickerts, Harvey H., 
Rensiug, Egnetz, 1. 
Raymer, Fredrick, a 
Riches, James H., 
Roach, William, 
Reynolds, Thomas, 
Rock, John, 

Riley, Martin, 1. 
Riche, Louis, 1. 
Stanananght, Richard, 
Smith, Sherman H., 
Smith, John, 
Smith, John, 
Smith, William P., a 
Smith, George W., 
Smith, James, 
Stiuson, George, 
Sackett, Edmund, a 
Southard, Matthew, a 
Shea, John, 
Stein, John, 1. a 
Snyder, John, 
Shalley, Thomas, 
Spaulding, Nelson W., 
Soper, Briggs, 
Schoolcraft, Perry, 1. 
Shaver, Samuel M., 
Skelton, John, 
Sullivan, James, 

Tiffany, Patrick, a 
Taylor, John W., 
Tench, James, a 
Titus, William H., 
Touhill, John, 
Van, Nicholas, 
Vreeland, James, 
Wright, Aaron, 1. 
Willard, Charles W., 
Wilbur, George H., 
Wilter. William, 
Whittemore, Benj. M., a 
Wissells, George, 
Williams, Charles, 
Weaver, Charles, 
Whalen, Michael, 
Withers, John, a 
Williams, John, 
Wescott, Erastus, 
Wood, James, 
Whitney, George, 



Alberty, James F., 
Armstrong, James H., 
Allen, Alonzo F., 
Appleby, Henry J., 1. 
Adams, Joseph, 
Bush, Thomas, 
Billings, Henry C., 
Bellows, George H., 
Ballard, George W., 
Bingham, Charles E., a 
Barber, Edmund, 1. 
Bakeman, William H., 
Bennett, Edwin, 
Bunn, George A., 
Brooks, Reuben, 
. Collins, Th 

Courtne} , Joh 
Curran, John C., 
Chaffee, Wilson, b 
Cady, Michael, 
Chapman, Tarquin, a 
Critchley, Edward, 
Cadwell, Jerome, 
Cole, John P., 
C ALLAN AN, JER. J., 1. 
Cinnamiln$C. M., 1. a 
Cook, Ira J., 
Caroli, Frederic, 
Cringer, David E., b 
Cardelle, Samuel, 
Davis, Henry, 
Duren, Henry M., 
Devoe, Cornelius, a 
Elliott, John H., 
Fancier, Thomas, 

Company D.* 

Fox, Thomas, 
Geary, Michael, 
GREELEY, S. H., 1. a 
Gallagher, Patrick, a 
Grosveuor, Charles H., 
Goyette, John, 
Garrow. James, 
Hurlbert, Ira O., 
Hams, John G., Jr., 
Hathaway, William, 
Higgins, Peter, a 
Hearn, Joseph, 
Hastings, Edward, a 
Hazletou, Norman, a 
Hurd, Henry, a 
Jordon, Walter, 
Jandrew, Francis, 1 
Kenwell, Richard, a 
Kelley, Patrick, 
Lee, James, 
Lester, Charles F., 
Laspen, Germania, 
Lindee, Francis, d 
Latham, Joseph, 
Langdon, John, 
Lanigar, John, 
Luther, Allen D., 
Lynch, Thomas, a 
Marshall, William H., 1. 
Matthews, Peter, 
Mahoney, Dennis, 1. a 
Matthews, Charles, a 
Murphy, Michael J.. 
Malone, Edward, 
Morehouse, Frank, a 

McDermott, John, 
McGinley, Jas. A.. 1. a 
McCarthy, Patrick, b 
McSweeney, Eugene, a 
McGovern, Peter, 1. a 
McNeil, John T., 
McDougall, Horace, 
McCoy. Thomas, 
Newell, Nelson M., a 
Ortmau. Henry, 
Preston, Edwin, b 
Preston, Hcman, 
Perry, Abraham, 
Preble, Clark, 
Pitcher, William, 
Pinkharu, Andrew, a 
Pierce, Henry C., 1. 
Perry, Arthur, a 
Parris, George W.> 
Quinu, John, 1. a 
Riley, Thomas, 
Ross, Thomas H., 
Rhiuevault, Orman, a 
Riley, Patrick, 
Randall, A. M., 
Reed, James W M b 
Rogers, Harman, a 
Shearer, Sanford L., a 
Stone, Henry, a 
SMITH, HIRAM A., 5. a 
Smith, James, d 
Smith, Nelson, 
Smith, Henry J., 
Scripter, Cyril E., a 
Saunders, Reuben, a, b 

This Company had in all 101 Men. 



Sheehey, William, a 
Stone, Fred. B., a 
Schermerhom, E. L., a 
Schernierhora, Peter, a 
Schultz, Henry, c 
Stone, Gardner, 
Tuffield, Labare, 
Terhune, John J., 
Tracey, Ezra B., 
Tanner, James H., 
Taylor, Robert, a 
Tucker, John, a 

Trendon. John B., 1 
Tuel, David, 
Tainter, Charles, 
Thomas, Highland, 1. a 
Underbill. Frederick, 
Van Valkenburgh, G., 
Van Orman, William D., 
Van Marter, William W., 
Van Marter, Alfred A., a 
Vaughn, John, 
Washburn, Albert, b 
White, James, 

White, Joel J., 
Wright, Charles, 
Williams, John P., a 
Watkins, William W., 
Wyatt, David K., 
Watson, William, a 
Watson, John, 1. 
Washburn, Nicholas, a 
Wheeler, Garry D.. 
White, Addison D., 1. d 
Wales, Russell, 
Warner, Ebenezer, 
Welsh, Thomas, 



Company E.* 


Dye, William P., 



Dye, Elam S., 

Kennedy, John C., 

Austin, Frank, 


Leslie, William J., 

ALEXANDER, B., 1. a 


Laromy, Bartomie, 

Adams, Leonard, 

Davis, L. Uberto, 

Lawrence, Hiram M., 

Aldrich, Aneon, 

Dillon, Michael, 

Litynski, Joseph, 

Andrews, Elias N., 



Beardsley, Charles B., 


Lollis, John E., 

Barnum, Godfrey, Jr., 


Lamarsh, Charles, 

Balgard, Edward, 

Ehmau, Fred J., Jr., a 

Leiser, John, a 

Bixby, Daniel C., a 

Ehman, Jeremiah, 

Long, George, 

Boyle, James, 

Elliott, William J., 

Marsh, Daniel W., 

Blood, Augustus C., 

Euber, Lewis, 

Merriman, Daniel B.. 

Bronson, Lafayette, 

Fitch, John P., 

Merriman, D. W., 

Berdan, Albert, 

Fisk, Frank, b 

Morris, Charles A., 1. 

Bennett, Lyman II., 


MINER, CHAS. A., l..c 

Bennett, Milton H., 


Miner, Henry, a 

Beardsley, Charles W., 

Gould, Adelbert E. 

Miner, Cornelius W., 

Brown, Eli P., b 

Gallup, Joseph O., 


Brown, George R., b 

Gallup, Gordon, 

Monroe, Henry W., 1. 

Brown, Henry C., 

Gleason, Jonathan, 

Morris, Edward L., 

BYINGTON, R. N., 1. 

Gordon, Jefferson T., 

Maloney, Michael, 

Burke, John, 

Granger, James, 

Moutz, William, 

Bronson, Frank, 

Hams, Edward, b 

Mulligan, John, 1. 

Boylston, Edgar C., 

Heady, John, 7. 

Mortimer, Henry, b 

Breunan, John, 

Hahne, John, 

Magai, Johannis, 

Bernard, Jules, 

Hiles, Francis, 

Mahla, Charles, b 


Huestis, John, 

Mackey, Patrick, c 

Campbell, Dennis, a 

Hall, Archibald, 2. 

Masten, Paul, 

Cuff, Charles, 

Hall, William, 

Myott, Oliver, 

Crowley, James, 

Hamilton, John S., 

Moran, John, 1. 

Clark, Fred J., a 

Hussey, John, 

Machling, Debold, 1. a 

Crawford, Rochester W., 

Howard, William, 


Campbell, Owen, 

Johnson, Erastus, 


Dragon, Frank, 

Jubert, James, 

McGroigan, Charles, 

Davis, Leroy F., 

Jackson, William, a 

McCallon, George, a 

Dcvanna, John II., 

Jackson, Andrew, a 


Dolph, Aaron, 

King, Joshua, 

Nash, Malcom M., 

Dolph, Joseph, 

King, Reuben T., 

Olmsted, Franklin, 

Dickinson, D. R., b 

Keyes, Orson S., a 

Osborn, Joseph R., a 

This Company had in all 169 Men. 



Porter, John C., 
Palmer, Alonzo, 
Pierce, Curtis E., 1. 
Penner, Francis, 
PBCKHAM, W. G., 1. 

PARCELL3, T., 1. a 

Rew, Newton C., 1, a 
Rathbone, John, 
Rasey, Lorenzo L. , 
Robertson, J. Eliphalet, 
Ryan, John A., a 
Richards, Godfrey, 
Richards, Thomas B., 
Robertson, Alex. L., 

Staunton, Ilenry, 
Sortore, John D., 
Sortore, Elislia, 
Snow, Andrew J., 1. 
Seaman, Henry, 
Sherrer, Henry, 
Spencer, Asahel A., 
Smith, Lafayette C M 
Thrall, Ira, 
Trowbridge, John S., 1. 

Tourrillon, Adolph, 
UPTEOROTE, S. T., 2. a 
Vanderville, John, 1. 
Whipplo, Walter, 
Woodward, Jacob, 


Walsh, Michael, 
Wood, John L., 
Well, John, 
Wells, Richard M., 
Wemette, Paul, a 
Williams, Edwin C., 
Willis, James, 



Austin, Merritt, a 
Arnold, Corrington F., 
Axtcll, Joseph, 
Ackley, William F., 
Aikeu, Horace, 
Atwood, Silas M., 1. 
Ayles worth, C. De F., 
Aiken, William, 
Arnold, Addiaon C., 
Baker, Samuel, 
Bush, Amos, 
Bates, Samuel, 
Benton, Thomas, 
Butler, Samuel, 
Brand, Charles, 
Bloor, Charles, 
Babcock, Samuel, 
Bern, Alouzo, a 
Baldwin, Lyman, 
Brown, Ira, 1. b 
Brown, John, 
Bernard, John W., a 
Brooks, Henry J. a 
Bennett, Winaut H., a 
Brady, John R., 
Brink. Perley, 
Brister, Elijah, 1. 
Brister, Ira, 
Bagley, Avery E., 
Bostwick, Judson, 
Blake, William, 1. 
Bullock, Samuel, 
Briggs, William E., b 
Benson, Peter, 
Bagley, Daniel E., 
Cummings, Nelson E., 
Coulon, John, a 
Carney, Philip, a 
Clark, Theodore, 

Company F.* 

Carl, Frank W., 
Catlin, Thomas N., 1. 


Clark, Nelson. 
Craig, John, 
Churchill, Homer, 
Coggen, Joseph, 1. 
Clans, John W., 
Coulston, Willam C., 
Craig, John, 
Clough, Clarence M., 
Curtis, Henry, c 
Davis, William, 
Dodge, George W., 
Donlon, Thomas, a 
Devanna, John, a, d 
Davies, William J., 
De Mott, James, 1. a 
Dennis, George W., 6 
De La Losa, Yeidro, c 
Earl, Hiram H., a 
Epsal, Gabriel F., 
Engalls, Peter, a 
Edwards, Albert, 
Ensign, Nelson, 
Freeman, Peter E., 
Fowler, Hickson A., 
Fowler, William H., 
Freeman, James, 
Ferris, John P., 
Gregg, John, a 
Galusha, Waterman, a 
Griffith, Lucius, 
Galpin, William, 1. 
Goodale, Ezra M., 
Graves, Pliny A., 
Hogan, James, 
Hanley, Michael, 
Hooper, John, 

Hayes, John W., 
Button, William B., a 
Hawley, William, a 
Holmes, John, 
Hawley, Everett A., 2. 
Harrington, Charles H., 
Htirlburt, Riley A., 
Huestis, Frank, 
Hall, Warren A., 
TONES, JOHN B., 1. a 
Jeffrey, John K, 1. 
Jenkins, George H., 1. 
Jackson, Francis A., 
Knowlton, Clark C., a 
Kinney, Edward, 
Kimball, Horton, a 
Leek, Horace F., 
Logan, Charles H., 
Lawrence, George D., 
Luther, Asa, a 
Lewis, Charles, 
Leilous, Henry, 
MCMILLAN, D. J., 6. 
McMillan, John, B., a 
McGowan, James, 
McDonald, Bernard, 
Morey, William C., 
Morey, Homer A., 
Moore, Wallace, 1. 
Moore, Franklin B., a 
Mnd don, John, 
Meade, Alonzo H., 1. 
Mullen, William, 
Metcalf, A. Judson, 
Metcalf, George, 
Morton, Henry A., 
Moore, Viceroy, 

* This Company had in all 189 Men. 



Mapes, William W., 
Morgan, Daniel, 
Masterson, James, 
Miller, Jacob, 
Nieman, William H., a 
Nourse, Alfred W., 
Norton, Samuel E., 
Nichols, Wallace, 
Nash, Orvin D., 
Osborn, Calvin W., 6. a 
Ogdcn, William, 
Oliver, Jtidson S., a 
Olney, Marvin, 
Priuz, Ewald, 
Palmer, Henry, 
Peterson, Mahlon J., 1. 
Perkins, Samnel 8. 
Pettis, Ralph, b 
Prince. Henry A., 
Pickett, William B., 
Porter, Charles H., 
Pettis. Zephaniah, 
Pinney, Henry A.. 

Parks, William H., 
Pratt, Gardner, 1. 
Partridge, Hezekiah D. 
Portier, Emile, 1. 
Poyer, Henry, 
Roff, John F., 
Richardson, Charles H. 
Riley, John, 
Rogers, Edward A., 1. 
Rathbone, George D., 
Rhodes, Julius D., 
Smith, Victor D., ft 
Smith, Peter W., 
Smith, Walter C. 
Stewart, Hosea B., 
. Sayles, William J., 
Stevens, Victor M , 
Stiles, Addison D., 
Stearns, Rollin A., 
Sumner, Byron, a 
Tuthill, James H., 

Pracey, Walter J., 
Tolles, Edward D., 
Tolles, Ralph N., c 
Tallman, Frank, 
Upclyke, Nelson, 
Waite, Darwin, 
W T ickham, James B., 
Whitmarsh, Erastus, ft 
Wight, Marvin, a 
Wells, Miles, 
Whitney, Elisha, 
Whitlock, Thaddeus K., 
Williams, Luke S., 
Wells, George, a 
Wells, William H., a 
Wilcox, Charles F t , 
White, Andrew J., a 
White, Henry, 
Waterman, Nelson E., d 
Youngs, Silas A., 
Zahler, Nicholas, 



Adams, William, a 
Amts, Frederic D., 
Adderley, James, 
BjTon, Theophilus, 
Bowden, William, 
Bailey, David, a 
Bailey, William V., a 
BARNUM, N. W., 2. a 
Barnes, Eugene B., a 
Benner, Philip R., 
BrookiiiB, Fred O., 
Buffington, Chauncey, 
Bidwell, John W., 1. a 
Billing?, James D. 
Case, Houston L., 
Courtwright, Richard, a 
Conlon, Peter, a 
Campbell, Philip, 
Clark, David A., 
Cox, Augustus, 
Curry, John, 
Culver, Lewis J., 2. 
Dunn, Michael, 
Devine, John, 
Davis, Henry T., a 

Company G.* 

Doyle, John, a 
Dingmau, Abram, 
Fverett, James H., 
Evans, John, 2. 
Fox, Jefferson, 1. 
Fairchild, Mason A., 
Fuller, Corydon, 
Forsyth, Augustus, 
Foster, Johnson, a 
Farnham, Charles F., a 
Gatefield, Edmund M., 
Grant, James, 
Gordon, Samuel, d 
Green, Calvin E., 
Goodwin, Edward H., a 
Horgan, John, 
Ilibbard, Edward, 
Hoyt, Andrew J., 1. 
Hayden, Albert B., 
Hunt, James, 
Hulett, Benjamin A.. 
Hulett, Abram H., a 
Hazen, Alfred B., 
Johnson, Horace P., 
Knuppenburg, John, 1. 
Knapp. Joseph, b 
Lane, David, 1. 
Lane, Cherter J.. 1. 
Lloyd, John, 
Lowe, William T. I., 1. a 
Lynch, Stephen, 
Markham, Chester C., b 

Mooney, John, 4. 
Moran, William, 
McBride, John, 
Markell, James, 
Marikle, James, 
Mnllory, James, 2. a 
Mrddaugh. George, 
Mallory, Warren, 1. a 
Noble, Asa S., 
Narsh, Marvin A., 
Narsh, John W., 
Overocker, DeWitt C., a 
Osborne, Richard, 
Payne, George, a 
Phelps, John H., 
Phelps, Jeremiah W., 
Phelps, Theodore A., 
Prince, George M., 
Quinn, John, 
Rowley, James, 
Roberts, Lucius, d 
Rush, Richard, 
Ryan, Philip, 2, 
Roberts, Philemon, 
Rhinevault, S. P., 
Romans, George H., a 
Russell, Ralph L., 
Rogers, Martin S., 1. a 
Steele, Seth A., b 
Smith, Schuyler F., a 
Smith, John, 
Shaw, William, 
Sullivan, Daniel, b 
Snow, George W., 
Spencer, Nathan O., 

* This Company had in all 155 Men. 



Sonthwick, George, 
Taylor, Benjamin F., 
Thorn, John, 
Turner, William, a 
Towner, Lent H., a 
Thompson, Isaac M., 
Vincent, William B., b 
Van Marter, F. W., 
VAN MARTEB, J. C., 1. 

Vandermark, Nathan, 1. 
White, Barney H., 
White, Charles, 

White, Amos, 
White, Squire, 
Wilson, John A., 6 
Williams, John A., 
Witter, John, B., 
Witter, William A., a 
Witter, William, 
Weston, Nathan, 2. 
Wiggins, Frank, 
Wright, William, 




Company H.* 

Andrews, Thomas, 

Durno, John P., 

Brislin, Patrick, 

Durno, George C., a 

Bottomly, William, 

Dn Chene, George C., 1. 

Beebe, Calvin L., 

Dunlap, Robert A., a 


Dolbeck, Clcophas, 


Darling, Truman, 


Dwindle, Nehemiah B., 


Daniels, Andrew J., 


Drake, Orlando, 

Barrows, William, 

Davis, Almeron, a 

Boudrye, Charles A., 

Edwards, Robert W. 

Barton, William H., 

Ellis, Richard R., 

Baker, Fayette H., 1. a 

Elliott, Robert, 

Baker, Caleb C., 

Fuller. Nelson, c 

Barrett, Alvin, a 

Ferby, John, 

Barber, William N., 


Barber. George D., 


Black, George, 

Folger, Abram, 1. a 

Bigelow, Amos, 

Finney, Thomas, 1. 

Brittcll, Guy, 


Baker, George W., 

Griffin, Henry, 

Benedict, Jonas A., b 

Graves, Horace, 

Burlingame, Henry H., b 

Gilleo, Henry, b 


Gilleo, Charles, 


Glidden, Stephen T,, 

Curtis, Charles W., 2. 

Gillett, Mark, 

Cornell, Oliver T., 

Hildreth, Charles H., d 

Chillson, Charles N., 1. 

Hildreth, Hartwell II., 

Cook, William H., 1. 

Rowland, Arthur, 

Culver, Coolidge B., 


Carr, Duransie S., a 


Connor, John, d 


Chaffee, Eufus A., a 


Conway, John, 

Hayward, Monroe L., 

Conway, John, Jr., 

Hart, Frank, a 

Cronk, Abram, 

Hoyt, Irvin F., 1. 


liammond, John, 2. 

Dickerson, Nelson II., 

Howe, Lowell E., 

Decatur. Samuel O., 

Hayes, Eltnn, 

Dawes, Orson J., 

Howke, Phineas, 

Hayford, Edwin T., & 
Holden, Ira E., 
Ives, George, 
Jackson, Richard, 
Joiner, Henry M., 
Johnson, Walker E., a 
Johnson, Perry, 
Johnson, Warren, 
Johnson, Henry F., 
Jordan, Alfrado, 
Jones, Irving W., a 
Reach, William H., b 
Kilmer, Reuben, 
Lane, Zadoc F., 
Laverty, William, 
Laverty, Allen, 
Lamb, Joseph J., 
Lafrancc, Frank, 
Lamson, William P., 8. 
Lyford, Erskine W., 
Lively, James, 
Lively, William, 2. 
Labounty, Louis, a 
Leach, George W., 
Maloney, Nelson, 
Mead, Abner B., 
Moncrief, Albert, 
Miller, David B., 
Murdock, James A., 
Marshall, Charles E., b 
Moore, Viceroy, 
Moore, Orville J., 

* This Company had in all 199 Men. 



McConley, John, a 
McKenzie, Walter J., 
McGinniss, Warren, 
McGowen, Erastus, 1. 
Nelson, James, a 
Ozier, Joseph J., 1. 
Odell, Henry, a 
ORR, HORACE, 1. a 
Ober. William, 
Oliver, Edward A., 
Oakley, John, 
Payliug, William, 
Porter, Zely W., 
Palmer, Allen, 
Perkins, Isaiah, b 
Perkins, Gilman, b 
Porter, Robert W., 1. a 
Penfield, James A., 1. a 
Pierce, Amos, a 
Potter, Allen L., 
Peasely, Henry, a 

Page, Benjamin F., a 
Parmenter. George, b 
Palmer, Peter W., v V 
REKNE, Lucius F., 1. 
Raine, James H., 
Robbing, David H.. a 
Redman, John, 1. a 
Rush, John, b 
Sickler, Isaac. 
Smith, George E., 
Smith, Henry V., b 
Smith, George W., 
Smith, George W., 
Smith, Charles, a 
Smith, John, a 
Swift, William W., 
Shepard, Edgar C., c 
Sherman, Abram, 
Starling, Edgar. 
Sartwell, William, 1. 
Starks, John E., 1., a 
Spaulding, Henry, a 
Spaulding, John S., a 
Spaulding, Joseph W., 
Shattuck, Albert N., 1. a 

Stone, Harry L., 
Town, George L.. 
Town, Simon, 
Thrasher, Orlando F., 
Todd, Henry D., 
Underbill, Charles, 
Van Wert, James E., 
Wescott. Joseph J., 1. 
Westcott, Jonathan, 
Washburn, Benj. F., 
Woster, Joseph E., 2. 
Warner, Samuel S., 
Wells, Edgar J., 
Wells, Nathaniel, 
Wiley, Henry A., 
Winters, Edward A., a 
Wright, Abner Z., b 
Wilcox, Charles H., 1. 
Warren, Joseph R., 
Woodward, Zephaniah, 



Company I.* 

Adams, William, 

Cummings, Robert B., 

Haney, George H., 

Adams, Henry, 

Campbell, Robert, 

Harris, George H., 

Anderson, Robert S., 

Drake, William, 

Harris, George W., 

Arnold, George, 

Douglass, John, 

Hart, Joseph, 

Beylan, John, 

Dempeey, Charles, 


Brooks, John, 

Dowdy, James, 

Harmes, Herman, a 

Bell, Richard, 

Daly, William, a 

Haupert, Jacob, 

Baurer, August, 

Darsy, Nicholas, 1. 

Heck, Henry, 

Babbitt, William L., a 

Day, Patrick,. 

Howe, Lowell S. r 


Dow, Edward S., 

Havens, Thomas^ 

Barry, Edward, 

Dunn, William B. t 

Harder, John, b> 

Banker, George R., 

Dnnn, Joseph, b 

Herriman, Edson, 

Barlow, Nathaniel A., 

Dunham, Randolph, b 

Houston, James, 

Banfield, Michael, b 

Edwards, Isaac. 

Jordan, Christopher, 

Bennett, Joseph H., a 

Edwards, Charles, 

Johnson, Daniel R., 

Behrendt, John, 

Edwards, William G., 


Blauvelt, John H. 

French, James, 

Koch, John, 

Boland, William, 

Fairweather, John B. 

Klette, Henry, 

Bohrer, Conrad, 

Fennely, Martin, 

Lowrey, Harvey, 

Boyer, John, 

Frazer, Lewis A., b 

La Fountain, Gabriel 

Boyle, Michael, 

Ferguson, John H., 

Lundiu, John A., a 

Ely, Reuben, 

Freeman, Albert S., 

Lewis, George C., 

Battles, Isaac D., a 

Flynn, Laurence, 

Lovejoy, Isaiah H., 

Calhoun, Samuel, 

Fuller, Ira W., 

Lamb, Julius C., 

Cary, William B., 

Gall, Alexander, 

Lynch, James, 

Carroll, Thomas, 1. 

Gale, Harrison, 

Mann, James, 

Carpenter, George A., 

Garvin, Frank E., 

Meeken, Henry, 

Clarkson, James B., 

Gardner, David, a 


Cleeland, William, 

Grist, John P., 

Miller, George, 

Cocldington, Job, 


Miner, Peter, 

Conroy, Frank, 

Gray, Asa, 

Morrison, William, a 

Conway, Jacob, 

Green, Robert, 

McNallen, James, 

Connolly, John, 

Garrigan, James, 

McMinn, Samuel, 

Conklin. William, H., 

Garanger, Stephen, 

McDonald, James, 

Crandall, Lewis H., b 

Hughes, Francis, 

McKenney, Edward, 

Crawbuck, Richard V., 

Harding, Alonzo, 

Mtmdraue, John, 

Cunningham, Thomas, a 

Havens, Ransom W., 

Moulther, Charles, 

Crooks, Jacob C., 

Henderson, William, 

Moore, J. Buel, 

Clynton, William H., 

Hand, Laurence, 

Mattison, Dwight L., 

Clinton, Robert, 

Hill, Henry, 

Miller, Warner, 

* This Company had in all 190 Men. 



Mack, James D., b 
Moore, A. B., 
Norman, Adeodat, 
Nickerson, Daniel, 
Noonan, Edward, 
CVHalloran, Daniel C., a 
CTReily, William, 
O Meara, Daniel, 
Olmsted, John A. H., 
Olmsted, Orman B., 
O Mellie, Matthew, 
Pierce, Henry, 
Parsons, Thomas C., 
Phillips, John, 
Phillips, Edward, 
Poulson, Jacob C., 
Port, John H., 
Peaseley, Amasa M., 
Randolph, Jonathan D., 
Randolph, William M M 
Richards, Alfred, a 
Roach, Charles, 
Riley, Martin, a 
Ryan, Patrick, 

Runyon, Augustus, 
Reardon, Daniel, 
Stimpson, George B., 
Scott, John J., 
Santabar. Francis, a 
Shiffer, Morgan, a 
Snow, John, b 
Schwartz, John, 
Shay, James, 
Smith, Charles F., a 
Spencer, Robert, 1. 
Springsteen, John, 
Southard, Asahel, 
Shalley, Thomas, 
Sabring, Alfred, b 
Tracey, George W., b 
Townsend. Thomas, 
Titus, William H., 
Townsend, N., 
Tool, John, 
Timmona, Stephen, 

Van Iderstein, Peter J., 
Van Gorden, Eli, 
Van Allen, benjamin P., 
Vasbinder, William H., 
Vreeland, Stephen K., 
Vreeland. John T., 
White, William, 
Wedding, William, 
Wermetzter, Francis, 
Wiltse, Isaac, 
Wiltse, Robert L,, 
Wood, Frank, a 
Whitfield, Nathan A., 
Westervelt, Benjamin, 
Wolfe, John, 
Wilson, William, 
Wool, Luther, 
Woodward, Philander, 
Young, Abner S., a 
Yates, Henry, 
Zimmerman, Herman, 



Aldrich. Aaron, 
Abbey, Alansou L., 
Batey, John, 
Briden, Dominick, 
Brown, Leonard, 
Briell, Franz, 
Beach, Henry C., 
Butts, Horace D., 
Barber, William, 
Bailey, Anios, d 
Coles, William P., 
Conners, John, 
Cullion, William, 
Colemau, John, 
CJark, John. 
Clark, John C., 
Conner*?, Michael, 
Currier, Andrew, 
Con way, Jacob J., 
Carter, Rollin W., b 
Campbell, Ed. A., 1. a 
Cole, George W., b 
Coggins, Thomas E., 
Concilyea, Edward, 
Ducat, Moses, 
Daly, Philip, 
Dinemore, George W., a 
Dowd, James D., 1. a 
Doty, William, 
Dougherty, John, 
Daley, Timothy, 
Deegan, John, 
Dubois. Henry, 
Dikeman, George R., 
Erregger, Charles, 
English, George C., 
Flaherty, Thomas, a 

Company K.* 

Fox, John, 
Fuller, Robert, 
Fealey, John, 
Griffin, Patrick H., 
Garroty, James, 
Greenback, John, 
Gleason, Patrick, a 
Galen, Michael, 
Geshaw. Dennis, 
llolden, John, a 
Howard, Abraham, a 
Howe, David, a 
Hemble, Michael, 
Hecker. Frederick L.. 
Howard, George, 
Howard, Charles W., 
Hastings, Chester C., 
Holden, Thomas M., 
Harper, James, 
Haley, Michael, 
Hobart, Albert, 
Head, William, 
Hoover, Samuel, 
Herri man, Reuben D., 
Hall, James A., 
Henley, Frederick, c 
Harris, John, 
Jasper, Robert, a 
Judah, Theodore, 
Jones, John, a 
Keeley, Michael, 
Kennedy, William, 
Kelley, Patrick, 
Kingsley, James M., a 
Keeler, Horace, 
Latterall, Charles, 
Lahiff, James, 
Lockwood, Edmund, 
Mack, John, a 

Monroe, George W., a 
McCullough, William. 
McDonald, Edward, 
McCue, Alouzo, 
Mclntyre, James, 
Martin, Joseph, 
Mooney, Terence, 
Myers, Joseph D., 
Muddon, John, 
Martin, Thomas, 
Maddon, James, 
Mallory, Thomas, 
Maxfield, George, 
Mahan, Benjamin, d 
Mertou, Robert R., 
Nadow, Michael, 
O Brien, John, 
O Reilly, Wiiii&m, 
O Connor, Henry, 
Otis, Horace, 
Perry, George W., 
Perry, Alamanza, 
Perry, Antoine, 
Porter, Marvin B., 
Parsons, Nelson R., 1. 
Parker, Lewis B., 
Palmatier, Daniel, 
Pecot, Eugene, 
Pecot, Joseph, 
Pease, William H., 
Quinn, Francis, a 
Quern, Carl, 
Rouse, Peter, 
Rouse, Alvin, 
Rhodes, Lucius, 

* This Company had in all 164 Men. 



Reed, John, 

Suddard, David H., 

Wilson, William J., 

Russell, Warren, 

Smith, Charles J., b. 

Willis, Charles H., 

Reynolds, Edward D., 


Ward, Richmond, 

Stanton, Amos, 

Talmadge, Oliver, b 

Weatherwax, John, a 

Staves, Anthony H., 



Staves, Peter, 

Telfer, James, 

Wilkiiis, Amos, 1. 


Turley, William. 

Walker, Charles H., a 

Schaffer, Charles, 

Truesdale, Lucius, 

Wilkins, James, 1. a 

Stockton, Thomas, 

Tresch, George, a 

Walsh, James, 

Stafford, Thomas, 

Tyrrell, Patrick, 

Welch. James, a 

Sherwood, Nathan, 

Van Valkenburgh, R., 

Whitmore, James, 

Slyter, John W., 1. 

Vilandre, Theodore, 1, 

Young, John, 

Shaw, James, a 

Watson, George, 

Young, Willett, 

Schaeffer, Frederic 

Williamson. James, 

Young, Henry Y. 

Scott, George, a 

Wilcox, Edward, b 



Company L.* 

Aikens, Hugh, 

Dorman, James, 

Allen, Henry M., 

Earle, Robert, 

Alexander, Charles, 

Earle, Henry, 

Ames, James F., 

Eiueson, Richard, 

Akers, Charles, 

Eastou, Theodore M., a 

Avery, Horace G., 

Fraser, William, 

Antindale, Frederick, a 

Eraser, Archibald, 1. 

Antisdale, George, a 

Fobs, Gottlieb, 

Barton, Joseph, 

Fitzpatrick, Cornelius, 

Bowen, Eseck, 

Fitzsimmons. Patrick, 

Booker, Joseph, 

Gartland, John, 

Brown, Henry, 


Brown, William, 

Genard, Auguste, a 

Boyd, James, 

Gorth, Henry, 

Boyd, John, 

Grieser, John, 

Brady, Thomas, b 

Grice, Joseph B., 

Brennan, John, 

Gable, Michael, 

Bridges, Charles D., 

Gerock, Charles, 

Boate, George, b 

Harvey, Frederick, b 

Companion, Edward, 

Hicks, Frederick M., a 

Caine, William, 

Holm, Louis, a 

Crane, Frank, 

Hedlaud, John, a 

Compton, Lewis, 

Hegeman, William, 


Haiues, John Y., b 

Cross, Anthony, 1. 

Hatch, Orrin S., b 

Cooper, Lewis, a 

Holm, Martin, 

Coles, William T.. 

Hambleton, William, 

Carman, Archibald, 


Comes, William, 

Hewitt, James, 

Cooley, Horatio C., 

Hurd, Joseph, 

Cameron, Eli, a 

Holford, William, 

Connell, Dennis, a 

Hibbard, Gardner, 

Clark, Job IX 

Hedrich, Ferdinand, 

Connor, Thomas, 

Jockum, Adolf, 

Crow, Benjamin, 

Keer, Charles, 


Keffer, Karl, 1. 

Driescns, Julius, 


Dunn, John, b 

Kernon, Jamea, 

Darling, Thomas, 

Klotz, Julius, 

Dorsey, Edward, 

Kellett, Robert J., 

Knapp, Theodore M., 
Keefer, Frank, 
Lindsay, James, 
Leigh, James D., 
Lee, Henry R., 
Lavoisier, Frederic, 
Lockwood, Sidney B., 
Lalor, Finton, 
Lamb, George, a 
Lang, George, 
Lehman, Henry, 
Lawrence, Edwin C., b 
McKnight, Mortimer, 
McEwan, John, 
McManus, Hugh, 
Mejton, Curtis, 
Merritt, H. A. D., 3. a 
Marland, Charles, d 
Miner, John S., 
Metzler, Joseph, 
Mahoney, John, 
Morse, Ezra, 
Nelson, Peter, 
Needham, William, 
O Brien, Thomas, a 
Perry, Albert, 
Perry, Alhannan, 
Plude, Henry, b 
Porter, Claudius, 
Pratt, Albert Y., 
Place, Philip M., a 
Petze, Charles R., 
Quest, John P., b 
Rooney, Daniel, 
Runney, William, 
Riley, James, 
Robinson, Calvin, 

This Company had in all 164 Men. 



Rugg, Silas, 
Richards, Frank, 
Reynolds, Charles J., 
Smith, John, a 
Smith, David A., 
Sythoff, Henry A., 
Stevens, George, 
Simpson, Benjamin, 
Sparks, Elijah, 
St. Clair, Nelson, a 
Sandispree, Paul, 1. 
Simonson, Frederick, a 

Schlapfer, John, 
Strntz, Charles O., a 
Stone, Nelson J., 
Scott, William J., 
Sweeney, John D., 
St. Clair, Joseph, 
Starks, William, b 
Taft, Henry, 
Tardy, Anguste, a 
Traiuor, Michael, b 
Tittle, Frederick, a 
Townsend, Samuel, a 
Taylor, John, 
Utter, James, 

Unwin, Edward, a 
Watson, William, 
Wells, Alfred, 
Wangh, Albert B., 
Walders, Charles, b 
White, Charles H., 
Williamson, James. 
Walker, Albert G., 
White, Isaac, 
Wallace. Matthew L., a 
Wharton, Robert, a 
Tagle, Joseph, 1. a 
Yontz, William, a 
Zimmerman, Baldwin, 



Company M.* 

Anson, Jedediah B., 

Depew, Moses, 

Akers, David, 

Driscoll, James, 

Aret, Martin, 

Depew, James, 

Alger, Alonzo, 

Bowling, Henry, 

Acker, De Witt, 

Erdman, Louis, a 

Acker, Wallace, 

Edwards, James, 

Bircisall, Chester K., 

Edwards, William H., 

Bogurdus, George A., 

Frickc, Charles, 

Bogardus, Jeremiah, 

Flemming, Samuel, 

Bogardns, William II., 1. 


Burns, James, 1. 

Fra/ier, Francis H., 

Bishop. Walter J., 

Feen, John, 1. 

Blunt, Edmund, Jr., 

Fryhoon, James H., a 

Bebon, Joseph, a 

Freeling, John, c 

Brown, Abram T., a 

Fulton, Philip S., 

Grown, John, 

Foster, James P., 

Blanchard, Henry B., 

Finlay, James, 

Barton, Ezra, 

Fenner, Charles, 

Brando, Lewis, 

Fenuer, James, 


Fiero, James, 

Crans, William, 1. 

Gardner, Leslie, 

Cole, John J., a 

Goodsell, Timothy M., 

Coon, Alfred, 

Graves, Hiram T., 

Cole, John, 

Garvey, James, 

Clough, George S., 

Heddle, William, 

Clough, Jeremiah J., 

Hoover, James, 

Chapman, William, 

Haines, John H., 6 

Crandall, Edwin, 

HOAVC, Ralph, 1. 

Conine, William II., 

Hoover, Augustus, 


Holman, Melvin, 

Dougherty, John, a 

Horton, J. Goodrich, 

Davis, Michael, 

Havey, John, 

Duvall, John W., 

Heckerman, Thomas, 

Daines, Arnold P., 

Hollenbeck, Eugene, 

Deitz, Arthur M., 

Hawes, Leroy, 1. 

Deer, Jacob, 

Hollenbeck, Charles W., 

Dimmick, Eugene D., 1. 

Haley, John F., 

De Long, Ira, 

Haney, John D., 

Dennis, William H., 

Hoyt, William F., 

Delano, Charles, 

Hayes, Peter, 

Jones, William A., a 
Jackson, John, 
Johnson, William H., 
Keeler, Egbert, 
Kuhn, Bernard, 
Kuhn, Daniel, b 
Lewis, Oliver C., 
Locke, John, 
Luth, Charles, 
Lewis, Jocob S., 
Lawrence, Nathaniel, 
Lohman, Axel S., 
Lowe, Abraham, 
Lucklow, Philip, 
Lowe, Levi F., , 
Lee, John H., 
Lee, George S. W., 
Lucas, Charles B., 
Lynch, John, 
Moore, Philip H,, a 
Moore, Franklin, 
McCann, John F., a 
McAllister, Peter, a 
McGrady, James, b 
McGready, Hugh, 
McCarthy, Daniel, 
Morton, Edward, 
Myles, John, 
Markham, William D., 
Murray, Thomas, 
Morris, Henry, ft 
Magher, John, 
Morse, Harrison, 
Marston, Erastus D., 
Mahue, Joha, 
Matthews, George A., 
Matthews, Laurence A., 
Mead, William H., 
Mickle, Peter, 

This Company had in all 186 Men. 



Minnerley, Charles, 
Mahar, John, 
Martin, Hawley, b 
Morrison, William, 
Neef, Philo, 
O Kourke, Patrick, 
Odell, Oliver, 
Osborn, George C., b 
Poultney, Robert. 
Plimlcy, George P., 
Pfister, Samuel, a 
Quimby, Ephraim, 
Rnfferty, Peter, a 
Root, George O., 
Rowell, William, 
Reynolds, John C., 1. 
Ryan, Michael, b 
Rice, George P., 
Rainey, James, 

Ryan, John, 
Rowe, John, 
Rockafellow, Horace, 
Rugg, George, W., a 
Reeves, William, c 
Shepard, Charles, 
Smith, Charles D., a 
Smith, Henry, 1. 
Smith, Frank, 
Smith, Charles R., 
Sharkey, Edward, c 
Scott, Elisha B., 
Straut, Jacob, 
Swintz, Jacob, a 
Shoemaker, John W., 
Saunders, Carmine, 
Spencer, Andrew K., 
Seaman, Samuel, 
Swan, Thomas M., 
Schadler, Louis, 

Ten Broeck, Samuel, b 
Thornton, J. Chauncey, 
Ten Eyck, Jacob II., 
Ten Eyck, Edward, 
Tripp, Levi. 
Van Ness, Harmon B., 
Van Loan, Jacob H.. 
Van Gorder, Elias, 
WHITCOMB, W. H., l.a 
Winnie, Peter, 
Wallace, Edward, 
Wait, Richard, B., 
Warner, Edward B., 
Warner, William, 
Werner, William, 
Williams, Samuel, 
Woodbridge, Henry X., 
Waldolph, William P., 
Yence, John E., 
Zimmerman, Fred, 
Zimmerman, Jacob. 

NOTE 1. Great labor has been bestowed upon this Roster. Should inac 
curacies occur, or some men fail to recive due notice of their casualties, it 
must be attributed to the want of documents for reference. In some instan 
ces, as in Gen. Banks Retreat from Strasburg, company papers were lost. 
However, it is to be lamented that full documents were not kept more 

NOTE 2. Many of the men marked VETERANS, were not originally with 
the regiment, but joined it after having served two years or more, in some 
other organization. 


Yielding to an urgent desire and request of my many 
subscribers and friends, I append to these Records the fol 
lowing selections from the files of the weekly journal, which 
I published or read, to the prisoners, while confined in 
Libby Prison. It may serve to illustrate more clearly than 
it has been done in the body .of the work the tout ensemble 
of that dark period in the history of thousands of our 


Vol. I.] Libby Prison, Richmond, Va., August 21st, 1863. [No. I. 

The Lilly CJironicle will be issued weekly, from Prisoner 
& Co/s steam press of thought. Such will be the equali 
zation of labor among those engaged in the enterprise, that 
this publication can be afforded at very low rates. Price of 
subscription, weekly, one moment s good attention, in- 

1 Eight numbers of the Chronicle were issued. 



variably in advance. These terms being complied with, the 
paper will be forwarded postage free. 

With such facilities before the public for obtaining useful 
knowledge, it is needless to state that we expect an extensive 
patronage. Our adherence to facts, which are always the 
most stubborn arguments, and to the motto that 
" A little nonsense now and then, 
Is relished by the wisest men," 

is a full guarantee to our patrons that they will ever obtain 
an ample equivalent for their subscription price. We can 
not very well forbear mentioning that the contributors .to 
our columns are among the most eminent of the land, in 
cluding the skillful lawyer, the sedate judge, the erudito 
priest, the amusing comedian, the renowned legislator, and 
scores of others from the various walks of life, whose con 
nection with our periodical places success beyond a doubt. 
As we make our humble bow to the public, we hope that 
progress may mark our course in every department of our 
work, until the Libby Chronicle, its editor and publisher, 
its friends and patrons, will find themselves sailing toward 
the North Land of liberty and civilization. 


John Brown s body lies mouldering in the grave, 

While weep the sons of bondage whom he ventured all to save, 

And though he lost his life in struggling for the slave, 

His soul is marching on. CHORUS. 

John Brown was a hero, undaunted, true and brave, 
Kansas knew his valor when he fought her rights to save, 
And though the grass grows green above his northern grave, 
His soul is marching on. CHORUS. 


He captured Harper s Ferry with his nineteen men so few, 

And frightened "Old Yirgiuny" till she trembled through and 

through ; 
They hung him for a traitor themselves a traitor crew, 

But his soul is marching on. CHORUS. 

The conflict that he heralded he looks from heaven to view, 
On the army of the UnionVith her flag, red, white and blue, 
And heaven shall ring with anthems o er the deeds we mean to do, 
As we go marching on. CHORUS. 

soldiers of Columbia, then strike, while strike you may, 
The death-blow of oppression in this better time and way, 
And the dawn of old John Brown will brighten into day, 

As we go marching on. CHORUS. 


No. 1. 

Mr. Editor : Who among your hearers have not felt as 
the writer feels to-day, weary and worn out with the dull 
monotony of prison life ? There is no future here ; night 
and day succeed one another with but the same scene, the 
same fruitless longing for liberty. Even these more than 
precious letters, brief mementos of the dear ones at home, 
make the bitterness of captivity but the deeper. Many, if 
not all of us, have faced death on the battle field and are 
willing to do so in our Country s cause again ; but who, 
once released, would yield to see the walls of Libby Prison 
once more ? True, that some have been unfortunate enough 
to now be prisoners of war a second, and, in one instance, 
we believe, a third time, such are entitled to our sympathy. 
They are indeed sufferers. 


Am I harping, Mr. Editor, on a threadbare theme ? I 
crave pardon. A fit of the blues is on me to-day, and what 
I write partakes of it. Even the heavens are overcast with 

" The autumn days have come 
The saddest of the year." 

We take a sidelong glance from our "south window," and 
see away off in the distance a portion of Belle Isle, occupied 
by thousands of our brave men. Poor fellows ! There lot 
is, while it lasts, even worse than ours. 

Hark, what sound breaks from the depths below our feet ? 

u Mess No. , dinner." We go, Mr. Editor, we go. 

Sorrowfully we lay our pen aside, hoping when we write 
again, to reach a more cheerful result. 

Au revoir. Black bean soup awaits us. 



Q. In what respect do the officers confined in Libby re 
semble Dives in the parable ? 

Ans. They are looking to Abraham for comfort. 

Q. Why is an elephant like a pile of brick? 

Ans. Because neither can climb a tree. 

Q. Why is our soup in Libby like the stuff of which 
dreams are made ? 

Ans. Because it is a body without substance. 




On Gary street, in Richmond, there is a mongrel den 

Of thieves, sneaks, and cowards, mixed up with gentlemen. 

Oh, it is a shame to huddle in together 

Men and beasts, wild and tame, like birds of every feather. 

The Reb. authorities scared up this living wonder, 

Made it a prison, and named it Castle Thunder. 

Here they tumble in characters of every hue, 

Reprobates steeped in sin with the Christian and the Jew. 

Conscripts by the dozen, at daylight and after dark, 

Come pouring in the Castle like animals in the ark ; 

Some are small, some are great, some show pluck, some white liver, 

Some from Mississippi state and " Goobers" from Tar river. 

Substitutes and deserters come in in sorry plight, 

And sub-gents, too, are here quartered for the night. 

Blockade runners, also, are shut up for a warning. 

But seldom leave, as promised, early the next morning. 

While on Potomac s banks both parties try to nab em, 

If they escape the Yanks, old Jeff, is sure to grab em. 

So-called spies are castled here, who think it real hard luck, 
They are all from Yankeedom, excepting one Kennuck ; 
Disloyalists are also here, and one for being a guide, 
The boys call him Doodlebug, for piloting Burnside. 
We also have an oyster man, who the officers discover, 
Was Union on the York but Secesh on James river. 
Part first tells you where the Castle is and who are there, 
Part second will disclose the manner of our fare. 


\\ T Q have a dozen rooms or more, and in some two or three, 

The boys "wear handcuffs, balls and chains Confederate jewelry, 

Some rest on cots, on boards, with blankets, some without them, 


And when they get to sleep the big bugs often rout them; 

They never sleep in quiet though ever so much drowsy, 

For the vermin are so thick and big, the lice themselves are lousy. 

We have eighteen kinds of food, though twill stagger your belief, 

We have bread, beef and soup, and bread, soup and beef; 

Then we separate about, with twenty in a group, 

And get beef, soup and bread, and beef, bread and soup ; 

For our dessert we obtain, though it costs us nary red, 

Soup, bread and beef, and beef, soup and bread. 

The bread we usually get is of a very good sort, 

True, it is the staff of life, but our staff is rather short. 

Our beef s so lean and dry, that, swallowing, it will bound back, 

Unless we recollect afore, to try to grease the track. 

It is too tough and strong, for our noses or our knives. 

The cattle were so poor and thin, were killed to save their lives. 

The hides are made up into shoes, the sinews into strings, 

The marrow into soup, and the bones in pretty rings. 

Our soup is much too weak, to please a very high liver, 

Tis made of beans, bugs and rice, and extract of James river. 

Now I ve told you what we eat, whether we re well or sick, 
What we drink is never strong though sometimes rather thick. 
Our drink is rarely river water, except to save from death, 
And then for want of whiskey we smell an officer s breath. 
Meat and drink are now so scarce as to raise a serious doubt, 
Whether the Confederacy is not about played out. 
Number one and two you ve heard, and now in division third, 
I will say a word about the way we are officered. 

Military officers of the very meanest stuff, 

For every local post, are considered good enough. 

In officering Richmond they varied not the general rule, 

To appoint a drunkard, a tyrant, a coward or a fool. 

It is plainly to be seen that in a little while 

When Satan scoopes his jewels up, in Richmond he ll get a pile. 


At the head of Richmond post they ve placed a Marylander, 

And like the devil in regions lost there sits General Winder. 

He snaps and snarls, he rips and swears, whether sober or tight, 

The old villain s heart s as black as his head is white. 

All through this vicinity they hate him as hard as they can, 

Nor ever slander him with epithet of decent man. 

However mean, he s a patriot, that may be understood, 

For when he left the Yankee land, twas for his country s good. 

We come to Major Griswold, who is our Provost Marshal, 
He s a little prejudiced, which makes him rather partial ; 
But when compared to Winder he seems no virtue to lack, 
As green is almost white by the side of jet black. 

And there s Judge Baxter, who also is a queer old case, 

He has so large a centre he can hardly change his base. 

He says whiskey s a dangerous thing to have about the town, 

So, with all his might, he s for putting whiskey down. 

Whiskey is fifty cents a drink, and of the meanest sort, 

The Judge, to get his money s worth, swallows it by the quart. 

I will slyly tell you, boys, if your money you begrudge, 

How to get your whiskey cheap step up and tap the judge. 

In the door of the castle, like a stopple in a jug, 

To shut the prison s mouth, they ve stuck a Baltimore plug; 

It is Captain Alexander, who is so cross and spunky, 

He is certainly not fit to command an oyster pungy. 

The captain is such a case as may be often seen, 

Who thinks he s very smart, but is invisible green ; 

He is a thundering blower, but would not dare to fight, 

As dogs that bark the loudest are seldom known to bite. 

Yet he has streaks of good, as well as mean, mixed for relief, 

The first are scarce and thin like fat in Confederate beef. 

He also came from Maryland, and mean as Nick can make him, 

And the reason why we keep him is because the devil won t take 



Allen is a smooth old rat, that is truthfully said, 

He shines with black from boots to hat,- his face shines with red; 

He pours down whiskey double-quick, there is no doubt of that : 

Sometimes he makes believe he s sick but it s a brick in his hat. 

Old Allen is a villain of the very darkest stripe, 

He ll go home to purgatory as soon as he is ripe. 

And if he does not blow off steam and soon shut down the brakes, 

In a dream of delerium he ll find his boots are full of snakes. 

He has an oily tongue and face full of deceit and evil. 

And should Old Nick miss that scape-grace, there s no need of a 




I am one of those who have derived much information 
from the facts which have been demonstrated, and much 
amusement from the fun which has been generated in the 
columns of the Chronicle. We have been favored with 
statements and demonstrations of facts pertaining to almost 
every subject of public interest. Creeds of religion and po 
litical faith have wisely been excluded from the fact depart 
ment of this association. No one could consistently with 
the objects of the association and the courtesy due individual 
members thereof, lead off with a bigoted or partisan state 
ment and denunciation, which would necessarily be offensive 
to others, and would, if replied to in the same spirit, lead 
here as elsewhere, to recriminations, disputes and disunion. 

We are gratified to observe that this principle has com 
mended itself to all, and that such questions have not been 
obtruded upon ground sacred to instruction. 

Success to the "stubborn" department of the Lyceum, 
and may matters of personal experience, travels, history, 


science with its innumerable branches, extending from the 
depths of the earth to regions above and beyond our ken, 
the arts and graces, Christianity and patriotism, never lack 
for able defenders and expounders, and the meetings of the 
association will not lack in interest, nor the speakers or 
readers for appreciative listeners. In the stubbornness of 
fact is found a self-supporting dignity. 

Fun, on the contrary, is apt, inside and outside of our 
circle, to degenerate into folly. The harmless play of seven 
and eight p. M. has, at nine or ten, degenerated into pro 
fanity and obscenity, which wisely await darkness before 
coming forth to disturb the sleep and sensibilities of the 
majority of the officers here confined. Inside our circle 
great care is necessary lest the joke grate too harshly on 
rough edge or straight edge. 

Of this food so healthful for body and mind we should 
seek the highest and best, by keeping watch and ward over 
our unruly members, and carefully analyzing and examining 
those specimens which are recognized models of wit. When 
well executed the burlesque is, perhaps, the happiest style 
of wit. May OUT fun never grow less in quantity or quality. 
Vive fa Bagatelle. 



Monday, September 28th, 12 M. 

Rumored that the exchange commissioners did not meet 
yesterday as was expected. 

Four p. M. Rumor says that the United States commis 
sioners, having heard of Spencer Kellogg s execution, imme 
diately returned without awaiting the arrival of the Confede- 


rate States troop, and that there will be no exchange of 
prisoners soon. 

September 29th. As a result of yesterday s news the 
spirits are drooping in all, except those of the huxtering 
fry, who seem to have renewed their diligence. 

September 30?/L We have news from a reliable source, 
that all the Federal officers are to be paroled and sent north 
on the next truce boat. 

Three p. M. Since receiving the above telegram we have 
received information that no exchange or parole is to occur, 
as the exchange agents have not acceeded to any proposi 
tions yet offered, and that the next truce boat will bring 
blankets and clothing for the Libby family. 

October 1st. The huxtering fry say they will allow fruit 
to be conveyed down Red Lane pike, if the teamsters will 
allow them a profitable remuneration. 

Latest from the hospital, four and one half P. M. A United 
States gun-boat brought dispatches that no exchange even 
of privates would be allowed until the case of Kellogg is 
satisfactorily explained. 

Still later, nine P. M. The commissioners are to meet on 
the 3d October. The United States commissioner will bring 
six gun-boats along to protect the white flag. 



No 2. 

Shall I tell you why. Mr. Editor, that ensconced in this 
out-of-the-way corner, close to this cross-barred frame, why 
I call it my South Window ? Because memory reverts to 


another scene and time in by-gone days, when a fair bright 
face oft watched adown the road, the first to welcome the 
toiler home. I wonder if she sits in that "south window" 
now and waits the wanderer s return ? 

Ah, Mr. Editor, whose heart so cold it would not warm 
with thoughts like these ? Ever as memory goes back to 
those fast-growing far distant hours I picture my happy 
home. Situated a few miles away from the busy hum of 
the metropolis on a little bay, nestled among a magnificent 
grove of chesnuts, hid by them from the sight of the passer 
by, is my home. 

There at night, after the work of the day, have I retired 
in keen enjoyment of the comforts of a happy home, sur 
rounded only by those who love. Such a life is almost the 
p oet s dream of Elysium. There in the early mists of the 
morning have I mounted my horse for a ride along the sea 
shore, or through the clover fields; or in the moonlit sum 
mer s evening have unfurled the sails of my "Bonny" yacht 
and glided on the smooth surface of the bay, hour after 
hour, happy in forgetfulness of all save the present. This, 
in all its wide meaning, is home. 

And here, Mr. Editor, the oft-repeated prayer arises, may 
the day soon come, when you and I, and all of us, shall 
leave our prison abode, and be permitted to clasp our loved 
ones in a warm embrace, when the dismal clouds of war are 
scattered, and the sunshine of peace shall fall upon a reu 
nited land. 

Once more, Au revoir. 



(Written expressly for the Libby Chronicle.) 


"Of Libby s lice to us the direful spring 
Of woes unnumbered, heavenly muses sing." 

Homer modernized. 

Think not my theme so trifling, none you can mention, 
Ileceives in Libby half so much attention. 
A phonographic class of half a dozen score, 
In one short week, falls off a half or more ; 
French, too, and Spanish, as all can plainly see, 
Lose their students in the same degree; 
But who so lazy, so busy, or so nice, 
Neglects to give an hour each day to lice, 
Will be beset with troubles great and small, 
And have hard scratching to get along at all. 
If poets write of battles twixt frogs and mice, 
Why not of skirmishes twixt men and lice? 
And while these verses rud.e we are enditing, 
Look round to see the -different styles of fighting. 

Watch Pugilisticus, he in a trice, 
Pulls off his dirty shirt to fight his lice ; 
His muscles thus of cumbrous duds bereft, 
See with what science he "puts in his left" 
Upon the bodies of his luckless brood, 
And Pugilisticus has gained "first blood." 
With double fury he "puts in his right," 
And Pugilisticus has " won the fight." 

And there s Historicus, with scabby back, 

Would trace their history as he hears them crack ; 

Wonders if these lice bear the same description, 

As those once scratched by Pharaoh and the Egyptians. 

He tries, in vain, from facts and from analogy, 

To thread their lineage and genealogy. 


He learns, however, with very little pains, 

The proudest blood of Libby is flowing in their veins. 

He marks, too, that the death of these, his little foes, 

Is not as ignominious as thoughtless men suppose. 

Sisera, a great warrior, was slain by Jael, 

With those unwarlike weapons, a hammer and a nail, 

While to slay these, so very much abused, 

Although there be no hammer, two nails are always used. 

Mark now Gallantricus, that nice young man, 
With taper fingers made to wield a lady s fan, 
Much disgusted, see him hunting, half ashamed of being seen, 
Thinks it " very unpretty," lice should stay ia shirt so clean. 
See now his handsome visage, what contortions and grimaces! 
As if to scare the nasty things, by making ugly faces. 
What would she think, his would-be, future spouse, 
To see him strip and squat and grin and louse ? 

Behold Theologicus, with reverend face, 
Peering with care in every hiding place. 

And while his little flock crawls round through heaps of slain, 
Such thoughts as these come crawling through his brain: 
What if midst all the creeds and doctrines which so stagger us, 
That should be true announced by old Pythagoras ! 
That after death men s souls instead of going 
To heaven or hell according to the showing 
Of orthodoxy teachers, simply go forth 
To inhabit birds and beasts, insects and so forth 
Base or noble as their lives may show forth. 
Most in this prison, if I judge aright, 
Will live in noble beasts and birds of lofty flight. 
But some there are, who ll live again as hogs, 
Some skunks, some asses, some as snappish dogs. 
A very few have souls so small and base 
That even such as these they would disgrace. 
Crammed in this loathsome prison, scorned like slaves, 


Insulted, starved by coward traitor knaves, 
The men who in our suffering have betrayed us, 
And fawn on those who brutally degrade us, 
Even such small souls, will find a fitting nice, 
And live hereafter, in loathsome Libby s lice. 

There s Philosophicus, with thoughtful brow. 

Who knows the" why of everything, the "what" and "how. 

He watches his louse to learn each secret habit, 

Befcre with bloody fangs he proceeds to grab it. 

Sees it in its cozy nest recline, 

Marks it making love and observes it dine. 

With wise discrimination he can trace 

The difFerenee twixt the louse and bedbug race 

But I ll cease scratching lines and scratch "Scotch-fiddle" 

At something crawling in my pantaloons. 


Libby Prison, Richmond, Va., September 26th, 1863 
To His Excellency, AUGUSTUS W. BRADFORD, 

Governor of Maryland, 

Sir : We, the undersigned officers of your state, now 
suffering the privations of prison life, though conscious that 
we are not forgotten by you, would nevertheless urge upon 
your consideration the importance of making a personal 
effort for our release, should such effort be found practi 
cable. Our imprisonment has become almost intolerable. 
Deprived as we have been, so long, of the sweet sunshine 
and pure air, also of our accustomed diet when free, we 
have gradually sunken under the debilitating influence. 

Scrofulous and dropsical diseases have already manifested 
their alarming symptons among us, and will doubtless prove 
fatal in many cases, unless we are soon released. Our fel- 


low-sufferer, Major Morris, but recently fell a victim to our 
wretched condition. Others will probably soon follow him. 
Can anything be done for us ? Our prayer is brief, but 


We are, respected Sir, 

Your obedient servants, &c. 
(Signed by many officers of the state of Maryland). 



It is with much regret that we announce the fact to the 
readers of the Chronicle, that there are those among the 
officers now confined in this delectable (?) locality, ycleped 
Libby, who are uttering curses, "not loud, but deep," 
against our government, for permitting them to remain here 
so long. These officers evince more of the spirit of spoiled 
children, than of that manly courage and patience which 
should characterize the actions of the American officer and 

The officer who utters complaints against our government 
for his continued incarceration, shows that he does not under 
stand the principles involved in the controversy, in relation 
to the exchange of prisoners, or else he is prompted by mo 
tives altogether selfish and unpatriotic. The exchange of 
officers was suspended in consequence of the unfair proceed 
ings of the Bebel authorities, about the first of June, in 
retaining certain officers in an unjust and arbitrary manner. 
Among those thus retained were Colonel Streight s officers, 
Captain McKee, of the Fourteenth Kentucky Cavalry, and 
Lieutenant Conn, of the Second Virginia Cavalry. Our 


commissioner, on discovering this injustice, respectfully in 
formed the Rebel commissioner, that all exchange of officers 
would be suspended, until the Rebels would exchange officer 
for officer and man for man, according to rank and to date 
of capture. 

The Rebels, at that time, were anticipating a series of 
successes, which they have not realized, though they persist, 
with a dogged obstinacy, in the unjust course which they 
had marked for themselves. Instead of removing obstacles 
which they had thrown in the way of the cartel, they con 
tinue to increase those obstacles, by high-landed acts of 
injustice and cruelty, and make the affair more complicated. 
All that is necessary, is to return to the cartel and proceed 
as formerly. When the Rebels do this, our government is 
ready to exchange, but until then, it acts properly in refus 
ing to exchange. A partial or special exchange would leave 
many an unfortunate prisoner, exposed to even worse insults 
and indignities, than now. The suspension of the cartel 
will doubtless continue until the Rebels are willing to con 
duct the exchange on fair principles, and every patriotic 
officer should submit to his sad fate with manly fortitude. 

Our government has not forgotten us, but, on the con 
trary, it is pursuing that course which will result to our 
advantage. Should partial exchanges be made, a portion 
of the officers would be held as hostages, confined in wretched 
cells, and reserved for hanging or shooting, for the amuse 
ment and recreation of the chivalry. Such exchanges 
would add to the comfort of some, but would increase the 
sufferings of others. What officer is so devoid of humanity 
as to be willing to accept his personal liberty at such 
expense? If there be any such in Libby, they had better 


tender their "immediate and unconditional" resignation, as 
soon as possible, and retire to their own place. But, in the 
language of Holy Writ, let us "endure hardness as good 
soldiers/ trusting in the God of battles to deliver us; assured 
also that we are not forgotten by father Abraham, who is 
evidently doing all that justice and mercy can prompt him 
to do for our relief. While it is well for us to invite the 
aid of our influential friends in the north, in this matter of 
exchange, it is equally proper to bide our time with patience 
and resignation. 

No 3. 

October, 1st, 1863. 

Amidst the excitements of "fresh fish"* (and this is ever 
a fishy place) and exchange, there has been little time of 
late to write, and even now your correspondent knows of 
little that will interest your hearers. "Changing, forever 
changing; so runs on the petty pace from day to day," says 
the poet, and how has its truthfulness been proven during 
the few weeks past. Victory and defeat have hovered o er 
our country s banners, and as we watch to see the smoke 
of battle roll away, we see the red result a result which 
we, men of war, have seen but too often. 

1 Whenever a company of prisoners was seen approaching Libby, 
the cry, " fresh fish !" " fresh fish !" was made within, followed by a 
rush to the front windows, to get a glimpse of the new comers. As 
they generally had friends in the prison, and were bearers of the 
latest reliable news from the army, on being introduced into the 
rooms, they were surrounded by an eager throng, and a shower 
of questions was rained upon them. Those were seasons of great 


Vast armies, numbered by their tens of thousands, go 
crashing together; steel clashes against steel, fire responds 
to fire ; the one recoils, and again amid the whistling ball 
and hurtling shell, the scene is reenacted, until the one, 
weaker and worn out, is hurled back, whipped, defeated, 
routed. They, who were brave men an hour before, on 
losing hope, fly for safety under some impregnable fortress. 
Thus, though, Mr. Editor, has it not been with our valiant 
army of the Cumberland. 

Forced into a battle without position, what did our brave 
llosecrans ? With numbers small in comparison to those 
of his foe, we see him day after day stubbornly fighting. 
At length his lines are driven back, for they cannot resist 
the force that is hurled, confident in their weight of num 
bers, against them. Back, back they fall, and, in a few 
moments more, all will be lost; but see ! a form, well known 
and loved by each of that gallant army, dashes forward, 
scarcely an hundred .yards from the advancing foe; and 
there, amid a storm of bullets, which they who were there 
tell us they never saw equaled, right in the jaws of death, 
between the two combatants, their leader rides; his hat is 
raised aloft, and he shouts, " Forward men ! Will you let 
Rebels drive you back ? Forward ! Give the bayonet !" 
And they did ; the day was saved. 

Night came on apace, and, so quietly that the enemy 
knew it not, he fell back to Chattanooga, where Braxton 
Bragg, with all the appropriateness of his name, will 
not attempt to attack him. Better far, and none know 
it better than he, to be content with what he may call a 
victory, a victory indeed in one sense, but certainly a 
very barren one. 




It still runs in the memory of many, when to be an officer 
of the American army, was to be as a consequence, a gen 
tleman and a man of honor. The claimant to official rank, 
of whatever grade, was ever the recipient of marked atten 
tion. The announcement of his arrival was paraded in the 
journals of the day, and the blandest smiles of mine host, 
and the cosiest chamber of " mine inn," were instantly at 
his command. From the great, the learned, the wealthy 
and the fair, hospitalities, invitations and favors of every 
kind were tendered him, and his sojourn in town or coun 
try, was a continuation of fete days, culminating in intensity 
as his leave of absence drew near its close. 

"All men revered him, all women loved." 

To impugn his character, or to doubt his honor, subjected 
the utterer to the closest investigation, or to the stern ar 
bitrament of arms, while, to him, to fall from his high 
position, was a descent second only to that of Lucifer. In 
camp, courteous to his subordinates, he was ever respectful 
to his superiors; and in the field, he faced the foe, because 
the path to glory is through the field of danger. 

For his associates, with whom he had encountered many 
vicissitudes " through field and flood/ he entertained an 
affection dearer than the ties of relationship ; and was ever 
ready to aid, support and defend them at all hazards. Such 
were the life, character and attributes of an American officer 
at the commencement of this contest; and whether enrolled 
in defense of constitutional right and a just government, 
or engaged in marshalling the ranks of the disloyal and the 


traitor, to this day lie retains, in an eminent degree, most, if 
not all, of these virtues. 

Let us now turn to the volunteer. Called to arms by his 
country s need, the gifted, the honored, the brave, throwing 
off the lethargy of peace, donned the uniform of his govern 
ment, and, pledging his life and his sacred honor, rushed to 
the defense of a time-honored flag, and the beloved institu 
tions of his forefathers. A hearty volunteer in a glorious 
cause, he brought with him the enthusiasm of the patriot, 
and the loyalty of the citizen; accustomed to comfort and 
nurtured in luxury, he endured the privations of the camp 
and the bitter experiences of martial life, with cheerfulness 
and obedience ; proud of his cause, his country and his uni 
form, he strove so to guide his steps, that each and all 
might be honored by his advocacy. Acquainted with the 
amenities of civil life } filled with the recollections of the 
social distinctions accorded to the officer of former days, 
and a firm believer in the attributes of the chivalric soldier, 
he naturally turned to his immediate associates in arms, for 
an exhibition of those characteristics, which have garnished 
the pages of history and peopled the world with heroes. 

The child which nightly awakens the denizens of Libby 
by its eager search after the paternal Teet; 1 to whom the 
knowledge of light, air, and impalpable being, is but a thing 
of yesterday, is yet old enough to chronicle the downfall of 
these expectations ; and could he answer, young as he is, 
his youthful visage would rival, in intensity of color, his 
spanked extremity, after a severe flagellation by his irate 

1 Captain John Teed could imitate the crying of a little child so 
perfectly, as to render detection almost impossible. Hours of 
intense merriment were occasioned by this thing alone. 


ancestor, while recounting tlie reverse of the picture. For, 
did he speak truly, he would tell of the lie bandied, in lieu 
of the sacred word of honor ever implied ; of the act and 
gesture of filth and indecency, in place of the manly joke 
and good humored repartee; of the blasphemous response 
to the authorized command of the superior, instead of the 
graceful obedience of the subordinate ; but, worse than all, 
he would tell of the rights invaded, the property purloined, 
and the pocket rifled of one officer, by his fellow. 

Mr. Editor, had such a statement been made in any 
journal as respectable as your own, previous to my advent 
to Libby, I would have deemed it my duty to hunt the 
anonymous slanderer from his secret lair, and nail the cal 
umny to his forehead ; but now, alas, a short but painful 
experience in a military prison, has revealed to me, that an 
officer and a gentleman are no longer synonyms ; that the 
uniform of the soldier may cover the carcase of the sneak, 
and the shoulder straps of the officer may serve to conceal 
the brand of the thief. Dare any one deny this ? If any 
such there be, let them dispassionately investigate the record 
of the past two weeks, and, ere venting their virtuous indigna 
tion, inquire of the first officer they meet of his experience; 
or, better, let them consult the official announcement, affixed 
to these walls, proclaiming the loss, by theft, of one hundred 
and eighty dollars, within the past fortnight; or they may 
be enlightened by the recital of innumerable petty larcenies, 
minor scoundrelisuis and sneaking pilferings, unworthy the 
talents of the meanest thief that ever graduated from the 
Five Points. Even the honor which obtains among rogues, 
is forgotten, for we have it on record, that thief has robbed 
thief, and the sneak preyed upon his brother. And yet, 


forsooth, these miscreants bear a commission, liold a com 
mand, and, by my manhood, even sport a sword. Of such 
men the immortal Shakespeare has written thus : 

"He will steal, sir, an egg out of a cloister. He pro 
fesses not keeping of oaths ; in breaking them he is stronger 
than Hercules. He will lie, sir, with such volubility, that 
you would think truth were a fool. Drunkenness is his 
best virtue, for he will be swine-drunk, and in his sleep he 
does little harm, save to his bed clothes about him ; but 
they know his conditions and lay him in straw. I have 
but little more to say, sir, of his honesty j he has every 
thing that an honest man should not have, what an honest 
man should have, he has nothing." 

I would not have it understood, Mr. Editor, that a ma 
jority, or even a tenth of our number, are open to these 
charges. The bad among us arc, I am proud to say, nu 
merically small, but that they are skillful and proficient 
their present concealment evidences. Brought from the 
various armies of the north and west, we are, in a degree, 
total strangers 10 a large number of the present inmates of 
this prison. The very man who shares our plank, is un 
known to us, by name or state, and may be, for all we 
know, the mirror of knighthood, or the veriest poltroon. 

A sufferer by the peculations complained of, we turn in 
querulous haste, with jealous eye, upon the first comer, and 
are more likely to suspect the innocent, than to detect the 
guilty; and we ourselves, while seeking our despoiler, are 
in turn suscected by a fellow-sufferer, who deems the eager 
looks of the loser, the preying scrutiny cf the thief. For 
our own sakes, then, let us combine to purge our body of 
this moral blot, to rid our profession of this novel stain 


To one or the other, the condition and opinion of each and 
every man are known. The knave and the coward, under 
a close surveillance, must inevitably be discovered, while 
the brave and the honorable can rarely be misunderstood. 
Mark then every man, by his words and actions. Scan 
closely the unguarded movements and desultory remarks 
of the suspected. Meet cunning with stratagem, and ply 
the rogue to his ruin. The cause we advocate and the 
uniform we wear, demand that we should expose the un 
worthy and unmask the dishonest; and it is the duty of 
every honest man, to bring the recreant thief to that justice 
he so much needs and fears. 

Written expressly for the Chronicle). 



Twas nighr, and Rebel Libby, wrapped in sleep, 
Was hushed to quiet, weird, sublime and deep: 
Along the floor the moon s pale, flickering beam, 
Athwart each visage, shot with fitful gleam, 
As if in pity she did stoop to bless, 
And cheer each prisoner with a fond caress. 

And what a sight that moon-lit floor displays ! 
In each pale face, upturned to meet her rays, 
She shines resplendent, and paints in colors bright 
A cheerful soul within, content and light ; 
Yet through its workings, now in fit and start, 
Unfolds the sorrows of an anguished heart. 

* This poem was written soon after the arrival of our officers, captured at 


From scene like this we turn our weary Lead, 
To court unwilling Sleep to bless our bed ; 
When, hark ! upon the stillness harshly breaks 
A sound, that to the base old Libby shakes ; 
Like to the war of billows, tempest-clad, 
That beat old Ocean s shore, in foment mad, 

Or cannon s thunders loud, when heard afar, 
In battle s dreadful strife, " grim-visaged war." 
It nearer, louder comes. " What can it be ? " 
Each wakened dreamer cries, and starts to see. 
And what a sight meets their astonished gaze, 
By light of moon and candle s flickering blaze ! 

The vandal Yankees, in ." irruption" bold, 
In numbers seventy and one all told, 
Are in a horde dark Libby s cells invading, 
^* And long its files with stealthy tread are raiding; 
Their guide n contraband : deceitful black, 
To thus direct the cunning Yankees track. 

Surprised, awaked by the in-coming foe, 
The inmates rise to strike a mortal blow : 
Aloft they rise in majesty so grand 
These dreamers, this incarcerated band ; 
With mingled cries of joy, of fear and rage, 
They quickly haste the coming fight to wage ; 

When, lo ! above the din cries out a wag: 
;< Tis not the vandals, only Braxton Bragg, 
Who comes to ree nforce the garrison, 
With gobbled troops of Teuton Rosy s men " 

- 17 



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