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Full text of "Historic Structures Report, Architectural and Historical Data Section: Clubhouse, Brown Cottage, Moorhead Cottage, and Clubhouse Annex--South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club--Appendices"

I 29.88: SO 8/APP 




Clubhouse, Brown Cottage, Moorhead Cottage, 

and Clubhouse Annex 

SOUTH FORK FISHING 
& HUNTING CLUB 



ST. MICHAEL • PENNSYLVANIA 



V 



PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 
DEPOSITORY ITENI 

APR 14 1994 

CLEMSON 
*.IBWRX 



® 



Printed on recycled paper 



HISTORIC STRUCTURES REPORT 
Appendices 

Clubhouse 

Brown Cottage 

Moorhead Cottage 

Clubhouse Annex 

South Fork Fishing & Hunting Club 
St. Michael, Pennsylvania 



By 

Landmarks Design Associates, Architects 

and 

Wallace, Roberts & Todd 



Prepared under contract to 

The National Park Service, Denver Service Center 

for the 

The Southwestern Pennsylvania Heritage Preservation Commission 

and 
The 1889 South Fork Fishing & Hunting Club Historical Preservation Society 



CONTENTS 



IX. 



Appendices 






A. Historical 




1. 


Historic Photographs 


305 


2. 


Family Histories 


377 


3. 


Property Transactions 


437 


4. 


Oral History Resources 


443 


5. 


Membership Lists 


445 


B. Architectural 




1. 


Paint Analysis 


449 




a. Clubhouse 


455 




b. Brown Cottage 


461 




c. Moorhead Cottage. . 


467 




d. Clubhouse Annex 


476 


2. 


Archaeologist's Report 


479 


3. 


Structural Engineer's Report 


505 




a. Clubhouse 


507 




b. Brown Cottage 


519 




c. Moorhead Cottage 


535 


4. 


Contemporary Period Cottage & Clubhc 


use Designs 551 


5. 


Maps ..... 


573 



301 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/historicstructurOOIsouth 



HISTORICAL 



303 



APPENDIX A.l. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHS 



Forty photographs have been identified which depict the South Fork Fishing and 
Hunting Club buildings and life on Lake Conemaugh during the 1880s. Most of these 
were the work of Lewis Semple Clarke and have been made available by his 
granddaughter, Virginia Cooper. Four additional photographs of that era have been 
located in the collection of Alice Reed Tucker, James W. Brown's granddaughter; the 
photographer has not been identified, but they might also be the work of Clarke. 

In addition, three photographs from the Irving London Collection of the Johnstown Flood 
Museum Archives illustrate the Club site from across the lake, both before and after the 
flood, and one shows the lakefront from the boardwalk before the flood. One view of 
the empty lakebed was secured from the Pennsylvania State Archives, Perm Central 
Railroad Collection. The two historic photographs of the Annex are from the collection 
of the 1889 South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Historical Preservation Society. 

The historic photographs have been numbered in a series with numbers H-l through H- 
46. Thirteen of the photographs have been included in the body of this Historic 
Structures Report. The balance are included in this Appendix. 

Supplementing the photographs of the site and buildings is an unnumbered series of 
images of Club members. They are also included in this Appendix. 



305 



Photo H-14 

Cottage No. 1, looking southwest from below, c.1883-1889. 

Photograph by Lewis Semple Clarke, from the Cooper Collection. 

Cottage No. 1 is shown with an unidentifiable group on the porch. The second floor 
shutters are closed, suggesting that the photograph might have been taken off 
season. This cottage was destroyed by fire in the mid-twentieth century. 



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Photo H-36 

Ice sailing on Lake Conemaugh, looking west, c.1883-1888. 

Photograph by Lewis Semple Clarke, from the Cooper Collection. 

A young man is shown sailing an iceboat across the frozen lake. To the left, the gable 
end of a boathouse is visible. If this is the end slip of the Clubhouse boathouse, the 
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stood behind the Clubhouse Annex. 



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371 



PHOTOS OF SOUTH FORK CLUB MEMBERS 

Thirteen of the Club's members are depicted in photographs on the following pages. 
Twelve were taken from Percy F. Smith, Notable Men of Pittsburgh and Vicinity. 
Pittsburgh: Press of Pittsburgh Publishing Co., 1901. The source for the image of D. 
W. Rankin has not been determined. 



372 





JAMES W. BROWN 

STEF.L MAM FACTIRKR ; DIRECTOR EXCHANGE 
NATIONAL BANK. 



CHARLES JOHN CLARKE*, 

OF CLARKE & CO. 
TRANSPORTATION AGENTS. 





JOHN AKUXAH HARPER 

SECRETARY AND TREASURER OF THK or 
TILE COMPANV. 



HENRY HOLDSHIP 

HOLDSHIP ft IRWIN, OIL PRODUCERS ASD 
RBF1NKRS. 



373 





DURBIN HORNE 

DIRECTOR OK THE UNION NATIONAL BANK j 
JOSEPH HORNE CO. 



CURTIS G. HUSSEY 

MANUFACTURER OF COPPER, STEEL, ETC. 
PITTSBURGH. 





LEWIS IRWIN 

in I. R SEINER 

'.I 1ST. 



AKDER CHASE KNOX 

KEY GENERAL OF THE 
UNITED STATES. 



374 





MAXWELL K. MOORHEAD* 

PRESIDENT MONONC.AHELA NAVIGATION COMP*BH 
IRON MANUFACTURER. 





JAMES H. REED 

~.K OF THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 189I | 
PRESIDENT PHILADELPHIA COMPANY. 



MOSES BEDELL SUYDAM 

i: : FOUNDER OF M. K. SUYDAM & CO., PAIN. 
AND . 



375 




CALVIN WELLS 
President of the Pittsburgh Forge and Iron Co. 
" Director Exchange National Bank 



376 



APPENDIX A.2. FAMILY HISTORIES 

Of the sixty-one men believed to have belonged to the South Fork Fishing and Hunting 
Club, as many as eighteen are suspected to have built cottages. (See Historical Narrative 
for an explanation of how this list was derived.) This appendix contains biographical 
notes and family trees on those individuals, as well as several others, along with names 
and addresses of approximately sixty surviving descendants; most of those descendants 
have been contacted. The suspected cottage owners are as follows: 

De Witt Clinton Bidwell 

James W. Brown 

Charles J. Clarke 

John Arunah Harper 

Henry Holdship 

Durbin Home 

Curtis C. Hussey 

Lewis Irwin 

Philander Chase Knox 

Jesse H. Lippencott 

John J. Lawrence 

Walter Lowrie McClintock 

Maxwell Kennedy Moorhead 

Dr. D. W. Rankin 

James Hay Reed 

John Rorabaugh 

Moses B. Suydam 

Calvin Wells 



377 



DE WITT CLINTON BIDWELL 
(1828-1900) 

De Witt Clinton Bidwell was born in Pittsburgh, in 1828, and received a common school 
education. After his schooling, he soon became employed in business with many well known firms. For t 
long while he was a partner in the firm of Dilworth, Porter & Company. He was a member of the firm 
D.W.C. Bidwell & Company powder dealers of 131 Water St., and for many years, until the time of hi 
death, he was the sole agent and representative of the DuPont Powder Company. At the time of his 
death he was vice-president of The Marine National Bank and president of The Real Estate Nationa 
Bank. He was formerly a director of The Merchants and Manufacturers National Bank and the Citizen 
National Bank. Also, Bidwell was a member of the Shadyside Presbyterian Church and the Duquesn. 
Club and had extensive interest in the real estate of the East End area. 

In 1852, D.W.C. Bidwell was married to Miss Elizabeth Milligan. Together they had three 
sons; Clinton M., Howard E., Harry DuPont and a daughter, Mrs. Harvey L. Childs. He was survived i 
all but his daughter. At the time of his death, Clinton M. of Buffalo, N.Y, Howard E. of Philadelph 
and Harry DuPont of Pittsburgh, were all representatives for the DuPont Powder Company. 

Bidwell, of Ellsworth Avenue, was one of the best known businessmen in Pittsburgh. He die I 
at age 72 on May 16, 1900 from heart trouble. 



378 



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379 



CURRENT BIDWELL DESCENDENTS 



1988: 

CHILDS, Mr & Mrs Clinton L. (Orr) * 

Miss Isobel Childs 
650 Grove St. 
Sewickley, Pa 15143 
741-6896 

CHILDS, Mr & Mrs Blair (Alcorn) 
3321 Dent PI. NW 
Washington, DC 20007 
202-333-3321 

CHILDS, Mr & Mrs Harvey L. (Leech) 

Indian Rock Farm 

Box 162 

Stahlstown, Pa 15687 

593-6108 

CHILDS, Mr Harvey L. jr & Miss Barbara B. Childs 
1566 St Paul St 
Denver CO 80210 

LASKOW, Mr & Mrs Mark J (Childs) * 
6693 Kinsman rd. 
Pgh Pa 15217 
421-3638 

CHILDS, Mr & Mrs J.Mabon jr (M.Holiday Jackson) 
3132 Sussex Rd. 
Raleigh, NC 27607 

CHILDS, Mr & Mrs J.Mabon (Hillman) * 
5453 Albemarle Ave. 
Pgh Pa 15217 
621-3436 

CHILDS, Miss Laura 
301 E. 79th st 
NY,NY 10021 

DETMER, Mr & Mrs E. Thomas jr 
911 Filmore St 
Denver CO 80206 
303-399-0530 

CHILDS, Mrs John B. (Ebbert) 
545 Glen Arden Dr. 
Pgh Pa 15208 
661-9166 



WALSH, Mr & Mrs Alexander T. 

229 Childs Rd 

Basking Ridge, NJ 07920 



BROOKS, Mr & Mrs Clinton C. (Peter 
jrs. Christopher & Clinton jr 

10625 Park heights Ave. 

Owing Mills MD 21117 
301-484-5157 

BROOKS, Mr. J.Judson Jr 
700 N. Hampshire Ave., NW 
Wash., DC 20037 



BROOKS, Mr & Mrs J.Judson (Child 
Newington, Shields Lane 
Sewickley, Pa 15143 
741-6384 

CHILDS, Mr. Douglas K. 
9429 Granzella Rd 
Morrison CO 80465 
(address from 1984) 



*=current as of Pgh. phonebook 
for 1992 



380 



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CURRENT BROWN DESCENDENTS 



1991: 

BLAIR, Mr. William W. 3d 

245 Mel wood Avenue 

Pgh., Pa. 15213 

412-683-1604 



TUCKER, Mr and Mrs Richard B. (Alice H. Reed) 

Mr. H. St. George 
5458 Aylesboro Avenue 
Pgh., Pa. 15217 
412-421-2996 



FAGAN, Mr. Charles A. 3rd 

Mr. Charles A. 4th 

jr Mr. James K.E. 
"Feltrim" 
Box 414 

Ligonier, Pa. 15658 
412-238-5460 

GORDON, William D. (Ellinor B. Reed) 
5848 Aylesboro Avenue 
Pgh., Pa. 15217 
412-421-1681 

GORDON, Mr and Mrs John R. (Alice L. Brady) 

Miss Amanda R. 
1323 Roosevelt Avenue 
Pelham Manor, NY 10803 
914-738-0720 

ORR, Mr and Mrs Charles P. (Paula G. Welles) 
5452 Aylesboro Avenue 
Pgh., Pa. 15217 
412-682-6105 



382 



CHARLES J. CLARKE 
1833-1899 

Charles C. Clarke, son of Thomas and Eliza Thaw Clarke, was born in Pittsburgh on 
March 15, 1833. 

After graduating from Jefferson College in 1852, Clarke entered his father's transport 
business, Clarke and Thaw, becoming a partner in 1857. Following his father's death, the 
firm was renamed Clarke and Company, and Charles assumed the position of president. He 
presided over the company with the aid of his uncle, William Thaw, until 1872 when the 
)usiness was dissolved and Clarke retired. 

Using the assets from the sale of the company and his family inheritance, Clarke 
ater amassed a fortune from speculation in railroads, real estate, and securities. Among the 
vealthiest men in Pittsburgh, he then turned his attention to philanthropic activities. 

Clarke was associated with a number of charitable organizations, particularly in the 
rea of women's education. He served as president of the School of Design for Women and was 
ice-president (along with Oliver McClintock) of the Pennsylvania Female College. In 
ddition, he was elected to the presidency of both the Allegheny Cemetery and Mercantile 
[all Library Company and was active in the YMCA and other religious organizations. 

Married in 1857 to Louisa Semple, Clarke was the father to six children: Thompson 
fields, Louis Semple, John Semple, James King, Mable Clarke McCrae, and Agnes Clarke 
ainter. His death in 1899 was considered a great loss for the city, as The Pittsburgh Bulletin- 
idex wrote, "No death. ..has within recent years invoked wider sorrow." 



purees: 

•offord, Ernest, ed. Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography. New York: the Lewis 

Publishing Company, 1928, pp.297-8. 
. History of Allegheny County. Pennsylvania. Chicago: A. Warner and 



Company, 1889, Vol.1, p.691. 
e Pittsburgh Bulletin-Index. December 9, 1899, p.ll. 



383 



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CURRENT CLARKE DESCENDENTS 



; lOBART, Mr. Edward P. 

: 18 Ice Valey Rd. 

. iox 418 

i )sterville, Md. 02655 

< 508) 428-1014 

lOBART, Ms. Carol P. Sandum 
517 Stanford Dr., NE 
Uburquerque, NM. 87106 

IOOPER, Mrs. Virginia Anthony 

IR1, No.2 

loman Lane 

4ew London, NH. 03257 

603) 526-6769 

ILARKE, Mr. Phillips H. Ill 
25 E. 81st St. 
vIY, NY. 10028 
212)570-9614 

ILARKE, Mrs. Phillips H. 

000 Massachussets Avenue, NW 

Vpt. 231 

Vashington, D.C. 20016 

102) 363-6765 



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386 



HENRY CLAY FRICK 
1848-1919 

Henry Clay Frick was born December 19, 1848 in West Overton, Pa., a fourth generation 
American of wealthy parentage. The second of six children, he was named for the Whig leader 
and Kentucky Senator Henry Clay.* Receiving his formal education in the brief span of thirty 
months (in 1864 and 1865 at the Mt. Pleasant Institute, and for ten weeks at Otterbein College in 
Ohio in 1866), Frick entered the business world as quickly as possible.^ After a short stint as a 
salesman in Pittsburgh, he returned home to serve as a bookkeeper in his grandfather's 
distillery, A. Overholt and Company. 

In 1871, Frick founded the coke company that would bear his name. Having survived 
the Panic of 1873, Frick sought to expand his business, having acquired additional funds by 
brokering the sale of a local railroad to the Baltimore and Ohio Company for $50,000.3 j-jj s 
company flourished, and by the age of thirty, Frick had already become a millionaire. 

In 1882, Frick reorganized the firm into H.C. Frick Coke Company with two million in 
assets and a stock issue of 40,000 shares. Soon after his marriage to Adelaide Childs (in 
December 1881), Frick became acquainted with steel magnate Andrew Carnegie, beginning a 
long business relationship. In 1889, Frick was entrusted with the reorganization of Carnegie 
Brothers Steel, and soon orchestrated the consolidation of several companies into the Carnegie 
Steel Company. In 1895, Frick relinquished control as corporate manager, giving greater 
autonomy to the newly created position of president. In 1897, he also stepped down as the 
president of his own company. In 1899, however, he and Carnegie become embroiled in a dispute 
that threatened to end their relationship. Though James Reed helped broker a resolution, their 
relationship was never the same, and they remained estranged until their deaths. In 1900, 
though J.P. Morgan consolidated both Carnegie Steel Co. and H.C. Frick Co. (as well as thirty 
other companies) into U.S. Steel, and Frick became a director of the corporation. The position 
was in reality 'he final post in Frick's remarkable career. 

Frick's philanthropic activities are too numerous to catalog, although it should be 
noted that he left behind after his death an art collection virtually unmatched in this country. 
Among other charitable actions, Frick bequeathed a sizable park to the city of Pittsburgh and 
gave liberally to Princeton University. 

Frick was the father to four children: Henry Clay jr., who died in infancy; Martha 
Howard, who died prematurely in 1881; Helen Clay; and Childs. 



387 



Sources: 

1. Dumas Malone, ed. n^narv of American Biography, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 

I960), Vol.IV, p.29. 

2 . Fnr yrlopedia of Ppnnsvlvania Biography. (New York: Lewis Historical 

Publishing Company, Inc., 1967), Vol.XXXII, p.4. 

3 Dictionary nf American Biography, p.30. 



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JOHN ARUNAH HARPER 
1839-1920 

John A. Harper was born on Penn St. in Pittsburgh, June 29, 1839. He was the son of Jo 
and Lydia Electa (Melcalf) Harper and nephew of Lecky Harper, Senator of Ohio. John A. 
was educated in the Grigg and McDonald Academy of Pittsburgh, the Western University c 
Pennsylvania (now Univ. of Pittsburgh), and Kenyon College from which he graduated in t 
class of 1860. In the same year, he became employed by the Bank of Pittsburgh National 
Association where he served in various positions for 38 years. His influence in the Pittsburj 
financial circles was counterpart to that of his father; John Harper, president of the Bank i 
Pittsburgh, guided the bank to financial success while John A. Harper, his son, induced tru< 
and strengthened public confidence in the banking system. 

John A. Harper had numerous other business affiliations including being a director 
the Eagle Cotton Mills as well as the Sixth Street Bridge Corporation. Although his 
philanthropies were many, especially prominent was the West Penn Hospital, of which H 
served as President from 1891 until his resignation in 1898. Harper was a member of the Sor c 
the American Revolution, the Western Pennsylvania Historical Society, of which he was 
trustee, Alpha Delta Phi fraternity, and the Duquesne Club. His religion was Episcopal^ 

John A. Harper married Flora Warner Sherburne in Pittsburgh, May 30, 1882. The 
were parents of three children; Alberta born December 17, 1883, Horence born August 2, 18} 
and Lydia Electa born January 1, 1887. John Arunah Harper died December 28, 1920. 



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CURRENT HARPER DESCENDENTS 



1991: 

OLIVER, (Van AkirO-Charlotte Dallas O'Neil 

Edward O'Neil 

Stoddard M. 

George P 
7 Wildwood Rd. 
Katonah, NY 10536 
(914) 232-4996 

O'NEIL, Mr and Mrs Edward (Lydia Irish) 
619 East Drive 
Sewickley, Pa. 15143 
(412) 741-4333 



392 



HENRY HOLDSHIP 
1833-1897 

Henry Holdship, the Western Pennsylvania oil pioneer, was born in Pittsburgh on Oct. 
26, 1833. The son of successful paper manufacturer, George W. Holdship, Henry entered The 
Lawrenceville School in New Jersey after years of studying in Pittsburgh. (Curiously, there is 
no indication that he entered a university). 

After the completion of his studies at Lawrenceville, Henry joined the Pittsburgh bank 
of Palmer, Hanna, and Co. Later, with brother Charles, he left the city to open a small 
depository in Decorah, Iowa. But his brother's death in 1859 precipitated Henry's return to 
Pittsburgh where he became secretary to his cousin, Thomas M. Howe, of the Pittsburgh and 
Boston Mining Co. 

Holdship tired of his service to his cousin, however, and in 1863, he and his brother, 
George, began the pioneer operation of oil fields in Newton, Pa. After Georges*death in 1865, 
Henry joined with his brother-in-law, Lewis Irwin (Henry married Maria Irwin in 1860), to 
form the oil company of Holdship and Irwin. Despite attempted encroachments from corporate 
giant Standard Oil, the new company prospered. By 1879, its output was approximately 5,000 
barrels a week and the firm employed fifty men with a payroll exceeding $2,500. 

After his retirement in 1886, Holdship became an active patron of the arts in 
Pittsburgh. He was one of the incorporators of the Art Society of Pittsburgh and was a founder 
of the Pittsburgh Orchestra. 

Henry Holdship died on May 11, 1897. He was survived by his wife, Maria, and three 
children: Charles Frederick, George Irwin, and Alice Holdship Ware. 

Sources: 

Edwards, Richard P. Industries of Pittsburgh: Trade. Commerce, and Manufacturing. 

Pittsburgh: Richard Edwards, Publisher, 1879, p.86. 
Heming, . History of Pittsburgh and Environs. New York: The American Historical 

Society, Inc., 1922, Vol.V, pp.188-9. 
Jordan, John W. Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography. New York: The Lewis Publishing 

Co., 1915, Vol.V, p.1530. 
The Pittsburgh Bulletin-Index. May 15, 1897, p.19. 



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CURRENT HOLDSHIP DESCENDENTS 



JONES, Mrs. Benjamin F. IV 
11 Main Street 
Stonington, Ct. 06378 
(203) 535-4340 

JONES, Mr. Edward P. 
7025 Claremont Dr., Apt. 304 
San Diego, CA. 92122 

JONES, Mr. Frederick H. 
142 Chestnut St. 
Boston, MA. 02108 
(617) 523-5742 

JONES, Mr. Peter D. 
17 E. 89th St. 
NY, NY 10128 
(212) 876-3030 
(518) 589-5360 

HOLDSHIP, Ms. Margaret M. and Frederica 
Davis Lane, Glen Osborne 
Sewickley, PA. 15146 
(412) 741-4249 



395 



DURBIN HORNE 
1854-1916 

Durbin Home, son of the department store founder Joseph Home, was bom in Pittsburgh 
in July 1854, just five years after the establishment of the retail chain that bore his family's 
name. Educated in local public schools, he then entered the Newell Institute before 
matriculating at Yale University in 1872. 

After his graduation in 1876, Home began to work at his father's store, learning the 
basics of the business before being admitted as a partner in 1882. Along with his father and 
partners A.P. 3urchfield and C.B. Shea (the brother of the elder Home's first wife, Mary 
Elizabeth Shea), Home oversaw the rapid expansion of the store. In 1892, an additional 
building was added to the existing structure located at Penn Avenue. Eleven years later, the 
"East Shore" Annex further increased the capacity of the Home's building. 

Having survived two great fires and a number of challenges from would-be competitors, 
the Home's department store established itself by the turn of the century as a Pittsburgh 
institution. After the business was incorporated as Joseph Home Co., Durbin succeeded his 
father as president, serving in that capacity until 1915. 

Home groomed his half brother, Bernard, as his successor. (Joseph Home remarried 
after the 1862 death of his first wife, Mary Elizabeth Shea). After Durbin's death in 1916, 
Bernard, along with C. Bernard Shea, son of the founder Christian B. Shea, ran the 
corporation, continuing a union between the two families that would last well into the 1940's. 

To this day, Home's remains one of Pittsburgh's leading businesses, testament to the 
leadership and integrity of Joseph and Durbin Home. 

Sources: 

Harper, Frank C. Pittsburgh of Today: Its Resources and People. New York: American 

Historical Society Inc., Vol.V, p.692. 
Jordan, John W. A Century and a Half of Pittsburgh and her People. New York: The Lewis 

Publishing Company, 1908. 
Jordan, John W. Colonial and Revolutionary Families of Pennsylvania. New York: The Lewis 

Publishing Company, 1911, p.1554. 



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CURRENT HORNE DESCENDENTS 



HORNE, Mr. Dwight A. 
90 Wachussett Avenue, Box 426 
Hyannisport, MA. 02647 
(508) 775-0318 

HUMPHREYS, Mrs. Jane M. 
Mt. Vernon Street, Box 172 
Hyannisport, MA. 02647 

HUMPHREYS, Mr. William Y. Ill 
300 Harbour Drive, Apt. 104 A 
Vero Beach, FL. 32963 
(407) 231-9224 

MEAGHER, Mrs. Judith H. 
10248 Vistadale Drive 
Dallas, TX. 75238 
(214) 349-1419 



398 



GEORGE F. HUFF 
1842-1912 

George F. Huff was born July 16, 1842, in Norristown, Pa., the son of George and Carolyn 
Boyer Huff. After attending public schools in Middletown and Altoona Pa., Huff entered the 
car shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad in Altoona. He quickly learned the trade of car 
finisher, and after three years was "highly recommended" to the banking house of William 
Lloyd and Company in Altoona. ^ 

Huff was immediately successful and after only two years, was called upon to establish 
a branch in nearby Ebensburg, Pa. Later, in 1867, he founded the firm of Lloyd, Huff, and Co., 
also known as Greensburg National Bank/ The venture was very ambitious, establishing 
branches in Latrobe, Irwin, Ligonier, and Mt. Pleasant. The panic of 1873, however, wiped out 
the bank, saddling the firm with a number of debts. 

Huff had also been associated with the founding of a number of other banks. In 1871, he 
helped organize Farmer's National Bank of Greensburg, which was reorganized by an act of 
Congress into the Fifth National Bank of Pittsburgh. Huff served as vice-president until his 
resignation in 1876. In 1874, he founded the Greensburg Banking Co., serving as its cashier until 
1887.2 In addition to his banking activities, Huff was also involved with the establishment of 
numerous coal and coke companies, which were consolidated into the Keystone Coal and Coke 
Co., of which he was the president. 

Perhaps Huff's greatest achievement, however, was his political career. Elected a 
delegate to the 1880 Republican Convention in Chicago, Huff was then a member of the 
Pennsylvania State Senate from 1884 to 1888. Subsequently, Huff was elected to Congress as a 
representative of the 21st district in the 52nd, 54th, and 58th-61st Congresses. 3 

Married March 16, 1871 to Henrietta Burrell, Huff was the father to eight children, 
four of whom survived to adulthood Lloyd Burrell, Julian Burrell, Carolyn Burrell, and Burrell 
Richardson. 

Huff died in Washington, D.C on April 18, 1912. 

Sources: 

1. John W. Jordan. Colonial and revolutionary Families of Pennsylvania, (New York: The 

Lewis Publishing Company, 1911). Vol.III, p.1254. 

2. Ibid, p.1255. 

3. Bio graphical Directory of the American Congress, (Washington, D.C: United States 

Printing Office, 1928), p.1126. 



399 



CURTIS C. HUSSEY 
1840- ? 

Curds C. Hussey was born in Pittsburgh on October 23, 1840, the son of Curtis Grubb and 
Rebecca Updegraff Hussey. His father, a successful doctor and businessman, had yet to venture 
into the steel and mining industries that would ultimately make him both wealthy and 
internationally famous. Indeed, as the younger Hussey matured, so did the family's already 
significant financial fortunes. 

After finishing his education in Cleveland, Curtis C, joined his father's firm of C.G. 
Hussey and Company, a manufacturer of sheet metal and brass. Later, he became the chief 
manager of Hussey, Wells, and Company, a related mining business. In the early 1870's, 
Hussey, along with his brother-in-law Edward Binns, founded the firm of Hussey, Binns, and 
Company, a producer of shovels. It was in this capacity, as well as a continued role with 
Hussey, Wells, and Co., that he would remain until his death. 

Married to Harriet Byram in October 1865, Hussey was the father of six children: 
Mabel Hussey Turnbull, Clara Hussey de Villiers, Curtis C, John U., Fred B., and William B., 
who died in infancy. 

A member of only the Duquesne Club, Hussey was quite a private man, and little is 
known of his social activities. 



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CURRENT IRWIN DESCENDENTS 

1991: 

DRAIN, Mr and Mrs. James A. (Culbertson-Elizabeth I. Liggett) 

2727 N. Ocean Blv. 

Gulfstream, Fl. 33483 

(407) 278-5877 

HETHERINGTON, Dr. and Mrs. Arthur F. 3d (Gertrude I. Oliver) 

AnnP.H. 

Elizabeth P.H. 
23 Linden PI. 
Sewickley, Pa. 15143 
(412) 741-8363 

OLIVER, Mr and mrs. David B. 2d (Laura S. Liggett) 
Pink House Rd. 
Sewickley, Pa. 15143 



403 



PHILANDER CHASE KNOX 
1853-1921 

Philander Chase Knox, born in Brownsville, Pa. in 1853, was the embodiment of a 
successful attorney and statesman. 

Knox's father, David, was a banker, and though by no means wealthy, the family 
nevertheless enjoyed social prominence. In 1872, Knox graduated from Mt. Union College (known 
today as West Virginia University) and immediately undertook a rigorous legal training. After 
passing the Pennsylvania Bar in 1875 and briefly serving as District Attorney for Western 
Pennsylvania, he helped found in 1877 with associate James Reed, the Pittsburgh firm that 
bore their names. 

Three years later, Philander Knox married Lillie Smith, the daughter of a local steel 
executive. The marriage augmented Knox's already close relationship with area business 
interests, and Knox and Reed flourished throughout the period. 

In 1897, Knox was elected president of the Pennsylvania Bar Association. Two years 
later, President William McKinley offered the position of United States Attorney General. 
Because he was deeply immersed in the formation of the Carnegie Steel Company, however, 
Knox declined the appointment. But in 1901, he agreed to become Attorney General, serving 
until the spring of 1904. Subsequently, he was appointed by Pa. Governor Samuel W. 
Pennypaker to fill the vacant position of U.S. Senator and was re-elected to a six year term in 
Nov. 1904. In 1909, Knox resigned from the Senate to become Secretary of State under President 
William Taft. There, Knox wielded considerable power, not only formulating the "dollar 
diplomacy" of the era, but in cabinet selections as well. He was instrumental in the 
appointment of Pittsburgh banker Andrew Mellon as Secretary of the Treasury who, with 
Knox, helped dictate a decidedly pro-business national agenda. In 1913, Knox returned to his 
Pittsburgh law practice, only to return to the Senate in 1916. There he fought resolutely against 
the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, ultimately forcing a separate peace settlement 
with Austria and Germany. Just three months after this significant victory, Knox suddenly fell 
ill and died in Oct. 1921, ending a brilliant public and private career. 



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CURRENT KNOX DESCENDENTS 



TINDLE, Mr. James K. 
74 Pasture Lane, Apt. 310 
Bryn Mawr, PA. 19010 

TINDLE, Mr. Robert McGuire 
Ryan Road 
Unionville, Pa. 19375 
(215) 869-9245 

1988: 

TINDLE, Mr. Robert McGuire III 
419 Stafford Avenue 
Wayne, Pa. 19087 



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CURRENT LAWRENCE DESCENDENTS 



MILLER, Mrs. Elizabeth Schaff 
N.4 Heritage Cove, 85 River Drive 
Essex, Ct. 06426 

SCHAFF, Mr. Walter 
2326 Selma Avenue 
Youngtown, OH. 44504 
(216) 746-2316 

MILLER, Mr. Danforth III 
Copake, NY 12516 



408 



JOHN G.A. LEISHMAN 
1857-1924 

Of all the Pittsburgh businessmen prominent during the late nineteenth and early 
twentieth centuries, perhaps none shared a story as remarkable as John G.A. Leishman. Born 
March 28, 1857, Leishman and his sister Martha were placed in the Protestant Orphan Asylum 
outside of Pittsburgh in 1865 after their mother was unable to cope with her husband's death. 
Though Martha quickly found a home, her brother remained in the orphanage until 1869 when 
his mother returned to bring him to the city to begin work. 

After working twelve years at the steel manufacturer Schoenberger and Co., Leishman 
started his own furnace, only to abandon the venture to form Leishman and Snyder, an iron and 
steel brokerage. It was through this company that Leishman became an associate of Andrew 
Carnegie, the Pittsburgh steel Magnate. In 1886, at Carnegie's request, he dissolved Leishman 
and Snyder to become, at 29, the vice-president of Carnegie Brothers, Limited. Later, when the 
business was consolidated into the Carnegie Steel Company, Leishman ascended to the 
presidency. 

In June 1897, President McKinley appointed Leishman "envoy extraordinaire and 
minister plenipotentiary" to Switzerland, beginning fifteen years of continuous national 
service. In 1900, he became minister to Turkey and was appointed the first U.S. ambassador to 
Turkey in 1906. Later, Leishman was also ambassador to Italy and Germany before leaving 
government service in 1913. 

Leishman's daughters captured the fancy of Pittsburghers during this period with their 
marriages to European royalty. His elder daughter Martha wed Count Louis de Contaut Brion of 
France, her sister Nancy was betrothed in 1910 to an Austrian, Karl, Duke of Croy. 

After a remarkable career in both business and government, Leishman died on March 27, 
1924. His legacy was one of hard work and success - a Dickensian fairy-tale come true. 

Sources: 

Nevin, Adelaide M., The Social Mirror. Pittsburgh: T.W. Nevin Company, 1888. 

Malone, Dumas, ed. Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 

1961, Vol.VI, p.1332. 
The Pittsburgh Bulletin-Index. Nov. 13, 1913, p.10. 
The Pittsburgh Bulletin-Index. Nov. 29, 1913, p.10. 



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JESSE H. LIPPINCOTT 
1842-1894 

Jesse H. Lippincott was born February 18, 1842 at Mt. Pleasant, Westmoreland County. 
He was the son of the merchant Joseph H. and Eliza (Strickler) Lippincott. His family 
connection is large; his great-great-great grandparents were Richard and Abigail Lippincott 
from England and Richard was a descendent in the twelfth generation from Robert de 
Lughencott who in the reign of Henry II held the Manor of Hughcott, Devonshire. The family 
was granted 8 coats of arms form the College of Heralds. 

Jesse H. enlisted in the Civil War and served three years in the Twenty-eighth 
regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, after which he returned to Pittsburgh and entered the 
grocery business with a store at the corner of Smithfield Street and Second Avenue. A few 
/ears later, he began the Rochester Tumbler Company, which grew to be the largest tumbler 
Ttanufacturer in the world. He was one of the original stockholders in the Bell Telephone 
Zompany, Hostetter Coke Company, and the Wheeling and Bridgewater Gas Company. Also, 
ne held the positions of President of the Braddock National Bank, one of the directors of the 
"ifth National Bank of Pittsburgh and the First National Bank of Rochester. 

In addition, Jesse H. settled the estate of C.P.Markle & Sons valued at $1,000,000, and 
vas the founder of the Banner Baking Powder Company. He purchased the Edison 
'honograph Company and spent the rest of his lives effort to bring the phonograph, which 
vas before its time, into popular use: Jesse H. brought the first phonograph to Pittsburgh. It 
vas while in this endeavor that his health began to fail him and he was advised by 
ihysicians to live a quieter life. He chose to do so in Newton Center, Ma. 

Jesse H. was married and had three children. He was a member of the Fourth Avenue 
Japtist Church of Pittsburgh, where for several years he was trustee and treasurer. Jesse H. 
.ippincott died in Newton Center, Ma. on April 18, 1894 of brain paralysis. Rev. Lemuel C. 
Jarnes, the pastor of Fourth Avenue Baptist Church, conducted the funeral in Newton Center, 
esse H. was buried in Homewood Cemetery in Pittsburgh. 



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412 



WALTER LOWRIE MCCLINTOCK 
1841-1911 

Walter Lowrie McClintock was born June 18, 1841, the second son of Washington and 
Eliza Thompson McClintock. Receiving his secondary education at Phillips Andover, 
McClintock entered Yale University in the late 1850's. 

At the beginning of the Civil War, however, McClintock left Yale to enlist in 
Pittsburgh's "City Guards," a privately equipped and uniformed militia. Later, the group was 
amalgamated into Company K, 12th Regiment of the Pennsylvania Volunteers of the Union 
Army. Despite his involvement in the war, McClintock was able to complete his studies at 
Yale and received his B.A. in 1862. 

After studying a year at Columbia University Law School, McClintock abandoned the 
legal field and entered his brother's carpet business, Oliver McClintock and Company, in 
1864. In that same year, he married Mary Clement Garrison, daughter of prominent 
businessman Abraham Garrison. This union resulted in McClintock becoming a director of the 
Abraham Garrison Foundry as well as a member of the board for the Sake Deposit and Trust 
Company of Pittsburgh. It was in these capacities in addition to those at Oliver McClintock 
and Company, that Walter would serve until his death in 1911. 

Active in philanthropy and the city's social scene, Walter, by the time of his death, 
was one of Pittsburgh's best loved citizens. As the Pittsburgh Bulletin eulogized in 1911, 
McClintock's extended illness "served to bring out.. .the nobler and Christ-like qualities of his 
soul." Survived by his wife and sons, Clarence Oliver and A. Garrison, McClintock left behind 
a legacy of generosity and success. 

Sources: 

Godcharles, Frederick A. Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography. New York: Lewis 

Publishing Company, 1945, Vol.XXV, pp.488-493. 
Nevin, Adelaide M. The Social Mirror. Pittsburgh: T.W. Nevin Company, 1988. 
The Pittsburgh Bulletin-Index. March 11, 1911, p.4. 



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MAXWELL KENNEDY MOORHEAD 
1832-1897 

Maxwell K. Moorhead was born September 6, 1832 in Huntington, Pa. to Gen. and Mrs. 
James Kennedy Moorhead. The family moved to Pittsburgh in 1836. 

Maxwell K. studied at Western University and afterward became employed with 
Philip and Henry Graff, old time merchants of the city. In 1850, he became assistant in his 
fathers work of constructing the Southfork reservoir. Subsequently, he became involved in 
important railroad contracts in the eastern Pennsylvania. He lived in Williamsport, where he 
met Mary Heberton whom he married in 1855. 

They returned to Pittsburgh and Maxwell K., in 1856, became a partner with Dewees 
Wood and George F. McCleane in the iron business firm of Wood, Moorhead and Company in 
McKeesport. In 1859, the business, then called Moorhead and Company, moved to Soho where 
Soho blast furnace, sheet and rolling mills, and galvinizing works were built. Maxwell K. 
continued in active business until 1894 when Moorhead and Company became the property of 
Pittsburgh Steel and Iron Manufacturers. 

In addition, Maxwell K. was involved in other businesses in the city. At the death of 
his father, who was foremost in slackwatering the Mononghela, Maxwell K. became president 
of the Mononghela Navigation Company, a post he held until his death. He was also the 
director of Pittsburgh Insurance Company and Exchange National Bank. In the Civil War, he 
quartermaster of the Thirteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

Maxwell Kennedy and Mary (Herberton) Moorhead had one child, a daughter, who 
died around 1882 and two grandchildren; William Halsey. Moore head and Mrs. Bruce (Marie 
H.) Millard. Maxwell K. died January 13, 1897. 



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CURRENT MOORHEAD DESCENDENTS 

1991: 

MOORHEAD, Mr and Mrs Rodman W. (Alice B. Kerr) 

55 E. 66 St. 

SJY, NY 10021 

(212) 861-1567 

'Buttonwood Farm" 

RD2 

West Grove, Pa. 19390 

.215) 869-2737 

ERODES, Mrs. W. Glenn (Jean Henninger) 

David G French 

John M. French 
5125 Fifth Ave. 
5 gh., Pa. 15232 
412) 621-8580 



984: 



iRODES, Dr and Mrs Charles H. (Ellen J. McCaslin) 
:25 Locust St. 
5 gh., Pa. 15218 
412) 241-7571 



417 



WILLIAM MULLINS 
1824-1893 

William Mullins was born in Ireland, near Dublin, in 1824. he studied civil engineering 
at Trinity College in Ireland and obtained an excellent reputation in Ireland as a draftsman. He 
achieved the position of Chief Civil Engineer of Public Works. 

In 1848, Mullins came to America and became employed as civil engineer of the Genesse 
Valley Canal where he remained for a while. Then he moved to Steubenville, Ohio where he 
became involved in railroad contracting on the old Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad. There 
he met and married Lucy Bustard in 1857. 

During the Civil War, Mullins became associated with the Pennsylvania Railroad and 
was of great help to the government in transporting troops and supplies. Around 1863, he was 
promoted to purchasing agent of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and lived in Allegheny 
City in Pittsburgh. He remained in that position until his death. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mullins had three children; Annie Esther born March 1858, William James 
born August 21, 1860, Edwin Stanton born March 13, 1869. William Mullins was a patron of the 
fines arts and a scholarly man who collected a large library. He died August 19, 1893 in Cresson, 
where he was taken to take fresh mountain air in hopes of recovery, due to a tumor in his 
stomach. 



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CURRENT MULLINS DECENDENTS 

1991: 

RATHER, Margaret B. (Margaret J. Bakewell) 

3853 Del Monte St. 

Houston, Tx. 77019 

(713) NA2-5808 

BAKEWELL, Dorothy Jennings (Strong-Kelly-Stent-Dorothy J. Bakewell) 
1725 Kearny St. 
SF, Ca. 94133 
(415) 398-1670 

SIMMONS, Mr and Mrs Cheston (Bakewell-Emily A. Ames) 

Pickering House 

RD2 

Phoenixville, Pa. 19460 

BAKEWELL, Jenifer J. 

76 Strawberry Lane 

Yarmouth Port, Ma. 02675 

1984: 

RATHER, Mr. Roy R. 
2120 Pelham St. 
Houston Tx. 77019 
"Nassau Plantation" 
Round Top, Tx. 78954 



420 



ROBERT PITCAIRN 
1836-1909 

Robert Pitcairn was born May 6, 1836 in Johnstone, Scotland, the son of parents who had only 
recently returned from the United States. Ten years later they returned to the U.S., and young Robert 
finished his rudimentary education in local public schools. In 1850, after Andrew Carnegie had 
recommended Pitcairn to his bosses at the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company, Pitcairn was hired as 
i messenger in the Pittsburgh office. He studied the business carefully, and was quickly promoted to be 
in operator. 

In the early 1850's, Pitcairn was transferred to Holidaysburg, Pa. to serve as a ticket agent and 
elegraph operator for the Pennsylvania Railroad. 1 When the line from the middle part of the state 
vas completed, Pitcairn was transferred to the Altoona, Pa. division. He remained there as 
luperintendent of the middle division until 1861, with the exception of 1859, when he was transferred to 
7 ort Wayne, In. to supervise the completion of the line there. 

In the early 1860's, when the Pennsylvania Railroad was divided into three, rather than four as 
t had previously been, the position of Transportation Secretary was created for Pitcairn. In addition, 
he Civil War taxed him as well. He was responsible for for the supervision of troop movements for the 
Jnion Army, aside from his normal responsibilities with the company. 

Finally, in 1865, Pitcairn rose to his ultimate dream; the superintendent of the Pittsburgh 
)ivision. There he would remain until his death in 1909. An active member of the Pittsburgh business 
Dmmunity, Pitcairn held a number of significant positions. He was a director of the following 
Dmpanies: The Masonic Bank, The Citizens National Bank of Pittsburgh, First National Bank of 
reensburg, The American Surety Company, and The Philadelphia Gas Company. 2 

Married to Elizabeth Rigg, Pitcairn was the father to four children: Robert jr., Agnes L., Lillian, 
i id Susie. 



) )urces: 

• The Biographical Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania of the Nineteenth Century. 

Philadelphia: Galaxy Publishing Co., 1874, p.556. 
• Encyclopedia of Contemporary Biography of Pennsylvania. New York: Atlantic 



Publishing and Engraving Company, 1889, Vol.1, p.181. 
] ie Pittsburgh Bulletin. July 31, 1903. 
' illiamson, Leland M., et al. Prominent and Progressive Pennsylvanians of the Nineteenth Century. 

Philadelphia: The Record Publishing Company, 1898. 



421 



DR. DAVID NEVIN RANKIN 
1834-1901 

Dr. David Nevin Rankin, born in Shippensburg, Pa. , October 27, 1834, was the second 
son of Dr. William and Caroline (Nevin) Rankin. Their other children were as follows; 
Joseph P., Mrs. George B. Johnston, Mrs. Mary A. Moody, Mrs. J. A. McCune, Mrs. John P. Miller, 
and Mrs. Robert A. Hays. 

Dr. Rankin received his early education at Newville. At the age of seventeen, he took 
interest in the field of medicine after studying with his father. David N. took a degree in 
medicine from the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia from which he graduated in 
1854. After school, Rankin went into practice with his father until the outbreak of the Civil 
War. During this time he contracted a cold which caused several attacks of hemorrhaging of 
the lungs. Due to his impaired physical condition caused by this illness, Rankin could not 
enter the regular army as Assistant Surgeon, but he received a commission as a acting assistant 
surgeon in the United States Army. While in this post, he helped to open many Army 
hospitals. He was stationed first at Camp Curtin in Harrisburg, then in charge of Douglas and 
Epiphany Church Hospital in Washington, D.C., and at the end of the war, he was put in 
charge of the West Penn Hospital in Pittsburgh. In 1864, Rankin was appointed as attending 
surgeon at the Western penitentiary where he remained for thirty-six years. 

Rankin was a member of many organizations including; the State and Allegheny 
County Medical Societies for his entire professional practice, Laryngological Association, the 
Masonic fraternity for over sixty years, the Junior Order United American Mechanics, Abe 
Patterson Post No. 88, G.A.R., the United Workmen, the American Prison Association, and the 
North Presbyterian Church. Also, in 1890, he was a delegate to the International Medical 
Convention, in Berlin. 

After the Civil War, David Nevin Rankin married Katherine Irwin, daughter of 
Henry Irwin, Esq. of Allegheny City. They also resided in Allegheny where they together 
had three children; Henry Irwin, Elizabeth, and Edith Nevin. 

David Nevin Rankin died on January 1, 1901 due to lung trouble. 



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CURRENT RANKIN DESCENDENTS 

1991: 

CHILDS, Mr and Mrs Richard H.L. (Lora G. Barzin) 

Lisa C. 
365 Peachtree Battle Ave. NW 
Atlanta, Ga. 30305 
(404) 355-9718 

CAMPBELL, Mr and Mrs Edmund C. (Ward-Gordon-Campbell-Winifred E. Miller) 

Miss Katharine G. Gordon 
6259 N 73 way 
Scottsdale Az. 85250 
(602) 991-7715 

207 Kensington Court, Foxhall 
Pgh, Pa. 15238 
(412) 963-6969 

SYMINGTON, Mr J.Fife 
3717 Butler Rd. 
GlyndonMd 21071 
(301) 833-3632 

FRICK, Mr and Mrs Henry Clay 2d ( du Pont-Emily G. Troth) 

Richard S, du Pont 

David W. du Pont 
Box 178 

Closter Dock Rd. 
Alpine, NJ 07620 
(201) 758-2258 

BLANCHARD, Mr Peter P. 

Peter P. jr 
274 Old Short Hills Rd. 
Short Hills NJ 07078 
(201) 376-4696 



424 



JAMES HAY REED 
1853-1927 

James Hay Reed, the son of Joseph and Eliza Hay Reed, was born September 10, 1853 
i Allegheny, Pa. (now a part of Pittsburgh). Educated at public schools, he later 
latriculated at Western University of Pennsylvania, graduating in 1872. Reed then studied 
w in the office of his uncle David, the U.S. District Attorney for Pittsburgh. After passing 
ie bar in 1875, he remained there until his uncle's death in 1877. 

In that year, Reed, along with associate Philander Chase Knox, founded the firm of 
nox and Reed, which immediately prospered. In 1891, Reed was appointed Federal District 
i dge for Western Pennsylvania by the then-President William McKinley. After Knox left 
I e firm for a career in government service, the office was reorganized in 1901 as Reed, Smith, 
iaw, and Beal, with Reed as its senior partner. 

In addition to his legal career, Reed was involved heavily in business. He helped 
ganize U.S. Steel, and was a member of its board of directors for twenty years. He was also 
e president of both the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad and Union Railway Company, as 
2ll as the Reliance Insurance Company of Pittsburgh. Perhaps Reed's most significant 
hievement, however, was his role in settling the bitter dispute between Andrew Carnegie 
d Henry Clay Frick in the late 1890's. 2 

Devoted to philanthropy, Reed held a number of charitable positions. He 
tablished the Pittsburgh Skin and Cancer Foundation, and was a director of the Western 
nnsylvania Hospital. He was also a board member and treasurer of Carnegie Technical 
" stitute and the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission, serving in those positions until his death 
June 17, 1927. 

Married to Katharine J. Aiken in June 1878, Reed was the father of four children: 
i >eph H., David A., James H. jr., and Mrs. Katherine Frazer. 

: urces: 

Dunas Malone, ed. Dictionary of American Biography, (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 
1935), Vol.VIII, p.449. 

. The Story of Pittsburgh and Vicinity, (Pittsburgh, Pa.: Pittsburgh Gazette 

Times, 1908), p.87. 



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JAMES MARTINUS SCHOONMAKER 
1842-1927 

James Martinus Schoonmaker, the oldest of nine, was born June 30, 1842 in Allegheny to James 
:. and Mary (Stockton) Schoonmaker. James M. attended Western University which he left at the 
! utbreak of the Civil War to enlist as a private in the Army of the Potomac. In November 1862, James 
1 1, received a commission as colonel of the 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry. In 1864, he was again 
:romoted to command the First Brigade, First Cavalry Division of the Army of the Shenandoah and 
>mained in that position until the end of the war. 

After the war, although still active in military affairs such as being a member of the board of 
lanagers of the Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall, he engaged in private business. At first, he was 
j ivolved in mining and shipping of coal, but in 1872, when he married Alice W. Brown, he went into 
ie coke business with her father William H. Brown. After Browns death, James M. inherited the 
onnellsville coke branch. Also, he was the chairman of the Redstone Coke Company and the 
i orewood Coke Company and owned Alice Mines. He sold his coke business to the H.C. Frick Coke 
Dmpany. 

Subsequently, James M. entered into banking and the railroad business. He and a few other 
isinessmen organized the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad Company. In 1877, he was elected as a 
ember of the board of directors and served in that position for fifty years culminating in being 
3Cted chairman of the board in 1918, a position he held up until his death. In the banking business, 
mes M. was vice-president and a director of the Union Trust Company of Pittsburgh, a director of 
ellon National Bank, and Union Savings Bank. 

In addition, James M. Schoonmaker was involved in other organizations. He was president of 
i Western Pennsylvania Association for the Blind, and a member of the Pittsburgh Athletic 
sociation, Pittsburgh Golf Club, Duquesne Club, and the Church of toe Ascension of Pittsburgh and 
rious others groups. 

Alice W. (Brown) Schoonmaker and James M. had one son, William H. Alice died in 1881 and 
nes M. remarried Rebekah Cook. Together they had two children; Gretchen Vandervoort and James 
irtinus jr. 

James Martinus Schoonmaker died October 11, 1927 following an operation on his appendix. 



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CURRENT SCHOONMAKER DESCENDENTS 



^91: 

li ZHOONMAKER, James M. 2d 
[ )55 Douglas Rd. 
. iami Fl. 33133 
'. 05) 667-6626 



429 



JAMES ERNEST SCHWARTZ 
1843-1900 

James Ernest Schwartz was born in 1843 in Allegheny. He was the son of Jacob L. 
Schwartz, a leading businessman of that era in the twin cities and a member of the lead 
manufacturing firm of Fahnstock, Schwartz, and Hazlett. James E. acquired his business 
training from his father and worked with him in the lead business. After Jacob L.'s death, 
James E. dissolved his father firm and went into the lead business himself. 

At the time of his death, James E. Schwartz was president of the Pennsylvania 
Smelting Company of Utah and Pennsylvania Lead Company of Pittsburgh. For a while, also, 
he was a director of the Bank of Pittsburgh. His religion was Presbyterian and he was a 
member of the Third Presbyterian Church from early on in his life. He was also a member of 
the Duquesne Club. 

James E. fought in the Civil War as a Lieutenant in the Twenty-second United States 
Infantry and later in the war he was transferred to the famous Knap's Battery. In the end of 
the war, he served in the Subsistence Committee to help care for his fellow soldiers. Later in 
his life, he was a well regarded member of the Loyal Legion and the Society of the Army of 
the Potomac. 

In 1868, James E. married Emma Nicholson and they had two sons; Frank Nicholson 
and John Loeser Schwartz. James Ernest Schwartz died at Hotel Bellevue in Dresden, 
Germany on May 16, 1900. He had gone to Germany in November on the advise of his 
physicians due to failing health which had begun a year before. Around 1921 his two sons and 
around 1930 his wife, for unknown reasons, changed their last name to Black. 



430 



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CALVIN WELLS 
1827-1909 

Calvin Wells was born in Genesee County, N.Y. on December 26, 1827 to Mr. and Mrs. Calvin 
/Veils, Sr. He received a common public school education in the county of his birth, but had always 
wanted a better education than he had been given. In 1847, Calvin Wells wrote his brother, Rev. 
Samuel Taggart Wells about this subject who responded warmly and invited Calvin to move to 
'ittsburgh to live with him and attend the Western University. Calvin Wells did so and remained 
here until 1849 after which he worked in the dry goods store of Benjamin Glyde. 

In 1850, Wells came into contact with Dr. C.G. Hussey and two years later began a pork and 
>acon business with him of the name Hussey and Wells. This business continued until 1859 when it 
>ecame called Hussey, Wells and Co. and became specialized in steel manufacturing . Wells was 
oon made manager, then sent east to learn all he could about steel, and upon his return he 
ompletely sunk himself into the business which grew rapidly as a world competitor. In 1876, he 
old his share of the firm and engaged in the railway elliptic spring business owning half of the 
irm of A French and Co. The next year, he joined in the purchasing of the Philadelphia Press, 
n 1878, he was chosen as president and treasurer of the Pittsburgh Forge and Iron Company of which 
>ositions he held for some time. 

Calvin Wells also engaged in other business interests including being president and treasurer 
< f the Illinois Zinc Company, a director of the Exchange National Bank of Pittsburgh and 
Consolidated Gas Company, and associated with the Chartiers Natural Gas Company. He was a 
"tember and trustee of the Third Presbyterian Church. 

In 1854, Calvin Wells married Annie Glyde, daughter of Benjamin Glyde. She died in 1859 
i nd in 1861 he was remarried to Mary (Glyde) Chaffey. To them were born four children; a son who 
i ied at one year, Mary C, Benjamin Glyde, and Anna. 

After working a full day, Calvin Wells died of sudden heart failure, on August 2, 1909, in his home on 
I ie Northside. 



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CURRENT WELLS DESCENDENTS 



1991: 

BOESEL, Mr and Mrs Kenneth S. (Louise D. Marsh) 

4609 Bayard St. 

Pgh. Pa. 15213 

(412) 683-6834 

BOESEL, Mr and Mrs Peter M. (Minnette C. Bickel) 
7811 Meadowvale Drive 
Houston Tx 77063 
(713) 781-5814 

ERVING, Mr. Rowland 

Rowland jr 
137 Springhouse Lane 
Pgh., Pa 15238 
(412) 963-1770 



435 



APPENDIX A.3. PROPERTY TRANSACTIONS 

Purchases by South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club, 1880 - 1887 



Deed, John Reilly, et ux, to South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. 
3/15/1880, Cambria County Deed Book 4: 319-322. 
500 acres, 54 perches; $2,000 

Deed, Jacob Wendell to South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. 

9/20/1880, recorded 3/17/1881, Cambria County Deed Book 44: 830-2. 
49 acres; $1,107.34 

Deed, Christian Moyer to South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. 
12/23/1881, Cambria County Deed Book 46: 461-463. 
3 acres, 143 perches; $70.23 

Deed, Gabriel Donmyer, et ux, to South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. 

7/12/1882, recorded 8/4/1882, Cambria County Deed Book 47: 620-622. 

3 acres, 118 perches (part of lake); $373.75 

Deed, Joseph Varner, et ux, to South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. 

7/21/1882, recorded 8/4/1882, Cambria County Deed Book 47: 622-623. 
31 perches (part of lake); $7.75 

Deed, Samuel Miller and Sarah Miller to South Fork Fishing and Hunting 
Club. 

4/16/1884, recorded 4/23/1884, Cambria County Deed Book 52: 50. 
10 acres, 94 perches; $370.56 

Deed, George Fisher and Wife to South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. 

8/19/1885, recorded 9/11/1885, Cambria County Deed Book 54: 576. 
.57 acres; $20. 

Deed, Henry Burnett and Wife to South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. 
3/4/1886, Cambria County Deed Book 56: 82. 
Strip of ground 25 feet wide; $25. 

Deed, Elias J. Unger et ux to South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. 
1/20/1887, Cambria County Deed Book 57: 409-411. 

4 acres, 128 perches (part of lake); $192. 



437 



Land Leases 

Articles of Agreement, South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club with D.W.C. 
Bidwell. 

1/23/1888, Cambria County Deed Book 229: 454. 
99-year lease on Lot 18; $1. 

Articles of Agreement, South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club with P. C. 
Knox. 

1/14/1888, recorded 8/18/1911, Cambria County Deed Book 234: 468. 
99-year lease on Lot 16; $1. 



Mortgage and Foreclosure, 1888 - 1891 

Mortgage, South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club to Henry Holdship and Ben 
Thaw. 

5/l/1889,Cambria County Mortgage Book 14: 268-279. 
$36,000(?) 

Foreclosure, 1891. 

Note: This document is referred to in several other deeds and dated as 
9/9/1891, but the paperwork has not been located. 



Sales by South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club, 1891 - 1903 

Deed, South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club by Sheriff to E. B. Alsip, Trustee. 
Recorded 6/26/1901, Cambria County Deed Book 137: 61-66. 
9 parcels totalling 624 acres, 120 perches: 

1. 10 acres, 94 perches (Miller parcel) 

2. land between above parcel and South Fork Fishing and Hunting 
Club 

3. .57 acres (Fisher parcel) 

4. 31 perches (Varner parcel) 

5. 49 acres (Wendell parcel) 

6. 3 acres, 118 perches (Donmyer parcel) 

7. 25 foot strip (Burtnett parcel) 

8. 3 acres, 143 perches (Mover parcel) 

9. 500 acres, 54 perches (Reilly parcel) 

Deed, by Sheriff Elmer E. Davis to E. B. Alsop. 

6/11/1902 (intended to be recorded, according to 152:303, 2/17/1903.) 

Deed, Maria Holdship et al to C. F. Holdship. 

12/24/1902, recorded 2/24/1903, Cambria County Deed Book 147: 622 
-623. 



438 



Deed, Charles J. Clark's Executors to E. B. Alsop. 

12/26/1902, recorded 2 /24/1903, Cambria County Deed Book 155: 
119-120. 
All interests in land conveyed by Sheriff Stineman to Alsop, 9/9/1891. 

Deed, Women's Industrial Exchange to E. B. Alsop. 

1/28/1903, recorded 2/24/1903, Cambria County Deed Book U7: 620 

-622. 

All interests in land conveyed by Sheriff Stineman to Alsop, 9/9/1891. 

Deed, Harriet A. Hussey et al to E. B. Alsop. 

2/20/1903, recorded 2/24/1903, Cambria County Deed Book 152: 302. 
All interest of C. Curtiss Hussey; $1 . 



Sales by Subsequent Owners, 1903 - 1907 

Deed, E. B. Alsop et al (John A. Harper and Flora S. Harper, J. H. Reed & Kate 

J. Reed, C. F. Holdship, Hattie L. Catlett, J. S. McCord & Margaret P. 

McCord, Lewis Irwin & Emma A. Irwin) to George M. Harshberger. 

2/17/1903, recorded 2/24/1903, Cambria County Deed Book U7: 624 

-631. 

Same 9 parcels totalling 624 acres, 120 perches listed above. 

Lists outstanding bond holders at time of mortgage foreclosure in 1891: 
Charles J. Clark, Henry Holdship, C. C. Hussey, John A. Harper, Lewis 

Irwin, Honorable J. H. Reed, Miss Ann Peterson, and Women's 

Industrial Exchange of Pittsburg and Allegheny City; and James S. 

McCord of Philadelphia. 

Deed, E. B. Alsop and Wife to George M. Harshberger. 

2/17/1903, recorded 2/24/1903, Cambria County Deed Book 152: 303. 

49 acres plus "a number of cottages, houses, etc."; $363.38 

"Saving, excepting and reserving therefrom all right, title, and interest 

which may inhere to any and all lots upon which cottages or other 

buildings have been erected by virtue of leases cr permits to build 

given by the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club to members 

thereof." 

Deed, George M. Harshberger et ux to George M. Wertz. 

1/9/1907, recorded 1/14/1907, Cambria County Deed Book 195: 180 

-185. 

Same 9 parcels as in 147: 624. 

Deed, George M. Harshberger et ux to George M. Wertz. 

5/15/1907, Cambria County Deed Book 201: 253 - 253b. 
Same parcel as 152-303. Property conveyed by Commissioners to 
grantor by deed of 2/2/1903 as property of Jesse Lippencott and J. M. 
Brown; and by Treasurer to grantor by deed of 12/1/1902 to grantor as 

439 



property of Louis Irwin, Catharine Rankin, J. J. Lawrence, M. B. 
Suydam, Calvin Wells, H. A. Hussey, and John Rorabaugh (intended 
to be recorded forthwith) and their rights in property as described in 
152-303. 



Subdivision, 1907 - 1911 

Land apparently parcelled and sold by George M. Wertz: 
+ 30 acres to Sechler in 1907 
+ 31 acres to Maryland Coal in 1907 
+ 382 acres to Wilmore Coal in 1911 
About 300 acres are unaccounted for. 



Clubhouse, 1907 - present 

1920 John L. Sechler lost to Title Trust 

Deed, Sheriff Roscoe C. Custer to Title Trust and Guarantee 
Company of Johnstown. 
12/11/1920, Cambria County Deed Book 183: 641. 

Deed, Title Trust and Guarantee Company of Johnstown to James W. 
Cruikshank, Jr. 
8/8/1921, Cambria County Deed Book 339: 655. 

Deed, James W. Cruikshank, Jr. et ux to Anne Cruikshank et al. 
1/26/1938, Cambria County Deed Book 481: 4. 

Deed, Janet Cruikshank Hoffman et al to Albert Clement and Lucy Clement. 
3/29/1950, Cambria County Deed Book 712: 731. 

Deed, Albert Clement and Lucy Clement to Francis Poldiak and Clara Poldiak. 
1/28/1958, Cambria County Deed Book 708: 440. 

Deed, Michael Poldiak et ux to Stanley J. Pinkas and Stella A. Pinkas. 
12/26/1961, Cambria County Deed Book 762: 627. 

Deed, to George N. Kercic. 

6/2/1972, Cambria County Deed Book 936: 7. 

Deed, to Allan J. Curtis, 

Pauline M. Curtis et al. 

5/26/1984, Cambria County Deed Book 1130: 441. 



440 



Brown Cottage, 1907 - present 

Deed, Maryland Coal Company to Wilmore Coal Company. 
12/21/1933, Cambria County Deed Book 498: 626. 

Deed, Wilmore Coal Company to Berwind White Coal Mining Company. 
1/10/1955, Cambria County Deed Book 651: 843. 

Deed, Berwind White Coal Mining Company to Clarence & Margaret Singer. 
6/21/1955, Cambria County Deed Book 658: 743. 

Deed, Clarence and Margaret Singer to Michael P. Zubal. 
9/13/1979, Cambria County Deed Book 1057: 116. 

Deed, Michael P. Zubal to Winston Corporation. 

5/23/1985, Cambria County Deed Book 1150: 220. 

Deed, Winston Corporation to The 1889 South Fork Fishing and Hunting 
Club Historical Preservation Society. 
7/16/1991, Cambria County Deed Book 1254: 49. 

Moorhead Cottage, 1907 - present 

Deed, Maryland Coal Company to Wilmore Coal Company. 
12/21/1933, Cambria County Deed Book 498: 626. 

Deed, Wilmore Coal Company to Berwind White Coal Mining Company. 
1/10/1955, Cambria County Deed Book 651: 843. 

Deed, Berwind White Coal Mining Company to Agnes Patterson and Robert 
Patterson (she died 12/27/1962). 
5/16/1955, Cambria County Deed Book 658: 29. 

Deed, Robert Patterson to Richard William Walters & Gloria Maxine Walters. 
8/15/1965, Cambria County Deed Book 864: 235. 

Deed, Joseph P. Roberts, Joseph B. Gorman, Raymond B. Johnson, County 
Commissioners, to Gloria Walters. 
1/16/1967, Cambria County Deed Book 833: 80. 

Deed, Sheriff to Mary D. Corbett. 

7/24/1970, Cambria County Deed Book 911: 80. 

Deed, Mary D. Corbett to Winston Corporation. 

1/6/1986, Cambria County Deed Book 1163: 682. 



441 



Deed, Winston Corporation to The 1889 South Fork Fishing and Hunting 
Club Historical Preservation Society. 
5/11/1990, Cambria County Deed Book 1236: 155. 



442 



PENDIX A.4. ORAL HISTORY RESOURCES 



lyn Miller Brunberg 
467-7309 



i. Ray Hayman 
11, #417, Kreslo 
Michael, PA 15951 
I) 495-5808 



it Cruikshank Hoffman 
'■i Thomas Avenue 
cnstown, PA 
I •) 536-3725 



'I Knudsen 
I) 266-5525 



/. and Mrs. Harry Patterson 
9: ,) 776-0306 



)< line Singer 
1 ) 456-0620 



nn Singer Slanoc 
1 econd Street 
mfeld, PA 15956 

8 ) 495-5973 

M )drow Wingard 
'( W. Campus 
I idsville, PA 15928 
8' ) 479-4222 



443 



APPENDIX A.5. 



MEMBERSHIP LISTS 



The following two lists identify men believed to have belonged to the South Fork Fishing 
and Hunting Club. The first list of sixty was handwritten in the final pages of the Guest 
Register (126 - 127), now located in the Johnstown Flood Museum Archives. The second 
list of sixty-one was published in the Tribune after the flood. Only thirty-eight names 
appear on both lists. Neither list has been documented as a totally reliable source. 

Guest Register, c.1886 



B. F. Ruff 

C. C. Hussey 
H. Hartley 
Jno. D. Hunt 
H. Holdship 
M. B. Suydam 
J. J. Lawrence 

C. B. Shea 
Jno. B. Jackson 
O. McClintock 
W. L. McClintock 
F. T. McClintock 
Jno. F. Wilcox 

B. Thaw 
F. Semple 
F. B. Laughlin 
W. T. Fundenberg 
W. T. Dunn 

D. C. Phillips 

E. J. Unger 



H. C. Yeager 

D. R. Ewart 

C. A. Carpenter 
C. J. Clarke 
Thos. S. Clarke 
H. C. Frick 
F. T. Bissel 
R. C. Gray 
Jno. Caldwell, Jr. 
Jno. W. Chalfant 
Jas. K. Ewing 
H. J. Brunot 
Jas. McGreggor 
Robt. Pitcairn 
Wm. Mullins 
W. A. Mcintosh 
Geo. B. Roberts 
W. C. Taylor 

E. A. Myers 

W. K. Woodwell 



Jos. R. Woodwell 
A. C. Crawford 
Durbin Home 
A. V. Holmes 
O. F. Wharton 
J. B. White 
Jno. A. Harper 
Geo. W. Jope (?) 
Thos. M. Carnegie 
Jessie Lippencott 
Jas. M. Schoonmaker 
J. E. Schwartz 
Lewis Irwin 
Wm. Rea 
A. Carnegie 
Saml. Rea 
D. J. Morrell 
H. Sellers McKee 
Calvin Wells 
Aaron French 



445 



Johnstown Tribune, 20 June 1889 



F. J. Allen 
Dr. W. C. Bidwell 
James W. Brown 
Hilary J. Brunot 
John Caldwell 
Andrew Carnegie 
John W. Chalfant 
James A. Chambers 
Charles J. Clarke 
Louis S. Clarke 
A. C. Crawford 
George Christy 
W. T. Dun 
Cyrus Elder 
J. K. Ewing 
C. R. Shea 
J. S. McCord 
A. French 
H. C. Frick 
John A. Harper 
Henry Holdship 



A. M. Harnes 

Durbin Home 

George F. Huff 

Dr. D. W. Rankin 

Samuel Rea 

James H. Reed 

Marvin F. Scaife 

Jas. M. Schoonmator (sic) 

J. E. Schwartz 

Frank Semple 

M. H. Suydam (sic) 

Lewis Irwin 

P. C. Knox 

Frank B. Laughlin 

J. J. Lawrence 

John G. A. Leishman 

J. H. Lippincott (sic) 

S. S. Marvin 

A. W. Mellon 

Reuben Miller 

Max K. Moorhead 



William Mullens 
F. A. Meyers 
Frank T. McClintock 
Oliver McClintock 
W. L. McClintock 
James McGregor 
W. A. Mcintosh 
H. Sellers McKee 
H. P. Patton 
D. C. Phillips 
Henry Phipps, Jr. 
Robert Piteatril (sic) 
Benjamin Thaw 
F. J. Unger (sic) 
Calvin Wells 
John F. Wilcox 
Joseph R. Woodwell 
William K. Woodwell 
James H. Whitlock 



446 



ARCHITECTURAL 



447 



APPENDIX B.l. PAINT ANALYSIS 

Paint samples were taken from both interior and exterior wood surfaces of the four 
stuctures under study for the purpose of comparative dating of woodwork. In the case 
of the exterior of the Clubhouse Annex, the samples were taken to give a preliminary 
indication of the original exterior color scheme. 

The analysis were made by two different laboratories due to scheduling constraints. The 
first group of samples was taken 7 August 1992; Mr. Welsh was not available to conduct 
studies at that time, so the local (Pittsburgh) laboratory of KTA Tator was used. 
Additional samples were taken on 15 October 1992 and Mr. Welsh was available to 
analyze these. 

The following reports of the analysis and the paint identification drawings can be used 
in future phases of the project as a starting point for successive studies. The paint 
samples studied by KTA Tator are in the offices of LDA in Pittsburgh; Frank Welsh 
retains the samples that he analyzed in his office in Bryn Mawr. 

The samples and these analyses can be referenced when more exhaustive studies are 
made in the design development phase to specify the original colors for the exteriors of 
all of the buildings and for the interiors of the rooms to be restored as period rooms in 
the Moorhead Cottage and the Clubhouse. 



449 



HOUSTON (412)788-1300 

L OS ANGELES p AX (412) 788 _ 1306 



K 



Ti KTA-TATOR, INC. 

^^^"^1 115 Techno'ogy Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15 



115 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15275 

PITTSBURGH 

PROTECTIVE COATINGS (PAINT) CONSULTANTS: Testing • Instruments • Inspection • Analytical Labor; 

August 20, 1992 



Mr. Ellis Schmidlapp 
Landmark Design Associates 
1 Station Square - Suite 400 
Pittsburgh, PA 15219 

SUBJECT: Determination of Number and Color of Paint Layers in Submitted Paint Chi : 

Dear Mr. Schmidlapp: 

In accordance with your request received August 11, 1992, KTA-Tator, Inc. 1 
examined fourteen paint chips to determine the number of coats applied and the color of ed 
coat. 

SAMPLES 



The samples were received from Landmark Design Associates on August 14, 19" 
The paint chips were labeled with a numerical designation and then numbered 1 through 14. II 
full description of each paint chip will be found on the attached paint analysis forms. 

It should be noted that at no time did KTA personnel visit the jobsite or witness I 
taking of the above chips. 

LABORATORY INVESTIGATION 

The laboratory investigation consisted of cutting the chips at an angle to expose all 
the paint layers, and then viewing them under a microscope. The microscope used was a M ; 
Model DMZ Stereo Zoom Microscope with magnification to 45X. Each color of the paint cl 
was then compared to Munsell chips. 



The Munsell System of Color identifies three attributes: hue, value, and chroma. 1 < 
each identified color, the hue is given first and they are designated in ten major hues: r 
yellow-red, yellow, green-yellow, green, blue-green, blue, purple-blue, purple, and red-purr. I 
The next designation is the value. This indicates the lightness or darkness of the color in relat : 
to a neutral gray scale. On this scale, is used for absolute black and 10 is used for absol i 
white. The third designation, the number after the slash, is the chroma. This indicates the deg < 
of departure of a given hue from a gray neutral of the same value. This scale again extends fr « 
for a neutral gray and extends out as the color becomes more vivid. So, each color has a giu 
designation of: Hue Value/Chroma. A more detailed explanation of the Munsell System can t 
found in the appendix. 



450 



r. Ellis Schmidlapp 2 August 20, 1992 

All of the white or black layers revealed through microscopic examination were left 
labeled, and should be considered absolute black or white. Translucent layers were also 
i identified. Translucent clears would have no designation, and translucent brown varied with 
i ckness so no one color could be assigned. 

All of the results are typed on the submitted paint analysis forms. The results are 
)ed so that the first layer would be considered the primer, while the last layer is designated as 
■ topcoat. 

If you have any questions or comments, please do not hesitate to contact this office. 

Very truly yours, 

KTA-TATOR, INC. 

Valerie D. Sherbondy (J 

>S/RNR:wc 
L5209 



451 



SOUTH FOR 
FISH AND GAME CLl | 

LABORATORY DAI 



LABORATORY DATA 



1 . Building and Date of Construction: 

South Fork Fish and Game Club; 1883 - 1889 

2. Owner: 

3. Client: Mr. Ellis L. Schmidlapp 

Landmarks Design Associates; 400 The Landmarks Building 
1 Station Square; Pittsburgh, PA 15219 

4. Subject: Interior and Exterior Finishes 

5. Samples Taken By: 

Landmarks Design Associates 

6. Date Samples Were Taken: 

October 15, 1992 

7. Date of Analysis and Report: 

October 27 -29, 1992 

8. Microscopist: 

Frank S. Welsh 

9. Layer Description: 

1 . Analyze and evaluate all of the finishes. 

2. Do not color match any finishes to the Munsell color system. 

3. Describe all finishes by general color name only. 

10. Color Description: 

The color names are from the National Bureau of Standards color name charts, which ai i 
keyed to the Munsell color system. The Munsell color system identifies color in terms i 
three attributes: hue, value and chroma. The original color of the paint on the samples 
has been keyed to this system of color description. The Munsell Color Company is lo- 
cated at P.O. Box 230, Newburgh, New York 12551-0230. 



October, 1992 Frank S. Welsh 

452 



SOUTH FORK 
FISH AND GAME CLUB 

LABORATORY DATA 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENTATION 

OF THE LABORATORY DATA 

FROM THE ANALYSIS 



The following pages contain photocopies of compilations of sample envelopes upon which I have written 
all of the requisite information during the laboratory analysis about the coatings found on each sample. 
There are no more than 12 sample envelopes per page and each page contains only samples from one 
room. 

To fit so much information onto the small sample envelopes, I have developed a system of abbreviations 
to describe the samples and the historic coatings. The following page is the KEY to these abbreviations. 



453 



SOUTH FORK 
FISH AND GAME CLUB 

LABORATORY DATA 



KEY TO THE ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE LABORATORY DATA SHEETS 



Printed at the top of each envelope: 

Bldg = building name 

Smp# = room number - sample number 

Sample Loc: = location where the sample was taken 

L = layer of the coating, ie. 1, 2, 3 

C = color name, ie. blue, white 

M — Munsell color notation, ie. 5 Y 9/1 

T;G = type of paint, ie. oil, whitewash, and gloss of the finish, ie. flat, semi-gloss 

P = the period of the layer which is an arbitrary designation of A, B or C, depending 

upon the project. The first letter (A) could symbolize the first finish paint period and 
the second letter (B) could symbolize the second painting period of the space, and so 
forth. This is simply a system to help organize complex decorative finish schemes 
from sample to sample. 

A = the age of the coating, ie. original or late 19th century 



Handwritten data on the envelopes: 



For layers: 



For gloss of the finish: 



P = prime coat 
1 = intermediate coat 
Gr — ground coat, ie. for 
marbling or graining 
F = finish coat 



Fl = flat finish 

L = low-gloss finish 

S = semi-gloss finish 

G = gloss finish 

H = high gloss finish 



For colors: 



For the age of the layer: 



W - White 

YW = Yellowish White 

YG = Yellowish Gray 

MRB = Moderate Reddish Brown 

MOY = Moderate Orange Yellow 

POY = Pale Orange Yellow 

For type of paint: 



orig. = original 
er — early 
md = middle 
It = late 
c = century 



oil 



D = distemper or calcimine 

(a water base paint) 
Wsh = whitewash 
Pb = lead paint 
Zn = zinc oxide paint 
Ti0 2 = titanium dioxide 



454 



Clubhouse Paint Analysis 
Sample Location Key 












PAINT ANALYSIS 


PROJECT: NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 


BUILDING: CLUBHOUSE 


SAMPLE NO.: CtHZ 


LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 
Fl KtT rUZOO- DIWIMfc? V~hA \US> 
WINPCW C£&\v\t=> AT OiUIW^CM 


DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 


BY: ELS/AML 


DATE EXAMINED: 


SUBSTRATE: 


BY: 


TOP COLOR: 


HISTORIC 
DATE 


LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 


MUNSELL 
NO. 


CHARACTERISTICS 




Dirty White 


10YR 9/2 






Yellow 


10YR 7/12 






Blue 


7.5B 7/2 






Brown (topcoat) 


5Y 2/1 




















































































FURTHER OBSERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION, COMMENT OR SKETCHES: 




456 







PAINT ANALYSIS 


PROJECT: 


NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTPNG CLUB 


BUILDING: 


CLUBHOUSE 


SAMPLE NO.: 


CH-1?? 


LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 
PH2.<5T FU%^ OIM/Wt? CLKA \&&> 


DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 


BY: 


ELS/AML 


DATE EXAMINED: 


SUBSTRATE: 


BY: 


TOP COLOR: 


HISTORIC 
DATE 


LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC) 


MUNSELL 
NO. 


CHARACTERISTICS 




Brown Translucent 




(no wood) 




Dark Pumpkin 


10YR 8/6 






Brown Translucent 








Pumpkin 


10YR 9/4 




■ 


Brown Translucent 








Cream 


5Y 9/2 






Lime Green 


10Y 9/4 






Cream 


2.5YR 9/4 






Red 


2.5R 6/12 






Blue 


7.5B 7/2 






Brown (topcoat) 


5Y 2/1 












. 
















FURTHER OB! 


5ERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION 


, COMMENT O 


R SKETCHES: 



L 



457 











PAINT ANALYSIS 


PROJECT: 


NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 


BUILDING: 


CLUBHOUSE 


SAMPLE NO.: 


C++- 14- 


LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 

Fuaer *=u^c*: oiwiMfc? km ic& 

VO&T AT" ^TA I E. WAT 


DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 


BY: 


ELS/AML 


DATE EXAMINED: 


SUBSTRATE: 


BY: 


TOP COLOR: 


HISTORIC 
DATE 


LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 


MUNSELL 
NO. 


CHARACTERISTICS 




Translucent 




Next to wood 




Cream 


5Y 9/2 






Brown Translucent 








Cream 


5Y 9/2 






Cream 


5Y 9/2 






Cream 


5Y 9/2 






Dark Pumpkin 


7.5Y 6/1C 






Blue 


7.5B 7/2 






Brown (topcoat) 


5Y 2/1 












































FURTHER OBJ 


NERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION 


, COMMENT 


R SKETCHES: 



458 



LABORATORY DATA FOR PAINT SAMPLES 



FILDING: SOUTH FORK FISH & GAME CLUB 



ROOM: CLUBHOUSE 



Bldgfi^h 06a*<Clto Smpȣtt-i^- 



Sample Loc: 



L C_ M. J£ _f_ A 



J 



SampIeLoc: e ^ v02 -"' W.v*U>fro#e 



P A 



L C_ M_ T;G 

2. F COkik 

^F P^G^o*.^iviq cr* V<A Grryd. 



Sample LOC. ^^^ _ ^rcorA o.vdmcJ 



L C 



M 



T;G 



P A 



3 -kFj'SV*, P<aIc-, Blvx', \>fc-<j*ii| 



Bldg T?*v,rfA M fluKSmp«ett--23 
Sample Loc: ^*mi\2-'.u1ikW> 



1 
L C_ M. _£G _P A 

2F uJ 



r 



Bldg p,-^ d <a )w d&5mp»C^-,2| "| 

Sample Loc: g*i^ W^£ f ! 
Cpwi«J oloe^«. war 

<3KtX. 
L C_ M_ _T£ _P_ A_ 

If SWlUc/^f^AtK 



Oro*. 



Y 



& 



reu/y\ , 



Bldg P,-^> AgCTlob Smp^zn -zz. 
Samp le Loc: ^ic*'- "FW^ 

k £. M. T;G 

lF Similar /l/<m*Ji5>^ 

1"* >n 



P A 



3-&»F3 yuj <> / «-t-6«7>uj>y 



(s^ 



"Bldg frswftWtrthSmp»ot-Z3 
1 Sample Loc: ^ ¥A ^' to******** 

7F Yio Uzft 



•■- 



BldgF.^foWfdto Smp»£U-£4 
Sample Loc:^ l0 °- ^Sdaa«i 

L C_ M. JQG _P_ A 

VF 5^c[\a c / yJor^.t>k. 
2F tJlw'k 



Wa*^ 



] Bldg Fi^44w>CljfeSmpȣi-f-2,g- 
Sample Loc: Ewtoi: Caw* 4 ^ 



JL C_ M_ T;G 

2F 6x<u| 
3F UJ 



P A 



*&c 



B'dffF^i»/ <i W< fli t 3mp»n4 , zfe 
Sample Loc: E* ioT-: W^Vtuall 
akPovte, donp ceil 1*3 

i-3Fi (?>M£^ / Pi^t v 6«^u 



Bldg Fisv, -t(m^liA? Smp»CU -Z^- 

Sample Loc: g?u*\ s »*» ^ 
c oC F;Uk«<« above 



L C 



M T;G ' P 



C^k»\U> (Ti5 CH-ZO 



459 



Bldg tr.^K^ GoiiflchSmpOgm.a^ 



L C 



T;G 



P A 



ZF T>lc6'ni/^fj ^vP<rtk ay*ci 



LABORATORY DATA FOR PAINT SAMPLES 



BUILDING: SOUTH FORK FISH & GAME CLUB 



ROOM: CLUBHOUSE 



' Bldg ^^ <KWT<fcSmpȣtf -V\ i 
Sample Loc: X*k uy. Fravtfe e£ i 

JL C_ M_ _£G _P_ A_ 

if SV&M C /\/<XrM\ 

2.-3 Fs uO^ 
5-4F-;* G><tu><a<:.s 



Bldg -p;^ ^^./ ^[ubSmp* 6(4 -3P 
Sample Loc: ewuiS". Ebcrcs - 

i ^_ M_ JjG j^ a_ 

if "Pit SreuxY. 

3-5F5 U)Kx(fs 

« ■ m F* Biu- , y*J, Veiled, ViO ; 



\ 22&E& i r*aueCiiit> Smp» c-W -51 
Sample Loc: "P**3\. IXtorfVo 

L C_ M. JJQ _p_ a 

Zf 'PK<Sf«vw 
5 f Wd r\ ftlc. 
4P fedd** 1 *- 6<?w\ 



Bldg Ts^^ 6<WfuijSmp»CB-*a 
Sample Loc: g ** li^'.VJiWlao frame.,' 



L C 



P A 



j!*F Sbilac/Van-dsh 
2-5Fi UMu4<S 
j 4-5 F\js (Brcu* i»^5 



..i 



Bldg ■PUua^ w A l uSmp»£H-g>3 
Sample Loc : ^^ter^or: Wn-d/wV,*' 

L C_ M_ J£ _f_ A 

- unnoted tr€td ivrfau 



Sample Loc: ^xW"'^ - - S.d»«o - 
jr — No*fc,luil 

L |C_ / M_ J|G _P A 
Sclua* fau'*4* * f<**r ^frytsLi'Mro'n 



t^ 



* i 



-*^q 



460 



Brown Cottage Paint Analysis 
Sample Location Key 




461 



PAINT ANALYSIS 


PROJECT: NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 


BUILDING: RRnWN rnTTARE 


SAMPLE NO.: \i~C& 


LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 
Fli^rr P^OCZ EkJTP-T W/Fi£EFLA£E 
C&MIOU^ WiUOPW CA&\H& H2CM 


DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 


BY: ELS/AML 


WWAOCM/ IKI Pa*Y 


DATE EXAMINED: 


SUBSTRATE: 


BY: 


TOP COLOR: 


HISTORIC 
DATE 


LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 


MUNSELL 
NO. 


CHARACTERISTICS 




Translucent 




Next to wood 




Yellow 


2.5Y 8.5/4 






Blue 


7.5B 7/2 






White 








Off-White (topcoat) 


7.5Y 8.5/2 












































































FURTHER OBJ 


5ERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION 


, COMMENT O 


R SKETCHES: 



462 



PAINT ANALYSIS 



PROJECT: NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 



BUILDING: BROWN COTTAGE 



SAMPLE NO.: t~0\ 



DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 



BY: 



ELS/AML 



DATE EXAMINED: 



BY: 



HISTORIC 
DATE 



LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 



Translucent 



Yellow 



Translucent Brown 



Black 



Brown (topcoat) 



LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 

r,K"f r ^ M <P 2 E»onzY w/FieePLAr:'& 



SUBSTRATE: 



TOP COLOR: 



MUNSELL 
NO. 



10Y 7/12 



2.5YR 3/2 



CHARACTERISTICS 



Next to wood 



FURTHER OBSERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION, COMMENT OR SKETCHES: 



463 



PAINT ANALYSIS 



PROJECT: 



NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 



BUILDING: 



BROWN COTTAGE 



SAMPLE NO.: K.-\0 



DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 



BY: 



ELS/AML 



LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 



DATE EXAMINED: 



SUBSTRATE: 



BY: 



TOP COLOR: 



HISTORIC 
DATE 



LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 



MUNSELL 
NO. 



CHARACTERISTICS 



Translucent 



Next to wood 



White 



White (topcoat) 



FURTHER OBSERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION, COMMENT OR SKETCHES: 



464 



PAINT ANALYSIS 


PROJECT: NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 


BUILDING: BR0WN COTTAGE 


SAMPLE NO.: E_— 1 1 


LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 
f=lG£rr FuCt^-^TAil^- HALL 
L£M \OD) ^TAl£ feA^S 


DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 


BY: ELS/AML 


DATE EXAMINED: 


SUBSTRATE: 


BY: 


TOP COLOR: 


HISTORIC 
DATE 


LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 


MUNSELL 
NO. 


CHARACTERISTICS 




Translucent 




Next to wood 




Brown 


2.5Y 4/6 






Cream 


2.5Y 9/2 






White (topcoat) 






























































1 
























FURTHER OB< 


NERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION 


, COMMENT O 


R SKETCHES: 



465 



LABORATORY DATA FOR PAINT SAMPLES 



RTTTLDTNG: SOUTH FORK FISH & GAME CLUB 



ROOM: BROWNCOTTAGE 



BtdgTv„urtfl>awClm»Smp* K-gg 
Sample Loc: ^tv-g* l°S- 

J. C_ M_ JQG _P_ £ 

)F 5W^llQc^vb ffc ; 5 W 

3_5 v^/ WW.Vt 



B'dg^U&mjdiibSmp* \L-3(p 
Sample Loc: t ^- gw '° £ ' , 

T2>i-4H|u>k> OxZWl at 



L C 



M T;G 



P A 






, B»dgp, A htffo^| tlU Smp»|f;-5^ 
Sample L oc: *"**'■ e ™ ^ fa*H 

L C M T;G 



P A 



,F 7 5 



Mlacyv/atM'iK 



3F OVx«e 

F-?F* yu)> /L «>v 



Sample Loc: K «&'° EvW*"-. 

Fremf pxch ui\»vW> Vv* 



■ Bldg^Mgn^ ^[okSmp»<-S^ 

Sample Loc: *"* '• , £ ^^ 
c Vw4 iidi^ 



! J. C_ M_ T;G 

HP UJ 
5F Bloc. 



P A 



L C 



M 



T;G P A 



IF &w\ 

2.F 

7-8F3 W'j. 



JL^, 




Moorhead Cottage Paint Analysis 
Sample Location Key 



103 



C 



£773 






t 



108 



3d=== 



107 




=^F 



^ 



■6 



AV-4 



-1- 

,.L 



-? 



106 




3 t 



105 



•M-c*? 







467 



PAINT ANALYSIS 


PROJECT: NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTPNG CLUB 


BUILDING: MOORHEAD COTTAGE 


SAMPLE NO.: tJ\-C?\ 


LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 
Fl(2M" FvC>CC PtZjCVJT HAU-^PvM \o\~) 


DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 


BY: ELS/AML 




DATE EXAMINED: 


SUBSTRATE: 


BY: 


TOP COLOR: 


HISTORIC 
DATE 


LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 


MUNSELL 
NO. 


CHARACTERISTICS 




Translucent, Varnish 




Next to wood 




Cream 


5Y 9/2 






White 








Brown (topcoat) 


10R 2/2 





















































































FURTHER OBSERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION, COMMENT OR SKETCHES: 






468 



PAINT ANALYSIS 


PROJECT: NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 


BUILDING: MOORHEAD COTTAGE 


SAMPLE NO.: \J\-Ot, 


LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 
Hd^nr FVOCK Ffc£XJT~ HAtbce-MlOO 


DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 


BY: ELS/AML 


DATE EXAMINED: 


SUBSTRATE: 


BY: 


TOP COLOR: 


HISTORIC 
DATE 


LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 


MUNSELL 
NO. 


CHARACTERISTICS 




Translucent, Varnish 




Next to wood 




Cream 


5Y 9/2 






Cream 


5Y 9/2 






Cream 


5Y 9/2 






White 








Brown (topcoat) 


10R 2/2 




































































FURTHER OBSERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION, COMMENT OR SKETCHES: 



469 



PAINT ANALYSIS 



PROJECT: NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 



BUILDING: MOORHEAD COTTAGE 



SAMPLE NO.: M-CPh 



DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 



BY: 



ELS/AML 



LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 

£A^H4fc?TO VCtXL TO £M ICF? 



DATE EXAMEvJED: 



SUBSTRATE: 



BY: 



TOP COLOR: 



HISTORIC 
DATE 



LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 



MUNSELL 
NO. 



CHARACTERISTICS 



Translucent, Varnish 



Next to wood 



Red 



7.5R 4/8 



Cream 



5Y 9/2 



-=t 



Light Pumpkin 



10YR 9/4 



PumDkin 



7.5R 7/10 



Blue 



10B 3/8 



Light Green 



5GY 9/1 



White (topcoat) 



FURTHER OBSERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION, COMMENT OR SKETCHES: 



470 



PAINT ANALYSIS 



PROJECT: 



NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 



BUILDING: MOORHEAD COTTAGE 



SAMPLE NO.: M~£?4- 



DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 



BY: 



ELS/AML 



LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 



DATE EXAMINED: 



SUBSTRATE: 



BY: 



TOP COLOR: 



HISTORIC 
DATE 



LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 



MUNSELL 
NO. 



CHARACTERISTICS 



Translucent 



Next to wood 



Red 



7.5R 9/2 



Yellow 



10Y 9/1 



Cream/Light Yellow 



5Y 9/2 



Pumpkin 



7.5Y 7/10 



Blue 



10B 3/8 



Light Green 



5GY 9/1 



White (topcoat) 



FURTHER OBSERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION, COMMENT OR SKETCHES: 



471 



PAINT ANALYSIS 1 


PROJECT: NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 


BUILDING: MOORHEAD COTTAGE 


SAMPLE NO.: hA-C^O 


LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 


DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 


BY: ELS/AML 


DATE EXAMINED: 


SUBSTRATE: 


BY: 


TOP COLOR: 


HISTORIC 
DATE 


LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 


MUNSELL 
NO. 


CHARACTERISTICS 




Translucent 




Next to wood 




Cream 


5Y 9/2 






White 








Cream 


5Y 9/2 






White 








Brown (topcoat) 


10R 3/2 




































































FURTHER OBSERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION, COMMENT OR SKETCHES: 




472 







PAINT ANALYSIS 


PROJECT: NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 


BUILDING: MOORHEAD COTTAGE 


SAMPLE NO.: hA-CU? 


LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 

FlC<bT rU3P£ PROJT HALL- Ct\A(0\~) 

WITH* WlHCCW 


DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 


BY: ELS/AML 


DATE EXAMPNED: 


SUBSTRATE: 


BY: 


TOP COLOR: 


HISTORIC 
DATE 


LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 


MUNSELL 
NO. 


CHARACTERISTICS 




Translucent 




Next to wood 




Red 


5R 3/6 






White 








Tan 


7.5YR 8/6 






White 








Brown (topcoat) 


10R 3/2 




































































FURTHER OB! 


5ERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION 


, COMMENT 


R SKETCHES: 



473 



PAINT ANALYSIS 


PROJECT: 


■NPS SOUTH FORK FISHING & HUNTING CLUB 


BUILDING: 


MOORHEAD COTTAGE 


SAMPLE NO.: 


hA-OT 


LOCATION OF SAMPLE: 

h e^-r Fi/Ctx m Jrocxxr h-au^ 

^RM \0\1 CA^ikJCp Fp£>M EAQ.L\E£ 
tX£32_WAY AT CPPEyi 1 Kit? "TO ^TA 1 e 
WALL /UM ifeO 


DATE TAKEN: 8/7/92 


BY: 


ELS/AML 


DATE EXAMINED: 


SUBSTRATE: 


BY: 


TOP COLOR: 


HISTORIC 
DATE 


LAYER DESCRIPTION 
(COLOR, VARNISH, DIRT, ETC.) 


MUNSELL 
NO. 


CHARACTERISTICS 




Red 


5R 3/6 






Dark Yellow 


10Y 8/8 






Grey 


10B 3/1 






Green, Translucent 








White 








Yellow 


5Y 9/6 






Cream 


5Y 9/2 






Cream 


5Y 9/2 






Cream 


5Y 9/2 






White 








Purple 


10RP 2/4 






Brown (topcoat) 


10R 3/2 





















FURTHER OBSERVATIONS, DOCUMENTATION, COMMENT OR SKETCHES: 



474 



LABORATORY DATA FOR PAINT SAMPLES 



;ILDING;S0UTH FORK FISH & GAME CLUB 



ROOM: MOREHEAD COTTAGE 






^n^Oi) 



Sample Loc: ^ WhraliEiM ifl-j; | 
Tr->v* ofc\obfui Ae &* icfo ; 
M_ J£ _£_ A 

If sMk ? 

S-Sfi y*ilKo*, 6f«u\A»/t viBio*j 



Sample Loc: flkaefcari-' fcwMCO/a&O 



L C 



M TjG* P A 



2F W-/HUA6***. 



J te 



Lr 



gr . '.■»■» | 



^-*i 



475 



Clubhouse 
Sample Location 



Annex Tain t A i alysis 




476 



LABORATORY DATA FOR PAINT SAMPLES 



BUILDING: SOUTH FORK FISH & GAME CLUB 



ROOM: ANNEX 



5a%k\rerlC 

sample Loc. ^ 5*1^ «{ u>i«kux 

sash fsterH 1*1 fco<#wtti"t) 
L C, M_ _£G _P_ A 



Sam P' e Loc: tectp^h" 

L C_ M_ _£G _P_ A 

IF \W^L <3ra^ 



«Z& 



Bt dgP.-ah<f/S, w fl^>Smp»^-i^ 
Sample Loc:^^^^ 



IF 7 Vell^owK^^ 
3F ujW;k 

4-7F LOKxV^ N4L (Sratj \^ 



J 



L= 



478 



APPENDIX B.2. ARCHAEOLOGISTS' REPORT 



The following Management Report was produced by John Milner Associates in 
conjunction with the National Park Service under a separate contract. It is included in 
this document to provide background information and cross referencing. 



479 



MANAGEMENT REPORT 
ARCHEOLOGICAL DATA FOR HISTORIC STRUCTURES REPORT 

SAINT MICHAEL 
JOHNSTOWN FLOOD NATIONAL MEMORIAL, PENNSYLVANIA 



by 

Joseph Balicki 
J. Sanderson Stevens 



Prepared for the National Park Service by: 

John Milner Associates, Inc. 

5250 Cherokee Avenue, 4th Floor, 

Alexandria, Virginia 22312 



Under Contract CX-2000- 1-0008 
Work Order No. 4 



Principal Investigators: 



J. Sanderson Stevens 
John Milner Associates, Inc. 

and 

Jed Levin 
National Park Service 



Government Technical Representative 

Douglas C. Comer, Chief 

Eastern Applied Archeology Center 

Denver Service Center-TEA 

National Park Service 
12200-A Plum Orchard Drive 
Silver Spring, Maryland 20904 

October 5, 1992 



481 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

List of Figures 

1.0 Project Description and Goals 1 

2.0 Description and Results of Field Investigations 3 

2.1 Area 1 5 

2.2 Area 2 8 

23 Area 3 9 

2.4 Area 4 11 

3.0 Summary and Conclusions of the Excavations 12 

4.0 References Cited 14 



482 



LIST OF FIGURES 



Figure 1. Area 1, Plan View. 

Figure 2. Area 2, Plan View. 

Figure 3. Area 3, Plan -View. 

Figure 4. Area 4, Plan View. 

Figure 5. Area 1, Trench A South Profile. 

Figure 6. Area 1, Trench B, East Profile. 

Figure 7. Area 3, Test Unit 3.6, East Profile. 



483 



1.0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND GOALS 

John Milner Associates, Inc. (JMA) was contracted by the National Park Service (NPS), Denver 
Service Center (DSC) to conduct archeologjcal investigations at the South Fork Fishing and 
Hunting Club Historic District, Johnstown Flood National Memorial, Saint Michael, 
Pennsylvania. Phase I archeological investigations were undertaken on behalf of the Eastern 
Applied Archeology Center (EAA), DSC, under contract CX-2000- 1-0008, Work Order No. 4 
(Package JOFL- 156-42). The archeological investigations were designed to assist the DSC's 
pl anning and design effort at Johnstown Flood National Memorial. The NPS, in cooperation 
with the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Historical Preservation Society, is developing 
plans for the stabilization, rehabilitation and adaptive reuse of the four properties that comprise 
the project area. NPS involvement is part of a program of technical assistance to the 
Southwestern Pennsylvania Heritage Preservation Commission. In order to assess the. 
archeological resources in the project area, JMA conducted field investigations at four house 
lots within Saint Michael. The following management report is based on the results of the field 
investigations and preliminary laboratory analysis. This management report summarizes the 
field investigations and results, and briefly discusses preliminary laboratory analysis and site 
interpretations. The report also presents management recommendations. Final results, 
interpretations and recommendations well be presented in the draft technical report to be 
submitted on or before November 26, 1992, 

The South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Historic District consists of several cottages and a 
clubhouse associated with the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club (1879-89). The district is 
listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Located in Saint Michael, the district is 
approximately three-quarters of a mile southwest of the Johnstown Flood National Memorial 
on what had been the southwest shore of man-made Lake Conemaugh. The project area 
consists of four house lots within the historic district. The Phase I investigations discussed 
herein tested the properties on which the clubhouse, the reputed Moorehead cottage, the 
reputed Knox cottage, and the possible residence of the clubhouse staff are located. At these 
locations the original clubhouse and cottages survive, albeit modified. 

The investigations were designed to provide information on the archeological resources within 
the project area. Specifically, the investigations were undertaken to determine the location, 
nature and condition of the subsurface cultural resources within the project area. The project 
goals were to identify features indicative of the historic landscape within the project area which 



- 1- 



484 



date to the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club period. These data will augment the historic 
structures report, prepared under separate cover, for the four properties in the project area. 

The archeological investigations included field excavations, laboratory analysis, a management 
report, and a technical report. The principal background research was undertaken by EAA 
archeologjst Jed Levin, who also served as principal investigator for the NPS, DSC. Field 
investigations followed the procedures outlined in the scope of services and subsequent 
consultations between JMA and EAA. during the course of the project. 

The JMA project team included J. Sanderson Stevens, project coordinator, Joseph Balicki, 
project archeologist; Dana Heck, laboratory director; and Joanne Bowen, zooarcheologist. The 
field investigations were conducted from April 27 through May 15, 1992, by a four-person team 
including Joseph Balicki, Charles R. Walker, Adam Bliss, and Bryan L. Corle. Laboratory 
processing, analysis and artifact cataloging in accordance with the Automated National 
Cataloging System (ANCS) was performed by Dana Heck and Jamie Sadler. Sarah Ruch 
prepared the final graphics and Dorothy Riggs prepared the final manuscript. 

South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Preservation Society Chairman Walter Costlov/s 
knowledge of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club contributed to the success of the field 
investigations. Additionally, JMA is grateful for his support of the field crew. Comments and 
observations offered during site visits by Jed Levin, EAA archeologist, greatly aided in the 
interpretations and assessment of the resources. 



2- 



485 



2.0 DESCRIPTION AND RESULTS OF FIELD INVESTIGATIONS 

The historic district in Saint Michael consists of tic extant remnants of the South Fork Fishing 
and Hunting Club. The club was established in 1879 as a retreat and recreation area for 
wealthy industrialists, merchants and bankers from Pittsburgh. By 1889, the club had sixty-one 
members, including Henry Clay Frick, Andrew Carnegie, Philander Chase Knox, and Andrew 
W. Mellon (McCullough 1968:57-59). The club consisted of an earthen dam, man-made Lake 
Conemaugh, and 160 acres surrounding the lake. The club offered a respite from the industrial 
pollution of late ninctccnth-ccntury Pittsburgh (McCullough 1968:42). The focal point of the 
club was a large three-story clubhouse building. Historc photographs in the park's collections 
show that the clubhouse had been constructed using two different architectural styles. This 
suggests that the building may have incorporated an earlier building, or that the clubhouse may 
have been built in two stages. The clubhouse contained forty-seven rooms, within which the 
majority of the members were lodged. Because the cottages had no kitchen facilities, all 
members were expected to dine in the clubhouse. In addition to the clubhouse, sixteen cottages 
were built by individual members. The club buildings were constructed in a linear fashion along 
the southwest bank of the lake. A boardwalk ran the length of the developed property between 
the lake, the cottages, and the clubhouse. Between 1879 and 1889, club members enjoyed 
various recreational activities at the lake. 

On June 1, 1889, after an extended period of heavy rains, the South Fork Dam failed. The 
result was the worst flood in American history. After the tragedy, the club lost most members, 
and the last of the club property was sold in 1904. By 1907, a coal mine had been established 
approximately 1500 feet (ft) south of the club. The operators of the mine, the Maryland Coal 
Company, constructed a railroad spur and subsequently developed the town of Saint Michael. 
The cottages and clubhouse were used as residences by the coal company, and some buildings 
were extensively modified. Seven of the 16 original cottages survive. 

Archeological investigations were undertaken to test and evaluate four building lots within the 
South Fork Fishing and Hunting Historic District. Area 1 consists of the lot on which the 
clubhouse is situated (Figure 1). Area 2 is the yard surrounding the Moorhead cottage (Figure 
2). The reputed cottage of Philander Chase Knox occupies the lot designated as Area 3 (Figure 
3). Area 4 Is the lot on which a building that may have functioned as the residence of the 
clubhouse staff is situated (Figure 4). 



486 



Field investigations consisted of the systematic excavation of shovel tests, manually excavated 
test units, and mechanically excavated trenches. The shovel test investigations were conducted 
at all four areas. A transit was used to lay out a baseline and subsequent grid over each area. 
Shovel tests, approximately 1.5 ft in diameter, were excavated at 20 ft intervals along parallel 
transects. Alternate transects were staggered to increase both coverage and the potential for 
cultural resource identification. The number of transects and shovel tests varied between areas. 
Within Area 1, 73 shovel tests were excavated along 11 transects and 4 additional shovel tests 
were skipped (Figure 1). Shovel tests within Area 2 included the excavation of 35 shovel tests 
along 5 transects; 2 additional shovel test locations were skipped (Figure 2). Twenty- nine 
shovel tests were excavated along 5 transects within Area 3, and 2 shovel test locations were 
skipped (Figure 3). Field investigations of Area 4 included the excavation of 37 shovel tests 
along 7 transects; one shovel test location was skipped (Figure 4). In total, 174 shovel tests 
were excavated in the project area. 

Six manually excavated test units, including four 5 ft-by-5 ft square test units and two 25 ft-by-5 
ft test units, were positioned to recover information on landscape features and the location of 
the boardwalk. The possible landscape features were identified from the shovel testing and 
through examination of the surface. 

In addition to the manually excavated test units, backhoe testing was undertaken in Area 1. 
Eight mechanically excavated trenches (trenches A-H), 3 ft wide and of varying lengths, were 
excavated in an attempt to locate the foundations of a section of the clubhouse that had been 
removed sometime in the 1930s. Additionally, one trench (trench I) was excavated at the rear 
of the clubhouse in an effort to locate a two-story outhouse. Furthermore, one trench (trench 
J) was excavated between the clubhouse porch and Main Street to look for evidence of the 
boardwalk. 

All shovel tests, test units, and trenches were excavated to subsoil. Soil matrices from the 
shovel tests and test units were screened through one-quarter-inch hardware cloth to ensure 
uniform recovery of cultural materials. Whenever possible shovel tests were excavated via 
stratigraphy. The excavation of test units was by natural stratigraphy, or by .5 ft levels 
depending on the thickness of the stratigraphic unit. Information on each shovel test and test 
unit was recorded on standardized forms and included the location, setting, and designation of 
the excavation; the presence or absence of artifacts; the number and types of artifacts; Munsell 
soil designations; and soil texture according to standard scientific nomenclature. The 

- 4 - 



487 



investigations utilized a three part numbering system, tins system was used for both the shovel 
tests and the test units. The advantage of this system is the generation of a series of lot 
numbers which carry provenience information. The first number represents either area (1-4). 
The second number identifies shovel test transect or test unit. The third number designates 
shovel test or stratigraphic unit. The technical report will present tables differenciating 
provenience information-. At least one profile was drawn of each test unit and trench. Plan 
maps were drawn when features were encountered in test units and trenches. The technical 
report will present representative profiles of each yard area and additional trench profiles. 



2.1 Area 1 

Investigations of the clubhouse commenced with the systematic excavation of shovel tests on 
the rear and side yards of this lot (Figure 1). The shovel testing failed to locate any definitive 
subsurface evidence of landscape features. There is, however, evidence that the rear yard of 
the clubhouse had been terraced. In general, the ground slopes downward from the rear of the 
lot to the clubhouse. In the western portion of the rear yard, the remnants of three possible 
terraces were observed (Figure 1). These terraces are parallel to the clubhouse. Modification 
of the ground surface and recent disturbance by motor vehicles may have destroyed evidence 
of these terraces in the rest of the yard. In addition, two shovel tests encountered large 
flagstones that may represent some type of landscaping feature (walkway) on the upper terrace. 
The flagstones were laid flat and located on the edge of the terrace. 

The stratigraphic sequence in the rear yard consisted of a thick deposit of surface soil lying 
upon a subsoil of silty clay and desiccated shale. Artifacts were recovered from the surface soil 
in 31 of the 73 excavated shovel tests. Preliminary evaluation of the stratigraphic and artifact 
data suggest that the primary depositional episode occurred in the early twentieth century, i.e., 
the period the clubhouse was occupied by coal company employees. No discrete deposits from 
any period of occupation were identified except for a possible historic twentieth-century trash 
midden located at the southern corner of the yard (Figure 1). The trash midden was identified 
on the basis of a stratigraphic deposit of coal ash, and twentieth-century artifacts which were 
u nlik e the surrounding yard deposit. 

Surface modifications associated with construction of a paved parking area has disturbed the 
side yard north of the clubhouse. Historic deposits that may have been present at this location 
have either been destroyed or disturbed by this construction. 



488 



At present, the southeast side yard of the clubhouse is a parking lot paved with highly oxidized 
shale mine tailings, referred to locally as red-dog. A wing or addition to the clubhouse had 
stood at this location until the 1930s. Historic photographs from the club period indicate that 
this section of the clubhouse had a different architectural style than the extant building, 
suggesting that the demolished wing of the clubhouse was either an earlier building or an 
addition during the club period- 
Surface indications of the demolished wing consist of anomalies in the extant foundation of the 
clubhouse. These anomalies, located at the east front corner of the foundation and along the 
southeast foundation, consist of foundation stones that extend outward from the foundation. 
The preliminary field interpretations of these anomalies suggest that at one time the 
foundations of the two building sections may have abutted or bonded. However, further 
examination of the foundation through archeological testing and inspection of the interior 
foundation indicated that these anomalies may not have been associated with the earlier section 
of the clubhouse. For example, the anomaly along the southeast wall represents an effort to 
seal a hole through the foundation. 

The location of the demolished wing was investigated by the excavation of mechanically 
excavated trenches and by one test unit in an effort to locate and investigate any deposits and 
features associated with the demolished section. Mechanical excavations began with the 
excavation of a trench (trench A) parallel to the standing clubhouse building at the east front 
end (Figure 5). Trench A was positioned at the east front corner of the clubhouse to determine 
if the extant stone foundation had extended to the south and had been part of the foundation 
of the demolished wing. The backhoe trench failed to produce evidence that the stone 
foundation extended to the south. Rather, a concrete footer was encountered. Consequently, 
trench A was reoriented to extend from the east front corner of the extant building to the 
southeast property line in an effort to locate footers associated with the front of the building. 

Evidence for three footers was recovered. The preliminary interpretation is that these footers 
represent the front of the demolished wing. Unlike the footer adjacent to the extant 
foundation, the other footers were brick, capped with concrete. The footers were only two 
courses wide and two courses deep, suggesting that they were not intended to support a massive 
superstructure. Additionally, the trench exposed a wooden post and associated sill, but their 
function could not be determined. Since the trench provided no conclusive stratigraphic 
evidence for the eastern end of the demolished wing, an attempt was made to determine if 



489 



there was any stratigraphic break between building lots. A break in stratigraphy would at least 
provide an approximate end for the demolished section. With the permission of the landowner, 
trench A was extended by hand into the neighboring property. No discontinuity in stratigraphy 
was observed. 

In order to locate additional evidence of the demolished wing, trench B was excavated 
perpendicular to the extant clubhouse at the approximate center of the side yard. Trench B 
began at Main Street and extended 67 ft to the west (Figure 1). Installation of a 6 inch (in) 
water main along Main Street destroyed any evidence of the boardwalk that may have been 
present along this section of the clubhouse. Additional utility trenches, for drainage and water 
lines, were encountered at varying depths. These trenches have disturbed evidence of the 
demolished wing. Evidence for a brick footer was encountered in this trench, but it was in a 
disturbed context. At 33 ft from the hypothesized front of the wing, brick paving was 
encountered (Figure 6). The paving was 5 ft long and ended at a wooden beam set into 
puddled clay. These features may represent the rear of the wing. A test unit was excavated 
adjacent to the trench to investigate these features, but neither the function of the features uor 
the rear of the building were discerned. Utility trenches on either side of the features masked 
the stratigraphic relationship of the features to the surrounding deposits. However, it is 
noteworthy that the brick paving and wooden beam are aligned with the rear of the clubhouse, 
suggesting that the features represent the rear of the demolished wing. 

Because the footprint of the demolished wing could not be determined by trenches A and B, 
sue additional trenches (trenches C-H) were excavated in the side yard (Figure 1). Trenches 
C and F exposed two additional brick footers and two utility trenches. The excavated footers 
are not evenly spaced and their top elevations vary. Additionally, during the demolition of the 
building, several of the footers appear to have moved from their original context. The rear of 
the demolished wing, where it would have met the original building, was not successfully 
investigated because of the presence of two utility trenches. Presumably, these trenches 
de c troyed any deposits associated with the demolished wing. Consequently, even with the 
excavation of six additional trenches, the architectural footprint of the demolished wing was not 
delineated. 

The preliminary interpretation of the stratigraphic sequence from the location of the 
demolished wing (Figures 5 and 6) reflects a modern red-dog parking lot overlying a deposit 
of destruction debris, averaging 1.5 ft in thickness. The destruction debris rested on subsoil. 

-7- 



490 



Extending into the subsoil were several features associated with the foundation of the building, 
including remnants of wooden posts, brick footers, post holes, and wooden sills. Unfortunately, 
the destruction of the building and installation of utilities has disturbed many of these features, 
rendering interpretation of the building footprint impossible. 

In summary, archeological evidence for the demolished section of the clubhouse is enigmatic. 
The deposits associated with the building, except for the features, reflect the destruction 
episode. Deposits associated with the occupation of the building were not encountered either 
on the presumed interior or exterior of the building. Based on the preliminary analysis of the 
stratigraphic evidence, the demolished wing of the clubhouse may have measured approximately 
52 ft wide by 38 ft in length, but the preliminary interpretation of the archeological evidence 
is ambiguous. 

Informant information indicated that a two story outhouse was located at the rear of the 
clubhouse. A historic photograph shows the outhouse, but its relationship to the clubhouse can 
not be ascertained. Presumably the outhouse was connected to the clubhouse by a rope bridge. 
A second story window on the rear facade of the clubhouse shows possible evidence for the 
outhouse attachment. Beneath the window are three exposed joists and what may be a portion 
of a sealed entrance. A portion of this entrance was incorporated into the window. There is 
no indication on the first floor of an exit from the clubhouse to the outhouse. During a pre- 
field site visit, Jed Levin observed ground surface variations below the window, further 
suggesting this was the location of the two story outhouse. Unfortunately, the ground surface 
was subsequently disturbed by vehicles. Consequently, no surface indications were observed 
during the current investigations. 

Archeological testing of the possible privy location involved the mechanical excavation of a 30 
ft trench of varying width. The trench (trench I) began 6 ft from the rear of the clubhouse and 
was aligned with the architectural ghosting evident around the second story window. The trench 
was excavated to subsoiL No evidence of the privy was found. Consequently, the trench was 
widened from 3 ft to 10 ft. However, still no evidence for the privy was encountered. Either 
the privy had a box above ground, or more likely, the privy was not positioned at this location. 
One feature, a two coarse, dry-laid brick garden border, was exposed by the trench. The 
garden border parallels the rear wall of the clubhouse. 



491 



One trench (Trench J) and one 5 ft square test unit were excavated between the clubhouse and 
Main Street in an attempt to locate remnants of the boardwalk. The exes /ations revealed a 
deposit of mixed fill over subsoil. No evidence for the boardwalk was encou atered in either of 
the excavations. 

22 Area 2 

Archeological investigations of this cottage lot included the systematic excava ion of shovel tests 
and the excavation of two 25 ft-by-5 ft test units (Figure 2). During the. club period, the 
cottage is reputed to have belonged to Max K. Moorehead. After the floo 1 the cottage was 
occupied, and the interior modified, by the Maryland Coal Company. The ; ear yard area and 
side yards were tested for evidence of landscape features. The rear yard s opes steeply from 
the rear property line to the rear of the cottage. Landscape features observed in the rear yard 
included a patio, a stone stairway, a stone edge garden, a grape ardor, a con ;rete privy box, an 
earthen mound, and two depressions. 

The shovel tests failed to locate any subsurface indications pertaining to fee cures indicative of 
the historic landscape. The preliminary interpretation of the stratigraphic > equence for Area 
B indicates a 0.5 to 1 ft deposit of surface soil resting on a silty clay subsoil. No discrete 
deposits from the period of the club occupation could be differentiated from post-club 
habitation of the cottage. Artifacts were recovered from 25 of the 35 exca ated shovel tests, 
and were scattered throughout the surface yard deposit. The artifacts d ite from the late 
nineteenth through twentieth centuries and most likely represent incideatal yard scatter. 
Twentieth century refuse piles are located in the forested area adjacent to the rear property 
line. 

Two depressions were observed in the rear yard. One was a 3 ft square c ;pression and the 
other was a 15 ft-by-20 ft rectangular depression. Both depressions were tc sted to determine 
if they represented surface indications of outbuildings. Both features wen restricted to the 
sur f ace soil zone and neither extended into the subsoil. The larger featim may represent a 
planting bed. The function of the small depression could not be inferred. 

A concrete box presumably for a privy is located along the rear property line Adjacent to this 
box is an earthen mound. Local tradition holds that the mound represents the remnant of a 
ramp that connected the cottage to the privy. There is no photographic e\ dence to support 
this interpretation and the earthen mound was not tested. The date for init ; al construction of 



492 



the privy is unknown. A soil auger was excavated into the privy fill to a depi h of 3 ft. The soil 
matrix was a very dark grey loam with a large percentage of organic material. No artifacts were 
observed 

23 Area 3 

Archeological investigations of this cottage lot, the reputed cottage of Phik ader Chase Knox, 
consisted of the excavation of shovel tests and two 5 ft square test units (Figure 3). One test 
unit was positioned to examine a soil change in the rear of the cottage :nd the other was 
positioned to locate evidence of the boardwalk that ran in front of the cott ;ge. 

The rear and side yards of this lot slope steeply from the rear of the lot to ( ae cottage. Three 
landscape features were observed in the rear lot including a concrete privy box, a flat raised 
area in the south corner of the rear yard, and an excavated area. The exca /ated area located 
at the rear of the cottage represents the initial construction leveling of the steep slope to 
accommodate construction of the cottage. 

The shovel tests failed to identify information related to the aforementioned features. A shovel 
test in the area which may have been artificially raised produced no eviden x that a structure 
had been positioned at this location. Artifacts were recovered from 15 o! the 29 excavated 
shovel tests. Recovered artifacts were scattered throughout the surface ) ord deposit. The 
artifacts date from the late nineteenth through twentieth centuries and mo >t likely represent 
incidental yard scatter. The preliminary interpretation of the stratigraphic : equence for Area 
B indicates a 0.5 to 1.0 ft deposit of surface soil resting on a silty clay sul soil. No discrete 
deposits from the period of the club occupation could be differentiate i from post-club 
habitation of the cottage. A deposit adjacent to the southeast side of the po.ch may represent 
a twentieth century trash midden. Additionally, twentieth century refuse p les are located in 
the forested area adjacent to the rear property line. 

The concrete privy box was not tested. Its design and dimensions are simiar to those of the 
privy box identified in Area B. Shovel test 3.4.1 encountered a drain pipe which may be 
associated with the privy box. 

A shovel test excavated at the rear of the cottage recovered artifacts froD. 2.6 ft below the 
ground surface. The shovel test was located at the base of the constructior cut bank. A test 
unit was excavated to investigate the deeply buried deposits. A large tra.' h pit feature was 

- 10- 



493 



encountered and excavated (Figure 7). Initially, the feature was thought to represent a utility 
trench. The function of the feature was not ascertained until the feature w is excavated in its 
entirety. A preliminary examination of the artifacts indicates that the trash pit post-dates the 
club period. The presence of tooled crown finish beer bottles suggests a period of deposition 
between 1892 and 1903. The crown finish was introduced in 1892 and automatic bottling 
machines rapidly replaced hand tooled finishes after 1903 (Lorrain 1968). 

A 5 ft square test unit was excavated at the east front of the building adjecent to the gravel 
road. The unit was positioned to gather information on the boardwalk th: t ran between the 
cottage and the lake during the club period. The unit was excavated to subsoil but no evidence 
for the boardwalk was encountered. 

2.4 Area 4 

The rear and side yards of this lot were tested during the archeological inve ;tigations. During 
the club period, the building on this lot may have functioned as a residence for the clubhouse 
staff. Investigations of this lot involved the systematic excavation of shove I tests. The front 
residence and the front and rear yards have been extensively modified (Figvje 4). In front of 
the building, a parking area and landscape plantings have altered the original surface 
configuration. A garage is located on the rear property line. No other sur ace indications of 
possible landscape features were observed during the fieldwork. The date of the garage 
construction is unknown. Investigations were hampered by the large refuse \ <iles that had been 
created by the current rehabilitation of the building. Although 26 of the 3'' excavated shovel 
tests contained artifacts, the preliminary artifact analysis indicates that they post-date the club 
period. The artifacts most likely represent incidental twentieth-century yar 1 scatter. 



11- 



494 



3.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS OF THE EXCAVATIONS 

The four areas investigated in the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Historic District 
contain preserved archeological resources. Archeological investigations identified yard deposits 
and landscape features. Preliminary artifact analysis suggests that the majority of artifacts were 
deposited after the club had been disbanded and the properties occupied by workers of the 
Maryland Coal Company. Additionally, the landscape features present in the lots probably date 
to this time. No discrete yard deposits or landscape features associated with the 1879-89 
occupation were identified at the clubhouse or any of the cottages. Additionally, no evidence 
for the boardwalk has survived in front of the clubhouse and cottages. 

Remnants of the demolished section of the clubhouse were encountered southeast of the 
clubhouse. Archeological investigations determined that the foundation of the demolished wing 
differed from that of the extant clubhouse. However, the age of the demolished wing could not 
be ascertained. The surviving remnants of the building include brick footers, a wooden post, 
and wooden beams. The only stratigraphic deposits associated with the building were from the 
destruction episode. Discrete deposits associated with the use of the building were not 
encountered. Demolition of the structure in the 1930s has altered the context of several of the 
foundation elements. Furthermore, the installation of utilities has disturbed portions of the site. 
Preliminary interpretations suggest that not enough archeological data have survived to 
determine the architectural footprint of the demolished wing. 

In summary, Phase I archeological investigations identified and evaluated the yards of four lots. 
Discrete yard deposits or landscape features associated with the 1879-89 South Fork Fishing and 
Hun ting Club were not identified. The remnants of a demolished section of the clubhouse were 
identified a id excavated. No evidence of the boardwalk was found. An early- to middle- 
twentieth century refuse pit was identified and investigated at one cottage location. No 
potentially significant archeological deposits were identified as a result of the Phase I 
investigations. 



12- 



495 



4.0 REFERENCES CITED 

Lorrain, Dcssamae 

1968 An Archaeologist's Guide to Nineteenth Century American Glass. Historical 
Archaeology 2:35-44. 

McCullough, David 

1968 The Johnstown Flood. Simon and Schuster, New York. 



13- 



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503 







504 



APPENDIX B.3. STRUCTURAL ENGINEER'S REPORT 

The structural analysis was conducted by Pennoni and Associates of Philadelphia 
contemporaneously with the architectural investigation by Landmarks Design 
Associates and Wallace Roberts & Todd. The analysis identifies areas of the 
buildings requiring structural stabilization, makes recommendations for 
reinforcement, and comments on the structural feasibility of the proposed 
treatments. 



505 



506 



WRTA 9197-003.01 



CLUBHOUSE 



STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 



GENERAL 



The Clubhouse is a wood framed building with steel columns and support 
beams. The structure has three supported floors plus a sloping hipped roof. A 
basement or crawl space extends beneath the main section of the building. The 
construction is of the classic timber, platform framing type still in use today. 
Perimeter basement walls are stone and brick masonry to the first floor level where 
wood stud walls extend up to termination at the roof. There are two main interior 
bearing lines at the main section of the building that are carried up from the 
basement through the building. These bearing lines are used to support typical 
wood joist floor framing throughout the building. 

Floor framing layouts were developed from a structural field survey of the 
building. Structural information was documented in areas where the structure was 
already exposed. Further information was gathered through minor demolition used 
to expose the structure in other areas, (i.e. remove floor boards, break through the 
ceiling). The remainder of the structural system was established by interpolating 
between areas exposed and documented and by noting the layout of each floor. 

This portion of the report includes for each area, structural layouts and 
conditions, analyzed floor capacities and recommendations in light of proposed 
usage. Due to the limited nature of exposed areas for review and the limited scope 
of this investigation, a comprehensive structural evaluation is not possible. The 
following structural analysis is a general evaluation of the structural conditions of 
the building. General framing layouts, general floor capacities and the general 



507 



physical conditions of the building were established from a limited visual inspection 
of open and unobstructed areas of the premises on the date of the inspection. 
Deterioration and deficiencies in concealed structural elements may exist and cannot 
be evaluated in this report. Such deficiencies would alter the evaluated floor 
capacities and change the structural recommendations of this report. 

The main purpose of the structural analysis portion of this report is to: 

1. Alert the owner of any evident structural deficiencies which may be 
unsafe, 

2. Report on general capacities and conditions of the structural systems 
with respect to proposed usage, 

3. Report on the structural viability of any future repairs, renovations or 
restoration. 

PRELIMINARY ASSUMPTIONS 

Prior to structural analysis of the framing, the following assumptions were made: 

1. Framing sizes and spacings are assumed to be the same in concealed 
areas as in similar adjacent exposed areas. 

2. The condition of framing members is assumed to be the same in 
concealed areas as in similar adjacent exposed areas. 

3. All wood framing is assumed to be eastern hemlock with minimum 
allowable stresses of 

a. extreme fibers in bending, F b = 1000 psi. 

b. horizontal shear, F v = 70 psi. 

4. All steel framing is assumed to have an allowable bending stress of, F b = 
14,000 psi. 

5. Assumed usage for the building, as noted in the scope of work, is as a hotel 
and restaurant. The current BOCA National Building Code requires the 



508 



following live load capacities for such an establishment: 

hotel guest rooms 40 pounds per square foot 

corridors 80 pounds per square foot 

restaurant 100 pounds per square foot 

public areas 

and access thereto 100 pounds per square foot 

The BOCA Code makes allowances for existing structures with regard to 
conformance with current codes. This report makes recommendations as to the 
adequacy of the floor capacities for proposed usage in view of the current code. It 
should be left to the judgement of the local code official as to the usage and loading 
code conformance with respect to existing structures. 

EXISTING CONDITIONS 

First Floor 

The main portion of the building encompasses the eastern side for the length 
of the building and the northwestern corner under rooms 100 thru 113. A basement 
lies under the eastern 50 feet of the main building section. A crawl space lies under 
the remainder of the main section of building, rooms 107 thru 113. 

Existing first floor framing of the main building section is visible from the 
basement area. Visibility of the framing in the crawl space areas, rooms 107 and 1 13 
is limited. All framing conditions of the first floor are referenced to the first floor 
framing plan in Figure 1 and as described below. 



509 




aASw 



Figure 1 

As previously noted two interior bearing lilies running north to south 
originate at the basement and continue up through the building. These bearing lines 
are centered in the building and are about 7 feet apart. Additionally two bearing 
lines lie under the northwestern portion of the main building section running east 
to west under room 110. The northwest portion is configured similar to the rest of 
the main building section. These bearing lines originate at a 8x12" timber beam at 
each line. The beams continue over the length of the bearing lines and span 
approximately 12 to 13 feet between 3' x 3' stone piers. Additionally, bearing on 
alternate stone piers, at about 26 feet on center are 4"xl0" steel I-shaped columns. 
First floor framing for all supported areas consists of 2x10" wood joists at 16 inches 
on center spanning from the basement perimeter walls to the bearing lines. 



510 



From what was visible from the basement area the joists appear in good 
condition. However, at the two main bearing lines under room 102, the stone piers 
have been removed. The piers removed were at a location where no columns were 
present. These missing piers leave the 8x10" timber beams to span about 26 feet 
unsupported. This unsupported length has allowed sagging in the beam causing 
some checking and spliting. The western beam has been resupported with an 8 inch 
timber post which has been propped under the beam. The eastern beam is still 
unsupported. All masonry piers and walls appear in fair condition. 

The porch structure of the first floor was rehabilitated at an earlier date. The 
porch appears to have been refrained. The framing appears to be fairly new and in 
good condition. 

Second and Third Floors 

The second and third floor framing systems are similar to each other. At the 
second floor the steel columns extend up from the stone piers in the basement. 
Double steel beams span approximately 26 feet between columns on the bearing 
lines. A wood stud bearing wall extends the bearing line from the beams of the 
second floor up to the third floor above. At the perimeter walls wood stud bearing 
walls extend up from the basement wall in a platform framing configuration. 
Typical wood stud bearing walls are 2x6" studs at 16 inches on center. Floor joists 
of the second and third floors span similar to the first floor below. 2x10" joists span 
approximately 15 feet from the perimeter walls to the bearing line and continue over 
between bearing lines. A second and third floor exists at the main section of the 
building only. The limited visibility of the second and third floors framing showed 
little deterioration of the members. The joists appear in good condition. The second 
and third floor framing plans are shown in figures 2 and 3 below. 



511 



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Figure 3 
Roof Framing 

The main roof framing system consists of a simp'e scheme of rafters, ridges, 
hips, valleys and tie beams. The main roof shows little outward signs of 
deterioration. Framing is most likely 2x10" rafters at 16 inches on center with tie 
beams at the bearing level. It is assumed that the tie beams would bring all roof 
loads back to the perimeter bearing walls for support. 

The roof of the southeastern addition could not be investigated. The roof of 
this area does exhibit some outward signs of deterioration such as sagging. 



513 



CAPACITIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS 



First Floor 



Capacities of framing members were calculated using the field measured sizes 
and spacings in conjunction with the preliminary assumptions previously noted. 
Prior to any renovation of the building the piers that were removed from beneath 
the main bearing beams under room 102 should be replaced. The post used to prop 
the western beam in this area should also be replaced with proper construction. The 
beam should be reinforced to strengthen it because of the checking and splitting 
which has developed. Without replacement of the missing piers the area of room 
102 exhibits a floor live load capacity of about 10 pounds per square foot. It has 
been expressed that room 102 is subject to occasional use. The eastern bearing 
beam under room 102 should be shored up immediately where the same pier has 
been removed until such a time when construction can occur to replace the piers. 

Renovation and restoration of the building is contingent upon replacement 
of the missing piers. Existing live load capacities for the first floor are shown in 
Figure 4 and described below assuming the piers have been replaced. 



514 



- 40 par 

- 100 |Mf 

I S rTA - REQUIRES FURTHER INV€ST)OATK)N 




FTOT H-OCT LIVE LOAD CAPACnV 



Figure 4 

The 8"xl0" beams supporting the first floor will sustain a live load capacity 
of 100 pounds per square foot. However, the joists spanning approximately 15 feet 
from the bearing line to the perimeter walls exhibit a live load capacity of only 40 
pounds per square foot. The current BOCA code requirement for restaurant usage 
is a 100 pounds per square foot live load capacity. The existing floor joists of the 
first floor must be reinforced to sustain the proper loading. Inquiries to the local 
code official regarding exemptions to the 100 pounds per square foot live load 
requirements because of being an existing structure may eliminate the need for joist 
reinforcement at the first floor. The beams as noted are capable of supporting these 
loads and need no reinforcement other than replacing and repairing the area where 
the piers have been removed. The areas between bearing lines should sustain a live 
loading of 100 pounds per square feet. 



515 



The areas below rooms 107 and 108 were inaccessible. A live load capacity 
in these areas cannot be determined. However, some possible joist deterioration is 
evident and these areas should be further investigated during constructed. 

Second and Third Floors 



The second and third floor areas exhibit similar framing and similar loading 
capacities. They are shown in Figure 5 and described below. 



E3S5BJ- wk* 

EZ2Z3- 100 p«« 



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BBCQP AID THFDFUCRLA emAD CAPACITY 



Figure 5 



516 



Floor joists of the second and third floors as well as supporting beams and 
walls are capable of supporting a live load capacity of 40 pounds per square foot. 
These areas are beneath the guest rooms. This existing capacity is equal to the 40 
pounds per square foot capacity required by code for hotel guestrooms. The area 
between bearing lines, which is below the corridor areas, should sustain a live 
loading of 100 pounds per square foot. This is in excess of the code required 80 
pounds per square foot for hotel corridors. The second and third floors appear 
capable of sustaining the required loads for the proposed usage with little or no 
reinforcement. 

Roof Framing 

The existing main roof framing appears in good condition. It currently 
sustains typical roof loadings and should continue to do so. Proper roofing and 
waterproofing should be assured to eliminate any potential for water damage to the 
roof framing. The roof framing of the southeastern addition area should be 
investigated further to determine it continued adequacy. 

CONCLUSION 

Renovation and restoration of the club house for the proposed usage is 
structurally feasible. Joist floor framing appears generally in good condition and 
should sustain required loadings for the second and third floors without 
reinforcement. Joists of the first floor must be reinforced in order to sustain loadings 
required by the current code for its proposed usage. Alternately a reduction of load 
requirements given by the local code official for existing structures may eliminate the 
necessity for joist reinforcement. Prior to any renovation the missing piers at the 
main bearing beams below room 102 must be replaced and the beam which has 
checked and split must be reinforced. At a minimum, if current occupancy is to 
continue, the eastern beam under room 102 where the pier has been removed must 
be shored up. Continued occupancy without addressing the problem could be 
unsafe. The building is safe however for continued study. 



517 



The scope of this structural analysis is limited and general. During any 
renovation work, the owner should retain a licensed structural engineer to review 
specific structural conditions. Any structural repair or reinforcement should be 
designed by a licensed structural engineer. During any renovation work, any joist, 
beam, wall or other possible structural deficiencies which may have been previously 
concealed should be reported to the engineer for review. Proper repair design 
would allow restoration to proceed. 

Possible deficiencies which would not become evident in any restoration 
construction would remain that way in the restored building. In light of this and 
any potential liability, the owner should consider a comprehensive structural 
evaluation. However, it is our opinion that such defects would be minimal. Most 
pertinent structural conditions should become evident during restoration. 

Restoration of the Clubhouse building to a hotel and restaurant is structurally 
feasible. 



518 



WRTA 9197-003.01 



BROWN COTTAGE 



STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 



GENERAL 



The Brown Cottage is a wood framed building. The structure has three 
supported floors plus a sloping, hipped roof. The construction is of the classic 
residential type still in use today. A basement extends beneath a portion of the 
building. Perimeter basement walls are poured concrete infill between wood 
posts/pilings up to the first floor level. These wood posts are partially encased in 
concrete. At the top of the wall wood beams span between posts. Wood stud walls 
extend from this beam up to termination at the roof. There is one main interior 
bearing line that is carried up from the basement through the building. This bearing 
line is used to support typical wood joist floor framing throughout the building. 

Floor framing layouts were developed from a structural field survey of the 
building. Structural information was documented in areas where the structure was 
already exposed. Further information was gathered through minor demolition used 
to expose the structure in other areas (i.e. remove floor boards, break through the 
ceiling). The remainder of the structural system was established by interpolating 
between areas exposed and documented and by noting the layout of each floor. 

This portion of the report includes for each area structural layouts, conditions, 
analyzed floor capacities and recommendations in light of proposed usage. Due to 
the limited nature of exposed areas for review and the limited scope of this 
investigation, a comprehensive structural evaluation is not possible. The following 
structural analysis is a general evaluation of the structural conditions of the building. 
General framing layouts, general floor capacities and the general physical conditions 
of the building were established from a limited visual inspection of open and 



519 



unobstructed areas of the premises on the date of the inspection. Deterioration and 
deficiencies in concealed structural elements may exist and cannot be evaluated in 
this report. Such deficiencies would alter the evaluated floor capacities and change 
the structural recommendations of this report. 

The main purpose of the structural analysis portion of this report is to: 

1) Alert the National Park Service of any evident structural deficiencies 
which may be unsafe, 

2) Report on general capacities and conditions of the structural system 
with respect to proposed usage, 

3) Report on the structural viability of any future repairs, renovations or 
restoration. 

PRELIMINARY ASSUMPTION 

Prior to structural analysis of the framing, the following assumptions were made: 

1) Framing sizes and spacings are assumed to be the same in concealed 
areas as in similar adjacent exposed areas. 

2) The condition of framing members is assumed to be the same in 
concealed areas as in similar adjacent exposed areas. 

3) All wood framing is assumed to be eastern hemlock with minimum 
allowable stresses of 

a). extreme fibers in bending, F b = 1000 psi. 
b). horizontal shear, F v = 70 psi. 

4) Assumed usage for the building, as noted in the scope of work, is as 
rental housing. The current BOCA National Building Code requires 
the following live load capacities for such an structure: 

dwelling units 50 pounds per square foot 

corridors 150 pounds per square foot 

public areas 

and access thereto 100 pounds per square foot 



520 



The BOCA Code makes allowances for existing structures with regard to 
conformance with current codes. This section of the report makes recommendations 
as to the adequacy of the floor capacities for proposed usage in view of the current 
code. It should be left to the judgement of the local code official as to the usage and 
loading code conformance with respect to existing structures. 

EXISTING CONDITIONS 

First Floor 

The majority of the first floor framing is visible from the basement area. The 
basement is divided into two disconnected northern and southern sections separated 
by a masonry wall. All framing conditions of the first floor are referenced to first 
floor framing plan in Figure 1 below. 

As previously noted one interior bearing line originates at the basement and 
continues up through the building. The bearing line runs north to south and crosses 
the basement separation. The bearing line runs between first floor rooms 101 and 
103 and rooms 106 and 107. At the southern section of the basement level the 
bearing line starts at a pier supported timber girder. The girder is approximately 8" 
x 10" and spans about 7 feet between 16" masonry piers and then continues over 
about 9'-9" to bear on the masonry wall dividing wall. The masonry piers appear 
in good condition. The girder in this portion of the building however appears to 
have been damaged by termites. It is not clear if termite activity still exists. It has 
been reinforced by nailing a 2x10 to the side of the girder. 



521 



8'x9 1/2' 




B'x9 1/2' 



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eaara 



RRST FLOOR FRAMNQ 



Figure 1 

Floor joists of this southern portion of the first floor framing span from the 
front and rear perimeter walls to this bearing line. Perimeter walls consist of poured 
concrete between wood post pilings with a wood beam spanning between posts. 
Floor joists are 2x10 members at 16 inches on center which span about 15 feet over 
a rear crawl space area and span approximately 17 feet over a basement in the front 
portion. Visibility of the rear span condition is limited due to the crawl space 
configuration. It appears that the framing members of this area have also been 
damaged by termites. Additional joists are nailed to the original floor joist as a 
means of reinforcement. The front span joists show small areas with evidence of 
prior termite activity but no reinforcement is present and damage appears minimal. 
The northern portion of the first floor framing consists of two spans of 2"xl0" wood 
joist at 16 inches on center, similar to the southern portion, plus a kitchen addition 



522 



on the back of the building. The kitchen addition consists of 2x8 joists at 16 inches 
on center spanning from a rear foundation wall to the main rear wall of the building. 
The joists span over a crawl space area. The joists appear in good condition 
although the crawl space configuration limited inspection access. An opening 
existed in the main rear basement wall for access from the basement into the crawl 
space. An 8x10 wood beam spans the opening and supports the floor joists of the 
kitchen (Room 108) and of Room 107. The northern portion of first floor, excluding 
the kitchen addition, has a basement under the full area. The main floor joists of the 
building again span from perimeter basement walls to the main interior bearing line. 
The bearing line consists of an 8x10" wood beam spanning about 10 feet from the 
dividing wall to a brick fireplace foundation and from the fireplace foundation to the 
side perimeter wall. At the sidewall bearing, the beam has been notched and 
resupported by a 3 inch diameter steel-pipe jack post onto the basement slab. The 
front span (under Room 106) of the floor joists has an intermediate support at about 
5 feet from the main bearing line at the rear wall of the fireplace foundation. This 
supports an 8x 10" wood beam spanning about 10 feet from the dividing wall to a 
4x6 wood post. The joists and beams of the northern half of the first floor framing 
appear in good condition. 

Second Floor Framing 

The second floor framing system spans similar to the floor below. The main bearing 
line and perimeter walls are carried up from the basement by means of wood stud 
bearing walls and wood headers over openings in the walls. Typical bearing walls 
are 2x6" wood studs at 16 inches on center framed in a platform framing 
configuration. The framing plan as shown below in figure 2 consists of the typical 
2x10" wood joists at 16 inches on center. They span from the front and rear 
perimeter walls to the wall at the main bearing line. The front and rear spans are 
approximately 17 feet and 15 feet respectively. 



523 



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SECOND FLOOR FRAMING 



Figure 2 

The floor framing is enclosed by floor decking and ceiling, therefore determining the 
condition of the framing is difficult. The limited visibility of the floor framing 
evidenced no damage or deterioration. Headers at the openings in the walls and 
framing for floor openings of the stairs could not be investigated for size or 
condition. 

Third Floor Framing 

The direction and configuration of the third floor framing as shown in Figure 3 
below is similar to that of the second floor. Joists again span from front and rear 
perimeter stud walls to the main bearing line. Third floor framing differs from floors 
below in that the framing at rooms 303 and 304 consists of 2X8" joists at 16 inches 



524 



on center. Rooms 301 and 302 exhibit the typical 2X10" at 16 inches on center floor 
joists. In Room 301 the bare joists are exposed with no floor deck present. Again 
headers and stair openings could not be evaluated without extensive demolition of 
the finishes. Visible joists appeared in good condition. 



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Figure 3 
Porch (at first floor) 

Framing for the porch at the first floor consists of 2X8 wood joists at about 20 inches 
on center. These joists span approximately 8 feet between 2x8 wood beams. These 
beams are supported at the basement wall of the building and at masonry piers at 
the porch edge. At the eastern corner of the porch a 2x10 beam runs diagonally 
from the corner of the building to the corner of the porch. Porch joists are toe-nailed 
into this beam and in turn the beam is toe-nailed to the wood beam running on top 



525 



of the basement wall. This connection to the basement wall has broken loose 
causing the porch to sag drastically when walked upon. In addition, several of the 
beams are notched our to receive the joists on top. The piers and basement walls 
appear in good condition. The connections of the joists and beams however are not 
in good condition. The deck of the porch shows some deterioration but generally 
appears in fair condition. 

Roof Framing 

The main roof framing system consists of an elaborate scheme of the rafters, hips, 
valleys and tie beams. The finishes, ceilings and roofing did not allow investigation 
of sizes and conditions of the roof framing without substantial demolition. There are 
no visible indications of deterioration or deficiencies. No substantial deflection or 
sagging is evident. 

The secondary roof framing of the front porch again is not visible due to finishes. 
The porch roof however does exhibit noticeable deflections in some areas. There is 
also evidence of wood deterioration and rotting at the overhanging eaves. 



Stairs 



The finishes of the stairs again prevented investigation without demolition. Visible 
evidence suggests that the stairs are in fair condition and adequate for continued 
usage. 

CAPACITIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

First Floor 

Capacities of framing members were calculated using the field measured sizes and 
spacings in conjunction with the preliminary assumptions previously noted. In 



526 



general it was found that floor joists were designed to sustain capacities consistent 
with that of a residential structure. Proposed usage as rental housing corresponds 
with these loading capacities. However, the joist capacity does not control the 
allowable floor live loading in the southern half of the building. Strength 
deficiencies in supporting timber beams which span between piers of the southern 
portion of the main bearing line limit the floor capacity of the first floor as well as 
upper floors. This beam, assuming its physical condition still allowed it to develop 
its full capacity, exhibit an average live load capacity of only about 10 pounds per 
square foot for the southern half of the building on all floors. Termite damage to 
this southern side main bearing beam compounds the problem. The mandatory first 
step in rehabilitating the building is to verify that the presence and activity of 
termites no longer exists. Subsequently, the beam which comprises the main bearing 
line for the southern half of the building must be reinforced to allow any possible 
usage. It is recommended that the owner engage a structural engineer to design the 
reinforcement for the eastern half main bearing beam and any other deficiencies 
subsequently noted. 

Assuming the southern bearing beam will be reinforced, the floor live load capacities 
were found to be as shown in figure 4 and described below. 



527 



- 45 p»f 

- 50 p»f 

_^ - 33 psf 

Y 777T , 





10- 0' 

BSBBfl 



iV 



FfiffT RjOOR LIVE LOAD CAPACITY 



Figure 4 

Rooms 101 and the northern half of Room 106 exhibit similar framing conditions and 
allow a live load capacity of 35 pounds per square foot. The southern half of Room 
106, with an intermediate support beam, has a 55 pound per square foot live load 
capacity. The slightly shorter span of room 107 has a 45 pound per square foot live 
load capacity. The rear kitchen addition should sustain a live loading of 50 pounds 
per square foot. Supporting beams in this western area also allow these same 
loading. 

These loading capacities as previously noted are consistent with that of a residential 
structure. The proposed usage suggests rental housing. Current code requires 
similar 30 and 40 pounds per square foot capacities for residential sleeping and 
dwelling areas respectively. 

Deficiencies exist in the southwest room 103. This area has been damaged by 
termites. Reinforcing because of the termite damage is evident. The adequacy and 



528 



capacity of the reinforcement could not be determined because of limited access 
during investigation. It is questionable however that the reinforcement would allow 
the capacity needed for residential usage. Further investigation of this area is 
suggested. 

Second Floor 

The existing floor framing of the second floor appears in good condition. 
Again after reinforcement of the southern bearing beam in the basement below, the 
floor joists should sustain live loadings consistent with residential structures. 
Eastern rooms 204 and 206 should sustain 35 pounds per square foot of live load. 
The western rooms 202and 208 should sustain live loads of 45 pounds per square 
foot. These capacities are shown in the schematic plan of Figure 5 below. 



HiiSiiriiil - 45 psf 

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8ECX>P FLOOR UVE LOAD CAPACfTY 



Figure 5 

Similar to the first floor, loads are consistent with proposed usage. Rehabilitation 
would not require structural repair other than that previously noted. 



529 



Third Floor 

The existing floor framing of the third floor appears in good condition. 
Contingent upon reinforcing of the eastern bearing beam in the basement the floor 
live load capacities are as shown in Figure 6 and described below. 



20 ptf 
23 psf 
^W*fl " 35 ptf 
Eli^i^nl - 45 ptf 



THIS AREA REQUIRES DECKING 



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10'-0 * 

BEBB 



TUP FLOOR UVE LOAD CAPACfTY 



Figure 6 

The floor joists of room 302 should sustain a live load capacity of 35 pounds 
per square feet. The joists of room 301 currently have no floor deck. With the 
addition of the proper decking the area exhibits a live load capacity of 45 pounds per 
square foot. In rooms 304 and 303 smaller joist framing was encountered dictating 
lesser live load capacities of 20 and 25 pound per square foot respectively. These 
areas would be adequate for residential attic space only. Upgrade to the loading 
requirements for residential sleeping or dwelling areas would require reinforcement. 
The local code official may allow housing usage without reinforcement of these 
areas. 



530 



Roof 



The existing main roof framing appears in good condition. It currently 
sustains typical roof loadings and should continue to do so. Proper roofing and 
waterproofing should be assured to eliminate any potential for water damage to the 
roof framing. 



Front Porch (1st floor) 

The front porch framing is in poor condition. The toe-nailed beam 
connections, notched members and connections which have broken loose all decrease 
the live load capacity of the porch to about 10 pounds per square foot. In addition, 
the secondary roof at the front porch shows some sagging and some possible rotting. 
Because of these substantial deficiencies it is recommended that the entire porch 
structure be replaced and rebuilt. The supporting piers and basement wall are in 
good condition and should allow for relatively easy refraining of the porch. Existing 
members which are undamaged could possibly be reused in reconstruction. 
Deficiencies appear too substantial to allow for simple repair or reinforcing. All 
reframing should be designed by a licensed engineer. 

CONCLUSION 

Renovation and restoration of the Brown Cottage for the proposed usage is 

structurally feasible. Some termite damage has been found in the building. 

Verification of the absence and inactivity of termites should be the first order of 

business. Joist floor framing (other than termite damaged and other areas noted) 

generally appears in good condition and should sustain required loadings. Existing 

floor capacities and most likely the original design capacities are consistent with that 

of a residential structure. Prior to any renovation or any further occupancy of the 

building the southern portion of the main bearing line does require reinforcement 

and repair. Any future occupancy without this repair would be inadvisable. The 

building is currently safe for continued study. The front porch of the building 

contains many deficiencies and defects. It is recommended that any renovation 

should include replacement of the porch structure (floor and roof). 

531 



After the southern portion of the main bearing line is repaired and reinforced, 
the only floor areas which do not appear to meet the loading requirements of the 
proposed housing usage are third floor rooms 304 and 306 and room 103. The third 
floor rooms would require reinforcement to meet code loading requirements for 
residential sleeping rooms. These rooms however are adequate for residential attic 
loadings. The local code official may allow housing usage without reinforcement of 
these areas. Room 103 requires further investigation (removal of flooring) to 
investigate the extent of termite damage and the capacity of this area. 

The scope of this structural analysis is limited and general. During any 
renovation work, the owner should retain a licensed structural engineer to review 
specific structural conditions. Any structural repair or reinforcement should be 
designed by a licensed structural engineer. During any renovation work any joist, 
beam, wall, connection or other possible structural deficiencies which may have been 
previously concealed should be reported to the engineer for review. Proper repair 
design would allow restoration to proceed. 

Possible deficiencies which would not become evident in any restoration 
construction would remain that way in the restored building. In light of this and 
any potential liability, the National Park Service should consider a comprehensive 
structural evaluation. However, it is our opinion that such defects would be 
minimal. Most pertinent structural conditions should become evident during 
restoration. 



532 



WRTA 9197-003.01 



MOORHEAD COTTAGE 



STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 



GENERAL 



The Moorhead Cottage is a wood framed building. The structure has three 
supported floors plus a hipped roof. A basement extends beneath the entire 
footprint of the building. The construction is of the classic residential type still in 
use today. Perimeter basement walls are masonry block infill between brick 
masonry piers up to the first floor level. At the top of the walls wood beams span 
between piers. Wood stud walls extend up from this beam to termination at the 
roof. There are two main interior bearing lines that are carried up from the 
basement through the building. These bearing lines are used to support typical 
wood joist floor framing throughout the building. 

Floor framing layouts were developed from a structural field survey of the 
building. Structural information was documented in areas where the structure was 
already exposed. Further information was gathered through minor demolition used 
to expose the structure in other areas. (i.e. remove floor boards, break through the 
ceiling) The remainder of the structural system was established by interpolating 
between areas exposed and documented and by noting the layout of each floor. 

This portion of the report includes for each area, structural layouts and 
conditions and analyzed floor capacities and recommendations in light of proposed 
usage. Due to the limited nature of exposed areas for review and the limited scope 
of this investigation, a comprehensive structural evaluation is not possible. The 
following structural analysis is a general evaluation of the structural conditions of 
the building. General framing layouts, general floor capacities and the general 
physical conditions of the building were established from a limited visual inspection 
of open and unobstructed areas of the premises on the date of the inspection. 



534 



Deterioration and deficiencies in concealed structural elements may exist and cannot 
be evaluated in this report. Such deficiencies would alter the evaluated floor 
capacities and change the structural recommendations of this report. 

The main purpose of the structural analysis portion of this report is to: 

1. Alert the National Park Service of any evident structural deficiencies which 
may be unsafe, 

2. Report on general capacities and conditions of the structural systems with 
respect to proposed usage, 

3. Report on the structural viability of any future repairs, renovations or 
restoration. 

PRELIMINARY ASSUMPTIONS 

Prior to structural analysis of the framing, the following assumptions were made: 

1. Framing sizes and spacings are assumed to be the same in concealed areas 
as in similar adjacent exposed areas. 

2. The condition of framing members is assumed to be the same 
in concealed areas as in similar adjacent exposed areas. 

3. All wood framing is assumed to be eastern hemlock with minimum allowable 
stresses of 

a. extreme fibers in bending, F b = 1000 psi. 

b. horizontal shear, F v = 70 psi. 

4. Assumed usage for the building, as noted in the scope of work, is as a multi- 
purpose building. At the first floor the existing kitchen will be rehabilitated 
to a working kitchen, the southeast room is proposed for library use 

and the remainder of the first floor is proposed for historic restoration and 
exhibit. The second floor is proposed for historic restoration and exhibit also 
and the third floor is proposed for office space. The current BOCA National 
Building Code requires the following live load capacities for such an 
establishment: 

office 50 pounds per square foot 

535 



library 150 pounds per square foot 

public areas 

and access thereto 100 pounds per square foot 

exhibit areas 100 pounds per square foot 

The BOCA Code makes allowances for existing structures with regard to 
conformance with current codes. This report makes recommendations as to the 
adequacy of the floor capacities for proposed usage in view of the current code. It 
should be left to the judgement of the local code official as to the usage and loading 
code conformance with respect to existing structures. 

EXISTING CONDITIONS 

First Floor 

Existing first floor framing is visible from the basement area. All framing 
conditions of the first floor are referenced to the First Floor Framing Plan in Figure 
1. below. 



536 



BEARING LINE #1 m , 



BEARING UNE 12 



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nRST FLOOR FRAMING 



Figure 1 

As previously noted two interior bearing lines running east to west originate at the 
basement and continue up through the building. The first bearing line (#1) runs 
between first floor rooms 101 and 104. At the basemen 1 ; level this bearing line starts 
at an 8 inch masonry wall. Floor joists for rooms 104, 105, 106 and 107 span from 
the northern perimeter wall to this line. These joists are 2 1/2" x 10" (actual 
dimension) timber members spanning approximately 18 feet. Beneath room 104 an 
8" masonry partition wall encloses the fireplace foundation and cuts the joist span 
to approximately 13 feet. Below room 105 the joist span is cut in half to 
approximately 9 feet where a 7 1/2" x 7 1/2" timber beam supports them midway 
between walls. This beam is in turn supported on masonry piers. The walls and 
timber framing in this area (below rooms 104, 106, and 107) seems to be in good 
condition. No significant checking, splitting or warping is evident. 



537 



At the entrance to room 104 lies an exterior porch. Framing consists of 2" x 8" 
joists at 20" on center. The joists use the same bearing lines as room 104 and, similar 
to that area, a masonry partition wall below shorten the span. A 6" x 10" timber 
beam lies beneath the entrance wall and runs parallel to the floor framing. 

The second bearing line (#2) runs between rooms 101 and 102. At the basement 
level this line starts at a double line of beams. Floor framing for the middle portion 
(rooms 100 and 101) of the first floor consist of 2" x 10" joists at 16" on center 
spanning about 12 feet from this bearing line to bearing line #1. 

This beam bearing line #2 consists of 6" x 10" timber beams spanning 
approximately 11 feet between V x T masonry piers. The two lines are offset by 
approximately 1 foot. Neither beam line extends over the length of the building. 
Overlap occurs only beneath the entrance from room 100 to room 103. At the 
western beam line, the masonry pier under the corners of rooms 100, 101, 102 and 
103 has been cut away. The pier has been replaced with an 8" diameter timber post. 
This post is unmilled, unfinished wood used to prop up the timber beam. The 
condition of this bearing line is suspect. Masonry piers are out of plumb. Water 
staining is evident suggesting possible water damage. Unmilled lumber is not used 
in standard construction suggesting previous alterations. 

The southern most area of floor framing lies under rooms 102 and 103. The floor 
of room 103 is severely sloped. The framing consists of again 2" x 10" joists at 16" 
on center. These joists span from the southern most perimeter basement wall to the 
double beam bearing line. The condition of the joists in this area appears fair. The 
southern basement perimeter wall however does exhibit a hole in the masonry block 
infill between brick piers. Exterior grade slopes down from the first floor level at 
this location and allows substantial water penetration into the basement area. 

The porch at the entrance to room 101 exhibits similar framing to the typical floor 
structure and uses an 8 inch exterior masonry wall for bearing. This basement and 
porch area and their walls appear to have been built at a lime later than that of the 



538 



main structure. The eastern, non-bearing basement wall of this area seems to have 
shifted and is leaning out moderately. 

Second and Third Floor Framing 

The second and third floor framing systems are similar to each other. Bearing 
walls extend up from the bearing lines below the first floor and from the perimeter 
walls. Typical bearing walls are 2" x 6" wood studs at 16" on center. The framing 
plans are as shown in figures 2 and 3 below. 



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Figure 2 



539 



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Figure 3 

As floors below, 2" x 10" joists at 16" on center are the typical floor framing 
members. Joist spans at the northern section of the building are approximately 18 
feet. The span of the middle section of framing is approximately 13 feet. The spans 
at the southern section of the building are approximately 18 feet and 13 feet at rooms 
202(302) and 203(303) respectively. The second and third floors framing are enclosed 
by floor decking and ceiling, therefore determining the condition of the framing is 
difficult. The minimal, unobstructed areas witnessed no significant deterioration. 
Framing appeared in good condition. 



540 



Roof Framing 

The roof framing system consists of an elaborate scheme of rafters, hips and tie 
beams. The framing is in fair condition and shows few signs of deterioration. 
Framing consists of mainly 2x8" and 10" rafters and hip beams. Bearing lines seem 
to be in line with the typical bearing lines carried through the building below. 



Stairs 



The main stairs of the building are in poor condition. The main stair run of each 
floor consists of a 3 piece, bent wood stair stringer with a newel post. A newel post 
does not act as a vertical support to the stringer. It acts as a rigid connection 
between bends of the stringer. Time and repeated loading has deteriorated the 
newel post connection. The post now acts as a pinned connection and rotation is 
evident between stringer bends. Some portions of the stair have visibly dropped 
down from their original positions. Further stair framing was not visible for 
documentation. 

CAPACITIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

First Floor 

Capacities of framing members were calculated using the field measured sizes 
and spacings in conjunction with the preliminary assumptions previously noted. In 
general, floor joist capacities were below code requirements for the proposed usage. 
However, the joist capacity does not control the allowable floor live loading for 
much of the first floor area. Strength deficiencies in supporting timber beams, 
especially along bearing line #2, further limit the floor capacity for the first floor as 
well as upper floors. Beams of bearing line #2, assuming their physical condition 
still allows them to develop their full capacity, exhibit an average live load capacity 
of only about 10 pounds per square foot for the southern and middle areas on all 
floors. If the building is to be rehabilitated and used, regardless of the usage, the 



541 



timber beam members along bearing line #2 of the first floor framing must be 
reinforced. It is recommended that the owner engage a structural engineer to design 
the reinforcement for the bearing line and any other deficient areas. Once bearing 
line #2 has been repaired these floor areas should sustain a minimum capacity of 40 
pounds per square foot. This would conform to required loadings for a residential 
structure but is still inferior to the loading requirements for the multiple purposes 
of the building as noted in the Preliminary Assumptions. Substantial reinforcement 
to a majority of the joist members would be required in order to attain proposed 
usage capacities. 

The masonry wall which bases bearing line #1 appears in good condition. Floor 
capacities in that area are therefore controlled by the joist framing. Rooms 106 and 
107 should have a floor live load capacity of 40 pounds per square foot, while the 
shortened span of room 104 allows a greater, 100 pounds per square foot live load 
capacity. 

In Figure 4 below floor capacities of the first floor are noted. These capacities 
and, in fact, any proposed usage is contingent upon reinforcement of bearing line #2. 



542 



BEARING LINE #1 m 



528823 - 40 p.f 
I 1 - 55 psf 

- 83 psf 

- 100 psf 




nrer flo or live load ca pacity 



Figure 4 

The floor capacity of room 105 is also 40 pounds per square foot, however the 
beam shortened span of the joists has potential for up to 60 pounds per square foot 
if the 7 1 /2" beam is reinforced. 

The severely sloping floor experienced in room 103 is most likely due to a 
combination of the inadequacy of bearing line #2 and possible settlement of the 
perimeter walls in that area. After the remedial work is done to bearing line #2 the 
floor should again be checked to see if the sloping has been mitigated. Evaluation 
should be made at that time to see if foundation reinforcement for settlement is 
necessary. 

Basement walls of the building appear in good condition. The southern most 
wall does however exhibit a hole in the masonry block infill between brick piers. 
This hole allows water penetration. This wall should be rebuilt or repaired as 
necessary to enclose the basement and first floor framing and protect them from 



543 



weather. In addition the piers of bearing line #2 should be analyzed and reinforced 
as necessary to correspond with any reinforcement of bearing beams above. The 
unmilled timber post of bearing line #2 should be replaced and the supporting pier 
should be rebuilt. New piers should be built as necessary along bearing line #2 to 
facilitate beam reinforcement. 

Second and Third Floors 

Existing floor framing of the second and third floors appears in good condition. 
Again, after reinforcement of bearing line #2, floor joists should sustain loadings 
compatible with a residential structure. The loading requirements of the proposed 
usage however are in excess of these capacities and substantial reinforcement would 
be required to all joist members to attain proposed use capacities. The northern 
portion of the second and third floors has a capacity of 40 pounds per square foot. 
The middle portion of these floors has a capacity of 85 pounds per square foot. 
These capacities are shown in the schematic plans below. 



544 



Y77777A - 83 P .f 




10'- 0" 



8EOOM3 FLOOR LIVE LOAD CAPACfTY 



Figure 5 



545 



ESSS3 - «o p" 
Y/////A - 85 p.f 




1O'-0" 

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ir 



TfffP FL O OR LIVE LOAD CA PAQfTY 



Figure 6 



Stairs 



The existing stairs are not adequate to sustain continued usage. It is 
recommended that, prior to any further renovation work and after reinforcement of 
the bearing line, repair of the stairs should be completed. Repairs should be 
designed by a licensed structural engineer. Repairs could possibly consist of reuse 
of the existing newel posts to rigidly reconnect new stair stringers. The stringer 
connection to the newel post is most likely where the current deficiency lies. 

Roof Framing 

The existing roof framing appears in good condition. It currently sustains typical 
roof loadings and should continue to do so. Proper roofing and waterproofing 
should be assured to eliminate any potential for water damage to the roof framing. 
Any restoration of the roof to its original towered peak should be engineered. 



54 h 



CONCLUSION 

Renovation and restoration of ihe Moorhead Cottage for the proposed usage is 
structurally feasible with significant modifications to the structure of the building. 
Joist floor framing generally appears in good condition. However, existing floor 
capacities and most likely the original design capacities are consistent with that of 
a residential structure and do not meet the capacity requirements of the proposed 
usage. A special code allowance from the local code official or substantial 
reinforcement of all floor areas is required for restoration and renovation to the 
proposed usage. 

Regardless of the proposed usage and prior to any renovation or any further 
occupancy of the building the main bearing line #2 does require reinforcement and 
repair. Following line #2 reinforcement, the main stair should be repaired. Any 
continued occupancy would be unsafe in light of both the stair and the bearing line 
deficiencies. The building, however, is currently safe for continued study. 

After bearing line reinforcement, the framing appears to be able to sustain a 
minimum of 40 pounds per square foot. This loading is compatible with that 
required by residential structures but not suitable for the multi-purpose proposed 
usage. 

Upgrade of the structural capacities for the second and third floors in particular 
would be difficult and costly because the structure of these areas is enclosed with 
little possibility for intermediate support. However, upgrade of the first floor 
capacity may be more feasible since the structure is exposed with the possibility of 
installing intermediate supports in the basement. 

The scope of this structural analysis is limited and general. During any 
renovation work, the National Park Service should retain a licensed structural 
engineer to review specific structural conditions. Any structural repair or 
reinforcement should be designed by a licensed structural engineer. During any 



547 



renovation work, any joist, beam, wall or other possible structural deficiencies which 
may have been previously concealed should be reported to the engineer for review. 
Proper repair design would allow restoration to proceed. 

Possible deficiencies which would not become evident in any restoration 
construction would remain that way in the restored building. In light of this and 
any potential liability, the National Park Service should consider a comprehensive 
structural evaluation. However, it is our opinion that such defects would be 
minimal. Most pertinent structural conditions should become evident during 
restoration. 

All recommendations and conclusions of this section of the report are made with 
respect to the proposed usages in the previously noted Preliminary Assumptions. 
Any variance of the proposed use would change the recommendations and 
conclusions of this report although the structural capacities as noted would not 
change. 

Restoration of the Moorhead Cottage and renovation to its proposed multi- 
purpose usage is structurally feasible. However, substantial structural 
modification and reinforcement would be required. Such modifications would 
most likely be costly. Special code allowance for existing structures given by the 
local code official could mitigate repairs required. 



548 



APPENDIX B.4. CONTEMPORARY PERIOD 

COTTAGE & CLUBHOUSE DESIGNS 



As discussed in the Historical Narrative of this Historic Structures Report, no evidence 
has been discovered to date to attribute any of the South Fork Club buildings to any 
particular architects. Alternatively, the cottages and the Clubhouse may have been 
derived from patternbooks of the time. A study of a number of contemporaneous 
patternbooks revealed some similar designs and provided some precedents for the 
conjectural plans. Those examples which were found to be of particular relevance are 
illustrated on the pages that follow. 



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Figure 2 

Clubhouse of the Greenwood Lake Association 

First and Second Floor Plans 

Vancampen Taylor, Architect, Newark, NJ 

1883 

Source: Comstock, William T., Country Houses and Seaside Cottages of the 
Victorian Era. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1989, Plate XXXIX. 
Slightly revised publication of original Comstock publication, American Cottages . 
New York: William T. Comstock, Architectural Publisher, 1883. 

The plans of this contemporaneous clubhouse design suggest the public, support, 
and sleeping spaces that might have typified a building of this type. 



553 




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Figure 4 

Design for New York Athletic Club's Country Club House 

Exterior Renderings and First, Second, and Third Floor Plans 

George Martin Huss, Architect 

1888 

Source: Scully, Vincent, The Architecture of the American Summer. New York: 

Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1989, Plate 82. 

First published in American Architect and Building News, Vol. 23, No. 649, 2 June 

1888. 

While higher-styled and more complex in plan than the South Fork Clubhouse, this 
design provides additional evidence to support the room functions and adjacencies 
proposed in the 1889 conjectural plans. 



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Figure 7 

Plate XIV 

Exterior Rendering and First and Second Floor Plans 

Palliser, Architect 

1878 

Source: Palliser' s Model Homes. Bridgeport, CT: Palliser, Palliser & Co., 1878. 
Republished in Felton, CA: Glenwood Publishers, 1972, Plate XrV. 

This design, which pre-dates the Moorhead Cottage by approximately five years, 
illustrates two possible functions for the small windowed room adjoining the dining 
room: "Plant Cabinet" or "Bath R." 



563 



Plate XI T. 





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564 



Figure 8 

House Recently Erected in California 

Plans, Exterior Elevations, and Details 

1881 

Source: Comstock, William T., Victorian Dometic Architectural Plans and Details. 
New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1987. Slightly revised republication of original 
Comstock Publication, Modern Architectural Designs and Details . . .. New York: 
William T. Comstock, Architectural Publisher, 1881. 

This plan illustrates one of many precedents for a full second story bath, as well as an 
unusual kitchen -dining room transition that might be useful in explaining the 
Moorhead Cottage arrangement. 



565 



■■'~<LXd-H oust: s*^—. 

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MMN STMRS. 



Figure 9 

A Cottage Design and A Cottage 

Plans and Exterior Elevations 

Wm. B. Tuthill, New York City, Architect 

c.1883 

Source: Comstock, William T., Country Houses and Seaside Cottages of the 
Victorian Era. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1989. Slightly revised 
republication of original Comstock publication, American Cottages .... New York: 
William T. Comstock, Architectural Publisher, 1883, Plate V. 

Here are illustrated two designs where entry is directly into a large square hall with a 
large fireplace, one central and the other exterior, and both with adjoining stairwells, 
as has been suggested in the conjectural plans for the Brown Cottage. 



567 



AMERICAN COTTAGES. 



Plate V 



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569 



AMERICAN COTTAGES. 



Plate VII 




570 



APPENDIX B.5. MAPS 

Nine historic maps, dating from 1890 to 1972, have been identified which show the South 
Fork Fishing and Hunting Club site. The maps were used, in conjunction with the 
historic photographs, to develop the Conjectural 1889 Site Plan in Section III. A. Based 
on the Caldwell 1890 Atlas, the map of Conemaugh Lake prepared by George M. Wertz 
in 1907, the plan of St. Michael prepared by John Sechler in 1907, and the Clarke 
photographs, it is believed that the Club had a total of fourteen cottages in 1889, plus the 
Clubhouse and Annex. 

Some discrepancies exist among the maps. The 1890 Atlas shows only four structures 
to the north of the Clubhouse, while the Wertz and Sechler maps indicate five structures, 
the first of which is the Annex. To the south of the Clubhouse, the Caldwell 1890 Atlas 
shows only eight structures and the Sechler map shows only seven (although its 
coverage ends at the Moorhead Cottage). The Wertz map, however, shows ten and the 
Clarke photos collectively show these ten structures and their interrelationships. Both 
the Sechler and Wertz maps confirm the demolition of the third cottage south of the 
Clubhouse (No. 8) by 1907, as the structure does not appear on either map. The Wertz 
map also shows an eleventh structure at the very southern end of the Club property to 
the south of Cottage No. 1. Perhaps archaeological evidence can be uncovered to 
determine whether a structure existed in that location. No photographs illustrate that 
site. 



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. MAP ACCURACY STANOAR 

/ <VEY. WASHINGTON. D. < 
// SYMBOLS IS AVAILABLE 



map ACCURACY STANOAROS 

. C 20242 

ON REQUEST 



OUAORANGLE LOCATION 

'•."■■•on . ,ii'j/.n ii ju'p'c compiled in cooptrot'On W tih 
'.ill.- r.l l'i rn-./l..ini.i ai;on':i'.'. Iiom acnal phologiaphj 
l.ikvn l'J/2 This inlo'malion not Neld checVcd 



1964 

PHOTOREVISED 1972 
AMS 5264 IV SE-SERIES V6JI 



,"65 



■US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1993-840 227 



590 




As the nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has responsibility for 
most of our nationally owned public lands and natural resources. This includes fostering sound use of 
our land and water resources; protecting our fish, wildlife, and biological diversity; preserving the 
environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical places; and providing for the 
enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The department assesses our energy and mineral 
resources and works to ensure that their development is in the best interests of all our people by 
encouraging stewardship and citizen participation in their care. The department also has a major 
responsibility for American Indian reservation communities and for people who live in island territories 
under U.S. administration. 

The Southwestern Pennsylvania Heritage Preservation Commission is a federally appointed 
organization within the Department of the Interior. The commission is a catalyst for partnership efforts 
to conserve, interpret, and promote the sites, landscapes, and stories of America's industrial heritage 
in southwestern Pennsylvania. Through this conservation and commemoration effort, the commission 
will also stimulate economic development in the region. This product was prepared for the commission 
through a partnership effort with the National Park Service. 

NPS D-88 Volume 2 of 2 December 1993 





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