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anicricau Ibistoric Zovone 

HISTORIC TOWNS 

OF 

NEW ENGLAND 



Edited by 

LYMAN P. POWELL 



Illustrated 



G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 
NEW YORK & LONDON 
Zbc 1kiucJ?crbocher press 

T898 



THIS VOLUME DOES NOT 

ClhCULAjt 



f 

1 1 



. ^'■cA 




Copyright, 1898 

BY 

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 
Entered at Stationers' Hall, London 



vd o 



BD 



Ube Tknichcrbocfccr press, "flew li?orft 



PREFACE 



TN July, 1893, while the first Summer Meet- 
^ ing of the American Society for the Ex- 
tension of University Teaching was in session 
at the University of Pennsylvania, I con- 
ducted the students, in trips taken from week 
to week, to historic spots in Philadelphia, the 
battle-fields of the Brandywine and of Ger- 
mantown, and to the site of the winter camp at 
Valley Forge. The experiment was brought 
to the attention of Dr. Albert Shaw, and at 
his instance I made a plea through the pages 
of T/ie A77terican Moiithly Review of Reviews, 
October, 1893, for the revival of the mediaeval 
pilgrimage, and for its adaptation to educa- 
tional and patriotic uses. After pointing out 
some of the advantages of visits paid under 
competent guidance and with reverent spirit to 
spots made sacred by high thinking and self-for- 
getful living, I suggested a ten days' pilgrimage 
in the footsteps of George Washington. 



IV 



Preface 



The suggestion took root in the pubHc 
mind. Leading journals commended the idea. 
New England people, already acquainted with 
the thought of local historical excursions, hailed 
the proposed pilgrimage with enthusiasm. Men 
and women from a score of States avowed 
their eagerness to make the experiment ; and 
at the close of the University Extension Sum- 
mer Meeting of July, 1894, in which I had 
lectured on American history, I found myself 
conducting for the University Extension So- 
ciety a pilgrimage, starting from Philadelphia, 
to Hartford, Boston, Cambridge, Lexington, 
Concord, Salem, Plymouth, Newburg, West 
Point, Tarry town, Tappan, New York, Prince- 
ton, and Trenton. 

The press contributed with discrimination the 
publicity essential to success. Every commu- 
nity visited rendered intelligent and generous 
co-operation. And surely no pilgrims, mediae- 
val or modern, ever had such leadership ; for 
among our cicerones and patriotic orators 
were : Col. T. W. Higginson, Drs. Edward 
Everett Hale and Talcott Williams, Hon. 
Hampton L. Carson, Messrs. Charles Dudley 
Warner, Richard Watson Gilder, Charles Carl- 
ton Coffin, Frank B. Sanborn, Edwin D. Mead, 



Preface v 

Hezeklah Butterworth, George P. Morris, Pro- 
fessors W. P. Trent, William M. Sloane, W. 
W. Goodwin, E. S. Morse, Brig.-Gen. O. B. 
Ernst, Major Marshall H. Bright, and Rev. 
William E. Barton. 

I had planned in the months that followed to 
publish a souvenir volume containing the more 
important addresses made by distinguished 
men on the historic significance of the places 
visited ; but as the happy experience receded 
into the past a larger thought laid hold of me. 
Why not sometime in the infrequent leisure of 
a busy minister's life edit a series of volumes 
on American Histo7^ic Toiviis ? Kingsley's 
novels were written amid parish duties, and 
Dr. McCook has found time, amid exacting 
ministerial duties, to make perhaps the most 
searching study ever made by an American of 
the habits of spiders. Medical experts agree 
concerning the value of a wholesome avoca- 
tion to the man who takes his vocation seri- 
ously ; and congregations are quick to give 
ear to the earnest preacher whose sermons be- 
tray a large outlook on life. 

A series of illustrated volumes on American 
Historic Towns, edited with intelligence, would 
prove a unique and important contribution to 



vi Preface 

historical literature. To the pious pilgrim to 
historic shrines the series would, perhaps, give 
the perspective that every pilgrim needs, and 
furnish information that no guide-book ever 
offers. To those who have to stay at home 
the illustrated volumes would present some 
compensation for the sacrifice, and would help 
to satisfy a recognized need. The volumes 
would probably quicken public interest in 
our historic past, and contribute to the mak- 
ing of another kind of patriotism than that 
Dr. Johnson had in mind when he defined it 
as the "last refuge of a scoundrel." 

I foresaw some at least of the serious diffi- 
culties that await the editor of such a series. 
If all the towns for which antiquarians and 
local enthusiasts would fain find room should 
be included, the series would be too long. A 
staff of contributors must be secured, pos- 
sessing literary skill, historical insight, the 
antiquarian's patience, and enough confidence 
in the highest success of the series to be pre- 
pared to waive any requirement of adequate 
pecuniary compensation. Space must be ap- 
portioned with impartial but not unsympathetic *^ 
hand, and the illustrations selected with due 
discrimination. And, finally, publishers were 



Preface vii 

to be found willing- to assume the expense 
required for the production in suitable form of 
a series for which no one could with accuracy 
forecast the sale. 

The last and perhaps most serious difficulty 
was removed almost a year ago when Messrs. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons expressed a willingness to 
take the commercial risk involved in publishing 
the present volume, which will, it is hoped, be 
the first of a series. Contributors were then 
found whose work has, I trust, secured for 
the undertaking an auspicious beginning. 
Critics inclined at first glance to speak harshly 
of the differences amonor the contributors in 
style and in literary method are advised to 
withhold judgment till a closer reading has 
made clear, as it will, the fundamental 
differences there are among the towns them- 
selves in history and in spirit. Adequate 
reasons which need not be stated here have 
made it advisable to omit Lexington, Groton, 
Portsmouth, the Mystic towns, and other 
towns which would naturally be included in a 
later volume on New England Towns, in case 
the publication should be continued. 

So many have co-operated in the making of 
this book that I will not undertake to name 



VIU 



Preface 



them all. But I cannot forbear to acknowledge 
the valuable assistance I have received at every 
stage of the work from Mr. G. H. Putnam, 
Mr. George P. Morris, associate editor of 
The Congregationalist, and Miss Gertrude 
Wilson, instructor In history at the historic 
Emma Willard School. The Century Com- 
pany has. In the preparation of the first chapter 
on Boston and the chapter on Newport, kindly 
allowed the use of certain illustrations and 
portions of articles on Boston and Newport, 
which have appeared in St. Nicholas and old 
Scribner s respectively. Some of the Illustra- 
tions for the Portland chapter have been fur- 
nished by Lamson, the Portland photographer. 

The Essex Institute, with characteristic gen- 
erosity, has loaned most of the cuts for the 
Salem chapter. The Ohio State Archaeologi- 
cal and Historical Society has allowed the 
reproduction from The Ohio Quarterly of some 
of the designs In the Rutland chapter, while 
certain of the illustrations in the Cape Cod 
Towns chapter appeared first in Fabnoiith 
Illustrated. 

Conscious of the editorial shortcomings of 
the volume, I still dare to hope that it may 
have such a cordial reception as will justify the 



Preface 



IX 



publication at some time of a volume on His- 
toric Towns of the Middle States. 

Lyman P. Powell 

Ambler, Pennsylvania 
September 21, 1898. 




CONTENTS 



Introduction 
Portland 
Rutland, Mass. 
Salem 

Boston . 

Cambridge 

Concord . 

Plymouth 

Cape Cod Towns 

Deerfield 

Newport 

Providence 

Hartford 

New Haven . 



George Perry Morris . 
Samuel T. Pickard . 
Edwin D. Mead 
George Dimmick Latimer . 
Thomas Wentworth Hig- 



53 
8i 

121 



ginson 


.67 


Edward Everett Hale 


,87 


Samuel A. Eliot 


211 


Frank B. Sanborn 


243 


Ellen Watson . 


• 299 


Katharine Lee Bates . 


• 345 


George Sheldon 


• 403 


Susan Coolidge 


. 443 


William B. Weeden . 


• 475 


Mary K. Talcott 


• 507 


Frederick H. Cogswell 


• 553 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plymouth in 1622 



PORTLAND 



Froitispit'ce 



White Head, Gushing Island 

Deering's Woods 

Showing brook which the soldiers had t(j ford in the fight 
with the Indians in i63q. 

First Parish Church 

Containing the Mowatt cannon-ball. 

The Birthplace of Longfellow 

Henry W. Longfellow ....••• 
N. P. Willis . . 

RUTLAND 

Dr. Cutler's Church and Parsonage at Ipswich Ham- 
let, 1787 ^ 

View of Rutland Street ^ 

Manasseh Cutler ^ 



PAGE 



55 
59 

63 

67 
73 
77 



83 
85 
91 



1 Reproduced by permission of A. S. Burbank, Plymouth, Mass. 

2 Reproduced by permission of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical 
Society, Columbus, Ohio. 

3 Reproduced by permission of C. R. Bartlett, Rutland, Mass. 

xiii 



XIV 



Illustrations 



Nathan Dane ^ 

RuFus Putnam ^ 

Site of Marietta and Harmar, 1788 ^ . . . 
The " Central Tree " -^ ...... 

The Old Rutland Inn ■*...... 

View of Rutland Centre from Muschopauge Hill ^ 

British Barracks ^ 

The Rufus Putnam House ^ . . 

SALEM 

Governor Endicott's Sun-Dial and Sword ' 

The First Meeting-House, 1634-3Q ^ . 

Governor Simon Bradstreet ^ . 

Governor John Endicott ^ 

« 
The Pickering Fireback ' . 

Old Cradle ^ ..... 

The Roger Williams' or " Witch House ' 

Witch Pins ' . 

Timothy Pickering .... 

Some Old Doorways ' . 

BowDiTCH Desk and Quadrant ' 

William H. Prescott .... 

Nathaniel Hawthorne 

From an engraving from a painting by C. G. Thompson. 
Nathaniel Hawthorne — Birthplace of Hawthorne — 
House of the Seven Gables — Grimshawe House — 

The Old Town Pump ^ 

Seal of the City of Salem ' ...... 



PAGE 

92 
95 

lOI 

103 
104 
107 
112 
114 



122 

123 

125 
126 
128 
131 
137 
142 

153 

155 
158 
160 
163 



165 
166 



^ Reproduced by permission of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 
^ Reproduced by permission of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical 
Society, Columbus, Ohio. 

^ Reproduced by permission of C. R. Bartlett, Rutland, Mass. 

^ Reproduced by permission of the Neiv England Magazine^ Boston, Mass. 



Illustrations 



XV 



BOSTON 

Succory or " Boston Weed " 
Trinity Church ' .... 

Boston in 1757 ..... 
From a drawing by Governor Pownall. 

" Old Corner Bookstore " ' 

Oliver Wendell Holmes 

Public Library 

Map of Boston in 1722 

Charles Sumner . 

Phillips Brooks . 

Faneuil Hall in the i8th Century 

Governor Thomas Hutchinson . 

From a portrait in possession of the Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society, once the property of Jonathan Mayhew. 



r Condition. Built 



The Old South Church in its Presen 

in 1729 
Old State House 
James Otis 
Samuel Adams 

Boston Massacre 

From a painting by A. Chappel. 

Landing of British Troops at Boston, 1768 

Map of Boston in 1775 

The Frog Pond on the Common as ir now Appears 

Seal of the City of Boston .... 



167 
169 
172 

175 
177 
179 
180 
182 
184 
189 
190 



193 
197 
199 
201 
203 

205 
206 
209 
210 



CAMBRIDGE 



Harvard College Gate 
Home of Longfellow . 



213 

215 



^ Reproduced by permission of Daniel W. Colbath &. Co., Boston, Mass. 



• 



XVI 



Illustrations 



" The Muses' Factories." — Lowell . 

Statue of John Harvard and Memorial Hall 

College 

Holworthy Hall, Harvard College 
Home of Lowell . 
Washington Elm . 
James Russell Lowell 
Gymnasium, Harvard College 
William E. Russell 







PAGE 


• 




221 


, Harv 


ard 


225 
229 
231 
233 

237 
240 



CONCORD 



Concord River, by Thoreau's Landing 

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1858) 

From a sketch by Rowse. 
The Light at the Bridge ' . 

Redrawn from Ralph Earle's sketch of 1775. 
The Battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775 

From an old print. 
Muskets of Captain John Parker 
The Minute-Man- 

French's first statue. 
Hawthorne's Old Manse . 
Revolutionary Inn' . 
Henry Thoreau (1857) ' 
Graves of the Emerson Family 
Home of Emerson 
A. Bronson Alcott (1S75) ' . 
Louise M. Alcott 
Seal of the City of Concord 



245 
252 

255 
263 

266 
269 

274 

277 
2S0 
283 
287 
292 

295 

297 



^ Reproduced by permission of the New England Magazine, Boston, Mass. 
« Reproduced by permission of the W. H. Brett Engraving Co., Boston, Mass. 



307 
313 

321 

323 

333 



Illustrations xvli 



PLYMOUTH 

Facsimile of a Page from Governor Bradford's Manu- 
script, " Plimoth Plantation " .... 301 
The original is now in the Boston State House. 
Pulpit Rock, Clarke's Island ' ..... 302 

The Early Norman Doorway at Austerfield Church . 305 

The Old Fort and First Meeting-House. on Burial 
Hill, 1621 ' 

Governor Edward Winslow ' 

The Harbor ' 

Plymouth in 1622 ' 

The " Mayflower" in Plymouth Harbor ' 

From the painting by W. F. Halsall, in Pilgrim Hall. 
The Old Colony Seal ........ 334 

The Landing of the F.\thers, Plymouth, December 22, 

1620 335 

Copied from an old painting on glass. 

The Fuller Cradle 337 

An Old English Spinning-Wheel 338 

The Doten House, 1660 ^ 339 

The oldest house in Plymouth. 

The Grave of Dr. Francis Le Barran, the Nameless 

Nobleman ' . . . . . . . . . 342 

Seal of the City of Plymouth ...... 343 

CAPE COD TOWNS 

The Beach, Falmouth ^ 347 

Map OF Cape Cod Section ^ 349 

Provincetown . -355 

^ Reproduced by permission of A. S. Burbank, Plymouth, Mass. 
' Reproduced by permission of the Falmouth Board of Industry, Falmouth, 
Mass. 

' Reproduced by permission of Geo. H, Walker & Co., Boston, Mass. 



XVI 11 



Illustrations 



Wharves at Provincetown 
Provincetown in 1S39 . 
From an old drawing. 
Highland Light .... 
Oyster Point, Wellfleet . 
Bishop and Clerk Light, Hyannis 
Old Windmill, Eastham 
Ruins of the Chatham Light 
Life- Saving Station at Wellfleet 
Bass River Bridge, South Yarmouth 
Barnstable Inn .... 
Bird's-eye View of Falmouth ' . 
The Village Green '^ . 
Shirick's Pond, Falmouth ' 

The Whale-Ship "Commodore Morris" and the 
mouth Captains who Sailed in Her ' 

DEERFIELD 

Old Deerfield Street, 1671-1898 

Frary House, 1698 

Oldest in the county. 
Third Meeting-House, 1695-1729 

(Old Indian house on the right.) 

Parson Williams's House 

Built by the town, 1707 — standing 1898. 

Door of " Old Indian House " Hacked by Indians 

Now in Memorial Hall. 
Tombstones of Rev. John Williams and his Wife 

Stephen Williams, 1693-1782 .... 
A captive of February 29, 1703-4. 



Fal 



359 
363 

371 
373 
376 

378 

383 
3S6 

387 
389 
395 
397 
399 

401 



405 
408 

419 

421 

423 

425 
428 



^ Reproduced by permission of the Falmouth Board of Industry, Falmouth, 
Mass. 

* Reproduced by permission of W. H. Hewins, Falmouth, Mass. 



Illustrations 



XIX 



George Fuller, 1822-1884 . . . . 
Buffet from " Parson Williams's " House 
Now in Memorial Hall. 



PAGE 

437 
439 



NEWPORT 

The Old Stone Mill 

Newport in 1795 ' 

George Berkeley, Dean of Derry '' . 
Whitehall, the Berkeley Residence, Built 1729 

" Purgatory "^ 

Rochambeau's Headquarters ^ . 

Life Mask of Washington ■*.... 

Made by Houdon in 1785. 
The Parsonage of Mrs. Stowe's " Minister's Wooing" ' 
Doorway OF Old House ON Thames Street ^ . 
General Nathanael Greene ' . . . . 

From one of Malbone's best miniatures. 
Seal of the City of Newport 

PROVIDENCE 

View of Providence 

From the south. 

Roger Williams Received by the Indians 
From a design by A. H. Wray. 

The Roger Williams Monument 

Stephen Hopkins ^ 



445 
447 
451 
453 

457 
459 
463 

466 
468 
471 

473 



477 

479 

483 
490 



^ Reproduced by permission of Simon Hart, Newport, R. I. 

^ Reproduced, with permission, from Porter's Two Hundredth Birthday of 
Bishop George Berkeley^ published by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

^ Reproduced by permission of The Century Co. 

* Reproduced, with permission, from the American Monthly Review of Re- 
views, from the editor's article on the Renaissance of the Medieeval Pilgrimage^ 
published in October, 1893. 

^ Reproduced by permission of Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., 



XX 



Illustrations 



Brown University 

Francis Wayland 

The Capitol . . . . 

Seal of the City of Providence 



PAGE 

493 
499 
503 
506 



HARTFORD 

Main Street 

Old Center Burying-G round 

The Charter Oak .... 

Old State House, now City Hall 

Built in 1794. 
Statue of Israel Putnam . 

J. Q. A. Ward, sculptor. 

Keney Memorial Tower ' . 

The Capitol 

Soldiers' Memorial Arch . 

Harriet Beecher Stowe 

Dr. Horace Bushnell . 

From a crayon drawing by S. W. Rowse. 

J. Hammond Trumbull, LL.D. 

Arms of the City of Hartford 



509 
513 
520 

529 

539 

541 
543 
545 
546 

547 

549 

551 



NEW HAVEN 

Temple Street 555 

John Davenport . . * 557 

From a portrait in possession of Yale College. 

Roger Sherman - 5^1 

Photographed from statue on the east front of the Capitol 
at Hartford. 

* Reproduced from Trips by Trolley and Awheel around Hart/ord. 
' Reproduced, with permission, from Boutell's Life of Roger Sherjtian^ pub- 
lished by A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, 111. 



Illustrations 



XXI 



Judges' Cave 

A Humane Enemy 

Phelps Hall 

OsBORX Hall 

The Art Building 

Noah Webster ' . 

Eli Whitney 

East Rock Park . 

Seal of the City of New Haven 



567 
571 

573 
577 
579 
581 
583 
585 
5S6 



^ Reproduced, with permission, from Webster^ s Dictionary^ published by G. & 
C. Merriam Co., Springfield, Mass. 



INTRODUCTION 

By GEORGE PERRY MORRIS 

FROM the earliest days of the New Eng- 
land Colonies down to the present time, 
those European analysts of our national life, 
whose opinions have been based on personal 
observation, have usually conceded that in New 
England towns and villages one might, at al- 
most any period of their history, find a higher 
average degree of physical comfort, intelli- 
gence and mental attainment, and political lib- 
erty and power than was or is to be found in 
any other communities of Christendom. Thus 
Alexis de Tocqueville, in 1835, wrote : 

" The existence of the townships of New England is, 
in general, a happy one. Their government is suited to 
their tastes, and chosen by themselves. . . . The 
conduct of local business is easy. . . . No tradition 
exists of a distinction of ranks ; no portion of the com- 
munity is tempted to oppress the remainder ; and the 

I 



2 Introduction 

abuses which may injure isolated individuals are for- 
gotten in the general contentment which prevails. . . . 
The native of New England is attached to his township 
because it is independent and free ; his co-operation in 
its affairs ensures his attachment to its interest ; the 
well-being it affords him secures his affection, and its 
welfare is the aim of his ambition and of his future ex- 
ertions. He takes a part in every occurrence in the 
place ; he practises the art of government in the small 
sphere within his reach ; he accustoms himself to those 
forms which can alone ensure the steady progress of 
liberty ; he imbibes their spirit ; he acquires a taste for 
order, comprehends the union of the balance of powers, 
and collects clear practical notions on the nature of his 
duties and the extent of his rights." ^ 

If this be true, the question inevitably arises, 
how has it come to pass ? New England, as a 
whole, is far from fertile. Its winters are 
long and severe. Of mineral wealth it has lit- 
tle. The raw materials for its countless facto- 
ries and mills, the fuel for its factories, homes, 
and railroads, must be obtained in the territory 
south and west of the Hudson River. The 
cereals which furnish the staple diet of its peo- 

^ De Tocqueville's Democracy in America, chapter v. Mr. F. J. 
Lippitt, who assisted M. de Tocqueville in the preparation of this 
work, says that once when they "had been talking about town- 
meetings, de Tocqueville exclaimed with a kindling eye (usually 
quite expressionless), ' Mais, c'est la commune ! ' " — Cf. The Century 
Magazine, September, 189S, p. 707. 



Introduction 3 

pie come from Western plains. Its best blood 
and brawn have grone to found commonwealths 
ranging from the Alleghany to the Sierra Ne- 
vada mountains, and, into towns once popu- 
lated and dominated by the purest of English 
stock, there have come Irish from Ireland and 
Canada, French by way of Canada, Portuguese, 
Italians, and Jews from Russia, so that, in 
1890, the alien male adult population of the 
several States was found by the Federal cen- 
sus takers to be, in Maine, 51.43 percent. ; New 
Hampshire, 50.5 per cent. ; Vermont, 41.25 
per cent.; Massachusetts, 46.10 per cent.; 
Rhode Island, 49.78 per cent. ; Connecticut, 
36.52 per cent. 

And yet, notwithstanding these economic 
disadvantages, this depletion of a population 
inheriting noble ideals, and the infusion of a 
class of settlers holding, in many instances, 
political and religious convictions quite at va- 
riance with those of the founders of the colo- 
nies, the " type " persists. The New England 
towns are still unlike, and in some respects 
superior to, those of other sections of the 
country. The New England States still lead 
in reformatory legislation. New England's 
approval or disapproval of ideas affecting na- 



4 Introduction 

tlonal destiny still has weight with Congress 
and Presidents altogether disproportionate to 
the number of her representatives in Congress 
or her votes in the Electoral Colleore. 

If one will walk about New Enorland towns 

<z> 

one will find in each a church, a town-house, 
and a school, and in most of them a railroad 
station and a factory. In the majority of 
them there will also be a public library, small 
perhaps and usually housed in the town-house, 
but open to all, and supported from the public 
funds. In the larger towns, especially in those 
where manufacturing is a prominent factor in 
the communal prosperity, a hospital, supported 
by public taxation, is open to all. In almost 
every town there is a grass-covered, tree-shaded 
" common," which serves as a village or town 
park, and on it usually stand memorial tablets 
or statues testifying to the valor of the dead 
who went forth to fight in the War of the 
Revolution or in the Civil War. 

The church symbolizes that belief in God 
and that disposition to obey His will and law 
which the noblest and wisest men of all ages 
and climes have agreed upon as the sine qua 
non of civic as well as of individual prosperity, 
and in this instance it also stands for that 



Introduction 5 

separation of Church and State which our 
national experience — and that of Canada and 
the AustraHan Colonies as well — shows to be 
the ideal relation. That for a time, in the 
early days of Massachusetts and Connecticut, 
there was an unsuccessful attempt to preserve 
a union of State and Church, an attempt which 
had for some of its least commendable inci- 
dents the wholesale hanging of men and women 
for witchcraft, the expulsion of Quakers, and 
the ostracism or exclusion of Roman Catholics 
and Anglicans, is not to be denied. 

That the people of New England have been 
duly conscientious is apparent by the multipli- 
cation of churches at home, and by their never- 
ceasing, overflowing gifts to establish churches, 
colleges, schools, and Christian missions In the 
South and West and In foreign lands. It Is 
from the thrifty, prosperous, philanthropic 
New Englander that the treasuries of the great 
Protestant missionary and educational societies 
receive their largest average per-caplta gifts, 
and it Is to New England that the steps of the 
Western and Southern educator still turn for 
endowments which his State may not, or the 
people cannot, or do not, give. 

Peopled by Inhabitants given over to Intro- 



6 Introduction 

spection, and as fond of theology as the Scotch, 
the early New England communities were in- 
tensely religious and sectarian. God to them 
was a Personal Sovereign, intimately concerned 
with their daily life. They were His chosen 
people, and, as such, pledged to obedience to 
His service. The Church was His Bride ; the 
clergyman was His spokesman, and received 
the deference — social as well as official — which 
was due to one so augustly commissioned. The 
social as well as the intellectual life of the com- 
munity centred almost exclusively in the life 
of the church and the sermons of its clergy. 
Sectarian animosities were the inevitable pro- 
duct of a mistaken emphasis put upon the form 
or utterance of truth, rather than upon truth 
itself ; or, to put it differently, of a provincial- 
ism and narrowness of vision that made it im- 
possible for the many to understand that truth 
is many-sided, that men are different tempera- 
mentally, that revelation is continuous and 
progressive, and that religion is not theology. 
Communities exist in New England where the 
old view still obtains, where sectarianism is as 
rampant as ever, where the clergyman is the 
social autocrat as well as the shepherd of souls. 
But such towns are becoming fewer and fewer 



Introduction 7 

as the years go by, and of towns of the newer 
type, where the church is recognized as only 
one of the many agents which God has for 
ushering in His Kingdom on earth, New Eng- 
land now has quite as many, probably, as are 
to be found elsewhere. 

To those interested in the theological and 
religious history of English-speaking peoples, 
certain New England towns have a peculiar 
fascination and value as environments which 
have affected character. Northampton, Mas- 
sachusetts, will ever be a Mecca because of 
the identification of Jonathan Edwards with 
the town. Concord, in the same common- 
wealth, has not only the unique glory that 
belongs to a town where national history has 
been made and the best American literature 
of its class written by Hawthorne and Thoreau, 
but also it is the town where Emerson's minis- 
terial ancestors lived, where he flowered out 
and became 

that grey-eyed seer 
Who in pastoral Concord ways 
With Plato and Hafiz walked. 

Newport, Rhode Island, with all its present 
pre-eminence as a place where " Fashion is a 
potency . . . making it hard to judge be- 



8 Introduction 

tween the temporary and the lasting," will ever 
remain most worthy of resort because it was 
the birthplace of William Ellery Channing, 
and, for thirty years, was the home of the Rev. 
Dr. Samuel Hopkins, both eminent as theolo- 
gians and as brave pioneer antagonists of human 
slavery. Dr. Hopkins was the model for the 
New England pastor described by Harriet 
Beecher Stowe in The Minister s Wooi7ig. 
Northfield, Massachusetts, is known to thou- 
sands of Christians the world over, who 
have never seen its rare beauty of river and 
landscape, because a boy, one Dwight L. 
Moody, was born and bred there, and has be- 
come the greatest evangelist of modern times. 
Litchfield, Connecticut, is famous as the birth- 
place of Henry Ward Beecher, and if one 
wishes flash-light pictures of New England 
ecclesiastical and social life at the beofinninor 
of this century, let one read the autobiographic 
records of Lyman, Henry Ward, Harriet, and 
Catherine E. Beecher. 

Portland, Maine, is known to thousands 
throughout the English-speaking world, who 
are ignorant of every other fact in its long and 
honorable history, because Francis E. Clark 
there conceived and began that movement to 



Introduction 9 

enlist young people in active Christian service, 
which is now known as the International Young 
People's Society of Christian Endeavor, with 
54,191 local societies, and more than three and 
one quarter million adherents enrolled, Russia 
alone, of the nations of the earth, being with- 
out a society now. Hartford, Connecticut, 
with a discernment and gratitude not always 
displayed by municipalities, has named its 
beautiful municipal park after Horace Bush- 
nell, for many years its most eminent divine 
and ''first citizen." 

Salem, fascinating as it is because of its con- 
nection with the witchcraft delusion and the 
early Puritan theocracy ; because of its being 
for a time the home of Hawthorne, who has 
preserved Its ancient local color and atmos- 
phere In his fiction ; and because of its ancient 
glory as a seaport town, whence departed a 
fleet of salllnor craft that made Salem known 
throughout the world, in places where Boston 
and New York were then unknown, neverthe- 
less derives Its chief glory from the fact that it 
was the town where Roger Williams, the Welsh 
statesman and prophet, found a church willing 
to sit at his feet. The church's loyalty, how- 
ever, gave way at last to the resistless pres- 



TO Introduction 

sure of the civil authorities and the zealous 
ecclesiastical tyrants of the Puritan common- 
wealth, and it permitted him to depart, to es- 
tablish in Rhode Island a community based 
upon the principle of entire liberty of con- 
science, and majority rule in secular affairs. 
Massachusetts' loss and the world's gain are 
thus summed up by Gervinus the German 
historian : 

" The theories of freedom in Church and State, 
taught in the schools of philosophy in Europe, were 
here [Rhode Island] brought into practice in the govern- 
ment of a small community. It was prophesied that 
the democratic attempts to obtain universal suffrage, a 
general elective franchise, annual parliaments, entire 
religious freedom, and the Miltonian right of schism 
would be of short duration. But these institutions have 
not only maintained themselves here, but have spread 
over the whole Union. They have superseded the aris- 
tocratic commencements of Carolina and of New York, 
the High-Church party in Virginia, the theocracy in 
Massachusetts, and the monarchy throughout America ; 
they have given laws to one quarter of the globe, and, 
dreaded for their moral influence, they stand in the 
background of every democratic struggle in Europe." 

Boston, with all her glories, has none of 
which she is more proud, than the fact that 
within her borders Phillips Brooks was born 



Introduction 1 1 

and labored most of his life. Those who 
came within his range of influence said of 
him, as Father Taylor said of Emerson, " He 
mieht think this or that, but he was more 
like Jesus Christ than any one he had ever 
known." 

To mention Roger Williams, Jonathan Ed- 
wards, William EUery Channing, Ralph Waldo 
Emerson, Horace Bushnell, Henry Ward 
Beecher, Phillips Brooks, Francis E. Clark, 
and Dwight L. Moody, is to name the greatest 
spiritual forces which New England has known, 
and towns fed with manna by such prophets 
have not failed to indicate the influence of 
personality in transforming environment. 

The " town-house," or town-hall, of the New 
England town or village, in its architecture, 
is a modern structure, often as simple, unpre- 
tentious, and unornamented as the " meeting- 
house " near which it usually stands on the 
village ofreen or " town common." It is the 
arena wherein rich and poor, educated and il- 
literate, wise and foolish, meet, at least annually, 
and as much oftener as occasion demands, to 
decide those questions of Home Rule which are 
most vital to all concerned. Education, wealth, 
moral worth, shrewd native sense, oratory. 



12 Introduction 

gifts of persuasion, the stirrings of ambition, 
civic pride, thrift, foresight, all have their due 
weight in this forum, this " school as well as 
source of democracy " — as Mr. Bryce aptly 
phrases it. But when the vote is taken, the 
blacksmith and the bank president, the master 
and the servant, the principal of the high school 
and the loafer around the village bar stand on 
precisely the same footing. The vote of one 
is as decisive as that of the other, — no less, 
no more. 

Debate and procedure which have the qual- 
itative character are followed by voting of 
the quantitative character, and the result re- 
presents average intelligence and capacity for 
self-government. But that result, because it is 
the product of the expressed will of all, has an 
authority more enduring and inspiring than 
any that the autocracies, oligarchies, or con- 
stitutional monarchies of Europe have ever 
displayed or now possess. 

Using the town-meeting as a rapier, Samuel 
Adams 

" fenced with the British ministry ; it was the claymore 
with which he smote their counsels ; it was the harp of a 
thousand strings that he swept into a burst of passionate 
defiance, or an electric call to arms, or a proud paean of 



Introduction 13 

exulting triumph, defiance, challenge, and exultation — 
all lifting the continent to independence. His indom- 
itable will and command of the popular confidence 
played Boston against London, the provincial town-meet- 
ing against the royal Parliament, Faneuil Hall against 
St. Stephen's," ^ 

This popular government not only enabled 
the New Enorland Colonies to lead all the 
others in the War of the Revolution, it also 
furnished men and ideas for the formidable task 
of constitution-making after the Revolution 
was over and independence won. As early as 
1773, the rustic Solons of the town of Mendon, 
Massachusetts, had resolved in town-meeting : 

" That all men have an equal right to life, liberty, and 
property. 

" Therefore all just and lawful government must orig- 
inate in the free consent of the people. 

" That a right to liberty and property, which are natural 
means of self-preservation, is absolutely inalienable, and 
can never lawfully be given up by ourselves or taken 
from us by others." 

Naturally, a section of the country where such 
sentiments were held by village Hampdens had 
a preponderant influence, when the time came 
to draft the Declaration of Independence and 

^ Geo. Wm. Curtis, Orations and Addresses, vol. iii. 



14 Introduction^ 

the Constitution, and the readiness of the towns 
to submit to taxation and to give their sons 
when the call to arms came is a matter of un- 
impeachable record. In the army of 231,791 
soldiers, furnished by the Thirteen Colonies to 
combat the forces of Great Britain In the 
Revolution, the four New England Colonies 
sent 118,251 men, Massachusetts contributing 
67,907, Connecticut 31,939, New Hampshire 
12,497, and Rhode Island 5,908. 

In the War of 181 2, New England, as a 
section, was not very enthusiastic, but her 
quota of troops was, nevertheless, forthcoming. 
In the Civil War, 1861-65, her troops were 
the first to respond to the call of President 
Lincoln, and, out of 2,778,304 men who 
enlisted, 363,161 came from New England. 
Of these, Massachusetts furnished 146,730, 
Maine 70,107, Connecticut 55,864, New Hamp- 
shire Z3^9?)7y Vermxont 33,288, and Rhode 
Island 23,236. In fact, surveying the history of 
New England towns from the time when they 
contributed their quota of men and money to 
the aid of the Mother Country In her fight 
with France to decide who should be supreme 
on the North American continent, down to the 
recent contest between the United States and 



Introduction 15 

Spain, it can truthfully be said of their dem- 
ocratic form of government that it "is the 
most powerful and flexible in history. It has 
proved to be neither violent, cruel , nor impa- 
tient, but fixed in purpose, faithful to its own 
officers, tolerant of vast expense, of enormous 
losses, of torturing delays, and strongest at 
the very points where fatal weakness was 
most suspected." And this, be it remembered, 
where " the poorest and most ignorant of every 
race . . . are the equal voters with the 
richest and most intelligent." This, too, where 
the newly landed, propertyless immigrant from 
Italy or Russia, if able to comply with the gen- 
erous provisions governing naturalization and 
the exercise of the franchise, has the same po- 
tentiality at the polls as the thrifty, well-to-do, 
heavily taxed citizen whose ancestors, per- 
chance, may have come over with the Pilgrims 
on The Mayflower. 

Considered either in its origin or its develop- 
ment, the New England town-meeting merits 
the study of all who are interested in the ex- 
tension of principles of democracy. The Eng- 
lish settlers of New England were, as Mr. 
Bryce says, '' largely townsfolk, accustomed to 
municipal life and to vestry meetings." They 



i6 Introduction 

brought with them, as an inheritance from 
their Teutonic ancestors, a habit of self-rule 
which the peculiar isolation of the colonies 
and the separate communities in the colo- 
nies strengthened ; hence a form of govern- 
ment in which the town was the unit evolved 
inevitably. 

The more mixed composition of the popula- 
tion in the Middle Atlantic Colonies, for the 
same reason, inevitably caused a mixed type of 
government to be created there, in which the 
county or shire divided the authority with the 
town ; while in the Southern Colonies the im- 
migrants were of such a character, and the eco- 
nomic conditions so different from those in 
New England, that a more aristocratic form 
of government evolved, semi-feudal in its type, 
and the county, rather than the town, became 
the important minor political unit within the 
State, never, however, having a vigorous inde- 
pendent life, the colony and afterward the 
State becoming the source of authority and 
the end of government. Long years after- 
ward, in the Civil War, the two types of gov- 
ernment clashed, and the type prevailed which 
Thomas Jefferson praised and wished trans- 
ferred to Virginia, for, said he : 



Introduction i; 

" Those wards called townships in New Eng- 
land are the vital principle of their govern- 
ments, and have proved themselves the wisest 
invention ever devised by the wit of man for 
the perfect exercise of self-government and 
for its preservation." 

It is well, however, to note, that Mr. Charles 
Borgeaud, the eminent Genevan historian, in 
his work on the Rise of Modern Democracy, 
disputes the Teutonic origin of the town-meet- 
ing, and contends that it must be credited to 
the democratic principles of the New Testa- 
ment as interpreted and accepted, first by the 
Brownists of England, and held later by the 
Pilgrim Fathers and those of the Puritans 
who accepted the Independent form of church 
government, rather than to any principle of 
communal government first evolved by Teu- 
tons. He says : 

" At the moment when the colonists of New England 
quitted the Mother Country, whatever was left of that 
old self-government which had been exercised by their 
forefathers was under the influence of the general move- 
ment, and was undergoing aristocratic transformation. 
The vestries, or meetings of the inhabitants of the parish, 
were being replaced by committees known as select 
vestries, which were originally elected, and then, before 
long, recruited by co-optation. Had the American colo- 



i8 Introduction 

nists purely and simply imitated in their new country 
the system which they had seen at work in England, 
they certainly would not have founded the democratic 
government of the town-meeting. In order to explain 
their political activity, we must take into account, and 
that largely, their religious ideas. And we shall be 
naturally led to do this if we remember that, in the begin- 
ning, each settlement or town was, before all things, a con- 
gregation, and that the town-meeting was in most cases 
the same thing as the assembly of the congregation. In 
Virginia, where the colonists remained members of the 
Anglican Church, there was no town-meeting, but only 
select vestries as in England, and these had certainly lost 
all family likeness, if they really were related to the 
Thing and the Tunge??iot." 

In due time, when pioneers from New Eng- 
land found their way to the then virgin lands 
of Central New York, the valley of the Ohio, 
and the northern half of the vast valley of the 
Mississippi, they carried with them the po- 
litical and religious ideals of New England. 
Where they were a large majority of the set- 
tlers within a given territory, or where at the 
time when its organic structure was forming 
they dominated it, the town was established as 
the political unit in the territory. Such was 
the case in Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and 
Minnesota. Where New England settlers 
joined with those from the Middle States, or 



Introduction 19 

the border States of Kentucky and Virginia, 
they often found it necessary to compromise 
on a system in which the county and the town 
were peers, as in Ohio, Indiana, and Iowa. 
But, as experience has proved, the modified 
township system, as it is found in IlHnois 
and Michigan, is more advantageous than the 
system of divided authority, and many of the 
Western States are gradually adopting it, Cali- 
fornia, Nebraska, and the Dakotas having re- 
cently made it either permissible or mandatory. 

Nor are signs lacking that in the South, as its 
white population increases by immigrants from 
the North, as the patriarchal and pastoral type 
of civilization gives way to the modern indus- 
trial and corporate type, as cities and towns 
multiply, and local as well as State pride has 
free chance to develop, there will be an adop- 
tion of the modified township system and a 
gradual abolition of the county system. 

Among the changes of the last half-century 
in New England, one notable one has been 
the tendency of the larger towns to adopt the 
city form of government as soon as it was 
deemed that the increase of population war- 
ranted the step and made it necessary. This 
fact, as well as the marked increase of urban 



20 Introduction 

population in New England/ is counted by 
some students of her social development as in- 
dicative of retrogression, however inevitable. 
Certain it is, that if the town of Brookline, 
with its population of 16,164, ^.nd its property 
valuation of $64,169,200,' and annual appro- 
priations of more than $900,000, can still work 
the ancient machinery of the town-meeting 
without the slightest loss either of a pecuniary 
or a civic sort, other towns, with a smaller 
population and much smaller valuation of prop- 
erty, cannot reasonably claim that mere physi- 
cal growth is any warrant for the change from 
a system so purely democratic to one less so 
and much more readily adapted to serve the 
ends of partisan bosses and those who batten 
at the public crib. 

The third of the indispensable and ever- 
present institutions found in every New Eng- 
land town or village is the public school, open 

' In iSio, less than 15 per cent, of the population of Rhode Island 
was found in towns of 8000 or more inhabitants ; in 1S90, nearly So 
per cent. In Massachusetts, in 1790, five per cent, were urban 
dwellers; in 1890, 70 per cent. In Connecticut, in 1830, 3 per 
cent, lived in cities ; in 1890, more than 50 per cent. In 1840, 3 per 
cent, in New Hampshire lived in cities; in 1890, more than 25 
per cent. In 1820, in Maine, 4 per cent, lived in cities ; in 1890, 
20 per cent. 

^ Cf. Town Records of Brookline, 1S97-98. 



Introduction 21 

to all and supported by all. Roman Catholic, 
Protestant and Jew, Caucasian and African, 
French Canadian and Irish, Italian and Portu- 
guese, English and German, mingle in the 
school-room and learn the essential likeness of 
each to the other, their common and peculiar 
gifts, and their common duties to God and the 
State. No man In the community Is so rich 
or aristocratic as to escape taxation for sup- 
port of the school, even though his children 
may never darken the doors. No man In the 
community Is so humble or so poor as to be 
debarred from sendinof his children to the 
hlorhest as well as to the lowest orrades. Un- 
sectarian In the sense that they derive support 
from taxpayers of all sects and Inculcate the 
dogmas of none, secular In the sense that re- 
ligion Is not a part of the curriculum, they 
ever have been a bulwark to the cause of 
religion, partly by reason of the example of 
the teaching force, who usually are men and 
women with religious faith as well as mental 
attainment, and partly because they have de- 
veloped the rational powers of men, and thus 
enabled them to discriminate between super- 
stition and truth. Beelnnlnor In the more 
favored and advanced communities, with kin- 



22 Introduction 

dergarten instruction for young children, and 
not ceasing until the youth or maiden is pre- 
pared to enter the college or university, the 
State and the town, co-operating together, 
make it possible for every parent to give to 
his children, or for every ambitious or friend- 
less bov or orirl to secure for himself or 
herself, at the public expense, a thorough 
preparatory education. Nor is there any item 
of his yearly tax bill which the typical New 
Englander pays with greater alacrity and more 
certainty of belief as to its equity or economy 
than his annual contribution for popular edu- 
cation. For it is ingrained in his very being, 
woven into the texture of his life, to believe, 
as Garfield said, that " next in importance to 
freedom and justice is popular education, with- 
out which neither freedom nor justice can be 
permanently maintained." Moreover, being 
shrewd as well as a man of high principles 
and a lover of learning for its own sake, the 
New Englander is convinced that it pays to 
be educated, and to have educated neighbors 
and children. His reasoninof takes this form : 
The more children in the schools, the fewer 
youths and adults in the jails and poorhouses. 
The better informed the mill operatives, the 



Introduction '^l 

larger the output of the mills. The higher 
the standard of livinor, the laro^er the demand 
for the product of the soil and the loom, and 
the better the home market. The more in- 
telligent the voter, the less the seductive 
power of the demagogue and the "political 
boss." In short, the New England people 
have always believed, and still believe, what 
the inscription on the Public Library in Bos- 
ton declares : 

THE COMMONWEALTH REQUIRES THE EDUCATION 

OF THE PEOPLE AS THE SAFEGUARD 

OF ORDER AND LIBERTY. 

That the policy has been a wise one, is indi- 
cated by New England's share in the various 
struggles for liberty which the country has seen, 
the stability of all her institutions, her exemp- 
tion from disorder and industrial disputes which 
culminate in violence, her inhospitality to " boss 
rule " in politics, and the thrift and prosperity 
of her citizens. 

Historically speaking, the "public school" 
is a very ancient New England institution. 
Boston had one as early as 1635, and, in 1647, 
the General Court of Massachusetts enacted : 



24 Introduction 

" That to the end that learning may not be buried 
in the graves of our forefathers, it was ordered in 
all the Puritan colonies that every township, after the 
Lord hath increased them to the number of fifty house- 
holds, shall appoint one to teach all children to write 
and read ; and when any town shall increase to the num- 
ber of one hundred families, they shall set up a Gram- 
mar School, the master thereof to be able to instruct 
youth so far as they may be fitted for the University." 

Nine years earlier, in 1638, the same body had 
founded a college (Harvard) at Cambridge, in 
order, as they said, that " the light of learning 
might not go out, nor the study of God's word 
perish." These two acts of the General Court 
may be reckoned as the germs from which 
has developed that system of secondary and 
higher education which has Qriven Massachu- 
setts the place of leader in the history of educa- 
tion in America. 

In 1645, Connecticut passed a law similar to 
the earlier Massachusetts statute of 1642, but 
not until 1701 w^as Yale University founded at 
New Haven. Rhode Island did not have a 
system of popular education until just as the 
eighteenth century was closing. New Hamp- 
shire, Maine, and Vermont accepted the Mas- 
sachusetts methods and ideals, with some minor 
variations. 



Introduction 25 

Devout as were the founders of New Eng- 
land, it followed inevitably that they should 
establish institutions where their children 
might obtain a distinctly religious training as 
well as a general education. Thus, for a long 
period of New England history, the Christian 
academy, under denominational control, flour- 
ished just as it does now in the West, and for 
much the same reason. As the public-school 
system has expanded, as town after town has 
added the high school to the primary and gram- 
mar school, as sectarian fences have toppled 
over or ceased to be restrictive, the academy 
of the old type has ceased to play the part it 
once did in New England life. But, in any 
survey of the history of education in New 
England, it should not be overlooked. Many 
excellent institutions of this type still survive 
to meet the demands of those persons who 
either distrust the public high school, or else 
are unable to send their children to one, 
owing to residence in towns where the school 
system has not developed to that extent. But, 
as a rule, the New England boy and girl, no 
matter what the social station or wealth of his 
or her parent, still '* derives his or her prepara- 
tion for college or life from the community in 



26 Introduction 

which he or she Hves." And, as PhilHps Brooks 
said in his address at the two hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of the Boston Latin School : 

" That is the real heart of the whole matter. ... It 
constitutes the greatest claim of the public-school sys- 
tem. It represents the fundamental idea of the town 
undertaking the education of her children. . . . It edu- 
cates the thought of law and obedience, the sense of 
mingled love and fear, which is the true citizen's true 
emotion to his city. It educates this in the very lessons 
of the school-room, and makes the person of the State 
the familiar master of the grateful subject from his boy- 
hood. ... It is in the dignity and breadth and serious- 
ness which the sense that their town is training them 
gives to their training, that the advantage of the public- 
school boys over the boys of the best private schools 
always consists." 

Emigrating westward, the pioneers from 
New England carried with them the public 
school, the academy, and the college. Con- 
necticut's settlers in the Western Reserve, 
Ohio, took with them conceptions of duty in 
this respect, which profoundly affected the fu- 
ture history of the commonwealth. Ohio has 
come to be, in this later day, what Virginia 
was in the early history of the country — " The 
Mother of Presidents " — and has more col- 



Introduction 27 

leges within its borders than any State in the 
Union. It was a Massachusetts soldier, Gen. 
Rufus Putnam of Rutland, a Congregational 
clergyman, Rev. Manasseh Cutler of Hamil- 
ton, Massachusetts, and an Ipswich, Massachu- 
setts, lawyer, Nathan Dane, who founded 
Marietta, Ohio, and induced Congress to put 
into the epoch-marking Ordinance of 1787 
governing the Northwest Territory, this re- 
markable declaration and article :' 

" Religion, and morality, and knowledge, being necessary 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and means of education shall forever be encouraged." 

As early as 1797, Muskingum Academy was 
founded in the territory conceded, and in due 
time came Marietta, Oberlin, Wabash, Illinois, 
Knox, Beloit, Olivet, and Ripon Colleges, all 
Christian institutions within the territory origi- 
nally governed by the Ordinance of 1787. 

Precisely similar has been the record of 
New England emigrants beyond the Missis- 
sippi. Wherever they have settled and shaped 
the civic ideals, whether in the Dakotas, Iowa, 
Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, or in 
California, there they have laid the foundations 
of a free public-school system, and of academies 



28 Introduction 

and colleges controlled by Christian educators 
and trustees. Nor do they cease to believe in 
the academy and the college now that the com- 
petition of the State university in the States 
of the interior and the West is so intense, and 
the reliance of the treasuries of these Western 
Christian institutions upon the gifts of their 
friends in New England increases rather than 
abates. 

Impressed with the need, in all sections of 
the country, of a well-instructed and intelli- 
gent electorate, and convinced that the South 
was too poor to provide for itself the schools 
that its unfortunate illiterate whites and blacks 
needed. New Englanders early began to con- 
tribute to the support of academies and colleges 
in the South. Not always welcomed by the 
ruling class, the pioneers in this work perse- 
vered, and many of them have lived long 
enough to receive the thanks of those who 
at first despised and scorned them. Millions 
of dollars have eone from New England for 
the founding and support of such institutions 
as Berea College, Kentucky ; Atlanta Univer- 
sity, Georgia; Hampton Institute, Virginia; 
Fisk University, Tennessee ; and Tuskeegee 
Institute, Alabama. Three New Englanders, 



Introduction 29 

George Peabody of Dan vers, Mass., John F. 
Slater of Norwich, Conn., and Daniel Hand 
of Guilford, Conn., have given between them 
$5,100,000 in bequests or donations for the es- 
tablishment or assistance of schools, colleges, 
and training schools for teachers In the South. 
The Peabody Education Fund, from 1868 to 
1897, distributed in the South, from its income 
alone, a sum amounting to $2,478,527. 

Nor Is New England's Influence, education- 
ally speaking, limited to the United States. 
The educational system of Honolulu is based 
on New Enorland models. Robert Colleee, 
near Constantinople, has spread the principles 
of Christian democracy in Church and State, 
as they are held by New Englanders, through- 
out Bulgaria and the Balkan states, and given 
ideals to the Young Turkey party In the land 
where the Sultan Is dominant. The Hueue- 
not Seminary In South Africa was distinctly 
modelled after Mt. Holyoke Seminary, and its 
first teaching staff was made up of New Eng- 
land women educated at Mt. Holyoke. Wher- 
ever American Protestant missionaries have 
gone and established schools and colleges In 
Asia, Africa, or Europe, almost Invariably 
the master spirits, the men and women who 



30 Introduction 

have given character to, and estabHshed the 
ideals of, the institutions, have been graduates 
of the New Enorland colleges and academies, 
even if not New-Enorland-born. 

Subtract from the history of education in 
the United States, during the latter half of the 
century just closing, the influence of four men, 
Horace Mann, Henry Barnard, Charles Wil- 
liam Eliot, and William Torrey Harris, and 
you take from it the best that it stands for 
to-day. All of these men were born in New 
England. All were reformers. All showed 
great administrative ability. All lived to see 
their radical views find general acceptance. 
Horace Mann did his greatest work in re- 
modelling the public-school system of Mas- 
sachusetts. Barnard did a similar work in 
Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin, but 
his greatest service to the cause of education 
was his masterly editing of the American 
yoiirnal of Editcation, from 1855 to 1881. 
Eliot has transformed the curriculum of Har- 
vard, the oldest university of the North, has 
resolutely contended for the largest measure 
of election by the student in his selection 
of studies, his personal conduct, and his 
personal attitude toward God, and he has 



Introduction 31 

made " Veritas " in very truth the appropriate 
motto of the leading American institution of 
learning. Harris, as an interpreter of the phi- 
losophy of education, both in his many writ- 
ings and more numerous addresses, has lifted 
the popular conception of the profession of 
teaching to a loftier and more rational plane, 
while his control of the United States Bureau 
of Education since 1889 has given it a stand- 
ing abroad, and a measure of utility at home, 
which it is gratifying to contemplate. 

Few towns in New England possess more 
charm, whether of nature or society, than the 
towns in which her long-established institu- 
tions of learning have taken root, flourished, 
and dominated the life of the community. 
New Haven, Cambridge, and Providence are 
all cities now with a heterogeneous population 
and large manufacturing interests, and they 
each contain thousands 01 inhabitants to whom 
Harvard, Yale, and Brown are of as little 
practical benefit or concern as if they were 
situated in remote Hawaii or Porto Rico. 
Nevertheless, the chief glory of each of these 
large towns is its institution of learning, and 
to each there come added beauty of life and 
elevation of tone because of the presence 



32 Introduction 

within its borders of so many thirsty and 
hungry students and highly educated and apt 
instructors. It would be idle, however, to 
claim, for instance, that Cambridge to-day is 
quite as unique and charming in its simplicity 
and purity of life, or quite as classic in its 
atmosphere, as it was in the days when the 
town was a village, when the university was a 
college, and when thouorht and manners were as 
ideal as James Russell Lowell in his essay, Cam- 
bridge Thirty Years Ago, and Thomas Went- 
worth Higginson in his latest book. Cheerful 
Yesterdays, picture them. 

To study the American college town at its 
best, unsullied by the grime of industrialism 
and the temptations and conventionalities of 
city life, one must go to hill-towns like Am- 
herst and Williamstown, Massachusetts, or 
Hanover, New Hampshire. But even there, 
standards of livinor and conduct among: stu- 
dents and instructors have been changed and 
influenced by the habits and ideals of the uni- 
versities and the cities. Hence, to see the 
American college town in all its pristine sim- 
plicity and beauty, one now has to go to the 
new New England, and visit such institutions 
as Oberlin, Beloit, Knox, Iowa, and Colorado 



Introduction 33 

colleges, concerning which, and others of their 
type, Mr. Bryce writes : 

" They get hold of a multitude of poor men who 
might never resort to a distant place for education. 
They set learning in a visible form, plain indeed and 
humble, but dignified even in her humility, before the 
eyes of a rustic people, in whom the love of knowledge, 
naturally strong, might never break from the bud into 
the flower, but for the care of some zealous gardener. 
They give the chance of rising in some intellectual walk 
of life to many a strong and earnest nature who might 
otherwise have remained an artisan or storekeeper, and 
perhaps failed in those avocations." ' 

New England has a railroad mileage greater 
in proportion to its population and area than 
any section of the United States. Indeed, it 
is greater than that of any European country. 
In 1895, there were 11.77 rniles of railroad for 
each one hundred square miles of territory, 
and 14. II miles for each ten thousand inhabit- 
ants, the proportion in Massachusetts rising 
to 26.35 rniles for each one hundred square 
miles. The same year, the number of em- 

^ Chapter cii., Bryce's American Commomuealth . For an interest- 
ing and significant account of the impression made by one of the 
Western Christian colleges upon a friendly and thoroughly trained 
French observer, see the translation of an article by Th. Bentzon 
(Madame Blanc) in the Revue des Deux Monde s, printed in McChire's 
Magazine, May, 1895. 
3 



34 Introduction 

ployes engaged in railway traffic in New Eng- 
land was 60,593. On January i, 1840, New 
England had only 426 miles of railway. Jan- 
uary I, 1895, it had 7,398 miles of road, which 
reported gross earnings of $82,845,401, and 
116,069,178 passengers transported during the 
previous year. 

The significance of these facts is apparent 
to the casual traveller through New England 
as well as to the economist. Nerves of steel 
and iron have bound urban and rural popu- 
lations together, made the cities and towns 
accessible to the inland trader, farmer, and 
producer, and the country districts accessible 
to the wares of the merchant and manufac- 
turer, and to the lover of nature. Suburban 
residence for the urban toiler has been made 
possible and cheap, while New England, as a 
whole, has been transformed from an agricul- 
tural and seafaring section to one with great 
and most varied manufacturing interests. 
Boston has come to be next to the largest 
centre for exports in the country, and the com- 
mercial and industrial as well as the intellect- 
ual capital of New England. 

From the standpoint of aesthetics, the rail- 
road station in the averaoe New Encrland 



A 



Introduction 35 

town is a monstrosity, although In all fairness 
it should be said that within a decade there 
has been a notable improvement in this respect. 
But from the standpoint of economics and 
social science, the railway station is subordi- 
nate only to the church and the school in its 
service to society ; and the degree of civiliza- 
tion in any community may be accurately com- 
puted by the volume and variety of the traffic 
done with Its station agents. If one is desir- 
ous of studying the New England town, let 
him frequent the platforms of the railroad 
station and the freight-house, ascertain how 
large a proportion of its inhabitants leave 
town daily to do business in the adjacent city, 
how many travel even farther in pursuit of 
pleasure or on business, how many depart on 
outings that imply thrift and a desire for recre- 
ation and rest. Let him study the bulk of 
the raw material as it comes from the wool- 
markets of Europe and America, from the 
cotton fields of the South, and from the mines 
of Alabama, Pennsylvania, and Minnesota, and 
then inspect it as it goes forth again, converted 
into manifold forms of useful tools, machinery, 
fabrics, etc., and he will not lack for data re- 
specting the status of the community. If he 



36 Introduction 

finds that pianos, organs, books, pictures, the 
latest devices of sanitary science, bicycles, etc., 
are arriving, he may justly infer that the in- 
habitants are in touch with the outer world 
and eager to take advantage of the latest dis- 
coveries of men of science. Nor is it impru- 
dent to assert that such a study made in the 
average New England town will indicate eco- 
nomic wants, and their satisfaction, such as no 
communities elsewhere can display. 

Compared with other sections of the country. 
New England has railroads which are better 
supervised by the States, more honestly con- 
structed, capitalized and administered, and 
more responsive to public needs. Concen- 
tration of power and responsibility in the 
hands of the few goes on apace in New Eng- 
land, as well as elsewhere, so that now there 
are only four railway corporations of much im- 
portance in New England. But, through such 
governmental agents as the Massachusetts 
Board of Railroad Commissioners (organized 
in 1869, and the model for similar bodies else- 
where in the nation), the people still retain the 
whip-hand, still protect the rights of individuals, 
communities, and investors, and bring about 
those reductions in fare and freight charges. 



Introduction 37 

and those improvements in service, which pub- 
lic welfare and safety demand. 

No attempt — however brief or superficial — 
to describe the life of the New England town 
of the last decade of the nineteenth century, 
especially In the States of Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, and Rhode Island, could justifiably 
fail to note the transformation — economic, 
physical, and social — which the bicycle and 
trolley electric railroad have wrought In the 
life of the towns of those States. 

New England capitalists and New England 
inventors were the first to put on the market 
safety bicycles that were well constructed, 
adapted for daily use or pleasure, and reason- 
ably cheap, and New England still retains 
the lead In the domestic and export trade 
in bicycles. Naturally, then. New England 
people were the first to purchase the product 
of their own factories. Space does not suffice 
to Indicate here how general now is the use of 
the bicycle even In the remotest hamlets, and 
how it has changed modes of living. Farm- 
ers' boys and girls among the lakes and hills 
of Maine and Vermont, fishermen's children 
on the sand-dunes of Cape Cod, run their er- 
rands, visit their neighbors, and get their daily 



38 Introduction 

sport with the bicycle. Artisans and profes- 
sional men in all the towns and cities o-q to and 
from their shops, offices, and homes on steeds 
that require no fodder, and while doing it gain 
physical exercise and mental exhilaration that 
transportation in the old ways never furnished. 
Horses still are in demand for sport and 
draught work, and the few w^ho love horses 
continue to breed and own them. But for the 
multitude a far cheaper and more tractable kind 
of steed has come, one which rivals the locomo- 
tive as well as the horse and forces steam-railway 
managers to face serious problems, mechanical 
and fiscal. 

As to the electric street railway, perhaps a 
few facts relative to Massachusetts may indi- 
cate a state of affairs that to some extent is 
typical now of the section, and will become 
more so as population in New Hampshire, 
Maine, and Vermont drifts townward. 

From i860 to 1889, ^^^ number of street-rail- 
way companies In Massachusetts increased only 
from twenty to forty-six, and the mileage from 
eighty-eight to 574, the motor force of course 
being horse-power. From 1889 to 1897, the 
number of companies Increased from forty-six 
to ninety-three, and the mileage from 547 to 



Introduction 39 

1413, the motor power being almost exclu- 
sively electric. During- the same period, the 
number of passengers carried on the ten main 
lines increased from 148,189,403 in 1889, to 
308,684,224 in 1897. The total capital in- 
vested in these street railways now amounts to 
$63,112,800, and, in 1897, earned 7.78 per cent, 
on the average. 

So much for statistics which are impressive 
in themselves. But if one would appreciate 
the magnitude of this traffic, and the radical 
transformation which the new power and im- 
proved service have wrought in the life of the 
people who patronize these railroads, he must 
do more than compare statistics. He must 
note the result of making the residence in the 
suburb and the workshop in the city accessible 
to a degree that the steam railway cannot ex- 
pect to duplicate, of giving city dwellers oppor- 
tunities to journey seaward and hillward at a 
trifling expense, of providing residents of the 
villages with inexpensive transportation to the 
towns and residents of the towns with trans- 
portation to the cities, of cultivating the know- 
ledge of and love for open-air life and nature 
among city dwellers and of enlarging the social 
horizon and area of observation of the vlllao-er, 



40 Introduction 

of giving a poor man a vehicle that transports 
him with a speed and a sense of pleasure that 
vies with that of the high-priced trotter of the 
wealthy horseman, of giving to society a cen- 
tripetal force that tends to take city workers 
countryward at a time when other social forces, 
centrifugal in their tendency, are drawing him 
cityward. 

Naught would occasion more bewilderment 
to the ancient residents of Marblehead, Hing- 
ham, or Plymouth, could they return to their 
former places of abode, than the " Broomstick 
Trains" which Oliver Wendell Holmes's fancy 
pictured thus : 

" On every stick there 's a witch astride, — 
The string you see to her leg is tied. 
She will do a mischief if she can, 
But the string is held by a careful man. 
And whenever the evil-minded witch 
Would cut some caper, he gives a twitch. 
As for the hag, you can't see her. 
But hark ! you can hear her black cat's purr. 
And now and then, as a car goes by. 
You may catch a gleam from her wicked eye." 

These trains whirl through the crooked streets 
with a mysterious, awe-compelling power, that 
would suggest witchery were it not for the 



Introduction 41 

clang of their alarm bells, and the knowledge 
that fares must be paid. They disturb the 
quiet and solemnity of many an ancient village, 
and have brought knowledge of evil as well as 
of good to many a youth. What railways and 
steamship lines have done in bringing peoples 
of all climes and continents nearer together, and 
thus at once widened men's area of knowledge 

o 

and sympathy, and contracted the physical area 
of the earth, this the electrically propelled 
motor is doing on a smaller scale for the people 
of the towns of the ancient commonwealths of 
New Enorland. 

In ante-bellum days. New England and the 
South were, perhaps, most unlike in their at- 
titude toward manufacturing, and the differ- 
ence was one that meant far more than a mere 
incident of difference of climate or a difference 
of opinion as to sectional or federal fiscal 
policy. The art of manufacturing, as New 
Englanders had practised it for generations be- 
fore what Is now known as the '' factory system " 
developed, had been based on a universal 
recognition of the nobility of labor, the neces- 
sity for personal initiative, and the duty of 
thrift. Toil was considered honorable for men 
and women alike. Every hillside stream was 



42 Introduction 

set at work turning the wheels of countless 
mills. Yankee ingenuity was given free play 
in the invention of appliances, and Yankee in- 
itiative saw to it that after the raw material 
was converted into the finished product, mar- 
kets were found in the newer settlements of 
the Interior and West, or in Europe and Asia. 
Many a farmer was a manufacturer as well. 
Home industries flourished, and no month in 
the year was too inclement for toil and its 
reward. 

With the application of steam power to the 
transportation of freight and passengers, with 
the invention of the spinning-jenny and the 
perfecting of the cotton loom and the develop- 
ment of the " factory system " of specialized 
and divided labor, New England, quick to per- 
ceive wherein her future prosperity lay, at once 
leaped forward to seize the opportunity, and 
the relative superiority thus early gained she 
has not lost, even though other sections more 
favorably situated as to accessible supplies of 
fuel and raw materials have, in the meantime, 
awakened and developed. 

Whether judged by the legislation govern- 
ing their operation, their structural adaptability 
to the work to be done, their equipment of 



Introduction 43 

machinery, the variety and quaHty of their 
product, or the intelHgence and earning ca- 
pacity of their operatives, the New England 
factories can safely challenge comparison with 
those of any in the world, and the typical fac- 
tory towns of New England, whether along 
her largest rivers, such as Lowell and Hart- 
ford, or at tide-water, as Eall River and Bridge- 
port, or nestled among the hills, as North 
Adams or St. Johnsbury, are the frequent sub- 
ject of study by the deputed agents of Euro- 
pean governments or manufacturers, anxious 
to ascertain what it is that makes the Ameri- 
can manufacturer so dangerous a competitor 
in the markets of Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

Few more interesting movements in the his- 
tory of man's upward struggle have been 
chronicled than the successive waves of immi- 
gration which have swept into the factories of 
towns like Lowell, Massachusetts, and Man- 
chester, New Hampshire. First came from the 
hill towns and farms the daughters of the oriei- 
nal English, Irish, and Scotch settlers — women 
like Lucy Larcom, — then the Irish, specially 
imported from Ireland, and then the French 
from Canada. The Irish came when the oricri- 
nal stock became, in its own estimation, too 



44 Introduction 

select for daily toil in the factory. The French 
came at an opportune time for the employers, 
when the Irish were also stirred by loftier am- 
bitions. And it is already apparent that, 
whereas the French came, at first, only to win 
money to take back to Canada, now they are 
settlinor down to become citizens as well 
as residents, aspiring to higher and other 
realms of activity — in short, getting ready to 
give way in turn to some other nationality. 
Of course, nothing just stated should be inter- 
preted to imply that the ideals of New Eng- 
land respecting the honorable nature of toil 
have changed, or that her factory operatives 
have ceased to be men of all races including 
the English. She has, however, witnessed or 
rather been the scene of a remarkable process 
of assimilation and transformation of races 
such as none of the manufacturing towns of 
England have seen. 

Thus far, consideration has been given to 
those factors in the life of the community 
which It may truthfully be said are to be found 
in a large majority of the towns and villages 
of New England. It would be necessary, for 
a complete study of the New England town 
at its best, to Include other factors, such as the 



Introduction 45 

savings-bank, the local lodges of the fraternal, 
secret orders, the co-operative bank — known in 
the Middle States as the building loan associa- 
tion, — the daily or weekly local newspaper, and 
the gossip and wisdom retailed by the habitues 
of the "village store," which, in many of the 
smaller towns, serves as the clearing-house 
of ideas, local and national. Nor could any 
thorough study of the New England town as 
an institution fail to note at least the beneficent 
effect which the exclusion of shops where in- 
toxicating liquors are retailed has had upon 
all of the States, thanks to that measure of 
prohibition which has been made possible 
through statutory or legislative enactment. 
So that, in the towns of the agricultural districts 
of New England, the legalized dram-shop is 
unknown, as are all the attendant moral and 
economic evils that follow in its train when the 
traffic is tolerated. Nor is the possibility of ex- 
cluding the saloon from larger towns — manu- 
facturing and residential — to be gainsaid in 
view of the record established by such cities as 
Cambridge, Somerville, Chelsea, Brookline, and 
Newton, Massachusetts. In fact, Cambridge, 
with its more than eighty thousand inhabitants, 
for nearly twelve years now has enforced local 



4^ Introduction 

prohibition in a way to make its method of 
doing so a model for the country ; the secret of 
the method by which it secures an annual 
*' No-license vote " and a non-partisan adminis- 
tration of all city affairs being, in short, the 
union of temperance men of all degrees of 
abstinence, Jews and Christians of all sects, 
and citizens of all national parties on the 
simple platform — " No saloons, and no tests 
for local officials other than fitness, and sound- 
ness on questions of local policy." 

But there is one factor in the life of very 
many of the New England towns to-day that 
cannot be passed by without some allusion. 
It is the town or city library. In many in- 
stances the gift of some private donor, who 
was either born in the town, and making a 
home and fortune elsewhere desired to testify 
that he was not unmindful of ancestral en- 
vironment and of youthful privileges, or else 
accumulated a fortune in the town and de- 
sired both to perpetuate his memory and to 
render a public service, the library building 
usually stands as a token of that marked in- 
terest in public education and public welfare 
which Americans of wealth reveal by gifts, 
generous to a degree unknown elsewhere in 



Introduction 47 

Christendom, competent European judges be- 
ing witnesses. Appleton's An7i2cal Encyclo- 
pcdia records a total of $27,000,000 given to 
religious, educational, and philanthropic institu- 
tions in the United States, in sums of $5000 or 
more, by individuals, as donations or bequests 
during the year 1896. In this list are recorded 
gifts, amounting to $195,000, to establish or 
to endow town libraries in New England. 

Sometimes the major portion of the contents 
of the library building is also the gift of the 
generous donor of the edifice, but, usually, the 
town assumes responsibility for the equipment 
and maintenance of the library, deriving 
the necessary income from appropriations 
voted by the citizens in town-meetings or by 
aldermen and councilmen, members of the 
local legislature, and assessed and collected 
pro rata according to the valuation of property, 
just as all other town or city taxes are col- 
lected. But, whether the gift of some private 
individual or the creation and property of the 
town, the fact remains that the handsomest 
public buildings in New England to-day are 
the public-library buildings, and in no depart- 
ment of civic life are the New England States 
and towns so far in advance of those of other 



48 Introduction 

sections of the country as in their generous 
annual appropriations for the maintenance of 
this form of Individual and civic betterment. 
New Hampshire Is to be credited with the first 
law permitting towns to establish and to main- 
tain libraries by general taxation. This she 
did In 1849. Massachusetts followed in 1854, 
Vermont in 1865, Connecticut in 1881. Bos- 
ton, however, deserves credit for being the 
pioneer in public taxation for a municipal 
library, and to the Hon. Josiah Quincy, grand- 
father of its present mayor, who, in 1847, 
proposed to the City Council that they request 
the Legislature for authority to lay a tax to 
establish a free library, belongs the honor of 
having founded in America a form of muni- 
cipal and town activity, than which, as Stan- 
ley Jevons says, in his book MetJiods of Social 
Refo7^ni, " there is probably no mode of ex- 
pending public money which gives a more 
extraordinary and immediate return in utility 
and enjoyment." 

Already, library administrators and far- 
sighted educators and publicists foresee a time 
when it will be as compulsory for towns to es- 
tablish and support free public libraries as it 
now Is compulsory for them to establish and 



Introduction 49 

support free public schools. Massachusetts, 
perhaps, approaches nearer that ideal now than 
any other State, only ten of its 353 cities and 
towns being without public libraries. 

Fortunately for the sociologist, the historian, 
the economist, and the lover of literature, the 
inhabitants of New Enorland have not failed to 
chronicle in various forms and ways the deeds 
and thoughts of their contemporaries. Thus 
there is a large class of historic documents of 
which Bradford's history of Plimoth Plantation 
is the magntmi opus. Then there are innumer- 
able town histories, — of which the four-volume 
history of Hingham, Massachusetts, is a model, 
— family genealogies, sermons, diaries, volumes 
of correspondence, such as that which passed 
between John Adams and his wife, memorial 
addresses, such as Emerson and G. W. Curtis 
delivered at Concord, and Webster and Rob- 
ert C. WInthrop at Plymouth, which Inform 
and often inspire all who patiently explore 
their contents. Last, but not least, there are 
the products of New England's representative 
authors, who in prose or poetry have recorded 
indelibly the higher life of their own or of 
passing generations. In short, a literature- 
loving people has given birth to literature, and 



50 Introduction 

the New England town of the past can never 
totally fade out of the memory of future gen- 
erations so lonor as men and women are left 
to read the poetry of Longfellow, Whittier, 
Holmes, and Aldrich, Lowell's Biglow Papers, 
Harriet Beecher Stowe's Oldtown Folks and A 
Ministej'-'' s Woomg, the short stories of Sarah 
Orne Jewett, Mary E. Wilkins, Rose Terry 
Cooke, Alice Brown, Maria L. Pool, and Jane 
G. Austin, the prose romances of Hawthorne 
and F. J. Stimson, and the histories of Palfrey, 
Bancroft, Parkman, and Fiske. 

That New Englanders in the past have been 
and even now are provincial, is the indictment 
of Europeans and of some Americans. That 
they have developed reason at the expense of 
imagination, utility at the expense of beauty, 
is also affirmed. Their Puritan ancestors are 
the butt of the ridicule of the caricaturist, of 
ultra-Liberal preachers and devotees of materi- 
alistic science, and of those who have never 
read history, European or American. No less 
an authority than Matthew Arnold has de- 
scribed the life of New Enorland as " uninter- 
esting." To all such critics, the New Englander 
can and will reply with dignity and force when 
proper occasion offers, but this is not the place 



Introduction 51 

even to summarize his argument. Suffice it to 
say that the children of New England are ever 
returning to her. They sojourn for a time in 
Europe, the valley of the Mississippi, in South- 
ern California, and in Hawaii. They find 
more salubrious climes, more beautiful works 
of ecclesiastical and municipal art, better mu- 
nicipal government, and sometimes greater 
opportunities for Investment of capital and 
ability and choicer circles of society than those 
which exist in the towns In which they were 
born or reared. But In due time the yearning 
for the hills, valleys and seacoast of rocky and 
rigorous New England, for the established in- 
stitutions, the generally diffused Intelligence, 
the equality of opportunity, the sane standards 
of worth, and the Inspiring historical traditions 
of the early home becomes too strong to be 
resisted longer, and back to the homestead 
they come — some on annual visits, some as 
often as the exchequer permits, some never to 
depart. New England has thousands of citi- 
zens to-day who, having either made, or failed 
to make, their fortunes In the West, have re- 
turned to New England to dwell. Once a 
New Englander, always a New Englander, In 
spirit If not In residence. Travel abroad, or 



52 Introduction 

residence elsewhere, may modify the austerity, 
broaden the sympathy, poHsh the manners, and 
stimulate the imagination of the New Eng- 
lander, but it never radically alters his views 
on the great issues of life and death, or makes 
him less of a democrat or less of a devotee of 
Wisdom. 







HISTORIC TOWNS OF 
NEW ENGLAND 



PORTLAND 
''THE GEM OF CASCO BAY" 

By SAMUEL T. PICKARD 

PORTLAND enjoys a peculiar distinction 
among New England cities, not only by 
reason of the natural advantages of her loca- 
tion, but because of the historical events of 
which she has been the theatre, and the men 
of mark in literature, art, and statesmanship 
whom she has produced. Among the indenta- 
tions of the Atlantic coast there is no bay 
which presents a greater wealth and variety of 
charming scenery, in combination with the ad- 
vantages of a safe and capacious harbor, than 
that on which Portland is situated. It is 

53 



54 Portland 

thickly studded with islands which are of most 
picturesque forms, presenting beetling cliffs, 
sheltered coves, pebbly beaches, wooded 
heights, and wide, green lawns dotted with 
summer cottages. It is of the beauty of this 
bay that Whittier, who was familiar with its 
scenery, sings in The Ranger : 

"' Nowhere fairer, sweeter, rarer. 
Does the golden-locked fruit-bearer 

Through his painted woodlands stray ; 
Than where hillside oaks and beeches 
Overlook the long blue reaches. 
Silver coves and pebbled beaches, 

And green isles of Casco Bay ; 

Nowhere day, for delay, 
With a tenderer look beseeches, 

' Let me with my charmed earth stay ! ' " 

The peninsula upon which Portland is lo- 
cated is almost an island. It is nearly three 
miles lonor, and has an averao^e width of three 
quarters of a mile — making it in area the 
smallest city in the United States, and the 
most compactly settled, for its forty thousand 
inhabitants occupy almost every available 
building spot. At each extremity of the pen- 
insula is a hill on the summit of which is a 
wide public promenade, affording charming 





J 



56 Portland 

views — to the east, of the bay, the islands, and 
the blue sea beyond ; to the west and north- 
west, of the White Mountain range, all the 
peaks of which are visible, the intervening dis- 
tance being about eighty miles. The Western 
Promenade is the favorite resort at sunset ; the 
Eastern has charms for all hours of the day. 
Both can be reached by electric railways. 

In 1 6 14, Captain John Smith, of Pocahontas 
fame, came prospecting along this coast, and 
gave the name to Cape Elizabeth, which it still 
bears, in honor of the Virgin Queen, then re- 
cently deceased. The first settlers, George 
Cleeves and Richard Tucker, came hither in 
1632, and the settlement was known as Casco 
until the name was chanored to Falmouth in 
1658 ; it was incorporated as Portland in 1785. 
There were but few settlers in the first forty 
years, and these lived in amity with the In- 
dians until the time of King Philip's War. 

In 1676, the settlement was utterly de- 
stroyed by the savages, and all who were not 
killed were carried into captivity. One of the 
killed was Thomas Brackett, an ancestor of 
the statesman who in these later days has 
made the name famous — Thomas Brackett 
Reed. Mrs. Brackett was carried by the In- 



Portland 57 

dians to Canada, where she died in captivity. 
Two of her grandchildren came back to Fal- 
mouth when the place was rebuilt after the 
second destruction by the French and Indians, 
in May, 1690. In 1689, a large body of French 
and Indians threatened the town. They were 
routed in Deering's Woods by troops from Ply- 
mouth Colony, commanded by Major Church. 
Eleven settlers were killed and a laro^e number 
wounded. It is a curious fact that Speaker 
Reed is also a descendant of the first settler, 
Cleeves. There is somethinof remarkable in 
the persistency with which the descendants of 
the pioneers returned to the spot where there 
had been complete and repeated massacres of 
their ancestors. There are many families in 
Portland beside the one mentioned above who 
are descended from the pioneers who were 
killed or driven off by the savages. 

The first minister of Falmouth was the Rev- 
erend George Burroughs, who escaped the 
massacre of 1676 by fleeing to one of the is- 
lands in the bay. Unfortunately for him, be- 
fore the place was rebuilt he removed to 
Salem ; he was too independent, however, to 
suit the dominant clergy, and was hanged as a 
wizard in 1692, on charges incredibly ridicu- 



58 Portland 

lous. The speech made by this worthy man 
on the scaffold brought the people to their 
senses and ended the witchcraft craze. His 
descendants also went back to Falmouth and 
are represented in many families of the pre- 
sent city of Portland, who take no shame from 
the hanorinpf of their ancestor. 

So thorouofh was the second destruction of 
the place in 1690, that no one was left to bury 
the victims of the slaughter. Their bleached 
bones were gathered and buried more than two 
years after by Sir William Phips, while on his 
way from Boston to build a fort at Pemaquid. 
The settlement of the peninsula was resumed 
after the treaty of peace concluded at Utrecht 
in 1 7 13, and for sixty years thereafter the 
growth of the place was rapid. When the 
town was bombarded and burned by a British 
squadron in October, 1775, there were nearly 
three hundred families made homeless — about 
three quarters of the entire population. For 
nine hours, four ships anchored in the harbor 
threw an incessant shower of grape-shot, red- 
hot cannon-balls, and bombs upon the defence- 
less town, which had shown its sympathy with 
the patriot cause in a practical way after the 
battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill. The 




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en o 

uj < 



6o Portland 

spirited citizens of Falmouth might have 
avoided the bombardment by giving up a few 
cannon and small-arms ; but this, in town meet- 
ing, they refused to do, even when they saw 
the loaded guns and mortars trained upon 
them at short range, and knew that Captain 
Mowatt had a special grudge against the 
place because of an insult put upon him by 
some of the citizens a few months earlier. 
The spirit of the town was not broken by the 
terrible punishment it received. A few days 
after Mowatt sailed aw^ay, while the ruins were 
still smoking, a British man-of-war came into 
the harbor to forbid the erection of batteries, 
and the demand was met by the throwing up 
of earthworks and the placing of guns, which 
forced the immediate departure of the ship. 
The lines of these earthworks are still to be 
traced at Fort Allen Park, a beautiful pleasure 
ground on Munjoy overlooking the harbor, 
and they are preserved with care as a relic of 
Revolutionary times. Another relic is a can- 
non-ball thrown from Mowatt's fleet, which 
lodged in the First Parish meeting-house, and 
is now to be seen in the ceiling of the church 
which occupies the same site. From this ball 
depends the large central chandelier. There 



Portland 6i 

was an Incident of the bombardment which 
Illustrates the simplicity and coolness of a 
heroine whose name deserves a place beside 
that of Barbara Frietchle. The fashionable 
tavern of the town was kept by Dame Alice 
Greele, and here, during the whole Revolu- 
tionary period, the committee of public safety 
met, the judges held their courts, and political 
conventions had their sessions. It was here 
that the citizens In town meeting heroically 
voted to stand the bombardment rather than 
give up the guns demanded by Mowatt. But 
after making this brave decision they hastily 
packed up all their portable possessions and 
removed their families to places of safety, 
some not stopping short of Inland towns, and 
others finding shelter under the lee of a high 
cliff that used to be at the corner of Casco and 
Cumberland Streets, at no great distance from 
their homes. Braver than the bravest of the 
men of Falmouth, Dame Alice would not de- 
sert her tavern, although Its position was so 
dangerously exposed that every house In Its 
vicinity was destroyed by bursting bombs and 
heated cannon-balls. Throughout that terri- 
ble day she stood at her post, and with buck- 
ets of water extlnorulshed the hres on her 



62 Portland 

premises as fast as kindled. When Mowatt 
began to throw red-hot cannon-balls, one of 
them fell into the dame's back yard among 
some chips, which were set on fire. She 
picked up the ball in a pan, and as she tossed 
it into the street, she said to a neighbor who 
was passing : " They will have to stop firing 
soon, for they have got out of bombs and are 
making new balls, and can't wait for them 
to cool ! " Portland ought to mark with a 
bronze tablet the site of Alice Greele's tavern. 
The building stood until 1846 at the corner 
of Congress and Hampshire Streets. It was 
then removed to Washinorton Street. 

Portland had a rapid growth of population 
and increase in wealth during the European 
disturbances caused by the ambition of Napo- 
leon. The carrying-trade of the world was 
almost monopolized by neutral American bot- 
toms, and ship-building became then, as it 
continued to be for a long time afterward, a 
leading industry along the Maine coast. Great 
fortunes were made by Portland ship-owners. 
Many fine old-fashioned mansions that now 
ornament Congress, High, State, Spring, and 
Danforth Streets, were built by merchants in 
the first years of the present century, and are 




63 



FIRST PARISH CHURCH. 

CONTAINING THE MOWATT CANNON-BALL. 



64 Portland 

reminders of the peculiar conditions of that 
time. A sharp check to the rising tide of 
prosperity was given by the embargo act of 
1807. After the peace of 181 5, the trade with 
the West Indies grew into great importance, 
and for fifty years was a leading factor in the 
commerce of Portland. Lumber and fish were 
the chief exports, and return cargoes of sugar 
and molasses made this the principal market 
for those commodities — the imports in these 
lines for many years exceeding those at New 
York and Boston. West India molasses was dis- 
tilled in large quantities into New England rum, 
until the temperance reform, under the lead of 
the Portland philanthropist, Neal Dow, closed 
up the distilleries ; in their place came sugar 
factories and refineries which turned out a more 
wholesome product. But about thirty years 
ago, changes in the methods of making sugar 
caused the loss of this industry to Portland. 

The development of the canning business 
has of late years been an important feature 
of the industrial prosperity of Maine, owing 
partly to the fact that the climate and soil of 
this State produce a quality of sweet corn that 
cannot be matched in other States, and also to 
the fact that the system of canning now in use 



Portland 65 

was a Portland Invention. All over the in- 
terior of IVIaine may be found corn factories 
owned by Portland merchants, and, on the 
coast, canneries of lobsters and other products 
of the fields and fisheries of Maine. 

Portland is the winter seaport of the Cana- 
das, and several lines of steamships find car- 
goes of Western produce at this port. For 
this business the port has excellent facilities, 
as it is the terminus of the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way system, which has its other terminus at 
Chicago. There is another line to Montreal, 
through the White Mountain Notch, which, 
like the Grand Trunk, owes its existence to 
Portland enterprise. Of late years the lakes 
and forests and sea-coast of Maine have, to a 
marked degree, become the pleasure-ground 
of the Union, and, naturally, Portland is the 
distributing point for the rapidly increasing 
summer travel in this direction. Its lines of 
railway stretch northward and eastward to 
regions abounding in fish and game ; the 
White Hills of New Hampshire and the 
Green Mountains of Vermont are within easy 
reach. Steamers from this port ply along the 
whole picturesque coast to New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia. During the summer 



66 Portland 

months, eight or ten pleasure steamers make 
trips between the city and the islands of 
Casco Bay, furnishing a great variety of pleas- 
urable excursions. These islands, except the 
smallest of them, are the summer homes of a 
multitude of families — many of them from 
Canada and from the Western States. 

The ancient Eastern Cemetery, on the 
southern slope of Munjoy, is the burying- 
place of the pioneers, including the victims of 
the French and Indian massacres of two cen- 
turies ago. The graves most frequently visited 
are those of the captains of the U. S. brig 
E7ite7^prise and His Majesty's hx\<g Boxer, both 
of whom were killed in the naval enoraorement 
off this coast, September 5, 1 8 1 3. By their side 
lies Lieutenant Waters, mortally wounded in 
the same action. The poet Longfellow was in 
his seventh year at the time of this fight, and his 
memory of it is enshrined in My Lost Youth : 

" I remember the sea-fight far away, 
How it thundered o'er the tide ! 
And the dead captains as they lay 
In their graves, o'erlooking the tranquil bay, 
Where they in battle died." 

Commodore Edward Preble, of Tripoli fame, 
and Rear-Admiral Alden, who fought at Vera 




a. 
O 

UJ 

O 
< 

_i 

Q. 

X 

I- 

CO 

LU 

I 

!- 



68 Portland 

Cruz, New Orleans, and Mobile, both Port- 
landers, are buried here. There is also a 
monument commemorating the gallant Lieu- 
tenant Henry Wadsworth, who fell before Tri- 
poli in 1804, — a volunteer in a desperate and 
tragic enterprise. He was a brother of Long- 
fellow's mother, and a new lustre has been 
added to his name by the nephew who bore it. 
In this ground also, but unmarked, are the 
graves of the victims of the French and Indian 
siege and massacre of 1690, and of the eleven 
men killed in the more fortunate battle of the 
previous year. 

The first house in Portland built entirely of 
brick was erected in 1785, by General Peleg 
Wadsworth, who was Adjutant-General of Mas- 
sachusetts during the Revolution ; it is now 
known as the Longfellow house, and stands 
next above the Preble House, on Congress 
Street. The poet was not born in this house, 
but was brought to it as an infant, and it was 
his home until his marriage, in 1831. It is now 
owned and occupied by his sister, Mrs. Pierce, 
who has provided that eventually it shall be- 
come the property of the Maine Historical So- 
ciety, which ensures its preservation as a 
reminder that Maine gave our country its most 



Portland 69 

widely known and best-loved poet. The house 
in which Longfellow was born is the three- 
story frame building at the corner of Fore and 
Hancock Streets. Around the corner, on 
Hancock Street, is the house in which Speaker 
Reed was born. 

For his services in the Revolutionary War, 
Massachusetts gave General Wadsworth a 
large tract of land in Oxford County, to im- 
prove which he removed to Hiram, and the 
family of his son-in-law, Stephen Longfellow, 
thereafter occupied his residence in Portland. 
To the end of his life, the poet made this 
house his home whenever he visited the scenes 
of his youth, and many of his best poems were 
written there. The central part of the hotel 
adjoining was the mansion of Commodore Ed- 
ward Preble, built just before his death in 
1807, and some of the best rooms in this hotel 
have still the wood-carving and other ornament- 
ation given them by the hero of Tripoli. A 
grandson of the Commodore was one of the 
officers of the Kearsarge when that ship sunk 
the rebel cruiser Alabavia, in the most pictur- 
esque naval engagement of modern times. 

We have seen that Portland has a history 
connecting it with the French and Indian 



70 Portland 

Wars, the Revolution, and the War of 1812. 
It was also the scene of a curious episode in 
the late Civil War — the cuttinof out of the 
United States revenue cutter Caleb Cushing, in 
June, 1863. The cutter had been preparing 
for an encounter with the rebel privateer Ta- 
cony, which had been capturing and burning 
many vessels on the coast of New England. 
A delay in fitting her out had been occasioned 
by the illness and death of her captain. In 
the meantime, the Tacony had captured the 
^Q^oovi^x Archer, and transferred her armament 
to the prize, which, after burning the Tacony, 
boldly sailed into Portland harbor in the guise 
of an innocent fisherman, with Lieutenant 
Reade in command. His purpose was to burn 
two gunboats then being fitted out in the 
harbor, but he found them too well guarded. 
He then turned his attention to the cutter, 
which was preparing for a fight with him with 
no suspicion that he was lying almost along- 
side. Captain Clarke had died the day before 
Reade's arrival, and Lieutenant Davenport, a 
Georgian by birth, was in command of the 
cutter. At night, when only one watchman 
was on deck, a surprise was quietly effected, 
and the crew put in irons. With a good wind 



Portland 71 

the cutter might easily have gotten away from 
the sleeping town and slipped by the unsuspi- 
cious forts ; but she was becalmed just after 
passing the forts, and In the morning three 
steamers were armed and sent In pursuit. At 
the time It was supposed that the Southern 
lieutenant had turned traitor, but the event 
proved his loyalty ; for he refused to inform 
his captors where the ammunition was kept, 
and they had only a dozen balls for the guns, 
which were all spent without Injury to the 
pursuers. The affair was watched by thous- 
ands on the hills and house-tops, and on yachts 
which In the dead calm were rowed to the 
scene. At length the town was startled by 
the blowing up and utter demolition of the 
cutter ; the Confederates had set fire to the 
vessel and tried to escape In the boats, but 
were at once captured by the steamers which 
had been circling around them. The Ai^cher 
was also captured, with all the chronometers 
and other valuables of the vessels bonded or 
destroyed by the Tacony. It proved an Im- 
portant check to the operations of the Confed- 
eracy on the sea, and it came just one week 
before the battle of Gettysburg and the capture 
of Vicksburg. 



72 Portland 

The first British squadron to enter the 
harbor of Portland after the bombardment by 
Mowatt in 1775, came just eighty-five years 
afterward to a day. It was sent to give dignity 
to the embarkation of the Prince of Wales in 
i860. It was in Portland, at what are now 
called the Victoria wharves, that the Prince, 
then a young man of nineteen, took his last 
step on American soil. His embarkation on a 
bright October day was one of the finest pag- 
eants ever witnessed in this country. Five of 
the most powerful men-of-war in the British 
navy, in gala trim, with yards manned, saluted 
the royal standard, gorgeous in crimson and 
gold, then for the first and only time displayed 
in this country. The deafening broadsides 
when the Prince reached the deck of the Hero 
were answered from the American forts and 
men-of-war. 

Another pageant, this time grand and solemn, 
was enacted in this harbor, in February, 1870. 
A British squadron, convoyed by American 
battle-ships, brought the remains of the philan- 
thropist, George Peabody, in the most power- 
ful ironclad the world had then seen. The 
funeral procession of boats from the English 
and American ships was an impressive spectacle. 




i\ ci..-0-v^ ^^^ . "^^^^^^-^^Gv^^ JUuo^' 



73 



74 Portland 

It was a bright winter day, immediately suc- 
ceeding a remarkable ice-storm, and the trees 
of the islands, the cape, and the city sparkled 
in the sun as if every bough were encrusted 
with diamonds — a wonderful frame for a memo- 
rable picture. Nature had put on her choicest 
finery to relieve the sombre effect of the draped 
flags, the muffled oars, the long, slow lines of 
boats, and the minute guns from ships and 
forts. 

The great fire of July 4, 1866, which burned 
fifteen hundred buildings in the centre of the 
city, also destroyed an immense number of 
shade trees, mostly large elms, the abundance 
of which had oriven to Portland the title of 
** Forest City." In a few years the buildings 
were replaced by greatly improved structures ; 
but the trees could not be improvised so read- 
ily, and the scar of the fire is still noticeable 
from the absence of aged trees in the district 
swept by it. Advantage was taken of the 
clearing of the ground in the most thickly 
settled part of the city, to lay out Lincoln 
Park in the centre of the ruins. This is now 
a charming spot, with its fountain and flowers, 
its lawns and shaded walks. 

The city is fortunate in the abundance and 



Portland 



/o 



purity of its water supply, which is drawn from 
Lake Sebago, sixteen miles distant. The 
natural outlet of this lake is the Presumpscot 
River, which has several valuable water-powers 
alonor its short course to its mouth in Casco 
Bay, near Portland harbor. 

It will be remembered that Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne received his collegiate education, in the 
same class with Longfellow, at Brunswick, 
which is in the same county with Portland, but 
it is not so generally known that during his 
teens his home was at Raymond, on the shore 
of Sebago Lake, and in the same county. 
Part of each year he spent in school at Salem ; 
but his mother's home was in the little hamlet 
in the picturesque wilderness a few miles from 
Portland, and here he spent the happiest 
months of his youth, as he has testified in 
many letters. His biographers have gener- 
ally failed to take account of this, and, indeed, 
have asserted that he was at Raymond only a 
part of one year. A little volume recently 
published, entitled Hawthorne s First Dzary^ 
brinors out the facts in this neo^lected but im- 
portant episode in the career of this great mas- 
ter in our literature. While fitting for college, 
Hawthorne became, for a single term, the pupil 



76 Portland 

of the Reverend Caleb Bradley, of Stroud- 
water, a suburb of Portland. The building in 
which he studied is still to be seen at Stroud- 
water. The house of his mother at Raymond 
is converted into a church, but as to ex- 
terior remains very much as when his boy life 
was spent in it. It was in this same county of 
Cumberland that Mrs. Stowe wrote the whole 
of Uncle Toms Cabin, while her husband was 
a professor in Bowdoin College. Thus, three 
of the greatest names in American literature 
are linked to Portland and its immediate vicin- 
ity. 

Portland can count to her credit many 
jurists, lawyers, and orators of national re- 
pute, among them Theophilus Parsons, Simon 
Greenleaf, Ashur Ware, Sargent S. Prentiss, 
Nathan Clifford, and George Evans. William 
Pitt Fessenden lived and died in the house on 
State Street now occupied by Judge W. L. 
Putnam. Like Fessenden eminent as Senator 
and Secretary of the Treasury, Lot M. Mor- 
rill spent the last years of his life in Portland. 
Still another great Senator and Secretary of 
the Treasury, who was also Chief-Justice, hon- 
ored this city by bearing its name — Salmon 
Portland Chase. He was actually named for 




77 



78 Portland 

the town, his uncle, Salmon Chase, being a 
Portland lawyer, and his parents were deter- 
mined that there should be no mistake as to 
the person for whom he was named ! 

At an early period in his career, James G. 
Blaine edited the Portland Daily Advertiser, 
Among writers of celebrity, we may name N. 
P. Willis and his sister, " Fanny Fern" ; John 
Neal, poet and novelist ; Henry W. and Sam- 
uel Longfellow ; J. H. Ingraham, whose many 
novels had a great sale fifty or sixty years ago ; 
Elijah Kellogg ; Mrs. Ann S. Stephens ; Seba 
Smith, author of the Jack Dowrmig Letters, 
and his more famous wife, Elizabeth Oakes 
Smith; Thomas Hill, for a time President of 
Harvard University ; and the divines, Edward 
Payson and Cyrus Bartol. The home of 
Charles Farrar Brown, " Artemus Ward," was 
in an adjoining county, but like the Chief- 
Justice just mentioned, he came to Portland 
for his baptismal name, his uncle, Charles Far- 
rar, being a Portland physician. Two sculp- 
tors of national fame have gone out from 
Portland — Paul Akers and Franklin Simmons, 
and some of the best works of both these artists 
adorn public places in the city. The Dead Pearl 
Diver, by Akers, may be found in the reading- 



Portland 79 

room of the Public Library ; and Simmons 
has two bronze statues in the city, one a seated 
figure of Longfellow, at the head of State 
Street, overlooking " Deering's Woods," and 
the other a noble statue of America, in Monu- 
ment Square, commemorating the sons of 
Portland who died for the Union ; no finer 
soldiers' monument than this has ever been 
erected. Of other artists who have attained 
distinction, we may name H. B. Brown, now 
residing in London, whose landscapes and 
marine views have given him a recognized 
position among the best American artists ; 
Charles O. Cole, portrait painter ; and Charles 
Codman, J. R. Tilton, and J. B. Hudson, 
landscape painters. 

Immense sums are being expended on the 
defences of the city by the United States 
government, as it is realized that in case of 
war with Great Britain this would be the point 
of attack, because Portland is the natural sea- 
port of the Canadas, and Maine is thrust, in a 
provoking way, between the Maritime Pro- 
vinces and the Province of Quebec. Portland 
can indulore in no dream of grreat commercial 
importance so long as the country which its 
position especially dominates is under a for- 



So 



Portland 



eign flag ; but if ever Maine should be annexed 
to Canada, or the annexation takes the alter- 
native form, a great future is assured for a 
town so favorably located. In the meantime, 
the beautiful citv must be content to be the 
centre of distribution for the pleasure travel of 
the summer, and for the other half of the year, 
by means of its capacious harbor, it can con- 
tinue to furnish an outlet for that part of the 
business of the Great Lakes which in summer 
is handled at Montreal. 




OLD RUTLAND, MASSACHUSETTS 

THE CRADLE OF OHIO 

By EDWIN D. MEAD 

THE Old South Historical Society in Boston 
inaugurated in 1896 the custom of annual 
historical pilgrimages. It had learned from 
Parkman and Motley and Irving how vital 
and vivid history is made by visits to the 
scenes of history. Its pilgrimages must be 
short to places near home ; but the good 
places to visit in New England are many. 
Great numbers of people, young and old, 
join in the pilgrimages. Six hundred went to 
the beautiful Whittier places beside the Mer- 
rimac, the second year ; and as many the third 
year to the King Philip country, on Narragan- 
sett Bay. 

The first year's pilgrimage was to old Rut- 
land, Massachusetts, *'the cradle of Ohio." A 
hundred of the young people went on the train 

81 



(o<h%o 



82 Old Rutland 

from Boston, on that bright July day ; and 
• when they had climbed to the little village on 
the hill, and swept their eyes over the great 
expanse of country round about Wachusett 
and away to Monadnock, and strolled down to 
the old Rufus Putnam house, by whose fireside 
the settlement of Marietta was planned, a 
hundred more people had come from the sur- 
rounding villages ; and a memorable little cele- 
bration was that under the maples after the 
luncheon, with the dozen energetic speeches 
from the young men and the older ones. It 
was a fine inauguration of the Old South pil- 
grimages, and woke many people to the great 
possibilities of the historical pilgrimage as an 
educational factor.^ 

Ten years before, there was hardly a man in 
Massachusetts who ever thought of Rutland 
as a historical town. The people of Princeton 
and Paxton and Hubbardston and Oakham 
looked across to the little village on the hill 
from their villages on the hills, and they did 
not think of it ; the people of Worcester drove 
up of a Sunday to get a dinner at the old vil- 
lage tavern, and they did not think of it ; the 
Amherst College boys and the Smith College 

^ See Editor's Preface p. v. 



84 Old Rutland 

girls rode past on the Central Massachusetts 
road, at the foot of the hill, on their way to 
Boston, and heard " Rutland !" called, but they 
thought nothing of history ; and in Boston the 
last place to which people would have thought 
of arranging a historical pilgrimage was this 
same Rutland. 

Yet when the Old South young people went 
there on their first pilgrimage, Rutland had 
already become a name almost as familiar in 
our homes as Salem or Sudbury or Deerfield. 
The Old South young people themselves had 
been led to think very much about it. In 
1893, the year of the World's Fair at Chicago, 
the great capital of the great West, a place 
undreamed of a hundred years before, when 
Rutland was witnessing its one world-histor- 
ical event, the Old South lectures were de- 
voted to " The Opening of the West." Two 
of the eight lectures were upon " The North- 
west Territory and the Ordinance of 1787" 
and "Marietta and the Western Reserve"; 
two of the leaflets issued in connection were 
Manasseh Cutler's Description of Ohio in 
lySy and Garfield's address on The Noi^th- 
west Tei'ritory and the Western Reserve ; and 
one of the subjects set for the Old South es- 



\ 



86 Old Rutland 

says was " The Part Taken by Massachusetts 
Men in Connection with the Ordinance of 
I 787." These studies first kindled the imagina- 
tions of hundreds of young people and first 
roused them to the consciousness that westward 
expansion had been the great fact in our his- 
tory from the time of the Revolution to the 
time of the Civil War ; that New England 
had had a controlling part in this great move- 
ment, which, by successive waves, has reached 
Ohio, Illinois, Kansas, Colorado, Oregon, so 
that there is more good New England blood to- 
day west of the Hudson than there is east of it ; 
and that this movement, which has transformed 
the United States from the little strip along the 
Atlantic coast which fought for independence 
to the orreat nation which stretches now from 
sea to sea, began at the old town of Rutland, 
Massachusetts. This Rutland on the hill is 
the cradle of Ohio, the cradle of the West. 

It was not, by any means, these Boston lect- 
ures on ''The Opening of the West" which re- 
awakened Massachusetts and the country to the 
forgotten historical significance of old Rutland. 
That awakening was done by Senator Hoar, 
in his great oration at the Marietta centennial, 
in 1888. Senator Hoar's oration did not in- 



Old Rutland ^7 

deed awaken Massachusetts to the great part 
taken by Massachusetts men in connection 
with the Ordinance of 1787, or the part of 
New England in the settlement and shaping 
of the West. No awakening to these things 
was necessary. There is no New England 
household which has not kindred households 
in the West, ever in close communication with 
the old home ; and the momentous significance 
of the Ordinance of 1787, and the decisive 
part taken by Massachusetts statesmen in se- 
curing it, the Massachusetts historian and ora- 
tor were never likely to let the people forget. 

" At the foundation of the constitution of these new 
Northwestern States," said Daniel Webster in his great 
reply to Hayne, "lies the celebrated Ordinance of 1787. 
We are accustomed to praise the lawgivers of antiquity ; 
we help to perpetuate the fame of Solon and Lycurgus ; 
but I doubt whether one single law of any lawgiver, 
ancient or modern, has produced effects of more distinct, 
marked and lasting character than the Ordinance of 
1787. That instrument was drawn by Nathan Dane, 
a citizen of Massachusetts ; and certainly it has 
happened to few men to be the authors of a political 
measure of more large and enduring consequence. It 
fixed forever the character of the population in the vast 
regions northwest of the Ohio, by excluding from them 
involuntary servitude. It impressed on the soil itself, 
while it was yet a wilderness, an incapacity to sustain 



SS Old Rutland 

any other than free men. It laid the interdict against 
personal servitude, in original compact, not only deeper 
than all local law, but deeper also than all local constitu- 
tions. We see its consequences at this moment, and 
we shall never cease to see them, perhaps, while the 
Ohio shall flow." 

Mr. Hoar spoke as strongly of the Ordinance, 
in his Marietta oration. " The Ordinance of 
1787 belongs with the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and the Constitution ; it is one of 
the three title-deeds of American constitu- 
tional liberty." But the chief merit of his 
oration was not the new emphasis with which 
he said what Webster had said, but the pict- 
uresqueness and the power with which he 
brouorht the men and the events of that orreat 
period of the opening of the West home to 
the imagination. The oration was especially 
memorable for the manner in which it set 
Rufus Putnam, the man of action, the head 
of the Ohio Company, the leader of the Mari- 
etta colony, in the centre of the story, and 
made us see old Rutland as the cradle of the 
movement. 

Complete religious liberty, the public sup- 
port of schools, and the prohibition forever 
of slavery, — these were what the Ordinance 



Old Rutland 89 

of 1787 secured for the Northwest. ''When 
older States or nations," said Mr. Hoar, " where 
the chains of human bondage have been broken, 
shall utter the proud boast, ' With a great sum 
obtained I this freedom,' each sister of this im- 
perial group — Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, 
Wisconsin — may lift her queenly head with 
the yet prouder answer, ' But I was free-born.'" 
The moment of this antislavery article of the 
Ordinance, in view of the course of our national 
history during the century that has followed, it 
would not be possible to overstate. When the 
great test of civil war came, to settle of what 
sort this republic should be, who dare con- 
template the result had these five States been 
slave States and not free ! 

Massachusetts makes no false or exclusive 
claims of credit for the Ordinance of 1787. 
She does not foro-et the services of William 
Grayson, nor those of Richard Henry Lee. 
She does not forget Thomas Jefferson.^ 

'The Ordinance of 1784, the original of the Ordinance of 1787, 
was drawn up by Jefferson himself, as chairman of the committee 
appointed by Congress to prepare a plan for the government of 
the territory. The draft of the committee's report, in Jefferson's 
own handwriting, is still preserved in the archives of the State De- 
partment at Washington. "It is as completely Jefferson's own 
work," says Bancroft, "as the Declaration of Independence." Jef- 
ferson worked with the greatest earnestness to secure the insertion of 



90 Old Rutland 

The names of Nathan Dane, Rufus Putnam, 
Rufus King, Timothy Pickering and Manas- 
seh Cutler are names of the greatest moment 
in the history of the West. No other group 
of men did so much as these Massachusetts 
men to determine what the ofreat West should 
be, by securing the right organization and in- 
stitutions for the Northwest Territory and by 
securing at the beginning the right kind of 
settlers for Ohio. 

It was really Manasseh Cutler who did most 
at the final decisive moment to secure the adop- 

a clause in the Ordinance of 1784 prohibiting slavery in the North- 
west ; and the clause was lost by only a single vote. " The voice of 
a single individual," said Jefferson, who foresaw more clearly than 
any other what the conflict with slavery was to mean to the republic, 
"would have prevented this abominable crime. Heaven will not 
always be silent. The friends of the rights of human nature will 
in the end prevail," They prevailed for the Northwest Territory 
with the achievement of Manasseh Cutler, Rufus Putnam and 
Nathan Dane. 

Was it from Jefferson that Putnam and his men at Marietta caught 
their classical jargon ? There was a great deal of pretentious classi- 
cism in America at that time, new towns everywhere being freighted 
with high-sounding Greek and Roman names. The founders of 
Marietta — so named in honor of Marie Antoinette — named one of their 
squares Capiiolium ; the road which led up from the river was the 
Sacra Via; and the new garrison, with blockhouses at the corners, 
was the Campus Maj-tius. Jefferson had proposed dividing the 
Northwest into ten States, instead of five as was finally done, and for 
these States he proposed the names of Sylvania, Michigania, Asseni- 
sipia, Illinoia, Polypotamia, Cherronesus, Metropotamia, Saratoga, 
Pelisipia and Washington. 




MANASSEH CUTLER. 



91 



92 



Old Rutland 



tion of the clause In the great Ordinance which 
forever dedicated the Northwest to freedom. 
Of all these Massachusetts men he was by far 
the most interesting personality ; and of all 
revelations of the inner character of that criti- 
cal period, none is more in- 
teresting or valuable than 
that given by his Life and 
t^ Letters. It is to be remem- 
bered too that the first com- 
pany of men for Marietta — 
Cutler urged Adelphia as 
the right name for the town 
— started from Man ass eh 
Cutler's own home in Ips- 
wich, joining others at Dan- 
vers, December 3, 1787, 
almost a month before the Rutland farmers 
left to join Putnam at Hartford. For the 
shrine of Manasseh Cutler is not at Rutland, 
but at Hamilton, which was a part of Ipswich. 
The home of Nathan Dane was Beverly. 




NATHAN DANE. 



" It happened," said Edward Everett Hale, at the Ma- 
rietta centennial, '* that it was Manasseh Cutler who was 
to be the one who should call upon that Continental Con- 
gress to do the duty which they had pushed aside for 
five or six years. It happened that this diplomatist sue- 



Old Rutland 93 

ceeded in doing in four days what had not been done in 
four years before. What was the weight which Manas- 
seh Cutler threw into the scale ? It was not wealth ; it 
was not the armor of the old time ; it was simply the 
fact, known to all men, that the men of New Eng- 
land would not emigrate into any region where labor and 
its honest recompense is dishonorable. The New Eng- 
land men will not go where it is not honorable to do an 
honest day's work, and for that honest day's work to 
claim an honest recompense. They never have done it, 
and they never will do it ; and it was that potent fact, 
known to all men, that Manasseh Cutler had to urge in his 
private conversation and in his diplomatic work. When 
he said, * I am going away from New York, and my con- 
stituents are not going to do this thing,' he meant ex- 
actly what he said. They were not going to any place 
where labor was dishonorable, and where workmen were 
not recognized as freemen. If they had not taken his 
promises, they would not have come here ; they would 
have gone to the Holland Company's lands in New York, 
or where Massachusetts was begging them to go — into 
the valley of the Penobscot or the Kennebec." 

Senator Hoar, in his oration, said of Manas- 
seh Cutler : 

" He was probably the fittest man on the continent, 
except Franklin, for a mission of delicate diplomacy. 
It was said just now that Putnam was a man after Wash- 
ington's pattern and after Washington's own heart. 
Cutler was a man after Franklin's pattern and after 
Franklin's own heart. He was the most learned natural- 
ist in America, as Franklin was the greatest master in 



94 Old Rutland 

physical science. He was a man of consummate pru- 
dence in speech and conduct ; of courtly manners ; a 
favorite in the drawing-room and in the camp ; with a 
wide circle of friends and correspondents among the 
most famous men of his time. During his brief service 
in Congress, he made a speech on the judicial system, 
in 1803, which shows his profound mastery of constitu- 
tional principles. It now fell to his lot to conduct a 
negotiation second only in importance to that which 
Franklin conducted with France in 1778. Never was 
ambassador crowned with success more rapid or more 
complete." 

But here, in old Rutland, It is not with Ma- 
nasseh Cutler that we are concerned, but with 
Rufus Putnam. Rufus Putnam was the head 
of the Ohio Company, and the leader in 
the actual settlement of the new Territory. 
It was with Putnam that Manasseh Cutler 
chiefly conferred concerning the proposed Ohio 
colony. He left Boston for New York, on his 
important mission, on the evening of June 25, 
1787, and on that day he records in his diary : 
" I conversed with General Putnam, and set- 
tled the principles on which I am to contract 
with Congress for lands on account of the Ohio 
Company." Of Rufus Putnam, Senator Hoar 
said in his oration, after his tributes to Var- 
num, Meigs, Parsons, Tupper and the rest : 




'^V. .^ 



0. 



^^^ J^^^^^n^^^^t^L^ 



95 



96 Old Rutland 

" But what can be said which shall be adequate to the 
worth of him who was the originator, inspirer, leader, 
and guide of the Ohio settlement from the time when he 
first conceived it, in the closing days of the Revolution, un- 
til Ohio took her place in the Union as a free State in the 
summer of 1803 ? Every one of that honorable body would 
have felt it as a personal wrong had he been told that the 
foremost honors of this occasion would not be given to 
Rufus Putnam. Lossing calls him ' the father of Ohio.* 
Burnet says, * He was regarded as their principal chief 
and leader.' He was chosen the superintendent at the 
meeting of the Ohio Company in Boston, November 21, 
1787, 'to be obeyed and respected accordingly.' The 
agents of the company, when they voted in 1789 'that 
the 7th of April be forever observed as a public festival,' 
speak of it as ' the day when General Putnam com- 
menced the settlement in this country.' Harris dedi- 
cates the documents collected in his appendix to Rufus 
Putnam, ' the founder and father of the State.' He was 
a man after Washington's own pattern and after Wash- 
ington's own heart ; of the blood and near kindred of 
Israel Putnam, the man who ' dared to lead where any 
man dared to follow.'" 

Mr. Hoar recounts the great services of Put- 
nam during the Revolution, beginning with 
his brilliant success in the fortification of Dor- 
chester Heights : 

" We take no leaf from the pure chaplet of Washing- 
ton's fame when we say that the success of the first great 



Old Rutland 97 

military operation of the Revolution was due to Rufus 
Putnam." 

But it was not Senator Hoar's task to nar- 
rate the military services of General Putnam.^ 

" We have to do," he said, " only with the entrench- 
ments constructed under the command of this great en- 
gineer for the constitutional fortress of American liberty. 
Putnam removed his family to Rutland, Worcester 
County, Mass., early in 1780. His house is yet stand- 
ing, about ten miles from the birthplace of the grand- 
father of President Garfield. He himself returned to 
Rutland when the war was over. He had the noble 
public spirit of his day, to which no duty seemed trifling 
or obscure. For live years he tilled his farm and ac- 
cepted and performed the public offices to which his 
neighbors called him. He was representative to the 
General Court, selectman, constable, tax collector and 
committee to lay out school lots for the town ; State 
surveyor, commissioner to treat with the Penobscot In- 
dians and volunteer in putting down Shays's Rebellion. 
He was one of the founders and first trustees of Leices- 

^ Rufus Putnam was born in Sutton, Massachusetts, April 9, 1738, 
just fifty years before he founded Marietta, where he died May r, 
1824. He was a cousin of General Putnam. Early in life he was a 
millwright and a farmer ; but he studied mathematics, surveying and 
engineering — after distinguished service in the old French war — and 
became our leading engineer during the Revolution, and an able offi- 
cer in many campaigns. He first planned the Ohio settlement, and 
at the outset made it a distinct condition that there should be no 
slavery in the territory. Five years after the founding of Marietta, 
Putnam was made Surveyor-General of the United States ; and his 
services in Ohio until the time of his death were of high importance. 



98 Old Rutland 

ter Academy, and, with his family of eight children, 
gave from his modest means a hundred pounds toward 
its endowment. But he had larger plans in mind. The 
town constable of Rutland was planning an empire." 

Putnam's chief counsellor in his design at the 
first was Washington, whose part altogether in 
the opening of the West was so noteworthy. 
Mr. Hoar tells of the correspondence between 
Putnam and Washington, and follows the in- 
teresting history to the organization of the 
Ohio Company, at the Bunch of Grapes Tav- 
ern in Boston, in 1 786, and the departure of 
the Massachusetts emigrants at the end of the 
next year. 

" Putnam went out from his simple house in Rutland 
to dwell no more in his native Massachusetts. It is a 
plain, wooden dwelling, perhaps a little better than the 
average of the farmers' houses of New England of that 
day ; yet about which of Europe's palaces do holier 
memories cling ! Honor and fame, and freedom and 
empire, and the faith of America went with him as he 
crossed the threshold." 

To Rutland, as one who loved the old town 
and its history has well said, ''belongs the 
honor of having carried into action the Ordi- 
nance of 1787. Standing on Rutland hill, and 
looking around the immense basin of which it 



Old Rutland 99 

forms the centre, it is with conscious pride that 
one looks upon the old landmarks and calls up 
to the imagination the strong and brave and 
true men whose traditions have permeated the 
soil and left their marks in the civilization 
which has been the type for the development 
of the whole of the orreat Northwest." For 
this old town on the hilltop was veritably 
"the cradle of Ohio." Here was first effect- 
ually heard that potent invitation and com- 
mand, so significant in the history of this 
country in these hundred years, " Go West ! " 
This town incarnates and represents as no other 
the spirit of the mighty movement which dur- 
ing the century has extended New England all 
through the great West. 

As early as 1783, about the time of the 
breaking up of the army at Newburgh on the 
Hudson, General Putnam and nearly three 
hundred army officers had proposed to form a 
new State beyond the Ohio, and Washington 
warmly endorsed their memorial to Congress 
asking for a grant of land ; but the plan mis- 
carried. As soon as the Ordinance was passed, 
the Ohio Company, of which Putnam was the 
president, bought from the government five or 
six million acres, and the first great movement 



loo Old Rutland 

of emigration west of the Ohio at once began. 
Within a year following the organization of 
the territory, twenty thousand people became 
settlers upon the banks of the Ohio. But the 
Pilgrim Fathers of the thousands and the mil- 
lions, the pioneers to whom belongs the praise, 
were the forty or fifty farmers who from old 
Rutland pushed on with Putnam through the 
snows of Connecticut and Pennsylvania, com- 
ing to Pittsburgh just as the spring of 1 788 
came, and dropping down the river to Marietta 
in the little boat which they had named, by a 
beautiful fatality, the JMay flower. " Forever 
honored be Marietta as another Plymouth ! " 

The men who first settled the Northwest 
Territory, — as President Hayes, following Mr. 
Hoar at Marietta, well called it, "the most 
fortunate colonization that ever occurred on 
earth," — and who set the seal of their charac- 
ter and institutions upon it, were of the best 
blood of New England. 

" Look for a moment," said Mr. Hoar, " at the forty- 
eight men who came here a hundred years ago to found 
the first American civil government whose jurisdiction 
did not touch tide-water. See what manner of men they 
were ; in what school they had been trained ; what tra- 
ditions they had inherited. I think that you must agree 



I02 Old Rutland 

that of all the men who ever lived on earth fit to perform 
' that ancient, primitive and heroical work,' the founding 
of a State, they were the fittest." 

Here we remember too the words of Washing- 
ton. 

" No colony in America," said Washington, the warm 
friend of Putnam, who was deeply concerned that the 
development of the West should begin in the right way, 
in the hands of the right men, " was ever settled under 
such favorable auspices as that which has just com- 
menced at the Muskingum. Information, property and 
strength will be its characteristics. I know many of the 
settlers personally, and there never were men better cal- 
culated to promote the welfare of such a community." 

We honor old Rutland not only because she 
sent men to open the West, but because she 
sent her best, because she pitched the tone for 
the great West high. 

But Rutland is not only " the cradle of 
Ohio," pre-eminent as that distinction is in her 
history. She also — like the other towns on the 
hills round about her, and like every good old 
New England town — has her long line of sim- 
ple local annals, well worthy the attention of 
the summer visitor from Boston or Chicago. 
Happy are you if you hear them all from the 
lips of one or another of the local antiquar- 
ians, as you ride with him through the fields 



Old Rutland 



103 



to Muschopauge Pond, or along the Princeton 
road to Wachusett, or over Paxton way to see 
the lot which Senator Hoar has bought on the 
top of Asnebumskit Hill, — perhaps finding 
the Senator himself on the hill, as we did, 
where he could see Worcester in one direc- 
tion, and in the other, Rutland. 

I remember well the crisp September night 
when I first saw Rutland, with the new moon 
in the clear sky, and the even- 
ing star. I remember that 
the man who drove me up 
from the little station to the 
big hotel on the hill, while I 
filled my lungs with Rutland 
air, proved to be the hotel 
proprietor himself, and, 
which was much better, 
proved — and proved it much 
more the next day — to be the 
very prince of local antiquar- 
ians. He had himself writ- 
ten a history of Rutland for a history of 
Worcester County, and there was nothing that 
he did not know. If there was anything, then 
the good village minister — he has been to Mari- 
etta since, and is president of the Rutland His- 




THE CENTRAL TREE. 



I04 



Old Rutland 



torlcal Society — had read it in some book ; or 
the town clerk knew it ; or Mr. Miles remem- 
bered it — who was to Rutland born, and whose 
memory was good. So in the dozen pleasant 
visits which I have made to Rutland since, I 
have not only taken mine ease with the benevo- 
lent boniface, but have taken many history les- 
sons on the broad piazzas and the hills. 




THE OLD RUTLAND INN. 



The boniface will tell you, sitting in the cor- 
ner looking toward Wachusett, how, in 1686, 
Joseph Trask, alias Pugastion, of Pennicook ; 
Job, alias Pompamamay, of Natick ; Simon 
Pitican, alias Wananapan, of Wamassick ; 
Sassawannow, of Natick, and another — Indi- 
ans who claimed to be lords of the soil — gave a 



Old Rutland 105 

deed to Henry Willard and Joseph Rowland- 
son and Benjamin Willard and others, for £2'^ 
of the then currency, of a certain tract of land 
twelve miles square, the name in general being 
Naquag, the south corner butting upon Mus- 
chopauge Pond, and running north to Ouani- 
tick and to Wauchatopick, and so running 
upon great Wachusett, etc. Upon the peti- 
tion, he will tell you, of the sons and grand- 
sons of Major Simon Willard, of Lancaster, 
deceased — that famous Major Willard who 
went to relieve Brookfield when beset by the 
Indians — and others; the General Court In 
I 713 confirmed these lands to these petitioners, 
'' provided that within seven years there be 
sixty families settled thereon, and sufficient 
lands reserved for the use of a gospel ministry 
and schools, except what part thereof the Hon. 
Samuel Sewall, Esq., hath already purchased, 
— the town to be called Rutland, and to lye to 
the county of Middlesex." The grant was 
about one eighth of the present Worcester 
County, comprising almost all the towns round 
about. When the new Worcester County was 
incorporated, Rutland failed of becoming the 
shire town, Instead of Worcester, by only one 
vote — and that vote, they say In Rutland, was 



io6 Old Rutland 

bought by a base bribe. The antiquarian 
taverner will point his spy-glass toward Barre 
for you, and tell you it was named after our 
CTood friend in the House of Commons in the 
Stamp Act days ; toward Petersham hill, back 
of it, where John Fiske spends his summers, 
and tell you about Shays' Rebellion ; toward 
Hubbardston, and tell you it was named for 
an old speaker of the Massachusetts House of 
Representatives ; toward Princeton, and tell 
you it perpetuates the memory of Thomas 
Prince, the famous old pastor of the Old South 
Church in Boston, founder of the Prince Li- 
brary ; toward Paxton, and tell you about 
Charles Paxton, who was something or other ; 
toward Oakham, and tell you something else. 
He will tell you that H olden is so called after 
that same family whose name is also honored 
in H olden Chapel at Harvard College ; and 
he will probably point to Shrewsbury, on the 
hill away beyond H olden, and talk about Gen- 
eral Artemas Ward, whose old home and grave 
are there. 

He will tell about the first settlers of Rut- 
land, respectable folk from Boston and Concord 
and other places, and how many immigrants 
from Ireland there were, with their church-mem- 



io8 Old Rutland 

bership papers in their pockets. He will tell 
you of Judge Sewall's farm of a thousand acres 
in the north part of the town, and of his gift of 
the sacramental vessels to the church ; of the 
five hundred acres granted to the Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery Company ; of how the 
road throuorh the villao^e was laid out ten rods 
wide, and so remains unto this day ; of the 
call to the " able, learned, orthodox minister," 
Joseph Willard, in 1721, and how he was "cut 
off by the Indians " — shot in the field north of 
the meeting-house — just before the installation 
day, so that Thomas Frink, " an able and 
learned, orthodox and pious person," was called 
instead. Presently there was " a coolness in 
affection in some of the brethren " towards 
Mr. Frink, because two fifths of the church- 
members were Presbyterians, over against the 
three fifths Congregationalists, and '' contrary 
to his advice and admonition communed with 
the Presbyterians in other towns." The upshot 
was a split, and a Presbyterian church in the 
west part of the town. These Rutland Presby- 
terians seem to have come from Ireland — they 
were of the same sort as those who founded 
Londonderry, New Hampshire just before ; 
and some of them were so tenacious of their 



Old Rutland 109 

own ordinances that they carried their Infants 
in their arms on horseback as far as Pelham to 
have them baptized In good Presbyterian form. 

Rutland had her minute-men, and fifty of 
them were at Bunker Hill. She had some 
hot town-meetings between the Stamp Act 
time and Lexington, and passed ringing reso- 
lutions and some stiff Instructions to Colonel 
Murray, her representative to the General 
Court, whom more and more she distrusted, 
and who, when the final pinch came, declared 
himself a Tory out-and-out, and fied to Nova 
Scotia, leaving Rutland " by a back road," to 
avoid a committee of the whole, which was on 
its way to visit him. 

To tell the truth, this Tory Colonel, John 
Murray, must have been the most interesting 
figure ever associated with old Rutland, save 
General Rufus Putnam himself ; and, curiously 
enough, the Putnam place had belonged first 
to Murray, — the house being built by him for 
one of his married daughters, all of Murray's 
lands and goods being confiscated, and this 
house falling into Putnam's hands in 1780 or 
1782, probably at a very low figure. 

He was not John Murray when he came to 
Rutland, but John McMorrah. He came 



no Old Rutland 

from Ireland with John and Elizabeth Mc- 
Clanathan, Martha Shaw and others, his 
mother dying on the passage. He was not 
only penniless when he set his foot on the 
American shore, but in debt for his passage. 
"For a short time," says the chronicle, "he 
tried manual labor ; but he was too lazy to 
work, and to beg ashamed." He found a friend 
in Andrew Hendery, and began peddling ; then 
he kept a small store, and later bought cattle 
for the army. Everything seemed to favor him, 
and he became the richest man that ever lived 
in Rutland. "He did not forget Elizabeth Mc- 
Clanathan, whom he sailed to America with, but 
made her his wife." She lies, along with Lu- 
cretia Chandler, his second wife, and Deborah 
Brindley, the third, in the old Rutland grave- 
yard. "He placed horizontally over their graves 
large handsome stones underpinned with brick, 
whereon were engraved appropriate inscrip- 
tions." He had a large family, seven sons and 
five daughters ; and the oldest son, Alexander, 
remained loyal to America and to Rutland 
when his father fled — entering the army and 
being wounded in the service. Murray be- 
came a large landholder and had many tenants ; 
he was the " Squire " of the region. He grew 



Old Rutland m 

arbitrary and haughty as he grew wealthy, but 
was popular, until the stormy politics came. 
" On Representative day," we read, " all his 
friends that could ride, walk, creep or hobble 
were at the polls ; and it was not his fault if 
they returned dry." He held every office the 
people could give him, and represented them 
twenty years in the General Court. He was a 
large, fleshy man, and, '' when dressed in his 
regimentals, with his gold-bound hat, etc., he 
made a superb appearance." He lived in style, 
with black servants and white. " His high com- 
pany from Boston, Worcester, etc., his office 
and parade, added to the popularity and 
splendor of the town. He promoted schools, 
and for several years gave twenty dollars 
yearly towards supporting a Latin grammar 
school." He also gave a clock to the church, 
which was placed in front of the gallery, and 
proved himself a thoroughly modern man by 
inscribing on the clock the words, " A Gift of 
John Murray, Esq." 

All these things your loyal Rutland host will 
tell you, or read to you out of the old books, — 
where you can read' them, and many other 
things. And he will take you to drive, down 
past the Putnam place, to the field where a 



I 12 



Old Rutland 



large detachment of Burgoyne's army was 
quartered after the surrender at Saratoga. 
The prisoners' barracks stood for half a cent- 
ury, converted to new uses ; and the well dug 
by the soldiers is still shown — as, until a few 
years ago, were the mounds which marked the 











BRITISH BARRACKS. 



graves of those who died. Three of the offi- 
cers fell in love with Rutland girls, and took 
them back to England as their wives. Yet 
none of their stories is so romantic as the story 
of that vagrant Betsy, whose girlhood was 
passed in a Rutland shanty, and who, after she 
married in New York the wealthy Frenchman, 
Stephen Jumel, and was left a widow, then 
married Aaron Burr. 



Old Rutland 113 

St. Edmundsbury, In old Suffolk, where Rob- 
ert Browne first preached independency, has 
an air so bracing and salubrious that it has 
been called the Montpellier of England. Old 
Rutland might well be called the Montpellier 
of Massachusetts. Indeed, when a few years 
ago the State of Massachusetts decided to es- 
tablish a special hospital for consumptives, the 
authorities asked the opinions of hundreds of 
physicians and scientific men in all parts of the 
State as to where was the best place for it, the 
most healthful and favorable point ; and a vast 
preponderance of opinion was in behalf of 
Rutland. On the southern slope, therefore, 
of Rutland's highest hill the fine hospital now 
stands ; and until people outgrow the foolish 
notion that a State must have all its State in- 
stitutions within its own borders, — until Massa- 
chusetts knows that North Carolina is a better 
place for consumptives than any town of her 
own, — there could not be a wiser choice. The 
town is so near to Worcester, and even to 
Boston, that its fine air, broad outlook and big 
hotel draw to it hundreds of summer visitors ; 
and latterly it has grown enterprising, — for 
which one is a little sorry, — and has water- 
works and coaching parades. 



114 



Old Rutland 



The central town in Massachusetts, Rutland 
is also the highest village In the State east of 
the Connecticut. From the belfry of the village 
church, from the dooryards of the village peo- 
ple, the eye sweeps an almost boundless horl. 
zon, from the Blue Hills to Berkshire and from 
Monadnock to Connecticut, and the breezes 
on the summer day whisper of the White Hills 
and the Atlantic. It is not hard for the imagin- 
ation to extend the view far beyond New 
England, to the town on the Muskingum which 
the prophetic eye of Putnam saw from here, 
and to the great States beyond, which rose 
obedient to the effort which began with him ; 
1^ ^ it Is not hard 

^^W^ „ft^HM ^^ catch mes- 

sages borne on 
winds from the 
Rocky Mount- 
ains and the 
Pacific. 

Just at the 
foot of the hill, 
— to the west, 
stands the old Rufus Putnam 
house, the church clock telling the hours above, 
Wachusett looming beyond the valley, the 




THE RUFUS PUTNAM HOUSE. 



as Is fitting. 



Old Rutland 115 

maples rustling before the door, to the west 
the sough of the pines. Its oaken timbers are 
still as sound as when Murray put them in 
place before the Revolution, each clapboard 
still intact, the doors the same, the rooms but 
little altered. Could Putnam return to earth 
again and to Rutland, he would surely feel 
himself at home as he passed through the gate. 
In 1893, when the enthusiasm re-inforced 
by our Old South lectures on *'The Opening 
of the West " was strong, I wrote these words 
about the Rufus Putnam house : 

" This historic house should belong to the people. It 
should be insured against every mischance. It should 
be carefully restored and preserved, and stand through 
the years, a memorial of Rufus Putnam and the farmers 
who went out with him to found Ohio, a monument to 
New England influence and effort in the opening and 
building of the great West. This room should be a 
Rufus Putnam room, in which there should be gathered 
every book and picture and document illustrating Put- 
nam's career ; this should be the Ordinance room, sa- 
cred to memorials of Manasseh Cutler and all who 
worked with him to secure the great charter of liberty ; 
this the Marietta room, illustrating the Marietta of the 
first days and the last, binding mother and daughter to- 
gether, and becoming the pleasant ground for the inter- 
change of many edifying courtesies. There should be, 
too, a Rutland room, with its hundred objects illustrat- 



ii6 Old Rutland 

ing the long history of the town, — ahiiost every important 
chapter of which has been witnessed by this venerable 
building, — with memorials also of the old English Rut- 
land and of the many American Rutlands which look 
back reverently to the historic Massachusetts town ; and 
a Great West library, on whose shelves should stand the 
books telling the story of the great oak which has grown 
from the little acorn planted by Rufus Putnam a hun- 
dred years ago. We can think of few memorials which 
could be established in New England more interesting 
than this would be. We can think of few which could 
be established so easily. It is a pleasure to look for- 
ward to the day when this shall be accomplished. It is 
not hard to hear already the voice of Senator Hoar, at 
the dedication of this Rufus Putnam memorial, deliver- 
ing the oration in the old Rutland church. Men from 
the West should be there with men from the East, men 
from Marietta, from the Western Reserve, from Chicago, 
from Puget Sound. A score of members of the Anti- 
quarian Society at Worcester should be there. That 
score could easily make this vision a reality. We com- 
mend the thought to these men of Worcester. We 
commend it to the people of Rutland, who, however the 
memorial is secured, must be its custodians." 

Just a year from the time these words were 
written, the pleasing plan and prophecy — more 
fortunate than most such prophecies — began to 
be fulfilled. It was a memorable meetinof in 
old Rutland on that brilliant October day in 
1894. Senator Hoar and seventy-five good 



Old Rutland 117 

men and women came from Worcester ; and 
Edward Everett Hale led a zealous company 
from Boston ; and General Walker drove over 
with his friends from Brookfield, his boyhood 
home near by, — the home, too, of Rufus Putnam 
before he came to Rutland ; and when every- 
body had roamed over the old Putnam place, 
and crowded the bie hotel dininof-room for 
dinner, and then adjourned to the village 
church, so many people from the town and the 
country round about had joined that the 
church never saw many larger gatherings. 
The address which Senator Hoar gave was 
full of echoes of his great Marietta oration ; 
and when the other speeches had been made, 
it was very easy in the enthusiasm to secure 
pledges for a third of the four thousand dol- 
lars necessary to buy the old house and the 
hundred and fifty acres around it. The rest 
has since then been almost entirely raised ; the 
house has been put into good condition, and 
is visited each year by hundreds of pilgrims 
from the East and the West ; and a note- 
worthy collection of historical memorials has al- 
ready been made, — all under the control of the 
Rutland Historical Society, which grew out of 
that historic day, and which is doing a noble 



ii8 Old Rutland 

work for the Intellectual and social life of the 
town, strengthening in the minds of the people 
the proud consciousness of their rich inherit- 
ance, and prompting them to meet the new 
occasion and new duty of to-day as worthily as 
Rufus Putnam and the Rutland farmers met 
the duty and opportunity of 1787. In the 
autumn of 1898, there was another noteworthy 
celebration at Rutland. This time it was the 
Sons of the Revolution who came ; and they 
placed upon the Putnam house a bronze tablet 
with the following inscription, written by Sen- 
ator Hoar, who was himself present and the 
chief speaker, as on the earlier occasion : 

"Here, from 1781 to 1788, dwelt General Rufus Put- 
nam, Soldier of the Old French War, Engineer of the 
works which compelled the British Army to evacuate 
Boston and of the fortifications of West Point, Founder 
and Father of Ohio. In this house he planned and ma- 
tured the scheme of the Ohio Company, and from it 
issued the call for the Convention which led to its organ- 
ization. Over this threshold he went to lead the Com- 
pany which settled Marietta, April 7, 1788. To him,, 
under God, it is owing that the great Northwest Territory 
was dedicated forever to Freedom, Education, and Re- 
ligion, and that the United States of America is not 
now a great slaveholding Empire." 

Many such celebrations will there be at the 



Old Rutland 



119 



home of Rufus Putnam, and at the little vil- 
lage on the hill. Ever more highly will New 
England estimate the place of old Rutland 
in her history ; ever more sacred and signifi- 
cant will it become as a point of contact for 
the East and West ; and in the far-off years 
the sons and daughters of Ohio, Indiana, Il- 
linois, Michigan and Wisconsin will make pil- 
grimages to it, as the children of New England 
pilgrimage to Scrooby. 




SALEM 

THE PURITAN TOWN 

By GEORGE DIMMICK LATIMER 

SALEM is what historical students would call 
2.palimpsest, an ancient manuscript that has 
been scraped and then rewritten with another 
and later text. By careful study of the almost 
illegible characters and sometimes by chemical 
treatment, great treasures of the ancient learn- 
ing, such as Orations of Cicero, the Institutes 
of Gains and versions of the New Testament, 
have been discovered under monkish rules 
and medieval chronicles. Such a charm of 
research and discovery awaits the historical 
student in this modern, progressive city. The 
stranger within our gates is at first impressed 
by the many good business blocks, the elegant 
residences amid beautiful lawns on the broad, 
well-shaded streets, the handsome public build- 
ings, many of them once stately mansions of 

121 



122 



Salem 



the old sea-captains, and a very convenient 
electric-car service that makes the city a fam- 
ous shopping-place for the eastern half of the 
county. But here and there the visitor comes 
upon some memorial tablet or commemorative 
stone, some ancient cemetery or venerable 
building — faded characters of an earlier text — 

that brings to mind 
the great age of 
Puritanism or the 
only less interest- 
ing era of our 
town's commercial 
supremacy ; while 
if he enters the 
Essex Institute to 
see its large and 
valuable historical 
collection, it is modern 
Salem that is obliterated and 
the stern poverty and aus- 
tere piety of the Fathers 
that stand out distinctly. 
With what interest he will 
look at the sun-dial and 
sword of Governor Endi- 
cott, at the baptismal shirt of Governor 




GOVERNOR ENDICOTT'S 
SUN-DIAL AND SWORD. 



124 Salem 

Bradford, and at the stout walking-stick of 
George Jacobs, one of the victims of the 
Witchcraft Delusion ! The ancient pottery, 
the old pewter and iron vessels, the antique 
fowling-pieces and firebacks, the valuable auto- 
graphs of charters and military commissions 
and title-deeds — all these survivals of the 
seventeenth century help to reconstruct that 
Puritan settlement under the direction of 
Endicott and Bradstreet, of Higginson and 
Roger Williams. Or if the visitor has entered 
the Peabody Academy of Science, rich in 
natural history and ethnological collections, it 
is the proud record of commercial supremacy 
at the beginning of this century which the old 
palimpsest reveals. As he studies the models 
of famous privateers and trading-vessels, the 
oil portraits of the old sea-captains and mer- 
chant princes, the implements and idols, the 
vestments and pottery, they brought 

" From Greenland's icy mountains, 
From India's coral strand," 

he can easily imagine himself back in the days 
when Derby Street was the fashionable thor- 
ouo^hfare and its fine mansions overlooked the 
beautiful harbor, the long black wharves with 



Salem 125 

their capacious warehouses and, moored along- 
side, the restless barks and brigantines for the 
moment quiet under the eyes of their hardy 
and successful owners. 

Thanks to the historic spirit and the pains- 
taking, loving labors of her citizens, Old Salem 
is easily deciphered under 
the handsome, modern, pro- 
gressive city of thirty-four 
thousand inhabitants with 
factories, electric plants and 
Queen Anne cottages. 
Thanks to the genius of her 
distinguished son Nathaniel 
Hawthorne, the interpreter governor simon brad- 
of the Puritan spirit, an in- street. 

visible multitude of figures in steeple-hats and 
black cloaks and trunk-breeches, with here and 
there some gallant whose curling locks and gay 
attire are strangely out of place in the sober 
company, may always be suspected on the 
sleepy back-streets with their small, wooden, 
gambrel-roofed houses, or musing under the 
ancient willows in the venerable cemetery since 
1637 known as "The Burying Point," where 
were laid the bodies of Governor Bradstreet and 
many another Puritan. There are few Ameri- 




126 



Salem 



can cities in which it is so easy to feel the 
influence of a great past and to call up the 
images of Puritan minister and magistrate, 
for in Salem we are surrounded by their 
memorials, the houses they built, the church in 
which they first worshipped, their charter and 

title-deeds, their muskets 
and firebacks, even the 
garments they wore. 

Salem really dates from 
1626, when Roger Co- 
nant and a little band of 
English farmers and fish- 
1^ e r m e n, in discouraged 
mood, left the bleak shore 
of Cape Ann and came to 
this region, then called by 
the Indians Naumkeag, 
a large tract of land, heavily wooded to the 
westward, and at the east running in irregu- 
lar, picturesque manner out into Massachusetts 
Bay. Hither came in September, 1628, Cap- 
tain John Endicott and a hundred adventur- 
ers, brinorinor with them a charter from the 
English company that claimed ownership of 
this territory, and many articles of English 
manufacture to exchange with the Indians for 




GOVERNOR JOHN ENDICOTT. 



Salem 127 

fish and furs. Endicott had been appointed 
Governor by the company, and immediately 
began to display the strength of character and 
readiness in resource that justified the wisdom 
of the directors and made him during his life- 
time one of the commanding figures of the 
Bay Colony. 

It was a busy time for these serious immi- 
grants, who came in the fall and had to make 
hurried preparation for the w^inter. Behind 
them extended the vast, unknown forest, ten- 
anted by savages and wild beasts, while in 
front stretched the three thousand miles of 
salt water they had just traversed. They built 
houses, they felled trees, they made treaties 
with the Indians, they hunted, fished, and 
ploughed the land they cleared. Apparently 
little had been done by Conant and his dis- 
couraged friends, but they had left a " faire 
house " at Cape Ann which was now brought 
to Naumkeaof for the Governor's use. 

Some of the colonists were actuated by love 
of religious freedom and some by hopes of 
gain. A strong hand was needed to enforce 
order and to give the settlement that religious 
character which its founders desired. It was 
found in Endicott, then in the prime of life, 



128 



Salem 



sternest of Puritans, quick of temper, imperi- 
ous of will, and fortunately of intense religious 
convictions. 

Hawthorne is the poet of the Puritan age. 
After reading the events of that memorable 
century in Felt's Annals of Salein and Up- 
ham's Salem Witchci^aft, the student should 

turn to the pages of the 
romancer for vivid pic- 
tures of the Puritan in 
his greatness of spirit 
and severity of rule. In 
The Maypole of Mer^ry 
Moitnt Hawthorne has 
shown us, as only this 
Wizard of New England could, the dramatic 
moment when Endicott, accompanied by his 
mail-clad soldiers, presented himself at Mount 
Wollaston, near Quincy, and abruptly ended 
the festivities of the young and thoughtless 
members of the colony whom the lawless Mor- 
ton had gathered around him. Nor would 
the portrait of Endicott be complete without 
the touch that shows him, in fierce anti-prela- 
tial mood, cutting out the blood-red cross from 
the English flag, for which daring deed the 
General Court, fearing trouble with the home 




THE PICKERING FIREBACK. 



Salem 129 

government, condemned him, then ex-Gover- 
nor, to the loss of his office as assistant, or 
councillor, for one year. 

The beginning of the severe, repressive rule 
of the Puritan over domestic and social life, 
so repellent to modern thought, is found in 
the instructions sent to Endicott by the di- 
rectors of the English company. 

" To the end the Sabbath may be celebrated in a religious 
manner, we appoint that all that inhabit the Plantation, 
both for the general and the particular employments, may 
surcease their labour every Saturday throughout the year 
at 3 o'c in the afternoon, and that they spend the rest 
of that day in catechizing and preparing for the Sabbath 
as the ministers shall direct." 

He was also to see that at least some members 
of each family were well grounded in religion, 

" whereby morning and evening family duties may be 
well performed, and a watchful eye held over all in 
each family . . . that so disorders may be pre- 
vented and ill weeds nipt before they take too great a 
head." 

For this purpose the company furnished him 
with blank books to record the daily employ- 
ments of each family and expected these re- 
cords to be sent over to England twice a year. 



130 Salem 

In our natural dislike and distrust of such a 
Puritan Inquisition we should remember that 
the exigencies of the time and place go far 
towards justifying such stern precautions. The 
English company wanted a successful settle- 
ment, one to which they could themselves re- 
treat if political and ecclesiastical oppression 
in the old country should prove too great for 
their endurance ; and they well knew that pro- 
sperity depended upon order, sobriety, thrift, 
and piety. The splendid history and the 
moral leadership of New England in these 
three centuries have justified this painstaking, 
minute, even exasperating watch over the wel- 
fare of a colony far from the restraints of an 
old civilization, in peril from hostile savages 
and lawless adventurers on an inhospitable 
soil. 

As a contrast to this gloomy picture of social 
life, their intentions towards the Indians shine 
in a bright light. The company wrote to 
Endicott in reference to the land questions 
certain to arise : 

" If any of the savages pretend right of inheritance to 
all or any part of the lands granted in our Patent, we 
pray you endeavour to purchase their title, that we may 
avoid the least scruple of intrusion." 



Salem 



i^i 



Great pains were taken to establish just and 
humane relations with the red man. One of 
the objects of the company was the conversion 
of the Indians to the Gospel of Christ. Among 
the wise measures of the day it was forbidden 
to sell them muskets, ammunition or liquor, 
and they were permitted to enter the settle- 
ment at certain stated 
times only, for purposes 
of trade or treaty. As a 
nation, our treatment of 
the Indian has been so 
barbarous that this saga- 
cious and Christian policy 
of the first Puritans calls 
for the highest praise and 
reveals another valuable 
trait in the heroic charac- 
ter of the Fathers. 

That first winter at 
Naumkeag was a severe 
test of the fortitude of the Puritans. They 
suffered from lack of sufficient food and ade- 
quate shelter, and many died from disease. 
In their great need Governor Endicott wrote 
to Governor Bradford and asked that a phy- 
sician be sent to them from the Plymouth set- 




OLD CRADLE. 



132 Salem 

tlement. Soon Dr. Fuller came and not only 
ministered to the sick, but in many conversa- 
tions with Endicott and his companions 
doubtless prepared the way for their adoption 
of the Congregational or Independent form 
of church. The Pilgrims had withdrawn from 
the Church of England, averse to its ritual 
and discipline, and were known as Separatists. 
Even before their arrival at Plymouth they 
instituted the Congregational form of worship 
and discipline which they had already practised 
in England and Holland. But the Puritans 
at Naumkeag had intended to reform and not 
to give up the Anglican liturgy to which they 
were attached by tradition and sentiment. 
The Episcopal or the Congregational order 
of service was a momentous issue in these 
formative months and it is significant that 
on Dr. Fuller's return to Plymouth Endicott 
wrote to Bradford : " I am by him satisfied, 
touching your judgement of the outward form 
of God's worship ; it is, as far as I can yet 
gather, no other than is warranted by the evi- 
dence of truth." 

In the following spring four hundred im- 
migrants and four Non-conformist clergymen, 
among them Francis Higginson and Samuel 



Salem 133 

Skelton, arrived and steps were then taken 
for the formal organization of the church. In 
the contract the English company made with 
the Rev. Francis Higginson there is another 
evidence of its generous and enliorhtened 
policy. He was to receive ^30 for his outfit, 
^10 for books and ^30 per annum for three 
years. In addition, the company was to find 
him a house, food, and wood for that period, 
to transport himself and family, and to bring 
them back to England at the expiration of the 
time if it should then be his wish. He was 
also to have one hundred acres of land, and if 
he died his wife and children were to be main- 
tained while on the plantation. 

At this time the Indian name Naumkeag 
was given up and the settlement took its pre- 
sent name of Salem, an abbreviation of Jerusa- 
lem and meaning, as every one knows, Peace. 
The important event was the organization of 
the church. Services had been held durinor 
the winter, perhaps in that " faire house " of the 
Governor's, and doubtless the whole or parts 
of the Anglican liturgy had been used. A 
radical change now occurred. After suitable 
preparation by prayer and fasting the ministers 
were examined to test their fitness for the 



134 Salem 

office, and then by a written ballot, the first 
use of the ballot in this country, Samuel Skel- 
ton was elected pastor and Francis Higginson 
teacher or assistant pastor. Then Mr. Higgin- 
son and " three or four of the gravest members 
of the church " laid their hands upon the head 
of Mr. Skelton, and with appropriate prayer 
installed him as minister of this first Puritan 
(as distinguished from the Pilgrim) church in 
America. Afterwards, by a similar imposi- 
tion of hands and prayer by Mr. Skelton, Mr. 
Higginson was installed as teacher. The Ply- 
mouth church had been invited to send dele- 
gates, and as one of them Governor Bradford 
came, delayed by a storm, but in time to offer 
the right hand of fellowship. Thirty names 
were sig^ned to the followinof covenant and the 
First Church of Salem was organized : " We 
covenant with the Lord and with one another, 
and do bind ourselves in the presence of God, 
to walk together in all His ways, according as 
He is pleased to reveal Himself unto us in His 
blessed word of truth." The deed was done. 
The Congregational creed and polity were 
adopted and the church that for more than 
two centuries dominated New England thought 
and life was established in Salem. 



Salem i35 

For several years the youthful church met in 
a private house. But in 1634 the colonists 
were ready to build the "meeting-house" and 
the small, bare edifice, built of logs and boast- 
ing a thatched roof and stone chimney, was 
soon erected. '' A poor thing, but mine own," 
the Puritan might have said as he recalled 
the venerable and beautiful cathedrals of the 
mother-country. But the Puritan doubtless 
never quoted Shakespeare. It is more proba- 
ble that he thought of the tabernacle with 
which the chosen people journeyed in the wil- 
derness, long before Solomon's temple crowned 
Mount Moriah, and rejoiced that the House of 
the Lord was at last set up in their midst. 
The sinewy oak timbers of this ancient build- 
ino-, within modern roof and walls, sfi7/ remain, 
one of the most impressive monuments of this 
ancient town. Its size, 20 x 1 7 feet, makes one 
somewhat skeptical of the familiar statement 
that everybody went to church in the good old 
times. But I doubt not that both floor and 
gallery were well filled Sundays and at the 
great Thursday lecture, although on both 
days the preacher had the privilege, to mod- 
ern divines denied, of reversing his hour- 
glass after the sand had run out and, secure of 



136 Salem 

his congregation, deliberately proceeding to 
his " Finally, Brethren." On one side sat the 
men, on the other the women and small child- 
ren, each in his proper place, determined by 
wealth or public office. Even in that religious 
age four men, it appears, were appointed to 
prevent the boys from running downstairs be- 
fore the Benediction was pronounced, while the 
constable, armed with a long pole tipped with 
a fox's tail, was always at hand to rouse the 
drowsy or inattentive. There was at each 
service a collection. Only church-members 
could vote at the town-meetings, held at first 
in the new meeting-house, but every house- 
holder was taxed for the support of the church. 

In 1630, John Winthrop, the newly ap- 
pointed Governor of the Colony, accompanied 
by several hundred persons, came to Salem. 
Disappointed in the place, they soon moved 
to Charlestown, and there established the seat 
of eovernment. From that date Salem took 
the second place in the Colony, but always 
maintained, then as now, an independent, pub- 
lic-spirited life. 

Hither came, in 1634, Roger Williams, after 
the vicissitudes in those days experienced by 
an original and outspoken man. After the 



138 Salem 

death of Mr. Higginson, he became the min- 
ister of the First Church. The original tim- 
bers of his dwelling-house, dating from 1635, 
are still to be seen, more ancient than the 
ancient roof and walls that cover them, and 
reveal faded characters of the Puritan pal- 
impsest. A double interest attaches to this 
venerable building, since as the residence 
of Judge Corwin tradition has made it the 
scene of some of the preliminary examinations 
in the witch trials. But the wanderings of 
Roger Williams were not yet ended. His at- 
tacks upon the authority of the magistrates as 
well as his controversies with the ministers 
brouo^ht him under the condemnation of the 
General Court. Though the Salem church re- 
sisted, it was obliged to part with its minister 
who quitted Massachusetts under sentence of 
banishment, to become the Founder of Rhode 
Island. A remarkable man was Roger Wil- 
liams, of great gifts and singular purity of 
conscience, but his inflexible spirit, opposed 
to the theocratic rule of ministers and magis- 
trates, was wisely set at constructive work in 
another colony. 

This was the eventful age of Puritanism in 
the mother-country and in the colonies. All 



Salem 139 

that we read of the austere piety and social 
restraints of the Puritan theocracy is found in 
this period from 1629 to 1700. Much might 
be said of the growth of Salem in population 
and wealth and influence in this century, but 
there is no time to tell the story in a single 
chapter. We come at once to the close of the 
century when the old town earned an unenvia- 
ble notoriety by the tragic affair known as the 
Witchcraft Delusion. 

We must think of Salem in 1692 as a town 
of 1700 inhabitants, in a delightful situation on 
Massachusetts Bay, almost encircled by sea- 
water, while at the west stretched away the 
vast forest, broken here and there by large plant- 
ations or farms which it was the policy of the 
Governor to orrant to those who would under- 
take the pioneer work of cultivation. These 
farms, widely scattered, were known as Salem 
Village, and at a place a few miles from Sa- 
lem, now known as Danvers Centre, there was 
a little group of farmhouses surrounding a 
church, of which the Rev. Samuel Parris was 
minister. In this family were two slaves, John 
and Tituba, whom he had brought from the 
West Indies, and two children, his daughter 
Elizabeth, nine years old, and his niece Abi- 



I40 Salem 

gail Williams, eleven years of age. In the 
winter of 1691-92 these children startled the 
neighborhood by their unaccountable perform- 
ances, creeping under tables, assuming strange 
and painful attitudes, and uttering inarticulate 
cries. At times they fell into convulsions and 
uttered piercing shrieks. Dr. Griggs, the 
local physician, declared the children be- 
witched, and this explanation was soon af- 
ter confirmed by a council of the ministers 
held at Mr. Parris's house. 

Absurd as such an explanation seems to us, 
it must be remembered that, with rare ex- 
ceptions, every one at that time believed in 
witchcraft. It found an apparent confirmation 
in the text, " Thou shalt not suffer a witch to 
live" (Exodus xxii., 18), and the great legal 
authorities of England, Bacon, Blackstone, 
Coke, Selden, and Matthew Hale, had given 
decisions implying the fact of witchcraft and 
indicating the various degrees of guilt. It was 
easier to accept this explanation since execu- 
tions for this crime had already taken place at 
Charlestown, Dorchester, Cambridge, Hart- 
ford and Springfield. Governor Winthrop, 
Governor Bradstreet and Governor Endicott 
had each sentenced a witch to death. Gover- 



Salem 141 

nor Endicott had pronounced judgment upon a 
person so important as Mistress Ann Hibbins, 
widow of a rich merchant and the sister of 
Governor Behingham, famihar to us all in the 
pages of The Scarlet Letter. A few years be- 
fore, Cotton Mather, the distinguished young 
divine of Boston, had published a work affirm- 
ing his belief in witchcraft and detailing his 
study of some bewitched children in Charles- 
town, one of whom he had taken into his own 
family the better to observe. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that these 
young girls, instead of being punished for mis- 
chievous conduct or treated for nervous de- 
rangement, were pitied as the victims of some 
malevolent persons and urged to name their 
tormentors. Encouraged by the verdict of 
physician and ministers, countenanced by Mr. 
Parris and the church-members, these " afflicted 
children," as they and some other girls and 
women similarly affected in the village were 
now called, began their accusations. The first 
persons mentioned were Tituba, the Indian 
slave. Goody Osborn, a bedridden woman 
whose mind was affected by many troubles, 
physical and mental, and Sarah Good, a friend- 
less, forlorn creature, looked upon as a vagrant. 



142 



Salem 



In March, 1692, the first examinations were 
held in the meeting-house in Salem Village, 
John Hawthorne, ancestor of the novelist, and 
Jonathan Corwin acting as magistrates. The 
accused did not receive fair treatment — their 
guilt was assumed from the first, no coun- 
sel was allowed, the judges even bullied 
them to force a confession. The evidence 

against them, as in all the 
following cases, was "spec- 
tral evidence," as it was 
called. It consisted of the 
assertions of the children 
that they were tortured 
whenever the accused looked 
at them, choked, pinched, 
beaten, or pricked with the 
pins which they produced 
from their mouths or clothing, and in one in- 
stance, at least, stabbed by a knife the broken 
blade of which was shown by the "afiiicted 
child." ^ In one or two cases the children were 
convicted of deception, as in the case of the 
broken knife-blade. A young man present 
testified that he had broken the knife himself 
and had thrown away the useless blade in the 
presence of the accusing girl. But with merely 




WITCH PINS. 



Salem 143 

a reprimand from the judge and the injunc- 
tion not to tell lies, the girls were permitted to 
make their monstrous charges against the men 
and women who stood amazed, indignant, 
helpless, before accusations they could only 
deny, not refute. 

In this first trial Tituba confessed that under 
threats from Satan, who had most often ap- 
peared to her as a man in black accompanied 
by a yellow bird, she had tortured the girls, 
and named as her accomplices the two women, 
Good and Osborn. After the trial, which took 
place a little later in Salem, Tituba was sent 
to the Boston jail, where she remained until 
the delusion was over. She was then sold to 
pay the expenses of her imprisonment, and is 
lost to history. The other women were sent 
to the Salem jail, which they left only for their 
execution the following July. 

The community felt a sense of relief after 
the confession of Tituba and the imprisonment 
of the other women. It was hoped Satan's 
power was checked. But on the contrary the 
power of the devil was to be shown in a 
far more impressive manner. The '* afflicted 
children " continued to suffer and soon beean 
to accuse men and women of unimpeachable 



144 Salem 

lives. Within a few months several hundred 
people in Salem, Andover and Boston were 
arrested and thrown into the jails at Salem, 
Ipswich, Cambridge and Boston. As Gover- 
nor Hutchinson, an historian of the time, 
stated, the only way to prevent an accusation 
was to become an accuser. The state of affairs 
resembled the Rei^n of Terror in France a 
century later, when men of property and po- 
sition lived in fear of being regarded as '* a 
suspect." 

For the thrilling story of these trials and 
their wretched victims the student should turn 
to Mr. Upham's authoritative and popular 
volumes upon Salem Witchcraft. The reader 
can never forget the tragic fate of the vener- 
able Rebecca Nurse, George Burroughs, a for- 
mer clergyman of the church in Salem Village, 
and the other victims. Here we can review 
only the trial of the Corey family, a fitting 
climax to this scene of horror. 

Two weeks after the trial of Tituba and her 
companions, a warrant was issued for the arrest 
of Martha Corey, aged sixty, the third wife of 
Giles Corey, a well-known citizen. She was a 
woman of unusual strength of character and 
from the first denounced the witchcraft excite- 



Salem 145 

ment, trying to persuade her husband who 
believed all the monstrous stories, not to at- 
tend the hearings or in any way countenance 
the proceedings. Perhaps it was her well- 
known opinion that directed suspicion to her. 
At her trial the usual performance was enacted. 
The girls fell on the floor, uttered piercing 
shrieks, cried out upon their victim. " There 
is a man whispering in her ear ! " one of them 
suddenly called out. " What does he say to 
you?" the judge demanded of Martha Corey, 
accepting without any demur this " spectral 
evidence." " We must not believe all these dis- 
tracted children say," was her sensible answer. 
But good sense did not preside at the witch 
trials. She was convicted and not long after- 
ward executed. Her husband's evidence went 
against her and is worth noting as fairly re- 
presentative of much of the testimony that con- 
victed the nineteen victims of this delusion : 

" One evening I was sitting by the fire when my wife 
asked me to go to bed. I told her I would go to prayer, 
and when I went to prayer I could not utter my desires 
with any sense, not open my mouth to speak. After a 
little space I did according to my measure attend the 
duty. Some time last week I fetched an ox well out of 
the woods about noon, and he laying down in the yard, 
I went to raise him to yoke him, but he could not rise, 



14^ Salem 

but dragged his hinder parts as if he had been hip shot, 
but after did rise. I had a cat some time last week 
strongly taken on the sudden, and did make me think 
she would have died presently. My wife bid me knock 
her in the head, but I did not and since she is well. My 
wife hath been wont to sit up after I went to bed, and 1 
have perceived her to kneel down as if she were at 
prayer, but heard nothing." 

It is hard to believe that such statements, 
most probable events interpreted in the least 
probable manner, should have had any judicial 
value whatever. Yet it is precisely such a 
mixture of superstition and stupid speculation 
about unusual or even daily incidents that was 
regularly brought forward and made to tell 
against the accused. 

Soon after his wife's arrest Giles Corey him- 
self was arrested, taken from his mill and 
brought before the judges of the special court, 
appointed by Governor Phipps but held in 
Salem, to hear the witch trials. Again the 
accusing girls went through their performance, 
again the judges assumed the guilt of the 
accused, and tried to browbeat a confession 
from him. But in the interval between his 
arrest and trial this old man of eighty had had 
abundant leisure for reflection. He was sure 



Salem 147 

not only of his own innocence but of his wife's 
as well, and it must have been a bitter thought 
that his own testimony had helped convict her. 
Partly as an atonement for this offense and 
partly to save his property for his children, 
which he could not have done if he had been 
convicted of witchcraft, after pleading " not 
guilty " he remained mute, refusing to add the 
necessary technical words that he would be 
tried '' by God and his countr^^' Deaf alike 
to the entreaties of his friends and the threats 
of the Court, he was condemned to the torture 
of peine forte et dtire, the one instance when 
this old English penalty for contumacy was 
enforced in New England. According to the 
law the aged man was laid on his back, a board 
was placed on his body with as great a weight 
upon it as he could endure, while his sole diet 
consisted of a few morsels of bread one day 
and a draught of water the alternate day, until 
death put an end to his sufferings. 

The execution of eight persons on Gallows 
Hill three days later, September 22, were the 
last to occur in the Colony. Accusations were 
still made, trials were held, more people were 
thrown into jail. But there were no more 
executions, and the next spring there was, ac- 



148 Salem 

cording to Hutchinson, such a jail delivery as 
was never seen before. 

" The smith filed off the chains he forged, 
The jail bolts backward fell ; 
And youth and hoary age came forth 
Like souls escaped from hell." 

The tragedy was at an end. It lasted about 
six months, from the first accusations in March 
until the last executions in September. Nine- 
teen persons had been hanged, and one man 
pressed to death. There is no fotindation for 
the statement that witches were burned. No 
one was ever burned in New England for 
witchcraft or any other crime. But hundreds 
of innocent men and women were thrown into 
jail or obliged to flee to some place of con- 
cealment, their homes were broken up, their 
property injured, while they suffered great 
anxiety for themselves and friends. 

It was an epidemic of mad, superstitious 
fear, bitterly to be regretted, and a stain upon 
the high civilization of the Bay Colony. It is 
associated with Salem, but several circum- 
stances are to be taken into consideration. 
First of all, note the fact that while the victims 
were residents of Essex County, of Salem and 



Salem 149 

vicinity, and the trials were held in Salem, yet 
the special court that tried them was appointed 
by the Governor ; the Lieutenant-Governor of 
the Colony, Stoughton, presided ; and Boston 
ministers, notably Cotton Mather, the influ- 
ential minister of the North Church, were 
interested observers. Boston as well as Salem 
is responsible for the tragedy. In the second 
place, remember that this dramatic event with 
all its frightful consequences led to a more 
rational understanding of the phenomena of 
witchcraft. By a natural revulsion of feeling 
future charges of witchcraft were regarded with 
suspicion, "spectral evidence" was disallowed, 
and there were no more executions for this 
crime in New England. 

Various explanations of the conduct of the 
"afflicted children" have been offered. One 
writer has suggested that they began their 
proceedings in jest but, partly from fear of 
punishment if they confessed, partly from an 
exaggerated sense of their own importance, 
they continued to make charges against men 
and women whom they heard their elders 
mention as probable witches. In that little 
settlement there were property disputes, a 
church quarrel, jealousies, rivalries, and much 



ISO Salem 

misunderstanding, which had their influence. 
Another writer lays stress upon *' hypnotic in- 
fluence " and believes these young girls and 
nervous women were improperly influenced 
by malevolent persons, probably John and 
Tituba the Indian slaves. But a more natu- 
ral explanation is that they were the victims 
of hystero-epilepsy, a nervous disease not so 
well understood in the past as to-day, which 
has at times convulsed the orderly life of a 
school or convent, and even a whole com- 
munity. Then, too, the belief in witchcraft was 
general. Striking coincidences, personal ec- 
centricities, unusual events and mysterious dis- 
eases seemed to find an easy explanation in 
an unholy compact with the devil. A witti- 
cism attributed to Judge Sewall, one of the 
judges in these trials, may help us to under- 
stand the common panic : '' We know who 's 
who but not which is witch." That was the 
difficulty. At a time when every one believed 
in witchcraft it was easy to suspect one's 
neighbor. It was a characteristic superstition 
of the century and should be classed with the 
barbarous punishments and religious intoler- 
ance of the age. 

Eventually, justice, so far as possible, was 



Salem 151 

done to the survivors. The Legislature voted 
pecuniary compensations and the church ex- 
communications were rescinded. Ann Putnam, 
one of the more prominent of the ''afflicted 
children," confessed her error and prayed for 
divine forgiveness. Rev. Samuel Parris of- 
fered an explanation that might be considered 
an apology. Judge Sewall, noblest of all the 
civil and ecclesiastical authorities implicated in 
this tragedy, stood up in the great congrega- 
tion. Fast Day, in the South Church, Boston, 
and acknowledged his error in accepting 
*' spectral evidence." 

" Spell and charm had power no more, 
The spectres ceased to roam, 
And scattered households knelt again 
Around the hearths of home." 

Salem grew in wealth and population slowly 
but substantially. In 1765 there were only 
4469 inhabitants. With the rest of the Colony 
she was putting forth her strength in the French- 
Indian wars and also resisting what she termed 
the usurpations of the Royalist governors or 
English Parliament. It was a public-spirited 
as well as high-spirited life. Soldiers and 
bounties and supplies were generously fur- 



152 Salem 

nished for the wars. Pirates were captured 
or driven from the coast. A valuable com- 
merce was developed, churches were built and 
schools increased. In 1768 the Essex Gazette 
was founded, with the motto, " Ovme tulit 
punctum qui miscuit 7itile dzilci^' — a motto that 
measures the social changes from the time of 
Endicott and Williams. 

The citizens of Salem were not wanting in 
patriotism or courage in the years immediately 
preceding the Revolution. They met in the 
old town-house to protest against the Stamp 
Act, to denounce the tax on tea and the clos- 
ing of Boston port, and in 1774, in defiance 
of General Gage, to elect delegates to the 
First Continental Congress about to meet in 
Concord. As early as 1767 a committee had 
been appointed '' to draft a subscription paper 
for promoting industry, economy and manu- 
factures in Salem, and thereby prevent the 
unnecessary importation of European com- 
modities which threaten the country with pov- 
erty and ruin." The report of the committee 
was not accepted but the movement was char- 
acteristic of the attitude of Salem. 

A just claim is made that the first armed 
resistance to the British government was made 




/uc^^/K^^^^^^-^'^^ 



153 



154 Salem 

in Salem at the North Bridge, Sunday, Feb- 
ruary 26, 1775, when the citizens assembled 
and took their stand on the north bank of the 
river to prevent Colonel Leslie and his three 
hundred soldiers from marchinor into North 
Fields in search of cannon supposed to be 
concealed there. The British officer thought 
of firing upon the citizens who, after crossing 
the bridge, had raised the draw and now stood 
massed on the opposite bank. But a towns- 
man, Captain John Felt, said to the irate 
officer who had looked for an unimpeded 
march, "If you do fire you will all be dead 
men." His prompt utterance appears to have 
restrained the firing. Tradition says that 
there was a struggle to capture some boats, 
one of which at least was scuttled. After an 
hour and a half of delay, in which time Rev. 
Mr. Barnard of the North Church was con- 
spicuous for his moderate counsels, the vexed 
and defeated Colonel Leslie promised that if 
the draw were lowered and he were permitted 
to march his men over it a distance of thirty 
rods, he would then wheel about and leave the 
town, an agreement fairly carried out. A com- 
memorative stone marks this place and signifi- 
cant event at the beginning of the Revolution. 




i^ ^^^^^m^^mp 






SOME OLD DOORWAYS. 



155 



15^ Salem 

The years from 1760 to the War of 181 2 
were the period of commercial prestige. At 
the beginning of the Revolution Washington 
turned to the coast towns for a navy, and 
Salem answered by furnishing at least 158 
privateers. Many were the prizes brought 
into the harbor as the war continued, and, as 
a result of this seamanship, an immense im- 
petus was given to ship-building and the devel- 
opment of foreign commerce. This may be 
called the romantic era in the life of the vener- 
able town. At the close of the war the town 
could boast of its great merchants and adven- 
turous captains whose vessels were found in 
every port. Where did they not go, these 
vessels owned by Derby, Gray, Forrester, 
Crowninshield, and many another well-known 
merchant ! 

Under the stern rule of Endicott the old 
Puritan town had banished Quakers and Bap- 
tists and Episcopalians, but in the early years 
of this century her sons were intimate with 
Buddhist and Mohammedan and Parsee mer- 
chants. In 1785 "Lord" Derby, as Haw- 
thorne called him, sent out the Grand Tti7'k 
which, nearly two years later, brought back 
the first cargo direct from Canton to New 



Salem i57 

England. At this time it is with peculiar in- 
terest we read that in 1796 this same " Lord" 
Derby sent the Astrea to Manila, which re- 
turned the following year with a cargo of 
sugar, pepper and indigo upon which duties 
of over $24,000 were paid. That was the 
time when a sailing-vessel after a long voy- 
age might enter the harbor any day, and 
therefore the boys of the town lay on the 
rocks at the Neck, eager to sight the incoming 
ship, and earn some pocket-money for their 
welcome news. Sig^nificant is the motto on the 
present city seal : Divitis IndicE usque ad ttl- 
timuDi sinum. They were a hardy race — 
these Vikings of New England — bold, self- 
reliant, shrewd, prosperous, equally ready to 
fight or trade, as occasion might demand. 
The sailors of that day were the native sons 
of Salem, sturdy citizens, often well-to-do, who 
miofht have an *' adventure " of several hun- 
dred dollars aboard to invest in tea or sugar 
or indigo. At fourteen or fifteen the Salem 
boy went out in the cabin of his father's vessel, 
at twenty he was captain, at forty he had re- 
tired and in his stately mansion enjoyed the 
wealth and leisure he had bravely and quickly 
earned. In 18 16 Cleopati^ds Barge, a vessel 



^5^ 



Salem 



of 190 tons burden, was launched in the har- 
bor, and George Crowninshield went yacht- 
ine in the Mediterranean in this luxurious 
vessel, — perhaps the first American pleasure 
yacht, as much admired in Europe as in New 
England. Many are the traditions of this 
romantic and prosperous era. Many are the 
famous names of merchants and sailors — men 
of great wealth and public spirit, mighty in 
time of war and influential in affairs of state, as 
Colonel Timothy Pickering, and Benjamin W. 
Crowninshield, esteemed at home and abroad 
for their enlightened, progressive, humane, 
public-spirited services to town and State. 

Many of their stately man- 
sions still remain to attest 
the wealth and fashion and 
gracious hospitality of 
that period. The spacious 
rooms, rich in mahogany 
furniture, carved wainscot- 
ing, French mirrors, and 
Canton china, were the 
scenes of elegant and me- 
morable entertainments 
when Washington, Lafay- 
ette, and many other celebrated men of Europe 




BOWDITCH DESK AND 
QUADRANT. 



Salem 159 

and America visited the old town. As regards 
the beautiful objects of interior decoration, — 
now so eagerly sought, and often purchased 
at high prices, — Salem is one vast museum, 
almost every home boasting its inherited treas- 
ures, while a few houses are so richly dowered 
that the envy of less fortunate housekeepers 
can be easily pardoned. 

The commerce in time went to Boston, and 
many of the sons of Salem followed it to help 
build up the wealth and character of the larger 
city. In fact where have not the sons, like 
the vessels, of Salem gone ? Their memory 
is green in the old town and the citizen points 
with pride to the former residence-site of 
many a distinguished man she calls her son ; 
of Bowditch, mathematician and author of the 
famous Navigator, of Judge Story and his no 
less eminent son, the poet and sculptor, of W. 
H. Prescott, the heroic historian of Spain, of 
Jones Very, poet and mystic, and of many 
another man of mark in law and literature. 

But of all the distinguished sons of Salem 
no one makes so eloquent an appeal to the 
popular heart as Nathaniel Hawthorne. Vis- 
itors are particularly interested in the places 
associated with his life and romances. Of these 



i6o 



Salem 



there are many, for the noveHst lived at one 
time or another in half a dozen Salem houses, 
while several are identified with his stories. To 




\ 




7^C^ 



appreciate Hawthorne one should read him 
here, in the old Puritan town with its ancient 
houses, several of which date from the seven- 
teenth century, its commemorative tablets, 
ancient tombstones, family names, and the 
collections of the Essex Institute. With magic 



Salem i6i 

pen he traced the greatness and the Httle- 
ness of the Puritan age, its austere piety, its 
intolerance, its stern repression of the lighter 
side of human nature, its moral grandeur and 
its gloomy splendor. He did for our past 
what Walter Scott did for the past of the 
mother-country. Another " Wizard of the 
North," he breathed the breath of life into 
the dry and dusty materials of history ; he 
summoned the great dead again to live and 



move among us. 



The visitor will be interested in all the 
houses associated with his name,— the modest 
birthplace on Union Street, the old residence 
on Turner Street popularly but erroneously 
called the House of the Seven Gables, the 
Peabody homestead, beside the Old Burying 
Point, where he found his wife and also Di\ 
Grimshawes Secret. The visitor will be most 
interested, however, in the three-story, wooden 
building with the front door opening into the 
little earden at the side, after the fashion of 
many Salem houses, where he lived when 
Surveyor of the Port and wrote the immortal 
romance of Puritan New England. Here his 
wife wept over the woe of Hester Prynne and 
Arthur Dimmesdale, and hither came James T. 



i62 Salem 

Fields to hear the story which he so eagerly ac- 
cepted. After one has read the facts of history 
in Felt and Upham and the diaries and chron- 
icles of the seventeenth century, it is well to turn 
to Hawthorne for the realistic touch that makes 
the Puritan characters live once more for us. 
His sombre genius was at home in the Puritan 
atmosphere. How clearly its influence over 
him is acknowledged in the Introduction to 
The Scarlet Letter I He had the literary taste 
and the literary ambition, and he found his 
material in the musty records of the Custom- 
house, in the town pump so long a feature 
of Salem streets, in the church steeple, the 
ancient burying-ground, the old gabled houses, 
even the Main Street that had witnessed the 
varied pageants of more than two centuries. 
He was always leaving Salem and always re- 
turning, drawn by the "sensuous sympathy of 
dust for dust." Here his ancestors lay buried, 
and here, although he has said he was hap- 
piest elsewhere, lay his inspiration. The 
strange group of Pyncheons, Clifford, Hepzi- 
bah and the Judge, the Geiitle Child, the 
Minister with the Black Veil, Lady Eleanore 
in her rich mantle, and the tragic group of The 
Scarlet Letter — these are not simply the crea- 







163 



164 Salem 

tions of a delicate and somewhat morbid im- 
agination, even more are they the marvellous 
resurrection of a life long dead. 

The old town has a genuine pride in her 
great son whose fame, assured in England as 
in America, has added to her attractions. But 
owinof to his invincible reserve and lonor ab- 
sences he had only a limited acquaintance in 
Salem, and there is comparatively little of rem- 
iniscence and anecdote among those who re- 
member him. He chose his companions here, 
perhaps in reaction from the intellectual society 
he had had in Concord, perhaps in search of 
literary material, from a jovial set with many 
a capital tale to tell of the old commercial 
days when the Custom-house with its militant 
eagle aloft was the centre of a bustling, cos- 
mopolitan life that surged up and down its 
steps and over the long black wharves of 
Derby Street. Like many men of genius his 
character had more than one side and can 
now be studied in the abundance of material 
which the unwearied industry of his children 
has given us. 

The novelist has gone, as the merchant and 
sailor went, as the Puritan magistrate and 
minister went. Another set of priceless as- 




5^^'))^.! ^ ^^"' 



..on^^= CO.-,,, 1 



'^""thI)^^^ C,A&uE5.. 



165 



1 66 



Salem 



sociatlons is added to the old town which now 
must confess to factories and a foreign popu- 
lation like many another New England seaport. 
The resident of Salem lives in a modern, 
progressive, handsome city, made the more at- 
tractive by eccentric roofs, " Mackintire " door- 
ways, carved wooden mantels and wainscoting, 
ever suggestive of the venerable and impres- 
sive past, a past that may well serve as a 
challenge to the children of Viking and Puri- 
tan, inviting them to a fine self-control and a 
broad public spirit. 





BOSTON 



THE TRIMOUNTAIN CITY 



By THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON 

THE summer traveller who approaches Bos- 
ton from the landward side is apt to 
notice a tall and abundant wayside plant, hav- 
inor a rather stiff and uno^ain- 
ly stem, surmounted by a 
flower with soft and delicate 
petals and of a lovely shade 
of blue. This is the succory 
{Cichoriitm Inly bus of the 
botanists), described by Em- 
erson as '' succory to match 
the sky." But it is not com- 
monly known in rural New 
England by this brief name, 
beinpf oftener called " Boston 
weed," simply because it 
grows more and more abundant as one comes 

167 




SUCCORY OR BOSTON 
WEED." 



1 68 Boston 

nearer to that city. When the experienced Bos- 
ton traveller, returning to his home in late sum- 
mer, sees this fair blossom on an ungainly stem 
assembled profusely by the roadside, he begins 
to collect his parcels and hand-bags, knowing 
that he approaches his journey's end. 

The original Boston, as founded by Gov- 
ernor John Winthrop in 1639, was established 
on a rocky, three-hilled peninsula, in whose 
thickets wolves and bears were yet harbored, 
and which was known variously as Shawmut 
and Trimountain. The settlement itself was 
a sort of afterthouo^ht, beinor taken as a sub- 
stitute for Charlestown, where a temporary 
abode had been founded by Winthrop's party. 
There had been much illness there, and so 
Mr. Blackstone, or Blaxtone, who had for 
seven years been settled on the peninsula, 
urged the transfer of the little colony. The 
whole tongue of land then comprised but 783 
acres — an area a little less than that originally 
allotted to Central Park in New York. Bos- 
ton now includes 23,661 acres — about thirty 
times the original extent of the peninsula. It 
has a population of about 500,000 — the State 
Census of 1895 showing 496,920 inhabit- 
ants. By the United States Census of 1890 



170 Boston 

it had 448,477, and was then the sixth in 
population among American cities, being sur- 
passed by New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, 
Brooklyn, and St. Louis ; and the union of 
New York and Brooklyn probably making it 
now the fifth. In 1880 it ranked fifth, St. 
Louis having since outstripped it. In 1870 
it was only seventh, both St. Louis and 
Baltimore then preceding it. As with most 
American cities, this growth has been partly 
due to the annexing of suburbs ; but during 
the last fifteen years there has been no such 
annexation, showing the increase to be genuine 
and intrinsic. The transformation in other 
ways has, however, been more astonishing than 
the o-rowth. Of the oricrinal three hills, one 
only is now noticeable by the stranger. I 
myself can remember Boston, in my college 
days, as a pear-shaped peninsula, two miles 
by one, attached to the mainland by a neck a 
mile long and only a few yards wide, some- 
times actually covered by the meeting of the 
tide-waters from both sides. The water also 
almost touched Charles Street, where the Pub- 
lic Garden now is, and it rolled over the fiats 
and inlets called the Back Bay, where the cost- 
liest houses of the city now stand. 



Boston 1 71 

The changes of population and occupation 
have been almost as great as of surface. The 
blue-jacketed sailor was then a figure as famil- 
iar in the streets as is now the Italian or the 
Chinese ; and the long wharves, then lined with 
great vessels, two or three deep, and fragrant 
with spicy Oriental odors, are now shortened, 
reduced, and given over to tugs and coasters. 
Boston is still the second commercial port in 
the country ; but its commerce is mainly coast- 
wise or European only, and the picturesque 
fascination of the India trade has passed away. 
Even on our Northwest Pacific coast the early 
white traders, no matter whence they came, 
were known by the natives as " Boston men." 
The wealth of the city, now vastly greater 
than in those days, flows into other channels — 
railways, factories, and vast land investments 
in the far West — enterprises as useful, perhaps 
more lucrative, but less picturesque. It is a 
proof of the vigor and vitality of Boston, and 
partly, also, of its favorable situation, that it 
has held its own through such transformations. 
Smaller cities, once powerful, such as Salem, 
Newburyport, and Portsmouth, have been 
ruined as to business by the withdrawal of 
foreign trade. 



172 



Boston 



Boston has certainly, in the history of the 
country, represented from an early time a 
certain quality of combined thrift and ardor 
which has made it to some extent an individual 
city. Its very cows, during its rural period, 
shared this attribute, from the time when they 
laid out its streets by their devious wander- 
ings, to the time when " Lady Hancock" — as 
she was called — helped herself to milk from 




BOSTON IN 1757. 

FROM A DRAWING BY GOVERNOR POWNALL. 



the herd of her fellow-citizens in order to 
meet a sudden descent of official visitors upon 
her husband, the Governor. From the time 
Vv^hen Boston was a busy little colonial mart — 
the epoch best described in Hawthorne's 
Province House Legends and My Kiiisman 
Alajor Molineux — through the period when, 
as described in Mrs. Ouincy's reminiscences, 
the gentlemen went to King's Chapel in scarlet 



Boston 173 

cloaks, — down to the modern period of trans- 
continental railways and great manufacturing 
enterprises, the city has at least aroused a 
peculiar loyalty on the part of its citizens. 
Behind all the thunders of Wendell Phillips's 
eloquence there lay always this strong local 
pride. " I love inexpressibly," he said, " these 
streets of Boston, over which my mother held 
up my baby footsteps ; and if God grants me 
time enough, I will make them too pure to be 
trodden by the footsteps of a slave." He sur- 
vived to see his dream fulfilled. Instead of the 
surrendered slave, Anthony Burns, marching 
in a hollow square, formed by the files of the 
militia, Phillips lived to see the fair-haired boy, 
Robert Shaw, riding at the head of his black 
regiment, to aid in securing the freedom of a race. 
During the Revolution, Boston was the cen- 
tre of those early struggles on which it is now 
needless to dwell. Faneuil Hall still stands 
— the place from which, in 1774, a letter as 
to grievances was ordered to be sent to the 
other towns in the State ; the old State House 
is standing, where the plans suggested by the 
Virginia House of Burgesses were adopted ; 
the old South Church remains, whence the 
disguised Indians of the Boston Tea-Party 



1 74 Boston 

went forth, and where Dr. Warren, on March 
5, 1/75, defied the British officers, and when 
one of them held up warningly some pistol- 
bullets, dropped his handkerchief over them 
and went on. The Old North or Christ 
Church also remains, where the two lights 
were hung out as the signal for Paul Revere's 
famous ride, on the eve of the battle of 
Lexington. 

So prominent was Boston during this period 
that it even awakened the jealousy of other 
colonies ; and Mr. Thomas Shirley, of Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, said to Josiah Quincy, 
Jr., in March, 1773 : " Boston aims at nothing 
less than the sovereignty of this whole conti- 
nent. . . . Take away the power and su- 
perintendence of Britain, and the colonies 
must submit to the next power. Boston would 
soon have that." 

One of the attractions of Boston has long 
been, that in this city, as in Edinburgh, might 
be found a circle of literary men, better organ- 
ized and more concentrated than if lost in the 
confusion of a larger metropolis. From the 
point of view of New York, this circle might be 
held provincial, as Edinburgh no doubt seemed 
from London ; and the resident of the larger 




Copyright by Daniel W. Colbath 

& Co., Boston. 1895. "old CORNER BOOKSTORE. 



175 



1 76 Boston 

community might scornfully use about the Bos- 
tonian the saying attributed to Dr. Johnson 
about the Scotchman, that " much might be 
made of him if caught young." Indeed, much 
of New York's best literary material came 
always from New England ; just as Scotland 
still holds its own in London literature. No 
doubt each place has its advantages, but there 
was a time when one might easily meet in a 
day, in one Boston bookstore — as, for instance, 
in the " Old Corner Bookstore," built in 1712, 
and still used for the same trade — such men as 
Emerson, Parker, Longfellow, Lowell, Holmes, 
Whittier, Sumner, Agassiz, Parkman, Whipple, 
Hale, Aldrich, and Howells ; such women 
as Lydia Maria Child and Julia Ward Howe. 
Now, if we consider how much of American lit- 
erature is represented by these few names, it is 
evident that if Boston was never metropolitan, 
it at least had a combination of literary ability 
such as no larger American city has yet rivalled. 
I remember vividly an occasion when I was 
required to select a high-school assistant for 
the city where I then lived (Newport, Rhode 
Island), and I had appointed meetings with 
several candidates at the bookstore of Fields 
& Osofood at Boston. While I was talkincr 





a^i-Kt^ci^ 



^^!^g/7^?Lj$y^ 



^11 



178 Boston 

with the most promising of these — the daugh- 
ter of a clergyman in northern Vermont — I 
saw Dr. O. W. Holmes pass through the shop, 
and pointed him out to her. She gazed eagerly 
after him until he was out of sight, and then 
said, drawing a long breath, *' I must write to 
my father and sister about this ! Up in 
Peacham we think a great deal of authors ! " 

Certainly a procession of foreign princes or 
American millionaires would have impressed 
her and her correspondents far less. It was 
like the feeling that Americans are apt to have 
when they first visit London or Paris and see 
—in Willis's phrase — "whole shelves of their 
library walking about in coats and gowns " ; 
and, strange as it may seem, every winter 
brings to Boston a multitude of young people 
whose expressed sensations are very much like 
those felt by Americans when they first cross 
the ocean. 

The very irregularity of the city adds to its 
attraction, since most of our newer cities are apt 
to look too regular and too monotonous. For- 
eign dialects have greatly increased within a few 
years ; for although the German element has 
never been large, the Italian population is con- 
stantly increasing, and makes itself very appar- 



I So Boston 

ent to the ear, as does also latterly the Russian. 
Books and newspapers in this last tongue are 
always in demand. Statues of eminent Bos- 
tonians — Winthrop, Franklin, Samuel Adams, 
Webster, Garrison, Everett, Horace Mann, 
and others — are distributed about the city, and 
though not always beautiful as examples of art, 
are suggestive of dignified memories. Institu- 
tions of importance are on all sides, and though 
these are not different in kind from those now 
numerous in all vigorous American cities, yet in 
Boston they often claim a longer date or more 
historic associations. The great Public Li- 
brary still leads American institutions of its 
class ; and the Art Museum had a similar 
leadership until the rapid expansion of the 
Metropolitan Museum of New York City. 
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
and the New England Conservatory of Music 
educate large numbers of pupils from all parts 
of the Union ; while Boston University and 
Boston College hold an honored place among 
their respective constituencies. Harvard Uni- 
versity, Tufts College, and Wellesley College 
are not far distant. The Boston Athenaeum 
is an admirable model of a society library. 
The public-school system of Boston has in 



TheTOWN of 

BOSTON 






bartons Point 



Cha/riejRmer 



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Boston i8i 

times past had a great reputation, and still re- 
tains it ; though it is claimed that the newer 
systems of the Western States are in some de- 
gree surpassing it. The Normal Art School 
of the State is in Boston ; and the city has its 
own Normal School for common-school teach- 
ers. The free lectures of the Lowell Institute 
are a source of instruction to large numbers 
every season ; and there are schools and classes 
in various directions, maintained from the 
same foundation. The great collections of 
the Boston Society of Natural History are 
open to the public ; and the Bostonian Society 
has been unwearied in its efforts to preserve 
and exhibit all memorials of local history. 
The Massachusetts Historical Society includes 
among its possessions the remarkable private 
library of Thomas Dowse, which was regarded 
as one of the wonders of Cambridge fifty years 
ago, and it possesses also the invaluable manu- 
script collections brought together by Francis 
Parkman when preparing his great series of 
histories. The New England Historic-Gen- 
ealogical Society has a vast and varied store 
of materials in the way of local and genealogi- 
cal annals ; and the Loyal Legion has a library 
and museum of war memorials. 



l82 



Boston 



For many years there has been in Boston a 
strong interest in physical education — an in- 
terest which has passed through various phases, 
but is now manifested in such strong institutions 

as the Athletic 
Club and the 
Country Club — 
the latter for 
rural recreation. 
There is at 
Char lesbank, 
beside the 
Charles River, a 
public open-air 
gy m n a s i u m 
which attracts a 
laree constitu- 
ency ; and there 
is, what is espe- 
cially desirable, 
a class for wo- 
men and child- 
ren, with pri- 
vate erounds and buildinors. It is under most 
efficient supervision, and is accomplishing 
great good. There are some ten playgrounds 
kept open at unused schoolhouses during the 




CHARLES SUMNER. 



Boston 1 8 



o 



summer vacations, these being fitted up with 
swings, sand-pens, and sometimes flower-beds, 
and properly superintended. A great system 
of parks has now been planned, and partly es- 
tablished, around Boston, the largest of these 
being Franklin Park, near Egleston Square ; 
while the system includes also the Arnold 
Arboretum, the grounds around Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir and Jamaica Pond, with a Marine 
Park at South Boston. Most of these are 
easily accessible by steam or electric cars, 
which are now reached from the heart of the 
city, in many cases through subways, and will 
soon be supplemented or superseded, on the 
more important routes, by elevated roads. 
The steam railways of the city are also to 
have their stations combined into a Northern 
and a Southern Union Station, of which the 
former is already in use and the latter in pro- 
cess of construction. 

This paper is not designed to be a catalogue 
of the public institutions and philanthropies of 
Boston, but aims merely to suggest a few of the 
characteristic forms which such activities have 
taken. Nor is it written with the desire to 
praise Boston above her sisters among Ameri- 
can cities ; for it is a characteristic of American 



1 84 



Boston 



society that, in spite of the outward uniformity 
attributed to the nation, each city has never- 
theless its own 
characteristics ; 
and each may 
often learn from 
the others. This 
is simply one of 
a series of pa- 
pers, each with 
a specific sub- 
ject and each 
confined to its 
own theme. 
The inns, the 
theatres, the 
club-houses of a 
city, strangers 
are likely to dis- 
cover for them- 
selves ; but there are further objects of in- 
terest not always so accessible. For want 
of a friendly guide, they may miss what would 
most interest them. It is now nearly two 
hundred years since an English traveller 
named Edward Ward thus described the Bos- 
ton of 1699 : 




Copyright l)y H. G. Smith, Boston, 1893. 
PHILLIPS BROOKS. 



Boston 185 

" On the southwest side of Massachusetts Bay is Bos- 
ton, whose name is taken from a town in Lincohishire, 
and is the metropolis of all New England. The houses 
in some parts joyn, as in London. The buildings, like 
their women, being neat and handsome. And their 
streets, like the hearts of the male inhabitants, being 
paved with pebble." 

The leadership of Boston in a thousand 
works of charity and kindness, during these 
two centuries, has completely refuted the hasty 
censure of this roving Englishman ; and it is to 
be hoped that the Boston of the future, like 
the Boston of the past, will do its fair share in 
the development of that ampler American civil- 
ization of which all present achievements 
suggest only the promise and the dawn. 




REVOLUTIONARY BOSTON 

" Then and there American Independence was born." 
By EDWARD EVERETT HALE 

THE American Revolution began in Boston. 
Different dates are set for the begin- 
ning. John Adams says of Otis's speech in 
1 76 1 in the Council Chamber of the Old 
State House, " Then and there American 
Independence Vv^as born." The visitor to Bos- 
ton should go, very early in his visit, into the 
Old State House ; and when he stands in the 
Council Chamber he will remember that as dis- 
tinguished a person as John Adams fixed that 
place as the birthplace of independence. 

But one does not understand the history of 
the opening of the great struggle without 
going back a whole generation. It was in 
1 745 that Governor William Shirley addressed 
the Massachusetts General Court in a secret 
session. He brought before them a plan 

187 



1 88 Revolutionary Boston 

which he had for the conquest of Louisburg 
in the next spring, before it could be re- 
inforced from France. The General Court 
(which means the general assembly of Massa- 
chusetts) at first doubted the possibility of suc- 
cess of so bold an attempt ; but eventually 
Shirley persuaded them to undertake it. The 
Province of New Hampshire and that of Con- 
necticut co-operated, and their army of pro- 
vincials, with some assistance from Warren 
of the EngHsh navy, took Louisbourg, which 
capitulated on the 17th of June, 1745. Ob- 
serve that the 17th of June is St. Botolph's 
day ; and that he is the godfather of Bos- 
ton. 

When Louis XV. was told that this hand- 
ful of provincials had taken the Gibraltar of 
America, he was very angry. In the next 
spring, the spring of i 746, with a promptness 
and secrecy which make us respect the admin- 
istration of the French navy, a squadron of 
more than forty ships of war, and transports 
sufficient to bring an army of three thousand 
men, was fitted out in France and despatched 
to America, with the definite and acknow- 
ledged purpose of wiping Boston from the 
face of the earth : 




>• 

3 

z 

u 
o 

X 

I- 

00 

tiJ 

I 



igo 



Revolutionary Boston 



" For this Admiral D'Anville 

Had sworn by cross and crown 
To ravage with fire and steel 
Our helpless Boston town." 




GOVERNOR THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 

AFTER A PORTRAIT IN POSSESSION OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 
ONCE THE PROPERTY OF JONATHAN MAYHEW. 

It was a disgrace to the military and naval 
organizations of England at the same time, that 
they had so little information there on the 
subject. 



Revolutionary Boston 191 

They found out at last that this immense 
French fleet had sailed or was sailing. I think 
that it was the strongest expedition ever sent 
from Europe to America between Columbus's 
time and our own. Some blundering attempts 
to meet it were made by the English Admir- 
alty. But their admiral had to make the lame 
excuse that seven times he tried to go to 
sea and seven times he was driven back 
by gales. Whatever the gales were, they did 
not stop D'Anville and his Armada, and poor 
Boston, which was to be destroyed, our dear 
little "town of hen-coops," clustering around 
the mill-pond, knew as little of the fate pre- 
pared for it as the British Admiralty. It was 
not until the month of September, i 746, that a 
fishing-boat from the Banks, crowding all sail, 
came Into Boston and reported to Governor 
Shirley that her men had seen the largest fleet 
of the largest vessels which they had ever seen 
In their lives, and that these were French ves- 
sels. Shirley at once called his Council to- 
gether and " summoned the train bands of the 
Province." The Council sank ships laden with 
stones In the channels of the harbor. Hasty 
fortifications were built upon the Islands, and 
Shirley mounted upon them such guns as he 



192 Revolutionary Boston 

could brincr togfether. The "train bands" of 

o o 

the Province promptly obeyed the call, and for 
the next two months near seven thousand sol- 
diers were encamped on Boston Common, ready 
for any movement which the descent of D'An- 
vllle might require. Cautious, wise, and strong 
beyond any of his successors in his office, Shir- 
ley put his hand upon the throttle of the 
newspapers. D'Anville should not learn, nor 
should anybody learn, that he had an army in 
Boston or that he knew his danorer. And so 
you may read the modest files of the Boston 
papers of that day and you shall find no refer- 
ence to these military movements of which 
every man and woman and child in Boston 
was thinking. It is not till his young wife 
dies that, by some accident in an editorial 
room, the confession slips into print that the 
train bands of the Province accompanied her 
body to its grave. 

It was the only military duty which was 
required of that army of six thousand four 
hundred. The people of the times would have 
told you, every man and woman of them, that 
the Lord of Hosts had other methods for 
defending Boston. 

What happened, or, if you please, what tran- 




THE OLD SOUTH CHURCH IN ITS PRESENT CONDITION. 

193 BUILT IN 1729. 



194 Revolutionary Boston 

spired, was this : Among his other prepara- 
tions for his enemy, Shirley proclaimed a 
solemn Fast Day, in which the people should 
meet in all their meetingf-houses and seek 
the help of the Almighty, and they did so. 
Thomas Prince, of the Old South Meeting- 
house, tells us what happened there. In the 
morning, a crowded congregation joined in 
prayer, and Prince told them of their danger 
and exhorted them to their duty. In the after- 
noon the assembly met again. As Prince led 
them in their prayer, what seemed a hurricane 
from the southwest struck the meeting-house. 
A generation after, men remembered how 
the steeple above them shook in the gale, and 
Prince went on, calmly, in his address to the 
God who rides on the whirlwind : 

" We do not presume to advise, O Lord, 
but if Thy Providence requires that this tem- 
pest shall sweep the invaders from the sea, we 
shall be content." 

And this was precisely what happened : 
This southwest gale tore down the Bay. This 
side Cape Sable, just off Grand Manan, it 
found D'Anville's squadron in its magnificent 
array. It drove ship against ship. It cap- 
sized and sank some of the noblest vessels. 



Revolutionary Boston 195 

It tore the masts out of others. It discour- 
aged their crews and their officers. All that 
was left of this gallant squadron (which was to 
burn our " hen-coops " here) took refuge in 
Halifax Bay or crept back under jury-masts to 
France. In the harbor of Chebucto, as they 
called Halifax, the wrecks of the fleet were 
repaired as best they might be. D'Anville 
and his first oflicer both died, one as a suicide, 
and the other from the disgrace of the discom- 
fiture. It is said in Nova Scotia that you 
may see some of the ships now, if you will 
look down at the right place in the clear sea, 
off Cape Sable. A miserable handful of the 
vessels straggled back to France at the open- 
ing of the winter. 

The colonists of New England had thus 
learned two lessons, one in 1745, and one in 
1746. In 1745 they had learned that without 
any assistance from their own king they could 
storm and take the strongest fortress in 
America. In 1746 they learned that the an- 
ger of the strongest prince in Europe was 
powerless against them. Those who believed 
in the immediate providence of God thought 
that He stretched out His arm in their defense. 
Those who did not, thought that in the general 



196 Revolutionary Boston 

providence of God, a people who were three 
thousand miles away from the greatest sov- 
ereign of the world might safely defy his 
wrath. Curiously enough, in the next year, 
1747, the people of Boston had an opportunity 
to learn a third lesson by measuring strength 
with their own sovereign. 

In that year Admiral Knowles, in command 
of the English squadron, — rather a favorite 
till then, I fancy, with the people here, — hap- 
pened to want seamen. He availed himself of 
that bit of unwritten law which held in Ene- 
land till within my own memory, by impress- 
ing seamen from the docks. A memorial of 
the General Court says that the English gov- 
ernment had carried this matter so far that, 
as they believed, three thousand Americans 
were at that time in the service of the British 
navy, having been unwillingly impressed there. 
But Knowles carried it farther yet. He took 
on board his fleet some hundreds of ship- 
carpenters, mechanics, and laboring men ; and 
Boston broke out into a blaze of excitement 
and fury. There followed the first of the 
series of proceedings which, with various modi- 
fications, lasted for thirty years, until General 
Howe withdrew the British fleet and army from 




197 



OLD STATE HOUSE. 



198 Revolutionary Boston 

Boston. It was a combination of riots and 
town-meetings, the town-meetings expressing 
seriously what the rioters did not express so 
well, the rioters giving a certain emphasis, 
such as was understood in England, as to 
the intention of the town-meetings of Boston. 
We have the most amusino^ details of this 
affair in a very valuable and interesting his- 
tory just published by Mr. John Noble. The 
rioters seized Knowles's officers whom they 
found in the town, and shut them up for host- 
ao^es. Knowles declared that he would bom- 
bard the town. But what with the General 
Court and the town-meetings and the magis- 
trates and the rest, he was soothed down, the 
people gave up their hostages, and he gave up 
the men whom he had seized. Boston had 
measured forces in this affair with King 
George. Both were satisfied with the result ; 
and, if I may so speak, this first tussle ended 
in a tie. 

Here were three trials of strength in three 
years. And the Boston people learned in each 
of them the elements of their real power. 
When, nearly twenty years after, Otis made 
his eloquent protest against the Writs of 
Assistance, he did not succeed. The Court 




."^^^J^^ 



200 Revolutionary Boston 

decided that the Province must permit the 
officers to make the searches in private houses 
which the Crown asked. But there was a 
point gained, in the confession that the Crown 
must ask, and thinking men took note of that 
confession. 

" Sam " Adams, as he was always affection- 
ately called, had graduated at Harvard College 
in I 740. There is no direct evidence known to 
me, but without it I believe that almost from 
that time Sam Adams was the inspiring genius 
of one or more private clubs in which the young 
men of Boston were trained in the funda- 
mental principles of independence. On the 
other side it may be said that from the mo- 
ment when Quebec fell the home government 
of England did everything that can be con- 
ceived of to disgust and alienate the people of 
Boston. The disgust showed itself now in 
grumbling, novv^ in physical violence. In the 
midst of it all there was one quiet leader be- 
hind the scenes. Sam Adams had the confi- 
dence of the gentry and of the people both. 
When he wanted a grave and dignified expres- 
sion of opinion he had a town-meeting called, 
and then this town-meeting heard speeches 
and passed resolutions of such dignity and 




^^^^''^^^^^'^^^.t::^ ^>^^6 



^::^y^r^^l^ 



20I 



202 Revolutionary Boston 

gravity as were worthy of any senate in the 
world. On the other hand, if Sam Adams 
needed to give emphasis to such resolution, 
the mob of Boston appeared in her streets, 
did what he wanted it to do, and stopped 
when he wanted it to stop. It is fair to say 
that George III.'s ministers lost their heads 
in their rage against the riots of Boston. 
The Boston Port Bill, the maddest and most 
useless act of vengeance, was aimed at the 
Boston mob ; and yet in the thirty years be- 
tween Louisbourg and Lexington this riotous 
mob of Boston never drew a drop of humian 
blood in. all its excesses. And this, though 
once and acrain the soldiers and sailors of 
England killed one and another of the peo- 
ple. 

Now to follow along step by step the visible 
memorials of the war, I advise you to go to 
Roxbury through Washington Street by one of 
the Belt-line cars. The verv name, Washinor. 
ton Street, should remind you that Washington 
rode in in triumph by this highway on the i 7th 
of March, 1776, the day when General Howe 
and the English troops evacuated the town. 
Let the car drop you at the Providence railway 
crossing in Roxbury and take another car to 



204 Revolutionary Boston 

Brookline ; or go on foot. All this time you 
have been on the track of the English general, 
Lord Percy, who was sent out with his column 
to reinforce Colonel Smith, who had charge of 
the earlier column sent against Concord, on 
the day of the battle of Lexington. You can, 
if you choose, on your wheel or on your feet, 
go into Cambridge with this column ; but take 
care not to cross Charles River by the first 
bridge, but by that where the students' boat- 
houses are, on the road which becomes Boyls- 
ton Street as you enter Cambridge. You 
may then go on to Lexington and Concord. 

On another day, start from Cambridge at 
the Law School. This stands on the very site 
of the old parsonage — General Ward's head- 
quarters. The evening before the battle of 
Bunker Hill, Prescott's division was formed 
in parade here and joined in prayer with the 
minister of Cambridge before they marched to 
Bunker Hill. Anybody will show you Kirk- 
land Street, which is the name now given to 
the beeinninor of " Milk Row," the road over 
which they crossed to Charlestown. If you 
are afraid to walk, take your wheel. Two 
miles, more or less, will bring you eastward to 
Charlestown Neck. Then turn to your right 



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2o6 Revolutionary Boston 

and walk to Bunker Hill Monument, which 
you can hardly fail to see. 

It is quite worth while to ascend the monu- 
ment. It gives you an excellent chance to 
obey Dr. Arnold's rule and study the topo- 
graphy on the spot. You cannot fail to see 
the United States Navy Yard just at your feet. 
Here Howe's forces gathered for the attack 
on Prescott's works on the day of the battle. 
And to the shore they retired after they were 
flung back in the first two unsuccessful attacks. 

In the mad attack on Prescott's works, Gen- 
eral Gage lost, in killed and wounded, one quar- 
ter of his little army. What was left became the 
half-starved garrison of Boston. I say " mad at- 
tack," because Gage had only to order a gun- 
boat to close the retreat of the American force, 
and he could have starved it into surrender. 
But such delay was unworthy of the dignity of 
English generals, or, as they then called them- 
selves, *' British " generals. It is to be remem- 
bered that this use of the w^ord " British," now 
much laughed at, was the fashionable habit of 
those times. 

The date of the battle was June 17, 1775. 
Oddly enough, this had long been the saint's 
day of St. Botolph, the East Anglian saint 



Revolutionary Boston 207 

for whom Boston in England was named. It 
seems probable, however, that this odd coinci- 
dence was never noticed for a hundred years. 
Since the majority of the people of Boston 
and Charlestown have been Catholics, it has 
attracted attention. 

From that date to March 17, 1776, the date 
just now alluded to, Boston and the English 
army were blockaded by the American troops. 
They had gathered on the day after Lexing- 
ton, commanded at first by Artemas Ward, the 
commander of the militia of Massachusetts, and 
afterwards by Washington, with Ward as his 
first major-general. The English retained their 
hold on Charlestown, but once and again the 
Americans attacked their forces there. They 
never marched out beyond Boston Neck or 
Charlestown Neck. 

On the south, their most advanced works 
were where are now two little parks. Black- 
stone Square and Franklin Square, on the 
west and east sides of Washington Street, re- 
spectively. They had a square redoubt on 
the Common, where is now a monument to the 
heroes of the Civil War. A little eastward of 
this was a hill called Fox Hill, which was dugr 
away to make the Charles Street of to-day. 



2o8 Revolutionary Boston 

Farther west, where the ground is now cov- 
ered with buildings, were two or three re- 
doubts, generally called forts, by which they 
meant to prevent the landing of the Americans. 

At that time Beacon Hill was much higher 
than it is now. Exactly on the point now 
marked by a monument, a monument was 
erected after the Revolution, in commemora- 
tion of the events of the year when it began. 
The present monument — completed lately — is 
an exact imitation of the first, but that this is 
of stone, and that was of brick. This has the 
old inscriptions. 

Washington drove out the English by erect- 
ing the strong works on what was then called 
Dorchester Heights, which we now call South 
Boston. The places where most of these 
works existed are marked by inscriptions. In- 
dependence Square is on the site of one of 
them. 

The careful traveller may go out to Rox- 
bury, follow up Highland Street and turn to 
the right, and he will find an interesting me- 
morial of one of the strong works built by 
General Ward. From this point, north and 
east, each of the towns preserves some relic of 
the same kind. In Cambridcre one is marked 




THE FROG POND ON THE COMMON 
AS IT NOW APPEARS. 



209 



2IO Revolutionary Boston 

by a public square, on which the national flag 
is generally floating. 

At the North End of Boston, where Is now, 
and was then, the graveyard of Copp's Hill, 
the English threw up some batteries. These 
are now obliterated, but the point is Interest- 
ing in Revolutionary history, because it was 
from this height that Gage and Burgoyne saw 
their men flung back by the withering fire of 
Bunker Hill. 




CAMBRIDGE 



By SAMUEL A. ELIOT 



" There is no place like it, no, not even for taxes." 

Lowell's Letters, ii. , 102, 

THE early history of New England seems 
to many minds dry and unromantlc. No 
mist of distance softens the harsh outlines, no 
miraofe of tradition lifts events or characters 
into picturesque beauty, and there seems a 
poverty of sentiment. The transplanting- of a 
people breaks the successions and associations 
of history. No memories of Crusader and 
Conqueror stir the imagination. Instead of 
the glitter of chivalry we have but the sombre 
homespun of Puritan peasants. Instead of 
the castles and cathedrals on which time has 
laid a hand of benediction we have but the 
rude log meeting-house and schoolhouse. In- 
stead of Christmas merriment the voice of our 
past brings to us only the noise of axe and 

211 



212 Cambridge 

hammer, or the dreary droning of Psalms. It 
seems bleak, and destitute of poetic inspiration ; 
at once plebeian and prosaic. 

But I cannot help feeling that if we look be- 
neath the uncouth exterior we shall find in 
New England history much idealism, much 
that can inspire noble daring and feed the 
springs of romance. Out of the hard soil of 
the Puritan thougrht, out of the sterile rocks 
of the New England conscience, spring flowers 
of poetry. This story of the planting of Cam- 
bridge has — if I might linger on it — a wealth 
of dramatic interest, not indeed in its antiquity, 
— it is but a story of yesterday, — but in the hu- 
man associations that belong to it and the 
patriotic memories it stirs. The Cambridge 
dust is eloquent of the long procession of 
saints and sages, scholars and poets, whose 
works and words have made the renown of 
the place. First the Puritan chiefs of Massa- 
chusetts ; then the early scholars of the budding 
commonwealth ; then the Tory gentry who 
made the town in the days before the Revolu- 
tion the centre of a lavish hospitality, and who 
maintained a happy social life of which the 
memories still linorer in the beautiful homes 
which they left behind them ; then the patriot 



'^ ' -'^jmff* 






2 14 Cambridge 

army surging about Boston in the exciting 
year of the siege, with the inspiring traditions 
of what Washington and Warren and Knox 
and Greene and the rest did and said ; and 
finally the later associations of our great 
scholars and men of letters, chief of whom we 
rank Lowell and Holmes and Longfellow, 
whose lives were rooted deep in the Cambridge 
soil and whose dust there endears the sod. 

The first figures on our Cambridge stage 
are those of the leaders of the Massachusetts 
colony. While Boston was clearly marked 
for prominence in the colony because of its 
geographical position, there was not at first 
the intention to make it the seat of govern- 
ment. It was too open to attack from the sea ; 
a position farther inland could be more easily 
defended, not indeed from the Indians, but 
from the enemy most to be dreaded, — the war- 
ships of an irate and hostile motherland. Ac- 
cordingly Governor John Winthrop and his 
assistants, shortly after the planting of Boston, 
journeyed in the shallop of the ship in which 
they had come from England, four miles up 
the Charles River behind Boston until they 
came to a meadow gently sloping to the river- 
side, backed by rounded hills and protected 



Cambridge 



215 



by wide-spreading salt marshes. There on the 
28th of December, 1630, they landed and fixed 




HOME OF LONGFELLOW, 

the seat of their government. To quote the 

old chronicle : 

" They rather made choice to enter further among the 
Indians than to hazard the fury of malignant advers- 
aries who might pursue them, and therefore chose a 
place situated upon Charles River, between Charles- 
town and Watertown, where they erected a towne called 
Newtowne, and where they gathered the 8th Church of 
Christ." 



2i6 Cambridge 

It was agreed that the Governor, John Win- 
throp, the Deputy Governor, Thomas Dudley, 
and all the councillors, except John Endicott, 
who had already settled at Salem, should build 
and occupy houses at Newtowne, but this 
agreement was never carried out. Winthrop, 
Dudley and Bradstreet built houses, and the 
General Court of the colony met alternately 
at Newtowne and at Boston until 1638, when 
it finally settled in Boston. Yet in spite of 
the superior advantages of Boston the new 
settlement evidently flourished, for in 1633 a 
traveller — the writer of New England's Pros- 
pect — describes the village as " one of the 
neatest and best compacted towns in New 
England, having many fair structures, with 
many handsome contrived streets. The in- 
habitants, most of them, are rich and well 
stored with cattle of all sorts." 

This is doubtless an extravagant picture and 
true only in comparison with some of the 
neighboring plantations which were not so fa- 
vorably situated. Newtowne was really a crude 
and straggling settlement made up of some 
sixty or seventy log cabins or poor frame 
houses stretching along a road which skirted 
the river marshes and of which the wanderings 



Cambridge 217 

were prescribed more by the devious channel 
of the Charles than by mathematical exactness. 
The meeting-house, built of rough-hewn boards 
with the crevices sealed with mud, stood at 
the crossing of the road with the path that led 
down to the river, where there was a ladder for 
the convenience of landing. So primitive was 
the place that Thomas Dudley, the chief man 
of the town, writing home, could say, '' I 
have no table nor any place to write in than 
by the fireside on my knee." Such was the 
splendor of the whilom capital of New Eng- 
land. 

Like most of the Massachusetts towns, Cam- 
bridge began as a church. Though Dudley 
and Bradstreet and Haynes were high in 
the councils of the infant commonwealth, hold- 
ing successively or simultaneously the offices 
of governor and military chief, yet the lead- 
ing personality of the village was the minister. 
The roll of Cambridore ministers beeins with 
the great name of Thomas Hooker, the founder 
of Connecticut, and the man who first visioned 
and did much to make possible our American 
democracy. Hooker, with his congregation 
from Braintree, In Essex, England, came to 
Massachusetts in 1632, and after a short stay 



2i8 Cambridge 

at Mount Wollaston, settled at Newtowne, 
raising the population to nearly five hundred 
souls. But the stay of the Braintree church 
was short. Some adventurous spirits had 
penetrated the wilderness of the interior until 
they discovered the charm and fertility of the 
valley of the Connecticut, and soon Hooker 
and his company were impelled by " the strong 
bent of their spirits " to remove thither. They 
alleged, in petitioning the General Court for 
permission to remove, that their cattle were 
cramped for room in Newtowne, and that it 
behooved the English colonists to keep the 
Dutch out of Connecticut ; but the real motive 
of the exodus was doubtless ecclesiastical. 
Hooker did not find himself altogether in ac- 
cord with the Boston teacher, John Cotton. 
"Two such eminent stars," says Hubbard, 
writing in 1682, "both of the first magnitude, 
though of different influence, could not well 
continue in one and the same orb." Hooker 
took the more liberal side in the antinomian 
controversy which had already begun to make 
trouble, and his subsequent conduct of affairs 
In Connecticut shows that he did not approve 
the Massachusetts policy of restricting the suf- 
frage to church members. In the spring of 



Cambridge 219 

1636, therefore, Hooker and most of his con- 
gregation sold their possessions, and driving 
one hundred and sixty cattle before them, went 
on their way to the planting of Hartford and 
the founding of a new commonwealth. 

This was the first of many separations by 
which Cambridge has become the mother of 
many sturdy children. The original bound- 
aries of the town stretched from Dedham on 
the south all the way to the Merrlmac River 
on the north. Gradually, by the gathering of 
new churches and peaceable partition, this ter- 
ritory has been divided, and out of the original 
Newtowne have been formed, besides the 
present Cambridge, Blllerica, Bedford, Lexing- 
ton, Arlington, Brighton and Newton. Gov- 
ernors Dudley and Bradstreet removed to 
Ipswich, and Simon Wlllard went to be the 
chief layman of Concord and a famous builder 
and defender of towns. 

The rude houses of Hooker's congregation 
were bought by a newly arrived company, the 
flock of the Rev. Thomas Shepard. This 
firm but gentle leader, who left a deep Impress 
on the habit of the town, was a youth of 
thirty-one, and a graduate, like many of the 
Massachusetts leaders, of Emanuel College, at 



2 20 Cambridge 

Cambridge. He came to New England with 
a company of earnest followers, actuated, as he 
wrote, by desire for "the fruition of God's or- 
dinances. Though my motives were mixed, 
and I looked much to my own quiet, yet the 
Lord let me see the glory of liberty in New 
England, and made me purpose to live among 
God's people as one come from the dead to 
His praise." His brave young wife died " in 
unspeakable joy" only a fortnight after his 
settlement at Cambridge, and was soon fol- 
lowed by the chief man of his flock and his 
closest friend, Roger Harlakenden, another 
godly youth of the manly type of English pio- 
neers. At once, too, Shepard was plunged into 
the stormy debates of the antinomian contro- 
versy which nearly caused a permanent divi- 
sion in the Congregational churches. The 
general election of 1637, which was held on 
the Common at Newtowne, was a tumultuous 
gathering, and discussion over the merits of 
''grace " and ''works" ran high till John Wil- 
son, minister of the Boston church, climbed up 
into a big oak tree, and made a speech which 
carried the day for John Winthrop to the con- 
fusion of the heretical disciples of Anne Hutch- 
inson. Through these stormy waters Shepard 



E 




! 1 



222 Cambridge 

steered his course so discreetly that he came 
into high favor among all people as a sound 
and vigilant minister, and Cotton Mather tells 
us that " it was with a respect unto this vigi- 
lancy and the enlightening and powerful minis- 
try of Mr. Shepard, that, when the foundation 
of a college was to be laid, Cambridge, rather 
than any other place, was pitched upon to be 
the seat of that happy seminary." 

The founding of Harvard College by the 
little colony was surely one of the most heroic, 
devout and fruitful events of American his- 
tory. Upon the main entrance to the college 
grounds is written to-day an inscription taken 
from one of the earliest chronicles, entitled 
New England's First Fruits. We read that : 

" After God had carried us safe to New England and 
wee had builded our houses and provided necessaries for 
our livelihood, reared convenient places for God's wor- 
ship and settled the Civil Government, one of the next 
things we longed for and looked after was to advance 
learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to 
leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our pre- 
sent ministers shall lie in the dust." 

Accordingly, on the 28th day of October, 
1636, Sir Harry Vane — Milton's " Vane, young 
in years, but in sage counsel old" — being the 



Cambridge 223 

Governor, the General Court of the colony 
passed the following memorable vote : '' The 
Court agrees to give ;^400 towards a school 
or college — whereof ;!^200 shall be paid the 
next year and ^200 when the work is fin- 
ished." In the following year this vote was 
supplemented by a further order that the col- 
lege " is ordered to be at Newtowne, and that 
Newtowne shall henceforth be called Cam- 
bridge." This is the significant act that marks 
the distinction between the Puritan colony 
and all pioneer settlements based on material 
foundations. For a like spirit under like cir- 
cumstances history will be searched in vain. 
Never were the bases of such a structure laid 
by a community of men so poor, and under 
such sullen and averted stars. The colony was 
nothing but a handful of settlers barely cling- 
ing to the wind-swept coast ; It was feeble and 
Insignificant, In danger from Indians on the 
one hand and foreign foes on the other ; It was 
in throes of dissension on the matter of heresy 
which threatened to divide It permanently, 
yet so resolved were the people that " the 
Commonwealth be furnished with knowing 
and understanding men and the churches with 
an able ministry," that they voted the entire 



2 24 Cambridge 

annual income of the colony to establish a 
place of learning. Said Lowell : 

" This act is second in real import to none that has 
happened in the Western hemisphere. The material 
growth of the colonies would have brought about their 
political separation from the mother country in the ful- 
ness of time, but the founding of the first college here 
saved New England from becoming a mere geographical 
expression. It did more, it insured our intellectual in- 
dependence of the old world. That independence has 
been long in coming, but the chief names of those who 
have hastened its coming are written on the roll of Har- 
vard College." 

But even the self-sacrificing zeal of the 
colonists would have been almost unavailincr 
had it not been for the cominor to Massachu- 
setts at this time of a young Puritan minister, 
another graduate of Emanuel, upon whom 
death had already set his seal. Says the 
chronicler : 

" As we were thinking and consulting how to effect this 
great work, it pleased God to stir up the heart of one 
Mr. John Harvard, a godly gentleman and a lover of 
learning then living amongst us, to bequeath the one 
half of his estate, in all about ;!^i7oo, toward the erection 
of the college, and all his library." 

Was ever a gift so marvellously multiplied as 
the bequest of this obscure young scholar ? 




#^S" 



STATUE OF JOHN HARVARD AND MEMORIAL HALL, HARVARD COLLEGE. 



225 



2 26 Cambridge 

By this one decisive act of public-spirited and 
well-directed munificence this youth made for 
himself an imperishable name and enrolled 
himself amonor the foremost of the benefactors 
of humanity. In acknowledgment of Har- 
vard's bequest the General Court voted in 
1638 '' that the College at Cambridge be called 
Harvard College." 

It is the presence of the college that has 
given distinctive atmosphere to Cambridge. 
The character of the place has been deter- 
mined by the fact that for more than two cent- 
uries and a half it has been the home of 
succeeding generations of men. devoted not to 
trade and manufacture, but to the cultivation 
of the intellectual and spiritual elements in 
human life. Over the college gate stands an 
iron cross and upon the gate-post is the seal 
of the college with " Veritas " written across 
its open books. The Harvard life and spirit 
and teaching are all adapted to lead young 
men to the love and service of truth arid to 
send them out to a ministry as wide and varied 
as the needs of humanity. The influence of 
the scholars and teachers and administrators 
that have been drawn Into the service of the 
college is paramount, even If it is unconsciously 



Cambridge 227 

exercised and felt, in the community about the 
college. Here have always been — inevitable 
in a town which is the resort of the chosen 
youth of the country — a healthy, wholesome 
independence of spirit and a high-minded 
earnestness. Here has always been the re- 
fined simplicity of life natural to a community 
composed of, or influenced by, men of quiet 
tastes and modest incomes. Here is that 
touch of sentiment which binds men to the 
place of their education and to the memories 
and friendships of youth. Here are the asso- 
ciations with great events and names which 
inspire patriotism and ambition of worthy 
service. Then, too, it has been said : 

" Cambridge is an interesting place to live in because 
the poetry of Holmes, Longfellow and Lowell has 
touched with the light of genius some of its streets, 
houses, churches and graveyards, and made familiar to 
the imaginations of thousands of persons who never saw 
them, its rivers, marshes and bridges. It adds to the 
interest of living in any place that famous authors have 
walked in its streets, and loved its highways and byways, 
and written of its elms, willows and ' spreading chestnut 
tree,' of its robins and herons. The very names of Cam- 
bridge streets remind the dwellers in it of the biographies 
of Sparks, the sermons of Walker, the law-books of 
Story, the orations of Everett, and the presidencies of 
Dunster, Chauncy, Willard, Kirkland and Quincy." 



2 28 Cambridge 

The place is not unworthy of the wealth of 
affection and poetic tribute that has been lav- 
ished upon it. The old Puritan church records, 
with their quaint entries about heresies and 
witchcraft, about ordinations where " four gal- 
lons of wine " and bushels of wheat and malt 
and hundredweights of beef and mutton were 
consumed, and about funerals conducted with 
solemn pomp ; and the town records with 
notes about the " Palisadoe " and the Common 
rights and "the Cowyard " and the building 
of "The Great Bridge," — a vast undertaking, 
— have more than merely antiquarian interest, 
for they reveal the intelligent and sturdy de- 
mocracy and broad principles of government 
upon which the American republic rests. 

But if these ancient records seem uninviting, 
let the visitor turn to the annals of the stirring 
time of the Revolution. General Gage called 
Harvard Colleofe "that nest of sedition." In 
that nest were hatched John Hancock, James 
Otis, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Joseph 
Warren and many another of the patriot 
leaders. The town was the abode of many 
of the leading Tory families, but as early as 
1765 the town-meeting voted "that (with all 
humility) it is the opinion of the town that 



230 Cambridge 

the Inhabitants of this Province have a legal 
claim to all the natural, Inherent, constitutional 
rights of Englishmen and — that the Stamp 
Act Is an Infraction upon these rights." And 
after an argument on the merits of the ques- 
tion It was further ordered " that this vote be 
recorded In the Town Book, that the children 
yet unborn may see the desire their ancestors 
had for their freedom and happiness." For 
the next ten years there Is scarcely a proceed- 
ing In the preliminary debates and contests 
that led up to open revolution that Is not Il- 
lustrated In the resolutions recorded by the 
Cambridge town clerk. Vote followed vote, 
as the restrictive measures of Parliament Irri- 
tated the townsmen, till at the town-meeting 
of 1773 it was resolved ''that this town — Is 
ready on the shortest notice, to join with the 
town of Boston and other towns, in any meas- 
ures that may be thought proper, to deliver 
ourselves and,; posterity from slavery." The 
2d of September, 1774, just escaped the his- 
toric Importance of April 19th In the next 
year. On that day several thousand men 
gathered on Cambridge Common and pro- 
ceeded In orderly fashion to force the resigna- 
tion of two of His Majesty's privy councillors, 



Cambridge 



2^1 



and then, marching up Bratde Street to the 
house of the Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Province, Thomas OHver — the house that was 
afterwards the home in succession of Elbridge 




HOME OF LOWELL. 



Gerry, Rev. Charles Lowell and his son James 
Russell Lowell — they extorted from him, too, 
a pledge to resign. *' My house in Cam- 
bridge," he wrote, *' being surrounded by 
about four thousand men, I sign my name — 



2^2 



Cambridge 



Thomas Oliver." Both the first and second of 
the Provincial Congresses met in Cambridge, 
and at last the running battle of April 19, 
1775, swept through the borders of the town. 
Twenty-six Americans were killed within the 
boundaries of Cambridge, six of them citizens 
of the place, and the American militia who 
followed the British retreat from Concord on 
that momentous evening lay on their arms at 
last on Cambridge Common. 

For eleven months after Concord fight, Cam- 
bridge was a fortified camp. The college build- 
ings, the Episcopal church and the larger houses 
were occupied as barracks. General Ward 
established his headquarters in the gambrel- 
roofed house which was afterwards the birth- 
place of Oliver Wendell Holmes. On the 
lawn before the house, in the hush of the June 
evening, Prescott's men were drawn up, while 
President Langdon of the college, in cap and 
gown, prayed for the success of their arms ere 
they marched to Bunker Hill. Two weeks 
later Washington reached the camp, and on 
July 3d, under the spreading elm at the west- 
ern end of the Common, unsheathed his sword 
and, as the inscription reads, " took command 
of the American Army." Washington lived 




WASHINGTON ELM. 



233 



234 Cambridg"e 



fe 



for a while in the president's house, but soon 
made his headquarters in the fine old mansion 
of the Vassalls which was later the home of 
Lonoffellow. 

After March, 1776, when Boston was finally 
evacuated by the British, Cambridge ceased to 
be involved in the military events of the Rev- 
olution, but in 1777 the captured troops of 
Burgoyne were quartered in the town, the 
soldiers swinging their hammocks in the col- 
lege buildings and the officers occupying the 
deserted mansions of '' Tory Row." Burgoyne 
lived in the house sometimes called, in derision 
of its first clerical occupant, " The Bishop's 
Palace," and Riedesel and his accomplished 
wife in the Lechmere house. '' Never have I 
chanced," wrote Madame Riedesel, " upon 
such a charming situation," and never has our 
colonial life been more charmingly described 
than by this brave and vivacious German lady 
in the letters written from her pleasant prison 
to her distant home. 

For fifty years after the Revolutionary 
epoch, Cambridge was a country town of quiet 
habits, its only distinguishing characteristic 
being the scholastic and literary atmosphere 
that hung about the college. It was a good 





235 



236 Cambridge 

place to be born In, and it was surely good to 
live in the place where Everett and Ouincy 
ruled the academic world ; where Longfellow 
wrote his poetry, and Palfrey his history, and 
Sparks his biographies ; where Washington 
Allston painted and Margaret Fuller dreamed ; 
where William Story and Richard Dana and 
Lowell and Holmes and the rest walked to 
church and stopped to gossip with the neigh- 
bors at the post-office. 

" No town in this country," says Thomas Wentworth 
Higginson, "has been the occasion of two literary de- 
scriptions more likely to become classic than two which 
bear reference to the Cambridge of fifty years ago. One 
of these is Lowell's well-known Fireside Travels and the 
other is the scarcely less racy chapter in the Harvard 
Book, contributed by John Holmes, younger brother of 
the * Autocrat.' " 

To these happy descriptions we may now add 
the accounts of Colonel HIgglnson's boyhood 
In his Cheerful Yesterdays, and Dr. Holmes's 
loving story of his birthplace in the Poet at 
the Breakfast Table. 

" Cambridge," wrote Lowell, " was still a country village 
with its own habits and traditions, not yet feeling too 
strongly the force of suburban gravitation. Approaching 
it from the west, by what was then called the New 
Road, you would pause on the brow of Symond's Hill to 




^v' O 



ce. 
< 
> 

< 

X 

•£ 

CO 

< 

z 

> 



238 Cambrido^e 



& 



enjoy a view singularly soothing and placid. In front 
of you lay the town, tufted with elms, lindens, and horse- 
chestnuts, which had seen Massachusetts a colony, and 
were fortunately unable to emigrate with the Tories, by 
whom, or by whose fathers, they were planted. Over it 
rose the noisy belfry of the College, the square, brown 
tower of the Episcopal Church, and the slim, yellow spire 
of the parish meeting-house. On your right the Charles 
slipped smoothly through green and purple salt meadows, 
darkened here and there with the blossoming black grass 
as with a stranded croud-shadp-^v. To your left upon the 
Old Road you saw spme l^ialf-dozen dignified old houses 
of the colonial time, all comfortably fronting southward. 
. . We called it ' the Village ' then, and it was 
essentially .an English village — quiet, unspeculative, 
without enterprise, sufficing to itself, and only showing 
such differences from the original type as the public 
school and the, system, of town government might su- 
perinduce. A few houses, chiefly old, stood around the 
bare common, with ample elbow-room, and old women, 
capped and spectacled, still peered through the same 
windows from which they had watched Lord Percy's 
artillery rumble by to Lexington, or caught a glimpse of 
the handsome Virginia general who had come to wield 
our homespun Saxon chivalry. The hooks were to be 
seen from which had swung the hammocks of Burgoyne's 
captive red-coats. If memory does not deceive me, 
women still washed clothes in the town spring, clear as 
that of Bandusia. One coach sufficed for all the travel 
to the metropolis." 

Cambridge Is no longer the idyllic village of 



Cambrido^e 239 



^& 



Lowell's boyhood, but a great suburban city 
bustling with many activities. So rapid has 
been the erowth that Lowell on his return 
from Europe in 1889 wrote: 

" I feel somehow as if Charon had ferried me the wrong 
way, and yet it is into a world of ghosts that he has 
brought me. I hardly know the old road, a street now, 
that I have paced so many years, for the new houses. 
My old homestead seems to have a puzzled look in its 
eyes as it looks down — a trifle superciliously methinks — 
on these upstarts. 

" The old English elms in front of my house have n't 
changed. A trifle thicker in the waist, perhaps, as is 
the wont of prosperous elders, but looking just as I first 
saw them seventy years ago, and it is balm to my eyes. 
I am by no means sure that it is wise to love the ac- 
customed and familiar as much as I do, but it is pleasant 
and gives a unity to life which trying can't accomplish." 

Cambridge is to-day the abode of as happy, 
comfortable and progressive a people as the 
world contains. It presents a unique example 
in this country of a city thoroughly well gov- 
erned. It is now a quarter-century since parti- 
sanship has been tolerated in city affairs. In 
the City Hall, erected under the administration 
of Mayor William E. Russell, who here got 
his training for the splendid service he after- 
ward rendered to the State, and might, had his 



240 



Cambridge 



life been spared, have rendered to the nation, 
no hquor Hcense has ever been signed. So 
excellent has been the record of successive non- 
partisan administrations in the city that the 
very phrase, "The Cambridge Idea," has be- 
come well known 
even outside the 
limits of Massa- 
chusetts as signify- 
ing the conception 
of public office as 
a public trust and 
the conduct of 
municipal affairs 
on purely business 
principles. Yet in 
spite of its muni- 
cipal expansion 
and business enter- 
prises, Cambridge 
is still pre-eminently the place where the lamp of 
learning is kept lighted. Though the college 
waxes great in numbers and its buildings mul- 
tiply, and the jar of business invades the aca- 
demic quiet, yet the purposes and habits of the 
scholar's life still distinguish the community. 
It is said that when Cambridge people are at a 




WILLIAM E. RUSSELL. 



Cambridge 241 

loss for conversation one asks the other, '' How 
is your new book coming on ? " and the ques- 
tion rarely fails to bring a voluble reply. There 
is an entire alcove in the City Library devoted 
to the works of Cambridge writers. *' Briga- 
dier-Generals," said Howells, himself once a 
resident of the town, "were no more common 
in Washington during the Civil War than au- 
thors in Cambridge." It is an interesting illus- 
tration of the persistence of good tradition that 
the place where was established the first print- 
ing-press in America, set up by Stephen Daye 
in 1639, should still be a centre of book-pro- 
duction. Not only do John Fiske and Charles 
Eliot Norton and Thomas Wentworth Hieein- 
son and a score of others maintain the literary 
reputation of the place, but the great establish- 
ments of the Riverside Press, the University 
Press and the Athenaeum Press put forth a 
constant stream of high-standard publications, 
and send a most characteristic Cambridge pro- 
duct all over the world. Still is Cambridge 
one of the shrines of pilgrimage. The anti- 
quarians ponder over the mossy gravestones in 
the little " God's Acre " between the " Sentinel 
and Nun," as Dr. Holmes called the two church 
towers which front the college gate, and there 



242 Cambrido^e 



^:> 



they read the long inscriptions that tell the 
virtues of the first ministers of the parish and 
the early presidents of the college. The 
patriots come and stand under the Washington 
elm, or linger by the gates of the Craigie 
house or Elmwood, or pace the noble Me- 
morial Hall, which declares how Harvard's sons 
died for their country, while visitors flock to 
the great museum which the genius and en- 
ergy of Louis Agassiz upbuilt, and to the gar- 
den where Asa Gray taught and botanized. 
Thousands of men all over the country think 
of Cambridge with grateful love as they re- 
member the years of their happy youth ; and 
the citizens of the place, while they look back- 
ward with just pride, look forward with con- 
fidence that there is to be more of inspiring 
history and true poetry in the city's future than 
in its fortunate past. 



CONCORD 

FIRST IN MANY FIELDS 

By frank B. SANBORN 

OLD this New World is, — geologically 
more ancient, perhaps, than that hemi- 
sphere from whose western edge Columbus set 
sail, four centuries ago, and found our conti- 
nent lying across his way, as he plodded to 
Cathay. Yet, uncounted as our barbarous cent- 
uries and antediluvian aeons are, real history 
begins only with the opening of the seventeenth 
century, when the English Puritan and the 
French Jesuit transferred to these shores the 
unfolding civilization and the rival religions 
of Western Europe. When we see at Ply- 
mouth the wooded glacial hillsides, under which 
the Pilgrims landed and established democracy 
in their wilderness, we may remember that 
their venture, though bolder, because earlier, 
than that of Bulkeley and Willard, who planted 

243 



244 Concord 

the Concord colony, was yet but fifteen years 
in advance, and was made beside a friendly 
ocean, bearing succor and trade, and feeding 
them from its abundance. But the Concord 
colonists sat down in the gloomy shadow of 
the forest, amid trails of the savage and the 
wolf. Still more heroic was the crusade of the 
Jesuit in New France ; but while romance and 
martyrdom were his lot, our Puritans planted 
here the germs of a grand republic. 

" God said, ' I am tired of kings, 

I suffer them no more ; 
Up to my ear the morning brings 

The outrage of the poor. 
I will divide my goods, 

Call in the wretch and slave ; 
None shall rule but the humble, 

And none but Toil shall have.' " 

The first event in the history of Massachu- 
setts was this planting of a territorial demo- 
cracy. The colony of Concord was granted by 
Winthrop and his legislature in September, 
1635, to Peter Bulkeley, a Puritan minister, 
from the little parish of Odell or Woodhill 
(colloquially called " Wuddle") in English Bed- 
fordshire, and to Simon Willard, a merchant, 
from Hawkshurst in Kent. Twelve other fam- 



246 Concord 

ilies were joined with them in the grant, and 
another minister, Rev. John Jones, brought 
other famihes from England, aiming towards 
Concord, in October, 1635. The situation 
was doubtless chosen by Major Willard, an 
Indian trader and in after years a fighter of 
the Indians ; who also selected and partly colo- 
nized two other towns, farther in the wilder- 
ness, — Groton and Lancaster. But the true 
father of this Concord, and probably the giver 
of its name (altering it from the Indian Mus- 
ketaquit), was Rev. Peter Bulkeley, ancestor of 
its most celebrated citizen, Waldo Emerson. 
Of this worthy, whose grave, like that of Moses, 
is unknown to this day, something should be 
said, before we come to later heroes. Peter 
Bulkeley was the son of Rev. Edward Bulke- 
ley, a doctor of divinity in English Cam- 
bridge, — a scholar and man of wealth, who 
was rector of the Bedfordshire parish just 
named, where his son was born in 1583. He 
succeeded his father there in 1620. 

It is in the country of John Bunyan and 
Cowper the poet, this little parish of Odell. 
Like Concord River, the Ouse, on which it 
stands, is unmatched for winding, even in 
England. Below the old castle of Odell, and 



Concord 247 

the church, still standing, where the Bulkeleys 
preached, runs this crooked stream, murmuring 
as it meanders through its fringe of meadow- 
land, green as the richest strip of English 
pasture can be, which lies between such a 
river and the low hills that come down towards 
its edge. This Ouse (there is another in York- 
shire) flows from Bucks, the county of John 
Hampden, through Bedford, the county of 
the Russells, and Huntingdon, where Crom- 
well lived, and finally into the North Sea 
at Lynn. On the north bank lies the hill 
upon which Odell stands, — the highway from 
Sharnbrook to Harrold and Olney (long 
the home of Cowper) running from east to 
west along the breast of the hill. The old 
church standing amid trees — conspicuous is a 
chestnut of surpassing size and beauty — is 
directly opposite the ancient castle, now a 
comfortable and handsome mansion, built some 
two hundred years ago, — or about the time the 
oldest houses in Concord were built. 

It was no love of adventure, we may be sure, 
that brought Peter Bulkeley, at the age of fifty- 
two, from this lovely country into a land of 
forests and of poverty ; but a desire to escape 
the ecclesiastical tyranny of Laud and his bish- 



248 Concord 

ops, and to establish a true church in the wil- 
derness. Some difficulties attended even this, 
for when, in July, 1636, Mr. Bulkeley was 
about to oro^anize his church at Cambrido^e, in 
order to have Sir Henry Vane and John Win- 
throp (Governor and Deputy Governor that 
year) present at the ceremony, lo and behold ! 
these great men " took it in ill part, and 
thought not fit to go, because they had not 
come to them before, as they ought to have 
done, and as others had done before them, to 
acquaint them with their purpose." Again, in 
April, 1637, when Mr. Bulkeley was to be or- 
dained (also in Cambridge), Winthrop says 
that Vane and John Cotton and John Wheel- 
wricrht, and the two rulinof elders of Boston 
" and the rest of that church which were of 
any note, did none of them come to this meet- 
ing." " The reason was conceived to be," adds 
Winthrop, " because they counted the Concord 
ministers as /^^^/ preachers," — that is, believers 
in a covenant of works (of the Law) instead 
of a covenant of grace. This was the issue 
upon which Wheelwright and Mrs. Hutchinson 
were banished, soon after. 

Indeed, the ordination of Mr. Bulkeley took 
place in the very height of that fierce contro- 



Concord 249 

versy between John Cotton and his former sup- 
porters, Wheelwright and Vane, which came 
near breaking up the Httle colony ; and the Con- 
cord minister was one of the synod which, the 
next August, or perhaps later, specified some 
eighty doctrinal opinions as erroneous or hereti- 
cal, — about one error for every two white per- 
sons in Concord. The covenant of the village 
church, however, breathes a more liberal spirit ; 
for in it we find these words, evidently from 
the hand of Bulkeley : 

"Whereas the Lord hath of His great goodness 
brought us from under the yoke and burdening of men's 
traditions, to the precious liberty of His ordinances, 
which we now do enjoy, — we will, according to our 
places and callings, stand for the maintenance of this 
liberty, to our utmost endeavor, and not return to any 
human ordinances from which we have escaped." 

And the spirit of his oft-quoted sermon is also 
a witness to his true piety, whatever his doc- 
trinal narrowness : 

" There is no people but will strive to excel in some- 
thing ; what can we (in Concord) excel in, if not in holi- 
ness ? If we look to number, we are the fewest ; if to 
strength, we are the weakest ; if to wealth and riches, we 
are the poorest of all the people of God through the 
whole world. We cannot excel nor so much as equal 
other people in these things ; and if we come short in 



250 Concord 

grace and holiness too, we are the most despicable peo- 
ple under Heaven." 

Let us hope that the wish of the good pastor 
was granted, and that he Hved to see the fruit 
of his labors. Yet there is a letter of his, writ- 
ten in 1650 to John Cotton, in which Bulkeley 
seems to regret the democratic liberty which 
Emerson, his descendant, never ceased to ap- 
prove. The Concord minister writes : 

" The Lord hath a number of holy and humble ones 
here amongst us, for whose sakes He doth spare, and will 
spare long ; but, were it not for such a remnant, we 
should see the Lord would make quick work amongst 
us. Shall I tell you what I think to be the ground of 
all this insolency which discovers itself in the speech of 
men ? Truly, I cannot ascribe it so much to any out- 
ward thing, as to the putting of too much liberty and 
power into the hands of the multitude, which they are 
too weak to manage ; many growing conceited, proud, 
arrogant, self-sufficient. . . . Remember the former 
days which you had in old Boston ; yet the number of 
professors is far more here than there. But tell me, 
which place was better governed ? When matters were 
swayed there by your wisdom and counsel, they went on 
with strength and power for good. But here, where the 
heady or headless multitude have gotten the power into 
their hands, there is insolency and confusion ; and I 
know not how it can be avoided, unless we should make 
the doors of the church narrower." 



Concord 251 

This was the caution and reversion of age, 
— for the doubting Peter was then sixty-seven. 
But Emerson, at the age of sixty, could say, 
with unabated faith in Freedom : 

" Call the people together ! 

The young men and the sires, 
The digger in the harvest field, 

Hireling and him that hires ; 
Lo now, if these poor men 

Can govern the land and sea, 
And make just laws below the sun, 

As planets faithful be." 

The experience of the ages has shown that 
the Puritans were right in making the doors 
of the church wider, not narrower ; though we 
still hear the complaint of aged men, or young 
men born with a call to be old, that the former 
times were better than ours, and the "head- 
less multitude " must be deprived of a voice in 
their own destiny. 

When Emerson in 1835, at the two hun- 
dredth anniversary of Concord, proposed to re- 
quite England's gift of her printed Doomsday 
Book by presenting her and the other Euro- 
pean nations with our yet unpublished town re- 
cords, he said : " Tell them the Union has 24 
States, and Massachusetts is one ; that in Mas- 
sachusetts are 300 towns, and Concord is one ; 



252 



Concord 



that In Concord are 500 rateable polls, and 
every one has an eqiLal vote!' To-day there 




R. W. EMERSON (1858). 

FROM A SKETCH BY ROWSE. 



are 45 States ; Massachusetts has 322 towns, 
besides nearly 30 cities ; and instead of 500 
ratable polls, Concord has now 1200; but 
each one still has an equal vote. 



Concord 253 

Men are carried along, in spite of them- 
selves, by the doctrine or system which they 
embrace ; their life principle, once adopted, 
has more force than their temporary wish or 
will. So Calvinism, of which Peter Bulkeley 
was a fervent disciple, with its constant stress 
laid on the worth of the individual man, led 
inevitably to democracy, no matter how much 
the innate aristocratic feelinor of the Enorlish 
gentleman — the class to which Bulkeley be- 
longed — might revolt thereat. It was the 
same in both countries, the mother and the 
daughter ; Old Enorland and New Enorland 
found John Calvin leading them along towards 
the Commonwealth of equal rights and abol- 
ished privileges, — towards Sidney and Locke, 
Franklin and Jefferson, Lincoln and Gladstone. 

This, then, is the first historic lesson of Con- 
cord, as of all New England,— Democracy 
through Calvinism, in spite of recalcitrant 
gentry and reactionary ministers. Philan- 
thropy, too, that modern invention, which 
may almost be said to have come in with the 
eighteenth century, and to have had Franklin 
for its first missionary, began to show itself in 
our meadowy town, whose very name pre- 
figured it. The epitaph of Rev. John Whit- 



254 Concord 

ing, parish minister here for twenty-six years 
(dying in 1752), records that he was "a gen- 
tleman of singular hospitality and generosity, 
who never detracted from the character of any 
man, and was a tC7iwe7^sal lover of niaiikind!' 
This would have been no compliment in Bulke- 
ley's time, when the saints were entitled to be 
loved, and sinners were excluded ; but the 
eighteenth century set up a higher standard, 
which has been maintained till now, when the 
votaries of evolution and the survival of the 
fittest are teaching a return to the old doctrine, 
— only reversing it ; for now it is the sinners 
whom we are expected to admire, and to hate 
the saints. 

The second historic lesson of Concord is 
like unto the first, — but more startling and 
brilliant. It was the lesson of Revolution, 
which has been thoroughly learned since 1775. 
The embattled farmers who, at yonder bridge, 

" Fired the shot heard round the world," 

were conservative revolutionists, and as far 
from anarchy as from atheism. In the instruc- 
tions given by this town to its representative 
in 1774, — or rather, in a report made in towm- 
meeting, January 20th of that year, in view of 




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'-*^,« Vafel " >-• 'fin I i\ ' 4 



%A^:{'m'm. 






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^;i^f«Al 









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UJ £ 

1- 5 



256 Concord 

the Boston Tea-Party, — it was declared as the 
voice of the town : 

" That we will, in conjunction with our brethren in 
America, risk our fortunes, and even our lives, in de- 
fence of his Majesty King George the Third, his per- 
son, crown, and dignity ; and will also, with the same 
resolution, as his freeborn subjects in this country, to 
the utmost of our power and ability, defend all our 
charter-rights, that they may be transmitted inviolate to 
the latest posterity." 

Three months after this, when the Boston 
Port Bill was in agitation, and two months 
later, when it had passed Parliament, the 
farmers of Concord took a bolder tone, — 
" conscious," as they said in town-meeting, 
" of no alternative between the horrors of 
slavery, and the carnage and desolation of a 
civil war," except non-importation of British 
goods, to which the good citizens bound them- 
selves. Still later, in a county convention 
which met in Concord, August 31, 1774, it 
was resolved : 

" That we by no means intend to withdraw our alle- 
giance from our gracious Sovereign ; that when our an- 
cestors emigrated from Great Britain, charters and 
solemn stipulations expressed the conditions, and what 
particular rights they yielded ; what each party had to 



Concord 257 

do and perform, and what each of the contracting parties 
were equally bound by. Therefore a debtor may as 
justly refuse to pay his debts, because it is inexpedient 
for him, as the Parliament deprive us of our charter 
privileges, because it is inexpedient to a corrupt admin- 
istration for us to enjoy them. . . . And a sense of 
our duty as men, as freemen, as Christian freemen, 
united in the firmest bonds, obliges us to resolve that 
every civil officer in this Province, now in commission, 
and acting in conformity to the late act of Parliament, 
is not an officer agreeable to our charter — therefore un- 
constitutional^ and ought to be opposed. . . . As we are 
resolved never to submit one iota to the Act, we will 
not submit to courts thus constituted, and acting 
in conformity to said Act. ... In consequence of 
this resolve, all business at the Inferior Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, and Court of General Sessions of the Peace, 
next to be holden in Concord, must ceased 

This was peaceful revolution, proceeding, 
not upon any vague notion of a general " Social 
Contract," but on formal violations of a written 
contract, the Colony Charter, as explicitly 
stated. I ask attention to this, because it has 
been a favorite fancy of some modern writers, 
who praise the Puritans and disparage Jeffer- 
son and Franklin, that our Revolutionary 
fathers had gained through those two latitu- 
dinarians a glimpse of the levelling French 
doctrines, and gave themselves up to be guided 



258 Concord 

by Rousseau and Voltaire, in dereliction of 
their Puritan ancestry. Precisely the opposite 
is true ; the French author whom Jefferson 
may have had in mind, when he was not think- 
ing of Pym and Hampden, Sergeant Maynard, 
Locke, and Algernon Sidney, — I mean Montes- 
quieu, — having derived his theories more from 
the English constitutionalists than they from 
him. Probably not one of the men of Middle- 
sex, who thus led the way to revolution in 
this law-abiding town of Concord (the seat 
of county justice), ever heard of Rousseau ; but 
they were lawyers, deacons, country justices 
and farmers, accustomed to sit on juries ; and 
they understood the law of contract and the 
obligations of fair trade as well as any English 
lord could tell them. 

They voted further, on this eventful sum- 
mer day, that '' a Provincial Congress is ab- 
solutely necessary, in our present unhappy 
situation," — and they named October, and 
Concord, as a suitable time and place for its 
assembling. This first Provincial Congress 
did meet, October 7th, at Salem, but adjourned 
to Concord that day ; it first met here, October 
1 1, I 774, and, finding the county court-house too 
small for its three hundred members and clerks, 



Concord 259 

and the people who gathered to support them, 
it moved over to the parish meeting-house 
(built in 1 71 2), and remained in session there 
five days, when it removed to Cambridge, for 
the sake of being nearer Boston, then held as 
a garrison by British troops. The second Pro- 
vincial Congress, of 1775, ^.Iso met in Con- 
cord for four weeks of March and April ; and 
it had only been adjourned four days when 
the British grenadiers made their midnight 
march from Boston to Lexington, hoping to 
catch there the arch-rebels Hancock and Sam 
Adams, who had orone to Lexington as mem- 
bers of the Committee of Public Safety (of 
which Dr. Warren was chairman), then the 
executive of Massachusetts under the new 
revolutionary government. The Provincial 
Congress, the legislature of the Province, met 
again for the last time in Concord, April 22, 
1775, to consider the results of the eventful 
19th. It finally dissolved May 31st, after hear- 
ing a sermon from Dr. Langdon, the Presi- 
dent of Harvard College ; and Concord ceased 
forever to be the legislative capital of Mas- 
sachusetts. It became temporarily, however, 
the seat of Dr. Langdon's College, which in 
October, 1775, began its recitations in the 



26o Concord 

court-house and meeting-house, and so con- 
tinued till June, 1776. 

Even Harvard College was at that time 
revolutionary ; it gave up its few buildings in 
Cambridge to the army of Washington, and 
its president, a cousin of the wealthy New 
Hampshire patriot, John Langdon, made the 
prayer for Bunker Hill battle, as the troops 
marched out of Cambridge to give a feeble 
support to Prescott and his Middlesex farmers, 
entrenched on the hill. Washington had not 
yet reached Cambridge, to take command ; 
had his strategic eye taken in the situation 
that morning, the result at Bunker Hill would 
have been different. 

Lexington, the town which gave its name to 
the battle of April, 1775, more decidedly than 
Concord, — though both names occur from the 
first, — was an offshoot from the older towns 
of Cambridge, Watertown and Woburn, rather 
than an original church seat, and was not 
established as a town until 1712. A range 
of hills separates it from the valley of the 
Musketaquit, and Paul Revere, in his night 
ride of April i8th, celebrated by Longfellow, 
could not cross those hills, but left his mes- 
sage of war to be borne on to Concord vil- 



Concord 261 

lage by young Prescott, distantly related to 
Prescott of Bunker Hill. But Lexington, 
though little more than half so populous as 
Concord at that time, had a warlike people, 
many of them descended from the fighting 
Monros of Scotland, captured by Cromwell, 
and exiled for their loyalty to the Stuarts. In 
Lexington they again turned out against the 
house of Hanover, and they were commanded 
that April morning by the grandfather of Lex- 
ington's most famous son, Theodore Parker. 
Captain John Parker, though ill on the 19th 
of April, did his soldier's duty from two in the 
morning till midnight ; and some of his men 
returned the British fire in early morning, 
against hopeless odds. Their turn came in the 
afternoon, when the retreating British were 
only saved from total defeat by the cannon of 
Lord Percy. Those first heroes of the Revo- 
lution, John Hancock and Samuel Adams, who 
had been at the Provincial Congress in Con- 
cord, at Lexington were in the early morning 
in the parsonage of Rev. Mr. Clark, a kins- 
man of Hancock, and narrowly escaped cap- 
ture by the British soldiers, who had special 
orders to seize them. 

John Pierpont, a poet whose Pegasus balked 



262 Concord 

now and then, In his verses at Acton, April 19, 
185 1, anticipated Longfellow by this Words- 
worthlan version of Revere's ride to Lexing- 
ton : 

" The foremost, Paul Revere, 
At Warren's bidding has the gauntlet run 
Unscathed, and, dashing into Lexington, 
While midnight wraps him in her mantle dark, 
Halts at the house of Reverend Mister Clark." 

As compared with Concord, though both 
were rural towns, Lexington was then, and 
long remained, more rustic than Its westward 
neighbor ; with less trade, less culture and 
fewer of the tendencies toward literature which 
early showed themselves In the parish of the 
Bulkeleys and Emersons. When Theodore 
Parker, in his career of scholarship and re- 
form, began to look outward from his father's 
Lexington farm, It was towards Concord, as 
well as towards Boston, that he turned his 
eyes ; he taught a district school In Concord, 
and preached In Its pulpit as a candidate to 
stand beside Dr. Ripley, the pastor of the Old 
Manse. In after years he thus described the 
event which gave Lexington Its chief title to 
fame, before Parker's own birth there : 



fit 



IILii'l;:: 







264 Concord 

" The war of Revolution began at Lexington, to end at 
Yorktown. Its first battle was on the Nineteenth of 
April. Hancock and Adams lodged at Lexington with 
the minister. In the raw morning, a little after daybreak, 
a tall man, with a large forehead under a three-cornered 
hat, drew up his company of 70 men on the Green, — 
farmers and mechanics like himself ; only one is left now 
(1851), the boy who played the men to the spot. (It 
was Jonathan Harrington the fifer.) They wheeled into 
line to \vait for the Regulars. The captain ordered 
every man to load his piece with powder and ball. 
' Don't fire,' were his words, ' unless fired upon ; but if 
they want a war, let it begin here.' The Regulars came 
on. Some Americans offered to run away from their 
post. Captain Parker said, ' I will order the first man 
shot dead that leaves his place.' The English commander 
cried out, ' Disperse, you rebels ! lay down your arms 
and disperse ! ' Not a man stirred. ' Disperse, you 
damned rebels ! ' shouted he again. Not a man stirred. 
He ordered the vanguard to fire ; they did so, but over 
the heads of our fathers. Then the whole main body 
levelled their pieces, and there was need of ten new 
graves in Lexington. A few Americans returned the 
shot. British blood stained the early grass which waved 
in the wind. ' Disperse and take care of yourselves ! ' 
was the captain's last command. There lay the dead, 
and there stood the soldiers ; there was a battle-field 
between England and America — never to be forgot, 
never to be covered over. The ' Mother-country ' of the 
morning was the ' enemy ' at sunrise. ' Oh, what a glor- 
ious morning is this ! ' said Samuel Adams," 

Seven men had been killed on the spot, 



Concord 265 

nine wounded, — a quarter-part of all who had 
stood in arms on the Green, under the eyes of 
Hancock and Adams. 

One of the Lexington Munroes, Ensign 
Robert, was the first man killed by Pitcairn's 
volley ; he was sixty-four years old, and had 
been color-bearer in the capture of Louisburg 
by assault in 1745. Two of his sons and two 
sons-in-law were in his company on Lexington 
Green, and eleven of the Munroe clan were in 
arms that day. Captain Parker did not long 
survive the battle, dying the next September ; 
but when the Civil War came on, his grand- 
son Theodore had bequeathed to Massachu- 
setts, and Governer Andrew had placed in her 
Senate Chamber, beside the trophies sent by 
Stark from Bennington, 

" two fire-arms, formerly the property of my honored 
grandfather, — to wit, the large musket or King's arm, 
which was by him captured from the British in the bat- 
tle of Lexington, and which is the first fire-arm taken 
from the enemy in the war for Independence ; and also 
the smaller musket used by him in that battle." 

Theodore Parker had died in May, i860. 

Pitcairn and his redcoats, delayed only half 
an hour by this bloody overture to Washing- 
ton's grand career, marched on towards Con- 



266 



Concord 



cord, little knowing what would meet them 
there. As they climbed the hills in Lexingr- 
ton and Lincoln, they could surmise, however, 
that the country was rising, for the church- 
bells were ringing an alarm of fire. Pierpont, 




MUSKETS OF CAPTAIN JOHN PARKER. 

at Acton, overlookino- the neiofhborinor towns 
named by hirh, gave the geography of this 
rising in spirited couplets : 

" Now Concord's bell, resounding many a mile, 
Is heard by Lincoln, Lincoln's by Carlisle, 
Carlisle's by Chelmsford, — and from Chelmsford's swell 
Peals the loud clangor of th' alarum bell. 
Till it o'er Bedford, Acton, Westford spreads, 
Startling the morning dreamers from their beds." 



Concord 267 

These are the small towns lying along the 
Concord and Merrimac rivers, and their tribu- 
taries, which sent forth the minute-men to fight 
at Concord Bridsfe. 

Prescott had done his warnincr work well : 
and as Emerson said in 1835 • 

" In these peaceful fields, for the first time since a hun- 
dred years (King Philip's War), the drum and alarm-gun 
were heard, and the farmers snatched down their rusty- 
firelocks from the kitchen walls, to make good the reso- 
lute words of their town debates. These poor farmers 
acted from the simplest instincts ; they did not know it 
was a deed of fame they were doing." 

It was Emerson's grandfather, the town 
minister, who met them on Concord Green, 
before his church, and who entered that night 
in his almanac the events he had witnessed, as 
soon to be quoted. 

By the 17th of June, Massachusetts had an 
army ; but when the Concord farmers made 
their appeal to arms, two months earlier, it was 
the spontaneous uprising of an armed people 
to maintain their own votes and defend their 
threatened homes. This it is, and not their 
military achievement, striking as that was, 
which gives their town a place in martial his- 
tory. The unregenerate imagination of man- 



268 Concord 

kind still delights, after so many centuries of 
barbarous warfare, in the recital of deeds of 
battle and the conquering march of great sol- 
diers ; Alexander and Caesar — even Hannibal 
and Bonaparte — continue to receive admira- 
tion for their victories ; but the purer fame 
of Washington rests on the accomplishment of 
that for which the men of Middlesex rushed 
to arms on the 19th of April, 1775. As Emer- 
son, our Washinorton in the field of literature, 
said, ''If ever men in arms had a spotless 
cause, they had." 

*' Behold our river bank, 
Whither the angry farmers came 
In sloven dress and broken rank, — 

Nor thought of fame : 
Their deed of blood 
All mankind praise ; 
Even the serene Reason says 
' It was well done.' " 

War had been the normal state of Europe ; 
and from the hour when Bulkeley and Willard 
made here their honest bargain with the red 
landlords of these game preserves, cornfields, 
and fishing-places, down to the Franco-German 
campaigns of 1870, — 235 years, — there had 
been scarcely a period of twenty peaceful 











THE MINUTE-MAN. 

FRENCH'S FIRST STATUE, 



269 



270 Concord 

years In that hemisphere. With us it was 
different ; but for the strife between France 
and England, in which the colonies were 
more or less entangled, Massachusetts had 
seen no warfare in her borders for nearly 
a century, when the insolence of the mother- 
country forced independence upon us against 
our will. Yet the fight at the North Bridge 
was no impromptu affair, as the utterances of 
our Concord yeomen show. They had de- 
clared they would fight for King George or 
against him, as His Majesty might elect; and 
when he had made his foolish choice they did 
not hesitate, — much as they had reason to 
dread the ordeal by combat. And here again 
came in the spirit of Calvinism, rallying to the 
Old Testament, rather than to the New with 
its gospel of peace and love, — its amnzstze gen- 
erate, as poor Trilby says. The grandfather 
of Emerson (who was also the great-great- 
great-grandson of Peter Bulkeley) was parish 
minister of Concord ; he had been chaplain to 
the Provincial Congress, and he died in Ver- 
mont, as chaplain in the Revolutionary army 
of General Gates. Five weeks before the inva- 
sion of his parish by the redcoats, he had 
preached to the militia companies gathered in 



Concord 271 

this town for review, a famous sermon from 
the text, " And behold, God Himself is with us 
for our Captain, and His priests with sounding 
trumpets to cry alarm against you." He was as 
good as his word, for he was one of the first to 
take his musket and join the minute-men in the 
early morning of the 19th of April ; and return- 
ing to the Old Manse (then the new manse, for 
it was built for him and his bride a few years 
earlier) to protect his family, he saw the brief 
fight at the bridge from his study window, and 
wrote of the day's doings this brief chronicle 
of an eye-witness. His grandson found it in a 
page or two of his family almanac, where, at 
the end of April, he wrote, " This month re- 
markable for the greatest events of the present 
age." 

" This morning, between i and 2 o'clock, we were 
alarmed by the ringing of the bell, and upon examination 
found that the troops, to the number of 800, had stole 
their march from Boston, in boats and barges, from the 
bottom of the Common over to a point in Cambridge, 
near to Inman's Farm, and were at Lexington Meeting- 
house, half an hour before sunrise, where they fired upon 
a body of our men, and (as we afterward heard) had killed 
several. This intelligence was brought us first by Dr. 
Samuel Prescott, who narrowly escaped the guard that 
were sent before on horses, purposely to prevent all posts 



2/2 Concord 

and messengers from giving us timely information. He, 
by the help of a very fleet horse, crossing several walls 
and fences, arrived at Concord at the time above men- 
tioned ; when several posts were immediately despatched, 
that returning confirmed the account of the regulars' ar- 
rival at Lexington, and that they were on their way to 
Concord. Upon this, a number of our minute-men be- 
longing to this town, and Acton, and Lincoln, with sev- 
eral others that were in readiness, marched out to meet 
them ; while the alarm company were preparing to receive 
them in the town. Capt. Minot, who commanded them, 
thought it proper to take possession of the hill above 
the Meeting-house, as the most advantageous situation. 
No sooner had our men gained it, than we were met by 
the companies that were sent out to meet the troops, 
who informed us that they were just upon us, and that 
we must retreat, as their number was more than treble 
ours. We then retreated from the hill near the Liberty 
Pole, and took a new post back of the town upon an em- 
inence, where we formed into two battalions, and waited 
the arrival of the enemy. 

*' Scarcely had we formed, before we saw the British 
troops at the distance of a quarter of a mile, glittering in 
arms, advancing towards us with the greatest celerity. 
Some were for making a stand, notwithstanding the su- 
periority of their number ; but others, more prudent, 
thought best to retreat till our strength should be equal 
to the enemy's, by recruits from the neighboring towns 
that were continually coming in to our assistance. Ac- 
cordingly w^e retreated over the bridge ; when the troops 
came into the town, set fire to several carriages for the 
artillery, destroyed 60 bbls. flour, rifled several houses^ 



Concord 273 

took possession of the Town-house, destroyed 500 lb. of 
balls, set a guard of 100 men at the North Bridge, and 
sent a party to the house of Col. Barrett, where they were 
in expectation of finding a quantity of warlike stores. 
But these were happily secured just before their arrival, 
by transportation into the woods and other by-places. 

" In the meantime the guard set by the enemy to secure 
the pass at the North Bridge were alarmed by the ap- 
proach of our people ; who had retreated as before men- 
tioned, and were now advancing, with special orders not 
to fire upon the troops unless fired upon. These orders 
were so punctually observed that we received the fire of 
the enemy in three several and separate discharges of their 
pieces, before it was returned by our commanding offi- 
cer ; the firing then became general for several minutes ; 
in which skirmish two were killed on each side, and sev- 
eral of the enemy wounded. (It may here be observed 
by the way, that we were the more cautious to prevent 
beginning a rupture with the King's troops, as we were 
then uncertain what had happened at Lexington, and 
knew not that they had begun the quarrel there by first 
firing upon our people, and killing eight men upon the 
spot.) The three companies of troops soon quitted their 
post at the bridge, and retreated in the greatest disorder 
and confusion to the main body, who were soon upon their 
march to meet them. 

" For half an hour the enemy, by their marches and 
countermarches, discovered great fickleness and incon- 
stancy of mind, — sometimes advancing, sometimes return- 
ing to their former posts ; till at length they quitted the 
town and retreated by the way they came. In the mean- 
time, a party of our men (150), took the back way through 



2 74 



Concord 



the Great Fields into the East Quarter, and had placed 
themselves to advantage, lying in ambush behind walls, 
fences and buildings, ready to fire upon the enemy on 
their retreat." 

This account differs slightly from others, and 
omits many particulars ; it is the most valuable 




HAWTHORNE'S OLD MANSE. 

sincrle version of the memorable skirmish at the 
Bridge, — in itself trifling, but momentous in its 
results. Parson Emerson was himself one of 
those who wished to meet the troops near his 



Concord 275 

own meeting-house, but was wisely overruled. 
He says that two British soldiers were killed 
at the Bridge — Shattuck, the town historian, 
says three ; the difference is accounted for by a 
dismal tale which Hawthorne was perhaps the 
first to print. He derived it, he says, from 
Lowell, the poet, who had picked it up, no 
doubt, in his short residence at Concord in the 
spring of 1838, when "rusticated" here from 
Harvard College. It may be read in the 
Mosses from an Old Manse, wherein is found 
one of the best pictures of our peaceful scenery, 
— so far removed from thought of bloodshed. 



" A youth," says Hawthorne, " in the service of the 
clergyman [Parson Emerson], happened to be chopping 
wood, that April morning, at the back door of the 
Manse ; and when the noise of battle rang from side to 
side of the Bridge, he left his task and hurried to the 
battle-field, with the axe still in his hand. The British had 
by this time retreated, the Americans were in pursuit ; 
and the late scene of strife was thus deserted by both 
parties. Two soldiers lay on the ground — one was a 
corpse — but, as the young New Englander drew nigh, 
the other Briton raised himself painfully upon his hands 
and knees, and gave a ghastly stare in his face. The 
boy — it must have been a nervous impulse, without pur- 
pose — uplifted his axe, and dealt the wounded soldier 
a fierce and fatal blow upon the head." 



276 Concord 

To a certain extent, Bancroft, In his account 
of the fight, confirms this tale, saying : 

" The Americans acted from impulse, and stood aston- 
ished at what they had done. They made no (immedi- 
ate) pursuit, and did no further harm, — except that one 
wounded soldier, rising as if to escape, was struck on the 
head by a young man with a hatchet. The party at Col. 
Barrett's might have been cut off, but was not molested." 

It is traditional that when this party, which 
had been sent to destroy the military stores at 
Colonel James Barrett's, two miles to the west- 
ward, came back to the Bridge, alarmed by the 
firing, and saw their countrymen lying dead 
there, one of them with his head laid open, 
they were struck with fear and ran on to the 
main body in the village, telling of what they 
had seen. And it was this single incident, very 
likely, which led the English officers, and Lord 
Percy himself, to report " that the rebels 
scalped and cut off the ears of some of the 
wounded who fell into their hands." Bancroft 
indignantly denies this, saying, " The false- 
hood brings dishonor on its voucher ; the peo- 
ple whom Percy reviled were among the mildest 
and most compassionate of their race," — which 
is true. 

It is no wonder that the British troops on 



Concord 



'^n 



their flight back to Boston that day, pursued 
and ambuscaded by hundreds and thousands of 
the aroused mihtia of Middlesex and Essex 
counties, should themselves have committed 
some barbarities, — for their defeat and humllla- 




REVOLUTIONARY INN. 



tlon were great. They lost In course of the 
day 273 men and officers, — more than had fal- 
len on that glorious day-slxteen years before, 
when Wolfe died In the arms of victory at 
Quebec. The loss of the yeomanry was only 
ninety-one — a third of the British loss, — while 
all the trophies and circumstances of victory 
were on the American side. From that day, 
the Revolution was begun, — to end only with 



278 Concord 

the creation of a new republic. Concord, as 
President Dwight said, '' prefaced the history 
of a nation, the beginning of an empire." 
'* Man," he added, " from the events that have 
occurred here, will in some respects assume a 
new character ; and experience a new destiny." 
Hence the interest with which the world, from 
that day forward, began to look on this little 
town. 

Yet the prominence of Concord in the re- 
volutionary century that followed her skirmish 
at the Bridge and along the Lexington road 
was in part accidental ; for Boston and Vir- 
ginia were the X.\\o foci of the American revolt, 
and Concord became famous chiefly because 
it was near Boston. It was otherwise with 
the literary revolution that began sixty years 
later, with Emerson for its Washington, — and 
with results that seem as permanent, and in 
some sort as important, as those which Wash- 
ington secured to his countrymen. In 1835, 
when Emerson's literary career may be said to 
have fairly begun, America had maintained 
her political independence, but had lost much 
of her political principle : she was powerful 
without moral progress, and without either a 
profound philosophy or an original literature. 



Concord 279 

The beginnings of poetry and art were visible, 
but they were more in promise than in per- 
formance. Our poHtical writings, though dis- 
paraged by Jeremy Bentham, were coming to 
be recognized as among the foremost ; but we 
had Httle else that Europe cared to read, — a 
few sketches by Irving, a dozen novels by 
Cooper, two or three sermons and as many 
essays by Channing. 

Into the stagnation of this shallow pool of 
American letters, Emerson, in 1836, cast the 
smooth stone of his philosophical first book, 
— Natiu^e. It made little immediate stir ; 
the denizens of the pool paid small heed to 
it, and few of them guessed what it meant. 
It was written in Concord, and chiefly at 
the Old Manse, where Emerson dwelt with 
his mother and kindred before his second 
marriage in 1835, and where Hawthorne after- 
ward made the house and himself widely 
known. The fixing of his own residence 
in this town by Emerson was due in part 
to ancestry, and still more to a perception of 
the fitness of the remon for the abode of a 
poet and sage. The same perception, by 
Hawthorne, Alcott, Ellery Channing and oth- 
ers, — together with the important fact that it 



28o 



Concord 



was Emerson's chosen retreat, — brought those 
Hterary men here. Thoreaii, the most original 
and pecuHar genius of the whole group, was 
born here, and never had much inclination to 

leave Concord, al- 
though in youth he 
talked of adventur- 
ing to the wild West, 
— Kentucky and Illi- 
nois at that time, — 
whither his friend, 
Ellery Channing, 
afterward did in fact 

ofo. Around Emer- 
<_> 

son, this circle, with 
many who only lived 
here temporarily 
HENRY THOREAu. (1857.) ^^^^^ Margaret Fuller 

and George William Curtis), or not at all, gath- 
ered as friends and brothers, or else as disci- 
ples, — and thus the name of Concord became 
associated, and justly, with a special and re- 
markable school of thought and literature. 
Thousands now visit the graves of these worth- 
ies, to which, and to their haunts in life — their 
walks and seats and sylvan places of resort, — an 
increasing host of pilgrims come year by year. 




Concord 281 

The Arabs have a proverb, — " Though a 
hundred deserts separate the heart of the 
Faithful from the Kaaba of Mecca, yet there 
opens a window from its sanctuary into thy 
soul." For those who have the true inward 
illumination, therefore, pilgrimage is not need- 
ful ; yet to all it is agreeable, and it has been the 
practice of mankind for ages, and will be, so 
long as we remain ourselves but pilgrims and 
wayfarers on this earth. Nasar, the son of 
Khosrou, who wrote in the time of Haroun 
Al-Rashid, and called his book The Traveller s 
Wallet, was not the first, nor Bunyan, with 
his Pilgrims Progress, the last, to look on life 
as a journey ; but let us hear what that Persian 
says of it : 

" Man, endowed with intellect, must search into the 
origin of his existence, — whence he came, and whither 
he shall go, — reflecting that in this world he is making a 
toilsome journey, without stop or stay, — not even for the 
twinkling of an eye, — until he has traversed the measure 
of that line which marks the time allotted for his exist- 
ence. For that we are but pilgrims here on earth, God 
has mysteriously declared." 

The attraction of Emerson and the rest of 

the Concord authors, whose homes or tombs 

so many pilgrims visit, comes chiefly from the 

recognition bythem of this search by mankind 



282 Concord 

after the Infinite, — their insight into the nature 
and worth of this pilgrimage of Hfe which all 
are making. Man loves and seeks amusement 
to beguile his toilsome or monotonous journey, 
— and hence the pleasure so many take in the 
lighter and more graceful or laughable forms 
of literature. But sooner or later, and in many 
persons at all times, what Tennyson calls 
*' the riddle of the painful earth " is before us 
all for consideration, if not for solution. We see 
that the universe is moral, — even if we cannot 
read the moral aright, — and we seek those who 
can give us '' the word of the enigma," as the 
French say. Emerson gave it in his manner, 
Hawthorne in his, Thoreau in still another way ; 
and these three Concord authors not only had 
much vogue in their lifetime, but are yet more 
widely read since their death. Others, like 
Ellery Channing, found little audience in youth, 
and time has not yet essentially enlarged the 
circle of their readers. With the same moral 
view of life which his more successful friends 
took, Channing, the poet (who must always be 
distinguished from Dr. Channing, the divine, 
his uncle), had in his style something of that 
distraction which Montaigne declares is needful 
to poets. 



284 Concord 

"The precepts of the masters," says this eccentric 
Gascon, " and still more their example, tell us that we 
must have a little insanity, if we would avoid even more 
stupidity. A thousand poets drawl and languish in 
prose ; but the best ancient prose (and 'tis the same 
with verse) glows throughout with the vigor and daring 
of poesy, and takes on an air of inspiration. The poet, 
says Plato " (and here Montaigne gives his own quaint 
form to the familiar passage in Plato's Laws), " sitting on 
the Muses' tripod, pours out like mad all that comes into 
his mouth, as if it were the spout of a fountain ; without 
digesting or weighing it. So things escape him of vari- 
ous colors, of opposite natures, and with intermittent 
flow. Plato himself is wholly poetic ; the old theology, 
say the scholars, is all poetry ; and the First Philosophy 
is the original language of the gods." 

To this wild rule more than one of the Con- 
cord philosophers conforms ; there is a percept- 
ible lack of method, even when their meaning 
is fairly clear. Hawthorne incurs less of this 
censure than the rest ; but he confessed that 
he did not always comprehend his own allegor- 
ies, nor know exactly the moral he would in- 
sinuate. Emerson goes more directly to his 
mark; a Frenchman (Chantavoine) has said 
of him, '' In his Essays he is first of all a philo- 
sophic moralist, never quite forgetting that he 
was once a preacher." But, in contrasting him 
with French writers, Chantavoine admits that 



Concord 285 

Emerson has something which the Hght and 
brilHant Parisian essayists lack : 

" We are afraid, I suppose, of losing touch with things, 
if we rise much above them ; we do not soar high, con- 
tent to skim the surface ; we distrust those generalities, 
however eloquent or edifying, which might lead us too 
far aside. Yet, should we borrow something of Emer- 
son's manner, French criticism, both historical and liter- 
ary, would gain by it ; there might possibly be less ease, 
less lightness of touch, less glancing wit in our essays ; 
but in return there would be more earnestness and 
depth in our judgments on men and affairs." 

Emerson was a reader and admirer of French 
prose ; he did not find much poetry in French 
verse. The glancing- of his wit was as quick 
and searching as that of Paris ; but he belongs 
more to the literature of the world than most of 
the French prose authors since Montaigne and 
Pascal. In American literature he is unique ; 
so, in his very different way, is Thoreau ; so is 
Hawthorne ; and no American, not even one 
of these three, can be compared with any of 
them on terms of similarity. There is that 
in their best writing which puts us upon our 
best thinking, and leads us along the upper 
levels of life. Particularly is this true of 
Emerson ; Virtue, radiant, serene and sover- 



286 Concord 

eign, sways the realm where Emerson abides, 
and to which he welcomes his readers, who 
become his friends. It was said of Socrates, 
in a dubious compliment , that he " brought 
philosophy down from heaven to earth " ; it 
might as truly be said of Emerson that he 
raises earth to the level of divine philosophy. 
His method in this is purely poetic ; therefore, 
while in verse he lacks w^hat is usually called 
creative power, he brings with him the atmos- 
phere of poesymore constantly than anymodern 
poet ; nor, since Milton, Spenser, and Shake- 
speare, has any English poet excelled him in this. 
To this quality, as well as to his courage of 
opinion and his penetrating insight, do we owe 
it that he first proclaimed our intellectual inde- 
pendence of the mother-country, as Franklin, 
Washington and Jefferson declared our politi- 
cal independence. There is, indeed, a certain 
resemblance between Washington and Emer- 
son which might escape the notice of those 
who look chiefly at the totally different work 
each had to do, and the diversity of life and 
opinion which contrasted Virginia and New 
England so sharply. 

It must be confessed that, in 1732, Con- 
cord was hardly so constituted as naturally 



s 

%■ 




288 Concord 

to give birth to Washingtons ; indeed, Vir- 
ginia produced but this one, amid all her great 
men. The extreme narrowness of Puritan 
opinion, even when modified by Baptists and 
Quakers, was not favorable to the rise of men 
like the great Virginians of the eighteenth 
century. A milder intellectual climate, a tem- 
per less given to disputes about faith and 
works, election and reprobation, was needful 
to produce characters so broad, so moderate, 
and yet so firm, as Washington's. New Eng- 
land did give birth to Franklin, in the very 
midst of Mathers and Sewalls ; but he had to 
slip away to Philadelphia, in order to grow 
into his full stature as philanthropist and phil- 
osopher. The intolerance of New England 
deprived us, for more than a century, of the 
opportunity to produce genius and the gentler 
forms of heroism. We had the Adamses to set 
the Revolution on foot, the soldiers of New 
Hampshire and rural New England to fight 
its battles ; but its noblest leader must come 
to us from the Potomac, and take us back 
there, when the long fight was won, to estab- 
lish our government beside its waters, in sight 
of his own broad domain. It was not till this 
century, now declining, that Concord could 



Concord 289 

show an intellectual Washington ; and Emer- 
son must be born in Boston, less provincial 
than our meadowy village, our " rural Venice," 
as Thoreau called it in times of river-freshet. 

Naturally, when men appear on earth of 
Washington's or of Emerson's stamp, there 
has been a long preparation for their advent. 
They are not found among Hottentots or 
corn-crackers, 'longshoremen or cowboys ; but 
in some longf-tilled ofarden of the human 
species, where certain qualities have been 
inbred by descent and betterment for many 
generations. Poverty may be their birthright, 
as in the case of that greatest of Washington's 
successors, Abraham Lincoln, but the experi- 
ences that are transmuted by descent into 
greatness are quite as often those of poverty 
as of wealth. Self-reliance, veracity, courage, 
and the gift of command are essentials in the 
founders and preservers of nations ; these are 
fostered in all new colonies, and therefore 
were common qualities in New England, as 
in Kentucky and Virginia, in their early years. 
But among the planters of Virginia there grew 
up a form of society, now forever extinct there, 
in which these high qualities, together with 
courtesy and breadth of view, were cultivated 



290 Concord 

and flourished to ,an extent which the Cal- 
vinistic rigors and enforced economies of New 

o 

England never knew. That petty system of 
inquiring into creeds and points of doctrine 
which our ancestors brought with them from 
the Puritan parishes of England, and which 
was increased here by infusions from Scotland, 
and the tyranny of ecclesiastical control in 
Massachusetts and Connecticut, was not wholly 
unknown in Virginia ; but its ill effects were 
dissipated by the customs of large landholding, 
outdoor sports, and certain traditions of honor 
and breeding which the best of the Virorinians 
brought with them from England, and kept 
up by their habit of frequent intercourse with 
the mother-country. 

It was no sin in Virginia to dance and 
play the fiddle ; the Anglican Church, while 
prescribing a formal creed, did not concern 
itself to inquire every Sunday, or every 
Thursday, into all the dogmatic abstractions 
of the Westminster Assembly's Catechism, 
longer or shorter ; men's minds were left 
to take the course most natural to them. 
But in New England, along with much acute 
speculation (the best type of which is Jona- 
than Edwards), there went a morbid conscien- 



Concord 291 

tiousness, turning its eyes upon Inward and 
even petty matters, and leading to number- 
less quarrels about Original Sin, Half-way 
Covenants, Justification by Faith, etc. Con- 
cord was less Infested by this carping, persecut- 
ing, quarrelsome spirit than most of New 
England ; yet the church records, and the col- 
lections of old Dr. Ripley, show there was 
much of It. Emerson declares, and justly, 
that good sense has marked our town annals : 
*' I find no ridiculous laws, no eaves-dropping 
legislators, no hanging of witches, no ghosts, 
no whipping of Quakers, no unnatural crimes." 
But the spirit which led to these mischiefs In 
other regions of Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut was all about us ; and It narrowed the 
minds and the opportunities of Concord before 
the Revolution. It was chiefly In New Hamp- 
shire, Maine and Vermont, where ecclesiastical 
domination was less rigid, that mental freedom 
manifested Itself. In the other colonies of 
the North, wealth and culture were apt to be 
on the side of England, when our troubles 
began ; In Virginia and the Carollnas, and to 
some extent In New Hampshire and Maine, 
wealth took the colonial side. 

We may call the Imaginative force and 



292 



Concord 



breadth of the Concord authors " Shake- 
spearian " for lack of a better word ; but there 
was a man of singular mental penetration 
sometimes visiting here, — Jones Very, of 
Salem, — who once made a wider generaliza- 
tion — whether wisely or not. When Very 
was asked to discriminate betwixt Wisdom 
and Genius, he said, " Wisdom is of God ; 
Genius is the decay of Wisdom " ; adding in 
explanation, '' To the pre-existent Shake- 
speare, wisdom 
was offered ; he 
did not accept 
it, and so he 
died away into 
genius." We had 
a superior sage 
here (Bronson 
A 1 c o 1 1), who 
had little of the 
Shakespearian 
genius, but much 
of that mystic 
wisdom w h i c h 
Very thought 
older and nobler than genius. Religion was 
his native air, — the religion of identity, not 




A. BRONSON ALCOTT. (1875.) 



Concord 293 

of variety ; he could not be polytheistic, 
as many Christians are, even while fancying 
themselves the most orthodox worshippers of 
the One God. He had that intense applica- 
tion of the soul to one side of this sphere of 
life, which led him to neglect the exercise 
of intellectual powers that were amply his. 
His gift it was, not to expand our life into 
multiplicity, — which was the tendency of Emer- 
son, as of Goethe and Shakespeare, — but to 
concentrate multiplicity in unity, seeking ever 
the ONE source whence flow these myriad mani- 
festations. His friends used to call him, in 
sport, the " Vortical philosopher," because his 
speculations all moved vortically toward a 
centre, or were occupied with repeating one 
truth in many forms. He was a votary of the 
higher Reason ; not without certain foibles 
of the saint ; but belonging unmistakably to 
the saintly order. Of course he was the mock 
of the market-place, as all but the belligerent 
saints are ; but he was a profound, vivifying 
influence in the lives of the few who recog- 
nized his inward light. 

From Alcott, in his old age, — he was in his 
eightieth year when the experiment began, — 
came the impulse to that later manifestation 



294 Concord 

of the same spirit which had led Emerson 
and his youthful friends to the heights and 
depths of Transcendentalism. I speak of the 
Concord School of Philosophy, which, in the 
last years of Emerson and Alcott, and with 
the co-operation of disciples of other philo- 
sophic opinion, gave to the town a celebrity 
in some degree commensurate with its earlier 
reputation. It began in the library of Alcott's 
Orchard House, where his genial daughter, 
Louisa, had written several of her charming 
books ; it was continued in a chapel, built for 
the purpose, under the lee of Alcott's pine- 
clad hill, and amid his orchard and vineyard. 
It brought to reside in Concord that first of 
American philosophers, Dr. W. T. Harris ; 
and it gathered hundreds of eager or curious 
hearers to attend the lectures and debates on 
grave subjects which a learned body of teach- 
ers gave forth. It continued in existence from 
the summer of 1879 ^^ ^^^.t of 1888, when 
its lessons were fitly closed with a memorial 
service for Bronson Alcott, its founder, who 
had died in March, 1888. As* was said by the 
Boston wit of the fight on the 19th of April, — 
" The Battle of Lexington ; Concord furnished 
the ground, and Acton the men," — so it might 




-^ . 3o^ . v>A- ^-^^.. 



295 



296 Concord 

be said of this summer university, that Con- 
cord provided chiefly the place in which St. 
Louis and IlHnois, New York and Boston, 
Harvard and Yale, held converse on high 
topics. Yet Concord gave the school hospi- 
tality, and several of its famous authors took 
part in the exercises, — sometimes posthum- 
ously, by the reading of their manuscripts, as 
in the case of Thoreau. 

Along with the events and the literature 
that have given our town a name throughout 
the world, there has flowed quietly the stream 
of civil society, local self-government and 
domestic life ; broadened at critical times by 
manifestations of political energy, in which 
families like those of Hoar, Heywood, Bar- 
rett, Whiting, Robinson, Gourgas, etc., have 
distinguished themselves. Benefactors like 
Munroe, who built the Public Library, Dr. 
Ripley, who for half a century filled the 
pulpit and took pastoral care, and John Tile- 
ston, who brought the public schools to their 
present useful form ; soldiers of the Civil 
War, like Colonel Prescott and Lieutenant 
Ripley, and hundreds of unnamed soldiers in 
the battle of life, — women no less than men, — 
have given their innumerable touch of vigor 



Concord 



297 



and grace to the ever-building structure of 
Concord life. Painters of our own have added 
color, and sculptors like French, Elwell and 
Ricketson have adorned the town with art. 
And so we pass on into the new century, with 
no conscious loss of vital power, — yet with a 
keen regret for the great men who have gone 
from amoncr us. 




PLYMOUTH 
THE PILGRIM TOWN 

By ELLEN WATSON 

" Glory of Virtue, to fight, to struggle, to right the 
wrong ; — 
Nay, but she aimed not at glory, no lover of glory she ; 
Give her the glory of going on, and still to be," 

Tennyson's Wages. 

TO the stout-hearted Pilgrims who landed 
here in 1620 this " glory of going on, and 
still to be " has been meted in lavish measure. 
For nearly three hundred years the fire first 
kindled in far-away Scrooby in the hearts of 
John Robinson, Elder Brewster, Richard Clyf- 
ton, the youthful William Bradford and their 
devoted followers has burned with a clear 
flame ; the torch of truth there lit by them has 
been handed on from generation to generation. 
For the many latter-day pilgrims who visit 
the shrines of New England, the gray boulder 

299 



300 Plymouth 

on Clarke's Island where the weary voyagers 
rested after their stormy cruise in the shallop ; 
the humble rock on our shore where they at 
length found shelter ; our noble statue of " clear- 
eyed Faith " and the not far distant monument 
on Bunker Hill, will ever bear like testimony 
to the courage of that little band of independ- 
ent thinkers. Meetinor in secret in the Manor- 
House of Scrooby, these far-sighted heroes, 
when they *'shooke of the yoake of antichrist- 
ian bondage " of the Church of England, made 
possible for their descendants a later Declara- 
tion of Independence ! 

And every year, with the new knowledge it 
brings, adds to the pathos of that Nearly en- 
deavor after religious and civil liberty. i> Many 
English scholars, generously overlooking the 
Separation of 1776, have traced on the mother 
soil of Old England the very beginnings of the 
Separatist movement, and thanks to their care- 
ful study of musty records and yellow parch- 
ments we now have a satisfactory, though still 
incomplete, record of those few eventful lives 
to which we proudly owe our present freedom. 

One enthusiast even finds the earliest evid- 
ences of this movement in the concerted ac- 
tion of certain rebellious weavers of the twelfth 



\ 



Qyf M/t/foI^ fli^^^oTL 



4 ftt Jecm^- 



V /Tif^?^ 



S^^n^J.o^^ A-e>^-c.- omj..^^,^^aAtr-. Corr.cl^^n /y 

i.„.„7rf. =^//r--''-; -"fy^'^""*" ^i^i..u..i. y«^« 



\B.nd: Jt 







FACSIMILE OF A PAGE FROM GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S MANUSCRIPT, " PLIMOTH PLANTATION." 

301 THE ORIGINAL IS NOW IN THE BOSTON STATE HOUSE. 



302 



Plymouth 



century — thirty weavers of the diocese of 
Worcester — who were summoned before the 
Council of Oxford to answer a chargre of mak- 
ing light of the sacraments and of priestly 
pov/er. Though they answered that they were 
Christians and reverenced the teachings of the 




Copyright, 1893, by A. S. Burban 



PULPIT ROCK, CLARKE'S ISLAND 



apostles, they were driven from the country as 
heretics, to perish of cold. This "pious firm- 
ness " on the part of the council, writes the 
short-sighted chronicler, not only cleansed the 
realm of England from the pestilence which 
had crept in, but also prevented it from creep- 
ing in again. But the pestilence did creep in 



Plymouth 303 

again and again and the weeds grew apace, for 
which thanks are chiefly due to John WycHf 
and his followers. 

Even before the Reformation Foxe tells of 
" secret multitudes who tasted and followed the 
sweetness of God's Holy Word, and whose 
fervent zeal may appear by their sitting up all 
night in reading and hearing." But we must be 
content to trace our ancestry and our love of 
liberty to the early years of the seventeenth 
century, at which time, as we may now all read 
in the clear lettering of Bradford's own pen, 

" truly their affliction was not smale ; which notwithstand- 
ing they bore sundrie years with much patience, till they 
were occasioned to see further into things by the light of 
y^ word of God. How not only these base and beggerly 
ceremonies were unlawfull, but also that y^ lordly & 
tiranous power of y^ prelats ought not to be submitted 
unto ; which thus, contrary to the freedome of the gos- 
pell, would load & burden mens consciences, and by 
their compulsive power make a prophane mixture of per- 
sons and things in the worship of God. And that their 
offices & calings, courts and cannons &c. were unlaw- 
full and antichristian ; being such as have no warrante in 
y^ word of God ; but the same that were used in poperie 
& still retained." 

So these brave men, whose hearts the Lord 
had touched with heavenly zeal for His truth. 



304 Plymouth 

" as y^ Lords free people joined them selves into a 
church estate, in y^ felowship of y^ gospell, to walke in 
all his wayes, made known, or to be made known unto 
them, according to their best endeavours, whatsoever it 
should cost them, the Lord assisting them. And that it 
cost them something this ensewing historic will declare." 

The charming scene of these secret meet- 
ings is now well known. In the little village 
of Scrooby, where the three shires of Notting- 
ham, York and Lincoln join their borders, then 
stood a stately manor-house, once the favorite 
hunting-seat of the archbishops of York. 
Under this hospitable but already somewhat 
crumbling roof William Brewster, who had 
been appointed ''Post" of Scrooby in 1590, 
welcomed these sufferers for conscience sake. 
Hither they stole through the green country 
lanes, from far around to listen to the " illumin- 
ating ministry " of Richard Clyfton, 

" a grave & revered preacher who under God had been 
a means of y^ conversion of many. And also that 
famous and worthy man, Mr. John Robinson, who after- 
wards was their pastor for many years till y^ Lord tooke 
him away by death." 

Here, too, from the neighboring hamlet of 
Austerfield, came the lad William Bradford, 
already eager for spiritual guidance. Walk- 




THE EARLY NORMAN DOORWAY AT AUSTERFIELD CHURCH. 



305 



o 



06 Plymouth 



ing under the ehn-trees of the highroad, and 
through the yellow gorse, across green mead- 
ows and by the banks of the placid Idle, he 
stopped perhaps to admire the mulberry-tree 
planted there by the world-weary Cardinal 
Wolsey. That arch-enemy of the Reforma- 
tion little thought that a branch of this tree 
would one day cross the Atlantic, to be pre- 
served with Pilgrim relics by friends of that 
" new, pernicious sect of Lutherans," against 
which he warned the king ! 

Near Bradford's birthplace in Austerfield 
now stands, completely restored, the twelfth- 
century parish church where he was baptized 
in 1590, and from which he "seceded" when 
about seventeen years old. Did the quaint 
old bell-cote with the two small bells, the beau- 
tiful Norman arch of the southern doorway 
with its rich zigzag ornament and beak-headed 
moulding, the wicked-looking dragon on the 
tympanum, with the tongue of flame — did this 
perfect picture of Old-World beauty flash 
across his memory when, some thirty years 
later, he helped build the rude fort on our Bur- 
ial Hill, which served as the first " Meeting- 
House" in New England ? 

We like to believe that Bradford belonged 



Plymouth 



307 



to the honest yeoman class, that he "was used 
to a plaine country Hfe & the innocente trade 
of husbandrey " ; we know that he had a natu- 
ral love of study which led him, despite the 
many difficulties he met, to master the Dutch 




Jif Ay "^^ > 



Cupyri^'lit t.y A. S. burbauk 







THE OLD FORT AND FIRST MEETINQ-HOUSE, ON BURIAL HILL, 1621. 

tongue as well as French, Latin, Greek and 
Hebrew, which latter tongue he studied the 
more, "that he miorht see with his own eves 
the ancient oracles of God in all their native 
beauty." 

Associated as teacher here with the vener- 
able Richard Clyfton, " the minister with the 
long white beard," and succeeding him as pas- 
tor, we have found the eloquent John Rob- 



3o8 Plymouth 

inson, that winner of all men's hearts, that 
helper of all men's souls. A youthful student 
at Cambridge, living in an age and in an at- 
mosphere of religious questioning, he was 
deeply troubled with scruples concerning con- 
formity. He tells us "had not the truth been 
in my heart as a burning fire shut up in my 
bones, I had never broken those bonds of 
flesh and blood wherein I was so straitly tied, 
but had suffered the light of God to have 
been put out in mine unthankful heart by 
other men's darkness." Happy in finding 
congenial spirits in the new community at 
Scrooby, Bradford tells us he soon became 

"every way as a commone father unto them." "Yea, 
such was y^ mutuall love and reciprocall respecte that 
this worthy man had to his fiocke and his flocke to him 
that it might be said of them as it once was of that fa- 
mouse Emperour, Marcus Aurelious and y^ people of 
Rome, that it was hard to judge wheather he delighted 
more in haveing such a people, or they in haveing such a 
pastor. His love was greate towards them, and his care 
was all ways bente for their best good, both for soul & 
body." 

Under his inspiring guidance, and with Wil- 
liam Brewster as their especial stay and help, 
they were mercifully enabled to " wade through 



Plymouth 309 

things." Some twenty-three years older than 
Bradford, we learn from that modest chronicler, 
who wrote " in a plaine stile, with singuler 
regard unto y^ simple trueth in all things," 
that Brewster had also a wider experience of 
the world. 

" After he had attained some learning, viz., the know- 
ledge of the Latin tongue and some insight into the 
Greek, and spent some small time at Cambridge, and 
then being first seasoned with the seeds of grace and 
virtue, he went to the Court, and served that religious 
and godly gentleman, Mr. Davison, divers years, when 
he was Secretary of State, who found him so discreet and 
faithful, as he trusted him above all others that were 
about him, and only employed him in matters of greatest 
trust and secrecy." 

After the innocent Davison was committed to 
the Tower by the treacherous " Good Queen 
Bess," Brewster retired to Scrooby, where he 
greatly promoted and furthered their good 
cause : " he himself most commonly deepest 
in the charge, and sometimes above his ability, 
and in this estate he continued many years, 
doing the best he could, and walking accord- 
ing to the light he saw, until the Lord revealed 
further unto him." 

But these assemblies, however humble and 



3IO Plymouth 

secret, could not long escape the vigilant eye 
of the law. They were now 

'' hunted and persecuted on every side, so as their former 
afflictions were but as flea-bitings in comparison of these 
which now came upon them. For some were taken 
and clapt up in prison, others had their houses besett 
& watcht night and day, & hardly escaped their hands ; 
and y* most were faine to flie and leave their howses 
and habitations, and the means of their livelihood." 
" Seeing them selves so molested, and that ther was no 
hope of their continuance ther, by a joynte consente 
they resolved to goe into the Low-Countries, wher they 
heard was freedome of Religion for all men." 

This quitting their native soil, their dear 
friends and their happy homes to earn their 
living, they knew not how, in a foreign country, 
was indeed considered by many of them to be 
" an adventure almost desperate, a case in- 
tolerable, & a misserie worse than death." 
But after many betrayals, many delays, many 
hardships by land and sea, they finally 
weathered all opposing storms. At Amster- 
dam, that friendly city of the Netherlands 
Republic, whose Declaration of Independence 
dates from July 26, 1581, they met together 
again, with no small rejoicing. 

But in the midst of the wealth of this fair 
city they soon saw " the grime and grisly face of 



Plymouth 311 

povertle coming upon them Hke an armed man, 
with whom they must bukle and incounter, 
and from whom they could not flye." For this 
reason, and to avoid religious contentions 
already rife there, in a year's time they decided 
to remove to Leyden, "a fair and bewtifull 
citie, & of a sweete situation." Here the 
story of the long siege of Leyden, bravely 
sustained in 1573, must have excited their 
ready sympathy, and the city's choice of a 
university, offered by William of Orange, 
Instead of the exemption the city could have 
had from certain imposts, must have won 
the admiration of these scholarly men. 

The stay of the English exiles here of some 
twelve years — the period of the truce between 
Holland and Spain — was, though trying, no 
doubt a good preparation for the greater 
hardships they were to endure. While Brad- 
ford wove fustian and his fellow-workers carded 
wool, made hats and built houses, Brewster 
printed '' heretical " books, and taught Eng- 
lish " after y^ Latin manner." The harmony 
of their peaceful and industrious lives attracted 
many friends, until some three hundred kin- 
dred spirits joined John Robinson In his 
prayers for " more light." 



312 Plymouth 

One who soon proved himself to be an in- 
valuable member of the community was Ed- 
ward Winslow, a highly educated gentleman 
from Worcestershire. His energy, his diplom- 
acy and practical experience of the world, 
his influence with Cromwell and other power- 
ful friends in high places, removed many diffi- 
culties in the way of the struggling colony that 
was to be. Four times he was their chosen 
agent in England, and was thrice elected gov- 
ernor. 

Here John Carver, a trusted adviser, who 
later became the first governor of New Ply- 
mouth, was chosen deacon of their church. 

Serving in the troops sent over by Elizabeth 
to aid the Dutch in maintaining the Protestant 
religion against the Spaniards was the valiant 
soldier, Myles Standish, of the Dokesbury 
branch of the Standishes of Lancashire, who 
date from the Conquest. There the beautiful 
Standish church still bears on its buttresses 
the family shield — three standing dishes argent 
on a field azure — and Standish Hall is still hung 
with portraits of warriors in armor, beruffed 
lawyers with pointed beards, and gay courtiers 
of the Oueen — the Roman Catholic ancestors 
of our plain fighter ! Luckily for us all, he 




Cupyright by A. S. Burbank. 




> 



H/ 



: -"XMJn^^i-^ 



yz> 



313 



3^4- Plymouth 

cast in his lot with the plucky workers he met 
in Leyden, and his cheery presence and cour- 
age must have been of great service in plan- 
ning the perilous voyage on which they were 
about to embark. 

For, as the truce with Spain drew to a close, 
and as the older among them began to consider 
the uncertain future that lay before their child- 
ren, they longed to take refuge on some freer 
soil, however far away. As Bradford writes, 
with a courage at once humble and sublime : 

" Lastly (and which was not least) a great hope and 
inward zeall they had of laying some good foundation, 
or at least to make some way thereunto, for y^ propagat- 
ing and advancing y^ gospell of y* kingdom of Christ in 
those remote parts of y' world : yea, though they should 
be but even as stepping-stones unto others for y^ per- 
forming of so great a work." 

So, " not out of newfangledness, or other such 
like giddie humor, but for sundrie weightie and 
solid reasons," the voyage was determined 
upon, and the King's consent to their emigra- 
tion to America sought. 

Winslow tells us, in his jBrze/e Narrative 
of the Trite Grounds for the First Planting of 
New England, that when their plans were laid 
before King James he remarked that "" it was 



Plymouth 315 

a good and honest notion," and asking further 
what profits might arise, he was answered, 
"fishing." "So God have my soul," he said, 
" so God have my soul, 't is an honest trade ; 
't was the apostles' own calling ! " And we 
may state here, notwithstanding Bradford's 
statement that in the beginning " we did lack 
small hooks," New England, before 1650, an- 
nually sent to Europe ^100,000 worth of dried 
codfish. 

After many weary negotiations, a patent was 
at length obtained, but the future colonists 
were refused a formal grant of freedom in re- 
ligious worship under the King's broad seal. 
A loan was made by some seventy " Merchant 
Adventurers" in England, and late in July, 
1620, we find our future colonists on the quay 
at Delfthaven, ready to embark on the Speed- 
well. They are surrounded by their tearful 
friends, for whom, Winslow says, " they felt 
such love as is seldom found on earth." 

Many of their number are to stay at Leyden 
under the faithful care of John Robinson, 
whose touching farewell words Winslow has 
preserved for us : 

'' he charged us before God and his blessed angels to 
follow him no further than he followed Christ ; and if 



o 



1 6 Plymouth 



God should reveal anything to us by any other instru- 
ment of his, to be as ready to receive it as ever we were 
to receive any truth by his ministry ; for he was very 
confident the Lord had more truth and light yet to break 
forth out of his holy word." 

This sad scene must have been still vivid in 
Bradford's memory when he wrote some ten 
years later in Plymouth : 

" truly dolfull was y^ sight of that sade and mournfull 
parting ; to see what sighs and sobbs and praires did 
sound amongst them, what tears did gush from every 
eye, & pithy speeches peirst each harte " ; " but they 
knewe they were pilgrimes, and looked not much on 
those things, but lift up their eyes to y^ heavens, their 
dearest cuntrie, and quieted their spirits." 

After a good run with a prosperous wind they 
found the Mayflower at Southampton, but as 
the Speedwell proved unseaworthy they were 
again delayed, and after putting in for repairs 
to Dartmouth and Plymouth, the Mayflower 
finally, on September i6th, sailed alone from 
Plymouth. Observe the group of brave voy- 
as^ers settinor forth on an unknown "sea of 
troubles," trustful wives and children, manly 
youths and blooming maidens, as they wave a 
last good-by to dear Old England from the 
deck of the Mayflower. Their leaders form 



Plymouth 317 

a notable band : Brewster, Carver, Bradford, 
WInslow, Standish, the soul, the heart, the 
head, the good right hand, the flashing sword, 
well-chosen instruments to unlock the frozen 
heart of New England, and to found there 

Empire such as Spaniard never knew." 

Perhaps George Herbert, prince of poets, 
referred to this sailing when he wrote in his 
CJutrch Militant : 

Religion stands on tiptoe in our land, 
Ready to pass to the American strand." 

Of the terrible discomforts and dangers of 
that perilous voyage of sixty-seven days who 
has not read the pitiful story ? Have we not, 
all of us, ''come over in the Mayflower,'' and 
rejoiced with these patient souls when at length, 
one clear morning in November, the shores of 
Cape Cod lay fair before their expectant eyes ? 

Determining to put in to Cape Cod harbor, 
and so to land on a territory where their patent 
could confer no rights, the leaders of the ex- 
pedition, after consulting together in the cabin 
of the Mayflower, there drew up and signed 
the historic "Compact" which was to convert 
the hundred voyagers into the founders of a 



o 



1 8 Plymouth 



commonwealth. There they solemnly and 
mutually, in the presence of God and of one 
another, combined themselves into a civil 
body politic, to frame and enact such just and 
equal laws from time to time as should be 
thought most meet and convenient for the 
general good of the colony, unto which they 
promised all due submission and obedience. 

While their sloop-rigg shallop of some 
fifteen tons was made ready for exploration by 
sea, those who went at once far into the forest 
came back with reports of fine growths of oak, 
pine, sassafras, juniper, birch and holly, abund- 
ant grape-vines and red cedar, which like san- 
dalwood 

" Sheds its perfume on the axe that slays it." 

They found excellent springs, many deer 
and wild-fowl, and what proved to be their 
salvation in the wilderness, *' divers faire Indian 
baskets filled with corn, which seemed to them 
a goodly sight." For this precious seed-corn 
the Indian owners were conscientiously paid 
double price some six months later. 

The weakness and illness natural after the 
discomforts of such a voyage now made them- 
selves felt in an alarming manner, and an ex- 



Plymouth 319 

ploring party was hastily organized to select 
the spot for their final settlement. Setting 
forth in the frail shallop, a party of eighteen 
picked men, after a successful " First En- 
counter" with the Indians, were driven by a 
furious gale to take shelter in the lee of a little 
island lying in a friendly harbor to the west of 
their starting-point. After thawing out over 
a good cedar-wood fire and resting for a night, 
they explored the island and repaired their 
boat. Of this island, afterward named for 
John Clarke, mate of the Mayflower, Bradford 
writes : 

" But though this had been a day and night of much 
trouble & danger unto them, yet God gave them a morn- 
ing of comforte & refreshing (as usually he doth to his 
children), for y^ next day was a faire sunshining day, 
and they found them sellvs to be on an iland secure 
from the In<ieans, wher they might drie their stufe, fixe 
their peeces, & rest them selves, and gave God thanks 
for his mercies, in their manifould deliverances. And 
this being the last day of y"" weeke, they prepared ther to 
keepe y^ Sabath. On Munday they sounded the har- 
bor, and founde it fitt for shipping ; and marched into 
y*" land and found diverse cornfeilds and litle runing 
brooks, a place (as they supposed) fitt for situation ; 
at least it was y^ best they could find, and y^ season & 
their presente necessitie made them glad to accepte 
of It." 



320 Plymouth 

So, on the 21st day of December, 1620, was 
made the now world-famous landing at Ply- 
mouth, of which these few words are the humble 
record. 

After a week of anxious waiting their return 
must have been' hailed with delight on board 
the Mayflower, and their good tidings warmly- 
welcomed. As with all sails set the good ship 
made her way into the harbor, eager eyes 
doubtless watched with joy the high hills of 
Manomet, the wooded bluffs, the shining, pro- 
tecting beaches, the fair island, the low friendly 
stretch of the mainland sloping back to the 
picturesque hillsides, which make Plymouth 
harbor at all times and seasons a goodly sight 
to look upon. And here at length lay safely 
at anchor the 

" . . . simple Mayfiower of the salt-sea mead ! " 

And now, " Courteous Reader," as writes 
that most faithful secretary of the Pilgrims, 
Nathaniel Morton, mhis New England Memor- 
ial (1669), "that I may not hold thee too 
long in the porch," even in such goodly com- 
pany, I bid you welcome to the Plymouth of 
to-day. For in the harbor, the sand-dunes, 
the green hillsides and the fresh valleys and 



^22 



J 



Plymouth 



meadows, In the blue streams and ponds, the 
past is inseparably blended with the present. 
A small theatre it is, and the actors w^ere but 
few who played such important Indies in the 
building up of a nation, but the few memorials 
in which that early struggle for existence is 
recorded are here lovingly preserved. 

From the Rock where they landed we may 
follow their weary footsteps up the steep as- 
cent of the first street, now named for Ley- 
den, their city of refuge, and which may well 
be called the Via Sacra of Plymouth. Run- 
ning back from the waterside to the foot of 
Burial Hill, and parallel to the Town Brook, 
it formed the centre of their daily toil, the scene 
of their early joys and sorrows. Here on 
either hand were staked out the homesteads 
for the nineteen first families ; here with sturdy 
courage and endless labor they dragged the 
trees felled outside the clearing, and built their 
rude houses, thatching them with swamp-grass. 

The site of their first or " Common-House" 
is now marked, and near the lot assigned to 
Elder Brewster still we may stop to drink from 
the Pilgrim Spring: the "delicate water" is 
fresh and sweet now as when our thirsty fore- 
fathers delighted in it. 



324 Plymouth 

Crossing Main Street, once the King's high- 
way, we find ourselves in Town Square, under 
the shade of beautiful old elm-trees, planted 
more than a hundred years ago. To the north 
was William Bradford's homestead. Here 
came all those who sought advice and help in 
their sore need, and here in 1630 were begun 
those '' scribbled writings " which, " peeced up 
at times of leasure afterward," are now printed 
in letters of gold in many a faithful memory ! 
Here, perhaps, or in the vicinity of the Com- 
mon House, was concluded their first treaty 
with a foreign power for mutual aid and pro- 
tection, when the noble chief Massasoit, with 
his sixty Indian braves, was led thither by 
Samoset, the friendly sachem, whose English 
welcome had surprised the anxious colonists. 
Through Samoset they learned that some four 
years before a pest had devastated that region, 
called by them Patuxet. With him came Tis- 
quantum, who became a valued friend and in- 
terpreter, teaching them to plant their corn 
when the oak-leaves were the size of a mouse's 
ear, and to place three herring in each hill with 
the seed-corn, which novel practice awakened 
serious doubts in English minds. 

In the autumn of 1621, this was the scene 



Plymouth 325 

of the first Thanksgiving held in New Eng- 
land, when, their houses built, their crops gar- 
nered from some thirty fertile acres, their furs 
and lumber safely stored, they made merry for 
three days, with Massasoit and ninety Indians 
as guests. Even with fish, wild-fowl and deer 
in plenty, the good housewives must have spent 
a lively week of preparation for such a feast ! 

Farther up the slope was built, in 1637, their 
first meeting-house, and at the head of the 
Square now stands the lately completed stone 
church of the first parish. In the belfry 
hangs the old town bell, cast by Paul Revere, 
which for nearly a century has had a voice in 
the affairs of the town. 

Following the now steep incline, we stop to 
take breath on the brow of the hill, the spot 
so wisely chosen by Captain Myles Standish 
for the building of the solid timber fort, 
whereon he promptly placed his cannon. 

" Unable to speak for himself was he, 
But his guns spoke for him right valiantly I " 

And most persuasive did their voices prove, 
inspiring awe in the hearts of the " salvages " 
for many miles around ! 

Here in the shelter of the fort they met 



326 Plymouth 

for worship ; here their hymns of praise and 
prayers for guidance arose in the still air of 
the wilderness. In four short months one half 
of these brave souls had been laid to rest on 
Cole's Hill by the waterside. And yet, when 
one April morning those who were left to 
mourn them stood here watching the May- 
flower weigh anchor, to flit with her white sails 
over the blue sea which parted them from Old 
England, not one soul faltered, not one went 
back I 

The sad loss of their good Governor Carver, 
whose responsible place was taken by William 
Bradford, and the daily trials and hardships 
of that first long year, shook not their sturdy 
faith. Each day brought its absorbing task, and 
when, one morning in November, the sentry at 
the fort shouted, " Sail, ho ! " and the Fo7'tnne 
came sailing in by the Gurnet Nose, bringing 
the first news from the other side, they were 
ready with a return load of lumber, furs and 
sassafras for the Merchant Adventurers. Of 
this load, valued at ^500, Edward Winslow 
modestly writes in his letter to England : 
'' Though it be not much, yet it will witness 
for us that we have not been idle, considering 
the smallness of our numbers this summer." 



Plymouth 327 

Two years later, after a trying season of 
drought and famine, when, their corn ex- 
hausted, " ground-nuts, clams and eels " were 
their only food, they still gave thanks to God 
that He had given them of " the abundance of 
the seas, and of the treasures hid in the sand." 
When even the strongest men among them 
had grown weak for want of food, and their 
eyes were wearied with watching for a friendly 
sail, the good ship Anne was sighted in the 
offing. Dear relatives and friends brought 
them timely succor and new courage ; a sea- 
son of rejoicing followed, and many happy 
weddings were celebrated. 

In the A7ine, perhaps, came the Old Colony 
record-book, in which was made the early re- 
gistration of births, marriages and deaths. The 
first of the laws therein enacted, dating from 
December 27, 1623, established trial by jury, 
as may still be seen in the quaint handwriting 
of these hard-working heroes. This book, 
together with the Charter of 1629, curious 
old papers concerning the division of cattle 
brought over in the Charity in 1624, ancient 
deeds signed by the Indians, the original own- 
ers of this our goodly heritage, and many 
another time-stained treasure, is now carefully 



328 Plymouth 

preserved and gladly shown in the Registry of 
Deeds in the Court House. 

Looking to the north, beyond the town of 
Kingston, lying, with its sweet rose-gardens, 
on the pretty winding river named for that 
arch betrayer, Captain Jones, of the May- 
flower, WQ see Duxbury and the green slopes 
of Captain's Hill, so named in honor of Myles 
Standish, who from the top of his gray stone 
monument still guards us in effigy. Linger- 
ing near the fort and the guns he loved so 
well, he must often have looked this way, and 
admired the fine position this hill offered for a 
homestead. And as with years the colony grew 
larger, as children came to him and Barbara, 
and when his first Company of Standish Guards 
were in perfect training and could be relied upon 
to defend the colony at need, he bought out 
Winslow's share in the famous red cow, and led 
the way to the new fields he longed to conquer. 
There he was soon followed by John Alden and 
Priscilla, the Brewsters and other families, and 
at Marshfield, near by, the Winslows became 
their neighbors. So some eleven years after 
the landing came the first separation, which 
though not a wide one was a sore grief to 
their tender-hearted governor. 



Plymouth 329 

Amonor the now rare grravestones of the 
seventeenth century on Burial Hill, we look 
in vain for the most familiar names : Elder 
Brewster died in 1644, lamented by all the col- 
ony ; Edward Winslow died at sea in 1655, 
and in the two years following this sad loss 
Myles Standish and Governor Bradford ended 
their labors. So closed the lives of these lead- 
ers of men. Descendants, brave, wise and 
strong like themselves, continued worthily the 
work they had nobly begun. 

From 1630, Plymouth held friendly inter- 
course with the Boston Bay Colony. The ter- 
rors of the war with Philip, treacherous son of 
the friendly Massasoit, had united her with the 
neighboring colonies against a common foe, and 
at length, after seventy-one years of nearly in- 
dependent existence, we find her, in 1692, 
absorbed, with some regret, into the royal 
province of Massachusetts, but still ready to 
take her part in public affairs. 

That the role played by her was a worthy 
one, the tablets about us testify. Heroes of 
the expedition against Louisbourg, in 1745, lie 
here ; more than a score of Plymouth patriots 
who served in the Revolution, and many a 
brave soldier who won his laurels in the War 



330 Plymouth 

of 1861. Under this stone, with its quaint 
urn and willow-branch, rests the famous naval 
hero of the Revolutionary war, Captain Simeon 
Sampson, whose cousin Deborah spun, dyed, 
and wove the cloth for the suit in which she 
left home to serve as a soldier. Their story, 
and that of many another hero and heroine 
now lying here, have been well told by Mrs. 
Jane Goodwin Austin. 

Beneath his symbolic scallop-shell we read 
the name of Elder Faunce, who knew the Pil- 
grims, and, living for ninety-nine years, formed 
an important link between two centuries. The 
stone consecrated to the memory of the Rev. 
Chandler Robbins, who for nearly twoscore 
years toward the close of the last century gave 
his faithful services to the first parish, reminds 
us that at one time the town fathers found it 
advisable to request him " not to have more 
horses grazing on Burial Hill than shall be 
really necessary ! " 

Here, in old times, could be had a grand 
view of the shipping, come from the West In- 
dies and all parts of the world ; from here the 
news of many fatal shipwrecks had been spread 
through the town, to rouse willing help for 
suffering sailors ; here, too, no doubt, men's 



Plymouth 331 

souls were often tempted to incur the fine of 
twenty shillings, the cost of ''telling a lie 
about seeing a whale," in those strict days 
when a plain lie, if "pernicious," was taxed at 
half that price ! 

Old Father Time with his scythe and hour- 
glass — symbols of his power — rules here over 
seven generations ; but lingering while the set- 
ting sun illumines the harbor and the surround- 
ing hills with the same radiance that rejoiced 
the first comers, while Manomet glows with a 
deeper purple, and the twin lights of the Gur- 
net shine out, we may still feel in very deed 
that 

" The Pilgrim spirit has not fled." 

Turning from the story of Plymouth, as 
written on the lichen-covered headstones on 
Burial Hill, let us wend our way under the 
shady elms of Court Street to Pilgrim Hall, 
built in 1824 by the Pilgrim Society, instituted 
four years earlier. Here we may trace, in the 
many treasured reminders of their daily lives, 
the annals of those brave souls in whom 

" . . . persuasion and belief 
Had ripened into faith, and faith become 
A passionate intuition." 



o '> O 



Plymouth 



On broad canvases are portrayed the tearful 
embarkation from Delfthaven, the landing on 
this cheerless, frozen shore. Here are hung 
charming pencil sketches of Scrooby and Aus- 
terfield, and many interesting portraits : Dr. 
Thatcher, the venerable secretary of the Pil- 
grim Society, and author of a charming his- 
tory of Plymouth ; the Rev. James Kendall, 
for nearly threescore years the beloved minis- 
ter of the First Church ; Gov. Edward Winslow 
and his son Josiah ; Gen. John Winslow, who 
by royal command in 1755 helped to drive 
from their homes the French Acadians ; Dea- 
con Ephraim Spooner, whose " lining out " of 
the old hymns formed an impressive part of 
" Anniversary Day " ; Daniel Webster, who 
lived in Marshfield, and whose glowing oration 
of 1820, in honor of the two hundredth anni- 
versary^ of the landing of the Pilgrims, was 
epoch-making in Plymouth annals. 

Among the many priceless books and docu- 
ments here we find the lately acquired Specu- 
lum E2tropcE (1605) by Sir Edwin Sandys, 
the active friend of our Separatists in England ; 

' The illustration shown on page 335 is from a pen-and-ink copy of a 
quaint old painting on glass from China, probably in 1820. In that 
country a set of china with this design as decoration was made for 
this Plymouth celebration. 



334 



Plymouth 



two autographs of John Robinson render this 
volume of special interest. A facsimile of the 
Bradford manuscript also is here, and a Confu- 
tation of the Rhemists Translation, printed by 
Brewster in Leyden, in 1618. Among the 
old Bibles worn by hands seeking for guidance 
and comfort is one belonging to John Alden, 
dated 1620. Here also are a copy of Robert 
Cushman's memorable sermon on " The Dan- 
ger of Self-love," delivered by him in Plymouth 
in 162 1 ; one of the seven precious original 
copies of Motu'fs Relation the journal writ- 
ten by Bradford and Winslow in 1620-21, and 
so promptly printed in London in 1622 ; one 
of the four copies of Eliot's Indian Bible 
(1685) ; the Patent of 162 1, granted our colo- 
nists by the New England Company, and the 
oldest state paper in the United States. 

A large copy of the seal 
of the colony, in hand- 
somely carved oak, reminds 
us that the oriorinal seal 
was stolen in the days of 
Andros. Its appropriate 
motto, " Patrum pietate 
ortum, filiorum virtute ser- 
vandum," may be found 




THE OLD COLONY SEAL. 



33^ Plymouth 

used as a heading of the first Plymotith Jotu^- 
nal, pubHshed by Nathaniel Coverly in 1 785, 
of which one file is preserved in the library of 
rare old books. Here are the Orieinal Re- 
cords of the Old Colony Club, founded in i 769, 
but dissolved four years later when party feel- 
ing ran high between the Whigs and Tories. 
Its worthy members first instituted the cele- 
bration of "Forefathers' Day," and here we 
may read the bill of fare of their first dinner, 
"dressed in the plainest manner," beginning 
with "a large baked Indian whortleberry pud- 
ding," " a dish of Succotash," " Clamms," etc. 
The Indian dishes, succotash and nokake, and 
the five parched corns which recall the time 
when their last pint of corn was divided among 
them, still form part of the "twenty-second" 
dinner of every faithful descendant ! 

Here the sword of the truculent Myles Stan- 
dish lies at rest, and beside it, in lighter vein, a 
bit of the quilt that belonged to his wife Rose, 
and a sampler skilfully embroidered by his 
daughter Lora. Between the ample armchairs 
in which Governor Carver and Elder Brewster 
must have pondered over many a weighty pro- 
blem of government for the people and by the 
people, is the closely woven little Dutch cradle 



Plymouth 



ZZ7 



in which Peregrine White, that most youthful 
of voyagers, was rocked to sleep. The large 
hole worn in the foot of the cradle suggests 
pleasantly that the rosy toes of the sturdy baby 
colonists made early for freedom ! Perhaps 




The fuller cradle. 



the tiny leathern ankle-ties, hardly four inches 
in length, which belonged to Josiah Winslow 
— this was long before they thought of making 
him governor — had a hand, or rather a foot, in 
that bombardment ! Near the shoes is a dainty 
salt-cellar of blue and white enamel, delicately 
painted with pink and yellow roses, suggestive 
of fine linen and pleasant hospitality. Here 
too are 



30^ 



Plymouth 



" The wheels where they spun 
In the pleasant light of the sun," 

those anxious, lonely housewives, waiting for 
their good men to return from dangerous ex- 
peditions in the 
forest or on the 
sea. Thus varied 
was the freight of 
the AI ay flower. 

As we walk 
through the lively 
main street of the 
town, we must stop 
to admire the fine 
pfambrel roof of 
the old house 
where lived James 
Warren, that active patriot, who became pre- 
sident of the Provincial Congress, and whose 
wife, Mercy Otis Warren, wrote the " rousing 
word " which kindled many a heart in Re- 
volutionary days. The line of fine lindens 
just beyond, as they rustle in the cool sea- 
breeze, could whisper many a charming tale of 
lovely dames and stately men, of scarlet cloaks 
and powdered wigs they have watched pass by 
under their shading branches, of treasures of 




AN OLD ENGLISH SPINNING-WHEEL, 



Plymouth 



339 



old china and old silver, of blue tiles and claw- 
footed furniture, of Copley portraits now packed 
off to the great city, and of many changes come 
about since they came here as young trees 
from Nova Scotia, in a raisin-box. 

Overlooking the blue water stands the old 
Winslow house, the solid frame of which came 
from England in 1754. Under its spreading 
lindens, through the fine colonial doorway so 




Copyright by A '^ l.ur 



THE DOTEN HOUSE, 1660. 

THE OLDEST HOUSE IN PLYMOUTH. 



beautifully carved, many distinguished guests 
have passed, and here Ralph Waldo Emerson 
was married to Lydia Jackson, who was born 
in the picturesque house just beyond, almost 
hidden in trees and vines. 



340 Plymouth 

A drive toward the south will take us by 
some of the oldest houses. From the one with 
a dyke in front, Adoniram Judson, the' famous 
Baptist missionary, took his departure for Bur- 
mah. His devoted sister then vowed that no 
one should cross the threshold until his return, 
and the door-step was taken away. Grass grew 
over the pathway, and the front door remained 
closed, for he died at sea, in 1850. 

As we pass the handsome new building of 
the High School, it is good to remember, in 
this Plymouth of eight thousand inhabitants, 
paying thirty-four thousand dollars for last 
year's "schooling," that in 1672 it was decided 
that Plymouth's school, supported by the rents 
of her southerly common-lands, was entitled to 
£2)Z^ the fishing excise from the Cape, offered 
to any town which would keep difrec colonial 
school, classical as well as elementary. And 
in that free school began an early struggle of 
the three R's against Latin and Greek. From 
Plymouth went Nathaniel Brewster, a graduate 
of Harvard's first class of 1642, and the first 
of a long line of Plymouth students to enter 
Harvard. 

Past the blue Eel River, flowing gently 
through shining green meadows to the sea, we 



Plymouth 341 

may drive along quiet roads in Plymouth 
Woods, under sweet pines and sturdy oaks, 
by the shore of many a calm pond, sparkling 
in its setting of white beach sand. We cross 
old Indian trails, perhaps, and skirt acre after 
acre of level cranberry-bogs, pink and white, 
like a sheet of delicate sprig-muslin, when in 
bloom, and bright with the crimson fruit in 
early autumn. In these woods in their season 
bloom sweet mayflowers, the rare rhodora, the 
sabbatia, sundew and corema, and there many 
another treasure may be found by those who 
know how to seek ! 

When these forests were first explored, an 
enterprising member of the Mayflower s crew, 
climbing a high tree to see how the land lay, 
saw shining before him a blue sheet of water 
which he took to be the ocean, and this was 
called after him " Billington's Sea." Following 
the shore of this lake, through the leafy paths 
of Morton's Park, we come upon the source of 
the famous Town Brook, which with its hon- 
orable record of two centuries' supply of ale- 
wives has always played an important part in 
the town's annals, helping to grind the Pil- 
grims' first grists in 1636, and now lending its 
busy aid in turning complicated machinery. 



342 



Plymouth 



In the fields on either side — the hunting- 
grounds of the banished race who once re- 
joiced in their possession — are still found the 
beautifully worked Indian arrow-heads and 
hatchets ; here the smoke arose from their wig- 





R A N C -> ,^ " ^ - ^ r^^\ .V ^/ 



!,■>*' 'A. 36 ViTvr \ 





THE GRAVE OF DR. FRANCIS LE BARRAN, THE NAMELESS NOBLEMAN. 

wams ; here they often paddled past in their 
swift canoes, and here, perhaps, were shot the 
five deer that formed their offering in the first 
New England Thanksgiving. 

But the manifold charms of Plymouth and 



Plymouth 



343 



Plymouth Woods must be seen and felt on the 
soil whence they sprung ! So in the hope that 
the '* Courteous Reader " to whom they are 
still unfamiliar may care to verify this truthful 
statement, we leave in brief and imperfect out- 
line this story of the Old Colony, whither 
*' they wente weeping and carried precious 
seeds ; but they shall returne with joye and 
bring their sheaves." 





CAPE COD TOWNS 

FROM PROVINCETOWN TO FALMOUTH 
By KATHARINE LEE BATES 

C'APE COD," wrote Thoreau, ''is the 
^ bared and bended arm of Massachu- 
setts ; the shoulder is at Buzzard's Bay ; the 
elbow, or crazy-bone, at Cape Mallebarre ; the 
wrist at Truro ; and the sandy fist at Province- 
town — behind which the State stands on her 
guard." 

This sandy fist curls toward the wrist in 
such fashion as to form a semicircular harbor, 
famous as the New World haven which first 
gave shelter to the Mayflower and her sea- 
worn company. On the 21st of November 
(by our modern reckoning), 1620, the Pilgrims, 
after their two bleak months of ocean, cast 
anchor here, rejoicing in the sight and smell 
of "oaks, pines, juniper, sassafras and other 
sweet wood." Here they signed their mem- 

345 



34^ Cape Cod Towns 

orable compact, forming themselves Into a 
" civil body politic " and covenanting with one 
another, as honest Englishmen, to " submit to 
such government and governors as we should 
by common consent agree to make and choose." 
Upon the adoption of this simple and signifi- 
cant constitution, the Pilgrim Fathers, still on 
board the Mayflower in Provlncetown harbor, 
proceeded to set in motion the machinery of 
their little republic, for "after this," wrote 
Bradford, " they chose, or rather confirmed, 
Mr. John Carver (a man godly and well ap- 
proved amongst them) their Governor for one 
year." That same day a scouting party went 
ashore and brought back a fragrant boatload 
of red cedar for firewood, with a goodly report 
of the place. 

These stout-hearted Pilgrims were not the 
first Europeans to set foot on Cape Cod. 
Legends of the Vikings which drift about the 
low white dunes are as uncertain as the shift- 
ing sands themselves, and the French and 
Florentine navigators who sailed along the 
North American coast in the first half of the 
sixteenth century may have done no more 
than siorht this sickle of land between sea and 
bay, but there are numerous records of Fng- 




I < 



348 Cape Cod Towns 

lish, French and Dutch visits within the last 
twenty years before the coming of the May- 
flowe7\ It may be that no less a mariner than 
Sir Francis Drake was the first of the English 
to tread these shores, but that distinction is gen- 
erally allowed to Captain Bartholomew Gos- 
nold, who made harbor here in 1602 and was 
'' so pestered with codfish " that he gave the 
Cape the name, "which," said Cotton Mather, 
''it will never lose till shoals of codfish be 
seen swimming upon the tops of its highest 
hills." Gosnold traded with the Indians for 
furs and sassafras root, and was followed the 
next year by Martin Pring, seeking a cargo of 
this latter commodity, then held precious in 
pharmacy. Within the next four years three 
French explorers touched at the Cape, and a 
French colony was projected, but came to 
nothing. The visit of Henry Hudson, too, 
left no traces. In 16 14 that rover of land and 
sea. Captain John Smith, took a look at Cape 
Cod, which impressed him only as a " headland 
of hills of sand, overgrown with scrubby pines, 
hurts [huckleberries] and such trash, but an 
excellent harbor for all weathers." After 
Smith's departure, Hunt, his second in com- 
mand, enticed a group of Nauset Indians on 



350 Cape Cod Towns 

shipboard, carried them off, and sold them into 
slavery at Malaga, Spain, for twenty pounds a 
man. As a consequence of this crime, the 
Indians grew suspicious and revengeful, but 
nevertheless an irregular trade was maintained 
with them by passing vessels, until the pesti- 
lence that raored amonor the red men of the 
region from 1616 to 16 19 interrupted com- 
munication. 

The Pilorrims tarried in Provincetown har- 
bor nearly a month. The compact had been 
signed, anchor dropped and the reconnoissance 
made on a Saturday. The Sunday following, 
the first Pilgrim Sabbath in America, was de- 
voutly kept with prayer and praise on board 
the Mayflower, but the next morning secular 
activities began. The men carried ashore the 
shallop which had been brought over in sec- 
tions between-decks and proceeded to put it 
together, while the women bundled up the 
soiled linen of the voyage and inaugurated the 
first New England Monday by a grand wash- 
ing on the beach. On Wednesday, Myles 
Standish mustered a little army of sixteen 
men, each armed with musket, sword and 
corselet, and led them gallantly up the wooded 
cape, *' thorou boughes and bushes," nearly as 



Cape Cod Towns 351 

far as the present town of Wellfleet. After 
two days the explorers returned with no worse 
injury than briar-scratched armor, bringing 
word of game and water-springs, ploughed 
land and burial-mounds. William Bradford 
showed the noose of the deer-trap, a " very 
pretie devise," that had caught him by the leg, 
and two of the sturdiest Pilgrims bore, slung 
on a staff across their shoulders, a kettle of 
corn. As the few natives whom the party had 
met fled from them, the corn had been taken 
on credit from a buried hoard. The followine 
year that debt was scrupulously paid, but a 
custom had been established which still pre- 
vails with certain summer residents on the Cape, 
who are said to make a practice of leaving their 
grocery bills over until the next season. 

As soon as the shallop could be floated, a 
larger expedition was sent by water along the 
south coast to seek a permanent settlement. 
Through wind and snow the Pilgrim Fathers 
made their way up to Pamet River, in Truro, 
the limit of the earlier journey. They did not 
succeed in agreeing upon a fit site for the 
colony, but they sought out the corn deposit 
and, breaking the frozen ground with their 
swords, secured ten bushels more of priceless 



352 Cape Cod Towns 

seed for the springtime. On the return of the 
second expedition there was anxious discussion 
about the best course to pursue. Some were 
for settHng on the Cape and Hving by the fish- 
eries, pointing out, to emphasize their argu- 
ments, the whales that sported every day about 
the anchored ship ; but the Pilgrims were of 
agricultural habit and tradition and had reason 
enough just then to be weary of the sea. The 
situation was critical. '' The heart of winter 
and unseasonable weather," wrote Bradford, 
*' was come upon us." The gradual slope of 
the beach made it always necessary to "wade 
a bow-shoot or two " in oroinor ashore from the 
Mayflowe}^, and these icy foot-baths were largely 
responsible for the " vehement coughs " from 
which hardly one of the company was exempt. 
Once more, on the i6th of December, 
the shallop started forth to find a home for 
the Pilgrims. Ten colonists, including Carver, 
Bradford and Standish, together with a few 
men of the ship's crew, volunteered for this 
service. It was so cold that the sleety spray 
glazed doublet and jerkin "and made them 
many times like coats of iron." The voyagers 
landed within the present limits of Eastham or 
Orleans, where, hard by the shore, a camp was 



Cape Cod Towns 353 

roughly barricaded. One day passed safely 
in exploration, but at dawn of the second, 
when, "after prayer," the English sat about 
their camp-fire at breakfast, " a great and 
strange cry " cut the mist, and on the instant 
Indian arrows, headed with deer-horn and 
eagles' claws, whizzed about their heads. But 
little Captain Standish was not to be caught 
napping. " Having a snaphance ready," he 
fired in direction of the war-whoop. His com- 
rades supported him manfully, their friends in 
the shallop, themselves beset, shouted encour- 
agement, and the savages, gliding back among 
the trees, melted into " the dark of the morn- 
ing." After this taste of Cape Cod courtesy, 
the Pilgrim Fathers can hardly be blamed for 
taking to their shallop again and plunging on, 
in a stiff gale, through the toppling waves, 
until, with broken rudder and mast split in 
three, they reached a refuge in the harbor of 
Plymouth. 

When the adventurers returned to the May- 
flower' with glad tidings that a resting-place 
was found at last, the historian of the party, 
William Bradford, had to learn that during 
his absence his wife had fallen from the 
vessel's side and perished in those December 



354 Cape Cod Towns 

waters. Three more of the colonists died in 
that first haven, and there Httle Peregrine 
White began his earthly peregrinations. In 
view of all these occurrences, — the signing of 
the compact in Provincetown harbor, the first 
landing of the Pilgrims on the tip of Cape Cod, 
the explorations, the first deaths and the first 
birth, — it would seem that Provincetown is 
fairly entitled to a share of those historic hon- 
ors which are lavished, none too freely, but, 
perhaps, too exclusively, upon Plymouth. 

When the Mayflower sailed away, carrying 
William Bradford and his tablets, the beauti- 
ful harbor and its circling shores were left to a 
long period of obscurity. Fishers, traders and 
adventurers of many nations came and went 
on their several errands, but these visits left 
little trace. The Plymouth colonists, mean- 
while, did not forget their first landing-point, 
but returned sometimes, in the fishing season, 
for cod, bass and mackerel, always claiming 
full rights of ownership. This claim rested 
not only on their original brief occupation, 
but on formal purchase from the Indians, in 
1654, or earlier, the payment being "2 brasse 
kettles six coates twelve houes 12 axes 12 
knives and a box." In process of time, as the 



35^ Cape Cod Towns 

English settlers gradually pushed down the 
Cape, a few hovels and curing-sheds rose 
on the harbor shore, but the land was owned 
by Plymouth Colony until Massachusetts suc- 
ceeded to the title. These Province Lands 
were made a district, in the charge of Truro, 
in 1714, but in 1727 the "Precinct of Cape 
Cod " was set off from Truro, and estab- 
lished, under the name of Provincetown, as a 
separate township. It was even then merely 
a fishing-hamlet, with a fluctuating population, 
which by 1750 had almost dwindled away. 
In Revolutionary times, it had only a score of 
dwelling-houses, and its two hundred inhabit- 
ants were defenseless before the British, whose 
men-of-war rode proudly in the harbor. One 
of these, the Somerset, while chased by a French 
fleet on the Back Side, as the Atlantic coast 
of the Cape is called, struck on Peaked Hill 
bars, and the waves, taking part with the re- 
bels, flung the helpless hulk far up the beach. 
Stripped by "a plundering gang" from Pro- 
vincetown and Truro, the frigate lay at the 
mercy of the sands, and they gradually hid her 
even from memory ; but the strong gales and 
high tides of 1886 tore that burial-sheet aside, 
and brouofht the blackened timbers agfain to 



Cape Cod Towns 357 

the light of day. The grim old ship, tormented 
by relic-hunters, peered out over the sea, look- 
ing from masthead to masthead for the Union 
Jack, and, disgusted with what she saw, dived 
once more under her sandy cover, where the 
beach-grass now grows over her. 

Since the Revolution, Provincetown has 
steadily progressed in numbers and prosperity, 
until to-day, with over four thousand five 
hundred inhabitants, it is the banner town of 
the Cape. During this period of develop- 
ment, the Province Lands, several thousand 
acres in extent, naturally became a subject of 
dispute. Old residents had fallen into a way 
of buying and selling the sites on which they 
had built homes and stores, as if the land were 
theirs in legal ownership. Five years ago, 
however, the General Court virtually limited 
State ownership to the waste tracts in the 
north and west of the township, leaving the 
squatters in possession of the harbor-front. 
" The released portion of the said lands," 
stated the Harbor and Land Commissioners 
in their report of 1893, "is about 955 acres 
and includes the whole inhabited part of the 
town of Provincetown." 

The present Provincetown is well worth a 



35^ Cape Cod Towns 

journey. From High Pole Hill, a bluff seventy 
feet high in the rear of the populated district, 
one gazes far out over blue waters, crossed 
with cloud-shadows and flecked with fishinor- 
craft. Old sea-captains gather here with spy- 
glasses to make out the shipping ; bronzed 
sailor-boys lie in the sun and troll snatches of 
song ; young mothers of dark complexion and 
gay-colored dress croon lullabies, known in 
Lisbon and Fayal, over sick babies brought 
to the hilltop for the breezy air ; the very par- 
rot that a black-eyed urchin guards in a group 
of admiring playmates talks " Portugee." 
Leaning over the railing, one looks down the 
bushy slope of the bluff to the curious huddle 
of houses at its base. Out from the horse- 
shoe bend of shore, run thin tongues of wharf 
and jetty. Front Street follows the water- 
line, a seaport variety of outfitting stores and 
shops, mingled with hotels, fish-flakes, ship- 
yards and the like, backing on the beach, with 
the dwelling-houses opposite facing the harbor- 
view. Back Street copies the curve of Front, 
and the two are joined by queer, irregular 
little crossways, that take the abashed wayfarer 
close under people's windows and along the 
very borders of their gardens and poultry- 



Cape Cod Towns 



.59 



yards. Althoug-h nearly all of the buildings 
stand on one or the other of these main 
streets, there are bunches and knots of houses 
in sheltered places, looking as if the blast had 
blown them into accidental nooks. In general 




WHARVES AT FROVINCETOWN. 



these houses are built close and low, tucked 
in under one another's elbows, but here and 
there an independent cottage thrusts its sharp- 
roofed defiance into the very face of the 
weather. 

Up and down the sandy knolls behind the 



360 Cape Cod Towns 

streets straggle populous graveyards, where 
one may read the fortunes of Provincetown 
more impressively, if less precisely, than in 
the census reports. Where the goodly old 
Nathaniels and Shubaels and Abrahams and 
Jerushas rest, a certain decorum of green sod- 
ding and white headstone is maintained, de- 
spite the irreligious riot of the winds. The 
Catholic burial-ground, too, is not uncared for 
in its Irish portion. Marble and granite monu- 
ments implore " Lord have mercy on the soul " 
of some Burke or Ryan or McCarty, but the 
Portuguese, wanderers from the Cape Verde 
Islands and the Azores, sleep the sleep of 
strangers, with no touch of tenderness or 
beauty about their dreary lodging. Only here 
and there a little Jacinto or Manuel or Antone 
has his short mound set about with fragments 
of clam-shell, as if in children's play. Some 
lots are enclosed, the black posts with rounded 
tops looking like monastic sentries, and a few 
headboards, with the painted name already 
rain-washed out of recognition, lean away from 
the wind. In the centre of this oraunt o^rave- 
yard, where the roaring Atlantic storms tear up 
even the coarse tufts of beach-grass, a great 
gray cross of wood, set in a hill of sand, 



Cape Cod Towns 361 

spreads weather-beaten arms. The guardian- 
ship of the Church and the fellowship of the 
sea these Portuguese fisherfolk brought with 
them, and as yet America has given them 
nothinor dearer. 

The Portuguese constitute a large proportion 
of the foreign element in Barnstable County, 
where nearly nine tenths of the people are of 
English descent. The protruding tip of Cape 
Cod easily catches such ocean drift as these 
Western Islanders, and they have made their 
way as far up the Cape as F'almouth, where they 
watch their chance to buy old homesteads at 
low rates. They are natural farmers and even 
in Harwich and Truro divide their labors be- 
tween sea and land. But it is in Province- 
town that these swart-faced strangers most do 
conorreo^ate, o^ardeninor wherever a o^arden is 
possible, tending the fish-weirs, working, when 
herring are plenty, in the canning factories, 
and almost monopolizing the fresh fishing in- 
dustry. Even those who are most thrifty, 
building homes and buying vessels, wear the 
look of aliens, and some, when their more 
active years are over, gather up their savings 
and return to the Azores ; but the raven-haired 
girls are beginning to listen to Yankee wooers, 



362 Cape Cod Towns 

and the next century may see the process of 
amalgamation well under way. Already these 
new Pilerims have tasted so much of the air of 
freedom as to wax a little restive under the 
authority of their fiery, devoted young priest, 
who upbraids them with his last expletive for 
their shortcomings as energetically as he aids 
them with his last dollar in their distress. 

In the general aspect of the port, it is as 
true to-day as when, in 1808, the townspeople 
petitioned for a suspension of the embargo, 
that their interest is '' almost totally in fish and 
vessels." A substantial citizen keeps his boat 
as naturally as an inlander would keep his 
carriage. Any loiterer on the street can lend 
a hand with sweep-seine or jibstay, but the 
harnessing of a horse is a mystery known to 
few. In 1 8 19, there was but one horse owned 
in Provincetown, and that "an old, white one 
with one eye." In point of fact, however, the 
fortunes of Provincetown seem to demand, at 
present, some further support than the fisher- 
ies. It is believed that, by dint of capital, 
labor and irrigation, more could be gained 
from the soil, and that the advantages of the 
place as a summer resort might be developed. 
The whaling business has greatly declined 



Cape Cod Towns 



3^3 



since the discovery of petroleum, the mackerel 
have forsaken their old haunts, and even cod- 
fishing, in which Provincetown long stood sec- 
ond to Gloucester, is on the wane. Wharves 
and marine railways are falling into ruin, and 
the natives of the old Cape seek a subsistence 




PROVINCETOWN IN 1839. 

FROM AN OLD DRAWING. 



in Western ranches and crowded cities, leaving 
their diminished home industries to the immi- 
grants. Still twoscore or so of vessels go to 
the Grand Banks, and as many more engage 
in the fresh fishing. Emulous tales do these 
fishermen tell of quick trips and large catches, 
for example the clipper Jttlia Costa, under a 
Portuguese skipper, which set sail at six in the 
morning for fishing-grounds about fifteen miles 



3^4 Cape Cod Towns 

northeast of Highland Light, took fifteen thou- 
sand pounds of cod, and arrived at her Boston 
moorinors an hour before midniorht. But the 

o o 

"fish-stories" told in Provincetown are more 
often legends of the past, before the heroic 
days of whaling went out with the invention 
of the explosive bomb lance, — legends of for- 
tunes made in oil and ambergris, of hair-breadth 
escapes from the infuriated monsters, and es- 
pecially of Moby Dick, the veteran whale who, 
off the coast of Chili, defied mankind until the 
whale-gun rolled him over at last, with twenty- 
three old harpoons rusted in his body. 

The foreicrn element in Provincetown is not 
all Portuguese. There is a sprinkling of many 
nationalities, especially Irish, and, more num- 
erous yet, English and Scotch from the Brit- 
ish provinces, while sailor-feet from all over 
the globe tread the long plank-walk of Front 
Street. This famous walk was built, after 
much wrangling, from the town's share of the 
Surplus Revenue distributed by Andrew Jack- 
son, and the story goes that the more stiff- 
necked opponents of this extravagance refused 
their lifetimes long to step upon the planks, 
and plodded indignantly through the sandy 
middle of the road. Upon this chief thorough- 



Cape Cod Towns 365 

fare stand several churches, looking seaward. 
Sailors in these waters used to steer by the 
meeting-house steeples, which are frequent all 
along the Cape. Some of those early churches 
now struggle on with meagre congregations, 
and a few are abandoned, the wind whistling 
through the empty belfries. Provincetown has 
a record of ancient strife between the Orthodox 
and the Methodists. The established sect re- 
sented the intrusion of the new doctrine to 
such a degree that they made a bonfire of the 
timber designed for the Methodist building. 
The heretics effectively retaliated by securing 
the kev to the Orthodox meeting-house, lock- 
ing out the astonished owners, and taking 
permanent possession, triumphantly singing 
Methodist hymns to the Orthodox bass-viol. 
It was thirty-two years before the discomfited 
Orthodox rallied sufficiently to build them- 
selves another church. 

Journeying from Provincetown, " perched 
out on a crest of alluvial sand," up the wrist of 
the Cape, one sees the land a-making. At 
first the loose sand drifts like snow. Then the 
coarse marsh-grasses begin to bind and hold 
it, low bushes mat their roots about it, and 
planted tracts of pitch-pine give the shifting 



3^6 Cape Cod Towns 

waste a real stability. The Pilgrims found, 
they said, — but perhaps there was a Canaan 
dazzle in their eyes, — their landing-place well 
wooded and the soil "a spit's depth, excellent 
black earth." But now all sods and garden- 
ground must be brought from a distance, and a 
mulberry or a sycamore, even the most stunted 
apple-tree that squats and cowers from the 
wind, is a proud possession. When President 
Dwight of Yale rode through Truro into Pro- 
vincetown a century ago, he was amazed at the 
sterility and bleak desolation of the landscape, 
half hidden as it was by " the tempestuous 
tossing of the clouds of sand." He was told 
that the inhabitants were required by law to 
plant every April bunches of beach-grass to 
keep the sand from blowing. The national 
government, stirred by the danger to the harbor, 
afterwards took the matter in hand. Between 
1826 and 1838, twenty-eight thousand dollars 
were expended in an attempt to strengthen 
the harbor shores by beach-grass. Of late 
Massachusetts has become aroused to the des- 
olate condition of her Province Lands, and is 
making a determined effort to redeem them by 
the planting of trees and by other restorative 
measures. These blowing sand-dunes have, 



Cape Cod Towns 367 

however, a strange beauty of their own, and 
the color effects in autumn, given by the low 
and ragged brush, are of the warmest. 

" It was like the richest rug imaginable," wrote Tho- 
reau, '' spread over an uneven surface ; no damask nor 
velvet, nor Tyrian dye or stuffs, nor the work of any 
loom, could ever match it. There was the incredibly 
bright red of the Huckleberry, and the reddish brown of 
the Bayberry, mingled with the bright and living green 
of small Pitch-Pines, and also the duller green of the 
Bayberry, Boxberry and Plum, the yellowish green of 
the Shrub Oaks, and the various golden and yellow and 
fawn-colored tints of the Birch and Maple and Aspen, — 
each making its own figure, and, in the midst, the few 
yellow sand-slides on the sides of the hills looked like 
the white floor seen through rents in the rug," 

The sand has dealt most unkindly of all with 
Truro, choking up her harbor, from which a 
fine fleet of mackerel vessels used to sail. No 
longer is her rollicking fishing-song, apparently 
an inheritance from Old England, lifted on the 
morning breeze : 

" Up jumped the mackerel. 

With his striped back — 
Says he, reef in the mains'l, and haul on the tack. 

For it 's windy weather. 

It 's stormy weather. 
And when the wind blows pipe all hands together — 
For, upon my word, it 's windy weather. 



3^8 Cape Cod Towns 

" Up jumped the cod, 
With his chuckle head — 
And jumped into the main chains to heave at the lead, — 
For it 's windy weather," etc. 

This town, the Indian Pamet, was formally 
settled in 1 709 by a few English purchasers 
from Eastham, having been occupied earlier 
only by irresponsible fishermen and traders. 
The new planters took hold with energy, wag- 
ing war against blackbirds and crows, wolves 
and foxes, for the protection of their little 
wealth in corn and cattle, while none the less 
they dug clams, fished by line and net and 
watched from their lookouts for offshore whales. 
The Cape plumes itself not a little upon its 
early proficiency in whaling. In 1690, one 
Ichabod Paddock, whose name might so easily 
have been Haddock, went from Yarmouth to 
Nantucket " to instruct the people in the art 
of killing whales in boats from the shore." 
And when the sea-monster, thus maltreated, 
withdrew from its New England haunts, the 
daring whalemen built ships and followed, 
cruising the Atlantic and Pacific, even the Arc- 
tic and Antarctic oceans. But the Revolution 
put a check on all our maritime enterprises. 
The Truro fishermen, like the rest, laid by 



Cape Cod Towns 369 

their harpoons, and melted up their mackerel 
leads for bullets. From one village of twenty- 
three houses, twenty-eight men gave up their 
lives for liberty. In religion, too, Truro had 
the courage of her convictions, building the 
first Methodist meeting-house on the Cape, 
the second in New England. The cardinal 
temptation of Cape Cod is Sunday fishing, 
and Truro righteousness was never put more 
sharply to the pinch than in 1834, when a pro- 
digious school of blackfish appeared off Great 
Hollow one autumnal Sabbath morning. A 
number of Truro fishermen, from the Grand 
Banks and elsewhere, were on their way home 
in boats from Provincetown, when the shining 
shoulders of hundreds of the g^reat fish were 
seen moving through the waves. With for- 
tunes in full view, a goodly number of these 
men shifted into boats which rowed soberly 
for their destination, while the rest, with eager 
outcry, rounded up the school, and drove the 
frightened creatures, with shouts and blows 
from the oars, like sheep upon the beach. 
Church-members who took part in the wild 
chase were brought to trial, but a lurking sym- 
pathy in the hearts of their judges saved them 
from actual expulsion. 



Z7^ Cape Cod Towns 

This befell within the period of Truro's 
highest prosperity. From 1830 to 1855 the 
wharves were crowded with sloops and schoon- 
ers, a shipyard was kept busy, and salt was 
made all along the shore. At the middle of 
the century, the town had over two thousand 
inhabitants, but the number has now fallen off 
by some three fifths. The *' turtle-like sheds 
of the salt-works," which Thoreau noted, have 
been long since broken up and sold for lumber. 
There is weir-fishing still, supplying fresh fish 
for market and bait for the fishing-fleets of 
Provincetown and Gloucester. Rods of the 
black netting may be seen spread over the 
poverty-grass to dry. 

Although the sand of Cape Cod is in some 
places three hundred feet deep, there is be- 
lieved to be a backbone of diluvian rock. 
There is a clay vein, too, which slants across 
the Cape and crops out at Truro in the so-called 
Clay Pounds, now crowned by Highland Light, 
shining two hundred feet above the ocean. This 
hill of clay thus renders a sovereign service 
to that dangerous stretch of navigation. It 
must be borne in mind that Cape Cod runs 
out straight into the Atlantic for twoscore 
miles, by the south measurement, and then, 



Z12 Cape Cod Towns 

abruptly turning, juts up another forty to the 
north. The shifty sand-bars of the Back Side 
have caught, twisted and broken the hulls of 
innumerable craft. One gale of wind wrecked 
eighteen vessels between Race Point, at the 
extremity of the Cape, and Highland Light. 
The average width of our crooked peninsula 
is six miles, but at Truro it narrows to half 
that distance. Across this strip the storms 
whirl the flinty sand, until the humblest cot- 
tage may boast of ground-glass window-panes. 
The coast outline is ever changing and the 
restless dunes show the fantastic carvings of 
the wind. The 'houses cuddle down into the 
wavy hollows, with driftwood stacked at their 
back doors for fuel, and with worn-out fish- 
nets stretched about the chicken-yards. Here 
and there a pine-tree abandons all attempt at 
keeping up appearances and lies flat before 
the blast. The ploughed fields are as white 
with sand as so many squares of beach, and 
the sea-tang is strong in the air. Accustomed, 
before their harbor failed them, to depend 
chiefly upon the sea for subsistence, the people 
of Truro now find it no easy matter to wrest a 
living from what they have of land. Every- 
thing is turned to account, from turnips to 




/ 



374 Cape Cod Towns 

mayflowers. Along those sand-pits of roads, 
bordered with thick beds of pink-belled bear- 
berries, or where the dwarfish pines, their 
wizened branches hung with gray tags of moss, 
yellow the knolls, are gathered large quantities 
of sweetest, pinkest arbutus for the Boston 
market. 

Wellfleet, which drew off from Eastham in 
1 763, has also fallen on evil days. Perhaps 
the fishermen have overreached themselves 
with the greedy seines. There is high contro- 
versy on this point between line-fishers and 
weir-fishers, but the fact stands that fish are 
growing scarce. Wellfleet had once her hun- 
dred vessels at the Banks, her whaling-schoon- 
ers, built in her own yards from her own timber, 
and beds of oysters much prized by city pal- 
ates. There was a time when forty or fifty 
sail were busy every season transporting Well- 
fleet shell-fish to Boston. " As happy as a 
clam " might then have been the device of 
Wellfleet heraldry. But suddenly the oyster 
died and, although the beds have been planted 
anew, the ancient fame has not been fully re- 
gained. A town, too, many of whose citizens 
spent more than half their lives on shipboard, 
was sure to suffer from our wars, peculiarly 



Cape Cod Towns 375 

disastrous to seafaring pursuits. Early in the 
Revolution, Wellfieet was constrained to peti- 
tion for an abatement of her war-tax, stating 
that her whale-fishery, by which nine tenths of 
her people lived, was entirely shut off by British 
gunboats, and that the shell-fish industries, on 
which the remaining tenth depended, was 
equally at a standstill. In this distress, as 
again in the Civil War, Cape Cod sailors 
took to privateering and made a memorable 
record, Wellfieet, like Truro, has lessened 
more than one half in population since 1850, 
but her shell roads are better than the sand- 
ruts of her neighbor, and bicyclists and other 
summer visitors are beginning to find her out. 
She has her own melancholy charm of barren- 
ness and desolation quite as truly as she has 
her characteristic dainties of quahaug pie and 
fried-quahaug cakes. The place abounds in 
dim old stories, from the colonial legend of the 
minister's deformed child, done to death by a 
dose from its father's hand, that child whose 
misshapen little ghost still fiits, on moonlight 
nights, about a certain rosebush, to the many- 
versioned tale of the buccaneer, ever and anon 
seen prowling about that point on the Back Side 
where Sam Bellamy's pirate-ship was cast 



376 



Cape Cod Towns 



away, and stooping to gather the coins flung 
up to him by the skeleton hands of his drowned 
shipmates. A volume would not suffice for 
the stories of these Cape towns. Their very 
calendar is kept by storms : as the Magee storm 
of December, 1778, when the government brig 
General Arnold, commanded by Captain James 

Magee, went down ; 
or the Mason and 
Slidell storm of 
1862, when the 
Southern emissaries 
were brought from 
Fort Warren to Pro- 
vi nee town, and 
there, amidst the 
protest of the ele- 
ments, yielded up 
to the British 
^\.^2.v[i^x Rinaldo ; or 
the pitiless October 

BISHOP AND CLERK LIGHT, HYANNIS. ^^|^ ^£ ^g^^^ ^^J^^^^ 

from Truro alone forty-seven men were swal- 
lowed by the sea. 

The quiet little town of Eastham, originally 
*' Nawsett," settled in 1646, only seven years 
after the three pioneers, Barnstable, Sandwich 




Cape Cod Towns zil 

and Yarmouth, has shared the hard fortunes of 
the lower Cape. With a remnant of less than 
five hundred inhabitants, it finds, under the 
present stress, a resource in asparagus, shipping 
a carload or two to Boston every morning in 
the season. To this land industry the ocean 
consents to contribute, the soil being dressed 
for '' sparrowgrass " with seaweed and shells. 
But no hardship can deprive Eastham of its 
history. After the encounter between the Pil- 
grims and Indians here in 1620, the place was 
not visited again until the following July, when 
Governor Bradford sent from Plymouth a 
boatload of ten men to recover that young 
scapegrace, John Billington. This boy, whose 
father, ten years after, was hanged by the col- 
onists for murder, had come near blowing up 
the Mayflower, in Provincetown harbor, by 
shooting off a fowling-piece in her cabin, close 
by an open keg of powder, and, later, must 
needs lose himself in Plymouth woods. He 
had wandered into the territory of the Nausets, 
who, althouorh this was the tribe which had 
suffered from Hunt's perfidy, restored the lad 
unharmed to the English. The Nausets fur- 
ther proved their friendliness by supplying the 
Pilgrims, in the starving time of 1622, with 



37^ 



Cape Cod Towns 



stores of corn and beans. But the followino- 
year, suspecting an Indian plot against the 
colonists, Myles Standish, that " little chimney 
soon on fire," appeared upon the Cape in full 
panoply of war, executed certain of the alleged 

conspirators and so 
terrified the rest 
that many fled to 
the marshes and 
miserably perished. 
The traveller up 
the Cape notices 
still that Eastham 
has more of a land 
look than the lower 
towns. The soil is 
darker, small stones 
appear, and the 
trees, although still 
twisted to left and right, as if to dodge a blow, 
are larger. The Indians had maize-fields there 
and the site seemed so promising to the Pilgrims 
that talk sprang up in the early forties of trans- 
ferring the Plymouth colony thither. As a com- 
promise, several of the old-comers obtained a 
grant of the Nauset land, and established a 
branch settlement, soon incorporated as a town- 




OLD WINDMILL, EASTHAM. 



Cape Cod Towns 379 

ship. Promptly arose their meeting-house, 
twenty feet square, with port-holes and a thatch. 
They secured a full congregation by absence 
penalties of ten shillings, a flogging or the 
stocks. One of these sturdy fathers in the 
faith. Deacon Doane, is said to have lived to 
the patriarchal age of one hundred and ten, 
rounding life's circle so completely that at the 
end, as at the beginning, he was helplessly 
rocked in a cradle. 

Thoreau was amused over a provision made 
by the town of Eastham in 1662, that "a part 
of every whale cast on shore be appropriated 
for the support of the ministry," and drew a 
fancy-picture of the old parsons sitting on the 
sand-hills in the storms, anxiously watching for 
their salaries to be rolled ashore over the bars 
of the Back Side. One of these w^orthies. 
Rev. Samuel Treat, whose oratory outroared 
the stormy surf, shares with Richard Bourne, 
of Sandwich, the memory of a true pastoral 
care for the Cape Indians. He was, in re- 
turn, so well beloved, that, on his death, his 
wild converts dug a long passage through the 
remarkably deep snowfall of the time, and 
bore him on their shoulders down this white 
archway to his grave. The Revolutionary War 



380 Cape Cod Towns 

was a heavy drain on the resources of the 
staunch httle town, but, with the restoration 
of peace, whaHng and all kinds of deep-sea 
fishing were resumed, and a tide of prosperity 
set in. Salt-works were established, and pre- 
sently Eastham was able to afford such luxuries 
as a pulpit cushion and a singing-school. 

Orleans, set off in 1797 from the southerly 
portion of Eastham, has an old-fashioned 
quaintness that is better than business pros- 
perity. Sand has partially closed the harbors, 
and the population has been dwindling for the 
past half-century, but the ocean still serves old 
neighbors as it can with quahaugs and the 
seaweed, now collected for paper-making. The 
distinction of being the terminus of the French 
Atlantic Cable fromi Brest is in keeping with 
the name Orleans — a unique instance of a for- 
eign title among these old Cape towns. The 
early settlers put by the melodious I ndian words, 
Succanessett, Mattacheeset, and the rest, and 
substituted the dear home names from Devon, 
Cornwall, Norfolk and Kent. The christening 
of Brewster, Bourne and Dennis honored sev- 
erally the Pilgrim elder, the Sandwich friend of 
the Indians and a Yarmouth pastor ; but these 
are of comparatively recent date. As Well- 



Cape Cod Towns 381 

fleet and Orleans have been cut, on north and 
south, out of the original Eastham, so were 
Harwich, Chatham, Dennis, Brewster, once 
*' within the liberties of Yarmouth." 

The history of Yarmouth, too, is so closely 
allied to the histories of Barnstable and of 
Sandwich, with her daughter Bourne, that the 
story of all these may be told as one. 

These three initial settlements on the Cape 
were recognized as townships in 1639. From 
the outset, the difference in their locations mi- 
posed upon them different tasks. Yarmouth, 
the elbow town of the Cape, bore the brunt 
of wind and wave ; Sandwich kept the border, 
notably in King Philip's War, when she guarded 
the faithful Cape Indians from temptation and 
received for safe harborao^e Ens^lish refuorees 
from the ravaged districts ; and Barnstable, the 
aristocratic sister of the group, made traditions, 
set examples and produced the Otis family. 
With Old Yarmouth, the Cape widens. No 
longer do householders, as at Truro, own land 
in strips from shore to shore. The soil, too, 
deepens, and the cows need not with hungry 
noses brush away the drifted sand to find the 
grass. On the Back Side is no marked change 
in aspect. Still pine grove after pine grove 



382 Cape Cod Towns 

adds flavor to the salt air, and where the 
carpet of needles is trodden through, gleam 
patches of white sand. The strange reap- 
pearance of the Some7'set is out-miracled in 
Old Ship Harbor, where, in 1863, long after 
the significance of the name had been for- 
gotten, the hull of the Sparrozu-Hawk, wrecked 
there in 1626, on her way from London to 
Virginia, rose again to view. This portion of 
the Cape is in excellent repute with pleasure- 
seekers, and the seaside cottage is ubiquitous, 
especially in beautiful Chatham, whose ever- 
changing shore takes the wildest raging of the 
surf. Harwich, which has orone throuofh the 

' <Z> O 

regular stages of whaling, codding, mackerel- 
fishinor and salt-makino^, cultivates in turn the 
summer boarder, but somewhat quizzically. 
Retired sea-captains are not easily overawed 
even by golf-sticks, and retired sea-captains, 
in Harwich, are as thick as cranberries. Snuff- 
ing the brine, they pace their porches like so 
many quarter-decks and delight their auditors 
and themselves with marvellous recitals. The 
Cape has not proved friendly to manufactures 
in eeneral. Salt-works and ^lass-works have 
come to naught, — but the spinning of sea- 
yarns is a perennial industry. 



384 Cape Cod Towns 

Many of the summer guests prefer the north 
side of the Cape, where fogs are less frequent, 
or where. In ancient Indian parlance, old Maus- 
hope smokes his pipe less often. Such find in 
Brewster and Dennis no less delightful colonies 
of ancient ship-masters, living easily off their 
sea-hoards. In 1837 that little town of Dennis 
claimed no fewer than one hundred and fifty 
skippers sailing from various American ports, 
and in 1850 it was said that more sea-captains 
went on foreign voyages from Brewster than 
from any other place in the United States. 
Often their wives sailed with them and had 
thereafter something wider than village gossip 
to bring to the quilting- and the sewing-circle. 
It was a great day for the children In the vil- 
lage when a sea-captain came home. From 
door to door went his frank sailor-gifts, jars 
of Chinese sweetmeats, shimmering Indian 
stuffs, tamarinds, cocoanuts, parrots, fans of 
gay feather, boxes of spicy wood, glowing 
corals, and such great, whispering shells as 
Cape Cod beaches never knew. It was a 
hospitable and merry time, given to savory 
suppers, picnic clambakes, and all manner of 
neighborly good-cheer. Even the common 
dread made for a closer sympathy. Any 



Cape Cod Towns 385 

woman, going softly to her neighbor to break 
the news of the husband lost in Arctic ice, 
might in some dark hour drop her head upon 
that neighbor's shoulder in hearing of a son 
drowned off the Banks or slain by South Sea 
Islanders. 

The old town of Yarmouth, dozing thus 
among children already gray, has many a thing 
to dream about, when the surf is loud. She 
remembers the terrible gale of 1635, in which 
the Thacher family were wrecked upon the 
island that since has borne their name, the 
March snow-storm that destroyed the three 
East Indiamen from Salem, the stranding of 
the English Jasoii, and many a tragedy more. 
Along that treacherous Back Side, lighthouse 
towers are now closely set, and well-equipped, 
well-manned life-saving stations have succeeded 
the rude Charity Houses, the fireplace, wood 
and matches, straw pallet, and signal-pole 
which used to give what succor they might 
to hapless mariners. The old volunteer coast- 
guard, which rarely failed to pace the beach 
in storms, is now replaced by a regular patrol, 
carrying lanterns and red hand-lights and 
thoroughly drilled in the use of shot-line and 
breeches-buoy. But still the fierce-blowing 



386 



Cape Cod Towns 



sand cuts their faces to bleeding and still the 
furious surf makes playthings of their life- 
boats, so that manhood has no less heroic 
opportunity than in the earlier days. The 
crew at one of these stations, after an exposure 
of twelve hours on the wintry beach, failed 



V 




LIFE-SAVING STATION AT WELLFLEET. 

in every effort to launch the surf-boat and 
had to see the rescue they should have made 
effected by a crew of fishermen volunteers. 
The keeper brooded over his disgrace and 
the following winter wiped out what is known 
upon the Cape as the "goading slur" by a 




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388 Cape Cod Towns 

desperate launching in a surf that beat the 
Hfe from his body. 

Ever since the day of the Pilgrims, who 
made the suggestion, and of George Washing- 
ton, who furthered the project, there has been 
talk of a Cape Cod canal to expedite traffic 
and avert disaster. A channel between East- 
ham and Orleans was once forced by the sea, 
and various routes through Yarmouth, Barn- 
stable and Sandwich have been surveyed, and 
charters granted, but ships still round Race 
Point. The railroad, however, which was built 
by slow stages down the Cape and reached 
Provincetown only a quarter of a century since, 
has facilitated travel, doing away both with 
the red-and-yellow mail-coach, which used, a 
hundred years ago, to clatter through to Bos- 
ton in two glorious days, and with the packet 
service of jolly memory. Yarmouth and Barn- 
stable were sharp rivals in these packet trips, 
Barnstable putting her victories into verse : 

" The Commodore Hull she sails so dull 
She makes her crew look sour ; 
The Eagle Flight she is out of sight 

Less than a half an hour. 
But the bold old Emerald takes delight 
To beat the ComTnodore and the Flight.'* 



Cape Cod Towns 



389 



Barnstable has pursued from the outset a 
course of modest prosperity. She does not 
ask too much of 
fortune. If her 
census-roll has 
gained only five 
in the last de- 
cade, that is bet- 
ter than losing, 
as most of the 
Cape towns have 
done, and, even 
so, her numbers 
rank next to Pro- 
vincetown. How 
humble were the 
beginnings of 
this sedate and 
gracious county 
seat may be learned from the letter of an early 
citizen, declining Governor Winslow's appoint- 
ment to lead an expedition against the Dutch. 
This quiet colonist, who commanded the Ply- 
mouth forces in King Philip's War, pleads his 
domestic cares : 

'' My wife, as is well known to the whole town, is not 
only a weak woman, and has been so all along, but now, 




BARNSTABLE INN. 



390 Cape Cod Towns 

by reason of age, being sixty-seven years and upwards, 
and nature decaying, so her ilhiess grows more strongly 
upon her. Never a day passes but she is forced to rise 
at break of day, or before. She cannot lie for want of 
breath. And when she is up, she cannot light a pipe of 
tobacco, but it must be lighted for her. And she has 
never a maid. That day your letter came to my hands, 
my maid's year being out, she went away, and I cannot 
get or hear of another. And then in regard of my occa- 
sions abroad, for the tending and looking after all my 
creatures, the fetching home my hay, that is yet at the 
place where it grew, getting of wood, going to mill, and 
for the performing all other family occasions, I have now 
but a small Indian boy about thirteen years of age, to 
help me. Sir, I can truly say that I do not in the least 
waive the business out of an effeminate or dastardly 
spirit, but am as freely willing to serve my King and my 
country as any man whatsoever, in what I am capable and 
fitted for, but do not understand that a man is so called 
to serve his country with the inevitable ruin and destruc- 
tion of his own family." 

An " effeminate or dastardly spirit " would 
indeed be a novelty in the birthplace of James 
Otis. But it was not only in face of the Indian 
and the redcoat that these three old towns 
showed firm courage. To their glory be it re- 
membered that they withstood the persecutor 
and bluntly refused to enforce the laws against 
heresy, so that a special officer had to be sent 
by Plymouth Court to hunt out and oppress 



Cape Cod Towns 391 

the Quakers. Under his petty tyrannies, the 
faith of the Friends gained many converts, and 
Quakerism became permanently estabHshed on 
the Cape. 

These upper towns have never depended 
on the sea as exclusively as those below, and 
hence the decline of the fisheries has been less 
disastrous to them. They need industries to 
hold their young people at home, but the ma- 
rine manufacture of salt by solar evaporation, 
the discovery of a Dennis sea-captain, has had 
its day, and the once famous Sandwich glass- 
works are now idle. Sheep-raising and cattle- 
raisinor were lonor since abandoned, but while 
the New England Thanksgiving lasts, cran- 
berry culture bids fair to yield an honest profit. 
As early as 1677, Massachusetts presented 
Charles II. (put out of humor by the pine- 
tree shilling) with three thousand codfish, two 
hogsheads of samp and ten barrels of cran- 
berries. These last are still good enough for 
a better king than the Merry Monarch, and 
cranberry-picking is one of the most pic- 
turesque sights on the modern Cape. Hun- 
dreds of pickers, gathering by hand or with 
the newlv invented machines, move over a 
bog in ordered companies. The *' summer 



392 Cape Cod Towns 

folks " flock to the fun, and Portuguese, Ital- 
ians, Swedes, Poles, Finns, Russians, troop 
down from Boston and over from New Bed- 
ford for the brief cranberry season, or they 
may come earlier to join the blueberry-pickers 
that dot the August hills. The bogs are easily 
made from the wastes of swamp, which are 
drained, sanded, planted and given three 
years to grow a solid mat of vines. The crop 
from a few acres brings dollars enough to carry 
the thrifty Cape Codder through the year. 
Rents are of the lowest, and the shrewd old 
seaman who tends his own garden, salts his 
own pork, raises his own chickens, milks his 
own cow and occasionally " goes a-fishin','' 
while his wife cooks and sews, and " ties tags " 
for pin-money, has no heavy bills to meet. 
There is so little actual poverty in these towns 
that the poorhouse is often rented. 

Even Mashpee, once the Indian reservation, 
but now a little township peopled by half- 
breeds, mulattoes and a sprinkling of whites, 
grows tidier and more capable every year. The 
aborigines of Cape Cod have left slight traces 
save the melodious names that cling to bay 
and creek. Arrow-heads are scattered about, 
and now and then the plough turns up one of 



Cape Cod Towns 393 

the clam-shell hoes with which the Nausets 
used to till their maize-fields. The Praying 
Indians of the Cape deserve our memory, 
for they were always faithful to their English 
neiorhbors. When the first reoflmentwas raised 
in Barnstable County for the Revolutionary 
War, twenty-two Mashpees enlisted, of whom 
but one came home. A Praying Indian of 
Yarmouth has won a place in New England 
song, — Nauhaught the Deacon, who, hunger- 
pinched, restored the tempting purse of gold 
to the Wellfleet skipper and received a tithe 
'' as an honest man." 

The beauty of the upper Cape, culminating 
in the lovely town of Falmouth, is largely rural 
and sylvan. A system of dyking has, within 
the last fifty years, converted much of the salt 
marsh to good, fresh meadow, and, from Or- 
leans up, the look of the country is more and 
more agricultural. Portions of Yarmouth are 
well wooded, and in Barnstable, Sandwich and 
Falmouth are depths of forest where the fox 
and the deer run wild. The wolf alone has 
been exterminated, and that with no small 
trouble, the Cape finally proposing, after grisly 
heads had been nailed on all her meeting- 
houses, to build a high fence along her upper 



394 Cape Cod Towns 

border and shut the wolves out. But Ply- 
mouth and Wareham objected, from their 
side of the question, to having the wolves 
shut in, and this ingenious scheme had to 
be abandoned. These woodlands are dotted 
in profusion with silvery ponds, which the 
Fish Commission at Wood's Holl keeps well 
stocked. Often the north side, as in Sand- 
wich, is skirted by long stretches of unre- 
claimed marsh, over which the heron flaps, 
with the distinguished air of an old resident, 
and from which the sweet whistle of the 
marsh quail answers the " Bob White " of the 
woods. There is plenty of rock in this land- 
scape, the backbone of the Cape jutting 
through. Barnstable proudly exhibits four 
hundred feet of wall, two feet in width, wrought 
from a sincrle mass of ofranite found within her 
limits. Falmouth arbutus grows pinkest about 
the base of a big boulder known as City Rock, 
and a field of tumbled stones upon her Ouisset 
road is accounted for on the hypothesis that 
here the Devil, flying with his burden over to 
Nantucket, "broke his apron-string." The 
trees, too, are of goodly size and stand erect. 
Elms, silver-leaf poplars, balm of Gileads, 
great sycamores, spotted with iron-rust lichen, 



39^ Cape Cod Towns 

and willows, lemon yellow in the sun, shade the 
waysides. Golden-winged woodpeckers and 
red-shouldered blackbirds dart to and fro, while 
the abundance of jaunty martin-houses shows 
that Cape Cod hospitality is not limited to the 
human. 

The quiet, white homesteads, with green 
blinds, broad porches and sometimes a cupola 
for the sea-view, stand in a sweet tranquillity 
and dignity that should abash the showy sum- 
mer residence. But these old-fashioned homes 
keep up with the times. Against the well- 
sweep leans the bicycle. The dooryards are 
blue with myrtle, or pink with rose-bushes, 
or gay with waving daffodils. Old age is in 
fashion on the Cape. When twilight fades, 
the passer-by sees gathered about the early 
evening lamp the white heads of those whose 
*' chores " are done. And though death comes 
at last, the cemeteries are so tenderly kept that 
the grave is robbed of half its dread. Even 
in the oldest burial-grounds, where the worn, 
scarred stones lean with the privilege of age, 
the staring death's-heads are cozily muffled in 
moss, and '' Patience, wife of Experience," 
sleeps under a coverlet of heartsease. 

All the way from Provincetown to Falmouth 



39^ Cape Cod Towns 

are certain briny signals, — a ship's figure- 
head, marble steps whose stone was washed 
ashore as wreckage, lobster-pots, herring-nets, 
conch-shells set on lintels, a discontented polar 
bear pacing a stout-paled yard, ruffling cocka- 
toos, boats converted into flower-boxes, whales' 
vertebrae displayed for ornament, garden-beds 
marked out with scallop-shells, everywhere the 
ship-shape look, the sailor's handy rig, and 
everywhere the codfish used for weathercocks. 
In Barnstable court-house a mammoth cod is 
suspended from the ceiling. Vistas of ocean 
outlook, too, from under arches of green 
branches, flash upon the eye, the salty flavor 
is not lost in woodland fragrances, and the roll- 
ing hills and wavy pastures take their model 
from the sea. 

Of the old-timey features of the Cape, no 
one is more impressive than the witch-like 
windmill with its peaked cap, outspread arms 
and slanting broomstick, reminding us that the 
Pilgrims came from Holland. Some of these 
antique mills have been bought by summer 
residents and moved to their estates for curios- 
ities, but the one at Orleans was in use as late 
as 1892, taking its profitable toll of two quarts 
out of the bushel. 



400 Cape Cod Towns 

The general history of Fahnouth but re- 
peats the story of her sister towns. The first 
settlers are believed to have come in boats from 
Barnstable, in 1660. They encamped for the 
night among the flags of Consider Hatch's 
Pond, where a child was born and, in recogni- 
tion of the rushes that sang his earliest lullaby, 
named Moses. The town was duly incorporated 
in 1686, next after Eastham, and has steadfastly 
stood for piety, wisdom and patriotism. She 
admitted the Quakers, and if one of her dea- 
cons held a negro slave, as colonial deacons 
often did, poor Cuffee was at least brought to 
the communion table. It is Truro that con- 
tains " Pomp's Lot," where the stolen African, 
with loaf of bread and jug of water at his feet 
for sustenance on his new journey, escaped 
slavery by hanging. As for learning, it was 
Sandwich Academy which the Cape towns 
held in awe, but our Falmouth men, like the 
rest, half sailor, half farmer and all theologian, 
had a genuine culture, born of keen-eyed 
voyaging and of lonely thought, that kept 
the air about them tingling with intelligence. 
When it comes to war stories, if Provincetown, 
from her end of the Cape, can tell of her boy 
in blue that went down with the CiLmberlandy 



402 Cape Cod Towns 

and her naval captain at Manila, Falmouth 
can recall that twice she was bombarded by 
the British and twice defended by the valor of 
her sons, and when the Civil War broke out, 
with the larger share of her able-bodied men 
at sea, she yet sent more than her quota of 
soldiers to the front. 

Within the last quarter-century, Falmouth 
has entered on new activities, largely due to 
the increasing fame of Buzzard's Bay as a 
summer resort. The story goes that the town 
had all gone to sleep, but somebody woke one 
day and painted his front fence, and forth- 
with his neighbors, not to be outdone, painted 
theirs, and their houses too, and the new era 
came in with a rush. But v/hatever good fort- 
une the future has in store, Paul Revere's 
bell, that sounds from her central steeple, will 
hold Falmouth true to her traditions ; for these 
Cape towns, simple as their record is, have 
worked out on unconsciously heroic lines the 
essential principles of a God-fearing, self-re- 
specting democracy. 




DEERFIELD 



OLD POCUMTUCK VALLEY 



By GEORGE SHELDON 



TO every one familiar with the history of the 
old Bay State, the name of Deerfield 
naturally brings to mind two diverse pictures : 
one, the giant trees of the primeval forest un- 
der whose sombre shade the white-haired 
Eliot prayed, and the sluggish stream beside 
whose banks he gathered its roving denizens 
for a test of civilization ; the other, that scene 
of woe and desolation, when, under a wintry 
sky, the glare of burning houses lighted up a 
wide expanse of snow, shaded by dark columns 
of wavering smoke, and splashed here and 
there with red. The first picture suggests 
possibilities, the second results. The connect- 
ing link between the two is the fact that out 
of the labors of Eliot on the river Charles 



403 



404 Deerfield 

grew directly the settlement of the English on 
the Pocumtuck. 

Back of all was the interest in the newly dis- 
covered heathen, which sent currents of gold 
from England across the seas to the Indian 
missions. Of all these that of the Apostle Eliot 
was the head and front. His first attempt, at 
Newton, was a failure, from its proximity to a 
Christian towp. On his petition, the General 
Court granted him a tract in the wilderness 
where he and the uncontaminated native could 
come face to face with the God of Nature. 
This tract was claimed by the town of Dedham, 
and, after a successful legal contest, the General 
Court gave the claimant in lieu of it the right 
to select eight thousand acres in any unoccu- 
pied part of the colony. After wide search 
this grant was laid out on Pocumtuck River, 
and the selection was ratified by the Court, 
October 1 1, 1665. 

This power, however, was only leave to pur- 
chase of the native owners. The laws recog- 
nized the rights of the Indians to the soil, and 
no Englishman was allowed to buy or even re- 
ceive as a gift any land from an Indian without 
leave of the General Court. The oft-repeated 
slander that the fair purchase of land from the 



4o6 Deerfield 

Indians was peculiar to William Penn, can be 
refuted in general by a study of our early 
statute books, and in particular by an examin- 
ation of the original deeds from the Indians, 
now in our Memorial Hall. 

It will be seen by these deeds that the In- 
dians reserved the right of hunting, fishing 
and gathering nuts — all, in fact, that was of 
any real value to them. The critic says that 
in such trades the price was nominal and that 
the Indian was outrageously cheated. Fort- 
unately, in this case existing evidence proves 
that Dedham paid the natives more than the 
English market price, in hard cash, and besides 
gave one acre at Natick for every four here. 

The money to pay for the eight thousand 
acres was raised by a tax on the landholders of 
Dedham, the owners paymg in proportion to 
the number of shares or "cow commons" 
held ; and their ownership of the new territory 
was in the same proportion. There were five 
hundred and twenty-two shares in all, held 
in common, covering the whole of Dedham. 

In 1 67 1 a committee from Dedham laid out 
highways, set apart tracts for the support of 
the ministry, laid out a " Town Plott," and 
large sections of plow-land and of mow-land. 



Deerfield 407 

In each of these sections individuals were as- 
signed by lot their respective number of cow 
commons. Later the woodlands were divided 
in the same manner. For generations this 
land was bought and sold, not by the acre, but 
by the cow common, fractions thereof being 
sheep or goat commons, five of these being a 
unit. 

The ''Town Plott," laid out in 1671, is the 
Old Deerfield Street of to-day. 

The first settlers at Pocumtuck were not, 
as generally supposed, the original Dedham 
owners. The shares of the latter had been 
for years on the market, and many had passed 
to outsiders. But only picked men were al- 
lowed to become proprietors. This fact is 
illustrated by votes like the following : 

" Dec. 4, 1 67 1. John Plimpton is allowed to 
purchase land of John Bacon at Pawcumtucke 
provided that the said John Plimpton doe set- 
tle thereupon in his owne person." On the 
same day the request of Daniel Weld for leave 
to purchase was refused. No reason was as- 
signed, and Mr. Weld was admitted soon 
after. 

"Feb. 16, 1671-2. Lieft. Fisher is alowed 
libertie to sell 6 cow common rights and one 

o 



4o8 



Deerfield 



sheepe common right at Paucomtuck to Na- 
thaniel Sutthfe of Medfield." 




FRARY HOUSE, 1698. OLDEST IN THE COUNTY. 



The pioneer settler here was Samuel H ins- 
dell, of Medford. He had bought shares, and, 
impatient of delay in making the division, he 
became a squatter, and in 1669 turned the first 
furrow in the virgin soil of Pocumtuck. Sam- 
son Frary was a close second, if not a contem- 
porary ; *' Samson Frary's cellar " is mentioned 
in the report of the Committee, May, 1671. 



Deerfield 409 

The settlers increased rapidly. May 7, 
1673, the General Court gave them " Liberty 
of a Towneship," which is Deerfield's only 
''Act of Incorporation." Soon after, a rude 
meeting-house was built, and Samuel Mather 
served as a minister among them. 

A loose sheet of paper has been found dated 
Nov. 7, 1673, with a record of a town-meeting. 
This was signed by the following, who must be 
called the earliest settlers : 

Richard Weler John Barnard 

John Plympton John Weler 

Joshua Carter Samuel Herenton 

Samson Frary John Hinsdell 

Quinten Stockwell Ephraim Hinsdell 

Joseph Gillet Moses Crafts 

Barnabas Hinsdell Nathaniel Sutley 

Robert Hinsdell John Farrington 

John Allen Thomas Hastings 

Daniel Weld Francis Barnard 

Samuel Hinsdell Samuel Daniel 

Experience Hinsdell James Tufts. 
The action of this meeting was chiefly on 
the division of land, but it was voted that '' all 
charges respecting the ministers sallerye or 
maintenance bee leuied and raised on lands for 
the present." Another page shows a meet- 



4IO Deerfield 

ing November 17, 1674, when the plantation 
was called Deerfield. We have no clue as to 
why or by what authority it was so called. 

The newcomers found the meadows free 
from trees, with a rich soil which soon yielded 
abundantly of wheat, rye, peas, oats, beans, 
flax, grass and Indian corn. The meadows 
were enclosed with a common fence to keep 
out the common stock, which roamed at will 
on the common land outside. 

The war of 1675 is called "Philip's War" 
because Philip was able to incite the tribes to 
hostilities against the whites, rather than be- 
cause it was carried on under his direction. A 
seer and a patriot Philip may have been, but 
he was not a warrior. It is not known that 
he was ever in a single conflict. 

When the first blood was shed at far-away 
Swanzey, in June, 1675, the men of Pocum- 
tuck were not disquieted. With the Indians 
about them they had lived for years in perfect 
harmony. But when the blow fell on Captains 
Beers and Lothrop under the shadow of their 
own Wequamps, war became a reality. As a 
measure of defense two or three houses were 
slightly fortified, and none too soon. The 
villao^e was marked for destruction. On the 



Deerfield 411 

morning of September i, 1675, the Indians 
gathered in the adjoining woods, awaiting 
the hour when the men, scattered about the 
meadows at their work could be shot down 
one bv one, leavinor the women and children 
to the mercy of the Indians. This plan was 
frustrated. The Indians were discovered early 
in the morning by James Eggleston, while 
looking for his horse. Eggleston was shot 
and the alarm given. The people fled to the 
forts. These were easily defended by the 
men, but beyond the range of their muskets 
ruin and devastation held sway. 

Deerfield was the first town in the Connecti- 
cut Valley to be assaulted, and the alarm was 
general. The news reached Hadley the same 
day while the inhabitants were gathered in the 
meeting-house observing a fast ; " and," says 
Mather, " they were driven from the holy ser- 
vice they were attending by a most sudden and 
violent alarm which routed them the whole day 
after." Their alarm and rout were needless ; no 
enemy appeared. Yet these words of the his- 
torian are the narrow foundation on which 
Stiles and others gradually built up the roman- 
tic myth of Goffe, as the guardian and deliverer 
of Hadley. 



412 Deerfield 

September 2, the tactics at Deerfield were 
successfully repeated by the Indians at North- 
field. Eight men were killed in the meadows, 
but enough were left in the village to hold 
the stockade. September 4, Captain Richard 
Beers with his company who were marching to 
their relief, were surprised, and himself and 
twenty men were slain. September 5, Major 
Robert Treat, with a superior force, brought 
off the beleaguered survivors. 

Sunday, September 12, another blow fell 
upon Deerfield. The place had now a garri- 
son under Captain Samuel Appleton. The 
Indians could see from the hills the soldiers 
gathering in one of the forts for public wor- 
ship. They laid an ambush to waylay the 
soldiers and people returning after service to 
the north fort, but all escaped their fire save 
one, who was wounded. Nathaniel Cornbury, 
left to sentinel the north fort, was captured, 
and never again heard from. Appleton rallied 
his men, and the marauders, after inflicting 
much loss on the settlers, drew off to Pine Hill. 

But a sadder blow was to fall upon the dwell- 
ers in this little vale. The accumulated result 
of their industry and toil was to disappear in 
flame and ashes. In their wanton destruction 



Deerfield 413 

the Indians had spared the wheat In the field 
for their own future supply ; *' 3000 bushels 
standing in stacks," says Mather. This wheat 
was needed at headquarters to feed the gath- 
ering troops, and Colonel Pynchon, the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, gave orders to have it threshed 
and sent to Hadley. Captain Thomas Lothrop, 
with his company, was sent to convoy the 
teams transporting it. 

September 18, 1675, ''that most fatal day, 
the saddest that ever befel New England," says 
a contemporary, " Captain Lothrop, with his 
choice company of young men, the very flower 
of the county of Essex," marched boldly down 
the street, across South Meadows, up Long 
Hill, into the woods stretching away to Hat- 
field Meadows. Confident in his strength, 
scorning the enemy. Captain Lothrop pushed 
on through the narrow path, with not a flanker 
or vanguard thrown out. Extending along his 
left lay a swampy thicket through which crept 
a nameless brook. Gradually, the swamp nar- 
rowed, and turned to the right across the line 
of march. At this spot the combined force 
of the enemy lay in ambush, and into this trap 
marched Lothrop and his men. While the 
teams were slowly dragging their loads through 



414 Deerfield 

the mire, it is said the soldiers laid down their 
guns to pluck and eat the grapes which grew 
in abundance by the way. Be this true or not, 
at this spot they were surprised and stunned 
by the fierce war-whoop, the flash and roar of 
muskets with their bolts of death. Captain 
Lothrop and many of his command fell at the 
first fire. The men of Pocumtuck sank, the 
''Flower of Essex" wilted before the blast, and — 

" Sanguinetto tells ye where the dead 
Made the earth wet, and turn'd the unwilling waters 
red." 

The sluggish stream was baptized for aye, 
"Bloody Brook." 

Captain Samuel Moseley, who was search- 
ing the woods for Indians, hearing the firing, 
was soon on the ground. Too late to save, 
he did his best to avenge ; he charged repeat- 
edly, scattering the enemy, who swarmed as 
often as dispersed. But he defied all their 
efforts to surround him. His men exhausted 
with their long efforts, Moseley was about to 
retire, when just in the nick of time Major 
Treat appeared, with a force of English and 
Mohegans. The enemy were driven westward 
and were pursued until nightfall. The united 



Deerfield 4^5 

force then marched to Deerfield, bearing their 
wounded, and leaving the dead where they fell. 

Mather says, "this was a black and fatal day 
wherein there was eight persons made widows 
and six and twenty children made orphans, all 
in one little Plantation." That plantation was 
Deerfield, and these were the heavy tidings 
which the worn-out soldiers carried to the 
stricken survivors of the hamlet. Of the seven- 
teen fathers and brothers who left them in the 
morning, not one returned to tell the tale. The 
next morning, Treat and Moseley marched to 
Bloody Brook and buried the slain — " 64 men 
in one dreadful grave." The names of sixty- 
three are known, and also of seven wounded. 
John Stebbins, ancestor of the Deerfield tribe 
of that name, is the only man in Lothrop's 
command known to have escaped unhurt. 

The reported force of the enemy was a thou- 
sand warriors, and their loss ninety-six. This 
must be taken with a grain of allowance. 

Deerfield was now considered untenable, and 
the poor remnant of her people were scattered 
in the towns below. 

October 5, Springfield was attacked. The 
Indians laid the same plan as at Deerfield and 
Northfield. Only notice given by a friendly 



4i6 Deerfield 

Indian during the nlo^ht before saved the town 
from total destruction. The assailants were 
Indians who had lived for generations neigh- 
bors and friends of the Springfield people. On 
the 4th they had made earnest protestations of 
friendship, on the strength of which the garri- 
son had marched to Hadley. This deliberate 
treachery was probably planned by Philip. 

October 19, a large party made an attack on 
Hatfield, but was repulsed. 

As the spring of 1676 advanced, a large body 
of Indians collected at Peskeompskut for the 
purpose of catching a year's stock of shad and 
salmon. Parties from thence occasionally har- 
assed the settlers below, who knew that when 
the fishing season was over, the enemy would 
constantly infest the valley, and watch every 
chance to kill the unprotected. They there- 
fore determined to take the initiative, and at 
nightfall of May 18, a party of about a hun- 
dred and fifty men under Captain William 
Turner made a night march, surprised the 
camp at daylight the next morning and de- 
stroyed many of the enemy. 

The homeward march was delayed so long 
that Indians from neighboring camps began 
to appear. A released captive reported that 



Deerfield 4^7 

Philip with a thousand warriors was at hand, 
and as the enemy swarmed on rear and flank, 
the retreat became almost a panic. The strag- 
gling and the wounded were cut off. Captain 
Turner was shot while crossing Green River, 
about a mile from the battle-field, and the party, 
under Captain Samuel Holyoke, reached Hat- 
field with the loss of forty-two men. 

The warring Indians never recovered from 
the blow at Peskeompskut. Besides their slain, 
they lost their year's stock of fish, and the hun- 
dreds of acres of Indian corn they had planted 
with the assurance of a permanent abode in 
that region. The broken, disheartened clans 
drifted aimlessly eastward. They quarrelled 
among themselves. Philip, with a few follow- 
ers, skulked back to Pokanoket, where he fell, 
August 12, 1676. The war ended soon after. 

In the spring of 1677, some of the old set- 
tlers came back and planted their deserted 
fields ; preparations for building were well ad- 
vanced by some of the more venturesome, 
when, September 19, they were surprised by 
Ashpelon with a party of Indians from Canada, 
and all were either killed or captured. 

In 1679 the General Court passed an act 
regulating the resettlement of deserted towns, 



4i8 Deerfield 

requiring the consent of certain authorities who 
should prescribe 

" In what form, way & manner, such townes shallbe 
settled & erected, wherein they are required to haue a 
principal respect to neerness and conveniency of habita- 
tion for securitie against enemyes & more comfort for 
Xtian comunion & enjoyment of God's worship & educa- 
tion of children in schools & civility." 

By virtue of this act a committee was appointed 
under whose direction a resettlement of the 
town began in the spring of 1682. Induced by 
grants of land, new settlers appeared, and the 
plantation progressed rapidly. In 1686, sixty 
Proprietors are named. This year, young John 
Williams appears on the scene as candidate 
for the ministry; and, September 21, he re- 
ceived a "call." He was married July 20, 
1687, to Eunice, daughter of Rev. Eleazer 
Mather, of Northampton. October 18, 1688, 
he was ordained, and the First Church was 
organized. 

The second meeting-house was built in 1684, 
the third in 1695, the fourth, a very elaborate 
one, in 1729, the fifth, the present brick struct- 
ure, in 1824, and it is still occupied by the First 
Church. In all these, save the last, the wor- 
shippers were ''seated" by authority. 



Deerfield 



419 



In 1688, on the news of the Revolution in 
England, the seizure of Andros in Boston and 
the call for the election of representatives to 
organize a new government for the Colony, the 




THIRD MEETINQ-HOUSE, 1695-1729. 
Cold indian house on the right.) 

men of Deerfield acted promptly. Lieutenant 
Thomas Wells, a commissioned officer under 
Andros, was selected to represent the town, 
and the selectmen sent to Boston a certificate 
to that effect. These men were fully aware 



420 Deerfield 

that in the case of a faikire of the movement, 
the vindictive Andros would wreak his venge- 
ance upon all concerned. Shrewd men were 
at the fore, and Randolph himself might search 
the town records in vain for any trace of these 
proceedings or other treasonable action. 

Durine Kine William's War, the town was 
harassed by the enemy ; drought and insects 
ruined the crops, and a fatal distemper pre- 
vailed. There was question of deserting the 
place, but bolder counsels controlled. Baron 
Castine with an army from Canada attempted 
a surprise of the town, September 15, 1694, 
but he was discovered just in time to close 
the eates, and was driven back with small 
loss to the defenders. Another army organ- 
ized in Canada for the same purpose turned 
back on being discovered by scouts. During 
this trial Deerfield suffered great losses, but 
pluck carried her through. 

Queen Anne's W^ar broke out in i 702. The 
population here was about three hundred souls. 
The fortifications on Meeting-house Hill were 
strengthened, and the house of the commander, 
Captain Wells, about forty rods south, was 
palisaded. In May, 1703, Lord Cornbury, 
Governor of New York, sent word that he had 



422 Deerfield 

learned through his spies of an expedition fit- 
ting out against Deerfield. Soon after, Major 
Peter Schuyler sent a similar warning to Rev. 
John Williams. These warnings were em- 
phasized in July by news that the Eastern 
Indians had made a simultaneous attack on 
all the settlements in Maine, only six weeks 
after signing a treaty of peace with the most 
solemn declarations of eternal friendship. 
Twenty soldiers were sent here to reinforce 
the home guard, and all were on the alert ; 
two men, however, were captured October 8, 
and were carried to Canada. On the alarm 
which followed sixteen more men were sent 
here. October 21, Rev. John Williams writes, 
on behalf of the town, to Governor Dudley : 

"... We have been driven from our houses & 
home lots into the fort, (there are but 10 houselots in the 
fort) ; some a mile, some two miles, whereby we have 
suffered much loss. We have in the alarms several times 
been wholly taken off from any business, the w^hole town 
kept in, our children of 12 or 13 years and under we 
have been afraid to improve in the field for fear of the 
enemy. . . . We have been crowded togather into 
houses to the preventing of indoor affairs being carryd 
on to any advantage, . . . several say they would 
freely leave all they have & go away were it not that it 
would be disobedience to authority & a discouraging 




423 



DOOR OF "old INDIAN HOUSE" HACKED BY INDIANS. 

NOW IN MEMORIAL HALL. 



424 Deerfield 

their bretheren. The frontier difficulties of a place so 
remote from others & so exposed as ours, are more than 
can be known, if not felt. 

Nothing can add to this simple and pathetic 
statement. 

The months dragged slowly on, and no en- 
emy. The deep winter snows seemed a safe 
barrier against invasion. The people, breath- 
ing more freely, gradually resumed their wonted 
ways ; but dark clouds loomed up, all unseen, 
just beyond the northern horizon. In the 
early morning of February 29, 1 703-4, like a 
thunderbolt from a clear sky, an army of 
French and Indians under Hertel de Rouville 
burst upon the sleeping town, and killed or 
captured nearly all of the garrison and inhabit- 
ants within the fort. Through criminal care- 
lessness the snow had been allowed to drift 
against the palisades, until, being covered with 
a hard crust, it afforded an easy and noiseless 
entrance, so that the enemy were dispersed 
among the houses before they were discovered. 

The captives were collected in the house of 
Ensign John Sheldon, which, being fired by the 
enemy only on their retreat, was easily saved, 
and stood until 1848. It was popularly con- 
sidered the only one not burned, and has gone 



426 Deerfield 

into history as the " Old Indian House." 
Its front door, hacked by the Indians, is now 
preserved in Memorial Hall. By sunrise 
the torch and tomahawk had done their 
work. The blood of forty-nine murdered men, 
women and children reddened the snow. 
Twenty-nine men, twenty-four women and 
fifty-eight children were made captive, and in 
a few hours the spoil-encumbered enemy were 
on their three-hundred miles' march over the 
desolate snows to Canada. Twenty of the cap- 
tives were murdered on the route, one of them 
Eunice Williams, wife of the minister. The 
spot where she fell is marked by a monument 
of enduring granite. • 

The desolated town was at once made a mili- 
tary post, and strongly garrisoned. Of the sur- 
vivors, the men were impressed into the service, 
and the non-combatants sent to the towns be- 
low. Persistent efforts were made to recover 
the captives. Ensign Sheldon was sent three 
times to Canada on this errand. One by one, 
and against great odds, most of the surviving 
men and women were recovered ; but a large 
proportion of the children remained in Can- 
ada. Many of their descendants have been 
traced by Miss Baker, author of Trtte Stories 



Deerfield 427 

of New Engla7id Captives, among them some 
of the most distinguished men and women of 
Canadian history. 

The inhabitants of Deerfield gradually re- 
turned to their desolate hearthstones and 
abandoned fields, and held their own during 
the war, but not without severe suffering and 
a considerable loss of life. Peace was estab- 
lished by the Treaty of Utrecht in 17 13. 

Nine years of quiet followed, in which the 
town prospered. The Indians mingled freely 
with the people, bartering the products of their 
hunting for English goods. A permanent 
peace was hoped for, but this hope was blasted 
on the outbreak of the Eastern Indians in i 722. 
Incited by the Canadians, the northern tribes 
joined in the war ; and Father Rasle's war 
brought the usual frontier scenes of fire and 
carnage ; the trading Indians being the most 
effective leaders or guides for marauding par- 
ties. Many Deerfield men were in the ser- 
vice, notably as scouts. Inured to hardship, 
skilled in woodcraft, they were more than a 
match for the savage in his own haunts and in 
his own methods of warfare. 

In 1729, before the new meeting-house was 
finished, the people were called to mourn the 



428 



Deerfield 



death of dielr loved and revered pastor, Rev. 
John WilHams, so widely known as "The 
Redeemed Captive." His successor was Rev. 
Jonathan Ashley, who was ordained in 1732 
and died in i 780. 




STEPHEN WILLIAMS, 1693-1782. 

A CAPTIVE OF FEBRUARY 29, 1703-4. 



Rev. Stephen Williams, a son of Rev. John 
Williams, the first pastor, was born in Deer- 
field in 1693, taken captive to Canada in 1704, 



Deerfield 429 

redeemed in 1 705, graduated at Harvard in 
1 7 13, settled as minister at Longmeadow in 
1 716, dying there in 1782 ; he was Chaplain in 
the Louisburg expedition in 1745, and in the 
regiment of Col. Ephraim Williams in his fatal 
campaign in 1755, and again in the Canadian 
campaign of i 756. His portrait, reproduced on 
page 428, was painted about 1748 ; it is now in 
the Memorial Hall of the Pocumtuck Valley 
Memorial Association, within fourscore rods of 
the spot where the original was born, and 
whence he was carried into captivity. 

On the closing of Father Rasle's war the 
settlement expanded ; trade and home manu- 
factures flourished. Deerfield remained no 
longer the frontier town of the valley, and the 
brunt of the next border war (of i 743 ) was felt 
by the outlying settlements. The one sad blow 
upon this town fell at a little hamlet called 
The Bars. August 25, 1746, the families of 
Samuel Allen and John Amsden, while work- 
ing in a hay-field on Stebbins Meadow, with 
a small guard, were surprised by a party of In- 
dians from Canada, and five men were killed, 
one girl wounded and one boy captured. 
This followed close on the fall of Fort Massa- 
chusetts, and danger of French invasion was 



430 Deerfield 

felt to be imminent. Active measures were 
taken for defense ; the forts were repaired and 
the woods filled with scouts. 

The closing war with France found Deerfield 
more strongly bulwarked, and still less exposed 
to attack. No blood was shed within her nar- 
rowed bounds. Her citizens held prominent 
positions, and did their part in the campaigns 
which resulted in the conquest of Canada and 
the consequent immunity from savage depreda- 
tions. The nest destroyed, the sting of the 
hornets was no longer felt or feared. The 
last raid on Massachusetts soil is described in 
the following mutilated despatch to the military 
authorities in Deerfield : 

" CoLRAiN, March y« 21, 1759. 

" Sir : — These are to inform you that yesterday as Jo* 
McKoon [Kowen] & his wife were coming from 
Daniel Donitsons & had got so far as where Morrison's 
house was burned this day year, they was fired upon by 
the enemy about sunset. I have been down this morn- 
ing on the spot and find no Blood Shed, but see where 
they led off Both the above mentioned ; they had their 
little child with them. I believe they are gone home. 
I think their number small, for there was about 10 or 12 
came [torn off] " 

The most important civil events of this 



Deerfield 431 

period were the divisions of the township. In 
1753 the Green River District, which included 
what is now Greenfield and Gill, was made a 
distinct municipality. The next year the con- 
struction of a bridge over the Pocumtuck River 
at Cheapside was a prominent issue ; the dis- 
cussion ended in establishing a ferry at the 
north end of Pine Hill in i 758. That year the 
people in the vicinity of Sugar Loaf petitioned 
the General Court — but without success — for 
liberty to form a ministerial and educational 
connection with the town of Sunderland, and 
to be exempted from paying certain town taxes 
in consequence. In 1767 the inhabitants of 
Deerfield-Southwest were set off into a town 
named Conway ; and Deerfield-Northwest be- 
came the town of Shelburne in 1 768. The 
same year Bloody Brook people caught the 
division fever, but it did not carry them off. 

A permanent peace being settled and an un- 
stable currency fixed on a firm cash basis, busi- 
ness projects multiplied, and Deerfield became 
the centre of exchange and supply for a large 
territory. The mechanics, or " tradesmen " 
as they were called, and their apprentices, 
rivalled in numbers the agricultural population. 
Here were found the gunsmith, blacksmith, 



432 Deerfield 

nailer and silversmith, the maker of snow- 
shoes and moccasins, the tanner, currier, shoe- 
maker and saddler, the pillion, knapsack and 
wallet-maker, the carpenter and joiner, the clap- 
board and shingle-maker, the makers of wooden 
shovels, corn-fans, flax-brakes, hackels, looms 
and spinning-wheels, cart-ropes and bed-lines, 
and pewter buttons, the tailor, hatter, furrier, 
feltmaker, barber and wigmaker, the cart- 
wright, millwright, cabinet-maker, watchmaker, 
the brickmaker and mason, the miller, the 
carder, clothier, fuller, spinner, weaver of duck 
and common fabrics, the potter, the grave- 
stone-cutter, the cooper, the potash-maker, the 
skilled forger who turned out loom and plow 
irons, farm and kitchen utensils. There were 
doctors and lawyers, the judge and the sheriff ; 
storekeepers were many, and tavern-keepers 
tralore. To all these the old account-books in 
Memorial Hall bear testimony. 

Many leading men held commissions from 
the King In both civil and military service. 
These were rather a distinctive class, holding 
their heads quite high, and when the Revolu- 
tion broke out they were generally loyal to the 
King, making heavy odds against the Whigs. 
But new leaders came to the front, who, so far 



Deerfield 433 

as they had character and force, held their own 
after the war, and the old Tory leaders were 
relegated to the rear. 

At the opening of the Revolutionary War 
the parties were nearly equal in numbers ; on 
one yea and nay test vote there was a tie. Ex- 
citement ran high. In 1774 the "Sons of 
Liberty " erected a Liberty Pole, and at the 
same time a " Torv Pole," whatever that mio-ht 
be. The mob spirit was rampant. Through 
it the fires of patriotism found vent ; but it was 
always under the control of the leaders, and 
its most common office was to " humble the 
Tories," and compel them to sign obnoxious 
declarations of neutrality, or of submission to 
the will of the Committees of Safety and Cor- 
respondence. A Tory of this period wrote : 
" Oh Tempora, all nature seems to be in con- 
fusion ; every person in fear of what his Neigh- 
bor may do to him. Such times never was 
seen in New England." 

<z> 

In October, 1774, a company of minute-men 
was organized here as part of a regiment 
under the Provincial Congress. November 14, 
staff-officers were chosen. David Field, colo- 
nel, and David Dickinson, major, were both 
of Deerfield. December 5, the town raised 



434 Deerfield 

money to buy ammunition by selling lumber 
from its woodland. January 5, 1775, an emis- 
sary from General Gage was here, advising 
the Tories to go to Boston. " The standard 
will be set up in March," he said, " and those 
who do not go in and lay down their arms 
may meet with bad luck." He was discovered, 
but had the good luck to escape a mob ; an- 
other agent who came a few days later was not 
so fortunate. 

But the culmination of all the secret machi- 
nations and open preparations was at hand. 
April 20, at a town-meeting, votes were passed 
to pay wages to the minute-men for what they 
had done ; " to encourage them in perfecting 
themselves in the Military /\rt," provision was 
made for " practicing one half-day in each 
week." 

The voters could hardly have left the meet- 
ing-house, when the sound of a galloping horse 
was heard, and the hoarse call, " To arms ! To 
arms ! " broke upon the air. The horse bloody 
with spurring and the rider covered with dust 
brought the news of Concord and Lexington. 
The half-day drills had done their work. Be- 
fore the clock in the meeting-house steeple 
struck the midnight hour, fifty minute-men, 



Deerfield 435 

under Captain Jonas Locke, Lieutenant 
Thomas Bardwell and Lieutenant Joseph 
Stebbins, were on the march to Cambridge. 
This company was soon broken up ; Captain 
Locke entered the Commissary Department, 
while Lieutenant Stebbins enhsted a new com- 
pany, with which he assisted General Putnam 
in constructing the redoubt on Bunker Hill, and 
in its defense the next day, the ever-glorious 
I /th of June. One Deerfield man was killed 
and several were wounded. 

Independence Day should be celebrated, 
in Deerfield, June 26, for on that day in 1776 
the town 

*' Voted that this Town will (if y^ Honorable Congress 
shall for y^ safety of y^ Ufiited Colonies declare the?n In- 
dependent of y' Kingdom of Great Britain) Solemnly 
Engage with their Lives and For tunes to Support thetn in 
y Measure, and that y* Clerk be directed to make an 
attested copy of this Vote and forward y^ same to Mr. 
Saxton, Representative for this town, to be laid before 
the General Court for their Information." 

Here was treason proclaimed and recorded, 
and every voter was exposed to its penalty. 
Ten days later the Continental Congress 
issued the world-stirring Declaration of In- 
dependence. 



43^ Deerfield 

On Burgoyne's Invasion in 1777 a company 
under Captain Joseph Stebbins and Lieuten- 
ant John Bardwell marched for Bennington. 
They were too late for the battle at Walloom- 
sack, and found the meeting-house filled with 
Stark's Hessian prisoners. But they had their 
share in the work and glory of rounding up 
and capturing the proud soldiers of Burgoyne. 

Deerfield had statesmen as well as soldiers. 
May I, I 780, the town met to consider the new 
Constitution of Massachusetts ; the clerk read 
the instrument " paragraph by paragraph with 
pauses between." After due discussion, a com- 
mittee was chosen to " peruse the Constitution 
. . . and make such objections to it as they 
think ought to be made." Three town-meetings 
were held, the committee reported, and finally 
a vote was passed " not to accept the third Arti- 
cle in the Declaration of Rights," and that a 
candidate for orovernor must " Declare himself 
of the Protestant Reliction " instead of " Christ- 
ian Religion." The term of eight years in- 
stead of fifteen was voted as the time when the 
Constitution should be revised. With these 
changes, our civic wisdom approved of this 
important State paper. 

Deerfield did her full duty in furnishing her 



Deerfield 



437 



quota of men and supplies through the war. 
Occasionally, in the later years of the struggle, 




1822-1884. 



the Tories temporarily obstructed the necessary 
town legislation. Some of these soon found 



43^ Deerfield 

themselves behind the bars, and others In en- 
forced silence under penalty of like restraint. 
The minister, Mr. Ashley, who had been firm 
in his loyalty, died in i 780, and the Tories lost 
one of their strongest supports. Not until 
1787 could the town unite upon his successor, 
when Rev. John Taylor was ordained. The 
uprising called Shays' Rebellion did much to 
harmonize the warring factions, as all united to 
put it down. Three companies, under Cap- 
tains Joseph Stebbins, Samuel Childs and 
Thomas W. Dickinson, were sent to the field 
of action. 

From this time, harmony prevailed, and the 
career of the town was that of an industrious, 
hard-working, prosperous, intellectual people. 
Libraries and literary societies were estab- 
lished, which are still flourishing. Deerfield 
Academy was founded in 1797, and endowed 
largely through the liberality of the citizens. 
Its influence was felt for generations, as its 
pupils from far and wide were scions of leading 
families. Among its faculty and graduates may 
be named men of national reputation, in the 
scientific, the historical, the ecclesiastical, the 
military, the artistic and the industrial world. 

Failing health obliged Mr. Taylor to resign ; 



5;jp«^^.^<^: _,U«,,-JJ,J^_-^ 




BUFFET FROM PARSON WILLIAMS'S HOUSE. 

NOW IN MEMORIAL HALL. 



439 



440 Deerfield 

and in 1807 ^he Rev. Samuel Willard suc- 
ceeded him in the ministry, when, in the separa- 
tion of the Congregational churches, Deerfield 
led the van on the liberal side. 

The political storms of the first two decades 
of the century raged here with strength and 
vigor. In the War of 1 812 a " Professor of the 
Art of War " was added to the faculty of the 
Deerfield Academy, and a Peace Party circu- 
lated their protesting publications. 

Deerfield was early at the front in the anti- 
slavery agitation, and in the war lost some of 
her best blood. The names of her dead in 
that righteous war are carved on a fitting 
monument pointing aloft from the midst of 
her ancient training-field. 

One great attraction in the old town is the 
Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, char- 
tered in 1870. It owns and occupies the old 
academy building, which it secured when the 
new Free Dickinson Academy was established 
in 1878. Its museum occupies the entire struct- 
ure, and contains an exhaustive, characteristic 
collection of the implements, utensils and 
general household belongings of the colonial 
days ; and also of the original lords of the 
valley, the Pocumtuck Indians. 



Deerfield 441 

In the ante-railroad days, Cheapslde, at the 
head of Pocumtuck River navigation, was a 
thriving business village, with large imports of 
foreign wet and dry goods, and large exports 
of lumber, woodenware and brooms ; Deer- 
field was long famous for its stall-fed beef, as 
many a New York and Boston epicure did 
testify ; but the advent of the iron horse soon 
brought about the departure of the fall boat, 
and the passing of the stall-fed ox. The old 
town is no longer a centre of political power, 
or of trade and manufactures. The generous 
additions of territory to her original Grant 
have been bestowed upon the children of her 
loins, now flourishing towns about her. The 
advent of factories has absorbed one by one 
her multifarious mechanical industries. Her 
young men and maidens are seeking elsewhere 
spheres of action in fields till now undreamed 
of. 

But Old Deerfield still retains much of her 
best. Still, as of old, she is an intellectual 
centre. Still beautifully situated, she lies in 
the embrace of the broad green meadows, with 
here and there a gleam of silver from the sinu- 
ous Pocumtuck. Her ancient houses, shadowed 
by towering elms, hoary with age, her charm- 



442 Deerfield 

Ing wooded heights, her romantic gorges and 
tumbhng brooks, her restful quiet, her famous 
past, all in harmony with the thought and 
feeling of her inhabitants, still attract alike 
men and women of letters, the artist and the 
historical student. 



NEWPORT 



THE ISLE OF PEACE 



By SUSAN COOLIDGE 

THE Isle of Peace lies cradled in the wide 
arms of a noble bay. Fifteen miles long 
and from four to five miles in width, its shape 
is not unlike that of an heraldic dragon, laid 
at ease in the blue waters, with head pointed 
to the southwest. From this head to the jut- 
ting cape which does duty as the left claw of 
the beast, the shore is a succession of bold 
cliffs, broken by coves and stretches of rocky 
shingle, and in two places by magnificent curv- 
ing beaches, upon which a perpetual surf 
foams and thunders. Parallel ridges of low 
hills run back from the sea. Between these 
lie ferny valleys, where wild roses grow in 
thickets, and such shy flowers as love solitude 
and a sheltered situation spread a carpet for 
the spring and early summer. On the farther 

443 



444 Newport 

uplands are thrifty farms, set amid orchards 
of wind-blown trees. Ravines, each with its 
thread of brook, cut their way from these 
higher levels to the water-line. Fleets of lilies 

<z> 

whiten the ponds, of which there are many on 
the island ; and over all the scene, softening 
every outline, tingeing and changing the sun- 
light, and creating a thousand beautiful effects 
forever unexpected and forever renewed, 
hanors a thin veil of shiftinor mist. This the sea- 

o o 

wind, as it journeys to and fro, lifts and drops, 
and lifts again, as one raises a curtain to look 
in at the slumber of a child, and, having looked, 
noiselessly lets it fall. 

The Indians, with that fine occasional in- 
stinct which is in such odd contrast to other of 
their characteristics, gave the place its pretty 
name. Aquidneck, the Isle of Peace, they 
called it. To modern men it is known as the 
island of Rhode Island, made famous the 
land over by the town built on its seaward 
extremity — the town of Newport. 

It is an old town, and its history dates back 
to the early days of the New England col- 
ony. City, it calls itself, but one loves bet- 
ter to think of it as a town, just as the word 
*' avenue," now so popular, is in some minds 






.:h 






i T 











44^ Newport 

forever translated into the simpler equivalent, 
"street." As the veiling mists gather and 
shift, and then, caught by the outgoing breeze, 
float seaward again, we catch glimpses, framed, 
as it were, between the centuries, quaint, oddly 
differing from each other, but full of interest. 
The earliest of these glimpses dates back to 
an April morning in 1524. There is the cliff- 
line, the surf, the grassy capes tinged with sun, 
and in the sheltered bay a strange little vessel 
is dropping her anchor. It is the caravel of 
Vezzerano, pioneer of French explorers in 
these northern waters, and first of that great 
tide of " summer visitors " which has since 
followed in his wake. How he was received, 
and by whom, Mr. Parkman tells us : 

" Following the shores of Long Island, they came 
first to Block Island, and thence to the harbor of New- 
port. Here they stayed fifteen days, most courteously re- 
ceived by the inhabitants. Among others, appeared two 
chiefs, gorgeously arrayed in painted deer-skins ; kings, 
as Vezzerano calls them, with attendant gentlemen ; 
while a party of squaws in a canoe, kept by their jealous 
lords at a safe distance, figure in the narrative as the 
queen and her maids. The Indian wardrobe had been 
taxed to its utmost to do the strangers honor, — coffee 
bracelets and wampum collars, lynx-skins, raccoon-skins, 
and faces bedaubed with gaudy colors. 



448 Newport 

" Again they spread their sails, and on the fifth of 
May bade farewell to the primitive hospitalities of New- 
port." ' 

Wampum and coffee bracelets are gone 
out of fashion since then, the appHcation of 
" gaudy colors " to faces, though not altogether 
done away with, is differently practised and to 
better effect, and squaws are no longer relega- 
ted by their jealous lords to separate and dis- 
tant canoes ; but the reputation for hospitality, 
so early won, Newport still retains, as many a 
traveller since Vezzerano has had occasion to 
testify. And still, when the early summer- 
tide announces the approach of strangers, her 
inhabitants, decking themselves in their best 
and bravest, go forth to welcome and to 
" courteously entreat " all new arrivals. 

Again the mist lifts and reveals another 
picture. Two centuries have passed. The 
sachems and their squaws have vanished, and 
on the hill-slope where once their lodges stood 
a town has sprung up. Warehouses line the 
shores and wharves, at which lie whalers and 
merchantmen loading and discharging their 
cargoes. A large proportion of black faces 
appears among the passers-by in the streets, 

' Pioneer's of France in the iVew IVorla. 



Newport 449 

and many straight-skirted coats, broad-brimmed 
hats, gowns of sober hue and poke-bonnets of 
drab. Friends abound as well as negroes, not 
to mention Jews, Moravians, Presbyterians 
and " Six-Principle " and " Seven-Principle " 
Baptists ; for, under the mild fostering of 
Roger Williams, Newport has become a city 
of refuge to religious malcontents of every 
persuasion. All the population, however, is 
not of like sobriety. A ''rage of finery" dis- 
tinguishes the aristocracy of the island, and 
silk-stockinged gentlemen, with scarlet coats 
and swords, silver-buckled shoes and lace ruf- 
fles, may be seen in abundance, exchanging 
stately greetings with ladies in brocades and 
hoops, as they pass to and fro between the 
decorous gambrel-roofed houses or lift the 
brazen knockers of the street-doors. It is a 
Saint's-Day, and on the hill above, in a quaint 
edifice of white-painted wood, with Queen 
Anne's royal crown and a gilded pennon on its 
spire, the Rev. Mr. Honeyman, missionary 
of the English Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel, is conducting the service in Trinity 
Church. The sermon begins, but is inter- 
rupted by a messenger who hurries in with a 
letter which he hands to the divine in the pul- 



450 Newport 

pit. The clergyman reads it aloud to his audi- 
ence, pronounces a rapid benediction, and 
"wardens, vestry, church and congregation" 
crowd to the ferry-wharf, off which lies a 
''pretty large ship," just come to anchor. A 
boat rows to the shore, from which alights a 
gentleman of " middle stature, and an agreea- 
ble, pleasant and erect aspect," wearing the 
canonicals of an Enorlish dean. He leads bv 
the hand a lady ; three other gentlemen follow 
in their company. The new arrival is George 
Berkeley, Dean of Derry, philosopher and 
scholar, who, on his way to Bermuda with the 
project of there planting an ideally perfect 
university, " for the instruction of the youth 
of America" (!), has chosen Rhode Island as a 
suitable vantage-point from which to organize 
and direct the new undertaking. His com- 
panions are his newly married wife and three 
" learned and elegant friends," Sir John James, 
Richard Dalton and the artist Smibert. Not 
every Saint's-Day brings such voyagers to 
Newport from over the sea. No wonder that 
Trinity Church services are interrupted, and 
that preacher and congregation crowd to the 
wharf to do the stranofers honor ! 

The Berkeley party spent the first few 



Newport 



451 



months of their stay in the town of Newport, 
whence the Dean made short excursions to 
what Mrs. Berkeley terms " the Continent," 



meanmo^ 



the 



mam- 




land opposite. To- 
ward the close of their 
first summer, James, 
Dalton and Smibert 
removed to Boston, 
and the Berkeley 
family to a farm in 
the interior of the is- 
land, which the Dean 
had purchased and 
on which he had built 
a house. The house 
still exists, and is still 
known by the name 
of Whitehall, given 
it by its loyal owner 
in remembrance of 
the ancient palace of 
the kings of England. 
The estate, which 
comprised less than a 
hundred acres, lies in a grassy valley to the south 
of Honeyman's Hill, and about two miles back 



QEORQE BERKELEY, 

DEAN OF DERRY. 



452 Newport 

from what is now known as the " Second 
Beach." It commands no ''view" whatever. 
Dean Berkeley, when asked why he did not 
choose a site from which more could be seen, 
is said to have replied that " if a prospect 
were continually in view it would lose its 
charm." His favorite walk was toward the 
sea, and he is supposed to have made an out- 
door study of a rocky shelf, overhung by a 
cliff cornice, on the face of a hill-ridge front- 
inor the beach, which shelf is still known as 
" Bishop Berkeley's Rock." 

Three years the peaceful life of Whitehall 
continued. Two children were born to the 
Bishop, one of whom died in infancy. The 
house was a place of meeting for all the mis- 
sionaries of the island, as well as for the more 
thoughtful and cultivated of the Newport so- 
ciety. At last, in the winter of 1 730, came 
the crisis of the Bermuda scheme. Land had 
been purchased, the grant of money half pro- 
mised by the English Government was due. 
But the persuasive charm of the founder of 
the enterprise was no longer at hand to influ- 
ence those who had the power to make or mar 
the project ; and Sir Robert Walpole, with 
that sturdy indifference to pledge, or to other 




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o 

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UJ 
Q 
CO 
Ul 
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UJ 

_l 
u 
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454 Newport 

people's convenience, which distinguished him, 
intimated with fatal clearness of meaning, that 
if Dean Berkeley was waiting in Rhode Island 
for twenty thousand pounds of the public 
money to be got out of his exchequer, he 
might as well return to Europe without further 
loss of time. The bubble was indeed broken, 
and Berkeley, brave still and resolutely patient 
under this heavy blow, prepared for departure. 
His books he left as a gift to the library of 
Yale College, and his farm of Whitehall was 
made over to the same institution, to found 
three scholarships for the encouragement of 
Greek and Latin study. These bequests ar- 
ranged, his wife and their one remaining child 
sailed for Ireland. There, a bishopric, and 
twenty years of useful and honorable labor, 
awaited him, and the brief dream of Rhode 
Island must soon have seemed a dream indeed. 
Few vestiges remain now of his sojourn, — the 
shabby farmhouse once his home, the chair in 
which he sat to write, a few books and papers, 
the organ presented by him to Trinity Church, 
a big family portrait by Smibert, and, appeal- 
ing more strongly to the imagination than 
these, the memory of his distinguished name 
as a friend of American letters, still preserved 



Newport 455 

by scholarship or foundation In many Institu- 
tions of learning — and the little grave In 
Trinity churchyard, where, on the south side 
of the Kay Monument, sleeps '' Lucia Berke- 
ley, daughter of Dean Berkeley, obiit the fifth 
of September, 1731." 

The traveller who to-day is desirous of visit- 
ing Whitehall may reach it by the delightful 
way of the beaches. Rounding the long curve 
of the First Beach, with its dressing-houses 
and tents, its crowd of carriages and swarms 
of gayly clad bathers, and climbing the hill at 
the far end, he will find himself directly above 
the lonely but far more beautiful Second 
Beach. Immediately before him, to the left, 
he will see Bishop Berkeley's Rock, with its 
cliff-hung shelf, and beyond, the soft outlines 
of Sachuest Point, the narrow blue of the East 
Passage, and a strip of sunlit mainland. The 
breezy perch where Alciphron was written 
is on the sea-face of one of the parallel rock- 
formations which, with their intervenino- val- 
leys, make up the region known as " Paradise 
Rocks." Near by, in the line of low cliffs 
which bounds the beach to the southward, is 
the chasm called " Purgatory," a vertical fissure 
some fifty feet in depth, into which, under cer- 



45^ Newport 

tain conditions of wind and tide, the water 

rushes with orreat force and is sucked out with 
<_> 

a hollow boom, which is sufficiently frightful 
to explain the name selected for the spot. 
The rocks which make up the cliffs are in 
great part conglomerate, of soft shades of pur- 
ple and reddish gray. Beyond, the white 
beach glistens in the sun. And to the left, the 
road curves on past farmhouses and " cottages 
of gentility." Away on the valley slope, the 
slow sails of a windmill revolve and flash, cast- 
ing a flying shadow over the grass. A mile 
farther, and the road, making a turn, is joined 
to the right by what seems to be a farm-lane 
shut off bv orates. This is the entrance to 
Whitehall. The house can be dimly made 
out from the road — a low, square building with 
a lean-to and a long, steep pitch of roof, front- 
ing on a small garden overgrown with fruit- 
trees. The present owner holds it from the 
college under what may truly be called a long 
lease, as it has still some eight hundred and 
odd years to run. He has built a house near 
by, for his own occupation, and, alas ! has re- 
moved thither the last bit that remained of the 
decorative art of the old Whitehall, namely, 
the band of quaint Dutch tiles which once sur- 




457 



PURGATORY." 



45^ Newport 

rounded the chimney-piece of the parlor. But 
the parlor remains unchanged, with its low ceil- 
ing and uneven floor ; the old staircase is there, 
the old trees, and, in spite of the tooth of time 
and the worse spoliation of man, enough is left 
to hint at the days of its early repute and to 
make the place worth a visit. 

One more glimpse through the mist before 
we come to the new times of this our Isle of 
Peace. It is just half a century since Berke- 
ley, his baffled scheme heavy at his heart, set 
sail for Ireland. The fog is unusually thick, 
and lies like a fleece of wool over the sea. 
Absolutely nothing can be seen, but strange 
sounds come, borne on the wind from the di- 
rection of Block Island — dull reports as of 
cannon signals ; and the inhabitants of New- 
port prick up their ears and strain their eyes 
with a mixture of hope and terror ; for the 
French fleet is looked for ; English cruisers 
have been seen or suspected hovering round 
the coast, and who knows but a naval engage- 
ment is taking place at that very moment. 
By and by the fog lifts, with that fantastic de- 
liberation v/hich distinoruishes its movements, 
and presently stately shapes whiten the blue, 
and, gradually nearing, reveal themselves as 



Newport 



459 



the frigates Survcillante, Amazone and Gtiipe, 
The Dicke of Bicrgitndy, and The Neptune, 
"doubly sheathed with copper"; The Con- 
querant, The Provence, The Eveille, also 
"doubly sheathed with copper"; The Luzon 
and The Ardent, convoying a host of trans- 
ports and store-ships ; with General Rocham- 




ROCHAMBEAU'S HEADQUARTERS. 



beau and his officers on board, besides the 
regiments of Bourbonnais, Soissonais, Sain- 
tonge and Royal Deux Fonts, five hundred 
artillerists and six hundred of Lauzan's Le- 
gion, all come to aid the infant United States, 
then in the fourth year of their struggle for 
independence. Never was reinforcement 
more timely or more ardently desired. We 



460 Newport 

may be sure that all Newport ran out to greet 
the new arrivals. Among the other officers 
who landed on that eventful iith of July, 
was Claude Blanchard, commissary-in-chief of 
the French forces — an important man enough 
to the expedition, but of very little importance 
now, except for the lucky fact that he kept a 
journal, — which journal, recently published, 
gives a better and more detailed account of 
affairs at that time and place than any one 
else has afforded us. 

It is from Blanchard that we learn of the 
three months' voyage ; of sighting now and 
again the vessels of the English squadron ; of 
the Chevalier de Fernay's refusal to engage 
them, he being intent on the safe-conduct of 
his convoy ; of the consequent heart-burnings 
and reproaches of his captains, which, together 
with the stings of his own wounded pride, re- 
sulted in a fever, and subsequently in his death, 
recorded on the tablet which now adorns the 
vestibule of Trinity Church. The town was 
illuminated in honor of the fleet. '' A small 
but handsome town," says Blanchard, "and 
the houses, though mostly of wood, are of an 
agreeable shape." 

The first work of the newly arrived allies 



Newport 461 

was to restore the redoubts which the EngHsh 
had dismantled and in great part destroyed. 
It was at this time that the first fort on the 
Dumphngs, and the original Fort Adams, on 
Brenton's Reef, were built. The excellent 
Blanchard meanwhile continues his observa- 
tions on climate, society and local customs. 

One of his criticisms on the national charac- 
teristics strikes us oddly now, yet has its inter- 
est as denoting the natural drift and result of 
the employment of a debased currency. 

" The Americans are slow, and do not de- 
cide promptly in matters of business," he ob- 
serves. " It is not easy for us to rely upon their 
promises. They love money, and hard money ; 
it is thus they designate specie to distinguish 
it from paper money, which loses prodigiously. 
This loss varies according to circumstances and 
according to the provinces." 

Later we hear of dinners and diners : 

" They do not eat soups, and do not serve up ragouts 
at their dinners, but boiled and roast, and much vegeta- 
bles. They drink nothing but cider and Madeira wine 
with water. Tlie dessert is composed of preserved quinces 
and pickled sorrel. The Americans eat the latter with 
the meat. They do not take coffee immediately after 
dinner, but it is served three or four hours afterward 
with tea ; this coffee is weak, and four or five cups are 



4^2 Newport 

not equal to one of ours ; so that they take many of 
them. The tea, on the contrary, is very strong. Break- 
fast is an important affair with them. Besides tea and 
coffee, they put on table roasted meats, with butter, 
pies and ham ; nevertheless they sup, and in the af- 
ternoon they again take tea. Thus the Americans are 
almost always at table ; and as they have little to occupy 
them, as they go out little in winter, and spend whole 
days alongside their fireside and their wives, without read- 
ing and without doing anything, going to table is a relief 
and a preventive of ennui. Yet they are not great 
eaters." 

On the 5th of March, 1781, General Wash- 
ington arrived in Newport. Blanchard thus 
records his first impressions of the commander- 
in-chief : " His face is handsome, noble and 
mild. He is tall — at the least, five feet eight 
inches (French measure). In the evening I 
was at supper with him. I mark, as a fortun- 
ate day, that in which I have been able to 
behold a man so truly great." 

After the war came a period of great busi- 
ness depression, in which Newport heavily 
shared. The British, during their occupa- 
tion of the town, had done much to injure 
it. Nearly a thousand buildings were de- 
stroyed by them on the island ; fruit- and shade- 
trees were cut down, the churches were used 




LIFE MASK OF WASHINGTON. 

MADE BY HOUDON IN 1785. 



463 



4^4 Newport 

as barracks, and the Redwood Library was de- 
spoiled of its more valuable books. Commerce 
was dead ; the suppression of the slave-trade 
reduced many to poverty, and the curse of 
paper money — to which Rhode Island clung 
after other States had abandoned it — poisoned 
the very springs of public credit. Brissot de 
Warville, in the record of his journey "per- 
formed" through the United States in 1788, 
draws this melancholy picture of Newport at 
that time : 

'' Since the peace, everything is changed. The reign 
of solitude is only interrupted by groups of idle men 
standing, with folded arms, at the corners of the streets ; 
houses falling to ruin ; miserable shops, which present 
nothing but a few coarse stuffs, or baskets of apples, and 
other articles of little value ; grass growing in the public 
square, in front of the court of justice ; rags stuffed in 
the windows, or hung upon hideous women and lean, 
unquiet children." 

Count Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, writing ten 
years later, calls the place *' cette ville tiHste et 
basse^' and further ventures on this remarkable 
criticism of its salubrity : 

*' The healthfiilness of the city of Newport and its en- 
virons is doubtless the result of the brilliancy and cool- 
ness of its climate, but this coolness proves fatal to its 



Newport 465 

younger inhabitants, and the number of young men, and, 
above all, of young women, who die yearly of consump- 
tion is considerable. It is noteworthy that the inscrip- 
tions on the tombstones in the cemetery indicate in 
almost all cases that the person interred is either very 
young or very old — either less than twenty years of age 
or more than seventy." 

Whether this statement of Count Rochefou- 
cauld's bears the test of examination would be 
impossible now to determine, for the century 
since his visit has made changes in the city of 
the dead as marked as those effected in the 
city of the living. But the " cool and bril- 
liant " air with which he finds fault has since 
been proved by many invalids to be full of 
health-giving properties. Consumptives are 
more often sent to Newport for cure, nowa- 
days, than away from it. Asthma, diseases of 
the chest and throat, nervous disorders, insom- 
nia, excitability of brain, are in many cases 
sensibly benefited by the island climate, which, 
however, is less *' brilliant " than sedative. 
This is attributed to the relaxing effects of 
the Gulf Stream, which is popularly supposed 
to make an opportune curve toward the shore 
and to produce a quality of air quite different 
from that of other New England seaside cli- 



466 



Newport 



mates. Whatever may be the truth as to the 
bend of this obhging current, it is certain that 
something has given to the place an excep- 
tional climate, pure, free from malaria and 
exempt equally from the fiercer heats of sum- 
mer and the severer colds of winter. 

It was not till about the year 1830 that the 

true source of 
Newport's pros- 
perity was real- 
ized to be her 
climate. Since 
then she has be- 
come more and 
more the Mecca 
of pilgrims from 
all parts of the 
country. Year 
by year, the 
town has spread 
and broadened, 
stretchinor out wide arms to include distant 
coigns of vantage, until now the summer city 
covers some miles in extent, and land, unsalable 
in the early part of the century, and but twenty 
years ago commanding little more than the price 
of a Western homestead, is now valued at from 




THE PARSONAGE OF MRS. STOWE'S 
" MINISTER'S WOOING." 



Newport 4^7 

ten to fourteen thousand dollars an acre ! 
Every year adds to the number of cottages 
and villas and to the provision made for the 
accommodation of strangers. The census, 
which in winter counts up to less than twenty 
thousand, is during the four months of " the 
season " swelled by the addition of thousands 
of strangers, many of whom are in a manner 
residents of the place, owning their own houses 
and preserving their domestic privacy. 

A walk in the older and more thickly settled 
parts of the town is not without its rewards. 
There are to be found well-known objects of 
interest, — the Jewish burial-ground, with its 
luxurious screen of carefully tended flowers ; 
the Redwood Library, rich in old books and 
the possession of the finest cut-leaved beech 
on the island ; and the old Stone Mill, on 
which so much speculative reasoning in prose 
and verse has been lavished. Some years 
ago, those ruthless civic hands which know 
neither taste nor mercy, despoiled the mill of 
the vines which made it picturesque, but even 
thus denuded, it is an interesting object. There 
is old Trinity, with its square pews and burial 
tablets, and a last-century " three-decker" pul- 
pit, with clerk's desk, reading-desk and preach- 



468 



Newport 



ing-desk, all overhung by a conical sounding- 
board of extinguisher pattern — a sounding- 



n" 







DOORWAY OF OLD HOUSE ON THAMES STREET. 

board on which whole generations of little boys 
have fixed fascinated eyes, wondering in case 



Newport 469 

of fall what would become of the clergyman 
underneath it. And, besides these, each west- 
ward-leading street gives pretty glimpses of 
bay and islands and shipping, and there is al- 
ways the chance of lio^htine on a bit of the 
past, — some quaint roof or wall or doorway, 
left over from Revolutionary times and hold- 
ing up a protesting face from among more 
modern buildincrs. 

Winter or summer, the charm which most 
endears Newport to the imaginative mind is, 
and must continue to be, the odd mingling of 
old and new which meets you on every hand. 
A large portion of the place belongs and can 
belong to no other day but our own, but 
touching it everywhere, apart from it but of it, 
is the past. It meets you at every turn, in 
legend or relic or quaint traditionary custom 
still kept up and observed. Many farm-hands 
and servants on the island still date and renew 
their contracts of service from " Lady-Day." 
The "nine-o'clock bell," which seems derived 
in some dim way from the ancient curfew, is 
regularly rung. The election parade, dear to 
little boys and peanut-venders, has continued 
to be a chief event every spring, with its pro- 
cession, its drums, its crowd of country visitors, 



4/0 Newport 

and small booths for the sale of edibles and 
non-edibles pitched on either side the State- 
House Square, which, in honor of this yearly 
observance, is called familiarly, ''The Parade." 
One of the oldest militia companies in New 
England is the Newport Artillery, and TJie 
Mercury, established in 1758 by a brother of 
Benjamin Franklin, is the oldest surviving news- 
paper in the United States. Newport also 
possesses a town-crier. He may be met with 
any day, tinkling his bell at street corners and 
rehearsing, in a loud, melancholy chant, facts 
regarding auction-sales, or town-meetings, or 
lost property. And, turning aside from the 
polo-play or the Avenue crowded with brilliant 
equipages, a few rods carries you to the quiet 
loneliness of a secluded burial-place, with the 
name of an ancient family carved on its locked 
gate, in which, beneath gray headstones and 
long, flowering grasses, repose the hushed 
secrets of a century ago. Or, fresh from the 
buzz and chatter, the gay interchange of the 
day, you may chance on an old salt spinning 
yarns of pirates and privateers, phantom ships 
or buried treasure, or an antiquary full of well- 
remembered stones whose actors belong to the 
far-gone past, — stories of the extinct glories of 



Newport 



471 



the place, of family romance and family trag- 
edy, or tragedy just escaped. What could be 
finer contrast than tales like these, told on a 
street-corner where, just before, perhaps, the 
question h a d 
been about 
Wall Street or 
Santiago, if the 
French frigate 
were still in the 
bay, or when 
would be the 
next meeting of 
the Town and 
Country Club ! 
Indeed, it is not 
so many years 
since visitors 
to Newport 
miorht have 
held speech 
with a dear old 
lady whose memory carried her back clearly and 
distinctly to the day when, a child six years old, 
she sat on Washington's knee. The little girl 
had a sweet voice. She sang a song to the great 
man, in recompense for which he honored her 




GENERAL NATHANAEL GREENE. 

FROM ONE OF MALBONE'S BEST MINIATURES. 



472 Newport 

with a salute. "It was here, my dear, and 
here, that General Washington kissed me," 
she would say to her grandchildren, touching 
first one and then the other wrinkled cheek ; 
and to the end of her life, no other lips were 
suffered to profane with a touch the spots thus 
made sacred. 

In a country whose charm and whose re- 
proach alike is its newness, and to a society 
whose roots are forever being uprooted and 
freshly planted to be again uprooted, there is 
real education and advantage in the tangible 
neighborhood of the past ; and the Newport 
past is neither an unlovely nor a reproachful 
shape. There is dignity in her calm mien ; 
she looks on stately and untroubled, and com- 
pares and measures. The dazzle and glitter 
of modern luxury do not daunt her : she has 
seen splendor before in a different generation 
and different forms, she has shared it, she has 
watched it fade and fail. Out of her mute, 
critical regard, a voice seems to sound in tones 
like the rustle of fallino- leaves in an autumn 
day, and to utter that ancient and melancholy 
truth, Vanitas vaiiitatum ! "The fashion of 
this world passeth away." We listen, awed for 
a moment, and then we smile again, — for bright- 



Newport 



47,^ 



ness near at hand has a more potent spell than 
melancholy gone by, — and turning to our 
modern lives with their movement and sun- 
shine, their hope and growth, we are content to 
accept and enjoy such brief day as is granted 
us, nor '' prate nor hint of change till change 
shall come." 




PROVIDENCE 



THE COLONY OF HOPE 



By WILLIAM B. WEEDEN 



THE capital of Rhode Island, the second 
city of New England, — an agricultural 
village in the seventeenth, a commercial port 
in the eighteenth, and a centre of manufactur- 
ing in the nineteenth century, — lies at the head 
of Narragansett Bay. The mainland of the 
State westward to Connecticut, according to 
Shaler, rests on very old rocks of the Lauren- 
tian and Lower Cambrian series. The greater 
part of the bay and the land near Providence 
is upon rocks belonging to the Coal measures. 
These rocks, softer than the older ones, have 
been cut away and afford the inlets of the bay. 
The surface of the State and the sloping hills 
of Providence have been profoundly affected 
by the wearing course of the glaciers. 

The original village skirted along the west- 

475 



4/6 Providence 

ern side of the ridge, by which ran the Httle 
Moshassuck and Woons-asquetucket Rivers. 
Eastward the ridge stretched in a plateau to 
the larger Seekonk, w^hich cut off the penin- 
sula. On the eastern side of the Seekonk, 
Roger Williams had settled and planted, when 
Plymouth Colony significantly advised him 
to move on. In June, 1636, with five com- 
panions, he crossed the Seekonk and landed on 
the rock, since raised to the grade of Ives and 
Williams streets. Here, as the tradition runs, 
Indians greeted him cordially, *' What Cheer, 
Netop ! What Cheer ! " He had arranged 
with the Narragansett sachems, Canonicus 
and Miantinomi, for deeds of the lands about 
these rivers and the Pawtuxet, with certain un- 
defined rights extending westward and north- 
ward. 

The canoe kept away from What Cheer or 
Slate rock, south and westward around Tock- 
wotton and Fox Point, up the Providence 
River, to land near where St. John's Church 
stands. The spring of water attracting the 
pioneer and kept as public property is in the 
basement of a house on the northwest corner of 
North Main Street and Allen's Lane. North 
Main was the '' Towne Streete," occupied by 



47^ Providence 

the little band of settlers. Williams's " home- 
lot " stretched easterly, including the land of 
the Dorr Estate, at the corner of Benefit and 
Bowen Streets. A stone in the rear of the 
buildings marks the spot where Roger Wil- 
liams was burled. 

In this man was the germ of Providence, 
the adumbration of the little commonwealth 
of Rhode Island. Whatever drove him from 
Massachusetts, however the Puritans enforced 
their narrow political scheme, the result was a 
free State founded on new principles of gov- 
ernment. In the words of Thomas Durfee : 

*' Absolute sincerity is the key to his character, as it was 
always the mainspring of his conduct. . . . He had 
the defect of his qualities ; — an inordinate confidence 
in his own judgment. He had also the defects of his 
race ; — the hot Welsh temper, passionate and resentful 
under provocation, and the moody Welsh fancy." 

The '' Plantations of Providence" began in 
these " home-lots," reaching eastward from the 
" Towne Streete." It was intended to give 
each settler five acres. Some had, moreover, 
meadow-lands, and there were common rights, 
as in all the plantations of New England. 
Chad Brown, John Throckmorton, and Greg- 
ory Dexter were the committee who made 




> > 

— m 
O z 



< s 



480 Providence 

the first allotment. The land had been con- 
veyed from the Indian sachems, and Williams 
gave it by "initial deed" to his twelve com- 
panions, making thirteen original proprietors. 

" Probably in the autumn of 1638, and cer- 
tainly prior to the i6th of March, 1639,"^ the 
settlers formed the first Baptist church in 
America. Williams was pastor for about four 
months, with Holyman as colleague. Chad 
Brown was ordained in 1642 with William 
Wickenden. The latter was succeeded by 
Gregory Dexter. The present church, adapted 
by James Sumner from designs of James Gibbs, 
architect, was built in 1775. Earlier than this, 
though the date is not fixed, the proprietors 
had made the following agreement, the import- 
ance of which can hardly be overestimated : 

" We whose names are hereunder, desirous to inhabit 
in the town of Providence, do promise to subject our- 
selves in active or passive obedience, to all such orders 
or agreements as shall be made for public good of the 
body, in an orderly way, by the major assent of the present 
inhabitants, masters of families, incorporated together 
into a town-fellowship, and such others whom they shall 
admit unto them only in civil things," 

Here was laid the foundation of soul liberty. 
Let us refer to Diman : " Thus, for the first 

' Arnold, Rhode Island, i. , 107. 



Providence 481 

time in history, a form of government was 
adopted which drew a clear and unmistakable 
line between the temporal and spiritual power, 
and a community came into being which was 
an anomaly among the nations." It was a pure 
democracy, controlling^ the admission of its 
members. 

They soon found that some delegation of 
power was needed for civil administration, and 
in 1640 they elaborated their system somewhat, 
and established rudimentary courts. They per- 
ceived that they could not remain safely be- 
tween the unfriendly colonies of Massachusetts 
on one side, and the alien Dutch of New York 
on the other. They sent Williams to Eng- 
land, whence he returned in 1644, bringing a 
parliamentary charter. Under this, the towns 
of Providence, Portsmouth and Newport were 
united, with the name "The Incorporation of 
Providence Plantations in the Narragansett 
Bay in New England." In 1645 there were, 
accordinor to Holmes, loi men in Providence 
capable of bearing arms. Staples thinks this 
estimate includes the population of Shawonet 
or Warwick. In 1663 John Clarke of New- 
port obtained the royal charter, which was 
adopted by the freemen of the towns, and the 



4^2 Providence 

commonwealth was entitled the " Colony of 
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations." 
The oldest tax or rate bill extant dates from 
1650, when Roger Williams was assessed 
^1.13.4. In 1663 the whole tax was ^36. as- 
sessed in '' Country pay," which performed such 
important functions in the currencies of New 
England, viz., wheat at 4.S. 6d., peas, 3^-. 6d., 
butter, 6d. 

An important factor in the daily life of Pro- 
vidence has always been in the crossing of the 
main stream which limited the early village on 
the west. Mr. Fred. A. Arnold's careful in- 
vestigation ^ shows that a bridge at Weybosset, 
"formerly Wapwayset," or "at the narrow 
passage," was built before 1660. It was re- 
paired and renewed at various times. In i66|- 
Roger Williams undertook, in a most interest- 
ing document, to maintain it by co-operative 
labor from the townsmen and tolls from stran- 
gers. It was enlarged until, in the middle of 
our century, tradition claimed it to be the wid- 
est bridge in the world. Other bridges spanned 
the river, and in the present year the old Wey- 
bosset is being replaced by an elaborate steel 
structure laid on piers of granite. 

' Proc. R. I. H. S., July, 1895 



■s^. 








483 



THE ROGER WILLIAMS MONUMENT. 



484 Providence 

In 1 675-1676 King Philip's War, in which 
the Narragansetts joined, raged through south- 
ern New England, and our little plantation was 
devastated. The women and children gener- 
ally, with the greater part of the men, sought 
safety in Newport, Long Island or elsewhere. 
Thirty houses were burned, chiefly in the north 
part of the town. After the Indians were 
beaten, the village was slowly rebuilt. At this 
time the administration of the settlement was 
In the hands of the Friends. Their Influence 
was second only to that of the Baptists, until 
after the Revolution. The only original house 
standing Is the Interesting Roger Mowry^ 
tavern, built In 1653 or earlier, called also the 
Whipple or Abbott house. Guarded by a 
large elm. It stands on Abbott Street, which 
runs eastward from North Main. The town 
council met there, and tradition says Williams 
conducted prayer-meetings In It. 

Some of the sites of the early planters are 
interesting. Richard Scott, a Quaker and an- 
tagonlst of Williams, lived on the lot next north 
of St. John's churchyard. Mary Dyre went 
from here to be hangred on Boston Common. 
Near Dexter's (afterward Olney's) lane lived 

^ Isham & Brown, Houses, p. 21. 



Providence 485 

Gregory Dexter. Chad Brown, the ancestor 
of so many men of mark, Hved on land now 
occupied by College Street. The purpose of 
the original allotment was to give fronts upon 
the " Towne Streete " and river, and equal 
shares of farm-lands. According to Dorr^ : 

" This attempt at democratic equality only created a 
multitude of small estates widely separated, and in some 
instances nearly or quite a mile apart. Besides his home- 
lot of five acres, each proprietor had a ' six-acre lot,' at a 
distance from his abode; and in a few years one or more 
' stated common lots,' which he acquired by purchase 
from the Proprietary, or by their occasional land divid- 
ends among themselves." 

The chief holdings were on *' Providence 
Neck," but they gradually extended into 
''Weybosset Neck." 

The latter years of Roger Williams were 
largely occupied by controversies with his 
neighbors, including his especial opponent, 
William Harris. The germs of a new State, 
rendered indestructible by the complete sep- 
aration of church and state, if slumbering, yet 
lived in spite of the petty social stagnation of 
an agricultural community. 

Early in the eighteenth century, the planta- 

^ Planting of Providence, p. 43. 



486 Providence 

tion took a new departure. Nathaniel Browne, 
a shipwright, had been driven out from Massa- 
chusetts, because he had become " a convert 
to the Church of England." In 171 1 the 
town granted him one half-acre on " Waybos- 
set Neck on salt water," and again another 
half-acre for buildingr vessels. His vessels 
were amone the first to sail from Providence 
for the West Indies. Horse-carts and vehicles 
had been used before 1 700 by the wealthy, 
but Madame Knight's journey to New York 
from Boston in 1 704 shows that the saddle 
and pillion were the common conveyance along 
the bridle - paths. Galloping on the Town 
Street was prohibited in 1681. Through Paw- 
tucket, the Bostonians came by the present 
North Burying Ground into the Town Street, 
then crossed Weybosset Bridge on their way 
toward the southwest. In the wider part of 
Weybosset thoroughfare, there stood a knoll, 
which has been levelled away. The road swept 
around and created the bulging lines of the 
street. Travel went on through Apponaug 
and North Kinp-stown, over Tower Hill and 
by the Narragansett shore, over the Pequot 
path toward New York. At this period, the 
road was opened toward Hartford, and im- 



Providence 487 

proved communications were made with the 
surroundinor towns. It was not until 1820 
that a direct turnpike was opened from Pro- 
vidence to New London. 

Of more importance even was the way into 
the world outward, through the bay. Pardon 
Tillinghast had been granted land twenty 
feet square for a storehouse and wharf " over 
against his dwelling-place," in 1679-80, at the 
foot of the present Transit Street. There was 
struggle and competition for " lands by the 
sea-side," or " forty-foot lots, called warehouse 
lots," throughout this time, and complete divi- 
sion of the shore privileges was not effected 
until 1 749. All these restless movements 
showed that the town was waking up and 
sending its commerce abroad into foreign 
countries. The first effectual street, regula- 
tions were in i 736. 

The next church organized after the First 
Baptist followed the faith of the Six-Principle 
Baptists. The Friends, as they were expelled 
from Massachusetts, settled in various towns 
of Rhode Island. Mention has been made 
of Richard Scott. In 1672 George Fox 
visited Newport, and he held a meeting *' in a 
great barn" at Providence. Here was a con- 



4^8 Providence 

testant worthy of our doughty champion, 
WilHams. They disputed with voice and pen, 
recording their angeHc moods in these argu- 
mentative titles : The Fox Digged out of his 
Bitrrowes begged one side of the question ; 
this was answered with equal logic in A New 
England Firebrmid Qttenched. The Friends 
built a meeting-house about 1 704. 

The First Congregational Pedobaptist (now 
Unitarian) Society was formed about 1720. 
They built a house for worship in 1723, at the 
corner of Colleofe and Benefit Streets, where 
the Court House now stands. This buildinor 

o 

became the " Old Town House," when the 
society moved to its present location at the 
corner of Benevolent and Benefit Streets. 
Meanwhile the adherents of the Church of 
England, yet to become the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church of the United States, were 
gathering in our town. There is some dispute 
as to the first movements, but Dr. McSparran 
of Narragansett affirmed that he ''was the first 
Episcopal minister that ever preached at Pro- 
vidence." The society thus formed finally 
took the name of '' St. John's Church, in Pro- 
vidence." The church was raised in 1722, on 
the spot where the present building succeeded 



Providence 489 

It In 1810. It will be observed that these new 
ecclesiastical developments moved along with 
the broader commercial life which was anlmat- 
ting the community. 

Any historical student should examine 
Rhode Island for what It Is, and even more 
for what It Is not. Roofer Williams and his 
fellows tried a " lively experiment " as daring 
as It was fruitful. They severed church and 
state, cutting off thereby the help of an edu- 
cated clergy. They founded a political de- 
mocracy, tempering it with the best aristocracy 
to be obtained, without the ordinary facilities of 
education derived through such help. Neither 
the Williams Independents nor the Quakers 
followed the common formulas of education, 
which were generally In the hands of Angli- 
cans or Presbyterians. This does not prove 
that societies can safely drop scholastic educa- 
tion. Many communities have failed for lack 
of such education. It does prove that the 
Anglo-American stock engaged In political 
and economical development will educate 
Itself. At first sight. It was hardly to be 
expected that Isolated and unlettered Pro- 
vidence would be prominent In resisting Eng- 
land, or In forming a new government. But 



490 



Providence 



she did this, in full share, and the embodi- 
ment of her citizenship, the type of her repub- 
lican character, was in one man, Stephen 
Hopkins — "great not only in capacity and 
force of mind, but also — what is much rarer — 
in originative faculty." 

Born a farmer in 1707, removing to Pro- 
vidence in 1 73 1, a member of the General 

Assembly in i 732, Chief 
Justice in 1739, ^^^ ^^ 
the committee to form 
Franklin's plan of colon- 
ial union at Albany in 
1754, a signer of the 
Declaration in 1776 — we 
have here the full meas- 
ure of a republican citi- 
whether by the 
dard of Cato, or by 
the later models of 
T,i8B7,Bvo.APPLETON.co. Pj-^nklin and Washing- 
ton. " A clear and convincing speaker, he 
used his influence in Congress in favor of 
decisive measures." 

In I 758 the first postmaster was appointed by 
Dr. Franklin. The State House on North 
Main Street was erected in 1759; the Fire 




FROM " APPLETONS' CYCLO. OF AM. BIOG. 
COPYRIGH 



Providence 49^ 

Department began in 1 763 ; a " vigorous ef- 
fort " was made for free schools in 1767. 

A great change was wrought about 1 763 
by the opening of Westminster Street. A town 
named for Mr. Fox's pohtical district had been 
projected on the west side. It was strangled 
by the influence of the southern counties. 
Finally the way across the marsh was laid out. 
As late as 1771, there were only four houses 
on the southern and one on the northern side 
of Westminster Street. 

Joseph and William Russell, Clark and 
Nightingale, with James Brown, the father 
of the four brothers mentioned below, were 
among the prominent merchants before the 
Revolution. 

Next to the political change of colony into 
State, the greatest monument of the larger 
Rhode Island is the University. Rhode Isl- 
and College, to become Brown University 
in 1804, was located under President Man- 
ning at Warren in 1766. By the "resolute 
spirits of the Browns and some other men of 
Providence," University Hall was built in 
1770. A government stable and barrack dur- 
ing the Revolution, it has been a beacon-light 
ever since. 



492 Providence 

We said not much might have been expected 
of httle Rhody, by common rules of historic 
proportion, but the overt acts of the American 
Revolution began right here in 1772. The 
oppressive colonial administration, begun by 
Grenville, was especially vexatious in Narragan- 
sett Bay. The British cruiser Gaspee, attempt- 
ing an illegal seizure, ran aground on Namquit, 
since known as Gaspee Point. The news 
ran like lightning through the town, that the 
Hawk was fettered on our shore. Four broth- 
ers, Nicholas, Joseph, John and Moses, de- 
scended from Chad Brown, were all promin- 
ent merchants. John was a man of the time. 
Afterward, his powder, seized in a raid in 
the British West Indies, arrived in time to be 
issued in the retreat from Bunker Hill. Brown 
planned a daring attack on His Majesty's 
vessel in James Sabin's inn. The historic room 
has been transferred bodily by the Talbots 
to their home at 209 Williams Street. Eight 
long-boats were provided by Brown and moved 
under the command of Abrahami Whipple, 
afterward a commodore in the Revolutionary 
navy. A boat from Bristol joined the party. 
Lieutenant Duddingston answered the hail of 
the patriot raiders and was severely wounded, 




'1 



494 Providence 

shedding the first British blood in the War 
of Independence. Whipple's men boarded 
the cruiser, drove the crew below, took them 
off prisoners, then fired and destroyed the 
vessel. It shows the firm temper and new 
American loyalty prevailing in the town, that 
large rewards brought out no information 
which would effectively prosecute Brown and 
Whipple or their fellow offenders. Brown was 
arrested and imprisoned during the occupation 
of Boston, but for want of sufficient proof he 
was discharged. 

Providence contributed its full share to the 
Revolution. Stephen Hopkins signed the 
Declaration of Independence with a tremulous 
hand, but a firm heart. Troops were freely 
furnished and privateers brought wealth to 
the town. The second division of the French 
contingent passed the winter of 1782 in en- 
campment on Harrington's Lane. The street 
is now known as Rochambeau Avenue. New- 
port, hitherto the more important port, lost her 
commerce through the British occupation. The 
natural drift of commerce to the farthest in- 
land waters available was precipitated by these 
political changes. Newport never recovered 
her lost prestige, and Providence developed 



Providence 495 

rapidly after the peace. Voyages, which had 
been mostly to the West Indies with an occa- 
sional trip to Bilbao and the Mediterranean, 
soon stretched around the world to harvest the 
teeming wealth of the Chinese and Indian seas. 
The Ge7ieral Washmgton, the first vessel from 
Providence in that trade, sailed in 1787. Ed- 
ward Carrington sent out and received the last 
vessels in 1841. In the early years of the 
nineteenth century, the profits of the Oriental 
trade were very great. 

The manufacture of cotton was attempted 
by several parties, but it was not established 
in Providence. Samuel Slater located in Paw- 
tucket in 1790. He was induced to come to 
our State through the sagacity, enterprise and 
abundant capital of Moses Brown. After about 
a year, a glut of yarns occurred, and Almy, 
Brown and Slater had accumulated nearly six 
thousand pounds. Brown said : " Samuel, if 
thee goes on, thee will spin up all our farms." 
The manufacture extended rapidly and became 
the chief source of the prosperity of the State. 
It absorbed the capital, which was gradually 
withdrawn from commerce and shipping. 

An important element in the development 
of our city has been the free banking system. 



49^ Providence 

The first institution in our State and the second 
in New England was the Providence Bank, 
chartered in i 791. 

Newspapers only slightly affected the life of 
the eighteenth century. They began, in a 
humble way, the great part they were to play 
in later, modern development. The Providence 
Gazette and Country Journal was first pub- 
lished in 1762 by William Goddard. The 
Mamtfacturers and Farmers Journal, still 
continuing its prosperous career, appeared in 
1820. The Gazette was enlivened by adver- 
tisements in verse, of which this is a specimen, 
from the year i 796 : 

" A bunch of Grapes is Thurber's sign, 
A shoe and boot is made on mine, 
My shop doth stand in Bowen's Lane, 
And Jonathan Cady is my name." 

Housekeepers In our day consider the ser- 
vant-girl question a hard problem, but hear the 
complaint a century ago. There had been 
taken away 

" from the servant girls in this town, all inclination to 
do any kind of work, and left in lieu thereof, an impudent 
appearance, a strong and continued thirst for high wages, 
a gossiping disposition for every sort of amusement, a 
leering and hankering after persons of the other sex, a 



Providence 497 

desire of finery and fashion, a never-ceasing trot after 
new places more advantageous for stealing, with a num- 
ber of contingent accomplishments, that do not suit the 
wearers. Now if any person or persons will restore that 
degree of honesty and industry, which has been for 
some time missing," 

then this rugged censor offers $500 reward. 

In 1767 the first regular stage-coach was ad- 
vertised to Boston. In 1793 Hatch's stages 
ran to Boston and charged the passengers a 
fare of one dollar, the same sum which the 
railway charges to-day. In 1796 a navigable 
canal was projected to Worcester, John Brown 
being an active promoter. The project was not 
carried through until i828,when the packet-boat 
Lady Cai^rington passed through the Black- 
stone Canal. The enterprise had poor success. 
John Brown built Washington Bridge across 
the lower Seekonk, connecting the eastern shore 
to India Point, where the wealth of Ormus and 
of Ind was discharged from the aromatic ships. 
In this period the first steamboat came from 
New York around Point Judith and connected 
with stages to Boston. 

The international disputes concerning the 
embargo and non-intercourse with Great Brit- 
ain, which led up to the War of 18 12, found 



49^ Providence 

Providence opposed in opinion to the Execut- 
ive of the United States. But the opposition 
was loyal and the government received proper 
support. Peace was very welcome when it 
was proclaimed in 1815. This year, a tremend- 
ous gale swept the ocean into the bay and 
the bay into the river, carrying ruin in their 
path. The waters were higher by some seven 
feet than had ever been known. The fierce 
winds carried the salt of the seas as far inland 
as Worcester. Thirty or forty vessels were 
dashed through the Weybosset Bridge into 
the cove above. Others were swept from their 
moorinors and stranded amono^ the wharves. 
Shops were smashed or damaged and the whole 
devastation cost nearly one million of dollars — a 
great sum in those days. It was a radical 
measure of improvement. New streets were 
opened and better stores rose amid the ruins. 
South Water and South West Water Streets 
date hence, and Canal Street was opened soon 
after. 

In 1832 the city government was organized, 
with Samuel W. Bridgham for mayor. A seri- 
ous riot occurring the previous year had shown 
that the old town government was outgrown. 
The railways to Boston and Stonington 



Providence 



499 



changed the course of transportation. In 
1848 the Worcester connection, the first in- 
tersecting or cross Hne in New England, gave 
direct intercourse with the West. 

We sent out Henry Wheaton, one of the 
masters of international law, and we adopted 
Francis W^ayland, — ' 
a citizen of the 
world, — who set an 
endurinor mark on 
Rhode Island. Pre- 
sident of Brown 
University, 1827- 
1855, his work in 
the American edu- 
cational system has 
not yet yielded its 
full fruit. He 
brouo^ht teacher 
and pupil into closer 
contact by the liv- 
ing voice. He projected a practical method 
for elective studies and put it in operation at 
Brown University in 1850. Started too soon, 
and with insufficient means, it opened the way 
to success, when the larger universities in- 
auorurated similar methods after the Civil War. 




FRANCIS WAYLAND. 



500 Providence 

Nine hundred and forty-six students now at- 
tend where Manning and Wayland taught. 

x\n armed though bloodless insurrection in 
1842 brought our State to the verge of revolu- 
tion. The old charter of 1663 limited suffrage 
to freeholders and their oldest sons. Thomas 
Wilson Dorr was the champion of people's 
suffrage. His party elected him governor 
with a legislature, by irregular and illegitimate 
voting. They mustered in arms and tried to 
seize the State arsenals in our city. Dorr had 
a strong intellect ; he was a sincere and unself- 
ish patriot, though perverse and foolish in his 
conduct of affairs. The suffrage was widened 
by a new constitution in 1843, which has just 
been revised by a constitutional commission. 

The early cotton manufacture was fostered 
by the well-distributed water-power of Rhode 
Island. The glacial grinding of the land had 
left numerous ponds and minor streams, — ad- 
mirable reservoirs of water-power, — just the 
facilities needed for weak pioneers. As the 
century advanced, greater force was needed. 
About 1847 George H. Corliss bent his tal- 
ents and energies to extend the power of the 
high-pressure steam-engine. He adapted and 
developed better cut-off valves, which preserved 



Providence 501 

the whole expansive force of the steam, stopped 
off before it filled the cylinder. It was a new 
lever of Archimedes, and Corliss's machines 
went over the whole world. This new mas- 
tery of force stimulated all industries. 

Our little community showed its customary 
military spirit in 1861. Governor William 
Sprague mustered troops with great energy. 
After the famous Massachusetts 6th, the 
Rhode Island ist Militia with its ist Battery 
were the first reinforcements which arrived at 
Washington. In field artillery, our volunteers 
were especially proficient. 

The growth of the population of Providence 
is shown in the following table : 

1708 1,446 1840 23,172 

1730 3,916 1850 41,513 

1774 4,321 i860 50,666 

1800 7,614 1870 68,904 

1810 10,071 1880 104,857 

1820 11,745 1885 118,070 

1830 16,836 1895 145,472 

We could not notice all parts of Providence 
in this cursory survey. Small as well as large 
implements of iron, jewelry and silver, the 
invention and immense production of wood- 



502 Providence 

screws, India-rubber, worsted, — all these com- 
plicated industries have built up an extending 
and encroaching city, until now three hundred 
thousand people dwell within a radius of ten 
miles from our City Hall. 

Old Providence, the home of Williams and 
the Quakers, is fading away. The " Towne 
Streete," its meandering curves gradually 
straightening, will hardly be recognized a cent- 
ury hence. The Mowry house, the homes of 
Stephen and Esek Hopkins, are small, when 
compared with the mansions of John Brown, 
Thomas P. Ives, Sullivan Dorr and Edward 
Carrington ; while the solid comfort prevailing 
in the eighteenth century, as embodied in these 
houses, is surpassed, though it may not be 
bettered, by the more pretentious domestic 
architecture of our day. The Independent 
worshipers In the First Baptist and First 
Congregational churches would feel strange 
under the domes of the beautiful Central Con- 
gregational. The Anglicans of the first St. 
John's would be bewildered by the pointed 
arches of St. Stephen's. The few Catholic 
Immigrants, bringing the Host across the seas 
with tender care, and resting at St. Peter and 
St. Paul's, would be amazed by the sw^arm of 



504 Providence 

well-to-do citizens clustering- beneath the mas- 
sive towers of the Cathedral. 

The industrial and economic evolution is fully 
as ereat as the aesthetic and architectural. 
The crazy little organism of Almy, Brown and 
Slater is replaced by the long, whirling shafts, 
the spindled acres of the Goddards' Ann and 
Hope Mill at Lonsdale. The homely security 
of the market house (present Board of Trade), 
the Providence Bank and the " Arcade " is 
overshadowed by the City Hall, the Rhode 
Island Hospital and Rhode Island Hospital 
Trust Company. University Hall burgeons 
into the fair arches of Sayles Hall. No medi- 
eval builder worked more reverently than Al- 
pheus C. Morse, as he devotedly wrought at his 
task, getting the best lines into stone and lime. 

Not always does the work of the modern 
builders tend toward beauty. The masterly 
brick arcades of Thomas A. Teft kept the 
city's approaches for a half-century. Swept 
away by the more convenient passenger sta- 
tion of the New York and New Haven Rail- 
way, they will leave behind many regrets. 
The maenificent marble State House will lift 
the observer away from and above all the 
buildings below. 



Providence 505 

The growth of Providence runs even with 
the State's, except in the excrescent luxury of 
Newport in its summer bloom. We cannot 
stand still like Holland ; we must look outward 
or decay. The American destiny is reaching 
out, notwithstanding the caution of the prud- 
ent, perhaps of the judicious. The mystic 
Orient, no longer mysterious, beckons from the 
West Instead of the East. It led the Browns, 
Iveses, Carringtons, Maurans, and their capt- 
ains, the H oldens, Ormsbees, Paiges and 
Comstocks, to opulence. Their descendants, 
with more abundant capital, ready skill and 
better organization, ought not to lag in the 
world's march. Men must be forthcomino-. 

There has been always a cosmopolitan flavor 
in the little State, isolated between the restless 
intellectual energy of Massachusetts and the 
steady Puritan development of Connecticut. 
Boston had more trade than Providence and 
Newport ; she was not so truly commercial. 
The larger Franklin went over to Pennsyl- 
vania, but the next man, Stephen Hopkins, 
stayed In Rhode Island. The seed which 
Berkeley planted sprouted In Channing, and 
that Influence went througrhout New Eno^land. 
The little State has never been without ideas. 




5o6 




HARTFORD 



''THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN 
DEMOCRACY" 

By MARY K. TALCOTT 

AMONG the historic cities of New Eng- 
land, Hartford claims a foremost place. 
Not only was its settlement of great conse- 
quence at the time, but for historical importance 
and far-reaching results this colony's claims to 
attention are second only to those of Plymouth 
and Boston. The foundation of Hartford was 
a further application and development of the 
Ideas that brought the Puritans to this country, 
and, to quote the historian, Johnston, — 

" Here is the first practical assertion of the right of 
the people, not only to choose, but to limit the powers 
of their rulers, an assertion which lies at the foundation 
of the American system. . . . It is on the banks of 
the Connecticut, under the mighty preaching of Thomas 
Hooker, and in the constitution to which he gave life, if 
not form, that we draw the first breath of that atmosphere 

507 



5o8 Hartford 



,/ 



which is now so familiar to us. The birthplace of 
American democracy is Hartford " 

This constitution, first promulgated in Hart- 
ford, was the first written constitution in history 
which was adopted by a people and which also 
organized a government. John Fiske says : 

" The compact drawn up in the Mayflower's cabin was 
not, in the strict sense, a constitution, which is a docu- 
ment defining and limiting the functions of government. 
Magna Charta partook of the nature of a written 
constitution as far as it went, but it did not create a 
government." 

On the 14th of January, 1639, the freemen 
of the three towns, Windsor, Hartford, and 
Wethersfield, assembled at Hartford, and 
drew up a constitution, consisting of eleven 
articles, which they called the " Fundamental 
Orders of Connecticut," and under this law the 
people of Connecticut lived for nearly two 
centuries, as the Charter granted by King 
Charles H., in 1662, was simply a royal recog- 
nition of the government actually in operation. 
Another writer says : 

"We honor the limitations of despotism which are 
written in the twelve tables ; the repression of monarch- 
ical power in Magna Charta, in the Bill of Rights, and 



5IO ^A' Hartford 

in that whole undefinable creation, as invisible and in- 
tangible as the atmosphere but like it full of oxygen 
and electricity, which we call the British Constitution. 
But in our Connecticut Constitution we find no limitation 
upon monarchy, for monarchy is unrecognized ; the 
limitations are upon the legislature, the courts, and 
executive. It is pure democracy acting through repre- 
sentation, and im])osing organic limitations. Even the 
suffrage qualification of church membership, which was 
required by our older sister Colony of Massachusetts, 
was omitted. Here in a New England wilderness a few 
pilgrims of the pilgrims, alive to the inspirations of the 
common law and of the British Constitution, so full of 
Christianity that they felt the great throb of its heart of 
human brotherhood, and so full of Judaism that they 
believed themselves in some special sense the people of 
God, made a written constitution, to be a supreme and 
organic law for their State " 

But for the immediate inspiration of this 
document we must look to a "lecture," 
preached by Mr. Hooker on Thursday, May 
2 1, 1638, before the legislative body of free- 
men. Dr. Bacon says of it : 

" That sermon, by Thomas Hooker, is the earliest 
known suggestion of a fundamental law, enacted, not by 
royal charter nor by concession from any previously 
existing government, but by the people themselves, — a 
primarv and supreme law by which the government is 
constituted, and which not only provides for the free 



Hartford 5 1 1 

choice of magistrates by the people, but also sets the 
bounds and limitations of the power and place to which 
each magistrate is called." 

But we must know something of a people to 
whom such doctrines were preached — of a 
people capable of receiving and applying such 
truths. It is said that three kingdoms were 
sifted to furnish the men who settled New Eng- 
land, and it may also be said that the Massa- 
chusetts Colony was sifted to supply the 
Connecticut settlers. Three of the eight 
Massachusetts towns, Dorchester, Watertown, 
and Newtown (now Cambridge), were not in 
full agreement with the other five, especially 
on the fundamental feature of the Massachu- 
setts polity, the limitation of office-holding and 
the voting privilege to church-members. At 
first the majority were unwilling to grant the 
minority ''liberty to remove." John Haynes 
was made Governor of Massachusetts In 1635, 
probably with the hope of retaining his friends 
In the Colony. But their desire to leave was 
too strong ; small parties of emigrants made 
their way to the banks of the Connecticut 
during the year 1635, but the main body of 
the colonists did not leave until the spring of 
1636. Dr. Benjamin Trumbull, the first 



512 Hartford 

historian of Connecticut, writing more than 
one hundred years ago, says : 

" About the beginning of June Mr. Hooker, Mr, 
Stone, and about a hundred men, women, and children 
took their departure from Cambridge, and travelled more 
than a hundred miles thro' a hideous and trackless 
wilderness to Hartford. They had no guide but 
their compass ; made their way over mountains, thro' 
swamps, thickets, and rivers, which were not passable 
but with great difficulty. They had no cover but the 
heavens, nor any lodgings but those which simple 
nature afforded them. They drove with them a hundred 
and sixty head of cattle, and by the way subsisted on 
the milk of their cows. Mrs. Hooker was borne through 
the wilderness upon a litter. The people generally 
carried their packs, arms, and some utensils. They were 
nearly a fortnight on their journey." 

Trumbull adds : " This adventure was the 
more remarkable, as many of this company 
were persons of figure, who had lived in Eng- 
land in honor, affluence, and delicacy, and 
were entire strangers to fatigue and danger." 
When dismissing these colonists Massachusetts 
sent with them a governing committee, or 
commissioners, as they were called. At a 
meeting of these commissioners, held February 
2 1, 1637, the plantation, which had been called 
Newtown, was named Hartford. As Cover- 



514 Hartford 

nor Haynes was born in the immediate vicinity 
of the EngHsh Hertford, he probably had 
much influence in naming the new plantation. 
On the nth of April, 1639, ^^e first general 
meeting of the freemen under the constitution 
was held, and John Haynes was elected the 
first Governor of Connecticut. This selection 
shows his active sympathy and co-operation 
with Hooker, and we can entirely agree with 
Bancroft, when he says: ''They who judge 
of men by their services to the human race 
will never cease to honor the memory of 
Hooker, and of Haynes." 

But the soil of Hartford has had other 
occupants ; not only the aboriginal owners 
of the soil, for when the English came 
they found a Dutch trading-post established 
on what is yet known as Dutch Point. The 
English claimed the territory now compre- 
hended in the State of Connecticut by virtue 
of the discoveries of John and Sebastian Cabot 
in 1497, and more especially in 1498. This 
territory was included in the grant to the Ply- 
mouth Company in 1606, but that organization 
undertook no work of colonization. When the 
settlers of 1635 came they took possession of 
this portion of the valley of the Connecticut 



Hartford 515 

under the English flag, and claimed the terri- 
tory by virtue of patents from the English 
crown. They paid Sequassen, the Indian 
chief, who ruled the river Indians, for his lands, 
and when the Pequots, his over-lords, disputed 
Sequassen's right to sell, the colonists attacked 
them, and practically exterminated the tribe. 
The Dutch settlement oriorinated from discov- 
eries by Adrian Block, who sailed through the 
Sound in 1614, and up the Connecticut, or 
Fresh River, as he called it, in his sloop, The 
Unrest, as far as the falls, and upon his report 
to the States-general, a company was formed 
for trading in the New Netherlands. Only 
limited privileges were granted to this com- 
pany, and it was afterwards superseded by the 
Dutch West India Company, to whom the ex- 
clusive governmental and commercial rights for 
the territory were granted. The Dutch were 
influenced much more by the desire for a 
lucrative trade with the natives than by any 
wish to found a colony, and in 1633 they built 
a fort on the spot still called Dutch Point, in 
Hartford, for the purpose of protecting their 
traffic with the Indians, which they had been 
carrying on for some ten years. This fort was 
known as the House of Hope, and when the 



5i6 Hartford 

English came they settled all about it, but did 
not interfere with the Dutch occupation. Nat- 
urally, there was friction between the two 
nationalities, and petty trespasses of various 
kinds were charged by both parties. Finally, 
after repeated complaints, the Commission- 
ers of the United Colonies, Massachusetts, 
Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven, met 
at Hartford, September ii, 1650, with Peter 
Stuyvesant, Director of the New Netherlands, 
to consult upon the proper boundaries of the 
Dutch jurisdiction. The matter was referred 
to arbitrators, and resulted in a transfer to the 
English of all the territory lying west of the 
Connecticut except the land in Hartford actu- 
ally occupied by the Dutch, the New Nether- 
lands taking the country east of the river. 
But this arrangement did not last long, as, in 
1653, war was declared between England and 
Holland, and the colonies were required by 
Parliament to treat the Dutch as the declared 
enemies of the Commonwealth of England. 
Trumbull says : 

" In conformity to this order the General Court was 
convened, and an act passed sequestering the Dutch 
house, lands, and property of all kinds at Hartford, for 
the benefit of the Commonwealth ; and the Court also 



Hartford 517 

prohibited all persons, whatsoever, from improving the 
premises by virtue of any former claim or title had, 
made, or given, by any of the Dutch nation, or any 
other person, without their approbation," 

Even after this change of rulers a few of the 
Dutch traders remained in Hartford, as is 
shown by references to them on the records, 
but they all finally returned to the New 
Netherlands. 

During the next thirty years the little settle- 
ment on the banks of the Connecticut con- 
tinued to grow and prosper, having very little 
to do with the affairs of the outside world. 
In 1675 and 1676, King Philip's War caused 
great alarm and anxiety for a time, but after 
this conflict was concluded by the subjugation 
of the Indians, peace and quietness again 
reigned. Soon after the accession of James 
II., in 1685, this quiet was however rudely dis- 
turbed by the issue of a writ of qito warranto 
against the Governor and Company of Con- 
necticut, summoning them to appear before 
his Majesty, and show by what warrant they 
exercised certain powers. In reply, the Colony 
pleaded the Charter, granted by the King's 
royal brother, made strong professions of their 
loyalty, and begged a continuance of their 



5i8 Hartford 

privileges. Two more writs of quo warranto 
were issued against Connecticut, but she still 
refused to surrender her Charter, and re- 
elected Robert Treat as Governor. The Char- 
ter of Massachusetts had been vacated, and 
Chalmers, in his History of the America^i 
Colonies, says that '' Rhode Island and Con- 
necticut were two little republics embosomed 
in a great empire." Rhode Island, however, 
submitted to his Majesty, so Connecticut stood 
alone in refusing to surrender her Charter. 
In the latter part of 1686, Sir Edmund Andros 
arrived in Boston, bearing his royal commis- 
sion as Governor of New England. After 
some correspondence with Governor Treat, 
who still stood firm, he left Boston for Hart- 
ford, with several members of his Council and 
a small troop of horse. When he arrived in 
Hartford, October 31, 1687, he was escorted 
by the Hartford County Troop, and met with 
great courtesy by the Governor and his assist- 
ants. Sir Edmund was conducted to the Gov- 
ernor's seat in the council chamber, and at 
once demanded the Charter. Trumbull says : 

" The tradition is that Governor Treat strongly repre- 
sented the great expense and hardships of the colonists 
in planting the country, the blood and treasure which 



Hartford 5^9 

they had expended in defending it, both against the 
savages and foreigners ; to what hardships and dangers 
he himself had been exposed for that purpose ; and that 
it was like giving up his life now to surrender the patent 
and privileges so dearly bought, and so long enjoyed. 
The important affair was debated and kept in suspense 
until the evening, when the Charter was brought and 
laid upon the table, where the Assembly were sitting. 
By this time great numbers of people were assembled, 
and men sufficiently bold to enterprise whatever might 
be necessary, or expedient. The lights were instantly 
extinguished, and one Captain Wadsworth, of Hartford, 
in the most silent and secret manner carried off the 
Charter, and secreted it in a large hollow tree, fronting 
the house of the Honorable Samuel Wyllys, then one of 
the Magistrates of the Colony. The people appeared all 
peaceable and orderly. The candles were officiously re- 
lighted, but the patent was gone, and no discovery could 
be made of it, or of the person who had conveyed it 
away." 

Sir Edmund was disconcerted, but declared 
the government of the colony to be in his 
own hands, annexed Connecticut to Massa- 
chusetts and the other New England colonies, 
appointed officers, and returned to Boston. 
After the downfall of Andros, in 1689, Gov- 
ernor Treat resumed his position as Governor 
of Connecticut, and the Charter reappeared 
from its seclusion, and continued to be the 
organic law of Connecticut, although in Parlia- 



520 



Hartford 



ment, during the remainder of the colonial 
period, various attempts were made to have it 
abrogated. But the Charter Oak, where tra- 
dition declared that the document was con- 
cealed, continued to be a sacred and venerated 
object until its fall, August 21, 1856. 




THE CHARTER OAK. 



A people that have no history are the hap- 
piest, therefore we may assume that Hartford 
was a happy and flourishing town during the 
remainder of the colonial period, and even 



Hartford 521 

during the Revolution there is but Httle 
to tell of Hartford. Its situation, so far re- 
moved from the seacoast, secured it from the 
attacks of the British troops, and it was for 
that very reason a safe and desirable place for 
the meetings of Generals Washington and 
Rochambeau, when they wished to arrange the 
plans for the campaigns that ended with the 
surrender of Yorktown. The first of these 
historic meetings took place September 1 7, 
1780. Rochambeau came from Newport 
through Eastern Connecticut, and Washing- 
ton rode from New Windsor on the Hudson 
with a guard of twenty-two dragoons. The 
meeting took place in the public square on 
the site of the present post-office, and as the 
two tall, fine-looking commanders-in-chief ap- 
proached each other bowing, an eye-witness 
said that it was like the meeting of two na- 
tions. The following year another meeting 
took place at Wethersfield. 

During the colonial period there was very 
little literary production in America, except 
sermons and theological treatises, and Hart- 
ford was no exception to this rule. Her first 
author was one of her founders, the Rev. 
Thomas Hooker, " The Light of the Western 



52 2 Hartford 

Churches." His writings consisted exclusively 
of sermons. They were first published in 
London, and but few have been reprinted in 
this country. No preacher of great reputation 
succeeded him, nor any writers whatever. But 
during the Revolution a star arose on the hori- 
zon, — McFingaL The first part of the poem 
appeared as independent verses in the Con- 
nectic2it Cotirant in 1775. General Gage had 
issued a fierce proclamation, threatening to 
exempt from general pardon some of the 
Continental leaders, and Trumbull's poem 
burlesqued the manifesto. It was at once 
reproduced in the Philadelphia papers, and 
undoubtedly did a very important work in 
stimulating the thought and passion of the 
American Revolution. About 1782 the whole 
work was published by Messrs. Hudson & 
Goodwin, '* near the Great Bridge, Hartford." 
Tradition states that the scene of the '' Town 
Meeting" refers to the old South Church In 
this city. Nathaniel Patten, an enterprising, 
and not over-scrupulous printer In Hartford, 
issued a second edition of McFingal, without the 
author's consent, and It is an interesting fact 
that out of this piracy of Trumbull's work here 
in Hartford grew the national copyright law. 



Hartford 523 

Trumbull and Noah Webster both exerted 
themselves strenuously In favor of such a law, 
and, in i j^^^^, the General Assembly of Con- 
necticut passed an " Act for the Encourage- 
ment of Literature and Genius," which secured 
to authors their copyright within the State. 
The personal exertions of Noah Webster in 
defense of his spelling-book led to the passage 
of similar laws by the legislatures of other 
States, and finally to the passage of a general 
law bv Conofress, modelled on the Connecticut 
act of 1783. All the literature of that period 
in America bears the impress of the golden 
age of Queen Anne, the Spectator and the 
Tatler, Addison and Steele ; and McFingal 
reminds the reader now of Hicdibras, now 
of the Ditnciad. 

John Trumbull was born in Watertown, Con- 
necticut, then Westbury, April 24, i 750. Both 
on his father's side and his mother's he was of 
the pure Brahmin stock of New England, and 
through his mother he was related to Jonathan 
Edwards, Timothy Dwight, his fellow-poet, 
and many other writers of a later time. He 
exhibited marvellous precocity, and, his father 
being engaged in preparing a youth of sev- 
enteen for examination at Yale, the boy 



524 Hartford 

of seven was so eager to join in the elder 
youth's studies that his father allowed him to 
go through the same course of Greek, Latin, 
and Mathematics. Both the lads passed, 
and were admitted members of the college, 
but the boy of seven was not allowed to pro- 
ceed with his college course until he was older. 
He early began writing essays of a satirical 
nature, and while a tutor at his Alma Mater 
he wrote TJie Progress of Didness, a keen and 
stinging satire on contemporary life. It also 
shows, like McFingal, the technical precision 
of the literary artist. The year 1774 Trum- 
bull, spent in the law-office of John Adams, in 
Boston, then returned to New Haven, and in 
1 78 1 took up his residence in Hartford, where 
he remained until 1825, when he went to Detroit 
to live with a married daughter, and died there 
in 1 83 1. In his later life he gave up litera- 
ture for the law, and was at different times 
State Attorney for Hartford County, Repre- 
sentative to the State Legislature, Judge of 
the Superior Court (1801-1819), and Judge 
of the Supreme Court of Errors (1808-18 19). 
In the first decade of our independence the 
*' Hartford Wits " made this little provincial 
capital a brilliant intellectual centre, and an 



Hartford 525 

Important focus of political influence. The 
original members of the association or club 
were, Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, John Trumbull, 
Joel Barlow, and David Humphreys. We 
may call it remarkable, because, at that time, 
when Boston was as barren of literary talent 
as she has since been prolific, this little town 
of three thousand inhabitants boasted at least 
four poets who had gained a national reputa- 
tion. Hopkins was born in Waterbury, Con- 
necticut, in 1750, was a distinguished physician, 
and one of the founders of the Connecticut 
Medical Society. He died in Hartford in 
1 80 1, and his grave may be seen in the old 
Center burying-ground. No edition of his col- 
lected poems has ever been published. They 
consisted in great part of his contributions to 
the Anarchiad, the Political Greejihonse, and 
the Echo, which were serial satires in verse 
by the Hartford Wits. T\i^A7iarcJiiad resem- 
bled the Rolliad of Frere and Canning, and 
with the Echo contained a series of social and 
political satires. Hartford at this time, became 
and for twenty years thereafter was, the liter- 
ary headquarters of the Federalist or Conser- 
vative party, which favored a strong, general 
government, and opposed French democracy. 



526 Hartford 

In consequence, as party feeling ran so high, 
it became a mark for obloquy and vituperation 
among the Jeffersonians, which gave it an 
honorable resemblance to Boston in the anti- 
slavery times. 

David Humphreys was born in Derby, 
Connecticut, in 1753, served honorably dur- 
ing the Revolution, and had the distinction 
of being Washington's aid-de-camp. He also 
held, after the war, the position of secretary 
to the commissioners — Franklin, Jefferson, 
and Adams — appointed to negotiate treaties 
of commerce with various European powers. 
Joel Barlow is perhaps the best known of any 
of the Wits, and but a small portion of his 
career was passed in Hartford. He took up 
his residence in our town in 1782, just after 
leaving the army. He was then engaged in 
writing his best known poem, the epic Vision 
of Colitrnbits, but he did much other literary 
work, and was also the editor of a weekly 
newspaper, called The A7nerican Mercury, 
for which he wrote many essays, said to be the 
precursors of the modern editorial. In 1787, 
he completed the Vision of Columbus, and it 
was published by subscription and dedicated 
to Louis XVI., King of France. During the 



Hartford 527 

next year, 1788, Barlow left Hartford to go 
abroad ; he remained In Europe for seven- 
teen years, and when he returned took up 
his residence in Washington. Finally, going 
abroad as Ambassador to France, he died in 
Poland, while following Napoleon then en- 
gaged in his Russian campaign. Richard 
Alsop and Theodore Dwight, Senior, were 
admitted into the coterie of the Hartford 
Wits, and wrote much of the Echo, and a few 
lines in this series were also contributed by 
Drs. Mason F. Cogswell and Elihu H. Smith. 
The Echo was a sort of Yankee Dtniciad. 
It contained many local allusions, as to the 
Blue Laws, the Windham Frogs, etc., and 
was also the vehicle of much political satire 
on the Democrats. Theodore Dwight, one of 
the Echo poets, was editor of the Connecticut 
Mirror, and also secretary of the famous 
Hartford Convention. 

No political subject has ever been the theme 
of more gross misrepresentation or more con- 
stant reproach than the assembly of delegates 
from the New England States which met at 
Hartford in December, 1814. After the war 
of 181 2 had continued two years, our public 
affairs were in a deplorable condition. The 



528 Hartford 

army intended for defending the sea-coast had 
been sent to the borders to attack Canada ; a 
British squadron was lying in the Sound to 
blockade the harbors on the Connecticut 
coast, and to intercept our coasting trade ; 
the banks, south of New England, had 
suspended the payment of specie ; our ship- 
ping lay in our harbors, embargoed, disman- 
tled, and perishing ; the Treasury of the 
United States was nearly exhausted, and a 
general disheartenment prevailed throughout 
the country. In this situation of affairs a 
number of ofentlemen in Massachusetts be- 
lieved that a convention of prominent men 
might do good. Many petitions from numer- 
ous towns in Massachusetts were received, 
stating the sufferings of the country in conse- 
quence of the embargo and the war, and Gov- 
ernor Strong summoned a special meeting of 
the Massachusetts Legislature in October, 
1 8 14, when a resolution was passed appointing 
delegates to a convention to be held in Hart- 
ford. The Connecticut Legislature was in 
session at the same time, and received a com- 
munication from the Massachusetts body, re- 
questing them to join in appointing delegates 
to the convention. This they did, and seven 




OLD STATE HOUSE, 

NOW CITY HALL. 



529 



530 Hartford 

delegates were sent. On December 15, 
1 814, the convention, numbering twenty-six 
delegates, representing Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and 
Vermont, met in the council chamber of the 
State House, now the City Hall of Hartford. 
Among the delegates were men of such as- 
sured position as Harrison Gray Otis, George 
Cabot, William Prescott, the father of the 
historian, and Stephen Longfellow, the father 
of the poet, from Massachusetts ; Chaun- 
cey Goodrich, Governor John Treadwell, 
Roger Minot Sherman, and James Hillhouse, 
of Connecticut. Their deliberations contin- 
ued for three weeks, and their sittings were 
held with closed doors, a fact which was 
brought up against them by their political ad- 
versaries as evidence of dark and nefarious 
designs. During the sessions a small body 
of recruits for the army, then in Hartford, 
were paraded in a threatening manner by 
the officer in command. The proceedings re- 
sulted in the adoption of a report and the 
passage of resolutions recommending amend- 
ments to the Constitution of the United 
States. Amone the recommendations was 
one proposing that representative and direct 



Hartford 531 

taxation should be apportioned according to 
the respective numbers of free persons in the 
States, excluding slaves and Indians. This 
document was immediately published, and 
was read with orreat eacferness. Those who 
expected to discover sentiments of a seditious 
and treasonable nature were disappointed. 
The report expressed an ardent attachment to 
the integrity of the republic, and its sentiments 
were liberal and patriotic. A short time after 
the publication of this document the news of 
the declaration of peace was received. The 
people, without waiting to hear the provisions 
of the treaty, showed their joy by bonfires and 
illuminations, — a striking commentary upon 
the character of the war and the general feel- 
inor about it. The war beine over, the work 
of the Hartford Convention was no longer 
needed, and the jarring interests of the State 
and Federal governments were harmonized. 

During the last century the chief business 
of Hartford was the trade with the West 
Indies. There was also some traffickine 
with Ireland and with Lisbon, timber being 
exported to the first named, and fish to the 
latter. From 1750 to 1830, Hartford not only 
imported goods from the West Indies, but 



532 Hartford 

was also a distributing centre for the surround- 
ing country, and for the region that stretches 
northward to the sources of the Connecticut. 
During the first thirty years of this century 
the wharves on the river bank were bustHne 
with traffic and Hned with vessels, often three 
or four rows deep. Large warehouses ex- 
tended along the banks of the river, where 
beef and pork were packed for the export 
trade, great quantities being brought down 
the river in brine, and inspected and repacked 
here. The numerous scows and flat-boats in 
which the up-river trade was carried on, were 
loaded on their return voyage with sugar, rum, 
molasses, coffee, salt and other West Indian 
commodities. S. G. Goodrich, in his Recollec- 
tions of a Lifetime, describes the city as a 
centre of the West India trade, and as smelling 
of rum and molasses. The inland transpor- 
tation of goods was carried on by lines of 
freight-wagons running to Westfield, Granby, 
Monson, Brimfield, Norfolk, Canaan, and the 
towns in Berkshire County. There were also 
packet lines running to Boston, New York, 
Albany, Nantucket, Baltimore, Norfolk, and 
Richmond. But the building of the Boston 
and Albany, and of the New York and New 



Hartford 533 

Haven railroads cut off gradually all the in- 
land and up-river commerce from Hartford, 
and diverted trade into other directions. This 
obliged the merchants of Hartford to turn their 
enercjies to other lines of business. 

One of the most successful of these, and 
one in which Hartford now holds a unique 
position, is the insurance business. Nowhere 
else has the business of fire insurance reached 
such magnitude as in Hartford. The aggre- 
gate capital of the six fire insurance companies 
in the city is $10,250,000, which exceeds one 
quarter of the capital of all the fire companies 
in the country. It is supposed that the busi- 
ness began in marine underwriting, as Hart- 
ford formerly had such large shipping interests 
and so many vessels concerned in trade with 
the West Indies. An insurance office was 
opened in Wethersfield in 1777 by Barnabas 
Dean, presumably for shipping. Fire insur- 
ance policies were issued in 1 794, and in i 795 
a company was formed for the purpose of un- 
derwriting on "vessels, stock, merchandize, 
etc." In 1810 the oldest of the present Hart- 
ford fire insurance companies was formed, — the 
Hartford, with a capital of $150,000. All the 
early insurance companies made the mistake 



534 Hartford 

of dividing profits in periods of prosperity, re- 
serving little or nothing for a day of adversity. 
But the Hartford met with a severe lesson in 
December, 1835, when the great fire in New 
York swept away the capital of the company. 
All losses were paid in full, and the confi- 
dence inspired by this policy increased the 
business of the company fivefold. In 187 1 
the great Chicago fire endangered the exist- 
ence of the strongest Hartford companies, and 
five of them were forced to discontinue. But 
the able management of the four that paid 
their losses and continued to do business has 
given the Hartford companies a good reputa- 
tion. The life insurance business was also 
early organized in Hartford, which was the 
earliest place, except the already great cities of 
New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, to estab- 
lish this system firmly, and several of the 
Hartford companies rank among the leading 
institutions in this business in the country. In 
Hartford was founded the first accident in- 
surance company organized in America. 

Hartford possesses a number oi well-known 
educational and philanthropic institutions, — 
Trinity College ; the Wadsworth Athenaeum, 
containing the Watkinson Library of Refer- 



Hartford 535 

ence, the Connecticut Historical Society's 
collections, the picture gallery and public 
library ; the Theological Seminary, the School 
for the Deaf, the Retreat for the Insane ; all 
founded in the first half of this century. 

First, chronologically, comes " The American 
Asylum for the Education and Instruction of 
Deaf and Dumb Persons," the mother-school 
of all similar institutions in this country. In 
1887, when the recurring years brought about 
the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, the founder of 
this school for the deaf, the day was cele- 
brated by all deaf-mutes throughout the United 
States, and commemorated by public services 
and general festivities. In a building on Main 
Street, now constituting the southern end of 
the City Hotel, the American Asylum gathered 
its first seven pupils, April 15, 181 7. The 
starting-point of the enterprise was the eager 
desire of Dr. Mason F. Cogswell to secure an 
education for his daughter, Alice, a deaf-mute, 
whose infirmity was caused by an attack of 
spotted fever. In 18 15, several prominent 
gentlemen in Hartford took steps towards the 
orp^anization of such a school at the instance 
of Dr. Cogswell, and decided to send the Rev. 



53^ Hartford 

T. H. Gallaudet, then just out of the Andover 
Theological Seminary, to Europe, for the pur- 
pose of acquiring the art of instructing deaf- 
mutes. Accordingly, Mr. Gallaudet proceeded 
to Paris, where he was cordially received by 
the Abbe Sicard, the Director of the famous 
Institution for Deaf-Mutes, founded some 
years earlier by the Abbe de I'Epee. Here 
every facility was accorded to Mr. Gallaudet, 
and when he was ready to return to America, 
one of Sicard's pupils — Laurent Clerc by 
name, — offered his services as an instructor in 
the school to be founded in America, and as 
he was himself a deaf-mute he was a living 
demonstration of the fact that a very high de- 
gree of education was possible to deaf-mutes. 
In 1818, the number of pupils having increased 
to sixty, it appeared to the directors that their 
work was likely to become national, and it 
seemed proper to invoke the aid of Congress. 
A petition was accordingly sent to Congress, 
and was strongly supported by the Connecti- 
cut members, by the Speaker, Henry Clay, 
and by many other influential and philanthropic 
men. Congress responded by an appropri- 
ation of an entire township, comprising 23,000 
acres of land. This grant was judiciously 



Hartford 537 

converted Into cash and invested, and the 
income thus received has enabled the insti- 
tution to receive pupils at about one half 
the actual cost of their education. The build- 
ing now in use was completed in 182 1. Since 
1825 pupils have been received from the 
States of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
Maine, Vermont, and Rhode Island, under 
an arrangement made with the official au- 
thorities in those States. While a large pro- 
portion of the instructors have always been 
college graduates, at the same time indus- 
trial instruction has, since 1823, been an es- 
sential feature in the training, thus render- 
ing the pupils self-supporting members of 
society. 

Another evidence of the philanthropic feel- 
ing animating the citizens of Hartford about 
the same date as the foundation of the Deaf 
and Dumb Asylum, was the establishment in 
1824, of the Connecticut Retreat for the In- 
sane. At that time there were only two other 
institutions in the country for the exclusive 
care of insane persons, and the importance of 
restorative treatment was but little under- 
stood. 

Many citizens of Hartford signed the petition 



s^.8 Hartford 



Dvj 



requesting the General Assembly to pass an 
act of incorporation for Washington College, 
and when the news of its passage was received, 
May 1 6, 1823, their joy was manifested by 
the liorhtinor of bonfires and the firino^ of can- 
non. The people of Hartford surpassed all 
others in raising money for the new insti- 
tution. More than three fourths of the sum 
appropriated by the State, $50,000, was con- 
tributed by them, and their city was therefore 
selected as the seat of the College. A fine 
site was secured on an eminence overlooking 
the Little River, the hill now crowned by the 
beautiful State Capitol, and in 1825 two build- 
ings were ready for occupation. The College 
was opened under the presidency of the Rt. 
Rev. Thomas C. Brownell, Bishop of Con- 
necticut, and at all times since its foundation 
the institution has been administered by men of 
learning and wisdom. The name was changed 
in 1844 to Trinity College. In 1871, when the 
city of Hartford decided to offer to the State 
a site for the new Capitol, it was proposed to 
purchase the College campus for that purpose 
and in February, 1872, the trustees sold the 
grounds to the city, reserving the right to use 
them for five or six years. In 1873 a site of 







i^i^ 



^iSdSft:.**^!)*^ 



STATUE OF ISRAEL PUTNAM. 

J. Q. A. WARD, SCULPTOR. 



539 



54<^ Hartford 

some eighteen acres on the slope of Rocky 
Hill, commanding a beautiful view in every 
direction, was purchased by the College. 
Ground was broken on Commencement Day, 
1875, with impressive ceremonies, and two 
large buildings were ready for occupation in 
1878. The erection of the Northam Gateway, 
in 1 88 1, unites the buildings and completes 
the western side of the proposed quadrangle. 
The lofty towers have added greatly to the 
appearance of the structure. The style of ar- 
chitecture is secular Gothic of the early French 
type. 

The buildings of the Theological Seminary 
on Broad Street attract attention by their size 
and dignity. The institution was established 
in East Windsor in 1833, and was removed to 
Hartford in 1865, occupying the old Wads- 
worth house and other buildings on Prospect 
Street. In 1879, ^^^ present structure was 
occupied, and it has since been enlarged by 
the addition of the Case Library. 

The first great manufacturing enterprise in 
Hartford, and still perhaps the best known 
and most important, is the Colt's Patent Fire 
Arms Manufacturing Company, established by 
Colonel Samuel Colt in 1848. Colonel Colt 



Hartford 



541 



planned his works on a mag-nificent scale, and 
time has proved the wisdom of his plans. To 
pistols, rifles, and shotguns the company has 
added, from time to time, the manufacture of 
gun machinery, Gatling guns, printing-presses, 
portable steam-engines, and Colt automatic 
ofuns. Aside from the 
output of weapons and 
machinery, the Colt 
works have been of 
great value as an educat- 
ing force in applied 
mechanics, and they 
have turned out many 
men who have founded 
large manufacturing 
establishments. The 
armory grounds now in- 
clude two memorial 
buildings, the Church of 
the Good Shepherd, 
built in 1868 by Mrs. 
Colt, in memory of her 
husband, and a compan- 
ion to this, built in 1896, a parish house, in 
memory of Commodore Caldwell H. Colt, 
a structure complete and satisfying in all 




KENEY MEMORIAL TOWER. 



542 Hartford 

its decorations and appointments. Another 
memorial structure in the city is just ap- 
proaching completion, — the Keney Memorial 
Tower. In this, Hartford will possess an 
architectural feature unique in American cities, 
— a Norman bell and clock tower, with fine 
carvings. 

The Messrs. Keney have left another mem- 
orial of themselves in the Keney Park, a fine 
addition to the Hartford park system. The 
beauty of Hartford and its desirability as a 
residence have both been much increased by 
the munificence of individual citizens, and the 
wise policy of the city government in creating 
a system of public parks. The first of these, 
Bushnell Park, the city owes to the wise fore- 
thought of Dr. Horace Bushnell, one of her 
most distinguished citizens. Laid out in 1859, 
it is, probably, after Central Park in New 
York, the oldest public city park in the coun- 
try, and it was obtained in the face of much 
opposition by a man possessed of great intel- 
lect and foresight — for whom it was named in 
1876. The building of the Capitol on the 
brow of the hill overlooking the Park, and the 
construction of the Soldiers' Memorial Arch in 
1886, have added much to its beauty and com- 



Hartford 



543 



pleteness. In 1894, Hartford acquired another 
park the gift of Col. Albert A. Pope, the head 
of the Pope Manufacturing- Company. This 
park is situated in the south part of the city. 




THE CAPITOL. 



Very soon afterwards, by the will of Charles 
M. Pond, the city became possessed of a valu- 
able tract of land on Prospect Hill, the former 
residence of Mr. Pond. This he desired should 
be called Elizabeth Park in memory of his 
wife. Now the Pope, Elizabeth, Keney, and 
Riverside Parks, the latter on the north mead- 



544 Hartford 

ows and near the city water-works, make 
a boulevard around Hartford, which will add 
much in the future to the beauty of this already 
beautiful city. 

After the brilliant galaxy of the " Hartford 
Wits" disappeared, a graver class of liter- 
erary men took their places : Noah Webster, 
with his spelling-book and dictionary (he was 
born in Hartford, West Division, Oct. i6, 
1758); Samuel G. Goodrich (Peter Parley); 
Mrs. Lydia Huntley Sigourney, who obtained 
the title of " the American Hermans," an almost 
lifelong resident of Hartford, where her first 
volume of poems was published in 1815 ; 
George Denison Prentice and John Greenleaf 
Whittier both lived in Hartford for a time, 
doing editorial work, when they were yet 
young and unknown men ; Henry Barnard, 
LL.D., distinguished for his labors in the 
cause of education, was born in Hartford in 
181 1, and is still enjoying an honored old age 
in his native city. But the man of highest 
genius in Hartford's list of authors during the 
first half of this century was Horace Bushnell. 
He came to the city in 1833, as pastor of the 
North Church, and remained until his death, 
in 1876. His sermons and essays all show 




SOLDIERS' MEMORIAL ARCH. 



545 



546 



Hartford 



great imagination and beauty of style, as well 
as great power of thought. In 1864, Mrs. 
Harriet Beecher Stowe, who had once before 




^l,^;^^'^?^^^^-**-^ 



lived in Hartford as a teacher in the famous 
school of her sister, Miss Catharine Beecher, 
again took up her residence in the city, and 
continued to live here until her death, in 1896. 




DR. HORACE BUSHNELL. 

FROM A CRAYON DRAWING BV S W. ROWSE. 



547 



54^ Hartford 

During this period a number of her later 
works were written. 

Of Hving authors, Charles Dudley Warner 
and Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain) have 
a world-wide reputation. Mr. Warner came 
to Hartford in i860, as one of the editors of 
the Press, and subsequently became one of the 
owners and editors of the Courant, with which 
paper he is still associated. His Summer in 
a Garden, which first brought him into notice, 
appeared in the columns of his newspaper in 

1870, and since that time he has written many 
essays, novels, and books of travel. Mr. 
Clemens was born in Florida, Missouri, No- 
vember 30, 1835, has lived in Hartford since 

1 87 1, and all his books which have appeared 
since 1872 have been written in our city, 
except his X'dX^'^X., Folloiving the Equator. John 
Fiske, the historian and essayist, was born in 
Hartford in 1842, but he left the city at an 
early age, and his reputation has been won 
elsewhere. The same can be said of Edmund 
Clarence Stedman, the poet and critic, who 
was born in Hartford in 1833. 

James Hammond Trumbull, LL. D., born 
in Stonington in 1821, but almost a lifelong 
resident of Hartford, dying there in 1897, was 



Hartford 



549 



one of the most distinguished philologists and 
antiquarians in the country, and his great famil- 
iarity with the Indian tongues made him an 
authority on that subject. Dr. Trumbull's 
brother, Rev. Henry Clay Trumbull, D.D., 
of Philadelphia, since 1875 editor of the Sim- 
day School Times, 
was a resident of our 
city from the year 
1851 to 1875, ^"^^ 
during that period 
he published some 
of his religious and 
biographical works. 
Two other members 
of the same family, a 
sister and daughter 
of Dr. J. H. Trum- 
bull, Mrs. Annie 
Trumbull Slosson, '■ hammond trumbull, ll.d. 

and Miss Annie Eliot Trumbull, have dis- 
tinguished themselves in literature, by their 
novels and short stories, some being character 
studies of New England life. In this line also 
another Hartford writer excelled, Mrs. Rose 
Terry Cooke, who was born in Hartford in 
1827, and died in Pittsfield, Mass., in 1892. 




550 Hartford 

She contributed many graphic stories of rural 
New England life to the pages of the Atlantic 
Monthly, Harpei^s\ and other magazines, which 
stories were afterwards collected and pub- 
lished in book form. Richard Burton, born 
in Hartford in 1858, recently appointed Pro- 
fessor of Enoflish Literature in the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota, has already made a name 
among the younger men as a poet and critic. 
Frederick Law Olmsted, born in Hartford, 
November 10, 1822, now a resident of Brook- 
line, Mass., is well known as one of the fore- 
most landscape-gardeners in this country, and he 
has also made valuable contributions to the 
literature of travel and horticulture. Many 
other persons, either natives or residents of 
Hartford, have won renown in various fields 
of authorship. In the art world, Hartford 
claims Frederick E. Church and William Ged- 
ney Bunce, the painters, E. S. Bartholomew, 
the sculptor, and William Gillette, the actor 
and playwright, all natives of the city. 

Hartford citizens have borne their part in 
the councils of the nation. Gideon Welles 
was Secretary of the Navy under President 
Lincoln during the Civil War, and until 1869. 
Isaac Toucey held the same office under Presi- 



Hartford 551 

dent Buchanan. Hon. John M. Niles was Post- 
master-General in 1840, under Van Buren, and 
also Senator for a long period. The Hon. Mar- 
shall Jewell was appointed by President Grant 
United States Minister to Russia in 1873, and 
in 1874 he was recalled to enter the Cabinet as 
Postmaster General. In later years the Hon. 
James Dixon and General J. R. Hawley have 
been prominent in the United States Senate. 

Hartford has increased largely in popula- 
tion durine the last decade, and the numerous 
trolley lines that have been built, running like 
the spokes of a wheel into the surrounding 
country, have contributed much to the pros- 
perity of the city. Many handsome residences 
have been built, new streets have been laid 
out, and our city appears to have entered 
upon a career that promises increased wealth 
and success. 




NEW HAVEN 



''THE CITY OF ELMS" 



By FREDERICK HULL COGSWELL 

THE main incidents in the history of New 
Haven have a flavor of romance. Even the 
original settlement, usually a prosy affair, was 
brought about by the chance letter of a victori- 
ous soldier. On the 26th of June, 1637, a com- 
pany of wealthy English immigrants sailed into 
Boston harbor, undecided as to its final des- 
tination. It was led and directed by Reverend 
John Davenport, a Non-conformist clergyman 
of London, and Theophilus Eaton, a retired 
merchant of the same town, who had once re- 
presented the British crown at the court of 
Denmark. The company had thought to settle 
near Boston, but a theological controversy that 
threatened to envelop the whole jurisdiction 
led to a change of plan, and for several months 
the party remained at Boston in a state of 
indecision. 

553 



554 New Haven 

Meanwhile, the Pequod war was raging along 
the coast of Long Island Sound, and as the 
beaten braves were being driven westward 
toward the valley of the Hudson, their pursu- 
ers came upon a spot of surprising beauty. 
Its charms detained them long enough to note 
its details. There was a broad wooded plain 
skirted with green and fertile meadows, bounded 
on either side by a gently flowing river, and 
guarded on the north by giant cliffs. Here and 
there the smoke of Indian camp-fires curled 
gracefully above the tree-tops, and bark-canoes 
darted swiftly about in the placid waters of the 
bay. The place was occupied by friendly na- 
tives, anxious for protection against their tribal 
enemies. Game abounded in the forests ; the 
streams were alive with fish ; and the piles of 
oyster-shells along the shore told of bivalvian 
riches beneath the glistening waves. The 
English officers, elated with victory and de- 
lighted w^ith the newly discovered land, wrote 
enthusiastic descriptions to their friends at Bos- 
ton. As one with an eye to the material ad- 
vantages expressed it : " It hath a fair river, 
fit for harboring of ships, and abounds with 
rich and goodly meadows." 

The immigrants at once determined to in- 




TEMPLE STREETo 



555 



55^ New Haven 

vestigate, and Eaton, taking a small vessel, 
sailed down the coast and into the harbor of 
Quinnipiac. He and his companions lost no 
time in deciding as to their future home. He 
left seven men to spend the winter with the 
Indians, and returned to Boston. Those who 
remained lived in a hut near the shore, and be- 
fore spring came, one of them died. His name 
was Beecher, and he has been claimed as the 
ancestor of the Beecher family in this country. 
His wife and children came with the main 
party when the cold weather had passed. A 
few rods to the west of this first hut stood, in 
after years, the forge of Lyman Beecher's 
father. 

It is uncertain just what name the Indians 
applied to the town. The early spelling varied 
so much that nearly forty different combina- 
tions of letters have come down to us, as re- 
presenting it. It is apparent that the settlers 
were unable to acquire the aboriginal pronun- 
ciation, or to correctly express it in English. 
They finally adopted " Quinnipiac " as being 
more euphonious than " Quilillioak " " Ouillipi- 
age " and " Queenapiok." 

It was with feelings not easily described that 
the newcomers sailed into the harbor and 



New Haven 



557 



looked upon their future home. There they 
were to spend the rest of their Hves, there they 
would be laid to rest when their earthly labors 
were done, and there would dwell their poster- 
ity, to represent the principles for which they 
had sought a new 
world. In the land 
of their birth they 
could not worship as 
they chose. Unless 
they followed the rule 
set down by others, 
they were not only 
called heretics and 
emissaries of the 
devil, but were im- 
prisoned and fined, 
and subjected to 
great personal indignity. They felt that they 
were being deprived of a natural right, and 
despairing of better times at home, came to 
find a place where they could enjoy uninter- 
rupted the free exercise of conscience. 

They were obliged for a time to live on the 
boat in which the voyage had been made. The 
first Sunday morning all came ashore to wor- 
ship under the branches of an oak-tree which 




JOHN DAVENPORT. 

FROM A PORTRAIT IN POSSESSION OF 
YALE COLLEGE. 



558 New Haven 

stood on the bank of a small stream that 
emptied Into the bay. It was in the month of 
April, 1638, and the leaves were not far forth, 
but under that canopy the first sermon ever 
heard in that region was preached. This 
famous tree stood for more than a hundred 
years after, and when it fell a tablet was placed 
on a near-by building to show succeeding gen- 
erations where the forefathers first met for 
public worship. 

A compact was made with the Indians, and 
the town was laid out by John Brockett, a 
civil engineer, whose love of a Puritan maiden 
had led him to abandon brilliant prospects of 
preferment and cross the seas. First, a large 
tract was apportioned for a market-place, then 
the streets were plotted in regular squares sur- 
rounding it. The dwellings ranged from mere 
huts to mansions of grand proportions. Eat- 
on's house contained nineteen fireplaces, and 
was one of the few^ houses in the country where 
sufficient books were found to form a library. 

Romance soon gave place to tragedy. An 
Englishman was found murdered in the neigh- 
boring woods, and an Indian so near as to 
invite suspicion. He was arrested and brought 
to the market-place. No laws had been framed, 



New Haven 559 

but an agreement had been made soon after 
landing, that all disputes should be settled 
according to Scripture. An inquiry estab- 
lished the Indian's guilt, but there was doubt 
as to the Scriptural text to apply. The Old 
Testament rule, '' Whoso sheddeth man's blood, 
by man shall his blood be shed," made the 
outlook gloomy for the prisoner, while he saw 
hope in the more recent dispensation, " Go 
and sin no more." The Puritan forefathers 
leaned to the conservative view of the case, 
laid the Indian over a log, chopped off his 
head, and "pitched it upon a pole in the 
market-place." 

The first public building to be erected, as 
might have been expected, was a meeting- 
house. This was built near the centre of the 
market-place, and the present edifice stands 
to-day on nearly the same spot. The meeting- 
house was not merely a place for public wor- 
ship, but town-hall, voting-booth, court-room 
and forum as well. In summer it was a pleas- 
ant place in which to sit, with bird-songs and 
odor-laden breezes floating in through the open 
windows, and the long-drawn, monotonous 
drone of the parson's voice lulling to dreamy 
drowsiness. But in winter, with the mercury 



560 New Haven 

twenty degrees below zero ; with tingling ears 
and aching nose ; with shivering frames and feet 
like cakes of ice, and every man's breath show- 
ing white on the frosty air, hell-fire seemed 
less terrible than the preacher would have it 
appear. 

There were means, however, of getting peri- 
odically thawed. Those who lived in town 
could repair to their homes at the intermis- 
sion, while the farmers sought their " sab- 
bada-housen " (Sabbath-day houses). These 
were small huts, each containing a chimney 
and rude fireplace, and were grouped irregu- 
larly about the meeting-house. Here the 
stiffened limbs were rubbed and toasted, and 
the creature comforts of pies and cakes and 
home-brewed ale were enjoyed. Stern times 
were those, and many a mother saw her ten- 
der child laid away in the little burying-ground, 
chilled to death by the bitter cold of the meet- 
ing-house. 

While the hearts of these early Puritans 
beat warmly, their rigid views of life and duty 
sometimes led to acts of great severity. Pub- 
lic whipping was resorted to, not only as a 
punishment supposed to be fit for the culprit, 
but as a warning and a deterrent. It is hard 




ROGER SHERMAN. 

561 PHOTOGRAPHED FROM STATUE ON THE EAST FRONT OF THE CAPITOL AT HARTFORD. 



5^2 New Haven 

to Imagine a father handing a child over to 
the courts for pubHc humihation, yet Richard 
Malbon, a magistrate, sat at the trial of his 
daughter Martha, and condemned her to be 
flogged at the whipping-post. The shameful 
performance took place on the northwest corner 
of the market-place, close by the schoolhouse, 
so that the youthful mind need not fail to 
understand that the way of the transgressor 
was hard. 

The " Witch Trial " created some excite- 
ment in the early days. Elizabeth Godman 
was the town scold, and kept her neighbors 
in a state of perpetual worry. Her chief 
delight was in creatingand perpetuating feuds. 
She had been warned by the magistrates that 
her way of life was objectionable and might 
lead to trouble. One day, in spite of the judi- 
cial warning, she called at Mistress Hooke's 
and asked for home-brewed beer. A mug was 
given her, but she used only part of it. The 
next day the whole barrel of " beare " was 
found to be sour. Here were symptoms of 
witchcraft ! Soon after one of Goody Thorpe's 
chickens died, and when they opened it they 
found its orizzard full of water and worms ! 
Suspicion began to turn to certainty. This 



New Haven 5^3 

led to a quarrel between Elizabeth Godman 
and Mistress Bishop, and in consequence the 
latter's baby was born dead. To cap the 
cHmax, Mr. Nash's boy had a fit of sickness 
that puzzled the doctors, and it was thought 
best, in order to prevent further calamities, to 
have Elizabeth Godman arrested and tried as 
a witch. In good old Salem her chances of 
escape might have been narrow ; but while her 
judges believed in witchcraft and were ready 
to punish it by death, she was triumphantly 
acquitted, and wagged her spiteful tongue un- 
molested the rest of her life. 

The most dramatic event in the early history 
of the colony was the coming of the regicides. 
Major-Generals Edward Whalley and William 
Goffe, distinguished leaders in the parliament- 
ary army, had sat on the commission that had 
condemned Charles I. to the block. Both men 
stood close to Cromwell during the period of 
the protectorate, Whalley being Cromwell's 
cousin, and Goffe a son-in-law of Whalley. 
Both acted as shire governors and were close 
personal advisers of the Lord Protector. At 
Cromwell's death Goffe was considered a prob- 
able successor, but the monarchy was restored 
in the person of Charles II., and all who had 



564 New Haven 

been connected with the trial and execution of 
the late klne were oblicred to flee for their 
lives. Whalley and Gofl"e sailed for Boston 
and for a time lived there openly, but a royal 
warrant for their arrest finally came, and Gov- 
ernor Endlcott issued orders for their appre- 
hension. The only men in the country to 
whom they could look for protection were Mr. 
Davenport, a known sympathizer and a friend 
of Cromwell, and William Jones, whose father 
had been taken as a regicide and executed in 
London. The hunted men accordingly started 
for New Haven on horseback, arriving on the 
7th of March, 1661. They went to the house 
of Mr. Davenport and for the next three weeks 
were concealed there, or across the street by 
William Jones. On the 27th, the news of a 
proclamation for their arrest reached New 
Haven, and the two generals proposed some 
military tactics to throw possible pursuers off 
the scent. They accordingly appeared upon 
the street the next morning as travellers just 
arrived from the north, let their identity be 
known, made various Inquiries concerning the 
town, and asked the way to Manhattan. They 
departed to the southward and disappeared ; 
but on arriving at Milford, ten miles below, 



New Haven 565 

they entered the woods and returned quietly 
to the house of Mr. Davenport. Two weeks 
later, Kellond and Kirke, two officers commis- 
sioned by Governor Endicott, arrived with a 
warrant and called upon Deputy-Governor 
Leete at Guilford. There were several men 
in the Governor's office when the officers pre- 
sented their credentials. The Governor took 
the papers and began to read aloud, letting 
out the whole secret, as he doubtless intended, 
so that the generals might receive warning and 
escape. The officers soon found that both the 
magistrates and the people were inclined to 
shield the regicides, but made desperate efforts 
to effect a capture. The fugitives, however, 
assisted by Davenport, Jones and others, 
eluded them at every point. Finally, after 
exhausting their patience and ingenuity, the 
officers gave up the chase and returned to 
Massachusetts ; but offered large rewards for 
the apprehension of the regicides. These re- 
wards stimulated the ambition of certain per- 
sons, and it was even more dangerous for the 
hunted men to appear in public, or to let their 
hiding-place be known. Those who were be- 
friending them were in equal danger ; for by 
aiding and comforting "traitors" they were 



5^6 New Haven 

liable to arrest and execution for the crime of 
high treason. 

The regicides remained in the colony about 
two years, hiding in the houses of their friends ; 
in an old mill just outside the boundaries of 
the town ; in a cave on the side of West Rock ; 
in a pile of rocks on the top ; in a Milford cel- 
lar ; and other places of more or less doubtful 
identity. The best known of these places is 
the pile of boulders on the extreme top of 
West Rock known as " Judges Cave." It is 
visited every year by thousands of people, who 
regard it as a connecting link between New 
Haven and the great tragedy of English his- 
tory. 

i\bout the year 1670 a mysterious gentle- 
man about sixty years old, calling himself 
"James Davids," came to New Haven with 
the evident intention of spending the rest 
of his days in the town. He appeared to be 
wealthy, but no one knew anything of his past. 
He claimed to be a retired merchant. It is said 
that one Sunday while Sir Edmund Andros 
was attendinor church on the Green, he noticed 
a tall, soldierly-looking man in a neighboring 
pew, and inquired who he was. " He is a 
merchant residing here," was the reply. " I 



New Haven 



567 



know he is not a merchant," said Sir Edmund • 
'' he has filled a more responsible position than 
that ! " Governor Andros had not time to 
follow up his suspicions, but after the mysteri- 




JUDQES CAVE. 



ous stranger s death, twenty years later, it came 
to be known that he was Colonel John Dixwell, 
another regicide, who had fled from England 
to escape execution. A century and a half 



5^8 New Haven 

afterwards, his descendants erected a monu- 
ment to his memory behind Center Church on 
the Green, where it is still an object of inter- 
est to visitors. 

New Haven received her baptism of fire 
during the Revolution in the form of an inva- 
sion by a detachment of the British army, July 
5, 1779. The apparent purpose of this act 
was to cause Washingrton to weaken his force 
at West Point in order to defend the Con- 
necticut coast. Washington attacked Stony 
Point as a counter-irritant, but this did not 
affect the British until after they were through 
with New Haven, which was then a village of 
about eighteen hundred inhabitants. The 
evening previous (Sunday), arrangements had 
been made for a celebration of the third anni- 
versary of the Declaration of Independence, 
but at ten o'clock the town was startled 
by the boom of a signal-gun in the harbor. 
All was confusion during the night, and about 
five o'clock Monday ^morning President Stiles, 
from the steeple of the college chapel, saw, 
by the aid of a spy-glass, the British fleet 
embarking at West Haven. A company of 
students formed and marched to hinder the 
invaders, while the beacon-fires that had been 



New Haven 569 

lighted during the night on the neighboring 
hilltops brought bodies of armed patriots from 
the surrounding towns. In spite of deter- 
mined opposition, the enemy, led by General 
Garth, entered the town at noon and pro- 
ceeded to plunder and destroy. A pitched 
battle was fought on the northwest corner of 
Broadway, but the defenders were overpow- 
ered by superior numbers. The intention of 
the enemy was to burn the town, but it was 
found that this could not be done without en- 
dangering the property of the numerous Tories. 
An equal number of troops (1500) landed at 
Lighthouse Point and approached the town 
from the east, the intention being to crush all 
opposition by a junction of the two armies, 
while Sir George Collier was to bombard the 
town from his war-ships in the harbor. It 
having been decided not to apply the torch, 
those who had entered from the west slept on 
the Green during the niorht, and toward morn- 
ing embarked on the boats at the wharf, after 
burning much shipping. The eastern division, 
under General Tryon, captured Rock Fort 
(afterwards named Fort Hale), but were unable 
to enter the town. The next day they found 
the patriots collecting in such numbers that 



57^ New Haven 

they decided to withdraw and bestow their 
attentions upon the Httle town of Fairfield, 
which they burned. 

A house still standinor on the north side of 
the Green was used by the British as a hos- 
pital. Under a tree in front, Whitefield once 
preached to the multitude, and Jonathan Ed- 
wards used to court the daughter of the house. 

Colonel Aaron Burr, then twenty-three 
years old, took an active part in defending 
the town. 

Out on the Allingtown heights, to the 
southwest of the town, stands a monument to 
the memory of Adjutant-General Campbell of 
the British army. This officer showed such 
a noble spirit of humanity in the discharge of 
a disagreeable duty, protecting the helpless 
and preventing needless destruction, that the 
citizens of New Haven erected this stone to 
perpetuate his virtues. While on an errand 
of mercy he was shot by a young man, and 
on his monument are inscribed the words : 

''Blessed are the Merciful." 

The Dark Day, immortalized by Whittier, 
was the 19th of May, 1780. The Legislature 
was in session in the old State House on the 



New Haven 



571 



Green when a sudden darkness fell. Many- 
believed the Judgment Day was at hand. In 
the midst of the excitement a motion was 
made to adjourn, when Colonel Abraham Dav- 




.- ''■'^^;;^!Jg^^/ -'. .■><^^=^^'*^ 



A HUMANE ENEMY. 



enport, great-grandson of John Davenport, rose 
and said : " I am against an adjournment. The 
Day of Judgment is either approaching, or it is 



572 New Haven 

not. If it is not, there is no cause for adjourn- 
ment ; if it is, I choose to be found doing my 
duty. I wish, therefore, that the candles may 
be brought, and we proceed to business." 

** And there he stands in memory this day, 
Erect, self-poised, a rugged face, half seen 
Against the background of unnatural dark, 
A witness to the ages as they pass, 
That simple duty hath no place for fear." 

The foundation of Yale, the " Mother of 
Colleges," dates back to the colonial period, 
and was due to the foresight of John Daven- 
port. Within ten years of the settlement of 
the town, a parcel of land was set aside and 
known as "college land," and as early as 1654 
the records of the General Court show " that 
there was some notion againe on foote con- 
cerning the setting vp of a Colledg here at 
Newhaven, Wch, if attayned, will in all likely- 
hood prove verey beneficiall to this place." 
In spite of Davenport's efforts, the project 
was not carried out during his lifetime, but in 
1664, the Hopkins Grammar School, named in 
honor of Governor Hopkins, was organized as 
a collegiate school. The work of this school 
being chiefly of a preparatory nature, ten Con- 
gregational ministers organized a society for 




i8-««P 



•■''=»«**»:- 



PHELPS HALL. 



573 



574 New Haven 

the conducting of a college, and, in i 700, this 
was chartered as " A Collegiate School in his 
Majesty's Colony of Connecticut." The first 
rector, or president, was Reverend Abraham 
Pierson of Killingworth, and the first student 
was Jacob Hemingway. For a time the col- 
lege was settled at Saybrook, but in 1716 it 
was removed to New Haven. Two years later 
the name Yale College was adopted in honor 
of Elihu Yale, at that time its largest bene- 
factor. 

The college library had a unique origin. In 
I 700, the ten ministers forming the society met 
at Branford, and each donated a few volumes, 
saying as he laid them down : " I give these 
books for the founding of a college in this 
colony." Forty books were given, forming 
the nucleus of the great University Library. 

The first public commencement occurred in 
1 718, the first building having been erected 
the year previous. For nearly a century and 
a half the colleo^e had to endure a hard strusf- 
gle for existence, but at the present day, owing 
to the donations of its graduates and friends, 
it ranks as one of the richest colleges in the 
country, and possesses some of the finest and 
best-equipped buildings in the world. Van- 



New Haven 575 

derbilt Hall, given by Cornelius Vanderbilt ; 
Phelps Hall, in honor of William Walter Phelps; 
and Osborn Hall, in memory of Charles J. 
Osborn, are notable illustrations of combined 
utility and art. Vanderbilt Hall is not only 
the costliest but the most complete college 
dormitory in America. 

The rare opportunities now offered at Yale 
for a wide range of study and original investi- 
gation are too well understood to need men- 
tion. In 1887, it was resolved that the college 
had, in view of the establishment of the various 
departments comprised in a university, attained 
to that dignity ; and since that time it has been 
known as Yale University. 

The Theological Department may be said to 
have existed from the beginning, theology hav- 
inor been one of the chief studies for a hundred 
years. It has existed as a separate department 
since 1822, and the Law Department was 
established the same year. The Medical De- 
partment was organized in 181 2. The Sci- 
entific Department originated in 1846 in a 
professorship in agricultural chemistry and an- 
other in analytical chemistry, and since 1859 
has occupied separate buildings as a distinct 
department. 



57^ New Haven 

Yale has always been progressive in respect 
to the Fine Arts. On receiving the collection 
of Colonel Trumbull, embracing many pictures 
of scenes and participators in the Revolution- 
ary War, a building was erected for their ex- 
hibition on the campus. Lecture courses were 
given and interest so far developed that later a 
large and beautiful building was erected for 
the purposes of an art school, which has at- 
tained great success. 

Yale shows that she well deserves her reputa- 
tion by more than doubling the number of her 
students within twenty years. The present at- 
tendance is upwards of twenty-five hundred, 
drawn from all parts of the world. The only aris- 
tocracy at Yale is that of brains and character, 
and it is a significant comment on this state of 
affairs to note that the sons of millionaires fre- 
quently do without the luxuries to which they 
are accustomed, to avoid being classed merely 
as rich men's sons. The Yale spirit recognizes 
manliness and industry as paramount qualities, 
and none stands higher among his fellows than 
the poor boy who courageously works his way 
through college, overcoming the obstacles that 
lie in his way, and maintaining an honorable 
rank in his class. 



57S New Haven 

New Haven has sought to preserve memo- 
ries and mementoes of her historic existence, 
and the Historical Society building, at the foot 
of Hillhouse Avenue, never fails to quicken the 
pulses of the antiquary. Here he finds one of 
Benjamin Franklin's Leyden jars ; Benedict Ar- 
nold's badly punctuated sign, his account-book, 
medicine chest, mortar and pestle ; the table on 
which Noah Webster wrote the Dictionary ; a 
silver spoon that once belonged to Commodore 
Isaac Hull (said to have been in his mouth 
when he was born) ; and an almost endless 
collection of relics, rare portraits and books. 

Of famous houses, many are still standing : 
two of Benedict i\rnold's ; the dwelling of Roger 
Sherman, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, the city's first mayor and a United 
States Senator ; the Trowbridge house, built 
in 1642 by an original settler; the Noah Web- 
ster house and others of less interest. One of 
the '' famous spots" is the northwest corner of 
Union and Fair Streets, where once stood the 
house of Isaac Allerton, a Pilgrim of the May- 
flower. A tablet has been placed on the pre- 
sent building bearing the following inscription : 

" Isaac Allerton, a Pilgrim of the Mayflcnver, and 

the Father of New England Commerce, lived 

on this Ground from 1646 till 1659." 



-Q 



.80 New Haven 

r\cross the way, on the southeast corner, 
stands an old house bearing the announcement 
that this was the birthplace of Andrew Hull 
Foote, Rear Admiral of the United States 
Navy. 

Center Church, near the centre of the Green 
on Temple Street, stands over what was form- 
erly a portion of the orig-inal burying-ground, 
and but a few feet from the site of the first 
meeting-house. From its historic associations 
it is one of the most interesting churches in 
the country. Over the principal entrance are 
these inscriptions : 

QUIXXIPIAC CHOSEN FOR SETTLEMENT, A.D. 1637. 



THE WILDERNESS AND THE SOLITARY PLACE 
SHALL BE MADE GLAD FOR THEM. 



O GOD OF HOSTS LOOK DOWN FROM HEAVEN AND 
BEHOLD AND VISIT THIS VINE. 



A.D. 163S, A COMPANY OF ENGLISH CHRISTIANS LED BY JOHN DAVEN- 
PORT AND THEOPHILUS EATON WERE THE FOUNDERS OF THIS 
CITY. HERE THEIR EARLIEST HOUSE OF WORSHIP WAS 
BUILT A.D. 1639. 



THE FIRST CHURCH BEGINNING WITH WORSHIP IN THE OPEN AIR 
APRIL 15 (O. S), WAS THE BEGINNING OF NEW HAVEN, AND WAS OR- 
GANIZED AUG. 22 (O. S.), 1639. THIS HOUSE WAS DEDICATED Ta 
THE WORSHIP OF GOD IN CHRIST DEC. 27, 1814. 





fi<yy 



581 



582 New Haven 

Dr. Leonard Bacon was for many years pas- 
tor of this church. Underneath is a crypt con- 
taining the remains and tombstones of many 
of the Puritan fathers and their famihes ; and 
here hes the body of Abigail Pierson, sister of 
the first president of Yale, and wife of John 
Davenport, Jr. 

While around and beneath Center Church 
" the rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep," the 
oldest cemetery now existing is that on Grove 
Street. Many distinguished sons of New Ha- 
ven are buried there, among them Rear-Ad- 
miral Andrew H. Foote, General Amos B. 
Eaton, Admiral Francis H. Gregory, General 
Alfred H. Terry, Noah Webster, Lyman 
Beecher, Benjamin Silliman, Theodore Win- 
throp, Jedediah Morse (father of American 
geography), the elder President Dwight and 
President Day, Colonel David Humphreys, 
aide on the staff of General Washington, Eli 
Whitney, inventor of the cotton-gin, Jehudi 
Ashmun, first colonial agent at Liberia, Gov- 
ernors Ingersoll, Baldwin, Edwards, and many 
others eminent in business and professional 
life. 

Tottering old men sometimes point to places 
where Nathan Hale made his great leap, where 





583 



584 New Haven 

John C. Calhoun got his boots made, where 
Joel Barlow ate his hasty pudding, the porch 
where Commodore Hull liked to sit; and tell 
no end of stories about visits of Lafayette, 
James Monroe and " Old Hickory." These 
are innocent chroniclers, forgetting the present 
in the glorious past, and we must allow a little 
for the play of the imagination ; but when they 
aver that Noah Webster, as a lieutenant com- 
manding a company of Yale students, once 
escorted General Washins^ton throuorh the 
town and received a compliment therefor, an 
approving nod is in order, for the great lexico- 
grapher recorded the incident in his diary " at 
the day and time of it." 

Visitors frequently refer to the city as an 
overgrown village. It is hard for a New York 
man to realize as he strolls through the ample 
grounds of his New Haven friends, that he is 
In a city of more than one hundred thousand 
inhabitants. The value put upon breathing- 
places Is shown In the large tracts of land 
devoted to public purposes. One walks hardly 
ten minutes in any direction without coming 
upon a square shaded by graceful elms and 
carpeted by a cleanly shaven lawn ; while 
the margins of the city by river and sound 




< 

Q. 

o 
o 

a: 

H 
< 



586 



New Haven 



abound in tastefully arranged parks. The 
transformation of the two great wooded ridges 
beyond the dwelling -line into well -graded 
drives, art vying with nature to please the eye 
and win the soul to beauty, completes the im- 
pression sometimes expressed, that New Haven 
is an immense village encircled by gardens. 

But while all this may suggest a condition of 
dreamy repose, the city is by no means given 
over to dolce far niente. The University 
with its manifold departments is a veritable 
hive of industry; the scales of Justice at the 
County Court House are tipping endlessly in 
favor of right against wrong ; while the busy 
hum of the Winchester Arms and a hundred 
other mills, makes a music that dies not out. 

Altogether, historic New Haven is a pleas- 
ant place in which to live, and its hospitality 
is as generous as are its gardens and its parks. 




INDEX 



Acton, Mass., 262, 266,272, 294 
Adams, John, 49, 187, 228, 524, 

526 
Adams, Samuel, 12, 180, 200, 

202, 228, 259, 261, 264, 265 
Agassiz, Louis, 176, 242 
Akers, Paul, 78 
Albany, 532 
Alcott, A. Bronson, 279, 292, 

293, 294 
Alcott, Louisa, 294 
Alden, John, 328, 334 
Alden, Priscilla, 328 
Alden, Rear-Admiral, 66 
Aldrich, Thomas B., 50, 176 
Allen, Samuel, 429 
Allerton, Isaac, 578 
Allston, Washington, 236 
Alsop, Richard, 527 
Amherst College, 82 
Amsden, John, 429 
Amsterdam, 310 
Andover, Mass., 144 
Andrew, Gov. John, 265 
Andros, Sir Edmund, 334, 419, 

420, 518, 519, 566, 567 
Ann, Cape, 126, 127 
Anne, Queen, 420, 449, 523 
Appleton, Capt. Samuel, 412 



Apponaug, R. I., 4S6 
Aquidneck, 444 
Arlington, Mass., 219 
Arnold, Benedict, 578 
Arnold, Fred, A., 206 
Arnold, Matthew, 50 
Arnold, Thomas, 482 
A.shley, Rev. Jonathan, 428, 438 
Ashmun, Jehudi, 582 
Austerfield, 304, 306, 332 
Austin, Jane Goodwin, 50, 330 



B 



Bacon, Dr. Leonard, 510, 582 
Bacon, Francis, 140 
Bacon, John, 407 
Baker, Miss C. Alice, 426 
Baldwin, R. S., 582 
Bancroft, George, 50, 89, 276, 514 
Bardwell, John, 436 
Bardwell, Thomas, 435 
Barlow, Joel, 525, 526, 527, 584 
Barnard, Henry, 30, 544 
Barnard, Rev. Mr., 154 
Barnstable, Mass., 376, 381, 388, 

3S9. 393, 394, 397, 400 
Barnstable County, Mass., 361, 

393 
Barre, Mass., 106 
Barrett, Col. James, 273, 276 



587 



588 



Index 



Bartholomew, E. S., 550 
Bartol, Cyrus, 78 
Bates, Katharine Lee, 345 
Bedford, .Mass., 219, 266 
Bedfordshire, 244, 246, 247 
Beecher, Catherine, S, 546 
Beecher, Henry Ward, S, 11 
Beecher, Lyman, S, 556, 582 
Beers, Capt. Richard, 410, 412 
Bellingham, Gov. Richard, 141 
Bennington, Vt., 265,436 
Bentham, Jeremy, 279 
Bentzon, Th., 33 
Berkeley, George, 450, 451, 452, 

454, 455, 458, 505 

Berkeley, Lucia, 455 

Berkeley, Mrs. George, 451 

Beverly, Mass., 92 

Billerica, Mass., 219 

Billington, John, 377 

Blackstone, Sir William, 140 

Blaine, James G., 78 

Blanchard, Claude, 460, 461, 462 

Block, Adrian, 515 

Block Island, 446 

Borgeaud, Charles, 17 

Boston, 23, 58, 64, 81, 82, 84, 86, 
94, 96, 98, 102, 106, III, 113, 
141, 143, 144, 149, 159, 167- 
210, 230, 234, 248, 256, 259, 
262, 271, 277, 278, 289, 294, 
329, 364, 374, 377, 388, 392, 
419, 434, 441, 451, 484, 486, 
494, 497, 4q8, 505, 507, 518, 
519, 524, 525, 526, 532, 534, 
553, 556, 564 

Boston, England, 207, 250 

Boston College, 180 

Boston University, 180 

Bourne, Mass., 380, 381 

Bourne, Richard, 379 

Bowditch, Nathaniel, 159 

Bowdoin College, 76 

Brackett, Thomas, 56 

Brackett, Mrs. Thomas, 56 

Bradford, Gov. William, 49, 124, 
131, 132, 134, 299, 303, 304, 
306, 308, 309, 311, 314, 315, 



316, 317, 319, 324, 326, 329, 

334, 346, 351, 352, 353, 354, 

377 
Bradley, Rev. Caleb, 75 
Bradstreet, Simon, 124, 125, 140, 

216, 217, 219 
Braintree, Eng., 217, 21S 
Branford, Conn., 574 
Brewster, Mass., 380, 381, 384 
Brewster, Nathaniel, 340 
Brewster, William, 299, 304, 308, 

309, 311, 317, 322, 328, 329, 

334, 336 
Bridgham, Samuel W., 498 
Brighton, Mass., 219 
Brimfield, Conn., 532 
Brindley, Deborah, no 
Bristol, R. I., 492 
Brockett, John, 558 
Brooktield, Mass., 20, 105, 117 
Brookline, Mass., 204, 550 
Brooks, Phillips, 10, ii, 26, 184 
Brown, Alice, 50 
Brown, Chad, 478, 480, 485, 492 
Brown, Charles Farrar, 78 
Brown, H. B., 79 
Brown, James, 491 
Brown, John, 492, 494, 497, 502 
Brown, Joseph, 492 
Brown, Moses, 492, 495 
Brown, Nicholas, 492 
Brown University, 491, 499 
Browne, Nathaniel, 486 
Browne, Rev. Robert, 113 
Brownell, Thomas C, 538 
Brunswick, Me., 75 
Bryce, James, 12, 15, 33 
Buchanan, James, 551 
Bucks County, Eng., 247 
Bulkeley, Rev. Peter, 243, 244, 

246, 247, 248, 249, 251, 253, 

268, 270 
Bunce, William G., 550 
Bunker Hill, 58, 109, 204, 206, 

232, 260, 261, 300, 435, 492 
Bunyan, John, 246, 281 
Burgoyne, Gen. John, ri2, 210, 

234, 238, 436 



Index 



589 



Burnet, Jacob, 96 

Burns, Anthony, 173 

Burr, Aaron, 112, 570 

Burroughs, Rev. Cleorge, 57, 144 

Burton, Richard, 550 

Bushne]], Dr. Horace, 9, 1 1, 542, 

544 
Buzzard's Bay, 345, 402 

C 

Cabot, George, 530 
Cabot, John, 514 
Cabot, Sebastian, 514 
Cady, Jonathan, 496 
Calhoun, John C, 584 
Calvin, John, 253 
Cambridge, Eng,, 220, 30S, 309 
Cambridge, Mass., 140, 181, 204, 

208, 211-242, 248, 259, 260, 

271, 435,511. 512 
Campbell, William, 570 
Canaan, Conn., 532 
Canning, George, 525 
Canonicus, 476 
Cape Cod Towns, 345-402 
Carlisle, Mass., 266 
Carrington, Edward, 495, 502 
Carver, John, 312, 317, 326, 336, 

346, 352 
Casco, Me., 56 
Casco Bay, 66, 75 
Castine, Baron, 420 
Chandler, Lucretia, no 
Channing, Rev. W. Ellery, 8, 11, 

279, 2S0, 2S2, 505 
Chantavoine, 284 
Charles I., 563 
Charles II. , 391, 508, 563 
Charlestown, Mass., 136, 140, 

141, 168, 204, 207, 215 
Chase, Salmon, 76 
Chatham, Mass., 381, 382 
Chauncy, Rev. Charles, 227 
Chelmsford, Mass., 266 
Child, LydiaM., 176 
Childs, Samuel, 438 
Church, Frederick E., 550 
Church, Major, 57 



Clark, Francis E., 8, 11 

Clark, Rev. Mr., 261, 262 

Clarke, Captain, 70 

Clarke, John, 319, 481 

Clay, Henry, 536 

Cleeves, George, 56, 57 

Clemens, Samuel L., 548 

Clerc, Laurent, 536 

Clifford, Nathan, 76 

Clyfton, Richard, 299, 304, 307 

Codman, Charles, 79 

Cogswell, Alice, 535 

Cogswell, F. H.. 553 

Cogswell, Mason F., 527, 535 

Coke, Edward, 140 

Cole, Charles 0., 79 

Collier, Sir George, 569 

Colt, Caldwell H., 541 

Colt, Col. Samuel, 540 

Colt, Mrs. Samuel, 541 

Conant, Roger, T26, 127 

Concord, Mass., 7, 49, 106, 164, 

204, 219, 232, 243-297, 434 
Conway, Mass., 431 
Cooke, Rose Terry, 50, 549 
Coolidge, Susan, 443 
Cooper, J. Fenimore, 279 
Copley, JohnS., 339 
Corey, Giles, 144, 146 
Corey, Martha, 144, 145 
Corliss, George H., 500, 501 
Cornbury, Lord, 420 
Cornbury, Nathaniel, 412 
Corwin, Jonathan, 13S, 142 
Cotton, Rev. John, 218, 248, 

249, 250 
Coverly, Nathaniel, 336 
Cowper, William, 246, 247 
Cromwell, Oliver, 247, 261, 312, 

563, 564, 
Crowninshield, Benjamin W., 

158 
Crowninshield, George, 156, 158 
Cumberland County, Me., 76 
Curtis, George W., 49, 280 DBMflAl 
Cushman, Robert, 334 
Cutler, Manasseh, 27, 84, 90, 92, 

93. 94, 115 



590 



Index 



D 



Dalton, Richard, 450, 451 

Dana, Richard, 236 

Dane, Nathan, 27, 87, 90, 92 

Danvers, 92 

Danvers Centre, 139 

D'Anville, Admiral, 190, 191, 

192, 194, 195 
Dartmouth, Eng., 316 
Davenport, Abraham, 571 
Davenport, John, 553, 564, 565, 

571, 572, 580 
Davenport. John, Jr., 582 
Davenport, Lieutenant, 70 
Davison, William, 309 
Day, Jeremiah, 582 
Daye, Stephen, 241 
Dean, Barnabas, 533 
Dedham, Mass., 219, 404, 406, 

407 
Deerfield, Mass., 84, 403-442 
Delfthaven, 315, 332 
Dennis, Mass., 380, 3S1, 384, 

391 
Derby, Conn., 526 
Detroit, 524 
Devon, 380 

Dexter, Gregory, 478, 480, 485 
Dickinson, David, 433 
Dickinson. Thomas W., 438 
Diman, Rev. J. L., 480 
Dixon, James, 551 
Dixwell, Col. John, 567 
Doane, Deacon, 379 
Dokesbury, Eng., 312 
Donitson, Daniel, 430 
Dorchester, Mass., 96, 140, 511 
Dorchester Heights, 208 
Dorr, Sullivan, 502 
Dorr, Thomas W., 500 
Dow, Neal, 64 
Dowse, Thomas, 181 
Drake, Sir Francis, 348 
Duddingston, Lieutenant, 492 
Dudley, Gov. Thomas, 216, 217, 

219, 422 
Dunster, Rev. ?Ienry, 227 



Durfee, Thomas, 478 
Duxbury, Mass., 328 
Dwight, Theodore, 527 
Dwight, Timothy, 278, 366, 523, 

582 
Dyre, Mary, 484 

E 

Eastham, Mass., 352, 368, 374, 
376, 377, 37S, 379, 3S0, 381, 
38S, 400 

Eaton, Amos B., 582 

Eaton, Theophilus, 553, 556, 
558, 580 

Edinburgh, 174 

Edwards, Governor, 582 

Edwards, Jonathan, 7, 11, 290, 

523, 570 

Eggleston, James, 411 

Eliot, C. \V., 30 

Eliot, John, 334, 403, 404 

Eliot, Samuel A., 211 

Elizabeth, Cape, 56 

Elizabeth, Queen, 309, 312 

Elwell, J. D., 297 

Emanuel College, 219, 224 

Emerson, Ralph W., 7, 11, 49, 
176, 246, 250, 251, 267, 268, 
270, 278, 279, 280, 28r, 282, 
284, 285, 286, 289, 291, 293, 

294, 339 

Emerson, Rev. Mr., 270, 274, 275 

Endicott, John, 123, 124, 126, 

127, 12S, 129, 130, 131, 132, 

140, 141, 152, 156, 216, 564, 

565 
Essex, Eng., 217 
Essex County, Mass., 148, 277, 

413, 414 
Evans, George, 76 
Everett, Edward, 180, 227, 236 



Fairfield, Conn., 570 
Falmouth, Mass., 345, 361, 393, 

394, 396, 400, 402 
Falmouth, Me., 56, 57, 58, 60, 61 



Index 



591 



Farrar, Charles, 78 

Faunce, Elder, 330 

Felt, Capt. John, 154 

Felt, Rev. J. B., 128, 162 

Fern, Fanny, 78 

Fernay, Chevalier de, 460 

Fessenden, William Pitt, 76 

Field, Col. David, 433 

Fields, James T., 162, 176 

Fisher, Lieutenant, 407 

Fiske, John, 50, 106, 241, 508, 

548 
Foote, Andrew Hull, 580, 582 
Fox, George, 487 
Foxe, Edward, 303 
Franklin, Benjamin, 93, 94, iSo, 

253, 257, 2S6, 288, 470, 490, 

505, 526, 57S 
Frary, Samson, 408 
French, Daniel C, 297 
Frink, Rev. Thomas, 108 
Fuller, Dr., 132 
Fuller, George, 437 
Fuller, Margaret, 236, 280 



Gage, Gen. Thomas, 152, 206, 

210, 228, 434, 522 
Gallaudet, Thomas H., 535, 536 
Garfield, James A., 84, 97 
Garrison, William L., 180 
Garth, General, 569 
Gates, Gen. Horatio, 270 
George III., 198, 202, 256, 270 
Gerry, Elbridge, 231 
Gibbs, James, 4S0 
Gill, Mass., 431 
Gillette, William, 550 
Gladstone, William E., 253 
Gloucester, Mass., 363, 370 
Goddard, William, 496 
Godman, Elizabeth, 562, 563 
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang, 293 
Goffe, William, 411, 563, 564 
Good, Sarah, 141, 143 
Goodrich, Chauncey, 530 
Goodrich, S. G., 532, 544 



Gosnold, Bartholomew, 348 
Granby, Conn., 532 
Grand Man an, 194 
Grant, Ulysses S., 551 
Gray, 156 
Gray, Asa, 242 
Grayson, William, 89 
Greele, Alice, 61, 62 
Greene, Nathanael, 214, 471 
Greenfield, Mass., 431 
Greenleaf, Simon, 76 
Gregory, Francis H., 582 
Griggs, Dr., 140 
Groton, Mass., 246 
Guilford, Conn., 565 

H 

Hadley, Mass., 411, 413, 416 
Hale, Edward Everett, 92, 117, 

176, 185 
Hale, Matthew, 140 
Hale, Nathan, 582 
Halifax, 195 
Halifax Bay, 195 
Hamilton, Mass., 92 
Hampden, John, 247, 258 
Hancock, John, 172, 228, 259, 

261, 264, 265 
Hancock, " Lady," 172 
Hand, Daniel, 29 
Hannibal, 268 
Harlakenden, Roger, 220 
Haroun Al-Rashid, 281 
Harrington, Jonathan, 264 
Harris, William, 485 
Harris, W. L., 96 
Harris, W. T,, 30, 31, 294 
Harrold, Eng., 247 
Hartford, 9, 92, 140, 219, 486, 

507-551 
Harvard, John, 224, 226 
Harvard University, 24, 106, 180, 

222, 224, 226, 228, 242, 259, 

260, 275, 340, 429 
Harwich, Mass., 361, 381, 382 
Hatfield, Mass., 413, 416, 417 
Hawkshurst, Eng., 244 



592 



Index 



Ilawley, J. R., 551 

Hawthorne, John, 142 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 7, 9, 50, 
75, 125, 128, 156, I5g, 160, 
162, 172, 275, 279, 282, 284, 
285 

Hayes, Rutherford B., 100 

Haynes, Gov. John, 2 [7, 511, 

514 
Hemingway, Jacob, 574 
Hendery, Andrew, no 
Herbert. George, 317 
Hertford, Eng., 514 
Hibbins, Ann, 141 
Higginson, Rev. Francis, 132, 

133, 134, 138 
Higginson, Rev. John, 124 
Higginson, Thomas W., 32, 167, 

236, 241 
Hill, Thomas, 78 
Hillhouse, James, 530 
Hinsdell, Samuel, 408 
Hoar, George F., 86, 88, 89, 93, 

94, 96, 97, 98, 100, 103, 116, 

117, 118 
H olden, Mass., 106 
Holmes, John, 236 
Holmes, Oliver W., 40, 50, 176, 

17S, 214, 227, 232, 236, 241 
Holmes, Rev. Abiel, 481 
Holyman, Rev. Mr., 480 
Holyoke, Capt. Samuel, 417 
Honeyman, Rev. Mr., 449 
Hooker, Rev. Thomas, 217, 218, 

219, 507, 510, 512, 514, 521 
Hopkins, Dr. Lemuel, 525 
Hopkins, Dr. Samuel, 8 
Flopkins, Esek, 502 
Hopkins, Governor, 572 
Hopkins, Stephen, 490, 494, 502, 

Howe, General, 196, 202, 206 
Howe, Julia Ward, 176 
Howells, William D., 176, 241 
Hubbard, Rev. William, 218 
Hubbardston, Mass., 82, 106 
Hudson, Henry, 348 
Hudson, J. B., 79 



Hull, Isaac, 578, 584 
Humphreys, David, 525, 526, 

582 
Huntingdon, 247 
Hutchinson, Anne, 220, 248 
Hutchinson, Gov. Thomas, 144, 

148 



IngersoU, Governor, 582 
Ingraham, J. H., 78 
Ipswich, Mass., 92, 219 
Irving, Washington, 81, 279 
Ives, Thomas P., 502 

J 

Jackson, Andrew, 364, 584 

Jackson, Lydia, 339 

Jacobs, George, 124 

James, Sir John, 450, 451 

James I., 314, 315 

Jefferson, Thomas, 16, 89, 90, 

253. 257, 25S, 2S6, 526 
Jewell, Marshall, 551 
Johnson, Dr. Samuel, 176 
Johnston, Alexander, 507 
Jones, Capt., 328 
[ones, Rev. John, 246 • 

Jones, William, 564, 565 
fudson, Adoniram, 340 
Jumel, Betsy, 112 
Jumel, Stephen, 1 12 

K 

Kellogg, Elijah, 78 
Kendall, Rev. James, 332 
Kent, Chancellor, 244, 380 
Killingworth, Conn,, 574 
King, Rufus, 90 
Kingston, Mass., 328 
Kirkland, Rev. John T., 227 
Knowles, Admiral, 196 
Knox, Gen. Henry, 214 

L 

Lafayette, Marquis de, 158, '584 
Lancashire, 312 



Index 



593 



Lancaster, Mass., 105, 246 

I.angdon, John, 260 

Langdon, Rev. Samuel, 232, 259 

Larconi, Lucy, 43 

Latimer, George D., 121 

Laud, Archbishop, 247 

Lee, Richard Henry, 89 

Leete, Deputy Governor, 565 

I'Epee, Abbe de, 536 

Leslie, Col., 154 

Lexington, Mass., 58, 109, 174, 
202, 204, 219, 238, 259, 260, 
261, 262, 264, 265, 266, 271, 
272, 273, 278. 294, 434 

Leyden, 311, 314, 315, 322, 334 

Lincoln, Abraham, 14, 253, 289, 
550 

Lincoln, Mass., 266, 272 

Lincolnshire, 185, 304 

Lisbon, 531 

Litchfield, Conn., 8 

Locke, John, 253, 258 

Locke, Jonas, 435 

London, 174, 176, 178, 185, 334, 
522, 553, 564 

Londonderry, N. IL, 108 

Longfellow, Henry W., 50, 66, 
68, 69, 75, 78, 79, 176, 214, 
227, 234, 236, 260, 262 

Longfellow, Samuel, 78 

Longfellow, Stephen, 69, 530 

Longmeadow, Mass., 429 

Lonsdale, R. I., 504 

Lossing, B. J., 96 

Lothrop, Capt. Thomas, 410, 

413, 414, 415 
Louis XV., 188 
Louis XVI., 526 
Louisbourg, 188, 202, 265, 329, 

429 
Lowell, James Russell, 32, 50, 

176, 214, 224, 227, 231, 236, 

239, 275 
Lowell, Rev. Charles, 231 
Lynn, Eng., 247 

M 

Magee, Capt. James, 376 



Malbon, Martha, 562 

Malbon, Richard, 562 

Mann, Horace, 30, 180 

Manning, Pres. James, 491, 500 

Manomet, 320, 331 

Marcus Aurelius, 308 

Marie Antoinette, 90 

Marietta, Ohio, 27, 82,84, 86, 88, 
90, 92, 97, 100, 103, 115, 116, 
117, 118 

Marshfield, Mass., 328, 332 

Mashpee, Mass., 392 

Mason, James M., 376 

Massasoit, 324, 325, 329 

Mather, Cotton, 141, 149, 222, 
348, 409, 411, 413, 415 

Mather, Eleazer, 418 

Mather, Eunice, 418, 426 

Mayfloiver, 15, 100, 316, 317, 
319, 320, 326, 328, 338, 341, 
345, 346, 348, 350, 352, 353, 
354, 377, 508, 578 

Maynard, Sir John, 258 

McClanathan, John and Eliza- 
beth, no 

McKoon, Joseph, 430 

McSparran, Doctor, 488 

Mead, Edwin D., 81 

Medfield, Mass., 408 

Medford, Mass., 408 

Meigs, Return J., 94 

Mendon, Mass., 15 

Merrimac River, 219, 267 

Miantinomi, 476 

Middlesex County, Mass., J05, 
258, 260, 268, 277 

Milford, Conn., 564, 566 

Milton, John, 222, 286 

Minot, Captain, 272 

Mobile, 68 

Monadnock, 82 

Monroe, James, 584 

Monscm, Conn., 532 

Montaigne, 282, 284, 285 

Montesquieu, 258 

Montpellier, 113 

Montreal, 65 

Moody, Dwight L., 8, 11 



594 



Index 



Morrill, Lot M., 76 
Morris, G. P., i 
Morse, Alpheus C, 504 
Morse, Jedediah, 5S2 
Morton, Nathaniel. 320 
Moseley, Capt. Samuel, 414, 415 
Motley, John Lothrop, 81 
Mount Wollaston, 128, 218 
Mowatt, Captain, 60, 61, 62, 72 
Mowry, Roger, 484 
Munroe, Robert, 265 
Murray, xA.lexander, no 
Murray, Col. John, T09, no, 

III, 115 " 

Musketaquit River, 260 
Muskingum, 102 



N 



Nantucket, 368, 394, 532 
Narragansett Bay, 81, 475, 481 
Narragansett, R. I., 488 
Natick, Mass., 104, 406 
Nauhaught, Deacon, 393 
Naumkeag, 126, 127, 131, 132, 

133 
Neal, John, 78 
New Bedford, 392 
Newburgh, N. Y., 99 
Newburyport, 171 
New Haven, 24, 487, 524, 532, 

553-586 
Newport, R. I., 7, 176, 443-473, 

481, 484, 487, 494, 505, 521 
Newton, Mass., 219, 404, 511 
Newtown, Conn., 512 
Newtowne, Mass., 215, 216, 218, 

219, 220, 223 
New Windsor, 521 
New York, 64, 93, 94, 168, 170, 

174, 176, 441, 486, 497, 532, 

534, 584 
Niles, John M., 551 
Noble,' John, 198 
Norfolk, 380 
Norfolk, Conn., 532 
Norfolk, Va., 532 
Northampton, Mass., 7, 418 



Northfield, Mass., 412, 415 
North Kingstown, R. I., 486 
Norton, Charles E., 241 
Nottingham, 304 
Nurse, Rebecca, 144 



O 



Oakham, 82, 106 

Odell, Eng. , 244, 246, 247 

Oliver, Thomas, 231, 232 

Olmsted, Frederick L., 550 

Olney, Eng., 247 

Orleans, Mass., 352, 380, 381, 

388, 393, 396 
Osborn, Charles J., 575 
Osborn, Goody, 141, 143 
Osgood, James R., 176 
Otis, Harrison Gray, 530 
Otis, James, 198, 228, 390 
Ouse River, 246, 247 
Oxford, 302 
Oxford County, Me., 69 



Paddock, Ichabod, 368, 

Palfrey, John G., 50, 236 

Pamet, 368 

Pamet River, 351 

Paris, 178, 536 

Parker, Capt. John, 261, 264, 

265 
Parker, Theodore, 176, 261,262, 

265 
Parkman, Francis, 50, 81, 176, 

181, 446 
Parris, Elizabeth, 139 
Parris, Rev. Samuel, 139, 140, 

141, 15' 
Parsons, Samuel H., 94 
Parsons, Theophilus, 76 
Pascal, 285 

Patten, Nathaniel, 522 
Pawtucket, R. I., 486, 495 
Pawtuxet River, 476 
Paxton, Charles, 106 
Paxton, Mass., 82, 103, T06 



Index 



595 



Payson, Edward, 78 
Peabody, George, 29, 72 
Pelham, Mass., 109 
Pemaquid, 58 
Penn, William, 406 
Pennicook, 104 

Percy, Lord, 204, 238, 261, 276 
Peskeompskut, 416, 417 
Phelps, William Walter, 575 
Philadelphia, 170, 288, 522, 534 
Philip, King, 56, 81, 267, 329, 
381, 3S9, 410, 416, 417, 484, 

517 
Phillips, Wendell, 173 
Phipps, Sir William, 58, 146 
Pickard, Samuel T,, 53 
Pickering, Timothy, 90, 158 
Pierce, Mrs. Anne L., 68 
Pierpont, John, 261, 266 
Pierson, Abigail, 582 
Pierson, Abraham, 574 
Pilgrimage, Historical, v, 82 
Pitcairn, Major, 265 
Pitican, Simon, 104 
Pittsburgh, Pa., 100 
Pittsfield, Mass., 549 
Plato, 7, 284 
Plimpton, John, 407 
Plymouth, 131, 243, 299, 343 
Plymouth Colony, 57 
Plymouth, Eng. , 316 
Plymouth, Mass., 100, 299-343, 

377, 378, 390, 394, 507 
Pocumtuck, Mass., 407, 408, 410, 

414 
Pocumtuck River, 403, 404, 431, 

441 
Pokanoket, 416 
Pompamamay, 104 
Pond, Charles M., 543 
Pond, Elizabeth, 543 
Pool, Maria L., 59 
Pope, Albert A., 543 
Portland, 8, 53-80 
Portsmouth, X. 11., 171 
Portsmouth, R. 1., 481 
Powell, Lyman P., xi 
Preble, Com. Edward, 66, 69 



Prentice, George D., 544 
Prentiss, Sargent S., 76 
Prescott, Col. George, 296 
Prescott, Col. William, 204, 206, 

232, 260 
Prescott, Dr. Samuel, 261, 267, 

271 
Prescott, William, 530 
Prescott, W. H., 159 
Presumpscot River, 75 
Prince, Thomas, 106, 194 
Princeton, Mass., 82, 103, 106 
Pring, Martin, 348 
Providence, R. I., 475-506 
Provincetown, Mass, 345, 346, 

350, 354-3^5, 366, 369, 370, 

376, 377, 388, 389, 396, 400 
Pugastion, 104 
Putnam, Ann, 151 
Putnam, Israel, 96, 97, 435 
Putnam, Rufus, 27, 82, 88, 90, 

92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 

102, 109, 114, 115, 116, 118, 

119 
Putnam, \N . L., 76 
Pym, John, 258 
Pynchon, Colonel, 413 



Quebec, 200, 277 
Quincy, Josiah, 227, 236 
Quincy, Josiah, Jr., 174 
Quincy, Mass., 128 
Quincy, Mrs. Josiah, 172 
Quinnipiac, 556, 580 



R 



Rasle, Father, 427, 429 
Raymond, 75, 76 
Reade, Lieutenant, 70 
Reed, Thomas B., 56, 57, 69 
Revere, Paul, 174, 260, 262, 325, 

402 
Riedesel, von. Baron. 234 
Riedesel, von, Baroness, 234 
Ripley, Lieutenant, 296 



596 



Index 



Ripley, Rev. Dr., 262, 291, 296 
Robbins, Rev. Chandler, 330 
Robinson, Rev. John, 299, 304, 

307, 311, 315, 334 
Rochambeau, Count, 459, 521 
Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Count, 

464, 465 
Rousseau, Jean J., 25 S 
Rouville, Hertel de, 424 
Rowlandson, Joseph, 105 
Roxbury, 202, 20S 
Russell, Joseph, 491 
Russell, William, 491 
Russell, William E., 239 
Rutland, Eng., 116 
Rutland, Mass., 81-119 



Sabin, James, 492 

St. Edmundsbury, 113 

Salem, 9, 57, 75, 84, 121-166, 

171, 216, 258, 385, 563 
Samoset, 324 
Sampson, Deborah, 330 
Sampson, Simeon, 330 
Sanborn, Frank B., 243 
Sandwich, Mass., 376, 379, 380, 

381, 388. 391, 393, 394, 400 
Sandys, Sir Edwin, 332 
Saratoga, N. Y., 112 
Sassawannow, 104 
Saybrook, Conn., 574 
Schuyler, Major Peter, 422 
Scott, Richard, 4S4 
Scott, Walter, 161 
Scrooby, Eng., 119, 299, 300, 

304, 308, 309, 332 
Sebago, Lake, 75 
Seekonk River, 476, 497 
Selden, John, 140 
Sequassen, 515 
Sevvall, Samuel, 105, 108, 150, 

151 
Shakespeare, William, 135, 286, 

292, 293 
Sharnbrook, Eng., 247 
Shaw, Martha, no 



Shaw, Robert, 173 

Shawmut, 168 

Shawonet, R. I., 481 

vShays, Daniel, 97, 106, 438 

Shelburne, Mass., 431 

Sheldon, Ensign John, 424, 426 

Sheldon, George, 403 

Shepard, Rev. Thomas, 219, 

220, 222 
Sherman, Minot, 530 
Sherman, Roger, 578 
Shirley, Gov. William, 187, 191, 

194 
Shirley, Thomas, 174 
Shrewsbury, Mass., 106 
Sicard, Abbe, 536 
Sidney, Algernon, 253, 258 
Sigourney, Lydia H., 544 
Silliman, Benjamin, 582 
Simmons, Franklin, 78, 79 
Skelton, Rev. Samuel, 133, 134 
Slater, John F., 29 
Slater, Samuel, 495 
Slidell, J., 376 
Slosson, Annie T., 549 
Smibert, John, 450, 451, 454 
Smith College, 82 
Smith, Colonel, 204 
Smith, Elihu H., 527 
Smith, Elizabeth Oakes, 78 
Smith, Capt. John, 56 
Smith, John, 348 
Smith, Seba, 78 
Socrates, 286 
Somerset, H. M. S., 356 
South Boston, 183 
Sparks, Rev. Jared, 227, 236 
Speedzi'ell, the, 315, 316 
Spenser, Edmund, 286 
Spooner, Ephraim, 332 
Sprague, William, 501 
Springfield, Conn., 140 
Springfield, Mass., 415, 416 
Standish, Barbara, 328 
Standish, Lora, 336 
Standish, Myles, 312, 317, 325, 

328, 329, 336, 350, 352, 353, 

378 



Index 



597 



Standish, Rose, 336 

Stark, Gen. John, 265, 436 

Stebbins, John, 415 

Stebbins, Lieut. Joseph, 435, 

436, 438 

Stedman, Edmund C, 548 

Stephens, Mrs. Ann S., 78 

Stiles, Ezra, 411, 568 

Stimson, F. J., 50 

Stonington, Conn., 498, 548 

Story, Joseph, 159, 227 

Story, William, 236 

Stoughton, Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor, 149 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 8, 50, 
76, 546 

Strong, Governor, 528 

Stroudwater, 76 

Stuyvesant, Peter, 516 

Sudbury, 84 

Suffolk, England, 113 

Sumner, Charles, 176 

Sumner, James, 4S0 

Sunderland, 431 

Suttlife, Nathaniel, 408 

Sutton, Mass., 97 

Swanzey, 410 



Talcott, Mary K., 507 
Taylor, Father, 11 
Taylor, Rev. John, 438 
Teft, Thomas A., 504 
Tennyson, Alfred, 282, 299 
Terry, Alfred H., 582 
Thatcher, Doctor, 332 
Thoreau, Henry, 7, 280, 282, 285, 

289, 296, 345, 367, 370 
Throckmorton, John, 478 
Tileston, John, 296 
Tillinghast, Pardon, 487 
Tilton, J. R., 79 
Tisquantum, 324 
Tituba, 139, 141, 143, 144, 150 
Tocqueville, Alexis de, i 
Toucey, Isaac, 550 
Trask, Joseph, 104 



Tread well, John, 530 

Treat, Major Robert, 412, 414, 

415 
Treat, Robert, 518, 519 
Treat, Rev. Samuel, 379 
Trimountain, 168 
Trinity College, 534, 538 
Tripoli, 69 

Trumbull, Annie E., 549 
Trumbull, Dr. Benjamin, 511, 

512, 516, 518 
Trumbull, Colonel, 576 
Trumbull, Henry C, 549 
Trumbull, James H., 548, 549 
Trumbull, John, 522, 523, 524, 

525 
Truro, Mass., 345, 351, 356, 361, 

366-376, 381, 400 
Tryon, General, 569 
Tucker, Richard, 56 
Tufts College, iSo 
Turner, Capt. William, 416, 417 



U 



Upliam, Charles VV., 12S, 144, 
162 



V 



Van Buren, Martin, 551 
Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 575 
Vane, Sir Henry, 222, 248, 249 
Varnum, J. M., 94 
• Very, Jones, 159, 292 
Vezzerano, 446, 448 
Voltaire, 258 

W 

Wachusett, Mass., 82, 103, 104, 

105, 114 
Wadsworth, Captain, 519 
Wadsworth, Henry, 68 
Wadsworth. Gen. Peleg, 68, 69 
Wales, Prince of, 72 
Walker, Gen. Francis A., 117 
Walker, Rev. James, 227 
Walpole, Sir Robert, 452 



598 



Index 



Wamassick, 104 

Wananapan, 104 

Ward, Gen. Artemas, 106, 204, 

207, 208, 232 
Ward, Edward, 184 
Ware, Ashur, 76 
Warebam, Mass., 396 
Warner, Charles Dudley, 548 
Warren, James, 338 

Warren, Joseph, 174, 214, 228, 

259, 262 
Warren, Mercy Otis, 338 
Warren, R. I., 49 
Warville, Brissot de, 464 
Warwick, R. I., 481 
Washington, D. C, 241, 527 
Washington, George, 93, 96, 98, 

99, 102, 154, 158, 202, 207, 

208, 214, 232, 260, 265, 268, 
278, 286, 288, 289, 388, 462, 
471, 472, 490. 521, 526, 568, 
582, 584 

Waterbury, Conn., 525 
Waters, Lieutenant, 66 
Watertown, Conn., 523 
Watertown, Mass., 215, 260, 511 
Watson, Ellen, 299 
Wauchatopick, 105 
Wayland, Francis, 499, 500 
Webster, Daniel, 49, 87, 88, 180, 

332 
Webster, Noah, 523, 544, 578, 

582, 584 
Weeden, William B., 475 
Weld, Daniel, 407 
Welles, Gideon, 550 
Wellesley College, 180 
Wellfleet, Mass., 351, 374^ 375. 

376, 380, 393 
Wells, Captain, 420 
Wells, Thomas, 419 
Westbur}% Conn., 523 
Westfield, Conn., 532 
Westford, Mass., 266 
West Haven, Conn., 568 
West Point, 568 
Wethersfield, Conn., 508, 521, 

533 



Weybosset, R. I., 482, 485 
Whalley, Edward, 563, 564 
Wheaton, Henry, 499 
Wheelwright, John, 248, 249 
Whipple, Abraham, 492, 494 
Whipple, Edwin P., 176 
White, Peregrine, 337, 354 
White field, George, 570 
Whiting, Rev. John, 253 
Whitney, Eli, 582 
Whittier, John G., 50, 54, 81, 

176, 544, 570 
Wickenden, William, 480 
Wilkins, Mary E., 50 
Willard, Benjamin, 105 
Willard, Henry, 105 
Willard, Rev. Joseph, 108, 227 
Willard, Rev. Samuel, 440 
Willard, Simon, 105, 219, 243, 

244, 246, 268 
William the Silent, 311 
Williams, Abigail, 140 

Williams, Col. Ephraim, 429 

Williams, Rev. John, 418, 422, 
428 

Williams, Roger, 9, 11, 124, 136, 
138, 152, 449. 476, 478, 480, 
481, 482, 484, 485, 486, 488, 
489, 502 

Williams, Rev. Stephen, 428 

Willis, N. P., 78, 178 

Wilson, Rev. John, 220 

Windsor, Conn., 508 

Winslow, Edward, 312, 314, 315, 
317, 326, 328, 329, 332, 334, 

389 
Winslow, Gen. John, 332 

Winslow, Josiah, 332, 337 
Winthrop, Gov. John, 136, 

140, 168, 180, 2T4, 216, 220, 

24S 
Winthrop, Robert C, 49 
Winthrop, Theodore, 582 
Woburn, Mass., 260 
Wolfe, Gen. James, 277 
Wolsey, Cardinal, 306 
Woodhill, 244 
Wood's Holl, Mass., 394 



Index 



599 



Worcester County, Mass., 97, 

103, 105 
Worcester, Eng. , 302 
Worcester, Mass., 82, 103, 105, 

III, 113, 116, 117, 498, 499 
Worcestershire, 312 
Wyclif, John, 303 
Wyllys, Samuel, 519 



Y 



Yale, Elihu, 574 

Yale University, 24, 366, 454, 

523, 572, 574, 575, 576, 582, 

584, 586 
Yarmouth, Mass., 368, 377, 380, 

381, 385, 393 
Yorkshire, 247, 304 
Yorktown, 521 



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