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Cj^f 3^afelugt ^oeietg* 















or T«M BHiTiAR Huaffru^ 





f4 /si 

I .'^?059 


niniARDs, ino, st. martin's l*nr. 



Hon. Mam. Imp. Acad. Sc St. Paterabnig, &c., Ac, Pbbsidbnt. 

Vicx-Aduiral Sib CHARLES MALCOLM, Knt. ) 

Tb« Rev. W. WHEWELL. D.D., M«t. T. C. C. | Vici^P««..o>«r,. 

Rkib-Admibil Sib FRANCIS BEAUFORT, Kkt. 

CHARLES T. BEKE, Esq., Fbil. D., F.S.A. 


Majos^knbb&l J. BRIGOS, F R.S. 





R. W. GREY, Esq., M.P. 




Thb Very RnvEaBSD thb DEAN OF ST. PAUL'S. 


Thb Mabqcbsb of NORTHAMPTON. 

Rbv. G. C. RENODARD, M.A. 


AajDREW SMITH, Esq., M.D. 

R. H. MAJOR, Esq, F,R.G.S., Honorary Skcrktarv. 


The prophetic quotation which the author of this 
work has placed upon his title-page, seems to indicate 
an anticipation on his part, that his manuscript would 
one day be printed ; and its interesting date and curious 
details, have given the Editor reason to congratulate 
himself upon the fact, that the Ilakluyt Society is the 
"generation" prognosticated. 

Two copies of the manuscript, hoth in the author's 
handwriting (for there are a sufficient number of 
instances of it in the British Museum to prove its 
identity), are all that have come under the Editor's 
notice; one in the Sloane Collection, No. 1622, in the 
British Museum, from which the present publication 
has been transcribed; and the other among the Ash- 
inolean Manuscripts, No. 1734. The only difference 
between these two, is an alteration in the title of the 
second book, and the addition to the titles, both of the 
6rst and second books, of the motto of Alget qui non 
ardef. The Museum copy La dedicated to Sir Francis 
Bacon, *' Lord High Chancellor" ; and that in the 
Ashmolean Library to Sir Allen Apsley, " Purveyor 
to His Majesties Navie Royall." 

viii PBEFACE. 

That the author was a man of an intelligent and 
observing mind will be evident from a perusal of the 
following pages. That he was a man of considerable 
learning will be likewise evident; although it must be 
acknowledged that he was not without a tincture of 
the pedantry common to the age, which has led him 
occasionally to illustrate his descriptions by the em- 
ployment of classical expressions, and those of such an 
unusual character, that the Editor has been compelled, 
in his duty to the reader, to make annotations appa- 
rently but little suited to the general tenour of the 
narrative. This defect, however, it is hoped, will be 
found to be amply compensated by the intrinsic merit 
of the work itself, especially when the date at which it 
was written is taken into consideration. 

R. H. M. 


Thr EnrroR was extremely desirous of commencing 
tbis introJuction with a short biograpliical notice of 
William Strachcy, the author of the following: pages ; 
but notwithstanding that he has used his best ex- 
ertions, he has been unsuccessful in discovering any- 
thing more respecting him, than such few points as 
connect him immediately with the subject of the work 
itself.' The place and date of his birth, as well as those 
of his death, are unknown. That he was a person of 
importance in Virginia we shall horoaftcr show. But 
in the absence of sufficient materials to make even the 

1 T]ie Eilitor having com muni cat e*l with Sir Henry Sirachriy, 
Bart., of Sutton Court, Somersetshire, as to tlie possibility of bis 
connuxion with the Strachey of this MS., wae kinilly permytted, 
throngh the obliging mctliuin of Eilwiird Stracliey, Esij. of Clifton, 
and William Strachey, Esq. of London, fo inspect the family 
ptiligree. Fi-om tliis it Appeared that there wna a William Slmchey 
of Saffron WalJen, who was married in 1588, and was alive in 
1630, a range of years including the period of our MS.: but 
no mention was made of his having been to Virginia. It is 
rutnurkublu, howevei-, llint his grandson of the same name is espe- 
cially referred to as having craigrntud to that place. It would 
appear not improbable that the former of them m&y be idecticol 
with the Virgiiiinn adveiitnrer, and thiit the latter may have gone 
to America under tlie influence of bis grandfather's distinguished 
connexion with the colony. Mention is made twice or tbricu ia 
various of the Ilarlcinn MSS. of a William Strachey of Saffron 
Walden about the some period. 




slightest biograijlilciil sketch, the Editor lias thought 
it better simply to introJucc his name at those points 
of the following introductory outline of the progress 
of the colony, where it naturally falls in with the 
thread of the narrative. 

It is presumed that the two following questions will 
most naturally suggest themselves, upon the pcrusul 
of our title-page. First, what is the period of this 
Historie of Travaile f and secondly, what degree of 
interest does the date of the narrative involve, with 
reference to the history of the country of which it 

Tlie period referred to in our title-page, ranges over 
1610, IGII, and 1612; and if wc call to mind that 
the first definite settlement of Virginia, or in otlier 
words, the first permanent colonization of America by 
the British, took pkce only in 1607, it must be evident 
that this period is one of the Iiighcst intei'cst to all 
who read with pleasure what Hakluyt calls "the 
industrious labors and painefuU travels of our coun- 

The title of the English to the soil of which wc 
eventually gained possession, as well as the description 
of the principal previous visitations of our country- 
men to the western coasts of Aracrica — both points 
forming suitable introductory matter to a work like 
the present — have been dealt with by the author him- 
self, all quaintly and briefly though it bp, in the suc- 
ceeding pages. His "premonition to the reader" leaves 
all allusion to tlie first question unnecessary; and 
the second book (which might more correctly have 
been the first instead of the second), embodies the 
narrative of those earlier voyages, which though un- 



successful in offectin^ settlcmenfa, paved the way to 
the ulthiiate colonization of the country. 

Many attempts at this great object had been made 
by the English, under the coraraand of Sir Hugh 
Willoughby and Martin Fpo])isher, and finally under 
patents jgrantcd by Elizabeth in the early part of her 
reign to Sir tluniphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh, 
but without any permanently favourable result. 

These several voyages, however, though fulling short 
of the purpose for which they were originated, were 
not unproductive of intcref5tiug narratives (brief, it is 
true, but unitedly too lengthy even for & digested 
repetition here), which may yet, perhaps, be appro- 
priately enumerated for the reader's advantage for 

G. Best. Discourae of the late voyages and of discoveries 
for the finding of a passag:e to Cathaya by the nord-weaat, 
under the conduct of Jliirtin Frobisher, general, with a 
particular card thereunto adjoined of Mcta Xucoguita, 4to. 
London, Bijuneifuin, 1578. 

Reprinted in Hakluyt. 

A prayse and report of Maister Martyne Forhoisher voyage 
to !Mcta Incognita, now spoken of by Thomas Churchyard, 
gentl. Impriuted for Andrew Mauiisell in Paulca Church- 
yard, at the sign of the Parrot, 8vo. «. l- {circ. 1580.) 

R. Hakluyt. Divers voyages touching the discovcric of 
America ami the iMlantlsi adjacent unto the same, made first 
of all hy our Euglisliinen, and afterwards by the Frenchmen 
and Bretons, 4to. London, 1583.* 

A discourse upon the intended voyage to the hitherraostc 
parta of America, Ttritten by Captaine Carleill for the better 
taduccmcut to satisfie such mercbauntes, as in disbnraeing 

1 ThH rare book, the first publication of Ilitkluyt, is now io 
progress of preparation for the Hakluyt Society, under the edi- 
Itirittl care of J. Wiiiler Jones, Esq. of tlie liiitiBh Musquoi. 




their moner, do deouiaiule forwtth a prewmt retoroe of 

guae ; allMrit their saicd particnlar disbonement an in such 

•Imder somme* as are not rorth the speal^ing of, 4to. 1583. 

Reprinted in Haklujt. 

A briefe and tme report of tbe new found land of Virginia, 
&c., distcovered by the English Colonv there seated bv Sir 
Kichard GrcinviUe, Knight, in the yecre 15S5. . . by Thomas 
Ifariot, ito. London, 1588. 

flaVluyt. The principal Dangations, Toyagea and dis- 
coveries made by the English nation, folio. 1589. 
Ucpriuted irith additions in 1599. 

De Dry. America, sive navigationes in ludiam Occidcn- 
talcm. Francofurti, 1590, 

A brief and true report of the new found land of Alrgiuia, 
[being the Hmt part of the precediuj^ collection which was 
not continued in Enj»lish] T. dc Bry, ito. Franifort, 1590. 

A bricfc and true relation of the discorcry of the north 
part of Virginia .... by Captains Uilbert, Gosuold, &c., 
J. BreretoD, 4to. goth. London, 1602. 

A proHpcrous voyage iu the discovery of the north part of 
Virginia, by Capt. G. Waymouthj written by G. Rosier, a 
geiitk-nimi employed in the voyage, 410. gulli. London,lGQ5. 

Novii Britauiiia oireriiig must excellent fruits by planting 
in Virginia, 4to. 1609. 

Vir}<iiiia richly valued by the deacription of the maine land 
of Florida, Iier next iicighbuur, &c., wTJtten by a Portuguese 
gentleman of the city of Klvas, and translated by E. Hakluyt, 1609. 

At the time of the death of Queen Elizabeth, one 
hiinJrc'd mid okvcn years subsequent to the great dis- 
covery of the Western World by Columbus, the Spa- 
niards, on whose behalf hia discovery had been nmde, 
were the aolc pcrtuanent settlers in this wide and wealthy 
continent. In 1G06, the French began to make settle- 
ments in Cnniidu jind Aeadic, now Nova Scotia, but it 
WU8 not till 1 G07 that the enterprise, which was finally 


destined to lay the foundation of British occupancy of 
American soil, wasundcrtiikcn. Twcnty-threeyearshad 
expired since the patent had been granted to Sir 'Wnlter 
Kalcigh to discover and take possession, with little less 
than royal privileges, of remote heathen and barbarous 
lander, hitherto not actually possessed by any Christian 
prince ; and yet not an acre of Amerietin soil had 
hitherto^become the property of the English. 

The attainder of this enteri)rising and highly gifted 
raaa would seem to have been, by some inexplicable 
decree of Providence, a signal for the commencement 
of that success which had l)cien denied to nearly tliirty 
several voyages, tlie furnishing of which liad cost 
him a fortune and the persevering exertions of the lieat 
portion of an energetic and iiiflucntiul life. It was 
shortly after this period, viz,, A" Ifi05-G, that llichard 
Hakliiyt, the ^^ presidivm et duke decus" of onr society, 
to whom, as Robertson justly remarks, " England is 
more indebted for its American possessions than to any 
man of that age", used influential arguments with va- 
rious gentlemen of condition, to induce them to present 
a petition to King James, to grant them patents for the 
settlement of two plantations on the Coast of North 
America. This petition issued in the concession of a 
charter, bearing date the 10th of April, 1606, by 
■which the tract of country lying between the thirty- 
fourth and forty-fifth degrees of latitude was to be 
divided into nearly equal portions, between two com* 
panics; that octcupying the s outh erg portion to be 
called the first colony (subsequently named the Lon- 
don Company), and that occupying the northern, to 
be called the second colony (subsequently named the 
I'lymouth Company). Tho patent also vested in each 



colony a right of property over fifty miles of the 
land, extending along the coast each side of the point 
of first occupation, and a hundred miles inland. The 
chief adventurers in the London or South Virginian 
Company, with wliich as the first settlement we now 
have principally to do, were Sir Thomas Gates, Sir 
Greorge Somers, Richard Hakluyt, and Edward Jlaria 
Wingfield. The command of the expedition was com- 
mitted to Captain Newport. 

By a strange caprice of the king — who, with a 
pedantry in keeping with his general character and 
little consonant with the wisdom necessary for the 
direction of important enterprises, had undertaken, 
the personal dictation of the instructions for the 
colony, and the appointment of the members of the 
councilj^these instructions were sent carefully sealed 
up and enclosed in a box not to be opened till 
after the arrival in Virginia. The result of this ab- 
surdity was, that the main body of the adventurers 
knew not to whom they had to look as president, so 
that in the absence of specified authority, the prepon- 
derance of personal talents or energy in any individual 
among their officers, would naturally attract the atten- 
tion and respect of those who felt the need of an able 
and determined leader. Such an one presented him- 
self in Captain John Smith, who had already distin- 
guished himself by feats of surpassing skill and daring 
in the wars of Transylvania and Hungary. 

It was in April 1607, that the expedition approached 
the shores of America, and after encountering a vio- 
lent tempest and being driven out of their reckoning, 
came in sight of the magnificent bay of Chesapeake. 
Upon opening the box containing the instructions 



drawn up by King James, the name of Captain Smith 
was found raeuttoned in tlie list of council. The 
members mentioned, were to choose their presidentfor 
one year, who, in conjunction with the council, was to 
govern the colony. J3y whatever motive actuated, it 
appears that the council endeavoured^ under the most 
triflingpretcnces, to exclude Smith from a seat amongst 
them, and it was only by the judicious and earnest ex- 
hortations of Mr. Hunt, the chaplain, that the royal 
authoiity was in this respect deferred to, and lie was 
admitted into the council. His prudence and courage 
subsequently produced effects which obtained for him, 
as is well known to every reader of American history, 
a patriarchal rank among British colonists in America. 
It is not our business here to enter into a repetition of 
the oft-repeated story of his chivalrous conduct among 
the Indians, of his steady determination and politic 
endurance, when having to contend with the disaffec- 
tion of his own people, nor of the romantic tale of hia 
own life and Englishmen's lives, for hia sate, being 
saved once and again by the personal devotion of the 
generous but ill^requited Pocahontas. Suffice it to 
say, that by this expedition, and prominently under 
the management of Captain Smith, the first perma- 
nent settlement of the English in America was effected 
in the construction of a town on the river Powhatan, 
now called James' River, and which they named James 
Town, in honour of the king. 

Misfortune, however, seemed to haunt the infant 
colony. The storehouse at James Town caught 
fire accidentally, and was consumed.' Although the 

' See Stith'3 Virffinia, .59 ; and Smith's Viiyin'm, 52. By tliis 
flre, Mr. Hunt, the t'hdijlnin, lost liis library nnci all that he possessed. 



colonists were abstemious,' yet an over-amount of 
toil in tlie extremity of the heat, together witli un- 
wholesome food and comfortless lodging, produced 
considerable mortality atnongst them ; which again was 
increased in the winter of the following year 1608, by 
the remarkable severity of a frost, which has been the 
subject of notice by several writers of the period. In 
the summer of this latter year, Captain Smith, whose 
wisdom and vigour had by this time gained him the pre- 
sidency of the colony, made an exploratory excursion 
amongst the great rivers which tall into the Chesapeake, 
and drew up a map (a fac-simile of which accompanies 
this volume, frequent reference being made to it by 
our author), together with a short description of the 
country and of the natives, wliich He transmitted to 
the council in England. This was subsequently 
published under the title of " A map of Virginia, with 
a description of the countrey, &c.. written by Captaino 
Smith, wbereunto is annexed the proceedings of those 
Colonies since their first departure from England, &c., 
&c., taken faithfully as they were written, out of the 
writings of Doctor Uusscll, Tho. Studley, &c., &c., 
aud the relations of divers other diligent observers 
then present there, and now many of them in England. 
By W". Strachcy." Oxford, 16i2, 4to. A consider- 
able portion of this small work has been adopted by 
iStrachey, and interwoven into bis own narrative ia 
the following MS. 

In the interval Captain Newport, who had returned 
to England, arrived with a second supply for the colony 
at Virginia, and brought over with him seventy persons, 
many of whom were men of rank and distinction. 

1 See Smiih, fo. 44, and Purclias, v, 1706-1707. 



is to be deplored, liowever, that gold, and not the per- 
manent establishment of the colony, appears to have 
been the predominating incentive; inasmuch as, ac- 
cording to Chalmers, tlie company's instruct ions which 
were sent with this expedition, imperatively required 
that the interior should be explored for gold; iind 
threatened th;it, in the event of failure, the colonists 
"should be allowed to remain as banished men in Vir- 
ginia." Although these hopes of the company were 
not realized, the confirmation which the narratives of 
the more recent adventurers gave to the accounts of 
those who had preceded them, excited an enthusiasm 
that Ind to the best results at tltis very criticnl period. 
Individuals of the highest rank, tempted by the de- 
scriptions of the extent and fertility of the country, 
and induced, through the medium of commendatory 
pamphlets, to believe t!nit an enterprise on a more ex- 
tensive sci^le would completely nullify the obstacles 
which had hitherto stood in the way, obtained from 
the king a new charter, in which he was prevailed 
upon to relinquish some of those clsiiins of sovereignty, 
which in tlic former patent had been so uncompro- 
misingly reserved. By this charter, the lands which 
had formei'ly been conveyed only in trust were now 
granted in absolute property. The principal re- 
strictive eliLUses comprised the administration of the 
oath of supremncy to all emigrants, the exclusive esta- 
blishment of the Church of Engliind, with an especial 
veto against Roman Catholics.' 

It is in this second patent, which exists at the present 
day in the state paperoflice, that the first men tion occurs, 

' S« yiam Britannia, by U. J. London, 1609. 



which we have been able to light upon, of the name 
of our author as William Strachey, gentleman. Copies 
of it are preserved in Stitli's Virginia^ appondlx No. t j 
in Smith's Vlrgima^ fol., where th.Q names are alpha- 
betically arranged; and in Hazard's Ilintoncoi QMec- 
iioHy vol. i. fol. 58-72.' Thomas, tlth Lord Dclawnrr, 
was therein appointed governor for life; Sir Thomas 
Gates was appointed lieutenant governor; Sir George 
Somers, admiral; and Christopher Newport, vice ad- 
miral. Seven ships, attended by two small ketches, 
were equipped with five hundred emigrants for the 
colony. Lord Delawarr did not, himself, leave Eng- 
land immediately, hut delegated tlie comToand, in the 
meantime, to Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers^ 
and Captain Newport, and it is interesting to notice, 
in connexion with the subsequent events of the voyage, 
a curious circumstance related by Smith in his FiV- 
ginia^ p. 89. 

As each of these officers held a commission which en- 
titled him to recall the commission previously granted 
for the government of the colony, they agreed, in order 
to avoid disputes respecting precedence, to sail in one 
ship. Tlie nine vessels weighed anchor on the 15th 
of May, 1609; but that in which these officers sailed, 
was separated, by a tempest of uncommon violence, 

* It is worthy of mGOtioti that George Sandys, the celelinited 
author of " A Relation of a Journey begun a P. 1610," ivhoae name 
is entered in ttie Viai uf adventurers in this patent, made Iiis trans- 
l»tlon of Oviri ill Virginia, as Iib liimself mentions in liis ditlication 
of the edition of 1632 to King Cliarles, where he says, " It needetli 
moro than a simple i^ttnizalion, being a double strnngor sprung 
from tlie stock of the ancient Romans, but bred in the neie wfirtd, 
te/iereof it cannot bat pariicipate, csjrreiall^ hamng wars tmd tu- 
Kullg to bring it to liffht, insftad of the muses. 



from the rest of the squadron, and was wrecked upon 
the Bermndas; but the company, consisting of one 
hundred and fifty persons, was saved by an act of 
Providuiice, often spoken of as most remarkable. 
Strachey also was in this vessel, and wrote a descrip- 
tion of the storm, which is to be found in Purcbas^ 
vol.iv.fol. 1734.^ The remainder of the fleet, meanwhile, 
with the exception of one of the ketches which was 
lost, had reached James Town on the 11th of August; 
and in the absence of the commissioned officers, Smith, 
who had been the practical leader of the principal 
undertakings of the colony, assumed with justice the 
virtual presidency. The new comers, however, con- 
sisted, as he graphically says at p. 90 of his Virginia, 
"of many unruly gallants, packed hither by their 
friends to escape ill destinies." These shewed little 
inclination to obey a man who held no appointed au- 
thority over them, and of whose <iualities and actions 
they had had no experience as entitling him to assume 
a rank unwarranted by written authority. Anarchy 
soon spread through the colony, but the evils which 
ensued before long reduced them to the necessity of 
requesting that protection which the order, consequent 
upon his influence, would procure them. Good effects 
immediately resulted from this improved state of 
affairs ; the people built hoiises, prepared tar and pitch, 
with various other desiderata for success in their set- 
tlement; dug a well, constructed a block-house, and 

^ This ileBcnptton was supposed by Malone to hnvL' been the 
foundntion of Shakespeare's Tempest, and there is, iu tlie British 
Mudeuin, a ainall octavo volume, privately printed by him, written 
for the express purpose of aulistantiating his opinion. The idea 
hns been however completely controverted by the Rev, Joeeph 
Hunter, iti a pamphlet aldo privatelj* printed. LomJon, 18S9, 8td. 


xn iNTnonicTiON. 

luid out iti cultivation some thirty or forty acres of 
ground.' Smith also made exertions to fix two advan- 
tageous settlements at Nandsamund and at the fnlU 
of James Kiver. Companies, of one hundred and 
twenty each, were detacho<l for these separate loeali- 
ties, but toth of thein imprudently offended the In- 
dians and lost a great number of their men. It was 
on his return from the latter place, that Captain Smith 
received a severe accident from the explosion of a bag 
of gunpowder, which dreadfully niiiiigled his person, 
and drove him suffering with extreme torture to Eng- 
land; disgusted with the inifnir opposition and the 
difficulties which he had met with in a colony that hud 
been so greatly indebted to him, and to which he never 
afterwards returned. By his departure the authority, 
which kept the Indians in awe, was removed, and the 
Enp:lish, now imdtsciplined, became an eaay prey to 
their revenge or jealousy. Captain* ISickelmoi-c, who 
bore the pseudonym of Ratcliffc, imprudently ventur- 
ing himself with thirty men, for the purposes of trade, 
within the power of the king Powhatan, was killed 
together witli his people. These various losses, com- 
bined with the heedless waste of provisions which 
this reckless band had exhibited, reduced the four 
hundred and ninety persons which were left in the 
colony at Captain Smith's departure, within the space 
of six mouths, to only sixty. This fearful period was 
called "the starving time."* 

Meanwhile Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George 
Somers, who hud been wrecked on the Bermudas, 

» See Stith. fo. 97. ' See Stith, IIG; Keith, fo. 120. 

» See Siriitli's Virginia, fo. 105-lOGi Cliulmerfi, vol. i. fo. 30; 
and Stiih, fo. 110. 



employed the winter in forming ft settlfmcnt tliero and 
constructing^ two small vessels, in which tht'y set 
sail on the tOth of Mjiy 1610, and arrived at James 
Town on the 23rd of the same month. To tbcir 
intense disnppolittmcnt, in lieu of o numerous and 
flourishing colony, they found the small remnants 
of the Urge expedition with which they hud started 
from England, in the last stage of wreteliedness and 
famine. No hope was left for the rescue of the miser- 
able settlers but an immediate return to England. It 
was at this critical juncture that, on the 6th of June, 
every preparation being made, the whole colony was 
on board nnd actually descending James "River on their 
return voyage, when they met a long boat aimouncing 
the arrival of Lord Deluwarr, with three ships, one 
hundred and fifty men, and a plentiful supply of pro- 
visions, to take the command. This apparently special 
interposition of Providence, thus bringing not only 
life but good hope for the future to men in an almost 
desperate condition, aided by the circumstance, that 
the government was now invested in one, over whose 
deliberations there could be no control, and with whom 
tlierc could consequently be no rivalry, caused them 
all to return with chcerfulnesa to James Town, and 
resume with steady obedience the resettlement of the 
colony. The account of Lord Delawarr's arrival is 
given by Strachoy, in Parckns^ vol. iv. fol. 1754, as well 
as in a letter addressed by his lordship to the patentees 
in England; which the editor has discovered amongst 
the Harleian manuscripts in the British Museum, and 
has added to this introduction by way of appendix. 
This letter would appear for several reasons to have 

1 See Keith, fv. 120; Siich, fo. 115. 



been indited by Strachey himself; the first reason is 
that bnth it and Strachcy's description Tticntion, in the 
ennmeration of the appointments made upon Lord 

Dc'Iawarr's arrival, that of William Strachey as secre- 
tary and recorder, an office which would in all proba- 
bility entail on him the dictation of the letter in ques- 
tion: in the second place, the diction of the letter and 
the description in Purcfias, contain passages repeated 
ohnost verbatim; and thirdl}', the date and address of 
the letter are supplied in Strachey's hand-writing, 
wliich would seem to imply that it was written for him 
by a scribe, and finally completed by him in his offi- 
cial position as secretary. It is signed by his lordship. 
Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Percie, F. Henman, and 
WUIiani Strachey. This letter, dated, " James Town, 
June 7th, 1610", cmbodiea not only the description of 
his lordship's outward voyage and his arrival, but the 
events which ensued in the intervening period. 

Under his enlightened and beneficent auspices, the 
colony soon assumed a wholesome and active appear- 
ance. Ever)' man hod his own duty to do, and officers 
were appointed to Bee that duty done; and it was not 
long before the disturbances and confusion which had 
been the natural consequence of disaffection and revolt, 
were succeeded by the happy fruits of peaceful in- 
dustry and order. AVhile discipline, and the worthy 
txample together with tlie rank of the governor, were 
producing this favourable effect upon the colony at 
Virginia, Lord Delawarr had the prudence to dispatch 
Sir George Somers and Captain Argol to the Bennudaa 
for supplies of provisions ; favourable accounts having 
been brought thence by the officers whom he had sent 
in advance in 1609. The expedition was unfortunate. 



Argol being separated from his companion, made his 
way for New England and finally returned to Virginia; 
and Sir George Somera, though Le reached the Ber- 
mudas, was so exhausted, being now iibnve sixty 
years of age, with the toil of tlic journey, that he stink 
under his fatigues and died soon after his arrival. 
Short intervals of relief to the colony seemed thus 
only to be succeeded by depressing misfortimes. The 
excellent Lord Delawarr, whose virtues, rank, and 
talents, had promised the best results for Virginia, was 
seized (as is shown by his own RefnHon^ published, 
London, 1611, 4to.) with a severe ague, followed by a 
fiux, which threatened entirely to destroy his health. 
He was, therefore, compelled to relinquish tlie anxieties 
of his office and i-cturn home. He set sail on the 28th 
of March 1611, leaving Sir George Percy in the com- 
mand of the colony. The departure of Lord Delawurr 
immediately opened the doorto anarchy, and ha natural 
consequence, adversity ; but Sir Thomas Dale arriving 
soon after, in the month of May, with a fresh supply of 
emigrants, and proviyions for a whole year, matters 
again assumed a more prosperous appearance. It is to 
be presumed, that Strachey did not accompany his lord- 
ship to England, although the editor has not been able 
to ascertain the precise date of the secretary's return. 
That he was in London in 1612 is certain, from his own 
statement in the " Address to Ilis Majestie's Couneill 
for the colony of Virginia Britannia", prefixed to his 
"Laws for Virginia" ; published, Oxford, 1G12, 4to., 
the dedication of which is signed thus: "From my 
lodging in the Blacke Friers, at your best pleasures, 
cither to rcturne unto the colony or to pray for the 
successe of it here. W. S." 



In this year, 1612, a new charter was granted by the 
king, in behalf of the adventurers. Not only were 
all the privileges that liad been conceded to thr^in con- 
finned, but a grant was made to them of all the islands 
lying within three hundred leagues of the coast.' The 
Berinudaa, wliich came within this rnn^c, were sold to 
a number of the company's own members, who gave 
to the group the name of the Somers Islands, in honour 
of tlieir httely deceased deputy governor, Sir George 
Somcra.' Sir Thomas Gates arrived in the colony in 
August 1611, and held the post of governor till 1614. 
It was during this period that the first hostilities took 
place between the English and French colonies in 
Ainericii; but the foT-mer gained si complete ascend- 
ancy, under the bold and v-igorous managcraent of 
Captain Argol. 

Sir Thonius Gates was succeeded in the government 
by Sir Thomas Dale, under whose administration tlie 
right to landed property in Virginia was first esta- 
blished. In the year 1615, fifty acres of land were 
allotted to eacli emigrant and his heirs, with a grant 
of a like quantity to every new comer. Early in the 
year 1616, Sir Thomns Dale returned to England, and 
the government was consigned to Sir George Yeardly. 
It was in this year that tlic English first cultivated 
tobacco in Virginia. Sir George was succeeded, in 
1617, by Captain Argol, the tyranny of whose admi- 

^ 1 For copies of tliia clinrter see Hazard's Hist. ColL vol. i, 
fo. 72-«l, and Appendix No, 3 to Sfc ilb's Vir^nia. 

* The name of thei^e islnnds liae been stniiigcly mi. -^conceived by 
map makers, tlirougU a long series of years. Kot on]y have tbe 
KtigliRli iilmoft universally design Hied tlictii the Summej" Islandti, 
but ttiis nc)nit!tu'intiirc has been ludicrously tnitisluluU by the French 
into tlio "ItflwRd'lite." 



nistration caused great dissatisfaction. The necessities 
of the colony now demanded the attention of a more 
active and influential government, and Lord Dclawarr, 
the captain general, was again sent out in the year 1618^ 
with two hundred people, in a vessel of two hundi'ed 
and fifty tons burthen. He died, however, on the 
voyage, in or near the hay which hears his name. 
The great Indian king, Powhatan, whose description 
is so fully and interestingly given in the following 
pages, also died this year. 

The second book contains the only detailed account 

■which has hitherto been printed of the voyage of 

'Captains George Pophain and Raleigh Gilbert, and 

'the formation of the colony at Saghadehuck, which, 

like 80 many of the attempts at colonizing Virginia, 

proved ultimately abortive. 

Upon the death of Sir John Popham, Chief Justice 
of England, his son and successor, Sir Prancis Pophani, 
•who was sent out, and who now likewise became go- 
vernor of New England, dispatched thither vessels on 
his account to fish and carry on the fur trade. This 
adventure proving profitable, gave considerable im- 
pulse to colonization, and in the year 1614, Captain 
John Smith, who had so greatly distinguished himself 
in the history of Virginia, was sent out at the expense 
of four English merchants to form a settlement. He 
Bailed on the 3rd of March, and reached Manhegin 
Island on the 30tb of April. He directed his atten- 
tion principally to the fur trade, as a means of pro- 
ducing wh.1t had in the previous attempts been too 
little attended to, a profitable return for the expenses 
of the enterprise, and realized by his traffic in this 
commodity nearly fifteen hundred pounds. He also 

XV 111 


Ittid down, from the observntions which lie luid made, 
map of the coast from Penobscot to Cti\ye Cod, which 
he presented to Prince Charles, to wliom in conse- 
quence the country owes tlie designation of New 
England, which it has ever since retained. AVhen 
Captain Smith j-eturned to Kngland, he left one of his 
ships behind, with instructions to the master, whose 
nnine was Thoinas Hunt, to sail for Jlnloga wlien lie 
had laden his vessel with the fish that he nii;^Iit catch 
on the coast. This " wicked varlct", as Hubbard 
rightly calls him, kidnupped twenty-four of the na- 
tives, whom lie carried to Malaga, and soTd as slaves. 
Tiic result of tlii.s infamous outrage was that Captain 
Hobsoji, who arrived shortly after in perfect ignorance 
of the crime that had been committed, wns attacked 
by the Indians, who visited his vessel under the pre- 
text of trading, and be and several of his men were 
severely wounded. The resentment kindled by Hunt's 
atrocious conduct presented a serious impediment to 
the establishment of the contemplated colony, al- 
though Smith, luhia New EngiantT a 7V/o/«, published 
London, 1G22, 4to., while he reprobates tlie crime, 
endeavours to make light of the disasters which must 
naturally have been its consequence. 

In 1615, Smith wns agiiin scut out in command of 
two vessels, one of two hundred, and the otlier of fifty 
tons, equipped by Sir Ferdinand Gorges, and Dr. 
Sutcliffe, Dean of Exeter, but encountering a storm 
soon after he had put to sea, which broke the masts 
of his largpst sliip, he was compc41ed to return to 
Plymouth. Thoinas Durmcr, tlic commander of the 
smaller vessel, continued his voyage, and tliough the 
main intention of the enterprise was frustrated as to 



efft'Ctin'^ a settlement, bo was successful in the fisherj",' 
and moreover sailed alonjr the coast from New England 
to Virginia, thereby for the fii-st time proving its con- 
tinuity. He was subsequently wounded severely by a 
band of savaii^s, and died soon afterwards in Virginia. 

The indefatigable Captain John Smith meanwhile 
showed no relaxation in bis exertions to infuse the 
spirit of colonization araon^t his countrymen, lie 
circulated seven thousand copies of books and maps 
among those whom he thought most likely to sjrnipa- 
thize with bis plans; but he complains in his Nem 
England's Trials^ 2nd edition, 1622, that he might 
as well have attempted to " cut rocks with oyster 
shells." The ill-success of his former voyages was 
adduced as an argument against him, and the present 
thriving condition of Virginia was contrasted, to his 
prejudice, with its unprosperous condition while under 
his presidency, no allowance l>eiiig iniule for the fact 
that his own excellent management had paved the 
way for tills subsequent prosperity. 

Finally it was not till 1020, after so many abor- 
tive ofFortfl had been made both by government and 
powerful bodies to form an establishment in North 
Virginia, tliat at length it received, under unex- 
pected circumstances, an influx of settlers which soon 
rendered it by far the moat prosperous of all the 
colonics in North America. This was the emigration 
of a large band of Puritans, who suffering under the 
intolerance of the English government, on account of 
no n -conformity, firwl passed into Holland, and after- 
wards found an asylum in America. 

* He freigluw] ii ship of thrw IiuiulrijiJ Imi:* with fisli for ^jiniit. 
See Porcbas, wi. v. p. 1833. 



The Editor has thus far led the reader cursorily 
through the liistory of the nttompts which our coun- 
trymen made at effecting" settlements in the two divi- 
sions of Virginiiv, and lias done so beeuuae tliu English 
colonization of America seemed to be the pivot upon 
which the interest of the MS. turned. If he 1ms mis- 
taken his duty in so doing, he hopes that his explana- 
tion will involve hia excuse. An additional reason for 
his having given the foregoing consecutive narrative 
in this introduction, has been that Strachey's MS., 
although unavoidably borrowing so much of its in- 
terest from the date at which it was written, and al- 
though giving many most interesting details about the 
natives, especially the great king Powhatan, that have 
never been hitherto printed, does not continue the 
description of the progress of the two coluniea up to 
the period at which we have reason to conclude that 
he liuibhcd Ins narrative. It is at the same time right 
to observe, that Strachey appears to have entertained 
the project of carrying on the work to a much greater 
extent, inasmucli as he designates the first of the 
books now published " the First Book of the First 
Decade"; and the second book, " the Second Book of 
the First Decade." 

It is difficult to say precisely in what year the 
narrative was wi'itten. Tliat it was subsequent to 
1612, we are informed by Stracliey liimself, in the 
" Address to His Majesties Councell for the Colonie 
of Virginia Britannia", prefixed to his Laws for Viv' 
ghiia^ printed at Oxford, 1612, where he says, — 
" When I went forth upon this voyage (right worthy 
gentlemen), true it is, I held it a service of diitie 
(during the time of my unprofitable service, and 



purpose of stay ia the colonic, for which way else 
might I adde mito the least higlit of so heroicke and 
pious a building) to propose unto myself to be (though 
an unable) remembrancer of uU accidents, occurrences, 
and undertakings thereunto adventitial! j in most of 
wliich, since tlie time our viglit latnons sole governour 
then, now Lieutenant General Sir Thomas Gates, 
Knight, after the unsealing of his commission, hasted 
to our flcete in the west, there staying for him, I have, 
both in the Bermudas, and since, in Virginia, beene a 
sutl-erer and an eie-witnesse, and the full stone of both 
in due time shall consecrate unto your viewes, as unto 
whome by right it appertiilneth 

" Howbeit, since many impediments as yet must 
detatne such my observations in the shadow of dark- 
nesses, untill I shall be able to deliver them perfect 
unto your judgements, T do, in tlie meantime, present 
a transcript of the Tofinrchia, or state of those duties 
by which their colonie stands regulated and com- 
maunded," &c. &c. 

If the MS. copy from which the present publication 
has been printed had been the only one i-emalning, 
we should have been compelled to have quotc^d 1G18 
as the earliest possible date of the work, since the 
rank of lord high chancellor, which is appended to 
the name of Sir Francis Bacon in the dedication of 
this copy, was not conferred on him until later. 
But as there is a duplicate' copy among the Ashnio- 
lean manuscripts at Oxford, dedicated to Sir Allen 
Apsley, to whose name is appended the title of 

* The only difference appears ta be in the title of the rwcond 
book, nnrl tlie nddilioii to cEich of the title-pages of the sentence, 
" Algct qui non ardct." 



" Pur\'(;yor to His Afajeat'ie's Xavie Royall" ; and as Sir 
Allen Apslcy was, accoi*diug to Mrs. llutcliinson, in 
her celebrated life of Colonel Hutchinson, made Lieu- 
tenant of the Tower fourteen years before his death in 
1630, i.e., 1616, it is presumed that that copy was 
written prior to tliut period ; inasmuch as it is not 
reasonable to suppr>8e, that the latter and more impor- 
tant of the two titles would have been omitted in an 
author's dedicatioi]. At the same thue, it is but ri^dit 
to observe, that some authors have quoted tlic year 
1619 OS the date of Sir Allen Apsley's appointment 
to the Ueutenantcy of the Tower, 

Tlie glossary at the end of the voyage has included 
the Indian and EngHsli names promiscuously in one 
alphabetical scries ; but the Editor has thought it 
better not to interfere with the original arrangement. 

It only remains for the Editor to express his best 
thanks to 3Ir. licunett, of the British Museum, and 
Secretary of the Linnean Society, for his obliging 
assistance in the botanical portions of the work. He 
also feels it to be only a just expression of gratitude 
to liis wife, to acknowledge hei*e her kind aid in sup- 
plying the illustrations, — a "labourof love" which it is 
hoped that the reader will criticise with a lenient eye, 
as they are her first eftbrts at etching, and would for 
that reason not have been made in connexion with a 
work like the present, but from a natural desire to 
share in the Editor's labours, and an earnest wish to 
add, in however feeble a manner, to the interest of the; 




[MS. Hiurl. 7009, foL 58.J 

" Kiji^lit Honourable and the rest of our very loving 
friends, — We are not ignorant bow divers perplext 
and jealous cica mac lookc out, and keepc more then 
freindly e^piuU over this our passive and misconceived 
bew&Incs» and now (more especiidly, hii[)Iy, then at 
any other time), iu these our early dayes, and after 
tlie aspersions of so many slanderous and wandering 
discourses, which have bin scattered by malipiant and 
ill-dii-posed people against it ; for which we have con- 
ceived it essentiall with tlie btrth of the worke itself, 
to give up unto your noble knowledges the truith of 
the state of the same, and of some consequences most 
matcrlall foUowng it, since it tooke protection and 
fostering from us. 

"You shall please then to know, howthe first of Aprill 
IGIO, in the good shipp the De-la-wurr, admirall, ac- 
companied with the Blissingof Plinmouthjviz-admirall, 
and thv. Hercules of Ry, reere-admirall, we weyed from 
the Cowes, getting out of the Needles, and with a 
favourable passadge holding consort; the I2th day 
we fell with the Trescras, and recovered that evening 
(within three leagues) the westennost part of St. 
George's Island, where we lay that night becalmed ; 
but the next morning with the sunn-rise did the wind 
likewise rise, west and weat-by-south, a rough and 
lowde gale, at what time the master of the Reere- 
admirall told me of a roade fitt for that windc ut 
Gratinsfi, •whereujjon I willed him to go before and I 



would follow, and so we stood for that roade ; but it 
was my fortune to lead it in, where we came to an 
aticor at fortie fathom, when it blew so much winds 
presently, that our ancor came home, and we werej 
forced to sea againe : the same time the Blissing vrast 
compeld to cutt her cable at haulfe, for in the weying 
of it the pttle of her capstan brake, and dangerously 
hurte 12 of our men : the Hercules wjis likewise forced 
from the roade, and brake her ancor; yet the next day 
WG raett altogether againe. The 15th, we lost sight of 
the Hercules, betweene the Treeeras and Gt-atiosa, 
and we saw her no more untill the Gth of Jime, at 
what time we made Iniid to the southward of our liar- 
bour, the Cheaiopiock Bay, where, running in towards 
the shoare, steering away nor-west, before noone we 
made Cape Uenry, bearing nor-west and by west ; and 
thfit night came to an ancor under the Cape, where we 
went ashoare, as well to refresh onrselves as to fish^ 
and to sett up a cross upon the pointe (if haply the 
Hercules might arrive there) to si.£rnify our coming 
in. Whilst we W(?re a fishing-, divers Indians came 
downe from the woods unto us, and with fairo intreatye 
on both sides, I gave unto them of such fish as we 
tooke, which was good 3tore, and was not unwelcome 
unto them, for indeed at this time of the yeare they 
live poore, their come being but newly putt into the 
ground, and their old store spent ; oysters and erabba, 
and such fish as tliey take in their weares, is their best 
releofe. As we were returning aboard againe, our 
master discried a sayle close by the pointe at Cape 
Henry, whereupon 1 commaunded him to beare up the 
h.elrae» and we gave it chase, when within an hower or 
a little more, to our no little [joy], made her to be the 
Hercules, our reereadmiroll, whome we had now lost 



. . . weekea and odd dayes ; and this night (all praise 
be to God for it) came to an ancor under Pointe Com- 
fort; fpora whence the captaine of the forte, Co[lonel] 
James Dimes, repaired unto us, and soonc had un- 
folded a strange . . . tlon of a double qualtitie, mixed 
both with joy and sorrow. He let us to understand 
first (because thereof I first inquired) of the arnvall 
of Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Snmers, in i! 
pinnisses, with all their company safe from the Ber- 
mudiis, the 21 of ilay (about some fortnight before our 
now coming in), whome, he tould us, were now up our 
river at James Town. I was heartily glad to heare 
the happines of this newes; but it was seasoned with 
a following discourse, compound of so many miseries 
and calamities (and those in such horrid chaunges and 
divers tbrmes), as no story, I believe, ever presented 
the wrath and curse of the etemall offended Maiestie 
in a greater measure. I understood moreover, by 
reason I saw the Virginia to ly then in Roade, before 
the poiiite ridg, and prepared to sett sayle out of the 
river, how that Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George 
Sumers were within a tide or two coming downe 
againe, purposing to abandon the countrie, whilest 
they had meanes yet lefte to transport them and the 
whole company to Newfoundland. 

*' For most true it is, the straunge and unexpected 
condition and ... in which Sir Thonias Gates found 
the colony, gave him to under8t[and] never was there 
more neede of all the powers of judgement, and .... 
knowing, and long exercised vcrtue, tlien now to be 

awak culling ujjon him to save such whome 

he found so fo as in redeeming himself 

and his againe from falling into the ties. For 




besides that he found the forte unfurnished (and that 

and many casualties) of so lardge an accompto 

and number as he expected, and knew came 

alongc the last yearc, trained in flectc with 

himself; so likewise found he as empty and unfur- 
nished a . . . . entering the towne. It appeared raither 
asthcruius of some auntient [forjtificatiou, then that 
any people living might now inhaljit it : the paUisadoes 
he found tourne downe, the portes open, tlie gates 
from the hinges, the church mined and unfrequented, 
empty howses (whose owners untimely death had taken 
newly from them) rent up and burnt, the living not 
hahle, as they pretended, to step into the woodea to 
gather other fire-wood; and, it is true, the Indian as 
fast killing without as the famine and pestilence within. 
Only the blockhouse (somewhat regarded) was the 
safetie of the remainder that lived ; which yet could not 
have preserved them now many dayes longer from the 
watching, subtile, and offended Indian, who (it is most 
certaine) knew all this their weaknes, and forbare too 
timely to assault the forte, or hazard themselves in a 
fruitles warr on such whome they were assured ia 
short time would of themselves perish, and being pro- 
voked, their desperate condition might draw forth to 
a valiaunt defence ; yet were they so ready and pre- 
pared, that such whome they found of our men stragled 
single beyond the bounds, at any time, of the block- 
house, they would fiercely chardge (for all their peices), 
as they did 2 of our ptjople not many duyes before Sir 
Thomas Gates was come in, and 2 likewise they killed 
after his arrivall 4 or 5 dayes, 

" But that wiiich added most to hja sorowe, and not 
R litle startled liim, was the impossibilitie which hq 



"coticeivetl (and coiioeivetl truly) how to amend any 
one whitt of this. Elia forces were not of Iiabilitie to 
revenge upon the Indtan, nor his owne supply (now 
brought from the Bermudas) sufficient to releive his 
people ; for be had brought no greater store of provi- 
sion (as not jealous that any such disaster could have 
befalne the colony) then might well serve 150 for a 
sea voyage; and at this time of the yeare, neither by 
force (had his power bin sufficient) nor trade, might 
have amended these wants, by any help from the 
Indian : nor was there any meanes in the forte to take 
fish, for there was neither a sufficient seave to be 
found, nor any other convenient netts; and, to saye 
true, if there had, yot was there not aneye sturgion 
come into the river. 

"All these considered, he then entered into con- 
sultation with Sir George Sumers and Capt. Newjwrte, 
calling unto the same the gentlemen and counsaile of 
the former government, intreating both the one and 
the other to advise with him, what was to be don : the 
provision which they both had aboard, both Sir George 
Sumers and Capt. Newporte, was examined and deli- 
vered, how it being rackt to the uttermost, extended 
not to above 16 dayes, after 2 cakes a day. The gen- 
tlemen of the towne (who knew better of the countrie) 
could not give them any hope, or wayes how to recover 
oughts from the Indian. It soone then appeered most 
fitt, by a generall approbation, that to preserve and 
save all from starving, there could be no readier course 
thought on, then to abandon the countrie, and accom- 
modating themselves the best that they might in the 
present pinnasses then in the roade (as, namely, in 
the Discovery, and the Virginia, the 2 brought from, 



George Webb, Serjeant of the forte; and Mr. 

D&nictl Tucker and Mr. Robert Wild, clarkes of the 

-^ *' Oiir first care was to advise %vith our counsailc for 
the obtaining of such provisions of victualls, for store 
and quoUitie, as tlie countrey afforded for our people, 
Tt did not appeare unto ua that any kind of 6csh, 
deere, or what els, of that kind could be recovered 
from the Indians, or to be sought in the countrey by 
us; and our people, together with the Tiidiuiis (not to 
friend), had the last winter destroyd and kild up all 
our hoggs, insomuch as of five or six hundred (as it 
is supposed), there was not above one sow, tliat we 
can hcare of, left alive ; not a henn nor chick in the 
forte (and our horses and marcs they had eaten with 
the first); and the provision which we had brought 
jconcerning any kind of flesh was little or nothing: 
whereupon it pleased Sir George Sumers to propose a 
voyage, which, for the better releife and good of the 
colony, he would pcrforme into the Bermudas (which, 
lying in the helglit of 32 degrees and 20 nunutea, 5 
degrees from our bay, may be some seve[n] skore 
leagues from us, or thereabouts; reckoning to every 
degree that lyes nor-west and westerly, 28 English 
leagues); and from thence he would fetch 6 nionthea' 
provision of flcsli and fish, and some live hoggs, of 
which those islands (by their owne reporte, however, 
most daungerous to fall with) are marvellous fuU 
and well stored; whereupon, well approving and ap- 
plauding a motion relishing of so faire hopes and much 
goodnes, we gave him a commission the 15th of June, 
who, in his owne Bermuda pinnns, the Patience, accom- 
panied with Capt. Samuell Argall, in the Discovery 




.' KM.;?' -L^^CE 

(wliomc we sware of our counsaile before his departure), 
tlie I9tli of June fell with the tide from before our 
towne, whome we have ever since accompanied with 
our hcftrty prayers for his happy and safe returne. 

" And likewise bicauae at our first coming we found 1 
in our owne river no store of fish after many tryalls, 
we dispatched with instructions the 17. of June, 
Robert Tindall, master of the Delawarr, to fisli unto 
all along and betweene Cape Henry and Cape Cliarlea 
within the boy, who the last of the same returned 
unto us againe, but mett with so small a quontitio and 
store of fish, as he scarce tooke so much as served the 
company that he caried forth with him. Nor were 
we in the meane while Idle at the forte, but every day 
and night we hayled ournett sometimes a dozen times 
one after an other, but it pleased not God so to bless 
our labours, that we should at any time take one 
quarter so much as would give unto our people one 
[KJund at a meale a peice (by whicli we might have 
better husbanded and spared our j^caz and oatmeale), 
notwithstanding the greatc store we now saw dayly iu - 
our river. 

" Thus much in briefe concerning our voyadge 
hether, our meeting with Sir Thomas Gates heere, and 
our joynt cares and indevours since our arrival] : nor 
shall we be fayling on our parte to do the uttermost 
that we may for the happy stmcture and raysing 
againc of this too much stooped and dejected imploy- 
ment. It rests that I should now truly deliver unto ' 
yee (right honourable and the rest of our good freinds) 
somewhat our opinion, or rather better judgement, 
which hath observed many things, and those objected 
cleare to reason, most benificiall concerning this coun- 



trie. And first, we have experience, and our owne 
eyes witues, liow young soever we are to tliis place, 
that no coimtrie yealdeth goodlier come or more ma- 
nifold increase, large feildes we have as prospects 
houerly before us of the same, and those not nmny 
miles from our quarter {some whereof, true it is, to 
quitt the mischeivons Indian, and irrcconsilable for his 
late injuries and murthering of our men, our purpose 
is to be masters of ere long, and to thresh it out on 
the flores of our barnes when the time shall serve). 
Next, in every boske and common hedge, and not farr 
from our paUisado gates, we have thousands of goodly 
vines running nlong and leaning to every tree, which 
yeald a plentifuH grape in their kind : let me appeale, 
then, to knowledge, if these natural! vines were 
planted, dressed, and ordci*ed by skilfull vinearoones, 
whether we might not make a perfect grape and fruit- 
full vintage in short time ? Lastly, we have made 
triall of our owne English seedes, kitchen hearbes, 
and rootes, and find them no sooner putt into the 
ground then to prosper as speedily and after the same 
quallitie as in England. 

" Only let me truly acknowledge they are not an 
hundred or two of deboisht hands, dropt fortli by 
yeare after yeare, with penury and leysure, ill pro- 
vided for before they come, and worse governed when 
they are hcerc, men of such distempered bodies and 
infected mindcs, whome no examples dayly before 
their eyes, either of goodnes or punishment, can deterr 
from their habituall impieties, or terrific from a shame- 
full death, that must be the carpenters and workers in 
this so glorious a building. 

" But (to delude and mock the bewsinea no longer) 



as a necessary quimttty of provision for a yeare at 
least must be carciully sent with men, so likewise must 
there be the same care for men of qnallitien and jmines 
taking men of artes and practises, chosen out and 
sent into the bewsincs, and such are in dew time now 
promised, sett downe in the sccdulc at the end of our 
o^vne approved discource, whicii we have intituled ' A 
true and sincere declaration of the purpose and end of 
our Plantation hegonn in Virginia^' &c. 

" And these two, such men and such provision are 
like enough to make good the ends of the ymploynient 
in all the waies both for re[pu]tation, search and dis- 
cover}' of the countrie, and the hope of tlic South Sea, 
as also to returne by all shipps sent Mther many 
oom[mo]dLties well knowne to be heere, if meanes be 
to prepare them. \V[herc]upon give me leave, I be- 
seech yee, further to make inference, th[at] since it 
huth bin well tliought on by yee to provide fur the 
gove[rnmeut] by chaungicig the authoritte into an 
absolute command (indeed . . . virtuall advancement 
to these like bewsinesses and m . . . company us) of a 
noble and well instructed leifet[enant] . . . .of an in- 
dustrious adinirall, and other knights and gen[tlemen], 
and officers, each in their several! place of quallitie 
and implo[ynicnt], if the other two, as I have saide, 
be taken into dewaccompte . . . valewcd as the sinewes 
(as indeed they be) of this action (without w[hich] it 
cannot possible have any faire subsisting, however 
men ha[ve] belyed both it and themselves hecretofore) 
then let no rumor of the poverty of the countrey (as 
if in the wombe thereof there lay not those elliraentall 
seedes which could produce as many goodly birthes of 
plenty and Increase, yea, and of better hopes as of any 


land under the heavens unto whome the sunn is do 
neerer o neighbour; I say, let no imposture, rumor 
then, nor any fame of some one or a few more 
chaunceahle actions interposini^ by the way or at 
home, wave any mans faire purposes hetherward, or 
wrest them to a declininffe aud fallino: of irom the 

" For let them be assured, as of the truith itself, 
these premisses considered, looke what the countrie 
can affordc, which may, by the quantitie of our men, 
be safely and conveniently explored, search[ed,] and 
made practise of, these things shall not be omitted 
for our p[art], nor vdW be by the lievetenant gonerall 
to be conimuunded; nor our comuiaunds reeeavcd (as 
in former times) wUli unwillingnes or fulcenes, either 
in our people's going forth, or in execution, being for 
each one in his place, whither commaunder, overseer, 
or labourer. 

" For the causes of these idle and restie untowardues 
being by the authoritie and unitie of our government 
removed, all hands already sett to it; and he that knew 
not the way to goodnes before, but cherisht singularitie 
and faction, now can beatc out a path himself of in- 
dnstrie and goodnes for others to trade in, such, may 
I well say, is the power of exemplar vert.ue. Nor would 
T have it conceived that we would exclude altogether 
gentlemen, and such whose breeding never knew what 
a daye'a labour meant, for even to such, this countrie 
I doubt not but will give likewise excellent satisfac- 
tion, especially to the better and stayed spirritts; for 
he amongst us that cannot digg, use the square, nor 
practise the ax and chissle, yet he shall find how to 
imploy the force of knowledge, the exercise of counsell, 




and the operation iitid power of his beat breeding and 

" And thus, right honourable and the rest of our 
very good friends, assuring yee of our resolution to 
tarry God's mercy towards us, in continuing for our 
parte this pkntation, I only will intreate yee to stand 
favourable unto us for a new supply in such matters 
of the two-fold phisicke, which both the soules and 
bodies of ourc poor people heerc stand much in nccde 
of; the specialties belonging to the one, tlic phisitians 
themselves (whome I hope you will be careful! to send 
unto us) will bring along with them; tlie particulari- 
ties of the other we have sent liereiii, inclosed unto us 
by ilr. Doctor Boone,' whose care and Industrie for 
the preservation of our men's lives (assaulted with 
straunge fluxes and agues)^ we have just cause to com- 
mend unto your noble favours : nor let it, I beseech 
yee, be passed over as a motion slight and of no mo- 
ment to furnish us with these things, so much impor- 
tuning the strength and health of our people, since we 
have true experience how many men's lives these phi- 
sicke helpes have preserved since our coming in, God 
so blessing the practise and diligence of our doctor, 
whose store is nowe gro^vne thereby to so lowe an ebb, 
as we have not above S weekcs phisicall provisions, if 
our men continew still thus visited with the sicknesses 
of the countrie, of the which every season hath liis 
particular infirmitie reighning in it, as we have it re- 
lated unto us by the old iuhabitunts; and since our 
owne arrivall, have cause to feare it to be true, who 
have had 150 at a time much atflicted, and 1 am per- 

' I.e. Bohun, mentioned hereafter in tbe narrailTC. 


swaded had lo8t the greatest part of them, if we had 
not brought these helpes with us. 

" And so concluding your farther troubles, with this 
only remembrance, that we have, with the advise of 
our counsell, conceived it most fitt to detaine yet a 
while, for all good occasions, the good shipp the Dela- 
warr, to which we hope yee wil be no whitt gainsaying : 
we cease with unnecessary relations to provoke yee 
any farther. 

James Towne^ July 7th, 1610. 

Tho. Lawaebe. Tho. Gates. Feed. Wenman. 
George Percy. William Strachet.' 

I A fac-simile of these signatares is given on the next page. 

s^ 4^^ 














" Tbifl shalbe written for the generation to come : and ttie people which 
shalbe created shall praise the Lord." 

7b the Eight Honourable SIR FRANCIS BACON, 
Knight, Baron of Ventfarn, Lord High Chani-eUor of 
England, and of His Majesties most /tonorable Privy 

Most wortheig honored Lord, 

Your Lordship ever approving yoitr»&^a most nohlfifautor 
of the Virginian Pianiation, being from the heghming (with 
other lords and earlesj of the principal counseii applyed to 
propagate and guide yt : and my poore self (bound to your 
odservaunce, by being one of the Graies-Inne SocieteJ having 
bene there three yeares thither, imphied in place of secretarie 
go long there present; and setting doiene witk alt my wel- 
meaning abilities a true narration or historic of the countrie: 
to whome ahoulde 1 suhmitt so aptly, and with, so much dulye, 
the most humble present thereof, as to your most worthic and 
best-judging Lordship ? who in all vertuoua and religious ea- 
deavours have ever bene, as a supreame encourager, so an 
inimitable patterns and perfecter : nor shall my plaine and 
rude composition any thought discourage my attempt, since 
howsoever I should feare to appeare therein b^ore so mutchles 
a maister in that facultte (\f any o^nmonate worth of mine 
ott'ne ivorke presented me) yet as the great Composer of all 
things inade all good with his owne goodnes, and in our only 
will to his imitation takes us into his act, so be his goodnes 
your good Lordship's in this acceptation : for which unth all my 
poore sertnce I shall abide ever 

Your best Lordshij/s most hanbty, 



Wild OB they are, accept them, so we're wee ; 
To make them civill, will our honnour bee : 
And if good worcks be the effects of myndes. 
Which like good angells be, let our designes, 
As wee ar Angli, moke us Angells too : 
No better worck can state- or church-man do. 

W. Sp. 


fVherein (as the fotcntlation to all the succeeding husinet) is 
(hrived doiene to our tifmet, the auntyent light and chyme 
which we make to this part of America, and therein both the 
ohjection/i anstcered and doubts cteirty mtixfied of such u-hn, 
throufjh timilicf, or ignorance, cither hare or hereujicr may 
call the of ttie proceeding hereof tH question. 

The manj moutlies of ignorance and slaunder which are ever too 

Bjit to lett fnll the renome nf theire worst and most depraved 
envies upjiou the best and most sacrud woikes, and am; uot alniyd 
to blast both this eiiterprize and the devoulest labowrers tlicrein, 
wringes from me the necessity of this imperfect defence, wLome yet 
I have observed more in clamour (me thought) then at any tyrae 
in force, to cry out still upOD yt, calling yt aa tinQcitton&ll and 
unlaw full undertaking ; wh^n lett [it] ho but ob^ervtsd (I pray)j ami 
»oone will appcarc theire uialliec and petulancy to spcake, as iilsu, 
what a distanet; lliere \a Ituly sett betivrene the businos and tlicir 
knowledge ; for, in a clicrejudi^uient, if any such atluinl lay uppcin 
the net, neither tlie genernll peace of the tyme might not suffer yt 
to gee forth with sueb Ubertie, nor the honor of such who have sett 
yt forward, ymportuneyt of his MnJeBtie, nor would tbeconsdencee 
(yt is knowcn right well) of the chief commanders far the execu- 
tion and aotimll part thereof (let customo have taken uway, how- 
ever, that nuicknee from the chargers owre inaensible and seared 
heart) haenrd the last sjid setLhig hower.i of their daies in Iray- 
terous or ignoble prosecutions j yet being tlic pioua and only end 
both intended by ht9 Majestie, by the honorable CounsaUe for the 
busincs, by the Lord Genernll, Lieutenant General), Marsliall, and 



such like emynent officers (calleil forth for the dignity of so great 
a cause), together with the generall adventurers, with all carcfulneB, 
principally to endeavour the conversion of the natives to the know- 
ledge and worship of the true God, and the world's lledeemer, 
Christ Jesus; how rotten and uQHOund, then, both to his Majestie 
and the present faith (it is to be feared) may they bn at the coare 
within, that dare (except yt be as I aayd, ont of ignorance, yet 
cannot that excuse ft factions and pragmatique tongue) quarrd 
and triiduce the proceedings of a whole state, nnd to which the 
royaU auihoritie, by letters made patents, both in hc!r Mfljestii''3 
tyme, of famous memory, and nowe likewise hath ben five tymes 
concurrant ? May yt be supposed any one but luke-warme in 
Christian charily would be parccll guilty herein, or make yt ques* 
tioaulle whether should be attempted a worke of this piety uppon 
& barbarous nation ? Let the busy knowledge {to &ay no more) of 
aoch a one be shrewdly suspected, and blemished. May any lover 
of his country '( Ho. Yet is [it] to he feared that he borrowetb but 
a counterfcyt face from Janus, to turne to the penall edict, or to 
his prince (if auch be his gracu) : hut, however, let them both 
knowe the grounds of goodnes are not layd so weake, in well 
woyed couusailes, that the clamour of a centurion or two can dis- 
turb Numa Pompiliiis' kneelingo at the aulter. Let them give yt 
up in rumor, or more suhtilly cry out, that our cncmieg at Sevill, 
or Liahborne, at Dominica, Mevie,' or at the Havana, are up in 
armes for us, we can yet goe on in the justifiableness of our course, 
makiiigu only Poinpiliua' anawtrt;, — " And wo doe gacrifice". 
Will it yet please the reader to favour me a little ? 

Two sortfi especially, I mui^t conceave, of untoward (to stile 
them noe worse) and ill disposed in theire wisOonios, stand much 
oftVnded with this businea, and have devysed against yt many 
slaunders aad calumneys, the meore ignorant (not only in scisntia 
scientite, &% the scholman saies, but iacludinge grossenes and sim- 

' Phitftrch relates that Numa founded hi3 hopes &q strcpagly upon God, 
that on cue octrasiou, during the oferiug of a Eticrificc, when ho reciiivod 
an annouuccDieut that his enemies v^re approaching, he nuilod, and 
made answer, "^Kyiu ?i 9inft" — *' And I am .■sBcrificing". 

3 "Nevi*", an islaiul iu tlie West Iiidiiw, di«covuriid by Columbus. 



pHcj'tio in any knowledge) und the meeru opposite ia gdentia 
conscientite, iti religion ; I wonid to God the Itkttsr wore not more 
dangerous, by how much 

Cokbcrriina per loca vuiet ; 
and can speakc anikse, out of the corrupt seedes of goodue^ and 
perhaps soe speaking be heardc. 

And these boib saye, how the undertaking cannot be lawfiill. 
Why ? Beaitise the King of Spayne hath a primer interest into 
the countrcy. Next, it cannot be honest in yt self. Wby ? 
Because injurious to tha uaturalb ; and which connected together, 
y\ must tbeu necessarily iblbwa (eaye they) that yt can be no 
other than a travailo of Jlat impiety, and di&pl!?Rsingc before God. 
Indeed, no mcane objectiona to slumble shallowe home witts, who, 
whilst they loolce lozely and broddly on yt, are presented with an 
ugly face ; bat if, by a more perspective direction, we will 
examine how these perticularitics may lie together, wc shall find 
another modeU, and an airt; of timt dignity and truitli which 
aspiers to a cleane contrary comoliiies. 

For the King of Spaine : he hath no more title nor collour of 
title to this place, which we by our industry and expenses have 
only made ours (as for the Pope's donative of all America unto 
him, that h sufficyently answeared eU^wore, in a discourse alred- 
dye published by a most worthy undertaker).' then hath any Chria- 
tyan prince (or then we, or any other prince, maye have to his 
Mesico and Peru, or nny dominioas ells of any free state and 
kingdome) how nere soever the West In<^e9 and Florida may 
joyne thereunto, and lye under the same portion of heaven ; with 
as great bravery mnie we laye cJaytne to all the islands which the 
Scignorie of Venice nowe holder in the Levant seas, because 
Cipras was once oura, by the conquest of Richard Cour de Lion, 
and conliQea with theires, then which what more inlirme and 

1 AUuBJon may possibly here be made to Ilieronymus Benzo, who, iu 
bis " KovDO JTovi Orbis llistoriic", touching the will of Pope Alexander 
TI, »y«, "Quo jure hroc dare potuit Papa, in (jueb nullum jus nun'inaiu 
habutt t Nidi fort^ quia CIiriBtu& cceli a.c term hceres c^t, cujua honna 
tsta Pater vicurius ent, scilicet," Or more probably, judging I'mm the use 
of the w&rd *' undertaior", Ilaldiiyt may be referred to, who treats oii the 
subject in his " Divers Voyngos", published lfl82. 



ianln 111 
thdr i-HTlcB 
rail Saiuu 

iimi-'ii (in- 
lib. I. 

ridiculous preteace coul<2 be framed ? aad yet ift the Kinge of 
Spaine's argument to our interest in Virginia juBt in this moodc 

and figure. 

Noe Prince may layc cinimc to any more amongst these newe 
discoreries (and soe it wa« hftretoforc, a just distinction being 
tlicrcfore kept betweene tlie Kinge of Caslite and PortngnllJ then > 
whiit bis pcoplu have discovered, tooke actuall pos«c$sioQ of, and* 
pnssed over to liis right ; and noe otiierwiae from Columbus dotii 
the Kinge of Spaine hold bin strength and dominions to tLis dayej 
ill his golden Indies ; and noe otherwise from SotOt' his Adelautado^, 
concorninge our noighbour Florida : and soe we atloiv bim (with- 
out any one inch of intrusion) both Uh longitude and latitude iiy 
this new world, we keeping from Cape Florida norward, to Cap^l 
Briton. The latiden, countries, and territories of this parte of 
America which we call ours, and by the name of Virginia, or 
Nora Britannia, being carefully laid out {of purpose) to avoid 
offence unto certaJnc boundes, and regions, begynning from the 
point of land called Cape Comfort, and so holding all aloug the 
sea-coast to the norward two hundred myles ; and fi-om the point 
of the Baid Cape Comfort all along the sea*coa8t to the so-ward 
three hundred miles ; and bo only all that space and circuit of 
land lying from the sea-coasts of these precincia, not coming Deer« 
any land in his actuall poissession, but ratlier direrting from yi 
zaany a league ; and yet holdefl he neither any chargeable forces 
(to dispute Iili» right) ui^puii lliu njnyne, uor keeepes colonies 
(except in Florida, at St. Augu^iine only), nor reckons of the 
some, but that is at his beat pleasure. 

But what nowe concerning this point, for the more clicring of 
yt to such who stumble thereat : if we should say that our right 
to the West Indies tlemselves (since they will nccdes awaken us 
with pretence of title) is aa firme, proper, and far more auncyont 
then lie Spimiards ; and before tliu royall spirited lady Isabella, 
Priocesse of Castile, Inyd her jewclls to pawne, to Luis of SiA 
Aiigii'lu, the King her liuaband'a secretary, to forward the designee 
and to prevent our King Henry VII (who was both oflVed, and 

I Fernando de Roto, who foUowed the fortuoes of PiaiUTti, aud was a 
main initrunioat in aunexiug Florida to the crown of 8patD. 




accepted Columbus's offer, and entred into capitulations with bis 
brother Bartholomew about tbem, anno 1489), aure wc should not 
wnnt some pregnant likely hood e:}, and those not only by our sim- 
ple discovei'iee, but by our plntitiug and inhabiting th«m with the 
people of our ovrae nation four hundred years before Culumbui 
had notice of them by tho Biscan pilot,' who, nhen he dwelt in the 
islands of Madera, arrived with a weather beaten caravelle, and 
dying in hia house, bequenthed (a« they pay) to Columbus his 
card of the discription of such newc landes as be had found. Trao 
yt is, tho first liliippca that Coliiinbiis carrycd thither were but in 
anno 1492, which is now eince one huadretl and twenty yearea ; 
when lett any muti Ik- but pli;asud to luirke into the Icitruud luid 
industrious antiquities of Mr. Cuoiden (the t:urefulnea iind truth 
of whose searches he thiit will uiidervulewi or sclaunder, shalhu 
(jiuch out of lovB with thu labours of all good men and powers of 
VKrtue), and he rerneml>LTS us of Madut;, tha sonue of Owen 
Gwineth, Prince of Nor- Wales, in the yetire 1170{wluch maybe 
four hundred and thirty-nine years Mnce), who, leaving the land 
in contention belwecne his two brethren, Howell and David, pre- 
pared certayne shipps with men and munition, and after many 
unknowne lander and straunge discoveries made (Boyling within 
the Attaniick sea, a cowardly coun-e, yet still into the we^t), at 
last setteled iu tho We^t Indies, as hie owne relation eufPerE cou* 
structiou, which he made in his returne for newu supplies, the 
second and third tyme, which he trmispmteJ, and after that was 
heard no more of ; and late observations taken in these tynies 

> Many authon have attcmptod to mar the fame of Columbus, by 
asaertiiig, in rircmnataiUial and jvoNitive language, that he derived ht9 
notion of the exiatciico uf liiuJ;. in ihe west, frtKii the papurs uf u Biscayan 
pilot, najued AIoded Sjincbes de Iluolva, who diuil iu liiit bouxc. Accord- 
ing to Garcilftsso dc la Vega, this pilnt, in 1464 or thereabouts, lauded on 
Hispauiola, anrl wrote an account of his voyage. Tliese accounts, as well 
as, in ull pTohahiHty, that here hinted at by Stracbey, arc doubtless based 
upi>ti tho faliacious atatemoiit of Gumiu^, who ahouads id such unfounded 
i*torics. There is, however, a better re;isi>n thiin the paucity of credit 
duo to Ocnjara foe refusing crcdoncc to this injurious aspersion, inasmuch 
na it U ucrtuin that in 1474, ten yvsm previous tu the date thus assigned 
lo the voyage of th« I{isca.yan pilot, OoIuitiIiub coiniiiuuicatoil U> Paulo 
ToscanoUi, of Florence, hiit uotlonb of a westward vu;'a{;e yf discovery. 



^^ John Caljo 

JotiD C allot 


Wud t 
niu^ irloiit 

may conflrme tbo probability hereof, os flrst in AouKaniHI (so in 
writing Frsinria LnpeK de Gomera') the natives when they were 
firat found, had ibair ccosscs in their chapploa, and in dedicated 
groyes, in gardens, by woodes, springea, and fowntaines, which 
they did honour and fall downe before, thereto saying their uauall 
prayers, which must mak ilb-stration that Christiana had ben there 
before the coming of the Spaniard : and no ecclesiastical history 
oomeudee unto u« (since Solomon's voyage to Ophir oeased)^ nor 
any rccordes.of other antiquities (gince the fabulous drowning by 
Deucalion's Oood, or burning by Pbfcton, or since the sincking of 
the Atlantick iaiands), more auncyent, or before Ibe voyage of 
Madoc. Lastly, the language of the Indians admitting much and 
many wordes, both of places, and names of many creatures, which 
have the accents and Welch significations, and are yet retayned, 
both by the Indian. Crollos (Spaniards Iwrne ihcro), and Slulatoes. 

But this is matcriall and punctuall to our hypothesis. King 
Henry VII gave his letters pattentj, No. 1495, unto John Cabot, 
a Venetian (indeniKed his subject, and dwelling within the Black- 
friers), and to bis three sonnes, who discovtred for the King the 
nortb partit of America, to Meta Incognita,* latid annexed to the 
crftwne of Kngland all that great tract of londo sti'ctching from 
the Cape of Florida unto those parts, mayne and island^ which wo 
call the New -found -land, some of which were not but'ure knowen 
to ColurabuB, nor afterwards to Nicuesa,* Colmenaris,'' nor Vasquez 
Nunnei!,' nor any of the Castiliona ; the draught of which voyage 

1 Tlio ititaiid of Cnzumel, near tho tjast coast of Yuiratun, di»cover«d by 
Orixalvain 151H. 

s See Otiracra's " Oorniuiatu de Mexico", Art. La Religion de Acu^amil, 
t>. 24, Antwerp edition, 1354, Small 8vo. 

^ This nurd aLiu iiii|ihe7i '' Sjjiauiardii horu in the country." 

* An imlufiuito nauie subsequently given to the north part of America 
byQuccu E]izat«eth upon the return of Frobishct from hi» HecDud voyage, 
"as a Diarke and IwuiiJ Tttthcrto utterly imknowcu". See "The third 
Voyage of Captain Frolii^har, pi~etendcd for the DiKcovsrie of Cutaiu. by 
Muta Incognita, a.d. 157g." — Hakluyt, vol. iU, P'. 74. 

* Dittgo dv Nicucsna, one of the early Spanish adventurers ; founder of 
Nombra cl« Dios 

* HoJrigo Enriquea du Colmonarva, a coiapaiiion of Taaquox Nunez do 
Balhoa. Sec Ilorrura, Dec. t, lib. ix, cap. G. 

^ Viuqucs Nuiicz Je Bult'oa, the firit Kurojioiiu who ci'Oi'Bed the main- 


be seene in liis Mnjestie's prize galli^i'y in his palloce at 
Westminster:' but the tuiiiulta (8ay they who wrought of tliose 
tymes) then, and prepnrRtions for whitb in S'^otlanil, tooke away 
the seconding of that cnterprize, yot uo whit tooke awayc (I hope) 
our title, more than the King of Spayne may loose his to those 
parts covered with the same heavens, which he Deither forlefyest 
iior pluHtelh to this day. 

Soc as we may conclude, then, at leaet, that as Christopher 
Cohimbus discovered the islands and continent of tlie Vfeat Indies 
for Spayne, John and SebH.stian Cabot made dtscoveries no lease of 
the rest from Florida, norward, to the behonf of England, being 
supported by tlie regall authority, and sett forth at the charge anil 
cxpencc of King Henry VII ; and we hope that tliey will leave 
unto us the same way and proprietury, huth to goe unto our owne 
and hold yt by, ns we give them ; and if they will do bo (and all 
lawes of nfltiona will assist us herein), how unjast aiid parriaU ahall 
that subject be, and how ill a servant in the court of his owne 
prince, that will dare to give from him and his country tlie right 
and honor of both, gayncd with the expence ofthepuhlique purse, 
and with the iravells and livea of the industrious subject ; os well 
nay 9<uch a traytor lay the crowne of his monarch nppon the 
SpaniarH'^ lif ;u!, as appropriate unto him his titles, his territories, 
possessions, since so uiidistiaguishablK, and such relatives are 
prince and his priitcipalltios, as ho is sayd no longer to bo a 
kingo that ia deprived and is every way denied the title of his 
kingdomes ; and if this argtirn[;iit bi* in force (he will say) only 
where countryes lye neeru suid upproxiniato each to other, let mc, 
then, ask this question : what kingdoma ( I pray you) and pro- 
vinces lye more disjoyucd and scattered {us some faraclies that 
agree best wlien they are furthej^t each from other) then the 
B^ng of Spaynea ? in so inueb as it is only that which holdes him 
to this day from not being reckoned nmongat the five great 

land of America., and thence 'Obtained a view of the Pacific Oocan,'tlus 
took pW'« in the year 1513. 

• This coi>y of Cabot's map is supposed to have pcri.^hed in the fire 
which dc)!troyod that galkry in tho reign of WUliam 111. S&i Entiab's 
" Qenend Ilifitory of tho lato War." 



CapL Aiiia> 
dan and 
Ct{il Bar- 

w r R<i«a- 

l/iH, Dt (lie 
cxpctio* of 
Sir Wdllrt 

Viik lih. 


iiionurchs of the world. Let no man tlicrefore bo Iraducoil by the 
occoDDta wliich fnlce hearted fiiibjecla (imire jelous of a forreign 
prince's pride, tlinn zealous for bia Majcalio's. ru^atlies, and jojoud 
in the felicity of hU government} have heretofore made aadit to 
him of, here being mised to the viunr, though a short, yet a cliere 
|)rosi)ect of our right. 

Her Majestie, of famous memory, so veil understood hi^r princely 
right herein (derived downc from her heroik grandfather to her 
Belf }, n9 she griiimted many liirgp. pntlKiitA and (rrutious comtniaaionR, 
to divers gentleiueo uf Itirlh and i|ua!Jty, to inhabite those parts, 
and to keepe her title (|uick and panting still therein : as first, to 
Sir Iliimfrey (i-ilbcrt (whoinc the light first foi-souko,' before he 
would fursakc bis hupe.t and journeis tbiiher); and afterward, to 
the some time mncli honored Sir W, R[n!egl»]. knight, to whomc, 
and to hia heires, in the 2fi yeare of h«>r raigtie,^ bIi« confirmed, at 
Westminster, a large graiint, from 33 to 40 degrees of latitude, 
exemplified with many ymniunityes and priviledges; who there* 
uppon sent, first, thither Captaino Aniadas and CapLaine Bartow 
(1584), which Amadas, in memory of himself, intituled a bay at 
Ronnonk, to this day called Bay Amadas ; and, after them, he sent 
a fleetc of 7 sailcs, anno 1585, comandcd by Sir R. Greonvill, who, 
at Wococpn, likewise more to the so-ward from Koanuali, gave 
name to a port which yet rctaines the name of" Port Greenville ; 
who left a colony of 100 in the said island of Roanonk, which 
remayncd there one whole yeare itnder the charge of Sir Ralph 
Lane, generuU of the same, and wliich were afterward broiigiit from 
thence (by the nccleet of duo suppHea growing into some wants) 
by Sir Francis Drake, in liis retnrne bomewariles from the sacking 
of St. Domingo, Carthiigciia, and St. Augustine. Yet, aftpr this, 
did Sir W. R, contyiiewe a third and fourth voyage, which had 
their misfortimes j ajid anno 1587, sent a second polony of ISO, 
under the command of Captaiiie White and 12 assistcnts, unto 
wbome he gRve a charter, and encorporatt'd tlu?m by (he name of 
Governour and Assistants of the Citty Raleigli, in Virginia ; all of 

1 tie was ■JrowncMl at niiduight of the !)th of Septeinhcr, 1.583, having 
rashly ventured, with hji frigate too heavily laden, to make his homo- 
tchhI voyage from an cnterprize in which ho had taken possBssion of 
Ncafounilftnd. ' A^ 1-J84. 

which Ukewke loiscarrieJ by iho wretcliedaess of uo^ill'al iastru- 
ments (obusiog tfaereiu Sir W. K.), who, falling upoQ otLor prac- 
tizes, and which those tjtncs afiurdoiS, after the said White had 
been ia England the syconil time, and was refurnished out with all 
things needefuU for tlie colony, indenvoured nothing leflse tlicn the 
relief of the poorc planters, who afterward, aa you dbjiU read ia 
this following discourse, came therefore to a miserable and uq- 
tymely destiny. 

And this fatJill period had Sir W. R. his good purposes, and 
great ciiarges, all wliicU I have the more largely extracted, that yt 
may the more espreeairely appeare howe this is no cewe enterprlze, 
nor taken in haud now by a generallity (whii)li, true yt i^ before 
Sir W. R. his attaynder, without his leave we might QOt make 
introsioii uppon, the title being only ia him), to olfer cause of 
quarrell or offence to a pftaeefuU confederate, or Christian neigh- 
bour prince : a purpose soe far from the undertakers, couuccll, or 
body politique, to whomo the charter ia grauntcd by bis Majestic, 
as they shall wrest with too much streyned applieacions, the eudea- 
voura of such lionourable and leligioue personages who would raise 
their coantry, and tb<i fame of their soveraigne, equall witli othera 
who have enlai^cd their powers and their titles by the like meanes } 
and to avowe unto the world, that if the Spanyard shiUl attempt us 
at any tynie with ill measure, offring cither to maku surrcption of 
our ships by the way thither, or to breakc into our plantntions with 
acts of hostility (as uioet deapightfuUy did Pedro Mclcndc*, their 
adioiraJI, into the French colony, 14 ycarea since, in Nuva Francia ; 
who raysed their fort, and hung up the commoa soldiers (Luudou- 
nier, the generaJl, being straungely escjiped), and wrought over 
them disdainfuU inscriptiuns, in Spanish, importing, '* I due nut thiti 
fts unto Frenchmen, hut as unto Lutherans", which Spanish cruelty 
was yet, in the winding up, ns blouddy revenged agaync, by 
Dominique de Gourgues, of Burdeux, who, not long after, arrived 
tberp, trussed up the selfsame Spaniards upon the boughea of the 
same trees whureon they hung the Frendi, with ibcso wordes : I 
doc not this as unto Spniiiardg^ but as unto tyrants nod niurthercrs) 
nowe we are sett downe here, how unjustly they shall procecde 
he«rin, and how luucli they shall lay themsulvud, and tlieir fuithes, 





t«*rf ml 


open to the construction of all nations, and ba\t\y to oar revenge, 
wliicb cannot eLrike weukly, wlitch atrikus witli tlie swOrd of juB- 
tice in all quarrels, the good success of the same ever depending 
u]>ou the mnuL'L-uuy of tlm cuueu. 

Secondly, where they saj yt is unhoucst in yt self, becaose i^ju* 
rioua to the naturuU^s yt being the fulfilling of the per|>etuan rule 
of justice, suum cuir/ue trtbuere — haw uiifitt soever that iuum 
ho for the poasesdor ; indeede, yt corryes some shevre of the right, 
and we cuIpaWu whiUt we doe labour m the coiitnu-y, oa Zenophon 
sftid, instructing the young Cjtu^ when the prince, being walked' 
forth one day into the fields, and bod epied two boyea comyng 
towards him: a great boy, covered with a short and skant coat; 
and a little boy, clad in a large train'd, wyde, and long gowne ; 
Cyru8 stript them both, and shifted them, by the exchange soe 
making a better proportion (as he thought) of fitncs for cjther; 
but, I say, his learued tutor told him, how he had not done well 
herein, fiitico every unc was to be maJater of his owne, however yt 
might appeare a naaticr of much inequality, and the owner unworthy 
of so large a measure of fortune. 

That myad is to be loved well, that will not leave doabtiag on* 
till it hath found out the truth ; but it must then be verilatem 
iptwrrre, non tnsidias st[r'\ui;re; indeed, this were asufFicyent argu- 
ment in such a coramonwealtb which, governed with ilio wdl ordered 
powers of philosophy and all naturall knowledges, wanted not 
neither the supcruall light, hut the groandes of both these (who 
knowes not] doe we goc to lay amongst a simple and barbarous 
people ; yet had they of themselves the first, ttiat is, the practice 
of all morrall pollicyea and offices of vertue, as perfect, perimptory, 
and exact, as the unbcleeving Grecians and inGdcUous Komaii9 
had ; yet, since we (aa trmi CbriMtians) knowe that the world never 
was, nor must be, only and alone governed by morality,, and our 
charity suffers for them untill we have derived unto them the true 
knowledge indeed, which is the worshipp of the true God nnd their 
tind our blessed Redeemer, Christ Jesue, this can be no absolute 
instance of the right to tye ub (appeare it never so upright aud full 
of humanity) ; for soraetymes, and to the bettei'Ing of uJiiukiiid, tlie 
divine politique law ylself, we see, doth put on change, and byndoth 



not semper et in omne, as in tlie casea of tlieft flud adultery, etc. 

Let niG aske tliis qncstion : Doe we not goe in a busines that must 
result greater otTeets, and strive within us, boyond the powers and 
preacriptioiis of morality ? No man must denye it, that will not 
hoodwinck his knowledge frotn the end and ayme, at least, to which 
we lett goe all our travailes; yet ahall we no whit wlvaunct; our 
early iind first prosecutions against Mio^e moroU duties neither, but 
like the best prpj^cribera of those roles themeeLvea (in tho learned 
and last monarchies), and with the lovers of them nowp, we will 
manly proceed, and exactly observe the siiine, even in this worke, 
so as the best Christian shall not be agrieved to heare of our pro- 
ceedings, when they shall reade of the same in uur Decades ; mrnt 
true yt is, we knowing that the offices of humanity cun heipe much 
in the forwarding hereof. 

Tlion if our aecions miiet relish all of pielie (not excluding neithor 
any one purticiilnr lielpe of curtesie nnd manlines), how religious 
and manly both Is yt to eomaiunieate with these simple and iniio* 
cont people (iinles, perhaps, you will say that it is altogether unlaw- 
full to enter commune and traffique with SHlvages and infidells, so 
bringing to the test the rich aud necessary trades into Turkey and 
the East Indies), kneeling whan we kneele, and lifting up theire 
handes and eyes when we pray; not so dueyble, as wilting to 
reecive our eustomee, herein like raced and unblotted tablet^], apt 
to receive what forme soever ehallbe first drawne therou, and who 
have lesse faith in religion, which maie bo tho more probably shaken 
by how much they have lesse power eyther of reason or of armes 
to dofend yt ihtin the Turk hath, and with whome to hold discourse 
of their religion canietU not, at least, that challenge and stepping 
into dauDger, as yt doth amongst other barbarous nations, eepecialty 
with the Turkea (with whome we hold aueh entcrchaug cable cur- 
tesies), who suffer not theirs divine lawe, given them in their 
Mnsaph,' or Alcoran, by their fatco prophet Mahnmet (and which 

' .Vttftaf 18 the Arabic for a cod«, or bwk ; but wlien used with the 
Arabic articli;, thus, al mitha/, it generally refers to their sacred book, 
AI-KuKua, being tho civJl »nd rclijarioiis code of laws of tho Mohammodans. 
It is coinuioQ for tbo Mobannnudans to designate tli« Kumu bj thd taim, 
" Al M is h af el Karim", the gloiiouE Itaok. 




mattes tbcm, as Ihey say, the true Uussetman, before the Persian), 
to be 5uli;]eot to this dispiitacion of unj Christian, upon tht pajTMl 

of a sure <leat1i. Wlitirc umoiigst timae, a more etiste pasMige Ij68 ' 
open to wound tlie illusion of Snlhan, and to gayiiH a pijore inno- 
cent to partake in our knowlcdgea. We take heaven by violence, 
saith the evangelist ; I am eiire yt is given to men of ferventj 
cliarity et operantibfif, and good workea, albeit they be not 
eatists, yet are ihcy con tectaria (as the scliooletnan saicth) of onr 
fiiitJi ; thougli not catua rfffiiandt, yet are lliey via ad rr^num, — 
they juatifie not before God, yet they doe glorifie God in ilia ser- 
vants; and what more meritoryouf^ workc can tber be then lo 
labour in Godts causB (let the world however brand yt for folly), 
and worke them to be Ills, whose image they beare, and partici- 
pate with us of reason, currying iu llieir noalrilla more than the 
Bpiritt of life, the breath of beasts, which how should wc then pitty 
and take religious compassion of? And compassion, saith Guic- 
ckrdine, debates not causes and reasons, but procccdcs to relief, for 
which the duty of a good man is Bald to be compounded of these 
two things, the glory of his Creator, and the love of his neighbour. 
And who is our neighbour, demnnrleth our Saviour? He that (as 
in an inne) quartcreth next lodging and dooro unto us 'i No, sure, 
for aibeit iu the otd lawe, the elected Jew accoinpted every Jew his 
neighbour only, yet, since the time of grace, we are taught to 
acknowledge every man that bcarcth the Intpression of God's 
stampe, to be not only our neighbour, but to be our brother, Lowe 
farr distinguished and removed by ncas or lands soever from iia ; 
and in that stile doe far disjo3rned princes salute eacli the other ; 
and, indeed, yt is the gererall office of mankind, not only to wish 
good, but to briug yt to pnsse, for one of the like creation. 

Now, what greater good can we derive unto them then the 
knowledge of the true and ever lyving God ? And what doth 
more directly and rarely minister that effect then society, and to 
joytbC with them in iriendgbip ? Since we dailye 3ee amongst our- 
selves the profane and the mogt diaordored (miglit I not say almost 
barbarous), by keepioge company, dolli light tippon somethinge 
the while, which stumbles him iu liig hagt, and nuikes him often 
lake a pawae before lie proceedes, eylber shame or compunction 




striving within bim. Nor is this witiiout some ]ileii of renson ; for 
like dotii in tyme fasten and worke into tike (as fler worketli wocid 
ftltogeather into fittr), and a& tlm eye, if it be oppoaed and pre&etLted 
to unj sensible object that excolletii, will loose his proper and 
natorall function, so by conversing, the t^mo^ or reverence and 
avrc of the liettcp company, or some particulur adviintage, ctrcucn- 
Btauoce or other, may object tliat to the most sonsuall which mayo 
strike hts prowd heart, bo as he roayc find somewhat to be amazed 
nt, about whicli, whilst lih imaginntion» busy thcmscWes, thoy 
may bt'-get furtiier discourse and urgttments of more and more 

O lat heavy things tend to their centre ; let light and ayery 
Bpiritts salute Heaven, and fly npto the circumfepeniie I Tbatgreat 
and famous inetrumeiit of publishing the goapell and knowledge of 
Chriet Jesus, Chiiatopher ColumbuB, as also Veapulitis Anioricua, 
who (five yeares after Columbue) anrivcd here, gnve Ibis wiiole 
country and ymmaasiirable conlinejit (whteh is, and uiaye wall be 
called the New World for his greatnee, reaching frnm the one 
pole to the other, being deviJed by the streights of Magellaop, 
where it emlelh under Qfty-two degrees on the south side of the 
eqiiinoctiail lyne} his owne name, may teaeh us what progresse to 
iniikc even in this glorious enterprise. The first of these opened 
the way to the Spaniard, wlio since hath fild bdth islands and 
msyne with the forme of their worship to God [I leave to sayo 
how ofilcious and siipcrstiLiaTis), and the other as inflamed to doe 
Bome notable and Christian act, answearcd the other (a health yet 
unplendged by ua antes we will now set toyt). Let the examples 
of tliesc move us to advannce (now opportunity is offied) our pro- 
fession and faith, ue Catholique, and more purged from self inven- 
tiona. Hove we either lesse mcanes, fiiinter spiritts, or a chanty 
more cold, or a niligion more ahamefnll, and afmyd to delate 
ytac'lf ? or h yt a lawfull worke in them, and not in us, that yt is 
authorized unto them even by the warrant iif tlie Church ? Iloro 
Pope Aloxander VI in hi^ bull and donation to the Kings of 
Castile and their successors — 

"Nositaiiufi hujusmodi vcstrum sanctuai ct laudahile Pro- 
positum, pliirimum in Domino cotnmcndantefl, ci cuptentcs ut illud 



ad dcbitum flnom pcrducattir, ct ipsum Nomon Sstvntoris oostri Id 
partibus illis inducBtiir, hortninus vos qimmpliirimum in Domino et 
per Sucri Lavaeri auaccptionoin, tjua raanJatia Apostolicis obligati 
cstia," etc. 

Which is, " We, greatly eoinejidiiig tliia your godly and laudable 
purpose in our Lord, and desirous to hnve the Hnme brought to a 
due enil, and the nnme vf our Saviciur to bo knowiic io tJioee 
port8» doo exhort you in oar Lord, and by the receoving of the 
holy hnptiHtne, wherby ynii arn bitunil to apastolionll obedience, 
and eai-nostly require you, by the bowells of mercy of our Lord 
Jesuft ChnHt, that when you intend, for the zeate of the Catholique 
faitb, to prosecute the said expeJicion to reduce the people of the 
foresaid laodea and istanJii to the Cbrietiao religion, you shall 
spare no labours at any tyme, or be deterred with any perrylU, 
conccaving firme hope and (iKMirntinc^o that the omnipotent God 
will give good succease to your goodly attempts." 

It is read that Tfaemistoclcs hearing of the great victory that 
Melciadea' had obtcyncd on the playne of Marathon, aald, that 
that report would not lott him take any rest ; ami Julius Cx&ar 
wept at the sigbt of Alexander's image (who had at the ycares of 
twenty-four obtayned the name of Great), and cryed oat: **Am 
not I miserable, that have done nothingo worthy of memory, and 
yet this prince at these ycarcs bath executed so many notable 
thingee ?" Shall these, for thesmoakeof momentary glory, breake 
out thus passionate and forward ? and shall not we, for the glory 
of our Goii, be as affectionate and ambitious ? Shall we now, 
when we know most the effects and perfection of goodnes {as the 
sun when he is highest in the zodiack moveth slowest), be dullest 
in our solstice and snpremest height ? The glorious St. Augustine, 
in his firste booke, " Dc Concord. Evang.", cap. 32'*. goeth so far 
concerning the spredding abroad and teaching of our Saviour 
crucified, not only to the right, but to the leaft hand, as it is in 
the 54 of Esau', as be there amply diecourseth how the gliospcll 
should be puWished abroail, not only by thciBe who sincerely, with 
true anti perfect charity, assume the function of preachere, but 

> i. €. M)ltiaile«. 

3 )'. «. UnJab. See ch. liv, v, 1-10. 


pHjEiionitios to the rkaukh. 



aloo by those tUat doclare yt, tsndiug to tcmpDrull endcs ; vid 
surely many powerfull and divine arguments migLt be extrecied 
for this plaire, which ho there at Inrge perseciitKth, which would 
conlirme and s|)CBk satisfaction to the most sensuaU : yf so, why 
then besides tliese alleaged divine motives, politique and ratiunall 
respects, even common trude and hope of profttt might make UB 
forwai-d to be adventurers. Our country of Virginia hath no 
want of many marehaadize (which we in England accomplish la 
Dwimark, Norway, Prusia, Poland, etc.; fetch far, and buy deare) 
whieh udvaoace much, and assured increase, with lesse exehaiing 
of oar owne, with os few bazardes by 6ea> and wliich would mauD- 
taine us frequent and goodly a nuvio us what runs the Levant 
stage ; and those by ilivera ti'eaties, both in Lattiu and Eughsh, 
{irirato and puhlique, have ben, in their particuler names and 
values oftentymes expressed, espeeyally that which hath bene 
published by that true lover of vertue nnd great learned professor 
of all arts and knowledges, Mr. Ilariots,' who lyved there in the 
tyme of the first colony, spake tlie ludiau language, seaccht the 
country, and made many proufes of the richnes of the soyle, and 
commodiles therof, besid(?:s many planter? from thence, and right 
worthtc marchants, and those knowe^n to be men of much belief 
and L'l-edit, have witnessed as much to the world, in these latter 
tymes, if men will give them Btoage and welcome in their good 
Opinions, and sett aside their owne ovcrweemiags and singultirity 
lo cntertaine a truith, and out of those great plenties and havings 
(which God bath lent them to be his stewards here) be pleased lo 
heare themselves entreated to spare but a little, little portion to 
the raising and building op of a sanctum sanfjtamm, a holy bowse, 
and a sanctuary to his blessed uamc, amongat iufldcU ; placinge 
those therein on whome yt hatb now pleased him both to be suBi- 
cientty revenged for their forefathers' ingratitude and treasons, and 
to doseend in mercy to lighten [them] that sate iu darknes, and in 
the shadowe of deatli, and to direct their feet in the waye of peace. 
But perhappea there he those who will graunt that what they 

* Thomaa Hariot, or Harriot, mathcmiitical tutor to Sir W. Halfiijih, 
RCCOTDpanicd Sir Richard Grunvillc'-t oxjiedition to Virginia in 15SA, aud 
drew up au acoouat of his voya^, now very nro, printed \&itQ. f>. 



bave read in Uioio disciiur»ea cleliv4!recl to the world maj be tiue, 

but will tliuysDj, Wliut open and actunll iojury shall we doe to the 
jpoore and iiiiiocent inliuljiuiunts to intrude U))pui) tliiiiut' 1 roust 
Bske tliKin n^iiiuB, In wbicb «ball we offer tbein injurj'e ? for prof- 
ferittg tticio trade, or ttie knowLedgu of Clirut ? From one of 
thoee two or both the iiyiiry must i)roc<ieJe. Why? What in- 
jury can yt \iu to people of any ti^tinti for Clirii^tian.s to come unto 
tbeir ports, bavcns, or tcrritoryes, wlicn the Uwe of nations (which 
is the iawe of God and miin (doth priviledge all men to doe aoe, 
wbicb aduiittft ,v( lawfull to trudo with auy umtiucr uf poopic, io 
io oiucb as DO man is to take uppou bim (that knowotb any thing) 
tbu di-fcmto uf the salvadges in this point, since the c<alv,'ulge« 
themselves may not impugne or forbid the same, in respect of 
common fellowgliip nod community betwix nun and roan ; albeit 
1 will not deny but that the sulvadge^ may(withoul pcrad venture) 
be ignomot of as much, and (alas) of more grucco beside, and 
particulurilics of liumanity, tbe reafion whereof being, because 
(poor »i}wl<js) thi3y knowe not the good which they stand in ocede 
of; but wo tbiLt are Christinas doo kuuwe howe this luwc ^enrich- 
ing all kiiigdonies) gives privilodges to auibaasadours, kecpus tbe 
seas comiuOD and safe, layes open ports and havens, aiid allovrea 
free scbIos and liberal acccsse for whosoever that will import unto 
tijein such cammoditlea as their countreyeFi have, and tliey want ; 
or export Irom tbem some of their pleutyo (duties and cu8toint*s 

. prnvincinll observed), Yf this lie so for the fir«, conccruiog the 

OtJiei' yt may fully be answeured wilh ibis demiiuiul, shull yt iMit 
folluwe, if tralfiiiue be thus justiBnble (which iiitund«d notJiing 
but transitory jirofilt and increase of tcmporall aud worldly goode^) 
shall not plantinge the Cbrislion failb be much more? Yes by 
bow much the divine good (not subject to ohangei and uttder no 
alteracion), eicelts, takcis an accon)[it, and surveyed, and snrpasseth 
all ibiiigf, and all our actions are to bend their inlenlioas tbcther- 
ward ; and what waye soever we make, yet miserable aud wretched 
be whose every lyne be drawes, every act and thought doe not 
close and meete in the center of that. Alos, vfouKI wo but truly 
exaiiiyne all, and tbe best of things, which the roivnd eye of tbe 
sun lookcs uppon, what is tbe travel! fm- all the pompe, the trea- 






sure, the pleasure, and wlmtscevcr bclongoth to this lief, compBi-cd 
to the ritclieg of the sowle, the excellency wherof (if there were 
noe other proufn to confirme yi) js Bufficieiitlie «;tt tuurth by the 
rich ransome tlutt vros paid for yt, even the pretious blond of Jesus 
Christ. O our djll iguDrance, tlepmved wills, or imperfection, of 
or all three, how doe yee transport us? who, when wo 
''ilmild labour a wane and diminution of the uio^t imposture, the 
most falce, and yet eye-pleasing ohjecta of oar carnall sences, not 
8oe much as roakin^e out (after the U-mt of them in poore Indian 
canoas), hou-e their godlike represeittntioua buguile tis tliat wo 
neclcct all good things axid {I'lkv Kngtish lords) pursue these i^ii the 
streeme of delight, in swift barges ? When let ua heare the end 
of nil, and som of all happin&s, snith St. John. chapE. vii, ver. 3, 
and that i^ to knowe one only true God and Jesus Clirit^t, wlioaie 
He hath seat, who being the ever blessed and only wyadorae of the 
Father, gives, nitionge other coramandments to his apostles, this,— 
** Goo and baptize all nations." Universa, enim propter semet 
iptutft operants est Vominus. — Pro. xvi. This worde and particle 
(all) infallibly and mftthumaticnlJy concluding, then, even theis 
poore salvadgss. 

But yet It ia injurious to the naturall inhabitants, BtUl saye ours. 
Wherefore ? It is hecnusc yi i», aowe indeede, a most doughtie 
and mat[^er]iall reasou, a great petce of injury to bring them (to 
invert our English proverb) out of the warme liun, into God'a 
bleaaing j to bring thera from bodily wants, confusion, misery, and 
these outward anguishes, to the kuowlcdg of a better practize, 
and ytnproving of those benKGtts (to a more and ever duringe ad- 
Tontage, and to a civiler use) which God hath given unto them, 
but envolved and hid in thci bowells and womb of their land (to 
ihein harrun and unprufitable, btcause uiiknowne); nny, to exalt, 
ftS I may sate, meere privation to the highest degree of perfection, 
by bringing their wretched Houles (like CerberuSj from hcUj from 
the chaynes of Sathan, to the armes and bosome of their Saviour : 
here la a most impious piece of injury. Let rae remember what 
Mr. Simonde.?, preacher of St. Saviour's, saith ia this behalf: It 
ia as much, saitli h«, a^ if a father ahould bo said to offtir violenu'O 
to bis child, wheu h« beats him to bring him to goodoosse. Had 



not tbia violence and thi» ")]>»'}' bene offreil to ue by the Romuns 
(oa ihe wnrlike Acnts did the Bnme, likewitte, in Cnltiiloniii, unto 
ihn I'it'tH), ev('ii by.Iuliiis CiL-sar Iiimsdf, then by Iho emperour 
Claudius, who wiu tliorcforc CMilk'<l Britannicus, nnil U\» (^iitaios, 
Aulus Plmttius iiml Ves^ntian (who tooke in the Isle of Wight); 
and lastly, by tbc first lieutenant cent liiihor, Ostoriua Scapula (aa 
writes Tacinis in the lief of Agricolu), who reduced the iwnqucn'il 
partes of nur Imrburtius ilond into pravine&B, nud established io 
them coloniRB of old ttnuldiers ; building caalells and townen, nnd 
in every corner teaching us uvtm tii knnwe ihe ptiwerfuU discounie 
of divine reason (which makea ub only men, ami distinguishoth os 
from beasts, amongst whome wb lived ns nak«d iind an beastly ns 
thoy). We might yet have lyved overgrowt-u satyrs, rudt nod 
tintutrcd, wandring in the woodes, dwelling in eaves, nnd bunting 
for our dynners, as the wild beasts in the forrests for their prayc^ 
]irostcluiing our daughters to slraungers, saerificing our childrene 
to iihilU, niiy, eitting our owne chiUIrf^ne, an did tho Scnts in tlioiie 
flaics, OS reciteth Tlio. Cogan, bachellor of pbisiek, in bis booko,' 
De SaDitntc, cha. 137, printed 1189, and dedicated to the Knrle of 
Hertfo]-d; in which place he bringeth in St. Ilierome himself, by 
way of Pro80p[o]pEi?ia, affirming eoe much uppoo bia knowlcdg. 
His wordys, there alleged, are these : What Ehnl! I say, saieth St. 
Jerom, of other nations, since that, when I was a boy, 1 saw, in 
Frauncc, Scotta, a people of Britannia, cale man'a flesh ; and when 
they found in the forrpsts hennlcs of swine, beasts, and cattailR, 
they would cut off the buttocks of the boyes that kept them, and 
also the women's papp?, and tooke that to be the most dcinty and 
delicate meat ; and, as the reverent Beda reports (before the Britons 
were converted to the phospcll), njurthcring whole troupa of men 
to accompanye and serve tbc-ir friendes dying, in the other Hcf. M 
they did to the aondry Zemes' in the West Indies, at what tyme 

1 The wurk alluded to was puhllBLeduudcr the titlo of "The Ilarengf 
Heidth," 138f> — the figure 1 being mistakenly inaertod above for A. There 
\» !i co[iy of thtt work at Oriel College, Oxford. 8&a Wood's "Atbcua 

^ See "Uieron. udvereas JoTiuioaum", liber ii. " KpiJitolK J). Uiero- 
nymi". Uoiii. IJfiS. Trim, ii, f". .'jO. 

' Id<>Is, or fiods, who were protended to foretell &ture evcfltfl. See 
" Peter Martyr", Dec. i, IJb. ix, aud " Ovit>do", UK v. 



Columbos nrnvcd there; and OB tliey did in Peru and Mexico, at 
what tynie Fertlinando Cortez reduced thera to the Christianity : 
and (IS the Quiyimf;li(]uiBtn-ks (nr prti'als) Him to llio idollfl uf tho 
snIvaHges here, albeit I hope ihey wi]l not long doe Poe, yf by a 
gentle and faire eiUreaty we may win them to be willing to heard 
and learne of us and our (jreiichera, the mure civile u&e of every 
particular in which Ihoy nowe too rudely and beastly doe amisfie. 

All the injury tliat wu purpose unto them, is but the amendment 
of these horrible healhcni^nies, nnd the reduction of them to the 
aforesaid manly dutyes, nnd to the knowledg (which the Romans 
could not give us) of that God who raust save both them nnd ns, 
and who bought us alike with a denre sufiernunce and pretious 
mensuro of mercy. 

For tlie opter enabling of our aelfcs unto which so heavenly an 
enterprise, who will Ifaincic yt an nnlawfult net to fortefle and j 
strengthen our selves (us nature requires) with the best helpes, and 
by sitting downe with guardes auil fyires about us in the wast and 
vast unhabited growndes of tlieir[93, amongst a world of which not 
one footo of a thousaad doe they either use, or knowe howc to turne 
to anybencHtt ; and therforc lyes so great a circuit vaync and idle ^ 
before them ? Nor is this any injurye unto them, from whoroe we 
will not forcenbly taks of their provision and labours, nor make 
rape of what they dense and manure ; but prepare and breake up 
newe growades, and therby open unto thera likewise a newe woye 
of thrift or husbandry ; for as a righteous man (according to Solo- 
mon) ought to regard the lief of his beast, so surely Christian men 
ehould not shew themaelves like wolves to devoure, wtio ainnot 
forget that every soule which God hath sealed for himself ha huth 
done yt with the print of charity and corapassion ; and therefore 
even every foote of land which we shall take unto our use, we will 
bargaiue and buy of them, for copper, hatchetts, and such like 
comodityes, for which they will even sell themselves, and with 
which they can purchnce double that quantity from their neigh- 
boure ; and thus we will commune and entreate with tbem, truck, 
and barter, our commodityes for theires, and theires for ours (of 
which they aeeme more faine) in all love and frcindship. uatill, for 
our good purposes towards them, wc shall findc them practize vio- 



nunonrnoy to thr readeh. 

leooe or treason against as (as tbey hive done to our other colony 
at Boaooak) ; when then, I would gladly knowc (of such who pre- 
sume to knowo oU things), whether we maye stand npon our owne 
innoccnc^ or no, or bold yt a scruple in humanitje, or anj breach 
of cItarilj(to prevent our owne throaU from the cutting), to drawe 
OOr Bwordcs, ct vim pi" repcUere f 
[ FUinting («aith Sir George Pcckani,' writing an apologye in the 
' like cause) ranj well be divided into two eorts, when Christians, 
b/ Uie good liking and willing usent of tiie salvadges, are admitted 
bjr Ihcm to (jiiiett poswasioo ; and whun Christians, being inhu- 
manolj repuUed, doe seeke to attayne and mayntayiic tlio right for 
which thej come, in regard of estHbliBhniciit of Christinn rcligioi 
cither of them mnje bo lawfully cxcrcyzed ; fur whiit soever God, 
bj* the ministration of nature, hath created on earth, was, at the 
beginning, common among men ; may yt not then be lawfull nowi 
to attempt the possession of such lands as nre voidc of Christian 
inhnhitantB, for Christ's sake? Uarke, barke, the earth is the 
Xiord's, and all that m therein. 

And all the norld he will call and provoke, 
Eren from the east, uid so forth to the woet. 

Ah it is in the 50 psalme, where David propheGieth how God will 
call all uatioim by the gospcll, and in the 12 verse : 

For alt is nijne th»i on the eArth doth dwell. 

And who shall bar him from his possession ? In the second booko 
of EadniB, the 6 i-hap., 14 ver., saieth the prophet : " And besidos 
this Adnm, whomo thow madest loi-d over all tlie ^vorkes which, 
thou hadst created ; of him come wo all." And in the Ifewe Tes- 
tament, Paule, calling himself the nposlle of the Gentiles, in the 
1 1 of the Romans, 32 ver., saieth, that Gi>d hath shut up all in 
uabelieff that he mi^ht have mercy on all ; jet, in another place 
of the same opifltle, he snieth : "And how etiall they call on him 

t Su" George Peckhnm, in an anooytnous work entitled "Tmc Rcporte 
of th<! lute Discovorij.'* and PostiaHAion tfiktin iu the right vi the Crwwa 
of KngUtide, of the Ncw-founii-landcs, by that valiaunt and wurlhye 
gentloBian, Sir Hiimfroy OObwt, Knight". By 0. P. Luiidon. 1563. 
8vo. Ohap. a. 




in whome they have not belceved, «n(l bow shall they beleeve in 
him OQ wliorae they have not bciird ?" and therefore, he concludeth : 
** 0, how benutifijll are the feet of them which bring glad tidings 
of peace, anil bring glnd tiding* of gowl thinga !" and in the third 
of Sophonia^' : " The children of my dispersed" (so bo callctb the 
apostles) "shftU bring me presents from beyond the banckes of 
-aCthiopia." Besides (omittinge the peregrination of I'aule, and 
the travcUs of Barnabas, into so many straunge countrios, islands, 
and kingdomes, of the Gentiles, laboring in this office, und reduc- 
ing so many cittycs of theires to the kiiowledg of Chriat crucified, 
in Grecia, in Fisitlia, Patuphilia, Perga, Attalia, in Asia, and Syria, 
insomuch as Antloch was come to be called, at length, the newe 
citiyc, and Jerusalem of the Gcnrilca : as also omitting the vision 
which Peter saw in Joppa, of a vessel], a« it had bene a great sheet, 
let dowoe from heaven by the four cornerB, in which were four 
footed beaats of the earth, wildu beasts, creepinge things, and fowles 
of the heaven, with the voice which accompanied yt, saying, "Arise, 
Peter, slay and eate;" and this done three tymes, forbiddinge him 
to accompt those things polluted or unclflane (mcaninge tho Gen- 
tiles), which God had BaiictlQed and made holy ; and let mo reuium- 
ber^ which is worth all observation, and to be bound to the palnies 
of our haudi), nud tu be written uppun the ly ntellit nnd brow posts of 
all our dorca, for the encouragement and comfort of us, who are im- 
prest in this service; yt is one of our daily petitionm, whin'h we are 
taught by our blessed Saviour, when we pray, and of that qualUty 
as when we huve first entreated grace to eateeme, vuluwe, nnd 
honour God, according aa he ought to be, both in wiird<3s nnd 
works, QB also in our holy and Christian convei'saclon, for so much 
eignifieth " Ilnllowed be thy Name," we presently add, " Tliy 
klngdorae come," which ymplieth, tbut it would please the great 
and mercyfull God that his sacred word might have a powerfull 
piuinage throughout the world ; yea, in such Rort that all uatiooa 
might be reduced to the kingdome of grace, and made piirlakera 
of their redemption ; nor must wc ymagine that this is uowe to 
he done by royracle, for which it is thus foresaid by Esay* in his 

Zfiphauiah, chap, iii, v. 10. 

* iKaixh. 



66 cliap., — " Those which sliall tiB<>a|>o oui of lemell shall goo fin- 
off to Tharsia nnd to the remote i.slnnds, where they shall convert 
many nations unto the I^rd, and thL-rcforo is Christ called the 
siilvntion of nntions (Gen. 4, Easy V), tliPre btring no ntlier name 
under heaven unto men whereby to he soTcd, but only this of 
Christ's" (Acts 4). And in tlw Old Testament we shall read, when 
strange and great nations would not submitt to the ynuke of thio 
knowledge of the ererlaating God by fairo entreaty, they wore, 
ffrro etfinmmia, compelled thereunta In Josua and the Judges 
l^lentifull instances iidhore to thi> making of ibis good : there n to 
be seene binv Moeea, Josua, and Gedion would send spies and 
discoverers for the like purposes {misit igitur Joshuc Jitius Nan 
de St'thtt duos viroi explorntores in abicondito, et dixit eis, Ite rf 
cvmiJt^rate tcrram urbemfue Jerkho. — Jos. 2) into kingdoms, 
nations, and j>rDvint;es, and thereafter bcaeiged their towiies and 
Wrong howldee j and when the Gentiles wonld not call for mercy, 
they would lay waste and burne their chief citties : so fell Jericho, 
ami so was Ai surprisc<1, the inhabitnntn elayne, and their kinge 
liaagod up. Head the 12 chapter, and you bIuiU find n PBtalogue 
of 3 1 kings and grent princes of the liethen put tu the edge of the 
Gword, whilst the Gibionites, intreating by ainlmssudnurp, were 
taken into pi-oleccion, and admitted into the colonye of the Israel- 
ites, nnd yet made their servants, and felch-watfirs. 

And thus these few and utiaktlfuU scienes, but fccvenea of truith, 
brought to this act, they shall suffice to begett a setleled opinion of 
guodnes, und of the right of this buaiues, in any who huth hereto- 
fore doubted, appealing to impartlall jadgmcnta wlieather the 
Kinge of Spnine hath priority of title to ibie pait of America 
before the English ; nay, whether he both any coulour of title by 
thiy at ail ? or whether this enterprize be an unchristian acte, or 
injury to the naturatla ? and if neither, whether their Kpiphonema^ 
deserves just ehovrt and applause, wlioe decliire yt unlawful!, iind 
an unnaturall bufiines, and to God di^pleasinge. 

1 Outcry. 









The Cosmugrupliie of Tirginta ; IntUudo and IwuikIh ; cxtciitloo upon • 
right lyne ; first dinEion — the quality of the mountajnea, and deo- 
crtptiou of the high land ; BulxUvidcd ; her tempvnture, wjnde, 
eoyle, vali«tt, plaiaes, nuu-i&hes, etc. 

VmoraLi UuiTAKviA u a country in America; yt lyeth 
bctwceae tbe degree!) of 30 imd 44 of the north latitude ; 
the howntk* whereof may well hu thnt layd : on the t-ast 
ronneth the great ocean, or niayne Atlantiqnc Sea ; on the 
■until side, Florida; on the north, Nova Francia ; as for the 
west, the IjTiiitta thereof ore imknowno, only it is supjioscd 
there niaye he found the discent into the South. Sea, hy the 
SpanianU CJilled Mar del ziir, no meeting with the thmhtfiil] 
uorth-west passage, which leades into the east, to China, 
Cathay, Giapaii, the Moluecaes, cte., now yniagined to Ijc 
discovered hy onr eoiintryman Hudson, and therefore, for 
the more certainty thmrof, the search anew tluM prcsente 
yeare/ undertaken hy Capt. Button, Cnpt. Nelson, and Capt. 
*: alheit, there he who iiffinue that if there 
elionld he a third hmd-lockcd sea, which hath no enter- 

3 The omitted name is iDgnun. Cttptain Ingram caiumandcJ the 
Discovftry, in coinfmii.y wiUi Cuptuin Buttou. Nelson was tnutcr of tbe 
ReKuIuliiiTi, Captjtiii lIuttLin'K jihip. 

Virion !• 





Anl«n Ibe 


»(rci'-i In 
till- In Rlitnf 
•iipji-iied W 



riglit lyoB. 


course at all \nth the ocean (like the Mare Caspiiuu, aad 
Mare Mortuum in Palestina), j*! licth upon the norlli-west 
of America; when yet agaiuc Gemma Friaius rocordetU' three 
brethren that went this passage, luul lr?ft a name unto the 
Streiglits oI'Aniau, where the aea atrikcth sowtli into Mar- 
clel-Kur, beyond Amerlcaj whyreby that streict is nowe 
called FretuM trium fratmm .- we doe reade, likewise, of a 
Portugal tliat passtid this streict, of whom Sir Martin hHir- 
bisher spcaketh, that wa« imprisoucd therefore many yeares 
in Lishbon, likcTviHO Anordaneta,' a frier of Mexico, came 
out of Mur del znr this wnj into Germany, whose card hath 
ben secne by gentlemen of good credit. 

It is a spatiouK and ample tract of land; from north to 
south, upon a right lyne, yt maye be seven hundred niyles ; 
from east to west (in the narrowest place) supposed some 
three hundred mylea, and in other places one thousand; a 
sufficient space, and ground ynough to satisfie tlic most 
covetous and vnAe, affection of biui wboe frames to himself 
any other end, then the only true one, of tlu3 plantation. 

Of all this country ^in duo place] we purpuae to speake, 
though more particularly of that parte which was begun to 
be planted by the English in the yeare of otir Lord Godj 
IGOfi, and which may lye under the degrees of 37, 38, and 
39, and which piut dcvided may well suffer (with Germany) 
the appellation of tlie High and Low Country, from the 
moutbe of the Chesapeak Bay up to the head of the rivers, 
all of which 1 call Virginia, as the high land about the fiiUs 
(as yet uniiiscovered), beinge the muyne continent, I call 
Britania; nor doe I holde this partition lesae proper, or 

' See " Hftkluyt", vol. UI, p. 26, (Eel. 1600), from which this passage \» 
copied, with very slight alterations Reinier Crcnima was a leMuned Dutch 
matbemiiticina aiid a^troii^iucr, born in 12U8, at JJoucuiu, ;u FriGeliuid, 
whcQce Us cognomeo of Fribius. The record alluded to, u; bin " UaivemU 

" t. e., Andrew UrdancttL. 



more impertinent unto tliis kingdoTnc, then England, Scot- 
laud, and Wales is to Great Britimy; or Aciuitania, Ccltica, 
and Rd^jL to France; or to Spajme and Portugal, Castile 
and Arragon. 

Concerning tlie liigh-laiid little can we nay as yet, because 
thereof little have we discovered^ only some Indians' rela- 
tions and some fewe daies' marelies into the Mouocun coim- 
try of our ownej Lave instructed ua thua far. 

This high land, or Britannia, then, say we, i» the mayne ^'^j^'J" 
and firme continent, which cxtendeth, we wot not how far, Ihrftii^."' 
beyond that cataract or fall of water, which the Indians call 
Paquachowng,' from whence one daie's jorney into the 
Mouocau country. Our elder planters (at then* first com- 
yng) proclaymed His Majestic king of the country at 
Mohomingc (a ncighbom* ^-illagc}, and sett up a crosse there 
with His Majestie's name inscrihed thereon, the said fall* 
"being one hundred and fifty myle.-* up from the mouth of the 
hay, and where the current there at liis head falieth, with an 
easye disceiit, three or foiu" fathomc duwnc into the low 

From the falls our men have heretofore marched (a» the 
river led them) about forty or fifty miles, and fownd the 
high land woody, little champion,* with rising hills, rockcy 
and mouutanous, aud so all along from the noitli, by a 
sowth-wost lync, in so much as the more su-ward the further 
off &om the bay are those monntayiies ; from them fall cer- 
tainc hroolvH, which after come to be five princiimll navigable tl«i^i! «r 
rivers,' these run from the nor-west into the so-cst, and su ^••I'^n'S" 
into the west side of the bay, as haetinge themselves to 
emptye into the bay, to paye their tribute to the ocean. 

The mpuntaittcs here at the head are of divers natures, for "^ 

i The falls git Richmond, about od0 hundred and ten milca from the 
mouth of the James Kircr. 

' ('hampuign. 

a Kow chHuJ Jftiacs Rirtr, Tork Rivor, RapiJHhaaaock, Potomnc, and 
PiLluxent Rivers. 

nniilbiT. J 

u7nr.11. ^^H 


the rocks are of a cona tit ation like nuktonea; 10010 of a 
blew metallyue oonlonr, aome of marble, etc ; and many 
pieoea of scattered cristall wc find, as thnnrne doimc by 
water from the mountaines ; for in wynter these moantjunes 
are covered with snow, and when yt dissolreth, the waters 
fall with such riolcncc that they cawsc ^rcat inundacions in 
the narrowe Tallies, which yet is scarse pcrccaved, being onte 
in the river*. Thew; waters whs\i from tlie rocks such glis- 
tening tinctures, that the grownd in some places aeemeth as 
gilded, where both the rocka and the earth are so Rplendant 
to behold, that very good jud^rmcnts would pcrhapps be pw- 

Vswaded they conteyned more then probabiUties. Sure it is 
that M)mc mincralls hare ben there found. 

This high land is, in all likelyhoodc5, a pleasant tract, and 
the movld fruictfull, especially what may lye to the so-nard ; 
where, at Peccarccamek and Ochanabocn, bj the relation of 
Machumps,' the people hare howses built with stone walles, 
and one story above another, so taught tbrra by those 
Englishe wlioe eaca]}cd the slaughter at Koanonk, at what 
tymc tliis our colony, under the conduct of Capt. Newport,' 
B««M» of landed within the Chesapeake Bay, where the people breed 

•Upm. lane 

JU^("t,'"* "P *^™*= torkeis about their howses, and take apes m the 
•I'SCwv mountaiiies, and where, at Ritauoe, the Weroance Eyanoco* 
**'*^^' preserved seven of the KngUsh alive — fowor mcu, two boyea, 
and one yongc mayde (who escaped and fled up the river of 
Chanokc), to beat his copper, of which he hnth certaine 
myucs nt the said Ritauoe, as also at Pamawauk arc said to 
he store of salt stones. 

Pokotawes, which the West Indians (our neighbours) call 
mais, their kind of wheat, is here said to be in more plcntyc 

1 Au Indian subsequently montioncii. 

' lo Hi07, Capbim NpwiK>rt sailud in command of » squadron of thr*!© 
TC«8cIit, with one httnilred and ten Esttlors, aoO rcacbuil Obcsri[H:akfl llaj 
in April of that year. Ho fouudvJ JaiucA Tuwn, — the oldvst BVttloment, 
with the excoplioQ «t' .St. Augii^tmc, in tlie United States. 

I CommnJiier, or governor, a.i heroaftur dcacribwl. 


nno vninran. 



then below, aud tUe low country firuicta grow here. It is 
supposed that the low laud hath more H&b and fowle, and the 
high laud more immher of beasts. Tlie [tcnple diffur not 
much in nat^ire, hnbit^ or eondicion, only they are moru dar- 
ing up]K>n us; aud before we ei'ected our forts amongst them, 
there was ever enmity, aud open warrs, bctweeuo the high and 
lowe country, going by the uamesof Mouocausand Powh&tans. 

To the norward of the Falls, and . bcnrlijUg to the nor- [ 
cast, lieth the skirt of this hi^h land country, from whence the 
aforesaid live great uangablc rivers take their heads, which 
run through the low land [as is before mencyoned) into the 
Chcsapcack Bay; this quarter is tiltogithcr uuknowcn to us 
as yet, only herein are seated (say the Indians) those people 
whom Powhatan calls the Bocootawwonaiikoa, who (he saitli) ^iJr 
doc likewise melt copper and other mettalln; how true we j;^^^'^' 
must leave to further discovery. — -1 

To the nor-ward agaiiic of this, in the height of 44, lycth 
the country called Panaquid, the kingdome wherein ourto'uV" 
weeterue colony, uppon the river of Saehailchoek,' was somc- 
tymc planted, wliich is a high land, and noe lease truictfull 
then these other parts, save only the extremity of the winter's 
coldness unikcs yt lesse pleasant ; yet did our men, in their 
yll built and bleakc cottages, endure one whole wynter there, 
without any great losse or danger ; nor is it more cold then 
the winter in Scotland; and therefore, though that colouye 
he now discontynued, yet is not yt the reaaon, but rather the 
death of the honorable gentleman, Sir John Popham, knight, 
late lord chief justicCj chief patron of the same. 

Now concerning the low land, or Virgiuia, which bordercth S^'USS""' 
west and uor-wcst, uppon the Falls, and the country of the ' '"' '' 
Monacans and north uppon the Bocootawwanaukes, east upon 
the sea, and south uppon Florida, yt may well enough be 


' The Kcnnobutfk River, whvru a. pluiiMitioii, nnnii;d 8t. George, wiut 
fouiwleJ in 13(17, umlur the presidency of lWei|(ti Oilbert nnd Geurge 
Puptaiii, tirutlier of Sir Jo!iu, the Lord Chivf Ju»tii,-». Both of thew: 
brotliem died ifl the year 1 (i^T. 




devidcd into South Virginia and North Virgiuia, the Cbeso- 
poack Bay unci Powhatan River parting these twoo- 

The cape of this Imy, on the aouth aidoj we call Cape Heury, 
in honoiu- of that our most royall [let-eased prince, where the 
land shevres white liiUy »a.iii\, like unto the DoAmcs, and all 
along the shoare groive g;reat plenty of pines and firrs. 

The north foreland of this hay, wliich the Indiana terme 
Aceowmack, we call Cape Charles, in honor of our now prince, 
at that time Duke of York : witliin these lyea our country, 
and only hy the mouthe of tliis goodly bay the entrance there- 

f South Virginia is a very low, sandy soyle, without rocka, 
or any stones at all ; yt is thick sett with woodes of divers 
kindes, and in nil tilings resemhleth North Virginia, excepted 
the lowneaac of the laud and want of stones; yt hath divers 
rivers in yt, hut none navigable to our knowledge ; yt hath 
many islands, which lie into the sea before the firme land, 
hut the water is not deepe for shippingc betweene them and 
the mayne. Yt is said to have of the same silke whereof the 
Chynoes make theii* damaskc, called hy the Portugalla' gone 
del chcrua, in great aboundaunce, and sondiy apothecary 
dmg^s, which are nowe found likewise as fi'equent in our 
north parte; it is a fruitfull countrey, and not much subject 
to cold; in this country it was that Sir Walter Raleigh planted 
his two Colonies, in the islande aforesaid, called Roanoack. 
No parte of this sowth country is supposed to be under 
Sp™im-' I'oTvhatan, but under an absolute Wcroancc, as powerfiill and 
ah!s.^*^' great as Powliatan. It shall not full in here bo well at largo 
to particulate the bowndes, estate, cnstomes, aud comodityes 

'. Thoao words are not Portuguese; nor, as the "del" might at first 
lead us to suppcmc, aro thoy Spaniali. Tbo best conjecture the editor 
caD ii]ftk« U, that as allusioa is doubtkss uade to tLe silk-grass of tbo 
country, the word "cheraa" is a mis-sptlling for "yerba", Sjmnieh ; or 
"crlm.", Portuguese: the word "boiio" ih to him utterly uniutelligiblo. 
The same words, without any aJteratiou, occur in the duplicate M8. io 
the Ai»biaolean <;olItiCtion at Oxford. 



of this south parte, since yt shaX be exemplified in his due 
place in the second booke of this Decade, as yt is already sett 
forth and expressed to piiblike vicwe, both in English and 
Lntyu, by Thcoilorus ilc Bry' and Mr. Ilurriotts, who w«a u. 
planter there one whole yeare ; albcyt I nrnat acknowlcdg the 
coleraunce of both the countryes is such, as the relation of 
the one maie suffice to give understanding of the coudiciun 
and quality of both. _ 

North Vii^nia lycth on the north side of Powhatan, or the 
firat river %nthin the Cbesapeak Bay (which wc have called 
the King's River),' up to the Falls,' and from thence by the 
skirt of the high land, by the hejules of the rivers, even to 
our maync sea, upon the uorthcrne shoare of the which said 
King's River (as London upon the Thames) arc seated aa yet 
our priucipall towues and forts, which ai'C in chief coni- 
maunded by their great kiuge Powhatan, and are compre- 
hended under the denomination of Tsenacommacoh, of which 
we maye the more by experience spe;ik, yt being the place 
wherein our aboad and habitation hath now [well neere) 11^ 
yeares consisted. 

The sommcr here is hot aa in Spainc, the winter cold as in 
I'Vaunce or Kngland ; the heate of the sommer is in June, 
July, aud August, but comoaly the eool breezes asawage the 
vehemency of the heat ; the chief of winter in half December, 
Januaiy, "FL'bruary, and half March. 

The temperature of this country doth well agree with the 
English constituciona, being somctyracs seasoned in the same. 

Virgin 1a 

Nol untltir, 

or too at«r, 



I A celebrated cngraTcr, bom at LiogG in 1581, died in 1623. lie is 
vepGCially kuoHii Tor hla t'asaous collection of "■ OnLuds et Petits Vnyageij", 
Fnjikfutt-ou-tiiu-Miuti, Hi^Q-lGM ; 25 (lai-ts, folio, with vuluubU plates, 
some of which arc used by Hariot to illnfitrate hia " Eriefe and true 
Report of the new found land of Virginia". 

'^ Jmne» Rjv«r. * PuIIb at Richmond. 

• In the mauuBcript, the word " six" was originally written, but hae 
been croBsedoutj and two strokcs,tliU8"ir'. inserted, in a darker coloured 




liah trviu* 

jiinijinT in 


which hath appeared untu us by this, that ulbcyt, by inauy 
occasions, ill lodging at the first (tlic poorer ou the bare 
gruuiid, and the bent iu such miserable cotages at the best, 
as through which the fcrrent piercing heat of the sun, which 
there (it is true] is the first cause^ creating such sommcr fevers 
amongst them, found never resistatmcc) hard fare, and their 
owne judgments and saffoties instructing them to workc hard 
iu tho taint tynio of sommcr, (the better to be accomodntt^d 
and fitted for the wynter,) they have fallen sick, yet hare they 
recovered apayne, by very small meanes, without helpe of 
fresh diet, or comfort of wholsome phisique, there boiug at 
the first but few pliisiqne helpes, or skilfidl Hurgeons, who 
knew how to apply the right medecinc in a new country, or 
to search the quality and constitucion of the patient, and his 
distemper, or that knew how to councell, when to lett blood, 
or not, or in necessity to use a launce in that office at all. 

In the year 1607 waa an extraordinary frost in most of 
Europe, and this frost was found as extreme in Vii^iuia; but 
the next yearc following, and so ever since hitherto, for 8 or 
10 dayos of ill weather, we have comonly 14 dales of foire and 
Bomerly weather. 

■ The wyndes here are variable: from the so- west come 
the greatest gusts, with thunder and heat; the nor-wcat 
wind is commonly coolc, and biingcth fiiirc weather with it: 
from the north is the greatest cold ; and from the ea«t and 
BOuth-cast [as from the Bei-mudas) foggs mid raines ; some- 
tymea there are great droughts, other tymes much rayne ; yet 
we see not but that all the variety of needfull fruits and 
vegetables, wliieh we transport from hence and plant there, 
thi-ivc and prosper well, of which husbandry and thrift we 
have made many experiments, and they stand us nowe in noe 
little use, hanng plentyc of them ; there is not that seed or 
hearb which our country here, by maniuing and cultui-e, bring 
forth, but doe there growc likewise quickly, and to no change- ■ 
able tast from their nature, — nay, to better then in England,! 

urro V1BGOIU. 


— as parsenips, carpotts, tumipH, pumpions, meIlon«, cowcum- 
beni, etc., and many of oiir English garden soedcs — par8ley,__J 
cudiif, aocory, etc' Tlicrc hath bene brought from the West 
Indies the plunt^^ of oraugc trees, which, put into the ^oimd 
carelesly and neclectedj hare yet pi-osjieredj as also the vines 
of Fraunce, tobacco-seed from Trinidado, cotton, wool, and ^"J^^^oi i 
potatoes, we have committed to the triall of our soyle, and pl^J*' 
they ycrely come to good passe ; the routes of the delicious Fiwirfi ' 
Indian pina, sett in a sandy place, thrived, and contynncd 
Ufe, without respect had of yt, untill the cold wynter and the 
weedcs choaked yt ; yet is this fhiict said to be daintye, nice, 
and of that nature, that noe art or industry bath be found 
out hitherto that could preserve yt in any clyinnte but in the 
West Indie lalauda only. For the likelyhood of growing of 
sugar-eaues, we have some probable hopes, by reason of the '^"•^^'J?' 
greatiies and swectnes of the stalkc of the country wheat, and •"«"<*'**^ 
the soile being aromaticall, as 1 may speake, by the gtuta- 
Jras, gufbannm mecfioacon, otherwise called ruharbum album, 
of which Dr. Bohun made triall in cold and moist bodies, for 
the pui^inge of fleame and superfluous matter; as also awhit 
bole, which Dr. Bohun calls Terra afia l^rffinenris, both aro- 
maticall, and cordiall, and diapliaretick, in pestilent and 
malignant fcavers ; and some other driiggs ; it can be but 
some litle tyme industriously spent to make tryall of this soe 
rich comoditj'e. 

The vesture of the earth, in most places, doth maaifestly f* "•jU-'J 
prove the nature of the soyle, in most places, to be lusty and 
very rich ; tlie coulor of the earth, we find, in dyvers places, ''"* 

resemhleth bole armoniack, fullers' earth, marlc, and that 
cartli whieli we suppose of the like qiuihty with the Lemuian 
terra itt{/itfnta, soc pricefidl and marehautable iu Turkey; as, 
likewise, there is a clay which the Indians call assegtjuetk,' 

' Chicory. 

' This is probably tlm sainu day as that now railed Catiinite, from the 
ci:l«l>nit«cl traveller, Oeorg« Ciitliu, who prvscutvd tlic ooljr Uirvo [)icc«s 
knonro iu tlxia country, to thu British Museum. 




whereof they make their tobacco pipes, which is more smooth 
and fyuc then I have cllttnhcrc scene luiy. But generally 
the earth upon the upper cniBt, ia a black fatt mould ; next, 
uudcr that, is a gray sandy iiiarli:^ which, in dyvcrs places, is 
a redd sand, and in other phices, a hard chiy ; in some places, 
a fatt slimye clay; but the best ground is knowne by bur- 
then which it beareth, aa by the greatness of trees or abound- 
aunce of wecdes. 

This part is not mouutauous; we sometyme meet with 
pleasant plaincs, small risingc hilU, and lirtile Tallies, one 
cmsffing another, and all watered conveniently with brookes 
and springs. By the rivers arc many plaiiic marishes, con- 
teyning, some twenty, name one hundred, some two hundred 
acres, some more, some lessc ; other playnes there are few, 
bnt only where the salvages inhablte, but all overgrowne 
with trees and woodes, being a plaine wildemea, as God first 
ordcyucd yt. 

All the low land of South and Nortli Virginia is conjec- 
tured to have bene natiu-jilly gayucd out of the sea; fur the 
sea, through Ms impetuous and vast revolntion (who knowcs 
' not), savingB upon every coast, in some places wyns, and in 
other places looscth ; and wc find irithin the shoarcs of oar 
rivers, whole bancks of oysters and acallopps, which lye un- 
opened aud thick together, as if there had bene their nntiurall 
bedd before the sea left them ; likewise, the fashion of the 
earth is in smale risiogc inonnts, which may well be siipposwl 
that the violence of the wynd hath eawsed, by drjTing the 
light sand togithcr ; moreover, the mould and sword of the 
earth is not two foot dcepe all along neore the sea ; aud that 
which is, comes only by the grassc, and leaves of trtics, and 
such rubbish, rotting upon it in contynuauce of time; for in 
digging hut a futliome or two, we commonly find quick sand. 
Againe, imder the ci-ust of the surfage, we find not any 
stoiius nor rocks (except neern the high land), naio, in must 
places to soward, not so much as a pebblc-stonc, which must 

proceed through want of tymc, that no duration Imth there 

ben wrought ; benides, the water el)bs and flowea well nigh 

unto the hcades of iiU the rivers (1 mennc to the falls, 

UDto the high laud), and the natives which now people with 

us^ on this side bcnenth the said falls, are conccuved not to 

have inhabited here belowe much more than three hundred 

ypjirs. But al! which we caimot but truly conjecture, that 

the upland eoiuitrye is a faier and goodly t*oimtryj more 

sweet and wholsome in respect of ayre, and more rich in 

9oyle, and fraigbted witlt better comodytics, and those more 

neceasar)', besideji the assurance of mineralls, concemiuKC 

wliicb we doe ab"eady beare the ludians talltc both of aUuin j i 

mines and copper, to the soward, where hath bene autficyent ^y 

tyiuo for digestion. AH which wc must submitt to more 

cleire discovcrves. 


Description of tlie five j^riocipall rirera within the Chcsapcalc B&j, toge- 
ther with Rucli by-stre&Tnes which fall iiitu thctiii ; h duKeriptioii of 
the SaaqucmhaTioug^ of Cape La Wiirro ; thti falling with our cotut; 
the fitacB.s of Comfort tu fortefie at. 

l«l liiv.r. 

On the west side of the bay, wc said were five fairo and 
delightfull navigable rivers, of which we will now procecde 
to report. The first of these rivers, and the nest to the 
mouthc of the bay, hath his course from the west and by 
north. Tlie name of this river we call the King's River j^ 
they call Powhatan, according to the name of a priucipall -niii. ri««r 
country that lycth upon the head of yt; the raoiithe of this "^'j'*'"'' 
river is ueere three myles in breadth, yet doc the shoells force ][iJ^' 
the chanuell so neere the land, that a sacre^ will overshoot yt 

' Kt>w Jamca River. 

' Fdlco ftftcur ; Anglit-A '" Sa,cre", or " wiW, a Hold and active ypeciM 





^- J 

at point hUnck. Thin river hfttli a channel!, for a hun 
Hinl forty milfMj of di^|)th betwixt seveu aud fifteen fatliomo, 
holding iu breadth, for the most parte, two or three miles; 
and in which are many isles, both great and small. Yt falle 
from rocks far west, in a country inhabited by a nation, 
aforesaid, that they call Monacan; but where yt cometh into 
our discovery, yt is Powhatan. In the fiirtbeat plaec th 

hath been diligently obsuncd, are falls,^ rocks, showlds, cti ^ 

which makcR yt past navigation any higher; albeit, forty 
miles above the said falls, yt hath two branches, or other 
rivers," that fall into yt ; the head of the northerraost comes 
from eertaine stcepe mountaines, tlint are said to be impass- 
able ; the bead of the other comes from high bills afar of, 
within the land, from the topps of which hills, the people 
saio they see another sea, and that the water is there salt; 
and the jonmey to this sea, from the falls, by their accompt, 
should be about ten dates, allowing, according to a march, 
sijJiK" fourteen or sixteen miles a ilay.' In the runing downe- 
ward, the river ia enriched with many goodly brooks, whie^ 
are maynteyned by an inlimte number of small rundclls 
plcasnnt springs, that disperse themaclves for best service, aa 
doe the vainr."? of a man's body. 

From the south Bide thertj falls into this river, first, the 

» The falls at Richmond. 

" The Appomatoi and CliiKLiiiolioinmiB rivars. 

s Tliis deluaiun geuin^ to have Iieon cnturtatnod for iHEny years ; lor in 
a work entitled the "The Discovery of New Brittftintj", piiIjliKtud Iw 
John Stephenson, London, IGolj is a map in which " the Sc» of China 
ami the ladies" ia hiought olos(» undor the Alloghftiiy mminlainn, with 
tho following information attached ; — ^' Sir Francis Dmlce was on this sea. * 
and landed in anno 1577, ia 37 dftgroos, wbcro hoc too&e possesion lo^h 
the name of Qutii^ci Eliza: civtiing it New Alhion, whose happy sho«r8^| 
(in ten dayes inurcli, with fifty footu aud thirty horBBmon, from the hojid^^ 
of Juaiues River, over those hills aod through the rich adjacent valloyea, 
heautyficd with as pr»ffitablo riTcrs which necesj^arity must rim into that 
pcnccfuU Iniiian sea) may !}e discovered to thcoxcccdin; hcncfit of Oreat 
Brittnine, nnd joye of all tnio Englijdi." 



pleasant river of Appamatuck; next (more to the east) are The by- 
the two rivera of Quiyoughcolianoclt ;' a little further is at-WohM 
bav,* wherein fallcth tlircc or four pretty brookes aud creeks, ""'"■ "*?f, , 
that half eutreuch the iiiliabitaiits of Warraakoyack ; then ^j^.'^w. 
the river of Naudsamuud,' and lastly, the brooke of Chesa- 

From the north side is the river of Chick ahamania, the 
black river of James Townc; another by the Cedar Isle, 
wherein are great stoore of gooidly oysters ; then a conve- 
nient harbour for craves,^ frygatts, or lishcr-bontes, at Kc- 
coughtan, the Trhich By-Rill so coaveaieiitly tnmeth yt self 
into baieS) covea, and crocks, that the place is made very 
pleasant thereby to inhabite, the come fields being circled 
therein in manner && so many peniusulaes. The most of 
these by-rivers are inhabited by severall nations, or rather 
families, taking theire names from those rivers, aud wherein 
a severall governour or weroance comaundeth. 

The firstj and next the river's mouthe, arc the Kecough- The- 
tans, then the Paspahcghes, the Arrohatccks, and the place '^.""-^ 
called Powhatan. On the south side of tliis river are the 
Appamatucks, the Qiuyoughcohanocka, the Warraskoyacks, 
the Nandsamnndsj the Chesapeaks; of this hist place, the 
bay beareth his name. 

Fourteene miles norward ftism the river Powhatan, is the s..iiri.iT, 

Pumuikv of 

river Pamimck,*^ which we call the Prince's Eiver, navigable *" vnant 
sixty or seventy miles with shippcs of good burthen ; bnt 
with catches and small barkes, thirty or forty miles fiir- 
ther. At the ordinary flowing of the salt water, yt dcvidcth 
yt self, at Cinqnotcck, into two gallant brauuches : on the 
ttouth bramich cnhabite the people of Yonghtamund; on the 

1 Cbipuu-k Cnsuk. 

' Which Ktill bean tlic Kami! QUme. 

* Probably Elizal>ctli rivor. 

6 Craicra (—Old RomanM. A h»j or itci&ck.— J3otfejr. 

s Yorkrivisr. 

3 Cobhara Bay. 



jj. north braunch, Mattapament. On the north syde of this river 
biiw^e^'l i* Werowocomoco, where theire great kinge inhabited when 
mm^ wc earnc first into the country. Ten or twelve miles lower, 
on t]ie south aide of this river, ift Ki^kiak; these, aa also 
ApiHiniiituck, Oraimks, ArrohatHck, and Powhatan, are their 
great king's inheritance, chief atlinnce, and inliabitaunce. 
tlponYmightamnnd is thy seat of Powliatan'« tlireu brethren, 
wliorae, M-e kame, are successively to govern after Powbatan, 
in the same dominions which Powhatan, by right of birth, as 
the elder brother, now holdcs. The rest of the countiyes 
under his comand, arc (as they report) his conquests. 

Before we come to the third river, that falleth from the 
mouutaines, there is another river, which takes not his birth 
or head so high, but is only some thirty miles navigable, and 
yssuetb from out the riffs and breaches from the iidaud ; the 
river is called Payankatank, the inhabitants whereof are but 
Jf^r. few (not now above forty or fifty), and are the remaync of 
the conquered Kecoughtans, wliome he transported thither; 
for in the yeare l(30ti, Powhatan tiurprised the naturall inha- 
bitannce of Payankatank, his neighbours and subjects. The 
occasion was to iis unknywno ; but the mamier was thus per- 
formed. Mrst, he sent divers of his men to lodge amongst 
thcu) one night, pretending u general! hunt, who were t« 
give the allarum unto au ambuscado of a greater company 
within the woodes, who, upon the signo, given at the howei' 
appointed, enrironcd all the bowses, and fell to the execution. 
Twenty-four meu they kiUl outright [the rest escaping by 
fortune and their swift footmansbip) ; and the long hairc of 
the one side of their heads, with the skin cased off with shells 
or rccdes, they brought away to Powhatan. They surpriseil 
also the womeu and childreue and the Weroanco, all whomc 
they presented to Puwhataii. The lockes of haire, with their 
skynnea, they hanged on a lync betwceae two trees ; and of 
tbesi: Puwhatan made oateiitatiou, as of n grcntc triuraphc,at 
Werowocomoco, not longc after, shewing them to such the 


IXTO vmniNiA. 


English as came unto liim at his appointment, to trade with 
lum for cornCj thiacking to have terrified them with this 
spectacle, n.ud, iu the midst of their amazement, to liave 
Bcascd them ; but, God be prayacd, yt wrought not feare but 
oourage in our people, and awaked their discreationa to stand 
upon their guard the more cautulously ; and, by tliat meanes, 
they came oCf agayue from him, contrary to his purpose. 
And let me truly saie, how they never killed man of ours, 
but by our men's owue foUy and indiscretion, suffering them- 
selves to be beguiled and enticed up into their howscsj with- 
out their ai-mcs ; when then (indeed) they have fallen iippmi 
them, and knockt out their brnyues, or stuck them fidl o( 
arrowes (no force) for their credulity. But of so many men 
which the coramou report, out of ignoraimce, gives out here 
to have been slayed by those Indians, I would but knowc if 
they can name me three men that they ever killed of ours in 
skirmish, fort or field, but by thia kind of subtilty iu them 
and weakness in ours; and whome the sword of justice wonltl 
have cut off (had they escaped the Indians), for adventuring 
80 amongst them, either against discipline and the charge 
given them, or, indeed, agaiuNt common sense and duty unto 
their ownc lyves. 

The tliird imvigablc river by the NaturaUa of old was 
cfdlcd Opiscatumcck, of lateToppahanock, and we the Queen's 
River ;' this is navigable some one hundred and thirty miles. 
At the top of yt iuhabitc the people called Mannahoncks, 
amongst the mouutajTies, but tliey are above tlie place de- 
scribed in Captain Smithe'* mappe. Uppon this river, on 
the north side, arc seated a people called Cuttatawomcu, with 
thirty tighting men ; higher on the river are the Moraugbta- 
cunds, with thirty able men ; beyond them Toppahauock, with 
one hundred men ; far above ia another Cuttataworacn, writh 
twenty men ; ou the south, far within the river, is Nand- 
taughtiicund, having one himilrcd and fifty men; this river 
' Now cfcUcd Rappttbanaock ri?cr. 

toLBbi (Bills. 





also, as the former, hath her burthen extraordinary both of_ 
fish and fowle. 

The fourth river is called Patawomeck/ and we call Eliza- 
beth Rircr, and is six or seven miles iu breadth ; yt is navi- 
gable one liuuircd and twenty miles, and fed, as the rest, with 
many sweet rivers and springs, wliicb fall from the bordering 
hills; many of them arc ^ilanted, and ycld noc Icsse plcntyo 
and variety of fruict then the other rivers; yt exceedeth with 
aboundance of fish, and ia inhabited on both sidea : first, on 
the south side, at the very entrance, is Wighcocomoco, and 
SUiumi., widch hath some one hundred and thirty fighting men ; be- 
yond that is Cekakawwon, with thii'ty men ; then Onawma- 
nientj with one hundred men; then Satawomcck, with one 
hundred and sixty able men : here doth the river devide j-tself 
into three or four convenient rivers; the greatest of the least 
ia called Quiyou^li, tending nor-wcst, but the river ytself 
tumeth nor-east, and is still a navigable streme. Oa the 
wcatcmc Jiiidc of this bought- is Taxcncnt, with forty able men; 
somewhat further is Potapoco, with twenty men. In the east 
parte of the bought of the river is Pamacocack, \Tith sixty 
men; after Moyoones, with one hundred men; and lastly, 
Naeothtank, with eighty able men. Tlie river, ten miles 
above this plncc, makcth his passage downe a low plewraud 
valley, overshadowed in many places with high rocky moun- 
taiues, from whence distill innumerable sweet and pleasant 

Within thia river Captain SamueU Argoll, in a small river 
AriKoiiMi*. fl-iiich the Indiana call Oeniho, anno IGIO, trading in a bark 
»^"riv^r. called the Discovery, for corne, with the great king of Pota- 
woraeek, from him obteyned well neere four hundred bushells 
of wheat, pease, and bcaucs, beside many kind of furrs, for 
nyne pounds of copper, four bunches of leads, eight do^n of 
hatchetts, five dozen of knives, four bunches of hells, one 
dozen of cizcrs, all not much more than 40s. English ; as also 
' Tbo Fotomftc. * The same && "biglit", b baud or iudcntaUun. 





from the said kiiig^s brothor Tupassmts, Icing of a place called 
Pflstanzo, recovered au English boy, called Henry Spilrann, I'l;^,^!*'' 
vrho had lived amongst tbcm one whole ycare, and despayring o^Kta^or 
of ever seeing his native country, his father's bowse, (for he 
wits discended of a gcntill family) , or Christiims any more ; 
likewise here Captain Argoll found a myne of antimonye ^J^'"' 
{which seldome goes imaccompanycd with quicksilver) , as also lf\<^^ 
a kind uf hevy black sand upon the hancks, whichj being 
washed, weyed maasy with lead. 

The fiftc river is called Pawtusimt, and is of a lessc pro- Pnwtowmi 

. or tbp 

portion then the rest, but the channcll is sixteen or eighteen oi»kP» 
fathomc deepo in some places ; here are infinite aculla of divers 
kynds of fish more than elsewhere. Upon this river dwell 
the people called Acquintanacsuck, Pawtuxunt, and Slattapa- tl- 
ment ; two hundred men was the greatest strength that could 
be there pereeavcd by oiu* dUcoverics, but they inhabite to- 
gether, and not so dispersed as the reat ; these, of all other, 
were found the most civile to give eutertainroent, and there- 
fore from them we rcccavcd fjreat curtesie and much good 

Thirtye leagues norward is a river not inhabited,' yet aavi- 
gable, by reason of the red cfirth or clay resembling bole- 
armoniack ; the discoverers called yt Bolus. At tho cud of 
the bay (where is six or seven niilc«> in breadth) there fall into 
yt four small rivers, three of them yssnyug from divers boggs, 
envyroned with divers raoantaiucs. Uppon the river iuhaldtc 
ft people called the Sasqncsahnnoiigs ; they are seated two 
daycs higher tlien was passage for the discoverers' barge j how- TLc(i«»ori|H 
beyt, sixty of the Snsqncsnhanougs came to the discoverers t*"'!"** 
with skynns, bowcs, arrowcs^ targctts, swords, bcadca, and to- 
bacco-pipes for presents. Such great and well-proportionetfil 
men are seldome scene, for they seemed like giants to the 
English, — yea, and to the neighbours, — yett seemed of an 
honest and simple diaposicion, with much adoe restrajTicd 

' The Susi|ueha.iiunh river. 

Wp now cftU 

it HuwHnI 




^ from adoring the discoverers as f^ods, Tlicse arc the most 
straimg people of all those comitrycs, both in Un^iage and 
attiro; for their hingiifigc yt may well bcseeme their proiior- 
tions, soundiug from them m j't were a fj^cat voice in a vault 
or cave, as an eccoe : their attire is the skyna of licarea and 
woulvcs ; some hnvo cassockH made of bcarcs' hides oud skyns, 
that a man's neck goeth through the akynn's meek, and the 
eares of the hearc are fastened to his f>houliIer8 l>chinil, the 
nose and teeth hanging duwne his brest, and at the end of 
the nose hangs a bear's patv; the half slocvcs cominge to the 
elboe were the necks of heares, and the armes through the 
mouth, with paM'es hanging in a chaine for a Jewell ; liia to- 
bacoo-pipc thi-oe quarters of a yard long, prittely carved with 
a bird, a dcnre, or with some such devise, at the great end, 
snfticient to beat out the brayiiea of an horse. Likewise their 
howett, and arrowes, and eliibbs, are sutable to their grcatncs ; 
these are scarse knowne to Powhatan. They can make well 
neare GOO able ami mightic men, and ore pallisadodc in their 
townes to defend them from the Massawomecka, their mortall 
enemyes. Five of these cliief Weroances came aboard the 
discoverers, and crossed the bay with them in their barge: the 
picture of the greatest of them is here portrayed [See piate]: 
ihti calf of whose leg wa« three qiinrtcra of a yard about, and 
all the rest of his Ipnes so answerable to that proportion, that 
he seemed the goodliest man they ever sawe ; his haire the 
one syde was long, the other shome close, with a ridge over 
his croTvne like a coxcomb ; his arrowcs were five quarten 
long, lieaded with flints or splinters of stones, in forme like n 
heart, an incc broad, and an ynch and a half or more long; 
these be woi-e in a woolve's skjn ou his back for his quiveTi 
his bow in the one hand and Ids club in the other. 
TookwojEb, On the east side of the bav, is the river of Tockwouah,' and 
cjUH,.iopy iippoii yt a people that can make a Inmdred men, seated 
acme seven miles within the river, where they have a fort 
1 CSiostcr river. 

Ftrm !.•/ } 

A :-us-,,;rs;--ANNA-- 



very well pftUisadode, and mantelletl with the bark of trees; 
next to them arc tlic Oziuies, with sixty men; more to the 
south of that cast side of the bay, is the river of Kuscnra- 
woak/ upon whieli is seated a people witli two hundred men; 
after that, is the river of Wicocomaco,^ and ou it a people 
with one huudred men. The people of these rivers arc of a 
little statiu'c, and of anotlier hmgiiagc from the rest, and 
very rude ; but they on the river of Accohanock/ with forty c^J^miui 
men, and they on the river of Accomack, with eighty menj k^4cw!^ 
doc cqualiijie any of the territories of Powhatan, and speaV Wighoow- 

* "^ I1J»W flu. 

his language, who, over alt those, doth rule aa kingc. 

Southward, they went to some parts of Chawonock and the Sw")^^' 
Mangoangs, to search them there left by Sir Walter Raleigh; 
which parts, to the towue of Chesapeack, hath formerly 
bene dlscoveretl by Mr. Harriotts and Sir Ralph Lane."* 
Araongst those people, are thus many severall nations, of 

aondry languai^es, which environ Powhatan's territoriea: the f^^ 
Chawonoeks, the MangoaugSj the Monacans, the Mannacans, i^mlllL*. 

the Mannahocks, the Sasqucsahanougs, the Acquanachuks, 
the Tockwoghcs, and the Nuskarawaoks. Of all these, not 
any one undcrstandcth another, but by interpreters ; their 
sererall habitations are more plainly described by the annexed mrm" ^V. 
raappe, set forth by Captaiu Smith, of whose paines taken sid^X **"■■! 
hcrciuj I leave to the censure of the reader to judge. Sure i '■ ' " 
am there will not retiirue from thence, in hast, any one who 
hath bene more iudustrious, or who hath had (Captain Geo. c»pi. Oifnv 
Percie excepted") greater experience amongst them, however 
misconstmction maye traduce here at home^ where is not 

' Uhoptn.nk river. ^ This rivor utill bears the snmB □smo. 

' TtuB river still bears the a«iue name. 

* He ftccoinpamed Sir Richard GrenTiIio as Lieutenant-miuWr iu bis 
TOjago of 1 58r». 

S Ottpt^iu George Pure; held the tcmporajpf pronidencj; of tbo colon; 
on two ocoaflions, viz., on the departure of Captain John Ruiith m KlOB, 
and OD tbc return of Lord Uiilawanr to If sgland, on account of ill health, 




rouMtSi the 

way ilLinu" 

CniiL (lu«- 

easily seene the mixed aiiffcrouncea, both of body and mynd, 
which is there daylie, nud with no few liazar<l8 and hearty 
gricfca undergo)!. 

Tlie mappe will likewise present to the eye the way of the 
mounta^.-nes, and current of the rivers, with their seversi] 
tnraingSj bayes, shoulders, isles, inlctts, and crockcs, the 
breadth of the waters, the distances of places, and such like. 
In which mappu, observe tkisj tliat, as fur as yon sec the Little 
crosses, either rivers, mountainea, or other places, have dis- 
covered; the rest was had by infunnacion of the salvadges, 
and are set downe accordiuge to their instnicciuns. 

Likewise, from the north point of our bay, which (as afore- 
said) the Indians call Accowmack, and we Cape Charles, 
hath the coast all alon^ bene discoverftil, evfin to the river 
of Saclmdehoe ; for Captaiu j-VrjjuU, iu his returne from the 
search of the BL'rmndaSj anno 1610, after he had lost Sir 
George Somers, 28 July, iu a dangerous fojjg, well beaten 
to and fro, fell with the raayne, standinge for Cape Cod, and 
made good, from 44 degrees, what Captayne Bartho. Gosnoll' 
and Captayne Waymouth' wanted in their discoveries, ob- 
serving all along the coast, and drawing the plotts thereof, as 
he steered homewardes, unto our bay ; and divers tymes went 
ashore, offering acquaiutanucc and trade unto the people: 
aud iu the latitude of 39 discovered another goodly bay,' 

* In 1602 Captain Ooanold Buihd with thirty-two men rtirect acrou 
the ocean and came upon cLe tionst of MassachufiottH, and after sailing 
onward aome time, rijjLched a Ijold promontoiy, which, from the grent 
quantity of Hah <;au^ht in the vidnity, he Citfte Cod ; th^nco, 
" trending the coaiit southerly," he entered Uuzzaid'H Bay\ tidjoiaiiig 
Bbode island, which he named " OoMUolJ'a Hope." Sco " A briofe and tree 
relation of tlio discoverie of the uorth part of Virginia made IhLi present 
yoar." By J. Brereton. 1602, 4to. 

3 See a narmtive of this voyage, in a work entitled " A truu nslatioa 
of liiio most prosperous voyage tniide this present yearc ICOS, by Captaiu 
George Waymouth iu the discovery of tho land of Vii^inia. Written by 
J. R«fiicr, a gentleman employed Iu the vojagu. Lontiiui, iuipetisict Geo. 
Bishop. 1605, 4to. 8 Detawiire liay. 

iato which fell mnuy taylcs of ftiirc and largo rivers, aud 
which might make promiae of some westerly passage; the 
capo wUuryyf, in 38^, lie callcil Cajic liawar,' from which, not 
fftr ofi^ lay a faicr banck into the sea, as upon the Newfound- 
laud, where he hawlud eKcelletit fish, both IioUihut, cod, and 
Ung, of which he brought an essay and tast of two hiinitred 
couple into the colony ; an excellent fish, and of such a kind 
that will kcepe n whole yeoro in shipp'a hold, with little care, 
a trial! whereof Im lord»hippc likewise brought with him into 
England; and nppnu the shoarGS, in divers places, he killed 
great store of scales. 

CJonceminpc the falling with oor ownc coaat, yt is true ""^t*(!rtoii 
that thea-e canuot be a bolder shoare to come iii, withall, in "^"^ 
any couutry in the world ; for, firsts before we come in sight 
of yt thirty leagues, we smell a sweet savour^ as ia usually 
&om off Cape Vincent, the south cape of SpajTio (if the wynd 
come &om the shoarc) ; besides, wc have chaiingc of water, 
and sounding at twenty-five fatlioms, twenty leagues off. 

The coast of South Virginia, from Cape Henry, Uclh tioutli 'H^h^^" 
and north, next hand some seven leagues, where there goeth ''^•''""' 
in a river* (aa in ncereat gesscd by the Chawouockn and Man- 
goangs), but it is not navigable far ; all along this coast, for 
seven leagues, we have seven and eight fatliome of water, 
within one Ica^e of the shoare, one not farre. More to the 
southward of this iu-lett river, is a cape of an island called 
Croatoau, which cape is that which we call the South Cape 
of Virginia ; beyond which capo, so-ward and no-west of this 
cape, or Croatoan, lye ccrtaync smalc islands {as before 
rememhrcd), that front the coast of the raayue ; hut the sea 
hotwt'cne the mayoe aud them^ in not for any shipping to 
passe. Into this shallow sea, there falls divers rivers from 
the mapic, wMch the salvadges have discribed unto us, and 
plentjx of people thercou. 

If we come in with the Chosapoak Bay open, our sound- 

1 Mow Cftpe HcQlopon. ' Oiimtuck tnlet. 


Bow oar 

<><7^ inga arc Rflccnc fatliome to &ve ,- but if we hit the channell, 
we havu no Icssc than scvcu or eight fathomc ; soc jl is all 
over bold inough, baring neither ledgea of rocks, no barren, 
no ttandy shulft-s, but the bottom even and plainc. 

Our two capes. Cape Henry and Cape Charles, doe lye no- 
east and by east, and BO--we»t ; and they be distant each from 
other, in brcadch (where the sea runs in bctwccne both lands, 
so making our bay, and only entrance into our country), as 
broad as may be bctweenc Qiiinborowgh and Lee. 
Poiiiicom- When we come in with Cape Hcnrr, we have six, seren, 
nioniiwa aij,j e3"ht fathomc, to the iwint at the bottomc of the bay 
fort^. j^jj^ mouthe of King's River, into which all shippes that will 
eoter, must borrowe soe much of the shoare, as to come 
within little lease then musquett shott of the point, by reason 
of the showldcs lying uppon the «othemc shoarc ; by which 
majt be observed howe convenient aiul necessary a pointe 
that is for a substanciall furtifieaciou to be raised, to secure all 
the other forts and townes upon this river from what enemies 



Of tho bogjDQing and origioall of the people ; the great King Puwhataa, 
his dBHcripUoQ, imJ luilc of bis birthright to tho Knglbh. 

Pwiwrivi- It were, perhappes, to curious a thing to demand, how these 
oriKiiMBi. people might come first, and from whome, and whence, to 
inhabite these so far remote, westerly parts of the world, 
having no intercourse with Africa, Asia, or Eiu'ope ? And, 
considering the whole world, eo many yeai-cs {by all kuow- 
ledg receaved) was supposed to be only eonteyned and dr- 
curascribed in the discurercd and knowuc travaylod bounds 
of those thrco, according to that old conclusion in the scholcs : 
Qiiicquid pratfr Africam et Ettrojtam est, Asia est, — whatso- 
ever land doth nt-ithcr apperteyae unto ^yhck nor to Kuropc, 







is part of Atm. As ulso to qucatiou how that it should be, 
tliat they (if descended from the people of the first creation) 
sho\dd miiiiitaync so gcuerall aiid grosse a defection from the 
true kuowlcdg of Ciod, with one kind, as it were, of rude and 
savadge lief, customes, maaners, and religion, it being to he 
gnKintcd that (with us), infaUahly thcj had one and the 
same discent aud IjegjTiiunge from the universall deluge, in 
the scattering of Noiih, his children, and ncjihewcs,' with their 
&milieii (as Utile colonies), some to one, some to other hordeni 
of the earth, to dwell ; as in Egypt (so writing Burosus''), 
Eseniua and his household tooke up their inhabitation ; in 
Libia and CjTcne, Tritanos ; and Ln all the rest of Africa, 
Jupctus Priscus ; Attalaas in the east Asia ; Ganges, with 
some of Comerus Gallus' childrene, in Arabia Felix, within 
the confines of Sabea, called the frankincense-bearer ; Canaau 
in Damascus, unto the utmost bounds of Palestine. 

But it is observed, that Cham* and hia famcly were the 
only far travellers and straglers into divers and unkiiowue 
countryes, searching, exploring, and sitting do^vuc in the 
same; aa also it is said of his £smely, that what countrye 
soever the childrene of Cham happened to [wssessc, there 
I>eganne both the ignorannce of true godliness, and a kind 
of bondage aud slavery to be taxed one upon another ; aud 
that noe inhabited countries cast forth greater multitudes to 
range aud stray into divers remote regitjus, then that parte 
of Arabia in which Cham himself (coustrayncd to flyc, with 
wief and childrene, by re^iaon of the mocking he had done to 

' ft. & grandBoni). 

' Borosus, a Chaldioan, astronomer, an J historiaa, aad priest of Belus, 
lived, it is thought, about the time of Alexander. Some couiidcr llic 
astXYmoTnor uiifi histin-ian different pi5r«oiis. In 154S, ,\nniu3 of Viltrbo, 
piihlished a hiatory, in live booke, under the namonf Berosus, the faUily 
nf trbicli was boqu cU^covcrod. It is from this spurious publication tluit 
Strachcy derives his learning on the Bubjoct of the dispersion of the des- 
cendants of Noah. Rce said vrorh, under the diviaion, ' Qonoaloj^ pri- 
morum ducuiu post diluvium." 

' Bud. 


HisToRiB or nuv&nM 

his father) tooke into poMes«ion ; so great & misery (saieth 
Bocm of Auba') brought to mankind the unsatisfied wnnder- 
ing of that one man ; for, first from him, the ignorance of 
the true Horuhip of God tooke bc^inninge, the inventions of 
hcathcuismc, and adoration of falce gods, and tlie dcvill ; for 
he himself, not ftpplying him to le^me from his father the 
knowlcdg and presuribcil worsliip uf the otcrnall God, the 
God of lus fathers; yet, by a fcarefiill and anpcrstitious in- 
stinct of nature, carrj'ed to ascribe tmto some supematurall 
power a kind of honour and reverence not divout, to kuowe 
the essence and quality of that power, taught his iraecessours 
uewc and demised maimer of God's sacrifices and ceremonies, 
and which he might the easier impre^se into the chilfb%nc, 
by reason they ■were carryed wit^ him so yong anaye from 
the elders, not instructed nor seasoned first in theirc true 
customcs and religion. Insomuch as then we may conclude 
that, from Cham and his tookc birth and begiuainge the fii-st 
univcrsall confusion and diversity which ensewed afterwards 
throughout the whole worhl, e»peeiidly in diviue and sacred 
matters; whilst it is said againc of the childrene of Sem and 
Jnpbet, how they, being taught by their ciders, and content 
with their ownc lymitts juid confines, not travelling beyond 
them into new countries, as the other, rctayned still, nntill 
the comynge of the Messiah, the only knowledge of the ctcr- 
uall and never- changeable Trinity. 

By all which, it is very probable, hkewise, that both in the 
travailes and idolatry of the famcly of Charo, this portion of 
the world westward from Africa, upon the Atlantique sea, 
heciime both jieoplcd and instructed in the forme of the pro- 
phano worsLipj and of au iiulvnowen deity. Nor is yt to be 
wondered at, where tlic abused Trinity of religion is suffered 

' John-nnes Boherahia AubtLnu?, aa tmmed from his birth-place, Anb 
nr Auw, a town situatud i>u the Gcillnch in Bavarm. Soc bin work 8S 
tniti!iluli;il hy Luciu Fauuo into Italian, " Oli Costumi, l{) Loggi et Usame 
di tutto Ic Gcnti." Venice, l&OO. Lib. i, cap, 1. 




to perish, if men, in Oieir owiie inventions and lives, become 
so grosse and barbarous, as (by reading the processc of tliis 
history will hardJy be pcrceaved) what difference maye bo 
betwcene them and bnite blasts, somctymes worshipping 
brute beasts, uaic, things more rile, and abhorring the in- 
bredd motions of natiu^ it aelf, with such headlong and 
bloudye ceremonies of" ill and act. 

13nt how the vagabond race of Cham might discend into 
this newe world without furniture (as maye be questioned) of 
shipping, and mcanes to tempt the seas, togither how this 
great continent, decided from the other tbtee, should become 
fttoitred with beasts, and some fowle, of ouc and tbc same 
kind with the other parts, especially with lions, beares, deare, 
wolves, and guch like, as from the first creation tooke bcgin- 
ninge in their kiudj and after the generail flood were not 
anewc created, nor have their begynning or generation (aa 
some other) ex putredine ei sole, by cormption and heat, let 
mc rcfcrrc ihc reader to the search of A^osta, in his i. bookc, 
cap. 20, 21, of liis morrall and natm-all hiatorj' of the West 
Indies ; who hath so ofQcyonsly laboured herein, as he should 
but bring owles to Athens, who shonld study for more strayncd 
or newe authority concerning the same. 

Thus much, then, niaie, in brief, be said and allowed con- 
cerning their originall or first begynning in generail, and 
which maye well reach even downe unto the particular inha- 
bitants of this particuler region by us discovered, who cannot 
be any other then parcell of the same and first mankynd. 

Coucerniug themselves more especyally, and their division, ^Mj 
as we find them in these provinces where we are, wc maye Jt^i^.^, 
well say how this tract or portion of land, which we call Vir- "hTtftil?. 
ginia Britannia, — by the inhabitants, as aforesaid, Iscnacom- 
niacah, — is governed, in chief, by a great kinge, by them 
called by sonilry names, according to bis diversi places, qua- 

£onoui-s by himself obtejiied amongst them, either 
!our, his government, or some such like goodnes. 


twrna and 
bo* dUoMt- 

tmaaj iw- 
nil pn>- 




which they axe to Rdmirc and comend to succeeding tymea 
-with tncmoniblc titles, mnd so comonly they of greatest 
merritt amongst them nspire to mauy name«. 

The great cmperour at this time amongst them, we com- 
ondly call Powhatan, for by that name, true yt is, he was 
made knowuc imto us when we arrived in the country first, 
and so, indeed, he was generally called when he was a yong 
man, &» biking his dcnomiuation irom the country Pouliatan, 
wherin he was home, which is ahorc the Falls, as before men* 
tioned, right a\'cr aneiiist the islands, at the head of uur river, 
and which place, or birth-right of his, he sold, anno 1609, 
about September^ unto Captain Francys West, otir lord gene- 
rail's brother, who therefore erected there a fort, eniliiig yt 
West's Fort, and sate Imuself down there with one hundred 
and twenty English ; the inhabitants tliemsclres, es]>e^ally 
his frontier neighbour pniiec, cull him still Powhatan ; his 
owne people sometimes call him IHtaninck, sometyme Mama* 
natoM'ick, wliich last signifies "great king"; but his proper 
right name^ which they salute him with (himself iu presence), 
is Wahuuitenacawb. 

Tlie greatncs and boimdea of whose empire, by reason of 
his powerfulnea and ambition in his youthj hath larger lymitts 
then ever had any of Lis predicessors iu former t\Tncs, for he 
seemes to comaund south and north from the Mangoages and 
Chawonoaks bordering upon Roanoake, and the Old \'irginia, 
to Tockwogh, a towne pallisadode, standing at the north end 
of the bay, in forty degrees or thereabouts; south-west to 
Anoeg (not expressed in the mappe), whoae bowses are built 
as ourSj ten dales distant from us, from whence those Wcro- 
auces sent unto him of their comodityes; as Weinock, a ser- 
vant, in whtKn Powhatan reposed much trust, would toll our 
elder planters, and could repeat many wordcs of their lan- 
guage he Iiad learned among them in his yinployinent thither 
f(Mr his kinge, and wlu-nre he oftpn rcturnedj full of presents, 
to Powhatan, west to Monahasaanugh, which stands at the 






foote of the mountaines; nor-wcst to the borders of Massa- 
womeck and Bocootawwonough, his cnerayea; nor-CR*t and 
by east to Accohauockj Accowmack, and some other potty 
nations^ lying on the east side of our hay. 

He hath divers seates or howse*: his chief, when we came wbiwhow. 
into the country, was upon Pamunhy River, on the north side fC'tf^' 
or Pcmhrook side, called Wcrowocomoco, which, by interpre- nMiuTiSed. 
taciou, signifieM kinges'-Unwse; howiieit, not likiJig to ne^h- 
bour 80 neere us^ that house being within some fifteen or sis- 
teen miles where he saw we purposed to hold ourBelvesj, and iimiiiTri 
from whence, in six or aeven howors, we were iible to visite oirm-i;, np-i 

his nawuib 

him, ho removed, aud ever since hath most wiiat kept at a 
place in the desarta called Orapaks, at the top of the river 
CliickahamaiuH, betweene Voughtamuud and Powhatan. He i<„«i,«ta„', 
is a goodly old man, not yet shrincking, thoug^h well beaten ""^^ ""^ 
with many cold and stonnyc winters, in which he hath bene 
patient of many ncresnityc8 and attempts of his fortune to 
make his name and faracly great, lie? is supposed to be little 
Jesse than ci^rhty yearcs old, 1 dare not sayc how much more ; 
others aaye he is of a tal! statiire aud cleane lymbes, of a sad 
aspect, rowiul fatt viaagcd, with gmie haires, but plainc and 
thin, hanging upou his broad showldcrs; some few linLTCsupoQ 
Iiis chin, and so on his upper lippe ; he hatli bene a strong and 
able salvadgc, synowye, aud of a daring spirit, vigilant, ambi- 
tious, subtile to enlarge his dominions : for, but the coun- 
trj'es Powhatan, Arriihatock, Appamatnck, Paniiiiky, Yoiight- 
tunund, and Mattapamicnt, which are said to come unto liim 
by inhoritance, all the rest of the tenitories before named 
and expressed in the mappe, and wliich are all adjoyning to 
that river wbcreon we art) aeated, they report (as is likewise 
before remembred) to have been cythcrby force subdued unto 
him, or through fcairc yeildcd : criicU be hath bene, and quar- 
rellous as well with his owne weroanccs for trilHcs, and tbat 
to strike a Usrrour and awe into them of hia power and eon- 
1 Cbieotnabominia. 





dicion, OS nlfto with liis neighbours in his yongcr days, though 
now delighted in sccuii^ and pleasore, and therefore tstanda 
upon reasonable condicions of peace irith all tlie great and 
absolute wcroanccs about him, and is likewise more quietly 
settled amongst his owne. 

Watchfull he ia over us, and kcepea good espyall upon our 
proceedings, concerning which he hath his sentinells^ that at 
what t^Tue soever any of our boats, piuacies, or shtppes, come 
in, fall downe, or make up the river, give the alarum, oud take 
it quickly one fi^m the other, untill it reach and come even 
to the court or hunting bowse, wheresoever be and his ero- 
noccocs, that is, councellours, and priests are, and then he calls 
to adinsc, and gives out dircccions what is to be done, as more 
fearing then harmed, at any tVTne, with the danger and mis- 
chief which he saith we intend unto him, by taking awaye 
his land from him and conspiring to surprize him, which M-e 
never yet ymngiued nor attempted, and yet, albeit, the con- 
ceipt of as much strongly possesaeth liim : he doth often send 
unto us to tenipurize with us, awarting perhapjis a fit oppor- 
tunity (inflamed by his furious and bloody priests) to offer 
us a tast of the same cuppe which he made our poore country- 
men drinck of at Ronoak,' not yet seeming willing to hold 
any open quarrell or hostilitj- -with us ; but in all ad\'imtages 
wliich he sometymes takes against our credulous and beguiled 
people, he hath yet alwaics ao carrii'il as, uppon our complaint 
to him, yt is rather hiycd uppoQ some of liis worst and im- 
ruly people of which he tells us ; even our King James 
(coramaunding so many divers men) must have some irrcgu- 
ler and unruly people, or ells uppon some <tf his pettie 
wcroauces, whome, pcradventurc, we have attempte<i [saieth 
he) with oETencea of the like nature, then that rt is any act 
of his, or done by hia coramaund, or according to his will, 
often flattering us that he will take order that it shall be nu 
mure hoc, but that the Tassantasses, that is, tlio stranger 
King James his people, and his people shalbc all one, bro- 
1 The colony plautcd bj Sir Walter Raleigh, which Powhatau dostrojcd. 




tliera and friends ; and thtis ho served us, at what time he 
wrought the Chick ahamiucs (a nation, as wc have learned 
before the coraingis in of xis, so far from being his subjects, 
as tliey were ever his enemies) into a hatred of iia (bcin^ a 
mighty people and our neighbours) , and ua into the suspition 
of them, by urging them to betniy such of our men as traded 
with them for come, throe whereof (yt is true) they slew 
without cause or offence given, and had done as much for 
the rest, had not their owne feare and cowardize witldield 
them, and this he wholly laid uppon them, excusing hiraacif 
to us bv their nomber and unmlincs^ vca, soc far lie will goe 
herein somctyme, that when some of his people have done us 
wrong, and by has provoking too, he will not faile miderband, 
after the fact, to tell us the authcrs of our wrong, ^^"ing us 
leave, and bidding us revendge us upon them, of such sub- 
tile understanding and poUitique carriage is he. 

In all his ancyent inheritances he bath bowses buUt after hib ouenA- 
their manner, and at every bowse provision for his enter- r"*^"- 
tainmcut according to the tymc. About his person ordinarily 
attcndcth a guard of forty or fifty of the tallest men his coun- 
try doc affourd. Every night, upon the four quarters of his 
howse, are four centiuells drawen forth, each standing from 
other a flight sliott; and at every half houre, one from the 
corps da guard doth haUowe, unto wboiue every seutiuell 
retiuTies answere roiind fi-om his stand ; yf any fayle, an 
officer is prcscntlye sent forth that beateth liim cxtrcamlyc. 

The word weroance, which we call and constcr for a king, Themmn. 
is a comon word, wlicreby they call all comauiiders, for they wi^' *■"«• 

^ ^ ounce. 

have but fewe words in their hmguagc, and but few occasions 
to use any officers more then one comaunder, which comonly 
they call weroance. 

It is strange to see with what great feare and adoration all tii.? .lutir 
this people doe obey this rowliatan, for at his feete they pre- ""™J''"='' 
sent whatsoever he eomunndcth, and at the least frowiic of i^j^tlX^u 
his brow tlic greatest will tremble, yt may be, because he is p"wh*[l!!.v. 



Tery terrible, and iucxorabic in puiiitiliiug: such as offend 
liim; for example, ho caused ecrtAine mnlefartors, at what 
tymcCaptniu Smith wa^ priaoncr with liim, (imd to the ^^ight 
of (li^iTh" whereof Captain Smith, for some purpose, was brought^ to 
oJ^"^™" be bound hand and foote, wlien certuine officers appointed 
thenmto, having from many tiers gathered great store of 
burning wjalea, riikcil the coales rounde in forme of a coclt- 
pitt, and in the middst they cast the oiTenders to broylc to 
death. Some tyraee he canseth the headda of them that ofi'end 
to be lard npon the aulter or siicHfictng stone, and one or 
two, with cluhbsj beat out their braynes. When he would 
punish liny notorious enemye or trespasser, he causeth him 
to be tyed to a tree, and with muscle-shells or recdcs tlie 
executioner cuttcth off his joints one after another, ever cast- 
ing what ia cutt of into the Uer ; thtn doth he procccdc with 
shells and reedes to case the skyn from his head and face; 
after which they rip up his belly, teare out his bowells, and 
so bnrne him with tbe tree and all. Tims themselves re- 
ported, thrtt they executed an Eiiijlishimm, one George Caw- 
son, whom the women enticed up from the barge unto their 
howses, at a place calleil Appocant. llcwbeit, his ordininy 
correction is to have an offender, whome he will only punish 
and not put to death, to be beatten with eudgells as the Turks 
doe. We have seene a man kneeling oi\ liis knees, and, at 
Powhatan's eommaund, two men have beaten him on the 
hare skjii till the skyn have ben all bolleii and bliatered, and 
all on a goare blood, and till he liath fallen senceles in a 
swound, and yet never cryed, complayiied, nor seemed to ask 
pardon, for that they seldom doe. 

And sure yt is to be wondrcd at, how such a barbarous and 
xineivill prince should take unto hiui (adorned and sett forth 
with no greater outward ornament and munificence) a forme 
and ostentation of Hijch maiiistieasheexpresseth, which oftcn- 
tymes strikes uwc and siifficyent wonder in our people pre- 
senting themselves before himj but such is {I believe) the 


impression of the Divine nature, and however these (as other 
hejttliens forsaken by the true light) have not that porcion of 
the knowing bleased Christian spiritt, yet I ara pcrswaded 
there is aa ini'uscd kind of diviuitiea and extraordinary (ap- 
pointed that it shidl be so by the King of kings) to such who 
are his ymedyate iustrumenls on eiirth (liow wretched soever 
otherwise under the curse of misbelief and infidelity), as it is 
in the psalme, Di;ci ros sicui D'lj estis, to governe and dwell 
in the eyes and countenances of princes. Somewhat maye 
this catagraph or portratnre following serve to expresse the 
presentment of this great king Powhatan.' 

According to the order and custome of sensuall heathen- ','^J^"'^J'' 
isme, in the allowance of poligamie, he may have aa many '^"«**' 
women as he -will, and hath {as is supposed) many more then 
one hundred, all wluch he dotli not kcepe^ yet as llic Turk, 
in one seraglia or howsCj but hath an appointed number, which 
reoide still in every tlicir severall places, amongst whome, 
when he lyeth on his bedd, one sJttith at his head and another 
at his feet; hut when he aitteth at meat, or in presenting 
liinjaeKto any straungeps, one sitteth ou his right hand, and 
another ou his leaft, as is here expressed [See plate]. 

Of hi« wonicu, there are said to be abontc some dozen at 
this present, in whose company ho takes more delight then 
in the rest, being for the most parte very young women, and 
tliese oonimonly remove with him from howse to liowse, 
cythcr in his tymc of hunting, or risitacioii of his severidl 
liowses. I obteyneJ their names from one Kemps, an Tndiim, 
who died the last ycarc of the survcye at Jamcstowue, after 
he had dwelt with us ahnost one whole yeai-e, much made of 
by our lord geneniU, and who could speake a pretty deale of 
our English, and came orderly to chiu-ch every day to prayers, 
and observed with us the keeping of the Sabbothe, both by 
ceas^ing from labour and repairing to churcli. The names of 
the women I have not thought altogither amisse to Rett downe 
as he gave tliem unto mc, and as they stood formost in hts 
1 The portrait ia not given. 



king's uffcction, for they observe ccrtainc degrees of greatnes 
according to the nccrcncs tbey stand in their prince's love 
and amorous entertainment. 

Tlir namr* 
n r lom'' lit 










M em ooiigli ipi iske. 



ITpan bit. 

liTJll 'Iril TV - 

Diut womi-n, 

M dull) Ull- 


Al Ompnlia 
lim Lis 

He was reported by tlie said Kemps, aa also by tlie Indian 
MHckynnis, who was somotyrae in England, aod come* to and 
fro amongst us as he dares, and as Powhatan gives him leavo, 
for yt is not otherwise safe for him, no more then yt was for 
one Amarice, who had liia braynes knockt ont for selling but 
a baskett of come, and lying in the English fort two or three 
daics without Powhatan's leave; I say tlipy often reported 
unto us that Powhatan had then lyving twenty sonnes and 
ipn daughters, besyde a young one by Winganuske, Ma- 
chmnps Mm sister, and a great darUng of the king's ; and be- 
sides, younge Pucohnnta, a daughter of his, using sonietyme 
to our fort in tymes past, uowe married to a private captainc, 
called Kocouin, some two ycarcs since. 

As he is weary of Ids women, he bestoweth them on those 
that best deserve them at liis bauds. ^Mieu he dtueth or 
suppeth, one of his women, before and after meat, bringeth 
him water, iu a wuodden platter, to wash his hands ; another 
waiting, with a bunch of feathers, to wipe them instead of a 
towell; and the feathers, when he hath wiped, are washed 
and drycd again. 

A niile from Oropaks, in a thickett of wood, he hath a 
piincipall howse, iu which he keepeth his kind of treasure, as 
sk}ninc3, cupper, perle, and beaded, which he storcth upp 
against the tyme of his death and buryall ; here is also his 
store of rud piiint for oyutmetit, and bowcs, and arrowes. 
Tliis howse is fifty or sixty yards in length, frequented only 
by i>riests. At the four corners of tliis howse stand four 
images, not aa Atlants or Tclamoucs, supporters to beare up 




pillera, pasta, or somewhat clla iu tlie stutely biiilHlng ; nor, 
as in the aoncicnt tymes, the imagca and pcdegrces of the 
whole stock or family were wont to be sett in portches or the 
first entrance into howses, witli a porter of spccyall trust, who 
had the chardgc of keeping and looking nnto them, called 
Atricuses ; but these are tnecrely sett as carefiill seutinclls 
(for sooth) to ilefcud aud protect the bowse (for soc they be- 
lieve of them) ; one is like a dragon ; atiother like a heare ; 
the third like a leopard ; and the fourth a giant-like man, all 
made erill favoured ynough according to their best workman- 


A catalogue of tlio Hurcrall ncroEinceB' namoB, wjtli tlic niuiio of tl^o pnrti' 
culcr prcviucu wli&rciii they govern, tos-ithcr witli what Ibrecs for 
the preeeot they axe ablo to furaish thcic groat klogi Powhatan, in 
bis nam. 

The great king Powhatan hath devided his countr^y into 
many provinces or ahiera (as yt were), and over every one 
placed a severall absolute wernance or comannder, to liira 
contribntary to governe the people, tber to iuhabite ; and his 
petty weroances, in all, may be in number about three or 
fower and thirty, all which have theire precincts and bowodes, 
proper and comodiously niipointed out, that no one intrude 
uppon the other of severall forces ; and for the ground wherein 
each one aoweth his conic, plantc hia apoke^ and gardeiuc 
fniicts, he tithes to the great king of all the comodityes 
growing iu the same, or of wlmt ells hia shiere biings forth 
apperteyning to the lands or rivers, come, beasts, pcrlc, fowlc, 
fish, hides, forrs, copper, beades^ by what meanes soever ob- 
teyncd, a peremptory rate sett downc as slial be mencioned 
iu the sixth clmpter ; nor have I thought yt altogether amissc 
* t, 4. tolnLCco. ^cc glossttrjr tU thd end of (bis volumo. 


ilrvlilril iiilu 

shjTi-?v, nnd 
n viftu. 
Ktmiv Of 
Inril ](>i>VFrn- 
ln» in witTJ 




to remember here, and offer to consideracton (for all af^er 
occaflons), a catlioIog:uc of jhe several weroances* oamee, with 
thedcnominstyonofthcpHrticulcr shier (as aforesaid) wherciu 
they govemc togithcr, with what forces, for the present, they 
are able to send iiiito tlio warra. Upon Powhatan, or thu 
Ktuf^s river, are seated aa followcth : — 

1. Parahunt, oue of Powhatan's soniie*, whoine we there- 
fore call Tfiii\|)uwBtan, whieh is as much to say Little Pow- 
hatan, and is wcroance of the country which hath Ma owne 
name, cidlcd Powhatan, lying (as before mcncioncd) close 
under the Falls, bordering the Monacans, and he maye at the 
present he furnished with fifty fighting and ready men. 

2. Aslnianuid, weruaiicc of Arrohateck, sixty men. 

3. Coquonasum.weroanceof Appamatiick,ouchnndred men. 

4. Opussoqiiionnske, sister to Coquonnsiinij a weroancqua, 
or qiieeue cf ii little muscaram or small village of Apjtama- 
tuck, not unlike an ancyent Episcata Villatica,' and she was 
of power to have spared, iippon comaundj some twenty able 
fighting men. Ilowbeyt, her towne we botrnt, and killed 
ftome of her people, herself miscarieng with small shott itti 
pursuit in the woods in wjTitcr IfilO, for a treacherous maa- 
aacre wlneh slic practized upon fourteen of our men, whome 
she caused her people to invite up into her towne, to feast 
and make merry, entreating omr men before hand to leave 
their armea in their boate, because they said how their 
women would be afrayd ells of their peeces. 

5. Kaquothocun, weroancc of Wcanock, one hundred men. 
G. OhoTnsCj quecne of Coiacohanauke, which we ccmionly 

(though corruptly) call Tapalianock, and ia the same which 
Captain Smith, in his mappe, calls Quiyoughcohauock, on 
the south shoare, or Salisbury sydc, whoae sonnc, being yet 
younge, shal he, by Powhatan's appointment, weroance of the 
said Quiyoughcohanock : his name is Tataiicoope. Tlie wero- 

' This (to tho editor uninteUigible) wonJ is rcpcRtcd in the duplicate 
copy of thu MS. in tiiu AstiQt»lou.[i uiiuieiuu at Oxford. 

ance Pepiscummah (whome hy constructiuu as well the In- 
dians aa we call Pipisco) was somtyme possessed in right of 
thia part, as by birth aud possession disccudcd iiic true and 
laiWull weroance of the same, but npon a flispleAsure which 
Powhatan couceavod ag:ainst liim, in that tho said Pipisco, 
and that not many ycarca »ynce, had stollcn away a chief 
woman from Opcchankeno (one of Powhntaii'a brothers), he 
was deposed from that regiment, and the aforesaid Tatacope 
(a supposed sonue of Powhatan's, by lids said Queene Oho- 
laac) made weroance, who, being yet yonng (as is said), is 
for the most part in the govemcment of Chapoke, at Cha* 
wopo, one of Pipiscoe's brotLers ; yet is Pipiaco suffered to 
retaine in this his country a little small kaaaun, or village, 
Tippou the rivadge of the strrsame, with some few people about 
him, keeping the said woman still, whome \ia makes Ins best 
beloved, luul »he travells with him upon any remove, in hunt- 
I ing tyme^ or in his \isitaciou of us, hy which meanes, twice 
or thrice in a sommer, she liath eome unto our towne ; nor is 

»80 hnudsomc a savadgc woman aa I have seene amongst them, 
yet, with a kind of pride, can take upon her a ahewe of great- 
nes ; for we have seene her forbeare to come out of her quin- 
tan or boat througli the water, as tlic other, both mayds and 
married woraL'u, usually doc, unk's she were earryed forth 
betwcenc two of her scnants. I was once early at her howse 
(yt being sommer tyme), when she was layed without dores, 
under the shadowe of a bi-oad-lcaved tree, upon a pallett of 
ofiierSj spred over witli four or five iyne gi-ey matts, herself 
covered with a faire white drest deare skyniie or two; and 
when she rose, she had a mayd who feteht her a frontall of 
white currall, and pendants of great but imperfect coulonred 
and worse drilled pcarlcs, which she put into her etircs, and 
ft charne, with long lyncka of copper, which they call Ta- 
poantamiuais, and which eamc twiec or tlnicc about her neck, 
and they accompt a jolly onnimcut ; aud aiu'c thus attired, 
with some variety of feathers and flowers stuck in their Ikaires, 






they Heeme aa drbonaire, qiiaynt, ftiitl well pleased na (I n 
n (laughter of the howse of Austria bchune'^ with all her 
Jewells; likewise her mnytl fetcht her a raautell, which they 
call puttawusj which is like n aide cloakc, made of blew feathers, 
80 artcficyally and thick sowed togither, that it seemed like a 
deepe piirjile satten, and is very smooth and sleeke ; and after 
she brought her water for her hands, ami then a braunch or 
twoo of fresh greene asaheu lenvea, as for a towell tu dry 
them. I ofTeud in this digression the willinger, since these 
were ceremonyea which I did httle looke for, carrying so much 
|>re«eutcraent of civility, and which ai-c not ordinarily ]Ma"- 
fourmed to any other amongst them, and the Quiyoughco- 
hanooke may be able to make for the wars sixty fighting 

8. Tackonckintaco, an eld weroance of Warraskoyack, 
whonie Captain New|)ort hroiight priaouer with his KOiine 
Tangoit, about "* ICIO, to our lord gcnerall, lying then 

at Point Comfort, and whomc agaiiie his lordship released 
upon promises and a solkmne contract, made by the old man, 
to exchange with his lordship, after he should have gathered 
in his harvest, in August following, five hiiudred bushells of 
whcate, beanes, and pease, for copper, beades, and hatchctts ; 
and for the better coulour (carrying away his sonne) and left 
a nephew [aa he said) of his with his lord!<liippe, as a pawne 
or hostage, until] the perfourmaunce ; howbcit, the imposture 
nephew, privie before hand to the falcehood of the old man, 
watchinge hia opportunity, leapt over bord one niglit (being 
kept in the Delawarr) ; and to be more sure of him at that 
tymc, fettered both Icgga tugither, and a sea gowne uppon 
him, yet he adventured to get clier by swiming, and either to 
recover the south shoarCj, or to sinck in the attempt. "Which of 
either was his fortune we knowe not, only (if he miscarried) 
we never found his body nor gownc, and the Indians of War- 
raskoyack would often tymea afterward mock ns, and call to 

^ Pocked. ' A siuular gap in the originnJ. 

us for Mm, and at length make a great Innghterj and tell ua 
he was come home; how true or fsilse is no great matter ; but 
indeed the old kinge, after that tyme, refused to performe 
the former bargaine, for wliicb his lordshipp, to give them to 
understand how he would not be soe dealt with allj eeut forth 
two cxjmpanyes, the of ' his lordshipp's owne com- 

pany, under the comauud of Captainc Brewster, and »ome 
scamcu, under Captaiue Argoll, who fell uppon twoo townes 
of his, and burnt them to the grownd, with all their goodly 
fuTuiture of matta and dishes, wooddcn potts and platters, for 
of this sort is all their goodly epitrapezia or vcseclls belong- 
ing to their use for the table, or what ellsj and tliese Warras- 
koyacks maie make sixty men. 

9. Weyhohomo, a great weronnce of Nausamuud. 

10. Amapetough, another lesse wcroancc of Nansamund. 

11. Weyingopo, a third weroance of Nausiunund. 

13, Tirchtough, a fourth weroance of Nansamund, and 
these fowcr togither may make of sturdy and bold ealvadgea 
two hundred. 

13. Wowinchopunck, weroauce of Paspahegbj wbomcj the 
SthofFebruaryj IGlO, whilst he, with a company of his people, 
were attempting some practize uppon our old blockhouse at 
Jamcstowoe, and bad bene for the same skulking abont there 
some two or three daycs and nights, Captaine Georg Percy, 
gOTemoiu* of the towne, sent forth Ensigne Powell and En- 
signe Waller to make Burprize of Iiim, yf tliey could possibly, 
and bring him alive into the towne ; but they not finding 
him at any such advantage, yet loath to loose him, or let him 
escape altogither, sett uppou himj (he being one of the 
mightiest and strongest salvages that Powhatan bad under 
him, and was therefore one of Lis champions, and oue who 
had killed trccheroualy many of our men, as he could beguile 
them, or as he, at any tyinCj found them by cliauncc single 
in the woods, strayed beyond the comaund of the block- 
> A BtniUar gap ta tho urigiual MS. 


His-roaiB or tbavailk 

bow!)c), and Powell runing uppou him, thrust him twice 
through the body with lui arming sword ; howbcit, liis people 
Cfunc in soc fast, and shuat their arrowcs »o thick, ns our men 
being unarmed [in their dublcts and hose only] and without 
peict'S, were faiuc to retire whilst the Indiana recovered the 
weroance'u body, and carried yt awaye with a miglitye quick- 
uea and speed of foot^ and with a horrible yell and howling; 
howbeit, the buetenant of the blockbowse, one Puttock, fol- 
lowed hard and overreached one of the cronockoes.or cliief 
men, and, closing with him, overthrew him, and, with his 
dagger, sent him to accompaiiyc his roaster in tlie other world ; 
and the Paspaheghes may make in uomber for the warrs, 

I'i. pQchins, one of Powhatan's sonns at Keconglitan, and 
was the young wcroancc there at tlic same tymc when Sir 
Thomas Gates, liueteiiant-general, took possession of yt. Yt 
i» an ample and faire couatric indeed, an ndinirable porcion 
of land, comparatively high, whol some, and fruictfiill ; the 
seat sometyme of a thowsand ludiiius and tlu't'c bundred 
Indian bowses, and those Indians, as it may well appeare, 
biittcr husbands' then in any parte ells that we have observed, 
wbicli is the reason that so much ground h there cUered and 
opened, enough, with little labour, alreddy prepared, to re- 
ccave come, or make viaiards of twoo or tbrco thowsand 
acres ; and where, beside, we find many fi'uiet-trees, a kind 
of goosbfry, cherries, and other plomhes, the raarieock^ aple, 
and many prettic copsies or boskea (as it wecrc) of mulbcrye 
trees, and is [indeed) a delicate and necessary seat foracitty 
or chief fortificacion, being so neere (within three miles by 
water) the mouth of our bay, and is well appointed atitt scat 
for one of our chiefs comauuders, since Point Comfort being 

^ i*.«. husbaudmen. 

* The laaracoL-k U the paseii^ii flower, wbiulu tUough it bt-ars no fruit in 
thia irouutrj, liocs w in tliw Wcat Indies. The fruit b of the i'iJx and 
colour tf a pomogiimato. See «ji|«uiiiK Lo Genu-Js llcrbRl. 

(out of all dispute} to bu furtuficd to secure ourtowiics above, 
to kcepe open the mouth of oiir river, hy which our shippingc 
niaye be Ictt in, yt will require the faitli and judgement of a 
worthy comaunder to be there alwaycs present ; besides, there 
■wil be good Hshing, and upon one of the Capes muie be placed 
a garrison to attend the fiimasses and boyling potts for the 
mnking of salt, wbicb without question there (as in the Ber- 
mudas) maye be made for ail occasions to serve the colony, 
and tbc fisldiige voyages far the aamo likewise upon Point 
Comfort. A great quantity of one kind of silke grasse growcs 
there, as yet disorderly, wliich, having the grownd prepared 
and fitted for yt, would retribute a comodytie worthic the 
paines, yf not going beyond the expcctacionof the good which 
is hooped of yt. Our lord general! and liuetenant general] 
have erected here two forts, as ia before remcmbred, the one 
called Fort Henry, the other Chai-les Fort, as t!ie river which 
runs in and serves both his lordship hath called Southampton 
river. TTppou the death of an old weroancc of this place, 
some 6fteen or sixteen ycares since (being too powcrfull 
ueighbours to side the great Powhatan], yt is said Powhatan, 
taking the advantage^ subtilly stepped in and conquered the 
people, killing the chief and most of them, and the reserved 
lie transported over the nver, crjii'tely chauuging their seat 
nod quartering them amongst bis owne people, uutill nuwe 
at length the rcmajmo of those living have with much suit 
obteyned of liim Payankatanck, which he not long since (as 
you have heard likewise) dispeopled. They might have made 
of able men for the warrs, thirty. 

15, Upon the river of Chickahamania, sonic eight or twelve 
rades ftora Jamestowne, which falls from the north side unlo 
our Kin^s river the Chccbahnmias, being a warlike and free 
people; albeit, they paye certaine duyties to Powhatan, and 
for copper wil be waged to serve and help him in his warrs, 
yet they will not admitt of any wci-oancc* from liim to go- 
vcroo over thcni^ but suffer themselves to be regulated and 


"""»'« OP TKAVAltF. 

16. OpcclmiLclECuo, 

17. Kcqtiotangh, 

18. Taugliaitou, 

guided by their priests, with tbo assistauce of their elders, 
whomo they call CawCAvwassoughcs, and they may make 
ttiruv Iiuudred mcu. 

Upon Panunky or the Prinre'* River. 

all three PowTiatau's hrethrene, and 
are the triumviri, as yt were, or three 
kings of B coiintrj' called 0|>echaiie- 
Itcno, upon the head of Pauunky 
river, and these may make three hun- 
dred men. 

19. Ottahotin, weroauce of Kiakiaek, fifty. 
At Wcrowaeoraoctj, Powliatiin himself liath a principaJl re* 

sidencc, and there maye he of able men, forty. 

20. Ohonnanio, weroance of Cantaunkack, one handred. 

21. Ottondcocommoc, weroance of Mummapacnne, on^ 

22. Eiisenataugh, weroance of Patannck, one hundred. 

23. Vropaack, weroance of Ochahannanke, forty. 

24. Kcyghanghton, wtToauce of Ciu^sapecoek, one hundred. 

25. Weyamat, weroance of Kaposecockej four hundred. 

26. Attasquintan, weroance of Paniareke, four himdred. 

27. Nansuapunck, weroance of Shamapa, one hundred. 

28. At Orapaks, Powhatan himself comauuda with fifty. 

29. Opopoheimiuuck, weroance of Chcpccbo, three huu- 

80. Attossomunck, a Taux weroance of Paraeonos, ten. 

31. Pomiacatuck, weroance of Youghtamund, seventy. 

32. Werawoiigh, weroance of Mattapanient, one huiidred 
and forty. 

And thus yt may appeare, howo they arc a people whd 
have their soTcrall divisions, provinces, and princes to live in,^ 
aad to comaund over, and to differ likewise (as amongst 
ChristiauB) both in stature, language, and condieionj some^ 
heing groat people, as the Susqucsahaiioughs j Kome very Utle,l 
as the Wighcoconiocos; some speaking, likewise, more arti-J 

iSTo TnioraiA. 


dilate and plaine^ and some more inward oud hoUowe, as ya 
before remembred; some curteons and more civile; othera 
crucll wid bloudy ; Powhatan having large territorycs and 
many petty kings under him, &s some bave fewer. 


Li« deBcription of tlie people, of their culloiir, attiie^ ornaments, con- 
eti tut ions, dispositions, etc. 

Thet are generally of a cnlloiir browno or ratlicr tawny, which ^f^J„, 
they cast themselves into with a kind of arscnick stone, like 
red patise or orpement, or rather red tempered oyntments of 
earth, and the juyce of certaine scrused rootes, when they 
come unto certaine yeares, and this they doe (keeping them- 
aelvcs still so smudged and besnicered) eytber for the cus- 
tome of the countryc, or the better to defend them (since 
they goe most what naked) from the stinging of miiskitoes, 
kinds of flies or biting gnatts, such as the Greekes called 
scynipes, as yet in gi-cat swannes witliin the arcbes,^ and 
which htK-re breed aboundantiy amongst the marish whorts 
and fennc bciTics, and of the same hue are their women j 
howbeit, yt is supposed neither of thera naturally borne so 
discoulonrcd ; for Captain Smith (lyving somtymcs amongst 
thera) affinneth how they are from the womb indifferent 
.white, but as tbe men, so doe the women, dye and dit-guise 
themselves into this tawny cowler, esteeming yt the hest 
bcanty to be neerest such a kyud of mm-rey as a sodden 
quince is of (to liken yt to the nccrest co^lIo^ I can), for which 
they daily anoint both face and bodyes all over with such a 
kind of fucua^ or unguent as can cast them into that staync, 
as 16 said of the Greek women how they coulored their faces 

1 The sailors' terra for the Arcliijitlngo. 

- Lai. a reti dji-o, genovally iinJerjitfjcul for alliancl, or rouge 




with certain rootes ca]|ed Brenthina,' and as the Britarnes 
died themselves red with woad ;' howbeit, he or she that hntli 
obtcyned the perfcctcst art iu the tcinpcriug of tliia coUour 
with any better kind of earth, yearb, or rootj preserves yt not 
yet so secrctt and prutious unto her self as doe our great 
ladycs their oyle of talchura/ or other painting white and 
redd, but they frindly comunicate the secret, and teach yt 
one another; after their anoynting (which is daylie) they 
dry in the sun, and thert^by raako tlicir skynns (besides the 
coulor) more black and spotted, which the sun kissing oft 
and hard, adds to their painting the more rough and rugged. 

Their heads and shouhltirs they paint oftcnncst, and those 
red, with the roote pochonc/ brayed to powder, mlxecl with 
oyle of the walnntt, or bear's grease; this they hold in som- 
racr doth check the heat, and iu winter armea them in some 
measure against the cold. Manie other formes of payntings 
they use ; but he is the most gallant who is the most mon- 
strous and uglic to behold. 
ou-li'^n.^T''*' Tlieir hairc is black, grossc, long, and thick; the men 
have no bcardca ; their noses are broad, flatt, and full at the 
end, great bigg lippes, and wj^de mouthes, yet nothing so 
unsightly as the Muorcs; they arc generally tall of stature, 
and streightj, of comely proportion, and the women have 
handsome lymbcs, sclender arnies, and pretty hands, and 
when they sing they have a pleasaimt tange in their voices. 

For their npparrell they are somotymes covered with the 



^ The oJitor has only met with the wnrd in this fomi in Hcaychiug. 
It is GTideulIy derived £roni Gpiv9wv, of which Julius Pollux upeoJia, in 
his " Onomasticon", lib, vi, mp. 19, as one of the fivpa coming from Ljdia. 

s The dye of woad h not rod, Imt blitii. 

8 Talc itself eiiiera largely into the coTnpositloa of rouge; but the 80 
called "oil of talc" waa produced by disaolviug flowers of Kinc in vinic^r, 
and v»B formerly extolled as posaesHiag vast power iu mnny tinaginary 
operatioDs, aod amcngHt tha rest, of being a sovereign reinvdj for all 

* Sec dictionary at thfl end of this volume. 

i'Ti.m Tn I'nj. 




skTzms of wyld beasts, which in winter arc dressed with the 
hairc, but in the sommer without, the better aort use large 
mantells of deeresi' skjTUis, not much differing from the 
Irish falings,' some embroidered with white })ead8^ some with 
copper, other painted after their manner^ but tlie eoinmon 
sort have scarse wherewithal! to cover their uakcdnes, bnfc 
Htick long blades of grasse, the leaves of trees, or such like, 
under broad haudricks of leather, which covers them behind 
and before. 

The better sort of women cover themselves (for the most 
part) all over with skin mantells, finely drcat, shagged and 
fringed at the skyrt, carved and couloured with some pretty 
vork, or the proportion of beasts, fbwle, tortayaes, or other 
such like imagry, as shall "best please or expresse the fancy 
of the wearer; their younger women goe not Hhnduwcd 
amongst their owne companie until they be nigli eleaven or 
twelve returnea of the loai'e old (for soe thi-y accompt and 
bring about the ycai-e, calling the fall of the leaie taquitock) ; 
nor are tliey much nshamod thereof, and therefore woiUd the 
before remembered Pochahuntas, a well featured, but wan- 
ton yong girle, Powhatan's daughter, sometj-mes resorting 
to our fort, of the age then of eleven or twelve yeares, get 
the boyos forth with her into the markett plnce, and make 
them wheele, falling on their hands, turning up their heclcs 
upwiirds, whome she would fidlowe and wheele so her self, 
naked as she was, all the fort over ; but being once twelve 
yeares, they put on a kind of eemecinctum lethem apron (aa 
doe OIK" artificers or bamlycrafts men) before their bellies, 
and arc very shamefac't to be scene bare. We have scene 
some use mantells made both of Tin-key feathers and other 
fowle, 80 prettily wrought and woven with threeds, that no- 
thing conld be discerned but the feathers, which were ex- 
ceeding warmo and vci'y handsome. Nada nmlier erat jmlcht'a 
(saith Plautua) quam purpuratu pukiirior? indeed the or- 
1 Fnllning or falluing, CelUc for a cloak or tnantlo. 


A difi^reuoe 

In lliIV llDT- 

iciciiU dI'Ujo 
b-;tl«i Burl Ol 





nament of that aexc, vho receave an addition of delicacy by 
tlicir garmeuts. Truo ^*i w nometymcs in cold ntnthcr, ori 
when tbcy goe a bwntinp, or seeking the fruits of the woods, 
or gathering hcnls for their matts, both men mid women (to 
defend them from the bushes and shrubs] put on a kynd 
leather breccheti and Htockings, all fastened togither^ madel 
of decre skyuns, wbicli tlicy tye and wrappe about the Ioyne9|,J 
after the ikshiuu of the Turkcs^or Iria h trou sea. 

They adome themselves most with copper beades and 
[Miiiitiiifcs. Of the men, there be some wlim- will paiut their 
boflyca black, and some yellowc, and being oylrd over, they 
will Ktickc therein tho soft downe of snudry couloured birdes 
of blew birds, white heme shewcs, and the feathers of th( 
carnation birde, which they call Asbshawcutteisj as if so man] 
variety of laee.f were tititdiod to their iskinns, wliieli makes 
wondrous shew; then, being angry and prepared to figh^!' 
paint and cro.sse their foreheadds, cheekes, aud the right side 
of their hc«dc8 divcrsly, cither with terra siffiUata or withj 
their roote pocbone. 

The women have their armes, breasts^ thighes, shoulders, 
and faces, cwniiigly ymbrodered with divers workes, for pounc- 
ing or searing their skyns with a kind of instrument heated 
in the tier. Tliey figure tberiu flowers and fruits of sondiy 
Ihrcly kinds, as also snakes, serpents, cftes, &c., and this they 
doe by dropping uppon the seared flesli sondry coulers, which, 
ruVd into the stampe, will never be taken awaye agaj'ne, 
because yt will not only be dryed into the tlesh, but growe 

The men shave their haire on the right side very close 
keeping a ridge comonly on the toppo or crowne like a coX'< 
comb ; for their women, with two shells, wiU grate away ths 
haire into any fashion they please. On the left aide thej 
wcare theire haire at full length, with a lock of an ell long^ 
which they amioiut often with walnut oyle, whereby it is ver 
slcekc, and shynes hke a raven's winge. Som^etymes thej 





tye up their lock with an arteficyall and well-laboured knott 
(just in the same fashion as 1 have scene the Carrazzais' of 
Scio and Pcra), stuck with many coulored gew-gnwcs, as the 
cast-head or brow-antle of a deare, the hand of tlicir cncmic 
djTcd, croiBctts of bright and shyning coiiper, like the newe 
moone. IVIany weare the whole skyne of n hauke stnifed 
with the mags abroad, and buzzards' or other fowlcs' whole 
wings, ami to the feathers they will fjisteu a little rattle, 
about the bignes of the chape* of a rapici*, which they take 
from the taylc of a snake^ and sometymes divers kinds of 
shells, hanging loose by small purfleets or tlu'eeds, that, being 
shaken jis they move, they might make a certainc murmuring 
or whisteling noise by gathering wynd, in which they seeme 
to take great jollity, and hold yt a kind of bravery. 

Their eares they boare with wyde holes, comonly two or Their 
three, and in the same they doe hang chaincs of stayned 
pearle braceletts, of white bone or sKreeds of copper, beaten 
thinuc and bright, and wound up hoUowe, and with a grcate 
pride, certainc fowles' leggs, eagles, hawkes, turkeys, etc., 
with beasts* clawes, bearcs, arrahacounes, squirreUa, etc. The 
^ clawes thrust through they let hang upon the checUc to the 
- full view, and some of their men there be who will weare in 
these holes a small greenc and yellow -co nloiu*ed live emikc, 
neerc half a yard in length, which crawling and lapping him- 
self about his neck oftentvraes familiarly, he suffereth to kisse 
hia lippc3. Others weare a dead ratt tyed by the taylc, and 
8uch like conundrums. 

The women are in themselves so modest as in the tyme of Thou 
their sickncs they have great care to be secnc abroad, at what ""'""I'* 
tyme they goe apart, and keepe from the men in a several! 
roome, which tlioy liave for themsclvee as a kynd of gynaj- 

' H« probklilj meanji sop^raai, or, mor« comiittly, xojjqrauLf, Romaic 

, , . , nisb, the gte 
Ute eai} of iha (juablmn] otR bwurd. 

for "girla". 

' tVom "chapn,"', Spanish, the gtec] or silver tip or case tbatatrcagtlicns 




ceum, nor will the men, at such a tyme, pre«fte into the nnr- 
cery where they are, 

Tlie men are very strong, of able bodyes, and fiill of agility, 
accustoming thcmselvtw to endure harducsj to lye in the 
woods, imdcr a tree, by a small fier, in the worst of wynter, 
in &Dst and snowc, or in the weeda and grasse, as in ambiu- 
c«clo, to accomplish their piu^iosea in tJie aomjmer. 

They ai'c inconstant in everything but what feare con- 
straincth them to kccpe ; crafty, tymerous, quick of appre- 
hension, ingcnioua enough in their owne workes, as maye 
testilie their wcares in which they take their fish, which are 
certaine iuclosurea made of reedes, and iramed in the {aahioa 
of a laborinlh or maze sett a fathomc dccpe in the water, with 
divers chambers or bedds, out of which the entangled fish 
caiiuot returuc or gett out, being once in. Well maye a 
great one, by chauncc, brenkc the rcedea and so escape, other- 
wise he remaines a pray to the fishermen the next lowe water, 
which they fish with a nctt at the end of a pole, as likewise 
maye speake for them their netts, their arteficyall dressing of 
leather, theiro cordage, which they make of their naturall 
hcmpc and flax togithcr, with their cuning dressing of that, 
ami preserving the whole yeare great htches or bundella of 
the same, to be used upon any oecasyou, and of their girdles 
which they make of ailke grasse, much Uke St. Frauucjs cot- 
don,' their cloaks of feathers, then- bowes and bow-striugs, 
thuir arrowca, their crownetta, which their weroances vearc, 
mikI their ciueene's/twa'af crinales^ borders or frontalis of white 
hemlcs, curridl and copper ; cspccyally their boats, which they 
call qniutaus, and fire very shapcfull, made of one piece of 
timber, like the uxmcycnt mtmoa^iflnm nar'tgium,^ tlieire matta 
and all their honshold implements, and such like. 

J The girdle tiied bj the monks of the Franciscan order ic of twutod 
cord, and knotted. 

' MiPcuft'Aa ■rr\o!a, voaselt hoUowutl oilI uf uiie piucQ of Wood oro meo- 
by Xetophoii, Uippocratee, Ariatotlo, ami I'oljliius. 



Some of tbcm are of disposition fearefuU (as T said) and 
not easily wrought, therefore, to troat ua or come unto our 
forts ; others, againo, of them are so bold and aiidacyous, as 
tlicy dare come unto oiir forts, truck and trade with us, and 
looke us in the face, crying all freinds when they have but 
new done us a mischief, and when they intend presently 
agnine, yf it lye in their power, to doe the like. They arc \ 
generally covetous of oiu- comodityes, as copper, white beades 
for their women, hatchetts, of winch we make them pitore 
ones, of iron howes to pare their come grownd, knives, and 
sach like. 

They are soone moved to anger, and bo raalitious that they 
scldome forgett an injury; they are very thievish, and will an 
dosely aa they can convey any thing away from us ; howe- 
be yt, they seldome steale one from another, lest their con- 
nivres should rcvelo }% and so they be pursued and pimished. 
That they arc thus feared yt ia certaine, nor lett any man 
doubt that the divell cannot reveile an offence actually co- 


CAPUT \^. 

manner of ihv Virgimiin goTeTument, thioii towaea, tbab bowses, 
dyett, fowling, ami bTontJug, tlioir guming, mnaiquc, dnuncing. 

Ai.THODGii the cnnntry people are very barbarous, yet have 
they amongst them such govcmcment as that their magis- 
trates for good comauuding, and their people for due subjec- 
tion and obeying, exccll ninny places that woidd be counted 
civill. The forme of their comon wealth, by what hath already 
bene declareil, you maye weU gather to be a mouarcall go- 
vemement, where one as emperonr ruleth over many kings ; 
their chief ruler bkcwisc for the prescnte you have heard 
before how named, and from whence ; as also jou heard the 
■ nomber of his weroancea, their forces, and his owne discrip- 




tion ; you (ilinll nowe understand how hia kingdomR deaoend- 
cth not to his spans or cliildren, but first tu his brethi 
whereof he hath (as you have heard) three, and after their' 
decease, to bis sisters ; first to his eldest sister, then to the, 
rcat, and after them to the heirca-male and female of 
eldest sister, but never to the heires-malc. 

He nor auy of his |U'0]>lc tinderstand liow to exprcsse their 
mynd» by any kyuds of letters, to wrjte or rcade, in barkea 
of trees, or any other kyrid of waye, which nocessitye or in- 
vention might have instrueted ihcm in, as do other barba- 
nans, aud some even iu these new discoveries; nor have they 
poMitive lawes, only the lawe whereby he ruleth ia custome; 
yet when he pleaseth, his will in a lawe, and mnst be obejed, 
not only as a kinp, but as half a god, his people esteeme him 
BOO ; his infcriour kiu^s are tyed likewise to rule by like cus- 
tomes, and have permitted them power of life and death over 
thcire people, as thcirc comaund in that nature. 

Theire habitations or townes are for the moat part by the' 
rivers, or not far distant from fresh springs, comonly npou a 
rice of a hiU, that they may overlooke the river, and ti 
every small thing into view which sturra upon the same. 
Their Uowscs arc not mauy in one towne, and those that are 
stand dissitc' and scattered without forme of a street, farr 
Bud wyde asunder. 

As for their bowses, who knoweth one of them knowctV 
them all, even the chief kyug^s Itouse j-t selfe, for they be all^ 
alike bulldcd one to the other. They aro like garden arbours 
at best like oiu: sheppards' cotages, made yet handsomclj 
enough, though without strength or gaynR9[sj, of snch yong' 
plants aa they can pluck up, bow, and make the gi-eene 
toppcs meete togithcr, in fasliion of a round roofe, whicli they 
thatch with matts throwne over. The walles are made of, 
barkcs of trees, but then those be principal! bowses, for so 
many barkee which goe to the making up of a bowse are long 

* Ijispeivcil. 

INTO TlRcraiA. 



tjrme of purchasiug. In the midst of the howsc there is a 
louer,' out of which tlie smoake isaueth, the fier being kept 
right iinder. Every boiisu comonly Lath twoo (lores, one 
before and a fiostcmc. The doores be bung with matts, uever 
locked nor bolted, hut only those siatta be to tnme upp, or 
lett fjill at pleasure ; and their bowses arc so ronionly placed 
nnilcr covert of trees, that the violence of fowle weather, 
snowe, or raine, cannot assalt tliem, nor the ann in somnier 
anuoyc them; and the roofc being covered, as I say.tbe wynd 
is easily kept out, insomuch as they are aa warme as stoves, 
albeit very smoakyc. Wyndowes they have none, but the 
light comes in at the doore and at the louer ; for should they 
have broad and open wyndowea in the quarters of their 
bowses, they know not well how, upon any occasion, to make 
them close and let in the light too, for glasse they knowe not 
(though the country wants not salsodiack enough to make 
glosse of, and of which we liave made some stoore in a goodly 
bowse sett up for the same purpose, witli all offices and fur- 
nasGH thereto belonging, a litle without the island, where 
James town stands) ; nor have they lynnen cloth, (albeit they 
want not neither naturally the materyalls for that,) paper, or 
such like, to dipe in oyle, to conveye in as a diapbaenick body 
the light, or to keepe out the weather. 

By thcire howscs they have sometynies a scsena, or bigh 
stage, raised like a scjilTold, of small spelts, reedes, or dried 
osiers, covered with matts, whicb both gives a shadowe and 
is a shelter, and flerves for such a covered place whore men 
used in old tymc to sitt and talkc for recreation or pleasure, 
which they called prastega, and where, on a loft of hui'dclls, 
tbey laye forth their come and fish to dry. They eate, 
slccpc, and dresse theire meate all tmdcr one roofc, and in 
one chamber, as it were. 

Rownd about the house on both sides are theire bedstedes, 

' Liiidbier, Celtic for a cliiiiinoy or vont, the pronunciation of whivh 
aotn«wliR.t roHi2uibIu)t thu English iirutuiiiciatiuu of "louer^', or "looer". 







vliich are thick short poata stalkt into the grotmd, a foot 
high aud aoiiiowlmt more, aud for the sydes ^inall poles 
laycd nloiifr, witli a liurtUe of reeds cast over, wlicreiu they 
rowle downe a fyne n-bite matte or twoo (as for a bedd) 
when they goo to «leei>c, and the witicl) they rowlo np a^ne 
in the momiiif? when they rise, as we doe our pidlutts, and 
upou these, rowTid about tlie how*c, they lye, lie^ils and 
points, one by the other, especially making a ficr before 
them in the midst of the how^, as they doe usually every 
nifi;ht, and some one of them by a^eement mayntcynca the 
fier for all that night long; some of them, when they lye 
downc to slccpc, cover tbcm with matts, some with skinns, 
and some lye stark naked on the grownd, froni j ix to t wentie 
in a house, as doe the Irish. 

^ About their bowses they have commonly square plotta of 
cleered grownd, which scrvR them for gardens, some one 
hundred, some two hundred foote s^qnarc, wherein they sowc 
their tobacco, pumpons, and a fruit like unto a musk millionj 
but lease and worse, which they call macock gourds, and 
such likCj which fruicts increase exceedingly, and ripen in 
the beginning of July, and contyuue nntil September; they 
plant also the field apple, the maraeock, a wyld fruit Uke a 
kind of pomcgranctt, which increascth infinitlye, and ripens 
in August, eontynuing uutill the end of October, when all 
the other fruiets be gathered, but they sowe nether herb, 
flower, nor any other kynd of fruict. 

They neither ympale for deare, nor breed cattell, nor 
bring up tame poultry, albeit they have great stciorc of 
turkies, nor kcepe hirdea, sqnirrclls, uoT tame partridges, 
swan, duck, nor goose. In March and Aprill they live much 
upon their wceres, and feed on fish, tnrkios, aud aqnirrella, 
and then, aa also soractymcs in May, they plant their fields 
aud sett their corne, and live after those monthcs most of 
acrons, walnutts, chcauutts, cltechinquarnins,' aud fishj but, 

^ A kind of grain, floe gloNsary, 





to mend their dyett, some disperse themselves in small com- 
panyes, and live uppon such beasts as they can kyll with 
their bow and arrowes, upon crabbs, oysters, laiid-tortoyses., 
Bti-awberrj'ea, mulberries, and such like. In June, Jidy, and 
August they feed upon rootes of tockobow, berries, grownd 
nutts, fish, and greeno wlicatc^ ftud sometymc uppon a grcieue 
serpent, or greene snake, of which our people likewise use / 
to eate. - -^ 

It ia stratmg to see how their bodies alter with their dyett ; 
even as the deare and wild beasts tliey seemo fatt and leime, 
strong and weake. Powhatan and some others that arc pro- 
vident, roast their fish aud flesh upon hurdellsj and resen'e 
of the same untill the scarse tyraes ; eomraonly the fish aud 
flesh they boylc, either very tenderly, or bruyle yt long ou 
hurdells over the fier, or ells (after the Spanish fashion) putt 
yt on a spitt and tume first the one side, then tlie other, till 
yt be as dry as their jerkin beef in the West Indies, and so 
they mare Ueepe yt n monetho or more without putrifying ; 
the broath of fish or flesh they suppc up as ordinarily aa 
they eat the meate. 

Their come they eat in the eares greenCj roasted^ and 
somctyme brusing yt in a morter of wood with a little pestle ; 
they lap yt in rowlls within the leaves of the come, and so 
boylc yt for a deyntie ; they also reserve that come late 
plantctl tliHt will not ripe, by roasting yt in hott ashes, the 
which in wynter (being boyled with, beaues) they eatcenic for 
a rare dish, calling yt pauaarawiuena ; their old wheat they 
firste stecpc a night in hot water, and in the morning pound- 
ing yt in a morter, they use a smiUl baskett for the boulter 
or searser,' and when tliey have syfteJ fourth the finest, they 
poimd againc the great, aud so separating }'t by dashing their 
hand in the baskett, receave the flower iu a platter of wiiod, 
which, blending with water, they make into flatt, broad cakes 

1 Scone, a Uae sieve iniulcof lawn, etc., from the French "sua" — Builey'!) 



(mncb like the flacrificing broul wliich the Grecians ofirr^d to 
their ^ads, called papanum], anri these they call nppones, 
irhich covcrinf^ frith ashen till they be halccd (as wan the an- 
cyent cscharitos' panis raked within the embers), and then 
washing them in faire water, they let dry with their own heate, 
or cUb boylc them with water, catiii)^ the broath with the 
bread, which they call pouepopi. The prowtea and broken 
pieces of the coriio rcmayiiiiig, they likewise preserve, aiid by 
fannyug away the hrannc or hushes in a platter or in Uic 
wynd, they lett bcyle in an e-arthen pott three or four howres, 
aud therof make a stranng thick pottage, whieli tbcy call 
VsketohamuD, and is their kind of frumeutry, and indeed is 
like our kind of ptisane, hiiskcd barley sodden in water. Yt 
mnye be not much unlike that homely ^tw nigrum, which the 
LacidemoniaiLS used to cate, and which Dionisius eould not 
abide to taat of; albeit he brought a cookc from thcnee only 
to make him that broath, for which the cookc told him he 
must have a I^accdemoniaii »tom»eh, indeed to cate of tlio 
Lacedemonian dyett;' and some of them, more thriftye then 
cleanly, doe burne the coare of the eare to powder, which they 
call pung-nongli, mingling that in their mcale, "but yt never 
tasted w£?ll in bread or broath. 

Their drinck is, as the Tiirkes, cliere water; for albeit tliey 
have grapes, and those good store, yet they have not &hie 
upon the use of them, nor adnscd how to presac them into 
wyne. Peares and apples they liave none to make ayder or 
perry of, nor honye to make mcath, nor licoris to seeth in 
their water. They call all things which have a spicy taafc] 
wiiBBiwan, which leaves a supposition that they maic have 
gome kind of spice trees, though not perhappa auch as ells- 

The men bestow their tymes in fishing, himting, warres, 
and such manlike exercises, without the dotvH, scominge to 

» It ahould be Eifx^iiMrijc. '■^- bak&d on th« hearth. 

■ Sue Plutarch's \^TnTti^tiifi/tTn KatnaviK^. 

INTO \1ILGraiA. 



be seeaie in any effemynate labour, which is the cauae that 
the women be very puufall aud the meu odea idle. 

Their Sshiiig is much in boats. These they call quintaiia, 
aa the West Indiana call their canoas. They make them with 
one tree, by burning and scraping awaye the coales with 
stones and shells^ tyll they have made them in forme of a 
trough. Some of them are an ell docpej and forty or 6fty 
foote in lengthj and some will transport forty men ; bnt the 
moat ordinary are smaller, and will fenry ten or twenty, with 
some luggage, over their broadest rivers. Instead of oares, 
they nse paddles and sticks, which they will rowc faster then 
we in our barges. 

They have netts for fishing, for the quantity aa formerly 
brayed and mashed as out's, and these are made of barkcs of 
certaine trees, deare synewea, for a kyiid of grasse, which 
they call pemmcnaw, of wliich their women, betwcene their 
hands and thighcs, spin a thredd very ercn and rcdily, and 
this tlireed servcth for many uses, as about their bowsing, 
their mantells of feathers and their trowses, and they also 
with yt make lynea for angles. 

Theire angles are long small rodds, at the end whereof they 
have a clift to the which the lyne is fastened, and at the lync 
thej' hang a kuokc, jnsiAv. cj'thcr of a lione grated (as they 
nock tlieir arrowcs) in the forme of a crooked pynne or fia- 
hooke, or of the sphnter of a bone, and with a threed of the 
}yne they tye on the baytc. They use also long arrowes tj'ed 
in a Une, wherewith they shoote at fish in the rivers. TIiosc 
of Accowmak uac rtavcg, like unto javeUua, headed with bone ; 
with these they dart fi»h, swymming in tlie water. They have 
also many arteficj'all weeres (before described) in which they 
take aboundaunee of Hshe. 

In the tvme of their bvmtings, they leave their habitations, 
and gather themselves into conipanyes, aa doc the T.-irtura, 
and goe to the moat desart places with their fiunilici^, where 
they passe the tyme with hunting and fowling up towards 


nisrroRis of travatlr 

the mountainfs, by the heads of their mers, wher in deed 
there is plrmtyc of game, for betwUt the rivers the laud is not 
«0 large Iwlowe that therein breed uufficyeiit to give them all 
oontent. Considering, espocyally, how at all t}*mea and sea- 
•omt they destroy them, yt maye secme a marveyle how they 
can 90 directly passe and wander in these dcsorttij sonict^nncs 
three or fewer daycs' joiirnyes, meeting with no babitadons, 
and, by rcjuton of the wootU, nut Imviug eight of the sun, 
wlicrby to direct them how to coast yt 

Theire Imntinge bowses are not tioe laboured, auhstancyail, 
nor artyficyall as their other, but arc Hlic our soldiers' cabins, 
the frame sett up in too or three hewers^ cast over head, with 
matts, which the women beare after them as they carry like- 
wise conic, acorBcs, mortcrs, and all bag and baggage to use» 
when they come to the place where they purpose for the tyme 
to hunt. 

In the tjTiic of hiuiting cvcrj- man will strive to doe his best 
to shew his fortime and dexterity, for by their excelling therin 
they obtoyne the favour of the women. 

At their bunting in the deaarta they arc comonly two or three 
hundred togither. With the sun rising they call up ou[e] an- 
otlier, and goe forth searching after the heard, which when 
they have found, they environ and circle with many fiers, and 
betwixt the fiers they place thcmselvea, and there take up 
their stands, making the most terrible noise that they can. 
ITie dcjire being thus feared by the fires and their voices, 
betake them to their heeleSj whome they cliase so long within 
that circle, that many tyraes they kill aii, eight, ten, or fif- 
teen in a morning. Tbcy use also to drive them into some 
narrow point of land, when they find that advantage, and so 
force them into the river, where with their boats they have 
ambusoadea to kill them. 'R'licn they have shott a deare by 
land, they followe him (like bloodhoimds) like the blood and 
stratiic,' and often tymes ao take him. Ilm-cs, partriges, 
I Ilunting term. Th« tUw or track of a deer. 



turkeys, fatt or leane^ young or old, in eggs^ in breeding 
time, or however they devour, at no time sparing any that 
they can catch iu their power. 

On[e] saradge himtiug alone iisetli the skyne of a deare 
slitt in the one side, and so put upon his arme through the 
neckj in that sort that the hand comes to the head, which is 
stufTcd, and the homes, head, eyeSj earcs, and cvpry part as 
nrteficyall counterfeited as they can devise j thus shrowdiug 
his body iu the skynne, hy stalking he approacheth the 
dcerc creeping on the ground from one tree to another ; yf 
the deare chaunce to find fault, or stand at gaze, he tumcth 
the head with the hand to the best advantage to win his 
slioot ; having shott him, he chaseth him by his blood and 
straine till he gett him. 

In these hunting and fishing exercizes they take extreame 
paincs, and they being thcii" ordinary liiboura from their in- 
fancy, they place them amongst their sports and pleasures, 
and are very prowd to be expert therein, for thereby (as before 
remembered) they wyn the loves of their women, who wilbe the 
sooner contented to Hve with sucli a man, by the readynes and 
fortune of whose how and diligence such provision they per- 
ceave they :ire likely to he fedd with well, especially of fish 
and flesh, as the place where they are to dwell can afford ; for 
(indeed) they be all of them ,hugh caters, and of whome 
we may saye ^vith Plautus, Noctes diesque eatur, for which 
wc ourselves doe give unto every Indian that labours with us I 
in oiu" forts, doble the allowance of one of our owne men ; I 
and these active hunters, by their eoutiuuall ranging and 
travell, do know all the advantages and places most fre- 
quented aud best stored with di^-arc or other beasts, (ish, 
fowle, roots, fruicts, aud berries. 

A kynd of exercise they have often amongst them much 
Uke that which boyes chU baudy' in English, and mayc be 

I In tho gatno of Ijandy-boll, tlie boll was struck nitb & bat called 
Inndjr, fti)m itii being bent. 



BisTORtE or -nuVAIIJE 

an auncicDt game, u yt secmcth in Vii^U ; for whca JEneai 
came into Italy at hiii miirnagu witli Luvinia, King Latiuius:' 
daughter, yt is said the Troyaus taught the Latins Bcipping 
and frisking at the bait Likonise they have the exercise uf 
football, in which they only forccahly encounter vitb the 
foot to carry the ball the one £rom the other, and spumed 
yt tu the goalo with a kind uf dexterity ami swift foutinHU- 
•hij>, which is the honour of yt ; but they never strike up 
one another's hecles, as we doe, not accompting that praisc- 
wortliie to piircbaso a gualc by such an advantage. 

Dice play, or carder, or lotts they knowe not, how be it 
they use a game upon russhes much like primero,' wherein 
they card and discard, and la}' a intake too, and so win and 
loose. Tliey will playe at this for their bowea and arrowes, 
their copper beaJs, hatchots, and their leather coats. 

If any great cumaunder arrive at the habitacion of a wero- 
auncc, ihey spread a matt, as the Turkes do a carpett, for 
him to sitt uppon ; uppon another right opposite they sitt 
tliemselves, then doe they all, with a tunable voice of showt- 
iug, bid Uim welcomej afler this doe twoo or more of the 
chief men make seTerall orations, testifying their lore, which 
they doc with such vehemcncy, and so great eamtstiies of 
passion, that they sweat till tliey droppe, iuid are so out of 
breath that they can scarae speake, in so much as a stranger 
would take them to he exceetling angry, or starke mad. 
After this verball entertaynmeut, they cause such victuall as 

1 Primoro ia teckoiiud among tke most anc^icut gamea of cards knowo 
tQ havo hisea played in fiuglaad. Each yUtyvx, wc art) told, IuhI loux 
cards d«a]t to hhn one by one ; the seveu was the highest Caid, in point 
of number, that ho couM ttvail himself of, which counted for tw^enty-^jna ; 
the six cauDted for sixteen, the fivo for fil'toen, and the ace for the samo; 
but the twcf, tHtf thruc, and the four for their respective points oalj. Tfae 
kDave of hearts was coniTnoidy tixcd upon for the ijuinola, which the 
player might make whal card or suit ho thought proper ; if the cards 
were of difforcut suits tha highest number wjia the primcro ; if they were 
uU of one colour, h« that held thorn won the dush. Seu Strutt, takua 
ti-om the Hon, Daines Barringtoii on cnid-plajing, ArL-haMjlogia, vol. viii. 

IMTO vmniKiA. 


thery have or cam provide to be brought forth, with which 
they feast him fully and freely, and at night they bring him 
to the lodging appointed fur him, whither, upon their dcpar- 
turo, they scud a yoiuig woman, fresh payutcd red M-ith 
pochonc and oyle, to be liis bedfellowe. 

The void tymo bctwecuc their sleepe and meate they com- 
monly bestow in revelling, daimcing, and singing, and in 
their kind of miisiquc, and have sundry instruments for tho 
same. They ba^e a kynd of cane on which they pipe as on 
a recorder, and ai-e like the Greeke pipes, which tbcy called 
hotiihtfces, being bardly to be sounded without ^eat strayn- 
ing of the breath, upon which they observe certain rude 
times J but their chief instruments fire rattles made of small 
gourdes or pompiou shells; of these they Iwive base, tenor, 
counter tenor, meane, and treble ; these myngled with their 
voices, sometymes twenty or thirty togither, make such a 
terrible howling as would rather affright then give pleasure 
to any mmi. 

They have likewise their errotica cannina, or amoroos 
dittyes in their language, some numerous, and some not, 
which they will sing tunable enough,. Tliry liave contrived 
a kind of angry song against us, in their homely rjones, 
which concludeth with a kynd of petition unto their okeus, 
find to all the host of their idolls, to plague the Tassantasses 
(for so they call us) and their posterities; as hkewise another 
Bcorncful song they made of us the last ycare at the falls, in 
manner of tryumph, at what tyme tliey killed Capt. WilUam 
"West, our Ijord Geuerall's nephew, and two or three more,! 
and tookc one Sjnnon Skovc, a naylor, and one Cob, a boy, 
prisoners. That song goeth thus: — 

I. MatnuerQw sbashasliowaw orawango pechccoma 
Vfhc Tassantassft moshaahawjehockaD pocoBnok. 
Wh* wht, yiili Luha nelie wittowa, nittowa. 

1 Tiittir ludian liauie for their gods. 




8. Motuiorcir shathuhcwaw enw&ngo peoheooma 
Cnpt Newport inooluuhBW neir mhoc iMtmn matauftn 
Whc wUe, otc. 

3. MsUnvTCff shiuhmsbowBw cnwu^ pecliGOonia 
Tlioia. ITowport inoibasbAw D<»r lolioc natiut moaoock : 
Whc who, Ct€. 

4. Slitanerew shashuhevnw eraw&ogo pecbecoma 
l^x:hin Simon motfauhaw ningon tuLti&o monah&cfc, 
Wbe who, etc. 

Which mayc signifie how they killed us for all our poccn- 
•aoks, that is oiir guns, and for all that CH^itaiD Newport 
brought them copper, and could hurt Thomas Kewport (a 
boy whoae name in deede was Thomas Savadge, who Captain 
Newport leaving with Powhatan to leame the language, at 
what tymc he presented the said Powhntau with a copper 
crowue, aiid other gifts from his Majeatie, said he was lua 
Sonne) for aU his mutiachockj that is his briglit sword^ and 
how they could take Symon (for they aeldome said our sur- 
name) prisoner for all his tamahanke, that is his hatchet, 
adding, as for a burden nnto their soug, what lamentation 
Olur people made when they kild him, namely, saying how 
tliey would cry whe, whe, etc., which they mockt us for, and 
cryed againc to us yah, ha, ha, Tcwittawa, Tewittawa; for yt 
is ti-ue they never bemoane themselves nor ery ont, gyring 
up so much aa n, groanc for any death, how cruell soever and 
full of torment. 

As for their dauuci,aig, the sport seemes mito them, and 
the use almost aa frequent and necessary as their meat and 
drynck, in which they consume much tyme, and for which 
they appoint many and often meetings, and have therefore, 
as yt were, set orgies or festivaUa for the same pEistyme, as 
have yet at this daye the merry Greekes within the Arches. 
At our colonies first sitting downc amongst them, when any 
of our people repaired to thnir townes, the Indians would not 
thinck they hiul expressed their welcome sufficyentUe enough 
untill they had shewed them a dauncCj the manner of whieh 




I— I 





is thua : One of tbem standeth by, with some furre or leather 
thing in his leaft hand, upon which he beats with his right 
hand; unci sings with all ns if he began the quier, and kept 
iiDto the rest their ju:iit tymc, when upon a ccrtninc stroak or 
more (as upon his cue or tyme to come in) one riaeth up and 
b<^;yana to dawucc ; after he huLli dauuucd a while stcppa 
forth another, as if he came in jusl upon his rest ; and in 
this order all of them, so many a.s there bc^ one after an- 
other, who then daunce an equall distaunce from each other 
in ring, showting, howling, and stamping their fcete iigaiaBt 
the ground with such force and paine that they sweat agayne, 
and with all variety uf Strang myroick tricks and distorted 
faces, making so confused a yell and noyac as bo many fran- 
tiquc aud disquictud bachiinalls, and sure they will keepe 
stroak just with their feete to the tyme he gives, and just 
one with another, but with the hands, head, iai.'ie, aud body, 
every one hath a severall gesture ; and who have scene the 
darviscH, in their holy daunces, in their moscas, upon IVendae- 
daycs and PVydayea in Turkey, maye reaemblc these unto 
them. You shall find the niauner expressed in the figure iu 1 
the second Decade, capt. [See print tvface fMs jjai/c]. 

Every weroance knoweth his owne meoi-es aud lymitts to 
fish, fowle, or luiut In (as before said), but t!iey hold all ol 
their great weroance Towhatauj unto whonie they pay eight 
parts of ten tribute of all the comodities which their country 
yeldcth, as of wheat, pease, beaues, eight measujes of ten, 
(and these measured out in litle cades or basketts, which the 
gi'cat king appoints) of the dying roots, eight measures of ten 
of all sorta of skyns, and furrs eight of ten ; aud so be robbcs 
the people, in effect, of all they have, even to the deare'a 
skyn wherewith they cover tlieui from cold, in bo much as 
they dare not dresse yt and put yt on untill be have scene 
yt and refused yt, for what he comaundeth they dare not dis- 
obey in the lest tbinge. 




Vf Hut religion Amoitgiit the inhahiunts, — their god, Itutir templet, tlieir 
Dpititoti of th« crcfttion of tho world, kod of the immortalicie of the 
towlo, of their conjurations mid vacrificiiig of cbildrcn. 

There is }'et, in Vii^ia, no place discovered to be so savadgc 
and uimplc, in which tlje inliahitnunts have not h religion 
and the use of how and arrowcs : fill things they coaccave 
able to doc them hurt beyond their prevention, they adore 
with their kind of divine worsliip, m the fier, wuter, light- 
ning, thunder, oar ordinaunce pieces, horses, etc. ; but their 
chief god they worship is no other, indeed, then the divcU, 
whomc tbcy make presentments of, nnd shadow ttndcr the 
forme of an idoll, which they entitle Okens, and whome they 
worship, as the Romans did their hurtfull god Vtjovis, more 
for feare of hanui; then for hope of any good ; they saie tiiey 
have conference with him, and fashion themselves in their 
disgnismenta as neere to his shape as they can imagjTi. 

In every territory of a weroance is a temple and a priest, 
pcradveutui'e two or three; \'et happie doth that weroance 
apcompt himself who can detayne with him a Uuiyoughqui- 
sock, of the best, grave, lucky, well instructed iu their raia- 
terycs, and beloved of tlieir god ; and such a one ia noe lease 
honoured then, was Dianac's priest at Ephcaus, for wlioiue 
tbcy have their more private temples, with oratories and 
cliHuncells therein, accorcUng an is the digtiity and reverence 
of the Quiyoughqiiiaock, which the weroance wilbe at charge 
to build upon purpose, sometyrae twenty foote broad and a 
hundred in length, fashioned arbour wyse after their buyld- 
ing, having comonly the (lore opening into the east, and at 
the west end a spence or chaunceE from the body of the 
temple^ witb hollow wyndings and pillers, whereon stand 
divers black imagies, fashioned to the tihoulders, with their 
faces looking downe the church, and where within their wero- 





aiices, upon ii kiud of bcere of rcedcs, lye buryed ; unci under 
them, apartj in a va\ilt lov in the ground (as a more secrctt 
thing), vftiled with a matt, aitta their Okous, oil image ill- 
favoiiredly carved, idl black di'cssed, with chaynes of perle, 
the presentment and figure of that god (say the priests imto 
the laity, and who religiously bcUeve what the priests saic) 
irhich doth them all the harrae they suffer, be yt in their 
bodies or goods, within doores or abruadj and true yt is many 
of them are divcra tymes (espeeyally offenders) slirewdly 
scratched as they walke alone in the woods, yt may well 
he hy the subtyle spirit, the malitions enemy to maukintl, 
whomc, therefore, to pacefie, and worke to doe them good (at 
leaat no harme) the priests tell them they must do these and 
these sacrifices unto [them], of these and these things, and 
thus and thus often, by which meanes not only their owne 
children, but strauiigers, are somclLmes sacrificed unto him : 
whilst the great God (the priests tell them) who govemes all 
the world, aiul makes tlie sun to shine, creating the iiiotinc 
and Htarrs his companyona, great powers, and which dwell 
with liim, and by whose vertues and influences the under 
earth is tempered, and brings forth her fruicts according to 
her seasons, they calling Ahone ; the good and peaceable God 
requii'ca uo such dutyes, nor ncedcs be sacrificed unto, for 
be intondcth all good unto them, and will doe noc hannc, 
only the displeased Okeus, looking into all iiien*s aecLous, 
and examining the same according to the severe scale of jus- 
tice, punishctb them with sicknesses, beats them, and strikes 
their ripe come with blastings, stormes, and tlmnder clapps, 
stirrs up warre, and makes their women falce unto them. 
Such is the misery and thraldome under which Sathan bath 
bound these -nTetehed miscreants. 

Indeed their priests, being the ministers of Sathan (wbo 
is very hkely or visibly conversant amongst tliem), fcare and 
tremble lest the kuowlcdg of God, and of our Saviom- Jesus 
Christ, should be taught in those parts, doc now with the 


more vehcmcncy pcrtiwatle the people to bold on their vonted 
ccrcmuniesj and every ycare to sacrifice ntill their owne chil- 
dren to the ancycot God of their fathers, and yt is supposed 
f^ync doblc oblations this wayc, hy reason they doe at all 
tymes so absolutely goveme and direct the weroances, or 
lords of couutricSj in all their accious, and this ciistome he 
hath politiqucly maynteyn'd, and doth yet univcrsaUy (a few 
placcH exccpte*!}, over all the Indies. lu Florida tlicy sHeri- 
fice the first-borne male child. In Mexico they forbeare 
their owuo, and offer up such pristiners as they take in the 
warrs, wbonic they torture with a most barbarous cruelty. 
That the derill hath obteyned the use of the like offring in 
many ot}ier parts of America, Acosta hath observed and 
related, in his morrall and uaturall History of the West Indies; 
tlie same honour the devill ubteyiied from all antiquity, in 
effect even from the Israelites and their boMcrers, from the 
Carthagcnians, Persians, and the first planters of Italy, and 
other nation.^. To have auffrcd still therefore, me thincks, 
these priests of Baal or Bebsebnb, were greatly offensive to the 
majestic of God, and most perilous for the English to inhfr- 
bitc within those parts; for these their Quiyoughquisoeks 
or pruphcttn be they that prvswade their weroances to resist 
oiu" HfttleniL-nt, and tell them how much tlieir Okous wilho 
offended with them, and that he wiU not be appeased with a 
sacriAce of a thowsand, nay a hecatomb of their childrcne, yf 
they permitt a nation, dispicing the aucyeot religion of their 
forefathers, to inhablto among them, since tlieir owne gods 
have hitherto preserved tbcm; and given them victory over 
their rncmies, from a^e to age. 

It is true tbiit hitherto our colony hath conBisted (as yt 
were) but of a handfull of men, and nut stored with desired 
victnalla fitt for such eaters as the English are ; nor untill 
1610 hrtth yt ben the best govcrued to undertake this service 
to God ; but now the commoditieB of our ow ne country being 
thither in some good quantety transported, and those there 



thriving and growing daily into good increase, as kyue, 
goats, swyue, horses, mares, etc.; aud the first ragged go- 
vcmmeiit ntiwe likewise prudentlie chauuged into au abso- 
lute comaund, and over the same many learned and judilioiis 
gentlcmeu of his majestie's couucell (as a body politique) 
resident in England, and they also enlightened from the 
supreme understanding of his ninjestie'a privy conncell; and 
the lord generall now to goe againe is a very worthy^ vaUant 
nohle man, aud well instructed in the busines^ wlio hath Sir 
Thomas Gates, liueten ant- generall (whose comendacion Ueth 
in his name). Sir Thonms Dale, marsliatl, holh there at this 
present,, informing themselves of the coimtry and people, both 
excellent soldiers, and well knowing all circumstances of 
warre and advantages of ground, yt cannot be doubted but 
that all things shall he soe fureseene, that the best conrses shal- 
he taken, aud tbe surreptioii of these priests more seriously 
thought on then heartofore, and by whose apprehension wil- 
be wrought the saffety of such our people as shalbe imployed 
herein for his majestie's honour and the enlargement of his 
dominion, for whose sake God will prosper all our lawfutl 
and Christian attempts. Yet noe Spanish iutention shalbo 
entertayned by us, neither hereby to root out the naturalls, 
as the Spaniards have done in Hispaniola and other parts, 
but only to take from them these seducers, untill when tht^y 
will never knowe God nor obey the king's majestic, and by 
which meanea we shall by degrees cliaunge their barbarous 
natures, make tliem ashamed the sooner of their aavadge 
nakedness, informe them of the true God and of the way to 
their salvation, aiul, flually, teach them obedience to the 
king's raajcstie and to his govemours in those parts, declar- 
ing (in the attempt thereof) nuto the several wcroances, and 
making the comou people likewise to understand, how that 
liis majestic huth bene acquainted, that the men, women, and 
childi'eue of the fiist plantation at Itoanoak were by practize 
I and eomaundcmcnt of Powhatan (he himself pcrswaded thcr- 





unto hy his priesU) misernbly slaughtered, without a.uj 
offence given him cither by the first pUntcd [who tveut 
and od yearcs Imd ptrHCci»bIy IjTcd intermixt uith those sal- 
vages, and were out of hU territory) or by those who none 
an* cuiiic to inhabite some parte of his desiu-te hi.nds, and to 
trade with him for some comoditycs of ourd, which he 
Ids ]H!U|)lo KLaud in want of; notwithstanding, heeauxe hia 
niajiwtie is, of all the worhl, tlio most just and the most mer- 
cifuU prince, he hath given order that Powhatan himself, with 
the weroances and all the people, sbalbe spared, and reveng 
only taken upon his Quiyoughquiaocks, by whose adrisc and 
pei-swasioua was exercised that bloudy cruelty, and only how 
that Powhatan hiiiiHclf and the wcroancea must depend on 
his majcstie, both acknowledging him for their auperiall lord; 
and wheninto tJie iiiferiour wenmiiee.'* sure will most wil- 
lingly coudisceud, when yt shalbc told them, that whcras 
Powhatan doth at his pleasure dispoile them both of the 
lives and goods without yeilding them any reason, or alleadg-] 
ing or proving any jii»t enuse against them, they ishull fori 
heareafter be deUvercd from his tyranny, nud shidl enjoyoj 
freely the fruiets of their owne territories, so shall they thoj 
fish and the fowle thereof, of which the most rare and deli- 
cate of the one, and the best and wholsomeat of the other,, 
are now forbidden them, and reserved and preserved to Powj 
hatan, and that they shalbe freed likewise from delivering 
their children for sacrifice; and the poore women's songs oi 
lamentation converted tuto rejoycings, the true God, and liisj 
govemour king James, ccmauuding th^t the childrene of menj 
be prpserved and not 8lfiug;l]tered without offence given, aa\ 
the devill and his Quiyoughquisocks have ordcyned. Agaiustj 
which Sathanicall invention, maye yt please his majestic toj 
make au ordinaunce, that the fathers of those childrene^ SiUdj 
all tbat consent unto the sacrifices hereafter, shalbe put tOf| 
deathastraytors to Godaiidhismajustie. As also when they' 
shall understand how the tribute which they shall pay uuto 


INTO viRorau. 


liis mnjestie shalbu far leasse then that wbich Powhatan 
exiicteth from tliem, who robbs them, as you hare heard, of 
all they have ; but after such tymc as they shall subnn'tt them- 
selves to the kiug's majeslie, and consent to piiy him a tribute 
to be agreed upon, Powhatiin shall Lty no more his exactions 
upon them, but they shall freely enjoy all they can, gather, 
and hare a pejwcable and franck trade with tlie English for 
the comodities they can make of their ownc, exchaun;,"ing 
them for ours, and that the Knglish will take of their poorest 
into their famclies, as their better sort shall by patents and 
proclamations hold their hinds, as free bnrgers and citixcns 
■with the Eughsh, and subjecta to king James, who will give 
them justice, and defend them against all their eiiemyesj 
vhereas now they live in miserable slavery, and have no 
assurannce either of tlieir lyves or of their goods, and indeed 
hereby these dooblc and mixt comodities wUl arrisf, namely 
the English garrisons shall not only he provided of come, 
and their stcrehowsea of merchandizes, but the naturalls beingi 
thus constrayued to pay duly this their trj'bute, will dense 
dowblc as much ground as they doc, wherby the country will 
not only he made the more passcahic both for horse and foot, 
hut the people Ihemselvca, who arc now for the most pai-t of 
the yeare idle, and do little ells theu sharpen their arrowes 
against the English, ahall find, by the gathering together of 
their eeverall sorts of tribute, somewhat ells to entertayne 
thcmsclvcB withall ; and although, perad venture, this maye 
secme a burthen at the first, nntill they have acquainted 
themselves with another kind of Ufe, and pcrceavc themselves 
indeed to beeome thereby the more civile, as likewise to 
enjoye the rest of their owne more freely then under Pow- 
hatan, they will find themselves in farr better estate then now 
they are; for the eussiques or comaundcrs of Indian townes 
in Peru, whom the Virginians cidi wei-oances, although they 
I paye imto the ting of Spaine great tribute, yet because they 
f make cschannge with the Spaniard for that rcraavuesj thev 




do not only kccpc grctito hoapitalitj and nre richc in their 
furuiture, horses, and cattell, but, as Captain Ellis avov 
who lyved ainoiig^tt ihem wjme few yeares, tlieir ilyett 
uened to them in silver vesaclls, and many of them haw 
natnrall Spaniards that attend them in their howsea, when, 
on the other side, the Spaniards were not able to make the 
twentieth part of profitt wliich they now doc but by the helpc 
of those cussiques, for they furnish out of their Beverall ter- 
ritories not so few ils (Ifty tlioiisand people to «'orlie Lu t! 
mynes of Potosi, who after bo many monthes' travuile are 
returned to the eomitryes, and fifty thousand others by an 
other company of cuasiques prondcd to supply them. In 
New Spaine they doe the like, for the naturall people gather 
all the scuchiucUa' which the Spaniards have, and require no 
more for a week's labour then so much money as Mill buy 

them a pott of wyiie to drinek drunek the Satterday night. 

In Guiaun^ thirty of the people^ with their canoa, wilbe hire^^f 
for one hatchett to rowe where they are comaunded for a" 
whole monethj and sell a hundred weight of good biskctt for 
a threepenny kuife, and if our copper had beu well ordered 
in Vii^iivia, as maye be hereafter, I am assured that less 
then one ounce will serve to cntcrtaync the labour of a whole 
howshould for tcndayes. This being delivered in fitt termos 
by some perfect interpreter, and to men that are capable 
ynough of understanding yt, maye begett a faire coneeipt in 
them of ii« and our proceedings, and leave them well satis- 
fied ; and indeed be yt beleeved, that when so just aii occa- 
sion shall offer these priests of Asmodius or the devill in 
the hands of the lord gcnernll, a better tymc then that will 
not be found to pcrforme the same acceptable service to Ood 
that Jehu, king uf Israeli, did, wheu be assembled all the 
priests of Baal, and slue tbcm, to the last man, in their owue 
temple. Of tills may every vulgar sence liR well assured, 
that seeing these monsters due offer up luitu the devill their 

^ Ckichitieal. 



owne cliildrcne, and beuig hardened a^^ainst all compassion, 
naturall and divine, enforce their owne mothers to deliver 
them to the executioner with their owne hands, they will 
easily coudiscend unto, and assist the destruction and extir- 
pacion of all straungers, knowing or acknowledging the true 

Within the channcoU of the temple, by tlicOkcus, are 
ceuotaphies or the monnmeuts of their kings, whose bodyi 
80 soone as they be dead, they embowell, and, scraping tlie 
flesh from off tlie bones, they dry the same npon hurdclla 
into ashesj which ihey put into litle potts (like the auncyent 
limes) ; the aniiathomy of the bones they bind togirher or 
case up in leather, hauling hraccletts, or chaines of copper, 
beads, pearle, or sucli like, as they used to wear about most 
of their jointa and ucck, and so repose the body upon a litle 
scaffold (as npon a tomb), laying by the dead bodies' feet, 
all his riches in aeverull baskctts, liis apook, and pipc^ and 
any one toy, wliicli in his life he held most deare in liis 
faney : their inwaids they stuff with pearle, copper, bc-ads, 
and such trash, sowed in a skynnc, which they ovcrlapp againe 
very cjirefuliy iu whit skynnes one or two, and the bodyus 
thns dressed lastly they rowlc in matts, as forwynding sheets, 
and so laye them orderly one by one, as they dye in their 
tumes, upon an arclie standing (as aforesaid] for the tomb, 
and thes are all the ceremonies we yet can leame tliat they i 
give unto their dead. We heare of no aweet oyles or oynt- 
meuts that they use to dresse or chest tbiur dead hotliea 
with ; albeit they want not of the prctious rozzin running 
out of the great ccdiir, wherwith in the old tyrae they used 
to embalme dead bodieii, washing them in the oyle and 
licoure therof. Only to the priests the care of these temples 
and holy interments are comitted, and these temples are to 
them as solitary Asseteria' coUcdges or minsters to exercise 

' Possilily rai*spelt fironi Aaairtpoc *]niwi 'Eftanui'Ttpoc, i. e. following in 
a row one after another. 



tliemselres ia contemptation, for they are seldomc out of 
them, ATiii tlierefore often lye in tlicm and ranjTiteyiie con- 
tynuall 6t'r in the same, upou a hearth somewhat neere the 
east end. 

For th«r ordinary buriallH they digg a deepe hole in the 
earth with slmrpp stokes, and the corps being lappetl in skynns 
and matta with their Jewells, they lave appon sticks in the 
ground, and aoe cover them with earth : the bnryaJl ended, 
the womeu (being painted all their faces with black ooale 
and oyh') do aitt twenty-four liowers in their bowses, momTi- 
iiig and lamenting by tumcs, with such yelling and howling 
AS may exprcsac their great passions. 

Their prinoipall temple, or place of superstition, is at 
Vtamussack, at Pamunky. Neere unto the towne, within 
the woods, is a chief holic howac, proper to Powhatan, upon 
the top of certaine red xandy hills^ and it is aocompanied 
with two other sixty feet in length, 6Ued with images of 
their kings and dcvilU, and tombca of the prcdicessors. 
This place they count so holy an that none but the priests 
and kings dare come therein. In this fas the Grecian 
nigromancera pHychomantic did use to call up spiritts) ey- 
ther the pnests have conference, or consult (indeed) with the 
dcvill, and receavc verball answeares, and bo sayth Aoosta ; 
he spake to the fioinf^ or chaplaiucs of the West Indies, in 
their ;gu!Lcns or oratoi-ies, or at lejist these conjurers make 
thu simple laytie so to believe, wlioe^ therefore (ao much arc 
the people at the priests* devotion), we ready to execute any 
thing, how desperate soever, wliich they shall coimuaund. 
The salvadgca dare not goe up the river in boatn by yt, but 
that they solemly cast some piece of copper, white beads, or 
pochones into the river, for feare that Okeua should he 
oftended and revenged of them. In this place commonly 
are resident seven priesta, the chief dilfchug ti'om the rest 

J Query — Bo^JTfl^ fromjWujtoerj. Pape,inlii»"Handw(irti)rbuchdcr 
QriuhcIuBtbca Spi^wche", gives nippocmtos as a. reference for the iu« «f 
tli« word. 



INTO vittoijru. 


in his omanient, whilst the inferior priests can hardly be 
kuowne from the common people^ save that they had not 
(it taaye be mnye not hiive) so many lioles iu their eu.res to 
hang tlieii' jeivcUs at. The oruameuts of the chief priest 
were, uppon hi& showlders a miildle- sized cloke of feathers 
much like the old aacriticing garment which laodorua calls 
cassiola, and the bvirlctt or attire of his licad was thos raarle ; 
Hume twelve or sixteen or more snakes' sloughcs or skviiB 
were stuflcd with mossc, and of weasells or other vcrmyn 
were skynns perhapps as many ; all these were tyed by the 
taylcs, so as their layles meet in the tupe of the head like a 
great tasaell, and round about the tasseU vms circled a crow- 
nett (as yt were) of featherM, the skynus hanging round 
alioiit his hotid, neck, and showlders, and in a manuLT cover- 
ing his face. The faces of all their priests are painted so 
uglye a* they can de\ise; in their Imndr* tliey carry e\e:ry 
one his rattle, for the moat part as a syrabole of his place 
and profession, some basse, some sraixller. Their devotion is 
most ui songs, which the chief priest begynns and the rest 
follow him; 8omet}Tuea he makes invocation with hmken 
sentences, by starts and strnung passions, and at every pawsc 
the rest of the priests give a nhort gronne. 

We have not yet hitherto perceaved that any solemne fasti, 
or fa'uB pr/Bcida/it'tF vigilli,^ or any one daye more holy then 
other, is amongst them, but only in some great distrcssc of 
want, feare of encmyes, tymes of ti'yumph, and gathering 
tugither their friiicts. The whole country — men, women, 
and children — come togither to their solcmpnities, the man- 
ner of which jolly devotion is sometymcs to make a great ficr 
in the house or fields, and all to sing and daunce about yt, 
in a ring like so many fayries, with rattles and showtcs, four 

'' This unusuijJ cxpreEsioii for ngils or ctch ia thui trco.tC'J of by Aului 
Oelliua, lib. ir, at]) 6. — '■ Poi'«am ct hostms quasdam pnoddancas, sicud 
(lixi, appellnri vulgo notam ©st ; feri<u prixcidaneat djoi, id opinor, a 
vul^ rumotum est." 





or five howern togitlier, sometymefl faskioniug themselres in 
twoo coinpanie-s, keeping & great circuite; one compaiij 
daunccth one wave iiiid the other the contrnrj", all very finulj 
[Miintcd, certaine men ^ing: before with ejther of them a 
rattle, other following in the raiiist, and the rest of the 
trayne of both vmgs in order four and four; and in tlu 
reure, certnyne of (he chiefest yong men, with long switches 
ill their himds, to kcepc them i]i their places; after nil wbieh 
followcs the governonr, or weroancc himself, in a more slow 
or soleinnc measure, &lop{iiiig iind daunciuge, and all singing 
very timuble. 

The/ have also divers conjurations : one they made at what 
tjine they had taken Captain Smyth prisoner, to know, as 
they reported, if any more of his countrj-men vtoxdd arrive 
there, and what they intended ; the manner of yt Captain 
Smyth observed to be as followeth ; first, soc sone ns daic waa 
shut in, they kindled a faire great fier in a lone howse, about 
which n-HSfiiibled seven pricrts, takiuge Cnptain Smjth by the 
haadj and appointing him his seat ; about the fier they made 
a kynd of eneliantwl circle uf nicale ; that done, the chiefest 
priest, attyred as is expressed, gravely began to sing aud shake 
his rattle, solemly rownding and marching abont the fier, the 
rest followed him silently untill his song was done, which 
they all shutt up with a groane. At the end of the first 
song the chief priest layd downo oertaine graincs of wheat, 
«u(t so continuyed howling and invoking their okeus to 
stand firine and pDWerfiJ to them in divers varieties of songs, 
still eoiintiiig the songs by the g^nynes, imtill they had 
circled the tier three tymes, then they dcvided the graynes 
by certiiine number with little sticks, all the while muttering 
some ympioivs thing unto themselves, oftentymes looking 
upon Capt. Smyth. In this manner they contynucd ten or 
twelve bowers without any other ceremonies or intermission, 
with Bueb violent &tretching of their nrmes, and ^1U■ious pas- 
noQS, jesturesj and simptoms, as might well seeme Strang to 

IKTO vmcixiA. 

him before whoai tliey so conjured, and who every hower 
expected to be tbe toast and one of their sacrifice. Not auy 
meat did tliey eat untill j-t was very late, and tbe night far 
8|>eut. AlioTit the rising of the morning starr they seemed 
to have finished their work of darknes, and theu drew forth 
snch pro^aMon as was in the said howse, aud feasted them- 
selves and him with much mirth. Three or fower dnyes 
they coutyiiucd these elvish ceremonies. Now besides these 
manner of conjurations thus within dores (as we read the 
augurers, in the old tymcs of the like au[ierstitiou, did ascend 
or goe up into the certaiue towers or high places, called there- 
fore augtiracula, to divine of matters), ao doe theygoe forth, and 
either upon some rock standing olone^ or upon some desolate 
promontery top, or ells into the midst of thick and solitary 
woodes they call upon their okcus aud importune theij- other 
quioughcosughes with moat impetuous and intermiuate cla- 
mours and Iiowlbig, and with such paynes and strayned 
accionSj as the neighbour places ccchoe againe of the same, 
and themselves ai'e all in a sweat ;ind over wearied. 

They have also certaine aultcr stones which they call paw- 
corances ; but those stand from their temples, some by their 
hawses, others in the woodos and wilderness; upon these 
they ofter blood, dcare suctt, and tobacco, and that when 
they rettime sate from the warrs, luckely fi-om hunting, and 
upon miiny other occasions. 

We understand they give great reverence to the sim ; for 
wJiiehj huth at bis early rising and late sitting, they conch 
themselves downe, and lift up their hands and eyes, and at 
certayno tymes make a round circle on the gronnd with to- 
haccD, into which they reverently enter, and mnmnire cer- 
tftinc unhallowed wordcs with many a defonned gesture. 

They have also another kind of sorcery which they use in 
etormes, a kynd of botanomantia' witli herbcs ; when the wa- 
ters are rough in the rivers and sea-coasts, their conjurers 
I Soocbtiayiug from herbs. 




run to the wutcm iides, or, pfisiing iii tlieir qumtans, after 
many hellish outcrycs and invocations, thty cast whcsicnn, 
tobaOOOj co]>|ier, pocrjnuK, or such trash into the water, to 
pacirye that god whumc they thiuck to bo very angry in 
those stormcs. 

Before their diuuers and suppers (as Holiodorus remem- 
bers the Kp}'ptians were wont to doe when they sate to meate, 
or at candlelight) the better sort will doe a kind of sacriiice, 
taking the first bitt and caatingc yt into the fier, and to yt 
repeat ccrtaine wordcs. I hare heard Mnchumpa, at Sir 
Thos. Dale'A table, once or twice (upon our request) repeat 
tlic said gnice as yt were, liowbcit I forgot to take yt from 
him in writiuge. 

Tn some part of the country they have yerely a aacrifice of 
children; such a one wiw ut Qiiiyaughcobauock, sonic ten 
miles from James Townc, as aUo at Kccoughtan, which Capt. 
Georg Percy was at, and observed. The manner of it was, 
fiftccuc of the properest yoiige boyes, betweene ten and 
fifteeue yeares of age, they paynted whiter having brought 
them foHh, the people spcut the forcuone in dauucing and 
«ngiug about them with rattles. In the aftcmoone they 
aolemly led those chihb'ene to a eertayne tree appointed for 
the same purpose; at the; rootc whereof, round about, they 
made the childrenc to sitt downe, and by them stood the 
moat and the ablest of the men, and some of them the fathers 
of the childrenc, as a watulifull guard, every one having a 
bastinado in his hand of rcede^, and these opened a lane 
betweene all along, through whicli were appointed five young 
men to fetch those chiklrciie ; and accordingly every one of 
the five tooke his turne and passed through the guard to 
fetch a cliild, the guard fiercely heating them the while with 
their bastinadoes, and shewing much anger and displeasiu-e 
to have the childi'en so ravisht from them; all whicb the 
young men pacyently endured, receaving the blowcs and 
dcfcntliug the children, with their naked bodies, from the 

INTO VTHfiraiA. 


usmcrHifulI stroakes, thai paid them soundly, thouglt the 
children escaped. All the while sate the mothers and kins- 
women sifitr off, looking nn, wcc^pinji aiid tTving out very 
passionately, and some, in pretty wjiymenting^ tunes, sing- 
ing (as yt were] their dii-ge or funeral song, provided nith 
matta, skjimca, musap, and dry wood by thcTn, as things fitt- 
iug their children's funeralls. After the childrcne were thus 
forccably taken from the {^lard, the guai'd possessed (as yt 
were) with a vyolent fury, entred uppon the tree and tore yt 
downe, bowca and braunches, with such a terrible 6erceness 
and strength, that they rent the very body of yt, and shi- 
vered yt in a hundred peeccs, whereof some of them rondo 
them garlandcs for their heads, and some stuck of the 
braunchee and leaves in tlieir haire, wreathinge them iii the 
sn]iie, and so went up and downe as mouruyrs, with heavy 
and sad downecast lookes. What ells was done with the 
childrcne might not he aeeue by onr peiipic, further then 
that they were all cast on a hcapc in a valleye, where waa 
made a great and solemnc feast for all the corapanye; at the 
going whereunto, the night now approaching, the Indians 
desired our people that they would withdraw themselvea and 
leave them to their fmlher proceedinga, the which they did : 
only some of the weroances being demanded the meaning of 
this sacrifiee, made answeare, that the childrenc did not all 
of them suffer death, but that the okeus did suck the hlnod 
from the leaft breast of the child whose ehaunce it was to be 
his by lott, till he were dead, and the remaine were kept in 
the wildeniess by the said young men till nine raooues were 
expired, diuing which tyme they must not converse with 
any ; and of^ these were made the priests and conjurers, to 
be instructed by tradition from the elder priests. These 
sacrifices, or catharraata, they hold to be so necessary, that 
if they should omitt theni they suppose tliis okeus, and all 
the other qmonghcoanghea, which are their other gods, would 
1 So in M 3. Ptoba.blj " plftintive". 



let tbcm no dearc, turkics, coruc, uor fish, and yet besides 
he would make a great slaughter amongst them ; insomuch 
as if evftr the anoypiit superstitions tvnies feared the deviil'ii 
poglttlaria f»/fftiraj lightuiugs that sigtiifiecJ religion of saeri- 
ficet and vowca to he neglected,' thette people are dreadiullj 
afflicted with the terror of the like, insomuch as^ T may tndy 
nye therefore, the like thunder and Lightening is scldoine 
againo P}^hcr seeuo or heard iu Europe as is here. 

Couccniiiig the ymmortality of the sowle, they suppose 
that the common people shall not live after death ; but they 
thinck that their weroances luid priests, indeed whom they 
eatecmc half quioughcosughca, when their bodyes arc laied 
iu the earth, that that which is within shall goe beyond the 
moiiiitayuL's, and travell as farr as ivhere the suu setts into 
most pleasant fields^ growndes, and pastures, where yt shjill 
doe no labour; but, stuck Hnely with feathers, and painted 
with tiyle and pocones, rest in all quiet and peace, and eat 
delicious fruicts, and have store of copi>er, beades, and 
hatchettsj eing, daunce, and have all variety of delights and 
nierryments till that wase old there, as the body did on 
earth, and theu yt ahall dissolve and die, and eome into a 
woman's womb agaiue, and so be a new borne unto the 
world; not unlike the heathen Pytbugoms his opinyon, and 
fable of metempsychosis; nor Is this opinion more ridiculous 
or savage then was the Epicuresj long since, in tyme too of 
morality, who taught that the sowle of man, as of brute 
beasts, wan nothing ells but life, or the vitall power arriainge 
of the temperature and perfcccion of the hotly, and therefore 
died and extinguished togither with the body, the sowle so 
being a meere quality in the body, and when t]io body was 

' The rendering hero given hy Stcachey wf " jiostularia fulgiim" is 
evidenLlj from Festus, th>»iigb bis tiuaint diction would uiislead the 
reader as to the intenticuj of the words. Fe^tits gives the following dctini- 
tioTi of tha term. " Fulgnn qum votonim ant wicrificiorum apretam 
religionem designant". 




to dissolve, thu sUMie must likewise becumc nothing; nor is 
it more hethenous then our Athists, who would even out of 
scriptuie prophaiiely conclude no yinortality of the sowle, to 
be wresting tbiit of Solomon, who saicth, "The condicion of 
mon and beiista are eren os one'*, not acknowledging their 
impious reasonings by fiiUacicSj concluding that which is in 
some respect soe to he simply so, as becansfi tltcir bodies dye 
alike, tliercfure the sowle of man must pi;riMh too. Butj ajas, 
well maye these heathen be pityed and pardoned untill they 
shall be taught ln-ttcr, neither burtic uuder gracOj nor of the 
«eed of promise, when such as profcsse tbemsclves iu their 
great place to be our Saviour Christ's chief ricars here upon 
earth, dare be farr more dissolute, as yt is written of Paule 
the third, Pope of Rome, when he was breathing out his 
sowle, and ready to dye, said that now, at length, he should 
try and knowe three thijigs whereof in his wliole tyme he 
much doubted (viz), whether tliere was a Godj secondly, 
whether sowles were immortal; and lastly, whether there 
was any hell : and Stepbanus upon Heroditus remembers us 
how Pope Loo X answered Cardinal Bembo, that aUeadged 
some pwt of the gospell unto him, — " Lord Cardinall, what i 
a wctdth this fable of Jesus Christ hath gotten us." I say, | 
therefore, yt may well aeeme lesse straimg if amonge these | 
infidclls both the knowledg of our Saviour be questioned, ( 
and the ymmortnlity of the sowle not rightly understood. 
Ilowbcyt, to divert them from this bhndaess, many of our 
people have used their best eudeavoui-s, chiefly iritli Pepis- 
cumah, weroance of Uuiyoughcohauoek, whose apprehension 
and good disposiciou towards us hath hitherto much exceeded 
any in those countryes, with whom, though as yet we have 
not prevaylcd to forsake his take gods, yet this he was woune 
to saye, that he believed our God as much exceeded theirs, 
83 our guns did their bowe and arrowcs; and many tymes, 
upon our people's first eomyng into the country, did send to 

tieut at James Towne meu with presents, cntreatiug 




him to pray to his Rod for rayne, for hift gods would not 
M>nd htm any ; aiul in iliis Inmentable ignumnce due tliese 
poore 8owlo8 lire. 

I will conclude these points with opinion of the Indians 
of pAtawomeck River. The last ycarc 1610, about Chriit- 
mos, M-heii Cnptiiin Ai^ll wns there ti-ading with Jopassiis, 
thf great liing*» hrotlii-r, after many daics of acqiiaintauDce 
with him, lut the pynnnee road before the townc Matclio- 
pongo, Jopaxiitis comyng abourd and sitting (the whenther 
being very cold) by the ficrj upon a hearth in the hold, witli 
the captaine. one of our men was reading of a Bible, to which 
the Indian gave a very uttcnt care, and looked with a very 
wisht eye upon him, as if he desired to understand what he 
rend, whoreupun the eajytiiyiiti tookc the lnjoke, and turned 
to the pictures of tlic Creation of the World, in the bcgywning 
of the hooke, and canned a boy, one Spilman, who had l}*ved 
a whole ycre with this Indian kinge^ and spake his language, 
to fiheiive yt unto him, and to enterpretc yt in bis language, 
which the boy did, and which the king seemed to like well 
of; howbeit, he bad the boy tell the captayiie if he would 
hcare, he would tell him the manner of their bc'gir*ning, which 
was a pretty fabulous tale indeed. " We have {said he) five 
gods in all J our chief god appeares often unto us in the like- 
nes of a mighty great hare; the other foiu- have noe visible 
shape, hut are indeed the four wynds which keepe the fom- 
corners of the earth (and then, with his hand, he seemed to 
quarter out the aeytnations of the world). Our god, who 
takes upon him this shape of a hare, conceaved with himself 
how to people this great worldj, and with what kinde of crea- 
tures, and yt is true (said he) that at length be devised and 
made divers men and women, and made provision for them, 
to be kept up yet a while in a great bag. Nowe there were 
eertayne spiritts, which he described to be like great giants, 
which came to the hare's dwelling-place (being towards the 
rifiiiig of the sun), and had peraeveratmce nf the men and 





vomea which he had put iuto that great biif^g, aud tlioy 
would have had them to c«t, but the gudlye hure rejjroved 
those cauihall apiritts, and drove them awaye/' Now if tlic 
boy had uskerl him of what he made tliose men and wouifii, 
and wLiit those spii'ittti more pm'ticuhirly had hen, nud so liad 
proceeded iu some order, tliey should have made yt hang 
together the better ; bnt the boy was unwilling to question 
him so many things, least he should otFcnd him ; only the 
old man wfcut an, iLcd said how that guiUike Imre niMdc the 
wHtcr, and the fish thereiUj and the land, and a grreat dearCj 
which should feed u|>on the huid ; at which asaetnblud the 
other four gxids, envyous licreat, from tlie cast, the west, fi-om 
the north and »ontb, and with luiuting pooleti kild this gi-eat 
dearc, dreast Inui, und, after they had feasted with him, 
departed agaiue, east, west, north, and south ; at which the 
other god, in (lesplght for this theif' mallice to bim, tooke all 
the haires of the slaJue deiirc, aud spred them upon the earth, 
with many powerfuU worda aud cliamicSj whereby every haii-e 
bccoiuc a deare; and then he opened the great hag, wherein 
the men nod the women were, and placed them upou the 
earth, a. man and a woman in one country, and a man and a 
Tvoiniui in another countrv, and so the world tooke Ins first 
hcgyuning of mankind. The Kiptaine bad the boy ask him 
what he tliouglit became of them after their death, to which 
he answered somewhat like as is expressed before of the 
inhahitaunts about us, how that after they are dead here, 
they goc up to a top of a lugli tree, and there they espie a 
fftirc plaine broad path waye, on botli sides wherof doth grow 
all manner of pheasant fmicta, as mulberies, straherrie!*, 
plombea, etc. In tliis pleasant path they rune toward the 
rising of the sun, whrre the goodly hiu-e's bowse is, and in the 
midway they come to a house where a woman goddesae duth 
dwell, w hoe hath alwaies her doares open for hospitality, and 
halh at all tynies ready drest grccnc vskalahomen and poka- 
hichory, (which is greene corue brused and boylcdj and wal- 



Qutta beaten amali^ then washci) ixuui tlic shells with a qima- 
tity of water, which mnlte* a kind of milke, and wliich they 
estcemc ou cxtraordiimry dwh,) to^ithcr with nil nmiiiii^rof 
pleasjuit fruicts, in a readincs to ciitcrtaj-ne all such as doc 
travell to tlio great hare's bowse j and urben they are wftll 
refreshed, tbcy run in thin pleasant i>ath to the rising of the 
Bun, ttln;ti^ tbey fyiid their forefathers lyving iu prcat plea- 
sure, ill a {;ii(Mlly field, where they doe nothing but dawiice 
aud siug, and feed ou dclitlous fruicts with that great hare, 
wliu is their proat god j and when they have l)"\ed there untill 
they Ijc stnrke old meu, ilicy sale tliey dye there likewise by 
tnrnes, and come into the world a^ne. 

ConcenUDg further of the religion wc hare not yet learned, 
nor indeed i«hiUl wc ever know all the certniiitye cyther of 
these their unhallowed raisteriesj or of their further orders 
and policycs, luitill we caiin make sur|)riM of some of their 


Tlicir manner nf norrs, aud couHultationa thereabout ; of ceitain pro- 
phosicn umongst them ; of Ponhntaa's uuncicnt cnututcx, QJid how 
ihcy nuiic ho wrougtit into league with uh, and tumttd aguinrt him, 
whtroby we maie bring hiin Lik*wiso to he in freiutl#hip with un ; of 
tlieir bowo^, arrowas, ftiid rtwoTd&t, targetts, drumiis; of their phisicli 
and uhinirgcrj. 

"WuES they intend any warrs, the weroances usually advise 
with tlieir priest» or coiijurersj their allies and best trusted 
elinuneellora and fi-uinds; but comonly the priests have the 
resulting voice^ and determync therefore their resolutions. 
Eyther a wei"oauee or some lustie fellowe is appointed cap- 
tivinc over a nation or regiment to be led forth; and when 
tbcy woTild prcsse a number of soldiers to be ready by a day, 
an officer is dispacbt awuye, who comynij into the toivne^, 
or otherwise meeting such wbomc he hath order to warue, 


INTO vinoixiA. 


to strike thum uver the back a sound blow with a bastiuHclu, 
and bidds them he ready to serve the groat king, and tells 
them tlie randevoiw, from whence they dnre not at any tyme 
appointed be absent. They scldomc make warra for landa 
or goods, but for women and cliildreu, and princiimlly for 
revenge, so vindicative and jualous they be to be made a diri- 
sioii of, and to by insulted upon by an enemy. 

Tbcru be at tliis tyrae certayne prophesieH afoot amongst 
the people enhabiting about us, of wbicU Powhatan ys not 
meanly jealous and careful to divert the construction and 
danger which his pricsta coutyuually put him in feare of. , 
[It is] not long since that his priests told him how that from 
the Chcsapeaek Bay a nation should arise which fihould dis- 
solve and give end to hh empire, for which, uot many ycare«j 
Biiiw (pi-rplext with this divelisb oracle, and divers nnder-. 
standing thereof), according to the ancyeut and gentile cus- 
toms, he destroyed and put to sword all such who might lye 
under any doubtful coustrucciou of the said prophesie, as all 
the inliabitiuits, the weroauce and his subjects of that pro- 
vinoc> and so leniaine all the Chcssiopcians at this daye, and 
for this cau:*c, extinct. 

Some of the inhabitants, againe, liave not spared to give 
us to uuderstand, bow they have R second prophcsie likewise 
amongst them, that twice they should give overtlirow and 
dishearten the attemptcrs, and such straungers as should 
invade their territories or labour to settle a plantation among 
them, but the third tyrae they themselves shotdd fall iuto 
their subjection, and under their conquest ; and aure in the 
observacion of om- settlement, and the manner therof hitherto, 
we muye weE suppose that this their apprehension may fully 
touch at us. I leave to expressc the particulers unto an> 
other place, albeyt, let me saye here, mtrauuge whispers 
(indeed) and secrctt at this bower run among these people 
and possesee them with amazement, what may be the yssue 
of tbeuo straung preparations lauded in their coasts, and 




yearly supplyed with fresher trouppes. Every newcs and 
blast of rumour stiykes them, to which they open their earea>| 
wyile, aud kci.'pe their eyes waking, with good espiall upon 
every thing that sturrs ; the noyse of our drums, of our s]triU 
trunipetts and great ordiuauncc, tcrriiicH them, so its they 
startle at tlie report of them, how far soever from the reach 
of (laiiiifTer. Suspicions have bredd atraiinge feares amongst 
them, and thone feares create as straung eunstriiLTioiis^ imtl 
those construccionsj therefore, bcgett strong watch and gard^ 
especially about their great kinge, who thrusts forth trusty 
skowtes and carcfull sentinells, as before niencyoned, which 
reach even from his owue court ilowne almost to om' piUisado 
gates, wliich auswearo one another duly. Many things (whilst 
they observe us) are sidfrwl auiissc amoug themselves, who 
were wont to be so servily fearefiill to trespaase against their 
customes, as yt was a chief point of theii' religion not to 
breaks in any, and all this, and more then this, is thus with 
them, whilst the great tyrant himself nor his priests arc now 
confident in their wonted com-acs. Judge all men whether 
these maye not he tlie forerunners of an alteration of the 
devill's empire here? I hope they be, nay, T dare prognos- 
ticate that they usher great accydents, and that we shall 
effect them ; the Ui^iiie power assist us in tliis worte, which, 
begun for heavenly ends, may have as heavenly period. 

Powhatan had many enemies, especially in the westerly 
countryes, before we made our forts aud habitations so neere 
the Falls ; but now the gcueraU cause hath united thcni, and 
the poore power of their mallice they contend to power upon 
us. Beyond the mountayncs, and at the heads of the rivers 
upon the head of the Powhatans, are the Mouacans, whose 
chief habitaeion ia at Rassawck,, unto whome the Mowhemen- 
cbuges, the Massinnacacks, the Monahassauugbcs, and other 
nations, pay tribute ; and the MouacanSj as I said, have been 
deadly cnemyes ever unto Powhatan, and mayo easily be 
wyned frindsliip with by us to be so againe ; untill when wc 

sliall ever have Powiataii at these prowd aud insolent termes 
at which he now stands ; and therefore yt was most consider- 
ably and directly advised by one of good \}]ncc, aud great 
knowledg, aud by long experience trayned in the managing 
of busines of this nattire, when Sir Thomas Gates went oyer 
sole governonr, May 1609, that wc should endeavour what all 
envadcrs and planters sceke ant, namely to Itnowe and eriter- 
tajne the bordering enemye of that nation, whom wc shalbc 
forced by our sitting downe aniougst them, out of many 
offred occasions, to offend and conatraine j for who can he 
ignorant, saitli he, that tbere was never any iiivaysion, con- 
quest, or far of phintation, that had successe witltoiit some 
partic in the place ytself, or neere yt ? witnea all the con- 
quests made in these our parts of the world, and nil that the 
Spaniaids liave performed in America ; yt cannot hnt appeare 
to all TOcn of judgment esseiiaially necessarj' for our colony 
to get knowledg or make friendship, as conveniently as yt 
maVj %rith as many of the weroaucps which border and make 
warr with Powhatan, as yt can, against whoine, or against 
whose people, yf we should fynd cause now or hereafter to 
use violence. There is no man among themselves so savage, 
or not capable of so ranch scm'c, hut that he will approve our 
cause, when he shalbe made to understand that Powhatan 
hath slaughtered so many of our uation without offence given, 
and auch a« were seated far from him, and in the territory 
of those weroances which did in no sort depend on him or 
acknowlcdg him j but yt hath ben Powhatan's great care to 
keepe us, by all meanes, from the acquaintance of those 
nntious that border and confront him, for besides his know- 
ledge how easely and willingly his enemies wilbe drawne upon 
lim by the least ronutenancc and encouragement from us, 
he doth, by keeping uh from trading ^vith them, monoplize 
all the copper brought into Virginia by the English. And 
whereas the English are noM' content to reccave, in eschaunge, 
a few measures of coruc for a great deale of that mettell 


ni)n'r>Bie or travaile 

(valuyng yt accordiu^ Ui tlie pxtrcnuit^ prieo yt bcarca witli 
them, not to thr eiitymiu.'ion yt liath with u»), Powliatan doth 
af^nc Tent some sniall quantity thereof to his ncighlmnr 
nntimiH for one liuudreil tyme the value, resen-ing, notwith- 
tttHiidin^, forhimself a plcDtifull quiiiitity to Icavy men wKbill 
when lie Kliall find cause to use them Against us ; for the be- 
fore- rem enib red wcroance of Paspalic^b did once wafije four- 
teen or fifteen wcroanccs to assist him in the attempt upon 
the fort of Jntucs townc, for one copper plate pmitniM^l to 
eacli weroancc. 

Heyonil tlio springs of the river TappahaiKK'k (the second 
from Powhatan's) is a people ealleil Mannahonlca ; to these 
are contributory- the Tanxauitanians, the Sbackaconiaa, the 
Outpankas, the Tegoneaa, the Whonkentias, tbe Stognros, 
the Uassiiin^s, and dirers others, all confederates nith the 
Monacans, though many of theiii different in language and 
very barbarous, living for tbe most part upon wild beasts and 
frnictSj and have likewise iissisted the Monncans, in tynies 
past, against Powhatan, and niaic also by us be dealt withall 
and taken into freindship, as opportunity and meanea shall 

Beyond the monnttunes, from whence is the head of the 
river Patawomoek, do iuhabitc the Maaaawomeelis (Powha- 
tan's yet mortall enemies) upon a great salt water, which by 
all likelyhoods may either be some part of Canci^a, some great 
lake, or some iulett of some sea, that may fkll into the «'est 
ocean or Mar del zur. Tlicse Massawomceks are a great 
nation, and very populous, for the inhabitants of the beads 
of all those rivers, especyally the Patawomecks, the Pawtux- 
untSj tlie Sasquesahauoughes, the Tockwoghs, are couty- 
mmlly harbored and frighted hy them, of wliose cruelty the 
said people generally complained, and were very ymportu- 
nate with Captain Smyth and his company, in tbe tyme of 
their discovery, to free them from thoae tormentors, to wluch. 
purpose they offred food, conduct, asBistantSj and coutvnual 

rsTO nunmiA. 


sTihjection, which were motives sufficyent for Captain Smyth 
to promise to retumc with sufficient forces to constraiue the 
said Massawomecks ; Imt there were iii tlie colony tit tliat 
tyme sach fiictions and base cn^-yes, as laalicc in some, in 
some igiiorauce, and cuwardize in others, made that oportu- 
nity to he lost. Seven boats'-fiiil of these Massawomceks, 
tlie discoverers before mentioned encountred at the head of 
the bay, whose targetts, haskctts, awords, tobncco-jiipcs, pbit- 
ters, bowes and arrowcs, and every thing, shewed tliey much 
exceeded them of our pai-ts ; and their desterlty in their 
sevcrall hoats^ made of the bai-kes of treea sowed togithcr, 
and well luted with giun imd rosiu of the piac-trcc, argneth 
that they are seated upon some great water. Of these, like- 
wise, yt may plensc the lord gcucrall agsiiue to enfox-me him- 
self, as clrcumatances and occasion shall serve to turne against 

^C." I graunt that auch the new inliabitauts who now people 

Chesapeak »gaine (the oh! extinguished, as you have heard, 

upou the couceipt of a prophesic), togither witli the wero- 

■ ances of Naudsamnnd, Wairaskoyak, and Weanock, are now 

at peace with him ; howbeit, they maic, peradveuture, ho 

_ drawne from Lira for some rownd rewards and a plentifull 

P promise of copper, thus much (and not unnecessarily) 


Their weapons for offence are Ijowes and arrowcs, and 
wodden sw'or<l8 ; for defence, targetts. The bowes are of 
some young plaiit, eyther of the locust-tree or of weech,* 
which they bring to the forme of ours by the scraping of a 
shell, and give them strings of a stagg's gutt, or thong of a 
deare's hide twisted. Theii- arrowes are made some of streight 
yoimg spriggs, which they head with bone, two or three 
inches long, and these they use to shoote at sf|iurrella and 
all kind of fowlc. Another sort of arrowes they use made of 
reedcs : these are peeced with wood, headed Mith splinters of 
1 The witch lnujol— " Hmnttmelia Vir^iniatta". 



cristall or K>me sharp Mane, with the spurrs of a tiirker cock, 
or the bill of some bird, feathered with a tiirkey*s feather, 
which with a kuife {made of the sphntcr of a rccd, which he 
will lunkc an shar^M; aa a surgeon's ganiott*} he cutta him iuto 
forme, and with which knife, also, he will joyiit a dearo, or 
any beast, sliafie his sanclalk, buskins, mautell, etc. To make 
the uotch of his arrowe^ he hath the tooth of » bevcr sett ia 
a stick, wherewith he grateth yt by degrees ; his arrowc hcdd 
he quickly makcth with a litle bone (which he ever weareth 
at his bracer, and which Ijracer ia comonly of some beast's 
skyune, eyther of the wootf, hadg^er, or black fox, etc.) of any 
Bpliiit of a stone, or peecc of a deare's bone, of an oyster shell, 
or of cristall, in the forme of a heart, biu-b'd and jagged, and 
these they glue to the end nf their arrowea with the »ynewe« 
of deare and the topps of dcaru's borne boyled into a jcllVj, 
of which they make a glue that will not dissolve in cold water, 
Forty yards will they shout levell, or ver)- neere the marke 
and one humlred and twenty is their best at random. 
^ Their swordes be made of a kind of liea\y wood which they 
have, much like such wooden iustruments as otir Kuglish 
women swingle their flax, withnll, and wliicb they call mono- 
cocks, as the sftlvarlges in Bariena,^ in the West Indies, call 
their[s] inacauas, uud be alike made; but oftentymcs the; 
use for swordea the home of a deare put through a peice 
wood it! foTmc of a pickaxe. Some use a long stone sharp- 
ened at both ends, thrust through a hamllc of wood in the 
aame manner, and the«c lairt they were wont to use iustcai 
of hntchetts to fell a tree, or out any massy thinj? in sonder; 
but now, by trucking with us, they have thowaands of o 
ii'on liatclietts, such aa they be. 

Targetts they have, though not many, nor every where 
but those they have are made of the barltcs of trees, rown 
and thicke ynough to keepe out an arrowe. 

* Aa incision-knifo. 

S It tiliQuld be Diurien. 3w HcriDm, dec. i, lib, is, cai>. 6. 



WTO vraawtA. 


For tbcir driimB they have a {p*eat deepe platter of wood, 
the mouth whereof covering with a skyn, at each comer they 
ty a walnutt) which meeting ou tlic back side iieere the bot- 
torae, with a small cord tliey twitch them together iintill they 
be 90 tough and stiffe, thiit they Jiiaye beat upon them as 
doe wcc upon a drum, and they yield a reasonable rattling 
sown tie. 

Their chief attempts are by strHtagems^ surprizes, and 
trecheries, yet the weroances, women, or children, they put 
not to death, but keep them captives. Tliey have a method 
in warrc, and for a pleasure Powhatan would needs have yt 
shewed once to our people, and yt was in this manner per- 
formed at Mattapanient. 

Haidni; piiiutcd aud disgriiiacd themselves iu the fairest 
manner they could devise, they dcvided themselves into two 
companies, well neerc one hundred in u company ; the one 
company they called Monacan's, the other Powhatan's, eyther 
army hud their captaine. Theso (as enemies) took their 
stand a muskett shott one from another, rancking them- 
selves fifteen abreast, aud each ranck from other four or five 
yardes, not in file, but in the opening betwixt their files, so 
as the reare could shoot as convenyently as the front. Hav- 
ing thus pitched the field, from eyther part went n messenger 
iritb condiciona that whosoever were vanquished, such aa 
escaped, upon their submission or comyng in, though two 
daies after, should live, but their wives and childrene should 
be prize for the conquerors. Tlie messengers were no sonar 
returned, but they approached iu tlieir orders, on each flank 
a Serjeant, and iu the reare an offlccr for linetcnant, all duly 
keeping their rancks, yet leaping and singing after their 
accustomed tune, which they use only in warrs. I'pou the 
first flight of arrowes, they gave such horrible showts and 
acritches as so many infernall hclhounds ; when they had 
spent th(Mr arrowes tliey joyued togithei prettily, charging 
and retiring, every ranck seconding other. As they gett 


■"ft*^"* or TRAVAILS 

Rfltiuitagc, tliey ciitcbcd their enemies by the bairc of their 
heod^ and dowoc he ctunc that wbs taken; his enemy, with 
a wood(l«n sword, seemed to heat out his braines, and still 
they crept to t!ie reare to niuyutayne the Hkyrmish. The 
Monocana dccrcasinj;, the Powliiitaus charged them iu forme 
of n halfe mooue ; they, unwilling to bc inclotied, fled all in 
a troupe to their ambuacadooa^ on wliome tltcy leJ them 
veiy cunningly. The Mouocans diaperst themselves amou^; 
the freshmen, whereupon the Powhatans retired themselves 
with all speed to their seconds, which the Monocaiis seeing, 
tooko tliat advantage to retire againe to their owne battaile, 
and 80 each returned to tlieirc owne quarter. All their 
accion, voices, and gpstnres, both in cliardging and retiring, 
«'ere so strayned to the height of their quality and nature, 
that the straunguess thereof made yt secmc very delightfuU. 

Concerning a greene wound cawaed eythcr by the stroake 
of an axe, or sword, or isiich sharpe thiuge, they have present 
remedy fur, of the juyce of certayiie hearbes ; howbe)^ a 
eornptiuiid wound (as the surgt-ond call it) where, beside the 
opening and cutting of the fiesh, any rupture is, or bone 
broken, «nch as our Kniall shutte make upon them, they 
knowe not ea.sily how to cure, and therefore hinguish in the 
misery of tUc pa)7ie thereof. Old ulcers likewise, and putri- 
fied hurt* arc seidome seeue cured amongst them : howbeit, 
to scarrrfyc a awelliuj^, or make incisyon, they have a kind 
of intitrumeut of Homo splinted stone. 

Kvcry spring they make themselves sick with drincUng 
the juyco of a roote which they call wighsacan and water, 
wherof they take soc great a quantity, that yt pnrgcth them 
in a very violent maTiucr, so that in three or four daies after 
thoy Bcarse recover their former health. Somut^-mes they 
are sore trebled with dropseyes, swellings, aclies, and sucb 
like deceases, hy reason of their nneleanenes and fowle feed- 
ing ; for cure whereof they buyld a stove in tlie forme of a 
dove howsB, with raatts soe close, that a fewe coals therein, 
covered with a pott, will make the patient sweat extrcainely. 



For swelling, also, they use small piceea of touch wood in 
the forme of cloves, which, pricking on the grinf, they biirtie 
close to the flesh, anrl from thence drawe the corruption 
with their mouthc. They Imve many professed phiMtians, 
who, with their charmes hiuI rattles, with an inferaall rowt 
of words and accions, will aeeme to suck their inward grief 
from their navclla, or their affected places ; but concerning' 
oiu- ehirugians tlicy are generally so conccipted of thcoi, 
that they beUeve that their plaistcrs will heale auy hmi;. 

CAPUT rx. 

Of thuir tocottomick gr liowshold aSa-iros ; bow tboy olttcjao thoir yiivw ; 
the womfin'a works ; anJ wherefore th«y coutoiiJ for manie wiTcs. 

They exprcsse their loves to siicli women m they would mako 
choise to live withall, by presenting tlietu with the fruicts of 
their labours, as by fowlcj fiah, or wild beasts, which by their 
huntings, their bewes and arrowes, by weerca, or otherwise, 
they ohteyue, which they bring unto the young women, as 
also of such somcr fruicts and berries which their travells 
abroad hath made them knowc readcly where to gather, and 
those of the best kind in their season. Yf the young may- 
den become ouec to be sororians viryo,'^ ami live imder pa- 
rentSj tlie parents must allow of the sutor ; and for their 
good wills, the woer promiseth that the daughter slial! not 
want of such pix>visioiis, nor of deare skynn-i fitly tlrest for to 
weare; besides, he promiseth to doe his eudearour to procure 
her bcades, perlc, and copper, and for haiulsell gives her 
before them something as a kind of arrasponsalU'ta^ token of 
betroatliing or contract of a further amity and Acquaintance 
to he contynucd betwecue them, as so after as the likeing 

I i.f. tar'wml nt pulierty. Fostus sa;s "Suroxtarv Qianuiuu diuuutur 
puclhiruni, cum primum tumcsount." 

1 Eaxacet luguey In latificution of tho cspauaals. 


nisToRiE OF thavailc 

groves; and a« soone as he hath pmncled her a house (if 
he have uoiic before) and some platters, morters, and 
mutts, he takes her homci and the wcronncca after this man- 
ner mnye have aa many as tlioy can obteyiie, howbeji, all the 
rost whomc they take after their first clioisc are (aa yt were) 
mercynarv, hired but by covenant and condicion, for a tjrmc, 
a yearc or soe, ufUir which tliry may pntt them awayc; hut 
if they keepc them lon^^er then the tyme appointed^ they 
mnst ever keepe them, how deformed, dcscascd, or nnftccom-i 
paninble soever they may prove. 

They are people most voluptious; yet are the women very 
carefull not to be suspeeted of dishonesty, without the leave 
of the husbands; but he giving his consent, they arc Ukc 
Virgill's Fcranti/p,^ and may erahrase the acquaintance of any 
strainiger fur nothing, and it is accompLed no oftenco; and 
incredible j-t is, with what heat both sexes of them arc given 
over to thoee intemperances, and the men to prept^ terog a 
Venus, for which they are full of their comitrj'e desease (the 
pox) very young; for cure of which, yet, they have both 
meanes of their owne, and sufficient skill, applying ccrtainc 
hcrbcs and bruscd roots which doe presently case, and in 
tjTne cure (wliich kind of medicines Paracelsus callcth 
xetiativa medivatitettta) , having, beside the saxafras, one 
hearb which (as yt is supposed) in short tyme qneneheth and 
mortifieth the malignart poysou of that finvle deseaae. 

The women ai-e said to be easily delivered of child; yet do 
they love childreue very dearly. To make the children liardye, 
in the coldest mornings they wa»h them in the rivers, and by 
paintings and oyntcmeuts so tanne their skynns tliat, after a 
yeare or twoo no weather will hurt them ; as also, to practize 
their children in the use of ther bowes and arrowes, the mo- 
thers doc not give them their breakfast in a morning before 
the) have hitt a marke which she appoints them to shoot at: 

' Wd hnvo D(^t met witVt tbk word iu Virgil. It occurs ia PUuUiB as 
the epitbet of a dospicable woman. 




and comonly so cunning they will Imve thcoij as throwing up 
in the ayrc a piece of mosscj or some such light thinge, the 
boy must with liis arrowe mcete yt in the fall, and Lit it, or 
clla he shall not have his breckiast. 

Both men, women, and childrcne have their scvcrall names; 
at first uccordiug to the severall humour of their parents; 
iiud tor the men. chiltlrcn, ut first, wlicn they arc young, 
their mothers give them a name, calling them by some affec- 
tiunate title, or, perlinppa observinfj theii* promising inclina- 
tion give yt accordingly ; and ao the great King Powhatan 
called n young daughter of liis, whome he lovctl well, Prjcha- 
liuntaa, which may sigiiifie little wanton ; howbeyt she was 
rightly called Amonato at more ripe ycares. V^'hen tliey 
become able to travel into the womls^ axiH to goe forth a 
hunting, fowling, and fishing with their fathers, the fathers 
give Idm another name as he finds bim apt and of spiritt to 
prove toward and valiant, or otherwise changing the mother's, 
which yet in the family is not so soone forgotten; and if aoe 
be yt he by agUity, Htrengtb, or any extraortbnury strainc of 
vitt he performes any rcmarkcable or valerona exploite in 
open act of armes, or by strattigeni, 082)ecyally in the tyme 
of cxtrcamity in the wnrrs for the pnbliquc and common atatc, 
upon the enemie, the king, taking notice of the same, doth 
then not only in open view and solemnely reward him with 
some present of copper, or chaiuc of perle, and bedes, but 
doth then like\vise (and which tliey take for the mnst em3^lent 
and supreme favoiu") give him a name auswem-able to the 
attempt, not mnch ditfonng herein from the anncyent war- 
like encoiu-agemcut and order of the Romans to a well dc- 
sening and gfUlaiiit young spirrit. 

The men fish^ hunt, fowle, goe to the warrsj make the 
weeres, botes, and auch like manly exercises and all labourer 
abroad. The women, as the weaker sort, he put to the easier 
workea, to sow tln.'Lr cornc, to vicx-a] atid clcanHe the namo of 

eLuke, dodder, and choak weed, and auch likc^ which 




ells would wynd altotit the coriie aud hinder the growtli of 
yt; for, by rcasun of the rankness uiid histineH of the pvwnd, 
Buch wcedes spring up very easely aud thick, and if not 
pluckt awaie, tli« carne would prosper so much the worse; 
for which they kccpc the hillocks of thcirc come, and the 
passadg hetwccn (for tlicy sott their wheat as wc doe our 
hoppes, an equal distance one hill from nuothcr) iuh neat and 
cleane as we doe our <rard(:in hedda : likewise the women 
plant anil attend the gardcins, dreasc the nieatc brought 
home, make theii- broaths aud pockerchicorj' drinckes, make 
tnatts and basketts, pownd tbcir wheat, make their bread, 
prepare tlieir vessels, beare all kindes of burtliuns, aud such 
like, and to which the children sett their bandcs, helping 
their mothers. 

'riien^ are notes to he taken by which may be discerned a 
niarryed woman from a mayd : the maydea have the forepart 
of their lieads and sides mhaven elose, the liindcr part very 
long, which they wynd very prettcly awd ymbroyder in 
phiytcs, letting yt hang SQ to the full length; the marrycd 
women weare their haire all of a length, shavctt as the Irish 
by a dish.' 

The womc-u have a great care to maynteyuc and hcepe 
fier liglit still within their howses, aud if" at any time it go 
out, they take yt for an evil signe, but if j-t be out they kin- 
dle yt againc presently, ly cliauffing a dry pointed stick in 
a hole of a little square piece of wood; that tiring ytself will 
80 fier mouse, leaves, or any such like thing that is apt 
quickly to bume. 

They make them sometimes candells of tlie fattest splin- 
ters of the piue or fiiTO tree, which will give a good cliere 
liglit, aud hurne strongly, though the matter will soon con- 
sume, for which they have many slivers ready cut out a foote 
longf sorao shorter, to be ready to light a. second as sooue as 
the first goes out ; aud iu Shropshier, betweene the lordsliips 

1 i'. f. II bowl. 


of Oswestry and EUesmere, the like lightes tbcy use at this 
daie of the firre tree, of wMcb yt is aayd there be infinite 
takcu dailie out of the earth iu a uiarish growud, imd sup- 
posed to have lycn iu tlie moist earth ever since the generall 
flood, the chippes whereof they use in steed of candells, in 
poorc bowses, so fatt is the wood, as is the smell also strong 
and sweet. 

Their come and (indeed) their copper, hatchetts, bowses, 
beades, perle, juid most thln^ with them of value, accordiug 
to their owne crtymacion, they bide, one firomthe knowledge 
of another, in the gruwnd within the woodcs, and so keepe 
them nil the yenre, or uutill they have fitt use fur them, as 
the Homaius did their monies and treasiu'e in certaiue ccU 
lars, called, therefore, as Plinye remembers, famssa; and 
when tbcy take them forth, they Bcarse make their women 
privic to the storehowse. 

They are much desirous of onr eoraodityea, and therefore ' 
when any of our boates arrive before their to^mcs, tbcy will 
coiiie downe unto ua^ or suffer us to cjome up into their 
bowses, and dcmaund after copper, white hcodca, bowcs to 
pare their corne feilds, and hatehetts, for which they Mill 
give us of such things as they have in exchaurg, na deera 
skin*, fiirrs of the wild catt, black fox, beaver, otter, arach- 
oune, fowlo, fish, deare, or beare's flesh dried, deare's suet 
made up liandsomcly in cakes, their country come, peas, 
beancs, and such like; and indeed (to say tniith) their victuall 
is their cliief riches. 

We have obsen'ed bow when they woidd affirme any thing 
by much earnnstucs and truith, they use to bynd yt by a 
kyiid of onth; cither by the life of the great king, or by 
jtointing up to the siui and clapping the right hand upon 
the heart, and aometymes they have bene understood to 
sweare by the manes of their dead father. 

If tbcy will CKpresse that we and they wilbe or are all one 
fricndcs or brothers, as their word is, they will joyne the 




indices or twoo forefingers togitber of either hand, as the 
Indians of Nova Francia; or ells, clamping their fingers within 
ours, they will gaie, ao ami so close jojned and neere we arc 
unto their luves. 

The reason whic each chief patron of a iamilie, especially 
weroances, are desirous, aud indect) Ktrive for maiiie wives, is, 
because they would have maiue children, who maie, if chaiuice 
be, fight for them when they are old, as also then feed and 
mayntein them; yet sure, for the nomber of people iuliabiting 
these partes, this country hath not appeared so populous 
b"crc to as OS cllawhcrc in the West Indies ; and pcrhappes 
their ignorance in not fyiidiug out yet the use of many 
things ncocssario and bencticiall to nature, which their coun- 
trie yet plentifully and naturally afforJcs, their often warrs 
for women (in which manic hundreds perish), and their 
j-raoderate use and multiplicity of women {and those often 
full of fowlc diseases) leave this country not so well stocked 
as other parts of the maine, and as the islands liavc bene 
found to be by the Spauiards ; besides (uuder correction) 
yt yet maie be a probleme in pliilosopliy whether variety of 
women be a fiirthcrance or hiuderer of manie birthes? yt 
being clccrc in these conntrics where (as I said) so manie 
penuries for want of knowledge yet be amongst the people, 
that the tired body cannot have those sensuall helpes (as the 
Turkes) to hold up the ymoderate desu-esj manic women 
deviding the body, and the strength thereof, make yt gcncrall 
untitt to the office of increase rather than otherwise : and so 
maie the comon people especially, for the most part, for this 
reason likewise be not so long lived here as ellswhere, even 
amongst aalvadgcs where gi'cater modcraclou is used, and 
where they kcepe a stricter ceremonic in their kind of mar- 
riages, and have not as manic women as they can buy or wyn 

by force and violence from the cnemyes. 

UrrO \1KGIK1A. 



or tb« commoditieH of the countrj, — fimicts, trees, beMts, fowle, fish, perle, 
copper, and minea. 

TiiAT yt may yet furtlier appiCare howe this country is not so I 
luiked of commoditie uor wretched of provisiou fitt fur the sua- 
tenance of nuuikind, as some ygnorautly ymoj^ine, and others 
have fiJcely reported, I will in this chapter propose (for the 
tcstiraouic of the truith thereof 1 may appealc to many hun- 
dredsj which may couvince], the relatiou of a diiscourso only 
for forme or a^taeutaciou delivered ; i»or lett any man sup- 
pose that materialls of so good a uane as raaie be there 
framed for plauckes, masts, pitch, and tuiTQj soapashcs, tur- 
pentine, iron, cordage, mulberry trees for silke, and another 
kind of silkc of the grasse, sasafiras, and other aromaticall 
diuggs, glims, oyle, and dyes ai"e of noe value, or uot worthy 
the exposure of a colonic for accondarie and politique codes 
to be established there, since MuMCovia and Polonia doe 
ycarlie rcccavc manic thowsandca for pitch, tarre, sopcashe«, 
rosin, flax, cordage, sturgeon, ma*its, yardcs, waynscot, firrs, 
glasse, and such like; also Swethland' rcceavcs much from 
us for iron and copper ; France, in like manner, for wyne, 
canvass, and Sidt; Spayne as mnch for iron, Steele, figgs, ray- 
Boas, and sacks ; Italy for silks and vclvctts, consumes our 
chief commodites; Holland majTite3raesyt self hy fishing and 
trudiug at our own dores. AH these temporize with others 
for necessity, hut all as uncertaine as peace and warre ; 
besides the charge, travcll, and daunger in transporting 
them by seas, lands, stormes, and pyratts. Thcu how much 
may Virginia have the prerogative for the bencfitt of our 
laud, when as within one hundred miles ail these arc to be 
had eithet- readie provided by nature, or ells to be prepared, 
were there but industrious men to labour ; so as, then, here 



is a place, a nurse for soldiers, a practize for marrinprS; a 
trftde for marchaiita, a reward for the good, and, that which 
IB must of all, a biwiuos most acct*iit«ble to God, to bring 
/ poorc infidcUs to his knowledge; jand, albeit, our shipiw 
^ome will objccA) now returning from tlieiice yearly, come 
freighted liome only, yet with certaine pretious woods; yt is 
to be remembered how that from Hispaoiola, Cuba, and 
Portrico the Spaniards, in their yearel}' diues of possessing 
the Indies, made rctumes a long tyaie of the like, as of 
cassia, fishila, ebony, guacnm, lignum \itfB, etc., tmtill they 
found out the niynes, as iiiiiy wee, we dunbt uothiug, in the 
heart and bosomo of tnu-s when we ahalbe enabled truly to 
disseet yt, fytiding nuch appearances now in the suburbs of 
yt, as yt werc, the whicli to tyme, the true revealer of great 
thinges, I submit, or rather to Ilini from whom, if our un- 
thankfulness deprive us not of the blessing, we may expect a 
prosperous and assured compcnsacion and satisfaccion to 
wipe of ilII skores, ei in asmm. sathfnccre, all the eliaitlges 
and dtshurscmcnta which have hitherto gone ont for yt ; 
albeit, auct is the busines, as yt should awake all charitable 
Clmstiau3 to follow j-t according to the goodness of the 
cause, and not according to the greatnea of proffitt and 
. commodities. Lett MHtuinou perish with his gold, that 
haih no other but such stubble meercly to enkindle the flame 
/ of his zealc imto so holie a worke. 

The natives have here a kiude of wheat which they call 
poltetawcs, as the West Indians call the same main. The 
forme of yt is of a man's tooth, somewhat thicker ; for the 
prcptixing of the ground for which, they use this manner : — 
they bruise the bm-ke of those trees which they will take 
Bwaie ncere the roote, then do they scorch the rootcs with ficr, 
tliat tlioy grow no more ; the nest ycarc, with a crooked piece 
of woodj they beat up those trees by the rootes^ and in their 
mowldes they plant their come : the manuer is thus, they 





make a hole in the enrtli with a atick, and into yt they put 
tliroe or five groiuet} of wheat, and one or three of bcanes : 
these holes they make four or five foot one from another, for 
the come hciug set elose together, ono sttilke would choak 
ells the growth of tinother^ and so render both unprofitable. 
Tlieir women and children do contyiKially keepe the ground 
with weeding, and when the come is growne middle high, 
they hill yt about like a hoppeyard, and the atalkc will growe 
a man's height, or rather more, from the ground, and every 
stalkc commonly bcarcth twoo cares, some three, manic but 
one, and some none. Every eare groweth with a gi-eat hose 
or pill uhout yt luul above yt; the stalke being greeue Irnth a 
sweet jnyce in yt, somewhat like a sugar-cane, wtich is the 
cause that when they gather the come greene, they suck the 
stalkcs, for aa we gather gi-ecne peas, so do they, their corue 
being greene, which excelleth their old. 

Peaa' they have, which the natiTen call asscntemmens^ and 
are the same which in Italy they call fagioli. 

Their beaues" are little like a French bcane, and arc the 
same which the Turks call garvances, and these kind of pulse 
they much csteeme for daynties. 

By their dwellings are some gi-eat mulberryc' trees, and 
these in some parte of the country are found gi-owing naturally 
in pretty grovc-s : there waa an a.ssay made to make silke, and 
surely the wonues prospered excellently well uutill the master 
workcman fell sick, during which tyrac they were eaten with 
ratta, and this wUbe a comraoditie not meanely profitable. 
Now j't is seriously considered of, and order taken that yt 
shalbc duly followed. 

In some places we fynd chesnutta," whose wild fruict I raaie 

' Probably a speciea o{ pkaaeolu4, and tbe same aa the " wUd pease" of 

' AIm) pTo1)0.1]1y a species <ii fthageohu. 

* ilfora* ruira, L. A species diU'ering from tbe EiuopaaiL 

* Tbe same species with the European chestnut, CCUtOftea vetca, Gsrtn. 



well saie C(|ua)li2c tlic best in Vraunoe, Spaine, Germany, 
Italy, or those so cwmmL'ntled in the Black, sea, by Constau- 
tinnple, of till n'hich 1 havo eiiton. 

They have a Bmall fhiict growing in little trees, husked 
like a chesniit, but the frtiict most like a very small acron, 
tliis they coll cLcchuiquamma,' and tlicsc, with chc^nutt9,tbcy 
boile fom- or fire hoiires, of which they make both broth and 
bread, for their t'hiof men, or at their greattwt fi-astJ*, 

They have cherries,' much like a damoizin, but for their 
tnst and cullour wo cidled them cherries; and a plomb there 
is, somwhat fairer then a chcrric, of the same relish, then 
whicih are sehlome a better eaten. 

They Imve a berry much like our goose- berries' in great- 
ness, cullour, and tast, these they call rawcomcncs, and they 
doe eate tliem rawe or boyled. 

In the watry vjillcisgrowctli aborry wliich they call ocougb- 
tanamins, very much like unto capers; these they gather and 
dry in the lieiit of tlie sun, and when they will eate them, 
they boylc them iiorc halfc a daie, tor otherwise they differ 
not much fi-om poison. 

Nattouxne groweth aa our bents doe in rocadowcs, the seed 
is not much unlike to rie,* though mucli smaller ; these they 
use fnr a dryntie bread, buttered with deare's suett. 

Tliey have a plomb wliich they call pea8emmin&,' like to a 
medler, in Eng:lanfl, but of a deeper tawnie cullour; they 
grow on a most liigh tree. When they arc not fully ripe, they 
are harsh and choakie, and furre in a man's moutli like allam. 

1 The " chinqmLptii-'buih" of Oatesbj's " OaToU&&", aod ccutCMa ptimila 
of Michrvux. 

' There are nevcml native specioB of cherries and plumB ; but the do- 
vcription u not euificieiit for their ducrimiDa-tioti. 

> Probably ft truti pooacborrj ; hut Clayton gives the same of "gowo- 
lierries" to the vaceiniunt stuminearA of Liunmiia. 

* Leersia Virt/im4M-, WiUd. I but if so, the comparison should bo with 
rice, (UiU uot with rye. 

» DiM^yro* Yir^iniana, L. (now called j>n-mwn.) 



howbeit, being taken fully ripo, yt is ft reasonable plcaaant 
frmctj somewhat lushious. I have scene our people put tHem 
into their baked and sodden pmldings; t!icrc be whose tast 
allo\re!4 them to be !is pretious as the KugUsh apricock j I con- 
fesac it is a good kind of horse plumb. 

Here is a cherry-redd fruict both within and mthout (as I 
have seenc the like in the Bcntiuflas), whirh wee call the 
prickle peare;' in the Indies they are well knowne to every 
common marrynor; they beare abroad, thick, spungeous leafe, 
fiUl of kemells ; they be like unto the pomcgranct ; the tast 
of this peare is verie pleasant, and the juyce cold and fresh, 
like the water in the "West Indian nut called eoeus ; the juyce 
is sharpc and penetrable like deaJe-wyue,' prescribed |)Ower- 
fuU against the stone. 

Here is a fruict by the naturalls called a loaracock;* tlil? 
groweth generally low, and creepeth in a manner araougst the 
come (sJbeit I have seene yt, planted in a gardein within our 
fort, at James Townc, to spred and rise as high as the pale); 
yt is of the bignes of a queen a-pplcj and hath ninuie nzurine 
or blew karnellSj like as a pomegranetj and yt bloometli a 
most sweet and delicate fiower, and yt is a good sommer 
cooling fruict, and in every field where the Indiana plant their 
come be cart-loads of them. 

The macokos* is of the forme of our pumpeons, — I must 
confesse, nothing so good, — 'tis of a more waterish tast ; the 
inhabitiuits sccth a kind of miliio/t,^ which they put into their 
waluut-miike, and so make a kyud of toothsome meat. 

* Opuraia v\dffaria. Mill. Ttio well-knawn ladiau fig, orpricklj pear. 

* \.e. Bprucc. 

* Paxsijlora incarrtata of TJaiiajus. 

* Gerard notices "the Virginian macocks ot pompion", and also "the 
Virginian water- melon"'. Tlieae are proliaMy varietioB of the commDn 
pumpluD, metiT/nia ^le-po, L. ; but tbiii plant is not rogatdod hy AnicTi<!nn 
botauifitfi as imligeDouni, while the enlaljaali, la^enaria I'til^aris of Springe, 
ifl knoiTD to have l>eeQ cultiyated b; the Indians iroco the earliest period. 

* Melon. 



lu ApriU^ ^laic, and June, arc groat store of strawberncs^ 
raspicea/ hurts,^ etc., and noany hcarbs ia the spring time arc 
conioiily «lisptT»cd tliroiigliout the woodcs, gowi for hroathcs 
and sallotts, as violetts, piirselin, sorrell, and roses, in their 
Heaaon, etc., besides many we used whose named we knowc nut. 

Tt would easilie raise a well-stayed judgement into wonder 
(aa Sir Thomas Dale hath writt sometimes uuto his majesty's 
couusell here for Virj^iiia) to behold the goodly vines' 
burthenin^ every neighbour bush, and cl^'mbiug the toppcs 
of highest trees, and those full of clueters of grapes in their 
kind, however drecpcd and sharlowed soever from the sun, 
and though aever pruned or mimurcd. I dare saie yt, tliai 
we have eaten there, as full and lushious a grape aa in the 
viUages betweeue Paris and Amiens, and T liavc dniiiek often 
of the rathe* wincj which Doctor Bohune and other of our 
people have made full aa good, a» yoiu" French British wyne. 

Twenty gallons at a tymc have bene sometimes made with- 
out any other belpe then by crushing the grape with the band, 
which letting to settle five or six daie^, hath, iu the drawing 
forth, proved strong and headdy. Unto what perfection might 
not these be brought by tliC art and industiy of mauie skil- 
full vi7i^room's,'^ beiug thus naturally good? And how mate- 
rial! and principall a coramoditie this maie prove, cither for 
tlic benefitt of sn.iehwlio shall inhabit there, or toberetwmcd 
over hither (especially where we niaie have pipe staves to make 
onr casks of, so chcape, and at hand), 1 preferre yt to Indif- 
ferent judgements. 

' "Raspices" probably LiouipruIiciuJm] all kinds of hlackbcrri«i. The 
bniQ ntspberry is not iDdigenoUH to thu Uuit«<l 8tutu8; liut tlicro arc 
several closet; related u»tivc Bpuciea. 

5 " Hurts" arc, no doubt, the ihiits of a species of Mcciniitm, so called 
from their re»Gin1iliLuoi* to the hurts, r-r whortleVrritM!, oC otir own counti^. 

* Probably -niSia vidpiiut of LJnii.mua, the ibx-gr&p€ of thu southom 
states. Tbo cultivnteil varieties of vitiM iabruaca, the fbx-grapo of tho 
northern states, appear to be at picscnt more esteemed. 

* Early. * Tignerons. 



Maiiyrootes tlie Indians Imvc here likewise for food. Tlio 
chief tlicy c:iU tockowhough/ and yt groweth like a flag in low 
muddy freshrs ; in one day a salvadpfc will gather STifficient for 
a weeke : these routes jut much of the greatncs and tnst of 
potatoes. They nsc to rake np a great nomber of them in. old 
leaves and feniej and then cover all with eai-tli or saud, in the 
maimer of a coal-pit ; ou each side they coutymio a (ireut ficr 
a daie and a night before they dare eate yt ; rawe, yt is no 
better then poison, and being roasted (except yt bo tender 
and the heat abated, or sliced and dryed in the sun, mixed 
with sorrcll and mealc, or sucli like), yt will priekh; and tor- 
ment the throat extrcamely, mid yet in sonimer they use this 
ordinarily for bread. 

They have another roote whieh they call vighnacfm; as the 
other feedeth the bodie, so tliis curcth thcii* hurts and dis- 
eases, yt is a smale roote, which they bruise and applie to the 

Pocones' is a small roote that growctli in the mountaines, 
which, being dried imd heat into powldcr, turneth red, mid 
this they use for swellings, aches, annoynting their joyuts, 
payutiug their heads and garments with yt, for which they 
accompt yt very pretious and of much worth. 

Musquaspcnne is a root of the bignes of a finger, and as red 
as blood ; in drying, it will wither alinost to nothing : with 
this they use to paynt their matts, targettSj and such like. 

There is here great store of tobacco, which the salvages call 
apookc; howbeit yt is not of the best kynd, yt is but poore 
and weake, and of a hyting tast, yt growes not fully a yard 
above ground, bearing a little yellowe flower, like to henne- 

' Ljfroperiloii aolidum nf liinnmufl. "Ad pauom oonGciBHiliiiii Indi 
utuntur, vulgo Tutiknhoo." — Cl«jti>n. 

- Anckuva Vir^lniana of Liuukub, " Puccoon inJigtiuis divtn, qua so 
pinguiit Amcriciuii," — Phihiut- But it ajtpcttfn froiii CJIiiytou tliiu tho 
nutivcH guvo tliu BttUi« iiuino tt> tho " Ijlood-root," mri^wutria auiatlen^U 
of LinniviiH. Perhiips on« tr other of these (and more prubably tlic latter) 
uiit^- lie indicated iu the followiug jiaiftgra^h. 

msTOBXE or TlurAII.E 

bane^ tbe leaves arc short and thick, somewhut rouud at the 
upper end i whereas the bcJst tobacco ofT^)^lidado and the 
Orouoque is large, shnrpCj and growing two or three yardcs 
from the ground, bearing a flower of the bredth of our bell- 
flowers in England : the sBlvagea here dry the leaves of this 
apookc over the fier, and somctjTnes in the sun, and crumble 
yt into poulder, Rtalks, Icnvet*, and all, taking the same in 
pipes uf eiirlli, wliieh vcrj' ingeniously they can make. We 
observe that those Indians M'hicb have one, twoo, or more 
women, take much, — bnt such as yet have no appropriate 
woman take little or none at all- 

Here is also pcllitory of Spaiuc, and divera other symples, 
which onr appothecarics have geathered and fonnd to he 
good and int'difiualjle. 

In the low marishes grow plotts of onions conteyning an 
acre of ground or more in manic places, but they are small, 
like the chiballs/ or schallions,' not past the bignea of the 
toppe of one's thumb : they eate wrll sod or citherwise in 
aallet or in bakt meats. Oiir people find good and whol- 
fiome relish in them; howbeit the inhabitants cannot abyde 
to eate of them ; and these onions doe for the most part 
appeare in the last season of the yeare, for yt is to be under- 
atood how the Indians devide the ycare into five seasons, — 
the winter, which they call popanow, the spring, cattapenk, 
the sommer, cohattayough, the etuing of their corne, nepeu- 
ough, the harvest and fall of the leafe, taquitock. 

They have divers beasts fitt for provision; tbe chief are 
dcarc, both redd and fallow ; great store in the country 
towards the heads of the rivers, though not so many amongst 
the rivera. In oiu* island, about James Towne, are some few 
nothing differing fi'om ours in England, but that of some of 
them the autletts of their homes are not so manic. Our peo- 
ple have secne two hundred, one hundred, and fifty in a lierd. 

There is a buast they call arocoune, much like a badger, 
^ Ciiives^ a'poUe. ^ iSfia&otB, eehalolttt. 



tayled like a fox, and of a mingle black and grayisK cullotir, 
and which uacth to live on trees, as squirrells doe. Excellent 
meate we kill often of them : the greatest nombcr yet we 
obt^ue by trade. 

SquirrclU they have, and those in great plcntic; are very 
good meat ; some are as great as oiir smallest sort of wild 
rabbitts, some blackish, or black and wliitc, like those which 
here aro called silver luiyrwl; hut the most are grey. 

A smidl beast they have which the Indiana call assopa- 
nick, not passing so big as a rattj but we ciiJl tbcra flying 
siluirrcllR, because, sprtmding their leggs, from whence to 
either shoulder runs a ftaiipc, or fyune, much like a bait's 
Ting, and 6o stretching the largeness of their skyus, they 
have bene scene to make a pretty flight from oue tree to 
another, somctynics thirty or forty yardea. 

An opussuni is a beast as big as a pretty beagle, of grey 
cullour; yt hath a head like a swyuc; cares, feet, aiid taylc 
like a ratt ; she carries liRr yrning ones under her belly, in a 
piece of her owiie skyn, hke as in a biigg, which nhe eau open 
and shutt, to lett them out cr take them in, as she plcasctb, 
and doth thcrt;in lodge, caory, and suckle her young, and 
eates in tast like a pig. 

Muscascus' is a beast black in cullour, proportioned like a 
vator ratt; ho hath a cod within him, which yicldcih a 
strong scut, like unto musk ; yt is a good meat if the cod be 
taken out, otherwise the flesh will tast most strung and 
rauck of the musk ; so will the broath wherein yt is sod. 

Hares they hare some few about James Townc; hut both 
in the ishmds aii(5 nmyue, ui) at the falls, and helow about 
Fort Henry and Cliarks Fort, great store ; howbcit they are 
DO bigger than our conies. 

BearcB tliere be monie towardcs the sen-coast, which the 
Indians hunt most greedily ; for indeed they love them above 
all other their flesh, aud tlierefore hardly sell any of them 



iiiito U9, luUcs upou Ifir^ proffers of copper, beads, tmd 
batchetta. We have eaten of them, and thoy are rery tooth- 
fioomc sweet venison, as pood to be eaten as the flesh of a 
calfe of two yeares old ; Uowbeit they arc very little in com- 
parison of those of %f nscovia and Tartaria, 

The beaver there ia as big as an ordinary water do^, but 
his leg:gs exceeding short ; hia forefeet hke a doggs, his 
hitider like a swannySj his tayle somewhat like the forme of 
a rackett, bare, without haire, which, to eate, the sali'ages 
esteenic a great <lelicAte. 

Otters there be maiiic, which, as the bevers, the Indians 
take T^^ith gjTins and snares, and estceme the skynns ^^eat 
ornaments; and of all these beasts they use to feed when 
they catch them. 

Lyons I will not posetively aflBrrae that the country liath, 
since our people never yet saw any ; howbeit, in their die- 
coverycs to the Mangoagucs, they did light once upon twoo 
skynnsj which, by all the judgements in the fort, were sup- 
posed to be lyons' skinne--*; and tliis last ycarc, myself being 
at the falls with Sir Tlioraas Dale, I foiuid in an Indian 
howse ccrtaine clawcs tyed up in a string, which I brought 
awaie, and into England, and they are assured unto me to be 
lyons clawes.' 

There is also a beast, which the ludians call votchomqnoycs, 
in the forme of a wild catt.'' 

Their foxes arc Uko om* silver-lmyred conies, of a small pro- 
porcion, and not smelling so ranck like those in England. 

The doggs of the country arc like their woulves, and can- 
not barke, but howle, and are nut unlike those aimcyent 
doggs called cracuta;, which were said to be engendred of a 
wolfe and a bitchy and are like the Turkish jackalls, keeping 
about the graves of the dead, in the common poHandrium or 
place of sepulture. 

' There are no liona in Nortt. America. 
toncolor) is ailudcJ to. 

^ ProbaWj a Bpecies of lynz. 

Probftb]; the poma (/elit 



Their woulves are not much bigger then ourEngliah foxes. 

Martina, poleeatts, weesells, and monkeys' we knowe they 
have, because we have seeiie mauy of their skynns, though 
very seldome any of them alive; hut oue tiling is worth the 
observing, — we could never perceiive that their flies, serpeuts^ 
or other vcrmyn, were any waie pemitJous, — when, in the 
south part of America, they are alwaies dangerous, and often 

Likewise, qs th^ have fruicts and beasts, bo have they 
fowin, and that groat store. Of birrles, the eagle la the 
greatest devourer, and many of them there : there be divers 
sortes of hawkes, «i)arhawkcH, lanerettH," gi3»hawkos, faleona, 
and ospreys; I brought home from thcuce this yeare myself, 
a falcon, .and a tassell, the one sent by Sir Thomas Dale to 
his highnes the Prince, and the other was presented to the 
Earic of Salsbarye, faire ones. AVhat thcprowf of them maiQ 
be, I have not learned, they prey moat upon fish. 

Turkeys there ho great atorc, wild in the woods, like phe- 
sauts in England, forty in a conipnny, as hig as our tame 
here, and yt is an excellent fowlc, and :«> parsing good meat, 
as I maye well aaie, yt is the best of any kind of fleali which 
I have ever yet eaten there. 

Partridges there aie little bigger then our qnailes I I have 
knowne of our men to have killed them with their small 
shott, sometime from off a tree five or six at a shoot. 

Cranes, white and grey; herons, both grey and white; 
woosella, or black byrds, witli redd sbowUlcrs ;^ thrushes, and 
divers sorts of small byrdes, some carnation, Bomo blew, and 
some other strauuge k}Tides, to us unknowiic by name. 

In winter there arc great store of swanuea, geese, brants,* 
duck, widj;eon, dottrel], oxeyes, mallard, teale, sheldrakes. 

' Tlioy have no inotikej3 ; possilily Momc of tiiu large species of afiuirrcls, 
wbich ax« uumerous thfsi'e, may be referred to. 

* A kiodofliawk. 

* AgtlaiiU Pheem'ciiii, or red-ahoiilileroii Htoiling. * I?rcnt goeso. 



and divers diving fowleSj and of all these sortes^ that aboun- 
danccj as I dare avowc yt, no coiuitry in the world mayhnve 

Parakitoes I have secne manic in the winter, and knownc 
divers killed, yet Iks they a fuwle mast swift of wing, their 
wlngcs and breasts are of a greenish calloiir, with forked 
tayleM, tluiir Tieadtw, nonic cryiiisen, some yellowe, Bome 
orange-tawny, very besiuttl'iill. Some of our eolonie who have 
scene of the Kaat Indian parratts, affirme how they are like 
to that kynd,' which hHth given ms somewhat the more hoiw 
of the ncrcnes of the South Sea, these parratts, by all proba- 
bility, like enough to come from some of the countryes upon 
that sea. 

A kind of wood-pidgeon we see in the winter time, and of 
them such nomhcrs, as I should tlrawc (from our Iiomelings 
here, such who have scene, peradventure, scarce one more 
then in the markett) the creditt of my relation concerning all 
the other in question, yf I should exprcsse what extended 
flocks, and how manie thousands in one Hock, T have seeue iu 
one daifij' womlering (I muHt cunfessc) at their flight, when, 
like 80 many thickucd clowdcs, they {having fed to the nor- 
ward in the daye tyme) retourue aj^Tiinc more sowai'dly towards 
night to their rouBt ; but there be maiiio hxmdrcd witnesses, 
who male connnce tliia my report, yf herein yt tcstifieth an 

To the natural! commodities which the countrye hath of 
(ruicts, beasts, and fowle, wc maie also atldo the no means 
commoditic of fish, of which, in March and April], are great 
shoclls of herrings. 

Sturgeon, great store, ctmimonlic in Maie if the yeare be 

1 Tbeae axe of the kind called psiliacict Carotiniensis, wbich belongs CO 
quite a differeni subdivision from the Indian parrot. 

s The migratory pigeon {ectopUtes inigratoriiu). For a<:counts of Uia 
proJi^ous aumber of tbese birds, eoc Wilsua's luid AudubuQ'.i works oo 
th« biida of Ntirth America, 



forwanl. I have bcene at the taking of some before Alger- 
nooue fortj and in Southampton river, in the nuddst of March, 
and they remaine with U9 June, Ju!y, and August, and in 
that plenty as before expressed in the chapter. 

Shaddes, great store, of a yard long, and for swcctnes and 
fatues a reasonable good fish, he is only full of small bones, 
like our barbells in hluglaud. 

Grampus, porpois, scales, stingraiea, bretts, mnlletts, white 
salmons, trotite, soles, playsc, corafish, rnckfish, eclea, lam- 
preys, cat-fish, perch of three sorts, shrimps, crcfishes, cockles, 
mushells, and more such like, hke ueedles[8j to name, all 
good fish. 

There is the garfish,' some of which are a yard long, small 
and round like au eele, anil ixa big aa a man's legg, having a 
long snout fiill of sharp teeth. 

Oysters there be in whole bancks and bedda, and those of 
the best : I have scene some thirteen inches long. The sal- 
vages use to boyle oystera and mussells togither, and with 
the broath they make a good spoone meat, tliickued with the 
flower of their wheat ; and yt is a great thrift and husbandry 
with thera to hang the oysters upon strings (being sbauld and 
di"ied) in the smoakc, therehyto preserve them all the yeare. 

There be twoo sorts of sea crabbs, and tlie one our people 
call a king cralib,* and they are taken in shoall waters from 
off the ahoare a dozen at a tyme hanging one npon another's 
taile; they are of a foote in length and half a foote in bredth, 
lun-ingc manic leggs and a long tayle; the Indians seldome 
eate of this kind. 

Thei'e is a kind of shelfisli of the proporciou of a cockle, 
but far greater, yt hath a smooth shell, not ragged as our 
cockleaj 'tis good moat, though sorawhat tough. 

Tortoyses here (such as in the Bermudas) I have seene 
about the entrance of our bay, but we have not taken of them, 
but of tlie hmd tortoyses we take and eate dailie; the lUf- 

^ A specios ofbdone. ' LimtUtts Pct^htmitt, 




ferenoe beUreene which is nothing in shape, but in callour 
and bigncs, those of the land tire gray with a long tnyle, 
those of the sea have bhick shells, speckled with jellowe, the 
bodyes great in compa&se like a tai-gett. 

Bnt the most straung fish is a small one/ so like the pic- 
ture of St. George's dragon as possible can be, except the 
Icggs and wingcs, and the toad fish,^ whieli will swell till yt 
be like to when yt eomctli into the ayre. 

Tlkua yt appeareth, that this country atTordeth manie ei- 
CcUenl vegitiibles mid living creatures ; yet, I must saie true, 
of grasse, for the present, there is little or none bnt what 
gTowetli in low marshes, for all the country is overshadowed 
with trees, wbose dioppings contynually tui-neth grasac to 
■weedes by reason of the rancknes of the grownd, which wonid 
Boonc be ameuded by good hiiabandrj'. 

llowbeit, woodcs yt hatli, greatj beautifnll, frnictfull, plea- 
sant, and ])rolitab]e, the grounds cleaue under them, at least 
passeable both fur horse and foote. The oake here, for stature 
and tymber, may compare with any, being so tall and streight, 
that they will bcare ■* square of good tymber for twenty 

yardcs long; of this wood there is twoo or thi'cc screraU 
kyndeSj the acrons of one kind, whose barke is more white 
then tlie other, is somewbut sweetish, wbiebj being boyled 
lialfe a daie iu several! waters, at last attbrdes a sweet oylc, 
whicb they call monohominy : they keepe yt in gourdes to 
onnoiut their heads and juynts ; the &uict they catc made in 
bread or otherxnse. 

There is also elme and ash, of wliich are made sopeashcs. 
yf the trees be Tcry great, the ashes wilbe verry good, and 
melt to hard lumps being cax'cfully burned ; bnt if they be 
small, and suffered to partake too much of the smoak, they 
wilbe but powder, nothing so good as the other, bcsyde they 
wilbe very fowle and black. 

1 Feihape tho chdydra serpentina. 
* A species of dlodon. 

3 A e|jocio8 of hippocamf/ut, 
* A similar gap in the original. 

Of walmitts there be three kindes, the black walnntt,' 
which is returned home yearly by all 8hii)piiijj from tlicacc, 
and yickls good ]>rofitt, for yt is well bought up to make 
wayiiscott tables, cubbardea, chaircs, aud stoolcs, of a delicate 
grayne and cuUour like ebouic, and not subject to the worme: 
the finict of this is little, y t ia thiiiiie shelled, and the kamell 
bitter. Aiinothor kyiid there is, which heares a great frtiict,' 
with a hard ahcll, and the meat very sweet, and of these the 
Indians make oyle to droppe their joynts aud smeere their 
bodies with, which do make them supple and uymble. The 
third sort' is, as this last, cxceedini; hard shelled, and hath a 
passing sweet kamell ; this last kind the Indians beat into 
pieces with stoues, aud putting them, shells and all, into 
morters, mingling water irith them, with long wooddcn pcs- 
tcUs pound them so long togjther uutUl they make a kiud of 
mylke, or oylie liquor, which they call powcohicora. 

There ia a kynd of wood which we call cypres,'* because 
both the wood, the fruict, aud leafe, did most resemble yt; 
and of these trees there are some neere three fathoms about 
at the root very streightj and fifty, sixty, or eighty foote 
irithout a braunch- 

The cedars,^ for aavonr and cuUor, maie compare vrith those 
of Lybauun, the clymate of the one and the other differing 

Of saxafras* there is plenty enough, the rootes whereof, 
not monic ycarcs" since, were sold for twenty shillings per lb. 
and better, and if order maie yet be taken that overmuch 
quantety be not returned, and that which shalbe brought be 

1 JufflaniJi nigra of LinnraUH. 

' Pcohahly ihojufflaiis cinena, L., tto"wliitewalnutt"of thesettieri. 

8 Probafcly the hiccoTj, Ju^lam Mha, L. 

* Cupreiswi diatieha of LiuuivuH. Tlio " Hwainp cmlnr'" of the Southern 

* Junipcnte Vir^iniana of LinnrouB, which is not a cedar, bat producei 
tlie wood wj galled, of which pencils arc ranilc. 

* Lcturwt fa»anfra*, L. 



Hjarous or tiatailk 

kept in ouc hnud, all Europe nmic be served thereof at good 
rates. The cedara and saxafrna jjcctld a krnd of gomnie in a 
amall prtjporcion of themselves; there Imvc bene eoiiclusioiia 
trvt'd to extract yt out of the wood, but nature affourded 
j^reatcr quantety then art could produce. 

There are pines infinite, especially by the sea coast, and 
raanie other Bortes, the use of vhich are commodious for 
shipping, pipe-atavc!*, clapbourd,' yardca and masts for ship- 
ping, and those here arc 8o fairc and large, as a ship of three- 
hundred tonne hurthnn, culled the Starre (sent thither the 
last yesire upon purpose fitted and prepared with Ncuppcr- 
holes to take in tnasta), was not able to atowe forty of the 
fowcr score, unles they fihould have cut them fihortcr, which 
is a commoditie, rightly understood, of such moment for this ; 
kingdome (ail the easterly countryea from whence we have 
hitherto had them, so ymiioveriahed and wasted as they are 
not able to furnish liis majesty's navicj witnes how hardly 
wereohteyned those wliic-h we had last from thence, and those 
apon his majesty's private and psn-ticular letter to the king of 
Denmark) as were ynough (yt may be boldly aayd) to nrtakdj 
good the whole charge of our plantation. 

By the dwellings of the salvages are bay-trees,' wild roses, 
and a kynd of low^ tree, which bearca a cod like to the peaSij 
but nothing so big : we take y^ to be locust,* 

Crabb trees'^ there be, but the fruict small and bitter, how- 
beit, being graffcd upon, sooue might we liave of our owne 
apples of any kind, pcares, and what ells. 

Besides these fruict-trees, there is a white poplar,^ and 
another tree' like unto yt, that yichleth a verye eleerc and 

1 Board ready cat for the coopw's use. 
' Probably laurux Carol iniftutiA of Catosby. 

* Boltinia pseiulaaicM of l.irni«u». the imaciA of our pUntatioBR ii 
{irolialjly the Lree moaDt;. 

* PtfTut coronariaoi Linnreus, a tree diffuriiig alightlj from the Euro- 
ponn crah. * Popaius fieterofikr/lfa of Linnnus. 

" J'opidtts fialaami/era of liinnteus. 



odoriforouBgummc like tui-pentinft, which I havo heard Doctor 
Buliime, aud same of our fturgoouH there, saic, mftie well ha 
TRokoned a kynd of balsome, and will heale any f^eene wound. 

There groweth in tliu iNland of James Towiie a small tree, 
of leaves, armcs, aud fruict, like tbe mirtle tree, the fruict 
thereof hath a last with the miiile, hut much more hynding; 
these trees growc in great plentie, round obont r staudiug 
pond of fresh water in the middle of the island, the pill oi* 
rmd whereof is of a great force against inveterate disseiiteri- 
call fluxes;, of which Doctor Bohunc made open experiment 
in mauie of onr men labouring with auch diaeaaeSj and there- 
fore wishoth all such plnaitianft as ahall goc thitlier to make 
use thereof. 

For ratncralls wc will prominc nothing- but the hope of 
which, seeing the low grownd, yiekles manio faire sliewes; 
the mountaiucs ctumot be doubted but that in them manie 
sortes will be found : and our people, in their first discovery 
into the Monocan country discovered two mynca, the one 
within nix milc« of the head of the falls, which takes the 
name of Namantaek, the fyuder of yt : which is conceaved 
wilbc worth the exploring, and with little charge; the other 
lyes in the myd-waie betweene twoo townes of Monocan, 
the ncercst colled Mowhemincke, the furthest, Massinnacoek, 
distant one from another fourteen miles, of whose goodncs 
there is no doubt, since the »parre only taken no further 
then two or three foote into the earth nifonrdes mettall worth 
the labour. And eoncerning a silver-myne, not far from the 
same place, an Helvctiim, one William Henrick Faldoe, aa- 
siired oiu- Lord Geuerall, and therefore made hia provisiou 
for the search thereof; and having bene in England, made 
camcat suit unto our tln-easourcr and hia Majestie's counaaile 
resident for Virginia, with whorao he contracted, aud cutred 
into coudicions for one yeare and a halfe for the full perform- 
aunce of this norke ; but his lordship being not at that time 
enabled with sufficient eompanie to make good that scareli, 



by raising forts and planting bo far into the country (which 
only must have secured tlie workemen) , y t hath pleAsed God, 
since that tymc, that the said Helvetian hath died of a burn- 
ing fever, and with him the knowlcd^ of that mync, which, 
in hia life-time, he would not be drawn to reveyle unto any 
oue ells of the colonic : aud there is extant an old plott, 
which his Lordship hath shewed me, wherein, by a Purtugall, 
(lur sent is layd uut, aud iu the same, two silver mjaies 
pricked downe; and at the head of the said falls, the Tudiaus 
there inhiibitiug tip their arrowes with cristall, and we fynd 
manic piece* scattered in the gritt and sand of the same, 
where, likewise, on Pembrook aide. Sir Tliomaa Dale hath 
mentioned, in his lettres to the lordships of the Couusailc, 
of ft j;oodlie iron myue ; and Capt. Newport hath brought 
boniu of that mettell so sufficient a triiiU, as there liath bene 
made sixteen or seventeen tonne of iron so good, as the East 
Imlian marchanta bought yt of the Vir^nian Compauie, pre- 
ferring yt before any other iron of what country soever; and 
for copper, the hills to the norwest have that store, as the 
people tliemsclvcs, reraerabred in the first chapter, called the 
liocootauwanaukcs, are said to part the solidc mcttall from 
the atone without fire, bellowcs, or additamant, and boat it 
into plates, the like whereof is hardly found iu any other 
parte of the world : likewise Capt. ArgoU (as his Lordship 
beares record in his printed uairatiou), in the river Potawo- 
meck, found a myne of antimony, which, aa aforesaid, never 
dwells siugle, but holds assured legue with quicksilver, as like- 
wise a myne of lead ; and wc heai'e the Indians moke mauic 
particular discriptions of aUam myncs to the southward. 

Lastly, that tlie lakes have pLM'les yt ciumot be doubted, 
for we ourselves have seen manic chayncs and bracelctts 
worne by the people, and wee have found plcutie of them in 
the sepulchres of their kings, though discoloiu-ed by burning 
the oystea's in the ficr, and deformed by llie grosse boring. 
And thus (to conclude), we male well saie how these poore 




people have manie morntll goocles, sitch as are by accidens 
pleutifuU ynough amongst them : aiid as much (poore sowles) 
as they come short of those bona mora/ia which are per se, 
for the coimtrie (who sees not by what hath bene sayd?) is 
not 80 barren, ill destyncd, and wretched, under au uuhappy 
constellation, but that yt hath (even beside necessary hclpes 
and commodities for life) appai-ent proufes of many nsiturall 
riches, and which are all bona fortuna. Again, they are 
lieiUthie, which is bonum corporis: nor is nature a stepdame 
unto them concerninge ^e\r aptas inenihrorum coin.j)o8Uione$; 
only (God wot] I must grauut, that bonum morale, as afore- 
said, which i^per se, they have not in medio, wliich is in mr- 
tute ; and then, how can they ever obtayne yt in ultimo, 
which is in fielicitttte ? To teach them both, which is the end 
of our planting amongst tliem; to Ictt them knowc what ver- 
tue and goodnes is., and the reward of both ; to teach them 
religion, and the crowne of the righteous j to acquaint them 
■ft-ith grace, that they maic participate with glorie; which 
God graunt in mercye unto them. 




BRITANNIA, entreating op the first discoveries of the 










PBAtM on, TBB. 18. 

" Tliia Bhalbe written for the geoeration to come : and the people which 
shalbe created ehall praise the Lord." 



Of the first diEcovoric In generotl of AnLorica, being certain islands be- 
loDgiug to thu mayac, by Columbus, anna 141)2 ; of the discoverio of 
the majne, or contioent to the so-ward, Ijr Vosputius Americuif 
anno 14fl7, who gave it to niime AmoricA ; of Cabot his discoTcria 
from Florida tiorward, for the behoof of King Hunry Til, anno liOJi. 

WttETHEE that ever famous Genoese, Christopher Columbus, 
were sufficiently learned, tlmt by reading of didiie allej^ories, 
named Tlwwifcs, of Plato, whose subject is of the iiniversull 
nature and frame of the wliole world, under the person of a 
aiihtile and misterious priest, old Cricia, of Egypt, discoursing 
to Solou, an auncient and superaimuat history of an island, 
in tyme of great antiquity, called Athlantides/ lying to the 
west, by which Columbus might instruct his laboring under- 
standing with a greater clicmes, thnt more then probable yt 
was the auu and moone, and all ye faier eyes of heaven, did 
not looke dowue from above, nor shedd their influence uppon 
the things put under the bearaes of the wandriug and lowest 
pinnnctt confyncd only to Europe, Asia, and jVirica, running 
thereby half their courses without proffitt and in raine, 
shyning upon the solitary waters and desolate places empty 
and desolate of man and other living creatures ; or whether 
Columbus, being a great cosmographer, did well observe, tlmt 
Asia, Kiu-ope, and Africk, eoucerniug the longitude of the 
world, did cunteyn iu them but 180 visible degrees, and there- 
fore did couocave yt to be moat likely, that in the other 180 

> Orittas. Plato gives the lULtne of Orittas to one of his dialogues, and 
introiliiccs bim also in tbt^ 7'imietu. In both of tLese dialogues occur 
allusians to the tahlfid AtlantiB. 





poilerity, to 

lllP ftlll tQ 

wofek. It ol 
■udi iiB|h»rt - 

not lid Utri- 
lilltcd H> Uly 
Ilivu lu Gud- 

A com J 111. 

bb Knturall 
t>n<i !tfirrall 

A* Ml Ibr 

C^ptUOl of 
I* loitffln^; 
*o anrth 
Amtu. lib, 
1, cup. 1«. 

(which fiUcth up the whole course of the sun to the uombcr 
of 360 dcfprees, as well observe our modenie trriters intreating 
rfe Aim-rica s'tw vrhf novo) Gud wDuld not suffer tho wiitrrs 
oulj* to possessc all^but would leave a place for the habitation 
of men, beasts, flying, and crec]>iug creatures; or whether 
Columbus, by his eutertaynnumt of a Biscan pilot (a« the 
Spsniftrds^ ambitions of their countrycs fame, will have yt), 
arriBinj» (after many stowcrs and stormeii in an old carravcUj 
brused and weather-beaten) in the island of Madera, for his 
hospitalhty aud friendly curtesycs, had bequeathed unto him 
by that dying pilott, all his cardcs and sea inatruments, by 
which he was therby first moved to seek the lands of anti- 
podes and tlic ricli island of Cipaugo (whereof Marcus Pawlus 
wiiteth, and Peter Martir, before his decades of the ocean, 
remembrcth the same) ; or whether yt nowe pleased the 
Etcruall Wisdome, in His due and appointed tyme, that those 
misteries and becrets of His goodly workmanship of His, 
should to His utmost bounds be extended, reveylcd, and laied 
open, and thuiie goodly nations and ample regions discovered, 
which He had seated even beneath the pole starre, and under 
the equiuoctiall lyne (which left our philosophers and poetts 
noe lielief, that they might pusscbly be habitable); or whether 
all these joyntly concurring (for which how mtich are we 
bound to that mighty and mcrcyfidl Pru^idcnce, whoj in our 
tvmes, would vouchaafe to lett us sec these .so many riches, 
wonders, and salvation of nations, the tentimimy of His great 
love unto us, which He had, with strong barrs as yt were, shut 
up from our forefathers) to make good the prophesy of rever- 
end Seneca: — 

Vcaient annia 

Secula seris ; quibiis occadub 

Vincula rcruiii In.xet, et iugctut 

Pateat ToIUie, TypUisque novos 

Dctegat orbcit, 

Nee sit terris ultiinA. Thyl«. 



Thus in English ; — 

That iig« shall C9me> iiUpelt, in latter tymes, 

When as the se^ shall ope ber lockt-u[> bawndii, 
And iiiiglitj' lands appoftM : naw heiivcns, new cljnies 
SbuO Typhis bring to knowlctlg, and uuw giownds, 
New worlds display: then shall ntn Thule be 
The fEU-tbest nor-wMt is!© our ayes ahull bud. 

Wlietlier of these, or whither all tlic30 I saye, have brought 
these discoveries to passe, which hfive found out this straung 
and new lialf world, true yt is, we ftnd that Columbus, with 
three shippes and two huiidjod and twenty Spaniards, in the 
yearc of Christ [1493] sett forward on his voyagCj about the 
kalends of September,' from the islands of Gadez, nppon the 
month of Gibralter, and after aondry caaualtiesj and the 
chaunccs of sea, at length fell upon the islands Dominica, 
Cuba, etc., which since have bene called by the names of the 
West Indye Islands. 

And five yeares after him was Vesputius Americus set out 
by the same king- of Castile to discover the continent, who, 
likewise, as Columbus, happcly pcrfourming the same^ gave 
unto yt his owne name, which it ever siucc hath reta^iied, 
namely, America. 

The considcracion of both these voyages, so famous and 
notorious in those dayeH,moved the royaU heart of king Henry 
VII (after yt had much repented him for rejecting the first 
profcr of Columbus, who would have made him lord and 
king of those golden islands, and for which no prince was 
better fitted, having at that tyrae the goodliest navyc of any 
kingc in Christendome) , who, therefore, furnished forth a 
skilful! and expert navigator, one John Cabot, a Venetian, 
howbeit, eudenizcd an English subject, and at that tyme, 
govemour of the companye of the marchants of Cathay in 
the citty of London, to make discovery of what was left un- 
toucht at, or unsurveyed by Columbus and Americua, upon 

'< He aail&cl od the third of August, 140S. 



those new and unknon^c lands for hia behoofe, in Anno 
M95 sett fortli, fell to the soward of America (to that part 
afterwards called Florida, liy Joliaune& Poutius, of Leon/ 
because by liim, on Palme-»oiiday,dwcovered, 1512, which the 
Spaniards call PuHca Florida), and from thence layde open and 
aiuiexed to the crowne of England all the coast of Meta In- 
cognita. So as true yt is, that this portion of America, which 
■we call ours, and whcrcunto both Sir W. B,[alcgh], twenty 
yearcs sinccj and upward, and we have nowe for thcHe six 
yeai'cs addressed our divers forces and several! colouycs for 
plantation, by a princely godmother, her renowned late 
majesty, of famous moniary, iu witnes of her owne well- 
chosen vertuca, baptized by the name of Virginia, concludinge 
(indeed) under that denomination (as the auueycnt poetts 
did nil Itsdy by the nnrne of Latiiim) all the bounds and 
regions, both to the south and norward, fiom 30 to 44 degrees, 
togitbere with the manie islands adjacent thereunto, is no 
other then the same first ccmtincnt and tract of land, which 
the said Venetian, old John Cabot, the father, discovered, 
from whom only, indeed, we laye our earliest elayine and in- 
terest (as we niaye right well) to this coimtry. 

And sure, albeit from tlic tymc, after that first disco- 
very (duiing some yll destined few ycares, wherein our home 
oecasioii-s tnipnrtinied the rpsidenec within our owne ports, 
both of our men and shipps), our voyages hither for a while 
might seeme to lye slumbering, yet oiu* tytlc coidd not there- 
by out-slcepe ytself, nor were oiu- Kiiglish spiritts so sunck 
■with the tyme, aud many sliippes mIucIi tempt the wide seas 
in the like new aeai-chea, as that -we abandoned our hopes and 
fortunes thither, 

1 The reader will easily Kcognixe the namo of Juaa Poooe do Lcoa, 

the discoverer of Fioridd, 

^ Upnti tliB comparative TLgcnt^ of John and Sckiutian Cabot, Ke< 
IcarDed diuserttttiotie hy ]ti<](]lv, — "Memoir Df Sebastian (.'-aliot," nhap. 5,— 
and bj Fruer Teller, in oppositioD, in tbc appendix to Itis " Progreas of 
Dlicoveiy on the Jforthem Coiuts of America". 



We shall find^ however, the far famoiw king Henry VIII 
(full of many impatient and personall, as well domestick 
troiiblea, as warrs abroad) could not attend the sccoAding 
his royall father ia hia enterprize, any other then giving 
leuve to a voluntary fiyer or twoo in a sliipp called the Deun 
Nobiscum, to run upon new searches ;' yet his noble sonnc, 
prince Kdward VI, entred into so serious considtatiojis of the 
same, as he gave, therefore, to Sebastian Cabot, borne at 
Biutoll, Sonne to the father John Cabot, a large pencion 
out of his trcasurj*, and constituted lum in the Triiiity-howne, 
gramid pilot of England, in the second yeare of \m raiguc, 
and in the yeare of grace 1548, to undertake againc a new 
search of these straiing lands; and had not that tuwardly 
yong prince too unhiippely ben cutt of by an xuitymely des- 
tine, he had prosecuted both what the too too affecting Koomc 
(the otherwise faiiltles) qvciene Mary neglected, {thongh pcr- 
happs not with out some princely and economlck colour of 
reason), by contracte to the Spanish Fhillipp, whose pretence 
of right might well debarr the proceedings in any such prac- 
tice then, when our Spanishe harts and Romish Cathohques 
dare yet to make good his title unto all this fourth quarter 
of the world, by tlie donation of a Pope (though against all 
the rules of justice, prescription, or equality), as also what 
our never enough admired late sovcraig^e, qneeneEhzabetL, 
did anew revive, and gave a fresh birth andspiritt unto, somc- 
tj-mc under the discharge of one, sometymc of another^ irntill 
at length yt discendcd xmto and settled in Sir Walter Kawley, 
unto wLome and his heires, her majesty, in the twenty-sis 
yeare of her rcigne, and anno 1584-, at Westminster, gave a 

' Biddle, in the ainth chapter of his "Memoir of Cabot", bringB a 
rari^ty of evidence to shew that the two Hhips whiuh Hu.ilm) to tho west 
from fiDgUnd in 1527 tcu« of which nas rejiorWcI hy IlBtlujt to have 
beeu named the '' Bominus Nobiscum") were cAuied the " SatiisoD," iind 
the " Slary of Guililforcl," and that the niuiii! " Doniiuus Noliiscum" waa 

e recorded. That the name was a pure inTentiou, aeuuts, how- 



large patent, from 33 to 40 degrees of latitude, who, therefore, 
the same ycare, in April, sent out Capt. Phillip Amatlas and 
Capt. Arthur [TJarlow] Florida norward, the whole coast of 
Cape Britton, so called of the people of St. Malo, who first 
found and fell with it, and the 4th of July following, they 
arrived upon the coast in a harborow called Ilatorask, in the 
height of 3G ajul one 3d, and the 13th put out their small 
hoates, and roning seven leagues from that harborongh, came 
to an island called Uoanoak, where they landed and tookc 
possession of the country iu right of the queeue's majestic, 
and after delivered the same over againc to the use of Sir 
W. Ealegh. 


Of the discovoiy, more in perticiiler, of the country of Winganiiccoa 

tbe isle of Roinoik, hy Cftpt. AmmluB and Capt. Barlow, for thai 
tcboufc of Sir W. lUlcigb, who, preeentiiig their tmrailes chereio, 
and tho cart of the coast to hei Majestic, baptized the country I>y 
the uiiuio of Virginia. 

When they firat had sight of this conntry, some thought the 
first laud they saw to be the continent ; but after they had 
entred the haven, they saw before them another mighty long 
Bca, for there lyeth along the coaat a tract of islands two 
hundred miles in length, adjoyuing to the ocean sea, and 
hetwccne the islands two or three cntraimces. \Vhen they 
were entred hetweene them (these ifilaiuls being very narrow 
for the most parte, as in most places six miles broad, and in 
some places lesse, in some more}^ then there appeared the 
other great sea, contoyning in breadth in some places forty, 
and in some fifty, in some twenty miles over, before the con- 
tinent be come nntOj which continent the Indians call Win- 
gaudacoA; and iu this inclosed sea there are about one 
hiindred islands of divers bigues, whereof the aforesaid 
lioanoak, fifteen to sixteen miles long ; a plcasaunt and fer- 
tUl grownd, full of sedars, »axafras, currants, flax, vines. 

iK-ra vmoisiA. 


dcnrc, conies, bares^ and the tree that beareth the lind of 
black synamon, of \rliich like Capt. Winter brought from the 
StreightH of Miigellaun, and mauie other commadityes and 
riches, the particulars whereof are more at large to be seeuc 
ia Mr. Hariott's diseourse. 

The chief king's name, governing at that tyme, they fowndc 
to be Winffina, his brother, Qaangimino, whose wife and 
daughter came abourd oiir discoverers' barkcs, who were 
about their forehedd a band of white corall, and earings of 

The river before Roanoak,' and which runneth from thence 
up to the citty Skicoak, they call Occam ; upon which like- 
wise standcth the townc of Pameik, six dayes' journey from 
the aforesaid graet citty, called Skicoak, to the so-ward. 

And in this river Occam falleth too other great rivers; the 
one called, Cipo, wherein arc great store of the pcrle muscles, 
the other called Nomopana, upon which standeth Chawa- 
Qookc, not subject to the king of Wingaudagoa, but ia a 
free state, under a lord, at that time, called Pooneno; beyond 
which province is another absolute king likewise, called 
Menatoiion ; and these three kings were then in league. 

From Hattoraak, to the so-ward four daics journey, they 
discovered Socoto, the last townc southwartlly of the bounds 
of Wingandacoa, ncere unto which^ twenty yeares before 
these tymes, a shipp was cast away; some of the people 
whereof, in an out island called Wococon, saved themselves ; 
and after three wcckcs aboard there, fastened two Indian 
canoas togither, and, mth their shirts for sailes, made out, 
but were Hoonc cast away, and the boats found wrcckt upon 
the out islands. 

And with thus much knowledg of the country, and some 
commodityes from the salvadgcs obteyued, as chamoyse, 

1 hy the river before Roanoak h>e nouH appear to aic&n Albemarle 
Souiid ; but according to I>« Dry's map, Skicoak sUmd* on N&ndsamund 
riTcr, which fallii into the ChcsApeake. 



hnSe, aud dcare skyns ; twenty skynes, worth twenty noble*, 
for a tyn dish, aud of other skyus, fifty, worth fifty crownes, 
for a cupper kettle, and a bracelett of pearic, aa bigf? as 
peuie, brought liomc and delivered to Sir W. l{jilci»h, the 
didcoverent returned, and about the midst of September fol- 
lowing, arrUwl in the west of Kngland with t\ro of the native 
people, one WanchcsCj and the other \runtca, brouglit along 
with them. 


Sir Richard Qr«nvile, g&nerall of the ilrst oolonie of one hunilred bo 


Am'.R the relation of this discovery up unto Sir TT. Raleigh 

by the said captftiues, that part of the country about Roan- 

oack (beyond which lielh the maiiic laiid) was conceaTed to 

be an apt and likely phice, both for seat aud riches, for a 

colony to be transported unto; whereupon, the next ycarc 

following, anno 1585, Sir W. Riileigh prepared a fleete of 

seven sailes, with one hundred howaliolders, aud many tliiugs 

necessary to begin a new State, which in Aprill departed 

from Plymouth ; Sir Richard Greenvilc gcnerall' of the nainCj 

accompanied with many choyse and principal] gentlemen, — 

Mr. Ralph Lane, Mr. Thomas CandLsh, Mr. John Arnndell, 

Mr. RcjTnond, Mr. Stukcly, Mr. Bremige, Mr. Vincent, 

Mr. John Clark, and divers others, some captaincs, aud other 

assistents, for councell and good discretions in the voyage, 

all and everj' of which, in their severall places, refused no 

travaile of body, nor carefulncB of mynil, to lay the fonnda- 

cion and beat the path to that great and goo<ny workc which 

Godj I hope by us, in Ilis appointed tj-me, will nowe Buishe 

to Hi.s owne glory, to the salvation of poore seduced infideRa^ 

' It mast not be iirdcrstood from this expression that Sir RicLnril 
Qreavilla w«h governor of the colonj, but simply commnnder of the ex{>«- 
dition. TYm governoratiji who cuuiuiiltc4 to Mr. Ralph Lane. 



and to tbe never Aying fame and honour of those nohle and 
priiisc worthy spiritts wbo shall personally travel! in the same. 

The most of this flecte hy tlie twentieth uf Juno fell with 
the niJiitie of Flnridii, ami keeping by tin; const, were in some 
daunger the twenty-fifth of a general wrack on a heach 
called the Cape of Fcarc; but the tweiity-sixtli ancored safe 
at Wocokon, by Secota, four daies' journey aliort of Hatoraak, 
where tlic Admirall, tlii'ough the unskilfulucs of the master, 
Btroak on grownd, as she was to be brought into the harbour, 
and sunk, and from w}icncc tlic general! sent to Wiuf^uia, 
the K[mg] at itoanoak, to advertize of hia ai'rivall, as like- 
wise he sent to tlie maiuc Mr. AnnuhiU, with Mauteo the 
salvadgc, and Capt. Aubry, and Capt. Bouitcu, to Croatoan, 
where they fownd two of their men left therSj with thirty 
other, hy Capt. Raymond, who fell with that place eertayue 
dayes before. 

Lykewysc from henee the gencrall, well aecom]iamed in 
his tilt boat with divers of the gentlemen aforesaid; and Mr. 
IlajTiott, nith twenty others, following in a pynuace ; Capt. 
Ama<las and Capt. Clerk, with teu others, in a shipp boat ; 
Frauneys JJrooke and Jolin White in another shipp boat, 
passed over tbe water to the maine land, vietimUed fur eight 
dales. In which voyage they discovered the townes of 
Pomeioke, Aquaseogoke, and Seeotan, and tho great lake 
called by the salvages Paquippc, ami so retunicdj and the 
twenty-seventh of July ancored the fleet at Hatorask, and 
there rested; from whence he landed all his planters, and 
those which were to remayne in the country, in the aforesaid 
island of Roaiioak, togither with such provisions as were to 
be left for their use, after which, having scttelcd some ordera 
nmuugst thcj priueipall eoramauiiders, and constituted Mr. 
Balph Lane govcrnour of the colony, advising with him in 
many necessary businesses to be perfourraed, the twenty-fifth 
of AugnsL he sett sailc agaiue for England, and the eighteenth 



or (Ik lt>(i|>ik 
lull rivrr ot 

ti tbr rayn 
■t CD^cr 


of October followinge, vith a prize, a Spanish shipp of three 
hundred tonne, arrived in Plyiimouth. 

The party c'lihirvtics of such businesses as were performed 
by Mr. Uidph Lane, the enpt»ine« and gentlemen, anil the 
rest of the colony, to the ntmiber (as afort^nid) scene in the 
booke of the discoTcrieB.' 

Only I cannot but remember and mencyone the river of 
Maratock,* up vhich the Mangoags have tnifiiquc, and which 
ri\*er opcncth into the browl sound of Weapemciock, running 
with a violent current from tlic west and sowcst, as l)roiul as 
the Thames betweenc (ireenewich and the Isle of Doggs, and 
as London-ljrulge upon a vale water; the head being thirty 
(laicR from Uoanoak, which head springuth out of a mayne 
rock in that nhountlance, that forthwith yt niaketh a most 
violent streamc, and which rock staudctb soe necre unto a 
seaj that manye tymes in storraeji, the wind ai-rising outwm-dly 
from the seiij tlie waves thereof are bcatcu into the said ii'esh 
strcame, soc that the fresh ivater, for a certaine space, groweth 
RoU mid bnickisb, mid which Maratock, by Mr. Hamott's 
opynion, either arriseth out from the Bay of Mexico,' or ells 
from very neere unto the name, that openeth out of the Soutli 

T]m rifer maketh promise of great tilings, for np the same 
the Mangongs have recourse and tniffique in a pi-ovince called 
Clauuis Temontfin,* where there is a mar\-ellou8 and most 
straiiiif^e minenill, to the Chawanooks, and all tlie people to 
the westward, most notorious ; the mincrall they call wass;i- 
dor, which is copper, but they call by the name of waasador 
every mettcll whatsoever: tbey snieyt is of tlieculloiu* of our 
copper, but our eopjjcr (saie they) is better then theirs, and 

1 lie dwulitlcBS refers to Ilnkluyt. 

' The river ugw called Roaiioko. 

3 Tbc rircr Roanoke rises m the AUegtianks, Moatgoiuer; county, 

* Whether Ihis siicUiiig, or tlifit used Viy tho author s few lines lower 
down, be the coirvet onu, the \:ditor hnii l>cuii uiiaUu to duiiidu. 



the rcnituii is because yt is rodder and harderj whereas that 
of Chanius Tcnioaian is very soft and pale. The manner of 
taking of which mettell out of tlic river, I rcferr to the dis- 
course at hirdg, imd of miiiiy things cUs therein contcyncd, 
especynJIy of the Creaehery of many of the sHviige weroauces, 
tu the rooting out and cutting off the whole colouy, aa of 
Peniipan, of RofiTinak, Okiseo, kiuf^^of Wi^oprafiiGck, with the 
Miiiiduugs, and the Chesupciaiis, with seven hundred iipiioii 
the mayne of Dasaniauquepeio ; as also how Mr. Lane ac* 
quitted himself of their eouspiracic, as not altogither neces- 
sary for tliis place, I overpasse. 

Only be yt rememhnid how, that after tlie colony had la- 
boured herein many searches, and acquired many knowledgea, 
eleaven monthes expectiiif; the retume of their generall with 
a franek and new supplye out of Englandj and hejug in xtime 
wants for neccssaryc and fresli victnalla, had dispersed tliem- 
selves into sondry parte of the countrye, the better to be 
fitted and accommodated witli thn provisions thereof, Capt. 
Stafford lyving then, willi twenty in Iiis company, in Croatan, 
my lord admirall's island^ about the bcoriuuiug of June, had 
escried a great 6eet of many shippes uppon the coasts, standing 
in, as he conceaved, for Hatorask, of which he gave speedy 
intelligence unto the fort at Uoanoak, ivho were not a little 
amazed with the nomherof the shippoS; not conceaWng what 
they miglit be; in the midst of which douhtfulnea of theires, 
the whole fleet arrived in the road of the bad harboroM' of 
IlKloraskc, and was soonc found to be Sir Fraunccs Drake 
and his company, returning home this way from the sacking 
of St. Domingo, Carthagena, and St. Augustine, who, sending 
his boats off to Roanoak, and ha\iug intelligence fi'om the 
goveruour, of the condicion of which the colony then stood, 
of their many wants, and daylie expectance of supply from 
i'juglnnd (the generall, by piouiise, a|)poiutiug to hnvc bcuc 
there by the first of the spring], Kir I'Vaunccs Drake much 
commending their patience and noble spirittSj and applauding 



SO good im Bccioii, consulted with liia cnptaines^ and con- 
cluded to It'ttTc them u barke of seventy touue, colled the 
FriiiiiiciM, to servo them upon occasions, with two pinnacL's, 
four small boats, and two experiniuntod sua jimistoi-s, Abra- 
liam Keudall, and Griff'eth Heme, to tarry with them with a 
supply of collivcrs,' huud-wcnpons, nmtrli, lead, toolea, appa- 
rell, and such like, with rictuails for one hundred men for 
four inontlit's ; iil] wliieli, whilst they were in himd^ in all 
ha«t to be prejMired for them ; and in two duica, almost dis- 
jmtdit, the officers acceptiii}^ of thetr chai^, and the two 
maisters busy aboard the said appointed harhc. The 1.1th of 
the said mouth of J uue, there arrose such an unwonted stormc, 
and oontynued four dales, that had like to have driven the 
whole ilcct a ahoare. The only shift was to weigh anchor and 
put to sea to save themselves ; and [they being] in the somo 
barke apjwiuted to stay, [she] freeing herself, was carried 
with the violence of the storme ao far in fower riayesj that at 
length she was forct to make for England, with others of the 

Howheit, Sir Prauncis Drake, nding yet out nfter the 
storme, ejcainyniiig the losac, would have left them another 
goodly shippj of the burden of one hundred-and-seventy 
toiiue, called the barke Botincr, with inaisttTS uiid gnydes to 
tany there ; hut yt being better considered, and the harbour 
BO uufitt fur a ship of that burthen to be whiter roader in, 
and many other things considered, the determinacion of all 
was altered, and yt w:ts conceaved more convenient to take i 
all the planters and come for England, which, unhajipely, was 
ftccordingly performed, and soc, the IWth of June scttinir !*iule, 
the 27th of July they arrived in Portsmouth, Anno 1586. 

I Doulit1es6 a uulvorin ^ that word Wing <l«iiTed from "coluber," u 
sD&ke. The word '* culirer'' occurft not unfrequently ia writiag of this 


A new supply seat hy Sir W. llaltiigti unto his coloDie unliappilj Iirought 
away Wlorc by Sir FmncU I>ruk<j. 

Yet, as the colony that whole yeare did their endeavuur there. 
Sir W. fialeigh did as carefully intend the supplying of 
them here, preparinge a fleet of three shippes, well appointed, 
to nccompauy Sir Richard Orcennle with u bark of aviso,' 
freighted with all raauner of things, m most plcntifnlliuaniier, 
for the rehef of the colony, and to give them iutelligence 
of the gencnill's speedy haatcninge after him. The only 
fault and crroiiru iiJis, that hoth liis fleete and bark of aviso 
were not sett out till the spring ivas far spentj and yt waa 
afcer Easter before this hark of aviso sett forth, whoe arrived 
at Hatarask, and not finding: the colony (brought avray as you 
have heard), returned with all the aforesaid ^jrovisiou into 
Enghiud agaiiic. 

Not fully forty or fifty daycs after the depjurture of this 
Imrkc of aviso from Hatarask, Sir lUchard Greenvilc anived 
with his three sliippcs^wcU apiiointcd, and not finding the said 
barke nor any newes of the English colony (himself travelling 
up into divers places of the country), yet uuwilliug to losac 
the posacasiou of the same, after good deliberacionj he left . 
fifteen men in the islands of Roanonk, furnished pleutil'ully 
with all luanncr of provision for two ycares, and departed 
agayiic for England. 

These checks found this pions businea even in her early ^^ ^^^^ 
daics and first bcgy-nning ; howbcyt, yt did not yet make J,"' 8"i?'w:"' 
weary the forward mynd of Sir W. Raleigh to hare this i,-rfi'll'»',... 
eountrv bv a full possession added uuto oiu" owne, who there- on"" isf^ 
fore prepared a fourth voyage and a new culuny of one hun- ;;, j"^^"™' 
drcd and fifty howsholders, who, the 18th of May in the yeare *'"'* 
following, 1587, wcyed anchor from Plymouth, under the 

• An ii»lvicc-I«at, — IV luiiill vessel eaijiLoyod to carry cx|)riJB8B6 or ordtmt 
nitU nil [lustiible duvpiiich. 



cliBi^ uf JToliii Wliite, whomc he aiijxiintucl goveriiour, and 
also appointed unto him tvclve asflistcntu, unto wliomc he 
gnve a charter, imJ incorporotL'd them Ity the uamo of Gover- 
nour ami Assistcnts of tlie city Halcigb, in Virg^a, — which 
fleet, consisting of thj-ee sayle, the 22ud of July following, 
arrivcil at Hutiirajik, where they came to on anchor. From 
whence, the governour, accompanied with forty of his best 
men, In a stnall pyniiHOi;, stuud in ftir Roanoak, meaning to 
take in the aforesaid fifteen men left there by Sir Kiehard 
Greenvile tho yeare before, and ko to alter tlicir seal unto 
the Chcsapcak Bay, acconling to directions from Sir Vt. 
Kalcigh; but the governour, being overruled by some of 
the company, was diverted from that purpose, [uid in a man- 
nor constrained to secbe no fiirther, but to sett downe iu 
that island aj^aiiic, who accurdingly brought all the planters 
and pronsiou!^ ashoarc, where they beganuc to fitt and ac- 
commodate themselves. Nor coidd they heare of any of tho 
aforesaid fifteen, but found of the bones of one : and the peo- 
ple of Croatan gave our people, to understand how they were 
slajnc, sett upon by thirty of the men of the Sequota, Aquas- 
cogoc, and Dasarooqucpeuk, conveying themselves upon a 
tyrae Hcex'etly behind the trees iieere the, where our 
men carelessly lived, and in the encounter, knockt out the 
braynes of one with a wooddcn sworrl, and killed another with 
nil arrowe shut iutci the mouth of him, whilst the rest fled to 
the water's side, where their boat hiye, and nil of them taking 
tli« boat, rowed towards llatiirask, and re-l:uuh;d on a little 
islaiidj on the right-hiuid of our cntraunce into the harbuiu- 
of Ilatarask, where they remayiied a while, but afterward^ 
departed, aud could never after be heard of. 

The goveruour, calling to councell his assistants, found that 
the colony stood in want of many necessary things, both to 
secure and settle them in tlieii' plantation, wherefore yt was 
consulted upon, that some one should be forthwith dispatcht 
into England, to ytiiportuuc the better supplie to be there 

raro viBorau. 


bctymes the next ycare. And at length, by a gcnerall con- 
sent, tlie goremour himself was thought to be the 6ttcst to 
undertake the husiucB, »iitl therefore prepared the admiraU 
and fly-boat to st^tt forward witli idl speedy the whilst he es- 
tablished some things amongst them ; and having christened 
a grand-child of his o\mc, borne there (liis daughter being 
married to one of the company), and calling yt Virginia,' he 
Cftnsed, likevriRc, Manteo, the savnge, to be christened, by 
Sir W. Sleigh his appointment, and in reward of his fiiith- 
fnlnes, entitled him lord of Roauoak and of Dasnraonque- 
pcuk ; after w]ileh, in August^ he departed for England with 
the foresaid fly-boat and admiral], and about the beginning 
of November, the one laud(,*d at Hampton, the other at 
Port >*mouth. 

Uppon this arrirall he left not to soUicyte for a supplye; 
accordingly he sent betymea the next yeare, and as carefiill 
■was Sir W, Rdeigh to provide him; howbeitj snch were the 
occasions of the ymploymeut of our shippes iu '88 and the 
yearc follo\Ting, that yt was March 1500 before Captain 
White coiJd be dispatcht for V irgiuia, who then, with thiY;e 
shippes, pnt to sea from Plymouth, and the 2Srd of July had 
Riglit of the cajx; of Florida, and the broken islaudca thereof, 
called the Martyrs, and the loth of August came to an anchor 
at Hutarajik, from whence he mau'd two boats to row to 
Roanoak, shooting ofl' twoo mynions and a falcon,'^ to give 
waniiug to the colony ; but the billow was ao rough, aud tbe 
wynd rose so high at norwcst, and the indiscreet atecragc of 
the master's mate in a boat where a chief captaine was (Cap- 
titinc Spiccr), such a dangerous sea breaking on the quarter 
oversett yt, aud the boat twice or thrice turned tbe keile up- 
ward^, nor eoidd the men save thcmstdves in swymmiug in 
so great a sea, insomuch, that of eleven, seaven of the cbiefest 
were drowapd, Captaine Spacer himself and six more. 

* The nmme tt this &Tst Anglo-Americim was Virginia Dare. Sbo vfoa 
bom AugUiit iHth, IS87. ' Names of pieces of orilnance. 


iiiaroaii: op tratailb 

T}ic nliicfa mtschauncc did so much discomford the lazic 
and iinfHitlifull saylers, that ilicy were all in aii itproarc luid 
niurinore not to go any further to scekc the planters; how- 
beil, t^ajitaine While and Ca[itaine Cooke TOnipcUed thcin, 
wlio, thereforBj being nineteen persons in both boats, put off 
from Hataraifk once more, and rowed to that parte of the 
island of Roanoak where the colony was left seated ; but yt 
was 80 darkc Iniforc they fell with tho ahoare, that they ovcr- 
ehott the place a quarter of a mile, where yet espicing of a 
light towards the north end of the island, they made towards 
yt, and letting fall their grapuell* neere the shoare, sounded 
with a trumpctt a call, and afterwards many familyer English 
tnncs and aonga, and called out fticndly to the shoareward, 
but all the while had no aiiawere. At brejike of day they 
landed, and went through the woodcs to that part of the is- 
land directly over against Dasamantiucpeuk, and from thence 
retiuiied by the water-sydc rownd about the uortheren point 
of the island, untiU they came to the place where the colony 
was left 158G. Some tracts of feetiug they found, and upon 
a &andy banck, on a tree, curiously carred, these romaiue 
letters, "Cito", which gave thnm hcipc tlicy might be removed 
to Croatan, for their agreement^ indeed, to remove when 
Captaine White left them, llowbcit, Captaiue WTiite sought 
tbcm 110 turther, but missing them there, and his company 
havinge other practizes, and which those tymcs afforded, they 
returned covetous of some good suecesac npou the Spanish 
fieete to returne that yeare from Mexico and the Indies, — 
neglecting thus these unfortunate and betrayed people, of 
whose end you shall yet hereafter read in due place in this 



the Br. Uon. 

Eatle at 



The unfaithfulnes of suoli who wew imploycd miscarried the colony. 

Thus SlrW. Raleigh, weried with so greiit an expeiiee, and 
abused with the UDiaithfiJiies of the ymploycti, after lie had 
sciit (as ynii maye see by these five severall tymes) coUoiiies 
and snppUes at tiis owne charges, and nowe at lengtli both 
himself and \m successors thus hctraycd, he was even nowe 
content to submit the fortune of the poore men's lives, and 
Ucf of the holy acciou ytself, into the favour and ^jrotcccioa 
of the God of all mercy, whose will and pleasure he submit- 
ted unto to be fulfilled, as in all things ells, so in tliis one 
particulcr. By which meanes, for seventeen or eigbteen 
yeares togeatber, yt lay Ticglcctcd, untill yt pleased God atjj,, ^^^^ 
length to move ngaine the heart of a great and right noble '■^"-;*''.^J■ 
carlo amongst us, 

''Candidus ct tiJos a vwticc piUcIicr ud iinoa," 

Henry Earle of Soutliamptou, to take yt in consideration, 
and seriously advise how to rccreat and dipp yt anew into 
spiritt and life ; who thcrfore (yt being bo tlie will of the 
Etemidl Wisdome, and so let all Cliriatian and chaiitable 
hearted believe in compassion to thia people) begunii to make 
new enquiries and much scmteny after the country to ex- 
amync tlie former proeeedings, togithcr with the lawfulnes 
jind pious end thereof, and then, having well weighed the 
greatues aud gooilnes of the cause, hv. lartlgley contributed to 
the furnishing out of a shipp to be eoraanntlcd by Capt. 
Bartholomew Gosuoll and Capt. Bartholomew Gilbert, and 
occompanycd with divers other gentlemen, to discover con- 
venyent place for a new colony to be sent thither, who ao- 
cordingly, in March, anno IfiOS, from Falmouth iu a bark of 
Dartmouth, ealled the Concord, sett forward, holding a smmirii 
course for the north parte of Virginia. At which tyme, like- ,i!*pniX'd 
wise. Sir W. Raleigh once more bought a bark, and hired uU Hini« hy sir 



llir compttnye for wnges by the month, jinplnying therein, for 
chief, SuuueU Mbcc^ (a suOieycut inarriuer, who kml been 
twice before at VirKinialj to fyud out those people which 
he luul sent last thither (as before renicii linked) by Cipt. 
White, 1587; and who, if so be they could huppcly light 
iippon ihcin, were like enough to instrnet us the more per- 
fectly in the quality of the mitives, nud coudieion of tlie 
approved couiitr}-, which harke (h'parted from WajTnouth 
the snid moiietti of Miireh, iiniio, likeinise, 1602, to hold a 
louthwardly course for \''irginia, and which accordingly fell 
forty Iragtiea to the wi-westwanl of Ilatanisk, iu 3V degrees, 
or tbcreabouts, and having there spent a nioneth tmdiiig 
with the people for their owne, when they BCOure<i along tlie 
coast, and, according to their charge, should liavc sought the 
people, both in the islands and upon the maync, in divers 
appoiuted places, they did yt not, pretending that the ex- 
trcnmity of Mcuther and loss of some priudpall groxind tack- 
ling forced and feared them from aearehing the port at 
HntarBslt, the isle of Croatan, or any parte of the mayue of 
T)asamonquef)euk, and therefore taking in some quantity of 
aaxafraa, at that tyme of a good value, worth some three 
shillinga the lb., Chyna roots, benjamin, cag*ia fh/nea, and 
the jynd of the tree which grnwes there, more strong then 
nny spice, the vcrtuc whereof, at length, is nowe well kuowno, 
with divers other commodities, they returned, and brought 
no comfort or new accL-sse of hope coucemiug the lives and 
safety of the unfortunate English people, for which only they 
were sett forth, and the charg of thia imployment was under- 

Sc« Purcliaa, vol. iv. f". 1653. 


The 8accu«s of the good ship callci the Couvord, wt forih bj the Earle of 
Suiitliampton, aa<l comtuaundeil bj Capt. BiirttioIoiUBW Gosniill, for 
diacovcfy, upon a. right l^'ue, fulling aluout Snch^i'liithgo. 

The good ship the Cuncord^ a» you have hcnrd, setting forth 
with this about the fourteenth of Maye following^, making 
laud in 'li3 degrees of thu north latitude, had Ixrtter siiccesse; 
for the cummaiiudcrs therein, intending faithfully the end of 
their goeiug forth, discovered many goodly rivers, islands, 
and a pleasant contyncnt, and the Indiana in the said height, 
in, hark shallops, with maast and sayle, iron grapple!*, and 
kettles of co[ippr, came boldly abourd thL-iii, nppai'ellcd with 
wastcoats and breeches, some of black serdge, some of blew 
cloth, made after the sea faahion, with Iiose and shooea on 
their feet : a people tall of stature, broad and grym visagcd; 
their eye hrowes payntcd white; and yt seemed by some 
wordea and sigues which they made, that some barks, or of 
St. John de Luz,'' had fished and traded in this place. 

But the ship riding here in noc good barliorow, and with 
all the weather duiibted, the master stood off againc intu the 
sea southwardly, and soone after found lumself imbayedwith 
a mighty headland, wlicre, coming to an anchor witliin a 
league of the shoarc, Capt. Gosnoll commauudcd the shallop 
to be tryracd out, and went ashore, where he perceaved this 
leadland to be parcell of the raayne, and sondry islands 
lying almost round about yt; wliereupon, thus satisfied, he 
repaired abourd againc, where, during the tymc of his ab- 
sence, which wa» not above sis howcrs, he found tho fibip so 
furnished with excellent cod fish, which they had hauled, 
that they were compelled to through uombcrs of them over- 
board agayne : insomuch yt left this belief in them sdl, — 

' 5o in MS. The port of St. Jcaa dc Luz, io the Baues P^encea, 
bcciuae aubscqucntlj the sent of oxtcnEivo commerce t*ith the French 
posusuom in North America. 


amonB op tbavailb 

that in tliis season, namely, April and Maye, tliere mi 
upon this coast, in this height (as I &aid of about 43] bi 
pooti fipiliing, ami in as greiLt pk'iity, iia in the Xcwfonnclland; 
and they were the more probably confirmed herein by the 
skulls of macliarells, herrings, cod, and other fish, which they 
daily saw as they went and cnnie from tlie shoare ; the place, 
besides, where they tookc these codds Ueinj; hut in seven 
fatliOHK' watiT, and within lt!>ise thiiii a lrH{»ui: of tlio slioare, 
where, in Newfoundland, they fish forty or fifty fathome 
water, nnd fur off ujiun the hauek. 

This hcndhind, therefore, they called Cape Cod, from 
whence they sayled round about the same almost all the 
points of the compassc, the shoare very bold; atleug:th they 
came amongst many faier islands, three cspccyally, those 
which they had discerned upon the land, all Ijing within a 
league or two one of another, and not above six or seven leagues 
irom the maync ; the one whereof Capt. GosnoU called 
Martliaes Viniard, being stored with snch an incredible 
nombre of vynes, as well in the woody parte of the island, 
where they rnune upon every tree, as on the outwai-d parts, 
that they could not goe for treading upon them ; the second, 
full of dcare, and fowlc, and glistering minerall stones, hc 
called by his owne name, Gosnoll's Island ; the third, about 
some sixtene miles in eompasse, contej-niugmany pecees and 
necks of land little difterlnge from severall islands, sa\'ing 
that certaiue hancks of small breadth, like bridges, seemed 
to joyne them to this island, he called Elizabeth Island. 
Upon this island they did sow, for a tryall, in sondry places, 
wheittc, barley, oats, and pease, whicli in fourteen dayes were 
sproung up uyne inches and more. On the nor-west side of 
thi& island, nccre to the sea-side, they found a standing lake' 
of fresh water, almost tliree English miles in coinpasse, in 
the midst whereof stood a little pretty plott or grove of wood, 

1 He would seem to refer to the lake, or rather lake*, aokr Middle- 
borough, Plymouth county, MAEa»chii setts. 

RD acre in quantity, or not much above ; the lake full of 

tortoiacSj and exceedingly fircr|wenterl with all sorts of fowie, 
which hn^ild, snnin lowe ou the baiicks, and others on low 
ti'ccs about the hike, iu great abouudaucc, whose youugc oues 
theye tooke and eate at their pleasure j also therein they 
found divers sorts of shelfisb, as shallops, niushcUs, cockles, 
lobsters, crabs, oysters, and Milks ; audi the maync against 
yt lijul maiiye nieinlovvcs, large, and lull of greene grasae, 
even in the moat wooddy places, the trees growing so distinct 
and apart, one tree from another, as was passable for horse 
or coacli, with a broad harborow^ or river's mouth, which 
ran up into yt, moat comodious, and promising a goodly seat. 
The people theron (for ihey will appeare forty or fifty at a 
tyme togither upon the water lu sevcrall cauoas) would come 
downe and trade for ftirs of beavers, InzenioSj inarternea, 
otters, wild eatt sk}^Is, scale 8k^^ls, and other beast' sliines 
to ours imknowne, and which they would exchange for 
knives, babies' bcades, and such toyes. There wltc also 
great store of copper about them, some very redd, and some 
pallfir cullour. None of them but had chaines, earings, and 
coUcrs of this mettall, as also they had large driuckiiig cupps 
made like skulls, and other thine plates of copper, made much 
like our boarspeare blades; and when our people vrcrc desir- 
ous to understand where they had such store of this mettell, 
and made signes to them concerning the same, they tooke a 
pcece of cupper in their hands, and made a hole with their 
Angel's in the growud, and, witUall, pointed to the higher 

Within the aforesaid grove, in the midst of the lake men- 
tioned, Capt. GosnoU did dctermyne, with eleven more be- 
sides himself, v'ho promised to tarry with him, to aitt downe 
and fortcfyc, pnrposing to send the pynnace heme into Eng- 
land by Capt. Gilbert, for new aud better preparations, to be 
returned the nest ycare agaiuo ; and for the same purpose 
he built a large howse, and covered yt with sedge, which 



UlSTOJtlll or TIUVAUil 

grew Jibout the lake in great aboundaucc, in buylding vhercof 
were three weekes and more spent. 

liut nfter the trading with the Indians, and t)ic bark had 
tukon in ao iimiiy furm, skjns, some eaxafras, and other 
commoditie!), iw were thought couvenyeut, most of those 
eleven, who before ha<l given thoir ' to stay with Capt. 

Gosnol), liiLviiig now possest themselves with a covetous con- 
ceipt of their unlookt for march and ize, that they would be 
very profitable to them at their retume home upon the sale 
thereof at the best hand, making nothing but present game 
tlie end and object of this good work, woiihl not uowo, by 
any mcJincs, be treated with to tarry behind the shipp^ cast- 
ing many donbtca as how if the shipp should miscarry going 
home; or arriving, not to he supplied ; or supplied, niiscarry 
in the rctnrne, and aucbc like, Captiune OosuoU was fainc to 
yield to the presente necessity, and leaving this island with 
many sorrowfulj loth to dcpartc, about the mydst of June 
weyed, with faire wyndes, and the mydst of July arrived 
againc safe in Exmouth in five mouthes, thus fniishiiig this 
discovery, and returning with giving many comforts, and 
those right true ones, concerning the benefitt of a plantation 
iu those parts. 



Capt. Qeoige Wejmoatli's voyag«, upon t right iync (not seekinj^ the 
■wjn.le in tlic aociistomcfi height nf tbe West iDdiieB]^ aud fidling 

with SacUadehoc, anJ the dlsuoTcry of tliat river. 

Mi'CH was comeuded the diligence and relation of Capt, 
GosnoU; howbeit this voyage alone could not satisfye his so 
inteiit a spu-itt aud ambition in so great and glorious an en- 
terprise as hia lordship, the foresaid Earle of Southampton, 
who laboiu"ed to have yt so hcgiune, as that it might be cou- 

' A simil&T gap in the origiQal. 

tynned irith all due aud prepared circnmAtances and saffety, 
and tbcrcforc would Ins lordship he concurrant the aecond 
tymc in a new siirvtry and dispatch to he made thither with 
his hrothw iu lawe, Tlio. Ai'untlcll, Rnron of Wiu'dcr, wlio 
prepared a ship for Capt. Gcor^ Weymouth, w}iich set sayle 
from Ratcliff' in March, anno 1S05, and which, ahout the 
midst of Maye following, fell with the land, an island un- 
to the mayuc of the coast of America, in the height, aa lie 
found yt, of ahout 42, who from th^nee casting j't norward 
to 44, — what paincs he tooke in diseorcriug:, — may witnes 
the many convenyent plaeea upon the mayne, aud isles, aud 
rivers, ttigither with that little one of Pnniaquiil, and of his 
search sixty miles up the mort excellent aud beneficyall river 
of SachmU-hnc, which he found capa.hle of shippinge for tra- 
fique of the greatest harden, a beuefitt, indeed, alwaics to he 
accompted the richest treasure to any laud ; for which we 
for our Sevemc and Thames, and Fraunce for Loii*c, Seine, 
aud the river of Curdeux, and the Lowe Countries for their 
ynnunieralde navigrdjle rivers, rcceave our and their greatest 
wealth. Next he found the land faire, aud the whole coast 
hold to fall T^ith, and then, a safe harhonr for shipp« to ride 
in, widch Imth besides, without the river, in the chauuell and 
soundea about the island, adjoyning to the mouth thereof, so 
deisired a road^ aa yt is capable of an infinite nomber of 
shippcs. The river, likemsc, ytself, aa yt ninneth npp into 
the ma3me for very ueere forty miles towards the high inland 
iiiaiintaiues, he found to heare in breadth a mylc, sometymes 
three quarters, and half a mile the narrowest ; never under 
four or five fathom wattjr hard by the shoarc, and six, seven, 
eight, nine, aud ten fathomes all along on both sides ; every 
half mile very gallant eoves, Bome almost able to conteyne one 
hundred saylo, where the grownde ys soft ouze, with a tnffe 
clay under, for anchor hold, and where shipps mnye lye 
without eyther anehor or cable, only nioared to the shoare 
with a hauser; and which floweth eighteen or tM-enty foot at 



high water, with fit docks npprrtcTning to gnune or carine 
shippcH of all biirthenn, siKrured from all windes^ which is so 
ncoeasar^'c niid incoraparublc a bcncfitt, that in few places in 
England, or in any parts of Chrittteudome, art, with great 
chnrgea, cait make the like; besides, the bordering Itmd moat 
commodious and fertill, trending all along on both sides in 
an eipiall plaiiio, iif^ither mouiitayiics nor pockye, but virgod 
with a grecuc border of gnwse, sometymes three or four 
acrea, Romet3Tnes eight or ten togither, so making tender 
unto the eye of the siir\-eyor her fertility and pleasure, and 
which would be much more if, by clensing away her wowldrs, 
ehce were converted into goodly meaxlowe ; and the wodd she 
bearetU is not shrubbish, fitt only for fuell, but goodly nake, 
birch, lull firre and spruse, whirh in many plaet* grow not 
so thick together, but niiiy, with sqiilII labour, be miulc feed- 
ing grownd, being plentii'nlly stoared, like the outward is- 
lands, with fresh water springs, wliich streame dawne in 
many places. Tlie woddes here arc fiill of deare, hares, and 
other beasts, and reasona})ly well inhabited by the natives, 
of mild and good condicious ; many provinces (as about as 
within the Cheaapeak Bay, and about Boanoack} govci-ncd 
in cbiL-f by u prlneipall comniaunder or prince, whom th^ 
call Basliabaj who hath under him divers petty kings, which 
they call Sagamoes, the same which the Tndians in onr more 
sowardly parts cull weroauces, all rich in divers kinds of 
excellent fiUTS. 

To take possession of this laud and goodly river for his 
Majestic, Captain Weymouth thought it fitt to make up to 
the head of the river, which he did well sixty miles in his 
barge ; and as the streame tceudcd westuard into the mavne, 
and at that height yt bcganne to nan'owc, so he there sett 
upp a crosae with his Majewtie's inscnption thereon, observ- 
ing all the wayc, tliat in noo place, e}i:her about the islands, 
or up in the mayne, or ail alongst the river, there could be 
discerned any one token or siguc that ever any Christian 




Lad been there beforft, of which, eythei- by cuttmg vodA, 
digging for water, or setting up crosses (mcmurialU scldomo 
omitted) by Christiau travellpi-s, tliey miglit ba,v(* percwivr-H 
some testimuuy, or mcntiuti niiglit liavc bcea left; and after 
this search, Capt. Weymouth bcinfir well satisfied, "nitb in- 
struction and kuowledg, of aoe comniodiouK a sefit, sett saylc 
for England, and the eighteenth of July following: arrived 
before Dartmonth. 

Upon his retume, hU goodly report joyning with Capt. 
Gosnoll's, cawscd the buaines -vrith soc prosperous nud fairo 
Starrs to be accompanied, as it not only encouraged the saidc 
Enrle (tlie foresiud Lord Arundoll bcnng by [t]his tynie 
chaunged in bis lutcudmeuts this wayCj and engaged so far 
to the Ardiduke, before retiirne of this ship, that he no more 
thought upoii the act^iou), but likewise tailed forth many 
firme and harty lovers, and some likewise long afleeted 
thei-eunto, who by comyng, therefore, humble petieionera to 
his Majeatie for the advancemeat of the same (as for the only 
eiiterprize reserved unto his daies that was yet left unnecom- 
plisht; whereas God might be abonndantly made kuowen; 
His name enlarged aud honoured; a notable nation made 
fortunate ; and our8elve3 famous), yt well pleased hi« Majes- 
tie (whoe. In alt his practizes and couBultatioui), hath ever 
sought God more than himself, and the advaimcemcut of His 
glory, professiug deadly emnity — iioc prince soc much — with 
iguoraunce and erfour), adtliug to her Christian praenomen, 
Virginia, tlie surname of Britamiia, to cause his letters to be 
made patents the tenth nf Aprill, 1 60fi, in the fourth yeare of 
his Majestie's rnigno of England, and tliirty-ninth of Scot- 
laud, for two colonycsj the one coasiisting of divers knights, 
gentlemen, marchants, and others of the citty of Luudon, 
called the first colony ;' and the other of soudry knights, gen- 
tlemen, and others of the citty of BristoU, Escter, and tlic 

) Oth^rwitio called iha London Campanj. 



townu of Plymouth, and otber placoa, colled the second co- 

Tliis last, since yt had his end an nutj,Tnply, hy the dcAth 
of the upright and noble gentleman lute Lord Chief Justice 
of England, chief patron uf the same. Sir John Poplinm, 
knight ; and since the order and methode of a full history 
doth clayme of me the remcmbra.nce of titc most matcriaU 
poincts at least, as well of this late nortliem colony as of 
the first planted more to the south, I have uoi iliought yt 
amisse to epithomize a fewc things (and which have not yet 
by any one bene published, or >vrittcn of) uf tlic same; by 
which, likewise (as I mayc the better descend into the oc- 
currauncea of our owiio), male be the clierer confirmed the 
st«ry of all three— the one by the other — where the conpruity 
(meaiiinge the commodityes of the couutrj-, nature of the 
aoyle, and qualities of the people) betweene all throe is so 
ftiU and answerable. 

CAPUT vin. 


A colonic sent out to settle^ within the river of Sacliadohoc, hy the 
UonoumMfl fiir John Popbam, Kjiight, Lord Chitjf Justice of Kug- 
laod, under the govcrumont of Capt. Popham and Capt. Gilbert ; of 
tho Spaniards Rurpruing of a ship of BrinoD, b«oI for tho uso of tlw 

At what tyme the adventurers of the first colonye, anno 1G06, 
had prepared all things fitt, with a fleet of three saile, fur 
Capt, Christopher Newport to transport a colony of one 
hundred, to bcgynno the plantation within the Chesapeak 
Bay, the foresaid Sir John. Popham likewise prepai'ed a tall 
ship well furnished, belonging to Bristoll and the river of 
Soverne, with many planters, which aett out from Plymouth 
about Maye ,^ Haines maister, to settle a plaiitaciou in 

' Othnrwisu culled the Plymouth Oonipiiuy. 
i A aimiliu' gap in the originul. 



the rirer of Sachadchoc, whicli, making hia conrse for the 
Ulnnds of Flores and Cornei!,' one morning, about the iHlantio 

of Grntiosii, the Sjianiah fleet comjTige from Mexico, had 
sight of yt, gJive yt chtise, aiid soone tooke yt; and under- 
standing by cxatuiunciou whither she waa outward bounds 
and for what purpose, they tooke the captainc, whose name 
was Murtyii Pryii, out of hi'r, togitlier with the maistcr and 
most of the piLSseugers, dispersing tliem into divers shipps 
of their owne, and soe held their course, carrying ours along 
with thein for Spnine; Itowheyt one of the fleete, wherein 
three or four of the English were togither, by the steerage of 
the English, who tooke their turnea at the hclme, and not 
being observed, altered their course, or whither by contrary 
wynds eorapclled, true yt is upon obttervacion, the Spanish 
pilott not knowing where ho was, unlooked for fell upon the 
coast of Fraunce, witliin the river of Burdeux, where they 
would have concealed the Enghsh, and stowed them there- 
fore under hatehirs, had they not happely bene pcrceavcd by 
some of the French, which came abourd and obtojiicd them 
of the Spaniard, and carried them ashore, at what tyme one 
of thera, Daniell Tucker, gent., made complaint unto the 
officera of the place of this wronge oftVftd unto thom, and, in 
his Majestic's name, caused this sliipp to be staied and 
arrested uutill the court in Paris might determyn of the 
aame ; but the Spauianl had too goldcTi an advocate, a West 
Indian purse comyugc newly from thcucc, and therefore, after 
some litlc attcndaimce, easily freed himself from the incttm- 
braunce and made for Spaine, with malice inougli to entreat 
the other ca])tivcd English, whome they had dispersed and 
I made slaves in their gallions. 

■ Howbeyt, the aforesaid late Lord Cldef Justice would not, 
V for all tliis hard hansell and Spanish mischief, give over his 
K determinacion for planting of a colony within thR aforesaid 
I so goodly a country, upon the river of Sachadchoc ; but 
B 1 (. «. Corvo. 



Bgtiinst the next yeare prepiurcd a grcstcr number of planters, 
nnd better provittions, which in two sbipps be sent thither; 
a fly boat, called the Gifl of God, wherein a kinsman of hie, 
George Popbuiii, coiiinmuiided; and a goud aliip, called the 
Marr and John, of Lnndon, wherein Kaleigb Gilbert com- 
inaunded; whioh^ wttli one Iiniidrcd and twenty persons for 
plautwH, brakt- ground from Plymouth in June, 1G07, which 
the twenty-fifth fell with (iratiosa, and the twenty-eighth 
tooke in wood and water at Florea and Corncz, fi'oni whence 
they allways kept their course to the westward as much as 
wynd and weather woidd permitt ; in which course to the 
west, and west nor-west, as the wynd would give leave, they 
ran t^roo hundred leagues from Florea, and in the latitude 
of 42 dogreee tliey found the compasse to be vajned one whole 

From whence they stood still to the westward untill the 
tweiitj'-sr'\x'iitb of •Tuly, being then in the latitude of 18 and 
two thii-dS] where they threw out the dipsing lend, and had 
growiid, but twenty futliome and twenty-two fatborae, upon 
a banck, and here they tiabt some three bowers, and tooke 
iiccre two hiindrod of cod, vcrj' great fish, nud where tbcy 
might have ludcu theix- ship in lyttle tytne. 

Prom hence they stood in for the mayne, the wynd being 
nt so-west, and as they ran in for the land, they alwaic^t 
sounded from this banck, and having run some twelve leagues 
from the banck uor-west, they soimded, and had sist)- fathome 
ouae, gronud black. The wyiid uow growing scant, they 
were constrcyucd to stand for the so-ward, and made south 
so-west way, and sounded agaiue the nest daye, being the 
twenty-eiglith of July, and hml thirty fathome; small stones 
and white shells, fishing grownd. 

29. Tlicy made a west waio imtill nonnr, and then sounded; 
had one hundred and sixtv futhomc black ouze. 

30. About ' of the clock in the morning, they 
had sight of the land, and yt bore of them nor-wost. They 

1 A sfanilar gni> in the original. 


nnx) VIRGIN u. 


sonnded, being ten leagiiefi from, the ahoar, and had one 
hundred fathomes black ouze. They made towards the 
shoarc, but could not recover yt before the niglit toolte thcni; 
for which they were coustrayued to heare of a litle from the 
hmd, and lye a hull all that iiight, where they found abouiid- 
ftTice of fish very large and great, and the water deepe liard 
nbourd tlie slioarc^ eighteen or twenty fathoiiie. 

31. Standing in for the shoare in the afternoone, they 
came to an anchor under an island, for all this coast is full 
of islands, but verj' sound and good for shipping to passe by 
them, and the water deepe hard abourd tliem ; they had not 
bene at anchor two howera, Mheu there came a SpauLshe 
shallop to them from the shoare, in her eight salvadg men and 
a little salvadg boy, whoe at the first rowed about them and 
would not come abourd, notwithstanding they proffered tlicui 
bread, kni\"C3, bcadcs, and other small triflca; but baring 
gazed awhile upon the ship they made shewe to departe; 
howbeyt when they were a little from them, they returned 
agaiue and boldly came up into the sbipp, and three of them 
iitaycd all night abourd, the rent departed and went to the 
shoarc, shewing by signcs that they would retume the next 
da) c. 

The first of August, the same salvadges returned with three A"B"»t 
women with them in another biskey shallop, bringing with 
them many beaver skynw to excliaunge for knyves and beades; 
the saganio of that place they told them Messamot, seated 
upon a river not farr off' which they called Emanuell. Tlic 
sulvndgcs departing, they hoisted out theire bote; aud the 
pilott, Captain II. Davica, with twelve others, rowed iuto the 
buy wherein their ship road, aud lundcd on a galland island, 
where they found gooseberries, strawberrieSj raspiees, hurts, 
and all the island full of huge high trees uf divers sorts : 
after they hud delighted tliemselvca there a while, they re- 
turned aboiu-d againe and observed the place to stand iu 
44 degrees oue-tliird.^ 

^ Tb« ialitude bci'« given would lead to the sappoaition that tho islnud 



3. About midnight, the moone shining hright »ntl the 
wynd being fa)Te, at nor-east they departed from this place, 
setting their cuiirso so-westj for soe the coast lieth. 

3. Karly in the morimig tlicy were faire by the shoar, a 
league from yt, and saw many islands of great bignea and 
many great sownds going betwixt them, but made proofc of 
none of them, bnt found great stoare nf fish all along the 

4. ITicy were thwart of the eape or headland, which stands 
in 43 degrees,' the shipp being in 42 degrees 50 minutes ; 
betwixt the place they were now at and the said cape or 
headland, yt is all full of islands and deepe sounds for any 

refoirecl to jna Mouat Pe$crt Island^ in FroTichman\i Bay ; 1>iit newrly ail 
other hiitt{iriet) record Manhegin inland as the point at wbich they first 
lunded . 

3 lu order to Tcrify and de&ne, in modern nomenclature, the descrip- 
tioQ of the course hold by the adventurers, as given in this and the foUow- 
ing throe pa^es, a very ctftborate and beautiful manuscript map of tlu« 
coast, in tli^- British Musoitnit on a scalu of two miles tu an luch, baij been 
cotiBuJbod. Tho csiuniiiation leads unoiuivocally t^J tbo lufwrcucc, that 
tlic ubHerratiou of tht; Utitudc., as h&ru <|iioled, Is incorrect by rathtrr more 
than hn]f ft degree. The conclusion which, from a careful study of ih« 
map, tho vdit'^r has iiJcpted as most conxiiitunt with ail the dutaild huro 
dtiecrilieil, ib, tbtil tbo hoitiluod rcfurrcd to is 0%pe Small Point, aiid tliat 
the three islands lire I>umiscoce lalaDd, Wood island, and Outward Heron 
Ulaod, with the Pumpkin inland lcdg<i>< lying (as described) southward of 
tho eastern-most of the tliroo. The two latter of tho throe islandii lie 
af^rcHjuMy with thu doecriptiouj ea^t and west of each other, but Damia- 
covu ii^laud em to tha saul/iward of Wood i^laud. If no iJlowanuo be uiads 
for this discrepancy, it appears impossible to find any other trio of islands 
Boneurly appronchiu;; the description, uitUerae tn their beaiiug with refer- 
ence to each other, and to the headland, or their diutanci; respectively 
from, Fenobscot and the St. Oeorgc's ialonds. The infei-euce that the 
headland is Capo Small Point is baaed on tho fact that no more southerly 
cape would ofler a great uumljcr of island:! between itself and the ahip 
while lying southward of such eape ; and if we assume it to lie mora nor- 
therly, we wander still further fruui tho latitude quoted by our author, 
and with still less cerreapondeiicc with the description in other minor 
points ; this would be the cano, for example, if wc were to adopt the sup- 
poHition, which the examination ban somctimcH sa^gestefl, that (he Mat!- 
uiouH Islands and Moohc Puitit wore nifurrud tu. 



shipping to goe in by them, and where la exceeding good 
fiMhiiig for cod, great and smnll, liifj^r then what coine* from 
the banck of the Newfoundland. This cape is lowhind, shew- 
ing white like sand, but yt is all whit rocks, and a strong 
tyde goeth there. They ran witliin half a league of the cape, 
and from thence the land fell awayc and falls in from this 
IieaiUand, nor-west and by uore, and nor-west. They keept 
their course from this hondlaud and came to three ishmds, 
where they found a letlgc of rocks to the so-ward, wliich 
made tbera hale off from them, and the wy-nd being at nor- 
cst, they passed tbcm, keeping their coast still west nnti by 
^outh, and west so-wcat, imtill twelve of the clock at night, 
mid made from this headland, in all thirty leagnea. 

5. They made a west nor-west way, ii'om four of the clock, 
ill the morning nntill three of the clock in the aftemoone, 
and made fifteen leagues, and then they saw the laud agniiie; 
for from the cape before named, they saw uoe more land but 
those three islands untDl now, in wbicb tyine theyi-an forty- 
five leagues, and the land bore of them, when they saw yt 
firste, nor-^wesfc and by north, and yt shewed yt sell' in this 

Nine leagues or more from yt, there be three high raoun- 
tayncs that lie in on the land, the laud called Segobquot, 
nccre about the river of Penobscot.' Thoy stood towards 
this high land until! twelve of the clock nooue the next daye, 
and they found the ship to be by observation in 4S. 

> Tho mowntama of Penoliscot stnad in tLreii cliunpfl, nach of which 
would prolinbl; have the appau-anco nt a distance of a Biugk moUQtaia. 



6. From twelve of the clock noon they kept their course 
dae west and came necrc unto the three islands, lying low 
ami flatt by the water, alicwiiig white to tlie water as if it 
were sand ; but yt is white rock, injiking shew afarr off almost 
like Dover CUffea. There lyeth no-west from the easter- 
most of the three islands a white rocltye island, and those.; 
other tliree islands lye one of the other east and west ; soe 
they Btood their course west fast by them, and as they stood 
to the westward, the high land before spokcu mudc uhewe of 
this forme, bearing of them then nore-nor-west. 

From hence they kept still their course west and by nore 
towards three other islands, which they saw lying from those 
islands eight leagues ; and about ten of the clock at night, 
ha-ving sent in tlieir boat befoi-e night to make yt, they bore 
in for one of them, the wliich they afterwards named St. 
George his Island ; they sounded all along as the}' came in, 
and found very decpe water, hard about yt forty fathome. 
In the morning they were envyrouncd every way with islands, 
they told upward of thirty islands from ubuurd their shipp, 
very good sayling out betweene them. 

7. They wcycd anchor, thcrby to ride in more saffety 
howsoever the wind should happen to blow j how be yt before 
they put from the island they found a crosse set np, one of 
the same which Captain George WeymaUj in his (Uscovery, 
for all after occasions, left npon this island. Having sayled 
to the westwiirdj they brought the high hind before spoken of 
to be north, and then it shewed thus, — 



About midnight, Captniu Gilbert caused bis shipp'a boat 
to be maimdc mtb fourtccu pcrsous aud the Indian Skidworcs, 
(brought into England by (!aptain Wayman) and rowed to 
the westward ti*om their shipj), to tbt; rivi;r of Pniimqiiid, 
which they found to be four leagues distant from the shipp, 
where she road. The Indian brought them to the salvadKos* 
houses, where they found a hundred men, women, and chil- 
drcne; andtheire cliief commander, or sagamo^ amongst them, 
named Nalianada, who had been brought likewise into Eng- 
land by Captain Wayman, and rctiumcd tbitlicr by Captain 
llanam, setting forth for those parts and some part of Canada 
the year before ; at their fti-at conjyiig the Indians betooke 
them to their armes, their bowes and arrowes ; but after 
Niihanadahad talked with Skidwarcs and pcrceiived that Ibey 
were EngUsh mcu, be caused them to lay aside their bovvcs 
and arrowes, and he liimself came unto them and ymbrnced 
them, and made them much welcome, and eiitertaViied them 
with much chierfulnesss, and did they likewise him; and after 
two howers thus enterchaugeably spent, they returned abourd 
again e. 



Of iMne a««iJ«ntB happeoiog ia the fimtc sctlement of tliis aorthernd 


9. Sonday, the chief of both the sbipps, with the great- 
est part of all the company, landed on the island where 
the crossc stood, the which they called St. George's Island, 
and heard a sermon delivered unto them by Mr. Seymour, 
his preacher, and soe retiumed abourd apaine. 

10. Captain Popham manned his shallop, aud Captjun 
Gilbert bis ship bo;it, with fifty persons in both, and departed 
for tbo river of Peraaquid, carricug with them Skidwares, 
and arrived in the mouthe of the river ; there cauie forth 




Nahanadai with all liia company of Indians with their bowes 
and arrowes in their hnndes. They being before his dwelling- 
house, would not u'iUinj?ly have al] our people come on 
shoarCj usiugthem m all kind sort after their manucr; never- 
thelesse, after one hover, they all suddenly vithdrew thcm- 
»c1tc3 into the woodcs, nor was Skidwarea desirous to rcturnc 
with them any more abourd. Oiir people loth to proffer any 
vyolence unto him by drawbig bim by force, suffered him to 
stay hcbiud, promising to retiLruc to them the nest day fol- 
lowing, but he did wot. After hia departure they imbarke*! 
themselves, aud rowed t(» the furtlier side of tlic river and 
there rcmnyned on the ahoare for that night. 

11. Tlicy retunietl to their ^liippfl towards the evening, 
where they still road under St, George's Island.' 

12. They wcyed anchors and sett saile to ^oe for the 
river of Saclmdehoc ; they had little wynd and kept their 
course west. 

13. They were south of the island of Sutquiu,* a league 
from yt, and yt risetli in this form heremiderj but they 
did not take yt to be Sutquin. 

Sitiquiii,b«lai|iv«Ua at It. Tim lilg'ti muLuiiataab^ni! noTtb from jrourlaft Uitia. 

Soe the weather beiuf? very faire, they sought the islaude 
further to the westward ;^ hut at lengtli fynding that they 
bad overshott yt, tbey bore «p helme, but wore soon bo- 
calmed ; by which means they were constreyned to remayne 
at sea, when about midnjg^lit there arose a migbty storrae 
upon them, which put them iu great danger, by reason they 
wei-e so neere the shoare and coidd not gett off, the wjnid all 

1 Capt. Jclui Smitb makes them to fa.ll in with Manhegin island on 
tbe oleventb of A^u^iet. 
' Seguin island. ^ D&tniscove ieland t 



the while at south, and yt hiDw veiy stiffe, «oe aa they Tverc 
compelled to turuc yt to and agaync, bard nbourd the lee 
bUootc, many rucks and islands under their Ice hard by them; 
but, God be tbaiickcd, tbcy escaped uutill yt was daye, the 
utorme atiU contynuyng imtlll uooue the next daye. 

1-t. Soe socne as the daye gave lights they perceared 
that they wrru hard aboard the shore, in the bay that 
Ihey were in the daie before, which made them look out for 
some place to thnist in the shipp to save their liveaj for 
towing the long boat, yt hij'c suncVc at the steme two bowers 
and more, yett would they not cutt her otF, lyvin^ in hope to 
save her; bo bearing up hclme, they stood in right witli the 
shoHrc, when anou they perceaved two little islnndsj to whieh 
tliey made, and tliere they found (God be tfiaucked) pood 
anchoring, where tliey road uutill the storcie bi-oak, which 
was the next daie after. Here they freed their boat, and had 
her anhore to repaire her, being much tome aud epoiled. 
These islands are too Icngues to the westward of Sacha*lchoc. 
Upon one of them they went on shoare, and found Sonr sal- 
vadgcH aud one woman. The iijlands all rockye and full of 
piuc trees. 

15. The stormo ended, and the wynd came faire for 
them to goe for Sachadehoc, the river whether they were 
bound to and enjoyned to make their plantacion in ; soe they 
wcycd anchor aud sett saylc, and came to the eastward and 
found the island of Sutquin, aud anchored under yt, for the 
wjTid was of the shoare, by which they could not gett into 
Sachadehoc; yet Capt. Popham, with the fly-boat, gott in. 

Ifi. In the morning, Capt. Popham aeut hia sbalhip 
to helpe in the Mary aud John, which weyed anchor, and 
being calme, was soone towed in aud anchored by the Guift's 

1 7. Capt. Popliam, in his pynnace, with tliirty per- 
sons, and Capt. Gilbert in liis long boat, with eighteen 

' This flliip, it will be remombi'irotlj was coUud the "Gift of Ood". 



persons more, went early in the morning from their ahipp 
into the river Snchndehoc, to view the river, and to search 
where they miffht find a fitt pliicc for thtrir pliiiitation. They 
saj'led up into the river neere forty leagues, and found yt to 
be a very gallani river, very deepc, and scldome lease water 
then three fathome, when they fonnd seat ;' whereupon they 
proceeded no fiirlhor, hut in their retnnio liomowanLs they 
observed nmiiy goodly islands therein, and many bniiiiicliia 
of other small rivers falling into yt. 

18. Tlicy all went ashore, and there made choisc of a 
plaee for their plautacion/ at the mouth or entry of the 
ryvcr on the west sirle (for the river bcndcth yt self towaids 
the nor-east, and by east), being almost an island, of a good 
bipnes, bein}^ in a pro\ince ealled by the Indians Sabiuo, sso 
called of a !taga7no or chief commaunder under the g^aund 
hassaba. As they were ashoarc, tlirce canous full of Indians 
came to them, but would not come nccrc, but rowed away 
up the river. 

I'X They nil went ashoare where they had made chmse 
of their plantation and where they had a sermon deli- 
vcrwl unto tliem by their preacher; and after tliu sermon, 
the presideut's commission was read, with the lu«es to he 
obaen-ed and kept. George Popbam, gent., was nominated 
prenideut ; Captain Raleif^Ii Gilbert, Jamea Daries, Ilichard 
Seymer, preacher, Captjiin Ilichard Davics, Captain Harlow, 
the same who brought away the salvadges at this tyme shewed 

1 Qiiei7, rest, — as in our old word " zest", an afternoon's n»p ; as, " to 
go to yne'it Kc%t,"— -tiuru •' siosLii".— /'e rt. 

^ B'ulkuap, In his "Amcricau £iugra|)h^," tnyn thtit l\i(iy landed oa a 
peninguta ; but in the collection of the H&ss. HUtorical f^ocict; it is 
called Ptirk^^rs isUiid, wliitb, acuordiug to the MS. map alreadj i>>ltuJed 
to, is foini«d by the waturs of iJia KuuuuliHulf on tlic wesi', Jtremysqumn 
Lay on the i^aet, the sea. oii th« isoutb, aud a. amall ^Lniil Uividiiig H froia 
Arrowsick i«luud un the imrth. It h aillod Parker's island l>ceause it 
Tvfts purchased of the aatiyes, iu IGfiO, Uy one Jotin Parker, who was the 
ftni occupaut ttl'ter the year ItKJK, nhea this oolony was hrokcn up. 



in London^ from the river of Canada, were all Bworne aftsiat- 
anta; and soe tlicy retin-ned back apaine. 

20. AH wpnt to sliuiLre again, and there begnn to en- 
trench and make a fort, and to bu_vld a storehouse, soc 
contynewing the 21fit, 22nd, 23i*d, 24th, 25th, 26th, 2nh. 

28. Whilst most of the hands laboured hard about the 
fort and the carjicntcrs about the buyldinf; of a small pinnace, 
the president overseeing- and applying every one to his 
worke. Captain G-ilbcrt departed in the shallop upon a 
discovery to the westward, and sayled all the daye by many 
gallant islands. The wyud at night pomyiig roatrary, tli^y 
came to anelmr that night under a heatUund, by the Indians 
called Semiamia;' the land exceeding good and fertile, as ap- 
peared by the trees growing thereon being goodly and great, 
most onke and waluutt, with apatious passages betweeac, and 
noe rubbish under, and a place most fitt to fortifye on, being 
by nature fortifycd on two sides with a spring of water 
under yt. 

29. They departed from tlm headland Scniiamis, in the 
heigh of 4S\ degrees, and rowed along the shear to the 
westward, for tbat tlie wynd was against them, and wliicb 
blewc so hard tbat they reached no farther than an island 
two leagues off, where, whilst they anchored, two canoas 
passed by them but would not come neere them. 

30. Tlicy returned homewards before the wyud, sajling 
by many goodly and gallant islands j for betwixt the said 
headland and Semiamis, and the river of Sacliadehoe, is a 
very great bay j" in the which there lycth soe many islands 
ftnd so thicke and neere togither, that can hardly be dis- 
cerned the iiombcr, yet may any shipp passe betwixt, the 
greatest parte of them having seldorac lesse water than eight 
or ten fathome about them. These islands are all over- 

• Capo Klizabcth. 

' CiLBcu Buy, whivb in snid to conttiin as mtvny iNlamls &s tLurc are dayii 
ia Uieyear. 



gi'UK'ue with woods, aa ouk, walnutt, pine, sprusc trees, hnscU 
nutU, sarsapsrilln, niid liiirtx in abniKiaiince, only they found 
no auxnfras at nil m the coimtryj and this niglit they arrived 
at the fort n^inc. 
»B]it«ub»r. 31, And 1st of September, 2nd, 3rd, and 1th, nothing was 
done, but only for the furthcrmincc and bnyldingc of the fort 
and sturehoxise to receave ashore their rictiialls. 

5. About nooiie, tlicre caine into the oiitraiincc of the 
river of Sachadehoc and soe unto the fort, as our people were 
at their worke, nine caiioej with fortj- snlvadj^'es in them, 
men, women, luid ehihlrcn, and amoDgst them was Kahanada 
and Skidwares. Tliej'' came up into the fort, and the presi- 
dent gave them moat and ilrinek, and iised them exceeding 
kindly. Two or tlirce bowers they rcraayncd there and then 
they parted, Skidwares and an other salvadge staying still, 
with whome at might Captain Gilbert, James Davies, and 
EUis Beaat, went over to the farthest side of the river, whe- 
ther all the rest had witlidrawen themselves, and there re- 
mayned with thuiii ull the night; and early in the morninge, 
the siilvadges departed in their canoas for the river of Pama- 
qnidj pronuHiiig Captain Gilbert to accompany him in their 
canoas to the river of Penobscott, where the bissaba dwells. 

6. And 7th, the hmtincs of the fort only attended. 
S. Captain Gilbert, witli twenty-two others, departed in 

the shullop for the river of Peuobscotj taking with him 
divern sorts of marcbandizc to trade with the bassaha ; but 
by reason the wynd held easterly, being contrary, yt was 
throe daies before he gott into the river of Penobscot. 

11. Early in the morning they came into the river of 
Paraaquid, thero to call Nahaiiada and Skidwares to goe 
along with them ; but, being arrived there, they found that 
they were all gone from thence unto the river of Penobscot 
before, wherefore, they sett sayle for that river; and all that 
day, as likewise the 12th and 13th, they sayled and seai'ched 
to the eastward, yet by noe meanes could find the river, for 


INTO VlHfiI?nA. 


wLich they returned, their victuals spent, and the wynd large 
and good, find in too dayes arrived agaiite at the fort, Imving 
had a sight, the 15th in the luoruiu^, of n blasiiug starr iu 
the uor-cast of them. 

The 16th, 17th, 18th, l9th, 30th, 31st, 22titl, 0.11 labored 
about the fort and buyldiog up of the storehouse. 


The death of Onpt. Pophani ; Capt. Oilbert dbposctb of himself for Eng- 
land whan the companie -woud then ataj ao loogtsr, ulbcit Oapt. 
DiivioB rcturtiud uiitu thein witli a great cupplj (row Snglaud. 

23. Captain Gilbert, accompanied with nineteen others, 
departed in hid shallop, to goe far the head of the river 
of Sachadchoc. They sayled all tliia daye, and the 24th the 
like, untill six of tlie clock in the aftemoone, when they 
liuided on the river's Bide, where they found a cliamjiion laud 
and very fertile, where they remayued all that night. 

25. In the morning, they departed fi'om thence and 
savled up the river and came to a flatt low island ■nhere 
ya a great cataract or downfidl of water, which runneth by 
both sides of this island very shold and swift.' In this island 
they found great store of grapes, both redd and white; good 
hopps, as also chiballs and garlike; they haled their boat 
with a strong rope through tliis downfall perforce, and went 
uecre a lengne fwthcr up, and here they lay all night ; and 
in the first of the night there called certaine sjilvages on 
the further side of the river unto them in broken English ; 
they aiisweared them againc and parted long with them, when 
towards morning they departed. 

' Query, Swan inlnuJ, a few milus up the riv«r ; th^ fdll of waMr 
round which may be more properly culled a downfall of waWT llian a 
oatiUract. Thu lirat great fall of water from the mouth of the river is that 
ut Waterville : but tbcio is no island at thut epot Uid dowu Id the b«*t 
modern mape. 



S6. Id the morning tlicrc came & cauua uutu them, 
and in her a Saj^mo and fonr Bnlvn^^es, some of those 
which spoke to them the night huforo. Tlie Snganio calh^d 
his name Scbcnoa, and told us how he was lord of the river 
Sachftdedoc. They entertayncfl him friendly, and tooke him 
into their hoat aud presented him with some triSliiig things, 
which he accepted ; howbcyt, he deaircd some one of our 
men to lie put into his canoa as a pawnc of his safety, xvhere- 
Mpon Captain Gilbert sent in a man of his, when presently 
the canoa rowed away from them with all the speed they 
could make up tlie river. Tliey followed with the shallop, 
ha\ing great care tliat the Sagnrao should not Icape over- 
Uourd. The canoa qnickly rowed from them and Landed, and 
the men made to their howses, being ueere a league on the 
hiud from the rivi^r'ii side, aud carried our man with them. 
Tlic shallop making good waye, at length came to another 
dowiiefiill, which was so shallowe and soe swift, tliat by iioe 
meaiies they conld pasac auy further, for which. Captain 
Gilbert, with nine otherSj Uiuded and tooke their fare, the 
salvadge Sagamo, with them, and went in search after those 
other salvages^ whose howscs, the Sagamo told Captain 
Gilbert, were not farr off; and after a good tedions march, 
they came indeed at length unto those salvages' howses, 
wlieere found neerc fifty able m^eu very strong aud tall, such 
OS their like before they had not scene ; all newly painted 
imd armed with their howes and arrowes. !Iowl>eyt, after 
that the Sagamo had talked with them, they delivered hack 
again the man, and used all the rest very friendly, as did 
ours the like by them, who shewed them their comoditics of 
beads, knives, and some copper, of wliich they seemed very 
fond; and by waye of trade, made shew that they would 
come dowue to the boat aud there bring such things as they 
had to exchange them for ours. Soe Captaiu Gilbert departed 
firom them, and i,rithiii half an howre after he had gotten to 
his boat, there came three cauoas down unto them, and in 


nrro ttrginta. 


them some sistccn salrages, and brought with them some 
tobacco and certayiie small skynes, which n-erc of no value j 
wbich Captain Gilbert purceaviufc, anil that th^y liaxl nothing 
ells wherewitli to trade, he caused all his men to come 
abourd, and as he would have putt from the shore; tbe sal- 
vatlgea perceiving so much, snbtilcly devised liow they might 
put out tht! lior in the Bhallop, by which meanes they sawe 
they should be free from the danger of ourineu'n pieces, and 
to performe the same, one of the salvadges came into tlie 
sliallnp and taltiiig tlie ficr brand which one of our conipnny 
held in his hand thereby to light the matches, as if lie would 
light a pipe of tobacco, as sone as he had gotten yt into his 
hand he prcaently threw it into the water and leapt out of 
the shallop. Captain Gilbert seeing that, suddenly com- 
mniidcd his men to betake them to their rausketts and the 
targcttiers too, from the head of the boat, aud had one of 
the men before^ with bis targett on his arme, to stepp on the 
shore for more fier; the salvages resisted him autl would 
not Buft'cr him to take any, and some othei-s holding fast the 
boat reap that the shallop eoiUd not putt off. Captain Gil- 
bert caused the muaquettiers to present their peeces, the 
which, the salvages seeing, presently lett goe tlie boatroiip 
and betouke them to their bowes and aiTowes, aud ran into 
the bushes, nocking their aiTowes, but did not shoot, neither 
did ours at them. So the shallop departed from them to the 
further side of the river, where one of the canoas came unto 
them, and would have excused the fault of the others. 
Captain Gilbert made shew as if he were still friends, and 
cntertayncd them kindlye and soe left them, returning to 
the place where he bad lodged the night before, jmd there 
carac to an anchor for that night. The head of the river 
standeth in 45 degrees and odd mynutts. Upon the cou- 
tiocut they found aboundauce of sprusc trees such as are 
able to raaast the greatest ship hia majestie hath, and many 
other trees, oke, walnutt, pincaplc; fish, ahoundanee; grent 

A A 



store uf grapes, hopps, and chiballa, also they found ccrtaine 
coddft iti wliicli they sujiposcd the cotton wooll to grow, and 
also upoQ the baticks nmtiy shells of pcarlc. 

27. Here they scitt up n croi^tte niid theu returned honie- 
wardj in the way socking tlic by river of some note called 
Buanoa. This dare and the next they sought yt, when tlie 
TTcatlier turned fowle and full of fog and mine, tlicy made 
hU hast to the fort b<?forc which, the 29th, they anived. 

SO. and 1 and 2 of October, all busye about the fort. 

3. There cnnic a cauoa unto some of the people of the 
fort as they were fishing on the sand, in which was Skid- 
waj*8, who hadd tliem tell their president that Nah&nada, 
with the Bashabaca brother and otheru, were on the further 
side of the river, and the next daie would come and viaitt 
hi Til. 

4. There came two canoas to the fort, in vhich were 
Nahaniida and his wife, and Skidwares, and the Casshabaes 
brother, and one other called Amenquin, a Sagamo ; all 
whomo tht: president feasted and entcrtayued witU all kind- 
nes, both that day and the next, which being Sondaye, the 
president carried them with him to the place of publike 
prayers, which they were at both morning and evening, at- 
tending yt with great reverence and aUeucc. 

C. Tho salvadgos departed all except Amenqnin the Sa- 
gamo, who woidd needes ataye amongst our people a longer 
tymc. Upon the departure of tbe others, the president gave 
imto every one of them copper beades, or kuives, which con- 
tented them not a little, as also delivered a present onto tho 
Basshabae's brother, and Hnothei- for his wife, gi^Tng him to 
understand that he would come unto his court in the river of 
Penobscot, and see him very sliortly, bringing many such, 
like of hiH country coraraodityes with him. 

Yon maic please to understand how, whilst this fausines 
was thus followed here, soune after their Hrst arrivall, that 
hail diapatch't away Capt. Robert Davics, in the Jfary and 

rSTO VIltOI?![A. 


John, to advertiac of their safe arrival and forwardncs of 
leir plantacion within this river of Sachadehoc, with letters 
to the Lord Chief Justice, ymportnniugc a supiily for the 
most neceasarj- wants to the suhsisting of a colouyj to he 
sent unto thorn lietynacs the next yeare. 

After Capt. Davies' departure they fully finished the fort, 
trendit and fortefietl yt with twelve pieces of ordinaunce, and 
hiiilt fifty howses therein, besides a church and a storchowsej 
and the carpenters framed a pretty Pynnacc of about some 
thirty toiinej which they called the Virginia j the chief 8}iip 
wright being one Digby of London. 

Many discoveries likewise had been made both to the 
mayne and unto the neighbour rivers, and the frontier na- 
tions fully discovered by the diUgence of Capt. Gilbert, had 
not the wynter proved soe extrcamc miseasoiiablc and frosty; 
for yt being in the yeare 1607j when the extraordinary frost 
was felt in most parts of Europe, yt was here likewise as 
vehement, by which uoe boat couhl stu" upon any busiiica. 
Howhcyt, as tyme and occasyon gave leave, there was nothing 
omitted which could add unto tlic benefitt or knowledg of the 
planters, for wluch when Capt. Darics arrived there in the 
yeare following (sett out from Topsam, the port townc of 
Exciter, with a shipp laden full of victualls, armcs, instru- 
ments, and toolca, etc.), albeyt, he found Mr. George Popham, 
the president, and some other dead, yet he found all thiuga 
in good forwardues, and many kinds of furrs obteyned from 
the Indiana by way of trade; good store of sarsaparilla 
gathered, and the new pynnace all finished. But by reason 
that Cupt. Gilbert received letters that his brother was newly 
dead, and a fairc portion of land fallen unto Ids share, which 
required his rcpaier home, and uoe rnynes discovered, uor 
hope thereof, being the mayuc intended benefit expected to 
nphold the chai-ge of this plantacion^ and the feare that all 
other wyntcrs would prove like the first, the company by no 
mciim would stay auy longer in the couuti-y, especyally Capt. 


Gilbert being to leave them, and Mr. Fopham, as aforesaid^ 
dead ; wherefore they all ymbarqued in this new arrived 
shipp, and in the new pynnace, the Virginia, and sett saile 
for England. And this was the end of that northeme colony 
uppon the river Sachadehoc. 










Ahone, God 

Apome, the thigJie 

Apooke, tobacco 

Apokan, a toba-cco pipe 

Ananson, a matt 

Assentamens, pears 

Anath, farewell 

Assimnims, walnutts 

Assimoest, afox 

Amahoth, a targett 

Ampkone, a frying pan 

Akontant, a playster 

Ammomu, to sowe 

Aayxkehake, a spade 

Atapahaii, a kixe^ 

Asapan, a hasty pudding 

Apquammon, a show 

Amosens, a daughter 

Aramiath south, ) 7- ■ , 

T,- . > i am sick 

Neire, J 

Auppes, a bow string 

Anaskomens, acomes 

Asasqueth, the clay they make 

pipes of 

Amonsoquath, a beare 

AttomoiB, a dog 

Arrokoth, the side 

Apones, bread 

Arathkone, a beast like afox. 

AposoD, a beast in bignes like a 

pig and in tost alike 
Aquintayne manggoy, a great ship 
Aquintayne taux, a little boate or 

Assahampehooke, a lobster 
Above, oskeitch 

, vsqu-yh 
, vspeuwk 
Abroad, vscound 
Acorn, anaskimmins 
Adder, keihtascooc, sassacomu- 

Aftemoone, aunshecapa 
Ague, chowhuasuw 
A king of the head, nindgapamut- 

la mecreentecoh 
A king of the teeth, vneghiawm- 

All, cheisk 

An aule pin or needle, pocohaac 
All is out, tashoa^, metatvwh 

Alive, kekewh 
Angry, perervimuw 
Angle, aamowk 

So in original MS. 

^^^r 184 DicnoN&itrR or the ^^^^^^^^^| 

^^^B Apple, maracah 

A bird with camRtion-coloared 1 

^^^M Apron or hiiv kind of draesad lea^ 

win^s, ahshoteeulteia 1 

^^^H tlicr, iHMahehjk eatomtnoUc 

A I'ird iikir ii Iiipwiiig, (.■oUour ^ej-, 1 

^^^M Arrow, asfjieeowan 

wliieb usetli the vraler, vwnn- 1 

^^^H Arme, mfxe 

hnm^hatp H 

^^^H Anncs, meageoh 

A bird iiiUed a DivocUpiier, otaii' 1 

^^^B Arse, hemekit 

rtit(f'f(j* ^^H 

^^^H Aslipti, puntfwe 

Tliu till or beak, mehkevh ^^| 

^^^H Aiiuts, arUiirosg'iti 

To )iitf>, ainitt, uitsMCun ^^H 

^^^H Avrak«, tinmaumcr 

A bitch, rsijieausiim ^^| 

^^^H Aire, raratcak 

nifick, inahcatawaiutch ^^H 

Blew. omtA- 1 

To blow ftiiy thing, «.?/«*«««»(('»( 1 

Blew beailes, vuetiiffu-ruhotnon 1 


Blew berripH of Uil' bigtit!« of 1 

^^^V Dnkr^tawh.^'r 

gmpcs, very [tlcasout, aecomi- 1 

^^^H Ciignitiicliy Itiutson, u tjirdU 

ilewK ^^fl 

^^^^k BniHerari npoolt, /i7/ ll\e jiij'e mlk 

Blunt, iryktraivwh ^^H 

^^^H tobacco 

To make any thiug blimt, neih' ^^B 

^^^H A Img, porasap 

jfjttriAfififM'fCj'i J 

^^^^1 rt til mnii-rai-h 

BliK'k, tncrahunc ^^H 

^^^H To bark, cttttotwdfj 

BIuul. nchpftanyunnu ^^^ 

^^^H A LftjTfll, ohtamocan 

A Ikiw, ituhtcib ^^^M 

^^^H A Imtelii^llur, matniiiateijh 

A luiWBtrtng, mtjtria ^^H 

^^^m A Ixtll, aitowh 

A boat, aeomtan ' '^^| 

^^^H Btild, jiantchkUcmv 

A buttle, pohi^eii-h ' ^^H 

^^^^H A lican.', mnmnnKnciteeo 

A bourJ, enlsontiiuooc ^^M 

^^^H A bell, viauc(t<itiiu9 

To buyle up. potopolawh tiwh ^^M 

^^^H Bennes, pecattoas 

A i>rme, uijsfrafi ^^^ 

^^^H A beiLnl, H'eihiifitnnmtans 

A boy, v$capfS9 ™ 

^^^B A bed, cainmivwh, pvtaocamn 

A box iu which tliey play at ft 

^^^H To W<at out with a p\xii^,^^\,ttuntem- 

I'ertaiii kyiid uf gitrac, aatouh 

^^^H dvn, nonunHhftiin 


^^^H To beat conic luto meale, vshvc' 

Th« bob of the gynny wheat with- 


«vul curnn, nkishBr, ukivsiii-r 

^^^H To hetit any iron to an edge, vtsse^ 

Bread, nppoant 

^^^H tecuttaicsew 

Bread made of a woat called tdo 

^^^H To lit?ii<I, accoiu/)iipn'h 

ctiho appoann ^^^^ 

^^^H Not to bi;i)(i, saii.'in>ju-ainch 

A braver, qmmnmruc ^^H 

^^^H Beforf, v{chani}ttl 

A bridge, melucs 

^^^H Bebinil, taaiiffQifwa^k 

To brtfyle or loast \^xtsA, apeUiwh 

^^^H Betow, 9i»)uroNi.u}i 


^^^1 BeDenlh, rlakemaijii 

To Ireake with one'a Sngors any 

^^^H A bi'ggar. tuttnanmniiU 

tiling, nhm»aiiiu7i 

^^^H BBtt^r, win'jutscftJw 

To brc«k with sln,'kiiig on any 

^^^H A bird, tihfhip, tshftchf'mdg 

tiling, punkcaw, rdeistaliamii 

^^^H A eiuall bii'd or chicken, Cdrra/i- 

To break all iu pieces, ketarouk- 



^^m ^^^H TXDTAK LAXaUAQE. 1B5 1 

To be broken or crackt, perew 

To pfiny upon ones showlder, 

Bright or plaiue all over, miia- 


ca juisiitit 

To cutcU ill the Qiouth as dogs 

To Ijring tuto thti boat, jiankset- 

rloe, oiiascamlamen) opa»wnttt- 


III en 

To liiing (ignjne, yifiioa 

A cat, onvild bf^st much bigt^er, 

Bnwse, omwas 

and spotted black under the 

To bruise any tliiug auuill, viiet- 

belly m a Iiuarno, vlchoong- 



A brother, ni^mai 

Caviare, or the roe of stui^eon. 

A l>ruKli, I'nejritirahumd 


A l)ranible or brier, ctnvniihjuc 

To cliiiw, lawhtagifoimtamen 

A bTOOiTQO, tiiheh(hk<twwuns 

Choyne, rartntaiv 

A ImttMrllyi manamig-gwan 

A L-hayna of r«]>jn>r with long 

To bunie as if ft slidky light on 

liiiokB, tapanutfiniiiiain 

any thiog, culchvic tnitlowrati 

Chesnutts, opomviins 

A biincli of grappB, vtstucsvtara' 

CheBBe, or any cunled matter 


mtule of miihe, oatun 

A chamber, vt-'iycvmmiic 


A c'liild, tiecjtaun 


A chest, liftoffs 

Cftinaiige, n tohaeca hag 

A chicken, caunlichcit/ut 

ClinjHmt, a xhew 

To 1 Impwood, carch<'tik>iiuii mushf 

Ciircye neire, / am a cold 

A circle, mttsseta^watuh 

CfimmolJtis, It turtle 

A eivet eat, atlmvriii- 

CheAwaiUa, n robin read-breast 

Clay, jiuttstiifinih 

Cursine, s'lstgr 

To clap one's hands, paaaakieann 

Ctiipiiain, lau/l or earth 
ChickiquBumis, a fiiiid of ffraine 

The claw of a. crab, ohtlvdge 

To dense a ^\\ie, jacutt''hi':<>on 1 

to eat 

To dense the grownd ainl inakfi 1 

Ciiniatinge, six in Tiumber 

yt fitt for seed, monascumi4rmu J 

Chakasowe, a crack in any thhtg 

To elimb a tree, altcoiishc 

Cucheiieiipo, a immiin 

The dowds, mammauw, arrah- 

(Jrecpjiij, a womnn 


Cbeskuliarnay. al! freiiids 

To lake liold of any thing, iitammuii 

Ceftdor, wttntdic 

Copper, mnttissiin 

CiiltBe, c(j}iifwnifirh 

A ctinib, reihconn 

To call one, otausupnar 

Cold. Homaamalt 

A cEinoii or small boat, uquuintun 

A cord or small lyue, or a thread, 

A cuii or any sui-.b liktj thing to 


driuck ill, ohtainocnn 

A coat of plate, atju-ahnssiiH 

A cauille or giunniy Kli+k wliich 

A coat, .jerldn, doublet, or ells 

will keepe light, oxmwitak 

what, rrmntcJioor 

A cap or bat, imtlai'iivafiiison 

To come (being epi^ken fiimiliarly 

To crtiry ft tiling up and downe. 

or hard by), ctnn)n)j(nfafh,€au- 


meir, cnmnear-oh 

To carry a thing belweene tvroo, 

To come (l>euief spoken a far off to 


one"), /lijdh, pijftrowah, pijarah 


D B 

^^^r 18r> DicnoNABiB or ^^^^^^^^^1 

^^^B To oom« in, peiutikgr 

To dive, pooJiketth ^^^^H 

^^^M To come tigiiyne, or we will cmat 

Ti) due, nfjutiijaj ^^^^^H 

^^^H agBine, ouicpijann, vuaiituc-uh, 

A dug, /rffirrnoFU ^^H 

^^^H pijaulch 

Doe mt, ntsxeiieind ^^H 

^^^H To c^imo qiiirkly, tmkejiijaii^ rake- 

To flriiKdif to nae, ryitwopen, or J 


km-fftcn ^^H 

^^^H To (Tum^ up, vtacquviciun 

I would driiick, r^Aui-(:'jM]»HJn ^^H 

^^^H To mriiM ()<miiF), neighmiwhor 

To dr_v I'V fior nr otherwise, to*- V 

^^^H To colTo, mtstiiccum 

(f'tr/i, iiairkenates 1 

^^^B Tbo cock crawt>s, woninaw, ciUu- 

To be dry ur liurHly, paoutpisni- 1 


sniUnwh ■ 

^^^H A covcriDg or mantle made of 

To dresao or pitch a boat, asco- I 

^^^H fontbers, cawaiaow 

hitniii ^^U 

^^^H A cockle, osakpurai 

A diiiiu, akqKoii}u>oc ^^H 

^^^1 To cover one, aiigmur 

A duck, pbfcoeud ^^^| 

^^^^m A I'ub-wulj, mntUiX»apec 

Dust, HPfienmtn ^^H 

^^^H A cooknlil, wiii}ifntim 

Durt, kethacknivwh ^^| 

^^^1 A cofiper kettle, aucutgaqtcauan 

To dwell, iiithttinic ^^H 

^^^H A (-nib, tiitlanvue 

A reil dv'?, pohcoans, mataqta- ^^H 

^^^1 A cniiie. 

tnm 1 

^^^1 A cmck or crackt, pa»ka*ti*\ ta- 


^^^H tumtew 


^^^H A croeke, ineihuiilterask 

The ewe of a man, mei/ifau'Jt ■ 

^^^H A ci'QWe, ahamta 

The em-es of a hiire or any other J 

^^^^m Cruokei), uhorinne 

beast, vahtnooes, tneeliijn ' ^^| 

^^^H To cry, miifhseum 

To eal4^, nieclter ^^H 

^^^H To [^ul tlje luiii'i' uf 0. man's iieit<1, 

I will (.-atf, iiionwi-chijn V 

^^^^1 mouifiig. niimmtiiidrfft, cum- 

lie cato bj aud Uv. nuxhocwA ^^| 


Eato with me, meiktussue ^^H 

^^^H To cut any llutige rnski^liemu 

The earth, anjiaiitH, altatmt ^^H 

^^^M Carled hairu, vtckej^taiuKk.awrc- 

The east, vichepieoiuuma ^^^ 

^^^H tthttmreruk 

Ad eagle, opoteuawk ^^H 

^^^H \^wmlm'Jiseorelt,mltiu»k,mocas^jt 

An eiije of vrhwl, autotrtaoh ^^| 

An eai-e of new wheat, maueata- ^^B 

U'flteOHtOOH I 


Ebliio^ wntflr, getsfratt^ak ^^fl 

^^^H Daxrbn-soTiqiure. learme yourselj 

All eAe, ancitnutuk ^^H 

^^^H A ^(ly, vitihvfrarfis, taieatck 

An egg, lecKtuh ^^^M 

^^^^B Oarkit, pitJtrunttiiicih 

An elboe, meh'juan ^^^^ 

^^^H I dare not, iiccquriisaw, nsqutahke 

Elder, mtmamidij ■ 

^^^H A ileiire, rttajiaavtnm 

Tbf elonumtu, ptiomp arralhqwor 1 

^^^H Dead, ur to iJu dciul, t»ef>aih 

O^ir/i 1 

^^^M Deipe to tbe midJle, rj(i4('.-o?noi 

Enemy or wmi},'bt, macJt^rgw, ^^B 

^^^H Doepe oTer the )miid, niUtahcaam 


^^^M Deafe. ciip]ii*i'iip 

KDou^h. "vrninf, neitNhat ^^M 

^^^M Tn deridi' » thiu(^ iu balf, rickeKh 

Eiitnmbiiig. />h iVii/iujii^M' V 

^^^H Tlte dovill, ri/ipake 

Tlie eye, musMendgak 1 

^^^m A dish. oMCnnm 

The eyes, muBMeitdrus 1 

^^^^^^^^^^y INDIAN ^H 


Flax, tfhehaoah ^^M 

^^^rahtswell, or the word at pardnir, 

A Hea, /nt'tdijtron ^^H 


To Hen tLiiy liiiog, pttthenaan ^^H 

The fiice, iw.ii.entiir 

A flying aquin-ell. (tios9a}>anijk ^^| 

TSif full of the Ic-afor thcautome, 

A fly, mmvchomn ^^H 


A fowli^ HlcL< a teaJe, with a sharp ^^H 

To faU, nmman'skin, tidamain, 

bill like a black bird, c«nmtat9 ^^H 


A ^vfitt^i'fowle ill Ligiies of ii (hick, ^^H 

To III? like to fall, emieaeirh 

finely cotiloi'efi with h cupiL ^^H 

To iiill (Jowno from n tree, ra^woi- 

crowne, meihteatm ^^H 


A fonle, iriutitc, Kiiituccwii ^^H 

Til lt>t«ii^'thiiig fall, vlmoinhlint 

FruLli, jifihlttofi ^^H 

Tlu; Iklls at the u]iper e.n<\ of the 

Frost, {at:qifiicat ^^H 

kijij^'s rivi^r. fnuin nch'iivn'j 

A fieiiiil, or tlie pi-iueiiioll worj ^^H 

To lie fiiiiiL, iifUeitcrianyi's, num- 

of Idniltir-s, neUth ^^H 


illy foot is \s'eU, ifimjan outvunn- ^^M 

A fjithcr. nous 

etsiimiieic ^^H 

A fiuine, noiifitleiFh 

The fur uf the htiaut urrethouuo. ^^M 

Fhu, K-irfloAair/i 

wehsacanoc ^^| 

A fart, ^oAflt 

I am full, ur^ei-ifp ^^H 

A Irhrig feittlier, ^Mqivanac 

To he liill. {la'spicrt ^^| 

Featliex'H. ahpeivk 

Fier, bocuttaie ^^| 

Tlio fcntlieiB of fti] arrow, tiRsa- 

A cole of fier, viakcntoh ^^| 


A spiirk of ficr, nccccoiv, pah- ^^| 

Feet of a liftwk, aremijpht 

tjtiaira ^^H 

Feet by a gouerall tiuuie, messetts 

To riiiJie &. Her, soca^umeheni' ^^| 

To fpccl with a spoon, accopaata- 

mum, tit'imtkn^jirnn ^^| 


Tliti tiirr is uul, ulaitiiiac localaiv ^^H 

To fetch some fier, vwshfKitaan 




Fisti, iiammais 


A fishlifiO !((_', auh'ftnHmi'k 

A garden, or pint of gnmtid to ^^M 

The fore tiuger, HumiiieUiLttein</- 

sow come, oronwah ^^H 


A garter, kispurmcautopta ^^M 

TUo long Ungcr, nultftmvuttemd^ 

A gate, aqpeuajik ^^H 

The ring finger, iWifqaeiUit 

A garfish, latmmho ^^M 

The lilLle finger, njimmel'mtteidff 

Give yt me, or let me seeyl, tan- ^^M 

Filili^r. mutch, woimfcit 


The fins of a fisb, trijhcutf 

To give, faatch-ak, pasemeh ^^M 

To light 111 flsty ciiiffs, nummecnaiy 

Give me some tohaoco, ptuam ^^M 


vppuake ^^H 

A Gup or small thre-ftd. vsconU 

Give me some water, mammaht ^^| 

The flanip, caUtrkanzjimimheu 

iacqtfiakum ^^H 

Flowing water, Uimmuncftmnuwh 

Give me some mtiat, nteishimh- ^^H 

The flower of the apple majaccih, 

mecher ^^| 


Give me some butter or fat to ^^H 

To fly, (twassew, bouqweuwh 

s{iniml on my lin'di], pnalch ^^H 

A Qj, nwu'chesoh 

nah runifmi, vdamiishcaii ^^^| 



Give this to tlie child, mmhaii- 

etMK, chetsu'iuwk 
Crive Ttliim, cummcith yootcah 
A (^rlt^t rmnraneiii* 
Qirloa, vaqiratni ia oc 
Ttie gilh of R sturgeoD or auj 

oUinr fish, irtutlteqwua 
Olew or (jiim tlmi fantenetb oa 

their arrow beads, vppeinaaman 
A glove, olfiiiffnx, otnncas 

eaivifhj wiuffiucH-h 
A gnatl. jioenijMu-h 
Citwd, icmijnn 

It IR goori iiipiit^ neranndamett 
To gue, ireA. jmxpffti 
To goe abroad, ireh vncoemi 
To go along, cawcaunuar, atca- 

VI alter 
To go downe, ir^rh cuppeinlanaan 
To gn in, iA«fofn6it)( 
To go softly, i^ffiifineoitnttn 
To go home, nnmiiiaeha 
To go liefitrK, iiejiopaniniH 
To go after, apofihanvnundg 
Now U'Ugn loj^ilher, ctinm«f[«fiN, 

Tbe &hipp3 go borne, vppc^ithun, 

Oone, maeiitrhnlemmjnne 

Not goii up, kekenokaivwh .x>apeirh 

God, mKottotu^md 

A g')09C, liaha}ft{ae 

A goosling. marakuugoc 

Guud mnrrow, or the word of salu- 
tation, kenculteinanm 

The ^xtivn\d,. pt^tafvin 

To gi'uw liis;, iihetttnK, cutteretch 

Tho grisale of a sturgL-oii, vBocaii 

Gratiae, t/iehretfireins 

Grapes, mnrrnhimviins 

A gmfie'a sloiiy iir tliu stuao of 
any plum, macftMijs, rnuKotnel 

A grashopper, (t«ocrtWHsA#(r«A 

A gravij, cuTcar 

A gi»wnd nnt, otifipunnawk 

A grt-at duttle, viootechUh 

A great my, amainwh, netaeoon 
Gyiu_v whwit, piiiiPinrtaah 
A gitii or piece, p'aoit^nc'an 
Tlio glim tliat vssueih out nf a 
CL-rlainu irwc Mllod the Vir- 
ginian nuiple. pii:ke\ch 
The gutta of aiijthitig, utakeislur- 

A gull, eoiahqttus 
A giit^t or horroi'odo, toAfmnwo- 


H»ur{ueqmiui, a /i»f« stont pot 

HfUJikoiH', a ladle 

lJiisi[i)e, bij and fty, or ifuichl^ 

HHwujpjie, n bov 

KtllHi! f/tfU 

iIti<ikpenimo, poketaws, to sow 

M'/i e«* 
Ilowgliweyh lakon neire, / am 

Hawtoriiikiuiiiake, a black fax 

shjn or ttn orerrfroinie iwbia 
A bare, uijhcHtUia 
The hftirp of llie hatul, irurrerne 
The liaive of n dotire, tmA^^Pon- 

Hard liy, you-hsn 
A bnoil, meihtitjefo 
To hang oim, trawajtunnah 
A hatcliet. tacccthnctm, tamahaae 
An Indian halcliet, ctim/Ha^iriM 
To have, nohnmrh 
I Liive Leiio, nC'-irwctrwoB 
A liiizell nut, jtaaiitiahtamtins 
ThLi litiFid of n niHti, mendabiuvah 
The head of aii nrrow ibat in 

rowiiil. (iKtaifuiivIi 
The luwi nf ail iirruw. rapiUtak 
The hend ake. kmrrndt-ppaan 
Htjaveii, wounshaqji-atuwh 
Ti) heii-re, nowusmilantirii. 
Not to heare, vMCd-rMuieoitrtimM 
He, yootvah 

^^H^^^H^^V^p ]NDIAK LANGUAGE. 189 ^^M 

Hetnp, weifikippms 

tbi>* letter, hecause they begin ^H 

Htll, popof^K'Hisur 

widi ^H 

He lialii iioL ur uouo, tahmoctu- 

I Am liLliur or lazier, JiiiahaK' ^^h 



The height of any thiugat agood 

I ain your Mend, or at 'your co- ^H 

growUi, lunnffcf-'vr 

uinmid, netab, nctufn-iik ^^| 

Of a little height, tangasitw 

I care uot for it, uuimimskahimcn ^^M 

Hearing, amuiisnuk 

I u'ill uot give it, mnlncmnirmir ^^| 

To hi(i« or cover from Uie rayne, 

1 must keepe yt, or I lovo yt, «»- ^^| 


trnmatavien ^^| 

A litl] or Btnall mount, romnttun 

I thanck yon, kennh ^^| 

A hill ((■r luouiiLmiic, jioiautawh 

Ihnvttuoue. rNf(/"N»>LHJ(/-fioA'(iti7»'A ^^| 

Hidden under a cloud, or over- 

I will go home, minimac.ha ^^H 

Cftst, reihcnhthcoik 

I musl put loimcco iuyt.r^jrrcm'a- ^^f 

A huwse, ijohacmt 

A(*(7t ^^ 

A great howac. maihacammac 

It stincketh. ahtur J 

A buslMiiid, wioicah 

1 caiuiot tell, caivwh ^^H 

A hole, iroor 

1 have noe tubaccu, viutavppoan' ^^| 

To injike a hole, mbococotamen 

rtONUU'/l ^H 

A gi'eat hole, muanjfaii-afiu'atnirh 

1 will uot, matufh ^H 

Tliw lionifs of (I di;are, vanir^ik 

I have no shooes, matanutwemuH' ^H 

Hold vl aside, hatacqicoear 

7ii?A ^H 

Hot weuthpr, riteshiwocajiwiaup 

1 have no hose, matacawqireo' 1 

r How niiiny, kfin 

mtnnrlh ^J 

Hmigrj, iitnntewk, vuapootaiii 

I uiidcnstaud yuu uot, mainyve- ^^M 

The luiali of lUiiir whciit, pociilu- 

nakixoth ^^H 


I love you, noim^ntais ^^| 

A hurl or rut, wayewh 

Vou luve, cummamais ^^h 

To hurt, or a thiug Lurts me, ahkij. 

1 give yt you gmiis, tlinigtc^irnt' ^^M 



It hutla my leg, or my JegH ake, 

I have heuo asloepo, mtimmascui- ^^M 

vnfifapiniuittn viennetatakij 

henejio ^a 

It hurts me not, or yt is whole or 

wall, viattunndff/tlaj, putlerakai 


Kenah. / thanek you . 


KayquiosG, a boat ' ^^| 

Ire assumiuge, tfti and nm tpiickifj 

KuLlt-tiavre, I huriie ^^H 

loiigluiueiiie waih. let vs ffo or 

iLauieyhaii, raijtie ^^H 

cume tnraitf 

Ko wse, fa th er ^^| 

Tidtesiiij apoolio, Uffkt tobacco 

Kicke, tntithrr ^^M 

I myself, it^nr 

Kemotte, hrother ^^H 

I or yea. nim 

Kouppathe, i/ca truly 

Ken orot'Un rill run ijuini, cmae look 

TbeJMgffi of the siilvadyfTS habit. 


at my head 

Ice, oreih 

KanyouRh, / frrttup Ttot 

All island, viemniinHahqna 

Kfl^sTvin, iiteepo 

The ituh, vmchihitchikuitjta 

Kawkojipu quicr, J driitvk tn you ^^m 

Cerlayne phiasea put under 

Kiuketen tjuier, fpeak, or tfll me ^^Mi 

^^^1 ISO DicnoNjuuts ^^^^^1 

^^^B Kikithamots, th^ wynd 

A little peece. paangun ^^M 

^^^H Kykevtawf!, nihe in uumhef 

Give lOft fi little piece, kapetaema- ^^ 

^^^H Koskc, number 

pamiffan M 

^^^H KiuiIoUhu, to daunce 

A little, latu* ^^| 

^^^^H Katitiknntii!, ning nitd itntince 

A lizard or elfe, rtaeagkia ^^H 

^^^H K''i[ii»->t«iii, a }tot to liriiictt in 

Vuu Ijuvu iki lioe. mtttarlaparrpMk ■ 

^^^H Kahun^e, a goote 

The lippes, ntusAtiiA 1 

^^^H A kiii^ or t^reiit Ion), trirnance 

To Iwke OQHB heucl, euUaheum 1 

^^^H Tliu luniju numu of Kouuoak, 

nifM ^^fl 

^^^H ^'aiuifiuic/iaittth 

L<i^t. 'ititfirfidUj ^^H 

^^^H To kirk rir sf iim, kuUkuramon 

A lobster, alujtaham ^^| 

^^^H A kixe, tialapaknn 

Loug, cunnaitivh ^^H 

^^^H To kisite, isefniantamen 

Low, macAittt ^^H 

^^^H A kettle, awof/witis 

A lofTse, vwlacum ^^H 

^^^M A knife, d'Himne 

Alone, aj}op<iqitatMus ^^H 

^^^H To ktmt ii]i hoiro tre opoa tliuir 

To lyo duwni) to sleepe, madtent- ^^^k 

^^^H beads, t'E/((ru^u'(i|it««Mrt 

citinrun ^^H 

To lye Willi a womao. aauMMo 1 


Til li'H a ly«?, vlchejiitchevnm 1 

^^^H Land, eheip»in 

To lye togitlier, cowijiipitantam» J 

^^^B A ladle, t^h<'f>o\jn 


^^^H Ijam», TiejHtu'iriiJiuirh 


^^^H A Iiimpraj, rahtatpx 

MetrDgv, A. A<TN(j ^^H 

^^^M To laiigb, fxs»hikm\tn 

Miske. heare ^^H 

^^^H To iHy Jowna a lUiiig, naurhy^t- 

MiiitiLlmktmn, /Ai? head ^^H 


MiLskan, the forehead ^^H 

^^^H LBaiiuir thitt covomth Uieir liips 

Muskins, (Atf in/M ^^H 

^^^H oikI sccretts. paqwajitatrun 

MeRkew, the nose ^^H 

^^^M Leather, uttocata 

Mottonc, tAf mouth ^^M 

^^^H Ijentliur HtripBB or Htriugee. ruh- 

Mtrpit, thstfeth '^^1 

^^^H aauianM 

Maxatstio, tUf t»ngug < ^^H 

^^^H Leaven, maanfjwipaciu 

Muckatatioiie, (A« aroM ^^H 

^^^^H DenJ luuve^, himitvfiminge 

IMirsktitt, the It'.ff ^^M 

^^^H To leap UM lut^ii If iiji in (Inunc'ing. 

Messt^ftte, tltej'oat ^^H 

^^^H or otliomiac, neliisptu 

JMtfkoust^, tht Haiflet of the Jingen ^^| 

^^^^B To leap, hunpismiin 


^^^^M Ti> leutic! agaiiiKt a thiiljf, atcheiv 

Metiiukfl, fAi* em-ffi ^^H 

^^^H (luamun 

Mowlikohau. ajhk hooke ^^^k 

^^^M The ktuie of any fl«sh, oeair^, 

Miuskowbiiig^', ft parrut ^^H 


Monuwhimk, it HHViivJ ^^H 

^^^H Lead, icimlscup 

Maquiquins^ miaU bdU ^^^ 

^^^H To li^ht any tliiiig, iaheasomaw 

Mnkttteweynli, pearls V 

^^^H It JH iiiit lig)it«-'(l, iiialacliesa 

mattitialmyyoii^h, / haee t/t twt ^^| 

^^^H Light, h'shawte\ch 

Machcqueo, a s!tou) ^^M 

^^^H A 1.V0D, vttacateai 

Maujjoit*-, ffifat ^^H 

^^^H To lift up aiiy ttiirg, ivJMpunn^ 

Muisiuifiumuiiiit), straiiherrifi$ 1 

^^^1 mun. 

Matchkore. a stari'i skyn m 

^^^1 Lightning, kecuttanvowas 

Mincliiii (]uit'e> miucbic, eal yuM 1 

^^^H^^^^^^^H IKDIAN LAN'OUAOE. ^^M 

Mftttftqiieaatoroth, / understand 

A mortcr, tacca}u>oe, vtirtH-k. ^H 

■tfoir wnt ■ 

The morning or sun nsu, pcrju*- ^^| 

MauiHsuini toVinok, a amatl birdnf 

mieh ^^M 

dir^rit ciitlors 

The moniiiifj is faire, ptJajMsaat, ^^M 

MQlinwke, ft j/ourrf 

nscirnlsnh ^^| 

Meroalbaclu-s'suta, a yowig boy 

A niuatb, wohwhaiok ^^H 

MiiyniiKfi, / htu'e yt mn 

To morriAv, raiah, vimaufh ^^H 

MoitiiiMfkcji, a mofeia the groH'nd 

A mot]>ei', vcli ^^| 

Moiiyuawgb. a turkeif 

A m<Hi!^.', ape<f\niK ^^| 

Mnrokp, Cfoder 

A muUierv, miijtkmuivfs ^^M 

M«kK|iu), miot 

A muBhctl aUel], uhecomaK ^^| 

Milsken, to nin 

A muskcat. osasqma ^^M 

Miiyi?3, fffixft '" « path 


Miilaku-iki;, Ike leii/tf oj a itricUle 


pea re 

Namerothec)uier, your companion ^^M 

Mat lath, iiw 

Neir, vtifni'lf ^^H 

Mrtuotc, a basket 

Niusiik^itn, ri reed ^^H 

MouKMomkn, a squirrel 

Xisnke, a cam ^^M 

Miissnne, a hens! no cnlfcd 

Ne|>a(isdie. (fm sutt ^^H 

Messetonaance. a btard 

Nepuncho neir, / am dend ^^| 

A man, tiurmteiik 

N«U»p])er, sit doniic ^^H 

A Hint niaile of reeds, nnanaeeoon 

NiippHwe, nU'i'pe ^^H 

A nwrteni, woK/iuvitrHs 

Nr;<'luia, tt child ^^M 

A mnrried man, umriiurijk uiauah 

Nplap, mij deare friend. ^^H 

Maneaten, inHixanit'ji'fftinh 

Not? wana til soil n, I Iiave /ojffvllm ^^M 

The marrow of a liou*^, uvitnb 

Nekut. 1 in rtamber ^^H 

A mnrryiier or aenmaTi, rfmhtnv 

Niuge, a in nowhcr ^^H 

A match, nmlrriruoc 

Nt)U^uugh, 3 til nomlier ^^| 

To niakt! hri'ail, apomiocaiurxutch 

N(isim\\'es, 8 />i noviher ^^H 

Tn mnke a apoanp, ampcnnomindij 

Nin^Tpprikp, V!tl in nnmhcr ^^H 

To malcp a dish, rtcfro/ifrnK 

Nocmrh amino Wketiiw, tmnd -up ^^| 

T<] nmkt H fnmiii t)r lK>ati% phjj- 

thejier ^^H 

(Mi-Hm'**!)) wii. ohiowmn 

Nchjipper knpper, nt fntlher ^^| 

To make a grave, ri/rffl/iamun- 

Namaske, nAiueahe, Ji»h '*f umj ^^| 


kind ^^H 

To Tuakc! a mut, cA^sswrinrtrtrtsKn 

Netlikeciii, the no»e ^^H 

Toniakealjasikci, niftH«o(M(7if'Mi()i 

Xeputte. the teeth ^^H 

Mealfi Hnd flower, rouhc*U, rmi^k- 

N'lM'au^liLoiui, put iHi ijmtr hat ^^H 


Nahtijhough, I have yt ^^M 

Miriih^ mftde of gynny wheat called 

Nftked, nepoii'irer ^^M 


A napkin itriiny\ynuea,iTKilns8mh ^^H 

To melt, pmseyttfaclaira* 

The neck of any ihinf*. Jiuifproik ^H 

To he melanclioly or sad, maefd- 

A nett, aitssab, hucouhs ^^H 


Nt'^il, rtaMjk ^^H 

Jlilke made of walnutts. pocohx- 

A nettle, matiitsaan ^^M 


Tl]e nest nf a bird, wnhchesao ^^| 

Milke, mutMun 

XuL-r«j \ty or iK-xt tiaiid, pntevh ^^H 

To misse th*? hole, f!«ttto6«wc»Ao 

New moone, ituckimjnn ^^| 

^^V 19S nicnoNAiLiE op tkr ^^^^^^^| 

^^^H Night, tapaeak, reihcmrfi 

Peketawes, beanrt ^^^^^H 

^^^m Nu or nay, matnh, tak 

PtH':lie,/f/fA yr />rij»jr ^^^^^| 

^^^H Nciiir, raivwaienil 

Prill liiiaii^^h, a rupe ^^H 

^^^H The noise of a |ie&c«, or liiU of a 

Pe^'nimiit&, ihreed ^^M 

^^^H tree, jienim 

PasquehamoD, to tale ^^H 

^^^H Nu morr, taichs 

E'nwtow liijiie iHikutaii, bioK tiie fitr V 

^^^H I will driuk uo more, uutvirqien- 

u-ilk your uunith ^^H 

^^^M cup 

PuiigUT, athet ^^M 

^^^H The iiurlh, Hehfila 

PfCtarkqudth, tkiiniier ^^H 

^^^H A uut hltLi ft ftmitll acron, goeJ 

Pokorniiso, n mlnfrali tttnne V 

^^^^^^ meat, chechuuiutimmt 

Pokiu. pokeyougb, to Uhe wuigir 1 

u'atfr 1 


Pamjnuk, a ffoard ^^M 

^^^ff Ojr^vkerough, a bren, a /owle like 

Pokoaack, a tfun ^^H 

^^^^B ijiioae 

PichHtinim, an exruifeilt fAom ^^H 

^^^H Ott.'V'jtK.Miimia, to tears or rent 

Pitsluinjatb, mulberries ^^| 

^^^^1 an;/ ifiiurf 

Poiighkoue, lJi» ted paint m lii/e ^^ 

^^^H Ockiiiit^UitJi, 1? tauMflt of a ffot' 

Pcyilgh, rfiititiiiiy H 


Pickultji, the gum vre hold baltomc 1 

^^^H Ou;{liL:ti»augOj-tb. U tithaeca hag 

Potawnu^li, u porptis M 

^^^H Owaiiniigh, who hath this 

Pumiin'e, A ill nomher ^^^^ 

^^^1 Onxc, a fox 

Paspcao, to tfalke aboxU ^^H 

^^^H Ockquuiii<. a watchef coulartid bird 

Pjsniwuii, a dtti:k V 

^^^H Opoiiinit.'f. riiesmittif 

Puskorath, the fjold aparkn in lA# ^J 

^^^1 Ou^h. ift is well 

snrtcf ^^1 

^^^H Oii^,/iii-<>j^' 

Peiuingu. jertnt tlntm ^^H 

^^^H OwHu^h, an ettye 

Pec'ohack, a bodkin or oU ^^M 

^^^^B All uiiru, tshiti/uicaiis 

PatuhqiuL]iis:^ii. a hat ^^H 

^^^H An oalie^ tree, poawnmind^ 

Piikontjits, a ytrdle ^^H 

^^^H Oystem, camraih 

A parret, massacnininndg ^ 

^^^H All olil itiiitt, ratifruttnutcli 

Perle, mntoannnk 

^^^H An old wumiiii, rtuuipseig 

Perle muiihell shells:, tt^aaqtfork 

^^^B To open the (lore, tenuetatoweft 

Feaze, cssaulameiis, otaasanta- . 

^^^H Tossicokear 


^^^H Tu o|H?ii ouHH eye», vdapungvaren 

A pence of & poi or a pot sheard, 

^^^B Am otter, or riab«r a Lever, poK- 


^^^H fii'vwh 

A yccci^' of lireail. rowcar appous 

^^^H An ottpr, ctitfark 

A peHtle, pocahaae ^^H 

^^^H Ouly oue, ?iitantMah-Heeut 

Tht) pipe U stopt, opole^ough ^^H 

^^^H Out, or yi. is pluckt out, aumpus' 

A pin. pijcohnoc ^^H 


To pinch, lupknhatinan ^^H 

^^^1 Ovtt, away, nr get jnii goue, kdj 

A pii]gi<>ti, toirafqiri)ius ^^H 

^^^H To orcrset, or ii l>otit to Lume 

A u-uoJ pidgeon, qunnunats ^^H 

^^^H keclo up, ciiiniipf^Hneaw 

To pisae, nhekijn ^^H 

^^^1 An uwk, (fwutujataiatk 

A pikt!, u-ijbtoiittn ^^B 

Porredg or brotli, noumptprtmrn ■ 


A post, mt'ihtoram 1 

^^^H Po1c«t;in'As, ti7i^>il 

^"^'""'''" """■" J 

F , J 

^^^HjHBP^^H IfTDIAN lANOUAOE. 193 ^^| 

A polecat, cuttenamvwhiea 

Hayne, camzcwan ^^M 

A pwt, flfiCrtiyM'iwa 

A rayuhow, i/wmuuicut ^^H 

To powro out water, qwatahacum- 

A rattlt?, 8«ch an they use in tlipir ^^H 


ceremonies, made of a goard, ^^H 

To powre in water, vsowcunnemi 

chuiffLmivvnawk ^^^| 

The p)\e, nuinvuigwaia 

A ratT, antnwk ^^H 

To iiluck up. »«wifflo«'i*m«iH(?lw 

A reed, uehmakah ^^H 

A jilayster, tiitttticvumluh 

Rent or torn, lttttn4CU-h ^^| 

A plonib atonL', maquaacawtwmetl 

A river, tfocaanla ^^H 

A plomb very delitioua when yt 

Ripe, uiingateah ^^H 

i» ripe, jmfkttmmg 

Not rijie, vseanriewh ^^H 

A playse, tivw^ii 

To rise u]i, pamnf/weur ^^H 

To play at any game, nuinianfu 

The rynd of a tree like hemp, ^^M 


cl^snwk ^^^1 

The privities or secret of a mau, 

A riug, veherein»k«jm ^^H 


A rose, pustaqirembun ^^H 

Prayor, tnauiiomommaon 

To rowie or tose, as a ship, vtiuo- ^^M 

To coiue to pmier, jujahtamaon 


A punipeoi], makcawij 

To row, tchijmnoc ^^H 

A purse. vUamainijiwih 

To rost, apoiissau! ^^H 

To pull, nnmviavmon 

The root of tobacco, vppoo-chappoc ^^H 

To pull yt out, necanlordi 

A rout, rkhappoc ^^^k 

To put yt in. peinder 

A rope or mnl, pemuntrtaw ^^H 

To put onanj-tLinf;, jmttohiqicnsur 

To run, m-iaii/innr ^^H 

To put off any thing, puiiiiqu^un- 

Rushes, cakekfsqm ^^H 


To Cut ru::<be8, maniasc cake ^^H 

Purple, onrcrervh 

To ruh a thing, vsseqwakamun ^^H 

To put out a candle, vtahtahama 


To pull one downe, euttaqwocum 


Suc.k(|uohana, aaier ^^H 


Saw^'oue, sah ^^H 

Que quoy, ickat is this 

Sakahooke, the eleere st/ma we ^^M 

Que qurty teruiH cjuiro, what in 

gather ^^H 

your name 

Hakahopoa, to icrite ^^H 

Secon, to tpitt ^^H 


Sekehekunuugb, to write ^^H 

Hapaiita, verti»on 

Saiid, raaurh ^^^| 

^^^£,unga. alt kind ofswt 

To sacritlce. vtak&er ^^H 

^^^y^ocoyhook, an otter 

To say or he gaid, hekuUuii ^^H 

^ Ki<;kaliuiii', a cumb 

A saile, tsemnosoy ^^^| 

H Kokohnmiu, pa relied eortu ^rownd 

To i^ee, viaiamun ^^H 

^1 ginall 

Let me »ee it, mtmpenamun ^^H 

^^^^Recoiiflck, n tobacco hag 

A seat ill a Uonl ui' a heiK-h, tiissan ^^H 

^^^^ffiassniun, the iri/ud 

Seodes, amenararar ^^^M 

^^^TlUapoke, to morroip 

Soa weed-!, ascaxasqwui ^^^ 

^K Biokosick, thfi tieviti 

Sedge, i^gkou'u-ii^tctu ^^H 

^L Rftkasquu, a knife 

Thu uea, tfapmn ^^H 

^B Haw, ascunmewh 

Scum, psihlaoh ^^M 

1 ^H 

^^H 194 OP nut ^^^^^^^^H 

^^H The MViles of a iisb, ipohailutnk 

A Utile stone, manansi ^^| 

^^^M To (tcralcb ones himd, vyrnttecia- 

Tn Rteitle, nmtmnluonh ^^H 

^^^H sof'itson 

A stake, weputtnhoc ' ^^H 

^^^H To flcmlch, vtiecttsaapitson 

A glnlke, vwhi'ii'iior ^^H 

^^^H A skHlili, tmtfqmr.iKUvt 

Tci Htrikc, itepasainiftfahoon ^^H 

^^^H Sharp, keneiituh 

To Strike with a aword, vepaea- V 

^^^^ SfaeareB, wuiulijtnfiin 

mnii ^J 

^^^H Shi-lls, ohthattHgHHiietnun* 

SlOfkiiigH. crXk-qH-fUU-mm ^^| 

^^^m A ship, mtatoa-uxuc 

A Starrs. (f/fnan^irnMitir/f ^^| 

^^^H Tt tiliynptli, astenteircaiah 

A f^tratiii^iT, titussantmaoviaih ■ 

^^^H Shoots, mnwheasnm 

To suiud, vannniiiasun ^^fl 

^^^M To shoot, nepomotamen 

Htreight, mrijnwh ^^| 

^^^H Short, taekqivaistnc 

To »tirr tiut« st]f, vummevtun ^^H 

^^^H Shut the dorc, kessohikear 

To stop or put in a stopple, inut- 1 

^^^H To skrub otws bead, necatchuc- 

tnqaoh*iit>i* ^^H 

^^^H skuw 

Strong, foiidU'A ^^H 

^^^H To sing or dance, eaute-canta 

To Hlep or go np. netoirsun ^^B 

^^^B To sit dovrne, nmrjiin 

The stinging of a Biiske. Ttag- 1 

^^^^T To »iL iieiiror, otaxiotiifftfopttT 

voonrf ^^H 

^^^K To tic sick, (irmwiiiitisnouth 

To t-trikd fisr, boeata oc kok ^^H 

^^^K The singlo of r dcare, wyushaqmni 

To stjnrk, mmtta ^^H 

^^^H A t<iiilcr. ft»c/rn(Tjj(/fri>(pn 

The sun, Uenhowae ^^^k 

^^^H The ttUjii or fur of a hare, irnsa- 

fHiiii ritJL'. \id(; tunnxiog ^^H 


ti>uu sett, qwuniwuh ^^H 

^^^H A sheldrake, rowluiicaivk 

To Slip, or to have bene at supper. V 

^^^^M To kloep -, iicjwiin 

mealstm ^^H 

^^^H A Hhiwanni.', apoitscaat 

Summer, cnirawtauih ^^M 

^^^H Smuake, itekvpeniftuuh 

To suck. cindi'troHt'nr ^^H 

^^^H To ^mell, nitHitriciraiitin 

A sword, tiiuiiohiican ^^H 

^^^H I'll tinort, nciiaaTuiUnnidtinn 

To Hwcat, vehttwfhiiss ^^H 

^^^M To suit ones nose, trtanmqwun 

To s^'ym, foosA-t'im ^^H 

^^^H Snow, 

To swell, cimnatimi* ■• ^^^ 

^^^H Tt 8now(;th, rookmph cvan 

A Hwau, u-M/iHsxuirc ^^H 

^^^H A snake, VLd(> ndder 

To swallow, quantitmun ^^H 

^^^H A snaile. pmniihaum 

To Hwei^pe, tud-fhh-a ^^H 

^^^H To sdw or Hetf. wbf^iit, Mtittusfiiii 

To Hwym a9 a peece of wood or ^^H 

^^^H To »uw wilh 11 iiccdle. IiuJujiKitnun 

fnatJu'r ou the HTiU-'r, piippo- 1 

^^^H A Bore, mdhkeih 

quahauns ^^H 

^^^^H To Hoiike hr»n(), nepokeimnamu 


^^^H The soiile or vitall hreatb of man, 


^^^H nt'fuhetstinh 

Tanggo, fef in« ^fp i^i ^^^ 

^^^H A e^iELrrowh^M'ke, /atacnuincxmi 

Towaughe. « croiMe V 

^^^H To KpealiM Moftly. Iiemntmti)d 

Ttinn. /(»,)Mi/i (Ji fj'«*« ^^B 

^^^H A »qiiirrelt, t»ii;!riit<-/( 

Taniokiii, 'o it»>tifint« ^^H 

^^^H To lookc ftsqiiiiit. jterrmgtju'ak 

Tauoain, a stoule ^^H 

^^^H A Nlur^iJan, riippotonn 

Tan^pqwalli, a/tirrfi like a aahW» V 

^^^H A Ririitg, vide hutht-r 

Tamnhake. a h^trhfM 1 

^^^H A stone, ahacakocuH 

Take yt, vntouh I 


To take up wiih u spoouo, mtut- 

Vmpaquoth, the moons ^^^k 


Vnugh, u word vf wonder ^^H 

Til iiikv ufl'. ranaunnemum- 

A vaine, ufreHnir ^^H 

To take one prisoner, nscakes- 

A village, letiOHitn ^^H 


Tii'l^iiiiit, 'i'senahcommacah ^^H 

To tnkoUjbacLiti, tispcsseniaanpooc 

Vmifinumtli, rtsheiiieindifij ^^H 

To Uiko liet'd, ainuvnir 

To unclose h.Rnds, j}t-iivmim ^^H 

A tiirj:;etl, ritfH(e;iM7ir>frfr 

I uiulerstHiid nell, kemtefiautoin ^^H 

Tlin laile of any thing, wusfuiifwu-u 

I uuilemttmd itoL, riialukennoirn- ^^H 

To t»;U one any tiling, cvtUrak 

tfirawh ^^^1 

To throw a tliitiR away, apacet 

A vine, wapapamrndgit ^^H 

TlnmJer, rumhjfuiif 


A tliigb, ivtiijiprann 


These, yotfhs 

Weyans, the teane of any ilmij ^^| 

Tliis. iforrkk 

WirikoweheeB, n hare ^^^| 

Tlncail, ptmmnthntoait 

Wapii], a slab ^^H 

Tlio Thiiml), v!{ftfijii:(tirUeindg 

Wy^otonoanH. a beard ^^| 

The tliiaat, leijaranlaak 

Winp<% yaaiTDW ^^H 

Tliree. n'iJi 

Woiissicket, a running brooke ^^H 

Tolinct'o. vltpnnc 

Wou^htathe, to fuym ^^H 

A tobacco ]ii[>e, vhpuocnn 

Wecoekt*, the yard of a racone ^^H 

A tiiliacwi bag, vttuuinneoih 

Wniisrktui, a tione ^^H 

The toliacco is good, wingutMe 

Wiuf^gnpn, my beloved friend ^^H 


Wingau, 'jiiod ^^H 

The ttibacco is naught, kaihtrnwik 

Winguucune, ?'rrr^ i^nn// ^^^| 


A waayv to t«ko lisb. iieiksaean ^^H 

A ttiwiio. )HkR«njii« 

A waliiut, ahstnimunji. paakmitis ^^^ 

Tln! l.rtiyiK! uf u bii-(l, ott/neuein 

To lliu fai'i', h-nf.iipyunn ^^H 

A tree, meihtttra 

To wash the liami, kfwiivindeher ^^H 

A greeue tree, a^irofam't^ 

To Vi-a^h any tiling;, ^r..iiSfMH'utt ^^H 

A Viiilnut tree, astiunnoin^iuilfftf 

Water, saiprahan ^^^| 

An oakH troe, pnammrindg 

A wari, viHhkfin ^^H 

A tm'llo, oi:co«(0(/*'//r»/f 

To wariue one, fxiAfttaornun ^^| 

A sen turtle, (Hir<:Mj//;tfwft 

Yt is vnirme or hot weather, ^^H 

A turd, vif)U:h 

chiiiijiasum ^^H 

A tiu-key, monanaxv 

To waken, vnamun ^^^k 

A turkey cock, oApanno 

The waves of the ^ea, aqwaskav:- ^^^k 

To tame or (jike up the oooleSt 

wav^ ^^H 


To ^valke, pairpaii-Tnear ^^H 

Txvjnicd thrf^od. pemucqrreraneind 

^Voake, kesshetnaiic ^^H 

Ti> ije or mttke ikst iiuy thiug. 

Weary, euttn^'een ^^H 


Attas(]wii9, weMos ^^H 

To weepe. mimmaich ^^^ 


Yt is well or yuough, ufimattuwk ^^H 

Vemanee, a king or a great man 

Wekome, or tlie word of greeting, ^^H 

Vniioth, takf tjt 

wingnpo, chamah, netab ^^H 

Vaqujou, an arrow 

A welt, ohcaxrooc ^^H 

Vui|iseinen apook, drinelt, tobacco 

The weist, aUagwassfmna ^^^| 

^^H 106 DicnoNABif! Of rntB insi&n i.akguage. ^^^^| 

^^^B Wett, nappe 

A mtmim's breast, otaut ^^| 

^^^H Wliat is your namo? caeuUer^- 

A womiiti with chiltl, potnevieh V 

^^^H vindg kear 

A woman queeiiP, wiranaiuqua ■ 

^^^B Wliiit i* his name ? eaculterexcindfl 

An old woman, tumjiaeis ■ 


A little wormo or mngot, mmciah ^^^ 

^^^H WliBt lA my namti? eacutt^windff 

Wood, mutkeis ^^| 


A woimd, nepociittokeau ^^M 

^^^H Wlien, tanon diiiuk 

Tfao world, pumaiaaivuh ^^M 

^^^H Whuni Imvuyuii hafn, tanaowattm 

A woolf, ntrantam ^^H 

^^^H To whet, nusaesgqwus 

To wrastle, mnmareintrFlun ■ 

^^^M 'Whelpeit, apouhok-komim 

To wrap or wiud up any thiug, H 

^^^1 Wheat, poruUau-es 

nnwxteuqttaput 1 

^^^B A wheat plomh. assesdim 


^^^M Wheat parcht in Uie fier, aparon- 


^^^^M menutis 

Ycafiankan, a Aomss ^^H 

^^^B White, opah'wk 

YeokiinrA, a river ^^H 

^^^H To whiHtle, qifiiUqwtnm 

Yeougli, 4 i» iwmhfT ^^H 

^^^H A whiting, tUeitsimk 

To j'n%vn« or giijw, faicnlw^i^nfffr ^^H 

^^^1 The small n-ynd, rou-Jwinnvwh 

Yellow, oussanack ^^M 

^^^H A greut wyiid, jnahqintih 

Yftfitvrilay, o»a{oh ^^H 

^^^^M A wife, WDiiufoasfi 

Yi;a »v yoti, cup/fh ^^H 

^^^H A wing, vtfocnniiuc 

Yonder or fiu- off, yoaxvieh ^^M 

^^^H A widgeou, ponomuwus 

YoTigor, uiarnirs ^^H 

^^^H Will jou gon home, ■niimma 

Yon, hear ^^M 

^^^m Wioter, puppaamtoK 


^^^H To vriufl ubiiut, /'os^uriurjraics 


^^^H A wonun, eiitssenepo 

Zanckone, to mee$* ^^| 

^^^^H ^^1 

1 J 

^^^^^^^^I N D E f^^^^^^^^^l 



Aeoohanock, rlvor of, 41 

Bttrlow, Capt.j with Cnpt. AtDsdas, ^^^| 
diHcovuni litiiurioak, 8. 142 ^^^| 

Aoeuiuack, rivur of, 41 

Aci]UfLnachutLB. people living near Pow- 

Biuhaba, principnl kin^; of the pny- ^^^M 

lta.taQ'ii territcriee, 41 

vinoes about ItuauoiLk, IttO ^^^| 

AoquintonacBuiik, people; upou the ri- 

Birii) ufVirglum, 125 ^^^| 

ver Pewtuxout or DiikoH river, 30 

lliHQiuyau pilot, his iitippiiB«d oonuuum- ^^^| 

Acuzaniill, 3s. of C-ukuidi;!, 6 

citii-iiii ti'i ColuuJiliUii, fi ^^^1 

Altiu-H tiDd oflbriiigs of tbt; luilUtie, ^S 

Boats nijulo tiy tbe IndiatiK, 6S ^^^| 

Alum miii'Ofii, rupurl of tbe lutlvuis ixi^ii- 

Browster, Capt., witb C'apt. Arf^)U, ^^^| 

ccjTiiiig, 33 

doft-crovM two towns in r«v«nga fi^r ^^^| 

Amadaa. 0*pt,, wit U Captain Barlow, 
dit(cvvtio> Kiiiuicwk, 8, li'i 

tlio tai^C' doalm); of TovkouftkiJitaco, ^^^| 


AiiiB.iJrt« liny, 8 

Burialii of iho li), &(t ^^^M 

Aitiuricus Venputiun, bia iJiiioov«r7 of 

Button, C', lijst ijxpfxiition in MJtrd) ^^^| 

America, 1119 

ijftbeiivrtb-wv«tpaBsago,». ^^^H 

Antan, Streights of, nninufl Fretum 

lu{;raui and Ucleonj H ^^^M 

trium &atnm3, aftertlie three breth- 


i«n. 2i 


Aniiimla of Vb^inia, 122 


AntiiDUDy, minB of, foiuid by Gapt, 

Cakit, ilrihu, ; UIa ilittorivurieM, 139 ^^^| 

Arj3f.ll, 39 

Cnhat, Sulinitinn. grund pilot of Eng> ^^^| 

Appamatuckii, puople Uviiig upon tb« 

land und^r Edward VI, Ul ^^H 

A[ipEimatuck rivar, 85- 

Landlivt of [lijio or fir troe used liy tbo ^^^| 

Aquaacagoke. n town diacorerocl dur- 

Indinns, ^^H 

iajr th^ expeditiaii uudiji- Sir R. 

Ca.wcaw>wi(ti!<ou|jh««, prieeti^ a.u>l «kioni ^^^H 

Oreuvillc, 14i 

o£ tb« C'lieuliitbuuitaa, 02 ^^^| 

ArgoU, Capt., biH uilvbnturu on Pii- 

CuwHoti, (i«urin!i, an EctgltAlictiiui taken ^^^| 

priijouor iind killed by Powbtitrui, S2 ^^^| 

CtiKJikAwwou, on the Patawihiuook or ^^H 

tawonsock river, 36 ; (Uewovent tniniiH 

of AUtluioiiy »n<l LeaJ, Sf ; diifcovcn 

I«WRr i(nrtw Cape Honlopuii), 43 ; 

Klizabetb rivor. S8 ^^M 

Ch»rlo», Cape, 28. 42. 44 ^^M 

Aeatrayx twi) Indian towns iu oom- 

Chitrlcn, Fort, built' on Soutluimptoii ^^^| 

pauy witb BrewisUr, to re- 


vuu^ ihu filite doaling of Taokaue- 

ChawaaookQ, upon the river Komo- ^^^| 

kitilucft. 8& ; Hub couvennttun with 

piina, 143 ^^^| 

Joi>fisaua fthoat Ilia r^li^on, ti8 

Chawi>nocka, peopio Uviiift near Pow> ^^^| 
hii.bin'e territunos 41 ^^^| 

AnuH used Lj tlie LiidiBiii>, 105 

Arrohn.tBokB, peopbi living upon tlio 

Checlioliainlaa, thr, n poopb; npnii thi^ ^^^H 

Ivinp'a river, 3S 

river (.tVilckalumiaiiia, wbn vt-rva ^^^H 

Are«nitk atone, used bj the Indiana 

Pawhaton in Wm want, 61 ^^^| 

to colour th«maelv€8, flS 

Oh«ohinquaruiriH, a kind of gmn used ^^^| 
as tow by the Indiana, 72 ^^^| 

AninduU, 'I'hiM., Lord Wanlour, sends 

out George Weynjcmth in 

Cb^aapeakit, jMNipla living upon tlui ^^^| 

1605, U9 

Kiug'H HVLT, 92 ^^^H 



ChcnpMJt. l<r<Mk of, 35 
P.— iwh Vmy, dMtb *i^ 43 

ClmwfiiTJi. dhMan of lb* PkimuMfc 

ri*«r «i. Sff 
CtfHj. n\mr UUb( failu the rintr Oo- 

Ood. Omm, 4GaeM«nd hj CA[>t. Oa»- 

nnld, IM 
Oolimboa, Dtftboioaiaw, (nata witk 

Uniy VII about U> knthw'e oftr. 6 
ColumlHM, OirwbiithM-, hw offer to 

Uocuj VU. A ; Of MipiKiMNl vutU' 

MttBfaatiKi wlUi Uw Diauaiviui uUot* 

ConhnMiaM tad biTochUom of th« 

Coanar ndoM, S6 ; nport i4' tlu la. 

aua» oaaeeflUOft 33 
CoppM- bfMigtit into Vir^ni« hy th* 

SwUab ttuiuopuUMd bjf PuwhaUu, 

Oop|Mr miM imw Um rlr«r Maratock 

or Hoanokc, 140 
CanU, whit«, lued oa lui ornaaMut b; 

Uw Indiui watntoi, I4S 
Com, tlio luiljaii mode ofdniMineit, 73 
CrvaUnu, ««!>« of an wUad calKid, or 

the nuutti cniM of Vir^rioia, 13 
CuttktAWoawn, upon the Toppabuuxik 

sf Qomd's nrer, S7 


DwHwa (£ the IndiMM^ 80 

Oftvia^ Crnpt. Robort, briiigtm))pliM 

l« tbeoolony U Sa^uuleboo, 17S 
Otdaware Ihf, dieoownd bjr Chpt. 

ArgoU. 43 
Dnk«, Kr Fnuida, wrives mt Koanoak, 

and «Dd«Lvoant to uait tbe otlnnjr, 

1 17 ; takoa thu pkntcn with Uiio to 

Knj^tuid, 148 
Duka'* river, or Pftwtuxont, S8 

SinoUkn of lh» bdia-n ohUdren, UO 
BBafaath rivar, or Fatikwcincvk. 3S 
EUfi^iath Idlnnd, dbwovcreU by C»i}t. 

OtMnoUl, 1S6 
InpkifniioiiU of cho lodlAa women. 111 


Foativala, roligioui, of the Indiuia, 91 
nUi oi Viiviuia, 12tl 
Fkhltij;, InUirui uifiilo of, 6S, 76 
Friniiiia. Ci^itiuiK, hi* n>fi«rd rmtpeutuig 

Oiv thrto: iTotbron who paawd Iho 

Jiknigbt* of Auimi, 24 

Fmlt* cultinvtod bjrtlw IndianB, ti; 

vS\"afpoim. 117 
FkobUier, Uir Uartin, lueiiliooB a f or- 

tngoeoa who pntiMd the Sirei([bt« uf 

Aiuan. 24 


Ostam of the Indiana, 77 

Oat«a^ i^Tlius.. ti«ut«iuuit-geDMal of 
tikQ Dolonjr of Vii^nia^ 00 

George, SL, island << diiM»T«»d ij 
0^1)1. Gkuvb Weyiiian, wo named 
wbrai viNJtfqT hj CnfiU. Pophara aod 
(JillHTl, ]»!« 

GillicTt, Sir Humphrey, grant of Qu«en 
EUxabothto. 8 

OUbart, <>tf>t. DartLoloRiew, mttewhh 
Capt. CtianoW to Virninia, 1S3 ; 
tboir diaccn-vriM. I£t> ; iMMit out with 
tliv voluiiy to S*^faa<lubuck, with 
L'nnt. Pof linin, by sir John Pophant, 
104 ; goaN with Ou>t. PopJtam to 
tb* rivar Pttiiiaquid. ISlf; tbi-y 
Beanh fiirafit plaoefortbdrplAnta- 
tian on the riv^r Sa^haJcbock, 172 ; 
ooininonoc :i wttU-mviit, 173; gOM 
in Mnn!ji af tb« river »f Pono)H>TOt, 
174 ; bin lulrenturo with Oto Iii'lians 
ibt the rivor of ^ioghadobock. 176; 
returns lit Eii^-Und with dii: colnEi;, 

QinUea of ailk gnum irnvrlo by the Id- 

Ooanold. Crvpt. Bnrtholoinov, saila 
with C^pt. Oilbcrt to Vir^nia, 15a ; 
hilt (Uwnovery «f Cjh* Cml. 42, 155 ; 
c1iiMv>ven Miutbii'ii ViueyarU, Gob- 
nold'u iMbtnd, iiiul Gliwibiilb bibiud, 
124} ; itncl«aTnurii Ut Tnrm a ■wttl»- 
Riciit, 157; oblij^uJ to rotum to 
KntilAnd, ISS 

Gmmold's Island, dieooverod by Oqit. 
Ooniold, 156 

GK>urgvt», UumiDiqiietU, ofRourdaaux, 
hb ravenm upun the Spaalarda For 
their emfllty at Nova FVtmcbi, 9 

QoYvmmcnt of the IndluiK, fit* 

Omoc befbre nionl oeo<l hy the In- 

rllHDS, Si 

Grernnlle, Sir Richinl, yeiieral of the 
flt«t, Sent by Sir W. RAleigb to 
lUmnoiik. 16S&, 8, Hi ; leavau fif- 
teen men at [Uinrioak, JO) 

GwnTllle. Port, 8 


Bnriot. ThoH., hinaccoimt nf Vir^nla, 

ilntaraek, iLutK'umf, 112 




Uviilupan, OuM, fonDfirtytiiuaeiJ Cape 

Iawbt by CBfit. At^, 43 
Ucnry VII uoeptaAe offer of Colnm- 

bus, 4 ; gire*Mtcn jnt«ut to Juhii 

Ckbol, 6 
Henry, Cupe, S9 ; its hcwingx, ncecs- 

«ty of fortifying, 44 
Uimry, Fort, built on SouUuuuptou 

rivar, 61 
HoTiMM of th« IndiAiu. (0 
Bavmnl rirer, or dunquehaomh, 2d 
Huiiaon, bi* wi^mwd diMgrcry of ihu 

iMirth-mMt fwmige, 23 
Hunting excuraiona <rirthe Indiatup, fS 


Imageit in the Ireunm) houae of Fow- 
liutmi, SI 

ImmrirbJity of tlio muI, Iniilftn bcLlef 
respecting, 66 

Ingram, Cn^., bi««xpedi(iociiitH)areJi 
of tJie north-west pwngewiib Capta. 
UnttoD and NcUon, 23 

larnocoauiiauih, IndliU) luune of Vir- 
ginia, 47 


Junes the Pint grAitta latteifi patent 

tn tii« Iiandon juid Plymouth com- 

paniuH. 1(!1 
JopnaeiM, Inilinti king, hia txinrurHn- 

tion with Capi. ArgoU oonceniing 

bis reli)fion, itt) 


KMOUgbbui, harbour tA, SS 
Kix-cii^htitiiiB, jHiople living upon tlio 

hini,''-! rivor, ^5 ; their conquost by 

I'oviiiiiLtkii. mid trail «[K>rtii(itju U> 

i-ayitiikatiUik. Stf, 61 
Ki-iiipit, lui Iijitjiui, who gHve iiifarmii- 

tioii rfcapi-rtin^' Powhatan, £3 
Kei^iiotnui^ti, bruthur gf PowhHtan, 62 
KiuK >■ rivur, or I'uwliatiui, duauriptiuD 

Kiiiliiak. on the sotith side of the river 

I'lvmiiiivlw*. S5 
Ku«iiiirHW(.Hili, river o^ 41 


Lntiu, Rjilfo, nudo gOVLrtior uS tho 

Kr>l<iny at RoBDOftlc, 8, 116 
Lawarr, Cap«, id niuned by Capt. Ar- 

gfii. is 
Lwl, inino iif, fiinnd by Quit. Areoll, 



Mftce, Samiid, Kot by Sir WiJt«r B*- 

Ivigh iv Virginia, 153 
Machmnps, an Indian who gavu infor- 

matioa TMpecting PnwhatAn, &l ; 

hia art«r on« of Powhatftn's wivw, 

S4 : r«poate the Indiwi grace at £^ 

Thomaa Dale's uhle, D4 
Maoock jiTourda, a fruit coUinted by 

thDlndiwK, 7^-1 1» 
MatlucV inip|K»Ml myagd to the Wmt 

Indies, 5 
Mut« adtiv»t«d by tW Indiaiifl, 1 I4t 
Mamaaatowick,atitJeof I'owluttAu,48 
Hangnanga, p«ofil« living near Pow- 

hAtftn, 41 
Miuinacntiii, pec^de living near Pow 

hatiui, 41 
Mannahookti, puopU) living nmr Pow- 

liftUn, 41 
MonuAboiutka. poopio upon tho Top- 

fUihiinock, or Quean's river, 37 
Manteo, an Indian hrauc;httoKnffluid 

by ^ptn. Aiiiftda* utd Itii^lnw, 144 ; 

corialouiKl at Roaucmlt. and untitled 

lord of Roononlc ivnd I>iuaunoni|Uiv 

pcwfc, 161 
M luitlttfi tifftsathera worn by t1 le women, 

6!>, riv«r of, naxr cn.Ued ttna- 

iiokv. 146 
Maric^ock Applu, poiiiiiiin Howlt, benrs 

finjit in Virpnin, flO; mittivnttKl by 

tho Inilian. 72 ; d««rnpti<:>n of. 119 
Marriajiw of liie liidimtB, lOU 
Mitrtlm'H Viiioynrd, cliewoTur^ by 

Capt. Goanold, 15ft 
Ma»*awoni«c)ca, eneniieii of the Saaqiie- 

ealiAinjugx, 40 ; DnuuuuH uf PuwLintiui, 

M&ttf^janicnt, jvcoplo upon tlw? Uhat 

Fawliixunt «r Iluk«'a river, &6-39 
ftltHlioind of tho Indinne, lOB 
Midendi-A, Pt^dni, liis cruelly to the 

Frenoh K^lony in h'ovA Francia, D 
MctiL Incoguita. ti 
KlitM'.^ iif Ilium iiirl i^ii|i]Mr, rf<]u>rt of 

Uic liidiatin i-iiiicvraiui;, 33 
Mine of iintiiaony found by C*pt. Ar- 

giill, SV 
Wine nf IbtuI towad hy Cnpt. ArgoU, 3^ 
Minfimln fif VirffiniA, 13] 
MonuaivntN at the Indi;ut kiii^, 80 
Mmincnnii, pttJiilc Ilviu)^ new Powhu- 

tMi'« t^rritoTwiH, 41 
MomuijhtArutidK, pwiplnupiwitlie Top- 

patiancick or yuwoV river, 87 
MouiilainB of VirginiJi, 'i5 
Ikfouiitgomefy river, t>r PaynnkatiLnk, 




MuyocHMM, on tlie PtLbtwoioMk or EU- 

ulwtb ri<rv, 88 
UHsiD oT tim ImUatui, 70 


Nni^nthtAnk, on fhe Pfttawomoek or 

tCIixnJwtti river, 38 
Kahnjiadu, chjuf uf the Indiuiu on the 

rifer Pamafjuif!, visited by C»fit. 

Otlbert'B c<Hn^\iiy, H51I ; receirw 

Cnpt, l'"]iluini oik) C™pt. QilluTt, 

17(1; w-itli utiivr lodinnH visibn the 

fort, US 
NtLiiipH, cHHtom Miiong th.0 lodLana of 

givuig B viriety.. Ill 
Naadaamuuil, river of, K5 
NfendaanunHji, living opon tbe 

Kinif's river, 3a 
NM](lrau);htacun<l, iipjii ttin Rs|)|HiIui- 

mwV or Qiiofti'H rivur, S? 
NwWin. Capt,, hia exp«jililii>ii in nesivli 

of tbe North wi-8t paaaage. with 

CaiitH, Uuttoti and Idjt^iui, 23 
NetdfurfiaUiagmitdL-hy theIndtftiiB,7S 
NDwRjuriilhiud, ilwcov«T«d \>y John 

Ciiiwt, a 

NcwpiiTt, Citpt,, tnkf^ Ttuikiinukiateon 

unJ hix Buti priannGni, 5S 
>'oBKip!uia, river Mliojf into Uie river 

Ocuiiin, H3 
N<irth>Wi(^ pAwmgo, mippMteiil <liac(>- 

vary, 23 
NuHkamwnoks, pooplo living near Fow- 

liAtiLn'H territoricd, 41 


Onths UMtd by the Incllniifl, 118 
OcM}&m, river bvlvrc Rcis.Doi'ik, 143 
ObolsHO, queen of CciliicttlintniLak*;, 

which Capt. Smith crJIs tjiiiyougli- 

rolmiMick, 63 
Oiiawiiia.rii«nt, on the }'atam>inecl[ or 

Kliaalmth rivBr, 38 
Opoctuinckewo, lirotherof Powhalan, 02 
Opu»(Xiui(>nui«iiie, a. werfWMiciqua or 

qu«eTi ofri villnpj "f Appwiiatuuk, Bli 
Orapftkn, the ])!ac» where Pwwljatan 

Temnvwi nftor h« left Werowoco- 

moco, 49 

Ottenatdc, a tititi on'owluitui, iS 
Osiaiei^ people u]ioii ilie 'I'oukwu'gh or 
Elydnej river, 4 1 


Pxmftcnciicic, on the Pfttawomeck or 

Elizabeth river, 38 
Pameik, town on the river Occam, H3 

I^uuunck river, or Priace'o river, 35 

F»quippe, a laJceiUnL-ovurMl during the ■ 
exiiedltioii un(}«r Sir R.Oiwu vlUe, l44['j 

PuanuDt, one of Powhatan '« iom, 59 

l^wtahdghiw, pwjpls living upon tba 
King^ rivCT, 35 

PfttAwomeck, or FIliEabelh riv«r, 88; 
Indians, their religion, 99 

Fkwtiuunl, p<»ijplfl upon the river Paw 
tuxunt, 39 

PayankiLlank or Mountffomery rivor, 
tb« poo|(lctiun>risaxl by Puwhstui, SB 

Penrk mnpoHoa to bo found in the 
lAke of Virginia, 132 

P«iuaqui(l, river of, disoovi<redbyC&pt, 
Wevmuotb, lfi9 ; vtsited by CnpL 
Fopham and Caiit. Gilbert, 169 [ 

P«Tinl>»cot, moaotiUna new the rivBT 
of. 1«7 

Peruy, Cikpt, Qtiorgo, tomponry precd- 
dunt of thv oolony, 41 and 59 

Pi|iiiiimi, formerly weroanoe of Coiaeoba* , 
wauk«>. but deposed hy Puwliatiuif 
£7 ; his chief wife, tbn Kbtte in. i 
which ehe li<r««, A7; hupo of bia 
ctinv«nioD to Christianity, 1^7 

PuobinB, one of Puwhi^tMi's Hina at 
Kocanghta.n, weroanco at the titntt 
Sir ThoHHw GUtw took it, 60 

Pochone root, naed \n tltu Indians to 
piunt thnrnai'lvM, 6* 

Pochahuntaii, d^ughtor of Powfaatan, 
54 and 65 

Puinoioks, a town diaoowred daring 
the expedition under Sir R. Qreo- 
ville. US 

Pope'H, the, ilonation of Atiivrioa to 
SiJiiin, 13 

Ftijitiani, Hir Jnhn, fwdii out a Dolony 
tu ISa^haildioc, 162 ; vends another 
under (hpt. Fojihaui nijii Citpt. Uil- 
Iwrt, let 

Pojihiun, Cftpt., sent out with the 
nilony lo Qbghiuletioc, with Cupt. 
GiJIjert, by Sir .Ivihn Pt^ihain, 1*H ; 
goes with C?ipt. GilliBrt to th* river 
Penitttjutd, li>t> ; th«y neck a fit place 
fur thcitr Kcttluniimt on tlw rivor tia- 
^mlehoo, 172; oomiaimce a settle- 
ment, 173 ; his death, 179 

Potft|>oco, on the Patawomeck or BE- 
xabetli rivtr, HH 

i'owtitl. Ensign, with Enwign WiJkor, 
sent hf CapU Oeoive Percy to sur- 
priis and kill Wowtooliapiitick, &9 

Pvwhntan vr King's river, dcwcriptioa 
of. 93 

Powhabuis, a people of Virginia, 87 

Powhatan, his ooiHiueKt of the peo]>la ^ 
of PiiyanknCank, 36 ; hia connuot to , 



tlio Etiglinh, 87 ; Klb bia binUiriglit 
tu tliB Kuglirth in 1601), iti ; lim 
b(>iui(U of Kb ei«|iirK, 48 ; lii« cliief 
seat at Worowcworriooo, (iAi.-rwardi« 
at Urspfkke, i9 ; iloHuription iif liim, 
19 : hia fear of the Gnglisli, BO ; hw 
chinning, 50; liia {runnln, !j\ ; h'la 
lumle of puuishing ctfluudvre, !i2 ; his 
multiplicity "f wouiun, 53 ; ihti 
na.me4 -if aoiue of hia wciiien, 5-4 ; 
bis children, &4 : tbo inannur in 
wbioli ho is waited on by tlie woinoii 
at ti)i^^ Ri ; Ilia house at Urt>|iaks, 
wbere he keeps lits treasurer, fi4 ; 
cataioguc of ttie weroiui-ctMuuder htB 
government, 55 j bia (Mmquegt at 
Kekonghtan, 61 ; hia da.ugl^ter Po- 
(ihLkbuiiLis, <i5 : tribute paid ta bim. 
81; bis jjriiiaipal temple, J*0; prn- 
phocies (.-onceming liim. 101 ; hitt 
furmvr eiieinLcH, 102; hi^ monopoly 
of tlio cop]Mfr hroiij^it li,v th« Biig- 
li*h, 103 ; entortains the E^^nglinh with 
l]i««x]ul)>ti<]ii tif au ludiiLti Ktratii^uj 
ill wiLTj 107 
I'ritinu'R river, nr Fruijundi rivwr, 3fl 
l*r(ipli<xii>ea of the Indiana, 101 
Vryn. Maxtin, hia captuio bj lh« Spa- 
niitrdii, 103 


Qoecc's river, or Toppahanook. 87 ■ 
Quintun, bo&ta of ^e Virgiuiaos, tlic 

tn!UiiiF;r rtf Miiiking tbetii, 75 
Qii'iynngh, brj-iuih of the L'atttwuiiiuitk 

river, 88 
QuiyuuLdictihanocks. pooplo living upou 

the Kiriji'M river, 8S 
Quiyciiiyhiiuiartcks, or priesta, 82 ; their 

di6sB anil Qnuuncntai, 1^1 


Ilaleiy;li, Sir WaltLT, Uih grant from 
Qnecn EHKa.bcstli, 8-1-11 ; nemlBout, 
in lS6i, Antadad and Capt. 
Uarlow, 8-U2 ; in 15S&. iitmiU K.fln3t 
nmumandcd by Sir R. Orejivillu, 
8-141; in ln87, Mnda n ncmmA 
uoloaj lo Uounuuk, under the co^ni- 
ntond iif Capt. Wliite. HS-8; nemls 
mpplieMbyuapt. Wliitutiilheciiluiiy, 
in 1£>90, 151 ; sends Samuel iliux tti 
Virginia, in 1602, li53 

l{'?li(,'i>in of tho Indians, 82 

Hi<.'limt>nd, Ms at, 31 

Uivun of Uiewi^eak Ilay, S3 

RjiAniMk, tJiBtMVfei-ed by Ciipt. iVuiadas 
iinil Ciipt- Bftrlow, fur Sir W. 11« 
Itagii, 8-1*2 ; 9itu«te<lin Soiitli Vir- 

^nia, '28 ; t^ir R. (Ireiiville arrivw, 
Tlfl ; Mr. ItJdph (jiiil iiutdti gtivi-r- 
twiHr, M5; fsir F. IJTafcc ajrivwi, 
117 : takea n-vra-y tii-i coLony, 146 ; 
Sir U. Uronville liiavenlS men, HO ; 
Capt, Whit.? arrives with the seoftnd 
Ci)li>iiy. I5CI; leavt-w Tor Kng^huid to 
u-bta.!!! b!upplii.«, 1£1 i iiu hiK retUTii 
in unnhle tn Snd ihu oiliiny, 1(12 
Hoot* used hy the Inrliaivs invdidnally 
aud for patnlJD^, 121 


Sa^riJiuiiit (if chitdren, 8J and 94 

Sn^odtOTijck. rivpr of, <li80i>v<?irod by 
Lapt. VtjTiiouth. iHif : C^apU. I'up- 
liaiu I'Liid (i ilbuil viiitunt^nuu a aett]*;- 
iiiunt thun:, 17S ; adventure of Capt. 
Gilbert., 1 76 : rctiim <rf the colony 
to K[i{,daud, ISO 

SatawnniMk, tin the Patawomeuk or 
Elizabeth river, S^ 

Seberioa, lord o-f tho rivw of iSlagliMlt^ 
buck, 170 

Secotrui, « twwri diHoovePBil durinf; tlie 
expedition mulcrSirR.tJrCTville, 146 

Semlamt^, Ca]ie Elizabeth, 173 

Serpenttf and otlior re])ti]ejs of Virginia 
SUppuj«(:d to U': harlidUB^ 12S 

Silk grofis growing in Virginia, fll 

^itniak, city doscril}oil by Stracbey an 
on the nve-r Oocain, but by Do Bry 
an ou (iiD river liatadsaiuund. 14& 

Skidwji.reB, tho Indinji, goes with Cajit- 
Gilbcirt's (leopic to Nahanjula, llifl ; 
goes again with Capt. Popbam a,nd 
Capt- Gilbert, and romaiiu with the 
Indiana, 170 ; vitiiUi Uie fort with 
other Iniliatu, 174 ; oomeB ag^n 
with Nabaiiada, 17^ 

Siiittli, Capt.. r«f(ri!iicti to Iii« map, 41 

Soeotn. town r.f Wingnniiacna, IIS 

Song of triumph. Indi^ui, "M 

Hon^a of the liidiuiiH, 70 

Bootnsay-rng with b(?rliA jvtactiKnd by 
the Indians, &3 

8<jto, Fvmando do, instruinDntal in 
atinoxin^ Kliirida to S{)n.ii), 4 

Southampton. Honry. tfarl of. i^da 
Capl. Gosuold and Capt. Gilbert in 
lt)l3'2, IH^) ; iiHsiHLB iiii KL-ndin^ Cnjit. 
Ouur]^ WejTU'iuth, 1.1B 

Spain, Ktug of, hia claim to Antoricai 
quetttiunod, 3 

Spioer. Capt., drnwuBdoff R'tanorvk, 151 

Spilnian. Fleniy. an Kngliwh lioy. reco- 
vcrci] fruiu the Kiri^ of fastaiini by 
C'lipt, Ar^ll, 'i& ; iutvi prets butweeu 
Cnul, Argoll and Jiiihimhuh, l>tj 

Storenoiiw* of tho Indians, 1 15 
D D 



StraU^HD in wftrvKbiiriiMl by INiwln- 

tan to tiiD Kngtirtb, In; 
Siin. tbc, K'onhip pAid bim by ibe 

SuiHivtiUixi alxmt (lr« iUBun({ tho In- 

<iia» wiiiRei). 112 
Puruwy o(Uh> IiifIiiUia, IDS 
Ku«)U(iliAaii3li or lliiwnr<l riier, 8I> 
Suai(U«iiihaiiL>u^. iM-itjilt! Hi-intr nr^u- 
I'uwluitjvn x tcmtiiriiTs 41 ; »lwcn|i- 
tinn rir Ihi'iii, SH ; Diirir nziv ^'i 
Sfdiuif river, or 1'uckwot,'h. 40 


TnrknnrkintiUMi, an nlil wiriymnt^r nt 
WiuTaj4ki:i_v»ck , l;Jci-ii (ni* nifr I ly 
Cm>c. Nvw^t^rc, wiUi liiii e<tu Tim- 

Taulio^jpe. sou itf Oh<>l<Mc. 5il 
TAnj^liaik*-!), l-rijlhtir nf PuwliatAii. 42 
Taxcnfint, •m thu I'litawuiucctk or Kli- 

Ealx'tli river. Hi 
T«ui|jluit uf Hiv Lutljjuui, S2 
Tu»i])lu, priitd|ui). a.t I'lununky, 90 
Thread i(|iu» bv ihii wmnoii i>( n kind 

ofgraMK, <m1l«(l punt III nut w, 7^ 
TiniLwr of Vii^iuis, I'M 
Tabw.'ot, isJmI by tho Hnvague " .i- 

pcioke," 121 
TiM^ohow, cvutA of. luuil M Eowl by 

tha InilkiH. 78. 121 
TiK-k wi>L!h, iirSyiliify riv*:r, 4(1 
T(ii.-kw»^bt«, ptHjiJt) living nv»r Paw- 

bnttiiM LtirritiiriOM, 4t 
Tii)F|i(ihiitii>c^*, Tipnn tlv! Ttip|iahanock 

■ It tiur'-ii'i^ livi-r. !i7 
T<)wnB of \' irfpiiiii, 7" 
'IViliiite [Hiid U> Ciiwlintaii. SI 
Tucker, Daniull, iimVu^ ciiiii|ilaiat in 

fmiic^ l^■:lUll4t lli« ^paiiiunla wLo 

bitti eakjjtuiijil hini, IQ3 


Virauia, (frHiid-dAti^hter of ffovvntar 
Wlilte, tbii fiivit child ofEnifliiib pa- 
reiiU Ixirii iti Aiuiinoj, l&l 

Viiyiiiin, llritauniA, itA btUluilit. 2S ; 
itti linimils. 23 ; >t« iJivUiimn, *J4 ; 
the hiyti l.tml .,r TlritaJiiiiji, '^i* ; 
luouiilajiui and rookit, 25 ; li»ui9«(i i<f 
Btoiie. 23 ; prixliiotintiii fif thti oima- 
Iry, 2(^ ; ennuty l»etwoi;n tlie Mvno- 
I'auM und PowliAtaiiH. 27 i Uie low- 
Uurl ur Vitv'init), 'i' ; iu divisiuuH, 
27 ; South Vir^'uiiji. 2S ; its [iroiluc- 
ttuMH, 2d; Nurtii Vii^j'iiiiu, '1'^ ; it« 
idimiitA. 'iO : pnHluiainiui. 30; Hnil. 
31 : crtnjiK'it.tiri' cr*ni^pmiii|i thfi low 
tauib, ii'i ; ciwat uf Simth Vii^iiitg, 

IS ; ari^a of Ihe inhnbitoiiti^ 44 ; 
defltiripuon nf the people, 08 ; their 
QAtunl c<>l>ir, tiii; itrtiftciAl color- 
ing. OS ; tliur bitir and form, iH ; 
tbtiirattin, tt4 ; drcM uf thu wnnwa. 
(iS : tltcir oraAinvtiu httii mode (^ 
piiiiiliuv; Uivir kkiii«, 04 ; the mode 
<>r luiir wMliuii jiniciuiud by the vo- 
iii<«i, M ; hoiul dnMMW, R7 ; ear- 
rings, 67 ; eoduriuicv «f cold outt 
heat, tS ; iliHixwitinFi, M ; Hvc niuda 
of takinjf iiHh, 38 ; uianu&ctunw, 
6{1 : tbti ((rivernmsnC, 69 ; tnvrtii*, 70 ; 
bfj-UMW, 7''; [ruitK, 72 ; fuud, 7'^ 1 
Uinte. 7^ ; titrisul Hpiiri by Ihit Wii- 
iiicii, 75 : iliHcTMit in>Mlc«> of fiohiiig, 
7S i hunting, 7o ; giuiiMt, 77 ; in*n> 
uur (4 reuu|>lii>ii by « wuroAuiice, 
7S ; muHic, 7^ : |)»etjy ami aont^i i 
70 : d»ncii», W ; migW, S2 ; pri«8Ul 
and tcuipl<», 82 ; Ki^gritioM, t^4 ; 
inonumonU air Uk kiiit^, -Sii : buri- 
als, {lO ; priiKviiial tum^u ut I'a- 
lauuky, 90 ; |-«%ivuti fiMtivals, VI ; 
i»ii>jtinit.ii(iM, y2; Alton luiii u^si^ 
in^ it.t ; siiiti-wnnthi[t, {>$ ; wtoth- 
xv-ying with borba, 93 ; Micriticcii iif 
cbildnm, »i ; vmn, luO ; pruptiv- , 
BieH, 101 ; anuE, 105 : ilrunu, 107 J^] 
MrataKem in war, 107; Burjery, 
I'tS : nHnbuiaw. I'>S ; tnarriu^, tOI^ ; 
cdncatinn of the ctiildmn, 110 ; cna- 
bmi i>f tfivirjg MV«nvl namcK, 111 ; 
ijiiipluy iiieiibi iif Uie wou)«u. Ill J 
bii |>iirHtitii>ii Hbiiut tire auiuii^- lUe 
wntnen. 1 12 ; uuiiIloA uf [tine »r fir 
treu, lllf -, thtir mwiv ul'uoiivvaliiijj 
thfiir truafiiirax. Uil; uathii, 113; 
their niiide uf ciiJDivntiii{( nuixo, 
IIH; fi-uiu, 117; the uiitrwmuk, 
IIV; the tiickuwhutuh, 1'2I ; n>ut« 
itiHid nioiiiuiiiiilly iinu fur [minting,', 
1-il ; t»b<Mmr>. 1:21; nniiiiAlfl, 1:^; 
binlN, 1:25; tiittlmr, 12$; laiiivraU, 
131 i [wiu-Ib. 133 


WuhuriHuniunwh, tlm ]Frupor naineaif 
IV'WliAtiLTi, 48 

W:^r)ob««e, an Itidiaii brought t*.' Bog- 
buid by Ciipl4i. Ania^iftu luid ilorkiw, 

WurniAoj-sck^. i>e''>plcliriagu{Kiii the 
nvor 1'owImUui ur KiogV river, 3a 

Ware of tlm liuliiuis. 100 

WnyiiKXitb, 0.v|it. (leijr;^, biii vaytigt 
ii) llfU^. i'i; iwiit lAit in lti<l^ l>y 
Thoo, Aruii'Ull, Wttnlour uf thu 
K:vr1 nfHiiiichnin)iTji». 1511 : hifdtNin- 
very ^if ttm rivrr i>I ^^aghlMtoboc, 169 




Weinock, a servant in Powhatan's 

confidence, 48 
Weroance, meaning of the word, 61 ; 

niodt; of reception by a, 78 
Werowocomoco, seat of Powhatan, 36, 

49, 62 
Went, Capt. Francis, Powhatan sella 

his birthright to him, he builds a 

fort called West's Fort, 48 

West, Capt. William, killed by the 
Indians, 79 

White, Capt., sent by Sir W. Raleigh 
with a second colony to Koono^, 
8, 149 i returns to England for sup- 
plies, 151 ; goes to Hoanoak with 
supplies, hut not finding the colony, 
abandons the search, 152 

Wicocomaco, river of, 41 


Map, to iace title. 

Plate of Autographs, to fece page xxxvi. 

The Susquehannah Indian, to &ce p^e 40. 

The king sitting among his women, to face page 53. 

llie Indian woman, to face page 65. 

Tlio dance, to fece page 81. 

The tomb of the Weroancea, to face p^e 89. 

Kl('llAltll«, llR). SI'. HAUTINH LnNK 

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