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(Lsiju^ t^^^r^czzZ (^(S-i^^ eoxj^ Qu^\4^ 






A. B. (Simpson) A. M. (Radcliffe) 


Third (Raised) Edition 

Alt rifhts rtsened 



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.<L«aH Fn»N»ATI»Me 

R 1^« 

Copyr^ht 1922 by 
Alpha Chi Oueca Frateknitv 

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To All Alpha Chi Ohbcas 

Who Seek thb Hbights 

This Volume Is Dedicated 

By the Author 

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1 Educational and fraternity conditions at the time of the found- 

ing of Alpha Chi Omega, 1885 1 

2 Oi^anization of Alpha Chi Omega 7 

3 Early years IS 

4 Expansion into state universities as a general fraternity with 

musical traditions 26 

5 Colleges in which Alpha Chi Omega has chapters 30 

6 Material possessions of Alpha Chi Omega 46 

7 Present scope 52 

8 Chapter house ownership 107 

9 Government 117 

10 Fraternity expansion 131 

1 1 Fraternity conventions 1 39 

12 National Council meetings 189 

13 Insignia and heraldry 201 

14 The Lyre 212 

15 The Heraeum, the Ai^olid, and The Songbook 227 

16 The History 230 

17 The Daily Convention Transcript, The Directory, and the 

Calendar 233 

18 Official forms and supplies 235 

19 The Alumnae Association 243 

20 Alumnx chapters 253 

21 AlumnK dubs 264 

22 Endowment funds and scholarship funds 279 

23 National altruistic work 285 

24 " The Macdowell Colony studio 291 

25 The fraternity in the World War 297 

26 The influence of Grecian culture upon Alpha Chi Omega .... 326 

27 Traditions of the fraternity 337 

28 The National Panhellenic Congress 340 

29 Some interesting members 351 

30 The contribution of Alpha Chi Omega to American life 400 


Directory of national officers 405 

Honorary members 408 

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List of Tables 

1 National Greek-letter fraternities for women existing at the 

time Alpha Chi Omega was founded, 18S5 3 

2 Colleges having women's fraternities in 1885 4 

3 Growth of 35 large universities, public and private, excluding 

summer and extension students, 1914-1920, estimated for 

1950 31 

4 Opportunities for study of the Fine Arts where Alpha Chi 

Omega has chapters 34 

5 Honorary fraternities open to women in colleges where Alpha 

Chi Omega has chapters 39 

6 State colleges and other colleges in which Alpha Chi Omega 

has chapters 40 

7 Universiliesin which Alpha Chi Omega has chapters 41 

8 CoUegeson eligible lists of educational associations 43 

9 Analysis of material possessions of Alpha Chi Omega 46 

10 Material possessionsof twelve women's fraternities 49 

11 Organized groups of Alpha Chi Omega, July, 1921 52 

12 National officers of three or more years' service 129 

13 Extension of National Panhellenic Congress fraternities to 1920 132 

14 New chapters established by National Panhellenic Congress 

fraternitiesand percentage of increase, 1910-1920 133 

15 Geographical distribution of National Panhellenic Congress 

fraternity chapters, 1900-1920 135 

16 Winnersof 'Eklekia prizes 219 

17 Alphabetical index to official forms used by the fraternity, 1921 241 

18 Numerical index to official forms used by the fraternity, 1921 . . 242 

19 Results of collection of alumnse notes 249 

20 Loans made by Scholarship Fund 280 

21 Average wage of children leaving school at age 14 and at age 16 286 

22 Women's fraternities represented in institutions where Alpha 

Chi Omega has established chapters 345 

23 Chronological list of National Panhellenic Congress 350 

List of Maps 

1 Distribution of organized groups 51 

2 Provinces of Alpha Chi Omega 121 

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In the pages that follow will be unfolded the story from the beginning 
of a dignified and noble sisterhood, now large and flourishing — in the 
memory of some once small and limited ; throughout all these years to be 
an Alpha Chi Omega has meant to "seek the heights" — falteringly per- 
haps at times, but ever seeking higher ground — in the life intellectual, in 
artistic attainment, in personal development. 

The problems of the nineteenth century were not those of the twen- 
tieth. Obstructions faced and surmounted then were left behind for all 
time. Nevertheless, the present and the future hold problems, for the 
leader and the lay member, no less taxing than the questions of several 
college generations ago. The wider the sphere of a fraternity's life, the 
greater the power required of national leaders, to weld together and devel- 
op into distinction the larger number of units; the more constructive and 
responsive must be the loyalty of each collegiate and alumnx group; the 
keener and wiser must be the long look ahead. As our sisters increase in 
number, ourheartsmusi enlarge to receive them, our minds to know and 
understand them; as the fraternity becomes more diversified with the 
growing complexity of universities, the bond fraternal simplifies our rela- 
tions with our sisters by helping us to hold fast to the simple fundamen- 
tals—both of fraternity and life — loyalty, sincerity, generosity, aspira- 
tion, cooperation, and harmony. 

In this story of the growth of Alpha Chi Omega, the author has been 
given the cooperation and assistance of many members. The History 
committees of each organized group with much patience and much skill 
supplied data regarding their own institutions and groups; to them 
especial thanks and expression of appreciation should be given. It is 
regretted that necessity compelled the elimination of the cuts of the 
members of these committees. To the History Board acknowledgment 
is cordially made: Ina Weyrauch, A, collected the material and wrote 
the sketches of over-seas workers; Alinda Montgomery, Z, revised the 
chapter on Grecian culture and collected some data; Gretchen Kane 
Elder, S, made constructive and valuable suggestions in the planning 
of the book, assisted in gathering data, and classified the honors of 
undergraduates, which had to be omitted at the last to save space; Myra 
H, Jones, then Alumnx Vice President, revised the three chapters on the 
alumnx work of the fraternity, performed some research at the Library of 
Congress, compiled several of the tables that appear in the book, made 
the excellent index, as well as helping and encouraging the author con- 


stantly and generously during the heavy task of writing a large volume in 
the fringes of time remaining from a busy professional life; the National 
Council aided the work by means of their annual reports of the work of 
their offices; the History Advisory Committee, comprising Gladys 
Livingston Graff, Alta Allen Loud, and Myra H. Jones, assisted the 
author in deciding matters of policy and details of publication, "reports of 
which appeared in The Heraeum of 1921 and will appear in TheHeraeum 
of 1922 after the volume has reached the reader. To L. G. Balfour Com- 
pany the author is indebted for the cut of fraternity novelty jewelry 
and desires to acknowledge this generous courtesy. To the publishers, 
the George Banta Publishing Company, the author is grateful for many 
helpful suggestions, and for their sincere endeavor to follow out the 
committee's plans. 

The present volume will be foimd greatly changed from the 1916 
History. The five years between the two volumes have not passed 
lightly over the fraternity; those years constitute an era of accelerated 
activity, of preSccupation with world affairs, of abnormal emotional 
strain, of economic pressure, in short, of war. The fraternity emerges 
from the period stronger and more earnest in its desire to serve and to 
ennoble its members. In the pages that follow, the author hopes the 
readers will find, as in the 1911 and the 1916 editions, useful data in 
convenient form; a clear narrative of the development of Alpha Chi 
Omega in its environment in the academic world among contemporary 
fraternities; information adequate to enable members or casual readers 
to evaluate the organization properly; and the body of tradition and 
high standards so dear to all the fraternity's builders in the past. 

The fraternity's opportunities never were wider than today, its prob- 
lems never more complex; its need for intelligent, high-minded leaders 
of wide and true vision has never been more imperative, nor has the 
interest among its members and their willingness to serve in positions of 
responsibility ever been more gratifying. The World War perhaps has 
shown many members their capacity for responsibility, as well as the 
unparalleled satisfaction that comes from constituting a vital factor in a 
worth-while cause. 

1 1 is principally for the member in college that the History is written. 
If these pages therefore add somewhat to the general understanding of 
the real meaning and place of the college fraternity, if they help a little 
to solve the many problems that arise in the rich and crowded days of 
an active chapter, and if they strengthen the determination to live and 
to perpetuate the noble principles and traditions of Alpha Chi Omega, 
personally and as groups, as active or as alumnae members, then this 
book will have accomplished its end. 

Florence A. Armstrong. 

Washington, D. C. 
October 6, 1921. 

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THI i.'l^S YCI^K 


Patron Goddess of Alpha Chi Omega 

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Five national Greek-letter fraternities for women existed in 1885; 
Alpha Chi Omega .became the sixth. Some information of the college 
and fraternity world at the time Alpha Chi Omega was founded may 
be illuminating. A new era was beginning in the education of woman- 
kind. "Interest in provision for the superior instruction of women shows 
no abatement," reports the American Commissioner of Education, in 
1885, after investigation of conditions in the thirty-eight states of 
the Union, "although the year has not been characterized by any special 
action in reference to the subject. The importance of full provision for 
this work is indeed so fully recognized that the discussions which it 
excites no longer turn on that question, but on those which pertain to 
it as a part of superior education in general." The movement toward 
woman's higher education had been propelled, throughout the two decades 
just passed, by. the need for women to take the places of the soldier- 
pedagogues of the Civil War. The East had established separate institu- 
tions for the training of women, and the standards of scholarship had not 
been injured, "It is my hope," Mathew Vassar had said, "to be the 
instrument, in the hands of Providence, of founding and perpetuating an 
institution which shall accomplish for young women what our colleges are 
accomplishing for young men." Vassar College was opened in 1865; a 
decade later Smith Collegewasopened;Wellesley was established in 1870 
(the date on which the first national Greek-letter fraternity for women 
was founded). The state of Massachusetts granted to Wellesley in 1877 
the authority to grant degrees. 

Doubt concerning the mental capacity of women had been allayed. 
Long treatises, however, inquired into the physical limitations of the 
feminine constitution. The Commissioner of Education pointed tri- 
umphantly to cases in Europe where women had endured collegiate labor 
with impunity. Some institutions had introduced physical exercises 
for women, and these he recommended to all colleges. The era of e;^)eri- 
mentation was drawing to its close. Steadily the standard of women's 
colleges improved. In 1885 Bryn Mawr was founded, and from the 
first had a high academic standard. Already much change had occurred 
since a youth had ventured his opinion in 1872 to Alice Freeman that 
"girls' colleges were a contrivance for enabling women to pretend that 
they had the same education as men." 


2 HisTORV OF Alpha Cri Oubca Fhatkinitt 

In the western part of the United States women's education had more 
nearly kept pace with that of their brothers than in the eastern section. 
Accepting the advice of Horace Mann many western states made their 
state universities serve both their young men and their young women. 
The Universities of Iowa (1847), Kansas (1866), Minnesota (1868), 
and Nebraska (1871) were established for both sexes. About the same 
time Indiana (1868), Michigan (1870), Illinois (1870), California (1870), 
Missouri (1870), Ohio (1873), and Wisconsin (1874) opened their doors 
to women. One of these western universities was destined to exert a 
moulding influence upon the education of women in the older East. 
Alice Freeman went as a pioneer woman student to the University of 
Michigan, and there received her bachelor's degree. As president of 
Wellesley College (1881-1887) she "developed and dignified its depart- 
ments * • * systematized instruction, and drew up a certificate (for 
admission from certain accredited schools), and then conducted exam- 
inations in Wellesley courses in such, a way that there was a general rise 
in standards. A new atmosphere of exactitude, work, and insistence on 
what a college should mean, succeeding a sort of boarding-school loose- 
ness." She assisted in the organization of sixteen preparatory schools in 
many of which Wellesley graduates became teachers. 

The aystematjzation given Wellesley and the boarding-schools 
was needed in most of the many academies, female seminaries, and 
female ajllcgva in the aiuntry. In the West the colleges themselves un- 
dertook to supply the deficiencies of the preparatory education of their 
students by giving preparatory courses. The country west of Missouri 
was still sparsely .settled, and (onsequcnlly transportation in the Middle 
West had improved but slowly. Most western young people had been 
educated, therefore, near their homes. Numberless academies, semi- 
naries, and colleges had sprung up for this purpose. With the great im- 
provement of railroad facilities, however (1885-1890), many students 
entered the state universities. These institutions have grown with mar- 
velous rapidity in the past three decades. 

The educational development of the western states, after the pioneer 
period in the Mississippi Valley, is one of the most extraordinary phe- 
nomena in American history. Alpha Chi Omega, most fortunately, was 
established at the psychological moment. She was spared struggling 
years of weakness, disfavor, and uncertainty in the education of women 
that would have been encountered two decades before. And she 
entered the educational world at the exact time when coeducation was a 
rising tide. 

It was in the colleges admitting both men and women that the 
woman's fraternity, logically, had its rise. In De Pauw University, 
where the first national Greek-letter fraternity for women had been 

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Conditions at Tiub of Founding 3 

established fifteen years earlier, Alplia Chi Omega was founded. The 
following table illustrates the early location of their first chapters by the 
national Greek-letter organizations prior to 1S85. 

Table I. — National Creei-letler fraleTttilies for women existing at Ike time Alpha Chi 
Omega was founded, ISSS. 

Number of 


Pounded second 



in 1885. 

















Asbury (Dc Pauw) 








In the coeducational universities the fraternities had long been the 
most important feature in the social life of the men. These organizations 
had begun a century before as literary orders, like the "Speaking Club" 
at Harvard which was formed for debating purposes. Important librar- 
ies were collected by them, and they were considered to be of great intel- 
lectual value. But by the time that women's fraternities were founded 
the term "literary" had been long since outgrown. Development of 
the curricula of the universities themselves had rendered unnecessary 
pedagogical functions in students' groups. The fraternity had become 
social in its function, providing comfortable living quarters for its mem- 
bers in congenial company. The old phraseology slowly gave way 
among both men's and women's fraternities. The term "general" has 
supplanted gradually the confusing and incongruous term, "literary." 

Some of the earlier generation still cling, however, to the old phrase. 
The notable development and scope of the modern university, in response 
to the needs of modern life, have broadened fraternities until now a 
chapter includes students of all undergraduate departments on equal 
footing, and have rendered impossible the appropriate use of any phrase 
other than general to designate its members. To the student of today 
the term "literary society" connotes a meaning far different froin a 
twentieth century fraternity chapter. 

Women's fraternities were modeled after the existing men's frater- 
nities, and were formed to secure social position for women students in 
university life. By the time Alpha Chi Omega was organized, this 
original purpose included also the desire for mutual improvement, 
for social experience through congenial companionship, and in the case 
of our fraternity, for the advancement also of an art. The modern frater- 
nity has "that close relationship, that clannish spirit and mutual help- 
fulness, that high regard for morality, which characterize an old and 


HisTOKY OF Alpba Chi Omega Fraternity 

respected family, proud of its history, and anxious that no member 
shall fall below the standards." 

The colleges into which women's fraternities had entered in 1885, 
including S K (1874), I. C. (HB*, 1888), Philomathean (*M, 1904), and 
Adelphean (A A 11, 1906), were the following institutions: 

Tabit 2- 

Colkgts kavine mmeW s fraUrnUits in 1885 






Adrian College 

St. Lawrence University . 

ar (d. 1887) 

Akron University 

ar, KKr 

Simpson College 

KAe (d. 1891) 

KKr ( d. 

All^heny College 


Boston University 

A*, Ksr 

1890), I. C. 

Carthage College 


Syracuse University 

A». r«B, KKr 

Cincinnati University.... 


Trinity University 

ar {d. 1887) 

University of California. , 
Univerity of Colorado , . , 

Cornell University 

ar, KAe, KKr 

ar, I. c. 

DePauw University 

KAe. KKr 

University of Illinois 

KAe (d. 1895) 

Denver University 



Fulton Synodical College 

ar (d. 18BS) 

University of Indiana 

KAe, KKr 

Hanover College 

4r(d. 1881), 

University of Iowa 

KKr, I.e. 

KAe (d. 1889: 

University of Kansas 

KAe. KKr, 

Hillsdale College 



Illinois Wesleyan Univ.., 

KAe (d. 1895) 

University of Michigan . . 



University of Minnesota, 

ar, KKr 

Iowa State College 


University of Missouri, . . 


Iowa Wesleyan College . . 


University of Nebraska. , 


Knox College 


University of Vermont, , . 


Lombard Collegi 


University of Wisconsin , . 

ar, r*B, kkp 

Wesleyan University 

Western Reserve 

KA9 (d, 1887) 

ar (d. 1888) 

Ml. Union College 

ar (d, 1908) 

Northwestern University. 

A*, ar, KKr 

Wooster College 

KAe (d. 1913) 

Ohio University 

KAe (d. isse; 

KKr (d. 1913) 

York College 



Of these forty-five institutions, but thirty-five proved to be permanent 
fraternity fields. Many of the early chapters became defunct in a few 
years (thirty-four, according to the data available). The fraternities 
which became later very strong were at this time in a state of flux. Of 
twenty-four chapters which Kappa Alpha Theta founded before 1890, 
she lost eleven. I. C, in 1885, legislated to restrict extension to colleges 
in the future, thus depriving herself of nine city chapters in that year. 
In 1888 I. C. adopted a Greek-letter name. Pi Beta Phi, and became a 
national Greek-letter college fraternity in the conventional sense of that 


Conditions at Time of Founding 5 

term. In 1885, the first number of the Kappa Alpha Theta Journal 
appeared (June), and the editors claimed "700 members, enrollment." 
At this time the fraternity just mentioned possessed fourteen active 
chapters. L. Pearle Green, National Secretary, estimated in 1916 
that the early chapters had "an average membership of ten, or a total 
active membership of 140 in 1885." Alpha Phi and Gamma Phi Beta 
had but recently established their second chapters (1881 and 1882, respec- 
tively,) and so were just entering upon national problems at the time of 
the founding of Alpha Chi Omega. Kappa Kappa Gamma established 
thirty-one chapters before 1890, and lost nine of them. The first issue 
of their magazine. The Golden Key, appeared in May, 1882, and was 
published by chapters until 1904 when It was placed in the hands of an 
editor; in 1886 its name had become The Key. Delta Gamma, like 
her contemporaries, Kappa Alpha Theta and Kappa Kappa Gamma, was 
generous in her early bestowal of charters. Twenty-two chapters wae 
established before 1890 of which twelve were lost, ten of them becoming 
defunct even before 1890. All three of these fraternities became very 
conservative in extension after the nineties. Alpha Chi Omega followed 
their later practice, it seems, for she was extremely cautious from the 
first in the granting of charters. As a result she possesses the distinction 
of having an unbroken chapter roll. Only two chapters have been 
temporarily inactive: Epsilon (1898 to 1905) and Eta (1899 to 1921). 

The minutes of the early years are shot through with discussions 
of the granting of new chapters, but nothing was done hastily or in 
an ill-considered way. Perhaps the early members profited from the 
experience of their contemporaries; perhaps Dean Howe's advice, "to 
steer their course carefully, attend closely to their own affairs, and 
in good time all would work to their success," taught them discretion. 
At any rate, the foundation years were solid and permanent in their 
activity. We may regret the early ultra-conservatism; we may also 
rejoice for it. 

Fraternity experience, then, before 1885, had demonstrated need for 
wisdom and for discretion in extension, and had proved the popularity 
and the real value of the fraternity system for women. Educational 
experience had shown the wide demand for higher learning and the 
necessity for state support for women's education. In such favoring 
conditions as these, in the section of the country most pregnant with 
potentiality. Alpha Chi Omega was destined to appear. 

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At the time when Alpha Chi Omega was established, the fraternity 
systemwasineradicably entrenched, though women's fraternities had not 
approached their present vigor of organization and national prestige. 
In 1885 but five national organizations for college women bearing 
Greek-letter names. Alpha Phi, Delta Gamma, Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa 
A'pha Theta, and Kappa Kappa Gamma, had been established. I. C. had 
not yet become Pi Beta Phi in name nor had she yet restricted her chapters 
to the college field. For all practical purposes, however, she was, at this 
time, a college fraternity. Philomathean (later Phi Mu), and Adelphean 
(later Alpha Delta Pi) were still literary societies in a southern woman's 
college, and Sigma Kappa, at Colby, was not yet national. Altogether 
there had been established eighty-seven chapters of these nine organiza- 
tions located in fifty-six institutions. The five national Greek-letter 
organizations in 1885, relatively weak though they were in numbers, 
compared to their present strength, and on an average but thirteen 
years of age, had placed seventy chapters in forty-six colleges. Thirty- 
six of these colleges proved to be permanent fraternity fields; into seven- 
teen of them Alpha Chi Omega has entered (June, 1921). 

The colleges entered by the women's fraternities were widely dis- 
persed, and as remarked above, often contained but one women's frater- 
nity.* The groups, on the average, were small compared with the 
present size of chapters. The total number of women students in frater- 
nities, therefore, was relatively small. Baird's Manual of American 
College Fraternities estimates the entire number of alumnie and under- 
graduate members in 1883 as 1,033. This table is, however, confused 
and incomplete. Estimating from various sources and including the 
members of I. C, Adelphean, and Philomathean, which Baird omitted, 
we conclude that there were, perhaps, four or five hundred active 
fraternity women in the American colleges in 1885. 

There existed manifestly a need for more fraternities for women. 
In the social life of both men and women the fraternity system had 
grown important, but the percentage of women in fraternities was small. 
In the autumn of 1885, therefore, James Hamilton Howe, then Dean of 
the School of Music of De Pauw University, Greencastle, Indiana, con- 
ceived the belief that a new fraternity for women would be a genuine 

'BmaUm nnetudint ■. C.. hlmLhii) iu(ituti«u BmUlatd inwc tbvi ong woniin'i rWlvnity in ISU. 3k 





Organization of Alpha Chi Omega 9 

benefit both to the university and to the young women students. Filled 
with enthusiasm over this idea, he called together several representative 
students, and presented to them his plan for a new national fraternity 
for women. Asaresult, seven young women banded themselves together. 
As Dean Howe was not a member of a college fraternity, he consulted 
James G. Campbell (B 6 n) as to the proper procedure in forming a 
Greek-letter society. Assisted by the knowledge and experience of Mr. 
Campbell the group drafted a constitution and by-laws. After other 
preliminaries had- been arranged, on October IS, 1885, Alpha Chi Omega 
came into an organized existence, with the following members enrolled as 
her founders: Anna Allen, Olive Burnett, Bertha Deniston, Amy Du 
Bois, Nellie Gamble, Bessie Grooms, and Estelle Leonard. The new 
fraternity was very cordially received into the Greek world at De Pauw 
University, the other "Greeks" offering their hearty congratulations and 
pledging their support to the "baby sister." An "overwhelming ovation" 
was given by the students to the new society on their first appearance 
in a body at chapel in Meharry Hall. Four months later, February 26, 
1S86, Dean Howe formally introduced his proteges by a soir^ musicale. 

Dean Howe continued to maintain a deep interest in the new frater- 
nity, and manifested his feeling in many tangible ways, doing everything 
that lay within his power for the advancement of Alpha Chi Omega. 
The fact that his interest never waned is illustrated by the following 
epistle, which was received in response to a request for a letter for publica- 
tion in the History describing the founding of Alpha Chi Omega. 

Because of mis-statements that have been made concerning the 
nature of Alpha Chi Omega in its early days, this letter is valuable. 
"It is fortunate," says Dean Howe, "that I have lived long enough to 
be on hand to give decisive evidence." His letter reads as follows: 

Hotel Burlington, 
Seattle, Washington, 
September 6, 1916. 
Miss Florence A. Armstrong, 

Author of History of Alpha Chi Omega, 
Macdowell Memorial Association, 
Peterborough, N. H. 
Dear Miss Armstrong: 

I am glad to be able to comply with your request for a few af!idavits 
as to the organization and early situations of Alpha Chi Omega. 

The Alpha Chi Omega Sorority was not organized as a professional 
fraternity. At its organization in 1885, it was a regular university fra- 
ternity, upon the same basis as the Kappa Alpha Theta, Kappa Kappa 
Gamma, and other fraternities of De Pauw University, 

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10 KisTOKV or Alpha Chi Omega Fratsrnitt 

I was very careful that, from the first, every step should be taken in 
accordance with the accepted traditions and methods recognized by other 
fraternities. I employed a regular fraternity man, a Beta, to lay out a 
constitution and set of by-laws, such as were generally approved at that 
time. These, I understand, have been thoroughly revised and brought 
up to meet the requirements of modern times. 

I watched over the young sorority, as one would over one's own child. 
It was my only child, and it is the only child I have at the present time, 
I can assure all present members that not a step was taken that was not in 
harmony with the rules and regulations incumbent upon our other regu- 
lar university fraternities. 

Members of other fraternities were not invited to become members, 
nor did the Alpha Chi Omegas ever accept invitations from other sorori- 
ties. From the first, the membership was drawn freely from the Liberal 
Arts Department of the university, the only specification being that they 
should, in some degree, be connected with the School of Music, some 
courses of which received liberal arts credit from the university. 

The School of Music was an incorporated and integral part of De 
Pauw University; and enrolled among its students many members of 
other fraternities and Sororities. The only difference between the Alpha 
Chi Omega and other fraternities was, that music was the chief tradition 
of Alpha Chi Omega; and that some music culture, as well as literary 
culture, was expected of its members. 

When I look charge of the De Pauw School of Music in 1884, I 
arranged courses leading to Certificate, Diploma, and Degree of Bachelor 
of Music. These were granted as the students passed certain grades or 
completed certain courses. 

I believe our first degree of Mus. B, was granted to a Miss Kelly, 
a Kappa Kappa Gamma, in 1885, The members of the Alpha Chi 
Omega more often received degrees in other departments than in the 
School of Music. 

We included about 150 students in the School of Music, around 1885. 
These numbers, under my incumbency, were increased to about 300 in 
1891-92. The "hard times" of 1893-94 struck us, and the "World's 
Fair" coming at the same time, tended to curtail the attendance during 
the last two years of my deanship at De Pauw. 

I trust that the above will assist in clearing matters that some may 
believe to have been open to question. 

With kind regards to every member of Alpha Chi Omega, I close with 
the assurance that my services are at your call at any and all times. 

My best wishes for the Alpha Chi Omega, 

Very sincerely, 

Jas. Hamilton Howe. 


Organization of Alpha Chi Okega II 

The seven founders of Alpha Chi Omega were all studying in the 
De Pauw School of Music, but the fraternity they established was not 
a "strictly musical" organization. On account of some misunderstand- 
ing on this point in the past, it maybe wise to describe the nature of the 
university in which the friiternity was born. The relationship between 
the liberal arts courses and the musical courses was close, and the school 
of music was not, as is often the case in the larger universities of today, 
a separate college, somewhat removed from the life of the university, but 
it was aregular departmentof the undergraduate workof the university. 
An integral part of its work was in the courses of the liberal arts depart- 
ment, so that students in the music department were students also in 
the liberal arts department. There were, in addition to this fact, no 
arbitrary musical requirements for membership in Alpha Chi Omega 
beyond the one condition that a student be in some way connected with 
the School of Music. 

The interests of those students who carried work in music, as a 
consequence, included both the liberal arts and the fine arts. Their 
friendships, growing out of daily association with students in the differ- 
ent courses of the university, included, as a matter of course, women 
in the various courses. Women whose courses lay mainly in the liberal 
arts carried frequently work in music also and were eligible to member- 
ship in Alpha Chi Omega in precisely the same way that women whose 
major work lay in music were considered eligible to membership in other 
fraternities. This reasonable basis of membership, including both 
musical-minded and literary-minded students, was not peculiar to Alpha 
Chi Omega. She simply accepted a plan already followed, but went one 
step further by insisting that all her members have some musical culture. 

Thus Alpha Chi Omega emphasized the principle that music is at 
least as important a factor in a college woman's education as Latin or 
mathematics. In time, no doubt, all great institutions of learning will take 
the same position. For, in the words of William H. Alexander, "When 
Plato said that musical training is a more potent instrument than any 
other, because rhythm and harmony find their way into the secret places 
of the soul, on which they mightily fasten, imparting grace, and making 
graceful the soul of him who is rightly educated, he uttered a sentiment 
which each succeeding age has increasingly emphasized, until it stands 
as truth." 

For a time Alpha Chi Omega debarred from her membership women 
who were not in some way connected with the musical department of 
the university; the so-called "literary" students, in order to be eligible 
in the early days, registered for some university course in music. But 
contrary to the false and repeated statements in Baird's Manual, at no 
time in her history has Alpha Chi Omega ever been a "professional" 


12 HiSTOKV OP Alpba Chi Omega Frateinitv 

fraternity. In 1889, indeed, a national "literary" fraternity extended to 
Alpha Chi Omega an invitation to mer^ the membership of the two 
organizations. Alpha Chi Omega never considered inviting to member- 
ship those who belonged to other fraternities, a practice which Baird's 
Manual cites as a prominent characteristic of professional fraternities. 

In no way, in fact, was Alpha Chi Omega at her birth at all different 
from other general fraternities except in her insistence that members 
possess some musical culture. This requirement was too advanced for 
the time. For as early as 1891 Beta Chapter requested permission to 
initiate freshmen without requiring them to study music. No immediate 
change was made in the constitution, but the trend of the practice of 
chapters was toward freedom in the matter. The expansion of the 
fraternity into state universities, beginning in 1889, was the signal for 
a forced change in requirements for membership because of the highly 
specialized and separate character of the departments in a state university 
as described below. 

Had there been even a tendency in the direction of professionalism. 
Alpha Chi Omega might have developed into a professional organization 
during a youthful period of four years in her life (1893-1897) ; during this 
brief period the constitution of the fraternity permitted the entering of 
any college, university, or music conservatory of high standard; under 
this very liberal policy one chapter was established — Zeta — at the New 
England Conservatory of Music, Boston. The well-balanced curriculum 
and high grade of instruction of New England had made its appeal to 
the fraternity and caused it to be regarded as a desirable field for exten- 
sion. Of the liberal training given by this remarkable institution Alta 
Allen Loud, National President, once wrote in The Lyre that she was 
much impressed with the literary requirements exacted of the students. 
"Many of the students go there from other colleges . . . ," she con- 
tinued, "and when we recall the fact that one of Zeta's members served 
us six years in thecapacityof treasurerand later as business manager of 
The Lyre, and that two of our editors have been chosen from her ranks, 
we feel like paying tribute to an institution that produces the artistic 
results that the New England Conservatory does and still develops the 
literary and all-round nature of its students."* 

After the establishment of Zeta Chapter, however, the original law 
was reverted to which authorized the entering only of colleges and 
universities. Ultimately, all constitutional regulations regarding the 
distribution of courses among the various departments of a university 
were removed, so that all collegiate courses leading to a degree, whether 
in fine arts, liberal arts, science, or industrial arts, are on a par. 

' tin nmbn of Z(U Ctupt* biiTaamil •■ Nitigoil 


Organization op Alpha Chi Ohega 13 

Alpha Chi Omega, like other fraternities then, was founded on the 
basis of mutual helpfulness and of congenial fellowship. Her purpose, 
like that of others, was the advancement of the intellectual, social, and 
moral culture of her members, and in addition to the aims common to 
other fraternities, included specifically the furtherance of and cultivation 
in one of the fine arts. Her constitution, after numerous changes which 
began immediately after the first draft was made, now reads: "The 
objects of this fraternity are to encourage the spirit of true sisterhood, 
to develop through personal effort a high moral and mental standard, 
and to advance the appreciation and practice of the allied arts among 
its members." The first constitution read ; "The object of this fraternity 
is as follows: To attain to the highest musical culture and to cultivate 
those principles that embody true womanhood." 

The beloved Founders of the fraternity have seen the little group so 
precious to their own undergraduate days grow into an organization of 
power and scope; they have seen duplicated, thousands of times, the 
joy and development that come to young women from congenial com- 
panionship, loyal cooperation, and high ideals. Fraternity has been made 
possible to other generations of college women by means of the agency 
that the forward-looking seven created in 1885. The main facts in the 
life of each Founder have been included in the chapter entitled, "Some 
Interesting Members." No more loyal and enthusiastic Alpha Chis 
may be found than they, who bore the first burden and experienced the 
first benefits of the fraternity. 

.y Google 

Beta Charter Members and 1nstallation_Officers 

FloriM DtStiidorf 



As is probably the case with all fraternities founded in the seventies 
or eighties, the early records of Alpha Chi Omega are rather meager; 
charter members did not realize to what proportions the organizations 
they were founding would grow in several college generations. The 
minutes of the meetings of the first few years although incomplete are 
intensely interesting and often quaint as compared with the records of 
recent sessions. Of some of the most significant of these early meetings, 
the minutes are quoted, entirely or in part; they tell vividly the story 
of those early business meetings which were held at least once a week, 
and often more frequently. Programs of a musical and literary nature 
were an important feature of these gatherings. 

De PauV) University, GreencaslU, Ind., October 15, 1885 
The Dean of the School of Music, Prof. James H. Howe . . . called together 
a few j'oung women students, for the purpose of forming a society for musical and social 
imfirovemcnt, and of assisting in the furtherance of the cause of Art. After naming 
several objects for which the proposed society might work and rehearsing their benefits, 
a committee was chosen to meet and to formulate a plan for future development. The 
committee chosen la consult with the dean comprised Misses Estelle Leonard, Bertha 
Deniston, Nellie Gamble, and Amy DuBois. Miss Estelle Leonard was chosen president 
of the proposed society and Bertha Deniston, secretary. This committee was ordered 
to meet on Monday evening at six o'clock. The meeting adjourned to October 22, at 
eight o'clock. Bertha Deniston, Secretary. 

De Pauw University, October J9, ISS5 
Report of the Formulating Commillee 
r f_Meeting was called to order by President Estelle Leonard, Misses Bertha Deniston, 
Amy Du Bois, Nellie Gamble, and Professor Howe being present. Since the meeting 
of Thursday, October 15, 1885, members of the committee met together and talked over 
the subject of the proposed society, what it should embrace, the needs of such a society, 
and how the work should be carried on. It was voted that a Greek society be formed 
similar jii character to the Greek fraternities of the College of Liberal Arts, Mr. J. G. 
Campbell (a member of such a fraternity) was called in to give the general information 
in regard to the management of fraternities. Mr. Campbell was asked to formulate a 
constitution and by-laws for the proposed fraternity, to be handed in at the next meet- 
ing. A vote of thanks was tendered to him for his kindness. Additions were made to the 
list of officers: Miss Amy Du Bois was elected treasurer, Miss Nellie Gamble, corres- 
ponding secretary. The name "Alpha Chi Omega," was presented and adopted. The 
colors chosen to represent the fraternity were red and bronxe green. As there was no 
further business requiring attention, a motion to adjourn was in order, which waa 
carried. Bertha Deniston, Secretary. 


16 HisTOKY OF Alpha Chi Ohbga pKATERNrry 

Adoption of Ike Constitution, Decembers, I8S5 
An irregular meeting was held and was called to order by the president. Miss Fuqua, 
the following members being present: Bertha Deniston, Nellie Gamble, Rose Meredith, 
Ella Farthing, Estelle Leonard, Bessie Grooms, and Ollie Burnett. The president made 
a few remarks aa to the reason o( the meeting. As the secretary was absent, the presi- 
dent appointed Miss Burnett to take her place. The secretary then read the constitu- 
tion which was accepted. The next question brought before the house was in r^ard to 
the concert, and the secretary read the prc^am; but as several of the members were to 
leave soon, it was decided to postpone the concert until the middle of the next term, when 
every member was to take part. Next the De Pawn Monthly was brought forward, and 
the article which appeared in regard to the Fraternity was read by the secretary and dis- 
cussed for a few minutes. Then it was decided to have it corrected in the next copy. 
The president then directed Miss Grooms, the corresponding secretary, to bring before 
the next meeting the letter she had been directed to write to a young woman in Kansas 
in regard to the starting of a Sister Chapter. Next in order was a motion to adjourn 
which was carried. Amy Du Bois, Secretary. 

ConililulioH Rewrittett, February 5, IS86 
Next in order the president, Estelle Leonard, appointed Suda West and Florence 
Thompson to rewrite the constitution and the form of initiation to be read at the next 
meeting. A motion was then put before the house that Florence Thompson write the 
words for a fraternity song and Estelle Leonard write the music. The motion was 
carried. Amy Du Bois, Secretary. 

Opening Ceremony, February II, ISS6 
Meeting was called to order by the president, Nellie Gamble. The roll was called 
and the following members were present. . . 1'he minutes of the previous meeting 
were read and approved, after which a motion was made to have a regular form with 
which to begin the meetings, the form suggested comprising singing, scripture reading, 
and prayer. The motion was carried. Amy Du Bois, Secretary. 

First FraUrnity Song, February 26, 1886 
The new fraternity song which two of the members had been appointed to write, 
was then presented and accepted. Then there arose some discussion in regard to a 
name for the song and it was decided to call it Alpha Prima. Another song, the 
words of which were written by Mr. Campbell and the music by Mr. Howe, was then 
brought forward, A my Du Bois, Secretary. 

Seviied ComlUution Adopted, April P, ISS6 
The constitution having been rewritten was now read and adopted. The by-laws 
were also adopted unanimously. Estelle Leonard, Secretary. 

Initiation of Madame Julia Rivi-King, April 23, 1886 
The usual order of the meeting was changed and a discussion held regarding the 
admittance to the fraternity of Mme. Rivf-King, America's famous pianist. Having 
signified to Professor Howe her willingness to be one of us, on the same afternoon 
Mme. Riv6-King was consulted in regard to her initiation. As she was to give a concert 
that evening in Meharry Hall, it wa* thought best to have a brief initiatory service 
immediately afterward, if agreeable to her. Estelle Leonard, Secretary, 








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Charter Members of Gamma, IS90 

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Lottie StiH Cuptt Juwt Muihill Wdlv 

Charter Members of Delta, 1891 

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Ola Bredin Rnbinxin 


20 HisTOKY OF Alfba Cbi Omega FRATERNmr 

Report of the First Year of Ike Alpha Chi Omiga FTaUrnUy 
The Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity was founded October 15, 1885, at the School of 
Music, Greencastle, Indiana, by Prof. James H. Howe, Dean of the School. James G. 
Campbell should be mentioned for the assistance and suggestions which he gave. The 
object of this fraternity is as follows: "To attain to the highest musical culture and 
to cultivate those principles that embody true womanhood." Seven charter members 
were chosen: Estelle Leonard, Anna Allen, Amy Du Bois, Bessie Grooms, Olive Burnett, 
Bertha Deniston, Nellie Gamble. Twenty-three meetings were held during the year. 
Programs were given at ten meetings. Six were called business meetings; the remaining 
seven were partly business meetings and some had no programs through carelessness. 
The subjects discussed were Beethoven, Mendlessohn, Hayden, Neilson, Lind, Patti. 
Several miscellaneous programs were given. 

Theyearwasaprosperousone;commencingwithsevenmembers, at thecloseof the 
year the fraternity numbered twenty-two. But one public entertainment was given 
during the year, a Eo:r*e musicale in Music Hall which was largely attended by the 
music lovers of the city and which was a credit to the fraternity. 

Extension Plans, Saturday Evening, April Z3, 1887 
The business for the evening was to revise the constitution and to hear the report 
from Mr. LaRash, of Northwestern University, who is willing to help us form a chapter 
there and who has sent us the names of several young women music students there. 
Discussion. Motion carried that these young ladies be written to; also discussion of 
dues of new chapters and cost of charter. Suggested by Miss Jones that |, ... be 
fixed as the price of our charter. Motion to that effect carried. Motion carried that 
this note be put into the constitution. Motion carried that the (. . . . go into the treas- 
ury of the Mother Chapter, subject to her judgment and inclination. Discussion whether 
to have a limited number of charter members or not to have a limited number. Decided 
to have not more than seven charter members. 

Discussion as to who of the girls shall be sent to represent our fraternity at Evans- 
ton. Committee consisting of Misses Jones and Leonard, appointed to prepare a 
charter, said charter to be submitted to the criticism of the fraternity the next Friday 

Programs read by the chairman of that committee. Approved. Decided to have 
fraternity picture taken next Friday at one o'clock p. m. 

(The minutes of meetings previous to May 6 show that correspond- 
ence had been carried on for some time with students at Albion College 
relative to the establishment there of a chapter of Alpha Chi Omega.) 

Beta Chapter, Friday, May 6, 1887 
A letter read from Albion, Michigan, saying they were ready for us to orgianize 
a chapter there, having five charter members waiting. Reading of the charters, two of 
them having been prepared; one by Miss Jones, one by Miss Leonard. No decision 
made. To be decided next meeting. 

Friday. May 13, JSS7 
The program for this evening and next meeting withdrawn. Reading of charter. 
Discussion. Mcived and seconded that Miss Jones revise the charter, adding the words, 
"the right to withdraw the charter." Letter read from Albion. Motion carried that 
Miss Jones and Miss Allen visit Albion, Thursday, May 26, .1887. Decided to hold 
fraternity meeting Friday and Saturday evenings next week. Misses Berry and Wilson 
appointed to look at books suitable to contain the constitution. 


MissDeniatonappointed to copy the constitution; Missjones, the songs; Miss Allen 
the music of our fraternity songa. 

Revision of Consliiulion, Salurday Nighl, May 21, 1SS7 

The fraternity resumed the revision of the constitution, going back to Article I, 
Section 3. Question: What shall be our open motto? Movedand carried that a motto' 
be presented by a committee of three to the fraternity next Monday evening at half- 
past six. Committee of three appointed for this purpose. Misses Meredith, Barry, and 
Jones. Motion carried that it shall require two-thirds vote of all the chapters to with- 
draw a charter. Reading of the charter prepared by Miss Jones. Discussion. Motion 
carried that the new charter members shall pledge themselves individually, to the chair- 
man of the committee, who visits them, to support faithfully their chapter of Alpha 
Chi Omega. 

Amendment to By-law f I is as follows; Ofncers shall be Installed at the first meet- 
ing of the next term according to the form adopted January 14, 1887. The motion 
carried that Sections 7 and 8 be struck out. 

Section*). Motion carried that thedutiesof the corresponding secretary be changed, 
part of the duties being transferred to the recording secretary. 

Slight changes made in Sections 15 and 17. Slight changes made in Section 1 of 
Article III. After motion that we meet Tuesday at seven p. m. to hear all reports, 

Opin Motlo—Bela Chapter. Tuesday. May 24, 1887, 7 p. m. 

Report from Miss llurnett in regard to the constitution book. Miss Barry bought 
It and Miss Burnett left it at an establishment to be stamped with A X ii in large form. 

Report from Motto Committee. Miss Jones said they had not decided on any one 
in particular, but would suggest a few to select from, as follows: "Strive for the highest." 
"Ye daughters of .Music, come up higher!" "Musical culture, first and last!" Discus- 
sion. Motto chosen, "Ve daughters of Music, come up higher!" Secretary Instructed 
to put this motto in its proper place in the constitution, which was done. Secretary also 
instructed to secure the Creek translation of this motto and to place it with the English 
in the constitution. 

Miss Denlston elected to be the second delegate to Albion on account of Miss 
Allen's not being able to go. Miss Burnett was appointed to copy the constitution In 
the place of Miss Ucniaton. Miss Meredith appointed to copy the songs. Decided to 
have a meeting to look over the constitution before the girls leave. Time set: Thursday 
evening at S o'clock. The girls leave at I n. m., Friday, May 27. Motion cirrled that 
a tine be required for absence on Thursday and have no meeting on Friday. 

By-laws taken up. Slight changes made in Section 1 of Article IV. A new section 
inserted after Section .1 of Article IV to this effect: "Non-aetlve members shall be 
allowed to attend all fraternity meetings when they so desire, but shall not be put on 
duty nor be subject to fines." 

Anewseciion was inserted after Section 5 of Article IV to this effect: "No member 
of this fraternity may sever her connection with this fraternity without an honorable 
dismissal or expulsion," 

Motion carried that Miss Shaffer purchase one-half dozen cards to be used as 
certificates of admission to our fraternity. 

Reading of Initiation Ceremony. Motion carried that the explanation of grip, 
knock, and whistle be added to the constitution, which was done. Motion carried that 
initiation ceremony be added to the constitution. 


32 History of Alph.^ Chi Ouega Fbaternity 

Report on Installalion of Beta ChapUr, Thursday, May 26. 1887 
Report of the organization of Beta. Chapter in Albion College in Michigan, where 
six girls were initiated as charter members. Miss Jones gave a detailed account of the 
committee's visit to Albion and Ann Arbor. They were charmed with our new sisters 
and much pleased with the women met in Ann Arbor, but owing to the peculiar relation- 
ship of theSchoolof Music to the college in that place, could not, un.ler our constitution, 
form a chapter. Report accepted. Motion carried to average the expense among the 

Scholarship Qualificalious, February Z, 1888 
Motion carried that hereafter no member be initiated without a certificate signed 
by the dean of the music school that said candidate t^ at least a regular freshman in 
the School of Music. 

Initiation of Mme. Fanny Bloomfield-Zeisler, March 28, 1888 
First meeting of term called to order by Miss Baker. Miss McReynolds inaugurated 
as president. Mme. Bloomlield having accepted our invitation to become an honorary 
member of the fraternity, it was decided to give her a reception on the occasion of her 
concert, April 3. Invitation Committee was appointed. 

The first chapter roll contains, besides the names of the seven charter 
members, those of the following early initiates: Leota Fuqua, Anna 
Ryan, Leah Walker, Rose Meredith, Ella Farthing, Minnie Shaffer, 
Suda West, Florence Thompson, and Mrs. Earp. 

A r^sum^ of the first three years of Alpha Chapter by Mary Janet 
Wilson, Secretary, is quoted herewith from The Lyre, Vol. 1, June, 1894: 

"The first year was one of enthusiastic work and at its close seventeen 
active members were registered, besides five teachers and artists who had 
been chosen as honorary members. A principal feature of the work had 
been the musical and literary programs given at the weekly meetings. 
The event of the year was the soiree musicale. The first songs, Dear 
to the Heart of Alphas, and Alpha Prima vi&tk written. 

Dean Howe honored us by dedicating his new System of Pianoforte 
Technique, to Alpha Chi Omega. 

At the beginning of the second year the attendance was considerably 
reduced, but it was soon increased by new members. The first anni- 
versary was celebrated at the home of Miss Anna Allen of Greencastle. 
This social event, and a reception which was given some weeks later, 
were occasions long to be remembered by Alphas. A feature of the work 
of the year was the preparation for extending the organization to other 
institutions. No small amount of time was consumed in discussing 
rules, forms of charter, and in devising plans for making the work interest- 
ing and effective at home, as well as for its extension. 

"Correspondence with students at Evanston seemed to promise the 
establishment of our Beta Chapter at Northwestern; but the fates had 
decreed otherwise. The correspondence with Evanston was still in 


Eably Ysar9 23 

progress, when we learned that a band of students at Albion College was 
awaiting oi^nization. Delegates were sent at once, and on June 4, we 
held a jubilee meeting to celebrate the establishment of Beta Chapter of 
the Sorority. 

"It is not my purpose to prolong this short history of the Sorority 
through the remaining years of its existence. One of the most pleasant 
events of the third year was the initiation of Madame Fanny Bloomfield- 
Zeisler to honorary membership. The girls were all delighted with the 
genuine interest she took in their work. The reception given in her 
honor was in every way a success." 

The extension of a fraternity is a vital matter which requires a pro- 
gressive, yet conservative policy, well-balanced judgment, and broad, 
loyal interest on the part of those already within the fraternity, espedally 
of those in administrative ofHces. 

The matter of the extension of Alpha Chi Omega was definitely con- 
sidered when the fraternity was founded, and provision was made in the 
constitution for the establishment of sister chapters. According to the 
ruling adopted, the first three chapters were to be established by the 
consent of Alpha after which time, until the creation of the Grand Coun- 
cil, a two-thirds vote of the chapters was required in order to grant a 
charter, but with the advent of the governing body a new system was 
naturally adopted. 

From the time when the organization had been duly completed, the 
members of the mother chapter were alert for a good field for the Beta 
Chapter. After considerable investigation they had expected to establish 
the second ch^ter at Northwestern University, but other correspondence 
with students at Albion College soon developed to such an extent that 
Bertha Deniston and Mary Jones were sent to Albion, Michigan, where 
they installed Beta Chapter May 27, 1887. 

Mrs. Tennant (Mary Jones) writes of that installation: 

When we reached Albion, rhough we were tired from our journey, the girU met lu 
with great enthiuiasm and we were immediately conducted to the home of Emma Crit- 
tenden, where the initiation ceremony was held at once in order that the girls might 
that very evening "Hurprise everybody" by wearing Alpha Chi Omega ribbons. I have 
always felt that things were conducted with unseemly haste, but we were young and 
unsophisticated. That evening, immediately after the ceremony, we all attended a lai^ 
college reception where the initiates received the hearty congratulations of their friends. 
The next day we indulged in drives and in otlier pleasures. 

From that time the two chapters worked together with the idea of 
extension, and Beta reopened the correspondence with Professor Locke, 
of Northwestern University, which action resulted in the establishment of 
Gamma Chapter in that university November 12, 1890, by Alta Roberts, 

.y Go Ogle 

24 HisTOKT or Alpha Chi Omega Fkaternity 

A, and Jean Wliitcomb, 6. Of this installation Mary SatterAeld Osgood, 
r, writes: 

Early one cloudy morning in November, 1890, Jean Whitcomb, delegate from the 
Grand Chapter then at Albion, Michigan, arrived in Evanston, presumably as my guest. 

She was made welcome, and the lyre she had worn as a means o( recognition was 
immediately removed for Tear others might guess the secret of her mission before the 
consummation of our plans. Later, Alta Roberta of Alpha appeared on the scene. Word 
of their arrival was quickly passed among the girls, who had long been looking for- 
ward to this time, and all was suppressed excitement and expectation pending the 

This event for six of the girls took place on the evening of the same day, Saturday, 
November 12, 1S90, in the attic of Willard Hall. Miss Whitcomb and Miss Roberts 
made the occasion very impressive and beautiful. The seventh girl, Mary Stanford, 
sang regularly in a church in Racine, Wisconsin, and was necessarily out of town on 
Saturday evening, so on her return Monday morning, November 14, she, too, was 
initiated, and we six had the pleasure of participating in our first Alpha Chi Omega 
initiation. This initiation took place at her home, and thus was launched Gamma Chap- 
ter of Alpha Chi Omega. 

Wishing to make known our existence, and to make our first public appearance 
together, we went from Mary Stanford's home to the college, where we attended noon- 
day chapel in a body. Our coming created sufficient stir to assure us our secret had not 
until now become known. 

In the evening Mrs. Stanford, who was always our beloved and confidential friend, 
made us welcome guests at her beautiful home on Lake Avenue, where, in honor of 
our new organization, and as a surprise to Mary, she gave us our initial banquet. It 
was a beautiful and happy affair. Marguerites and smilax and the colors scarlet and 
olive green, decorated the table. The evening was delightfully spent with music and 

Gamma immediately shared the responsibility of extension work by 
suggesting, within a month after her installation, Allegheny College, 
Meadville, Pa., as a prospective home for a chapter of Alpha Chi Omega. 
The investigation was carried on by Mary Satterfield, r, through corre- 
spondence with her cousins, Zannie and Elizabeth Tate, both of whom 
were students in Allegheny College, with the result that Delta Chapter 
was installed in Allegheny College, January 29, 1891, by Libbie Price, A, 
and Mary Satterfield, T. The birth of Delta Chapter is thus described by 
Antionette Snyder Brown: 

The real story of Delta Chapter of Alpha Chi Omega had its setting in the old 
college town of Meadville, Pennsylvania, and dates from a meeting of musical students 
in January, 1891, at the home of Zannie and Elizabeth Tate to meet Libbie Price and 
Mary Satterfield. 

It is not to he supposed that this meeting was entirely impromptu. It had been 
known for a long time among those who formed this inner circle that fateful letter? 
had been passing between Miss Tate and Miss Satterfield; and mysterious, quiet dia- 
cusaions had been going on among the members of this group, but no hint of what it 
meant had filtered to the outer world. 

Miss Prict and Miss Satterfield were both charming girls, and we who were invited 
to meet them seemed to pass their inspection. On that very morning, in a gracious 


Establishment of Delta Chapter 25 

and dEgnified way, we seven girls were initiated into the mysteries of Alpha Cl)l Omega, 
and Delta Chapter began its eventful life. 

After the ceremony, a delightful luncheon was served by the Misses Tate, the first 
of many Alpha Chi functions in their ho.-pitable home. It then remained to proclaim 
our existence to the other fraternities. The next morning, in a body, we attended 
chapel at Allegheny College. Whether we were to be received as Greeks; indeed, or 
were to be held aloof as a presumptuous lot of barbarians, we knew not. It proved, 
however, that the Greeks rose to the occasion and at once accepted us as a part of the 
Greek world. 

The establishment of Beta, Gamma, and Delta Chapters, only, are 
described here because they belong to practically the first five years of the 
life of Alpha Chi Omega. The establishment of the later chapters has 
been covered in the section of this book entitled, Present Scope. 

Digitized oy CiOOQIC 



In 1898 Alpha Chi Omega entered the University of Michigan, 
probably the strongest of the state universities at that time, both in its 
work for the women and for the men students. At the same time she 
stepped into a new phase of her life, into greater virility and power 
conunensurate with the prestige, scholarly attainments, generous equip- 
ment, and vigorous idealism of the western state university. Hencefor- 
ward, with but four exceptions (Syracuse, Pennsylvania, and Vermont 
Universities, and Brenau College) Alpha Chi Omega has placed new 
chapters only in the progressive educational institutions west of the 
Alleghanies, as follows: 

e, Michigan, 1898; I, Illinois, 1899; K, Wisconsin, 1903; A,. Syra- 
cuse, 1906; M, Simpson, N, Colorado, E, Nebraska, 1907; 0, Baker, 1908; 
n, California, 1909; P, Washington, 1910; 2, Iowa, 1911; T, Brenau, 
1912; T, Millikln, 1913; *, Kansas, 1914; X, Oregon State College, 1915; 
*, Oklahoma, fl, Washington State College, 1916; A B, Purdue, AT, New 
Mexico, AA, Cincinnati, AE, Pennsylvania, 1919; AZ, Washington (St. 
Louis), AH, Mount Union, 1920; Ae, Drake, AI, Vermont, A K, 
Oregon, and A A, Minnesota, 1921. 

As nothing in American political history parallels the tremendous 
development of the Mississippi Valley and its phenomenal effects upon 
national life, so nothing in American educational history equals the 
development and success of the western state institutions. And no 
chapter in the history of fraternities for women is so bright or so impor- 
tant as that which portrays their entrance and their happy growth in 
these universities and colleges. 

Out of 27 institutions entered by Alpha Chi Omega during the 
23 year period, 1898-1921, ten were state-supported universities. In 
the west (at Oberlin) co-education had been tested early and proved a 
success; Horace Mann's theory that the public should educate its young 
men and young women in the same institution to avoid diiplication*of 
expense, and to insure sufficiency of funds for development on a large 
scale, had been triumphantly tested, also, by the time that Alpha Chi 
Omega first entered a state university. Another thing smoothed the way 
for Alpha Chi Omega: traditions of masculine superiority and of skepti- 
cism concerning the mental capacity or the social desirability of college 
, had not entrenched themselves in these wide-awake western 


Expansion into State Universities 27 

institutions nearly as deeply as in the eastern universities for men. It was 
natural and sane, in the eyes of the West, to continue, during the few 
years of college education, the social relation that existed between the 
sexes in the public school, an association which would inevitably be 
renewed, at any rate, after college days. The rapid improvement of 
transportation facilities in the last quarter of the nineteenth century 
fortunately removed the pressure upon a young woman to study at an 
adjacent though inferior academy. It was no longer a hardship to travel 
to the seat of one's state university, nor an impossibility to visit one's 
home two or three times a year during holidays. 

Still another condition existed to contribute to the prosperity of the 
women's fraternities at the western colleges — the genuine need for just 
such organizations. The fraternity system had become recognized long 
before in college traditions, as the basis of the social life of leading college 
men. The men had grouped themselves pleasantly into fraternities and 
clubs. Their clubhouses were their living centers. The universities were 
too extensive and life in them too complex by the close of the nineteenth 
century, however, to permit the women to find their places readily and 
happily in the multitude of students. Social adjustments with both the 
men and the women students, as well as mental adjustments to the 
curriculum, required that women students should obtain the advice 
and close companionship of other and more experienced fellow-students. 
This boon could be secured only by selection and organization. Such 
selection is omnipresent in educational centers as in all human associa- 
tions. Exuberance of youthfulness, capacity for friendship and the need 
for it, and the limitations placed upon social intercourse by the exigencies 
of serious study make grouping into close intimacy desirable. 

Emphasized by the pathetic inadequacy of the dormitory equipment 
of most institutions, the benefits to be derived from oi^anized group life 
attracted many of the iinest women students into fraternity circles. 
The students' point of view in this matter was expressed clearly, years 
ago, by a young woman of one of the great universities, in The Lyre 
(Volume IX,page 123). "Thechapterhouse," saidshe, "with its abund- 
ance of character-developing discipline, is by far the most sheltered and 
desirable home for girts that there is at Illinois and many of the other 
universities where there are no dormitories for girls. I, who have lived 
in it as a sister, love it second only to my own home." Except for 
fraternities and clubs no such wholesome living conditions were possible, 
as late as 1916, for more than about eight and one-third per cent of the 
women at the following group of institutions; Syracuse University, Uni- 
versity of Iowa, University of Nebraska, Albion College, University of 
Illinois, Baker University, De Pauw University, University i>f California, 
University of Wisconsin, James Millikin University, and Simpson College. 


28 History of Alpha Chi Ouega FRATERNiry 

The University of California, for instance, with 2,500 women students in 
1916 had no university hall of residence; University of Illinois, with 
1,200 women, was planning its first dormitory, to accommodate 200. The 
University of Wisconsin, with from 1,500 to 2,000 women, had living 
accommodations for 266. Iowa, with about 1,000 women, could house 
170. Of the 11,500 women estimated in these twelve institutions in 1916, 
their Alma Maters found it possible to provide halls of residence for 
only 1 ,01 1 of them. These twelve colleges were selected as representative 
of hving conditions. Other universities possessed similarly inadequate 
housing for their" women students. Since 1916, some progress, though 
not marked, has been made in the erection of halls of residence for women. 

The time was ripe in every way for Alpha Chi Omega to enter the well- 
tested field of the western state university. The origin of Alpha Chi 
Omega had been in the Mississippi Valley, where her first three chapters 
had been placed in denominational colleges of high ideals and high 
standards — DePauw University, Albion College, and Northwestern 
University. She was already firmly entrenched in the region. From 
the Mississippi Valley she had extended to Pennsylvania; from Pennsyl- 
vania to CaHfornia; from California to Massachusetts; from Massachu- 
setts to Pennsylvania again, and thence back to the Mississippi Valley 
where the second chapter in the State of Michigan was installed at the 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, on November 19, 1898. 

Because of the varied opportunities in state universities the members 
of the first three chapters therein, Theta, lota, and Kappa, carried greatly 
diversified courses — music, literary courses, library training, and 
scientific courses of several kinds. A large proportion of the members of 
Theta Chapter have been registered in the liberal arts departments. 
The university chapters, in the midst of college communities where the 
liberal arts received far greater emphasis and support than the fine arts, 
laid less stress upon musicianship than had the earlier chapters which 
had been located in colleges more distinctly cultural than the great 
universities. Literary and scientific interests were on a par, in the state 
university chapters, with the musical interests in academic work, and in 
frequent instances exceeded them; although all members of Alpha Chi 
Omega shared in an appreciation of music as an art. 

On the whole, the liberal and fine arts courses pursued by the 
chapters were harmoniously balanced during the period 1896-1906. In 
the period preceding, at least four of the seven chapters (Gamma, 
Delta, Epsilon, Zeta) maintained more interest in the study of music than 
in literature and science. In 1906 the pendulum had swung, it seems, 
to the other limit, and the major work of undergraduate members was 
decidedly in literature and science, rather than in the fine arts. 

In the following year (1899) the second chapter in the state of Illinois 


Expansion into State Univebsities 29 

was founded at the University of Illinois, Urbana. Alpha Chi Omega 
was the fourth women's fraternity to enter Illinois, having been pre- 
ceded by Kappa Alpha Theta, Pi Beta Phi, and Kappa Kappa Gamma. 
The chapter was installed at the home of the president of the univerMty 
whose daughter was a charter member of the group. Four years later 
the third of these greatest of state universities was entered with the 
installation of Kappa Chapter at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, 

We mentioned that in the decade, 1896-1906, the interests of 
chapters were balanced harmoniously between the liberal and the fine 
arts;but the parity was merely theoretical toward the close of the period. 
The tendency was unmistakably, even then, in favor of the liberal arts in 
every chapter except two, Gamma and Zeta. It was only with the exer- 
cise of considerable oflicial leniency and by continued flexibility in admin- 
istration that the division of active interests, long before the year 1906, 
could be pronounced an equipoise. There was no prejudice toward the 
study 'of music on the part of university women; the value and beauty of 
the arts in juxtaposition, however, was appreciated. Music students were 
rushed enthusiastically and as a matter of course by the various frater- 

The explanation of the decrease in members who studied music as a 
part of their university curriculum lies no doubt in the fact that little 
emphasis was placed on the music department by the university; state 
appropriations were devoted to more "useful" ends. 

in the convention of 1908, national action recognized that the con- 
stitution of the fraternity should be amended to meet more nearly the 
actual condition existing throughout the country. The requirement, 
consequently, was changed so that no longer two-thirds of the members 
of each chapter were expected either to be connected with the school of 
music or to have finished at some time in the past a definite amount of 
serious music study. In the future but half of the members, it was 
required, should be doing or should have completed at some time a certain 
amount of serious music study. Since and for some time preceding this 
legislation. Alpha Chi Omega has been predominately a liberal arts 
fraternity. In 1915 convention action, recognizing again by legislation 
the actual condition of the educational field, legislated the removal of 
all stated requirements as to division of membership between the liberal 
arts and the fine arts. 

Without the faintest danger of misunderstanding from any quarter 
as a result of the 1915 constitutional revision. Alpha Chi Omega calls 
herself a general fraternity with musical traditions. And so she should 
have been designated, in the light of the actual facts, from the date of her 



No group in America perhaps retained more notably the effects 
of the European upheaval than the institutions of higher learning. 
The demands put on the colleges by the war stretched their capacity 
and revealed their flexibility, unified their alumni, and proved again 
what every crisis must declare — the unparalleled advantage and value 
of the disciplined mind. Since the publication of the 1916 edition of the 
History of Alpha Chi Omega, phenomenal changes in the educational 
field have forced themselves on the attention of us all. Certain progress 
in our colleges then we must indicate, and certain effects of the war on 
student life must be noted and in a small way analyzed. 

Recent Development in the Educational Field 

The most obvious difference between the colleges and universities of 
the United States in 1920 and in 1914 lies in increased attendance, not- 
withstanding the increased cost of higher education. The average increase 
for all the colleges and universities in the Middle West, according to the 
Harvard Bulletin, stands at 90.8 per cent ; in the Far West, 1 26.2 per cent ; 
in co-educational colleges, 89.2 percent. Before the war, the averse 
rate of growth amounted to SO per cent in ten years. The state univer- 
sity responded most vigorously to the bounding demand to be educated, 
increasing from 1913 to 1920 to the extent of 98. S percent. Some 
educators have become alarmed at the enthusiasm of the American 
youth to go to college, and have asked the question: "Where shall we be 
in 1950?" A table published by the Literary Digest in October, 1920, 
notes the possibilities of growth. Among these colleges appear sixteen 
of particular interest to Alpha Chi Omega as homes of our chapters, and 
several others in which the fraternity is concerned as extension fields of 

A conservative estimate of the cost of a college education — a four- 
year course — is $4,000. Many students enter graduate study of some 
kind ; tn fact of the total number of the alumns of Barnard College almost 
half have pursued graduate or professional courses, so that the capital 
invested in the college students of today represents very large sums, 
and no doubt much sacrifice. Of this financial burden, however, one 
hears less at present than of the intolerable financial pressure on the 
colleges; and alumni have responded loyally and effectively to the call 
of their Alma Mater for more funds, in spectacular endowment cam- 
paigns. The aggregate amount sought in endowment drives at one 


Recent Developuent ih the Educational Field 


time was estimated at $180,000,000. Harvard, Yale, Smith, Wellesley 
and other eastern colleges have met the needs of their budgets by 
arduous campaigns. The equipment of the colleges and the salaries of 
the professors benefited thereby. A number of colleges in which Alpha 
Chi Omega is represented have endowment campaigns under way and 
in a few years more will be able to function more ably and to expand, as a 
Table 3.— Growth of 35 large universities, Public and Private, excluding summer and 
exUnsion studenls, I9I4~I9Z0, estimated for 1950. 

BawitupDn retunu fcoiB IIO collcfn ind univcniiiet talniUlutc for Public Savin, Juliut H. fiinta.diainnui 

Publicly Supported. 



Increase Over 

Number, in 










































































































University of California 

College of the City of New York 

University of Michigan 

University of Illinois 

University of Minnesota 

University of Wisconsin 

Ohio State University 

Univeraity of Washington 

University of Nebraska 

University of Louisiana 

University of Texas 

University of Missouri 

Pennsylvania State College 

Iowa State College 

University of Kansas 

University of Cincinnati 

Oregon State College 

KansasState College 

University of Oklahoma 

University of Colorado 

Washington State Collie 

Privately Supported. 








George Washington 

Southern California 


Johns Hopkins 



32 History of Alpha Chi Ouega^Fratbrnitv 

Increase of Emphasis on the Fine Arts 
Persons in touch with collegiate communities over a period of years, 
or who have been careful readers of The Lyre, must have observed with 
pleasure the growing emphasis in our colleges on dramatics and on the 
fine arts. As Alpha Chi Omega's interest covers aesthetic as well as 
liberal and scientific fields of development, we can hardly pass by this 
phase of college lite. 

California presents annually in the lovely Greek Theater an English 
Club play and the Senior Extravaganza; in the Faculty Glade on the 
campus is given annually the Parthenia, a masque, written, costumed, 
and staged by the women. From The Lyre and from experience Alpha 
Chis know that the most celebrated actors perform in the Greek Theater. 
Several of Pi's members have attained there distinction in acting and in 
play writing. Syracuse students possess a beautiful outdoor stage 
near the Castle for outdoor plays; Wisconsin's open-air theater built 
on the western slope of a hill is used for plays and for interpretive danc- 
ing entertainments. At Northwestern emphasis has always been placed 
on dramatics by fostering the efforts of the Campus Players, the Junior 
Players, the "Hermit and Crow" which produces annually an original 
musical comedy, and of the literary societies in their annual presentation 
of a Shakesperian play. The School of Oratory often presents plays. 
At Allegheny, under the direction of Prof. Baker of Harvard College, 
a great pageant was given in 1915 to celebrate the centenary of the 
college; two dramatic clubs, one composed of women and one of men, 
each present an annual play. At Southern California the College 
of Oratory stimulates and directs dramatic effort, and an honorary 
dramatic society, "Lance and Lute," fosters excellence in histrionic 
art, like the "Masques" at Michigan, the aim of which is to promote 
the writing and production of plays. Wisconsin supports three dra- 
matic societies, "Red Domino," "Twelfth Night," and "Edwin Booth;" 
these groups combine to give an annual production. Class plays 
also are important events at Wisconsin. "Boar's Head" is the dramatic 
society at Syracuse, and produces each year a play at one of the large 
theaters of the city; "Tambourine and Bones" gives successful musical 
comedies; the English Club also presents several short plays each year. 
The Kansas Dramatic Club has 80 to 90 members and presents two plays 
a year at the Bowensock Theatre and a series of one act plays at the 
Little Theater. 

The University Players Stock Company at Nebraska produces 
significant drama, one play each month. "Quill and Bauble," a woman's 
society at Pennsylvania, produces original plays written by under- 
graduate women; men's dramatic societies also flourish. The two 
dramatic societies of Purdue, the Little Theater Players and the Harle- 

.y Go Ogle 

Increase op Euphasis on the Fine Arts 33 

quin Club each give one production a year; the Junior Class play is 
given on the evening preceding the Junior prom. Opportunities for 
training in acting at Washington University, St. Louis, are offered by 
"Thyrsus," the dramatic club. The Little Theater Association at 
New Mexico presents good plays throughout the year, and a musical 
comedy written by a student adds to the wholesome recreation of the 
university. The Association consists of both town and college members; 
the dramatic club comprises students alone. Dramatics hold a very 
important place in New Mexico. Mt. Union gives several plays each 
year under the direction of the college Dramatic Club. Our mother 
chapter reports progress in raising funds at De Pauw for the erection of 
a Little Theater for college plays, of which "Duzer Du," the dramatic 
club, gives three or four a year. The next decade will probably see other 
western colleges follow in De Pauw's steps in erecting a home for college 

It might be mentioned that at Radcliffe a Little Theater was incor- 
porated in the design of Agassiz House (a hall for club meetings and 
social affairs of all kinds) and the stage has proved of greatest advantage 
in the development of college dramatics. The Radcliffe Theater serves 
both the women of the college and the men of Harvard who join in the 
"47 Workshop Club" to produce before an invited audience original 
plays of its members under the direction of Professor Baker. 

An accompanying table shows a meager outline of the emphasis the 
colleges place on the Fine Arts. Opinions as to the appropriateness of 
the Fine Arts on the campus vary as much as do sentiments regarding 
Engineering and Home Economics in the colleges. If higher institutions 
ought to be so planned that they fit young men and young women for life 
in America, as America is today, then the colleges have taken the proper 
steps in offering variety in opportunity to their registrants. Quite 
aside from the enormous increase in college attendance, we believe that, 
taking American colleges on the whole, greater specialization exists 
today than existed a decade ago. We have listened to diatribes against 
electives in college curricula ; now we hear anathemas cast at the graduate 
trained in applied science and not in abstract thought. For that reason 
we desire to show in these few pages that Alpha Chis today have at their 
doors thoroughly proficient and highly specialized instruction in the 
Fine Arts, as well as in Liberal Arts, in abstract or applied Science, or 
in professional courses in Liberal Arts or Science, such as law and medi- 
cine. Alpha Chis do not all study household arts or home economics 
today any more than they study exclusively languages, science, or social 
sciences; our young women respond also today to opportunities in the 
Fine Arts in the colleges, and the universities find themselves able to 
support not only courses, but entire departments and entire colleges in 


34 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

the Fine Arts. Surely we may feel unafraid that the American of tomorrow 
will think only of material things when we see some of today's students 
devoting all their time to the Fine Arts, many students devoting some 
of their college life to Fine Arts courses, and all students living in more 
or less close touch with the aesthetic during their college days. 

TaMe 4.—OpporlunUits for study of the Fine A rts mhtre A Ipka Chi Omega has chapters. 



IbotJo ducim. 
















DwtanpliieiiidPl«licArt.3Q0rtudwl.. Mwit Suhprf. 




Mace School: Onl«y Sebool: Coun» In FiH AcU 


Soutbm Ctlifor 


IHh ArU CoUeie: MtiKC. [>>iiittiw, Art. D»ri, 400 nuduM 


Wuliiii«(on Dniv. 

WfbinctoD Sut. 


American hfe needs a curriculum that develops strength in our 
students; but let us not forget that it needs also to develop beauty and 
cultivate for it genuine love and understanding. Consequently the 
thoughtful American may rejoice at California's 5,000 young men and 
women enrolled in 1920 in the university's Fine Arts courses; and in the 
enthusiastic attention accorded the study of the drama and the inter- 
pretation of plays— good plays, too, that appear on the campus. Creative 
ability receives encouragement in writing plays; histrionic talent has its 
opportunity for development; mental keenness, grace, poise, are culti- 


Inckease or Empbasis on the Fine Arts 35 

vated; wholeaome recreation is given to players and audience alike. 
Whatever may be the meaning of the widespread present interest in the 
drama throughout our colleges and of the intensive undet^raduate sup- 
port of dramatics and little theaters, assuredly the token is a good sign 
and worthy of being carried further into community life everywhere. 

The aesthetic awakens more and more interest in faculties as student 
response has made itself felt with unmistakeable force. If Table 4 is 
referred to again it will be seen that not only are Fine Arts courses given 
in nearly all of our colleges, but in very few of them also is aesthetic danc- 
ing not reported. Some committees failed to report on this point, so in 
1920 still other colleges doubtless offer such training. 

Among the colleges and universities giving Fine Arts work appear all 
classes of institutions, the small endowed college, the state college, the 
state university, the endowed university. A casual observation of the 
table published shows three methods of giving the instruction in Fine 
Arts: (1) By offering Fine Arts courses connected with the Arts and 
Science collie; (2) by developing a Fine Arts department; and (3) by 
establishing a separate Fine Arts college. From the colleges that Alpha 
Chis attend it may be of interest to select one institution representing 
each type, for the purpose of illustration. 

The Univereity of Wisconsin's P'inc Arts work has come to the 
attention of Alpha Chis frequently on account of the contribution made 
in its development by Gertrude Johnson, assistant professor in the De- 
partment of Speech, and Margaret H'Doubler, assistant professor in 
Physical Education, both Alpha Chi Omegas. Wisconsin has a small 
School of Music, in its beginning. Itssignificantinstructionin Fine Arts 
appeals in its Department of Speech and Department of Physical Educa- 
tion, both parts of the School of Education. The Department of Speech 
interests itselfeffectively in college dramatics, and the university students 
as well lay great emphasis on dramatics. Teachers from all parts of the 
country hasten to Wisconsin in thesummer to learn how to direct "ama- 
teur theatricals," and numbers of universities, colleges, high schools, and 
schools of expression have put into use Miss Johnson's books. Choosing 
a Play, and Modern Literature for Oral InUrpretation. 

Particularly well known throughout the United States is the aesthetic 
dancing of Wisconsin's department of Physical Education. Miss 
H'Doubler has originated and introduced a new type of dancing that is 
considered "more distinctly educational, developmental, and creative 
than any taught elsewhere in the country. . . .Professor H'Doubler has 
made her entire approach a matter of study and educational research. 
Far from killing the creative spirit, this has apparently fostered it, as 
witnessed by the results achieved with some 400 registered for dancing" 
in 1919. Many educators have gone to Wisconsin to visit Miss 


36 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

H'Doubler's classes and to study herwork; and she has beencalled upon 
frequently to demonstrate her methods at various universities, at State 
Teacher's Associations, and in city schools. The remarkable work in 
aesthetic dancing taught in Wisconsin's courses constitutes an art, and 
its influence has only begun to make itself felt. With its advent into 
secondary or elementary schools, one can scarcely venture to prophesy 
the beneficial effects on education, and on life. 

As the second type of instruction we may note the work of the Univer- 
sity of Iowa, where we find not only a Music School, well developed, and 
aesthetic dancing, but also an Art Department in the College of Arts and 
Sciences, as at Brenau and California. This department offers an A.B. 
degree with Art as a major subject; an A.M. degree is being planned for. 
The course comprises drawing from still life, cast drawing, and sketching, 
water color, oil, pastel work, mechanical drafting, design, with emphasis 
on commercial and poster design, painting and drawing from life, portrait 
painting, figure painting, and pictorial composition. A required course. 
Art Appreciation, is offered in the first and second years. Advanced 
work is offered in design, in composition, and in painting from life; this 
work receives university credit, and will count toward a subsequent and 
prospective master's degree in Art. A course in Home Economic Art 
is also offered, comprising the four-year course, drawing, painting, 
design, sketching and mechanical drafting, the course being especially 
fitted for teachers of home economics and domestic art. Miss Edna 
Patzig, Alpha Chi Omega, teaches this course, and the courses in me- 
chanical drafting. The University of Iowa offers, no doubt, other 
courses here and there of aesthetic value and opportunity. An Alpha 
Chi, for example, in 1920-1921, nears the completion of her work for the 
doctor's degree in the psychology of music, at Iowa, under the noted 
psychologist, Dean Seashore. 

For a fully developed College of Fine Arts representing separate 
schools a,nd colleges as found at Kansas, Millikin, Nebraska, Oklahoma, 
University of Washington, and Washington University (St. Louis) we 
may select the John Crouse College of Fine Arts at Syracuse. From its 
prominent position on the campus overlooking the city, the tall spires 
of the beautiful Fine Arts college can be seen for miles. A museum and 
an art gallery increase the usefulness of the college. Reg:ular courses of 
instruction lead to the bachelor's degree in Architecture, Painting, 
Music, Letters (Belles Lettres) and Oratory. The John Crouse College 
student receives no credit from the College of Arts and Sciences, but 
completes the work for a degree in Crouse College and receives the 
degree solely upon the recommendation of that college. On the other 
hand, students in other colleges receive no credit for work done at Crouse 
College, which is as entirely separate from the rest of the university 


Growth of Dbpastmekts or Applibd Science 37 

in that matter as if there were no connection with the university. The 
college had 400 regular students tn 1920 and nearly as many special 
students. Alpha Chi Omega occasionally selects young women of talent 
from this college; Ethel F. Hoffman, A, received during the war the 
award of the Hiram Gee fellowship in painting for study in Rome. 
The individuality of the various Fine Arts colleges differs, very probably, 
and no other college attended by our members resembles Crouse College 

From these three eitamples of instruction in Fine Arts in our colleges 
today may be gained perhaps a clearer conception of the high grade of 
purely cultural and artistic instruction available in our midst, serving 
in some degree as a counterpoise to the weight now being laid on technical 

Growth of Departments of Applied Science 

Another notable tendency in education occupies much attention in 
the public mind: The eagernesswith which the "practical" is being sought 
by college students. Women as well as men throng departments and 
schools of the university that promise them the mastery of some useful 
occupation as well as a fair degree of cultural background. Perhaps 
students who enroll for courses in foreign commerce, engineering, finance, 
corporation management, home economics, agriculture, may not know 
what path leads to a liberal education, and to good citizenship. Not 
so long ago the study of biology and most of the -ologies (except theology) 
was considered irreverent and unprofitable to him who would become a 
cultivated man. It may be that the students of our universities today 
who insist upon the training that makes possible an early adjustment 
after college to the conditions in which the rest of their brief life is to be 
spent — it may be that they see aright- The United States Commissioner 
of Education said in 1920 that leaders of educational thought have 
accepted the validity of the conservative claims of vocational education. 
"The task of public education in America," he says, "is to make young 
men and young women into intelligent, responsible, and efficient citi- 
zens." An indispensable part of this task he considers is to make them 
skilled in some line of economic endeavor. It would seem to be an 
adjustment of a wholesome sort. For many years past a small percentage 
of students have been able to gain at public expense the advanced train- 
ing requisite for the practice of the law, medicine, and such professions. 
To quote again Commissioner Claxton: "Some way must and will be 
found to train youth for economic independence and productivity 
without sacrifice of the essential general education requisite for respon- 
sible citizenship and the intelligent discharge of social duties." 

In about a third of the colleges in which Alpha Chi Omega has 
chapters, separate schools of home economics have been established, and 


38 HiSTOKY OF Alfba Chi Ouega Fratkinitv 

in many others, departments of domestic economy have been developed. 
Many Alpha Chis have thus gained excellent training in a useful and 
remunerative line of service; more Alpha Chis, however, are studying 
law a.nd medicine than ever before; some are ventuHng into the fascinat- 
ing fields of commerce, some into finance and business, lai^e numbers 
into social service, and yet we do not lack for artists nor for pedagogues 
in our ranks. May we not ascribe the emphasis on vocational courses 
to the needs of our present social life and to the exigencies of our economic 
conditions? An interesting "vocational survey of Alpha Chi Omega" 
in The Lyre for January, 1921, shows, in detail, that of 1,220 Alpha Chis 
who returned cards of inquiry, 366 follow teaching as a profession, 39 are 
artists, 178 follow other professions, and 542 describe themselves as 
"homemakers." Thus we find a well balanced alumnae membership. 

Position of Women on the Campus 
A casual survey of the position of women on the American campus 
shows a marked advance since the date of the founding of Alpha Chi 
Omega; it indicates also that entire equality of men and women exists 
there not yet. (See Table 6). The organization of women in intelligently 
directed and loyally supported fraternity chapters contributes directly to 
the improvement of the status of women ; intelligent participation in stu- 
dent government aids the cause ; the various excellent women's leagues that 
bind women together as a unit on certain basic questions and enable them 
to understand each other and to present a united front in matters bearing 
on their own welfare as women students — ^all these agencies training 
women in team work and giving them scope for the exercise of it — lead 
us nearer the goal of equal opportunity for men and women in education. 
In some universities, women were admitted on equal terms with men at 
the beginning, as may be seen in Tables 6 and 7, and in such cases less preju- 
dice developed to be later overcome. In Pennsylvania, however, the 
most extreme case of discrimination, women receive the bachelor's 
degree in Education only, although the outlook is bright for other degrees 
soon. In some universities where Alpha Chi has chapters, a tendency 
appears for the men to direct the most significant activities on the campus, 
as their brothers manipulate the wider field of government, without much 
reference to the women, and without cobperation with them. Here and 
there we note a college where "the best of everything" goes to the men 
as a matter of course, and the women receive what is left, particularly 
in gymnasium accommodations and privileges- Discriminations against 
women will appear no doubt as long as they exist in the outside world 
of affairs; but the college women who are winning a position on the 
campus more and more nearly approaching equality with college men 
are contributing more than they know to the improvement of the status 


Position o* Women on the Caupus 


of women in the professional and industrial vortd, for the college man of 
today who learns to recognize the real ability and force of women in 
college will accept them more readily tomorrow in the bu^ness field as a 
peer, not an inferior. 

Honorary Fraternities 
The rapid multiplication of honorary fraternities constitutes one of 
the most marked of the recent changes in the student field. Their very 
numbers might seem to defeat their purpose of stimulating fine scholar- 
ship and distinguished accomplishment; on the other hand, were we to 
compare the number of students competing in a large university for 
Theta Sigma Phi in 1921 with those competing in earlier days for Phi 

cMapUr,. (Sunt 

n otUeEei where Alpha CIn Omeea hai 




































































+ B K (Liheri 
I K (Sei«itLfic) 
♦ K ♦ (Iliirh r 

K A n (Pcdaioaic) 

e : ♦ (Tourn»li.lic— wo 

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42 History op Alpha Chi Omega F«ATEKNiry 

Beta Kappa, we might find that the competition relatively remains pretty 
brisk. Unless the honorary fraternity is to make of itself a less significant 
institution, however, very careful direction and correlation will be 
required in the next decade. The accompanying data (Table 5) presents 
the leading intercollegiate orders, in colleges where Alpha Chi Omeg:a has 
chapters, to which women are admitted. The table would have been 
almost endlessly extended by including honor societies not intercollegiate. 
The increase of honorary fraternities has been along the line of the 
growth of large technical schools such as journalism, commerce, educa- 
tion, home economics, although there also appears one for forensics, 
and one for music. These societies have appeared in answer to a real 
need for honorary societies to recognize superior excellence in fields not 
included by Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi, 

The Strength and Weakness of our Colleges 
One can not study the colleges where Alpha Chi Omega has placed 
her chapters without admiring their magnitude, the excellent work of their 
administrators and their faculties; the rare opportunities to survey the 
treasured wisdom and the attainments of the human race from the 
beginning; the delightful social life and the chance to know well many 
worth while men and women of one's own generation; the training in 
various sports accessible; the beautiful environment; and the aesthetic 
culture at hand in the fine arts courses and in the dramatic and musical 
events of the college. Little cause for wonder is there that so many 
thousands of American youth expect to go to college. 

In preparing this history of Alpha Chi Omega, the author invited each 
chapter to enumerate the strong points and the weak points of its institu- 
tion. One commentator sent the information that no weak points were 
obvious in that college; the others replied with definite analyses of their 
academic community. Their criticisms agree very well with those of 
expert educators, and indicate over-expansion, shortage of funds which 
means loss of able professors, too much inexperienced and immature 
, instruction, too great emphasis on practical subjects or the applied 
sciences, inadequate housing for women, and too little expert advice 
for new students in formulating their four-year plan. Some colleges 
employ a well-equipped woman whom they call the student adviser, 
and the result has been extremely successful; but the plan, so far as I 
know, has not extended to the colleges discussed in this book. The proper 
headship of fraternity and other student houses, of course, is an ever- 
present problem in all colleges. 

As alumnae, or as prospective alumnae, all members of Alpha Chi 
owe it to their Alma Mater to study its weakness as well as its strength, 
and to assist by criticism and support in improving it. For the v 


The Contribution o 

now in college, an intelligent understanding of the weak spots in her 
institution will enable her better to discriminate to her own advantf^e 
in selecting courses. (See Tables 6, 7, and 8). 


AHiuticii of Ai»ii' 
























of which Bucknell u 

wt, abforbtd hy Ihc A. C. A,. 

It is generally considered that the college student of the present 
asserts a good deal of freedom in disposing of creeds and religious for- 
mulae, with an air of nonchalance very alarming to the church and 
painful to the parent. This characteristic may be a wholesome sign, 
provided the student recognizes this freedom for what it really is, and 
continues to guard carefully her personal religion, as her individual 
anchor in a world that grows increasingly perturbed. The college 
student has the opportunity of a lifetime to test her own ideas of religion, 
through courses in science and in history, to follow the development and 
concepts of man from the beginning, and ultimately to discard what 


44 HisTORV OF Alpha Cri Ouega Fkatbbnity 

religious ideas she can not hold, and to treasure the more carefully the 
faith of a free mind. 

Marion L. Burton, president of the University of Michigan, innsts 
that the American college should lay more emphasis on accuracy and 
thoroughness in scholarship. Besides an understanding of international 
relationships, President Burton also points out the need, at the present 
critical situation in America, for the educated person to understand the 
labor movement and to be in a [>osition to interpret the various proposals 
for an industrial democracy, "The student of the new day," he says, 
"must be brought as fully and completely as possible into a sympathetic 
understanding and appreciation of the distinctive movements and regnant 
ideas of our time." The aim of the college should be to "help in the 
process of becoming virile, wholesome human beings, thoroughly alive 
and all aglow with the passion for service." 

The Contribution of the Fraternity to the College 

The fraternity system has developed with such a steady growth that 
today no coeducational institution seems complete without it. Faculties 
used to be skeptical as to the benefits to the college or the student of the 
large degree of associative life and self government that results from the 
presence of chapter houses as part of the college environment. These 
fundamental questions however have long since been answered unmis- 
takeably. The advantage of fraternities to the college can not be lost 
sight of — the added prestige brought by good national fraternities, the 
perpetual interest of alumnae in the college that the fraternity fosters, 
and the unfailing response of the fraternity groups to faculty dreams of 
progress for the institution. 

The main aspect of official sentiment, in the most distinguished 
sources, is approval and appreciation. Women's fraternities still 
meet occasionally in the dean of women from an Eastern woman's 
college a cool friend or an open antagonist; this objection to women's 
fraternities grows out of the limited experience of women in Eastern 
segregated colleges who have had no previous intimate knowledge 
of the complex life of the coeducational university. If she is open- 
minded the dean from the Eastern woman's college gradually relinquishes 
her purpose to remake the customs of the university into traditions 
similar to those of a woman's college, as she learns to know at first 
hand the extreme value of the very system that evolution has pro- 
vided for the university. The wise fraternity assists the dean in learning 
fraternities by helping her to a close acquaintance with the system, and 
by cooperating warmly in all feasible plans. 

The well governed fraternity aids systematically and strongly in the 
development and maintenance of high scholarship standards among its 


The Contribution of the Fratebnity to the Collbgb 4S 

members. Alpha Chi Omega's definite policy in this matter manifests 
itself in the following methods analyzed by Miss Griffith for an N. P. C. 
magazine : 

1. To require for initiation a scholarship grade equal to 80 per cent of perfect WQrk 
in 12 hours of college work, the grade being detennined for each institution in coopera- 
tion with college authorities. 

2. Not to repledge a pledge who fails to make her scholarship grade for two semes- 
ters, unless there are extenuating ciTcumstances. 

3. Not to initiate girls who are not taking a regular course leading to a d^ree or 
a regular course in fine arts. 

4. Not to initiate girls who come to college without any intention of remaining 
to receive degrees. 

5. Not to initiate a girl within six weelcs of the close of college. 

6. To secure scholarship grades of each member of the chapter from college authori- 
ties at least once each semester, these grades being furnished to the local alumna ad- 

7. To secure scholarship grades each fall for each member of the chapter on the 
N. P. C. scholarship blank, these grades being furnished the National Inspector. 

8. To present a scholarship cup to the chapter showing the greatest improvement 
each year. 

9. To encourage the giving of scholarship cups to individual members by the local 

10. To encourage study tables where delinquent members may be helped by members 
of the chapter or forced to study regular hours. 

1 1. To limit the number of college activities in which a member is eng^^ed if her 
scholarship is below par. 

In a few words the contribution of the fraternity to the college may 
be mentioned in outline as follows: It provides in chapter houses the 
socializing influence of college home life; it offers organized support of 
college activities, stimulus to scholarship, broadening outlook to its 
members by close association with a number of fellow students as well 
as a casual acquaintance with many; the fraternity also brings its 
members into touch with other colleges; it teaches the invaluable lesson 
of real cooperation, and enables members to adjust themselves more 
readily to any environment; it makes permanent and keeps fresh the 
interest of alumns in the college, a contribution that at no time in the 
history of colleges is so vitally important to their welfare as today. 

Lastly, and less obviously, the best of the traditions of the fraternity 
make for immensely better college citizenship. As the things of the spirit 
constitute the most important element in our lives and are the least dis- 
cussed, so with a college fraternity: Its high idealism, its democracy, its 
lessons of sympathy, patience, and loyalty to individual associates, its 
insistence on loyalty to the group, on guarding the good repute of the 
group, and on the necessity of making the very most of one's individual 
capacity — all these fine concepts properly cultivated in the fraternity 
chapters make the campus a better place in which to live. 

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A summary of the financial statements of the National Treasurer 
and of the chairman of the House-butlding Committee compiled in 
1921 shows that the wealth of the fraternity is t259,407 or about 18,000 per 
chapter. As chapters, however, are making energetic plans for the 
acquisition of dignified, comfortable chapter houses, and no reports are 
available on the possessions of Alpha Chapter and of chapters established 
after Alpha Eta, these figures will be subject to early and considerable 
revision. The following tabulated statistics denote the different aspects of 
the possessions of the fraternity. 

rabU —AMotysu of maieriat posstssiom of Alpha Chi Ome^. 
Properly Owned. 

Chapter bouses and lots: 

Alpha (no report) , 

Beta (Albion College) lodge 

Theta (University of Michigan) house and lot.. . 

Iota (University of Illinois) house and lot 

Kappa (University of Wisconsin) house and lot . . 

Lambda (Syracuse University) house and lot. . . . 

Omicron (Baker Univeraity) lot 

Pi (University of California) house and lot 

Phi (University of Kansas) lot 

Chi (Oregon State College) lot 

Omega (Washington State College) lot 

Furnishings of chapter houses and rooms 

Permanent Fundi. 

National Reserve Fund. . 
Lyre Reserve Funds .... 
Sch<danlup Fund 

Chapter House Funds. 


Alumns pledges (not owed for houses) 


Equipment of National OiEcera. . 

Total value of assets in funds, property, and equipment 
owned by Alpha Chi Om^a 

t 4,000 



Material Possessions op Alpha Chi Omega 47 

The main items of the above table allocate the principal material 
possession of Alpha Chi Omega to three forms: Permanent funds, prop- 
erty owned, and chapter building funds. 

The permanent funds are three : The Reserve Fund, The Lyre Reserve 
Fund, and the Scholarship Fund. All these funds have been established 
since 1910, The convention which celebrated the passing of the quarter 
century mark crystallized by legislation the long-felt desire of the 
fraternity for a scholarship fund to stimulate and reward scholarly attain- 
ments of members. The fund was well b^un, at this time, by pledges 
from individual members. At the next convention the committee to 
which the care of the new fund had been delegated recommended that 
its purpose be changed. In their opinion a general fund could be used 
with greater returns to the development of the fraternity as a whole than 
a scholarship fund, the returns from which were of individual character. 
A scholarship fund, it was suggested, might well be established later, 
perhaps by the following convention. 

The recommendation was adopted with enthusiasm, and the fraternity 
loyally supported the determination of the committee to reach the 
$5,000 mark by the time of the next convention (1915). The first few 
thousand dollars, the chairman of the committee, Mrs. Loud, predicted 
would be the most difRcutt part of the fund to raise. The 1921 report 
to the National Council showed over $15,000 in the fund. 

Individual pledges were made, and Mu Chapter offered her ^aie of 
the proceeds of a recital by Maud Powell to be given the next season as a 
specific pledge of coSperation. Thirteen of the active chapters gave one 
hundred dollars each; four gave fifty dollars or more; each of the twelve 
alumns chapters gave twenty-five dollars or more; eight alumnae clubs 
gave ten dollars each, and three gave smaller amounts. The calendars, 
symphony postcards, and convention labels were published for the 
benefit of the fund. Other sources were found for increasing the fund 
so that the goal set for 1915 convention was reached and passed. The 
report of the Reserve Fund Committee set the sum of $8,000 as the goal 
for the fund for the 1917 convention. This sum was reached and passed. 

The fund has been managed most ably by the chairman, Mrs. Loud, 
and has yielded a good rate of interest by investment. The amount of 
the fund has been at the disposal of the fraternity since the $5,000 was 
reached and ha^ been used carefully and wisely as loans to chapters for 
house building or for house furnishing. Fifteen chapters have been 
aided in some way by such loans at a reasonable rate of interest. The 
terms upon which the fund has made loans to chapters for building pur- 
poses are reasonable and encourage the chapters to enter upon the large 
task of house ownership. A more complete description of these terms 
witi be found in the chapter on House Ownership. 


48 History of Alpha Chi Ohbca Futbrnity 

The ultimate end of the Reserve Fund is for an endowment for the 
development of the fraternity ; the desire for a Scholarship Fund therefore 
was not abated, as its helpfulness to the individual member was thor- 
oughly understood. After the successful launching of the Reserve Fund 
the attention of the fraternity was turned toward the possibilities for 
the long desired Scholarship Fund. A committee which had been 
appointed previously recommended the establishment of such a fund 
to the 1915 Convention. Personal gifts were made by members of the 
convention. The adoption of a sole official jeweler resulted in a slight 
profit on every badge purchased and this amount, payable semi-annually, 
was turned into the Scholarship Fund. A portion of the proceeds 
from Alumnae Notes was appropriated likewise for the fund. After 
one year the Alumnae Association was enabled to make the following 
report of the Scholarship Fund receipts: 

Profits on sale of fraternity badges $228.00 

Proceeds from alumnx notes 228.22 

Daily Convention Transcript 42.36 

Personal Pledges 52.50 

Total fund in 1916 $551.08 

In 1921 the Scholarship Fund reached $6,000 and had granted 36 

The third of the permanent funds is in the form of an endowment for 
the magazine, The Lyre Reserve Fund. Its growth and purpose are 
described at length in the section concerning The Lyre and will not be 
repeated in this connection. Like the other funds it is the result of hard 
work and persistent economy, and Is pregnant with lai^e good to the 
fraternity in the future. 

The property owned by the fraternity is the main body of her wealth. 
Chapter house ownership began when the fraternity was eight years old. 
In 1895 Beta built the substantial brick lodge which she still uses for all 
fraternity purposes. _ The financial interests of all the other chapters 
were, for a period, directed toward house furnishing and general frater- 
nity responsibilities rather than toward house-building. In consequence, 
while the chapters accrued considerable wealth in possessions, not until 
1910 did they report house-building funds, and not until 1916 were any 
more chapters in actual possession of their own homes. 

At the present time, Theta (University of Michigan), Iota (Univer- 
sity of Illinois), Kappa (University of Wisconsin), Lambda (Syracuse 
University) and Pi (University of California) own comfortable and 
dignified homes in keeping with the needs of a fraternity. Other chapters, 
Phi (Kansas), Omicron (Baker) (now owns a small house). Alpha (De 
Pauw University), Epsilon (Southern California), Xi (University of Ne- 


Material Possessions of Alpha Chi Omega 


bra3ka),and Rho (University of Washington) are well on the road to house- 
ownership; several other chapters are working toward the same end. 

All chapters of Alpha Chi Omega reside in fraternity houses except 
in the cases (B, r. A, Z, H, AA, AB, AZ, A H), where chapter houses are 
debarred or are temporarily impracticable. All possess valuable furnish- 
ings and all will own their homes as soon as it is possible to do so. The 
large sums exacted for rental for fraternity houses makes ownership of 
homes a good investment as well as a great satisfaction. The matter has 
developed in an unhurried way so that the dangers might be avoided 
which attend hasty house-building, such as the deterioration of standards 
of membership, over-emphasis on material interest which gives a bad 
perspective in the college period, and the financial over-burdening of 
under graduates. Now that Alpha Chi Omega has reached the stage 
when house-ownership is a safe and sane proposition, the renting of 
fraternity houses is fast giving way to the purchase or the building of 
beautiful homes. 

Every chapter has its building fund which is increased annually by 
the proceeds of the Alumna Notes; in the few instances where chapter 
houses are not practicable, these funds are allowed to be appropriated for 
the equipment of the chapter's fraternity rooms. 

The financial projects of the future include a Memorial Hall in honor 
of the founders to be erected at Greencastle, Indiana, as a home for the 
mother chapter, and as a "treasure hall" for the archives of the fraternity ; 
ten new chapter houses; the increase of the endowment funds; the main- 
tenance of a fraternity vocational bureau ; and national altruistic work in 
the form of vocational scholarships for children. 

Table 10. — Mattrial possessions cf Iwelve women's fralernilUs. 


Total wealth. 


Date founded. 





1870 > 



50 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

By the preceding table, compiled from Baird's Manual for 1920, some 
idea of the relative ranking of Alpha Chi Omega in the subject of material 
possessions may be gained. The basis for Baird's hgures is different 
from and more restricted than that used in our compilation of the 
possessions of Alpha Chi Omega. Some relative conception, however, 
though imperfect, is thus to be attained of the self-respecting financial 
condition of Alpha Chi Omega. 

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Alpha Chi Omega has chapters in thirty-four carefully selected edu- 
cational institutions in America, well distributed over the continent. 

A list of all chapters (and alumna groups), with date of establish- 
ment, name of institution, and location follows. 

TabU ll—ColUge ckaplcrs of Alpha Chi Omega, with location, and dale of foundint- 

Date of found- 






De Pauw University 

Greencastle, Ind. 

Oct. IS, 1885 


Albion College 

Albion. Mich. 

May 27. 1887 


Northwestern University 

Evanston. 111. 

Nov. 14, 1890 


Allegheny College 

Meadville. Pa. 

Jan. 29. 1891 


University of Southern 

Los Angeles. Calif. 

June 16, 1895 


New England Conservatory 

of Music 
Bucknell University 

Boston, Mass. 

Dec. 15, 1895 


Lewisbut^, Pa. 

June 16, 1898 


University of Michigan 

Ann Arbor. Mich. 

Nov. 19, 1898 


University ol Illinois 

Urbana, III. 

Dec. 8. 1899 


University of Wisconsin 

Madison, Wis. 

Dec. 18. 1903 


Syracuse University 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

Dec. 18, 1906 


Simpson College 

May 13, 1907 


University of Colorado 

Boulder, Colo. 

Sept. 6, 1907 


University of Nebraska 

Lincoln, Neb. 

Nov., 1907 


Baker University 

Baldwin, Kans. 

Sept. 17. 1908 


University of California 

Berkeley, Calif. 

May 7, 1909 


University of Washington 

Seattle, Wash. 

Oct. 14, 1910 


University of Iowa 

Iowa City, Iowa 

June 10, 1911 


Brenau College 

Gainesville, Ga. 

Nov. 24, 1911 


James Millikin University 

Decatur, III. 

May 9, 1913 


University of Kansas 

Lawrence, Kans. 

Sept. IS, 1914 


Oregon Agricultural College 

Corvallis, Ore. 

Feb. 25, 1915 


University of Oklahoma 

Norman, Okla. 

Jan. 14, 1916 


Washington State College 

Pullman, Wash. 

Sept. 22, 1916 

Alpha Beta 

Purdue University 

La Fayette, Ind. 

Apr. 27, 1918 

Alpha Gamma 

University of New Mexico 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

June 6, 1918 

Alpha Delta 

University of Cincinnati 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Apr. 25, 1919 

Alpha Epsilon 

University of Pennsylvania 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

May 10, 1919 

Alpha Zeta 

Washington University 

St. Louis, Mo. 

June 7, 1920 

Alpha Eta 

Mt. Union College 

Alliance, Ohio 

June 11, 1920 

Alpha Theta 

Drake University 

Des Moines, Iowa 

June 10, 1921 

Alpha Iota 

University of Vermont 

Burlington, Vt. 

[une 14, 1921 

Alpha Kappa 

Jni versify of Oregon 

Eugene, Ore. 

June 23, 1921 

Alpha Lambda 

University of Minnesota 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Sept. 30, 1921 


Location of Okcakized Gboups 

Alumna chapters and clubs, location, and dale of/ounding. 

Chapter or Club. 


When founded. 


Alpha Alpha 

Chicago. III. 

May, 1906 

Beta Beta 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

January, 1906 (?) 

Gamma Gamma 

New York, N. Y. 

Delta Delta 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

September, 1908 

Epsilon Epsilon 

Detroit. Mich. 

May, 1909 


Boston, Mass. 

November, 1909 


Madison. Wis. 

June, 1911 

Theta Theta 

Berkeley, Cal. 

June. 1913 

Iota Iota 

Seattle, Wash. 

March, 1913 (?) 

Kappa fCappa 

Lincoln, Nebr. 

January, 1914 

Lambda Lambda 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

February, 1914 


Kansas City. Mo. 

September, 1914 


Denver, Colo. 

April, 1916 



Albion, Mich. 

May, 1914 


Alliance, Ohio 

September, 1920 

Ann Arbor 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Spring of 1915 


Atlanta, Ga. 

November. 1915 



August. 1920 


Boulder, Colo. 

December, 1915 


Buffalo, N. Y. 

March. 1917 


Cincinnati, Ohio 

May, 1919 


Cleveland, Ohio 

May, 1914 


Decatur, III. 

September, 1914 

Des Moines 

Des Moines, Iowa 

October, 1914 

District of Columbia 

Washington, D. C. 

April, 1915 

Eastern Oklahoma 

Muskogee. Okla. 


Evansville, Ind. 

October, 1920 


Fresno, Calif. 

April, 1921 


Galesburg, III. 

March, 1916 

Grays Harbor 

Aberdeen. Wash. 

January, 1917 


Greencastle, Ind. 

January. 1916 


Greensburg, Ind. 

November, 1915 


Indianola, Iowa 

November. 1916 

Iowa City 

Iowa City. Iowa 


Lawrence, Kans. 

April, 1919 


Meadville, Pa. 

March. 1915 


Milwaukee, Wis. 

September, 1915 


Monticello, Ind. 

January. 1921 

OkUhoma City 

Oklahoma City, OkU. 

June. 1921 

Oil City 

Oil City, Pa. 

November. 1915 


Omaha, Nebr. 

May. 1915 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

February, 1921 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

November. 19 IS 


Portland, Ore. 

April. 1915 


Pueblo, Colo. 

December, 1915 


HisTOKY OF Alpha Chi Omega Frateinitv 

Chapter w Club. 


When founded. 


Salem, Ore. 

February, 1921 

St. Louis 

St. Louis, Mo. 

September, 1914 


Spokane, Wash. 

January. 1921 


Syracuse, N. Y. 

May. 1920 

Terre Haute 

Terre Haute, Ind. 

February, 1916 


Davenport, Rock Island, 


Twin Cities 

St. Paul-MinneapolU 

October. 191 6 

Expansion has been conservative and unhurried. Rather than place 
chapters unwisely or prematurely, the fraternity has refused scores of in- 
vitations to enter institutions of which either the petitioning group or the 
curriculum did not meet the comprehensive requirements of the extension 
policy. At the 1919 Convention, for instance, there were reported, of 
thirty-four requests for chapters received since the 1915 Convention, but 
six new chapters established. Alpha Chi Omega, as a result of this con- 
servatism, has no defunct chapters; two chapters, Epsilon and Eta were 
inactive for a time, then reestablished. Internal oi^anization, moreover, 
is well ordered and effective, that the fraternity may be able to guide and 
develop, in the best possible manner, old and new chapters alike. In 
the fir^t thirty-one years of her life, the nomenclature of the under- 
graduate chapters of Alpha Chi Omega appropriated the whole of the 
Greek alphabet, and has since covered about twenty-five per cent of it 
on a second round, with double letters, as Alpha Beta, Alpha Gamma; 
yet we feel that she stands merely at the beginning of the greatest phase 
of her existence. 

Excellence in academic work has been stressed by the fraternity as of 
great importance. High scholarship has been sought for consistently. 
Many chapters rank first, second, and third in scholarship averages 
among the women's fraternities of their respective colleges. All chapters 
do creditable intellectual work as a rule; many achieve brilliant records. 
For names of the members of various chapters who have served as 
Council members, see Appendix. 

Alpha Chapter 

Alpha Chapter, located at De Pauw University. Greencastle, Indiana, 
was founded October IS, 1885. There were seven charter members: 
Anna Allen, Olive Burnett, Bertha Deniston, Amy DuBois, NeUie 
Gamble, Bessie Grooms, Estelle Leonard. Although she received a 
proposition to become a part of another national fraternity in 1889, 
Alpha bravely shouldered the heavy burdens of her position as the 
mother chapter of a new fraternity. Her history forseveral years is the 
history of the oi^anization. In 1889 Alpha entered the chapter house 
at 408 Elm Street which she still occupies. She was the third women's 


Alpha Cbaftbk SS 

fraternity to enter De Pauw, Kappa Alpha Theta having been founded 
there in 1870, and Kappa Kappa Gamma having pret^ed Alpha Chi 
Omega by ten years. The attainments of the individuals of Alpha and 
of other chapters may best be traced elsewhere in the records of dis- 
tii^:uished members. Alpha had a total membership of 440 in 1920. 
She has the record of entertaining the national conventions of 1891| 
1897, 1906, and shared in the entertainment of the 1919 Convention. 

Alpha's Chapter House, De Pauw Univeksity, Gkkencastle, Ind. 

Besides the early national officers in its roll, the chapter has two 
Province Presidents, Helen Wood Barnum and Beatrice Herron Brown. 
The chapter has entered on its large task and privilege of erecting a rae- 
moriat to the founders of the fraternity in the form of the Alpha Memorial 
house which will serve as a home for the chapter, as a safe and spacious 
hall for the fraternity archives, and also will contain a guest room for 
visiting Alpha Chis and officers. The National Chapter voted funds and 
support to the enterprise; the members of the Convention, as their tribute 
to the retiring national president decided to establish the Alta Allen Loud 
room and to offer every member of the fraternity the opportunity to 
cofiperate in expressing the fraternity's appreciation in this beautiful way 
to Mrs. Loud, who though not a founder of Alpha Chi Omega, stands out 
as its greatest builder. The finished house will cost $25,000. It is expected 
that the house will be erected in 1922. Founders' Day celebration, 


56 HisTORV OP Alpha Chi Ouega Frateknitv 

alumn^E reunion, and the state banquet at Indianapolis are annual Alpha 
festivities of importance. In 1921 Alpha Chapter published Volume I, 
Numberl.of the yl//>Aa//>/ia, an illustrated eight-page newspaper for the 
alumnx letter. Alpha Chapter and the fraternity at large have suffered 
great loss in the passing of two founders, Amy Du Bois Reith, in 1915, 
and Bessie Grooms Keenan, 1920; also of Maud Powell, 1920. 


Beta Chapter was established on May 27, 1887, by Mary Jones and 
Bertha Deniston from Alpha. The charter members were Flora Adgate, 
Emma Crittenden, Florinne Defendorf, Harriet Reynolds, Elizabeth 
Smith, and Jennie Worthington. The meetings of the chapter were 
held at the homes of members until September, 1888. when a hall on the 
third floor of one of the college buildings was granted to the chapter for 
a fraternity hall. This served as a meeting place until October, 1895, 
when a new five-room brick lodge was erected. This lodge is still owned 
and used by the chapter for fraternity functions and meetings. The 
college authorities prohibit fraternity women from living in chapter 

Beta's Lodge, Albion College, Albion, Michigan 

houses, and it is feared the chapter will never be permitted to own a 
house for living quarters. In 1887 Beta gave an entertainment with Pi 
Chapter of Kappa Alpha Theta. The next year but one, however, she 
began her series of annual concerts, which have been a unique feature in 
Beta's history. Until 1908 an admission fee was charged, and the pro- 
ceeds used for furnishings for the lodge. In 1915, by faculty consent, 
admission was asked again, for the benefit of the local Y. W. C. A., and 
in 1919 and 1920 for the support of the chapter's French orphan. Beta 
was the second fraternity to enter Albion College. 

.y Google 

Bkta Chapter 

Beatrice C. Austin, Beta Irene Ward Austin, 8e/<i 

Alpha Chi Motker and Daughlcr 

Beta's philanthropy for several years was directed partly toward 
the Starr Commonwealth, a home for so-called incorrigible boys.'^founded 

Ja Nette a. Cushuan, Beta and 
DOROTHV M. CusHMAN, Beta and Pi 
HORTBNSH 0S«UN MiLLER. B<to AND Alpha CH Mother and DaugkUt 

Alpha Cki Mother and Daughter 

Digitized oy CiOOQIC 

58 HisTORv or Alpha Chi Ouega FKATSunrr 

near Albion by Mr. and Mrs. Floyd A, Starr {Harriet Armstrong, B), and 
the little boys from this school were entertained at times on Hera 
Day; in co5peration with the Albion Alumnx Club, Beta contributes 
Hera Day offerings to the support of an Alpha Chi Omega room in the 
local hospital. The chapter has also taken an interest in local families 
that needed assistance and particularly in children from a settlement in 
the town. The unstinted war service of the chapter and of all groups 
will be found in detail in the chapter on war work, page 297. Beta Chapter 
has furnished three National Presidents, Ja Nette Allen Cushman, Kate 
Calkins Drake, and Alta Allen Loud, a National Inspector and National 
Panhellenic delegate, Nella Ramsdell Fall, a National Treasurer, Esther 
Barney WiJson, and two Province Presidents, Myrtle Hartswell Bow- 
man and Esther Barney Wilson, to the fraternity. The total member- 
ship was 285 in 1920. 


Gamma Chapter was established at Northwestern University, Evans- 
ton, Illinois, November 14, 1890, by Alta Roberts, A, and Jean Whitcomb, 
B. The charter members were Lizzine Stine, Mae Burdick, Mary 
Stanford, Mary Satterfield, Mary Walker, Lulu Piatt, and Jeannette 
Marshall. Gamma, had initiated 235 members in 1920. Since no 
women's fraternity houses for many years were permitted at North- 
western, Gamma Chapter held the weekly meetings in different rooms 
in the Woman's Building until April 1, 1895, when a room was rented in 
the Hotel Monnett. For several years the chapter has had a room on 
the fourth floor of Willard Hall, where other fraternity rooms are likewise 
situated, A joint committee from Gamma and Alpha Alpha are laying 
careful plans for owning one of the women's fraternity houses that 
Northwestern University proposes to erect upon a quadrangle during 
the next five years. These houses will be practically uniform in design, 
and, it is said, will be "unsurpassed" in beauty and adequacy. Because 
of the absence of women's fraternity houses at Northwestern, Gamma 
has been forced to look for social life in other ways. Rushing parties in 
the autumn, held at the homes of active and alumna members, supply 
a delightful bit of social life to the chapter as a whole. Another enjoyable 
time is assured Gamma's members every Friday afternoon when they 
gather at the home of some Alpha Chi Omega for a weekly "cozy" in 
the delightful home atmosphere which is so often lacking in a college 

The Gamma girls enjoy greatly the joint parties with Alpha Alpha, 
which take the form of get-togethers at the time of initiation, luncheons, 
and Christmas parties. A plan has been devised for getting the pledges 
acquainted with the men of the freshman class; this plan is to hold a 


Delta Chapter 59 

series of Sunday afternoon teas and to invite the freshmen of each 
fraternity in turn to spend Sunday afternoon with the pledges and a few 
active girls. A formal dance in the winter and an informal dance in the 
spring, to which representatives from the various women's fraternities 
are invited, are two of Gamma's more elaborate social events. 

The annual banquet given by the juniors of the chapter to the seniors 
has been a custom for many years, and the last fraternity meeting of the 
year is marked by the presentation of gifts to the seniors and of an 
espedal token to the outgoing president. The active members make it 
a custom to assist in every way possible at the annual picnic given for 
the children from Northwestern University Settlement. In 1920 two 
Gamma girls were in charge of the entire group of two hundred children, 
and were assisted by many Gamma members. The beauties of Lake 
Michigan are utilized by the chapter when an annual beach party is 
held on the shores of the lake. This party usually occurs after the 
five o'clock fraternity meeting — ^just when the lake is at its best. The 
usual beach supper is followed by songs of the fraternity and university. 

A recent custom which is becoming a chapter tradition is the engrav- 
ing upon an honor plaque of the name of the girl who has done most for 
the chapter during the year. Thus far (1920) Catherine MacPherson, 
Kathryn Purcell, and Elizabeth MacPherson, have received this distinc- 


Delta Chapter, Allegheny Collie, Meadville, Pennsylvania, was 
founded January 29, 1891, by Mary Satterfield, r, and Libbie Price, A. 
Mrs. Zannie Tate Osgood says: "I am sure no pHs since could have had 
better or happier times than we did. I was the first prl in Meadville 
to know about the founding of a new chapter of Alpha Chi Omega. My 
cousin, Mary Satterfield, r, wrote to me asking me to found a chapter 
at Allegheny College and the Meadville Conservatory of Music which 
were affiliated at that time." After the work of organization and initia* 
tion came the welcome from the other Greeks and the college who 
welcomed the new chapter at chapel with the Chautauqua salute, and 
later by receptions and teas. 

For the first two years the chapter held its meetings in a small room 
in the Conservatory building, but in 1894 the third floor of the same 
building was secured by the chapter and turned into a very unique room, 
which was occupied by the chapter for seven years. 

In the fait of 1901 a room was secured in the Mosier building on 
Chestnut Street, where the chapter met until 1906, when a suite of rooms 
wa» fitted up on Highland Avenue, and since the fall of 1908 the chapter 


fiO History of Alpha Chi Omega Fkatebnitv 

has occupied a beautiful suite of rooms in Hulings Hall. In her first 29 
years of existence Delta initiated 239 members. Delta carries out every 
year several social traditions. The birthday of the chapter as well as 
that of the national organization is celebrated. The chapter entertains 
at an informal spring party. A Christmas party is given in honor of the 
pledges each year before going home for the Christmas vacation. In 
philanthropic work, Delta observes Hera Day by visiting the Old Ladies' 
Home and the County Farm, and assists the Associated Charities 
financially. The girls take flowers to the hospitals and read to the 
patients. During commencement week all the fraternities have alumni 
banquets. In August a mid-vacation reunion of members has been 
generally held since 1907 at Conneaut Lake. 


Epsilon Chapter was established at the University of Southern 
California, Los Angeles, June 16, 189S, as a result of correspondence 
started through the efforts of two Sigma Chis, who recommended the 
university as a promising field for a chapter of Alpha Chi Omega and at 
the same time directed the members of a local club how to oi^anize and 
to petition for the national charter. The charter members were: Louise 
Davis, Lulu Johns, Cornelia Keep, Flora Parker, and Bertie Phelps. 
After 1898, the university, owing to financial difHculties, did not flourish 
for some years. Delta Gamma and Kappa Alpha Theta withdrew their 
charters. In 1898, Epsilon, after initiating fourteen members in the 
three years of her activity, became dormant, remaining so until the fall 
of 1905. During this time, however, meetings with musical and literary 
programs were held, and the town members did not drift apart. In 
October, 1905, several students, eager to organize a fraternity, consulted 
Dean Walter V. Skeele, who, knowing that Alpha Chi Omega had existed 
there, advised them to interview Louise Davis Van Cieve. The result 
was that after an investigation by the Grand Council, Epsilon Chapter 
was reestablished October 30, I90S, six alumns initiating the following 
members: Maude Hawley, Carrie McMillan, Carrie Trowbridge, Essie 
Neff, Erna Reese, and Flora Barron, the service being conducted by 
Mrs. Van Cleve. 

The chapter has flourished with the splendid development of the 
university. In 1909 Epsilon entered a chapter house which had always 
been looked forward to by her members. The enthusiasm which marked 
its establishment has never waned in spite of the difficulties which 
attend the maintenance of a chapter house in a city university. In 
1918, however, the chapter house with its accompanying pleasures was 
given up on account of the pressing times, and the money was devoted 


Epsilok Chapter <S1 

to worthy purposes. In the autumn of 1919 Epsilon again obtained a 
chapter house, the appreciation of which was greatly enhanced by the 
sacrifice of the year before. Epsilon's philanthropy consists of an annual 
contribution to the upkeep of the Alpha Chi Omega bed in the Children's 
Hospital, Christmas work for the needy, usually a gift to the Lark Ellen 
Home for poor boys, and varied minor services, such as the gift in 1017 
of jellies and jams to the Newsboy's Home. 

Epsilon Chapter House, 1920, University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles, California 

Chapter meetings are held every Monday night at seven-fifteen in 
the living-room of the chapter home. The first quarter hour of these 
meetings is devoted to a short talk given by a difi^erent member each week 
on national fraternity matters, or current topics of interest about the 
university. Epsilon makes it a custom to have as dinner guests two 
alumnx every other Monday night. On the first Sunday evening of the , 
month open house for the town girls is held. After pledging, which occurs 
two weeks after the opening of the semester, the pledges entertain the 


62 HiSTOKV OF Alpha Cai Ohbga FuTBRMnr 

active chapter in some clever and unique way. They also entertain 
the pledges of the other women's fraternities on the campus at tea. The 
chapter ^ves one large re<£ption to which the faculty and the fraternities 
on the campus are invited. Two formal and several informal dances are 
given throughout the year, and teas for special guests, mothers, and 
patronesses are also given. At Christmas time alumnae and active 
members give a shower for the house. The chapter is entertained each 
spring at a house party at the mountain cabin of one of the faculty 
members. The crowning social event of the year is the alumnae banquet 
usually given at one of the clubs of the city, to which come active and 
alumnae Alpha Chi Omegas from the city and its environs. As Los Ange- 
les is a very cosmopolitan city, as many as twenty chapters have been 
represented at the banquets. At this occa^on the seniors are presented 
with Alpha Chi Omega rings as a gift from the chapter. The membership 
of the diapter in 1920 totaled 164. Ann Shepaid has served as Province 


Zeta Chapter was installed in the New England Conservatory of 
Music, Boston, Massachusetts, December 15, 1895. The chapter was 
not a local, and the charter was obtained through the efforts of Barbsu-a 
Strickler, V, who was studying in the Conservatory at that time, and of 
Belle Sigoumey. The installing delegates were Mary Janet Wilson and 
Mildred Rutledge, both of Alpha. The charter members were Jessie 
Belle Wood, Nelle Durand Evans, Helen W. Lafiin, Bertha Thompson 
Buchanan, Elsie Louise Ellis, Susan Anne Lewis, and Belle Maurose 

During the year Zeta gives several formal and informal affairs, and 
numerous teas. In the autumn of each year a pledge "show" is given by 
members initiated at that time and in the preceding year. On the last 
Sunday of the approximate months of December, January, February, 
and March, concerts are given at Settlement house, at hospitals, and 
homes. In the spring a luncheon is given for the active and alumne 
members, and for patronesses. The chapter gives an annual public 
musical in Jordan Hall, the members taking entire charge. The faculty, 
other fraternities, and friends, are guests. Zeta has given to the frater- 
nity, among other national officers, two National Presidents, Evangeline 
Bridge Stevenson, and Gladys Livingston Graff; two National Editors, 
Edith Manchester, and Florence Reed Haseltine; and three Province 
Presidents, Amie McLeary, Mima Montgomery, and Gladys L. Graff. 

Hera Day is observed in the same way every year by Zeta Chapter. 
Each girl does entertaining at the Home for Aged Men and Women, at 


Eta CBArrsx 63 

the Children's Hospital, at the Seamans Friend Sodety, or at the North 
Bennett Street Settlement House. Usually two or more girls go together, 
perhaps one to sing, one to play the piano, and another to play some 

For the first time in its history, Zeta began in 1920 to work toward 
chapter house ownership. In 1920 Zeta had initiated 238 members. 
Her membership is remarkably cosmopolitan, being drawn from all 
sections of America. Three of her members — Sara Helen Littlejohn, 
1914, Martha Baird, 1917, and Naomi Bevard, 1919— have won the 
greatest honor in the conservatory, the award of the Mason Hamlin 
grand piano in a competitive concert. Many distinguished musicians, 
as will be seen later,have come from Zeta's ranks. Although she is the only 
chapter which is distinctly musical, Zeta's interests are unified with those 
of the other chapters in a truly fraternal spirit. Her distinguished service 
in the war reflected her enterprise and talent. 


Eta Chapter was established at Bucknell University, Lewisburg 
Pennsylvania, June 16, 1898, the ceremonies being conducted by Mildred 
. Rutledge, A. Unfortunately, the chapter had but a short existence owing 
to a faculty ruling for sophomore pledging, which was passed soon after 
Eta's installation and with which the new chapter found it difficult to 
comply. This ruling and other difficulties caused the chapter to become 
inactive June, 1899; in the hope that the chapter might be revived the 
charter was left until March, 1904, when it was recalled. Until 1921 the 
chapter was considered defunct, although the National Council followed 
the growth of the university with sincere desire to revive at some suitable 
time the lost Eta. in the year 1920 correspondence with surviving mem- 
bers of Eta chapter and with the dean of women at Bucknell resulted in 
visits of inspection by national officers at three different periods, and in 
petitions from two groups. After a year of striving a strong group of 
young women were granted the restoration of Eta's charter, and the 
chapter was reestablished on April 1, 1921. 

The members who received the charter in 1898 were: Bell Bartol, 
Amy Gilbert, Jessie Steiner, Mary Wood, Ida List. 

The chapter members of Eta re-installed, 1921 were: 

Anna R. Carey, Beatrice Fetterman, Matilda Bell, Clara Casner, 
Freda Mackereth, Ruth Brown, Eva Bunnell, Rhea Burgett, Lillian 
Den-, Hulda Heim, Reba Mackenthun, Carlotta Courad, Mildred 
Hayden, Elizabeth Hurst, Vivian Livingstone, Martha Shafer, Isaballe 

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64 History of Alpha Chi Oubga Fraternity 

theta chapter 
Theta Chapter was installed at the University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, November 19, 1898, through the influence of Hortense 
Osmun Miller, B, a resident of Ann Arbor. The installing delegates were 
Ethel Calkins, Jennie Dickinson.and Mrs. Miller, assisted by Ada Dickie, 
Una Baum, and Kate Calkins, all of Beta Chapter. The charter members 
were: Winifred Bartholomew, Lydia Condon, Alberta Daniels, Virginia 
Fiske, Flora Koch, Rachael McKensie, and Florence Spence, The 
total membership in 1920 was 212. In the fall of 1899 Theta occupied 
as her first home a house on Monroe Street. The beginning of the next 

I.IVINC-ROOM OF Theta Ch.vpteh Hovse 

year, a house was rented on Forest Avenue near the campus. A house 
was next taken on Wilmot Street, and in 1902 another change was made 
to Tappan Street, where the chapter remained only one year. In the 
fall of 1903 they moved back to Wilmot Street, where they remained 
until 1905. A delightful home was then secured on the corner of Law- 
rence and IngallsStreets, which was the home of the chapter until June, 
1916, when it was given up for the new house. Theta was a;nong the 
first chapters to erect a home of her own. The house is located on the 
corner of Cambridge Road and Olivia Avenue, one of the best and most 
beautiful residence sections in Ann Arbor. Theta's handsome brick 

.y Go Ogle 


66 HiSTOKV or Alpha Chi Oubca Fkatbsnitv 

house is well fitted for a fraternity home; all the rooms are of good size, 
with plenty of window space, meaning fresh atr and sunshine. The house 
has capacity for twenty-five girls, 

Theta holds meetings every Monday evening during the college year 
at 7:15 o'clock in the large chapter room in the basement of ti\e house. 
During the year Theta gives two formal and several informal affairs. 
Each autumn an informal dance is given in honor of the freshman mem- 
bers; in 1919 this dance took place on the afternoon of Thanksgiving Day. 
Theta also holds an annual Christmas party at which active members, 
alumnse, and children of alumnae are present. All dress as children 
and each receives a gift from the Christmas tree. One or more children 
of a poor family are clothed by the girls, and share the good time of the 
evening, and the gifts from the tree. Wednesday night of each week 
is known as faculty night, a few of the professors and their wives being 
entertained at dinner, thus giving the girls opportunity to know the 
(acuity outwde of the classroom. At Sunday night all pledges and 
members living outside the house enjoy a few hours with the girls. 
Besides teas and dances given in honor of alumnx and friends, each girl 
who wishes to announce her engagement gives an announcement dinner 
to the active members. In the new home there is a special room known 
as the "alumnce room" where Theta's alumnae are always welcome to 
spend a night with the house girls. A senior breakfast is held each year, 
often on the boulevard, and serves almost as a reunion between alumAse 
and active members. Songs are sung and the breakfast is cooked over 
a great bonfire. The seniors present the house with a gift, usually 
some suitable household article. Such a gift is also given by the newly 
initiated members each year. The chapter sends a spoon to each new 
Theta baby, as soon as the announcement is received. 

Theta observed Hera Day at one time by doing something for the 
poor children of the city and by giving a musical entertainment at, the 
Old Ladies' Home of Ann Arbor. For several years Theta girls assisted 
the Ladies' Hospital Association in their annual "Tag Day," the proceeds 
of which went toward the upkeep of the Children's Hospital. For two 
years, 1918-1920, Theta celebrated Hera Day by giving financial assist- 
ance to the work of Dr. Sai^ent in China. The chapter initiated 248 
members to 1920. 


Iota Chapter was installed at the University of Illinois, Urbana, 
Illinois, on December 8, 1899. On December 7 five delegates from Alpha 
— ^Wilhelmina Lank, Raebum Cowger, Gertrude Wamsley, Claudie Hill, 
and Mary Janet Wilson — came from De Pauw to install the new chapter. 
On that night a reception was held for them at the home of Charlotte L. 



68 History of Alpha Chi Ouega Fraternity 

Draper, whose father wag president of the university. The next night 
installation was held at the home of Mrs. Daniels. The charter members 
were: Alison Marlon Fernie, Kate Neal Kinley, Eunice Dean Daniels, 
Emma Quinby Fuller, Clara Gere, Charlotte L. Draper, Edna Louise 

For the first few years Iota did not have a house, but in 1902 a house 
was rented at 307J^ Green Street, Champaign. In the fall a move was 
made to 309 Green Street, and in 1904 the chapter again moved, this 
time to 507 Green Street, where it remained until 1906. A home was 
built in that year for the chapter at 309 E, John Street, Champaign, after 
the plans drawn by Imo Baker. The chapter occupied this house until 
the autumn of 1917, when the new house was ready for its occupants. 
Life in her beautiful new home seemed to stimulate lota's mental life, 
for immediate improvement in scholarship appeared, and continued. 
She rose to first place in the university in 1918 and has held hrst or second 
place, alternating each semester, to date of writing. lota's place on the 
campus is indicated by her holding at the same time in one year six 
presidencies of different campus organizations. The interests of lota's 
members are varied and far reaching, and in almost every activity the 
chapter has given leaders. Seven trophy cups adorning her mantle tell 
a pleasant story of triumphs. 

The social affairs vary from year to year. During the rushing season 
in the fall the chapter entertains every day, either at the chapter house 
or at the homes of town girls and patronesses. The university has 
limited evening social affairs for each organization to two a semester. 
A fall dance and a Christmas dance are usually held the first semester 
and a formal function in March or early April. "Open House" for men 
is held once each semester, the first one being the Sunday after pledge 
day. A formal senior banquet in the spring is given in honor of the 
seniors. Once a semester Iota entertains the other sororities and the 
faculty at tea, and almost every week she has patronesses, faculty, and 
friends as dinner guests. 

Iota Chapter edits an excellent chapter newspaper called the Eyeota 
which bears the words Published as best we can, whenever we can. Its 
purpose is to acquaint the alumnx with what the chapter is doing, and 
the only "subscription price is the interest and loyalty of the alumnae." 
This publication shows journalistic skill, dignity, cleverness and good 
spirit. It was not issued from 1917 to 1919, but publication was resumed 
in 1920, announced by a few stanzas in the following measure: 
Though many things these recent years 

Have been extinguished quite. 
It takes much more thaa carnal war 
To put me out of sight. 

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72 History of Alfha Cbi Ouega Frateknitv 

Every year Iota celebrates Hera Day in the way that seems most 
needed at the time. Hera Day, 1920, was observed by Iota girls by giving 
aid in whatever way they could to the poorest persons in Champaign and 
Urbana. The names of needy families were obtained from the United 
Charities. The girls took baskets of food and clothing to their homes 
and wherever it was possible, took their children to the "movies" and 
bought them candy and ice cream afterwards. Some of the families 
received aid at different times during the year from the girls. In past 
years the Cunningham home for orphans was the seat of many of lota's 
activities on March t. Girls who can not give personal service on 
Hera Day find Tt convenient to send a check to the Champ^gn United 
Charities. The chapter celebrates every birthday occurring during the 
college year among the active girls with a dinner accompanied by birth- 
day cake and wishes. Every year in the early part of May the girls in 
the activechapter breakfast at Crystal Lake. The usual picnic breakfast 
is enjoyed around a big bontire. An exciting ball game usually follows. 
Founders' Day is celebrated by entertaining resident alumnae at a formal 
banquet at the chapter house. The banquet is followed by a program 
planned to be of particular interest to the alumme. The alumnae in 1910 
presented the chapter with a scholarship cup upon which is engraved 
each year the name of the freshman who has the highest scholastic 
average. The total membership of Iota in 1920 was 21X. 

Kappa Chapter was established at Madison, Wisconsin, at the 
University of Wisconsin, on December 18, 1903, by Mabel Dunn, r. 
The charter members were: Elizabeth Patten, Edna Swenson, Leora 
Fryette, Julia McGrew, Elizabeth Davis, and Esther Concklin, For 
the first few years the chapter held its meetings at the homes of the 
members. In the fall of 1907 Kappa moved into its first fraternity 
house at 702 State Street, As this place did not prove satisfactory, the 
chapter moved into a desirable home at 430 Sterling Court, a short street 
near the campus, which contained the fraternity houses of five other 
women's fraternities. In 1916 the chapter purchased a dignified and 
spacious home at 146 I-angdon Street, a wide and prominent street 
"running parallel and immediate to the beautiful Lake Mendota." 
The grounds, extending to the shores of the lake, enhance greatly the 
attractiveness of Kappa's new home. The chapter has a large number of 
athletic honors, and has been much interested and consistently prominent 
in university dramatics. In June, 1912, Kappa was hostess to the 
national convention. Like most university chapters, Kappa has a well- 
regulated social life. There are usually seven dances given during 
the year, one of which is formal. A number of receptions and teas 
are given each year, including one for mothers, chaperones, and frater- 



74 HtsTOKT OP Alpha Chi Oueca FftATBSNiry 

nities. In the autumn open house is held in honor of the new girls, to 
which men from all the fraternities tn the university are invited. At 
Christmas time a party at the house for active members and town alumnie 
contributes to the cheer of the cheerless, for the gifts and the tree are 
carried off the next day by the Associated Charities, An annual reunion 
is held at commencement time. There are many Alpha Chi Omegas in 
Wisconsin, and the reunion becomes each year more of an event. On 
Monday evening pledges, town girls, and house residents gather for lunch 
and a social hour, after which both active members and pledges have 
their respective meetings. Hera Day has been celebrated by sending 
flowers to the hospitals in the city until 1915-16. During March and 
April of that year members of Kappa spent part of each Saturday after- 
noon at the day nursery teaching the poor children to sew. In the three 
years following, the chapter aided charity organizations in the city. In 
1920 Hera Day was observed by a gift of money for Near East Relief. 
Kappa Chapter has given the fraternity one National Council mem- 
ber, LiUian G. Zimmerman, who served as National Treasurer and 
National Alumnae Vice-President; and a Province President, Louise Hud- 
son. Kappa initiated 168 members during her first seventeen years of 


Lainbda Chapter was installed at Syracuse Univeraty, Syracuse, New 
York, December 18, 1906, by Mary Jones Tennant, Inspector. The 
charter members were: Olive C. Morris, Nellie Rogers Minott, Frances 
Louise Waldo, Jessie Beatrix Lansing, and Adelaide Durston, following 
the initiation of whom seven other girls were initiated. Lambda had 
added to the memt)ership of Alpha Chi Omega in 1920, 166 young women. 
A house was rented in September, 1907, at 606 Ostrom Avenue. May 1, 
1908, the chapter moved to 405 University Avenue. This house was 
occupied until September, 1911, when the chapter moved to 727 Univer- 
sity Avenue. From there they moved in 1915 to 402 Walnut Place. In 
1916 the plans of many months bore fruit in the purchase of a charming 
chapter home at 123 College Place in a good fraternity district. Lambda 
entertains each year with a formal dancing party. During the semester 
informal dances are given at the chapter house. Each class entertains 
the chapter annually with original plays or with indoor picnics. The 
seniors give a Christmas party. The juniors assume full charge of the 
alumnx banquet in June. Financial support has been given by the 
chapter to the university settlement which is doing effective work in 
Syracuse, Several members teach gymnasium, sewing, and cooking- 
classes in the settlement. Hera Day has been observed in a number of 

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76 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternitv 

ways. For several years about twenty-five or thirty children from the 
Onond^:a Orphans' Home between the ages of five and ten were invited 
to a party at the chapter house. The children played games and enjoyed 
a delightful supper after which they received favors. On leaving each 
one was given a red carnation. In 1920 Lambda gave a party for twenty- 
five girls at the State Institution for the Feeble-minded. In 1921 part of 
the chapter sewed for children in the hospital, sent them flowers, and 
entertained them. The rest of the chapter gave a party at the chapter 
house for forty orphan girls. 

Lambda has held a prominent place in athletics as well as in other 
university activities. The tennis championship of university women 
rested for several years in Lambda's ranks and was again won in 1920. 
Lambda, in the perfection of her alumnae organization, for a time led all 
other chapters. Lambda has contributed two National Council members 
to the fraternity: Mary Emma Griffith, National Secretary and National 
Secretary-Editor, and Myra H. Jones, National Treasurer and National 
Alumnae Vice-PrCMdent. ■ 


Mu Chapter of Alpha Chi Omega was organized as a local fraternity 
Alpha Alpha Gamma, in October, 1905. She petitioned for a charter of 
Alpha Chi Omega, which was granted in April, 1907. On May 13 Mu 
was installed by Alta Allen Loud, Grand President, and Marcia Clark 
Howell, Grand Vice-President, assisted by Elizabeth Patrick, P. 

Since women's fraternities have not been permitted to own fraternity 
houses at Simpson College, Mu Chapter so far owns no house but plans 
to buy or build as soon as feasible. For several years, however, a number 
of the girls filled all the rooms at the home of Mrs. S. A. Silliman, a 
mother of two of Mu's charter members, thus keeping closely associated 
with each other. During the war Mu rented the Alpha Tau Omega 
house, and since that time has continued to have a real chapter house. 

In the years that Mu has lived in Alpha Chi Omega, much has been 
accomplished and many college and national fraternity honors have come 
to her. Of her fifteen charter members — Florence A. Armstrong, Emma 
Jane Brown, Myrtle Bu.ssey, Ellen Conrey, Lena Dalrymple, Lora Hagler, 
Nell E. Harris, Carrie McFadon, Ethel MacFadon, Bessie Reed, Ada 
Schimelfenig, Margaret Schimelfenig, Eflfie Silliman, Mayme Silliman, 
and Lois Smith — three have won national fraternity distinction : Nell E. 
Harris, serving as Business Manager of The Lyre; Lois Smith Crann as 
Business Manager of The Lyre, National Inspector, and Chairman of 
National Panhellenic Congress; and Florence A. Armstrong, for nine 
years National Editor and also chairman of the Editors' Conference of the 
National Panhellenic Congress. 

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Mu Cbaptek }} 

Mu usually holds first rank at Simpson in scholarship, and high rank 
in all college activities — literary, athletic, forensic, religious, and social. 
She has developed a remarkable number of leaders in the chapter. Mu 
never fails to have outstanding girls in every college activity, particularly 
in literary, forensic, and musical fields. The social restrictions accom- 
panying the smaller denominational institutions intensify the efforts 
expended along intellectual and athletic lines. Several of the gradu- 
ates from Mu Chapter have fallowed graduate work at the large Middle 
Western universities and at universities and women's colleges in the 
East. The limited numbers — an average of 500 — make close acquaint- 
ance common on the campus. Social affairs are ingenious and recreative. 

Mu Chapter House, Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa 

Rushing parties, and an annual formal banquet, teas for various occa- 
sions, an annual Christmas party, and the traditional house party at the 
close of the college year are the important functions. In 1921 after 
Christmas vacation Mu seniors entertained all Simpson seniors at a 
much appreciated party. A high grade School of Music provides the 
chapter with an excellent opportunity for musical culture. Mu had 
initiated 157 members in 1920. 

Nu Chapter was installed at the University of Colorado, Boulder, 
Colorado, September 6, 1907, Mabel Harriet Siller, r, Grand Historian, 


78 History of Alpha Chi'Ohkga Fbatbsmitv 

acting as installing delegate after having made a previous investigation 
of the petitioners. The charter members were: Irene Hall, Ethel Brown, 
Jessie Rodgers, Frances Foote, Helen Rice, Willa Wales, Bertha Howard, 
Flora Goldsworthy, and Mollie Rank. Alpha Chi Omega was the 
fifth fraternity to enter the University of Colorado. From the beginning, 
Nu has lived in a chapter house having occupied several houses; her 
present home is at I058-I3th St. 

Hera Day is generally observed at Nu by the giving of clothing and 
food to some needy family. One year a ten-year old girl was brought 
to the chapter house and the girls devoted the day to the making of 

No Chapter House, University of Colorado, Boulder, Coloraix) 

woolen and gingham dresses for her. Fruit and money were sent to 
her invalid father. In 1920 two convalescent chairs were given to the 
Children's Ward in a hospital which was then being furnished. Each 
year some of the girls have visited the sick in various parts of the city. 
Nu Chapter is well represented in athletic, musical and social 
activities. She usually has a member on the Athletic Board. Attractive 
dances and teas, picnics in the picturesque mountains near Boulder, and 


XfCaAPTEfi 79 

a share in the annual university Y. M. C. A. and Y, W. C. A. fair consti' 
tute the most important part of Nu's social events. She has a keen 
interest in the activities of the institution, and has developed much 
along all lines during the thirteen years of her existence. She had 
initiated 128 members in 1920. 


Xi Chapter at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, was 
established Thanksgiving Day, 1907. Laura Howe, Z, National Treasurer 
and Mable Siller, National Historian, assisted by Mrs, P. C, Sommerville, 
r, and Grace Slaughter Gamble, r, installed the chapter. The eleven 
charter members. Vera Upton, Emma Farrow, Harriet Bardwell, May 

Xt Chaftbr House, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 

Bardwell, Lilah David, Beulah Goodson, Linna Timmerman, Nina 
Beaver, Alice Lesher, Irene Little and Beulah Buckley, met at the 
Lincoln Hotel, where the cerpmony took place. Panhellenic immediately 
invited the chapter to become a member of that body and later gave a 
dance in its honor. Including Alpha Chi Omega, Panhellenic was 
represented by nine national sororities at that time. There are now 
fourteen members. 

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80 History of Alpba Chi Ouega Frateknitv 

Xi Chapter has from the first taken a prominent place In university 
affairs. The chapter usually ranks either first, second, or third in scholar- 
ship among the women's fraternities in the university. It is nearly 
always represented on the Y. W. C. A. cabinet. Women's Self Governing 
Association, Senior Advisory Board, Student Council and Black Masque 
(Senior Honorary Society). In 1920-1921 all of the officers of the W. S. 
G. A. were elected by the student body from Xi Chapter of Alpha Chi 
Omega. Xi is also represented -as a rule in the Student Council, the 
Daily Nebraskan and Corn-Husker staffs, and in the May Queen crown- 
ing festivities on Ivy Day. 

Since 1909, the alumnx have had chaise of the banquet and it is now 
always understood that they preside over the occasion. It is usually 
held in May, and it is a time for alumns and actives to meet one another 
as well as a time for a happy reunion of old friends. The annual banquet 
serves to keep alive that interest and cooperation between alumnae and 
undergraduate members which is so necessary for the life of a chapter. 
In 1910-1911 TAe Lyre Loving Cup was conferred on Xi Chapter. Since 
1913, the home of Xi Chapter has been at 1410 Que Street and it will 
probably remain there until some time in the near future when the 
chapter hopes to build a chapter house of its own. Payments are already 
being made upon a lot for the house. Annually, Xi Chapter has a 
Christmas party for its own members, observes Mother's Day, has one 
formal and one informal party outside of the house, and the usual house 
parties ajid rushing parties in the autumn. Xi has contributed two 
Province Presidents to the fraternity, Alice Lesher Mauck and Dale 
Pugh Hascall. 178 members had been initiated to 1920. 


Omicron Chapter was installed September 17, 1908, at Baker Univer- 
sity, Baldwin, Kansas, being formed from a nineteen year old local 
organization, Nu Alpha. The investigation of the petitioners was 
conducted by Alta Allen Loud, Grand President. The installing dele- 
gates were Mary Jones Tennant, Inspector, and Kate Calkins, Beta, 
formerly Grand President. All the active girls of Nu Alpha were initi- 
ated on the evening of the I7th, together with several Nu Alpha alum- 
nae. The charter members were: Birdean Motter Ely, Marie Moorhead 
Ebright, Aletha Kelley, Laura Nicholson, Edna Pearce, Bonnidell 
Sisson, Minerva Bragg, Eula Smith, Grace Davenport, Edith Bideau, 
Zula Green, Stella Morton, Mae Dennis, Beulah Kinzer, Iva Riley 
Farrer, Alice Reid Bacon. 

Since 1909 Omicron lived in the same house, until in January, 1920, 
it was destroyed by fire. For the rest of the college year another house 



82 HiSTosv OF Alpba Chi Oubga FKATBtMiTv 

was rented. In the fall of 1920 Omicron moved into her own home, a 
small home which accommodates only nine ^rls. To house the other 
members of the chapter, another house nearby, "The Annex," was 
rented for the year. As soon as building conditions become more favor- 
able it is planned to remodel and enlarge Omicron's house. The manage- 
ment and financing of Omicron's house is in charge of a board of trustees 
chosen from the alumnae. 

University rules entitle each fraternity to two informal parties and 
one formal party during the college year. The Christmas party is held, 
according to tradition, on the first Tuesday evening after the return of 
the students from the holidays. The formal function is held in the spring. 
For mothers, patronesses, and friends, a Kensington is given. Omicron 
celebrates Hera Day by taking fruit and flowers to the sick and "shut- 
ins." In the fall of 19H Omicron received the Alpha Chi Omega Loving 
Cup for highest ranking in fraternity relations. Two of Omicron's 
charter members have served- the fraternity as national officers, Birdean 
Motter Ely, National Secretary, and Bonnidell Sisson Roberts, Province 
President. Omicron Chapter (1920) hasa total membership of 193. 


On May 7, 1909, at the University of California, Berkeley, California, 
La Solana House Club became Pi Chapter of Alpha Chi Omega. The 
installation was made by Mabel Harriet Siller, then Grand Historian, 
assisted by Carrie Trowbridge, andAnne Shepard, both of Epsilon, 
Delta Delta delegates. The inspection of the petitioners and of the field 
had been made by Alta Allen Loud, Grand President, assisted by resident 
alumnae. On May 7, the initiation ceremony took place, conducted by 
Miss Siller. In this she was assisted by the other installing delegates, and 
by Lida Bosler Hunter, A, Theo White, A, Lucretia Drown, B, and Nellie 
Green Wheeler, Olive Berryman, and Rowena Hall, E. On the afternoon 
of May 8, a reception was given for the faculty, and members of other 
fraternities, and in the everting the installation banquet was held in 
the chapter house. 

Pi Chapter had eighteen charter members — Beatrice Bocarde, Edith 
Brown; Dorothy Burdorf, Rue Clifford, Marguerite Creighton, Fern 
Enos, Ethel Louden Gillis, Marion Hitchcock, Byrd Howell, Leone 
Lane Kelley, Bess Kentner, Eda Long, Clare Norton, Gertrude Rice, 
Mary Stafford, Alice Streets, Elsie Williams, and Elizabeth Wright. 

During the first few years of the chapter's existence, the members 
lived at 1711 Euclid Avenue. In spite of various enlargements which 
were made later, the house proved to be entirely too small for the chap- 
ter's needs. In August, 1912, therefore, the chapter moved to a lai^ 


PiCH&PTBm 83 

frame house at 2421 Le Conte Avenue, about five minutes walk from the 
college campus. As the chapter grew, the Le Conte Avenue house 
became too small, and a beautiful private home, set in extensive grounds, 
was purchased and remodelled for Pi's own chapter house at 2627 
Virginia Street. The fondest, and at times it seemed the remotest, hope 
of the girls was realized, when in August, 1920, they settled into their 
own home, with rents and leases things of the past. The new home 
is far-superior to anything that the chapter could have built, and the 

Uppek Section of Pi Chapter's Garden 

two beautiful gardens, one formal and one natural, are things that took 
the former owners years of individual care and thought to develop. 

Pi Chapter's entertaining is now one of its greatest pleasures, and 
many delightful parties, as well as the annual formal tea, are held in the 
garden. As for the Japanese Tea, without which the college year would 
be incomplete, it could have no more perfect setting than this same 
garden, which is electric lighted, and furnished with five charming old 
iron Japanese lanterns, hidden among the ferns. The setting for the 
three or four dances of the year also could not be improved upon as the 


U History of Alpha Chi Oueca FsATEKNiry 

house is so arranged that it is possible to dance over the entire lower 
floor of the house and out onto the wide veranda. 

Pi's altruistic work is varied. The chapter adopted two French 
war orphans, assisted the Travelers' Aid, and provided a college home 
in the chapter house for two French honor students holding Carnegie 
Foundation Scholarships at the University of California. The chapter 
gives service or financial aid as need arises in the fraternity or the univer- 
sity from time to time. For three successive years Pi entertained 
children from an orphanage in Oakland on Hera Day, and one year 
made toys and scrapbooks for a day nursery. Other delightful deeds 
mark the arrival of March 1 in Berkeley. Perhaps one of the things 
which gave Pi girls most pleasure was making possible the ultimate 
cure of a little cripple whose parents were unable to supply the necessary 
money. Pi Chapter has provided the fraternity with a National Deputy 
Inspector, Leigh Stafford Foulds. The total membership of Pi Chapter 
in 1920 was 173. 


On October 14, 1910, Delta Nu was installed as Rho Chapter of 
Alpha Chi Omega at the chapter house. The installation ceremonies 
were conducted by Alta Allen L.oud assisted by Ada Dickie Hamblin, B; 

Rho Chaptbr's Living-room 

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Rho Chaptbb S5 

Louise Stone, Z; Bess Kentner, 11; Gaea Wood, T; Pauline Drake, I; 
Ernestine Heslop, N; Susan Hovey Fitch, 9; and Florence Clemens 
Kemp, e. 

The charter members were: Vera Cogswell; Edith Greenberg; Mar- 
jorie Harkins; Hazel Hawks; Edith Hindman; Ethel Jones; Theodora 
Maltbie; Gertrude Niedergesaess ; Gretchen O'Donnell; Emily Rogers, 
Jennie Rogers; and Bess Storch. 

Rho's first chapter house was a large three-storied structure of brick 
and Spanish plaster, planned and built for the chapter just before their 

Rho Chapter House, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

installation into the fraternity. In 1919 the chapter moved into a new 
home at 4543-18th Avenue Northeast, which the chapter planned and 
which is considered one of the most attractively furnished fraternity 
houses at Washington. It is a large three-storied wooden structure. 
The chapter is making plans to own its home. 

One formal and three informal dancing parties are given during the 
college year. It is also a custom for the chapter to give an informal 
dancing party (or the pledges in the fall and also for the freshmen of 



the house to give a dance for the rest of the chapter during the winter 
quarter. The social affairs held in the autumn are devoted to rushing 
parties such as teas, luncheons, and dinners. 

The chapter observes several traditions during the college year. An 
annual Founders' Day banquet is always given. At Christmaa time the 
sophomores give a Christmas party. During the spring the seniors give 
a house party. During the spring quarter of the college year the univer- 
sity observes Homecoming Week, when the water carnivals and sports 
and junior week-end affairs take place. The chapter invites all its 
alumnx to spend this week-end and holds the alumnx banquet at the 
chapter house. During the last week in May the chapter gives its senior 
breakfast at whidi a loving cup is presented to the girl who has attained 
the highest scholarship, has shown the best fraternity spirit, and ha^ 
been most active in college activities. In the autumn a reception is held 
for the house mother; receptions are also given for visiting national 
officers. Patrons' and patroness' dinners are given and also faculty 
dinners, by which the girls may become acquainted personally with 
professors and their wives. 

Hera Day was observed more closely by Rho chapter from 1916 to 
1920 than previously. Their service comprised making of layettes for 
babies in charitable institutions, in giving fruit and clothing to children's 
homes, donations of money and clothing to the Japanese Settlement 
House, the adoption of two French war orphans, and the gift of a bed 
to the Orthopedic Hospital. The membership of Rho in 1920 totaled 


Sigma Chapter was installed at the University of Iowa, Iowa City, 
Iowa, on June 10, 1911, the fifth women's fraternity to enter the univer- 
sity. The charter members were: Marie Bateman, Nina Shaffer, Ina 
Scherrebeck, Grace Overholdt, Myrtle Moore, Mae Williamson, and 
Bertha Reichert. Winifred Van Buskirlc Mount, National Treasurer; 
Myrtle McKean Dennis, National Inspector; and Florence A. Armstrong, 
National Editor, who had organized the group, performed the installa- 
tion. The first chapter house was situated on Iowa Avenue, a beautiful 
street full of flowers and foliage. A large sleeping porch, and, back of the 
house, a stream crossed by a rustic bridge, added to the pleasure of the 
site. In 1919, after two years of planning, the chapter moved into the 
roomy, beautiful house formerly occupied by Professor Aurner, whose 
wife is Dean of Women and a patroness of Alpha Chi. The house was 
remodelled according to the chapter's specifications. It is located in a 
district of fraternity houses at some distance from the campus. The 
chapter expects to build or purchase a home at the termination of their 
five-year lease. 

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SicuA Chapter House, University of Iowa, Iowa Citv, Iowa 

ViBW OF NoBTH End of Livinc-room— Sigma' s Cbapter House 

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88 HiSTOKV OF Al[«a Chi Omega Fkatbbnitv 

Sigma had the distinction of standing at the front of the fraternity 
ranks in scholarship throughout the first two years of her existence. In 
1918-1919 Sigma again attained high scholarship rank and received 
the award of the Scholarship Cup at the 1919 Convention. 

Hera Day has been observed by Sigma in much the same way every 
year. Perkins ward, of the University Hospital, for poor children has 
been visited on March 1 annually and material help given; also members 
have gone on Hera Day to the children's hospital over the river with 
gifts of fruit and candy. Sigma'g members have taught elementary 
school subjects, sewing, drawing, and painting to these children through- 
out the year, and have provided music for the old ladies in a home on 
Hera Day. In 1920 Sigma had initiated 108 members. 

Home of Tau Chapter, Brenau College, Gainesville, Geokgia 
tau chapter 

Tau Chapter was installed November 24, 1911, at Brenau ColIegCi 
Gainesville, Georgia, being formed from Kappa Chapter of Eta Upulon 
Gamma. The investigation of the petitioning chapter was conducted 
by Winifred Van Busktrk Mount, Grand Treasurer; Mrs. Leroy Childs 
(Nell Schuyler), G, Ethel McCoy, A, Josephine Blanchard, 6, and 
Mary Thankful Everett, Z, assisted in the installation. 

The charter members were: Montine Alford, Sara Lee Alford, Jewel 
Bond, Mary Carson, Mary Dortch, Aileen Deaver, Margaret Brown 


Tau Chaptek 89 

Holder, Opal Overpack, Her King, Faye McGee, Willie Kate Travis, 
Virginia Hinton, Willie Hamilton, Constance Miller, Nan Osborne, 
Emma Partlow, Nell Quinn, Janie Russell, Laura Horton. The total 
membeiBhip of Tan Chapter in 1920 was 133. From the installation of 
the chapter until the fall of 1915 Tau occupied a house at 65 Spring 
Street. In September, 1915, the house was changed to 75 East Waking- 

Tau Chapter has had a most desirable record in scholarship from her 
installation; since 1916 to the date of writing, Tau has held steadily to 
the first rank in scholarship among Brenau fraternities. Each year 
Tau's membership holds two or three major ofiices in college activities. 
The chapter is proud of its influence in Panhellenic in which Alpha Chi 
Omega is known to stand for maintenance of the rules and for straight- 
forwardness in rushing and fairness in all inter-fratemity relations. Dur- 
ing the war and until 1921 Tau supported three French orphans and 
bought Liberty Bonds. From 1916 to 1919 Tau held the Panhellenic 
Loving Cup and won also the Council Trophy Cup 1917-18. 

Tau Chapter gives an annual dance and reception of a form^ nature 
to which the faculty, other fraternities, and friends are invited. A 
chapter reunion is held on the week-end of November 24, during which 
various entertainments are given, the most important being the banquet 
of the last night. Numerous teas, picnics, and informal evenings occur 
during the year. 

For several years Tau Chapter has observed Hera Day in a simple 
but useful way. In the mountains of North Georgia there is a little 
school known as "Nacoochee Valley Institute." The people of this 
section are of very limited means, and in great need of the real necessaries 
of life. Each year a box is sent to them from the chapter. In this are 
put such articles as the girls will contribute, clothing generally. The 
girls enjoy getting the box ready because they know the joy and pleasure 
their small ^fts will bring. 

About a week after pledge day the chapter gives its patronesses a 
musical tea to meet the pledges, and only the pledges take the 
program. Just before the Christmas holidays, the chapter has a Christ- 
mas tree and each girl presents the chapter with a book. Tau's members 
have been the leaders in practically all of the college activities since its 
installation. The only chapter in the far South, Tau has much in common 
with the Northern chapters, and is intensely loyal to all national under- 
takings. Tau much desires however to have some sister chapters in the 

After the usual summer house party, there are permitted three parties 
for rushing in the fall; the last is a formal banquet with prospective 
pledges. Informal teas on Sunday afternoons at the chapter house 


90 History of Alpba Chi Oueca Fbatkbnitv 

have been an excellent means to gain solidarity and influence. According 
to Panhellenic rules each fraternity has the privilege of giving one large 
party each semester. Tau'sparty.adanceandbanquet, is given annually 
in the spring. An informal annual affair is the May breakfast, and on 
May 9 comes the chapter anniversary banquet. 


On the afternoon of May 13, 1908, eight girls, spurred by faculty 
influence, met and made of themselves an organization which should 
fill the need of a third sorority in James Millilcin University. This group 
called Phi Pi existed locally until May 9, 1913, when it became a part of 
the national organization of Alpha Chi Omega. The National Council 
combined a Council meeting with the installation of Upsilon Chapter, and 
therefore almost the entire council assisted in the ceremonies — Alta Allen 
Lx>ud, National President; Birdean Motter Ely, National Secretary; 
Lillian Zimmerman, National Treasurer; Florence A. Armstrong, Editor 
of Lyre; Lois Smith Crann, National Inspector, assisted by Bonnidell 
Sisson Roberts, President of the Central Province; Alice Watson Dixon, 
President of the Eastern Province; and Myrtle Hatswell Bowman, B, 
in charge of the music. They were assisted by twenty-five members from 
Iota and eight from Gamma. Eight chapters were represented in the 

The other fraternities at MilUkin entertained the new chapter and its 
visitors very hospitably during the week. 

The charter members were: Effie Moi^an, Laura Kriege, Helen Mof- 
fett, Alice Hicks, Anna McNabb, Margaret McNabb, Rowena Hudson, 
Estelle Du Hadway, Blanche Redmon, Sadie White, Florence Kriege, 
Elsie Springstun, Julia Owings, Laura Weilepp, Marie Hays, Ruth 
Seifried, Ora Bellamy, Celia Still, Louise Naber, Clara Randolph, Hilda 
Smith, Helen Hopple, Blossom Redmon, Dee Worrell, Irene Staley, 
Mary Scott, Elizabeth Putnam, Mildred Cushlng, Hazel Grady, Helen 

Upsilon's home during the year 1912-13 was the somewhat overflow- 
ing house in West Wood Street. The associations of the glad young days 
are built round that house; the chapter moved in the fall of 1913 to a 
larger place just off the campus in 1158 West North Street. In 1917 the 
chapter changed its quarters to West Main Street just across from the 
campus and in 1918 again in March into larger quarters at 125 Cobb 

Meetings are held at seven o'clock on Thursday evenings at the 
chapter house. Each month a buffet supper is given in connection with 
the special program to which the pledges and the Decatur Alumnae Club 
of Alpha Chi Omega are invited. A faculty ruling requires all but one 


Upsilon Chapter 91 

monthly meeting to be held in the afternoon. In college activities Upsilon 
chapter is particularly prominent in dramatics and in athletics. The 
pageant for the University's Founders' Day celebration in 1920 was 
written by two Alpha Chis— Ruth Osmonson and Evelyn Cole. The 
chapter had the highest rank in scholarship in 1918, 1919 and 1920, and 
second rank in 1907. 

Of their altruistic work Upsilon writes: "That one of our customs 
which has endeared itself most to us is the one which represents our 
annual 'newsie' Christmas party. One would say that it replaced a dance 
with us, but for the fact that it fills a place many times larger than a 

Upsilon Chapter House, Jaubs Milukin Univbrsitv, Decatur, Illinois 

dance could ever fill. We commandeer enough automobiles to carry 
our invited guests, whose number is usually in scores, and enough Alpha 
Chi Omega fathers, husbands, brothers, and friends, to drive the auto- 
mobiles. When we have supplied ourselves with an entirely alarming 
stock of refreshments, we bring the young horde to our house. They 
produce a vast noise, are fed, are amused, are presented with miraculous 
gifts by Mrs. Santa Claus, they write their names in our guestbook, and 
depart yelling and enraptured. Certainly we shall never find a custom 
closer to our hearts than our 'newsie' party." On October 15, Upsilon 


92 HisTOBY OF Alpha Cbi Ombcsa Fbatbrnitv 

has a Founders' Day celebration with a cake and candles and a prepared 
pn^ram. Upsilon Chapter had initiated 106 members In 1920. 


Phi Chapter is located at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 
The chapter was established September IS, 1914, with the following 
charter members : Marion Blake, Bessie Baird, Eva Stone, Marie Nelson, 
Hedwig Wulke, Aileen Anderson, Marjorie Kennedy, Tryne Latta, 
Myma Van Zandt, Winona McCoskry, Helen Stout, Elsie Fleeson, 
Josephine Jacqua, Claribel Lupton, and Virginia Weldon. The in- 
stalling officeiB, Lillian G, Zimmerman, from the Council; Marie Moore- 
head Ebright, and Jennie Oechsli Haggart, 0, were assisted by Omicron 
Chapter. This chapter has since initiated 84 members into Alpha Chi 
Omega (1920). 

The chapter is now living in a spacious house and has ample room for 
all its social affairs. The house is a rented one, but has been especially 
built for fraternity puposes. Phi has purchased a lot in a desirable 
location and plans are under way for the construction of a permanent 
home. Of the chapter's activities on the campus, the history committee 
writes in 1920: 

Since the last edition of the history, 1916, Phi has made rapid progress toward 
becoming a real factor in our national fraternity. In the Women's Athletic Association, 
which is perhaps the largest and moat popular organisation on the campus, we have one 
governing officer, before this s^ear we held the presidency, and eoery girl in the chapter is 
a member. Moat of Phi's members are good athletes. The chapter is well represented 
in aesthetic dancing. We have a representative on W. S. G. A. , the president of Y. W. C. A, 
with three girls on lirst cabinet and numerous others serving on committees; four Alpha 
Chis are members of the Dramatic Club and one of them is an officer; Delta Phi Delta, 
honorary painting fraternity, claims our art students; one of our upperclassmen in 
music is an active member of Mu Phi Epsilon; several of our girls majoring in Home 
Economics belong to Omicron Nu, honorary economics fraternity; Theta Sigma Phi, 
national journalism fraternity, has had a lar^ number of girls who wore the Lyre, and 
one of them became a national officer of it; every year we have had at least one senior 
elected to Phi Beta Kappa. One of our seniors, Irene Tihen, who has steadily brought 
honors to us during her college career, was elected May Queen by her class. In nearly 
every club and society formed in the various departments of the University Alpha Chi 
Omega is actively represented. 

Mothers' Day is observed every year early in May; all out-of-town mothers are 
invited for the week-end and ample entertainment is provided for by all the girls. A 
spring custom is that of giving a week-end house party for a group of high school girls 
over the state who may attend the University the next year. Some time before initia- 
tion after the first semester, the pledges give the actives an entertainment. The nature 
of their program is left entirely to the pledges and is kept secret until the time of the 

No established custom of celebrating Hera Day has been developed by Phi but she 
has in some way contributed each year to the homage due our patron goddess. In the 
years 1917-1918 the girls observed Hera Day by presenting some of their more talented 



94 History of Alpha Chi Ouega Fratebnitv 

membera in a musicale to which friends were invited; and contributions from each mem- 
ber and pledge helped to maintain a bed in Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Mo. In 1919 
the true spirit prevailed to a greater extent than in previous years and Hera Day work 
netted very profitable returns. Every member of Phi devoted as much of the day as 
possible to selling; tags for the Belgian Relief in the business district. In the spring of 
1920 the Presbyterian Charity Hospital at Lawrence was nearing completion and on 
March I, a call was sent out for aid in sending out letters to the parents of all Presby- 
terian students of the University of Kansas. Phi gladly accepted this bit o( work as a 
Hera Day offering and each member worked diligently. 

The very spirited war work of the chajiter is described in the section 
on the fraternity's war service. 

Chi Chapter was founded at Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallis, 
Oregon, on February 25, 1915. The installing officers were Alta Allen 
Loud and Leigh Stafford Foulds, assisted by Myrtle Harrison and Edith 
Hindman, P; Beatrix Andrews Hopkins, E; and Myrtle Wilcox 
Gilbert, 6. She has the honor to be the first national fraternity 
chapter established at Oregon Agricultural College. The charter mem- 
bers were: Lystra Tagg, Verna Tagg, Elvia Tagg, Dorothy Passmore, 
Louise Williamson, Cora Ueland, Mildred Crout, Elizabeth HowJtt, 
Faith Hanthom, Edith Catherwood, Vesta Kerr Reynolds, Ruth Morri- 
son, Bertha Davis, Leonora H, Kerr, Ada Reed, and Miriam Thayer. 
Not until early in the fall of 1915 was Chi's chapter house opened, for 
by faculty ruling a fraternity group must be organized for a year before a 
chapter house may be occupied. 

Chi Chapter held first place in scholarship for the first four years after 
women's fraternities entered the college. The chapter leads in campus 
activities, and emphasizes democracy, physical, social and scholastic 
attainment and harmonious chapter life. 

The social functions have been unique in their simplicity and in- 
formality. On alternate Sunday evenings the chapter has served tea to 
faculty members and to students. Dinner parties have been numerous, 
but simple. There have been "hikes," picnics, and country dinners in 
the beautiful foothills of the Coast Range Mountains. Hera Day was 
observed in 1920 by a gift to the College Student Loan Fund. Occasional 
formal parties are given. 

The total membership of Chi Chapter, active and alumnx in 1920, 
was 94. 


Psi Chapter was installed at the University of Oklahoma, Norman, 
Oklahoma, January 14, 1916. The installing officers were Maude Staiger 
Steiner, Extension Vice-President; El Fleda Coleman Jackson, Extension 


Psi Chapter 95 

Officer for Oklahoma, and Jennie Oechsli Haggart, Extension Officer for 
Kansas; assisted by Mrs. R. E. Bennett, Mrs. R. J. Roberts, Mrs. 
Charles Odell, Miss Marion Blake, Mrs. F. D. Brooks, and Miss Bess 
Snell. The charter members were fifteen, as follows: Gladys and Dorys 
Hollenbeck, Vivian Sturgeon, Alice Dunn, Ruth Snell, Lucy Clark, Jessie 
Stiles, Rosa McComic, Carmen Hampton, Mildred McClellan, Elizabeth 
Richardson, Ruby Russell, Dona Falkenbury, Mrs. Frederick Holmberg, 
Minnaletha Jones. 

Psi girls have a large attractive home which was built especially for 
them. On the first floor are a reception hall, music-room, living-room, 
and dining-room which can be thrown together for entertaining and 

Psi Cbapter House, University of Oklaboua, Noruan, Oklahoma 

dancing. In addition to these rooms are a chapter room, two bedrooms, 
kitchen, servant's room, and bath. On the second floor are eight bed- 
rooms, a large sleeping porch across the west end, and a balcony on the 

Psi's observance of Hera Day has varied from year to year. In 
1916 and 1917 programs were given at the Oklahoma State Hospital for 
the Insane. Clothes were donated to needy families the two following 
years. In 1920 the chapter made a gift of money to the Norman Provi- 
dent Association. Psi contributed to the war work of the fraternity by 
supporting two French orphans for two years. Psi has added 68 members 
to the fraternity (1920). 


96 History op Alpha Chi Oubga Fkatbrnity 

In 1918-1919 Psi held the cup awarded for highest scholastic 
ranking in the university. In other years it has ranked second, third, 
and fourth in scholarship on the campus. 


Omega Chapter was established at Washington State College, Pull- 
man, Washington, September 22, 1916. 

The installing officer was Alta Allen Loud who was assisted by Edith 
Hindman, P, of Seattle, Extension Officer for Washington ; Alice Rey- 

Oheca Chapter House, VVasbincton State Collegb, Pullman, Washington 

nolds Fischer, 6, Elizabeth Steine Casper, F, Cora Irene Leiby, T, and 
Ethel Jones, P, Emily Rogers, P, Hazel Learned Sherrick, P, and Alberta 
Cavender, X. 

The charter members were the following nineteen young women of 
whom the first four were alumnae: Beryl Campbell of Walla Walla; 
Iva Davidson, of Reardon; Lydia Champlin of Tacoma; and Winnie 
Shields, of Milton; Jennie McCormack, Irene Palmer, Helen Holroyd, 
Leila Nordby, Beryl Wadsworth, Emma McCormick, Rachel Schumann, 
Dorothy Alvord, Anne Palmer, Doris Lay, Elizabeth Henry, Grace 
Stonecipher, Gertrude Stephens, Beulah Kelley, and Mary Setzer. 

On October 12, 1908, nine girls met in Room 42 of Stevens Hall 
and organized the local-chapter which was known for eight years as 


Alpha Beta Chapter 97 

Alpha Theta Sigma. Shortly after organization the chapter moved 
to an attractive bungalow on College Hill where they were installed 
in 1916 as Omega Chapter of Alpha Chi Omega. Since then they have 
moved into a large house one block from the campus and have purchased 
a very de^rable piece of property on which to build a permanent home. 

Omega Chapter has grown steadily in strength and prestige. In 1920 
the chapter had more members and officers of honorary organizations, both 
local and national, than any other group, and has also ranked high in 
scholarship. In the second semester of the year 1919-1920, the first 
year in which they graded the fraternities according to scholarship, 
Omega held second place. 

In 1919-1920 Omega had the privilege of sharing her home with a 
French student attending Washington State College, from Thanks- 
giving until the close of the semester. During the second semester she 
had her meals with the Omega girls until her graduation in the spring. 
Omega had a total membership of 80 in 1920. The chapter has contrib- 
uted one Pronvince President to the fraternity, Josephine Heily Parry. 


Alpha Beta Chapter was established at Purdue University, West 
Lafayette, Indiana, April 26, 1918. In the spring of 1916 the beginnings 
were made of a local fraternity with the object of petitioning for a charter 
of Alpha Chi Omega. On Hera Day, 1918, the La Fayette alumnae of 
Alpha Chi Omega pledged the Alpha Betas, and on April 26, 1918, the 
installation occurred. The installing officers were: Maud Staiger Steiner, 
6, National Extension Vice-President; Lillian G. Zimmerman, K, 
Alumnsp Vice-President, assisted by Helen Wood Bamum, Beatrice 
Herron, Meta Horner Malsbury, and Maude Mason Stoner, A. The 
charter members were: Nelle Parker Jones, Katherine Mavity, Myrtle 
Boyer, Inez Deardorfl, Mary Clark, Paulina Scott, Uldine Clarkson, 
Elizabeth Meyer, Vera Kent, Effie Thompson, Irene Carlisle, Hortense 
Bamett, La Greta Lowman, Thelma Shelbume, Iva Christie, Monelle 
Baker, Charlotte Peckinjiaugh, Marion Titsworth, Virginia Stemm, 
Pauline Lewis, Vada Laudaman and Lucille Domer. 

The chapter lives in a large three-story house which they have leased 
for a term of three years. It is located about three blocks from the 
campus. Alpha Beta had brought 73 members into Alpha Chi Omega in 

During the year Alpha Beta gives one formal dance. In the fall an 
informal dance is given in honor of the freshman members, as well as 
several other informal dances on different occasions throughout the year. 
Alpha Chi also holds an annual Christmas party at which active members 


98 HiSTOKV OF Alpha Cbi Omega FRATERNirv 

and alumnae are present. Every fall "Open House" for men is held, A 
formal senior banquet in the spring is given in honor of the seniors. 
Alpha Beta entertains the other sororities at a tea once a year, and almost 
every week she invites patronesses, faculty, and friends as dinner guests. 
In the spring Alpha Beta has a house party, which is of great help as 
chapters are allowed but one large partyduring the fall rushing season. 

Alpha Beta Chapter House, Pukdue Univehsitv, West Lafavette, Indiana 

Hera Day was celebrated in 1919 by visiting the Soldiers' Home in the 
afternoon. The different houses were visited. Homemade candy and 
fruit were distributed at the different houses. In 1920, the chapter 
visited the Children's Orphan Home taking them pop corn and home- 
made candy and spent the afternoon singing and telling stories to the 

Alpha Gamma Chapter was installed at the University of New 
Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, on June 6, 1918. Myrna Van Zandt 


Alpha Gahua Cbapter 99 

Bennett, the National Extension Vice-President, was the national 
officer in chaise of the installation, assisted by El Fleda Coleman Jackson, 
r. Eastern Province President, Marion Blake, *, Lillian Christensen, *, 
Ethel Tyler Honing, E, Lucile Johnston Steele, B, and Suzanne Porter 
Nutt, &. 

The charter members of the chapter were Fern Reeves, Vera Kiech, 
Helen Latamore, Daphne Cobb, Hortense Switzer, Gladys Hayden, 
Allene Bixler, Alberta Hawthorne, Louise Wilkinson, Rebecca Graham, 
Josephine Monsley Weese, Mayme Hart, Pearl Hayerford, Eunice 
Latamore, and Flora E. Chess. 

Two women's fraternities preceded Alpha Chi Omega into the 
university: Phi Mu (1911), and Kappa Kappa Gamma (1918). Cordial 
rdations with these two fraternities were in evidence from the beginning. 

Alpha Gahha Lodgb, 1920, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 
New Mexico 

A member of Alpha Gamma thus describes the campus: "The. style 
of architecture physically, poetically, and historically harmonizes with 
the surrounding country. Upon ascending University Heights and view- 
ing the Administration Building in the midst of green trees, the observer 
likens it to an old Spanish mission, for the buildings are modeled after 
the Indian pueblo style. The chapter had a lodge during their first 
year, and all business and social affairs took place there. Later the chap- 
ter lived in a chapter house, which like the lodge conforms to the pic- 
turesque qualities of Albuquerque." * 


100 History of Alpha Chi Oubga Fkaternitv 

alpha delta chapter 

Alpha Delta Chapter was installed at the University of Cincinnati 
from the local Theta Phi Sigma during the last week in April, 1919. On 
Monday, April 21, Nellie Dobbins Dresser of Alpha arrived in Cincinnati, 
and in the evening pledged twenty-seven members. On Tuesday and 
Wednesday evenings fraternity examinations were given. 

On April 25, the installation took place and the following 27 young 
women became members of Alpha Chi Omega: Appolona Adams, Helen 
Arnold, Ruth Berting, Amy Diefenbach, Grace Flannagan, Julia Hamm- 
ler, Loretta Hanlon, Aline Hesterberg, Velma Hoffman, Christine 
Hoschaw, Helen Kahler, Florence Kane, Charlotte Kehm, Katheryn 
Undner, Mary McDowell, Edna Merz, Ruth Norris, Mary O'Connell, 
Elvira Paul, Mary Anne Ries, Francis Runch, Gladys Schultz, Inez 
Tracy, Elizabeth Tucker, Alice Wasmer, Bess Waldman and Gertrude 

The installation was in charge of Maude Staigcr Steiner, National 
Extension Vice-President, who was assisted by Helen W. Bamum, 
Eastern Province President, and the following members of the fraternity; 
Olive Burnett Clark, A, Indianapolis; Mary E. Bruce, 6, Eva Sutton, A, 
Elizabeth Meyers, AB, and Nellie Dobbins Dresser, A, La Fayette; 
Beatrice Herron, A, Angola; Helen Keys, 6, Vera C. Didlake, A, and 
Mabel Davis, Z, Cincinnati; Gladys Amerine, A, Greencastle. A feature 
of the installation banquet was the presence of Olive Burnett Clark, one 
of the founders of the fraternity, who gave an interesting account of the 
founding of Alpha Chi Omega. 

As most of the members live in the city the chapter does not maintain 
a house, and house ownership is not probable in the near future for this 

Alpha Delta holds high rank in scholarship, and in 1919-1920 was 
awarded the Panhellenic cup for first position. The chapter takes a 
prominent part in the university life and has its share of offices. Alpha 
Delta has a total of 34 members (1920). 


Conditions at the University of Pennsylvania prior to the year 1914 
were so unfavorable to women students that comparatively few enrolled 
for undergraduate work leading to a degree. Two national fraternities 
easily provided for those who came. With the opening of the School 
of Education in 1914, however, a great influx of women began; and the 
co-ed ceased to be a curiosity on the campus and became a factor of 
some importance in college life. Delta Delta Delta and Kappa Kappa 
Gamma no longer were able to supply social life and a college home to 


Alpha EnaoN Chapter 101 

all desirable comers. It was a natural consequence, therefore, that the 
year of 1916-1917 should see the birth of a numberof new local sororitieg. 
In that year were formed the organizations that were soon to become 
Alpha Omicron Pi, Chi Omega, Zeta Taii Alpha, Kappa Alpha Theta and 
Alpha Chi Omega. 

In May 1917, nine Pennsylvania women began to plan carefully Zeta 
Chi. Throughout the following vacation they held meetings, worked out 
a strong constitution, and procured the necessary furnishings for their 
new sorority home. When in the fall of 1917 they introduced to the 
campus Zeta Chi, it was fully organized and ready to compete in the 
season's rushing. 

In 1918, investigation had led its members to consent unanimously 
to the petitioning of Alpha Chi Omega for a chapter. "The first letter of 
general inquiry to Alpha Chi Omega, "writes the committee, "met with 
an answer so gracious, yet so exacting in requirements that Zeta Chi 
awoke to a new enthusiasm and a new realization of what membership 
in Alpha Chi Omega would mean." Early in 1919, Mrs. Fall paid a visit 
of inspection, and on April 26, 1919, Elizabeth Dunn Prins pledged Alpha 
Epsilon Chapter. The group comprised twenty- two members: Helen 
Angelucci, Helen Bailey, Laura Bee, Marie Dougherty, Elsa Erb, Anne 
Forster, Dorothy Forster, Margaret Frankeberger, Miriam Grammes, 
Rhea Helder, Ruth Lassen, Rita Lenders, Beulah McGorvin, Edith 
Miller, Mary Purcell, Mary Ratigan, Elsie Stevens, Eleanor Thompson, 
Sara Waller, Lillian Webster, Angela Weiss, and Marion Wixson. 

On May '9, followed what every Alpha Chi alumna present agreed was 
the most impressive installation she had ever witnessed. Sixteen alumnae 
were present including three present and two former members of the 
National Coundl: Mary-Emma Griffith, Secretary, Florence A. Arm- 
strong, Editor, Nella R. Fall, Inspector, Myra H. Jones, former Treas- 
urer, and Fay Bamaby Kent, former Vice-President. Others who 
assisted in the ritual were Annie May Cook, Z; Louise Chase, A, 
Custodian of the Badge; Miriam Kennedy, Grace Griffith, Evalyn 
Peterson, A; Mabel Keech, B; Suzanne Mulford Ham, V; Lucile Lippitt 
and Elizabeth McAllister Donnelly, A. The installation music was in 
charge of Fay Barnaby Kent, who had arranged in 1910 the old Greek 
melodies that are used in our service; she was assisted by Alta Moyer 
Taylor and Theo White, A; and Violet Truell Evans, Z. 

While Alpha Epsilon was active oa the campus of the University of 
Pennsylvania as a local fraternity for two years, she earned many honors. 
The chapter has continued its good records and has an assured standing 
in the university for high scholarship, and the greatest honors available 
in campus activity. "Best of all," says the chronicler, "Alpha Epsilon 
enjoys ... the good will of the entire university." 

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102 HisTDBY OF Alpha Chi Ohbga FRATBSNtTY 

The chapter possesses fraternity quarters in a well-equipped room 
containing a piano, a library, and adequate furnishings that later will 
be used in their permanent home, "when Pennsylvania becomes really a 
dormitory college for women." The chaptercelebrated its first Hera Day 
in raising funds by means of a theatre benefit for the adoption of a French 
orphan and for a contribution to the Alpha Memorial House. In 1920 
the chapter numbered 28 initiates. 


On June 8, 1920, at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, 
Alpha Zeta Chapter was installed by Myrna Van Zandt Bennett, Exten- 
sion Vice-President, assisted by the following members of the fraternity: 
Esther Barney Wilson, Central Province President, El Fleda Coleman 
Jackson, F; Ruth M. Miller, S. Augusta Taylor, Lillian Gleissner, and 
Ella M, Bainum, *; Cora Ault, 0; Marguerite Grimmer, Dorothy May 
Smith, and Gladys Meserve Ranney, I, and Flora Campbell Upshaw, N. 

The charter members numbered 22: Luella Quinn, Marion Meyer- 
sieck, Gertrude Kipp, Annabel Remnitz, Jeannette Brinkman, Maud 
Guhman, Inez Schageman, Hazel Farmer, Gertrude Lucas, Adele 
Scherrer, Elfrieda Uthoff, Harriet Gibson, Martha Gibson, Hilda Herk- 
lotz, Gladys Jones, Delphine Davenport, Janice Fenton, Helen Kirk- 
patrick, Elizabeth Smith, Ruth Ward, Aphrodite Jannopaulo, Caroline 

Of Pi Mu Alpha, The Lyre says: The local was organized in March, 
1916, but its existence could not be made known until the other existing 
local had been initiated into Gamma Phi Beta in January, 1917. Pi Mu 
Alpha then took its place in the fraternity rank. In accordance with 
custom it furnished a suite of rooms in McMillan Hall, the women's 
dormitory, and accepted Panhellenic's invitation to membership. 

Then the history is a record of Red Cross and Y. M. C. A, drives, 
relief funds, benefits and Liberty Loan campaigns, for fraternity women 
took the lead in all war activities. Certainly it is to the discredit of no 
organization that patriotic activities overshadowed merely local ones in 
those war days. 

When it no longer seemed selfish to consider personal interests. Pi Mu 
Alpha busied itself with the selection of a national fraternity toward 
which to aim, a national of which its members and the university might 
be proud, and Alpha Chi Omega was finally chosen^ Correspondence 
was begun; a visit from Mrs. Bennett came, and then Pi Mu Alpha 
worked and planned with its national goal constantly in mind. It came 
into Alpha Chi Omega with seven alumna;, fifteen active members and 
two pledges. 

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Alpha Eta Chaptbk 103 

Perhaps it would be fitting to mention some of the members who 
stand out prominently. There is Aphrodite Jannopaulo, who will be one 
of the first women to graduate from the Medical School; Gertrude Kipp 
who finished in Law, and Caroline Mellow who is in the School of Com- 
merce and Finance. One of the members was eligible to Phi Beta Kappa 
1919, and in 1920, Hazel Farmer. Three, Annabel, Remnitz, Marion 
Meyersieck and Inez Schageman graduated with special honors, and 
three others, Gertrude Lucas, Adele Scherrer and Elfrieda UthofI made 
their thousand-point W in athletics and became members of Delta Pai 
Kappa, the national athletic honorary. The group is well represented in 
the May Day plays, in short, in all student activities. Here the history 
closes, or rather opens into something bigger as Pi Mu Alpha becomes 
Alpha Zeta of Alpha Chi Omega. 


In the spring of 1916 nine girls met at Mt. Union College and dis- 
cussed plans for a local sorority. Permission from the faculty to organize 
such a sorority was granted and in the fall Phi Delta Pi was organized 
with nine girls. At the end of rushing season nine new girls were pledged. 
A discussion of various national sororities resulted in the choice of Alpha 
Chi Omega and correspondence was at once begun. In the spring of 1918 
Nella Ramsdell Fall visited the local, A later visit made by Mary-Emma 
Griffith in February, 1920, resulted in the granting of a charter to Phi 
Delta Pi and on June 1 1 , 1920, it became Alpha Eta of Alpha Chi Omega. 
The installing officers were Gretchen Gooch Troster, National Inspector, 
and Helen Woods Bamum, Eastern Province President, who were 
assisted by the following Alpha Chis: Katherine Stewart Armington, E, 
Lilian Elliot Valentine, B, Margaret Megirt Barkley, Julia Jones, and 
Helen Munhall, A, from the Cleveland Alumnae Club; Ruth Nebinger, 
Martha Nebinger, Lillian Nelson, Irene Wood, E^ta Ebaugh, A, and 
Harriet Watson, T, from the Pittsburgh Alumnae Club; Ethel Moore 
Miller, A, from the Meadville Alumnx Club; Coral McMillin, Ida and 
Helen Galbreath, from Delta Chapter. 

The charter members were the following thirty-two young women, 
eleven of whom were alumnie: Velma Olga Workman, Mildred Walker, 
Grace Sanderson, Mabel Hisey, Stella Stackhouse, Evangeline Liggett- 
Bowers, Mary Elliott-Janson, Lydia Elinor Kirk, Marjorie E. James, 
Edith McBride-Purviance, Carrie M. Clark, Mary Ellen Pluchel, Inez 
V. Summers, Mary E. Yogel, Mary Pauline Borton, Leah L. Keyser, 
Clara E. Johnson, Marian A. Stone, Wilma E. Knox, Rosalind Russell, 
Helen Patterson, Priscilla H. Alden, Gertrude Cramer, Helen I. Shaw, 
Gaynelle Lisle Hanna, Blanche Marie Leach, Nora A. Smith, Wilma B, 
Ray, Lucile Halveretadt, Irma Isabelle Hoopes, Margaret Arnold, and 
Eleanor Hancher. 


104 HisTOST OF Alpha Chi Omxga Fbatesmitt 

As a local Phi Delta Pi maintained high scholarahip and its members 
were active in all college activities. Within three years three class presi- 
dents, six class secretaries, one May Queen, besides numerous other 
important offices were chosen from its membership. It has always been 
well represented in dramatic activities and in the Girls' Glee Club. 

Alpha Eta does not own a home but rents a chapter room located 
conveniently near the campus, as faculty provision requires all the 
girls of Mount Union to live in the dormitory. The chapter owns the 
furniture for the room and the members spend many pleasant evenings 
there together. 


Alpha Theta Chapter was installed at Drake University, June 10, 
1921, at Des Moines, Iowa. Alpha Rho Omega which became Alpha 
Theta Chapter was organized in December, 1914, by Dean Holmes Cow- 
per of the Conservatory of Music. Mrs. Gertrude Huntoon-Nourse, a 
professor in the Conservatory, was chosen as faculty adviser. In the 
fall of 1915, the first house, located at 2920 Brattleboro Avenue, was 
opened, and in the fall of 1917, the fraternity bought its own furniture 
and moved into the house at 1336 Twenty-third Street. From the origi- 
nal membership of seven, the group grew until there were sixty alumns 
and twenty-three active members. 

Formal pledging, which was held in the home of Alpha Rho Omega, 
the local organization, took place on June 9. To assist in the installation 
twenty-three members of Mu Chapter went from Indianola and five 
members of Sigma Chapter from Iowa City. The following resident 
alumnae assisted Mrs. Bennett in the ceremonies of the week: Mrs. L. E. 
Humphrey, M, Mrs, Charles F. Nutt, M, Mrs. R. G. Harrison, M, 
Mrs. L. E. Smith, K, Mrs. K. G. Carney, A, Mrs. J. M. Dudley, M. 
Mrs. L. K. Meredith, 0, Mrs. Henry Kroeger, S, Mrs. G. R. Locke, 
2, Elma Forbes, S, Gladys Slininger, K, Marjorie Schuler, S, Bess Down- 
ard, M, and Louise D. Hudson, K. 

The charter members of Alpha Theta Chapter were: Gertrude Hun- 
toon-Nourse, faculty adviser, Mrs. Ezza Pullman, Pearl Van Orsdel, 
Marjorie Hanson, Ruth Bell, Ruth Weisbrod, Lela Lingenfelter, Kather- 
ine Jacklin, Elberta Soule, Ellen Meline,Faye Wilkinson, June Wilkinson, 
Vemice Nelson, Bernice Nelson, Laila Stickler, Myma Hicks, Helen 
Albert, Rhoda Clause, Ebba Clause, Ruth Lindsay, Elsie Cecil, Helen 
Phillips, Wilda Augustine, Leone Moorhead, Elva Nelson, Mildred 
Nelson, Ethel Mak, Wilma Winey, Grayce Kent, and Mildred Baker. 

Drake University had only recently been opened to fraternities, and 
the first groups were established during April, 1921. Kappa Alpha 
Theta, Kappa Kappa Gamma, Delta Gamma, and Chi Omega were 
installed on the same date. 


Alpha Kappa Chaptbr 


Alpha Iota was installed on June 13, 1921, at Burlington, Vermont. 
With the installation of Alpha Iota Chapter, Alpha Chi Omega enters 
the oldest distinctively state university in the United States. The 
charter of the University of Vermont was granted at the first General 
Assembly after the state became a member of the Federal Union, 
November 2, 1791, and the university first opened its doors to students 
in 1800 and to women in 1872. 

Pi Alpha Alpha was organized at the University of Vermont, Novem- 
ber 22, 1919, with a chapter roll of thirteen members. The group gradu- 
ually added to its membership during the next two years, during which 
time it made for itself a place on the campus, its members being active in 
all phases of college life. Pi Alpha Alpha has been informally petitioning 
the fraternity since its creation, and after inspection by our National 
President, Mrs. GrafF, permission was given in the spring of 1921 to 
present its formal petition to the fraternity. 

There are four other national women's fraternities at the University 
of Vermont: Kappa Alpha Theta, Delta Delta Delta, Pi Beta Phi, and 
Alpha Xi Delta; and two locals: Sigma Gamma, and Phi Delta Zeta. 
The men's fraternities include Tau Epsilon Phi, Zeta Chi, Phi Chi, 
Alpha Tau Omega, Kappa Sigma, Lambda Iota, Phi Delta Theta, Phi 
Mu Delta, Sigma Nu, Sigma Phi, Delta Psi, Delta Mu, and Alpha Kappa 

The young women who are the charter members of Alpha Iota Chap- 
ter are: Helen Gertrude Aiken, Jennie Gladys Armstrong, Flora Alice 
Emerson, Amy Luclla Hammond, Ida May Johnson, Kathleen Helen 
Keenan, Mary V. Kelly, Gaynell Bessie Ladd, Martha Emma Leighton, 
Mildred Frances Loper, Annis L. Mack, Frances Maynard, Fannie Mae 
Peabody, Marjorie Louise Perrin, Maybelle Pratt, Priscilla Rose Sails, 
Doris M. Sidwell, Hazel Irene Stanhope, and Vivian Frances Waterman. 

Installation services were in charge of Beatrice Herron Brown, 
Atlantic Province President, and Gladys Livingston Graff, National 
President, the pledging service being held on Monday, June 13, at eight- 
thirty. The following day, the 14th, initiation was conducted at the 
Athena clubrooms at two in the afternoon, the installing officers being 
assisted by Annie May Cook, Z, Cambridge; Carlotta Slater, Z, Essex 
Junction, Vermont; Carol Simpson, Z, Vii^inia Beach, Virginia; Jean 
Davis, A, Beacon, New York; Marion Dyer, Z, Portland, Maine; and 
Naomi Bevard, Z, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Alpha Kappa Chapter was installed on June 22, 1921, at the Univer- 
sity of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon. The installation was held in connection 


106 HisTORV OF Alpha Chi Ouega Fraternity 

with the Pacific Province Convention at its meeting in Portland. The 
installing officers were Hazel Learned Sherrick, president of the Pacific 
Province, and Gretchen O'Donnell Starr, National Treasurer, 

Sigma Delta Phi, now our Alpha Kappa Chapter, was organized in 
January, 1918, by a group of women in the university who met with 
Dean Straub for the purpose of perfecting an organization for town girls 
not otherwise affiliated. At the beginning of the spring term, it was 
decided to take in out-of-town girls, provide a residence, and petition for 
a charter of Alpha Chi Omega. The first Emerald of the new term 
announced to the campus the presence of the local. The following day 
Pi Beta Phi entertained the members of the group, and Kappa Kappa 
Gamma, Gamma Phi Beta, Delta Gamma, and Alpha Phi entertained 
them later. The splendid efforts of the girls to establish on the Uni- 
versity of Oregon campus a group that would merit the recognition of 
Alpha Chi Omega culminated in winning the highest scholarship honors 
for the year and numerous other individual honors during the year 1919- 
20. After two visits of inspection by Alpha Chi Omega, the group was 
allowed to present its formal petition early in the spring of 1921. On 
Wednesday, June 22, the twenty-eight Sigma Delta girls met in Portland, 
Oregon, where the ceremonies took place. The girls were pledged the 
evening of Thursday, June 22, at the home of Beatrice Andrews Hop- 
kins, I. The following evening. Myrtle Harrison Bates, P, and Portland 
.Mumnfe Club, assisted by fifty active and alumnee members, performed 
the initiation ceremony in the assembly hall of the Multonomah Hotel. 
The installatign banquet was postponed until Saturday, June 25, and 
was combined with the Pacific Province Convention banquet at the 
Tyrolean room of the Hotel Benson. Agnes Hobi Nelson, P, and Aber- 
deen Alumnae Club, presided as toastmistress, over a hundred Alpha 
Chis making the occasion a merry and impressive one. 

Other Panhellenic fraternities at the University of Oregon are Alpha 
Delta Pi, Alpha Phi, Chi Omega, Delta Delta Delta, Delta Gamma, 
Delta Zeta, Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Alpha Theta, Kappa Kappa Gam- 
ma and Pi Beta Phi. 

The charter members of the new chapter are: Mary E, Moore, 
I^eola Gore Green, M. Alice Hamm, Mary Turner, Germany Klemm, 
Dorothea Boynton, Bess Shell, Leah M. Wagner, M. Elsie Marsh, Bea- 
trice Hensley, Eunice Eggleson, Wanna McKinney, Charlotte Clark, 
Annabel Denn, Ruth Sanborn, Edyth Wilson, Margaret Jackson, Alice 
Curtis, Hilda Hensley, Florence Jagger, Frances W. Moore, Mildred 
LeCompte, Monna Marie Courtney, Henrietta Hanson, Georgene Crock- 
ett, Gladys Keeney, Nita Howard, and Truth Terry. 

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At the opening of the college year 1920-1921, all chapters of Alpha 
Chi Omega were residing in chapter houses except those in institutions 
where fraternity houses were debarred or not feasible. Of these twenty- 
one chapters, five had entered into house ownership, and were in posses- 
sion of their own homes. Five chapters (including Alpha whose purchase 
of a lot has occurred but figures are not available) have already purchased 
sites and will build soon. Ten chapters altogether are preparing funds 
with which to build as soon as [Mssible. Still another owns a comfortable 
brick lodge which is used for fraternity purposes, but which cannot be 
occupied by the chapter members because of faculty ruling. In brief 
compass, then we can read that Alpha Chi Omega, as a whole, believes 
that the time for chapter-house ownership has come to the fraternity. 
In figures, the present possessions of the fraternity in terms of chapter 
houses are as follows : 

Beta, Albion College, brick lodge t 4,000 

Theta,Uiuveraityof Michigan, house built by chapter, corner lot , , , . 27,500 
Iota, University of Illinois, house built by chapter, dull red brick. . . 25,000 
Kappa, Uaivenity of Wisconsin, house purchased, red brick, in new 

fraternity district 24,700 

Lambda, Syracuse University, house purchased, stucco and tile .... 23,000 

Omicron, Baker University, corner lot opposite university 2,400 

Pi, University of California, house purchased 25,650 

Phi, University of Kansas, purchased lot 3,000 

Chi, Oregon Agricultural College, purchased lot 2,000 

Omega, Washington State College, purchased double lot 3,750 

In her re[>orts in 1919 to the national convention the Chairman of the 
Chapter House Committee, Miss Zimmerman, said: 

May I preface my report with the remark that in giving same, the figures mean 
more than a grand total of so many material possessions — they mean that our chapters 
are encouraged wherever necessary and possible to raise the standard of their surround- 
ings by the acquisition of suitable homes. 

Since 1915 the following chapters have purchased or built: Theta, lota. Kappa, 
Lambda, Pi has purchased a lot; Omicron a lot, and Beta owns her brick lodge. In 1915 
there was $3,000 in all building funds; in 1919, (18,000 with an additional $14,000 
pledged for future payment. All chapters have successfully met their annual principal 
payments, and were some of the homes to be duplicated today they would cost at least 
fifty per cent more. I wish to commend Iota especially for making a payment of over 
(5,000 in two years, or about twenty-five per cent of her debt in two years. 

A strong committee is formulating plans for a Memorial Building to our Founders 
at Greencattle, subject to the approval of the faculty, at a probable cost of (35,000. It 
is the wish of your National Council that action be taken at this convention for a 


108 History of Alpha Chi Oubga Fkatbbnitv 

suitable gift to the Alpha Memorial Building which will comniemorate the ^ft of 
fraternity to Alpha Chi Omega and which will also enable the committee to properly 
install fire-proof vaults for the fraternity archives commensurate with the future growth 
of the fraternity. 

Other chapters which show promise of chapter-house ownership are Pi, Sigma, and 

For the benefit of those chapters which wish to know what procedure to follow for a 
successful beginning toward house ownership, the following suggestions are given: I. 
That the active chapter raise $1,000 to show your alumnae that you are capable of 
managing funds. 2. Ask your most capable local alumn» to help you to take up the 
matter with the chairman of the Chapter House Committee. 3. Your alumna chairman 
should select a capable local committee, which will incorporate according to the laws 
of your state. 4. The alumnx committee will obtain not less than sixty fifty-dollar 
pledges payable over a term of five years. S, Pledges from every initiate of fifty dollars 
payable in five years are required to make successive payments on principal yearly. 

In 1921 re[>orts it was announced that Pi Chapter had purchased 
a home at a cost of $25,650, Omicron had lifted a mortgage of $1,650; 
Phi had purchased a- lot at $3,000, and Omega a double lot at $3,750. 
The property of the chapters of the fraternity amounts then in 1921 
to $141,000. Already projected, with funds partly in hand, and plans 
nearly completed for beginning construction in 1922, is the Memorial 
Building to our Founders at the mother chapter in De Pauw University. 
This building will cost about $25,000. 

All chapters have building funds that increase regularly. The 
furnishings of chapter homes add over $60,000 to the possessions of the 
chapters. Including the cash in the building funds of chapters not own- 
ing their own homes, and pledges to house funds, we must increase the 
wealth of the chapters, by a conservative estimate, by $19,600 for 1921. 
Data compiled for this volume indicate that the chapters' possessions, 
including alumnee's pledges soon to be paid, amount to $160,600. Since 
these figures were compiled Epsilon Chapter has taken active steps 
toward house-ownership. 

It has been with the help of the Reserve Fund, and under the direction 
of competent national and local building committees that the chapters 
have worked, in a businesslike way, for the attainment of comfortable 
and suitable homes of their own. Their aiumnx have been willing to 
cooperate with these efforts, both by financial aid and by personal over- 
sight in business matters. 

Katherine Anderson Mills superintended personally every detail of 
Theta's house-building operations. She wrote in 1916 of the entire project 
thus: "To own our chapter house has been an air castle of Theta's for a 
great many years, even back in the days when I was active. To have our 
dreams come true at last scarcely seems possible. 

.y Google 

Chaptsb House at University of Michigan 109 

"It has been a comparatively short time that Theta has gone after her 
dream in an organized, systematic way. Some three or four years ago the 
active chapter appointed an Alumnae House Committee to work up the 
project in cooperation with the chapter. Quite a little was accomplished 
by this committee in the actual collection of money, and in getting the 
project before the alumnx. A year ago last June the girls had the offer of 
a lot at such an attractive price, and in such a charming location on the 
corner of Olivia and Cambridge Road, that the Alumnae House Com- 
mittee could not resist the temptation to borrow money from the 
National Council to add to their funds and invest. 

"With the buying of property the oi^anization of the Alumnze House 
Committee dissolved into a Board of Directors for Theta Corporation, 
since the girls found it necessary to take out incorporation papers, at 
once, to hold property legally and to incur indebtedness. Their Articles of 
Incorporation demanded that there be seven directors selected to carry 
on all business for the corporation. By-laws had to be constructed 
determining method of election of this same Board of Directors; and for 
the purpose of designating how the affairs of the corporation should be 
conducted. The members taking out the corporation papers, and forming 
these first by-laws, decided that the Board of Directors should consist 
of four active members, and three alumnie members, selected for one, 
two, three, and four years; that the treasurer of the sorority shall always 
be a member of the Board of Directors; that the treasurer of the Board 
of Directors shall always be an alumna. 

"Plans for building the house were presented to this Board of Direc- 
tors one year ago. They finally decided in February, 1916, to accept 
plans drawn up by Herman Pipp, of Ann Arbor, as the most satisfactory 
for a convenient fraternity home, and they immediately set about 
financing the building of a house estimated at $15,000 complete. 

"In February, the directors got out a circular letter showing the plans 
for the new home, and asking the alumnse to contribute, or buy notes of 
any amount from $50 up. Our notes were second mortgage bonds on the 
house bearing 6% interest, payable semiannuallj-. A local bank con- 
tracted to loan $10,000 on first mortgage, and we hoped to raise $5,000 
among the alumnx by selling our notes. 

"By April the alumnae and active girls had pledged the $5,000 in bonds 
and we felt ready to go ahead. We are especially indebted to Miss 
Eusebia Davidson of Beta Chapter, Miss Marguerite Coley, and Marie 
Phelps for large shares of second mortgage notes, amounting from $500 
to $1,000 each. The rest of the second mortgage notes were sold in $50 
and $100 notes, mostly to active girls. The alumnae subscribing for notes 
were: Jessie Paterson, $100; Fleeta Lamb Cooper, $100; Persis Goeschel, 
$50; Mildren Staebler, $50; Maude Bissel, $100; Mrs. C. O. Davis. $100; 


110 HisTOKT OF Alfha Cbi Oubga Fkatbknity 

Maude Kleyn, $100; Emma Freeman, $100; Katherine Anderson Mills, 
$100; Vera Burkhart Hill, $100; Edith Leonard Miller, $50; Marion 
McPherson, $50; Helen McPherson, $50; Florence Staiger, $100; Elma 
McDevitt, $50. 

"Then there were donations of $50 or less by alumnae: Mrs. Hoff, Mrs. 
Kyer, Edith Miller, Mary Hyde Huntington, Isla Jones Hall. Many of 
our alumnfe have promised to respond generously later on in donations of 
money and furniture, so we feel that Theta will be on a sound basis, 

"The bank loaning money to us has been very kind jn the privileges 
offered us. They promise that we may pay back our alumnae or second 
mortgage notes first. They gave us eight years or more in which to do 
this. Mr. Seyler, head of the Mortgage and Bonds Department of the 
German and State Savings Bank, was appointed as trustee for all second 
mortgages, to see that the interest is paid promptly, and rights of the 
second mortgages are not overlooked. 

"Mr. Freeman, father of one of the local alumnae, has done all of our 
legal business, drawn up the first and second mortgage notes, negotiated 
the loan from the bank, procured the Superintendent of Construction, 
and has had general charge of the supervision of the building, buying 
materials, and so forth. We have great confidence in his ability, for he 
constructed five houses of his own, aggregating in amounts from $70,000 
to $80,000, We feel that we have derived great benefit from his exper- 

"It has been the writer's humble duty as treasurer of the Board of 
Directors, to collect the money and pay the bills each week. Though 
there has been quite a little more work attached to this position than 
anticipated, I feel more than repaid in the valued experience gained." 

The exterior of the house is buff stonekote with crushed marble 
pebble dash, bottle green roof, white casements, red brick chimneys; the 
style of architecture, English. 

The interior is in quartered oak on first floor, and Georgia pine on 
second and third floors. Modem vacuum system is installed throughout 
house, dumb-waiter lift to move trunks, vapor system of heating, modem 
shower bath on second and third floors, electric floor plug for study 
purposes in each bedroom, system of call bells for each floor. 

Iota Chapter describes her home which she entered in the autumn of 
1917. Elizabeth Leitzbach writes: 

"The rough, dull-red brick, English colonial structure with its green- 
stained roof on the comer lot facing the campus is the new Iota home. 
Trees which are already growing as high as the house will furnish ample 


Chaptbb House at UNivBRSirv op Ilunois 111 

shade for the summer. The side lawn slopes away through two vacant 
lots which have been promised to the girls by their owner for a miniature 
park or tennis court, to a quiet, little, vine-covered church. There is an 
atmosphere of peace and rest in Urbana, very different from the bustle 
of John Street, Champaign. 

"Whether we glide up the curved cement driveway and arrive at the 
side entrance or enter sedately by the front walk, beneath a black lantern 
which hangs above the colonial door, green carved shutters proclaim 
that we are entering the home of the wearers of the lyre. The prevail- 
ing characteristic of the house is the presence of many windows which 
are augmented by double French doors opening onto the south porch 
from the dining-room and living-room. If we should enter in the rear 
we would pass through a white-latticed door into a neat enclosure from 
which the back porch and cellar door open. We come through a high- 
panelled colonial door into the brick-tiled vestibule. From this by an 
inconspicuous door we may descend to the large chapter-room with its 
fireplace. We climb the four steps leading to the halt. This is a cozy 
little place with its mirror, window-seat, grandfather clock, and stairway 
leading to second floor. 

"On the right we may enter the solarium, gay with bright rose cur- 
tains, wicker furniture, and chintz pillows which are scattered about 
on the window ledge completely surrounding the room on three sides. 
But keeping straight ahead we enter through double French doors the 
large living-room with its mammoth fireplace bearing the inlaid crest, 
its comfortable davenport and leather chairs, the baby grand piano. 
The rose-shaded piano lamp, the old blue velour hangings and old blue 
and rose cushions supply pleasing touches of color. On either side of 
the fireplace swiss-curtained, double French doors open into the dining- 
room, which, like the living-room, extends the entire width of the house. 
On the dining-room side of the chimney is a built-in buffet. The curtains 
here are midnight blue with transparent orange designs. Both large 
rooms are lighted by two showers of chain -suspended lights with the 
addition of small side fixtures. 

"Through two swinging doors we enter the butler's pantry which 
opens into the kitchen. The presence of many shelves makes these 
rooms a delight to housewifely hearts. The pleasant room for the cook 
opens from the back hall which contains a telephone booth and a lava- 
tory for the waiter's use. The back stairway leads from this same hall. 

"On the second floor we find a study containing four windows which 
are convenient for serenade listeners, the chaperon's dainty room, six 
girls' rooms, and two white-enameled bathrooms with three lavatories, 
shower, and tub. Each of the bedrooms contains two closets. 


112 HisTOKT OP Alpba Chi Onega Fraterkity 

"On the third floor, b»ide the bathrooma and five bedrooms is the 
dormitory where fourteen girls sleep. Almost every room is shared by 
three girls as there are twenty-nine girls rooming here. The house is 
rendered safe in case of fire by two complete stairways from third floor to 
the basement." 

The home of Kappa Chapter was a purchase so that the members 
were saved the endless work incident to building a new house. Kappa 
wrote of her home: 

"For some time, Kappa Chapter considered house-ownership. 
Serious contemplation occurred in the spring of 1916, when a desirable 
proposition presented itself. Some of Madison's best homes are located 
on Langdon Street, a wide prominent street running parallel and imme- 
diate to beautiful Lake Mendota. It was on this street, that a wealthy 
man's home was placed for sale. Kappa Chapter heard of it and at first 
had only vain hopes of buying it. The chapter immediately appointed a 
committee consisting of Mary Sayle, chairman, and Floy Humiston, to 
investigate the proposition. They did so and came back airing glowing 
reports to the girls. The chairman conferred with Lillian Zimmerman, 
one of our alumnae and chairman of the National Building Committee, 
and Ann Kieckhefer, Kappa's able adviser. Both women came to Madi- 
son to investigate the situation. After much deliberation and extensive 
business sessions, Miss Zimmerman and Miss Kieckhefer made Kappa's 
house-ownership more than a vain hope. It was in June that these able 
helpers presented, in reality, a home to Kappa. Our new home is 146 
Langdon Street, the spacious home of the late D. K, Tenney, a wealthy 
Madisonian. The house is of dark red stone and brick, with large sleep- 
ing porches overlooking our large open lawn that extends to the banks of 
Lake Mendota. One can scarcely describe the beauty of the whole and 
we only ask you, when an opportunity affords itself to come and see 
Kappa and her own home. 

"The main floor comprises a reception room with a flreplace, a parlor, 
living-room with a fireplace, a large library overlooking the lake, a dining- 
room, and kitchen. There are four bedrooms, a bathroom, and large hall 
on second floor, and five bedrooms, bathroom, and hall on third floor. 
All the rooms from top to bottom are richly finished. The large lawn 
to the lake will be the spot for many good times. The accompanying 
photographs and cuts will give you only a faint idea of the beauty of 
Kappa's new home," 

Lambda's new house was purchased with the help of the personal 
supervision of the National Council, and the splendidly organized work 


Cbaptbr Housk at Syracuse Univebsity 113 

of the alumnae association of the chapter. The active girls have cofiper- 
ated in every possible way with the alumnce. Miss Griffith, to whom was 
given the actual tasic of making the purchase of the house describes the 
beautiful new home in the following words: 

"The house recently purchased by Lambda Chapter at Syracuse 
University is located on College Place facing the campus, on what might 
well be called 'fraternity block,' as at least ten of the fraternities have 
their homes in this block. This is in one of the most beautiful sections of 
Syracuse, is very convenient to the college buildings, and the house itself 
is probably the moat beautiful chapter house in the city. 

"The house is a three-story building of stucco of Elizabethan design. 
Well-planned grounds lie between it and the street, and a wide porch on 
the side overlooks the front lawn and the gardens and pergola in the rear. 
Window boxes, lattice work, and growing vines add a decorative touch 
to the exterior, and quaint stepping-stones along a raised terrace faced 
with brick lead the way to the porch from the front entrance. On the 
first floor is a long hall, from which one may enter all the rooms of the 
lower floor. To the left, is the reception room with its dainty cream- 
tinted woodwork and its exquisite fireplace built of mosaics of Caen 
marble. Opposite this room, on the other side of the hall, is the long 
living-room. French doors lead from this room to the porch at the side, 
and another beautiful fireplace, modeled after a fireplace in Canterbury 
Cathedral, is the most attractive feature of the room. The living-room, 
as well as the library adjoining it, is finished in mahogany. In the 
library, bookcases line the walls. They are fitted with leaded glass doors, 
each one of which bears a different facsimile in colored glass of an old 
English bookplate. Glass doors lead from this room to the porch, the 
living-room, and the dining-room. The large dining-room at the end 
of the hall has a very- pretty conservatory with walls and floor of mosaics 
of terra cotta. A well-planned butler's pantry and kitchen completes 
the first floor of the house. In the basement is a beautiful chapter room, 
finished in oak, with an attractive fireplace and a huge drop-light of 
Tiffany blend glass and hammered brass. 

"At the curve of the stairs leading to the second floor, one sees again 
the motive of the house expressed in the stained glass window, with its 
pictured representation of St. George and the dragon. On the second 
floor are the rooms for the girls, each one of which has several large 
windows, and the chaperon's room with its private entrance, porch, and 
bath. There are two other baths on this floor. On the third floor are 
more bedrooms — the house accommodating twenty girls altogether — 
and another bath. 

"Although the house was not built for a fraternity, it is scarcely two 
years old and is well fitted for use as a fraternity home. Hardwood floors 


1 14 HisTORV OF Alpha Chi Omega Fratbrmitv 

are laid throughout, the electric light fixtures are of hammered brass, and 
expense was not spared to add many convenient features to the equip- 
ment of the house. The great care which has been given to details in 
the construction of the house, and the effort made by Mr. Ward, the 
architect, to create a harmonious whole have given the chapter at 
Syracuse a home which they are very happy to occupy." 


In 1919, Pi Chapter purchased a lot just across the street from the 
chapter house with a view to building there Pi's long desired home. In 
April, 1920, however, the attention of the chapter was called to a beauti- 
ful private house, set in extensive grounds, well arranged for a fraternity 
house, and in a desirable location, that was to be placed on sale. Through 
the efforts of the alumnx working with the active members, the necessary 
funds were procured for the purchase, and in June the chapter took 
possession of its new home. The dining-room was at once enlarged, 
a very large sleeping porch was added, shower baths were installed, and 
a sun room made. In the words of the chapter's historian, "words 
cannot describe the fascinating details of the house and garden. The 
greatest asset in the new home, however, is the huge chapter room, which 
has a rustic fireplace, window seats, and a wall lighting system. This 
room occupies the entire lower floor of the house, the main floor being 
approached by a wide brick walk and steps." 

AH the chapters that have entered their new homes, as well as all 
those working toward house-ownership, are under the direct supervision 
of their alumnx and the Council. This is extremely important in order 
that our chapters shall avoid dangers that may attend such projects in 
the way of overburdening active members with fmancial cares, and 
the deterioration of standards for the sake of increasing the size of the 
chapter and its pecuniary assets. Alpha Chi Omega has approached the 
house-ownership project in an unhurried and careful way. To illustrate 
the working of the relation between chapter and Council, we herewith 
append the agreement used in the case of Lambda Chapter. 

An agreement between the National Council of Alpha Chi Omega and 
Lambda Chapter (Syracuse University) under the terms of which $ — from 
the Reserve Fund is loaned, with interest al 5 per cent, to the chapter. 

1. Rent shall be $ — per month for ten months, payable to the treasurer 
of the Alumnx Association of Lambda Chapter, $ — to pay all interest, 
taxes, insurance, and repairs, and $ — on the principal. 

2. No repairs shall be allowed except through an alumnae house com- 
mittee, one member of which shall be the president of the Alumnae Asso- 


Chaftbr House at University or California 115 

3. Each girl shall pay — a month room rent for nine months and — 
a week for board. 

4. The house must always contain not less than twenty girls; a surplus 
number must be ready to move in should vacancies in the house occur. 
If a girl leaves and her place is unfilled, one-half of the room rent remain- 
ing for the year must be paid by the girl and one-half by the active girls 
as an individual assessment. 

5. The board must pay for itself and make a profit. 

6. Dues shall be — per month for twelve months. 

7. The finances of the chapter shall be in charge of two treasurers, one 
of whom shall have charge of house and fraternity expenses, and the other 
of board. 

8. Any surplus of summer rent over expenses (if the house is rented 
during the summer) shall be sent to the treasurer of the Atumnse Associa- 
tion to be applied on the principal. 

9. Any amount in excess of — remaining in the chapter treasury at 
the end of the college year after all expenses for that year have been paid 
shall be sent to the treasurer of the Alumnae Association to be applied on 
the princifuil. 

10. Each girl who is now an active member or shall hereafter become 
an active member of Lambda Chapter shall sign five notes of $10 each, or 
ten notes of $5 each, payable beginning with March 1 after she shall leave 

11. The Alumnae Association is to pay off $500 or more yearly, it 
being understood that improvements or repairs can not hamper the yearly 
payments on principal. 

12. The National Council reserves the right to order the sale of the 
property should the chapter fail in any of the above agreements. 


Chapter President, 
Chapter Secretary. 

A supplemental contract was drawn up with Theta, Iota, Kappa, and 
Lambda with the consent of the Council whereby these chapters would 
return their loans to the Reserve Fund at the average rate of $100 
per year, according to the 1920 report of the chairman of the Chapter 
House Committee. 

The budget system enables the chapter treasurer and the national 
treasurer to work together with clear understanding, and simplifies the 
local financial system. 

Another type of desirable proposition is one used frequently by 
several fraternities — the building of a new house by a business man 
according to the desires and for the extended use of the chapter. When a 


116 History op Alpha Chi Oubga Fhatkrnity 

chapter is not in a position to erect its own home, this plan is a good one. 
Psi Chapter, University of Oklahoma, entered in 1916 a house built 
expressly for her occupancy. The home of Rho Chapter also was con- 
structed for the chapter. 

The home designed by Alpha Chapter for erection in the near future 
is to be a Memorial Hall in honor of the Founders, and is to contain an 
archive hall for the storing of the valuable records of the fraternity, and 
the Alta Allen Loud room for the use of visiting alumns and other guests. 

In 1921 several groups are working for new homes; those that will 
probably achieve house-ownership in one to three years include Alpha, 
Gamma, Epsilon, Zeta, Xi, Omicron, Rho, Phi, Chi, Omega, and Alpha 
Epsilon Chapters. 

.y Google 


The present system of government of Alpha Chi Omega evolved 
through three well-defined stages. From 1885-1891, the legislative power 
of the organization was vested in Alpha Chapter as the Grand Chapter. 
From 1891-1898 general officers were elected from the chapters in 
rotation, and the legislative power rested in the National Convention. 
In 1898 the Grand Council (later called National Council) was inaugu- 

Thirteen years were destined to pass before the original plan of 
government was materially altered to meet the demands of a growing 
and progressive organization. During that time, with the exception of 
a two-year period for Beta, 1896-1898, outof loyalty to and as a tribute 
to the mother chapter. Alpha was vested with the title of Grand Chapter. 
The duties and powers of this body differed materially from those of the 
present Grand Chapter (the National Convention). The convention 
which met preceding the assembly that established the present system 
of government decided "that Alpha be Grand Chapter always." This 
legislation not only speaks of the fraternity's confidence in the mother 
chapter, but testifies eloquently of the futility of legislating for eternity, 
for in 1904 the National Convention was christened the Grand Chapter, 
Under the guidance of the ofHcers of Alpha the original Grand Chapter 
had legislative power until the first convention, 1891. 

The first cabinet of general officers was elected at the initial conven- 
tion. For seven years succeeding the first National Convention the 
assembly convened annually until 1898 with the exception of the years 
1892 and 1895. During this period the government of the fraternity was 
vested in the conventions, with advisory power divided between the 
general officers and Alpha as Grand Chapter. The official element of 
these conventions was composed of one delegate from each active chapter, 
each member having one vote. 

In 1898 two decisive changes were wrought in the governing system 
of the fraternity, the creation of a Grand Council and the provision for 
biennial instead of annual conventions. From that year to the present 
the National Convention, or, as it was christened in 1904, the Grand 
Chapter, has constituted the supreme ruling power in Alpha Chi Omega. 
It is composed of the National Council, the Province Presidents, and one 
official delegate from each active and alumnse chapter, each member 
having one vote. Official attendance on the part of the members of the 


118 History of Alpha Chi Ohxca Fxatxinitv 

National Council and the delegates is compulsory. Each chapter is per- 
mitted to send other delegates as alternates, but this does not increase 
the number of votes allowed each chapter. In 1908 the voting privilege 
was extended to the ex-grand presidents, and in 1916 to the Founders. 
The powers of the National Convention are stated in the Constitution as 
follows : 

"The National Convention shall have power to transact all business 
of the fraternity and to enact, subject to this Constitution, all laws, rules, 
and regulations necessary to promote the welfare of the fraternity; to 
provide for and define in the Code the duties of the chapters, chapter 
officers, and members of the fraternity; to provide in the Code for the 
creation and disbursement of all revenues of the fraternity; to grant 
charters to active and alumns chapters subject t« the rulings of the 
Constitution; to suspend or revoke the charter of any chapter subject to 
the rulings of the Constitution ; to establish the provinces of the fraternity; 
to elect the members of the National Council; and to amend this Consti- 
tution. A three-fourths vote of all voting members present shall be 

The National Council has continued to be the balance in the internal 
fraternity mechanism which has maintained a true adjustment in policies 
and in the countless matters which must be dealt with in the intervals 
between conventions. It is composed of six officers elected from 
alumnae of proved ability, by the National Convention, to the positions 
of National President; National First Vice-President or Alumnae Vice- 
President; National Second Vice-President or Extension Vice-President; 
National Secretary; National Treasurer; Editor The Lyre {since 1919 
combined with the office of National Secretary) ; and National Inspector. 

During the interim between conventions, the National Council is the 
supreme governing power of the fraternity, and possesses "all the powers 
of the National Convention, except the amendment of the Constitution." 
It is thus the real administrative force of the fraternity. For five years 
after the organization of the National Council, its business was transacted 
entirely through corres[>ondence. As this method of procedure proved 
inadequate, the convention of 1902 ordered the convening of the Council 
in the inter-convention years, the time and place of such meeting to be 
determined by the Council itself. Since that time the Council has also 
met for conference immediately preceding conventions, which custom 
makes their meetings annual occurrences. 

Aside from performing the duties naturally incumbent upon officers 
of their respective titles, the national officers are constantly occupied with 
a vast amount of committee work of various descriptions. Naturally the 
President is an ex officio member of all committees; for seven years one 
president, Mrs. Loud, was chairman of the Reserve Fund Committee. 



The First Vice-Preadent, or Alumnae Vice-President, has charge of rela- 
tions with the alumnie, both organized and unorganized ; the Scholarship 
Fund; the permanent altruistic work of children's scholarships; and 
supervision of chapter Vice-Presidents who keep in touch with chapter 
alumnx. The Second Vice-President is chairman of the Extension 
Committee, and though that officer has not always been the one to 
investigate and to install new chapters, the matter of extension and 
investigation is, to a great extent, in her hands. The Treasurer handles 
the finances of the fraternity primarily, but two of these officers have 
also filled the position of business manager of The Lyre in idditiin to 
performing the regular duties, and one treasurer had ch irgc of the 
finances of the 1916 History. The Grand Secretaries have frequently 
managed conventions as well as attended to the correspondence. At pres- 
ent the Secretary is also the Editor and business manager of The Lyre, 
The Heraeum, and The Argolid, chairman of the Committee on Official 
Supplies, and Custodian of the Badge, which was for a time held by 
a separate officer. The Inspector, in addition to her duties of visiting 
the active chapters, was for many years also the delegate of Alpha Chi 
Omega to the National Panhellenic Congress and did valuable committee 
work in that capacity. Since 1919, the fraternity has been represented 
by a long term Panhellenic delegate, who serves also as Panhellenic 
adviser to chapters. 

In the early days of the journal the Editor of The Lyre acted also as 
the Business Manager, but with the growth of the fraternity as well as 
the growth of the journal, the separate office of Business Manager was 
created, giving the Editor the needed time to devote to her literary work 
and to serve on numerous committees. The Editor of The Lyre was 
editor, also, of The Heraeum, for three years was editor of The Argolid, 
and at two conventions was Editor of the Daily Convention Transcript. 
In 1911 she was Editor of the History of Alpha Chi Omega, and the 
author of the 1916 volume. 

For the sake of assisting in the establishment of a central office 
for the fraternity, the work of Editor and Business Manager of The 
Lyre was merged in 1919 with that of national secretary into a new office 
called the Secretary-Editor. The purpose of this step was to provide the 
fraternity with a paid officer who should devote her entire time to the 
fraternity's work and who should develop and supervise as an expert the 
regular business of the organization. 

When the 1904 Convention in Meadville created the office of Inspect(»- 
in the Council, a new era dawned in the fraternity, and an important step 
was taken towards a closer understanding and cooperation between the 
National Council and the active chapters, and a firmer stand was made 
for high scholarship and for thorough business methocb within the 


120 HisTOBY or Alpha Chi Omega Fkatesnitv 

chapters. The Inspector, or a delegate appointed by her, visits each 
active chapter in the interim between the biennial conventions. During 
these visits she not only becomes closely acquainted with the active 
members of the chapter and inspects their books, records, and fraternity 
equipment to see how the business of the chapter is being conducted, but 
she holds conferences with the dean of women, the Alumnae Adviser, the 
chaperon, the mothers (when possible), and with various professors in 
order to learn the standing of the chapter in the college, and the scholar- 
ship of the individual members. When possible she meets with the local 
Panhellenic Association, sometimes addressing that oi^anization, for, 
as she usually attends the National Panhellenic Congress, she is well 
versed in matters of vital interest to that body. At least once a semes- 
ter a report from the dean of women and scholarship reports of the 
individual members of each chapter are sent by the chapter secretary to 
the Inspector. The results of her investigations are reported by her an- 
nually to the National Council, and biennially to the National Convention. 

The close relation existing between the chapters and the adminJs- 
tion of Alpha Chi Omega has always been a source of gratification to 
the Council, and when in 1908 the system of official inspection was 
supplemented by the constitutional requirement of Alumnae Advisere, 
the officers felt assured that an even closer and more personal communion 
had been secured. Formerly the office of Alumnae Adviser was optional 
with the chapters, being regulated by chapter [wlicies, but now that it is 
required and is an annual elective one, to insure harmony and sympathy, 
the small local difhculties that confront any chapter have been greatly 
minimized and a sound, cooperative, working basis established between 
active chapters, alumnae, and the National Council. 

Although the Alumnae Advisers form an advisory committee who 
work with the Inspector, conduct the annua] fraternity examinations and 
post-initiation examinations, furnish reports to the Province Presidents 
at stated intervals, secure the individual scholarship reports at least 
once each semester, and act as alumnx representatives to the local Pan- 
heilenics, their duties are otherwise left to their discretion and good 
judgment. In a word, they act as sympathetic guardians to the chapters 
by whom they are elected and are chosen to their positions because of 
their ability and loyal fraternity service. 

In 1912 the complex and voluminous duties of the National Council 
were simplified by the adoption, upon the acceptance of the revision of 
the Constitution, of the province system of government. The fraternity 
had grown too large for a small number of officers to do satisfactorily the 
entire work of supervision. As may f>e seen easily from the accompany- 
ing map of the provinces, the United States was subdivided into logical 
groups or sections. This division was made with foreaght as well as with 



133 HisTOKV OF Alfha Chi Ouega Fratbsnity 

practicality. No change in the provinces will need to be made for several 
years. The divisions were made as follows: 

Pacific Province: Washington, California, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, 
Nevada, Utah, Arizona. 

Western: Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Oklahoma, Wyoming, New Mexico. 

Central: Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, Arkansas, Minnesota, Missouri. 

Eastern: Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, Vir- 
ginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, Maryland. 

Atlantic: Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts, Ontario, Maine, 
Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, 

Southern: Georgia, Texas, Louisiana, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, 
South Carolina. The Southern Province was combined with another 
group until three chapters lay within the Southern Province; until 1919 
it was combined with the Eastern, but was then combined with the 
Atlantic Province, in order to arrange more equitable distribution of 
duties among Province Presidents. 

The president for each province inspects "the chapters within her 
province once in two years in the year alternating with the visit of the 
National Inspector, or at any other time deemed advisable by the 
National Council": she keeps "a correct card index directory of her 
province" ; grades "the second and third-year examination papers of each 
chapter"; cooperates with the extension vice-president in matters of 
extension and alumnae work; and forwards a detailed report to the 
National Inspector of the condition and welfare of the chapters within 
her province on the first of December and the first of April of each year. 

With the increasing development of the fraternity has come the need 
for sectional meetings of chapters to decide upon matters of minor and- 
local importance. Therefore it has been provided that such gatherings 
may meet, to provide this additonal opportunity for inter-chapter 
discussions. In the Code (Title VII, Clause S) occurs the provision: 

"The chapters in a province may hold a Province Convention at such 
time and place as they may agree upon provided said agreement be 
approved by the president of that province. Each chapter shall make 
separate provision for meeting the expenses of its delegate to said con- 
vention, but no penalty shall attain to any chapter for lack of representa- 
tion in such convention. No Province Convention may enact any 
legislation to conflict with the Bond, Constitution, Code, or Ritual of 
this fraternity." 

Accounts of the province conventions appear in the chapter on 
fraternity conventions. 

.y Google 

Beathicr Herron Brown, 


Atiantic Province President, 



134 HisTOKV OF Alpha Chi Omega Fbaternitv 

The results of the province system of go^Trnment have been most 
satisfactory. The province presidents stand in the close, personal rela- 
tion to the individual chapters in which the Council members wish to be 
but cannot be on account of distance and of the heavy burdens of their 

As the province president through her own efforts and through the 
cooperation of the alumna adviser brings Council and chapter into closer 
understanding with each other, so in a more personal way, does the 
mystagogue bring to the individual member advice and sympathetic ■ 
interpretation of the meaning of fraternity and of its responsibilities 
and opportunities. A myWagc^e is appointed for each pledged member 
from among the upperclassmen in the chapter. Ail details of a personal 
nature are referred by the girl, or by the chapter, to the mystagogue. 
Usually such matters need go no further; and the new members attain 
adaptability with the minimum expenditure of time and nervous energy. 

The chapter, therefore, is guided by its own members, by its alumna 
adviser, by its province president, as well as by the National Inspector, 
and the National Council. Each chapter officer has direct relations with 
the corresponding national officer, that is, the president of a chapter dis- 
cusses her problems directly with the National President, the chapter 
treasurer's business is transacted with the National Treasurer, Harmony 
and the deepest interest, sweetened often by strong personal affection, 
characterize the intercourse between the National Council and the 
various chapters. Cooperation is our strength. 

Following is the list of Province Presidents, 1913-1921 : 

Atlantic Province; Grace Hammond Holmes, April, 1913; 1914-1915i Anne Woods 
McLcary, 1915-1918; Gladys Livingston Graff, 1918-1920; Beatrice Herron Brown, 

Eastern Province; Alice Watson Dixon, i9l3; Myrtle Hatswel I -Bowman, 1914- 
1915; Frances Kirkwood, 1915-16; El Fleda Coleman Jackson, 1916-1919; Helen 
Wood Barnum, 1919-1921. 

Central Province; Bonnidell Sisson Roberts, April, 1913; 1914-1915; June Hamil- 
ton Rhodes, 1915-1917; Myrna Van Zandt Bennett, Nov. 1917-Sept. 1918; Erna G. 
Goldschmidt, Sept. 1918-Nov. 1919; Esther Barney Wilson, Dec. 1919-Nov. 1920; 
Martha Y. Bennett, Jan. 1921 to date. 

Western Province: Alice Lesher Mauck, 1913; Bonnidell Sisson Roberts, 1913- 
1915: Dale Pugh Hascall. 1915-1918; Myrna Van Zandt Bennett, 1918-1919; Mima 
Montgomery, Jan 1920-June, 1920; Pearl Armitage Jamieson, Sept, 1920, to date 

Pacific Province; Virginia Fisk Green, April, 1913; 1914-1915; Anne Shepard, 
1915; Minerva Osborn Donald, Sept. 1915-Nov. 1917; Gretchen O'Donnel! Starr, 
Nov. 1917-Sept. 1919; Josephine Heily Parry. Sept. 1919-March, 1921; Haiel Learned 
Sherrick, March, 1921, to date. 

The finances of the fraternity are managed by the National Treas- 
urer, who is assisted by a Deputy Treasurer, and the Finance Board. The 
budget system is used in the handling of national funds, and in the 




financial management of chapters. The National Treasurer has custody 
of all current moneys, and oversight of all minor funds of the fraternity. 
She also has direct supervision of all financial matters of active chapters. 
She receives monthly rej»orts, on printed forms, of their expenditures, 
their receipts, and their liabilities. By wise direction in the use of the 
budget system she makes possible uniformly businesslike and discreet 
financial management in all the chapters. Therefore we find, at the 
outset, that careful supervision and uniform method which in a lai^e 
organization are essential to orderliness, economy, and progress. 

The development of the finan- _ 

cial system has been correlative 
with the growth and progress of 
other departments within the fra- 
ternity. During the first two years 
of the existence of Alpha Chi Omega 
the finances were controlled by 
Alpha Chapter. With the increase 
of chapters, installation fees and 
annual chapter dues have been 
paid into the National Treasury 
for the general maintenance of the 
national organization. This fund 
provides for the large volume 
of business carried on by the 
national officers, for the inspection 
and installation of chapters, for 
the railroad fare of the chapters' 
delegates to national conventions, 
and for the expenses of the national 
officers to their required assem- 
blings. Until 1908 the National 
Treasury also assisted in the fi- 
nancing -of The Lyre, but at the 
convention of that year the Busi- 
ness Manager of The Lyre reported to the great satisfaction of the fra- 
ternity that the magazine had become self-supporting. Since 1910, The 
Lyre ha^ been able to return the courtesy of early assistance by loans 
without interest to the National Treasury, by the sharing of various items 
of expense, by the publication of the membership directory at the loss 
of over two hundred dollars to TAc Lyre, and by contributions to national 
funds. These national funds, the Reserve Fund, The Lyre Reserve Fund, 
and the Scholarship Fund, have swelled steadily, and will become, event- 
ually, a useful endowment for the work of the organization. Although 


Central Province President, 1918-1919 
Died November 1919 


126 History of Alpha Cmi Oukca Fratbxnity 

small, so far, compared with college endowment funds, they have proved, 
and will prove increasingly, through wise management, of great value in 
constructive enterprises. 

The chief sources of the revenue of the fraternity are four: The per 
capita tax paid by active members; the alumnae notes paid for two years 
by non-active members; a slight profit on the sale of fraternity badges 
made in quantities by a sole official jeweler; and from gifts. The first- 
mentioned tax is paid in February by all members in active chapters. 
Alumnse notes are a comparatively new source of income. In common 
with general fraternity practice. Alpha Chi Omega asks alumnse to 
contribute to the support of the oi^anization, for a short period at least 
after severing active relations with their chaptere. This support takes, 
with Alpha Chi Omega, the form of two notes for five dollars each, made 
out at initiation, and payable annually the two years after leaving the 
college. One-fifth of this amount, or more if possible, goes to the Scholar- 
ship Fund, one-fifth to the convention fund, and the remainder to the 
building fund of- the chapter of which the alumna is a member. The 
profit which accrues to the fraternity from the sale of all badges by one 
jeweler, instead of by three jewelere, is slight on each badge but con- 
siderable on the purchases of a year. This income goes into the Scholar- 
ship Fund. The gifts from individual members have been made for 
specific purposes, such as for the Reserve Fund, the Scholarship Fund, 
and the Memorial House Fund. The chapters and clubs have made gifts 
as groups for the Macdowell Colony Studio and for the Reserve Fund. 
Through these various avenues, have come into the coffers of the national 
organization, the funds which through sagacity and economy in adminis- 
tration, have made possible wide development of internal affairs. 

Another important feature of the fraternity government is the 
examination system. "Know your own fraternity, and your neighbor 
Greeks" is the theme of the system. The Official Examiner may seem at 
times a rather hard taskmaster with her searching questions and her 
effort to ascertain precisely what each member thinks upon matters of 
Panhellenic policy, and of college and fraternity relationship. Never- 
theless, there is no member of the fraternity who does not find that the 
thought she was forced to give such questions has made her a better, 
more intelligent Greek and a more loyal alumna of her college. 

The eximination system now in use consists of three sets of questions. 
.1 . s. ;n^ of i-..c. ycur, suggestions for study arc sent to the alumna 
adviser of each chapter, who in turn transmits them to the chapters. 
Every member of the fraternity, except those who have been in the 
chapter for four years, is required to take one of these examinations. 
For the newly initiated, there is an elementary set of questions based 
on the history of the national fraternity and the local chapter, of the 



National Panhellenic Congress and the college Panhellenic. and questions 
of general collegiate interest. For the second-year member an examina- 
tion has been prepared which requires a very accurate and definite 
knowledge of the constitution and code of Alpha Chi Omega. Questions 
are asked on all phases of local and national policies. The third-year 
examination requires little statistical knowledge, but endeavors to make 
the members of the fraternity express their attitude on Panhellenic 
questions, scholarship in its relation to fraternities, the Interfratemity 
Conference, honorary and professional societies, and other matters of 
general interest to all college as well as all fraternity women. 

These outlines cover more detailed and more comprehensive matters 
than those of the early examinations. Wider intelligence in fraternity 
and educational affairs has been required each year by the questions 
asked. The first uniform list of questions appears in the minutes of the 
Eighth National Convention (1902) in the report of the committee to 
prepare a list of questions "to be used for the examination of pledged 
girls before the initiation." The list of questions decided upon were the 
following twelve: 

1. What was the 6rBt fraternity founded in the United States? When? Where? 

2. State in a general way the development of the fraternity system. 

3. What was the first sorority founded in the United States? Where? When? 

4. Name the national sororities in the United States and describe the pin of each. 

5. In what institutions in this state are these sororities represented? 

6. Name seven representative natiana.1 fraternities. 

7. Name the national honorary fraternity and describe its badge. 

8. Where was Alpha Chi Omega founded? When? By Whom? 

9. Name the chapters of Alpha Chi Omega Sorority in order of their establishment, 
and name the institution, city, and state in which each is located. 

10. Name the fraternities represented in this institution. 

11. Name the sororities represented in thL- order of their est^iblishment. 

12. In lalking with a person unacquaintcl with or prejudiced against (raternilies, 
nhat gooJ prattital reasons would you give in favor of fraternities? Giveal least seven 
reasons. (The answer to be based upon the article in Baird's Manual of Amtfkati Fro- 

This old list seems very elementary when compared to the well- 
developed system of present day examinations, but as a beginning of the 
system it served a useful purpose. 

Prior to 1902, fraternity examinations in Alpha Chi Omega were 
optional with the chapters, the general custom being that of giving them 
only to pledged members immediately prior to their initiation. During 
the period from 1902 to 1908, official fraternity examinations were held 
annually for both pledges and active members. As the lack of necessity 
for requiring active members to take these examinations every year 
soon became apparent, the 1908 Grand Chapter ordered that a system of 
graded ezaminationB be adopted, and appointed Alta Allen Loud and 


128 History of Alpha Chi Ouega I^saternitv 

Mabel Harriet Siller to prepare the sets of questions. This plan provided 
for a preentrance examination to be given immediately before initiation, 
a second examination to be given in the second year of fraternity life, 
and another in the third year, the members active for four or more years 
to be exempt from further examinations. 

The questions are not confined to facts concerning Alpha Chi Omega, 
nor even to fraternity matters in general, but they include points of 
general collegiate interest which every fraternity member should know. 
The preentrance examination covers the organization and history of Alpha 
Chi Omega; the second covers the constitution, by-laws, ritual, and 
ceremonies; the third deals with policies, alumnte chapters, Panhellenic, 
American Association of University Women (formerly A. C, A.), and 
general fraternity and collegiate matters. 

For several years a committee of the National Council had charge of 
the examinations, but as this extra work proved too great a tax upon 
these ofBcers, in 1909 the Council authorized the appointment of an 
official examiner. This office was held by Mary Ferine, B, in 1909-1910; 
by Mary-Emma Griffith, A, in 1910-1915; by Bertha H. Reichert, 2, 
1915. The examinations are conducted by the alumns; advisers of the 
respective chapters, who correct the preSntrance papers (as these exami- 
nations are given at divers times of the year) and send the other papers 
to the province president who corrects them and sends the grades to the 
Official Examiner. A report of chapter averages is published annually, 
usually in The Heraeum. 

The system of examinations is accomplishing its purpose. It is con- 
summating the desire of the national officers of the fraternity that mem- 
bers shall know something about every member of the Panhellenic Con- 
gress, shall be able to talk and think intelligently upon questions of 
general fraternity interest, and have a general knowledge of the various 
agencies connected with the educational and professional advancement 
of women. 

The policy and methods of Alpha Chi Omega in expansion are dis- 
cussed in a separate chapter on that subject. 

With the development of every part of the fraternity, one sees distinct 
though gradual changes in the administrative policies. The duties of 
members of the Council have increased tremendously ; the correspondence 
alone of a Council member is equal to that of a thriving business firm. 
The powers of the body have been increased also, and are in every way 
equal to those of the National Convention, even to the granting of 
charters; but it may not amend the constitution. As the administrative 
duties of the order have increased so greatly, the division of labor has 
multiplied remarkably. Instead of half a dozen women engaged in 
national work, there are now more than one hundred and fifty. The 


personnel of the administrative force changes less rapidly, as the following 
table illustrates, even though the burdens of the officers are heavier than 

Table tZ. — National offiars of three oi 

■e years service. 


Vrs. in Each 

ToUl No. 
Vrs. Service. 



Inspector, 1906-07; 1907-09; 1909-10 



Editor of iyre, 1897-98; 1898-1900 


I-oud, Alt! Allen, B: 














Grand Vice-president, 1909-10; 1910-12; 



Editor o{ Lyre, 1900-02; 1902-05; 1905-06 . . 


Editor of Lyre. 1907-09; 1909-10 



History op Alpha Chi Ouega Fkatbrnitv 
ToWe iZ. — Nalumat officers of three or more year's service {cotUiHued) 


Yrs. In each 

Total No. 
Yi». Service 

Howell, Marcia Clark, 0: . 



Editor of Lyre. 1910-12; 1912-15; 1915-19 . . 

Inspector, 1912-15: 1915-16 (Jan.) 


Fall Nella R. B- 


The trend is toward the retaining of proved officers in position for a 
long period of time, and on the part of all the persons in positions of 
responsibility, toward insistence that the fraternity be a more powerfully 
beneficent force in the practical experience of individuals; that the 
organized groups serve more widely the communities in which they Hve; 
and that the entire national organization, in all its strength, its influence, 
and its prestige, be each year of greater help in the attainment of right 
social conditions. 

.y Google 


A marked change has made itself apparent in the development of 
co11ee:e fraternities; from aloofness and a more or less superior attitude 
of reluctance to grant charters to new groups — a position which made it 
a major adventure for a local to surmount the walls of a national frater- 
nity — the leading fraternities are now showing not only intelligent 
interest but an enlightened willingness to absorb as many new chapters 
as they can conscientiously accept. This change in "extension policy," 
which is general, though not universal, may be traced perhaps to the 
following causes. 

(1) The internal organization of national fraternities has improved 
greatly, and central offices have been established by many orders, 
with an expert fraternity official in charge who devotes his or her entire 
time to fraternity business; such a plan makes possible a more intensive 
and also a wider study of fraternity and educational conditions, and a 
more intelligent application of timely measures. 

(2) Interfraternity cooperation has broadened the vision of all, and 
discussions of common problems and dangers have been accompanied 
naturally by consideration of common opportunities for growth. The 
women's fraternities organized the National Panhellenlc Congress, 
then the men's fraternities formed the Interfraternity Conference, both 
resulting In increased mutual understanding, in keener insight into 
conditions, and in valuable constructive methods of improvement. 

(3) Recurring waves of an ti- fraternity agitation in state legislatures, 
and dangers of increased an ti- fraternity legislation, with occasional spurts 
of anti-fraternity legislation, forced fraternities to seek the cause for 
such antagonism, and to find it in the objectionable exclusive features 
of the old system. Mr. Walter Palmer, for a generation a constructive 
force in the Greek world, repeatedly urged more rapid expansion. "It is 
human nature," he said, "forpeople to be dissatisfied when they see others 
enjoying pleasures which to them are denied. When there are chapters 
for 80 or 90 per cent of the students of the Western univereities, practi- 
cally all that wish fraternity affiliations will be able to obtain them. ,The 
talk about fraternities being undemocratic will then quiet down, agita- 
tion will cease, and there will be no danger of anti-fratemity bills being 
introduced into State legislatures." And Dean Thomas Arkle Clark, 
Alpha Tau Omega, says concisely, "It is a choice between expansion and 



History of Alpha Chi Ombga Fraternitv 

(4) Lastly we must recognize the effect on fraternity expansion 
policies of the country-wide enthusiasm for higher education stimulated 
by the war, and the increase in enrollments at American colleges and 

At both the Interfraternity Conference and the National Panhellenic 
Congress mention has been made that new national fraternities would 
soon become necessary and should be aided, although many national 
orders already existing might fairly feel that cooperation among fraterni- 
ties in assisting present fraternities to expand would be more logical than 
to urge the creation of new bodies. Marked progress in expansion has 
in fact appeared among both men's and women's fraternities. 

Recent developments in expansion have been summed up in figures 
given by the Anckora of Delta Gamma for January, 1921. "The number 
of active chapters of general college fraternities (men's and women's) in 
1912 was 1,141. There are now 1,629, an increase of nearly 50 percent 
in eight years (488 chapters)." The last figure understates the number 
of chapters, which in 1921 total over 1,900, but it indicates distinctly 
the trend in the Greek world. The following statistics, compiled early 
in 1920 by Kappa Kappa Gamma, and arranged in tabular form by the 
author of this volume shows the progress fraternities made in expansion 
from 1910 to 1920. 

o 1920. 




Tout HomlH- 









































Z T H 


From a perusal of Table 13 we can make the following deduction 
as to the extent to which the separate N. P. C. fraternities responded in 
1910-1920 to the obvious need and opportunity for further expansion 
of the fraternity system to the fast developingeducational field for women. 


FRATERNtir Expansion 





10 tall 

































A ♦ 




K Ae 

n B f 







A A* 




A n 





* K 




ma htiabera fifiindoB lt!Debipt(rKiOrT«i iu Tmbh II. Ann^ potmlaie. M. 

The geographical distribution of the nearly six hundred chapters of 
N. P. C. fraternities, though fairly thorough, shows still many weak spots. 
Alpha Chi Omega has chapters in only 19 states. Kappa Kappa Gamma 
in 27, Kappa Alpha Theta in 28, Pi Beta Phi and Delta Delta Delta 
31 each. In four states, according to the N. P. C. Press Committee, 
n an article in Banta's Creek Exchange in December, 1920, there are 
no sorority chapters — Connecticut, Delaware, New Jersey, and South 
Carolina. The last-named state is closed at present by anti-secret-society 
laws. The article continues: 

"Illinois has the most chapters, forty; but they are divided among 
six colleges. New York comes next with thirty-six chapters in seven 
colleges. Ohio and California tie for third place, with thirty-four chapters 
each; but since California's thirty-four are all in three colleges, while 
Ohio's are divided among seven colleges, the banner goes to California. 
In fact the average number of chapters per college is higher in California 
than in any other state, except Minnesota, where one college holds all 
the state's fourteen chapters. 

"The sorority idea is represented by a single chapter in Rhode Island 
and in Utah ; Sigma Kappa being the pioneer in the first, and Chi Omega 
in the second. California and Illinois are the only states in which all the 
N. P. C. sororities have chapters, and only in the first, California, do they 
all meet within one college. Wisconsin and Washington run a close second 
though, for each of these states needs only one more chapter to have them 
all represented, and that too in one institution, which is far from the 
Illinois situation. 

"That eighteen sororities should have a total of 592 chapters, located 
in 112 different colleges, is a bit startling to the normal sorority woman, 
who is accustomed to think sorority colleges identical with her sorority's 
own chapter roll, plus a few colleges where groups are importuning her 
sorority for charters. Even the largest sorority, Delta Delta Delta with 
sixty-one chapters, is represented in less than 55 percent of these sorority 


134 HiSTORT or Altra Cn Ohwu FRATBRMtrr 

colleges. If the chapters were evenly divided among the N. P. C. soror- 
ities, each sorority would have thirti'-three chapters, save two, who 
would have thirty-two chapters each. 

"At least 350 institutions in the United States offer a college course to 
women. It is certain that at least 300 of these colleges would fulfill 
the requirements of the most critical sorority as to numbers, endowment, 
scholastic standards, and student personnel. In at least that many 
sororities would be welcome." 

The most conservative Panhellenic fraternities have awakened at 
last to the necessity as well as the desirability of possessing speedily, 
numerous new chapters. No longer can it be considered a virtue to 
acquire only thirty chapters in eighty odd years, as certain men's frater- 
nities have done. Modern requisites of supervision, of service to mem- 
bers, of higher standards for fraternities, demand adequacy and scope of 
organization such as was never thought of in the early days of the 
fraternity system. Too small an order can not manage its affairs with a 
high degree of efficiency on account of its restrictions in personnel and 
equipment. Never was the college fraternity so well supervised, so well 
ordered, so full of possibilities for Individual development, as today. 

Of the 1920 chapter roll of N. P. C. fraternities, statistics tell us 
approximately 40 per cent have been added since 1910. How these 
chapters each came to affiliate with one of the 18 Congress fraternities 
seems an alTair of mystery to the uninitiated. Why did one fraternity 
acquire 66 per cent of new chapters, and another only 17 per cent? 

The methods employed by the IS fraternities really constitute no 
mystery at all. College women are much the same everywhere; when 
they think of national fraternities, they think of the orders whose mem- 
bers they happen to know. If they know no Greek-letter women, their 
friends may mention to them certain fraternities whose members are 
known personally to them. Or the interested students may have access 
to a copy of Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities, or to a 
copy of Martin's Sorority Handbook, from which an order may be chosen 
that seems to conform most closely — in outline — to their preconceived 
ideas of fraternity desirability. Usually, back of a new chapter stand 
alumna?, whose influence, prestige, or effort, directly or indirectly, have 
made their fraternity seem desirable to aspiring students. Non-fratemity 
women may form a chapter of an N. P. C. fraternity by one of five 
distinct methods, followed either by their own choice or by the preference 
of the national order concerned. 

1. The unannounced petition. Occasionally a local sorority obtains 
all the information it desires from one source or from several sources, 
makes its dedsion in favor of a certain fraternity, votes to apply to that 
fraternity for admission, and then communicates with the national officers 


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136 HisTOKY OF Alfba Cbi Ousga Fraterhitt 

of the fraternity concerned. In such a case, the national fraternity may 
definitely accept or reject the group, without much ado, either before or 
after certain data and credentials have been submitted. The college 
of the group may not appear on the accredited list of the N. P. C, 
and for certain reasons may not be eligible to a place on this list ; the 
group however desirable could not then be accepted. The more usual 
course, so far as the writer has observed, consists of a thorough investi- 
gation of the college, if it is not well known to the national officers; 
then an investigation from a distance of the petitioning local, involving 
the opinion of resident alumnae, of acquaintances on the faculty, and 
other informal inquiries; if results warrant it, these inquiries are followed 
by visits of inspection by different officers and members of the fraternity. 
These visits usually succeed each other at intervals in order to note 
the progress of the group in strengthening itself and in eliminating 
weak spots. 

Recent methods have been kinder than in the old days, when local 
fraternities might be kept waiting in suspense for several years, to be 
rejected at the end. The national officers of today perhaps have wider 
experience as a basis for judgment and have evolved, with increased 
efficiency of organization, a less wasteful system. The college woman of 
today also has as a rule too much self-respect and self-confidence to sub- 
mit to an undue prolongation of preliminaries. Most fraternities, how- 
ever, appreciate the superior advantages to all concerned of pre-installa- 
tion training and, I believe, often specify certain conditions for even the 
most desirable petitioning groups. The new chapter enters a national 
sisterhood more nearly on a par with other chapters in the same order 
and in the same university by means of the discipline and the improve- 
ment required. 

Some groups that are promising but are not immediately acceptable 
may gain the coveted charter by rigid reorganization, and sad as it seems, 
by the elimination of those of their number that do not meet the require- 
ments of the national fraternity. This process may demand two years 
of hard work. Alpha Chi Omega makes very exacting requirements of a 
petitioning group, but if the group is promising shares the burden by 
assisting it in every possible way to reach the standard imposed. 

2, A method that has fast developed, and has been tncouraged by 
Alpha Chi Omega, begins with informal correspondence and inquiries 
by the local group. Information of a general nature is furnisliwl by the 
group and is given to it. Neither the national council nor the group com- 
mits itself definitely until preliminary correspondence warrants the 
group's presenting an informal petition upon which certain national 
and province officers vote. Informal inspection of the group follows an in- 
formal petition; Alpha Chi Omega endeavors particularly to take no step 


Fratbbnitv Expansion 137 

that would injure the chances of a group with another national fraternity 
if the local organization does not show promise of the kind of development 
required by Alpha Chi Omega. 

This preliminary period may lead either to permission to proceed 
to a formal petition, accompanied by a season of more or less strenuous 
training to fit the group better for a chapter of a national fraternity with 
high standards, or it may result in detinitely discouraging the group 
to proceed further with their petition. At every step Alpha Chi Omega 
seeks to assist rather than to embarrass a local group in even a temporary 

Although all N. P. C. fraternities resemble each other in essentials, 
and seek the same ends in much the same way, occasionally a group 
will fit into one national order but not into another; fraternities are learn- 
ing this simple fact, more and more, and very gradually are finding it 
possible to co5perate helpfully in even as delicate and vital a matter as 

3. A system that obtains in some circumstances, though seldom 
considered expedient or desirable, is the invitation method. National 
officers may learn of a group that would fit well into their fraternity, and 
may definitely invite the local group to membership. The local group 
usually calls the invitation "offering a charter." This method one hears 
of principally through local groups who inform the inspector of the 
national fraternity to whom they have petitioned that they have been 
"offered a charter" by such and such national fraternities. So far as is 
known, national officers usually do not employ this method. 

4. In the development and widening of the field of women's educa- 
tion, alumnae of different fraternities frequently report that colleges 
hitherto not eligible to fraternities, or previously "well filled" with 
chapters, have become fields fo' expansion. These alumnae, sometimes 
organized, sometimes not, by personal acquaintance and by consultation 
with the dean and professors, may select highly desirable young women, 
suggest to them that they form a local fraternity, and offer to assist in 
every way in their power to obtain a charter of their own national 
fraternity. The alumnx advise and assist the local, the members of 
which have the pleasure of receiving an invitation to join a group, 
have the consciousness of faculty approval on account of the recommen- 
dations given them, and often a "picked" local sponsored by alumnx 
contains brilliant, forceful, .and charming members. The national 
fraternity maintains the same relations with the petitioning local as in 
Other cases, and may reject or accept the petition as it sees fit. If not 
accepted however by the fraternity first petitioned, such a group has very 
good chances of membership in some other national order. 

5. The last method to be mentioned may be very old in its origin but 


138 History or Alpha Chi Ohega Fratbbnitt 

has come into wider use in recent years when a difHcult but strategic 
fraternity field is to be entered. If a fraternity desires a chapter in a 
college where other fraternities have long been entrenched and have 
created no atmosphere of welcome to newcomers — although the univer- 
sity has ample scope and actual need for new chapters — the best method 
evolved by national officers has been the colonizing system. One or more 
members of an active chapter register in the university to be entered, and 
by their personal efforts, prestige, and acquaintanceship, build up an 
acceptable group that can take its place in the local Panhellenic. 

The relative value of these five systems can be determined only by 
the purpose of the fraternity employing them, and by the particular 
circumstances involved. No fraternity takes the same road at all 
times. The ever-present element however in all expansion must be the alert 
and devoted alumna who point aspiring young women to their own frater^ 
nity — the alumnae, who believe in their fraternity, who have tested the 
immense advantages of membership, who keep alive their enthusiasm for 
the joys, friendships, and training of chapter life, and who have no 
doubts whatever of the superiority of their own organization; back of 
all expansion, directly or indirectly, stands the greatest asset of any 
fraternity — the alumnae. Upon them rests largely the burden of gaining 
or losing new chapters for their fraternity — and the length of the list 
of petitioners measures the vitality and devotion of alumnae. 

Of Alpha Chi Omega's policy in chartering new groups, Mrs. Loud 
said, in 1910, words as true today as when spoken: 

"The future will bring us more chapters. We are ambitious for no 
stated number. We care naught for a lengthy chapter roll, per se. But 
wherever we shall find desirable types of young womanhood, in Institu- 
tions that meet our requirements, we shall gladly consider them, believing 
in the strength of union, and the desirability of a we II -distributed sister- 
hood. As our anniversary day draws near, we feel very grateful to the 
seven women who made Alpha Chi Omega possible for us, and we desire 
to develop inwardly and outwardly so as to express in the noblest sense 
the realization of their cherished ideals. We regard the gift of fraternity 
as a sacred one and mean to be unselfish in the sharing of that gift, 
realizing that fraternity bestows infinitely more upon any individual 
or group, no matter how worthy, than they can render the fraternity." 

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Alpha Chi Omega conventions have provided the means by which the 
fraternity has been enabled to progress, ever since Alpha Chapter sent 
its first delegates, Mary Janet Wilson and Anne Cowperthwaite, to 
Albion, to hold an informal conference with Beta Chapter upon impor- 
tant matters of mutual fraternity interest, thus paving the way for 
the first National Convention in the fall of that year, 1891, when the 
fraternity family consisted of three chapters. As our conventions are 
studied from that time down to the 1919 convention of twenty-seven 
chapters, with its strict parliamentary procedure and its unprecedented 
attendance of fourteen to every active chapter, the realization deepens 
that were it not for the character, the loyalty, and the true womanliness 
of those who composed the early membership of Alpha Chi Omega, the 
larger and later development of the fraternity would have been impossible. 
It is, therefore, with respect and deepened interest that attention is 
focused upon all the conventions in the history of Alpha Chi Omega and 
with the perception that the same enthusiasm, devotion, hard work, 
and ability have characterized each one, and have been as potential 
factors in determining the present success of the fraternity, as they will 
be in moulding its future. 

First National Convention 

Alpha Chapter fittingly acted as hostess for the First National 
Convention October 20-23, 1891. The homes of Anna Allen Smith and 
Ethel Sutherlin were thrown open to the business sessions which were 
conducted by Anne Cowperthwaite. Delegates from Alpha, Beta, and 
Gamma were present. The business of the first convention was largely 
concerning the perfecting of the organization of the fraternity and al- 
though few were in attendance, much of importance was accomplished. 

Alpha was chosen as Grand Chapter, and, according to the usual 
method of fraternity government at that time, final decisions were made 
by her between conventions. The chapter by which each national office 
should be held was first selected and the incumbent for the oflice then 
chosen. The officers thus elected were: General President, Ja Nette 
Allen, B; General Vice-President, Bertha Moore, A; General Correspond- 
ing Secretary, Jessie Fox, A; General Reco-ding Secretary, Zannie Tate, 
A; General Treasurer, Mary Stanford, T. 

The ritual was ordered written in a separate book from the constitu- 
tion and other less secret ceremonies. A pledging ceremony was formu- 


110 HisTOKv OF Alpha Cbi Omega Fraternitv 

lated; signs and symbols were discussed; a salutation to the chair was 
decided upon; and, in accordance with the custom of the period, a 
"courage test" was adopted. 

The subject of extension was as a matter of course an important 
theme for consideration. The fields considered eligible for extension 
Included the great women's colleges of the East into which no national 
fraternities have entered and probably never will enter, and also fields 
into which Alpha Chi Omega placed chapters at a much later date. Well- 
esley, Ohio Wesleyan, and Syracuse University were tentative proposi- 
tions. The deliberations of the early conventions were full of caution, 
so that, whereas chapters were not established where they might well 
have been, but one was established [»%maturely. 

The question of publications which seldom concerns so youthful a 
fraternity was taken up seriously. A fraternity magazine was planned 
for, to be published as soon as the addition of two more chapters should 
increase the chapter roll to six. Beta, it was planned, should issue this 
publication. A songbook was definitely provided for by the effective 
method of requiring from each chapter four songs, set to music (one to 
be sacred) to be completed "before the close of the spring term." 

After discussion, nut cake was chosen as the fraternity cake. 

As a regular convention register was not employed until 1908, the 
attendance lists of the early conventions must necessarily be incomplete. 

The delegates were: Alpha, Mildred Rutledge; Beta, Ja Nette Allen, 
Lulu Keller; Gamma, El Fleda Coleman; Delta, not represented. 

The social features of the convention were as follows: 

First evening — Informal party at the home of Mary Janet Wilson. 

Second evening — Convention attended, in a body, a musicale in 
which several Alpha Chis took part, given under direction of Dean Howe. 

The convention was also entertained at some of the fraternity halls, 
but the records are indefinite. 

Second National Convention 

The Second National Convention was held in Albion, Michigan, 
February 22-24, 1893. Beta's fraternity hall (then on the top floor of 
the Administration Building) was the meeting place. 

It was arranged that each chapter should send to convention a 
delegate and a grand officer, the expenses to be met as far as possible 
from the National Treasury. The following officers were elected for the 
year 1893-1894: General President, Mary Stanford, V; General Vice- 
President, Charlotte Weber, A; General Corresponding Secretary, Laura 
Marsh, A; General Recording Secretary, Effa Simpson, B. 

The constitution and initiation ceremonies were carefully reviewed 
with suggestions for improvements. The chair authorized Mayme 



142 HisTOKV or Alpha Chi Ouega FRATERMiry 

Jennings, A, Mary Stanford, T, and Lulu Keller, B, to make up forms 
for the resignation and expulsion of members. In case of the death of a 
member, mourning was arranged to be worn for two weeks by the chapter 
to which the deceased had belonged. 

Extension was discussed with reference to one of the western state 
universities and several large eastern colleges. It was decided to "place 
chapters in conservatories of good musical standing as well as literary" 

Gamma Chapter was appointed to publish the first edition of an Alpha 
Chi Omega songbook in pamphlet form. 

For the first type of pledge pin, "a very small lyre stick pin with 
white enamel chapter head on it," was authorized. 

Matters of varying interest were discussed such as the frequency of 
conventions; the representation of Alpha Chi Omega at the World's Fair 
in Chicago, Mary Stanford and El Fleda Coleman being instructed to 
make plans therefor; the appointment of a committee to write an account 
of Alpha Chi Omega for Baird's Fraternity Record and for the World's 
Almanac. A pleasant interfraternity courtesy is briefly recorded thus: 
"A piano lamp, the gift of A T &'s Epsilon to Beta, was found in the hali." 

The delegates were: Alpha, Mrs. Best, Mayme Jennings, Ida Steele; 
Beta, Ethel Calkins, Lulu Keller; Gamma, Mary Stanford, El Fleda 
Coleman; Delta, Fern Pickard, Virginia Porter. 

The social features were: 

Second evening — Musicale at the home of Ja Nette Allen, to which 
the faculty, the fraternity, and other friends were invited. 

Third evening — Banquet at the Albion House. The convention was 
also entertained informally by Delta Tau Delta in their fraternity hall. 
Favors: Pansy stick pins (Pansy — the Delta Tau Delta flower) were pre- 
sented to the guests. 

Third National Convention 

Evanston, Illinois, was the scene of the Third National Convention, 
February 28 to March 3, 1894, Gamma Chapter being hostess, and Mary 
Stanford, T, chairman. 

Beta became in rotation the Grand Chapter, and the election of 
ofScers resulted thus: General President, Charlotte Weber, A; General 
Vice-President, Mayme Jennings, A; General Treasurer, Ella Strong, T; 
General Recording Secretary, Virginia Porter, A; General Corresponding 
Secretary, Irene Clark, B. 

The suggestion that the treasurer remain in the same chapter as long 
as possible was offered with the intention of giving the finances a settled 
basis for growth. The motion carried that "the present treasurer, Ella 
Strong, r, keep her office." 

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HiSTOBV OF Alpha Chi Omi 

Special discussion was de\'Oted to the initiation and installation cere- 
monies, and the system of membership card 6les was introduced whereby 
personal record of individual members could be conx'eniently maintained. 

The new price set for charters granted was twenty dollars. Discussions 
of desirable fields for extension resulted in the elimination of many 
colleges because of the fraternity's insistence on .good musical oppor- 
tunities as well as literary opportunities for stud)'. A letter from Los 
Angeles was read and discussed regarding a chapter at the Uni\-ersity of 
Southern California. 

Alpha was authorized to edit a fraternity journal, and Gamma 
announced the publication of the new songbook. 

The fact that Alpha Chi Omega was not represented at the World's 
Fair because of the report that "none of the fraternities were" impels 
us to compare the lack of intercourse in those days with the present close 
relation of every National Panhellenic Congress fraternity. 

The delegates were: Alpha, Mayme Jennings, Laura Marsh, Minnie 
McGill; Beta, Hatlie Lovejoy, Irene Clark, Cora Harrington; Gamma, 
El Flcda Coleman; Delta, Charlotte Weber, May Graham. 

The social features were: 

First evening — Informal gathering at the home of Miss Stanford. 

Second evening — Reception and musicale at the home of Miss 

Fourth National Convention 

Delta Chapter in Meadville, Pennsylvania, was hostess for the Fourth 
National Convention, April 8-10, 1896. The delegates convenc<l in the 
fraternity room, and the business sessions were presided over by Margaret 
Barber, A, chairman, and recorded by Lulu Johns, E. 

Epsilon and Zeta had been installed in the meantime and were repre- 
sented in the convention and given their share of responsibilities in the 
organization. The motion proffered that "Alpha be Grand Chapter 
always" is illustrative of the impossibility of legislating for eternity in 
the light of the fact that the following convention superseded the Grand 
Chapter system of government by creating a Grand Council. It was 
moved and carried that "a list of subjects to be discussed at convention 
be sent from each chapter to the General Secretary and that she send 
a list to the different delegates before they leave their chapters that they 
may fully know the desires of their chapters." Following is the result of 
the election of officers: General President, Mary Janet Wilson, A; General 
Recording Secretary, Ida Steele, A ; General Treasurer, Gertrude Ogden, A. 

The non-musical cheer was improved, and in addition a new musical 
-heer, formulated by Gertrude Rennyson, Z, was adopted. Both are 
ill in popular use. 

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Fourth National Convention 145 

The convention laid plans for installing chapters in different parts of 
the country. This extension work was, however, from necessity, left to 
individual chapters to carry forward in the absence of a central governing 
body. It is not surprising, therefore, that their really excellent plans 
"gang aft aglae," 

In the minutes of this Fourth Convention we find "Beta in favor of 
having a journal published periodically." Since the journal was again 
insisted upon, the convention took up the matter of financing a magazine, 
to be called The Lyre. Alpha was given authority to continue the work 
of publication and to decide upon the cover design and form. The bur- 
dens of the work were, nevertheless, wisely shared by all the chapters, a 
committee being "appointed in each chapter to take chaise of journal 

work, both financial and literary." Gamma Chapter was also ordered to 
publish the second edition of the songbook. 

The matter of fraternity jewelry was investigated in all its details. 
There was even the minor consideration of choosing a design for social 
stationery, and so a monogram was adopted "consisting of the Greek 
letters in center at top of page." 

The desire to substitute the broader term fraternity for sorority in 
designating the organization was, for a time, thwarted. The business 
sessions closed with a vote of thanks extended to the diflferent fraternities 
for sending flowers to the assembled convention. 

The delegates were: Alpha, Ida Steele; Beta, Josephine Parker; 
Gamma, Lillian Siller, Florence Harris; Delta, Gertrude Ogden, Florence 
Harper; Epsilon, Lulu Johns; Zeta , Barbara Strickler, Gertrude Renny- 

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148 HtsTOKT OF Alpha Chi Ohboa Futebnitt 

The social features were: 

Wednesday evening — Reception and musicale. 

Thursday evening — Reception at home of Mrs. Walter Harper. 

Friday afternoon — Receptions by Kappa Alpha Theta and Kappa 
Kappa Gamma in their fraternity rooms. 

Friday evening — Banquet at Commercial Hotel. 
Fifth National Convention 

The delegates to the Fifth National Convention were the guests of 
Alpha Chapter in Greencastle, Indiana. March 30-April 2, 1897. This 
time the sessions were conducted in Alpha's fraternity hall, and Mary 
Janet Wilson, President, took the chair with Ja Nette Allen Cushman as 

Promptness was urged upon the chapters in "responding to business 
tetters." Officers elected were: General President and Editor of Lyre, 
Mary Janet Wilson, A; General Secretary, Alta Allen. B; General Treas- 
urer, Gertrude Ogden, A. 

The convention placed the task of selecting a secret mot Co in the hands 
of Beta. 

Very businesslike arrangements were made regarding payment on 
November 1, February 1, and May 1 of national dues and receipts for the 
same by the Grand Treasurer who should henceforth hold office for two 
years. The Lyre was financially strengthened by the enforcement of 
subscription upon all active members. 

Here, too, the legislation was reversed which had temporarily allowed 
the entering of a conservatory of "gcxxl musical standing." Henceforth, 
as originally, chapters should be established only in institutions where a 
good college and a good conservatory were connected. 

The Fifth Convention moved and carried that "at least three jewels 
be required in the setting of the pin," exception being made "in the case 
of * * Deaconesses who desire plain pins." Three official jewelers were 
selected, and Alpha was appointed to copyright the badge. 

At this time the word sorority in the Constitution was changed to 
fraternity. Delta received orders to make arrangements for a register of 
Alpha Chi Omega to be placed at Chautauqua. Thanks were sent to 
Kappa Kappa Gamma for the courtesy of flowers sent to the convention. 

Delegates— Alpha, Helen O'Dell, Mildred Rutledge; Beta, Alta Allen, 
Ada Dickie; Gamma, Mabel Harriet Siller; Delta, Susanna Porter; 
Epsilon and Zeta not represented. 

The social features were : 

Tuesday evening — Lorelei Club Concert. 

Wednesday afternoon — Musicale at Music Hall. 

Wednesday evening — Reception in Ladies' Hall. 

Thur^ay afternoon — Reception by Kappa Alpha Theta. 

Thursday evening — Banquet at Mount Meridian "Half Way House." 



190 HtsToET OP Alpha Cai Ohiga Piatbxnity 

Sixth National Convention 
The Sixth National Convention was held with Beta Chapter in 
Albion, December 1-3, 1898, delegates being present from all the chapters 
except Eta. As Beta had occupied her own lodge for three years, the 
convention now assembled there. The sessions were presided over by 
Ada Dickie who substituted for Mary Janet Wilson, National President, 
and Ina Baum recorded the minutes. 

The motion that conventions be held "every two years" passed and 
has been constitutional ever since. A most important decision was made 
"that the grand officers compose the Grand Council and be the governing 
body of the fraternity." The Council, then, would consist of "Grand 
President, Grand Vice-President, Grand Secretary, Grand Treasurer, 
Editor of Lyre, and delegates from chapter with whom next convention 
is to be held." But a later motion was passed "that there be no chapter 
delegate in Grand Council," The election of Grand Council officers then 
resulted as follows: Grand President, Raeburn Cowger, A; Grand Vice- 
President, Winifred Bartholomew, 6; Grand Secretary, Ethel Eggleston, 
Z; Grand Treasurer, Gertrude Ogden, A; Editor of Lyre, Mary Janet 
Wilson, A. 

Hitherto every member had, wisely, been furnished with a copy of the 
constitution. It was now ordered that "each chapter have a typewritten 
copy of the constitution and by-laws which shall be read once every 
term." Mock initiations and courage 
tests, if used, were ordered on different 
nights from the formal initiation cere- 

The sentiment toward honorary 

membership, which was, in the early 

days an accepted custom in fraternity 

/ circles, had been very conservative, and 

at this convention crystallized into 

legislation that Alpha Chi Omega 

"have honorary members of national 

' repute only." Each chapter, it was 

decided, might have patronesses, who 

were "not to wear the pin or to have the 

privileges of the chapter." Associate 

members, too, were permitted them. 

Constructive measures were passed 

Rabburk Cowgbr Obsnchain. Alpha for the welfare of the fraternity maga- 

Oranri pnaHiBi, 11W-1 f" zine. The convcntion legislated that 

each chapter should "elect an associate 

editor who will compose the Editorial Board of The Lyre; Alumnn and 



1S2 HisToBV OF Alpha Chi Ouega Fraternity 

Exchange Editors to be elected from the chapter in chai^ of The Lyre. 
The motion carried that' all future Alpha Chis be compelled to take The 
Lyre and all members be earnestly urged to subscribe," 

The chair appointed Beta Chapter to define the significance of the 
badge, subject to the Grand Council. Again the question of nomenclature 
for a women's fraternity arose and "it was decided that each chapter be 
allowed to call itself either fraternity or sorority." 

The delegates were: Alpha, Raeburn Cowger; Beta, Ora Woodworth; 
Gamma, Ethel Lillyblade; Delta, Fay Bamaby; Epsilon, Stella Cham- 
blin; Zeta, Mary Johnson; Eta, not represented; Theta, Winifred 

The social features of the convention were: 

Thursday evening — Reception at the home of Miss Baum. 

Friday afternoon — Reception by Delta Gamma in their lodge. 

Friday evening — Musicale. 

Saturday afternoon — Tea given by Kappa Alpha Theta. 

Saturday evening — Banquet in the chapter lodge. 

Seventh National Convention 

December 6-9, 1900, was the time appointed for the assembling of 
the Seventh National Convention with Zeta Chapter in Boston. Spicie 
Belle South, Z, took the chair in the absence of Raeburn Cowger, A, 
National President. 

The following women comprised the second National Council of Alpha 
Chi Omega : Grand President, Raeburn Cowger, A ; Grand Vice-President, 
Spicie Belle South, Z; Grand Secretary, Mabel Sijjcr, T; Grand Treasurer, 
Florence Harper, A; Editor of Lyre, Edith Manchester, A. 

A change was made in the initiation ceremony by the order for robes 
to be worn at the service. 

The Seventh Convention arranged that two-thirds of the expenses of 
the Grand President and Grand Treasurer to the convention be paid 
by the Grand Treasurer. She was also ordered to pay off the debt of 
The Lyre. 

A forerunner of The Heraeum was introduced when the order was 
issued that "a private bulletin, discussing matters that cannot be 
published in The Lyre, be started by Alpha, circulating through all the 
chapters." Lyre legislation consisted of fixing the subscription price of 
the magazine at one dollar per year, and arranging that "there be a paid 
editor, the remuneration to be decided by the Convention." A complete 
register of all members was ordered to be kept by Alpha. 

J. F. Newman presented a diamond-shaped pledge pin for considera- 
tion, and it was accepted as the authorized style. 

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Virginia Fiske Green Imo Baker Bent 

Gruut Vin Fnodgnt. 190a-l«(U Cnnil BtatUrr. 1V07-IW8 

Gertrude H. Ocden Mavhe Jennings Roberts 

Gnnd Trcwucr, ISSS-ISM Onnd Vjn Pnidml, ISM-18H 

Editor Tin Lv. I8M 

Spicie Bell South 

Grud ViM Fraidul, IMO-IMM 

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154 HiSTORT OF Alpia C«i Oukga Fiatbrnitv 

The officers and delegates of the seventh National Convention were: 
President, Raebum Cowger, A (not present); Vice-President, Winifred 
Bartholomew, 6 (not present); 
Secretary, Elizabeth Eggleston, 
Z; Treasurer, Florence Harper, i 
(not present); Editor of Lyrt, 
Mary Janet Wilson, A. 

Delegates — Alpha, Mary Wit- 
son;Beta, KateCallcins:Ganima, 
Mabel Dunn; Delta, Alfa Moyer; 
Zeta, Spicie Belle South ; Theta, 
Virginia Fiske; Iota, Clara Gere; 
Eta, not repiesented. 

The social features were: 

Wednesday evening — Concert 
of Cecilia Society at Symphony 
Hall, followed bysupperin Zeta's 

Thursday evening — Musicale 
in Sleeper Hall, followed by a 
reception and dance by the Sin- 
fonia Society. 

Friday evening— Banquet in 
Florence E. Harper, l>tUa the chapter hall. 

Gniict TriMunr. ISW-IWK 

Eighth National Convkntion 

Since Theta and Iota were of too recent establishment to be prepared 
for the entertainment of a convention, Gamma was privileged to act as 
hostess again, October 29-November 1, 1902, at Evanston, Illinois. 
Raeburn Cowger conducted the business sessions which were held in the 
University Guild Rooms in Lunt Library. Mabel Harriet Siller was then 
Recording Secretary. 

The Grand Council, hereafter, was ordered to meet in the years 
alternating with convention as well as with that assembly. The office of 
Historian was an innovation to the Grand Council, and a subscription 
editor was added to The Lyre staff. Officers elected for the term from 
November, 1902, to January, 1905, were: Grand President, Kate Calkins, 
B; Grand Vice-President, Virginia Fiske, Q; Grand Secretary*, Alta 
Moyer, A; Grand Treasurer, Laura Howe, Z; Grand Historian, Raeburn 
Cowger, A; Editor of The Lyre, Edith Manchester, A. 

Several momentous changes were made at the Eighth Conven- 
tion. In the minutes of these sessions a few important reports of 


Eighth National Convestion 155 

committees and officers were given in full. Thus the present wise 
method followed in The Heraum was antedated in Alpha Chi Omega. 
A list of examination questions for pledged members before initiation was 
made out and accepted. This list appears above in the account of the 
development of the examination system in the chapter on government. 
For the initiated active members there was to be an annual examination 
upon the constitution and vital matters of Alpha Chi Omega, the ques- 
tions to be sent by the Grand Council upon request of the chapters and 
the answers to be submitted to the Grand Council. Reports of the 
examination grades were to be published in The Lyre. The Grand 
Council should hereafter issue a certificate of membership signed by the 
President and Secretary and by the local President and Secretary, each 
member to pay for her own card. An annual report from each chapter 
was required upon a uniform blank provided by the Council. Yet the 
most significantstep was taken when, in order to enable chapters to invite 
students without requiring them to carry a course in music, the important 
decision was made that Alpha Chi Omega should call herself a musical- 
literary fraternity, and that both musical and literary members be 
required to have full freshman standing before they should be eligible to 

A move toward the systematizing of extension work was the appoint- 
ment of "a committee on new chapters," composed of Kate Stanford, 
A, Marcia Clark, 6, and Mabel Dunn, T. In the future alumnze chapters 
as well as active chapters might be chartered and conducted under 
a definite organization. 

The finances of the National Treasury were now in a sufficiently pros- 
perous condition to warrant the decision to contribute a fixed sum 
annually toward the running expenses of The Lyre; and thus The Lyre 
became still more secure financially. A new edition of the songbook was 
ordered published. 

The first meeting of the Intersorority Convention had occurred five 
months before, but through a mistake Alpha Chi Omega had not been 
represented therein. The date of the second session of this progressive 
body was set for the following May (1903), and so Alpha Chi Omega now 
elected Miss Mabel Siller, P, as its delegate. 

Thanks were extended by convention vote to the University Guild, 
the Dean of Women, and the Dean of the Music School, for courtesies 
extended; to Kappa Alpha Theta and to Kappa Kappa Gamma for 
hospitality; and to Alpha Phi, Delta Delta Delta, and Delta Gamma 
for flowers sent to the convention. 

The officers and delegates were: Grand President — Raebum Cowger; 
Grand Vice-President — Spicie Belle South; Grand Secretary — Mabel 

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Ninth National Convention 


Harriet Siller; Grand Treasurer — Florence Harper; Editor of Lyre — 
^ith Manchester. 

Delegates — Alpha, Kate Stanford, Grace Guller, Sara Neal; Beta, 
Nella Ramsdell; Gamma, Carrie Holbrook; Delta, Anna Ray, Florence 
Harper; Zeta, Edith Manchester; Theta, Marcia Clark; Iota, Imo Baker, 
Lillian Heath. 

The social features were: 

Wednesday afternoon — Receptions by Kappa Alpha Theta and by 
Kappa Kappa Gamma. 

Wednesday evening — ^Musicale in Music Hall, followed by a reception 
to meet faculty and students. 

Thursday evening^Dance at the Evanston Boat Club. 

Friday afternoon— Thomas Orchestra Concert at the Auditorium, 

Friday evening — Hallowe'en supper at the home of Grace Richardson. 

Saturday afternoon — Reception by Gamma Phi Beta. 

Saturday evening — Banquet at the Audito-ium Annex, Chicago. 

Ninth National Co.wentiov 

On November 2-4, 1904, Delta entertained the convention assembly 
for the second time. The meet- 
ings of this Ninth Convention, 
held in Delta's Fraternity Hall, 
were conducted by Kate Calkins, 
Grand President. 

Another significant office in 
the Grand Council was created, 
that of Inspector. The chief 
duties of the incumbent were to 
visit each chapter once in two 
years, and to act as official dele- 
gate of Alpha Chi Omega in the 
Inter-sorority Conference. Ar- 
rangements were made for official 
delegates to represent the alum- 
na; chapters at conventions. The 
following officers were elected: 

Grand President, Kate Cal- 
kins, B; Grand Vice-President, 
Bertha Sackett, A; Grand Sec- 
retary, Virginia Fiske, 8; Grand 
Treasurer, Laura Howe, Z ;Editor 
of Lyre, Edith Manchester 



Tenth National CoN%tNTioN 159 

Griffin, Z; Grand inspector, Mar>- Jones Tennant, A; Grand Historian. 
Mabel Dunn Madson, F; Subscription Editor of Lyre, Mabel Gere, I. 

The convention appointed the Grand Council as a committee to 
revise the Bond, Constitution, and Ritual. It was decided that the 
Constitution should be public and the Ritual secret. As a precautionary 
measure, identification blanks were adopted for those who desired to 
procure badges. 

The motions carried that the fee for alumnse chapters and the expenses 
of delegates to convention be paid. 

Lyrt legislation took place to the effect that "active chapters send in 
subscriptions to The Lyre from alumnae members amounting in number 
to one-fourth the alumnae of the chapter." 

Consideration of the subject of an account of Alpha Chi Omega in 
Baird's edition of American College FraternUies resulted in appointing 
a representative who should "be sent to interview Baird with regard 
to his manual." 

Delegates — Grand Council, Laura Howe; Alpha, Adah McCoy; Beta, 
Jessie Blanchard; Gamma, Frances Meredith; Delta, Clara Lord; Zeta, 
Blanche Crafts; Theta, Florence Bobb; Iota, Ola Wyeth; Kappa, Edna 

The social features were: 

Wednesday afternoon — Reception by President and Mrs. Crawford at 
their home. 

Wednesday evening — Musicale at the College of Music. 

Thursday afternoon — Reception by Dr. and Mrs. Flood at their home. 

Thursday evening— Reception at the home of Miss Harper. 

Friday afternoon^Receptions by two sororities. 

Friday evening— Banquet at Saegertown Inn, 

Tenth National Convention 

Representing the nine active and two alumna; chapters, every delegate 
was present at the Tenth National Convention, November 1-3, 1906. 
Alpha, for the third time hostess, welcomed the visitors to her chapter 
house in Greene as tie. 

The important work of selecting a Grand Council of willing workers 
resulted thus: Grand President, Alta Allen Loud, B; Grand Vice- 
President, Marcia Clark Howell, G; Grand Secretary, Imo E. Baker, I; 
Grand Treasurer, Laura A. Howe, Z; Editor of Lyre, Elma Patton Wade, 
A; Grand Historian, Mabel H. Siller, V; Grand Inspector, Mary Jones 
Tennant, A. 

Theworkof revision of the Bond, Ritual, and Constitution, carried on 
by the Grand Council Committee, was accepted. In order that it should 
be necessary for the chapters with the liberal artsmembers in theascend- 



Elevbmth National Conventiok 161 

ant to limit a part of their membership to students carrying some 
musical courses, the following article of the constitution was adopted : 

"Any person of good character having finished a course in a secondary 
school, who is taking a regular course in music; * • in fine arts or In 
liberal arts * • (not to exceed 33)4%) '• who is carrying * * twelve 
hours of work and has had the equivalent of regular freshman music work ; 
any person who is taking twelve hours work, three of which are in regular 
music courses; may be initiated into the Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity." 

The system of Grand Council expense was mucli improved. 

An Assistant Editor for The Lyre was appointed and it was ordered 
that "each chapter be fined one dollar a week for every week that her 
material for Tke Lyre is overdue." 

The convention adopted a uniform die for the badge and asked the 
Grand Council "to look into the matter of having a crest designed for the 
use of the fraternity." 

The report of the fifth Inter-sorority Conference was made by the 
Alpha Chi Omega delegate, the Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant, and 
will be noted in the section of this book devoted to the Panhellenic move- 

Notes of appreciation were ordered sent to Dr. Hughes, Mr. Black, 
and other members of the faculty, and to fraternities for courtesies shown 
during the convention. 

The officers and delegates present were: Grand President, Kate 
Calkins; Grand Secretary', Marcia Clark Howell (not present); Grand 
Treasurer, Laura Howe; Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant; Grand His- 
torian, Mabel Harriet Siller; Editor of Lyre, Elma Patton Wade. 

Delegates — Grand Council, Laura Howe; Alpha, Edna Walters, 
Maude Meserve; Beta, Lulu B,abcock, Mildred Sherk; Gamma, Romaine 
Hardcastle ; Delta, Olga Henry ; Epsilon, Mrs. Louise Davis Van Cleve ; 
Zeta, Winifred Byrd; Theta, Edith Steflner; Iota, Jessie Mann, Kate 
Busey; Kappa, Hazel Alford; Alpha Alpha, MyrtaMcKcan Dennis; Beta 
Beta. Alta Roberts. 

The social features were: 

Wednesday evening — Concert at Meharry Hall. 

Thursday evening — Reception at the chapter house. 

Friday morning — Chapel Service. 

Friday noon — Luncheon at the College Inn. 

Friday afternoon — Musicale. 

Friday evening — Banquet at Florence Hall, 

Eleventh National Convention 
Certain legislative bodies stand out conspicuously because of 
tmtisual progreesive measures adopted. The Eleventh National Con- 


162 History or Alpha Chi Ouega Fraternity 

vention was one of these for Alpha Chi Omega. The sessions, held in 
lota's chapter house in Champaign, Itlinois, November 26-30, 1908. 
were presided over by Alta Allen Loud, Grand President, with con- 
scientious parliamentary observance so that much of importance was 
covered in a short time. There were present delegates from fourteen 
active and three alumna? chapters. 

Among matters pertaining to government were the following dis- 
cussions and decisions: Past Grand Presidents were to be allowed a vote 
in Grand Chapter meeting; "whenever expulsion of a member from the 
fraternity is recommended by the chapter involved," the matter was to 
be left to the Grand Council for action; recommendations from the 
Chapter House Committee for the regulation of the life of chapter houses 

Helen Wright Laura A. Howe Mary Jones Tennant 

Gnnd SmrUit. IKS fiiuipcs Muucn Tlu Lyn. igOT-lSOt Irupaelw. 1905-18I0 

Gmd Tmninr. IMU-IMt 

were submitted to those chapters concerned. The election of officers was 
conducted for the first time by the successful method of a nominating 
committee and resulted as follows: 

Grand President, Alta Allen Loud, B; Grand Vice-President, Fay 
Barnaby Kent, i; Grand Secretary, Frank Busey Soule, 1; Grand 
Treasurer, Myrta McKean Dennis, T; Editor of Lyre, Florence Reed 
Haseltine, Z; Grand Historian, Mabel H. Siller, P; Grand Inspector, Kate 
Calkins, B. 

Important improvements and additions in connection with the 
traditions, ceremonies, and constitution were numerous. Most note- 
worthy was the legislation in which the percentage of possible liberal 
arts members not studying music nor having a musical education equiva- 
lent to qualify for freshman music courses was increased to fifty per cent. 



164 HisTOBV or Alfsa Chi Omeca Fbatebnitt 

This action recognized by legislation what most of the chapters them- 
selves had long recognized ; namely, that the strength of Alpha Chi Omega 
lay primarily and necessarily in the liberal arts departments of the 
colleges rather than in the fine arts departments. Thus, by constitutional 
action, was established the ascendancy of the liberal arts over the fine 
arts in numbers, an ascendancy which had from early days been evident 
in a majority of the chapters represented. It was "made a constitu- 
tional requirement for the Inspector to secure an official report on the 
individual scholarship of each chapter annually, by March 1, and that 
chapter scholarship reports be secured at least each semester." 

A system of graded fraternity examinations was suggested and 
adopted in the following order: preentrance, first, second and third year. 
Each chapter was ordered to keep a card index directory and rollbook. 
The Grand Historian received instructions to prepare an Alumnae Letter, 
the expense of the same to be met by a chapter tax. A new chapter office 
was created, an Alumnx Adviser, who should be elected by each chapter to 
look after its interests and to conduct the fraternity examinations. Con- 
vention credentials, report blanks, affiliation certificates, and a secret 
motto were adopted, and Custodians for the Badge and the Songbook 
were appointed. The holly tree was chosen as the fraternity tree. Colors 
were ordered to be worn on such occasions as the installation of a new 
chapter, initiation. Founders' Day, and the chapter anniversary. 

The entire railroad expense of the Grand Council to Grand Chapter 
and Grand Council meetings was ordered paid from the Grand Treasury. 

Lyre reports showed excellent financial and literary condition. It was 
made a constitutional requirement that any chapter failing to send a 
chapter letter to The Lyre be fined therefor; and that each active chapter 
"send annually to Editor of The Lyre the plate for group chapter picture 
to go in TkeLyre." The Editor of TkeLyre was voted asalary.and was 
given the privilege of choosing her assistants. Instead of making each 
chapter responsible for twenty-five per cent of its alumnae Lyre subscrip- 
tions, the convention passed the requirement that each prospective 
member of Alpha Chi Omega pay upon initiation a five-year subscription 
in advance. Provision was made for the compiling of the first edition of 
a history of the fraternity. 

Thanks were voted to the official jewelers for gifts; to Dr. Moore and 
to the alumnx of Iota; to Kappa Kappa Gamma, Delta Gamma, Pi Beta 
Phi, Chi Omega, and other fraternities who had extended courtesies 
during the convention. 

The officers and delegates at the eleventh National Convention were: 
President, Alta Allen Loud, B; Secretary, Helen Wright, I; Treasurer, 
Laura Howe, Z; Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant, A; Historian, Mabel 
Harriet Siller, T; Editor of Lyre, Florence Reed Haseltine, Z. 


TwELrni National CoHvnmoH 163 

Delegates — ^Alpha, Edna Walters, Mayme Guild ; Beta, Florence Fall, 
Edna Newcomer; Gamma, Myrtle Jensen, Alice Watson; Delta, Louise 
Chase; Epsilon, Katherine Asher; Zeta, Evangeline Bridge; Theta, 
Irene Connell; Iota, Ruth Buffum; Kappa, Marguerite Bower; Lambda, 
Martha Lee; Mu, Ethel McFadon; Nu, Flora Goldsworthy; Xi, Lilah 
David; Omicron, Stella Morton, Grace Davenport; Alpha Alpha, Cor- 
delia Hanson, Kate Calkins; Beta Beta, Helen Dalrymple Francis; 
Gamma Gamma, Vii^nia Fiske Green; Delta Delta, not represented. 

The social features were: 

Wednesday evening— Informal gathering of Alpha Chis at chapter 

Thursday afternoon — Tea at home of Imo Baker. 

Thursday evening — Reception and dance at College Hall. 

Friday afternoon— Model initiation at chapter house. 

Friday evening — Musicale at Morrow Hall. 

Saturday afternoon — Tea at the home of Mrs. KaulTman. 

Saturday evening — Banquet at Beardsley Hotel. 

Twelfth National Convention 

The Twelfth Biennial Convention of Alpha Chi Omega was invited to 
meet with Theta Chapter at Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the year of 1910, 
but since faculty legislation did not allow conventions to assemble at any 
time during thecoUege year, and as fraternities did not follow the custom of 
offering their houses in vacation, and no other places among the homes of 
the chapter were available, it was unanimously decided to hold a summer 
convention in Detroit. Accordingly, on the 29th of August, 1910, the 
Grand Chapter assembled at the Hotel Tuller in that city for a period 
of five days, Theta and Epsilon Epsilon acting as joint hostesses. 

During that time the sessions were held in the assembly halls of the 
hotel, which remained throughout the convention the headquarters of 
the Grand Council, all delegates and many visitors. The success of this 
convention demonstrated the advisability of summer gatherings, and 
the matter of arranging for the Thirteenth Biennial Grand Chapter was 
therefore placed in the hands of an investigating committee within the 
Grand Council. Though not obliged to enact as important legislation as 
its predecessor, the Twelfth Grand Chapter, guided by Alta Allen Loud, 
Grand President, successfully dispatched its program of business and 
added many essential features to the general welfare of the fraternity. 

The most interesting, as well as important, matter of this convention 
was the unanimous adoption of the beautiful initiation ceremony, pre- 
sented by the Committee, Fay Barnaby Kent, Nclla Ramsdell Fall, and 
Virginia Fiske Green, with the assistance of Tlieta and Beta Chapters. 
The fraternity was also made richer by the acquisition of Hera as patron 



Twelfth National Convention 187 

goddess, an official flag, and the revised open motto, "Together let us 
seek the heights," a new charter form, new membership certificates, 
identification blanks for the purchase of badges, an honor pin for past 
Grand Officers, and instructions and model pages for chapter officers' 

For the first time the Grand Chapter discussed the question of the 
establishment of a Scholarship Fund, to supplement the funds of the 
Alpha Chi Omega Studio, which was reported practically finished; the 
matter was placed in charge of a committee, as were many other move- 
meiTts of present and future interest. The subject of extension received its 
usual amount of interested attention. But one out of several petitioning 
groups was granted a charter, and this conditionally on a still further 
personal investigation by the Grand Council. To handle this large and 
important subject of extension properly, and to assist the Vice-President, 
a committee was. appointed representing the various sections of the 
country. Another important feature of this Grand Chapter was the 
unanimous vote to grant 
limited legislative power to 
the National Panhellenic and 
the decision to go on record 
as favoring sophomore pledg- 

Officers and delegates pres- 
ent were : President, Alta 
Allen Loud; Vice-President, 
Fay Bamaby Kent; Secre- 
tary, Frank Busey Soule ; 
Treasurer, Myrta McKean 
Dennis; Inspector, Mary 
Jones Tennant; Historian, 
Mabel Harriet Siller; Editor 
of Lyre, Florence Reed Hasel- 

Delegates— Alpha, Harriet 
Lessig; Beta, Susie New- 
comer; Gamma, Esther Se- 

mans; Delta, WJIhelmina , 

Anderson, Ruth Dorworth; I 

Epsilon, Anne Shepard; Zeta, 
Annie May Cook; Theta, 

ij- .1. ■ * J I . Myrta M. Dennis (Mrs. R. B.j, Gamma 

Katnerine Anderson; Iota, 

Lucy Lewis; Kappa, Hazel Peterson; Lambda, Myra Jones; Mu, 
Myrtle Schimelfenig; Nu, Ethel Brown; Xi, Vema Hyder; Omicron, 




Thirtbenth National Convention 160 

Beulah Kinzer; Pi, Fay Frisbie; Alpha Alpha. Mary Voae; Beta Beta, 
Elma Patton Wade; Gamma Gamma, NeUa Ramsdell Fall; Epsilon 
Epsilon, Etta Mae Tinker; Delta Delta and Zeta Zeta not represented. 

The social features were: 

Monday, August 29 — Informal evening, Convention Hail. "Rush 
Party" and "Stunt Night" in charge of Theta Chapter. 

Tuesday, August 30 — Boat ride to St. Clair Flats. 

Wednesday, August 31 — Automobile ride. Convention Musicale, 
Roof Garden, Hotel Tuller. 

Thursday, September 1 — Convention picture. Chapter reunions. 
Convention dance. 

Friday, September 2 — Convention banquet. 

Saturday, September 3 — Trip to Ann Arbor. Visit to University and 
Theta Chapter House. Automobile ride. Luncheon, 

Thirteenth National Convention 
The Thirteenth Biennial Grand Chapter was entertained by Kappa 
and Eta Eta Chapters at Madison, Wisconsin, "on the shores of fair 
Mendota," from June 26-28, 1912. The meetings were held in the 
beautiful new women's building, Lathrop Hall. The outstanding busi- 
ness was the presentation of the revision of the constitution and code 
which had been thoroughly made by the committee, Mrs. Fall and Mrs. 
Green. This revision was put on trial until next convention and ordered 
printed. With the further changes made by the Fourteenth Biennial, 
the constitution and code were thoroughly suited to the needs of the 

Another step of great importance was the change in purpose of 
the Scholarship Fund to the Reserve Fund to meet any especial emer- 
gencies of the Grand Council or of active chapters. "A splendid 
spirit of codperation was shown from the moment the report of the 
committee was presented." The recommendation was adopted, "and in 
almost as short a time as it takes to write of it, pledges to the extent of 
$315 were secured — additional pledges soon swelled the amount to $327." 
Those "who helped make the Fund a possibility" were: Alta Allen Loud, 
Florence Reed Haseltine, Laura A. Howe, Evangeline Bridge Stevenson, 
Fay Bamaby Kent, Florence A. Armstrong, Winifred Van Buskirk 
Mount, Lois Smith Crann, Nella Ramsdell Fall, Elma Patton Wade, 
Frank Busey Soule, Estelle McFarlane Dunkle, Lillian Goulston Mac 
Masters, Edna Walters, Birdean Motter Ely, Jennie Oechsli Ha^art, 
Arminda Mowre, Edna Mowre, Jean K. Ripley, Lucile Schenck, Grace 
Morgan, Rachel Williams, and Margaret Letzter. The convention sur- 
plus of $334.99 was turned over to the Fund by the delegates, and the 
increase in the annual^per capita tax made possible an appropriation of a 




part of it for the Reserre Fund. The Committee announced that they 
had set the amount of $5,000 as a goal to be reached before the next 
convention. The purpose of the fund was stated to be loans to chapters 
for building and other purposes. Mu Chapter pledged her share in the 
profits of a recital to be given by Maud Powell in fndianola. It was 
understood that a Scholarship Fund would be established later, Mrs. 
Loud was persuaded to retain the chairmanship of the Reserve Fund. 

In order to familiarize initiates more thoroughly with the vows which 
theyhad taken, it was decided to hold a post-entrance examination on the 
ritual and ceremonies within two weeks after initiation. Uniform house 
rules were adopted. Action which should link together more closely in 
effort the council and chapters was the establishment of a trophy to 
"be awarded yearly by the fraternity under council supervision to the 
active chapter showing the greatest excellence in all fraternal relations." 

Four new charters had been granted since 1910 : Rho at the University 
of Washington ; Sigma at the University of Iowa; Tau at Brenau College 
Gainesville, Ga. ; Eta Eta Alumnx Chapter at Madison, Wisconsin. The 
publication of the fraternity history, one of the first and best of the 
histories of women's fraternities, was reported and welcomed. The Con- 
vention extended "a vote of sincere thanks to Miss Siller and Miss 
Armstrong, in particular, and to their able assistants, Mrs. Loud, Mrs. 
Dennis, Mrs. Haseltine, and Miss Vose, in compiling the History of 
Alpha Chi Omega." Appreciation was also expressed to Kappa Kappa 
Gamma and to Alpha Xi Delta fraternities for gracious courtesies 
extended during the convention. 

Increase in the per capita tax was made, a part of this tax"to constitute 
a convention fund, a part to go into the Reserve Fund," and a part for 
current expenses of the national organi7,ation. A special dispensation 
was made to hold the next convention three years hence, in 1915, in order 
that a greater number of members might attend a Pacific Convention, 
and a longer time might elapse for preparations to finance a coast assem- 
bly. Both the Berkeley Alpha Chi Omegas and the Los Angeles members 
strongly urged the convention to accept their respective invitations. 

The retirement from the Council of four invaluable members made 
the work of the nominating committee a very responsible task. The in- 
auguration of the province system of government, and the carrying into 
effect of the revised Constitution, a work which calls for large fraternity 
experience and wise generalship caused the insistent call for Mrs. Loud 
to take up again the work of national president. It was a clear, irresist- 
ible call which would not consider the personal desires and preferences 
of Mrs. Loud, but sounded over and over the one word. Duty; the dele- 
gates of active and alumnae chapters joined in a unanimous written 
petition to Mrs. Loud to consider the request favorably. To the great 


173 History of Alpha Chi Ouega FBATERNirv 

joy of the fraternity, Mrs. Loud responded to the need for her, and took 
up the work of National President of the fraternit>- for which she had 
already given whole-souled and epoch-making ser\'ice in the office from 

The election of officers resulted as follows: President, Alta Allen 
Loud; Vice-President, Winifred Van Buskirk Mount; Secretary, Birdean 
Motter Ely; Treasurer, Lillian Zimmerman; Editor, Florence A. Arm- 
strong; Inspector, Lois Smith Crann. Shortly after convention the resig- 
nation of Mrs. Mount was tendered as Vice-President, and Fay Barnaby 
Kent, the incumbent of the office since 1909, was prevailed upon, in spite 
of family illness, to perform the duties of that office for still another term. 
A hundred and eighteen members were registered at convention. The 
social pleasures included the convention banquet atwhich greetings were 
read from Alpha Phi, Kappa Alpha Theta, Pi Beta Phi, Delta Delta 
Delta, and Ida Shaw Martin; convention musicale; an automobile ride 
along Lake Monona; a launch ride on Lake Mendota; a play by Kappa 
Chapter; a convention dance; and a picnic and mating dance at Esther 

The following officers and delegates were in attendance: 
President, Evangeline Bridge Stevenson ; Vice-President, Nella 
Ramsdell Fall (for Mrs. Kent); Secretary, Helen A. Hardie; Treasurer, 
Winifred Van Buskirk Mount; Editor, Florence A. Armstrong; Inspector, 
Lois Smith Crann. 

Delegates — Alpha, Allene Nopper; Beta, Lucile Schenk; Gamma, 
Bess Wiley; Delta, Ruth Thomas; Epsilon, Clara Stephenson; Zeta 
Sara Helen Littlejohn; Theta, Helen E. Hilliker; Iota, Jean K. Ripley; 
Kappa, Ann Kieckhefer; Lambda, Bemice Taylor; Mu, Mary Shaw; 
Nu, Ernestine Faus; Xi, Flora Boyles; Omicron, Bertha Nusbaum; Pi, 
Ethel Beard; Rho, Jennie Rogers; Sigma, Margaret Kane; Tau, Emma 
Partlow ; Alpha Alpha, Hedwig Brenneman ; Beta Beta, Margaret Wynn ; 
Gamma Gamma, Nella Ramsdell Fall; Delta Delta, Olive Berryman; 
Epsilon Epsilon, Ora Woodworth; Zeta Zeta, Evangeline Bridge Steven- 
son; Eta Eta, Sarah Moi^an. 

Fourteenth National Convention 
The Fourteenth Biennial National Convention convened at Hotel 
Virginia, Long Beach, California, June 28— July 2, 1915. The convention 
special train had enabled the delegates from east of California to become 
acquainted, and discuss many questions of fraternity interest both with 
the Council and with each other. Business sessions moved much more 
quickly in consequence. From every point of view, the convention was 
the greatest in the history of Alpha Chi Omega. The attendance was 
the largest, since about 240 members were present, 234 of whom we.'e 


Fourteenth National Convention 173 

registered. The convention lasted five days, so that there was more 
time for the transaction of business. The work presented to the con- 
vention by committees in reports was more exhaustive than hitherto, and 
the ground covered quickly was thus very extensive. More petitions 
(19) were reported than at any previous convention. The first newspaper 
(the Daily Convention Transcript) was published, carrying the news of 
convention throughout the land. A larger number of national officers 
(more than one hundred) had been accomplishing results for the frater- 
nity than had been true at any former biennial. 

The delights of natural environment, needless to say, far surpassed 
those of other gatherings. It was felt deeply by all that the spirit of 
loyalty, enterprise, and idealism manifested throughout the session, and 
the definite progressive measures continued or inaugurated by the con- 
vention meant greater usefulness and power for the immediate future of 
Alpha Chi Omega. The Heraum and The Lyre for November, 1915, 
and the Daily Convention Transcript record from various points of view 
the details of the remarkable convention. Announcements of the special 
train, including the convention qrogram, had been sent to all members 
of the fraternity so that the interest in tlie assembly was widespread. 

The outstanding business was the broadening of our extension policy 
to include as eligible all first-class universities and colleges; a budget for 
national council expenses was adopted; the scholarship requirement for 
initiation was ordered to be adjusted in cases of great differ- 
ences in the marking systems in the different universities by a Na- 
tional Scholarship Committee created for that purpose. The office 
of Alumnae Vice-President was created, and the work of the Exten- 
sion Vice-President was restricted to extension work; a sole official 
jeweler for badges was decided upon and J, F. Newman and Co. was 
appointed; it was ordered that none but initiated members of Alpha Chi 
Omega be allowed to wear articles bearing the coat-of-arms. Initiates 
were required to purchase a badge within a specified time after initiation, 
and also to purchase a history, asongbook, and a directory, together with 
a life subscription to The Lyre by annual installment. These require- 
ments of initiates will render it very unusual for members of Alpha Chi 
Omega to be or to become uninformed and uninterested in the fraternity. 
They will in time, it is believed, eliminate forever "out-of- touch" alumnx. 

As provided at the preceding biennial convention, a Scholarship Fund 
was instituted and contributed to generously. A slight profit to the 
fraternity on each badge purchased was made possible by the con- 
centration of the manufacture of badges. This annual profit was devoted 
to the Scholarship Fund and will guarantee a steady increase to it. Other 
sources of income will in a short time be turned into the same channel. 
Other standing committees of significance which were created were the 



Fourteenth National Convention 175 

National Vocational Committee to assist members of the fraternity; 
and a Traditions Committee "to enforce the traditions of the fraternity 
in individual chapters." 

A second edition of the Alpha Chi Omega History was authorized to 
be written "from a combined personal and statistical standpoint," to be 
published in the fall of 1916. Miss Armstrong, editor of The Lyre since 
1910, was "asked to serve as author of the second edition of the History 
with full authority vested in her." 

The principal need of the fraternity, as reported by delegates and 
oflicers alike, was for wider alumnae organization. This need had been 
felt keenly since the passing of the first quarter century of fraternity life, 
during which period of development the greatest thought and care had 
been devoted to the undergraduate members. But with the enormous 
increase of alumnae membership the call for a further alumnae organization 
was too persistent to be ignored. The office of Alumnee Vice-President, 
who should form an alumnae association and foster alumnae organization, 
was created enthusiastically. The rapid growth of this department 
of Alpha Chi Omega through the last decade is related elsewhere in the 
present volume. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: National President, Alta 
Allen Loud; National First Vice-President, Lillian G. Zimmerman; 
National Second Vice-President, Maude Staiger Steiner; National 
Secretary, Mary-Emma Griffith; National Treasurer, Myra H. Jones; 
Editor The Lyre, Florence A. Armstrong; National Inspector, Lois Smith 
Crann (succeeded shortly by Nella Ramsdell Fall). 

The reports from four chapters who had taken definite steps toward 
chapter house ownership were of particular interest, as well as of ten 
others who were making plans toward the same goal. The following sum- 
mary of the work of the years immediately preceding the Fourteenth 
Biennial was given as part of the address of the President at the opening 
of the Convention. 

"The fact that we have been able to add to our roll eight new chapters 
and thirteen clubs testifies to the steady, consistent growth of our frater- 
nity. The membership in our alumna; organizations has more than 
doubled and the unusually large number of petitions and informal re- 
quests for consideration which have reached the Executive Committee 
prove the value of the systematic, efficient extension investigation which 
has marked the last three years. An Extension Board authorized at our 
1913 Council Meeting and composed of representatives from each state in 
the Union has been a powerful aid both to our expansion work and to an 
awakening of interest on the part of our alumnae women. A compara- 
tively new feature of alumnae work is found in a steadily increasing list of 
nonresident members. It may surprise some of you to hear that we now 


176 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fkaternitv 

have about one hundred women engaged in our national work. However 
we need many more workers and your president believes that the time 
is now at hand that the work of the Council can no longer be accom- 
plished by the few officers guiding its destinies but that we must find at 
once within our alumna; ranks a number of capable, devoted women who 
will enlist for national work, 

"The province government is stiii in its infancy but already it has 
justified itself. We have been unfortunate in having only two province 
presidents able to do the necessary traveling and inspection work of their 
office but all have done efficient desk work and have helped materially 
in bringing about a more careful oversight and loving understanding of 
our undergraduate memtiers. It is the lielief of your president, however, 
that in the future this province work should be given to young alumnae 
who will be able to inspect or assist in the extension work when needed. 

"Four appointments of interest have been made since the 1912 
Convention; that of Miss Meta Kieckhefer as deputy to the treasurer, 
Mrs. Steiner as deputy to the national vice-president. Miss Kathryn 
Morgan as keeper of supplies, and Miss Ann Kieckhefer as keeper of 
archives. Each of these women has rendered valuable assistance and as 
a result of their labors we have today a creditable convention fund made 
possible by the collection of alumnae notes, a thorough extension investi- 
gation and recommendations for a definite expansion policy, a well- 
organized, workable system of official supplies, and the archives of the 
fraternity safely stored and catalogued. 

"The work of systematization has been well carried on as is shown in 
the adoption of a uniform filing system, the publication of rushing rules 
and outline of study, the revision of chapter officers' instructions, a 
revised, graded system of examinations, the revision and publication 
of a book of ceremonies and prescribed forms, the publication of alumnse 
by-laws, the adoption of a new seal, the adoption of uniform handbooks 
and the appointment of the George Banta Publishing Company as our 
official supplies firm. It has been the intention of the present Council 
to adopt thoroughly businesslike methods in the work of our national 

"I always find difficulty in repressing my enthusiasm when speaking 
of our fraternity journal which, under the efficient management of our 
editor, has become a publication of which we are very proud and which 
fully represents the standards of our fraternity. Since Miss Armstrong 
will not mention these things in her report, I take pleasure in telling you 
that fraternity leaders constantly speak of The Lyre as one of the 
very best fraternity journals, while Mrs. Martin, editor of the Soronty 
Handbook, does not hesitate to pronounce it the very best journal pub- 
lished by a woman's fraternity. 


Fourteenth National Convention 177 

"The Argolid has been inaugurated and four volumes have thus far 
appeared. This private journal has been helpful but its length and 
infrequent appearance have militated against an enthusiastic welcome 
on the part of our members. The recent purchase of a mimeograph will 
enable much more frequent publication of the Argolid and it is the hope 
of your president that it may be a monthly or even semi-monthly visitor 
next year. In this way it will be possible to keep our members informed 
as to the doings of the national workers and we believe that with such 
knowledge will come a greater interest and enthusiasm. 

"Two calendars have been published, by Kappa and Delta Chapters, 
respectively. A new songbook of which we are very proud and which we 
hope you will thoroughly test at this convention has been piiblished and 
investigations regarding the feasibility of a new edition of our history 
have been made. 

"Financially — thanks to the splendid ability and untiring efforts of 
our treasurer — Alpha Chi Omega is in the best condition she has ever 
known. With possibly two exceptions, every chapter will report entire 
freedom from indebtedness, a goodly number have creditable beginnings 
on house funds, and two of our chapters are to tell us of actual accomplish- 
ments in the matter of house-ownership. 

"The Lyre business manager will tell you of a splendid Lyre Reserve 
Fynd, and the National Reserve Fund Committee has a happy report to 
make. In the matter of material possessions Alpha Chi Omega has 
received a very low ranking; but while we have, indeed, been desirous of 
stressing the more vital things of fraternity, we are glad to report chapters 
and the national organization on a sound financial basis which will enable 
us to branch out and accomplish some of the broadening altruistic work 
which we have longed to do. 

"For the past three years the Council has worked incessantly for an 
intensive development of our members, and with this in view we have 
earnestly stressed three points: Scholarship, a loyal participation in 
college activities, and an earnest representation in the Christian life and 
WOTk in the various institutions where we are represented. I am confi- 
dent that the ruling as to the required participation in college activities 
and our deferred initiation with a definite scholarship requirement have 
furnished the necessary impetus to our younger girls and have brought 
us the kind of recognition we desire from student bodies and university 
authorities. The list of honor students for 1914-15 is most encouraging. 
It has been gratifying to learn of the growing interest in the Christian life 
of the school on the part of most of our chapters and I am sure you will 
rejoice with me when I tell you that during the three years just closed 
Alpha Chi Omega has had six Y. W. C. A. presidents and eighty-four 
members of Y. W. C. A. cabinets. 


178 History op Alfba Chi Omega Fraternity 

"The past three years have in the upiniun of your president been the 
best in the history of the fraternity. Progress has marked e\'ery phase of 
the work. The work of my office could not have been continued without 
the splendid support of my co-workers and the loyal response of our 
thirty-three chapters." 

The social features of the convention were most delightful. They 
included a beach supper, chapter stunts, and a launch ride on the sea; 
the Mission Play at San Gabriel; an automobile tour through the en- 
virons of Los Angeles; the convention musicale followed by a reception; 
the convention pageant by Doris E. Mclntyre, at Blxby's Park ; the chap- 
ter reunions; the convention dance; and the convention banquet. 

The officers and delegates present were as follows: President — ^Alta 
Allen Loud; Vice-President — Fay Bamaby Kent; Secretary — Birdean 
Motter Ely; Treasurer — Lillian Zimmerman; Editor — Florence A. 
Armstrong; Inspector — Lois Smith Crann. 

Delegates — Alpha, Margaret Robinson; Beta, Esther Barney, May 
Darrow; Gamma, RuthNeal, Florence Tyden ; Delta, Marguerite Beatty, 
Agnes Van Hoesen; Epsilon, Ruth Eveland; Zeta, Mildred Rutherford; 
Theta, AdeleWestbrook, Alice Blodgett; Iota, Gretchen Gooch ; Kappa, 
Louise Hudson, Floy Humiston; Lambda, Pauline Griffith; Mu, Phyllis 
Phillips; Nu, Mary McGehee; Xi, Clara McMahon; Omicron, Hazel 
McClure; Pi, Doris Mclntyre, Coe McCabe; Rho, Arlie Anderson, Dora 
Fredson; Sigma, Pauline Peters; Tau, Lee Cheney; Upsilon, Martha 
Redmon; Phi, Leonora Jennings; Chi, Geraldine Newins. 

Special features of convention : 

Monday — Exemplification of the Ritual by Rho Chapter; beach 
supper, chapter stunts, and launch ride. 

Tuesday — Mission Play at San Gabriel. 

Wednesday^ — Automobile tour through environs of Los Angeles; 
convention musicale followed by informal reception. 

Thursday — Convention pageant written by Doris Mclntyre, Pi, 
and produced by Pi Chapter, Bixby's Park; chapter reunions; conven- 
tion dance. 

Friday — Convention banquet in Gothic dining-room of the Hotel 

Fifteenth National Conventio:^ 

"Long Beach — 1915; Chicago — 1919. What a stretch in years as well 
as in distance; four years in which the interest of every member has been 
at high note from the recent war. But now with the signing of the 
Armistice our activities regain their normal trend and hence — our long- 
deferred convention." The chapters who were to entertain the conven- 
tion in 1917 again planned out the details of a meeting of the national 



ISO HisToiy OF Alpha Chi Ouega Fratbrnity 

chapters, Alpha, Gamma, Alpha Alpha, and Beta Beta — and true to 
Alpha Chi Omega form, gave us the best convention ever held. 

The business achievements of the 1919 Convention are given in full 
in the Heraum of November, 1919. 

One of the most gratifying points brought out by the reports of officers 
was the growth of the fraternity special funds and of the national treas- 
ury. The Reserve Fund passed the SIO.OOO mark, the Scholarship 
Fund, begun in 1915, totaled nearly |4,000, and The Lyre Reserve Fund 
showed an accumulation of about ^7,000, the combined resources repre- 
sented by the three funds then exceeding (20,000. When it is recalled 
that in 1910 The Lyre had but $100 in its savings account and the other 
funds had not come into existence, the financial progress revealed by the 
figures just given is realized. 

A need of the fraternity which had been felt by national officers and 
chapters alike was met at this convention by the establishment of the 
central office of Secretary-Editor at a salary which would enable the 
incumbent to give her entire time to fraternity business. The rapidly 
increasing volume of correspondence that passes over the desks of national 
officers each year and the greater complexity in fraternity administration 
had made a trained executive, capable of bringing about centralization 
of responsibility, not only desirable but imperative. The Council 
especially felt that without such a full-time paid officer, the fraternity 
would be greatly hampered in its development. The creation of the 
office of Secretary- Editor, therefore, if properly carried out, may be con- 
sidered one of the important steps taken by the 1919 Convention. 

The office of Secretary- Editor combines the duties of National Secre- 
tary, Editor, and Business Manager of The Lyre, keeper of supplies, and 
such other duties as seem desirable from the standpoint of efficient 
administration. The Secretary-Editor was empowered to appoint a 
deputy from each of the provinces to aid her in her work. 

An important detail of chapter organization was perfected in the 
pamphlet on pledge organization prepared by Mrs. Fall and distributed 
during convention. This pamphlet gives a form to be followed in con- 
ducting meetings of pledges, and should be of much help to chapters 
in developing this vital phase of chapter life. 

The terms of the Scholarship Fund were made more liberal by lower- 
ing the interest rate from 5 to 3 per cent, and by giving girls who take 
advantage of the fund an option of two methods of payment: (1) In full 
within two years after leaving college, with interest at 3 per cent; (2) in 
monthly installments of $10 without interest, beginning three months 
after graduation and continuing until the entire debt is cancelled. It 
was also provided that when the fund has reached $10,000, one-half is 
to be set aside as an endowment fund, the interest only to be used, and 
the other half to be kept in circulation as at present. 


Fifteenth National Convention 181 

Alpha Chi Omega strengthened her representation in the Panhellenic 
world by a provision authorizing the appointment of a long-term Na- 
tional Panhellenic Congress Delegate, thus separating the offices of 
National Inspector and N. f. C. Delegate. This provision will obviate _ 
the disadvantage of changing the N. P. C. Delegate whenever a new 
inspector is elected. As familiarity with National Panhellenic Congress 
procedure, which can be gained only by frequent attendance at its ses- 
sions, is an essential qualification of a competent delegate, the wisdom 
of this provision will be recognized. The National Inspector was author- 
ized to attend sessions of the Congress, in order that she might be better 
fitted to meet local Panhellenics during her visits. 

At the 1919 Convention the work and the place of the alumnae assumed 
new importance and significance. Miss Zimmerman's report showed 
that the altmince, for the first time in the history of the fraternity, were 
well organized and that they had accomplished much in four years, both 
in war work and in service for the fraternity. That they were ready for 
further service was shown in the alumnae meeting at which all delegates 
expressed their desire for some form of national altruistic work to be 
adopted by the fraternity. This feeling crystallized during convention 
in the authorization of a committee to investigate possibilities for some 
form of national altruistic service to be undertaken by the alumnae, and 
to make a report in the fall. It was recognized that the plans of such a 
committee necessarily would have to be carefully laid, since the form of 
service to be adopted should fill a permanent not a temporary need of the 
country, and its appeal should be as compelling in the future as at the 
moment of adoption. 

In developing plans for this new work, however, the fraternity had 
no intention of abandoning the orphans from its two French districts. 
Through the vivid words of Mrs. Graff, chairman of the French Orphan 
committee, the need of continuing our support of these orphans was 
shown to be as great now as during the war. The convention recognized 
the continued responsibility of the fraternity for the orphans it had 
supported during the past two years, by voting to continue and to increase 
largely its support during another two years, when the French govern- . 
ment would doubtless be able to take over the responsibility. During 
this period, it was thought, the plans for the permanent service to be un- 
dertaken would be in a more or less formative stage, but after two years 
would have so developed that the entire altruistic effort of the fraternity 
could be concentrated in one permanent form of service. 

In recognition of the debt of gratitude which the fraternity owes 
to its members who responded to the call for overseas service, the con- 
vention voted to present to each overseas worker an appropriate gift, 
the selection of which was left in charge of a committee. A bronze 


182 HisTORv OF Alpha Cm Okega Fraternity 

tablet bearing the names of our many overseas workers will be placed 
in the archive room of the Alpha Memorial House. 

The convention very fittingly completed the gift made to the artists' 
colony at Peterboro, New Hampshire, by voting $1,000 for a permanent 
endowment of Star Studio, for the maintenance and upkeep of the studio, 
Elthea Snyder, Gamma, was chosen to occupy one of the studios at the 
Colony in the summer. Miss Snyder is the second member of our 
fraternity to be given this honor, Miss Armstrong having worked on the 
history in Star Studio in 1916, 

In the report on the history it was announced that the present edition 
would be exhausted within two years. The convention authorized the 
writing of a new edition, with Miss Armstrong as author, to be ready 
at the exhaustion of the present edition. 

A change "in the requirements for new alumnx organizations was 
made by providing for twenty instead of twelve names on petitions for 
alumnfe chapters, and ten instead of six names for alumnse clubs. Dues 
for alumnx clubs were placed on the per capita basis, fifty cents being 
due annually from clubs for each member, instead of $5.00, the uniform 
amount of dues from all clubs previously. Thus the national obligations 
of clubs are now proportioned according to their numbers and strength. 

An action of chief interest to active chapters was the appointment of 
two new firms as novelty jewelers, the Burr Patterson Company, which 
was authorized to make novelty jewelry; and L. G, Balfour Company, 
which was given the privilege of selling novelty jewelry and stationery. 
The J. F. Newman Company was retained as sole official jeweler for the 
badge and pledge pin for the following two years, with the understanding 
that the company fulfill certain definite conditions to be prescribed by a 

A committee was appointed to select designs for uniform china for use 
in chapter houses, the use of such china to be optional. 

No movement projected by the convention aroused more discussion 
than the plan for the Alpha Memorial Home to be erected at Green- 
castle, Indiana, as a memorial to our founders. The house is to be built 
by Alpha Chapter for use as a chapter home, but in addition there are to 
be several features of interest to every member of the fraternity. In the 
basement of the house a fireproof room will be constructed for the storing 
of the fratcrniiy archives. For this purpose the fraternity voted $500, 
or as much more as may be needed, to be paid in two yearly installments. 
The need of a permanent and safe home for the archives has been recog- 
nized for some time, and the convention felt that it was most fitting for 
Alpha, the mother chapter, to have them in custody. 

There is also to be an alumnae room or rooms in which any alumnae, 
without regard to chapter, will be made welcome. This room is to be 


FiPTEBNTH National Convention 183 

furnished by the members of Alpha Chi Omega as a gift to Mrs. Loud 
as an expression of affection and in appreciation of her remarkable service 
to the fraternity, and will be designated the Alta Allen Loud room. 

Keen regret was expressed by all visitors that so many members of 
the Council must be relieved of national service: Mrs. Loud, who had 
completed eleven years of service as National President; Miss Arm- 
strong, fw nine years editor of The Lyre; Miss Zimmerman, who in 
her seven years on the Council had filled two poaitions, serving three 
years as National Treasurer, and four years as Alumnae Vice-President; 
Mrs. Fall, who had given the fraternity four years of service as National 
Inspector; and Mrs, Steiner, who completed four years as Exten^on 
Vice President. 

The nominating committee presented the following slate for the com- 
ing term, which was adopted by the convention : 

National President, Elizabeth Dunn Prins, I ; Alumnae Vice-President 
Myra H. Jones, A ; Extension Vice-President, Myma Van Zandt Bennett, 
*; Secretary-Editor, Mary-Emma Griffith, A; National Treasurer, 
Gretchen O. Starr, P; National Inspector, Gretchen L. Gooch, I. Of 
these newly elected officers, three had seen service on the National 
Council and were familiar with its methods and policies; and two had 
national experience as province presidents. 

A risum^ of the progress of the fraternity during the four years 
preceding the 1919 Convention is contained in the National President's 
report to the convention, excerpts of which are given below: 

Under the efficient direction of Mrs, Fall, the province system has been splendidly 
developed. Several changes in personnel of province presidents have been necessary, 
but it is a pleasure to report the presence at this convention of all five preudents, each 
of whom has rendered loyal and efficient service in her province. In the last four yeara 
nearly every chapter has been visited by the National Inspector and every group ha* 
had a visit from a national officer, while several have received the favor of a number of 
such visits. I feel that most of the gaps between our chapters and national officers have 
been bridged and that today there exists the best understanding and general relation 
between active girls and Council members that have been known in the history of the 

Some changes in national workers have been made necessary and I am pleased 
to report the following appointments made since 1915: 

Miss Myra Jones, Deputy to National Editor; Miss Mary LawHn, Deputy to 
National Treasurer; Miss Beatrice Oakley, Official Examiner; Mrs. Elna Clifford Sweet, 
Equipment Officer; Miss Louise Chase and Miss Virginia Sanderson, Custodians of 
Badge; Mrs. Estelle MacFarlane Dunkle and Miss Jessie Cushman, Custodians of Song- 

Progress has marked every department of the fraternity in the last four years. 
Among the achievements that can be recorded are: 

The successful working out of sole official jeweler plan with a new system of order 
blanks and entire change of methods, which has meant reduced prices and better service 
for chapters and a goodly proRt for the Scholarahip Fund; equipment of province 


184 History of Alpha Chi Ombca Fkatbkmitt 

presidenta and alumiue adviaera with uniform handbooks and inatructions; formulating 
of inatructions and outline of proceedinga for both extension workera and instaliing 
officer*; completing of all olGcera' equipment^ revision of Ruihing Rules, Constitution 
and Code, and Initiation Service; uniform chapter stationery; inauguration of budget 
system for chapter finances; successful working out of Lyre life subscription plan; dual 
membership with Mu Phi Epeilon; perfecting of pledge oiganization ceremony and 
inatructiona to be presented at thia convention; new recognition pin; five new chapter 
houaea and aeveral chaptera in poosession of good-aized house funds; new edition of the 
Songbook; aplendtd new edition of our fraternity History, written at the Star Studio 
by our talented author and Editor, Mias Armstrong; successful inauguration of and 
splendid results from Schotarahip Fund; fine growth of Lyn and general fraternity Re- 
serve Funds; financial condition best in history of fraternity; noteworthy patriotic 
service which has enabled us to own thousands of dollars worth of Liberty Bonds, render 
distinctive service by chaptera and individual members to Red Cross, and take care 
annually of nearly 100 French orphans; and finally, definite establishment as one 
of the very best general women's fraternities, on the aame basis as other general frater- 
nities, but enriched by our musical traditions and our love for the Fine Arts. 

The Lyre has maintained its high standard and the fraternity is fortunate indeed 
in having retained for a period of nine years our devoted, gifted Editor, Miaa Armstrong, 
whose graduate work at RadclifTe and summer at the MacDowell Colony have brought 
her a much deserved recognition. The Argoltd has farmed a needed connecting link 
between chaptera and Council, The Heritum has kept the fraternity membership in touch 
with work of the National Council, and the monthly letters between province presidents 
and their chaptera have done much to break down barriera and establish a happy 
relation between chapters and national officers. 

Perhaps the most noteworthy achievement of the four years has been that of 
the alumnx organiution and work. A surprisingly lar^ number of alumnK clubs 
have been organized. Many alumnae have been brought into the chaptera and clubs, 
in spite of war conditions, and with the better ot^nixation has come a quickening 
of interest that has been truly gratifying. There has been developed a card catalogue 
system for the entire fraternity and a Directory, arranged by chapters and geographically 
has been published. There has been a much appreciated response on the part of our 
alumn« and the devoted thanks of the fraternity are due our capable Alumme 
Vice-President, Miaa Zimmerman, and her committee, for strengthening one of the 
weaknesses so frankly admitted at our 1915 convention, that of alumnae organization 
and interest. 

The extension work under the able direction of Mrs. Steiner, assisted by the mem- 
bera of the Extension Board, has been efficiently conducted. That we have been able to 
add to our roll seven new chapters and 19 clubs teatifies to the steady, consistent growth 
of Alpha Chi Omega. That the fraternity occupies an enviable place in the Greek-letter 
world is evidenced by the large number of informal petitions and requests for considera- 
tion. Extension investigationa have been made at approximately 25-30 institutions 
and had we cared to abandon our policy of conservative extension a chapter roll twice 
as large as our present one would be possible today. 

Thanks to the careful management of our two Treasurera, the fraternity is in 
the best financial condition ever known. VTith one or two possible exceptions, delegates' 
reports will show entire freedom from indebtedncsa except in cases of those chapters 
which have borrowed money for house building or furnishing purposes. This convention 
will be entirely financed by the Convention Fund, leaving a splendid balance in the 
national treasury and invested in Liberty Bonds. Our three special funds. Scholarship, 
Reserve, and Lyre Reserve, total over (22,000. It is with justiliable pride that the 


FiPTBENTR National Comventiom 185 

retiriiiK officers contemplate turaing over the work to their succcaaors with the fraternity 
on to •ound a fiiuDcial basis. 

For the past four years the Council has continued to work for the intensive develop- 
ment of our membcTB and we have earnestly stressed the following points: scholarship, 
devotion to the college and participation in its best activities, everyday development of 
the Hera Day spirit of unsel&sh, altruistic service, an intense spirit of patriotism and 
devotion to our country's need, and an earnest representation in the Christian life and 
work in the various institutions where we are represented. The list of honor students 
is encouraging, deserved recognition in the way of college officers and honors has come 
to many of our girls, our members have given loyally of their time, strength, money, 
themselves, to patriotic service, and I know you will rejoice when I tell you that during 
the last four years Alpha Chi Omega has had 16 Y. W. C. A. presidentsand 233 members 
of Y. W. C. A. cabinets. 

The past four years have, in the opinion of your President, been the beat in the 
history of the fraternity. Every department of work has shown marked development. 
It has been a privilege to serve yon during this important period in the world's history. 
We Iiave worked under abnormal conditions, have found unusual trials and difficulties, 
but the spirit of Alpha Chi Omega has remained triumphant and success has crowned 
our efforts. The work of my office could not have been continued without the splendid 
support of my co-workers and the loyal response of our forty chapters. 

Intensive development, constructive growth, and external recf^ition have char- 
acterized the term just closing. We have builded wisely, have gone forward, but much 
remains to be accomplished, and we must work unceasingly if we are to keep Alpha Chi 
Omega in her rightful place among the leaders in the Greelc-Ictter world. There is im- 
portant work to be accomplished at this convention and I appeal to you, 1919 Conven- 
tion delegates and visitors, to do your full part in the way of loyal cooperation and 
loving service as we continue in our journey toward the Heights. The hostess chapters 
have provided a most attractive social program which we wish you to enjoy to the 
utmost. We want this to be a joyful convention. We have not had this inspiration of 
a national meeting for four years and must make up in full measure for the loss. May I 
urge you at this Rrst session to remember that you are not among strangers, but with 
your sisters in the Bond? May chapter interests be submerged In the larger interests 
of the national organization. May there be no Elast, no West, no North, no South — 
just Alpha Chi Omega. We want you to learn to know each other well, to seek out the 
girls from other chapters, and to avoid everything that might savor of localism, so that 
when the week is over you may return to your homes, enriched by new experiences, fresh 
information, happy memories of typical Alpha Chi Omega good times, true friendships 
which will enrich your lives, and an inspiration which shall be lasting. Let us play hard 
in our good times and work hard during business sessions. Need I remind you, officers, 
delegates, visitors, that we are convened for a serious purpose and that we shall fail in 
that purpose unless we work together loyally in the solving of problems that confront 
us, and if we do not pass such legislation as will make for a greater, better sisterhood.' 

There is important constructive work to be done at this convention. We expect 
you to be prompt and loyal in your attendance at every business session. I ask of each 
official delegate, preparation, promptness, a brief, clear expression of honest opinions 
and convictions, open-mindedness, faithfulness in the discharge of every duty, and a 
^^PPXa ioyal acquiescence iA the will of the majority. 

The Fifteenth National Convention enrolled the greatest number 
of visitors in the history of the fraternity. The registration Wednesday 
morning showed 383 members from different active and alumnae groups. 


186 HisTOKv or Alpha Cai Ohbga FzATERNnY 

The national officers and delegates present were: National President, 
Alta Allen Loud; First Vice President, Lillian G. Zimmennan; Second 
Vice President, Maude Staiger Steiner ; Secretary, Mary-Emma Griffith ; 
Treasurer, Gretchen L. Gooch; Inspector, Mrs. Frank A. Fall; Editor, 
Florence A. Armstrong; Business Manager Lyre, Nell E. Harris; Atlantic 
Province President, Gladys Livingston Graff; Eastern Province Presi- 
dent, EI Fleda Coleman Jackson; Central Province President, EmaGold- 
Schmidt; Western Province President, Myma Van Zandt Bennett; 
Pacific Province President, Gretchen O. Starr. 

Delegates — ^Alpha, Mary Mutschler; Beta, Carla Kennedy, Gertrude 
Pratt; Gamma, Vera Comeliussen; Delta, Anna Nelson, Ruth Lermann; 
Epsilon, Jeanette Green; Zeta, Caroline Rice, Naomi Bevard; Theta, 
Jean Butcher; lota, Caroline Manspeaker, Elizabeth Bailey; Kappa, 
Lucile Nutter; Lambda, Olga Johnson; Mu, Mary Bingaman; Nu, Helen 
Sloane; Xi, Fae Breese; Omicron, Elizabeth James; Pi, Vera Chatfield, 
Miriam Marks; Rho, Frances Martin; Sigma, Gladys James; Tau, Lois 
Holt; Upsilon, Mildred Wiley; Phi, JuneCaffrey; Chi, Irene Brye; Psi, 
Frances Miller, Amy Remmers; Omega, Ada St. Peter; Alpha Beta, 
Ramoth Huff, Greta Lowman; Alpha Gamma, Gladys Hayden, Pearl 
Hayerford; Alpha Delta, Mary Ann Reis; Alpha Epsilon, Helen Bailey; 
Alpha Alpha, Martha Bennett ; Beta Beta, Faye Silver ; Gamma Gamma, 
Ruth E. Hutchins; Delta Delta, Marion Moses; Epsilon Epsilon, Vera 
Fox; Zeta Zeta, Blanche Brocklebank; Eta Eta, Mary Sayle; Theta 
Theta, Rue R. Clifford; Iota Iota, Mrs. Lloyd T. Coder; Kappa Kappa, 
Mary Bardwell; Mu Mu, Agnes Hertzler. 

Special features of convention : 

Tuesd ay — Musicale. 

Wednesday — Chapter reunions; convention dance. 

Thursday — Evanston Day — ^automobile trip to Evanston; dinner at 
Evanston Woman's Club; Gamma pageant. 

Friday — Stunt night. 

Saturday — Matinfie; banquet. 

Eastern Province Convention 
The Eastern Province Convention, the first convention to be held by 
any province of Alpha Chi Omega, was entertained by Beta Beta at the 
Claypool Hotel, Indianapolis, Indiana, February 26 and 27, 1921. At 
the business session of the convention which was held Saturday morning 
February 26 talks were given on the following topics: Our contempo- 
raries, Francis Marks; Fraternity examinations, Eva Sutton; Chaperon 
and house rules, Minnie M. Kimball; Oi^anized state rushing, Daisy 
Wedding. The morning session ended with round table discussions by 
active and alumnte members. For these discussions members were 


Atlantic Province Convbntios 187 

riivided into active and alumnx groups. The convention went on record 
as favoring, for trial, an organized system of rushing for the province, 
the details to be worked out by a committee. The national altruistic 
work was also endorsed and the convention voted to support it as a 
province. The proposed Alpha Chi Omega European tour was dis- 

The total number of guests and delegates at the Easterti Province 
Convention was J43. The national officers and delegates present were: 
Eastern Province President, Helen Woods Bamum; Deputy Province 
Secretary, Bess Sanders. 

Delegates — Alpha, Mary Louise Stork; Beta, Beatrice Austin ;Theta, 
Bemice Rowe; Alpha Beta, Pauline Lewis; Alpha Delta, Mildred Brazel- 
ton ; Alpha Eta, Clara Johnson ; Ann Arbor Alumnse Club, Maude Kleyn ; 
Alliance Alumnae Club, Marjorie James; Greensburg Alumnae Club, 
Margaret Robinson Wyant; Greencastle Alumnse Club, Ella Mahanna; 
Monticello Alumnx Club, Raebum Cowger Obenchain. Three founders 
were present, Olive Burnett Clark, Anna Allen Smith and Estelle Leon- 

The social features of the convention were luncheon and dance, which 
were combined with the annual state luncheon and dance given by 
Beta Beta; informal reception. On Sunday the visitors and delegates 
went to Greencastle, Indiana, as the guests of Alpha Chapter. 

Atlantic Province Convention 

The Atlantic Province Convention, the second of the fraternity's 
series of province conventions, met at Wallace Lodge, overlooking the 
"lordly Hudson," Yonkers, New York, April 8 and 9, 1921. Gamma 
Gamma Chapter of New York was the hostess of the convention. The 
national officers and delegates present were: National Officers — Presi- 
dent, Gladys L. Graff; Inspector, Gretchen G.Troster; Secretary-Editor, 
Mary-Emma Griffith; Panhellenic Adviser, Nella R. Fall; Atlantic Pro- 
vince President, Beatrice H. Brown. 

Delegates— Delta, Marjorie Abbott; Zeta, Marian Dyer and Marian 
Hare; Eta, Hulda Heim; Lambda, Kathryn Olmsted; Tau.Sena Bost- 
wick; Alpha Epsilon, Margaret Frankeberger; Zeta Zeta, Estelle M.Dun- 
kle ; Gamma Gamma, lone Wright Baldwin ; Philadelphia Alumnje Club, 
Helen Bailey. Visitors— Delta, 3; Zeta, 4; Lambda, 2; Tau, 1; Alpha 
Epsilon, 5; Eta, 1; Gamma Gamma, 5; Eta Eta, I. 

The following points were discussed at the business sessions: Expla- 
nation of scholarships for children; discussion of ways of interesting 
alumns; Alpha Chi Omega European tour; discussion of means of 
helping active chapters; Panhellenic discussion; round-table discussion 


188 History of Alpha Chi Omega Futskhitv 

on general fraternity infumiation, scholarship and activities, rushing 
parties — ways of rushing, how to talk fraternity, methods of sending 
bids, pledge problems. The social pn^am included a theater party to 
New York to see Frank Bacon in Ligklnin', a trip around Greenwich 
Village, a tea at Fumald Hall, Columbia University, as the guests of 
Gamma Gamma, and a banquet at Wallace Lodge. 

Pacific Province Convention 
On June 24 and 25, 1921, was held the first Pacific Province Conven- 
tion in the Library Hall, Portland, Oregon. The convention was pre- 
sided over by the Pacific Province president, Hazel L. Sherrick, and 
the National Treasurer, Gretchen M. Starr, A musical and luncheon 
at the home of Beulah Buckley Withrow, Xi, was followed by an after- 
noon business session and picnic at the home of Katherine Honey, Rho. 
Saturday was devoted to business sessions, with chapter gatherings 
and reunions being held at the lunch hour. The final gathering was at 
the Tyrolean room of Hotel Benson, where more than one hundred 
members attended the joint convention banquet and the installation 
banquet of Alpha Kappa Chapter, on June 25. The Pacific Province 
welcomed in Alpha Kappa Chapter the sixth member of the province. 

Central Province Convention 
On June 21 and 22, 1921, occurred the first province convention of 
the Central province, at the Edgewater Beach Hotel, Chicago. The 
convention was planned by Martha Bennett, president of the province, 
assisted by Florence Tyden, deputy secretary for the province. No 
information regarding the work of this convention is available, as the 
History goes to press. 

.y Google 


As was stated in the chapter on "Government," the National Council 
was created as the governing body of the fraternity in 1898. This body 
meets annually, assembling as a part of the biennial Grand Chapter and 
holding, also, separate conferences in the alternating years. The following 
is an outline of the various Council meetings, with places, dates, officers 
present, principal business transacted, and social features. 

First Grand Council Meeting 

The First Grand Council meeting, which was the beginning of steady 
development in Alpha Chi Omega, was held in Albion, Michigan, August 
25-28, 1903. The principal matters under deliberation during the 
sessions at the home of Kate Calkins, were the revision of the constitution 
and ritual; Alpha Chi Omega's representation in, and attitude towards, 
the Intersorority Conference; improvements in The Lyre; alumnae 
chapters; extension ; and the surrendering of the Eta charter. 

The following officers were in attendance: 

President, Kate Calkins; Secretary, Edith Roddy (for Alta Moyer); 
Treasurer, Laura Howe; Historian, Raeburn Cowger; Editor of Lyre, 
Edith Manchester; Assistant Editor, Mary Perine; Intersorority Con- 
ference Delegate, Mabel Harriet Siller, 

The social features were an informal gathering at the home of Kate 
Calkins, a dinner at the Beta Lodge, and a trolley ride with dinner at 
Battle Creek. 

Second Grand Coxjncil Meeting 

The Second Grand Council meeting was an informal one immediately 
preceding the Meadville Convention, November 1, 1904. The principal 
matters discussed pertained to constitutional and ritualistic rulings, and 
to the business of the Convention. 

The following officers were present: President, Kate Calkins; Secre- 
tary, Bertha Sackett; Treasurer, Laura Howe. 

The social features were those of the 1904 convention. 

Third Grand Council Meeting 
The Grand Council met for a second time in Albion, Michigan, Sep- 
tember 11-13, 1905, with Beta Chapter acting as hostess. At this time 
the Council considered such matters as a card index system for the 
directory of members; the reEstablishment of Epstlon Chapter; charters 


190 MisTORv OF Alpha Chi Omega Fkatekhitv 

for alumnee chapters, and the Intersorority Conference. It was here that 
Elma Patton Wade was appointed to succeed Edith Manchester Griffin 
as Editor of The Lyre. 

The following officers attended : 

President, Kate Calkins; Secretary, Marcia Clark; Treasurer, Laura 
Howe; Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller; Inspector, (also Intersorority 
Delegate), Mary Jones Tennant. 

The social features were a progressive checker party at the home of 
Lina Baum; a dinner at the Beta Lodge; and a trolley ride to Battle 
Creek with dinner at Post Tavern. 

Fourth Grand Council Meeting 

The Fourth Grand Council meeting assembled in G~eencastle, 
Indiana, October 31, 1906, immediately preceding the convention. The 
minutes of these meetings, which were held at the home of Anna Allen 
Smith, record important decisions concerning forms of petitions for 
charters, many financial matters, constitutional changes, and charter 
forms, as well as many minor matters, aside from the usual routine work. 

The officers in attendance were : 

President, Kate Calkins; Vice-President and Inspector, Mary Jones 
Tennant; Secretary, Marcia Clark Howell; Treasurer, Laura Howe; 
Editor of Lyre, Elma Patton Wade; Assistant Editor, Jennie McHatton. 

The sodal features were those of the 1906 convention. 

Fifth Grand Council Meeting 

From October 31 to November 2, 1907, the Fifth Grand Council met 
at Indianapolis, Indiana, Beta Beta Chapter extending cordial hospital- 
ity. The sessions were held at the home of Lena Scott Wilde, and were 
the means of much good to the fraternity, as it was owing to the action 
of this Council that petition forms and scholarship reports were adopted; 
the requirement was made that each active chapter should elect an 
alumna adviser; that the charter was granted to Xi Chapter; that the 
publication of a fraternity directory was authorized; that the project 
of selecting a coat-of-arms was undertaken under the chairmanship of 
Alta Allen Loud, and that the appointment was made of Florence Reed 
Haseltine as Editor of The Lyre. 

The officers attending the Council meeting were: 

President, Alta Allen Loud; Vice-President, Marcia Clark Howell; 
Secretary, Imo Baker; Treasurer, Laura Howe; Inspector, Mary Jones 
Tennant; Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller; Editor of Lyre, Elma Patton 
Wade (retiring), Florence Reed Haseltine (incoming); Assistant Editor, 
Jennie McHatton (retiring). 

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Sbventh Grand Council Meeting 191 

The social features were a Hallowe'en party at the home of Dr. and 
Mrs, Thompson, a theater party and a reception at the home of Helen 
Dalrymple Francis, to the fraternity women of Indianapolis. 

Sixth Grand Council Meeting 

The Sixth Grand Council meeting was held in Champaign, Illinois, 
November 24-25, 1908, following the usual custom of such a conference 
preceding the convention. At the sessions, which took place in lota's 
chapter house, the entire Grand Chapter program was carefully con- 
sidered and special attention was paid to finances, a system of graded 
examinations, plans for the publication of a history of the fraternity, 
better equipment for the work of the Grand Officers, affiliation blanks, 
the report of the flag committee, and of the recent publication of the 

The officers attending the meeting were : President, Alta Allen Loud ; 
Secretary, Helen Wright; Treasurer, Laura Howe; Historian, Mabel Har- 
riet Siller; Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant; Editor of Lyre, Florence 
Reed Hazeltine. 

The social features were those enjoyed by the whole convention. 

Seventh Grand Council Meeting 

The Seventh Grand Council assembled in Evanston, Illinois, October 
27-29, 1909, with Gamma and Alpha Alpha Chapters as hostesses. 
Among the many matters that came before the sessions, which were 
held at the home of Mabel Harriet Siller, were the finished report on the 
coat-of-arms ; the chapter, membership, and visiting report forms; the 
Alpha Chi Omega Studio; the authorization of model books for chapters; 
the appointment of Mary Ferine as official Examiner, Ruth Buffum as 
Chief Alumna, Mary Vose as Custodian of the Songbook, and Myrta 
McKean Dennis as Business Manager of The Lyre; the authorization of 
a salary for the Editor of The Lyre; and the decision reached for Alpha 
Chi Omega to adopt second semester or sophomore pledging if all the 
other fraternities would be bound by the same agreement. 

The following officers were present: President, Alta Allen Loud: 
Vice President, Fay Barnaby Kent; Secretary, Frank Busey Soule: 
Treasurer, Myrta McKean Dennis; Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller; 
Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant; Editor of /.yre, Florence Reed Haseltine. 

The social features were an informal gathering after Gamma Chapter 
meeting in their chapter hall ; a reception to the members of the faculty 
and the fraternities in UniversityGuildrooms; and a Hallowe'en luncheon 
at the home of Mabel Jones, followed by informal musical pn^ram and 
automobile ride. 

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192 HiSTOKT or Ai-nu Chi Oheca FRATBunrr 

Eighth Grand Council Meeting 

The Eighth Grand Council meeting was held August 29, 1910, at 
Hotel Tuller, Detroit, Michigan, immediately preceding the Twelfth ' 
National Convention. Aside from the planning for the business of the 
Grand Chapter and the usual routine of committee reports, which 
embraced the adoption of the official flag, of Hera as Patron Goddess, 
of the new forms for the charter and membership certificates, petitions 
from local fraternities, the matter of sophomore pledging, and a higher 
scholarship standard received serious consideration. 

All the officers were present, as follows: President, Alta Allen Loud; 
Vice-President, Fay Bamaby Kent; Secretary, Frank Busey Soule; 
Treasurer, Myrta McKean Dennis; Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant; 
Editor of Lyre, Florence Reed Haseltine; Historian, Mabel Harriet 

In addition to the social features which were enjoyed by the entire 
convention, on August 28, a luncheon was given by Winifred Van Buskirk 
Mount for the members of the Grand Council. 

Ninth Grand Council Meeting 

The Grand Council went into session at the home of Mrs. H. M. Kent, 
508 W. 122nd St., New York City, June 2?, 1911, and adjourned July I. 

All the officera were present as follows: President, Evangeline R. 
Bridge; Vice President, Fay Bamaby Kent; Secretary, Helen McQueen 
Hardie; Treasiu^r, Winifred Van Buskirk Mount; Editor, Florence A. 
Armstrong; Inspector, Myrta McKean Dennis; Historian, Grace Ham- 
mond Holmes. 

At this meeting the Honor Pin, the head of Hera in gold, was conferred 
upon Mrs. Loud, Mrs. Haseltine, Mrs. Tennant, Mrs. Soule, and Miss 
Siller, in recognition of past service as grand officers. To Newman was 
granted exclusive power to manufacture this pin. 

Effort was made to protect the Alpha Chi Omega copyright of the 
coat-of-arms, and to prevent the prohibited display of the lyre bird as 
an Alpha Chi Omega symbol for stationery or for decorative purposes. 

The President, Editor, Secretary, and Historian were empowered to 
publish a secret journal, the need for which had long been felt. The 
alumnae letter, it was ordered, should be incorporated therein. 

Various recommendations of great importance, such as the adoption of 
a system of province presidents, were made to the committee on organiza- 
tion, and incorporated into the revised Constitution presented at the 
liational Convention of the following year. The policy of entertaining 
ntion by chapter groups was recommended to convention. 

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Eleventh Gband Council Mebtihg 193 

Complimentary copies of the forthcoming History oj Alpha Chi Omega 
were ordered to be presented by the fraternity to the university libraries 
of institutions where there are chapters of Alpha Chi Omega. 

The Alpha Chi Omega Studio at the Macdowell Colony for artists was 
reported as nearing completion. The furnishing of the studio was dis- 

An important feature of the session was the planning for a Coast 
Convention at the time of the Panama-Pacific Exposition. 

A pleasant social feature was a tea at which Gamma Gamma Chapter 
entertained the Council at the home of Miss Northcroft. 

Tenth Grand Council Meeting 

Just preceding the National Convention, the Grand Council held its 
session at the Kappa Chapter House, Madison, Wisconsin, June 22-25, 

The officers were all present except the Vice President, Mrs. Kent; 
President, Evangeline Bridge Stevenson ; Acting Vice President, Nella 
Ramsdell Fall; Treasurer, Winifred Van Buskirk Mount; Secretary, 
Helen McQueen Hardie; Editor, Florence A. Armstrong; Inspector, 
Lois Smith Crann. 

It was decided that the Heraum be published each year and sent to 
Lyre subscribers, to contain Council and Convention minutes and the 
inspector's reports, that the alumnse letter be sent out every two years 
(a few months before convention), and that these be financed by the 
grand treasury. 

The committee on chapter by-laws was ordered to turn its attention to 
uniform house rules, and the report of the committee on model accounts 
was recommended to convention for adoption. Upon request, dispensa- 
tions were granted to various chapters permitting them to reduce their 
percentage of musical membership because of their need, in university 
centers, for a more flexible basis of membership. 

Much time was spent upon the discussion of the new constitution to be 
presented to the convention. 

One of the external changes involved in the new constitution was in the 
nomenclature of officers, henceforth to be known as "National" officers, 
instead of "Grand" officers, as formerly. 

Eleventh Grand Council Meeting 

Preceding the installation of Upsilon Chapter at James Millikin 
University, the Council helds its sessions at 976 West Wood St., Decatur, 
Illinois, May 14-17, 1913. With the exception of Mrs. Kent all the 
Council officers were present: 

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IM History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternitv 

President, Alta Allen Loud; Secretary, Birdean M. Ely; Treasurer, 
Lillian G. Zimmerman; Editor, Florence A. Armstrong; Inspector, Lois 
Smith Crann. 

At this meeting the Council authorized the publication of a second 
private organ for the presentation of such other additional private mat- 
ters as are not provided for by The Herasum, the frequency and financing 
of the publication to be left to the discretion of a committee consisting 
of the editor, treasurer and president. 

Other publications authorized were a Jfantfiooifco/JiujAingiiuVei to be 
compiled by the Province Presidents with Mrs. Roberts as chairman; a 
new Alpha Chi Omega Calendar, the proceeds of which should go to the 
Reserve Fund; a book containing the ceremonies and prescribed forms; 
and Miss Armstrong was appointed to compose an Alpha Chi Omega 
symphony for publication. The chapters were requested to subscribe 
annually to Banta's Greek Exchange. 

Important steps were taken toward the further systematization of the 
ever increasing volume of the business of the fraternity. Mrs. Crann was 
appointed "to decide on a uniform system of filing"; a committee was 
ordered to formulate a uniform system of report blanks ; Miss Zimmerman 
was authorized to revise and distribute chapter officer's instructions; 
uniform handbooks for the use of Council members were ordered; and a 
standing committee of one was authorized "to have charge of all the 
official supplies of the fraternity." Stenographic help for Council 
members, particularly the Inspector, was authorized. 

In order to uphold the standard of the fraternity for high scholarship, 
it was required "that the initiation of sophomores and freshmen be 
deferred until scholarship records, ranking 80 or above, be made for 
preceding semester." And to insure broad mindedn ess and college loyalty 
among the members, it was required that each active member "take part 
in at least two different lines of college activities." 

Responding to the need of many local chapters in their work of 
acquiring ownership of chapter houses, the Council decided that a chapter 
house committee from the Council should serve as an advisory committee 
with the local committees from the chapters, and formulate plans for 
financing the building of the houses desired.- 

The Council desired very much to further the interest and activity of 
the alumnae. The formation of alumnse clubs was, therefore, recom- 
mended in small cities or college towns. Such clubs were to consist of 
not less than six members, and to be organized after an informal petition 
has been accepted by the Executive Committee of the fraternity. A 
deputy to the National Treasurer was appointed to assist her with the 
matter of alumns notes. 

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TwBLFTH National Council Mbbting 195 

A communication from the Delta Upsilon Fraternity was read request- 
ing representation from AlphaChi Omega at an interfratemity conference 
at Chicago, May 30, for the discussion of anti- fraternity legislation. Mrs. 
Loud and Mrs. Crann were chosen as Alpha Chi Omega representatives. 

Incidental to the Council meetings and the installation of Upsilon, 
numerous courtesies were extended, during the stay of the council, from 
faculty members, from fraternities, and from resident and neighboring 
members of Alpha Chi Omega. One of the greatest of the pleasures of the 
week was a day spent with Iota Chapter and her alumnx in Champaign. 

Twelfth Grand CotmciL Meeting 

The Council meeting of 1914 was held following the National Pan- 
hellentc Congress at the McAlpin Hotel, New York City. AH Council 
members were present: 

President, Alta Allen Loud; Vice-President, Fay Bamaby Kent; 
Secretary, Birdean Motter Ely; Treasurer, Lillian G. Zimmerman; 
Editor, Florence A. Armstrong; Inspector, Lois Smith Crann. 

The Council, at this session, accepted, with regret, the resignation of 
Alice Watson Dixon, President of the Eastern and Southern Provinces. 
Mrs. Hatswell-Bowman was appointed as her successor. 

The Council Trophy, which had been won by Omicron Chapter in 
1913, was awarded to Alpha Chapter. Appreciation and commendation 
were expressed of the work of Mu and Zeta Chapters, which ranked high 
in general fraternity relations. 

It was recommended to convention that a second edition of the Alpha 
Chi Omega History be published. A committee to compile and present 
preliminary information to the 1915 Convention was appointed, to consist 
of Miss Armstrong, Mrs. Ely, Mrs. Nafis. The balance accruing from the 
sale of the first edition was ordered kept separate as a History Fund. 

Chapters were informed "that the present edition of the History is so 
nearly exhausted that the initiates will be excused from the History 
requirement, and that at the time of publication of a second edition each 
active member not owning a copy of the earlier edition will be required 
to purchase a copy," 

Various committees on publications reported on their work. Among 
these reports was one on the Official Symphony recommending that the 
present Symphony, by Celia E. McClure, A, be adopted as official. This 
recommendation was accepted. The Calendar Committee reported that 
the calendar was taken care of by Kappa Chapter for 1913, and by Delta 
Chapter for 1914, funds to be used (or the Reserve Fund. 

A new seal, designed by Mrs. Ely, was adopted as the Official Seal 
of the fraternity. 


196 HisTOKY or Altba Cm Ombga FaATBxMiTT 

The matter of chapter house building was discussed thoroughly, and 
the recommendation made to the Reserve Fund Committee "that when a 
chapter petitioning for a loan has raised one thousand dollars or more 
toward a building fund, an equal amount shall be loaned to them from 
the Reserve Fund." Regulations for loans, and for the compilation of 
instructions for house building were passed. 

After the results of exhaustive investigation had been reported, the 
Council voted to accept the invitation of Epsilon and Delta Delta to 
hold convention the last week in June, 1915, at the Hotel Vii^nia, Long 
Beach, California, because of the greater adaptability of this city. The 
appointment of a joint committee on arrangements was ordered from 
Epsilon. and Delta Delta Chapters, a local manager to be selected from 
this committee. 

The Chair appointed the following convention committees: Conven- 
vention Publicity Committee, Miss Armstrong, Mrs. Kent; Advertising 
Committee, Mrs. Ely, Miss Armstrong; Finance Committee, Miss 
Zimmerman, Mrs. Loud; Special Convention Train Committee, Miss 
Zimmerman, Mrs, Loud; Convention Prt^am Committee, Mrs. Crann, 
. Mrs. Loud. 

The Council was delightfully entertained at dinner by Gamma 
Gamma Chapter at the Peg Woffington Coffee House, and enjoyed their 
hospitality also at an opera given by the Century Opera Company. 
This chapter had represented Alpha Chi Omega most efficiently and 
acceptably as hostess of the National Panhellenic Congress at its sessions 
throughout the preceding days. 

Thirteenth National Council Meeting 
The formal Council sessions of the Thirteenth National Council meet- 
ing were held on June 28, 1915, at Hotel Virginia, Long Beach, California. 
On the special train en route to California, numerous informal sessions of 
the Council were held, and a great amount of discussion pending action 
was finished. Problems of various chapters were carefully discussed, with 
reference, when desirable, to the delegate of the chapter concerned, who 
was on board the special train. Numberless conferences were held with 
delegates and alumnse, and between them, so that the business, both of 
the National Council and of National Convention, was facilitated greatly. 
The roll call at the Council session on June 28 showed full attendance: 
President, Alta Allen Loud; Vice President, Fay Bamaby Kent, Secre- 
tary, Birdean Motter Ely; Treasurer, Lillian G. Zimmerman; Editor, 
Florence A, Armstrong; Inspector, Lois Smith Crann. 

The action of the Council, after the hearing of officers' reports, con- 
sisted of recommendations to the convention to follow : A budget system 
for Council expense; a life subscription for initiates; the appointment of 


FiFTBSins National Council Meeting 197 

J. F. Newman as sole official jeweler of the fraternity; the purchase of a 
badge at initiation ; the adoption of a uniform die for badge to be made in 
gold set with three pearls, three diamonds or any desired combinations 
of these stones beside the three required jewels. 

The Council adjourned to meet with the National Convention the next 

Fourteenth National Council Meeting 

The National Council met at the Lambda Chapter House, Syracuse, 
New York, June 20-26, 1916. All members were present as follows: 
President, Alta Allen Loud; First Vice President, Lillian G. Zimmerman; 
Second Vice President, Maude Staiger Steiner; Secretary, Mary-Emma 
Griffith; Treasurer, Myra H, Jones; Editor, Florence A. Armstrong; 
Inspector, Nella Ramsdell Fall. 

At this session the resignation of Frances Kirkwood, EasteiTi Province 
President, was accepted with regret, and Mrs. W. C. Jackson was asked 
to serve in the office for the unexpired term. After the consideration of 
the reports of chapters. Alpha Chapter was awarded the Council Trophy. 
It was decided that in the future two or more nominations for alumne 
advisers should be sent to the National Inspector for appointment. A 
formal petition from Alpha Theta Sigma, an eight-year old local at the 
Washington State College was granted. Other petitions were considered 
but not granted. A National Scholarship Committee and a National 
Vocational Committee were added to the list of Standing Committees. 

Fifteenth National Council Meeting 

The fifteenth National Council meeting was held at the Edgewater 
Beach Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, November 5-8, 1917, immediately follow- 
ing the N. P. C. Convention. 

All members of the Council were present, as follows: President, 
Alta Allen Loud; First Vice President, Lillian G. Zimmerman, Second 
Vice President, Maude Staiger Steiner; Secretary, Mary-Emma Griffith, 
Treasurer, Myra H, Jones; Editor, Florence A. Armstrong; Inspector, 
Nella Ramsdell Fall. 

The resignation of June Hamilton Rhodes as Central Province 
President was accepted and Myma Van Zandt Bennett was appointed to 
fill the vacancy. Gretchen O'Donnell Starr was appointed as Pacific 
Province President. 

The customary review of active chapter reports was made, and chap- 
ters were commended for strong points, criticisms to be embodied in a 
letter to each chapter. General suggestions for the guidance of all chap- 
ters were published in the ArgoHd for the information of active and alum- 
n« chapters. The Council trophy for general all-round excellence was 


19B History of Alpha Chi Ouega Fratbkmitv 

awarded to Tau Chapter. Pi and Iota chapters ranked second and thitxl 
respectively, and honorable mention was given to Beta, Zeta, Mu and 
Phi. The award of the Epsilon Epsilon scholarship cup for the greatest 
improvement in scholarship for 1915-191<5 was made to Lambda Chapter, 
and of the Lyre cup to Theta Chapter. 

A Social Customs Committee with Mrs, Fall as chairman, was ap- 
pointed to formulate suggestions regarding the social life of chapters. 

The alumnse work of the fraternity was discussed and it was decided 
that the alumnae committee prepare a system of application blanks to 
be sent to seniors to encourage them to join alumne organizations after 
graduation. An honor roll was instituted to contain the names of all 
alumna: who have held or shall hold membership in an alumns organiza- 
tion for five consecutive years. It was voted to recommend that the 
alumns groups concentrate on the scholarship loan fund, war relief 
work, and extension. 

The report of the Extension Vice President showed that fourteen 
informal petitions had been received. No petitions were granted at this 
Council meeting. It was voted that a blank on extension possibilities 
and information be compiled for every institution on the approved list 
and copies be sent to each Council member. 

Various reports on the publications of the fraternity were given. The 
chairman of the committee on organization and laws reported that the 
new edition of the constitution and code had been issued and copies 
distributed and Miss Armstrong, the author, reported that the history 
had been written, 2,100 copies printed, and 730 distributed. 

The chairman on the recognition pin reported that the pin had been 
designed and was being manufactured. 

Because of war time conditions it was voted that the alumnse adviser 
of each chapter make a survey of the chapter in order to determine which 
girls were not intending to graduate, with the reasons for leaving college, 
and make a full report to the National Inspector. 

A committee was appointed to make plans for war relief work, to be 
submitted to the Council by December 1. 

Convention plans were discussed, and in view of the probable length 
of the war and the need of maintaining chapter organization and welfare, 
it was decided that a convention be held at the end of the 1917-1918 
college year. 

Other Council action taken at this time provided that a pledged member 
who fails to attain the required scholarship grade for two semesters be 
dropped; the required affiliation by chapters of all transfers who have 
been in the institution in which they are registered one semester and have 
attained the scholarship grade required in that institution for initiation. 


SuTBBMTH National Council Mbrting 199 

A pleasant feature of the 1916 Council meeting was the tea given by 
Gamma and Alpha Alpha Chapters at the home of Zella Marshall to the 
members of the National Council. The various women's fraternities, 
and members of the faculty at Northwestern University were invited. 

Sixteenth National Council Meeting 

The National Coundl convened at the Congress Hotel, Chicago, 111., 
from June 28-*30, 1919, immediately preceding the Fifteenth National 

All members were present, as follows: President, Alta Allen Loud, 
First Vice President, Lillian G. Zimmerman; Second Vice President, 
Maude Staiger Steiner; Secretary, Mary-Emma Griffith; Treasurer, 
Gretchen L, Gooch; Editor, Florence A. Armstrong; Inspector, Nella 
R. Fall. In addition to the Council members, the following province 
presidents, though having no voting privilege, were present at some of 
the sessions of the National Council: Gladys Livingston Graff, Atlantic 
Province; El Fleda Coleman Jackson (outgoing) and Helen W- Bamum 
(incoming). Eastern Province; Ema Goldschmidt, Central Province; 
Myma Van Zandt Bennett, Western Province; Gretchen O'Donnell 
Starr, Pacific Province. 

Officers' reports were given and business in connection with the con- 
vention were discussed. Among the recommendations made to the 
convention the following are the most significant: 

The elimination of the clause in the Constitution providing for honor- 
ary members; the provision for endowment funds from the scholarship 
fund, and new terms on which loans may be granted to applicants; dual 
membership with Mu Phi Epsilon, except at New England Conservatory; 
a change in the requirements regarding affiliation, maldng it compulsory 
for each chapter to invite to membership all transfers from other colleges 
who have fulfilled certain specified requirements; the establishment of a 
central office with a paid Secretary- Editor in charge ; that initiation privi- 
leges be refused to any chapter during the last six weeks of college except 
by special dispensation granted by the Province President; that the entire 
amount of the life subscription to the Lyre be included in the initiation 
fee; the requirement of twenty charter members for new alumnse chap- 
ters and of ten members for new alumnee clubs; the adoption of a per- 
manent national altruistic work for the fraternity. 

The Council trophy cup was awarded to Iota Chapter, Tau and Pi 
Chapters receiving honorable mention. Eight chapters were considered 
in making the final award. 

The Council adjourned on June 30 to meet with the National Con- 
vention the following day. 

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200 HisTOXY or Alfha Chi Omkoa FxATHKNtn 

Seventeenth National CouNcn. Meeting 

The National Council met at the home of Gretchen Gooch Troster 
in Yonkera, N. Y., September 24-28, 1920. The officers present were: 
President, Gladys Livingston Graff; First Vice President, Myra H. 
Jones; Second Vice President, Myrna Van Zandt Bennett; Inspector, 
Gretchen Gooch Troster; Secretary-Editor, Mary-Emma Griffith. 
Gretchen O'Donnell Starr, Treasurer, was unable to be present because 
of the distance from her home in Seattle, Washington. 

The active chapters and their problems were thoroughly discussed 
and a general letter to chapters embodying the recommendations of the 
Council was authorized. The National Inspector was given authority 
to write each chapter regarding its particular points of strength and weak- 

In order to bring about closer relations between active chapters and 
alumnae groups it was decided that whenever possible the official visitor 
to active chapters visit neighboring alumnie chapters or clubs. 

The problem of the scattered alumnre in the fraternity was discussed 
in the report of the Alumnse Vice President. On the recommendation of 
the Alumnae Vice President dues of non-resident members of alumnx 
chapters and clubs are given to the national altruistic work. 

Because of N, P. C. difficulties that had arisen chapters were in- 
structed to take up immediately with the national Panhellenic delegate 
all matters which involve an interpretation of N. P. C. rulings. 

The Council approved a new system whereby each initiated member 
was given a number immediately after signing her name in the Bond Book 
which will be used in ordering all supplies for her, including the History 
the Songbook, the Directory, and Lyre life subscription. 

After much discussion decision was reached to postpone convention 
from 1921 to 1922 because of the increased railroad fares, and to recom- 
mend to provinces the holding of province conventions in 1921 to take 
the place of the deferred national convention. 

Plans for an Alpha Chi Omega European tour were discussed and 

The question of affiliation fees was discussed and it was decided to 
present the matter to the next convention for decision. 

The Council trophy for general excellence was awarded to Zeta 
chapter with honorable mention to Chi and Tau chapters. The Lyre 
aip was awarded to Gamma chapter, with honorable mention to Phi and 
Tau. > I 

On Sunday afternoon, September 29, the Council was delightfully 
entertained by Nella Ramsdell Fall at her home in Colonial Heights, 
N. Y. Members of Gamma Gamma Chapter and other friends were 

.y Go Ogle 


Nothing in fraternity symbolism holds more permanent memories 
of fraternity ideals and vows than their outward emblem, the badge. 
Into its selection, its component parts, its entire whole, have been 
breathed the hope, the love, and the loftiest aspirations of which young 
hearts are capable, and which, because grounded in noble essence, exert 
an influence that can outlive life. 

The beautiful badge of Alpha Chi Omega is a Greek lyre of gold, 
having three twisted strings spanned diagonally by a raised and slightly 
rounded scroll of black enamel bearing the Greek letters A X £! in gold. 
The badge may be jeweled or may be of plain or chased gold except that, 
since the ruling of the 1897 Convention, it must contain the three required 
jewels, one at each upper, outer corner and one in the center just below 
the strings, at the head of the triangular base of the lyre. The 1910 
Grand Chapter restricted the choice of Jewels to pearls or diamonds or a 
combination of both. This lyre may be accompanied by an attached pin 
in the form of a Greek letter to signify the chapter. The badge may be 
worn only by initiated members of the fraternity, to all of whom the 
"mysteries of the lyre" have a deep significance. 

The original badge of Alpha Chi Omega is in its integral parts identical 
with the one now constituting the ofliclal die. The differences are that in 
the fir^t badge the size is larger than In the present pins; the choice of 
jewels conformed to the taste of the owner; the strings are plain, not 
twisted; the scroll is flat and of gold, bearing the three Greek letters in 
black, just the reverse of the present scroll. 

In the interest of future uniformity and of a closer kinship of pins, the 
1906 Grand Chapter ordered an official die for the badge, and, further to 
safeguard its exact design and individuality, provided for the use of 
identification certificates which must now accompany all orders. The 
badge is made only by the official jewelers who receive the certificates 
through the Custodian of the Badge, since 1919 the Secretary Editor. 

As the custom of pledging Greek novitiates with ribbons has survived 
even to the present time, it Isevident that a pledge pin was not considered 
necessary In the early fraternity days. The small bow of scarlet and 
olive green served then, as it does now in some institutions, to proclaim 
its wearers "followers of the Queen," but in 1893 the less conspicuous and 
more dignified system of pledging with a pin was instituted, at which 


Earlv and Contemporary Badges 

Digitized oy CiOOQIC 

Insignia and Hbkaldrv 203 

time the design selected consisted of a gold stick pin in the shape of a lyre 
bearing a white enamel chapter letter. As this design was not entirely 
satisfactory, the 1900 Grand Chapter adopted the pledge pin now in use — 
a small diamond shaped pin half of scarlet and half of olive enamel, bear- 
ing in the center an inlaid golden lyre. This pledge pin may be worn by 
any pledged member of the fraternity. The custom of using pins instead 
of ribbons is constantly gaining favor among the fraternities and is, in 
some institutions, a Panhellenic requirement. 

The Honor Pin was adopted by the 1910 Grand Chapter to be awarded 
as a token of appreciation by Alpha Chi Omega to her retiring National 
Council officers who have faithfully served one full term of office. Wini- 
fred Van Buskirk Mount and Fay Barnaby Kent (with whom the idea 
originated), as a conimittee, selected the design which they felt the most 
significant mark of honor, a tiny head of the Patron Goddess, Hera. 
This is a very fine production in solid gold of one of the old sculptures and 
is perfect in detail. On the back of the pin is engraved the name of the 
recipient, her special office on the Council, and the dates of its fulfilment. 

The plate illustrates the official pins of Alpha Chi Omega, showing 
the various stages in the transition of the badge from 1885 to 1921. In 
the upper row are the pins used at the present time, the first being jewelled 
wholly with diamonds, the second with crown set pearls. With these 
are attachments serving as guards, a jewelled chapter letter, and the 
coat of arms. The next row illustrates badges made in I9!l from the 
official die, exemplifying the sizes used and the forms of settings — the 
first of chased gold with diamonds as the three required stones, the 
second of unusually small size set with pearls, the third with crown 
set pearls and three diamonds. The row in the center of the plate is 
composed of a pin with crown set opals, used about 1899; the diamond 
badge presented to Maud Powell by Alpha, and the badge of a mem- 
ber of Beta Chapter purchased about 1888. The last four pins represent 
the recognition pin, the honor pin, the pledge pin, and the chapter 
guard stick pin worn by Maud Powell. 

To Alta Allen Loud (Grand President), Mary Jones Tennant (In- 
spector), Florence Reed Haseltine (Editor of The Lyre), Frank Busey 
Soule (Grand Secretary), and Mabel Harriet Siller (Grand Historian), 
the first Honor Pins were awarded with a deep sense of appreciation and 
gratitude for the energy they had given to fraternity work. They have 
since been presented to Myrta McKean Dennis (Grand Inspector), 
Winifred Van Buskirk Mount (Grand Treasurer), Helen M, Hardie 
(Grand Secretary), Lois Smith Crann (National Inspector), Birdean 
Motter Ely (National Secretary), and Fay Barnaby Kent (National 
Vice President), Lillian G. Zimmerman (National Treasurer, National 
Vice President), Maude Staiger Steiner (National Vice President), Mary- 


SoHB Alpha Chi Ohega Jewblby 

IBf Ctarltiy tf Btl/mr) 

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Insignia and Heraldry 305 

Emma Griffith (Nationa] Secretary), Myra H. Jones (National Treasurer, 
National Vice President), Florence A. Armstrong (National Editor), 
Nella Ramsdell Fal! (NationaK Inspector), and at the 1919 Convention 
to the Founders. Hereafter they will wear the head of Hera beside the 
lyre as a symbol of their unselfish devotion to Alpha Chi Omega and as 
a token of the love, regard, and appreciation of the sister? to these, her 
highly honored members. May the wearers of the Honor Pin always 
meet with special reo^^ition and hearty welcome! 

The coat-of-arms of Alpha Chi Omega, which was adopted by the 
1908 Grand Chapter, attests to the careful work of the committee ap- 
pointed at the 1907 Grand Council Meeting, under the chairmanship of 
Alta Allen Loud, then Grand President. 

The following exposition of the coat-of-arms was given by Mrs. Loud 
in The Lyre, for January, 1910. 

Heraldry, in the reitricted aenae io which it interests ua, may be defined as the art 
of blazoning or describing in proper terms armorial bearings. A coat-of-arma is com- 
posed of charges depicted on an escutcheon representing the old knightly shield. 

Particular symbols have in all ages been assumed by the various families of man- 
kind civilized and uncivilized. All good heraldry is symbolic. In the heraldry of a 
fraternity there are used only those symbols which express its ideals and which have 
a deep significance for its members. 

The rules for blazoning, or describing in the technical language of heraldry, a coat- 
of-arms, are remarkable for their precisian, brevity, and completeness. The first thing 
to be mentioned is the colors or, as they are heraldically called, the tinctures of the 
field. Tinctures are either of metal, color strictly so called, or fur. The colors are 
denoted by lines — i e., heraldically speaking, gules, by perpendicular lines; green, 
or vert, by diagonal lines. Next, the character of the partition lines when parted — i.e., 
chief, the upper part of shield, separated from the rest by a line; a fess, or horizontal 
band in the middle of the shield. Next follow the charges — everything contained 
on the field of an escutcheon being called a charge — their names, number, position, 
and color are given. Besides the heraldic devices depicted on the shield, there are the 
appendages, including whatever is boriie external to the shield, such as the crest, and a 
scroll bearing a motto. These mottoes were originally the war-cries of the bearers. 

Heraldry, though arbitrary, is very exact, and the rules of blazoning are observed 
on all occasions with the most rigid precision. Repetitions are avoided and as few words 
as possible used. On the following page is the Blazon of the official coat-of-arms, pre- 
sented by the committee, and approved and adopted by the fraternity. 

For the benefit of those to whom heraldic description and technicalities are a foreign 
tongue, the following translation of Alpha Chi Omega heraldry is given: 

The shield proper is red (gules — perpendicular lines) and divided by a fess or 
bar of olive (vert). At the top of the shield field ("of the first" meaning red) is an 
open book in gold (or),andat base point is a garb or sheaf of wheat in same color fastened 
with a knot. The fess or bar has on it three white (argent) stars (mullets). The crest 
of lyre bird is in its natural color (ppr). Below is the scroll, containing the Greek words 
of our revised open motto, ZuvnivfivufMu ri diKlirara — "Together, let us seek the 
Heights." The shield is square and is divided into three parts, the number three being 
significant in our fraternity. 


History of Alpha Chi Ouega FKATBrnxirv 

Bhuon of Alpha Chi Omega Arms 
Gulea — a fess vert — 

Of the first in middle chief aa Open 
Book Or— in middle ba»e a Sheaf of 
Wheat corded of the same. 
Of the second — three nulleta — argent. 

A Lyric Bird — ppr. 

Aa described in Greek'letters. 

s striven to give you a coat-of-arms absolutely correct from 
an heraldic standpoint, marked by the simplicity and dignity for which our fraternity 
stands, and bearing those symbols known and honored by every wearer of the lyre. 
Shall we not then buckle on our armor, and like the kn^hts of old, go forth to battle 
for Alpha Chi Omega, keeping her fair name untarnished, her standards high? 

The colors of the fraternity selected at the time of the founding were 
scarlet and bronze green, but owing to the difficulty encountered in 
obtaining the correct shade of bronze green, the olive green was sub- 
stituted during the first year of the fraternity- 
Olive Burnett Clark writes of the selection of the colors as follows: 
"I suppose you have heard how we happened to decide upon our colors. We 
found them in the maple leaf, the October maple, beautiful with the tints of autumn, 
the scarlet and the bronze green — we found them the day after our first meeting, under 
a maple tree in the east college campus just opposite the girls' dormitory, where we 
girls were standing debating the many phases of the new fraternity — little dreaming, 
however, of the place the future would hold for us." 



In a conversation at the time of the 1910 Convention in Detroit, 
Estelle Leonard gave an interesting account of the formal selecting of the 
colors (October 19, 1885). She had been appointed to bring samples of 
various colors to the meeting, and after trying many combinations, the 
scarlet and bronze green were adopted. Doubtless this selection was the 
result of the conversation mentioned in the above paragraph. 

As the choice of a flower for a secret organization involves many con- 
siderations, it is a matter of deep satisfaction in Alpha Chi Omega that 
the founders incorporated into the insignia of the fraternity, so beautiful, 
so significant and so adaptable a flower as the scarlet carnation, and with 
wise forethought, added as its accompaniment, the graceful smilax, with 
its message of hope. They not only typify the colors of the fraternity, 
and at all times of the year lend themselves with cheery brightness to 
the joys and festivities, and even to the more solemn occasions of the 
fraternity; but their symbolism reaches far deeper, in the ritual, and in 
the hearts of the members of Alpha Chi Omega. Alpha Chi Omega 
should never lack inspiration to reach the "Heights," from the legend 
of the scarlet carnation and smilax alone. 

f I The holly tree, also eloquent of the scarlet and olive, as well as of 
many beautiful thoughts, was adopted by the 1908 Grand Chapter as the 
fraternity tree. The symbolism of this tree is well expressed in two 
poems written respectively by Florence Fall, B, published in The Lyre 
for January, 1909, and by Lucy Loane, A, published in The Lyre, for 
January, 1911. 

Ever since Alpha Chi Omega enthusiasm was bom in 1885 it has con- 
tinued to express itself in tangible forms by the acquisition of many fra- 
ternity emblems, none of which have held a more prominent place in 
college rooms and in fraternity halls than the various Alpha Cht Omega 
flags. These flags have usually been expressions of personal taste in the 
adaptation of the colors, the Greek letters — A X it — and the lyre. As 
the fraternity developed in uniformity, it was thought best to have an 
official flag, which would be individual, significant, and which would at 
the same time, conform to heraldic principles. Hence in 1908, a commit- 
tee, consisting of Fay Bamaby Kent and Mabel Harriet Siller, was ap- 
pofnted to select such a flag. This committee studied the matter thought- 
fully and carefully, submitting to the Grand Council many drawings, 
both professional and amateur, with the result that a design drawn by 
Mabel H. Siller was selected and adopted by the 1910 Grand Chapter as 
the official flag of Alpha Chi Omega, 

The flag is a rectangle of olive green with a scarlet chevron extending 
from the center of the top to the two lower comers and bearing three olive 
stars with white tracing, while below the chevron on the olive field is the 



HinoKT OF Alpha Chi Ousga Fbatbknity 

lyre-bird charge in scarlet. The flag is made to be suspended from a 
horizontal bar. 

Although the earlier members of the fraternity no doubt had ample 
means of expressing their enthusiasm without a uniform cheer, the 
National Convention of 1894, realizing that fraternity ardor could best be 
vented by means of a universally adopted cheer, accordingly selected 
the following ones: 

Ah! Ah! Ah! Alpha Chi! 

Hio! Hio! Alpha Chi Omega! 

As a test of this cheer showed the difiiculty of vocalizing the first 
line with sufHcient vim, the 1896 Convention revised it, presenting the 
one which is now in use and which for fifteen years has continued to 
raise echoes in every section of the country, in answer to Alpha Chi 

Hi! Hi! Hi! Alpha Chi! 

Chio! Chio! Alpha Chi Omega! 

The omnipresent musical spirit in Alpha Chi Omega also demanded 
a share in this happy means of expression for fraternity enthusiasm; 
consequently the same Convention (1896) adopted a musical cheer 
which has continued to grow in favor with the years until it has become 
a popular feature of Alpha Chi gatherings. 

A-L-p-H-A-c-H-i fli-phitCiJi 0-me-ga. 

The national whistle of the fraternity was first recorded officially 
May 24, 1887, when a motion was passed that it should tie inserted in the 
constitution. This whistle which has summoned Alpha Chis for the 
past thirty-four years and to which one never fails to respond , is as follows : 



When Alpha Chi Omega was founded the significance of the name 
selected was considered the secret motto. The matter of a separate motto 
was discussed at several conventions, but nothing was definitely deter- 
mined until 1908, when the Grand Chapter adopted a distinctively secret 
motto, suggested by Florence Reed Haseltine, thus preserving forever 
the "Alpha Chi Omega," as the larger meaning of the name alone. 


Insignia and HERAt-Dsy 209 

At a meeting held May 24, 1887, Alpha Chapter selected the open 
motto, "Ye daughters of Musir, come up higher," presented by Mary 
Jones (Mrs. Tennant). It became advisable later to consider an open 
motto which would be equally representative of the various elements 
composing the fraternity membership. As the open motto had become 
very dear within the fraternity, it was considered best to retain its 
thought as far as possible. After much consideration i the matter was 
satisfactorily adjusted by the adoption in 1909 of the motto, "Together 
let us seek the Heights," suggested by Alta Allen Loud. 

Seal of Alpha Cbi Omega 

It is the work of years to establish traditions, to gain a proper perspec- 
tive of events and values. The early members of any organization are too 
much occupied with construction to linger in admiration of what lies 
close at hand. Rather it is given to those who succeed to the heritage of 
their labors to pause in contemplation of their achievements and rever- 
ently to do homage to the love, skill, and uncounted time which so 
generously have been given. 

Hence such customs as the celebration of Founders' Day and chapter 
anniversaries, and the more quiet courtesy of anniversary letters from the 
National Council to the Founders and to Dean Howe, grow in importance 
and significance with each passing year. Founders' Day is celebrated 
throughout the fraternity by chapter letters to the Founders, by alumnse 
reunions, programs, and reminiscences, and often by informal social 
affairs planned in honor of the day; chapter anniversaries are celebrated 
by special ceremonies and festivities of individual chapter choice, often 
including the exchanging of college pennants, chapter pictures, and 
letters among the active chapters. The colors of the fraternity may be 



Insignia AND Hbkaldrv 211 

worn by the active members on both Founders' Day and on chapter 
anniversariee, as well as on the days of the installation of new chapters. 

Other customs of recent years are the awarding by The Lyre annually 
of a prize for the best undergraduate article in the 'ExXMrd department of 
The Lyre; the annual presentation of /"AaLyreLovingCup to that chapter 
which ranks highest in its Lyre relations, the decision resting upon literary 
excellence of contributions, and upon promptness and businesslike 
methods, the name of the winning chapter and the year being engraved 
upon the cup; the presentation of a loving cup by the National Council 
to the chapter entertaining Grand Chapter, the cup to be retained until 
the following convention ; and the presentation of a trophy cup by the 
fraternity to that chapter which ranks highest in fraternal relations. 

In 1909, Iota Chapter inaugurated the custom, which has since been 
followed by some chapters, of awarding a loving cup at the annual chap- 
ter reunion, to the freshman having the highest scholarship for that year. 
This cup also rotates from year to year, each time having engraved upon 
it the name of the honored freshman. 

Several of the chapters have the custom of holding annual reunions, 
usually at commencement time, when every effort is made to secure a 
large attendance. At these times banquets and other social affairs 
add to the natural pleasure of meeting with old friends amid the familiar 
college scenes. 

Aside from the beautiful and impressive initiation service the fra- 
ternity has appropriate ceremonies including pledging, installation of 
officers, opening and closing of chapter meetings, anniversary, vale- 
dictory, memorial, and affiliation ceremonies. 

.y Google 


Alpha Chi Omega first formally considered the matter of a fraternity 
publication when there were but four chapters. At the first convention in 
Greencastle (1891) a motion was carried that "the fraternity publication 
be put in the hands of Beta Chapter, the name of it to be decided during 
the year and the publication to be introduced when Epsilon and Zeta 
Chapters shall have been established." As these chapters were not 
installed until four years later, the records contain no further mention of 
a journal until 1894. The minutes of the convention of that year record 
the passing of a motion authorizing Alpha to undertake the publication 
of the journal, and specifying that all items should be sent to Alpha in 
April of that year, by which motion it must be inferred that the ruling 
of the 1891 Convention, authorizing a publication when the chapters 
Epsilon and Zeta should be established, was set aside. Alpha at once 
transferred the responsibility of general management of the journal to 
one of her members, Mayme Jennings, as editor, assisted by Adeline 
Rowley and Zella Marshall. In June, 1894, Volume I, Number 1 of The 
Lyre made its appearance, the name being selected as that of the most 
significant emblem of Alpha Chi Omega. 

In this number the editor writes, "Since there were no explicit direc- 
tions given at the convention, I have followed what I felt to be the unex- 
pressed wishes of all — that is, that The Lyre should be convenient and 
simple, though not elegant in form." But one number was published 
that year; it contains historical sketches of the chapters, chapter letters, 
personals, an account of the 1894 Convention, and programs of Alpha 
Chi Omega musicales. The forty pages of that number are of the same 
dimensions as in the present journal (six by nine inches) ; the cover design 
in pale blue is very simple. 

As there were at this time but four chapters, having an average 
existence of only five years, with a correspondingly small membership, 
and as there was no obligatory financial support provided for the journal, 
it is not strange that the next issue of The Lyre bears the date of March, 
1897, and that it is Volume II, Number I. This number was published 
under the management of Alpha Chapter, with Mary Janet Wilson as 
editor-in-chief, thus fulfilling the ruling made at the 1896 Convention, 
which provided for the publication of the journal by the mother chapter. 
This number of The Lyre followed the same general plan of composition as 


Covers of The Lyre 

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214 HiSTORV OF Alpha Cbi Oueca Fratbrnitv 

the first issue, differing only in having an olive instead of a blue cover, and 
in containing several articles of general musical and fraternity interest 
by various contributors, and more advertisements. In this year (1897) 
it was decided to publish The Lyre quarter- 
ly, and it is a matter for sincere gratification 
that in spite of a crude and insufficient 
financial system, the deep loyalty and self- 
sacrificing efforts of the early editors carried 
every number of The Lyre through to pub- 
lication, with the exception of two issues, 
numbers 3 and 4 of Volume VIH. 

Mary Janet Wilson continued her suc- 
cessful work as editor until 1900, when 
with deep regret the 1900 Convention was 
obliged to accept her resignation, realizing 
that no greater example of the tireless 
sacrificing work necessary to successful 
Mary Janet Wilson. /1/pSo fraternity achievements, had come within 
ESwrtatm'iMw'^ '^^ experience. Motions were passed 

at once requiring better chapter support 
for the journal, and Edith Manchester, Z, was elected editor, 
A sum was appropriated from the Grand Treasury for the publication of 
the journal, the surplus to be retained by the editor as remuneration. 
With this provision and with the increasing circulation made possible by 
the growth of the fraternity, the editor and her assistant, Mary Ferine, B, 

Elma Patton Wade, Alpha 

B<fita Till Lyt. IW»-I»D7 


Tn Lteb 315 

appointed in 1902, were able to furnish the fraternity with a magazine 
constantly improving in its many phases. More articles were added to 
the (xtntents, an exchange department was instituted, the quality of 
paper and composition was improved, and a general spirit of enthusiasm 
and loyalty pervaded the journal. There were still serious, continuous, 
and often discouraging difficulties to be overcome, and the spirit which for 
five years held this staff to its task is but another instance of the 
inspiring devotion which enables the few to work willingly for the many. 
The Grand Council Meeting of I90S regretfully accepted the resigna- 
tion of Edith Manchester Griffin and Mary Ferine, and elected to their 
respective positions Elma Patton Wade and Jennie McHatton, both of 
Alpha Chapter. After a persistent circulation campaign had been con- 
ducted, the system of bookkeeping reorganized, and more advertising 
secured, thisstaffwasableat its termination of service in 1907 to transfer 
the publication to another management in a better condition than it 
had yet attained. Only two years of service could be given to the frater- 
nity by Mrs. Wade and Miss McHatton, but it was a two years crowded 
with unceasing labor and growing efficiency for The Lyre. 

.y Google 

216 HiSTORV or Alfha Cbi Ohega FsATESNirv 

At the Grand Council Meeting of 1907, Florence Reed Haseitine, Z, 
was elected editor of The Lyre with power to appoint her assistants. The 
first of these appointments was that of Laura Howe, Grand Treasurer, 
as business manager. The Lyre continued under this efficient business 
management until the Grand Council as its meeting in 1909, after accept- 
ing with reluctance Miss Howe's resignation, appointed Myrta McKean 
Dennis, Grand Treasurer, to succeed her. During the three years that 
Mrs. Haseitine was editor, The Lyre showed a remarkable, steady devel- 
opment. To her, high tribute should be paid as a "Maker of The Lyre," 
for she raised the standard and the purpose of the journal. Besides a 
marked improvement in the general composition of the magazine, with 

Florence A. Armstrong 

Kitioul Edilo. I«I<K1B1> 

Autbot (f Hktar. 1>1<>. IHI 

Edilv </ WiMn, III I 

its size nearly doubled, a better quality of paper and type, and the addi- 
tion of many illustrations, there was evolved by the editor and the busi- 
ness manager a gratifying business system which produced greater 
promptness, greater loyalty and better business methods on the part of 
chapter editors and Lyre assistants. Chapter letters, personals, and alum- 
nae articles grew in interest and individuality. Active loyalty and pride 
were stimulated by competitive tests of representation in the 'ExXMrd 
department. To Mrs. Haseitine is due the creation of the office of Chief 


TBB Ltkb 317 

Alumna, successfully held under her by Mary Ferine, B, and Ruth Buf- 
fum, I, through whose efforts the interest of many alumns was revived 
and their cooperation secured. The exchange and collegiate departments 
showed much growth. Mrs, Haseltinc's editorials, showing the writer's 
strong character and personality, carried many a message to members of 
Alpha Chi Omega and were widely quoted by other fraternity journals. 
In the words of her successor: "She succeeded in making The Lyre 
literary and artistic, as well as personal and practical — a journal of 
beauty and of great usefulness to the fraternity." 

The Grand Chapter of 1910 was loath to accept the resignation of 
Mrs. Haseltine and Mrs. Dennis from their offices of editor and business 


National Secretary, 191S-1919 
Secretary-Editor, 1919 - 

manager, realizing that the positions would be hard to fill. The fraternity 
elected as editor at the time Florence A. Armstrong, M, who served until 
1919, completing nine full years of editorial service. This period comprises 
the longest continuous service contributed by any officer of the fraternity 
to date, although Alta Allen Loud's three periods of service aggregate 
almost thirteen years. (See also page 360.) 

At the close of this period, the growth of the fraternity necessitated 
a central administrative office, and the post of National Editor was com- 


218 HmosY OF Alpha Chi Ohbga FkatSkhity 

bined with that of National Secretary to make posmble the employment 
of a full-time paid officer. With Miss Armstrong, therefore, the old order 
of a National Editor as a member of the Council as such came to an end. 
In 1919, Mary-Emma Griffith became editor of The Lyre, as secre- 
tary-editor. She serves also as business manager. Miss Griffith had 
gained preparation for her editorial work by service as exchange editor, 
as well as by experience along editorial lines in the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. (Seealsopage 357). 

The Lyre has shown a remarkable and steady growth. It has always 
been published in the same size, six by nine. From the first number 
containing forty pages it has increased to an average size of more than 
a hundred pages. 

The journal today is composed of the following departments: A 
fraternity calendar added November, 1919; a directory of officers and 
committees; 'EKXwrd (meaning, the chosen) containing selected articles 
cleverly arranged by the subjects into which they seem to group 
themselves; letters, news of alumnx, and special articles by alumns 
in different lines of work; vocational articles in each issue prepared under 
the direction of the National Vocational Committee have appeared 
since January, 1920; "Interesting Alpha Chis" constitutes a popular 
section featuring alumna: distinguished in some way; the editorial 
department, which is filled with pertinent discussions and is eagerly 
read; Pergonals, giving news items of active and alumnfe members by 
chapters; Engagements and Marriages; "BijOa Kai 'EtiOh, or Exchange 
department giving news of other fraternities; Announcements, and 

For the annual alumnse issue, the November number, articles are con- 
tributed by alumnse chapters and clubs. Each alumnae group is asked to 
send one article for the Autumn issue, and from those sent the editor 
selects the best as in the 'EkXcktA department. The Chicago convention 
authorized the editor to change the requirements for the 'EkXektA articles 
whichhithertoeach active member was required tocontribute. On account 
of the increased duties of the editor in the central office, fewer articles are 
received from undergraduates. Articles are sent by each chapter to the 
magazine. These contributions may be selected in any of the following 

(1) Each member may contribute an article, as before, to a com- 
mittee of the chapter who makes the selection for the magazine; (2) the 
editor may select contributors to prepare articles for The Lyre; (3) writ- 
ers may be appointed by the chapter president; or (4) they may be 
elected by the chapter. The 'ExXxfri prize has been offered since 1909 
and awarded year by year as follows: 

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Tt^U 16.— Winners of 'BiXwri priui. 




Date of issue. 

Ruth Buff urn 


Be sunny 

Nov.. 1909 

Jane Harria 


The way to all-roundness 

Apr., 1920 

Lucy Loane 


An allegory 

In ritual 

Myra H. Jones 


Chapter finance 

Apr., 1911 

Celia E. McClure 


A fraternity symphony 

Jan., 1912 

Esther Joy Lawrence 



July, 1913 

Esther Kittredge 


The half hour of music 

July, 1914 

Bess A. Will 


Fraternalism and paternalism 

July, 1915 

Isabelle M. Wineland 


Do you know your girls? 

July, 1916 

Ruth Lange 


Can anybody tell me? 

July, 1917 

Robin Wilkes 


What we did for our soldiers- 


July, 1918 

Mildred ChriBtensen 



July, 1919 

Helen Gold 


I'd love to 

Jan., 1920 

For several years the prize has been a gold coat-of-arms pendent, a 
less elaborate prize than the early awards but one that is held precious 
because of the honor which attaches to it. 

Since 1910 also a Lyrcl-oving Cup has been awarded to that chapter 
whose Lyre relations for the year have been most worthy both as to 
literary quality of contributions and to general efficiency in cooperation. 
Six awards have been made: Xi. 1910-ll;Xi, 1911-12; Kappa, 1912-13; 
Delta. 1913-14; Zeta, 1914-15; Beta, 1915-16; Theta, 1917-18; Pi, 
1918-19; Gamma, 1919-20. 

The cover designs of The Lyre were at first very simple, containing 
little more than the lettering on the first numbers. There have been nine 
diflferent covers, some, however, varying only slightly from the others. 

For many years an olive cover bearing a small Grecian lyre in scarlet 
was used. With the January, 1908, number an attractive new cover 
design (the work of Mr. Haseltine) was adopted, composed of a Grecian 
temple bearing the letters A X Si. With the number of January, 1910, a 
more elaborate and attractive design was selected, containing the new 


220 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

coat-of-arms and a Grecian design representing the artistic character of 
Alpha Chi Omega, the artist being John W. Norton, of Chicago. Mrs. 
Haseltine also showed artistic judgment in selecting designs for the 
headings of the different departments. 

For many years The Lyre was necessarily a financial burden, though 
a welcome one, to the Grand Treasury. Today it is self-supporting. 
Chapter support, both financial and literary, has been increased at the 
various conventions until now every initiate takes out a life subscription, 
and several alumne chapters require Lyre subscriptions of their mem- 
bers. The management of TAe Lyre announced in the April, 1911, number 
that it was ready to offer life subscriptions (twenty dollars) to alumne, 
thus saving the subscriber the trouble of annual renewal as well as 
considerable expense ; at the same time the management saved the expense 
of obtaining renewals, while the interest from the accumulated fund would 
make the plan possible and practicable. In 1915 the lower rate of ten dol- 
lars for life subscriptions was adopted. In 1919 the final step was taken to 
require of every member full payment for a life subscription at time of 
initiation. Thus all lapses and renewals of subscriptions will in time be 
done away forever, and every Alpha Chi some day will be a Lyre sub- 
scriber. A great increase in fraternity solidarity will result — has in fact, 
resulted already. The Lyre 
has paid from 1910 an annual 
salary to the editor, and also 
allowed the business manager 
a certain percentage of all 
money handled. 

As a fraternity is largely 
judged, outside of its own 
membership, by its magazine, 
it is a source of general grati- 
fication and pleasure to all 
Alpha Chis to know that The 
Lyre has justly worked its 
way into its present place 
among the best of the frater- 
nity journals. Sincere grati- 
tude and appreciation are felt 
by the entire fraternity for 
the loyal work of the editors 
and other members of the 
staffs who have accomplished 
this worthy end. Too much 
praise cannot be given to 
Florence Reed Haseltine and 


her successors for what they accomplished, although The Lyre could not 
have reached its high place under their leadership if a strong foundation 
had not been laid by their predecessors. 

The staff of The Lyre in recent years has seen few changes. In 1912 
upon succession to the office of National Inspector, Lois Smith Crann, 
who had been a most efhcient business manager from 1910 to 1912, was 
followed by Nell E. Harris, who served until 1919. The splendid work 
of these two assistants enabled the magazine to reach a high plane of 
businesslike systematization and prosperity. The office of exchange editor 
has been filled since 1910 by four efficient members; Mary-Emma Grif- 
fith, A, 1910 to 1912; Kathryn Morgan, S, 1912-1916, who was relieved 
in order that she might devote her time exclusively to the office of Keeper 
ofSupplies; and Margaret Grafius Birkhoff, I, 1916-1919. Miss Griffith 
and Miss Morgan were in close touch with educational work through 
their own profession of pedagogy; Mre. Birkhoff is a graduate of the 
Univereity of Illinois and the wife of a Harvard professor. She, too, as a 
consequence, was in touch with current educational movements. Frances 
Marks, a teacher of English and Journalism who had served as Chapter 
Editor and at two conventions on the staff of the Convention Trans- 
cript has served from 1919 to date. 

Through these exchange editor's contributions concerning educa- 
tional and fraternity*questions. The Lyre contained much timely infor- 
mation which has been appreciated by readers in Alpha Chi Omega and in 
other fraternities. Gladys Livingston Olmstead, Z, {now Mrs. S. D. 
Graff) served brilliantly as chief alumna from 1910 to 1915. Her sketches 
of celebrated members of Alpha Chi Omega, and of her travels, are among 


222 History of Alpha Chi Oukga Fratbrnity 

the most sparkling of the contributions to The Lyre during its history. In 
1915, she was relieved for work on the new history. Edna Boicourt, 
Z, succeeded her as National Alumnie Editor. Miss Boicourt had studied 
at Baker University, had graduated as a member of Zeta Chapter from 
the New England Conservatory of Music, under Carl Baermann, and 
has since been prominent in fraternity circles in Los Angeles both among 
the graduate andalumnse members. She hadawide acquaintance, there- 
fore, with alumnse throughout the United States. She cooperated with 
the alumnae editors of The Lyre in building up the alumnx news depart- 

Miss Boicourt was succeeded by AUnda Montgomery, Z, (University 
of Colorado and Wellesley College) who has been very successful in 
getting Alumnee Editors interested in their section of the magazine. 
"Each number," said the Secretary-Editor, "shows a steady growth in 
this interest." 

The Board of Alumnae Editors wasestablished previous to the Novem- 
ber, 1913, edition which featured alumnae news. The success of the issue 
was so pronounced that the November issue became thereafter a regular 
alumnae issue. For it the alumnae editors endeavored to secure news of 
every alumna. The Board of Alumnae Editors was founded to supple- 
ment the service rendered by the active chapter editors who were unable, 


TasLnB 223 

with the tremendous increase of alumnx membership, to keep in touch 
with all these valued members. The office is filled by election of the active 
chapter upon ratification by the editor of The Lyre. In the phenomenal 
growth of alumnae interest and service in the fraternity during the past 
few years, we see the fruits of the striving of these editors, as of many 
other laborers, and to them as to the others who have served to the 
same end, is due a great debt of gratitude. 

To every magazine the question of finances is a matter of serious 
concern. In 1908 The Lyre had reached, through the sagacity and 
indefatigability of the management, a self-supporting stage. In that 
year, as hitherto recorded, the National Convention passed a ruling, not 
unheard of among fraternities, that each initiate should be required to 
subscribe to the magazine for one year after graduation besides during 
her undergraduate years. The law was arranged with fore»ght, more- 
over, to require, at initiation, the payment for the entire five years, to 
save trouble in collection, and to have the use of the amount, without 
shrinkage, during the period. The experiment was triumphantly success- 
ful. The list of alumnx subscriptions steadily increased. From the 
publication of about 750 copies in July, 1910, the list lengthened to 
1,750 copies published in July, 1915. The increase continued steady 
thereafter. The size of the April, 1921, issue, was 2,500 copies. 

The rise in alumnae support was not sufficient, however, to meet the 
reasonable expectations of the management. Repeated subscription 
campaigns, in which the chapters faithfully and laboriously cooperated, 
raised, by means of the "Whirlwind Campaign" in 1913, the percentage 
of alumnae subscribing to 67 per cent. The editor's report in 1914 
expressed dissatisfaction with the campaign method, however, in spite 
of its temporarily gratifying results, in the following words: 

"The Whirlwind Campaign was a success but at a startling expendi- 
ture of time, energy, and money. (Much of this had devolved upon the 
members in college.) We need badly an automatic, system of subscrip- 
tion — only a general life subscription will ever answer, and the editor 
hopes to see the day when every Alpha Chi Omega will be a life sub- 

The prizes of this campaign went to Mu (twenty dollars in gold) who 
achieved 100 per cent renewals, and to Beta, Zeta, and Iota, who received 
coat-of-arms spoons for especially good work. 

The hfe subscription offer (twenty dollars), begun in April, 1911, had 
led to but few remittances, although the plan itself of a life subscription 
system met with universal favor. The price was too high for general 
acceptance, and the management longed to be able to offer a low rate 
with a large and steadily growing life subscription list to make safe the 
reduction in price, and to eliminate the necessity of subscription cam- 


224 HisTOKv OF Alpsa Chi Oueoa Fraterkitv 

The 1915 Convention, therefore, at the recommendation of The Lyre 
Finance Board adopted a system of Hfc subscriptions for all initiates. 
The price of the subscription was placed at ten dollars, or eleven dollars 
in three annual installments of five dollars, three dollars, and three 
dollars. Since the first payment of five dollars at initiation did not 
increase the fee already in force, and the siKceeding annual payments of 
three dollars were simple to manage, the remarkable advantage to the 
individual and to the fraternity were obvious. The rates and terms to 
initiates were applicable also to alumnae. The measure was passed most 
enthusiastically by the convention, which pledged a large number of 
individual life subscriptions on the spot, a number that was increased to 
one hundred before the next issue of The Lyre appeared. By this action 
The Lyre was benefited greatly, provided always, of course, that its 
funds shall be managed with care and foresight. The management 
was of the conviction that The Lyre Reserve Fund, should be increased 
annually at a scientifically correct rate and serve as an endowment fund. 

The Lyre reported in 1915 a Reserve Fund (begun three years before) 
equal to the amount of its advertising receipts for the past three years. 
The editor had stressed persistently the possibility and advantage of a 
paying advertising department. The Lyre, it was seen, was a valuable 
advertising medium, both for local and national advertising, and with 
the support of the chapters this fact was demonstrated. The editor 
hoped for the inauguration of syndicated advertising for all fraternity 
magazines, by which system the combined circulation of all N. P. C. 
m^azines would make a strong appeal to conservative national adver- 
tisers. Such a system would insure a high grade of advertising and 
increased revenue for all journals. 

Much hard work and research regarding possibilities of syndicated 
advertising failed to result in concerted action on the part of the N. P. C. 
journals. Following the 1919 Conference of N. P. C. editors in Wash- 
ington, D. C, a new committee, including Miss Griffith, as Alpha Chi 
Omega's representative, thoroughly investigated again the possibilities 
of syndicated advertising. No successful plan has yet been evolved. 

In order to compensate partly for the increased cost of publication 
and to prevent if possible an increase in the subscription price, the 1919 
Convention required a fixed amount of advertising for The Lyre from 
each active chapter. A percentage is paid by the management to all 
advertising furnished above the required amount. The Secretary- Editor 
reports excellent coSperation from the chapters who have by this means 
increased notably the revenue of the magazine. On their side the chapters 
have gained valuable business experience, and at least post[>oned the day 
of increased subscription rates. 

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Thb Lvke 225 

Besides the conduct of The Lyre in general and in detail, on sound 
business principles, the policy of the management of The Lyre is definite 
and progressive. Quoting from an editorial of Miss Annstrong's from the 
ArgoUd headed "The Policy of The Lyre" its well-defined purpose is 

To be of constructive value, a fraternity must show a definite impress, powerfully 
made. This definite impress constitutes the character of the fraternity. The impress 
which Alpha Chi Om^:a makes is altogether noble, spelling attainment, idealism, and 
service; it must be the work of the fraternity membership to increase the dynamic of a 
fraternity's inspiration, that her impress may be powerfully made, and may count for 
social progress. This is especially the function of the fraternity magazine. 

To increase the dynamic of the inspiration of the fraternity is, then, the purpose 
of The Lyre, and the policy of the staff follows that direction, by several distinct roads. 
All these roads alike travel the region of good citizenship — college citizenship, and 
community citicenahip. 

The fraternity journal is a dual creature — half newspaper, half magazine; therefore 
our policy is dual. We stress news, because The Lyre is the sole correspondence between 
most of the members of the fraternity; the prestige and expansion of Alpha Chi Omega 
depend directly on the attitude and co&peration of our members. If we are able to keep 
Alpha Chis in close touch with each other through all kinds of news of each other, we 
not only pve them much happiness, but we keep them linked up with general fraternity 
interest and advance steps, through The Lyre. Hence, the page of Alpha Chi babies! 
It is the news department that alumnz most enjoy, and most regret if it is inferior. 

In the matter of our attitude toward our fellow-Greeks, and all felkiw-students. 
The Lyre has a distinct duty; a certain attitude is characteristic of a gentlewoman, in a 
fraternity or out of it. Fairness, sincerity, generosity, and loveliness are in our chapters 
everywhere; they should characterize every member of every fraternity. The Lyre 
hdpe to bring Alpha Chi Omega nearer that standard. 

There is the claim of the greatest dynamic in the whole life of this old worid, the 
Christian religion. A college woman's career is a farce unless she has fairly considered 
that force. Every kind of college publication has a share in the responsibility of present- 
ing that claim to the college world, which b a world of choices and high resolves. 

Increanng numbers of college women enter professional life; alumnae of prolesaional 
experience can render us great service by pointing out the way, and the means. So we 
need vocational articles from every walk in life. The college woman in private, as well 
as professional life, has widening opportunities to make her community a better place to 
live in ; we need to know how to use those opportunities, to help meet civic issues. Social 
service, while now one of the professions, devolves largely upon the volunteer local 
worker, except in the more highly specialized cities. Playgrounds, campfires, settlement 
and club work of all kinds need the college woman — therefore The Lyre should acquaint 
us with those of our sisters who are leaders in civic and social service, and should point 
us to our own opportunities. 

Life all over the world is becoming more cosmopolitan; our generation will face more 
international problems than any generation has yet met; to be good citizens we must 
have the international attitude, which will lead us into intelligent acquaintance with 
world issues. The Lyre directs your thoughts occasionally to world conditions and 
world organizations; if you have alumnz engaged in some professional service across 
the seas, we beg of you to keep the fraternity informed of their work. 

tn its pages, the magazine depicts "personal achievements, and 
opinions, and experiences" also subjects of special interest to fraternity 


226 History of Alpha Cbi Omega FkATBRNiTV 

and college women generally. "Whatever is published," says the editorial 
"we try to keep The Lyre dignified and in good taste." 

The Lyre goes to members in all states of the Union and to Alaska, 
Canal Zone, Hawaii, China, Holland, and Germany. 

The size of the issue for April, 1921, was over 2,500 copies. Twelve 
hundred and sixty-seven of these went to life subscribers, and two hun- 
dred fifty more to memberswho Were paying for their life subscriptions on 
the installment plan. In time the entire fraternity membership will pos- 
sess life subscriptions. The Lyre has long been, and will be, we trust, for- 
ever, a popular and well-beloved magazine. Scores of members contribute 
to each issue. Through the support and devotion of the many hundreds 
of its readers and contributors, "it has become," to quote from the 
President's address to the 1915 Convention, "one of the very best 
fraternity journals, a publication of which we are very proud and which 
fully represents the standards of our fraternity." 

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The Herceum and The Argolid are the private bulletins of the frater- 
nity. The nomenclature of both is in harmony with the sentiment that 
Hera is the patron goddess of the order. The meaning of the word "Herje- 
um" is "the secret precincts of Hera" ; the meaning of "Argolid," "from 
the headquarters of Hera." These names were selected, at the time of 
the establishment of each bulletin, by Miss Armstrong, editor of The Lyre 
and editor of botli bulletins, with the help of Professor Joanna Baker, 
head of the Greek Department at Simpson College, and one of the early 
presidents of Alpha Chapter. Miss Baker also assisted the committee 
in the choice of the present open motto, "Together, let us seek the 

The Herceum was authorized in 1910, and later established as an 
annual supplement to The Lyre. It goes, therefore, without cost, to 
subscribers to The Lyre. The minutes of the National Council and the 
reports of committees, the minutes of the National Convention and the 
reports of committees constitute the contents of this magazine. The 
expense is borne by the National Treasury, except the cost of mailing 
which is carried by The Lyre. The work of editing The Heraum is 
also performed by the editor of The Lyre. 

The publication in available form of Council and Convention minutes, 
and their distribution among the members of the order interested in them 
makes for unity of understanding and compactness in effort which are 
invaluable. The publication of the reports of committees is most valuable 
as a matter of reference, and provides all readers of The Lyre, which some 
day will mean all members of the fraternity, with a workable knowledge 
of the details of the business of the whole order. A file of the volumes of 
The Heraum forms an available current history of fraternity policies and 
legislation of utmost interest. The writing of the History has been 
much facilitated by the accessibility of a mass of detail in The Heraum. 

The Argolid is the private bulletin to which is consigned all private 
material to be printed but not included in The Heraum, and communi- 
cations, either announcements or requests, from national officers to 
chapters. It is supposed to be issued bimonthly, or more often if neces- 
sary, by the National Secretary, who, since the 1915 Convention, serves 
as editor of The Argolid. At first this bulletin also was printed, but in 
1915, in an attempt to expedite its appearance, and decrease its cost it 
was mimeographed on the fraternity machine, and the expense borne 


228 History of Alpha Chi Ouega Fkaternitv 

by the national treasury. Previous to 1915 half of the expense and 
the work of editing was provided by The Lyre. The ArgoHd furnishes 
a frequent private bulletin for the discussion of fraternity policies and of 
Panhellenic problems, and it likewise provides a means for national 
officers to communicate through its pages with active and alumnae chap- 
ters, and alumns clubs, thus eliminating a part of the enormous corres- 
pondence carried on by a national officer. 

Almost from the founding of the fraternity there existed a strong 
de^re for significant songs of Alpha Chi Omega. The first formal record 
of this sentiment is found in the minutes of the meeting of Alpha Chapter, 
February S, 1886, when a motion was passed that Florence Thompson 
write the words and Estelle Leonard the music of a fraternity song. The 
name selected for the composition was Alpha Prima. From time to time 
other songs were written by members of the early chapters but no definite 
plan for the collection of these was made until the first convention, 1891, 
when the publication of a fraternity songbook was discussed and founda- 
tions were laid, each chapter being required to furnish at least four origi- 
nal songs within the next year. The convention of 1893 appointed 
Gamma Chapter to publish a songbook; accordingly at the 1894 Con- 
vention that chapter reported that the first Alpha Chi Omega Songbook 
had recently been published in Evanston. This simple little pamphlet 
contains eleven songs to be sung to familiar airs, no music being printed 
in the book. 

Although the early collection of songs served its purpose as a founda- 
tion upon which to build, the need of a larger and better songbook, 
containing music as well as words, soon became evident. Accordingly 
the convention of 1896 appointed Gamma to publish another edition of 
the songbook, but as the matter of collecting the songs proved to be 
a long task, it was not until 1904 that Gamma Chapter published the 
second edition of the songbook, Mabel Dunn serving as chairman of the 
committee. This edition shows a very marked advance over the first 
one, being bound in an attractive, durable cover and containing thirty- 
one songs of excellent quality, twenty-six of which are set to original 

Owing to the popularity of this book the edition was soon exhausted; 
consequently at the 1906 Convention a committee, with Myrta McKean 
Dennis, T, as chairman, was appointed to publish a new edition of 
the songbook. The result of the careful work of this committee was the 
third edition of the songbook which was welcomed heartily by the 1908 
Convention when Mrs. Dennis presented it for use during that conven- 
tion. This volume, attractively bound in light and dark green, contains 
sixty songs, thirty-one of which are set to original music, and an original 
Initiation March. The songs, as in the previous editions, were contrib- 


The Her^um, the Akgolid, and the Sohcbook 229 

uted by both active and alumniE members of the various chapters, 
practically all of the songs of the first two editions being incorporated 
in this edition. Considerable credit is due Mrs. Dennis for her painstak- 
ing work, from a musical as well as from a business standpoint. The 
revision of the music manuscript, and the adaptation of the words of 
many of the songs to appropriate music, required a comprehensive knowl- 
edge of harmony such as she possesses. The successful financing of the 
edition is evidenced by the fact that all the money borrowed from the 
national treasury for the publication was returned. Mrs. Dennis 
was appointed Custodian of the Songbook in 1908, but other duties made 
it necessary for her to resign the position the following year, and Mary 
R. Vose, r, was appointed her successor, 

Lucile Morgan Gibson, r, was appointed Custodian of the Songbook 
in 1912. The subject of a new edition was broached in the spring of 1914. 
The National Council appointed Mrs. Gibson chairman, and approved 
the following names for the committee: Annie Woods McLeary, Z; 
Myrta McKean Dennis, T (who later found it necessary to resign); 
Blanche F, Brocklebank, Z; and E. Fay Frisbie, IT. All chapters were 
requested to send in the names of fifteen songs in the third edition 
in the order of their choice. From the lists every song receiving five votes 
was retained. There was a total of twenty-six songs chosen. Some of 
these, which formerly had no accompaniment, were harmonized, and 
several were transposed to bring them within range of the average voice. 
A competition wag arranged, open to all members, offering a ten-dollar 
prize for the best original music and words, and a five-dollar prize for the 
best verses. The first prize was awarded to Gretchen O'Donnell Starr, 
P, for the song / am an Alpha Chi, and the other prize was awarded to 
Luciie Lippitt, A, for the Invocation. 

The competition brought a number of original songs, many of which 
underwent numerous changes in harmony but in spirit remained as sub- 
mitted. Other songs were received through the direct solicitation of the 
committee. The fourth edition offered twenty-seven new songs all of 
original music and covering subjects such as banquet, loyalty, invocation, 
and toast songs and comprised fifty-three songs; forty-three of them 
are of original music. The edition was ready by April, 1915, and proved 
to be very popular. Three hundred and fifty books were sold by the time 
of the convention in June. Blanche F. Brocklebank, Z, was appointed 
Custodian of the Songbook in 1915, and was succeeded by Annie May 
Cooke, Z, who served until obliged to give up the distribution in 1918. 

In 19I8appeared the fifth edition, and in 1921, the sucth edition, both 
under the direction of Estelle M. Dunkle, Z, Custodian of the Song- 
book to date. About 4,000 copies of the Songbook have been issued. 
In some respects the Songbook is the most popular of the publications 
of the fraternity. 



The history of a national organization is not alone of value as a 
record for reference, but also as a volume of vital interest as a story 
of the purpose and achievements of earlier sisters, and as an incentive 
to strive more intelligently and more earnestly toward their and our goal 
of high ideals. 

Since the history of a fraternity is largely made up of the annals of the 
separate chapters, such records are eminently worthy of preservation; 
for this reason historical sketches of the various chapters of Alpha Chi 
Omega have been printed in Tke Lyre in different years as follows: 

Alpha, Beta and Delta Chapters, Vol. I, No. I, June, 1894. 

Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and EpsUon Chapters, Vol. Ill, No. 3, Septem- 
ber, 1897. 

Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Zeta,Thela, lota.Kappa, Alpha Alpha, 
and Beta Beta Chapters, Vol. IX, No. 5. 

In order to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the found- 
ing of the fraternity, Volume XIV, Number 1, November, 1910, of The 
Lyre was published as an historical number. It contains personal reminis- 
cences of Alpha Chi Omega covering five-year periods, written by alum- 
nae; interesting descriptions of the early days of Alpha, Beta, Gamma, 
and Delta; letters from the Founders; greetings from Dean Howe, as 
well as reminiscences of the Grand Presidents, the Editors, and the 
Inspector, and a sketch of the policy of expansion of Alpha Chi Omega. 

Realizing the need of a national history of the fraternity in book 
form, the 1908 Grand Chapter appointed "Mabel Siller, Grand Historian, 
to compile and to publish a history of Alpha Chi Omega with assurance of 
financial support and compensation and with the privilege of choosing 
her assistants." This History of Alpha Chi Omega, offered to the frater- 
nity in 1911, was theresutt of sixyearsof workon the part of the author, 
the first three in gathering data for the historical records, and the last 
three in compiling and publishing this volume with the able assistance of 
the Editorial Board. It represented an earnest effort to give as compre- 
hensive an outline as possible, from the material available, of the history 
of Alpha Chi Omega's steady development during its first twenty-five 
years of existence. 

Of this volume Alta Allen Loud said, in the Foreword: "To appreciate 
properly the work of our Founders and to leave to our successors accurate 
records of what has been done, is a work of great importance. As a co- 


Tbe Hisiokt 211 

worker of the author (or many years, I have had the pleasure of watching 
the launching of this, our first published History. The obstacles and dis- 
couragements have been many, but tireless energy and an infinite patience 
and perseverance have overcome them, and the comprehensive History 
which Miss Siller has given us is a monument to her unbounded loyalty 
and will for all time endear her to every member of our fraternity. 

"The early records portray vividly for us the devotion and the earnest- 
ness of our founders, and as we read of their struggles and achievements, 
we are able to catch the spirit of the early days and are brought to a 
greater appreciation of the gift that is ours — to a deeper devotion to the 
principles set forth in our sacred Bond. 

"May this History serve the purpose — acquaint its readers with the 
founding of the fraternity and its cherished traditions, bind together more 
closely our seventeen hundred members, make its appeal to all, young 
and old. To the alumnas, may it bring fond memories and renewed 
loyalty. To the undergraduates, may it serve as an incentive to carry 
on with earnest purpose the work that is theirs. To all of us may it 
prove an inspiration to press on toward the higher, better things of life, 
and Together, seek the Heights." 

The first edition of the History was exhausted in four years. It was 
the second fraternity history to be published by a woman's fraternity 
and was of special value, in libraries and in fraternity archives, for 
that reason. It was a beautiful volume and very valuable for reference as 
well as an object of pride. At the exhaustion of the edition, therefore, a 
committee was appointed in 1914 to investigate the matter of publishing 
a second edition. A report containing preliminary information was 
submitted to the 1915 Convention and a second edition, to be a revision 
of the first edition "from a combined personal and statistical standpoint 
was authorized." Florence A. Armstrong, who had assisted in compila- 
tion and had edited and published the first edition, (as one of Miss 
filer's assistants) "was asked to serve as author of the second edition with 
full authority vested in her." The five months of hard work which had 
been expended on the first edition as editor had paved the way to a 
ready grasp of the problems involved in a revision. Six years of work 
as editor of the fraternity magazine, during all of which period research 
had been made into the history of the past, had furnished a broad 
acquaintance with the personnel of the organization and with the facts 
of its career. Personal acquaintance with twelve of the twenty-three 
institutions wherein the chapters were located simplified the task. 

Theauthorwasemboldened, therefore, because of these facts and the 
inspiring enthusiasm of the convention which asked it, to undertake the 
herculean task of a statistical revision, and the incorporation of the 
personal feature that meant practically the writing of a new volume. The 


232 History of Alfha Chi Ouega Frateknitt 

changes that had transpired since the first edition of the book were 

The third edition, also by Miss Armstrong, includes a new section 
on the war work of the intervening period, a chapter on fraternity expan- 
sion, a full description of the national altruistic work of the fraternity, 
a discussion of current educational conditions, besides other numerous 
new featiu-es, and statistical revision. (See also page 361.) 

Through the courtesy of Mrs. Macdowell the 1916 edition of the 
History was written largely in the Star Studio, at the Macdowell Colony, 
Peterborough, New Hampshire. Over the door of the studio hangs an 
artistic shingle bearing the three stars from our Coat-of-arms, and the 
Scroll upon which is inscribed Alpha Chi Omega, 1911. Written largely 
in these fitting and happy surroundings, the second edition was the 
result of an earnest effort to present a clear picture of the condition of 
women's education in 1885, and of the early life, the problems, progress, 
ideals, and characteristics of the fraternity. The third edition has been 
written during editorial labors in Washington, D. C. 

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The Daily Convention Transcript 

For the first time, in 1915, the National Convention supported a daily 
convention newspaper. On the night of the arrival of the special train, 
in Long Beach, California, the delegates received at the time of their 
registration a copy of the Daily Convention Transcript. Five editions 
were issued during the Convention, more than half of which were mailed 
to members not present. The issue contained accounts of each day's 
sessions, stones of the social functions of each day, humorous incidents ■ 
connected with the assembly, articles of general fraternity interest, news 
items of all kinds, and announcements. The ConventionTranscript was 
considered one of the important accomplishments of the Biennial and 
was the beginning of a regular publication for the purpose of disseminat- 
ing quickly information of the work of the convention in the real spirit 
of the occasion. It makes possible, also, a more compact body of con- 
vention members as all present are readers of the daily newspaper. 

The first volume of the Daily Convention Transcript was issued by a 
staff consisting of Florence A. Armstrong, Editor-in-chief; Clara Stephen- 
son, E, Managing Editor; Marion Green, E; June Hamilton Rhodes, M; 
Nell E. Harris, M; Frances Kirkwood, I; Frances Marks, I; Laura Wei- 
lepp, I ; and Maude Staiger Steiner, G. The paper was of four pages — 
in size and style like a university daily newspaper. 

The second volume of the Daily Convention Transcript appeared at the 
Chicago Convention in 1919 and consisted of five numbers. The second 
volume showed marked improvement in news value over the first, and 
each successive volume doubtless will be superior to its predecessors. 
Excellent summaries of selected official and committee reports provided 
not only to distant members, but to those present as welt, brief and 
pungent discussion of the significant facts in the fraternity's records 
between conventions and of each day of convention. 

The 1919 staff comprised two members of the 1915 staff; Florence A. 
Armstrong, Editor-in-chief and Frances Marks, Managing Editor. The 
associate editors of Volume H were Mary-Emma Griffith, National 
Secretary; Louise Ludlum, K; Myrta McKean Dennis, T; Jean Ripley 
Johnson, I; and Essie Tichenor, T. The reporters were lone Ballinger, I; 
Helen C. Bailey, A E; Elizabeth Ulrich, *. Agnes Martin, r, served as 
Business Manager, assisted by Florence Tyden, r. The circulation 
managers ably cared for the distribution, both to members at convention 


234 HtsTOtv or Alpha Chi Omega Fkatkrnitt 

and to absent members by mail: Kathryn Purcell, T; Jean Rich, K; and 
Martha Bennett, T. 

The newspaper has paid for itself at both conventions and has made 
a small profit. The surplus from the first volume helped to swell slightly 
the Scholarghip Fund; from the profits of the second volume, two French 
orphans were adopted for a year. 

The 1919 Convention authorized the publication of the Daily Con- 
vention Transcript at future gatherings, and voted as a requirement that 
each active member should subscribe for it. By this ruling, our popular 
and valuable little newspaper became a permanent member of the 
fraternity's system of publications. 

The Directory 

The early records of the fraternity show that the names and addresses 
of all the members were kept separately by the chapters, arranged 
according to the years of initiation. As this method did not prove 
satisfactory the 1900 Convention provided for a register of all members 
of Alpha Chi Omega to be kept by Alpha Chapter. From these lists the 
editor of The Lyre compiled and printed in the journal a complete 
alphabetical directory by chapters of the names and addresses of all the 
members of Alpha Chi Omega as follows: 

Vol. n. No. 2, June, 1897, Alpha— 2eta Chapters, inclusive. 

Vol. Ill, No. 1, March, 1898, Alpha— Zeta Chapters, inclusive. 

Vol. IV, No. 1, March, 1899, Alpha— Zeta Chapters, inclusive. 

Vol. V, No, 4, January, 1902, Alpha — Iota Chapters, inclusive. 

Vol. IX, No. S, October, 1906, Alpha — Kappa Chapters, inclusive. 

Vol. XI, No. I, October, 1907, Alpha — Mu Chapters, inclusive. 

Since this method of printing the names and addresses of the members 
proved inadequate, the Grand Council Meeting of 1907 appointed the 
Grand Historian to compile and to publish a separate fraternity directory. 
Accordingly in July, 1908, the first Directory of Alpha Chi Omega was 
published in pamphlet form by Mabel Harriet Siller, This book contains 
the names and addresses of the Grand Council members then in office, 
a list of the active chapters (Alpha to Xi, inclusive) with addresses of the 
chapter houses or halls and the dates of installation of the chapters, and 
a list of the alumnae chapters (Alpha Alpha to Gamma Gamma, inclusive) 
with the dates of establishment, besides an alphabetical catalogue by 
chapters of names and addresses of all Alpha Chis. It also included a list 
of the honorary members with their addresses. Two catalogues of 
members were printed in the first History of Alpka Chi Omega, one by 
chapters, including the chapters from Alpha to Sigma, inclusive, and 
containing the years of initiation, and addresses; the other an alphabetical 
list giving chapter only. 

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Ths Cal&ndab 235 

Annual directories were published thereafter by Tke Lyre in 1912, 
1913, and 1914; twice in pamphlet form, and in April, 1913, in the 
regular issue of the magazine. Since there was no provision for purchase 
of the directories, Tke Lyre lost heavily, although the advantage of an 
annual, carefully compiled directory was of incalculable value to the 
fraternity. In 1916 the Alumnse Association took over the publication 
of a directory in a pocket edition as recommended by the editor of 
Tke Lyre; and provided to all new initiates, by constitutional require- 
ment, a copy of the same. The 1916 Directory contained a catalogue both 
by chapters, and by geographical location. Its convenient size rendered 
it of greater practical value than preceding issues. In 1920 the Secretary- 
Editor issued a new directory, slightly larger in page size than the 1916 
edition, and similarly arranged. Members are arranged alphabetically 
by chapters and by geographical location, according to maiden names. 
The Calendar 

The first official Calendar of Alpka Cki Omega was presented shortly 
after the 1910 Convention, the committee in charge being Florence Reed 
Haseltine and Mabel Harriet Siller. The attractive cover design in tan 
and brown bore the coat-of-arms and the Greek letters A X II, while the 
pages contained the dates of all the chapter installations, the significant 
national dates of the fraternity, and blank spaces for chapter dates. This 
calendar, aside from being an artistic addition to the chapter halls, 
furnished an excellent reminder of the dates when the annual tax, Tke 
Lyre material, and other matters of fraternity support, were due. 

The second Alpha Chi Omega Calendar was a daily memorandum 
pad of small size, for desk use, issued by Kappa Chapter. The cover was 
olive green tied with scarlet silk cord. The pages contained the fraternity 
dates of importance. This was issued for 1913-14. The next calendar 
was a four-page calendar, published by Delta. It was in olive green, 
printed in gold. Each page contained three calendar months, and a poem 
by an Alpha Chi Omega as follows: 

A Fraternity Symphony, Celia E. McClure, ^ ; Enter Spring, Mar- 
garet Barber Bowen, A; The Sun and the Rain, Ellen Beach Yaw, E; 
The Holly Tree, Florence Fall Miller, B. 

The 1915-16 Calendar was published by Zela Zeta Alumnae Chapter 
for the benefit of a convention fund. It was a brass desk calendar and 
paper-clip of great convenience. The Greek letters A X Q were embossed 
on it. The calendar service was a perpetual one. The publication of the 
next year's calendar was granted to Zeta Zeta also. The design was made 
and painted by Olive Cutter, Z. It was a beautiful peacock device 
of special appropriateness because the peacock was the bird of Hera. 
Between two magnificent birds are the Greek letters A X II. These 
calendars have all been in good taste, and artistic in effect. 



No two documents are dearer to the heart of every loyal Alpha Chi 
Omega than the charter and the membership certificate. The first 
charter was drawn up by Mary Jones and Estelle Leonard, and was 
adopted after slight revision in May, 1887. The original charter was 
lithographed on imitation parchment. The names of the charter members 
and of the general officers were signed by those members, and on the 
lower left-hand comer was affixed the gold seal with small pieces of 
scarlet and olive ribbon. 

This early charter was not suitable for use by the alumnae chapters, 
so with the establishing of the first alumnae chapter in 1906 it became 
necessary to prepare a new form. Laura A. Howe, Edith Manchester, 
and Mable Harriet Siller prepared this form, and while similar to the 
one used by the active chapters, it was more simple in design. 

As the fraternity grew, and new active and alumna chapters were 
frequently added, it seemed desirable to have a uniform charter for both 
chapters. Laura Howe, Z, was appointed a committee to select the 
design for such a charter. In 1910 the Grand Chapter adopted the 
charter now in use. The extreme simplicity of the design adds much to 
the dignity and beauty of the document. It is engraved on parchment, 
and bears the coat-of-arms at the top. The names of the charter mem- 
bers are embossed in uniform lettering and on the lower left-hand comer 
the gold seal and the colors of the fratemity are affixed. 

Nothing can give an Alpha Chi Omega the feeling of "belong- 
ing" as quickly as the membership certificate. Our first membership 
certificates used at the installation of Beta Chapter, were termed "cards 
of admission to the fratemity." This was in 1887, and no effort was 
made to have a more dignified certificate until 1902. Edith Manchester 
drew up the form which was used until 1908, an attractive printed card. 
A lyre, the facsimile of the badge, embossed tn white, adorned the 
top. The Grand President, the Chapter President, and the Grand 
Secretary signed these certificates. 

In 1908 the Grand Chapter appointed Laura Howe to select a new 
form for the membership certificates, and the present form was adopted 
by the Grand Chapter in 1910. It is a beautifully engraved card, bearing 
the coat-of-arms in the upper left-hand comer. The name of the initiate, 
of the chapter, and the date of initiation is inserted in uniform lettering. 
A space in the lower right-hand comer is reserved for the signatures 


Official Forms and Supplies 


of the National President and National Secretary. These certificates are 
ordered for initiates on the ISth of April and November. 

The fraternity has developed a complete system of official handbooks 
and blank record books. These books are of the greatest value to both 
old and new national and chapter officers. Besides the Council hand- 
books, each Alumna Adviser and Province President is furnished with 
completely equipped handbooks, containing much of interest and value 
to her in connection with the work of her office. Additional sheets 
frequently appear. 

Each new chapter at its installation is equipped with uniform books 
for chapter records. All chapters are equipped also with carefully pre- 
pared handbooks containing individual instructions for each officer 
in order to enable new officers to gain a ready grasp of their duties, and 
old officers to check their own work and thus to avoid errors and omis- 
sions. By means of these handbooks and of supplementary instruction 
chapter officers, by exerting themselves to master their work, gain 
experience and proficiency in group organization and direction that 
prove of utmost value to them in their wider life outside college. 


Cbarter trom tbe Htpba Cbi ^rncga f ratcrnitv 


'^/^ ~i// (j//r^a <§u/tJM^, m(^i d^mm 



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Ofvioal Fouis and Suppues 239 

The official forms upon which various reports go tx> national officers 
constitute a very important part of the fraternity's equipment, and facili- 
tate the smooth and proper conduct of the large business of Alpha Chi 

Until 1914, the business of ordering the supplies used by the chapters 
and by the Council members fell to the lot of the different national 
officers. As the fraternity expanded, it was thought wise to have a 
committee attend to the purchasing and distributing of the supplies. 




- -. — 


a' "; 

A-..., 1.^ 

Old MsitBBRSBir Cbrtificate 


AIjjIm €hi (Omriia .Tratrniihj 



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240 History of Alpha Chi Oubga Fraternity 

For the five years 1914-1919 Miss Kathryn Morgan, S, served 
the fraternity as Keeper of Supplies. All orders were written in duplicate 
on official order blanks, signed by the officer in charge, and sent to the 
official printer. Bills for all orders went to the Keeper of Supplies who 
approved them and forwarded them for approval to the National Presi- 
dent. The chapters then remitted for their bills to the officer in chaj^. 
Miss Morgan accomplished much in simplifying and systematizing the 
whole business of distributing the fraternity's official forms. 

This plan was followed until 1919 when the Secretary-Editor assumed 
the duties of the Keeper of Supplies as a part of the work of the central 
office. Since the establishment of the central office, chapters and national 
officers send orders for forms and supplies to the Secretary-Editor, or to 
the officer designated, who instructs the printer on the official order 
blank to forward the supplies, or the officer herself forwards them 
from her stocks on hand. Acknowledgment of the chapter's or officer's 
request to the central office for official supplies is sent by the Secretary- 
Editor on a postal-card form. Bills are approved by the Secretary- 
Editor and the President. All the forms used by the fraternity are either 
mimeographed at the central office or printed, with the exception of (I) 
Form of dismissal, (expulsion); (2) form of dismissal, (notice to chapters) ; 
(3) pledge release notice. These forms are typed as needed. 

An important step was taken in 1920 when the Secretary- Editor 
established the system of using initiates' numbers in the distribution of 
supplies and in the records. Each member of a chapter bears a certain 
number in the Bond Book in the order of her initiation. Her number 
goes to the central office with the first order for supplies of any kind; 
henceforward her records appear under that number and further supplies 
are ordered for her under her number. The Secretary-Editor keeps 
a list of all names and their numbers by chapters, also data of all supplies 
sent, in a handbook that shows all initiates of each chapter in chronologi- 
cal order. The Secretary-Editor knows at once that she has not received 
a life subscription if an initiate's order is omitted by mistake, without 
checking all names; when she adds cards to the catalc^:ue of the frater- 
nity, she knows immediately if a name has been omitted. The system 
also helps her to distinguish between names that are alike and so to 
avoid confusion and inconvenience for the members. The corresponding 
secretary of each chapter files in her handbook a page or pages showing 
supplies ordered for each initiate. If this simple record is carefully kept, 
no initiate will be deprived of her legitimate fraternity possessions, nor 
will mistakes or confusion occur. As a fraternity grows until its records 
cover several thousand members, the economy and indeed the necessity 
of simple, adequate data, are obvious. The following initiates' record 
makes clear the numbering system, which has been found very useful. 


FRATERNiry Supplies 

The foUowing formt are used (Tables 17 and 18). 

Table 17.~NumenailiHdeiU>offieiai forms used by the fralemiiy, 1921. 
N"- Name. Use, 

Lyre initiates' subscription blank 

Badge order blanks 

History order blanks 

Membership certificate order blanks 

Songbook order blanks 

Directory order blanks 

Initiates record forms 
[ Alumnx notes I 




Supplies order acknowledgment 

Supplies order blank (Central office li 

Statement blanks for national officert 

Inspectors report blanks (Chapter records) 

Inspectors report blanks (Members record) 

Alumns chapter by-iaws form 

Alumnz club by-laws form 

Scholarship loan application blanks 

Scholarship loan notes 

Active chapters annual report blanks 

Alumns chapter and club annual report blanks 

Alumnz advisor's annual report blanks 

Active chapter petition forms 

AlumnK chapter petition forms 

Alumnae club petition forms 

Active chapter petitioners records 

Budget blanks 

Treasurer's report blank pads 

Treasurer's cash book 

Statement blanks for chapter use 

Membership list blanks (General) 

Inventory forms (Chapter house) 

Lyre advertising contract blanks 

Membership list blanks Lyre 

Lyre subscription blanks (Alumnx) 

Membership certificates 

Affiliation blanks 

Card catalog cards 

Membership report blanks (Historian) 

Expulsion forms 

Pledge release form 

Convention credentials 

Convention vouchers 

Required initiate's equip- 

National officers use 

Alumnse forms 
) Scholarship Fund forms 
Annual reports forms 

Petition forms 

Chapter Treasurer forms 

Membership records 

Convention forms 

HisTOBv or Altba Cm Ombga Fmtkknitt 

Table IS.— Alphabetical indts to offidat forma used by Ike fraternity, 1921. 



Form number. 

Active chapter annual report blanlu 



Active chapter petition form* 

Extension Vice-Preddent 


Affiliation blanlu 



Alumme adviser's annual report blank 

" " 


Alumnae chapter and club annual report 




'Alumnie chapter by-law forms 



Alumnae chapter petition forma 

AlumnEE Vice-President 


'Alumnse club by-law forms 



Alumme club petition forms 

Alumnte Vice-Preudent 


Alumnte notes I and II 


8-1: 8-II 

Badge order bUnks 



Budget blanks 



•Card catalog cards 



Convention credentials 




Directory order blanks 


Expulsion forms 


Hittory order blanks 

Treasurer, History Board 


'Initiates record books 

Secretary- Editor 


inspector's report blanks (Chapter) 



Inspector's report blanks (Member?) 


Inventory forms (Chapter house) 



Lyre advertising contract blanks 


Lyre subscription blanks (active) 


Lyro subscription bUnks (alumnae) 


'Membership certiBcates 


Membership certificate order blanks 





'• ■' 


Petitioners records 

Extension Vice-President 


Pledge release form 



AlumnjB Vice-President 




Songbook order bUnks 


•Statement blanks for chapter use 



Statement blanks for national officers 

Secretary- Editor 



" " 


Supplies order blanks (Central Office) 



Treasurer's cash book 



Treasurer's report blank pads 


* NoaiiMU [rtca dMi(id tv [una m lixliMMd. 

The charter and stationery are alsofurnished to officers and chapters upon order t( 
the Secretory-Editor, 

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A fraternity, it is believed, is as strong as its alumncc; its government, 
extension, journalism, wealth, and prestige depend upon them. All of 
the older fraternities, therefore, the mass of whose membership is beyond 
college halls, have extensive organizations of their alumnae. This is true 
as well of many newer fraternities who wisely seek to conserve their 
assets in alumnae influence from the beginning. Pi Beta Phi (as I. C.) 
formed an alumme chapter in 1881, and, in 1892, a separate alumnze 
organization. In 1S89, Alpha Phi established two alumnae chapters. In 
1892, Delta Delta Delta, Kappa Kappa Gamma, and Gamma Phi Beta 
formed similar chapters. Kappa Kappa Gamma establishing a national 
alumnx organization in 1906. In 1893, Kappa Alpha Theta began its roll 
of alumnae chapters. Delta Gamma in 1895, following with the second 
chapter in 1903, and Chi Omega founded its first alumnae chapter in 1900. 
Alpha Chi Omega provided for alumnae chapters in 1902, but did not 
establish them until 1906. 

The outcome has shown the wisdom of the practice. Through close 
association the alumn<e retain their sympathetic, well-informed interest 
in the fraternity. Their grasp of fraternity questions widens as their 
fraternity develops fresh problems. Their continued identification in 
interest with the welfare of the undergraduate members results in re- 
sponsiveness to appeals for advice or, it may be, for funds from their 
respective active chapters, and makes chapters well knit, not only for 
the acquisition of desirable members and the enforcing of traditions of 
high scholarship and fine social standards, but even renders possible the 
ownership of dignified and tasteful chapter homes. National undertak- 
ings, such as scholarship funds, as well as local efforts, are financed with 
willingness. And, what is of vital importance to a well-governed frater- 
nity, the intelligence of organized alumna concerning fraternity condi- 
tions and policies renders them adaptable for national service, and solves 
the ever-present question of efficient and available material for national 

The beginning of the organization of the alumnae of Alpha Chi Omega 
may be traced directly to traditional chapter reunions. From the early 
nineties the older chapters began to hold annual reunions to which as 
many alumn<e as possible returned to visit the chapter and the college. 
Alpha and Beta, of course, are the pioneers in this custom; and it is 


244 History of Alfba Chi Ombga Fhaternfcy 

noteworthy that no chapters equal, in enthusiasm and in elaborate 
preparations, the annual reunions of the oldest chapters. 

Upon her biennial reunion. Beta lays the most emphasis. For this 
gathering she sends cordial invitations to every alumna, keeps open house 
throughout the day, usually giving both a luncheon and a dinner in the 
chapter lodge. A program is given sometimes for the guests. Beta, more- 
over, celebrates more than one reunion each year. The annual reunion of 
Alpha, given by Beta Beta alumnae chapter, is held at the Claypool Hotel, 
Indianapolis, and is a brilliant function. About a hundred persons attend 
thebanquet. Delta's most characteristic gathering is an August outing at 
a convenient lake where both undergraduates and alumnx assemble for a 
gala time. A reunion in commencement week also takes place near Mead- 
ville. Mu's annual assembling of alumnee is in the form of a house party 
during commencement, or immediately following, and serves to keep 
many alumna in close touch with the college as well as with the chapter. 
These annual gatherings, which are now customs of practically every 
chapter, have kept strong the tie which bound the alumna, in the early 
days, to her chapter and her university. 

Apart from any invitation from the active chapters, in the large 
and in the smaller centers of the United States, informal groups of alumnae 
members of Alpha Chi Omega early tended to gather occasionally for 
social or altruistic purposes. The advantage of organized alumnse 
association had long been understood by the Greek-letter world when 
Alpha Chi Omega laid plans, in an unhurried way, for alumna organiza- 
tion several years before actual steps were taken toward its realization. 
The first duty of an alumna, it was thought, was to her active chapter, 
and for twenty-odd years the main channel of relationship between the 
alumnx and the national organization was by way of the college chapter. 

Two facts, however, urged the need for independent alumnae organi- 
zation : in increasing numbers, members resided at great distances from 
their own chapters, and, finding close, personal touch with them im- 
practicable, wished for association with those members of the fraternity 
in convenient proximity; experiments had proved, moreover, that 
alumnae engaged tn national work were more vitally interested than 
before in the progress of their individual chapters. As a result, therefore, 
of pressure both from beyond and from within the national council, 
definite steps were taken for organizing members beyond college halls. 

The first legislation was passed at the Evanston Convention in 1902. 
This action provided for the chartering of alumnae chapters. In 1904 a 
further step was taken in the decision by the national convention that 
alumnie chapters should be on an equal basis in national conventions 
with the undergraduate chapters through representation by a voting 
delegate. The following convention legislated that alumnae chapters 


Tbk Aluunji Association 24S 

should have a separate form of charter. In that year, 1906, two alumiiK 
chapters were chartered. Alpha Alpha at Chicago, and Beta Beta at 
Indianapolis, in both of which centers alumnse had long met informally, 
Infonnal meetings preceded organization also in New York, Boston, 
Lincoln, Berkeley, and Seattle. In the year after the founding of Alpha 
Alpha and Beta Beta, 1907, occurred the establishment of Gamma 
Gamma in New York City. Across the continent, in 1908, Delta Delta 
Chapter was founded at Los Angeles. In 1909, as in 1906 and 1913, two 
new alumnae chapters were established : Epsilon Epsilon at Detroit, and 
Zeta Zeta at Boston. In 1910 the revision of the charter made it possible 
for both active and alumnx chapters to use the same document. The 
Madison alumnae were granted a charter as Eta Eta Chapter in 1911. 
Two years afterwards, Theta Theta and Iota Iota were founded at 
Berkeley and Seattle, and were followed in 1914, by three groups, Kappa 
Kappa at Lincoln, Lambda Lambda at Grand Rapids, and Mu Mu at 
Kansas City. In 1916 Nu Nu was established at Denver. 

Alumnae organization had, by this time, become very popular. As a 
result of the action of the National Council in 1913 recommending the 
establishment of alumnae clubs in small cities or college towns, twenty- 
two alumnae clubs were established during the three years of 1914, 1915, 
and 1916. During 1914 alumnae of Decatur, 111.; Eastern Oklahoma; 
St. Louis; Des Moines; Albion, Mich ; and Milwaukee petitioned for and 
were granted organization as alumnae clubs. In 1915 twelve clubs were 
chartered at Ann Arbor, Mich., Omaha; Portland, Ore.; Washington, 
D, C. ; Pittsburgh ; Greensburg, Ind, ; Oil City, Pa, ; Atlanta, Ga. ; Boulder, 
and Pueblo, Colo.; Meadville, Pa. and Terre Haute, Ind. Six or more 
alumn% were then necessary for the formation of an alumnae club and the 
dues and duties were made lighter than for alumna chapters. Legislation 
in 1914 provided that each alumnae chapter should, henceforth, first 
exist for one year as a club. In all, since clubs were first authorized in 
1914, 39 alumnae clubs have been established (April, 1921) or an average 
of more than six each year. A list of these clubs appears on page S3, 
The Denver group, organized as a club, became Nu Nu Chapter after a 

In 1919 by convention action the number of names required on 
petitions for alumnje clubs was increased from six to ten and on petitions 
for alumnx chapters from twelve to twenty. 

The rapid growth in alumnae organization may be traced to the 
recent policy of the fraternity to unify its ranks for the sake of the 
accomplishment of specific national aims. To this end the 1915 Conven- 
tion established an alumnae association, and created in the Council the 
officer of alumnae vice-president who serves as chairman of the alumnae 
association. To this office was elected an experienced member of the 


246 HisTOKY or Alpha Chi Omega FKATBtmrr 

preceding Council, Miss Lillian G. Zimmerman. The other officers of 
the Association were Mrs. R. J. Dunkle, Treasurer, and Miss VeraSouth- 
wick, Secretary. After the 1919 Convention Miss Myra H. Jones as 
National Alumnae Vice President became chairman of the committee, 
Mary-Emma Griffith, Secretary, and Mrs. R. J, Dunkle, Treasurer. 

The requirements which the Association makes of affiliated associa- 
tions are such as will enable the alumnae to follow closely not only the 
work of their own active chapters but likewise the national proceedings 
of Alpha Chi Omega, and the work of the P^nhellenic movement. 
Through frequent letters from the Alumnx Vice President they are 
kept in touch with the national work of the fraternity and given a share 
in it. Groups labor definitely for at least one division of national work. 
What they have achieved separately along these lines will appear in the 
individual accounts of the alumnae chapters and alumnx clubs and in 
the chapter on war work. Alumnae are urged to keep abreast of educa- 
tional progress generally by taking part when convenient in the endeavors 
of the American Association of University Women, (formerly the Associa- 
tion of Collegiate Alumnae), college clubs, and city Panhellenic Associa- 
tions. In the various branches of the last-mentioned movement, alumnie 
of Alpha Chi Omega have been concerned vitally both in their formation 
and in their administration. 

The scope and plans of the Alumnx Association were covered in the 
1916 rejxirt of the Alumnae Vice President to the National Council, part 
of which we quote: 

"The general alumnx work covers an extensive field ; a mere summary 
of what has been done during the past nine months includes the jdesire 
of the chairman firstly to extend alumnae interest by the addition of new 
clubs, secondly to strengthen those groups already organized, and thirdly 
to help to broaden the outlook of all groups not only to embrace specific 
work for Alpha Chi Omega, but also to represent us in city Panhel- 
lenics, college clubs, and the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, and by 
field work to further the general interests of the fraternity. That our 
activities have been broadened is evinced by the number of city Pan- 
hellenic offices held by our alumnae groups. Fully one-third represent us 
in these by holding offices: Cleveland, Decatur, Mu Mu, Pueblcf, Eastern 
Oklahoma, St. Louis, Theta Theta, Omaha, Atlanta, Pittsburgh, Port- 
land. • • 

"Each alumnae group was asked to identify itself with at least one 
special branch of Alpha Chi Omega work chosen by the group. Several 
groups are to be commended for their interest along every Alpha Chi 
Omega activity, notably Theta Theta, Kappa Kappa, Eastern Oklahoma, 
Mu Mu, Portland, and Pittsburgh. Since the facts concerning the 


Tbb Alohmje Association 247 

service of the different associations may serve as an inspiration to other 
grou[>s, their activities are here enumerated. 

"The Milwaukee and Eastern Oklahoma Clubs are furnishing guest- 
rooms in the new homes of Kappa and Psi. Kappa Kappa and Albion 
are campaigning for life subscriptions to The Lyre, the latter for twenty- 
five. Kappa Kappa also maintains a scholarship for Xi and is endeavor- 
ing to prepare more girls in Xi for Phi Beta Kappa. Alpha Alpha and 
Delta Delta are working on convention funds. Those successful in 
gaining non-resident members are Portland and Pueblo. Extension work 
is done by lota Iota, Atlanta, and Gamma Gamma. Equipment work 
was cared for by Theta Theta. Diligent in helping to raise chapter 
building-funds are Eta Eta and Theta Theta. Four additional clubs, 
Galesburg, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and Washington have pledged to the 
Reserve Fund. Theta Theta has pledged twenty-five dollars to the 
Scholarship Fund, and Milwaukee, ten dollars; Kappa Kappa, Washing- 
ton, D. C, and Gamma Gamma have signified their intentions of con- 
tributing their share toward the same. Zeta Zeta is active in French 
relief work. Omaha, Delta Delta, Iota Iota, Mu Mu, Des Moines, and 
Cleveland are interested in local charities. Milwaukee and Beta Beta 
give successful annual state luncheons to Alpha Chi Omegas in their 
respective states. Those eleven interested in Panhellenic affairs are 
elsewhere enumerated. Epsilon Epsilon is to present a scholarship cup 
to the chapter making the greatest improvement during the year. * * " 

The emphasis in alumnx groups during the period of the war shifted 
to patriotic endeavor and has been described somewhat in the section 
devoted to war work. 

The Alumnae Association, as an organization, has published the 1916 
and 1920 editions of the fraternity directory, and has assumed chai^ of 
the Scholarship Fund and of the altruistic work, scholarships for children. 

Alumnx organization has been traced to its source in the traditional 
chapter reunions. There have been, in addition, a number of other forces 
that have affected vitally alumnae interest, and have helped to make 
possible the broad existing system. 

Among these forces the publications of the fraternity rank first. The 
Lyre, authorized when the fraternity was but six years old, and issued 
three years later, has, from its first appearance, contributed, tD an 
incalculable degree, to the maintenance of a living bond among the 
members. In TAe Lyre for March, 1897, occur these words in an editorial: 
"The inspiration which we receive from association in our respective 
chapters is intensified by the union of the chapters. The Lyre should 
be the connecting link which binds all who wear the Scarlet and Olive." 
Such a link the magazine has ever been. It has published news of alumnx, 
and has presented accounts of their achievements and their avocations. 


248 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

It has included in its pages expressions of their opinions on artistic and 
educational subjects. It has persistently campaigned for financial 
support. With the system of the Hfe subscription for all initiates, Tke 
Lyre will be a still greater power in cementing the relation between mem- 
bers and their fraternity. 

The Alumna Letter, issued in 1908, 1909, 1911, and, in different form, 
before the conventions of 1912 and 1915, has done its share in informing 
the alumnse of the progress of Alpha Chi Omega. 

The Directory, published three times each by the national treasury 
and The Lyre treasury, has been of greatest value. Though often 
incorrect in addresses because of an imperfect system in the keeping of 
the fraternity records, it has been a practical guide to the renewal of 
correspondence between many sisters and to personal calls from many 

The private journals, the Heraum and the Argolid, since their first 
appearance in 1911 and 1913, respectively, have accomplished much in 
awakening response from alumnx regarding the inner workings of the 

The Songbook, first published in 1894, is the veteran among the 
publications of Alpha Chi Omega. It has been published in six different 
editions, and is destined to run through many more before its service 
shall be ended. The Songs of Alpha Chi have kept warm in numberless 
hearts the sweet memories of fraternity associations, and sympathetic 
enthusiasm for fraternity progress. 

The History of Alpha Chi Omega provides data of value in convenient 
form. It is the present policy of the fraternity to equip all new members 
with this volume, as well as with the other important publications, to 
prevent the possibility of ignorance or lack of appreciation of the signifi- 
cance and the traditions of the organization. Three editions have been 
published in 1911, 1916, and 1921. 

The Daily Convention Transcript made its appearance and found a 
warm welcome in the circle of fraternity publications, at the Long Beach 
Convention in 1915. It ran through its second volume at the Chic^^ 
Convention in 1919 and shows every sign of doing its share in letting 
Alpha Chis know what is going on, at each successive national conven- 
tion. Its news of convention, to delegates and to the distant active 
and alumn<e members, reaches its readers promptly. Like all the publica- 
tions, it is self-supporting. 

Two chapters. Iota (University of Illinois) and Alpha (De Pauw 
Univerdty) issue a newspaper, The Eyeota and the Alphalpka, to their 
alumnae. They are well edited publications, overflowing with enthusiasm 
and interesting news, containing about as much composition as an 
enterprising university newspaj)er. 

doy Google 

The Alumnx Association 


Lambda (Syracuse University) has a separate alumnae organization, 
with officers, and with definite responsibilities connected with the active 
chapter. This organization is thoroughly businesslike and efficient. It 
has accomplished much, and has made possible for Lambda the ownership 
of a new home. 

Theta (University of Michigan), Kappa (University of Wisconsin), 
Omicron (Baker University), Pi (University of California), and Iota, all 
have effective, workable alumnae organizations. All of these chapters, 
except Iota, work without a chapter publication. All chapters coSperate 
actively with the management of Tke Lyre in conserving the attachment 
of their alumnie to the national magazine. 

Another force that has contributed to the enlistment of active alumnae 
support has been the foundation of national funds for specific purposes. 
The Reserve Fund received contributions from numerous alumnae while 
most alumnae chapters and many alumnae clubs have contributed to it. 
The Scholarship Fund is largely an alumnae enterprise. And the system 
of Alumnae Notes, authorized by the 1912 Convention, which is managed 
by the Deputy to the National Treasurer, benefits not only the active 
chapters, but the alumnae, who are practically interested in the use made 
of their contributions. The following statement shows the results 
obtained from the alumna notes signed by every initiated member: 

Tablt 19. — Results of colleclioH of Alumna Nolei. 

Amount to active Amount to National 
chapters. Treasury. 

































■TsSepUmbv. IMS 

According to the provision in the Constitution three-fifths of each 
note collected is sent to the college chapter to which the alumna belongs, 
the remaining two-fifths now being divided equally between the Scholar- 
ship Loan Fund and the Convention Fund. 

For the first two years two-fifths of the proceeds were used to defray 
the expenses of the national treasury. After the 191S Convention one- 


250 HisTOKT OF Alfha Cm Omega FuTEiNiry 

half was given to the Scholarship Fund, and the other half to the 
Convention Fund. During thecollege year 1917-18 and part of 1918-19 
on account of the postponement of convention, by Council vote the 
entire amount received by the treasury was given to the Scholarship 
Fund. The entire amount of alumnx note proceeds received by the 
Scholarship Fund has been approximately 12,106. The figures in this 
table show clearly the actual present and the potential value to the 
fraternity of the alumnae note system. 

The Reserve Fund, which will be of increasing service in the building 
of chapter houses, and ultimately for an endowment for the fraternity, 
appeals deeply to the alumnae because of its practicability. By co- 
operation with the Reserve Fund and the Scholarship Fund, the alumnx 
members find it possible to render large service of an attractive nature 
that they could not attempt to offer as individuals. 

Not merely through, and for the sake of financial support did the 
remarkable awakening of alumnae interest manifest itself. It is to be 
seen most impressively in the development of the coftimittee system 
of service. During the first years of the fraternity, tasks were frequently 
assi^ed to a chapter to perform, and the appointment of needed commit- 
tees was made within that chapter. Much of the work of committees was 
done at conventions. When the Grand Council was established in 1898 
as the governing body of the fraternity, the important committees neces- 
sary to the work of the organization were appointed, for a number of 
years, principally within that body. Of the first official meeting of the 
Grand Council, in 1903, Kate Calkins Drake says in The Lyre several 
years later: "Much of the work to be finished was left to committees. 
From the work of these came the first examinations, the revision of the 
initiation ceremony, some system of identification and affiliation, and a 
successful struggle for proper recognition in Baird's Manual." These 
committees, we find, which Mrs. Drake designated, were seven in 
number, and all were Council members. But while the fraternity was 
still in the first decade of the twentieth century, the volume of work was 
too laig;e for these committees of the Council. Committees made up of 
alumnae and one member of the Council appear on the minutes, and 
occasionally alumnae who had no official connection with the Council 
were commisaoned for a large service. The amount of service rendered 
by all these committees was noteworthy; but tt was not continuous. 

The staff of The Lyre constituted a standing committee of a kind, it is 
true, from early days. Not until the beginning of the chartering of 
alumnfe chapters in 1906, however, did standing committees appear. In 
1907 it was legislated that each chapter should elect an alumna adviser. 
Since these officers stand in close relation to the National Cotindl, and 
their duties are continuous, we may consider them as standing commit- 


The Aluuka Association 251 

tees. In 1908 a comniittee for the revision of the Initiation Ceremony was 
appointed which developed into the Ritual and Equipment committee 
of the present. In 1908 the president appointed a committee on constitu- 
tional changes, which by 1910 had become the permanent committee 
on Oi^anization and Laws. Like the one on the ritual, this committee 
had been preceded by a number of committees which had served briefly 
in the same cause. 

These two important committees mark the beginnihg of distin- 
guished service by standing committees. They were both composed, 
as it is interesting to note, of members of Gamma Gamma Chapter 
who could gather frequently and could Work together with limitless 
resources at hand In the libraries of the metropolis. Mrs. Kent, Mrs. 
Green, and Mrs. Fall made up the former committee; the personnel 
of the latter was Mrs. Fall and Mrs. Green, until 1914. In that year, 
however, the work for a new edition of the Constitution and Code fell 
into the hands of two Council members, Mrs. Loud and Miss Armstrong, 
and after the convention of 1915, was completed by Miss Griffith, the 
National Secretary. 

The stories of these two committees are similar to those of others 
of our list of standing committees. For, about the year 1910, the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of Alpha Chi Omega, the policy of standing com- 
mittees appears unmistakably in several of the thirty-three committees 
announced at that convention and announced at each subsequent con- 
vention. These committees work with the Council, often without a 
Coimcil member among the appointees, or it may be, including alt the 
members of an alumnx chapter. 

The availability of alumnx in organized groups for national service 
has been repeatedly demonstrated. The steady development of Alpha 
Chi Omega in many directions during the past decade may be explained 
by the cooperation of alumnx with the Council in committee service. 
The members of the Council still serve on many committees, and commit- 
tee service still looms large upon the horizon of Council work; but few 
appointed committees now are constituted entirely of Council mem- 
bers. In fact, over a hundred alumnx are engaged in national work 
today, in the following Standing Committees: Executive, Organization 
and Laws, Extension, Chapter Houses, Reserve Fund, Macdowell 
Studio, Alumnse, Finance, Publications, Official Supplies, Examinations, 
Lyre Finance Board, Ritual and Equipment, Panhellenic, Schlaiship 
Fund, altruistic work, History, and Advisory Investment committees. 

The time will come when every alumna who is willing to give ever so 
little time to the national work may be able to find congenial tasks. 
Such volunteer work will add to the already significant volume of alumnae 
aervice, and will increase greatly the power of the fraternity. 

.y Google 

252 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

The Alumna; Association, we bcHevc, has but begun its work. In the 
future what seems to us now a remarkable growth of alumnx service will 
seem a mere humble beginning. The Scholarship Fund and National 
Vocational Committees both pregnant with possibility for the good of 
undergraduates and graduates alike, are largely alumnx enterprises. 
The national altruistic work but just begun will be carried on by alumnse 
groups and directed by a committee made up of alumnae. Extension work 
will be developed on all sides in new college fields, by means of the 
alumnae. In a very few years we shall see, no doubt, an alumnx associa- 
tion with a self-supporting department of its own, with its own offices, 
and sessions of its own at national conventions of which the beginning 
was made in 1915. That day is already in sight, and it means far greater 
usefulness and prestige than Alpha Chi Omega has yet seen, even in 
prospect, in her years of achievement. 

.y Google 


Alpha Alpha Chapter. Chicago, Illinois, was established May 23, 1906, 
as theChicagoAIumnieChapter, the first of the chartered alumnae groups. 
The organization was effected through the efforts of Gamma alumnx, 
who for several years had maintained an informal alumnae association, 
assisted by alumnae of several other chapters. The banquet in honor 
of the founding was held in the Women's Clubrooms in Evanston, Illinois, 
May 23, 1906, and was preceded by a card party at which the Gamma 
alumnae entertained the local active chapter as well as alumnse from 
other chapters. At the business meeting that ensued, the chapter 
officers were elected and plans were made for the year, which included 
two business meetings and two musicales, besides monthly luncheons in 
Chicago. The schedule was changed in 1908 to four business meetings 
a year instead of two, and in addition, monthly gatherings at the homes 
of members. At the annual banquet of that year Madame Zeisler was 
guest of honor, "and gave a delightful informal talk," 

Characteristics of Alpha Alpha's history have been the annual 
elaborate banquet; the two musicales each year, at times with Gamma 
Chapter and other resident and non-resident Alpha Chis as guests; and 
summer "porch parties," held every two weeks during the months of 
June, July, and August. Luncheons in Chicago tea-rooms are given 
frequently for the sake of convenience. In 1910 Madame Julia Riv6- 
King was guest of honor at the annual banquet. 

Alpha Alpha has often had occasion to meet national officers of Alpha 
Chi Omega. In 1909 she entertained the entire Council, who were 
assembled in Evanston, at a "lat^e formal reception, to which the faculty 
and all the fraternities were invited, in the rooms of the University 
Guild." Again in 1915, Alpha Alpha extended hospitality to the national 
officers and also to the delegates to the California convention at a "send- 
off dinner" just previous to the departure of the convention special train 
for California. On November 8, 1917, a tea was given at the home 
of Miss Zella Marshall for the members of the National Council who 
had been holding a session at the Edgewater Beach Hotel in Chicago, 

Alpha Alpha is well represented in the Chicago Panhellenic, having 
held the presidency of that associatien. Members take an active part also 
in Chicago and Evanston club and musical life. 

In 1919 Alpha Alpha, with Alpha, Gamma, and Beta Beta chapters 
entertained the National Convention at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. 


254 HiSTOKY OF Alpha Chi Omega Fratsknity 

The following members served on convention committees: Mrs. Harry 
Osborne, Mrs. Willard Dbcon, Mrs. Neff, Mrs. Fred Windoes, Mrs. 
Ralph Dennis, Miss Cordelia Hanson, and Miss Florence Tyden. Their 
careful plans and attention to details were evident in every phase of the 
convention program. 

Alpha Alpha has furnished a number of national officers to the 
fraternity and alumnse advisers for Gamma Chapter. Assistance in 
rushing, at initiation, and at social affairs is rendered Gamma, and joint 
gatherings of the active and alumnse chapters are held two or three times 
a year. In 1920 Alpha Alpha was given the responsibility of making 
and assembling the fraternity ritualistic equipment. In 1921 Alpha Alpha 
undertook the administration of the Children's scholarship for the Central 
Province. By virtue of her cosmopolitan membership, Alpha Alpha is a 
very representative chapter. 

The following members of Alpha Alpha received the Pi Kappa 
Lambda key (honorary musical society), that was established at North- 
western University in 1919: Myrta McKean Dennis, Edith Ericson 
Defty, Grace Ericson Spearman, Mary Marshall, Julia Marshall, Mabel 
Dunn Madson, Elthea Snider Turner, Ruth Bradford, Elizabeth 
Cotterall, Muriel A. Brachvogel. 

The charter members of Alpha Alpha were: Elizabeth Tompkins 
Bradstreet, Ora Bond Burman, Juliet Fauck Colwell, Theodora Chaffee, 
Myrta McKean Dennis, Grace Ericson, Emma Hanson, Marjorie Grafius, 
Tina Mae Haines, Cordelia Hanson, Blanche Hughes Hinckley, June 
Ogden Hunter, Mabel Jones, Irene Stevens Kidder, Mabel Dunn Mad- 
son, Ethel Calkins McDonald, Carrie Holbrook Miller, Lucie McMaster 
Miles, Gertrude Ogden, Ida Pratt, Marion Ewell Pratt, Grace Richard- 
son, Elizabeth Scales, Katharine Scales, CoraSeegars, Mabel HarrietSiller, 
Mary R. Vose, Florence Childs Wooley, Lillian Siller Wyckoff , Ella Young. 

Beta Beta Chapter, Indianapolis, Indiana. Early in 1901 the resident 
alumns of Indianapolis, Indiana, conceived the idea of entertaining the 
members of Alpha Chapter who came to the city at the time of the State 
Oratorical Contest. Mrs. Joseph Taggart offered her home, and a 
reception was held on the fourth Friday of February. Regular gather- 
ings followed, meetings being held once each month. A program was 
usually rendered, after which a social time was enjoyed. In January, 
1906, a charter was granted and Beta Beta Chapter was installed. 

The charter members were: Jennie McHatton Bamett, Lillian Moore 
Cottingham, Bertha Deniston Cunningham, Helen Dalrymple Francis, 
Laura Adams Henry, Alta M. Rogers, Florence Thompson Taggart, Ella 
Hill Thomson, Elma Patton Wade, Lena Scott Wild, and Daisy Steele 
Wilson. Monthly meetings have been held at the homes of members, 
with an occasional downtown luncheon. 


Gahha Gauua Chaftbs 255 

Two social affairs are held each year — a banquet, the fourth Friday 
of February, the anniversary of the organization, for the members of 
Alpha and Alpha Beta Chapters at the Claypool Hotel, The banquet is 
among the most noteworthy events given by any of our alumnie organiza- 
tions and the attendance exceeds one hundred. At the 1919 banquet 
five of the Founders were present. Beta Beta is proud to claim two of the 
fraternity Founders as memljers, OHve Burnett Clark and Bertha Denis- 
ton Cunningham. Mrs. Clark has served as the chapter president for a 
number of years. The second annual function is a picnic in June at the 
country home of Mrs. Joseph Taggart, at which time the husbands and 
children are entertained. Some years the husbands are entertained at 
an evening party. 

Beta Beta has assisted Alpha In many ways. The chapter for the 
past two years has been in chaise of the plans for the Alpha chapter 
house and Founders' Memorial to be built at Greencastle. The Grand 
Council was entertained by Beta Beta in October, 1907, at which time a 
reception was held at the home of Mrs. J. R. Francis. Invitations were 
extended to all the fraternity women in the city, to meet the members 
of the Grand Council. A Panhellenic organization was formed in the 
city in the spring of 1914, Mrs, Daisy Steele Wilson was elected a 
member of the Board. In 1915 Maude Meserve Stoner was a member 
of the Advisory Board and in 1919-1920 Icy Frost Bridge was elected 
president of the Indianapolis Panhellenic association. 

Beta Beta has been most cordial in her support of national fraternity 
projects. Many of the members of Beta Beta are active in the church, 
artistic, and club life of Indianapolis, holding the most responsible offices 
in the prominent clubs; some are also active in the work of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution. Beta Beta Chapter has received several 
national honors, and has been represented at six national conventions. 

Gamma Gamma Chapter, New York City, was established November 6, 
1907, by the alumnse of New York City through the influence of Fay 
Bamaby Kent, A, and Nella Ramsdell Fall, B, The charter members 
were: Lillian Dodson Brown, Emma Crittenden, Daisy Snell Echlin, 
Sara Evans, Nella Ramsdell Fall, Jean Whitcomb Fenn, Virginia Fiske 
Green, Harriet McLaughlin Gunnison, Margaret Kellogg Howard, 
Violet Truell Johnston, Fay Bamaby Kent, Olive Porter, Fern Pickard 
Stevens, Alta Moyer Taylor, 

Gamma Gamma meets monthly either for luncheon or tea the second 
Saturday of each month. For two years the chapter met at the home of 
Jess Northcroft. Another winter the meetings were held at the apart- 
ment of Anne McLeary. For the last spring meeting in June the chapter 
is usually entertained at the country home of some member. Until 1909 
monthly meetings were held at the Martha Washington Hotel. 


256 History of Alpha Chi Oueca Fraterkitt 

As altruistic work, the members gave a concert in 1910, the proceeds 
of which were used for the Macdowell Studio Fund. Mrs. Kent was the 
first to propose the Macdowell Studio Fund, and through her ambition 
and enthusiasm inspired the chapters to assist in making possible the 
studio at Peterborough. Gamma Gamma extended her hospitality to 
the National Council in meeting assembled in New York, in the summer 
of 1911, in 1914, and in 1920. She represented the fraternity as hostess 
to National Panhellenic Congress in 1914, making possible what many 
considered the most comfortable and enjoyable of all Congresses. The 
comfort of the guests was largely due to the care shown by Gamma 
Gamma in planning for the Congress and to Mrs. Fall as chairman of the 
local arrangements committee. Several members of Gamma Gamma 
assisted in the program of the open session at which a new Panhellenic 
song, written by Jess Northcroft, Z and r r, was sung. The chapter is 
so scattered that it has never been able to observe Hera Day as an 
organization, but each member plans her own observance of the day. 

Delta Delta Chapter, Los Angeles, California. Delta Delta Chapter 
was chartered in Los Angeles, California, September 25, 1908, Louise 
Davis Van Cleve, E, and Ja Nette Allen Cushman, B, being especially 
influential in bringing about its organization. All interested in the 
establishment of an alumnae chapter were asked to meet in the committee 
room of the Y. W. C. A. building. This number consisted of members 
from chapters all over the Union, To establish an acquaintance and a 
common interest it was decided to begin the meetings as purely social 
gatherings. The first roll included the following names: Louise Davis 
Van Cleve, Ja Nette Allen Cushman, Ruth Dunning Young, Leila 
Skelton Brown, Glenna Shantz Mills, Myrtle McArthur, Faye Buck, 
Mabel Chalfin, Katherine Saunders, Blanche Gre^, Louise White, 
Hazel Heame, Mauneena McMillan, Marie Smith, and Carrie Trow- 

Convenience and pleasure soon established the second Saturday 
of each month as the date of the meetings, a custom which is still followed. 
These gatherings soon took the form of a luncheon, sometimes in tea- 
rooms, sometimes at the chapter house of the Epsilon girts, but most 
frequently at the homes of members, who were the hostesses of the day. 
The formal meeting followed. In 191S-1916, a delightful part of the 
meetings was the program given by fraternity talent, often supplied by 
Epsilon Chapter. From twenty-five to thirty-five attend each meeting. 

The earliest outside work, a search of the history reveals, is a sub- 
scription sent to the Macdowell Studio. Then the group tried to find 
local philanthropic work. Attempts were made to render assistance to 
needy families, by supplying food and clothing. In 1911, interest was 
fixed upon the Children's Hospital. An afternoon tea at the Log Cabin 


Epsilon Epsilon Chaftbs 2S7 

proved successful and made possible a gift of ninety-two dollars. A 
year later, a musicale and reception at the Ebell Clubhouse enabled the 
purchase of a set of X-ray instruments, to be given to the same institu- 
tion. Another year a bed was endowed in the name of Alpha Chi Omega 
at the expense of %250 together with a promise of a gift of fifty dollars 
each year following, for yearly upkeep. This bed has been maintained 
ever since. 

One of the most enjoyable activities has been the annual Christmas 
shower to Epsilon Chapter. Not having any house of its own to furnish, 
the chapter takes delight in providing happiness to the younger sisters. 
Some pressing need or unhoped for luxury each year carries its love to 
Epsilon. The accompaniment of a Christmas tree with candles, and 
candy, and songs and much laughter, and babies, makes the Christmas 
party an affair to be looked forward to. In September, 1914, both Delta 
Delta and Epsilon spent the afternoon and evening at the beautiful home 
of Ellen Beach Yaw at Covina. In 1915, Delta Delta had the pleasure of 
assisting Epsilon as hostess to the convention of Alpha Chi Omega. 
Realization in the minds of the guests equalled the anticipation of the 
anxious hostesses, and the convention of 1915 performed its every 
function successfully. 

In March, 1916, Delta Delta was accorded the pleasure of entertain- 
ing the honorary members, Mrs, Macdowell and Ellen Beach Yaw, at the 
home of Rowena Huscroft. The year 1917-1918 found Delta Delta deep- 
ly interested in war work, a brief account of which appears in the chapter 
on war work of the fraternity. Home charities were not forgotten at this 
time, however, for the chapter gave ten dollars and a jelly and jam shower 
to Madame Ellen Beach Yaw for her Lark Ellen Home for Boys, beside 
the regular fifty-dollar pledge for the Children's Hospital. Mrs. Fall, 
National Inspector, visited Los Angeles in February, 1918, and Delta 
Delta joined with Epsilon in giving a reception for her to all fraternity 
women. In 1918 Delta Delta gave $25.00 to the Scholarship Fund, 

In 1919 during the stay of Mrs, Loud and Mrs. Bennett in Los Ange- 
les Delta Delta joined Epsilon in giving a large reception for them at the 
chapter house, to which were invited all the women's and men's frater- 
nities, faculty members and mothers of Alpha Chis. In April, 1920, Delta 
Delta gave a card party to raise funds for the national altruistic work. 
Successful banquets which both Delta Delta and Epsilon attended have 
been held in 1919 and 1920. In 1920 eighty-five Alpha Chis, representing 
the chapters, sat down to the banquet table at the Jonathan Club. Delta 
Delta gave a bazaar in 1921 and raised $550 for local charities and the 
national altruistic work. 

Epsilon Epsilon Chapter, Detroit, Michigan. At the convention of 
1908, Ada Dickie Hamblin, B, and Frank Busey Soule, I, were appointed 


258 History op Alpba Chi Oubga FRATBicNmr 

a committee to organize an alumnae chapter in Detroit, Michigan. 
Accordingly five enthusiastic Alpha Chis met at the home of Mrs. 
Hamblin on March 17, 1909. On March 24, 1909, twelve met at the 
"Copper Kettle" for luncheon and signed a petition for a charter for the 
EpsiSon Epsilon Chapter. The charter was signed May 18, 1909, and 
Mrs. Soule served as the first president. The charter members were: 
Myrtle Wallace Allen, Ada Dickie Hamblin, Grace Lynn Hamer, 
Florence Woodhams Henning, Mabel Allen Renwick, Bessie Tefft 
Smith, Frances Dissette Tackels, Florence Hoag White, Etta May 
Tinker, Frank Busey Soule, Winifred Van Buskirk Mount, and Ora 
Woodworth. In 1910 Epsilon Epsilon aided Theta Chapter in enter- 
taining the National Convention at the Hotel Tuller, Detroit, in cele- 
bration of the fraternity's twenty-fifth birthday. 

The meetings, both social and business, are held on the second 
Saturday of each month, except in July and August, at the homes of the 
members. For the sake of convenience it has become the custom to 
serve a one o'clock luncheon after which the business meeting is held. 
Of their altruistic work, Epsilon Epsilon says: "Each year just before 
Christmas we forget to be sutHcient unto ourselves and, in fact, quite 
forgetting to be interested in each other, think about those who are 
less fortunate. We usually delegate a committee to look up a family 
of goodly number, and supply them with warm new underwear," In 
1921 Epsilon Epsilon was one of the first five alumnae chapters to 
undertake the work of administering a child's scholarship. She has had 
several national workers. 

Zeta Zela Chapter, Boston, Massachusetts, was organized as an alumnae 
chapter November 9, 1909. Through the efforts of Estelle McFarlane 
Dunkle and Evangeline Bridge, both of Zeta, a sufficient number of 
alumnx were found in the vicinity of Boston, and the charter was granted 
by the Grand Council in the spring of 1909. On November 9, in Boston a 
business meeting and luncheon were held, and the charter was signed. 
The charter members were: Estelle McFarlane Dunkle, Evangeline 
Bridge, Sarah D. Morton, Gladys Livingston Olmstead, Blanche Ripley, 
all of Zeta, and May Allinson, Iota and Gamma Gamma. The chapter 
is in close touch with ^eta Chapter which she assists socially and finan- 
cially. Zeta Zeta was the pioneer in the war work of the fraternity and 
from her ranks the chairman of the French Orphan Committee was 
chosen. Zeta Zeta supported one orphan for five years and two orphans 
for three years. In 1921 Zeta Zeta again became one of the pioneers in 
the new altruistic work undertaken by the fraternity by establishing 
one of the children's scholarships. This chapter has given the fraternity 
several national workers, including two national presidents. Zeta Zeta 
provided the fraternity with the annual calendars of I91S and 1916. 


Theta Tbbta Ceaftss 259 

Eta Eta Chapter, Madison, Wisconsin. Eta Eta, the seventh alumnae 
chapter, was oi^nized on Friday, June 16, 1911. The installation was 
held at the Kappa chapter house at 430 Sterling Court. Mrs. Dennis, 
the National Inspector, presented the charter, which was signed by Alice 
Alford, Hazel Alford, Margaret H'Doubler, Helen Jennings, Lucille 
Simon, Sarah Morgan Bell, Sarah Sutherland, Mae Theobald, and Edna 
Swenson Mayer, all of Kappa, Florence Kelly Baskerville, F, and Inger 
Hoen Emery, N. It was planned to hold all meetings at the homes of 
Eta Eta members on the first Monday evening of each month. This 
time was later changed to the first Wednesday evening of each month. 
The chapter at first studied various topics and had musical or other 
programs at its meetings. Later it devoted its enei^es to social service 
work. A hospital box was planned for each Hera Day and funds were 
raised for the Reserve Fund. Much assistance has always been given 
KappaChapter, and Eta Eta was particularly helpful when Kappa bought 
her new home. Eta Eta was active in war work and in 1920 made a 
contribution to the fraternity's new altruistic work. In 1912 Eta Eta 
and Kappa Chapters were hostesses to the National Convention in 

Theta Theta Chapter. Berkeley, California. During the fall of 1912 
the desirability of forming an alumnae chapter of Alpha Chi Omega was 
felt by the girls who had graduated from Pi Chapter, and who seldom 
had a chance for reunion. On June 11, 1913, at a meeting held at the 
Pi chapter house, Theta Theta Chapter was duly installed by Mrs. 
Virginia' Fiske Greene, G and rr. The first officers were as follows: 
Rue Clifford, President; Mrs McKay, Vice-President; Lottie Bocarde, 
Recording Secretary; Mrs. Wm. Kelley, Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. 
S. J. Vogel, Treasurer; Mrs. L. W. Layne, Historian; Elizabeth Wolfe, 
Lyre Editor. From this time on till 1916 the monthly meetings, held at 
the houses of the members, were largely of a social nature, though 
charitable work, discussions of Panhellenic questions and, in 1916, 
preparation of equipment of installation of chapters, shared in giving 
the chapter a busy as well as a social life. 

In the period following 1916 the date of the monthly meeting has 
varied. For the years 1916 to 1920 the meetings have been held on the 
first Saturday afternoon in the month. In 1919-1920, this time was 
changed to the first Monday evening, and the place to Pi chapter house 
in order to bring about closer relations between the girls of Pi and 
Theta Theta. As few married members of the chapter could attend even- 
ing meetings, the time of meeting was again changed to Saturday after- 
noon while the custom of meeting at the chapter house was retained, so 
that there is still ample opportunity for the alumna: to meet the girls of 


260 History of Alpha Chi Omega FRATERNiry 

Pi. In 1919-1920 Theta Theta and Pi were drawn even more closely 
together by the coSperatlve effort of both chapters in purchasing a 
chapter house for Pi. Under the loyal and efficient chairmanship of 
Leigh Foulds the purchase was completed and the financing so arranged 
that both chapters bear the burden and share the responsibility, while 
understanding and friendship have increased through working together. 

Besides the work of its members through Panhellenic, Theta Theta 
has made each Hera Day an occasion for some work for others. In 1916, 
1917, and 1918 boxes of clothing were packed and sent to poor families 
in West Berkeley or Richmond. In 1919 a gift of money was made 
to Roberts College of Constantinople. 1920 saw another box of clothing 
packed and sent, with some money, to the Berkeley Day Nursery for the 
children there. The chapter hopes to continue its attempt to help the 
children of the Berkeley factory district to the warm clothing that they 
need for school. This chapter work has been carried on with an average 
yearly membership of twenty-five. 

Iota lola Chapter, Seattle, Wask. Iota Iota was organized as an 
alumna chapter March 8, 1913, through the efforts of Ada Dickie 
Hamblin, B. The charter members were Alice Mustard Adams, Z, 
Gertrude Babcock, B; Ethel Lilyblade Brown, T; Gertrude Neidergesaes 
Bryce, P; Jennie Rt^re Cole, P; Leora Fryette Evans, K; Jean Whit- 
comb Fenn, B; Alice Reynolds Fischer, and Z; Ray Gallagher, F; Ada 
Dickie Hambtin, B; Marjorie Harkins Matzen, P; Louise Stone Hick- 
cox, Z; Edith Hindman Johnson, P; Nellie Alien McCafferty, A; Vera 
Cogswell Rogers, P; Gretchen O'Donnell Starr, P. Since that time 
many new Alpha Chis have been added to the chapter, and though 
many have moved away the membership has more than doubled, 
numbering in 1920 thirty resident and twelve non-resident members. 

Meetings are held the first Saturday of each month at Rho's chapter 
house. Two members act as hostesses. Part of the afternoon is devoted 
to business and the remainder given over to a program of a sodal nature. 
An interesting variation of this social program has been five-minute 
talks about their work, given by professional members. Iota Iota 
has presented Rho Chapter with several gifts, of which the last was 
perhaps the most elaborate. It included a davenport table, two pic- 
tures, a vase, a statuette of Hebe for the living-room, and a small table 
for the hall of the new chapter house. Funds for these gifts and for 
charity are provided through Iota lota's annual bazaar, which has 
been increasingly successful each year. In 1919 it netted $218 and 
a part of the sum was put in savings on the alumnx chapter's account 
as a start toward a convention fund. The scholarship trophy given 
Rho in 1915 has many new and deserving names Inscribed upon it. 


Lambda Lambda Chaptbk 261 

Iota Iota has tried not to be self-centered, and many pledges have 
been made to the National Reserve Fund and to the Washington Scholar- 
ship Fund. It has taken an active part in the organization and 
direction of the Northwest Alpha Chi Omega Corporation. All of 
the officers of the corporation are members of Iota Iota, and are devoting 
their efforts toward raising a fund with which Rho Chapter may pur- 
chase a site for its future home. Hera Day has always been interest- 
ing, usually being observed by giving a musical at some Home, or 
visiting the Children's Hospital. In 1920 the committee appointed 
to investigate worthy fields reported that the Social Welfare League 
of Seattle would welcome help from university women. Accordingly, 
the members offered two afternoons of their time the week of Hera 
Day, their aid being largely of a clerical nature. Four members of 
Iota Iota became so interested in this work in 1920 that they con- 
tinued it as a personal charity, devoting one afternoon a week or more 
to it. The chapter felt that here was evidence of a constructive good 
arising from organized effort. In 1920-1921 Iota Iota made generous 
contributions to the national altruistic work of the fraternity. 

Kappa Kappa Chapter, Lincoln, Nebraska, was granted a charter 
on January 31, 1914. Lois Smith Crann, National Inspector, was the 
installing officer. The alumnae in Lincoln had been meeting for four 
years before the charter was granted, so the enrollment at the time the 
ch£irter was granted was large. The charter members were: Lilah V. 
David; Alice Lesher Mauck; Helen Boggs Alexander; Metta K. Yost; 
LillianE. Stevens; Jane Chandler Bishop; Etta Brothers Mosley;HaiTiet 
M. Condra; Rebanis Sisler; Marie Minor; Kathryn Morgan; Isabel H. 
McCorkindale; Endora Marshall Esterbrook; Florence Davis; Harriet 
E. Bardwell; Mary Noble Bardwell; Margaret Kellogg Howard; Beula 
Jennings; D. Dale Pugh; Grace M. Holman; Vera Cox Bavinger; Beulah 
Bell Minnich; Vera A. Upton; Maude Thomas Larson; Beulah Buckley. 

The meetings have always been informal, comprising a luncheon, with 
the business meeting following. The chapter's work in general has been 
to support the active chapter, financially and in its various activities. 
Kappa Kappa takes charge of and plans the annual banquet for Xi, and 
gives one of the four rushing parties that Xi has each autumn. During 
the war all efforts were turned to war work, and many members held 
responsible positions in various departments of patriotic endeavor. 
Since the war Kappa Chapter has cooperated very effectively in the 
national altruistic service of Alpha Chi Omega by supporting and 
administering children's scholarships to needy students in the Lincoln 
hi^ school. . 

Lambda Lambda, Grand Rapids, Michigan. During the Christmas 
holidays of 1912, all Alpha Chi Omegas known to be living In Grand 


262 HisTOKY or Alpha Chi Ohsga Fsatekkitt 

Rapids were invited to meet at the home of Millie E. Fox. Plans we r e 
then made for regular meetings during the year. A petition for an alum- 
nae chapter was sent to the National Council and granted. On February 
7, 1914, Lambda Lambda of Alpha Chi Omega was installed at Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, by Nella Ramsdell Fall, Yonkers, New York, at 
the home of Ruth Birge Byers, the charter members being: Millie E. 
Fox, B; Mary Hyde, 9; Ruth Birge Byers, T; Enid Holmes Ellis, 6; Ida 
Billinghurst Hume, B; Josephine Moore Shaw, B; Pearl Frambes Shedd, 
B; Mame Hale Ward, 9; Myrtle Watson, B; Helen Hilliker, 9; Lulu 
Fairbanks, B; and Lillian Elliott, B. A banquet was served in the even- 
ing at the Morton House to which husbands and friends were invited. 
Out-of-town Alpha Chis present were: Nella Ramsdell Fall of Yonkers, 
New York; Mildred A. Moore of Rockford, Illinois; Lucile Schenck of 
Clinton, Michigan. The chapter holds at the homes of members 
monthly meetings that are social in character. 

Mu Ma, Kansas City, Missouri. The Kansas City Star of September 
20, 1914, stated that "Mu Mu Alumnse Chapter of Alpha Chi Omega 
was installed by Miss Lillian Zimmerman, National Treasurer, of Alpha 
Chi Omega, September 19, at the home of Miss Frances Gould, 2809 
Charlotte Street, The officers are : President, Miss Clara Chesney; Vice 
President, Mrs, Spence Apple; Secretary and Treasurer, Mrs. J. W. 
Colley; Historian, Mrs. Alexander Ha|%art; Lyre Editor, Miss Frances 
Gould; Warden, Miss May Jj^gard," The installation was performed 
with impressive dignity and the charter received with much pride by 
the fifteen charter members. The first few years of the organization 
were almost entirely devoted to social functions but more recently while 
still the chapter continues social affairs, community work has absorbed 
Child welfare work in Kansas City is sponsored largely by the Pan- 
hellenic and the American Association of University Women. Two 
Alpha Chi Omegas, Charlotte Boutwell Jones and Helen Hertzler have 
done especially valuable work in this department. Panhellenic is also 
active in the Anti-tuberculosis Society giving her support in supplying 
funds also active personal aid in establishing, maintaining and equipp- 
ing open air schools in the city. Mu Mu has always been active in the 
Panhellenic movement in Kansas City. In 1916-1917 Mrs. Fred Hoover 
served ably as president of the Association, Since Mrs. Hoover's term 
of office, Anna Church Colley, Louise Chesney, and Agnes Hertzler 
have represented Alpha Chi Omega in the Kansas City Panhellenic 

JVm Nu Chapter, Denver, Colorado. On April 22, 1916, a meeting of 
Denver Alpha Chi Omegas was held at the studio of Shirley Lewis, N, 
for the purpose of oi^anizing an alumnse association. The Denver Club 


No Nu Chaftbx 263 

of Alpha Chi Omega was the result of that meeting. The club eariy 
took steps toward securing a charter as an alumnae chapter and at once 
identified itself with the Denver Panhellenic, Meetings were held 
regularly each month at the homes of the members and several luncheons 
were given at the Daniels and Fisher Tea Room. In August, 1916, a 
meeting was held in honor of Mrs. Robert Dunkle (Estelle H, McFar- 
lane), Z, who encouraged the club to apply for a charter as an alumnx 
chapter. In March, 1917, Mrs. Frank Fall (Nella Ramsdell) B, National 
Inspector, spent two days in Denver and assisted at the installation 
of Nu Nu. There were ten charter members, as follows: Ray Gallagher 
Feagans, T; Pauline Thomas Arnold, A; Pearl Armitage Jamieson, 
Muriel Lough Woods, 6; Shirley Lewis, N; Edith W. Noxon, 
Sophia Ellsberg, N; Charlotte Boutwell, *; Ruth Hamilton Loupe, N; 
Leona Peters, N; Mildred McFarland, N. 

Meetings were held regularly until the end of the year. The following 
year a number of the charter members left the city and the work of the 
chapter became somewhat disorganized. In 1919-1920 the chapter was 
recd^anized and again became ready for work. The twelve membera 
represented Alpha, BeU, Iota, Chi, and Nu Chapters. Nu Nu in 1920- 
1921 began to make plans for the National Convention of 1922 to be 
held in Colorado. 

.y Google 


Albion Alumna Club, Albion, Michigan. The Albion Alumnx Club 
was formally organized in May, 1914, at the home of Lucretia Drown 
Gardner. The first officers of the new organization were: President, 
Augusta Eveland Dickie; Secretary, Ethel Calkins Drake; Treasurer, 
Margaret Smith. For many years prior to the formation of the club 
the ties binding the resident alumnze and Beta Chapter were unusually 
strong. Support to the active chapter was loyally and happily given by 
the alumnae and in turn the courtesies extended by the younger sisters 
were many. This cordial relationship was made more effective by the 
organized club which has always given aid to the active chapter in 
rushing and in other social activities. The two groups have frequently 
combined in observance of Founders' Day and In annual reunions. The 
alumnae group takes charge of the alumnae reunion at commencement 
time. Support is given regularly to the city hospital. 

Alliance Alumna Club, Alliance, Ohio. The Alliance Club was granted 
recognition in September, 1920. The following alumnse, all of Alpha Eta, 
signed the petition: Stella Stackhouse, Mabel Hisey, Mildred Walker, 
Lydia Kirk, Grace Sanderson, Evangeline L. Bowers, Marjorie James, 
Carrie Clark, Edith McBride Purviance, Mary Ellen Pluchel, Inez 
Summers, and Mary Pauline Borton. The club holds bimonthly 
meetings and plans as its main work to be of active assistance to Alpha 
Eta Chapter. Its first efforts have been directed toward helping the 
active chapter in its rushing and toward raising a fund for a chapter home. 

Ann Arbor Alumna Club, Ann Arbor, Michigan. The Ann Arbor 
Alumnae Club was organized in the early part of 1915. As with the other 
alumnae groups in small college cities where active chapters are estab- 
lished, the majority of the members are aiumnx of the active chapter, 
Theta. The Club has as its chief purpose the giving of assistance to Theta 
Chapter. It aids the active chapter in rushing, in annual reunions and 
other social activities and by gifts to the chapter house. During the 
vital years in which Theta was planning and building her beautiful 
chapter house the alumnae association stood back of the active chapter in 
giving advice and financial assistance. The alumnae members of the 
board of directors of the house building project are chosen from the 
alumnK club. In 1919-1920 the Ann Arbor Club had a membership 
of twenty-four. The club has observed Hera Day by sending gifts to 
the city hospital and by earning money for other altruistic work. 


BuFVAio AhvuitM Club 265 

Atlanta Alumna Club, Atlanta, Georgia. The alumnx living in 
Atlanta, Georgia, met at the home of Willie Kate Travis, Tuesday 
aftemoon.November 23, 1915, for the purpose of effecting a permanent 
organization. The following alumnEc were present and constituted the 
charter members of the Atlanta Club: Edith Bradley Sheppard, B;NeIlie 
Schuyler Childs, 8 ; Vie Strickland, T ; Mary Disbro, T ; Vera Sou thwick, A ; 
all of Atlanta; Virginia Hinton, T, Reynolds, Ga.; Laura Bell Bostwick, T, 
Arlington, Ga. ; and Lucile Bean Smith, T, Columbus, Ga. The club meets 
monthly at the homes of members. Because of the absence of a nearby 
active chapter the activities of the club have been mainly social. In 1919- 
1920 the club had eleven members. 

Bellingham Alumna Club, Bellingbam, Washington. The alumnx of 
Bellingham, Washington, in the spring of 1920 began to make plans 
looking toward the organization of an alumnae club. The petition sent 
to the Executive Committee was signed by the following alumnae: 
Gertrude Hopkinson Cotterall, P, Mary Barker Vincent, I, Adeline 
Titcomb Hook, P, Irene Thomas, P, Cosby Jackson, P, Irene Palmer, fi, 
Genie Watrous, P, Lenora Thomas, P, Arlie M. Anderson, P, and Annie 
Palmer, U. The club was formally organized in August, 1920. Because 
of the short time the club has been established no work can be reported. 

Boulder Alumna Club, Boulder, Colorado. When Dale Pugh Hascall, 
then Western Province President, visited Nu Chapter in the fall of 1915 
she called a meeting of the local alumnae to discuss plans for an alumnae 
club at Boulder. Much enthusiasm was aroused and after a number of 
preliminary meetings the club was organized in December, 1915, with the 
following members, all alumnx of Nu Chapter: Ethel M. Brown, Anne 
C. Coulehan, Elma Curtin, Irene Hall Curtis, Clara Bancroft Curtis, 
Mildred Nafe Kerr, Ella Noxon, Lena Powelson Ridgeway, Ruth San- 
bom and Ethel Tresize, of Boulder; Jessie Davis, Fort Collins; Margaret 
Frazer Home, Denver; and Ruth Tomblin Martin, Nederland. From 
the first the club recognized that its first duty was to help the active 
chapter in every way. Meetings were held once a month at the homes 
of members. The club has been most active since its organization. It 
has entertained Nu Chapter frequently and has made numerous gifts 
to the chapter. In 1920 the club contributed to the Armenian Relief 
Fund as its Hera Day work. In other years Hera Day has been observed 
by individuals but not as a group. In 1920 the club numbered eight 

Buffalo Alumna Club, Buffalo, New York. After several previous 
attempts at organization the Alpha Chi alumnx residing in Buffalo 
formed an alumnic club which was granted recognition by the Executive 
Committee in the spring of 1917. The original club numbered ten 


266 HisToiT 07 Alpha Chi Oubga FRATSumr 

members representing several active chapters. Although handicapped 
by a smalt and changing membership the club has held meetings with 
regularity and has served a useful purpose in keeping Alpha Chis in that 
city, both active and alumnn, in touch with one another. 

Cincinnati Alumna Club, Cindnnali, Ohio. On May 21, 1919, a 
meeting was called at the Hotel Sinton for the purpose of forming a per- 
manent alumnae organization. On this same day a petition for recogni- 
tion as the Cincinnati Alumns Club of Alpha Chi Omega was signed by 
Appellona Adams, Helen Arnold, Ruth Berting, Grace Flanagan, Julia 
Hammler, Loretta Hanlon, Mary McDowell, Edna Merz, Elvira Paul, 
Frances Runck, Gladys Schultz, Gertrude and Bess Waldman, all Alpha 
Deltas, Helen Day Keys, G, Vera C. Didlake, A, and Mabel Davis White, 
Z. Two weeks later when the club petition was granted the first business 
meeting was held. The following officers were elected: President, Helen 
Day Keys; Vice President, Mabel Davis White; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Ruth Berting; Recording Secretary-Treasurer, Gladys Schultz; 
Editor, Mary McDowell. 

Cleveland Alumna Club, Cleveland, Ohio. Due to the efforts and the 
enthusiasm of Ruth Harlow-Osborne, A, the Cleveland Alumnte Club was 
formally organized May 27, 1914. There had been two meetings pre- 
viously. The first was a luncheon at a downtown tea room and the 
next with Mrs. Ray M. Colwell, The charter members were: Julia 
Finch-Colwell, A; Beatrice Breckenridge-Cushman, B; Hazel Leach- 
Gallimore, A; Mabel Dunn-Madson, T; Ruth Harlow-Osbome, A; 
Dorothy Price, T; Mabel McHane-Schaffner, A. 

During the war the Cleveland Gub as a separate group undertook 
no war work, but met with Panhellenic at the Y. W. C. A. for Red Cross 
service. Every member was doing as much as she was able to do in the 
various organizations that were active in war work, and it was thought 
wiser to combine efforts with the Panhellenic than to attempt separate 
work. The Cleveland Club was glad to make a contribution toward 
the support of the French war orphans. For several years it has been 
the custom of Cleveland Panhellenic to provide a scholarship for a girl 
at the College for Women of Western Reserve University, and to this 
work the Alpha Chi club gives financial support. 

But it is as a social group that the club finds its greatest interest. 
At a convenient downtown tea room, or at the home of one of the 
members, ten or twelve members gather for a few hours of friendly inter- 
change of news, once a month, realizing and appreciating what the bond 
of Alpha Cht Omega means among alumnae in a large city. 

Decatur Alumna Club, Decatur, Illinois. The alumnte residing in 
Decatur, Illinois, organized for the purpose of assisting Upsilon Chapter 


Dk9 Moimks AuntNA Club 267 

in September, 1914. The club meets once a month at the homes of mem- 
bers either for luncheon or for afternoon tea. The alumnae assist the 
active chapter in a number of significant ways: by gifts to the chapter 
house, by help in rushing, and by other social activities. In the spring 
of 1920 the club entertained the seniors of Upsilon Chapter, a number of 
whom expected upon graduation to become active members of the 
alumnz club. Upsilon in turn frequently invites the alumnse to the 
chapter house, and the relations between the two organizations are 
very cordial. On Hera Day, 1919, the club had a bakery sale, the 
proceeds of which were given toward the new altruistic work of the 
fraternity. The club has taken a prominent part in the activities of the 
city Panhellenic which chose as its work the raising of funds for a scholar- 
ship at Millikin. In 1920 the Decatur Club had a membership of twenty. 

Des Moines Alumna Club, Des Moines, Iowa. During June, 1914, 
when several Des Moines alumnee of Mu Chapter were entertaining 
at an all-day picnic at Des Moines Golf and Tennis Club, in honor of 
the alumnae and active members of Mu, the idea was conceived of 
having a permanent alumnae organization of Alpha Chi Omega in Des 
Moines. During the summer plans were made and committees ap- 
pointed. In October, 1914, the Des Moines Alumns Club had its first 
meeting. Rather an elaborate schedule was made for the years 1914- 
1915 of business and social meetings, including one affair to which other 
fraternity women in the city were to be invited. Committees were at 
work during the entire year to enlarge the membership, the goal being 
to include as many fraternity sisters of Iowa as possible. The charter 
members niunbered thirteen, including: Mrs. B. F. Clayton, M; Mrs. 
Grant Kimer, M; Florence A.Armstrong, M; Georgia Watson, M; and 
Nelle Harris, M, of Indianola; Mrs. R. G. Harrison, M; Mrs. K. G. Car- 
ney, A; Besse Patrick, T; Mrs. John Merrill Dudley, M; and Mrs. Ltoyd 
Hiunphrey, M, of Des Moines; Miss Berdena Hughes, M, Fairfield; 
Mrs. Leonard Smith, M, Ida Grove; Mrs. Fred Barker, M, Jefferson. 

Many members of other chapters signified willingness to attend 
whenever possible. Notification of the time of meeting was sent hence- 
forth to about thirty sisters. The meetings were held monthly from 
October, 1914, to May, 1915. Some altruistic work was done in the city; 
and a pledge was sent to the Reserve Fund. The season 1914-1915 was 
very successfully planned and carried out, the members being brought 
closely together in fraternity work and also in a social way. The 
club meets now twice a month: at a luncheon and business meeting the 
. first Saturday of the month and at a social gathering in the middle 
of the month. Besides the support of two French orphans the club 
made a pledge to the national altruistic work. In 1919-1920 the club 
bad eight resident members and a number of non-resident members. 


26S HiSTORT OF Alpha Chi Oubga Fratbknitv 

The club endeavors to keep in touch with all Alpha Chis in the southern 
section of the state. Besides its own club work the group has always 
identitied itseU with the Des Moines Panhellenic. In 1916-1917, Janette 
Royal served as president of Panhellenic. A number of other members 
have done committee work. 

The District of Columbia Alumna Club, Washington, D. C. The 
District of Columbia Alumne Club was formally organized April 23, 
1915, at the home of Mrs. W. F. Ham. The signers of the petition were 
Suzanne Mulford Ham, V; Sue Graecen, B; Mary-Emma Griffith, A; 
Myra H. Jones, A ; Eddie Dickert, T ; Beulah Dickert, T. Although the 
Alpha Chi Omegas had met together several times previously, no effort 
had been made to have regular meetings of any kind, until Myra Jones 
and Mary-Emma Griffith invited the other Alpha Chis in the city to meet 
at a tea on Washington's birthday, in 1915. Only three Alpha Chis re- 
sponded to the invitation in person, notes being received from all the 
others regretting that absence from the city prevented attendance. This 
scattering of members is so characteristic of the residents of Washington, 
that in the early days of the club it was often true that a meeting of the 
club one month would consist of members none of whom were at the meet- 
ing the previous month. Monthly meetings were at first held at the 
beautiful home of Suzanne Mulford Ham, where an attractive room was 
called the "Alpha Chi Clubroom." 

The entry of the United States into the great war brought many 
Alpha Chis to the city and resulted in greatly increased activities of the 
club. From a membership of twelve to fifteen the club increased rapidly 
in numbers, and had on its list fifty or more names. ' As practically all 
the members were engaged in war work throughout the day the club 
as an organization did not attempt war work other than to support its 
French orphan, its main purpose during the war being to assist all the 
new Alpha Chis in the city in any possible way, whether to improve 
living conditions or to find more suitable and congenial work. For more 
than a year the club endeavored to solve the housing problem for its 
membersby renting and maintaining a chapter house, but long search 
was unsuccessful in finding a suitable home at a reasonable rental in the 
congested city. 

Since the war, although the membership has decreased, the club 
has maintained its activities undiminished. Monthly meetings are 
held, usually alternating an evening meeting with a downtown luncheon. 
A picnic is held in the middle of the summer for those Alpha Chis re- 
maining in the city. On the anniversary of the founding of the club- 
Washington's birthday — a luncheon is given to which Alpha Chis 
living in nearby cities are invited. Because of its location the D. C. 


Fbbsno Aluhn,b Club 269 

Club has numbered among its members alumnae from practically every 
chapter in the fraternity including several Council members. The club 
has contributed toward the Reserve Fund, the national altruistic work, 
and a local orphan's home. 

Eastern Oklahoma AlumncB Club. In May, 1914, four loyal Alpha 
Chis met at the home of Jessie Richmond Shipley in Haskell. Three of 
them had never met before, since they all lived in different towns. It 
was decided at this first meeting to come together twice a year in Musko- 
gee. On November 28, 1914, occurred the first luncheon and election 
of officers. El Fleda Coleman Jackson, V, was elected President, Lucy 
Andrews Odell, A, Vice-President, Gladys Meserve Ranney, I, Secretary, 
and Eula R, Smith, 0, Treasurer. The club planned with El Fleda 
Coleman Jackson as its organizer and first president to hold its meetings 
on the day of the Panhellenic luncheons, thusmeeting the sorority women 
of the eastern part of the state. The club now has twenty-five members 
scattered all over northeastern Oklahoma, who meet two or three times 
a year at some central place. In spite of its scattered membership the 
Eastern Oklahoma club has kept up its interest in the work of the 
fraternity and has responded loyally to the calls of the fraternity. The 
group made the largest contribution of any alumnae organization to the 
fund for the Founders' Memorial and Alta Allen Loud room at Green- 
castle. Hera Day is observed in some way by every member of the club. 

Evansville Alumna Club, Evansville, Indiana. On June 24, 1920, a 
group of enthusiastic alumnx met at the studio of Alda McCoy Honig, 
A, to discuss plans for organizing an alumnx club in Evansville. Several 
subsequent meetings were held, officers elected, and in October, 1920, 
the petition which had seventeen signers, was granted. Those signing 
the petition were: Alda McCoy Honig, A; Mrs. R. H. Humphreys, I; 
Feme Wood, A; Imogene Warner Hare, A; Myrtle Knudson Noelting, H; 
Mary Stewart, A; Enid Hedden, A; Enid Van de Veer, A; Laura Whit- 
man, T; Mrs. E. C. Landgrebe, A; Ruth Miller Hart, A; Mrs. W. R. 
Black, I; Irma Brady, T; Mrs. J. F. Seiler, 9; Grace Mitchell, T; Eleanor 
Mitchell, r; Opal Tislow, Z. The Evansville club selected as its first 
activity the organization of a city Panhellenic. In this endeavor it met 
with immediate enthusiastic response from the other fraternity women 
of the city and a Panhellenic association was organized in December, 
1920, Imogene Warner Hare, A, being elected president. The Pan- 
hellenic Association has had one function, a tea on New Year's Day for 
the college girls who were home for the holidays, and plans were made for 
a party in the spring of 1921 to interest high school girls in fraternities. 

Fresno Alumna Club, Fresno, California. In November, 1920, 
alumnae living in and near Fresno, began steps toward the organization 


270 HisTOET at Alpha Chi Omeqa Fkatesnitt 

of an alumnae club in that city. The petition, signed by ten alumnae 
was sent to the Executive Committee for action in March, 1921, and was 
approved by them at the Executive Committee meeting just preceding 
the Atlantic Province Convention, held April 9 and 10, 1921. The 
charter members of the Fresno Club are as follows: Elsie Bean Docker, I; 
Miriam Bonsel Cowan, X; Minnie Lisk Busey, 11; Mame Lewis Ficklin, 
I; Ina Sopher Shirts, A; Helen Beck Bell, E; Laura Olschewsky White, P; 
Amy J. Ayres, 11; Florence E, Marvin, 11; Ina Gre^ Thomas, I. 

Galesburg Alumna Club, Galesburg, Illinois. The Galesburg Club was 
organized in March, 1916, with the following charter members: Mary 
Ethel Todd, I; Edyth Boyd, I; Hazel Hill, B; Agnes M. Olson, I; Helen 
H. Birch, A; Helen Rhodes, 0. The club held a number of meetings 
and made a pledge to the Reserve Fund. Because of the small number 
of nearby alumnje the club was not active from 1918 to 1921. 

Grays Harbor Alumna Club, Aberdeen, Washington. The alumnae 
living in Aberdeen became organized in an alumnae club in January, 1917. 
The club since its organization has coSperated with the nearest college 
chapter, Rho, by helping them with their annual bazaar and by making 
gifts to the chapter. They also aid in rushing by sending to nearby 
chapters names of de«rable new members. Hera Day is observed by 
taking flowers to the sick. The club is active in city organizations and a 
number are members of the Association of University Women. In 
1919-1921 Margaret Wilson and Agnes Hobi Nelson were Vice President 
and Secretary respectively of the local A. A. U. W. and Muriel Brachvogel 
was on the music committee. The Grays Harbor Club holds regular 
meetings on the third Tuesday of each month at the homes of members. 

GreeruastU Alumna Club, GreencasUe, Indiana. The Greencastle 
Alumnx Club came into being in January, 1916. Made up as it has 
always been, of alumnae of Alpha Chapter, the club has given firsf 
attention to the needs of that chapter and has assisted in social ways 
and by gifts and pledges toward the new chapter house that is plannwl. 
The club holds regular monthly meetings and a program is usually given. 
In 1919 a definite program along fraternity lines was outlined and 
followed with much benefit. In June of that year a picnic was given 
to the seniors of Alpha Chapter. The Greencastle Club contains many 
representative women of the town who are active in local organi- 
zations. A Dumber of the members are members also of the American 
Association of University Women, formerly the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae. The club is fcfftunate in haying one of the Founders of the 
fraternity, Anna Allen Smith, as a loyal and interested member. 

Greensburg Alumna Club, Greensburg, Indiana, The alumnae club 
at Greensburg, oi^anized in November, 1915, is made up of alumnae 


Lawssnce Aldiinx Club 271 

living in the city and in nearby towns. Because of the scattered mem- 
bership meetings are held but four times a year. The summer gathering 
is an all-day picnic to which local college Alpha Chis are invited. Because 
of the distances that members of the club have to travel for the meetings 
they usually are planned for the entire day and are held at the homes 
of members or at a hotel. In 1919 the active girls were entertained 
during Thank^ving vacation. The club maintains an active interest 
in the affairs of the fraternity and has supported a French orphan for 
three years. Plans have been made to assist Alpha Chapter in acquiring 
a house and also to aid in the national altruistic work. 

Indianola Alumna Club, Indianola, Iowa. The alumnae living in 
Indianola were organized in November, 1916, with the following charter 
members, all alumnae of Mu Chapter: Neva Hardy, Mabel Galvin, Mary 
Shaw, Nell E. Harris, EfHe E. Kimer, Regna King, Emma Hamed, 
June Hamilton Rhodes, Leila Watson, Julia Watson, Martha Guthrie 
Keeney, Mrs. B. F. Clayton. The club was formed for the purpose of 
assisting Mu Chapter. The relations between the college chapter and 
the alumnae have always been extremely cordial. When Mu Chapter 
furnished a house in 1919 the atumns gave much assistance. 

Iowa City Alumna Club, Iowa City, Iowa. As a result of the visit of 
June Hamilton Rhodes, then Central Province President, to Iowa City, 
in November, 1916, steps were taken toward organizing an alumnae club 
in the city, which should have as its chief purpose assisting Sigma Chap- 
ter. The petition to the Executive Committee was signed by the fol- 
lowing alumnje: Irma Watson Hance, Z; Nina R. Shaffer, X; Agnes G. 
Flannagan, S; Florence M. Hier, M; Florence E. Cook, Z; Rachel 
Parrott Myers, Z; Margaret Kane Thompson, 2. The club held meet- 
ings for a time and then because of the loss of members who had moved 
from the city, became inactive for a time. In the fall of 1920 steps were 
taken to reorganize the club. As none of the members of the former club 
remained in the city a new petition was prepared and sent to the Execu- 
tive Committee for action. The reorganized club was granted recogni- 
tion in March, 1921. The following are the members of the new club: 
Nell E. Harris, M ; Edna Patzig, £ ; Blanche McGovem, S ; Corinne Cham- 
berlin, Tj Edna Mowre Swords, K and P; Esther Barney Wilson, B; 
Arminda Mowre, K and T; Gretchen Kane Elder, 2; Florence O'Connor, 
2; Clara Weller Brigham, Z. The club as reorganized plans to do definite 
work for Sigma Chapter. 

Lawrence Alumna Club, Lawrence, Kansas. The Lawrence Alumna; 
Club was organized in April, 1919, with the following charter members: 
Stella Morton McKeen, 0; Jane Oechsli Haggart, 0; Margaret E. Lup- 
ton, *; Josephine F. Stimpson, *; Sarah Delano Owen, Z; Hazel Cook, *. 


373 History op Alpha Chi Oueca FBATERNiry 

The club chose as its national work the giving of assistance to Phi Chap- 
ter and the alumnx in Lawrence have been able to accomplish many 
things for the chapter both as individuals and as an oi^anized group. 

Meadville Alumna Club, Meadville, Pennsylvania. The Meadville 
Alumnx Club was informally organized at the home of Miss Anna Ray 
in March, 1915. A month later the petition for recognition as the 
Meadville AlumnK Club of Alpha Chi Omega was signed by Anna C. 
Ray, Ruby Marsh Eldred, Arline Winslow Lane, Rebie Flood Irwin, 
Florence Irene Moore, Ethel Moore Miller, Mary Thorpe Graham, 
Blanche Garver Davenport, Mary Gibson Brock, Gertrude Sackett 
Laffer, Florence E. Harper. The Meadville Club organized for the pur- 
pose of having informal get-togethers and to assist Delta Chapter socially. 

The first official meeting was at the home of Anna Ray, May 3, 
1915. The same month the club entertained Delta at the home of Mrs. 
Manley O. Brown — one of Delta's charter members. A happy reunion 
followed on July 10 at Ruby M. Eldred's home, Mrs. Louise Lord Cap- 
peau of Cincinnati, Miss Mary Lord of Denver, Mrs. Clara L. Study of 
Neodesha, Kansas, Mrs. Mary R. Philp of Oil City, and Mrs. Harriet 
Veith Robson of Ann Arbor, were present as visitors of the club. On 
July 22, 1915, a six o'clock dinner was given at the Country Club in 
honor of out-of-town sisters. The club entertained, also, in honor of 
Nella Ramsdell Fall, National Inspector, on May 5, 1916, and took 
the opportunity to show hospitality to Delta at the same time. A mid- 
summer picnic to which college and alumna; Alpha Chis are invited is 
held each year. 

Milwaukee Alumna Club, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. For a number of 
years the Milwaukee alumnn met regularly at picnics and weekly 
bridge- parties, though not as an organized club. In September, 1915, 
seven Alpha Chis met at the home of Lillian Zimmerman, K, for the pur- 
pose of organizing and applying for a club charter. The charter members 
were: Lillian Zimmerman, Meta and Ann Kieckhefer, Marie Tolleson 
Frey, Leah Deutsch Grell, Edna Swenson Mayer, Vivien Verbeck Si- 
mons, Else Landeck Adler, all of Kappa, and Ella Shirk Harris, B. 
During the first year the members met to play bridge and nothing of 
importance was done. In the fall of 1916, they again started out as a 
bridge club, but soon decided to do some fraternity work. On Novem- 
ber 27, 1916, the club gave its first annual luncheon in the Colonial Room 
at the Hotel Wisconsin. After an auto ride which followed the luncheon 
Meta, Ann and Hilda Kieckhefer entertained the visiting Alpha Chis at 
their home at tea, the resident Alpha Chis assisting. Thirty-seven 
Alpha Chis from all parts of the state attended the luncheon. 

.y Google 

MoNTicBLLO Aluunje Club 273 

It was planned to make the luncheon an annual function to which 
all Alpha Chis in the state would be invited. For Hera Day work 
the Club made scrapbooks for the Milwaukee Children's Free Hospital. 
In March, 1916, they began to have meetings, at monthly luncheons down- 
town in one of the grillrooms. Then came the news of Kappa's new 
house and the Alumnie Club decided to furnish a Milwaukee Alumnx 
Room, so that they might have a place of their own when they visited 
Kappa. A plate above the door was engraved with the Club's name. 
A pledge was made at this time also for the Scholarship Fund. From 
1919 to 1921 because of a number of removals from the city the club has 
been inactive. 

MonticeUo Alumna Club, Monticello, Indiana. Miss Merle Acker- 
man, one of the oi^nizers of the club gives the following account of the 
organization and plans of the Monticello club. "The Monticello Alumnae 
Club was Organized in October 1920, at the home of Merle Ackerman, 
with the following charter members — Raeburn Cowger Obenchain, A, 
President; Merle Ackerman, r, Vice President ; Abbie Biederwolf Carson, 
A, Secretary-Treasurer ; Emma Raub, A, Editor ; Ida Raub Vanatta, Edna 
Dye Gardner, Lula Dye Gardner, Bernice McClui^ Breckenridge, A; 
Hortense Bamett and Dorothy Jane Alkire, Alpha Beta. 

"Our petition was granted by the National Council, in January, 1921. 
Plans were made for a celebration in the form of an all-day meeting, 
April 16, 1921, with a luncheon, tea, banquet, and dance for our guests 
whom we invited from towns within a radius of fifty miles. 

"Our guests of honor were Olive Burnett Clark, one of our founders 
and President of Beta Beta, and her daughter, Maryellen; Frances 
Marks, Exchange Editor of the Lyre; and members of our nearest active 
chapter. Alpha Beta. The meeting was most gratifying and proved an 
inspiration to both old and new alumns. 

"We feel that we are particularly fortunate in having as our President, 
Mrs. Obenchain, Alpha Chi Omega's first president under the Grand 
Council and first Historian. We are very proud of this distinction and 
to add to this honor. Miss Marks has become a member of our club. 
We certainly could ask no more, and with these, and such a group of 
loyal and enthusiastic Alpha Chis as is ours, surely much good can 
be done and our influence felt in some way in this great and growing 
organization of alumnse. The kindly interest that our National Coun- 
cil has shown, gives us an incentive to do big things which will bring 
honor and credit to our 'beloved fraternity.' 

"Club meetings are held the first Mondayineach month and are open 
to all members and visiting Alpha Chis. At present, we are doing all 
in our power to interest young people in college careers and to give them 


374 HisTOSY or Alpha Chi Ouega Fbaternry 

the new and broad vision of fraternity life. In addition to assisting 
in the national altruistic work, we have planned an intensive study of 
the Ritual, initiation ceremony and music of Alpha Chi, to bring us back 
to our old understanding and relationship. 

"Mrs. Clark gave us as one of her messages — 'Nothing in your whole 
life will keep you as young as will your interest in your fraternity.' 
Youth means strength, and may we then always be young!" 

Oil City Alumna Club, Oil City, Pennsylvania. The Oil City Alumne 
Club was oi^anized in November, 1915, at the home of Mrs. Robert 
Philp. The following officers were elected: Mrs. Robert Philp, Presi- 
dent; Mary Greene, Vice President; Rose Piatt, Secretary, and Celia 
McCIure, Editor. The charter members, Delta alumne living in Oil 
City, Franklin, Titusville, Rouseville, were Celia E. McClure, Edith M. 
Askey, Mary B. Greene, Wilhelmina Anderson, Myrtle Crouthers, Mar- 
ian Whipple, Ethel M. Graly, Rose A. Piatt, Mary R. Philp, Bertha 
Cribbs, Lucy Loane Wolf. The meetings were held every third Saturday. 
The club has kept in touch with the active chapter at Meadville, and 
has given assistance whenever needed. From 1919 to 1921 the Oil 
City Club has been inactive. 

Omaha Alumna Club, Omaha, Nebraska. The Omaha Alumne Club 
was established at Omaha, Nebraska, in May, 1915, as a social and 
philanthropic Organization. During the first year the meetings were 
held at the homes of the members. The second year luncheons were 
held monthly at the University Club. After that the club returned to 
the afternoon meetings at the homes, feeling that it should accomplish 
something worth while, aside from pleasure. These meetings are inter- 
spersed with occasional luncheons at one of the clubs or hotels. Under 
the leadership of Mrs. Robert Adams, N, as president, the club sewed for 
the Visiting Nurses Association at afternoon meetings, also took work 
home. A great deal was accomplished as the members bought all the 
material and made the garments. The club supported a French orphan 
for three years, and sent her Chrismas boxes. The club has been active 
in Panhellenic work and several members have served on important 
committees. This organization purchased a silver loving cup to be 
presented each year to the fraternity that has the highest scholarship 
at the state university. A rushing party was given in September, 1919, 
which included a luncheon at the Athletic Club, followed by a matinee. 
In June, 1920, the club assisted Xi Chapter with a rushing party at 
Happy Hollow Club. The evening was spent in dancing. The club had 
full charge of the annual banquet at Lincoln in April, 1920. 

Piltsburgh Alumna Club, PiUsburgh, Pennsylvania. Through the 
energy of Katherine Stanford Hair, A, the Pittsburgh Alumnie Club was 



organized in November, 1915, with the following charter members: 
Flora Goldsworthy Streamer, N; Lillian Nelson, A; Mary Patterson, A; 
Ruth Nebinger, A; Mildred Eiler, Z; Myrtle Porter Faas, A; Julia Jones, 
A; Caroline Parsons Boyd, A; Virginia Porter Nesbit, A; Mabel Lefling- 
welt Walraven, A; Marjorie Fowler Fitzhugh, A; Francis Riethmiller, A; 
Alice Faunce Bigham, Z. During the years that the group has 
existed as a club regular meetings have been held, either at the homes 
of members or at a hotel, and Alpha Chis living in the many suburbs of 
Pittsburgh have found in the club a center of fraternity life. Because of 
the scattered membership the main purpose of the club has been social. 
In 1919-1920 meetings were held on the second Saturday of each month 
at the homes of members. Alpha Chis aided in the denization of the 
Panhellenic Association which was formed in Pittsburgh in the spring 
of 1916, and Mrs. Hair, A, served as its first recording secretary. 

Portland Alumna Club, Portland, Oregon. The Oregon Alumnee 
Club was organized in April, 1915. Just before the installation of Chi 
Chapter, Mrs. Loud made a visit to Portland. At that time she dis- 
cussed with the Portland Alpha Chis the possibilities of forming an 
aliminje club to which any Alpha Chi Omega living in Oregon would be 
eligible. The girls were enthusiastic over the plan and two months later 
the club was a reality with Beatrix Andrews Hopkins, I; Beulah Buckley 
Withrow, E; Myrtle Harrison, P; Ernestine Heslop, N; Leonora Kerr, 11; 
Myrtle Wilcox Gilbert, G; Gertrude Nolan, 11; and Mae Steusloflf, X, as 
charter members. Since the organization of the club monthly meetings 
have been held at the homes of the different members. During the 
siunmer there have been informal social gatherings and picnics and a 
formal tea in October. One of the pleasures of the summer is a drive out 
the beautiful Columbia Highway, followed by dinner at the home of 
Kathenne Honey. The annual spring luncheon is held in June at one of 
the leading hotels or at the University Club, which is attended by Alpha 
Chis from all parts of the state. In June, 1920, forty-eight Alpha Chis 
were present. During the Christmas holidays a luncheon or tea is given 
to which all Alpha Chis in the city are invited. In 1920 the luncheon 
was held in the Portland Hotel and covers were laid for forty. A matinfie 
party followed. 

During the vacations many active girls from Chi and Rho'are in 
the city and this adds very much to the pleasures of the summer activities 
of the club. Portland has a strong Association of University Women 
and eight Portland Alpha Chis are memb^^ of this association, and 
several of them have served on important committees; in 1918-1919 
Beulah Buckley Withrow was Secretary. The total membership since 
the organization of the club is fifty-nine. In 1920 the club had a member- 
ship of forty, of whom seventeen were resident members. 

.y Google 

276 HtsTOKV OF Alpha Chi Ouega Fkatermity 

Philadelphia Alumna Club, Pkiladdphia, Pennsylvania. In February, 
1921, nine Alpha Chis met on a stormy day at the home of Eleanor 
Thompson to discuss preliminary plans for the organization of an 
alumnae club in the city. As information as to the proper procedure had 
already been obtained from the alumnse vice-president the alumnae 
present signed the petition and after obtaining the additional names 
required forwarded it to the Executive Committee for approval. The 
petition was granted in February, 1921. The charter members are as 
follows: Helen C. Bailey, A E; Elsie Klefer Catlin, A; Edith Wells Bly, Z; 
Ruth Ellis McKay, A; Mandelle Germonde Walk, 6; Mary Frances 
Ratigan, AE; Mary E. Purcell, A E; Laura R. Bee, AE; Eleanor W. 
Thompson, A E; Evalyn C, Peterson, A. It was decided to hold business 
meetings bimonthly at the Alpha Epsilon chapter room and to meet 
socially in the alternate months. The immediate aim of the club is to 
aid Alpha Epsilon in her efforts to obtain a chapter house, and all the 
club energies are to be devoted to that end. 

Pueblo Alumna Club, Pueblo, Colorado. The Pueblo Club was organ- 
ized in December, 1915, with the following charter members: Mary C. 
McNally, 1; Helen G. McGraw, N; Elizabeth Fugard Presley, N; Hedwig 
Brenneman Heller, V; Esther Olson Storer, N; Vera Flynn, N. Meetings 
were held the last Saturday of each month at the homes of members. 
Hera Day is observed by giving food and clothing to some destitute 
family. The club has been active in the Pueblo Panhellenic Association 
since its organization. .During the presidency of Hedwig Heller, T, 
the association began charitable work in the city, Mary McNally 
served as Vice President of the association in 1915-1916. The Pueblo 
club has a membership of eight to ten. In 1920 a contribution was made 
for the national altruistic work. 

Salem Alumna Club, Salem, Oregon. In February, 1921, a group of 
alumnae living in Salem began correspondence looking toward the 
establishment of an alumnae club in their city. Most of the alumnse had 
been members of the Portland Club but felt that the nearby alumnx were 
numerous enough to support a separate organization. The petition 
was forwarded to the Executive Committee in March and was granted in 
April, 1921, The chartermembersare: Leonora Kerr Shinn, IT; Dorothea 
Stcusloff, X; Dorothy Chambers, X; L. May Chambers, X; Grace M. 
Holt, X; Maimi V. Victor, X; Myrtle Wilcox Gilbert, 6; Lorraine Scott 
Smart, I ; Gertrude L. Walling, X ; Hazel Seeley, X, As the club had just 
been recognized as the History went to press, no report of its activities 
can be given. 

St. Louis Alumna Club, St. Louis, Missouri. On September 16, 1914, 
six Alpha Chis met with Maude Staiger Steiner and signed the petition to 


Tbue Hautb Alumna Club 277 

the Executive Committee for a club of Alpha Chi Omega. Leo Fuqua 
Ruckle, A, was elected President, Bemice Caldwell Tucker, A, Lyre 
Editor, and Maude StaigerSteiner, 9, Secretary -Treasurer. Because of 
small numbers the club held irregular meetings which were social In 
character and finally became inactive. Early in 1921, steps were taken 
to reorganize the club, and with an active chapter in the city from whose 
members after graduation the reorganized club may draw upon, the 
future of the new club appeara promising. A petition, signed by fourteen 
alumnae was sent to the Executive Committee in March, 1921, and the 
approval of the committee was obtained in April. The signers of the 
petition were: Annabel Remnitz, Gertrude Lucas, Adele Gussow, 
Jeannette Brinkman, Carrie Mellow, Inez M. Schageman, M. Lucella 
Quin, Marion C. Meyersieck, all of Alpha Zeta; and Margaret E. Grim- 
mer, I; Mabel Murfin Walraven, P; Ina Scherrebeck, S; Dorothy M. 
Smith, I; Frieda R. Davie, A; and Flora C. Upshaw, N. As the History 
goes to press the club is taking steps to petition for an alumnae chapter 
feeling that the number of Alpha Chis in the city justifies such a step. 
The group will work to strengthen the active chapter. 

Spokane Alumna Club, Spokane, Washington. A group of alumnse 
living in and near Spokane, Washington, petitioned for recognition as a 
club in January, 1921. Two months later the club was organized with 
the following thirteen charter members: Edith L. Greenberg, P; Ruth 
M. Tewinkel, P; Anny White Melrose, P; Lucile E. Tarbet, il; Helen 
Stewart Williams, P; Estelle M. Downer, 11; May Powell, 0; Jennie 
McCormack, n;Hertha Wiegman, P; Dorothy L. Chamberlin.H; Lena A. 
Wilson, H; Mary Catherine Glen, Z ; Bertha E. Green, I. As the Spokane 
club is nearer Omega Chapter than any other alumnae group, it plans to 
pve assistance to that chapter, 

Syrflcuse Alumna Club, Syracuse, New York. The Syracuse Club 
was organized in May, 1920, with the following charter members: Anita 
I. Wright, Ethel Brooks Quick, Janette TenEyck, Janet Rinehart, 
Ruth Sanderson, Clara Appleby King, Mary-Emma Griffith, Gladys 
Wood, Elizabeth Sill, Paola Schilly Glanert, all of Lambda. A number 
of meetings have been held and the club plans to do definite work for 
Lambda Chapter. 

Terre Haute Alumna Club, Terre Haute, Indiana. On the sixteenth 
of December, 1915, a few Alpha Chi alumnx met at the home of Mary 
Jones Tennant and over the teacups discussed a club. In February, 
1916, an organization was formed with the following officers: Mrs. 
Fred Powell, President; Mrs. Richard S. Tennant, Secretary; Mrs. Jas, 
M. Hoskins, Treasurer. Other charter members were Shellie Smith 
Allen, and Effie M. MiUer. The membership later increased to ten 

.y Go Ogle 

278 HisTotT OP Alpha Chi Oubga FRArBKHirr 

resident and four non-resident. It was decided to have a combined 
meeting and luncheon the third Wednesday of each month of the college 
year. As a number of the members later moved from the city, the club 
is at present inactive (1921). 

The Tri-City Alumna Club, Davenport, Iowa, Rock Island and Moline, 
lUinois. The Tri-City Alumnae Club was organized November, 1918, at 
the home of Florence Tyden, T, at the Rock Island Arsenal. It was due 
entirely to the efforts of Louise Hudson, K, and Florence Tyden that the 
club became a reality, but it had existed in imagination for several 
years previously. The charter members were, Florence Tyden, V; 
Louise Hudson, K; Joan Watkins, 9; Ruth Buffum Maucher, I; Erna 
Goldschmidt, I; Edna Stark, Z; Addle May Swan, E, and Z; and Cora 
Berger, I. Officers were elected, and it was decided to hold monthly 
meetings at the homes of the members. The meetings have been almost 
purely social, but the club has assisted poor families at Christmas time 
through local charitable associations. In July, 1919, a Tri-City Pan- 
Hellenic Association was formed, and Alpha Chi Omegas have been very 
active in it since its initial meeting. Rhoda Reinhardt King, I, was its 
first Secretary, Cora Berger, I, its first Vice President, and three other 
Alpha Chis present were appointed to committees. In June, 1920, Cora 
Berger was elected Treasurer. Panhellenic meetings are held the last 
Saturday of each month and take the form of a luncheon or dinner 
followed by a business meeting. 

Tviin Cities Alumna Club, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. 
For several years the Alpha Chis of Minneapolis and St. Paul had kept 
in touch with each other and had met informally whenever convenient. 
In October, 1916, a petition for recognition as a club was sent to the 
National Council with the following signatures: Nathalie L. Thomp- 
son, F; Amy Martin, F; Ethel Lovell Thompson, B; Mary Mowry Pick- 
ett, F; Vema Tyler Kroh, K and F; H^lenS de Golyer Sorlein, F; Esther 
Grannis Schmitt, F; Olive Crawford Morris, A; Dorothy Goodner, N. 
The club has grown in members and has progressed steadily. A contribu- 
tion has been made to the Scholarship Fund and to the national altruistic 
work of the fraternity. Meetings are held at the homes of members. 

.y Google 


Scholarship Fund 

The endowment and scholarship funds of the fraternity have made 
creditable progress since the inception of the first in 1910 and of the second 
in 1915, The leaders of the fraternity fortunately have understood the 
importance of solid financial foundations for an organization, and con- 
structive effort of a high order has gone into the establishment of the 
separate reserve funds. No fraternity can serve its membership properly, 
house its undergraduates comfortably, protect its publications, conduct 
its current affairs with dignity and with freedom from hurtful restric- 
tions, not to mention carrying on valuable altruistic work, unless it 
possesses adequate endowment. 

The Scholarship Fund which was instituted at the 1915 Convention 
had a two-fold purpose. The vice president said to the National Chap- 
ter in 1915 that to her personal knowledge at least eight girls in the frater- 
nity the preceding year would have been eligible and worthy of a loan 
from such a fund had one existed. Therefore the first purpose of the fund 
is to help members of the fraternity hnish their college courses. A second 
class of loan would make fraternity life [>ossible to other girls who had 
adequate funds for a university course, but not enough to pay fra- 
ternity dues and initiation fees. Accordingly a plan was devised where- 
by in the future both needs could be met. The convention pledges 
of $75, individual gifts, and official jeweler rebates on badges, constituted 
the nucleus of the Scholarship Fund. By 1916 the fund reached $550 
which had already been lent to five selected members. 

The future growth of the fund also was provided for with foresight 
by the 1915 Convention and by its Scholarship Fund Committee; it 
was decided that one dollar from the proceeds of each alumna note and 
the profits from the sale of Directories should go to the Scholarship Fund. 

The fund has grown steadily year by year. In 1919 the total reached 
13,843.12, and the committee had made seventeen loans to young 
women. The following year and a half witnessed a marked acceleration 
in the rate of applications for loans: the total number of loans increased 
to 32, made to 27 members, or 87.64 per cent as many loans granted in 
a year and a half as in the entire first four years of the fund. This 
increase in the number of applications may be traced to several causes: 


HisTORV OF Alfha Chi Oiibga Fraternity 

(I) The growing popularity of the fund itself from wider information con- 
cerning it. The following table shows the growth of the demand for loans 
from the Scholarship Fund: 

Table 20.— Loans Made by Scholarship Fund. 

Academic year. 

No. loans 

No. chapters 
represent eo . 

No. chapters 

requesting first 






$110 83 




(2) the advance in the cost of a college education ; (3) the growth in the 
determination of women to attain their college degree; (4) the more 
liberal terms of repayment authorized by the 1919 Convention. 

One chapter has made use of the fund each year with grants of six 
loans to four members; one chapter has been represented three years 
with loans to five members; and two groups have been represented 
two years with four loans to three members and two loans to two mem- 
bers, respectively; thirteen chapters have used one loan each. The 
maximum amount of any loan, or of loans to any one member, has been 
1350; this maximum might well have been higher but for the present 
limitations of the Scholarship Fund. The minimum grant has been |18, 
borrowed to help a desirable student pay her chapter dues. To twenty- 
seven members it has made possible fraternity life or the continuation of 
their college work. To February 1, 1921, the total amount granted in 
loans was $4,396 or an average of $133.50 for the entire 32 transactions. 
Two loans have been granted to members pursuing graduate work. 

A change in the terms of payment has been referred to above; the 
committee and the Council desired that anxiety in regard to payment 
might be reduced to a minimum during the period of academic work, 
and therefore the earlier terms of five per cent interest from date of the 
loan were changed by the Chicago Convention to much easier arrange- 
ments. A business-like attitude toward obligations was requisite, 
however, if the borrowers of future years were not to suffer from the 
depletion of the scholarship endowment. In order to insure the integrity 
of the fund, therefore, and at the same time to tighten the burden of the 
young woman in college, the National Chapter settled the terms of pay- 
ment as follows: (1) The amount of the loan is to be returned two years 
after the applicant leaves or finishes college, with the annual interest rate 


Scholarship Fund 281 

of 3 per cent; or (2) the loan may be repaid at the rate of ten dollars 
monthly without interest, payment beginning 3 months after leaving col- 
lege. The applicant indicates her preference at the time of requesting a 

The procedure of procuring temporary use of the Scholarship Fund is 
simple. The applicant communicates her desire for a loan to the Alumnx 
Vice President, describing her work and her reasons for wishing to make 
use of the fraternity fund. A formal application blank then goes to her 
upon which she states her year in college, her recent marks in her courses, 
the amount asked for, and "an expression of opinion from the chapter 
president as to the local and national relations of the applicant." The 
Scholarship Committee then votes on the application, and if the decision 
is favorable, as it usually is, the applicant receives the money and signs 
a note for the amount. Thus she finds cooperation in her financial 
affairs, as in all other phases of her college life, in the social group that 
stands closest to her next to her own family — namely her college frater- 
nity. To date the fund has been administered most carefully and 
wisely by Miss Zimmerman, Alumnae Vice President (1915-1919), 
Miss Jones, Alumnje Vice President (1919-), and by Mrs. Dunkle, 
Treasurer of the fund from its beginning. 

The possibilities of such endowment challenge our attention. The 
1919 Convention provided that, when the fund reached $10,000, one-half 
should be held as an endowment— the interest only to be used — the 
other half to be granted in loans as before. The sum of $1,500 was 
withdrawn and invested in 1921. As the fund enlarges, the current 
portion of it probably will be able to supply the loans requested; the 
interest from the endowment might go to increase the small number now 
existing of fellowships for graduate work, both in American and in 
foreign universities. To the woman fitted and eager to become a college 
professor, for example, it grows more and more difficult to attain the 
broad and deep development necessary for her to distinguish herself 
in that exacting profession. As a result, the names of relatively few 
women appear among the distinguished names of American faculties, 
not because women lack mental power, but because they are deficient 
in wide cultural and scholarly experience, as well as in the advanced 
degrees enjoyed by their brothers in the profession. 

Not only to the pedagogically inclined, of course, should the Alpha 
Chi Omega fellowships of the future go. A devotion to the fine arts as 
well as to letters and science would doubtless lead the fraternity to adopt 
an administration policy that would recognize artistic talent in any 
field, and to foster it by encouraging advanced study in all lines. 

The field of research has been opened to women in the past few years, 
particularly during the war. In industrial, social, historical, political, 


2S2 HisTOKT OF Alpha Cki Ombga Fraternity 

and scientific research women are proving themselves adequate. Research 
requires extensive background and intensive study; wide graduate study 
must follow undergraduate work, to make possible brilliant results in 
research. As women enter also upon political and diplomatic careers 
in the future, liberal training must prepare them for their work, as it 
prepares their brothers. The fraternity could hardly refuse to assist its 
graduate members to attain their maximum development and to make 
their maximum contribution to society. 

Scholarships for Children 

Recent tendencies in the Panhellenic world have favored the offering 
of fraternity scholarships to college women at large rather than exclu- 
sively to their own members. This movement lies in the general direction 
the fraternity woman is traveling — toward broad interest and close 
cofiperation with all her sisters in progressive social endeavor. A descrip- 
tion of Alpha Chi Omega's interesting scholarships for children — both 
girls and boys — appears in the chapter entitled, "National Altruistic 

The Star Studio 

Peculiarly expressing the personality of the fraternity in its devotion 
to the fine arts as well as to the liberal arts is the Star Studio and its 
endowment fund. The Studio was built by the fraternity in 1911, and 
at first was maintained by periodic contributions; the 1919 Convention 
decided to endow the Studio permanently, and to that end instructed 
the National Treasurer to remit one thousand dollars to the Macdowell 
Association. The original studio fund was contributed by the chapters 
in the early days of the Macdowell Colony, and the Star Studio was the 
sixth to be erected. 

It was during the summer of 1908, through the efforts of Fay Bam- 
aby Kent, A, a former pupil of Edward Macdowell, that active steps were 
first taken to raise the money to build a studio at the Macdowell Colony. 
One of Mr. Macdowell's most cherished ambitions was to found an artists* 
colony — similar to the American academy at Rome — on the farm at 
Peterborough, New Hampshire, which had furnished the inspiration for 
his later masterpieces. Into the development of this project he put much 
loving thought and the greater part of his savings. At his death Mrs. 
Macdowell deeded the property to the Macdowell Memorial Association 
which is endeavoring to realize his ideals. 

Persons possessing marked creative talent in any one of the fine arts, 
who have published their work, may be awarded scholarships by the 
committee. The artists live in the "Lower House," which was for- 
merly the nucleus of the colony, and in three other houses. Use of 
isolated individual studios is provided free to the artist by means of 
the colony's endowment. Application by Alpha Chi Omega for the 


The Reserve Fund 283 

studio scholarship at Peterborough should be approved by the Alpha 
Chi Omega Macdowell Studio Committee before being forwarded to 
Mrs. Macdowell, ,who is a permanent member of the Committee on 
Award. Failing a properly qualified Alpha Chi applicant, the studio 
may be awarded to any deserving artist. A detailed description of 
the Colony appears in Chapter 24 of this volume. Current illustrated 
reports of the work done at the Colony are issued annually. 
The Lyre Reserve Fund 

The Lyre Reserve Fund, on September 1, 1921, totaled about fifteen 
thousand dollars, most of which is invested at a good rate of interest. 
For a number of years this fund has benefitted from the wise guidance 
of Mr, H, W. Cushman, the husband of Ja Nette Allen Cushman, the 
first president of the fraternity. By his assistance the maximum return 
from the fund commensurate with safety has been received. This 
fund will increase rapidly as each initiate takes out a life subscription, 
so that eventually The Lyre reserve, in order to protect the life sub- 
scriptions, will probably amount to a larger sum than any other part of 
the fraternity endowment. 

The Reserve Fund 

Last but by no means the least interesting is the Reserve Fund. 
Inaugurated in 1912, with a committee of three, of whidi Alta Allen 
Loud was the chairman, its purposes are to make possible the awarding of 
loans to chapters for house-building and to finance other fraternity pro- 
jects. The first thousand dollars was speedily raised, and the five thou- 
sand dollar goal set by the committee to be reached by 1915 exceeded that 
sum by $261 .08. The system pursued in swelling the funds by pledges 
from active chapters of $100, alumnce chapters, $25, and alumnae clubs, 
$10, was supplemented by generous subscriptions from individual mem- 
bers. In addition one dollar per capita from each active chapter and the 
proceeds from the installation of new chapters are turned into the fund. 

The Reserve Fund Committee in 1916 reported: 

"Again the Reserve Fund Committee desires to express its apprecia- 
tion of the interest taken in and the support given to the fund. We are 
glad to announce that twelve active chapters have given the one hundred 
dollars asked. Rho Chapter has pledged one hundred dollars and has 
already given forty dollars of this amount in monthly payments, while 
four other chapters have contributed smaller sums. Those chapters 
which have not pledged have been struggling with financial burdens and 
it has not seemed wise to press the matter. Every alumnse chapter has 
pledged the twenty-five dollars asked, several have given more, and all 
but one have fully redeemed their pledges. This one will be paid in full 
before the 1917 Convention. Six alumnx clubs have paid ten dollars or 
mn« into the Reserve Fund Treasury, two have given smaller amounts, 


284 HisTOKV or Alpha Chi Omega Fraternitt 

and two more have pledget! ten dollars each. We earnestly hope thai 
the coming year will bring pledges from those clubs which have not yet 
contributed, and that eventually every active and alumnae chapter and 
alumnee club may have a share in the building up of this fund. 

"The hopes of the committee for a five thousand dollar fund for the 
1915 Convention were more than realized. We now ask for the support of 
Council, chapters, and all members of the fraternity in our work toward 
the realization of our desire for an eight thousand dollar fund which is 
the goal set for the 1917 Convention." 

As the 1917 Convention was postponed on account of the war, the 
next report of the Reserve Fund chairman to a national convention 
occurred in 1919. At that time the fund had reached $10,741.42. 
Fifteen active chapters had each contributed |I00 to the fund, two, 
smaller amounts, twelve alumnse chapters had contributed |25 or more, 
and fourteen alumntc clubs had made gifts. 

The committee made two particularly significant recommendations 
to the fraternity at this convention: (1) That interest on the Reserve 
Fund, as it had reached $10,000, be used for furthering the administrative 
work of the fraternity by helping to defray the expense of the central 
office inaugurated in 1919; (2) that individual members of the fraternity 
who desire to express in a definite way their loyalty and gratitude to 
Alpha Chi Omega should arrange to make bequests of $100, payable 
at the convenience of the giver, to the Reserve Fund or to the Scholar- 
ship Fund. 

A little over a year later the committee reported that the sum of 
$11,920.67 was helping nine chapters "to make their dreams come true." 
The increase in the Reserve Fund since the 1919 Convention to September 
10, 1920, was $1,819.50, making a total of more than $12,000 in the 
endowment fund for house-buitding. In September 1921, the fund totaled 
approximately $15,000. The number of chapters helped by the fund 
since its beginning in 1912 is thirteen; the result to the fraternity in 
improved living conditions of the chapters cannot be measured by 
numbers. The aim of the Reserve Fund committee at its inception and 
throughout its arduous, efficient labors, has been to assist the chapters 
to house ownership until every chapter of Alpha Chi Omega resides in a 
comfortable and satisfactory house of ils own. 

At least two members of the fraternity have arranged in their wills 
a bequest for the fraternity endowment in addition to those who have 
made bequests to their chapters; othersare urged to do likewise if possible. 
A small bequest of one hundred dollars made by many other members 
would mean in the aggregate a much larger endowment that would for- 
ever work for the good of Alpha Chis. It is a simple and easy way to 
perpetuate one's own good will and service for the sake of the future 
advantage of the fraternity. 



Scholarships for Children 

The Chicago Convention decided with much enthusiasm that, at the 
conclusion of the fraternity's overseas work. Alpha Chi Omega would 
undertake some form of permanent altruistic work in the United States. 
The committee sought, both from private and from official sources, to 
discover in the wide field of human needs, the one opportunity for service 
that would give the fraternity the greatest scope for usefulness and would 
be of the greatest constructive value to the country. Various forms of 
service were suggested: Americanization work, the establishment of 
ntirses at railroad terminals, work with immigrants, a summer camp for 
chiklren, dime lunches for children in congested centers, work for better 
child labor laws, milk surveys in various communities to improve the 
milk for the very poor, scholarships for children, and hospital library 

The fraternity desired to adopt work that could be undertaken 
immediately, would not need large funds at the outset, would be of 
permanent interest and value, and would be flexible enough to permit 
expansion as our alumnse groups grow. Also, only such service could be 
approved that would be accepted with enthusiasm by the entire frater- 
nity and that alumnse and active college girls would become a unit in 
working for. A large majority voted in favor of scholarships for children. 

Scholarships for children in the United States became then the 
national altruistic work of the fraternity. Miss Myra H. Jones, then 
National Alumnae Vice President, as head of alumnae work, became 
director of this service. She made a thorough study of the operation of 
scholarships for children in those cities where they exist, and gained 
much assistance in perfecting plans for the work from the United States 
Children's Biu^au in Washington, D. C, which had iirst suggested the 
work as a suitable one; from the Henry Street Settlement in New York; 
from the Education Department of the General Federation of Women's 
Clubs of Chicago; from the Employment Certificate Bureau of the 
Chicago Board of Education; and from the Vocation Bureau of the 
Cincinnati Public Schools. 

The purpose of the scholarships is to help children, whose parents can 
not send them to school after they become of legal working age, to 
become better prepared for future employment, to aid them to develop 


386 HiSTOKT or Alfba Chi Ouega Fraternity 

into skilled workers rather than unskilled, and thus to become, through 
increased efficiency, more useful citizens. The Children's Bureau says: 

Scholarahipe for school children are increasingly recognized as a means by which 
the community can give its children a fair chance. The public schools are for all chil- 
dren; but often children are unable to attend them because of financial pressure at home. 
Scholarships are the result of common effort to give children a square deal. They make 
it possible to keep in school exceptionally bright children who would like to continue 
their education hut without financial aid would have to earn their livelihood ; they ofTer 
an immediate, practicable plan for helping the situation described by the economist 
Alfred Marshall, who points out that "A large proportion of genius is lost to society he- 
cause it is born among the children of the poor where it perishen for want of opportunity." 

Moat children who must leave school for work at the age of 14, whether they are 
gifted or ungifted, are doomed to perform unskilled labor which offers little opportunity 
for development and slight prospect of increased wf^es. These children, already 
handicapped by poverty, are further handicapped by lack of training when they enter 
the labor world. 

One of the cities where scholarships are given compared the wages of 51 children 
who left school at 14 to go to work with the wages of the same number of children who 
were given scholarships and had two additional years of training. The following table 
shows that after three years of wage earning the average wage of the child who stayed 
in school until he was 16 was two and one-third times that of the child who left school 
at 14 years of age: 

Table 21. — Average wage oj children leaning school at age 14 and at age 16. 

Time of work. 

Average weekly wage of 

children who left school at 


Average weekly wage of 

children who remained in 

school untH 16. 

6 months or less 

2 years 

3 yean 




Thus the ecbolarship experiments have shown that education through the 16th or 
18tb year really pays. By giving scholarships to children, the community is training 
them to fill the better paid positions that require some skill and is thereby raising indus- 
trial standards with benefit to the children, toindustry, and to the Nation. 

Some of the features of this enterprise especially adapted to fraternity 
organization are as follows; 

Simplicity and ease of administration. — The fraternity does not have 
to expend its energies in detailed executive work. By working through 
effective agencies that are already organized, the fraternity funds can 
be used directly and without waste or loss of energy. Also we are enter- 
ing a proved, not an experimental field of service, the need for which is 

Its character as true Americanization work. — If desired, the fraternity 
groups can choose children of foreign parentage. This might be adopted 


Scholarships for Children 287 

as a national policy or each group could be left free to make its own choice 
as to nationality and sex of the child to be aided. By thus reducing the 
number of uneducated, unskilled citizens, the fraternity is helping the 
country in a very constructive way. 

Miss Marion Lombard, vocational scholarship adviser for the Chicago 
schools says, "I feel that the children of foreign parents seem to be more 
ambitious and eager to stay in school than those of Amertcan-bom 
parents. The parents seem willing to make a larger sacrifice and the 
children do not seem to give up so easily as American-bom children. 
There are many exceptions, of course. The children feel the handicap of 
coming from homes where a foreign language is spoken, and it has been 
interesting to me to watch their methods of Americanizing their parents. 
Many of these parents are attending English speaking classes, and seem 
most eager to cofiperate in any way." 

The scope for individual work by alumna chapters and clubs. — A 
group chooses the child tt wishes to help, keeps in touch with him and 
gets reports as to his work. A group may wish to give an especially 
gifted child further opportunity for college, professional or technical 
education. By thus identifying itself with local community work, and 
perhaps being the pioneers in some communities in this form of service, 
a group does valuable work within the community and yet its work 
is identified with a national movement. Although tested and adminis- 
tered through another agency, this work is new and is distinctive. 

Flexibiliiy of the plan. — As many children can be given scholarships 
as funds permit, and the number can be increased indefinitely as our 
alumnx grow in numbers and as the work becomes well established. 
Sf^holarships cost from $3 to $6 per week for each child. Many alumnx 
groups can not support a scholarship alone, but smaller groups located 
near each other can work together to support a child within the same 

Miss Jones, by graduate study and research in industrial conditions 
and by many years of city residence as a professional woman has devel- 
oped an intelligent understanding and sympathy regarding the problems 
of the young American. She is convinced that scholarehips for children 
properly administered are a very real contribution to the amelioration 
of social maladjustments. In her opinion the child selected should be 
made proud of his scholarship, as a reward of good work like a college 
scholarship, or as the means to make the most of his exceptional ability 
for the sake of society. The working plans that Miss Jones has evolved 
to guide the fraternity groups in administering the scholarships, and to 
unify the fraternity's program throughout the United States, indicate 
clearly the general lines of procedure in this significant 8ervi<%. 


288 History of Alpha Chi Ouega Praternitt 

A good deal of time and thought has been spent in working out the 
plans, because the beginning of any such work on a national scale is 
important, and it is necessary that all the groups administering the 
scholarship follow more or less uniform plans. The plans should noti of 
course, be too inflexible to provide for local variations ; however, the work 
can be conducted along certain broad lines which can be followed by all 
the groups. The plans are brieEy, as follows: 

First: Appointment of a committee consisting preferably of three 
members, one of whom should be a teacher, another a home-keeper, 
and a third, if possible, a social worker. All should have more or less 
knowledge of educational conditions, and should be tactful and sym- 

Second : In choosing a child to whom a scholarship is to be given, the 
committee should get in touch with a local high school, preferably one 
giving vocational education, and obtain from the superintendent, or 
from one of the teachers, information regarding children who need help. 
The choice of the child should be left to the committee, who can make 
the selection after consulting the school authorities. The child should 
be either an exceptionally bright one, or one physically handicapped, and 
dependent on special training to earn a living. 

Third: The child's home should be visited, to find out whether his 
earnings are needed, and whether the parents are in sympathy with the 
child's ambition and eager to give him the opportunity to remain in 
school if the scholarship is provided. The amount of the scholarship 
should depend on the family income; probably ti a week will be the 
average amount needed. 

Fourth: A member of the committee should also talk with the 
child to find out whether he is really ambitious to continue his work in 

Fifth: After the child has been chosen and is started in school, a 
member of the committee should talk with the teacher of the child 
regarding his work, his aptitudes, and any special needs. 

Sixth : A record should be kept of the child, his home environment, 
his progress in school, etc. Blanks for these records will be sent to the 

Seventh : The child's money should be sent to him regularly, weekly 
or monthly. The child should report regularly at some convenient place 
with his school report card. 

Observance of Hera Day 
An older and a very successful form of altruistic service is the 
observance of the Heraea. Hera day! What profound significance has 
the coming of the first of March to Alpha Chi Omegas young and oldl 


Obsrbvancb op Hera Day 289 

As in ancient times when festivals celebrated the Heraea with pro- 
cessions bearing gifts to Hera's temple, so now wings across the con- 
tinent on March 1, an unending procession of Alpha Chis intent upon 
distributing happiness to many for at least one day in the year. One 
day is scarcely correct for the "March first" spirit is contagious and 
likely to become a habit. 

After the war was over the emphasis on war relief disap[>eared, of 
course, and in 1919-1920 somethingof the pre-war merriment and gayety 
was resumed in Hera Day observance. Parties forchildren delighted little 
boys and girls at Beta, Lambda, Pi, and Upsilon Chapters; Pi's annual 
orphan guests appreciated the new chapter house as keenly as any guests. 
Beta's guests came from a foreign settlement, Lambda's from an orphan 
home, Upsilon's were newsboys. Children's homes received assistance 
from Delta, who makes annual visits to an old ladies' home, a children's 
home, and the poor farm, carrying good things to eat and entertaining 
the "homes" with music and fun. Epsilon contributed thirty new shirts 
for the boys at the Lark Ellen Home, an institution founded by our own 
Ellen Beach Yaw. The District of Columbia Alumnae Club sent garments 
and entertainers to an orphan home that is much in the mind of Suzanne 
Mulford Ham, r. Hera Day stands out as a bright day in many hospitals. 

In the year of the armistice Alpha and Beta Beta gave a tea at an 
Indianapolis hospital, the chapel was thrown open and music cheered 
the patients who could be brought to the festivities. Epsilon and Delta 
Delta for many years have maintained a bed in the Children's Hospital in 
Los Angeles, which is dependent on private contributions. This bed has 
been supplemented by an X-ray, a sun-porch, and by other needed gifts. 
Zeta's talented members never fail to brighten hospitals and settlements in 
Boston by lively programs. Nu gave convalescent chairs to a children's 
hospital. Phi gave volunteer service and financial aid to the Lawrence 
Hospital during a stringent period. The Pueblo Alumnae Club co6per- 
ated with the Associated Charities by carrying good things to eat to 
certain families on Hera Day. Alpha Epsilon gave money on Hera Day 
for the women's clubhouse at Pennsylvania; Omicron, in groups, enter- 
tained "shut-ins" in Baldwin on March 1, and Xi contributed and aided 
in raising funds for the national Y. W. C. A. Secretary to China, a 
Nebraska graduate. Omega rendered practical and unique service of a 
high order, by assisting a French student who was a guest of the chapter 
for the year. Eta Eta contributed to Armenian relief, and Eastern 
Oklahoma, whose members live far apart, renewed their pledge for a 
French orphan as Hera Day work. Gamma, near Ft. Sheridan, provided 
some good things for the soldiers to eat on March 1. 

These isolated altruistic deeds, of course, do not include the "regular" 
altruistic service of the chapters. Until January, 1921, the fraternity 


290 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fhaternit? 

continued its war work of caring for nearly one hundred adopted 
French orphans. The details of this sustained endeavor to make the world 
better and happier have been given in the chapter entitled, "War work." 
In peace, as in war, the fraternity seeks to perform its share of patriotic 
constructive service, to the end that the youth of America may develop 
into self-reliant and reliable men and women ; and that the spirit of service 
and fine development for which Alpha Chi Omega stands may not only 
permeate the chapters but extend beyond them into wider circles. 

.y Google 


Through an aperture in the stone wall bordering one of the forest- 
roads of the Macdowell Colony, lies the path to Macdowell's "Log 
Cabin." From the road one steps into the marehy path through golden- 
rod and tall grasses, under dense maple shrubs and old apple trees. 
Masses of ferns stretch into the distance on either side of the shaded path. 
Boulders of moss-grown granite are strewn thickly among the trees. 
Through the ferns and the delicate ground-pine that twines about rocks 
and roots of trees, one sees the rich-brown pine cones and needles; cen- 
turies of season have drifted them into a soft mysterious earth-rug. It 
clings even to the gnarled roots of those colossal pines which are so aged 
and towering that only the topmost branches are green. The slender 
poplars rise as high as the iirs. 

Through such wild beauty begins the approach to the deserted log 
cabin. Soon the wet path gives way to a narrow board-walk, a rather 
uncertain but dry bridge which depends now upon boulders, now upon 
logs. Winding through the dense woods, the way is bordered by mosses, 
wild lilies-of- the- valley, and brilliant fungi, orange-colored, yellow, 
wine-red, or waxy-whJte, After rains there appear a few livid sala- 
manders. On the horizon the sky, like a glittering sea, shifies through 
the tangle of branches. 

The forest path is but a few steps from Hillcrest, the Macdowell 
home; by it Macdowell climbed to his "Log Cabin" which juts out from 
a steep hillside. On the veranda of the cabin, facing Mt. Monadnock, 
the composer was close to waving treetops, and could hear melodi- 
ous airs in the rustling of poplars and the deep whirring of swaying pines. 
Here he composed his greatest works. 

The Log Cabin, now so hallowed by great productions, was a gift to 
Edward Macdowell from his wife, Marion Macdowell, who designed it 
secretly and supervised its erection. She had perceived that even in the 
music-room of Hillcrest, superior though it was to any workroom he had 
possessed in his harassed city life, Macdowell could not achieve entire 
isolation and concentration. To the studio in the deep woods she one day 
led Macdowell, and presented it to him, as a new workshop. In the 
hearthstone before the enormous fireplace are engraved the words, 
"Edward and Marion, August, 1899." 

These simple words in the tx>g Cabin connote real historical signifi- 
cance. For the studio in the forest was not only the inspiration of great 


292 HisTORT or Alpha Chi Ohega pRATBRNm 

music, but was also the beginning of an institution for the wide fostering 
of creative art, for which the name of Macdowell will eventually, per- 
ha[>s, be as noted as for musical composition — The Macdowell Colony. 
In thesame spirit of loving though tfulness, wisdom, and enthudasmwith 
which Mrs. Macdowell designedand builtthe LogCabtn.she haserected 
since the composer's death, fifteen studios, so that a distinguished 
artists' colony has come into full fruition. Thus has the dearest wish 
of Macdowell's heart been fulfilled. The colony contains the following 

The Bark Studio, given by Mrs. Macdowell, in memory of Caroline 
Jumelle Perkins. 

The Barnard Studio, given by students in Barnard College. 

The Peterborough Studio, given by Mr. and Mrs. William H. Scho- 
field, Mrs. H. A. Chamberlain, Mrs. Andrew S. Draper, and Miss Ruth 

The Cheney Studio, given by Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney and Mrs. 
Carl Kaufmann. 

The Pine Studio, given by some of Mr. Macdowell's students. 

The Star Studio, given by Alpha Chi Omega. 

The Louise Veltin Studio, given by the alumnae of the Veltin School. 

The Helen Ogden Wood Studio, given by Mrs. Frederick Trevor 

The Monday Music Club Studio, given by the Monday Music Club 
of Orange, N. J. 

The Myra McKeown Studio, given by the friends of Miss McKeown 
in Youngstown, Ohio. 

The Adams Studio, given by thirty-one of the pupils of Mrs. Charles 
Sprague-Sm i th . 

The Regina Watson Studio, given by Mrs. Frederic S. CooUdge, 
Mrs. William Loomis, Mrs. J. Rosenwald, Mrs. A. A. Sprague, Miss 
Cornelia G. Lunt, Miss Margaret Lunt Moulton, Mr. August Blum, 
and Mr. Clarence M. Wooiley. 

The George Alexander Chapman Studio, gift of Mrs. Alice Wood- 
rough Chapman, supplemented by the proceeds of a memorial concert 
arranged by Joseph Regneas. 

The John W. Alexander Studio, given by Mrs. Elizabeth A. Alexander 
and Mr. James W. Alexander. 

The Bam Cupola, converted into a studio. 

The total property of the Edward Macdowell Association comprises 
five hundred acres of land, farm buildings, five dwelling houses. Colony 
Hall, the Alexander Memorial Building, and fifteen studios. The Edward 
Macdowell Association was established in 1907 by friends of Macdowell 
to make possible to other creative artists the perfect conditions that 



294 HiSTOKT or Ai.nA Chi Owkca Fratsbnitt 

Macdowell himself had discovered. For, in the words of Robert Haven 
Schauffler, creative artists in general like "American poets, despite their 
genuine love of town and their struggles to produce worthy lines amid 
its turmoil, have almost invariably done the best of their actually creative 
work during the random moments that could be snatched in wood or 
meadow, by weedy marsh or rocky headland." 

Since these ideal surroundings were bequeathed to the cause of 
American art, the decennial, 1917, declared to a skeptical public that one 
idealistic community in New England had proved its practicability. 
Two elaborate pageants, in 1910 and in 1914, have been produced on the 
picturesque outdoor pageant stage; annual musicales have acquainted 
many guests with original compositions of members, and have resulted 
often in recognition for the artists. A hundred artists had done creative 
work at the colony, before the season of 1921. The amount of artistic 
production of consequence accomplished in the colony will be understood 
more clearly by the public, we predict, when the Alexander Memorial 
shall have been completed. For in that studio, which is designed after 
a chapel in Switzerland beloved by both Macdowell and Alexander, there 
will be an annual exhibit for visitors of the finished work of artists of 
the association and of other artists. Book-ahelves, also, in the new 
Colony Hall, will contain permanently volumes written by the authors 
of the colony. The principal part of the proposed colony library will be 
two private libraries which have been bequeathed to the association. 
The section to be devoted to the works of the authors of the association 
will be of conspicuous interest, for the colony has been favored with the 
presence of many writers. 

The Star Studio has been occupied mostly by literary artists. Mr. 
Parker Fillmore, a writer of stories about children, one of the directors 
of the Edward Macdowell Association, returned to the Star Studio 
many seasons since its erection by Alpha Chi Omega in 1911. Belle 
McDiarmid Ritchey, a lecturer on poetry and a writer of stories for chil- 
dren under thenomde plume "Elizabeth Wier," wrote in theStar Studio 
for a part of one season. The author occupied the studio for the season 
of 1916 throughout much of the composition of the 1916 edition of the 
History of Alpha Chi Ome;.a. In 1919 Elthea Snider, T, composed songs 
and other pieces in Star Studio; and in 1921, a talented playwright, 
Dorothy Kuhns, occupied it with great pleasure and profit. 

The Edward Macdowell Association is unprejudiced so far as the 
different arts are concerned. A number of distinguished composers, most 
fittingly, have worked in the studios, but they have been no more 
numerous than the poets. Painters and sculptors have found the colony 
as pregnant with inspiration for original composition as have the musi- 
cians and writers. Macdowell was convinced that close association of 


The Macdowbll C<h^nt Studio 295 

the various arts, similar to that found in the American Academy at 
Rome, was fruitful of good for all. The experiment of an artistic com- 
munity based on such a principle was of great interest to Alpha Chi 
Omega, because she, too, was grounded tn the same belief. Shortly 
after the death of Macdowell in 1908, the National Council of Alpha Chi 
Omega decided, in council session, to propose to the fraternity coopera- 
tion with the Edward Macdowell Association in carrying out Mac- 
dowell's dream. To the Association Macdowell, shortly before his death, 
had deeded his wooded estate near Peterborough, New Hampshire, and 
the enterprise was put under way as soon as possible. 

In 1909, therefore, a member of the National Council of Alpha Chi 
Omega, Fay Bamaby Kent, of New York, a former pupil of Macdowell 
was given charge of soliciting an Alpha Chi Omega fund for the erection 
of a studio at the colony. The chapters responded immediately and 
generously. In 1911 the Star Studio, one of the most desirable studios 
in the colony, was ready for its first occupant. In 1920 by a gift of |1 ,000 
to the Association the fraternity permanently endowed the studio. Like 
Mrs. Macdowell herself, Alpha Chi Omega in so doing builded better 
than she knew. How little anyone grasped in the beginning the far- 
reaching importance to American art of these workshops in the forest! 

As illustrations of it show, the Star Studio is in the heart of the forest. 
Giant pines conceal it completely from the road that passes Hillcrest a 
very few rods distant. Only when a traveler is near can he see from the 
path the green walls and the slate roof through the branches. But two 
other studios are in the same part of the wood. The isolation and quiet 
are perfect. The only sounds that enter the windows throughout the 
day are the songs of the birds and the music which constantly plays in the 
treetops — a soft, rich melody that never intrudes. 

The chief charms of the studio within are the large fireplace and the 
laige north window. Hangings of exquisite browns and greens are at 
the windows. The floor is of brick-red tile. Beside the window stands 
the heavy table for writing. As the occupant of the studio sits at the table 
nothing can be seen but the dense forest and patches of sky through the 
thicket; sunshine and rain lend beauties to that vista. The sun brightens 
the lofty tops of trees which are dark with shade below, and the mottled, 
pulsing shadows on pine-needles and on brake, the flickering silver of 
light-beams on black moss-stained trunks of trees provide ever-changing 
delights. But the rain brings its own excitement and loveliness; the 
trees sing wilder and more solemn strains in a storm, and the copse emits 
a radiant sheen through its misty veil. 

Such is the atmosphere about the Star Studio. But as each studio 
has its own marked individuality, so is the vista from each different. 
The general program of the day, however, is the same for all. A basket 


'296 History or Altha Cbi Omega Fkatsxnity 

of lunch is left at each studio at noon, so that the worker's day need not 
be broken. An early breakfast is served at different parts of the colony 
near the dormitories. In the evening most of the colonists dine at Colony 
Hall, and an occasional impromptu concert or reading follows. The 
Sunday evening tea at Hillcrest with Mrs. Macdowell is the most delight- 
ful of the colonists' social pleasures. Then happy hours are spent 
in the music-room which is redolent with memories of Macdowell, in 
the composer's own flower garden, or on the rambling piazza, overlooking 
the estate. 

Whether the colonists are at work or at play, there is manifest the 
spirit of contentment and of eagerness to achieve work worthy of their 
environment. Through contact with each other, all the workers find 
that their artistic horizon is broadened. All sections of the United States 
are represented: the East, the Middle West, and the Far West. A spirit 
of appreciation toward the work of their fellow-colonists warms the tone 
of the association. A banal clique spirit among certain artists well 
known to each other and mutually approving each other's efforts to the 
extent of depreciating what lies beyond their circle is a vitriol that 
would endanger the noblest community. The spirit of the Macdowell 
Colony is practically free from this menace not only because of the 
power of the generous idealism of Mrs. Macdowell, the business manager 
of the associadon, but also because of the Association's tradition that 
encouragement of striving artists is more productive of results than 

The struggles of the colony itself are regrettably far from their end. 
In equipment more than $50,000 has been given to the association. But 
the crying need of the present hour is for endowment to insure the 
permanency of the enterprise. The annual deficit has been met by the 
personal toil of Mrs. Macdowell in lecture redtats. In the season of 
1915-16, Mrs. Macdowell filled fifty engagements from Massachusetts 
to California. It has been the privilege of numerous Alpha Chi Omegas 
to lend their coSperation during numerous tours by their presence and by 
their influence. In Los Angeles Alpha Chi Omega held a reception for 
Mrs. Macdowell, and at Seattle a dinner was given in her honor. Mu 
Chapter in 1912 presented Mrs. Macdowell in recital, and other chapters 
and clubs will, no doubt, have the same pleasure and opportunity of 
supporting many such recitals as listeners. 

The members and friends of the Edward Macdowell Association face, 
in their loyalty to the cause and their enthusiasm for its success, a large 
task. The colony has rendered distinctive service to the unrecognized 
artist and to the famous one ; it remains the work of the nation's art-lovers 
to render a service to the colony by encouragement and financial support. 
Alpha Chi Omega is happy to be able to cooperate in this, "the greatest 
art-movement in America." 



Work of the Colleges 

The history of the war service performed by the American colleges 
yet remains to be written. The tale deserves a talented chronicler and 
should be recorded before the facts have lost their sharpness of detail. 
Already fraternity chapters have forgotten some of their own war work; 
how soon will the exact story of the work of the colleges become dimmed 
and gradually forgotten in the stirring and absorbing life of today. 
Here and there lie figures, paragraphs, letters, in college presidents' 
annual reports, in the report of the Commissioner of Education, in 
the report and the archives of the Secretary of War, in dean's and 
registrar's offices. Even in the vast Library of Congress it is difficult 
to obtain as many data as those contained in the files of fraternity 
magazines concerning the colleges in war time. When the historian 
appears who is to compile an adequate account of the war service of the 
American college he will find in fraternity journals a rich source of 
material; and all members of college fraternities might well treasure 
with especial care their waf time journals. 

To observers of broad experience, the similarity and uniformity 
of the patriotic expression of the colleges appears astonishing. The 
more one studies the subject, the more surprisingly alike seem the 
activities of very unlike institutions, notwithstanding the fact that many 
colleges performed services entirely unique, not to be compared at all with 
the work of others; these unique contributions must be classed as such, 
however, and added to the usual types of activity. Before the United 
States entered the war, ambulance units and hospital units were formed 
here and there in many large universities; various contributions for 
specific purposes, surh as the Prison Camp Relief, found their way now 
and then to the Allies from the American colleges. After the beginning 
of American participation the scene shifts. On May 4 and S, 1917, in 
Washington, D. C, occurred a meeting of the presidents of colleges and 
universities to decide upon the relation of the college to the country's 
struggle. To this meeting no doubt, and to subsequent cooperation of 
deans of women, may be traced the fortunate and remarkable unanimity 
and efficiency of collegiate endeavors as well as to the unifying influence 
of various governmental agencies. 

For college men, theestablishment of Reserve Officers' Training Corps 
in about a third of our collegiate institutions, paved the way to broader 


298 HiSTOXV OF Alpha Chi Ouega Fkatsxnitt 

opportunities of service, and the Student Army Training Corps enrolled 
142,000 students. As a matter of course the presence of this large 
number of soldiers "on active duty" in 525 colleges, to be fed, housed 
and instructed by the college, under contract with the War Depart- 
ment, created a new and diflicult problem for faculties. The S. A. T. C. 
"had a brief ten weeks' life" and was demobilized between Novem- 
ber 11 and December 21, 1918. "College officers," says the Commis- 
sioner of Education, "relieved of discipline and deposed from their 
ordinary authority, were nevertheless in a measure responsible for 
the academic progress of members of the corps. There was divided 
responsibility, therefore, and an unfortunate dualism of authority which 
was never remedied before the demobilization of the S, A. T. C." 

For non-official collegians the problem of the S. A. T. C. centered in 
their entertainment, their comfort, and their nursing during the influenza 
epidemic of October and November, 1918. Fraternity houses, women's 
halls of residence, all kinds of quarters were requisitioned for the S. A. 
T. C, and the college world cooperated in helping make successful those 
diflicult ten weeks. To quote again the Commissioner of Education 
regarding this educational experiment: "The S. A. T, C. saved colleges 
from virtual extinction. In the letter announcing the plan the Secretary 
of War alludes to the preservation of higher education as one of the two 
important purposes to be attained. In spite of the difficulties of readjust- 
ment to a peace basis and in spite of the financial losses (in case of some 
institutions very great), the higher educational machinery in the United 
States emei^s from the war in more nearly normal condition than that 
of any other country." 

In financial help to the Allied cause the colleges contributed very 
large sums, the aggregate of which is not available. The faculties and 
students made gifts of money to every kind of patriotic appeal, and when 
their funds gave out, students cheerfully performed manual tasks for each 
other to replenish their store. In Liberty Loan and Victory Loan drives 
the colleges performed excellent service which was described officially as 
being remarkable. Throughout the land simplicity in dress and in social 
affairs became the rule, and rigid economy was practiced in many 
directions. Red Cross units or affiliation with units utilized every spare 
minute of college women's time. Some colleges "required" at least an 
hour a week of work on sui^ical dressings of every girl. In food con- 
servation, even Mr, Hoover was surprised at the response made by the 
colleges. Courses on food conservation and on the science of foods 
were offered by experts in most colleges; first aid courses were generally 
made available to students; historical and political science courses 
enlightened the academic mind on foreign affairs, and numerous changes 
appeared In the curriculum to meet the needs of the day. Food produc- 


War Work of College Women 299 

tion also received serious consideration; many college students served 
as farmers and gardeners in different sections of the country. The con- 
tribution made to the national cause by the professor, in the Army or 
Navy, or as a civilian, is altogether too large to consider here. 

In a general way the usual work of the colleges has been touched ; 
the unique service of at least one institution should be mentioned in detail 
to indicate the versatile and invaluable quality of the collegiate contribu- 
tion. The University of Washington supplied 60 per cent of the country's 
supply of sphagnum moss for surgical dressings; the university girls were 
required to spend two days per week in making sphagnum moss pads. 
This university provided also most of the digitalis for heart stimulants, 
a service described in a contemporary 'ExXuri article from Rho Chapter 
under the title, "What We Did for Our Soldiers' Hearts." A four year 
military, aeronautic, and naval curriculum leading to the degree of 
Bachelor of Military Science was adopted by the university. Two 
government schools, the United States Radio School and the United 
States Shipping Board Navigation School, were established on the 
campus early in 1918. 

Various de[}artments in the university contributed support in special 
activities. The economics and business administration departments 
made valuable surveys of ecionomic conditions, and heads of these 
departments served on arbitration boards in averting strikes. The 
pharmacy and bacteriology departments furnished trained workers to 
the government, and made valuable analyses, A gas experiment labora- 
tory was conducted in chemistry and at least two important gases were 
invented there. The faculty coSperated in giving war courses and 
instruction at Camp Lewis, and in doing extension work among the 
citizens of the state. The home economics department conducted 
courses in food economy throughout the state. These services were in 
addition to the S. A. T. C, R, O. T. C, and a Naval Aviation Unit, 

Theworkofcollegewomen, like that of thecolleges, deserves [>articular 
mention. In no previous national crisis did women or college women 
serve so conspicuously and perform such important government work as 
in 1917,1918 and subsequent years. On January 28, 1919, the Secretary 
of War wrote the following letter regarding the war work of college 
women, which was made public by the War Department: 

January 28, 1919. 
Uj dear JSrs. : 

No ttatistica are aa yet available showing the numbers and diatribution of college 
women in war work; but the records of the colleges, of the United States Civil Service 
Commission, of the profeaaional section of the United States Employment Service, 
and of various personnel offices, show many hundreds of college women in the war 
Kfvice of the Government and of affiliated and private organizations in pomtions of 


300 HisTOBY OP Alpha Cai Ouega Fraternity 

every type from those involving expert leadership to routine clerkships. The impresMon 
that I have received from my own personal observations, Hupplemented by reports from 
many other sources, is that the quality of the work performed by these women was 
exceptionally high and was a very important factor in Hlling the gaps caused by the 
presence in France of so many thousands of our young men in military service. The whole 
country certainly owes them a debt of gratitude for the spirit in which the women 
entered upon bo many new tasks and for their accomplishments in these tasks. 

The leaders among college women have been predominantly in work connected 
with the maintenance of adequate standards in working and living conditions during the 
war emergency. The Women in Industry Service of the Department of Labor under 
Miss Mary Van Kleeck, who has had a seat on the War Labor Policies Board; the women 
industrial experts of this board and of the War Labor Board; the forty field supervisors 
of women munition workers of the Ordnance Department; the inspectors of the Board 
of Standards for Army Clothing; the industrial hygiene work of Dr. Kristine Mann, of 
the civilian workers' branch of ordnance; the women graduates of the intensive courses 
in employment management of the War Industries Board; the Women's Service Section 
of the U. S. Railway Administration, under Miss Pauline Coldmark; the field staff of 
over ISO college women familiar with the problems of the delinquent woman and girl 
ofthe Law Enforcement Divisionof the Commission on Training-Camp Activities under 
Mrs. Jane Deeter Rippln; the 30 women lecturers of the Social Hygiene Division of the 
same division under Dr. Katherine Bement Davis; the food experts and dietitians of 
the Food Administration, the Surgeon General's Office, and the Red Cross; the canteen 
workers, recreation workers and social case workers of the War Camp Community 
Service, the Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., and the college women nurses and reconstruc- 
tion aides, all show the participation of college women in the meeting of critical war and 
community problems. 

In other fields college women have done important statistical, scientific, investiga- 
tive, and executive work, often specializing in the newer subjects and techniques. In 
some fields they have been the only replacement supply for professional men, as in 
industrial chemistry, accounting, psychological testing. Some have been map-makers, 
draftsmen, engineers of tests; others have become experts in shipping, railroading, and 
the supply, purchasing, and distributing of various essential commodities. Many have 
been secretaries to important military and civilian executives; many others have been 
office managers, heads of file rooms, and experts in different types of publicity and 

From these varied contacts of college women with the operations of Government 
and of large public and business affairs are bound to result important modifications in 
their outlook and subsequent work, and in college education itself. 
Cordially yours, 

Newton D. Baker, 
Secretary of War. 

War Service of N. P. C. Fraternities 
Like their sisters all over the country, fraternity women and all 
college women in or out of college halls, answered the call to help win 
the war. Before describing the war work of Alpha Chi Omega a brief 
survey of the service of our fellow Greeks shows that each one endeavored 
in its own way to lend direct and effective aid. The information here 
given has been taken from a table compiled from replies by national 
officeiB of e^ph N. P. C. fraternity to a questionnaire sent out by Pi Beta 

.y Go Ogle 


Kappa Alpha Theta: In 1917-18 equipped the nurses of one base 
hospital giving the Red Cross |3,800 for that purpose. In 1918-19 
supported one Red Cross canteen worker in France — about $2,500 for 
the time she was abroad, 15 months. 

Kappa Kappa Gamma: Performed reconstruction work in Bellevue- 
Meudon, France, under the direction of Dorothy Canfleld Fisher. This 
work consisted in a free dispensary, doctor, visiting nurse, and free meals 
for the sick and underfed children of this district. Many tons of clothing 
shoes, toys, soap, and medicine were sent. Underclothes, dresses, suits 
layettes, etc., were made by the chapters and alumnae associations for 
the children and women of Bellevue. 

Alpha Phi: Maintained for two years a foyer in Roanne, France, 
for French women munition workers. 

Delta Gamma: Raised $28,000 in 1916-18 for Belgian relief. The 
$11,500 remaining will be devoted to, (a) education of an Armenian girl; 
(b) a contribution to a Belgian hospital; (c) the proposed establishment 
of a Delta Gamma Home for three or four waifs to be supported and 
managed by the fraternity. 

Gamma Phi Beta: From a milk-bottle campaign to help Belgian 
children sent $5,000 to Baron De Cartier of the Belgian Legation at 
Washington and raised another thousand for the same purpose. Gave 
$500 to the hostess house fund of the Y. W. C. A. Several French orphans 
were adopted and all the various lines of war work were done by chapters 

Delta Delta Delta: Helped to support a foyer at Tours besides all 
the usual war work in which the general organization, chapters, and 
individuals participated. 

Alpha Xi Delta: All war work was done by chapters as individuals. 

Chi Omega: During the war, undertook the sup[>6rt of two workers 
in the devastated areas of France. In addition to this the individual 
chapters did Red Cross work and aided in the sale of bonds. 

Sigma Kappa: A fund of several thousand dollars was distributed, 
one-half to the American Red Cross recreational fund and one-half to 
the relief of French orphans. Each active chapter adopted a war orphan. 

Alpha Omicron Pi: Put $2,050 into relief work in the Chateau 
Thierry district. 

Zeta Tau Alpha: Chapters and individuals supported fifteen war 
orphans, did Red Cross work, bought bonds, had chai^ of food work in 
several counties. As a fraternity, sent Grand President to France as a 

Alpha Gamma Delta: Active and alumnae chapters raised a fund for 
the Red Cross. Usual work done by all. 

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3(S History of Alpha Chi Omega Fxatbbnitt 

Delta Zeta: Every chapter did the regulation war work which 
included Belgian Relief, Red Cross, adoption of orphans. 

Alpha Delta Pi: Worked for Armenian Relief, Practically every 
club and chapter adopted an Armenian orphan. 

Kappa Delta: Each chapter had its own work. The fraternity owns 
the limit in War Savings Stamps and also several Liberty Bonds. 

Phi Mu: Established a nurses' hut at one of the base hospitals and 
placed a Phi Mu there as hostess. 

Pi Beta Phi: Contributed money to the Red Cross and bought 
Liberty Bonds. They "adopted" soldiers from the Tennessee Mountains, 
near their Settlement School. 

War Service of Alpha Chi Omega 
adoption of french orphans 

The national war work of Alpha Chi Omega consisted in the adoption 
of nearly a hundred French orphans from the districts of the Mame and 
the Meuse. This work began in 1916 and proved so popular that the 
fraternity adopted it as its national war philanthropy and placed it in the 
hands of a national committee of which Gladys Livingston Graff, then 
Atlantic Province President, became chairman. 

At the Chicago Convention of the fraternity the committee's exhibit 
of letters, pictures, and small gifts from orphans to chapters created much 
interested comment. Posters that were reproductions of original draw- 
ings by the French artists, Brangwyn and de Maris were displayed and 
post card copies of them were distributed as individual mementos of 
the happiness the fraternity was able to give to the orphaned children of 
French soldiers. Most pathetic and impressive stood out the de Maris 
drawing of two weary children, a burning village in the background, 
bearing the legend "Avez vous place dans votre coeur pour nous}" 

Nearly a hundred original letters in French script, also communica- 
tions from the orphans published in Tke Lyre, reminded the convention 
delegates that the fraternity's orphaned little ones unanimously Were 
sending "love and kisses" to their "beloved benefactors," 

Contemporary articles descriptive of the French orphan service may 
be read in Tke Lyre m the issues for July, 1916, January, 1918, and April, 
1918. In the last mentioned journal the committee {Mrs. Graff, Mrs. 
Birkhoff, and Miss Armstrong) announced the substitution of "districts" 
for "villages" in carrying out the original plan to care for all the orphaned 
children in one or more villages. A few paragraphs of Mrs. Graff's 
interesting story should perhaps be introduced here. 

The first act of the committee was to secure from Miss Crafts, official head of the 
Orphllmat des Armies in Boston, an entire village to be adopted en matse by Alpha 
Chi Omega, and n^otiations were opened to this end. It soon became apparent that 


Adoption of Fxemch Oxphans 303 

this plan waa Dot feasible (or the excellent reason that fortunately an entire village 
was not orphaned all at one time. Instead of a village, therefore, a list of fifty names 
was submitted for approval from the Paris Headquarters. This gave us the chance 
to aid that many farmers' children, driven to take refuge in Nantes and quartered 
in one section of the city. Though appealing, it was so different from the original 
idea that the committee hesitated, and while debating received a second list of children, 
this time from the devastated districts of the Marne and the Meuse — twenty-five from 
the same canton of Ligny-en-Barrois, twenty-five from the Marne sector. With the 
names came the following letter poignant in its irresistible appeal. 

Dear Madam: 

A short time ago you aslced me for the names of fifty children from the devas- 
tated section, if possible from the same commune. We have collected the names of 
fifty orphans from the invaded districts all from two groups of more or less neighbor- 
ing places. This was the nearest we could approach to fulfilling your request. It 
proved impossible to find any great number of children in one such village. Those 
who returned to build the ruined hamlets are in general those not hindered by the 
care of little ones, or who have left the little ones in the kindly shelter which had 
gathered them in when they were refugees. Nevertheless a few of the children 
have come back, here and there, to the strange bare regions that bear scant resem* 
blance to their dreamy memories, to the regions where the seed of springtime will 
be sown in ground which is ploughed as ground was never ploughed before. 

We have gathered some of these children and are sending their names to 
jfou, with gratitude for your request, and with the hope that the interest of your 
generous American Marraines will continue to increase. 

With much appreciation of your splendid work for France, 
Very sincerely. 
La Secretaire 

The opportunity to assist with any form of reconstruction work proved a great 
temptation, and the committee unanimously decided to adopt for Alpha Chi Om^a 
the children of the Marne and the Meuse regions. 

During these negotiations pledges and generous responses were received almost 
daily from the majority of the chapters and from many of the alumnae chapters and 
clubs- By Hera Day over half the list had been subscribed. A surprising and gratifyir^ 
number of gifts came in from individuals, amounts varying from one to five dollars, 
more than enough to pay for half an orphan being received in short order. Several 
individuals adopted children, dubs who could not contribute the full quota enthusiasti- 
cally promised to send stated amounts, and from all sides came interested inquiries and 
promises of aid. Requests for full information about "our child," expressing the wish 
to make clothing, and to serve otherwise, proved numerous and inexpressibly touching. 
One girl, assuming with a friend the entire responsibility of an orphan, writes excitedly 
for information about "our child," assuring us she adores children and is e^er to cor- 
respond. Such letters are not only stimulating, but they augur well for the success of 
Alpha Chi Omega's Unit. 

The direct correspondence with the French boys and girls themselves 
constituted one of the happiest elements of the enterprise, and provided 
an unusual means of not only holding but increasing the interest of the 
contributing members. The following epistle from the D. C. Alumnae 


304 HisToiY OF Alpha Chi Ouega Fxatbxnity 

Club's child seems fairly typical of the hundreds of appreciative letters 
received by Alpha Chis. 

<jJtki^mi 'it- /J c^nntuJf 

V9tLt Ctittn&niti'i, Oo»- ^^Oi. <tt*\ \e^At, 
Mil ^ irriU. atu, ■vimJAVtiffuM^ 

fuM^ liam ia. -wiettt,T.iy».*. ■ 

fjit,t*VtA.t4CCu a/tltC- tntJ »ft*>!*t — 

The funds of the fraternity were administered]|speedily and effi- 
ciently by the Committee of the Fatherless Children of France. 
The work of this committee was carried out by local committees in 
every town and village. The committee appointed "a guardian to 
follow each child's course at school, to note its tastes and aptitudes and 
decide with the mother on the career best suited for it. The best possible 
training will then be afforded to the child, whatever it is to become, 
from a manual laborer to a professional or an artist." The small state 
allowance was supplemented by the committee when necessary to enable 
the mother to keep thehome together. The children thuswere brought 
up "with a mother's care in the little town or village where the father 
lived and where there is a tradition of valor and honesty to be upheld." 

The national comniittee of Alpha Chi Omega supervised the work 
of the organized groups of the fraternity and when desired that of 
individual Alpha Chi oantributors. Much thoughtful and helpful 
assistance went to the fraternity's children beyond the regular remittance 
of $36.50 per year per child. The "extra" gifts of money, clothes, toys, 
and such things varied-with-the-personality of the- group as well as with 
the exigencies of the postal service. 


Local Wokx op College Chaptbss 305 

So satisfactory and flexible did the war work with the children prove 
to he that the fraternity with one accord chose the education of American 
children as its national altruistic service beginning at the conclusion of 
the support of the French orphans. The scholarships for children are 
described on page 285. Other financial help as an organization was given 
by lending $8,583.00 in Liberty Bonds and War Savings Stamps to the 
government, as follows: active chapters, |6,259.00; alumnx groups, 
$324.00; National Treasury, $2,000.00. 

Local Work of College Chapters 
In the colleges the active chapters supported the campus war work, 
like all other college women, but being organized the fraternity women 
accomplished more than they could have achieved if they had been 
working separately. The colleges unified the service of their women 
as well as of their men. Their method of doing so appears in the begin- 
ning of Wisconsin's organized war activities for women described in a 
report sent in 1918 to the United States Committee on Public Informa- 
tion. The dean of women called in the presidents of the Y. W. C. A., 
the S. G. A., and the \V. A. A., and planned with them the establishment 
of the Women Students' War Work Council. The committees appointed 
by this council numbered five: (1) University council of defence; (2) 
Regulation of student activities; (3) Emergency war work; (4) Red 
Cross; (S) Publicity. 

At Northwestern a member of Gamma Chapter served as a member of 
the War Council of that university which divided its activities into 
(1) Child welfare; (2) Financial campaigns; (3) Home service; (4) Red 
Cross; (5) Settlements; (6) War Camp Community Service. This 
chapter's work represents fairly well the usual work done by Alpha Chi 
chapters everywhere, yet it also illustrates admirably how the geographi- 
cal location and the character of the institution made distinctive the 
service rendered by each group. Gamma Chapter in 1917-1918 made 
kits for Northwestern University Hospital Unit No. 12; gave money 
usually expended for dances to war-time demands; made surgical 
dressings in the University Red Cross rooms; sent fruit and books to 
Fort Sheridan ; individual members served as part of War Camp Commu- 
nity Service by singing at Great Lakes Training Station and at Fort 
Sheridan; $100 in bonds and $5 in War Savings Stamps purchased by 
chapter as a unit; individual members did knitting for Red Cross; 
individual members assisted in War Stamp and Liberty Bond campaigns; 
two members served in Ordnance Department; one member served in 
War Record Service, 

Throughout the war the active chapters of Alpha Chi Omega had 
two specific types of service to their credit, giving and doing — and both 


306 HisTOKV OF Alpha Cbi Oueca Fkateknity 

to an extreme degree. The many manuscripts gone over in compiling 
this History show a long list of causes contributed to by Alpha Chis in 
the colleges — and out of them — Liberty Bond drives, United War Work 
drive, Armenian relief, Belgian relief. Prison relief fund, Thrift Saving 
Stamps, Allied Bazaars, War Relief Bazaars, and all kinds of minor 
appeals that afforded the richest and most variegated field for altruistic 
investment the world has ever witnessed. Not only did the Alpha Chis 
give their money, but in many cases they earned it to give, and also 
they worked, with spirited team play, to procure as much money from 
everyone else as possible. 

All chapters spent a great many hours in Red Cross work rooms; in 
some places each girl in the chapter spent a part of each day rolling 
bandages or performing other work in the Red Cross headquarters. 
Rho Chapter and Iota Iota were organized into a Red Cross auxiliary 
in 1917, and every member spent twodays per month in making surgical 
dressings. Theta spent thus sixty hours per week. All Epsilon members 
worked regularly in the university chapter of the Red Cross, and some 
served also in a city Red Cross Chapter. The chapters everywhere 
did the same, and all were knitting, knitting, endlessly knitting. All ■ 
of this giving of themselves involved time and strength, the two most 
precious elements of college women's equipment. 

Even a superficial mention of the work of the chapters of Alpha Chi 
Omega should include certain unique services rendered by some of them. 
Kappa sent Christmas boxes to Wisconsin men in France; Pi Chapter 
was chosen by the dean of women to furnish a home to two French honco- 
students holding Carnegie Foundation Scholarships and registered at 
California. Psi gave its chapter house for barracks, and moreover 
, provided programs of songs by the chapter, readings, and solos. At the 
close of college in 1918 several Lambda Alpha Chis joined the Women's 
Land Army and the following autumn the entire chapter made clothes 
for the Belgians ; during the epidemic of influenza at Kansas, the members 
of Phi who remained in the city went to the barracks to cook for the 
soldiers and to nurse in the wards. Alpha sent a huge box of cake and 
candy to Fort Benjamin Harrison. Beta made scrap books and sent 
them to soldiers in the hospitals. Omega helped cook food at the Home 
Economics building for the S. A. T. C. hospitals during the epidemic of 
influenza ; one of the Omega members had charge of the preparation of the 
food for the hospitals. 

Iota entertained the School of Aviarion with weekly dances in 
1917-1918, and in each of three years assisted, with definite responsibility 
as a chapter, in making a success of university money-raising functions— 
the Allied Bazaar, the Mardi Gras, and the Follies. Zeta Chapter did 
excellent and unremitting work in entertaining the men in service in and 


War Work of ths Aluhnx Groups 307 

near Boston, and several Zetas also went overseas to do entertaining. 
As New England definitely chose as a college to do entertaining as Its 
field of war service, Zeta's work fell naturally into the plans of the school. 
Rho toolc a responsible part in the Seattle Girls' War Relief Bazaar 
which netted $100,000 for relief funds. Gamma Chapter eliminated the 
formal dances for the year 1918 and contributed the money saved — four 
hundred dollars — to war relief. Other chapters practised similar econ- 
omy annually, in fact no chapter failed to save in this way according 
to the national policy of the fraternity, and of most Panhellenic frater- 

College Panhellenics also showed the right spirit of cooperation with 
the general purpose of their colleges and rendered more effective the 
endeavors of the local War Councils. At Washington University (St. 
Louis) Panhellenic was put in charge of the various drives among the 
women and carried them through admirably. Instead of the annual 
receptions given by each sorority, Panhellenic used the money to give a 
large card party at the Buckingham Hotel; all the prizes were donated 
and the proceeds were given to the Red Cross. Panhellenic was put 
in c harge also of various entertainments for the soldiers passing through 
the city. At California, Panhellenic regulated rushing in order to conserve 
food and stimulated interest in all the houses in university war work. The 
Northwestern Panhellenic limited the cost of rushing parties, as was done 
also in most other colleges. The De Pauw Panhellenic enlisted fraternity 
support for the Red Cross and cooperated with the dean in plans for a 
hostess house. Washington State College Panhellenic superintended 
Red Cross work among the-Greek-Ietter groups. The Purdue Panhellenic 
bought a Liberty Bond and responded as an organization to university 
assessments for war work. 


The organized alumnae of Alpha Chi Omega performed a great deal of 
their war work of course apart from their Alpha Chi Omega affiliations. 
The Portland Alumnae Club says: "During the war every member of 
the club was active in many war activities. They assisted in all Red 
Cross work, Liberty Loans, and Thrift Saving Stamp work, and in 
many other ways." This outline of war activity is the usual one of all 
the individuals in the organized groups. To relate the excellent and 
very effective team work of Alpha Chis in these lines would require the 
History to be published in two volumes! Therefore, only the work of the 
groups as groups is mentioned, as a rule, though it forms only a part of the 
war endeavors of the members. Yet their work as groups stands out as a 
real contribution to the winning of the war. 

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30B HisTOKY OF Alpba Chi Oueca Futerhitt 

All the alumiiK chapters supported French orphans as groups except 
three. Lambda Lambda, Mu Mu, and Nu Nu, the members of which 
contributed to orphans through other agencies. Thirteen alumnae clubs 
adopted orphans through Alpha Chi Omega, or contributed toward the 
fund and jointly supported orphans; others contributed to French 
orphans through other organizations. Both chapters and clubs here and 
there supported Armenian orphans also, and contributed to Near East 
Relief and to other appeals. Epsilon Epsilon, Zeta Zeta, and Alpha 
Alpha supported the largest numbers of orphans, in the order named. 
Of the alumnc clubs, those who joined in the support of the orphans 
were Albion, Boulder, Cleveland, Decatur, Des Moines, District of 
Columbia, Eastern Oklahoma, Grays Harbor, Greensburg, Oil City, 
Omaha, Oregon and Twin Cities. AH active chapters except Xi, Omi- 
cron. Alpha Beta, Alpha Gamma, and Alpha Delta shared in the 
national work. Although installed after the Armistice Alpha Epsilon 
joined the ranks of the "marraines" and adopted one French child. 

In Red Cross work several alumns groups worked as units. Iota 
Iota was granted a Red Cross Chapter in Seattle in connection with 
Rho Chapter at the university; Mu Mu was organized as a Red Cross 
aiixiliary, and made garments for the hospital department. Mu Mu also 
supported the work of the Kansas City Panhellenic, The Pueblo Alumne 
Club writes of its Red Cross work: "Those of us who stayed at home 
did what we could to help the Liberty Loan, War Saving Stamps and 
Red Cross drives to go through, Mary McNally, I, was in charge of 
much of the clerical work which had to be done preparatory to these 
campaigns, and she usually recruited her helpers from among our num- 
ber." In the autumn of 1917, Nu Nu had a regular day for Red Cross 
work at the Colorado Museum. 

Delta Delta maintained their interest in the local Children's Hospital, 
supported their orphans, and "besides," wrote Miss Jessie Cushman, 
"bought two fifty dollar bonds and twenty dollars in war stamps; this 
was not enough, however, so we tried several plans of doing 'our bit;' 
making French layettes appealed to the chapter and Delight Stevens 
Dodds was appointed chairman. She would purchase the material, cut 
the garments, and bring them to the meetings for the girls to make and 
return by the next meeting. In this way we made eight full layettes 
besides many odd garments," Delta Delta supported a French orphan 
for two years. 

Epsilon Epsilon being a very large chapter carried on their relief 
work on a rather extensive scale. They were very active in canteen serv- 
ice and on draft boards. "When requests began to come in for aid in the 
French Relief work," writes the chronicler, "Epsilon Epsilon adopted a 
war orphan. The next year this number was increased to six. At present 


Wak Work of thb Alummx Groups 309 

(1920) we are supporting four. A IJberty Bond of the second issue was 

To Zeta Zeta goes the honor of inaugurating the national altruistic 
service through their own enthusiasm, and that of Zeta Chapter's, over 
their French children. Zeta and Zeta Zeta each supported their children 
for five years. They also sent regular letters to the orphans, and extra 
gifts of clothing, lovely toys, and Christmas money. The National French 
Orphan Unit Committee was appointed from Zeta Zeta's ranks. The 
chapter also did Belgian and Polish Relief. 

Eta Eta Chapter adopted two French orphans and contributed to the 
Armenian Relief, Red Cross, and to the other war organizations, besides 
doing much individual work, as did all the other members of alumna; 

Theta Theta found themselves for two years "largely immersed 
in war work. Although retaining.their social character," writes the chap- 
ter, "each of the meetings accomplished either its active bit of work, 
or brought reports by the Theta Theta girls in active service. Among 
the former Theta counts the sending of a box containing 350 pounds of 
clothing to the Commission for Belgian Relief, and the adoption of a 
French orphan." Theta Theta also sent money to the Constantinople 
Women's College, and helped to raise funds for Americanization. 

Albion Alumnx Club gave a Red Cross benefit, netting $100; Boul- 
der contributed to Armenian Relief as well as to French orphans; Des 
Moines aided in the entertainment of soldiers at Camp Dodge and at 
Fort Des Moines; Eastern Oklahoma, who are scattered over the state, 
maintained an orphan; Greensburg supported its orphan for three 
years, and the club worked strenuously on all local drives. 

The Portland Club, besides adopting a French war orphan, met twice 
a month to sew for Belgian orphans, formed a Thrift Stamp Club ; during 
the summer of 1917-1918, the club, joined by the active girls at home 
on vacation, assisted one day a week in "Uncle Sam's Kanning Kitchen" 
where fruit was canned and sent to soldiers in nearby camps and hospi- 
tals. The Pueblo Alumnse Club was represented in all the various 
branches of civilian war activities in the years 1916 to 1918, and provided 
a member of the board of Red Cross civilian relief in Hedwig Brenneman 
Heller, T, then president of the Pueblo Panhellenic Association, 

Twin Cities Club made and sent a complete outfit of clothes to their 
little French orphan. One of their members, Nathalie Thompson, had 
charge of the Juvenile Red Cross at the State Agricultural College of 
the University of Minnesota. 

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HisTOKT OF Alpba Chi Oubga FRATBlHirr 

War Services Contributed by Individuals 

Of the large number of Alpha Chis who worked in positions of leader- 
ship or who performed particularly interesting work we append a list, 
with sincerest regret that we cannot utilize the space to share with all 
Alpha Chis, for all time to come, the details of the service of our individ- 
uals. Alpha Chi Omega is too large a fraternity for this detailed account 
to be possible; in the files of The Lyre from 1916 to 1921 appear many 
thrilling tales of the world-wide service of our members. And of the 
individual contributions to the winning of the war, the writer of this 
volume has at hand but a minute part of the entire service rendered by 
our members in their patriotic endeavor to do, as a matter of course, 
their utmost for the cause, lending their strength to that of others in 
order to multiply many-fold the effectiveness of the results. Members 
of the fraternity who served during the war in the federal service in 
Washington, D. Care listed on page 313. As typical of the service our 
alumnae rendered, we mention, without further comment, the following: 
Pearl Armitage Jamieson, A, was very active in local Red Cross 
work in Denver, and supervisor of the Corona Branch Red Cross work- 
room until the end of the war. 

Florence Bishop, A, instructor at Camp Kawajiwin, Cass Lake, 

Alta Moyer Taylor, A, head 
of Red Cross Center. 

Flossie Allen, A, Committee 
on Community Music and Junior 
Musicales for Second District of 
Federated Clubs of Indiana. 

Olah Hill, B, Assistant In- 
structor in Occupational Ther- 
apy, Detroit. 

Lucille Moi^an Gibson, T, 
Vice-chairman of ExecutiveCom- 
mittee of Evanston Young Wom- 
en's War Relief Workshop, which 
served principally refugees. 

Mary Richardson Vose, T, 
member of the Relief Committee 
of the Evanston War Council, 
which cared for members of 
I families of enlisted or drafted 

men, 1918-1920. Her service 
Alta Moyer Taylor, Delia involved giving legal advice. 


War Sbrvices Contbibuted by Imdividuals 311 

financial assistance, or friendly aid. Disabled or diseased men were cared 
for and referred to proper agencies fca- medical or surgical work. 

Delight Stephens Dodds, E, had charge of Delta Delta surgical 
dressings; assistant at Surgical Dressings Room of Friday Morning 
Club; had charge of knitting department of same club for eight months, 
teaching machine knitting. Knit on the machine 300 pairs of socks, 
besides knitting by hand 14 pairs, 57 sweaters, and other articles. 

Faye Dressier, Z, student army nurse, stationed at Camp Hancock, 
Georgia, then at Fort MacPherson. 

Lydia Kinsley, 6, Hospital Librarian for American Library Associa- 
tion in hospital work, Camp Wheeler, Macon, Georgia; served in midst 
of epidemic; transferred to Fort Riley, Kansas, which was full of overseas 
wounded; under War Department went to Fort Sheridan, Illinois, where 
she still is working in 192L 

Ruth Butler, 6, returned from Korea where she had been teaching 
and entered the War Camp Community Service for the Federal Reserve 
Bank at Chicago. Died May 9, 1920, after an illness of several weeks 
with typhoid fever. 

Mabel Hayward Rothgeb, I, head of Red Cross Center, East Orange, 
New Jersey. 

May Allinson, I, New York, Executive Secretary, Women in Indus- 
try Service, Council of National Defense. Conducted survey of condi- 
tions of women's work in Indiana to assist in the passing of remedial 
le^slation. Died at Indianapolis, December, 1918. In Washington, 
investigated women workers in the Navy Yard, women as balloon and 
gas mask makers, and other conditions of women in industry. See also 
p. 372. 

L. Grace Griffith, A, assistant to personnel officer in Military Intelli- 
gence, Washington, D. C, 1917-1918; in chai^ of placement of civilian 
employees; assigned to care for women employees during epidemic of 
influenza; principal of night school and placed in charge of welfare work 
for women in Military Intelligence, 1919. See also p. 373. 

A. Lena Dalrymple, M, served asY. W. C.A. secretary in Hostess 
House at Camp Humphreys, Virginia. 

Ruth Bigelow Vertrees, N, Research Chemist, 1918, of the Great West- 
em Sugar Company, Brighton, Colo.; late in 1918 enlisted in Chemical 
Warfare Service and made chemical analyses of surgical dressings for 
the Red Cross. 

Elma Curtin, N, served on the Boulder Draft Board as a volunteer, 
to enable the county to take care of its draft work without expense to the 

Ethel Frye, S, and Beatrice Montgomery, E, served in Omaha Motor 

.y Google 

312 History of Alpha Chi Ouega Frateknitv 

Rebanis Sissler, Z, enlisted as a nurse and served during the years 

Dale Pugh Hascall, E, canteen service in Omaha, 1917-1918. 

Beulah Buckley Withrow, E, active part in Thrift Savings Stamp 
work in connection with Association of Collegiate Alumnn, speaking 
and organizing clubs throughout the city of Portland. 

Kathryn J. Morgan, S, served as Red Cross volunteer nurse for the 
S.A.T.C. and in Red Cross Hospital for four monthsduring 1918and 
one month 1919-20 in the influenza epidemic; had charge of Red Cross 
gauze room two evenings a week; made addresses in Liberty Loan and 
Red Cross drives in Colorado Springs. 

Anna Church Colley, O, worked in Liberty Loan campaigns, one 
Red Cross drive and helped with the sale of Smileage Books and War 
Savings Stamps. 

Edith Kurtz Appell and Louise Chesney, 0, worked regularly in Red 
Cross chapters. 

Cora Ault, O, spent six months at Fort Riley and three months at 
Base Hospital, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Was then transferred to the 
City Hospital at St. Louis, Missouri, to teach vocational training. 

Lucy Lane, O, trained for nursing for the Red Cross at Barnes 
Hospital, St. Louis. 

Lucille Reeves and Mary MacChristy, O, canteen work, Dodd City, 

Pauline Peters, 2, took the Smith College course in psychiatric social 
work, 1918; assigned to U. S. A. G. Hospital No. 4, Fort Porter, New 
York, which contained overseas patientsfrom Eastern or Middle Western 
States; obtained information concerning patients' previous history to 
use in diagnosis and in deciding on compensation; gave vocational 
guidance to patients; helped to clear up problems in allowances, insur- 
ance, allotments, compensation, and other technical affairs; in 1920, 
became Associate Director of Psychiatric Social Service for the Lake 
Division of the American Red Cross, and U. S. Public Health Service. 

I^ura Davis, X, Reconstruction Aid in'hospitals. 

Irene Brandeis Shaw, X, Alpha Chi Omega captain of the Sorority 
Section of National League for Women's Service in Portland, 

Alberta Cavender Morrow, X, formerly instructor in domestic scieiice 
in city schools of Portland, assisted the Hoover Food Saving Demonstra- 

Elizabeth Putnam, T, served as Red Cross nurse. Fort Sheridan Hos- 
pital, and did reconstruction work. 

Caroline N. Doran, *, 1917-1918, assistant packer at the Navy 
League, packed approximately 50,000 knitted garments, and was 
awarded a Red Cross medal. Spent one day a week at Red Cross sur- 


War Workers in Washington, D. C. 313 

gical dreesing rooms, one day a week and all Sundays in canteen work 
at Soldiers' and Sailors' Community Club; assisted in two Liberty Loan 
campaigns and a Red Cross drive. 

Julia Hammler, A A, dietitian at Camp Humphreys, Virginia. 

The Training Camp for Nurses at Vassar College was begun June 
24, 1918, with 435 women, graduates from 117 colleges in the United 
States and Canada. Among the number of women who registered for 
this training were fifteen Alpha Chis. Their names and the hospitals 
they entered in September are as follows: 

Grace Howe, K, Mt. Sinai, New York; Ethel Beard, 11, Postgradu- 
ate, New York; Eva Sutton, A, Cincinnati General; Esther Smith, 6, 
Brooklyn Hospital ; Lois Spraker, 6, Lakeside, Cleveland ; Ruth Wash- 
bum, 0, Barnes Memorial, St. Louis; Edith Noxon, N, Richmond, Va; 
Mary Smith, 0, Cincinnati General; Claudia Steele, 0, Barnes Memorial, 
St. Louis; Marguerite Coley, 6, Brooklyn Hospital; Marion McPherson, 
6, Brooklyn Hospital; Kathertne Asher, II, Philadelphia General; Mil- 
dred Caswell, K, Mt. Sinai, New York; Luella Dye, M, Massachusetts 
General, Boston; Marjorie Weyrauch, A, Bellevue, New York City. 

War Workers in Washington, D. C. 

The following Alpha Chis performed theirwarservice in Washington, 
D. C, in widely varied tasks: Alpha — Gertrude Boyd, Transportation 
Department, Surgeon General's Office; Opal Goodrich, Bureau of War 
Risk Insurance, Treasury Department ; Nelle Meyers, Division of Loans 
and Currency, Treasury Department ; Lucile Riley, Quartermaster Gen- 
eral's office, War Department; Marie Shoaf; Isabelle Wineland. 

Beta. — Helen Fiske Pamkopf {Mrs, Harvey J.). Committee on Public 

Gamma,— Rutii DeWitt; Helen Todd, War Trade Board. 

Delta.—Domthy Dashiell Acorn (Mrs. R. E.), Division of Military 
Aeronautics, War Department; Georgia Carr, Civil Service Commission; 
Sadie Van Hoesen. 

£^5(/on.— Isabel Long Nelson (Mrs. E. S.), Bureau of Research, War 
Trade Board; Marjorie Peck, Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury 

Zeta. — George Thonssen, Treasury Department. 

Thela. — Helen Tremaine, Adjutant General's Office, War Depart- 

Iota. — May Allinson, I, r T, Z Z, Women in Industry Service, Council 
of NatifMial Defense; Hazel Cummings, Bureau of Internal Revenue, 
Treasury Dep>artment; Julia Green, I and M M; Letha Irwin Paddock 
(Mrs. Ralph), Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department; 
Louise Ambom Pagin, I and T; Charleen Redding, Bureau of War Risk 


314 History of Alpha Chi Omeca Fratebkity 

Insurance, Treasury Department ; Ola M. Wyeth, organizer, War Library 
Service, American Library Association. (See also p. 319.) 

Lambda. — Grace Griffith, Military- Intelligence Division, Office of 
Chief of Staff, War Department; Mary-Emma Griffith, Bureau of Mar- 
kets, Department of Agriculture; Myra H. Jones, Executive Secretary, 
Petroleum Division, Bureau of Mines, Interior Department; Mildred 
Potter, Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department, 

Mu. — Florence A. Armstrong, Military Intelligence Division, Office 
of Chief of StafT, War Department (see also p. 360); Emma J. Brown, 
Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department; Eleanor Jones 
Wauchope (Mrs. S. S.)i Quartermaster General's Office, War Department. 

Nu. — Irene Hastings; Inez Kinnison, Chief clerk, Office of Record- 
ing of Property; Ella Noxon, War Department; Leila Wild, Naval Re- 
serve; Leona Peters Wild. 

Xi. — Ethel Sloan, secretary to Congressman Sloan; Charlotte 
Jenkins, Office of Home Economics, Department of Agriculture. 

Omicron. — Opal Benjamin, State Department; Ruth Kurtz; Cola 
Nelson, Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department. 

Pi. — Blanche Winham, Military Intelligence Division, Office of 
Chief of Staff, War Department. 

Rko. — Margaret Larrison, ship construction company. 

Sigma. — Helen George, Record Section, General Staff, War College. 

Tau. — Nina Beck, Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury De- 
partment; Beulah Dickert, Senator Chamberlain's office; Marjory 
Watson, Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department. 

Phi. — Persis Cook ; Claribel Lupton ; Margaret Lupton ; Nora 
McNeel, Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Treasury Department. 

Cki. — Grace Kinnison, volunteer worker for Red Cross. 

Alpha Gamma. — Alberta Hawthorne, Bureau of War Risk Insurance, 
Treasury Department. 

Overseas Workers 

The record of the twenty-nine Alpha Chis who served overseas has 
been pieced together, from numerous sources, including many letters. 
The story not only makes good reading, but it gives the fraternity cause 
for pride in its members who followed the flag across the Atlantic and 
there helped to win the war. 

Helen Hanna Birch, A, went to Europe early in 1919 as a canteen 
worker in the Y. M. C. A, She was sent immediately to the Army of 
Occupation and spent six months in the Moselle Valley and on the Rhine, 
stationed with Headquarters of the Fourth Division. For a time she 
helped In operating dry canteens, selling soap, towels, cookies, and such, 
but later she worked in the wet canteens serving coffee, chocolate, 


lemonade, ice cream and cake. And always it was her duty to dispense 
cheer among soldiers who, inasmuch as the war was over, were only too 
anxious to return to their "ain countree." 

Lou Babcock, B, left Detroit the first of December, 1918, trained at 
Barnard College and reached Liverpool January 1, 1919. After a few 
days in England she went to Paris for assignment. She was temporarily 
employed for a short time at Camouflage Hut, Dijon, and then was 
appointed to the charge of the "Y" hut at Marigny le Cahaut, C8te 
D'Or, a camp occupied by the 307th and 308th Machine Gun Battalions 
of the 78th Division. Her leave was spent in Southern France, at the 
Riviera and in the Pyrenees, and she returned home in August, 1919. 

Ada Dickie Hamblin, B, performed distinguished war service in 
France and Germany. The following excerpts describe her experiences 
in her own words. 

"The establishing of a canteen at a Class A evacuation camp was 
my first experience. It was a crude affair but served thousands of our 
men daily as they came from thefront for re-equipment. • • * * * 

"In January I was reassigned to go to Germany with the Army of 
Occupation. It was a much coveted privilege and I was the envy of 
many workers in Nevers. I was ready to go and a young woman recently 
arrived from the States had come out to take my place when I received 
a call to report at Divisional Headquarters in Nevers. Upon reaching 
the office, the Divisional Secretary showed me a petition he had just 
received, signed by all the ofiicers and enlisted men of our camp. I will 
copy it. It was written by a committee of enlisted men as you will 
perhaps judge by the wording — it was typed. 


Casual Camp. ' Adrian Barracks. 

Intermediate Section. France. 

U.S.A.P.O. No. 708 Jan. 15th, 1919. 

To Secretary Y.M.CJ\. Intermediate Section. 

We, the undersigned, lully cognizant of the splenttid service rendered by Mrs. 
Hamblen at the Y.M.CA. Canteen of the Adrian Barracks; of the personal hold she 
has on the entire personnel of the Camp, and the irreparable loss that would accrue to 
ua by the transfer of her to another field of work — do hereby petition that she be retained 
at this post of duty. Signed, 

"Then followed the officers' signatures and all the men from the 'top 
kicks' (1st. Sergeant) to the cooks. 

"It's a bulky document but I am proud of it, as Paris headquarters 
sent for a copy of it and said it was unprecedented. So, of course, I 
remained in the Camp until most of the men therein had been sent home 
and the camp was about to close. In April, I accepted my appointment 
to Germany; first taking my one and only leave. • • * * • 


316 History of Alpha Cai Oheca Fraternity 

"Arriving m Coblenz, the American Bridgehead — I was assigned to 
duty with the 47th Infantry of the 4th Division at Remagen on the 
Rhine. There were several other Y workers at this post and for a time 
my duty was that of hostess on one of the Rhine excursion boats, taking 
different outfits of the A. E. F. from Remagen to Cologne and back each 

"In June a real opportunity presented itself and I was given the 
honor of establishing a Y for the 3rd Army Remount at Kripp, Germany. 
In a few amazingly busy days with the aid of a detail of soldiers, and 
the never-to-be-forgotten cooperation and interest of the entire camp 
(which had never had a Y), a big aeroplane hangar (which on first 
inspection had nothing in it but grass) was transformed into the 'most 
attractive hut in Germany.' • • • • ♦ 

"When the 4th Division left Germany in July en route to America 
the Y staff left also, and I went with them as I had been on detached 
service only. 

"I returned to Paris and had just completed the red tape necessary 
at headquarters to secure my discharge when Mrs. Meade (head of the 
women's Y work overseas) sent for me and said she had that day received 
bya wire and long distance phonefromtheArmy and Y headquarters in 
Germany a request that Mrs. Hamblin return to Germany to the 3rd 
Army Remount to remain until they were released from duty and sent 

Mary Masters Needham, B, served in war activities as a worker and 
writer with the American Committee for Devastated France. In acknowl- 
edgement of her fine service, she was awarded a medal by the French 
Reconstruction Commission. Her husband was Henry Beach Needham, 
also a journalist, who met a tragic death early in the war. 

Mary B. Greene, A, writes from Franklin, Pa., where she is teaching 
mathematics in the high school, that she happened to be in Paris when 
rumors of war arose. Though she came home that September, it was 
with a resolve that if possible, she would return in some sort of war work. 
But four years passed before she succeeded. In the meantime she oi^n- 
ized what was probably one of the first Junior Red Cross units. At 
last Miss Greene was sent to France as a canteen worker. When asked 
just what her work was, she says : "To do whatever came to hand. I 
sang, I played, I danced, I cooked, and sewed and talked, and like 
every good soldier I stood inspection when General Pershing came to 
camp. My main duty was to make my hut as nearly like home as 
possible for 900 men. 

"When the great American University at Beaume closed in June, 
1919, I was transferred to the Garden in Paris, where I worked at the 


Overseas Workers 317 

soda fountain. As this 'profession' has always held a fascination for me, 
I was able to satisfy a long-cherished ambition. In addition I enjoyed 
the living in Paris, for to live there is to love that city. It was with 
regret that I left there for St. Male, a quaint old city in Brittany to await 
my passage home." 

Juvenilia Porter, A, known by her pen name as Olive Porter, was 
studying in France when the World War broke out. During the Battle 
of the Mame and many months after she was in Paris. She was a 
regular contributor on war topics to the Pittsburgh Sunday Dispatch; 
she served with the French Red Cross; she worked for the Americans 
with the French and was the only American except the liaison officer 
himself on the staff of the military governor of Paris. 

"Of course I wanted to be a nurse in a front line hospital," stated 
Miss Porter. "In wartime every woman wants to be a nurse in a front 
line hospital. But I knew nothing of nursing, whereas I could write 
French shorthand; so it was a military bureau and not a hospital for me. 
And typewriting machines (mostly American made) as well as guns, won 
the war, you know." 

In Miss Porter's opinion, the most momentous hour of the war was 

"When the French knew that the Americans would fight In July, 

1918, when they (the French) knew at last that Pershing's men would 
fight and that there was practically no end to their number, hope of 
victory sprang into every French officer's eye. The war was won! That 
was a great moment for an American woman working with the French. 
I wouldn't have missed it for worlds!" 

Miss Porter remained on at the American Embassy in Paris until the 
summer of 1920, doing special work in the Information Division where a 
knowledge of French was required. 

Katherine Price Babcock, Z, entered the Entertainment Department 
of the Y. M. C. A. in October, 1918. Accompanied by Miss Beth Roman 
of Boston, a dancer and general entertainer, she worked for two months 
in hospitals and in the avaition camps throughout England, playing her 
own accompaniments, for the promised accompanist "was not." 

As for the rest of her service, her own words will perhaps best describe 
it. "We were sent to France," she writes, "the first of the year 1919 and 
spent the first month entertaining in Paris. Here our unit was made 
complete by three ex-army boys, a pianist, a singer, and a dancer. Our 
company was known as the 'Half and Half Co.' We were sent to Brest 
for several weeks, then to Le Mans for a long stay before returning to 
Paris. We went up to Chateau Thierry and Rheims also. My leave 
after six months service was spent in southern France at the foothills of 
the Pyrenees at the famous watering-place Biarritz, 

.y Google 

318 HisTosv OF Alpha Chi Ouega Fratssnity 

"After nine months our company dispersed and each member returned 
to the U. S. A. Everyone who was in France knows the joys of the 
service rendered over there and I shall always consider myself fortunate 
to have been given the privilege of helping to entertain the American 
Expeditionary Force." 

Martha Baird, Z, of whom the fraternity is proud as the winner 
of the Mason and Hamlin grand piano at her graduation from New 
England Conservatory and of professional honors since, went "overseas" 
with Mima Montgomery in connection with Y. M. C. A. work. She 
served as entertainer, traveling through Belgium, France, and Germany, 
wherever our men were to be found. 

Blanche Brocklebank, Z, acted as Assistant Entertainment Director 
at St. Male in the Brittany Leave-Area, where at the time she left in 
January 1919,4,000 men were on leave all the time. Her special work, 
as she herself stated it, was "running the music end, and dances and 
stunt nights." "Oh, our boys are so fine," she wrote in a letter home, 
"I fairly want to weep sometimes, realizing how much we can mean to 
them, how easy it is to get their confidence, how much they want to 
laugh and be noisy and have a good time. I pound the old piano till my 
fingers are sore, but they love it, from the Colonel down. The woman's 
job here is a mighty responsible one. The 'Y' woman must be the best 
she is capable of, for we represent American womanhood to our French 
Allies as well as to our boys. We must be sisters and mothers to the boys, 
and be ready with smiles and a glad hand every minute." 

And to quote from another letter: "Tonight we are going to have 
movies here, and I'm to play for them. It surely does amuse me. One 
night I am a serious artist, announced as 'professeur de musique k 
Wellesley College'; the next night I'm 'an honest-to-goodness' American 
girl, playing fairly serious music; the next night I am a plain jazz band, 
and the next day the church organist!" 

Fannie G. Heaton, Z, has sung on Keith's circuit for ten years and has 
. appeared in almost all of the capitals of Europe. She is perhaps better 
known to the public as "Yvette." As the "little chanseuse" she was 
one of the Alpha Chis who went "overseas" to entertain. 

Leslie LaBaume, Z, went "overseas" as a Y. M. C. A. entertainer, and 
served also at Nancy, at the front, driving an ambulance. 

Mima Belle Montgomery, Z, dramatic soprano, resigned her position 
as head of the Voice Department of Wellesley College to do war work, 
and became a "Y" worker in the fall of 1918. In April of 1919, she went 
over seas as a song leader and was sent immediately to Camp Pontenazen, 
at Brest. "Here," she writes, "we conducted two 'Sings' a day, where 


Overseas Workers 319 

we always had at least 1,000 men singing; for you know, we had 16,000 
men pas^ng through our camp daily during June and July." In August 
Miss Montgomery retiUTied to Paris and did concert singing there until 
September when she sailed for America. 

Iva Rider, Z, is another of our musical sisters who did entertainment 
work in France. She was the soprano soloist in a rendjtion of Stainer's 
Crucifixion on an occasion when General Pershing and his staff were 
present. She also sang In a concert with Miss Margaret Wilson, the 
daughter of our former president, at Clignon Court. 

After nearly two years of service in the libraries of the military hospi- 
tals in the United States, Ola M. Wyeth, I, was sent "overseas" in 
answer to a call from Coblenz, in April of 1920. 

In her letter dated March 10, 1921, she says: "The work here has 
been most interesting and very well worth while. There are about 15,000 
American soldiers on the Rhine, and the American colony is further 
augmented by many wives and families, hundreds of civilians connected 
with the welfare organizations, and such. While the library is primarily 
for the soldiers, it has always been free not only to other Americans but to 
our Allies who are here, British, French, and Belgian representatives 
connected with the Rhineland Commission. 

"The library has a central collection of about 40,000 volumes, with 
as many again scattered in the "Y" huts, branch libraries, et cetera. 
Coblenz is the center and contains most of the troops, but many small 
towns in the vicinity are also garrisoned by our troops and must be 
provided with recreation. 

"I have had a staff of five regular workers, two enlisted men, and seven 
Germans; so you see we could turn out a good deal of work. Inciden- 
tally, we never get caught up. Besides supervising the work in the main 
library, I have had to make periodic trips of inspection to outlying points 
to see that the books were being properly cared for, that the supply was 

"You would not believe that books could wear out so quickly. Books 
a month old which have caught the boys' fancy, look as though they had 
been through the war. Then too, the boys read so eagerly and so con- 
stantly that they are forever calling for an exchange of collections, and 
it has always been great fun to see them gather around the box when a 
new collection was sent out and opened up. The schools maintained by 
the Army inspire the men to serious use of the library as do also the 
examinations for West Point for commissions, etc. 1 feel I deserve 
little credit for my work here as it was all organized and in good working 
order when I arrived and I have simply 'carried on.' " 

.y Google 

320 HisTORV OF Alpha Chi Omega Fraternitv 

Miss Wyeth states that there was a Panhellenic club at Coblenz, 
and though the membership constantly shifted, the organization proved 
to her a delightful means of meeting congenial people. 

Agnes M. Olson, I, describes her overseas service thus: 

"After serving in England, I was sent to Paris. Here the Y. M. C. A. 
was just beginning to assign women to combatant divisions for emer- 
gency or general service. When given an opportunity to express a 
preference— great privilege in a wartime regime — it was easy to choose 
between the luxury and sunshine offered by the Riveria and the unknown 
monotony and rain described by those back from the lines. 

"Thus it was that I wasassigned to the 79th Division, 316th infantry, 
which, after the armistice, with the record of taking and holding Mont- 
falcon theirs indisputably, settled down, in sadly broken ranks, to 
reminisce and wait for the hike home. 

"Running a hut is a delightful occupation. Inadevastated area there 
are complications, however. One must first get a hut. Having salvaged 
a hut, one must next get equipment. And what use Is equipment if one 
cannot get supplies? Necessity is indeed the mother of invention, and 
invention becomes most prolific when the effort brings a little comfort 
to ease the waiting. 

"It is enough to say that things had just begun to run smoothly when 
orders came for the Division to move! Should 1 go with the Division, 
and establish another hut for them, or stay at Huippes and make dough- 
nuts for the next contingent? The Division Commander settled the 
question by showing me a petition from the men asking that I be enrolled 
as a private, and ordered forward. 

"And so, I had the privilege of hiking over the Sacred Road leading 
from Verdun away from my little hut set in mud and surrounded by 
mud, through rain, sleet, and sunshine toward the S. O. S. We hiked 
fifty minutes and rested ten, twenty kilometers a day for five days. At 
each stop for the night a station had been chosen by the advance billeting 
officer which I used as the center for distributing smokes and eats from 
the supply truck equipped with a stove and five days supplies. 

"Other problems and other surroundings presented themselves at 
Orquevaux; worked out to satisfaction in a similar two months time, 
when again the orders came to move forward. This time I was sent by 
a convoy of trucks and so had an unforgettable three days in the Loire 
valley at the break of spring. 

"Clisson and Brittany was the beginning of the end, for in a month 
orders came to entrain for the port. Box-car transportation this time, 
no great distance as American Pullmans travel, but a healthy taste of 
■what the men endured. At St. Nazaire my name appeared on the sailing 


I I 
5 * 
i I 

". I 

ft! S E 


322 History of Alfha Chi Ouega Fraternitv 

list when the "outfit" went aboard, but I also belonged to the Y. M. C. A. 
and there was much yet to be done. 

"This I have given in detail ratherthan my time in Germany, Paris, or 
England for it stands out as something that is precious and unique, even 
with all the possibilities for experiences that the American girl met in the 
opportunity of serving in France with the A. E. F." 

Garreta H. Busey, I, spent twenty-six months in Europe as a war 
worker. She was there when the streets were so thronged with khakt 
that the nurses and Red Cross workers, who smiled at every American 
they chanced to meet, had to smile at practically everyone they passed. 
And she was there when the streets in many places were silent and all 
the scars of war were laid bare ; when her work had to do with photograph- 
ing and recording our graves in France. 

During her foreign service, Miss Busey served as Nurses' Aid, 
Searcher, typist in the Graves Registration Service, and secretary to the 
Director of the Department of Nursing of the League of Red Cross 
Societies, Geneva, Switzerland. 

Rachel Jarrold, I, in her twoyear^' experiences "overseas" since March, 
1919, has had various assignments where her duty has been to look after 
folks generally. At St. Nazaire she was one of those to take charge of 
the French wives of American soldiers sailing from that port. At Mon- 
toir she was head of a camp of girls, stenographeis and clerks who were 
replacing the boys sent home. For nearly a year she lived at a small 
hostess house at the American Cemetery at Belleau Woods, extending 
hospitality to relatives visiting graves. Later she had charge of 
Y.W. C. A. hostess houses at the American cemeteries at Romagne, Bony, 
Fereen Tardenois, and Belleau Woods. At the present writing, 
March, 1921, Miss Jarrold is in Italy, at Naples, taking charge of a 
Student Hostel and looking after stray Americans, and immigrants need- 
ing help. 

Ruth Jones, K, served as a nurse in France, arriving there in the 
early part of July, 1918. She was stationed in the American Red Cross 
Military Hospital No. 1, at Nueilly, just outside the gates of Paris and 
during the "drives" of that last summer of the war had her wards crowded 
and overcrowded with the wounded from Ch&teau Thierry, Rheims, 
and Soissons. The hospital was within sound of "Big Bertha" which 
roared all summer long, and was often threatened during the many air 
raids directed to its vicinity by the Boche. 

It was Miss Jones' good fortune to be in Paris when the armistice was 
signed, when the streets were crowded with "millions of people — Ameri- 
can nurses, R. C. and "V" girls, American officers, soldiers and sailors, 
Canadians, Australians, British, French, Belgians and French civilians — 


Overseas Workers 323 

alllet loose parading on the Streets, sidewalks, and every place. . . . They 
thought nothing of coming up to a girl and kissing her on both cheeks, if 
you were not on your guard." In a letter sent home in November, Miss 
Jones wrote: "Did I tell you that General Pershing came to our hospital 
last week and was in my ward? He talked to some of the patients and 
shook hands with me. Told me 'not to let any of the boys slip through 
my fingers, but to keep on taking good care of them,' " 

Laura and Clara Eddy, A, are among the war workers of Alpha Chi 
Omega. They both served as nurses in London. 

Katherine M. Pickles, A, went as a student nurse to England with 
the Hazard Unit from Syracuse, in 1918. She was assigned to duty at 
the Endell Street Military Hospital, the only military hospital of any 
of the allied nations which was run entirely by women. The building 
itself was of historical interest as being the old work-shop described by 
Charles Dickens in Oliver Twist. "We girls," she writes, "although 
inexperienced and untrained, soon grasped the work and after a month 
were al! assigned to night duty. It was with not a little doubt and mis- 
giving that we found ourselves responsible for thirty-five or forty men." 

The signing of the armistice caused a lessening in the number of 
wounded brought to the hospital, but the "flu" epidemic kept the nurses 
at their work till the following March. Then only, having learned some- 
what of sacrifice, suffering, and sorrow, "did we turn our faces homeward, 
happy that the privilege had been given us to care for and cheer those who 
had endured so much." 

Harriet Moore Johnston, A, gave her services as a graduate nurse to 
the Red Cross and during the war served in France. Early in 1920 she 
she went to Turkey in relief work, and was stationed at Adabazar, about 
75 miles from Constantinople. Here, owing to the power of the Turkish 
Nationalist troops, she was cut off from all communication with the 
outside world for six months. Then she was brought to Constantinople 
where she was given charge of "some officers' (Near East) house," 

Dorothy Thompson, A, for two years educational director of the 
National Social Unit Organization, with headquarters in New York, left 
the United States in June, 1920, to study the coBperative movement in 
England during the summer and do some writing for the New York 
Evening Post and then in the autumn to go to Jugo-Slavia for the Circle 
of Serbian Sisters, in connection with their relief work. 

Kathryn Schimelfenig, M, served for fourteen months in France 
and Germany with the American Expeditionary Forces as a Red Cross 
nurse; she became later the head of a hospital at Morenzi, Ariz. 

Marguerite McGraw, N, served as entertainer under the Y. M. C. A. 


324 HisTORV OF Alpha Chi Omega Fraternitv 

Martha Thompson, 0, says of her overseas work: 

"In June 1918, I enrolled with the Red Cross in Denver for clerical 
service overseas, and a few months later, I received my orders to leave 
for France, and finally arrived in Paris October 14, 1918. I was, indeed, 
fortunate in being assigned for service in Paris — in the Bureau of Per- 
sonnel, A. R. C. Headquarters, Hotel Regina, where I remained until 
the following July, when I sailed for home." 

Jessie Allard, 11, during the war entered the Motor Corps of the Red 
Cross in San Francisco, and later became a worker in Miss Ann Morgan's 
reconstruction unit in devastated France. 

Eda Long Hoult, 11, served in the Red Cross Canteen service overseas. 

Mabel Farrington, 11 and E, was associated with the American 
Committee for Relief in the Near East, During the early part of April, 
1919, she began her work in Erivan, Russian Armenia, at the foot 
of Mount Ararat. She, with another worker, was put in entire charge of 

Mabel E. Fabrington, Pi 

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Overseas Wokkebs 325 

the orphans of that section, feeding and clothing them, and looking after 
their education. In a letter written May 8, she said, "I have a family 
of more than 5,000 orphans. Am feeding or estimating rations for 
20,000, — 15,000 in the region of Erivan and 5,000 in Georgia. Have a 
sheher house for 1,221 poor little kiddies without clothes, beds, or much 
of anything. As fast as we can get clothes for them we send them out of 
the shelter houses to the other orphanages. A good many of these 
children are waifs that we pick up on the streets." 

Again she wrote: "I received twenty-two orphans this morning and 
had to put them all in one place. They are all that are left of one dis- 
trict — ^Sassoon, Turkish Armenia." At the present writing she has 
returned to the United States and is raising funds for the Near East 

The service performed so well and generously during the war has not 
ceased altogether. The support of the French orphans has become in 
peace time, the scholarships for children in the United States described on 
pp. 285 to 288. Members devote much time and energy to social and civic 
betterment, and much to the advancement of Alpha Chi Omega. Frag- 
mentary records of all these may be found scattered throughout the 
History. The spirit of service persists, and will persist, among us. 

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To one who looks more than casually toward the sources of our 
modem civilization the word Grecian implies beauty, pure and exalted 
in type, the well-spring of much modern artistic endeavor. In some 
phases of art, Grecian stands for perfection of attainment, since copied 
and sometimes equalled, but never surpassed. But, as the study of the 
classics has been crowded out of our secondary schools the understanding 
of the debt of modern civilization to Grecian culture has grown dimmer. 
It becomes then the pleasant task of a Greek-letter fraternity to cherish 
and conserve this heritage, and to transmit an understanding and appre- 
ciation of the debt of the present generation to the Greeks. 

The Grecian ideal of perfection in man was harmony, a balanced 
development of body, mind, and soul. These three phases of education 
are shown in the curriculum of the early schools, gymnastics, mathe- 
matics, and music of the Greeks. Because they realized the importance 
of beauty in all its various manifestations, they attained high perfection, 
not only in architecture and sculpture, but also in music, poetry, and the 
drama. A similar belief in the value of the beautiful caused Alpha Chi 
Omega to be founded. Her ideal, too, is the Grecian ideal of perfection, of 
harmony, and of balance. To supplement the education of the modern 
young woman with a lai^er vision of life, of the need and the function of 
art in the fullest meaning of the word, is the aim of the fraternity, so 
beautifully expressed in our motto, "Together let us seek the Heights." 

Grecian influence goes far deeper than a Greek-letter name and a few 
Greek symbols in the ritual. It is the very "breath of hfe" of the frater- 
nity; and its manifestations may be traced in almost every phase of our 
life. Culture of any kind can never be measured with a plumb and, 
likewise, much of the finest effect and greatest value of Alpha Chi Omega, 
especially in the cultural aspects that are so truly Grecian, lie in an 
enlargement of vision, a broadening of sympathies, and a raising of 
personal standards toward the Grecian ideal of harmony and perfection, 
which cannot even be measured by the member herself. In its external 
aspects, however, the Grecian influence on the fraternity shows itself 
in many interesting ways. 

Purely Grecian is the ritual of the fraternity. The temple music is 
old Grecian. The robes have been carefully modeled after Grecian robes. 
The ritualistic equipment is stately and beautiful in its Grecian perfection 


Tas iNFLUEMce OP Grbcian Cultukb 327 

and harmony of detail. And the rites themselves are beautiful and 
impressive through their imitation of classic mysteries. Preentrance and 
post-initiation examinations of each candidate familiarize her with 
the significance of the classic rites and terms, and to some extent with 
Grecian life and art. 

Direct Grecian influence is visible also in the badge, a jeweled lyre, 
the instrument used conspicuously by the Greeks in lyrical or dramatic 
performances. It is seen, too, in the names of the publications of the 
fraternity: The Lyre; The Heraum (pertaining to Hera) ; and TkeArgolid 
(from the headquarters of Hera). The names of chapter ofHcers are 
Greek, as is also the secret motto of the fraternity. 

The symbolism of the fraternity is rich in Grea'an inspiration and 
suggestion. In the lyre, the chief symbol of the fraternity, there is 
meaning — in the lyre itself, in the inner lyre, the three required stones, 
the three strings, the scroll, and the triangle. The triangle, indeed, as 
used by the old Greeks is the inspiration of this fraternity symbol, and of 
the symbolic meaning of the number three as its exists throughout all 
our ritualism. 

Like the Greeks, Alpha Chi Omega seeks for physical, intellectual, 
and spiritual development of self. But she strives for far more. Alpha 
Chi Omega strives also for unity in endeavor; for harmony in relation 
to one's fellows; sympathy and loyalty. Traces of all these aspirations 
are found in the songs of Alpha Chi Omega. There are found, also, in 
many songs, phrases of Grecian spirit and significance. 

In the name of her patron goddess. Hera, Alpha Chi Omega dedicates 
one day to sacrifice, as did the ancient Greeks, whose worship of Hera was 
solemn and sincere. In the early spring, singular festivals called "Her- 
aea" were celebrated by processions to her temple, where ceremonies 
and games were held, and enormous sacrifices were made. On the first 
day of March (which is, also, the Matronalia, Juno's great festival among 
the Romans) Alpha Chi Omega, too, lays her gifts upon the altars of 
Hera, not with pomp and ceremony, but in actual deeds by her members, 
contributing to the welfare and happiness of others. As individuals or 
as chapters, each particular talent is consecrated to this noble idea. 
Some members sing, play, or distribute flowers in hospitals; others give 
to the poor. Thus sunshine is poured into many hearts. The spirit 
of generous giving nowhere is lacking. March 1 is a remarkable day in 
the calendar of Alpha Chi Omega. 

As in the case of the Greeks themselves, the classic myths have 
enriched our mental concepts. A survey of the mythology which has 
most affected our traditions is here appropriate. Its setting is in that 
section of the country known as Thessaly, where rocks and hills are 
tumbled about in great confusion, crag climbing upon crag in an appar- 



The Influbncb or Grecian Cultubb 329 

ent attempt to scale the highest mountain of them all — that mountain 
placed, BO the Greeks thought, in the center of the earth, its head a spire 
against the sky — Mount Olympus, the dwelling place of the gods. Here 
it was that the gods of the earth, of the sea, of the underworld, and of 
heaven met in council to take thought over the affairs of tnen. Homer 
describes it as — 

• • "The reputed seat 
Eternal of the godi, which never stonns 
Disturb, rains drench, or snow invades, but cslm 
The expanse and cloudless shinei with purest day; 
There the inhabitants divine rejoice 

Its summit was veiled in mysterious clouds, the gateway of which was 
kept by goddesses known as the Hours, or Seasons. 

In the great hall of the Olympian king was everything that could 
bring happiness. The gods feasted on ambrosia and drank the nectar 
poured by the lovely Hebe, goddess of eternal youth. Beautiful music 
delighted the ear, and learned debates the mind, for here were assembled 
the Muses — patronesses of poetry, science, and music. They were nine 
in number: Clio, the Muse of history, the recorder of all great deeds and 
heroic actions; Euterpe, the "Mistress of Song," and Muse of lyric poetry; 
Thalia, the Muse of comedy ; Melpomene, who presided over tragedy, 
and Terpsichore, the light-footed Muse of dancing; Erato, the Muse 
of love poetry; Polyhymnia, the Muse of sacred poetry; Calliope, Muse 
of epic poetry; and Urania, Muse of astronomy. All of them united at 
times in one grand song, under the leadership of their beloved Apollo 
who accompanied them on his lyre of gold. 

In the abode of the gods was, also, all manner of beauty to rejoice the 
eye, if Milton in his "Comus" has pictured it aright. He describes it as 
most joyous, a spot 

"Where day never shuts his eye 
Up in the broad fields of the sky. 

Along the crisptd shades and bowers 
Revels the spruce and jocund Spring; 
The Graces and the rosy bosomed Hours 
Thither all their bounties bring. 

There eternal Summer dwells. 
And west winds with musky wing 
About the cedarn alleys fling 
Nard and cassia's balmy smells; 
Iris here with humid bow 
Waters the odorous banks, that blow 
Flowers of more mingled hue 
Than her purpled scarf can show." 

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330 HiSTOBv OF Alpha Chi Ouega Fratbrkity 

Can we imagine any setting more exquisite? Let us briefly now 
consider those glorious deities for whom this setting is the background. 

The Greeks believed in numberless gods and goddesses. Everything 
in nature had its special deity. Each tree had its guardian spirit and 
every spring, river, and lake its presiding genius The vast spaces of 
earth and sky were peopled with invisible beings. But from all this host, 
ten, or as some writers claim, twelve, names stand conspicuous as belong- 
ing to the major divinities of heaven and earth. 

Foremost of them all was Zeus, the supreme ruler of the universe, 
whose name signifies radiant light of heaven. He personified the sky and 
all the phenomena of the air. The Greeks conceived him as the cloud 
gatherer, the thunderer, the mighty one who lashed his enemies with the 
scourge of lightning, and yet also as the giver of gentle rains and winds, 
and the guardian of the seasons. Clad in a storm cloud that resembled the 
skin of a gray goat, he was fearful to behold. Since he was greatest of the 
gods, it was always the loftiest trees and the grandest mountains that 
were sacred to him, while the eagle, which builds its nest beyond eye- 
reach, was considered his special messenger. 

Zeus everywhere demanded uprightness, truth, faithfulness, and kind- 
ness. The story is told of how one day he assumed mortal form and 
visited the earth. Wearied with walking, he happened upon a little 
village where he sought shelter. At last on the outskirts he descried a 
tiny thatched cottage, the home of two kindly old people, Philemon, 
and his wife, Baucis. These good folk welcomed the unknown visitor 
and gave him the best of their homely fare. The great god delighted in 
their quaint hospitality and promised to fulfil any wish they might make. 
Their only desire was that the same hour might take them both from 
life. And their request was granted, for one day, after they had 
attained a great age, their places were found empty. At the same time 
before the door of a temple of Zeus, were discovered two lofty trees that 
had never before been seen. Their branches arched over the pathway 
and lightly intertwined, and as the leaves rustled in the gentle wind, they 
whispered softly the names Baucis and Philemon. 

Second only in importance to Zeus himself was Hera, his sister-wife. 
As she is the patron goddess of Alpha Chi Omega a special account of her 
will be given below. 

Among the other deities of heaven existed no distinction in rank. Each 
will be named and a short account of his attributes as a god will be given. 

Apollo was the ideal of fair and manly youth. As god of the sun he 
brought in his wake the warm spring, the lovely summer, and the abund- 
ant harvests. He warded off diseases and healed the sick. Through the 
Delphian oracle he was famed throughout the ancient Greek wOTld as 
the master of prophecy. He was the god of music and poetry and as such 


The Influence of Grecian Culture 331 

the leader of the Muses. To one interested in music, this attribute of 
Apollo is perhaps the one of greatest interest. A little tale which Lowell 
has converted into a poem, The Shepherd of King Admetus, illustrates 
in some degree Apollo's ability as a musician. He had been condemned 
by Zeus, as a punishment for some misdeed, to serve a mortal for the 
space of one year. He became the shepherd of King Admetus. While 
tending his flocks on the banks of the river Amphrysus one day, he 
stretched some chords upon an empty tortoise-shell and 
• • "drew 
Music that made men's boaoms swell 
Fearless, or brimmed their eyes with dew." 

To his companions he was a shiftless youth who mused idly hour after 

hour — a youth 

"In whom DO good they saw. 

And yet, uo wittingly, in truth. 

They made his careless words their law." 

They laughed at him 

"Yet after he was dead and gone 

And e'en his memory dim, 
Earth seemed more sweet to live upon, 
More full of love, because of him. 

"And day by day more holy grew 
Each spot where he had trod, 
Till after-poets only knew 
Their first-born brother as a god." 

The last stanza of Shelley's Hymn of Apollo sums up most of the 
important attributes of this god. Here he sings: 

"1 am the eye with which the universe 

Beholds itself and knows itself divine; 
All harmony of instrument or verse. 
All prophecy, all medicine, are mine. 
All light of art or nature;^ — to my song,. 
Victory and praise in their own right belong." 

Artemis, goddess of the moon and of the chase, twin sister of Apollo, was 
always closely associated with her brother. As he was the ideal of man- 
hood, she was the ideal of maidenhood, the embodiment of modesty, 
grace, and vigor. Her brother was god of the sun; Artemis, the fair- 
tressed sister, was goddess of the moon. Its slender arc was her bow, and 
its beams her arrows. 

But during the day, when not busied with driving her silver chariot 
across the heavens, Artemis, equipped with bow and quiver and accom- 
panied by her band of merry nymphs, followed the chase over hill and 
valley, forest and plain. The lovely huntress favored the mountain 


332 History of Alpba Chi Omega Fraternity 

springs and woodland brooks wherein she and her maidens were wont to 
bathe. She covered the land with beautiful verdure. She was the patron 
of temperance in all things, the protectress of youth, and the guardian 
of civil rights. Keats addresses her as 

"Queen of the wide air; thou mort lovely queen 
Of all the brightness that mine eyes have seen!" 

Athene was the goddess who sprang from the head of Zeus full grown, 
agleam with the panoply of war, and brandishing a spear. Shelley says: 
"From his awful head 
Whom Jove brought forth, in warlike armor drest. 
Golden, all radiant." 

She was destined to enter vatorously into many a fray; for her, battles 
had no terrors, for she was the goddess of righteous war, lending her 
support wherever the cause was just. She rejoiced in martial music, in 
lightning and the thunderclouds. But she was not wholly given to war- 
fare. She was gentle^ fair, thoughtful. Her Latin name, Mtnerva, is 
connected with the Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin words for mind. She 
was the incarnation of wisdom, the goddess of contemplation and of 

Ares was the war god whom Homer describes as a renegade, most 
hateful of all gods. His name signifies Slayer, Avenger, Curse. He was 
never sated with strife and bloodshed, and always preferred the din of 
battle to all other music. No gentle deeds were ever expected of him; 
the ancients never addressed loving prayers to him; rather they trembled 
with terror at the very mention of his name. 

Hermes or the Hastener, as his name is thought to signify, was the 
messenger of the gods. As an infant he was quite unlike mortal children, 
for while still a babe, he sprang from his mother's knee, seized a tortoise 
shell lying near, stretched strings across its cavity, and sweeping his 
fingers over them, produced strains of sweetest music, thus inventing the 
first lyre. 

Hermes was a beautiful god, ever in the prime of youthful vigor. He 
was swift as the wind, for on his ankles and low-crowned hat were wings. 
Keats describes him thus: 

"Foot-feather'd Mercury appeared sublime 

Beyond the tall tree topa; and in less time 

Than shoots the slanted hail-storm, down he dropt 

Towards the ground; but rested not, nor stopt 

One moment from his home; only the sward 

He with his wand light touch'd and heavenward 

Swifter than sight was gone." 

This deity was the first of inventors, the god of eloquence, of com- 
merce and of science; the patron of travelers and rogues. 

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The Influence op Grecian Culture 333 

Hephaestus, the god of fire and metallic arts, was the god who, the 
ancients believed, kept his workshops with their glowing forges under 
various volcanic islands. He was the blacksmith of the gods, the finest 
artificer in metal. He it was that wrought the shields and spears of the 
. Olympians, the arrows of Apollo and Artemis and that fashioned the 
scepter of Zeus, and his mighty thunderbolts. He was a glorious god, 
good-natured, loved, and honored among men as the founder of wise 
customs and as the patron of artisans. 

"Those who labor 
The sweaty forge, who edge the crooked scythe. 
Bend stubborn steel, and harden gleaming annor. 
Acknowledge Vulcan's aid." 

Hestia, the goddess of the hearth, was reverenced as the oldest and 
worthiest of the Olympian divinities. Before her shrine in city and state, 
the holy fire was religiously cherished. The flames were intended to 
represent the purity of the goddess. From her altars those of other gods 
obtained their fires and no new colony, no new home was duly consecrated 
till on its central hearth glowed coals from Hestia's hearth. 

Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty, love, laughter, and marriage, was 
bom of the foam of the sea. As she was being wafted gently toward the 
shore, the beautiful Horae (the Seasons) stood ready to welcome her. In 
the words of Keats, 

"An ethereal band 
Are visible above: the Seasons (our — 
Green-kirtled Spring, flush Summer, golden store 
In Autumn's sickle. Winter frosty hoar." 

With them were also the three Graces, waiting to bestow upon her every 
gracious gift. No sooner did she walk upon the earth but everywhere, at 
the touch of her feet, herbage quivered into flowers. To her influence 
was ascribed the fruitfulness of animal and vegetable creation. In her 
broidered girdle lurked "love and desire, and loving converse that steals 
the wits even of the wise," for she was mistress of feminine charm and 
beauty. She lent to mortals fascination-^a gift which to a few is a bless- 
ing, but which to many is treacherous, destructive of peace. 

The two divinities that are sometimes classed with the major divini- 
ties and sometimes not, are Demeter and Poseidon. 

Demeter was the goddess of sowing and reaping, of harvest festivals 
and of agriculture in general. She was assisted in her many duties by 
her daughter Proserpina. One day Pluto, the ruler over the lower world 
stole Proserpina away and carried her to rule as queen of Hades. Deme- 
ter searching for her child neglected her daily duties. The rain no longer 
refreshed the flowers, the grain withered in the ardent rays of the sun, 
and the grass all perished. The whole earth mourned th? loss of Proser- 


3M History of Alpka Chi Ombga Fraternity 

pina. At last Zeus, moved by the many prayers petitioning her return, 
decreed that she might return to live on earth six months every year. 
At her coming, the skies became blue and sunny, flowers bloomed along 
her way, and the birds 

"Made mdody in branch and melody in mid air." 

Demeter, happy once more, diligently attended to all her duties and 
blessed the earth with plenty. When at the end of six months, however, 
Proserpina was forced to leave, all nature again mourned her departure, 
till her return in the spring, while her mother hid in a cave, inconsolable. 
Gayley says, "There can be little doubt that the story of Demeter 
and Proserpina is an allegory. Proserpina signifies the seed-coin which, 
when cast into the ground, lies there concealed — is carried off by the god 
of the underworld; when the com reappears, Proserpina is restored to 
her mother. Spring leads her back to the light of day." 

Poseidon, sole monarch of the ocean, governed all the waters upon 
the face of the earth. As god of the sea, he could by one word, stir up or 
calm the wildest storm, and cause the billows to roar with fury or subside 
into peaceful ripples. The symbol of his power was the trident or three- 
pronged spear. 

Hera was the daughter of Chronus and Rhea. She was brought up, 
however, not by her parents, but by Oceanus and Tethys, in the remote 
west beyond the sea. Here, without the knowledge of her parents, she 
was wedded to Zeus. To their marriage were traced all the blessings of 
nature. At this glorious event, Earth decked herself in her fairest hues; 
the crocuses blossomed, the hyacinths burst forth; and as a wedding 
gift, Earth sent up a tree laden with golden apples. The cuckoo, har- 
binger of spring, sounded his note, and thereafter became sacred to the 
goddess. By this holy marriage wedlock was forever sanctified. It was 
not only as the moon-goddess, but above all as the ideal wife and mother, 
guardian and aid of women that Hera was worshipped. The priestesses 
of her temple were matrons of high rank; and, such importance did they 
attain that, at one period the years were named for the priestesses then 

Hera was the most queenly of all the goddesses. Homer calls her 
"ox-eyed," and Hesiod "golden-sandalled and golden-throned." Glorious 
beyond compare was her presence when she drove forth in her golden- 
wheeled chariot. As "Queen of Heaven" she shared in the honors of 
Zeus. Like him she could wield the thunder and the lightning. Like 
him, too, her temper was violent, and she was frequently jealous and 
quarrelsome. But the character in which she was generally viewed was 
aa queen of heaven and the faithful wife of Zeus, claiming the highest 
conceivable respect and honor. 

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Thb Influence of Grecian Culture 335 

As their marriage took place in the spring, an annual festival was 
held at that season in her honor. This was celebrated, primarily that 
women might honor her as their ideal woman, the embodiment of all 
womanly virtues. "Processions of maids and matrons, robed in white, 
bearing the peacock feathers sacred to Hera, wound in impressive splen- 
dor through the cities to the temples of Hera, driving with them flocks of 
milk-white lambs for sacrifice. Only the whitest of animals were deemed 
worthy of sacrifice to a Heavenly deity." At her principal festival, a 
figure of the goddess decked in bridal array was placed on a couch of 
willow branches, garlanded with flowers, and a ceremony in imitation of 
a wedding took place. 

Hera's chief attendants were : Iris, her messenger, the Hours, and the 
Graces. Iris, the goddess of the rainbow, was the daughter of Thaumas, 
and Electra, the grand-daughter of Oceanus and Gaea, and the sister 
of the Harpies. She was represented as a beautiful virgin, clad in bright 
colored garments, and with bright-hued wings. Like Hermes, she carries 
the caduceus, and travels with the speed of the wind. The farmer, 
believing that she chained the clouds with rain, welcomed her bow in 
the sky, and gladly honored it. The Hours (Horae) goddesses of the 
seasons, Eunomia (wise legislation). Dike (justice), and Eirene (peace) 
watched over the fields and the changes of the weather. They were light 
joyous maidens, crowned with fruit and flowers, and fond of dancing. 
The Graces were worshipped from a very early date. They were god- 
desses of grace and beauty and of amusement. They were young and 
beautiful maidens, modest and flower-decked, always dancing, singing 
or racing and bathing, or otherwise enjoying themselves in the beauties 
of nature. Usually their names are mentioned as: Aglaea, Euphrosyne, 
and Thalia. Annual festivals were held for them, and at banquets, the 
first cup of wine was offered them. They are often represented holding 
the lyre, or some other musical instrument. 

The many statues in honor of Hera serve to show that the ancients 
had an exalted conception of the Queen of Heaven, the "Goddess of the 
Heights" as she was known in some sections of Greece. She stands at 
the head of the family of gods as a mother — the guardian of marrij^ 
and of conjugal fidelity. Purity and loyalty were what she loved most 
to see. She was the most worthy of all the goddesses. 

The principal places of worship for Hera, or Juno, as she was known 
among the Romans, were Mycenae, Sparta, Argos, Rome, and Heraeum. 
Other sanctuaries were scattered throughout the ancient world. She 
was also worshipped in the same temples as Zeus. Perhaps the most 
widely known celebration in her honor was the Matronalia, a festival 
which the wives held in Rome every year on the first of March. This 
was attended with great pomp and splendor. 


336 History of Alpha Chi Oubga Fraternitv 

Hera has been chosen the patron goddess of Alpha Cht Omega and in 
naming her such, the traits we wish to emphasize are her loyalty, her 
virtue, her noble dignity, her example both as mother and wife, and her 
all-round womanliness. She was regal, generous, and pure — welt fitted 
to be a leader among the gods. 

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"To see beauty even in the common things of life; to shed the light 
of love and friendship round me; to keep my life in tune with the world 
that I shall make no discords in the harmony of life; to strike on the lyre 
of the universe only the notes of happiness, of joy, of peace; to appreciate 
every little service rendered; to see and appreciate all that is noble and 
loving in another, be her badge what it may; and to let my lyre send 
forth the chords of love, unselfishness, sincerity. This is to be my 

In this "Symphony" of the fraternity by Celia E. McClure, A, recurs 
frequently the figure of the lyre, as it does in all the symbolism of the 
order, and in all its traditions. In the traditions concerning music, 
concerning scholarship, and all personal distinction, regarding one's 
spirit of service, and the attitude toward things spiritual, the spirit of 
harmony stands out significantly. The place of musical culture in 
education, now so generally conceded, was insisted upon by the Founders 
and by the constitution. Alpha Chi Omega was never a "strictly musi- 
cal" fraternity, as her rivals have ever been prone to remark superlatively 
in rushing; nor professional, as Baird still classified her as late as 1898; 
nor was she ever, or will she ever become that non-existent phenomenon 
a "strictly literary" fraternity. There have always been in the organiza- 
tion representatives of all the arts. "The only difference between the 
Alpha Chi Omega and other fraternities," writes Dean Howe to the 
author, "was, that musicwas the chief tradition of Alpha Chi Omega; and 
that some music culture, as well as literary culture, was expected of its 
members." Mrs. Loud, for many years on the National Council of the 
fraternity as its president, and a member of the second oldest chapter in 
the fraternity, describes well the beginning of the musical tradition as, 
"a rare devotion to a chosen art, a deep and earnest desire to make that 
art a recognized factor in American ideals." 

The oldest women's fraternities were founded in the seventies with the 
purpose, says Ida Shaw Martin, "of a protective league, through which 
the members endeavored by united action to secure recognition for them- 
selves as a vital part of college life. Misunderstood in the classroom, shut 
out from participation in the literary and debating societies organized by 
the men, unrecognized in the social life that crystallized around the fra- 
ternities, (they) were sadly in need of the moral support that the society 


338 History of Alpha Chi Ouega Fraternity 

could give." But in the eighties Alpha Chi Omega faced no such 
pressing pioneer problems, and could add to the social bond existing in 
the fraternities about her, an aesthetic bond ; and for her pioneer contribu- 
tion she chose to aid in the advancement of art. 

The effect of the musical tradition in the life of the order was both 
unifying and cultural. There was, besides, the same emphasis upon uni- 
versity activities, the same mutual helpfulness in comradeship, the same 
appreciation of the fraternity as a source of social experience which had 
proved of such permanent value in the fraternity system evolved by men 
students and adopted by the women's fraternities founded in the seven- 
ties. Dean Howe, its founder and patron, writes of Alpha Chi Omega: 

At its organization in 1885, it was a regular university fraternity, upon the 
same basis as the Kappa Alpha Theta, Kappa Kappa Gamma, and other fraternities 
o( De Pauw University. I was very careful that from the first, every step should 
be taken in accordance with the accepted traditions and methods recognized by 
other fraternities, f employed a regular fraternity man, a Beta Theta Pi, to lay 
out a Constitution and set of by-laws, such as were generally approved at that time. 
* * Not a step was taken that was not in harmony with the rules and regulations 
encumbent upon our other regular university fraternities. 

Other college fraternities, of course, included musical students in their 
membership. In fact the firet degree of Bachelor of Music which De 
Pauw University granted, in 1885, was to a member, says Dean Howe, 
of Kappa Kappa Gamma. And the School of Music enrolled "among 
its students, many members of other fraternities and sororities," But 
music was, from the outset, a beloved tradition with Alpha Chi Omega,' 
and for the first few years every initiate was required to include in her 
university schedule some music study, either in the theory or the practise 
of the art. This was s(X)n found to be an inconvenient ruling, and was 
dispensed with. But music will be, forever, an inspiring influence to all 
Alpha Chis, jjotent in decreasing what the French call, la dure unintelli- 
gence des Americains du Nord. 

The spirit of the fraternity, too, is a tradition of power, and may be 
described, as one of unity. Of this spirit, the following song by Lucile 
Lippitt, A, is descriptive. 

Hera, guardian of women. If our wills be varied, 

Grant us now we pray Help us to restrain 

Strength to live this coming hour Heart and tongue and spirit 

In the noblest way. For fraternal gain. 

Guide us then in seeking 
True fraternity 
May we blend as Alpha Chis, 
Chords of harmony. 

.y Google 

Traditions of the Fratbrnitv 339 

To the outsider it is the tradition of coCperation that is conspicuous, 
in college activities of every kind, in the serious purpose of the college — 
scholarship — and in community life in all places, in all parts of the earth. 
In common with all fraternities, the traditions of Alpha Chi Omega 
include, prominently, loyalty. The term is a broad one in Alpha Chi's 
' conception of it, covering loyalty to one's God, and one's duty therefore 
to one's fellows; loyalty to one's Alma Mater and her authorities; and 
loyalty to the fraternity, her laws, and her ideals. 

As a representative of many of the ideals of our traditions, Hera, the 
queen of the heavens in Greek mythology, was chosen. Her dignity, 
womanliness and efficiency make her an inspiring patron-goddess. In 
Tke Lyre for July, 1910, Mrs. Green says: 

"It seems eminently appropriate that Alpha Chi Omega * * whose 
emblem is the Greek lyre to which the old myths were originally sung 
should have a Greek patron. The ancients were skilled in the art of 
music, and Orpheus, son of Apollo, the patron of music, was the first 
Greek lyrist. * * 

"To arrive at a definite decision in the matter of patron • • there 
were a number of postulates as to the qualities and claims that must be 
possessed. First of all, the nationality must be Greek; secondly, we 
deem it appropriate that a femininedeityshould rule over the destinies of 
a distinctly feminine organization. Nationality and gender determined, 
it was a question of selecting one out of the several available Greek 
goddesses. We were strongly in favor of a major gtxldess, and not being 
averse to aiming high, we desired one of the heavenly goddesses; also one 
not previously appropriated by our sister fraternities." 

About the name of Hera have gathered the expressions of the altruistic 
attitude of the members; so far as spirit of service can be centered upon 
one day's activities, Alpha Chi Omega's great day of service is the Heraea 
on March the first, or Hera Day. 

The altruism of one fraternity enlists the interest of all other fra- 
ternities; in few orders, we believe, is there such an enthusiastic, 
wide-spread enjoyment of an altruistic custom as our Heraea. Enthusi- 
asm, indeed, of a dignified, womanly sort is one of the best of the frater- 
nity's traditions. And enthusiasm all must have who see the relation of 
the attainments of the past to the present; who experience the beauties 
and glories of art; who appreciate the capacity of the human heart for 
friendship and its joys; who have entered in reality into the riches of the 
intellectual life; who have heard the vibrant call for service, and have felt 
the satisfaction in responding; and who have learned the place of the 
spiritual in living. In a word, the traditions of Alpha Chi Omega guide 
its members into harmony with the fundamental greatness in life. 

.y Google 


The National Panhellenic Congress, organized in 1902, illustrates in 
a striking manner two important facts — that women of even rival inter- 
ests can work together in harmony and to a purpose, and that fraternity 
women are desirous of bettering fraternity conditions in all their phases 
and in every possible connection. 

Although an attempt was made in 1883 to establish a Panhellenic 
among the men's fraternities, and ten years later revived in the Wea^ld's 
Fair movement, such an organization did not materialize until 1909, when 
the first Inter fraternity Conference was held. The one accomplishment 
of this meeting was the appointment of committees to plan for a second 
conference the following year. The second Interfratemity Conference, 
which met in New York City in 1910, framed a permanent organization 
and adopted a short constitution. As the number of eligible men's 
fraternities far exceeds the number of qualified women's fraternities, and 
the problems confronting the former are even more serious and far-reach- 
ing than those which surround the latter, it is a matter for pardonable 
pride that for so many years the leading women's fraternities have main- 
tained a flourishing Panhellenic organization, eighteen national frater- 
nities now being represented. 

The purpose of this organization, which was called the Intersorority 
Conference until 1908, when the name was altered to the National 
Panhellenic Congress, was the discussion of vital fraternity and collegiate 
problems by mature women, well versed in national fraternity affairs; 
the recommending to local Panhellenics and to the individual chapters 
the plans evolved; the creating of a saner, more wholesome tone in inter- 
fratemity relations, and hence the alleviating of many of the problems 
confronting the various chapters. 

Through the work of the National Panhellenic Congress the Greek- 
letter world has been made to think upon a number of important subjects, 
such as a sophomore pledge day, the elimination of rushing, the chapter 
house, the chaperon, honorable Panhellenic relations, and cooperation 
with deans of women and other college authorities. College chapters 
have been brought into practical cooperation. Steps have been taken 
to curtail the high school fraternity. And liest of all malice and deroga- 
tion have begun to disappear. 

The following is a condensed outline of the sessions of the National 
Panhellenic Congress, most of which have been held in Chicago. As the 
result of correspondence with other women's fraternities concerning the 


National Panhellbnic Congbess 341 

evils of rushing, Mrs. Margaret Mason Whitney, Grand President of 
Alpha Phi, called the first Intersorority Conference in Chicago, May 24, 
1902. These meetings have been held annually since that year, being 
presided over by each fraternity in turn in the order of its founding. 

The first Conference was composed of delegates from Pi Beta Phi, 
Kappa Alpha Theta, Kappa Kappa Gamma, Alpha Phi, Delta Gamma, 
Gamma Phi Beta, and Delta Delta Delta (Alpha Chi Omega through a 
mistake not being represented). A set of six motions was submitted to 
be considered by the various fraternities as a basis of work ; sentiments on 
active fraternity conditions, such as rushing, pledging, and "lifting" were 
recorded, and provision was made for annual conferences to be called 
by the fraternities in rotation. 

Alpha Chi Omega and Chi Omega were members of the 1903 Con- 
ference. Two of the four motions submitted the previous year were 
accepted, those being the suggestion that local Panhellenic Associations 
be formed and an agreement by the fraternities not to pledge before 

The 1904 Conference admitted Alpha Xi Delta and voted to admit 
Sigma Kappa provided she accept the Conference rulings. The purpose 
of local Panhellenics was defined and the Social Service Problem was 
discussed with the result that a standing committee was elected to have 
charge of this work. 

The Conference of 1905 admitted Alpha Omicron Pi. At this meeting 
a trial constitution was adopted, a national fraternity was defined as one 
having at least five chapters, all in institutions of collegiate rank, and a 
model constitution for women's leagues was considered. 

The 1906 Conference remodeled the 1905 constitution, worked out a 
model constitution for local Panhellenics, and condemned high school 
sororities. A report was given by the delegates who had been invited to 
convene with the conference of the deans of women in state institutions. 
Mrs. Tennant was appointed a committee of one to correspond with 
visiting delegates of the various fraternities. 

The marked progress along the line of Social Service and the need of 
the cooperation of alumnae were the principal matters considered by the 
1907 Conference. This assembly placed itself on record as favoring a late 
pledge day, preferably in the sophomore year. 

The 1908 Conference changed the name of the organization to 
National Panhellenic Conference, suggested the organization of resident 
alumnae, and strongly urged sophomore pledge day and scholarship 
qualifications for fraternity membership. 

The 1909 Conference received Zeta Tau Alpha and Alpha Gamma 
Delta who had been admitted during the year. The system of exchange of 
fraternity journals was voted to be continued, and recommendations 


342 HitTOSY OF Alpha Cbi Ohkga FsATBitHnT 

were made that there be no rushing before matriculation (which is defined 
as the day of emoUment of a student in college), and that there be no 
initiation of a pledge until ten hours of work is completed. Mrs, Tennant, 
who had been appointed to investigate the subject, gave a thorough 
report on chaperons. 

At the 1910 Conference the principal subjects discussed were the 
Deans' Conferences, chapter house chaperons and rules, the matter of 
extension of fraternities, local Panhellenic constitutions, legislative power 
for the Conference, scholarship requirements for fraternity members, and 
social customs. Mrs. Tennant presented a comprehensive report of the 
committee on chaperons. 

With the exception of the Conference of 1903 when Mabel Harriet 
Siller was the official delegate, and in 1902 and 1904 when through a 
mistake or a miscarriage of the mail, notification of the dates of the 
Conference came too late for the fraternity to be represented, Maiy Jones 
Tennant represented Alpha Chi Omega at all of the Conferences 1905- 

In the early history of the National Panhellenic Conference, only one 
day annually was required in which to transact the necessary business of 
that assembly, but for several years past, two or more days each session 
have been necessary for the consideration of the various problems that 
come before this body to be solved. 

On the final day of each meeting it is customary to hold a Pan- 
hellenic luncheon, which all fraternity women are cordially ui^ed to 
attend. Talks or toasts on vital topics and a brief r^sum^ of the session of 
the Congress add keen interest to these occasions. At the 1909 luncheon 
Alpha Chi Omega held a place on the program, Mrs. Tennant giving an 
interesting toast. In 1913 Miss Armstrong responded to a toast {in the 
absence of Mrs. Loud), and in 1915, Mrs. Greene appeared on the pro- 
gram. The beneficial results of this social side of the Congress are 
obvious, bringing all those who attend into a harmonious relation of closer 
fellowship, developing greater knowledge of vital matters, more broad- 
mindedness, and a larger acquaintance and coSperation of fraternity 

The 1911 Conference changed its name to National Panhellenic Con- 
gress and adopted a constitution embodying the limited legislative 
powers which had been granted it. These powers were: To make laws 
that pertain to its own government ; to admit at its discretion petitioning 
sororities; to levy annual taxes; to make final settlement of local Pan- 
hellenic difficulties; and to have advisory power over local Panhellenics. 
An executive committee was appointed to have charge of business 
between sessions, and of a quarterly bulletin. 

The three following Congresses are covered by the report to the 1915 
Convention of Alpha Chi Omega's delegate, Mrs. J. H, Crann. 


National Panhbllbnic Conckess 343 

The Paohdlcnic period elapsing since our Madiaon conveation haa been pregnant 
with aifain. The Congren has convened three timet, twice in Chicago, and in Novem- 
ber, 1914, in New Yort City. Upon thia occasion Alpha Chi OmegA was in the chair, 
closing her terra of office for the year 1913-14, our devoted alumwe of Gamma Gamma 
acting aa hostesses, under the direction of Mrs. Frank Fall. The hospitality extended 
the Congress and the social features of the occasion were beautiful and perfect in every 
detail. Two special features were the conference of presidents, at which our National 
President presided, by desire of the Grand Presidents, and the open session which 
followed the Panhellenic luncheon. For the first time in the history of the Congress, a 
session was open to the general public, as well as to Greelc-letter women of New York. 
Addresses on subjects of general fraternity interest and music followed by an Informal 
reception by Gamma Gamma filled the afternoon. 

The National Panhellenic Congress accomplished during 1913-14 what is expected 
to bring about the complete elimination of women's high school fraternities (so called}. 
The legislation originating with the Congress and endorsed by all Congress fraternities, 
makes ineligible for college fraternity membership any girl accepting or retaining high 
school membership after September, 191S. The final administration of this legislation, 
which involves pre-pledgiog investigation, is at present being worked out by the Pan- 
hellenic Congress and a final report may be expected from the 1915 Congreas, 

There is a clearly defined movement among Panhellenic officers to cooperate for the 
improvement of local Panhellenic conditions which are notoriously bad, or reported aa 
inharmonious or offensive to college authorities. The first movement in this direction 
was the adoption in 1913 of Uniform Chapter House Rules, followed in 1914 by the 
Uniform Scholarship report form. This Utter means the securing of uaifom scholarship 
reports for every Panhellenic fraternity girl, and greatly facilitates comparative rankings 
among chapters by university and by fraternities. 

During the present year the National Panhellenic Congress standing committee 
on local Panhellenics is at work upon extensive investigation of criticised local Pan- 
hellenic situations, submitting findings to all Grand Presidents interested and with their 
cooperation drafting letters of advice and instruction to such local Panhellenics. 

There is an increasing tendency to adjust local Panhellenic complaints and dinen- 
sions through the Grand Presidents of the fraternities involved, as prescribed by the 
NatiotuI Panhellenic Congress Constitution. This is as it should be, and the number 
of such dissensions should rapidly decrease, if the gravity of the anti-fraternity move* 
ment is understood by active fraternity women. 

May, 1913, witnessed the first meeting of men's and women's fraternities, for the 
purpose of protection against anti- fraternity legislation. From this meeting there 
evolved the College Fraternity Reference Bureau supported by nine men's collie 
fraternities, seven men's professional fraternities, and eighteen women's college frater- 
nities. This organization, officered at present by Mr. Austin of Alpha Delta Phi, Mra. 
Lardner of Pi Beta Phi, Mr. Cook and Mr. Levere of Sigma Alpha Epeilon, with an 
executive committee of ten membera, maintains in Chicago, a library of fraternity 
matter, records of anti-fraternity legislation, and all available defensive matter; and 
secures and disseminates to its membera news of legislative action. 

The 1915 National Panhellenic Congress which met at Berkeley, 
California, August 11-14, found itself half old, half new, as just fifty per 
cent of the accredited delegates had previously served at from one to 
twelve congresses, but among the fifty per cent new, the delegates from 
Gamma Phi Beta, Phi Mu, and Kappa Delta, had attended previous 


344 HisTORv OF Alpha Chi Omega Fsaternitv 

The Elxecutive Committee for 1914-1915 were all present. The chair- 
man presided for the second time, but in the ten-year interval, the 
Congress had more than doubled the number of accredited delegates, 
and the number of visitors had increased from a chance one or two to 
full representation of several national councils. 

One of the most important acts of the Fourteenth Congress was the 
unanimous approval of a recommendation to make Santa's Greek Ex- 
change the official organ of the National Panhellentc Congress. 

In 1914, in Chicago, the editors of the several women's fraternity 
journals met prior to National Panhellenic Congress, elected a chairman 
and secretary, enjoyed helpful discussions of common problems, adopted 
tentative plans for mutual benefit, and agreed to meet again in two years. 
At the call of the chairman. Miss R. Louise Fitch, Delta Delta Delta, 
the editors again met, but Miss Fitch, though in Berkeley, was unable 
to attend, and Miss Pearle Green, Kappa Alpha Theta, secretary, was 
made chairman. At this session Miss Armstrong,- Alfiha Chi Omega, 
was appointed a committee to investigate syndicated advertising for 
fraternity journals. 

The National Panhellenic Congresses have already accomplished 
much good, and there is almost no limit to the beneficial results that may 
yet be attained by this organization in its relation to college life. Alpha 
Chi Omega has always taken deep interest in the Congress and in the 
results which it is trying to attain. 

The 1917 Congress, Chicago, discussed the representation of profes- 
sional fraternities and local Panhellenics, and made the question a matter 
of courtesy to be extended or not according to the desire of each city 
Panhellenic. One of the committees reported that printed matter on 
coBperative management of chapter houses had been sent to the colleges; 
and the Congress recommended a definite scholarship requirement for 
initiation. Alpha Chi Omega has long required such a preliminary basis. 
Mrs. Fall, Miss Zimmerman, Mrs. Steiner, and Miss Armstrong attended 
the sessions. The editor's conference elected as its secretary, Miss 
Florence A. Armstrong, Alpha Chi Omega. 

The 1919 Congress, Washington, D. C, favored concerted action in 
Americanization, in connection with collegiate and other boards, and 
recootipended that each fraternity maintain its wartime attitude of help- 
fulness and unselfish service in permanent peacetime social service. 
Round-table conferences were held for discussion of matters of interest 
to college women. A specialist presented each subject on the list to the 
Congress. At this gathering Alpha Chi Omega was represented, as at 
the 1917 Congress, by Mrs. Fall, the official delegate, and also by Miss 
Griffith, Mrs. Troster, Miss Jones, and Miss Armstrong. Alpha Chi 
Omega held the chairmanship of the Editor's Conference, Miss Arm- 











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346 History of Alpha Cbi Ouega Fbateknitv 

Strong presiding at the sessions of editors. The Editor's Conference made 
two important recommendations to N. P. C: first that N. P. C. should 
negotiate for the purchase of the Sorority Handbook, and should super- 
vise the publication of all material regarding Panhellenic fraternities in 
similar handbooks; second, that a pamphlet be published on the war 
work of college fraternities. These recommendations, though generally 
approved, were not adopted by N. P. C. 

Alpha Chi Omega legislated at her 1919 Convention that the chair- 
man of the committee on Panhellenic relations should serve as a long- 
term delegate to the National Panhellenic Congress, for such time as 
might be determined by the National Council. This officer attends 
Panhellenic meetings upon call, acts as adviser on alt Panhellenic ques- 
tions to the chapters, and directs Panhellenic relationsof the fraternity. 
As interfraternity relations improve through personal acquaintance of 
officers, the tendency is increasing for N, P. C, fraternities to be repre- 
sented time after time by the same delegate At different Congresses. 
Efficiency also increases by familiarity with college problems and with 
interfraternity relations. Mrs, Tennant served Alpha Chi Omega from 
1905 to 1911; Mre. Crann from 1911 to 1915; Mrs. Fall from 1916 to 
date. With the passage of the constitutional ruling that Alpha Chi 
Omega shall be represented by a long term delegate, it appears certain 
that the fewest possible changes will be made in that important office. 

One of the delegates (r4>B) who has served in the Conference for many 
years says, in a survey of the history and attitude of the N. P. C: 

If laws were to be so few and so simple how were the innumerable difference*, 
quarrels, injuBtices, and grievances which soon began to pour in upon N. P. C. to be 
handled? Here the delegates made their second great discovery. Whatever temporary 
expedients might be used to deal with these, the only fundamental method was to 
prevent them by changing the very spirit of the Greek world. In place of eusptcion, 
criticism, and distrust must be put confidence in each other's honor and willingneas to 
believe the best of each other. Such a change could be wrought in but one way. Each 
fraternity must keep its own standards high, must watch its owti acts with the greatest 
care, so that its fraternity neighbors might through experience feel confidence in its 
honor. So from the very first N. P. C. delegates have devoted a great deal of time to 
getting acquainted and to farming lasting friendships that shall be proof in the time 
of danger against suspicion and misunderstanding. N. P. C. has never chosen a motto, 
but its whole life has been an expression of its faith that "the letter killeth, but the 
spirit giveth life" — that ethical standards are a surer support than written laws, that the 
permanent contribution of N. P. C. to the fraternity world is to arouse the will to act 
and to believe honorably in the thousands of new girls becoming Greeks yearly. 

N. P. C. adopted at the 1919 session a brief statement of the accepted 
standards of ethical conduct of fraternity women, as follows: 
Standards of Etkkai Conduct. 

Whereas the ideals toward which all fraternities are irorking and which can only 
be gained by coSperation, which cooperation is only perfected when there is thcvough 
understanding of the relation of local chapters to the nationals, of local chapters to each 


National Panhellenic Constitution 347 

other, aa6 of local cbapten to the institutions in which the respective chapters occur; 
be it resolved that each fraternity, through Its officers, be made responsible for bringing 
to the attention of its chapters, the following Standards of Ethical Conduct which are 
to be accepted and which wilt then become binding on all National Panhellenic frater- 

1. That in case of Panhellenic difficulties all chapters involved do their utmost to 
restore harmony and to prevent publicity, both in the college and city community. 

2. That any National Panhellenic fraternity whom a local is petitioning shall 
insist that such group conform to collie Panhellenic conditions as to pledging, etc., 
where it is established. 

3. That National Panhellenic fraternity chapters unite in assisting local groups in 
colleges and universities to obtain national charters. 

4. That National Panhellenic fraternity chapters shall be expected to keep before 
the attention of their members the l^islation regarding high school sororities and 
fraternities, and to obey the regulation strictly. 

5. That visiting officers of National Panhellenic fraternities shall be expected 
not to interfere with regular routine work of the college but, on the contrary, that they 
shall encourage chapters to keep the college business day free from social engagements. 

6. That it is beneath the standards of fraternity women: 

(a) To speak disparagingly of any fraternity or any college woman. 

(b) To create ^y feeling between fraternity and non- fraternity women. 

(c) To allow an account of minor social functions to appear in the public press. 

7. That National Panhellenic fraternities shall impress upon their members that 
they shall respect and obey the letter and the spirit of any agreement which has been 
made either by the college Panhellenic or National Panhellenic. 

Also for reference we publish an exact copy of the constitution of the 
National Panhellenic Congress which runs as follows: 
National PanMUnic Constitution 
Article i— Naue 
Section 1. The name of this organization shall be the National Panhellenic Con- 

Article II — Object 
Section 1. To maintain on a high plane fraternity life and interfraternity relation- 
ship, to cooperate with college authorities in their efforts to maintain high social and 
scholarship standards throuehout the whole college and to be a forum for the discussion 
of questions of interest to the college and fraternity world. 

Article III — Organization 
Section 1, The Congress shall be composed of one delegate from each national 
fraternity represented. 

Article IV— Eligibility to Mbubersbip 
Section 1, To be represented in the Congress a fraternity must have at least live 
chapters in institutions oi the collegiate rank; a coll^ of collegiate rank to be defined 
as one which requires fourteen entrance units; a unit to mean that in a given subject 
there have been three forty-minute lecture periods a week for thirty-six consecutive 
weeks. In the science departments, where laboratories have to be considered, three 

forty-minute laboratory periods are equivalent to one lecture period. 

Sec. 2. Any fraternity meeting three Congress fraternities at an, 
not eligible to full membership in the Congress shall be admitted to associate member- 
ship, having a seat and a voice, but not a vote. 

Src. 3. The application of any fraternity for membership in the National Pan- 
hellenic Congress snail be referred to a committee of three, which shall investigate the 

1: 1 :\. ■^■__' — i_j_. — J — jj their recommendation it shall be admitted 

e of the delegates present. 


348 HisTORV OP Alpha Chi Oubca FRATERNtTV 

Article V — Meetiscs 

Section 1. The Congress shall assemble bi-annually, the time and place of the 
following meeting to be arranged each year, and shall be presided over by the fraternitie* 
ID rotation. 

Sec. 2. The official list shall be: 

1. Pi Beta Phi 10. Chi Omega 

2. Kappa Alpha Theta II. Sigma Kappa 

3. Kappa Kappa Gamma 12. Alpha Omicron Pi 

4. Alpha Phi 13. Zeta Tau Alpha 

5. Delta Gamma 14. Alpha Gamma Delta 

6. Gamma Phi Beta 15. Alpha Delta Phi 

7. Alpha Chi Omega 16. Delta Zeta 

8. Delta Delta Delta 17. Phi Mu 

9. Alpha Xi Delta 18. Kappa Delta 

Sec. 3. Additions to the official list shall be made in order of election to member- 

Article VI — Powers 

Section 1. The powers of the Congress shall be fouP-fold. First, to make laws 
that pntain to its own government. Second, to admit at its discretion petitioning 
fraternities. Third, to levy anntial dues— not to exceed S15 — to be paid by the fraterni- 
ties within two weeks of notification by the treasurer. Fourth, to have powers to make 
recommendations to Grand Presidents for legislation. 

Article VI 1 — Government 

Section 1. The delegate from the fraternity calling the Congress shall act as chair- 
man of the same, and the delegate from the fraternity next in order shall act as secretary 
of the Congress. The treasurer shall be the delegate whose fraternity is next on the Itst 
after that of the secretary's. 

Sec. 2. The Executive Committee shall consist of the secretary of the last Congress 
as chairman, the secretary of the next Congress, and the treasurer. 

Sec. 3. The duties of the Executive Committee shall be (a) to carry on the work 
of the Congress between sessions; (b) to appoint on application from a Grand President 
of any chapter involved in college Panhellenic difficulties, a member of the Congress 
whose fraternity interests are not involved in the qtiestion at issue to investigate and 
arbitrate any difficulty arising in the Panhellenic, expenses of the one sent to be defrayed 
by the college Panhellenic; (c) on application of a Grand President, to make settlement 
of college Panhellenic disputes; (d) subject to apixal by a Grand President to the 
National Panhellenic Congress, to inflict penalties, if necessary, on any chapter which 
withdraws from a local Panhellenic or refuses to arbitrate its violation of any Panhellenic 
contract, after the Grand President of the offending chapter has been duly informed 
by the chairman of the Executive Committee. All appeals to Executive Committee 
to settle said disputes or inflict said penalties to be made b^ Grand President of one 
chapter involved, and no penalty shall be inflicted until the Grand President of each of 
the fraternities involved has been given reasonable time to present the case of the 
fraternity to the Executive Committee. 

Sec. 4. Chairman. The duties of the chairman shall be as follows: She shall keep 
the minutes. .She shall send reports of the Congress promptly to the members of the 
Congress and to all Congress delegates of the fraternities represented in the Congress 
for distribution to chapters and officers of their fraternities. She shall issue questions 
proposed by the Congress to the Congress delegates for presentation to their fraternities, 
and shall upon receipt of the result, send notices of the same to all Congress delegates. 
She shall report all measures of interfratemity interest passed by any Grand Council 
or by convention at once to the Congress. She shall send to each Grand Secretary 
votine blanks for all motions submitted to the fraternities by the Congress. 

Stieshaltprepare, with the other members of the Executive Committee, the program 
of the next Congress and the instructions to the delegates, and shall issue the call for 
the next meeting. She shall send, with the aid of the Executive Committee, quarterly 
bulletins of Panhellenic interest to each Congress delegate. 

Sec. J. Treasurer. The duties of the treasurer shall be to collect and hold all 
monies, subject to the will of the Congress, and be expended only on written order from 
the chairman. 

Article Vlll — Methods or Procedure 

Section 1. Recommendations of the Congress shall be submitted as soon a* 
"KMuble by the chairman of the Executive Committee, to all the Congreas Grand 


National Panbellenic Constitution 349 

Presidents of the rraternities, and the result o! the vote announced by each Congress 
Grand President to the chairman o! the Executive Committee of the Congress within 
two months. 

Sec. 2. The chairman of the Executive Committee shall then announce the result 
to all Congress delegates and chapters. The motions that have received a unanimous 
vote of all the fraternities shall at once become binding upon all chapters, the Grand 
Councils being responsible for their observance. 

Article IX — Legislation 
Section 1. Legislation enacted by a fraternity at the recommendation of the 
Congress can be repealed or modified only by formal action of the Congress. 

Abticle X — Auendhbnts 
Section 1. This Constitution may be amended by an unanimous vote of all the 
fraternities represented in the National Panhellenic Congress. 

(National Panhellenic Rules that are binding upon college Panhellenics.) 

Article I — Concerning Cc».lege Panbellenics 

Section I. Panhellenic shall be established in all colleges where two or more 
national fraternities exist. 

Sec. 2. These Panhellenics shall consist of one alumna and one active delegate 
from each fraternity represented in the Congress. 

Sec. 3. The purpose far which these college Panhellenics shall be formed shall be 
the same as the purposes of the National Panhellenic Congress. 

Ssc. 4. The chapter first established at each college is to organize the Panhellenic. 
The chairmanship is to be held in rotation by each chapter in the order of its establish- 

a be reported to its 

Article II — Concerning Pledging 

Section I. No student shalf be asked to join a fraternity before she has matricu- 

Sec. 2. Matriculation shall be defined as the day of enrollment or registration as a 
student in the university or college. 

Sec. 3. A pledge day, fixed by the college Panhellenic, shall be adopted by the 
national fraternities in each college where chapters of two or more fraternities exist. 
' Sec. 4. Students in a university summer school are ineligible for fraternity pledging. 

Sbc. S. a pledge shall expire at the end of one calendar year. 

Sec. 6. A eirl who breaks her pledge to one N. P. C. fraternity or resigns therefrom, 
shall not be asked to join another for one calendar year from the date of request for 

Sec. 7. After January, 1916, no girl who becomes a member of an organization 
bearing a Greek name, and called a fraternity or a sorority, shall be eligible to a National 
Panhellenic fraternity. This is exclusive of Junior College or professional fraternities. 
(It is the opinion of the Congress that the high school rulm^ be interpreted as applying 
only to Greek letter organizations, or sororities, or fraternities in high schods, public or 

Akticlb III — Concerning Fraternity Journals 

Section 1. An exchange list shall be prepared and printed consisting of the names 
of three officers for each fraternity. Each N. P. C. fraternity shall send its magazine 
to each address on its list. 

Sec. 2. Each N. P. C. fraternity shallprint in each issue of its journal the name and 
address of the chairman of the National Panhellenic Congress. 





Miss Mabel Siller 

Mrs. Richard Tennant 
Mrs. Richard Tennant 
Mrs. Richard Tennant 
Mra. Richard Tennant 
Mra. Richard Tennant 
Mra. Richard Tennant 
Mra. Jamea H. Craan 
Mra. Jamea H. Crann 
Mrs. Jamea H. Crann 
Mrs. Jamea H. Crann 
Mra. E. J. Foulds 
Mrs. Frank A. Fall 
Mra. Frank A. Fall 



Mra. Margaret M. Wbitney.A* 
Mra. Uura B. Norton, K A 9 
Miaa Grace Telling. A r 
Miss Amy H. Olgen, AAA 
Mrs. Robert Uib, A Z A 
Miaa Jobelle Holcombe, X n 
Miss A. W. Lytle, D B ♦ 
Miss L. P. Green, K A 6 
Mra. A. H. Roth, K K r 
Miss Marguerite Uke, A r 
Mra. Cora A. McElroy, A t 
Miaa Lillian Thompson, r * B 
Mra. Jamea H. Crann, A X Q 
Mrs. Amy Parmelee, AAA 
Miaa Lena Baldwin, A Z A 
Mra. Mary Love Collins, X R 



r- » o - 




St. Louis 
New York 
Washing- . 
ton, D.C. 




15-16, 1905 
17-18, 1909 
16-17, 1910 
3-4, 1911 
17-19, 1912 
16-18, 1913 
15, 1914 
12, 1915 
24-27. 1917 
16-18, 1919 









Panhellenic Conference 
Panhellenic Congress 

Panhellenic Congress 
Panhellenic Congress 
Panhellenic Congress 






Fratbrkitt Leaders 

"The best piece of good fortune that can come to one is opportunity 
for intimacy with a leader," said Edward Everett Hale. In giving to 
Alpha Chi Omega closer acquaintance with its prominent members, the 
author of the History takes great pleasure in recording a few facts and 
comments regarding some of the forceful women who have led the frater- 
nity along its way from 1885 to 1921. By piecing together the fraternity 
measures constructed by these women and the national fraternity tasks 
performed by them, one would possess rather a comprehensive history 
of the development of Alpha Chi Omega. 

No one perhaps, except the writers of fraternity histories, can know 
how much depends on the unselfishness, executive ability, high standards, 
and creative power of national officers. The detail involved in a national 
oflice is enormous; as decentralization progresses this burden fortunately 
will be divided more effectively among a larger number of workers. The 
training received would fit a rouncil member for any post involving the 
direction of students, from dean of women to executive lield secretary of 
the Y. W. C. A., or any other position calling for expert knowledge of a 
scattered field; the compensation consists in the sense of having helped 
in a worthy and beloved cause, in the possession of numberless valued 
friendships, and in the joy of moving in the current of young American 


The National President of Alpha Chi Omega from 1920 on, is the 
regal person well known In Alpha Chi Omega, Gladys Livingston Graff, Z. 
After the departure of Mrs. Prins to the Dutch East Indies, the frater- 
nity persuaded Mrs. Graff, Atlantic Province President, to assume the 
presidential duries. Mrs. Graff fortunately had come to know all 
chapters through her years of work as chairman of the French Orphan 
Committee, and had become personally acquainted with fraternity 
officials by attendance at the 1919 Convention as a province president. 
Her literary ability had been called on generously in her term as National 
Alumnae Editor when she wrote the sparkling series of interviews with 
celebrated Alpha Chis, and served as one of the judges for several years 
in awarding the 'ExXuri prizes, and later in endless work as a member 
of the 1916 History Board. 

*Fot banonry nHban, M* ptft WW; ibaMi Mcond edition, pp. 11 MM. 


Gladvs Livingston Graff 

.y Google 

Fraternity Leaders 353 

Mrs. Graff was a charter member of Zeta Zeta and has always sup- 
ported that chapter in the most dependable manner. During Major 
Graff's sojourn in Washington, D. C, Mrs. Graff delighted the D. C. 
Alumnx Club by joining that group. Extensive foreign travel and 
metropolitan life have given breadth to Mrs. Graff's conceptions of 
life. She served the cause of the progress of women in active suffrage 
work in Boston at headquarters and in making addresses, and was a 
member and ofliceT of the Boston Writers' Equal Suffrage League. 
By virtue of her beautiful personality and her seasoned experience, 
Mrs. Graff stands out as an able and poised national president for 
whom her co-workers feel both confidence and affection. 

Elizabeth Dunn Prins, lota, 
graduated as a Phi Beta Kappa 
from the University of Illinois. 
The school year of 1915-1916 
she spent teaching departmental 
history in one of the Tacoma 
schools. In the spring of 1917 
she received her master's degree 
in history from the University of 
Washington, having spent that 
year not only working for her 
degree, but giving generously of 
her time, energy, and counsel as 
Rho's chaperon, as well as doing 
assistant teaching in the univer- 
sity History Department; 1917- 
1918 found her teaching history 
at Twin Falls, Idaho. 

In September, 1918, she mar- 
ried Mr. J. W. Prins, a man of 
much academic training and 
experience. She made her home 
for a time in New York City 
where Mr. Prins was in govern- 
ment employ, later being sent to 
Philadelphia, where Alpha Epsi- 
lon had the privilege of knowing 
and working with Mrs. Prins 
personally. In September, 1919, 
Mr. and Mrs. Prins with their 

Elizabeth Dunn Prins 


3S4 HiSTORV OF Alpha Chi Oubga FRATBBNity 

infant son moved to Seattle, Washington, then left the United States 
in the spring of 1920 for a year's sojourn in Java. 

"The dry, chronological facts given regarding Mrs. Prins' life seem 
colorless to me," says a college friend, "for it is my privilege to know the 
woman and to revel in the personality, for Mrs. Prins has 'personality 
plus.' She is a woman of unusual personal attraction, with sparkling 
black eyes and animated countenance. An unlimited capacity for doing 
things and doing them well, made her especially fitted to lead the frater- 
nity." She served as National President, 1919-1920. 


Myra H. Jones, A, First Vice President (1919-1921), has won the re- 
spect and admiration of the fraternity by her quiet efficiency and excel- 
lent judgment. Miss Jones performed her fraternity functions "on the 
side," after absorbing days of profes- 
sional endeavor. The direct touch 
with affairs, however, compensates by 
increased mental power and scope for 
the lack of that leisure so desirable in 
volunteer fraternity officials. Miss 
Jones is a New York woman who un- 
dertook secretarial training after her 
college course and then entered upon 
combined secretarial and editorial 
work in a scientific federal bureau. 

After four years of editorial work 

in which her unusual mental capacity 

won recognition, she accepted during 

the war an executive position as office 

manager in the Petroleum Division in 

the same bureau, the Bureau of 

Mines. On account of the pressure 

of war work. Miss Jones resigned her 

position as National Treasurer of the 

Myra H. Jones, Lambda fraternity after three years of service, 

but was persuaded by Mrs. Loud to 

reenter the Council in 1919 as Alumme Vice President. In that work she 

developed with sympathy and discretion the plans for the permanent 

altruistic work of the fraternity, for which she had been well fitted 

by graduate study of industrial problems under the direction of Dr. 

MacLean, University of Chicago. The details of the Scholarships for 

Children appear in Chapter 23, and have been described in The Lyre 

and in other fraternity magazines. Miss Jones has administered with 


F RATE UNITY Leaders 355 

particular enthusiasm also the Alpha Chi Omega scholarship fund 
and has outlined the possibilities of the development of that fund for 
good to our members for many years ahead. Her plans — rather, her 
dreams — embrace not only adequate loan funds for all undergraduate 
demands, but a!so graduate fellowships for study both in American 
and in foreign universities. 

Miss Jones is an active member of the National Club of the Associa- 
tion of American University Women (formerly the A. C. A.) and of the 
D. C. Alumnae Club of Alpha Chi Omega. She served most efficiently 
on the editorial board of the Alpha Chi Omega History for the 1916 and 
1921 editions and assisted the author in many ways. She contributed to 
both editions also the excellent indexes which no one but an expert could 
haye made. Besides, she has served as the efficient treasurer of the J7>j- 
tor> from 1916 to date. By her unassuming charm, sincerity, and marked 
ability, Miss Jones has endeared herself to the many Alpha Chis who 
know her personally. 


Myma Van Zandt Bennett, ♦, Extension Vice-President, 1919- 
showed during undergraduate days in the chapter "rare executive ability 
combined with an unusual fund of 
nervous energy. Her great interest in 
the fraternity at large," writes Miss 
Zimmerman in The Lyre, "as well as 
in her own chapter was soon felt." 
Upon her residence in Oklahoma City 
she came into close touch with Psi and 
endeared herself to that group 
through her services and interest in 
it 33 their alumnae adviser. Because of 
her local successes and an apprecia- 
tion of the national point of view in 
fraternity affairs, Mrs. Bennett was 
elected Western Province President 
in 1918 with Phi, Omicron, Psi, Alpha 
Gamma, Xi, and Nu under her juris- 
diction. As Western Province Presi- 
dent she installed Alpha Gamma at 
the University of New Mexico. She 
was also on the Extension Board for 

this state and visited several other Myrna Van Zandt Bennett, PAt 
states where we had petitioning 
groups. Pi and Epsilon were also inspected by her. Those who know 


356 History of Alpha Chi Omega FRATERNtTV 

her personally attest to a rare charm of personality combined with 
dignified poise, a sense of keen enjoyment in human nature, an innate 
appreciation of organization and good order, and the ability to win the 
confidence and affection of young college women. As Extension Vice 
President Mrs. Bennett has supervised the admission, 1919 to 1921, of 
Alpha Zeta, Alpha Eta, Alpha Theta, Alpha lota. Alpha Kappa, and 
Alpha Lambda Chapters, and the reinstallation of Eta. 


Gretchen O'Donnell Starr, National Treasurer, 1919-1921, and for- 
merly president of the Pacific Province, is a graduate of the State Univer- 
sity of Washington. She was a charter 
member of both Rho and Iota lota 
Chapters. Mrs. Starr was the vice presi- 
dent of the University Woman's League, 
and was secretary of the Panhellenic 
Association. She was twice president and 
once treasurer of Rho Chapter, and was 
alumnae adviser and alumnae editor of 
Rho for several years. She was the corre- 
sponding secretary and the treasurer of 
Iota Iota Chapter for three years. Mrs. 
Starr was the first president of the 
Seattle Panhellenic Association and was 
also chairman of a committee of the 
Province presidents to make a survey of 
social life and relations among colleges 
and fraternities. She is the author of a 
bulletin entitled "A Bibliography of 
Gretchen O'Donnell Starr Geolt^y and Geography of the State of 
Washington," which was published and 
distributed by the State Geographical Survey. 

Mrs. Stair is a notably successful business woman, occupying the 
position of Vice President and Treasurer of the shipping firm of Thom- 
dyke, Trenholme, & Co., Inc., who have offices all over the world. To 
quote a Seattle newspaper : 

"G. M. S." as she Is more (amiltarly known to the shipping interests of both 
coasts of the United States and not a few foreign ports, too, possesses an intimate 
knowledge of shipping and freight forwarding by water routes. She became 
associated with the Thorndyke-Trenholme Company shortly after the organiza- 
tion of that company in 1916. At the time the dual "T" concern wereoperating 
agents on this Coast for the French government fleet Mrs. Starr handled the 

When the firm became operating agents for the United States Shipping 
Board she became secretary- treasurer of the corporation, and soon demonstrated 


Fhaternitv Leaders 357 

that she was an efficient agent of the company in the tranuction of accounts with 
the shipping board. 

Two months ago she was elected vice-president of the company, and because 
of her expert Icnowledge of accounts, was retained as treasurer also. 
The fund of energy, good judgment, and humor that Mrs. Starr keei>s 
at hand endears her to all her associates. 


As a national organization expands and the business thereof becomes 
more complicated, it is imperative that it become better systematized. 
Greater professional experience in administration becomes requisite. 
In 1919 as the office work of the fraternity had continued to expand, 
the national convention established a central office, with a fulUtime 
secretary-editor in charge, and to that post, particularly important 
in its early years, elected Mary-Emma Griffith, A. In preparation and 
experience Miss Griffith assumed as an expert the direction of her 
office. As a graduate of a great university (A.B. Syracuse) and a 
teacher of English for three years, followed by several years of work as an 
editor-librarian in government service and two years as Exchange Editor 
of The Lyre, her training for Editor of The Lyre is apparent. Her fitness 
for supervision of details of general fraternity administration was gained 
through service as official examiner for three years, and as National 
Secretary for four years. We may consider Miss Griffith one of the best 
"educated" of our officials, as she "was bom in a school, and lived in one 
or attended one, or taught one for the next quarter of a century." 

Not only in point of professional skill and thorough education, how- 
ever, is Miss Griffith suited to her new and interesting responsibility. 
Fraternity leadership requires a personality of sympathy and understand- 
ing of student problems and conditions, and assumes mental alertness 
and breadth of intellect. Miss Griffith has held since 1913 (except for one 
year spent in Syracuse) an unusually interesting position in the United 
States Bureau of Markets, Washington, D. C, where she does editorial 
work under the title of Scientific Assistant. For a description of her 
excellent work as Editor of The Lyre and her photo see page 217. 


One of the two underclassmen whom Gretchen Gooch Troster 
"successfully reared" in Iota says of her chapter sister: "The office of 
National Inspector has many requisites. It brings with it little personal 
glory, rather often great inconvenience and sacrifice, lightened only by 
the great privilege of meeting everywhere loyal fraternity sisters, and by 
the personal satisfaction that unselfish service is sure to bring. The one 
who fills it must be gifted with infinite patience, she must have a keen 
understanding of the undergraduate attitude, and her sympathy and 
generosity must be unbounded. All of these qualities plus two others 


35S History of Alpha Chi Oheca Fratbrnttt 

of paramount value, a charming personality and saving sense of humor. 
Alpha Chi Omega will find in Gretchen Gooch Troster," After serving 
her own chapter, Iota, as chapter treasurer, as chapter pre^dent, and 
as delegate to the Long Beach Conven- 
I tion, Gretchen Gooch received a call 

j from the National Council to assist Mrs, 

I Fall in her work as Inspector, and also to 

I fill out nearly a year of Miss Jones' unex- 

pired term as National Treasurer. On 
account of her personality, ability, and 
I good judgment the 1919 Convention 

selected her as National Inspector. In 
I the midst of these duties she became 

I Mrs, Oliver J. Troster. 

' The particular contribution Mrs. 

I Troster has made to the fraternity aside 

from the usual duties of an Inspector 
has been the wise expansion of the 
province system of government, tend- 
ing toward greater decentralization of 
fraternity business. 
Gretchbn Gooch Trostbr 

alta allen loud 
Alta Allen Loud filled the office of National President of Alpha ChJ 
Omega for eleven years (1908-1910; 1912-1919) and before that of National 
Secretary for two years (1897-1898). Throughout the period of her lea- 
dership Mrs. Loud was the moulding power in Alpha Chi Omega. Those 
who followed her work closely realized that the service of those years 
was the service of a great and a very wise woman. For several years a 
college professor, Mrs. Loud possessed in her fraternity leadership the 
viewpoint of the faculty as well as the student. Her objective was always, 
among other aims, to make the fraternity useful to the college, harmon- 
ious and stimulating to its best standards. Much of the fraternity's 
extraordinary progress made in the period of her presidency was due to 
her wisdom and her executive ability. 

It is impossible in a few words to describe the l^bor and skill with 
which Mrs. Loud served as the chief administrative officer of the fra- 
ternity. The present condition of Alpha Chi Omega and the love 
which the organization bears her are her "monument" far more expres- 
sive than words. An outline of her activity (from Ltading Greeks): 
shows the breadth of her interests. She has "contributed to Lyre; Editor- 
ial Board, History of Alpha Chi Omega, to which she wrote introduction; 
delegate to National Convention of 1897 at De Pauw; originator of 


Alta Allen Loud 


360 History of Alpha Chi Oueca Fratsxnity 

present council system; Chairman Coat-of-arms Committee; Chairman 
Endowment Fund Committee; Delegate to National Presidents' Con- 
ference of 1911; Chicago Greek Conference of May, 1913; teacher of 
Greek and German at Albion College, 1898-1903; member of Eastern 
Star; president, vice-president, and treasurer of Albion E. L. T. Club; 
president Albion Review Club; vice-regent chapter of Daughters of 
American Revolution; on board of City Federation of Clubs." Her main 
interest, however, is the city hospital; she has served three years as 
president of the Hospital Board. For details regarding Mrs. Loud's 
fraternity service see also pp. 171, 283, and the index. 

It is the spirit of Mrs. Loud that has meant perhaps her greatest 
contribution to Alpha Chi Omega: poise and tenderness in decisions, 
truest courtesy, unfailing graciousness and sincere interest, depth of 
conviction and alert emphasis upon the real values — combined with keen 
intellectual grasp, intensity and self-forgetfulness in service; such a 
personality has made all members understand better the meaning of 


The following request from Miss Griffith, Secretary-Editor, was 
made of the author. In accordance with this request the sketch 
mentioned is herewith reprinted. 

Dear Hiss Armstrong: 

1 shall consider myself honored If you will include in the History one of my own 
articles from Tht Lyre for November, 1919, as no history of the fraternity is complete 
without some acknowledgment of the very splendid work you have done for our maga- 
>ine during the nine years of your editorship. In my present work as National Secretary- 
Editor I have occasion to touch many other phases of fraternity work aside from that 
connected with The Lyre, and on every side 1 find constant evidence of your influence, 
which seems to have touched almost every "nook and cranny" of our fraternity life. 
I know that the History itself will testify most convincingly to your splendid influence 
in the fraternity world, but I feel that some definite aclcuowledgment of our appreciation 
of your work is needed to "complete its tale." The article b as follows: 

"One does not soon forget Matthew Arnold's charming description of 
'the voices in the air' that 'haunted' so pleasantly the memory of his 
undergraduate days at Oxford. No undergraduate Alpha Chi Omega 
of the past decade will soon cease to remember one of the most convincing 
'voices of the air' that has ever echoed throughout the fraternity world. 
Adapting Arnold's words— 'Happy the women who in that susceptible 
season of youth hears such voices ! They are a possession to her forever,' 
A 'voice' so true, so clear yet so subtle, so gently humorous and withal so 
sweetly insistent as that of Miss Armstrong's has seldom been heard in 
the Greek world. 

.y Google 

Fkatbrkity Leaders 361 

"It ii dtfiicult to ipeak of Mias Armstrong without using superlatives ; 
one hears them on every aide. From the most widely known man in the 
fraternity journalistic world came the message several years ago, 'Both 
(a prominent man and woman in journalistic circles) put her work and 
The Lyre at the head in sorority journalism.' And at the recent National 
Panhellenic Conference in Washington, the president of the Conference 
paid a tribute to Miss Armstrong when she described the History of 
Alpha Chi Omega as the 'most progressive piece of fraternity journalism 
that has ever been published.' All members of Alpha Chi Omega are 
justly proud of the splendid record which the publications of the frater- 
nity have made under her guidance during the past nine years. 

"As Secretary of the Editor's Conference in 1917 and President of the 
Conference in 1919, Miss Armstrong has contributed vitally toward the 
success of these meetings of fraternity editors that are held in connection 
with the meeting of the National Panhellenic Congress. 

"Miss Armstrong has continued her work with The Lyre and the 
History under conditions that might easily have daunted a less adven- 
turesome spirit. During three and a half years of her service she was 
doing graduate work at RadcHffe College, where she obtained her master's 
degree and did practically all of the work preparatory to receiving the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy for which she is now completing her 
dissertation. In addition she was president of the RadcIifFe College 
Poetry Club, an enviable distinction, and spent one summer working on. 
the History at the Macdowell Memorial Association where she was 
awarded the use of one of the studios. For the past two years Miss 
Armstrong has been in Washington, first in the intensely interesting 
work of the Military Intelligence Division of the War Department where 
she did research and writing on European politics, and later in the State 
Department where she did similar work. In 1920 she accepted a respon- 
sible position as assistant editor in the Bureau of Mines. 

"Fitted by direct contact with the varied interests of college life 
through the medium of a small college — Simpson, a progressive western 
co-educational state institution — Iowa State University, and a con- 
servative woman's college, most intimately connected with a great 
university, rich in traditions of the east — Radcliffe College, coiirdinate 
' with Harvard University, Miss Armstrong has enriched the i>ages of 
The Lyre and the History with her generous understanding of college 
problems, her keen interpretation of significant movements, and her 
marvelous sympathy with men and women. 

"Above everything else — she is real, human, and a most remarkable 
friend. After all, we who know her are most grateful for the fact that she 
is so very much more than a 'voice in the air'!" (For photo see p. 216.) 


362 HisTosv OF Alpha Chi Ohega Featbrnitv 


No more delightfully popular memberof the Council has graced the 
fraternity's honor roll of distinguished officers than Nella Ramsdell Fall. 
All of her friends think of 
her — as all of de S6vign6's 
friends spoke of her — as 
being delightful, and more 
than that, beautiful. To 
Mrs. Loud, who has cher- 
ished Mrs. Fall's friendship 
longer than any of us, we 
give the privilegeof describ- 
ing her services and her 
contribution to Alpha Chi 
Omega. "For several years 
before Mrs. Fall's election 
to the Council," says Mrs, 
Loud in The Lyre for No- 
vember, 1919, "she was 
coveted asa national officer, 
because of her charming 
personal ity.unusualability, 
and the important work 
she had rendered for Alpha 
Chi Omega. She was one 
of the two founders of our 
fine Gamma Gamma Chap- 
ter, and had a large part in 
the writing of our beauti- 
Nella Rausdell Fall, S«(a i i ■ ■.■ »■ j ^l 

' ful mitiation and other 

ceremonies and our present Constitution and Code. Home responsibili- 
ties and limited strength compelled negative answers to several appeals 
to take a place on the Council, so it was with real dehght that the 
fraternity learned early in 1916 of her acceptance of the office of Na- 
tional Inspector. 

"Alpha Chi Omega has had splendid inspectors always, and it is no 
reflection on her predecessors when 1 say that Mrs. Fall made an ideal 
visiting officer. She was able to accomplish what no other national officer 
has done in visiting every college chapter of our fraternity. Besides this, 
she has made many extension visits and was personally responsible for 
the installation of Alpha Epsilon, Lambda Lambda, and Nu Nu Chapters. 
In addition, she acted as National Panhellenic Congress delegate. * * • 


Fraternity Leaders 

"It is comparatively easy to present statistics, showing the number of 
chapter inspections and other visits made, but it is the quality of the 
work done, the personality and spirit of the worker that really count. 
According to prophecy, Mrs. Fall walked straight into the hearts of our 
college girls and quickly won their love and sympathy. As the chairman 
of the 1919 Nominating Committee so aptly said in her report, 'Mrs. Fall 
possesses an unusual combination of girlish spontaneity and womanly 
dignity and charm' and it was this combination which won for her the 
love and loyalty of our members and a sincere respect and enthusiastic 
tributes from faculty members with whom she came in contact. It is a> 
fitting commentary on her work that in nearly four years of Council 
service not a single complaint was registered from any chapter or college 

"It was with deep regret that officers and chapters realized that they 
could not longer retain Mrs. Fall as Inspector. But we are truly glad 
that she accepted the office of National Panhellenic Congress Delegate 
and Panhellenic Adviser to our chapters. In this way our chapters will 
be able to keep in close touch with her and have the benefit of her counsel 
on Panhellenic relations and problems." 


, Lillian G. Zimmerman, K, ac- 
complished for the fraternity more ' 
than any previous officer had found 
it possible to perform in putting 
Alpha Chi Omega on a sound busi- 
ness basis. Other National Treas- 
urers had striven toward this goal, 
— particularly Laura Howe, Z, 
Winifred V. Mount, Z, and Myrta 
McKean Dennis, T; Miss Zimmer- 
man gathered together all their 
results and carried them forward 
to greater fruition. From 1912 to 
1915 Miss Zimmerman labored 
hard to improve the financial 
methods of the chapters and df the 
national organization. She con- 
served the fraternity's funds and 
developed plans for increasing them. 
A» chairman of the Chapter 
House Committee Miss Zimmerman 
directed far in advance the plans for Lillian G. Ziuhbkman 


364 HisTORv OF Alpha Chi Oueca Fraternity 

house building of Theta and Iota, for purchasing and remodelling chapter 
houses by Kappa, Lambda, Omicron, Pi, and for Alpha's campaign of 
memorial house construction, "As a result of her efforts," writes Miss 
Griffith, "there is not a single chapter of the fraternity that is not the 
proud possessor of at least a building fund," The fraternity is fortunate in 
retaining Miss Zimmerman as head of the fraternity's activities in chapter 
house ownership. 

As Alumnae Vice President, 1915-1919, Miss Zimmerman organized 
nineteen alumnae clubs, and trebled the alumnae membership in organized 
groups. No one phase of fraternity development has been so significant 
in beneficent results to the national order as the growth and intelligent 
cooperation of our large numbers of alumnae. In stimulating this move- 
ment Miss Zimmerman's splendid vitality and charming persistence 
played an important rfile. 


Maude Staiger Steiner, 0, served the fraternity four years as Extension 
Vice President. Six of our chapters came into the fraternity under her 

Maude Staiger Stbinkr 

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FftATERNiTV Leaders 365 

guidance. Says Miss Griffith of Mrs. Steiner's work, "Each of their 
charter members is ready to bear eloquent testimony to her patience, her 
thoughtful guidance, and her untiring response to the many perplexing 
problems that confront a newly organized group or a recently installed 

"During this time she investigated the possibilities of colleges and 
groups, accepted six petitions, rejected eighteen informal petitions, and 
left nine informal petitions still pending (1919). In addition Mrs. Steiner 
directed the personal visitsmade by members of the Extension Board and 
others to twenty-four colleges and investigated through correspondence 
fifty institutions." Before assuming national duties, Mrs. Steiner held 
the offices of secretary of the University of Michigan Alumnse for two 
years; of president of the St. Louis City Panhellenic Association for one 
year; and secretary of the St. Louis College Club. Her fraternity service 
like her share of organized work of many kinds has been enei^etic and 


Fay Bamaby Kent, A, performed six years of significant service 
as National Vice President, an office which then embraced the 
duties of both the extension and alumnae vice presidents of today. 
Mrs. Kent left upon the fraternity the imprint of high artistic attain- 
ments and idealism, and she stands out as one of the most forceful and 
rich personalities in Alpha Chi's long roll of distinguished officers. From 
1909 to 1916, Mrs. Kent contributed generously of her talent and time, 
often at enormous cost to herself on account of responsibilities and illness 
in her family. To Mrs. Kent, a former pupil of Macdowell and friend 
of Mrs. Macdowell, we owe the happy thought of building our studio 
for writers at the Macdowell Artists' Colony; to her also, with Nella R. 
Fall and Virginia F, Green, we are indebted for the impressive and 
thoroughly artistic ritual of the fraternity. 

Under Mrs. Kent's leadership seven chapters began their fraternity 
life, Pi, Rho, Sigma, Tau, Upsilon, Phi, and Chi; eight alumnse chapters, 
Epsilon Epsilon, Zeta Zeta, Eta Eta, Theta Tfaeta, Iota Iota, Kappa 
Kappa, Lambda Lambda, and Mu Mu; and twelve alumnae clubs, 
Decatur, Cleveland, Eastern Oklahoma, St, Louis, Des Moines, Albion, 
Omaha, Milwaukee, Meadville, Ann Arbor, Portland and District of 
Columbia. It can be seen by this brief survey of Mrs. Kent's achieve- 
ments something of the significance of her constructive work. She con- 
tinues her interest in Gamma Gamma Chapter which had been founded 
in 1907 largely through the efforts of Mrs. Fall, Mrs. Green and herself; 
in 1919 she had charge of the music at the installation of our chapter at 

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366 HisTOBv or Alpba Cbi Ohbga Fsatbrnitv 

Mrs. Kent for many years has been a profes«onal organist and 
director of the choir. For several years she played at the Church of the 
Ascension, Mt. Vernon, New York, and later became organist at the 
Congregational Church, at Plainfield, New Jersey, and teacher of music. 
She supports the activities of the Macdowell Club in New York, and is 
cofiperattng in the organization of the Macdowell Colony League to 
■ maintain the Colony by dollar subscriptions in order to relieve Mrs. 
Macdowell of the staggering financial burden of the upkeep of the insti- 
tution. Her summers Mrs. Kentspendson the farm at Kent Knoll, New 
Jersey with Mr. Kent and their young son, Bamaby. 

Mabel Siller Nafis, r, held, for a number of years, the position of 
Assistant Registrar, College of Engineering, Northwestern Univernty, 
1909-1913. Mrs. Nafis' frater- 
nity work has been extensive. 
She was a member of the Na- 
tional Council as Secretary 1900 
-1902, and as Historian, 1905- 
1911. At the end of her work as 
Historian there appeared the 
History of Alpha Chi Omega 
compiled by her, with Miss Arm- 
strong's help, the second, we 
believe, of such volumes to be 
published by a woman's frater- 
nity. Mrs. Nafis' workwasrauch 
wider, however, than either of 
her national offices denote. Only 
by reading carefully the full 
minutes of the national organiza- 
tion can one understand the 
scope of her service. She was 
Alpha Chi Omega's first delegate 
M»..LSru..«NA„s '■> *' National Panhellenic 

Conference; she mstalled three 
chapters of the fraternity, Nu (1907), Xi (1907), and Pi (1909). She 
has served on two standing committees — the Alumnae Committee, the 
Panhellenic Committee — and, in an advisory relation, on the Editorial 
Board of the 1916 History of Alpha Chi Omega; and served on twenty-five 
committees appointed by the National President to 1910. Such a voliune 
of earnest wtM-k has made Mrs. Nafis an important figure in the history 
of Alpha Chi Omega. 

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Fratebnitv Leaders 367 

Mrs. Nafis is secretary and advertising manager of the firm, Louis F. 
Nafis, Inc., Manufacturers of Scientific Glass Apparatus for Testing 
Milk and Its Products, Chicago. Her work is scientific as well as 
commercial and brings her in close contact with the U. S. Bureau of 
Standards, U. S. Dairy Division, and the various state experiment 
stations and dairy schools. She has worked with Mr. Nafis on several 
inventions that have been patented and which the firm manufactures. 
Mrs. Nafis has won unusual success in advertising and business. 


The first National President of Alpha Chi Omega, after the passing 
of the period when Alpha and Beta Chapter constituted the Grand 
Chapter and the officers of one 
chapter or the other directed the 
fraternity, was Ja Nette Allen 
Cushman (1891-1893). Mrs. 
Cushman is the sister of the 
most conspicuous figure in the 
honored list of Alpha Chi presi- 
dents, Alta Allen Loud, Our 
first National President has 
never lost her interest in Alpha 
Chi Omega; she was instru- 
mental in the establishment of 
a most successful alumnae chap- 
ter, Delta Delta, of which she 
has ever since been an active 
member. Since the 1919 Con- 
vention Mrs. Cushman has 
served on The Lyre Finance 
Board. Mr. Cushman has long 
rendered the most valuable 
service to Alpha Chi by advis- 
JA NETTE Allen Cushman, ""B ^""^ ^'^^'nE i" the handling 

of The Lyre Reserve Fund with 
maximum retiun to Lyre coffers. In 1921 Mrs. Cushman assumed 
the chairmanship of the Scholarships for Children on the Pacific Coast. 
Not only has she labored for her fraternity but she has given her a loyal 
daughter, Dorothy, B and IT. Mrs. Cushman is an officer in the Holly- 
wood Woman's Club and a member of the Hollywood D, A. R. 


Mary Janet Wilson, A, served as President of Alpha Chi Omega from 
1896 to 1898 and from 1897 to 1900 as Editor of The Lyre. Her service 



HisTORv OF Alpha Chi Omega FRATBRNiTy 

as editor of The Lyre has been described in that connection. Miss Wilson 
is recognized as one of the loyal steadfast early leaders, whose privilege 
it was, using Miss Wilson's own modest words, "to help sail the boat of 
Alpha Chi Omega after she had been launched upon the sea of college life ; 
many a time it was not easy to keep it afloat, but in spite of unfavorable 
winds that threatened to change its course if not wreck it entirely, kept it 
true to the end for which it was launched until stronger and more capable 
sailors were enlisted." Miss Wilson's professional life has consisted 
of twenty-five years work as librarian of the De Pauw School of Music 
1893-1918, part of which period she served also as instructor, and was 
for a time organist in the Presbyterian Church. In the autumn of 1918 
she rejoined her parents who had gone to the San Joaquin Valley in 
California. (For photo see page 214). 

Mary Stanford, T, served as the second General President, from 
February, 1893, to March, 1894, having 
previously served as General Treasurer, 
1891-1893, with Ja Nette Allen as Presi- 
dent. MissStanford has had a long pro- 
fessional career. She taught voice in 
Chicago fur several years. For sixteen years 
she had a studio in Kimball Hall and for 
four years she taught voice at the Chicago 
Training School for Home and Foreign 
Missions. In 1920 on accountof ill health 
she was compelled to give up her work 
temporarily. She is living at her home, 
4638 Lake Park Avenue, Chicago. The 
fraternity was glad to welcome Miss 
Stanford at the 1919 Convention in Chi- 


Charlotte Weber (Mrs. Ernest Scycle), A, became General 
President in March 1894 and served in that capacity until April, 1896. 
Miss Weber was well qualified for her office because of her previous 
experience as General Vice President from February 1893 to March 
1894. During her term of office two chapters — Epsilon and Zeta, were 
admitted to the fraternity. 

V Stanford, Cam ma 


Raebum Cowger (Mrs. F. C. Obenchain), A. The sixth National 
Convention passed the important legislation that the grand officers form 


FsATEHNiTY Leaders 369 

the Grand Council and be the governing board of the fraternity. Under 
this ruling Raebum Cowger became the first President of the Grand 
Council in December, 1898, and served for two terms, or until November, 
1902. For photo, see page 150. The office of Grand Historian being 
created. Miss Raeburn was the first to fill that position serving from No- 
vember, 1902, to January, 1905, making a total period of national service 
of more than six years. Miss Raeburn was thus the first on the roll of 
national officers who have rendered long service to the fraternity. Since 
her retirement from national work Mrs. Obenchain, though handicapped 
by ill health, has maintained an eager interest in the progress of the 
fraternity. She was present at the installation of Alpha Beta Chapter, at 
the 1919 Convention in Chicago, and at the first Eastern Province Con- 
vention, held in Indianapolis in February, 1921. Through the efforts of 
Mrs. Obenchain the Monticello Alumnae Club was organized in February, 

Evangeline Bridge Stevenson 

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370 HisTOKV OF Alpha Chi Oubca Fkatbrnitv 


Evangeline Bridge Stevenson, Z, served as National President, 
1910-1912. As the representative of Zeta Chapter to the Convention 
Evangeline Bridge had become acquainted with national fraternity ofH- 
cers, and they with her. Her dignity and force and her professional ex- 
perience caused her to be selected to succeed the retiring President, 
Alta Allen Loud. During her two years of office the fraternity estab- 
lished its Reserve Fund, installed three new chapters, and published its 
first History. During her presidency Miss Bridge became Mrs. W. B. 
Stevenson and is now the mother of two sons and a daughter. An account 
of Mrs. Stevenson's artistic work may be found on page 379. 

Kate Calkins (Mrs. Rollin L. Drake), B, was elected Grand President 
at the Eighth National Convention held at Evanston, Illinois, October 
29, 1902, and served for two terms, or until January, 1907. Signifi- 
cant prc^p-ess was made during Miss Calkin's term of office and a num- 
ber of noteworthy steps were taken under her leadership, among them 
being the beginning of national committee work and the even greater 
step of Grand Council meetings alternating with the Grand Conven- 
tion. In 1920 Mrs. Drake was living in Port Arthur, Texas. Mrs. 
Drake assisted in making an unusual success of the Detroit Convention 
in 1910, taking the principal part in the exemplification of the new ritual 
which was presented for the first time at that convention. 


Florence Reed Haseltine, Z, performed distinguished work as editor 
of The Lyre from 1907 to 1910. Comments on her achievements for the 
fraternity may be found in the chapter entitled TheLyre. (See page 215). 

Mrs. Haseltine Is the mother of two sons and a daughter. She is a 
prominent club woman, and performed important work in a position of 
leadership in local Red Cross work during the war while Major Haseltine 
was overseas. 

Laura A. Howe, Z, served for three terms as National Treasurer of the 
fraternity from November, 1902, to January, 1909. In close coSperation 
with Mrs. Hazeltine, the editor, Miss Howe assisted in placing The Lyre 
on a better business basis, and marked advance was made toward the 
much desired end of making the magazine self-supporting. As National 
Treasurer of the fraternity Miss Howe labored strenuously to introduce 
a better system of fraternity finances. She did constructive work in her 
office so that the Lyre treasury was able to report the beginning of a 


Social Service Workbss 371 

Reserve Fund, Miss Howe's co-workers in the fraternity consider her 
one of the important builders of the organization. 


The growing emphasis placed by college women on the importance of 
social service as a profession is indicated by the increase in the number of 
Alpha Chis doing this work since the 1916 History. 

Florence E. Cain, A, for several years has done social service among 
the mill girls in the mountains of the South. 

Glennie G. Weston, B, holds the highly specialized office of Director 
of Religious Education in the Battle Creek Y. W. C. A. Her professional 
work lies along the line of teaching classes and organizing the work of 
religious education, and also of organizing student association club work 
in the high schools. She has published a textbook called. Chapter 
Studies in the Gospel by John and has written also many articles that 
have been used by clubs of industrial girls, business girls, high school and 
grade school girls. Among her duties appear addresses to high school 
girl assemblies and county Sunday School Associations, and talks at 
noon meetings of industrial plants. Miss Weston obtained her profes- 
sional training at the Bible Teachers' Training College, New York. 

Mabel Keech, B, stands out as one of the earliest members of Alpha 
Chi to recognize the possibilities of social service as a profession. She 
has been connected with Deaconess' work in Philadelphia for a number 
of years, and has published a volume and several articles in connection 
with her work. Miss Keech assisted the national officers tn the installa- 
tion of the Alpha Epsilon Chapter at Pennsylvania. 

Dorothy Purcell, F, was an active worker in the War Camp Com- 
munity Service during and after the recent war. She began her activities 
in 1918 as a volunteer worker in Racine, Wisconsin, where she taught 
dancing to working girls. Later she was sent by the War Camp Com- 
munity Service to Dayton, Ohio, where she assisted in staging a pageant 
with over four hundred participants, aiding in the dancing and costuming, 
and helping foreign groups to prepare their parts. She was then sent to 
Davenport, Iowa, as chief director of a large and successful pageant. 
Miss Purcell spent three months in Moline, Illinois, as director of the 
Girls' Community Service Club, where she taught dancing and dramatics, 
and organized opera study clubs and gymnasium classes. When in 
Moline, Miss Purcell secured for the town the establishment of Com- 
munity Service on a permanent basis, supported by the city itself. 

Mary Richardson Vose, T, has been connected prominently with 
social service work for a number of years in Chicago. Her recent work 
has been described in the chapter on war service (page 310). 



History of Alpha Cbi Oubga Fraterkity 


Lucille Lippitt, Delia 

Lucile Lippitt, A, has held for several 
years an interesting position in the Baltimore 
Y. \V. C. A., first as industrial secretary then 
as general secretary of the Bryn Mawr School 
League Branch of the city Y.W.C.A. In 
1921, she began work in Meadville as indus- 
trial secretary of the Y.W.C.A. Miss Lippitt 
has served the fraternity loyally as a member 
of the 1916i7ijfor7 Board, and as special assist- 
ant to the Editor of The Lyre. 

Laura Feige, 6, has become an authority 
on the subject of women in retailing. After 
graduating from Michigan with honors, both 
in scholarship and in campus activities. Miss 
Feige entered a course of professional train- 
ing in Boston along the line of women in business. She worked in 
research under the direction of the Women's Educational and Industrial 
Union and Mrs. Prince's School of Salesmanship. Remaining in Boston, 
she accepted the position of educational director in one of the largest 
department stores of Boston. In 1921 she entered upon similar work 
in Detroit. She contributed an article to The Lyre for July, 1920, on the 
opportunities for college women in retailing. 

May Allinson, Ph.D., I, at the time of her death in December, 
1918, was recognized as one of the most distinguished research workers in 
the field of women in industry. Her academic training was received at 
Illinois and Columbia. She received a fellowship from the Women's Edu- 
cational and Industrial Union, which was making a number of investiga- 
tions on the condition of women in industry in Massachusetts. At this 
period she decided to devote all- her time to an attempt to better the 
conditions of women in industry. Four years she remained at the Union 
as Associate Director of the Research Department, conducting investiga- 
tions and writing up the results, which were published by the United 
States Bureau of Education, and by the United States Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. In 1912-1913 she studied conditions of women and girl 
workers and the trade school systems of Italy, Germany, and England. 
In 1917 Miss Allinson received an appointment as Assistant Secretary 
of the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education; in 
the spring of 1918 she was granted a leave of absence to go to Washington 
to serve as Executive Secretary of the Council of National Defense, 
Women in fndustry Service. Her war service and her supreme sacrifice 
are described in the War Work Chapter (page 311). 

Miss Allinson, as chairman of Alpha Chi Omega's Advisory Com- 
mittee on Vocations, planned a service for the fraternity's members that 


Social Service Wokkers 373 

would have aided them greatly. Six main branches of information in 
the several gec^r^phical districts of the country were planned for, each 
directed by a member of the national committee who should assume 
responsibility and supervision over the alumnae chapters and clubs in her 
district, holding the list of possibilities and a record of the members of 
her district. Methods were outlined by Miss AUinson in the Argolid for 
December, 1916, "toconnect thegirland thejob." "Later," shewTOteto 
Mrs. Graff in November, 1916, "I hope to be able to develop a book on 
the Vocational Opportunities of College Women as seen in the experience 
of our alumnae. Also I think we ought to be able to make surveys of the 
vocational opportunities in our several districts through the alumnx 
clubs and chapters. All of these things will aid the committee members 
In assisting the girls to get established in a particular district or line of 
work." Her absorption in her increased responsibilities and her early 
death prevented the realization of these excellent plans. 

L. Grace Griffith, A, has accomp- 
lished important results in her social 
service which began with the entry 
of the United States in the war. A 
contemporary account of her war 
work of remarkable interest appeared 
in theAprilLyre 1919,entitled "Social 
Service with the War Workers of 
Washington," and a brief account of 
it is given on page 311, Following the 
war, Miss Griffith served as executive 
secretary of the Lend a Hand Club 
in Davenport in 1919-1920, after 
which she accepted a scholarship from 
New York University and began 
training for a department store exe- 

L. Gkace Griffith, Lambda 

Ruth Hoople, A, after several years of successful social service for 
the Larkin Company, sailed for China to do Y. W. C. A, work. 

Ethel J. McCoy, A, before entering upon college teaching and the 
ownership of a summer camp, served as vice-president of Sunday School 
work of the Southern Methodist Church in the State of Florida 1913 
-1916, In fact, during this period. Miss McCoy held offices in four state 
oi^anizations (page 383). 

Mildred Moody, A, is elementary specialist for the National Board of 
Sunday Schools of the Methodist Church. Her headquarters are at the 
Methodist Book Company in Kansas City and her territory covers seven 


HisToay or Alpha Chi Ohega Fratkknitt 

of the Middle Western states. Her work consists of training Sunday 
School teachers in story telling and child psychology for work with 
children up to twelve years of age. From 1914 to 1916 Miss Moody was 
in charge of a branch of the work of the New York W. C. T. U., and a 
national lecturer for the W. C. T. U. during 1916. 

Dorothy C. Thompson, A, served as New York State oi^anizer of 
Woman Suffrage, 1914-1916, and at the present writing is in the midst 
of a Balkan tour, as described on page 323 of this volume, 

Lora Hagler, M, for some years has held the position of Religious 
Work Director in different cities of Iowa. 

Pauline Petebs, Sifna 

Mary E. Ogc, Mu 

Ina Scherreseck, Sitma 

Mary Ogg, M, has gone to China as secretary to Dr. Grosbeck, 
Superintendent of Missions in southern China and in the November, 1920, 
Lyre recounts the joys of life in the vast republic in the stirring present. 

Leila Hinkiey, N, went to China in 1920 as a Y. W. C. A. worker. 
Her first year was to be spent at language study in Pekin where she 
carried on some club work in the meantime. Her plans were to become 
secretary of girls' work at Shanghai for the city Y. W. C, A. 

Aletha Kelly Kenoyer, 0, has been located in Allahabad, India, since 
1916 where her husband Dr. Leslie Kenoyer is at the head of the Biology 
department in Ewing Christian College. Mrs. Kenoyer teaches Bible two 
hours a week at the Wanamaker Girls' High School in Allahabad and 
three hours each week conducts a class in water colors and home culture. 

May Jaggard MacGuire, 0, continues her Y. W. C. A. work as com- 
mittee-woman for Loose-Wiles factory girls. 

Louise Chesney, 0, during 1917 to 1919 was president of the Young 
Womans' Foreign Missionary Society in one of the Methodist churches 
in Kansas City, and did splendid work also for the Y, W. C, A. as one of 
their high school leaders. 

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Social Service Workers 375 

Ruth Roseberry Havighurst, 0, and her husband took up missionary 
work in 1920, in China. 

Pauline Peters, 2, holds the important position of Associate Director 
of Psychiatric Social Service for the Lake Division of the American Red 
Cross and the United States Health Service. Her work includes super- 
vi»on of psychiatric work through Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky, with 
headquarters at Cleveland, Ohio. 

Iva Scherrebeck, 2, occupies the post of Field Executive of the 
Y. W. C. A. for the district embracing Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, 
Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky. Miss Scherrebeck 
previously served five and a half years as Field Student Secretary for the 
same district. Her staff in 1921 consisted of a city secretary, an industrial 
secretary, a secretary for the colored students, a publicity secretary, 
three secretaries for girl's work, three for town and county work, two 
office secretaries, one finance secretary with three helpers, and seven 
office helpers. Miss Scherrebeck's work comprises the usual duties of an 
executive of a large force that covers a scattered area of service. Her 
first official position was that of general student secretary of University 
of Iowa. 

Social workers of Upsilon Chapter are: Rowen Hudson Winn, who 
with her husband, is a missionary to Japan; Miriam Jane Bartlett, who 
has been engaged in social settlement work in Hull House, Chicago; 
and Mary Humma, social 
settlement work in Muscoda 
Mines, Alabama. 

Several Alpha Chis follow 
science professionally. Ruth 
Bigelow Martin, N, is secre- 
tary of the American Chemi- 
cal Society, Colorado Section. 
During the war she served 
as a chemist for the Red 
Cross. Bess Storch Thomp- 
son, P, was director for two 
years of the City Bacteriologi- 
cal Laboratory in Los Angeles. 
Edith Hindman Johnson, P, 
has worked with the State 
Food and Drug Laboratory 
of Washington. In medicine Ruth Bigelow Vbrtbebs, ffu 


A Chi Omega Fraternity 

Dr, Acnes Hgrtzler, Fki 

Helen Woods Basnuu, Alpha 

Alpha Chi is represented by 
Dr. Agnes Hertzler, *, who 
practices with her father in 
Kansas City. Ramoth Huff, 
A B, is engaged in research in 
the F^iblic Health Service at 
Washington, D. C. 
Sigma is represented in 
the legal profession by Mabel 
Elwood who is an expert in 
the legal form of legislative 

CoM.KGK Professors and 
Mary E. Wilhite, A, was a 
pupil of Dean Howe at De 
Pauw. She was principal of 
the Music Department of 
the Central Normal College, 


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College Pkopessors and Instructors 377 

Danville, Indiana, for some time. In 1913 she moved to Indianapolis 
where she is a member of the faculty of the Metropolitan School of Music. 
Minnie Murdoff Kimball , A, one of Indiana's best known musicians, served 
as professor of piano in De Pauw University. Two years before the 
World War, she went to Europe, studying with Leopold Godowsky in 
Vienna and Leonid Kreutzer in Berlin. Mrs, Kimball has occupied many 
positions of responsibility, having been president for seven years of one 
musical club; vice-president of the State Association of Music Teachers, 
and in 1920 president of the State Federation of Music Clubs, 

Among Beta Chapter alumnae are five college teachers. Alta Allen 
Loud graduated from Albion College both from the Liberal Arts Depart- 
ment and the Music School. From 1898-1903 she was teacher of Greek 
at Albion College. She was then married to Edward Reed Loud, Delta 
Tau Delta. Her life has been a full one, for she has served Alpha Chi 
Omega for many years with consecration and energy. A fuller account 
of her brilliant service appears on page 359. 

Ethel Calkins Johns, B, is an instructor in pipe organ at Albion 

Myrtle Hatswell Bowman, B, is a member of the faculty of the 
Northwestern School of Music in Evanston, Illinois. She gives instruc- 
tion in voice, being particularly efficient in the singing and teaching of 
bird songs, and does concert and recital work. She has served the 
fraternity in national work besides being alumna; adviser for Gamma. 
She served as Province President of the Eastern Province and assisted 
in the installation of Upsilon Chapter at James Millikin University. 
She is a member of Alpha Alpha Alumna? Chapter, and of the Music 
Club of Evanston, Illinois. 

Martha Reynolds Col- 
by, B, has studied under 
eminent musicians in the 
United States and under 
Herr Hilf of the Leipzig 
Conservatory in Germany. 
Shewas for many years the 
head of the stringed instru- 
ment department in Albion 
College and also spent a 
number of seasons in con- 
cert tour; at present, she 
is teaching violin and cello 
in the Albion Conservatosy. 

She oi^anized and trained ^^^.0,^ RevNoi-DsCoLBV, Seto, and Martha Colbv. 
the Colby String Quartet Btla ^ni\ Zela. Alpha Chi Molher and Pautkter 


378 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fkaterhitv 

of Albion College. Her daughter, Martha, was the first daughter of a 
Beta member to be initiated into the chapter. Martha graduated 
from Albion College in 1915 and then studied for several years at the 
New England Conservatory of Music in Boston; she is now teadiing 
violin and piano in Kents Hill Seminary, Kents Hill, Maine. 

Jennie Worthington, one of Beta's charter members and for several 
years her alumna adviser, was a member of the Alpha Chi Omega 
Quartet which did concert work. The other members were Cora Travis, 
Marion Howlett Garfield, and Jean Whitcomb Fenn. Miss Worthington 
graduated from both Albion and New England Conservatories and 
studied Public School Music in Detroit and Chicago. For eleven years she 
taught piano and harmony in Albion College, and served as organist 
and choir director of the Presbyterian Church for about fifteen years. 
She introduced music into the public schools of Albion and served as 
supervisor for several years. 

Harriet F. Reynolds, B, of Horton, Michigan, completed the course in 
piano at Albion College and studied in Boston ; she then became a mem- 
ber of the Albion College Conservatory faculty until ill health in her 
family forced her to retire. 

Clarissa Dickie Stewart, B, of Battle Creek, Michigan, the daughter 
of President Dickie of Albion College, graduated from Albion College, 
and spent several years in advanced study at Detroit, Chicago, and New 
York. She later became an instructor in piano at Albion College. At pre»> 
ent she is prominent as a pianist and accompanist at Battle Creek, as well 
as a giver of lecture-recitals. She married in 1903 Mr. Louis E. Stewart, 
one of the leading attorneys of Battle Creek, and has two daughters. 

Gamma's alumnae to the number of seven have taught at North- 
western University: Sadie Knowland Coe, Instructor in Piano; Eleanor 
Kirkham, Instructor in Voice, 1904; Mabel Dunn Madson, Instructor 
in Piano, 1901-1903; Grace Ericson, Instructor in Piano; Myrta McKean 
Dennis, Instructor in Piano, 1905-1909; Hedwig Brenneman, Instructor 
in Voice, 1908-1915 ; Mae Smith, Instructor in Piano, 1909. 

Several of Delta's members have served as faculty members or in- 
structors. Theo White is a violinist of merit and has done much concert 
work. For five years, she was at the head of the Violin Department in 
Elmira College, Elmira, New York. Miss White organized and directed 
with much success Y. W. C. A. orchestras in Newark, N. J. and while 
there opened her popular "tea shoppe," The Blue Lantern. Juvia 
O. Hull, at the time of her initiation was the Director of the Conservatory 
of Music. She is prominent in the musical life of Meadville, being dioir 
director of the Christ Episcopal Church of Meadville and leader of 
the Oratorio Society, Mary Pinney, after teaching piano several years 


College Professors and Instructors 379 

in the Meadville Conservatory of Music, went in 1893 to New York 
where ahe became engaged as organist of the First Church of Sdentists, 
After a short period of teaching in New York she devoted herself to 
accompanying and to organ work. Lucia DeTurk teaches French at 
Allegheny. She is a native of Belgium and returns frequently to Europe 
for study. 

Lucia De Turk, DeUa Carrie A. Trowbridge, EpsOon 

Epsilon Chapter has been fortunate in having several members on the 
faculty of the music school of the university. Miss Carrie Adelaide 
Trowbridge is a member of the faculty of the College of Music of the 
University of Southern California, and is head of the Normal Training 
Department of the College of Music. Her concert work as accompanist 
and pianist has also won her recc^nition, and her success as a teacher has 
been very successful. In 1919-20 with Davol Sanders, viohnist, she 
gave a series of five concerts in Los Angeles. She is in 1921 president 
of the Los Angeles Music Teachers' Association and chairman of the 
Program Committee of the Dominant Club, the foremost women's 
musical club of Los Angeles, Miss Trowbridge has composed several 
pieces for the piano. 

Lillian Amett, 1905, and Isabelle Curl, 1907, taught music in the Uni- 
versity; Doris Coomber taught history in the Liberal Arts Department. 
Evangeline Bridge Stevenson, Z, for a number of years was an instructor 
in the New England Conservatory and had a large private class of ad- 
vanced pupils. She is distinguished in Alpha Chi Omega for her service 
as National President 1910-1912. She has been a member of Zeta Zeta 
Chapter since 1909, and served as delegate to Convention in 1908 from 
Zeta, as delegate for Zeta Zeta in 1912. She graduated from New Eng- 
land Conservatory in the Piano Department as soloist and did brilliant 
concert work. She was a pupil of the famous Carl Baermann. 


3gu HisTOBV OF Alpha Chi Omega Fratermtv 

Zeta has numerous alum- 
nx on college faculties. 
Miss Blanche Brocklebank 
has been teaching piano at 
Wellesley since 1912, and 
Miss Mima Montgomery 
held a similar position in 
the teachingof voice. Miss 
Brocklebank graduated 
from the New England 
Conscr\-atory in 1912 as a 
soloist in the Piano Depart- 
ment. She has been, since 
that year, a member of Zeta 
Zeta Alumna; Chapter. She 
is also an assistant teacher 
of George Proctor at the 
New England Conservatory 
of Music. She has been 
Zeta's alumna adviser and 
Custodian of the Alpha Chi 
Omega Songbook. During 
the war Miss Brocklebank 
was granted leave of ab- 
sence for overseas service, 
an account of whichappears 
on page 318. 
Alma Marti Olsen, Z, ser\-fd on the faculty at Washburn College (Kan- 
sas). She graduated in piano at the New England Conservatory in 1905. 
Blanche Crafts Kaiser, Z, teacher and soloist in violin, taught in Wes- 
leyan College, Macon, Georgia, and later at Acadia Seminary, Wolfville, 
North Carolina, and at St. Mary's, Raleigh, North Carolina. She 
became concert mistress of the New England Conservatory Orchestra, 
and served on the faculty of New England Conservatory in 1906-1907, 
She went to Meadville tn National Convention as delegate in 1904, 
While a student she won iho Trustees' Scholarship. 

Annie May Cook, Z, was instructor in the New England Conservatory 
1909-1910. Since that time she has done private teaching in her own 
studio. She served Zeta Chapter as alumna adviser 1911-1915 and served 
as Custodian of the Songbook. She has long taken the leading part in 
the initiation ceremony at Zeta and assisted in the same part in the in- 
stallations at Pennsylvania, Bucknell.and at Vermont. Sheis known to 


College Professors and Issthuctors 381 

many in the frateroity because of her representation of Zeta Chapter at 
the Detroit Convention, and her attendance at the Long Beach Conven- . 

Olive Cutter, Z, graduated from the Violin Department of New England 
t'onscr^atory and served as instructor of violin in that institution. She is 
a member of Zeta Zeta, and was presc*nt at the Long Beach Convention. 
She made the exquisite design for the Alpha Chi Omega Calendar for 

Josephine Freeman Haley, Z taugh t at Western Union College, LeMars, 
Iowa, 1907-1908. She graduated from New England Conservatory in 
1906 as a teacher and soloist of the piano. 

In Winston-Salem, North Carolina, a very interesting work was 
done by Nell Brushtngham Starr, Z, mezzo-contralto as director of the 
vocal school in Salem College, the historic old Moravian institution 
which has been identified for generations with the best in music. Sub- 
sequently Mrs. Starr has continued her residence in Winston-Salem, and 
toiifined her concert work to the South, 

Spicie Belle Chaffee, Z, is now on the faculty of the Bradley Poly- 
technic Institute, Peoria, 111., as one of the teachers of piano. Mrs. 
Chaffee served as president of the Amateur Musical Club 1915-1917, and 
as president of the Southern Women's Club, 1919-1921. 

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History of Alpha Cm Oueca Fratermtv 

Helen Wegmann, Z, from 1917 to 1920 served on the faculty of the 
University of Idaho, as head of the Piano Department. She appeared 
in faculty recitals and toured the 
state with the Idaho Glee Club, 
as accompanist and soloist. She 
also has given programs for clubs 
in Portland. In 1921 she became 
president of the Portland Alumnae 

In Theta Chapter have been the 
following University instructors : 
Virginia Fiske, Instructor in Piano; 
Maude Kleyn, Instructor in Voice 
Culture; Florence Potter, Head of 
Public School Music, 1909-1910; 
Frances Hamilton, Instructor in 
Piano ; Leonora Al len , I nstructor 
in Voice Culture. 

Members on the faculty in the 
history of Iota Chapter are: Eunice 
Helen Wegmann, Zria jy^^^ Daniels, Dean of Women, 1905 

and 1906, and Instructor in Music School, 1909; Susan Reed Stifler, 
Ph.D., Instructor in History Department, 1908-1910; Mary Brene- 
man. Instructor in Music School, 1902; Mary Greene, Instructor in 
Music School, 1907 ; Florence Kirkup, Instructor in Music School, 1909- 
1915; Alison Marion Fernie, Instructor in Music School, 1899; May 
AUinson, Ph.D. taught methods in industrial research at Columbia Uni- 
versity (see pp.372, 394); Elizabeth Bryan, Libra- 
rian of the University Library, 1912 to date; 
StelIaGalpin,Librarian of the University Library, 
1914 to date; Ola Wyeth, Librarian of the Uni- 
versity Library, 1906-1917, then in A. L. A. 
work for army hospitals, and assistant director 
of library work for hospitals under federal 
Public Health Service {see also p. 319); Rachel 
Baumgartner, Assistant in Zodlogy, 1914-1916. 

Members of Kappa Chapter on the faculty at 
University of Wisconsin during the history of the 
chapter are: Margaret H'Doubler, assistant 

professor in the Department of Physical Educa- mabgaret H-Doubles 
tion in the University of Wisconsin is gainingre- Kappa 


College Pkofessoks and Instructors 383 

ct^nition through her remarkable work in dancing. Miss H'Doubler 
has demonstrated her work and lectures to the universities of Ohio, 
Illinois, Northwestern, and to the 
State Teachers' Association of 

Gertrude E. Johnson, assistant 
professor in the Department of 
Speech published two books recent- 
ly — Choosing a Play and Modern 
Literature for Oral Interpretation. 
The latter is receiving wide com- 
mendation and is being adopted by 
many universities and colleges. 

Others are Ruth Morris, As- 
sistant in Physical Training; Mary 
Sayle, Assistant in Biology; Alice 
Regan, Instructor in Piano. 

Russel MacMurphy Chase was 
for some time, instructor in piano 
at the University of Wisconsin and 
later director of the Macdowell 
Club Music School, Derry, New 
Hampshire. Mrs. Chase was State 
President of the National Federa- 
tion of Musical Clubs, and Chair- Gertrude E. Johnson, Kappa 
man, as well, of the State Music 
Committee of New Hampshire Federation of Women's Clubs. 

Ethel J. McCoy, A, holds the position of head of the history depart- 
ment of Virginia Intermont College, a junior college. During the 
summer she directs a large summer camp near Asheville, North Carolina, 
Camp Junaluska, which she has founded and which she owns. To this 
camp, which is the leading camp for giris in the South, Miss McCoy 
devotes her remarkable store of constructive energy. 

Mu Chapter has a number of faculty members including two 
deans of women, a physical director, and a professor of French. They 
are: Effie Silliman Kimer, teacher of Public School Music, 1906-13; June 
Hamilton Rhodes, Director of Physical Education for Women, 1912; 
Dean of Women, 1914-1915; Alice Barrows, Instructor in Piano, 1903- 
1905, 1908; Myrtle Bussey, Instructor in Piano, 1905-1908; Nellaby 
Finney, Instructor in Voice, 191 5-1916 ;LoraHagler, Instructor in English, 
1903-1908; Dean of Women and Principal of Academy of Simpson, 1908- 
11; Nell E. Harris, Secretary of Conservatory Faculty, 1906 to 1917; 
since that time assistant university Examiner, University of Iowa. 
Came McBride, Instructor in Voice, 1910-11; Florence A. Armstrong, In- 


¥ OF Alpha Chi Omega Fraternit 

Normal College, Albion, Idaho. ^jfiJi 
Mabel Kett teacher of piano 
in Hiram College, Ohio. 

Alice M. Loomis was born 
in Nebraska. She completed 
the home economics course in 
the Kansas Agricultural Col- 
lege, and later studied in Chi- 
cago University and Columbia 
University. In the latter in- 
stitution she held the Caroline 
Stokes Phelps Scholarship. 
From the University of Wis- 
consin she received her M.A. 
degree with a major in Physio- 
logical Chemistry, under Dr. 
E. V. McCollum and a minor 
in Sociology under Dr. K. A. 
Ross. Miss Loomis introduced 

structor in English at Iowa 
State College, 1908-10. Both 
Miss Barrows and Miss Bussey 
have opened studios of their 
own. Miss Hagler has become 
a religious work director in a 
city Y. W. C. A. 

Florence M. Hier taught 
French at Simpson College, 
1914-16, where she was ini- 
tiated into Alpha Chi Omega. 
She then resigned her position 
at Simpson to accept an in- 
instnictorship at the Univer- 
sity of Iowa, from which 
position she went to Columbus 
lo become a member of the 
faculty of the University of 
Ohio. Miss Hier graduated 
from Mt.Holynke in 1910, and 
studied at the University of 
Paris 1912-13. 

Kathryn VoUmar, Director 
of Music Department in State 


Coi.LEi.E Professors and Issthictors 3H5 

a home economics course into theStateNormal, 
where she had graduated ten years previ- 
ously, and in this connection had charge of a 
"self-boarding dormitory" which had been 
built by the president in an attempt to im- 
prove the conditions of living for students 
who were forced to board themseKes. 

Later Miss Loomis substituted as As- 
sistant Professor of Home Economics in the 
Rhode Island Agricultural College, taught 
in the University of Wisconsin (or three 

years, and for seven years was in charge .... 

, , ,, „ ■ r-, ■ r Alice M. Loomis, Xi 

of the Home Economics Department in the 

University of Nebraska. After the Smith-Hughes Act was passed. 

Miss Loomis was one of the two federal agents in Home Economics 

Education and helped to introduce instruction under the vocational 

act in twenty-two of the states of the Union. 

She is now state supervisor of Vocational Courses in Home Economics 
in Nebraska where she is having an opportunity to work out her firm 
belief that there should be no line of demarcation between cultural and 
vocational education. 

Miriam Little, Xi, teacher of the cello in the University Conservatory 
of Music. 

The following alumna of Omicron Chapter have served on the faculty 
of Baker University: Birdean Motter Ely, Instructor in Fine Arts; Eula 
Smith, Instructor in Voice; Helen Mayer, Teacher of Violin in Conserva- 
tory of Music. Katherine Kester teaches dramatic art in the English De- 
partment of the University of Minnesota; she writes and coaches annually 
a play for children at Ludington, Mich. 

Grace Medes, Omicron, received her Ph.D. degree from Bryn Mawr 
College in 1916. After holding the position of Instructor in Physiology 
at Vassar College, Miss Medes has become the Assistant Professor of 

Leona Young, 11, Department of Chemistry at the University of 

At the University of Washington, Edith Hindman Johnson, P, was 
Instructor in Pharmacy; and later served at the State Food and Drug 
Laboratory. She has contributed several articles to food journals; her 
research on cascara segrada bark has won her recognition. 

Norma Harrison Thrower, 2, Director for the Regent Photo Film 
Co., had charge of the Public Speaking Department at the University of 
Iowa 1910-1914, She graduated at Cumnock and did postgraduate work 


llisTORV OF Alpba Chi Oueca'Fratbsnity 

there. Her work since her teaching at theUniversity of Iowa has been 
spent in staging and writing photoplays. 

Other faculty members of the University of Iowa have been: Ntna 
Shaffer, for several years reference librarian of the University Library, a 
charter member of Sigma, and at different times alumna adviser; Agnes 
Flannagan, S, first assistant to the Director of the School of Music. 

Two members of Alpha Chapter established conservatories of music 
and have become well known in Washington, District of Columbia, and 
Chicago, respectively, for their work as musical leaders. Katharine 
McReynolds was president of Alpha in 1887, and thus she had the 
honor of initiating Madame Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler. She received 
artist's and teacher's certificates from the Royal Conservato y, Stutt- 
gart, Germany, (1891-1895) and artist's certificate from the Stem Con- 
servatory, Berlin (1899-1900). 
In 1895, together with Fraulein 
Fanny Koehle, she founded the 
McReynolds-Koehle Music School 
of Washington, D. C, which for 
nineteen years held high stand- 
ing in the community. 

The school was closed in its 
twentieth year, in 1914, when 
Miss McReynolds gave up her 
professional career to become the 
wife of Hon. Martin A. Morrison, 
Representative of the 9th District 
of Indiana in the Congress, later 
President of the Civil Service 

Ethel Sutherlin Bergey gradu- 
ated from the De Pauw school of 
music while it was still managed 
Ethel S. Bbrgev, i4ipfca by our patron, James H. Howe. 

She was a member of the De Pauw Symphony Orchestra, and a tutor in 
the school of music. Later she studied a year in Europe and spent 
some time at Milan in operatic study. She has been accompanist in 
several operatic companies. Ethel Sutherlin Bergey was instrumental 
in the organization of Bergey's Chicago Opera School. She has given 
many piano recitals in Chicago and is well known in the music world. 
At Brenau College Alpha Chi Omega has been represented by 
Grace Jean Sails, principal of the School of Oratory; Margaret Brown 
Holder, director of Theoretical department of the conservatory of music; 


Musicians 387 

lona Peterman, director of Pipe Organ and instructor in Piano; Ruby 
McGaughey, instructor in Piano. 

Upsilon's faculty members have been: Anna McNabb, Instructor in 
the Conservatory of Music, 1912-14; Elizabeth Putnam, Instructor in 
Applied Art Department, 19I3-; Cora Irene Leiby, University of Idaho. 

Chi Chapter has been well represented on the faculty with Mt^. Kerr, 
wife of the president; Miriam Thayer Seeley, Director of Physical 
Education of Women; Bertha Davis and June Seeley, Instructors in the 
School of Home Economics; and Irene Ahern, Instructor in the Chemistry 
Department. Miss Davis is serving in 1921 as State Supervisor of Home 
Economics of Oregon. 

The above list of Alpha Chis who have served or are serving as 
college professors or instructors is far from complete, we are certain, but 
it is extensive enough to be significant in revealing the large percentage 
of our membership who are working in professional lines. 

Numbers of the memb.r3 of Alpha Chi Omega have won conspicuous 
successes musically, (For details of the work of many of them see The 
Lyre for April, 1913.) In the mention made above of Alpha Chi Omegas 
on college faculties, and of writers, several musicians have been noted. 
Some of the others who have distinguished themselves in the musical 
world we will mention, with regret that space cannot be given to relate 
the fascinating stones of their careers. 

Alpha — Lucy Andrews Odell, violinist, lecturer on art and translator 
of Armenian songs. Pearl Waugh, one of the leading teachers of music in 
Washington, D. C, has a studio in that city; she also gives lectures to 
women's clubs, illustrating technical points at the piano. Berta Miller 
Ruick, of Indianapolis, is a soloist. 

Beta — Grace Brown, for several years 
head of Piano Department in Michigan 
School for the Blind, later at University 
of Oklahoma; Zella Brigham Sand, Cleve- 
land, organist and accompanist; Marie 
White Longman, contralto, Chicago; Kate 
Calkins Drake, concert singer, Texas; Ella 
Gustafson Turrentine, contralto, con- 
certist; Eva Marzolf Tiney, Director of 
Music in Michigan Soldiers' Home, Grand 
Rapids; Jean Whitcomb Fenn, conductor 
and founder of the New York Woman's 
Choir which provides group instruction 
Grace Brown, Btu> '" individual voice development and en- 

semble singing. 


ms History of Alpha Chi Ouega Frateknitv 

Gamma — Cordelia Hanson, chairman of Chicago Committee of 
Ravinia Park and director of Birchwood Musical Club; Zella Marshall, 
Chicago, pianist; director of Illinois Federation of Musical Clubs, and is 
compiling series of books on Illinois composers; Marie White Clark, 
Evanston, soprano; Mary Marshall and Julia Marshall, pianist and 
violinist, respectively; Myrta McKean Dennis, pianist; Tina May 
Haines, organist and choir director; Vesta Lister, soprano, song recitals; 
El Fleda Coleman Jackson, soloist, and di -ector young people's social 
activities, Presbyterian Church, Muskogee, Oklahoma; chairman of 
Macdowell Studio Committee; president Eastern Province 1917 to 1919. 
Mabel Dunn Madson, teacher of music in Cleveland. 

Delta — Fay Barnaby Kent, organist of the Congregational Church, 
Plainfield, N. J., and teacher of music. See also index for references to 
her fraternity work. 

Sara Frances Evans, con- 
tralto soloist, Brooklyn, N. 
Y. ; May Thorpe Graham, 
chorus, piano; Juvia O. Hull, 
chorus, vocal ; Bertha Mc- 
Cord, Canton, Ohio, teacher 
of voice; Charlotte Marhoffer 
Grinager, pianist and soloist; 
Alia Moyer Taylor, soloist; 
Gertrude Ogden Fleming, so- 
prano soloist; Fern Pickard 
Stevens, vocal and piano 
teacher, accompanist; Flora 
Tucker Dick, Meadville, 
Pennsylvania, soprano soloist. 
Zeia— Edith Wells Ely, 
pianist in chamber concert 
work and symphony. Jo- 
sephine Durrell, Boston, vio- 
linist, leader of Durrell String 
Sara F. Evans, DW/a Quartette 1916 to date; was 
teacher of violin, viola and ensemble at Wells College, Aurora, N. Y., 
1917-1919; Miss Durrell played frequently for the soldiers at "Y" huts. 
Camp Devens and Charlestown and at the Navy Yard. Anne Mcl^ary, 

.y Google 

MuMciAKS 389 

New York, pianist an<l organist; 

Helen Wegmann, Porlland, Ore- | 

gon, pianist: Dicie Howell, New 
York, soprano soloist; George 
Thoenssen, soloist; Louise Daniel, 
Houston, Texas, pianist, accom- 
panist, soloist with orchestra ; 
Alice Mustard Adams, soloist, 
Seattle; Spicie Belle South Chaf- 
fee, officially interested in the 
National Federation of Musical 
clubs; Fannie Heaton ("Yvette"), 
singer of French and other songs, 
at Keith's. A.VerniceGay, head 
of piano and pipe organ depart- 
ment at Albion College; Estelle 
Hibbard Osborne, pianist ; promi- 
nent in musical clubs of Chi- 
cago and Grand Rapids; appears 
often in recital; Chairman of 
1919 Convention Committee; !va 

Jane Thomas, 1918-1919 head — 

of the voice department of the Josephine Durrell, Ztta 

Billings (Moniana) Polytechnic 

Martha Baird van Laar graduated at New England Conser\ati)ry in 
1917 with highest honors in secondary subjects and with special honors in 
ensemble playing. She was the winner in com- 
petition of the Mason & Hamlin piano. Since 
her graduation and especially since her return 
from Europe, Mrs. van Laar has come into 
prominence as a pianist of distinction. She has 
played in recital with the Boston Symphony 
orchestra, and as assisting artist with M me. 

Sara Helen Littlejohn, pianist; E^telle M. 
Dunkle, Boston, organizer of Zeta Zeta Chap- 
i ter ; treasurer of Alumnse Association ; pianist. 

I Lillian Goulston McMasters, pianist and 

teacher. Won Mrs. Jack Gardner Scholar- 
ship in competition in 1903; Florence Lar- 
rabee McLeary, New York, pianist, appeared 

in Boston with Boston Symphony Orchestra. 

.y Go Ogle 

390 HisTORV OP Alpha Chi Ohega Fratbrnitt 

One of Alpha Chi's 
most brilliant artists isWini- 
fred Byrd. She graduated 
from New England Conserv- 
atory in 1905 as piano 
soloist, winning during her 
study there the Spautding 
scholarship. She was Zeta's 
delegate to convention in 
1906. She twice returned to 
Boston to study with Ma- 
dame Hopekirk and also 
studied later with Carl Baer- 
mann and with Madame 
Teresa Carrefio. Critics 
have likened the warm, mag- 
netic quality of her touch to 
Madame Carrefio. Herplay- 
ing is vital, full of fire, and 
rich in suggestion. Her 
Winifred Byrd, Zeta successes in New York and 

other musical centers have been marked. 

Tketa — ^Alice Reynolds Fischer, founder with her husband, Edgar S. 
Fischer, of Fischer School of Music, Walla Walla, Washington. 

Iota — Llora Hofman, soprano soloist in Metropolitan Opera Com- 

Lambda — Frances Waldo Fee, teacher of piano in Seattle until 
her marriage to James Alger Fee. 

Mu — Nellaby Finney, soprano soloist. Of the Phillips Girl's Orches- 
tra, Mu Chapter writes: "Four of the six Phillips' sisters are Alpha Chis 
and the younger two will soon become Alpha Chis, The girls have a ful 
orchestra, including trombone, clarinet, comet, drums, violin and piano 
They are noted far around Indianola for their musical talent and enter- 
taining ability. They do much Chautauqua and lyceum work and are 
very successful." 

Xi — Genevieve Fodrea, violinist, Chicago; Clara Hill Knight, Lin- 
coln, singer with Redpath-Horner Lyceum; Frances Gettys, soprano solo- 
ist with Redpath Chautauqua and Lyceum bureaus, with Montague 
Light Opera Singers, and soprano soloist and pianist for Ellison White 
with the Symphonic Sextette. 

OmicTon — Edith Bideau Normelli, B.A., B.M,, studied two years in 
Italy under Mme. Bensberg Barracchia. She studied in this country 


Writers 391 

with Richard Hageman. Mme. Normeltt has appeared in recital at 
Aeolian Hall, New York, with the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra, in 
recital at Chicago, in joint recital with Riv£-King and in many other 
engagements. In Evanston she sang at St. Luke's Episcopal Church 
as soloist, and as soloist in the Pittsburg Mendelssohn Choir, which gave 
"Messiah" in 1920 with Ernest Lund as conductor. Mme. Normelli in 
1921 resided for a time in Washington, D. C. where Mr. Normelli served 
as consul in the Swedish Legation ; later official duty took Mr. Normelli 
to New York. 

Pi — ^Lcila Nielsen, singer, California. 

/?Ao— Margaret McCulloch Lang, violinist, and concertist, 

ffji'/on— Gertrude Guller, piano soloist and accompanist. 


Miss Ruth Hutchins, A, has published a number of costume or 
dress designs in the Fashion-Art Magazine and in the School Arts 
Magazine. For one set of designs she went to the Metropolitan Museum 
and copied armor and from her copies developed children's dresses. 
Miss Hutchins teaches costume design at Mechanic's Institute, Roches- 
ter, N. Y. She designed the lovely Alpha Chi Christmas cards, 1721. 
Another Lambda Alpha Chi is devoting her time to art, Ethel Hoffman, 
who won, upon graduating from Syracuse, the Hiram Gee fellowship 
for foreign study in art. She chose Paris as the seat of her study in 

June Hamilton Rhodes, M, as managing director for a few years of the 
Ted Shawn and Ruth St. Denis concert dancers, found scope for the appli- 
cation of her artistic ideals. She directed the ballet The Mysteries of 
Dionysius and Bacchus, at The University of California Greek Theater in 
1920. Mrs. Rhodes formerly served as Physical Director at Simpson 

Doris McEntyre, 11, was associated with Maxwell Armfield in dramatic 
work and took part in their production with Ruth St, Denis and Ted 
Shawn in Miriam staged in the Greek Theater. 

Of writers Alpha Chi Omega has not a few. There are many members 
who have published works of various kinds, written as a by-product of a 
busy life; several Alpha Chi Omegas, however, are professional writers. 
Among these members, all well known to the fraternity through the 
pages of The Lyre, is Mary Masters Needham, B, magazine writer. Her 
article, WktU a War-Nurse Saw, from the Independent, was republished 
in The Lyre. During the war Mrs. Needham wrote constantly of French 
affairs and needs. For her work during these years see page 316. Olive 


392 History of Alpha Chi Ohbca Frateknitv 

Porter, A, author of Tke Ringmaster did journalistic writing in Paris 
for seven years before and during the war. Several of her articles on the 
war have been quoted in Tke Lyre. Margaret Barber Bowen, A, poet, 
formerly on Tke Atlantic Monthly staff, has been good enough to contrib- 
ute several short poems to The Lyre. She has published a volume of verse 
Singing Places, and has written several plays. Mabel Chalfin, E, has 
written several beautiful and successful songs, and has done many travel 
sketches. She travels widely and gathers her material from all parts of 
the world. She is a member of the Woman's Press Club of Southern 
California. Louise Van Vorhees Armstrong, 9, is doing dramatic com- 
position and stage production in Chicago. With her husband, Henry W. 
Armstrong, an artist, she has a studio. She has directed plays at the 
Chicago Art Institute, and the Northwestern University Settlement. 
In 1919 Mrs. Armstrong was in charge of Tke Enckanted Mirror which 
was given at the Municipal Pier. Her artistic work has been exhibited 
at the Art Institute in Chicago and at the John Herron Institute in 
Indianapolis. Some of her plays have been produced by the Art Institute 
in Chicago. 

Aside from these professional writers are about two score members 
who have published a considerable body of writing. Jean Whitcomb 
Fenn, B, wrote the Wkitcomb-Fenn System of Tecknic for Junior Grades. 
Mabel Keech, B, published Training the Little Homemaker by Kitcken 
Garden Metkods; Alta Allen Loud, B, has contributed frequently to 
The Lyre, and served on the editorial board of the first two editions of 
the History of Alpha Chi Omega. To the first edition she wrote the 
Introduction. Nella Ramsdell Fall, B, has contributed to The Lyre, and 
in the writing of the ritual of the fraternity assisted Fay Bamaby Kent 
and Virginia Fiske Green. 

Six membere have filled the post of Editor of Tke Lyre: Mary Janet 
Wilson, and Elma Patton Wade, A; Edith Manchester GrifHn, and 
Florence Reed Haseltine, Z; Florence A. Armstrong, M; and Mary- 
Emma Griffith, A. Miss Armstrong has written much for newspapers 
and magazines and served as editor of the first edition and author of the 
second and third editions of the History of Alpha Chi Omega. During and 
following the war she wrote steadily on European politics for the Federal 
Government, and then became assistant editor of one of the bureaus of 
the Interior Department. Miss Griffith has held an editorial position in 
the Department of Agriculture for several years. Mabel Siller Nafis wrote 
the first edition of the History of Alpka Cki Omega with the assistance of 
Miss Armstrong. 

Elva Murray, E, wrote a socioI(^cal monograph on Social Thought 
in tke Current Skort Story. Hazel Wilkinson, E, wrote a sociological mono- 
graph on Social Tkought in American Fiction. Both studies were pub- 


Writers 393 

Itshed by the Southern California Sociological Society. Miss Wilkin- 
son served as instructor in Economics at University of Southern Cali- 
fornia after her graduation. 

Elizabeth Egleston-Hinman, Z, is the author of Naya, published by 
Rand, McNally and Company. 

Carrie Adelaide Trowbridge, E, composer of a set of seven ChaTOcUr- 
isHc Pieces fi>r Piano, and of Valse Melodique, both published by R. W. 
Neflelfinger, Los Angeles. 

Margaret R. Lang has written a large number of songs published by 
Arthur P. Schmidt, Boston, Leipzig, New York. Besides these she has 
written pianoforte solos, part-songs, and songs to order for G. Schirmer; 
Messrs. Breitkopf and Hartel ; John Church Co. ; C. C. Birchard and Co. ; 
Ginn and Co.; J. B. Millet; Silver, Burdett and Co., and others. Mrs. 
H. H. A. Beach has published songs and concertos. Maud Powell 
wrote poems and violin pieces. Ellen Beach Yaw has written poems and 

The compositions of 
Elthea Snider Turner, V, 
include choruses for 
women's voices, such as 
The Call of the Thrush 
and Shadow March; an- 
thems, two violin solos — 
Chanson du Soir and 
Melodie, a violin-cello 
suite in A Minor, compo- 
sitions for piano, among 
them being High Tide, 
Sunset 1919, Venetian 
Valse, LuUdbye, La Fon- 
taine, Marche Brittiante, 
Minuet in E Major, Danse 
Oriental, et cetera, works 
for the organ, and many 
songs, among which are 
June Time, Sunshine, 
Japanese Love Song, Call 
of the Spring, Hunter's 
Song, Tonight, and Irish 
Spring Song. Besides 
these numerous composi- 
tions, Mrs. TiuTier has 
written the incidental Elthea Snider-Turner, Gamma 


^94 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fbaternitv 

music for two pageants. She was one of the artists at the Macdowell 
Colony in 1919; while at the Colony she did her creative work in Star 
Studio, Alpha Chi Omega's own contribution to the Macdowell Colony. 
Of composers an incomplete list includes: Margaret Upcraft, Z, 
who is the composer of several songs, published by G. Schirmer and 
Company, New York; Olga Brandenburg Currier, Z, composed Spring 
QuarUtte, songs, piano pieces, and also cello pieces, as Nigkt Mood and 
Bruges. She also sings in recitals and concerts. Gladys Livingston Graff, 
Z, National President, former National Alumna Editor of The Lyre, con- 
tributed a brilliant series of sketches of Alpha Chi Omega artists to The 
Lyre, has written for Boston Globe, and Des Moines Register. (See also 
page 351). 

Virginia Fiske Green, 0, has written poems, Alpha Chi Omega songs, 
and she assisted in writing the beautiful ritual of Alpha Chi Omega. 

Susan Reed, I (Ph.D. Illinois), wrote Church and Stale in Massa- 
chusetts, 1691-1740, published in the University of Illinois Studies in 
the Social Sciences. (This monograph was reviewed in the American 
Historical Review, January, 1916, and in the Nation, July 15, 1915.) She 
has published also an article, British Catography of the Mississippi 
Valley in the Eighteenth Century, printed in the Mississippi Valley 
Historical Review, September, 1915. 

May Allinson, I, was the author of the following works: Studies of 
the Health of Women Workers; and Dressmaking as a Trade for Women, 
published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. She was director in 
investigation and author in cooperation of the following works: The 
Public Schools and Women in Office Service, published by Boston School 
Committee ; Women in the Boot and Shoe Industry of Massachusetts, pub- 
lished as a bulletin of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; A Trade School 
for Girls, published by U. S. Bureau of Education; Industrial Efficiency 
of Girls Trained in Massachusetts Trade Schools, to be published as a 
bulletin of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. In her work for the Council 
of National Defense during the war Miss Allinson made and wrote a 
survey of labor laws and conditions of women in industry in Indiana, 
and began a number of other important studies. Miss Alltnson's heroic 
war service is described briefly on pp. 31 1 and 372 in this volume. 

Gertrude Johnson, K, has written two books published by the Cen- 
tury Company: Choosing a Play, and Modern Literature for Oral Inter- 
pretation. Inez Boyce, K, is the author of The Relation of the Basis Diet 
to the Composition of Body Tissue as Affecting Arlerio-Sclerosis, pub- 
lished by Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mary Sayle, K, wrote The 
Reactions of Necturus Maculosus to Stimuli Received Through the Skin, 
published by the Journal of Animal Behavior. 

.y Google 

Tbe Founders 395 

Virginia Sanderson, H, was awarded the prize given by the League of 
National Drama for a play on Food Conservation; her play was entitled, 
Bread upon the Waters. 

Gretchen O'Donnel Starr, P, is author of Bibliography of the Geology 
and Geography of the State of Washington, published and distributed 
by the State Geological Survey. Being the first bibliography written 
for ten years covering this subject, the bulletin has been in great demand 
by libraries and colleges. 

Flora Mkrckr, Sigma EEelkn Cheney Bailev, Alpha Epsilon 

Flora Mercer, 2, A.B., Western College (or Women, A.M. Columbia, 
is studying for her Ph.D. degree in music at Iowa under Dean Seashore. 
Her research lies in the field of psychology of music. She has composed 
and orchestrated a symphony which the New York Symphony Orchestra 
played . 

Helen Cheney Bailey, A E, had a play The Demigod, published 
in the November, 1918, issue of Drama. 

The Founders 

We have withheld to the close of the chapter the sketches of the foun- 
ders of the fraternity, those loyal and well-known women who in some 
ways are the most important leaders of all. 

Anna Allen {Mrs. Harry M. Smith). Anna Allen was bom in Green- 
castle, Indiana, in 1870, and there she has spenl her life. While attending 


396 HiSTORV OF Alpha Chi Oubga Fraternity 

the public schools she began the study of muac and became an accom- 
plished musician at an early age. Being one of the first students of the 
department of music of De Pauw University, she was the youngest to do 
advanced work, graduating from the conservatory at the age of nineteen. 
During her junior year she began teaching pianoforte in the School of 
Music and occupied that position until 1896, when she went to Chicago 
to study under Mme. Fanny Bloomfield-Zeisler and Emil Liebling. Her 
reputation as a brilliant performer and an excellent accompanist has 
rendered her prominent in local musical circles, where her generosity has 
proved of much benefit and pleasure to the public. 

Miss Allen was married to Mr. Harry M. Smith, of Greencastle, 
where their beautiful home on Walnut Street has always been open to 
the Alpha Chi girls. It has been her privilege to be more closely associ- 
ated with the mother chapter than any of the other founders. The 
members of Alpha have always felt not only sincere appreciation for her 
influence and counsel, but love and respect for her charming personality 
and the impartiality of her advice. 

Olive Burnett (Mrs. Ralph B. Clark). Olive Burnett was bom in Green- 
castle, Indiana, June 10, 1867. After attending the public schools there 
until 1880, she s[>ent one year in Indianapolis, Indiana, resuming her 
studies on the piano and beginning on the violin. She then attended 
high school in Anderson, Indiana, until the fall of 1885, when she entered 
the School of Music of De Pauw University, studying the piano and 
violin. During the first year in the school, upon the request of Dean 
James Hamilton Howe, she took up the study of double bass and cello 
in order to fill a long-felt need in orchestra and ensemble work. During 
the years 1886-88, she was a member of the School of Music faculty of 
De Pauw, teaching pianoforte and primary work on the violin, cello, and 
double bass; at the same time she was organist at the College Avenue 
M. E. Church. In the spring term of her junior year she gave up her 
studies and began teaching piano and violin in Anderson and in Franklin, 

Her work for the building up of Alpha Chi Omega has, from the very 
first, been enthusiastic and tireless, for att her life she has lived in an 
atmosphere of fraternity spirit, and she believes it to be a vital influence 
in a college education. She has always remained in touch with Alpha 
Chapter enjoying many visits with the members. 

Miss Burnett was married in 1889 to Mr. Ralph B. Clark, a business 
man and musician of Anderson, Indiana. In their home Mr. and Mrs. 
Clark have continued their own music study and have emphasized music 
in the education of their two sons and their daughter, each of whom has 
studied a different instrument; this harmonious ensemble creates a 


The Fouhdeks 397 

^*a(iutiful musical atmosphere, the influence of which has brought great 
joy and satisfaction not only to the immediate family, but to their many 

The two sons graduated from De Pauw University — Geoi^ L. in 
1914 and Robert W. in 1916. Both belong to the Phi Beta Pi fraternity 
and both are Phi Beta Kappas. Maryellen attended De Pauw in 1917 
and 1918 and was the first daughter of a Founder to be initiated in Alpha 
Chi Omega. In June, 1920, she graduated from the Teachers' College 
of Indianapolis, having completed the three year course in primary and 
kindergarten training. Mr. and Mrs. Clark reside at 2950 Washington 
Boulevard, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Berlka Deniston (Mrs. Scoby Cunningham). Bertha Deniston was 
bom at Peru, Indiana, July 28, 1S69. It was the wish of her mother, who 
died in the spring of 1885, that her daughter should study music at 
De Pauw University, so in the fall of that year she entered the School of 
Music and lived in the dormitory. 

Although very quiet and r;served, her genial smile and sweet disposi- 
tion soon placed her in high favor with all the students. She was well 
advanced in piano study when she entered the music school, and her 
remarkable execution and composure were the envy of all the students, 
especially at recital time. She won the reputation of accomplishing mare 
work with less expenditure of time than any student in the school. She 
and Mary Jones (Mrs. Richard Tennant) were the first national dele- 
gates of Alpha Chi Omega, having been chosen by Alpha to establish 
Beta Chapter at Albion, Michigan. 

Miss Deniston left school before graduation to accept a position in 
Pearson's Piano House in Indianapolis. On July 18, 1893, she was 
married to Mr. Scoby Cunningham (Beta Theta Pi), a graduate of 
Indiana University, and since that time they have lived in Indianapolis. 
She is an enthusiastic member of the Beta Beta Alumnx Chapter at her 
home city, and meets with the De Pauw girls each year at their annual 

Mr. and Mrs. Cunningham have two sons, Harold and Frederick, who 
with their parents, welcome the wearers of the lyre to 1909 Ruckle Street. 

Amy Du Bois (Mrs. Julius Rieth). Amy Du Bois was bom in Noko- 
mis, Illinois, December 31, 1869, but when she was very young her parents 
moved to Oxford, Indiana, where she lived at the time she entered De 
Pauw University in 1885. She studied both the pianoforte and voice in 
the School of Music and was familiarly known as the "little girl with the 
big voice." Although she attended the music school but one year, in 
that time she endeared herself not only to the Alpha Chis but also to her 
teachers and to the students by her bright, cheerful disposition, her 


398 HisTOKv OF Alpha Chi Omega Fbaternity 

Straightforward manner, and her industry. She was honored sevetal 
times during the year by being selected to sing on important occasions, 
one of which was the Festival of the School of Music in which she took 
a leading part. 

After leaving college in 1886, she moved to Colby, Kansas, where she 
organized a music class. A few years later she was married to Mr. Julius 
Rieth, and went to live at Crete, Nebraska. For four years she was 
connected with the E>oane College as teacher of piano, voice, and har- 
mony. From Crete, Nebraska, they moved to Lincoln, Nebraska, where 
with their one daughter, Mrs, Rieth lived at 2433 Lynn Street until her 
death on August 12, 1915. Here Mrs. Rieth had enjoyed keeping in 
touch with the fraternity through Xi Chapter. The death of one of the 
seven Founders caused deep grief throughout the fraternity. 

Nellie Gamble {Mrs. Edward Ckilde). Nellie Gamble was bom May 
12, 1867, in Martinsville, Illinois. After completing the course in the 
public schools in her home city, she entered the School of Musk at De 
Pauw University to pursue her piano studies. She had much personal 
charm, was an energetic and conscientious student, and had the qualities 
of a good fraternity girl, loyalty, earnestness, and unselfishness. 

Her musical career, however, came to an end a short time after she 
entered the school, as she soon returned to her home to be married to 
Mr, Edward Willard Childe, of Moores, New York. Good traits of 
character arc as essential to successful housekeeping as to professional 
work, so Mrs. Childe has been fully equal to the requirements of her 
domestic "career." She and her husband are now living in Martinsville, 

Bessie Grooms {Mrs. Luther Keenan). Bessie Grooms was born in 
Greencastle, Indiana, April 28, 1866, and lived there until her marriage 
to Mr, Luther Courtland Keenan in 1895. She began the study of piano- 
forte music when very young and by the time she graduated from the 
high school, was an accomplished musician. She immediately entered 
the Music School of De Pauw University to continue her studies, intend- 
ing to complete the course, but her work came to an abrupt end when 
by over-practice she strained the muscles of her left wrist. She lost the 
use of the fingers of that hand for over a year and, as a consequence, gave 
up her music entirely, for fear that steady practice might cause a perma- 
nent affliction. 

Mrs. Keenan was one of the three Greencastle girls of the seven 
founders of Alpha Chi Omega. The first large social function of the 
fraternity, an elaborate and memorable affair, was given at her home. 
In 1918, Mrs. Keenan's daughter Hannah entered De Pauw University 
and was initiated into Alpha Chi Omega. Hannah served as president 


The FokHDEBs ?.99 

of Alpha Chapter for one year. Mr. and Mrs. Keenan had a family of 
five sons and daughters and made their home in Le Roy, Illinois, where 
Mr. Keenan is engaged in the banking business. In November, 1920 
the fraternity was deeply grieved to learn of the sudden death of Mrs. 
Keenan on November 4, 1920, after only a few days' illness. Mrs. Keenan 
was deeply interested in the fraternity and gave to it freely of her home, 
means, and strength. Mrs. Smith writes: "Her last visit (to Alpha) was 
made when her daughter Hannah was in college. She came to superin- 
tend the arrangements for a house party for the girls, and I distinctly 
remember the pleasure she had in doing it, for she was seemingly happiest 
in making others happy." 

Estelle Leonard. Estelle Leonard entered the School of Music of 
De Pauw University, September, 1885, and graduated from that depart- 
ment in 1891, having been a member of the faculty for the last two years 
that she was a student there. Miss Leonard was principal of the Music 
Department in Moores Hill College, 1889-1893, during which period 
she carried work at De Pauw University. After studying at the Cin- 
cinnati College of Music in 1893-1894 and receiving a certificate, she 
became principal of the Piano Department in Centenary College, 
1894-1895. During the next four or five years she studied at the Col- 
lege of Music irregularly and then located at 217 Plum Street, Union 
City, Indiana, where she now has a large class in piano music. Miss 
Leonard was choir director at the Lutheran Church in that city one 
year; for fourteen years she has been organist and choir director at 
the First Methixiist Church there, as well as an active member of the 
Cecilian Musical Club of which she was president 1907-08. During her 
vacations Miss Leonard has studied with the best teachers in the East, 
having spent some time learning the methods in Musical Kindergarten, 
which she has introduced with marked success into her classes. She has 
recently published a volume of easy teaching pieces for the piano. 

In 1914 Miss Leonard entered the field of Public School Music, and 
since that time has been music supervisor in Union City East Side 
Schools. On July 14, 1916, she graduated from the American Institute 
of Normal Methods in Chicago. She also studied at Northwestern in 
the summer of 1916. Beside her work in the public schools she is still 
teaching a large class of private pupils. 

Too much cannot be said of Miss Leonard's loyalty and influence for 
Alpha Chi Omega. Besides being one of the founders and Alpha's first 
president, she had the pleasure and satisfaction of working in the frater- 
nity for several years and did much toward effecting practical organiza- 
■ tion, and toward establishing a firm foundation for future growth. 

.y Google 


The history of a fraternity during the past generation is a cross 
section of the American development of the higher education of women. 
When Alpha Chi Omega was founded, the education of girls had become 
important; but the experimental stage was not entirely passed. "One of 
the most interesting inquiries that has arisen," writes the American Com- 
mission of Education in 1884, " " • is that of the effect of college 
education upon their health!" Bryn Mawr College was but founded in 
1885; Harvard had issued one certificate of final examination to a 
woman; and the University of Illinois was just changing its name from 
the Illinois Industrial University. One of the degrees conferred upon 
women was M.P.L., Mistress of Polite Literature. At the present time 
there are six hundred colleges in the United States, sixty per cent of 
which are co-educational. Women have won bo many Phi Beta Kappa 
keys in competition with men students that the administration of the 
fraternity became alarmed lest it become a woman's order. The higher 
education of women now almost equals in importance and quality the 
higher education of men. 

The college has become, in the meanwhile, a force in the artistic 
development of the nation. In 1921 America is no longer the most public 
schooled and the least cultivated country in the world. Our musicians, 
both composers and interpreters, are now to be reckoned with in the art 
of music. The same is true in painting, in the writing of history, philos- 
ophy, science, drama, poetry, and the short story. Sculpture has made 
remarkable progress during the past decade. And the life intellectual 
has been somewhat more nearly approached by the nation during the life 
of Alpha Chi Omega- 
Some state universities have extension courses in their Fine Arts 
Colleges as well as in their Liberal Arts and Science Departments. 
And the development of Fine Arts Schools in the universities is, artis- 
tically, one of the most hopeful of the characteristics of the period of 
our study. 

At the conclusion of a history of the development of a college frater- 
nity it is only logical for the reader and the writer alike to utter the 
query, "What of it?" It impresses the writer that Alpha Chi Omega, 
as a part of the great fraternity movement, has had a real share in 
the educational and artistic progress of the country. About 600,000 
students, it is said, have become members of fraternities, including 


The Contribution of Alpha Chi Oubga to American Life 401 

leaders in every art and in every profession. More than 2,000 chapters 
not including professional fraternities have been established. Their 
total w^lth includes a good many millions. Through their discipline 
of these 600,000 rather influential persons in matters of intellectual, 
moral, and social standards, the fraternities have contributed, beyond 
words, to the cultivation and charm of the educated class. In the opinion 
of many thoughtful persons the fraternity doubles the value of a college 
course to the student because of this discipline. 

A perusal of this volume shows, it seems, that Alpha Chi Omega has 
made, in the lives of her own membership and through the influence of 
their practice, a concrete, tangible contribution to the esthetic culture of 
the nation. The enthusiasm for art and something of an understanding 
of its place in life which the Founders hoped to advance and which the 
traditions of the fraternity have perpetuated constitutes a unifying 
force in the fraternity. It is a fragrance left by the nine college genera- 
tions of Alpha Chis. A phase of the contribution of the fraternity to the 
nation is that Alpha Chi Omega has assisted, in some degree, in nullifying 
Matthew Arnold's statement in the eighties, that in the United States 
"the bom lover of ideas and of light could not but feel that the sky over 
his head is of brass and iron." 

In the denominational colleges, where Alpha Chi Omega placed her 
early chapters, the small size of the student-body and the close afiinity of 
the liberal arts and the fine arts courses rendered possible and most 
desirable the union of the xsthetic with the purely intellectual courses. 
The acquisition for membership of many of the most distinguished musi- 
cians in the colleges, the giving by the fraternity of concerts of high order, 
and of interesting dramatic productions, combined to bestow on the earli- 
est chapters, as they soon recognized, "an unique and enviable standing 
in the college and in the community." This prestige was enhanced 
further by the accession to honorary membership (a form of membership 
common in fraternity circles, in the early days) of the greatest creative 
and interpretative musical artists in America. 

As was mentioned above, a liberal education was desired for all mem- 
bers, and in but one instance despite very numerous opportunities, was a 
charter granted to a separate school of fine arts. The school so honored, 
the New England Conservatory of Music, Boston, is in rank the first 
school of music in America, with certain literary requirements of its 
students. The chapter placed there has been a source of great happiness 
and honor to the fraternity. There may come a time, it is hoped, in the 
future of American education, when the general literary opportunities of 
other colleges of Fine Arts may be sufficiently broad, and the material 
foundations sufficiently deep and strong, to warrant their winning, with 
honor to themselves and to the fraternity, charters of Alpha Chi Omega 


402 History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

and other National Panhellenic Congress fraternities. For fine arts and 
the liberal arts supplement each other. 

In an organization with such inter-relation of aesthetic and intellectual 
ideals as Alpha Chi Omega, one is not surprised to find its first fellowship 
established for the encouragement of creative art. Shortly after the 
establishment of the Macdowell Memorial Association in memory of 
Edward Macdowell, the most gifted of American composers, Alpha Chi 
Omega built the Star Studio, at the association's colony for artists at 
Peterborough, New Hampshire. The use of this studio is awarded 
annually by the association for creative work in one of the arts, and has 
been occupied by several writers, and one composer, two of whom were 
Alpha Chis. In case the fraternity presents an applicant who is eligible 
to membership in the association, the standards of which are very high in 
creative achievement, a member of Alpha Chi Omega may receive the 
fellowship. The fraternity thus encourages creative art among her own 
members, as well as among other young artists. 

Upon her entrance into the state-supported university, early in the 
second decade of her existence, Alpha Chi Omega passed into a new 
experience. The relation between the liberal arts and the fine arts 
courses, in such institutions, is much more loose, and much less impor- 
tant than in the cultural college. The significance of the state institution 
in American education became so tremendous that Alpha Chi Omega, 
ever flexible to the needs of her membership, responded to the changed 
situation ; slight adaptations and changes in her laws rendered it possible 
for a university chapter of Alpha Chi Omega to make in its choices of 
members the same emphasis, in regard to the curriculum, that'the con- 
trolling bodies themselves were making in their appropriations for 
strengthening university departments. 

By this same adaptation to educational conditions, Alpha Chi Omega 
is free to choose the finest type of university woman, whatever her college 
course, and may, if desirable, enter a college where there is no fine arts 
school. She persists, nevertheless, in her traditional devotion to music 
and the cognate arts, and in her insistence on the jesthetlc element in a 
woman's education and life. 

Like the ancient Greeks, the members of Alpha Chi Omega, from the 
cultural colleges and the great universities alike, have done much to 
disseminate musical culture. The author has been told by four different 
musicians of note that the most significant and promising portent for 
the future of America as a great musical center lies in the understanding 
and appreciation of music cultivated by the public schools and particular- 
ly by the colleges, with their increasingly efficient schools of music, 
artists' recitals, orchestras, glee clubs, bands, and musical festivals. 
The names of many members of Alpha Chi Omega appear on the lists of 


The Contribution of Alpha Chi Ouega to American Life 40i 

the faculties of these schools of music; a few have established successful 
music-schools of their own; many have their own studios and do private 
teaching; while many either are, or have been, on the concert stage. 
Artist, teacher, or "creative listener" she may be; it makes no difference. 
An Alpha Chi Omega may be engaged in chemical research, or in home- 
making; she is always a patron of the arts. 

The unifying force of their ideals has partly eliminated in the mem- 
bers of Alpha Chi Omega that disruptive element which has seemed to 
cling to things Grecian. They have positive tendency toward co6peration 
and harmony which has made the fraternity, generally, desire peace and 
union among contemporary fraternities. This tendency has made it 
inevitable that Alpha Chi Omega should be cooperative, in Panhellenic 
relations, rather than combative; courteous rather than malicious; an 
arbitrator rather than a foe. 

Embedded in the same ore with the cohesive element that has charac- 
terized our sisterhood is absolute fairness in Panhellenic relations. Fair- 
ness is a costly process in the Greek world, but less so than its reverse. It 
strikes the undergraduate, when hard pressed in rushing, that "absolute 
fairness" is impossible under some circumstances; and she sometimes 
thinks that, if it wins in the end, as she is taught, the end is certainly slow 
in coming. That trait, however, which Mrs. Crann called the fastidious 
fairness of the college woman, stands firm when backed by fraternity 

The spirit of cooperation is revealed in the part played in the com- 
munity life of the college. The endless array of undergraduate honors 
in college activities is possible by but one road — citizenship. According 
to national ruling, in fact, each member must partake in two college 
activities; genuine academic citizenship is the result. But the same kind 
of a league with the faculty is insisted upon by the laws of the order. 
There is constant supervision of the class work of each member on the 
part of the chapter, the alumna? adviser, and the national inspector. A 
certain amount of work must have been completed at a certain grade 
before a student may be pledged, or initiated. Work of a grade deter- 
mined upon by the fraternity must be done by all initiated members. 
The outcome of consistent supervision, of requirements, of encourage- 
ment, and of help by upperclassmen is undeniably powerful. Between 
the 1915 and the 1919 conventions 21 reports have been received of 
Alpha Chi Omega chapters that have ranked first in scholarship among 
the fraternities in their institutions, and 16 have ranked second, making 
39 high ranks in four years. In many instances the relative ranking of 
chapters has gone up by leaps and bounds. Alpha Chi Omega, indubi- 
tably, has made for higher standards of scholarship in the college life that 
she touches. 

.y Go Ogle 

404 History of Alpha Chi Onega Pkaternity 

In every university Alpha Chi Omega fosters unswerving loyalty to 
the institution; enthusiastic support of its requirements; and a general 
attitude of responsibility toward its concerns. No more staunch and 
loyal students share the duties toward Alma Mater than members of 
Alpha Chi Omega. Loyalty to God, to college, to fraternity, she nurtures 
by her precepts. 

With this last token, loyalty to fraternity, we shall conclude our story. 
Of the personal meaning of fraternity the world hears most. The friendly 
association of personalities is the basis of all fraternity; the benefit from 
the interaction of congenial and diverse characters is its unforgettable 
boon. Fraternity, moreover, in the words of Alice Freeman Palmer 
regarding college life, "makes the world a friendly place." 

A cosmopolitan sympathy follows a cosmopolitan friendliness. 
Asked, "What has your fraternity meant to you?" a superb athlete 
replied: "I think that the biggest thing lies in the bond of union I feet 
with all other Alpha Chis over the country, especially since I have been 
out of college. It has helped more than anything to keep me filled with 
hope and enthusiasm for everything I have been doing." Another 
replied, "A broadening of purpose in life, a democratic spirit." A third 
confesses, "Alpha Chi Omega is helping me more and more all the time 
to be a part of the busy life of the world. Naturally, I am inclined to 
live largely within myself, and not to make many friends. Being brought 
into such close touch with so many girls helped me wonderfully in bring- 
ing me out of myself, and in bringing me to see the interests of others." 

A different point of view which yet stresses the same advantage is 
that of an eastern college woman who received her doctor's degree from 
a co-educational university. Alpha Chi Omega meant, in her own words, 
"a delightful chance to have the friendship of a type of undergraduate 
whom I could not have known in any other way, and to study the 
problems of the college girls of various types of institutions, while it has 
offered always a splendid opportunity for service." 

Pereonal friendships are not, by any means, the sole good accruing 
from fraternity membership. But, nevertheless, memories of friends and 
bonds of friendship are, to the hundreds of thousands of members of col- 
lege fraternities, the priceless asset. The development of the aesthetic 
sense, of the power to cooperate, of the quality of leadership, of intellectu- 
ality, of idealism, are all involved, more or less, in the magic gift of 
fraternity. But the human friendships, as Aristotle says, are "most 
necessary for life. * * For where is the use of all the good things in the 
world if there be taken away the doing of kindnesses?" 

Fraternity is rich in weal, "like the pomegranate, full of many ker- 
nels." It is praised most, notwithstanding, for its enduring friendships, 
because friendship is in reality the deep root of the spirit of good will, 
harmony, unity, aspiration, and courage — the spirit that is the recognized 
flowering of the fraternity, and is its greatest contribution to the natioo. 

"^ L>ign.oJo:,\^n()Ogie 

Directory of Council Officers 

The National Officers are elected at the closing session of each Grand 
Chapter, but, in order to facilitate matters for the successors, the retiring 
ofiiixrs continue their duties for two months after convention. As is 
stated in the chapter on Government, during the early years of Alpha 
Chi Omega, Alpha, exupt for a term of two years of Beta's leadership, 
was Grand Chapter. Thus Alpha's officers were really the general officers 
of the fraternity until the First Convention elected the first national 


October, 1891-February, 1893. 

President, Ja Nette Allen, Beta. 
Vice-president, Bertha Moore, Alpha. 
Corresponding Secretary, Jessie Fox, Alpha. 
Recording Secretary, Zannie Tate, Delta. 
Treasurer, Mary Stanford, Gamma. 

February, 1893-March, 1894. 

President, Mary Stanford, Gamma. 
Vice-president, Charlotte Weber, Delta. 
Corresponding Secretary, Laura Marsh, Alpha. 
Recording Secretary, Effa Simpson, Beta. 

March, 1894-ApHI. 1896. 

President, Charlotte Weber, Delta. 
Vice-president, Mayme Jennings, Alpha. 
Corresponding Secretary, Irene Clark, Beta. 
Recording Secretary, Virginia Porter, Delta. 
Treasurer, Ella Strong, Gamma. 
Editor of Lyre, Mayme Jennings, Alpha. 

April. 1896--April, 1897. 

President, Mary Janet Wilson, Alpha. 
Secretary, Ida Steele, Alpha. 
Treasurer, Gertrude Ogden, Delta. 

.y Google 

406 HisTORv OF Alpha Chi Omrca Fratebnity 

April, 1897-December, 1898. 

President, Mary J. Wilson, Alpha. 
Secretary, Alta Allen, Beta. 
Treasurer, Gertrude Ogden, Delta. 
Editor of Lyre, Mary Wilson, Alpha. 

December, 1898-December, 1900, thirst Grand Council. 
Grand President, Raebum Cowger, Alpha. 
Grand Vice-president, Winifred Bartholomew, Theta. 
Grand Secretary, Ethel Elizabeth Egleston, Zeta. 
Grand Treasurer, Gertrude Ogden, Delta (1898-1899); Florence 

Harper, Delta (1899-1900). 
Editor of Lyre, Mary J- Wilson, Alpha. 

December, 1900-November, 1902. 

Grand President, Raebum Cowger, Alpha. 
Grand Vice-president, Spicie Belle South, Zeta. 
Grand Secretary, Mabet Harriet Siller, Gamma. 
Grand Treasurer, Florence Harper, Delta. 
Editor of Lyre, Edith Manchester, Zeta, 

November, 1902-January, 1905. 

Grand President, Kate Calkins, Beta. 

Grand Vice-president, Virginia Fiske, Theta. 

Grand Secretary, Aha Moyer, Delta (1902-1903); Bertha Sackett. 

Delta (1903-1905). 
Grand Treasurer, Laura Howe, Zeta. 
Grand Historian, Raebum Cowger, Alpha. 
Editor of Lyre, Edith Manchester, Zeta. 

January, 1905-January, 1907. 

Grand President, Kate Calkins, Beta. 

Grand Vice-president, Bertha Sackett, Delta (1905-1906); Mary 

Jones Tennant, Alpha (1906-1907). 
Grand Secretary, Virginia Fiske, Theta (1905-1906); Marcia Clark, 

Theta (1906-1907). 
Grand Treasurer, Laura Howe, Zeta. 
Grand Historian, Mabel Dunn Madson, Gamma (1905); Mabel H. 

Siller, Gamma (1905-1907). 
Editor of Lyre, Edith Manchester Griffin, Zeta (1905-1906); Elma 

Fatten Wade, Alpha (1906-1907). 
National Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant, Alpha. 


Directory of Council Officebs W7 

January, 1 907- January. 1909. 

Grand President, Alta Allen Loud, Beta. 

Grand Vice-president, Marcia Clark Howell, Theta. 

Grand Secretary, Imo Baker, Iota (1907-1908); Helen Wright, Iota 

Grand Treasurer, Laura Howe, Zeta. 
Grand Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller, Gamma. 
Editor of Lyre, Elma Patton Wade, Alpha (1907); Florence Reed 

Haseltine, Zeta (1907-1909). 
National Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant, Alpha. 

January, 1909-November, 1910. 

Grand President, Alta Allen Loud, Beta. 

Grand Vice-president, Fay Bamaby Kent, Delta. 

Grand Secretary, Frank Busey Soule, Iota. 

Grand Treasurer, Myrta McKean Dennis, Gamma. 

Grand Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller, Gamma. 

Editor of Lyre, Florence Reed Haseltine, Zeta. 

National Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant, Alpha. 

November, 19l6-November, 1912. 

Grand President, Evangeline R. Bridge, Zeta. 

Grand Vice-president, Fay Bamaby Kent, Delta. 

Grand Secretary, Frank Busey Soule, Iota (1910-1911); Helen 

Hardie, Gamma (1911-1912). 
Grand Treasurer, Winifred Van Buskirk Mount, Zeta. 
Grand Historian, Grace Hammond Holmes, Delta. 
Editor of Lyre, Florence A. Armstrong, Mu. 
National Inspector, Myrta McKean Dennis, Gamma. 

November, 1912-November, 1915. 

National President, Alta Allen Loud, Beta. 
National Vice-president, Fay Bamaby Kent, Delta, 
National Secretary, Birdean Motter Ely, Omicron. 
National Treasurer, Lillian G. Zimmerman, Kappa. 
Editor of Lyre, Florence A. Armstrong, Mu. 
National Inspector, Lois Smith Crann, Mu. 

November, 1915-November, 1917. 

National President, Alta Allen Loud, Beta. 

First National Vice-president, Lillian G. Zimmerman, Kappa. 

Second National Vice-president, Maude Staiger Steiner, Theta- 


408 History op Alpha Chi Oheca Fhaternitv 

National Secretary, Mary-Emma Griffith, Lambda. 
National Treasurer, Myra H. Jones, Lambda. 
Editor of Lyre, Florence A. Armstrong, Mu. 
National Inspector, Nella Ramsdell Fall, Beta. 

November, t917-September, 1919. 

National President, Alta Allen Loud, Beta. 

First National Vice-president, Lillian G. Zimmerman, Kappa. 

Second National Vice-president, Maude Staiger Steiner, Theta. 

National Secretary, Mary-Emma Griffith, Lambda. 

National Treasurer, Gretchen Gooch, Iota. 

Editor of Lyrt, Florence A. Armstrong, Mu. 

Inspector, Nella Ramsdell Fall, Beta. 

September, 1919- 

National President, Elizabeth Dunn Prins, Iota (to March 1, 1920) 
Myra H. Jones, Lambda, Acting (March 1 to July 1, 1920) 
Gladys Livingston Graff, Zeta (July 1, 1920—) 

First National Vice-president, Myra H. Jones, Lambda, 

Second National Vice-president, MymaVan Zandt Bennett, Phi. 

National Secretary- Editor, Mary-Emma Griffith, Lambda. 

National Treasurer, Gretchen O'Donnell Starr, Rho. 

National Inspector, Gretchen Gooch Troster, Iota. 

Honorary Members of Alpha Chi Omega 

Early in the history of Alpha Chi Omega, in 1886, at Greencastle, 
Indiana, was initiated the first of a series of celebrated musicians, Julia 
RivS-King. During the existence of the fraternity, fifteen distinguished 
women have honored the organization in a similar manner: Adele Aus 
der Ohe, 9; Mary Cheney Beach (Mrs. H. H. A.), Z; Teresa Careno, Z; 
Marie Decca, A; Helen Hopekirk, Z; Margaret Ruthven Lang, Z; Maiy 
Howe Lavin, A; Mrs, Edward Macdowell, Z; Maud Powell (Mrs. H. 
Godfrey Turner), A (1868-1920); Julia Riv6-King, A; Neatly Stevens, A; 
Antoinette Szumowska Adamowski, Z; Adela Verne, E; Ellen Beach 
Yaw Cannon, E; and Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler, A. Madame Zeisler 
was the second to be initiated, in 1888, and Mrs. Macdowell, the last of 
the fifteen artists, was taken through the mysteries on January 5, 1916, in 
Boston, The relation between the honorary members and the college 
members has been affectionate and helpful. There was much for college 
women to do in the eighties in the cultivation of an appreciation of the 
best music and of the greatest artists both in academic circles and in the 
general public. Musicians of today attribute much of the remarkable 
development of the art of music in America to the interest and activity 
of college-bred men and v 

.y Google 

ilivccbiptcn. twdnt (jnlen . ■ . 

EaufC-baiidiait Imdi 


Alpbi Cunma dupler. 
[§4 establlilunent.',.. 

Si* alat chit^cn uraal. 


AddphotB. SuAlphiDduPi. 

AfilBtkm nrtiBcmta.adoptuHi 


AlUoa AknDiue Club, aulitiihment . . 

Albion Collein, fine 


Allud.icHic. warwrvlcc 

AlktjJKiir Colktc, dnnulki i 


Allen, Anu, Sti Smith, Anai 

AJpli* BH> ClitplM, dnitet mi 


home. Tier of 

Alphk Chupter, uLlni iuicwork . 

uGnuid Chapter... 

dulleiand povm 

« Ccmrcniicm !» 

;illRiphycupla 1 

n of Alpha CliI Om^. 

home. piaoB (or. . 
-r pubtisKd by . . . 

Alpha Chi Omua, adoptioD ol na 
eaiir polinet. . . 

Alpha Delta Chapter, charter nKmben. . 

Alpha DdU Pi, early yean 

flat, plate iboiiiic ...!!!!!!!"!! I ! 
Alpha Eptiloa d»ptar, altruiitic iroA. '. ' 

hlatorlc^iketch, . 

A^iha Eu C^lar.ciuiin membm! I 

lodge, view e( 

Alpha Gamma Drila, ettciuioi 

flac. plateibowinc 


Alpha IoU.Cha|iter,'cbartai'i» 

Alpha KaMH Chapter, charier inembera , 

eatabijshment. .... 
Alpha Lambda Chapter, 
A^iha Otnlcron Pi , eileii 

Stf, plate ihoniag. 




Alpha Theu Chapter, durier memboi! '. '. 

eatabllihment .....,....,,,. 

Alpha XI Delta, eHmdon 

Alpha Zeta Chapter, chatter members 


biitorical Aetch 

Alia Allen Loud Koom, ptani lor i 

Stf alia FoonderfMemorUl. 
AltruEa1kinirk,natiniial,Butlioriiattanfor. . 

, ISl, 1B3 

- Alu mut adviur, aulhnia 

vsiue 120 

Alumnie, as recniiti for committer nnk ISS, 250 

Alomiue Asaoclalion, development 252 

establishment........................ ... 245 

scope udplaiu 245,246-147 

«rort 247 

Alumna tn'-lan.puhllcatian I7< 

" '-— i3,p»™aiicaldistribiitioii SI 

Kgaidbl 156 

leglslatioo regaidUM 

Stt aliB ahunue dtajitera name 

organiulion EJansfor. , 

Ste also alumnc dubs named. 

lumn* nolM, coHetlioo 249 

purpose and use 1 16, 249, 150 

lumnr organliatiMI, development 164. 243-245 

factors affecliDg 247,146 

legislation regarding 244 

needs 175,144 

requirements Eor...... ................... 182 

ax Aiwciaiian, and alumnc ehapUn 
ildeni, establishment of oDce 

Ann Arbor Al 

Appell, Edith Kults, war se 
Ar|iilld,manintolinicd. . 


Amutroni. Ftonna 
editor'! aatlat 


.., mtcbalnninotN. F. C. 

Bowtn, Uirgwet Buber. w 

Art, conttibutiDnol Alpha ChiOin«(i to 401 

Artist* of Alphi Chi Onirsii , .,-..,-,....-..,-, 391 

ArU. line, in mllegH, opponunif is ioc 31. 34 

Aiher, KJitberiiie, w.i«ivKe 311 

Anwiitlon ol American Colkfo, colkfei on lot 

uk BliDcbe, f 

Aflccutlac of Ame 

41 Bnwn. Gn«, pbotOBtipa 

work 141, US BryiB, Eltiiibeth.inxk 3>1 

jiiic Province, pmiHentnal 124 BuckneMUDiveftitVifiaeirtaet- • .^,^-. . 34 

.t«lncomplWa«. . . , , Ill fratefoiti™ 39,MI 

Austin, Irene Wald. pbotoplpb . . 

Bibcock, Lou, mrKTvice Ill 

Bibcock, Killuxiu Price, wuwrvlce 31T, 3t« 

Bidie,CiiMadiuiEor,appainlRieol IM 

Gcum ihoiiiBi 101 

GRciuinDaeiiceoii 317 

ictcntiKcation ceitiliatc* for lAO, IM, 2D1 

Icsiilxkn rtsudini 148, 151. lei 

rtquiremeDts RKirdiBg purchue 1)4 

HleD[,p«fit Irani 116 

B«I1^, Helen Cbeney.pbatDgtaph 3«S 

Btird.MirthiiiplKiuiinpii 3R9 

Biker. NewtoD D., c 

Bilfour.L, G..Conipiiiy,ickiiowledcmenLlo. - .. 
Binui, GeoHK, Pubiishing Co,, icknawMcmtnl to 

Bun lun, Helen Wowb, pkotomrih 

Bimlt, Ida Steelc^faotocnpli 

Bcraey, Ethel S,, iibotocn^. . 
Beta Beu'ciiqilerl aitiuiuie in 



eitibtidinMnt. . . 

Enup plciura . . 
istoriciJ sketch. 

Jod^, value of... 

BirkhoB, Margaret Cnfius, [rfiotofivh. . . 


>Mt.Olivi. 5« auk, Olive BuraetL 
OB, HatioB L.ciUd 


Bi«ey, Myrtle, P^ ■" 


Bjml. winilrii pbolDCtaph 3*0 


Chapter boiiia.iDrniiiiin|Lvaliieot 

Chapter nevqiaiHi. ,Sm AI[4b: Iota. 
Chapter*. 5m Active chapten; AhimlE 

6jure«»hoiirliig '»■ ^ 

Chase, RuHCll MncUuiphy. Kurk MI 

Cheers of Alpha ChiOmeaa 144, 108 

ChesBcy, Louise, war service 311 

Chi CbaplVr.'ihartir ™mb^l W.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.WW M 

eiliMiiiiment 16.M 

hittorkal sketch M 

Childe. Nellie Gamble, biocnphica I sketch »• 

pbatonaph , .........,.',....,... 6 

ChllJren'iBiireau,onKbnlarshipstarchilrlnn... 2M 

CincinniK Alumu! aub-eMaUtthment 2U 

Clnclnuli. Univntity li, [ralemitiei at M, 343 

Bish«i, Florence, war KTvin 310 

BIy, Edith WelU, nwk ]« 


' ' idA]umDEduh,eslaUishmeBt. 

iocnphlci] sketch . . 
baternlty eii 

, Google 

Cat-of-iniD.utliiH'inltion lor IM 

dHctipticm lOJ.lM 

fifUTV ihowinf r - - • - , . ..-^.,-. ,-^.-.-- --^ iOb 

rAtiictiDUn^udiiiffUBe 174 

Ox. Sadie Xnowlind. work 378 

Coc<]ucilkwiBunivcniti«.devc>opincnt 2,401 

Colby, Manh.. pholamph j;7 

Colby. MuthiRnFDoMs.pbolugnpfa 371 

wgrk 377, 378 

CcJey, Mucuerile, wu Krvin ill 

Calk(c Ktivilits, nprncntilian in, IcKMxlnn 

nfurdinf ., w.... .,-......-,,.'-.. 194 

Calkn cndnwrncnliDCKb, drim for JO. 31 

CoUcic(nicniiiycliapiHi,nnmberoI Ill 

coii(icpiuiiid{Dik*,nr>Riier!! !!::;!:::!:.. 'yn 

ColkfepnifeiBinolAlpbiiCliiOiiiifa 37*-»7 

Col)iKi.«n)Mimii( aLliiccnMia » 

pRpumlnry vork ........................ 1 

PR»t day, niliM*M« 41, 41 

nt icnln 197-300 

Coae7,AniBCtauRb.nt)ervlcc 3U 

Coionilo.Uiilvcrdtyol.fiBeaniit 34 

ffUerattia 3«,J43 

Colon of lnluirili'',Kiariian: VS.V^'.'.'.'.'.\i\ioi,Wll 

CoBimltlcciHif1i,nartici[BlkHio(ilun»iiEin ISO' 

Canaill(Mi,>t*BdlM.dcvelofHn«it IJO,!!! 

CouovUsriei, nteniiHi in.kfttbtion nfudiny. 141 

CoauilDtion, uiDptioo 9, lit 

rcvuino 13. 1«, II, 160. 170, IS4 

Coiwenlion cndenliih, idaptloa IM 

Cmn/wiirrarwcn>l,uilhotiiilian 2M 

^I^T.!^^y'^^^\'.'.'.'.v.'.'.\'.'.'.'.v.'.v. isi 

itiil. 231 

value 14< 

CoBvolionl, Btioul, dekgaU* to, provuion tot 140 

botdiiv of 1 17 

■iinlficuice --..........-,..-. 139 

voiincmcmben. .---.. -. 161 

""mi . . ^ "!™ ,' 139, HO 

1»91 140-111 

IM4 141,144 

croup pbotoKnpb . - 141 

ia9t 144. I4S, 141 

CitMp pbolocnph 146 

l»97 141 

cnup photograph. 147 

rroup photQcnph 149 

CRMp pbMofniA Ill 

mup pbotociapfa Ill 

pbolocnph 117 

1»0». 160,161 

pbotofraph. -. .. 1S9 

190»,.. ■" "'' ■'■ ■" 

"" 1,'iM, 170 

mi7r. r.T. .7, rr.~. v. ................ 'Ma-\u 

pbotocT^)h 169 

1911 171, 174-17! 

eroup rjulonmph . ..-.......-..-. 173 

1919 1 IS-IM 

fioiip, pbotofraph. ,.-...-- - 179 

Couk," nnTc May, wort '.129, JM, 3«l 

Coombcr, Dori., wmk 179 

CouDcilmRtinci, deKriptka 189-100 

Council Irophy cup, ackiptjoo.... - 171 

Cnna. LoJiSmiib, anrd oi booorpin lo 103 

on N. P. C. csDfcRnca 341, 343 

plutaeng. I6i, 110 

wofk '.VS.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.V.'.'.V.'.V.'.'. Ill 

C" ""'"!'""■ I Bolba DcniMon, bncn^^iiHl 

pbotofnph. 6 

Corf, ItabeUc. mA 379 

Curriir,01(aBnndenbuii,iRifk 394 

rurtln,Elin«,ii>iri*rvice 311 

Ciuhnun, Dorothy M., pbotofraph 17 

Cuitamui. Ja Nciic Alien, pbotocnph 37, 367 

Cuibman, J»iri i™*'.'.'.' '.V.'.'".'.V.'.V.'.V.V.'.'. 183 
Cutler. Oifve, *ak , , . 381 


nalrvmpk, A. Lcna.waricrvicc 311 

DtBcinjt, acUlictic <o colkto. oppmuniiln lor . . 34, 31 

DuiK)7l.ouiM, mxh 3S9 

Danicli, Eenicc, Mril Ml 

Davis, Bertha, mrk 387 

DavK Laura. HtKTvict Ill 

Decatur Alninne Qub. eilablbbincDl..l4i, 166, 167 

mraervke 308 

work 161 

Delta Chapter, aliruiMiciHrk 60, 189 

BlCooTenllonbaataa..' 144, lit 

awardof Ly»lovlDf cuplo. .............. 119 

cbuterniainbcniiioap picture 19 

eatablliboMBI .14,13 J9 

Delta DellaChBpter,alIrui«k*oik 389 

ai CoBventloo hoaltw 1 11 

ehanernKinben IM 

enabltebneut 141, 116 

historical ikelch IM, 117 

-araervice JM 

work 147, m, 117 

Delta Delta Delta, aluBuiEortanliatlon 143 

Sac of. plate showiirc' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.V.'.'.'^'.'.V^ 110 

SS^JS".*' ....^'.'.V.'.'.'.'.'.'.V.'.'.V.V.'.'.'. joi 

Delta Gamma, aluDiDicUfuUalion 143 

date of fouDdlnf J 

carlyyeaTB S 

eileBaioi Ul.l.W 

poaaoBioai, value of 49 

niiervice JOI 

Delta ZeU, eilentioa Ill, 133 

«iae;vke 303 

Deniuao, Bertha. Sat CuDDinfhani, Bertha Denlitun. 

DeDnii,UyiuUcKcan,airardatboiKirplnto. .. 103 
pholofnph.. ........................ .167, 168 

leraaoSce I" 

woA 171. 191, 116, 118, 219. 378, 388 

DcPau* UBlvenlly.dnmaliclal 3J 

(ntenittHai .■.''.'.■.■.*.'.'.".".■.'.■.■.■.■.'■■■;■■'.», J4I 

UaliMica 40 

Dc*UiriB(iAhinui>Chib,eatabliriinwiit '*^-!^ 

wrtT! . . ,*.* .'.V. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.','.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 147', i6"7, 168 

DeTuifc, Lucia, pboiofiaph 379 

■«t J79 

Dick.FkuiJucta.worii 188 

DlrKtoiT, autburiialioB 190 

putJjcaliOD 184, 134. IJS 

rdaulreraenli refanliu pOKbMe 174 

ac^and value 134,148 

Diurict of Colunibia Alumsc Chib, eataUiah- 

ment US, 168 

waraervice 308 

mck 147,168,189 

Dodda,DeliiblSWvent.mcMTvicc 308,311 

DonD,Ci>rc>iineN.,*araervia 111,313 

Drake, Kale CalkiB),ikc«dl J70 

Drake UoiveTHtyi ine'aru M.'.'.'.' J4 

fnlemlikaal 39, 104. W 

Dra^tka Bl cdlefo. oppoiiuBlVi^ for 31,13 

Dretaler, Faye, war aervke Jl I 

Du Boil, Ainv. Sa Rieth, Amy Du Boii. 
Duokle.Eitelle MacFarlaue, nrk. . . 183, I2«. 146, 18t 
Durrcll. Joaephine. pbototraph 380 

Dye, Luelia, «r aetiice '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. ".'-'.'.'■'-'■'■'^^- 313 

EaMem Oklahoma AhunuK Chib, eaublisbment 


wanetvice »«.»» 

work 147. 169, 189 

.y Google 

EutFrnPravlDcc,pRAidciiti ,.,... 124 

itftlacoEnpnuni , ^.. I7Z 

Euttm Pmvlnce ConvcnlioB. dttaivtiim IK. ll> 

Eddy.Oiri.wuiervlu )» 

RMj,\j,un.iittitnkt 313 

■EUckuprlK.Hudi 111,Z1« 

Elltti. Riven, pbotcitnph 311 

Elnod, Mibcr mrk 376 

termrfoBce... ", 130 

met... MS 

EDdomnent fundi. 5i> Racna Find. Lrn Re- 
•crvc Fund. Schiriinhip Fnnd. 

EmlkmCbiptn.iltniilllcinKk 61. 1)9 

u CoBvealkm boato* ITl 

charter memben^ ... 60 

nUblUiBHnt to 

UMotkal •kalch «0-«I 

ntlirkt.. '.'.'."'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. »« 

EtiMdDEpriloaCbvteitlMMBnMnibcn 2S> 

catablWinnt 24], 15;, 1» 

biWorialiketdi 25T,IM 

w»tKrvk« 308,304 

wort 247,2M 

ErlcKO, Gnce, wort 3T8 

Eu CbiptM, cWna nwmbcra 63 

hktvkil rtetct 63 

ElaEu Chapter, u Convention bMleu 170 

cbartcr mcndm 15« 

auUiibmnit 1» 

hMorkal rtctil 1S« 

wvatnlce J0« 

wort J4J. 2J9, IW 

EdkiPMbTdui. Alpha Chi Onufi.iuthaiUaUao. 100 

Evan, San F., pboMcnph 3U 

work 3U 

ETaBiTi11eAluiim«aub,nUbliifanient 1*9 

wort a« 

EaminathHia. Intern jiy.devdopownl I2i(, I2T 

earijrliilotqualioni 127 

ItfidMion mardin* 156, 164 

pnrpoaeandicopar 139 

naulrementi 116.127 

EipuhioD,lei|Dla<i«niaRliiic [42,161 

Eitenaha, ariy pdiclei 3. 12, 23. 140. 136 

weilerB,'devdciiiint'! !!!'.'.! !'.'"'!".!!26-2t 

Eiteuion Board, woric 173 

EalnuioDConnJttee,pnvIrioBfbr. 161 


Fall, NdkKamdeU.awaidal honor pin to 203 

phDtainpb 362 

rtelch 361.363 

tem>«faBce 130,183 

work 231,397 

FarringlDD. Mabel E..phat<«Tapb 324 

wuiervice. 334, 115 

Fee, Fnncei Waldo, wort 390 

F«ltt.Uun,*ort 371 

Fenn, Jean Wbitcsmh. wort 378. 387. 391 

Fcrait. Alidw UarioB. wort. 311 

Fetl. Habel. wort M6 

Flnaacaot Alpha CM Omeca. development. . . IIS. 126 
Sir ■!» National trtnauty. 

Fltuiey.Nrilabv.wert 383,390 

Flicber. Alice Reynolda. work 390 

Flaf.lraiemtiy, adoption 168.707 

deacriplion 207,aM 

pVileihowinc 210 

mmcD'i lialerallia, biure ihowlnf 210 

Flannagan.Aflnea.wort 386 

Fkmlni.GertniiJeOfdta.tennofonce 129 

wori 38* 

Flower, IralemilT. adoption 207 

Fodiea, Genevieve, wort 390 

Foundera.awarilofbiinarpiato 20S 

Sa alu Founder! named. 

Foundcn' DayiobKrvancc 209 

Founden' Mennrial Home. plaiB. ...iS, lOH. 116. 1» 
Found LDH of Alpha Chi Omeffa. condition! nvem- 

iw 1. 1, S.7, IS. 401 

Fritemilr as daiEnalion of Alpha Cti Omefa. 

legislalibn rtgunllng ]4g.l5I 

bieadLhand acop*..., vii.viii 

contrfhutiontocaneR 4J.M 

laden, value. 3S1 

Fnlemi tien, bonocary.admittiiil women, Iht of. . 3ti 

"«iin,...T.'^.'.v.'.'.;;;;!.' .";.'■.'.": j 

new, need lor 132 

inNn(n't,mo(nBiikal dtitrflntloB 133 

Sm al3t WaSa^Tlralenitica, and fratent- 

Freeman. Alice, educational wort 2 

French orpbani, adgption a* fnttcidtr *ar wort 

diKrlpiiil^ ^ imrt .' .' .' '. '. '. '.'.'. '. '.'. '.'.30£jlM 

eihiblt. deacn'ptioB 302 

FMnDAIuRiawCI>ib,aUblWimnt 169 

FrMde-E. Fay, wort 12» 

FrycElbtl.warMrvicc 311 


Gafcabvn Alumnc nob, ataUithmtal 170 

wort 147 

GaMn.Slena,wart MI 

Gamble, Nellie. .W CMIdc, NeUle Gamble. 

Gamma Chapter, altiulKic wart !•> 

ai Convention botteia 141, IM, ttO 

aipard of /o^aloviflc cup to...... -..--...-. 319 

chatter monben » 

■roup picture. ........................ 19 

■Slabliihment 10, 13, 14, H 

hlilDricalikelcb 38,59 

haiae mmetihip pUiu it 

waitervlce 303, MT 

Gamma Gamma Chapter aa boatew lor HOvlBce 

convention IIT 

charter memben. .... ................... 153 

Blabliihincnt 145,133 

hlMorical rtetcb ISS. 25« 

wort. 147,256 

Gamma Phi Beta, alumnK orcasiatioa 243 

dateollnmdlnc. 3 

earlyyeara 3 

eitentloB 131, 133 

poaaeiiionB, value n{ 49 

RaHMd, Marion Howift'tii^rt'.V .'."!!!!:'!!!'. 378 

Gay.A.Vemlce.wort. 389 

"General" frttirnlty. msaninf 3 

(letlin, France*, nrt 390 

Gibion.LuclllcUofan,wntMvict 310 

wort 229 

Goldichniidl, Ema, photonaiA 113 

Government of Alpha Chi Omen, liana IIT 

Srt tilt CoBvenilnna: NitioBil Conadl; 
Province p^vemment 

Graff. Gbdya L.. acknawlediment viii 

UornpUcal ilictrh 351-353 

onFrench orphan work 303. 304 

pbalognpb Ill, 151 

wort 221, 211. 301. 394 

Graluin, May Thorpe, wort 388 

Grand Chipler. const! luenH IIT 

Set tilt Convent i«H. natlcnat. 

Cnnd Council, aUhliibmenl 150 

eipensei. leglslallnn rqnrdin« 132.164 

meetlniE!. IrfEJilation r^iardlTw ............ 134 

perwnncl.Iefislalion regardlnf ISO 

5« oIm Council iDcetino. 
5»a;» National Council. 

GnyaHaibor Alumna: aub,eitablisbnienl 170 

warservice 308 

wort 270 

Grert culture, iaiatna on Alpha CM Omec>. . 316-J36 

Gmk divinitiH, attribute* 330-<I3C 

Greek Diythsiiduonciiw Alpha CM Omcta 319-336 

Green, Virginia Flrta, on Keia aa patron foddem. 33* 

phntofraph 153 

lermol office 130 

work 151. 3S1. 391. 394 

Grecncaatle Aluninc Chib. eUabliihment 170 

Gtnnc. Mary. phDIagrapb 311 

waraeT>ice 316,317 

mtrt 381 

Greensburc Alunnie Qub, eatabliabneni 143. 270 

waraervlre. ................308,309 

, Google 

IriSn, Edith Muich 


irilBth, Ik GncB. pbotofnph . 

CriBlh, Hwy-Emiu, inrd ol hoDor pin to 


H^aie. Sa KeeuD, B«iiie GroamL 

Hir]er,Lor»,work 17*,1S3 

Hirna. Tiu Uiy woA 3U 

Hwnndc^ julU, niKrvkc 313 

HudK^denM^iwudoihonaidolD JOl 

pbotocnpb I'M 

Hupcr, FVhhkc E., phMocnfili. 

Hinli,Ne11E., ■-■""■• 

Kkctnn olKcnt in 

HiTBC, Berlhi Sickett, tenn oIoBo 
H'D«iblcr,Hug*ret.pbM«gnipli. . 

HcaloB, Funic G.,nri«irf« 

Hen u pilron fodiha, idoptbiD . 



I«6, IM 

„ 33*-)i6, 139 

photofraph _.,...,. 1 

BmDn.tiMmiia 2W-I9a 

Itenci,6KAi«tinl Ill 

irtrMiM,Mbct(ltiB*]uriuiBcirfuii*ll(HI 248 

]Hbllaiti«i. ButberiutlaD lor . 

n. fodi and goddcaacSi Ht 

Eterliiei; AcnB,plutagnph. ...,.,,,.,.,..... 376 

Hfer.FioreiKeM.'.'iTOii, !.!!.!!.!.!. !.!!..!!! sm 

Hill, Olah. wu wvice 310 

HiAky.LdiiL, pbciocnph 311 

fliitorjr Bonn], wAoovlediinKnl la 

HkLoiy or fntwiilir, luUwiatioD. . . 
. ,ttr«i!tdingpiirch«it. ., 

130, »R 

Hdder, Klircant Bniini.'w 
Halma, Grace Kamino-' - 
Honor pTi^ adoplign, , . 

Hoirg. Juim Hamilton, on muakal tnditloni of 

Alpha Chi Omiga 9. 10, 331 

wort 7, ». IS 

Howv.Laara A^, phologT^h- , ^ -..'-.. ',*.->., 142 

tmnBioacx^'/^'/////^'///^'.v/^'.'.'.'.'.'. im 

wort 116, 1J« 

Ha<nll,IMclc,wDrt 3t9 

HainU,Ma[claCUrt,tEnnalo6cc IIO 

Hnfl, Ramoth, work I7« 

HDll,JiivhO.,inirii 37B,»8 

Hiunnu, Mary, Hoik 37S 

HDUhlB,RDUiE.,mik 391 

I.e. 5H?iB(UPU. 
I]|Iiwla,[;iiI«aiityof,tdn]i3slociofinimea 1 

fiiKatUal J* 

fnteniitiaU 39,34! 

stUbtici 41 

Indiapa Univertitr, admiigiM of mnnm 2 

IndianohAIumuCiub.BlablidinKDl 271 

InltiitcaRCi»ii.(oRn«lBirinir HI 

InilfaliaOinBck.lecWalianRganlliu 130 

TiiillMloncanM>iiy,la(filatioaKt*nlint 152 

mlaHl,ado|)Uonaf IM 

nvbioB 144, IM 

laltnonrilyConfaRiiccdetcdlc* IM 

Sa alia National Panhellenic CongRH. 
lou Chapter, a] inibtk wort 71 

a* Coavenllcm hoatas 161 

awardof Council trophy cup to. ........... 199 

chanarmcmbcn. ....................... 61 

cilabliihnKnt It, 29, 6S 

hiHorkal rtelch M, M, 71 

borne. dcKriptioo 110, 111 

value 46,107 

viem 69, 70 

newipaper published by 14S 

IRipbycupt,*kw 07 

variervice --.... 306 

loll Iota Chapter, chuter mcmben 160 

enUbliilraHBt 143. 160 

Muortral ikeich 160, ISl 

wariervke 306. W> 

•oA 247,2<0.261 

Ioin,Uoivei^tTaI,atabUihnienl 1 

foeatuat 34.36 

fnletnitia 39, H) 

Ion City AIuiudb Club.'enabiidiiKDt '.'.'..'..'.'.. 271 
wori 271 


Jack>nn,E1PIcdiCokmaD,pbolo)tniiA 113 

woA 197,3M 

Jamieaon, Pearl AtmJInBe.pbatotnph 113 

J>rrold.IUchclM.|iJioto(npb'.! !!!'.! !!!!!".!! 32t 

Jenninga, Hayme. aiulilorof Lyn 212 

plan tor Ill, III 

Jewelry, Ititenily, cut ihowlni IM 

lobu, Ethel CalkW wort 377 

Jobnun. Edilh Hiadman. wort 375. 3SS 

Johnaon. Gertrude £.. pbolofraph 313 

»«V 35, 313, 394 

fobmton, Harriet Moore, warunrice 323 
DDca. Uyia H., acknpwledgnient to viU 


irort"! ™!'.'.'. ■.".'.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■- IM.iw.'Ml, 215 
Jooea.Kuth.pholocrapb 311 

WKtvix 312, 313 

Journal, secret, authoriiotion (or 191 

legiilalion regardlna 152 

Sa al» Arttlid; Btruitm. 


Eaiaer, Blanche Cralti, wort 310 

Kane, Cielchen E„ acknowMgment to vUl 

ellBbliabmnil I 


■ Chll 



oaAliiluChiOnirnmivksltndilioa JIf 

ODTiliMof AJphaCUOvHCiHlMory UO.UI 

pbaldfnipb 3M 

reponi oi I75-I», ISJ-IU 

kIrIioii of open motto br 109 

■kitchol JM.JMI 

UnnofoBtc IW.IM 

woft <T. i;i. IfO, III, 2U, ITI. Jil 

I>rr,ulv«fli>ii.(lo IM 

Kipii* Kipp* Clupiec, chuin menbi 

hlilDckil Acich 

KapM KlPlw Guimi. iluniK 



tavKiMi mmninmoit, . w, 125, 2Z0, 3 

lalduloB renrriini 150, 111, 1«0. 1< 

li^Hihniplniu la 1T4. lio. Hi, 7 

lovinf cup.AWBrdiof 2 

tiAticHiA] tUndinf . ........... ^ ,.,. ^ .. ^ , 176, t 

policy 1 

priH itnrded b/ ** 

h.MibrI, HDTk 5J1.391 

Kamn, IkMte Graosi*, bkvnplitci] ■kcich..J9l, J99 

photof npfa - - 4 

KcM^er. Alclhi Kdly. wnrfc 174 

Knt,F>yBiniaby,iwiinla(biinorpint(i Ml 

phnlofiapli I«B 

t. 4t, 110. 214. US 

.,201, 107, 111, »5, Its. 391 

McCiuii.B«ihi,iH>rk 3M 

McCoyTEUwl J., wnik JIJ, OS 

Uuilai>cllUcmorulColony,Gnuiciiln«b.. '~ 


er, neUiWDTK 

MlnahiHiirdaff, pliDlacnph. 


McEnlyn, Corb, « 

. .»5. IM 

291, »I 

..291, 292,294 

LMlDBiaHgnlafl.pboUxnpta 176 McGmaihiy, Ruti-, work 

?«usiiii»;;,i;^- »t McG«».ii«pwii..«t«7ke.., 

Kimct, ESe Sininun, wai 
KJBlky, I.yJii, Bartcrvic- 
Urkup, FlotDKc, mck. . 

UacGuiR, May jijiiinl. m 

HcHuioB. JcBBk, imk 

HcLcuy, Anne Woodi. mxk . . . 

ilctlintn.""-- ' 

McNabb. Ai 

UcMulen, Liabn GoolMOB, woA 

L*a>l>di Chaplcr. iltiui 

" - .Mabel Dunn.' 
c, fnicnlly. a 


boDK, dcanipliao o( . . 

Manball, Maty, <n)ik M 

Hinhitt,ZcUi,woit 212, Hi 

Unyet^Ilelcn, woili 

Lunbdk Lambda chapter, ch 


..145, 161, 261 Mcda,GTace,in»k. 


Uh, Lucy, nrtnvicc . . . . 
Lvtt. Margaret R., woik . . . 
Lani. Manuuet McCulloch. ' 
Lurabce, Fkmnce. »ork . 

LeIlibach.Eliiabeth, an Iota chapter I 
Leonard , Eildk, bio|traphk*l (ketch . 

on aetrctian of rraiemlty colon. . . 

iJHMof raph 

liHnlt. Lucile. )jholacra;A 

"Lllet«ry"(niterFily, morning 

MtrabenU^cailficaie.dcKTiptloa IM 

Isiilation refatxlinc 1» 

plate uwwing. .......................... '^ 

rev iKd, adoption ol. IJJ 

MEinbenhlprequiRinenl>,(irly II. II 

Icf iilalioa n^ardiiiit 156, 162, 164, 1)4 

Heim. Flon. pholocnph l*J 

Uichitin, Vnivtnity d(, aitmiiaka Ot women to. . 1 

lae Oimuo, photofraph. . , 


Mill!, KilbKlH ABdenon, on TIkU 
If itnukH Aliunu'dBb^ otibiidimcnl 
IfionaoU. Univcnin' tiS, aubliibinCBt , 

•li^^TOBlvi- • 




247,171, 171 

■dUKHrltdiriKnl id . . 

Nnbit,Vii(fail>PMUF,plBtoinpli 1*3 

Nn EMl*nd Couer^Karr. fine uUat M 

■ui™k*3*. ■.::;:::!:!"::::!!:!!:!;:!; « 

tnidfaw nvcn tw II 

New Heili»,TrBl*cniUr ol, fnlcnitiH it », H5 

■UlltSaoi 41 

Nletacn, Lc[|i. soik Ml 

Nonodii, Edith Bidcui.iioik "^ -" 

Nonta CiDtnl AwxblioD of ColkfO, ml 


Nonhmtirn Unlvcnlly, dnmatici it 

HonDiT, AnMrta Cavender, m .— 

UMlo.opcn.mtopliOB 161, lOt 

Mint, Klomion 11. IM, 3M 

UouDi, Wlnifnd V.d Buikirk. wud ofluKy pIb 


Hi. Unioii Cail4e,'(iniuiic!'i 

Nu Nb ClutCT, cartel 




16, 7t 


Otkiet. Bwlrfce. ■■>* IM 

ObcncbuB, Ruburn Ccwnr, pbolonpli I SO 

•kclch J6«. 36* 

OddLLucr ABdRBii,i»rk 

Ofdeo, Gntnids H^ pbotofnlA. . . 
On. HUT E.. pbolognpli.. 

l!uriv.Elv..wA Ml 0ildliAh«w«cU.BUWl« 

OiK^itr AhimaicCiub.ciuUbluMBt . . 

« til~iiy (imlmlUM.l 

HMlMlnquiremtnuaufar II II SibTta 

Icf iilnlion nfardlfv IS, 19, Ut, 161 nhJTVhi^^ni 'i^' 

illls Bt J». 345 


OroihB Alumw Club, tiUUIihinHii . . 

NBK>,U(ixlSt]ki,imdo(boD(>rpbiU> I«1,»U 

photognph 366 

■rint&B olfUgbf 107 

Omcfi Cbiptcr. alltuiMk woil. . 

"■ woA i;i, IJO. l».3n 

NUkHMl CoBvcBlkio. Sa Gnnd Chiptn; Cob- 
veBllaul, Balioait, 

Nslia[i>ICoaBcil.a>nuiulI«wort IILIIV 

coDUilucnti I IS 

tipCBtB, budfcl for 174 

BKCtJBII. 5« COmicll BMMiBfl. 

ii», 119, lib'.'iiijVis.'iM,' 

lol.vttiMof M, II 

nrKTVlcc 31 

OinknnCb*pta,Bliniiiikw«k II 


Award of Cnudl Inphy cup to . , 
ebBrterm — "■ — 


Pani»tB,ElbaiinBa,|ibol(itnph >*S 

PinrJciKpluacHeibt.pbolacntih lU 

riiriiiii uri. '■r^H— —fmiAi,^ ISO 

Puib.Edii«,«ck U 

ptnaijrhruu, UiiivsiitT of, dniutia mt. 31 

piall<<>Dal««BiBilii M 

Pec apiu Ui, pariBBil of IM 

ponKvoM. , ^. ITt 

PcriBc, Uuy, usDlntoKni 191 

-wt..V.77!7r. 1U,I1T 

PeUrmu^ Tdiu, work J>7 

Pcttn,PHliK,pbgt<impli 3T4 

USJT??!^'.'.'.;; ;;:*!!;:;;;:;;;;;; ;;!!!; 3» 

PnltioaloniLulaiiUiia 190 

PUChip(tc.*ltniNlc«oit «.lt» 

thwtgmmbm 91 

UmricKlikcldi.'.' ! : r. 1 " '. 1 i ! '. : ! ". 1 i ' '. 1 ! ^n-M 

iBUnhiao' M, 107 

wiTMnke 30t 

PMMtt.««rirrB«ii I 

Bvoi,pteu'iiwwiw!:!'.!!:"!:''!''!!*" no 

PfafliddphteAliiniB'ai^.'atiJdi<iuwat^^ IK 

woffc 17« 

PhilU|>'Cirli'OK:lKMn.i»rk »0 

PiBcuPU.adj'polkIa 4,f 

a*aii(,putcibHriJw"l!".l!!"!!"!!".. 'no 

poMHUoai, value M. 49 

■uMniB JOl 

PiClii|it«r,iltniNkwort U,U9 

■ iHwiwiwyiiiwlUM , III 149 

■■iri o( ^nkvlufcap to 119 

konM, doErlpUon of 114 

vUocof 4«,I07 

»i«i-« d II, B3 

nrmvicc iO« 

Pidll«,E>tberiKH.,wuKrvke 313 

Plmny.Muy.Mrii MO 

nu>biirabiiuniuC:iub.eiUblBhiiKnt 14J,1TS 

mfT M7,lTi 

PM«eor(iDlution,piinipUeloB IK) 

PicdaepKiHloptlon IK 

^cKription 101,103 

pUleihoxing 101 

Porter. Juvenilia (Olive), inUMnlct 31T 

work »1 

PuUindAluinuaub.aubliilnDcDl 141, i;S 

niKTvice 307, nM 

wfk MJ,173 

PoiRll|Maucle,hu](ea(,^'(e>liawiB«,'.!.!!!'! 101 

Plinl, Eliubeth Diran, photacnpta 333 

•keiih 3S3, 3S4 

PrnvincecoDVentiiinf, pravbioa t« 112, 100 

St€ alia preWnca named. 

Province loveniinent, adoption otijnteiii 110 

dcveloiMlwnl 170, IB3 

value 114 

Province Pmidenli. duliei in 

tquipment 113, IM 

liH 114 

PiDvlBcct n( Alpha ChiOnu(a,Dup (bowing. ... 121 

Pii Chapter, allniiHic work 93 

eitabliihnKnt. .1 W. ','.'.'.'.'.'.'.. '.\'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.16,'H 

hlHocinl (ketch 94,95 

bomcviewof 9S 

war aervke 304 

Pueblo Alumns Qub, illruiHk work 189 

eitabllihment 145,170 

■ir Mivice 3IKI. 509 

■Dik 147,170 

Pnictll. Doroihv, work 37t 

Purdue Univeml]t,(lrainalicsai 37,33 


auiBtn M 

IHB^EIiiabMh,mriaTlce 311 

ocnitioa pin. ado) 

plate ihowinf 

ReovM, Lucille. wuMtvk* 311 

R^aa. Alice, nrk 3S] 

Sacne Fund, aulhorlMfaw. 170 

olablidiBnt 4I.U3 

no«Ib 47.IM,1U,1M 

mainuoaacc 149, IM 

punieae M4 

itK *• 

Smtlit Lfrt ReaWv* Fund. 
Roccvc OScen TnUic Corp*. oUblidincnt 

Remiolda, Hamlet F.i^aV,'.' .'.'!'.'. ■■.■■■.'. '.■.'... '37« 

MBCbapter.altraiitlcwnt W 

charter membcn.. ...................... 15 

eil^iihnient »,« 

Uilericaliketcta M-M 

home, platia ahnvina ...,.,. -....A4-IS 

waiaervice 306,300 

RLodea, luK HaBiUtm, pbotocnph 3H 

*«£ J»3,J91 

Rider, Iva, war Hvice 31* 

RiMtL Amy Du Bnia, pbotofi^ih 

IUtnal,itTli«oB'nf','lctUatWnwiRliac.".!li"... 'l60 

Ritual and Equipment cooualttee, aiad n tment . . 151 

Robot*, HavmeJainlBIl, pbotofnpb 155 

Riith(cb,Md>dH*]>waid, waiaervice 311 

Rowley. Adeline, work "1 

Ruick,BerU Miller, work 3«7 

Ruddn(Ruk*.HaDdbookc4,*iMlisriaallnBtiir... 194 

p>lhliolioa 17* 

teviaion IM 

St. Louii AhuniK Qub, ntiMlahBteBt. .145, 170, 777 

Salem A]umn*aHb,eH*blWunnt 170 

5aULGnceJcan,w«k 5M 

Sud,ZdliBrltbBai,irotk 3M 

SMMkn>ii,Vii(inia,w«fc IW, 19! 

S^eUarv,wocfc 3«3, 394 

Scbenebea, Ina, pbototraph 374 

ScUndlenii, Kalliuine.'pbMocnph Ill 

wutervice 113 

iiahip fanni,adop(ioa. IM 

I At|iliaChlOniefa,inethodloflmpt(n'tn(.45,40t 
H lor chapter*. Itaiilatkn IM 

SJSi^.?^.■ .■-■.■.■;.■.■ .'.■"::::;::::: w 

91 194 

, Fund, amount 4* 

eailv plans Itl 

eeuiuUneBt 179 

futureicope HI 

mwth 40,100 

Ia*n)trom 279, 100. Ml 

maintenaDce 110, 174, 149, 179 

purm :......... 179 

VepaymentofloaM IM.IOO 

ScbdarAlpa lot Children, fitnen, let ttatenit* 

endHirar 106, »7 

plan ol adminiMiation 1>7, IW 

puipoae 113, IM 

Scienliit* of Alpha' Cfai'Chncta '. 177 

Scycic, Charlotf a Weber, akeich 30* 

Seal dI lialeisitv, adoption 19S 

figure showwig 109 

Secretaty-Editot. a* Keeper o( Suppliea 140 

Scetey, Iune.<roik 317 

Sedey, Miriam Thayer, work 3(7 

Seiple, Charlotte Weber, term o( office 119 

Sha«er, Nina, work 3*0 

Shaw, liEBc Braodet*, wariovice 311 


Slfmi Cluptcr, aluutuk work 16 

chutcr nwnbcn 116 

atmbliihnKBt 16, W 

hiMarial ikctch S6,W 

honM.viemol K 

Sttnw Kappa, early jtma 7 

taamm 1J2, 133 

poHoaioni, vahH of W 

warmvice Ml 

SlmpunCollcKcGiiearuat 34 

CralcRiilleial »,J45 

•Ultiticxil U 

SiMkr,Rihaiil>,<nt>nv1c( 311 

Snltk^na Alien, Uocn^foJ ikMcb I«S, JM 

SmltS^SibH.warsirTiw.'.".'."'.'''. v. ",'.'.".*.'.'. 313 

SmiUi, Enla. woA Mi 

Smltb, Mac, mrli IT! 

Snulli.UaDr.watKnricc 31J 

Social itrvlceinflMfi, ot Alpha Chi Oman ... .371-374 

SODfboot , at hcUa in ahimnc organliatian 14t 

nutadiaB (or, appriaitnnit 1M 


carlvplani 140 


SoBiB, «rly, wridiv o{. . 

prlK-wlntiliw, ttuolcn jjo 

Sophainiitaiilcdilnc, adoption lit 

Soalt, Plant Bmey. award ol hMMWI^ (a 191, 3D.I 

)wa(h,SpideBdl.pWD«aph 153 

Sovlhem CalKonA, Unlvenlty at dranalki at . . 31 

linearUat 34 

Internlliaat 39,34.T 

Mitbtlci 41 

Sa(ilh(niPravlBCe,italMnnipariat 122 

SoBlhwU.Veia.imtk 24« 

^w taiM^A luniBit Oub, BttaMiahiMt 277 

Sprak«',LrHi,w*r<nvic« 113 

StanloH,Haiy,pbolacnpb ^M 

itelch 3M 

SlarStudto.™nilnictiiMi,'.'!!!!'.!!!'.!i'.'!i'.'.!i 2*1 

dacrlplioB MS 

mdowmenl l»J,2tl 

qualificationafar. .'.'.'!!!.'!!!"!!!!!!"! IK 

iweand value 403 

viewof 7«3 

SUrr.Gretchni O'Dotmlt, pboiafraph 356 

Adch 336,357 

mnk J9S 

Starr, Nell Bniihioghani.warii 381 

Sierft.Clandii.warierrl™ 313 

Sleinpr, Maude Steifer.award of honor t^n to.... 203 

photocraph 364 


SteTCTj, Fern Retard,' w«k'.!;ii !'.]!!!! !!!".. '3M 

Stivenaon. EvancdlM Bridn, nhatonaph 3m 

•ketch 370 

wort 379 

Stewart, OaiiHtDiilie, wort 37S 

StUer,8iuaiiK«l,wort 381, 3M 

Straait,Ena.pbBtocnph 143 

Studeati Army Tralnlai Corpa, cMaUithmoil and 

enrollinent KB 

value to collegea »S 

Sup(ilea,fratcraitT,llMo( 241,142 

■yiteoiatiilniaf 140 

teeper ot, appointmait 176 

Sutton, J*a, war wrvico 313 

Snri^ Elaa aiRoid, work 1S3 

Symphooy, official, adoplioa 1M,33V 

fiytacuH AJumnr Qab, ealabllduncBl 177 

SyiacuaeUniver^ty.dramatlaiB 32 

Sneaitiat 34,36, 37 

IratsniUcaal 39,345 

atulMka 41 


Tan Chapter. altruiUic wort tV 

awanloiCouBdIlivphTcupCo IM 

charter nembert , ..SI,S9 


litetch a,t9 

icbolarahip record, .'...! J.'! !!.'!!!.'.'! !.*'!! M 

Tajrlor, Alta Hojnr, phoUcraph 310 

wataerrka 310 

woA JU 

Tomaat, HaiT JoBca, amrd of booor pin to . . . 1«2, 203 

pboucraph 162 

•dtctlon of open motto 2W 

Tern Hute Ahimne aubl ataUiihinaiVH5,'277, 171 

TbMaCbapler.almittkvat 66 

ahimaicotniilBtlon 14( 

aaConvenUoBbeuen 166 

award dZjnlovinfcnpto 219 

eaub i ia h B>wii...".'.'.'!!"!!".!!!!I!!!:!!!!i6.64 

hiitotltmiaetcb 6t-«6 

homeot.docrlplfoD 110 

plana for 10^)10 

valueol 46,107 

_ vitwtol. 64,«S 

Tbela TbeU Chapter, charter memben 2J9 

eaUUidunenl 243,259 

Uilorialiketch 25«,260 

waraerrice 3M 

woft of 247, 25», 260 

Tbonuu,lTaJaoe,pbolagraph 121 

_ woit 3t« 

Tbompaon, B<*iSt«cfa,w«% 37} 

ThoRipean, Dorothy, ovenaaa lervice 323 

_ wwt 374 

Tlionpaon,Hanlia,wBriciTlc« 124 

Thomiaon, Nathalie, war icnlct 30* 

nOoaKn Geom^waffc 3m 

Tbto*ec,NocmHarriioB,WBrt 315 

TlDH, Eva Uamril, work ;. 3«T 

Tia^lioDiof Alpha Chi Omen I37-33* 

BknlfiaDct SSt 

TmdiUaaaConinitlee.creatloD 175 

Travii, Cora, work 37» 

Tree, fraternity, adiqiIloD 107 

TijJ:ityAluiniueChib,ctUbliihmait 27> 

work 27S 

Tniater,GteteheBGoocb,plwlscnpti 1!> 

•ketch 357.35! 

Trowbtidfe, Curie Adelaide, pholofiaph 379 

work 379,393 

Turner, EltbaSBider,occvpaliooofStatStiidio. 1>2 

T^Iograph 393 

work 393,394 

TurttBiine. Ella Cuitalna, work 3>7 

Twin Citle* Aluninc Qub, ettaUiabment 171 

wariervkx 308,309 

woA 1» 

Unlventliei, coeducatjoa at ....,.,,...., 1 

houtingcoDditioiuat...... .......17,28 

Vpcraft, Margaret, work '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 394 

UpailonCbapUr.altruiiticwciit 91,289 

charter mepibcn 90 

cMablUimeDl 16,90 

hiAorkalikelcb 90-91 

home-Tlewof 91 

VamMlTuaivenKy ol, tmtemitle) at. . . .19, 105, 14$ 

Vettrea,RuthBiidow,pbotocraph 375 

mk..."^'. ■,■.!:!;;.";.';!!.:!!.'!;;,";!;; us 

VaUniar,Kalhryn,wark »4 

Vo«!.UwyRktenbaii,«araervke 310 

wort 171,191,119,371 


Wade, Elma Fatten, pboloftapfa 214 

Wariervinoftraieriiiiridacr^ioa.':!'.!!''.^!'. 301 

pjauier.aulhortaatlooal I9S 

$« alu French orphana and chapter! tad 


Wuhbun, Rulh, wu KiTke 3U 

WulliD(U>^D.C.,wuw«kEnof JU,3W 

WubiDcloB Slats CdU^c, fine ■rum 31 

(mlertdUMit J9,HS 

MiUbtka 40 

Wuhiactoa Suu VaWcnity, fine uu at U 

rnteniltic**t 39,MS 

■Utbtici 41 

vuMrvkn J99 

Wiiliiacton UnivBiiljr {St.L«ui),dnmtk*it. 33 


WicmuiH, BilHi, pbotofnph iS2 

nek 311, M9 

WMcnPtDViiKcpinideDtiaf 124 

aUtacomprtobc lit 

WhMb, Gkimie B. work iti 

Wayrauch, Ina, Muowlcdgncnt to viii 

W*]>niickMat}orie,«aIiavkt 313 

WUatir^Alplia CUOnio IM 

Wliita,n»,wO(k 318 

»llhiu,MaiYE.,wiiifc 37*, 371 

WilluntoB,Hwl,n*k 391 

Wil»o,Manr Janet, aa editor of io" 212,114 

pbotaciapb 314 

*«tch 3t7,3«< 

tenn nC aBc< lie 

work 3« 

WlBB,RawtiiaHiiilMn.«Dik 173 

WiKaaaiD, Uniaetaity cl. adniaioo o< vodkb Id. I 

dnmatlctat 31 

fiualtaal 34,33 

Intenlllnal 3«,J4i 

•UtiMka 41 

mthnw.Beulah Buckley, mi aervux 311 

Wooen, higher cduoitiDa of, drvdopmail t,l 

lncall«n,IUIiuiil M 

WsoHi'i Iratenltie*. alien eoleied by 7 

de«aloiiimtof,niHiiIn»afecthi| 2,3 


n'ottUniton, JenDlr, woik 3^8 

WcighliHdeB, pbotonaph ttl 

Wrilmul Alpha Chi Oniea M1-39S 

U'yeth,OlaU.,pbMo(ia[idi 311 

war Knke 319, 320 

work 3« 


XtCh*pUT,altnii)lkwoi1c 2» 

award ol Lyrt iDViac cup to 119 

charier membera 7* 

ntablithmnl 1«,7» 

hialoclcalaketch 79, SO 

h(iiK,*in>ol 79 

biHue ownenhip, plans for .,.._......... . AO 

yauDf,Lcoiu,wo[k 3W 

ZetaChapler.ilinbiicwuk 219 

anwdlrf Council trophy ciqi to. 100 

award ol i-yn loving cup to ^.. 119 


hiiUrkal iketch 61-63 

wit Mrvkt 306, 301, 309 

Zeu Tail Alpha, eiUuioB 132,133 

flag ol, pUu ibowini 110 

ZeuZ«uCh)ipler,chvlermeD^cn 13> 

Siioricaiikeiih; ;;',■.!!',■.!; !;;";.'.'":;.. "m* 

wuKTvke MS, 309 

work 247, IM 

ZiiiiiMnnaa,LiUto>iG.,awanloilic«Kitpiiilo. ,. 103 

pbolQgrkph .,,.... ^. _......., ..,. . 363 

rownol 107, 10« 

■ketch 363,364 

lennofoSce 130, 1S3 

work 1S4, 146, ISl 

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