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Full text of "The history of the ancient borough of Pontefract, containing an interesting account of its castle, and the three different sieges it sustained, during the civil war, with notes and pedigrees, of some of the most distinguished royalists and parliamentarians"

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HISTOBY 
Ancient Borough of Pontefract, 



« IHTIIEJTIKO 

ACCOUNT OF ITS CASTLE, 

iu TBsn DirriSENT suoa it lutTAuriD, oubino tse civil wai^ 

NOTES AND PEDIGREES, 

LOYALISTS AND PARUAMENTARIANS. 
chutlt oBAvra from uANifsc&im nevib iefore FuiuiBm. 



BY B. BOOTHROYD. 



natTta bt and tat rat authos, and fob j. fox i 

AND tOLD at LOVOHAIf fc CO. r ATIIHDITIK-Kew, ■. CROtl 
•T, LBHDOHI J. HIATOM, bllDl{ J. HUMT, 

SONCAtriBt AKD MAV 11 HAD OF OTUII ■OOKItLLUI. 



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E. Gmi. Kswiuwler 

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B. Guy, LopcVm 



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]. Hill, Eiq. KlHlKRfaBtp 

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J Hum, dins 
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W.Sharp, Knaitiad^ 

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Sleddic, Carleioa 
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T 
T. Tfvtor, Eif tantdnct 
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I T. W. Te*. Ejq. liiHo 
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Mn-Wibna, Elmull Udge 

Col. Wide, Alu>A] 

Rev. J. Woadiuir, Aibton, Lmcubira 

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K. WUkinwii. York 

Mr. Woudcgck, Surgeon, Hcnmraitli 

E. WilSuM, □. D. Matbsmugb 

Capt. Wiltoa, Quen'i Rofa] Bag. 

Mtm. Wide, PonwrrKt 

11). S. Wiik, dinla 

T. Wade, ditu 

WiliM, ditto 
J. WilUt, Ew). dilu - 
Un. Whiieford. dUto 
Mr. S. WaiDWTigh^ Sutjeon, ditto 

T. Wilion, Puntefract 
Mi«. A. Wade, ditto 
Mr. K. Walker, ditio 

B. Wtigbt, Jun. ditto 

W. Wood, ditto 

B. Wright, ditto 

J, Ward, ditto 

T. Walihaw, ditlq 

T. Waitl, ditto 

A. Waioe, ditto 

J. Wilwp, diuo 

T. Whitiker. dioo 

Suhcriheri Names omitted in the aforegoing List, 

Ut. A. BeHunoDi, Smeaton 
liDwn. Loftboiue 

T. J«ii 

M. Lee, Gme 
LiMttlege, Bnilbertoa 
Lee, Knotiingley 
Mn. E. Lindlcy, Atierton ByvUer 
Mr. Minbill, Briliim 

W, Moor, Knoitingley 
J. Ma-iiii, Wood Mit'i 
W. Petty. Pnoiefiaci 
W. PUfciDglon, duio 
"W. Kicbardlon, Micklefield 
J. Redfeam, Komiirglejr 
W. Robinton, SvineOcct 
J. Thorp. Womenley 
Tbomai, SbfiEeld 
3. Tvibell, Badivoith 



Ward, ditto 
R. Wilcock, ditto 
J. WadivHih, ditto 

Mn. WIlun, Sberburn 

Mr, R. WllkinNn, AckTordi 
C. Wooiack. Kflotunglex 
Wade, Hnle 
T. Wadivonh, Hethler. 
Wilki, Bnxbenoa 
Wotknian, Oiutuo 
A. Wade, Ackvonh 

Mn. W. Wertvood, 

Ml. Wbiie, Suiim 

W. WilKn, Shrffidd 
WebM*r, Methley 
T. Wbeator. Ueniall 
Wyker, Selby 
J. Wroe, FerT7bridia 
R. Whiiaker, Ackvoith 
R. Weit Knoitingley 
Wilton, diiio 
Whitekick, Bro(b«rK« 
T. WhigglovQttk 
J. WillumKin 
T. Wilxn, Thorabin 
R. Winn, UHeikelf 
Hn. Ward, Sheffield 



W. Brown, Loftboiue 
BbkcT, Ponlefraci 
D. Bulgndderr, Cork 
Sev. Rob. CroTi, Rowley 
Mrs. CoUey, TantbelT 
Mr. J. CoUiiuon, Kiplin 
Gudfrer, Snydall 
W. Gaoduille, Poalerrm 
Mn. HeptiattaK. ditto 
Hr. Hoiaeral], Bamiley 
RiHopp, Pontafract 



W. 1 






J. Heikelipe, ditto 

e.Baigh, dUlo 

R. P. Hawkenronh, ditto 

Hill; Leedt 

HiO, Btod)«ttgn 



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CONTENTS* 



JNTBODUCTJON, ■ - - - - -1 

SECTION I. 
Om the State of the Place during the Dommiott ^ ihe 

Romans, -. --. -.-, ■ 5 

SECT. IF. 
Ov the Siipon Pmiod, and the iTttraAuttn if Chm- ' 

tianitifi - 1» 

SECT. m. 
htftury ivio the Cofutitutim and Prmkget of the' 
Borough under the Saxons^ ~ - - - - S(f 

SECT. TV. 
,Th* Norman Conquest, and the changts it frodutxi, 46 

SECT. V. 
9» the modem Name of this Boroagh, and the iuiUdixig 
of the Castle, - " - - - - - 5? 

SECT.vVT. 
TSe History and Pedigree ^ the Lacies, - - CQ 

SECT. VII. 
Titquiiy into the' Conduct and. Character o^ 7%opi«r 

Earl (f Latica^ef, •- - -' , - 84 

SECT. Vm. 
Historical Events till the Death of fiicbard II. 99 

SECT. IX. 
Historical Events till the Union ^the Houses of I^^" 

caster and york, - - - - - -117 

SECT. X. 
Historical Events Jnm the ^eaihaf Richard Ills tiH . 
the commenccTnent of the Crojl War, ~ ■, 1S9> 

SECT. XI. 

On the Coil War^ iki itfite ^ Particff ns4 9 4fficrif* 
tioa of the Castle ia its p^eet^tatCf - . IH 



^ Google 



TOi CONTENTS. 

SECT. XIL 
Events during llu First Siege, - - - -169 

SECT. XIII. 
Events during tha SetStniSitgiy - ■- - . i85 

SECT. XIV. 
Stents whichfoUowed the surrender 5/" the Castle, the 
manner in 'which it was surprised, the last Siege, 
• i and final Demolition, ""-.-- 249 

PART II. 
Pricny of St. John, - - - - - -319 

Domiaicdn Friars, ■• - -, - - - 3S8 
Carmelites, --- - - .-_.. -340 

Austin Friars, ------- 341 

Church of AU-Halimes, - - - - -343 

Church of St. Giles, 364 

Chantry of St. Thonuu, . - - - - - 376 

St. Nicholas Hospital, - - • - - - 3^78 
Laxar House, ------- 382 

Knolles', or Trinity Hospital and College, - - 383 

Siad House Hospttal, ------ 592 

Treaite's Hospital, -.----- 393 

Frank's Hospital, _'.--_- 39* 

Cowpefs Hospital, 397 

Perfects Hospital, -, - - - - "228 

Watkiris Hospital, - - - - - - 39? 

The Kin^s Free Grammar School, - - -401 

Charity School, - - - - - - - 411 

Talbofs Charity, Sayles Dde, - - - - 414 

Corporation's Bequest, ------ 418 

Acastcr's Bequest, - . . - - - - - ib. 

Mrs. Dorothy Frank''s Bequest - - - - ib. 

FothergiS's Donation, - - - - - . 419 

The Park, - - - 428 

Stump Cross, - _ - _ _ - 441 

Market-Cross, Town-Hail, TTieatre, - - - 443 
Ancient Cave, -.-..- - ib. 

Corpffratm, ..-.--- 445 

Parliamentary History, - - ' - - - 458 

Jteligiotts Sects, and modem State of the Tount, 484 

Appendix — Addenda. ------ 



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PREFACE. 



Agreement in language, community of pri- 
Tiliges, and a similarity in genera! habits, form the 
basis or the virtue called patriotism, or the love of 
our coantpv ; a virtue which grows with our 
growth, and ripens with our years. The same 
principles which generate the love of our country, 
give every man a peculiar interest in the 
place of his nativity, ortn that where he has spent 
the chief part of his life. The former he reccUects 
in connection with his boyish sports, and the 
gay and enchanting scenes of his youth, when his' 
mind was free from care, and the illusions of fancy 
added charms to every object, and converted the 
world into a paradise j I he latter is impressed on 
his heart by the toils he has endured, the friend- 
' ships he ha-) formed, and most probably by those 
tender sympath'cs and emotions which he feels as 
a husband and a father. The same principles 
which attach us to a particular place, lead us to 
enquire into its origin, and into the events which 
have occnrred respecting it ; and by connecting 
the idea of the place with the events, and disregard- 
ing the time, we feel as if personally interested. 

Topography is founded on the above mentioned 
principles; and while it gratifies a natural desire, 
it often ilhiKtrates and improves general History, 
« Every particular town, is a part of a general whole; 
an nnit of the aggregate number of which a king- 
dom consists. To describe-cach separately, and to 
state with precision the most interesting occur- 
rences, must tend to reader general History more: 
minute and more faithful. 



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The work now presented to Ihe public, origi- 
nated in the wish of a respectable friend, Richard 
Hepworth. Esq. who had . made a collection of 
such materials towards it as he had met with in the 
course of his reading. These he offered to the Author, 
and generously proHHssA mny a-wlstance which it 
was in his power to afford ; and during the pro- 
gress of this work, he has faiilifuHy. adherpd to falta 
engagewent. On perusing tbc^ material?, th« 
Author found that rouch was. yet to he iioD&— « 
\hat beside the task of qfrangiag, (jiligent res^ar^ 
vas neceasary iq. order (q explain and iilH^trat*! 
TRrioos fact? ^Wgli weie o^ily noticed ep passant 
\iy oi^r Historians* H^ availed hiwself of 9II th* 
sources of inlormation witlvn his reach ; and ia thQ 
CQurBC of his researches, he mei with mMnaU ft# 
beyond what he had expected. 

Th« inqst Y»luablie c£u;ni;i)UBic9tiQ» ^he Auttier 
recpived from the (lev* F. Dr^ke, I-flci»reilj o£ 
Ppnt^frjct. This was the MS. journal of the weg* 
wrpte At the tipje hy. his pnoestor. C^tftiy Dral^- 
^vd wbich had U^ep (iar«fi*!ly presw^ed in tfa« fe- 
mily. Sy t|»e Qid of this v«ju^hla MS. the hi^Qr:}^ 
0/ ttje siege U more jwrticMlw and iirtwesUiig tbw 

it could pos^iUy otherwise hflVf hfcf). 

Th» »qte«» coDjtRiains «pnoe account off the &» 
inili^^ of «ev0ral di^ingwisbed per»oBs.ittthe^£aBtIe;l 
lutd qf some in the itrniy of tW Parfianonit, hava' 
bqen derived frqift Witeon'a MS. Pedigpeea, in th© 
Leeds libr^j'y, cQ(r)p9<Qd with another valiiBh|tt< 
qopy i^ thf pospio^ipQ of the Jib. H«p. J. Smyth, 
H«!Uh) near \Vak^&e)d. 6at]i these iMS. are fofiiei- 
fr^ffi 0A9 itittK-poti^emKtaof bhe lat* Dr. Hidiwd-' 
son* of Bi^rly, neap Bradford) colkct«icl by Mr.- 
Hopt|i|)son, l^eiti-i«.nd q/^ D<li^d«t», irom theoe«ord» 
inPoMte/raf^ Caf<t.|Q, ItF^doM- to its deKeiitioa. 

The Awthor has to acknonledge bii ol)l{|^traiis 
%9 J. Mi^««% Eaq. &fi the aecurale pedi^vte «f the 



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-^bofMhily, ftiiA«oH)E^btttn'cQWtoA]n!cBHonft. Vt* 
H, BeMlnont, K*^. of Whftky, Iras hcAib^i^d thft 

md u A' ift^ilettimi kftA niu^iMat-, '(»« 19m dHwof 

veK4 ft teftfliAi^ 'to fmp&rt itfTonMlKAi froM the 
vvlfasM'ctiltedrfoA or dncftttit ttocdm^ts in h\h 
possession, whici* iPftiJs the AftMibf to ftgiWl, tb»l 
beiMil'iKOi'th^'ha^iin^A of-t)i^cdAih%tkt>q^iMitited 
with him, '|#eftoirt ia the ^UT^mettCVi^n^nt ttf hU 
nwrt. Fwit! ft 1e««- W'Sh- ThbWii* Beaumbfit, ft 
lifipean, tkM' tlw^ tidV^, tMgtt'S^d,' tlsplAhiiiig Km 
t«M,Sil]t^hdty^s^ 'H^in(ft«tt«¥tt!«:as'ip^ietd t6 thjit 

pbmdv it4im«vtt<1t'may be as' tVii^^'tised atttoTi^ tlM. 
niliWy. Sii- '$1i6ftjji^ iW A 1««i&f d^eid from Pafr^ 
tonid^ JuM fi i64.^, ^wstr^ btid h« had m^i- 
Tad>^'* fee «w NfAtt* yttu wtUfe for, t ■Mi&U isPo^ily 
tend ir<ou sonft ■ bat t tVurydu in ftvi'nd dncdiMi^; 
A mis' piay- SiUf^r^w Pitren ■l&'keif)' ceyit&i^ »rth, 
at Jtiat will s^^ vi^ Mntcft:^"- Thfs-46cid«s the 
ease of the term as then understood. 

The note !n page 284, respecting Lady Saville, 
*Wpfed from Kimber's Baronetage, h a niisrel)re- 
•efttfttTOiV. Sir Thtrttiaa Beaumont was the govetnW 
of tfietitotle, dnWihthearifctesbfrtndftion, theffe 
is dtte, "wftk* reS^tfcts the Sfcfe Irtiurn of Lady 
SavJfle, to^bornhitl. 

-Sottie persons WiTI 'probably tonceive that tWs 
*t>A IS loo Ynatk Connected wi'di the general 
history of the country, in repV, it may be oIh 
iervtd ihai every ^oceJ history tnOst be tess or more 
so ', &ad aM such a n-ork Will fiiW hito tlie bands of 
many, whose situation and circumstances preclude 
access to works on general history, it was judged 
advisable to relate the causes of those events 
which more properly belonged to the history of the 
place. 

The history of the priory and religious orders 
nHght have been rendered more minute, had the 



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xri niEFACE. 

Author had the opportutiity of s^rchiog the vala- 
able stores of the Bodleian Library. He fouud, 
that his materials were as ample as. his plan aqd 
proposals would admit ; aod he<win uoder the ner 
cessity of leaving this to some future historian, 
.that he migUt give an account of thC' churdte^ 
charities, &c. within the Borough. 

On the whole, the Author commits thisworkto 
the public, sensible tliat further attention and re< 
search might have rendered it more perfect. He has 
had the donble task of collecting hi^ materials, and 
of immediately arranging then> for the pren. 
Hence he has rarely had an opportunity of attend-; 
ing to his language, and of giving to it, that polish 
and.grace, which would have enltvejled the subject,, 
and rendered the wl^ole more pleasing and- inte- 
resting. He hopes this will disarm critisisra of 
her severity, and excite her to practice the virtue, 
of forbearance, where she cannot smile with appro^ 
bation. 

P. S. Since the history of the siege was printed 
olT, the life of Sir H. Stingsby baa been published, 
in Scotland. In this work, some particulars re- 
specting the castle, previous to the battle of Mar- 
ston Moore, are noticed ; and a Sir John Red- 
fnan, is said to have been the governor. A bard 
fought battle is described, between the royalists 
and the parliamentarians, which b^gan at Brother- 
ion, and extended to Berkin. The royalists were 
victorious, but Sir J. I^edm^a spon al^er died^ 
Vid. the Work. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



rllSTOAY it 19 genn^Iy admitted, is not less 
calculated to afford rational amusement, than to 
impart useful instruction. • It collects the experi- , 
ence and wisdom of ftll ages; it records useful dt^ 
GOTcries, and traoes the progress of the arts; it 
notices the influence of civil institution?, iit forming 
the character and regulating the martners and sen- 
timents of a people ; and oombining the useful with 
the agreeable, it never fails to please. 

A faithful delineation df the conduct ahd cha< 
racters of distinguished individuals } a detail of those 
^reat events Which have contributed in a coneider4)le 
degree, tA tlie greutness and happiness of a peoplej 
or to their misery and wretchedness, cannot be 
-perused without' interest. White reading an 
animated description of smne rencounter, which 
is to decide the ftte of hations, who do« not 
feel the oscilbtions of lK>pe and fbap, while the battle 
hangs in suspence? While contemplating the 
character of those who have ennobled human nature 
by their distinguished virtues, who is not exeltt-d^ 
at least for the moment, to imitation ? Who does 
pot wi^ in whatever situation placed, to dignify 
that situation by the exercise of appropriate virtues> 
It is not possible that all should command armies; 
and by their achievements obtain general renown j 



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3 INTRODUCTION. .y.,. 

bnt it is possible for each individual to obtain a 
sufficient portion of fame by a virtuous conduct ia 
the station in which he is placed. The examples 
of excellence which history sets before us, in every, 
science; in every profession and callin?, must have 
a considerable, though it may "be an imperceptible 
influence on our conduct and pursuits. These ex- 
amples like the dew en the grass, cherish and invi- 
gorate every virtuous principle. They operate like 
the sun j oor, after ages ba¥e elapsed, is their iti0U- 
epce spent. 

Nor are exampfes of vice useless.. Though 
on many occasions history pourtrays some- of 
the worst of oar species as pra^^perous, it tends 
on the whol^' to establish the maxim* " That ib^ 
prosperity of the wicked ^all destroy them." If it 
exhibit the character of a Pharoah or a Nero tram- 
pling for a season on the rights of men; and exuUiitg 
in the misery their own crimes havecreat^; i^ also 
sbeijrs tlieir enf) }— that vhil^ one for his obduracy, 
cruelty and oppression, i? made an example of 
^ivioe .vengeance; the Other is driven from a throoe 
oil Which he was unworthy to sit, and falls a just 
sacrifice to the hatred which his own vices bad ex- 
ited. After havingerectefl a palace, cpv^ed with 
gold wrung from the pepple by oppression, and 
coolly observing* " that thif was an habitation iit 
for a man to dwell in ;" ^ero was forced to ily tQ 
an homely cottage, and there slain. 

As history shews vice op a throne thus pnnisbed ; 
it also displays inferior ejiampl^ equally wretched ; 
and one would hope that such examples cannot but 
aETord to mankind the most salutary admonitions. 
In a word, when virtuoqs characters excite ouf 
esteem, tbos^ of yio^ must incite our abhorrence. 



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nmtoDucnoN. » 

and this abhorreace must become a motive to a 
more amiable and dignified deportment. Ex- 
amples of vice act by a repeilant, as those of virtue 
by an attractive infloeQce; and unless a man is 
already decided in bis character, aiid established in 
criminal tiabits, it may reasonably be expected, that 
such examples will, on the whole, be favourable to 
virtue. 

The influence of civil institutions cannot be 
more dearly displayed than in topographical history. 
As this is confined to a particular district, it is ne- 
cessvily more minute in its details, it marks every 
-change in the institutions, the sentiments and man- 
ners of a people; it describes distinguished indivi- 
dual characters, and by being more particular, it 
becomes more influential and interesting. Every 
man is led to reflect that he inhabits the place 
where the most striking events have occurred ; 
where the most noble examples of patriotism, 
valonr and prudence, have been exhibited ; and he 
is influenced to become equally patriotic, bold and 
daring, prudent and circumspect, with those who 
have been — but alas are no more ! 

Though this place has not been hitherto honored 
by a particular history, . it is not owing to any want 
of authentic and interesting materials. Its antiquity, 
the singular events which have occurred ; its connec- 
tion with the general history of the kingdom, afford 
ample matter for the historian. To use the lan- 
guage of a late writer, this place is memorable ibr 
the residence of a proud Norman conqueror — for 
the tragical end of a beloved King — for the noble 
blood which flowed by the hand of the executioner ; 
and for the unshaken loyalty here manifested in the 
defence of that unfortunate monarch Charles the first. 



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tiiE 

HISTORY 

PONTEFRACT. 

SECTION r. 

On- the stale qf this place during the dominion qfthe 
Romans. 

It is dilficult, Bot to say in many cases im- 
possible^ to trace with precision the original founda- 
tion and establishment oF particular places. The 
lapse of so many ages and the want of ancient records, 
are obstacles which no industry or research can 
surmount. Nor can it excite wonder that the origin 
of particular places should be unknown, when the 
subject is deliberately considered ; but on the other 
hand, it is what may reasonably be expected. When 
objects gTond or nozyl are beheld, they strike the 
imagination with an irresistable force, and the plea- 
,surable emotions tbey excite, lead the mind to dwell 
on them, till they become indelibly impressed on 
the memory ; but (hose wbich are ccmmon are seen 
and forgotten; the impression wbich they mak^ 
fiides away with the passing moment. While the 
majestic river, wliicli fertilizes and enriches the 
country through which it wiiujs its course^ is beheld 

D:,t.:f:k«G00^IC 



6 HI3T0BY OF PONTEFRACT. 

with admiration, the spring from which it rises is 
unQOticed, In like manner the populous toWD or 
husy city contains objects which arouse the atten- 
tion, and tlie various ocourrenoe* and events of such 
places, afford mtttcr fertile historian; while the 
farm house or the few cottages, from which such 
town or city arose, are tieheld with indifference; 
and no one thinks of describing who built them, or 
by whom tftcy are inhabited. As mos* places have 
originated from such small beginnings, years, if not 
sgcs, must have retied ow^ -before they became 
sufficiently interesting to deserve notice; and on 
this account our inatilUy in. produce direct evidence 
of the time when, and the manner how this ancient 
iowV arose, ' is the less to be regretted, fidt tb6ugb 
we cannot attain what is al^lutely certain on this 
point, by the consideration of collatertil circumf^ 
stances; We triay yet arrive at what is highly probable; 
The Stat* of Britain before the invasion of the 
Romans is but imperfectly understood. The enter- 
prising spirit of the Phenician merchants of Tyrfi 
in the -land of JudsBa, had eariy pushed discovery 
beyond the pillars of Hercules; and to bpen new 
source's of wealth and trade, they had i^acAed 
Britain. At this remote petiod, the Britons Were 
hot unacquainted with the 'treasures their countr^ 
contained; 4nd lohg before Cwsar visited thehi they 
knew how toextract the valuable metals' of lead,' tin; 
aiid ■ copper from their ores. ■ These articles they 
exchanged with the l^enicians for the merchandise 
of the east ; and the Flienicians gave the name of 
Gassfterides *, to the British isles. 

* Vid. Bob LACE Ant Car. 29.p. FireorsiKcenturieti be&re 
the ChrUtian era, they carried on this tra/ic. Herodotus '<vho 
flouri^)^ 440 ytaxt before Clii-iit> edit the iilaiKf from whenc^ 



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Juijiia C^s«r sboujb fifty-five y^ars l)efbrfl ttjp 
Christian era pcesedovec fi^m .G4h1, 4nd wM?* 
jdeacKBt gn Britian. Xbe BritQn§ bca; di^ou^a^ed 
l^ tbe ianie of hi? conqMests, apd the 6^1^ijg§ui^ 
c£ their brethren the fCmila* uiafql^ i^ t^l^et . r^j^ 
%9nc^ i and thoagli <»tnp^ied tff: gi k« >v w ^ tjip 
di^]ptfaw<i legions of Rfmtp; tbpy ctH^ip^ tifp 
praise due to their vatonr sod courag^iff^pei their 
.eiKOiiea. Tb^ ^ntbjtion^oC Cassqe w^^ aqw dir^^d 
against h» own countey ; wd having, recieiv^ hp^ 
tages from the i}ritons!h0ide$)arted>!^pd:th.4y'^pca- 
ped ihe yoke prepared $>rlb$n>.fbr near a cantpry. 

CsBor, Whq a^lidst tk^ toils of;<var and tin; 
various duties which bis high r^lt iinp«9^ itpo* 
bim, ^tiU fdBnckJ9isiiK>foMthe cuttiTation pf polite 
Jit^rat^ie; i and to 'his i^^gtin^ Ctjhinjentiar^^wp ac? 
iadehted .fi3r-,tUe.,bfl«t 'infonnation ^p^ting, th^ 
Jaics. -omtofBsadd m^q^fof th« BritQnS) fpoia 
titfffQ >re-l«ara, tl^at.theiiiNwd. df '3ritajq'wa^ -pgopjed 
from the. CgntiaMti, andiilEit^tfr anf^tors«p^ 
llbesdfflelangqilgei'WersliipjiirdithieyvneidplB; and" 
wfRiB goKrned by (belsamti laws as tbe i^ahitftufli 
i>f'OaiiI. ..■ ■ ,- . .. 

. Tbs kiDgd^«;vra« ditf id^^ into a oyn)ber of i x^ff 
pcod^t amd sep8cate.Bto*fs,i.0Rf offihp wost.cpiir 
saiprabl^ftf whifthwa^Jbat-^trf ihe^;Brig^ef),. wh,9 
i6babit#d thts^f)^ of 'th^iCfinqtry.., ^lac}) st^^ 
adtppwied^ed opeptuef. orbing; .^ut, \iti\^ ^liii^fw 
king .ttas.M>t absphite- . H^ cqyid neither niak« 
laws, nor engage in apy matters of impoEtance, 
without the ad vied and consent of the ec|uitcs, or lead- 
tin came Cssuterides, and confeuex he luiew not wbere it la;-. 
KTOTp U the Chaldee name for tin, «nd it ii pufaable it was lo 
caHed by the PiienidaBa; «■ tbe C^re^* cannot be wppofed is 
lure given a duw t6 an island tbej did not know. 



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8 HISTORY OF PONTEFRACt. 

iDg men; and the dniida, or priests*. Tliere apt>ears 
only to have existed among the Britons these' two 
orders, for the common people were in a Mate of 
■vassalage f. Each of these equites enjt^ed a cer- 
tain >district of land, where he resided with his re- 
tainers around him, who attended him in war, and 
in peace cultivated his ground, and supplied his 
table with its produce. These districts must hare 
differed in extent, some being larger than others; 
and it - has been supposed these divisions of land> 
^ere the fonndation if our present parishes. 

The houses of the Britons werp of a round form, 
:and covered' with a convex roof} and houses of this 
^bnn continoed in tbe highlands of Scotland, where 
the vemaim of the old Britons still reside, within a 
few centuries X- Tbey were made by driving stakes 
into the earth, and watling them with osiers; and 
the roof was oovered with tH'ancbes of trees, and 
thatched. They hadmach the appearance of teats^ 
and were so caUed by Dion and Zonturas^. 
'^ At the arrival of the Romans, tbe population of 
Britain was «onstderabte. Bede inform us; there 
were twenty-eight cities, besides other fortified 
places^. Tacitus expressly asserts, that. the Bri- 
gantes were the most numerous, and formed Che 
largest kingdom of any within the whole island ^. 
This people whose capital was called Isurium, (now 
Aldborough, near Boroughbridge,) were justly 
tanked among the most wariikeof the Britons. 

• Wkitaker, Hid. Man, Vd. 1. p. «. 

-f CxiAK, peneservorum loco. 

X Baetius, Scot Reg. Descrip. Fo. 4. 1573, Parii. 

■ i nsnw, ii>d netntiM. 

II £cd.Hiit. B.-I C. 1. 

If TAcAgt. c 17. Brigsnto— ctT^aoDWKNiiMim&talMu 
provmcix, 



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:mSTOIlT OF PONTBnuCT- 9 

They had ehlier peopM, or acquired by conquest 
the whole <^ that territory now divided into the 
counties of Durliam, Yorl^ Westmoreland, Cum- 
berlaud, aad Lancaster. In the Itineraries of An- 
toDJne and Richard, there are twenty-eight tonus 
inentionedi whose oanies. prove their British origin, 
^bject to the Brjgautes.' . According to Ninius, 
JDauum, :0r Doncaster-was then a town ofimjpop- 
^an^e *. 

The towns or cities ofthe Britons were generally 
.boilt in valleys, upon the mar^n of a stream or 
river, for the convenience of water and secnrlty 
froni winds. They were not scenes of general and 
constant residenq^ but may be considered radier 
' as places of refuge amid the dangers of war, where 
ib^ might occasiqn^y lodge their wives, children 
and cattle, and the weaker resist the stronger^ till 
succours could arrive. SurEonoded by impervious 
woods and secured by a rampart and fosse,, they 
were sufficiently .strong . to resist the ordinary 
.attacks (^ their enemies^ . 

The Britons had a peculiar nuthod, of .giving 
alarm and collecting their iurc«s, on the invasion 
of an .^emy. They .Raised a cry which was caught 
op, and transmitted fr<»B mouth to mouth through 
all the |¥g^; . an^ as the notice, passed, along the 
.warriors, sp9tQbe4 their arms, and hurried away to 
-the rendesvpus. . When Ctesar first invaded Britain 
the ali^^ w^.^read in this manner, in sixteen or 
seventeen hours, one hundred and sixty miles in a 
direct linef llie partial remains of this custom 

" UMerii Prim. Ecd. BriL 

t Ubi major &tque illustrior incidit rei, damoiv per agroi, 
rcgMMfq^ vgnificut ; huncaliideiiicept eKci}MUDt, el prarimit 
Iridunt; ut tunc accidit: iwpi.qux qri^nte, a^ GtBfii.gaiti 
NO. I. C 



n.iizedb; Google 



to Hteroftv w WNttrtuKt 

«SH fexi^t -amcrtig «s in riie hae bnd try urtiidi k 
tatsed dfter &■ iHef tt^ovrtrtiW escap* jarstrce. ' 
" ' Aftwt*eiwra5^o(lrfJtlHu8Caw*r,^md^e^tmfr■ 
w^ intfefcbtttse was established IjeHrtftn Britam &n^ 
tte ■«>iittfletit> and Bi-ftabwasctwtsidftrta^afidel 
♦lierethegeneKris tif Koine ttiiglil otitain ftrfifr, arf 
^*e tsmpirt reeieire sin aAA^tm to Hts' teiYftory arid 
•weaMi. At length they 'obtdlned'a ^rttlemem in 
the country; and in the progress of tbeir' Coni- 
iqwests TSadied -flie ftfigantes ; jrftd, ^rffcer itdinftroua 
fetid fcard-fcu^t %»8trtes, redwced thewi widir soV 
^ettjtfn. Utiafccw^oitttedtb a tame 'siftrmission oor 
•bravte cwnftt^meo, -soon rnisttl fte standard «f t6- 
vnlt, and owce Triore conntrftted thw tause *a "ftife 
^fefcisIpB of ariris. 

Though possessed tfffeqffrf -rtdottr *aud couragfe 
HHth'tlrth- etremfes/thfe Bntons'wttt "deficient ifi thA 
'steaaydiscipHntawdtMfler-vvhrCh'iitieyhad acq«tred, 
krrd \fereatIaSietmip^fedto'*iA»nitw> i** Rwmniah 
ifea^e. ThiSTevdltbfftleBfigiahtefi'and^helfriiini^ 
of the Romans over them, hejrpened in (he setett- 
4eei^ con^tiMt« <oF¥)ortn<i^; atid «A>Mrt ^leteigb- 
teehihbrffie 'tihri*ri(tn era. The 'feet ^isestdltlisea 
Isy'a'teKdentrophydug'ilp'neir Ripon, aboBt-tbe 
'miaffledf'the !dst <eattii¥f*: 

■ Matmg corigttered ftis 'part 'bf Britain, ihe^ 
■ftdopted -the Tiiost -ppuderrt -iwAhodB to keep fhe 
'pfeoplein sdbjeCtion; to'dieck thefpirit -dfTCVbh 
«nd'to «ndertheffCDiKpie!tt«eflfl*nd'la*hig. As 
*tbey cottld iitit cotlfide in Bdtotu, they HxeA 

etsent, snte primun confectam vij;i]i>m in finibus ATvernonm. 
tuditanint; quod gpuium est iniUium'ph3Mnffl<ircil!er1S0.Ci£>AR. 
'CwB.p.lB. 

• TWJMWfetfeii'onth, TMP.CJffiS.BOMEnMf. KVO. 



D.n.iized by Google. 



vmWf or PQWTIIMaV l\ 

thw cam^ oq the «ile of tfac^r towQS Qr ifcar tt^ 

stsUonod, Ti» cam9* of tlie Rqaiaps vihk^ ftr<9 
«IQ90s«h} t4 bave ^yw origin to m^jr of (hie trwm 
#1)4 Qitifti, fif pe«r mtber to ifrfUcMf fvm^^ VWH 
settlem^vf die 3(ibMUt Mm^^ io^tiwv^ iUn 
H wrtwn, And v^.Qther? tliet,resfl^fi of the, tihing 
efUblifhpi if,,. : , . ; 

Wiftiw two mjles of tWs place tbQ v«t^s 9f ^ 

ilpniHa cwp or .statWfi reipftifle^.tilj ijvitbin ? |at^ 
peri^, and tbs Itiq^raries furnisli o^s witb- (lie QWi9 
l<90eciuni or jL^oIiuj]^^ }w>vf Q^Wod Castleibrd. In 
ti»,Be«i-.fiei(i, prpEvrtJ^gpfiJ). BUmbers of Kom^* 
fiVUHlwve.b^ dttgupj 9-&Virf ipdicoti^n tbattbs 
Aoniwf oopo dw«it tbere. Jj'uMft thU p^rcivutaiipe^ 
,W)4 if »b* abov^ rcHWfji bfi jus^, , ^ve TOfiy iofer that 
previp^w jko tb^rsrriyftl, th§ lWi.lfi3' qf Uip Airf 
aad:^:ai4Qr w^re i^batNted; tb^o^ve prUopa tHe^ 

m^pliei} them vitb gauj^ fw tbe chft^ .9114 
srit^ food f(K tb^jf ^blir^t JSor i? ;it nniV'Qbsbl^ 
■jl^ ^ Hritom M- rtje^r flocfcs ^i^ tbeipberfii 
in Ui^ v^^ where >b^ 9I4 t«»» of Pwtefrwjt 
stood, 

Jim Bpqww rtatioaed m t)*V peigjibfttiiliood 
.^. not <ft4y pbefjk the ardeof and restless ^pjpit 9^ 
the Mtive*, bn^ gi^orily intnpduced piB99g the;q^ 
jtb^ff owA artJHt and (be (X}|nforts of fjiviU^^li^^; 
and thus rendered their conqtiest equally beneficial to 
tbenj»eIy«fl»dll*pyqjMjKii*llfd JJritoQS. Tb? Soman 
tfoldiars we» 4s wveh. aQe»W:0i»£d to tlie am of tbK 
filoHg^ as ttie shield,. i(nd wertf as industrious ia 
peace as tliey were brave in war. When they had 
fioMd 4htip owBps they availed thmaaa^vaas^ the 
advantages the surrouhdmg eoantry presetrtedi in 



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12 HISTORY OF PONTEPRACT. 

order to secure to themselves the necessary sup^ 
plies. Woods were cut down, the ground cleared and 
plowed up; and roads were constructed from station 
to station, to facihtate the conveyance of goods, 
and collect their forces together with more ease 
and expedition, on any sudden emergency. 

The great Roman road called Wathling or "Wat- 
ling Street*, which divided England in length, 
and runs fi*om the port Ritupse, now Richborough 
in Kent [usque ad lineam vaJIi] to the limit of the 
Roman wall, and beyond it, unquestionably passed 
either through or near to the town of Pontefract, 
It may be traced from Danurb, or Doncaster, over 
Scawsby Leas to Barnsdale ; and from thence to 
East Hardwick, and through Pontefract Park to 
Castleford. A second Roman road from Chesterfield, 
by way of Sheffield, Bamsley, Hemsworth and 
Ackworth, joined Wailing Street, at Pontefract: 
as did also a third fVom Manchester, by Cambodu- 
num, Wakefield, and the Street houses. A vicinal 
way appears to have passed through the site of 
the old town in a south dir-ection to Darrington, 
Wentbridge, Smeaton, Camp^iall, andHatfIeld;-and 
northward to Castleford f. 

Prom the circomstance of so many roads meet- 
ing at or near this place. Inland and Drake were 
induced to consider it as the ancient Legeolium. 
Although much deference is due to the opinion of 

• Whitakersnd Heatne differ from mojt other wii ten respect- 
ing the name of this Roman road. They muntain that Walling 
Street led from Sandwich directly weit into Walca : and that (bp 
true name ot this tUeet is Ikening, or Ikinild. 

t f The remembrance of thi«Toadti(till[HVKr\-ed in die nunc 
of the doKt called Stieet-tiuJong, which lies contiguous to it, near 
Darrington. 



D.n.iized by Google 



HISTORY OF PONTErRACT.' 13 

fbese celebrated antiquaries on sulgects of ttiU 
nature; they seem m this instance to bave been 
mistaken, and the honour of ti»t ancient' statiod 
undoubtedly belongs to Casdeford *. It ia ' not 
however improbable, that a secondary and a sub>- 
ordinate station to that M Legeolinm wis estaUisbed 
liere, as we find such secondary and Siibordihate * 
stations usnid in other {Places. - These stations wets 
plac^ at convenient distances for the protection <Jf 
their cattle; and Whitaker montions six of this 
kind in the vicinity of Mancanieosis, oc Mancbesr 
ter. Before the inclosiire and cultivation of tlie 
P^fk, evident vest^es of a Roman camp remained 
on its ridge \. 

The Itoinan custom of grazing in Italy was 
adopted in the remotest parts of tbeir widely €Xt> 
tended empire. The dry groond of the hills, a,ni 
the moist meadows of the vale were snccessively the 
pasture of their flocks and herds. During the sum- 
mer 'they confined them to tbe marshes and low 
grounds; and on the approadi of winter they drove 
them op to the hills ^. Accordmg to this custom the 
* The greater part of Mir antiquBriea are of this opinion^ and 
&B dutance in the fifth and sixUi Iter of Antonine confinii it. Jn 
tiie filUi j tbe distance trom Danum to Legetdium is taid lo be sixteen 
Bines ; Slid from Ihenc^ to York trvcnty-one. In the eighdi, it it 
■aid. from York to LogetJIum is twenty-one, and fiOBi thenoe t» 
Doncasler sixteen miles. 

Betides the coins which ha.v« been in nich numben dug up, 
and are still occasionally tixindi there have been other inonumeptf 
ol .Roman elegance diicovered at Castleford. T- Wilson, F. R. £, 
in a manuscript letter to the author of the Eboracuni, how in the po*- 
session of the writer, remarks that he had seen at Castleferd kmoA . 
fragments of a fine tesselated pavement, which had been dug up is 
a gard«i adjoining to the Bean-field. . 

: t In tbe letter mentioned in the last note, tbe writer, wka 
seems to have examined the ground, gives it as bis decided Dpitum, 
^at a Roman camp had been Ibrmed on the Parit ri<^e, 
; VzoETius, Lib. iii. c. 8. AnimaliLim paspuu 



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14 BISTORV OF PONTE^RACT. 

IdifT aod niarshy knd about Castl^ord wcwld .b« 
deemed unsuitable for their cattle in winter, and 
tlie bigber ground of this plaoe would be prdered. 

llierc bare been some Roman coins found io 
Has placej and tberc are rtiH remaining i* mmy 
dd nails, bricks^ wfaicb from thnr dioieRuonf^ 
thscfcneffi, odour, and texture,. appear to be Roniur. 
On the i^hole it is highly probable tha4 thiA place 
derives its origin from a secondvy Homan station, 
iind although not eqnal in magnitude aod impor- 
tance with Legeolimn, yet owing to it» exoeUenfc 
pasture grounds, the salubrity of iti ur, it6 com- 
Aiaoding prospects and beuitifol scenery, it wouM 
be preferred by the more wealthy RomaDs as w^l 
•8 by the native Britons j it beeaow to l-egifoliuDi 
what Baie was to Home, the s^at of elegwie^, ' 
jtleasure, and reBnemient. . 

The provincial government of Home, ha» beev 
oensured a&3e<^ere.and oppressive; ftod it mu^ be 
acknowledged that in some instances Uk cenfore ir 
jast. A high territorial impost, a ta^ on the pro- 
dnce of land was rendered stilT more grievous aaA 
burdensome by the rapacity of the coUecfaors c^ the 
Wvenue. These oppressions prodoced the reroh 
under Boadicea which proved so fatal to the Roman 
Jegifws, and aearJy subverted their dominion ia 
Britain. 

Tlie towns nfere governed eccording lio their 
Tartk. They were divided into four orders, towtts 
BtuqicipQi and stipendiary, colonies and cities in- 
rested wjtii Jatin privileges. These last B'ere like 
our pr e sent boroaghs, enjoyiag the privilege of 
chusio^ their own magistrates, and not subject io ft 
&re^ prefect or questoi". The stipendiary -towns 
enjoyed BO CMporate {>rivil^;e, and were .su1:)ject 
to the proruiraai r^imen, like our tewteits anci 



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i^nges. Colonies werecomroimities dbefly doib* 
tn'sting of tbe veteran sotdio^ wbo had aervedauc 
tiieft- legal time. Ttieti- gowrmnent wais pardy by 
fteic)<(^, afid partly Itty the militaiy -bmi Every 
person in 3 colony was 4' soldior, nid in ctfea it 
neoetity die whcde odouy was cf^led ^ take' the 
fieU. A colony wweMabliahefl-at Yoi^ wid ibc 
vhief officer {tfthe gore r in ne n t of tiw pnoTioce, FUvu 
CKltMrwn&, iesided theiie. ' The munieipta wers 
cities enfraiK^ised; whore the iaHsea vere aUowM 
Aheuas^ tlieir own laws, a«dat the same tint^ 
•hoDOured with the prinl^e of fitMnan ottimm. 

I^e Britom'were chiefly emplayod, idwiog thii 
-pWMMl, iat agneulbone and ia the itsiial nniniiil 
MseBPptOJais: Though numbers enliilied attd AUei 
the Mt^ df ike Ic^bs/ tbey were :d6»iad tbe 
mitmitmga cDi^rred od the Teteruto ef B/oaie^ 
Mid #«« lat^ect to ttis ilis^aoE&il fHDiAgaieat 
«f being beaten with rods, «r sctwt^Qd*; a 
punishment humilidtaig to a brave, ^td ioaupporit- 
ftUe W an h^Kspiritsd people. 

Atfccigtiitfae Roniaas begKo «otirsatit^«iatinti 
iPJehimore'DeBpecfiniidtn colder tbtei asaAonH' 
yOHdHt pnt <tf. the «r^ire. Awbmus ^d pitacrvc 
wttflttbe^ bad aeifmeiut tAiecacpeaee «f mi vtucb 
Wwd; theytendeavttufed te unite ^the pe^p)^ hito 
Mie iwdy ^r ibe .rac^Fpcatifuia of interest, 4nd the 
^flwipatmRe«ifa«n3larlaws, privileges and iraam- 
:|]iitries. f rf the rei^ -of Antoftiintis Piws, these 
.t^^ta were conferred on every Briton of property 
ADf) '4«oi!th; and the .cunpLng and artiul Caracala 
•eRlendsd 'them «9uaUy to aU. By tt»s wise act tbc 
'Srhrons-no longer -sirfTet'etl a disgrvc^I eaatih iBtg wv 
Ina .tfeze atlnutted to a p^rtic'^atiou ct.mwna.^^ 
* Acta xvl M.. ! . 



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16 HISTORY OT POWTEFRACT. 

8bd a' coinmuhion of honours Wkh the HoD>aii& 
They became eligible to ^very situation and office 
ibr which they were qiiafilied; and to tht$ wise 
policy Roine was indebted for some of ber best 
comiHanders and emperors. 

The Roman station at Legeolium, the subordi* 
nateone,of this place, and the native inhabitanfs 
of the country, now became fellow citizens. The 
. distinction which had hitherto existed between 
the Conqacrors and the conquerod, was how . Imp- 
pi?y abolished; and no other difference wan known, 
but what arose fi-om the inequality, of property, ioh- 
teresl, or the discharge of civil or military offices. 
Under the influence of just laws, wisely adnitBistar^ 
cd, population increased; and Britain could raise and 
send forth f«rmies sufficiently power&I to obtain the 
empire of the world. From this province arose 
Constantine, called the Great; and supported by 
4he British legions, . he assumed the purple^ aad 
vanquished all his competitors *, 

From the time the empire was divided into 
the etifctern and western it began to decay. The 
incessant wars carried on with equal fury aad.rsn^ 
cour by the emperors of the east and west, as wvii 
as by the various competitors, exhausted its streogtb 
vnd resources, and rendered it a more easy prey 
• At s subsequent period tiie Bntish legions rojsed Mvciaiui 
io the thnme; and on h» pasnng into Gaul, be look with iiiin the 
fiower of the Britiih youlh. The British Torces Kmained with 
Victor, the son of Maxitnus by a Britinh lady ; and on Die defeat (^ 
Viclor, wcrelellin the most depWabk shualion; in a distant coun- 
try, surrounded with enemies ; without a leader, or iJiip* to coav«y 
Iboni home. They pushed, forward to the sea rout, then caHed 
^rniorica, in hope of vetting over into Cornwall, but were diai^ 
pointed. Theyiettled with the Belgsc on the coast, and gave 
Itheir name to the province now called Brittany, in Pmce. 
HiiiaT't Hist Vol I.. p. 77. 



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to it!^ i^eMte. '^tOf li^rth^rn natibUit lU if hy 
gehet^'^nserrti isgirt^ jWth and bssaited it tlrfoHgh' 
the WlibleltrhgiH 6f -Its fi*oirtiet-s ; ■attd'fl»tmgh''nfteh' 
repeltba, 'they rtitertii^ thfeif attacks^ kiWki length 
they'tfEtfiaih^'afihal ConqneSt.' The Romaos, un-' 
able t&MauB before' tlMr^aenties on the Contihentj' 
wtthdt^ thei^ lemons frbm Britain, fourhuiidred' 
and'thfEffr years eObseqlieiit'tb tjieir first settlement' 
in tfje eoiinli-y.' ' ■ ' 

•From' 'their possbssion of Ae country foi' so lon^ 
a p«i*)di ft i& naturallri infer, that theii-cusfonwi 
laws, and atls, had become dteply rooted among' 
the Britons; and''that' on'tlieir departare these' 
woqM be obiscrred; KtiS continue to maintain their 
ihfluent«^. ' It is 'nt)t''pdssibIe'for a perrple iii any 
d&greerf^ilized to feliipse alt 'at once into a state' of 
^J^ferisini and if is'prdbabfc the'W'ftbnls 'vrMiId 
adhere^i6 tijos^ ihstitiitiotfs^the Rotnans h^'^ab-' 
h'shcd among them. ■ " ' ' '' 

The Britons do 'hot'"ap[iear to have adopted 
their language. ','Tlte.faigher ranks opquir^ it as an 
elegant add. necquaryaccompiiduDentV' but the 
lower orders cohtinoed to speak iri their "nstrve dia- 
lect. Conquerors'find'it more'diflicult ^o change 
Ibe language.-of.s p^pJe*. iiuya, Uieir .jnstitutions 
and manAenh 

On the depBrtmi of tUe'Romans tata this place 
and neighbourhood, many of their buildings would 
be left uninbabitedj and would soon become.ruins: 
and snbsequent.erents'wotild obliterate the remem- > 
brance of those- whicb had preceded. Few restiges 
of the Roman name artd greatness now remain; 
and had not tlie page of Hisitory outlived the works 
of art, it would have been impossible to have 
traced the existence of this otk» femoui people 
either in this place or neigh boorhood.' 



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%^ tJ^ii;. Sffy^nm^ t^i^ ^pp^ni^jg. vf^vj^ be. 
^^&]f Ajf^ if, wa fvw>!^r tl^' »;>^4<^. oJi ittmi 
insUjllutipns^ tlie prop)-i0jf.fi94^M.>^y' ^ ^^JF- 'ftws^, 
tb^ elegatic?. of t^eir ^ct^; t^p; ^i^t^i^jr. ^e^eve-, 
m^; i^igir, \t\gk spifi^, affi|, inxiWri^lp OWfage, 
9(ji9hfthpB^ m^X wpeiffm^weU foqod^i Ipwt, 

vices, luxuries, and oppression, we 8/e^_ ^, ^^jiff^i 
of t^pir , bpp9 sflfi Ui^ prw9ij?8i ?8#fle«, pf :%ir-m^^ 
T;Vp.^rop yiiftu^. vhiplj: a^iWfi?- d»nj|njpn aro,^. 
<iuisf^ to iffi^sei;?^. wd-.lSSP.illJ ap4- if 81. ^9plft 
u^aae to,bp virtuous, ^h^, ^li^i u^i^atoljc.o^^^^ 
coj^and. ^h^^ tbp liisfi^ h^d^bs^ u^ ^ui^ioiy 
of tii^ Epman sffltf^ foi;. Sj(^q^y.ag;ies», sb^.^J^ 
t^ uiijon of Yisdfljp, jt^^ii^,^ i^pi^^sMi, 8^90111- 
Bliahi tl»?ip fiflgl ^bv^sipft ^^njjn^w aipp, ^t»8ft 

over virtue, 

fint siqall and we 
Scarce ttreiclniiK 
Implorei pn)tecW;n of iu Mij^boHir Oxbtt, ' 

Aniv'd to. liiV nuturiiy it gnspi 

At aS withiii its rach, o'emipf all bauridn. 

Robi, ravBgei and vnutei the afirighted iMdd. 

•Dip,q«jP5^ i|j.it» PK^ W^el* ft^, 
^ri Je, luii^r^, cotr^piton, perfidy, 
Contentmn, fell diseases af a ^le. 
That prey ufxm lier nbli. Of her woaknes; 

(JJneoBlBilafd,;) pile, vjith^i^ .tct4,ft 
Her inhrni t^ed trunK : ib^ nods7::^te^ty|t^s^ . 
^he fUlW-ata*^. iwver to rise again. 
Hie vtrtioT st^ upon her ruins ikii'dt 
. RiwLth^«iqrJtaVw]r;roiradQfjfaic]cU.si«atnni^ 
Atidm«at);thji,ni^4;^twi.«iid3 ' ' 



D.n.iized by Google 



ind weak it Kaf^ly remits tiead, 
fliiiig out lU lietplAs mnnt arm 1, 



«ftt6Wr O^ ito^TtftftXCT. 



SECTION il. 



On the Saxim perhd, aiai the IntroductioH if 
. Oaistiantt^. 

TrIE htmie WWife'pfecie ib theii'meof th'eSaxoiw 
'"kns KiHcbj : v tintiK evhibntly postet-ior i'o the id- 
if6M:Hoh idf ciiHsUatiity. dhd i'mposed oii ttie 
ferecWoh 6F a cfirfetisri Bhiirch. A fcnilfcii ts called 
Kljk * in ritiik^ p^^ of this cbtitltry. ktid is ih'va- 
iriiiBfy W denbihlrtaled W Scrfdahd. The ^erm 
Bye, is Sicibh Ibr kn httbi^iuh, ahd Wh'eti joinei 
Wifii ki'rtci sightti^ me ibwH or haihret near ^o or 
Arodtui th^ cHaffcfi. 

TWere. is in ttiis rteijihfeborh&od d SdiitlT-Kirby; 
Apfiiggbfbbiisidin^tjt^toti^^y, ak It is so called 
m Dbbffisday-tibdk: It Is not' 'imiii^babi'e that ^ 
^Kb nim6 Was'niipgs^ tbr a ^ilar i^ea^ii, .it was 

* 7l« bmiL Kirk tt d«ritaA my «6 GreUc'; (i«i\^-y 

BLilding in whidi he ii woribipped. The word tranriaUd diArcl^ 
in the New TettMoent, i> (Snxwa) utd in no iqstmnce deiwle* a 
faitddiltt. bitt afl aJsenit^r ofif&iple; (ttid tii th^ old vei'wxa of Ihs 
~'Jl5;ll ■■ ■ ""■ "■■'■■ " ' ■■ ' 



Vft liihle oTthe origihdl nucA bettor ihan the tecflnlcU term edopU 
«a Br K^ JubesN IrkiiMalOT ; iffifi it li^ tfali filHher advahUge 
dVet' Htfe Word drerch; ibillNe bkA bf d(e commbh jjeople coiM 
itttntiidridtTitiifdi^. 

Id file attide^ the word cfaartfi U AcA^kA tb K, '' an asteiiibly 
(Jf «Wtfl nreii;" W ht>w ffw art iher^; fchd on Osirig the Wwd 
dnirrli, affix to it the lamt ideas » am cfintain'ed In thfe dcGnition. 
Th^ ^l<^ hu. vMj bUlienud bie theological ienie. Vid. 
rfeaHoiiine^: 



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fO HISTORY OP POUTEPBACT. 

catted south, to distinguisli it from this Kirkby 
which lay north of it. 

The Saxons at their arrivat in Britain were 
equally strangers . to the . doftjrines and genuine 
spirit of Christianity. ' Ttie idols of their fethers 
were the objects of their profound veneration and 
regard; and their mythology white it disptays thfe 
wildness of the untutored miiid, strilciugly deline- 
ates their habits and character. It seems wliolly 
dc?signed to inspire a. contempt ojE'desith anria-toje 
of martial gJorj'. By attaching disgrace aod iflf^my 
to cowardiccj ^»oth in tb^, present .ati4 in „a fiituce 
world, it'forcib)y,operated onall theppe^gips.pf thfi 
mind, and contributed Ja a,C9nsiderable d^gre^t t(f 
form their wa^hke characfer. . Tbp fear of jlisgiw* 
Prompted to deeds of ttip m.^s^ daring y^puj;. '_ ■ 

This mytfiolcgy efl^ally ^ttexied the hope and 
ambition of the brave. It Iield put tp .thj^f^, tlie 
never .fading, laurels j(j)f,f^^afv,and tb^ eiyoynjppt of 
ttie spoil an^ H;ealtb .of .their vjapj^tiis^ed, enemies. 
Amid itfie dangers oi'.war and the carnage pf bsttie, 
tbey. 'were taught to . believe,, t^iat thou^jh, tliey 
should ' fall on the ensanguined plain, they should 
enjoy in.-tbejiarisible-state,:'"-theirairy"littll;"' the 
Juxu^y of drinking ale dot ofthe skulls of those tbey 
liad siain*. ■' • •■ ■ . •' 

• The mythology of the Sasumi ii iulcrwgven. with our ha- 
guage, and maoy of tbnr wild notion) are still enterUined among 
the vulgar. Frpoi tb^ objeds of their worship,, .iha, d>yi of our 
week have derived their namei. The Jirst and secoq^, ihey 
det^icatcd to the l}iin and Moos— ~Hence, Sun-day kodMoon-day. 
The third and fourth, were dedicated to Tuisco and .Woden, 
hence, Tuisco't-day and Wodiin'jsbiy. The £fth, fixth >nd 
»e\-cnth, in like niunnerto Thor, Frcea, and Seatei ; and, twnce, 
Thor's-day, Frcea'i-iay, and Seater's-d&y. 

. Besidcslhe above Gods «nd Godeiset, they had ptheri of an 
inferior kind, to whom they paid respect ' Such wsf Eattie, to 



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, Tbe raflueDce.c(f.thi8TOytbql(»gy.oB5the,mftnDpi* 
aivlcoiHluct ofiourSaxon^noestorij iqtiy eaw^y.beifl^- 
ferred;. , Strang?r9,to ike.dBcenfjiG& vnd rerinomeat^ 
ofciyilifed life, tb^y j^liglitedintlieJitii^ul^qceof 
,Tvar«nd the elftu^p.jCMf Uopd. ;. l^nacpu^gnied Ut 
reasob.i^n thft propriety, oi-ifquity frftfln^.«wle(t4ls- 
ing,) «pij goyertif^ ^(^ty,by.iptfr-^t, pr ' iippcllcd 
i>y calP^ioe,,ti^^^y-attafll^ all wtKj.pjiivjj?^ tjj^ir der 
sigiist , Lijf^ thq <}ff;_5^irs ftf; ^*rbary, M'^X infested 
for,^c^ntu(K'^^"P^^^^''^.^^^:|At^.TKlltitev.9rfeIliu;E!9 
U|ij&iritKU)^s.w^s.4^[n^ a.la^i^l. prise, '^f JJy t;jbeif 

wlxiip . ^v iVcri^M in the monti^ of V^pnl> wiiich was froia 
IKcncedcuo'iiiJtiate'd EosW DiQnatfir'iuid on tncii'cohvcrtiion, t!ie 
name ^Wcdrtiiiucd iihti «i>t)Rea to Ihe ■re5uiTeAfen.''"rtftoiher df 
AblfGodi.'vtMcaBal.Mtaa, «ippa>etl'io'tedjiy fnofila'in their 

(^cred ft peculiar lind of icjifice tfallefi Alf-bloL Many slil 
beE«c(^,' 'that the grfe'A ntt^Js wdtli'il-e'seen'in'fii&doivsj'ha've 
befln-tluHhtafafe ariheit'ttUdij^gmiitolK;: u^Ott ab nudiiitft 
fropti » ptttio^ ipedffpf t^oKl. i^lfaQfaHVet-thcyJiBvamade. 
Vid. Bninds. pop. Aat. ./n"' !■ ■")!■!■ ■■ /^^ r 
... •T>ciTUs.t4)ie^y5»,)tj»f liKyr,fficai}it8(i,i(,iw>ra,lwti«urablo 
lo take the nectaries of life ^romptlisrs.^ap bv i>i^iK4t inc^i^r/. 
prbvidie tl^m for themselves./ Tlitir laws, a.'nd custbins had all 
Stenftiftey'toiHspB-ecourBfifdj'ana'iyrnl'thAn' fdr WaHiors, -Nb 
iDli* eui^ bear SnMtU he vrBi aoleiiinly ftdn^CtttdkohlKf ptivilcgA 
"iia,«fnffiMa*em^b'-''' :.'■■:■ ■■ ■' '. um 1 - Vmi i -,. i 
^, , Af pioi^ ,wa* . npt . Kf^eied .^,cut his i/iii^,. IJil ^^-^ ^^ IVf 
enen^, or taken his tlaiidard from hiin. > ' - 1 

.'" '■'■'iriny one quiltls<i the (ft-ld of baflfe'-ifrHWoiit'sueccss/ fic'Jra* 
WiCr vfcthporaiydtkgratfb. : : r;v.inrJ ■•■ ■ , ■ i> <■ . ■ : 
.' ,. If in^ icfrthc liqld, ,'TThne'. hii -giiiifera] .intjilHui- ba mji 
fciwide4,w£i^|jwrpetual4nlaj^j-., . ,■ ', ,,, , 

"" If a lolflierlost his tljield iji battle, he was interdicted ihcir 
■acred rites; '6'n account of* which many conihiitiea suicide. 

Foe- a pan to, die pf di^^ase or Jn b^, ify^yhpid to. be dtv 
hoDOurablt^ and belie.ved that «ll MidK^ou^bepu^odiipiii th« 
juysofafotuxehappysl^tc . , . -^ 



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^trWiei (Ml tK6 o(£iin and Vtmir plahtl^mg tnciirsiotM 
iMtfi^M, th^ coMHbiit^thefV fill] sM^fft the 
lleViastati6tl and riiiil of th& wMi^rh '«M^^ of Itbihe; 

The dHtohs fittally ft^Moti^ by lh(t Hbiitilri9, 
ahd much ^nftfebted by the Idsb of k'hdr bi^ve ydiilA 
' who hfMl enlKtea ihtd th^r l^iohs, «gre Adt fmi| 
toifered to enjoy peac^ aifd trahqtillUy. the Git)«i- 
thttaiiin^ #hd fiad W^ Wfth aifTictttfy H»itriiirl^ 
Within thg litiiitii bf the HtghKiyi ^ kco^hdv 
duHhg ih^ period of Rbtnfth pdW^ initl gr^hass, 
h6«^ paused the Wall bf Serehi^i and Hiin itOEl dei^t^ 
tfttion . marked their progress. As their inroads 
W6he made ni6i^ fof tfife purpose of plbiWfir ihkft 
of permaoeot conquest* wihea tliey had obittuneJ 
their object they retreated to thtsit native wildfc 
Bridun h<ndtA inld thirty {letty itAtm*i bM each 
Uate.ieiilbtidof Its iici^lWiuf, and b^Iy intent ob M 
6wn~ interest cotild never briag its whole btrchgl'ti 
against its northern foesi Aod by being thus divided 
its misery abd rain adfaittxd witii the rapidity of i 
oontinually accelerated force. 

AA^f d^i^iiHtt(^ itkl^ haa Sti'dgigled With the 
hardy tofiS 6( the Nbtth Rir Ihe spa^ of forty y^ftl-"^, 
^ length a war-king was chosen tu generalissimo df 
the united treops of Britoinj Had this measure 
been adopted on the departure of the Rdtrntna,- if 
Is probable the ffiitotis tt^tlld ttSv-e be^rt dble to 
lepel the Caledoniaas, nor woutd the Saxoni have 
been ' otherwise known than $a enemies who had! 
been defiNited. This iheasiire wbs Aotr toe late. 
The spirit of the country was bt-dfeefl, itj gtrfeWg?ffl 
CxhaUstead, idid liothirig but defeat cotiM h4 ex- 

• Vid. iSikNEitS Hi*, df m Saxons, Vtil. I. 1*3.— TWi 
<Kg4M no ingenuRu #rner rnb ^curatd^ pdHltti^ oht flifc WTiBt bt 
ganrenuBent, which pnrailcd after tlw dbpi^tttri of fli6' It^^ 



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P««J4 ^mmlSlx opt ^^ uPpeJW the BrU 
tJ;Bh vi»fi^. ta ^v^te fb^t S^oiu tp. r^^^l tl^ Caie.. 
do^ftDSj a, tne^ui^ Tvi\i<;i\ H^ve^ iat^I fo ihe. i^te* 
t^s mid iftdep^ft^encft irf ^nt^D, The Sax^qs, 
onpf, §dwiUed i»t«t-.tb|9.cwnt.r3r ^4 W^ ^ifib to re^ 

994 t^ rid^ 9( ^^^ c^iuiiU];^ ^^ tu^J^ their 

9<W.94^.Q^ ^ l%*i!r: l^^gh^ fceq^<^^ checked 
^nd, 9%sn, d^^te^, ye^ teodviii^ co^tiaual tepntn 
$>F«^oat& ^(V9 t^ir os^a lAo^e^ tbejr iiltiiiiateljK 
S9f»>?eij^ iiL.tM^ ^^iugn^ and R^t^a.oDce wor^ 
leow^ tb^ X9fe=. 9f a, j^igo^ pawer. 

I^^iftg-tlu^ ua^^py contest t(be. chie^ i|wwit« 

4).,n»fMj,, aDji,^ ofi^ c^ltiK^^ coqn^y oopwrted 
Htl6h ^ <M§9i<^- *^ T'^t^: ^^os; destr^i^ erery thing 
VJA %?• 4nd B^rd. Public, as ^1. aa privates 
VwJdipgft yffi'^ -con«fH^^ the pcies^, vt^re ^a, 
^ils| HuM^riifig all the ^.tafrv. tlK^ bj^ops^ wit]k 
^i^ BfioBiftH:^i;eiPii^ tp t^sw9pj^ flP!;.\^^ft there 
an^Iaft tp.pec&vm. J(i)^tlf^i9. tt^ rig|ij%o^ s«pu]$p|«.. 
M^n^r fled to- the qtoontains-iOF safety* md-eodttrntk 
a pipc^rujuSi es;i^enpe ■ in, poverty and want., 
P^iS ^^'S^Mr, ^4,*^yS^t R^?e« aWl;M^y itt 

fiwei^Qhwoa. Sqqq, ^ibjqiiit^ U)> tl^q <Mpy,. 
andwep? ceducedito. ^a.inoslL at^ect-ah^etyq *'.*' 

The kin2do|m,of Nprtiiamberlaadiwas AMaUiab- 
e^ tl^jla^t^ iri thp ^feptarchy ; -and fi»tn this circt^q- 
4af>fie,i((^ vfAy; infeiu tL^ tlie. firit<Hi^, of oitrojvn, 
twuntzy. made stbuw nouataoDe. Xhegr CQq^ertad 
every inch of' groimd- with- the enanny-: andi -wheo- 
repeHed^fi)otn_ Yorkshire they ohstinately defended' 

«*e™™*.SteWk«#W% . 



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24 Histbni^oy poiJTErftACT. 

lhemse?res in Cumberland, ■ EaiiCashrre, and Che- 
shire; and a ccntiirV elipsed b^bre Ihey tifere'' 
driren to tlie mdnntains'Of' Wales. Frbmthese' 
moontains ihey 6ften issuM forth, aad by the 
slaughter and plrnider 6f'the'3*xons, retorted oa; 
lAem the -Cnieltids tbeyhad' exercised. Here they' 
maintained their independence, and have tranSniit-' 
fed their riam^ and language down to 0iir6wDxfays.= 
■ The'Sasons being cslablisbcdin fheppsseasioh 
of Brilaihi Attempts were made to impirt to them 
the blessing of re^elatibn, and' to briiig fhein 
■frithiti the palfe of Uhe chl-istian dnirch ; nor were' 
these attempts' tlnsuccessfti!. ' Christian societies' 
n'ei-e certainly forined, and christlati bishopi 'are 
mentioned, anterior to the de^rture '^f the' 
Romans*". The native 'Britons' had eitibl'aiced 
Christianity, and wlien driv6n by the Saxons front' 
the fertile parts of the coi'htryi they 'adhered to it' 
amon? the mbuntnins of W'ales.' The Saxons -who' 
inhabited Kbnt first rec&ivbd and [^ofesiKd 'the' 

* It ha^.been maintained tha't Chriit!an:f}i wali intnxhiccd 
Jn(o Britain Ot the lime of the - AJAiiiUet.' ■ CUudI4, ' the' wife' oS 
Padcdi, tneotiatied' 2>T)n]. ir. 21. iffuppoati to bb k firitiUi 
lady, wbofa ftjartial celcbnilci for Ijcr licuity and virfu(y<. LU)- iv, 
Ep' 13.;.If anjpflhe A pO? ties did \(isit Britain, it was Paul. He' 
was released /rom confinement at Rome in the year '58, atrI ipent 
nine yean in t}ie w^ern Empire; and ulie never t«turti«d to lh« 
east, itrRffotimprobBble'lhalinlbis ipacehe visited Spun, G)v4: 
and. Bntmh. Up fiuiicuiaziy aimed to preach the gospel, ■ u-bere 
no oiherhad ^^f).\ and considenng his 2c»l, itrannot bo cuppos- 
rd, but that he would [abqtir in (he west as he had done in the' east, 
till his dea'h linder ICero, in the year 157. Whatever thiih 'may bie' 
inthi«, it i) certain,' that Gbriittianity prevailed » BriujQ'imdtf> 
the Rcmtoi£,>a« bi^riiops attendedat tli« i»uticil lof AiW* in the 
)Tar 314.' Alto at tlic council ot Niqe in the ycarSS^. l|he 
events, which followed the arrivsl of the SaxonJ, nearly olJ iterated 
the ChriMian name; and excepting & few ^onlu at Bang&r, and 
in 6colIand, (heir churcliej and institution] were (ubverted. 



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BBTOKY OP potmraAcr. 25 

goipcl. The greater part obstinately adhered to 
idolatry, and fix* a considerable time Christianity 
made rery IHtle progress. 

The zeal and prudence of the christian mission- 
• aries by degrees succeeded in subverting idolatry, 
and in establishing the empire of truth. A happy 
Combination of circumstances often pointed out the 
path of duty, and ensured success to their labours. 
The ignorance,' niperstition, passions, aud vices 
of men, frequently aBforded facilities for introducing 
the gospel, and became subservient to its establish- 
ment. 

CbriAianity was introduced into the Northum- 
brian kingdom in the reign'of Edwin. He had spent 
the early part of his life in adversity ; and though an 
esilehe found protection and favour from Eadbald 
king of Kent. He saw the beautiful Ethelburga, 
sister to the Iting. The accomplishments of her per- 
son and mind gained the heart of Edwtn ; and when 
he had obtained possession of the Northumbrian 
throne, by a decisive victory over Ethclfred, at 
-R^fiMrd, he made her. an o£fer of his hand. She was 
a christian, aiul he yet a professed idolater. IJike 
a prnderit and sensible woman, she would not re- 
nounce her faith for the splendor of a throne j nor 
would she become the consort of Edwin, unless she 
might be allowed the exercise of her own religion. 
'Edwin submitted to this, and Ethelburga brought 
with her a christian bishop and christian attendants. 

For some time the civil and military affairs of 
the state demanded and occupied the whole atten> 
tion of Edwin. At length he began to examine 
the subject of religionj and no one can doubt the 
influence of Ethelburga in persuading the king .to 



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sfi insTOiir OP ponT»»Aef , 

wnbrace chr'BtiMiity*. A day was uppointeJ whe* 
the Bubject was to be discussed j and Pnujt.nus the 
bishop was to point out the evidcnecs off chrifitiaftit^, 
whilst Coisi, Edwin's high'priefit, wm tfi defend the 
idolatry of his fathers. Whether Coisi, peroeiviog 
the iiiclrnation dT £dwin, made a virtue of neaessitnr, 
or whether convinced by the arguments of Paulinas, 
he was the first to renoance idolatry. • Tbe king 
followed his example, and the nobles imitated ibe 

* " It wai a maatim of Ihe Sazoiii^ to undFitakenobuutWls of 
importance without conailting their wives, to whole advice thejr 
paid the greatest regard". Not to have regarded the tender 
intreatieK at' Ethdharga, not lo have bt^ influeDCcd by the advice 
tbe would notfiiil.to give, wodd bavcbaeR for Edwin to bKte 
renounced thegaitantry aadmaKimoffabtmcwlon. Jtit^parrat 
Iron) thi« maxim, that our ancestors, however unpolished, appre- 
datedraorejustly Ihe talciiti and character of the fair, than the soft 
luxurious sons of the East. These have denied ihem the p<*sieisian 
of intdect, nnd depriving (ban of the lanV. And ligba wMch tli^ 
ought to eqjoy in locieiy, have lubjected them to the kunulialinf 
conditimof slavw; andw slaves they ore bought. and sold at the 
pleasure of a stem lord. Immured in an Harem, and never per- 
mitted to mingle in generalsociety, they bloom unseeB;'tbey remain 
ignorant becau«e they have no meoai Of infbrmatinn ; lheircon\ter»- 
tion b insipid, and their mannan itnconcitialiiig, becaiue thayhavp 
never had an opportunity of polishing the lattet, nor of acqiutiiw 
the talent to render the fonner agreeable and interesting. A mind 
M vigorous ai N'ewton'i, as delicate and discriminating as Addison**, 
if placed in such circumstances, could never have develay«d Hs 
UBConunon powers. How difienmt tha ireBtment the hdiU'hoTB 
received froin tbe hardy kobs of the Norlb. They perceived ithat 
though the (alt wanted tome of the bold features of their own 
cliaracters, yet lliey were possessed of others equally useful ami 
wniaUe — that their caution and timidity were trell calculated to 
repteas lUhneu and.piedpitancy—that their aendbiltly aad.fiMliDt[ 
were addled to toAen and humaniae— and in « word, thMtheir 
affection and fidelity; their vivacity and cheerfulness reodcrHl 
them themosf agreeable companitmstnlitej entitled them to than 
In the rights of domestic gorenunent, tad to beconadted on mattcfa 
of the greatest importiDce. 



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fUSTORV OS BQNTEFBACT- 27 

iHlig. A noad diurch was erected at York imme' 
dwtety sAfr^ and the king and the nobles were 
ftll bsptiud to^tbcr. 

The iofluenoe of £dvirinv exampJe and that of t)>« 
poUe«, app^red in the atmostgeaerol conveEsion 
f)f ^be loiter orders *, The idols and their temple* 
were destroyed; and so great were the crowds who 
canf to be baptized, that Panlimis wat fully em- 
ployed in tioi -piouf work. Destitute of modern 
coBveaiencBs, he was under the necessity of resort- 
ing to the primitive practice, and baptized theoi 
in the rivers Gleai and Swale. 

Edwin's reign is the brightest period in the 
awwU of the Saxon Heptardiy. He was acknow- 
ledgad as the beadi and for a period of seventeen 
year* the whole of England eigoyed a profonnd 
feace. William of Malmsbury gives him this 
bi^ character: " Not only, says he, tlic Engtisfa» 
Scots, and Picts, but even the Opcades, and all the 
jfribflh islands, dreaded his vnns- and adored his 
graodeur: no public thief nor house-breakev wap 
i^und in his tiove ; the adulterer was a stranger, 
apd the ^|ioiler of other men's goods afar off: his 
glory shfces even to our own age with splendor." 

In this manner was Christianity introduced into 
this county) and it is evident from Hede, that in 
the time of Paolinus, between the year 620 and 630, 
wood churches were erected ut several towns, and 
some in this neighbourhood. One of this descrip- 
tion he mentions in the royaPvilla of Campo-dono. 
Whitaker maintains that the Campo-dono of Bede 
is the same as the Cambodanum of Antonine; and 

* 'Evay inteIHgenI reader willmake Ihe inference that con- 
vsiumu or tbii kipd, ore nottuDg mora tfaan coinplianca with tbe 
iriUof wperiorti and that thp ww cauw woqid tuni them agsia 
toid^vtry. 



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28 HISTORY OP PONTEFBACr. 

was situated above Huddersfield, at a pface now- 
called Sladc. Watson, in the iirst volume, Archseol- 
ogia, contends that Doncaster is unquestionably the 
Campo-dono of Bede. This place is called Danum 
in the Iter of Antonine, as well as in the Notitia; 
and as in old authors the vowels a and o are uted 
Jiromiscuously, the difference in the orthography 
will not invalidate this opinion. As the river Trent 
often formed the boundary of the Northumbriaa 
Itingdom, it cannot be supposed, the Saxon kings 
would neglect this old Roman station ; but it is 
natural to believe they would often reside there for 
the purpose of guarding their frontiers. 

The term Campo is wholly inapplicable to the 
place Whitaker assigns; and it must be made a 
radical part of the appelative name to become in 
the least degree probable. But if used in reference 
to Danum it is proper^ and explfuns the situation 
of the place. 

It is generally allowed that Edwin was slain at 
Hatfield j and Bede represents the victorious array 
as advancing to Campo^ono; and setting fire to 
the church erected by Paulinus, consumed it to 
ashes together with the town ; and that Tn conse- 
quence of this the kings of Northumberland removed 
to Loidis (Leeds). Bede remarks, that the altar of 
the church being of stone, and sustaining the violence 
of the flames iminjured, was preserved and then in 
the possession of the abbot and priest TrumWulsi, 
who resided in the wood of E^et, now called 
Berwick *. 

From the above facts, considering that the 
road from York to Doncaster lay through this 

* Bed. Thoresby consider! Holton, near Leeds, as the place 
where the abbot Tnimwulsi resided, aiiS where the Atlar Pau- 
linus had erected at Danum, was pfeserved. DucLeed, HI. p. 



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HlffrOftY OF PONTEFIUCT. 29 

place, it is not improbable that the first christian 
liisbop might preach here the first christian dis- 
course. It is amusing to recall in imagination a 
primitive scene of this kind. A bishop, like the 
apostles, endeavouring to instract, enlighten, and 
reQrnn a gross, an idolatFous people; this people 
araazed at what they heard, but unable to compre- 
faend it — some awed into reverence by the venerable 
<^racter of the priest — some more rude indulging 
a smile of contempt — some deliberating, reasoning, 
and wishing to hear him again on such important 
topics ! 

Edwin being slain, Panhnus and Ethelburga 
fled into Kent ; and the christian churches were 
destroyed. The short space of time Paulinus had 
l)een permitted to labour, will warrant the conclu- 
' sion that little progress had been made in evanger 
liaiug the country in his day. Though uncommonly 
zealous and active, a period of a few years is too 
diort to accomplish such a task, and on his depar- 
ture the people reverted again to the worship of 
idols. 

Cadwallo, the king of the Welsh Britons, who 
had vanquished and sluin Edwin, was equally suc- 
cessful against Osric and Eanfrid. He plundered 
the kingdom and kept it in subjection for some 
years. At length Oswald, who in the preceding 
reign had fled into Scotland, commisserating the 
unhappy condition of his country raised a smal}, 
but valiant army ; marched into Northumberland, • 
met Cadwallo, and slew him and the greatest part of 
his array. By this decisive victory Oswald was- 
firmly established oft the Northumbrian throne. 

Oswald in his exile had sincerely embraced 
Christianity, and his first concern was to introduce 
^nd .establish it. lie sent into Scotland, and re- 



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90 HISTORY OP POKTEra«CT. 

quested the king to flnd some perion> w«ll ^ualtfiAd 
far the discharge of the duties of a misekmary ao^ 
bishop. The king, in aoswer to his request^ sent 
Aidan, a person no te«fi venerable for his virtues 
than respectable for his learning, Aidan fouodec) 
the see of Landisfarne, i^hich was afterwards, ra- 
moved to Durham ; and by liis iodeiatigable |ab(Hiri^ 
ftidcd by the good sense, piety, and munificence of 
Oswald, Christianity was firmly establidwd, and 
maintained its influence amid all the wars wd revor 
Jutions which succeeded. 

The reign of Oswald was short, but active and 
glorious. That precedence which Edwin had ac- 
quired, among the kings of the heptarchy, OsvraM 
Maintained. But neither his piety, wisdom, nor 
valour conld secure, in these turbulent times, tran- 
quility and peace. Penda, the pagan king of- 
Mercia, envied his greatness and detested his re- 
ligion. Not daring to meet Oswald fairly oa the 
Jield of battle, he endeavoured to accomplish )>y 
stratagem and sorprise, tlie iniquitous design be 
had formed. Oswald had made a progress into 
Cheshire, attended by few besides his domestic 
servants, and did not in the least expect any hostile 
attempts. This security betrayed him. For Peoda 
Slaving secretly raised an army, pushed after him, 
and finding him unprepared, fiercely assanUed bira. 
Oswald and those with him bravely defended theiQ- 
selves ) but at length the most determined valow 
■ was forced to yield to superiority of numbers. Os- 
wald was ^lain, and iiis treacherous and barbaroua 
enemy had the meanness to UenA. the corpse with 
every kind of insult. The christians on account of 
his virtues canonized him; and the fifth of August 
is still honoured as the day of his martyrdom m the 
Roman martyrology. 



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AIHTOBV OF nONTEnUCT. 



SI 



TbB TtBspect and vmeration paid to fit. OstvaUf 
iu this place .and neigtibourhood, entklefl jiim to 
particular notice. A cross was erected here to 
his memory and virtues, at a very early period; 
probably not Img a£mi his deatli. This cross 
gave name to the divisiftn. Hundred or W^pon- 
take, now corrupted into Osgolokross *. It was 

» ThiidivinonoflBnd«vaBCalI«dtheHL4>dr«l, u.itoopniitcil 
of ten tjrtfaings, and each tythin^ conuited of ten ireeboldenj w 
that the Hundred poitaineo • hundred freeholders tc^eUier with 
their families, and persons in a fervile condition. To this dtatrict 
bdonged a courti called the Co^rt of the Hundred ; and a chirf 
Magistrate, called the Hundreckry, It belonf;ed to him to cal 
the court, to preside in it, uid put its sentence in eiLiculion. All 
the freeholders attended in arms, according to the manner of their 
Cerman ancestors; and as it wis the custom to touch die spear of 
the Hundredarjr with theirs, in|loken of submiuion, it wss deno- 
Bttnated Weapontake from the Saxon, lac, to touch. 

The Weapontake of Oswald, or O^oldcross is divided into 
the Upper and Lower Division, vid consists of the ioWoifi'mf 
Towiuhips and Pariihei. 

OSGOLDCROSS, UPPER DIVISIOK. 



Ackworth, 

Badsworth, 

Thoq) Audlio, 

UptMi, 

BraiDwith, 

BurghwalUi, 

CjUDpnJI, 

Nation, 

Fen wick. 

Moss, 

SuUon and Atk<»n, 

Castlefbrd. 

Houghton, 

Damngton, 

Stapleton, 

Featliertton, 

Purtton JagKn, 

Water-Frjrston, 

Part of Ferrybridgcv 

KifkwneMoo, 



Ack worth. 



Burghwallis. 



>CanipsaU. 



t Castlefotd. 
jDaainglOO. 



\ Ferrjf-FrjTitoo, or Halter V"*** 
J FryiVm. 

KifktoKSton. 



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S« HWrORY OP PONTEftlACT. 

equally corrapted at thctime of the general smvey, 
in the reign of William the conqueror ; and is called 

Pontefractj \ 

Tuishelf, i 

£a(t Hardwict, ' / 

Knottingley, I 

Part of fcityhildge, J 

Carcroft Hamlet, (Owston, 

Skellow, ( 

Skerbrook, '' Skelbrooke. 

Soulh Kirkby, 7 

South ElmsaU, V South Kirkbf. 

North Eloiiall, ) 

West Hardwicl, 

Hassle, 



jWragby. 

LOHER DIVISION. 



Ho<A^' 

* Goole, 
Sawcliffe, 
Cowick, 
Snaith, 
Gowdall, 
Heck, 
HensaD, 
FollingtoD, 
Balne, 

PartofWhWcy, 
KellingLan, 
Be^a?r, 
Egbrough, 
Pari of Whitley, 
Womenley, 
Cridling Stub*, 
little Sineaton, 
Stubit Walden, 

* Adlingflcet, 
Fockerbj, 

* Haldenly and EaKoIl, 

* Whilgift. 

* Reednes*! 

* Swinfleri, 

* Ouzefleet, 

H. B. * Thne an i1 
{Dci lo Thome m) Doncailei 



Kellington. 



> Womerdey; 



> Adlingflcet 



VWhitgift.. 



Mirshtind, in the Soii-Ji Side of ibc Riw ihM 



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HISTORY OF PMfTEPRAcr. S3 

in Doomsday-boblc Osgooi^cniSs. ■ If the name 
had been recently impoaed, it wottM hive- been 
clearly and graphically expressed ; and from this 
corruption of the name it may be inferred, that the 
cross had been long erected, and that Both the ob- 
ject and occasion of it were then fdmoSt forgotten. 

It is natural to suppose, that the place where 
this cross was erected, was then a place of some 
importance and consideration ; at least, that it ex- 
ceeded every other within the division. The ereo- 
tioii of this cross at so early a period, will efetablish 
the feet, that tlie inhabitants of this Burgh had 
then embraced and prbfessed Christianity, And is it 
not probable from this circumstance, that Oswald 
had honoured the place by his royal presence? that 
he had conferred some particular privileges on its 
inhabitants ? May not he be the person who built 
a church, and as a testimony of their gratitude, they 
thas honoured him i 

It could not be earlier than the middle of the 
seventh, nor later than the eighth century, when the 
church was 'built, which gave the name of Kirkby 
to this town. Within this period lived the before 
mentioned Edwin and Oswald ; and afterwards 
Ceolwolf and Hubert, who abdicated a throne to 
spend their last days in devotion among the monks. 
During this period christian churches were erected 
in most places of importance, througli theNorthum- 
brian kingdom; ;$everal monasteries were built and 
Jargeiy endowed, which supplied the churches with 
a suocesslon of teachers : and it is probable thai 
many of the parish churches may date- their origin 
frpm about this period * Had -they not been now 

-* It » net meant, that th« pteiwnt btiilrlingi *er« eredcd, but 
thttjffiKbKH w^reiBiMsl tor vligious wor^ip, on (he dectiy of 
which, otheri have been built. ' - ' 



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3* HISTORY O? PONTEFBACT. 

built, the turbulence of the succeeding times — the 
invasion of the Danes — the (urious wars between 
them and the Saxons^ would not admit of leisure 
for works of this kind. 

Owing to the want of ancient documents^ it is 
impossible to point out with certainty where the 
first christian church stood; or what was the form 
of the structure. It is however most probable thai. 
it occupied the site of the present church of All- 
Saints; and from the veneration paid to the cross, 
would be built in that form. Hie ground where it 
stood would be esteemed sacred; and when the 
wood church gave place to a more permanent 
structure of stone, its site would be preferred. 

AVbat was the precise extent of the parish at 
this period cannot now be ascertained. As churches 
were at first built only in towns and cities, parishes 
would be much more extensive than they now are; 
and it is not improbable that many of the contigu- 
ous parishes might then be included in that of 
Kirkby*. 

' Theodore, ArcUiishop of Cntiterburf, obtibed from tfie 
king royal licences, tb&t he who built « church Ebould enjoy the 
patronage of it; and it became conunon for every thane to build 
a church on his ovrn lahd, for the u^ of his servants and tenants ; 
and a law ot Athelstan praVei that no one could enjoy the dignity 
of thane without pouessing s church. An tbeie were intierior 
freeholden who were not able to erect churches on their estatea; 
these gave Iheir tytbes, and attended at the diurch jiearesl to them ; 
and at the thanesland conititutnl a township, over which he 
exercised civil jurisdiction, all the surrounding districts whid 
brought thdr tythes to the same church formed a parish. As 
population increased, <^apds of ease were erected, at this lime 
called Oratories, where the common prayers only were read. The 
bisbopl often found it necessary to raise them into partih churdws, 
and to grant them fiilt parochial rights and privileges. In some 
iiutancet, thdr dependence en the mother church wan perpetuated 
by the payment of the dues, though they were p«niiillod to aiai- 
water all the saciaraeDti. 



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KSTORT at POHTBFUcr. 35 

Durbg the period of the Saxon (lominion> Bri- 
tain was the theatre of long, bloody, and destruc- 
tire wars. What from their contests with the 
Britons, their animosities among themselves, and 
lastly their fierce and desperate conflicts with the 
Danes, there were few intervals of peace. Yet 
amidst all this confusion Christianity was introduced 
and establisbed; and though its mild spirit, its bene- 
volent precepts, and genuine principles, appeared 
during that period to produce little effect, it lias 
gradually prevailed to soften, humanize, and polish 
' this, as well as every other countrr* where it has 
been Tecei?ed. The idols of the pagans feU h^rc 
it, for 

Not Man, the lord of wounds, who Katten round 
Tlw leedi of war, and fills the rancorous heart 
With Gwgon poisoiK, can assist hii fanes ; 
Nor Venus can avail, nor her vile boy. 
The gdita itaLiiet of Minerva bli, 
Tbo' tboli proclaiiB her goddeta of the arts ; 
Nor he for whom, as ancient tictioni sing. 
The leafy vines, their precious branches spre^. 
Can prop the columns noJding with their gods. 
Hie marblet tremble with terrific cra«h, 
■An) the vast &bric rushes into dust. 
£*'d Neptune lumour'd lOTereign of Ibe waves. 
Who by his swelling billows rules the main. 
Me cannot save his sculptured effigies. 
Whose tnsrble brows the goldm ieavet surround, 
. Nfll ev^i Alcides who the centaun cruA'd, 
And dar'd the fiery breath of prowling Cacus, 
When from liii throat his words in flames were pout'd, 
Tlio' his right hand the dreadful club may graip, 
(?an shield hii temples when the Christian prays. 



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HISTORY OF TOHTEFRACr. 



SECTION III. 



Inguiry into the Constitution end Privileges i^^^ this 
Burgh under the Saxons, 

X HAT tbis was a bargfi ^' thb tin^ vf 'Edwwil 

the Confessor- is oertaiD, irom evidence the: inosft 
decisive; but how long it enjoyed tbis/ privilege 
anterior to tbis period id uncertain *. If tbe popui- 
lation was such as to render it advisable to build a 
church in the seventh century, it may be presumed 
it would then be WKOunted a bUrgh, and probably 
might be so account^ frotn the time the &xons 
obtained possession of the plac^. . 

The term borough, in its original Saxon 
borgh, is said by Bractbn to signify jprtmarily a 
tything, or a company of ten families 'of fte^en, 
who were bound or combined togethei: as. each 
others pledge; giad hence aplaige is CADed-AorA. 
This territorial division has b^en awrited to 
Alfred, but without any foutldtttion, As it is Noticed 
in the laws of Edgar. By his law it is thiis Enacted, 
" Every man shall find and have borh, ai^d the 
borh shall produce htm to every l^al chargd', and 
shall keep hint, and if he have done wton^ and 
escapes, his b'orh ^all bear what he Ought to have 
borne. But if it be tlieil, and the both can bring 
him forward within twelve months, then what the 
borh paid shall be returned." 

* Vid. Doomsday-book, among tbe pottetuooi of Ilbert de 
Lac;, uitdei tbe nuuioi of TateihaU, 



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HISTORY OB. PONTEniACT. £7 

Frtm lience it may be .inferred, tb^ .th^ diatrfot 
anddivuitxi {if land which .tbeyiiotaes^ed, wtioiojudd 
borb, .or Wers- pledges jforeach onbersigbgd ait/^ 
pebcetible bebbviouf. ft>>nited the Vanits of tlieir juri»- 
dlotion. WMtetermigbt be (heiuiipberoffreeipen 
who iohabited a burgh origiudly, or wlMtover i^ir 
number by the increase of (>6)pulatioh, the hniitfiOf 
(bejurisdictioii of sucbbui^gb Mill remained. And 
it is not improbable that the ancient tytbings were 
neaHgr of eqaa] csteiit with our present towofihips, 
and the bounds trf'-our proaent boroughs. 

As daslles and other fortificatioiid w^re built for 
Che defence of townfl, the term burgh caBic to sig- 
nify a fortified place. According to V^^Btf^ao, all 
\)lasxe which bad thii name were ooe w«y or 
other ibrtified. 

The land and bouses within a burgh might 
belong to the king, or to some of the thanes, or 
bishops. In Canterbury £dw^d h^ fii^-one 
bbrgeMU*; in' Bath siKty-fotar^ and ainely bur- 
gesses of other tnen aris mentioned f. In Rottiettel 
twenty-iive burgesses belonged to the archbishop { } 

On tiie authoritjr of the Dodsworth ma^usc^ipt^ 

• Doomesday, Fol. 2. t HHd loqi ,. 

i Ibid 67. f The burgesteian^tradessea, HI great to^n!i,ba^ 
in tbe reign of ^vrard the Confeuor, tbek patron), und?r wboaf 
protection the.y traded and paid an acknowledgmeot tiieicfore} 
or dte, were in a more aervi^ poodition. as bang, in Dowuaia 
Begit vel ttlionut, altogether uuter the power of the king or other 
lords." Brady on burghs. Thia advocate for Ihepref^gatives of tho 
croWRj and enem^ to the repretentative branch of our excellent 
constitution, would lead his reader to believe, that bucg^sses were 
in no better ctate than the servile, but cqusMy subject to the will of 
totne lord. It is true, they were subject to the land proprietors, at 
renting houses or land belonging to them; but it does not appear 
from any authority he has produced, that they were in that 
degraded state, fas has deiciibed, tiU opprrsjcd by the Crniquerpitj 



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3R HISTORY OF PONTEFHACT. 

Camden inforins us that one Aske * was the first 
Saxon proprietor of thin place; aiid that it de- 
scended by dne succession to one Alric, from 
'whom William the Conqueror took it. He had 
'issue, S^vayne, who had Adam Fits Swayne, who 
had two daoghters j one of whom married Ganfred? 
NevHle, and the other Thomas Brough -f . 

Bur<;hs were generally inhabited by tradesmen 
and mechanics. They enjoyed tbe excltisiTe privelege 
of fairs and markets: and the commerce of the 
nation centered in them. By this privilege they 
were distinguished from the villages, which were 
inhabited by ceorU and villani, or farmers and 
husbandmen: 

Burgesses were not considered in this period as 

Madm hot proved, that the bur^hi 0f the king were on]^ lubject 
,lo a fee-^rm rent ; and as thiii was very moderate, they may b? 
considered a; Ihe proprietors, and lioldjng by burgage tenure, 
'which Cooke consideri as a species of free socage. 

' Tbefaniiljof theA»ke\ ccnlinued ia tilts countjr till (hr 
lime cifCtiarl^I. The seat of the family wu at Atke, in the 
parish of E*sby, in Hichinondshire. One Wyhotnerc, bearing th« 
BTmiofAske, wsu a kinsman to ^llcn, first ICarl of Britain, in the 
icign of the Conqueror, which AHen had the Earldom of Rfchmond, 
given him by the said William the Conqiieror, and gave to this 
Wyhomere the manor of Ai>ke. He married Annabell, daughter 
%f Sir John Neville, of Hornby imd Hooton, Knight, had issue, 
Confln, Werner, Warine, Roger, Hugh. The mati«r of Aske 
continued in this Eimily, and a branch of it married the daughter 
and heiress of de laHaye, of Aughtoti, onthc Derwent; by which 
n^rriage, they bct-anie Lords of Ellerton and Aughton, and 
patrons of Slerton Abbey, near Howdeii, 

f Stowe's An. p. \\6. It i« difficult to reconcite Ihe above 
account of the Saxon propriet(]r«, with the silence of doomsday- 
book. Tl)c manor of T^tcshall is said to have belonged to the 
. king in the time of Edtvard, and as ihu burgh or Kirkby is nolioed 
in connection with Tatcshall, without any Saxon proprietor being 
incntloncd, it is natural to infer, that it equally belonged to the 
king. The lung might indeed grant his right in tbe burghs w 



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IfiSTORY OP PONTEFKACT. 39 

ominent either for their rank or property. A con- 
siderabje part were such as by their good coDduct^ 
and the generosity of tbeir Lords, bad obtaioed 
their freedom. For among the Saxons elafery not 
odI/ existed, but was acknowledged by the laws, and 
regularly organized into a system. In conveyances 
of laud, slaves are mentioned wiUi the .stock, and 
disposed of in the same manner*. Many of the 
slaves were the remains of the conquered Britons; 
and others were such persous as bad forfeited their 
freed<»n by their crimes f. 

On the conversion of the Saxons, the mitd influ- 
ence of Christianity was felt by this unhappy class 
of society. It became customary for the bishops 
and abbots to manumit the slaves attached ta the 
property appropriated to them. Other pereonsi by 
being taught to consider acts of benevolence as a 
relij^us duty, imitated their example; and in thar 
wills they frequently bequeathed tlie boon of free- 
dom to their slaves j;. 

what is now calleifihe fee-farm rent, to the above family ; which 
thejp nigbt ' cwUinue to enjoy without «Ter obtaining it As a 
freehold inheriiUnce. In thit case, though they would be considrr- 
edailo[dG<tf Kjikby, in a popular Aenie, they would not be noticed 
in Doomiday-book, as not being the proptieton. 

* In ao innumention of pcopeny on an estate, it is said there 
were an hundred sheep, iifty'tive twine, two meoi and fire ynked 
•Ken. S Galb's Scrip. 431. 

A duke of Mercia, in a donalioQ to a church, gave six men, 
with all their ofTtpring and their family, that they may always 
lielong to the sAid church in perpetual iiilierilance. Hickb'* Diu. 
Ep. p. 12. 

■f In the laws »f Ina, it is enaded " that if a freeman worlc 
on a Sunday without liis lord's ordcm, be shall lose his liberty, or 
. pay sixty sliillings. Lsc. Inx. 15. 

X A landholder, in Edgar'n time,. in his will, directed that 
thirteen of his slaves should be liberated aa the lot ibould decide. 
3 Gaib'i Scrip, «7. 



,«Gooi^lc 



40. HISTORY OP ?ONTEFIlACT, 

Those vlw had thut* obtained their freedotn 
were oal)e<l"FriIazin. Some of them became agri- 
cuitoral lAbourers, and took land of the clergy 
»9d great, paying them an annufil pent; but the 
chief pBrt went and resided- in the burghs, and be- 
came bargesses. -In the burghs, during the Saxon 
period, every fre»emnnj or freedman, w^ho occopied 
a house, and paid his galhl, or r&nt, was a burgess; 
The theows,- Or sUdi as had lost their freedom, and 
the hereditary dftVes, as being the property of their 
masters, though they resided ■ within the burgh, 
were ' not admitted to enjoy the rights and rank of 
bar^^es,. 

Freedom deserve to be noticed as the ,first pri- 
ifife^ff, the bwgesses of Kirkby enjoyed*. While the 
daVe was doomed to toil for his lord, howeveF 
severe and oppressi^-e. the fi-eeman could woric fof 
any employe he clio^. This was a valuable right j 
as it secured to the freeman* mild treatment. A 
slave for the most trifling fault might be whipped; 

* The Editorconnot butbrnent, that m<the-«i)Iiglitened period 
in which he lives, when the righu and datiet of men are more 
clearly asceitiiined ; when a loand philoaophy has not only eimtes* 
ed thu cirde of the jciencex, but ha* enlightened the ttnderManding 
and enlarged tlie MX^al affectiont; — whm Revelation is itdmilted 
at the teit of tnith and duty; when that mafflvn, " Whalsoi 
ever ye would, that men should do to you, do ye aJ.to lo them;** 
i^admircd for it> conciicness, simplicity, and propriety ; slavery 
ibould still be encouraged. He hopes the day is not &r distant^ 
wbonasenaeof duty iv ill prevail over personal interest, and this 
reproach of our nation be for ever done away. Though hitherto; 
the «fiani of 3 Wilbcrforce and other &iends of htinianity, have 
not been crowned with iwccess; they have not iBboufed in vain. 
Tliey have produced a spirit of enquirj'; they have exposed the 
injtiffice of the «1ave-traae ; they have laid a tbundation for its 
addition ; and (heir names deserve, and will be handed down to 
posterity, witli honour and respect. 



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HBTOIY OP PONTEFRACT. 41 

bnt a freeman was exempt from this disgraceful 
puaisbmeat. If any person put a freeman into 
bonds, the law enjoined a fine of twenty shillings , 
a great sum. in those days, and which demonstrates 
the high regard the Saxons had Sot liberty. If a 
freeman was accused of any crime, he was judged 
by his peers; while the master was both jadge and 
jury over .his slaves. How valuable was the privi- 
lege of being- a burgess, when so many endured 
tbe galling yoke of vassalage. 
, Burgesses could acquire propaty and dispose 
of it. according to thar own pleasure. The 
ar^rae to wealth and honour was open before them ; 
and this circumstance cmild not. £Eiil to impart 
energy to their exertions, which wonld in many 
cases be crowned with success.. When the condition 
of a man is such as to preclode.tbe hope of realiz- 
ing property, and of bequeathing it to the objects 
of his regard, the noblest motive to iiidostry is de- 
stroyed; and the mind sinks into an apathy respect- 
ing both present and future concerns. But bur- 
gesses and freemea could attain to tbe highest rank 
and dignity. By a. law of Athelstan it is expressly 
declared, " that if a ceorl, or farmer, and of course 
any other freeman, have the full proprietorship of 
five hides of land, a church, and kitchen, a bell- 
house, a burgh-gate seat, and an appropriate office 
in the king's hall, he shall thenceforth be a thane 
by right. The same laws provide, that a thane 
may anive at the dignity of an earl, and a merchant, 
who went three times over the sea with his own 
crafl. might become a thane *. Though burgesses, 
as mechanics and tradesmen, did not rank hig^, yet, 
as freemen, who might aspire aiul attain to the 
» WitK.Leg. S«c.70,aiid7!. 



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« HISTOaY OF POHTEFBACT. 

honours <^ nobility, their condition was reputable. 
TliG hons(>s or (and wliich Uiey held of the king or 
superior lord, they could sell m* dispose of, reser* 
ring die rights of the king or the lonj. They had 
the privilege to devise such houses or land by mil, 
lK>r was the devisee, subject to any relief, or odier 
feudal burden, but on tlie demise of the proprietor, 
entered into immediate possession of the prt^rty 
devised. 

The tythings and burghs enjoyed the privilege 
o( chuDsiag their own peace offiixrs, and governing 
thanselvcs according to the laws of the laud. All 
govemiDent is unquestionably delved from parental 
tuitfaority. A family is naturally governed by its 
parents, and its ramiicfttions by the aged. The 
father, says Homer, is the legislator of his wife 
and children. Among most barbarous tribes the 
a^ ancestors have prescribed rules of mutual be- 
haviour, and have adjudged disputes. That our 
Sftxon fore&thers were governed in this manner is 
evideat from the fact, that the words of their kar 
gjoage which dentde authority olsoexprau age*. 

The government of the bur^i was simple, but 
efiicieniL. As all the burgesses choose the burgb- 
reve, so dl the burgesses when met together formed 
ttie burj^-mote, or court in which caosea were 
tried and detenninedf. Though the es^domen 
Woukl be respected for their age and experience, 
and their opinion would have considerable influence 

* In the SaxOD vcnion of the Scrip. Geiuxlv. 8. wfaicfa 
tWei, thti Joseph wu iq^inted niler .over Egypt, the wordt are 
" selte into eaidre over Egypta land." Casar U caUed " cynin^ 
yidest," Hie eUeit king, Vid. Tum^, Hist. Ang. Sax. Vol. IV. 
p. 10. 

f OnaooouDtoflbeciwuntitatKeofall Iheburgeueiibnnuif 
lbebu:gfa-iiKrie,tbi>«wttit,«acn<»l.tedtb^ fclk-genote. 



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HIST<my OP PONTEfUCT. 43 

in (lie deeiaidli of the cowtj they d« not appear to 
baVe had any legal authority abore oJiier burgesses. 

Any bnrgess, during this pefktdj mi^t be 
. ofaosen borgb-rere. The doty of this magistrate 
ooiiMBted in ke^ng the ptace ; id calling the coitrfe 
of die borgb-mote, and presiding id it; in putting 
the sentence of the court in execution; and in 
ooUecting the rente doe to the king or lord. 

The tim^ for the meeting of the burgb-mote 
was fixed by the lavr, in the reign of Canute. This 
court was to be held at least three times every 
year. As all the burgesses together wilb the bdrgh- 
reve, foraied the court, the manner of deciding 
causes was stioiiar to what obtains in oilr present 
house <tf ^rs, where every peer sits in his own 
right on any judicial proceeding. The trial by 
a. jttty of twelve men did not generally obtain, but 
every fre^maA, if a burgt^s. Was tried by the other 
burgesses his peers, whatever their number might 
be*. This mode of proceeding answered all the 
endsofsbbstantial justice; and ultimately led to the 
grarid assise, or trial by twelve honest and substan- 
tial men ; the great palladium of British libert r. 

AVbether the burghs possessed any political im- 
portanoe, whether they were in any way represenledj 

* In die doCumenb of the Anglt^Saxon period, which have 
come down lo lu, we find, that the principle ot a nuui'j being tried 
by hii peeri or equals wai generally recognized and ertablished. 
"Iliis appears in the lawiof Wchlrsd, " where (he clergynan is 
la be acquitted by bur of his equals, and the cedf lick by four df 
hit own rank." Leg. WihL Wilk. p. 12. In case of plundering 
the dead, the law required the oalli of fbrty-«ight thencs to clear 
the accused. Leg. Inft. Wilk. 27. The% appear to be chosen 
from the ihirc-gemote, for the purpose of investigating the eri- 
dence of the fact, and whose reidtct, like that <d » modem jurf 
Will to be decidvCi 



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44 HI8T0RY or poirrafflAtrf. 

in the Saxon witena-gemote, or parliament, It is 
not possible now decidivelj to ascertain. What 
were the qoalificBtioDs of such as ^tended this 
assembly; whether they attended in virtue r^their- 
own right, or whether as the representativearf other 
land proprietors, are questions which cannot now 
be satisfactorily answered. 

It has been supposed that the borgh-reve became 
the representative of the burgh in the gemote of 
the hundred, in the shire-gemote, and in the witPDaf 
gemote or Saxon parliament *. 

As the burgesses enjoyed various privileges, so 
the imposts to which they were subject were de? 
finite and easy. In the kings expedition every 
five hides of land f appear to have furnished one man; 

* St. Amakd's Em. on the legulalive wiibonty. Anumg 
the penons who sign to an act of the witeiiaigeiaote, at Clofeshoe, 
in 82+, is one whoinentions thedrcumstanceofhis being chosen, 
" Ego Beonna e/ertw consent, et mbscrib." Attlei MS. charieri. 
No. 12. 

t A* hides of land, oxgangi, and knightx feta, will ftequently 
occ.UT, it majr be necessary to give, once tcx all, a geneial ex|d>- 
nation of these terms. 

Acarucaleoriand^ a plough-land, orahide oflmd, is not of 
any certain content, but as much as a plough can by course of 
husbandry plough in a year, and may contain a meuuage, -wooif 
meadow, and pasture. The ovgang was invariably one eighth 
part of a canicate, whatever mi^htbe the number of acres cqatained 
therein. 

In Doorasday inquisition, the arable land ii estimated in 
Carucates, the paKure in hides, and the meadow in acres. — Skene 
makes the carucate Ihe same as the hide of land. In a maoufcnpt 
law book, written by Ambrose Cooper, Esq. a student in one of 
the Inns of court in the year 1570, it is laid down at a rule, that* 
hide of land consisted of a hundred and sixty acres, and was made 
up of the following parts : — ten acres make a ferundel or farding- 
di»I, lour Cenindels a yard land, and four yard lands a hide, so fow 
hides or six huitdred atid forty acres, nude a knights fee. When f 



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mSTOKY 0? PONTEFRACTi 4S 

and the burghs a number' proportioned to their 
population. Doom^ay-book furnishes various in- 
stances of the number of men different burghs were 
to raise *. From the state of population in respect 
to other place, the burgh of Kirkby would not have 
above, one man to raise and support ; a very mo- 
derate war-tax, if compared with that of the present 
jmes; and particularly so, when it is considered that 
tfais'^as the only tax the people had to pay ' 

kiii^iU fee wu taxed at forty shtllings, a j^ard land paid two 
thillingt and sixpence, and win proportion, so that six hundrcdand 
lorty acres of Und made one great knights fee, which paid &r a 
idief one hundred shillings. Blount. A. T. 

Yet, aotvritfaitanding the above account, ihe learned Sdden 
Biiertf, that (he quantity was doubtleu uncertain. He agrees ia 
the above general desaiption of i^ and hb observation iiccrUinlf 
very just, Ih^t it inust of neccs»ty vary according to the nature 
of the MttI, and cuitom of husbandry in every county. He irfso dtet 
a record, which ihewf that it had been uncertain (or ages before 
he wrote, which is from an eldoou^ book.of the manor oTCraiir 
4dd, ptfTceloftbepouessionsof the. Abbey of Ramsay, wh^re the 
homage at a court of survey, held there in the time of Henry III, 
nid they did not know how many acres made a v"'! '■nd, 
because, sontetiines four hundred and eighty acres, and uunetinw* 
fewer made ■ yard land, and that four yard lands made a hide, — 
Tbc meawre of a carucate^ appears to have difiered in respect of 
place, aswdl as time. In the reign of Richard I, it was esti- 
mated at sixty acres, and in a charter of the same reign, at one 
hundred acres. In &e lime of Edward I. at one hundred and 
eighty acres} and in the twenty-third Edward III. at Burcester, 
gne hundred and twdve acres; and inMiddlelon, one hundr^ 
and fifty acres. The carucate plough-land or hide, in general, u 
esUmated at one hundred acres. 

* Doomsday-book, con. Devon, Exeler, was to serve as for 
fivchidesof e.i.land.to raiseoneman. It tsiaid of Berkshire, "i^ 
the king should send an army any wherq, only tme soldier should 
go Sot fire ludes of land, and for his victuals and pay, every 
hide was to give him tbur shillings for two months." Com, 
Serokescire. 



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48 HISTOHY or POSTEFIIACT. 

Harold, at Ihe battle of Hastings, totk possession 
of the throne and kingdom. 

The SaxoDs, who were not inferior to the Nor- 
mans, either in prudence or courage, had to contend 
for near a century before they effected the conquest 
of the kingdom. What reason can be assigned* 
why one partial engagement should now decide the 
fyte of the same kingdom ? The reason is obvious* 
the clergy betrayed the liberties and interests of 
their country. To have opposed William, would 
have been to have opposed the lord's anointed. 
Ailer the battle of Hastings, they exerted all their 
influence, to prevent the election of Edgar Atheling 
to the throne ; and persuaded the citizens of London 
to open their gates, and give William the possession 
of the capital. 

For some little time William acted with I«iity; 
but as soon as his power was established, he threw (^ 
the mask and displayed the ferocity of his temper. 
The Saxon kings had enjoyed lands for the support 
of their crown and dignity. In the time of Edward, 
the crown lands consisted of one thousand four hun- 
dred and twenty-two manors, in different counties. 
In right of the crown these belonged to William. 
Not willing to alienate his own property to sati^ 
his needy followers, he soon found some occasion 
to murder or banish the Saxon nobles, and other 
inferior land pi-oprietors, and gave their possessions 
to hit friends. On Ilbert de Lacy he b^towed the 
burgh of Kirkby, with all that immense territory 
included within tlw honour of Pontefract *. 

-" The following is die account given of Ihii burgh at the 
time of Uia Doomsday satvej, and dearly establishes the abovs 



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HISTORY 07 PDNTEPBACT. 49 

Had the cooqaest only effected s diange in the 
proprietors of land, it would soon have been fw- 
gottco. Bat William* not content >vitb rewarding 

»rnTATBiHAi.L. sunt. XVI. cBi trie ^ lie geldo. ubi pou. «e. 
J. vim. car. Hoc 5 hb rex. Nc ht Ilbtiu ibi. iiii. car, eL ix, 
biu^enies roinutos. vci. coteros et xv i. uiU. et. viii. bord, bntes 
XVIII. car. Ibi. e. xccb et pbr. et 1. piBCarii., et iii. mold radd. 
XLii, Kil. et III. ac pti. Silua past, .l.levlg. el dim lat,Tot S- !• ** 
lev. et dim Ig, et dim ht. T.R.E, uaU xx. lib. m. xv. lib, Infn 
banc cela ctinet elemosi.ia paupum. 

Ad eunde maner adiacet H Soca. Manettorp, Barnebl.- 
Silchestone, Simul. v. car trae et dim ad gid. ubi poss, ee. v. 
car. Ibi. sunt IX, uilli. eL tii, bord. hntei. int. car. 

Doomsday-book, Vol, I. p. 316, 

The following remarlca may explain this account: — ^The manor 
frf'Tateshall, ii the present townahtp ofTanthelf; which, though 
not within the borough, fbrmi a part of the present town of 
Ponteiir3iCt In the time of the Saxons, places derived theirnames 
from those who inhabited them; but after the conquest, a custom 
the reverse of this prevailed, and persons derived their names trom 
(he place where they resided. Some one ot the name of Tale 
enjoyed this manor under the Iting, and by connecting with his own' 
name the term, Ha}I,or[Jace of residence, gave denomination to it. 
The &mily name of Tate, with the addition of the Saxon Ham, 
home or viUe, Talham, continued in Tanshelf, fill within a few 
yean. Some of this family have been recpeclable Ibr property, 
and were mayors of Fontefract. Tatham's yard it a name now 
Ipven to Mine bouses in Tanshelf, and which will probably per^ 
petuate the name of this ancient Saxon family. The modem 
appellation teems derived'from this, by an easy corruption in the 
pronunciation, as TaUhall, Tanshall, Tanihelf, 

The burgh of Kirkby u not mentioned by name, but is included 
as apart of the manor ofTateshalli and what follows unquestion- 
ably contains a description of its slate at that period. In the DoomW 
day Kurvey, many places are omitted by name, either through haste 
or from «ame other cause, whidi are clearly described under some 
•tber neighbouring district. 

The number of burgesses, together with those in a servile 
state, amounts only to an hundred families ; and reckoning on an 
average, five to a ^mily, die population of the place at that period, 
coniisted only of five hundred persons, men, women and children. 
When we reflect on the bloody wars dwing the heptaieby ; on the 



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atr HISTORV OP POSTEPBACT. 

his foUowdft wi*h't]ie lands of rii^ Saxon proprietors, 
hie subTMled 'tlie'fconstihitfftni and-lntPodniced"lin4 
eMiabUshctl 4hefeodaI system s a-^stemof •organized 

DanithiDTanmruid'the contest widi 'thtf Oonqoeror, tbe|hiq 
state «f population will cscile no surprize. 

There is no thane or lord of Kirkby mentionet!. As thh 
wrvey goes back lo Edward, and as in other places, the thanes 
tndearlsare spcFilicd as proprietors, does not this ciicanratance. 
imply that it was then in the poissCssion of Uis'king ? 

The burgesses appear to have been chiefly mechanics and' 
tradestnen, as only ciglitn^n ptough-tands <^cre in possesiiioii of jhe 
burgesses and t>ie ieh'ilc. ' The carucate w plough-land, if 
estimated at BO acrgs, the whole will give only 1030 acres, or 
about iota eachpersou. The greater part of the land wa&cuHi- 
»atei! by persons in a servile condition. The Cote™, were.so 
CaHcd, because they , dwelt in small huts or collages, near to the 
mansions of tiiur niastcrs. They wcee persons, who had beca 
inilrticted, by the direction of their owners, in some handicraft 
trade, as that of smiths, carpenters, 8;c, wliieli they practiced^ for 
(1)ebc[)cfit of their masters. The ^or^irii, were akindofuppec; 
ilo'mcstic. aenaots, who waited at table, (then called ^J] and 
peiformcd other offices in tlieir niaslcrs houses. They resided in 
huts of (heir own, to which little gardens and parcels ol land were 
Annexed, as tliclccor reward of llieir services. The ViHaati, were 
predial slaves, who cultivated the inlands of their lords. 

Vid: Spelman Gtoss.in voci. 

Id tliis account it is remarkable, that nothing is saidrdspectlng 
the number of burgesses, tlie quantity of land in cultivation, or who 
enjoyed H, in the time of tlie Confessof. The only thing noticed 
is, that the value of llus manw had decreased one fourth, being 
ihen.worti) twenty, and iiow only lifleen pounds. 

The whole quantity of land in cultivation, was thirty plough 
lands, in tlie hand of tlie burgesses and die servile, which at sixty 
acres, willmakc one thousand eight hundred acres. No waste bnds 
were included in this suivey. Thcland in the present township of 
Fontefract, according to MK Hcpworth's survey, is two thousand 
one Ijutulred and (hirty one acres ; and as the townships of Taaslielf, 
Carllon, and Hardwkk, were at the time qf Doomsday survey, 
included within the manor of Tatcshall. we may infer, that, not 
much above one thrrd ofthe land was tiien cultivated. 

The wood which might be depastuced, one mile lotig anda 
half broad, most probably stretched along from the site of the 



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mSTORY or PONTEnUCT. $t 

tyranny and^oppression. In this system thekipg-itf 
sole proprietor o£ all the land in..tlie.kingdoiB> and 
the^only freeholder. He -gives to his friends land - 
to hold of him, on what condition he pleases; .but 
moet commonly on condition that they iumigtr him 
with a iiumber of men pr(^rbion(?d to. the extent 
of their estate. Thode who thus. >obtai;^ eetat^^^ 
are-said to hold of the king j'n ^^iV^^^ijd weK 
called barons. These let off som^; portion '-of -tbijir 
estates on like conditions; and thus :ostal#s'.pafiee4 
through all the Karions degrees of subiofeudarion. 
The great body of freeholders wefe jiow -deprived 
of their freeholds, and their land sul^ected to this 
new 8pecie« of tenure. • 

The";burge8se3 of Kirkby became . subject 
to ilbert'dc Laoy, 'their feudal lord, and were do- 
pnvEduf-theiriTiost.valDable ciglMs and privileges. 
The right of choosing, their own .burgh-reve,. and 
^orernin^. themselves according to law, was now 
taken from them.. - Thebnrgh-mote; gave plnce to 
tfae court bacon, in which- he presided, either per- 
sonally or .by. his constable. .He,, and n^ttbe bur- 
gesses, choose the burgh-reve *. Tliey were called 

pTesent tqWo tinoOgli' f ryer>wo«d gBRlAte to CmHUm, and South 
Hardnick; pn the lide of viiacb, tiie Roman n»d pasKd to 

The church fan bean >inady wttioed,' and. Iho AIui-houK for 
the poor ii undoubted!/ . Ihit of St. ' Nidwbi. 

* The crflice oF fiurgfa^ttve,' huliff cr fxmitbble, was put up 
tonic by thefiudal prbpiietor, a^tipcan by the iirtt charter. 
Vld- App. Ch. I. It u (hid, thattbe "bai^atsts sbduld have Ihe 
preference, if they would g!ve as much for the office as othem." 
When an ofiice u purchased, the purchaser will always attempt to 
reimburse hinudf; and if the usual fees are not deemed sufficient, 
he will find some causes or complaint, in order to impose lines artd 
obtain the sum wanted. When civil offices aierputup to sale, 
justice and equity cannot be expected. 



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St HISTORY OF PONTEFRACT. 

burgesses, but deprired of their right as such ; and 
the only privilege they appear lo have enjoyed, 
vas, that as freemen they ctould not be sold like 
the servile. 

TTie burgesses now became subject to imposts 
and exactions, which were indefinite and arbitrary. 
The lord could tallage them at his pleasure ; nor 
had they any redress. If they had not submitted 
to -pay as an aid what he demanded, they would have 
been deprived of their houses and tofts. They 
could neither buy nor sell without his permission ; 
nor was this permission granted without some 
pecunifu'y fee, or impost, denominated lastage. 

A people who choose their own peace-officers 
can never be long oppressed; and "William, by 
subjecting the burghs to feudal lords, put his finger 
on the great artery of the constitution, and by 
stopping the vital circulation, paralized and ex- 
tinguished civil freedom. The burgesses, by this 
event were stripped of all their immunities, uidftir 
a series of years, remained without rights, corpo- 
rate privileges, or politicsl consequence. 



The biwtile chief, in con<]ue(f i lauids dreu'd, 
SpOTting the trophy'd car and pompous crett. 
But little thinks, or, thinking, little caret. 
How hvd the tenant of the cottage lives ; 
By him depriv'd of oil hit former toil. 
And left to itarve upon the fruitful soil: 
Laughfl at the churl, and revels o'er his winp, 
WfiHit flatf i«n hail ««di fiend like deed (Uvitie: 



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HISTORY OF PONTEPRACr. 



SECTION V. 



On the modem name of this Borough^ and the 
building of Uie Castle, 

xllSTORIANS have dUStreA as much respecting 
the name as the origin of this place. The 'fictions 
of soperstition and the reveries of a wild imagination, 
have been united together to accoaut for it. Home 
conjectured, that it derived its name from the fer- 
tUity of its soil, and the excellent produce of its 
orchards. From Porno fero, he would make Pom- 
jrete. This etymon would not be improbable, if 
this orthography was estabhshed; but is wholly 
inadmissable when it ia considered, that in all tte 
Latin chmrters, it is written Pontfractus, and not 
Pomfrete. 

Thomas de Castleford, who was \xeA a Bene- 
dictine monk, and who wrote the history of this 
]^ace, accounts for its present name from the fol- 
lowing miracle. William, Archbishop of York, 
and son of the sister of king Stephen, being on his 
return from Rome, wasmetbysuchcrowdsof people, 
who were desirous to see him and receive his blesaing, 
that a wood bridge over the river Aire, near to this 
place, gave way and broke down; by which acci- 
dent vast numbers fell into the river. The bishop, 
who had been invested with the pal! *, and who was 

* Tliepall which popes were acaistomed to send toarchbisbopt, 
is aa ornament worn on their thouldeti. It U made of Iambs wod, 
and *pot(e<J with piu-ple crosses, and is conudered ^t * Ifllwa <^ 
theii Apiiitual autiioiity and jumdiction: 



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£4 HISTORY .OF rfnCTSFtJtCr. 

Aeemed to have an interest equally as great in the 
court of heaven, as in the Vatican, affected at the 
danger of so many persons, poured out his prayers 
with such fervour and success, that not one perished. 
"Whether this miracle' consisted in dividing the 
stream, or in rendering the groES bodies of those 
Who ftll in, ;speciffi6ally Kghter than the fluid, we 
are not informed ; and 4» reason or form conjectures 
on so mysterious a point, would be equally vain 
•ndioDipertihent. -To-fierpetrtate so striking and so 
mgnalamir^cle, the pidas' Nctrmans, says Thomas, 
^Bsetfae name «f Pwitefiract, or Brekeu-bridg^ to 
Ahieiplace*. 

It •i9:unf«fcBnate for the credit of this story, 
that th«4dpogrs4iby of 'the oiibTade fisdidge me in 
Ijbeeii^il'eBsito) bulfcen-dispwted. The metmpolis 
crf'ihe comity, YoiJc, lootttends with us foe the 
hDnovr of it. DiAe «atataii» that the ibpidge over 
the Ouse Ml in,->&nd-.ABt>i(; was there theoritacle 
SDK -irroi^glit f . Jt ^nst be .-acknou; lod^sd; thete is 
stronger proof of its belonging to York, fefaan.ia 
ikae place, -.aa Gent describes a repj-esbntetion of it 
fianibed m a vindownf « elittrch;neat><to wluch.ii 
liappehed. 

What wbdly destroys Ihe credit «f this iegend, 

* Pqlvdosb Vikgi lis the first who bath reUtedthU (lory, 
■nd Thomas implicitly follows him, though acknotvledged to be 
an author of small credit. Thoma^ in the genuine spirit ofa monk, 
tdkiy intent on the honour of the place, wbcn: he reitded, recites 
folj^re without Qoticing Bromplon Biiii Stubs, wfan refer H to tli« 
dtyofYork. 

t * Tha (bint seuag the tncident made the<igiij of the cfxiu 
over tlie river, and addressed himseir to God with many tears. 
All ascribed to the efficacy of his prayer, the miraftilous preser- 
vation of llic multitude, especially of the children, who all esCB|)eil 
out of the water unbutt,'^ Bu&toh's Lives of the Sainta. 



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WEVOKf' Of POmSftiMJt' 3S- 

is that ^»totrn was ciJiM Pohtefrtictiidlf^a cen- 
tory'beftire St/Wifliam Wa&maie AVdhbisbopof 
Yorki Itvthe'ob(trter»gr(uited byRobtrtde^ljacy; 
comraonAy called' Robert de -Pdhtefittet, ■ t& the 
roonkd of St.' John th^ Evang^ist, it'is stiled'both 
Kirkby and' Pontfrael.^ — ^Hie words are " Dfe 
D«miDio«uo^ K'irkby, et d«o et Sancti Jobafini 
et' MoHaohia meis de Pdntfrapb," The first- of 
tthibh oharters Kdbert sdy»4ie-made byihe'advice 
of TtiDtaaS' ArcMririiop «f ' Ybrk) and the 'second 
was «igned by 'DMrnios Archbishop <^ York; which 
mustJutve been thc'first arehbishop of tbatname; 
as.Robertde Lacy died in the-seventbof-jHenry-I< 
amu} 11017, andthc'seoood'^lioitias did'itot^oceed 
to thatseetilttiie ninth of ibat reign.-- St.'WiUiami 
to whom 'ihift miracle is stt*ibtitedj was-not in-poS' 
senion of the «ee. of Yoiik tiil the yekrl ISS; fifetA 
vrtiiobit 19 evident that thibt^wn was cfdIed-Pon'- 
teftsct,' at leasts 'fiftif-ti(>o- years beforft'-UtO-abiora 
miraolo'iEr.prctended'tO'hav* been-'peHurmed.' - 

Ttae-' opiaion ofi a reBpectabt» snliijiiaiian 
that the name Pontefract 'was ofiginayyi glVen 'td 
(^stMondy and thatvnihedeoayofithe place/ the 
inhi^itailta.bmrrng ftedlitM; gave' UiO' same-name 
t« -their 'neW' abodej- ifl|'«q(fitiry onrtfuhded 'and 
nntatisfactory^ Thorei 10 tto^eridenoe'thtit'a bridge 
had beefnbailt atCastleford, at so'eairry apenod; 
but<(Hi ^beotlie'r. handi it ^ veryaianae imp}i«9,~ that 
OD iacciMiat' of the 'breadtl^of the stre»ra it was 
fordablb.- When the navigation was -cut,- the old 
ftomao-ipad wasTound BORiC'feet below -tltesnrlface ' 
of the ground, shelving ddwn 'towards -the -bed of 
the river. Fi*o«i thisxircmnstance it is evident, 
that no bridge was there in the time of the itomBns'4 
and tlu^f<ilhM[nnS'- fact vpf9W9<tibov»was-' none pre- 



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5d HISTORY OF PONTsr&ACT. 

Ttous to the conquest. Mortimer informs ns that 
Williun tbe Conqueror, in the year 1070, receiving- 
intelHgenoe of great devaatations committed in the 
north by the Danes, and the Northumbrian rebels, 
levied a fonqldable army, at the head of which he 
inarched towards the kingdom of NortbumbeHaod. 
of which Yorkshire was a part, vowing in the fury 
of his wrath, that, " by the splendor of God'Js face" 
[his usual oath) he would not leave a Northumbrian 
aTive to stir up future insurrections. On bis march 
into Yorkshire be took Nottingham in his way, 
bnt when he came to Pontfret, or PoDte£ract (be- 
fore this called Kirkby) be fonnd that the eoeany 
had broken down the bridge over the Aire at Ferry- 
f>ridge, and the waters being at that time swelled, 
he despaired ai being, able to pass the river for a 
Goonderable time. He had waited three wedm 
with the greatest impatience, when one of his Nor- 
man knights called Lisois (probably the same per< 
son afterwards called LAcy, on wbcwn he bestowed 
the town) discovered, a ford, by which William and 
his army passed the river. 

Other historians assert, that the name is dnived 
from the decay of an old bridge, which had been 
formerly built over an aqueous and nKirsby place. 
near to which the old town principally stood. Lo- 
land says, " the mines of such a bridg yet ys seene 
jcant half a mila est owt of old Pontfract, but I 
cannoi: justely say that tliis bridge stoode ful on 
Watheling streete;" for the want of which the road 
was oflen irapaiisable to travellers, till proper chan- 
nels were made for the use of two mills, one called 
the upper mill, and the other the lower, or Bond- 
gate mill *. 

* The upper mill wMutuatewkhinKferriwcM of the nacA 



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HtSTORT OF PONTEnUCT. il 

TTie principal part of the town formerly lay 
round the castle, and the place where the town now 
stands was a wood. Leland says, " the fairest parte 
of Pontefract standith on the toppe of the hille 
wher was after the conquest a chapel with a few 
sparkeled houses. The chapel was caulled St. Leo- 
nardes in the frithe (wood], and as I can leame 
this part of the town was called Kirkeby." 

Caihbden says " Saxonicis temporibus Kirkbif 
Tocabator, sed Normanni a fracto Fonte, Gallice 
Pontfract notninarunt." It was customary with 
the Normans to call their towns and villagfs after 
the names of bridges, and this might induce them 
to do so in England; but as there is not a river 
within two miles of this place, and before the drains 
were made, the wash was not only supplied from 
the high springs, but frequently heightened by ex- 
cessire rains, it must consequently hive been here 
that the said bridge was built, and came to decay; 
which gave the present appellation to this ancient 
borough. And this is rendered the more prohablE^, 
because hy an inquisition taken in the reign of 
Edward II. it appears that one John Bubwitb held 
the eighteenth part of a kni^t's (fee, '* Jincta vete- 
reni Pontem de Pontfract," and a place at this day 
called Bubwith-honse terminates this wa^ ; so th^ - 
it is presumed it must be this bridge, which being 
broken down, gave occasion to the Norman lord 
to diange the name of this town from Kirkby to 
Pontefract. That this must have been the situa- 
tion is the more appvent, when vve conndo- that 

esu4 cornel of the castle, aqd ii ntminftjuinoui itate; the lower 
wai Mtuated near the wash, about six hundred yard* below the 
caxtle, and waiinternalf^demoliihed in the year 1766, themale- 
liali sold, and tfa« large dam fiUn) up a&d gonverted into'a n 



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before the^ late aheratioii of the roads, by wftich 
the stream caUed the Wash is' now cDofined' to a 
narrov chanael, upon any violent raira or smdrden 
thaw, it so sw<;lled and overflowed' as to be' scarce 
passable, particalarly before the drams were made 
from hence to the rlFsi:, Not-'does thete appear 
from -the higli sitiiatkm of the tewn to' have been 
any neceiisityfor a bridge elsewhere. 

Such are the varying- opirtions reapecttnjt ■ the 
name of tiiis place. The iasfr-seems inost prt^ble 
and supported by tlie clearest evidence. The 
orthography 6f tlie name in the latm charter^; 
3VouId tiiduce the belief, that itniu&t refer to tho 
breaking of some bridge ; And aa there is no other 
{dac^ near the tbwnwhere a brPdge was-built biit 
over the wa^ the breaking dowirof tlii»must have 
given name to tlie place; fiiites names are arbitra'- 
tory, and freqiiently imposed from mere whim and 
caprice, or, from accidentah xifcumfftances, which 
in tnauy : ln»taiwes ahe not' handed down, n6 cer- 
.tain Conclasion can'beinadej' tuid iv>e'mustTemain 
satisfied with what is most -probable: ■ i 

Ttie "castle- is supposed to be of 5ai6n onglbT; 
and the site of it is ^tactly a^eeaUe'to thdrinode 
of fortifioatni). While the Aoitianlt fonned'iheir 
camp» oii a plaio, oron the level 'grduad,ariid de^ 
fended tliem byafoss and a Valhim;the:SsxtMip rais- 
ed the area of their tamps and castles,' if the ground 
was level, or selected hlUs a^-places best lulapted 
tor defdnc* and- security? The elevated rock, 
on: 4vhicfa the caiftlcnii built,' stands wholly iosnlatedv 
its sides originally steep and craggy, fnrms one of 
th&se'appeai-ihees; ivHifeh'; iiidfdate-^omc great cpni 
vulaion of nature, , by which' rocks have been rent 
aawBder, aod-tbe-vaFiouactratB'Of earth- washed 



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BISTOKY 07 rOHTBFIUCT. 59- 

away. A site like this, without mttch trouble or 
expence, might soon be converted into a keep or 
castle; and it is not probable that the Saxons would 
neglect it during the period of their dominion. In 
support of this opinion, since the demolition of the 
castle, it has been found that the keep of the great 
round tower stood upon it raised hill of stiff hard 
clay, of which materials the Saxons usually made 
their keeps. - 

After the conquest, Ilbert dc I^acy having recei- 
ved a grant of the place, and in the tenth of William,. 
all his vast possessions being coafimaed to him, he 
soon after b^an to erect the castle. This noble 
straebice. cqst immepse expenoe .aiJd labour, and 
no one, .unless in possession of a princely revenue 
oouldhavectmipletcd it. This formidable fortreis 
andiaagnificent palace was carried forward for the 
space of twielve years, with unremitting attention, 
and in: tbe year lOSO vms Aai^ked. Ilbert de Lacy, 
when he laid the foundation-stone ic^. the castle, 
ealteiditbe habae' of the tovrn Foetfrete, because 
flie sttnation, as he conceived, resembled tbe place 
•O'Oalled in Normandy, wher6 he was born *. 

• Vid. I^. Pkd. of T.WHipn, in BiUioth, Leed. Thii 
■utbority U dewrvtng of mora credit, as T. W. cojmd Trom 
Hopk!nw>n, who trantcribed whatever wat valuaUe Trom the is- 
cDtdi of the cattle, previoiu to iudemolitioii. 



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HISTOBY OP PONTEFRACT. 



SECTION VI. 



The historif and pedigree qf the Lacles, Lords qf 
Ponttfract, till the failure qf the jnale line, and 
the union qf this familT/ with Thomas Plantagenet, 
Earl of Lancaster, 

-I HE noble fomily of the Laciescame in with the 
Conqueror} and if we are allowed to judge from 
the extent of their possesions, they enjoyed a con- 
siderable degree of hia favour. Ilbert* received 
the gift of one hundred and fifty manors, or the 
greatest part of so many in tlie west of Yorkshire, 
ten in -Nottinghamshire, and four in Lincolnshire. 
These possessions were confirmed to him in the 
tenth of William f- 

William the Conqueror, after a tnrbtdent and un- 
quiet reign of twenty years, departed this life ; and . 
as his eldest son Robert, who had rebelled against 
him during his own life, was heir to the Duke- 
dom of Normandy, he sent William to England 
previous to his death, desirous, that he might en- 
joy the British throne. William succeeded, by the 
favour of Lanfrank, the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and Elides, his fathers steward, who delivered to 
him all the royal treasures, and secured the cinque 

* Hit brother Walter, received considerable poueuioni as b 
rewud for his servicei, in Herfordihire axA other counttei. Me 
(lied b^oie the survey, and nil his estates bad devolved lo his eldest 
son Roger, who enjoyed one hundrad and twenl; lordships. Vid. 
DoomMlajr, Herf. 

f Duoc. 99. Thii account a{;rtei with (he Hopk. MS. 



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HISTOEY OP PONTaFRACT. 61 

ports in his interest. As he expected his right to' the 
throne would be disputed .by his brother Kobert, 
he endeavoured to ingratiate himself by every act 
of popularity. He courted the English, and they 
became strongly attached to his interests, and reso* 
Inte to maintain his cause against all oppoSersi. 
He confirmed the grants made by his father to the 
Norman barons, of all the lands they held, that 
they might be secure in the posseseion of their pro- 
perty. Among others, Ilbert de lacy obtained a 
conGrmation of all the customs belonging to tba 
castle and honour of Pontefract, &s-he had enjoyed 
th»n during the former reign. He founded the 
collegiate chapel of St. Clement, in the castle; and 
dying soon aAer the accession of Witliun fiafus- to 
the throne, tell his vast possessions to bis eldest son 
Robert *, called Robert de Pontefmct, from the 
circumstance of his being born here. 

William Kufas, conBrmed to this Robert alt 
the lands of which his father died seized ; and he 
appears to have acquired the lordship of Blackbum< 
flhire, now one of the hundreds, iii the county of 
Lancaster^bordering on his own estatesin Yorkshire* 
Srom Roger de Busti, and Albert de Greslet, and 

• He left a younger son called Hugh ; buj according to the 
law of prlaiogeniUire, llie whole eslptcs wenl to Robert. Tliis law 
WW introduced into Europe by the feudal *yrtem ; and was osential 
to the Mipport of it. The Saxon law of gavel-kiud, the oDginal law 
of all natiom, by which a father's property, wh^ftver it was, waa^ 
equally dividedaniong all Jiiit cliildrt-n, was abolislted, a.i incompati- 
ble with duties imposed by this system. The clergy had laboured 
much to introduce the canon law, which sanctioned primogmiturr, 
as divinely appointed ; and ai thii hannonized with the frudal sys. 
ten, it became at length lirmly estobliibed. |f Ibe law of pritDO- 
geciture be examined, it appears to have no fouudatiun in reatim 
«r equity; and could never have obtained in socit^, teit in con- 
nection with the factitious system whicfi required perional servica 
to be leudned (o tlie king, lor tbv landi held of lui|^. 



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«3 HISTOKY OF POMTKTUCT. 

, to have held : It ander them *, He founded thtf 
priory of St. John the Evangelist liere, and wiis a 
great bene&ctor to the hospital of St. Nii^Jas. He 
is said to bavb added greatjy to the strength and 
beanty of the castle. 

On the death of Rufus, by the fortunate arrow 
of Walter Tyrel, Henry, the youngest son of the 
Cont^ueror, had interest sufficient to gtun possession 
of the throne. Robert, Duke of Normandy, who 
in the true spirit of the age, had. joined his forces 
to the first cnuade, and had contributed essoitially 
to rescue the holy city, Jerusalem, from the iniid^ 
Mahometans, was now absent ; and notwithstand- 
ing it had been agreed by Wtlham Rufus, that if 
Robert outlived him, he should succeed to the 
tlirone,' Henry was solemnly crowned. What he 
had thus acquired, Henry endeavoured to retain^ 
by conciliating the affections of the people. He 
punished flittinstrumebts of his late brothers op- 
pre^ion; be rectified the abuses of government, 
and secured the regular administration of justice. 
"He revived the laws of .kiog Edward, and grauted 
a charter of liberties, according to which his go- 
Tonmeot was to be regulated. 

Robert, on his return to Normandy, made pre- 
pm^tions for putting his claim to the crown of Eng- 
land to the decision of the sword. He collected a 
body of troops, and having crossed the channel, 
landed at 'Portsmouth. Although the barons had 
taken the oath of allegiance to Henry, and he had 
not given them the least cause for complaint, many 
joined Duke Robert, and among the chief of these 
was Robert de Pontefract -f. 

* At the time of the nirvey, these are mentioned as the tenants 
inrapiie. Vid.WntT. Whallcy. 

4 It is diUcuIt to uiign tny itaeoa niQcient to justify the 

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HtSTOKY'Or MNTSnaCT.' S3> 

Henry marf^ed a^inst Aobert whh theutmbst 
dispatcti, ,res<^ved. tp give hioi battle. The iwa 
anoies approached and. faced each- otber for several 
' dayg withdDt.roming'to'^ctioii. Ouriag this stats 
of awfid suspense, soane; comtnoa.friendii of both: 
interposed and e&cted as ' ocoommodatioB, on: 
conditloa that Robert should rtsiga all claim txr 
&B crown* , uniess Henry should die without issue, 
and fbr which he sboold receive an .annual peosioit 
of three, thousand marks. It was. also stipulated 
thai those nobles who had joined -Duke Aoberty 
itould be indulged with pardon, and the full resto- 
ration of all their laiida and estates* to which HeiH-y 
Tcry readily . coDseated. 

ProDiises niade in a time of danger are dftea 
forgo^ in a season of security and peaces aod 
Henry no sooner saw the storm which had threateh^ 
him dispersed^, than he began to shew his resent- 
meotifo' Hobertde Pontefract aod his son ^beri^ 
and the several nobles who had taken part with his 
brother. 

A bnve nun knowt .no malice, but t>t once 
Forgets in peace the injuries of war. 
Ana gives his direst foe a fiiend'i embrace. 
According to Dugdale*, Henry banished Robert 
de Lacy, and his son Ilbert the realm, seized the 
castle and honour of Pontefract, and gave them to 
■ Henry Traverse. Whatever might be the gratifi- 

conduct of die' barons. It Is Jirobable the^ were governed b^ 
ndtives'of-peirJonal'inleMit." As mostof them bad large estate* 
in NoRBandj, thtj' apprebended tbatif Robert bold Normand/^ 
witbout being raised to the British throne, be would deprive them of 
the edales they had there. Their design appears lo have been to 
hmve united the two crowns in one person, that thejr might se.^ 
dure their posses^ns in both countries. Vid. Litti.. Heiay II. 
* £ae. r. 1. p. 39. 



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64 HISTORY OP PONTEFttACT." 

cation H/Travefse might feel on this advsnodneDt 
to power, wealth, and digoity, he was permitted 
to enjoy it oaly for a few days. One Pain, a 
wicked servant of his own, whether intentionally or 
accidentairyis not clear, mortally wounded him; 
alter witich, to atone for his crime, he ^became a 
monk, and died three days afterwards. 

Tliis circumstance did not tend to the benefit 
or restimition of Aobert de Lacy. The king on the 
detnise of Traverse, bestowed his castle and lands 
«Q Hugh Oelaval, who enjoyed them for some time. 

During Deiaval's temporary,' possession of the 
castle and honour of Pontefract, he made several 
grants of churches to different religious houses. 
He bestowed on the priory of St. John here, the 
church of Wiialley ♦ ; and gave lands to the priory 
ofNostelf- ■ 

Dugdale gives a confused account of Robert de 
Lacy, and informs us, he was never restored to bis 
possessions, but died in exile; that bis son Ilbert 
was treated with the same severity, and experieiured 
the same fate, — that Henry> the son of Ilbert, 
after the death of king Henry I. taking advantage 
■ of the troubled state of the kingdom, in the be- 
ginning of Stephen's reign, returned, — expelled 
Delava! from the castle (rf Pontefract, and took 
possession of it as his lawful patrimony. He cor- 
rects the above statement, on the authority of an 
old historian, who averred, that Ilbert, the son of 
Kobert, vofi restored duriug the reign of Henry 
I. and who calling to mind the sufferings of his 
father, strenuously supported the cause of king^ 
Stephen, with whom he obtained great favour. 

• Vid. ■Whit- Whaney. 

t Burton, Monasticon £bor. 304. Whitakek, Wh. 
Vol. I. 140. 



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BUTfMY OF .PONTEnUCT. 65 

- The aboreaccoant is unquestionably inacourate. 
Indubitable evidence f»n be produced, that Hobert 
de Lacy, aStei a few years exile,, was restored to 
all his entatea and boDour?. We find bim con- 
firming some of the grants of churches, made by 
Delavat during his possession *. He built the castle 
of Clitberoe, previqu^ to his exile. This may be 
&irly inferred Irom the circumstance, that it did 
not exist at the time of the survey, and Delaval, 
during bis possession, granted a charter, under the 
dependencies of the church of Wballey, of the 
capellam Sci. Michaslis in Castro de Clydorboit. 

Robert de Lacy, called also dc Puntefract, died 
in the latter part of Heary I. reign, and left two 
sons, Ilbert and Henry; the first of which iaherited 
all his vast estatesf. 

.On the acce^on oi Stephen, I \35, 'Earl of 
Boulf^e to the throne, the fi'iends of Matilda, 
the. dauglUer of Henry, who had married to her 
second .faualmnd Geoffry PUtagenet. Count of 
Anjou, made various attempts to obtain for her the 
crown as her Ju&t infaeritafice. Ilbert de Lacy 
espoused' the cause of Stephen, and greatly cmitri- 

* Vid. BuKton, Mon. Eb. in Noiitel. The following am 
granb aod cenfiittuUioni between these fMrtiei, 

■ CBURCHKI. CKANTOKS. COR 1 1 KM ATI VS. 

Batley, Ktjjert de Lacy, Hugh Delaval, Hen. I.Alex. 3 

South JCirVby, Hugh Dekval, Robert de Lacy, 
F«atherstoi), Hugh Delaval, Robert de lacy. Step: Alex. 3. 
HuddenfieM, Hu}^ Ddaval, Robert de Lacy, do. 
RolhvTeU, do. do. 

Warmfield, do. do. do. 

t TTie Townley MS, pedigree of this family, nwntioiu ■ 
Gilbert Lacy u the luccessot of Robert ; but S4 this disagree! 
with the pedigree taken from tiw botpital of Fontefiact, witii that 
of the Laciet of Cmawdbottqpi, and othsn, it appeug. to be ao 
■iror. W. MS. 



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W* HBTOiry Of PONTEPBACT. 

bnied to his suoeess and tvinnfili onr Dand, King 
of Sootl^wl) UDcle to Matiiiia, who, to supfwrt ber 
pretenfcions, entered the nufttern parts vt Englsud, 
with a feAnidable army, and penetvating « &c as 
NortballertOT), ravaged the c«unlry, ami wtaaaniy 
aaurdeped the inhabitants. 

Stephen was -at this time engaged, m ^u^ng 
an> insuPFecti«D m the- soutii, headed hj the Eaalot 
Gloucester; hebberefere appointed TbuntoD,Arct^ 
bishop of Yoric, assisted by Ratpb, Biahop of 
Durhanv hn lieutenant cf the north of Eugfattd. 
On their arriral i» Yorkshire, diey repceacirtcd ta 
the barons RDd principal inhabitaiUs, the indispen- 
iMe necessity of rauing troops, aad ^XKCtMg tbeir 
maited efforts, to repd the inn<ader6. 

Animated by the presence of thi» gallairt and 
martial arcbbislK^s they unaaiinoa^y embai^Kd in 
the commoii cause of liberty^ and assembled tbeir . 
troops Budsr the conunand of Wilhas, Earl oi 
Alberaiarle, assistvd by Kobert de Lacy, Aobert 
de Ferrer«t Watler Espoe, Roger db Men^vay, and 
other northerii baroofl, detenained to stand or faU 
by one another. They advanced as &r as Nortb- 
AI««itoa (North^lieEtOQ) ia YwbiHW^ vbeie they 
, drev up in ordn, npecti^ the enenry, and wbcrie 
the vencrdrfe Thurston bad caused to be erected a 
famous standard, at the top of which was placed a 
utver cross, and aaSw this the banners of St 
PetcF^ St. John of Beverley, aad St. WiUced of 
Ripon, fivm wlience the battle that ensued was 
called the battle of the Standard. Tlie £ttgfish 
forces were drawn up in a firm compact body 
vmvtA the staodasd, wbea Ralph. Bislu^ of Duf- 
ham tThacitoB ailhalL kiow beb^ itt^ nade a. saifc. 
able oration, and absolredHrom sin all sank eg sbooM 



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RBTOKY «F POin'EnUCT. 61 

be aUin i« battle. Thas eacoviraged thay fell upon 
the ^ots nith sucb bravery that they toMcUj roated 
them, killing ten thoiuand npoa the field of battle. 
Tlte phoe wbere tliis battle was fought,, which was 
on the twenty-^ecoDcl of Aug>st, is called Standard- 
hiU to tlus dE(y*. . , 

' Ubert de Lkcyj >afier the above b^tle^ «bUiB6d 
• pu4<H) OR bebalf of all bb servaxts, and fer aH 
forfeitDres whatsoever f. H^ manied AJioe, dangb- 
ter of Gdlbo-t de <sant, a benefoctren to the 
DMBastiy here. ' 

Amidet the orafusion ttf 5tepbea'< ^go, . in 
which* the freatwtbfu'pas changed ii4eB as JBterest 
or caprioe might lea4> Itbert contbuiod faithAdlj 
attached tothe king. Whether be oatJived Stephen, 
Of difKi befiire bim; we are not inftutnecj. Ab bA 
had BO chitdrea by; Aiice de. Gant,, bis lestatei 
came to his brother Henry. 

T>p aoddes death «€ Stepheo left Heory. the 
aoA of Matdda, nritbout a«oaipetitor fortbecrpwa. 
Ibough yoang, Hea^yjh possessed talents «^ii 
to tbe-ac^cMis duties of ;goveronieat. 'He had the 
wisdon tQ'seleptibr his mitustersj some-of the beet; 
MatflMocn m lite kingdiHnt aad instead of baaistiioig 
tboris;«oUet<K'ho hadlbean^lthfut toSbepheAi be 
had the greatness of itiiild to «>vef]ook this.&iUt, 
«iid Mrtfise them to places of trust and honour. 
Henry d& Lkcy received ffoni bitn a conGmiation 
•ci btcwhde bonbur of iPosiefract, with a aharter 

* S«eKcori«ctacowatofUuiimf»rtutvkti*y.inltltIfk*iri 
hiit9^, HeoT^lL 

t This Hberi. with tte consent oFhis broflwr tieniy, gave Ota 
nlR and land at Campsall to the knights temphr oT St. Johii, of 
Jenualeni, ai appears &om the orrgiiud gnat in (he poitoaioo of 
Burton, W. MS. 



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65 HISTORY OF PONTEPRACT.' 

for an annual fair, to be held there, aitd to begin 
on St. Giles' day, the first of Sept. (O. S ) and to 
continue eight days following. 

Henry de Lacy, in pursuance of a vow he had 
itiade during a painful and dangerous indisposition; 
founded the monastry of St. Mary, at Bemoldswick, 
in Craven, He assigned over this town, which he 
hdd of Hugh Bigot, Earl of Norfolk, at the yearly 
rent of five marks, and a present of a hawk, to 
the njonastry. Tlie Scots having ravaged the lands 
belonging to the monks, and other unfavourable 
circumstances occuring, induced them to seek a 
more safe and fertile retreat. Alexander, the abbot, 
travelling along the banks of the Aire, came to a 
woody spot, where some anchorites had fixed their 
bnmUc habitation. The site of the place pleased 
the abbot; and he persuaded his patron, Henry de 
Lacy, to remove the monastry from Bemddswick 
to Kirkstall. Henry obtained a grant of the land 
from William of Poitou, and founded the otice 
magnificent abbey of Kirkstall, near Leeds. 

At his death *, in the latter part of Henry If. 
Tcign, he was succeeded by his son and heir' Robert 
de Lacy. He was one of the baronswho attended 
at the coronation of Richard' I. and dyiiig without 
issue, in the twelfth kal. Feb. 1193; the estates 
and honour of Pontefract descended toAwbreyde 
Lisours. She was hi» sister by the mother's side, 
who was the dangliter of Eudo de lisoui^ by 
Awbrey his wife, who was the widow of his father 
Henry, and therefore his nearest relation. Awbrey 
claimed as her right, not only the barony of Pon- 
te&act, but all tlie lands of Robert, by virtue of a 

* He was buried in tbe abbey of KlrkstalL 

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HISTORY OP PONTEPBACT. 6ft 

grant from Henry, de Lacy to Awbrey, her mother*. 
She also as heiress lo her father's large possessions 
was immensely rich ; and by marrying Richard Fitz 
Eoatace, constable of Chester, and baron of Hal- 
ton, enjoyed'a rank equal to her ambition. Richard 
Fitz Eustace,' having died before Robert de Lacy, 
tbe estates of botb noble femilies came to John. 
John animated by the spirit of the times, joined 
Richard in the.tiiird crusade, together with his 
eldest son Roger. Whether he fell by the band of 
tbe enemy, or by the fatjgiies and changes of 
chmate, is uncertain j but he is said to have died 
at Tyre, in the land of Judeaf. 

Roger, bis eldest son, who had accompanied 
him in this expedition, now became entitled to 
BJI hi3 estates. He continued with Richard I. and 
coBtribnted to the success of his arms against the 
Mahometans. Hewas present at the memorable 
siege of Acre, which, afler an obstinate defence^ 
wassurrendered to British Talour|. 

Roger was accompanied in this crusade by 
William Bellamonte^ ancestor of the Beaumonts o( 
'Whitley, near Haddersfield, to whom, a&er hif 
fetot-D, he gave eight' oxgangs of land at Hudders- 
field, and who appears to have been his inseparable 

* Sux^inU Feoda MiEtum (oftlie honour of Fonterracl] unde 
llbi post Koberti de "Lacy mprlcm utramqiie Hereditatemt froler- 
nam de Lacy et Patemani de Li^ours occupavit." 

t He I^ issue by AEce de Mandeville, Roger, Richard, and 
Peter. 

* See Whitakss Wh. It is amusing to consider, Uuttlut 
mne Acre, where English and French, although not much belter 
frieitd* tl|an qow, united their forces to combat Saladin, and where 
«o many of both nations perinhed, should, after a lapse of teven 
hundred years, become again memorable by the galMnt delciic* 
of ^ Sy^iey Smith, and the repulse ol Bonaparte. 



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70 HBTOiiv o¥ poirrariucT. 

compaaiDn em after, es he geaieraUy aitteSte the 
cfaarters whidi Aoger granted. 

Oiester, beiog contigtiOtts to' Wates, often cnf- 
&red gready from the incursions of tbe hardy tdoud- 
taineers of that country. Although the kings of 
'Wales, did hoknage to the kmg« of England, and paH 
an annual acknowletlgmeu*, they were ever ready t« 
krueh forth and plunder the a4^)oiniug districts. 
Koger FitE £u>tace, fierce iA his temper, aad ii»- 
nured to a state of war&re^ repelled thear ai^rcB- 
aioas, and treated them with sudi Severity, that tbey 
inirDamed lunt. Hell*. 

He was the lirat of bis femily who took upon 
him the name of JJacy, and in the fifth of' fttcbard 
I; lie came to an ^reemeot with Awhrey his graod- 
moth^ff for dl the lands lielongiag to the hoiioor 
of Pootefi^ct i and hy a Bne levied at Westminster^ 
licfore H. Archbishop of Canterbury, W. Bishop 
f>f £Ii, Chancellor to the king, and others, the qait 
claimed to him all the lands :tvhich did belong tn 
Jtobert de Lacyi In \be same^year Roger granted a 
obarter to the burgeMcs of Ponte&act f. He alto 
grctnted to those burgesses i^o' had lands in tke 
moor I one hundred and Dioety>four acres^ to hold, 

• " There is evidently something allusive to the temper and 
adnCTmenti of.Roger <Ie Lacy, io his gieat seal, some drawings of 
which have been preserved. On the obverse ude, instead of Ow 
equestrian figure, uiual in that situation, is the spirited ligufe oTa 
grifTon grinding thebodjrof sonie other animal; aodon the en- 
rforsenicnt, an armed man trampling an the body of aTi eneny, 
whose head he holds up triumphantly with his right hand, whUe 
the left sustains Wantiquc heater shield." Whit. Wh. Vol. 1. 1 42. 

t Vid, Apr. Charters. No. 1; 

{ Where did this lie ? Is tt not the land now called the West- 
field' This was a common field in which the burgesses had tepa- 
Vate lands, till within late years ; and what establisbcs tte fact u« 



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HBTORY Of POOTEnurf. 71 

OB- ^m md thear heirs for ever, pftyio? to him and 
his heiFs, at thp feast of St. Michael, fonrpenee per 

acre- arniH^ fctit. 

In (he sixth of Richard I. he answered j£4S. 
ISj. for the- scotage then letied, on accoont of the 
king's redemptien. While the feudal aystem con- 
ttnaed, the military te»e«to, were obligwf, in case' 
the brd of whom they held iras taken prisooer, toi 
contribute, in proportion to their land, towards hi* 
ransom. Htehard I. returning frora the third cru- 
sade, and willing to take- the nearest ront hcM»e, 
travelled incognito through Germany. He was 
however recognized, and the emperM-treachCToo*r 
seized him, and detained him a prisoner. To 
obtain hrs ransom the shore scutage was lefied. 

hi the seventh of Richwd I. he paid a fine «f 
two thomand marks to the king, for Hvery of alt 
bis lands and castles belonging to the barony and 
honour of IVmtefract, except the castle of Pbnte- 
Iract, which the king now retained in his own bands. 

Are we to consider t*ie above fine as '.he reJief 
whidi Roger paid for admittance to his estates? If 
we are, it is certamly exorbitant*, and afford* 
one, among many other proofs of the tyranny and 

tint wme prtprirfws rf tarf hei.. now f*yla iKb mvfot fcut- 
pro«p««ciB,»b«iiiBtiieh»dolilbeiMnw. Wl»long»cM, 
heanwitA of (kit Wiwre,. if it did not spring from this diartei ? 

• Tbe mxk is edimated at thirty shilfiiigs, and the fine now 
levied would amount to three thousand pounds. When the coiopa- 
ntive vallie oemcney is ronaderwi, this moi Am, wo«H ba equal 
to thirtTthowmw* pound* nwv., Inlhefleigwof WaKamlbeCai, 
mmJioii rfowT* to Ri"*""* »■ «»»«i'»» *«* *« "" »**^ 
iT times che««r than they are at present. Bishop FIee4wood 
hai ihemi that m the year 1240, fbur pounds thirtoens shining* an<f 
ninepencc WW worth fifty p««id»rf «.» pre«nt »oM^" ^ifo*. 



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72 KWTORY OP PONTHTIACT. 

oppression of the feudal syst^n. For &s the IdngT 
thus arbitrarily fined tlie tenants in capite, on enter- 
ing^ into possession of their baronies aod hononrsj 
the barons imposed fines in like manner on aJI their 
under-tenants; and nearly the whole land of the 
Icingdom was subject to a tenure, in many respects 
sitnila;- to the worst of our modern tenures, that of 
holding by copy of court-roll, usually called copy- 
hold. 

By detaining the castle of Pontefract in his own 
bands, Kichard appears,^ either to have doubted 
the fidelity of Roger de l-acy, or to have kept it 
ibr the purpose of extorting from him another sum 
of money. 

On the death of Richard I. and the accession 
of his brother Joiin, Roger de I-acy had livery of 
all tite lands and castles belonging to him. As 
John's title to the crown might he disputed by 
Arthur, Duke of Bretagne, he like most uf Wd-. 
liam's successors, began his reign by conciliating the 
barons. He did not admit Roger de Lacy to possess 
bis estates ti 11 lie had agreed to pay five hundred marks, 
and to give his son and heir as ao hostage for his 
future fidelity. It appears however that Roger de 
Lacy had not paid the five hundred marks in the 
fourth of John, as he then came to a new agree- 
ment to pay the whole by instalments, of a hundred 
marks per annum, and to give the king annually, 
ten palfrys, and ten lease of greyhounds. 

When king John had most wickedly put to death 
Prince Arthur, his nephew, and who was the real 
heir to the throne, a general detection of his barons 
in Normandy, and other foreign provinces, took 
place; and Philip king of France took them under 
his protection, and assisted them in their enterpises. 



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msTORT OF POMTOFUCT, 73 

The ^nrapal castles in Normandy had been surren- 
dered to Philip; and John, instead of repelling the 
enemy, conscious of liis own crimes and of the abhor- 
eoceef the Normans, shatnefutly fled to En^and. 
Ilieonlyplacewhichmade any resistance to the arms 
of Philip and the barons, was Chateau-Gaillard, 
in the Vexin. This place was bravely defended by 
Roger de Lacy, for the space of six months, against 
all the power of Philip; and when Roger de La<^ 
was compelled to surrender, he was treated with 
great respect, and allowed to liye at liberty in Paris 
upon bis parole, but he could not obtain his release 
until he bad paid six thousand marks for his ransom. 

Roger de Lacy, after having obtained his liberty, 
was actively employed in arranging his own private 
concerns; and in the sixth scutage of John, he" 
answered for forty three knight^^ees and a half. He 
died October I, I2I1, and was interred in the 
abbey of Staidoxo^ leaving by Maude de Clare his 
wife, a daughter - married to Geoffry, dean of 
Wballey ; and John de Ijicy who snccseded to his 
possessions. 

At this period the oppressions, cruelties and 
crimes of the king, had incensed the whole kingdom 
■gainst him. Every one secretly wished his deposi- 
tion ; and some avowed their wiA, that socfa a pest 
to society and scourge to the nation, mi^t be 
removed. While men's minds were thus agitated, 
Peter de Pontelhict, commonly called the wise 
hermit, on account of his various predictions of seve- 
ral strange things, which were to come to pass, 
prophesied openly of king John, and said, " that 
on the ascension day following, there should be ho 
king, and that the crown on that day shodd be 
translated to atiother." The king hearing thereof. 



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14 tt^WRV »F PWfHrtlAW. 

cmttmanflHl'tWhmrrJrto be'broiT^ %^fonj*i*i, wii 
iJh'ht8«rrh'al,the*:iijg'A»ttiantl{^*h«!her*ft'sbw^ 
3ie on fliatftay? orTti tvhrti Ynaiin«t'he •^honlfl'be 
dejffiw'd-of his CTown? Thetefmit answered, "'know 
fWs-moSt certatrily, thrit tft'ftrat-fltff ftou;sb«It vdt 
belriiig, ana tfl shorfld Tje'fbtind -aqier, 'then-doe 
with THfe what ye wf (1.'" On 'Whtdi theting T^llefl, 
"it Shrillbeem'enso aTsthcfuihsst saide,'" atnHostairtiy 
orflei-efllihn iirtt)-prison'fliere IMD belcejit till-fttethne *, 

• ** AATiJrding to SI. I*arl!;'li!s^ftttcSim'*a»,'''-ttiatJ^i» 
AiMM'ndtibe'king the iMxt 'AMWuUnaliy. ^mmftennfrdi, Iw 
tlat ihe'TRnfnat £iiglnKl!ihMdd-oh<tUt 4^jr .be^lnftMidrMd -tv 
BoMber." Thc-orfgiM] niiu^thus t " Sub his qnocpic diebu\ erst 
iiiprovincia eboFacen!ii, heremita quidam •i'ctrus nomtire, qui eo 
qubd mliUis fulura nrtiltapriEdixertl, Saptens-flitfelWtur. flic.in- 
■ter8lfeqifa'sp)r)Uti»wi\hHfeBi«iwvWemi8eregogolianBe;piaa» 
«tittin<Mcifc Mtttitftait. i|ltid:praKhwnfa)T*fa*itg'»*»b«rt-= fl wo rf 

iiutpt: ted die iila c«wiant-^^lia, ad aliunt Iran^crri pnrdiut, 
Cujua assertio cum aJi regU nolKiam ilcvdnU^^t, ^t, ijtfti jubeillt, 
ad (jtnpi'»sertliafn'wlHuc»sful*«!l, quasixJtribeo'rek; «*»*> 
'4Hei"»dTtmnu,-Ht^iia'afdlKea. ttgiti tuko^>rtnt!etimi 'Qfrnint' 
pcRidU; Naveriiii certiuime qtiod die pradicia rcinoncru. El-ti 
^mendacio convictvajmero, de tne gitodiplucuerii facialis, Cui 
iex,/iat, int^uil, lecundum vtfhnm tuum. Tuncrex'tradidililluni 
'WHiietao dc fidfecmt, cortrtHendom, q«m 'iaein *WBIWhWB, 
'OUtolfilii«:Mai«iiitt<lns'Vinaill»c(MKrinnny spudfimnicutn tsav- 
«>nnrit,ciaMcpfdt»rdt.qHeHi-««titite>i»»'bab«'eL" I^^jt. fi4lt. 

W^kei treats this hermit ai an impostor for^relentling to Uic 
•linrtiliirfge of foture ■everts, ■ wHth ■ oar aettidr says bdoti^tw Oad 
t*Aly; aieribes'hfs poputarh^'ttfAe i^nnceAf~Ute'*a1g«n'vid 
-ivpM»(nttbiBiBi'iMMdliijf«pietdry,*tiat'Mwi->)wMl(l die 'in-lltc 
iburtaenUi year of bu-roiga. His words are too remarkable to be 
omitted. ".EiMlem temportbui erat ^uidem laicus in Anglia, no- 
"ininc pecrus Ac'Pvr^rH qilem Wilgo Petmm Mpi^rtn angltcenuii- 
'oipilnnt, ca\ laicetrmn nii^ttcvSa 'simplMiai, 'pro-w i^uotl'MillK 
<ffal[Uamd, qasipMCb'TeindtM'VpfrflbMTit.^ja^plMici^arluki 
«MCMfattinM«, trlbuem-fei.ptieKiAliainiuhirawin, .^tu^.tceua- 
dum fidem catbolicam toll deo creditur uciibenda; diu autem 



:k«GtH)J^IC 



pti;e<jict8iiwas.expifed^ Zd tbe meaQ Wm^ thc.f ope 
IhhL eaiwivnMnicato.4 the kiitq, ajicli laJ4 tJbe kio^- 
dotB uwliH- aa, interdiclJQn, wbjph pblige4 tbs.kjoj; 
to neign, bi&aiiawa aiul-, dcuninjoas. iotp the ^s}^\ 
baadfiq which he, dJ^-t^ charter., ^fitetithe Uth. of 
M»^. ijbiwit* the asceosiftii d»x) vh the foivteepth 
;«» qS bis- i«i^ M PaadQl^b. the popje's vic$ger9nt^ 
wb»Ic9pt. the cramu. four or- fir« diajfs^ l»f vhich th^ 
faemii's pwlltitjoift wa3 in. some OAea^ ure fi(J6Iled« 
but aft it W46 the kuigfs prerogatiye tjQ voak^ his own 
iBtwEtietAtioOk, it cQsttbe pjjoit h^rigit his life. Ae^ 
ceasioQ'day wasno sooner psH th&Q thp king ordered 
the- l|eE»it auk of pcifoo^ and condemiied hivi tp be 
tied In a. house's tail» aud drawa tliroqgh the streets^ 
udthal both he ajid bis. son should be h^qgedon 4 
(ibWt^. whif^ scnjtence was iostnitfly executed. 



1 pwt^tuUiiUD qiwIPDi decimuiB. regni regis, regnandi 
potestatem regi tinallter eximendara, quott quidbm eontigit, sed 
aSit modo quam pubbat. AllUdebat etiam huic pnn^ioiFevelalio 
fieU cuidam moBaeKo viro. sMicto IniiMiiriiioiBi agcMi : qwd 
uhn BBnM itr. n/m MgaAi«>. Et tfudum aimoretpi wi qtwrlQ 
dadiM V^pUKtim. at) 46 ctre'DtunsiUunsetii aposldifK sub- 
j|l|jnij^" Qui authoTt, adet eiipoundipg and cunfirniing the 
truth orthe hcrmit'a predicti'on, by t^* kin^ Mibmission to the 
apostoScat see, proceeds to ittftm us, li|aik John bpwK^ «TK)utnBd 
o( Peter tiie day before he made his submission, how lo^g h^ 
liMugiA k^'fhml'l ^9)> ^"'^ 4nswQ[ed> '' tUI tbcM o.'doc)t the 
laext nby at fwcUiCilt :" V"' -lohn was so highly exasperated by hi.s 
reply, that he ordered bim to be closely confined ia Corf^^le, 
withafinnreaoIutionoFbrinf^ing Umtupunishmapt^ an4 thtnttict 
jeor he was l«rn to piMM bj: hv)ef»9fl«i hfvuig beft()iiwg tv<V 
a-gOxma. Ghrapic. T, Wfnixadw. |2l3 wd l^U- 

Tlija grtaptdinary prediction i^ autd^nlicated by the nianjUr 
KnDt of Wcadorer ; and polydore Virgil imputes it to the dis- 
CQveiiet of masic, " ma^ris artibus." But Speed judlcioutlyHu* 
pecb tlVe whole of ti>:porturet and imaginH thai theheniitwaa 
w bar m i, to laum this aMtduRf^t of (bf fOOpLe t» the )ui>g. 
SrsED b. ix. ch. 8. p. 558, 



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76 HlSTOftY OP PONTEFBACT. 

John de Lacy, the lord of Pontefract, who, 
after the death of Alice de Aquila, bis first wife 
without issue, married Margaret, daughter and 
coheiress of Robert, son of Saker de Quincy, Eari of 
Lincoln. This Robert married Hawys, fourth sister 
and coheiress of Kandal Blundevil, Earl of Chester 
and Lincoln, who gave to her, in the distribution of 
his lands and honors, the latter earldom, scilicet quan- 
tum ad me pertinuil ut inde comittssa exisiat — ^from 
her it descended to Margaret her daughter, who, by 
marrying John de Lacy, brought the earldom of 
Lincoln into that family. 

In the fifteenth of king John, John de Lacy 
engaged to pay to the king seren hundred marks, in 
the space of four years, for livery of all his lands as 
iohented by his father, and to be discharged of all 
his father's debts due to the exchequer; obliging 
himself by that oath, in case he should erer fall from 
his allegianoe, and adhere to the king's enemies^ all 
hit possessions should be forfeited to the crown. It 
wan also by this agreement stipulated, that the king 
shoi)ld retain the castles of Pontefiact and Donning^ 
ton in his own hands, and that John de Lacy should 
allow forty pounds per Annimii, for the custody of 
them. . 

Under the influence, and by the direction of 
Archbishop Langton, a number of barons associated 
for the purpose of obtaining a redress of grievances. 
The archbishop had found a copy of the. charter 
granted by Henry I. on his accession to the throne. 
He shewed this to the barons, who engaged, to ob- 
tain a renewal of it, end a full restoration of tho 
laws of Edward the Confessor. They collected tbeic 
forces, and ultimately obtained the £udous charter. 



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HISTOKY OP PONTIPRACT. 77 

called Magna C'harla •, which is considered as the 
fbnndatioli of British liberty. 

The barons, who had obt^ned this important 
charter, wre too wise to leave this work unfinished. 
They knew too well the kiilg's character, to think 
that he would ever agree to tlie performance of this 
charter, unless compelled by necessity. The/ 
chose twenty-five of their number to see the charter 
carried into execution. John de Lacy was chosen 
one of this number; and on their cantoning thtf 
kingdom among themselves, he had Yorkshire amt 
Nottingliamshire allotted for his share. 

The barons, in this struggle for liberty, incurred 
the displeasure of the pope. John having disgrace- 
fully given the crown to the see of Rome, and now 
' holding it as a fief <^ St. Peter, was considered as a 
dear son of the church, while the wicked barons were 
doomed to sufier all the pshalties which the church 
could inflict. They were solemnly excommunicated, 
and all the pious were separated from them. This 
had such an effect on John de Lacy, that on ob> 
taining tetters of safe conduct, he went to the kinj 
and made his peace. 

In the first of Henry IIL Lewis, the son of 
Philip, the king of France, who had been invited f 
by the barons, to come and accept the crown, bein^ 
expelled by the prudent conduct of the great Earl of 
Pembroke, the regent, John de Lacy was admitted 
to 'favour. He, together with many other English 
• Thii important charter ascertained the reliefs Ibr mrldorav 
bsTonicf, and knighti fee«, which had been arbitrary ; it stipulates, 
that no sid, (cuUge, or tax should be levied without the contetU oC 
the cotnmoii council of the nation ; and that no person should be 
taken, imprisoned, or disKuted of his freehold and liberties, witba[t 
legal ptocesi, and the lawful judgment of fail peers. 
t HiTT, Par. p. 303, or ^(f. 



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•» tHSIQBrV OK POMTEBRACT. 

»QliIes *, tiook ttie cgqss. tatd went to t]ieJw^and^ Ux 
the year following. Kichacd, the king's bcotbiej-, 
assisted by Jahade Laq^ anjd otiiens. carFi«d' on 
the was aspiosi the Saraceos wUJi, vJg.cmc, and 
eovoied withi lauceils* at l«ng,idi fcturned. J«ba de 
Lacy ayjiiears ost t» have coutioued long abroad, 
buttohaveretuTBedwithi him. WefiadhimacaoQ^ 
the b«oi» iatbe great council assembled ia tbe 
twea£y-tbwd of this reign ;, and m that yeajc he bad 
» gtaat of the sheriffalty oC Chesliire,, and was 
a^^ifited governor of tUe castle of CljesLer. 

He bad retanui of ali the king's writs tbneugt^ 
fiHt the- wft^oo£akes of Staiocross and Osgoldcross, 
IB this coHBfiy ; and obtaJucd the iurther pcivite^, 
" that all werefiants. uid stnifigers, coming by war> 
terta the tew a of PonAeSractj sliould be. free froa 
pifjnneBt ^any toll ti 

Jobs de Lacy» 4hed Jdty S2, 12W, aod left 
usMB- %- Margaret to wife^ tivo- daughters, and 
Edmund \m veij sea aad heir. The dau^tCEs 
Iran seat.£)rt)»t:Quitt. aodedueated wi^the king's 
Mia doi^lttsiis. 

Edmund de Lacy, appears to have been at the 
tune of his fatiKf "s demise under a^, and conse- 
qieslly a word of the king. His great posaessicve, 
Qtcttftdtn theqaoen, the desire of tnaEryingliijn to 
•lie of ber own relatioiM. Accocdiogly, a daugh" 
ler of the Mar^» de Snhices, was. Iprought ovev 
frooK Italy, asd Edsiund was forced lo matrry bee; 
a circumstance, wlvch occasioned no litUe difcon-r 
teat araoag the English BObiUty. 

In the 95th of Henry HI. Edmttod oblatnfd » 
charter for Cree warren J in all his demesne lands, 

• Pal. 21. Henry la f Roi.. »8 Ea»». 

t Free Warren, U a fnuidic* grvHd Gat pt«wi«tili<)n (7 



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hSm^ug to 'his 'honour (tf Pont^fract. He-afflso 
cA»tiiitied atiMJbEr -charter from ifhe same ni<march, 
for a w«dk)y •mariecft, to be h^ -every Wednesday 
at Tanshelf, within his lordship ttf Poittefrart ; 
kdA -a. ifeir yearly "for iftiiT* tlayfi, viz. on "ftie-evej 
d&y-BDd morrow df ifhe'fensft of Ae Hoiy Trinity, 

Edmonfl■d5^^g an the life-time tff liis ■mother, 
neycr assntned the *i*le »f Eat*! of litictfln. He 
fetmdeA t%e %euse df the WhHe ^Friars in Potite* 
Ifract:, atld -ffas succeeded hy his son and beir, 

Henry de l.acy, i4ie Jast and gretrte^t man of 
his 'line. Hfe 'imm-ied Margaret, daughter anA 
vdleheAras of "William iLABgcspe, son'of ^^A 
of SaHsTmry. By 'her Tie ttad two som, fidroun^ 
anA ^Tin. It ^s sfritl that £dntmid'H«s dr<mned 
4n'BweH'at-19enb^'ca9tte; and that ffdtm, when 
^MtEfg, -fimnirrg hastily irpem a turret in i^ontefract 
^ftisfle, f^l 'flown anfl was ^ffled. ?t is scarw^ly pro- 
bable, that two children should perish in this man^ 
■Her; VndHt^ reoteTjritural to bdieve ihat the two 
iKCoQutsliave 'originated from "^efdU -of ^<^n, anA 

CU(t«47 of beaab sn3 fowls -of warren,; whiclg, being fcia 
natune, every one bad a right to'kitt as he could j but upon the 
•irrtraductlonof tbe fotdi Iswa, at the Nommn contiunt, 'there 
taaiiybllttllig t«ifcecl4lpoii bs royal gtaue, and'.tlie sole-ptdpeny df 
4Ur M«i^ toranVchi, :thifi franchiK of ^reB>^*«TTen'v*as 'iiwenlel 
to.pratect tiism.) %, giving the.granteea sole and exclusive [pOMcr 
xJTkilllngiuchgBinesofarashiA wanen-cxtended, on condition ot 
'ftb Twetfeilting «ther perum<. " Man wwti inform i us, " that the 
l)nfB,ltIte>comy, -Ike ph«B*Htan8'Hiei|Mrtridge, werebetuts -anH 
■fimkdffHanCMiiwid'no'Othfr. Sir-Edwanl Coike, iiHntitaiai 
jKaKts-and Ibwk of warren, roe*, caik Wid fiuilsi woodcAokii, 
nnllards and herons, tienty I. granted to Henry Keighjy, 
fcnigbt, the privilege of free warren within his own manoi," ita 
^woJ iKl W wfrtf •ttmtHHoiad 'Jjtgtmditm m w. vilad liHijuid 
U^laakm^aaiMd Piarraaant .fotauai isii^ litmiia-dt v^tautate 
iptiu* Haurici a luccamOfiMkffm. i^rae warren gave toUw locil 
of a naiiOT an exclusive right to hunt and kill Ihc^me therein. 



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80 lOSTOBY OF PONTBFSACT. 

the early death of Edmund. He had two daughters, 
Alice and Margaret; the former of which only sur- 
vived, and was married to Thomas, son of Edmund, 
Earl of Lancaster. 

Henry de Lacy was the confidential friend of 
Edward I. whom he seems not a little to have re- 
sembled in courage, activity, prudence, and every 
other quality which can adorn a soldier or a states- 
man. His services began with the reign of Edward. 
In the first of Edward he beseiged and took the 
castle of Cliartly, in StaiTordshire, which Robert de 
Ferrers had entered and detained by force from 
Hamon L'Estrange, to whom i'. bad been granted 
by Henry HI. upon the attainder of Ferrers. 

in the sixth of Edward I. be granted a * charter 
to his burgesKs of Pontefract, confinaiog the 
grants and charters of bis ancestor, Roger de 'I^acyv 
and also f another charter respecting the right ni 
.meeting stalls. 

In the year 1390, he was appointed the. first 
commissioner for rectifying, the abuses which had 
crept into the administration of justice, ^specially 
in the court of common picas ; an o'ffice in which 
lie behaved with the inost exemplary fidelity and 
strictness. He was sent in 1S93, Ambassador to 
France, to demand satisfaction for plundering the 
English merchants by the subjects of that kingdom. 

He obtained a charter in the year 1S94, to h(^d 
several markets in different places, and among them 
a market e\ery AVednesday at Pontefract, and a fair 
upon the eve of Palm-Sunday, and the three days 
following. 

After the death of Edmund Earl of Lancaster, he 
was appointed commander in chief, of the army e€ 
Gascony and Viceroy of Aquitaine. 

• Char. 2. Appd, f Char. 3. 



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HlffTORT OF PONTBFKACT. 81 

In 1398> he r^sed the siege of St/Cathefine, 
near Thouloase, and expelled the French from the 
confines of that country. In 1S99> he ]ed the van- 
gaard, at the memomble battle of Falkirk, in Scot- 
land, in which ' the Scots lost one thousand two 
hundred men, and Edward obtained a victory the 
most brilliant and decisive. 

Henry having been long iparried, and not having 
any male issue living, did in the twentieth of Edward 
I. render ap bis castle and barony of Pontefract, 
with all the manors, hamlets, and other rights there- 
unto belongings into the king's handsj but condi- 
tionally it seeme, for that monarch, by his charter, 
dated at Newcastle-upoi^Tyne, SISth December, i|i 
thetwenty-firat of Edward L regranted the castle and 
bonoDT of Pontefifict unto the said Henry de Lacy, 
and .the heirs of his body, with remainder to his 
royal brother, Edmund, .Earl of Lancaster, .aod the 
faeirs of his body, and for want of such issue to thp 
king and his heirs, - , 

In the year 1294, the king granted him a charter 
to hold several markets 91 different places, and 
amongst them, a market upon eveiy- Wednesday at 
Pontefract, and a fair upon the eve of P^m Sunday, 
the day and three days following. 

In the twenty-eighth" of Edwdrd I. Oueen M&rga- 
ret resided at the castle of Pontefract, while the king 
was engaged in an expedition to Scotland. Several 
of the nobility who attended her, fond of tlie chace, 
went a hunting in the neighbourhood. The Queen, 
who wad then in a pregnant state, took a ride for 
the b^neGt of her health; and being drawn on by 
tl>e sport of the field, as ^r as Brotherton, was 
there taken ill, and safely delivered of hec fifth son. 
The royal infant was therefore at the q'ueen's desire. 



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82 HWroHY or IHHJTEntAcr. 

from St. Thomas ot Canterbury, to whom she 
prayed in her extremity, called Thomas de Bro- 
therton *'. He was afterwards by king Edward the 
second, . his brother, made £&r] of Norfolk, and 
the office of marshal of England was conferred 
by parliament on him, and hts heirs male lawfully 
begotten, which his descendent, the present Duke 
of Norfolk enjoys. Not far from the church at 
Brotherton, was a piece of fp'onnd of about twenty 
acres, surrounded with a trench and a wall, where 
(as tradition informs us) stood the honse'in' which 
i]ueen Margaret was brought to bed, and the 
tenants were obliged by the tenure of their land» 
to keep it surrounded by a wall of stone. 

In the parliament of Carlisle, ult. Edward I. 
Henry de Lacy had pfeeedence of all the peers of 
En^and afler the Prince of Wales; and' after the 
death of his old master, he seems to have retained 
the confidence of his son; for in the important 
expedition of Edward II. into Scotland, he who had 
shared the triumphs Of Falkirk, was spared the dis- 
gmce of JBannockburn, by being left protector of 
England. He died FeUraary &, 13 10, aged 60, and 
was buried in St. Paul's, Loadbn. 

* h the CottDBiaii Viaary is a book of gnnti, beatitijully 
illuminated, among which, thwe is one of Edward 11. giving a 
commiuion to Thomas de Brotberton, appointing him his manjial 
of England. Over Uiis painting ii miUen, Litene, R, Edvreidi, 
conscituentcs Tbomam de firotbal(», Conriton NoUin^iani 
]|JM««C^lem Anglix. 

This curious painting is licUy embossed with gold and ele- 
gantly coloured ; the king sits on a light red J^ronc, dressed in a 
blue robe, lined with ermine; tlie armour of lliomn k a light 
Uoe, except the body, whicfais)«iBtadred; and the lion argent, 
nddie joints of the amour at the dbovv% and'knaea, which are 
gold i tlie back ground it a dei^ sea green j the fetter a vrbile> 
shaded with red, inclosed is a gold square. 



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HISTORY OF POMTUnUCA 93 

Thus terminated the once noble name of Lacy. 
Whatever anxiety men may fed to transmit their 
name to posterity in that of their children, in a few 
generations, it is probablei that very name n ill be 
forgotten. 

AH hu ks date bdow ; tbo falat hour 
Wn registei'd in hesv'n ere time began. 
We tiim to diut, and all our inightiest works 
Die too: Uiedeep tbundatioiuthat welajr, 
TitOK ploughi Ibem up, uid not a trace laaaHtUt 
We bttild with what wc deem eternal rock : 
A distant age asks wliere the fabric stood ; 
And in the diut, iiifted and learch'd in vatOj 
The undiKOvnsUe lecret deepa. 

AntlethMgnH, anddl its glory 6des 
lAe Ihelin flovr'r dMhevdiV in the wind I 
Rithbi have wingK, and grandeur u adiGWDt 
The man we ceJebrate must find a tonib. 
And we that worship him ignoble graves, 
NothiAg ii proof ^ainn the gen'rol cuoe 
Ofvanitf, that ninsafl beloW. 
The pntj'amarBBt h iiie flow'r on tafVt 
Itviduei Iji'wl^ lasting trejuwc, truth, 



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HTSTOaT Of FOKTEFItACT. 



SECTION VII. 



Inquiry into the conduct and character of TliomaSf 
- Earl of LancQster, commonly called St. Thomas. 

1 HOMAS, Earl of Lancaster, was the son of 
Edmund, who was the flfth son of Henry III. 
Henry de Lapy, on the failure of male issue, had 
bequeathed to his daujj^ter and heiress, Alice, who 
had married Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, all his 
estates; andona&ilure of issue from this marriage, 
he entailed them on the king and his heirs. Henry de 
Lacy, who hftd been the ornament of the court of 
Edward I. afid one of those, whose fidelity and 
courage had contributed to the glory of his reign, 
by this entail of his vast pOf>sessions, gave a remark- 
able proof of his strqng attaohment to the royal 
family. 

Edward II. previous to the death of his fitthcr, 
had given tQO many indications of that weakness 
which characterized his reign, to escape notice; and 
his attachment to Piers Gaveston, the companion of 
his crimes and pleasures, it was foreseen, would one 
day become a source of calamities* to his kingdom. 
It is said, that Henry de Lacy, after the death of 
his old friend and master, Edward I. and the acces- 
sion of Edward II. particularly charged Thomas, 
Earl of Lancaster, to watch the conduct of Gares- 
ton, and strenuously to defend the liberties .of the 
{teople. 

Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, with otlier barons 



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BISnUY OP POWn?IIACT. 85 

of [Miblic and independent spirit, had soon to con- 
tend against this unprincipled minion. Edward II. 
gave him the earldom of Cornwal ; and he disposed 
of all offices and places according to his pleasure. 
By his advice all the faithful servants of the late 
king were removed from their posts, and their place 
supplied with his creatures. 

The favourite conld not bear his good fortune 
with modfration ; he became haughty and overbear- 
ing, and looked dorm on the English nobility with 
the raost supercilious contempt. In the splendor of 
his dress, he endeavoured to outshine, not only the 
nobility, but even the king him«lf. 

The insults which the barons received, excited 
them unanimously to seek redress, and to insist on 
the banishment of Gaveston. The king supported 
fab minion to the utmost of his power, but finding 
-it impossible to vanquish the spirit of the barons, he 
at length complied widi their request, and Gavestoa 
vas banished the realm. 

He was sent into Gascony, where the king 
made him a grant of a large estate, and even be^ 
stowed the honour of Cockermouth, in England. 
The king could not endure his absence; and having 
obtained the assistance of the pope, to absolve him 
irom his engagements, this favourite was recalled.- 
He was no sooner restored to power, than, for- 
getting hb (ate banishment, he exercised it in th« 
same wanton manner he had previously done. He 
appeared to think his authority so well establishedv 
that he had nothing to fear from the future attempts 
ofthebarons; and he not only neglected to con- 
.ciliate their esteem an<f regard, but attacked the 
cliararter of the. leading nobles by personal reflec- 
tions*. 

* Ht-diiuacteiized the Esrl of Ltncuter, bjf the title of 



86 HtSTOIlY or PONTSnACT. 

The prodigality of the king and the fevourite 
soon exhausted the treasury, and a parliament was 
called to grant an assessment for the supply of the 
king's necessities. The baroas went prepared to 
destroy the &vourite, and to regulate and reform 
the administration. They insisted that a certain 
number of their own hody should be chosen to 
correct the abuses of government, and to whom 
the administration should be given. The persons 
thus chosen were called Ordamers, and among 
them was Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. 

AVhile the king was intent on prosccutiog the 
war against Robert Bruce, the renowned leader 
and king of the Soots, the ordaioers were drawing 
up ordinances for preserving the peace of the 
church, collecting the customs, and calling the 
late collectors to an account; for regulating the 
court of exchequer, and for redressing all grier- 
Boces. Piers Gaveston was banished tlie realm^ 
for having embezzled the king's treasurej procnr- 
ing blank charters, which he filled up according 
to his own pleasure, protecting robbers, and arro- 
gating to himself the regal power and dignity. 

Edward had no desire to comply with any of 
these ordinances, and least) of all with that which 
banished his favourite. The barons insisted on 
his .complying with every ordinance; and not 
having the power to resist, he submitted, and 
Gaveston was again banished. The king having 
no sources of enjoyment in his own mind, and 
being accustomed to draw his pleasure from his 
&vounte, found life insupportaUe 'without him. 
He privately invited him to return, and meeting 
him at York, restored him to all his honours. 

stage-player ; the Earl of Pen^rdce, by that of Joseph the Jew-^ 
and the Eail of WdTtrtck, he called the ivild bov of Ardennt:. 



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HBTOftT OF K>NTEI1UCT. 87 

Tbe bbron^, who appear to have formed the 
design of abridging the prerogatives of the crown, 
were incensed at- this instance of folly in the king, 
and presumption iu the favourite; and having 
-collected troops, the Earl of Lancaster marched 
with such expeditioa and secrecy, that he nearly 
&aq)rized the king and Gaveston in Newcastle 
to which place they bad retired. Edward not 
being able to contend with Lancaster, fled to 
Tinmouth, and going on board a vessel with his 
iavourite, put to sea. He landed Gaveston at 
ScarbilroiUgh, and having put him in possession 
of tbe castle, departed to York. Lancaster was 
no sooner informed of Gaveston's retreat, than 
lie sent Pembroke, Piercy, and Clifford, with a 
body of troops to besiege the castle; while he 
took post with tlie rest of his army between 
that place and York, in order to cut off all conv- 
jmmication between the king and his favourite; 
Gavestoh, finding hlitiself thus pent up, and the 
king unable 'to afford him any assistance, was 
Jbrced to capitulate, and surrender himself to 
his enemies. He was conveyed to Dedingtoir. 
and was taken by Guy, Earl of AVarwick, and 
carried to his castle there. 

TI^p Earls of Lancaster, Hereford, and Arun- 
del, repaired to Warwick to decide his fate. They 
90on came to a determination to pdf him to 
death as a public enemy. Tbe next day he w«S 
accordingly beheaded, and Lancaster is satd tb 
have viewed the head with marks of brutal joy. 
Tbe news of his death gave general* saiis&ction, 
and few beside the king lamented him. He 
vowed ■ vengeance, ftnd A civil war would have 
been the consequence, bad not common friends 
interposed, and effected a reconciliation. 



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8S HISTORY OF PONTEFRACT. 

' It was the miiirdrtnne of Edward,' that' lie 
could not live wUliout favourites. On the death 
of Gaveston, the Spencers were admitted to en- 
joy his place; and by a similar spirit and con- 
duct, excited the same gfflieral resentment. The 
ordinances contioued to be disregarded, and Lan- 
caster on this account maintained his opposition 
to Edward. To mdrtify I^ancaster, the Countess 
■was carried off from her house at Caneford, in 
Dorsetshire, to the castle of Ryegate, by a 
knight of a most deformed figure, being lame 
and hunclibacked. He claimed the lady in con- 
sequence of a contract- previous to her marriage 
with the carl; alledged he had cohabited with her 
as her husband; and, by an action brought in 
the king's court at Wsstminster, demanded the 
earldoms (^ - Lincoln and Salisbury, of whidt 
she was heiress*. ' 

Tliis singular transaction appears to have 
been a contrivance of the king ; and what must 
■for ever entail infamy on Alice de Lacy, now 
the countess, she joined in the prosecution. 
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, enraged at ^is 

• This lady, the heirecs of the £01111/ of Lacy, at an 
caHy periodj wai in&moui for her amouri and intrigues. She 
v/M married to Lancaster when only nine years old, uid when 
arrived at the age of nineteen, carried on an illicit amour with 
the Earl of Warren. He built Sandal castle, 'near Wakefield, 
witere, having taken the Counteu of Lancaster, he detained 
ber for some time. In, as affray concerning tbii lady, be- 
tween the retainers of Lancaster and Warren, commenced that 
liital tragedy in wliich Sir John Eiland, of Elland, and so many 
other valiant knights lost their lives. Vid. Watson's, Hatilax, 
p. 176. and Whit. Whallsy, p. U6. 

This lady survived her husband, and married one Eubulo 
]e Strange, a man with whun she had before cdiaUted. £9>e 
died without issue in the sixty-seventh year of ha age, ani 
was buried st the cODventual church of £erliDg, 



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BISTORY OF FONTEFBACT. 39 

cruel attempt against his faoaour and fortune, 
applied to the king for redress. The king re- 
fused to grant his request, and eten threatened 
to punisli him for his arragance and presumption, 
Lancaster* resolved to do himself right by force 
ofarms> and with that view collected a body of 
eighteen thousand men. ' The king, conscious of 
bis own inability to contend with this powerful 
nobleman, had recourse to the legates of the 
pope, to ward off the blow and effect a reconci- 
liation. They went to Lancaster, and managed 
matters so well, that he and the king were once 
more made friends. 

■ The conduct of the Spencers in seizing some 
of the castles of the barons, and persuading the 
king to resume some grants be had made; and 
especially depriving John de Mawb)-ey of an. 
estate, which had been bequeathed tO' him, pro- 
duced a general union of that body, who 
were determined to obtain redress. They applied 
to Lancaster for assistance, the only person who 
could give effect to their schemes. Thus strengb- 
ened, they demanded the restoration of their pro- 
perty, aiid the removal of the Spencers; and 
not finding the king ready to comply with this 
demand, they collected their forces, attacked the 
castles of the Spencers, laid waste their lands, 
burnt their huuses, and took away their cattle. 

Alumed at the danger of his favourites,. 
Edward issued out a proclamation, commanding 
the barons to lay down then: arms, and to sub- 
mit their grievances to thg decission of a par- 
liament, which should be called. The barons, 
in the mean time, assembled at Sherbum, near 
-Pontefract, drew up an instrumeht, and iengaged 



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90 HISTORY OP PONTEFHACT. 

not to lay down their arms, till they bad expel- 
led tlie Sijencers. 

After tliis they marched forward towards Lon- 
don, and fixed their quarters on Clerkenwell- 
green. They presented their demands to the par- 
liament which was then sittings and a bill was 
brought m and passed, banishing the Spencers. 
This sentence was immediately published, That 
the Spencers, would be accounted public enemies, 
if seen in the kingdom after the 29th of Augusl. 
The barons, on having obtained pardon for 
their proceedings, dismissed a part of their forces, 
and returned to their own estates; but being 
doubtful of the king's sincerity, kept themselves 
in a posture of defence. 

A circumstance now occurred, which, in its 
£<Hisequences, proved &tal to Lancaster, and to 
the cause of the barons- The queen, according 
' to the spirit of the times, going to pay her de- 
votion at Becket's tomb, being near to the 
castle of Leeds, belonging to Badlesmere, sent 
her servants to demand lodging for a night. 
Badlesmere was not in the castle; but his wife 
told the servants they must go and provide lodg- 
ing for their mistress in some other place; for 
without an order from her husband, she would 
neither admit her majesty, nor any other person, 
into the castle. The queen not believing 
that such an answer had been returned, repaired 
to the gate of the castle, but was nide'y repulsed, 
and six of her attendants slain by the garrison. 
This insult, oiTered to the queen, roused the 
spirit of Edward. He immediately raised an army 
and invested the castle, which had it been sup- 
plied with provinons, was well furnished with 
every other requisite for a long siege. 



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jiJSTOKr or pohtefkact. 91 

"Die lords of the marches considered this as 
a comraenoement of hostilities, and collected 
their troops in order to raise the siege. Lan- 
caster refused to support them, oonsidering tliat 
such an insult, offered to the queen, ought to 
be arenged, and her honour vindicated. Tlie 
castle surrendered at discretion, and the goTernor> 
smd deven principal ofHoers were executed. 

The king encouraged by this success, recalled 
the Spencers, and set the barons at defiance. 
I^ocaster was no sooner apprized of this event, 
than he inveighed with vehemence against the 
arrogance of the favourites, and the per6dy aod 
baseness of th^ king, who sacrificed his honour 
to gratify hiu ruling passion. 

Determined to oppose this violation of the 
late statute, he summoned the barons in bis int*- 
rest to meet him at Ooncoster, on the 39th of 
November J and circular letters were seat over 
all the kingdom, representing the danger to 
which the nation would be exposed by the return 
of the Spencers. 

Many of the barons had espoused the cause of 
Edward against Badlesmere, in order to vindicate 
the honour of the queen. This circumstance 
strengthened the king's party, and contributed 
to the fall and ruin of Lancaster and his friends; 
ibr deserted by many, on whose support he 
had relied, he was unable to maintain the con- 
test. The king having subdued the castles in 
the west marslies, advanced to attack Lancaster. 
In the mean time, "Brace, the king of Scot- 
land, invaded Northumberland, and Lancaster, 
conscious of the weakness of his party, resolved 
to conclude an alliance with him; and for this 



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92 HISTORY OP PONTEFRACT. 

purpose sent Mawbrey and Clifford with pro- 
posals. Bruce embraced this overture with alacrity, 
and the barons encouraged with a prospect of 
assistance, laid siege to the castle of Tickbill, 
belonging to the crown. Edward came to its 
relief, and Ijincaster drew his forces together, 
determined lo hazard a battle; but when he saw 
the vast superiority of the king's army, be judged 
it' more wise to retreat north, in hope of being 
reinforced by his Scottish allies. 

To oppose the Scots, Simon Warde, governor 
of York, and Harcia, governor of Carliide, had 
united their forces near Boroughbridge. Edward, 
detached the Earls of Sflrry and Kent after 
Lancaster, invested the castle of Pontefract, 
where Lancaster had intended to have defended 
himself*, but being- threatened with death by 
Clifford, had ■ gone north. The castle of Pohte- 
fract Min-cndwed to the king on the first sum- 
monsj and at Boroughbridge, Lancaster found 
the passage guarded; and was nnder the neces- 
sity of either surrendering himself to hisenemies, 
or of hazarding an engagement, and by fighting 
his way, escape to - Scotland. He endeavonred 
to force the bridge, but failed in the attempt. 
Harcia, being reinforced in the night by the 
sheriff of Yorkshire, with the posse comitatos, 
entered next morning the town and took Lan- 

• Lelasd informs 115, " Omt Lancaster and thelorJs, met 
in the house o( the Black Frytrt at Pontefracl, to cuoiult what they 
ought to do. T^ey advised him to march north to Danstanburgh, 
one of his castles in Norlliumberknd ; whilo lie declared hisresolu- 
tionto slay at Pontetract. On ihis, Roger dc ClifTotd drew ha 
dagger, and swore he would Icill iiim, unless he went with them." 
C<J. Vol. 1,667. 



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HBTORY OP PONTEPnACT. 93 

caster^ and above a hundred baroDS and knights, 
beside many geiitlemen, prisoners. 

The king being at the castle of Pontefract, 
when he heard of this event, sent orders for 
Lancaster, and some others, to be brought t(> 
faim. The third day after their arrival, the king 
sitting himself- in judgment, with Edmund, Earl 
of Kent, his brother, the Earls of Pembroke 
and Warren, Hugh Spencer, created Earl of 
Winchester and otliers, sentence of death was 
passed on Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, to be drawn, 
hanged, and beheaded as a traitor. The king 
remitted the two first punishments, in considera- 
tion of liis being a prince of the royal -blood. 

It is rdated, that when he was brought as a 
prisoner to Pontefract, he was rudely insulted by 
his own vassals, and called, Ifing Arthur; a name, 
ivbich it is said, be had onCe ironically applied to 
Edward. He was pat into a tower, which Leiand * 

* The foUowing account of Urn matter, cKtractett from die 
Cfarotiique of William de Pakington, is contained in the Ist vol. 
I^. G<d. p. Mi, &c.~About thii tjiae Kenry Lacy Erie of 
Lincoln dyed, and charged Tbamai of'LancaKre his siuine yn law 
and beyre, that he ihould maynteine liii quarelle agaynst Peter 
Gsv^tton. Be wtios meanes ^ler, and the CounK of Warwickei. 
was Pers Geveslon beJiedid at Gavcrishith by Warwick the xxix 
of^hiin yn theyeraof our Lord 1312. King Kduaidc. lamenting 
and desiring God that be might ona bt levengJd of Peter Gave- 
«tons dethe. 

The Nobles of England wing the infinite cOvetouiness of the 
Di^>etiser, came toThomavof LancastrelotrCate a mcanefbrit. 
And after of one atsent ma^e assamble at Shirburnc yn Einiede. 
And sending the Kings tuppliration, Bnd not hard, the tiaroni 
went into ibe Marches of Wales, and dciiroyid the Ditpensaii 
landei. Then King £dward, at the motion of Ihe DisfKiiMTf, 
banisfaid John Mouiilbiay, Roger Clifford, Goseiine I^inville, 
and dyvers otherii. And aJ'tcr the Baron* valid by brief to a par* 
lameat caw with i battaylea in order, Iiaviitg ten colotirid baudoa 



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94 HISTORY OF PONTEFIUCT. 

says, he had newly made towards the abbey. It U 
most probable, this was the tower afterwards called 

on tliejT sieve*, whereof it was cautlid ihe parlement de la B<!nde. 
and yn this company were Humfre de Boun Counte of Herefordc, 
Syr Hugh de Aiukley, Sir Vioga Damare, See. fcc 

Tlte Buoiu hering (the Ktng^ had Uken the Castle of 
Leeds) both the Mortymen lake Biidgc-north, ba which the King 
Duiished, by proclftinatjon, Thomas of Lantastire and Humfredu 
Boun with al theyr adherents. 

And after the King cumming agayn his Barons witii a strong 
boste, both Mortymer the uncle, and Mortymer the nephew, 
put them lelf yn the Kinges grace, and weie sent to tbe Toure of 
London. 

The Barons hering this cam to Fontefract, (o Thomas of 
Lancastrc, and there gathering theire poure, assauted the Kinges 
caslel of IkIuUp, but not wynntng it. 

And hering of tbe Kinges hoile, went to Burton apon Trente, 
keping tite Bridge to let the Kinges passage. But tbe Kinge pas- 
sid perforce, and thcns weiite tbe Barons with Thomas Lanca&tre 
to Tuttebyri, and thens to Pontefract, And yn Ihis gomey Sjr 
Roger Dainmore dyed yn tbe abbay o^ Tuttebyry. 

Afier this Thomas Lancastre and the Barons counsdid logellt- 
ei in Blake Freres in PcHitfracte, and the Barons concludid to go to 
DunstanbuTg, a castel of Thomas Lancasters in Northumbeiland: 
but he utterly retiisid thai counsel, lest it might have be Ihou^t, 
that he had, or wotde have intelligoice with the Scottos. Whwe- 
Ibre heintendidtoremayneat his cadel al Pontl'ract. 

Syr Rogec Clyfibrd hering this, toke out lus dagger, sind 
laydc, that lie wokle kiUe him wilii his oune handes in that place, 
except he woold go with them. 

Then Thomas Lancastre a force granted, and went with them. 
-having in company VII. C. mennetoBoTowbridge. 

To Borowbridge came Syr Andrew he Harkeley Warden of 
Cairlitd and that Marches, and Syr Kmon Warde, to encountre 
widi the Barons, Where Thomas Lancastre lokl Harkciey his juste 
quard agayne the Dispensers, proniising hym, if he woi^ ^i-or 
his cause, one of the V Countes that then ha had in poisesskm. 
But Herkeley retiisid his offre. Then Thomas pro|dietied th^ he 
wold sore repent, and tiiat shortly, so fair, and that lie should dy % 
(liameful delli that is to say, to be hangid, drawn and quartered. 

Then Harkeley, whom Thomas of Lsmcaslre had afore lyioG 
m<tde Knight, made his archicrs to shote, and so did the Rj^^p- 



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HBTOHY OP PONTErRACT. 95 

SwidiDgton tower*, and which seems to have been 
designed as a place of close confinement. 

upon the brid^. A nd emong al other, one gotte unde the bridge, 
and at a hole thruste with a launce the renounid Knight thorough 
o«te al Christentje Humfrede de Boun yn the fbundemente, io 
that bh bowels cam oute. And Syr Koger CUilbrde was sore 
wondcd on the bedde. And Syr Williaai Sullejr and Sjr Roger, 
fierncfeld were tiayne. And then wente Thotnai Luicaitre into 
achapcl, denying to rcndre hymself to Harkely, and ^id, looking 
on the crucifix, "Good Lord, I render myscIF to thee, and put 
Hie yn to thy mercy." 

Uten &iay toke of lai cote annurei, and put on hym a my r^, 
or goune, one of'his mennei lyvcryei, and carried hym by water 
to York, were they threw ballea ofdirte at hym. And the resi- 
des of the Barons part were pursuid from place to place, and (o 
the church hold was no reverence gyven, and the father pursuid 
the Kinne, and the lunne the father. 

The King hering of Uiii discomfiture, cam w!lh the Dinpen- 
sars and other Nobles his adhercntcs to Pontfracte. 

Syr Andrew of Berkeley brought Thomas of Lancastrcto 
Pontfi^cte to the Kinge, and there was put in a towre that he Iiad 
newly mad toward the abbay, and afler juged in the haule soden- 
ly by tbes Justices, Syr Hugh Diapensar the father, Syr Aimer 
Counle of Pembroke, Syr Edmunde Counte of Kent, Syr John 
de Britayne, and Sjt Robert Malmetliorp, that proiKXuicid bis 
judgement. 

Tben Thomas Lancasire sayd, " Sbaull dy wtlbOwtantwcr V 

Tbcn certayne Goscoyite tc^e bim away, and put a pillid 
broken hatte or hoode on Iiis hedde, and set hym on a lene white 
jade with owt bridil, and he tham cryed thus, " King of heaven 
have mercy on me; For the King of Herth nous ad querpi." 

And thus be was caryed, turn throwing pelottes of dirt at 
hym, and having a frere Frecher for his C<wlessot witti hym, od 
to s bille wilhowte Uie toune, where he knelid doune toward the 
estc, on title one Hughinde Muston cauaid hym to lunie bis face 
towarde Scotlande: whcr kneling, a vitlayne of London cut of his 
hedde, 11 Cal. Aprilisanno D.-132I, And aiier the Prior and 
the Monkcs required his body, aud got it of the King, and buried 
it on the right hand of tiie hy alters. 

Lel. Cd. vol. 1. p. 464, See. 

• Part of fiiis toww has been lately cut away, in order to 
vridcD (be public road. TTie tower was square ; its walls of great 



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96 HI3T0RY OF PONTEFRACT. 

After sentence was pas&ed upon him, he said 
Shall I die wUhoul aiisicer? He was not how- 
ever permitted to speak ia his own defence, 
but a certain Gascoigiie took him away, and 
having put an old bat or hood on his head, set 
him on ,a lean white mare, ivithout a bridle. Iad- 
caster then said, King of heaven have mercy on 
me, for the king of earth, noxts ad qtierpi. At- 
tended by a fryer-preacher, as his confessor, he 
was carried out of the town, suffering the in- 
sults of the people, who continued to throw- 
dirt at him. 

Nay then farewct \ 

I have toucli'd tlie highest point of all my greatness ; 

Ani, from tliat full meridian of my glery, 

I haste now to my selling. I sliall laJI, 

Like a bright exhalation in tlie evening. 

And no man sec me more. 
At length he reached the hill where he was 
doomed to suffer, and having kneeled down, 
with his face toward the east, one Hugin de 
Muston, caused him to turn his face towards 
Scotland, and the executioner severed his bead 
from his body. The prior and monks having 
begged his body of the king, took and buried 
it on the right hand of the high altar, in the 
church of the priory. 

Thus fell Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, the iirst 
prince of the blood, and one of the most power- 
ful noblemen that had ever been in England. 
His death involved many others in the same 

itrengtb, being ten feel and a half thick, nor vras tbereever any other 
entrance into the interior, than by a hole or trap door, in the floor 
ofthetunci; >o that tlie prisoner must have been let down to thi« 
aBodo ot dukneu, Irom whence there could be no pouible w>y of 
etope. Tbe room wu Iwepty-five feet iquore. 



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mSTOST OF PONTBFUCT. 97 

Jate; and all their estates were confiscated, and 
according to the will of the Spewxrsi given to 
others. Daniel, has nads .the remark, " That 
this is the first blood of nobility, that ever was 
died in this manner in EngJ^nd, since William 
I. whioh bring such, and 80 much as it was, 
opened veines for more to follow, and procured 
a most hideous revenge, which shordy after en- 
sued*." 

It ia difficult to deHneate the character of 
Thomas, as be has been by one party charged 
with every crime, which can add disgrace to 
human nature; and by another, not only ex- 
culpated, but adorned with every quality, which 
can add dignity to man. If wc judge of the 
man by his actions, he Reems to hare b^n high- 
spirited and passionate, and wholly destitute of 
that self-command which accompanies true great- 
ness of piind. The ordinauces, drawn up under 
his inflaence, and by his. direction, exhibit him 
in the most amiable light, as the advocate and 
decided friend of liberty, and as the avowed 
enemy of those preroga,tives of the crpwn, the 
exercise of which, pai?tioularly in a weak reign, 
was alike injarions to the true int^esfs of the 
king, and of the people. Time has , sanctioned 
the wisdom and propriety of these ordinances, 
and no king thinks now of advancing to the 
highest offices, men to whom a majority of the 
legislature is confessedly inimical. 

It may be doubted whether Thomas possessed 
any qualities which entitled him to the charac- 
ter of saint ; unless his liberality to the religious 
orders, be admitted as sufficient to constitute 

* Dakibl'i C(d. of espedal tSaiti of govenunent, p. isa 



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»8 niSTOBYOF PONTXrRACT. 

such a character' It is said indeed, That 
many miracles were wrought at liis tomb; — 
that blood continued to isfiiie from it; and that 
such was the fame of St. Thomas' tomb, that 
Edward placed a guard to restrain the people. 
When repulsed fixwn the tomb of the Saint, the 
people flocked to the hilt witere he was t)eheaded, 
and where afterwards a church was huitt. Notr 
withstanding these miracles, it is doing more ju^ 
tice to his character, to Consider him as a mar- 
tyr in the cause of liberty, than to honour him 
with the apotlieosis of a saint. 

For, if invaded rights I'ic taiiV dcEnand, 
Ifiiienbdiotdoppress'd their native land. 
By foreign dcspoi>!, wand'ring far for prey 
Wlio, locusts like, with ruin mark tlieir v/ay ; 
Or, see llieir Prince direct the nation's helm. 
In ruin's surge, his people lo o'erwhelm : 
Reward for foulest deeds a venal Iribe, 
Kor shun to blacken wliom !ie cannot bribe ; 
Surged bis meanest subjects to defend. 
Yet, prove their tyrant, raliier than their Iriend; 
On pow'r despotic, rear a rush4}uilt throne : 
And, crown'd Ibr all, live to himself alone : 
Tvrill then be right to grasp the blazing spear. 
Be diity then the bannei^d stafT to rear. 
To dare the figbt at freedotn's sacred call, 
Maintab her rights, or with her bravely fall. 



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HISTOHY OP POHTEPIUCT.' 



SECTION vm. 

Historical events till the death (^ Richard II. 

J.N the moment of triumph, Edward, instead of 
tlisplaying the god-like ^'irtue of clemency, and 
conciliating the affection of the barons, manifest- 
ed the weakness of his mind, by yielding himself 
up to the passion <^ revenge. On the day I.an- 
caster was beheaded, the following barons, his ad- 
herents, were hanged here*: Lord Warren de 
Lisle, IjovA WiUiam Toehet, Lord Tliomas Man- 
date, Henry de Bradburne, I^rd Fitzwilliam the 
younger, and Lord William Cheyney, On the 
day following, the ly)rds Clifford, Mawbrey and 
Deynville, were executed at Yurk, and hung in 
cfaains, and considerable numbers in other parts 
of the kingdom. 

While the king remained at Pontefract, he 
created Andrew de Harcia, Earl of Carlisle, for 
the good services rendered him in taking the 
Earl of Ijinca^er, granted a special charter to him 
and his heirs male of an annuity of twenty pounds 
per annum, to be paid by the sheriff of Cumberland 
for tlie time being; and also lands and rents in 
-Cumberland and Westmoreland, of the value of 
one thousand marks per annum, and five hundred 
marks per annum, out of the marches of Wales. 
This is the 6rst creation of honour, wherein any 
preamble importing the merits of the person so 

*SrEBD, 675. 



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100 HISTORY OF POSTEFRiCTi 

dignified was ever used, and beareth date at Ponte- 
fract castle, the 25th March, 1322, (15th Edward 
II.) being three days after the execntion of the 
above mentioned persons at Pontefract. 

According to the will of Henry de Lacy, the 
castle and honour of Pontefract, widi all his other 
possessions, ought to have descehd€!d to Heft»y, 
the brother of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster; but Ed- 
ward for sotne time kept tlieta in iiis own h£Mi], 
and then gave them to. his ^Vourite. 

Tlie cooduct of the Spencers, and the cruelties 
of Edward, produced a complete change in tb« 
public mind) and even those barons, who had 
assisted againfit Lancaster, y^rk highly incensed 
cm account of the dneqilal division made of tb« 
spoil, Tlie common pfioplB revered the ttienitiri' 
t^ Lancaster, aa thpir patron and prdtectoft 
and who had fallen in their caUse. Hia cfaafactm^ 
by being contrasted with thst of his enaiiifip, «fr- 
quired additional lustre; Dor could the rbyal acv- 
tliority itself, restrain the populace from expresnilf 
their veneration for him. 

The king appears to have been nuich. alarmed 
with this state of the public ynind, and to liare s|h- 
preheaded, that some attempts wduld be made by 
the Lancastrian party, against his &vou)'ites: aiid 
himself. He had hoped, the death of Laticabter 
jwould have been the death of his {tarty ; but now 
foimd his mistake. He came down to Pontefraet; 
and then went forward to Craven, where the Clif- 
fords had great power, to dieCk t)i6 spirit of (h« 
people, and frustrate the design of hb eoennfes,*. 

• It appear* from " the Frujt of 'Tyme," printed by 
Wynkyn de Warde, 1528, tfat the Itmg Was Bt " Craven at 
Scipton, because he should undo the. pilgrimages made at the 
tomb of l^ancast^," which threatened to end in ui insurrection. 



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HKTOlty or HJNTEraACT. BJl 

The insuHs of th* 9j>eficers t<> the qdeen her- 
self, bister to the king of FraiKe, Induced her 
to joHi the iJtncastrian parly; afid cffectUaMy ttt 
rQfD the Spencers, she went to France, undcl^trie 
pretence of bringing about a peace betwcefl. 
Edivard luitl her brother. - Being joined by the 
disaffected barons. aAd assisted by her brother, 
she set sa(il and landed at Qnvell, in SuffoHc, thd 
latter end <}f September, 13^6. She Hiafi no sOonor 
landed, than she was joined' by Thomas de Bro- 
tfaerton. Earl of Norfolk, John Bretagne, EaM of 
Richmond, and Henry Plantiagenet, brother and 
heir of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and the chief 
part of tlie nobility. 

The king forsiJcen by all his peo^jle, waS 
soon seized together with his fhvauritcs, tha 
cmiee of bis diegrace and ruin. The Spencets 
were Goademned to be hanged for robbery, drtwii 
for treason, and bdieaded for invading fabe ^i- 
vileges of the people; and this sentntMIs was 
executed with the ufoiost rigour. They: w6ra 
hanged on the cDrhmdfi gfkllows, iheir bodiea 
cat to -pieces ^d given to the dogs fpc feod« 
their heads exposed, the-elder at Winclnsler, -taH 
the younger on London bridge, WtKretbe.'citizehs 
receired it w|t^ lAarks of j<^. 

We 'ate told their Execution was ordered en 
a M^Mlay, in revenge xif the death of th^ late 
EaH of Lanoafiter, whctae royal blood vim ifaed 
upt>B that day. The Earls of Safty ani Artindel, 
tvro of the pnocipal ' lortls who beboaded 'Imb. 
now stUTeM the same ^te, with a great many 
otfaen of the king's party. The kmg jiinaself 
was soon aft^ deposed, and aOfer si^enng the 
most unheard of cruelties. Was at last most 



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102 HKTORV OF PONTEPRACT. 

inhumanly murdered in Berkley castle, witli the 
consent of his queen and son, by the order of 
the Bishop of Hereford, in the night of the 2Ist 
of September, 1327, eight months after bis 
deposition. 

The sentence of the late Earl of Lancaster 
was now reversed, (7th March 1327.) because 
he was not tried by all bis peers, and his bro- 
ther Henry, Ear! of Leicester, succeeded him in 
bis honours and estates. 

The people still retaining their veneration for 
the late earl, and the parliament begun on the 
morrow after the feast of the Epiphany, in the 
the first of Edward III. having vacated and annul- 
led all the proceedings relating to his attainder, 
began to flock from all quarters once more in' 
pilgrimage to his tomb. The king wrote' letters 
to the pope to solicit the canonization of the 
said earl, but this favour was not obtained till 
the following reign. The queen also joined her 
influence, and wrote to the pope in the king's 
name, but did not prevail. TIte people notwith- 
standing reverenced him as a martyr, and the 
king granted a permission in the first year of his 
reign, dated at York, at the desire of the queen, 
to make a collection for ttte building a chapel 
on the very spot wliere the earl was beheaded. 

All proceedings of attainder against the late 
Earl of Lancaster, and bis adherents, being 
annulled in parliament, and Henry, his broths 
and heir, restored to the lands and honours, he 
was the same year made high steward of Ehg- 
land, entrusted with the guardianship of the 
young king, and captain general of all the king's 
fiiFces in tlie marche!« of Scotland. 



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aurroitT of pohtefract. . lO) 

Id the second year of. his reign the king 
was resident at Pontefracti when he granted full 
powers to cotmnissioners, dated at Pontdract 
castte the Had o£ August, 1338, to demand of 
the Duke of Brabant, that he should engage 
to serre hito as well in peace as in war, against 
uty king or prince whatsoever. 

In the fourth of Edward III. Henry, Earl 
of Lancaster, bad a confirmation of a)I bis ho- 
noars and estates, and he died in the nineteenth 
year of the same reign. He was buried at 
J..<eicxster, the king, the queen, and almost all 
the bisbopa, e^rls, and barons of the realm honour- 
ing bis funeral by their attendance. 

He was jBuCceeded in his lands and honours 
by Heory, Earl of Derby, his «>n and heir. 
He was absent, at Bourdeaux, at the time of 
his father's death, havmg a great cojoaoiand in 
the king's army there. 

In the twenty-third of Edward III. (1349) 
this Heniy was by patent created Earl of Lin- 
coln, and elected into the honourable society of 
the knights of the most noble order of th^ gar- 
t&, then, newly formed. 

la the twenty-fifth of Edward III. ibj* his 
prudent conduct and valour in the late wars, he 
was advanced to the highest pitch of honour by 
the king's special charter, dated the 6lh of 
March, \351, viz, to the dignity of Duke of 
Lancaster *« by the consent of all tlie prelates 

* Thii ii ihe firit dtike created ttmce the Norman conquest 
CKqept Edwud the black, prince, who wan created Duke o( 
Comvnl fourteen jears before. At William enjoyed only 
the title of Duke of Norniaofly, previous to tlie conquesl^ 
and hji iiucceisors were honoured only with the wrae tide, 
they appeared jaaloui of. advancing any lo this dignity, leait 
they thcmld aspiic alto to the crown. 



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tOi AlSTOkY OF POKTEFRACT. 

tnd parlifAq.€itt a8serabt6d> and was invested 
(iRTQWith by the cincture of a sword, with po«rer 
*o have a cluuieery in the cownty of LaiKtaster. 
«i(l< to issue out writs tliere under Ims own seal, 
as wdl touching^ pleas of the crown a» any 
other retaf^g to the common )aws <^ this -realm, 
as also to enjoy alt other liberties and regdI'M 
iMlongiog to a county palatine,' in as »nple a 
manner as the Carls of Cheater had wittua that 
County. By tliis charter the earldom oF Lanca»< 
•er became a duchy. • 

In the thirty-fifth of Edward llh ac grcat 
pestilence prevailed in England, which' car- 
ried off numbers of people, and, amongst (hem 
the Duke of Lancaster, who died thereof at 
Leicester, npon the eve of the annunciatioQ 't>f 
the Virgin Mary, and was buried en the south sid« 
of tlie high ditar in the collegiate church, Aiunded 
there by himself. Not having male issue he')«ft 
]|is two -daughters, Maud and Btanch, by Isabel 
his- wtfb, daughter of Henry, Lord -JteaaRMmt, 
his coheiresses; Blandi, by virtue of a-divpcnsa- 
ti<m from the pope in regard of tlieir- atliiitKje, 
iras married to John of Gant, so catted •fi'ORi 
bis being-bom at- Gant or Ghent, in Flanders, Eari 
Of Richmondi the fouith soh ofKing BdwaVd fif. 
and on the Ifith o£ July, in the same year, par- 
tition was made of all the lands and hoDonrs of 
the late Henry, Doke of Lancasliert between the 
coheiresses, Maud and Kanch, when John of^Oani 
bad been marriai two years, andi -baviog isEue, 
had livery in right of his ^vife Of several lond- 
ships whereof her father died seized, viz. and 
(ai^ngst others) of the castle and, tit^nor of Poa- 
tefi-act, UfithtiiebajliivtdLftadiionoiicof Pettt^iact, 



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mSTOKT OF MNTXnUCT. 105 

In the diirty-flixth of Edward III. Maud, 
sister .to Blaocb, died without issae, on which 
John of Gant, in right of his wife, had all the 
remainder of the lands, &c. that the late Henry,- 
Duke of Lancaster, died seized of, and was 
advanced to the title of Duke of Lancaster, in 
parliament assembled, on the thirteenth of No- 
vember following, by girding with a sword, a 
c^ of fur on his head, with a circlet of gold 
and pearls. Both he and his heira for ever, were 
made free, and all his vassals, or whosoever 
were resianta on his lands and fees whatever, which 
were the property of Henry, formerly Earl of 
Lancaster, progenitor of Henry, late Duke of 
Lancaster; and it was iurther granted that the said 
idm and Blanch his wife^ and tbeir heirs on the 
bodies ci them the said John and Blanch begot- 
ten; md all their vassals, and lands, and fees 
wbatsoOTcr, should be for ever exempted from' 
panm^, passage, paage, lastage, stallage, tollage, 
cttvriage, pesage, piccage and terrage, throughout 
the nAiole, kingdom. 

The above mentioned- Bland), his wife, died 
of a great pestilence, then raging in the king- 
dom, and was buried in St. Paul's cathedral. 
. In the forty-sixth of Edward III. the Duke 
of Lancaster married Constance, the daughter and 
heiress of Don Pedro, king of Castile, in whose 
right he thenceforth bore the title, (tf king of 
Castile. 

In . the fourth :0f Richan} II. happened a 
dangerous insurrection, headed by Wat Tyler 
and Jack Straw. The expences. attending the - 
French wars, and the prodigality of the court, 
had exhausted the exchequer j and in order to 



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106 mSTORYi or- PQSTBWUOTt! 

pftKHiK a preseDt sap'piyy.the' piiriiainenti,;was 
obngal to ipipose a tax'orttuiee.groBWooievay^ 
perso'n^ maubADd femate^ abdvC'the^sganf fifties i^ 
and thby decr«e4 Uiat, iq. raiding ;f lie .tJuti-tb» 
rictv shoidd. relieve the. poor,. byceawOabte e<M* 
pcnsatron;: 

This impositibn, in con^tieiKie. of'the- im" 
prudence- of one-of -the^coHtct^rs o£'the-tix.*, 
excited the: abDve-tnetitiqDed.iinatimetkmi whidk^ 
nearly proved ' the- ove^th^Dw - of :the-! gcvtrnmebit.. 
Tbe- lower class of -the people: rose a^ast 4btir: 
rulers,- conunittedi the- n^Mt! tanibl* -otttmiciiyv- 
and took a severe vengeance fior aMi thtt-Oalwili^ 
ties and hardships with 'wfaicb' ibsjr bad^ faerae 
oppresKd. 

Become fbnaidable .6^/ their nwDbekif^ tbfty. 
entered the dity -of Loniioi>^ sad- iciUnnittail 
great outrages. Tbe Dilke of I^racflBt^taA tbt» 
period was unpopnlu'j and his i fide botos^^caUcd tko 
Savoy, accounted the most beautiful -sftructufeiitt 
the kingdom, became, the^ ot^ept of: gpnaral- re^ 
sentment. It was instantly aasdnlted,' 0^; offi 
iire, and reduced -to. dshes.' Notbiag';e«ati^>ed 
the fdry of the flames.' The rich fbraiture wbich 
graced the interior o( tbfs place-; chafterl* deeds, 
and otlier^vahiabte reconds beloogiitgilo ibe cUkke, 
were atl destroyied. • 

This event spread, a geneM terfdr thraagfa: 
the kingdom, and it wasespccted^tbBt theiipopn-i 
lace would rise in other places, and be .piilt^- 

• lliA bnfel ollitrer, collertng tUs tax of- a pMT hhck' 
ubWi, 'ludAed that fa dvigfater of Jut- tufhtle-pftr.'M'Jwtngi 
above die «{^ ' tpeoified t and to pf&ve the fact, t«aKd Ibe 
maid and proceeded to acts of indecency, which so enifge<i- 
the lather, Oat hg Juiocked out thc'niSt^^i brains with his~ 



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IBSTOMfrWPTPONTErBACT. 107 

bfaquid''ii'itdeB(iejnid)tniti^ge: 'iThc.dalce'k castle at 
lieicestst 'mras'-sotcobmiderdd .safe.- The.' most 
vfthiafale[tgoa^''.Mrefe':<T^otee(l to -the ohurch 
there!; Bnd'Ledyi(k>kKltanei6 ded 'vrJth jHVoipita- 
tisn towardtLi'PoiAafisct castle,' > as- -being a< place 
ofgreato^setmrity. : When -she amreid here, «uch 
wits dte'tdrrbr excabed,' that ber own servants re- 
ftued' bevi-admittance.' Tbtif .'cxpeoted tbat Wat 
TiyfemtiA iarfc.StrBwvwBre.to pursuit, and- that 
if fthfy ■ jfeoeiTed 'her,i.thejt';wouW' «oon have t<* . 
endiimisU the: bardshija af^a siege, or to sustain 
all -Hhe 'firy. of -an -^ immediate assault. Lady 
BansbBoea 'K-as.-imdBt !the..ncceBnty<'Of -proceed- 
ing by torch-light to Knaroborough ctistle, where 
flhs-5?ns 'itectnei .Mijh : <hc ■ Mspece due- to her 
tvdcj'isndrwherebsho rpmaiaed itilt the- insmrec- 
tiohls«i:-4i)eIU<f,^atidi-^' duke -re^ihied from 
SCotJana. 

' i'The>-V^£[ pcsienkinK'i&flthe DdIr 6f 'Lancas- 
ter,' andihii'Wdtbdrity'over^fais own tenants, ren- 
dnv^i-hlm -^nearly!' equM ■'ta^the king, ^ both in 
Heilthiaad"powBr.. -S«tne tif'biv-oourtiks -buzzed 
it dofo-.thefWeak- hcaci bE fiiehaWl II. that >it was 
Bflodwa ry to.iclertroy the.iduke,> before->he -could 
cirjoy!)-the! cro*ni.m ribcarity. The: king guided 
by tii^ comuiel' of favourites', entered' into a plot, 
laid bytbe-.-iafiunaBs'-Trisilian, for 'acoompitsh- 
}ng : thfa Hu^. -iHe ^ had not only devised 
ofieiHKS,' and.'^stready..Rdb'(m foot fa- ]^nvate pro- 
secaAi6nji:but; had -niso fixed 'the itime fo^ the 
dattc^a.-.-arEcstr •when, be was forthwith' to have 
bMn.'.an^igDed, -xdndemned and. cxecutied, ' But 
tbe duke: haying privatit infcfnoation thereof from 
onei'Wbo.WBs' in the^iplot,- 'retired to bis castle 
strPontielFact, and :pnt it in,.'tJie best posture of 



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168 mSTOBT OF POTTEFHACT. 

defence. Hesdpplied it with men and provisions, and 
determined to stand npoa his guard, if be found 
it necessary. But the princess Joane, mother to 
the king, dreading ihe fatal consequences of this 
breach, took uncommon pains to effect a recon- 
ciliation ; which required no little address, as the 
whole kingdom was greatly dissatisfied with the 
administration; and the duke, on account ctf his 
opposition to the oppressive measures of govern- 
ment, was mofe than ever the favourite of the 
people. The princess, though veiy corpulent, 
travelled to and from the parties, till she at 
length accomplished her design, and Richard and 
the d^kc became friends. 

In the twelfth of Kicbard II. the duke obtained 
divers charters, confirming his chancery court and 
duchy : of Lancaster, togetbn-. with others, giving 
him for life, the sole jurisdiction and soviereignty 
within'the same, and his honour of Pontefract. 

In the seventeenth of Kicbard II. died 
Constance, his wife, and two years aftertrards 
he married Catherine Swinford,.-hi8 kept mistress, 
and a foreigner. She had b^en brought up ' m his 
house, and waited on his wife Blanch, in whose 
service she married one Sir Hngfa Swinfordrber 
maiden name was Roe, and after* Sir ' Hugh's 
death, slie became the duke's concubine. 

The Duke of Lancaster, . called John of 
Gant, died on the third of February, 1399, in 
the fifty-ninth year of his age, and was buried 
near his Brst wife, Blanch, in St. Paul's cathedral. 
By his death the duchy of Lancaster; smd the 
honour of Pontiefract, fell to his son and heir, 
Henry de Bolinbroke, Duke of Hereford, then 
in exile. The king, previous to his departore. 



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HlSTOtT OF TOHTEVUCT. :IDO 

hsd gratlted letters patent empowct-iog Iiifn; 
tboagh in exile, to sue by attorney for Hrery of 
all taods descending to bttn. %t on tlie : death 
of the doke his father, Richard, by an ii)cre<- 
diUe.:tet. of injustice, not only revoked those 
leUets jiatbnt, but also decreed that bis banish^ 
meitt, which, wa«" originally only ibr'six years, 
should be fierp^iial. He confiscated all bis' 
paternal' estate, nay, he even stretched bis iniqui- 
tons {iower so far as to condemn to perpetual 
iuuiisbmeilt, , one Bonner,; the duke's attorney, 
who bad su^ in .his name for the-litery oOhis 

lands. ;;_!.. 

' It'isnoi to be iAp^sed that a. nobleman 
irf'.Uei«ford^8.charadtec and rank would patiently 
snfier.-such a complicaiioii of injuriesi Possessed 
D£;:a.bold :and entterpristng, spiritj be, had. often 
signalized bimsdr, both at liooie and bbroad^ 
«Hd was regarded with respect dy the peopio, 
and adored by tlie. soldiersk > ALwnyis cool, and 
havings tfae peritet-. command of his iemper, he 
covldbot be easily pooroked to a rash; action, - or 
even to use an nnbecoming jespressioD. He had 
likewise the great advant^e of being related 
either by: consanguinity, or affinitty to < all ' the 
pt^hiCifial, nobility M Eoglat^, and his Suflerings 
made him more than ever, -the - idol of the pcoplei 
On the other hand, ftichard's flagrant injustice 
had ^ip&Ded .every mouth against both him and 
his government j and the citizens of London in 
particular, were highly enraged at the injuries 
done to their i&voartte. The folly, eitfavpgance 
and injustice of the king, made them turn their 
eyes toward ■ the Duke of Hereford, • {now by 
right Duke of Ijiacaster) as the only person 



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no ■HBTOirOf rONTEPUCT. 

wb6 coufd'Tetrieve the tost hoooar- c^'the nation. 
"With this" view tfcey secretly ifivited Wm: to re- 
tarn to EnglaAd,- promisiag to assist bim in th« 
recovery ofbis- lattfur inh^itanceat the hazard 
of their Itvcsand'^fortanes. The dulce,. tbiidjog 
this a' Javobrableopportutrity' (the king =being 
then ' in Ireland^ • embraced the igoneroBs offer, 
and with a<retmue of abbut eighty persons landed 
fit Ravenspurg,' in Yorkshire^ .on .the Slot July, 
3399. where he *» innAediately joined r by the 
Lords WiUoag^iby,' Rtns; . D'Arcjr, 'Benmuuit, 
end 'Several gentlemeD of distlDatioDrKtteadedl^ 
an army of forty thousand ^nen. 

-iUchard now fband'rtlie -whole kingdom was 
allesated fmmhmi} few of the^ndales^ and fewer 
btill of the people, retained iheir allegiaace. : : He 
was at length' taken, rent to the . towsTj -.attd 
Obliged to ^refrign the crown : and kingdom- to 
iJincaitter. Tlie'|iaiii«ni«]t"cdnfinned the d^Kk- 
sition of :ilichard, on^iabcounfcof hiB incapacity; 
and tlmugb LAncasler -wasraot the nexlr beir. to 
the 'Grown, yiet oniadrcoDt Df: his .blood, and 
his' superior: Halc^fl^ 'he '.was<:'eonGiidereil <-as. the 
bniy person worthy to wear it. From> the Nott 
man conquest^down' tO'this'-period, the law of 
descerib iiad'nit -been regularly obsored,! butr.tbe 
p^liaipent' had! at tmies^ disposed of tbe.crown to 
any brandrof tlie royai.&itnly,' which they tibougfat 
pn^r.. ' LweaSterV best tjtle rested lin. -this act 
of the parliament,:. as^expreisaag: the sense of a 
large inajority of the people. 

The parliament having depoted -ilichaid, the 
Archbishope of Canterburjl^ "and York, ■ placed 
Lanombdr on the tlironc/zaihidst the generalfac- 
chimations of the people, .and Aicfaard was .idit 
prisoned in this castle. 

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Some anert that B5 joon as be wav deptMed^ 
Heor^. sent hitiv fbom -the> tower to Leeds castle,, 
in Kent, and from thence down to Pontefract 
castJe. But John Harding*, the old, rhypiing 
^ dirooicler of the north, who lived in the -same ;cei> 
tnry, and may be therefore supposed to- have been 
better acquainted with the transactions of this coun- 
try, affirms that he was sent by King Hen^.lV. 
to the castle of Leeds, in. Yorkshire^, from tbence 
to Pickering castle, thence to Knaresboroagh 
castle, and from thence to Pontefrdct castle, , 
Richard deprived of his crown, and immured 
within the walls of a . prison, . now became a.prey 
to his own desponding reflections. Having' en- 
joyed the higbest elevattoircrf'nink, he was mor? 
setuible of his present humiliating condition. 
Accust(xned to commaod,. he fo)ipd.Jt:difficuU 
to obey; and still, more difficult to submit to 
those restraints nnder- which he was lud. Feel- 
ing the miseries of a prison, and expecting aa 
unhappy end, he could, not avoid the painful re* 
flection, if he had. any oonscieDce left, that in 
the time of his prospentyy be bad been deaf to 
the clums of justice,, and- steeled to the milder 
influence of compassion and mercy. The ghosts 
of those nobles he had, uiyustly murdeced>, sod 
the cries of a plundered >and an oppressed people j 
couU not fail to haunt his gnifty mind, Shajce- 

• The king^hiaKiit King Kicliv4tp.Lw4is, 
lliere to be kept nirclj in {srevite 
Fro' then* afior. to Pykerifig went be qeeda. 
And to Knombur^ ^er >d vru he. 
But to PauntftetfrtMti.wbescibeiiul dio. . 
Both thcriei of Kent end SftliibiH-y, 
Thcrl oS Huntingdoa aitd. Sp-mcert toOtdy. 

HikKBiMo'f'Clmft. 



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112' HISIYNIY OF PON-TEHUCT. 

Spear, , with his usual propriety, justness and ele- 
gance, has described tlie reflectioa^ of Kichard 
in the casUo of Ponteiract. 

I have been sludyittg how lo compare 
This prison where I live unto the W4>tkl; 
And. for became the world' is populou;. 
And here is not a creature but myself, 
1 cannot do it, yet I'll hammer on'L 
My brain shall prove tlie female to my soul. 
My soul, the lather ; and these two beget 
A generation of still-breeding thoughts ; 
And these same thoughts peqple tliLi little world: 
In humour, like tiie people ol'the world, 
For no thought is content. The better sort, 
(As (hou^Li ol' things divine,) are intermiXt 
With scruples, and do set the word itiielf. 
Against the word ; as thus ; Come, little one* ; and then again. 
It i» hard lo come, ax for a Caaicl 
To thread the pattein eif a needle's eye. 
Thougbti tending to ambition; they do plot 
Unlikely wonders; how these vain weak nails 
May tear a passage through these flinty ribs 
Oftliis bard world, my ragged prison -walls. 
And for Ihey cannnt, die in their own pride. 
tnKNights tending to content flatter themselves, ' 
That they are not the first of fortune's slaves, 
Andthiillnot belhelast. Ujre silly beggars. 
Who sitting in the stocks refuge their shame, 
lliat many have and others must sit there; 
And in this thought they find a kind of ease, 
Bearing their own mLsfortune on the back 
Of Hich as have before endured the like. 
Thus play I, in one prison, many people, . 
And none contented. Sometimes am I King, 
Then treason makes me wish myselfa beggar, ' 

And so I am. Then cru^ing penury 
Persuades me, I was better when a. King; 
Then am I king'd again ; and by and by 
Think that 1 am unking'd by Bulingbroke, 
And straight am nothing 

The £arl of S^isbury, the Bishop of Carlide, 

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BHTORT 07 POHTBFEACT. lU 

Sir Thoinas Blount, the abbot of ^estminsfer. 
and several other persons of power and interest, 
entered into a conspiracy to dethrone Henry, 
and restore Aicbard; and engaged aa tlieir tool 
one Maudlin, who bad been chaplain to Richard, 
and resembled that prince so exactly, in his 
shape and features, that they thou^t they could 
easily impose him upon the public for the true 
monarch. Tbey clothed him in royal attire, and 
boldly asserted that he was Richard, who had 
escaped from prison, Aod was come to implore 
the assistance of his faithful subjects. This bad 
coosidoable effect upon the lower orders, who 
are generally found Soon to forget their com* 
}^aints, ttad ready to aid the unfortunate. They 
fiodced to the royal standard, and the cooBpira- 
tors fband themselves at the bead of an army 
of twenty thousand men, and marched towaid 
Loudon. Being encamped near the waUs of 
Cirencester, the mayor with a valiant band 
of about 400 men, boldly attacked a body of 
ti» rebels, took some of their leaders prisoners, 
and dispersed thb rest. 

This conspiracy is justly supposed to have 
hastened the death of Richard. Henry could 
not but perceive, that so long as Richard ^was 
living, the factious and discontented would be 
ever ready to rise under the pretence of restoring 
bim to the crown. To put an end to all future 
attempts of this kind, Richard was put to death 
ia the castle of Pontefract; but the manner in 
which he met his fate, is variously reported by 
historians, though all agree as to time and plai^. 

Fabian and Rapin inibrre us *' that on Rich- 
ard's arrivtd at Pontefi-act Castle, Sir Piers Eston 



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11* rftsToaV <)F'p<>irre>ftAeT. 

is relatey to have rtturderod th'e king in the 
following itlftnner. On the king's arriTal at Poih 
tefract castle, he was closely confined in the 
)!jr*^t lower ; soon aftef- Sir Piers Exton, a 
domestic of Henry's, ■ was sent down with 
eight ruffians' to imbrue their hands in the blood 
of this urifortuhate king. On the' day of their 
atinval, Richaty perceived at dinner tltat the 
victiiala wei-e not tasted ss' oshaI. He asked the 
reason of th« taster, apd upon his tfdting Kriii 
thai Exton had brought ail order against it; the 
king took up a knife and struck him on' the 
fefce, Myirfg, " the devil take-'Heni'y of li-aricartcr 
ami thee." Exton ^ithhlR eight atfbndants en- 
tering his' chamber at that ittstant, and shutting 
the dooi\ attf mpted to lay hold of Richard j he 
immediately perceived t^eir fatal er^rmd, «nd 
knew he was a" lost man. With a noble reso* 
lution he snatched a halbert^ or poleaxe, ftonk 
the foremost of them, ani) defentkd ■ htmsdf 86 
braTCly,' that he sletr' fbhr of his' lesrilants: 
Whilst combating with the rest of Uie riiurd&rers; 
Exton got upon a chair behind' hmt, and with 
a poleme' discharged such a blow oit hisi tiead 
hi laid him dead at his feet, where th^ liiiMrriible 
king endbl hiscj^mities, on' tliC Uth Fibruary, 
-1399. Before lie expired he feintly utli^red the 
flowing words, "My great grand tkthefi. King 
Edward It., vtar in this manner di^i>o^, im^ri>- 
sooed and murdered, by which means my gntnd^ 
fittlter. King Edward III. obtained ptMtsessitin of 
tiie crown/ and -now is the punishment of that 
injury pourpd upon his next Successor. W«ll» 
this is right for me to suAer, biit not; for you 
to d(*. Your king fer' a time' may joy at toy 



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ia!ff<f^ QF.Potn^rBfcr. am 

ilaatb, and enjoy his d^i:e, ))ut let, bjm qualify 
bis pleasure with the ex^ect«ti.otn of the l<i^ 
justice, for God who nieasuret^ alLour actioos 
hy ttie malipe -of our miuds, wilt uot sufli^r this 
Violenve un'reveag^." 

ThQ above accou.it is , most credUedt , though 
Stqtv and other bistoriansL say that the most proi- 
babie opiDion is, ,th^t be wab starved to death 
by order of King' Henry IV, suffering the most 
nnheard of cruelties, keeping him for fifleea 
days together in hunger, thirst and cold, before 
be reached the end of h's . .miseries. Polydore 
Virgil says, ** That at all tiroes his victualo were 
aerved in, and set before him in, the same 
pripcely manner as usual, but that he was not 
M^ercd to taste any one thing." ,.Tbi9 accouat 
JB oertaloiy nrare consistent with the story which 
says that King. Henry caused his -dead body to 
^ brought to London, and exposecl in public^, 
botb. Qii ,t|ie road and at St. Paul's church, with 
bis, ^we uncovered, aod that no roarkfi pf'violeope 
were observed upon it. After being exposed 
three days in St. Paul's, he was interred Bt 
King's Langtey, in Hertfordshire, but afterwards 
jeoiofed ,to WaEtmiq^r Abbey, by order of 
King -Henry V. wfiere his tomb now remains. 
; The acconnt of bis being starved to death, 
bas moreover the advantage of being confirmed 
by. tba declai^tiops of the E^rls of .Northumber- 
land and Worcester, and Lord Pieivy. The^ 
were the likeliest, person:* of any to know the 
^tbe.trut^ of, the fact, it having been perpetrated 
in their Deighl^.urhood*. It is however Slto- 

* To decide in what manner Richard died, whrther by 
. dte band of Exlon, or by want or uipport, hit tomb in Weit- 
tat^J^hej wu 9P«nQc| in ihe pr«seiwc of a respectable body 



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H6 BBTORY OP POKPnflniACT. 

gether ancertaia in what manner he ended his 
days. In general murders were perpetrated in 
castles, in soch a secret way, that few, if any, 
excepting such as were employed as agents, 
knew any thing more concerning them, than 
what they might learn from public report, 
of (be merabeM of the Antitpiarian md Rojal Societies ; but as 
the rojral corpM was not di»iiirb«l, noi the bandage oa OA 
head remored, lo as that (he «kull might be ^aniineii, ibe aub- 
jec( ODotinuet yet uiM»rlain. Gough makestjie ft^wing judi- 
cious remaclu, " concerning the death of thi» unfortuoate prince. 
Mr. King {Archaeot. 4. 314.) notices, it has been accuratriy 
enough observed by Hume, "that flw account of his having 
been, staxved to death, is more consistent with the public exposuie 
ofhis body after his deai^, with the face uncovered, (Holiogshed 
3. 517.) in all the places and towns between Pontefract and 
London, where those that had ctmvcyance of it did stay a9 
night, lor we do not find that any external narks of viokoce 
were petniTCd or visible on that occasioB.— It was expoaeiC 

.as Fnussart tells us, in Cheapside How he died, and by what 

ine^s," says that circumstantial author, " I could not tdl whea 
I wrote this chronicle; but this King Kichard dead, was hU 
in a litter, and set in a chaire covered with baudkin, tour bones, 
all htack, in the chaira, and two men in block' leading tte 
cbure, and four knights, alt in Uack, (bll»wmg. Then the 
cjiaire departed from the Tower of London, and was brought 
along through London fair and softly, till they came into Cheap> 
side, where the chief ^iisembly of London was, and there the 
chaire rested the space of two hours. Thither caone in and' cut 
more than twenfy thousand persons, men and women, (o ipc 
UiD, as he lay, his head on a Uack cushion, and his vinge open. 
Some had pity on him, and some lad none, but said he had long 
ago deserved death." But if we consider the temper of (be 
times and of the spectators, and the difficulty in such a croud of 
discerning with accuracy, not to insist that we niay.be surcaay 
wound in the head would be carefully concealed, (hough (tie 
hce was lett c^n, the conclusion will not be so <^viput, ^ 
Mr> King imagined from the esaminalion of the sbdii in tl^ 
(omb, at wlucli I was present, and recollect the rircumitaiiGe of 
tiie smaR deft op the left side of one of thctn, mistaken for a 
fracture, but pointed out to be a suture of the os temporis, a paft 
e^ly coiKealed, thoiteh Ihe face was left open. 

Govch's Sepul. Men. 

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nBTOMRTOK POMT0KICT. 



SECTION IX. 



Hisioncfll events UU the union qf the houses ^ 
I^ajuasler and Fork. 

riE^'RY IV. frote his accession to' the throne, 
and during- ttie: whofe of hts reign, hoaotired 
tbe eaaile of Potitefraet, the pateroat > iaheri* 
tBDce of >bilr &mily, by his lir^uent l4sid^oe« 
At dkis' p^nd, Scotland wasthe oommon assy- 
Itim of' ^1 who were dttafibcted to the: reigning 
priiuief and' from this obuntry they ^readiljk 
rec^ved «8sistaBce, Md- by: maMng ino^nions 
iuto the northern parts; they disturbed the 
p6aoe«nd often threatened to subvert the goverm 
ment. - To g^ntfd ' against danger firom tills quar-. 
t^", it tahy- 'be,::|jresunied was the prinoipal Teason; 
why Henry so^eO'Tisited and-dweltat tlm.{itace. 
In th6- first of his re^^ he grantetjl a passiport 
-for the Earl Of March-then in ScoUand, tteted ai 
PoMefract eastle, ffUt *Jone, 1400. ' ■■■■■'■ 

After the bdttle of Shrewsbury, in whidi fell 
the Valiant Piercy, called Hotspar, ahd«ealb six' 
tbonsand off tiie rebels, the king marehed io 
Pont^ract, i^ w»ch (be motion of the Scots arid 
the EiUrl t^ Northmnberland. He granted a full 
power to certain parsons^ to 'treat with the king 
of Scotland, which is dated at Pontefi^ct -castle, 
AaguM 6; t40dL On tbO' Mtb of the same nioiith, ' 
atj act-passed at Pbateft-act' ccffiile, requiring an 
eath jrvlD^ the ' inhabitaiKs" of i KortbonilMirl^ndi 



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lis Boewr.^ar.r^anaruvr. 

that they would not obey the earl of that name 
any longer, he hnviag joined the insurfcPDts. But 
we find that soon afterwards on his disavowing 
his son's conduct, H^[W«s- pardowd, and committed 
to safe custody. 

In the year 1404, Henry jp^nted full powers 
to treat with the ^ king of Scotland for the ran- 
florn of Murdac Stewart, ' Ettrl of Fife, and 
Archibald, Earl of Douglass, both taken piisoners 
Itt the battle of HaHadon-HiiJ, tlated At Pmte- 
firaol, ,tbc 6th of July^ AMo- the .Eam0 year .a 
truce, wa4 signed betw^ea^lfritglMd ,and iSeotlwd 
by thckingi, dateti ^ above. ait:l*o«tefrftct. 

An iwnrfCittiQU heiiig f<iar«d ,.in the rdoritb, 
in;Qonsequ0ace of jt^ being T^n^r^^ .thMfUchard 
11... was ^U, alive .in. Scotlatul, Jthe.king^agaiB 
directly . tnftrchled to . Pontrfrftot, wbere , tie bo 
aooner iArrived, (bun tbe-^E^rLpf ^ftrthuiqbcriaod. 
anxiotis to Aeep.on^ goodrlenns tt^ith t Hieviy^ 
hrougbt his gragct;ebUdren_««d,«^ewfi a«,,^Q»> 
tage»Jar his loyal ty^ Tbe.,liiB|e„ftt.jtbis tjqae 
hdd hi$,:e<iurt,:aL;FQntef»ctcastte., 

la. the year J4(W,,*n in;Burrpcts>n actually 
brQke.Dut[in..tbe norithi'aDdHlen^y.agaio. marched 
to Ponte&act, .vhece rjiie gran^ . a pny^r .to 
boin;^nni(l i>i^h. .,tbe,ni)fia --for itliteir .pardon, 
dated .«t Poqteffact^ «4»tle, ^th /April. J495. 
An: order was likewise grantod j^ t.Eike fmd sevte 
the Mei-of Map,, whttb'belob^ to ,t^ &M-I of 
2<foribdidberl«od* wbo.b«djQUi«(l.tb$ i|isitei^pti<>n. 
Tbt? <irder. as., «lso.dajbsd at ■ Fii>QtjGl^aCl «Batl«> 

.:The.rd»«U.BtiU;iwB«a8eilri and tte:«ty>9f ,Y«Hc 
declac«d 'jn< fayonn of tb^knt ScrooFle, Archbishop 
pf.iYflrk.aad biiparty. d«cl4c«d Jthoikincjeu jtsur- 



:k«Ci00J^IC 



pffK, imd ^IT^M artMe»«fHnipeachiaent a^itist 
hhn. They nfeed alt ^rmy of twt.m3^thoasand 
men; e^inst whom the king sent tbe-'Eari <^ 
'Wefitinnn^iid^anftLord John, Dofceof Lancttster 
the king*» thiHt sdn, but' finrfin^ 'th^ rebels so 
stKM? and' ^TOtitageousTy mcampedf tbey^ 6\A 
not t'hink it pradeiit to attack theiii< 'WeWmor&^ 
land dtfirirei) Gt< cottferenai);' at which pret^ing 
to eomntitiMtete the sbldkA-!^ Mttfo had been linder 
. fli^s the' whole; of ttier doyi htr pervaded the 
tfchbishftp' tt>^ ^nte thfit' their ' forces might be 
dMnndbft The deludevl pr&l&ie' h)td no sooner 
ooatpKe'l, 'Huet' Westtndretiind, who had also dis- 
itiisaed fiisnrDoptf, gave orders tQ a troop of horse 
Addenly-'^ttf retnm smd wheel aboiit, and by 
tMi iMtfttuvrto^ we^ thk ■ arcbbi^op and the 
EaH Mai-shal prisbn^rsi Westmoreland plifrhted 
M»&ith tU' them, t^iat tbe3r should not sufi^ in 
A«fi^tive», hot meettiij'the king at Pontefract on 
fais way..to York, the prisoners were there brought 
before htin^ Henry soon ordered -ibcm' to appeu 
befiMT «-'taock tribunal* who eondemned' them to 
dte, anrt"Hiey were foilhwitti e^ecntej. This is the 
jIlM liisfance of an 'archbishop being, triefl' and 
ooodemaed >y the civil pipwer. . 

Henry now ittsblved ta t;fdtb ami^ vengeanoB 
on the citiiens of "York;, for Siditigwifh their arch- 
Af^p;.'and in CoTisetjUence' dii-ecle4.a^ mandate, 
^ated 'I^aafefr^t casite, $d ^une, I4Q5, in- the 
MOh year of bis reigify to two .o£ his officers*, 

* The king to hk cfaOMn and Uthrul serrant*' John Sbnlef 
. and fiaga Lecche, greeting ; - - 

KiMV ye that 'fer'c^taitf «p«wlal rauseo, ititiniMet; con- 
cerning u^ aact dtiC flaie at Mir kingdom oF Kngland, we do 
asdgD jwi, togohei or Mtpvattij, eur city of York, together 



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,130 HtsTomrjor POwrsnACT. 

authorizing and commandwig there immediatety 
t9 seise the liberties, and privileges of tile oUy 
for bis use. , 

In th>9 ye&r also; thb Earl of Northumber- 
]and, .who hftd been restored by patiiament to all 
his possessions, came at midsummer to tbe king 
at Pontefl'act. 

The Earl of Northumberland, nottvithstanding 
.the lenity with which be had' been treated, con- 
Itinued to foment :disturbances, .and encourage the 
spirit of revolt. He, together with LordBardo]|^ 
being clowly pursued, fled irom Wales jtoto Scot- 
Jfimd, raised a small army and entered England. 
They took some of the earl's castles; and raicoo- 
raged by this success Ihey entered York^ire. 
At Thirsk they set up tbe standard of revolt, and 
publishing a manifesto, declared their olirject to 
be to punish Henry as an usurper. Sir Thomas 
Rokesby, the sheriff of Yorkshire having assera- 

with all and singular liberties, franchises, and prlvtleget to the 
citizeiw of the said city, by our profrenilore or predeceuort 
panettmea kings of fingfaod, or ounelf, befcH^ tfaii tine g r m tei 
^nd cenfirDied, to take and leize into our faandt; and the nid 
city thus taken and seized, till Airlher order from us, io our naow 
to keep and govern. 

And therefore we command jou, or eillier of you dtU. 
gently to take heed to the premises, and that you should do and 
exejcute then in tbe manner aforAiaid. 

Also we command all and singular high shehfis, m-jon^ 
bailifTs, and other offiirers, and all other our ^ithfiil subjects, ai 
well within liberties as without, by the tenor of these presents, 
ft^ictly to aid Bid assist you, or eithor of you, .in the teecsttton 
of the premises, being belpliil, advising, and obedient to you 
n they ought, - ■ 

In testimony of which, &c. . 
Witness tht) King at ^iju Castle of Pontefract tbe, third day 
of Juncj l405, in the lixlli year of bis reJgii. 

(. ^ ^ By the KING. 



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BISTOSy OF POMTEFUCT. 121 

bled a large army, watched ajl their motiooa, 
and on February I9, 1408, brought them to 
actioa on Brnnbam Moor, in which the Earl 
of Northomberiaud and Lord Bardoiph were both 
kiUed. 

Henry was on his march when he received 
the agreeable news of this victory. He came 
to Pontefract castle, April 8th, and resided there 
for titout a month, em.ployed in trying and 
pimiifaing some of the anhappy persons, who hod 
beat ehgaged in the late insurrection, and com- 
povnding with others for their delinquency. 
Among those i^ho were capitally punished was the 
abbot <^ HaJes, becanse he had been taken in arms. 

In the ninth of Henry IV. a truce was 
granted for one year for Guyenne, signed also 
at Pontefraet castle, the 30th April, 1408. 

Henry TV. died at Westminster in the four- 
teenth year of his reign, and was succeeded by 
Jiis sOTi, now Henry V. 

Henry V, ratified and confirmed all the 
grants, declarations and franchises, contained in 
idl the former charters granted to this borough, 
the honour of Pontefract and duchy court of 
X.aDcaster, by his letters patent, with the consent 
and authority of both houses of parliament. 

In the year 1415, Henry obtained one of the 
most splendid victories recorded in the annals of 
history, over the French at Agincourt, where the 
Duke of Orleans and several other persons of the 
highest rank were taken, and by his order sent 
prisoners to Pontefi-act castle; nor were they re- 
leased till the fetal disasters of the following reign 
had destroyed the English interest in France. 

In the third of Henry VI. (1494) the Duktj 



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122 HisTOBV or PotrmmtiT. 

of Bedford, protfecto^ of the reaim during the 
king's minorfty, enlarged the young king of 
Scots, James thie first, from his impHsonmCKt in 
Pontefraet castle. AVlien a boy> Robert his fiitber, 
to preserve him from the snares of his uncle, wii6 
had mardered hid elder lirother David; put him 
on 'board a vessel,' mtU a design: to send, bim io 
Ftuice; but the ship falling ioto tbebmdsof'tbe 
English, lie had been detained -a prieoner tev«o*- 
teen years. On bis release he did t)Dntiige< amd 
fealty for the crown of Scotland. 

In the seventh oFHenry VI. the king. graoted 
a charter, cdnBrmingtbe rigbti, liberties; cwfaenfts 
and privileges of the duchy of Lancaster aad 
faonoor of Pontcfract, dated-'4th June, 14S8. 

The weakness of Henry VL the artogaoce 
of his qaeen,' and the dissension and qusrrds of 
thecourty emboldened Aichard, Duke of Y<3tk, to 
ass^ bis claima to the crown, and the whole 
kingdom was divided into two hostile ^wtioasa 
the partisaas of- the red and white rose, tbo dis- 
tinguisliing' emblem of the bouses of Lanwster 
and York. The contest which . followed, spread 
desolation and slaughter through the land. There 
were few of the nobility who ended their 6ayt_ in 
peace. They either fell on the field of b^tlo, or 
by the hand of the eirecationer.. For the laws 
which regulate the conduct of nations, who are in 
astate of hostility towards eachothert in civil wap 
have no place; and such as escape the carnage 
of the sword, when they fell into the band of their 
enemies, are doomed to th6 block. Medt-eyed 
mercy is unnoticed and unregarded; and the nobl« 
and the brave are immolated to the demon of 
revenge. 



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mST0BY.,OF. PQVTESUCT. 103 

: It ,iroBld Jje foreigpto.the.purposeof thisfrork, 
to ^ter into the;, detail «f ,aU the ^VieiUs of this 
iiit:ffte9tiiig period, i^uch <mly.cao be noticed as 
arecow^ected with.thq history of. this. pjiice. The 
first b^t]e,.ia'.tbis destructive contest., vras fcvight 
^t St, AlbaD's, wh^re the. Di^eof.Vork ,was vic- 
tocions. Tlif), l^^ke of £!;!£eter, wjba,l)ad the good 
fortpfie to. escape ,tlie,siaugbler of tlitat day, fled 
for sanctuary, -tQitbe Abbey, of W^sjtipitister; but 
he wai tak^a. irooi ttteoce, and. sent, ft. prisoner to 
tbei castle -of PojUiefr^t *„ 

;A|ler the MMe.. oj? Northarapton, in which 
tbcj. forces, of ,Heary, v/ere ,vanquisi}^, .and him- 
selfftQkeiv prisoner.. %i,^a Margaret ^ to Dur- 
hanv T^ro,uj;;h .tije. interest of , the E»rla. of ^or- 
tfafpab^tand -and .Westjuoreland, an ofmywas, 
SOCHI collected to support the .hoiuse Qf.,XAn<;a8ter. 
Kidiard, Duke. of. Vork, who,.jlwl JDarched to 
I^ndon, and.wbo had, by act of parliamept. been 
declar^ Heury'si successpr, hcarjng pt the design of 
fbe^quei^lij hastened. to meet tier with an army of 
five thousand men. ■ When he reached Vf'akefield, 
lie was Sfirprised^^tobear that-theqneen .W4s advanc- 
ing; .agaiiist-hjn]i>'at the bead of twenty, thou'^and 
men. .He toajkrefoge _in Sandal castle, resolved 
tu, stand .on. bis defenci;, .till Edvyard his spn should 
ppme ^^hi.s assistance. Margaret, by a success- 
ibl stratageni,i'lnduc&d-him to. venture on a gener 
la] engagement, r Having detached a cpjislderabl^ 
■body of troop.'!, who lay in ambusli>, .ihe Duke 
.of .York ;ni^ed foftb, and commenced a violent 
attack on the.majn body of the queen's troops; 
but those Ln..ajai^n9b.c9i;niqg upon .his. rear, the 
most dietennined \albnr on his pprt was una- 
YaiUng. 

* Stowe, p. 400. 



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124 KtSTOKV OF POMTEfHACf. 

This battle, called the battle of Walcefield, 
was fbuglit on the 21st December; 1460, in whicA 
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was killed, 
the Ea^ of Salisbury was dangerously wounded, 
taken prisoner, and in a very bleeding condition 
sent to Pontefract castle, where he was beheaded- 
along with Sir Kalpti Stanley, Sir Richard Lim- 
bricke. Captain Hanson, then Mayor of Halt, 
Mr. John HanY>w a valiant ~ gentleman, and seve-' 
ral other persons of distinction, whose heads were 
exposed on the gates and towers of York. The 
head of the Duke of York was severed irom- his 
body, and being put upon a long pble, was 
placed on the top of Micklegate-bar, on which 
Clifford at the instigation of the queen, placed 
a crown of paper in derision of his title, with his 
face towards the city. — Shakespear makes the 
haughty Margaret' opprobionsly order, 

•* Off ^ith hii head, and tet it on York Gates; 
" So York faiay oreHook the town of York." 

The duke's body was brought and interred in 
the church of the priory at Pontefract. 

The triumph of Margaret, and the house of 
Lancaster, was disgraced by the cruelties they 
exercised on their enemies. Instead of improving 
the victory by rapid advances towards the capi- 
tal, they spent their time in the execution of 
their prisoners. Edward, Earl of Marche, son of 
the Duke of York, who had raised a strong 
body of forces, ofi the borders of Wale?, when 
he heard of tlie defeat and death of his fetber 
at Wakefield, marched for London ; and after 
encountering a party of the enemy, which he 
totally routed, he reached the capital. The citi- 
zens declared tor him, and he was crowned king* 
by the title of Edward IV. 

D:,t.:f:k«Gt>O^IC 



HICTORY OP POKTEFRACT. 125 

In the inean time Margaret was not inactive. 
She had collected an army of sixty thousand men. 
Edward, conscious that Success frequently depends 
on {Hndence and celerity, at the bead of about forty 
thousand men, set out from London March 12, 
1461, scarce resting tilt they came to Pontefrnct, 
where tliey encamped, the king - residing in the 
castle, and his army around him. The day after 
his arrival. Lord Fitzrwalter was detached to seize 
the pass ■ at Ferrybridge, upon the river Aire, 
who executed the order with equal -celerity and 
success. Henry understanding Edward had gained 
and guarded the pass at' Ferrybridge, sent Lord 
Ctiflbrd with a party of light horse to dislodge 
him; who made such expedition- that he attacked 
him OD the night' of the 28th, with superior 
numbers, and drove him thence with great 
slaughter. Clifford' found the guards asleep, and 
not in the least expecting the approach of an 
enemy. The Lord' Fitzwalter, awakened by the 
noise, supposing it to arise from some tumult 
amongst- his own men, jumped out of bed, and 
with <m}y a battlosoce ia his hand, went to ap- 
pease them. But too late aware of his mistake. 
the bastard of Salisbury and himself,' both lost 
their livefe ia the action * 

Warwick was no sooner informed of the issue 

* There wai found in digging a grave in Brotherkai 
church yud. May 21, 1781, a ctialice, very much mutilated, 
and its lid, a spur and part of a slocking. These most pro- 
bably belonged to one of the lordt dain at Ferrybridge, iKfore 
Ifae battle ot Towtort, on Saturday the 2Bth of May, 1461. 

Jl was usual to inter ,tbe lordt who fdl in thii contest, near 
(be place where they were iJaiQ ; and it v not improbable, that 
&e chalice, spur and stocking might belong to Fitzwalter. 
Arhaeol, Vol. ix. 55. 



,v Google 



136 HISTQK? . or. ^NTEnACT. 

of this renonunter, thaa alarmed at this misfor- 
luDei aad dreadit^ the. .^qasquetioes at so cri- 
tical a juncture, when ai.ig^oeral battle wfl» every 
Bfiomeat expected* he rpde .with the utmost speed 
of his courser to .the qastle of Pppt^ract, aod 
spoke to the king, .who was. reviewing his troops^ 
as follows, " Sir, I ptray G,od have mercyon their 
souls who in the .heginniag of your entefprize 
have lost their lives. I see no »iccour but in 
God, to, .wh^im I remit tlie vengoauce." On 
which he had reconrse to a measure as brave 
as exir^rdinary. Alightxtg, he insUQtly stabbed 
his horse in the sight of the whole artny, say- 
ing, " Let him flee that flee will, I will tarry 
with hipi that will tarry with me." So saying'* 
he kissed the cross on the. hilt of hi^ sword in 
conGrniation thereof, and swore he was firmly 
resolved to share the fete of the meanest soldier* 
and die in .the field or oonquer. : ■ 

" This noble declwatiou of an oflicerso idolJEed 
by all the sokliery* ajyakened ^m^ every breast 
fm insuppressible ardour; and in order t» inspire 
them with greater, courage, .Edward issued a^prtK 
clamation, " That every man who was uqwUliugf 
to : stay, ' Qr was afraid ^ flglu, h^d leave to 
depart," but denouncing the.severept vengeance 
against those who in the ea^viiig action' should 
betray the least sign of treachery or cowardice. 
He commiinded sudi to be slain by his-own men, 
nnd promised that they who executed this command 
should receive a great reward, besides double pay. 
But tliey cried out as with one voice to be led 
on, declaring their resolution to 'gain the day, 
or die at the feet of their khig and general. 
Tlie valiant Lord Falconbridg^, with his friend 



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ffisTOKT or vuxrviumiCTt 127 

a.bd comf^nioa i a arms, Sir Wdter Bloant, un- 
dertook to regain the pass at Ferrybridge; and 
crossed the river at Castlefbrd, in order to in-t 
dose the trtops-uader Lord Clifford, then lajriog 
on Brotfaerton ' marsh, which Clifford perceiring 
drew ofi' his men and retired in great haste to 
the main body. In his retreat he f^ll in with a 
party of the enemy, and whether- it was by acci- 
dent, owing to the confusion into which ■ they 
were thrown on ' the approach of Lord Falcon* 
bridge, -or from some other cause, he had either 
put off or lost his goi^et, when an headless arrowj 
6ora:one in ambush, pierced through his throat, 
and innneffiately pot a period to his life. Thus - 
died the implacable ClitTord, one of the most 
inveterate foes of the hmise of York. The Lan- 
casuiahs bo sooner' beheld their leader dead^ 
tben tliey fled with . the utmost precipit^ition. 

John Lord Clifford, who was born April, 
8; 1430, held the title and estates five years, 
eight months, . and seven days. His hands were 
enly dipped in blood; for he was enga;ged in 
the oiril war of the houses almost three years 
before his father's death. Id the second battle 
of St, Alban's, the king was brought to meet 
the queen in Clifford's tent. This noUeinan, ' 
partly from the beat of youth, and partly in 
the spirit of revei^ for his Other's death, pur- 
sued- the house of York with a rancoar which 
rendered btm odious even in that ferocious age. 
His supposed slaughter of the young Earl of 
Rutland iri, or p«-haps after; tlie battle of Wake- 
fiekl, has left a deep stain upon his memoiry; 
and his own antimely end, wliich happenrd the 
next year, is remembered without tegret. In the 



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12ft 

MS men 
to have 
noticed . 
resident i 
cent and 



J 



o ^ p "C O i 

5 "f 3 lT ■= 2 
111 



^ o ? i> Ji , 



^ 3 «> 

thingneli 7: ^ > .= t Si 

fell. Tb I 52 = 2 5 

bnt the I i: — >■ 8 F c 

bably tru 

with a J _ ^ ^ 

dale is sc 2 g .2 ■= ^ S ^ 

at least -g, > O S' S ;» K 

preceding ^ > S 3 3- 5 ■§ 

The , g .Q £ -^ < g < 

begun its - >■ c ™ "^ *^ <U 

king and ^O g ■ - ^ C ^ 

towards t ^ 3 S S =5 ^ 1 

of sixty ^ -^ CO "^^ o S « 

Towton a | § ^ ^ ^ 2 ^ 

Palm Sat tJ '^ E o ^ =S 2 

armies m. ^'Rte'Sl!— -^^ 

Whether ^ £^ £ X O w 'J 

much sup 

for the en w« uy tuKin at toe i 

of Wakefield, Edward published an order through- 
out his army, that his soldiers should not eo- 
ctmtber themselves with prisoners, which seems 
to have been the principal cause of the carnage 
of that day. In the beginning of the battle, 
whilst the Yorkists were advancing to the charge, 
it began to snow, and a sharp wind drove the 
sleet full 'in the lace of the Lancastriaas, and 
• WuiTAKtK'i Craven, p. 2«4. - 



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HBTORT OP PONTEFftACT, 129 

fisordered theit- sight in such a manner, that they 

lould not discern the just distance between them- 

fclves and the enemy. The Lord Falconbridge, 

Id old and experienced officer, made an admi- 

^le use of this accident. He commanded the 

fin, and ordered his men to advance as near 

le enemy as they possibly could, and discharge a 

illey of arrows upon them ; and then to retire with 

I speed out of the reach of those of the enemy. . 

This stratagem had a wonderful e^ct, the 

incastriaos galted by this attack, and think' 

J their enemies were not many yards dis- 

it, and on account of the snow, not per- 

ring them fall back, plied their bows till their 

ivers were emptied without doing the least 

ecution, the Yorkists all the while keeping 

(irs in reserve. Lord Faiconbridge judging 

lir ^ot was nearly spent, and seeing them 

rancing sword in hand to begin 'a close fight, 

jvanced again with his archers, and gave them 

iother furioas discharge,- which obliged them 

> fall back to the main body, where they now 

^sailed them Without opposition, and slew a 

^eat number with the very shafts they picked 

up from the field aller their own quivers were 

empty. The Lancastrian generals, finding the 

disadvantage they laboured under in this way 

of fighting, pressed on to nearer combat, and 

then the battle became firm, obstinate and bloody. 

The sword deqided the fate of the day, which 

after ten hours obstinate fight, with equal and 

unremitting fury, ended in the total defeat of 

the Lancastrians. . 

Edward pursued them towards Tadcaster with 
such impetuosity, that numbers were drowned 



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.130 ItlSTOR? OB PONTBFRACT. 

in attempting to pass tbe nattow* but deep, 
river Cock, which lay in tbeir way. Many miles 
of the' country round were stained by the Uood 
. of. tbirty-six thousand seven hoodred and ^ 
Englishmen, who were slain by the hands . of 
Englishmen *. 

The E^rl of Devonshire who had but lately 
espoused, the .cause, of Henry, was tlie only pri- 
soner takmi. Ediyard marched directly to Vorit, 
hoping tO' find Henry «nd Margaret there, hut 
they had set out for Scotland, before his arrival. 
He ijnmediately ordered the heads of the Duke 
c^ Yorky his iather, and the Earl of Salisbury to 
be taken down axA interred with their bodies, 
and. that of tlie Earl of Devonshire, who was 
beheaded by martial laiv, to be put in their 
stead.. 

Edward being establish^ on the thrcme, 
prepared- to discharge the duties of a son, by 
taking up the corpse of his father, and honour- 

* In the Patton leUen. the number of Uwic vbo fell, h 
Mated to have betn twenty-eight thousand mea. This sppean 
lo have been a copy of a letter, seat by Edward to lui fjueea, 
to inrorm ber of thu happy event 

" On the king's part, Fitzvralter and Ix>rd Scroop wounded, 
J, Staffofd and Home of Kent were killed." 

" On tbe cnemiei part killed at Fenybridge, the day be- 
fore the battle. Lord CUfford. Then fell in tbe field of battle, 
H.Piercy, Earl of Northumber- R. Well), Lord WiUoughby, 
hnd, Sir Ralph Bigot, 

T. Courtney, Earl of Devon, Gray, 

Viscount Beaumont, ; Sr Richard Jmey, 

Lord Neville,, Sir Hany BeliDghAm, 

Dacre, Sir And. Tiolop ; 

CiifTord, Wllh twenty..eight thousand 

StafFord, men, numbered by heralds. 

LordWelb, 

FBimi, Lett. fintEdirardlV. 



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HISTOBT' OF ' PONTSFRACT. 131 

iBg it witb a splendid and magnificent - fiineral. 
The fi>nn of this fuheral ia Ikas described,'. by 
Sondfonl, ' fi<om 'a rtnanuscript ' preserved 'tn the 
<:oIiege bfanns. ' 

On the SSd July, ' 1466, his .bones ivere re- 
iBored irom the diarch of the priory of ' St. 
John* at Pohtefract, and put into a diariot 
covered with black' velvet. Th^ Tvere richly 
ivrapped in a cloUi of gold, and royal habit. 
At the feet of the corpse stood a'wfttVtf Oftgel, 
Clearing a crown of gold,, to signify, that of right 
he was king. The chariot ' was drawn 1^ sevan 
Jiorses, trapped to the grotmd,- and -covered with 
black, charged with escutcheons df the 'said prince's 
arms. Every horse' carried' a man, and on "the 
foremost rode ^ Sir John ^ipwith, ' who' bare the 
banner of 'the prince dispiayed. 

AO^tbe bishops and mitred abbots honoured 
this solemnity by their attendance. Dressed in 
their pontifical robes, tfaey 'went two or three 
mil6s befere the ^rotes&ion, to prepare and con- 
secrate the cborehes for- the reception of the 
corpse of the prince. Richard, Doke of Glouces- 
ieiV'filllowied next' after the chariot, accompanied 
by thf> pmicipal noblemen of the kingiitom,! and 
a nhrtiber of bfficers at arms. In this ordef 
tfa^procesaiondejianied from Pontefraot, followed 
by aft- immense -cWiCourse of spectators, and the 
first night they reached Donoister; and from 
tb^Kie proceeded by easy journeys to Blythe, 
Tmibrd, Newark,. Stamford, aad.then to Fotherr 
ingay, where they arrived on July 9^. ■ 

Edward IV. the queeh, and officers of slate, 
met the procession as it entered ^rotheringay. 
Xhey proceeded into the church, near to the 



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132 HISTORY OF PONTEFUCU 

high altar, where there was a hearse covered 
with black, and Arnished with a number of ban- 
ners, bannerols and pensils; and under the said 
hearse, were laid the hones of the prince and 
his son Edmund. Over the hearse, was a doth 
of majesty, of black sarcenet, - with the figui%i 
of our Lord sitting on a rainbow beaten in gold, 
having in every corner escutcheons of the tarns 
of England and France quarterly. Around the 
hearse was a valance of black saroenet, fringed, 
half a yard deep, on which were three angels of 
beat^i gold, holding the arms within a garter. 

Upon the SOth several masses were said, and 
then at the Offertory of the mass of requiem, the 
king offered for the' prince, .his father; the queen 
and her' two daughters offered aJterwards; then 
Norroy, king at arms, offered the prirtoe's coat 
of arms; March, king of arms, the target; Ire- 
land, king of arms, the sword; Windsor, herald 
at arms of England, and Rovenden, herald at 
arms of Scotland, uffered the helmet, and Mr. 
de Ferrys the harness and courser*. 

In the year 1 470, the Earl of Warwick aDd 
several others, having taken i^ arms, proclaimed 
Henry king, tmd assuming the govermnent in bis 
name, obliged Edward to fly to Holland fot 
safety)-. Here be endeavoured to cottect some 
forces, and landing at Raveottpurg Vfttlf. -■ twenty 

• Bib. T<^. Vol. Vr. foflieringay. 
t In the Paston letters there is sn account of leverel 
pericni who were Uken aod confined in Pooterract caXle. 
" John Pilkingtao, Mr. W. at Cli% and Fowler are. Uken, 
and in the castle of Pontefract, and are lil^ lo die hostil}r. 
Sir T. Montgomery and Jourdane be taken, what shall fall 
of them I cannot sty." 

FsKNt; Lett Vol U. p. 45. 



D.n.llzedbyGt>OJ^IC 



HISTORY OF PONTEFRACT. 133 

tfaousand soldiers, gave out that he only came to 
claim his dukedom of York. lie aprived at York. 
on tlie Idth March, 1471, ivbere he was well 
received' as Duke of York, but uot as king. 
Haying got possession of the city, he assumed 
the regal title, and began his march southward. 
Warwidc sent orders to his brother ihe Marquis 
Montacute, who then lay at Pontcfract with a 
great army, to march immediately and fight him; 
but one' would suppose the marquis was i^l this 
time asleep, as he never once attempted to op^ 
pose him in his mardi. £d\iard, conscious of 
the strength of his enemies, wished to avoid a 
battle if possible till his friends had joined htm. 
The irresolution, not to say cowardice or lrea-< 
chery of Montacute, suffered Edward to pass the 
river Aire, at Castleford, without the least re- 
sistance. The battle of B^met soon after fixed 
£dw3rd once more on the thnne for life. 

In the fourth of Edward IV. a safe conduct 
was granted to John Lord de -Lanoy of France, 
at the request of the Duke of Burgundy, dated 
at Pontefract castle, the 10th December, U6S. 

On the 36th September; (nineteenth Edward 
rv.) 1478, Edward made a progress into the 
' north, accompanied by a very, numerous suit of 
dnkes, marqnisses, earls, barons, and a great croud 
of other courtiers. He was met on his journey 
by all the public officers and gentry of these 
partst amongst the rest by the lord ntayor of 
York, and many of the richest citizens, who 
went as far as Wentbridge to meet him, and 
escorted him to Pontcfract, w^iere the king re- 
mained a week, and then set off for York. 

Edward the IV. died on the 9th April, 1483, 



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134 mSTOKY OF TOmBSUCt. 

and was succeeded by his «lder son Edward V. 
Edward was only in the thirteenth year of bis 
age, at the death of his father. He was imme- 
dtately proclaimed king; and kept his ooarl. at 
Ludlow castle, being under the ttrition^ of An- 
thony Woodrilie, brother to the queen of Edward 
IV. He -had been advanced to the dignity of 
a baron, by the title of Lord Scales, and was 
afterwards 'honoured with the title -of Earl of 
Rivers. He became a most.distinguiAed warrior 
and oEtatesman ; and was . accounted one of the 
most learned inen of the age. The friends of 
the queen etrjoyed all ttie offices about the per- 
son of young Edward. 

The court hod been divided into two Actions, 
during the reign of Edward IV. The old 
nobility were headed by the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, and the queen's: friends by Earl Rivers. 
Richard, Duke a£ Gloncester, had the address 
to secure the friendrinp of the queen and her 
party, by outward marks c^ respect, : while he 
entered hito a secret a^eement with Bpckingham 
and his party. On the death of his brotlier, 
Richard laid claim to the office of protector; 
and ionsted on it- as his- right. Earl Rivers, Sir 
Richard Grey, and Sir Thomas Vaugliaa, aware 
that the Dutce of Grloucester, woidd attempt 
to seize the person of young. Edward, and as- 
sume tiie 'government of the country in his name, 
raised a body of troops for his defeqce.- Glou- 
oteter, by pretending a .regard for his nephew 
and the wel&re of his conntry, so &r imposed 
on the queen, that she gave orders to her bro- 
ther, Earl ilivers, to dismiss the forces he had col- 
lected, and to bring his nepliews to Westminster. 



D.n.llzedbyG6bg[C 



la obedieece fo ber. orders be:set off, but when he 
had reached Northsmpton, was met by Glouce»< 
ter and hi* friends, who seized the young king 
and bis brother, and eent Earl ilivers. Sir A. 
Grey,- and Sir Thomas Vaughan» under a strong 
guard, prisoners to Pontefraet castle. 

Sir Richud Aaddiffe was governor of the 
ca^le, a creature of Gloocester's, and every way 
quaJified lor the perpetr«t)OQ of deeds, of cruelty 
and blood. On the Uth June, first of Edwanl 
V. be went to York, and delivered a letter from 
the dake to the lord mayor, requesting him to 
raise forces to aid and assist him against the 
qoeea-aod her adherents; and it was agreed that 
such forces as the city could raise on each a 
sudden, should be on the Wednesday night then 
next at Voot^ract, where the Eaxl of Northum- 
beriand waited . to conduct them and others to 
London . 

Richard, true to his purpose of seizing the 
throne, on the day that Edward V. should have 
beeft crowned, when they met in the tower, pre- 
toided Lord Hastings and others had assaulted him 
in order to murder -the king and subvert the 
government, and commanding him immediately to 
be -beheaded, t.be coronation was put off till, as 
he pretended, this alarm had ceased. He had, 
however, ao ordered and arranged his plans, that 
on that very, day Earl Rivers, bis uncle, .and other 
fneuds, in. Pontefraet castle, were executed, with- 
out any cjiime .being proved against them. 

The followmg is the account that Grafton 
gives of this JranpactioD. . "Nowe was it devised 
by. 'tbe<-proteeto«r and his counsaile, tliat the 
saqw: day that the Lord Hestingh chamberlayne. 



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13S aiETORV OF POMTBPIIACl>. 

was headed in the tower of London, and abotit 
the same hour should be beheaded at Pounfrete, 
the Earle Kivers, and the Lord Richard, the 
queens son, Sir Tlio. A^aughan and Sir Ricliard 
Hawte; whiche execution was done by the ordre, 
and in the presence of Sir Richard RaclifF knight, 
whose service the protectour specially used in 
the execution of such lawlesse enterprises, as a 
man that he had been long secrete with, haT- 
ing experience of the worlde and shrewed wytte, 
shorte and rude in speech, roogli smd boysterous 
of behaviour, bold in mischief, as far from pytie 
as from fear of God." 

" This knight brought these four persom to 
the scaffold at the day appointed, and shewed 
to all the people that they were iraitours, not 
sufferying the Lords to speake and declare their 
innocency, least their wordes miglit have inclyned 
men to pytie them, and to hate the protectour 
and his part, and so without judgement end 
processe of the lawe caused them to be beheaded 
without other yearthly gylt but only that they 
were good men and true to the king and to 
nye to the queen, insomuch as Sir Tho. Vaughaa 
going to his death sayd, A wo worth them that 
looke the prophecy that G. should destroy King 
Edwards children (meaning Lord G. Duke of 
Clarence) which for that suspicion is now dead, 
but nowe rcmayneth Richard, Duke of G. whiche 
nowe I see is he that shall and wyll destroy 
kyng Ed. children and all their alyes and frendes, 
as appeareth by us this day, whom I appele 
to the highe tribunal of God for his wrongful 
murther and cure true innocencye, and then 
Racliif sayd, you hare well apeled, lay downe 



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ftmOKt OF PONTEPBACT. 137 

yonr head,' ye sayd Sir Tho. I dye in wright, 

beware you dye not in wrong, and so tliat 

good koight was beheaded and the othc^r three 

and buried naked in the monastery at Pounfrete." 

Many 4 crime, deem'd inBocent on earth, 

li regifler'd in heav'n ; and these no doubt. 

Have each thdr record, with a curse annex'd. 

Richard having seized the crown and usurped 
the throne, hy the titie of King Richard III. 
io the second year of his reign granted a charter 
to this town, whereby he incorporated it, and ap- . 
pointed John -Hill the first mayor thereof, in 
July, 1484. This charter was confirmed by par- 
liament the 9th of August following. 

Richard, who, to the most consummate hypo- 
crisy, added the most ferocious cruelty, and 
ascended the throne by the murder of his 
king, was not permitted to enjoy it long in 
peace. The Dtiice of Buckingham, a character 
equally depraved as his own, by whose assis- 
tance Richard had hitherto met with success, 
soon formed a scheme to dethrone him, and 
unite the houses of York and Lancaster. Thus 
it frequently happens that associates in guilt, 
become the instruments of each others punish- 
ment; and the ways of providence are justified 
in rendering to them their deserts. 

The scheme devised met with general appro- 
bation; and measures were soon adopted to 
carry it into 'execution. Buckingham lost his 
life in the first attempt, and many of his 
friends were taken and executed. Richmond, the 
heir of the house of Lancaster, not discourage 
by this event, but having collected some troops 
in France, at length landed at Milford-baren. 



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138 atSTOBT OP P(»ITEFUCT. 

The people flocked to bis standard, and be 
soon found himself at the head of an army saf- 
ficiemly powerful to encounter Richard. 

The two armies met at BosWortb, where 
Kichard lost his crown and bis life. This battle 
was fought on the 23d August, I4S5. At this 
time was also slain the above mentioBed Sir 
ilichard Ratcliffe, the governor erf" PcHrtefract castle, 
with many other persons of rank. The crown 
being found in the field of battle. Lord Stanley 
put it upon the head of Richmond, who was 
immediately proclaimed king, by the title of 
Henry VII. amidst the acclamations of tbe 
whole array j and, by bis marriiige with tbd 
princess Elizabeth, he put an end to the dread- 
ful contest]! of the kingdom^ by the union of 
the houses of Yot^ and Lancaster. 

No more the thirsty entrance of thi^i loH 

^mD danip her lipi with her own childran'i blodd ; 

No more shall trendiing war chonDel her fidds. 

Nor bruise her flowrets with the anned hoofi 

Of hostile paces. Those opposed iiTes, 

Which like (he meteor) of a troubled heaven, 

AU oF(»ie nature, <4 one subctance brec^ 

Did Iatel7 meet in the intestine dtock 

And fUiioui close of civil butdiery. 

Shall now, in mutual, well-beseeming ranks, 

March all one way ; and be no more oppos'd 

A gainut acquaintance, kindred and allies : 

Tbe edge of war like m ill-di«s&ed knile. 

No more shall cut hia maiter. 



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]ytRTOBY OT Pi^nVVRACr. 



SECTION X. 



Historical events from the death of Richard III, 
tilt the comjnenceineat of the civil war. 

AV HEN raised to the throne, Henry VII. might 
justly have concluded, that as be had no com- 
petitors to fear, his reign would not be disgraced 
by those intestine feuds and animosities which 
bad so long prevailed. He, however, soon found 
that the spirit of enmity had acquired strength 
by time, and nothing but the strong hand of 
power could repress or eubdue it. The nobles 
bad been so long accustomed to assume and ex- 
ercise an authority above all law } and the people 
to f(^ow them implicitly as leaders and com- 
manders, that the former could, whenever they 
chose, excite commotions, disturb the peace, and 
endanger the throne. 

Though the houses of Yorft and Lancaster 
were happily united, by the marriage of Henry 
with £lizri>eth, the same factions still continued, 
^h1 the fiieods of the latter naturally expected 
that the king would reward their fidelity, and rer 
store their forfeited estates and honours. The Yor^ 
kists, who had feasted on the spoils of their ene- 
mies for near twenty years, and had no wish to 
relinquish what they had obtained, soon perceived 
their danger ; and by encouraging false pretenders 
to the throne, and raising partial insurrections, in- 
volved themselves in those very calamities they wish- 
ed to avoid, and lost both their lives and fortunes. 



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140 mSTORV OF PONTEniACT. 

In the second of his reign, Henry made a 
tour into the northern countries, and visited 
Ponlefract, the ancient patrimony of his family, 
where he resided some days. He then hastened to 
York, and while he remained there,, an insurrec- 
tion broke out, headed by the Staffords in the 
south, and by I^ord Level in the north, who 
pursued Henry with a body of three or four 
thousand troops. This insurreclion was soon 
quelled, and tranquillity for a .thort season restored. 

In the fourth of Henry VII. (1488,) a rebel- 
lion broke out in the northern counties, in con- 
sequence of a heavy tax imposed by pariiament. 
The people instigated by a popular incendiary, 
named John a Chambre, a man who delighted 
in war and plunder, rose in arms; and choosing 
one Sir John Egremont, a factious partisan of 
the house of York, they declared they would 
march to London, and give battle to the king. 
Henry was no sooner informed of this distur- 
bance, than he sent a body of troops against 
the rebels, under the command of the Earl of 
Surry, whom he had lately received into favour. 
That nobleman marched with all speed against 
the insurgent,?, who had reached the village of 
Ackworth, near this place, on their way to 
London. On the first attack they were routed, 
and John a Chambre taken prisoner; but their 
commander. Sir John Egremont, had the good 
fortune io escape. John a Chambi-e and the 
rebel captains were executed at Yorkj but the 
rest were pardoned at the intercession of the 
Earl of Surry, by which he gained the &Tour 
of the country. 

Henry this year renewed and confirmed the 



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HISTOKT OF PONTEFUCT. 141 

above mentioned charter of Kichard III. to the 
borough of Pnntefract, dated 1st Dec. 1488. 

During the latter part of the reign of Henry 
VII. and the former of that of Henry VIII. 
iew events of importance occur respecting this 
place. Henry Vll. had the felicity to have out* 
lived the spirit of taction, and to leave the king- 
dom in peace. In the course of his reign he 
had amassed much wealth, of which his son and 
successor, Henry VIII. was extremely prodigal. 
His amours and intrigues, his cruel and unjust 
treatment of those he denominated his wives, 
ultimately led him to quarrel with the pope, and 
to encourage the reformation. 

Henry had emptied his coEfers by extrava- 
gance and dissipation. Some measure was neces- 
sary to relieve hia pressing wants; and the spirit 
of the times according with his inclination, he 
determined to seize the wealth of the religious, 
and wholly to suppress the monastic orders. 
The authority which the pope had hitherto en- 
joyed, Henry assumed and exercised; and he 
and his successors were declared to he the 
supreme head of the church of England. 

The religious orders could not behold with 
indifference the gathering storm, which threatened 
to overwhelm their, elegant mansions, and their 
richly ornamented temples; and to strip them 
of all that wealth which had been conferred by 
the piety or superstition of past ages. They 
were not disposed to give up their all without 
a. struggle; and had not various circumstances 
favoured Henry, this struggle might have proved 
fetal to his crown and life, and also to the 
reformation ia this kingdom. 



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143 HMTOEY OP POKTWmCT. 

On the establisbmeDt of the king's sapremacy, 
and the allowing of the service of the church to 
be read in English, in the year 1636, the ^irit 
of disaffection and revolt particularly appeared 
in the counties of Lincoln and Yoric. Most 
of the heads of religious houses took up arms 
in defence of the church and their own orders; 
and a body of forty thousand* men was soon 
collected, well furnished with arms, horses and 
artillery. Sir Robert Aske, of Aughton, was 
chosen commander. This formidable army, ani- 
mated with all the enthusiasm of religious zeal, 
surrounded the castle of Pontefract, and obliged 
Thomas Lord D'Arcy and the Archbishop of 
York, who were therein, to deliver it to them. 
These insurgents called themselves the '* Pilgri- 
mage of grace." Lord D'Arcy and the ux:hbi^p 
took their oath, viz. " To enter into the pilgrimage 
of grace for the love of God, the preservation 
of the king's person and issue, the purifying of 
the nobility, expelling all evil Uood and evil 
counsellors, for no particular profit to themselves, 
nor to do displeasure to any, nor to slay nor 
murther any for envy ; hut to put away all 
fears and to take afore them the cross of Christ, 
his &ith, the restitution of the church and the 
supresbion of herjtics and their opinions." Cer- 
tun it is, that though Lord D'Arcy and the 
archbishop pretended want of provisions to hold 
out the castle, yet they were suspected of favonr- 
ing the rebels, for they continued with Adce, 
and were named as two of his deputies to treat 
for peace. A general pardon being granted, 
the rebels dispeised, and Aske being ordered 

* Sir Richud Baket la^a Sony'tiw Ihouaand. 



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HtSTORY OF PONTBFUCT. 14S 

t6 court was well receired, but Lord D'Arcy 
not complying, was taken and sent to the tower, 
aod afterwards beheaded. Aske * leaving the 
court without leave, was also taken and executed, 
and hung in chains on a tower in York. 

At the dissolution of abbeys, one William 
Tindall, Esq. of Brotherton, raised a tumult in 
this borough. "When the persons who were ap- 
pointed by government to appraise the goods in 
St. Giles' church, had entered the church to 
discharge their office, W. Tindall, attended by 
a servant with a spade and mattock, went through 
the town and up to the market-cross, and made 
the following ludicrous address, which at least 
indicates his spirit and attachment to the super- 
stitions which had hitherto prevailed. " If there 
be any person," cried he, " that Jesus Christ ia 
indebted to, let him come and make his clainr, 
for Jesus Christ is dead, and I have brought 
my man to make his grave and bury bim.'* 
The appraisers came out of the church and asked 
what was the matter? "W. Tindall told them, 
'* he was come to bury the* body of Christ." 
The appraisers were angry, and bade him take 
care what he said, but he replied, " Surely Jesus 

* It hu been notictd, (hat the fiunily of the Askei were 
ti» ori^nal lords of Kirkl^, ia the time of the Stxaaa. Thii 
Sir Robert Aske, was a peraon of great abilities, though 
much attached to popeiy, and an avowed enemy to the refar- 
nn&m. Christopher, the son of this Sr Robert, built the 
■teeple of the chmch at Aughton, which is yet standing, md 
ContMns an uiscription, which indiories the impresMon which 
die death of h)S &ther had made upon his mind. 

Chriitofer, le lecound fits de Robert Aske 

Chr oUier M doy anno IXi. 15S6 

Vid Goillettan') Mag. 1754. vo). 2^. 



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14* ffiSTOBY OP PONTEFRACT. 

Christ is dead. Was it ever heard that goods 
were appraised before the owner is dead? Ye 
are appraising his goods, therefore I thought he 
was dead, and what more likely *." 

In the year 1540, King Henry VIH. visited 
the castle of Pontefract. 

After this period, Talbot, Earl of Salisbury, 
commanded the English troops in the marches 
of Scotland. The English army entered Scotland, 
Oct. 21, 1543, and having desolated the west 
marches, returned to Berwick. On the 24th Nov. 
the Scots invaded England with' fifteen thousand 
men, and were totally routed at the battle of 
Solway Moss, by a small band under the com> 
mand of Sir Thomas, afterwards Lord Wharton. 
Many persons of the first rank in Scotland were 
taken prisoners; and according to the hospitable 
custom of that time were committed to the 
custody of different nobility. In the quaint stile 
of the Talbot letters, we have an account of 
the following persons being committed to our 
castle. 

" The Lairde of Makreth, of lOOl, land in 
the year, to Sir Henry Saville, governor of 
Pontefract castle." 

" The Lord Carlishe, a man of 300 marks 
and more, but hath little in his own hands, be- 
ing withcid from it by rebels; himself rei^ynith 
in Pontefract castle under Sir H. Saville." 

" The Lairde Johnstone, a gentleman-of 100 
marks per ann.; for whom the king's majesty 
hath paid an 100 marks in part of payment to 
his tEdcer, for his ransom, and himself remainith 
in Pontefract castle." 

* Wihon'« MS. 



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HUTOftY OF K>NTeFftACT. 145 

" L&iide of Grutoey' and Newbye, between 
them of 40 marks or more, their pledges their 
brodio-, with Sir H. Saville, for 1S2 maHc9*." 

In the year 154^, Lord Maxwell waa a prU 
soner in this castle^ concerning wliom the fol- 
lowing letter Jrom Henry VXII. was sent to the 
then governor: 

BY THE KING. 

•* Trusty and well beloivd, we greet you, 
welt; and, for certain causes and considerations, 
us and oar conncil specially moving, we will, 
and stnutly charge, anid command you, that ye; 
with all possible .diligence, do send the Lord 
Maxwell to our town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
ID safe and sore custody, so that be may be 
here wHh oat truaty and well-beloved cbunsellor, 
the Earl of iiartford, our lieutenaot-generat in 
these north parts, on. Friday or Saturday next 
at the farthest; and these letters shall be unto 
you a sufficient warrant in that behalf, — and to 
the intent ye may the more surely accomplish 
our pleasure herein according to our expectations, 
we do send unto you herein inclosed a commission 
for taking post-horses by the way, as the need 
shall require. Not failing hereof, as ye tender our 
pleaSare, and will answer the contrary at our ut* 
molt jeopardy and peril.-^Given under our signet, 
at our town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the 32d day 
of September, at eleveb of the clock before noon, 
of Hk 38th year of our reign. 

To our trusty and right-well beloved counsellor. 
Sir Henry Savtl, Knt, Steward of our Honour 
of Fontefract, aod Constable of our Castle 

* Lodge*! I^tntiont of BciUA history. 



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J4fi HSTORY OF PONTEnUCT. 

thffl-e; and Jft fiis sibsenw, to his'Oeputy or 
Deputies there ; in haste, poit-hHste— for lift, 
foff LIFE, forLiEE, Delivered'tiy the Post the 
day and year aforesaid." ■ ■ 

No fact of importance occuts' doriog the 
reign of Edward VI. whose ■p\ety. has embalmed 
his memory, and whose .charjty schools have con- 
tributed to tbe instnictioa of thousands. The 
plague prevEuIed. ia the' second year of hia rrign, 
of which many died in' this place.* 

The bloody reign. of Mary, or the more rigo* 
rons, active and glorious one of Elizabeth, is equally 
barren of topographical history. The inhabitants 
of this borough have however orte improvement, or 
public convenience, to oooamemorater— the erec- 
' tion of the conduit in the mai'ket-ploce, for sup- 
plying the inhabitants with, water, which was 
finished in the year IST'^. 

Qneen Elizabeth, some little time before her 
death, repaired and beautified' the castle; and 
ordered the chapel of St. Clement^ vitbia it, 
which had gone to decay, to be rebuilt; 

In Ib03, King James I. in the first year of 
his reign, visited this town on bis return from 
Scotland; and alter hi» departure a grievous pes- 
tilence broke out, bf which many died. He 
granted the castle and honour' of Pontefi'aCt to 
the queen, as part of her jointure. Power was 
^ven in this grant to make leaKs of her ma> 
jesty's lands for twenty one' yearis, reserving 
the old rents*. 

In the year 1616, the king s^in visited 
Pontefiact in his progress to Scotland, and 
* Lodge** DluttnAilu. 



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iaii;M>r,(»;,p^a-^FRACT,, ~ 1.47 

viewed the late established college in the castle, 
which still retained its original name of St. 
Clements. 

The year 16:3^, King Qharles I. Visited this 
town in his way from Scodand.' 

He also created Sir John Saville» Knight, 
high steward o£ 'the honoaf- of Poniefnct; and 
by lettei^^ patent, dat^ dlst July, the ibui-th 
of Charles I. advanced him to the dignity of a 
baron qf .the.refttpi, by the fitle of X^rd Saril]^' 
Barop pf .^i^Dbi^ract.;, ijlifi son JDheritt^ tt« title, 
and WAS, created .E^rl. of,^u^sex, aai^ ,i^e ^mil/. 
bec^pae'.eztincL infills ;graf)dftOp James... . 



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BteTOKT 07 pottTinucr. 



SECTION xr. 



Ou the civil war, the state t^ parties, and a 
description qf the castle in its perfect siaie. 

We have now reached the period, wheo the 
war between Charles and the parlfament com- 
menced; ah '6Tcnt which Tatiods causes' opet-ated 
to produce, and which, though for a season it 
convulsed, if not destroyed, the regular motioa 
of the ni£ichine of gOTerntnent, in its conse- 
quences, has tended to adjust its parts; aud to 
establish and consolidate that constitution which 
is justly the pride and boast of Englishmen. 

During the vigour of the feudal system, the 
mass of the people were without property and 
without rights. The king and the nobles enjoyed, 
the supreme power, and the house of commons 
had no legislative existence. By degrees the 
lower order of the people acquired property} 
and in the struggles between the crown and the 
nobles, their influence was sensibly felt, and 
gave victory to the party they espoused. The 
people became gradually of more weight and 
consequence; and at last attained a part in the 
government by their representatives in parliament. 
The commons, as emanating from the pet^Ie, 
like the tribunes in Rome, became the constitu- 
tional guardians of their rights and privileges. 

In the reign of James, the representatives of 
the people were respectable for their property. 



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BtsTOBv OF vamtnAsr. lO 

their virtne and talents; and' ditplayed a firmness 
m resisting the encroachments of the crown,- 
which justly entitles them to the admiration of 
a grateful posterity. Not convinced by the potent 
arguments James producedi for establi^ing the 
dtrine right of kings, and their absolute ' power 
to do what they pleased wHh the persons and 
property '<)£■ tteir subjects, they defended "the 
rights of -the people, add evinced that spirit of 
liberty, 'whidf, in the rea^ of Chwies^ burst 
(sM^U likd a :torr«it, antt 'SWei^ away whatever, 
impeded its course. .' ' • 

In B word, die increase of trade, the spirit of 
inqairy excited by the refiumatioD) the revival of. 
literatare, 'aridthe diffiuioii of knowledge by the 
inventionof printing;- the weakness of Jatne^ 
and the' arbitrary, impolitic And miconatitutiofial 
dondtict of. GhaHes; all united to kindle tite 
flames of this' unhappy .^rar, which spread deso- 
lation through the country;, subverted for a. 
season the ;churcb aad the throng and brought 
Charles to a disgraceful end. ' - . 
■ 'In the year 1542; Ghartfe' erected the roy^ 
staiidard ai York; and <ia11ed on bis subjects 
.to aid Ivm in subduing his rebellious parliament. 
The lower- oiders, for obvious, reasons attached 
tb freedom, wfirmly espoused the came of the 
parliament: ivbHst'the oltf hoble famites generally 
supported' thai ^f the king., Most of the lead- 
ing perBona in the county of York, in order to 
supply tte'lfiog's nec«nitiee, 'gave according tO' 
their ability, itoffle one hundred, others two 
hundred pounds, and up to ten thousand. 
- They inlisted men>: and supp(»t6d them' at 
their own expence. They seized the ^stlea- 



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ISO QBTO^y <M FONTBFItAOT..' 

within ibis coufliyj > ifn^: supplied ihwn with pro? 
visioiiSt ThefoUoAriogis a.listof tbe:dUl^gaished 
persoDS ivhf> tbrmed. ttie garrisoa. lin, ; the castje 
of PoDtefract; .and: signalized thenoselv^ bytheir 
hmveiry and valour. , Jt is given ii) ;the .stjile of 
the writer, who cODtributod >bis shuie in ^he c|e^ 
Jence of this important ibiftrcss. , j , ; 

'** A' true list Of the jnatuier a£ <iw wiUabe^ 
rnidertsdcen by tfae.lmigbtf^ gecitlwieniiuid volup- 
teers' in -the first siege, with i the q9tift|i;oC thegn 
as Ibey; were ialistcd iia tbeir. -fquadipm wd. 
divisions." .-:;'. 

' <^,T-be landing dfiioersi-oT die gswwon.wcre 

Cdonel Liy«rther.*i. -tbei goveroor^ advised by; 

the pains «f . fiis brtiitber, Mr. Kobert Lpwther." 

"iX-iatt. Col. WbeaUey, Lu CoL Mi<)dJeteivt-> 

• Sir' 'Wiffiam LoHrUtbr'Af Xoed* sfid.'iStritiagta^: wImk 
wtB'Uw governor otUiw;:C*aU*, , wm »■ .xfi^S^r "P (t*E 5ir^ 
John LowUier, ,oC Lcrwther,..jj} WesUnq^daod-i^TJie .fiuqily, 
was ancient and renpectable. This Sir WillUm' 'Lowfher inar- 
ried Jane, dauglilcr of WiUiam Busfield, ofLeedit, men^ianL' 
He vm one' of the coumsil 6f- &o tMtth. Hd^pMldiMHi'-tte 
SwiUington esUtei ef Cmien .Dwgf, &li jgf .H nj i JW M H^ 
Wiiieh havd ^contiwied in ^Riamily, utdpe.,ncny (twjprpj^erty 
of Lord Lowthar. He died February 1^9, ^cd eigfaljt, mnd 
left issue. Sir William and ^chWd. . ;' ' /'* /^' ''' ^ 
- Sir Willbm Lowther itianied 'CBttwrine, cMdgMW'ot' Thtt. 
Huriidn, 4f Dancer*! Hiy.iin UertfvdalnTcy,' hj Ni wifc QHt' 
tberinc, dam^tet of Sir John' Blud, oT'^pinxp^,; TtVf S^^ 
William .Lowthar wu iheiiS *f this cCKintj ii; ffl'si. 

t Of ih^ lamHy of Lieutenant Colonel "WTieptly, Ibctdilbr; 
can give no account. The original'sdH tif-tde'^ 'Entity ,W 
Middieton, wu at' Middleton, in WhsffilUeL. i Tbt'^qly; k 
very tmciert^ Wilbim. MjfUJefam, E^. ikf),tb6fe^:0t' H(»^ 
V, temoved to, Stodtdd. near W^Uierby. ,^rom Jii^ deac^ded . 
■Wiillam, who waa Lieutenant Colonel of a|rekiment,of Ijorse, 
and among other* threw himself in (o oiircastw, and 'with' his- 
breve -coUeagiKs nobly defendad it, AUachrfKsit lo -tite tame 
ouue united this :liwii!/ to fluft tif Sjr M<KV>94u^ J^gda^^ - 
who after the restoration, was created Baion Lan^lale, of 



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filSTOIlY OF PONTHnUCf, 151 

Major DiDDis,' Capt^ Carbpright, Capt. Munroe, 
Capt. Geitard Lowther, son of the governor, 
and captaib of' horse, as was also Capt. Mus- 
grave, bnt these hare nov^' turned foot, attd are 
commanded hy Mr. Lowther.V 

" The gentl^en volunteers were inlisted into 
fonr divisitma. ' The first commanded by Col. 
Grey, thfer feecond by Sir Richard Hutton, the 
third by Sir John' Ramsden, ahd the fourth by 
Sir G. Wentwprth, who had in their divisioiu 
the iuUowiog gentlem^i." 

First. Colonel Gret/*s Division. 
Colond Grey, brotUv Lieut.- Colonel Darcy^ 
to "Lari <iiey,^Si^: sftn to Lord Darcy, of 
Warke *, Hornby f, 

Holne. Peter Mkldloloii, As mu of (he cdonel, manlod dM 
dsugtiter of Mannaduke Langdale, Esq. Mn mid heir of Lord 

* The Orcyi w«k Killed in Northumberluid, as cttljr 
n the rogn of Edwani 11. Tliis faaa}y bai produced mtmy 
distingutdied warriors and statemen. WUIiBm Grey, £«]. [of 
Chfllbgfaani, vm advanced to the degree of bBroRet (leTen- 
teendi of Jamei) 15th June, 1019: and afterwardt lo tha 
boBour of Uie peerage, hj the titk of Lord Grey, of Warke, 
Fd). II. the twentyfirst of Jamei. He etpoaied the cauie 
f>f Chatles wttii ardour; and \m ton Mlowed the exaniple; 
WiwAer tlui ton wan . Ralph, who aftenvards enjoyed the 
Citato* and title of hn &thei, U not certain, ai Lord Grey 
bad other mm, though none but Ralph (urvived him. 

f Tbe.&Knily of the Darciex caoK in with the conqueror, 
•nd received from him the gift of thirty tiiiee Lordshipa in 
Unoobihire. Different faranchei of this bmily settled in the 
county of Yoric. Sir Comers Darcy was restored to the barony 
of Lonf Darcy rod Mon^, and to the t»rony of Hornby 
castle, where he resided, by Chatlei I. Me was strongly at- 
t^dked lo the rojnl.catuej and his son, it appears from the 
command be et^oyed, was anuaated by the tune spirit of 
lojahi. 



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I5S HlffrQST or PONTBFRACr. 

Sir Edward Raddiffe. Capt. Huddleston. 

Bart*, Kob.Portington}', 

$ir Francis Kaddifie, Grimstone, 

Lieut. Col. Portingtoof, Vavasour§,;ifl§. 

Major Huddleston,. — ^ Crott,.pa. 

* Tlw femily of KaddtSe waf lettled at Thredifield, in 
Craven, fi^ph Raddiffe,' £tq, was made high conitabte of 
Ihe Wapentake of StainclifT, the thiity'aecond of ElizabeAj 
He left the etitatei to bis M>n and heir, Charies, who was 
cleric of the peace in the West-Rtding, and aHodate before 
the judges in (he northern drcuit. He left issue, Edward, 
who married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomu Hetketb, of H«»- 
lington, near York. It is pri^Mble this Edward was advanced to 
Ihe degree of baronet, by Charles ; as the sale of titles was ime 
pethod he adopted to obtain raonej from his subjocts. It 
was probably the ton of this Edward who Toliinleered in tbe 
defence of tiiis castle. 

f Fortingfon of Barnby Dunn, an andenl a&d respectable 
&mily. Roger FortJngton waa justice of the peace, and wA 
Jered much in the royal cause. He wu fined in tiie - thae of 
Oliver, the nim of one thounnd eight hundred and ninely 
pounds for hii delinquencv. He enjoyed the rank of colonel, 
and shared in the duties of the brave defenders of this castle. 
He was interred in the church of Barnby Duno : and a mo- 
tuiment ftill remains, recording hit virtue, his -tu&rings and 
bis bapet, Vid. Millsb's Don. 133. 

{ Robert Portington was brother to Roger, and rended 
at ArkMy. He was major in Sir William Savilk't regiment 
of horse, and diatinguiihed himself by his courage as an officer. 
After Ihe war was over be returned to Arkiey, and lived 
some time in retirement; but after Oliver became Protector, be 
was taken prisoner, and sent to Hull, where he remained tiU 
the restoration. Being set at liberty, in crossing tbe Hum- 
mer he wai bit by a monkey, and not regarding the wound, 
it gaogrened and carried bfm to the grave. In Aiksey ctend), 
on a stone, near the altar. Is (he foUewtng inscriptiMi, 

Hie wpidtus Robertut Portington, Strat^i,- milet intigtui, 
Prindpi q. fidelit; obiit 23 die Decembris, A. D. 1650. 

§ It i) neceuary to inform the reader, tiiat/Mi. annexed to 
any name, denotes the person to have been a papist. 

§ The family of Vavaiour, of Haslewood, derives its 



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HBTOaY OF POKTEFRACT. 153 

Capt. Wheatley, Capt 

Fmnsdtile,>c * Hoult, 

Seaton, |=>cots. ___ g^^j^^ ^^ 

■'— Wheatley, Mr. Jolni Thimbleby, 

■ — ■ — ■ Smith, Mr. Charles Clarkson,; 

Tathum, Mr. Tatefield, 

Perry, Mr. Hammerton f* po. 

*, Mr. Stapfeton J, /jfl. 

orif^ and name from ibe .ofEce they dischu-gerl. Qui e)c 
munere (Regii enim (Jim Valvajiores erant) hoc assumpaemnt, 
Cambden. !t ii a very ancient family, and the pedigree may 
be traced up tu the conquest ; and several of the family have 
baen distinguished as valiant cammanders. Sir Walter Vava- 
MMir was bbm in the year 1613. He railed a regiment of 
horse, and supported them at Iiis own expence. A branch 
of this bmily resided at Weiton, near Otley. Viivawur of 
Wetton, nurried the widow of Edward Saville, Esq. the second 
«on pf John Lord Saville, Baron of Poniefract, and it h pro- 
bable tint one of these was the captain noticed ax a volun- 
teer in the castle. 

AnoUier branch of thi; family fettled at Fry<iton near thii 
place. In the computus of tfie honour of Ponteiract, p. 1,9. it is 
aid William Vavasour paid five pounds to ibe honour for one 
knigbts-fec, in FrysttHi, after the jdeath of his brutlier Henry, 
the tbidy-iecand of -Edward. III. L357. lathe seventh of 
Henry IV. Sir H. Vavaraur paid ten pounds relief for two 
knights-feet, U Water-Fry ston. 

* The MS. is impertectr whne the dolled lines are, and 
the names cannot be made out. 

t The bmily ot Hammerton resided at Furston Jaglin. 
The old hall fronting the public road was their seat. Attached 
to tfie superstition of their fiilhers, they continued in the catholic 
church. It is most probsUe the person here noticed, was one 
of this family i and the other under Sir G. Wentworth's division. 
Ills brother. 

X The bitiily .of Sta[Jeton ii. ancient ; and has been long 
•ettled at Cadeton, near .Snaitb. A branch of this fma\y un- 
questionably resided at Staplelon, near this town, and either 
gave their name to, or receK'cd it from, that of the place. This 
family has continued in the boiom of the catholic church, down 
to. the present day. Brian Stapleton is mentioned under Sir G. 
Wentffoith's divisioD, a name still continued in the lanuly. 



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154 riiBTtfirt' oy pttKIWhAerf. 

Mr. Anne *, pa, Mr. Higforrf, 

Mr.Cmhbiit Medcaulph, Mr. Wilkes, 

Mr. Jtrlin Metlcaulph, Mr. Burton^ 

Mr. Abbott, Mr. Hey» 

Cornet Spurgiori, Mr. Mast, frehch, 

. HarriiigtoD, Clergy lo this Division. 

Ensign Hearberl, ■ Mr. Hey, 

Mr.Stabler, Atdermant, Mr. Oleyi ■ 

Mr. Smith, do. Mr. Bnchanan, Scotos, 
Mr. Taytani, do. In all forty-eight. 

Seccn'd. Sir Richard Huttoii's Division. 
Sir Richaid HuttonJ, high-sheriff of Yorkshire. 

* This in an Aictent cadiofic farnilj; aTld bnn<4iM dfit 
have settled at Fricklej, Bolton, and Surgttwaltik. ' Philip Anfte 
look a decidnl part witli Charlen, aild nmiribuled two huDdred 
pounds lo Die support of the common «tu«e. 

t The loyalty of ibe corporation of this Sorougl), wal 
ttmti^y diiipiayed hy \l% mtinbers. Nire aMcTnten with the 
mayor, ten out of thirteen, of which number tl consists, left Ibeir 
bouses, and volunteered their service in Uie oariie. tAany tif 
them became great sufferers; as their hmises were telsed b^ 
Ihe troops of the paiEament, and suffered most duitng tto 
.siege. 

X The original seat of this family, is Hullon in CumbeN 
land, from which it derived its tiame. A branch of it settled 
at Goldsborough, near Wellierby. Sir Richard Hotlon wu 
sergcfint at law, uiA rnie of the jastlces ef the common picas. 
He was a man of griiat legal knowledge; and was jutdy hanoor- 
ed Ux his upightneis and integrity. King ChMrles- used lo cidl 
hitn (he boncit judge. His son and heir Sir R. Hutlon, in ibe 
beginning of the wa^j along with some <Aber gentlemen, seized 
and garriMmnl Knaresbio' castle, of which he was made govef^ 
nor. H^ chd not lohg retain thin [iosl, Birt either r»igned or 
was superseded by some ' other person, as we find hitn artioilgst 
Utt gatrison c^ York, which surrendered to the forces of the 
.parliament, Aug. 16, 1644. Sir Richard Hutlon must have 
departed with the honours of war, as he etiiered our c^le im- 
mediately, and obtained comtaand of the second divirioD of tbt 



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lUSTPRY OF FQNTEFMCT. IJ 

Capt. Constable •, Mr. Toyton, 

— — Musgrave, George Wentworth, 

Standenen, James Ellison, 

Fairbarn, John Longwith, 

Croft, Steven Grammenden, 

Lieutenant Smith, Janies Kendrick, 



Antrobus, M. Burchilf, 



Cornet Naylor, M. Hopgood, 

Bamford, Matthew Sutton, 

Matlhewman, Robert Halvfax, 

Mr. Grovener, Hobert Burton, 

Mr. Atkinson, William Watson, 

Mr. Preston, Thomas Walker, 

Mr. Joastone, Ehvanl Gauthrope, 

Mr. Maisey*. Jolm Farram, 

Mr. Maddoek, Sergeant Fletcher, 

garri on. He uirvivcd ths siege, and aflerwarili jotnrd the 
king. In the bailie of Slierburn, where Lonl D.ghy and oihen 
were taken pjisoners, he lost bis life. 

• Con?taHe of Flanibo rough, was dcfcenJed fiom Fil« 
£iiita(.-e Coii'Ulile, of Chester; and of coume sprung from th9 
■iCK-k, and wa^ connected wilti the Lacie« of For.iefract. Sir 
Kobeit Constable, in (he reign ol Henry VIII. was concerned 
in the rebellion, called llie pilgrimage of grace. For thit be 
wst pardoned, biil engaging in another commotion, lie wat 
beheaded at H^lt, aud liijt body hung in chaint, June 1537, 
His wn Sir Wm. Consiable, wa*, however, admitted 'to favour, 
and adii'anced to llie degree of Baronet, Jane '29, 1611. He r» 
meiabsreJ the death of hii father ; and in the reign of Cnarlea, 
dislinguiihed himself by his en.-nity to the royal cause. He 
fdhered to Cromwell, and wai one uf those wiio signed tha 
warrant lor the king's execution. 

A branch of ibis faipily kelllcd at Everinghara, in the East 
Riding of ibix county. Constable of Everingham, nia ried into 
tbe family ot Langdale, and warmly e^pou'^eil llie loysl cause. 
He wa-s the papt. Constable who entered tliia ca<t'e. In many 
iDKtances, we find persons of tlje same fan>ily engaged against 
c«di other, and the lies of blood and kin.lred tbrgoltea tlirougli 
Mte in**'H"t<;^r of political animosityj and rancoui. 



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156 HISTORY OF PONTEFRACT. 

Jonathan Heslam, John Oxley, 

Robert Moore, Waiter Steele, 

Thomas Senior, Clergy to this Division. 

Mr. Binnes, Mr. Buchanan, 

Mr. Wilson, Mr. Mankenhole, his 

Thomas Monke, peculiar chaplain. 

Third. Sir John Ramsdeh's Division. 
Sir J. Ramsden, Bart. * Lieut. Col. TindallJ, 
Sir Jarvis Cutler t> Major Warde*, 

" Sir John Ramsden, of Longiey, near Huddenfietd. Thh 
u the origbal seat of this »icient and respectable &inily. A 
branch of it resided at Lasscel Hail, near Kirk-Heaton ; and (be 
ancient se4t was Ibrsaken for the more agreeable one of Bjram. 
This family ha; intermarried with the Savilles and Lowthers. Sir 
John Kamsden, the foa of William of Longley, married fir^ 
Margaret, the daughter of Sic Peter Fretchvill, of Slovely, in 
Lancashire, and had issue William and John. To hii second 
wife, he married Anne, widow of Alderman Fool, o[ London, 
This Sir John engaged in the royal cause ; and afler the sur- 
render of the ca'ille of Ponlefract, at the close of the second 
siege, he entered into that of Newark, where he died. Tli« 
estates and name of this lespectable family have descended to 
the present baronet. Sir J. Ramsden, of Bynun. 

■f Sir Jarvis Cutler resided at Slainbrough , near Barns- 
ley. He fell a sacrifice to his zeal in the cause, and dial 
in the castle. 

I The family of Tindall resided at Brotherton. The ctio- 
nel was the son of William Tindall, Esq. who escited some 
diiiturbance in our borough, as was noticed in the time of Henry 
VIII. He was zealously attached to the king, and gave 3001. at 
the meeting at York, to support the war. He outlived bis 
royal matter, and in the time of Oliver paid 3401. for his com- 
position. 

I J Wade, (or Warde) of New Grange, near Leeds, an 
ancient and respectable family. Benjamin Wade rebuilt the 
bmity seat of New Grange; and was to warm in the royal 
cau!;e, that he considerably involved his estate (o support it: 
He told an estate of dOOt. per ann. and tpent not lets than 
ten thousand ptunds in the 'Service of CWlet. Was this' ibe 
major in our aiegef 



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HfeTORY OF tOWreraACT. 



Major Wentworth, 
Capt.PilkiDgton*, 

Morrett, 

HorsfoM, 

SwUlovant, 

Standeanen> 

~ Clough/ ' 

Beale, 

, Shaw, 

Gomet Herrington, 
' Nunnes, 

Lieut. Savillef, 

Flemming, 

Mr. Burton, 
Mr. Baumforth, 
Mr. Warwick, 
Mr. Stringer, 
Mr, Safrone, 

• Filkington, of PilLington, in the county of Lancaster. 
One of this family purchased Stanley, near Wakefield ; and a 
branch of this femily has resided (here ever since. It is pro- 
bable this Capt. PUkington vns a younger son of Sir Lionel 
Jilkinglon, of Stanley. 

f The Saville* is a very ancient tamily, in the West- 
Riding of this county. The Savitles of Bradley Hall, near 
Halibx, hsve married With the best Yorkshire tamilies; and 
the eldest branch of this family has long resided at Methley, 
and was advanced to the honour of the peerage. It is not 
certain, whether Lieut. Saville mentioned in the list belonged 
to the Savilles of Methley, or some oilier family of that name. 
Ip Watson's pedigree of the Savilles of HuUencdge, neat 
Eland, there is noticed a Gabriel Saville, who was Captain 
if foot under King Charles, and who married the daughter 
jand coheiress of Capt. Ralph Rokeby, of Skiers, near Rotber- 
ham. Perhaps he was the person who volunteered in tlie de* 
fence. of the castle of Pontefract. 

. i It ii to the industry and labour of this Capt. X. Drake, 
the editor and the public are indebted for this list of the per- 
lom who defended this castle ; a^ well as for the very parti* 



Mr. Peary, pa. 

Mr. Will TindaO. 

Mr. Hodgson, 

Mr. Pearry, pa. 

Mr. Keeper, 

Mr, Clarkson, 

Mr. H. tindail, 

Mr. Foster, 

Mr. Hitchin, 

Mr. Shilito, Mayor, 

Mr. J. Wilkinson, Alder- 
mnn, 

Mr. E. Wilkinson, Alder- 
man, 

Mr. Lunn, Alderman, 

William Strickland, 

Naihao Drake J, 

Peter Heaton, 



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ns wBtoKr or.Yonrmttrr. 

Daniel Morret, Clergy toikfs'Divishn. i 

Steie.i S'aiiilenen, Mr. Pickrin, ! 

George Shilito, ,Mr. Hirst, 

John Oxley. Mr. Cock'er, 

III all forty<fiix. ! 

cuTar srcount of the wiout evcntu of tSe liege, w'.ic4> wilt 
be given. The original leal oF the Dnkes was Siiibien Hall, 
near HaliFax ; and tiie family U saifi to come out uf Devonshire^ \ 

where a family of this name ha i been loiij; <irttled, ami of- 
which the (amoui Sir Francis D'^ke, wrfaO'C naval Achirwe* 
inraU liav« n-niered hb name ilkslriou:, wai a braiirh. Thi! 
pedigree i) traced fom tlie time of Edward 1. in Watson's 
li.iliax. down to Thomas, who lived in the lime of H<:nry 
Vni. who had i<Kie, Willbm, Gilbert, Humphry aod Isabella. 
William had isjue, four »on» and four daugluers, of whom the 
■econd wa^ Nathan, who lived at Godlc}'. The pvt lie look 
in tlie civil war exposed him to tlie lesentment of Cromwell, 
wbo deprived him of his estate at Godli-y. \aihan had ic-'Ue, 
Samuel, who W3« bred up to the churih, bat wai expelled 
froni, his fellowship in St. John'* Cnmbridgt.'; ajid aikerwardft 
■erved the king at tlie siege of Nettaik. A ter (he lettoia- 
tJon, this Samuel wv admitted to the degree of D. D. was 
imde rector of Handiworth, atid vicar of Ponlefrarl. He 
wrote the life of his lulor and friend, Mr. Cleveland. He 

■ toarried daughter of Mr. Abbot. His elde-t son, 

Franci*, wa« M. A. and succeeded him in the vkarage of 
PoiUcfiact. He married to bii first wife, Hannah, dnugtiter 

of Pa^lin, of York, merchant, by whom he had John, 

B. D. prebendary of York, and who succeeded his father at 
vicar of Pontefract. Tlie above Francis to his second wife 
loarried Elizabeth, the daughter of John. Dixon, of Pontefract, 
by whom he had Francis, a fellow of the Royal Society, 
author of tlie history of York, the. parliamentary history of Eng- 
land, down to the restoration ; and also of «everal tracts in 
the [diilosophical transactions. He married Mary, . Uie daughter 

oC Woodyear, of Crookhill,' near Dpncaster, by wjiom be 

had a son Francis, who wai vicar of ^^ omeTsley,.Jeclurer of 
Pontefract, and lellow of Magdalene College Oxford. Thu 
Fmnci* married a daughter of ioshua Wilson. Esq. of Ponle> 
Tract, by whom be had the Rev.. Francis Diake, of Walking- 
too. Dear Beverley, who is the present lecturer of Pootefrut. 



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atttmrt or pontefsact. IS9 

Fourth.' Sir 0. Wentworth's Division. 
Sir G. Wentworthi *, Colonel Vaaghan, 

Sir Thomas Bland f . Lieut. Col. Wcatworth, 

' Wenlworth, of Wert Bretton, a branch of Ibe ancie&t 
family of the WentM-orth), of WentworUt Woodhcue, nor 
Rotherham. Sir Thoma* was a deputy lieutenant of ibe Wett- 
Ridiflf; of this county, and a captain of the train fauidt for 
Ctiarlei I. He suffered much for his loyalty; but Lving till 
the restoration he was knighted 27th September, 1004, 

Sir G. Wentworlh-, of Woolley, a branch of the above 
&mily. He mairied to his lirst w^e Anne, daughter of Tbo> 
ma) t.ard FaiHBX, of Denton : to his second wiJe ~— (bs 
daughter of Christopher Maltby, Esq. and had issue two soni^ 
who died young, and three daughter); Averil, who married 
John Thornton, Esq. ; Frances, who tmrried Jolin Gnnthani 
Em}.; and Ann, who monied W. Osfaaldiaont Esq.; Sit G«o« 
tmSati much m coDsequenco of the part ha todc ia the war. 
He was lined for hi) delinquency SlSSl. 

t Bland, of Bland»-Gi]l, in Ae Hanh>Riding. Anns, Argent 
«■ a bend sable, three Pheoni Or. Sir Thomas married Cft* 
ttarine, daughter of ]cjin Lord Saville, of Pontefract and How- 
\ejt and siit«r of Thooiaa Ssville, Earl of Sussex. He had 
iitue, first Thomas, necond Adam, wl>o' married tbe widow of 
JdtB Oirliagton, of Thurgolaod caoJei and two daugbten, 
Catharinst who nuvried Tbomu Harrison, Eiq. of Dancer's 
Hill, ta U«rtfbrdshtre, and Francn, who married John Bdton, 
Ssq. of Rawdifl*. 

Sir TbomM iWand, the aao and heir of (he above Tbo- 
mas commanded in Sir G. Wentworth's division, and hii 
broilior Adam wot ft major of bone, and one of those who 
ietutd from the eaitle-and surprised Rain4x»Yxigb at Doncaster. 
T\m Sir Thmnas married Itosamond, daughter of Frandt 
MeviDa, £tq. of Chavet, near Wakefield. By Iier he had 
issue, Francis, Adam, Rosamond, and Catharine. Roumoixf 
IMrried Mattin Hoadley, Aldannon ot Leeds, and Catharine 
■norfied John Frank, Esq. of PontefracL Sir Thomas, like 
iDOtf of Charles' triend). suffered greatly in his cause, and was 
fined 40»t. by 0!iver, As a compsnsoiioa for bis loyakr, 
CharW II. honour^ him with knighthood. 

Sir Franri* Bland, his Mn and heir, married the daughter 
•f Sir William Lowtber, of Preston. He wot lucceeded hf 



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160 .HKTtHlY OP KWTEFHACTl. 

Major Copley*, " Mr. Emsoh, sen. /)cr. 

Beaumont," ■ Mr.-Hammerton, /m. ' 

■ Mountain, Mr. Stokes, 

Baron Killowson, Mr. Ricliai'd Fisher, 

Capt. Harris, Mr. Rusby, AldermaD, 

Ramsden, . . Mr. Oates, do. 

Benyon, Mr. Austwick^ do. 

■ Hardwicke, Mr. Clitennor, 

— — Washiiigtout, Cornet Andshoy, 

Mr. Jerviee Neville, Sanderson, 

Mt. Thimbteby, sen. pa. Lieut. Cooke J , 

Mr; Andrew East, pa. ' Cutbert,' 

Mr. B.' Stappleton, />«. Mi". Fairmaine, 

St Tbom&s Bland, who dying youDg the estate came to Sir 
JidiD Bland, who wai for many yean a worthy iepre%Dtft- 
Uve of this boiougb,. and built a new steeple to ^. Gilei* 

* The family of Copley has .been long sealed at Sprot- 
brough; and iniermarriecl witli thatof Fitzwilliam. Sir George 
Copley was knighted by ChaTle.i II. and it ii. probable tvai 
the person who engaged at the catue of bb royal father, and 
wat major in pur castle. 

f A family of the pame of Washington enjqyed a large estafe 
•t Adwick-le Street. The register of baptism! in the church 
there, proves that this family was there settled as early as iSii, 
and many oV this name are also interred there.. .The WaA< 
ington who contributed to the defence of our caille, wa« most 
probably one of thii family. . . 

N. B. It has been said that the famous General Wasli- 
ingtoi), sprung from tliem> It is certain, . that the. ancestors of 
the general emigrated from Yorksiiirei and like, many who 
departed to America, were zealous friends of r^gloui and 
civil liberty. ... . . - 

I Lieut Cooke, might prol»bly be one of the respectable 
&mily of that name, whicb has been so long in, or near Don* 
caster. Branches of this limiily iiave intermarried with the most 
respectable bmilies in tliat neighbourhood ; and a conuderable 
part of Ihe Citate belonging to the Yarboroughs, originally of 
Snaith Mall, came to the present G. Cooke Yarborough, Esq. 
of Slreettborpe. . . * .... 



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HISTORY OF PONTEPRACT. 161 

Mr. Allot *, Richard Dobson, 

Mr. FentoD> Kichard Beaumont, 
Joseph Oxiey, Clergy to this Dmslon. 

Richard Helkliffe, Dr. Bradley. 

Daniel Fielding, Mr. List^, 

Thomas Wiggleskirke. Mr. Mason, 

Thomas Motherby, Mr. Burley, 
Gilbert Grey, In all forty-four. 

The list which has been given cannot fail 
to gratify a laudable curiosity, by imparting 
considerable' information respecting the brave 
defenders of our castle. Many of the respectable 
Amities, whose ancestors distinguished themselves, 
by their loyalty, prudence and courage, still re- 
main in this neighbourhood; and the more humble 
names of many others continue likewise in the 
borou^ and surrounding Tillages. 

Before we come to detail the event of that 
siege which ultimately led to the demolition 
of the castle, it is deemed necessary to give a des- 
cription of it in its perfect state ; that the reader 
may form some conception of the strength and 
grsmdenr of this celebrated fortress, once esteemed 
one of the greatest and strongest in England. 



* Allot of Cnggleirtone and Bentley, a family respectable 
fcr property, and united by marriage with the Wentworthi 
and Ct^eyt. The AUot who volimteeied in the defence of 
our caide wm moit probably Edward, the ton of Jtidin Allot, 
of Crigglestone. A Richard AUot leltied at Biiham Grange, an;! 
marri^ Grace, daughtCT of G. Wentworth, Esq. of Bretloo. 
Fart of the Criggleitone estate is now the property ot J. 
Allot Esquire, of Hague Hallj tbe dded male bnuicb tS thu 
family. 



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HJSTOay OF PONTEFllilCT. 



THE CASTLE OF PONTEFRACT 

Is built on an elevated rock, and conimai^ the 
most extensive and picturestpife views oi' the sur- 
rounding country. The north-west pnispeot .take^ 
in the beautiful vale, along which flpws- the Aire'; 
skirted on each side with woods and plantations, 
and ornamented with ^versil i^l^gant laid- beau- 
tiful seats. - It. is bounded only hf. the<bms«f 
Craven. The north and nortb-eaet (tfosp€Ot> is 
iriore est«nsive, but the sceiiery not. equoU^^ strir 
Icing and: imi^ressive. It pr^seots little more 
than a view, of farm hou^- and villages j and 
all the bolder features of a fihe Ia!rid9ci^9r are 
wanting. - The towersi pf Yoric mitister are 
distinctly seen, and the pro^pwt ia-ohly bounded 
by the limits of vision. The eastviev -b-te.tlbally 
extehsive, but ovore pleilui^. Whifiel.the; .eye 
ibllows the course of the Aire tofvahi« tb« Huu- 
ber, the fertility of the. 09uit(ry,r-^he s^i«s of 
isereral churches,' and two consiideiKbte bil)s> 
Brayton Barf and tianibletoti Hadgb; wiwtjh'nBe 
in the mids£.of a :p]ain-,.aiid .one ^ wbfbb. is co- 
vered with wood, relieve the prospect and consider- 
ably add to its beauty. The south-east view, which 
takes in a part of the counties of Uucoln and.Npt- 
.tingliain, though extensive, ba» nothing deserving of 
notice; The south aEldsotifh^'iCestprospeatcotnpriHes 
a rich variety of grand and snbfirfie objecltt The 
towering bills of Derbyshire, sttetcbing towards 
Lancashire, form the horwon; while the ibre- 
groqnd is enlivened by a view of gentleaten's 
seats and a picturesque country. 



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"I 



^ 



:,iiu 

'If! 






,v Google 



D.n.llffidby'GOOg[C 



HBTOttY OT PONTEFRACT. IdJ 

The situation of the castle- contributed greatly 
to "its strength, and rendered it almost impreg- 
nable. It was not comihaoded -by any, contigu- 
ous hills, -and the only way it could be taken was 
by blockade. 

In its perfect state, the state-rooms of the 
castle .were large, and accommodated with offices 
soitablefor the residence of a prince. The style of 
this building shews it to be Norman ; though it 
has received various additions and improvements 
of a later date. 

The first member of this castle which merits 
notice, is the Barbican. This was situated on 
the west side of the outer yard (13) * beyond the 
main gnai-d. Barbicans, were watch towers, de- 
signed to descry an enemy at a distance, and were ^ 
always outworks, and frequently advanced be- 
yond the', ditch, to which they were _joined by 
draw bridges. This Barbican formed the en- 
trance into the caslle, called the west-gate house. 
A similar tower with a draw bridge stood near 
the Booths, (12) and formed the entrance on the 
east, and was called the east gate house. The 
third gale, (14) was called the south gate, and 
opened into the road leading to Darrington and 
Doncaster, at the bottom of what is now called 
the castle garth. Tliis gate led to another in the 
centre of the wall, which runs across the area from 
the east to the west gate; and was called the 
middle gate (15). The north side of this area was 
formed by the south wall of the ballium or great 
castle yard ; in the centre of which wall was the 

• The figures refer to the plate of the cutlei and pwnt out 
it\e atuation of the put detcribed. 



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164 HISTORY O* POSTEFBACT. 

■ porter's lodge, (8), the grand entrance into the 
yard of the castle. All these gates might he, and 
were frequently used as watch towers. The whole 
of this area was sometimee called the Barbican ; 
and within it stood the king's stables, (10) and a 
large barn, (U). 

Near the Barbican, and close by the west 
entrance into the castle was the main guard, (17) 
a place of considerable magnitude and strength. 

A deep moat or ditch was cut on the. west side 
of the castle extending from the west gate, round 
the great tower to the north ; and another on the 
east, extending fr<»n the constable's tower alimg 
to the east gate. 

The wall of the ballium or great cast!e yard 
Wds high, and flanked with seven towers, called 
(I) the round tower, (2) the red tower, (3) trea- 
surer's or pix tower, (4) Swillington tower, (5) 
queen's tower, (6) king's tower, and (7) consta- 
ble'd tower. The walls of the ballium had a para- 
pet, and the merlons were pieced with long 
chinks, ending in round holes, called oilets. 

Within the ballium, were the lodgings and 
barracks for the garrison and artificers, the cha- 
pel of St. Clement (16) and the magazine (d]. 

The magazine is cut out of a rock, the descent 
to which is by a passage of four feet wide, and 
forty-three steps to the bottom. It is six yards 
over and three broad, with six cavities cut out 
of the sides of the rock, and nine yards in depth 
from the surface of the earth. ^ Near this place 
was a large dungeon, the entrance to which was 
at the seventeenth step of the passage, and was a 
yard in breadth, but it is now stopped up by the 
falling in of the ruins. Tlie wall, as you descend 



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msTOKY OF POKTEFRACT- 165 

these steps, is inscribed with many names evi- 
deotly cut by the soldiers at the time of the siege 
of the castle, and amongst others, we find the fol- 
lowing, who were officers in the castle at that 
period, as will appear hereafter. 

16 Geo. 48 1648 John Smith, 

Beale, John Grant, 1648. 

So strong the zeal t' immortalize himself 
Beatsin the breast of man, that ev*na few, 
Few traatietit years, woq firom the abyss abhon'ii 
Of blank oblivion, seem a glorious prize^ 
And even to a down. 

The entrance into the ballium was usually 
through a strong machiolated and embattled gate, 
between two towers, secured by a herse or port- 
cullis. Over this were the rooms intended for the 
porter of the castle, the towers served for the 
corps de garde. 

On an eminence at the western extremity of 
the ballium, stood the keep or dungeon, here called 
the round tower. — It was the citadel or last retread 
of the garrison. — In large castles, it was generally 
a high tower of four or five storiesi — having turret* 
at each angle, and here we fmd there were six, 
three' large and three small ones. When these 
towers were round instead of square, they were 
called Juliets from a vulgar opinion, that large 
round towers were first built by Julius Csesar. 

The walls of this edifice were always of an 
extraordinary thickness, and having in conse- 
quence witlistood the united injuries of time, and 
weather, now remain more perfect than any 
other part of the castle. 

Here commonly on the second story, were 
the state rooms for the governor. The light was 



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168 aiSTOST OF rONTEPaACT. 

admitted by small chinks which tuifiwcred ihe 
double purpose of \vindows, and served for em- 
brasnres, whence they might shoot with long 
and crossbows'. These chinks, though without they 
bad some breadth, and carried the' appear- 
ance of wiadows, were very narrow next the cham- 
bers, diminishing considerably inward. 

The different -stones were frequently vaulted, 
and divided byatrong «r(^3; on the top was 
generally a platform with an embattled parapet, 
whence the garrrson could see and command the 
exterior works. 

TTie annexed plate, figure I . is a plan of that 
comer of the area of the castle, where the keep 
, or dungeon, just mentioned * is situated, and also 
of the principal entrance. 

fa a) Are the first outward steps ; ascend- 
ing from without to the area of the castle. 

(b b) A second rery steep flight of steps, with- 
in the ballium,. ascending up the artificial mount 
' to the entrance of the keep. 

• (c€)' \% a narrow loop, well -secured ; and 
made through a wall no less than eighteen feet in 
thickness. 

On entering the keep, on the right hand, at 
(f, are remains of a great staircase, going up to 
the state apartments above, which are now all 
destroyed. 

At €, is a small square room ; probably design- 
ed for the captain of the guard. It is within one 
of the three round towers, mentioned by Leiand : 
and all the sabstance of that tower, beneath this 
room, is solid stone work, ^uite to the bottom of 
the mount. A circumstance which shews the vast 
* See King on uident castles. 



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. HBTOIY OF FONTBFSACT. 163 

Strength of thisbnilding,.and tbeimprovement made 
on the original mount ; and at the same time exhi- 
bits a curions device for, deception, something like 
that of the round tower at Rochester 

The other, smalt to^ver, beio^ in like -manner 
continued down to the ground, boieath the 
mount, contains a very singular, narrow, and most 
irregularly , winding zig-zag staircase. ; wtuch 
goes down from the' door at/to a.smaU sally-port 
at X; and moreover. leads to what appeal's, to 
have been a well at g, and besides this it terminates 
in one part, in a very frightiul small, ditngeoni 
atz. 

There do not appear to have been even loop^ 
holes, or any admis^on for light, or air,, unless 
from the door, into the great tower apartment of 
the keep ; only there was. a small windaw in the 
captain of the guard's room. 

The diameter of. the keep i& about 63 oc 
64 feet. And- between. / and h is -a very re- 
markable, appearance j, for after you. have aa> 
cended a.laddei;, against th& inside of the wall, 
ibr a few feet« you then look< dawn, into a dismal 
square cavity, at kj ahout L4 oct 1 J feet deep, 0£ 
rather more ;, but only about five or . six. feet 
square > whi«h cannot be, conceived' la have been 
applied tq any other purpose than that of a dun- 
geon ; since t>here is neither loop, nor dow be? 
neatb ; or any outlet whatsoever : npr does 
there appear the least possitjility of there evei; 
baving bpep anx ^ nor could it from its. stiap^ and 
idimensions, have served for a staircasej or, (6^ 
drawing up timber and machines of war, or for 
any other purpose, than that of a place of severe 
confinement. In short, it reminds one of the 



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168 HISTORY OF PONTEPEACT. 

description, given by Sallust, of the Tnllianum, 
in the ancient capitol at Rome: and as it even 
now very well answers to that description, must 
have done so still more, before the upper part 
of the building, with the arches, was destroyed. 

But this is not the only strange place, withia 
the inclosure of this formidable castle : for, front- 
ing the foot of the stairs, at a little distance, 
at I, is the square mouth of another well, of a 
most extraordinary kind ; having been either 
a very horrid dungeon, or the inward mouth of 
some very singular subterraneous sally-port. It 
is very deep, bwt quite dry ; the sides are neatly 
Imed with stone, and on that which is nearest to 
the foot of the stairs, on looking down, appears 
at a great depth, a very high arch, leading to some 
vault, or passage, as represented, (Fig. 2); where 
it leads to, or for what purpose it actually served, 
may be well worth examining. 

At k, is a very small, wretched chamber ; 
formed in the thickness of the wall ; which had 
two very narrow windows next the court. Here 
tradition says, Richard II. was confined, and 
murdered: but the smallness of the room hardly 
agrees with what is related of the manner of bis 
death, by a blow, with a battle-axe, from Sir Piers 
Exton, as his being so murdered was a story ge- 
nerally received and believed. 

By comparing the correspondent members 
ipf the remains of this castle with the above de- 
scription, a tolerable judgment of what it has beeo, 
imay be formed. 



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BISTOEY OF PONTCFXACr. 

SECTION xir. 

Events during the Jtrst Siege. 



The 



I war, which had commenced in the year 
1643, between the king and the parKament, had 
been carried on with various success ; in some 
places the advant^ie appeared to be on the side 
of the fonuer, and in others, on that of the latter. ' 
In the month of June 1644, was fought the d^ 
rasire battle of Marston-moor, near Yoik; in 
which the king's army was completely routed, 
and many of his best troops and officers «lain. 
In this action Cromwell equally displayed his 
invincible courage, and his admirable talent for 
commadd. Af^ having vanquished that ^wing 
of tbe enemy, to which he was opposed, he pru- 
dently checked the ardor of pursuit; and wheel- 
ing round, found the main body and the other 
wing, of the anny of the parliament, had given 
way, and the enemy ready to take possession 
of the baggage and amunition. Having collected 
tbe troops' together, and occupying the same 
ground the enemy had occupied at the commence- 
ment of the action, he made an irresistable charge 
and decided the fate of the day. The enemy 
lost their ordnance and artillery, and were pur- 
sued with. great slaughter to the gates of York. 
It is computed that near 8.000 fell oo the field 
of battle. 

The appearance of ,Cr9mweU in the political 



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176 HISTORY OP POtiTEFTlXeR 

hemisphere tike that of a portentous comet, shed 
a deadly influence on the royal cause. Victory 
attended his course; and from an inferior officer, 
he rose to the rank , of chief commander ; and 
at last, having put down the powers which 
raised him, he assumed tlie supreme government 
of the kingdom. 

The victory of Marston was followed by the 
speedy surrender of York; and' detaehmorts of 
trobp^ were sent to besiege' the cast4e& occu- 
pied' by the king's friends} and. among the rest . 
thai of Pontefraot. The commaDd of the do- 
t&(^n^ent sent hel^ was glveni to CoLonel S«ida» 
who, In the n^onth of Abgust>:. 1644'', feU in with 
a party of the «nemy,. sent oiit to protect • sdifte 
ciMlbsf routed them/ took alU the cattle, -and 
made forty horae prisoners;- i 

Oot ^nds,' for some timle^, i^bef watched 
Ihte iwotitirts' of the enemy, and endeavotired to 
tut -off their foraging parties, ' than . to form 
8 regular siege of tlie oastle. ■ The atrengCh of 
the ^ace,'- and the courage and prudence «f the 
royttlists^ rendered a much greater Jbroe ; than 
he poss^sed necessary, to midertaki^ tbe siege 
with any prospect of mccess. To hare done 
snore than he did, woald: have been rashly to 
exfMse Ms men to the fire. of the eneiny> witb- 
twit btnng able to return it witfi efi«e4. 

The success flf Sir .Thomas Fair&K, and 
6ther9, '-iti subduing the castles of Melihsly and 
Kn&rt>9bim-ough, set the troops whvrh bad : bad 
on that service at lihetty-, and th^ soon inardied 
to the astdstance of 'Col. Sands. Sjr Thexnas 
Fairfax, as the superior officer, now e^oyed 



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HBTOHV-: Of .KWTfiFRACT, 17 1 

the ccv^aa^ijitid )n-the beginning of December, 
1644, be drove in .the gariisoQ, took pojsee^sion 
of the town, aad on: Christmas day closely be- 
sieged the oaitle *. . . 

Some of:the besieged,, protected by -the Ore 
of their friends from .the oastlei .kept for a few 
days possession of th^ low eburch. The enemy, 
sensible of the importance of the ehurch, as . a place 
of defence aftid security, prepared to didodge Iho 
roj^aliBts^i'and on.the 29th December, 1644', they 
drew .up and comtnenoed their aUack. The 
royalists jde&nded t^ ehurch for some .time with 
resol^ion and courage; 'and.thdr .friends, in- the 
castle, made jtbere saHtes, in cvder toDepel the 
enemy, . of.. at least .to corer the retreat of their 
brave oomsades.'. :Tbeif.efibrts were hot crowned 
with success; fer the enemy oblifj^them. to re* 
treat,, and .. obtained '.possession, of the chnrcb; 
la 'this action, the royalists lost.Capt. Waterhons^ 
f>f Netherton, three. privates, and deven wounded; 
Tbe .loss of the enemy, though- rictorious,' was 
mot^gn^er. They, are said to bave had sixty 
killed and forty wounded f. 

On ' tbe retreat of > tbe royalists, eleven men 
and boys, who had been stationed in the steeply 
were left to defend themficlves. .They could ea- 
sily withsund the superior force of the lenemy 
from the nature of their situation. They had 
however an enemy to encounter which threatened 
BOOB to sabdne them. They were destitute of 
provisiohs ; and unless soon. relieved most of ne- 
cessity surrender at discretion. Tiiey endured 
the force of hunger and thirst for five days and 
nights, and at. length effected their, esc^pe by a 
• WmT. 102. t Df AK«'« Mi 



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172 KSTORY OF PONTEFBACT, 

method as bold as dangerous. By- means of a 
rope, which they had probably taken from tbo 
belfry, having descended to the loof of the 
. western part of the church, they let themsdves 
down to the ground. While engaged in this at- 
tempt they were discovered by the enemy, and 
though exposed to a hot fire, only one was killed, 
and Capt. Joshua Walker wounded in the thigh : 
tlte rest escaped to the castle in safety t* 

No day passed without some effort on the 
pait of the besieged to annoy the enemy. By 
the fire of the musketry from the towers, and. 
by frequent sallies they cut off numbers, and ol>- 
tained partial advantages oyer their opponents. A.-t 
length the cannon which had bem employed in the 
siege of Hdmsty and Knaresbro' castles arrived ; 
and the besiegers being in possession of the ris- 
ing grounds around, began to erect their batr- 
teries in order to storm the castle. They oc- 
cupied the house of Alderman Lunn, who, in 
the cause of royalty, had relinquished all the 
sweets of domestic repose for the toils and dangers 
of war. In his back yard the first battery was 
erected*. Previous to the commencement of their 
attack. Lord Fair^, who had now joined his 
son Sir Thomas, sent the following letter to tbe 
governor of the castle. 

*' To the commander in chief of Pontefiact 
castle. 

" In performance of the trust reposed upon 
me by the parliament for the servi(x of the pub- 
lique, and particular safety and preservation of this 

t Drake's MS. 
- • Another was ndsed on Baglull, whirfi afterwardi did the 
iiiost cxecutkm. 



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HISTORY OP PONTEFHACT. HS 

coaatTy> / have marched part of the troops under 
my command to Ponfefrmt for the recovering of 
ttut castle, which hitherto hatk opposed the par- 
liament and eiilinitely prejudiced the country, 
to obedience of the king and parliament, the which 
I desire may be effected without the effusion of 
blood, and to that end now send yon this sum- 
mons to surrender the castle to me for the ser- 
vice of the king and parliament, which if you' 
presently doe, 1 will engage my power with the 
parliameot for your reception unto mercy and 
favour therewith, but your refusing or deferring 
the same will compel me to the trial of success 
tpfaich I hope will prevaite for the publique good. 
I shall expect your answer to be returned to mo 
by Col. Forbes, to whom. I have given fertha" 
- instructions in that behalfe." 

« FER. FAIRFAX*." 

On the receipt of this summons, the govemor, 
who only wi^ed to gain time, answered the mes- 
senger verbally, " that the matter was of great 
consequence, and would reqoire some time to 
consider of it , — that he would call the gentlemen 
of the castle together, being many of good quality, 
and consult with them about it, and would then 
send an answer, which should be sometime to-mor- 
row rooming at the farthest." Col. Forbes, to 
whom this answer was delivered, replied, " that it 
should be welcome to him, if it came not too late,'* 
and then departed. 

* Drake's MS. 
The words In Italic are obliterated in tlic original, but 
ibe editor presumed the woidj supplied were most piobs^ljr 
those used by the writer. 



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]74i .ffiSTOQV OF VOWrWttM^, ■ 

■ The ccHuIuct' of the governor soon SUaofeie A 
his real intentions) and evinced ^ timt tiie^ an- 
swer he, bad -^ven was. only dostgned to .vxaxme 
qod impose on the enemy. He bod already be- 
gun to erect a. bftttery against that- which .the 
Mieiny had erected on Bagjeati; and duriog the 
night, he employed sixty ,nten, to complete it^ «eiii 
to line the battlement and streogtben bbe walls 
on the side which would be most exposed to the 
fire of the:eiiemy. 

The governor prepared the foUowing answer 
to Greneral Fairfax's letter. 

' " According to my altegiwice to.whieh I am 
sworn, -and in pursuuice of the trust reposed-in 
me by his majestie, Z wiU defend this castle to the 
ntmost of my power, tand doubt not by God's 
assistance, the' justice of his .rai^estiQ'a.deati8e^iand 
the /vertne. of my comrades, to quell all those that 
shall oppose me in the defence thereof, for his 
^uyeslie's service, -for the blood that is jike' fd be 
lost in thisactioD', let it be upon Iheir heads wibo 
«Fe the oanses -of it; This is .my resolotiaa. 
which J desire yoa to <«rtify to the Juonl 
-Fairfax." 

"From }'our-BfiecLionate. friend, 

RICMAttD LOWTHER*." 

The besiegers, the next ^mo^ning, peneeivins 
tiie Works 4>f the besieged, and convinced that Ihey 
h^d no inclination to surrender, did not wait 
for the governor's answer, but opened i a drewL- 
ful fire upon them. For tliree successive days 
thpy continued to' cannonade the south side of 
the castle, in which period they , discharged ojie 
• DaAKB's MS. 



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.m&TDBr.oB wnTBmat. its 

thousand and thirty-four balls. On tlie 19th 
Janoary, hsTn^g dn-ected' the ' battery against 
PizI taweri Cliis I'nassy pile gave way; a' consi- 
derable* part'Of ifiieH down, and by its fall carried 
the castle wait along with it^ by which means 
a breach' was made*. 

Whilst .the besiegers thus assailed the eastl^ 
the besieged were ^not UKuttive. A shot fron^ 
the castle hit a match belonging to the besiegers, 
and some : bparkfi falling .into flie powder, it im- 
mediately bl§w up and killed twenty-seven men. 
By a well directed fire of musketry the be* 
sieged obliged tfae enemy to keep their disUncc^ 
and' frequently did considerable- execiitionf. 

A breach being noiv made, the bcAegen 
indiriged the bope tb^ the castle would be sun 
rendered. On; the 31st of Janoarfi t6^A~~3, 
CoL- Forbes seitt a drum- ^6 the gate of the 
castle; which beat a pkriey. Ti» gor«rnor sent 
to know ; bis) bosiness, and understanding he 
bronght a letter ffom Col, Fttrbes, he sent word 
that unless the enemy ceased firing, he would 
jMt reonve any letters. In cfJtMeqOence of this, 
rrrimmsnrl wav gitren, by CoL Forbes, to th^ en- 
gineers to discontinue iiriiig ttll Airthel* ofderft 
As soon as this command' was obeyed, the 
dmmKicr was. Mxiered to go down to the lower 
gate, whai^, being admitted, he delivered the 
ji^owing letter.-' : : 

*-Two brolhen «f the name, of Biiggca, vrho lived. at ths 
faall^alny h<lius^, in the road lead'u^ lo Wak^eld, standing 
•agSthCi uder the Kx tovtet, were UD&rtunately killed by iu 
6iL 

f About this paipA the besieged lost Capt Maufet, -ntm 
WM ibot through the head whiUt standing on Uw lOp of the 
round tower, Capt. Smith tvoi "wounded by a [necic of stone 
br^c b; a tmiktt ball, but soon recovered. 



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]7fi jnsTORY OF PONTEFR^Cr. 

"Sir, . ■. , 

1 desire to have possitive answer 
of the suromons sent in upon Tbarsdaj last, 
that I may g^ve an account to my Loid (who 
is now here] of your resolutions; and likewise 
1 desire to know whether Mr. Ogale is exchanged 
for Lieut. Brown or for money, and if for 
money for what summe." 
« Sir, 

; I shall remain yonr fiiend, 

WILL. FORBES;" 

On the receipt of this, the gorernor sent the 
letter he had before written to all the gentle- 
^men in the castle, for i:heir advice and approbation ; 
and to know whether they were willing to run all 
risks, and to hold out to the last extremity. Tbejr 
fully approved of the letter, and engaged to de- 
fend the castle, and support the governor with their 
lives and fortunes. The governor then dismissed 
the drummer with the fore-mentioned letter to Col. 
Forbes. 

On the refusal, of the governor to surrender, 
the besieged expected the enemy would immedi- 
ately make an . assault, and endeavour to enter 
the breach which had been made. They percei- 
ved from the castle the horse drawn up in the 
Park, and a part of their infantry ready to march, 
with sprigs of rosemary in their hats. The go- 
vernor commanded the drums to beat to arnis, and 
the trumpets to sound on the battlements ; and 
then ordered the soldiers to their posts. The gar- 
rison continued under arms the whole aflemooD, 
expecting the enemy with great cheerfillness. 

Although the enemy had made a breach, and 



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BBTORY OP MHTEPUCT. 177 

coDtinued a very heavy fire against it, and king's 
tower* they made no attempt to storm the castle. 
The courage and resolation of the garrison, and 
the dangers of an assault, so dispirited the enemy, 
that many deserted and fled, for fear least they 
^ould be ordered xm this service. The besiegers had 
expected that the garrison would hare been iocli* 
ned to surrender ; and when they found this expec- 
tation was unfounded, they lost their confidence, 
and for some time did little more than keep oa 
their defence. 

Information had been sent to Lord Fairlax, 
that it was expected the ca^le would be surren- 
dered. His lordship, accompanied by his son Sir 
Thomas came here, and were receired with the 
honour due to thar rank. Fen de joys were fired, 
and guards oi borse and foot were appointed to 
receive and attend them. On viewing the breach^ 
and considering tbe determined valour of the gar- 
rison, his lordship judged it more advisable to 
continne the blockade, than to sacrifice his men 
in a dangerous, and perhi^M fruitless assault. 
Having given orders acoordingly, he returned to 
York. 

While the siege was thus carried on here, 
various altercationi took place in the parliament; 
The Earl of Essex was charged with neglect of 
doty, and an intention to prolong the war, instead 
of bringing it to a speedy conclusion. At length 
the self-denying ordinance, as it was called, was 
brought into the house; and, on the fiiilure of the 
treaty of Uxbridge, after violent debates, it was 
passed. By this ordinance, every person was 
disqualified for any military command, who ea- 
joyed a seat in either house of parliament. The 



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173 HtSTOar OP POMTBFHACT.; 

chief comaisind of aU the ibtces'ofthe pttrli&itieet. 
was npw "CQuferred on Sir. Tbomarf Fairfax.*, who 
Wjaa engaged in the 6ieg6 of Poatefract castle. 
Col, Lambert was appointed oommlaBary general, 
of the army of the. nbrth, and ordered to post 
down to t;ake the charge, of the troops, witen Fair- 
fax should quit that station, in vvhidh by his steady 
conduct, he had obtained the confidence of both 
houses. 

The besieged as soon aa tbe fire of the eiieftiy 
was remitted, began to repair the breach which 
bad b^6n 'made. . Captain Mbniloe. aad Captain 
Faybarne, were sertt out to( view the extent of 
the .breach, which tliey found not to. exceed a 
yard. The- men were ottlered to 4ig and- carry 
ebrtt), .and* by this me^As the breoch'Wjis eOon oto* 
8ed.;.,aiid tJie besieged^ire^delivefedirokn all fear 
of an assault; ■.>.:,:. 

Tl>$: garrisoti, taeaHy cub off fix^'aDy-'Stip' 
pties $»i{nl their' aihmui^itioin . gt^atly reduced, 
uid were iinder the < nede^sAy. of Qsjog it .mpre 
sparingly. As the- efiojf y lud beea^eH' suppli- 
ed withithis artif^, .ahd.continQed-Xoipour in theif 
shot, the governor allowed his own men 4A. 
for ea^ bilt. of the enemy aay of th«iU nVight 
bring tp him.. Thus encouraged, tlie q^n ofteif 
. nt the hazard of their, hves, sought .th^ shot c^ 
the beeiegers, and were so sticCessiiit' as. Go oblaiU 
in thJK tvuy Bo incoosiderahle supply. 

The .besiego's seeing no prospect of taking 
the casUe by the breach which had be^a.nuide^ 

• " Sir Thomas Fairfax," sayi Baxter, " wu a geBlIenwn 
of to quick parti or elocution, but religious, faiUifuI, valiant, 
■tid of A itxit, sober, Rtalv«d disjkKlt^; neitlter loo gitar 
nor too cunning bin dhvclcd by the padianent." iJte p. 48. 



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,-meTORY $tF poKi^nueir. 'tn 

began to mine, in order to-.blbnr up todie df the 
ton-ers, and make a larger, whidi would not admit 
of defeoee. ■ They sprung one mine froiri the hos- 
pital, at the east end of (lie oastle, and drore it 
towards king's tower. They sprung another from 
the house occupied by one AVard, and' carried 
it under the moat, toWai^s the round toker, 
which they intended also to blow up. On the 
dMcovery of this attempt, the garrison b^an '-o 
countermine. They sunk s^eral jNts within 
the castle, and ' commaiced their miuea from 
thence. They also sunk sereral without the 
castie, near to the walls. The nmnfaer of pits 
within and without the castle, is said to hare 
been One hundred and ten or twelve*; from 
whence they ntned under the castie walls, 
and could have mined (torn one place to ano- 
ther all round, if it' had' been necessary. 

The -besieged, in the beginoing c^ Febmaryi 
oonttnoed a r^^fular ' fire againM the ' enemy, 
and much dunage was done in various parts of 
of the town. . Several houses w^e destroyed in 
Mickle-gate, and on the 17th some gentl^nen's 
houses at the Jower end > of ' North-gate, occupied 
by the besiegers, were cannonaded, on which 
the besiegers set them -on fire and departed. 

The besiegere were continually annoyed by 
the garrison, and on the 2Sd above thirty were 
killed. The work of daughter went regularly on, 

* Drake's MS. A (raditlon hai prevailed concerning^ 
vutous mbtennneom panagei bdonging to fte caMle. One of 

these u genetall^ belteve4 to have extended into the park. 
Doubtless, there were various secret sallyports; but it it nqt 
probable, that the mines and pits which Mr, Drake mentions 

Inve given rise to such tradiltoas? 



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180 VmOKt OF KWTCTIULCT. 

and Englkdimen, divided into hostile and irrecOK- 
cileable parties, rejoiced in each others destniction. 

On the S4th of Febrnary, the besiegers re- 
ceived an addition^ force of two hundred and 
fifty men. They came over Ferrybridge, and 
one part marched through the parit to the town; 
and the other to the low chnrcfa, on their ap- 
proach toward which, the garrison gave them a 
Ibrioos disdiarge cf musketry and cannon; aod 
it was thought did much execution, as in the 
night they fired two volleys, which was supposed 
to be at the funeral of a commander. 

The besieged were now reduced to great 
straits foi* want of provision ; and they found it 
would be impossible for them to hold out much 
longer, unless they could obtain supplies. Ihe 
governor sent with Mr. Corker sixteen men to 
join Fnnce Rupert, and to acqoaint the king 
with the situation of the garrison. The kin^ 
was not willing to loose a fortress of such im- 
portance, or to suffer- so many brave men to 
fell into the hands of the enemy, without an 
attempt to relieve thorn. 

Although the treaty of Uxbridge was sttll 
pending, there was no hope of any accommo- 
dation; as the king was nnwilling to yield any 
thing; and from his letter to his queen, it ap- 
pears he was determined to support the catholics, 
and maintain all his pretended prerogatives 
From the achievements of Montrose, in Scotland, 
and the divisions in parliament, he se^ns to 
have indulged the hope that in a little time 
his enemies would be obliged to submit to any 
terms he might choose to dictate. He however 
judged it prudent to send Sir Mannadufce 



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tasnvt i» poHTsnucK I8i 

lAngdAlie, with a body of two thoiisanfl horsey 
to raise the siege of P<mt^nct castk. 

On receiving his orders, Langdale departed 
ffoni Oxford, and under the colours of the enemy, 
marched through several of their qatfteri, and 
soon reached Doncaster. On the S8th February, 
the garrison c^eived infonntition of bis ai^roach, 
and anxiously awaited that contest which was 
to decide their fitte^ and either bring them re- 
lief, or by disappointing their hope, oblige them 
io submit, however reluctantly, to surrender the 
fortress to the enemy. 

The besiegers on the same day received in- 
telligence, and not knowing the strength of the 
royalists, took every precaution to aecnre their 
cannon, ammanition and stores. They set fire to 
several houses bdow Monk-hill, least they should 
afford a cover to the besieged in the expected 
action. The troops were stationed on the south 
and south-west of the town, to be ready to ro' 
ceive the enemy. Col. Lambert and Cot. 
Forbes had the command of the forces, but re> 
ceived possitive orders from Fairfax to stand on 
their defence, and if possible to avoid an action, 
till some addititmat troops bad come np to their 
assistance. 

About three o'dock in the afternoon, oa 
the Ist March, Langdale was seen from the 
castle on- the top of the bill, on this side 
Wentbridge. He marched on to Darrington, 
and then wheeled to the led by Carleton, and 
formed for action in the Chequer fidd. The 
two armies faced each other till near six o'clock, 
the cavalry of tlie parliament retreating as I^ang- 
dale advanced, till they came to some of their 



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182 EnrcKT -OP fomsmfft. 

jnftntrj^* vdridi ^ad been statiooed bdiind tlie 
hedge. Lshnbert, wiihoiit waiting f<»r any addi- 
tioiu^ troopfi, now Attacked tbe tnemy 'with 
^reat impemosity,' and 'the 'Gre uf -the infantry 
from tbe hedge, so: gsU^ Langdale'is horBe, that 
they were driven haok. At this critical moment 
Ibe gsrrison aalliBd farth^ ahd' coming upon tlie 
rear mi' LaiAbert's inAtttiy, turned the fortune 
of the day.. The chidf contest was near this 
faedge. The same grdttnd v/ob lost and regained 
ioar or &ve times; hot Langdale's horse return- 
ing to the charge and some of the parii&mentary 
troops coipardly flying without making the least 
jresistance, Lambert was under tbe necessity of 
sounding a retreat. 

The -forces of the -parliament fted without 
CHider towards Ferrybridge: and more perished 
in ttis pumiit than in the action. The enemy 
hung on their rear tili they reached the bridge, 
where they. wra-e. for some time protected by a 
cannon which had ' been p!aoed there. It was 
loaded with grape shot, and being discharged 
killed ibur men belonging to the garrison. The 
troops on the bridge were instantly attadied, 
and driven from it, with the l«Ms of their field 
piece. Tlie flying parties of the army were 
pursued between Sharbitfn ami Tadcaster. 

In tbe action Lambert himself was' wounded, 
and many of his officers slain^ among whom 
.were Col, Armin, Col, ■ Thornton, ahd Col. 
Malary. lo the Chequer RtAd, where the bat- 
tie commenced, and in the 'pursnit to Ferry- 
bridge, he lost about one handred and sisty 
men. In the contest at Ferrybridge, and in 
the pur^iuit to Sherborn^ it is supposed about 



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HISTORY OF PQimHacn 183 

one hnntketl , and forty Iwictrt wareiKlIed^ Near 
seven huodM' were u^en prisoderis, 'among 
whom w«rei; iifty-sevmi j»ffiQ«pr. ' Twecfty-<tno 
stand of .colfKU^s ^loBgingOo t^iiqfsmfryy nhJclr 
were alL tfiey had^ were' tak«ojt aaA\nintity 
standards ofj horse, .on» jfroft piMOi Gr-> urdnaboe 
and twepty carriages; thirty-^oqr double barrdr 
of powder and: a-proportibnate qoantitjr of match' 
^d ba]tet» to^theil i vfith two thousand stand 
of arms, fell inb) the h^bids of the viotors. 

Sir Marmaduke LMgdala 'retitnied to th& 
castle; between, t^ and cferen^d'clock the same 
night, having qoartered his troops in the towns 
and surrounding villA^a. : A" ' body: of cavalry 
were etatioited at' FeatberBflone, and ''another at 
Houghtot). Tbew vfsrt doosmanded'by Langdale 
Suodefla^i Esq. ftf Acktoiv.wbo iiafd raided a 
regiment of cavalry for the king, and' 'saf^rted 
them .at h1» o^fn'ioapeneet-'He; Tn^-:eoiiweicted 
with the Sueaily of Sir. Merinadukd - Lang^ate by* 
marriage, and accbmp^inieditha&'geDeFal' inmost 
of his elitevpriaetf, '-i ]•■ I !'. ■' 

Lord F^fax, on the news foCLangti^s a^ 
proftch, had ordered the :Yoricshire' ft#«es idf 
mfu-ch yfWn &11 ^Med to Pont^i^ti ' Hti had 
faimself d^^fted to bfing them' up; and on his 
way wa» «^prized of the defeat (rf^ his own trot^d 

* Langdale Sundetland having purchaaed Ackton, lenaoved 
dicie (mat High Sunderland, near Halifax, the ancient leat of 
his &niily. He spent fifteen hundred pound*' per annum in 
the royal ctiue, and niffered conslderabl/ in the time of Oliver ; 
tiut like many othen, afle* the restoration, was neglected and 
fbrgottea. He lies interred in Featherittone church. His grand- 
aon Peter add the Featherstone and Ackton estates to Edinund 
Winn, Esq. from whom it has descended to Sir Edmund 
ftlark Winn, &ait. the preseirf posseuor. 



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184 Bmoir or vcamssuct. 

before the castte. la the same night a part 
of the .Yoricshire infantry bad pushed forward as 
for As Glass-HoughtODf and foiling unexpectedly 
on the body of Langdale's borse, quiutered there, 
routed ' Ukid, and took one bmidred horses, and 
made several men prisoners *. - The Lord Fairfax, 
with the davalry^ hastened to their assistance, 
but the fight was over before his arrival. 

The rallied forces of the parliament now 
joined his lord^ip, and in a few days he was 
at the bead of a fomtid^le army. 

Sir Manriaduke Langdale, having relieved 
the castle, after reA«afaing his men with a few 
days rest, retreated to Dorwaster, and from 
thence to Newark. In this march he had nine 
passes to dispnte; and had twdve drinni^es 
with the enemy, in. which he vanquiiriied nine 
thousand men. 

Thas ended the first siege of Pontefract castle, 
during which the garrison had given the strongest 
proo& of titer fortitude, prudence and courage. 
The besiegers had lost in kilted more than five 
huisdred men, and near one thousand prisoners; 
white tbe besieged had not- lost in atl more 
than one handred. Th^ were not however strf- 
fered to exult )ong in their victory, for on 
Langdale's departure, the troops of the partifr* 
ment again collected, and the garrison bad to 
sustain a second siege, which at length ended 
in an honourable surrender. 

* Whiti-ock, p. 135, 



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HISTOBY OP PONTKHACT. 



SECTION xiir. 



EvoUs during the second Siege. 

X HIi) garrisoD availed themselves of the oppor^ 
tunity they now enjoyed of providing as ample 
a supply as possible (w future contingencies. 
Tbey made, several excursions, and levied heavy 
contributions, on tlie surrounding country. They 
seized the cattle, and laid in a stock of pro- 
visions. Necessity, they considered, destroyed 
the claims of priva|« right; aud whatever they 
could seize, they deemed it proper to take for 
thdr own use. The inhabitants of the town 
and the surrounding country, were alternately 
exposed to the esactions of the royalists and 
parliamentarians; and were equally io^ecure 
which ever party prevailed. . 

Oo the UtJi of March, Capt. Labcnue an4 
another taking a. ride &om the castle, towards 
Wentbridge> and meetiag with Mr. Ellis, of 
Brampton, a great sequestrator*, and a quarter- 

* Sequestrators were persoiu appointed to examine into ' 
d>e condurt and tnorali of the f^gy i and tuch at wete - 
" scandalous in tfaeii livei, and iUi^fiected to the parliament," 
they had the power to present to a committee of the hotue, 
which committee in consequence ejected them fiom their liv' 
ingK, »nd appointed oUien to officiate. The rojralisti detested 
the sequeatralors. 

Mr. Ellis vna a Ughly respectaUe cfasracter, and .from » 
jutt omcern fiar the interest of his country, uid of the Protn* 
taSt rdigion, embraced the cause of the parliameilt. His ion, 6^ 
graudioii, Geo. Etli), left 2 good farm at Snmpton to build 

B b 



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I8e BmORT OF FOimnACC. 

master, took them both and brought them pri- 
soners to the castle. They aflemards made ex- 
cursions to Turobridge "beyond Ackworlh, a 
small station belonging to the enemy, which 
they attacked, and took Lieu. Col. Lee, Lieu. 
Col. Ledger, and three horses. 

On the 15th. a party- went ont towards Don- 
caster, and meeting with Col. Brandling's regv- 
ment, they routed it and took ' one major, one 
lieutenant, and about one bondred horse. Aiko-* 
ther paiiy, on the same night, paid a KOond 
visit to Tumbriilge, and plundered the eneoay's 
storehouse of whatever it contained. 

The reappeamnce of the troops of the pallia- 
tnent soon checked the garrison, and put an 
end to thdr excursions. On the Slut, a consi- 
derable body took possession of the opper town. 
Cfipt. Redman was killed near the Brigg, aod 
tiiree others belonging the ^rrieon taken pri- 
soners. The enemy were not sufficiently strong 
to surround the castle, and the gairison continued 
still in possession of the lower part of the 
town, from whence they could ' be always sup- 
jdied with wood and provisions. 

The besiegers, fully convinced that the castle 
was impregnable, and that the courage and loy- 
alty of its defenders could not bo subdued, un- 
less by femine, began to intrench themselves 
and to form a regidar blockade. They todc 
possession of the New-Hall, Monkhill, and Bag- 
' hill, where they cut trenches and erected strong 
works. The besieged endeavoured to prevent 
the constniction - (^ these works; and fa^ daily 

and.eodDW a diaril/ M:h(>p( there* tor the instruction of die 
fhikben of the poot of Brampton sod West MeUui. 



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BtsTO&T orvtarcEnian iVt 

BalKes, and a heavy Are from the cistle*,''the]r 
greatty "annoyed the enemy. ■ 

A pitrty from the garrisoD matte a salty on 
the 38th, and attacked the intrenchments on 
Baghill, killed two of the enemy, and then' re- 
treated without lois. la /the night of the SUt. 
Capt. Smith, with thirty men, went forth, and 
unexpectedly falling on a, barn which the enemy 
had converted info a guai-d-house, routed tba 
guard, and killed four men. 

The besiegers, notwithstanding these attempts 
of the garrison, ami the losses they daily 8U»- 
tainedi continue to work at their intrenchments, 
»nd converted different liooses and barns in iha 
town, into guard-houses. The houses of the aiders 
men, wholiad'Hcd to the ca.stle, and volnffteered in 
its defence, were immediately occupied; among 
which, as being best situated for the purpose, 
those of Alderman Lunn, Ruaby, and Oates, are 
particQlafly mentioned, 

' The garrison, equally bold and watchful, 
availed themselves of every -opportunity of im- 
peding the Works, and diminishing the numbers 
of the enrtny. On the 1st of April they as- 
saulted the guard at MonkliitI, and killed tea 
men ; one was also shot at the low church from 
the king's tower. 

' On the 4th a vigriroiis and successful sally 
was made by three companies, cons'sting of 
thirty men eatth. Alderman Rushy's house and 
barii were assaulted, onp captain and three pri- 
vates were killed, the rest 'lisnerspH, and the 

* On the 22d iha be<ieg«^1 fireil fiflevn cannon into tb« 
town ■nd other )^ace),.an<l hai a Miman -b'-l thrauf[i. the 
hud, and a lun tJirough tli:l'iipr, <>p ih>' lounii io'<e l-v <h« 
■ame bullet, but neither uf tU m v.. tc kill. ■ . Or, I .<■ 2Hii mcy 
fired three ataoa to the bouse itf eoQ W. Boolbt in the [urk. 



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IH nrroKY of poirrEFUcT. 

bouse and bam set on fire. The difibrmit sen- 
tries, near the low church, were also attacked, 
and compelled to retreat with the loas of one 
taken prisoner. 

The besiegers, in consequence of this sallyt 
drew up their forces, and lined the hedges from 
the park to Denwell, with in&ntiy. Tbey erected 
their 'standards at the top of Skinner- Lane, which 
the besieged perceiving, directed their cannon 
against them, and beat them down. 

The besiegers were not long permitted to 
enjoy repose, but from the activity of the gar- 
rison were almost incessantly kept on duty. On 
^e 6th a party of horse under the command 
of Capts. Washington and Beale, and forty mus? 
Iffiteers, under the command of Capt. Smitbt 
^allied forth against the enemy- The horse 
£[>ught with great bravery, and compelled the 
«nemy to retreat into the town, and to double 
the number of their cavalry j who then returned, 
and renewed the attack, snppoiied by one hun- 
dred musketeers, who lined the hedges. Though 
the enemy kept up a heavy fire, the party 
from the castle maintained their ground, and 
took in their presence, two butchers coming 
into the town Icxided with meat, whicli afforded 
a seasonable repast to the garrison. 

On Easter-Sunday the rancour which pre- 
Tailed in each party displayed itself. The go? 
vernor had solicited Col. . Forbes tf> permit him 
to buy some wine in the town, for the sacra- 
ment; and Col. Forbes, with that spirit of libe- 
rality which distingui^es the gentleman, readily 
granted a protection to any person the governor 
might send into the town for that purpose. 
But the men on duty refused permission j and 

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VISTORY OF KHTEFUCT, 189 

one Browne, of 'Wakefield, observed, " If it was 
for their damnation they should have it, but 
not for their salvation;" language which suffici- 
ently evidences his narrow mind, bigotry and 
prejlidice. 

The .garrison having attended divine service, 
were ordered to arms. Strong parties were 
conanianded to sally forth in dilTerent directions, 
and to make a combined and general attack on 
the enemy's works. Capt. Washington and Capt. 
Be^e commanded the hor»e, attended by fiAy 
ojiusketeers, under Capt. Munroe. Capt. Flood 
commanded another body of fifty musketeers, 
To each of these bodies were added twenty-five 
men, taken from the volunteers, who served 
under the four colonels within the castle ; twelve 
were taken from Sir Richard Hutton's division, 
commanded by Capt. Crofi:, ten from Sir G. Went- 
worth's, commanded by Capt. Benson ; and ten from 
$ir Jarvis Cutler's, commanded by Capt. Ogleby. 

The first party sallied out of Swillington 
tower, up Northgate, and made a long and 3^ 
desperate attack upon the enemy's works, 
which were as nobly and bravely defended. 
The other party sallied out of the loner gate, 
to the low church, and having -dispersed the 
guards, they turned up the south side of 
the town, by the halfpenny-house, to the enemy's 
trenches, where a similar attack wa<i made. While 
these parties were engaged with the enemy, they 
^ere in part protected and considerably assisted 
by the fire of their friends from the castle. In 
these rencounters the principal loss fell to the 
share of the besiegers, having one hundred and 
(tiirty killed, besides the wounded; the besiege4 



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190 lamoft- ^rvwnmjxT. 

had 6n1y two men killed and two wounded. 
TKey tonk one prisoner, a quantity of tnusketi 
and tmords, and one drum*. 

On the-eveninsr of the same day, Capf. 
Smith, Capt. Raxliffe, and Lieit. Wlieatley, with 
an hundred men, again sallied forth up North* 
gate, and thence into the market -"place, where 
they kept up a severe fire, and did ffreat ese- 
cutlon for near an honr. In this atinck the ene- 
my's powder was set on fire, and Wew up about 
twenty men, near -Mr. Lnnn's hotise, many of 
whom were killed, and - the re^t so burnt that 
there was little hope of their recovery. ' 

■ Although the besiegers suffered mudi, they 
received various reinforcements, and carried on 
their works with dili^nce and success. If the 
besieged by their bold and well-conducted sal- 
hes compelled them to retreat with loss, their 
numbers were inadequate to maintain the works 
the besiegers had left; and in their turn they were 
obliged to retreat to the castle for their own 
security. The spirit, the valour, and the perse* 
verance of the besieged, effected all that was 
possible. 

On the 7th they made another sally to Bagv 
bill, where they killed one man and took another 
prisoner with two horses. The musketeers from 
the castle protected them, and by a vigorous fire 
killed eight or ten men in the trenches. 

The following day they repeated their attadc 
against the enemy's works on Baghill, hot on 
the whole were unsuccessful. The enemy hav- 
ing retreated and doubled the number of their 
horse, and bringing one hundred rous^eteersj 
* Oeaxs*> MS. 



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aiSTOST O? FONTEFItACr. 1^1 

compelled the party from the cattle to retreat; 
whid] they efTected without loss. Lieu. Moore 
being only wounded by a shot' in the arm*^. 

At this period a body of troops nnder the 
coTnniand of Sir John Sarillef, which had 
been employed before Sandal castle, came to 
ftrengthen the besiegers here. They were princi- 
pally stationed at the New Hall, and during 
the remaining -part of the siege, they suffered 
much from the sallies find fire of the garrison. . 

The besieged continued 'ti>eir attacks on the 
10th. The fire of the- cannon and musketry did 
considerable execution. About Iwtnty of the 
enemy were killed in ttieir different works, du- 
ring -the day; and in the night the cannon 
was discharged twice, loaded with' grape shot^ 
into- the trenches at Baghill, where the cries 
of the enemy indicated - the slaughter which was 
made. 

Alderman Thomas Wilkinson, who . Iiad with 
many others, entered into the - castle, ' was- on 
tlt^ l2tb unfortunat>rIy killed by a shot from 
^ghill, whilst standing :near the gate of the 

* On the 9th A Lieu. Perry, wilb another, met one t^' 
lbs eiKiny') KOuts on Bagbill, >nd run him . tlirougfa ; but 
liii roiB|Mnion fli'«ng,. and the enemy approacliing, he was. 
obliged to leave boih (be man and tlie horses On relieving 
tte lentries the lire rrom the caslle killed two men and one 
WAmao. The beneged uw rrom the caalle the beiicgen lend 
•fffive wajji^i'vyith Ihe wounded. 

f Sii John Saville, ol Meihley, tlie ton of Sir John wh9' 
liad married, to hi* ttcimd wite, Elizabeth, daughter of Tho. 
Wentwoith. Eiq. pf North-Elm tall. Thit Sir John married, 
Itf-'bi* firtt wire, Marjr, daughter oT John Robinion, of Kither, 
£■(}-, and was high «beriff of Yorkithire, in the Iwenty-fouith' 
ofCbarlfi I. .He^etpOuied'the c»gse -of hbertj 'aod'.&ndamf 
and cxcttsd hiipetf on tbt »kle «f a» ftdimai^ 



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192 HISTORY OF PONTEFHACT. 

barbican. Tims were one party watching the 
other; and an individual could not make his ap- 
pearance without being exposed to the fire of 
his enemies. How dreadful is that unnatural 
state of society, which destroys that respect and 
regard which man should feel for man; and im- 
poses it as a duty for one to become the exe- 
cutioner of another! 

The besiegers on the ,13th drew up three 
or four troops of horse, as if they intended, to 
form in a body for some important enterprize. 
About noon a considerable number formed on 
the sand bed, below the New Hall, on perceiv- 
rog which, the besieged discharged thte cannon 
from king's tower, dismounted a whole Gle, killed 
two men and their horses, and severely wounded 
four others. 

The besieged, by firing from the towers, 
endeavoured to protect the cattle, which they 
sent out of the castle to graze in the adjoin- 
ing meadows. Tlie besiegers on the other hand, 
availed themselves of every opportunity of shoot- 
ing at the cattle, and of compelling the be- 
sieged to drive them in again for the purpose 
of security. This gave rise to various, and al- 
most daily, skirmishes, which seldom terminated 
without the elTusiou of blood. On the I4th a 
party of the enemy attacked the cattle, near 
Swillington tower, but a heavy fire of musketry 
from the tower, compelled them to retreat, and 
saved the cattle. 

On this day the enemy received three loads of 
ammunition, and the garrison counted five troops 
qf horse more than they had hitherto observed. 
They conjectured, that, as the treaty ■ of Ux- 



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HlffTORY or PONTSFRACT. I93 

bridge had'^iiled, and as it was the king's in- 
tention to raise the siege of Chester, and to de- 
tach a part of his forces to recover his authority, 
into Yorkshire, a general engagement in this 
part was expected, as an army of three thousand 
Scotch now lay at I^eds, Knaresborough, Yor^ 
Cawood, Selby> and Pontefract. 

This; day a sally was made by about twenty 
muleteers, without any conunander, except one 
of their companions, distinguished for his per- 
sonal courage and conduct, called Wm. Wether, 
.alias Belwether. They approached one of the 
enemy's barricades, near the New Hall, bravely 
attacked it* and drove the men away, who fled to 
their horse guard. The assailants began to de* 
moli^ the : work, and continued, their employ- 
snent till they observed the enemy's horse ready 
to charge, when they retreated without loss in- 
to the castle *. 

The same night Wm. Belwether, attended 
by -six of his' companions, fell on the enemy's tren- 
ches, , near Broad Lane end, killed three men, 
%id. an officer dressed in a buff coat and black 
scarf, snpposed to be Col. Eden, dispersed the 
^«st, and returned in safety. 
f On the 15th various attacks were made by • 
the garrison, but without much loss to the be- 
siegers. In a sally made on some part of this 
day, the garrison sufiered a .severe loss in ttte 
death "of Col. Tindall, Lieut. Col. Middleton* 

* Drake's MS. On the mftemoon Lieut Perry obisemng 
fiie of tiie fbtit beltmging to the gBrriiOD, engaged trith foot 
ol the enemieii horse, near Baghill, rode to Iheir aDugtwioe, 
■tteuled by Sir Jarvn Cutler*! man, r«icued them, ud bron^ 
them back to tbe-oaMlc. - 

CC 



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I94 mSTORY OF' FOKTEFRACIV 

and btfa^ officers, as well as va&ny'wSAien of 
inferior rank*. 

A rif^orous and successfiil sally was made 
on the l6th. Capt. Hemsworth, .with '6fty mas* 
keteera, went x>ut of the lower gate lo the tren- 
ches, near Alderman Lunn'^s house; and Capt. 
Munroe. with other Rfty, from Swillingtoxi tower, 
up Nor^-gate, to the enemy^s upper trenphes. 
These were .assisted by Cifty gentipipen yointh 
teers, drawn from the four divifriom as before 
noticed. A 'party of hcH'se, under Capt. Beale 
and Comet Speight, w«re stationed near BagbiO, 
to prerent the horse of the eiiemy giving any 
assistance to. their inlaiitry daring the attack. The 
two parties assaulted the enemy's trenches with 
l^-eat bravery!, and compelled ttiem to retreat, to 
another trench, nearer' -to the bridge. .The faisi 
of the 'besiegers in this skirmish- was about fiftjr, 
in killed, wounded, and taken; amongst tbe for* 
mer was jOae lieutenant," add in ^be numb^ of 
the latter was Capt. Wade, seven drummera, 
and sixty 'stand of arms. The next day, the 
enemy was observed ' to : carry away sevea wag- 
gons loaded with wonnd^' men. 

On the 18th the besieged discovered about 
fiii'ty oioen and milch cows, . belonging to - the 
enemy, grazing in the fields. Impelled by the 
privations they suffered, they formed; ihe^ design 

• Whitlock, p. U2. It is lingular that Mif.' On&e 
gives no aerount of this sally, nor oF the Iom ihe gwriscn 
sustained. As parties were often Bent ogt of the caitle (• 
Sandall, aixl other places bdcmipog lo the king; il is probabk 
this paitjr might be' sent out fer this purpose, ^ and being ^ 
lacked berore thej. had olea>«d the wmy's wgrkv wsre-otet* 
powered by pimberti aai the fact not. bekig kaDwd ttiiu. 
Drake, Jill Mme time after, he &igot to nMics H. '-^r . 



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8I8TOKY OV P0NTE7RACT. %9$ 

ef attacl^ng the euetny and seizing the cattle. 
A body of horae c?>nnnnanded by Cgpt. Beale Bad 
Cornet- S|ieight» and another of infantry, under 
Mi^rs Bland anit- Dinnis, sallied forth and. cwit 
l^etely effected their desijtn, seizing all the caU 
tie, and returning to the castle without Has least 
hw. ■■ ■■ ■ 

Abbot- an h'^ur; after this tbe . basiegert r*- 
ceiTed a reinforcement of tin hundred ^Scotch 
hbree and Toot, undeh the C9inmai>d of Col. 
Montgomery. The supply the, ^rrison had just 
obfaaioed wat yery Beasotiatil?, as they were now 
completely beleaguered. "They, gave tlw Scotcli 
a warm ret.'eptiQa on their arrival, keeping 
up a heavy fire from the castle^ by which 
i^ter^l^wcpe' killed; and^atttoog these >werei:Capt, 
Hamlten, land' oUier- officers. . > < . . 

This being the marketiKlay tfafe.bwiegen 
dtew : ottt 8 considen^le body of cavalry and 
rooiketeers, on Baghill, to prot^t ^he butchers 
{lod; pthersr.r,ppnf(!ng to the tpjivn, ,prd to prtvent 
the gariftsQiti obtaining ;a supply of fresh pr&vir 
sions^ buf( the' beste.$^ by;, a well dlrec(e^ Ore 
frx>m the towers, - oblige^ ,thent to d'tipf>neb -wd 
^it: tMjT statioii. ;;.. -, :.;■'. :■', 

A Rarty ji^f th? Scotch frojn Monkhill Jin(|d 
tli^^ h^g^^ _and' assaulted .the muskefefjrs," sent 
irom the garrison to profect ;tbe ; ca(Mei whilst 
erazing, bat ■were' repulsed. ' *i ■■ 

■ On the' [following tlay the besiewft! set fi» 
to Ifte /IbweK side of Nfi>nVhill, ^ud at .(hreedif^ 
ferehl'tinjies'coinpelled'tlieieQeiriy jto retreat frooj 
their wor^s. ' No considerable ailvanta^ wa> ob* 
taiited, nor did the enemy Buffer materially in 
these lericountres*. . : 

* DaASi'i iSS. On tbe nino dajr thiec piiratet dit 



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196 HISTORY 0* PONTBnUCt. 

On Sunday the 90th the' Scotch fired' tb« 
upper part of Monkhill, and ' begaa entrench- 
inents from Bondgate Mill towards their barri- 
cades, at Cherry Orchard ' Head; and from 
llience raised several strong works to the top of 
Monkhill. 

The besieged, in order to annoy the enemy 
on BaghiH, began to raise a mount within the 
barbican, where they intended to plant the only' 
large iron caanoa of which they were possessed *. 
The besiegers perceiviiig their design, continued 
a -steady 'fire against the men employed in ma- 
king the platform. On this and the following 
day the work was^ notwithstanding, carried on 
and completed. 

. The besieged fired several cannon on this 
day, one of which shot ■ through the enemy's 
barricades, behind the School-house, and as there 
were many- men there, it is supposed 'it did 
great cKecotton. '< ■ 

By some mistakej the Scotch run 'to' arms, 
and taking a party of th^r owh ni«n for cava-' 
lie'rs, fired upon them, and killed if m^r, be* 
fore «heir -mistake wais discovered. "■■ ' " ' 

The Scotch continued to - strengthen ' their 

flayed their courage, by saflying forth up Grange Lane, an4 
•ttacking the Scotch in theii works at the top df it, and can- 
pdiUng DMnn to refavnt . . ' ' 

* There was found in the park closes abotit Jourteen ytm 
ag(^ a l|«nr weighing fiiiy-eight pound* and upifaNsg ud u 
k must have been dimintthed by time, it ^oul^ not ha«e ydglied 
less originally Ihui sixty pounds. The ball is now in the poatessnn 
ipf Mr. Mitton, 'of SpiUle Uardwick. WhelAef' diis'was the 
caliber of Ae cannon in the castle, 9r of ons powesied by 
(be beaii^en, if i>ot ' certai;). TVrc tav9 been mavy faaJb 
fixuid in end near the town, of the wn^ of fi^ty pouwk. ; 



D.n.llzedbyGt>Ol^lc 



raffWHnr OT POBtKrtlAaT. Isi 

TK>rks,' bat did 'hot extend them furth^; 'and 
on the night of the Qid marched away through 
tbe park, and were replaced by troops ' com? 
numded by Sir J. Saville. 

From' this time tbe besiegers regularly brought 
up parties to Baghill, which were posted be- 
hind the hedges and in the trenches, and kept 
a cQDsjtant watoh on the garrison, and wh£n oppor- 
tunity ofibred, they poured in their shot, which 
the besieg^ in like manner retnmed. ' in these 
attadcs many lives were l6st on both sides;, but 
it does not appear that the besieged were ever 
sble to ^ly beyond the enemy's works, so that 
from this, period they were completely^ suiToiinded. 

On receiving intelligence thnt tbe kiiig had 
raised: the siege of Chester, and obtained some 
advantages aver his enemies, the besieged begati 
to indtilge the hope; that they shoukl be again 
^leedily relieved. ' Wliat gave strength to this 
bope^-^as' the iafonaation' which a woman; 
token by Belwethen-, imparted. This womait 
•iserted that the . besiegens woald remain only 
^wo.or tbree.days longer before the tiasile, and 
that the troops of the parliament would be co^ 
lected tether, to wait' the approach of the 
royal antiy. Though this informatics was true 
as far as respected Qiester, ~ the conchision - drawn 
from it was. never realized. The expectation' of 
the besieged was wholly disappointed by tKa 
disasters which befel the royal army. 

The -besiegers received a reinforcement of 
-one hut^drad and fifty men, on the S6th. -They. 
fame by way. of Ferrybridge to the New Hall, 
where they kept a very strong gnard. ' In' the 
piglU they sent pne hundred men ^m the op- 



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198 mgTOVr. OF TONTXnUOT. 

|)er tomi'to B^j^H. ttbere^they thtew up a trendr; 
IVhile the. besiegers :.wet«,thui' employed in pre> 
paring for their ctwn afcariiy, 'the besieged cal* 
lied forth in strong patties to. prevent the aty 
complijhment of their desigh. About tidcty men, 
commanded by Capt. Smith, and >Lteut. 3ayille> 
sallied out of Swillinftton tower, up Nort4)g«te^ 
wh<*re they greatly abrmed the efiemy, who 
beat . to arms, both :ia the town and through 
all their trendies. A brisk fire was'kept up on 
both sides for about Naif an hour, and the be* 
sieged retreated without any loss. ' Another 
party sallitd out of the east gate at the same 
time^ and drove the besiefcere from their Geutriea 
to their works," near the New ■Hall. 

The besiegers carried on their works dn Bag- 
bill, and kept about one' hundred' mitfAeleerri 
^tioned tbeiwv-. who. were regularly " retteved by 
the Mme number, from, the upper town.' So 
yigilant were the besiegers .oh -JB^ghitl,' asd eo 
vigorous and constant itheir fire^ ^that tlitf -6e^ 
uieged; were closely [Confined; inor^^dauld 'ibey 
tend .out their cattle 'to graze withmit' extreme 
danger. .... 

The garrison now; began to suflelr many pri- 
vations, .and fresh meat was cottsldered a great 
luxury. Op the 97th. some ofi the besieged see- 
ing three, hogs, which had strayed down ■ to the 
Broad Lane end, rushed out of tbe b^bican, 
and at the hazard of their lives, drove them ioto 
the easily. This incident shews mow clearly 
.than any language the state of the 'garrison. 

During the night the enemy employed one 
hundred .men in completing- the trenches on 
Bagbill, and oa the following moroing these 



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■I8TMT Of MKTBFSACT. 199 

were relieved by one hundred'and fi^j from the 
town, wfto continued at the same work ihrougt^ 
the whole of the day. 

A pBrty^ of, tbe.beswgers' horse drew op 
about DOon, wid marched through' the park to 
Ferrybridge; on seeing which a number of ' bold 
and resolute meil mshed oat of the castle, 'with-? 
out any . eopinuuider, and bravFly assaulted » 
troop udder Sir J. Saville; gave an alarm tc 
their guard M the New Hall, and haVing killed; 
^d wounded as many of the enemy as equalled 
tlietr whole aamber, they retreatol with safety 
to the castle. 

During the night of the SSth the besiegers 
nnployed at least three hundred men on their 
intreoctments at Baghill. The next morning, 
the garrison, .to preserve some of their cattle 
alive, vettiired to send a. few of them to graze- 
•rcHiDd tife cattle ; but the i enemy's works being 
now BO pear, they were »>on compelled to drive 
them back, with the lo» of one cow and two 



The governor, hearing nothing satisfactory 
c^ the king's afj^irs, and perceiving the increa- 
ting force of the enemy, came to a resolntion 
to send four of his officers to Newark, to inform 
bis Majesty of the state of the garrison* and 
to obtairi, if possible, relief. In the nigbt of 
tbe d9th .the four officers departed from the cas- 
tle, attended by twenty. muitkeCeers, who at- 
tacked the. enemy up Nortbgate, while th«r 
fi-iend« pushed forward and cleared tbeir lines. 

On the 30th the ; besiegers relieved tbeir' 
pisrd OR Baghill, with one hundred and fif):y 
men at leas V and. tl^nrag^ tbe vholQ of tbe day 



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20O BIsrOVT OP PONTEntACRi 

a heavy fire was kept up on both' sides. The 
besieged had one horse killed in the barfakaui, 
and the. enemy had sev^ men killed and 
wMJoded by the musketry from the ronnd tower. 
During the night the besiegers burnt a' house, 
called Hilthall house, occupied by one Oates, 
on Monkhillj and another small house near the 
castle walls. The poor inhabitants' were tints 
expelled from their cottages; and at this unhap- 
py period were not only expo&ed alternately 
to the rapacity of the besiegers and the besieged, 
but compelled to seek a peaceable abode else- 
where. 

The 1st of May the enemy relieved their 
guard on Baglillt, and began to erect a strong 
triangular work, which they walled with stone 
and filled with earth. The besieged planted their 
cannon against this work, and by a well-directed 
shot greatly annoyed the «ieniy. WiUiin the 
work the ofiii^s and men were regaling them- 
selves with ale, but on the discharge of the 
cannon they betook themselves to their deep 
trenches. 

Several sallies were made by small parties 
l^^inst the besiegers at MonkhOl; and as these 
parties were covered by the fire of the •castle, 
their loss Vfos commonly much inferior to th:d 
of the enemy. The troops of Sir J. Saville 
were this day several times driven from their 
works, with the loss of some killed and more 
wounded. In the afternoon' three of the garrison, 
without orders, issued ' forth against the enemy.; 
They gave fire freely, and displayed the greatest 
personal courage and resolution. They eontinued 
their .aasaidt, .till the CQemy- began to collect. 



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J^OSX OP,PjarCEFRACT. 201 

• wftet) they retreated, exposed to their fire. One 
of them, Nathanier Sutton, a barber, was shot 
through .the shoulder into the body, and in- 
stantly fell. Another, Capt. Dent, was wounded, 
receiving a fracture in the skull, but recover- 
ed agaia. A ball entered tlie doublet and grazed 
up the back of the third, who had stooped 
to avoid the fire of the enemy, by which his 

.life was preserved. 

The enemy cut down branches of trees, 
and made blinds at the ends of ttieir work oa 
Baghill, where they placed a long drake, belong- 
ing to Sir. J. Saville's troops, and on the fol- 
lowing morning opened a fire on the castle, but 
after having fired about eight times it was re- 
moved again. The besiegers lost in killed, and 
wounded this day near twenty men; and the 
besieged Jha^ one man shot in the . head, who 
instantly expired. They also suffered a loss 

,in one; of thw oxen, which the enemy shot 
whilst grazing} but a party from, the castle suc- 

.^^ed in bringing it off. 

Qn.tlie 3d there was little firing on either 

^Jde., ; The eqemy kept close in their trenches, 

;and . the . besieged, in tlie' castle. The latter 
however were more straitened, and tlie' loss they 

,custaiaed from the destruction of .their cattle 
began ,to be more severely felt. Tliey had tw0 

.oxen and a mare shot on this day, but secured 

.the c^ipasea. ,• , 

A deserter fled intp , the castle,' ' on the fol- 

-Ipwii^ day, and gave tlie, besieged .information 
respecting the state and numbers of the, enemy. 

A punf^r of royalist^ who had been taken pri- 
Bopers, near Newark* were brought to Poniefract, 
" Dd - ■ . 



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202 HKTORY OF PONTEFRACH 

and exchanged for an equal number of the 
enemy within the caslle. 

On the 5th, and some following days tbe 
enemy relieved theif guard on Bagliill, H'Uh not 
more than thirty or forty men, and from this 
part of their works there was very little 6ring. 
On Monkhill tliey made ways through all tbe 
houses which tliey had b'urnt, till they came to 
one which had been occnpied by a widow Top- 
man, where they kept their Gentries, and from 
whence they continued a constant fire. From 
their works in Paradise Orchard, in the Trinities, 
and from Alderman Lunn's and Rusby's boasei> 
they continued a heavy and vigorolis irre against 
Ihe round tower, and the north part of the 
castle, which the besieged returned, aild partial 
losses were sustained on both sides. 

Having in a measure rested on their arms 
for a few davs, on the 9th each party recom- 
menced a strong and galling fire. The benlsgnd 
shot an officer and one soldier at thieir worics, 
at the top of Broad Lane. The name of the offite^ 
was Capt. Coulartes. , The besiegers, in order to 
coniplete their lines, about four o'clock iiT the 
afternoon, set fire to several houses and barns 
in different parts of the town. From North- 
gate towards Micklegale, they set on fire two 
barns, which were joined together, the one be- 
longing to Mr. Shilito, the mayor, and tbe 
other to Mr. Batley. Trom thence they pro- 
ceeded in consuming all thd houses aud malt- 
lionses, till tbey reached Mi'cklegate,' amongst 
which were sieveral excellent buildings; particu- 
larly one newly erected, belonging to Mr. Bat- 
fey. They tbea crossed the street, and set fire 



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l^OroKY OF PONTEFKACT. SOS 

to Alderoiao Wilkinson's house. The fire of 
.these houses aud bams,. raged with violence du- 
ring the vfhole- of the night ; and the besieged 
-fired several cannou into ibe town, which did 
considerable -execution, aud added to the horror 
of the scene. 

The besiegera bad sudered much froHi the 
sallies, of the besieged from Swillington tower. 
.They now determined to confme the jjarrison 
bv the erection of , stropg works oo MonkhilL 
Having once formed the resolution, they soon 
carried it into execution. The work was. in (he 
form of a half-moon or.creFceut, and while it 
aiTorded protection to the besiegers, it consider- 
fibly annoyed the besieged. If they made a 
-sally up Northgate they were exposed to the 
fire of the pnemy, from Monkhill; and the most 
determine valour of the besieged was unavailing. 

It is imppssible to. ascertain vt'hat human na* 
lure can endure,' when supported by the plea- 
ding delusion of hope, or animated by the energy 
of a party spirit. The more men suffer in the 
cause they have espoused, the stronger their 
attachment frequently becomes; the importance 
or glory of the cause is thought sufficient to 
justify all the sacrifices they make, or all the 
sufferings they jndiire in its support. The truth 
of this remark is established by the spirit of 
the garrison on the evening of the 19th. . While 
recounting their deeds of valour, and conversing 
on the cause they had hitherto maintained, a 
general enthuisissm w^s enkindled; and not hav- 
ing any more reviving liquors, they drew water 
from the new well, and drank the health, of the 
kiagj mi o£alLhi(f good friends. They pledged o;ie 



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20+ histohy op pontefract. 

another, and engaged to be faithrul, and holfl 
out the ciastle to the last extremity. On recei- 
ving these pledges, they rent the air with sliouts 
and halloos. The besiegers, on hearing the noise 
of rejoicing, run to their arms, drew up their 
horse, and doubled their guards, supposing that 
cither a vigorous sally would be. made, or that 
the garrison had received some good. news. The 

, tattoo in the castlej at length relieved the ene- 
my from their fears, and the night passed in 
tranquillity. 

The following day a strong fire was kept 
up on both sides. The" besiegers had two killed 
and several wounded. The loss they daily sus- 
tained, made theiri keep dose within their 
trenches; and they rarely made their appearance 

"unless when they relieved their guards. The 
besieged observed the enemy send off toward 
Ferrybridge three or four waggons loaded with 
■goods, which led them to believe that tliey were 
preparing to depart. "What strengthened their be- 
lief was, that on the following day the enemy 
drove a considerable number of sheep and cat- 
tle the same road ; but it was afterwards found. 
that these were sent to York, for supplying the 
troops there wilh victnals. The garrison on 
this day were deprived for a season of the ser- 
vices of Cornet Thurley, who, while standing 
in the Barbican, was wounded by a shot in 
the arm. 

The enemy received a reinforcement of a 
troop of horse from Doncaster, which joined 
the main guard at the New Hall. The whole 
of the enemy's horse was afterwards drawn op 
in the park ; uid ' their number appeared cgnsi- 



:k«Ck>OJ^IC 



" Ht^lldRY OF ftJNTEftlACT. %65 

Arable. The losses the besiegers 'snstatned were 
sDon made up by the arrival of fresh troops 
while the garrison was gradually diminished ia 
numbers, and still more weakened by the pri- 
vations they Bufiered. 

On the I5th a party from the castle sallied 
ont of the east gate to the l6w church, in order 
to obtain some wood for firing. ■ Two lieute^ 
wants of the enemy observed them, but before 
they could retreat, or bring up arty of their 
own men to their assistance, they were at- 
tacked, and Lieutenant Thompson, after being 
wounded, was' taken and brought a prisoner 
into the dastle. About two hours afterwards a 
lirum was sent to propose an exchans^e of Mr. 
Thompson for an officer of the same rank, 
who was a prisoner at Cawood, About twelve 
o'clock at night Belwether, who had been 
sent to Newark seven days before, returned 
and brought letters from his majesty containing 
joyful news. As the king had now a re- 
spectable army, and was pushing forward into 
the sonthern counties, where it was co.iceived 
he would possess a decided superiority, it is pro- 
bable the letters received had a reference to this 
subject. 

The news the garrison received inspired them 
with fresh courage, and on the following day a 
vigorous sally was made to Monkliill, and the 
enemy were driven from their works to their 
-main-guard,, at New Hall. Another parly at- 
tacked the work bPlow the old church, on per- 
ceiving' which, the enemy drew about thirty 
men from the barn in the grange, and com- 
niepced a brisk fire upon them. The party 



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20S Oftovt or ranrnrucr. 

from the oastle retired to a . close and thick 
orchard, from whence they- returned the fire 
for near half an hour, and then retreated into 
the castle. In the nigh^ another party issued 
from the castle, intending to destroy a new 
work the enemy had raised at the bottom 
«f the abbey closes. The besiegers liad by some 
means received information of their design, and 
had lined all the hedges with infantry, so that 
the moment the party from .the garrison sallied 
Diit, they were exposed to- a brisk and heavy 
fire. They returned the fire for some time with 
spirit, and then retreated in safety, having only 
two men slightly wounded. It was supposed 
that a woman, who had gone out of the cas- 
tle, had given intelligence of their inteuded at* 
tack, and thus frustrated their intentions. 

The next day the besiegers had one man 
shot from the round lower, in the market-place; 
and the besieged suffered a f<imilar loss of a 
mani who was going oat of Swilllngton tower. 
A drummer was sent from the town, and a 
tmmpeter from the Lord Montgomery's brother, 
to the castle. The latter was ordered to the 
governor's chamber, and after a stay of half an 
hour was sent back. He informed the besieged 
that the parliamentary ttoops did not exceed 
eight thousand men, in all the surroiinding couotry. 

On Sunday the 18th, after attending pmyer, 
and sermon in the castle, the governor ordered 
all the men to their arms. Old Major Warde 
was sent to the mount in the barbican to watch 
the towers, that none might m^ke any signal 
with hat, hand, or handkerchief, or aay other 
thin^, to give the enemy notice of their' pro- 



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■ nSTORT or tomtpRkOT. S07 

ceediogs. Gapt; Smith, Capt: Flood, Ensigo 
Killingbeck, snd Sa-gt. BartoD, went first over 
the drawbridge towards Monkhill. Otpt. Smith, 
with thirty men, went up Denwell Lane, to 
the outworks at the back of Monkhill, and hav- 
ing beat the enemy from thence, scoured the 
trenches to the lowest work^ Capt. Flood and 
Ensign KTfltngfaeck charged tip the High StreA 
to Monkhill top, where they fired the bouses 
and demolished the works of the enemy, and 
were jbined by Capt. Smith and his party. 
Another party, under the command of Capt. 
Munroe; Ensign Otway, and Sergt. Coupland, 
consisting of seventy men, sallied out by the 
old cbaruh to the lowest works of the enemy, 
and beat them from thence. Having set fire to 
an adjoining house, they charged up the lane to 
the grange bam, and there found several, who 
were sat after thbir dtnii«- driaking healths to 
^e upper house of pariioment; these were in- 
staatiy attacked, and every man slain. They 
next proceeded towards Monkhill, and joined 
the other parties at Cherry-Orchard head, neat 
Nev Hall. Lieut. GilbretK, LieOt. Wiildwby 
and Lieut. Warde, with seventy men, were atst- 
tioned at the low chnrdi, and Major Warde 
and Lieat: Faviell^ with forty men, lined tlie 
walls in the low barbican. These foraied a corps 
de reseriv, designed to assist their friends in 
case the enemy had marched to the aid of iheit 
companion's, either from the town or from Bag- 
hill. The different parlies subceeded in every 
direction, and being all- united, near the New- 
Hall, charged the «iemy at the very gates, 
and drove. theA from all tbeir treadte» over St. 



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:Th<Ht]a$' Hilt; towards Ferrybridge.- In tliis at- 
tack the enemy lost about sixty mea'killedi and 
a? many wouodtd. 

The party from the castle, on their [return, 
seized the hats, arms, Sic. of those they had,slait). 
They likewise rifled tbeii? pockel^, and as their 
own pay . was much in arre^r, the little they ob* 
l^n^ afforded a seasonable supply. They 
brought also into the castle a quaptity of swords, 
muskets, haiberts, drums, saddles, spade^ &c. 
and in eyery trench was found a bag of pow- 
.der and some m»tch ; which ;had been left by 
.tlxo^ ndio.fied.. :X1^ garrison .lost in this saily 
Cernet Blackley, a brave and enterprizing officer, 
.uijd had pne man >voimded, . and another taken 
jtriaoner. , In the' evening the enemy- sent two 
.wagons j^adod with the wounded to Ferr^^bridge. 

.'The loss the besifg^s had sustained checked 
.their ardor iuid abated their cqui:a^. The fol- 
lowmg ,day they- lay ^ close- jn, their, trenches, 
and ' scarce : one ,man appeared. . The ; besieged 
enppuraged by the success of the .preceeding 
^ay, .raised: great "-dw^uts^ from, the ^towers, and 
by cryiog out.a "/prmce, a .prmcej!' ■ plafmed 
.the eneipy, .who %tcbed yp .thieh^/ horses i from 
grass, saddled th^ and jdrew up . in . Grange 
Li|ne. A strongrpArty, came frpm^ tlie town to 
Baghill, and another- to New-Hal), ;to strengthen 
their gufirds tl^ere. Tturiqg. -tUe^ movefneuts 
the besiqged shot several of; tt^-eneiny. 

The besiegers, ^ad their losses soon repaired 
by the arrival of. considerable reipfonceoient^ 
.both- of foot and horse. They icame, from Feri- 
rybridge by a circiiitous marchj ^nder the bill 
from JDarrington J^.tlie. ^V^% .FwW, apd, fn»B 



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OF PONTEFRACT. 209 

tbencfr into the park. ' The besieged had their 
eye upon all their motions, and fired their' can^ 
non from Treasurer's toner against them. The 
shot killed two men,. «nd the rest marched off 
behind ihe park ridge, where they abode. The 
fire of tnuketry from the ronnd tower annoyed 
the enemy in their works at Baghill, and seferal 
fell there. 

The 9Ut being a very rainy day, both 
parties' ooatinued quiet titl the aftenuMt. A 
small party of the besiegsd went to the low 
diarch to obtain wood, and the enemy imme* 
diattsly opened a vigorous^ fire in all directions 
upon tbem, which compelled them to retreat 
nithodt ' acoomptishing' their object; At the 
same, time 'about five hundred men, with drums 
beating 'atid colours fiyihg, marohed. through, ihe 
lower part of the parte, m -single files,' to the tieW 
Half, to relieve theii* guards' there. The troops 
commanded by Sir J. Saville, since their arri- 
val, had been kept on constant duty. They' had 
scarce ever enjoyed a night's repose, aad suf- 
fered severdy 1^ the different .sallieS'the gatri-' 
ion had made. -They now quitted the danger- 
ous post tbey had for some tiine eeoupied, 
ftnd in- the- evemtig marched into thG'''townj 
where tbey (bund tfae^ r^rase dad refreshments 
nature detnanded^ ' ' - 

The "governor recefved 'letters from "his- Ma- 
jesty ■and Sir M.' Lattgdalfe on 'the 39d, con- 
veying* the pleasing "ioTohuatioli" that a royal - 
army was advancing for' the relief'-of the cftstle.' 
On rec^ving this intettigence the expectation of 
the garriaoti was raised, and they accompaDi(>d 
their frrends coming to theii- assistance f! ^ith 



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HWrORT OF PONTSnACT.- 



hearty dtslres and earnest prayers for a'prospeT'^ 
ous Messing upon their endeavours." Ope Han- 
son also arrived from Sandal caslle in the nighr, 
oonfiroiing this information. 

Whtither the Icing, at thi» period, had any 
rea? intention of sending a part of his troops to 
raise the siege of the castles of Pontefract and 
Sandal, or whether the letters sent were only 
Resigned to raise the hopes of the garrison, and 
fncqurage them to a vigorous defence,, till op- 
portunity occurred of affording them etTeclUKil 
as&istanoe, is not certain; but the. latter tip* 
pears most probable, as the king was now 
marching with all his forces into Leicesterslitre. 

On the following day the enemy, kept up 
their fire from JBaghiU agitinst the .ca^le, but 
did no execution. The besieged racetv^ed itifor- 
mation from. Skipton Castte . smd Latham Hall, 
that these places which had been reduced to 
the greatest distress for: want of provisions, had 
been happily relieved, and had obtained a supply 
<rf sixty head of cattle and other necessaries. On 
the same day there came into the castle,. one Blag- 
bounn, a clothier, and another tetiabt. of Major 
Beaumoat's,;,wbo rejoiced much at Ibe welfare of 
their .landlord. The gpnrison considered this as a 
fevoureible sign, that they should soon be relieved, 
as these tenants evidently came to regain the 
the favour of their . Iqodtordi. in . case such an 
event should restore, him to his estates and 
liberties, Jn.the night a fire was made on the 
top of S9ndal Castle,' which was answered by 
9ne from Pontefract Castle, by which it was con- 
^pred that good news had beeu received. 
The goveruor received ioforioatioo thtX the gar- 



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■ HISTORY OP PONTEFRACT. 211 

rison in Scarboro' Castle had- made a vigorous 
and successful sally, in whicli the besie^rs had 
lost three hiindi-ed men, and that all their can- 
non had been spiked. 

The 24th, as early as three o'clock in the 
morning, the besiegers commenced a dreariful 
fire against the round tower, which continued 
for the greatest part of the day. It was sup- 
posed they were imlated on account of the 
fire the besieged bad iticidled on the roood tower 
the preceeding night, and the joy they disco- 
vered on receiving intelligence of his Majesty's 
success. The besieged were in suspense, and. 
did not know whether the enemy were now 
preparing to take tlie castle by storm, before 
the army of the king came up to their assist- 
ance; they however resolved, in case of such 
an attempt, to defend it as long as possible. 
and to surrender it only with their lives. 

On this day a poor woman, who was ga- 
thering potherbs, was wounded in the thigh by 
a shot of the enemy, but not dangerously. In 
the afternoon four men from the castle went 
down to the old church, where a small party 
of the enemy were stationed. ■ They did not 
wait the attack, hut all shamefully- fieri except 
one lieutenant, who tlirew stones at them so fast 
that for ■ some time they were not able to 
enter. At length one Thomas Lowther, a bold 
and courageous soldier, closed in upon the lieu- 
tenant, and would have taken him prisoner, had 
he not been at that moment wounded by a 
sliot in the leg, which the enemy perceiving 
hastened to take him, but his three companions 
with much difficulty brought him to the castle^ 
where he suffered amputation and recovered, 



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212 . BISTORT OF POSTETRACT. 

The besieged received letten this day, in- 
fomiing them that the army of the king which 
consisted of fifteen thousand men was divided, 
and that one half, under the cotDinand of Prince 
Matirice, was marching to rais* the seige of 
Carlisle, and the other under bis Majesty, was 
coming to their assistance. 

The enemy continued their fire alt the night, 
and the next morning, they poured in whole vol- 
lies, from every quarter against the castle. They 
rent, the air with crying, a Cromwell! a Crom- 
well! They had received intelligence that Crom- 
well was marching in his Majesty's rear. Thus the 
hopes of each party were alternately encouraged, 
and depressed. The besiegers set fire to two 
or three houses in Northgate, and to the water- 
mill in Bondgate, together with a few other houses. 
The reason of this severity is supposed to have 
been, to compel the inhabitants to pay a contri- 
butiop, which the enemy had laid upoh the town, 
and with which they very reluctantly complied. 

On the 36th, being Whitsun-Monday, the 
great gun in the castte was removed from the 
mount before the gates, and planted on the 
platform, without the upper gates, from whence 
in was discharged against the sentry house, near 
Alderman Kusby's; the shot struck the house 
with great force, and fi-om forty to sixty per- 
sons ran out in great consternation. They also 
planted a little drake on Swillington tower, 
which they played against the enemy's guud 
at Paradise orchard, but did little execution. 

On this day a man called "W. Tuhb, and a 
boy, along with many others, went out of the 
castle to cut grass for the cattle, and impni- 



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HISTORY OF MNTEFHACT. SIS 

dcDtly venturing too near the encm^, the hoj 
was wCHiuded by a ball, which entered side-wav 
his mouth and went through his cheek, and the 
mao was taken prisoner. The enemy .perceiving' 
that he was an ignorant clown, gave htm al« 
till he was nearly intoxicated, and then, tried to 
obtain from him an account of the number of 
the garrison, the quantity of their ammunition, 
provision, &c. but he either gave an exaggerated 
account, or evaded the questions pu t to bim, 
aid as they were conveying him to their prin- 
cipal guard-house, at New-Hall, he slipt from 
ttiem and regained the castle. 

The besieged on the 27th played their cao- 
Don against the enemy's trenches, near Mr^ 
Rusby's, and at Mr. Oates' house in the Mar- 
ket-place. One of the enemy, whilst carelessly 
walking on Primrose Close, nnder Baghill, and 
smoaking his pipe, was killed by a musket shot 
from the castle. A .poor lif.le girl, who was 
ieedtng a cow under Swillington tower, was 
wounded by the enemy in the thigh, but reco* 
vered-. 

In the night of the 27th, about twelve o'clock, 
Lieut. Wheatley arrived, who had been sent along 
with Capt. Washington, a few days before, to 
Sandal Caitle. He had brought with him forty 
or Rdy horse, who in their way had met with 
two of the enemy's scouts, taken them prisoners, 
and brought tl>em to the castle. They had also 
met with one hundred and twenty or thirty head 
of cattle, which they had driven before them, 
and if they could but succeed' in' getting them 
into the castle, they would be supplied with 
provisioDs for some time. It was no easy thing 



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214 HISTORY OF PONTEFRACT. 

to effect this on account of the enemy's works 
and strong ptiards, with which the castle was 
now surrounded. Necessity prompted the gar- 
rison to make tlie attempt, whatever it might 
cost them, or whatever might be tl:e event. 

Capt. Wlieatley had left the cattle at some 
distance, white he Iiad pushed forward with 
ail tlie speed of liis horse to give the garrison 
information. It iras agreed that the cattle 
should be brought from the Chequer Field, by 
way of Carleton, and on the public road to Bag- 
hill; and that when they came near he should 
cry out a prince! a prince! to arms! to arms. 
All was ready in the castle an hour before the 
cattle arrived. At length they arrived, and 
Capt: Wlieatley came nding as fast as he could, 
crying a prince ! a prince ! to arms I to arms. 
Some played the cannon against the enemy's 
works, and different parties sallied forth to aid 
in bringing in the cattle. Capt. Flood, Capt 
Ogleby, and Lieut. Killingbeck, with fifty mus- 
keteers were sent to Baghill, with orders not to 
enter the eucmy's works, but to remain under 
the hill-side, and keep up a constant fire itpou 
them, to prevent them from sallying forth. 
Lieut. Col. Giibreth, Lieut. Smith and Lieut. 
Warde followed them up the hill, %nth forty 
musketeers, to the enemy's works at Primrose 
Close, uuder Baghill, from whence they soon. 
compelled them to retreat to their strong tren- 
ches on Baghill. Next went Capt, Smith and 
Lieut. Ogleby, with thirty musketeers, and at- 
tacked the enemy at Broad-Lane end, to pre- 
vent them from affording any assistance to those 
«u duty at Baghill. Another party under the 



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HISTORY OF PONTEFRACT. 2tS 

command of Capt. Miinroe, Capt, Barthrome, ^ 
and Sergt. Barton sallied forth from the east 
gate to the enemy's works below the church, 
and prevented them frora coming from Monkr 
bill, or New-Hall. The different parties having 
reached their stationR, and fully succeeded in 
checking the enemy, Capt. Joshaa Walker, with 
about twenty map-banchcs* , went up the closes^ 
on . the south side of the Jow church, to Bag- 
hi)l> whece.he met the cattle. The Sandal. men 
th^- relurnedj' except about ■ ten who assisted 
Capt. Walker to drive the cattle down to the cas- 
tle. Anxious to place the cattle in safety >> bc- 
f<Bie the enemy could collect in numbers suffi- 
cient to prevent it, they drove tlieni down the 
hill with such haste, that they lost thirty or 
forty, which of course fell into the hand of the 
enemy. They however secured the possession 
of ninety^seven, which would enable them to 
hold out the castle for some time. 

The. .cattle having reached the castle, tlie 
drium beat; a- retreat, and all the different par- 
ties of the; garrison retiu-aed in good order, witli- 
out having auflered thg:los3;of a man killed^ 
having only one wounded. 

The besieged . now . gave rent to their joy, 
for having obtained such essential relief^ and in 
a noanner sp unexpected. They kindled bonfires^ 
on the tops of all the towers in the castle, and 
comt^enced a heavy iire against the enemy's 
works in all directions. 

The orders which the governor had given to 

* Snap-Huidiet, the editor has been infonned, is a term 
denved {rem the Iri^, and is applied, among the nuliury, 
to personi not reguiarty trained to tbc ait oC war. 



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tie msTORV OP pontefract. 

the different parties demonstrated bis prudence 
and' the 'solidity of his judgment. Had the dtf- 
ferent parties, instead oif keeping the enemy in 
eheck, fallen upon them, it is probable they 
would have been compelled to-Mtreat, and thus 
have failed to accomplish their deGigo. Tfa^ 
men yfhdae zeal and oonrage were not always 
regulated by wisdom, expressed a Mrong desire 
to attadc the enemy, and their comnanders had 
much to do to restrain them; they however did 
obey orders; and to this circumstance th^, 
most probably, owed their ■ success. 

' The bescegei^ the next day commenced a 
heavy fire against the castle, but did not the 
least injury to the besieged. They seemed to 
be ashamed uf their conduct on the past night, 
in suffering the castle to be so easily relieved. 
They informed their govenor, Overton, that five 
hundred men had escorted the Cattle.' Fear, .bs it 
magnifies danger, often multiplies' the number 
f^'an enemy, and justifies the iba&tivity,- not 
to say cowardice, of those nnder-itt' ii^flDeai3^'. 
The besiegers might have fcmnd a' better retf^ 
son for: their conduct than what' tlidy afiaigiKd; 
They might with truth have said, ■*• That' being 
ignorant oP the strength of- the enemy, they 
judged it more proper to remain oft the deffen^ 
"iive, than to desert their linesi 'Mid expose 
themselves wholly to their fire." 

Overton, the -governor, sent a 'drum and 
three women, who were owners of part of the 
eattle, with a letter 10 Governor LowthCr, ^ther 
to deliver up the cattle, or make composition 
. for them in money. The goventor, conceiving 
the letter to be an inEult> as it . was writtm in a 



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HISTORY OP POSTEFIIACT. 217 

peremptory and commanding stile, replied, If he 
could take the cattle, he should have the cattle, 
otherwise he should not have the worst beast 
brought in, under forty pounds. 

In the night the men who came from Sandal, 
went out of the castle, with an intention to re- 
turn, but some of the garrison, who attended 
them, having their matches lighted, the enemy 
took the alarm; and, commencing a brisk fire, 
compelled them to return to the castle. The 
enemy, during the night, raised a strong baricado 
across the lane, leading to Bagbill, in order to 
prevent the garrison from sallying forth in that 
direction. They also set fire to an house at 
the lower end of Nortfagale, which continued 
to bum for above two days and nights. 

The following day the garrison lost one of 
their number. The governor In order to preserve 
the cattle alive, allowed four pence to each man 
who cut and brought into the castle a burden 
of grass. Some, to obtain this trifling reward, 
exposed themselves to the fire of the enemy. 
The man, who was this day killed, had cut six 
burdens of grass, and brought them to the cas- 
tle. Resolved to cut one more, he was shot 
by the enemy, and aflem'ards run through with 
the bayonet. 

The enemy relieved their guard at New- 
Hall with three hundred men from the town; and 
there came back to the town three hundred and 
eighty men^ marching in single 6Ies, through the 
Abbey Closes. During the night they erected a 
new triangular work, in the upper closes above 
Dcnwelf> . near to Swillington Tower, to check 
the garrison from sallying forth from that quar- 

F f 



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SIS " HISTOaV OF POHTEmifcT. 

ter. On thfe following day the besieged fired 
■their cannon as^inst this work, and compelled 
tile enemy to flee to their trenches. They how- 
ever returned during the night ^nd repaired the 
damage which had been done to their work, 
and rendered it tenable for the future. A wo- 
man on this day standing in the Market-place, 
was unfortunately killed by a musket ball from 
the round tower. 

On the 3 1st tlie besieged kept a constant 
fire from the different' towers of the castle 
against the enemy. They played their cannon 
against the giiard^houses, which it was supposed 
did considerable execution. 

The 1st of June was a jOyfuI day to the 
garrison. Having attended divme service, the 
governor informed them, that he had received 
letters from Sir M. Langdale, which contained 
the intelligence that he had beat in the enemy 
at Derby, and summoned them to ' surrender, 
and that the king and his friends were every 
where successful. The garrison considered this 
information ■ as the prelude of their own speedy 
relief, and final triumph over their enemies. 

On the 2d Governor Lowther sent Mr. 
Massey into the town, to Governor OvertoDy 
to propose and agree concerning the exchange 
of prisoners, who had t)een talcen at Hull and 
other places. Overton granted all that was de- 
manded, and sent for them with speed. During 
the time Massey continued with the governor, 
an officer came and informed bim that the men 
were almost in a state of mutiny, and that it 
was with difficulty they could be induced to 
obey orders. In the night the enemy threw np 



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BISTORY OF PONTE7HACT< tl9 

another work in the closes below Baghilt, 
against the. low church, in the form of a half- 
moon. They had now formed double lines 
around the oastJe, and ' ^ere kept on such con- 
stant datyy that a spirit of disaffection genetally; 
prevailed, and many deserted. 

On the 3d the governor received letters 
fFdi4 Newark, which conveyed the intelligence 
of bis Majesty's success at Leicester, The 
country people, on 'the approach of the royal 
aruiy, had carried- all their, moveables into that 
city, conceiving that a vigorous resistance would 
have been made; and that before the city could 
be taken; the array of the parliament would 
relieve it. The kin^g'no sooner appeared before 
the city, than be. began to batter (he . walls; 
and a breach being made, be assaulted the town 
pa all sides»' and after a desperate attack, the 
soldiers rushed in sword in hand, andoommiC- 
ted great craetties on the 'garrison and inhabi- 
tants. An immense booty felt into their hands, 
which they took and divided among (hem. The 
loss of the enemy waa. great, and fifteen hun- 
dred prisoners were taken. On this siicress, 
his Majesty wrote to tiie - queen, ihat his qff'airs 
Toere never in to kspeful a posture since the re- 
bellion. The hopes of the garrison here, were 
highly raised on hearing of this splendid victory, 
and the ^irjt of the besiegers was proportion- 
abfy depressed. 

The garrison had a few wonnded this day 
by the enemy's musketry; and the enemy had 
several killed by grape shot, discharged from the 
cannon in the castle. 

The following night the besiegers began ano- 



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220 HISTORY OF PONTEFRACT. 

tlier work at a little distance from the former, at 
t^e top of Mr. Stables' orchard, in the iields 
below Baghill ; and the besieged seeing a fire on 
Sandal Castle, 'answered it by another from the 
round tower. From this circumstance they in- 
ferred that his Majesty's forces had obtained 
another victory. 

On the 5th, a boy, an apprentice to Mr. 
Richard Stables, went from the castle to cut 
grass for the cattle, and was unfortunately 
wounded by a shot, which went through the 
arm, and part of the shoulder. He however 
recovered without suffering amputation. The 
enemy had five ensigns killed and several privates. 

The besiegers received a reinforcement of 
horse on tlje 6th, from Doncaster; and several 
troops were drawn up about the town. TTie 
"garrison discovered four of the enemy in the mill 
under the castle, who were stealing the iron from 
about the works j and a few running to the mill, 
three of the men fled, but one was taken pri- 
soner. He informed the ganison that a body 
of the king's troops were pushing forward to 
their relief, and had already reached Tuxford; — 
that in consequence, the troops of the parlia- 
ment were retreating, and would probably as- 
semble in this neighbourhood, where a general 
engagement was expected. This intelligence was 
confirmed by the arrival of about four hundred 
horse on the 8th, who in consequence of the 
approach of the king's forces had judged it ad- 
visable to withdraw from their quarters at Tick- 
hill, Rossington, and other places beyond Don- 
caster. Some troops of these horse were sta- 
tioned at Cridling;Stubbs and Knottingley, and 



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HMTOHV OF TOSTEFRACT. 221 

a part went over Methley Bridge, towards 
Leetls. 

On the 9th the besieged heard distinctly the 
firing ' of cannon, which they supposed to be 
near Sheffield, and of course concluded their 
friends were drawing near. What encouraged 
the garrison and confirmed them in this opinion, 
was, that in the night they beheld a fire on the 
top of Sandal Castle, the usual sign of good 
news. The besieged had one man " slightly 
wounded, and by their fire from the castle ki]l«l 
several of the enemy. 

TTie besiegers kept a strong gnard of horse 
at New-Hall, which they relieved In the evening. 
At the same time came two horsemen at full 
speed into the town. They brought letters lo 
Governor Overton; and a drum reported at the 
lower Barbican i*all, that the troops of the king 
had taken Derby. 

The enemy, on the 10th, began another 
work in a close near Baghill, called Moody's 
Close, designed to check the garrison, and pre- 
vent "any relief being afforded. They begaij also 
another nearer Swillington Tower, but the fire 
of the besie^d compelled them to desist,' and to 
flee to their other works. They also received 
a reinforcement of eight troops of horse from 
Doncaster. These drew up in a body at Carle- 
ton, and one troop marched to South Hardwick ; 
another came from Darrlngton, and liiarched 
into the town; a third fcame from Ferrybridge, 
and marched into the park. 

On the nth, the forenoon was spent withotit 
much firing on either side. About two o'clock, 
the. governor ordered all the men in the castje 



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223 RISTORY OT PONTEFIUCT. 

to anns, which they reatlily obeyed. .A heavy 
shower of rain compelied them to seek Shelter 
for some time, r,. After havipg'received their orders, 
they sallied forth in diiTerent directions. Ciqit. 
Munroe led out the first company consisting of 
Lieut. Moore, Sergt. Barton, and thirty muske- 
teers. These went down to the Qhurch, but find- 
ing no men in it, they passed through it to Mr. 
Kellam's House, where a party of the enemy was 
stationed. Here Captain - Munroe remained to 
prevent the enemy from sallying forth from their 
lower works; but at his approach they Bed. 

Capt. Smith, Capt. .F;lood, Ensigns Killingbeck 
and Otway, with eighty ; musketee^^ ■ followed 
Capt. Munroe through the church, to the .lowest 
work the enemy had elected, at the top of Mr. 
Stables' orchard. Capt. Smith ted bia compaoy 
6rst to the wo«k, . and t)ien passe4 along tbe 
hedge, where he took his station to prevent the 
enemy, coming from- tbeif upper. W9rks.tP the 
assistance of th^se in the lower. . Tbpugh .exposed 
to a brisk fire from the enemy^.he continued his 
post with great bravery. - During t\iis ^ime C^t. 
Flood and his company approaclied, apj^ attack- 
ed the work, which they found ■ very strong, aod 
exceeding difficult to enter. There. was but otte 
place of entrance, and that 50.I0W and narrow as 
to admit only one man at'atime. They however 
began a heavy fn-e against the work, and shot in 
at the port-holes. Those within returned the 
fire,, and bravely defended the work, till Capt; 
Flood having forced the entrance, some escaped 
over the wall, and tbe remainder were taken pri- 
soners, consisting of one captain, one sergeant, 
one corporal, and eight men, who were severely 
wounded. 



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mffTOKf OF rotmrucr. 2ZS 

Col/ Gi)breth, Lt«it. Vfheatley, aod Lieut. 
Ward, wiib Torty volanteers and soldiers, with 
clubs and muskets, formed a corps da reserre, 
and were stattooed ia the orcltard, near the work, 
in case the enemy should sally to the assistance 
of their comrades. 

Lieut. Wtllowby, Lieat. Middlefcon, and Sergt. 
P^ricer, with forty' mhsketeers, took post at the 
hoasei on the north-side' of the church, near the 
Star Inn, and prevented the enemy from coming 
froim the' Grange-Li»ithraDd their adjoining works. 

LicotNiiint Monkes, with Sergt. Barton, and 
twenty musketeers, were sent towards Monkhill, 
to prevent the enemy from sallying forth from 
thence. Here a warm contest ensned ; each party 
endeavourJni; to gain ^ possession qf'B wpll and a 
hedge, but tine party -from the garrison ultimately 
prevailed. Lieut. Monkes ordered his men to 
attack in files, whi4':h having fired fell back, and 
another came up and tired, after the manner of 
street firing, which led the enemy to believe that 
their namber was much greater than it actually 
was." The besiegers at last retreated to their 
works on Monkhill, and lefi Lieut. Monkea and 
bis party in possession of the pass. 

Capt. Joshua Walker with about twenty snap- 
bancbes add firelocks, sallied with the first party 
into the church, where, according '.o their orders, 
they were to remain for the space of twenty-four 
hoars. They took with them suflicient provi- 
BioD3,. match, 'powder and ammunition. They 
entered the steeple, and kept up a fire against 
the en^ny on every opportunity. After Capt. 
Flood had taken the work, a party of the enemy 
came do\yn to re-occupy it. The party within 



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224 . HISTORY OF PONTEPJIACT. 

tbe steeple, 6red upon.tbem and killed twelve 
meo, among wbom were three officers^ and 
wounded severtJ others. 

The musketeers, snap-kanckes, and volunteers 
which remained in ihe castle, were commanded 
to the top of tiie towers and battlements, to 
watch the motions of tbe enemy, to annoy them 
in every direction, and to cover the different 
parties, who had sallied forth, by a steady and 
constant (ire. 

The besiegers lost from this sally .forty killed, 
eleven taken prisoners, and a considerable num- 
jbcr wounded ; the besieged had only two men 
wounded, .one of whom afterwards died, arid the 
other recovered. The besieged brought into the 
castle a quantity of muskets, pikes, powder, matcli 
and Mnmunition, which they found in t(ietr works. 

The siege of Pontefract Castle had now been 
carried on for several months, and there did not 
appear any prospect of its being taken by storm, 
or surrendered by capitulation. The parliament 
was dissatisfied, with the commanding officer, and 
the manner in which the siege had been hitherto 
' conducted. . An order came to Lord Fairfax, 
to remove S^ds, and to appoint General 
Poyntz, to the command. 

On the 1 3th Lord Fair^, and General 
Poyntz, came from York, attended with a guard 
of four troops of horse, but they returned again 
in the evening. Tliey came to 'take an account 
of the number of the effective men, and to 
view the works of the besiegers. On this day, 
they lost several men by the discbarge of grape 
shot from the castle. The besieged kept posses- 
sion of tlie low. church, and regularly relieved 



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. msTOftT OP poKTEmcr. S95 

. their gtninl there, consisting of s, captain and 
twenty or thirty men. Capt. Wm'd was stigfatly 
wounded in >tbe iann. 

Od the ISth, Gen, Poyntz camfe pout Trom 
York again, and took npon him the command. 
The besieged, in order to. relieve tli^ir guards 
at the charch. witiiout danger, began a trench 
from the east gate, and .continued it down to 
the churchyard. They also made blinds of boughs 
and sods, from the church to Mr. Kellam's, uat- 
der the corer of which they cut grasd for their 
cattle, and brought in Dot less than otie hu[>^ 
dred burdens on this <5ay. The gUard in the 
church steeple kept . up a constant fire against 
the enemy's works, and effectually prevented an}; 
attack on their own men. 

The next day the besiegers reliered their 
guard at New-Halt, with three hundred and 
twenty men ifrom the town; and oh the return 
of the other, three men were killed in the closes 
below the Headlands, by a f^hot' of a cannon 
fi-om Treasurer's Tower. They also played their 
cannon into the town, and '^ot through the 
houses near Alderman Wilkinson's, where many 
of the enemy were assembled. A woman, who 
was carrying a stand, of ale from Monkhill to 
the Grange guard, was killed, together with 
three or four men by the musketry of the guard 
from the church steeple. Capt. Hemsworth, 
with twenty-six meUj was sent to relieve the 
guard in the church. 

On the I^th a troop of horse passing along 

Bondgate, the -besieged, played their cannon full 

npon them from King's Tower, killed three mea 

and their horses, and wounded many others. 

eg 



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23« HtSTORT OP PONTBFIUCT. 

The enemy this day sent sereral waggoaa looded 
with the sick and wounded towards Ferrybridge. 
Capt. Cartwright, ^ith twentyt-six men, relieved 
itfae guard in the bhurch. this evetdng, and' du- 
ring the night the enemy formed a .treodi oti 
the south side Mr. Kdlath'a, to prevent the he- 
sieged irom cutting grass for their, cattle. 

The besieged had, on. the morning of the 
46th. a boy and a man shot,: as .fhey were geb- 
trag apples in an oirohard ad,^nn[g the castle. 
The bny had been shot through the cheek about 
a week before, but was now'.tteariy well. He 
foolishly called to the enemy from the tree, and 
dared them to shoot at him. One of theid fired, 
snd the same b^l went throdgh the body of 
the boy, and entered the thigh of the 'man. 
The boy soon died, but the man afterwards 
recovered. . 

On the I4th was fought the de<»sive battle 
of Naseby, in which the royal army was com- 
pletely routed, near ode thousand being left 
dead on the field, and five thousand taken pri- 
soners; all the king's train of artillery, bstg and 
b^gage, fell into the Tumds of the enemy. 
On the I6th the news of this important vic^ry 
was conveyed to General Poyntz, who imparted 
it to all the men under hiscoA^mand. In conse* 
qnence of this informatiirti they fired whole vol* 
lies against the castle, uid r^t the air with 
shouts <^ triumph and exultation. 

Gen. Poyntz sent an officer, with .a drutn^ 
conveying a letter to Governor Lowther, to in- 
Cbrm him of this event, and to summon him to 
surrender the castle, while there was hope of 
mercyj as considerable reinforcenikeitfj) i^er^ comin|f 



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to h>s asmt^cje, and be must 8t last W cbm|«f>l 
led to surrender.' The governor no sooner roa4 
the ielter -tihart he pitswefed verbaHy^ " TTiat 
be Dieither feared the forces that might <XHne 
against; him, nor valaed .the iCerey, j which wati 
now offflredj" and inflaotly ordered the offiooi 
to be gonei and inapwt this InforraaUoo tw hu 
general. 

The gOTernor appears tb ha«e whoJIy dist 
credited the JDfontiatioh, as be had lec^ved l^t« 
ters from Col. Washin^oo, dated Juoei Hthj 
from Newark, conveying the intelligenoe thai 
bie . Majesty was at that - period ': at - Meltoni 
Mowbray, and intend^ tnarcbiog noriih, and 
ia the fepace of .ten days, if all eiicceeded, .would 
relieve the castle of Pbntefract, On thi.><. grobnd 
the ga^rifloii concluded that the enemy had reoed- 
ved false intelligence, or invented the whole in 
order to ihtimtdate'the'goteriior* and iddace him 
to .capitulate: :'■:■■■■ 
. I The; b^isiegers- received in the. afternoon, a 
considerabt« body of: forces which were-quartered 
in, and- aroood, the town. Thf-y uontiabed /« 
brisk fire against the castle, which the heaegdd 
BS briskly^ returned. . They .Bred: grape ' shut 
against the enemy's works at BaghHI, : bat wbU 
exedutioD was^done was not. known.. The bE$- 
sieged sent Gapt. Smith, witb twenty musketeer^ 
to relieve their guard in the church: , 

On the 17th the besiegers began to enlarge 
Ibe work, eaat of Baghill, in the closs south of 
the churdi, where ' they lost' so many men» 
in the last salty made by the garrison. Tlie 
^ard of the b^ieged, in the churdi, discovered 
their intention, and _by a regular fire of mu»- 



:k«Ck>O^IC 



22» BisTOitT or KWTEnucr. 

ketry from' the steeple, compelled them to' de-' 
list, and retreat into their trenches. 

The garrison continued to disbelieve the in- 
formation respecting the defeat of the king. 
They received letters, which enpported their 
hopes, and falty convinced them, that there weis 
DO tmth in it. It is happy tor man, that ia 
some circumstances, at least, he has the power 
to believe* what he pleases; and can indulge hopes, 
which, though without foundation, afford him 
some present gratification. The besieged felt the 
iofioence of this povrer, at this period; and 
hallooing and shonting in the castle, as if they 
bad received some good news, the enemy run 
to arms in all quarters, end thus afforded the 
besieged an opportunity of powering in a heavy 
fire among them, whic% did considerable exe* 
oQtion. ' 

On the 18th the besieged received two let- 
ters from Newark, dated the I5tb, wherein it 
was stated that the king, at the' head of his 
anny, was at Melton-Mowbray,' as before' men- 
tioned-;, that he intended to be at Newark on 
the Tuesday, and to . march forward to the relief 
of Pontefract. - Tliey also brought information 
tiiat great dissehtion prevailed in the House tut 
Commons, and in the city of London, which, 
it was ooncehred, would tend to the advantage 
of the royal ^oause. Wh^her the letter contained 
this' ^se' intelligence; or the whole was an ar- 
tifice of the governor, to keep up the spirit 
of the garrison, is impossible to decide. As the 
bat'tle of Naseby was fought on the 14th, it ia 
scarcely possible, that those in the confidence of 
bis M^esty EhouI4 be safiered to remain so looj^ 



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stsTOBT OF poimnucr. 329 

in ignorance; unless it be supposed that the 
£ital overthrow had so deranged, his Majesty's 
affairs, at to cut' off all commuhicatian. 

Gen. Poyut2, Overtou, the governor of Pbn- 
tefract, and other general officers, met at Don- 
caster, and held a council of war, to order and 
arrange the plan of their future operations. 
The besiegei's remained in their works, and the 
besieged sent' Capt. Kitchin, with twenty musi 
Ji:eteers, to rehove the guard in the church. 

On the igih Gen. Poyntz and Overton, 
the governor of Pontefract,. returned from Don* 
caster. Tliey drew up their men in the Market- 
place. ' On Boeing which the besieged played 
their caiioon full among them, but what execu- 
tion it did was not known.^ Through the whole 
of the day, the bej^iegws appeared to -be unoom- 
monty busy, and to be preparing for some en* 
terprize of importance. At the relieving of the 
guanl in the church, four or. five of the- enemy 
.were killed, and many wooiided, which they 
conveyed into Mr, Kdlam's house. The go^ 
vernor sent Capt. Washington, and Laeut. 
Eflopsbn out of the castle, to Newark, most 
probably to obtain correct information, as well 
aS' to learn whether any thing could be done 
for .'the relief of ahe castle. 

Gfen. Poynts called a council of war, on 
the 20th, in the town. . In the afierhooa there 
arrived several loaded waggons ai the New-Hall, 
in one of which was a cannon. There came also 
a party of infantry, which marched in single Blei 
through the park into. the town. The garrison, 
on descrying the waggons which came on the 
Jape above St. Thomas'. Hill, played their 



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900. BtSPDttT OF POKTBEIACT. 

oaftnon .among them, but did not.perceii^ any 
damage done. 

Tlie besieged receiTed on this, day an ^accoant 
of (ha battle of Naseby; but the account, like 
a modern Gazette of a defeat, was palpably 
uicorrect, and .favourable circurcstaaoes were add-< 
ed, so as'to render it - rattier- a victory than a 
ddeat. - It was stated that the king bad been 
defeated,, and lost his canoon and' ba^gnge; boi 
that on the' day 'followiDg> Gen^. .Goring and 
^ari^lt, had come np with Fairfax and Crom- 
wdl, and. niter a . furious and bloody contest, 
ibcy h&d 'put them to ilight, .recovered the can* 
non.and ammunition, and liad pursued -then) 
nearly to NorthEunpton, and to coadiide alJ, 
that-CromWell was slain: 

- On the following day a poor man, whose 
house had' been -biirnt; down, at Monkhill, and 
who. had fled to^ the: castle for refage, was shot 
whilst icotting> grass near Monkhillt and insfMidjr 
expired. .The, body- was. fetched into' tbe'casllf^ 
and there interred in;, the evening. - 

The enemy t\A& day began to form a plat- 
form at' .Monkhill, .for the oannon which had 
been brought two ■ days before. The ' garrison 
played dt them from ithe King's Tower, but their 
efTorts were not successful. The enemy were 
protected by the works they had already rmsed, 
and they wrooght with such'dtligenoe, that be- 
Ibre night tbey had con>pleted the platform. 
Governor Overton, himself SDperihtended the 
work ; and on the following night they broagbt 
up the cannon froni New- Hall, and planted it 
against the church. 

The garrison . sent laeut. Wiilovrby, with 



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HIsn^T OF POMTEFRACT. 231 

twenty -inuskft«crs to rcliere tlie gaard at tlie 
chiircK; aiid a deserter came into tbe. castle 
briaging liis iirelock and his sword.' He in- 
formed the besieged, that it : was reported that 
the troops of tlie parliament^ though succesaful 
against his Aliyesty, hadsiabe been routed.' • 

On the Q2d, jas .soon as the. day dawne^ 
the enemy made a strong Attack upon the ;gtaai:d 
in the low church, which they entered with an 
hundred men. Another party went intb 'the 
trenches of the besieged, and up the Htgh^ 
street towards the caetle. The ' guard withia 
the cliurch defended themselves with the greatest 
bravery, and compelled those who had entered 
to retreat, .Those in tlie steeple, .by ringing 
the.bell^ gave the alarm to the garrison'; and 
a continued fire b^ing kepi up from .the steeple, 
and from the; east tciwer of the' castl^ rendered 
the attempt of those who bad entered the 
trenches uselesst on which they retreated to their 
works, carrying the killed and- tbe wounded 
. with thiem. 

This attempt, to obtain f>ossession of the 
f:hurch, and to expel the guard which tbe be 
sieiged had for some -. time kept there, indicated 
the .wish -of Geo. Poynta to preserve, if pos- 
sible, tl)at fine .Gothic . structure from injuryi 
Hie bijure of this' attempt, and the destructive 
fire of" tbe guard, rend^ed it necessary to diar 
lodge thet»' by the .battery of the steeple. 

Aftef some time, the eannon planted at Monk* 
bill, carrying- Ar ball of eighteen pound weight, 
began to play against the lanthem of the steeplei 
In about ah bodt and a half, they played thir* 
teea times, .but did not make any impression. 



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S32 Bmorr of pontefiuct. 

TTie besieged, to preserve the ehorch, and pro- 
tect their guard there, played their cannon from 
king's Tower a^inst the enemy's works at 
MonlchitI, and at the fifth discharge dismounted 
the cnnnon of the enemy. During the remain- 
der- of the day, the enemy were employed in 
remounting their cannon, and throwing up 
works for its security. 

In the afternoon they relieved all their guards, 
and brou^iht down four hundred men from the 
town to New-Hall, and as many returned. Tl»e 
besiegers in the evening conversed freely with 
some of the besieged, and informed them of 
Cromwell's success, ami the almost flnal destnio 
tion of the forces belonging to his Majesty, 
The besieged, happy in their incredulity, con- 
sidered this information as designed to induce 
them to surrender, and they still hoped , that 
they should soon be relieved. 

On the 23d the besiegers, as early as Iwo 
o'clock in the morning, began to play- their 
cannon against the chureb. With some little 
intermission, they 'continued their 6re against 
the lanthern of the steeple till near six o'clock, 
when a breach was made, and a part of it fell 
down. They then directed their shot to the 
steeple below the belts, for some time, but ta 
no impression appeared to be made, they di»> 
continued their fire till the afternoon. 

The garrison had one man shot in tbe arm 
whilst he lay asleep in the lower Barbican. 
They watched the motion of the enemy, bat 
owing to the works they had raised at Monk- 
bill, they were not able to make any diversimi, 
nor could again dismount their cannon. Tba 



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HfetOfiV Of fOWTEraACT." 23^- 

fflciny rdcommenoed their fire against the church, 
and in the course of the afternoon, poured in-: 
to the steeple and body of this structure, forty 
eighteen pound balls. 

The steeple was so much iujnred that the 
besieged oonsidered it no longer tenable. They 
bowever sent Lieut. Moor, with twenty mus-- 
keteers, to relieve their guard; but he wa» 
Ordered to' occupy the bouses round the church,- 
and only to place two or three men within 
it. The besieged concluded thai the enemy 
would make an attempt in the night to obtain 
possession vf it, and either to take or drive in 
the guard to the castle. They had loaded their 
^anoon with grape shot, and as they expected^ 
^e enemy about one o'clock, made an attack 
upon the church. The party of the . besieged 
staticmed . in' the houses begsui to lire briskly 
upon them; and those in the castle discharging 
the canooD, oompdled them to retreat to ttieir 
works. 

On the following day both parties rested on 
their arms, and few shot were 6red till towards 
evening, when the diflferent guards were relieved. 
Lieut, Otway was sent down to the church 
with two files of musketeers, to relieve those 
who had been stationed there, and in tlie ad- 
joining houses. It was expected that the qnemy 
would make another attack in the night, and as 
the governor was convinced they would carry 
their point, he ordered Lieut. Otway, with his 
mnsketeers, to return to the castle at the beat- 
ing of the tattoo. The enemy, as was expected, 
. about one o'clock entered the church, and the 
bwer part of the town; and as they found 
none to resist them, remained in possession. 
H h 



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mSTORY OF PONTEPBJkCT. 



Hie garrison did not permit them to enjoy 
mnch rest; but by a steady and constant fire 
of musketry greatly annoyed them. Tbey also 
played their cannon from King's Tower against, 
the steeple, and fired five shot from the garden 
into the body of the cimrch ; so that the eneiny 
never appeared in the steeple. Tbey were em- 
ployed in digging up the dead, and making a. 
work within the church ibr their own defence and 
security. From this circumstance it appears that 
the body of the church was much injured, and 
the interior wholly destroyed. 

The besieged experience a severe loss this 
morning, in the deaih . nf Sir Jarvis Cutler, 
Knight. He was seized with a fercr, and beings- 
destitute of good advice and necessary support, 
it carrictd him off. The enemy would not per- 
mit any fresh provisions to be obtained for him 
in the town. They only once indulged, his 
lady with' permission to visit him, and. convey 
to him one chicken and one joint of meat. 
When dead, they would not permit bim to be 
buried in the church, or suffer bim to be con- 
veyed to his' own home to be interred amon^ 
his ancestors. 

On the 26ih they prepared to inter the 
body of Sir Jarvis in the chapel witiiin the 
Castle. The body was first put into a coffin of 
wood, and the whole covered with lead, tliat 
his friends, after the siege might take htm 
Up and convey him to the family vanlt. The 
resident chaplain in the castle preached his fo* 
neral sermon, and the garrison honoured his 
interment by firing three vollies. The enemy- 
would not permit Lady Cutler to depart after 



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asiosY OP PomiFiucT. 33s 

the fiineralj but obliged, her to Temain in the 
cdstfe; ind though often solicited to permit her to 
returti to her house and childFen, tbey refused. ' 

The beMeged began now to su^r severely. 
-They conid not- obtain relief from any quarter. 
They were' wholly destitute of fresh provisions. 
This produced its natural -^fieot : the men were 
disconraged, and desertion becaiiie frequent. In 
the night of- the «6th a person of the name of 
'Medcaify who had waited on one Alexander Med- 
calf, 1^0 Was confined by, the ^oiit, deserted to 
the enemy, and -took- with him whatsoever. ho 
could convey. He informed Gen. Poyntz that 
the sur^ii who went to the casde to dress the 
wonnds of the prisoners, and the drum who car^ 
ried their provisions, communicated intelligence 
to the garrison, and supplied them with tobacco 
and dfter articles; in confieqnence of which in* 
formatiori they were taken up and imprisoned. 

The 27th was observed " as a day of thanks^ 
giving by the besiegers, for their late success and 
vict6ry over the king. They had two discourses 
delivered suitable to the occasion; and afterwards 
fired whole' Vollies from all their works around 
the castle. They twice played their cannon; 
and the first ball went through the drawbridge 
and the lower castle gate; the second fell short 
of the bridge, but shivered to pieces a large 
beam of timber against which it struck. The 
besieged had two men wounded in the Barbican, 
from the enemy's works on Baghill; and the 
besiegers had one man killed from the round 
tower, while standing at the back of Mr. Rusby's 
bouse. 

Lord Fairlax, after the battle of Naseby, 



:k«Gt>(")^IC 



^36 mSTOBY OF PORTEFUCT. 

' -marched to relieve Taunton, which hud been 
Jong besieged by General Goring, and was re- 
dqced to the last extremity. The Scotch troopts 
.advanced to Newark, and began the siege of. 
the town and castle there. The besieged re- 
ceived, on the S8th, the news that their frientte 
.at Newark had made a successfdl sally, killed 
iive hundred of the enemy, taken their caonon, 
'and completely dispersed their forces. Tliis 
joews afforded them some consolation amidst the 
disasters which had attended the' royal cause. . 
,0u this day the governor, Overton, sent a 
drum to the castle, to inform hady Cutler that 
she might depart, if ^e pleased, to her own 
home. Anxious to revisit her mourning &mily, 
and administer comfort to her children, she im- 
mediately availed herself of the opportunity; 
On her arrival at the first guard of the enemy, 
she was however seized, together with her maid, 
chaplain, and a tenant who had come to meet her, 
who were all stripped in order to discover any let- 
ters which might be concealed about them. Thou^ 
no letters were found, yet they .detained the lady 
and her maid till next day at noon without any 
provisions, the governor having countermanded 
the order for her departure. They then sent 
her back to the Barbican gates, but Governor 
Lowther considered it as improper again to admit 
her, as the enemy had given har leave to depart. 
In consequence of this determination the lady, 
her maid, and her chaplain, remained without 
shelter in the street till ten o'clock at night, 
Vhen they were permitted to go into the town, 
where they remained till next day, and then de> 
garted. ..,-'.. 



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HISTORY 0? PONTEFUCT. fiST 

What could be the reason of the/severitj 
exercised towards I^dy Cutler, is impossible to 
devi^. It wad surely unbecoming the character 
of the governor, as a gentleman and a soldier, to 
insult a lady on account of the part her departed 
husband had taken? To order her to be strip- 
ped in the presence of the guard, and to detaia 
jier without supplying the- d^nands of nature, 
discovers a total disregard to propriety, and a 
crudty bordering on barbarism. 

Oo the 30th the enemy had a general ren- 
dezvous of all .theii^ horse ia this part^ on Bro- 
therton marsh, which amounted to one thousand. 
After they bad • been dratvn up there, they de- 
parted in companies -to different' villages. A 
coinpdny remained at Ferrybridge, another was 
Stationed at Knottingley, and a body of about 
four hundred came up to Pontefract, facing the 
castle, and then wheeling off into the closes to- 
wards Darrington, beyond Baghill, there turned 
their horses out to grass. The enemy relieved 
their guard at New-Hall with at least six hun- 
dred men, and different bodies of>infantry were 
in moti<m in all directions. This led the go- 
vernor to conclude that they now seriously in- 
tended to. assault the castle; and in consequence 
he gave orders that the guard should be doubled, 
and the strictest watch kept. 

The night' passed in tranquillity; and the 
enemy seemed so far from intending to storm 
the castle, .that they were employed in making 
barricadoes to restrain the besieged, and to prevent 
them making any more destructive sallies. The 
garrison poured a heavy fire against the enemy's 
works in .aII.4ir^tioi)3^ which they as vigourously 



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sss .HisirosT OT p<atTtnucT. 

retramedl. On both sides, during the day, some 
were killed and many wounded. 

On the Ist of July, lowards evffling, the 
bejiieged hrfield the enemy carrying fagots and 
scaliog ladders down to the church, which again 
Tsised their suspicion of an intended assault. 
The guards were again doubled, and about 
twelve o'clock most of the troops in the gurison 
were under arms, to be ready «> receive the 
enemy should they make the attack. It did not 
however appear thai they had formed any such 
design, as during the night they remained within 
their works. 

The number of the besiegers, and the strength 
6f their different works, rendered any sally of 
the garrison more dangerous tn themjselves than 
the enemy; and from this period the besieged 
made no sallies against the enemy's works. 
On tlie otiTer hand Gen. Poyntz did not wish to 
expose his men, and sacrifice the lives of num- 
bers by an assault; as he was fully convinced, that 
in a few weeks the garrison would be forced to 
capitulate. Thus each party rather watched the 
other than carried on any vigorous enterprises. 

On the 3d and 4th, at different times, a 
brisk fire of musketry 'waa maintained 6n bOtli 
tides; the enemy had several men shot in their 
works around the church, and the besieged in 
like manner sustained some loss. Towards even- 
ing on the latter day the enemy's horse, wfa!ch 
had been drawn up in the West Field most 
part of the day, began to depart to their quar- 
ters. A considerable body however reroamed 
there all night, and kept up vef-y large fires. 

No occurreoce desei^iDg notice took {dace 



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msiovt OP. narrEmcT. aw: 

tin the 8th, when Gen. foyxxtz ^vet^t down to 
the Barbican gftte and asked to speak with the 
gorernor. The governor's son, wiio happened 
to be presept, tnfbrnied ' him ," that Ms' fattier 
was not there, or. he fvould not have refiued'td 
*e bino." Gen. PojTitz then. demanded' the sur- 
leoder of the qastle, an<r promised " that if they 
complied within three days, they ' would' obtain 
the most hoodurable terips; but iF they de- 
layed eleven or fourteen days, tliej" might ex- 
pect oothing but to Walk with a \HvAe rod' 
in their hAods, ' a^ soldiers did in the Jow' boun- 
tries when they marched away on corf) posit ions/* 
Capt. Lowth«^ then answered him, " Chat the 
caitle was kept -for the king, and that if they 
stayed fourteen ' days, and fourteen daytr after 
that, there ■ were as many genttemen in the 
c&8t]e as Would make rmany a bloody -head ' be^ 
fore they parted with it." The general then 
began to use harsh language, and told him' the 
soldiers behaved in the knost rufle aiiH unbe< 
cooling mtoeer, and'ap)>Iied to him the most 
ropnoacbfiil -.terms, Capt. Lowther replied " thafc 
neither he nor bis father could govern the 
tongue8 of the soldiers, hut they would speak 
what they pleased." On this the general departed; 
_. Oa the 9tb the enemy began a fence front 
their works opposite Swtllington Tower, along 
the hedge to Denwell Lane; and from this fence 
tbey greatly annoyed those who came from ilid 
castle to cot grass. The beii^ed sent out some 
men to Sandail, and some to Newark, to bring 
them intelligence or to joia the king's troops, 
which it was supposed were dow' comisg to 
tbdr relief. 



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wr ftstORV OT fatftemkch 

On the 10th the besieged rMeived an account' 
of the engagement between Sir Tho. Fair&x 
and Gen. Goring; when it was said that Goring 
roDted Sir Thomas, and that Taanton was taken. 
A drum came from Newark to know whether the 
eastle was surrendered or not, as the enemy bad- 
spread such a report. The drum was detuned 
in the town, and kept a prisoner in the house 
ef a Mrs. Washington, whose husband was in the 
eastle. He communicated to her the message 
he brought, and eent her down to speak with 
her husband, r and de^red her - to tetl them to 
be of good cheer, as forces were coming to 
their relief. Accordingly Mrs. Washington got 
a drum to go with her to the Barbican saljy- 
port, where she tokl her husband the news; aod 
irhile the drum was engaged in conversation 
witli another, she; pretending' to shake hands 
with an old acquaintance, Contrived to deliver 
to "him two letters. These letters named the" 
day and hour when Sir Marmaduke Langdale 
intended to come to their 'rehef^ and ecH^mied 
the account of Goring's' victory over' Sir Tho. 
Fairfax. 

Thus were the garrison vainly encouraged 
while their privations and^ wants were every day 
accumulating. They did not cease however to 
employ alt the means in their power to annoy 
the enemy; nor did their fortitude or coiD-age 
in the least abate. They maintained their loyalty 
ansullied by the imputation of cowardice, weak- 
ness or treachery. 

On the 13th letters were received from 
Sandali Castle, in which the same accounts were 
given as in those which have already- been no- 



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HBTOBY 07 POHTSFRACr. 241 

ticed,' that Langdale was approacfaing. Tlie 
enemy on this day raised some fortiOcations near 
Ferrybridge, on Brotherton marsh, and Kome 
cannon were conveyed there to secure that pass; 
which circumstance led the besieged, to hope. 
the information which they had received was 
correct. 

From some cause the, enemy had an alarm 
in the night, and both horse and foot remained 
under arms till morning. About four o'clock 
they were seen in the West Field, drawn up 
as if expecting an attack. As it was nearly in 
this direction that Sir Marmaduke Langdale 
came before to relieve the castle, ' it was now 
hoped he was agam approaching. 

At, this period, an infections and destructive 
malady prevailed in the -town, which was called 
the pliigue. It is not improbable, ' that the 
crowded state of population within the town, 
the putrescence of animal bodies, and other 
cVrcumstaifces might generate malignant com- 
plaints, wliose ravages would be nearly equal 
to that of the plague, and which would be so 
denominated. Thus is ihe scourge of war usually 
followed by pestilence. 

In consequence of ^is Gen. Poyntz withdrew 
most of his troops from tlie town, and formed 
an encampment in the West Field, where the 
general himself now always sippt. Tlie enemy 
still kept under arms, and it whs reported to 
the garrison that the Skipton horse had pushed 
throngli Wakefield and by Sandall, in order to 
join Sir M. Langdale, and that this had given 
the aiarm to the enemy. 

On the IStli similar rumours of relief 



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242 flfatoKV " W K»r«raicR 

reached the castle ; and varkhis contredtctory- re- 
ports were spread about. Some of the garrison 
ventured into the orchards, and obtained a con- 
siderable supply of apples. In these attempts 
they exposed themselves to the enemy's flrt^ 
aud twd were killed this morning, and otbets 
wounded. 

In the afternoon the enemy sent a dhim, 
Urith a note in his hand, which be read to tb6 
scoters As he passed along t6 the gat^ iofoniiing 
them, that both Grens. Goring [and Langdalc 
were routed, and that Cromwedl^ Fairf^c^ and 
fiossifer were coming to their assistance. This 
note he afterwards delivered to those in the cas- 
tle. The last hope of the garrison wis' non' 
destroyed; and they found themselves smrouDded 
by enemies whom it was iin|totiible to ' Tai^ 
quish, nor had the king one army left which 
be could gend to their relief. 

Gen. Poyntz, soon after this information bad 
been communicated, and while the .impnesaion it 
had made still remained, sent in a trumpets 
with a letter from himself and the committee afc 
York. In this letter, the governor was agaiil 
summoned to surrender the castle, while hi might 
obtain honourable terms, wbksh was to tliis effect, 
** that whereas they had heretofore sent to sunw 
moos the castle which was still rejected, but novr- 
taking into consideration the great care and love- 
to so many gentiemcn soldiers in the castle, and 
the misery they lived in, the effusion <d so mucb 
innocent blood which was likely to be made, 
and many a sackless man in it, they tbou|^t 
once more to summons them, and give them to 
understand, that if they pleased to come to a 



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VmWS OF.fONTSFBACT. 243 

treaty abont ; surfenderiDg the same, tbej would 
treat with them upon . honourable terms, with 
' coodMons fitting' far suob a garrison, and would 
give ho«lage8 for the same." To this, "the gover- 
nor replied, " that it was a mattdr of too 
great consequence to treat' or give answer at 
first, 'but be would confer with the koi^ts and 
gentlemen of tlie castle, and returfe an answer 
as sprediljr as possible." Whereupon the trum- 
peter was dismissed. 

On the next morning, both, parties kept up 
a stcict watch, and several were kilted with tlie 
fire of musketry. The governor of the castle, 
GonsideriDg'the iiDpossibility of maintaining mudi 
longer the fortress, gave permission to SMne of 
the leading geotleinen and officers to meet some 
of the enemy, for .the purpose of ascertaining the 
oooditions, on which Uiey expected the castle to 
be surrendered. On this business were employ- ' 
ed. Sir' Rich. Hntton, Sir Thomas Bland, MajcH- . 
Copley, and- Mr. Tindall. They met in the 
Half-penny Hoose, which had been burnt, being 
too hot to remain without some shelter. They 
continued to converse freely together for the space 
<>f two hours; and the officers of the enemy 
treated them liberally with sack aud ale, which 
were brought down fi-om the town. 

Ourii^ the time that these gentlemen re- 
mained together, the governor sent for all the 
captains, and gentlemen volunteers into the halt 
of the castle, to consult what measures onght to be 
adopted; whether they ought to hold out to the 
-last extremity, or to surrender on equitable and 
honourable terms. As it was deemed impossible 
to hold oDt long, they agreed that the foUow- 



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24* ' HISTORY OP PONTEFRACT. 

ing persons should be chosen for treating with 
the enemy, Sir Rich. Hutton, Sir John Rainsden, 
and Sir George Wentworth for the gentr>'.-^Mr. 
Hirst and Mr. Key for the clergy—Mr. Hodgson 
and Mr. Hearbread for the volunteers and refor- 
madoes,— and Mr. Austwick and Mr. Lunn for 
the townsmen — and Lieut. Col. Wheatley, Capt. 
Hemsworth and Capt. Mnnroe for the soldiers. 

During this period, there was a general in-, 
terconrse between the besiegers and the besieged. 
All firing ceased, and men and women from the 
town came to converse with those in the castle. 
The soldiers on both sides formed into friendly 
parties, and agreed to go and rob ' several ' ot" 
chards together. 

The next morning Governor Lowther sent 
a drnm with a letter to Gen. Poyntz, intorm- 
ing him that they were ready to treat as soon 
as the place and the time should be appointed. 
Gen. Poyntz had gone to York, and Overton, 
the governor of the town, took no notice of this, 
till about four o'clock in the afternoon. wHon he 
sent a drum with a note, "that they should take 
time to treat, and not be so hasty as they were." 
Tbia was an insult, which betrayed the pusillani* 
inity of him who gave it, and was Justly and pro- 
perly resented by Governor Lowther. ■ 

Overton had been induced to make this weak, 
imprudent and unmanly reply, in consequence 
of the information which a captain frutn the 
castle had conveyed, that the garrison had not 
provisions for more than five days. It was like- 
wise reported among the soldiers, that the ene- 
my intended to starve out the garrison, to strip 
them as they came out, and to feize whatever 
the castle contained as lawful pillage. 



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HlTrORT OP TOMTEFRACT. 245 

At lliis critical juncture. Governor Lowtlier 
made ufte, most probably, of an artifice to revive 
the bopc of relief, to inspire fortitude, and en- 
courage the soldiers to make h brave resi.stan(«. 
He produced a letter from Nenark, informing 
him that Sir M. Langdale on the 12ib, bad 
with all his own forces, and four thoneand Irish 
set off to raise tlie siege of Pontefract Ca>lle, 
and that Mr. Jarvis Neville had been also sent 
to hasten his march. 

This information produced the effect intend- 
ed , and though they were now suffering ail the 
miseries with which a protracted siege is gciie< 
rally attended, their spirit was iiti'>rokeii, and their 
I'^solution and courage unabated. An sccou iit 
being taken of all the provi»ilons in the castle, 

it was found that they could hold out fdr * 

days, the gentlemen and soldiers being allowed 
the same portion; and they all cheerfully agrned 
to suffer any privations rather than to sitbinit 
to disgraceful terms. 

The gover.ior, being confined lo bis room de? 
rired- Sir Richard Hutton, and Sir G. Went- 
worth, to asseirible' the garrison, and iinpart to 
them an account of Overtoii'.s letter, the quan- 
tity of provisions, Sec. and they replied, that 
' they were willing to endure any hardships, and 
even to sacrifice their lives rather than basely 
and dishonourably surrender .^-and that if relief 
did not arrive according to their expectations, 
they would consume all the goods in the cas- 

• In the MS. the number of days is obliterated, and 
}t is impos>ible accurately to supply ii. Ii could not be 
many, at at the time ot their uuietider, the whole was 
peuly-fpeoL 



D.n.llzedbyG00^C 



[|S«- .'HISTGUIY'OF POmWHACT. 

lie, set 'the castle itsdf on fire, and eEtbet' cat 
their way sword ia haqd through Uke lasiks of 
the enemy, or iKibly £dl attempting it, A&er 
baviog eome to ithis resolution, they threw up 
tlieir hats ajid gave three huzzas in coii£rmatioa 
«f it. 

After these transactjous the govcraor ordered 
two flags of de6ance to be displayed ; one from 
the King's Tower, and the other from the round 
tower, and this was lefl. standing. Quickly 
after oommand was given \o assail the enemy 
in 'every quarter with the musketry and cannob; 
imd a steady and destructive fire was for some 
time maintained. 

Towards evening a drum was eent with ^x>- 
visions for the prisoners, but the besieged re- 
fused to admit him. On this Overton sent 
another drum with a letter, desiring . that the 
provisions might- be sent to the prispners, and 
also excusing -his foi:jner note, and declaring 
that they were ready to treat as soou as Geo. 
Poyntz returned. 

The next day Gen. Poyniz returned, and 
immediately sent a trumpeter with a letter to 
the governor, to inform bim at what time and 
place the persons appointed to treat, condoning 
the surrender of the castle, should meet. The 
place agreed on was a close under Baghill, a 
little above Broad I^ne end, where a tent was 
pitched for the accommodation Of the personi 
appointed to bring the treaty to a fnial coada- 
sion. 

The committee for the garrison were the gen- 
tlepien before noticed. Sir R. Hutton, Sir J. " 
den. Sir G. Wentwortb, the Rev. Mr. Hiret, i 



D.n.llzedbyG60gIC 



Mr. Key, witft> lient. Col: GiH>reth. Those ap- 
pointed on the part of theenemy, were Mr. Li 
WastelK a Janyen Col. Bright, Lieut. Col. Fair- 
faX} and Lieut. Col. Copley. About four o'clodt 
Geo. Poyntz, Col. Overton, and nine officers came 
to the Bafbiban^tWe, and the committee from 
the castle went dowd, and marched with tbeiii 
tO' the tem. They obntimied in close debate 
till nine o'clock,' bat did not come to any 
agreement. At length the committee for th« 
beiiiegied rose and departed, declaring thdt they 
were determined to fight it oot, as they did 
not value their lires so mut:b a» their honour; 
and could not submit to the terms o^red 
ttfthont sacrificing it for ever. The deputies of 
the enemy followed them to the' castle, and 
desired that they would meet again the next 
day, when it was hoped an adjustment might 
be made. 

Accordingly the next day, 20th of July, each 
party met, -and abating in their demands, a 
treaty was made and signed for the surrender 
of the c^tle, upon honourable terms. The siege 
had tasted five montlts, from the time it was 
relieved, and the enemy could not have lost 
fewer in killed and wounded, before this fortress, 
than a thousand men. The garrison had dis- 
played a courage, which did equal honour to 
themselves and the cause they had espoused. 
Their sallies had been planned with judgment, 
and were executed with promptness, vigour and 
success. Though on every hand surrounded by 
superior numbers of the enemy, and almost 
destitute of every necessary, they were not in- 
timidated, nor could be ioduced to make a dis 
graceful capitulation. 



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S48 HraroRY of pontepract. 

The following letter which the speaker 'of 
tl»e House of Commons receive from the com- 
mittee at York, will give the terms oa which 
the castie was surrendered, 

** The enemy in PoDtefract Castle were 
last week summoned to surrender, which caused 
them to desire a ti«aty. Accordingly the Colonels 
Wastell, Copley, Overton , aod Bright, were au- 
thorised to treat." 

" The castle is to he delivered up to the 
parliament to-morrow at eight o'clock, with every 
thing therein, save that the officers are allowed 
to carry away what is properly their own, ao 
that it exceeils not what . a cloak bag will con- 
tain, nnd the garrison are to march to Newark." 
" We are in treaty for Scarbro', which we 
hope shortly will be reduced. This you wiU 
please to communicate to tlte House, from 
Sirs, &c. 

Francis Pierrepoint, 
York, July 20, 1645. "Wilfred Lawson, 

Henry Cholmley." 



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HISTORY OF POirrEFEACT. 



SECTION XIV. 



Events which foliowed tlie sitrrender of the Castle i. 
an account of the manner in which it was 
surprised, the last Siege, Surrender, and final 
Denwiition. 

vJN tbe sarrender of the castle to the troops 
of the parliament, the House of Commons im- 
mediately appointed Sir Tho. Fairfax goyernor. 
The lords, considering that Col. Poyntz had the 
honour of terminating the siege, and as a reward 
for his services, thinking it was but just to ap- 
point him governor of the castle, sent a mes- 
sage to the commons desiring that they would 
honour him with this mark of their favour and 
con5dence; but being informed that they had al- 
ready appointed Sir Tho. Fairfax, the lords ac- 
qoiesced *. Sir Thomas being fully employed in 
pursuing the dispersed and almost vanquished 
royalists, appointed Col. Cotterel as his sub- 
stitnte, to the chief command of the castle, 
with aiT hundred men to altend him. 

TTiere were few places but what now sur- 
rendered to the victorious arms of the parlia- 
mentary forces. Sandall Castle surrendered a . 
few days after that of Pontefract. Tlie troops 
which had been employed in the siege of these 
places were now at liberty to march against any 
of the small parties of the royalists, which still 

• Whitlock, p. 162. 
K k 

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850 HISTOHY OP POMTEPRACT. 

remained unsubdued. A small parly of these 
was collecled at Worksop, and were engaged 
n fortifying the manor house there. Colonel 
Copley, who now commanded Major General 
Poyntz's horse, marched from Pontefract to at- 
tack them; but on his approach they were so 
intimidated that they fled with the utmost pre- 
cipitation. Some, however, of the cavalry and 
pioneers fell into his -hand *. 

While the towns antl fortresses, which were oc- 
cupied by the king's troops in England, were falling 
before the rapid movementa of Fairfax and Crom- 
well, the astonishing achievements of the Marquis 
of Montrose, in Scotland, afforded some consola- 
tion, and shed a gleam of hope among the roy- 
alists. Lord Digby received a commission from 
the king, as Lieutenant General of all the forces 
north of tbe Trent, and had under, him. Sir 
Marmaduke Langdale, Sir .Kich. Hutton, and 
others. He was at the head of a body of horse 
amounting to fifteen thousand; and with these 
he resolved to pash north, and if possible to 
join Montrose, who had scarcely any cavalry. 

The design was bold, and if it could have 
been executed, might have supported the royal 
canse, and prevented the defeat of Montrose, at 
Philip-Haugh. Lord Digby made the attempt, 
and had successfully led his valiant horse Irom 
Oxford to Ferrybridge, where he surprised four 
hundred of the parliamentary forces which lay 
there, took their arms from them and shattered 
Col. Wren's regiment of horse. He then pur- 
sued his march to Sherburn, where he lialt«]. 

Col. Copley, who most probably lay at Ponte- 
• Whitlock, p. 177. 



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HISTORY OF PONTEFRACT. 251 

fract, on receiving information of the enemy, im- 
inedialely porsued witli his cavalry, and soon 
came up with' the rear, near Sherburn. Copley 
occupied a commanding ground, near MItford, 
and waited the attack of the enemy. Oigby 
sounded' to horse, and having collected some of 
his troops, rushed forward to the attack without 
waiting for the remainder. Copley's horse sns- 
tained the charge with firmness, but was after- 
wards compelled to fly. They took the road 
to Sherburn, and Lord Digby's horse pursued 
tbem. On "seeing the horse flying, those troops 
■Which had remained in Sherburn considered the 
day as lost, and mounting their horses fled.ia 
all directions.' A troop of Col. Copley's horse, 
which had continued unbroken,- now fell on the' 
rear of Lord Digby's, whilst the horse he was 
pursuing rallied; and wholly unable to sustain 
this attack, he was routed aind pursued three 
nffles. 

Lord Digby had however the good fortune 
to ' escape, and after having encountered many 
diffic-ulties, he i*eactied ' the Isle of Man, and 
from thence got safe into Ireland. In this ren- 
contre Col. Cornaby, Sir Richard Hntton, and. 
several other ofiicera were' killed ; and lour Colo- 
nels, many inferior oflicers, gentlemen and re- 
fbrmadoes, and between three and four thousand 
troopers; were taken prisoners. The Countess of 
Nidesdale, the I^rd Digby's coach, the king's 
surgeon, and much good pillage, were also taken. 
In Lord Djgby's coach many letters were, found, 
and some to a member of the house of com- 
mons, who in consequence was dismissed*. 

* The account given of this engagement is taken &om 



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252 mSTOEY OT PONTEPRACT. 

Thig victory was deemed of such importanoe 
that a special messenger was dispatched to in- 
form the House of it, who voted forty pOund^ 
as a reward to him. 

From this period, the arms of the parliameat 
were every where victorious. The city of Ox- 
ford only, where the king shut himself up da-. 
ring the winter, remained unsubdued. In this 
hopeless state Charles fled to the Scotch army 
which lay before Newark, and continued in effect 
a prisoner. The royalists were disbanded, and 
those gentlemen, who had enjoyed commissioDS 
■under his Majesty, retired to their pwn estates 
and lived in privacy. 

The year 1647 passed over in fruitless trea- 
ties between the king and the parliament, and 
in contentions between the latter and the army. 
The army secured the king's person, and directed 
by their officers, overawed and entirely attained 
dominion over the parliament. Amidst the coo-; 
fusion which arose from these contests, the king 
iled; but not finding a ship to convey him to 
the Continent, he surrendered himself to Ham- 
mond, governor of Carisbrook Castle, in the 
isle of Wigl|t, where he remained till he was 
brought up for his trial. 

The kingdom in general was dissatisfied at the 
proceedings of the army, but there was no 
Clarendon,. The editor tuispects hi* lordship hod been led 
to inistate the facts by receiving incnrroct infiiniMlJon. It 
it most probable that Digby was attacked at unaware*, 
and that before he could bring op his retaaining troops, 
the few be. had were routed, on Mcing which the rett fled.' 
It i« not probable that Copley's hoTBc, if they bad been 
routed, would have fled to Sherbum, into the handi of the 
enemy, when they might have fled either to tlie right or left. 



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BIBTOBT 07 PONTBnUCF. S5S 

power sufficient to counteract them. Hie Pres* 
byterians endeavoured to liberate the king, and 
the cavaliers and moderate men of all parties 
joined with them. The Scotch declared in his 
iavour, and preparations were made to invade 
Bngland, join- the Presbyterians and others, an<) 
immediately to attempt the restoration of the 
king to his throne, on terms consistent with 
the liberty of the subject and the spirit of the 
constitution. 

While these events engrossed the attention 
of the nation, Cotterel, the goyernor of Poqte- 
fract Caatle, which on account of its strength and 
importance had been preserved from that ruin 
to which many others had been devoted, ex-' 
ercised a severe jurisdiction over his neighbours. 
From the details of the first and 9e(;ond sieges 
it wilt appear, that most of the gentlemen in 
this neighbourhood took an active part in sup-, 
port of the ' king and his prerogatives^ On 
the conclusion of the war . they, had retired to 
their estates, but as they were known, to have 
kad commissions from the king, and to ' retain 
the same principles of loyalty, they were narrowly- 
watched, and under various pretences fined con- 
siderable sums of money for thpir delinquency^. 

* TliQ ibllowin^ list of gentlemen who compounded for 
ibeir estate!, or paid finoi to Uie government, and who either 
reuded in tJii^ part o( the countiy, or look an active part 
in the defence o( the castle, will esUblish the fact stated 
above. This account is taVen from a catalogue of such lordi, - 
knights and gentlemen, ai compounded for their estates, printed 
for Thomas Drtog. 1653, and from WiIson'< Mf, pedigrea 

£. I. J. 
Beaumont, Sir Thomas, Whitele; Hall, fined 700 
Bunny, Francis, New^and, near Wakefield, . 9Q 



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2B4. HBTOftV OF PONTEPBACT. 

Cotterel, from the information he received, 
■which- might not be' always deserving of credit, 
seitt for several %>f ahe neighbouring geutlemen, 

£. «. d. 
BUnd, Sir Thoraui, Kippaic Park, who com- 
manded in the niegc, .:..... 405 O 
Beverley, John, of SeU>y and great Smeaton, 
.wlio was major of a rtgiment oi foot for 

Charlc 200 3 

Cu^«r, Sir Jarvia, Slainborough, .... 192 O O 
Copley, Godfrey, Sprotboroudi, .... 1343 O 
Cook, Bryan, of Doncaster, fined ^187 : 6 : 8. 

Settled on 1833 II lO 

Ddston, Sir George, of Heatb; was a mcmber 
. (rf' parliament the lOib ' Charles I. He 

look part with tlie King, and was fined. 700 O 

Downey, Christopher, of Cawick, near Snailh, 

wa* created a Baronet in May 19, 16+2. 

* Hfe'Mpported ChaiFe's in the war, but was 

' not ftlt*l;' Sir John, hw son, was created 

, , hff Cbatlet JI. ViscMuit Downe, of the 

.kjngijpm ot Ireland., 

Jact^an, ' M'aUhew, Empsall.; 45 O 

l!«wther; Sir William, Governor of out castle, 200 O 
Margjmh, 'Richard; Armin, ...... 30 O 

Mauntaiii>i Ima,- mi. hit- son George, of 

Wistt^ ^M;peF BifiOun, and |5£ O O 

Neville, Fjancis, Chcvit, 1000 O 

NutlaJ, John, RawcIIff, 320 O 

Oate), Richard, Alderman, Poniefrad, . . 22 O 

Stile, TlKanat, Kdlington, 100 < O 

Stringer^ Esq. Thomas, Charleston, . . . 485 O O 
^blM, Wm. Alderman, Pontefract, ... 12 O 

T^thun, John, do 114 O 

— ■ William, do. .... , 75 O 

"Piompson,- WBfiam, Brofliertoi>, .... 109 O 

Weiitworth, Sir George, Wolley 31S8 O 

Varbordugh, Sir Nicholas of Balne Hall, . . 000 O 

This was .a -branch of llie Yaiboroughs of 

. Snaith Hall. Sir Nicholas was in the 

■ comronsion of array for Charics I. and 

on his death he was fined the stwfe 



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HISTOKY OF PONTiFRACT. gSS 

and detained them prisoners for soni^ time ii^ 
-the castle. However this qonduct might, be jus- 
tified ofl the ground of. prudence, aod- however 
Dccesiutry it was . to watch ■ the motions of th? 
royalists, it had an uabappy influeDce on their 
minds. They felt they were always suspected^ 
aDd always insecure, on a<;count of the part they 
had ab-eady taken; and were in consequence 
disposed to avail themselves of the first opportur 
nity to avenge the insults, M'hich they supposed 
they had recejved, and, aid ia any attempt to 
restore the> king. 

Sir Marmaduke Langdale, had received, pri- 
vate intelligence that the Scotch .were ready to 
invade England, and having received his Ma- 
jesty's cotnmisiion, he coUectisd what royalists 
he could tp give success, to the attempt. In his 
way north, he visited several of his old friends in 
this neighhourhood, informed them of the desiga 
of the Scotch, and that with a view to aid and 
assist m the enterprize he was now hasteoing, 

£. t. i. 

■um. Hit ton. Sir Thomaui Yarboroqgh, 

wu High Sheriff in the tenth of Charles 

11. 1873. 
Woolstoneholme, of Woolstoneholme, Lanca- 

ihii^, having' purciiased Nostet Priory, built • 

a house thore. Thii' jqh .and' 'heir, Sir 

John, carried plate to York, for the use 

rf the king,, to the value of £\0,OQO, 

and it appears from his own papers that 

be was fined an equal sum for his delin- 
quency 10000 • 

His son Henry was slain in the battle of MBr<4oD Moor;' 
>nd Sir Thotnao, his brother, was killed in the battle of Naseby. 
Bemg reduced by the war, he sold Noslel to the fiunily of 
Gargreavet, of whom it was purchased by Sir George Wynn, 
Bait, in whid) bnily it itill cOolitiuei. 



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S56 HISTORY OP PONTEFRACT. 

to join them. Some of them noticed, ** that it 
tvouM be possible to take the castle of Ponte- 
fract by surprize/' and that as the troops of 
the parliament mnst be drawn from I^ondon to 
meet the Scotch, and there would be risings of 
the people in all directions, to reobtain possession 
of the castle, would occupy a part of the ene- 
my's forces, and might contribute to the general 
Success." In consequence of this a rcsoiiition 
was made, that when the Scotch under the Dnte 
of Hamilton should invade England, the gentle- 
men should surprise the castle, and hold it for 
the king. 

Langdale gave them a commission to execute 
the plan, when it should be deemed advisable, 
[ and settled a method of cocrespondence between 
himself and them. After his departure, they 
informed him of all their proceedings and receiv- 
ed his directions. They endeavoured to conci- 
liate Cotterel, the governor of the castle, and 
were so successful, that he treated them with 
more humanity and discovered less jealousy than 
he had been ' accustomed to do. 

Among those who agreed to surprise the 
castle, was one Col. Morrice. He is i»aid to 
have been in his youth, page to Thomas Went- 
worth, of Wentworth Woodhouse, Earl of Staf- 
ford; one of the most able statesmen in tlte 
kingdom, but the chief adviser of those unconsti- 
tutional measures, ,which brought on the civil 
war, of whom Lord Digby said, " I believe his 
practices in themselves have been as high and 
tyrannical as any subject ever ventured upon; 
and the mall^ity of them are greatly aggrava- 
ted by those abilities of his, of which God has 



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_- HISTORY OP PONTSPRACT. 257 

given him the use, but the devil the applica,- 
tion." In his servtcie Morrice was trained up, 
and on the breaking out of the war he entered 
into that of the king.- He enjoyed the rank of 
an officer; but tvhether he had received some 
afTront, which he could not forgive, or whether 
Jie thought that he did not enjoy a rank equal 
to his merit, he quitted the service of the king 
in disgust, and joined the army of the parlia- 
-ment. 

During the first three years of the war, 
Morrice often distinguished himself by a re- 
solution and courage, which tlie greatest dan- 
gers appeared rather to increase than subdue. 
Naturally bold, he was often placed in the 
post of honour and diflicuhy, and obtained 
such renown, as to be noticed and caressed 
by bis superior officers. As a reward for his' 
services as welt as an incitement to his fu- 
ture exertions, he was advanced to the rank of 
colonel. He did not disappoint the expectations 
which his past conduct had raiited; but when 
engaged in the most difficult enterprises he was 
crowned with success. 

Morrice, though respected for his military 
talents, gave offence to the serious part of the .' 
army, by his dissipation] and licenciousness. He 
did not, like some others, put on the mask of 
seriousness as a cover to the most enormous 
crimes, but whatever liis vices were, they were 
notorious. He was the devotee of sensual grati- 
fications, and in his conversation, gay, humorous 
and pleasing; and in consequence became the 
associate and friend of those of a similar taste. 

On new modelling the army, and the iutro- 
L I 



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258 HISTORY OF FONT^FBACT. 

duQtiOft of stpict^isc'ipline, Morrice way left 
unemployed. Fatrft'x and CromweUi would adinit 
none to" command^ but Who either. w*re,' or ap- 
peared' to be, sober and religious' men. Tbeir 
however diatnissed' Morrice w^lh professions of the 
higlieet respectj and pPomiseA that: as soon as a 
proper occasion occiirred, rii^ would again call 
birti foridi into- active service. 

According: to Lord Clarendon, Morrice was 
not displeasfed at being dismissed from tlie ser- 
vice <rf the parttameiit, ae he had already began 
toi repent of' his late rebellions conduct. Being 
ft gentlehfian possessed of .a competent estate' in 
this part of Yorkshire*, he came and resided op- 

* The editor laments tiiat liis researches to find out the 
place where Cofonel Morrice reiiided, and (he estales which 
belonged to him, have been without success. Could this hive 
been SM^rtaJned, it might have thrown some light on the 
following narrative; and by connecting lime and place, would 
havii rendered the whole more complete. An htitoriaji hu 
frequent rea:<on to regret his want of mateiials, wliit^ are 
somelinies locked up in llie libraries of the great, and to 
which all access is denied. Castilinn \krric«, a ion of Col. 
Morrice, whose daughter Ami married William Syket, <J 
Stockholm, merchant, is mentioned in the Milnes' pedigree> VJd. 
Beetuam. This William Sjkes was brother at Richard SyVts, 
of Leeds and Xedston, wliose eldest daughter and coheir mar- 
ried Tho. Wilson, grand&ther to the late bishop of Brisbil, 
whose sKicond son, Christopher WiUop, Esq. of Elmsal, in 
right oi' that marriage, possesses the very valuable estate of 
the Park, at Leeds, formerly an appendage to the ancient 
castle of that name. 

The mother of William Sykes, who married Aim, thi 
eldest daughter of Castilion Morrict, a« above metitioDed, mar- 
lied to her second husband Joseph Poole, Esq. of Sykebousc, 
to tlie parish of Fishlake, a Captain in the army of the pai- 
liament, and who frequently liazariled his life, in various at- 
tempts to scale the wiills of our castle during the last uege. 
He resided some time after the castle was sutieBdered and 



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WfiTQKt OF PONTEnWrr. 359- 

f QD.it ;iiD4f«solT^ to wipe of thest^n of.rebellion 
by qpposing the cause of the parliameDt^ the 
first opptiFtqnity whicli presented. .That such a 

dismantled, in the houseiiiow called the Cattle Chain House; and' 
vtmoua tetters diiecled lo Ivm Ihere, arb still in .U>e pouessidn 
of John M!lne<, Esq. Wakefield He afterwards went and 
resided at Chapeilhorp, near Wakefield, and at last rttired to 
that town, where he ended his days. He was buried in Ihe 
Quakers' burjing ground, where a itone still remains to his 
nemorr-. He died Sep. IS, 1704. 

The lantily ot'. Poole, of Sykt^house and Draxi sprang 
originally from the Pooles of Spinkliill, in ihe county of Derby. 
Baxter informs u^, that' the ancestor of Matthew Poole, was 
one of the first to embrdce the reformation; and was in 
ooniequence driven- away from Spin^hill, by anotber branch 
<^' the family who was as zealpus for popery. There is a 
pedigree of tbii iamily in the. Herald's'Ofhce, which traces the 
femily for nineteen generation', Rithard Poole, of Sykehouse, 
bad Issue Francis Poole, Esq. of York, who married the daugK- 

ler ot Tdppin. Alde/man af'YoriLj and a second 

Nti called WilUam. Francis had issue Mattliew Pool, the 
i(V)iut(ious author of the Synopsis Ciiticoruni. He succeeded 
t>i. Tuckney ot St. Michael's, London, where he faithfully 
discharged the duties of a pastor for' fourteen years, till he was 
silenced by the Bartholomew Act, He retired to Holland, 
where he died, greatly laiiiented by all who knew him ; for 
'! he was ( pleasant .in. his conversation, true to his frjends, 
Urict in his piely, and universal in his charity.*' 

William Poole, the younger son of the above Richard, 
bad issue Capt. Samuel Poole, of Leeds, and Capt. Joseph, 
of Wakefield. They had commissims in tlie army of the p^« 
lialwnti JoHpb was engaged in the siege of our ca^le, as 
above stated. Capt, Samuel had issue, bv Silence, daughter 
of Peter Saxton, vicar of Leeds, David Poole, Josiah and 

Obadiah. David Poole married Mary, relict of ■ 

MiMey,' Eiq. by whom he had Josiah Poole, of Liverpool, 

SKfchafit. . Jottah Poole married and lud issue David 

Peole.of Youngsbury, Herefordshire, Prime Sergeant al Law. 
This David mairied June, daughter and hi^ir of John Bird, 
Esq. of Youngsbury, and had' issue Josiah Poole, Esq. of Knot- 
tingley, who dying unmarried, at Bath, the estate has descend- 
ed to hit younger brother, Pavid Poole, Esq. of Ackwortb. 



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■260 HISTORY OP POHTEFRACT. 

resolution should be formed at the tinie of hia 
dismissal, clearly indicates that he sensibly felt the 
mortification of disappointed hope in the career 
of ambition ; and it is probable that bis future 
conduct was regulated as much by a spirit of 
revenge as by the impulse of loyalty. 

As an officer who had hitherto distinguished 
himself in the cause of the parliament, he was 
readily admitted to the conGdence of Cotierel, 
the governor of our castle. A continual inter- 
course produced on the part of the governor a 
sincere friendship, and he honoured him with 
every mark of genuine' esteem and regard. 
Morrice visited the castle when ever he pleased, 
and sometimes remained there for a week, eat- 
ing at the same table, and sleeping in tlie same 
bed, with ■ the governor. By tlie sprightliness 
of his temper, and the vivacity of his nit, he 
banished the tedium of military duty, and gained 
such an ascendancy, that the governor parted 
from him with retucttuice, and was ifupatieot 
for the repetition of his visits. 

While ■ Morrice bad the address to secure 
the friendship, and render himself almost neces- 
sary to the comfort, of the governor,, lie had 
entered into an agreement with tlie royalists to 
surprise the castle. When these met together in 
considerable nrmbers to devise means to effect 
their purpose, he never appeared among tiiem; 
and only the three Panldens seem to have knowa 
his intention. To keep clear of all suspicion be 
associated with some of the most zealous friends 
of the parliament. 

To try tlie spirit of the country, . he went 
to all the neighbouring towns on market^ays 



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BlSVOmr OP POWTHftlACt.- 2t!l 

and at their &irs, and eh4;ered ' into iree conver- 
sation with men of ■ejevy. .descriptioD. The 
information which he collected, he communicated 
to the royalists Ah- their direction, and in tike 
miuiner to the governor to preserve his confi- 
dence and favour. , • 

The royalists were accustomed to meet at the 
hoQse of the Rev.' Mr. Beaumont, rector of 
South Kirkby. At one- of iheir meetings, one of 
the Pauldens informed them, *'' that a gentleman' 
on whom they might rely with the utmost con- 
fidence, would surprise c the castle whenever they< 
should think the scaHon'ftpe ifor it.*' He there-i 
fore advised them ' to desfst from any * attempt/ 
and wait 'till they; 'should- receive diwctionrf 
liow to proceed, and aisuwd- them of final suc- 
cess. Heobiserved, that ifiittarie, place, and oilier 
uircnmstana^s'-wCre fixed, and <commanicated to all' 
engaged so long beforehand, ' it wan probable the 
d^ign woufd be detected-and finally fi<U!!trated. 
They agreed to enlist men who should be ready 
to take arms when- required; and they soon ob- 
tained about three hundred' toot- and fifty horse, 
who hiul served under them in llie preCfleding 
war. 

-' While measures were thus adopted without, 
Mwride was -no lesss active in carrying on his 
desii^n within the castle. He corrupted' Major 
Ashby, Ensigi> Smith aM Sergctmt Llbyd, and 
a corporal, wH6^ntered'')ntO''his plan, artd en- 
gaged to assist in surprising the fortre.s-s, ■ The 
garri*)n did not exceed one -hundred men, and 
many, of these were quartered in . the town ^ so 
that i.t appeared not difiicult to seize the fort- 
ress, provided the design should not be discoveredi. 



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Cf2 WStOKf rOr PQIITORI.CT. 

To prevent all suspicion on the part of the 
governor, M-ortioe, as if .concerned for his salety 
informed.. htm, "that :he ought to take great 
care that he .had ,i]<Hie ibut f^tfaful jnen in the 
oaatle, as he wascpntideat there were some men 
who did not live far off, and .who many times 
came to visit him, who had. some design upon 
the place." . He however aanired him, " that 
there -was a felse brotl>er amongst them, who 
would not fail to give him timely notice of their 
design; and that whenever they should be ready 
tp make the attempt, he would throw jiim^elf 
into the castlc:.wltb forty f>r fifty rqioldte men, 
yfbom he had engaged for that purpose, aad 
who witb the garrison would- be su^cieot to de- 
fend the 'place, andlrepel any a^iAack. 

The persons whom .- Morrice privately etj^tr 
ged were zetdoua. .adtierehts 'of tbe.parliameqt ; 
and some' of these ' 1^ .ocoassioitally hrou^t with 
btm to the castle,, aad nteittioned them to the 
goveFDor, ^as the .personp who, were prepared, 
whenever it showld be doemod; neo^s^ary to come 
to lus assistance. The governor had no cDspir 
don of the insincerity ^pf-M-orricci and bis pre- 
tended zeal for the cause, in endeavouring to 
detect the deBi|}n of the . rpyalist^, al)d iu. adopt- 
ing prudent joeasures to . prevent its accwn- 
plishment, encreased his confidence ■ in him. 

The state of the couotryj, and the meetings 
of tlK royalists in, d^ereuL parU* at length 
raised a general suspicion of some design 
against the castle*; .and Cotterel received several 

* Nov. 30, 16+7, letters frdm Major Gen. Poyntz in- 
fomwd of a dengn to turpriw P«itefrwt for the luDg. Vid. 
Whitmck. 



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HtsTovT OF mHTBnucr. M9 

letters from his Aiends requesttiig hfm "** to tai^ 
care of Col. Morricei wbo had resolved 'to ba- 
fany hfni," for he 'had been at- the meetinga <rf 
Bome men' .whc were most malrgDaot; Morricev 
Who niw- attended the meetings tif the Toyalista^ 
pt>etended to mfbrm the governor of what paasedv 
So that on the reception of such letters, the goi- 
venror shewed tlwm to him and tbej both smiled*. 

On sucb occasions Morrice said, " that 
though ^e governor had no mistnist of his 
frfe'ndship, and knew him too well to think him 
(ispable of such baseness, yet for his own mke^ 
be ought not to slight the information, as it 
woold make^ his friends less carefiri of him; 
'■nd. that if he had not informed him respecting 
them, there would be ,>Qst reason to suspect 
him of an intention to betray the castle; that 
on this account it would be better for him to 
retire vto his own hoase, till buch time as jea- 
loasy and suspicion' had subsided." 

In this artful manner he managed the go^ 
vemor, and by making pretended discoveries of 
the royalists, he rendered it necessary for him- 
self to be consulted in order to frustrate them. 
General Poyntz, who formed a true estimate of 
the character and principles of Morrice, faithfally 
warned Cotterel to guard against his duplicity 
and treachery; but he, judging of the sincerity 
of Morrice's profession of friendship and zeal 
from his own, neglected the warning. 

At length the time for this bold and enter- 
prising man to strike the blow he had long 
meditated, approached. The daily risings of 
the royalists in England, and tlie alarms of ihe 
Scottish invasion, led the party who had confe- 



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t64 . insTOSY or poottfhact. 

derated with Morrice to make * the attempt'. 
Thev had waited some time impatiently for an 
expre.s!} order from Sir M. Langdale, .who had 
in the nordi surprised Carlisle and taken Ber- 
wick; but none arriving, they supposed that. one 
must have been sent, hut had miscerried. They 
waited on the Pauldens, and maintained that 
t(f ilelay the attempt longer would be dangerous; 
antl the Pauldens waited on Morrice to fiil^ 
his encasement. 

Ttie time agreed upon was a certain night* 
when the corporal, whom Morrice had corrupted, 
should be upon guard, and when the gentlem^i 
engaged were to be ready near a particular 
part of the wall, where the corporal would place 
Sentinels acquainted with the design, and who 
were to aid in the attempt. Morrx^ bimsdf 
hastened to the castle, and on tliat very night 
slept, as usual, with the governor. The gentlemen, 
to the number of eighty on horseback, each 
carrying a footman behind him, came accord- 
iog to appointment, but a circumstance, which 
could not be foreseen, occurred, and .prevented 
the accomplishment of their scheme. The cor* • 
poral had got drunk the evening before, most 
probably with the intention to render himself 
more bold and daring, in the proposed assault. 
Overpowered by sleep he forgot his engage- 
ments, and being unfit for duty, another person 
was appointed sentinel on that part of the wail 
which was to be sbnled. 

The gentlemen had brought with them sca- 
ling ladders, and whatever they conceived ne- 
cessary to the success of their enterprise. Ou 
• May 22, 1648. Vld. Whitlocr. 



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mSTOKY or POMTEraACT. 265 

moimtin^ their ladders, the e^ntlDel discovered 
tbem, called out to them, ran to the coort of 
the castle to call for assiatance, and gave a 
general alarm. Supported by the other men 
on duty he retorned, and commencing a vigorous 
fire on the assailants, they were compelled to 
fly, leaving a ladder in the ditch. 

On the alarm being given Morrice- arose, 
and finding the design defeated, took an active 
part in the castle. Being with the governor 
at the time this attempt was made, was a cir- 
cumstance to which either snspicion or confi- 
dence might be attached; and Morrice and his 
accomplices had the good fortune to escape de- 
tection. 

The next morning the ladder which the a^ 
sailants left in the ditch, was a sufficient proof 
that a real attempt had been made to surprise 
the castle. The troops collected for this attack, 
on being discovered, dispersed. One half of the 
horse marched north, and joined Laiigdale; the 
other kept in the woods, while they stnt spies 
into the castle, to gain informntion whether 
their friends within were sale, or whether the 
whole plot had been detected, and they were 
secured and confined. The spies soon returned, 
and brought them*- the pleasing intelligence, that 
the enterprise had only (ailed through the in- 
toxication of the corporal, but that neitlwr Mor- ■ 
rice nor any of his accomplices were in the least 
suspected. They now departed to their own 
homes, to take other measures for the accom- 
plishment of their design. 

The governor now became more vigilant, and 
ordered all those soldiers, who had slept in the 



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*6fi BBTOHT OF VONTBFUCr. 

towD, to repair to the cutle. Bat this vigUaaoe 
proved the very means of the castle being 
surprised, and himself made pii^joner. For 
granting warrants to fetch beds and provi- 
sions, against an appointed time, out of the 
country for the accommodation of the garrisoD* 
Morrice and Capt. William Paulden, disguised 
like country gentlemen, with nine others like 
jdain [teasants and constables to attend and 
guard them, having pocket piriols, daggers, &c. 
concealed under their garments, appeared at the 
castle gate, with carts loaded with provisions, 
Beds, &c. On their arrival the draw bridge 
was soon let down, and the beds and provisitHis 
having been delivered at the main guard just 
within the gate, money was given to some of 
the sentinels to fetch ale, oti pretence to make 
them merry. Scarce had these departed when 
Morrice and his friends seized on and vast^ed 
the main guard, made way for their frieods 
horse and foot tu enter, and tlien drew up the 
draw bridge; they forced most of the giuud ioto 
a dungeon about thirty steps in depth, which 
would bojd about three hundred men. One of 
the confederates, reserved for that purpose, went 
to shew Captain William Paulden, and a few 
others, ttie^ sub-governor's appartment, whom they 
found newly laid down on the bed in his clothes, 
with hiif tuck or long sword beside him. The 
captain told him the castle was surprised and 
himself a prisoner. Cotterel suddenly arose and 
made a home thrust at the captain, who pairied 
the attack, and equal valour was dis[^ayed oa 
both sides, till the governor, finding himself 
sorely mounded in the bead and arm made • 



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HUTOKY or MHTERACT. 267 

desperate Inn^e at P&ulden, but missing his 
aim, bad tiie misfortaoe to break his tuck 
agaiiMt t^ bedpost. At tbis moaient entered 
Morrice and the other gfficers aad gentl^nen, 
of whom he had been so often warned. To 
9tteiDpt a longer defence against such numbers 
would have been vain and useless; and nothing 
now rem^oed but to beg quarter, which was 
readily granted. Morrice comforted him with 
Uk asmreace "of good usage, and that lie 
vould procure his pardon from the king for his 
relKUion." However he was tent to bis men 
in the dungeon. Notice of the affikir having 
been sent to Capt. Tbo. Pauldeo, he marched 
into the castle with thirty horse; and about 
five hundred foot, part of the king's scattered 
troops joined them soon after. This happened 
the 6th of June, 1648, which being the market- 
day, afforded them an opportunity of furnishing 
themselves with all manner of provisions from 
the town. They found in the castle a good 
quantity of salt and malt, with four thousand 
stand of arms, a good store of ammunition, some 
cannon, and two morlar pieces. 

The conduct of Morrice towards Cotterel 
moits general infamy. He h»] been the object 
of his siDcere regard, and unsuspecting confi- 
dence. He had eaten his bread, and on all oc- 
casions had been treated with such kindness as 
ought to have unnerved tiie arm of an enemy, 
and subdued malignity itself. Nor let it be sup- 
posed that the end justified the means. He 
might have been toyal without being treacherous^ 
he might as a friend to the king have thought 
it bis liuty -lo surprise the castle, but he ought 



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268 giSTORV OF PONT^BACT. 

to have preserved sacrnl ihe claims and the 
rights of friendship. The man, who had by 
turns betrayed all partieB, whatever his talents 
might be, can iiave no claim- to be -considered 
in any olher light, than as totally destitute 
of principle, and governed solely by caprice, 
revenge, or ambition. 

The regular troops of the parHameot were 
principally under the command of Gen. Lam- 
bert, who had been sent to u-atch the motions 
and check the progress of Sir Philip Mnsgrave, 
and Sir Marmaduke Langdale, in the north. 
The committee of the militia iii Yorkshire, imme- 
diately appointed Sir Edward Kodes * and Sir 

• Roclcs, Sir EtWarrl. Wi'soii derives 'he pedigree of tliis 
fkm'^y Irom the Rodes', Barons of Hornca^lle, in (he county 
d Lincoln. -In the Milnes Pedigree, JBeeOiam** baronet- 
age,) there is no notice of any ponneclion beiwpen tl« two 
f^milie;; and the ncL-okint begins with Frai.c.a Rodes, of 
Staveley Woodlhorpc, ii) (lie county of Derby, E^q. one of 
the judges of the Coitrt of Coir.mon Pleas, in the time of 
Eliz. He died Jan. 7, 31st year of Etieabeth. The judge 
was twice marrird, and had issue }ty both his' wivKn. The 
eldest sofi oi tlie fim marriage, , was. Sir John Rqdes, of 
Balboroiigli, whose second son, 6h Fraiicis Rode', was cnated 
a. Baronet, Augu;t 14, 16+1. The sitond son oftliC first 
marriage, was Btr Peter Rodes, of Hit kK-toii, in thi* county. 

Sir God!ro-y Rodes. of Great Hou}>hton, in die county of 
York, the luurih son of the Judge. Uit eUesl son of lite' 
second marriage, liad issiie Sic Edv^'aId Rodes, of Great 
HoLi<;hlor, Knt.. In the Civil war, he look an active part in 
favour of Ihe parliament. The great Earl of Strafford married 
bis daughter, and on (his account he wa.'! suspected of not 
being liiiarty in llie cause. Me wai tal^ep .into {usiAdy, aotl 
will) tlie Hotlian:^ commitlfd lo the Tijvver, but as noltiing 
roiild be proied ai;.iinst Iiim, he was libciated, IJe seenil 
however, to have atlcd on printipic, and we find him enga- 
. gcd lbr6ughout'' lliis content in the support ol the parliament, 
Atier the battle of Prefttmi, he was ordered by CiunwcU 10 



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HBTORT OT PpHTlFRACT. 269 

Henry Cbdmley, to lery troops, whh orders to 
draw near to Pontefract, and if tbey found 
themselves tkA sofficieDily strong to form the 
siege of the eastle> then to endeavour to keep 
m the garrison, and presenile the surrounding' 
country from being plundered. 

A week elapsed before these orders of the 
comnnttee could in any degree be executed j 

coOect vAat troops he codd, and pursue the flying Duke of 
Hamilton. 'Hb lived till aliter Ute restoratim, and- in! ihe 2d 
of Charles II. was High Sheriff of this county. At he coa- 
tinuL-d a Oisseuter, it is pruliiible his cnnncction wiih Went' 
worth. Earl of Strafford, w I: o:e altainder w« reversed after Ihe 
mtoralioD, was tiie reawn.why he was pertnitted to hll this 
O^cc. UU house became an Aiiyitim to tlie ejected Ministen, 
niio refused to comply with the act of Unifarmity. 

. He had issue Williatn Kudos, of Gr^at Hodghton, Esq. 
, Hj' third son, anS at length heir, who married Frances, daugln 
ter (^ R. Wnson,' of Leeds, mercbanl, who Was greal-grand- 
fttfier to C,bn4oph«r Wilson, late Bi^op of Bristol, &ther of 
Chtistopber Wil«op, of Elmsal Loflge. William Kodei, had 
Kichard Rodes of Great Houghton, Esq. who married MarlJiVL, 
daiightef of Elkiiiah Rich, of Bull-houdc, in llio parish of 
P^tniston, Esq", and Only sisler of the whole hlood of Aymcr 
ILidt, Eaq.rot'.ihe -same place, Tho said R. Rodex, died 
F^bniary 4,. ;720^1, and had issue by the said Marlba, his 
wife, two daughters coheirs, .of whom Mary, the ddest died 
unmarried, March 14-, 1789. and wns buried al Darfield; 
Martha, the younger, married Hans Busk, of Leeds, merchant, 
and' had issae by tim, Mary Anne, married to the late James 
Kfilnes, of Thornes House, Esq.; Martha, who died immaTried; 
and Radiel, -^ho married R. Slater Miines, of Fryilonc, Esq. 
The family of iMiines, to which the Rode' e^tales have 
descended, is originitijy from Ashford, in the rouniy of Derby, 
and in the court rolls of the manors of Ashford, can be iraeed 
t»t'k as chief copyholders, to the I'lcae of Edward i. The 
pedigree of tliis tamily exhibits a most striking instance of 
commercial enterprise and success; and it may be ques(i<Hied 
whether it can be equalled in this rcspccl, by any olhcr 
f^raVy in the kingdom. ' Vid. Beetham. 



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STO HUnMT Of POWI'MUCm 

mod io this period the royalists pnt die gsrriaoa 
in good order, and repaired and renewed such 
fbrtifieations as they judged necessary for their 
defeace. They supplied themselves with provi- 
sions of all sorts; and such numbers of their 
friends came into the castle from the counties 
of York, Notting^iam, and Lincoln, that they 
became sufficieotly powerful, not only to defend 
the castle, but commence oflfensive operations 
agMDst the enemy. Among those wfao trow 
entered the castle were Sir John Digby, Sir 
Hugb Cartwright, his son and a nepfaew> who 
bad all been good officers in the royal army, 
during the preceding war, and were now rea- 
dily joined by many of the soldiers who had 
been under their cbmmand. 

The gentlemen and soldiers .who formed die 
garrison chose Col. Morrice to be their gOTemor. 
His military talents were w^I known, and no 
one appeared more fit to enjoy the command; 
but he had too much experience wholly to com- 
ply with the wishes of his fellow soldiers. He 
was aware, that as there were gentlemen of rank 
and fortune' in the castle much superior to him- 
self, jealousy and discord might be the conse- 
quence of his acceptance. He therefore recom- 
mended Sir John Digby, who had received a 
commission as commander of these parts, to the 
honourable rank of governor. Sir John, though 
hearty in the cause, was sensible tliat be was 
not equal to the command, which led him te 
refer all things to the counsel and conduct of 
those officers who were under him; and as 
Morrice was one of the most distinguished among 
them, he may be coasidered as the real* aad 
Digby as the nominal, goveraor, 

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At the time the cattle was surprised, Ae gar- 
risoD had not pnyvinoiu for more than a month; 
but mch was the snccess of different parties 
tent out to ibrage, that thej soon obtained 
supplies for sereral months, in case they should 
be hemmed in, and ha?e to sustain a sieg& 
Befiire the troops under Sir Henry Cholmlej 
were sufficiently powerfal to keep in the gar^ 
nscM^ a party from the castle seized on three 
Iwadred cattle frooi the north, at Knottingley. 
They were under a guard of two troops of 
borse, ' commanded by Capt. Clayton. The party 
&om the garrison consisted only of thirty horse 
sud six foot, who sallied forth in the night, 
attached and routed the enemy, and took many 
prison»8. The contest was desperate between 
the horse on each side, and the royalists, in 
being so mucii outnumbered by the eoemy, 
gained greater hongor in the victory*. 

AnotbCT party from the castle had, on the 
Sd of July, pushed forward as ttu* as the Trent, 
and taken the Island of Axhotm. They after- 
wards proceeded to Lincoln, where they plun- 
dered the friends of the pai-liament, and took 
Capt. Bret, Capt. Fines, and Mr. Ellis pri- 
•oners, and kitted Mr. Smith, an o£Bcer of ttie 

* Tbe above ii the ftatement of Lord Clarendon. PauN 
deo gfves a more credible account of ihis alTair. " Having 
■K>dc« that there vrere at Knoitingley Ihree hundred head ot 
citlle from tbe North, goint; South, under a guard ol five 
tt«o)M of hone, we ma/ched forth at nighl niih thirty hoise, 
and half a dozen foot, with half-pikes to drive tbe cattle. 
We &ced the troops, that guarded them, while our foot drove 
tfte herd towards the castle j then we followed, and kept be- 
twixt Ihem and danger, the enemy not daring to charge u^ 
•■d we all cHbe safe to the castl«." Paulden'i I^etter. 



n.iized by Google 



£7S mSTOKV OP MMTtnUCT. 

seqitestrat'ions. Tlie cooduot of this party' was 
hi;Ebly imprudent, in pushing forwards to ^ 
great a diatanoe, unsupported, by any body a{ 
reserve. Had, they retreated precipitately, they 
might probably have reached the cantle in srfety; 
bpt inittead of adopting this Ijne- of conduct, 
regardless of danger, they remained .for some 
days in Lincoln, and its vicinity. In tjieir pro- 
gress numbers of royalists had joined them, 
and the horse now amounted to one thousuid, 
besides the infantry.. Col. Kossiter fell in with 
tliem 00 their return, at a place called Wil- 
loughby Field, routed the whole party, took 
both horse and their riders, the commander in 
chief and all his ofhcers, with all their bag and 
baggage ; the remaiuder fled, and there were 
not many slain*. 

The disaster which befel the last mentioned 
party, dijl not prevent other parties from issuing 
forth on similar plundering expeditions; and by 
raising contributions, they rendered themselves 
terrible to the adherents of the parliament. 
They took many substantial men prisoners, 
whom they carried to the castle and detain- 
ed there, till they jedeemed themselves by tlie 
payment of large sums of money for their ran- 
som.. Sir Arthur Ingram f was carried oiF from 

• Whitlock, p. S18. 
t Ingram, Sir Arthur, a wealthy cilisen of Xaad«m, pur- 
chased the manor of Temple Newsome, and other lamb in 
Yorkshire, and wa.t High SherJiT of the county of York, in 
]6)9. He had a son Arthur, who waa also High Sheriff in 
1630. On the commcncemenl of the Civil war, lie took the 
part of the parliament, and cortinued to adhere to the tame 
cause. The royatisLs paid him this domiciliary visit, and le- 
torted on him tiie conduct of the pwUwncnUtiaiii. 



D.n.iizedbyGor)g[c 



HurrORY OF POKTZFRACT. 273 

Ilis own house at Temple-Newsome, by a maraud- 
ing party; nor could he regain his liberty un- 
til he had paid fifteen hundred pounds. 

While these events occurred in this place 
and Beighbourhood, Cromwell had completely 
subdued Cols. I-anghorn, Powel, and Payer, and 
the whole of Wales. He afterwards pushed 
through Cheshire and Lancaiihire, and joined 
Lambert about Knaresborough. The Duke of 
Hamilton, with the Scotch, had entered Eng- 
land and joined Langdale, and they had marched 
hy way of Kendall, towards Lancashire. Crom- 
well pursued them, and coming up with the 
horse under Langdale, at Preston, immediately 
commenced an attack. The charge was so vi- 
gorous that the royalists were driven from their 
posts, with the loss of about one thousand slain. 

He had a son. Sir Tliotnas, who waa in favour wilh 
Charles II.;. and wat appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of 
Lancaster, and sworn one of his Majesty's privy tounoil. He 
married Francis, daughter of Viscount Falcunberge ; but dying 
without issue, was succeeded by his brother Sir Ariliur, 
and he by his eldest son. Sir Henry, who hslving maniteslcd 
his loyally to King Charles I. and II, wa.i by the latter created 
Lo^d Ingram, and Viscount Irvine or Irwin. He married 
Lady EsseXj eldest daugliter of the second Earl of Manchester, 
and had issue two s. ns and a daughter. 

Anliur, who succeeded him as sectmd Viscount, married 
Isabel, daughter of John Mitchel, of Horxham, in Essrx, E<q. 
by whom he had issue seven sons, Ricliard, Eklwar<i, Attimr, 
Henry and Charles, successively Viscounts Irvine; Geo. ca^on 
of Windsor, and chaplain lo the Hou^e of Cumromis; and 
William, an eminent merchant in Holland. By the failure of 
the male line, the title became extinct in 1762. The- female 
branches have married into some of the first families m the 
kingdom. 

A younger branch of the Ii:gram familj' settled at Knot- 
tingley, whidi lias now become extinct. 
M n 



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■274 HISTORV OF PONTEFRACT. 

and numbers taken prisoners. Capt. Timothy 
Patilden, one of those gentlemen wlio had first 
agreed to surprise our castle, added to the 
number of the slain. He was major in Col. 
Boyntou's regiment, under the Earl of Derby, 
.and was unfortunately shot as be was crossing a 
small stream. 

Ihe successive defeats of the royalists at 
Wigan, Warrington, &c. destroyed the hopes 
of that party. The garrison here were sensibly 
affected with these, events; and particularly at 
what had befallen their old general. Sir Mar- 
maduke Langdale. He and some others^ with 
a part of the Scotch army, had fled to Utox- 
eter, in Staflfordshire. Gen. Lambert pursued 
them with such rapidity that they were imme- 
diately assaulted, and Duke Hamilton with most 
of the officers taken prisoners. Langdale, it is 
»aid,. disguised himself, and with a few others, 
made his escape; but was taken soon after near 
Nottingham, and committed to the castle there. 

The garrison now began to foresee the ca- 
lamities to which tliey would be soon exposed. 
The king had not an army in his. whole domi- 
nion to which they could look for relief; nor 
was there another 'fortress, except Scarbro', which 
held out for him. The only circumsUutce, which 
could brighten the general gloom, was the un- 
settled state of the country. In a period when 
the most uncommon and extraordinary events 
daily occurred, it might be hoped that something 
of a favourable nature would arise, and that at 
least peace would be established between the 
the king and his parliament. 

About this period the garrison was sum* 



n.iized by Google 



msrroKT or postehiact. *7s 

mooed to surrender the csstle, bnt either the ' 
terms offered were deemed dishonourable, or 
the spirit of the garrison was too high to sub- 
mit. It appears that a treaty of some kind had 
been entered into betwixt the besieged and the 
besiegers, as letters directed to the parliament' 
from the committee at York, informed tlie House 
" that the treaty about Pontefract not taking 
efect, they desired twenty thousand pounds for 
the soldiery >" and the house ordered tweire thou- 
sand *.*' 

Lord Fwrfax, general in chief, appointed 
CJen. Rainsborough to command the troops be- 
fore the castle of Pontefract. Sir Henry Cholra- 
leyf, who had been appointed to this command; 

• Wbitlock, p. 336, 

t The Similjr d Cholmley has long been seated at Whilby, 
Golditon, and Rmcbjr, in the North Riding of this county. 
Sii Richard Cholmley, of Whitby, was high iheriff of thit 
counly, in the first of Edward IV. He muried two wivaa, 
lint, Margaret, daughter of William I^ird Conien, and hy 
bcT bad issue three sons, Francis, Roger and Richard, and - 
three daughters, Margaret, (who married Sir James Slrange- 
najrs, of Great SmeatDnj) Elizabeth, (who married Roger 
Beckwith Esq. ton aod heir of Sir Leonard Beckwith, of 
Selhy, KDighC,) Ann and Jane. 

His second wife was the daughter of Henry Lord Cliffiird,. 
the first Earl of Cumberland, and tlie widow of John Lord 
Scroop, of Bolton. By her he had inue John, win died 
young, Henry, and CtUharine, who married R. Dutton, Esq. 
of Whitby. - 

Francis, Mn and heir of Sir Richard, married Joan, daugh- 
ter and coheir of Sir Richard Bulmer, Knight, but died with, 
eul issue. 

Sir Henry Cholmley, Knight, second son by his tacond 
wife and heir to Francis, inherited the estate and married 
Margaret, daughter of Sir WiUiitm Bapthorp, of Bapdiorp,' 
Knight. He had issue Sir Richard, Henry, John, end Barbara, 
(who married Sir Tho. BeUaiit, Bart aflerward created Vlictr 



D.n.llzedbyCk>Ol^lC 



278 HISTORY OF POHTEFIIACT. 

by the committee of tl^ militia, was highly 
(tended at this appointment, and petitioned 
parliament against it. He seems to have con-- 
sidered it as a reflection on his honour and 
talents, and in his letter asserts " that the dis- 
paragement to him would be great." The House 
referred the letter and the whole of the busi- 
ness to General Fairfax, to settle it as he should 

Falconberg) Marg ret, Dorothy, Hilda, and Mary, [who 
married Heiiry Fairfim, Rector of Bolton Percy, and xecond ' 
brother to Forduiando, Lord Fairfax, of Denton,} Ann, SusaniUi 
and Arabellc). 

Sir Richard, son and h^r of Henry, married two wives; 

first, Susanna, daughter of I^dyard, <A Gatton, Esq. 

by vhom he had issue. Sir Hugh, &t Henry, (wlio -. arried 
Katharine, daughter of Henry Slappteton, of Wighill, E«<|. 
widow oi' Sir George Twisleton, of Barlow, neai Selby,] and 
two daughters, Mary and Ursula. 

His second wife, was Margaret, daughter of Wm. Cobb, 
Esq. and by her, he had is:iue Sir Richard, (who married 
Margaret, daugluer of John Lord Powlet.) This Sir Ridiard 
Cholmley, was High Sheriffe, 1623. 

Sir Hugh, his son and heir, (married Elizabeth, dougbler 
of Sir Widiim Twisden, ol East Peckham, in Kent,) and had 
issue Sir William, Sir Samuel, Hugh, Elizabeth and Ann. 
This Sir Hugh waj created a Baronet in the year |6+I. On 
the breaking out of the Civil v/aj, he threw him^f into 
Scarborough Caftle, of which he was governor for stwue time^ 
He attended on ihc queen, ulth eight thousand horse and foot, 
which cost him XlOOOO, and for which he afterwards sufTered 
a tedious baniUimctit, and paid for liis delinquency J!\SiO. 

Sir Henry, his younger brother, oiipousod tlia cauM of (he 
parliament ; was appointed one of the committee of the militia 
for Yorkshire, and commandod the troops betbre our castle. 
This is a lingular instance of the unha])py divisions made in 
families during ti.ese troublesome limes ; brotiier literally rose 
up against brother. 

The baronetage has become extinct; and the male line of 
one of the branches lus ended in an heiress, whose husband 
has by licence agiun taken Hie name of Cholmley, vk) lei 
^ides at Hou^ham. 



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mSTORV OF PONTEFIACT. 2^7 

think proper, but to take care to preserve the 
honour of iSir Henry Cholmley, and that the 
business be carried on against the enemy*." 

Cromwell, hnviog settled the af&irs of Scot- 
land, and left Gen. Lambert there with a few 
regiments, marched at the head of the rest of 
his forces into England. When he reached New* 
castle he was received with every mark of re- 
spect and honour} and he coutinued there for 
some time to settle the affair of the northern 
countries. He however dispatched a body of 
troops to Pontefract, to strengthen the besiegersj 
and on the 30th of October the troops of the 
parhament, in and about Pontefract, kept a 
day of thanksgiving for his success in Scotland f. 

While the beaiegera were thus exulting in 
the victories they had obtained, the besieged 
were suffering the vexation of disappointed hope, 
and envy iig the superior felicity of their enemies. 
They did not however sink into a state of 
apathy and indifference, but retained their usual 
■valour and prudence. They were as bold and" 
courageons to attack their enemies, by well 
conducted sallies, as they were resolute and 
firm to resist when attacked. A jiarty from 
the garri.son issued forth on the SIst, and fell 
on the besiegers with such impetuosity as to 
bear Havm all before them. In this rencontre 
they slew many, and made some prisoners t. 

On some occasions both the besiegers and 
the besieged rested on their arms, and drank to- 
one another by the name of bixtther Roundead, 
and brother Cavaliers epithets which distinguished 

♦ Wbitiock, p. 544. t Ibl'L P- 3«- X "^^i^- 3*8. 



278 HIBTOllY OF TOHTBPIUCT. 

the adherents of the parliametit, aod of the 
king *. 

The besiegers had not hitherto made any 
impression on the garrison; nor had they strait- 
med and confined them in any great degree, 
as ' they etiil kept poasession of the New Hall, 
as an outwork to the castle. The little progress 
made in the siege,' notwithstanding the numbers 
of men employed, sufficiently proved that either 
Sir Henry Cholmley was unequal to the com-- 
niand, or that he was negligent in the discharge, 
of the duties of his office. It is probable that 
Gen. Fairfax, who knew tlie strength of the 
castle, considered a more able and experienced 
officer necessary lo reduce it; and that on 
this account he adhered to his former appoint- 
ment of Gen. Kainsborough to the chief com- 
mand. 

Whether Rainsborough ever came to Ponte- 
fracta to take the command, is not clear. It 
appears from letters sent from York to the 
parliament, that the difference between Sir H. 
Cholmley and Rainsborough gave great advantage 
to the enemyf. From this it should seem 
that Rainsborough did come, and that Sir H.. 
Cholmley would not give up the command to 
him,. If Rainsborough did come he must have 
soon departed, and left Sir H. Cholfaley again 
to conduct the siege.' 

The unsuccessful manner in which the siege 
was carried on, at length compelled the gene- 
ral in chief to send Rainsborough, with two 
regiments of horse and twelve hundred foot, to 
t^ke the comma'nd. He had reached Doncas- 
♦ Wmitlock, p. 546, f Ibid. 



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mSTOKT 09 POHTEnUCT. 21% 

ter, where ntost part of the iniantryVere lodged, 
and the horse lay east and west of the town. 
On his arrivial Capt. W. Paulden formed a 
scheme to surprise and take him prisoner, with 
an intention to exchange him for Sir M. Lang- 
dale, his old ' general. The scheme, on reflec- 
tion, woiild seem rash' and wholly impracticable. 
How could a few men surprise a general in the 
midst of his troops^ What seems improbable 
wn the ground of reason is often rendered cer- 
tain by the united efforts of prudence and courage. 
At midnight, on the 31st of October, Capt. 
Paulden, taking twenty-two select men in whom 
he could most confide, well mounted, rode 
through the open gate over the meadows be- 
tween two of the enemy's horse guards, whom 
by fayour of the night, they passed. They 
were all good guides, and understood the ways 
public and private very exactly. At break of 
day they reached Mexborough, from whence 
they sent a spy to Doncaster, to know if there 
was any previous caution sent against th«n, 
«nd ordered him to meet tliem at Conisborough 
when the day was closed. In the mean time 
they refreshed themselves and their horses till 
about noon. At' night the spy returned, and 
assured tbem there was. no mistrust, and at sun- 
rise a person would come with a Bible in his 
hand, as a silent indication that all was right 
according to their earnest desire. On the fol- 
lowing morning, by break of day, the man ac- 
cordingly came; and Capt. Wm. Paulden then 
divided his twenty-two men into four parlies, 
six were to attack the main guard, six the 
guard upon the bridge, four were ordered to 



D.n.llzedbyG0l")^IC 



280 tllSTOIty OF POMTEFmCT. 

Gen. Rainsborough's quarters, and the csptsin 
with the remainiag six, after he had seen the 
four men enter the general's lodgings, was to 
beat about the street and keep the enemy from 
assembling. On their approach to the town, 
attacking the first barricadoes, the soldiers fled 
into the country, and the guard on the biidge, 
having flung their weapons into the water, scam- 
pered for their lives. The main guard was sud- 
denly surprised by an interposition between 
them and tlieir arms; and the men were or^ 
dered to disperse and make the best of their 
way out of danger. In the mean time the art- 
ful captain and his men were tracing the town, 
to prevent their enemies from joining together. 
Those royalists who caine to the general's lod- 
gings, pretended to the guard and the lieute- 
nant, who were on duty, that they had brought 
letters from Oliver Cromwell. Tlie gate of the 
inn being opened, three of them only went in, 
the other rode to the bridge, leading to Ponte- 
' fract, where he expected and found a guard of 
horse and foot, with whom he entered into dis- 
course, telling them *' that he stayed for his 
officer who was gone in to speak with the ge- 
neral," and called for some drink. The guards 
making no question of his being a friend, sent 
for drink and talked with him of news, and it 
being now broad day, some of the horse alight- 
ed, and the foot went over to the court of the 
guard, conceiving that morning's n'ork to be 
over. Of the three who entered the inn gate, 
two only went up, and the other remained be- 
low and lidd the horses, and talked with the 
soldier who had walked with them from the 



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^ard. The two, who went up stairs, were in- 
troduced by the lieutenant into Kainaboroagh's 
chamber. He bad been awakened by the noise 
of opening the door, but was still in bed. They 
delivered to bim a packet containing only blank 
paper. White be was employed in opening it, 
one oC them seized his sword, and the other di&* 
armed the lieutenant, and then informed him, 
" that he was th^ir prisons* ; and that if he would 
arise and without resistance. or delay, put on his 
clothes tad go along with them, they assured hiiii 
not a hair of his head should be hurt ; but if he 
should delay or resist, they decl«%d, they 
would iostantiy put bim to death." Not hav- 
JDg the means of resibttmce, nor knowing the 
strength of the enemy, and astonisbed at this 
unexpected event, the general yielded to the 
necessity of his circumstances, and prepared to 
go with them. 

Having dressed himself as speedily as possible, 
he was led ~down stairs and conducted into the 
street. Expecting to find the whole town oc- 
cupied by the troops of the enemy, and on 
coming into the street, perceiving only one 
soldier, who held the horses of the other two, 
impelled by his native courage, he felt indignant 
at the thought of submitti.ig to be led away 
like a captive, and immediately called out 
for assistance. The royalists now siezed him, 
with the resolution of binding and placing him 
behind their companion, who had already 
mounted his horse, and had designed in this 
manner to have conveyed him to the castle of 
Pontefract. Rainsborongh, although without 
armSf exerted his utmost efforts to diseng^e . 
o o 



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j*3 filSTOWr or MBTSIMCT. i 

himself; and daring the *niggle> onfe <jf tb« 
royalists raifiMtunHtely let his sword and pistol 
fell. The latter inrtniment of death w»8 instaDtly 
seized by RainsbOToui^'s lifeptentoti who inawedi- 
ateiy prtpared to disehnrge il» cetitBats at Capt. 
W. Pauldcn. LieB*fen«i»t AusMylck. who was 
the person that. ;hEMJ nwuatedWs horse, in oc- 
der to tAe Rainsbdrough b,8hmd him, no soodw 
observed the pistol in the bOaA of an eneisiy, iban 
he sprung ftwoJ hi» horse, and run him throagh 
the body. The pistol was already codeed, and 
bad not Aattfrick pret<N(ted its discbai-ge, Ua 
coQtentis woaW hare bean fetd to. Pswldehj 

RuDsborodgh still cdotHMed the unei^ 
eontwL His oppOfMofe'roirad him to be sbraM 
and a vitertm soldier, who respected .bis honour 
more than his life. He bad jdready received 
a wound m : his neck ; bnt spriagfng- upon bis 
feet, and having seized the iallen sword, wo«ld 
have .^ain his oppraients^ had not A<u(«ick, 
enraged at so desperate a rodstancb, oDce more 
conie to the assistance of his companions. He 
ended the contest by a home thrust of his 
sabre, which laid Rainsborongh dead at hi* ^^^t. 

On this tbey mounted their .horsef> and rode 
towards their companionsi before ady .of Uie 
troops of tbi enemy could collect together. The 
different parties of royalists having joined, 
inarched towards the bri^ej and dispersing tbe 
guard in ^1 directioBs, took tiie. shortest coune 
towards Pontefnlct. 

This unexpected attack had tbrown t^ town 
of Doncaster into tbe Utmost constemalnn. Some 
of the soldiers rose from their beds, arid fled 
anoss the iiekls iwdressed. Others cma^ hito 



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(be alreet; «id w aecsbg Uieir g«naiil sxtd (tie 
Jieotemint vreltering i» their bleodj but meetiog 
.with no ' .-enctaues. were wholly «t .a loss how 
to act. As they .did not koow . what directioa 
thej- had taken, they oould not with propriety 
pursae. So that the royalists, without Uie least 
injvtry to man or horse, and having itaken ja 
their retnm forty or fifty prisoners, reached 
the. castle in safety. 

Had the design of .the royalists been to 
have mnrdered ilaiasboFongh, they oagfat to be 
considered as no better 4ban midnight Eusassina. 
In this case the .whole .transaotion will appear 
barbarous and onel, and altogether unbecoming 
the character of the valiant .and the- brave. As 
one * of the actors in this fytUd Etragedy has 
assured the ipttblic tbis .was not ' their .design, 
truth compels ns to acknowledge the whole Jus- 
tified by 'jthe laws of honour and of .w&r. Their 
old general 'had been taken prisoner, and the 
garrison had b^en threatened, "that unless they 
surrendered the' castle, he would be' brought 
and' executed before its walls." Love to him 
prompted them to take Rainsborough prisoner, 
that in. case any violence was oflered to him, 
it might be retorted on Rainsborough, or at 
least the one be exchanged for the other. 

Such was the design, and it appears from 
the detail,' that the tragical event that occured, 
arose from particular circumstances. It is ob- 
vious that if the general bad made no resistance 
his life would have been spared; but as he did 
resist, the law of self-preservation compelled the 
royalists to act as they did. Had they left 
* Fauldot'i I<euer^ 



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2S4 mSTOSr OF PONTEFUCT. 

him to have collected hiB troops, their ntunbep 
was too small to have withstood the charge; 
and they must either have fallen by the sword, 
or have been made prisoners. 

On their return from this expedition, they 
had the satisfaction to bear that Sir Mannaduke 
I^ngdale had fortunately made his escape f 
from Nottingham castle. He fled to Prince 
Charles, then in exile; and on his return with 
him at the restoration, in remembrance of and 
gratitude for his services, was made a baron of 
the realm, by the title of Baron Langdale, of 
Holm, upon Spaldingmoor, in this county. 

But a few days turned their joy into grirf, 
for the loss of the couragemis and heroic Capt. W. 
Paulden who died in the castle of a high fever, 
and was bdried in the chapd of St. Clement. 

* Sir MarmidulLe Langdale owed hii eKspe to Ladj 
Saville, wife ol" Sir William S»viUe, o/Thorahill, in this county, 
Ihe daughter of Thomas Lord Coventry, Lord Keeper ol' the 
Great Seal. This lady was uncommonly attached to the royal 
cause. She relieved many of the royalist) in distre«. She 
tnaa alwayj suspected by Cromwell's party to be the outfaor 
of mmy p{ thcwe piatis fgr liberating lone of the a\ost dis- 
tinguished royalists, which so frequently proved successful. She 
conducted her designs respecting Langdalc with sucb secrecy 
and address, that he wa.i liberated tiom prison, and got saie 
abroad, before his enemies knew that he was miutn^ 
This lady was as heroic as prudent She bad entered into 
Slieffield Castle, when far advanced in a stale of pregnancy. 
The castle was closely besieged, and battered with some iK'avy 
ordnance. The Iwsiegers refused to permit a proper persWi 
to go and attend her in that situation, hoping she might be in- 
duced lo favour ' (he surrender of the castle ; but ib? whdly 
disregarded her own life and rejected every proposal, deter- 
mined to hold out the cattle for the liing. At length the 
soldiers 'mutinied, and obliged her lo capitulate; not through 
disaffection to her, but in order to save her life. The night 
after the castle was surrendered she was safely delivered. 



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&BTORT OP PONTBRUCT. 28S 

After this Ringolar event, the besiegers da 
not seem to have been mdre successful than 
they had hitherto been. S\r H. Cholmley !ient 
letters to- the^ house, complaining of the niien7»- 
nagement, and ill success of thesiege. From this 
it should seem that there was either a spirit of 
in.'^Qbordlnation among thie troops, or a general 
disagreement among the officers. The vigilance, 
activity and courage of the garrison, puttbera 
on severe duly as well as exposed them to 
severe losses; and it. cannot excite surprise, 
that both ofTicers and men should disrdish th^ 
service *. 

At length Cromwell himself arrived liere, and 
adopted every measuro to restrain the excursions 
of the garrison, and to reduce them to surren- 
der the fortress. The name of Cromwell, like 
that of the modern scourge of Europe, inspired 
terror, "and nearly of itself gave success to hi^ 
enterprises. Relying on this and the general 
circumstances of the country, he summoned the 
governor to surrender the castle to the use of 
the parliament t- 

The governor did not think it prudent to 
treat this summons with absolute indifference, 
but replied ^' That if General Cromwell was 
authorized to treat with the garrison, and was 
possessed of powers to perform the conditions, 
he was ready to enter into such treaty." As 
Cromwell had no particular powers given to 
him for this purpose by parliament, the governor 
-was not satisfied; nor did he think it prudent 
to treat with Cromwell, on the authority which 
he possessed as lieutenant general. In conso-. 
• Wkitlocv, p. 346. -t Ibid. p. S48. 



n.lizedbyG0l")^IC 



38fi mmoKT or poktbtuct. 

jquence of this the siege wbs prosecuted with 
greater vigours liaes of oircmnvallation were 
drawn wholly around the castle, and forts erected 
in places deemed most proper to cfaeck the 
garrison, and prevent them obtaining any sup- 
plies*. 

On the I^lh of Novomber, Cromwell sent 
Jetters to the House> stating the necessities c^ 
bis troops before Pontefract Castle, and requested 
Immediate supplies. Tliis letter was refeired to 
the committee of the army to consider <^ Ute 
-particulars, and to supply them. An order was 
given for two hundred and fifty barrels of pow- 
der, with match [and biillet proportionable, to 
-be srat for the forces before the castles of Pod- 
■teftuct and Scarborough f. An order was abo 
■givea, on the I'Sth, for two great cannon to be 
Bent to the sam6 troops, in order to &Gilitate 
.the reductioD of these places. 

At this period both the king and parliamait 
wore placed in the most critical oirauoMtances. 
On the departure of the army frcHn London, 
the parliament had resumed its usual vigour, and 
iinawed by the presence of the army, had acted 
with its usual spirit of indep«)jience. The .lead- 
ing members bad exerted themselves to l»ring 
abotit an ^;reement with the king; and as the 
army bad now wholly subdued the Scotch, it 
seemed the interest of both parties to come to 
an immediate agreement, in order to prevent 
the dreadful catastrophe which soon followed. 
The king, in the conference at Newport, re- 
mained fixed to' the Adage of his Father, No 
bishop,- no king; and on the other hand the 
• Whitiocx, p. 348. t Ibid p. 346. 



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mSTOKT OF PONTBRACT. Stt 

House was equally resolved to . estabK^ tba Pres- 
bjteriaa fonn of church goTernmeDt. Thoe by the 
UDyieldiog ^irit of both parties the time waa 
spent and notbiag coocluded. 

The army, uader the direction of a council 
of their officers, no* began, not to petition the 
House, but by their general in chief *' to demand 
justice upon the king." This language clearly 
indicates that the design of putting the king 
to death was already formed ; and the petitions of 
the army were intended only to prepare the pub- 
lic for the event. Every regiment «igaged in the 
siege of our castle, presented petitions to Cromi* 
well, which he forwarded to the genersfj 
breathing the same spirit. On the remonstrance 
of tbe army at St. Albans, and the seizure of 
the kiog by Col. Ewer, Cromwell wrote, from 
Knottingley, expressing bis approbation, of what 
the officers «nd army had done*. 

Ihe superiof number of the forces t^ the 
enemy to the besieged, and the vigoroas manner 
in which the siege was conducted, began now 
to produce its natural coiuequences. Some of 
the garrieon were dispirited, as they could 
not have tlie least foundation to hope for any ret 
lief. Others, by deserting to the enemy, equally 
betrayed the cause they had espoused, and the 
fears which influenced their conduct. The gar- 
rison however contained many whom no dan- 
gers could appal ; nor tuiy circumstances induce 
to forfeit tiieir honour. At this period tbeji 
made a desperate sally; but after an ardnouft 
contest, in which many were slain, they were 
cciBpeiled by superior numbers to retreat to 
the castle f. 

• RsiHWOTH, Vol 7. t WaiTMCK, p. 357, 



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2B8 BBTORY OP PONTBTRACT- 

Oromwell, who had now remained a moDdi 
before this fortress, and who doubtless would 
have been glad to have had the bouour of 
terminating the siege, found it necessary to de- 
part, and join the grand anily under Fair- 
fax, in order to accomplish the design which had 
been formed. Previous to his departure he had 
sent for General Lambert out of the north, and 
appointed him to the chief command of the 
forces before Ihe castle. Lambert arrived here 
on the 4th of December*. 

Instructions had been given by Cromwell 
to Lambert to take vengeance on the garrison 
for the loss of Rainsborough f ; and having 
brought with hira what forces he thought neces* 
sary, the castle was more closely surrounded 
than ever. He raised some new works, and by 
regular approaches towards the castle, efiectually 
'cut off all correspondence and supplies, hoping 
the garrison woald at last yield to famine, if 
nothing else could subdtie them. Although the 
garrison made several bold and vigorous sallies, 
in which many lives were lost on both sides, 
these efibrts were unavailing, and they, were 
uniformly compelled to retreat. 

During these transactions Col. Pride had de* 

• Whitlock, p. 359. 
t There was not an officer in the anny whom CromweQ 
would not more willingly have lost than this man, wiio was bold 
and barbarous to his wish, and tit to be entrusted in the mott 
desperate interest, and was the man to whom that party had 
always intended to commit (be maritime affairs, when it 
,d)ouid be time to dismiss the Earl ot' Warwick; he having 
been bred in that element, and knowed the duty of it very- 
well, though he had the misfortune before mentioned. Cla- 



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'HISTOKT OF PONTEFEACr. 389 

strayed the indepeodenoe . of parliament, by 
guarding Uie House and preventing those mem- 
bers, idio were inimical to the designs of the 
army, from entering. The House of Commons, 
if it novr dcficrTed that name, ander the direc- 
tion of the general and the officers, resolved to 
bring the king to a public trial. Lambert, and 
the officers under him, aent a letter from Pon- 
tifracty expressing their approbation of what had 
been dcme, and acknowiedgtag " that the preseitt 
proceedings .of' the army was the work of God 
alone*," 

On the 30th of January, 1648—9, Charles 
I. was beheaded; and the report of this event 
had no sooner reached Pontefract, than the gar- 
rison loyally proclaimed his son Charles II. and 
made a vigorous and destructive sally against 
their enemies. They struck silver coins expressive 
of similar seotimeiilsf. . 

Notwithstwiding the sallies of the garrison, 
and the occastooal losses the besiegers sustained, 
the activity, prudence and perseverance of Lam^ 
bert precluded all hope of deliveraiice. He noHf 
discovered many of the country, people who held 

* Whitlock, p. 370. 
t It ii a <ircuin$taiice well worthy of record, and a lur- 
thar proof of the toy^ty and z<ial of the gan{<;on, that the first 
inoniet cwned in this kingdom beating the name of Kiag 
CMe* II, wore itruck. in thif cattle by Col. Morrice, the 
SQfemor. The impression is. a crown at the top, and under- 
■nth it, " Hauc deui dedii, 1648," upon the field: and 
round it. Carol il. D. G. Mag B. F. Hi. R. The reverie, 
>■ an. impreuion ' uf a caide, and on ihe tiniaterMde thereof 
*he letteri, obi, and above, «n each, side Ibe central lower; 
^letters' P. C. and round the whole the motlo, " Pm 
^'"'m Pari -Pra Filio." This a^n is very scarce, and now 
■Ht to be met with, except in the museums of the curious. • ' 
P p 



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jno HBTOVT' OF voNrBntMrr. 

correspondence with, and gwre intelligcnoB to llie 
garrisoDt Amoug ibese were tivo dtviii»» and 
40me women of rank, friends and relatiTes of the 
besieged. The Rev. George BeaamoBt*. bei^ 
judged one of the most mminal,' was aeiaed and 
executed; ■ He was ■ chaplain to the garrison at 
this period, and recton.of South Kirkby in this 
neiglibourhood. His zeal for tbs' royat cause 
had led him to engage in the attempt to suiv 
prise the castle. He was one of McH-nee's 6Ki 
associates; and at im honse was bald the- mee*- 

* The Rev. George Setiumont wu couun to Sir Tboms 
BeaumonI, of Lascelles Halt and Whilley. Sir Thomas nw 
governor of Slieflield' Castle till its (urremJer to OCneral Craw- 
ford on the 41h of Auguit, iSM. He had fae&ce been >uni> 
inoned to nucender by Uie Earl of Mw)«hester, but r«tiue4. 
He accepted- the conditioni o^red bjr General Qrauford, and 
enjoyed his liberty by taking the engagei^nt oafh, to demean 
himielf as became a good subject It ' appean from the firf. 
lowing alHdavJt that he was sent for to Londbti. 

" £li^. BeaumcMit doth d^KMe, tiMl' her hutband' Tb(»D» 
Beaumont is att this time km ill aadt iiifinn in bodj bj 
reson of leveral bruiies aod hurts which hee bath gotten 'a 
the castles of Sheffield and Pomfiet, that hee is not able Is 
travill to London without danger of his life; and doth further 
depose, (hat shee sawe hint take the negative oath beftnre di6 
committee at York, and dpth depos& that there it yearly paid 
out of his iMids, &c. Sec, 
Jurata, 9th Feb, l6iS, corain ^i^a. B- BeaunonL" 

Ma Edwino Riche. 
Hje hflW^er engaged a se«ottd tinw in supporting the rsyal 
cawei and; Iiis esMe was tequettcredi HiS' wib coropaiBded 
for the sUatCi. and the sum paid wu io«en hUAdred ptrimlf 
Bfttiitg a oispected character and a.notoriiMs daiiaquent, he 
was b«pt a prisoner at York, from At- 18di;of Jaaauj^. ISSS, 
till tb« lfi& of Augujit fotlowiae. 

His cwsith Ih^Rev. Geo^ fienunont> waieqaalljraeAloitt 
in the royal. <^tute, wd engaged, b it tct: iu- at ualiap^^ ts. 
lue. hit life. 



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{■gi wbeA the plan was. laid how to effect it. 
He afterwards kept up a corre^Kindence vith 
tbe garaiMn in cbaractsFS, wMch were, discovered 
hy an interested letter. He was seized and 
ifflprisotied by order of. Ijoaheit i atid after be- 
tag loaded with heavy irons, he was tortured 
to discover his characters, and those who were 
iXHioerned with htm ia the cont^iracy. Con- 
tifint and faithful to his principles he refused 
to nuke any discovery t in - consequence of 
which he vras tried atid ezecnted before the 
walls of the oastle; and to render'.his pdnishment 
Aaore severe, il is said, that one of his own 
rdMtonB, ivas compelled to assist at his 6xe^- 
tioti. Htt 'left a wife and four smalt children, 
with tittle to sBpporc them, to mouj-n his loss. . 

The besieged, tiaving lost mahy of their 
brave ccnurades^ and many others bsing oonBned 
by nidknesB ; their ^v4«t)ns alBwst spent, 
aad having ntf prospMt of relief, at length of* 
ftred to treat for tbd surrender of the castle, 
Ob honourable KrmS. They Iiowever declared, 
>* diat unless the tenbs ivere snoh as they conld 
in honour atfoept, they had- provisions for some 
time; that they were not afi^id to die; and 
if compelled, they would sell their lives at 
at dear a rate as they possibly could." 

Lambert receiving these hints, answered by 
throwing letters over the wall, in which a stone 
■was wrapped, *' that he knew they were gallant 
men, and that he was desirous to preserve as 
many of them as he could, bat that his hands 
were bound,, and he was obliged to except six of 
tfaem. whose lives he could not preserve, nor 
could he nention their names till after the 



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292 AlffTORY Ol' PONTBFftACK. 

treaty was signed by the governor. Aa to tbe 
rest, he said, he was content to release ^em, 
that they might return to their own homes se- 
cure and unmolested, and that he would do tbem 
all the good in his power, hy applying to ' par^ 
iiament for an 'easy composition for their deHn- 
qoency." 

On receiving this answer. Col. Morricc called 
the officers in tlie castle together, arid it was 
linanimously agreed, not to deliver up any per- 
son without his consent." They thepefore re- 
plied to General Lambert, " that they were ^sen- 
sible vf his kindness and civility, and would 
gladly have embraced his offer, if they could 
have done it with honour; but declared that 
they could never be guilty of so base a thing 
as to deliver up their companions." 

Whatever might be tbe fortUude or attadi- 
ment of the besieged to each other, necessity 
soon compelled them ' to enter into a - new treaty 
with Lambert. The garrison, wbidt at first 
consisted of more than five hundred men, was 
now reduced, by losses sustained in different 
fallies, desertion and sickness, to one hundred * ; 
and some of these were in sucli a state of weak- 
ness as to 'be unfit for duty. Six officers on 
each side were chosen tp settle the tenns of 
surrender. 

Col. Bright f, the principal of Lambert's com- 

• Paulden'! Letter, 
t The faniily of Bright, which sL-ttled at Badawarlh, nor 
tfiis place, sprang from Tlioraaji Bright, who nurried ' ■ 

. daughter oC and had issui-, Stephen aud John. JohuwaiM. 

A, and vicar of Sheffield, 1636, (married Joanna, daughter of 
■ Mr. Smalet, of Whaley, in Dccbjishire,] he had i»we, Ste- 
phen who died bej-ond the seq. John^ Bii^t, iUi]. aae of thfi 



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.HISTOay OF PONTEFKACT. 2B3 

ubsioAers^ informed them, ** that. he had.autho-- 
rity to engage, that none of those gehtlemen,. 
Oamed to treat for the capitulation^ v/eve of the 

lords of the manor of Leeds, mBiried Elesnor, daughter of Mr.' 
Wm. Bagnall at Buryhill, in Stafford shire, wijlow of Mr. John- 
Medcatf, of Leeds, merckanl, but died sans i<sue. Ruth, who 
narried TiKunai Dixon, E«q. Jame<i, third son. and EJiza- 
bedi, who married Mr. Paiker, of Derbyshire. 

Stephen Bright, of Carbrook, Esq. the.«on and hdr of 
Thomas, married two wires, fiist Joanna or Sarah, daughter of 

Mr. George Westby, and widow of Mr. -^ Stnoles, *b^ 

bei he had iuue, Sir John, and ThomM «nd Stephen, who 
both died young. INfary (who married William Jesson, of 
Broomhall, Esq.] and Rulh (who married Edward Giil, of 
Carhouse, Esq.) Hi>i second wife, Barbara,'- waa daughter of 
Mr. Ralph ^atlield, of Laughton-en-le-Mothem, by lier he had 
iuiie, Hannah, who died nnntBrried, and Martha [who mar- 
ried William Lister, of Tlioniton, Esq.) 

This Stephen died flth June, 164.2, aged sixty, and Was 
buried at Sheffield. His patent irom Sir John Borough, Garter 
fix hit arms, is doted 17. Car. I. His second wiie sun'ived, 
and married Thomas Westby, of Gilthwait, Esq. 

Sir John Bright, ol Badswortfa, Ban. ton and heir of Ste- 
phen, married ^r wives, first Catharine, (hughter of Sir 
Richard Hawksworth, of Hawksworlh, Knight, by her he had 
Issue, three children, one son who di^ young, John, and Catha- 
rine (who married Sir Henry Lyddall, of Ravensworth Castle, 
Bart, and had tsiue, Thomas Lyddall, John, who took the sur- 
name o Bright, Henry, George, Michael, and Elizabeth. Hii 
ierond Lady, was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Norcliffe, 
of Lauglilon, Kniglit, by her he had issue, Dorothy, who died 
jroung. His third wife, Frances, was daughter of Thomas Lyddall, 
flatt, hither €)f the above Sir Henry Lyddall, and widow of 
Thomas Vane, of Raby Castle, Esq. His fourth wife, was 
tiusanna, daughter of Michael Wharton, of Beverley, Esq. S. p. 
Whose first lady was widow of Sir William Lister' of Thornton. 
This Sir John was created a baronet Iflih July, JOfiO, 
•was sheriff of York, 1656, and 1657. He died I31h Sept. ifiss, 
and was buried at Badsworth, where he has a fine raonumvnl. 
He was baptized at Sheffield, 14th Oct. \6uj. He in his last 
"Will, left hjs name and estate to John, hi* grandson, serond 
^nof Sir Henry Lyddall above' mrnttoned. He was a^^olond 



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S6f -BBitntT or voNTinucr. 

namber of excepted persons." Some -of than 
then said, perhaps the governor was onep Col. 
Bright evaded giving a direct -answer, uid said, 

itader Oliver Crotnwell, «nd (httriS* of Yoik, 1650 snd 1751, 
after Oliver*! <ic»tb he pTcmoted the mtoredon. 

J<din Bright, *E(q. of BxUwotU). cUeit ion of Sir ^oho, 
married Lady Xjucj) Monta^, daughter of £dw»rd Eari of 
Manchester, but died without issue. 

John Bright, Etq. of Badsworth, grandaon and heir of 

Sir Jolm, married 1 — daughter of dutKrback, of 

XiOndon, had iuue, 

Jolui Bright Eiq. of Badtworth, who oMiried Maig^ 
nt, daughter of WtUiam Norton, of Sawlej Park. &q. 
bad iMie ■ ■ '■ hia daughter and heir who married, F^ 

1752, Charlei Watson Wentworth, of Wentwwth Wood- 
houie. Marquis c^ Rockingham, a worthy yOun^ DoUemam 
by which naarriage the Brighfi cttate, of Badcwoith, went 
into the Wentworth family, and, ia now the properly of. Eari 
Fitswilliam. 

Tliii J(^ died the I3lh Oct. I7S5, and bit widow mv, 
ried, August 174S, Sk John Ramiden. of Byrome, Bart- StM 
was heir to the Lowlhw^ estate, at A<^woith Park, 

Hie following account of the tiineral of Colood Sir John 
Bright, from dto above Thomas Dixon's common [^ase hook, 
fan AJd«man of Leeds,) is curious, 

" Sir Jofm Bright, of Badswotth, Bart, having hnguiahed 
» year and a half, of Uia stone, died on Tbunday, the IStfa 
Sep. 1086, sooD after, about noon, Mr. Chamber*, (4 Ripoi^ 
took two stones out of his bladder, which weighed near fiiiir 
ounces; he was buried on Friday, the Slit, foUgwing, aged 
near seventy, fie married four wives, and yet left but one 
daughter, married to Henry Lyddal, Esq. eldest aon of Sir 
lliomas Lyddal, Bishopridc, Bart., wbo bml sw children living 
at his . death, the second of which, John Lyddal, he mode his 
heir, but he is to cbonge his name from John Lyddal to 
Bri^t^ he was chief mourner at the fiioefBl.— The tirdfe 
knights, baronets, and gentlemen that bore up the paU had 
mourning hatbands, shammy gloves, black scarfs and rsngi, 
the rest of the gentlemen had cordivant gloves, bSask towft 
snd rinis} and many otben had scarfs and ^oves, and oB 
the others had gloves. The ladies and gentlemen, had ring* 
■ud two pMir of ^oves, and those Um had Mt fings im4 



am<z^aa;G00gk 



BisTcisy or poimmcT. 29S 

" that the m^r goural did not ^ so much look 
upon the governor aa some others who had de- 
livered up the castle to them." On this they 
parted, without concluding any thing. 

Having returned to the castle, the commis- 
sioners for the garrison acquainted Morrice with 
aU that had passed. Some told him that Col. 
Bright had engaged, that he shoald not be one 
of the excepted persons. On referring to Captain 
Thomas Panlden, who was one of the conmiia- 
sioners, he. toM him, that it was his opinion he 
would be excepted ; and repeating the expres- 
'sions of Col, firight,' obs^ved, that his opinion 
was grounded on tlie circumstance, that the 
ijbvoi . Tfiora wu biioiit caket, cold meat, ftnd wina of aH 
Wits. H« lajr in state in a. dark loom, ^ith tweive irix 
candles burning, the room hanged, with black dolh and escuf- 
dteons round it, and six mourners ttood b; the corps, an^ 
lii> armSt in moumtDg, wai set on the outside, on the top 
^.-th» 1)«I1. Sir JiAa Ksye,was executor, and be and hs 
hniily; was in mourning ai- ircll u ha own &milj. Mr. 
Hunter- pleached for bim. Matt. x. 28, tbe pulpit ud roiiMl 
the church, and three pewi, were bung in mourning; the 
ninirter gave him a great character, for indeed he had ma- 
M^e^l kii idonastis afittin for &&y yesrt with great prudenctv 
bjt wbith ba had «igni<ntcd. hit estate. He was born to 'on 
Ibounad a year beiidea money, he had thirjkeen or fourte;^ 
thousand pounds \ by bin wives. He vras two yean toge- 
ther high' sberifl^ when no liberties were allowed. He bad a 
otftnah pay in 6m army several years, was goverror of Shef- 
SMl (^a&B: aod. j«lice of tlie peace. He hh a legacy of 
bttf jfnioAt to my wife, thirty pmiad* to my son Bright 
Dixon, and. ten .pounds to my daughter Ruth, whici) was 
paid a 'fortnight after the burial. If my brother Bright bad 
outtved him it bad certainly been much better for my wile 
Ud obiidKn Ulna it was, lor Sir John to]d me that the an- 
ctent estate was letlled in our family, but my brother Brigbt 
dfing be^«a him, bi* daughter Lyddal had that gi'vcn her by 
her lalhers will, which should have come to my brother, and 
ttoi tor i^ Wife and cl^dt«ti, but God'i will be doie." 



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S96 . ■ BWTOKY DP PONTEtTUter; 

colbnel -had not engeged that th6 ^Temor ahoold 
■not be €>uo,' as he' had, respecting those geotle- 
inca who *Pre emplcyed to treat. Another of 
the commissioners replied, titat Lieut. Crooke 
■had assured him, that the governor ^-as not one 
,of the excepted persons. On this, Col. Morrict 
iaid, " that if lie should be -one of tlte excepted 
persotni, be w«nld take his chance; — ihat be 
.■could ' not endure the thonght, that so many 
•brave gentlemen shuuM perish for his sake." He 
then ordered the commissioners to return, and 
■conclude the treaty. 

.-■ Capt. Panlden requested that some other per-' 
-son might be sent in his place, as he had so- 
•J«mnly resolved never to . consent to deliver tip 
the governor. They therefore departed to meet 
Lambert's Commissioners, aiid having speedily 
concUi(tcd and signed the articles of capitulation, 
brought back with them, tlie names of the six 
persons, who 'Were excepted fbom mercy,' which 
were Col. Morrice ; L,ieut. A'ustwick' and -Cornet 
Blackburn, two of the persons conoerueij .iu the 
death of Raiusborou^h ; Miyor Ashby, Eosiga 
Smith aud Serjeant Floyd,' the three pei'sons who 
iiad been Morrice's confederates in ,the' castle. ' 

^he troops in the garrison were sensibly af- 
fected wlien they heard the nanaes pf, those exr 
ceptcd. They sent again the commissibii^rs Ut 
Lainijert, wnd requested that he would allow thera 
;si^ days, in which time the unfortunate victims 
might endea^'our to escape, and that it imigbt 
be lawful for the rest of the garriaoD to assist 
them. 

To this proposal General Lambert' '.consent- 
ed, ; *' provided the rest would surrender" 9t ih? 



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filStOKT OP reWTEFBACT. 297 

^piration of the time» and engage never again 
to advise or take up arms against the parlia- 
tnent," to which the commissioners agreed. 

On the 6rst day after this agreement, the 
garrison appeared twice or thrice as if they were 
resolved' to make a'sally> but retired every time 
withodt charging. 

On the second day, they made a strong and 
vigorous ' sally in a different direction, and drove 
tile enemy from their post with the loss of several 
men. Although the attempt was made at the 
time the guards were relieving, and when the 
number of men was doubled, yet such was the 
resolution with which the charge was made, that 
Cot. Morrice and Cornet Blackburn, two of the 
excepted persons, pushed through the troops of 
the enemy and made their escape*. The other 

* About a fortnight after the uirrender of the caHle, 
Ccdonel Monies and Comet Kackbum were taken in Lan- 
cashire, as they wete inquiring for a ship, wilh an intention 
to get abroad. They were put in safe custoiiy, and conveyed 
to York Caitle, where, at the ne^ assizes, it waa intended 
to try than. 

Tliey made an attempt once more to obtain their liberty, 
and eflect their escape from the hands of their enemies. Col. 
Morrice had succeeded, by means of a rope, in sliding down 
Ibe cutle wall, but Blackburn, in trying the same mf^thod, had 
the misfortune to &11 and break his leg. The genenxu colonel 
would not deMrt his friend, but remained with him liU they 
were both retaken. 

At the ensuing aislzes they were tried for having levied 
war against the king. Had they been tried by martial law, 
the conduct of the government might have been justified. As 
they had been excepted from mercy, when the garrison capi- 
tulated, if tried on thu ground, there would at l«ut have 
Iwen more appearance of justice in their condemnation and 
execution. 

On theii trial, they excepted to the jury, and plesded 
Q q 



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298 MlSTORVOr POMTEFTUCT. 

four were compelled to retreat with their friends 
to the castle. 

The garrison now remained still for two 
• whole days ; but early on the night of the 4th 
day they made another attempt. In this at- 
tempt they were wholly unsuccessful. They 
were driven back to the castle, having Ensign 
Smith, another of the excepted persons, billed. 
His friends conveyed bis body into the ca$t)e, 
and he was interred in the chapel of St Clement. 

The three excepted persons who' now re- 
iriaiTied, considered it in vain to make any more 
sallies in order to escape. Several lives had 
already been lost in the attempts made ; and they 
contrived a different method in order to secure 
themselves. Tlie buildings of the castle were 
large and extensive, and owing to the sieges, 
some of' these had become ruins. Among the 
I ruins, they found a place, where the thriee ex- 
cepted persons' might be concealed, and from 
whence they might easily make their escape. 
Accordingly their friends walled up the place 
after they had entered, leaving them apertures 
sufEcient for the admission of air, and furni^ing 
them with provisions for a month, in which time, 
it was not doubted, but they would be able to 
make their escape. 

The next morning (24lh March, 1648 — 9) 

ihe Rtalutc of Henry VII. which mdemnifies every man, who 
takes up armi in defence of the king. Their exceptknu 
against the jury were not admitted, not did Judge PiiIe$U)Q 
admit tlieir conxtmction of the above mentioned acL After 
a tediout trial, Ibey were both found guilty, and Kotence of 
death wai paued on them. On (he 23d of Augmt, 1649, Uwy 
were executed at Tyburn, near York, asserting (heir loyalty, 
ind dying with hope, constancy and resignation. See Slate Tcials. 



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asiomy or poKTBPiucr. 399 

the garrison pretended to rejoice, and sent the 
governor word, that aa their six friends bad made 
their escape, thev would, surrender the next day. 
At the hour appointed, the garrison marched out , 
of the oastle.' Lambert narrowly inspected each 
indiTidual, not believing that any of the six 
excepted persons had escaped; but being 
satisfied, that they were not among those who 
now surrende):ed, he treated them with great 
civility, and punctually performed all his pro- 
mises; nor did he se^m displeased " that the 
brave soldiers -had happily escaped." Lambert 
did not pay any attention to the castle, so that 
the three excepted persons, the night after threw 
down their inclosure, and securely decamped *. 
Letters were sent by Lambert to the house, 
informing them of this event ; and also from 
Ue^ier^al Lord Fairfax, containing the articles of 

Zitulation. ' There v-as found in the caslle pro- 
>ns ibr two months, and forty barrels' of pow- 
der. The committee at York, alsg sent letters 
to the house, desiring that they would order 
the castle of Pontefract, and some others in the 
county, to be demolished. 

On the receipt of these letters, the house 
immediately ordered and resolved, " That ^300. 
per ann. out of the demesnes of Pomfret, be 
settled on Mjjjor General I^mbert and his heirs 
for ever, in respect of his many great and emi- 
nent services performed, with much care, courage 
and fidelity, by the said Major General in the 
northern parts, as well against the Scots' army 
the last ■ summer, as against the forces of Sir 
Marmaduke Langdale and others, and in redu- 

* Austwick and tloj6, lived till after the restoration. 



D.n.llzedbyGOOgIC I 



300 tasrosv ov PoimTiucr. 

cing the castle of Pontefract, being the last gari 
Tison in England, that held ont agaiost the par; 
liament; and in respect of his estraordinary 
charge therein, he not having been allowed an^ 
pay as Major General. Ordered that this vote 
be sent with a letter of thanks and respect^ from 
the house, and that Mr Chatoner prepare it."- 
It was also ordered, that the castle should 
be dismantled and rendered wholly untenable foe 
the future. In compliance with this order, 
Lambert soon rendered this stately and priocdy 
fortress, which had long been considered the 
IiODour of Pontefract, a heap of ruins. The baild> 
ings were unroofed, and all the valuable qiate^ 
rials sold. 

A true account of the value of all the materials, 
belonging the Castle of Pontefract, sold: And 
of the money received and debts owing, also 
the charge of demolishing the same, the 5th of 
April, 1649*. 

£. S. D. 

IMPRIMIS, an agreement made"^ 
with John Harrison, for demo-f g^ .^ _ 
lishing the Round Tower, for which f 
paid him * 

An agreement made the same^ 
time with Thomas Lake and others, f ^n -in 
for the pulling down the BarbacanT 
Wall, for which paid * 

Paid Thomas Thurstan for level-^ 
liug the Earthen Mount, called/ 
Ntvill's Mount, and the Barbacan > 10 
Wall, from. the Great-stable to thei 
Low Drawbridge, J 

* Gent pubTiihed die foUovving account, from papet> in 
the possession of the Fairfaxes, of Denton. 



D.n.iized by Google 



nwracv Of mtfpsfuct. 



hers, for'\ — 
rom the/ 
wer andV 
mildiiigsk 



Paid Jasper Ellis, by an oi^er' 
Sfoa^ the committee of the 37th of 
April, for monies laid out about 
removing the amniutiition from 
PoDtefract Castle to York, and for 
carrying it up in Clifford Tower, . 

Lancelot Lamb and others, for"^ 
taking down the timber from 
Round-Tower, Queens-Tower z 
Kings-Tower, and other buiidh 
about tho same. 

Paid John Harrison and olhers,"\ 
for demolishing the two skreens/ 
jfrora the CJate-house to the Round > 34 
Tower, and thence to the Treasurer i 
Tower, J 

Paid Thomas Taylcr and others, "^ 
^r ( he timber taking down from the / 
Chapel, Cpnstabie Tower, and allV 35 
the rest of the buildings to thei 
Gate House, J 

Paid Tatersall and others, for^ 
taking down the timber from offv S 
Jhe two Gate Houses, \ 

PaidTattersall, John Smith and 
others, for taking down the timber 
of the Treasurer's Tower, Gascoygne 
Tower, the Great Kitchen, and so 
to the Great Hall, 

Paid them more for the Greaty 
Hall timber, and the Gate House S- 
taking down, ) 



Paid Simon Proctor, for demo-'\ 
lisbing the Kingand Queen's Tower f 
and all the buildings betwixt tlief 
same, the sum of J 



4 



£IU 19 



IS 5 Q 



XI52 12 6 



D.n.iized by Google 



HDttwr or K>iniBnAcr. 



Paid Thomas Lake and others,* 
for demolishing the two Out Gate 
Houses and the Skreen, by the 
Constable Tower, 

Paid Edward Wilson, for de-"" 
molishing the Constable Tower, and 
all the other buildings from the 
King's Tower to the Gate . House, 
as also the Treasurer Tower, Gas- 
coigne Tower, the Great Kitchen, 
and all the other buildings from the 
Skreen unto the Great Hall, tlie 
sum of 

' Paid Edward Handson, for pul-'^ 
ling down the Skreeo between thef 
upper Gate House, and the Round 1^ 
Tower} also for the Guard House, } 

Paid James Jolly, for pulling ofl'l 
the iron from off the three Gates* th 
two Drawbridge^ ^id the timber c 
the low Drawbridges taking up 

Paid for filling up the Graff at'^ 
the tow Drawbr^ge, and pullingf 
down part of the Skreen close b 
Constable Tower. 



15 6 9 



ouse, J 
ngoflS 
Mj thef 
ber off 

> 3 

jraff atj 
pullingf 
eby theC 



2 16 



17 4 



.£326 S 6 



Paid three labourers for remov-) 
ing timber out of the fell of aTower, j 

Paid for taking down the timber) 
from SwUIington Tower, J 

Paid John Oxley and Tho. Lee, » 
for melting of lead into pigs, j 

Paid for 6IIing up the Grafi atl 
the upper Drawbridge, and the >■ 
Chapel Walls pulling down, J 

Paid Simon Procter, for felling) 
down Swilliogton Tower, J 



D.n.iized by Google 



BKTMT OF Kunsmcr. 



Paid Simon Procter more, in re- 
gard we' did conceive that he had a 
losing bargain upoa former work 
done hy him, 

Monies expended upon several- 
messengers sending abroad into se- 
veral parts of the coumry, to seek 
out experienced workmen, for the 
speedy demolishing of ihe castle: 
and also for monies expended at 
several contracts making: as also 
monies given to workmen for their 
enconragement at the falls of so- 
Tcral towers, - with other incident 
J 











£i^ 17 4 



Paid for baring of timber from) - 
nnder the fall of Constable Tower, } 

Paid for two paper books, andl 
to the justice's clerks for drawing l 
the orders betwist the committee [ 
ind the trustees-, J 

Given to & maimed workman! 
that was to return to his own home t- 
at Malton, towards his charges, J 

Given to Lancelot Lamb, for^ 
his care and good services in the \ 
work, J 

Paid seven soldiers, by order] 
from Captain Ward, for work done | 
by them, J 

Paid for5 stone and 51b. of iron,! 
fcHT making crows for pulling offy 
lead, J 

Paid Francis Bradley, for crows) 
ibaldog and shovels idtoeing, J 



7 



4 



D.n.iized by Google 



304 ' HISTORY OP PONTEFEACT. 

£. S. it* 

Paid several labourers for woric "1 
done, as appears by a note in Mr. V 3 II S 
Long's hands, ' J ■ 

Paid John Smith, for work done i ■ _ iri o 
hy him, ) 

Paid six chrpenters for loadingl 
timber that was secured fran burn- I inn 
ing by the soldiers, and surveying f 

the rest of the limber, J - 

£16 ti 1 



Paid George Aentiard, for tak- 
ing crooks out of the walls, f o lo o 

Paid Lake and Hanson for de-"l 
tnolishing the Great Hall, and the > S7 6 8 
Inner Gate House, J 

Paid John Oxley and his thtee^ 
men for sevefal days work, for tak- ) 
ing the lead of the castle down, 

Paid for lime and workmanship,*] 
ibr the two drawbridges walling up \ 
of either side, J 

Paid Richard Lyle, for the loan] 
of his beam and weights for weigh- \ 
iiigoflead, J 

Paid for cools to several guards ) 
to secure the timber from burning, / 

Paid severai draughts for leading's 
timber out ot the castle garth, to> 
secure it from the soldiers, J 

Paid labourers for several bul-T 
warks pulling dowo, about and near > 
the castle, J 

Paid two counsellors their fees | 
for advice how to proceed in suit, I 
and in whose names, for materials f 
. sold and not paid for. 



loo 



^50 4 S 



.:i.« Google 



B»n>itr OF pomvpRACT. 



I*aid by Mr. Robert Moore, to several workmen 
and labourers, as appears by his note of par- 
ticulars, as followeth: 



For the first week. 
For the second week, ^- 
For the third week. 
For the fourth we^. 
For the fifth week. 
For the sixth week. 
For the seventh we^, - 
For ttie eighth week, - 
For the ninth week, 
For the tenth week, - 



I<ead- taken off Pontelract Castle, 
followeth: 

Sold to the church-vpardens of)- 
Barnpley, 20 civt. at J 

Sold unto Mr. Richard Wilcock,) 
«dcwt. at I 

Sold unto Mr. Samuel Childe, of 
Leeds, forty fbther of Lead, 
6y. comes to 

Sold him riiore, 9 fotber Hcwt.) 
54 !b. at the same price, comes to j 

He rests.indebted for wood, fori 
smelting of lead, i 

•-' Sold unto ^r. Winter, ' of Hull, ( 
A fother of lead, at ■ ■ : j 

Sold unto Mr.' John Skurr, ooe) 
web oflead, 2J?tone, I2lb. at .' . J 



I 


3 10 


5 


15 6 


6 


19 9 


U 


U 6 


9 


16 10 


a 


a 


. i 


17 i 


17 


16 


4 


2 


3 


15 4 


2w* 


19 5 


and 


sold m 


£; 


S. D. 


10 


3 6 



hilde, of) 
,'it 11;. j- 



Sold unto Mr. Edw. Rhodes, '84 



ibther of lead, 1 4 cwt. 2 qr-s. 5 



4S0 



107 19 9 



45 



940 



£1567 4 9 



:es,841 
lb. 'at} 



nitizedbyGoOl^lc 



306 teSTOKT OF POKTWBAOT. 

Sold unto Grace Briggs, three "» 
webs of lead, &c. 9 cwt. lO lb. at J 

Sold unto Sir Tlio. Wenttvoith,' 
one fother of lead, 

Sold unto Lieut. Ward/ 1 1 stone 
;;)b. at 

Sold unto Bryan Fosteard, 30 
stone of lead. 

Sold unto Lord Savile, 20 cw 
of lead, at " 

Sold unto Mr. Jolm Savile, of 
Afetbley, ^ fotlier liJlb. 

Sold unto a porter, IS stone 
3 lb. at 

Sold unto Francis Bradley, 2l 
' stone of lead, at Is. 6d. &e. 

Sold unto Mr. Robert Moor, 
newt. 1 qr. 1 7 lb. at lis. 5d.&.c. 
, Sold unto Mr. John Clayton, 
IS stone 41b. at 

Solfl unto Edw. Field, 43 stone 
,10 lb. at 



. jE. 


S. A 


5 


o 


u 


5 


. 


i7 


. 


i 


\ "> 


2 6 


33 


16 


I 


7 l» 


1 


II 6 


3 


IS 6 


I 


7 


' «■ 


iS 10 


£9 


St 




' 



The total cf all tbe lead sold,' 
amountstothesumofXl640:l6:ll. V l54o 7 S 
whereof received in money, } 

Monies owing for lead, to balance the account's 
above written, as fbllows: 

Sir Edward Rhodes, debtor fori ^ _ - 
lead, f 

Mr. Samuel Cbilde, of I^eds,! ^^ i« s 
restB indebted for lead, f 

Further, Mr. Childe rests in^V 
debted for wood,- for smelting his > 2 10 

lead, J 

^100 9 9 



n.iized by Google 



HMVorr or ro^Tsn^cT. sot 

£. 5. D. 

T^e tptat of all the iron belon£-^ 
ing t<j thie c»8tle, is 79 cwt. 3 qrs. / 
87 lb. sold at jOs. per cwt. amounts > 37 S 4 
%D tbe sum of 40/. whereof received i 
in mgnej'^ ' / 

Monies owing for iron to ba-'S 
lance the account as abovesaid. 
Gol. Overton, by an order from the 
Lord General, for tbe public service -9, ]? 8 
for the drawbridges for Hull, had 
iron teams delivered bim to the va- 
lue of in money. 

May the 7tb, 1649. Money received for timber 
as follows ; 



Col. Thomas Rookeby, 


- - 7 





^r, Birifebecke, - 


1 


3 » 


William : Nicholson, 


. , . « 


I 


William Jennings, 


1 


6 8 


Mr. Leonard Ward, 


. 23 





Robert Howson, - 


I 





Thomas Thwajtes, 


1 


4 


Richard Smith, ■ 


- 


2 6 


William Farroive, 


6 





Grace Brigge, 


8 





Philip Austwicke, 


1 


2 


William Hill, 


- 


18 


Thomais Tayler, 


- - 4 


10 


Edward Fielde, - 


. a 


8 


Richard Lyle, ■ - 


- 2 


It 


Robert Sutton, 


- 3 


10 6 


William Brame, 


- 12 





Francis Bradley, 


- I 


10 


Zecbariah' Stable, 


- 4 


6 S 




.^102 


12 10 



D.n.iized by Google 



30B HiSR»iY ov vcmenACK- 

John Potter, - - 

Thomas Jackson and Robert Farrowe. 

William Wright, - - i ' 

Thomas Jackson, . _ _ 

Charies Tootle, ,- - . .- 

John Killingbecfce, . . - 

Richard Turner, - . . 

Thomas Boswell^ - - . . 

Peter Cuthwait, . ,; _ . 

John 'Wattson, - - - 

Francis Lee, - - . . 
Robert 5|awIdenon. 
William Ward, - 

Mary Rothwell, - - 

Thomas Fielde, - - " - 
For timber for the church. 
Timber for the windmill, 

Mr. John Skurr, - - 

John Wildman, - . . 

For the remainder of the timber 1 

in Brame Garth, f 



■ Monies received for glass, 7 - 1 0. 

Debts owing for timber, as follows: 

i'^'^illi^m Farrowe, . - , - 13 4 

CoJ. Orerton, by an oMer from"! 

tlie Lord General, for the public >- 8 6 q 
service of Hull for timber, J 

' George Wrigley by assignment! _ „ 

from John Potter, | 3 P tt 

Thomas Farrowe, - . - 3 o 



J. 


S. 


B. 


10 





q 


, 6 


14 


6 


4 


6 


8 


1 





6 


p 


10 


6 


10 





Q 





18 





s 





Q 





IS 





9 


10 





« 


12 





& 








12 











9 


p 





13 


4 


20 








.2 





a 


3 





a 


a 


8 


a 


s 








i98 


15 


~o~ 



D.n.iized by Google 



Thomas Farrowe and Thomas 1 

Jadcsou jointly togetlicr^ j 

Thomas Jacltson, r ■ t 

Kichard Cattle, - - - - 

Joba. HodgshoQ, - r r 

John Pox, - 1 r - ^ 

Thomas Eadeo, r . - v 

Thotqas BosweU, ?■ t •} 

John Ambler, r . - 

Mr. Joho Lambe, -r - 

Bryan Fosteard, - - . - 

Itic^iar^ Fosteardf ' w ^ fi 



Monies received for )eid> 
UooioB roeeived for tinnier, 
Jdooies received for iron, - 
Mpnies received for giaaa. 



3 



90$ 
S. A 
A 



6 » 



X*2 


i 2 


£. 


$. D. 


1540 


1 a 


201 


7 10 


37 


2 4 


1 


a 


£1.179 


r? V 



^. S. D. 

Hie durge foe demolishing, • - 777 4 6' 

Mooies allotted unto the town^ - - 1000 ff 

"JliQ rest due to the common wealth, - 3 12 lO 

^1779 17 ♦' 



Debts owing for materials, which aie due unto the 
coounon wealth: 

£. S. D. 

Forlead^. ------ 100 9 9' 

For timber, - . - - -,'4'2 4» 

ForilCHif ---_-. 2 17 8 

£\^S 1 1 T 



:k«Gt>(")^IC 



.Tbe/preceding account of the ezpences of 
its demolition^ «nd the monies raisei) by the 
sale of the materials, will furaish the best idea 
of the strength, and graodeor of this fortress. 

ThoB fell the Castle of Pontefract, which 
had successively been the Arong' ho)d of the 
brave arid wariike Saxons; the residence of a 
proud and imperious Normati conqueror; the 
tarretted seat of the high aspiring Dukes of 
Lancast^*; the palace of prince and of kings; 
at some periods, a nest of treachery and re- 
1>d]ion, and at others the last hope of van- 
quidied royalty. Here the Lacies, attended by 
their knights, esquires and vassals. Jived in 
splendor and dignity, scarcely inferior to the 
king upon the .throne; and c^y«d tbe AfaCO- 
liite property of aU the,. Idtnd iaehidcd wUbm 
Ute homnir of Pontsfract^ an extent of territorir 
equal to many^ of our modem Counties. "Of 
the Lacics, «very person within the honour held 
Ills'* land, subject to such conditions as they 
iV«re pleased to grant. 'Diey enjpyed the same 
lights, and exercised as. abMbite .sa aiAfaprity 
vitbin tfaeir demesne, as the king did within bis; 
and they claimed ti*e Mime obedience, subjection 
and . privileges. When this castle and its de- 
pendent territory passed into the house of Lan- 
caster, impelled hy wnbtfiov, «r tu-ged by tbe 
more generous notive <^ iwdressing the grie- 
vances of an oppressed country, the dakes often 
called forth their vassals, put on their armour, 
unsheathed the sword, and bid defiance to kings. 
In these unhappy times wliat lives were destroyed, 
and doubtless the appartments of this castle. 



D.n.iized by Google 



<» vovrmkcs. sit 

hwe oAra beett stanied with the bload* of niaarf 
OB innocewt' vicUai. Wfaeo the wars of tba 
beitKH^ wid the cdbteats of the howes of Yetk 
and Laacaster were happily •terminated, theik 
commenced tetigibu* asibiosities v nhicb led to 
the dtftnietiTe civil wsr, in wfaiefa the eastte of 
Fwtefriict holds. a distiogaished place. BefM 
its maatiy wiUls ihrte or 'foar thouaand men mast 
hare.faDeB. It ik sow ia rmnsj a laenHMto df 
iaUdti grandeur ; and may it erer PemBin as a 
la^Q jornapienk of aatii]ikit7; < " 

The lover of'aDtkpHtly ini^: limeat When' hb 
Tiewf suelhstttpeoddus works nearly lereScd to the 
grqq^, kiiit'l^eiiaetad of rational freedom will r^ 
jmee-w/ieA he^reHedf on tim detnga fomn'hidi tudk 
fart|^9se« w^re eteet^^ aad on the many ctHimif 
tiw to wbich they have given oecasioK It is pest 
{iVE.for a utipti to lnve:ilte frontiers' gdarded, and 
to bavf) ftrtoesies «q sisibfr tht attemftttf «^ aa 
bo«ftIe,.andaosbjlioB3riiei^bour. Bat when Bittk 
fbrtreyses ' are' erected in the taterior of a 'kfngL 
diqn, it RMffit bd with the. ded^' to depiiwcia 
people. of thdr libfeitits, or tol. he«^ m sultf«t> 
tiop. f^A slav4ry ta l.peopte' already . vairqaishMi 
Hsfice xaatleff. m the:' ^om of . a . coutitry clearly 
ia^ic^et pUher that ^t peopte< an about ttt 
lose, c^r hwe- already lost their fieedoin. ' i" 

T^ete ))|lacei bme . soHtetunas become eqoal^ 
dang^EOfis, to the: gevenntient aeto tho pe<lp|ik 
The disa^tod rhave aviuled ihensetves of thett 
streogtb to. r^w the standard of cebeUiott, dis>- 
turb the public tranquillity, and plunge a na- 
tion into confusion and war. Sometimes an in- 
vading enemy, by' the treachery of their go- 
Temors, has been admitted into them, or hy a 



n.iized by Google 



31S BBTOBT OF KWimWACT, 

niddeii attack has surprised and gained possesfiiotii 
BDd thereby beeii enabled ntore effectually -to 
resist the moAt vigoroas efforts of a nation. 
Secured by' the- strength of such a bulwark, 
'an enemy which would soon hare been sabdued 
io the 6eld, has repelled repeated attacks, and at 
last only yielded to ftmitie. We may therefore 
consider it as one good resulting from the civil 
Wac, (Jutt tke> many castles and fortresses in the 
interior of th'a. country, the remaitis of the -Not-* 
man conquest and feudal oppressions^ Were re- 
dMced, dismantled and destroyed. 

A nation; in the possession of equal Fights 
and liberties, governed by law, not by- force; 
jbi which the poor mab''3 ewe lamb' i» eqoally 
protected and secure, with tbei rich man's wealth; 
where the same punishments attach toi the sune 
isrim^, whatever' be the . rftnk of those who 
comioit them ; and where justice ift equally and 
impartially administetied ; in^ «uc^ a nMion there 
i$ DO need of castles to. keep the 'people -in 
obedimce. . Obedience ^itoiCtie law beoomea the 
ipterest of ^1 orders; ;and i^en it is the geoe- 
Tltt, interest, H ,dsnnot foil 'to: be the general 
|»rm:tice. Such 'is, the happy state of Englisb- 
tiien.^, and snchmay it Ton everl>e, is tits prayer 
of one, .who considers the'era since the re?o- 
Ifltto^.-and tbeacceuioD' oft^the house of Bhios- 
wick, as the ' mosb glorious ^ aifd distlngaiibed 
period of fceedoin aiid prospftity recorded in 
the annals of Britain, or in those of hay other 



n.iized by Google 



WrrOMY OF POHTEVUCT. 313 

The following poems, the one written by 
Dr. Drake, in his younger yearsj the other by 
the celebrated Dr. Langhorn, on the various 
events which have been detailed in tlie forego- 
ing pagesi are deemed ton interesting to ba 
omitted. 

ON" POMFRET CASTLE. 

Poinfretl Pomfrti! thou bloody priuml 

Fatal and ttminoui to nublc Peers. • 

Within the guilty cltvnae if tht/ ualU, 

Sichnrd the Serotid here vias hacfd to death; 

.And Jar more »la.<nder to thy dinnal teat 

We give to thee our guiUien bhod to drink, 

Sraeb$fsk£'s Ricb. III. 

" Look round ibii vast, and venerable place, 
Whoie niin'd pile still shines willi awfii! grace. 

Yet notil^ great, 'm'dst all its bded channs ; 
See tbe wide waste of all-conniming age. 
The wreck of lulfaleu war^ and hostile rage. 

And all.tbe dire e&cU of more Ihaii civil wars." 
" View savage time with cank'tiag tooth devour 
The solid fabric of yon mould'ring tow'r. 

, Which now in undistinguish'd chaos liat; 
Where erst the noble B^cey's Norman iine 
Plann'd the wide work, luid tbmi'd the vut design, 
. And Ind wilh gothic grace, tb^ slatclj' atiucture rise." 
" When. lo! on high the vaulted domes suspend, . 
On lofty columns the wide ardisE bend. 

And massive walls the vast domain inclose; 
In vain the hostile warriors nervous art 
With missive fire directs the barbed dart. 

Or with enormous itpetigth the pond'rouii jav'lin throws." 
" For many an age the Latey's noble race, ' 
With axmt; and arts, adom'd the splendid place. 

As heroes triumph'd, or as patriots shone; 
Till with the great Planlagenet's tair bride. 
In nuptial dower these ancient honors glide. 

The seat of fiiture kings that grac'd the British ttrone." 



n.iized by Google 



31* HISTORY or POSTOFRACT. 

' " On yonder hill, as early annali tell 
The holy hero, and the maxtyr fell, 

Whidi uill great Lancaster Ihy mem'ry bean. 
There 'midst the ninia enroll'd with rites divine. 
The piou4 pilgrim sought the sacred shrine, 

And balh'd thy hallow'd tomb, with sympathizing lean.* 
" With holy zeal, and blundess moral* ana'd. 
With all the pow'r of coni^ious virtue warm'd, 

'yi\d*t Heaths ad scenes, Ihe pious patriot smiles; 
By thee proi,id Mortimer the hoary rage 
Bleeds the sad victim ol thy brutal rage 

Lost by thy lawless love, and all a wtHnan'* wiles.** 
" Look, there, where erst, yon mould'ring turret stood. 
Whose moss grown ttones are ting'd with royal bloodj 

'Midst civil broils the hapless Richard bled, ^ 
There cruel Exton's vite as-aBsin dart. 
With bloody treason pierc'd the monarch's heart. 

And fix'd the tott'ring crown on haughty Hervy** bead.* 
" Here vaunting Bolingbroke, thy feeble foe. 
Felt in each whispering breeze the fatal blow. 

Or heard death's herald in each guiky stone — 
Short is the date ofcaplive monarch's doom 
Twixt the dark prison, and the yawning tomb 

For bold ambition bears do rival to the throne." 
" See yonder lowY still bhish with crimson stains 
That flow'd in plenteous store from noble veins. 

Where Vaughan, and Grey^ by Glosler't arts expir'd ; 
Wliere Rivers felt, who with his latest breath 
These mournful mansions dignified in death, 

' With lore of letters wann'd, and dawning science &ed." 
" 'Midit tbe wide flames, tbat civil ditcoid spread. 
When by base arts the royal martyr bled. 

Still loyal Pomfret spurn'd tbe tyrants hate. 
Last in these northern dimes that iconi'd to pay 
A servile homage to his lawless sway. 

And in ingloriaus eaae survive the monarch'* &te." 
" Long haughty Lambert did thy vel'ran pon'rs 
With iron tempest shake these solid tow'rs. 

And round the walls the missive murder send; 
In vain brave Morrice did thy martial train 
With loyal arms Uie hostile shocks sustain. 
And 'gainst rebejlioiia lODi these loyal dome* defend.* 



n.iized by Google 



HISTORY OS POKTEFRACT. 31 j 

** Hark ! the loud engine* tear the tremUing wallf 
And fr<Hn iti base the massive iabiic falls. 

And til at once these ancient honof s fade. 
Theie lody towert, and all these ro^al spoils 
Knk into silence, 'midst intestine broils 

lo prostrate rui|is tost, and dark oblivion laid." 

Framcis Dkakz, S.T.P. 
Lecturer of Pomfret, 1750. 



PONTEFRACT CASTLE, 

BV DB. LANGIIOKN, 
1758, 

Sight mng the bsid, that allHnvdvrog age^ 

With hand impartial deals the ruthless blow ; 
That war, wide>wailing, with impetuous rage, 

Lajs tlie tall spire, and skj- crown 'd turret low. 
A pile stupendous, once of fair renown, 

Tim mould'ring nnss of shapeless ruin rose, 
Wbere. nodding beigfats (rf* .fraetur'd columns frowsy 

And birds obscene in ivy-bgw'rs repose : 
Oft the pale raalran from the threat'ning wall. 

Suspicious, bids her heedl»s childreti &y j 
Oft, as be views the meditated fall. 

Full swifiljr steps the frighted peasant by. 
But more respectful views lb' historic sagB, 

Musing, (besea.wiiil relics of decajr, 
T}at once a refifge form'd from hoslilia rage. 

In Henry's and in Edward's dulxous day. 
He pensive ofi reviews the migh^ dead. 

That erst have trod this desolated ground; 
Reflects.how here unhappy Sal'sbury bled. 

When bcUon aim'd the death-dispensing woand. 
Kest, gentle Rivers ! and ill-lated Gray ! 

A flow'r or tear Qflistrews your humble grave. 
Whom Envy slew, to pave Ambition's way. 

And whom a monarch wept in vain to save. 
Ah! what avoil'dtb* alliance of a throne? 

The pomp of titles what, or pow'r rever'd ? 
Happier ! lo IhQse the humUe lite unknown, 

WilK virtue fatawur'd, and by peace endeir'd. 



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S16 HISTORY or POMTEFRACT. 

Had (hat the MH1S of bleeding Britain tl< ought. 

When haplMS liere inglorious Riihard lay, 
Yet many a prince, Vrt uu- blood fiill ((early bou^f 

The aiiamefiil triumph ol the long-sought day; 
Yet many a li>^ro, whose defeated hand 

in deaili .'<"il^'d ihe well^txink'^ted fierd, 
Hadinhin otT^pring sav'd a ninlcing land. 

The Tyrant's terror, and the Nation's ihield. 
Ill could die muse indignant griel forbear. 

Should Meni'ry uac? her bleeding Countjy't woes; 
111 could she count, without a bursting tear, 

Th' inglorious triuropht of the vary'd Rose ! 
While York, with ronquest and revenge date, 

Insultmg, iriumphioii St Alban's p'sio. 

Who views, nor pities Henry's hapten late, 

Him^f a caplire, and hi* leader* (lain ' 

Ah prince ! uneq\^ to the toili of war*, ' ' 

To stem ambition. Faction'* rage to iinell; 
Happier 1 from these had FortUDB pkc'd Ibee fat. 

In (Oine lone convent, or aome peaoeliil cell. 
For what avaii'd that thy victorious queen 

Repair'd the ruins of that dreadtiil day ? ' ' 

That vanquish'd York, on Wakefield's purple green, 

ProstialB amidst (he common slaughter lay i 
In vain fair Vict'ry beam'd die gladd'm'ng eye. 
And, waving (rfl her golden pinions, smii'd; 
Full soon the ftalt'ring goddeia meant to fly^ 

Full rightly deem'd unsteady Fortune's childt 
Let Towtbn's field — But-ccase the dismal tale : 
For much its honors would the Mute appal. 
In softer strains suffice it to bewail 

The Patriot's exile, or the Hero's btl. 
Thus silver Wharf *, whose crystal sparkling urn 

Reflects the brilliance of his blooming shore. 
Still, mdancholy-ma^ng, seems (o mourn. 
But lollt, confus'd, a crimson vrave no laoie. 

• Dr. Lanjhofn I) evideniljr iiicorrecl, in nCttnog lo (he Whirf. Tie 
tnnle «i> bHighi a< [oo gieai > dlstitKc Tiom ihil rrvM, lor ll R> b« tinged 
wiih the blood of the i\im. It vu ■ imill rmr cilkd the Cock) wbicfa 
«u nnr the iceiw oT aciioD. 



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TASSBBtr I ! TOWN 







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HISTORY OF POSTEFRACT. 3 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE OF THE 

Ground Plan of the Siege, 

CASTLE, Slc. 

1 Round Tower. 

2 Red Tower. 

3 Treasurer's or Pix Tower. 

4 Swillington Tower. 

5 Queen's Tower. 

6 King's Tower. 

7 Constable's Tower. 

8 East Gate House. 

9 South Gate. 

10 Main Guard. 

11 Barbican. 

12 All Saints' Church. 

13 St Nicholas* Hospital 

BESIEGER'S WORKS. 

14 Major General Lambert's Fort RoyaL 

15 Horse Guard. 

16 Horn Work, 

17 Pinfold Guard. 

18 Main Guard. 

19 School House Guard. 

20 Fwrfax's Royal Horn Work, 

21 North Horn Work. 

22 Colonel Bright's Fort. 

23 Lieutenant General Cromwell's Fort 

24 Colonel Dean's FoiL 

25 Tanalian Guard. 

26 East Gudnl. 

27 BaghiU Guard. 



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PART 11. 

CONTAINING AN ACCOUNT 

PRIORY, 

BELIGIOUS-HOUSES, 
CHURCHES, HOSPITALS, CHARITIES. Jtc 

THE PRIORY OF ST. JOBK 

In taking a surrey of the most remariEabIa 
places which are, or have been, within this 
borough, the priory of St. Joho, desorea our 
iirat attention. Although nothing remaina to 
give a complete idea of the extent or beduty 
of this structure, we may justly conclude from 
the liberality of its founder, the donatiom con^ 
frared upon it, and its general reputation, that 
it was a place of considerable extent and im- 
portance. The plot of ground, now called 
Monkhill, and which continues extrarparochial, 
deaHy ascertains the grange and the homestead 
of the pnory. If it did not equal the abbies, 
in the Gothic magnificence of its diurch, and 
in the number and graodetn' of its separate 
apartments And offices, there can be little doubt 
bnt jt was built on a similar plan, fbe fol- 



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320 HISTORY or PONTEFHACT. 

lowing description of such houses may lead the 
reader to form a tolerably correct idea of what 
this priory once was. 

The first appepdage' of these houses was the 
clausum orclose, varying in dimensions, accord- 
ing to the; .dignity, of the bouse, surroiiuDded by 
a high wall, entered by one or two magnifi- 
cent gateways; and that sach a wall once sur- 
rounded the ground above mentioned, called 
Monkhill, tha-e can be no doubt. Beyond the 
inclosure the monks w«-e not permitted to walk 
or ride, but on the necessary business of tbe 
bouse. 

"Within the close were included all the ap- 
pendages of a large domain,, occupied by the 
owpers, as a grange, or &rm house, bams, 
stables, tnHl, &c: The reason of this 'is obvioDs, 
and was for the protection of their property. . 
: 'Next was the house itself, situated- generally 
iothe- kiwest .andwarmfest' part of iihe inctasmie; 
CODsisiiDg lAually-of d la^c quadrangular coart, 
into- ttbioh. the various offices, and apartniftirti 
oiKDcd; and tb alt tfaete a wanA end^-shdtered 
iwc^'fD Bwry -season' was Twovided; by iveam 
of ft peMfaot^cloistc^ nitTOdndiiig tber -wbole.' 

.The-hortbndeDf this 'quadrangle ww filmed 
by the ' nare '(^ the ' churchy and" was Intended 
1^ ibs height and -buTt tO'dfTord shelter Unm 
tlid Dortby- 'a» wtil ta- to admit suDsUine into 
tbe' cells of the monks: '' ■ 

' Attached ; to the end of the' south transept, 
and with' ifc> forming in part the east skle 'of ibe 
quadrangle, was the vestry, «Qd m Ihe largtt 
irionast^rieti,' the chapter house, llie tfhapicr 
Jioose-vas .oftoi highly «nMn6nted, > odd -coMi^ 



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H»roitr ot pontctxact. 321 

dered as a part of the chiirdi. Here all eleo 
tians were made, — hence commenced all proces- 
sions after elections, and here all arts of disci- 
pline were performed. 

Opposite to Ihe church, and forming the 
south side of the quadrangle, were unirert>ally 
placed, the refectory, or dining room, locutorium; 
or parlour, kitchen, butteries, sculleries, &c 

The western side consisted generally of the 
dormitory, or bed rooms, on the higher story* 
often supported by a' tine of colomns beneath, 
which branching out into groined arches formed 
a magniBcent and gloomy walk. 

This part was immediately connected with 
the south-west corner of the church, in order 
that the monks might pass to rheir late or 
early devotions with the least possible exposure 
to the Vernal air*. 

Whether this description will altogether apply 
to this priory it Is impossible to determine. On 
examining the site, in the field called the 
Grange, the rismg ground paints out the south 
side of the quadrangle, and the level area from 
thence north clearly indicates that the 'church 
and different ' apartments were extensive. 

The priory was founded by Robert de Lacy, 
usually called Robert de Pontefract, in the yeat 
1090, during the reign of William II. for the 
health of the soul of King William the Con- 
queror, and also for the souls of Ilbert his 
father, Hawise' his ifother, and of all his an- 
cestors ' and posterity. 

The abby of Clugny, in France, enjoyed at 

* WniTAKSK'tWhalley, and Boktdk'x AUt; of Fountaipn. 
X t 



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3i2 mSTOET OF POBTEPIUCT. 

that period an unrivalled fame, for tlie reguWItj 
of the house, and the sanctity of its discipline. 
The monks were of the order of St. Benedict; 
but as this order, by the influx of wealth, bad 
considei^bly relaxed its severity, and conformed 
too mncfc to the spirit of tlie world, the rule 
liad been amended and the order reformed by 
St. Berno, and other abbots of Clugny. 

The rule of this order was principally founded 
on silence, solitude, prayer, humility and obedi- 
ence. The monks were enjoined a, total absti- 
nence from all kinds of ilesh-meat. A pound and 
a half of bread was allowed to each, per day; 
and wine was whelly prohibited. Seven hours 
a day were allotted the monks for manual labour, 
and two for pious reading, besides meditation 
from matins till break of day. As tlie wealth 
of particular houses increased, inaaual labour 
was exchanged for sacred studieit*. 

- llie habit of these monks was a black loose 
coat, or 8 gown of stuff reaching down to their 
heels, with a cowl or hood of the same, and a 
scapulary. Under tlie long black gown they 
wore another equally as large, made of flannel, 
with boots on theii- legs. From the colour of 
their outward garment they were generally called 
l^ck monks f. 

The prior and monks were brought here 
from the abby La Charit6 sur Loire ; and the 
priory generally contfuned more French than 
English. This convent could not choose the 
prior, receive the profession of their novices^ 
Dor settle any difierences which arose among 

* Takxkk's Not. t Bvtlik's Life of St. Benedict 



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insTORY OP PONTETRACT. 323 

themselves; but were obliged to go beyond sea, 
to the abby from wliicli tliey came, on all such 
affairs; and a considerable part of their revenue 
was claimed and sent to their saperiors*. - [n 
the reign of Edward III. this priory, and all 
others of t^e same order, were discharged from 
all manner of subjection and obedience to any 
foreign abbyf. 

In erecting the priory, the monks had to 
contend with various difficulties. Their friend 
and patron, Robert de Lacy, incurred the dis- 
pleasure of Henry I. and was deprived of all 
bis possessions, and banished the realm. Al- 
though Hugli Delaval, his successor, renewed 
the charter granted by Robert, and gave seve- 
ral chorches to the convent, it may be questioned 
whether he assisted them in that effectnal man- 
ner> which might have been expected from their 
patron and founder. Little was done after the re- 
storation of Robert de-Lacy to the patrimony of 
his &tber, till the time of Henry, his second son. 
From the period when the first charter was 
granted, 1090, to the time when the church be- 
longing the priory was finished, and solemnly 
dedicated by Archbishop Rogers, 1 159, had 
elapsed sixty nine years. Considering the pro- 
perty conferred on this house, and the facilities 
the monks generally enjoyed to accomplish their 
designs ; and from their industry and perseverance, 
we may form some conjecture of the ancient 
grandeur of this priory. 

* The house of Clu^y had a pension out of every hou*e 
of th^t order in England, called apporlus; and Co(too Smith 
nyi, that the abbot ot Clugiiy received not less than two thou< 
land pounds annually. 

t Rstmik'i App. p. 192. 



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-SM BISTORT OF PONTEPRACT. 

It is impossible to give any account of the 
number of which this convent consisted j of the 
.domestic servants, the iiita:nal economy ttf the 
house, &c. as no comfjotiis has been preserved. 
.From comparing its revenues with those of 
other houses, a full detail of whose expences 
has been given, .it may be conjecture^, that 
it contained an establishment oif more than 
two hundred persons*. 

One part of the annual expences of these 
-houses consisted in presents niade to the great, 
.whose favour they wi^ed to conciliate. W^at^ 
-ever was delicious to the taste or fa^ion- 
able in dress, they purchased for this purpose. 
Another part consisted in their hospitality and 
.charity. ' As such houses were furnished with 
provisions of all kinds from the produce of their 
lands, herds and flocks, it was as usual timn for 
gentlemen and travellers to go to s<oxAi bouses 
as it is now for them to go to an inn. Here 
also the poor, the inck, the aged and infirm 
resorted, and their wants were regularly sup- 
plied. 

Adam Fitz Swain, who was a considerable 
.benefactor to the priory, founded Lund, or 
Monk-firetton, dedicated to Mary Magdalene, 
as a dependent cell to it; and -endowed it 
with all his lands there, the mills of Derne and 
Lund, and whatever he possessed between 
Derne and Meresbruck, (now Masbronghl ; in 
Brampton, the churches of Newhall (now New- 
hill], Raynberg and Lyntwayte. Also be gave 
■the chapel of St. Andrew, near CtUcoit, (in 

* Wbitakbk, on Bolton Prioiy. 

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VSTOKY OP PONTEFKACT. 335 

Cumberland); and appointed Adam, Prior of 
Poatefractf to be Gustos thereor, after whose 
dece^sCi the prior aod monks of Pontefract were 
to appoint other fit fpersons to the government, 
who shovid pay yearly one mark .of silver to 
the raid priory, for an acknowledgment of its 
.Bubjection. 

By. tli^ liberality of several individuals the 
revenues of this ceil were increased j and the 
brethren soon began to' find the yoke of sub- 
jection galling, and to aspire afler complete in- 
dependency. On. the demise o( their superior, a 
jdispute. arose between them and the convent of 
J*o,ntefract. Whether the convent of .Pontefract 
appoipt^d a person to be their . governor, 
whom they t^sapproved of; or whether they 
chose anoth^ in, opposition, does not appear. 
The brethren of Bretton sent some of their 
nutnber to the abbles of Clugny and La Charity, 
to state their grievances; and applied to the 
.Pope .also for redress. Their interest in these 
abbies was not equal to that of the convent of 
Pontefract, as the persons sent were detained 
there as prisoners It :^ould seem they had 
better success at Home, as a bull was obtained 
rather in favour of their cause. 

Afier having incurred immense expence, the 
business - was finally put to reference by the 
mutual consent of both parties; and a judgment 
may be formed of the importance attach.:d. to 
this cause from the rank and dignity of the 
persons chosen to settle it. Their decision was, 
that the monks of Bretton should pay annually 
nine marks to the priory of Pontefract'; and 
twenty shillings as an acknowledgment of their 



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826 HKTOEY OF POHTEFRAOTj' 

BQ^jectionj and that the convent of Brettoo 
should hereafter eiijoy the right of choosing 
their own superior, who was (o be installed hy 
the prior of Pontefract, within three days aftw 
his election. It was also agreed that those bre- 
thren detained in the abbies of La Charitd and 
Clugny shontd be liberated, and that the bre- 
thren shoold hereafter enjoy the whole internal 
management of their own house *. 

According to the above decision the convent 
of Bretton assigned over to the priory of Pon- 
tefract, for the payment of the nine marks, a 
mcdiety of-, the tithe of corn, and the whole 
tithe of hay in the village of Nnttona. Also 
five acres of meadow in Smyethall,' and a rent- 
charge of Bve shillings in Pontefract. 

After this time no event of general impor- 
tance occurred respecting the priory. It con- 
tinued to flourish till that period, when the re- 
vival of literature and the spirit of free inquiry 
effected, in a considerable part of Europe, one 
of the most surprising, and happy revolutions 
in the public mind. The priory was surren- 
dered by James Twaytes, the prior, and the 
convent, into the hands of th^ king, on the 
24Ih of November, in the thirty-first of Henry" 
VIII. 

It appears by returns into the Coart of 
Augmentation, that the king gate the prior the 
deanry of St. Clements, in the castle, with all 
•Us possessions, rights, tithes and emoluments, 
during the term of his natural life; and the 



' * S. Q. Mona«t. N. It, For a more paiticular «o- 
count of lAind, or Mwk firetton, m Buiton'i Moiwdcon. 



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HISTORY OF PONTSPIUCT. 327' 

site of the priory, with all the. houses, buildings, 
gardens, orchards, and the demesne lands to the 
same belongiog, was let on a lease to Peter 
Alewtas, Esq, at the annual rent of twenty- 
three pounds seventeen shillings and eightpence*. 

The same gentleman held on lease the lands 
and tenements, in the town of Pontefract, which 
belonged to the said priory, at the annual rent 
of six pounds 6fteen shillings and five pence; and 
eighteen acres of arable land in Ferryfield, 
(Ferrybridge Field) at eighteen shillings f per 
annum. Also Darrington mill, belonging to the 
deanry, at twenty shillings per annum. Amount 
of the whole eight pounds thirteen shillings and 
fivepence. 

Also for one messuage at SwJneflete forty 
shillings per annum; and for the whole of the 
FQctory of Pontefract, the sum of thirty two 
pounds fourteen shillings. Also for four acres 
an(J two roods of land, in Carlton, twelvepence. 

Also .for the rents and larms of divers lands 
in Knottingley, the sum of one pound eighteen 
shillings and sevenpence. 

The site of the priory, its demesne, tithes 

• ReturtU in Ihe Court of Augmetitalion. 

t It H Binusing to compare the nomiital value of property 
at Ibe beginning of the sixteenlli and at the conclusion of the 
eighteenth century. Land which was then rented at one shil- 
ling per acre, is now woith Trom fifty shillings to three pounds. 
It cannot however from this be concluded that the value of 
property has risen in this proportion. The value ot land de- 
pend* equally 6n its stale of cultivation, as well a* en tiie 
worth of its produce ; and should it therefore be in poor con- 
dition, it must be of less value. Allowing for this it is pro- 
bable thai the nominal value ot land has increased in a pro* 
porttoo of twenty to one. 



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338~ msToav o? pontetrictu 

and emolunlents, continued to be farmed oot 
on leases to different individuals, till the seventh 
or Edward the sixth; when a grant was made 
of all the propertj*, belonging to the priory 
within the township of Pontefract, to George 
Lord Talbot*. 

Thus that property, which had been acca- 
mnlating for five centuries, end hitherto had betm 
deemed so sacred, that almost to touch it wa^ 
considered a crime of such magnitude, as to 
expose the delinquent to all the thunders of the 
church and all the miseries of hell. Was finally 
alienated. 

The following is an imperfect list of the 
lands, tithes, Sec. which belonged to this bouse; 
and such lands as are marked with ati asterism, un- 
der the word Pontefract, are what were cbriveyed 
to Lord Talbot, and which have descended from 
him to the present [possessor. Lord Harewood|. 

* Grant in the Court of Exdtcqiier. 

t In the grant to Lord Talbot, the Ifl'ew-Hall u not 
mentioned; And from this circumstance it should appear i( 
wai not then erected, llie il^le of thii building is decidc<tlj 
fliat which prevailed in the reign of Menrj VIII. and near to 
that period. The date on the amu a 1591, but it muit have 
been erected prior to that time. Thero can be litUe do^ 
but it wai erected by a branch of the Talbot familj, and 
deiigTied aj a luitable mansion for their residence. The 
principal roomi are on a large ncalci and there are suitable 
offices and conveniences for a considerable establishmoit. What- 
ever wai the reaKOD, this building was never comptelely finiib- 
ed within ; nor does it appear that any of the Talbot hmSj 
resided in it It was occupied as r arm house, by different 
tenants, till within a late period. 

It is said that (he last branch of the Talbot bmWj wai 
a lady, who bequeathed the rectory and lands in Ponte&act lo 
the late Archbishop Dawes, whose only daughter marrying 
Edwin, late Lord Harcwood, the wh(^ came into that btaiiy. 



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SifnOKV OR HMTIFIUei/ Ut 

AiiTOiETS, one cuucate of land: bnt vns f^tjea to the 
prioiy, by W. Foliotb, and cDtifirnedby ttw chaitet of Robert 
de lioy*. 

' BARNSLGY. T^ii iMrn wm givpn by RfuMph ' d« - 
Cxprecaiix, the propnetor, with Ibe wpodi, , nt«adow», milli 
■nd rigbb belonfjing Jo the iune, «i ccmditipt); thai Um convent 
fbould appoint one monk Id pmy cxpKssly for. hia mothf^Ti 
■nollKr &3C. hii itxter, and & third for hinseLf'»Aer b'* dealL 
Ha alio- res^rred to hiisiel£ tbe privilege of beiiig admitted a 
meabcT' of tbq convent, in cksc lie iliould requqst if; and 
according to the Fpiiil of tbc . age he psaj»> that tf »ay 0^4 
ihould attempt to -deprive the moniu of tltil pioperty, ".God 
WDii)d Uot him oat of the book. Of lire." .Hii fn ioonAnned 
toe abcrve gtant, for which the convent gave, him l^n mvka 
af lihrer,' and promised- to ' give funnitally peUiceam et hotat 
mtmcki, i. e. the black robe and the boob ok' tbe orderf. . 
' The priory of Monk Brclton hod, some properly here. In 
the year 1469, Richard.de Leedi the pzior, and the convent 
grsBled leave to thoae of Ponlefract, to make a. new-milldam 
Gm a cOro-mill, intbe cloie called. Le Manioid and- Pageroidf 
^'1^ -Mi.-ihe louth east part o^ anda^oining to ibe bridge^ 
far wluch tba monki of Fcntcfract vrre to pa)> annually a 
UfCj if demanded*. 

BARNSETE, now called Banned, in a high «nd naked 

liluation, contif;uoui to the moorj of .Yorkihine^- belonged, td 

tbi) priory ;- a circumitancer which bu gvren 4o a neighbouring 

bauMifaenaaeof -Mookiode, upoatbe ^anw eatate, llwwh44 

uodertiiepriory ibr'twoor three gencr^oni by the ToYvnleytJ, 

BEXALE, or Beale, Ifeni^ de. Lacy, granted tho fi.shery 

kereu. . . ■,.■■.:■, 

BRACKENHILL.' Roger de JLacy gave all hi« laa4l 

bete; 'and Hugh Delavel cOraGrmed the tame, spcpifying thtt 

■luaotity a* b^g fourteen acres. > 

. BftETTON. See Lund. 

BROCTUNG, in the county of Cumberiaitd. Alice de 

Romfley, daughter of Rdiert die Roineley, Lord of SUpton 

in Cloven, gSve a carucateof land bece; and a hQU)e .ia the 

uma- town, where tiu ^onks might reside occaiionally, whm 

they weiit to receive their rents or the produ.'e of the land. 

She also granted them, or those who' held the land under them, 

■U common r^btt and privilegei which the town enjoyedf . 

« Ce. Moo^ t Ibid, tl 



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339 BISTORT OF rOKTEnUCT. 

BURNLEY.* Hugh DcUral gave the cburrb here. 

CATWYK, or Cwtwiuk. By the aOvice nd willi the 
consent of Roger, Archbishop of York, who wu a gieat 
friend to the motiks Petec de Foikenberg gave the mcdiay of 
Ihe church here, on the condition of his otni, and that of bii 
wife, being HintBlly celebrated; and that himself and hU hrin 
«houlJ be admirted to the privileges of the house*. 

CASTLFfORD. Two miUs were giwrn here by Hi^ 
Delaval; which Henry de Lacy confimied, and gave in kU 
dition' the benefit of the fecr/. W. Folioth gave beve oae 
tarucaie of land,. lying before the cattle. 

COLTHORN, or Cawthorn. See Silkstone. 

CLITHEROE. The church within the castle wk giwn 
to tlie priory, as well a- tie churcS of St. Mary Magdalene, 
in the town, by the charter ot' H. Delavai; with tbe lilbea 
of all hi* lands thetef. 

COLNE. The church here with whatever bdunged to it, 
the above Delaval gave to tliis hoase. 

CRAVEK. In ibe first of Henry II. Alice de Romtiey, 
daughter of Robert de Romeley, Lord of Skipion in Craven; 
gave to these monks free cliaae in all ber lands and woods 
within her fee, with liberty to bunt and take all manner of 
wild beats there. Furlhermoie, she bestowed on them Ibe 
tenth of all the deer taken within her own Undt and chase in 
Craven. Also a certain piece of ground in each of ber lord- 
ihips, to make a grange for th^r tithes, with common a( 
pasture for tlieir cattle, together .with her own, in all bet woods, 
moors and fields, during the. whole time of autumn J. 

DARDINGTON, or Danington. Robert de' Lacy give 
the church with all its privileges; H, Delaval, during H* 
temporary possesion of the estates of the Idcics, confirmed 
the above grant, exempting firom the authority of tlie mocks, 
one carucate of land, and an. hospital for ihe sick and aged. 
H. de I^acy, by his charter, confirmed the above, with tbe 
chapel of SlBpleton§. 

DODWORTH. TTiefoundcrofthepriory.RobertdeLacy, 
J^ve the manor and all bis land here, reserving to himself only 
the xpenittTii of a cerlatc water. The boundaries are accuratdy 

* Ch. Hon. f tbid. J Ddod. Bum. 

t Siipletoa musl hava bten, »\ ihii citI^ perM, a coniidcnbic ntlqc 
It it uKnniin ai whit time the cbipel v>i dtilrsycd. The lilhtc imH 
b» fiian plice to an elcgaiii laU, hie ibr trnpnt]! tok Tl'l-tfTit of JUxd 
StaattDii, «ha lus (00-^ U £. L. Uodgivi^ Edi. 



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HISTOBV OP PONTEFRACT. ' 831 

defined. On one hand a certain vaDcy tepara(e« it from Thur- 
^land and Stainburgh; and on anotner & utream colled MeT- 
vinbrook, which falls into the same valley. On the third sida 
it H bounded by a place called Wolf-tlole, and by anolher 
Klreain, which nini thiough Heltley, and fell* into the water 
which comes from Silkstnne; and lastly along ihe valley beyond 
a place called Huggvride;, and following the wal^rcourae to- 
wards Barnsley, then turning along the hill called Ravenslou, 
which divides Dodworth from Beck. 1 he sitofK grant wat 
made to supply food for (heir horses, and tl^ise of their 
friends *. 

Two brothen of diij place, Ricfaard and William, sons 
of Ulf de Doddewrda, gave to the convent, tor the love of 
God and the salvation of their own soult, oil the men they had 
on the land, with iheir houses and chaiteU for ever. How 
degraded was the state oF these men, who could be transletred 
like cattle from one proprietor to another! The love of 
G(id ought to hare prompted these devotees ratiier to have 
given liberty to their villani, than to have transferred them 
to a convent. Such was then the state of society, ami such 
then the spirit of the age. 

FAIRHURN. One Ada gave half an oxgatig of land 
here, to supply the monks with bread and wine 'when they 
cddirated mass, for the redemption of bit own soul, and 
those of his wife, parints and friendi. 

FEREBT-SOUTH, in tlie county of Lincoln. Gilbert, tlie 
£arl of Lincoln, gave the ferry here, and three and a half 
oxgangs of land, together with fourtetfn houses reserving to 
himself the annual payment of six pounHs. In a 'contest be- 
tween him and Henry Lacy, he had injured the monk', and 
trampled on the sacred rights of ibe church. Conscious that 
be had been guilty of a great crime, he made a vow to be- 
itow the above menlionrd properly, eitlier to purchase (or 
them a lamp, or to tupfiy them with cH to keep oite con- 
• tinutdly burning. 

FERRlBRIDGE. Jordan de Sancta Maria gaveA mea* 
^ow here. The boundaries are defined, but ov.iug to the dj- 
viiioii of fields, it is peiha^ now nea.ly impo.siblf to ascer- 
tain it. One head was above Longlathcs, an<i tiretchtd to 
the Aird. Another towards H'il;w<>i|, wu beyond the stream 
which comes from Pontelract, between the rocailow brionj^ing 
*0 the'kbbejr of FouMaines on the ncilb, ana Fuirjbridge Fi^ 
* Ca. A. U, 



.:i.« Google 



ii2 BiStOKY OF VOHTEFIUCT. 

on the MMtli. Anothar part joined the mea^twr bdBng;ing &e. 
lioipiul of Fidsnafih, and t]ie lait a fiald bekaiging to Robert 
ile'Htckleton. 

FRYSTONE. The nine Jordan gave the Foredsle«. v 
headlbiuh o(''a-meadow here, wttith joined the stream thai di> 
iides this tnwnthip from Tetryhndga ' . . 

■ FOXHOLES. H. Ddavat gave lix ozgangs of land here. ] 
Ai this M noticed after Dodwt^th, it it probable it. lay tbac 
See Dodwortii f- ' - ' 

FEATHERSTONE. See Whitwood. 
INGOLVESMELES. Alice de Guint gave ofw carucate 
of land' here, w^ieh had been' given (o her aihwdowij 
ty Itbt^^ de Lac^. It was confirmed bjr Rc^i de Maym^ 
Mi second kiuband^. 

'■■ ■■ KESWICK, in. the county of Cumberland. Simon de 
Mohaut^ve two oxgangi of Und here,- consitting <^ tw«ntjr 
here*, toother with- a toft of one acre in. the wme towi^ vi^ 
«H irightl and privilegei thereto belongiag, on^qHidiiion of 
«nj«yine' the prajren of the hqU^e, and hberty to become a 
brother when 'he should demand. il&. 

KELLINGLEY. Henry de Lacy gave l^ii whole village, 
•with all the land- htm K-nottingloy on one hand, and B«»le 
ttn the odier, to the piiorj'. The boundary on the tide of 
Knoltingleyiiii'»id la Jm a ditch called Post LeiesiG||. 

KIPPIS. H. Delavkl gnitted the d^rch here, ifae.tiihat 
knd whatever- belonged tjie nine. Henry d^ Laoy coofiimed 
■tl»s graiitfl.-. ■ M ■ . ■, 
KIRKBY. See PonteTract. 

KlMBER.WORTH,.neaT Rotberham. One John BooiQi 
gavebiiiran acre and atoK liere **. 

LEDESHAM. ..One half of this village wai given by 
-Rcdiert de-Iiacy, logeth^ with the church, which was con* 
firmed by the charter of H. de Lacytt- 

LEDSTON., Robm de Lacy gave the whole of hia 
land here, which grant vrai confirmed by H. de I^acytf. 
LUND, or-Monk-Bretton. Landi bad been left-bere'to 
.•^e priory. On lomc acooitot a contest arore letpectlng these 
-Jondi between lb« priwiet of ^oote&act and Bretlon; and 
ilhft'affiur wai put to .refinance.. William Bradford and Rob^t 
- Cbalener, retereci, . tledded Ihat the convent of Moqk'-BreltQO 

•^C«. Mmu. .tibid.tIUd. {lUd. glUd, ^an„ 
••Ibid if T4itm»'i H, j; C>.,M<«, 



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nmOKt OF ^HTSnUiCT.' 9M 

Aou14.1mv« tha Umlf inqtKitk»i; (hejp^nsg to Rich., Brown 
tbe prior, and ibe aMiveiit of Fmtdiact, fift^ve markt*. 

MEER, or MonuD. See- Whkwgcxl. 

MIN5THORF. See Silbtone, 

NORTON, Jordan Fol»th gave tiw wert ■ mill here, 
with thejand on which it itood, and a. 'toft of one acre^ 
between the mill and a garden near to the roful, on tbo 
north, with the K^e and suit of thcMtd inili, 'paying' to tha 
chaplain of" Nortoa one muk of itlrei wnuallj, on the fea4 
of St. DioqiHunf. 

PONTEFRACT. Robert de Lacj gav« the. ground o> 
wfa^h the ^priory vra«-«ncted,. and the cloKi around, which 
in the diarter pf D^Iaval are animated at Mvon-acrest. 

ALL^AJNTS' CHURCH wai giant^ by the Mud RobeA 

St. MARY'i CRURCH, now ; called St. Gilet'^ in th* 
tnorket- place, was also granted by H. Delaval. One h^ qf 
thif church; hod been , given by llbert de Lacy to the canoni 
of 3*- Oiwald, but Archbiihop ETbunlon granted Oelaval per> 
miuicm to, bertow it'wiwUy un thit convent, 

*: j1ra6b'aiubin. the Commoi^Field*, tqnounling totweqi^ 
one acres, were enjoyed by the monlu, 

* Saghiii. One canicate of bed § lying here waf given 
to the convent by W. Foliotb,- and afibeFffaEds, coofi^icd by 1^ 
(on Jordan, 

* Bagliff-Yari,,,*. (nail nAq^ neq^oiKfl »i»V>K- ths Javdi 
;gmnted i« pt^ Talbpt. . 

* Carter Clout, mentioned ia the aMia gniat> aad vtimatMl 
at twenty-four acre* ■ 

■ ^Eatt-Fitld, and .ajpart of Darriiigton field) abo. meiM 
titmed, eitimated at dxty-two aeiet and a half. 

* GqUmot-Hill Clote, of which iio estimation i* pveik 
■» //iKfercniA,. containing by estimation six acres. 

* A'dtiM^Jty,' containing by estiination twelve- aoK(< 
' * tfem-CioK, containing ax acres. 

* NoM/i-flfld, conlainhig sixty-one aCTet and a'half^ 

* Spitilc-Chie, no estimation given; 

* f'eitry-CUue, containing ten acres. 

* Wai^ vii Watfilt Ctotet^ coniainiog lix acnt and m 
■half. 

« BuiTOH'i Mon. p. 93. fH. A. J Can. . 

} Tlui carucaieii mcnl prabiUy the cl<j<« cilleil in Tatboi'i gnU, 
BvliiU-fieM, or Burma Fbi snd Bcdc FU^ "^ Bt^ wd ElighilV W^^ 
■n ikare «.ii~«"J it filw.faut acru. 



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3S4 BBTOSY OF POHTEniACT. 

" Well-Close, near Milldam, contarninf; one acre and a halC 

St. NICHOLAS" HOSPITAL. The ttislody of thw. ht 
tiie usei intended, wb« giv^n to ihe priory bjr its founder, Rob. 
de Lacy, nad ronfirmed by Delaval and Henry de Lacy. 

St. CLEMENT'* CHURCH, in Ihe cattle. Robert de 
Lacj pave this also to the con^-enl, expre^-ing in the strongest 
tcnnn that it should not be herea;tfr given lo any other house. 

WEST-MILL, he also granled for the use of the priory. 

EAST-MILL was granted by Her.ry rfe Lacy', and 
■ixty diillinga annually to be paid by his baitiff, thirty st 
Easl^. and thirty at Michaelmas f- 

The convent had a ttirveiy in (lie park. Their right to ■ 
Toad here seems to have been <li^pute1, and to settW which 
ttey entered into an agreement with one John Scot, to have 
■ free passage to the said turvery, through the land of the laid 
lohn Scot, in Hal^^ell f. 

HoUKg and lands in thn town, were given through the 
-piety and zeal of several of its inhabitants to ihe priory. They 
enjoyed " mxn^ acres of pasture m tke park, which were 
lakeD from them about the 1 0th ol Etiward IV. but by due 
course of la;v, had thrm restored^. 

In the fines of Yorkihire. ihey paid for two bouses and 
llnrty-eight acres -of land in Ponlefract f|. 

FECKFIELD. The convent enjoyed some land here, h 
«n agreement was entered into betw*n the convent and 
Huberlus and Gaufridus, sons of W. de Boeltef, concerning 
Ihe middle part of Peckfield % ' 

QUELDALE. or Weldale. See Witwood. 

ROTMERHAM. The convent' enjoyed some land here, 
ID the reign of Richard 11**. 

• Thcf are utliJ lbs Earn and VTtif MITI] in rerercncc la the lilBi. 
tlao al neb other, ind noi *ilh mpect to the tuvn. Ute Eut Mill n 
that unaHjr calM BondgM Mill| and the Weat ii that under Ih* caslr. 
Sdben gan thii htier in hii. Ijni charter, inl it wai contained wilUn iW 
dauiutn, and tixoMd tti< bound'7 °^ *^ Muth and wed angle, 

f Trifling il thii luni m^y now appear, it will' be coniidciable if th* 
conpatative value ot rnone^ be rccullected. According to iDme aulbon^ a 
shilling Ihra, vai «onh a pound nor. 

% Vld. App. ad Sieveniii, wl. S. p. !I9. Thii apprait te nnaM 
Ibr obwnitian, ibal no r^oal rninei had been opened tn thii pit Of ih> 
couDtiy ai late at the touiteenih century, but ibai lurf and nod vere lb* 
fiiri commanly uied. 

i Vid. Beb. Harieiana. mo. 433. p. 191. In TlIbM-) graDI, the Fnk 
Cloie h eitimaled al (weuly-i«o acrei. 

U Tahhir'i M. 9 See TAWiriB'i Hi 

«• Pal. 13. Trio. Sot. Ud Richard U. 



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HISTORY OP POOTEPKACT. , S3S 

RUGHALA, or Raul. Henry de Ijtcy gmHtd two ox- 
jangt of land here. 

RANGBROOKE. See Silk<ilone. 
STAPLETON. See Darctngton. 

SLADEBURN, in Craven. Didavol gave tMs church, with 
the lands und ciiapels tiieieto belonguig. Henry de idcjr cot^ 
firmed (be grant. AFUcr tlii^ grant, the prior and convent pre* 
tented the first six rectors; and enjoycnj undisturbed whateves 
belong&I to it John of Gant deprived the bouie of this 
part of their property, nor could they ever recover it. The 
convent however made the ntlempt, and assigned the advowa 
ton of the church to Booth and Byton, who gave it to the 
church of St. Catherine of Eccles. Though tlus gift was onw 
firmed by a Papal bull, the crown disregarded it and kepi 
po»es«ion *. 

SILKSTONE. Swain, lb* ion of Alricus, gave tha 
church here, with )!x oxgangs of land lying near to it, and 
the chapuli, lands and ttthcit, and whatever belonged thereto. 
His son, /tda, cunfarmed the aoove, ai well as Uie grant at 
t^e chapel of Cawthorn, with two oxgaiigi of land in the 
iwne village ; and two part* of the tithes of all his demesnes, 
\n Qa^wlhotn, Kexburght, Gunukwayi. Penyingstone, Wyrke*> 
burgh, Carlelon, Newrialt, Brerely, Walton, Manesthorpt 
WranglHuk, Midletoo, Garliarvm tt cunt omnibut ad eat per- 
tattalibttt. 

SMITH'CLES, or Smithale. John Fitz Adam gave thirteea 
acres of meadow here, aad two ooks in his wood of Byriiin, 
and one buck annually, out of his park, at the feast of St, 
John, etUe partian Latinam. 

STAINBUROA, or Siainburgh. Adam Fitz Peire, gave 
One inoiuiy of the iniU here; uid bia brother John gave lh« 
other. 

SWINEFLETE. H^.e was a bouse belonging the priory, 
Whic^ at the diisoluiioii wa> lil toi forty diil'ings per annumf. 
THORP- H.:nry de Lacy gave two oxgangs of land 
here. 

WITEWDE. or Witwood. Ro!*ert de Licy gave all hit 
lanls here, and at (Marami or M-tir In t<ie priory, wlih all 
eomra"n rijthli and pri ili'ges Al«(>, the fishery from Wtiil- 
wood, to ^Queldala) or Welda.e. The canons at St. Oiwid^, 

• Whit. Cnxni. 
^ Rttora of Kcati in ibc Caiut «1 AugiDcntniaM, 



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OT..NotteUpa>feued.in. Witmnd and Mwr, Uurtjr- acmi of 
usble land; ai\d the tithe <^ hay in other ' fifteen acres, wiadi 
they exchanged with the prior ood cravent of Pontefnct, nr- 
Ing the right! of the churchet of Featherttone uid CBstlefoid, 
Sir two parti of tbev com tilhei in Breiely, Maynestboip 
and ■ Wran^nuck, whicb they ei^oyed' Jrom the grasl ot Adam 
Eil4 ^aiof and whidi belooged to the duirch of 'Klkitooe^' 
though widnn the parishei of Fdkyrk and Southkyrkby. ' 

WHALLEY, in the Handred of Blackburii, <£^CBAiie. 
Ibt church was givm by H. DelaVal, biit wai not confinn- 
•d by Rofaeit de' Lacy, or any of Ks uiccesion. Being » 
l^ace at. that' time of littl^ importance, the prior and' convent 
beie continued to eqjoy' the patronage, and wCccMively pre- 
•gpted. iixir vioarti When lh« Lacy' fee catne to the Geo- 
Hablei of Cherts, they claimed the advowcon of fhif churcb, 
mi nfieiwanlt. conferred it on' the abbey «f Whalfey. Tbe 
frior, and. convent bf Pontefrsct defended th«r right, but weitf 
sltogotber unHiccestfiil. According to the law which then ^ 
kinsd, any grants made by the possewor of a fee, when the 
lond e£ «Kk fee wu under an altaindbr, in- cate the attiUndetf 
Vns imorsed, were deemed invallid, unleu the lord confirm- 
ed, tbe granL Qn tfaii principle, the claim of Ae Convent wa> 
ngectod. 

LIST OF PRIORS. 

Taoip^ ConGnn. Friori lod. Vacst* 

Oliver Daincourt, 
128 — GodefriduK, 
• Id. Mi^i 1311 Fumhardua deCherln; . 
145— Nic. Halle, 

JohamiM FTynt", 
R. Brown, 
' Jame* Twaylci. 

ALTAR CONSECRATED, 

97th Mailu, A. D. 1352. 

A coB)nvwioi| was grroled to John Bisbop af. Kilipfiw I* 

cpqseq^e ft certtua Ajtar w.iUun iMt cqavaitiud cku^ of 

the priory of Panle&Kl, lately erected on the Kuth lide thereof. 

• MS. loqiiH. b poMMriDn or J. toylb, B*^ IL P. An. UndcdaM • 



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HISTORY O? PONTEFRACT. 337 

TESTAMENTARY BURIALS, 

August IS, 1391. WiDiun de Bayley made hii will, (pro- 
ved Dec. QO, 1391.) giving hi« M>ut to God Almighty, St. 
Mary and AII-SainLi, and his body to be buried before the 
altar of St. Benedict, in the monailery of SL John, apostle and 
evangelist, of Ponte&ocl. 

Jan. 0, 1435. John Awtee, rector of the parish church of 
Castleford, made his will (proved Jan. 20, 1145,) giving his 
soul (ut supra) and hit body to be'buried in the monastery of St. 
John, the apostle and evangelist, of Pontefract, 

Archbishop Thurston, who had intended to have commen- 
ced a niork of this monastery, was buried in the church of 
St John the Evangelist, in February 1143. Goodwin informs 
us, he mode a search for his grave near a place in the wall, 
on the south side of the choir of this church, then in ruins, 
hut instead of the prdate, found a vast number of human 
skulls and bonf^s, all regularly piled up, and laid in admirable 
order. A pious action of the monks, which has been met 
with in the ruins of several moiutleries in ihi* kingdom, well 
worthy of imitation at the present day. 



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HISTORY O*- POlvTEFRACT. 



BLACK, DOMINICAN, 



PREACHING FRIAHS. 

-I HIS order came into England in the fei^ 
of Henry IH. in the year USl. They settled 
a house here, ivWch is aaid to have been found- 
ed by one Symon Pyper. The seat of this 
house was nearly in the centre of the garden, 
now called Friar-Wood. A ^raw-well, and va- 
rious foundations which have been removed ie 
the low garden, novf in the occupation of Mr. 
Halley, ascertain the place where it once stood. 

A more delightful spot could not have been 
well selected. Embosomed in a wood, screened 
from the cold northern and westerly winds, by high 
grounds, the brothers enjoyed all the advantages 
of privacy and retirement, in a warm and well 
sheltered abode. 

This order was founded by St. Dominic, a 
Spaniard, who was raised to the dignity of Bishop 
of Osma. Of course he performed numerous 
miracles to entitle him to the honour of a Saint j 
and it would not be esteemed one of the least, 
that he instituted an order, whose chief object 
was, to convert heretics by the power of their 
eloquence, and to support the Honian hierarchy*, 

* This saint wa* chit-fljp f-mp'oyed in cupvertirf the A.W 
bigenses and Waldeiues, who kihabited Piedmont, Ihe bete- 



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4ISTOIIY QF POUTEFUCT. 339 

This order was called Dotninic^ns from tlieir 
founder; preaching friars, from tbeir office ; find 
bla^jk friars from their dress. Tliey tyore a 
nrhtte cassocit with a white hood over it, wheif 
within ; but when they went abroad, they wore 
a black hood and a black cloak over their white 
vestmeQts. 

The rule of ihis order obji^ the fiiars to 
Btudy the sacred scriptures, and devote them* 
selves to prayer onntiuualty. It allowed them 
to enjoy property, but recommended poverty 
OB most favourable to devotion. They were 
enjoineJ perpetual abstinence from fleshmeat, 
and obliged to Jive on the coarsest fare. 

This austerity procured them the repulatioq 
of sanctity, afid gave them a degree of pow.:r 
and influence eqnal, if not superior, to any of 
the other religious or4er9. As tbeir wealth in* 
creased they relaxed in discipline; and at length 
became odious in many catholic states, 

Thomas de Castleford was a brother in this 
bouse. He wrote the history of it, and of the 
other religious houses in the town, respecting 
which Lelai)d remarks, he had found in it much 
more than he expected. 

Edmund de Lacy, constable of Chester, gave 
to these Irtars some lands, called East-Crofts, 
which adjoined to their house *. 

Ne« of tliesc consijled in their denial o( purgatory, and tlicir 
rejeclion of prayers ibr the dead, invocation of eaiiits, venera- 
tiop of imR^es and relics, absolution, eJcorcisnu, «urelie« in 
baptism, and the caijoi) of the laatn. The succeu of St. 
Dominic, numerous as iiii miracles were, did not avail to ex- 
tcniinale these heresies; and » more efTeclual metliod was 
soon found necessary, that of exterminating by lire and 
iVTord those who held them. 

" Memorandum preserved .among the charlen. 



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340 HISTOtir or POSTEFRACT. 

In this house was interred Roger de Mow- 
bray, who died in the fifty-first of Henry IIII 

On the suppression of the lesser - religious 
houses, in the twenty-eighth of Henry VHI. 
this house was surrendered by the prior, seven 
friars and one novice. 

The house and land belonging to it were 
granted to a W. Clifford and Michael Wildbore. 

TESTAMENTARY BURIAL. 

10. March, 1448, Thomas Box, gentleman, 
made his will, proved 6 May 1449, giving his 
soul to God Almighty, St. Mary and All Saints 
and his body to be buried within the liouse of 
the friars, preachers, of Pontefract. 

The Carmelites, or White Friars, 

This order was brought into England in the 
same reign as the preceding, and Edmund de 
Lacy, constable of Chester, built a house for 
them here* At, present no vestige of this 
house remains, nor any tradition of the place 
where it stood. 

This order took its rise in Mount Carroel, 
in the Holy Land; and is said to have been 
founded by Almericus, bishop of Antioch, in 
the year 1 132. As this mount had been ho- 
noured by the residence of the prophets Elijah 
and Elisha, this order pretended to derive its 
origin from them, by an uninterrupted Miccession 
of brethren. 

From their dress they were called "White 
« Ck. Mod. 



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HKTDRT 07 POHTBnUCT. 341 

Friars; and firotn their poverty tbey were nom- 
bered amoDg the order of mendicants, or beg- 
gars. Their rules were given them by St. Albert, 
patriarch of Jerusalem^ about the year 1205.* 

They practiced the greatest aust^ties as 
essentially necessary to subdue the flesh and se- 
cure final happiness. They rose at four o'clock 
in summer, and five in the winter. They slept 
erery night in their coffins upon straw, and 
every morning dug a shovelfui of earth foe 
their graves. Tbey walked, or rather crept, to 
th^r devotion on their knees. They imposed 
strict silence on themselves from vespers till 
the tierce next day. They ate twice a day, 
but never tasted fleshmeat. Tbey were en- 
joined confinement to tbeir cells, and to conti- 
nue in prayer. TTiey fasted from the feast of 
the holy cross till Easter. 

The rigour of this discipline was relaxed by 
Innocent ihe 4tb. and the pious brothers, who 
had grown weary of mortification, were permitted 
to taste again the flesh-pots of Egypt. 

The Austin Friars. 

Tlie brethren of this order bad a house here; 
and it is probable, their house, was the one 
which Edward III. granted William L. Tabou- 
rere leave to found as an oratory for eight indigent 
persons, with an independent chaplain of the 
order of St. Augustine, or Austin. There can 
be little doubt, that the hospital, now called 
Bade houses, wan the residence of these brethren. 
The name Bede, which is from the Saxon 
* Butlir'* LivM of Ihe Saintt, 



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34S mSTtAY Of PUCTSPUCT. 

(bidan) lo pray, is synonimttus with tbe Latin 
term oratory, or liouse of prayer. 

Tbjs order derives its origin rrotn Auf^istine* 
the celebrated bishop of Hippo, near Carthage, 
ID Africa. On his conversion he retired tu bis 
own home, in tbe conntry, wiih his friends. 
Here they enjoyed all things in common, and 
fpent their time in deTdtbnai exercises. Vbea 
he was raised to tbe priesthood his friends fol- 
lowed him to Hippo, and a bouse was tbea 
erected for thetn. 

The habit of these monks was a white gar- 
loent and scapulary, when they were in tbe 
house, but when in tbe choir or abroad - ihey 
bad over tbe former a caul and a hood, both 
black, which were girt witn a black ieatliem 
fhong. . 

This order was one of the mendicants, and their 
rules were su£ficiently precise and lingular They 
enjoyed all things in common ; and the rich, 
who entered this order, sold their possessions 
and gave the money to be equally appropriated 
to the use of tbe brethren. They were not 
allowed to receive alms without delivering tbe 
whole up to their superior. They employed tbe 
first part of tlie day in labour, and the re- 
mainder in reading and devotion. Saturday was 
allowed to provide necessaries, and on (he Sab- 
bath tliey were permitted to drink wine. 

When they went alHtuul they wpre always 
obliged to go two together; nor were they per- 
mitted to eat out of their convent, let tlie calls 
of nature be ever so urgent. 'I'he least sexual 
desire was deemed a mortal sin, and die stricteat 
chastity was enjoined. 



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SOffTOdT OF FOm'UKACT. 

ALL-SAINTS' CHURCH, 
ALLHALLOWS. 



X HAT a church existed here long anterior to 
the conquest has already been rendered probable^ 
if not . certain; and the doomsday survey esta- 
blishes the fact, that one did exist at that 
Eeriod. The present church of AH-Saints cannot, 
owever, be referred to a period so remote. 
The style of its architecture is wholly what is 
generally denominated Gothic; and though it 
is probable that it has been erect d at different 
times, there is no appearance of the Saxon 
Style in any part of it. 

It IS altogether uncertain by whom the 
church was built*. The present structure, most 
prooably, may be referred to the reign of flenry 
III. a period in which most of our Gothic 
parish churches were erected. 

This church is in the form of a cross, witt 

* A late vfhlrr (we AfiUei's D6ncaster)'inrorn)s (be ptd>tc 
tfwt this church was founded by Robert dc Lacy, who gave 
H to Kirkstall Abbey. In liis researches the etliror has met 
-with nothii^ lo support such an ■ opinion ; ImiI from ihe 
fonner porrt oiT this history it wit! appear, thu. Kirkstall 
Abbey was not fouiiileil tiU tlie time ol' Hen^y dc Lacy, tin 
■econd son of RrJwrt, wlio was the only person of Uie (^ 
niily interred there. The gentleman above referred lo, it it 
probable fell into this mUtake through inadvertence, contbund- 
ing the tfhurtih of tlM ptiory of St. John with the church df 
AU-SanU,, 



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844 HISTORY OF KlIfTEFRACT. 

a handsome tower in the middle, which was 
crowned with a magnificent lantern, enriched 
with sculpture. Gent informs us, on the aa- 
thority of other writers, that the four outward 
corners of the belfry {in which there were twelve 
, bellsl were adorned with four images of the 
Evangelists. The lantern is said to have been 
ornamented with the effigies of the eight apostles 
standing on pedestals joined to the several cor- 
ners. 

The ground plan will give the best idea of 
the interior. The length from east to west. is 
fifty-three yards, and from north to south twenty- 
seven yards. This place is remarkable for the 
two entrances of a double staircase ascending 
to the belfry, and from thence to the top of 
the second battlement. The staircase is in the 
northwest corner, adjoining the column, but 
not within it. Both gradations turn round o;i 
one centre, and are both circumscribed within 
the same space, 

■ The chancel was double, extending farther 
north, at)d a little farther south, than the eastern 
parts. A cross ile, from two opposite and pro- 
portionable doors, equally divide it, and run 
the whole length of its boundaries. Above 
the doors are two large Gothic windows. 

The western part was not so broad as the 
eastern. The roof of the side iles was mucb 
lower than that of the nave or body, form- 
ing a kind of penthouse to the nave, like 
many of our old parish churches. From the 
arches of the columns, which form the side iles, 
« wall was carried up, and a range of windows 
was made, to give light to the nave or body. 



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- HimHrr op pohtefiuct. 345 

A parapet wall was carried round the nave of 
the western part, so that any person might 
walk upon the roof with safety. 

The windows in the east and west afford a 
fine specimen of the magnlQcence and pecuhar 
effect of the Gothic style of architecture. They 
are of large dimensions, and the stone mulions 
exceedingly slender. I'hese windows must have 
thrown a flood of light along the whole body 
of the church. 

The cross iles and chancel only seem to 
have been furnished with pews an<j appropriated 
to the use of the parishioners. The whole wes- 
tern part, with its. beautiful pointed arches, 
formed only a roagni6cent entrance to the part 
employed in divine service. In this respect 
this fine parish church strongly resembles our 
cathedrals and minsters. 

An intelligent Roman catholic gentleman, on 
viewing the remains of this venerable structure, 
immediately pointed out the southeast part, as 
having been what is called, in the churches 
abroad, the crypt. This part evidently appears to 
have been lower than the chancel and the cross 
iles ; and was separated from the chancel and high 
altar by a range of columns. In this part there 
was also a small altar, with a fine sculptured figure 
above it, in a devotion^ attitude. Nothing 
now remains of tlie figure but the leg; but 
evea this specimen does such honour to the 
sculptor as to excite regret, that the misguided 
zeal of the reformers, or the fatal effects of 
the civil war, should have mutilated and nearly 
destroyed one of the best proofs of the state 
of the fine arts. 

V y 



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3*e iBBTmrr or footsfiekit. 

The crypt^ as its name -imports,'- wm* a 'kiad 
of church under, ground; and here some itnpor' 
taut ceremonies were perft-rmed. Tbe design 
of (he catholic church seems always to liave 
been to daazfe and charm the imagination, by 
the pomp and ma^in'^ficence of its ceremonies- 
Henee those events, which, the Evan^lists have 
narrated with so intic-b simplicity and pathos^ 
this church has converted into scenic repFesen- 
tations. The pas.-ion of the Saviour bas employ- 
ed the pencil of the best artists; and to ren- 
der this event more striking and impressive, tbe 
crypl in churches was devisfnl. On GooA-Friday, 
&e supposed day on which the Saviour f}ied. 
the host, the emblem of his person and sacriScr. 
was soJeoinJy carried into the aypt, which on thftt 
occasion was covered with black, and laid, ox 
the small altar, to represent bis body laid in 
. the tomb. From Good-Friday till ^ster sab- 
' bath morning all was silent as death. No 
masses were celebrated. Tbe priests perfomed 
their devotions in secret. . 

On Easter day the scene was changed 
The host was brought firom the crypt, and pomp- 
ously conveyed: to the high altar, to represnrt 
the resurrection. To give effect to this cere- 
mony, the priests wore peculiar dresses; high 
mass was performed ; and gazing crowds *ne 
charmed with the scene, and regaled with tlie 
vibrating notes of tbe loud souading organ^ 

During the siege this church received sufa 
injuries as could not easily be repaired. Its fine 
lantern was battered down, its interior destroyed, 
and the whole roof considerably damaged'. AK 
though the parliament allotted a thousaud pounds^ 



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nsMvr. ni rwimmicr. 347 

out of t1ie money arising fiom the stie (rf* the map 
teriala belonging to ttie castie, towards its re- 
pairs, tUtle appears to have been done. Above 
the lop of the sqnare tower' an octagon was 
raised, with spires at each angle, instead of the 
ancient lantern; and this seems alt that waa 
then eifected. 

It would not' be generous to charge the 
parishioners with negligence and inattention to 
this magnificent church. It is more consonant 
^ to charity to belike, tliat they found themselves 
incompetent to restore it to its former grandeur; 
and at length rehictantly resigned it to the cank- 
ering tooth of all devouring time. After the re- 
storation one effort more was however made to 
save it from ruin. A iir'-'f was granted, within the 
county, an(i the sum of 'flftepn hundred pounds 
■WHS raised; which was anfortilnatdy entrusted 
to a man, whose name as an antiquarian deserves 
respect, but whos^ oondnrt in this instance will 
cover it with reproach: for he embezzled the 
wliole sum"*. 

It .has been above observed, that this church 
had once no fewer than twelve bells. One of these 
only now remains; and some of the parishioners 
Once wished to have it removed, and conveyed 
to the church of St. Giles, which at that period 
was without. The vicar who seems to have been 
partial to this venerable structure, though in 
niios, c^led the whole of the parishioners toge- 
ther, to determine whetlier the bell "hould re- 

* A contract d«ad it now in the pns«esKion of tha a' thor, 
I>et«««en certain woikmen, on the one pdrt, an.l Dr. N'aihaniet 
Johnnon, the gentleman above referred to, oik- the other part, 
be the lepaiiB of ttie aid cbtuch. 



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348 HISTORY OP POHTEPEACT.- 

main or be removed. Hie inhabitants of Knot- 
tingley, who belong to the pariah, came in con- 
siderable numbers, and a great majority decided 
in Javour of the bell remaining. 

The following inscriptions, in old English 
letters, are cast round the' bottom of the bell. 
IJac campana beata sacra Trinitaii ,fiat. May 
this blessed bell be sacred to the Trinity. Hac 
est tuba Dei. This is the trump of God. I H E 
nomen et*. The date is 1598. Various coats 
of arms are also cast' on the bell. 

On the termination of the siege, the lanfon 
of the church had been injured so much, that it 
is probable some of the bells bad been destroyed, 
and others taken down. There is a tradition that 
Col. Bright, who was a distingiiished officer ia 
Lambert's army, and who was deputed to treat for 
the surrender of the castle, availed himself of his 
interest with the general to obtain some of 
these bells, for his own parish church of Bads- 
worth, where they now remain f. 

The church of AU-Saints was given to the 
priory by its founder, Robert de Lacy. The 
brethren of this house performed divine s^rvice^ 
and enjoyed all the tithes, firstfruits and obla- 
tions of the parish. The rectory continued in 

' * The author leavet it lo the learned reader to make out 
this part of iJie inscription. Had the last letter been an S', 
as we generally find I. H. S, the initials of Jesui hominum 
Salvator, the sense would have been, " May Jews the Saviour 
of men be tlie name given lo it>" But as it slandi the aulbpc 
readily acknowledges his inability to explain !l. 

t Having examined these bells it does not appear fom 
the dates that more than one bell could have l>een removed, 
unless they have l>een recast. The tcnor is dated 1582, and 
the lliree others date after the rsstoration. 



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HISTORY Of PONTEnUCT.. I*? 

their "possession till the surrender of the house 
to the kingj lyhen it went as part of their 
property, to the augmeDtatioa of the king's 
revenue. 

It was leased off to Peter Mewtas> Esq. at 
the annual rent of twenty two pounds fourteen 
shillings. It now makes one hundred and seventy- 
one pounds nineteen shillings, although some 
parts of it have been sold to other p.^rsons. 

Id the forty-third of Queen Elizabeth thei-e 
was a suit instituted in the court of Exchequer, 
about the reparation of the chancel of the 
church of Pontefract; and by the proceedings 
in the suit it appears, that the dillerent parts 
of the rectory were still in the possession of 
the crown, but under lease in separate parcels to 
the following gi'ntiemen. Baron Saville, Edward 
Talbot, Esq. Thomas Beyerley. Esq. Thomas 
Klccard, gent. Robert Frank, gent, and William 
Stables, gent. 

The whole rectory continued in the posries- 
sion of the crown, till the beginning of tho 
reign of James I. when the following portions 
of it were alienated, 

The .tithes of grain in l^lardwick Roods, 
Talue six shillings and eightpence, and the tithes 
of grain in Pontefract, value eight pounds, were 
granted to Lawrence Baskerville, John Styles, 
Humphrey Buntiel, in fee by letters patent, 
dated the 29th Oct. the second of James I. 

The following abstract of leases of various 
parts of the rectory, now remaining in the 
Augmentation office, will shew what tithes then 
formed the rectory. 



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Si9 HBTORT 'DP 'PflWrBnttfTl 

Lessees. Rent. 
£. s. d. 
1562, Titltes of Iwy de Villa de 

Pontefract, John Balhe, 118 8 

1567, Ditto of grain, do. Fran. Kempe, 8 O 
1569, Do. of hay and grain of 

Fcrrybridgp, John Beterley^ fl IS 4 

l.>78, Do. of grain, Kiiottingfey, 

Mob. ArthingtoRy 9 Q 

159I,Do.ofhay,East-Ings,do. /. Be//w««r, 11 4 

6 Eliz.Do. hemp and flax do. Roh. Cooke, \ „ -. 

Do. hay West-Inps, do. do. | » " 

1565, Do. of grain, Hardwidc 

Roods, R. Errington, 6 8 

6 Eliz.Do. corn and hay of 

"SoDth-Hardwick, Rob. Cooke, 4 6 8 

1594, Do. of corn and hay, Spit- 

tle-Hardwick, ff'm. Stable s, ^ 10 

£. m 15 "8 

Whethfr the monks, who enjoyed the rectory, 
became negligent in the discharge of their spi- 
ritual functions, or B-hethcr it was deenKd 
more proper for one of Ihe seailar clergy to 
discharge such duties, we find a vicar appointed 
as early as Edward HI. 

John, Archbishop, ordained Nov. '90, 1461, 
_ that the prior and convent of Pontefract, and 
their successors, should for ever entirely recave 
all and singular the fruits, rents, profits, tithes, 
oblations and emoluments, of this church of 
AH-Sainfs, 

And pay to M. Adam de Scargl!!, then' vicar 
of that church, and to his successors, thirty- 
marks per annum quarterly in tlie same church. 



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HISTORY OF PONTEFaACT. SSI 

io the name of the wliok and entire pontUin oE 
his vicaraiip; 

Aud shdil bear all burdens ordinary and ex~ 
traordinarv incumbent on the same, ejccepting 
synalals only, which the vicar shall pay for 
the time being. 

August 1, 1452, the archbishop made this 
new ordination of the vicarage of All Sain ts» 
of Pontefract, viz. That John White, then 
vicar, and his successors, should have for theii; 
habitation one house situate nigh the said church, 
called vulgarly Balay-PIace, with the garden to 
the sanie adjoining, 

And that the prior and convent of Ponte- 
fract should receive all tlie fruits, profits and 
tithes thereof, &c. and pay to the said vicar* 
and his successors, twenty marks, in English 
money, per annum, quarterly in the said church 
of All-Saints, ' 

And bear all bfirdens ordinary and extraor* 
dinary, whatsoever incHmbenl on tlte said- church. 
\o the year 1533, an agreement was made 
between the mayor and commoi>atty on ooe 
part, and tlie prior and convent on the other, 
respecting the fii>ding and suslaintog certaiA 
chaplains within tlie church of All-Saints, who 
£ho4i1d celebrate divine oflices tlierein, and ad- 
minister the sacrament to tl>e parishioners. la 
consequence of this the archbi.^hop ordained that 
there should be within this parish church of 
All-Saiats, two chaplains perpetually found and 
sustained by the sa-d prior and convent. One 
of which should celebrate in the cliapel of St, 
■ Giles, at the cost of the said prior and convent, 
and the otlier should celebrate and adinioister 



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353 HISTOKY OP PONTEFIUCT. ' 

the sacrament and fiacramentals in the .said 
church of All-Saints, &c. 

Are we to consider this as evidence that 
the vicarage now ceased? Or is the vicar to 
be considered as one of the chaplains' This 
latter supposition seems most probable. 

. On the suppression of the monastery the vicar- 
age was suffered to remain, but without any aug- 
mentation or fresh endowment. The only change 
the vicarage underwent was, that the crown, in 
lieu of the sum of thirteen pounds six and 
eightpence, permitted the vicar to receive the 
small tithes. Although this fact is unsupported 
by any express grant of the crown, it cannot 
be questioned. In the accounts of the rents of 
the rectory, there is nothing deducted for the 
vicar, as there would have been had any sum 
been paid; and in the leases of tithes, there is 
no mention whatever of the small tithes, which 
undoubtedly belonged to the rectory, as well 
as those of grain and hay. From this ii may 
be inferred that on the suppression of the pri- 
ory, and the impropriation of the rectory by 
the crown, the vicar received the small tithes in 
lieu of what had before been allowed. 

This vicarage was so poorly endowed, that 
when the commission of enquiry into the true 
value of all ecclesiastical benefices was executed, 
it was discharged for ever from the payment of 
tenths and (irstfruits, and at that period could 
'not be above the value of fifty pounds per ann. 
In Bacon's Liber Regis it is stated at the dear 
yearly value of ninety pounds. 



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HISffOKT OF POMTEFRACT. tSi 

Vicars of JU-^ntf Church, down to the Restoration. 

Ttsip. InU. Vicuii. FaliHiL VacU, 

Dn9.HugodeKrkesburgh. P.&C.deP. p.iMrt. 
1267. Dni.Tho.Beb, CI. lidem. 

161ud.Julii,t302. Dni. Adam Po)it, Fr. lidem. 

eLa], Aug. 1310. Dns. Nic. de Erghc), Pr. Jidem. p. resig. 
4kal.l>feii, 1329. Dim. Will, de SuUon, Cap. lidem. p. reug. 
l6Lal. Sep. 1338. Dni. R<%. Faxton, Cap. Rex. &c. p. mort. 
2Feb. 1349. M. AdsmdeScargill, DJac. Rex. 8tc. p. reug. 

ISMar. 1349. Did. Will, de St. Albano. E. 3 Rex. p.mtg. 
2ijan. 1330. Dm. HugodeSaxton.Cap. Rex. 8tc. p. lesig. 
S Jan. 1355. Dm. Joh. del BedL^ Cap. Rex. &c. 

Hugo ds SaxLon. p. rei!g. 

IT Nor. 1361. M.AdamdeScargiQO.C.E. lidem. 
3S Nov. 1361. Dm. R!c. Doulu. lidem. p. reiig, 

13 Apr. 1364. Dns. Will. DankCj Cap: lidem. 

Dm. Joh. Thornlon.' Ildem. p. nort 

5Maii, 1437. Dns. Juh. Cudworth, Pr. lidem. p. reiig. 
33 Feb. 1438. Diu. Joh. Wbite. lidem. p. mort, 

SOjuIu. 1463. Mr. The Challoner, Cap. J.Lathu.h.v.p.mort. 
3 Aug. 1483. Dns. Ric. Bergman, Cap. P.&C.deP.p. retig. 
13 Sep. 1483. Dm. J<^. Stottrdde, Cap. lidem. p. mort, 
S4 Mar. 1483. Dm. X'topher Baigh, Cap. lidem. p. mort 
IJunii, I486. M.Tho.Harry»on,M.A.Pr. lidem. p. mort. 
3 Junii, 14B9. Dm. Feler Bcke, Cap. Jidem. p. resig. 
} Mar. 1490. M. Rob. Cutteler. lidem. p. mort 

12 Feb. 1303. M. Tho. Bromflete.M. A. lidem. p. mort. 
2D Nov. I30e. M.R<ib.Wranbersley,M.A. lidem. p. mort. 
12 Apr. 1438. Dm. J(^. Barkaf, Fr. lidem. p. mort. 

IfiJuIii, 1568. Ric Atheton, CI. J.UoteniaD,&c. 

12 Dec. 1388. Tbo. Haman, CI. Elni.Reg. p. mig. 

S4 Junii, 1395. Laur. Barkar, CI. M. A. Eadem. p. n»ig. 
aiJutiii, 1397. T.Pulie7ne,CI.M.A.ob.l627.Eadem. p. teiig. 
SMu. 1624. Will. Stiles, CI. B. A. Kez. Jac. 

Joseph Ferret p. rcKg. 



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$54 BISTORT OF POKTEnUCT. 

Chantnj. 

In this church tNere was (me or inore clran- 
tries*. lu an account of the tithes belonging 
to the tleanry of St. Clement, in the Augmenta- 
tion office, this chantry is mentioned as foanded 
by Rob. Risbworth, who endowed it with lands 
within the parish of Ponlefract. This appears to 
have been oo the north side of the east part of the 
charcb, where the pLaoc ibr the altar still remauis. 

Testamentary Burials, from Torre's Mamiscript. 

Die Jovis pron. . post festa St. Nici, \3S7, 
Joh. de Gayton. of Pontefract, made his will, 
(proved ) giving his soul to God Al- 

mighty, St. Mary and All-Saints, and his body 
to be buried within the church oS All-Saints, io 
Pontefract. 

Die Luna; prox. post fbsfo St. Petri a»i rin- 
cula, 1390, Rob. de Beghall, of Pontefract, 
made his wiH (proved Feb. 13Q0,) giving hit 
soal to God Almighty, aad his body, to be bu* 
ried in tite church of All-Saints, of Pontefract. 

Die Jovis in festo St. Mattbej, April, 1391, 
Roger Silkston, of Pontefract, made his will, 

* These teocUliDiu were |»0Mened »f greal wnlifc, dc 
rived ^m the pious pretence of saying nitnei tor d«p«n«4 
Mult. The clwDtries were genetaliy annexed U> churcbcf, i*d 
we MB told OM there were do let* itiw fbrt^*«ven wilhii 
St' Pud's CBthedntl: eadi (/ IheM lisd > separate, psneaHj 
landed, estate. Tfaejr wer« f;;lven Io the lung by the |ail» i 
ment, in Decetober )54T, though not Without nucK Qppwi* | 
tion, M well tirom ProteUants as.PapiiXit and thus went the 
last remnant of that immense man of property, which had 
been wresied from the Romish cler^ in the course of the Lut 
fifteen year*. 



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. mBTOna w voKTEnucr. 355 

(proved Oct. 16, iS9U) giving his soul to God 
iVlmighty, St. Mary und All^iots, and his 
body to be buried in the church of AIl-Saint5> 
in the town of PoatefracL 

Die Jovia ante festum St. Nici.Epi, I4S7> 
William CarleM, of Ponte&act, made his will, 
(proved Jan. 3i, 1437,) giving his soul (ut supra,) 
and hib body to be buried in the parish church 
of All^Samts, in Pontefract. 

Dec. 7, 1434, William Cawdray Physitian, 
mode Ihs will, (proved Feb. 15, 1434,) giving 
his soul (ut supra,) and his body to be buried 
in the parish' church of All-Saints, Pontefract, 

November 17, 1435, John Saxton, of Pon- 
tefract, made his .mill, (proved Dec. 5, 1435,) 
giving his soul (ut aupra,) and his body to be 
buried to the church of Al^^ints, Pontefract. 

April 29, 1437, J«hn Thornton, vicar of Pen- 
tefract, made Ins will, (proved May 6, 1438,) 
giving his -aoiil (ut supra,) and his body to be 
buFied in tite pari^ church of All-Saints, Pon- 
tefract, 

April 13, 1445, Rob. M^iley, of Pontefract, 
Fisher, made his will, (proved May 8, 144?,) 
giving bis soul (ut uipra,) and his body to be 
buried in the parish church of Alt-Saints, of 
Pontefraet. 

Oct U, 1443. Jolm Sharp, of Pontefracti 
made his wilf, (proved Dec. 10, 1443,) givirg 
his- (Will to God Almighty, St. Maty and All- 
Saints, and his body to buried in the parish 
church of Pontefract. 

June 10, 1445, John Devyas, o( Pontefract, 
mai'e his vrill (proved June 19, 1445,) giving 
hiii soul to God Almighty, St. Mary and AII- 



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SSe HBTOKT OF POHTEFBACT. 

Saiats, and bis body to be buried in the chnidi 
of Atl-Saiats, of Pontefract, before tbe image 
of, St. John, the Baptist. 

August 3d, 1446, John Finney, of Pontefru^ 
made his will, (proved Oct. 10, 1446,) gtvio^ 
bis soni (ut supra,) and his body to be buried 
in tbe parish church of All-Sainls, of Pont^ract. 

December 34, 1446, John Thomlynson, of 
Pontefract, made his will, (proved Feb. 1 1, 1446,) 
giving his soul (ut supra,] and. his body to be 
buried in the parish cliurch of AU-Siunts, of 
Pontefract. 

November 14, 1447, Joanna, wife of Tho. 
More, of Pontefract, made ber will, (proved 
March 33, 1 448,) giving her. soul to God Al- 
mighty, and her body to be buried in tte 
-thurcli of AIl-Hallows, of Pontefract. 

February I, 14.^3, Richard More, of Ponte* 
fract, made bis wilt, (proved March 8, 1 459 J 
giving his soul to God Almighty, St. Mary and 
All-Saints, and his body to buried in the parisfa 
clturch of Att-Saints, of Pontefract. 

May 3, 1454. William Danby, of Pontefract, 
made his will, (proved Aug. 7, 1454,) giving 
his soul (ut supra,) and his body to be buried 
in bis parish chnrch of Alt-Saints. 

Jan. 9, 1461, Robert Roper, of Pontefract, 
made bis wiH, (proved Jan. 14, 1461,) giving 
his soul (at supra,) and his body to be buried 
in the parish church of All-Saints, of Pontefract, 

June 8, 1463, John Medlay, of Pontefract, 
made bis will, (proved Aug. '14, 1463.) giving 
his soul (ut supra,) and his body to be buried 
in the church of All-Saints, Pontefract. ' ' 

John Batne, of Pontefract, made bis will. 



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mnOVf OT VONTEnACT. S5T 

(-proved May 8, 1464,) giviog his soul to God 
Almighty, St. Mary and All-Saints, and his 
body to be buried in the parish church of All'-- 
Saints, Pontefract. 

July 24, 1471, John Swillington, of Ponte- 
fract, made his will, (proved Sep. 5, 1471,) giv- 
ing his soul (ut supra,) and his body to be 
buried in the church of All-Saints, Pontefract. 

May 30, 1483. Tho. Chatloner. vicar of All- 
Saints, Pontefract, made his will (proved July 
39, 1483,) giving his sonl (ut supra,) and his 
body to be buried in the chan6tJ of the said 
churcli. 

May 29, 1489, Tho. Harryson, M. A. 
vicar of the church of All-Saints, Pontefract, made 
his will, (proved June 6, 1489,) giving his soul 
(ut supra,) and his body to be buried according 
to the custom. 

July 15, 1407* Roger Hartop, of Pontefract, 
made bis will, (proved June 38, 1499.) giving 
bis soul to God Almighty, St. Mary and All- 
Saints, and his body to be buried in the church 
of All-Saints, before the image of St. Peter. ^ 
Ult. March. 1547, Ric. Thwaytes, of Pon- 
teii-act, made his will, {proved July 21, 1547.) 
giving his soul to God Almighty, St. Mary 
and All-Saints, and his body to be buried ia 
the church of All-H^lows, in Pontefract. 

July 18, 1548, William Arthyngton, of 
Knottingley, gent,. made his will, (proved May 
fi, 1549,) giving his soul (ut supra,) and his bo- 
dy to be buried in the high qucre, before his 
stall, within the church of All-Hallows, of Pon- 
tefract. 

July 37, 1600, Bridget Eltofts, of Brotber- 



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358 RvroxT OT wnrrEnuCT. 

ton, flentlewoman, niaHe ber will, (provpd Fdti. 
S6, 1600.) giving her soul to Gorf Almighty, 
ber Creator and Redeemer, &c. and bpr body to 
be buried in the parish church «f All-FIallows, 
io Pontefract. 

March 4, 1600. Leonard Healaighe, of Pwi- 
(efi*act, gent, made his will, (proved April 30, 
160),) giving his sonl to God Almighty his 
Creator, and to Jesus Christ his Redeemer, and 
his body to be buried in tlie parish diurch of 
F(Hitefract, nigh his wife. 

January 15. 1606, Henry Kaye, of Knot- 
tingley, gent, made his will, (proved April Sl> 
1607>) giving his soul to God Almighty, and 
his body to be bnried in the parish churdi of 
Pontefract. 

September 7, !6I3, Christopher Sands, of 
Pontefract. gent, made his will, (proved Dec 
18, 16)5,) giving his soul (ut supra,) and his 
body to be buried in the parish church of Poo- 
tefraot. 

January 8, 1616, William Stables, of Ponte* 
fraCt, made his will, (proved May 8, 1617,) giv- 
Mg his fioul to God Almighty, his Creator and 
Redeenier, and his body to be huried in the 
parish ohurchyard of All-Hallows, in Pontefract. 

January 16, 1618, John Frank of Ponte- 
fract, alderman, made his will, (proved July 3, 
1533,) giving his' soul (ut svpra,) ami his body 
to be buned in the parish church of All-Hal- 
fows, Pontpfract. ' 

1619. William Holgate, of Pontefract, gent, 
made his will, (proved Mav 4, 1690,) giving 
his soul (ut supra,) and his body to be bnried 
in t)>e p^ish church of AlI-Hallow;^ in Ponte- 
fract, near his &tber. 



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■DTOrr IMP p<arrErBicT. ast 

May 9, 1620, Aichard TwiiHes, of PoDtefrftct, 
gent, made his will, (proved June I A, 1620.) 
giving his soul to God Almightj, and hoptag 
through Jesus Ct^fit to be saved, and his body 
to be buried in the parish church of'AJl-HaiU 
Iowa, in Pontefract. 

December 19. 1631, Allen Aire, of Ponte. 
fract, gent, made bis wilt, (proved May 9, ISS^j 
giving his soul (ut supra,) and his body to be 
buried in the parish church of Atl-Saiats, in 
Poutpfract. 

January 17, 1626, Henry Franke, of Pon- 
tefract, made his wUl, (proved April 13, 1627,) 
giving his soul (Ut supra,] and his body to be 
buried in the south alley of the church of All- 
Hallows, in Pontefract, near his sister Twaites.' 

July 27, 1627, Administration of the goods 
of Tho. Pullcyn, late vicar of Pontefract, d&< 
ceased, was granted to Francis Pull&yii, his son. 

April 18, 1638, John Grymesditch, of New- 
halt, Efq. made his will, (proved ) giving 
hia soul (ut supra,) and bis body to be buried 
in the parish church of Poatefract, near bia 
iather. 

December 13, 1672, John Ayscoogh, of Pon- 
tefract, gent, made his will, (proved Oct. 8, 
1679-] giving bis soul to God Almigtity, his 
Creator and Redeemer, and bis body to be 
buried in the parish church of Pontefract. 

Si. Clement's Chapel, within the Castle. 

This chapel was built by Ilbert de Lacy, 
in the reign (^ William Rufus, and was donbt- 
lt»s designed as a place of wofsfaip for bimseJf 



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S£0 mSTOSY OF POMTEFBACT. 

and his attendaDts, including those who dwelt 
m the park and St. Nicholas* hospital *, It 
appears from the foundation which still remains; 
to hare been on a smalt scale, and not capable 
ef containing more than three hundred people. 
Situated close to Constable Tower, and extend- 
ing towards the King's Tower, it was securely 
protected from the hostile attacks of an enemy. 

This chapel was nnply endowed by its 
founder. He gave two parts of the 'tithes of 
the demesne lands of Camaselle f , Kodewell {, 
Barwica§, Parlington, Chipsey cum Arleton, 
and Ledston, for which the said church had 
one mill in Newsome. 

Also the tithes of his demesnes in Octon|, and 
'Wolmersley; Chamsale and Emesale, in Linscy, 
Lincolnshire. Also in Cherisbery, and Frisbery, 
in the county of Nottingham ; and in Hickleton, 
Stainton, and Lusham, in the county of Oxford. 

Also the tithes of his own herds, and of 
his iishery of Knottingley, together with five 
oxgangs of land there. Also the tithes of ap^ 
pies in Aodewell, Cherwist, and Vf&xt^ and 
of one mill in Burgo**. 

Robert de Lacy gave in Knottingley the 
uxth part of an oxgang of land, in lieu of 
-which, he afterwards gave two parts of the tithes 
of Norton, great Emsala, and Hemelswurd. 

* In Ihe certilkate of colleget, fint of EdwarJ VI. it k 
wd that !n St. NichoUi' hmpilal wu made all tbdr ofieriugs 
and privy tithei to the dean. 

t Cunpttll. * Rolhwfll,. § Barwfck. in Ebnet, 

H Houghton, now called Glau-Houghton. 

^ Probably the village now called Wentbridge, 

** Now called fiurghwallu. 



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BUSTOEY OF PONTEFaACT. 361 

He also gave two oxgangs of land in Feria, 
{or Ferrybridge;) and Roger Pictavus gave two 
parts of the tithe of grain in Altofts. Ilbert 
de Kamosvilla gave two parts of the tithes of 
grain, of his own Jand, in Chamsala. 

Ernolphus gave also two parts of the tithe 
of grain in Prestona, (or Purston Jagtin;) and 
the same in Aovedena. 

Gilbert, the son of Dama, gave two parts of 
the tithe of grain in Stapiltona, and Rodulpbus^ ' 
the same in Thorpe- Audiin, and tlie tithe of 
the mill there. 

Raduiphns, the soa of Edelina de Stubs, near 
Knecelam, gave two parts of the tithe of grain; 
and one Chemi the same out of his demesne. 

Henry de Lacy gave one half of the tithe 
of Scelbroke. 

William Pictavus gave two parts of the tithe 
of grain in Scaliella. 

Ansgotus Rtiffus gave the same in Hanpole, 
and Girardus de Rambsvilla gave the half part 
of his own tithe in Smeadetona; and Gerbadus 
two parts of the tithe of one carucate in Fry- 
stona. 

Umfrid de Villeio also gave two parts of 
the tithe of the corn in Snetela, and Newtonia*. • 

Robert de Somerville gave the third part of 
one carucate of land in Seacroflf. 

* The village* of SmkhBla and Newton. 

f It appears Trom lhe<<e grants that tlie proprietors of Und 
considerefl tithes as pergonal property, and gave them in what 
propordon and, to wliAt place they thought proper. At this 
period it is evident parish churches only received such tithes 
as were freely granted, and had no claim to any portion of 
tithes arisTng from otiier lands within Ihe parish. In process 
«f time (he church extended her claims, and bjr degrees hic- 

A a a 



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362 HISTORY Ot KTSTWrnCT. 

This chapel was collegiate and frec*i and 
governed, bjr A dean. It is said to have had 
three probends. In the charter of Jibert, the 
son of Kob^rt de Lacy, two persons are only 
mentioned, fianulphus Grammaticus and Gcod- 
fridus, the presbiter; aild in the rental no prebend 
is mentioned, but that of the son of Theobald 
de I-uce. This chapel was giren by the founder 
to the prioty. 

At the disolution of the priory, an inventory 
was taketi of the g>odK, ornaments and plate, 
belonging to this chnpel. The good* were var- 
lued at two pounds eight rfiillings an^ tenpence; 
and the plate Used in celehrating divine Service, 
at four pounds fonrtecn shillings and eightpence. 

The rental of the deanry is stated to have 
been twenty-two pounds twelve shilling* and seVen- 
pencef. A part of the tithes which belonged 
to the deanry, within the parish of Pontefract, 
are now in the possession of Sacon Frank, Esq. 
and covered by a modus. 

This chapel, in the sixteenth century, was in 
SDch a delapidated state that it was found neces- 
sary to rebuild it. Queen Elizabeth had the 
honour of this work. She completely rebuilt it, 
but suffered it to retald the name given at its 
dedication, 

ceeded in oblaining the tithn of the vrhdx pariKk. Widnot 
an^ positive law, usa^ has .fiiuniled a right, oil which the 
incumbent of every parish now demands his tenths. 

• Free chapels were places of religious wOTship ekempt 
from the juritHliclion (if the ordinary. They wefe mostly built 
upon the manor* and andent demesne! of the ttofcr, wTiiIil 
in the hands of the king, for the Use of hiinself ind rdtinue, 
when lie came lo reside there, 'VVheti the t^own parted with 
these estalet tlie dhapels went along with then, and Mabied 
their first freedom, 

t Certificate in the AugiMiAtita office. 



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At the surrender of the castle, this chapel 
sufiered the sarpe fate with that fortress, and 
nothing now renj^ios but the foundation. 

A Catabgite qf the Deans of this Chapel, 

TEMP. DECAKl GAPBLLE. 

142. Dns Tho. ■\Vyk<'rsIey. 

142. M- John He Wayneflete. 

143. M. Joh. Thorneton, 

144. M. Job. lAthom. 

15. , Jac. Xhwayies, (obiit Oct. 1545.) 

.dfa ihe deanry of Popjlefrsicit forms one qf 
the ecclesiastimi divisions of .the connty, it 
is deemed necessary t > give the following list 
of the churches, included' within it*. 

Tlie Names qf the Pqris^es and Chapclries wiihia 

Ackworth, Cumberworth Cbap. 

Adlingfleet, Castleford, 

Almdndbury, Calverley^ 

Armin Cbapetry, -Crofton, 

Bailey, Coley Chap. 

Birstall, Crostone Chap. 

Bradford^ Chapelthorp Chap. 

Briars Chapelry, Carlton Chap. 

Cleckheaton Chap. Darrington, 

• Visitation) are held annually within each deanrf in the 
county; and at tliese viiiilali»n< the derj^y within tl>e division 
are bound to attend. Tbe>e visitations were formerly held 
hece, but, lo nut .tbe txmvenieace of the clergy, are now hcU 
It .Wakeaeld. 



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mSTOBY OF POHTETKACr. 



Dewsbnrj, 
East Ardsley, 
Emiey, 
Elland Chap. 
Featherston, 
Flockton Chap. 
Ferry-Fryston, 
Goole Chap. 
Honley Chap. 
Haworth Chap. 
Hartishead Chap. 
Huddersfield, 
Haiifex, 

Holy Trinity, Halifax, 
Heptonstall Chap. 
Holmfirth Chap. 
Hooke Chap. 
Horbury Chap. 
Idle Chap. 
Illingworth Chap. 
Kirkburtoti, 
Kirkheaton, 
Kellington, 
Knottingley Chap. 
LigbtciifTe Chap. 
Luddenden Chap. 
JLongwood Chap. 
Marsden Chap. 
Melthani Chap. 



Morley Chap. 

Methleyj 

Mirfield, 

Normanton. 

Osset Chap. 

Pudsey Chap. 

Poniefract, 

Rastrick Chap. 

Rippoiiden Chap. 

Rothwell, 

Roeclifie Chap. 

Scammonden Chap. 

Slaithwaite Chap. 

Sowerby-Bridge Chap. 

Sowerby Cliap. 

Sandal Magna. 

Snaith, 

Swinfleet Chap. 

Tong Chap. 

Thornhill,' 

Thornton Chap. 

Wibsey Chap. 

Womersley, 

AVarmfield, 

"Wragby, 

"Woodkirk, 

Wakefield, 

St. John's 

Whitgift. 



Wakefield, 



77/c Church qf St. Giles. 

This church is mentioned as early as the 
time of Henry I. in the charter of Hugh Dela- 
Tal i and from circumstances noticed in the 



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S! GJLES" CHI-RCH 



MAREET-CBOSS . 



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HISTOET OF POHTEFRACT. 36S 

charter, it must hare been built some time before. 
A. part of it is said to have belonged to the 
canons of St. Oswald, but he, by the hand of 
Archbishop Thurston, deprived the canons of 
their part, and gave the whole to the priory of 
St. John here. 

It is singular that the name given to this 
church in the above mentioned charter, is that 
of St. Mary. ' The same name is given to it 
in the will of William Hagwyk, as late as the 
beginning of the fifteenth century. As there 
was a chantry to |.the blessed virgin, is this the 
reason why it is called by her name? Or is 
this the original name, and that of St. Giles. 
only given to it, because situated near the 
ground where the annual fair was kept on St. 
Giles' day? 

Leiand inibnns us that it was called St. Leo- 
nard's * in the frith, or wood ; from which it may 
be inferred that at the time of its . erection, the 
town lay around the church of All-Saints. This 
must have been long anterior to the time of 
Leiand, as he informs us that the foirest part 
of the town was here. In Oelaval's charter it 
is called St. Mary de foro ; from which it fol- 
lows, that the markets and fairs were then held 
there. 

This church appears to have been originally 
of very small dimensions. It has been enlarged 
both in breadth and length. The south ile as 
well as the present chancel, seem to have been, 
added to the original structure. The length of 
the church, from east to west, is forty-two yards 

• As no other writer has mentioned this name, it is pro- 
baUj' u) error, and ought to have been St. Mary's. 



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HISTOSr OF rONTEFUCT. 



and three ipiarters; and the breadth) front north 
te sooth, is eighteen yartis and two feet. The 
old steeple was about eevea yards square, aud 
tliirty-six yards high to the top of the spire. 

After die siege the mined conditioa of the 
parish church of All-Satnts, rendered it necessary 
to perfonm divine service in this of St. Giles; 
and from that period this chorcb has uodergone 
various alterations and improvemeDts. It had 
Motly a 4ni&ll broaoh steeple without soy bells, 
ppevious to the year 1707- At that period Sir 
Tho. filuid, of K^lpas Park, the member for 
this horougfa, gratifioj his coDstitoents by build- 
ing» at his own expence *, the steeple, which 
•o acceint of its shattered state, was lat^y 
fndled ikiwn and the presost erected. 

This church is now in excellent r^tair, and 
ita Interior yiekb to Sew in neatness. The 
chancel has been lately ornamented with a fine 
p8l<t)ting hy- John' Suadish, a native of the 
town, and'a self taught artist of enttnent 'merit. 
The -scbject is the crucifixion; and as lar ss 
tfie peoetl can realize the awful soene, it is 
liere realized. Ilie attitude of tbe-gavtour, -when 
he had '3'idded up the ghost, is finely conceived 
and wdl >expre«sed. The groop of pious women, 
who statid around the cross, among whom Mary, 
our (Lonf s imotber, .is distiogajshed by her loolu, 
and ihe poignancy of her sorrow, adds eonsi- 
derably to the effect, ■ and the whole lives ou 
the canvas. 

' With all ihe improveroeDts this church has 
■eeeived, it cannot bear a comparison .with what 
iite wcrther church of All-Saints once was. COQ- 
. * It Qist.tipi vwbtwdRd.poHn^ 



,v Google 



HISTORY OT poinTnucT. MT 

tracted in its dimensioDs, and bailt withont re- 
gard to any order of architecture, it bears, 
the steeple excepted, a strong resemblance to 
wlut a modern reverend author, in the abundanco 
of his charity, calls a conventicle. The artiet» 
or the man of taste, will find none <^ those sub- 
lime and awfol impressions while contemplating 
thi.1 church, which he cannot fail to experienca 
while beholding even the ruins of that of All Saints. 

The ordination of tbe vicarage has been no* 
ttced; and a list of the vicars down to the 
restoration of Charles II. has been given. Cir- 
cumstances which have occurred since that period, 
and which more properly regard this than tbs 
mother church, are now to be detailed. 

The church of All-Saints being deserted as 
a place of wor^ip, and only used as a part of 
the burying gronnd, and this o( St. Giles being 
appropriated to the use of the parish, was gen& 
rally considered as a parish chtirch, and as en- 
joying &tl the rights of one. It had been usual 
ibr the different townships, within tlie parish, to 
contribute a proportionate sum annually, as % 
church assessment. Owing to some extraordinary 
expenues, the township of Knottingley refused 
to pay this assessment, and a suit commenoai 
between that township and Pontefract, After 
considerable sums (tf money had been spent bj 
both parties, and much ill will excited, it wai 
ibund that the assessment in dispute, though 
purporting on ihe face of it to foe for repairing 
the parish church, was actually applied to re- 
pair that of St. Giles; but as such application 
couM not be Mipported by law, the contend- 
ing parties ent«%d into an agreement, in which 



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368 HISTORY OP PONTEFRICT. 

it was Stipulated that the township of Knot- 
tingley should for ever hereafter pay the sum 
of twelve pounds annually, to the churchwardens 
of Ponlefract. and that this sum sliould never 
T>e increased. 

This ~ trial discovered to th« parish its humi- 
liating condition. Its parish church was in ruins, 
and never likely to be restored. It had a church, 
but it was not the parish church; and could 
not enjoy the same sanctity, rights and privi- 
vileges. The parishioners could not be compelled 
to pay the assessment for the repairs and sup- 
port of the church. It was happy for the 
parishioners that tlje parliament possesses that 
plenitude of power, that it can, by its sole act, 
consecrate or desecrate; can raise a church from 
a state of insignificance and dependence, to the 
privilege and honour of being the head of a 
parish. To this power application was made, 
and the poor despised church of St, Giles' in 
the wood, was by act of parliament, the 29th 
George III, constituted the parish church of 
Pontefract. 

The uncertainty of the law has become pro- 
verbial, but in no case is the uncertainty (^ it 
more apparent than in respect to tithes. As 
the right to tithes is founded on usage and 
prescription," which are in some things contra- 
dictory, in others obscure, and in many uncer- 
tain, hence have arisen those feuds and litiga- 
tions respecting tithes between a parish and the 
incumbent, which often continue for years, aud 
at last are ' terminated without satisfaction to 
either party. When the usage is best established, 
the desire of the incumbent, on the one part. 



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HISTORY. or POKTBFBACT. 169 

and a spirit of resistance, od the other, Trhich 
the parish displays, produce the same unhappy 
effects. In some cases ratlier than enter into 
a contest the parish submits, ^nd thus new 
customs -and usages arise and become established. 

The abore reflections naturally arise, on 
considering the claims which have been made 
by successive vicars of this parish. 

Id a statement given in at the visitation by 
the most reverend Father in God John, by di- 
vine providence, I^ord Archbishop of York, and 
Primate of England and Metropolitan, Oct. 10, 
1684, the churchwardens of this parish describe 
. the property of tha vicar, and the dues which he 
had a right to claim, in the following manner. 

" Our present vicar, Mr. Francis Drake, 
hath a good convenient Vicarage, with gardens 
and orchards at the back of it. Also one acre 
<cIose, more or less according to our estimation, 
(^led the vicarage close. Also an house ad- 
joining the chapel of St. Giles, and fronting 
the cross. Also a stable fronting the chancel 
door." 

" As oblations twopence a communicant, and 
all above sixteen years old. Our vicar hath 
twopence for eveiy pound wage a servant hath; 
and for a 

Messi^age, 3d. Pigeons, every tenth. 

Cottage, 2d. Dove manure, every tenth 
Garden, Id, met. 

Reek, ob. Plow, 6d. 
Bees, in kind or comp. Wool, in kind, 

Poles, 6d. Lambs, in kind, 

Cufvs, }d. each. Ducks, in kind. 



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370 msTOttT or totnmicTJi 

Cafv«s, oh. Orchards, irr kind. 

Pigs, in kind, Licorice, iu kind if oM 

Line, in kind, cxitnpoiitided with di»- 

Rape, in kind; ring his time. 

Hens, 3d. Hempj id kind. 

Surplice Fees. 

SITRIALB. MARR.IAGES. 

The CrosB He, 6f. W. WltK baas publUhed. 
The Chancel, IDs. 2s. 6rf. 

In the Churchyard. 9rf. With Licence, 5s. 
fiodyd('thechurch,3f.6</. Chiirchings of AVwaea, 
All Mortuaries accord- their offerings." 
ing to statute. 

"Twenty shillings per annum for preaching 
two sermons on Mayday ami AH-Saints, ao- 
cordioK to the will of ]VIr. Kobert Moore." 

" He dotli and may receive all other tithes^ 
dues and oblations, as licorice, rape, &c, io 
kind, or if he please compound daring bis time* 
txcept hajf and corn oaly." 

Signed by 
MMtbew Sfefton, Fttry- F. Drike, VIcaf, 

bridge, Sam. Willau,"] 

Thomas Jackson, Tho."* 

John Lee, Jar. T 

Hoger Jesop, Knotting. Jam. : 

In the statements given in by the dmrch- 
wftrdebs, at the visitations of the pi<imate» frorfi 
the above date down to a late period, thera is 
observable a variation and a gradual increase in 
the claims of the vicars. By a claim ddiT«red 
to the parish, dated vfestry April 96, 1796, tbc 
present vicar claimed the following dues. 



Drake, Vic 
n.\VilUu,"\ 
O.Taylor, ( I 
■. Shillito, f 
n. Hurst, j 



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)fSTO«Y OF -vqivrefKACT, 3>71 

FiOr «wr3r'm«9sq&go, 6d. Garden;, per acre \0s. 
For eadi person above Nurserj and seed grouDfl* 
- .mixieea yewm old, Sd. per acre lOf. 
F<or each pottod in ser- Cubages, for feeding 

'vants' wages, id. cattle, per acre7f< ^4- 

,Fer each pigeon cote, 6t. Rapes, each . pound in 

•7s. 6d. or Ids. accord- price. Is. 6.d. 

ingto value;, Do.wboD^aten.p.acreSf. 

For each cow, 3^. . JI.eqip^ildIiDe,peracre5i'. 
Eor each calf. Id. Potatoes, per acre 6s'. 

For each l\Uer of pig?, CI(>v«rSeedaiKlwoocl,each 

flf. 6d, pcuuid in price, Is. 64. 

FosT each ^1, ]#. • Tiirnipfi^ccordiqgtovjdue 
Far each turkey. 14- ■ ■ - 9r pci* acre $s. 
Goose, Id. ■ for e^h Lamb,, 6d. 

J)jaA, Id. FQrea^deeceofifooI,6i/. 

For oacb ploif, 6d. • . For each «cre of p^sturcj 
QfohaMs Is. ie t\^ ^llpwiog for the suate- 

pound, price or value, nance of prpfitable 
Licorice If.inthepoundi stock. 3s. 
,pricp or v^hjBj 

On presenting fhe abcve j^tatetnent a consi- 
d^MMe degree of .jrhutjoa was excited. , It was 
9)»viou8 that , some of the dues claimed were 
Vbplly uiKttpforted ]>y previous usage an^ cua- 
' i«i^ mcto AS 'agistinent tithe, clover seed, nur- 
tffty. :»ad 9eed .ground; and Xhat others . were 
cfunffderably ws^nejof^d^ , as houses .closes, gar's 
4ms'jU3ii .tifriups. It is npt surprising that the 
ft^whioEiers should feel inclined to resist such 
^aii^s; but eon»idering tlie expence and uncer; 
ifnoty of litigations of tiiis nature, the leading 
giamlemen' >d«emed it most prudent to adopt 
^S^Ulptpry iTO^a^uresi and finally to determine 



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373 HBTORY OF POSTEFRACT. 

all disputes, it was agreed to obtain an act of 
parliament, by which the claims of the rectory, 
deanry and vicarage sliould be regulated ia Sa- 
ture. Accordingly the different parties agreed 
to receive oertaio sums of mooey in lieu oi 
their respective claims ; which sums are always to 
be regulated by the average price of com for 
the last seven years, as will appear by the follow- 
ing extract from the act, entitled 

^n- Jet far Dividing^ AUolting, and Iitclosiag 
certain Open and intermixed Lands and Grounds^ 
tcilkin the Tmimship of Pontefract, in the West 
Riding of the County qf York, and making Cotit' 
pensation for the Great Tithes cf the said 
Ijmds and other Lands in the Toti/tskips of 
Ponttfract, Tamhe(f, and Carleton, within the 
Parish qf Pbniefract, and also for the Vicarial 
tithes qf the said Parish, 

" It was enacted that the tithes of corn, 
grain, and hay, and tithes of every denomi- 
nation whatsoever, moduses or other pay- 
ments in lieu of tithes, arising within the town- 
ships of Pontefract, Tansihelf, and Carleton, 
due and payable to Lord Harewood, should 
cease and be for ever extinguished, and that in" 
lieu thereof there should be paid to him, ia 
the nature of corn rents, the sum' of one hun- 
dred and fifty pounds per annum; also that the 
tithes of corn and grain, and tithes <^ every 
denomination whatsoever, belonging to Lx>rtl 
Harewood and Bacon Frank, Esq. arising from 
and within a certain disputed district of land> 
should also cease and be for ever «ctiagubbed« 



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HI6T0RY or PONTEPHACT. 373 

and that inliea thereof there should Jbe'paid 
sach yearly sum of money per acre, in the n&> 
ture of com rents, as should be equal upon aa' 
average to the . other rents payable to the said 
Lord . Hftrewoo'd' in Iteu of tithes within the said 
Townships of Pontefract and Tanshetf, and that 
for the purpose of ascertaining such sums of 
money or corn rents, the commissioners should 
Talue all lands and grounds within the town- 
ships of Pontefract, Tanshelf, and Carleton, and 
by their award declare what proportion -the 
lands and grounds within each of the said towti-^ 
ships of Pontefract, Tanshelf, and Carleton, 
should raise and pay .in a gross sum ; and then 
rate such lands and . grounds according to the 
proportion of the said annual sums which the 
township wherein such lands and grounds are 
situate should be declared to raise and pay; 
and should in their said afvard- ascertain and 
set forth what quantity of wheat would amouDt 
and be equal to the said yearly sums distinguish' 
ing the quantity of such wheat payable by each 
township; aqd then apportion, settle, and ascer- 
tain' the respective annual sums of money or 
com rents at the rate per acre, which each and 
every proprietor of lands and grounds should 
or- ought, upon such valuation, to be charged 
and chargeable with: And that an annual sum 
of two ' hundred and seventy pounds, free ffoaa: 
alt twees and deductions whatsoever, should be- 
afsessed and raised in like manner, and paid to: 
the vicar of the said parish for the time being, 
iff lieu of and as a full compensation for the 
vicarial or small tithes, of every denomination, 
belonging to the vicar, and Easter ofreringe; ■ 



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57* mSTDRY or POMTEFSACT. 

and tliat the said eommissionert Aould mdce m 
Taluation of. ail homes aod lands in PoDtefraqt, 
Tanehelf, Carietod, KnoUingley, East Hardwidc, 
Spittle Hardwick, and MookhfU, and in such 
part of Ferrjrbridge as lies within the said pariidi 
6f Pontefract, and sboold apportion, settle, ascer- 
tain, and assess the respectire anmud sams gf 
money which each owner and proprietor of such 
housed, and lands ought to be charged vt'uh, and 
thoold then ascertain and declare what quaality 
of >wbfet should be equivalent to the proportion 
of tlie said annual sum .which each respective 
owoOT and propiietor of houaei «ul lands should 
by such award be assessed to pay, in lieu and 
ftll satisfaction and contpcnBadoa of all vicarid 
or small titlicB, and Easter ofiieriags theff^iy ^^ 
tingoished/' 

Atioordtng to (tie purport and iDteotion «C 
the above act -oHnnussioners (vere appotated, 
a vttlaatfon t^ the parish was' made, and Ibe 
ii^wkig award rendered &ial. * 
' The commi;»ion«TB, on inquiry, ibud -that 
Ihe 'av«Bge price of wbeat> for the fourteen 
years- preceding the passing of this act, was.. six 
fhiifings and three halfpence per budiel, aod 
tliat 490&Kf. -Ip. Aiqis. woutd .be equal to one 
iMndred and 'fifty pounds, the sum to be paid 
to Lord iHarewood, in lieu of bis rectorial Aiftkes, 
which they ' -proportioned amongst the aevend. 
towMhips -in the parish as ioHows, 





Bm. p. fit. X .#. . 4. 


Pontefract, - 


- 203 15 or 68 S 4 


^MoDkhill, - 


3 £i or ^ S 



D,,,...,C.> 



BI9T01T 0* PONTEtUtfr. >TI 

But. p. qli. . £. $. d. 

Tanshelf, - - 76 2 6 or 23 9 

Carleton, - - 209 3 ^ 1 or 64 3 

490 1 5j ^150 

They also settled that the said disputed dis- 
trict should raise eighty three bushels and seven 
qoartSj equal in value, at the rate aforesaid, to 
twenty^fiTe pounds eight shillings and ninepence, 
which they awarded as rollows, 

Bui. p. qa. £. f. i. 

To Lord Harevood, 71 3 1} or 31 19 

To Bacon Frank, Esq. Ill 5< or 3 9 9 

83 7 .£25 8 9 

. These comiDisfriooers also awarded that eight 
hundred and seventy-three boshela one peck 
and three pints of wheat would be equal to 
two hundred and seventy pounds, the smn 
agreed to be paid to the vicar, in lieu of bis 
vicarial tithes and Easter offerings, which tbej 
•pread over all the houses and lands in the par 
rtsb, each township bearing tbe following pro- 
portions. 



On. <.. 


<iu. 




£. 1. d. 


Pontefract, - - 401 


n 


or 


124 10 II 


Tanshelf, - - 79 1 


24 


or 


24 9 2 


Carleton, - - 100 


41 


or 


30 17 6 


Knottingley, - 186 3 


Si 


or 


57 12 91 


East Hardwick, - SI 2 


4 


or 


\6 18 2 


Spittle Hardwick, 38 





or 


10 1 9 


Part of Ferrybridge, 17 1 


2» 


or 


4 6 10 


MonkhUI, - .33 


2J 


or 


13 6 


873 1 


Jl 




£270 



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97« ribTOEY OF HHrTEFUCr. 

A ZJsl qf Vicars since (he Restoration. 

Temp. Initii. VicinL hiraai. Vast. 

lejunii, laei. $aiii.Drake, CI. Rcx.C.2. p.mort. 

22 Jan. 167S. Francis Drake, A. M. Ideai. p.mort. 

ISOct. 1710. JahuDrake. S. T. B. Rex.G.I. p.mort. 

6 Dec, 174-2. Timothy Lee, A. M. Rex. G. 2. p. reiig. 

lOjan. I7++. Jtrfm Sturdy, A, B. Rex. G.2. p.mort. 

II Julfa, 1777. Thomas Heron. Rex. G. S. A.T-vi^i**^ 

Chantry, or Church of St. Thomas. 

This church wbs erected on tlie very spot 
where the Earl of Lancaster .was beheaded. 
No part of the building remains. The site may 
yet however be distinguished in the close, through 
which a footpath leads to Frystone, on the hill 
which sLill retains the name of the saint, and 
which will most probably convey it down to 
' the latest posterity. 

Judging from the site, this church ^peara to 
have been of small dimensions; but from the 
opulence of the family to whose honour it was 
rased, there can be no doubt of its elegance 
and interior decorations. 

The chantry was founded on the 20th of 
November, 136 J. in memory of Thomas EbtI 
of Lancaster, who had been a considerable be- 
nefactor to the priory, by the archbishop of 
York; who ordained that the prior and convent 
should find a secular chaplain to celebrate ia 
the chapel, newly erected on tiie mount of 
Pontefract, every day for the soul of St. Thoma^ 
which chaplain should in future be presented by 
the said religious, a month after the iirst notice 
of any vacation, and that the said chaplain 



=dcv Google 



nsToar or powtepract. WT 

should have for his support the sum of one 
- huodred shillings per annum, paid by the said 
prior quarterly. 

And on the 34th May, 1373, John Arch- 
bishop of York conBrmed the ordination of the 
chantry, in the chapel upon the hill, again&t 
Pontefract, foundbd by Symon Symeon, by con- 
■ sent of the priory and convent of Pontefract, 
' &c. . which said Symon appointed this perpetual 
chantry, consisting of ope monk to celebrate ia 
the said chapel upon the hill, whereon Thomas, 
late Earl of Lancaster, was beheaded, for 
bis soul and the souls of Elizabeth his wife^ 
and of John and Henry, Dukes of l^ancaster, 
which should ■ be called the chantry of Symon 
Symeon, and wherein there shall be one monk 
of the said priory, assigned by the prior and 
convent, to celebrate masses and divine offices 
in the same, &c. 

For whose siistentation he gave in frank 
almoigne, to the said priory and convent all 
his messuages, tenenieats, land and rents, which 
be had in the town of Aothwell, viz. one me»< 
saage and twenty-four acres of land. And in 
Oulton one messuage and twenty acres of land. 

^nd in augmentation thereunto, John Duke 
of Lancaster, &c. gave five messuages and sixteen 
oxgangs of land in Midelton, juxta Rothwell. 

All which was likewise confirmed by the 
chapter of York, May 25, 1373. 

The religious (as the monks were called) do 
not appear to have been satisfied with the ap- 
pointment of a secular priest to celebrate in this 
chapel, nor with the ordination which im- 
posed on them the sum specified . for his sup- 
c c c 



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878 HMTORT Of MNTOFRAOT. 

port. On the 19th January, 1418, a new ordi- 
nation was made, thai instead' of a secular priea 
a monk of the said monastery should be placed 
here to celebrate, and who should only rebeive 
the sum of forty shillings per annum ftvitt tW 
same bouse *'. 

A Catalogue qf the Chantry Prieits. 

Temp. loiiit. Cappellani CtiCn. Faeroni. Taeat, 

7 Dec. 1361. Dns. Joh. Vylher, Cap. PSrCdePip.redj. 

ISMar. 1S67. Dm. Joh. Ttiorpirdi, Pr. littAD. 

1 Meui, 1381. Dni.Tho. Spellarde AcDmCap. iiilviD. p.mcrt. 
6 Julii, 1409- Dns. Will. Sunnyng, Pr. lidem. p^redgb 

16MaiijU13. Dus. Hob. Kilieiton. lidem. 

SL Nicholas' Hospmi 

This hospital existed before thi ooiH|aea^ 
but by whom built or endowed ddea not appearf. 

Robert de Lacy, or, as he is tdso ciVed, 
Robert de Pontefract, was a considerable Ijene- 
&ctor to the hospital, in the time of Heary I. 
tfnd haa by some writers been' considered' tU 
fennder of it; but it is cleftr that' it ma 
built before this period; as the Ciuniac monkx^- 
who Were brought here in the preceeding reigUi 
resided in it till th«r own house was fit for 'their 
reception. He gave, to the monts the wacie^ 
ship of this hospital. 

Henry de Lacy, son 6f Robert, eonfihned 
the grant of the hospital to the pnory, for ttis 
use of the poor; and granted to the aoonk, 
who should have the custody of it, one roark 
of silver, twelve hopes of bread com, and twenty^ 
four of oats, on the feast c^ St. Martin, yearly* 

• ToKss's MSS. Collect. f LtXAifo'l Jtiu 



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: Jd .the eighth of Edwanl I. the king granted 
free wairen '- to iiobert Woodhouse, the keqier 
of this hospital, in certain lands within the ter- 
ritory of Castleford, which privilege was after- 
wards given to the caoona of Nostall, 

-In the -thirtieth of Edward III. Henry Duke 
of Lancaster granted the gift of a certain livery 
to the two rechises in the house of St. Helen, 
in Pontefract, called the Blanch Liveries, which 
belonged to his donation, as lord of the honour 
nt Pontefract, to he paid eveiy day' out of this 
bospital, for the fmdibg of a priest to celebrate 
divine -service in ^le chapel of -St. Helen for 

. In 4he eighteenth of Henry VI. 1438, the 
king, by letters patent which were confirmed by 
th« whole of' the parliament, gave this hospital, 
to the prior of. Nostall, with the advowson 
anA all 'the estates' therett> belonging, amoqnting 
to ninety-seven pounids thirteen shillings and ten 
pence per annum, to be converted to their own 
use, the canons paying out of the profits thereof, 
to the lopj^ and his heirs, as Dukes of Lancas^ 
ter, twenty marks per annum. They maintained 
here till the dissolution a chaplain and thirteen' 

• -Dodo.. Bar.. It appean iroBi v4)at Dugdale ha.i dialed; 
that tlie house dedicated to SL ^elen wag only the babilation 
of two rccl^ises. Tradition has not even convened the name 
of this house, much legs the particular spat where il stood, 
.down lo posterity. Two closer!, in the comniission of enquiry 
Ite^teding the tilbei belonging to the deanry, made in the 
feign of H^ry VIIJ. aie called Si. Helen's Flab, and ap- 
pear, from the boundaries specified, lo join the township of 
Dairington. Was the habitation of these recluses situated 
hcie? This is not improbablej and will account lor the nwne 
nnpowd on theie ilatt. 



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S«0 HBTOHV OF PONTEFIIACT. 

- poor people. Their revenae is stated at 'that 
time to be the same as above mentioned. 

A Catalogue qf the Wardens of this Hospital. 

Temp. lailit. Hatri. Hotp, Fitniai. Vint. 

Dns. Tho. Tawlon. P.&CdeP.p.mort, 

10 Mail, 1433. Dn). Will. Boihe, CI. * Rex-H.4. 
Dtw. Tho. Toveton. 
M. WUI. BoOw 

After the dissolution of the religious houses 
by King Henry VIII. this place seems to 
have been entirely neglected, and its purposes 
and institution much perverted and abused, 
which caused the corporation to endeavour to 
obtain powers for its better government an«i re- 
gulation, and in tlie charter granted by King 
James, in the year 1605, there is a clause for 
vesting it in the corporation*. 

By a deed, dated Sep. 19> 1650, made be« 
tween Thomas Cook and twenty-fonr other 
gentlemen, appointed trustees by an act of par- 
liunent passed for selling the fee &rm rents be< . 
longing to the commonwealth of En^and, for- 
merly payable to the- crown of England, duchy 
of Lancaster and dacby cf Corawatl^ or any 
five or more of them, on the one part, and 
Matthew Frank, Robert Frank, John Scarr and ' 
others, comburgesses of the borough of Ponte-; 
fi'act, on the other part. In consideration of 
eight hundred and twelve pounds seventem 
shillings and threepence halfpenny paid to the 
said trustees, by the said comburgesses, the said 
trustees granted several sums of money to be 
paid yearly foi* ever, to such pers6as as wew 
• See Charter. 



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HISTORY OF PONTEmACT.' S81 

tliftrein named, out of divers fee ferm rents, pay- 
able for divers bouses and lands, in Winterset, 
Crofton, and West Hardwick ; and at] that 
tenement called Saintingley Grange, &c. and 
alt other lands, tenements, meadow-fields, and 
pastures belon^og or appertaining to the late 
iponastery of St. Oswald, at Nostel, &c. Also 
all the rectory of Clifton, with all the tithes 
of hay, grain, pullets, eggs, hens, and ducks in 
Clifton aforesaid. Also all the tithe of graid of 
East Hardwick Hoods, being a parcel of the 
rectory of Pontefi-act, &c. viz. (amongst others) 
£. s. d. 
To the curate of this hospital, -' - 5 
Toeleven poorpeopIeXl-65. Sif.ayear, 14 13 i 
To two servants to attend the poor people, 4 

Mr. Edtrard Holcots gave the annual sum of 
twenty shillings, to be paid out of the rents 
and profits of a olose in Bailygate, Iat« Mr, 
Richard ' Saltonstalts i thi» twenty shillings is paid 
every old Christmas day. 

The following lands also belongs to this bos* 
pital. 

Eight half acres of land lying in Ferrybridge 
Field, with a stone at the end of each marked 
N. H. now rented by Mr. Peter Dunhill. 

A garden at the back of this hospital, and 
two other parcels of land lying east of the 
brewery, near the castle, late in the occupation 
of WilKam Needham. 

December 29, 1671, Mr. Nicholas Stablest 
by his will, gave to the poor of this hospital 
thirty shillings yearly, to be paid out of the 
tithes of Blind Hardwick, on every Christmat- 



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3B3 QHTQBV OF POHIVFBACT. 

eve for ev«-j aod on the llth Feb. 47IH. Mr. 
'^ViUifun Stables, , by his will also, ^gave.a.&rtber 
niiR of twfi^y $hilIiogs out of the qtKirq titbe>. 

April 4, 1748. Mr: W^iltiam (Stales, haTing 
sold tbe ^td tithes to I^rd (3alli^ay Inee from 
the above juGumbrances, he by deed tn lien cS 
and in .fuU .aatis&ction for the said ^y shillings, 
granted and conveyed to the mayor. . aldermen, 
imd burgesses, and their, successprs, a yeiirly 
rent of fifty ehtllings, issuing and .payable 
out of certain closes, called Baghill ' Closes, in 
PuDtefract, free from- all Dedoctioos whatsoerer, 
in trust nevertheless for the poor of St. Nicbo- 
]as* hospital, to be paid yearly at Christmas* 
with power to distrain on nonpayment. 

Also a reserved rent of fifteen shillings per 
annum, paid by the vicar out of the rents and 
profits of a close at Darrington, exchanged wilb 
ahe> Reverend Mr. Drake for a bouse near St. 
Giles* church, now' pulled down. 

Jane 8, 167^. Mr. Thomas Sayle, <rf .Phi. 
tpfract, chandler, by his will gave one bnndred 
pounds -towards rebuilding and reedifying this 
'hospital, which was done soon after. 

Lazar House. 

In. the fourteenth of Edward I. > 1886, Heurf 
^ L^cy built a Lazar -House 'here, .aqd .tjedi< 
$9ted it tO' St. JVIary Magdalene. , The order 
pi St I,azaru5, of Jerusalnn, seems to haw 
been founded for the relief aod.support of lepen 
{wd impotent persons of the miHtary ordei-. 

Anihbishop John Romain granted an indnl- 
g^ee to all those wlio coatribuled to the -RBlief 
«f the lepers therein. 



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BVrcMtr OF POMTEFIueT. isi 

It appears prdnble thitt the hospital called 
Frank's Hofiphat is eitbel- the La^r Hobse, of 
has been bntlt oh the site of it. The figlirfe of 
a knightj OM 'in itone,'in' the nail, netrrly ai 
big as liftf, seems to jostify this contilusibm 
This %ure is now moch defabedj the arttts have 
befen bitoketk off and the head nefh-fy destroydtk- 

JfCnoUi*s\ or Trmify, Hospital and College. 

This hospital and college wdf feViilded h9 
the reign of the unfortunate Richard It by ^ 
Aobert KnoDes, a gentleman as illustrious (bt 
hib TaloM- atid military achievements, as fei^ h\i 
liberaliiy to the indigeht, and his regard tO ttrtf 
damw c4 piety*. According to Ijctend, lief haa 

^ Thit' &mily i« of Sa-ron origin, anil the haifie derivwf 
frool the terra' Knoll-, k hill, wh^ mix ti' ibe race vetltftiiC? 
In therd^n of fidwaid ]Ji. Robert Knolletwii conttdefed 
u one of the best genentls of the age, aiid the honour imA 
glory of the country.' In 1350, he was sent inlo France witi 
ah' anhy, Where he ifrort the French faerore him lite sheep, 
overwh^lnftig; theit to(Mi am) eitiei in itach niiinber<ii tha^ 
yean after the iharp pvMt*, and gaUe eodi of overthNnm* 
housei/ clofen' asunder with instnuuenli, of war, weiv coow 
raonly called Knolles' milres. The French styled him Le vm~_ 
table Dertrnn dc Gtitfre; M Ihe Imt IhatiAethiit of War. Hij' 
was n^B Senescai' of OtaiWtrie, by BdwaM; art* «Jmtfri*s9Mitdf 
to usiit John de Monlfort, in the duchy of Sret^gne, rH 
WMdr Wviee h* vf&rf' Cdnif^rly ctictensfii): Arid wa« t^ 
pbined l^ietiteniuif of Bretagne, and rewarded nith b fine estaM 
in the dudiyby Montfort. He assisted the' Black Princtf itf' 
tiw cortqiltft of Aquftaift,' He afterwardj joined tfie Prince of 
AngBulenhe, ohd dro^e- iKfe Prt;nch to Ai6 pAt^ of Partt. 

la &#' midtit of flX h!i succ««ei, b conibinattdn of yourftf" 
nobleittSi^ *h6 (Avied hil renown and laitnt', wa» ftiftn^'. 
i]pitat hhri; and all the arts of intri|;uft, caJumrij And ibiite- 
preseMSfioft, were mad* uSe of lo withdraw tht tdvrtjr of (he' 
priiK^e. MiS fain.- ¥ti» sccuMtions weic bcou^ ag^it hiir 



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3ft4 BinoKY or nnn-EFUCT. 

fnteodetl to erect it on his manor of Scoultborp* 
three miles from Walsinghain, but influenced 
by the desire of his lady, he changed his ioten- 
' tion, and to do her the greater hooour. erected 
it on the very spot where she was born. 

Whatever might be. the respect and honour 
$ir Robert intended to confer on his lady by 
this act of piety, the above mentioned historian 
has left a stain on her memoryi by describing 
her as a woman of mean birtli, of loose morals, 
of uhcliaste and dissolute conduct. Meanness of 
birth is not imputable to any one as a cnme; nor 
can descent from respectable ancestors be con- 
sidered as a virtue; it can only properly be 
accounted a blessing. A lady destitute of the 
virtues of modesty, chastity and rectitude, justly 
forfeits the respect due to her sex; and how« 
ever elevated her rank, her vices will cover ber 
name with reproach. Let us hope the historian 
has 'retailed scandal, and that the meanness of 
Lady Robert KnoUes' birth, gave occasion .to 
a censorious world to charge her with crimei 
of which she never was guilty. 

The charter of the foundation of this honse 

for embeizling the public property, and whicfa, by (he inquiry 
institnted, tended more to liis lanw and hU honour, than U 
his di^race. 

After being covered with glory as a con<|ueroT, be retired 
to hii family reaidence, and on the accesition of Richard II. 
be was honoured widi the order of Ibc garter. In the tumult 
excited by Watt Tyler, which threatened to subvert the go- 
vernment. Sir Robert was cme of tboie, whose prudence, cou-. 
nge, and good conduct, contributed essentially to preseiv« 
the king, and to nubduc and disperse the enraged populace. 
The city of London eiifianchiied him a member tbereoC in 
' expression oi their gratitude foi the service he had leodeict) 
on this occasion. KiwaitK.'i I 



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amosY or pontepbact. . 9^ 

was granted on the 30th April, 1385. It is 
called a chantry or college, and intended to 
contain seven chaplains or-fellows, one of which 
to be appointed warden. Also an almshouse or 
hospital adjoining, dedicated to the Holy Trinity 
and Blessed Virgin Mary, " for two clerks and 
thirteen poor persons, so made by mischance or 
scarpity, and two servitors to attend them," 

Id consequence of the charter and licence cf 
King Richard .11. Sir Robert KnoUes and Coo- 
stance his wife, obtained a like licence of John, 
Kitig of Castile, and Dnke of Lancaster, Lord 
of the Soil, to purchase of Thomas Shirwood on^ 
messuage in Pontefract, on ihe site of which 
this collegiate house was built, and dedicated 
.to the honour of the Holy Trinity. 

The founders liberally endowed the college 
and the hospital. They granted to the custos, 
master, or warden, the sum of twenty marks 
per. annum, ten to each of the seven chaplains, 
and .five to each of the clerks, for their main- 
tenance and .support. The .sum of thirty-four 
pounds four killings and fourpence halfpenny 
was ' allotted to the thirteen poor persons, and 
the two servitors in the hospital; and it was 
ordered that every one should receive out of 
this sum three halfpence per day, for his sup- 
port. They also appointed fourpence to be 
paid to each of the said poor, and their sec- 
vitors, on each of tbe ten principal ffasts. — The 
feasts of tlie Holy Trinity, Christmas, Easter, 
Pentecost, All-Saints, and the five feasts of the 
Blessed Virgin. 

The founders, not satisfied with providing for 
the comfortable subsistence of the poor, granted 

Ddd 



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ten marks per annum, far theif clothitlg tfid 
othef neresiSBritis, to be equally divided aitioDg 
them. They allowed to the two servaotB, Ibr 
their attendance, the sum of tWebfy^TS shilling* 
and eightpence per annum. 

They assigned for the endowment of thtf 
house, after the decease of either of the said 
founders, one hundred and two poanda ten ihil- 
lings, issuing out of their Ibnds and tenements 
Hi London t appointing the residue of the Talna 
of thes6 lands and tenements, to be yearly ap- 
propriated to (he use of this hottse, in repaira 
and buildings. 

They also ordained, that Vhe maato', chap- 
lains, clerks, the poor and their servants should 
receive a pittance of six riiillings and eightpet)ce> 
on the day of either of their atiniversariM. 

Also they willed that the prior and canoni 
of Nt>stal, and their suocesaors rtioaM enjoy 
the right of presentation to the warden^ip of 
this college i and that tUey sboald preaent on 
every vaoatiwi a fit chaplain withiti the Efncs <d 
fifteen days. 

It was likewise appointed tliat the matter 
Aoold have a seal appropriated to his office 
whereon shoold be engraven a rose, and the 
image of the Holy Trinity. This ordinatioa 
was confirmed by liichanl> Att^bishop of YQrit> 
en the 6th Oct. -1404. 

This college and hospital was built in a style 
suitable to the purposes for which it was it>* 
tended. A considerable part of the buihltDgs 
still remain, and give some &int idea of what 
it once was. The place now called the galle- 
ries was the residence of the master of the oat- 
lege and the six cbaplaim. Each bad lus sepa- 



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Him»y OF wovnnACT. %n 

rale cfaamlwr or cell, wh^re be coald retire for 
the purpose of devotion; and like other re|l» 
gious bouses, it ia probable there wm a coRi-' 
moil refectory, or dining room, where they 
all met together. 

What are now' called the brother and sister 
houses miut: have been the hospital, wheie the 
poor were provido^ with every comfort, and the 
sorrows of old age were alleviated by the kind 
band of charity. 

The church was oq a sniaJl scale, but ap- 
pears to bare been a n«al, if not an eleganf 
itFOCture. Dedicated to the Holy Trinity, it 
was esteemed peculiarly sacred; and here the 
wardens, chaplains, clerks, and poor, united ilj 
their daily devotions. What was once hallowed 
is now become profane; and the place where 
the sacrifice of the mass was offered, and where 
the Holy Virgin was worshipped, where the reli- 
gious, by their interest with heaven, delivered 
^ds from purgafory, is now degraded to a shed 
for cattle. 

At the suppression of religions houses, the 
revenue, of this bouse, according to Speed, was 
one hundred and eighty-two pounds thirteen shil- 
lings and MnreBpeooe'j «pd lifana'oft, M. S. 

* It wai endowed hy the grant of a manor in Bumbi»m< 
Ovety; the Lor[ld)ip c^ Dunton and Doketon, and the advow. 
mm at the vkaiige ; of Hiuwillei manor, in KeUetlone ; of the 
manor and ftdvowMn of &e rectory of Scidftorp ; of a water- 
srill u)d landi in Sheerwood; of ihe manor of Talterford, and 
df IwkIi in Tattctvile, all in the county of NorfblL. Blooh- 
piBis'i Kof^itk. 

hi London thirty.four thopi, in the parish of St- Mary 
OD 4m hill, belenged alto to tiiis hospital, at wdl as land 
■B PoatefirBct and Darrington. Tait. N. 

In Ponlefract six acres of meadow, in Fotffellii, bdonged 
to this house. 



niiizedbyCioO^tc 



588 mSTORy CV PONTSniACT. 

Valor, saitb there were at .that time a master, 
six brethren, and a sacrist. Willis asserts, . that 
the master and five fellows enjoyed- pensions. 

A Catalogue qf the Afasteis nf this ffospiial. ■ 

Temp. Littic Cuiiodn Damui. Pauini. . Vaat, 

Tim. Joh. de NewdiOTp, aliai P.&C.dcsN'.p.King. 
Studeman. 

17 Mali, UIO. Dns. Joh. de Siretton, Pr. lidem. p.mort. 

18 )unU, )il8. Dns. Alex. Rawden, Cap. C.A.p.hp. p.mort. 
IS Dec. 1419. Dns. Joh. Cudworth. P.&C.deN. 

10 Mar. 1447. M, Joh. Ladionie, tidem. p-i«ti^ 

S8 Jan. 1467. Dns. Jac. Clapeham, Cap. lidein. p.moit 

17 Junii, 1494. Dns. Rob. Cooke, Cap. lidem. p.mort. 

(lit. Apr. 1513. Dns,Tbo, Baghill, Pr. lidem. p.mort. 

4 Jan. 13^24. M. Tho. Huchoii. L. B. lidem. p.reu^. 

fcHASTRIES. 

Besides the masler there were six chantries 
of seven chaplains in this hospital, each pre- 
sentable by the founder Sir Kobert KnoIIeSi an^ 
aller his decease by the master of tlie cpllege, 
for the time being, and brethren thereof. 

J Catabgue qf the ^rst Chaplains, 



Temp. lonit. 


CipeUani Imi. 


PilnnL 


V««. 


20 Aug. 1397. 


Dns. Will. Spyter, Cap. 


D.R.N.MiI.p.moit. 


20 Mar. 1421. 


Dn«. Joh. Sadjlworlh, Pr, 


M.&C.D. 


5 Dec. 1419. 


Dns.Joh.WjIes, Pr. 


■lidem. 


p.mort. 


7 Apr. 1462. 


Dm. Ric. BUckbiun, Cap. 


lidem. 


pJoott. 


10 Nov. 1407 


Dns. Joh. Botall, Cap. 


]id«m. 


p.mo(t. 


9Junii. 1+86. 


Dns. Tho. Baghill, Pr. 


lidem. 


p-diuuis. 


13Maii, 1513 


Dns. Will. Cubberd. Pr. 


lidem. 


p.FC«ig. 


15 Mar. 1515. 


Dns. Jac. Tnlyll, Cap. 


lidem. 


PJttig. 



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HISTORY OF PONTEFIIACT; 



Tlie Second. 

Temp. Inilit. CipelUni SiU. 

20 Auff. 1397. Dns. Joh. Parljngton. 
14 Oct. 142S. Dm. Joh. Pountelrejt, Pr. 
28 Junii, 1464. Dns. Jac. Claphan, Pr. 
18 Feb. 1467. Dn;. Joh. Sokbum, Cap. 
S8 Maii, U84. Diis. Robert Cooke, Pr. 
27 Julii, I49i. Dns Tfio. Grone, Cap. 

M. Tho. Hochon. 
13 Jan. 1524. Dns. Rog. Marshall, Pr. 

The Third. 

Temp limit. Capellani 3iii. 

20 Nov. 1398. Dm. Alex. Rawden. 
2S Junii, 1418. Dns. Joh. Cudeworth, Pr. 
20 Dec. 1419. Dui. Joh. White, Pr. 
16 Feb. 1447. M. Joh. Lathum. 

Dns. Will. Foster. 

Dns. Joh, Sokebum, Cap. 

Dns. Joh. Burton, Pr. 

Dm. Walt. Brown,. Pr. 

Dm £dm. Gibion, Pr. 

The Fourth. 



nnoni. Tacit 
D.R.N.Mil. 
M.&C.C0I. 
lidem. pj«fig. 

lidem, ' p.diumi*: 
iidem. p.migi 
lidem. 

Iidem. p.iesig. 

lidem. 



Patronl. Vantt 
R. K. Mil. p.r«sig. 
M.&C. 



SO Jan. 1483. 
26 Julii, 1481. 
22 Dec. 1326. 
19 Mali, 1329. 



lidem. 

Iidem. 

Iidem. 

Iidem. - 

Iidem. 

Iidem. 

]iid^m.. 



p.moft, 
p.re«g. 
p.mon: 



Viett- 



. Temp. Iiwit. Gipenani 4ti. ntimi. 

J2 Nov. 1393. Dnn. Will. HaU. D.R.K. 

4 Feb. 1446. Dns. Joh. Cooke, Pr. M.&F.&c. 

l8 Dec. 1453. Dns. Robert Falne, Cap. lidera. p.reiHg. 

4 Maii, 1468. Dns. Joh. LejesvelLete, Cap. Iidem. p.mOTt 

lOOct. 1488. Dns. Joh. Blake, Cap. CoLp.Lap. 

Dm. Robert Moxoo. M^C.&c.p.mpit 

3 Oct 1505. Dm. Tbo. Howthon, Pr. lidem. 

Tlie Fifth, 

Tamp. Inalil. Capclbai 5li. . Pillanl. Vacat. 

13 Nov. 1399. Dns. Robert Freston, Cap. D.R.K.Mil. 

^Jumi.H44. Dns. Robert Benet, C^. M. 3zF.&c.p.mort. 

JJumi, 1479. Dns. Joh. Carver, Cap. lirlem. p.mort 

3 Jan. 1511. Dm. Rad. Dicwn, Cap. -Iidem. - 



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Mft BamMY or KmrsnAci. 

The Sixth, 

Tanp. Initit. CipelUai 4itt. FatiMi, 1 

8 Mail, IMS. Dnt. Robert 3e Hill, Fr. D.R.K.MU. 
fijan. 1448. Db«. Tho. Melamby, Cap. M.&F.&c 

Ona. Joh. Lila. lidem. _ _ 

4Mar. 146R. Dna. Ji^. Sharp, Pr. Ii4etii. pjowt. 

$ Mm, r2-28. Dns. Joh. Cowkepage, Pr. lidein. p.re^g. 

9 Api. 'I5S7. Dnt. Job. JiylMm, Cap. IkJein, 

October !S^, 1563. Queen Elizabeth, in tbe 
eixth year of her reign> by grant under seal of 
her duchy of Lancaster, after reciting that her 
commissioners appointed fbr tlie continaance of 
grammar schools, fresh appeals and other thtngi^ 
had appointed to continue one alm^ouse, ceiled 
Knolles* Almshouse, in which were maintained 
fifteen aged people, whereof two of the said 
fifleeo were servants to the rest, and that ever/ 
<Hie of the said fifVeen should have yearly two 
pounds thirteen shillingB and fburpence, did antfao* 
rize the mayor and conthorgesses, or chief bur- 
gesses,' (or the time being, from time to time, 
as the rooms of the alms people should happen 
to be vacant, to place, otbw aged, impotent and 
needy meet persons in the same roomt, acoopd- 
ing to the ancient foundation thereof, as should 
\^ thought most expedient. 

May SO, 1.574, Mr. John Mercer, by \m 
will, .gave to this hospital half the rents arising 
from a house, orchard, garden, edifices and 
buildings at AVhitecbapel, in London ; and the 
other half was given to the poor of Wbltechapel. 
The churdiwardens and overseers of Wbhechapel 
are appointed trustees for the same. Tlie money 
received is divided equally auaoo^t the poor 
people in. the said hospital. 



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WSftOKT Vf PORTCnuCT. SSI 

' ' By thie deed mentioned nnder St. Nicholas* 
hospital, dated Sept. 19i 1650^ is also granted the 
jearl; sum of forty-one pounds five shillings, 
which is paid to the poor people in this hospital. 

This Butn, which has since been advanced to 
the annaal sum of sixty pounds, is usually paid 
by the king's receiver to the mayor, for the 
time being, at Micliaelmas, who gives a treat to 
him and kuch of the aldermen, &c. as he thinlcD 
proper, at which entertainment are provided 
some fine red apples and natsj as it has been 
an ancient custom to present some of them to 
the duchy of Lancaster, this has given rise to 
an erroneous idea that the corporation hold their 
charter by this service. 

The mayor Immediately distributes this sum 
of sixty pounds, in equal shares, amongst th» 
poor people in the hospital. 

This hospital will, in the course of a few 
years, receive an addition to its revenues. John 
Whiteman, brickmatcer, has bequeathed the rents 
of certain houses, and the interests of certain 
monies to this hospital for ever, after the de- 
cease of his widow, brother and sister; who are 
to enjoy (he profits thereof, during the term 
of their natural lives. The following is the 
clause of his will, in which this bequest is made. 

" And lastly at my said wife's death, I give 
and bequeath all rents . and interests, to be 
paid ia half-yearly payments by my executors, 
or their heirs, as befim named, to the Trinity 
Hospital in Pontetract, to be distributed to the 
brothers and sisters of the said ho.spiial, share 
and share alike for ever, subject only to the use* 
fill and necessary repairs of my aforeaaid hauns,** 



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S9Sr mSTOBT OF TOSTEF&Aiyt- 

From the prorisions of the wilt of (be said 
John Whitcmaii*, it appears that on the demise 
pf his widow, the rents are to be appropriated 
to the use of the poor of the said hospital, 
paying out thereof the sum of two shillings 
per week to his sister, and the like sum to his 
brother, If living. 

The poor of this hospital wilt, from this be> 
quest, gain a dear income of twenty pounds 
and upwards per annum ; a sum which, added 
to their other resources, will contribute much 
to ^leviated the anxiety of old age, and to ren- 
- d^r the winter of life more serene tmd [leacefaj. 

Bead'House Hospital. . 

Tliis hospital is situated at the bottom of 
Micklegate, and has eight rooms, in which are 
placed sixteen poor people. 
There is a small parcel uf ground at the 'bat^ 
of this hospital belonging thereto. 

Also Mrs. Favel gave a garden at the bottom 
of Slutwell Lane, called Favel Garden, which 
is now part of Mr. Seaton's grounds, and for 
which he pays the poor of this hospital four 
pounds per annum. This payment is paid to 
the vicar, who distributes the same among&t 
the widows, who'are exclusively entitled thereto. 

* J(^n Wliiicinaii was a native ofPonteFract. and had 
by diligence and - labour acquired the property specified. 
Having no children, nor vny relatives likdy to preserve what 
be had industriously acquired, he was induced to leave, all la 
llie hospital, in which two of his uncles and his brother had 
lound an assytum ; and he hoped should any of his remote re- 
lations be reduced to want, the town would provide for ibcm 
ii) the Mine haiue. 



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H»TOItY OP POKTEPRACT. ^93 

Thwaiics' Hospital, in Newgate. 

May 20, 1620, Mr. Richard Thwaitea, by 
bis will, gave two cottages, divided into four 
rooms, and also two gardens Ihrereto belonging 
and adjoiniDg, for an l>ospital for four ancient 
.poor women, wlio shall be single women, to 
dwell severally in the said four rooms, and have 
£qual shares and profits of the two gardens. 
Also ao annual rent, to be paid by htt» heirs, 
out of the rents and proBts of a close, called 
Taoshelf Well Close, adjoining to Pontefract 
Park, of twelve horse loads of coals to each poor 
woman in the said hospital, for their fire, yearly; 
^and also forty shillings a year, to be paid quar- 
.terly, on the feast of St. John the Baptist, St. 
Michael the archangel, St. Thomas the apostle, 
and the annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary, 
to them and their successors for ever, towards 
their relief and maintenance. Three of the said 
poor people to be placed in the said rooms to 
be taken out of the town of Pontefract, -and 
the fourth of them out of Tanshetf, at all times 
for ever. And in case the said coals should not 
be brought regularly to the poor people by his 
.heirs, or the purchaser of his copyhold estate, 
Uien the trustees therein after mentioned should 
receive three pounds every year, ont of ihe rents 
and profits of ihe said Taoshelf Well Close, and 
therewith procure the said coals for them for 
.ever. The tpistees appointed by the said will 
were bis heirs and their successors, so long as 
there should be any of them remaining. And 
in case of a failure therein, then the mayor and 
vicar of Pontefract, for the time being, and 
E e e 



D.n.iized By Google 



S9# HtfMiir OF pomtrnmr. 

Henry Frank, his brother in law, and two senior 
aldertnen, during the life of the said Henry 
Frank; and the thfee senior alderffien, after 
his d^th, to have the sole dirfidtion of the- sftid 
hospital. 

It was decreed l^ the comtuinioners of 
pious uses, by an inquisition tAken at Smutb, 
April 10, 1674; that Mr. Thotnas Ward, the 
Chen possessor of Tahshelf Well C1<we, his b«u« 
ftnd assigns, and the ovftier and oMtipier of the 
said close, shall for ever thdreafler pay and 
stand charged with the payment of three pounds 
yearly, to the poor woi»ien of the said hospittti; 
and the mayor and vicar of t^ontefract, for the 
time being, and three senior ^dermen, or the 
greater number of them, be perpetdal trustees 
for the said hospital. 

Frank's Hospital. 

This liospital is situated at the bottom of 
Micklegate, and formerly contained only one 
apartment, in which were placed t«r^ poor 
iTomeu; 

It is supposed to have been left by Mr. 
Matthew Frank, formerly an alderman of this 
borough, and the donations of it are>— ^One 
ga^th at the back theieof; a liquorice garden, 
near St. Nicholas' hospital, celled the Ball Garth} 
and an house at the bottom of Micklegate. 

There is also another hospital adjoining to 
tlie abovej supposed to have been built hy Mr. 
llobert frank, upon part Of the grottnd left by 
Mr. Matthew Frank, abore ittentioned, and is 
cttdoAred as feUt)Wfti 



D.n.iized by Google 



B19aK}aV .OF POKTEPSACT. -SfS 

Norontor )6. 1630, By a deed made be- 
tween Leonan) Ward, of Pontefi-act, on ^ one 
part, and Roben Moor, gentleman, then mayor, 
Matthew Kay, of Begball, Richard Frank, of 
Campsall, gentlemen, and Oorotby Frank, of 
Pooterr^ct, widow, on the other part, reciting 
that Mr. John Frank, alderniao, deceased, b^r 
bis last will, in writing, beaping date Janaary 
l&t I6U, did give to tlie poor of Pontefraot 
fifty pounfis, to be paid by bis bop, Mr. Biob. 
Ffenk, within two y^we s6er Me de«ih, out of 
lauds is f'enwfC^ and Norton, to tbe elwrdi* 
vran^ew of -tlte tiowa of Pootefract. for the time 
being, to be bestowed in Ueds or otherwise, tn 
and for the , uae . efonesaid, by (be irayor. ef 
Pontefract, for tbe tinu; being, and by Matthew 
Kay. ef ;Brotbertoa, and by Henry Fraak, his 
brotliec, :snd R-iohard Frank, hie son, qt t^ to 
aoay nf -them as ahould be tben living. And 
b« will wM that the said £llty pounds or Jacrif 
and profits thereof, should y>esrly rem»in to the 
vss aforosaid br ever, to lie djistributed by tbe 
Qonaent af the jftid mayor, and bis hem. And 
fiirther . recttiog that the mid Kidiard f nuak 
had idready -paid tbeeaid fifVy poundis into ttw 
bands of tlie said Qorothy, his mother, by the 
ocaueat of the. satd chiiFchvanleDs; and that stie, 
«f bcr own free will, had given ten pounds 
more to the use laforesaid, nfaiieh said Jinns 
Made together sixty; with which the aaidniaysr, 
Mr. Kay, and Richard Frank, .witfa the assiitr 
HCB of the said Dorstjiy, [had agreed w^fa the 
taid .Lesnaai Ward ibr the :|Hirefaftse uf Abe 
lauds thereafter mentioned. The said Leonard 
Ward, in consideration .of the said Msly jHuods^ 



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39B HISTORY OF PONTEFRACT. ' 

did convey one acre of arable land at Beckhill, 
and two acres of inclosed ]and, called Long' 
Clo'^e, in St. Thomas' Hill Field, abutting upoa 
Monkhill Lane, to the only use and behoof of 
the said Robert Moore, Matthew Kay, and 
Richard Frank, and their heirs for ever, npwi 
trust, that they and the survivor or survivors 
of them should stand and ,be seised as feoffees 
in trust, to the only proper use of the poor 
people in Pontefract, for the time being, for ever, 
to be distributed by tlie mayor, for the time be- 
ing, and by the heirs of the said John Frank. . 

Although the above donation is to the poor 
of the town generally, the rents of the land 
have been distributed to the poor people in this 
hospital, out of respect to the donor. • 

Robert Frank, Esq. by his will, dated Dec 
26, \737i devises to his daughter Margaret and 
her heirs, the above mentioned cottage or tens* 
Bienti which he had lately built in Micklegatev- 
in Pontefract, for an almMtouse, wherein he bad 
placed or put Susanna Firth and Ann Porter; 
Wo poor widows, for. their lives. And also alb 
bis, the said testator's trust, estate end intereat 
of and in the closes oi land above mentioned, to 
have been purchased with the said sixty pounds* ^ 
for the use, and in trust, and to the intent 
that the said Margaret Frank, her heirs and as- 
signs, should pay and distribute the rents, issoesj 
and proBls thereol^ to the said Susanna Firth 
and Ann Porter,, for their lives; and after their 
decease to such' widows as should thereafter be 
placed in the said almshouse, in the room and 

* By what righl had he (lie di.tpouF of this land. Scf 
the before menlioned deed, Nov. 16, 1629. 



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HISTORY OP ■pOMTEnUCT. 39T 

place of her or them so dying, for ever, auch- 
rents to be paid halfye^u'ly, at Whitsuntide and< 
Martinmas. The electing, placing, and dis- 
placing of the said widows for miEderaeanors, to 
be in the said Margaret Frank, her heirs and 
assigns, the mayor and three senior aldermen, 
or combuTgesses, of Pontefract, resident in the 
said -town, for the time being, and their suc^ 
cessors, or the major part of them, . ' . - 

The testator also appoints the oame persona 
and the vicar of Pontefract, and his successors, 
to elect and place the poor widows, npon vacant 
cies, into the alm^ouse in Miclclegate aforesaid,- 
founded by his great grandfather or great uncle^ 
or one of them, as also in the almshouses in 
Kaut MaHcet, in Pontefract, founded by Mr: 
Cawper. 

. Ai^d he also declares that if ilie rents- and 
profits of his close, called Rancal Pits, should bo 
let ' for: Jour ponnds a- year, then he chargei 
the same with the payment of ten riiillings 3 
year,' to the' said poor widows, in the said alms- 
hoiase 'for ever, to be [leid by his said daugbterj 
Margaret Frank, her heirs and assigns, out of 
the rents, -isgaee, and profits of -the: sarnie close.' 

■Cixtper's, or- Bult's, Hospital. 

■ Mr, Robert Cowper, of Darrington, by his 
will, dated Miiy 20, I668, gavg two cottage5 or 
tenements, in Pontefract, for the use of four poor 
widows of the town of Pontefract, and appointed 
Samuel Drake, D. D. John Ramsden, John 
frank, and Robert Tatham, gentlemen, feoffees, 
to elect popr widgwe, of the town of Pontefract, 



D.n.llzedbyCt>OJ^IC 



90t RmoBT or nvTsnjusT, 

when and bs often ss vacancies sbouM iidppeD ia 
either of tbe said two teBeaients; Hifl did lifce- 
wiss deaire .and appoinf -thst wben any of ^the 
8aid_ feoffees die, that the surviviog Aoraber ehaH 
have power to elect another ta act ia his stead. 

And he also gave uoto. the wid four poor 
widows ibr ever, twenty ehillmgs each 3'«arly> to 
be paid by his heirs, out of his close at Para- 
ton Jacklin, for the repairs of the «aid cotte^ei, 
and tfaeir relief for ever. 

N. B. This twenty^ dnUuigs eftch 4o tbe 
above iM>or widows, is now paid oat of the rents 
and profits of a close, ia Bailygate, in lieu <^ 
the above lands in Purstoa> «very Cfartstmas-Cve. 

Mr. Robert Frank, son of John frank, 
t^ his vnl]*, appointed ;the following persons 
trustees for the above hospital, (but 'qtieiy 
by what power) — Tiz. Mrs. Margn«t Frank, 
btB daughter, the ni^yar, for the time beti^ 
tbe three senior aldermen, and tbe vicar, for tbe 
time - :bemg, of Ponta&act. , 

TIhb ho^itd was situat'cd at a :pIaoe -dbr- 
ncHj calted Boner Hill, in the, middle. of Ibe 
Seatt Fair, where :tbe Corn Market ia now heU, 
bst being ia. a Tery minoai stiUie, as vrti\ as 
inconvenient in point of situation, ia the year 
1765 it vitis ipoUed down, and a .neir hospital 
erected at the Butts, at tbe expence of tbe 
town,, ia lien of tbe oU one, nrbkb ca^ the 
Mm of niaetjr povads. 

P-er/ecCs,Hosfiilj4. 

This {lOBpital >is situated at .tbe bottoes -af 
Midtlegate, and was boilt in the <yett 1667, 

* See the chuse of- hit wUl^ndcr f«iik'« HarpiUL 



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soCTOST M ponrmucT. . 391 

at the j6int expeace of lihe tovm and the cor* 
poration. 

It i» called Perfects Hospital from the endows 
ment thereof by the )ate Alderman Wm> PertW:!, 
who by a deed gave to the corporation several 
bouses and' gardens thereto, situate near to the 
said hospital, in trust for the poor persons ia 
the same hospital; who were to be three poor 
antient decayed housekeepers belonging to tlitt 
towti of Pontefiact, and their wives. 

The placing and difplacing the said poor 
persons in the said hospital was vested in the said 
'WilMam Perfbct, during his life, and after hit 
death' in the mayor Aai aldermen of Pontefracli 
for the time being, for ever, who were made 
perpetual trusteed for Uie same. 

It is the custom when any of the poor peo^ 
pie in this hospital die, to remove the «ur<- 
Tivor into Knolles', or Trinity, Hospital, opoa 
the first vacancy that shall happen there, in <M^ 
der to make room here for another poor married 
Couple, and so from time to time, in order that 
It may be always enjoyed by three poor ancteot 
decayed housekeepers and their wives. 

J)r. WatkinsorCs Hospital, 

TTie latft Edward "Watkinson, of Aekworth, 
W. D. by his will, dated Aiiril 1765, gave (afr 
ter payment of some small legacies) all the re^ 
^dne of his personal estate,- after the death of 
his wife, unto the rector of Ackworth; the rectof 
of Hemsworth, and the vicar of Pontefract, fbr 
the time being; the mayor, recorder, and two 
senior aldermen, of the borough of. Pontefract;, 



,v Google 



400 HISTOST or POKTEFIACT. 

for the time being, upon trust, that they and 
his , friend Mr. Alderman Samuel Saltonstall 
chotild pQt the same out at interest, and pay 
^nd apply the produce thereof (after payment 
of some annuities) for the maintenance, support 
and comfortable living and subsistence of nine 
poor unmarried persons, of the protestant reli- 
gion, for ever J to be nominated, chosen and 
elected as follows, viz. the said trustees to nomi- 
nate and chuse two poor men and two poor 
women, who should live in Ackworth, and two 
|)Oor men and two poor women, who should 
Jive in Pontefract, and also one other women, 
:who should live in either of the said townships. 
10 be the servant of the said eight poor persons, 
and to wait and attend upon them as such; 
and which said eight poor persons, and their 
servant, should from time to time have the said 
interest, produce and dividends, paid equally 
amongst them, share and share alike. 

And the said testator wills and declares that 
DO married person shall be capable of being 
elected one of the said nine persons, and that 
it any of them do afterwards marry, that such 
■person shall cease to have any share in the 
said produce and dividends, and be displaced 
from having any benefits or advantage. 

And he also gives the said trustees power 
to displace any of the said persons guilty of 
any immorality, misconduct or bad behaviour. 
And also to fill up vacancies, so as there shall 
always be therein two poor men and two 
poor women, belonging to each of the said 
townships of Ackworth and Fontefract, and a 
piaid servant. 



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HISTORY OF POHtEFUCr. 401 

And be gives the said trustees a discretionary 
power as to the best method of perpetuating 
and perforaiiDg the trusts Of his will. and. all 
matters and things relating thereto. 

On Feb. 9, 1778, the trustees held their 
first meeting, to put the said will in execution, 
and soon afterwards purchased a piece of ground 
in Northgate, and built a handsome house thereon, 
under the ^direction of the said Mr. Saftonstall. 

On Oct. 25, 1779, the said hospital being 
ready for the reception of its intended inhabi- 
tants, the trustees nominated. eight poor persons 
and a servant to dwell therein, according to 
tlie said will, and orctered litem to b« paid tea 
shillings each every calendar month. 

The vacancies arising by death or otherwise 
tiave been regularly f^Ied up from time to time, 
and the trustees have laid out the testator's 
estate in- the purchase of South Sea annuities, 
the dividends of which are paid monthly to the 
poor people of this hospital, now amounting to 
fiAeefa 'shillings each person; and the trustees 
take cam to keep then" respective apartments 
clean and in good repair, rendering this place 
a desiiTable and comfOrtdAfle retreat to old age 
and infirmity. 

. ilte King^s Free . Grammar School. 

Pew 0^ our kings deserve so much the grate- 
ful remembrance of the nation as young Ed- 
wafd Vl. If the fmportilnde of a reign be es- 
timated from the general good that results from 
it, his reign, though short, is one of the most 
importaat' in the amials of Britain. It is true 

Fff 



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402 HQTOaY OP POMTEFUCT. 

it was Dot distinguished by Bpleadtd ennqaests; 
by the ntlergment of the nati«nat territory, 
at tke. expeBce of thouswiAs of its inhabitnnto; 
but it is rendered remarkable by .tke progre«. 
of the tldbrtnation ; by the piety 9tH^ benevo- 
lence uiiifonalT displayed; fay tihe wisdoip of 
those estnbl«<|M[l^t)ts, whicb. yet cootituie to im- 
s;,ruct and bl^i the riakig geiierafiton. 

Hi^ %her, Hwpy, OEq>Ricioiis sod inconsUoiti, 
acted r^Jiber fiiom. the imptU^ qf pawion^ than 
froTi). tbe cool aAd ftehbe/wte dictates of utisdoB^^i 
Wid tJKHigh.he threw ofF the yok« «£'the«pppA*ft 
wpremacyih«asGimed.ir hinoel^ and: uiHner<MfuIl5- 
i^d the blpodt of ttiose Aibrjecta vdUt Ventureil 
in the least t.o< deviate from tbe ereodi wbictt. b^ 
prescribed. The spoils o£ tbe Catbolio Chprcb 
fiJled hiii qoSers; and the pefcrbnage h^en^edi 
V bead of tJie Qhnreh he estaUi^ed^. gam IHmi 
additioaaj^ ^ar/er, aod' every thing in :ctMfch 
and state pias sul^ject to, bis despottd- wH}. Ed^ 
ward, iQ evecy tbing th^ ileverae of his fatiiei\i 
^isp«»-^te, fbastft. haoa^ and. piaaK bad- ttm 
vitdoiB, ta:folL9tv. tlm advice of his coqaseHora^ 
ud the ipdinpitiot^ to execate tbe .^lanfi< whidli 
diey form^, H^.nce 'aroae'tJMse.escQUAit instin 
tutions. Free Grammar Schools ; and fcwwerplib* 
towns of any importance, but what bad in this 
reign such schools erected w»d endowe^i One 
was erected here, in tbe second year of bis 
reign, and va^iatu ot^fi /wiUiiti, the:' H(>ai<»V of 
Pootefi-act, . 

. Xhe eadowm^t of, tb^^. school! w^ sn)a/1;i tW 
9Mm of ^yrni^e. shillings of4y. beiQg . aBOufdljii ali 
lowed ta.thc; spboolmasten.. Jt cpfitinM^-.wJtkon^ 
itpyal^rai^on,tit|tt^ fifth^oj: ^zgjj^ptfai < ^ j cymi 



D.n.llzedbyGOOl^lC 



■nranr of WKTimuon 4ot 

plkiof'tnls made nf the hwtticntidn and i^igenee 
«f the scko^mBSter, to the ChMicellor of the Dnt- 
diy, and in doruequence the right to present a, 
suitiiMe Blaster was vetted in the mayor arid *Mer- 
Mai. The follovring is an abstract of the %nAt, 

" And forasmuch as we are crediidy in- 
ibrtnad that the schoolmaster, whidi now ser- 
veth in the sam^ does taot his endeavouc and 
ditigenoe in the due edacation and bringing up 
Of young diMrea there, according to the thist 
cotnmitted to him. We therefore considering 
tlie same, minding reformation thereof, and also 
good education and bringing up of yonng chiU , 
dren ia virtue and godiy learning. And having 
a trast Mid confidemie in our mayor and 'com^ 
burgesscii, or chid* bargesses, of the said tbwn, 
fwir for the time beibg, and which hereafter 
flhall be. Do by tb^se presents fot- ns, our heirs 
mad successGTS, by the advice and consent of oar 
ohancellor and council o( otir said dutchyi 
tothoriae our said mayor and comburgesses 
«f oar said town, for the time beings 
and which hereafter shall be, that they from 
time to time from henceforth shall by theti- di- 
rection and wisdom appoint such a sober, 
discreett learned, able person to' servd and 
be & schoolmaster in the said town, as ta thetn 
shall seem good and best for tbe education and 
bringing up of young children there from time 
to time, in virtue and godly learning and eda- 
cation, aa they will answer for him firom time to 
time at their peril." 

No addition was made to the endowment 
ttU the twenty-ftfth of Elizabeth, when un the 
pstitioa of Boniface Savage and others, severaf 



n.iized by Google 



404 msTOw or powrBnucT. 

small endowmeots of schools, which had been 
wholly neglected, were appropriated to this, that 
a master every way quatiged to teach and in- 
struct the rising generation might be obtained. 
This grant is too curious to be omitted, as it 
contains, some interesting particulars respecting 
the town aud castle. After reciting what bad 
beeti done by Edward, and noticing the small 
salary allowed to the master, it goes on, 

" Whereupon the chancellor and coBneil of 
this court persuading themselves iliat if tlie 
small stipends were collected and put together, 
the same would maintain a meet, learned and 
sufiicieot schoolmaster and usher, which were 
not only a matter very laudable, but also a 
great benefit to the country, and weighing and 
considering how the Queen's most exceHeoft 
Majesty is and always hath been, of her princely 
disposition naturally inclined, and ready to nor* 
ture and further the education of youth ia 
learning, virtue and godly life. And ibr tbai 
the said borough and town of Pontefrw:t, £r 
OBtf of the greatest and most populous borought 
qf her Majesty's said dulehy in those part^, ni 
which town there is the most stately castle 
and meetest house for her Majesty, her beirs 
and successors, to resort unto in those northem 
parts of England, and yet the said town of late 
is very poor and most decayed, being the most 
meet and convenient place in those parts to 
have and maintain a Free Grainmar School, wbicb 
shall greatly tend to the honour and dignity of 
her Majesty. And that hereby her Majesty's 
lenity there shall in respect thereto daily have 
most occasion to remember her bi{(hDess'a godly. 



D.n.llzedbyG0l")^IC 



HBTOSV OF P<HfTBPBACT. 40f 

dnritaUe, virtuous and princely acts, end be 
daily iiioved up and > stirred continually to pray 
for tiie long and happy continuance of her most 
royal person. lu consideration whereof th« 
chancellor and council of this honourable courts 
having well and deliberately considered of the 
premises, and thinking it very meet and con- 
venient as well for the maintenance and angmeo* 
tation of the. said Free Grammar School in Pon- 
tafract, as- for the caases and considerations afore- 
said, at the humble suit of Boniface Savage and 
others, the inhabitants of the said town of Poq* 
tefract. And for&sroach as the said Boniface Sa- 
vage, as well for himself as in the name of all 
others the inhabitants of Pontefract aforesaid, 
hath undertaken and faithfully promised unto 
the- said chancellor and council at bis or 
their own cost to make and furnish a &ir 
•chool-house within the said towjt of Pontefract, 
which ' shall be a sufficient, meet and able place 
for that purpose; and the said school-house so 
furnished from time to time to maintain, repair 
and continne for ever; Do in this present term 
of Easter in the five and twentieth year of her 
Maie8ty'5 reign, order^ and decree in manner 
and form following, first that there shall be a 
Free Grammar School continued within the said 
town of Pontefract, and a godly learned school 
mdhter and nsher to be chosen from time to 
time to teach and instruct the youth there, and 
that the same Grammar School for the better 
meniorial of her Majesty's most gracious, vir* 
tuous and princely disposition for the careful 
bringing up of youth in learning, piety and ■ 
godly tiSSf shall be called by the name of The 



D.n.iized by Google 



BDost «9@llent Princevs Qaeen ElisabetliV Fms 
School in Pontefract. And that the stid yeftrijr 
stipend and pension, amoantidg to tke Bom of 
twenty-fire pounds seven killings and tiropenoe 
of hvfful money oi England, shall -berrsAer dii> 
ring the contimiaQce of the *nid Grammar 
School be yearly paid and allowed to tlte mu- 
ter jiDd Usher c£ the said school and their sao- 
cessors there for the tine being, in manser and 
form as hereafter by this present decree is set 
down and declared. Also that The Bigbt Ho- 
Donrabte . Sir Ralph Sadler, Knight, now xhan- 
cdlor and all odiers which hereafter shall b« 
cdiancellors of the said dulchy shall frooi time 
to time nonituBte and appoint <one suiGoent 
meet and able man to be schoolmaster tlKr^ 
during the pleasore of ihe Queen's Majesty her 
iietrs and successors, who ibr his stipead - and 
wages shall hare twenty pounds pared bf the 
•aid twenty-five poonds seven shillutgs aad two> 
pence, to be paid unto the said scbooloiastBr -by 
the hands of the particular receiver of the Hcoonr 
of Pontefract for the time being, at two usual 
terms io the year, that is to say, at the feast 
of St Michad the archangel and the anmndik 
tion of our blessed Virgin Mary, or within 
fifty days next after either of the said feasts 
by even portions, and that the residue of the 
said sum of twenty-five pounds seven shillings and 
twopence be paid in manner and form albresaid 
to one meet and sufficient man to be usfaef 
there, to be from time to time elected and cltosen 
by the mayor aiid brethrea of the town of P«i> 
tefract, witli the advice and oonseut of the school* 
master there for tbr time being. And tjui tfaii 



D.n.iized by Google 



BKVOW or nmiiuHMCt, 4W 

order and decree ihaU'bc a snfiicient warrant and 
diflcfaerge- as well to the Mtid particDiar receiver' 
of cwr uM SovereigD Lady the Queen's Majesty 
her hein aad &iicces«ori of her and tbeir pos*- 
Mwiotuir pwcd of ber Higlmcsses dstcfay tif Lav* 
'OBtcr ia tbe said .cowty of Yovk for the time 
being, bath, iat the true payment yearly to the: 
said achoehnastsr «f and in the said towft 
qf Pooteftatft ' and his and theis GucceHsors for 
the thne being, being aahootniaater of tike nid' 
Gireniinar Sdhool for tbe said sum of -twttn^ 
pounds during so long time as be or they or 
any of then sbaffi continue n;hooltii aster or 
achaojaiaalttrs of tbe said Grammar School. AnA 
aha to ,lbe: usher there for t5e time being ftr 
the tvae' puyasent yearly of the said aam of finer 
poandsi linen Sittings* and twopence, daring so 
Ibng a,'<tinie' atf the. said osber shad continue 
therej Aildi^o to, the auditor of the posr«»' 
siofv ef tbe dutcfajr. in the north parts tor tii« 
tone- hekigt ta..maiie unto the reoeivor. due an^ 
reasunabla altowaaca yearly of and for the payu 
nent of the said sums or j-eariy pensions aoii 
coiidiBgSc^ 'fironided always that if at any^ time 
hsmaften iti-ifaBH bft thooght good* t« belt M») 
jostyi hM Iieica.and: auccessoesi to detepmine aftenu 
i*an!3,to wHJbdraw or diminish this her Ma^sty'd 
meabtigtmivaa' gift^: or tliat tbe said mayor «t 
bfethtenj shaU. be negligeoti or. nemisa in the 
wdl -itepainni; ' or mBintenauce of lAire said! 
ikfockhauqc, cr in fbmiahing of the sam« as 
Bi ttefere'.pvemixed. and appointed, that Chen.Ji 
Aail, andi may: he faiwiiri for' the cbamwIfDr and 
csQnsik ef. the said dutcfay for tbe tine hnkg 
uHied tai:sae the tmtte: eed^essed ted teboiBN^ 



D.n.iized by Google 



40S HISTORY OF PVEVTUFUOT. 

or else to call in and make frustrate thii pre> 
sent order and decree, any thing herein .con- 
tained or specified to the contrary Dotwithstand- 
ing. We have given and (specified by these pre- 
sents the form of the aforesaid decree and or- 
der, at the request of the aforesaid Bonifiue 
Savage and otlier inhabitants of Pontelract. Id 
vfitness of which we have made these oar let- 
ters patent. Given at our palace at .Westtninster, 
under- the seal of our dnichy of I^ncaster, tbe 
last day of April in the twenty<fifth year of oar 
reign." 

' From this period . the school oontinued to 
flourish, or otherwise, according to the talents 
and industry, or inattention and neglect, of tbe 
Tanous masters appointed. The above grast or 
oharter took from tbe mayor and combui^eases 
the right of appointing the schoolmaster, and 
such right remained with the ' chancellor, of tbe 
dutchy. The schoolmaster was only to be pro- 
^rly qualiOed for his office^ nor Was he in 
khe least bound or restricted to any partfcnlar 
branches of instruction. : . 

In the lapse of a centur^ the school again 
fell into decay, and for some yedrs ino- school- 
master appHed for the appointment. .Tbe'iDb»> 
hitan^, desirous to restore this ioundation, and 
to render it permanently useful, again petitioned 
the dutchy court, and engaged to rebuild the 
school and to purchase or erect a boose fer the 
residence of the schoolmaster. The. petition of 
the' inhabitants was .gracibuely receiv^,- and in 
the thirty-second year of Jiis present. Majes^, tbe 
flcfaotrf was 'refounded ; and a charter* was granted 
containing rales and negnlations 'for its. better 
government in future. 



Hinoinr-OF fontefbact. 409 

By this ebarler the mayor, recorder, alder> 
men, and the vicar are appointed curators; and 
theii* office is to superiotend- the &aid scbool, 
and tO' see that the rules and regulations an- 
Bested. to. the said oharter are strictly obsenred. 

The appointment of the schoolmaster is re- 
serred tb the chancellor of the dutchy; but as 
a neoeasary qualificatioQ fqr such appointmenti 
he must hav« taken the state, and, degree' of mas- 
ter of arts or bach^l^r of lafivs in one .of the 
uaiversiliies*. . ■ 

.The rnunber of boys oa this foundation ia 
iiiarteent >.one of which ,is : to be taken 
jrom the Charity Sdiooli and educated free from 
^ .'exptncev . the rdmalRder are -to pay one 
gvineai per annum .fiK- being tuight the Gredc 
awl latin languages; and sach as Jearu writing 
and arithmetic; are to pay one guinea more. 
The admission of such boys is by ballot 
among. 'tbe curators, and the boy that has a 
majority is elected, But no boy can be chosen 
unless tbe parents are legally settled in the 
townships of Pontefract or Tanshelf. 

The schoolmaster is not permitted to teach 

* Tbia clause of the (barter, by limUing the objects of 
(Mce, muit uniicffinly operate againit the proiperity of (be 
initituliou. Those clergymen who have been trained up is 
the habit of teaching, and to whom the intlmction of youth 
bai become the chief object of attention, are generally much 
bettei qualJted tor wch ail office than giaduaiei in the uni- 
▼enity. Should luch graduates have devoted their time to tbe 
Mudy of the dasuci, and ihould Ibey have! attained general 
knowledge, their inexperience in the art uf teaching will len- ■ 
der it an irksome talk, in which tbey engage with leluctance, 
andfrom which they depart wilii pleasure^ Whoever frnmed (hit 
charter, ifthey.had connilloi the interest bt the tewn, should have 
aj^xunted any ckrg^an, prpperiy qualified, eligible to Uie office. 

egg 



D.n.iized by Google 



410 BSBtoKt ■&tvo»ranaar:'- 

the English Gramiflar, WHtirigfttw* Anthtmtic. 
separate from the learned 'langwages*'; but' is 
obliged to take any otber boys, besides those 
on th<i foundation, -belonging' to the towns of 
Pont^fVaet and Tanshelf; for the additionta raw 
of orie guinea. 

A\1 the children art to be instrocted^ in U* 
P^tttestant religion, according tb the rites and 
cetetciMxeS of the chorch of Ehgland. 

John Priestonf* P*" Altofta, irt'tWs county, 
gave some lands in this town to the ISninf^y 
College, Oxfordj fbr the mtrintenaiHM of one 
Aflbrt or'' exhibitioner, to' receive OQt of ' them 
' tan poonds ti'year; benides thtf use of a chamber 
and exemptions from rII decrements. He bnik 
arnd endow^ a Free School at Nonnttlooi 
He 1^ five hundred pootjds to iwrdiasfr' ttteoiy 
five pounds a year, for th< m^iirtenance of one 
fellovr and two sdwlars in Emanuel's College, 
Cambridge; the said feHow atid scholatB th be 
amt out of Normantoo, and for want of audi 
thcire, then oat of the F]%e Schools of I^te- 

*' This rule narrow) ^ad confines tlie advantages of this 
school. Many in the town might wish to have their children 
Iwght Englith, writing and ati^metK,' witboot being put to 
the n}»enCe of a cIsMcal edueatiori. By this lule (be ibiMlUi 
of the gradot part' of the inhabitants mra wholly deprived of 
MDj benefit from' this Gramroar School. Woold it not be * 
^neral advantage -to ihii school if nich chutes were dlwnnut 
led? Wonld it not be wise md' piu^Ait ih tbs iittnUliMt 
to ap^j- to. lbs 'Didcfa^ Codrt, thM such odnr rrgt^Btiem 
mi^t be Mfc^tod u 'wooM r«xler the FtM Granritsr Sdiaei 
• sn iiutitution of' general utilitj-f Wliile this chaH«r ransanii 
and the' limitations' it cootRini are in pikctice rtgatdbd, it 
will never be of any esaentiU BdvuitB{«r to the Ibwtt. 

t He was'desodnded ftom ail ancient &«lly, the Lonlffef 
MendhH»/in SuffiiU;, and died- tba 37*' of .BBn^Mli. t«»K 



n.iized by Google 



Bisnnnr or.mfiRBiiuer. 4ii 

fraot, Wkkefield, Leeds jqnA Acftlierbatb, or any 
pett-af-Ma ominty. i .- 

-The Charils School 

'■■ It is' not-'OertfUD whan, or by whom, this 
Uboo) ita^'-fii^t' fireotedt 'T(Mre jc'nft mebtion 
bf such a ichciol prior lo the- year ^70$. Wrt- 
Imm Barf -bf'^tiraffiirr), br «i)l, dttted the 0tb 
or SepterAber, 1695, 'tit.\AlA-\\\» favofirabje and 
charitable 'disposition to 'ithifi -town, gave and 
devised ■ U(jtici"the mayors and-' aMerraen tbesum 
tif'^t^o IftHRtr^ -pound^ towaids the repatrsvof 
the gi^t '«l^uAib, if ,Cbe 'tiVsteee, n^ffied in his 
t^flf, '^dtild W'weir 'a^niii^ OH j^yment tberaof 
tTiai the iiel19'!chTtroh ' wobid be i*epaiKd^ and 
eoitet^dy'-'D^etl^ as other: dyBrcfaes'ivere 'for tba 
performance of divine servioe. 
' '-Id the'3^i'"17t}9;' ttife(«rbeiiig'-tH> likelihood 
h^ tfiis jeh^rth b«4t>g <^pbir«d, -the 'Honourable 
Thomas 'WetttWortb, the M^fduftiy legfa^ tif -the 
Stfid-Eiarl 't^^traffbrd, !n regard f6 th6''fneinory 
and ptou! ■intentions of the safii Earf, 'and wishi 
Mig^' that- the'said tu^o ' hahdred potfnds 'itaij^t 
be emplWyed ■ -for charitable purposes, 'fof' thi^ 
benefit '-of -.^hti 'poor-tff 'Pohteihlet,^ instead 
bP'appIyiny ii' to- his 'own use) aS-he .oftf-tainly 
might have done, paid this sum to the cor- 
poration, on , t^ejc giving; a proper indem* 
nity,. to the: intent th^'titlie int;^reH ithere^f 
might 'beiLanoually ■. eq>plo|!ed . in And about 
some good <^aritaUe sn^rcaking-'intbin the 
ind town, eillher in 'setting up a ,'s<:hoot or. a 
Workhouse. - - • 

, In consequence thereof the oorpQration, by 



n.iized by Google 



412 BUrOBV or TONTSraiCT. .: 

deed dated the ^tH Angu^, l^Oft; af^r recitiog 
the above particulars, did grant ihn thiiQe closesi 
called Town's Closes, to the said Hotwurable 
Thomas Wentworth,. aq4T>,fiip . l^gal representa- 
tives, as an indemnity for the payment ^f the 
said 511IB; and it" ^vas byutto HQlQi d^ed de- 
clared that.itbe nra5t>r, pecprdej*, .iiffar ;«"<! *-h» 
two seuKK; [aldermen ipfPontefract.' for ib^.time 
beibg, should be trustee^ to mai^ev .expend 
and lay out. the ' said ioterest ,monif^ for the 
benefit of such Charity Scbool or WorUH>as& 

The uid trustee* i:w<ere,;#]so^n)powered tsi 
lay out th@,.saidi.tHVr Jiandred ti^wMs io ;tbe 
pio^hase of iapd. Hsd iM9P\y ^ii!^^ ^ ^ 
purposes, aforesaid, ratidtiiv-cfGe'tfaie; f^ chti^ 
«houM' bie rebuilb (he .Jaodts. so .pprcbased were 
declare liable to l^. payment pf iiite-rWd: two 
hundred pounds, ,,, . .'. '. in .- , 

This, b^t^est , app^arFi tp baye l^id.th^ fftun- 
d&tion,i<{)fi ithe .^ClKirjity School. It.icapqot be 
^puln^j')bi*t,: tl)f,;ipei!9bna ^euttoQ^.Jaid out 
^;,.jnon€gfi in'|aftd„( fra- wliich lapd ihejr of 
floows/.becsfnf; trustee?/, Tbe • foHffvripg i^ a 
tist .^f ;l|b^,..dpnatiot)^,iiqolMsire.,of;;|he above, 
which,, have „b^ .mR^:,;tQ -(i^ ;.«Qba9{.i . and 
wliatAYer |ai|d&i,tt[^fe p^rc^M^ yf't^ SHdi dona* 
tioQ^ tb^y must h^v^ A>P^ in^e^te^; ^iiitti^ same 

trust*.:; ,., ;., .. I..;,!. | ,;■ ■„ ^■„ ,,;, 

* Thoiigd there can. tie no, 'doubt lliat flie persons men- ■ 
Honed m fhe deetl of I'ele^'^re ttie'%al (rdsleei oT the 
luidl beldngitig lb (liJi *cMli^;iit is ^ingUterthat Ibcy are not 
in, ,poueis)ion/of any one -dq^ of conTCj^n^e- <Is >t not pro- 
bable, tli^ •« .the death o£ ft«cprder Frai)^, ,whep ihe oiSc^ 
wfiich he Had" kept here was given up, and all' the t^Tit!D2t 
in bis possession were conveyed to Cwnpsall, such deeds w«^ 
conveyed al«^ '■■ '>']' • ; 



n.iized by Google 



£. !. d. 

Hod. Tho. Wentwort*, Aug. 45, 1790, SOO 

Patientios Wafd, Esq.iFeb. 7, 17114 8 .0 

Mr. Wtn. Stables, Alderman, - :7 3..Q 

Mr. JnMjph I^lge, Sep. 3^1712, .. 8 .10 

Mis. Ettziibetli Adams, Oeo. 12, 1713,. i 10 .A 

MadiinzSanl.WifaorJ^.SuiitEaq.juo; 3 3 -jk 

MrkSnahiShsrpassiWidow.Ang. 171:6, 20 4 

Patieirtlqs Ward, £sqj to|tut,Qut;ap^) „. ..:!: 

. jwtDiKw,. Aug. s,.. 1717, f , :, 

PatieQtiux Ward, 'Esq. for the same) ^ ^. . 

...purpose, Aug. 2, 1719, , J 

Mrt.CMherineFairil, 1784, 2o 

Mn, AattaViokerB, by w*U,.May21,) o a a 

172S, i , 

Mr„Bi*apd Sbillitoe, late, of ShprlO ■ . . . 

,stoii„Sep. 21,.17«V jiu u u 

Pa)tie((tias Ward, E^ Opt. 1,J725, 10 . 

Mrs..Si(rabC^-lex, Not. 3B, J7»i )0 ((„'<(. 

Mr. Jolin|Slavdey,;Nov. 26, 1728, .., 10 10 'Q 

From an unkpowft person,, :I?ee. 18,) . , J 

1728,. S , ' , 

M/s.Dofdthy Frank, by will, May 3,1 jg j „ 

Mrs-'Aime'towtherj j^pfillS, 17^9, . 3 0' 

Mr. Wilson, Jnlvj 2, 1,729, ; ■ - «'-" 
Jqhp I^o^yther, Esq.' by will, Oct. 16, 



Mr. S^filson, 4nlv,2,l,729, '. 21 6'-tf 

■ loVwther, flq.byiill, Octl6.>, — -"' 



Mrs.ltlizabetK,' Perfect; Jan. S, 1731', , ■ s'' 3('(J 
Mr. Soiomdh IJopeir, Jiinc 4, 17S8; ' lOO'' tf 
Mrs. Mary KeUarn,bec.'28, 1732; ,' 5 9, 
Frorii an miknoWn person. May .27, >" «„' A » 

.1736, ■ S 20.. o.„o 

Mr. Scholey, educated as a Charity) j^q ^■- ' 

Boy, . ^ ) ■ ■ 

£6Di-'n . 



nitizedbyGoOl^IC 



This 'Charity School, besides the donations 
Made toh,' t^ receiv«l ctttMdenible- dbpport 
from aoQual siAbcrib^si and every ahiBvial snb« 
•briber of one guinea, ibas acted iu rfcoKJanctHm 
4vith' the propex* tnist^s.'i'iii the . r^uIatioA 9*d 
ttiartttgementi'Ofi tb^ md .Btriidol. . >The.. conduct 
at the trustees, imrdliaquiblMng 'their>.cxslBsipe 
Hghd of- management, '<deserv«i ooaaoenimfio. 
7bey hare acHed- on tbe<' olfvidus pridciple, tfarii 
when men ioluuiarily .giv^ their money '-fof any 
charitable purpose, they have 'aright to-aeetthai 
it be properiy applied. By this conduct "annual 
MibsOriptions are eocoBraged, ■ as the - flubeseribers 
Iwve full liberty to -recommend the' ehildteaijof 
the poor to the benefit of this charity.- ■ 
( After' the establishment uf this iiAffttitionf'^ 
bome time the children of- the poor were only 
instructed in 'reading, wrtting and" antfAoitkic; 
Iree from alt expehoe; but. the donations 'aiid 
private subscriptions 'at length -enabled''tlie'trus> 
tfees; not only to educate, but to ^lolhe the 
boys and girls admitted on this chanty. . 
<' A house, situate in -Mitklegatfe, was pnr- 
fiba^ for the mast«- of . this school; and jd 
the _year. J779 the present ^aciou? ' EbhookfoctiQ 
was erected ,on the ground . behind It. 
^ When' t\\e King's ' Grammar School was' re- 
i(funded»> the tnuteey of this charity . appropriated 
9pe .-.bundled' and fifty pounds from its funds 
^wards the erection of thei>aid Grammar SchooL 
The nuiober of boys and' girls admitted on 
this'fbundatipn is regulated by the state of its 
fioances. I( it- usual for the childreo adtpitted 
iit receive their coats and gowns, and on<i pair 
•T'Sboesou St. Thomas* day^ their shiAs, shirts 



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and ano$V<^ P^ir. of shoes at Midsununec; the 
girLo their aprons, handkerchiefs and- caps at 
Easter; and the two oldest gids alternately at- 
tend in the bouse of the master, ia order to 
learn the necessaiiy work. 

Children are admitted into tfai»: .school. a% 
the age of eight years, . and remain until thejr 
are fourteen; and tf then put ot)t apprentice it 
is the custom to give one guinea dong wittt 
them. 

The following is an' account of lands,. &c. 
now belonging to this Charity School, exclusive 
of the annual subscriptions. 

LANDS, &C 

A close in Purston Row, 

Do. do. 

Do. and piece in Bennet Ings, 

Do. at Bagiiill, 

Do. in Darrington Lane, 

Do. in Upper TilytbeB,. 

A Garden in Bailey-gate, 

Do. northward, 

Three eights of a close at Dar-) 

rington, let for £S. per ann. J 
A close at Darrington, 
Do. under Wenthill. 
D6. at Cutsyke, 
Lady Betty irasting, annually. 
An annual payment out of land \ 

at Ferryb. by Dr. JefFersoo,} 
Do. by Mr. Poppienvell, out of ► 

land at Spittle-Gap, j 







RENT, 


A. 


R. P. 


£..f.d. 


3 


36 


12 12 


3 


Ifi 


7 10 


1 


1 25 


5 


3 


11 


16 


4 


1 IS 


17 


1 


I 32 


6 


1 


1 13 


9 





I 23- 


1 1 


4 





3 


5 


3 31 


11 U 


2 





3 


4 


3 6 


5 
7 



34 10<£l04 19 O 



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416 mSTO^IT OF POKTSnACr. 

BEQUESTS AND DONATIONS. 

Talbofs Charily. 

In the thirty-second of Elizabeth, (1590,) 
George Talbot, Elarl of Shrewsbury, by his will 
of this date, appointed the sum of two hun* 
dred pounds, to be yearly employed for ever 
unto the benefit of the poorest artificers in the 
town of PpDtefract, for the increase ot trade and 
occupations there, that is to say, that the mayor 
of the said town and his brethren, or the major 
part of them with the mayor, by the assent of 
the Earl of Shrewsbury, lor the time being, 
shall upon Monday in Whitsun week, pay and 
lend to every poor artificer of the same town, 
io far as the said money will extend, five 
pounds for the term of three years next fol- 
lowing, putting in good and su£Bcient security 
for the repayment thereof*. 

Sayle's Dole. 

Mr. Thomas Sayle, mentioned as a beoefactor 
to St. Nicholas' Hospital, by bis said will, June 
8, 1673, gave one hundred pounds to the poor of 
Pontefract, the interest of which to be distributed 

* Ducsale's Barun. Whether this bequest of the Eari 
or Shrewibury wat ever paid lo the major, and dbposed of 
in Uie manner directed, is not known. Theie it not r won) 
relating to the above beqiicst in any or the books now belong 
ing to the corporation ; and if the two hundred poundi bas trta 
been appropriated according to the will of the uid Earl, it 
luu been lost either for want of sufficient security for tbc re- 
payment thereof when leiit to poor aitificen, or iinjusti/ ap- 
plied to some otbci purpose. 



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xasmn of poirrenucr. *n 

atnoitgst them by the mayor and vicar; for the 
time beingi every Chri«maa for ever. 

The said Thomas Sayle omitted to appoint 
trustees to receive the said one hundred pounds 
on which flocount a commission for pious uses 
Was held et Soaitb, arid an inquisition taken the 
1 8th April, 1674, and it Was decreed that John 
Frank, Esq.: therf maj'b^, Saninel Drake, D. O. 
and William "Vfilkinson, should stand and be 
tmstees to recfeive the ^aine, and that it should 
remain a stock' for ever, and the income and 
pro6ts th«e6r '49G distributed yearly, by the 
mayor and 'the minlfter of tbe town, for the 
4imc bei&g, and their successors for ever. 

Some years afterwards the trustees applied 
the money to different purposes thani those in- 
tended by the donor, ' and ' another oominission 
for piou# Dses was held -at fiarbsley, on the Snd 
Juhej 16?8, and a debnwtal order was then 
made that the said one hundred pounds should 
be paid to Mr. Thomas Jackson, then mayor, 
Mr, Drake, then vi(!ar, AidiaI'd Lyie, Hastings 
Sayle and Thomas Sayle, who soon after the 
receipt thereof ^ould purchase land of inherit- 
ance of the clear yea^y valoe of six pounds, 
to the' ute of' the said Richafd LyIe, Hastings 
Sayle and Thomas Sayle, the mayor and vicar 
of Pontefract, dtiriag the natural lives of Richard 
LyIe, Hastings Sayle and Thomas Sayle, and . 
after their decease to tbe use of the said mayor 
and vicar for the time being, and their succes- 
sors for ever, in trust, Aevertheless lo and for 
the charitable use aforesaid. 

The said one hundred pounds was afterwards 
received by the said Hastings Sayle, who pur- 
a h b 



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^19 Bmoir-oi tOKTir^fiT- 

cha.«d tbc' close beceifter tBe^Uoaied .therewith, 
and by his will, dated July. 2^, .1724, did give 
bad devist untb the' pdor ctf Poift^aet^ ' one 
close in I\irst6n .i«<iKlin, caljed .l^q^: Clow, 
:then in the ponecuon of Kob^t L^rrjmAn, to 
-lieu Hhd cohsideratiooi, b( :apd . B^i^fBOtiqp ((fr 
the ssid^ ctne hundred :t>c|Htds,: bq; r^oeived bj 
tbe testator, HmsUm^ &ifj«f ^d: giv^' h^ the 
siid Tbdmas Stiyle..«s,Atorci9tli<t' :.. 

To the intent and piHt)o«A tbat . tb9 mayor 
and -vicar of Pontefr^c^i fof: tbe time being, 
and tiieirsuccessira fyt" eVer, ttigbt aoqually re- 
■ccivs the rents ftnd- prvfiM tbereo^ th^n .about 
six ponnds, i^d distrtbute the 'fame yevly ti 
Christ mas. 

Septetnbet- 11, 1792, Mr. .l\'iU«m KUching- 
^am, by deed, ootifihned .the title pf.the' above 
dose to. the Bbid aayor! add vicar*. ^ and tt^k- 
suoceasors for eveiu is trtut fih: itbe.afG^ ]ie{ofq 
mentiooedb 

The corfMHtttMi bf PpntfeftaU )ntrcimsed «gU 
•Dres and a half of land, (i|u«ry: if tot :» dose 
:at PeMtoii-Kdwl^f six Aiiras two'rood .and ten 
petvhba^.and aolosein .Wdt £i«{d,< of two teres 
(MM r6bd Bad twtalvc pemiie^ i«. -tl^e West Fidd, 
of WiUi«D . York,. Eaq. ahd^Mra. HeptipstaQ, 
for tbe ive of the poor for . ever. . 

' Mr. Mm ^cafier'f Beguerti- 

Mn Jofaa AoHter; by ke vUU. gaw three 
bMfhelscf wtieftt.,te bev{>atd ana«ptU^ oiUnift^ 



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rents :itn(l fkf-ofitp vf hfs jioiue diKl ff^rdeti in 
MtcklegBfet^ (oflw the astern pwt qf Mr.Sea. 
toir^ hou8»' and. yard,) (O: ^ diatrihMted awry 
Ghnstn»a9j:by;.tl)e over5f«r3^<>f the pdor, for ever, 
to'bd manyipoor widoM-t in Muktegatie iaa they 
shall think nifist necylAiI. 

■ JIfw. Dtfntkff Frank's Bequests 

''-Mrs. Dorothy Frank, iby/h^ will dated the 
flft&of MAr(ih.'1788> gaw/one.hundf^ poundf 
t^'be leid'out/in laarl^ ths- reiits 'nnd profits 
tbdrdiil..tO:'iW fliHFibutefl v <^w»; thirty. shiU 
Goga'itD the ;C%iiirit^ Stiibcll qf Pontefi'act, and 
tba ie{naind«"£o Ifae. snaually. dHtiribubed to the 
poor .peop^l ai.Vm^.Uivtt.vS PiwteTract, at Christ^ 
hfffli'at: tiibi'dwnetibn'.of Ktibcrt ffrftnk, 'Esq. 
Iilkihcflaff' .Tondj Esq.' and -tlie .yiCKR\ni j^tobio* 
frmi^' <i&>t'.[|fad<>tlse:hflint> 4>bo. am' -appointed 
inisteet fe :tbfl ^ine. ^ ■ '. - . 

.!. lAiiclofte! aL : i>ar4i«g9»n ,iwas .fuirohased eS 
J^baa;:Wil^nk'fEH],,i«'>lhi.fbe e)Mie onelHunr 
')iU»d;^i»idls, .aitf., thirty ^^hiHings -JBipttid to the 
GbantyjSobobUii and did j(|nw|nd^ af if he rent, 
il!iis.^r«mih»d>i iSi;d)ttnbutieii ji«arly at Ae di»> 
eretulh bf MruFitok. :> < 

i;-.^T ■ ,! :,.;■) , : :■ . 

iSA*. t^hergiPf Dmaiion'/or the Appointment of 
■I '-' :^ n a C^ichia or' Lecturer. 

■■'■.<Tba Rflpetend Maraudttke Fothergil, the 
^Ropr|etlar'bf tha^ knd cail^ Prier Wood,, not 
iiaVnig :;any elpildrsii, and doiuidermg the 
8iky of the'parish' too greatio be discharged 
% the luB^iConMiyed tiie taod ahave ncntiooed 



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420 HISTORV OP PONTEFUVr. 

to the Archbishop of York, Sir Vfai. Daw», 
ia trust for the support and maiotenaDce of a 
catechist to serve in the church of St. Giles. 

By deed, bearing date Jan. 3,' 1716, after 
specifying' the reasonR which had influenced him 
to make the bequest, and pointing out the pro- 
perty, he then adds, " To have and to hold 
the said .messuages or . tenements .aAd cottages, 
garths, gardens, lauds, tenements, and premises 
abovi? mentioned, with .all their rights and ap- 
purtenances whatsoever to the . said' Str WiUiain 
Daweis, and his successors in the seel of Yor^ 
to and for the only prdper iise, benetitand be< 
hoof, -of him the said Marmadake'-'Fotbergil' and 
Dorothy his dow' wife for and 'during their na- 
tural -lives, and from and immediately after the 
deaths of ^em thb Mid- Marmaduke Fotbergil 
and Dorothy, then to and for the eeveral uses 
hereafter mentioned' aDd.dectaFediof-uid cnndem* 
ing the same (that is to say)- tol.'and fbr'^tfaa 
use of bis 'Grace ihe t^vtd Ahrtdnsbop' of ^ork 
and'his suose8sors>.f^r< ever, inltrast,' Uiat'-n^ei^ 
thelesi 'all the rentsj^'issnes and pra^' Ifaeredf 
itiay half yearlyi'be'-paid to for aiki tlowardathe 
support and matntoiahce of a - bhdtechist uiitliB 
chapel of St. Giles within ' the'' town bf iPdtdc- 
fract aforesaid, or in the parish Church of Pon- 
tefract witen rebuilti ,whom the said .Afobtisb^ 
of York and his siKtcessors,' fr«tg ^lime to time, 
shall and may always nominate after the deaths 
ofitlie said - Marmadake' •Fdthergil' 'arAl Dofethy 
his wife; provided that the said ariehbiibop .and 
bis successors shall and may impase such Airther 
obligation of doty as in his -wisdom be sball 
think iBoet rettsonable for the catechist to do 



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and 'perfonn m -the discharge of his 'offloej atld 
fer neglect op'omission -of ivdk dutyot^ tfhe Mid 
eaieotiist, the saHtnaretibi^iopil^itd 'hns<'suet;e^ors 
MtttI and may frbm time to lime proceed against 
._«Bo)i batedhist and catechists by what ecclesiastical 
censiire, -even to deprivation, as he or they in 
thoir^igr^at wisdom shall think voa^ 'expedientf. 
{»t>vlit«d always, and it is the troe intent 'attd 
zAeming of> the said: Marmadnke Foth«rg4^ 
that the said- Frier Wood and thehbuses, garths^ 
gardens, orchards, lands, tenenWiU9«nd>preniisast 
and all their appurtenances shall from time to 
time and at all times < be let-:ahd. disp6sed of 
without any foregiil . at tl>e ntniosi and' fiA 
improved; extended yearly, rent ani •mcotit&'lof 
iifs>'Gr:ice the Lord Archbishop of Yorlo ifer tM 
time being. ' And whereas t^ei parish' ofPonit^ 
fract aforesaid is too ^reat for^thd ■ooh discfawg^ 
of the v^r thereof, therefore tbe^iiaid vicar -^f 
^on't^ract shatl TWt-idi anif- timei\ be catecki^ 
neither ai the same .li$>m ■■Aall ■the ^dtechi^-.be 
S^earof. Pontefiait afaretiidi'. hah- 'the ^retpeiiScle 
discharge 'of.lkehi.daticsi sbaA aboi^t ite distin^ 
and executed by two df^erent persons. And the 
sai^ -M-dTWarfiAe'-^olbergil'fbr' nimself and his 
heirs doth hereby covenant, grant and agree to 
AadituiChtbeuidScp WillitunlDBiteSi ATcbbtsliptB^ 
and hisu supcessor^^^that: tbie laiidi'rAfanh^uke 
Fotherpil, at the time of se«^g;^9ll zf xepsting 
of these piesents, is and standeth^jliuvf^yjr.^ized 
of a good estate of itiherit^Dre, of ^b4 ,ia. the 
houses, garths, gSrdehs, ' orcha'rds; lands,' tene- 
ments and premises thereunto belonging, with 
th'eif find" itfvery of * tTiiiir appoftenan'ce'^,^ JEh Tiaih 
\a himseli' ^od right and full power and' laWfiu 



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0sa 

Mtboritjr to ^onrojri oMMe ««d ,4itpMt a£ tite 
pase'-wid^ereoTi iwt tbeiwC ,»> trust as albre- 
Mid, to ADd.for .the >Mff«»r&J:.ji4is.:aa4.uadcr the 
j»v«al .{in(jirfffin,:/ccHkti(MDSi r^tnctitms, and 
limitaiieRi .above <ineiUiQDed, .for wtd .Dotvitb> 
Irtaoditig .any: former er, other actt. or .thing 
jUibaitforra- by.faiin the «id MwnDaduke, Fotbergil 
Hr ihis KnigBS (ktoe ^r.adhjd to the, coiMcairy. 
J[^ iwimess •wtbcuevi' tbe pRcties <to these jiroaettis 
^tefotiaag«tbIy .have s^t their bdodi aocI' seab 
jSeit above wnfelea." 

. :**A]>6<a; lease for'a yeir, beariog! date tbe 
Bftid: oC lanoaty aforeBatd, made betweot tbe 
^d-Manoaduke Fotliergil of: the oae part, and 
tile aaid Sir Williiuu OlaweA, itdrchbishop of Yurie, 
4if;>(tHe'>iK)tber .rpast,' of the said' messuages .or 
'teaofeKntSr'icottBget,: gaitfas, gaidtae* ^orchjurds. 
%tids,'itebBi>teaits and pisemijes.. Whicii. said otr- 
^etttnre< ofi lease, and. release v are 'Witnessed' by 
ArtbuV iGvgrave;\Natbsaiel 'StafK^ly, .>M3tffaeir 
^iUHnsQtii Joha.Dickaock; a^d^.ftobe^t Stavel^. 
)paiHieiDeii, all of^ Psatefiwit lafonMaid*." 

SjigBedland sealedlbf tibe 'abbit?! noraetf >!Bdai«»> 
■-:.:'ilMw Fothe^il itt tbe':pr«eeaoe.of. iu»i 

v^^'joHN mcksoN. ■■ ■ '" -'■ '■ - ■■ 
;'',^^Am stAVEL£y,.j«Q. ■■; '.'r-,..',' 

. ., * i!rhe IvrQ Ifctuisc^ whicb,l)fH(e,beeD,^]^jilicd Qp tlwi 
^ionation,. iti noticed ii) il^ jDrakej'.pedigKe, jnac' 139. 



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narrwr «r POMTuunu 



TH£ PARK.. 



Unoivilized mat), impdlled rdtberiby hirwuits 
than allured by pleasiife* ardeilUyi pursuer thfe 
beasts of the foreu. HuntiDg<ii»y be coinidbii- 
ed as his necessary employment ;- abd. the g&ne 
ca^bt by : his Bj^ilityi dext«>ty and cuBoing, 
8s beii)g.,tbe cbW part of his wbsistaiice. This 
mnployaienti toilsome, a^ it is, yields bowevet* 
bot 'B precarious aq<)1: uncertain snpport; and 
when ' man has be^ taught to sui^ly his waals 
by^the fsultivaMw. (^'.Ihe g^eHKidt if it.b&'nQt 
wholly relinquished) it will only be pursued: «• 
an arousenMnt, (u^ fts ^q healthful cpEeroisa* 

The Normans weFe possioqately , devoted 14 
the sports of the field; and nothing can more 
strongly; establish the fact, than the conduct 
of William, who laid waete the county of Ham^ 
shire, and made it a forest < for wild beastl 
The nobles, like their tead^, 'Within their .do>- 
mains inclosed extensive districts to prtiservc 
the Jera natune, to afford them the pleasum 
of the chase. 

Parks ' have been defined, forests enclosed *; 
and were, called Haias dominicales. This .word 
Haia appeani iQ the composition of^ variety 
of looal names, under its dialectical difierences 
of bejh ^mft ffow, haigh. l\ is Uie Saxon Hte^ 
and means an hedge. Hence parkf< were called 
haigbs, Qif Recount of being . inclosed with 
hedges, as Rothwetl Haigh, which was the park 
bdongirtg to the Manor House of the Lacies, 
Heiu% Houghton, the village now called Glass 

' ' • Sm WatTASBK'l Wfadley. 



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Hnaghton, seems to derive its name, as b«ng 
onginally withiatbe incloaure of the haigh or 
park. 

;,To ouriroysf and baronial castles -ustialiy be- 
longed two paries^ one inclosiad'wiih a wall for 
'fellowdeerj t^ other for red. deer, feficed arotnid 
-with an hedge. 

, ' To the parte ais well as the forests were 
appointed keepers, and the; game vtka secured 
■b(r the forest ■. laws. A familj' of the name of 
' Hippon*,' whiah cante- lA with the Conqiierar, 
i»epe- hereditary keepew 'of Pontefi-act' Park. 
7hi? 'family resided at 'FeatheTstone; and con- 
tinuod' in: their'^ office uadel-'"the LaCies and 
Plantagertets, down to the tinwof Queen Eli2a> 
hkth,- when an account was^^ tMfcra of the deer 
and wood In the park. 

Rirks were usually driveh twice in the year, 
«ice before /eacf mdntfii and secondly aboat 
Holyrood Day. Fifteen days before Midsummer, 
and fifteen after Avere called fence month, in which 
•II bunting was strictly forbidden, the hinds 
being then either big with young, or having 
calved. On Holyrood Day the agisted began 
to take in cattle, and ait who had common 
right, f»me to the pounds, where a'Tirilof -the 
gates 'they were entitled to was kept. 

It appears that however teAaeious the barons 
were of their game, they allowed' their tenants 
the advantage of common right for their cattle, 
as welt within their ^arks tis in their- Waste 

* This ancient bmily, though its hcredilwy- office wm 
neither Tionourable nor lucrative, for ages continued to be r»- 
(pectable. It is now become extinct Id ihiV nei^flbauriiood ; 
ud the only branch of it lennining- Ten^ at Oewibuif. 



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nTTOBY at FOHTOFUCT. 42S 

landt. From this custom has originated the 
claims of fre^olders to a proportionate sliare of 
waste lands in a manor> and of laodholders to 
gaits for tlieir cattle in common lands. 

In th? thirtieth of Elizabeth a commission 
was issued to inspect and survey this park, as 
part of her Majesty's inheritance of the Dutchy 
of I^ncasterj ,withiu the county of York. The 
following gentlemen were appointed Commis- 
sioners, Anthony Thorney, John Kidial, £d> 
mond Tyas, Thomas Austwick, Thomas .£ther- 
ington, John Leatham, Willam Diliock, Stephea 
Crosby, John Milner, William Holgate, KaljA 
Airy, and Allen Andrews. Certain articles c£ 
inquiry were given to these commissioners, to 
whid) they returned the following answers. 

" To the first lu'ticle, the said park is distant 
from Pontefract Castle half a quarter of a milet 
but bow long the same hath been a park we 
cannot tell, but so &r we hare heard said, it 
was sometime called Pontefract Moor*." 

'* To the second article, the same rout within 
the whole circuit of the pates, seven hundred 
acres, whereof we think there is none may be 
employed for meadow f, one hundred acres for 
arable ground, and all the resi for pasture." 

" To the third wttde, we say that every of 

• It ^uiulil ieem from Ait, that (be ncten^TC tract of 
land railed the pwk, prior to the conquest, wu fennjr and 
waste { and moit pn^blj depastured hy the catde of the 
fanrgeutt. When the Laciei became the proprielon of the 
buigb, thii disliict wa> then wirouaded bjr a fon and paled. 

■f Sudi were dw RiitiaiCMtt of gti^iemtA and bmHn fb 
tbe ttigfk of Ehaafaeth! Tim laad now preducet m good 
crops of gnuiBiid ba/ as n^ imi ia te neJ^ibowhoDd. 



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436 BISTORT OF PONTEFUCT. 

the one hundred acres of aruble land ftnd every 
acre of pasture is wortfa by year twelvepeoce." 

" To the fourth article, there is in the palex 
about the said park, and within the premises of 
the same, one thousand three hundred and seventy 
timber ti-ees, whereof we think four hundred of 
the best are worth ten shiUings a piece* other 
fout* hundred of the next sort worth six shillings 
and eightpence a piece, and the rest at five 
shillings a piece. In fuel trees one thousand 
seven . hondred and sixty, whereof five hundred 
of the b»t are wortli to be 'sold at six sliijlings 
and eightpence a piece, of the second sort 
other five hundred at iive shillings a piece, and 
the rest at three shillings and fourpence a piece. 
Also four hundred saplings worth sixteen pence 
a piece, one hundred ash at sixteen pence a 
piece *." 

" To the fifth article, there is no manner of 
mines to our knowledge f." 

* At this period the beat timber trees were ooljr worth 
ten ihillbgi; at present they are not worth leu than ten 
^ndi. Wood was then plendfiji; nOT did the navy, Ibe 
pride of Britain, though then strong enough to d^icat tbe 
Armada, consume one thousand part of the timber whldi it 
now fcMind requiute. An increased population has turned ile- 
serts into fniitfiil fields; and though tlie country it thorn of 
its maiely otki, other ci -jntries are ready to cut down' thor 
fanati, and exchange them for tiie produce of British industry. 

t It is evident that these commissioners were not cotn- 
petent judges on the subject. Their answer however implies, 
that hilherto no mines had been formed. Since then coal bat 
been gotten, and there is no doubt, but a bed of coal nms 
ncariy through tbe whole extent of the park. It is ivobafale 
the whole might- be got by the mean of one sleata engine 
By the act tor dividing the park, the inhabitantt are defaaned 
from working any nine*; and the coal can only be got by m 
grant from the dolchy of I 



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HISTORY OF PONTEFRACT. 427 

" To the sixth article, there is growing within 
the precinct of the said park certain underwoods, 
thorn, maples, hazles, allera, and other brush- 
ment, but what acres the same be or what age 
the same be of, we know not, but we say that 
they are worth to be sold at sixty pounds." 

" To the seventh article, there was in the 
park in anno primo of the Queens Majesty's 
reign three hundred deer, and at this present 
five hundred fourscore and fifteen viewed by 
"William Mallet, John Tindal and Robert Hip- 
pon,. keepers 'and others." 

** To the eighth article, we say that George 
Jjord Talbot hath the said park by indenture, 
under the seal of the Dutchy of LaniJaster, pay- 
ing therefore by year four pounds three shillings 
and fonrpence. And further saith, that the town 
and inhabitants of Pontefract and Tanshelf have 
by custom common in the park, with their 
horses and kine yearly time out of man's mind, 
from the feast of St. Ellen, oalled the inven- 
tion of the cross, unto the feast of St. Michael, 
and so hath this present, paying therefore yearly 
unto the herbage or farmer of the said i^ric 
for every cow one shilling, and for every horse 
or mare two shillings for the whole jist, and 
for a cow if she lies in the park nij^htly one 
shilling and fourpence. For a circle for brackens 
twopence, for a swine in pannage time four- 
pence. And further saith the King and Queen's 
Majesty's tenants, or copyholders of Carleton, 
Hardwick and Tanshelf, have common in a clase 
called Carleton close in the said park, with their 
draughts, oxen or cattle yearly from the said 
fisast of St. Ellen unto the said feast of 3t, 



n.iifed by Google 



*28 HKTMV OF PONTEFHACT. 

Midiael, paying therefore yearly for every beast 
fourp^ice, for which cuetom and common the 
said tenants are bound by the tenure of tb^ 
lands to carry the queen's timber and others to 
their higho^s's castle or mills, baring therefore 
for every carriage according to the custom psud 
by the receiver there, which said close has been 
so u^ed and occupied until four years last past, 
and since then the pales there t^en by the 
keepers and the ground laid into the new clo&e 
adjoining to the same, whereby the same tenants 
are not able to serve the Queen's M^esty as 
they have done in. times past. And further 
siuth, that the farmer of the laid rovia- of 
of Hardwick heth had time out of man'( mind 
common in the park yearlyi as well in winter 
as in Etimmer, for sixty beasts and ten horses 
or mares. Also in paonsge time . swine without 
number, for which custom the late priory of 
$t. Oswald, before the dissolution, of the bouse, 
batl) paid to t\ie keepers of the eaJA park siit 
quarters of wheat and to the palace fpur quarter*, 
and since the dissolutioit thereof,, the receiver 
here- has paid yearly iu respect to .the said wheat 
three pounds s'l^ shilUngf and ei^tpeace until 
now of late. Axk) abo says that the farmer 
of the capital messuage of Houston, called 
Houghton Hall, have had time out of man's 
pund, ai^d also since thence the ^rst year of 
her Majesty's reign in' the eaid .pvk' common 
for sixteen beasts and four horses from the feast 
of St. Ellen until Michaelmas yearly, and also 
hath 1^ one key of cnstom deliver^ unto him 
by the keeper of the said park at the said 
&Mst of St. EUen «ntil Michaelmas, of one 



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HBTORV OF fwmrucr, 4» 

gate, oatM Houghfcun Cu-r Gat«, for the dri- 
ving out of their cattje, paying yearly unto the 
said keeper at tlie d^lirering of the said key 
lburpenc«, dnd in pannage timie swine without 
number. And further says that the queen's 
Majesty ' is charged with certain fees payablo 
forth out of the £aid park, that is to say, ta- 
the keeper for his fee one pound six and eighth 
pence for carriage of. pale and rail, and making 
pales thirteen shillings and fourpence." 

" To the ninth article, tliere is built in thti 
said park thr^ Mgea or houses, whereof two 
of them are in good reparation and the third 
partly in dec^, but who is charg"'d with tho 
reparation thereof we know not. Alsoi there is 
a barn built in the said park to lye bxf in thrt 
is gotten for the deer*. the reparation H-hereof it 
at the queen's chv^-" 

" To the tenth article -we cannot depoas." 
" To the etevoBtfa article, there is in tba 
said park one do&e cdltid the New Close, ano>: 
tber called Vicar's Close, . tlie most part thereto 
of the pales are in good iKparation und also of 
the said park. Also thire is another close ia' 
the said park called the Carr, granted by indent.' 
lure to William Mallet, Esq. forth out <if i£v 
exchequer and before belonging to the late dts*; 
solved monsata-y of : St. John, in Pontefract. 
And further saith that tbere arc fifteen 'aare* 
of meadow in AUerton logs beiodgin^ to the 
asHd park for the ' deer, gotten yeariy at the 
Queen's charge. Every acre worth by yeiv 
three «hilH^s and fourpenca" 

" To the tmdfUi artide we oan say nothing." 

*< To the thirteenth article, the same is a prinee-j 

ly park and meet before any other to be preserved." 



:k«Gt>O^IC 



430 HJBTOHT OF ^ONTEFRiCT. 

It does not appear, notwithstanding the re- 
oomiDendation of the cotnmlssionersj that mach 
attention was paid to the park after this period. 
When the wood was cut down and the deer 
sold, the author has not been itble to ascertain. 
It is bowerer most probable, that this was 
done during the civil war. For after this time, 
as tbe castle was destrf^ed, the park was in 
a great measure neglected, and a connderable 
part left to the operations of natnre, enaidcd 
By the hand of man. 

In the park, there were three honses erected 
and occapied by the keeper and his servants. 
One was called the Upper Paric-Hoose, now in- 
habited by Mr. JoneS) the other tbe Lower 
Park-House, now that whieh M. D. Denison 
occopies; and tbe third. was the lodge, where 
the keeper resided, and in which Mr. Momfbrtb 
now dwells. It is probable it was at the Upper 
Park-House a scene of cruelty and plunder was ex- 
hibited, not often eqaalled in tbe annals of New- 
gate. The Reverend Leonard Scarr, who had been 
ejected by the Act of Uniformity frtHn Beestoa 
Church, where he had assisted the Rev. Mr. 
Cndworth, lived in the above-mentioned hous^ 
with bis mother and a maidservant. He ei^oyed 
a considerate estate.in the neighbourhood, and 
it is probable, that- the rsspectability of tbe 
Amity led Jus neighbours to pa>mit him to re- 
side there, though contrary to tlie five-mile act. 
Whether he became , tbe object of resentment 
on account of his Donconformity, or whether 
be fell a victim to a lawless banditti, wbo 
merely wished to secure his property, it is im- 
posnble to detecmine. Whatever might be the 



D.n.llzedbyGt>OJ^IC 



HISTORY or PONTEFRACT. 431 

inotires of the actors in ibis tragedy, they en- 
tered the house, in the. night of the 2Snd of 
January, 1680, murdered Mr. Scurr, his mother, 
and the maidservant, then plundered the house, 
and on departing set it on fire *; 

The Upper Park-House being so near to the 
town of Pontefract, this horrid transaction could 
not be long unknown. An active search was 
made after the murderers; and circumstances 
occuring which led to suspect a party at Hol- 
beck, near Leeds, they fled to Ireland. They 
were however pursued, and two of them taken; 
- and being tried at the next assizes, were found 
guilty. One was executed and hung io chains 
on Holbeck-Green f J the other was reprieved, 
in hope that he would make a further discovery. 



* See pALKsa'a Non. Mem. VdL 3. page 424. 

t A namtiTe of Ihii tragedy wtu printed. The editor 
fegreti that be hai not been able to meet «rith it, ai it might 
Inre thrown Mxae Ji^t on tlte trantaction. On repeal^y 
penuing Palmer, the editor doubti whether thii tiaiinctiea 
lodt [jace in Pontefract Park, or in nme place called tbo 
park, near Beetton. The foDowing it Ifae account Palmer 
givei. 

•' Mr. Scurr, Of Sidney C<A. Camb. Bom in Pontefract. 
He bad a good estate in this neighbourhood. Some time after 
being (ilenced here (where he auiited Mr. Cudworth) he and 
fai* mother, with a maidaervtftit, lived retired at a house in 
the park, where thieves broke in, robbed and murdered them, 
aet the bouie on fire. Jan. 23, 1S80, and then fled into Ire- 
land, whitber they were pursued. Two of them were taken 
and condemned; one was hanged in chainn, on Hi^beck 
Green f the other was reprieved, in hopes of a Jurther diicoveiy, 
which he could never be brought to make. A narrrative of 
Ihii tragedy was printed. It was said that Mr. Scurr, thoi^ 
a good pr^cher, was a man of a bad diaracter, and a scandal 
U hit pnAtiion." 



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«5s ooTOKr OF pmmntAcr. 

bnt he ' resisted every attempt to obtain anj 
ioformatioQ from him *. 

* A kw years ago ta «troc!oui niUTder wms omnmiUed 
in the forenoon of tbe day, ^ a newljr cBccted farm-bouie 
in the park, accupied by Mr. Denixm. A setitaikt lad re> 
lurninf home with hi) cart, near nooHf and hi* Toot being 
hurt by & nail, which came through the heel of his shoe. 
Went into the hocue to lind a hammer to knock it down. 
In searching &r the hatnmM-, he diicorered blood in diflcrent 
places, and at [ut luming hi* head to the cellar door, d» 
(cried the body of Mrs. Denison in the ccHar, which was 
then half fill! of water. He drew her out of the water, and 
laid her near the fire, and then ran and called his mas- 
ter, who was plowing in » cloce at some little distance, with 
m lervant man. On the bIaioi being given, that Mn. D. 
was killed, Mr. D. luulened to hi* habitation. Mr T. 
Oxiey, Surgeon, was sent for, and considerably within an bout 
from the body being found he eiiamined it, but could not 
discover any sign* of life, tx>r so much a* the least aoina] 
heat remaining. It appeared that the murder had been per- 
petrated by a stroke with the crow end of a hammer, by 
which a deep wound was made in the forAead, and the 
body afterward* thrown into the celiac 

Tbe coroner's ioqiieit was taken, and e*ery rhctiaisbnec 
■UBUlely sxamined, in wder to fix the guih of this foul tnac- 
der on Us reaJ aulbot. Nothing howerer occurred decistTC^ 
Tbe serrant lad, who found the body, was wtpected, takes 
up and tried; but the evidence of the surgeon saved hi* hit. 
He conudered it impassible for the body to become cdd ia 
■0 ihoft a space of time as had elapsed irom the lad be> 
ing seen to enter the house, an^ his examination of the corpse. 
It was his opinion thai tbe murder bad beett committed niicb 
earlier. 

Suapctfln arose, fiwn other drcum stances, that Ae parp^ 
petrator of this nefarious deed, tauit have been atbec a branch 
of tbe ftmily, or some one intimate with it. Tbars was a 
mastiff in tbe house, which would tufier no stranger to enter, 
unloBi cbeckod by tome one acquainted with him ; vaA as Mrs. 
Denison was the only person left in the boue, it is Dol pn^ 
tsUe, that ikit dog shokdd permit a atrani^ to atladc her, 
without making a ttrenuoui defence. A* th« dog <>m vm»- 



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JDSTOItY OF PONTEPKACT. 4X1 • 

AA6r the revolution the park was leased 
off to the MoDcton family, with a reservation 
of the rights of the inhabitants of the borough 
of Pontefract» and of the towni^ip of Tanshelf, 
to their usual gates and strays. It wholly re- 
mained in the possession of this iaioily till an 
act of Parliament was obtained in the year 
1780, for dividing and improving thift extensive 
district of land. By this act three hundred and 
twenty-five acres were allotted to the inhabitants 
of Pontefract and Taoslielf, in lieu of all their 
rights; and provision was made for its cultivatitoi 
and management. In the preamble to the act, the 
reasons for passing it, and the agreement en- 
tered into by the parties interested, are men- 
tioned: then follows the enacting clauses, in 
which trustees are appointed for that portion 
of the park allotted to the inhabitants of Pon- 
tefract and Tanshelf. The- following are th« 
words of the acU 

" Jnd to the end and intent the said portion 
or' allotment of three hundred and twenty-five 

jured, and in the houie when th« bodjr was found, it U 
natural to infer, that some perwn, who had an equal com> 
inand over the dog with Mrs. D., was the mtuderer. 

Had the munler been committed for the xake of 
plunder, whatever could have been secretly conveyed away, 
the murderer or murderers, would not have left behind. 
On exanintng the houw, the goods were found unmo< 
lested. No dranerj had been opened; nr> search had been 
made after any valuable*, the house might contain. 

l^e lad, though acquitted of the heiiwut crime, has sinca 
manifested a depravity which readers the nispicion stronger, 
that he perpetrated the deed. Me hat been guilty of theft, 
for which he was tried and sentenced to transportation. It 
n stneular alio, that the vessel in which he lulcd was lost, 
mA avery penoa on board pnished. 

Kkk 



D.n.iized by Google 



4M noTtxr or Mwrsnuef. 

acres hereinbefore assigned to and for the -bene- 
fit of the said inhabitants, bouwholders resiaot 
in the said township of Porrtefract and Tanshelf, 
may be appropriated and concerted to the best 
advant&ge, and the paitnrage tbefeof t^rn and 
enjoyed in the mo^ beDeficial' nmtlner, and un- 
der proper regulations and restrictions ; Be it 
fitrlher ertMied,' That thirQr-three mate uHuibi- 
tants of the tdwn*ip 'of PoiAdiFHct for the 
time being, tif the age'of twenty one yean or 
npwardis, whose respective estates shall be the 
highest assessed to the |>oor rates, within tbe 
same toWnship, and fbur male inhabitant* of ibe 
said township of Tanshelf frir the tnAie b^g, 
of the age aforesaid, who^ esUtes' shall be 
highest assessed to tbe poor fates tvitfain tbe 
same township of Tan^lf, such ^staves being 
freehold or copyhold, or beirtg lettsebotd, for 
ninety-nine years or a longer - terat,'<'and - held 
in the person's own or his wife's right, 'shiUI be 
and are hereby constituted and' appointed' per- 
petual trnstees for the cbltivatiort, improvtinieAt 
and future management oP the said portion or 
allotment; and that such trustees, or any Kven 
or more of them, assembled at the times and 
places hereinafter mentioned^ shall have the full 
ex^uise of the powers heneinaflerooDbaiaed." 

'* And be it fuHher enactedi "iFhat it' 'shall 
and may be lawful to and fot a ' major part of 
the trustees, who shall be present at any meet- 
ing to.be held under the authority> cf tbb act, 
to elect a ohainnan lb>'pre9ide"at:''Mch tneeting, 
so as ' such election ' be' made 'prerioas to the 
proceeding in or discussing all other business: 
And in case at a^y auMtipg wj)CTp:» chwCTi«B 



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HnTfWY (W PONTBFUCT. 435- 

sbali. have' been sa elected to ■ preside, there 
shall -happen to be .an equal number of voic^ 
for and against any question then put to the 
vote, the said x;lmiraian shall baw a second or 
casting vote, for the purpose of deciding such 
question." ■. . . 

■ "And. be il further -enacted. That the said 
trustees sbatl meet at the town's hall in Ponte* 
fract on the twentieth day of April in every year, 
from and after the. passing of this act, .at ten 
of the clock in the forenoon, and shall then 
and there decide .what nurabec of cattle may be 
proper to be .taken into the said portion or al- 
lotment the then ensuing summer; which de- 
oision . shall, within three days after tjbe said 
twentieth day of April, be publicly made known 
in the said towna of' Foa'tefract and Tansbelf 
by the common ,cryer. or bellman, and by notice 
to be affixed on the door -of the upper .uhurcfa 
in Ponte&BCt aforesaid; And the said trustees 
shall also ofi tlie said twentieth .day of April 
in eitery year, choose a proper person to be 
clerk OP treasurer, and . also another proper per- 
son to be the .Herdsman for the several pur- 
poses hereinafter mentioned } and ehall also then 
settle what salary, not exceeding five pounds 
pea: anuDOi, sliall be -paid, to the said clerk or 
treasurer, and what sa[ary, not eKceeding twenty- 
five pottiids per annum for the first fifteen years 
from the passing of this act, and not exceediug 
tireaty pounds' per animm from thenceforth, 
shall he paid to the said Herdsman; and shall 
ajas.on the said twentieth day of April in every 
yean inspect and settle the accounts of the clerk 
or treasoredT and herdsman for the preceding 
year." 



D.n.iized by Google 



4SS HIBTORY 07 PONTEPIUlCr. 

** Jnd he it further enacted. That the said 
Trustees ^all meet again on the first day of 
May in every year, at the town's hall aforesaid, 
by ten of the clock in the forenoon, when such 
of the said inhabitants as are desirous of pot- 
ting cattle into the said portion or allotment 
$hall appear at the said town's hall by them- 
selves or proxies; and in case a greater number 
of persons shall appear and apply for cattle 
gates in the said portion or allotment than the 
namber of cattle decided to be taken in ai 
above-mentioned, that then the said persons 
shall write, or cause to be written, their names 
on scrolls of paper, and deliver the same, vrrap- 
ped up, to the said clerk or treasurer, who 
shall put them into a box provided for that 
purpose; and after all the said scrolls of paper 
shall be put into the said box, the same sball 
be drawn out by any two of the said trustees; 
and the first drawn scrolls, to the amount of 
the number of cattle decided to be taken in, 
shall have the right to stock the said portion or 
allotment with one gddir.g, mare or cow each 
the then ensuing summer; and in case there 
shall not be so great a number of persons ap- 
plying for cattle gaL» as the number ot cattle 
decided to be taken in as aforesaid, that then 
all the persons so applying shall every one re- 
ceive a ticket to put in one gelding, mare or 
cow, and a ballot shall be taken in manner 
above mentioned which of them shall have a 
right to turn ta a second head, and so on in like 
manner for a third, fourth, or greater number, 
until the whole number decided to be taken in 
^U be completed; and from and unmediately 



D.n.llzedbyGOOl^lC 



BISTOBV OP PONTEFRACT. ' 4S7' 

after' it shall bare been decided who shall have 
a right to put in cattle as aforesaid, every per- 
son so decided to have a right shall declare 
the species of cattle he or she proposes to put 
into the said portion or allotment; and each 
such person shall, for every gelding or mare, 
immediately pay down to the said clerk or trea- 
surer the sum of ten shillings, and for every 
cow the sum of eight shillings, for the herbage 
or eatage for tltat season ; and that the like. 
rates or snms shall be paid in every future year 
by tlie persons who shall be decided to have a 
right to turn on any gelding, mare or cow for 
each season respectively, until the end and ex--, 
piration of the term of Bfteen years from the 
passing of this act, and afterwards such sum or' 
sums, not exceeding the sums above mentioned, 
as the said- trustees shall, from time to tim^ 
order and direct; and in case any person or 
persons, shall ne^ect to pay' such money as afore- 
said at the time aforesaid, then the person w 
persons so neglecting shall have no riglu to 
stock, but the vacancy or Vacancies occasioned 
thereby shall be immediately 6lled up by ballot 
in manner aforesaid oat of the persons there ap- 
pearing, who shall not have obtained a right to 
stock, or have obtained a right of stocking with 
the smallest number." 

*• And be it further enactedt That the persons 
who shall have obtained a right of stocking in 
manner aforesaid shall and may put their cattle 
into the said portion or allotment on or after 
the twelfth day of May in every year, and con- 
tinne them there until the tenth day of October 
next following, but wt% Jongerj and in case the 



D.n.iized by Google 



4BB HISTVUT OF tOUTURACK 

gelding, mare, or cow of any persoo sfaall hajK 
pen, to die, or be sold or excbaaged, or if it- 
AtSl happen to be.conreuient. to any sucbperf 
fiOD to take out snch gelding, mare or cow, 
that then he or ^ shall have a rigfal: to put in 
^qother gelding, mare or cow, in tiie atead ui 
such gddiQg, mare or cow, so dying, sofd, ex- 
obanged, or taken out.". 

" And- .be it further enacted. That another 
ntteting.'oF the said trusteeft shall, be iield at the 
said town's ball, oo the twentieth da-y. of Sep- 
tmnber io every yeat, . at tea of the clock in 
tbe forenoon, in^r^er to decide what number of 
sbeep only diall be put .into;ihe said, portion or 
allatnaent from the. tenth dary of October .to the 
thirteenth; d^..of Febrnary. io. .every year, and 
in order to glve'cuch dintotions to tite herdsman 
Inspecting die [manned >i)f -,stockiDg the- said 
portion or allotment i with itiieep daring. the time 
aforesaid as tfaey may think prop«- and nece»> 
sary.; and no person .whatsoeTer shall, have .a 
right to put aay kind of stock' into, the said 
portion or allotment, from the said thirteenth 
day of February to the said twelfth . day of 
May." .... 

V *f Provided ahota)&,.and..be it further enacted. 
That no person shall be permitted' to ballot for 
or have a cattle gate in' the said portion -oti 
altotmeDt, .who is not, ^ the.tim^.of his. or ber 
appearing to. .cbim . the. earner an inhabitant, 
honseholder lesbnt witfaia one of the said town- 
Aapt of Poatefi-Bct and Tanshelf; ,and ihat all 
frealL cattle ..pnt into, the, said portion or. ^lot- 
ment shall be shewn to. the berdsman.at the 
time <£ their, being ^st put .in^ ...and. dwt na 



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HISTOIV Ol PONIWIUfir. 431^ 

cattle' shall be pub into or coDtiinie 'in- tb^. «aid 
portion or ' altelnieBt : ^tscept mares and'gddings 
three yeartf old and upwards, and cows in milk 
or. with calf, . iotended to be kept milch cows 
for the oifDers own Use, and not intended to 
be fattened for sale ot- slaughter-, and that no- 
person shall take out of .the said portion .or al- 
lotment his or her gelding, 'mare or cow^ add 
put in , another jn the stead thereof, oflente* 
than twice in a summer, - (except in the .case 
of the death : of such gelding, mare oi* . coir) 
and that ni> exchange shall be tnade^ except fiv 
one of- the -same' speiiiea; -and that no scabbed, 
infectious, or other uncommonable cattle, shtdl 
be. ptit or. continued in the said portion or allot- 
tue^it on. any aecount whatsoever, nor any ca^ 
tie which aye not bona ^de the property of thb 
iperson^ .appearing or .pretending to be the 
o>rners- 'thereof, Aor any mare having- a .sucking 
foal." ' ^ , ■■-.:■■ 

In case any person is convicted of putting 
into- the park: seabbisd, < iofectioHs,' or . other uit- 
corpm.Qqaible , ciH^, ', w. such as ; are . not boim .fide 
his, or her own, such person becomes liaJble to 
a penalty of five pounds. 

The trustees .have a- power to grsuit sfaott 
leases for four -or seven years,' of'Ctitain parcels 
cf the park, for tXye improvement thereof, 'sUfih 
parcels- not exceeding one hundred- acres. They 
have ajso a jight tp tpake bricki but are wlnJ^ 
restrained from digg^g mines,, or getting coalsL 
; -. The ' whole of the above mentitmad parc^ 
of land have been cleared, and after prodnpiog 
lairge crops of grain, converted into eKceUeiqt 
pasture:^iHind. The trustees have this year ad- 
nutted three bondred head of cattle. 



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-440 rmrwt ot potnttutrt. 

A few years ago, the innkeepers, joined hy 
s considerable number of the inhabitanu of the 
town, set on foot annual races. Numbers of 
sporting gentlemen^ residing in the neighboor- 
hood, encouraged the scheme, atid it has been 
cari'ied into execiuion. The ground of the park 
is considered highly eligible as a course; and 
the ridge aboTe the course as affording one (rf* 
the finest prospects for an immense concoarse 
of spectators. A grand stand has also been 
erected ; and hitherto the races have been weH 
attended, and the stand Blled with foshionables. 

That part of the park which continues to 
belong to bis Majesty, as parcel of bis dutchy 
of Lancaster, was, by the above mentioned act, 
■made a new district, to be called Ponl^ract 
-Park District, for which constables, overseers, 
&c. are appointed, and assessments made and 
levied as in other townships. This has been in- 
closed and formed into several good forms. 

The entire park consisted of one thousand 
three hundred and sixty-one acres three roods 
and thirty-seven perches, and b divided and beld 
afe ubdef. 







171 


39 


62 


8 36 


32 


SO 


33 


S 


17 


1 SS 



Allotment belbngingto the inhabitants) «.g^ 
lesiant of Pootefr*ct and Tanshelf, J^^ 
Rt. Hon, Earl of Gallway, on leasi 
Mr. Appletree, do. • 

Mr. Thistlewaitet do. - 

J. I.«atham, Esq. do. • 

Roads and drains, .... 
Amount of the whole, .... I36l 3~37 
His Majesty's portion, - - - 1036 3 3T 



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BUTOBT or POKTOFUCT. 44J 

Stump Cross, 

Is on the rOad from Ferrybridge to Pootefract. 
The bhaft of this cross lias perished lung ago, 
and' nothing bat the base now remains. At what 
period it was erected, or for what particular 
puipoffi is uncertain. Browne, in ancient sculp- 
ture and painting) observes, " that the sculptures 
which were on the shaft of this cross, bespeak 
it iRoman". These consisted of a circular-headed 
recess with an eagle;' foliage, twisted bands^ 
patn-se, &c*. 

It is not probable that this cross was erected 
80 early as the time of the Romans. The sbafc - 
indeed might be Roman, and erected by that 
people, as a monument of some victory obtained; 
and afler the introduction of Christianity, it 
might be chosen to Ibrm part of the cross, on 
account of its antiqnity and the elegance of its 
workmanship. 

The veneration paid to the cross soon con- 
verted it from its original design, and it was 
made' to answer a variety of civil purposes. 
The Romans had their Terminm, the god who 
presided over bounderies and land-marks, and in 
honoor of this god they kept the feast termi- 
nalia. The Christians rejecting this probne idol, 
substituted the cross in its- place; and hence 
crosses were erected to mark the boundaries of 
townships and parishes. The St\lmp-Cro9s now 

.^ ya. .Gentian. Uag, Mwrii, 1806. Ill Goncti'i edition 
ef Camdm's BrUannia, the-figuKt ,on , three liijet of tlui cross 
mre given, but nothing » taid from whence diey are taken, 
Taaj mre, most probably,- engraven from tome drawing) in 
itm pouMien cf ibe - Antiquuian toctety. 
L I 1 



n.lizedbyG0l")^IC 



MB BUTcnuri OF votcrarucT. 

answers this end, and was pfobably erected for 
this purpose, as it is a boundary-stone between 
Xha tawAEjhjps of EeFi^lEy^fli H94- ?4H)te{ra<;t. 

Marketr-Cross. 

Gotiglk reprobates, tfte rqro<»4 of. St. 0«- 
waWi'ft eros*. tt^dt tbp 9F^ctipn. of U^b pres^if^ 
Hc; sa^s, « and, 8» i(i Po»tefra^* was (o *^w w 
^i^^nco of Lt% i^n^fr s^Ddoc, St. Oimri^d's 
Cfosi, gave pl»ce, witf»in, these tbirtj-, years, far 
an unmeaning market-house." The inh^itaoty 
•9f the tfiwp and) CQifntt>3i arg pf a vei^ c^£G^rent 
Qptnion. to. thJa 9elQbfat*d antiquary. They 
^oy epsQptial benefit ftoin. the Isttiei^ while the 
fenner> if it had b^^ sM%re4i tp. »ipaip* would 
l}e whcJly. useless., 

The pta^ will furt^isli the ri^ader with an 
idea of t^ stniQtufiei a^ the only oircunt- 
stance which merits notice, is some stQcouDt of 
t|)^ ntan by wbosfl nmnificencQ, id wajt.. erected. 
The follpwiog ia t^ ioscnptioi}. " Erqcteal by 
Mr& ElizaheUi pupier, relifit 9f. Soloi^fin pnr 
pi^ g^ntjcman, io. 9 cih^rftU ^4 genergiis 
compIi^c«t with 1^)3 b^nevolwfi ipfeti^n, 1734. 

Splonipq Pupifr is s»)d tp. hf,re bei^ o«e 
of. the ^rfrison of (j^bnajter, a^ th^ tjnqe it. waf 
takev by Sir G,. Rpoki^i It. is itrol^attle: thai^ 
there h»d bf»fn son^igofod, ua4et;stfi^dii^, betw^ea 
the adiDJr^ aad' th^, geaHem^ih: imy}°^ tQ- ^ 
attack made on that place; and the success of 
the attaet^ ml^it in' p6rt' be owittg' t{> the ser- 
Tices, whifch he rendered. Wtiatevpr trpth there 
may be in. tt^is cp^i)5CmFe, , i^Ci cav^ oypr t«^ 
England, and tog^bei- . viiii *i Gapti, Jta^ vba 



:k«Ck>OJ^IC 



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THE TOWTT-HAU. 



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fSmn/r m vmr a t ax n, - im 

tnft bwn With KodlEe, catne «nd resided bere. 
TVAlitKiil ntUkes bim a peniioner; (Uid ooilsider- 
iDg all things* it is Dot improbable. 

On the first erection of the cross, the roof 
was flat, and surrounded with a balustrade; but 
the roof decaying it was new roofed in the style 
in which it U lioW -seen. 

: Thti is m «lQgant modern stmctore. On 
enterhig ithe hiaifcet :place fr-om the west, thla 
bbHding ckttdi^ the eye and arrests the attention. 
The lower pan is in the sntiqne style, and 
gffiM to it the app^anmce of great strength. 
Jfi ihh ptH ai* two tdortis for prisoners. The 
pittasters trhlch gr«:e ■ the l>ont are of the 
J)bric order* ahd thfe ctJfniK df the Ionic. 

' It Wok etdcted Otl Itie site of the old 
Btote-Hatl, |tertty at the «xpeiice of ihe corpo^ 
ration, Btid partly of the courity. The quarter 
sessions for thfe wapentakfe of Osgddcross are 
held he>e, THe business done at this sessions 
exceeds ih^t df 'Sny other within the 'Rifling, 
Here 'thfe t^otfe ^ardh'eVs 'ai-e .examined dVld ftj>^ 
polnt^j the aticOmpTs of the Riding audited anil 
B^tttei).. The sissiots urfialiy continue fbur of 
dv^ ''days, ' ■ ^ ■ 

"-', . /-, , T/ieafye. , , ■ 

^Ahxiciis'tQ render Hie t'oV^n ' equal "to others 
in the smuseminits of the iige, a ni^mliier ot 
genttenien ^Imilt by ^mbsoription the theatre. li 
is small but neat. 1%e-^brk eMnpany -of «Mm> 



D.n.iized by Google 



444 Bmoyt or ptumntAcr. 

dians Ttsit the place annually; aod-smoe Ibe' 

races have been estahiishedi they att«id M tint 



Ancient Cave. 

In a garden belonging to Mr J. Leatham, 
Banker, is an ancient cave* which has been, 
with great labour, cut out of a 6ne and solid 
rock. 

Thera was anciently over the door ihe-word 
Ditis. It is now wholly obliterated, and not the 
least trace of it remains. This word hfis'led' 
some of oiir antiqnariea to suppose, " that this 
cave is druidical, and was formed to be a [dace 
of. worship, where the old Britons ipvoked D^^ 
whom they believed to rule in the lower placesi", 
This opinion approaches the ^traYagance o^ 
ilxton. What has the term Ditis, to do with 
tlte Dii of the Djuids? If this, term bad a(^ 
meaning, why not affile., to it itsusu^ll jniport?* 

Oil eptcfing/ the first thing w^ich is observ- 
able is the cave, ex'.ei,i(Jiug ihree yards forwards, 
and ifMT from , the right side to the ,left. From 
tb;s Topm directly forward is a descent (^ 
thirteen steps; and fr;t^ni thence there, is.^ de-. 
scent, .flf fjfty-nine steps, regularly tyi;iiing found' 
a center, and which terminates in a small baspn 
containing excellent water. On one sicte the 
rock, out of which the whple is cut, a fisure 
is observable, which descends to the bottom. 

* Ai t}ie.wor4 i* in ihe genitive CBte, it is evident .(ane 
other term fnust have been connected with it. it it not im- 
probsbfe iKat the word Domus ought lo be Mipplied, sitd dM- 
■ense will be "the houM of Pluto;" an 'ineriptioo wbJA 
peft^j wit* «njr cave or dark r«c^> .1.. ..- -'. 



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mntmr ov vwrvmicrj 4Vi 

It is doubtful for what purpose this place 
was formed. Some have conjectured that it was 
intended to be a mansion for the dead. The 
least reflection will convit>ce any man, that this 
conjecture is wide of probability. Is it not 
more natural to suppose, " that as this cave is 
Bo near the place where the' house Vf the Black 
Friers once stood, it was formed by the brother- 
hood, either as a peoetentiafy exercise, or for 
the purpose of obtaining water? The one or 
tb» ftlhef of tiiese seema the- most prtibabEa! 
coqiecture which xa^ b« tonned. . 



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CORPORATION. 



3%; -SPvivilign, Ctatom, and interating Olcew' 

rekut -fklatSng to it. ■ ■' 

PROM the earliest records the burgesses en- 
joyed many, and, at that period, very valuable 
privileges; but they possessed no corporate 
rights. The grant of Roger de Lacy *, while 
it confirms the privileges of the burgesses^ clearly 
evinces that tliey possessed no authority, but 
what he condescended to bestow. The office of 
headborough or praetor, a burgees might hold, 
provided he would give as much for it as sny 
other person } but any other person was eligible, 
in case he was the highest bidder. 

In this dependent state the burgesses cod- 
tinued till the honour of Pontefract became 
the property of the Duke^ of Lancaster, axiA 
the Dukes of Lancaster lost their names in that 
of Kings of England. Richard III. in the fint 
of his reign, granted to this borough a charter, 
to be governed by a mayor,' recorder, and 
thirteen comburgesses, or aldermen; and before 
the conclusion of the year, a charter of con6r> 
mation. The charters are in the usual style, 
• Vid. Ch. No. 1. Appendix. 



D.n.iized by Google 



BUHHW OFJ Fcnmnucvi 4>f7 

And defii^ andi ooafe^ the rights and> immanitiea 
oB a corporate body on ihe burgesses. 

Whe^er- the borgeesea had aided' and assisted 
BichsFd in aooomplishk>g his de»gn on the 
crown, or whether he bestowed this boon to 
attach: them to his interest, is not ea^ to d^ 
cide. The< latter oonjecture is most probable^ 
as Jticbard saw the stonn now gathering, whidi 
at latat burst upon him, and put an end to his 
cwehies and his life. ' 

As it was usuali fbr our kingS' to resonie 
the carters of corporate bodies, in order to 
nise money' for granting new ones, it is not itn^ 
probable that Henry' Vll. wsorted to this mew- 
sure, in regard to- this borough. In the fourth 
ofi his neign he granted a- charter, expressed in 
the same tsnoft' as that of Richard^ biit without 
notioiiig or ref^nn^ tO'it in any' way. 

In tti& above cttarter ft is ordaiiaed, that the 
mayor shall- be ohienen by tbe votes <^ the bur- 
g8Me»; and the mode that obtained was to give 
thete votes openly in the Mtote-Hail. This 
mode of chdosing . the mayor became a source 
o£ strife and contention among the burgesses; 
and the quarrels and differences which arose from 
oae Section scarcely subsided before another 
took i^oce^ whictk in like manner gave birth to 
otherst Thus- the- town was. rent by factions; 
peaee was baniiibed- and' good neighbouritood 
destroyed. 

To- terminate these Sflferences, and restom 
pnute' and harmbny to the town, tbe borgesses 
appear to haA'e petitioned' James I-: to grant a 
new charter, to regulate thc' mode o( choosing 
tb» moyov i» ftrtwa. Aeoordtngly> in th^ fburta 



n.iized by Google 



M$ HiSTOtv or.PtmTBrBACT. 

of his rei^, a charter "wa^ granted, appaintiog' 
that mode of choosing the mayor which has 
ever since . obfained. The- jnode .is this, each 
burgess writes od a scroll of paper, " On the 
iburteenth day of September, in .the year of 
our Lord (mentioning the current year) sodi a 
person is elected mayor of this town or borough.'* 
,The name of tlie burgess is not signed, bat 
the scroll of each is put into a box, th6n taken 
out by the town clerk, and tlie alderman,- whose 
jiaqje is wrote on the greater number of sctolls, 
ifi decljM*^ (Ifly elected) and the scrdls are 
burned, that the handwriting may not be acm- 
liqized, least 'it' fihould be known for whotn, or 
against wjiqm any burgess voted. 

In the , charter of Charles II, the same 
rights and privileges are conferred, as in those 
before granted; one clause excepted. The town 
clerk and recorder bad hitberM> been chosen by 
the mayor; but by. this charter the right of 
appointing these he reserves to himself and sue* 
cessors. The nomination is left to the muyor, 
but they arc not allowed to enter into office 
without a warrant in that behalf, under the 
King's sign manual. 

James II. eager to introduce popery,' availed 
himself of his prerogative to grant ctmrters, to 
accomplish this object. In hia charter to this 
borough, he reserves to himself, his heirs and 
successors, the right of removing at pleasure, 
the mayor or any of the aldermen. It. is easy 
to perceive his design, in inserting such a dause 
in his charters. It was, that corporate bodies 
might feel their (lependence on the crown, and 
be M to support all its pret«isiioos, w )» ie-. 



D.n.iized by Google 



HOTOKT OF POKTEFRACT. 449 

priTftt of all their privileges, and others more 
obseqaions and obedient be substituted in their 
place. 

Previous to the commencement of the civil 
war the corporation appear to have been mut^ 
alarmed, and to have felt themselves incapable 
of performing their duty as liege subjects, in 
maintaining the peace of the town. The^ 
chose out of the burgesses sixteen, and asso- 
ciated them with themselves, for the better ma* 
nagcment nf the town's affairs. 

During the civil war> and the siege of the 
castle, the authority of the mayor was superseded 
by the chief commanding officer in the town. In 
this turbulent period, corporate privileges were 
disregarded; and no other law was admitted to 
be valid than that of the swocd. 

On the restoration of Charles II. cohimis- 
siotiers were appointed for regulating corporations, 
by his letters patent, dated Sept. 10, 1663. at 
which time the following persons were removed 
from their office of aldernoen, Leonard Ward, 
John Cooper, Richard Wildman, John Drake, 
and Jarvis Cooper; and these six gentlemen 
were placed in- the office of aldermen, the said 
places being void as aforesaid, Wm Wilkinson, 
Jun. Robert Tatham, Jun. Richard Austwick, 
G. Shillito, Jun. Leonard Stables,' Jun. and 
Thomas .Jackson, Jun. 

The reason of the removal of the above 
gentlemen, was their attachment to the interests 
of the late parliament, 'lliose who had enjoy- 
ed power and authority under the auspices of 
Cromwell were uusted ; and the friends of 
those high prerogative notions which now ob- 
tained, were substituted in their place. 
M m m 



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4*) 

Tlje ooFporate body, having « t\ght to make 
by<^vf]i. f'XPfcUed tliis right; mA sbv^i^^ wcfa 
laws were made, wlik-h as they strongly marJE 
the (VtilPdCted notions vnd ipirit of tbe times, 
as HFfll as provf the eitistence oJf tite Sason Guilds^ 
^?s0irve to |>e Btetitioiied. By one of tbess^ 
" no, man y/as sttfTered to set up and follow bis 
h^ineNs aivl employraenl withiti tbe borONgh, ud> 
less ho \\a(i s^ved an apprenticeahipt to the aaid 
b|i^ines% wUhin the u^td borough.." In cowe* 
quence of this' lavd thje burgesses and iv^biteati 
wbo Allowed wty pATticuWr occupntioti, secured 
to tbeina^v«9 «ll th |radi ot' tbe plftce; tbe^ 
iqrm^d compawe^ into vlw4t B* ow coi4d b* 
^^itted, b^t on tb« copdutiAq ^»«cifi«d. % 
^pojliw fey-laiw, tUe condiiion of 9ppit«nticeabip 
was changed for « p«cwiiary OQQpidmtioa; aait 
a^y- perspn, who desired to he wjsnitte^ 4 aem< 
bfc of a<By compAoy snigfat abtaun the privil^v, 
W p^yt^ig. ^ «b9 nwyor. wd to th« conappfvy. 
(»rtaw l3rg9 suw3 o( mon«y. 

T heiie w«re wi^bw tte bocougb, the mcrocss*, 
the drapers' aijd taylpra' corapAviesw «8C. a»d^ as 
it may gratify ciwlpsjty, tliie> foUbwipg 15 tji* 
|(>Wi of a^iawoA into tbe- I«tli9r. 

Bftfwf^M) 93rd< Msi^ I7fiiS. 

' Pontefraci. I, Thomas. H)ll> Taykwi^ ww ti^ ^ 
mitted free of the Comply of JPtrqp«i^ wo4 
"^^ylors wilhia tbft stud BpToti^h.. 

'Wiin^sa 
B» il«pnQxtb> CUi^ t« the said Coavfoayi. 

1W compAniea contipued to he kepl> aik as 
appeafif^ firom. the aJKwe o^yy thmgb. they had 



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bwtl abolished by A by-law, ptescd in tT» Mote- 
Hall, Feb. 1, 1*736. Ills Mid, " thiw restrict- 
• tiotis leiil on ti-ade, by preventirtg the snit-it of 
cempeiitiott, tended grealljr lo tlia injf'y *f 
trade, and wa'* found to be desiniclive bf the 
posperity of the town; sitd in con^tqueno^, ali 
order.it ConsttlUtidns dnd by-laws, her&tolbrd 
mad^, are repealed, fevfAed, dhanh tilled, (ttid 
made aBtiolutely roid, and thdt all pe>rsniiK whau 
ever tnay havd fVee libeet.y, right ahd ituthotity 
t6 ose (Snd fejtefcise tHei^ reiipectire irHdes bu- 
sinesses or eiilplnyments wiihin the said borough 
from heneefoTth;*' 

The corporation fire pfoprietoi's Of about 
fiinrteen acres 0f land wtthlft the boron^^ Md 
a house in tlie Bhoe-Markel; and a Corn-Win^ 
mill, situate in the township of Tanshelf. 

Hie cDi'porutloh fare alao ehtitled to the fol- 
lowing rents imd tolls. 

Certain bftrgig** f^fcftn teMsi issu-ttg out 
of cMain hou<i&9 tlnd Itltlds Withiti the borotigbi 
amounting annually to £3Ct. 

A fee-feriij rent paid by *he Kifrg's Receiver. 

A toll of wool, solA IH the market, at tb« 
rate of {d per stone. 

of fruits and fegetaWes, &C. 

" - ^■^-'- cft horses sdW at 36 each, and for 

one exchanged 6d. 

of sheep sold at 4d per score. 

■ ■ ' ■ 3d (or every hawker^ pedlar, &c, sel- 
ling goods within the borough. 

of boats passing upon the river Air, 

betwixt Temple Hurst and Knotttngley Mills, 
fep every boM wifb a cockboat 4d, and for erery 
boat without a cockboat Sd, 



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452 mSTORY OF POHTEPKACT. 

A toll from the butchers and other stalls 
erery market day 2d each. 

On the first market-^lay aAer Michaelmas, 
each butcher pays 6d for his stand, 9aUed book- 
iog-money. 

From butchers and others, at St. Andrew's 
Fair, Twenty-Day Fair, Candlemas Fair, Palm- 
Sunday Fair, Low-Sunday Fair, Trinity Fair, 
and St. Giles' Fair, for their stand 4d each. 

On the market-day before Christmas, called 
Castle-Farm, each butcher pays 6d for his stand. 

Every butcher that has only a stall in the 
market on Christmas-Eve pays I^ each. 

If any person come on St. Giles' Monday, 
who was not thei-e on -Saturday, he pays 4d, but 
all persons that paid on Saturday are exempt 
on Monday. 

If any butcher die, or neglect to make use 
of his Ktall for six months, the corporation has 
the disposal thereof. 

A toll, called Gate Law Toll, of one Id for 
every waggon or wain bound with iron, and one 
halfpenny for every bare wain. 

Out of these rents and tolls, the corporation 
pay a reserved rent of £i9. 13j. formerly be- 
longing to the crown, but now to the Right 
Honourable Lord Elliot. 

They also pay various .spiall salaries to tb«r 



, Since the incorporation of the borough, the 
following is the list of the mayors down to the 
present time. 

HICHARD in. HENRY VD. 

1 John Hill, - - H84. 3 Nicholas Green, 14S5. 



n.iized by Google 



msTOKY or rOVTtnABT. 



453 



3 Williain Sadter, 1486. 

4 Ricbstii Jackson, 7. 

5 William Strotber, 8. 

6 Robert Austnick, 9, 

7 Jos. Springall, 1490. 
B Robert Gellis, 1. 
9 John Adams, - 2. 

10 Kchard White, 3. 

1 1 Tbomas Butler, 4. 

12 John, Hill, - < 5. 

13 Jobn Hill, - - 6. 

14 John Hill, ■ - 7. 

15 John. Watson, 8. 

16 John Hodgson, 9. 

17 Robert Moor, 1500. 
18- Richard Grave, 1. 

19 Tho. Huntingden, i. 

20 Wm. Wakefield, 3. 

21 Henry Aust wick, 4. 

22 Thomas Smith, 5. 

23 Wllhaui Purser, 6. 

24 Robert Ward, 7. 

25 Dionis Austwick, S. 

HENRV VUI. 

26 Thomas Cook, 9. 

27 lliomas Ellisley, 10. 

28 Robert Gibson, 1 1. 

29 Johii Hodgson, 12. 

30 Henry Butler, ii. 

31 John Strotber, 14. 

32 TI>oma8 Ynce, 15. 

33 William Purser, 16. 

34 John Illingworth, 17. 

35 Thontas Smith, 18. 

36 William Hod-^son, 19. 

37 Roger C'lapman, SO. 

38 John Grave, , 1521. 

39 William Nelson, 2. 

40 Wilii^ Pniser, 3. 



41 Rob. Harrison, 1524. 

42 Roger Jackson, 5, 

43 John Wakefield, 6. 

44 Thomas Hodgson, 7. 

45 Lionel Roulston, 8. ' 

46 William Hodgson, . 9. 

47 William Thwaits, 153a 

48 William Nortdo, - I. 

49 RogerWedilerton, 2. 

50 Robert Harrison, 3. 

51 Wm. Wiibore, . 4. 

52 Peter Wakefield, 5. 

53 Lionel Roulsion, . 6. 

54 Wm. Hodgson, . 7. 

55 Richard WilbcH^ .8. 
5fi Robert Famell, 9. 

57 Edmund Tyas, 154a 

58 John !!^kipton, 1.. 

59 Ttio. Austwick, . ■ 2. 

60 John Wakefield 1 , 
and Rob. Farmer, j . ' 

61 Allen Airey, - 4. 

62 Williaoa Hodgson, 5. 

63 John Atkinson, 6. 

64 Jobn Hodgson, 7.. 

65 Kichafd Wiibore, «. 

66 Tho. Wakefield, 9. 

67 William Norton, 1550. 

68 AUpn Airey, - 1. 

69 Robert Rohinson, 2. 

70 Thoma.t Holgate, 3. 

7 1 Richard Wiibore, . 4. 

72 Tho. Edringion, 5. 

73 John Qldfield, 6. 

74 Bon;titce Savage, 



7. 



QUEEN EUZABETB. 

75 Richard Wiibore, 8. 

76 Tho. Austwiik, 9, 

77 Stephen Eldsley, 1560. 



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454 



BttTonr ov Kvrraribici'. 



AUEEK ElJZAtETB. 
7«Rich, WUbore, 1561. 

79 Rowluid Sav«gv» 2. 

SO Joho Skiptmi, $. 

81 Tbo. Mol^te, 4. 

.82 Leo. Healmugb, 5. 

83 P. Etberington, ft. 

44 John Skipton, 7. 

85 Rjchard Wilbore, 8. 

86 Bonifuc 8av^e, 9. 

67 Tbo. Wakefield, 1570. 

88 P. Etheringtnn, I. 

89 P. EtheriRgtoD, 6. 
SO W. Colebeck, 3. 
81 Peter %olt(Hi, 4. 
.82 BoniEkce Savage, 5. 
SS P. Etherington, 6. 
94 Ralph Aitis, 7. 
35 John Skipton, 8. 

96 John Eldsley, i. 

97 Wm. Colebeck, 1580. 

68 Thomas Crosby, I. 
S9 Edvrard Rusbj-, 2. 

100 Robert Cook,' S. 

101 Henty Farnell, 4. 

102 Rich. Thwaiu, 3. 

103 Wm. Sari^^ «. 

104 Henry Farnell, 7. 

105 Boniface Savage, 8. 

106 Allen Austwicfc, 9. 

107 Richard Thwaitfl, 1 530. 
103 John Bfamhall, I. 

109 Tho. Robinson, 2. 

110 Wm. Stable, 3. 
Itl Allen AiMtwid£, 4. 

112 W. Bywater, 5. 

113 Henry Farnell, 6. 

114 Rich. Thwaits, 7. 

115 Wm. Savage, 8, 
11$ Allen Eldstej, 9. 



117 John Fnnic, I606. 

lis Jamea Moorb, 1. 

119 JotiD Bramhall. S. 



ICO Tho. Chatui) S. 

131 Josh. W«ke(ield, 4. 

liE2 John Skipton, 5. 

123 Tho. StiU>le, fi. 

134 Peter Rodgers, 7. 

125 William TMhad), 8. 

lie Allen Austwick> ft. 

127 Wm. Bywater, 10, 

I2S Rich. Thwaits, 11. 

129 Rich. Bullock, IS. 

130 Josh. Wi^efiflld, I3. 

131 John Prank, - 14. 
IS2 Wm. Taiham, \3. 

133 John tjistwood, 16. 

134 L'jonard Want, 17. 

135 Wm. Wilkinson, l8. 

136 Peter Skipton, 19. 

137 Tho. Austwick, 20. 
13S Tho. Rai»in, I. 

139 William Oates, 2. 

140 Stephen Coffpef, 3. 

141 Th«. Hitehin, 4. 

143 >Iax<ni. Adaois^ 5. 

CHARLES I. 

148 Rich. Clement, 0. 

144 Edward Rasby, 7. 

145 Robert Moore, ft. 
Ufi M»tt. Hardwtek, 9. 

147 Rob. Moore & 7 ,,^ 
Maxiift, Adaras, J "™' 

1 48 Wi«.Tatha«i, I. 

149 Wm. Oates, i. 
I $0 Leonard W^, 3. 
151 ThaHihibiB^ 4. 



n.lizedbyG0l")^IC 



mxnnv of rommtxrr. 



CBtMLtS J. 

t53 Nicb. Sobte, 1(35. 

153 Maxkn. Adam^ 6. 

154 Robm Frank, 7. 

155 Tho. WiHcinsoB, 8. 

156 Tho. Aunwick, 9. 
l37 JobnTubam, lew. 

158 Jobn Wil'kinsoiif I. 

159 Riehard Oates, 2. 

160 Jarvis SJiillito*, S. 

161 Ditto, - - 4. 
1«2 John Sfcurr, 3. 
1.63 John Ramsden, 6. 

164 Edward Field, 7. 

165 Matt. Frank, 8. 

chables n. 

lee John Cowper, 9. 

t67 Leonard Ward, i650, 

168 Robert FVank, 1. 

169 Christ. Ifing, 2. 

170 William Gates, ?. 

171 Christ. Long, ♦- 

172 Richard Oates) „ 
aad Hob. Moore, J 

t73 John Ramsden, 6. 

174 Robert Cowper, 7. 

|75 Rioh. Wildmsn, 8; 

176 John Rranh, 9-. 

in Nich. SwWe, leeoi 

1-13 lUch. Smith, 1. 

l79 Wm. Wilkinsoi), 2. 

160 Bich.'Au3twic.k| 3. 



181 Rob. Tbtham, 1664. 

|82 Ditto, - - 5. 

183 Geo. ShilKto, 6. 

>84 Tho. Jackson, T. 

185 John Rusby, 9. 

186 Francis Kelhtm, 9. 

187 John Johnson, IffTO. 
tSS Samnel Taylor, r. 

189 John Frank, 2. 

190 Edward Holcott, 3. 

191 Christ. Hayford, 4. 

192 WiHiam Oates, 5. 

193 Francis Faner, 9, , 

194 Rich. Austwick, 7, 

195 Rob. Tatham, 8. 

196 Gfeorge Shillito, 9, 

197 Tho. Jackson, l€9Sk 
193 William. Gates, I, 

199 John Rushy, 2. 

200 Ditto, - - 3. 

201 John Knowle^ 4* 

JAMES n. 

302 William Coates, S.- 

£03 Francis Ketlam, 6. 

204 Hastings Sayle. 7. 

205 John J'ohjison \ . 
and Sam. Taylor, S ^ 

WILWAM AS» MARY. 

206 Peter M^on, 9, 

207 William, Stables, J690. 
203 Thomas Taylor, I, 



• On the commenrajment, of the civil waii Jarvis Shillito* 
the mayor, fl^ed to the cattle: and. it appears he continued ia, 
office during the year 1643 an.i 1644. Though some one of 
the aldermen wa« regularly chosen mayor, yet their civil au- 
thority withirt the borough, during (he different sieges uf 
tba eaMlfii ^"f^ wtutlly annulled- by that of the military. 



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HISTOHY OP POKTEnUCT. 



209 Jarvis iKiiliito, i692. 

210 Wm. Biiigessl 

and John Frank, } ^• 

21 1 Tliomaa Sajle, 4. 

212 William Braine, 5. 

213 Barcho. Baleman, 6. 

214 TboQias Routh, 7, 

215 Hastings .Sayle, 8, 
iai6 William Coaies, 9. 
1.17 William Stables, 1700. 

QUEEN ANNE. 

218 Thomas Taylor, l 

2,19 Sir J. Bland', Bart. 2. 

220 Hastings Sayle, 3, 

22 1 George Hoicott, 4. 

222 Thomas Savle, 5. 

223 Richard Ro'nth, 6. 

224 Thomas Taylor, 7, 

225 John Ktllam, 8. 

226 Geoi^e Skipton, Jt. 

227 Mich.Waterhoiise, 10. 

228 Thomas Taylor^ u. 

229 Rob. Shan>as8 ? ■ 
and Wm. Coates, ; ^^■ 

GEORGE I. 

250 Robert LovFiher, 13. 

231 William Lee, 14. 

232 HastingsSayle, > 

and law. Fox, J '^■ 

233 William Lee, 1 6. 

234 George Skipton, 17, 

235 Thomas Mason, 13. 

236 George Skipioi), 19. 

237 Wm Kitchingman, 20. 

238 Lawrence Fox, i, 

239 George Jeiiings, 2. 

240 John Kellam, 3, 

241 George JemiigB, 4. 



GBORGE n. 

242 W.Kitcbingman,1725: 

243 William Lee, 6. 

244 W. KitchiDgman, 7, 

245 Joba Kellam, - 8. 

246 Lawrence Fox, 9, 
24T W. Harvey, Esq. 1730. 

248 JosephKitchiDgnnn, l. 

249 John Kitchingman, 2. 

250 John Lee, 3. 

251 Joshua Wilson, 4. 

252 John Pcrtect, 5. 

253 Lawrence Fox > 

and Jyhn Kellam, I ^' 

254 John Stephenson. 7, 

255 William Crewe, 8. 

256 Ld. Vic. Gallway, 9. 

257 John Bruce, I740i 

258 John Stephenson, 1. 
369 Tho. Whiteman, z. 

360 Joshua Wilson, 3. 

361 William Lee, 4. 

262 William Drake, s. 

263 J. Kitchingman, 6* 

264 John Kitchingman, 7. 

265 Joshua WilsonJ 8. 

266 Sam. Saltonst^ 9. 

267 Joshua Wilson, 175a 

268 William Crewe, 1. 

269 John Perfect, . 2. 

270 John Bruce, 3. 

271 Richard SugdcD, 4. 
t'72 John Bright, 5. 

273 Butler Lucas, 6. 

274 Lawrence Fox, 7, 

275 George Swiney, a. 

276 WiUiam Perfect, 9. 

GEORGE UI. 

277 J. KitchiDgman, 1760f 



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HISTORY OF PONTEFRAOT. 



457 



OEORQE III. 

278 William Lamb* 1763. 

279 Thomas Tayior, 4. 

280 Joshua Wilson, 5. 
SSI Sam. Salton^tall, 6. 
282 T4o. Popplewcll, 7. 
233 William Crewe, 8. 

284 Richard Sugden, 9. 

285 niomas Taylor, 1770 

286 William Cockell, 1. 
, 237 John Perfect, 2. 

288 Thomas Taylor, 3. 

289 William Cockell, 4. 
290* William Perfect, 5. 

291 Butler Lucas, 6. 

292 Law. Fox, and \ ^ 
Sam. Saltonstall, j 

293 Rob. Davison, 8. 

294 William Perfect, 9. 

295 William Cockell, 17S0. 

296 John Seaton, 1. 

297 Wm. Tnmlinson, 2. 
293 John Seaton, 3. 
29? WUli^mi Cockell, 4. 



300 Wm.Tomlinson, 1785, 

301 John Perfect, 6. 

302 Thomas Taylor, 7, 

303 John Seaton, 8. 

304 Wm. Tomhnson, 9. 

305 John Willott, 1790. 

306 Thomas Taylor, 1. 

307 Williiim Cockell, 2. 

308 John Peifect, 3. 

309 Jolm Seaton, 4. 

310 John Hejjworth, 5. 

311 Wm. Tomlinson, 6. 

312 John Willott, 

3 1 3 Grosvenor Peifisct, 8. 

314 George Alderson, 9. 
3t5 Joseph Marshall, 1800. 
816 Thomas Taylor, 1. 

317 Wm. Cockell,! 
and John Seaton, j 

318 Wm, Tomlinson, 3. 

319 Robert Seaton, 4, 

320 John Willol, 5. 

321 Joseph Marshall, 6, 



7. 



* In printing from aDOlher copy of the list of mayors, 
and on comparing i( with the old corporuion book, il.was 
found that an error of two years had been admitted. In the 
old corporation book, no mayors are specified tor the years 
1868 and 1089, the period 4^ the glorious revolution ; so thai 
the reader is desired to observe, (hat the mnyiTalty of John 
Johnson and Samuel Taylor was in the year 1690, and that 
of the rest in regular succession. 



,v Google 



4S8 msTcvr or potmMucn 

Parliament aiy History of _ the Sorought 

From the era of tlie conquest, the oppres- 
sions of the crown compelled the barons to 
unite in defence of their .own order and privi- 
leges; and to give success to their ^Gorts, they 
associated their own cause with that of the 
people. Hence they obtained the Ma^na Charts, 
the foundation of British liberty. The people 
however had no security for the punctnal exe- 
cution of this cliarter, wiiile they were destitute 
of any le^iiilative authority. During tlie long 
reign of Henry III. the charter was neglected; 
and the barons and the people had no other 
way left to enforce the observance of it, than 
by drawing the sword. Henry, always in need 
of supplies, conceded to iheir wishes in appear- 
ance, till he bad obtained what he wanted, 
and then reverted again to his usual tyranny 
and oppression.. At length the barons tQok the 
chief part of the executive' ^wer from the 
crown, and lodged it in the hands of a council, 
formed of twenty-fdar of their own 'b6dy.- 

Thus, after a considerable struggle, the ari- 
stocracy seem to have triumphedi and the crown 
■was ■ sufficiently humbled. The aristDcraoy' bad 
prevailed through the assistance of ' the peopte; 
and the great Earl of I^^icester, as welt to se- 
cure his, own power as to gratify the nation, 
adopted the expedient of summoning to parlia- 
ment, two knights of each shire, and two bur- 
gesses for each bopough. 

Edward I. had seen the kingdom rent by 
the weskness and profligacy of his father's reign. 
Prudent to discern defects, and prompt to ap- 



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-RISTOKr OF rONTSTRACT. 459 

ply proper remedies, io his reign nuoieroos and 
fflcceilent law^ were enacted; laws wl)icl> gave 
to the House of GommoRs its legal origin, and 
ftrhich bare been justly considered <'8 the but* 
warbs of liberty. The Magna Charta secured 
the -persons of Ett^'ishmen, and tlie law of the 
twenty-fourth of t/Iward enacts, ■" That no tax 
should be laid, no impost levied, without the 
Joint consent of lords and commons." 

Fiom this period, kinghrts of shires and bur- 
gesses were regularly summoDed to- parliament. 
The journals of the house 'incontestable prove. 
that as early as this reign, this borough returned 
members. 

The contests between the houves- of Lancas- 
ter and York, and the part the burgesses took 
in theip, reduced them to- such poverty, that 
they were unable to support their representa? 
lives ; and for some reigns ceased to send any f. 
In the tenth and eleventh ' of Henry VI. writs 
were sent to the mayor, but the return made 
was, that they could not send burgesses by 
reason of their poverty. The borough continued 
without representatives till the reign of James I. 
who granted them " all their former liberties 

* Glanville, who i« probably more accurale, though hti 
account i« of leu technical autliority, uyn, ." Thai Panterract 
disctntiiuied bi;in); a parliaipentwjr borougti Trom I he time of 
King Edward 1." and he adds, " Thai by rrason or the long 
ditconliituance of the borough, there did rot appear any 
known u<age or prfsrription by whom the election should be 
made." Glahi p. 1*1. Is it not more probable, tlut the bor^gh 
tent raemben ^er the reigi) of Eldward I. than that it should 
Jucoiuimx iirom that period? Iiideed, it would be tnore pro- 
per to say, that it never sent any. than to maintain il dis- 
continued to send burgeiws to parliament, ai tiie House of 
Commoi)) was only then regi^ly fbnned and asstUDbled. 



D.n.iized by Google 



460 teSTORY O? PONTEPRACT. 

and cnstoniis, notwithstaading tbey had becQ 
forfeited or lost." 

By whom were the burgesses or representa- 
tives chosen? None of the charters regulate or 
even mention by whom or in what manDer, 
the members of parliament should be chosen. 
Diflr^^nt customs prevail in different places. In 
some boroughs, the members are chosen by the 
freemen ; in others by burgesses, in possession 
of burgac^e tenure freehold; and in others by 
the inhabitants resiant. By the charters of the 
Lacies, a person wlio possessed a toft, and paid 
one shilling to the lord as a fee-farm rent, is 
styled a burgess; und the toA: thus held, was 
held by brirgage tenure. In these charters, he 
wbn held half a toft, or any part of a toft, is 
declared to be free as if he held a whole toft. 
He wtto dwt-IU in a mansion house, is declared 
to be as free as if lie were a burgess*. 

In the charter of iucorpuratiou, the burgesses 
only who were in possession' of a burgage ten- 
ure, are investetl with corporate privileges. Bat 
as this merely relates to the internal govern- 
ment of the borough, it does not determine who 
had the right to vote for members to serve in 
parliament. Is it improbable, that as members 
of parliament, at that period, received wages 
from their constituents, the bnrgesses allowed 

* Does tiiis clau<ie justify (he inference, thit any retpect- 
nble perran, who rented a housr of a burgesi, wai xrealad as 
if he held a bui^^e freehold ' — that he ergojrrd the nme jtfi- 
vilege* and rij^hU? Sucb appears to be the wnse of the pas- 
sage; and should it be admilted, it will Jdlow, thai every 
free perton, every person who'wai not in slavery, who bad a 
wiU of. hii own, became by residence a burgeu. 



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. HISTORY OF PONTEFMCT. 461 

the inhabitants at large to vote, in order- to 
throw a part of the expence on thijm * ? 

In the ci^ihleentb of James !. Geo. Skillet 
and ' Edmnnd Sandys, Jun. were returned the 
first members after the borough was restored. 
There is no account on record of any opposi- 
tion to these gentlemen, nor how or by whom 
they were elected. In Che genei-al election the 
twenty-first of James I. the old m«nbers de- 
clined, and Sir Tljomfl^ W^ntworth and Sir H. 
Holcroft were returned. The latter gentleman 
had the honour to be elected ilie representative 
' of another boroup;|); and as being doubly re- 
turned, he was unrler the necessity of choosing 
for which of the boroughs he would sit. He 
waved Pontefract, in consequence of which a 
new writ was iq-^ned, and iwo caudidatns offered. 
These were Sir John JaclcMin, and Sir Kicliard 
Beaumont. The sheriff made this return to the 
bouse, " Two days after the writ, the mayor 
and aldermen told' him they had chosen Sir J. 
Jackson. Afterwards, the Iltb of March, di- 
vers other aldermen told him lliey had chosen 
Sir Richard Beaumont." The sheriff returned 

" For more than a century the wages of the commoni 
were xomelimes higher and sometimes lower; but in the reign 
of Kdnard HI. they were fixed lor knights of the shire at 
/our thillingi per day, and Actt lAUlings top a citizen or bar- ; 
ge». They thought tim reasonable, that di they secvccl' the 
public, the public ought to pay them ; nor had tht^y any notion 
that this custom would ever be conitdered diEiI^anoumble and 
lUwlished. It wan attended with one good effect, as it secured 
tlie attendsnc<- <)t members of the House uf Commons ; be- 
cause thoK who did not attend from the first to the last day 
ieceive>i no wages. The celebrated Andrew Marvel, member 
fat Hull, was the last person who received wages from hii 
constituents. Hen. Hitt. 



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46S BBnttT Of tvfrravjLCT. 

two indenture!!. That for Sir John iiackson vas 
signed by tbe mayor, aldermen and burgesses. 
That for Sir Richard Basumont by four or fire 
aldermen, and upwards of twenty bnrgesses. 

Sir John JackGon, though the" retams of 
the sheriff were irregular, was permitted, "^if he 
chose, to take his seat in the house; and Sir 
Richard Beaumont and his friends petitioned. 
Sir Thomas Wentworth, the' sitting member, pre- 
sented the petition ; and it appears from what 
was stated in the petition,' that there was as 
much animosity, intrigue, and party spirit, dis- 
]^ayed then at elections aa^ now. The mayor, 
before any writ cante, undertook to secure the 
return of Sir John Jadcson. A number of recti- 
nnts and Papists were brought into the town; 
and about' forty of them were made burgesses, 
in order to cai'ry the election. From this fact 
it appears,' that the practice ' of making sham 
tonveyancfes of burgage tenures, which after- 
wards prerailed in this borough, was then re- 
sorteMl to; and the number of burgage- tenures 
possessed by persons who were not inhabitants, 
Occeeded t^iat of the resident burgesses. 

^Vheo'tlie day of election came, t.he n^ayor, 
and those in' bis interest, treated their opponents 
with- insult. They would not permit the friends 
of Sir Richard 'Beaumont,' to enter the Mnte- 
Hall, .but shijit the Hoors agaipst them, ^ir K. 
Beaumont, had' ground to petition against such 
outrageous and arbitrary proceedings. The peti- 
tion was referred to the committee of privileges; 
and Mr. Glanville, on the gStb of May, 1624, 
reported for Pootefracl two points. " First, who 
the electors. Resolved by tlie committee^ there 



'JO:V>OOg\Q 



HiSTOWr ' OV -VOtfTEnuCT. 46S' 

being ito charter, nor prescription for dunces the 
election is to- he made bif t/ie inhabitants, house- 
holders, resiants, Secondly, the committee re- 
solved, that 1)6 burgess duly chosen, and a nerr 
warrant should issue -for a- new ehoice!" 

This decision must have been sanctioned 
by the hcuse, as nothing is said to the contrary. 
According to Glanviile, Sir R. Beaumont pre- 
tended that the rio;ht of election was in the free> 
hoidere recant in the borough -on/y. From this it 
should seem, that the resiant burgesses claimed 
the right in exclusion of out-dwellers. The deci- 
sion of the house against both parties, shews at 
least that there was then no prescriptive right 
or usage, either lor the resiant burgesses, or for 
persons in the possession of a burgage freehold, 
to choose the members to serve in parliament. 
But whethn* the inhabitants at large did actu- 
ally Tote, according to this decision, is uncer- 
tain... It is also uncertain who was returned, in 
consequence of a new writ being issued. In the 
first ' of Charles ' I. Sir John Jackson and Sir H. 
Beaumont' were returQed without opposition; biit 
^e tatter gentleman dying in the same year, 
Francis Foljamb was chosen in his place. 

From this period a few neighbouring genile- 
men divided the borough, and there was -no 
contest previous to the civil wars. Henry Ar- 
thington and William White, were the repre* 
sentatives of the borough in the long parlia- 
ment. On Cromwell .becoming Protector, John 
Ixird Lanlbert »nd Sir John Hewley- were- re- 
turned. In 1660 there was a warm eontett, 
and Uiree ' members were returned; they were 
hoveTer-'Rtaraedjm the burgage tenure interest^ 



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464 H-STOKY Of POVTEntCTi -, 

and the ri.q;ht of iele<-lion does not seem to bare 
been in liti,i;ation. 0)i the l6tb of May tbe 
comroitte reported, " Tlmt upon examination of 
the fait, it appeared, (hat Sir George Savilte 
and Wiltiam t^wther, Esq. had the greatest 
number of voices, and ought (o sit;" and the 
house resolved accordinsly. 

In the year 1695 a similar contest arose, 
on the same interest. Sir William Lowther, 
Mr. Moncton and ^ir John Bland stood can- 
didates. The two first gentlemen were relumed, 
and .Sir John Bland petitioned, stating, " That 
1 several undue practices were u.sed by the mayor 
and others, in threatening several that would 
have voted for the petitioner; and denying oth«^; 
and by setting down several for the sitting mem- 
bers, who were not qualified to vote." Whe- 
ther the parlies came to an agreement, or whe- 
ther Sir John Bland, on examination, found that 
be had not suStcient ground to proceed- on, he 
withdrew bis petition. 

In the year 1698 a vearm contest took 
place between John Bright, Esq. Sir John 
^land, and Robert Moncton, Esq. Sir John 
Bland was supported by the Lowlher interest, 
and the contest lay between Sir John Bright 
and Robert Moncton. The tno parties seem to 
have been nearly equal in strength ; J. Bright 
having seventy-two votes and R. Moucion seventy. 
The members returned of course were Sir John 
filand and J. Bright, Esq. R. Moncton, Esq, 
petitioned; and it appeared from evidence pro- 
duced in the committee, that one burgage bad 
been split into four by sham conveyances, and- 
that on bQth sides tbe most scandalous aud illegal. 



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nSTOBT OF MntTRFRACT. 465 

pHictices had been used. It was resolved by 
this committee, '" That the right of election was 
agreed to. be in such p«Tsons as have ioherit- 
ance, or freehold of burgage tenure within the 
said borough." The house, on the Kport of the 
committee, considered, that neither J. Bright 
nor R. Moocton-had been duly elected, and a 
new writ was ordered to be issued. 

Tlie same cutdidales ^ain offi^redj the same 
persons voted as before. J. Bright was again 
returned, and R. Moocton again p^itioned. 
Before the ftetition was investigated the parlif^ 
meut was dissolved, and at the general election, 
1701, Sir W. Lowther and Sir John Bland were 
returned without opposition. 

These gentlemen were chosen in three short 
successive parliaments, and no contest arose till 
1713, when four candidates offered for the bo- 
rough. These were Mr. Dawney, Mr. Frank* 
Sir W. Lowther and Mr. Bethel. The two lat- 
ter opposed the two former. After a long and 
violent contest, Dawney and Frank were re- 
tnmed, and the other two petitioned. When 
the petition came to be examined, it appeared, 
"-that Robert Lowther, the mayor, and Mr. 
Frank, who was the recorder of the borough, 
and Mr. Abbot, the town's clerk, had refused 
to admit many legal votes for the petitioners; 
and had admitted many illegal ones lor the sit- 
ting members. Abbot, wbo as town's clerk 
bad the making up of the fee-farm book- every 
year for the mayor, wherein the different tenures 
were distinguished, and all the burgages truly 
entered, had iDarkc:d several as burgage t^iants 
wbo were not so: and omitted others who were. 



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466 BISTORT Of PONTEFUCn 

The comraitlee came to the 'resolution, -that the 
two sitting members were not dtily elected, 
ai)d that the petitioners were; which dief home 
agreed to. 

From this period the bu rgage freeholds 
tvere chiefly engrofssed by onie or two femilies; 
aiHl these either sat for the borough tliem- 
selves, or sent wkom lliey pleased. The Low- 
Iher family had ' tha- greatest number, and 
of course the greatest interest. Sir William 
lowther about the year 17J4 sold his 'burgage 
tenures' and property m Williai^ Moncton, 
Lord Gallvay, in whose family 'di^ ha?e con- 
tinued. * '■ 

At the general election, 176Si several bur- 
gesses rcsiant in the borough, began to question 
the right of persona who did, not dwell in the 
said borough, though in possession of a bur- 
gage freehold, to voie for' members to serve ia 
parliament. ' The burgesses fresianC wete highly 
dissatisfied with the prevailing practicb of making 
sham conveyances, and brii:t;ging' men froni a 
distance, who hiEid no connection with the'toWD^ 
to vote. They stated their' views and wishes 
to a worthy neighboui'ing baronet, Sir R. Wion; 
and he generously Undertook to try the merits 
of the cause. ' He appeared i in thb town, and 
tvas hailed as a delivefer. 

As the canse' of freedom I's generally the 
cause the people ardeaUy espouse, this gentle- 
man recei^ all the popular support- wtiidi 
could be expected. Possessed of an ample for- 
tune, and naturally liberal and generbta^ be 
spared no expence. Before the Lion 'Inn a 
sheep was roasted nhok, balls were given, and 



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msToiT <v:soirrB?B*CT. ' 4«T 

the spirit of the party Isfpt- up hy the methods 
general!}' adopted on such occtiston^ To in- 
dicate the downfall aed polilical deaih of the 
Sham in/ first, the bells were mufHed, and ilie 
dumb peal rung. The other eaadtdaies 'were 
W. Mondton, - l^rd Gallway, .and H. Straobey. 
When tlie pbtl commenced; the .most violent 
arid < unjustifiable' tneasQves weiie rursuedby the 
' populace. Many out-voters' it«;e. prevented' 
AtHti -appearht^ and exerrasia^-wha^.tbey judged 
their right.' Numbers of sailor^ and others from 
Knottingley-'came to the -town,, and in conneo- 
tion with some of the inhabitants, disturbed the 
peace, and raised a furiqas riot. -The Houses of 
the mayor and recorder were assaelted^ and all 
the windows in front wholly destroyed. Much 
(iamsfge was done, and: the 'peraonal safety of 
those in the- sham interest endangered. The 
mayor vtm- compelled to return Lord- Gallvray 
and Sir R; Winn. 

' An aMiOn 't4^ brought against several of 
the moi« active riotersf. «nd at tHemeict. assizes 
they were' tried' and convicted: Lord Gallway 
and H. Strachey, Esq. petitioned,- stating " that 
^he retuniing officer had been compelled by force 
CO retitrti Sit) R. Winn with Lord Ggllway ; and 
thftt'a great-initjority of legal voterd would have 
presented ,them!^elyes, and voted for Mr. Stra- 
chey, if they had not been intimidated by the 
violence of- several hundred rioter?, armed with 
blndgeons and other offensive weapons." When 
the matter ' of these pelKions came to be tried 
at the bar of the honse, the' hoiise resolved, 
*^ That the counsel be confmed to proceed., only 
upon the allegations qf the said petitions, which 



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468 HBTOKT 09 rOVTS.VUXIti , 

complain of the freedoin of the ^id election 
beiog disturbed by rioters." After beariog coan- 
«el and examiniDg witnesses, the election was 
declared to be void; and a new writ was or- 
dered to be issued. 

On this determination of 'the house, a 
gentleman in the lobby, wbo had been searching 
the journals of the -house, and bad met with 
Glanville's report coDceniing Pontefract in the 
year 1634, said, "That the right to rote was 
neither in the burgesses resident, nor non-re- 
sident; 'bat in the inhabitants, boBseholders re- 
siant." Some gentlemen, warm in supporting 
Sir R. Winn's interest, on hearing this, took 
new spirit; tbe journals were examined, and the 
report found to be as stated. 

Having Itakeo the opinion of bounael and o( 
friends, the worthy baronet pasted down; and, 
together with his brother Mr. Edward Winn, 
offered himself a candidate to represent tbe bo- 
rough, on tbe right of tbe inhabitsBts. I^rd 
Gallway and H. Stracfaey, Esq. agata stood 4>a 
the burgage tenure interest; and 'were of course 
leturned, aa the m^or, the returning officer, 
was oUiged to make tbe return ■ in tbfi usual 
manner *. Sir K. Winn and hi) brother qo» 
became tbe petitioners, togetber wjtb coiajn in- 

* B}' 7 and 8 Will. HI. cap. 7. i I. It » enwled, 
" Ttiat, in cose any per.on or persons shall retufn any meU' 
ber to terve in pariiamenl, lor any rounly, cilr, boiougb, 
cinqiifrpon; or place, contrary to the last detorminaiion in the 
ilouse of Ct»|iinoiis of the right of election in Micfa county, 
city, &c. such return xo made itiall be adjudged to be a hix 
return." 

This made the last deteimination of the bouse binding o^ 
nbtrning.fdicen. - 



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babitaotB,' hoofiebolders, in their iDt«i^8t, Deoi 
14, 1?68* on the ground of the reaolutipn io 
the year 1624. 

At this period election causes, were referred 
\b A -coaimittee of privileges and elections; and 
Tt^etited or confirmed by the whole house. From 
tbis it in evident, that whatever ipi^t be the 
merits of the cause, the candidate who had a 
nlajority of the hoese io his &vouri would be 
tFiumphant. In most election litigations the 
house did not si. much consider the justice of 
the clainas as to what party the candidates be* 
longed. If the sitting member? were in the in- 
terest of the miAisters their ri^t was almost uni- 
formly established; and the claims. of the petU 
tionefs disregarded. If, on the otiier hand, the 
p4titioner8 were on the side. of the ministry^ 
their claims were established, and . the sitting 
members rejected. lii short, to bring in tho 
favourite candidate, aad streagthen- tbe majority 
by, a ;new voice, every fence of Jaw, justice, 
aad even deceticy . was . broken' down. 

Sir R. Winn waited tm the Duke of Grafloa, 
the niinister, who. referred the case- to the \atvf 
(tiBcers, and was favoVrably inclined to it; but the 
dukergOing: (iut.«f jQffice, Lord. N(^)i succeeded 
as' ChanCellpr of the E^tfhequor. - Sir H. Winn 
waitejj 0D:tUis goAilenian, who assured him that 
b6. nfas also . favourable to .the claim of the in- 
habitants of Poniefract, but observed, that he 
could not take it up as a ministerial, measure. 
He recommended to this gentlaman to make 
what -' interest he could hy personal application 
to the members of the house, that when the 
petition came to be cousidered they might uu- 



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470 nnoir op: voimnucT. 

derstand the ^umls of it. The worthy baronet 
not having been 4n'the hoase, his personal into, 
rest with the members was inconuderaUe; nor 
could he, after every possible exerticm, sa«:eed 
in procuring that attention .to his canse which 
its merit deserved. The hearing of the pemiotu 
was by repeated adjouroments put off to Feb. 
6. 1770. 

By an act of the second of George II. the 
lasl determination of the house respecting qontro- 
verted elections was rendered fktal*. When the 
petition came to be cotlstdere«I, a doubt arose bow 
far theentriesin the twojoumatsof May 38> )6S4, 
were to be con!<idered as the last determinatioa 
<f[ the house, within the meaning of the act of 
Ge(M*ge II. counsel was -heard' to that point, 
after which^ " A motion was made, and the 
question being put^ the two entries of the 28th 
day of May 1 6^4 • of resolutions cotictrning the 
rlj^t of election 'for the -borough of Pontefract, 
appearing id two severat ^T^urnals,- be admitted 
to be read ' to- the counsel at the bar, as the 
last determin^ibn of the house, tonching the 
legality of votes for members- to serve in par- 
liament for that borou^; t'be'houRe divided, and 
It passed in tlte negative, Tdl to 93." On tbi» 
the counsel for the .petitionerB desired that leave 
might be given to withdraw tbeir petitions, but 
this was' objected to by the coun^l on ibe 
other side, who desired to offer evidence to 
* The daase of the' itatute nioir thin, " That nich votes 
diall be deemed ia be legal which have been'ui dechred bjr 
the last determinatign io the ^ouw of Cqmmoo*,, wbicHi last 
determination concerning any county, ^ire, cily, boToughf 
cinque-port, or place, chall be ^nai to atl intoitt amd pvpota 
H^Uocser, vny usa^ to the contrary Kotwtthstniding." 



niiizedbyCioOi^lc 



■monr or toummAct. 47f 

establish the right of election; The booK re* 
aolred, That the petitions dMnld not be witb^ 
drawn. The connsel for the petitioners decKneJ 
giring the house further trdoUe. The counsel 
on the other' (tide ^raniined a witness to prove 
the right to be in the freeholders of burgage 
tenure; aitd produced sereral returns to shew 
that the elections were made by the mayor 
and burgesses^ They then read the entries in 
the Journals of 17th Jan. 1699—1700, and (^ 
S4th of March 1716— 16, on which the house 
came to a resolution determining the right as 
follows : 

6 Ffcbroary. 1770. Resolved, « That the 
right of election for mennbers to serve in par* 
liament for the borough of Pontefract, in the 
county of York, is in persons having within the 
said borough a freehold of burgage tenure, pay- 
ing a burgage rent?' 

Thus after itn wduous stni;E^le, and after 
having spent ' a shm of money equal to what 
mig^t hacve supported a contest for the county, 
the burgage interest appeared to be niOTe firmly 
established, by the effiwts which had been made 
to overturn It. It did not seem probable 
that any future attempt v/oq\4 be made on Uie 
right of the inhabitants. Their cause appeared 
now to be' hopeless and desperate; nor was 
there the least probability that it would ever 
be established. * 

In the year 1770 the Grsnvlle act was pas- 
sed. By this at;t a committee is appointed by' 
ballot, to consist of 6fleen membeis. to settle 
controverted elections, two of which are nomi- 
nees. This committee has power to examine 



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472 ffraOfty OP PONTBPUCT. 

witnesses ' on- oath; to hear coUnael; andUs de^ 
cision is final. The committee being chosen by 
ballot, the minister caitnot avail himself .of bia 
niiyority to support the candidate in bis inte' 
rest. As the appeal to the house, . hitherto al* 
lowed, is taken away, no undue influence can 
be uned ; for the committee, it is probable, will 
consist of men of different parties; and the me- 
rits of the cause, it may be presumed, and not 
the men, will regulate its determination. 

At tlie general election in 1774 Sir R. Winn, 
though strongly solicited by tbe inhabitant^ 
and by his friend, the Hon. C. Fox, declined 
offering himself atf a candidate, on the right of 
the inliabitants. The expences he bad already in- 
curred, and the probability that he would not suc- 
ceed, appear to have induced him to adopt this 
determination. The Hon. C. Fox and bis friend 
James Hare, Esq. then offered themselves on 
that right. Tbe other candidates, on tbe bar- 
gage interest, were ' Sir J. Goodricke and C. 
Mellisb, Esq. These were of course returned, 
and tbe other gentlemen, with some ' of tbe in- 
habitants, petitioned. Their petitions were refisr^ 
red to a committee under the. Greorille act; 
which met and took tbe petitions into consider- 
ation, on the 1st of March, 177^. 

The two petitions being read, it appeared, 
that the only question in the case was the ri^t 
of election in -the borough of Pontefract; and 
whether a resolution of 1634, or one of 1770, 
was to be considered as the last determmatimi 
in the House of Commons, witbiu the meaning 
of the statute of George IX. 

After some dispute among tbe cwnsel whe- 



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.HISTOBV Of PONTHtaiCT. 473 

ttier any, lor'iwbich,' of those two resoIbt)oi» 
should he 'te/ad, the committte agreed, that both 
sboald be- read; and. the .counsel of. the peti- 
Inoners maintained that 'as the resolution of 1634 
was the last determination of the house in 1739, 
when the statute of ■ iGeorge II. passed, no 
subsequent act. of the .house can annul it: 
for that itatate is binding on the House of 
Comtnons, and every last determination is . to 
be considered as incorporated with, and making 
.part of,, the statute, asi much as. if it was 
therein recited. 

By giving a biatory of all the contests, the 
counsel contended, diat there, bad been no re<- 
solntion, DO detetmination of the house on the 
right of ^leolion; nothing bill the, agreement of 
parties; and neither itbie .agreement of, parties. 
Dor erien the resolution' i of a. contmittee, unless 
ratified by the hoqse, oan allter the law. of elee- 
tkms. • ■> !■ '» / 

. The CDunsel-for thesitting members contended 
tiMt the -Resolution in 1770 was the last.detel'- 
minaiion: o£ ^lbe,honse;,'aiid that the right of 
eleotitm'vWBs >not. finally settled till then. They 
endeavot)t<ed lo -itifvalidatd the resolution as sta- 
ted in Glahvilie'sj. reports; and conteoded froni 
the chariers of the Lacies that the burgessesi 
bad always enjoyed the right. They argued 
fivm the reUirns, that the mayor, aldermen and 
burgesses only, h^ a right to vote; and which 
right they only had exercised. 

In reply the counsel for the petitioners main-, 

tained, that the charters of the Lacies do not 

contain any regolaticm touching the right of 

election; Gft that though they had. been known 

p p p 



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4T4 mSTOfty OT PONTEPlUCt. . 

to the committee in 1624, their judgment 
woald have been the fume} and th^ their hy^ 
pothesi3;^is still true, thtre was mi- charter /or 
efioice. They concluded by obsening, ** That if 
the committee should decide on the present oc- 
casion as the house did in 177^> the decieioR will 
not bind any future committee, ' nor anna] tbe 
rights of the inhabitants; which, sa tfaey depend 
on an act ef parliament, and ere secured by it, 
cannot be taken away by the detemmiatiem of 
any particular case like tbb, but' will be still 
as valid as ever on a new election." 

On Friday, the 5rd of March, the committee, 
by their chairman, informed the' houses that tbe 
two sitting members were dsly fleeted. Tbis 
determination^ white it seemed to perpetnata 
the burgage interest, dispil-ited the friends of the 
populaj- cause, and nearly led them to rdinqaiiA 
it as an impracticable attempt.. 

At 4he general election in 1780, thoqigh 
urgent application was again made to Sir R. 
Winn, he continued to adhere to tbe-~ ofHimm 
he bad before formed, and refiised' to stand. 
Several neighbouriog gentlemen were also stJi- 
cited, bat none coald be found who woald 
again stand on the right of tli& inhabitants. At 
this time a deputation of the town pff^tosed 
tbe business to J. Smyth, Eaq. but baring no 
knowledge of the nature o£ their deim, he also 
declined. I.Ard Gallway and Mr, Needfaam 
were returned without opposition.' 

The application which bad been made to J. 
Smyth, Esq. led bim to investigate tbe nature 
and grounds of tbe cl^m of the iobabitahts of 
this borough. The result o£ this inveMigatiao 



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gmOVr OF PDKISnUCT. 4T5 

was, that be was fully, satwfied, " That the 
right of election was ior the inhafeiunts, hoiise- 
bolders resiwit." Lord Galiway accepted the 
eavoy^ip to Munioh, in the year 1783. and in 
esnsequence racated his seat. No opposition 
was expeoted) and it was then supposed that 
the fjopular caxiae ■ would be finally abandoned. 
A gentlsman or two, who-bad been hitherto most 
active in the attempts whidi had been made to 
obtain the fi^esdom of the borough, consulted what 
was DOW' to. be done, but could not determine 
to whom to apply, or in what manner another 
cfibrt shosld be mader One of these, without 
informtog I any person of his intention, rode 
over, and' again applied to J. Smyth, Esq. The 
answer of- thisgentleman was' faFoarahle; ahd be 
engaged, that in. case his friends in London, to 
whom an express' was sent, «ere of. his opinion, 
be would olfiiBr himself as a candidate. The ex* 
fr^Bs returned before the day of election, and 
bi^ :&isnda eoeouraging the -attempt, his steward 
wis sent '■ before to announce his approach to 
the town. -The bells- rung, and the inhabitants 
iosUintly assembled. . Nothing conl^ «coeed their 
eritbttsiasin- when, they found that this gentleman 
had nndertaken the canse of their freedom and 
liberties. 

On the burgage Intere^ J. Smith, an East 
India Director, was proposed, and returned by 
W. Tomlinson, Esq. mayor. ■ J. Smyth, Esq. 
polled a few of Ibe inhabitants, and petitioned. 
The period when this petition was presented 
was auspicious. Mr. I^tt, by his commanding 
eloquence, had roused the spirit of the nation 
in fovonr of a pariiamentary reform. The cod> 



:k«Ck>O^IC 



476 namaxw- vmrncmffD. 

duct of the' bouse," duH^g* the ' Asdericsn nvi 
fiirnished unanswerable avgamratB to prove - the 
Corrupt influence whkAi prevailed ;< and numbers 
of libevat and well ihlornied gebtlemeR laet in 
the diflerent counties to conBuhoD tiie. measures 
necessary tv be adopted in orderl^tO' obtaia. a 
reform*. ' -Many members of tbe bouse advocated 
the canse; and it was generally hoped th^ a 
tonporate. reform would have been: ^scted. 

Such being tbe spirit of the countryi and tif 
numbers in the House of OoDimsnSfj when tbe 
petition was heard before >a committee^ April 
the '8tb, the more, attention via ipmd. to it; 
ahd the counsel ably and. forcibly -sapportiiig it, 
on ' the Uth tbe committee;' decided: that J. 
Smyth, Esq. was duly ekcted, and he tocAi his 
seat accordin^y. When tbe news of this tri- 
umph was received io the town,: tbe people 
were transported with joT; and indulged UieJc 
feeiJngs by puUic - rejoiaiag» of every kind. On 
tlie return of J. Sotyttk,' Esq. into: the cornitry 
in summer, he came. (o. cengratulele' bis consti* 
tuents on their trimnpb in. the establishment of 
theit! just rights. . He was reiceived mih! every: 
possible mark of respect;; and'soenet oS feslivity 
and merriment tucoeeded eacb iiQtlwr,- tiU tbe 
ebulitton of the popular mind gradually sub? 
sided [iotc) tbe t.i^nqutl efnotions bf gratitude 
and self-satisfactipn. 

• It deserves to be recorded lallic hrfnour'of Lord Ga!T- 
way, " That in different county-meetingi, h* dedkrriJ hi* re»- 
dineti to ieUnqu!sh his- intcnijt in (he bottngli i -of Ponteftsct. 
provided ollKr wbleoiisi and genlleircn would relinquiib 
thein His Lordship's proposal met , with the wannest Bp- 
probation among the Iriends of reTorm; but not one borough 
proprietot followed hi) noUe and pi^otlc example.'' Seo 
Wyvilie'* Tracts &c- 



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mnoiT.OF Pcummkct. 47V 

'. At the: 'disBolutianl of l^aptfamdAt'^ 'in 1784,- 
J^;Saiytliv Esq;. Cot.iSythFPOff-ttftd- Sir -R. Winn; 
oifered themselves on thd' ritflu '^- fhie inhabit 
taiits.- The'tivo Tf^rnter gentlemeh h&d canvassed 
the town 'before' the m>rthy baronet ' made his 
appearance. .He' had not' ev«i ^^ii 'tlie least 
hint,' that he intended to bfTer himself; - nor had 
he eng&g^ any.law-^geivt; -Hel met ' with such 
sopport, as. to leave no doubt . what' would have 
been' the errent, had tie- commeffc^l his canvas 
as earty as the other ^geotlemeni -'The two' for- 
mer were- returned: by J, Seaton, Esq. mayopi^on 
the right of the inhabitants;, and the Hononrablo 
W. .Cockayne and J. Walsh, Eiq. stood onthe 
burgage- interest, and petitioned against the le- 
gality of the return'. In June the petitions 
came before a committee, whioh< after hearing 
coucwel, who entered into the. tiarhe arguments 
as before, decided that the .retiti^n' was legal; 
«nd the 'members dhjeyed the {io^ession of tlieir 
eeaai -itii peace. ' ' ' ■■>'■"■ ' 

■Ih' tlie-'yiar-l78S, ' jKi act passed to amend 
the ■Grenville'- act, 'respbctiTig the trial of coih 
ti-oWrted electixms.' ' By thia i act, ; where thi 
right of 'election' i is m'*dispat*B,''the -^rties areal^ 
towbd' CO- petition; and if the-«onimittee decide 
agmnst'itbe petitk>ners,"an appe^f is to be made 
within -ttvelve ■ months-; a comitiittee is again to 
be 'formed; and its decision is' to-be tiondiisive; 
binding' and iinal. Previous to this act there 
was tM Jaw to pat 'an. end to petitions and 
contests^' and though a committee had decided 
a case against the petitioners repeatedly., still 
the house might be pestered with fresh peli* 
\vous OQ every new . election. Finally to settle 



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47* .unoKT xtr MinWBacx. 

^putes ofiAhis kind, iknd wHh a paiticular re- 
^rence .tQ ihe ease of Paniie&act* waa this act 
brought in and -passed. )■.■■. 

The g6Denil election ia 1790 brov^t for- 
ward the old members agaio oo' the sane right; 
and Lord G^way, to the surprise <^ all hii 
friends, ^so offered himself on the «ame ri^t. 
J. Anatruther, Eaq. and C. Mdlish. Esq. stood on 
tbe burgage Interest. The- late members were 
retoroed; and the two lart gentteroen, as Dsnal, 
petitioned. On tbe &rst of March, 179l> a 
Gomnaittee was f^pointed> and tbe petitions ta- 
keti iDto consideration. Counsel for tbe peti- 
tioners defended the burgage right by the same 
argaments which had been.oa a fcmner occasion 
produced ; aad ■ the counsel for tbe sitting mem- 
bers in like manner .answered them. On the 
8th of March the committee decided . in favour 
of tbe inhabitants. 

In June 1791. J. Sraylh^ Esq. vacaud bis 
seat, by accepting the office of one of the lords 
of ibe Admiralty, end vas returned witboat op- 
position, except from tbe bui^ge.iniere&t. J. 
IValsh, Esq. in right of his.jburgage freebold. 
petitioned; fuki as. this wa^ .the last tipie tbe- 
sntgect could . come befoee thei bouse accwding 
to Uie provisions of the above-mentioned act, 
every possible effort was :mwle to establish tbe 
burgage right. Owing to a. pressure ^. public 
bosiness, the hearing of the . petition was pat 
«ff tiU February 1793.. On the >9th of that 
month tbe committee sat, and, continued till 
tbe S7* when after the fullest investigation, it 
was again decided in favour of the inbabitantsL 

The counsel for Uie petitioners esUblished 



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msTOUT OF POMTEFIUCr. 47> 

by tfae clearest erklence, that from the year 1624, 
ttft tbe hte decision, persons possessing a bar- 
gage freehold bad claimed and exercised the 
right of voting, and that the inhabitantti, Irause* 
holders resiant, had Qot iti one in!>taQce exer* 
ciaed that right, nor had they claimed it prior 
to the year 1770. Tliiey could however produce 
so proof that persons in possession of a bur* 
gage freehold, exclusively enjoyed and exercised 
that right prior to the year 1634, nor could 
they prove that the riglit of election had been 
litigated : aftet- tbe. abotve period, till the act oT 
George IL which mdtea the last determination 
of the house of commons finally decisivo re* 
specting the right of election. The whole efforts 
f^ the counsel were directed to invalidate tfae 
decision of the house in 1694. The counsel 
for the sitting members replied, and with much 
force and perspicuity stated- the circumstancefl 
respecting tbe resolution of tbe house at the 
above period, and clearly demonstrated, that no 
subsequent usage ought to estabttBh a right, 
and according to the constitution of parliament 
could not. They maintained, that the determi- 
nation of the house in 1770, though last in 
point of time, yet that in 1624 was last when 
the act of George II. passed, and consequratly 
that the committee was bound to consider the 
right of' tbe inhabitants as fully and legally est»- 
faliabed. 

Thus afler a ten years contest, a contest 
which coKt large sums of money to both par- 
ties, did the inhabitants see their cause finally 
prerail, and their rights and liberties firmly and 
nnakerably. established. 



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480 HISTORY or PONTEFRACT. 

,' In 1794 J. Smyth, Esq. vacated his' seat by 
accepting ihe oflpce of one of the lords of the 
Treasury, and Was reelected without opposition 
from any qnarter. 

Tlie general election in 1706 brought forward 
Lord GalJvvay. . The \oag coanrction of his 
Lordship's fiunily with the borough; the liber- 
ality of tiie family to the inhabitants, as well as 
bis. Lordship's propert}', gare him a considerable 
interest, and CoJ. Sotheron judged it most pru< 
dent to decline oflering himself as. a candithite. 
io consequence . of this his . Lordship and the 
Hon. J. Smyth were returned. May flOtb, with- 
out opposition. 

. At tlie general election 1809, Lord Gait- 
way declined, and K. Benyon. EIm]. offered oa 
his interest. The Hon. J. Smyth stood again. 
After these gentlemen had commenced their 
canvas W. Wngbtson; Esq. ofTered himself as a 
candidate. He was supported by several neigb* 
bouring gentlemen; but finding when he had 
f nished his canvas that he should not succeed, 
he declined previous to the poll commencing. 
Tile two other candidates were of course re- 
turned. 

, At the genera! election in 1806, R. P. 
Millies, Esq., supported by Lord Gallway's in- 
terest, offered himself, together with the Hon. 
J. Smyth. No opposition was at first. expected. 
From a concurrence of circumstances, a tfaicd 
candidate at length came forward, the sod of 
the ancient and noble family -of Saritle. Ha 
Lordship's connection with' the volunteer corps 
rendered him a formidable opponent. Although 
he bad the disadvantage of commeucing bis can- 



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HISTOBY OP PONTEPEACT. 481 

Ttts after tbe other two gentlemen had nearly 
finished theirs, yet he met with considerable sup- 
port; and the assurance his Lordship received* 
from such as had previously promised their votes, 
rendered it certain what would have been the re- 
sult, had be otTered himself earlier. The contest 
chiefly lay between his Lordship and the Hon. 
J. Smyth. After a warm and violent contest, 
and cfOried on till bis Lordship had not a man 
to poll, the old member, together with R. P. 
Milnes, .Esq. was returned. The number of 
votes stood as follows. Lord PoIIington 394, 
R. P. Milnes, Esq. 484, Hon. J. Smyth 371, 
At the general election in 1807. the same 
candidates again offered for the borough. Flat- 
tered by the reception he had before met with. 
Lord PoIIington again came forward ; and becom-r 
ing the popular candidate, nearly received a vote 
from every one of the electors. The contest be?- 
ing between the two late member's, as might be 
expected, was arduous and sufiicientty violent. 
The two parties were nearly equal in strength} 
the one being supported. in general by the te- 
nantry of Lord Gullway, and the interest which 
his own respectable family, residing near tlte 
~ town, naturally creates; the other by the at- 
tachment of old friends, and the important ser- 
vices he had. rendered to the borough. Every 
art, usual on such occasions, was tried by each 
party to turn the popular mind, and bring the 
struggle to a successful conclusion. At last the 
poll commenced, and during the first day tbe 
two pwties kept so near to each other, that 
there was only a difference of one vote at the 
coDclusioQ. The next day the battle was equally 
Q q q 



:k«Gt>(")^IC 



*6i RtsTORy or MNventACT. 

w?lt fonght; and whfn the pott rfoserf, R, P. 
Milni^!? ir»s onfjr nine a head of -his o p ponCDt. 
He and Visconnt Pollinpon were returned. 

Thm lerminatcd the ariltioos sfrtiggte'; and 
the Hon. J. Smjth, wti» l»y his perseTerhrg ex- 
crtioirt* had secnrcrf to the mhftbitauW their 
risrlirs, after hating btfen m parTmnneai twemy- 
tliree year;, as their representative, fattai hiH)- 
self the un.si)cce.<ti(^ candivktte. This event dtd 
not arise ffam want of atfachment' in his tHcnds^ 
hut from circumstances which no' prudence C0M 
avuni, DOT any inlhience counteract. In the 
course of tweiWy ye^irs a new ra«e borf sprung 
»p; many -strangers had come to rewJe m the 
borough; and it m natarat to- snp^we tbal thcM 
would not fe«} aR the respect for the' e\4 r*- 
represent^ive Which hfff tried fri^ds mi^ht wiaU 
In s\mn th«se being wlieJIy - indilfereM ta pmt 
trat>8actiofl», were ready to give their rotes as 
their cimnectione^ prejadiets, ov expeetfltiOas 
might iufltoence. 

The friends of fehi» getrtleihaR iMfe testified 
the highest respect for his pa«8t services; and 
so- long 09 fair freedom is e.<iteeffied fibe ELsg- 
)Khman'8 hirth-rrght, mv long ar Ae elective 
franchise, shall be deemed a privilisge'; so jovg 
win the name of Smych he a»oieiatecl witft free- 
dom in the borough of Poniefract. 

77i4? follotuing is a list of the Members returned 
/or Pont^ract, 

16(h JAMES. I. 

l6ao, G«Drgc! SkilUtt,-~Edmunds Sandsy Jin. 

ftlsH 5ljtMEfl I. 

Z^4> Sir Tfto^ Weiitribrtbi-^ir Jobir Jaehson. 



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1st CHARLES I. 

1625, Sir,Ji<An Jacksoa,-— Sir Rich. Beapmtmt. 

'l«t OKARL£S }. 

86* Sir John Jackson,-=--Fi-«M!is FoljiKabe. .-• 
Srd ■CHARLES .1. 

59, Sir Jaho Jackson .---Sir John .RanjsdeB. 

40, Sir John Rwnsden,— Sir Q. W<nttyorth, 

I6th CHA-KLES i. 

41, Sir George W-eiitworUj, (WoHey)— Sir G. 

Wentworth, tof Wflntwon-h .House,) 
46, Henry Arthington^r-William White. 

IHh CHAKLES n. 

58, John Lofd lambe«,-T-jQhh Hewjey 'j 

60, Sir Geo. Saville, — William Lowther, 

61, Sir John . Daiji'nej'i — Wtlljam LAwti.ep. 
78, Sir John Dawney. — Sir Patientius Ward, 
«1,. Sir Jobn Dswney.,-Sir Pati«»ntius Ward, 

, BS, Lord I>owne,i— tSir Thomas Y4u-borOugb, 
:88, Lord Downe,..-SM- Thomaff.TaFtMraugb, - 
.^v Sir' Ji^.Blaodv-ti^ienrv Oow»e. 
95, Sir William Lowther, — Robert Moncton, 
98, John Bright,-^Sir John Wand, 
1701, William Lowther, — Sir John Bland, 
3, .Wittiani LoKthert-^ir John Bland, 
5, Wilhnn LowtbeTt-trSir John Blund, 
8, Wdliam L(mtber,-r^ir John filaod, 
10, Jtobert Frank,-^Sir John BMnd^ 
13, 'R»rbqrt Frank, -i— John Dawney,' 
d4, Hugh Bethe],-r-Sir WilUam Lowther, 
:'fle, John' Lowther,— -^r William LowUielr,:. 
8?, Jobn Lowther>-*Sir Williain iLowiher,: / 
34, Lord Gailway,-.-^ir WiJlifim .Lowther. 

> :Pi9. Bbf»^ M. is ia)w> &fm .Ijt^'s ,Nq^ 3at\». 
mentuiB. 



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484 HnroRY OF pontepuct: 

1741, Lord Gallway,— George Pitt, 
47, William Moncton, — George Pitt, 
54, Lord Gallway, — Sambroke Tnieman, 
• 61, Lord Galiw^y,— Wm. Gerawl Hamaton*, 
68, Lord Gallway, — Henry Strachey, 
74, Sir John Goodrick,— C. MellUh, 
80, I/>rd Gatlway, — William Needham, 

83, J. Smyth, 

84, J. Smyth, — Colonel Sotheron, 
90, J. Smyth, — Colonel Sotheron, 
96, J. Smyth,— Lord Gallway. 

1802, J. Smyth,— R. Benyon, 

6, J. Smyth,— R. P. Milnes, 

7, K. P. MUne8,-Lord Pollingtoii. 

RELIGIOUS SECTS. 

Within this town there are the usasal and 
prerailing denoftiinations of professing, obrlstians, 
— Catholics; Dissenters, Wesleyan Methodists, aad 
a society of friends, comaaonly called Q.tiak«^. 

Catholics 

Several ancient fkfnlies,' reepeciabici for tbetr 
property in this neighbonrhood, maintained an 
unshaicen attachment to the catholic cause, tho' 
exposed to all the rigour of the penal statutes; 
and when the lenient and tolerent spiHt of tbe 
age, oQirun thatof the law, the Catholics emei^ 
ged from their obscurity, and assembled to wor- 
ship according to their ov-n modes and opinions. 
They ventuied publicly to address tbe 'Virgin- 

* From l))e mionlion tbe list is taken from Weotnoftli; 
and tbe remauidcr from tbe jourmtli. 



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HISTOHY OF PONTSrUCT'. 485 

Mother, and to revere tbe halloweti relics oE 
past ages} to offi-r the .sacrifice of the masd, 
and again to celebrate ' their holy mysteries*. 

Tlwir number irt*- this place has never ex- 
ceeded thirty or forty persons. Their place of 
worship, till lately, was a room in the house 
occapied by their teacher. I'hey have now 
erected a place of worship on a more enlarged 
scale; and adapted to all the peculiar t:erenio< 
nies of their worshipf. The buildin°; is a neafc 
structnre, and its interior well finished, 

Protestant Nonconformist Dmenters. 

The rise of tbe Dissenters, as a distinct 
body, dates from the time 'wiien the Act of 
Uniformity was passed. A considerable nuoi' 
ber of the clergy, who then filled the churches^ 
were either Pre.sbyterians or Independents ; and 
Were thus .denominated fixim their opinions re* 
specting tbe natul-e of >a; christian church, and 
the mode of its government. The former of 
these maintained, that in the New Testament 
the terms bishop, elder,- or pi-esbyter are applied 
to the same person, and that there is no proof 
of a bishop enjoying' any- tnperior isanctity or 

* tn the year 1791, an act' was pasted to repeal thtf 
penal laws a^'nst this body,' and ta allow the general privi^ 
legei of oiher sects, on taking certain prpwibed oatl». 

+ The ground on which this building has been erected 
\i in old deed-i, balled Halipialh. As in the times of the 
Saxons, lands were often held of the church, on the condilioa 
«*' tiw tenant keeping the church in repair &c. i* it not pro- 
bable, tiiBl thin land maa held by Mich a tenure? That tha 
proprietor wa.i bound to keep in repair the holy walls, i. e.' 
tbe church * It wu either held by Mich tenure, or otberwiiO' 
k has been the lUe of wmc rdigioiu fauuie. 



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aothorEtjr «rer the fwesbyter^ while the efaordi 
continued separate ^m the aixte. "niey ooo- 
tended, that there ougiit to be no 'diflferencs 
of rank among the clergy, and thst the diurch 
ODghl, according to scriptiire and the purest 
ages, to be goremed by provincial synods and 
a general assembly. The Independents agreed 
with the Presbyteriaos on al) sul^ects, except 
the lasf. They maintained that each diristian 
fooiety had a right to chooie its own minister, 
and to r«<^late its interior affairi, unawed fay 
any superior influence, and without being amen- 
able to- any ^rthly tribunal. 

On v*ssing the Act of Uniformity, • those 
Irho held these opinions could oot tn consci- 
ence comply with the provisions of the act; aod 
were therefore compelled'ekher to make a £Use 
declaration, or -Bnally to Wftve the esl aUishmenc 
They c^ose the latttv, aed on the S4th of A«- 
gust, l€63. two thousand den^ymen' quitted 
their lirings, land voluntarily sufaniitted to po> 
Terty, disgrace and persecution, rather thao sub* 
icribe to' dedarations they did not 'believe. No 
Mher age, no «tber . cMUitry, ever wimeswl 

* Thii-Ml mi iUBtely -biDugbt into tfte itaut, and vb> 
■equitKU »< tbe psrJiviienU of Cbarin were, jt root wkh mdi 
polent G^potitWD, thai every exertion of (he ciowq, and all 
the direct apd inilirect inQueoc^ which could be iised, wu fauid 
ffeceuvy in order to ^t it Uirough tlie House of Commoni. 
At iut thi^ act patted in tlie HotDW of -Conunoiii, hy a inajo- 
jitj of only lix, tix .yeai beta^ 180, and the noa ISO. 

Tbe Kftder who wishes (o Jcnowbnw Jar the objact t£ 
thu act hai been attaiited, mty cmmiIi Afchdeacon Black- 
burne'i Confeanonal ; Overton'» " Tnie Chufrboiail stoertaiMdj" 
wd Uw pid>licatiee* t» which tJui ««k fa*i given- nw withio 
these few yean patt. 



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«awin'(j#'p6NTi«rtuef'. Ui 

gat&t A McrUlce of interfe^ to principle; and 
while the love of truth, honour, integrity and 
Kberelity h- cherKhecl, these men icannot fail td 
Mc^rve theit due measure dF praise. 

The Reti Joseph Farret, who had fabonred 
Pk some years, in the church of St. Giles' 
here, waione of the rftspectabfe nnmberof" sece- 
ders from the efltablishm^ht. Though far acffaif- 
ced in years, Gakimy says, " He was a constant, 
faborions preacher, of competent gifts and learn- 
ing." He had an excellent library, and though 
dn quitting the church he was reduced to great 
straits, like most men of letters, he chose t6 
part with any thing rather than his books. tl6 
met with a kind friend in a Mr. Ward, who 
resided in the dd mansion, called the court, ia 
Taoshel^ in which township he' also enjoyed » 
voiMiderable estate. Under his hospitable roof 
Mr. Farret, amf those Chrretians who adhered 
to him, met to worship God according to the 
opinions they held respecting tlte nature of a 
christian rkuvch. 

This respeciabre scholar ami dirine, worn out 
*ith labour, was the year following removed 
out of a tempestuous world to a state of rest. 
He died in- the sinty-fonrth year of his age. 

The Brtie aoeiety he had formed, and to 
wftich he had preached during the last year of 
his life, stirr Subsisted and remained firm to its 
principles after his demiset The Rev. J. NoMe 
SBcceedcd him as miniateT ; and continued to la^ 
hour among fhcra as omch as the persecuting 
spirit of the times would permit*, for the space 

* Fra» Ao iDrtoatJim at ChwtM II. to the- revolution, 
the DiucQten were perwcuted wilh a wverkjr wfaich wilt n» 



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488 BISTORT Ot PONTEFaiCT. 

of sixteen years. He died Feb. II, 1679, aged 
sixty-ei^ht years. Calainy gives the following ac* 
pouni of him. " H<- was bom at Asleby, in tbe 
parii^h of Halden, l6ll. He was admitted at 
Christ Col. Camb. in 1630. In 1637 be was 
minister a' WtntgiU. In 1646 he removed to 
Smeaton, where he conlimied till the Act of 
Uniformity. He was an ex(*eUent, useful, and a 
solid divine; a man of a happy memory, great 
presence of mind, and ready wit; a- mighty op- 
poser of the factions and tumults of the times. 
He was an excellent disputant, and never lost 
or disparaged his cause or reputation by igno- 
rance or passion." 

He was succeeded by the Kcv. J. Heywood, 
the younger son of the great and good Oliver 

fleet dii^raoe on ihe intolerant tpirit of Ihe ige. Sofoe 
Ihouundt Uwl (heir lives in priion; and the Ion of pK^>ertjr 
which they sustained bjr legal processes and linet, amounted to 
Ihe sum ot luo uiilU'ms, 

The Dissenters here had iheir share In the comfnon cala- 
mity. The Castle Chain House was then used as a privm, 
and Kveral were confined there tor daring to claim and ex- 
ercise, what every liberal man, whether in or out of tbe esta- 
blisliment, now admit'!, ilie right of private judgment. Trad^ 
tion hat handed down, thai one of the Medleys, who had a 
large &mily, wai confined there at the time Willbm and Marjr 
bnded. Tbe newi of ihi* event rapidly ^read througfi'tbe 
country, and a brother of (he above-mentioned gentleman, 
.went down to Ferrybridge to obtain fiirifaer intelligence. 
While he remained there an expres) arrived, ordering the pn- 
■on* to be opened, and all persooi confined on account of re- 
ligion, immediately to be set at liberty. Tbe good man in- 
ttandy Kneeled down on tbe bridge to return ttnmki to heaven, 
for a Jkvour so inlereiting to himself, hit friendi and hit 
country. 

Tliis family, whiih has nearly become extinct here, will pro- 
baUy be perpetuated in the detceadcnti of the kte Rev. S. 
Jdcdley, of Liverpool. - - 



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WSTOVr OF PONTEritACT. 489 

Hey wood; whose persecutions were severe, whose 
piety and worth are not often equalled ; who was 
generally and justly beloved, and for whom pro- 
vidence almost miraculously provided *■ During 
the time of his son's ministry he occasionally 
preached for him, as appears from his own diary. 
His son Jphn came here from Rolherham, but how 
long he continued his ministerial labours is not 
known. Tradition has handed down the fact, 
that be died here; and was buried in the old 
Dissenting Meeting-house. It is probable, from 
the period his successor laboured in tlie ministry, 
that his death may be referred to the year 1720. 

The Rev. Stamford followed him; a 

gentleman whose knowledge rendered him dear 
to his own hearers, and Justly respected by all 
who knew him. In his time the Dissenters 
were considerable in their numbers, and respect- 
able in point of property. The families of La- 
pidgef, Waterhouse, Kiplin, and others belonged 
to this body. This respectable divine died in 
the year 1746. 

For some time the congregation was des- 
titute of a pastor. At length the Rev. 

Coppock came, and was chosen to be their 
teacher. This gentleman had received a liberal 

' The lineal descendant of this great man, is Setgnnt 
He^jraod, of Nottingham; and the respectable family or Hey- 
woods, at Waketield, Epring from his brother Naliiar.iel. See 
his life by Fawcit. 

t John Milnes, of Wakefield, merchant, married Ellcabelh, 
daughter of Richard Lapidge.— Ester Lapidge, the second 
daughter, married the Rev. Isaac Wilkinson, Dissenting' mmis- 
ter, at Warley, near Halifux, aiiJ ancestor to the present 
Iiaac Wilkhisoii. of Taplon-House, near Chesterfield, banker. 
Ann, the Ihird daughter, married John Kiplin, of Ack- 
worth, gentleman. 

R r r 



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490 HICTORY OP PONTEFBACT. 

education; and as a scholar bad tlie esteem of 
those who knew him. He embraced the theo- 
logical sentiments of Socinusj and for a period 
of thirty-six years he preached and defended 
them, lie lived to see, that these sentiments, 
though considered as most consonant to reason, 
are not the best calculated to reform the profli- 
gate, to promote a spirit of warm and lively devo- 
tion, or to increase a congregation. This gentle- 
man found a respectable congregation, and be 
preached it away. He died in 1782, and had on- 
ly two or three families who attended his ministiy. 

On his demise, some persons who had em> 
braced those sentiments generally called evan- 
gelical, united together in order to obtain a 
Dissenting teacher of similar sentiments with 
their own. They repaired the old mecting-hoase, 
which had fallen into decay; and they invited 
the Rev. W. Tap, to take the pastoral charge 
over them. Accordingly he came, and continued 
to discharge the duties of jiis office till \79it 
when he . removed, and was succeeded by the 
author. 

The late Hans Busk, Esq. who during the 
latter years of his life, usually spent the winter 
in this place, gave himself, and collected among 
bis friends, a sum of money to purchase, or 
erect, a house for the Dissenting minister. On 
his demise, this money was paid in by his ex- 
ecutor, R. S. Milnes, M. P. with which an 
hoQse was purchased, and ground for the erec- 
tion of a neiv meeting-house. In the year 1 796 
this structure was begun, and completed in 1796. 
The building is neat and well finished. 

Mapy Reymrfds, cousin to Patience AVard, 



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HISTORY OP PONTEFRACT. 491 

Esq. by her'wilt, dated U»e 17th of Apr. 1721, 
gave to him tlie sum of twenty pounds, to be Iwd 
out in land, the re'uls and profits of which 
were for ever to go to the minister of the Diq- 
senting chapel in Tanshelf; and if it should 
happen, that there should be no Dissenting 
minister to preach in the said chape!, or else- 
where in Tanstieir or Pontefract, the said rents 
should go to the use of the pour of Pontefract 
and Tanshelf, and be distributed amongst fhem 
at the discretion of tlie said Patience Ward, 
Esq. the executor of the said will, and his 
heirs for ever. 

In compliance with the above will Patience 
'Ward, Esq. purchased a small close, called 
Cai-leton-Gate Close, which was surrendered to 
him in Tanshelf court, for the uses specified. On 
the back of the surrender it is observed, that 
the society of Dissenters, by a collection among 
themselves, raised above ten pounds more in or- 
der to complete the purchase, the sum be- 
queathed by Mrs. Keynolda not being sufficient 
for that purpose. 

Quaker's Meeting-koxise. 

Although the tenets of the people called 
Quakers began to spread abroad as early as 
the year Id55, through the searching and fiow- 
erful m.inistry of Fox, Penn, Bjrclay and many 
others, yet we do not find that any building 
was erected in this town for the purpose of 
meeting, and performing public worship in, un- 
til the year 16S5, when the plot of ground in 
Southgate, on which the present building stands. 



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492 HISTOBY OP PONTEFBACT. 

was given by Thomas English, of this place, 
grocer, to John Seaton, of BIythe, Nottingham- 
shire, yeoman, Henry Jackson, of Tottess, in 
"Wooldale, Richard Morton, of Woodand Hilt, 
yeoman, Robert Clai-kson, of Pontefract, grocer, 
Henry Calf, of Pontefract, Malster, and iheir 
heirs and assigns for ever, in trust to erect a 
meeting-honse on, and for a burial place for the 
use of the members of this 80cie}:y. 

The present remaining trustees are Joha 
Leatham, John Thistlethwaite and Joseph John- 
son. 

This society has been more numerous than 
it is at .present. Several of the members have, 
by honest and persevering industry, raised them- 
selves to opulence; and their general conduct, 
in many respects^ reflects honour on their prin- 
ciples. 

Weskyan MethodisCs Chapel. 

Itinerant! belonging to this body, sometime 
afler its rise, obtained admission into the town, 
and soon formed a small society. They increased 
by degrees, and in the year 17S9 li^id the 
foundation stone of their meeting-house. This 
building was completed and opened April 4. 
1790, by an appropriate discourse, detiverd by 
Mr. Mather. Soon after the head of this society, 
the Rev. J. Wesley, visited the town, and 
preached in the meeting-house to a large and 
crowded audience. 

From Pontefract the itinerants have diverged 
in all directions, and formed smalt societies in 
the surrounding villages. Two of the vegular 



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HISTOBV OP PONTEPRACT. 495 

preachers reside here during the period granted 
by the Conference, tlie supreme legislative body 
of this Rociety. The number of the people who 
attend varies according to the taieni s of the'preach7 
ers. Among the - loner classes their labours 
hare been useful here, as in roost other places. 

Modem state of the Toum. 

The town of Pontefract yields to few in 
the neatness of its bnitdings.' Its street^ are 
open and spacious; icept clean and in good re- 
pair. There being no manufactories carried on, 
the atmosphere is never loaded with the smoke 
of steam engines, and the air is uncommonly 
pure and salubrions. 

Market. — The market is held on Saturday; 
and is well supplied with the best butcher's 
meat, poultry and fish. Large quantities of 
grain of every description are brought and sold 
here. 

Fairs. — The principal feirs are St. Andrew's 
fair, on the first Satunlay in December ; Can- 
dlemas fiitr, the first Saturday after February 
13 ; St. Giles* fair, the first Saturday after Sep. 
13; and all the moveable fairs, Palm-Sunday 
and Trinity Sunday to be held on the Saturday 
before eadi of these days respectively. 

Land. — The soil is in general excellent; and 
iti the highest state of cultivation. The gardens 
and nursery- grounds about the town are exten- 
sive. The superfluous produce of the one is 
regularly . carried lo the popnious towns of 
Leeds and W^cfield; and seedlings from the 
other are conveyed to the most distant parts of 



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494 HISTORY OF POMTEFEACT. 

the land. Licorice has been long cultivatecl 
with success; and Pontefract licorice cakes are 
well kiiowQ throughoul the British rnipire. 

The population of the town, as taheo in 
1801, is as follows; houses inhabited 693t 
hotiqes not inhabited 48, families 702, males 
1394, females 1703. Total 3097. The popula- 
tion has increased near six hundred since the 
year 1764. The number of families then was 
£38, and of persons 2515. 

Few men who have ranked high in church 
or state, or who have been distinguished in' the 
annals of literature, have either been bora or re* 
sided in the town of Pontefract. It is probable 
that no further information can be obtained thfui 
what has already been given.'from Leiand, respect- 
ing the monkish historian, Thomas de Castt&Tord. 
Gough has noticed several particulars respecting 
the indefatigable antiquary Dr. Johnson, who 
spent the greatest part of his life hwe. He is 
s^id to have made large collections for the 
history ot Yorkshire*. Where he was born, or 
where he ended his days, is uncertain. 

Bishop Bramhall, who was Primate of Ireland, 
after the restoration, was born here. He lose by 
his learning and talents to this distinguished ho- 
nour, and high station in the church. He took 
an active part in the contentions of Charles I. 
reign; and after the fatal battle of Marston 

* Dr. Burton t^jt, " that he h&d the u«e of aborc cme 
hundred folio volumra relating to this county, collected by 
lhi« indefatigable physician, then in the liatid) of R. Fnnk. 
Emi- of Cminp»n. Fart of this colle.ction was wnt to Lon- 
don and sold, and the renuinder are iu the posaession of B. 
fori, Eiq. 



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BOTORT OP POKTCnUcr. 495 

Moor, with many otiiers, fled to the Continent. 
There he chiefly remained till the restoration, 
when he received the bishoprick of Armagh, ai 
a. reward for his fidelity and services. He died 
in June 1663. 

The author of the Newcastle Rider, and 
other poems, merits notice, as an instance of 
Dative geoitis, without the advantage of a lite- 
rary education. His name was Lnn, and hia 
occupation that of a barber. The first attempt 
to obtain the freedom of the borough broagbt 
his poetical talents into exercise; and his various 
squibs and effusions obtained considerable ap- 
plause. These productions were collected to- 
gether and published under the title of Dnniad. 
Some of the pieces in the collection, for keen- 
ness of satire and justness of sentiment, would 
not disgrace the pen of a Churchill. 

For persons unconnected with trade, Ponte- 
fract is a most pleasant and agreeable situation. 
It is surrounded by the seats of nobles and opu- 
lent commoners; and persons of small or 
large fortunes, may find agreeable society either 
in the town or neighbourhood, according to 
their own wishes and rank. 

The " state of morals, if not such as the man 
of piety could wish, js at least not worse than 
what generally obtains. The lower orders are 
more refined and polished than in some larger 
commercial towns; and are even more sober 
and temperate ; not that they are less inclined 
to the usual vices of the age, but their resources 
, are more limited and confined. The rich and 
the opulent invariably display the virtues of 
humanity, compassion and benevolence. To the 



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496 HISTORY OF PORTEFUCT. 

cries of the wretcheil they are not insensible, 
but objects of real distress ever meet with the 
most speedy and generous relief. 

Improvements in nnorals, in internal order 
and government, are still wanting; and a re- 
spect for the prosperity of the place, not only 
prompts, but compels the acknowledgement. 
The decorum due to the christian Sabbath is 
commonly and grossly violated; and as a pro* 
per attention to the duties of this day will be 
ibuud to be the best guardian of private and 
public virtue, it is to be wished that the re- 
spectable part of the inhabitants would sancttoD 
by their own example, and exert their influence 
to promote the general observance of it. 



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APPENDIX. 

CHARTERS 

Belonging to the corporation. 



CHARTER OF KOOER DE LACY. 

' "eRSOIA jnmMl and to corae, know that I Rogrr As Licf, CaniUbis of Chcilcr, 
hane givm and gnnteit, and bf ihii my pnient chansr bans con&med. lo laj bat- 

'gMMiM PaaUlTarltnd Ihcirhtin and luccoun. ilwir libert;, andfm buigh, aod 
■tbaic Ufli lube hold of mcand Oij bein, lafee and by deiCBi[ irtely andquiMlf, 
honounbly and «nii»t]', 

' Yielduf jcarif Unac and m; hcinlorall lervicei tirelve)>eiire for every whole 
tdi. aaihey did in ibe dmcof Henrr dc. Lacy, [sylnga nunuiy oi'ihe lenlal mid. 

Jsni, and a moiety it itiB ftait of uini Micliacl. Murcuver I havegrantrd. andosiM- 

.finttcdio my aamtaidboigsun, and iheinucceuur. ihelibeciie% and irec-lawi, 
vrtieb ihe buTfclieiof tba UnA ihe king ol Oiimihy use. which aie ihna, 
fTCiy buigsu may gite or >ell bit land lo whoever. h> iball pleaie, unlnt to ■>» 
.nUiSisua (or in monnaiD) the nrntul'tbe <uid being Kienied, and he ihalleniera 
filei, and leodfir (be land iotu ihe hand of the b«dboRHi*gh (ur pici-T) fur (he uK 
of'tbc lord, and ha tball gi<e a peony of [rittuic, jnd ihe htadbieDugh Uiall give 
Ae luid to the bnyer, of Ihe gilt of ibe lord, cUaitriini all (hingt, and ihe pur- 
dwter th^l likewile give a penny. Whuevn ihaH punfaaie any pan of any tall, 
-Md ibail tnie been Niird ibcieoi ai dx»e pmctibed i> *> free u if he bad bought 
•a wMu toll. If any peraoii thai) have many huoiei iA bid lOli.. and ihall lei ihea 
■W tny penoni. Ibey ihatl be free to sell and huy all men iiindiict, but be ibaU 
gt** fourpenee a year t<i Ihe h«adboraugh. He who shall dwell in a mannoa 
houfe shall be unmcileiied and free at if hewai a hurgni. Wlioever thall oommit 
k farMiun ia the borough aibtenid, (here be thall be an^ched i he shall itnd to 
■ho law accurdbig lu Ihe (entence (or judgmeni) in >he borough cinin. Bui ifaa 
afcmaid burgctiei ihall nol go out of iheir bomugh lor any plea or aay plaini Mvo 
arty br jtlcaa oC the crown. Wheu ibc headbunmgh (oi pnnor) shall have paid 
Iba boroogh lein lo Ibc knd, ai the irul of ijini Michael, the lord tbaM lemov* 
kirn, and thall uibiiitute vbomauever he ihall pteaK. butiho burgenn wiH be ibt 
.pioper peraoni if only tbey will be agreeable to give aa nuch aiuhen. 

He ivbahaih accuicd anubet perion of any Ofioixxiaa plea betbieiheprBtot, 

^1 unjuitly and wiibout reann and in peace and be ihall foifeii to him, aitd ibu 

■ftnua ihall deny the injury and oot the naion and peace and whaiaoevei fa* layad 

agaiott higi, ibal pttsm h«th given a goodduwu or it^. He who hath deuied 

S S 3 



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11 APPENDIX. 

thf injury, or ibe itnreiiorublenm or Ihc pnee, ind hiih not htm Ujbk vonby 
oftay ot' ihcm, b< alull be Ir^ed according u the lav) oT ibepotor, (ud by hit 
ror't-iiui! (oi Ede) be ihill iccoter hli ww«r (or leply.) He vho tlull bcin la 
drny hi] words eiiU'tly lor a.arsiti.xi> fnd-iUll.ai'i. exactly deny all, br tiiti. and 
hj hli lurleiinTe br ihill reta'^iihii waiver (m' icttly-) Tbe lurfiiiUTC ul ihc bup- 
geiic) if ihe pziur >hatl pleaie lo aggiieve any one &hjll be aKcriiiDtd by ivrlre 
bwful men elecicd lur ibii purfujc. KoHe uf <be buigeiMi ihill gi\e bii Ibitci- 
Uiie for hi) fiiii di lauil but Ibi the •rcaid, unksi he ihall be able to i»c hi* dif. 
Every Uirgeti thall bod pl«dftci.iir bi vwn , imjficr iwn (ft diilic»] uiilns h* 
thatl haie been acrui^ of ite ruT" <^ I''* lu'd ik« hjnl or tliall tiil id mike 
liable hii prupfr plrdge. If a >en>aiil ul ilie pidcH- ihall bavE spokes againal > 
buipai be >lif II. nut .imiirr viil^aul t vitneii. If a burden ahall bvt bi«n accii- 
ted by -hii equal o( 4ikHid>b«94)r «! beMiy and' he >h<)l dti^ 'U, iiedh)fl.ive» (ur 
purge) taimseli on the amh day i il niH a*'bloudUi<d be (hall purje kimaFir do ibc 
ihicd day. Ifany oberihan a bw^jMa-ihull'liax bti-a accuid] by a burgeu ol ibc 
lame Ibing. be ihall purge blmitir on (he ivellih diy. Every ol ibe buigcua 
whaiwever, ii boundfo^)»tf»i»n»i«r'kur, tin fiiJiwi i »f ijneii aial n«a foie'ijii- 
cr unleii conceining an apparent fact uri debt. Il a burgets ihall lake in oath of 
bil equal unltti il iball be irlalin; a drln, hr shall U<ile>l, ircf an«lKi Iban J)ii 
,e^lHl ke-Aidliinim j^feiluHiFli^ &ie. iff-j JqamtnFri^nllTMtefBMikianA 
-h*g«n,'bBiikaU>fa!iabie<bia4ba«t«iti«tifaaf»i|itr«. Um h niB w r^WI mbm 
•idibt«> Biy.faurgaih <U'M Jfnalulifo'jhiDi wkSMfit dtf ttdtlte MMik. taitakciia 
,i|Hair(ui«l^uaHO'*>^i«i fHihMit Ub ii(:Bu ■I'libti^aatacinakMBib 
■amt Egidcu). Inbe naam of any burgeu 
«diHdgeAau<«hFtiit>l^-a(<tbc.iHMilMn;(«<niiiU>j) W.4 
.•(ppiwa : 'hut ilihfi ibiJi >bf Mpnillj^t^tv <lu«', ibc thaUifaeaaMlVttb''^. t^n^M 
«uin or.vntli. Jiii.*haab>lli»ny«B^4ticilHd>inlHa* ■M'bciiiU*«qJafc 
JaKii>ihii.>uMar:..[o.*ii,Jbra.faakmK,riWe.>Wii«(:MlaciMl>M.J'ka'MI- 
,fiwiy, ten ibilliiigt aiid ji .balf)«in)i \ iToriiliMe ilattiia*, ifcyg. thilfcnfi :«^ 
rihrae tarlhugi iiiorafmay, >l««Mly kbtlliaga twi ii.p«Biqrj H-* hwfc'iifcetniy 
IMC n^ia.KioUHl.lU'auke.il|nii'(iir.»MthouMa)Ati^lwntfjiiiMdnrii«uK|Mc 
-the form '(vrrvr) of ibf; lord. 'Wlwciaan ,ihi^.d«a)i (^ «aMlnJi«e MT.*<V 
LOtliet )kan)ilw^Kb'he.ihaJliJi«>e'fcMn<««CH«i^,. be^haUcw|i«iC ip fciMrw. 
■fi,>t[y>^qf«9,i«>y ibDiii p«aiiiM»n.aMl •ll'akai.'fMachai^itMili iii'WfiMdiAr 
>iid, wbeneMTtK'ibkll^lafK. i«i»teiHti wll iufd lii|im% Hn'***''^ ■'•^ ^t^W- 
ill|t>>wdrfayibeJo(d«.bwbiJA. "'- --.r - '['[iri^ irnii iij II iii H — 
iagMtf UHrtHwmtni iD<nk()b«e:'h«M-b««iiteiM|lihr *4e.'jMi|l uf ihmfWnfc 
■Mid«eik»eMd liic«iw.«ba>a^4r«ods.4%-Mri(l|MPUliM|u<b«K|u if jnpfw- 
■mihri ha« kna.saoaatti in.* pk«|of us .mUit^lw tMI -Vav kMMlMPbM* 
■biiBC«i>taHMM><<heibdU^Jnc«beii,liaMt«»faGte.(b»id>Uwk#MK<. V 
wiyW^n ttelltaw ihe« MtMwd »f '<*'aMy'«cil'4fi^>^>i«ir yw m jr« 
•rilluy hun.'in ooFtaaiBugb. iHr [l(ird;*,>erg<^aLMM»in(im, |i 
Mfiiharai faelune. |vnli tbitiftti 

Mnvied«iAwbr>faimkFurihyiale<-iiB.<biHi|wi|e<or.«k>Tj hwwlt .VthXif 
fayi Hibate aour JmiouBb loi- iMUin^-ik 6i 
(djnM^.v^-iif fBy.proisabcjMMC I' 
tefraci and Ma^r-ktatiaoiitmmnm, >«Mnptiwii iM« fU lojl iMd «lihiiK 4llfiV^ 
)ay*>^al«rtmn«Hy.U4lan|iiciiirtKAMItoa(<i^0Mtoi».uMd'iWiJtMaMl> VftCli. 
tMnw. jfi »y JbimMl bui^mtf^t-JtmuitfinbiMttth *Qd>ti^.><4>H|H 
ttBd^fly^Mfyae^Uat ia»H|F.tage.<|iwii <Me rtf ifc uHt^* wtHut iM 
■MM Hakwx,-/!.^ ,tbeMMe«t>.«K d«H, AMhyalUfl- «E >1^ 



D.n.llzedbyCk>Ol^lC 



APPEKTMSi la. 

MlFyKgtw,- mMMiiaf-iInf dioiiTll-uf'SiintHaTi WiHnBdr-Wano.'.RalpIti 
mM^Kotrel IhrcloHl,. RlKhsntid^Hnrriiili »*«<b Pauilnll,. HugU Bemrellf. 
•*«»fhtnon, Rionador Clinwr, , Huih dr Bonj, Rcgti iJ» ivml,; 

Itn^t*ie'loirafRal|Mq Wahorde Rwim. .AHImd* iirik-rby^ Tfaunal ibe-KM^ 

HKiMviOe: MhHARnhM >Mhii«vf'b»aitRi. Thonut of R^iitemUr D.iti' 
tk>«K(h oFttieidKiK JiMC^ arWctiiMHldr hMoM itas: juMi«Ci o( RsHud tia: 

CHARTER OF ROOBR M SKCV. 

AM. flow p f i Mi n -WMl WJuww, KHv^ibU'tRogerdrbaiTi ConiMHft of 
Chnlcr, tUTc e'*"' >'") g>aiiteH. and by Ihii my pmmi chjucr have cunfinncd 
tiridy Un^Hiiif Paiwd^hn, ■4a<hire DuM'iniihriindW XiiiVMtreiaan of 
anMs liait, n4 SbaKtvA acHUdd iiA IhH' Iri'ihei iB«r,.io^M>i4>ihcini Mdr 

If (o me ind my htin for all lervlcc. iaro"^ aaic,:R 
■rtto-^Mtof SatK'MidiHt', ihM>n^ia^UV. lO' SpncJIfenoribiiTyiivQanFtf U 
IB>ampu>^ hif-Wiriif btwk bur^io^thnidDfJ.nibettBiKiB.-HeliBi'hM tm,tUletii !•' 
S*fl»ni rha Hin of WsJdlaH« d«M< anil ailMft lOAIiianditr, .ibKim's^ Hew- 
ln«A'Unt'oMulldiir<Ri)fli, Blni^u.'SliBM;MlnMi laita*, iwWf i ta tltuiiuir lb* 
*v«^Winiami|t<»';'<ir9ithert,'lUviri<if'UlridllUK'ihlil«ni)H>-'BtMdnin>,-thi) 
•M' of Ranilfin. itm| m ilMclirirof Jabn KeMlk 'AnBViD W^HUn, tkermofl 
JHUMii^'iiirflMiWtMiiwhitKMi, iVra^t icxtlirhMn o^Kictind. ihtuM .rf HhMk4> 
riMnnd'ai|iirif|.il AUtrij rtf^wnof Aldroly il< ;< n S«>*ai)lic >!■>; io-A«hMJ> 

■Msf amliK^-iwoand a hiW; uWiltuMmhononafSMMlinint,' ikMr'i laSo*' 
tan,.ib«'-jn yj»<m.ii«-#,iiOiWmiinv iHii Brintiv ef-BHicdterlM'BMMlbMM^ ilW 
No'of Hwhi^Mwt (*>£•; [(»Ittnii,ilMriiHi<rfWiM*tibta«t(>«teJMIn of HenaHf 
f, •(Vi W H«lilrttH*; the' imr ot' HIMh)*W>, lOM ; Of AlnkiKWT, th^ 
.i>W:-ivWlilt»»«i,.th» i«rorL*iriniji;el*t«M««. Hirte-i iii*»««; 
BBMii;him,j*t*»M>iMBiHi*l*fA (ilodimoi^ RbMn'WaMmi; VWWim df Ituff.- 

deSiaplcin. M^ifrmui Reitnudiu, Rldurd, tlM'ElMlt, WMim 'iMr ton oTOaraa^ 

CffAHTtR' orHEimY BE LACY, 

HfflflPP TfeXiftCr:, arl-Bf rmMiV jfHfCoti'lalJle-orCbtster, 10 atrptrsMi 
Wirtftm iM! preiem ■iiHinB'iliJifl'ceinB'^ttWlitg-inilif Lord; 

lOww yr ital'We, rt-«t arih«i- fttii'df iheapoitle PhHfpaMJimet in iKo 
SnWynl-of thereiEflof HnK'EfltnW Wlte-gfJitrtd andty ihli prMtnl wriiinE, 
neuf JirfoUr-lietfi-lWve cDMftitflHooOfhetei?* tiurB«!et, and rfieh of RjiUc- 
ftart; all'lh»rt(*(or'^(amVwiiTtH-A'M'iK.tr-b,., or'ttelr »nt«iot<-hii-e btta 
*1e A eltici inifie-rtntkefof'<Wf#a»«"grDund'orihe wWvittage, lo have aT:d m 
iftMw ooruM'bur^e'riet andSneWind'thelf Wrtand lUfretkiM of uiandW 
belri freoljr, quieily and fairly aod pMC«Mjr'H)'-hrttfliiarj-rit*-|bi+Ver, yarding 
Iherefore annually to us and our heiriihejuHandaecuJlomidfenB (ocicm)alilK 

OiwI'wiil'KewWBitttttadi; An4^KMSrf*fl(^ graic iftiiKH(i-er»e norow 



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iv APPEHDiX- 

hciniioranyolher inourname, any right or cbim in Ihe tiid ifaedi (nr idlte) no- 
kti Ufflo ihe juiland accuMomcd ferm or rent Tor the time loroinaniaj cuccor. 
blve, 10 thii pifttni charter nt line uuted our ical to bt affiird. For ibti our 
gnat and quii clann our afocnaid inagtttei and mm have given m lU fbny 
poundi HCiling Theit Witnetm ibe Lard Peiec of Chcftcr, Oonnior of Bcm- 
Uj, the lAtd Juhn of Bdr, J.hn le Vamiir, Ate^ander of Holy-HouDt. WO- 
liaDi de Vavisur. Willum th? uo ol Thomai, Siepfaen le Waleoiii Knighli, Sonoo 
of Puiiierraci, Thomas Rety iheidrn conilable ofihe umepiaci;, Pei«r oTKirketot, 
William of Malion, Henty of Kirkeby, Nictulu of Bunon aad Mbcrs. D*t«t 
at PoiitHiaci the day and year above laid. 

RICHARD THE THIRD'i CHARTER OF Ilf CORPORATION, 

RICHARD, by ibe grac* of God King of England aad Franca, Lord of Ii». 
^nd and Duke of Lancailei, To ihc Archbilhopt, Bohopt. Abbuta, Prien,' 
Dnkeg, Earli, Bjmnt, Jiziiicei. ShenHi. EKhaeion, Officer}, Miniuera, ud u 
all hii baitiSt and laiihful lubjecD gTe«>iig> 

Appaintm'Hl of «ojmr, frn iorourf and pub! iibrrtiti ni Slemftri, — Know 
y« thai We, nolonly lor the love and iSktion whkb vb have aiid hear Ibi our nl- 
hg* and bonmgh uf Puniefnct, and fur uur beloved and I'liihful ballifi and bur- 
feuei ot Ibe ume, but alia itcullicting the many Ine and acceptable i ei vie ea 
bereiofbre done ui at coiiiidenhle coll aiid cbaige, and being dtiinwi id mrard 
them in a proper nunner, out of our certain kiiuv ledge and aitn motion hnc de- 
clined, conitiiuied, appoiMed and made our bekned nibjeci Jobo Hill, oaeof the 
burgeiKi uf the uid village or borougK, the mayor of the uid village or boim^ 
and of our ipecial grace we have gram ed and by lhnourp(e»i» writing haTeconfirmed 
br ni and our hein to Ihem ibe mayor and burgeiKi ul ihe uid village or boRugh 
br ever, ihcae tibenie*, IrtnchlMi, reiDuneraticni and immunlliei beicunio vrit- 
ICDi ihai it lo lay, Ibal the burotigh be from hcnccfonh a free bumugh in lealiiy and 
name to cooiist ol' a mayor and burgenei, and that ihc uid rnayur and bufgeHei 
and Ihcl] heiii and succesuri be free bu^eiiet, and may hate* mcrthani'i gaiU. 
and uu and enji^ the ume liberties and freedomi in ibe aaid barcugh, whkk the 
burgttiBs and itthabilaoii of ihe village or borou^ of BUDiford have hocisfare 
Hted and enjoyed and uie and enjo). 

MoyoT ind buri^rwi a body torporalf, mtif parrliaie, plnd aurf it twpjw Jut 
— Moreover ve will' and giant by theie preienil for ul and nut heiri, Ibatlheuid 
preieni mayor and bur gessri.and ihcir lucceHoii aliireiaid being mayor and buigenei 
of ihe village or bomui. of Pontefrjct, ibui incurpoiaied, he a body cotponn 
jiir ever, in reaniy arid name, by ihe name of Ihe mayor and burgeiaei nf ibe iH- 
lage or borough of Ponlcfracti and thai ihey may have perpetual -Mccctainn, md 
that the iiid pietenl mayor and burgftsei and tlurir lucceituti atb reiaid by tbeu«^ 
najne, may be persons Ri and capable in law lo puicbaie landt. tenemenu, itatt, 
lervicei and posKiiloni whalioever i and lo pruMcuie and defend ail and nagslw 
^leai, luiti, plainif, demand), aciiooi real, petuoal and mixed, now depeidBg 
or 10 be depending in any of our couni whatioever, or of our hein ot ol any otker 
penoni wbuDuevei, at well before us and our hein ai belure any jumcei «m1. 
^idgeiirhaiioeveriplrllual and temporal, andihaiin the lame ihey may plead ai^ 
be impleaded, may anio^i aiid be aniwercdi 

CemmoH leal, and liirleen eoml/urgttm lo lit ekotat oa MttlutMiu ^py, mm ^ 



D.n.llzedbyCk>Ol^lC 



I«iki|ila WWnHf.-'Sr.— JAAdlhattbey nu]r lun a common teal forihe huHDCIf 

of ibe vUiigatir borougk atbriuid, m be made me of iai evtri and ^lo we tuvl' 
gnned. iml by thcia presenu do grant, lor ui rod our taor), to ibe uid prCMUt 
mayor and burgciKi and their heiri aod' lucceitpn 6k evn, thai ihe laid prcicRt 
wayor w) buigeiiai, and tbcir -faeiii and lucteiion being oiayari and burgeiHi, 
V|<Mi (be l«ut <iT Sr. Michael ibe archangel, next ennuitig [he daW of theie pFOv 
Vnii, and *l(er«ard) fian Tear le year, upon the laid feutday, may amongn 
4ie (aid burseMei, in a certain hall, calkdihe Moui.Ilall, cbuteoul of iheniHlve) 
tbincM eomburgtBH) of the more ciediiahle tort of mm, being burge>>ei af Iha 
village or bumigk aotvuHl, one of erhicta burgeiiei alwiyi ia is be cboien tor ila 
SUyor of the village or boivugb afbmaid, and to temain mayor o( that clllage or 
borough for me whole year after hia eleciioD. 



elected hi ihe oificeofcomburgeisf 

natunl life may Feniain and cunlinue, and each of ihem nily remain and con., 
ttnue, unlsti ihey or any cf thern al their uvn special requeit to be made la Ihe 
mayor and the reit of the comburgctSei uf ihit mayor ol the uilligc or boroujh 
■foretaid for the iime being, ur for any •uhsianitat reaion, have or haih from lbo$e 
combUT^tiei by the mivorof the village or huruugti alumjid, and ihe rest of the 
cooibargeitei uf that village or boroogh fur the lime being, been ribomiL 

- Tatkitifabur^eu, iniitan i-rtnnli tl matf. — Andtlrat upon ihedeaihofiuch 
cumburgeKea orothenriie upon hi) re>igiuiiun or remuval fiuni the <^Hice of a com^ 
buigei-, the nuyor for the lime nemg, anil tbe comburgrines uf the village or 
borough aiurpsaid, and their luirt and lucceiwn to ever, may have lull povet 
a^nd atithonty by vinueoTtlme preienik locbuieone other burgeisoutot ihemiclvca 
for a cumburjeii of ihe village or bvough albrciaid, in the place of that cumbui- 
gVst 10 dying, reiigning, or being lemoved, ind to from time In time for ever. 
And further we have granted, and by these preienta do grant, for ui and our heirig 
|u the afoienid piBMni mayor and burgeis, and their faeiu and mcceuun, lh« 
tfie laid present mayor and combuigeiiei Qi the village or borough aloreui^ 
and ibeii heiri and lueeeiwn fur tbe liote being, ftum year to year, aobrirplEa* 
mje, may.ebuie uuL,of the burgeuei uf the village or bomugh afiireuid, Iwa 
terjeanti daily to bring or caiiy ibc mace, with ib« acm> ul ui aikd uur heir] ea- 
^ravcd thcre'upoa, before ibe ahaeiaid mayor and «ber luayon of ihe uid viitaga 
or burougb afureiaid, fur the limu being, and tu do and eieiute all and tingulas 
prerepti and mandaira irhich by ihe afomaid mayor, fur Ui« lime being, ihall Irais 
ttme tu lime be conmandcd tbem, or either of tbem. 

Paiarr lo anal — And moreoier. ve grant lo the lald mayor ir^d burgeti^ and 

M.itlacii and art-Jt •hai»e»ei- men and women leu luflicieni (lir ihjt are proper 
objecu) by tbeii bodiei in whji«je>tr pleai, plalnii, conliiKli and demarrtli, or 
in other action* pucural, teal, ur miit whaHuever wiihin the village or borough 
albrtnid, and tlie precinci ihereo' in any manner whatuevet accruing or ariiing, 
hUhI which in any maoaer have been or ihall happen to be depending Ibr ibe trhi« 



1 Mafpr., . tartan, Kc. aid mafor'i aalh. — Moreover, 
l|ie said mayor uu^ bwictMi, ihit ibey and 



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lilhftaf h^nrnflH p>w »J«>lwwl)r,5»rii*BiM(»**BW<^ W| Pftw a *w P 
CMM Ji Mi ilnsuW ihbigt vUcb la iUp oOn of a cWMWr lb** ifiicMan, 
» t» pcrbmcd ami ei(Eui(ri ir *o M «f tbrf'Dwnf or ■• wA «iir hnn M-i^R- 
pbenhanhMi, aM >h^ lnpiwi-lohwe'lB it* llMritXMM, a iMMMwfc- 
urtiun^ WT sommr of MiruM ^M#iMD-«f Entind (im« thaaitarOT «^ M« 
lUbge or tunH«h ■tanntri, Ibr ite tiidrMa«> wltlteth. laidwHIif** UMB|» 
zMl lbs pntKCi lUraof hmt miO^ nilm- that trf ilnn^ «li.bMHi. iMMfd; 
feudwr, orniMiavafuiaraurtMniTMf Biinil»ntb«<OTbW«itfPato«ni« 
vihrp«cimUlb*W, itan ki |wr£jinar«iMMrMq- uAt^ bMM«f ^^rfn4t 
If ihe-nur«rfaiilii*ir-. mdllarthB niri caar«r ihK tlKtt^ OF MkMtaMc^ ly 
tinoiaburynw ad—Hid, innHliawlf afnr M>t»4li«nn»MMrWl twAcn*- 
borEEiui in ihe Mnui-Hill ■tb<e>ai<1,.^Btl'i>b>Hit wlMMi'tbrptjMtaMh'HrinK 
duljraiid iiulylo perform and ciccule the offict orimajoi atibc ofGcr of a rarocwr. 

f^ayr tttfifig or remvenf, anothft to bt ciotfn u eifAl 4&i]pi.^/Lnd if a onyoc 
aftbii bjiousii 10 dtrird in manneribuvc, vjlhin lbe■)elI'aneIhiI■«ll«ua■Vlhlll' 
h^|>cn 10 die, or ihail Coi hii bad adminislnlion af Iha villitE « baiiiu|h tSuntaid,: 
M (ur any iifi«i», or for tome letton Iwby tome miuii ot oA« dipiittd uf or (s- 
nKHed from >he olSte of laajor j ilirn ihe cumburgeiiei ^TuTtuid, and ihcii u^ 
cauon loa; chuic and apiniiii, wiiliin eighi dayi Wit afiei ludi deaib, diachaqi 
oriemoiial, oul of themielurs one other cumbuigiu (or ibe nufifr of lb* nttaaft 
or boruu|h afoKiail, in ibe place dT that mayor deceased, diicarded m reoKHe^ 
iitrllM lemiindi' of thai yaar,.m rule and guveni the uid village or hnromh ribrt- 
uid, *ba iu-like mannerihall takelhe oatbat above preuilbed. 

JtM-THlilml tMlalit mafia. — And «e will »nd command thainoouI-dirrfltT, 
M tonipunr difelllng vtlHoul the f ill)g« or borough and pieciiicli Ibneer. Vj Mr- 
nKOredourorabiirgeu, or furthit Un-uiw he ii a burgeli there, bepn nciibcr 
nuy he bechuieii a mayor of Iba uid Tillage oi bmuash, m linei lu cococ, upon 
mf accoual vhaiioevei. 

JtC«|in'Wirit Jnifwnf'Ato'rittinf,— AniFlIlnMieatiraf AiriptchlirKe; «« 

h«*»;tartied;.nid'byihew jn-e-enu dognnt, lOiHeaOmuMmhycr'sMllbargeMR 
•adthairiyeceweri^ that'ihenM mtyn- md'hti'iaccMtDrf; brjoiilieraditeBnicr. 
HMDniaTaurpeKe, to Be lApt iriiMn'IHe tild'^leige-w bUTsojih iftmaidt AiKt 
tiMI ihrnld oiayorindhirniKrtnrrnH)' htveroicver niiharhyan' pdnff «hb- 
ia tbr-iiU'vintgaDr'baretithi iopmetve*i1feimc|e-MiKlitrjaitiiMaiid ctaMAn^ 
■n.ufaurprm in ibirbdUiir, have in an^ctiamTaf' uurklngilDrtiorEiQlMd. 

Aiiiitofbriai. «-r.— MoKomv «• willaad ^ahi (v avaad-ovbrbia* 
•DCceiun to ibetn. the preieni mayor and burgeiiei, thai the taid picmil sitw 
nd bii aucceiKHi,. mayon.of Llie>aiag* orbufuish aA>fH*id, mayrtwr fai'eia' 
tba aupcriniendencj, ronoaioH and puiiitbrnaiu uf' riitr aMiat of bnai and ali^ 
wd of ill other vicituli wbaiHwec.inini lima to linwwithD-Asiill^v arkoa 
lougbaliiieiaid,, piednCLa-or libertici ihCFeuT, tsld. ir lo/ ba wUi ak>ta itaniiMall 
ictm conveiiiiui and'orcnnry. in- linn to com*. And ItiMibe aid ■ujai aid 
bursGuetandtbeir lucceuurtcuf baveammniM'iMl,, fur- nwaiura-id' »t^f*u 
sT aver; kind tube KklciliJiciaintlii tubiw [bM*iJ »il'a;» wiboniagfc,. fiitiwH 

align oi mraimei and wcljhli within ihe »id mllase or bwoujb. and preciocu and 

iimiis, otfor anycawcn iu.yrBO('ii{km^BnyiaM»uii<winiiiiM aaifaMbw-atfUaa 
diu, ihiHi|h he reiQlure ■ m ad * - m e c^ wntaMfivf haMyafdi|fc. 



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wfwV •ffli.jrtnl, (br nt ind our 
hcin, Tir ner, lo ibe iild miyor and canbiKpinM , - lod iheli tutxMn-n, thai 
Ihe laid pnaent nuyur and comburgcim uf ihe village ur boivugh afgtculd, fur 
^itm^ltimf, aikn^diAff '•l>9ll'n>naiiina]r«n •ndeomburgnsei, mar li*va 

jaii«f iha MUagaor twiwjcti, «(ivhaUM*er ^agtveix aaiiiioa ihey ba, md 
■IhaM immh«iMp[mr ibjiaor* Mtt ly , and riiMHwjmuwihernanclevrryoribeni 
■Wi«*ii< 10 hit iagi'iu, «>aMiMluiAt«ni(r'i»^irnrdaBdicaiuirEd, and thai 
-ikryMiri ocDf of iMm hkwO and uenunwl in thtmancr, be Lrpt and held daf 
MrinlghiiamMban^icaRh mihmibeta<dT<lta|rorbonji>|;h. prerincn or)iberilei' 
lllana*. fa ito ai%uaid, prcMnwilatr, wd deMnce oT the md'boniuih or Tillage. 




In llir bormi-k tourl. — And alio, out of out abundmi giacF aiid mere muiion, ve 
bare (rantrdio ibrm the mayor and luigeueiand Iheir lutceiibrf, ihal Ibey ma^ 
iturDaTaHiiuriimMand •Bmaio>i*riar<Hit'eich«|uer, and iifour 
ItbnDrirherlbe-uidinafarnurbijrgFimand 
inoranyM' itma mtf pkadortw impleided bcfure in or anv 
* ol aur twin, wlihovl Ihe iilla|s or borougli albrcuid, cuiccni- 
■coil lying wiAjn-«he*iid village of bjroujh, nur of iwtpaifen, 
niiacti -marta inibs laid viHageor boiooKh, ot cgnreminj any 
K ibingi wtu i ic e m iheiv ar«ii(. Sui all plcai of iIiji kiird vhidi may hupptn 
ID4N hf aiiBiaMMavr a tf aeh n iant befarem, ukir jufikvi, oioutlieiii, orhefort any 
(tf ••> jaMkaa or 4if'aur>1wiri,'a)-the-faeMh er diawhtre wnhout the (ilLge or 
bMeu|h, at* to«* Ingytaaded -befuMihe marur oT the uM *i)bge or burough for 
te nm<4i*kg, and iritliMi teatid nlLagaor bsniugb Itiry ihi)) be pleadid ai^d ()e- 
Mtanwii, Hlan tto'MM** iwH'dllm.iM aad uur liein, ur (be cjiumuiily o( 
Mm nid •i1li|i«r.<>MiiU(k. 

JfajMT -aKd^Ueiaim Mm i i p li'S-fimm -^gltfi.—AM that -the nU miTOr of ibtt 
lalkgaaThanaglMlarauid, brfbe tinw-tieHic, normr of the caaibuT^Fiiei alim. 
Wid, -M'tbiil iiMceaaari, may -ti* ap|iuinied«r aiiigntd i manager, learrtier oi' 

iidlinif J— — J..-.— ^.t^.^ A..^ tutnidin, dim for knight i' wr- 

Tio*. MBi^,ififla*oiht,wr anyotlwuHi wtaliDew. 10 be giantrd in any mannet 
^taUWMrievi •* AB auT-ktit*. yiihoW Itie >)llagc or tvrou^i nfbrriaid. AI)o 
villing and granilng tu Lhem the preieni mayor and burgetui, ihat neither ihey no^ 

M*le, ■h^^hfuoiiih, or «*« t^tw or miniiM whanoerer. of uj, out hein 
vttlwMih* •■U^OT tonii>«h«ls(inaM,'agaiMt <Mr DVninclinaiTun. And that 
IjiHiiii i^ay loraMiy of ihaM n»y.beifir«dar<vi»^lled lu uadtnakeany charge 
M i ^ »go» aivmi^ti, urunany aeSpwiKPhaiioner, vilbaul ibo nllaee or bo- 



JMito^HPbaB J w>iw.^-A«d (hM sMbar (be aibiMwd mayor and hurgeitej, 
F to impamwlM u[»n jurica, ai ih« aniiei, or upon any 
rfbAirMncneati wiltiouithe bonHigh, or upon any other 
I upoa ^ccouBL af thetr lencnefni oi tmpisiei, or anjr 
gft^^adMr-fcvwgxWtMfrw, ia»«o iii«tuwedbeloi« our juiucei or other mi- 
9i«n.. arefMe-hui,. lobe done, vbiob will ucoiwndin'der in the lald TiHags 
!■ hBHiiuli J^ •Miuaignarmay'Baf b* impawRlodsith out botj^im u]iaa 
jiuici of aaiiu, ot-itfM i»vilMMM,«kaab by ««Ho« «f iMr kairii airi Mnmaeau 



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tiii APPCNOUh 

bun; iiuhc »id vJUageori^ofough, or u tiMpuiUi toalncu, or tbblFsl&cr Circiga 



Taholdmnoiu, — And furl)ier, oat oTour BbundKil ince, ve ham gniiK^ 
*nd by Ihise iiiewDlJi iju gram and coiiMni, la Ihom, ihe uid mayorvid bur- 
|ei>ti> thit ihty ind ibeirjucccinrtbe our juiKciibi ibe pem, and fbr Ickinici, 
(mputei, and oihcr quidcmaanoit wlulirievtr. And iliat M juilicei lor ibt 
peace viibin Ihc TiHagf wui bucougb and piecidcu and bound* ibeieot, Ufeifair 
vjib ODE learncij in ihe \»w, at Ibe ap|ioimnwnLirf ibe dituc otfihat riJagc-ur bu. 
rough bx the lime brinK, ibej' mar '■"'^ ^""^ ''<** "> ^""^ ^ oiaaducur vanaai, 
lo ><eiiude by ihe nuyor ef lbs taid viltafeuf buM«Kl>Jor tbe limeband and oa- 
lo one of the ■eijanlt ai mace of ibe mayor of ihe laid vUlage or boiougb lor tbe 
lima bciiig, 10 be 4>'*^Bd m made »*iioiu'i> ui imjaua for ui.aod our bciiij m 
pflenaa tball be uc<:cs»iy. 

Ciitloxi mi! gwl, &V,~And tliat Ibe lald ruayor and bur|tMCi, and thair 
tucrtitun, ma; have a gallowi and a proper pr >«id or gMl wilbio ih* aaid *flb^ 
or b.iiuu|>h of Funtefr4CL afuteuid, and the pteciiwli and llmili Ihritof, Sim IHaat 
and odicroKuden whaUua<er, viihjn Ihc village h borougb aud ptccaicn aid 
limitf afureiaid, uitea or to be lakeo ia tbe laid prison or gaul, (aJcfy and itam tf 
to be Iirpi uniil inna ibe (anie, accoiding lo IfaC: law and cixtom. of uir kingdcm 
of Eiii;lHiid> ibey ihall be discharKedt And thai Ihe Mijrant al inacc, n anminr- 
«d wiihin ibc vil'age or borounh al'oreiaid, ibr the time beiag, all recaipti aaJ war- 
ranis of (he Ksiiauia lo held, in all Ibingi may do. and eaecule, or ibt one at 
Ihem may do and eieculc, and Uicy and ihe oiu of the;n auy auend upon (be nid 
juuicet m their aau«au I'ui ii)quiti;iOos, uid other thing) whitocfer in ihcpremiies 
Of be la ken or done, and llic eieculiuoi (<l jydgmqnif aiid ntaitdatci uf ibrm the taid 
juiilcri in all iliinni ni;iy eiecuie and da> or ihe one of ibem any eiecun aod 6a 
■I fully and eSeciually at the iheriffof our county of York, and olbit our ibcrilh, 
jUNicri.iulhiTbchalf<Uewbcrer in oor Jtiugdom U' EnflaDd, oUfbl U> MWndand 
itie precept) an^ waiTanls, . e^ghi oi ihall ejwame oi order w be cieOHad j an itaa 
no shniffQrouriaid coumy ol Vmli, tir itie (line being, may in any tttanner en- 
ler Tot ihr eiecuiiui «r iheie kigd vi precrpM aiid vatianii of tbe aaid jtinicc^ 
viiliui ihe village or boruugh, ptccincii and liciiit afurcfjid, nciOier may be intaf 
Dinner enter laio tbe laid t ilbge uc ^umugli, upon ibii or upeo accMuuof mj 
«1 ihejKeniiui. 

Poirr la d'lemm all i^fiten aUhm Uu icrough^—Aod alio, «e *iH ari 
li^^vc giaiied, thai the ia>d nuyoraod combufteaan.of ibc idlige at iiuia«gh rf 
{■uiiidFacl alarciaid, furtbp'tifl>e.liring, tir«lTe, ekvm, ten, piae, e^fat mca. 
•ii, five, fuui, .three urtvr^. (if thfm, wceiber wilfa the ntafurof Ibe vill^e or 
boioit^l] afoieuid, and une ikilled in ihc lav, may have fall eorrcctiia^ pimiJi 
mciit, pDver and authority, luiake cfgnitance of, and inquire, beai apd dticr- 
iDJ^icall mailenand ibngi, ai veil tcwcbinf all (etomeaiireipaiiet, miiprianiand 
(iiuttiani, ai ol alt and all nuflneroTuthiF cauiei, cgmpainiaandoSiaca wbau 
locvi'r, vilhin (he same villige or bonwgh. and liberty, and prcdncu and Inoiia 
thereof, bou'iucfer happening or ariiifij, to tully and eSectiully ai iiiiwii^ii 
ef ihc peace and juidEet atiignrd,. a»d to be auigned to bear and dairrmBe feJgnie*, 
ticspaiici aiidoiher miidemcanori. ai>d jutlicet of tervinis, labouran, artificers, 
V^Iliinour EouMyoF Yjrk, wiibout thetilkgtor borowth, libdrty.u^fncBOt 
■fjiciaid, hive or ibaU in apy oMom inic Ibi ite una » caBi. 



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APPEKDH. ix 

Afri^r to t^lect fee farm rralt mrf lolli. — Provided il»ayj, Ibat Ihe laid 
mayor of the village or borough afoieiiid, fur the liiie beiiij;, be conilrained 
cither hy himieli' ot by bit detmiy or iheir dcpuiio, yearly lu [iillcci ur ciuie lo 

calleil Caule-Fanni, ADdiewFarnii, and I'luWlindFirmi, vith all lolli, e'chcalt 
and mher pni&i whtlfoevcr, to ui belu"ginE. And I'uither — Wheieii, rorty-nina 
pouodi ihineen ihilling] and Iburpence only hive been uicd u tic fai \a ui 
lod our predecpnon, out uf \hr piulii. ui (he rarms aimtaiA, jnd n>>w lately 
m hauebetn informed, itial filieen pounds ihirtecii itiillingi ajid ILuqieiitc ihcreitf, 
Mituf certain profitiof the larmi a'uretJXl. »-i[hiii the pteiinci^ of ilie ullage or 
borough, cannot be levied became levetAl leni'iDcmi ihiuugh i^xif are totally 
deiirvyed. Knor ye, that we out ur our abundani grace, mere muiion and 
cenain ktMwIedge for Ihe bctirnng uf GUI' uid village ur borough, do acquii, 
remit, «nd releaie by theie prctinii to the uid mayor and burgvssci, and their 
■uccetniri iiii ever, (he lum of fiiiecn poundi ihineen shilliugl ai:d loUTpence 
due to utannuaiiy; to that the uid rruyor and tMirjieitei aiid llieit lucceiiori 
of tbe village or borough of Ponielraci Pi'ureuid, *hu miy happen iu be in lime 

profili tif Ihe farmi, the lum ul ihiny-fuur puundi and no itijie. And ihal 
beither m, nor our heir* have sitiy right lo the uid fiiieen puniidt ihiiteen 
■blllingt and fuuipence, nor any pan Ibereuf iball lor Ibe lime lu come, etocl 



MariH on Saturday, and lae fain. — And moreover, we bave gnnted and 
do gram, and ,by ibeie prcienti do confirm to ihe taid mayor and buigenei ol 
tbe uid village ur borough of Puniefracr atureiaid, ihai thiy and then lucceiioti 
may have within the village or borough afiiretaid, one marltet to be held the™ 
every ■^eck for ever, on every Saiunlay j and yearly two fair! tbete (lo wii) the 
one fair of ihem upon a Palm Sunday in Qiiadrigc]<ima, and lo coniinue lor tiic 
dayinrii proceeding; and ll>e oihrr &ir ihercuf up.>n the f.ati and Luid') day of 
Ihe holy undivided Trinity, and lu continue for lii djyi next pieceeding. loi 
getbet with alt liberties, right*, pr.vilegct. and apputitnancci lu tieip lain and 
market!, ur any ofibem bElungiiig. in that tSett fain and mitktns bo noli') 
tbe detiimenl ol other neighbouring lain Siod maikoi]. 

Ordtrlag "/ lit iMllt, Xe. Ern^lian from loll. fUeiy fairt fTrf\,<ri)-~ 
Alio, we will and gr^ni for ui aiid our heir; afoicuid, and hy ihcte preienit 
confirm to the aforesaid mayor and burit'iit) of Ihe niLge or bo'oujh aforoaid, 
and ibeir succeujn lor ever, that ihry may have by the mayor of Ihe laid lillagii 
ur borough lor the time being, and two or ihree of ihe moie crediiable and dij- 
creei comliurgeiies ol the uid villa;je ot turuugh, asii-ianli to the laid mayor, 
they being fui ihit purputd yearly cicrled or deputed by the taid mjyur, lur the 
timebeingt the minagcracnl, urdering, and appinnlmeni oi t'leiialti anil b<x*ht 
in all theic fain ani! markeii, or any ol' ihim to be Iiad or plictd, ai^d ilic uhule 
direction of ihe nurkcK, fairt, and of all and linguLr Lbcriiis, and oiher uia^ei 

UI, urourheiri. or of other, our officert whatsoever. Therefore, we will, and 
iriclly order aiid command the ifortijid mayor and burgeiici for tHc thne being, 
llial none of uur lubjrcii fur lite future coming imo the i aid v J 'age or borough, 
■a Ihe nurketi or fain (uve only in ifae lime alxive ipecitied} tie bound or 
CODMniatd IB pay loy toll or other duty to the taid mayor and burges<« for our, 
T t t 



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or their uie. But Ibal all, ind lingular our lubjecti lo ihil manner for the tinie 
U> come, matting lugeihet by Kiton of our gratii arumaid, be ibcrcfbtc ItsC, 
uamukited and exoneraicd lor ever. 

Mayor, Kc. (a mik brai, mlei, jfc. in llif ionagk, — Aid m unu wl, we 
will and grant, and hj thew preiend ba*e granted lor u> and our hrin id ibc 
■Torei^iid mayor and burgenei, and their lucewon, that the nid miirar fbribe 
tnne bstng, together with twelve honest men of the uM village m- borough of 
Ponlerracl. and the pietincli therei/, for Ibe time being bj the (aid mayor to be 
Domiaaled, with other of the buigcuei afureoid, and b; them the maror wd 
kmeit men trotivened, if they ire M pleaMd tn the MuO(-Hall of the Milage or 
borough afumiid, ai often ai they pleaie to men (ogcilier, and hwi, rulet. and 
ordinance! legal and bcneGcial (or ibc public good of ihc lilhce or hxoBgk 
aforenid, and the pTechKlilheteof frura time lo time, lo ordiua and ntakc, a^ 
tbow in their wiie and prudent gnemment uie, and, in Ibe aid tittife or 
botough, anl ihe prednett theieoT put in eiecution. Al«>, ihtf (bcf nap for ««r 
lev oke and ahcr [hem, »d ertrf of tkem, it lo tbemwhet ii ihall lacm tb* 
more expeAent. 

Etgafunt a} aacieiil lihertiri and rrufoau. Burgnia atnpUd Jnm fafBtg 
latl. — Andfunfaer, out uf our abundant grace, we will, and giaol, and bj ibeie 
preienii confitm for ut and our beiri, that ihe said mayor and burgeuci and their 
lucceitori may hate, and peace^ly enjoy nil the libettin and caiMmt by them 
Ihe buigenei and tbeir lacceewn within ibe village or horuugh <if Pintefract afocc- 
laid, ancienily eojojed. And tbal tba burgeiiei aJoretaid, and thor luccnaom 
lad all the inbabilantt withla iba taid village « boiwigh, ihalt be ucmfxed fiuiB 
•oU, launge, pafBge, piniuge, pooOge, and ledagt, tbrougb our whole Kii|- 
4Mn of England, and our doninioo for ever. 

PoBwr lo mayar md iargraa Cb hear taairt, Xe. — Wherefore we will, aad 
Itnclly command lor ui and our bein, tbal the ifofeiaid mayor and burgoaei 
of the tillage or bomugb of Fonlefisct albreiaid, and their lucceiiott nay have, 
bold aod uie, all and lingular, the poweti of hearing and judging cauic*. ftan* 
cbiiei, lihertiei, immuniiiei and privileges, and all uhei the premiiei ai above 
^Mcificd, and that them, and every of them, they may Fully, lietly, intircly, 
peaceably, and quietly occupy and enjoy without the let, inteituption, mokata- 
tion, or obiiiuciion of ui, or our beiri, uf any of our olEccn ur miniiien, or of 
out hrin whataoever, ai ii above- mrniiunrd, in the mannei and form abme- 
declared. In wiinen whereof, we have caused ihcie our letltrs lu be made 
patent.— Given under our wal, uf our Duichy of Laocutet, the Iweoty-cigfath 
day of July, hi Ihe aecoad year of out leign. 

By THOMAS METKALFF, ChaDceDor. 

The ^bove charter wai eoiiG lined by anmher in Ihc fame year. 
Similar cfaanen weregnntedhy Henry VII. and Edwacd VI.; but u ibcy 
cmuin no additional dautet, h It unneceuary to print ibem. 



JAMES, fay the grace of God, of England, Scoihud, Vr^nre xad Irehn^ 
King defender of Ibe laith, Ice. To aU prnom, to whom dieie present kOEn 
patent ihall come greettob 



D.n.llzedbyCk>Ol^lC 



AFPENOIX. XI 

Pmrl^Uiwf Vll.tkarlancited.rtliUhetolht ciiuinf It' majpir.— Wbm- 
W,hiiMij*ily,HnirT VII. late King of England, by bi! lelleri pnenl undet lh« 
Mai oi liit Dulcliy of Lancuicr, nuda, beiilng date Ibe Gi« day of Dccembet, 
in itae fuunb year oT hii nifn, (raulcd {aatjapi etber ibinsi) is ibe iben inayoc 
Wd bui^MCt oi Ibe lilbga oc borough of Fanlcfrict, and lo ihe^t beir» and 
•ucmnn liir ner i Ibal ibc nid dwn preint mayor and burgeise*. anil Ibeir 
bcin and bUGGononi, mayor and burgeswi, upun the feaji of Si. Michael ibe 
Archaqgc), tben a«t ciuuing, the dale of ihow utd leltert paieni, and afiervaid) 
ffva y«ar lo yaar, upon the aaid fcait day, amongtl the laid burgeuei, in a 
cwuin haU, caUed Hew-HiU, migbl i^uie out of ihemielvei ihiiieen cuiu- 
b«r|e»n of [lie mart lepuiab'e ion of men, burgeuei of Ibe lilbge or 
baiowgh aforaaid, ocnof which buiBciies al«iyi ihcn tbould be eboten for (b« 
Kayur of ih« village or boiwigh alureiaid, and lEinain mayor of the rilhge or 
borough aiweutd, iei one year neat felluKuig tuch electioa, as bj ihe latd Jenen 
BMBot, vuy and doth More fuUf appear. 

Diibuln nruinii, emcem'mf the ititlim of m^KTi' — And vberau, ve an 
credibly infornted, ibat Ihe election of Ifat mayor of the *iPage' or borough ati>T«> 
nid, herelufo'e, hath been made by the greairr number of voiei uni tuSiagu 
«f the hurgfuei of the laid village or boniuKfa, by teaion of vbich wrt dI' fbfm 

arisen, and been pro^gated bslviil Ihe niayur, cufDbur|riiei, and burgeiici 
of Ihe viliage or boiough afcreuid^ for, and in reipecl of ibe luSiage) and Tota 
(ivcn in the election of Ibe mayor of the laid tillage or borough, by meam 
vbereoT, very often great haired, revenge and retenimenti, and many Mher eiili 
bare eiiiued to the diituibance of our peace, and exceeding bad example of 

Mofir lo he dtmen Hte IM Stpl. md laent bitt n^lrt bh Af iriarbMa-rf^.— 
Know ye, ibetcTore, Ait we, b order, that all aainMniy, cunwnliiin, and iguar- 
lelling aboBt the eteetirm of the mayor of iha Tillage or bonwgh afoivutd, may 
(rem hence'onh be iniiraly lemiHed. and thai peace uut good neigbboarhood he- 
rmit Ihe mayor and Iwjrgei sei of the Tillage or borough afbrciaid, auy rente, and 
mrrenei andabo at the bumble tn|iieii of the pieaent maycr and burgcnea of ibe 
nllaje O- borough albmaid, — Have villed and granted, and by iheieprnenu, kru), 
ourhriri and nicceawra, do grant to ibe aferesaid mayor and burgoiea of Ihe vill^ 
or borough afcre»d, and to itnir nicctnon t Ihit ttie eleclioo t>l the naynr of 
IIm taid lillage or bonjagta, to every year, and from year lo year, for the lime M 
come, fore^-er, reuit and ihall be upun ihe leut day of Holy Rood, Ibei ii to 
lay, in and upon the fbuneenih day of September, m ibe manner and fixm, in 
Ibeie pKisnli under.menlioned and prtcribed. 

And that (he penoa who a) alai«aaid, ihall to b« elected and appoinled mayor 
of ib« village or boruugh iforeuid. ihaH take hit corponl oaih befure Ibe tate 
fnCyOT, hit pndeccraet andthe eombuigeiiei, and burgenei of ihe •■id lillagc 
at bamigh, or lo many uT ihen whu ai ifa4t time ihall be pieteni, in and upon 
(be lean of 8l. M^hiel ibe Arcfa-engel, ihn next fbtluwmg, loth bii election 
and nomiBati.m atbnnid, w«ll nd truly to execnie and diichai^e itae oAce of 
mayor, of the viHege or boiuugh ■forenid, in aU tltsee dmin rekaiiag or ap9«r. 

C»a^argruei ml to vale in Ihe tioia of a awgor. Siifftff4 la ie mrele o» 
ftftr^ 1^^f^^ oftv 4 tWi— A"* iM iftei tu* *> uking ibe aTomaid oiih, ha 



-DiniiizedbyGoOi^lc 



Xll AP^NDUf. 

Diuit, ind iBiy be enibled lo exrcute ihe office of mayor of (Ik nlbge or torbngt 
arorc-aid, [ur one wbole year, then neit entuing. And to Ihe iiilem, thai IM 
iforetaid eteciioi miy be wjihoui any contention ind malice in any ihape, — We 
will, and by ihesc ptesenn for U!, our hein and luccoiora da gram lo Ihe 
arorLsjid mayor and hurgCise; of the village or borough aforeuid, and to Ibat 

bimigh >rorc>a>d, fur ilie lime to come, evcif burgeii oT ibc village ut boraush 
aforesaid (Ckctpi the comtiirgetiej ol ihe latd vilbfe or borougfi) ibiill wrne 
bini<e1f, at cause to he viitien in a Eiltle icrole of pi^/rr, kii luffrigF and \ote, 
and the »a><l icrole of paper, togelbet vilh Ihe uid iuHnge and io<r m- 
icnbed tbeieujjon, shall pui into a ccnam bagg or box for thii kind ot buii- 
neii to be jjiovidrd, by ihe mayor a]id burgnwi of ihe village or boraugh abra- 
■aid. Which laid icrjle of paper, indeed ibali not contain the name of that 
penon giting hia vote and iiiflrage, Imt the incripiiOD ihoMpon ihall be in (ha 
' manner and form following, thai i 4 10 uy, "on Ibe tuurteenibday ofSepterabar, 
■0 the year of our Lord, Ice, luch a persoii i> elected mayor ol ihevilbge or bo- 
tough aJoreaaid," and ihai.aJTayi Ihe day and year, and name of the peiMn ao Iq^ 
be appointed major ii at'oiesaid. , mux be tiamed and speciliid iheccupon. 

Voln equal Ike Ikici I'nmr uldnmn In mie— And if it shjB happen Ibal Ihe 
number uf voie> and tuSrigci, to as afoieiaid In be written upon ibe -iDalt 
icrolei of paper, be even and equal, thai then ihrpc of the tenior cumbuigeiicf 
who Ihen ihall be picseni, shall juin and inKrilie ifaeir nrBiaget and vein in 
like manner, ' upon ■ (crufe of paper, and shall puithe same rnio the alorcB^ 
bagorboi. And thai from lime lo time, for ever, every petion ibr wbon iba 
mo!i toienh.il] l>e given in the manner and farm atbresald, may upon hit taking 
a corporal oaili, ludiKhitge Ihe oflke of mayor ol Ihe village or buroagh afore- 
uid, and all utlicr Ihingi iberetinto belunging. Or appirtai'^irig upon ihelcaaiday 
of Si. Michael the Arch-angel, Deal lultowing aucb elecliOD and appuiniment 
of every lucb person tu ibc odice ol mayor alurciaid, in Ihe pretence of ibc mafor 
for ihe time b^mg, and ih^ cumbuigeslei and burgetMi uf the ijlLge or boruugt* 
atiitciaid, or (omany uf Ihcm, nho shall please id be preieoi (sue of %hicfa, 
yc order the aforesakl mayor 10 be) belore thai be undenakci ibe office of 
ruavuT of ilie village or borough aforeiaid, bave, eiccuie and perform the tane 
tor ooe whole year, then iicil following the aluresaid lean of Si Michael ib^ 
Atch-ange^ uponahich, lo at aluiesaid, bs shall be iwr>m into 1 be uid tffic^ 
uf major, of ilie village ur buiougb albrcuid, ihe afottiaid Iruers palent a^ie- 
riiciiiioiied, or any other leilera paieni wbaliocver, or any other matter, cauje, or 
ihing Hbalwerer, 10 the conlraiy ibenul, in any wite nutwitjiitandiiig. 

r*- uiotri i.f pitjier, or tntfi, ti- br mijxilnibii Ihe Iktf miat BlAtmn, and 
tutnl iy (Arm. — Aiid we order thai tlie aforesaid trrutes uf papar Ibus iiitCfibed, 
only shall be io'pected, and Ihe votes llieieu|ion insciil-ed, only ihal! be rod kj 
(he ihiee acniur dmburgciics of [he vil'age or borough aloreiaid, wboai tuch 
election lliere iliall be p<e(cn[. And il>al aflen very such ekmuo in ibe mamcs 
aforeiaid. tu be ful^y cump'eio and perfected Ihe taid kcrolet ufpaper tu as alxnc. 
mentioiied, to be put inlo (l>e uid bagur boa immediately, shall betium( bj 
the Ihiec setiior ccmbuigeitei of Ibe village or buruugh ibreiaid. 

Pinerrfsdrrrt^ &-r— Andwhc.eai, the taid late King Henry VII. by fait 
taid Iriiert paient above-mentioned, granted lo (be atiireMid mayor and buitesaet 
and their tuccesson, that ihey, by ihetr lersranti at ouc^ ibouU hiM po««t 



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APMNBCC. ■ Slii 

tMd'wtlMrtfy toalllth, and arrHiall men 

(or pTojwr nbJKMii) by ibfir bodlei, in il 

and deroani)!, or oiher aciioni'peuonal, real, or mill what-ocwr, within 
•Uljje or bjiough afore<s;d, and ihe preclnrt* Iherenf, in ii\ manner howtuevw 
iransici«l or jriiin^, which in iny manner wrc c-immfnccd. ot miglii from 
Ihencefotih lor ihe iime lo com*, luiipcn lo be commenced, as by ihe sakl Imenf 
palecit (imangit other ihingi) it may, i>nd di.th mure fully appear. We oul of 
our atundjni tpecial gfjce, and oul of ouv ctriain knowledge, I'A mere mollun,' 
do will, and gram lo the aforeuid mayor and liurgmei of (he village or bor ^ugh 
afbinaid. and iheir iiiccenuri by ihne prejenis, lli.ii Uify, tiy iheit sericim-, at 
macs, may have, and jliall ha-« power and auihiwiry, j> well lo jiiaeh and arreit 
all men and women nhaRooer, ieit fulfirient (or proper obiecis) by il-vr budtn 
10 inswcr any ptriJri or pcrsuns omiilainins ur lu lomiildin of, or rmceinii^ 
any aciions, pcrjiinal or ini»i, in ihe ruurl of ihe vill.tge ur bor..u Ji ai^iiciaid 
pleadable, ai lo like and Biecule any ncnition and eieniiioni. ol or ronceminf 
any goodi and cKaillei, wiihin iht village w boiough ^'oresaid, lo bi- fvund, (or- 
■ iaiii<aclian uf any debli ordcbi, orariy mm '" money, which i.i IhF rixirt of 
the tillage or buTuU^h iliirenid. ihill irom lime to lime, be duly ntovcred ki 
■ny luch aciiuni ur pjatiiii, deltimiiiatile in ihe cjurt of the iild vibagf or 
bnough. And h all, and lingu'ar luch Mii>ins, (o pui inlo force, and use at 
■uiii proTMie^, judgment, and eieculioni, at by ihc law and niilom uf ihii, 
our Ki:^gdwn if ijig^nd, in (uch like aaioni are U!^, and oughi lu tie uied, 
«nd Wat 111 at cilnuive a mannei and form, ai in any Mher uur courts 01 mun^ 
in any other bonmgh, ci[y, or village, incuipoiaiHl within ihii Our KiDgdon of 
Eugland, ij uted and accutlomed, ot ouihl, ur dia be dune. 

Ontcha Inll. — And funher, wewill, and by ibeie pmcnti, form, outhcir* 
tnid luccesson, dogunito ihe aLieuud mayor aiid burgeitei of ihe village or. 
booujh aforesaid, and ibelr lucceuori, that the mayor ol ihe lilljge or borough 
afmetald, for (be lime being, or any oiber peiioii or pertoni by him, to ba 
deputed lur Ihe lime lo cume Ibi ever, may have full auinoiily and pua-er, by 
ViruR ol iheie preienti, tu have, aik, demand, take, receive and retain uf eveiy 
petMm or pe.i <ni with every carl (in English) a waync, can, or ih^idd, bound 
with iron (in Englith) called a bound, wayne ur on, or sb<jdd, itaine or cait 
loadcn, and in, through orb. yond Ihe iireeii of ihe village 01 buioogh afureiaid. 
ot in, thr*ig!i or beyond any passage or way, ni-.hin ihe liberty or p:tcinci. of 
tlic 'aid village or borough, coming or patiiiig. one penny ; and (ih eveiy carl (in 
English) Lifted a bare waync, can, ora shudd cart, ooe hal^petiny of LrafulmuieT^ 
of EngUid, fur, and tovardi tie repali and iiippon of the ayi, pvcmeiiit^ 
passage], and other places within ihe botoUijli al.;resaid, and ihe pitcincti ihereul, 
10 be aiphed actordlng 10 ihe discretion uf tUe mayor, and combuijevses of ih* 
village or burough aforrsaid, for the iline btingj and their our kners paient, or 
Ihe inrollniCTit thereof, shjil be from time to lime, as well to ibv aioiis.iid mayor 
for ihe ilinv being, as to all such pertoni by him as afuriiad to be deputed, » 
lulGcicni wartini, and diitbaije in that tefpect, 

O'oiil Bid confrmalion nfmU'tnl libfrti'i. — And further, we will, and hy ihese 



their succet jor<, a 



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aaj of ibem, or ibtir pndtcuion by vhittomr MB* or nai*ati or kj «kM- 
■aver iiicarporuion, or Dpon account uTinf nunnar of incorpviafian vliUK«*cr, 
brreioron, hive, iud, uivd, or rnjoy rd r>r uuffai lo iure, hold, uH, or fnioy by 
iMiedirirv dcKtil, b; leiun, oi in puniunraof my chancn, ur Jfiin ptimi, 
br vif of our pmgmluifi ur atmitori, la • ■iirg't or qucon') of Eitflind. iu taj 
■unner heivtodbre, made, confimii^ or ^nnied, or bj rsamn <A mtj DtlKr larJvl 
M(am, rifht, lilhc. cuilom, UK, or pr«tcripiiuD, biir*t.ifbr*, kwluIlT Med. had, 
or icnuiomrd, ahhuugb the nm*, (•err, ot any of ihom bcrtwfeic, !»'■ or b>A 
Boi bKB uwd, miiued, ui vioiigfullf applied, or bavs, or katii bMii dUamnan i. ^ 
■nd aliboufb (ha iunc, evcrr, ut an; uT ihem, am, or h«« bwa loffeked, o 
•iitniutitwd ; — To tnva, bold, aiid rrjuf ihe tame ui ' * 
buif eiiei or Ibe tiUate or bonugk albiiMid, aod w 
And tbercijn. 

Yielding and paT"*! to ui. ovr bain and nicoMam yntlf , to many, an pwat. 
Htb like, ibe very lam*, and iba ume kind of rmii, aeiTiCM, tumi uf monay 
tnd dcawndi Whalieein, a* jtaiij, ai grtal, uicb at, and vbich brtakfiire <ttty 
haminA toyifild asd pay to w, ior ibe Mma, nc tHifht to yiald and pay. ffbns< 
bre> vevil), and by iheac pmcnli, for ui, oar hrin, aod luecmon, dagtHK 
Am the arorauid nayor and buigeina or ihe villas* or buCBuffa aferei al d, and 
Ibck nidceNDn nay bave, huld, uae, and anpy, 3tid Tujy be e alt ltd and iiv- 
{unrtt'ed, fillip and eSectaally, to have, bold, iuf, and rnjny ht aim, al iha 
(bcnia*, frmdvoi, cutiomi, prinikegM, iniboritiei, juritdlctiani, and aacatiMiniu 
>fcre i« id. accaiding to the imorand tnie nkNning of Ibiuc, Our leoai* patent, 
vithout tbe hindeiaoce orobitriKtiDiiurtti 



Forbidding, I bat the laid niiyor and burgeiiet of Ihe ijlbgc or bonush afuiv- 
•aid. and iheit nxcniDn, or any of ihem. or any aihen, by reiio^i ot'ibrprvniitei, 
or any of ibcm, (nay be thetefore harraited. dhiUrbed. veied tir dliiictied. Or 
'm any fnalitier nio!eit«l by ui, our hetrt or lucreMOn, ur by uur juitira, ihCrift, 
Mdnemrt, ot other baillA, ficodariet, or other, our officCn or miniiiFn, oroTour 
fcirt and iiKinion whatuwrer. Witling, and by ihe»e pretenti fbrui, *ur 
Kin and nKi:e)ioii, commanding and enjoining, at vtit our Ireaiurer, chao. 
ttlbr andbatoiii of our eirhequer, and of our heir< and lucceiun, u our attorncjr 
and Wlitiior general fjrihetline beihj, and every oTlhem. and all otheti, our 
•Keert indmiiiiitert vhaterer.ibit nellhrr Ihey, or any uf them, or any ubrr 
ftn^im may proieruie, or continue, or caute, or pmcuie to be pmsecuied, or 
Aniinned any wril, or lummont, for irhicli ibey have our warrani, or any aber 
•ritor will), orproceliet whatioei'mgainlt ibem. the mavor ud butgniEi of 
*e vflljEB or borough afbreiaid, or any ofthem, otaEaJnji any other peitoni, for 
Mty pnifii], malten or thtngi, offences, clalmt or cuituinf, or fur any of then 
*ie, claimed, chaHenged, uied, enjoyed, or hjd by preicriplion from ihcm, or 
tnaoftbem, befoie the day rfihe granting these pretni'i. Willing also, thil iha 
mayor and burgeijci of (be village or borough afoteuid, orany of ihem, may 
■KM by any person, or any of the juilicei, officer), or miiiislert aroreiatd. be ia 
the lean oppreiud or iucumbered, for or fn reipect of any debi, profit, cbim, 
enjoyment, or mi)uier of any ol the libeniu, francbiiei or juriidiction^ before 
the granting of ibete our lelien patcM, OT that Ibey may be cunpclkd la 
aniwer fur I be lame, or any of ibcm. 

(Then fbllowi the re£ulatiani of St. Kichaht' Hospiul, u tuHcd iwdcf Itut 
AlTicte.) 



D.n.iized;,y Google 



AFPENtWX. X» 

Wev'ill,a1u, md bf thna prcMnti, da gnat to ihe aCve&id major and 
butgciiei of the village ur borough, Ilut they nu; hive, and ihall h»e, iheic our 
lei:cTi i»tnii, undar our grail kuI oT Engbad, ia dus farm, niadB and ledcd 
vilhuui 6iip, ot grat or iiriill fee, in an; manner, by reaua Ihsnof, (o b* 
jidded. pMi, or lendrred lo ui, in out banapsr, or elwwhcre, fur our ub^ 
aolvlthitanding eipmi meniioaed, li not abute niade uf ihe annual vjlue, ur 
ofanjr mlicr talue, <:r accnainly of the pninite), or any of ibem, or of any othar 
lifii or grant! hnrtftufure, made by ua, fir by any of our ancniuri ur progmiiorli 
lo ifae aforesaid miyor and bur|euei of ibe villafti ur borough alwewMl, u 
01 Inii iKcriaiaed in or upon ihsie prewnii. Anj iitiuW, aci, bv, plu>>^■^ 
proctatdalion, or reairictlan to the contraiy ihiitof, hcrcio*>m, h;id, made, pubp 
litbed, esacird or ptorided, or any oihiir matter, cauie or thing vhuioner, b any 
viae nnvbliiDiiMllng. In witneii vhtmof, we ha« made theie our iMUf* 
paieni; viinci. ounelf ai Weiimmder, ihe Sd day of March, in Ibe founh 
Jtat of our leiga, of Eaglaad, France and IreUnd, and ef bcodandlba fimialk 



No new grant ii niide in ibe Charter of ChariM II. The folWing dauic r«- 
gu'aici Ihe cbotre of Ihe Towni-Clerk and Recorder : 
AUo, we viij, 4nd hy iheva preientt, we declare our tuya] meaning to be, ihat 
John Oil ktoi], Ibeno* cummvn citrk, ui clerk oi ibe peace of the konugh iloicsaid, 
may be, and ihall be [be camniun clerk and l-IciIc uF ihe peace Ihctc, durcig bif 
DatuTdl liic And ihal no morder or comiDon tlerli iiT our village or borough 
aAnaaid ; Tar ihu Tuluie to be elecied ur appoinicd inio ibii kind uf office or 
office), or eiiber of ihem may rnpcctiiely enter brft>te, ibey, and each uf thci« 
ii, are, or itiall by ui, our bein or uicceinr), by a warrwi in ibal behalf, under 
mu lifn mannual ; and of our briri aod lucceison be r«pecliveif appioved uViVif 
Ihing n tbeie pmenu conlaioed. oraoy oiber mauei, cau»e, or Uiing ■ bauuvei 
u Ihe cunirary Ibareof, in my mie nMwiibnaeduic- 

The Cbaiter of JaiBO II oioia'aj nooewgianu, andit ii dteiaed unneceiury ta 

print more than the fullowiag clause : 
Cfgkm nmaeenhlf ai tht tool <if Ike Sim. — Proiido^ ''wayi, and by ihria 
yrewQi). we nacne toounell, ourheiti aiid lucceiuri, full ^jovrr and auibQiiif 
ftMm now ts time, and ii ail time* htieafiar, at uur, at <be will and picawre of 
our bein and nicceajiiV', id remove and U declare tbvitt 19 be nnuved, Ihr mayor, 
TCCurder. cummon clnh, and ny oiber, or oibert ut ibi aldermen ol' iIk v.U^ 
or boniugh iiare«>d lur tbc liaic bring, by nay txder uf us, or of (lur bcirt or 
■UCcctiWIi maeie in Ibe pii*y couoael, lad uudci >ht teal ul' ibe privy couomI 
■IweuMl, reiiMCtively noufard. Aoi ai otUn ■■ wa, Our beic* and (utccaton, 
bf a^ Hich order in ubr |rivy co^n«i'l, made, (baU, iu this dub ler declare the 
aaf or, itowder, cvnimun clerk •«Kl any elh'-r, ur uhtii of ihe aldermen vi ihc 
village or bmugb »Iih«>4m1, lor ibe iime briog, lo be teowvad bun ibeir 1B> 
apecdv* o&ra, (hu then, and imm ibcrxwlunh, ilie ouyur, ncordei. cuoaui^ 
Cltrkad'or olMr, or uibcn of ibcaldeimBa ol ih« ajilage w b«niu|h flpieHirl, 
far Ibe liive faaiac ibua dnlarMl, ur lo be dnliRil. <u be KouHrd inta Ibeir 
«e*e[a) aod reiiMCMw offioM, m<y be, jna ihal) swiilr, and ^'*iam uy /uriber 
fnccW) ical^, a^lualliiilenuwidfiiirpuaci wbaua*>cr, be remoM<^ atid ihw 
■uMthedoaeaictft M MOWM ikall H ntuiic, auf i^an lo ihc cauimjt ibsiocf 



niiizedbyCioO^Ic 



ZVi APPENDIX. 

CHARTER FOR THE URAMHAR SCHOOL. 

GEORGETHE THIRD, bf die gcace of God, of Greil Brium, Fnnce and 
Inlaiid, Kinij, Ucl'endcroi ilie Fiiih, a»d solbnb; lud mill lowhoniibne uur 

Inirr.i ihall cune, gresiing ^Whctei), ii halh bctu itpmenled lo ui ihu ihe 

FreeGrammar-thujlinuuriownof PooiefMCi, in our cuunt; ot' Voik, baih uf 
hie beta guing npidly lo decaf' '"<' ■'<" pamculirly lor KVpril year) pul, Ibm 
bull betn iiu oiiiier ul ihe uid Fnc Giannnat Schoal appuioted by ui, la wluMii, m 
nghlufuur Duicliy ut JUncittrr.itiepilrunage oTihe laid ichoot ul lighi Ixlvr.gi; 
Mir halh aiiypruptr ur fii pecson, fur levtiil ymipul, appeircd loMlicit ihe tp^ 
pDiiiiineui lo ihai oSux. And, vhcreai ihe mayor, aldetmen aod burgeiMi, uf 
•ur laid Wvn of Funtefrjcr, and uiverf ir.habiUnti of it» uid lovn, hi\e huioblj 
tepicirnled ihe leieralnMiicrs alureuid, tu ut, for our royal tnuideialiiin aitd u> 
■ifUncethFTein, and hateopraui'd ihemiclvM ready ai)d viliiiig, by, aiid al Ibe 
Mpence ut ibe inhibliaiiii bT uur »id lnvo oi Poiilclr.icl> lo lebuiM thi >aid Frea 
Oriinmir School, ijgeiher iiiih a cuiiveniiiii residence for the mailer ilsercoT, lo be 
qipa.iii«d by ui and our lucccsten, in right of our laid duidiy uf Lmcaner, tn the 
lane manner ai licrcloloie halh been doiw) aiid iliry hate alio humbly rnjurited 
■t, for (he beiler carrying inio eieciiiiun Ihe levccal purpotes afoieuid, to re-Euucd 
the laid Free Grammar School, and [o niake and ciuci, or cauie lo be nude and 
nacled, by tame proper and lit perunt or perton , by ui appointed ihcminio, 
*ame i^oniiiiulioni, rule), ilalulet aiid ordinance!, liiritie regulation ut flic conduct 
of Ihe matter and schobn of nich Free Gnmmar School i and for electing, limit ng 
aDddcfij:inglhc DumberofScliolan 10 be educated upon the said fjundation; and 
tor the iDtrjduclidi and permanent regulaiioo of >uch uiVet tnalicrt a> may lend 
k) the advantage of Ihe Hid tchool. ailu our loyal viidom thall ie«n fit, Now, 
Know Ye, tbat *e being willing and dciiioui lo promote Ibe welfare ufuut raid 
trjvn ol Pouleriiicl and our lownihip uf Tanihelf, in Ibe counif oTYork, uid lO 
re-eiubliih ihe uid ichool, m luch manner ai may heteafitr encourage and pta- 
Aiute he education of youih of the deictiplion henin-afiei nentionei}, vilhin out 
lown of Puntefracl and lownihip of Tanihelf; of oor tpecial grace,, certain tnunt- 
kdge and mere moiiitn, will and gtanl, fur oonclvei, o'lr hein and iimenon, 
thai ihe uid Free Grammar School, liluile and being within ihe uid town df 
F»ilelVa>i, in Ihe laid counly of York, ihall for ever bereilier be called The 
King'i School ; and staill be deemed and taken to be a Free Gnmmar School u£ 
•ur Dim ruyal bundaiton, for Ihe leaching acid educaiingol lerenMen bo]n, all of 
vlnm (except the boy lo be elected, numinaied, and appointed from Ike chwitj 
■ciiuul in Ihe town uf Pontei'riCi, an hercin-afier ii memioned) at the lime of bein^ 
elecied and appointed to beorihrsaidfuundalion, «hal1 be children of leiideni in- 
balitiinii, legal'y (eilled iriihin the lovnihip of Ponleliact, or ihe uid unrntbip of 
Tanihelf, or ol any dcceiied inhibilann or inhabitant, who were legally leuled 
ihertin al t)ic lime of iheir or hit deceaie ; and lor Ihe teaching and educaiing of 
(uch children, we lurcher will, dirc«l and appoint, ihat alii and diicreet penoB, 
■I toon a- mnvenieiiHy may be, and for ever hereafter upon ihe happening of any 
v^iciTicy with in three calender monthi from ihe happening oliuch varancy, ahali 
be nominated and appoiEilcd in the name, or names of ui, our balrt *nd •uccenun, 
by the chaiKelbr of our duichy ofLincister, by letleti piiient under the kM tit out 
■ aiddiitchy, lobemaiicrof ihe uid Free Gnmmar School during the gind-wiR 
■nd pleanire of u>, our heai and incceHaTt, in ibe manner heietofaic arCBttoavd; 
vhich peniffi, aia necrsory <{ualificarKm for nich appuinlmeni, iball hrretak** 
apoa bim, pniioui to toch appiMiitainit, the nue tad degree of a muwr •! *n% 



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APPENDIX. X'll 

•rfia^Uar of hwt, at wa of our Unircnttin of Oxfoid or Cjmbttdg«, ud tUo 
•haU have bad ndiaauon ai a pneit or deacun of ihc church of Enilaad | and vho, 
at Ibc rime of auch tail appoiiiitiMnt, or u any iinie aliervaidt, diuing hii conii- 
miiag miiiei of weh Fm Onmmar School} ihall nut have or poiKii my benefice, 
within Eittcn mi)ei of the to»n of Pooteftaet, Ihe Ifciu^sihip uf the laid town, or 
preacherofthe Sunday afiernoun lermuo, in (be did imni only eice pled. And 
fbribO'beitn regulaiino of the wid liwndi i«i. w« funher dirtci, appoint, and 
OMlei, Iktt the leventetn hoj^n to ha educated ufM Ihe laid fuundaiioo, shall h« 
•luaad, nominaied, and ippoinled by the peiKioi, and ui the mannei heiein- 
alter nof* particularly ipecified, (that ii to aay) 

Our n>Tal«illand pleaiute ii, Ihi' i*i) wfthe laid levenreen boyt, ofihcde- 
■CT^lioi^ abrcnid. ihall be nominaiedandappuinicd by the chancellurul the dul- 
ehy of l^icailer, fiir iha time being, in hit own name in «riiin(, under hii o«a 
pnper hand and leaU when and ai often ai luch hoyi, oreitheiaf tbem, ihail in 
any m«nar nuke ■ vacancy, by dyisf, or leavinc, " '>«)"B removed Irani the 
laid bundaiioai lo however that luch boylor boy, n Doniiualui and appointed, 
4t Iha tinM of auch nemioaiion and appoininieai be made in ibe manner aforeiaid, 
vithio ilii«a caieodar monihi from the time lUL'h vacancy shaU hive been annoua* 
ee^ and certi&ed in wrillnf, liincd by the maiiar of the laid fuundliiuo, tad 
two of the cumioci, (Kenin-iCier lo be appnntad) n if [here ihall be no matter at 
iba lime of luch vacancy, by two ol the curatun i and ia default of luch appoint' 
BMDt within the lime aforeaaid, then we wilt, diteci and appoint, that luch nomi- 
■ation and appoininieit iball, for that vacancy only, be made by the curaton of 
tta* laid Ibuadation i lo however, that lUth appointment and nomination be raadv 
in willing, aad lifned by the greater number of luch curaion lur the time being, 
tkc luyor of lbs town fur the time, bi^ one uf inch i gning panles) and thai 
Mch appoinlmenl eiptcii, that the boy.i^fDniiiuied and appomied, u nude in 
delauli of appnltumeiit. by our chancellor ui' out dulchy of Lancaiiar for the lima 
beinc, wiitaio the time herein>belbre ipicified. But we hereby lunber dralaro 
out loyal will and pleaiure to be, that lu inluonaliiy in ibe cnaiinet or rorni of 
■pptHotmeni, provided it be made within the time ber^rs tpecifiad, by our chan. 
ceUor of tbe aald dulcby o( Laacaiier, ibaJ) cutiile the said curaton to make tuch 
■ppoinlment. 

And our ro^al will and pkaiure (unher iit that founeen boyi, to beofihe 
•aiil faundatinn, who ihall alia be (even yean of age at the lean, at the time of 
appuinlmenl, ihiU be ot the nominalna, election a<id appumimcnt ul' ihe curaiaci 
al the aid foundation, n the major pin of ihe complne n.imber of luch curaloli, 
living alllW timeof luch nomination, elctiiun, di appointment; lurh uoiniDaliea, 
elecuon, or appoinlmenl, to be mide puiuaai 10 ibc ouitiiuiijni, itatutoi,. rulea 
and ordinance], lu be ordjined by Ihe aituniey general of our tiuichy uf Lancaster 
for the lime being, by criiing under hit hand and leal, or ai tlity may heteafier 
be altered or added to, by the curaion bereui-aiter mentioned ; » however Ibat 
■uch alteration in the iiid conititutioni, iiaiutes, rulei and ardinancet, from lime 
to time, be approved by our uid airorney general, afour uid duic^iy oT Lancatrer 
&H the lime being, under hii hand and leal. Andibai luch nomination, election, 
*fi6 appDiTitiDent, be made withrn three calendar monihi, from ihe lime of th« 
vacancy haf^tenlng, which ii to be filled up by tucb curaloit, and which ultinuia 
liAe for making inch eleciian or appointment, wo will and direct, ihall not be 
tubject to any alleratiua by our (aid attorney general, or curatori, or eiiber of 
them ; and In delaull of luch riomtnalian, election and apponiiment of iba uid 
lau-neniiuned fourteen boyi, or any o[ Ibtm, within three calendar month] froia 
the limt otiny ncueici, or yacancy, bappeniugj out myal vtll and plitura ii, 

n u u 



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xvni tfVEHDIK. 

ttut aur ctoncelbr uTiNir DutTtifaFLinntiaT, Ibrtbeii 
of Ike l«pM of the »id [fane moilrtM, iball, in hii own 
■lut appolni. in vriting under hit hand and Mil, la nirt h 
soil afoKBtd wfbicd ID tipn. BjI our [Or>' *■" i"^ P 
mrurnulity in Uw modg of elHiing, nomiiBlalK (lut ippoioiiitg of tbe »id taar- 
Ucn bufi oiMnjr oTtbcm, by iIk taid cunuri, ikhH cmkle aar nid cbumAor*! 
our Durctkf at Ltncuiet, n romiiuta and appoint to iiuli liil.tnmiioiMd non- 
■i«j, or lacaney, ur inf of 1b«nv| prmidedilie mude ofekding, mninMin{ind 
arpoindT^ of (uch fuuriMn bc^i, or any of'ihmg, b; lbs aid cuiaton, ihaB to 
■ubitintialljr corresponding villi, and punuanl to, the diicciioaa for nich alMiton, 
noniailion md ippoinlmtui, oonruned m ibii uur n^al tbilar, uid in the n». 
Miiulionl, rulM, naluta and oidinwcet n»de by oar utoinay pnml, ofcur 
DulcNjr uf Unculer, (brDwiime being >t ifotctaid, brw aliuBi by the iu4 
CBTMort, ind tpprovfd ii arureiakl by-uUr Jiid allomty gnieiaL 

And our royal irill ■nd' plWBiin forihtr it, tUi tba OM oibar toy W be Of 
ifiaagaand dncilpiton afore>aid, shiJ be elected, Ttomiifiud and ippoinRd oM 
of, and (mm amungil, ihe boyt malntaiAed and adunwd at Iba Charily Sdnol 
vitllin our iiid town of PonielVacI, CJ-Vei or linoTn by ihe ninw of Ibe " Ttawn 
Sichonl," by tb« inineea ofihe lald Chamy Schoui, £jrAa rnabang, «r <he 
aujorpati of them , luch eleciun, n.mlnanon and ippoinniieM, ubenadtfor 
Hrtified in wriiing, and li^Md by the major pari of luch truNeei g and tucfe boy, 
ao iKKniiuiad, e!acled and appoimed, ihll be laujhi and tdBCaiad in the MMe 
maonar ai the oilKr boyi upoi (he ikid faoDditioii atidU b»; (freefium aO fcc* 
or eipencta whaiiaever) for a lerm nut eiireding ffve yeiri, or far fu^ nber 
line and no loitger, viihin ihe ipare o( tevta yetn, a; thai) be ipcei&ad in Hie 
itid dertificat*, or appoiniineni of (he HM iruiteci, or maj^r pari of **«, In- 
eaie any time thai! be iherein tpeciftidi andidlwtnd of luch period oT'tln*' 
iDipfctled, or ■( (he end of five yeHrj'; or within ibrtrcalendkriiimibi aAcr 
ciiher of lucli limei, the tatd nuiieM, or the major pail i>f iben, ihalJ jlpitt fai 
annntr aforciiid noninaTe, eleet and appobit, and errliry Ihe eteetion, annna* 
liad and appoiiiicnenl ofoneoihar boy, oolof, and RMn amoBgji, the baytofllle 
aald Toirn Charily Sdwol, to be UUthcaBdedueawdin minabr, and duiingifac 
time aforetaid. 

And our funher roya) vill and pleature if, and me ila oribm, nomlnale and 
appoint, Ihe mayor, recorder and aldermen of oiir (lid town of Ponletiaci, ' and 
lb«' vicar of the vicarage wiihln ihe paHihof FonlcfracT, ibreiiTr hereafter, to be 
the' curator! or giiardiani of our nit] Khvol ; and that Ibey ihill hare full po»er 
Md aolhority lo enlorce and carry mlo (xcculion, in mcli manner ai ttrtbem 
■tall M«m Ai, and coniiilenl vith the b* of the realm, and thUour charier ;' 
all lUeh CDfMthuiioni, tutum, rulei and Ordinance), ai ihalt be nude by our 
alKimey geheral, of our Dulcy of Lancaster for iho lime bdng, utider bii hand 
and aeil, 'ftr ihe regulation of Ihe laid foundation and tchoul, and of ihe 'niaiter 
and icholan Ihereof ; and to regulate and direct «hat booki, or auihon, thill 
be taushi in die ilid Free' Grammar School, and to appoint and dluiibaie ih« 
Ihnei of teaching the time; andobat lumi, or lum of tncney, ibal) be paid 
by theboyt, lo be educated upon I^e Hid foundation, \o ihe mailer of ihe'iaid 
Fret Grammar Schrnl, and the limei and time of piymeilt Ihe/eof, md tbeir 
^onlimiance upon the (aid fbundaiion, and ihe lime of quililnj Ihe wme-. and 
the diictpline o) the taid ichool, at veil of correcitiin al Cipuli'ton t ahd the im. 
poilnEuf atich rondiiioni or peribmuDcet upon ihc laid mailer, ccnilsleal itilh 
the provialoiil aforeiaid, ai tbe tlid i:ura:ora ihalT ifiihk for ihe benefit of Ibe 
•lid Fiea dnmrnu athool, aad of all olbec mutenaod lUnei, loudung ibe 



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ijesulato tpi amt»ffmeTii af ibe tui Cmtpdaioa in Ibe Gnt Instuce, andnibject 
to ibe caououl, reverul uralumlon, by ibe vliiiuiofUie uid rouiuJaiiuD. And 
al)u rtuiQ lime 'o limc lo atier, iruEnd, ai new nuxiel tuch coniiiiudoiu, tialuie), 
lulct and ordiuncM, wiih the appiobilioa of out iiurnpy genenl lor the Duirbf 
of Lviciiur, tor (foiime being, iciiilicd by hii signing and leafing Ihrtunei lo 
^**Ver that lucb altcfatii^ns in no maimer impugji, conL/adicT, or be in anj wito 
iocmiiileot witli this our rujil cbaiicr. 

And uur royal will and pleaiuie ii, and wc do hereby d cect arxl >p|MtDt, 
thM our chtncdUor of cur dutchj ol Lancaiier Tor the lints being, ihaM be tba 
VV.Ua of tbo 1^ Free Gfamm^r Scbuol, hereiiiUxeroie ertcied aiid futinded i 
■Bdthat if Ibe uid muw and icbolari, or any of tb«m, ihill ibinli IheiB(cl««i^ 
ot bimielf, agfiicved by the deieimiiutijii] ur judgment of tbe saifl CLiniiori. upon 
4i>y wbject eouuued bfnbf lo ibcii judgmcat ai [rgutation, unaiiisitd by Iba 
tnotiier general of utu- Duicby of Iuou»i;r, fbt the time being; uidi mailer 
and ■cholai't, to ibinkint Ibemielvei tfgii^veii, iba)! have a righi of appealing m 
oar laid vitiEur, *ba (hall baie-full paver aiid auibotiiy lo decide lucb appeal, 
aild to make luch oider and regidalicns theiein, at tball in hii judgment be i gh{ 
*fld expedient; and Itut be may eieiciie lucb puweii and auiboiiiic* ai be- 
laoEinE lo the office ufiiiiioc lodo. Inwitncii vhercof, we have »utcd lhei« 
our teiten lo be made patent. — Given it uur paUcc of WeitmiDiier, uodei ib« 
•eil of our Dutchy of Lancaiier, ibe thirieepih day of Fehuuiy, in the ihiny' 
«*ei>nd year of nut i^igi^ ud in the year of our Laid, one ihoutand teven baDtbc4 
tnd nialy-tvo, 

JOHK ORD. VILUERS. 
luDHedia the IhflCtij Court, the SSih day of February. 

F. RnSSELI, R«gi([er. 

CoMlilutiaM, R(i1e)< SumiBi and OrdiiianeM; to be kept, miinlained and ob- 
•anxd, by Iha muter and ichojaii of ibe Free GramnMr Scboo) of ibe town 
of Paauima, bI tb> IbuitdMkiB uf bti mwl weellcnl MajeKy King Geo-ga 
the Tbitd, duly made, and signed by John Ord, Eiq. bic Uajrny'i altome]r 
gpMnI of Iha Duicby of lancaiier, punuani lo povers lor itaai puipna lo 
himfiTwi, in am) by, hii Mid Majesiy'i Itiic" paienl. under theiealofib* 
ume duidiy, bearing data the I3tJi day uf February, in ib« Ibmy-Kcood 
yau dbUr^ign, lodintbe year of cut Lord HS^. (Ttiai ii la sayj 

FitO. y^iT Iba boyi cducatrd M Ibe Fraa Gramroat School is iba town of 
Panid be t, uiuler and by vii»e uf, hi> Hajetiy'i aaid iHien patcDi, (bill ba 
!d *ad laNruOtd, in the leboul-room emied for thai puipins, and not 
luch hHin uf liw day ai the mutei iball think bt, \o iba Latin 
and Gnck Orammaiti andal wiublc periodi, m the Latin and Greek Clanici. 
The Bimar of ibe Mid tcbnul ihall have ilie appoinimnii Ind legidaiiDn ul iba 
pariadih at vbtsh lucb book) and aiMben ihall be laughi ant) eip^in d lo iba 
boya iipoo iba uid foundation t and •>( the tercial hour) ol the day vban tiKh 
b^i ibaN be awembled tngatber and taughi; and of the diMiibuuun, and order 
ofnadiag or teaching wch booki, aod uf eiery Tegulaiion loutnirg the iracbiig 
and iaNrucuon of lUcb boyi, lubject m the coniroul heiein^fier mniiioned, (ihal 
ii to uy.) That tim muler shall put dovn in writing, the Kbcow and p:>a of 
iMtiuMiaa wkkh ba ■kibi aid iatcadi to ptusiie, and ky tbe lu^a befora ibe 



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XX APPENDIX. 

curaMn, vbo dill be lummonnl to uk« the mow inlo eooiMmtiua • and ilw 
ti<d cuiJUxi, or Ibe majur pin of Iheoi. of whom ihe viar or recordR' oF Pcole- 
ftacl ihall be oiw, ihJl hive full pcver and aulhorily lo alier, vary or ne* raadeli 
■uch plan of inimiclion and inching, and ererj thing rebiing ihnrunio-, and 
when such plan of inilruc'.ion ihall beappru>ed bj> the uid cuiatjn, or tb* 
major paii of them (ofirhani the vicar or lerordei of Pcmtefiari thill be one) ilw 
tame tball be faiily iianHtibed, iiiJ dgned by ihe curaluii, alluiting and ap- 
proving the tame ; and lUch plan of imlnKlion ihall Ironi Ibente-hirvan) b« 
roniijiuilly nwd at ihe uid Fice Orannuc School, by e^ery lucrerding niaver 
af tudi ichaoi, lubject only to luch alteialioRi u may be made therein at any 
lime, by Ihe cunlon or guardiani of tuch Ibundaikni, m the major p*n of tbcm. 
Sicmills, That the dinipHne of the Khool, lo far a< leiJin to the censure, 
puniihroeni or rewiid of ibe icholan, ihall b« leii wholty lo ibr diKtition o( (be 
mailer I but in caie of any cruelly, or immodciaie puniihnieni o' any kind, upon 
the comphint of the parenii or parent, guardiani or guaid'ian, or any o^farr penon 
vho may hax-e ihe tnanagement and aupennieirdance, oi' Lbe education of any 
boy upon the laid fuundaiim, not having any parent ur guardian. )o the raayor j 
6r, in his abunce, to ihe lenior aldecman nF Puntrfiact, then reiidmi ia ibe uid 
tovn: vhich uid mayor, tn in hit abience, the (aid imior iMrrman, ifailt, 
within tiro dayi from the time of aueh lomplaini, summon a meeting of the 
euiatori, or 90 many of ihem ai ihall beoithin a reannable diiiaiKe, to meet 
vhhin tvenly-fbur houn, from llie time of luch lumnuni, and ihall bear tha 
compUint in the preience of the laid miller, and of ihe piicni. guarcfian, or 
penon (landing ai aforesaid in (K place ol paieni and guardian ; who ahall hate 
notice in viiiingof ibe time and place of luch mEtttin^, and eiamioc inio the 
circumilaDces ihereof, and ihall determine and molte, wheiber »ich gneiaoca 
or complaint is well or ilT lounded generally, viihuit staling any ipecial ciicun- 
ilancri whaliuevtr; and ihall put do>n, or cause to be put duvn in writing, and 
iigned by the curalnn preieiii, or the majur pjri thereul, turh their retoluLion, 
and preserve, or caui* the sane to be preserved, until a general tneeiiiiguT ibc 
curalon shall be called, or had ; and such Tr.utuiion ibaH be la:d bel«e inch 
general meeting; and M luch general meeting, if the com plaint itaall be molvecl 
to be well founded, ihe said matter may be admonished and . -eprr w ed by the 
mayor, in the name of the coraiuri, and an en'ry sWl be made in a beak, and 
pTdSTTCd of such kdmonituin and reproof ; and the curalon, if they ihall thnk 
fit, ahall lepretenl ihe lame to Ihe viiiiur of ihe taid Khowl, tor hit ijiicteuua and 
judgment iHerein. 

Thirdjf, That iHe muler uf Ihe ntd Free Grammar School, shaB have do 
pover whatMCver, lu eipel my oSending buy ol the said foundiiiun, from Ibe 
uid scbr<ul, tar any oiTence whaiioeveti but that upon any offence comakicd 
by any of ibe said boyi, which shall in his d'KieikMi be worthy of puniihment, 
or notice te Ihai eitent, the maiier >haU wiib all convenient ipted, apply to Ihe 
mayur lor Ihe lime being ; or in hii absence lo the seniur aldemuo, ib«n rcudeat 
to the uid loan, and reqiMsl in wtiling, ihat he would lummun a tneeliiif of iba 
cunlori, or sj many of Ihem as may live wiibin a leaHOable diitance, wiiMn l«a 
days from the timcof mch flqueii, lo cunliderof ihe oSmceof luch boy i dusing 
which inlerviil, and until such meeting shall be had, die uid misler shall ba M 
liberty lo luipend Ihe education of luch boy, and to prohibit bii comiag n fan 
Uu;Ih ai the uid school : And at such meeting of ihe curaion, so id be had, 
ihe uid boy u oftnding aiid Ibe pamu, guardian or pmon hain^ ihedneciiaM 
of the educalkm of such boy, if he kaih no parent or guardian, ihillhaic aaticw 
is wtiiing, aigaod by the mayvr, or in hii abMiKe by ihcMnkriUennaaof th« 



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ATPENBDC. XXI 

town, then retidcM, to be jhvkbi ; and lueh order ihill he iben and thera 
nde, for ihe-adfnoni lion, punhhment, nupeniioo or upuliion oTturh buy, at 
to ihe curaton pmcnt, or ihe nujurpartol' ihon, (ibe virat or munJcr beir) 
Mwiinning in the making of tuch ordei) ibail •ecm jutt, and such admuniiion or 
puniifamait ihaU tie canied into eScct wiUi all cooivnieni di-patrh, pubiirly in 
the tcbool-rmni, in the pmeiice ti ilie oilwr boft upon the unie luundation, at 
6r u (he )iai« 101; be CTmiiuenl wiih the righl d llie i^li« ihetrin 

F»urlUf, There ihal: be paid by ihe parent, gvaidbn or pin<in tailing upon 
klm the etpence of ihc edacailon of ihe nid fbundtiion boy^ (• t< e|it ihe hof 
dunen ipit of the chi.rii;p iich»ol In Punttfiart, by the iruncei uT tiie laid chjrity) 
10 the miiitr of the tM Fm dammar School, one guinea a yrar, by rqual 
quaneriy payriien't 1 and tor tuch bf the laid boyt vho ihill Irarn Hiiiinij and 
ariihmelie, (excrpi tuch utiF ehatil) boy) one guinea mute a year, by tuch 
quatrerly paynwnii, and it itaall be at ihe option »r ih'' pjiec'i, guardian or '^er 
penon laking upon bim the eipence of ibe rducaiion ut luih boy, lu chu-e whether 
be shall, or not, be initnicied in wtiting and ariihmeiic. But the huy elected, 
oominaied or appoiiHed to ihe takl fbundaiion, ErDm the charity lehisl ai l>unie> 
fract, (ball be Uushi vriting and arithmetic, and nothing ihall be paid lur luch bit 
Witruciioa, Hue Ibr any ulber innruciion be iball 'ccei^■ u^xm the laid fiiuiiddtion. 
FfPAIf, Thai ih« master of the laid Tive Or^mmar Scbojt, ihill be obliged 
to receive the loni at any of ihe inhabitanw of the rowni of Punielract at>d Tan- 
'tbeir, and innrvct and aducaie them in the tame manner, and in the tame 
■uthott, and «itk Ibe like diic<p[ine, and lubjeci to ihe tame mtn, ordeti and 
nuriciioni, with Iho<e hereln.bebrc ipecified relating toihr laliJ lei^n een boy), 
upon ihe nid foundiiiun, (earrpi Ibti or«p(il)ian, which ahiill be at the ditcre* 
tKNi oTlhe matter, U to luch Ixiyi ai tta notol' the taid buitdation) tlpoo beinf 
paid for the education of each boy, tvo guineai a y<-uT by «]ual quarterly pay. 
meimj audio caie any ol luch boyi ihall be taught writing and ariihmetic, 
wbiKh iball be at Ihe option of the parent, guardian or penon taking upon hlni 
Ihe eipence of Ihe edumion of lueh boy, there aball be paid by quarterly pay- 
gMOti, for itich initnKlion in wrliing and ariihmetic, one guinea a year and no 
More 1 Orer aiid aboie the feet of lalnry paid to the matter tor the educatiwi 
of the laid boyt, he ihdl be paid Kir the bihi and greek book) necetsaty for 
their inftructton, and for the paper, pent and hik uied by them, a Lir and tea* 
noaBle price, to be tteenained and teltL-d by the curator), or any three oT them, 
the m^or and Tiear being ivo, bi caie of any difiennce or diipuie about the 
price or charge fur luch aniclea made by the <aid mailer. 

' StrlUy, So hoy, whether of the taid toundalioii, or not, and whether heba 
the tonofannihalniantat thetown of Potiierraet and Tanshelt, or not; ihill be 
titighl by, or under the direction or permission of the matter ol* tuch achoul, 
writing a. d arithmetic, or either of ihem, un'en he it alto instructed in the laiin 
and gieck Ijnguagei, or one of them, in the tame manner with the boyt upon ihe 
•aid ftiiuidaliLin. 

SntiUi/. That the mailer ol the nid Free Grammar School, be permitied 
to take into hii hou«eboirdert and bdgers and initrucuny o-.her boyi, ahhough 
they may not be the urn el iiihabitanti of the tcrwnt of Punietractand lan>heir, 
upoBiuch lermi ai he ihall ttiink lii, 10 that tuch boyi be educated at the nme 
timet, and in the tame auihort, and in the tame school-room ai the boyi of the 
nid loiindation. and be miied and inMrminglcd wiih iht^m, according to iheir 
agitiaf proficiency in leaini>.gi but Ibe laid master shall, onnoacmunt, lie per- 
mitted to take any boyt to eduiale privately, and ie(arate from the othri buyi, 
M •m]' oT ibcm, nor ihall my duliiKiioa be made between the lud boyt upun Ih 



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ZKJi AP^EKDIX. 

(ud Cnmliltan, or aafaribtm, god lb* «ilier boy* cduowd bplW tui nMw, 
or any of ibem ; eiiber b; *ii]> tudgsormirk, «r b]r ihi place of lb«H MttinfiB 
uuh icboul-ioo'ii, cr by any other mode ef ircUmcm, wh>l«e>, tiJimft eo lir 
u reUiea is ihi cipuliion, vkicti, u la luch boyi she u* iioi ugaa Ih* ni4 
fMndiiloo, ih*ll he lell tu ihr dUcreiKxi oT Uw uid mMiar. 

Eiglulj/, That la anaiul mcetinc (hall be held by tb« aid nuainn spaft 
Tuetrliy neil alter Eiiwr day, i n ihe uhaol-r-jaai j « vhicb nuetiat the — fir 
■hall, wlihoui any nonce or raqucw lor tluu porpeu, lay bcloro ibc osMun pre< 
nai at luch meeiliig, the number oT all tW boyi under ed4tcaiiaD at bii who^ 
and IbenHmbn' olaiiiuanu oruiben vhich he, then, and fur lui niaaihi bafais 
kalb had conitaiuly in employ, aod In the teaching of vhu btaochn ei brack 
*f education; and in caicibc curaiort, or the major pan ofibeaia altuch mcetiBc 
ahall rCKjlve thai the number of iLich auiitanuor uihen, ii 'ntu&cku tor IM 
toirbini and iniiiuciing aflbe uid boyi, then ibc nid maiier ihall, uiHS ib« 
order ot requeit in veiling, iigned by the uid cutuan, oi ibe major pan iberes^ 
■dd to nuay aiiimnti cViUthctt, viihii'i uoe uleiidar muDib frun Ifee dMc ef 
tuch raifuett, ai lucb curator!, or the maJDrpanibereor, iball diract aad ipccii; j 
vbise nlarie* or lecompence iball he paid by the uid dumt. 

t/inlUf, . That no boy iball be takia and educewd M lb* aid tdMol. whaMr 
bebeof tbe Hidfoundaiioa, cc not, uulan be be of the age af lenn yem canplde, 
W the time of hii hex rumini to be aducoiedi nor ^11 airy boy upon iba —H 
foundkiion, be permiiled to ii^ at luch icbool beyood lb* bill a(c of lincca 
yean, ualeii il ii Inwodeti to taod aay ot Ibe boyi to any of lb* unitnuiliei of Ui- 
tordor Cambridge; and in luch eaie, Bpoo Ihe repreteniaiion of luch inMauoM hf 
Ibe mailer, ahd upon ibe requeil, in siiting, ur Iba parent, fuudiiB or ;ei» 
taking upon him ibe expencr ot ibe cducatiun of web hoy i ei in cue oftbc Mid 
charity boy, upon Ihe requeil of the irtiitMi of the nid charily Khial, invriiing, 
■igned by ibemiclvei, or the m^or pait o! ihem, Ihe cutatora >1 tbeir iwiii il 
meeting] lucb boyi ot boy, upon ibe ipecial peimiitioB, in wriimg, Ggoad by ib« 
nid cunlors of luch meeting, or the major part of them, may be cooiiiuied al iba 
laid Khool to the fell age of eighieni, and no bmgn. 

Trnlkli/, That eiery election of the fiiuiteen beyi lo be elected, aominaUil 
and if>pDinied by the cuiatori, to be npon ibe loumjatien of the laid Fic* Giaoa- 
mar Srbool, be nude by ballot, vhereof eirery curaior (ball ha>e tight dayt pt*> 
vioiu notice, in writing, excluiive of the day of giviof luch nM>ce, lad o( lb* 
day fu( Mich talkHing \ and no one boy ihall be olrcied wittaoui haviag, on lh« faal- 
lo(, I majutrty of (he cutaton pteiaot in hii laiour. 

ElettnlUf, Tbal on every vacaocy amoneii Ihe iMirtccn boyt of the Nid faiin - 
dation, app;iin>ed by ihr laid cutatori, a iiuii£cation thereof in •tiiiog, vilbia iv> 
dayi, ihal] be given by the naMer of Ihe laid Fn* Onmoiar School n lb* 
mayor, or in hii abtence lo the lenwi alt'erman bir the tine being, reiidcni i* iJm 
laid lawn of Ponieliact | and that the uid mayor, or in hii abionee the uid teatar 
■Mecman, ahall, within Kvtn dayt alter nich notification given by the Bid maner, 
■umiDon a meeting oTiba uid ceraitin, Ib be held ai ibe KhouUbenie, la baUoi lior 
and elect another boy to lupply ucb vacancy; and ihaion e?ery ticincy made by 
eiiber of Ihe two boyi, nooiiBaied and ippwnied by ib« vUttoroC ibe Mid lounda* 
tiua, ibe like notice in wriiuig, aha'l be given by the oainr ta the mayor, or ia hia 
abeeocelatheuidMniuraidrrman, and the nuyuror icmlut aldemaa, Ihm raa»- 
doit, iball give noiice thereof in writing, lo Ihe vitiw ot the aaid (bundaiiua. wh« 
■ball, by tbe laid mayut or Ibe laid Mnjai atdonvn, be relpetifuHy rrqt>u<ed ia 
writing, to fill up luch vacancy ; and upon Ihe vacancy of Iba bay appoiaMA 
ficm Ibe cbaruyachialitf Ibc aaid town efPeoiafiac^ du lika Mus is ViiH^ 



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ADDKHDA. 1CX.M 

•hallba tlv«d to th« tFuittcioftbF md charily ichool, ror ihe time heinE, or nich 
ff'tbtoral itaiHbellKn in Bnfbnd. iiid capable of' aCiing'inihcuM trnn, otMch 
•namtf, uirii MqiMH iIuDIh) made by iHa. Mid mallei, ia irriCiHg, loihnn, ta 
ill up the vacancy, wiih all com i«i( eipedilion. 

TvcHflklf, Thai orar aod abgve the ibmaid fees and alltnmncn to lh> laid 
maiier, tor ibe UMIiuciioa of ihe uid boy), elecied and ctioicn lu be upon Ibe laid 
foumliiiun, anduf MWh aihcr boyi ai ihall be ibc loni of iainbiianii litiojaB^re- 
■idiiig viibin ihe lu«D ui PomeUiia and io«i>hip uF Tinihelf) iheie tball b« paid 
U Ihe ouiier yearly, for eaf;!^ buy, (eicept lor Ihe iild boy chusea (nita the cb4a 
rity Kbool in tunieCrMl) al'ier the Chiiitniai Huliday), btgmnint aTitr ChriinnM 
Deal, alter each bjyi cumisg !□ scbcsl. I>'0 ihllliogi^ each, for ihe tipence-ofd 
£re in (he uid ictiuol roum, a^ri the I'unber lumof ifoe ibilling e«h, Ut iqpair- 
ing Ihe ichiMl-ruoiii a»d icbvul-huuie ; ta^ Ibe mailer ihall regulaily accwint far, 
iM depoaii luch moaStt in ibe handi of ibe town clerk ol Ihe io*n of Poniefract, 
and (he Mine ihall be kepi by him, ai a fund lor. repairing ihe said Echaol-room 
and KhiWl-buute, and ihilT be applied for thoie purputei in uicb manner ai Ibe 
curahiri, or ihe greaier .pan or them, ihall al any lime direct : Bui the boy 
DiHtiinatcd by ihe uuiireiolihe uid clianiy ichuul in Pon tfiaci. ihall py mpirl 
of (uch eapence U fiir and rejuiri, srany other eipence ofcducalioa whai)ue>er 

ThirlfFUlhlg, Thai all' Ihe childien during iheir cducilion in ihe laid school, 
ahati be insirucicd in ihe Proiesiant leligian, accDiding lothc liiei and ceremoniei 
of tlie churcb ul England, ai by law eiiiibli>hed; and every. icholar, unlet! im- 
peded by bodily indiipjiiiiun, ihall irgularly, an veil on Sundays ai tin such olher 
of Ibe dayi iciapaclby the chbrch lor public Toiitiip,- ai shall be ipecially dicecicd 
by the nuiiei, re-ocl to the pari>h chuicb of, Puniefraci, or some other pariih 
church in ibe nelghbourhoud ihercif, lo be allowed by ihemaiier) and ihere 
abide ordeily and lobcrly, during ibe time of commim piiyer and preaching tbe 



, RUSSEL, RegiiK 



ADDENDA, 



To Iht Cha^h- Wi Bl>natioiu. 
JWmSrAlSllftfTlST, oT York,"l)y'J=<fl of gili turtle njayor, recorder and iic«i 
tX Pohlefijct, gave flfiy ^^undi in .liu;t, to be lent qpi^ to Ivo poor Hwleuiiea, 
iii' equal rtirei of tweniy.li-p poun'd'i, . wiihoulinieie(I,. for scien yeari, 90 fmdr, 
in^ iwi> liiltlcieni'bqndsmen Ibf ibe'pyipcni Ihcieofj and in cue one or b9lli lb> 
libiidtfaieh should d:e, the' Inilcsmen 10 whom Ibe money hai beqn leu, .aieto 
%id olbc'r HondimcOi wiihin one^ioiiib, 01 Ip gay in ibejnop«y lo Ibe uiftleei. 
' 'Alin ttirA ff& a naiiiic of thii.pUce, and piade ibe above duoaiiun ai a (eatia 
monyofberrcipeci-DruicpJed by 'a wish ID encourMe baMai indi^Uy. The ilecd 
i^d^lediiitheyeirmi. 

''■■''■ Lr^nard Btaleigk'i Bfjuai. 

' Via. tEONAR'D HEALEIGH left by will, i600.tiweniy.ihilli<wij«r vaaa^ 
to'lh't poor of Pumefiaci, out of a houw in ileal Mtikct, veiled by. CMmsiMioil' 
of'pfousaKliil'lesa, mlhe.i«r..and'<jillii'wiedM«>jQw4ftidV 1^»«4 
HoTDcaiUc, Ex].' now diiiribuiiM the abovci 

Jnha £ailwood'i B^jueil. 
Mr. JOHN EASTWOOD left by .will, ICai, (bity ihilllngi per annum, to 
tbe poor of Pooieitact, charged on a cluie in'Sliinner Lane, and diiiributed eveiT 
Shrove Tueiday, by Richanl Uomcaiile, Eiq* wboiB huuw and^artini, inRoper- 

gaie, aie oaw aide chugeable. 



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xsir addbkdjl 

IH a mamiteripl aC Mr. Atttc'i, givbg «n KCMnl of tlie dutcbr tf LuKattt, 
k 19 observed, iha t Bct^nctlbr, MiORiE|i-g*n*rk), (CMiitr wd ludiiDr, of ihe 
■aid djtchy, eiijorect ihe ^riviicgBi '" ritbt of their nAice, of banng ibcir ubist 
WBlJiupplied wiiiiTaitiuB, lumioir and vlnler, fromPonUlracl Fuic. 
LarH Bkiri. 
TTw fo!lo»-ing bsllid, Ji ll is tjJIwJ, cort[»»rf by Eirl Sivni, hi Pcnltfiaet 
Caule, It loo curium lo he gmilin). Ii iriJt ihev, imoiig nhei cvidtncei, ibe Hate 
of ihe English bngu:i£c in the linie of Richard III. tl it Coniained JD i hiitoy of 
Ar Kmgi of England, lit John Rolf, the Wiririek amiquiry. He introduces it 
ia the rulloiring lemn, Dominui Fomn de Rttcti Anumlut Wo'>di7!e • . . 
bi (rnipoic incirccraiiooli apud Paniemrnctuin edidil unum bald in Antlicii, ul 
lub bUi tcibij : , 

yng Jnd more moinjng 
la lemeniliring ibe unitydfaiincs, 
Thii vtirld being afguch whelyng 

Me contTai-ieng, irhai may I gesie ! 
t rerc djwllel icmedilei 

Ii ni» to leit my vofull thiuncc, 
Lo In this liauni^, now in nibiunce. 

Such ii my davncc. 
Wyllyng lo dye me Ihynkyt trulif 
Bowndyit am I, and tku (Teilji 
To be conlenl. 
Seyng ptaynly that forluoe doth »ijr 

All coolnty fioiD myn enient. 
My lyff Til lent mc to an bitni, * 

Hyit ii oy ipeirt 

Wekome fanun*. 
But I IK vent,— Thus lube iheat 
Bui ibu tail mmt— Such ii hur von. 
Xiag-i Sduel. 
THE GentteDien of ihii torn, villiag to obtain for ihe natter af lUi tckwl a 
nitable residence, generouily eieited tbemielin to iccompliih so beoeialeM a 
detign. Thecuipontian gave ibe niin ofivo huDdred and fifty poundi, and uibm 
in the town handnmely coniibufiiig, a gaud ipacioui bouM aad garden, adjoininf 
dwRbebl, vai puichased, and inneiicd in K*entmiieet( wbo piaui Ibe power 
«f admitting [he uid ichuul matter to enjoy the premitei accudmg lo their d!*cie> 
lioiM The preieni tiuiteei «re J, Seatui, J. LcUham, T. Taylor, G. retlcct, 
K.' Snton, R. Smitli, Eiqrs. and the Rev. T. Heron. 

' Furriammars hiltory. — ^Fhe number of Inirgage freehoMl it about 331, of 
which 190 vnt ui the ponenioa of Lord Callvay ; * few belonged to the ktt 
Sir R. Winn. Ban. ; i* to Mr. Flit, which wcic aold to Mi. Waltta ; and (be 
imtaindiir id other individual). When maRiben were lelumed w the lighl of 
barfage fneholdi, it ii ubvinui, that Lord Gallvajr could reiura wbtni he 
pleaud [ nor could the etber fraebolden make uf efiecuul cfpotiiioD to hia 



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