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THE 



lltdtorp anti 9lnttquitiefii 



OF THE 



PARISH OF LAMBETH, 



AND THE 



ARCHIEPISCOPAL PALACE, 

IN THE COUNTY OF SURREY. 

INCLUDING 

IJOeilAPinCilL 8KETCUCS OP THE MOST EMINENT AND REMARKABLE PERSONS 
WHO HAVE BEEN BORN, OR HAVE mUlDED THERE FROM 

THE EARLIEST PERIOD. 



. By THOMAS ^LLEN. 



ILLCSTRATED BY NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS. 

PROM ORIGINAL DRAWINGS AND RARE PRINTS, PRESERVED IN 
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE COLLECTIONS. 



PUBLISHED FOR J. ALLEN, 839 PRINCE'S ROAD, KENNINGTON', 

BY J. NICHOLS AND SON, PARLIAMENT-STREET; J. AND A. ARCH, CORNHILL; 

II. JENNINGS, POULTRY ; SIMPKIN AND MARSHALL, STATIONERS* COURT; 

J. CARPENTER, BOND-STREET; AND J. MAJOR, PLEET-STREET. 



MDCCCXXVI. 



m. . t '^ * . -■ < 



S:^9.(»^i 



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TO 



^id^./ 



r.R. S. F. 8. A. KSBPER OF THE RECORDS IN THE AUGMENT ATIOIf 

OFFICE ; X 



/a^ 



F. 8. A. 




L. L. D. F. R. S. 8SC. 8. A. KEEPER OF THE MANOSCRIPTS 

IN THX BRITISH MUSEUM ; ^ 
AND 




F. S. A. LONDON, EDINBURGH, AND PERTH. 

ESQUIRES, 
INDIVIDUALLY AND COLLECTIVELY, 
THIS HISTORY IS DEDICATED 

BY THE AUTHOR, 

AS AN HUBIBLE TRIBUTE OF 

GRATITUDE 

FOR RUMBBRLESS FAVORS RECEIVED DURING THE PROGRESS 

OF THE WORK, AND OF 

RESPECT 

FOR THEIR LIBERAL AND ENLIGHTENED CONDUCT IN FACILITAT- 
ING THE RESEARCHES OFTHOSE DESIROUS OF ILLUSTRATING THE 

HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES 

OF OUR 

COUNTRY. 



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THE 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES 



OF THE 



PARISH AND PALACE 



OP 



ILASttlBIBlI^IQc^ 



CHAPTER I. 

Eiymoiogi^ — Situaium — Boundaries and Extent — Soil and 

Agriculture. 

ETYMOLOGY : 

^UE ntme of this place has been variously written by 
ancient Historians. The earliest record extant, in which 
it is mentioned, is a Charter of King Edward the Confessor, 
dated 1062, confirming the several grants of the founder, and 
others, to the Abbey of Waltham, in Essex ; and amongst 
others, ** Lambe-hithej witii all iields, pastures, meadows, 
woods and waters, thereto belonging/'* In the Domesday 
Book it is written Lanchei, which is most probably a mistake ; 
in the ancient Historians it is spelt Lamkee, Lamhetk, Lam- 
Inftkf Lamedhj and several other variations, the principal of 



^ Monasticon ADgliciiuuro, vol. ii. 121 a. 



a SITUATION. 

which were probably occasioned by the errors of transcriber9. 
Most Etymologists derive the name from lam, dirt ; and 
hyb, or hy^e, a haven. Dr. Ducarel differs with this expla- 
nation of the name, and considers that it is derived from lamb, 
a lamb', and hyb, a haven', but that eminent antiquary , 
Dr.Oale, derives it from the circumstance of its contiguity to 
a Roman road, or leman, which is generally supposed to have 
terminated at the River at Stangate, from whence was a 
passage over the Thames.^ The fir&t derivation is generally 
adopted. 

Situation : — ^Tlie Parish of Lambeth is situated on the 
South side of the river Thames, opposite to Westminster, in 
the Eastern Half-hundred of Brixtoni in the County of 
Surrey. 

This Hundred was so denominated, from a stone or pillar 
erected by Brixi, a Saxon proprietor in these parts, and was 
memorable in his time as one of the boundary marks of & manor 
ia Lambeth, belonging to the Abbey of Waltham, in the reign 
of Edward the Confessor, anno 1062. How this Hundred 
came to be called Allington Hundred, at it is in the^ older 
Surveys of Morden, Speed, and Seller, does not appear; in 
our county books, and the modem maps of Senex and Bowen, 
it is known by the name of Brixton only.** 

Hundreds are mentioned in the Salic Law ; and the division 
of Counties into Hundreda is assigned to Alfred ; but this 
snpposition appears to be erroneous, as the divisions of Tything 
and Shire existed in Britain some ages previous to the reign of 
tiitt illustrious monarch ; and were recognized in the laws of 
Ina, King of the West Saxons, before the close of the seventh 
QtLttkuty. The Hundred was governed by an officer, who at 
stated periods held the Hundred Court, for the trial of causes 
aiieing within the Hundred ; subject, however, to the control 
ofthe King's Court; deeds were read over in these courts for 



* Manning.and Bray, . iii. p. 4Gi. ^ Id. p. 865. 

% 



BOtlNDARIBS AND EXTENT. i 

die fMke cf eridence. By the statute 14 Edw. IlL the juris- 
dictmii of these courts, particular franchises excepted, was 
transferred to tke County Court/ 

BouK]>ARlBS AND ExTENT :-— This Parish is bounded or 
the North by the rirer Thames ; on the East by Ohristehnrohy 
St. George's, Newington and Camberwell Parishes ; on llie 
Sooth by Croydon Parish, and on the TVest by Streatham, 
dapham and BaUersea Parishes, 

Acconfing to a survey of this Parish, taken by Mr. Gen way 
in the beginning of the last century, its Boundaries are as 
fidlows: From the landing-place at Lambeth Palace, north- 
ward and eas^ard, along the water-side to the Old Barge 
House, and thence on to the corner of St. George's Fields, 
and so on the westerly aide of the Ditch, southward to the 
Lord Mayor's stone near the Dog and Duck, and then across 
the fields south-eastward (leaving the ditch on the left hand) 
to Newington, and thence southward to Kenniogton Conunon, 
where it meets with Newing^on Parish, to the cross digged 
there in the ground, and thence south-west on the Common into 
Smith's field, to a cross dug there ; and thence south-westward 
three field's length, into Watch-house Fields, and so eastward 
to the east side of that field, and so on the south side a lane 
there ; thence south-westward across the fields to the back of 
Loughborough Gardens, where the parish mark is cut in an 
oak tree; land from thence pass southward thirty rods, and 
thence eastward to Camberwell town, going through that which 
is or was Mr. Smith's house ; and thence along a lane near 
Dulwich, and so westward to Delver ; also Woodman's farm, 
and thence near two miles southerly to Vicar's Oak, at which 
oak meet the parishes of Lambeth, northward, Camberwell, 
eastward, Streatham, south-westward, and Battersea, south- 
west by west ; and from this oak they go west by northward 



tmmm^ 



m 

« FoBt>roke*8 Enc. of Ahtiq. p. 401. Grose, Supp.'p. 101. Faulkncfs 
Kensipgton, 4to, p. 6. 



4 BOUNDARIES AND EXTENT* 

to Norwood Gatei and thence south->westward to Strenthanl 
Common (to avoid a wood) and thence north-westward to the 
Windmill House; and thence through a wood west and by 
southward to Cole's farm, which leaving to the north-eastward, 
they |Miss about south south-west to the road leading from 
London to Croydon; and crossing the road they go west by 
north to Bleak Hall, and thence on the same point to Broom 
Hill, and se eastward about forty rods to the road ; and thence 
turning due west they go to the road that leads to Kennington, 
and easterly along that road to Nine Elms, and thence south- 
westward about thirty rods towards Battersea, and thence 
backward into the road, and through Vauxhall to the Thames, 
and so along the water side to the plying-place near the Church 
at Lambeth, 

The perambulating of the boundaries of parishes in Rogation 
-week, is of very ancient origin, and is one of those old usages 
which is still retained by the Reformed Church ; previous to 
the Reformation the parochial perambulations were attended 
with great abuses, and, therefore, when processions were for- 
bidden, the useful part only of them was retained. We appear 
to have derived it from the French ; for we find, that 
MamertnSy Bishop of Yienne, first ordered them to be 
observed about the middle of the fiilh century, upon the pros- 
pect of some particular calamity that threatened his diocese/ 
In Gibson's Codex of Ecclesiastical Law, we find, that by an 
injunction of Queen Elizabeth , it was ordered : * ' That the people 
shall, once a year, at the time accustomed, with the curate and 
substantial men of the parish, walk about the parishes as they 
were accustomed, and at their return to church, make their 
common prayers ; provided that the curate in the said common 
perambulation, as heretofore, in the days of Rogations, at 
certain convenient places shall admonish the people to give 
God thanks in the beholding of God's benefits, for the increase 
and abundance of his fruits upon the face of the earth, with 



* Le Cointe Annal. Eccles. Franc, torn. I. p. JW. 



BOUNDARIES AND EXTENT. 6 

the saying of the 104th Psalniy &c. ; at which time also the 
said minister shall inculcate this and such like sentences^ 
* Cursed be he which translateth the bounds and doles of his 
neighbour;' or such other order of prayer as shall be hereafter 
appointed." There does not, however, appear to be any law 
by which the observance of this custom can be enforced, nor 
can the Ecclesiastical Judges oblige the churchwardens to go 
their bounds ; this is a growing evil, which can only be reme- 
died by an Act of Parliament/ 

The last time this Parish was perambulated was in 1816, it 
is usual to- go round the bounds every seven years. 

Lambeth Parish is nearly eighteen miles in circumference ; 
in length it is about six miles and a half; and its greatest^ 
breadth is about two miles. In the Domesday Survey it is 
said to contain twenty plough lands and a half. By a land 
scot levied in 16 — ^ it appears to have contained 1,261 acres 
of arable land, 1,026 of pasture, 125 of meadow, 13 of ozier, 
37 of garden ground, and 150 of wood ; total of the whole, 
2,612 acres. 

In the beginning of the last century, the land lying waste 
in the several Commons within the Parish was estimated ^as 
follows : — Kennington Common, 24 acres, much esteemed for 
the quality of its grass ; Norwood, 163 acres ; Norwood Com- 
mon, 200 acres; Hall Lane, 7 acres; Knight's Hill Green, 
10 acres; Half Moon Green, 9 acres; Kush Common, 
62 acres; Stockwell South Common, 5 acres ; South Lambeth, 
and Stockwell North Common, 10 acres; total 400 acres, in 
commons and waste lands, which being added to the former 
total, will make the total amount, 3,102 acres. 

It is estimated, that the arable exceeds the grass land in the 
proportion of six to four, and the meadow abQut a fourth part 
of the latter;* 



* Faulkner's Kensington, 4to, p. 5. 
^ Churchwardens Book of Accounts. c LysoBs' Env. yoL i. p. 2j7. 



i SOtmDARlKS AND EXTENT. 

The follcywihg List of the Streets^, Lanes, Sec. in this Parish, 
ill the year 1.918, is copied from a curious old document ; 
the oithograpfay has been preserved/ 

Streets, Lanes, Courts, Alleys, <l^c. io the Year 1718. 

BUhop'i Liberty: 

ChufCh street, and therein Brook's yard, 

iMTelrU's yard. Black boy alley. 

Maid lane. Dog and bear alley, and therein. 

Red lion yard. Cocket's alley. 

fore street, and therein. Back lane,^ and therein, 
Bell yard, Lion-in-the-wood lane, or 

Harper's alley. Paradise Row, 

King's head yard. Three coney walk,<^ 

Howard's yard, Gray's walk. 

Prince's Liberty: 

Part of Fore street, and Bull alley, 

therein, Sansom's yard. 

Charing cross yard, New street. 

Black boy alley, Laurence lane. 

Angel alley, vul- Lambeth butts, 

garly called Kennington. 

Frying pan alley. Soho yard. 

Three mariner's alley, Kettleby's rents. 

Fox-Hall Liberty : 
Fox-haU, or Vauxhall, South Lambeth, 

Kemtingtim Liberty: 
: Kettnington, Kennington Common, 

Mar$h Liberty: 
The Narrow wall from Cuper's Crown court. 
Bridge, to Standgate, and College street, 
therein Vine street, 

Standgate, Lambeth Marsh, 

lime tree court. 



■^■^■^ 



* Nich<d«'t Lambeth, p. 25. 
^ Now called High Street. « Now Lambeth Walk. 




V*,A/;>* 



£xpl ajiAti on 
Jtl.uM^.t ... -C3 

Ai Oay [m 

SandjfZiiaxi otd.vrj/\ 
irM.Strvn^ I^aatn I r~n 
and Cfay J 
Senynf/DarJk Clay \ 







soil AND AGRICULTVEB. 9 

Wall JUbertjf : 
Tie Narrow wall frem the Kiag'a 8t, George's Fieldi. ' 
Old Barge house to Cuper's 
6affdens» 

Stoekwell Liberty T 
Stoekweil town, Brixton causeway. 

Dean^s lAberty: 
Part of Camberwell town. 

All the rest consists of land, as also the 
re^t of Stoekwell Liberty. 

Soil and Agriculture:— -The Soil of this Parish is 
Tarioiis ; about Stoekwell, Dulwich Hilly and North Brixton, 
it is a strong dark clay upon gravel and sand, and a briek 
earth : Near Norwood, and from thence to Brixton Hill, it 
consists principally of a sandy loam intermixed with clay ; the . 
remainder of the Parish is composed of a pale <^ay, whi<lh 
varies but little ; at the extremity, towards Croydon, a wdtT 
was sunk 300 feet deep, through an unvaried stratum of argil- 
laceous blue earth into a sub soil of sand, from which the water 
rose to the top and overflowed within twelve hours, and con- 
tinued to do so for some years, but is now twenty or thirty 
feet below the surface. There were formerly several mineral 
springs in this Parish, but which have now fallen into disuse; 
the water at the Dog and Duck, in St. George's Fields, was 
a weak cathartic, it contained portions of Epsom and sea salts, 
with one-twelfth of the residuum of insoluble matter. At 
Balham Hill and Brixton Causeway wells have been dug 
200 feet deep, running almost the whole way through a b^ 6t 
oy t t flr sfcells .c#m«iited by day. At the aide of the Waads- 
wmlh >i#ad is a spring which has never been known to freese, 
even in the hardest winters, the steps to which are kept in re- 
pair by the Trustees of the roads. 

Agriculture was anciently very imperfectly understood im 
England. Froissart relates, that he saw, in the year 1372, a 



8 SOIL AND AGRICULTURK, 

great fleet arriye in a French port from this country, for a sup- 
ply of com and wine ; and a French writer, at the end of the 
fifteenth century, asserted, that we were dependant on France 
for our daily bread : '* De sorte que la France pent se ranter 
d'avoir entre ses mains la di^tte et Tabondance de cc 
royaume." As late as the reign of James I. there was a regu- 
lar importation of com from the Baltic, as well as from France ; 
and if it eyer stopped, the bad consequences were sensibly felt 
by the nation. Sir Walter Raleigh computes that two millions 
sterling went out for com at one time.'^ 

The following is a list of the principal rare Plants found 
wild within the Parish of Lambeth.^ 

At or near Vauxhall, Anchusa sempervirens. Evergreen 
Aikanet. About Stockwell hedges, Convallaria multiflora, 
Commoti Solomon^ s Seal. About Lambeth Marsh, Epilobium 
roseum. Pale tmooth-leaved Willow-herb. About Norwood, 
Rhamnus Frangula, Berry-bearing Alder; Chcnppodium 
kybridum. Maple-leaved Goose-foot; Bunium flexuosum. Earth 
Nuit or. Pig Nut; Convallaria majalis, Lily of the valley; 
Sedum telephium. Orpine, or. Live-long ; Aquilegia vulgaris, 
ColuwUnne ; Digitalis purpurea. Purple Fox-glove ; Orobanche 
major, Great Broom-rape ; Hieracium murorum. Wall Hawk-' 
weed, or. Golden Lungwort; Hieracium sabaudum. Shrubby 
broad'Uaved Hawkweed; Orchis biiblia. Butterfly Orchis; 
Quercus sessiliflora. Sessile-fruited Oak; Ruscus aculeatus. 
Butcher's Broom; Blechnum boreale. Rough Spleen-wort; 
Polypodium vulgare. Common Polypody ; and Trichostomum 
fontinalioidesy River Fringe-moss, at the side of the Thames at 
Laaibeth. 

Dr. Featley, Rector of this parish in the reign of Charies I. 
says, that of the land in this Parish, there was wont formerly 



* FaalkMr's Kensington, 4to, p. 16. Le Grand, Vie Priree des 
Frui^ait, ii. 400. Hume, rii. 44. 

^ ManniDg and Bray's Surrey, toI. iii« 



SOIL AND AGRICULTURE. B 

to be 1,000 acres in tillage ; but then there were not more than 
120, the parishioners turning their arable land into pasture, 
for cow-keeping.* 

By a Survey, made a few years ago, it appears that the 
Parish contains about 4,000 acres ; divided as follows : — 

Wharfs and Timber-yards 20 Acres. 

Manufactories 100 

Public Gardens IG 

Ciardens to private houses, and pleasure grounds 400 

Market Gardens • • 80 

Gardens tilled by ^ plough • 300 

Nursery Grounds 40 

Meadow C30 

Pasture' , 100 

Arable 540 

Wood lately inclosed at Norwood •. . . . 134 

Commons divided by the late Inclosurc Act. . . • 250 

Commons at Kennington and Sdlith Lambeth • . 30 
The sites of about 7,000 Houses and other 

3uildings, Roads, &c, about 1,271 



Total 4,000 



b 



It has been estimated, that at the latter end of the last 
century, the Market Gardeners occupied about 250 acres, upon 
which all kinds of vegetables were grown for the Liondon 
markets ; but since the rapid increase of buildings, they 
have considerably diminished. 

The following Statement will shew the increase of 
Buildings in the Parish, during the last 100 years ; and it 
is worthy of remark, as being a proof of the increasing 

* Dr. Featley*s Spongtt, p. 13. ^ Manning and Bray, toI. iii. p. 463. 

C 



10 



HOUSES. 



prosperity of the Parish, that in the first ninety years thece 
ir^ an increase of only 5,600 ; but it appears, by the Parlia- 
mentary Papers, that within the last ten years the total number 
of Houses within the Parish has been doubled. 

In 1719 there i^ere about 1,400 Houses.f 

1778 ----- 2,270 -r 

1786 2,600 — 

1800 6,009 — 

1810 7,000 — 

1811 7,704 — 

18» 14,000 — 



pirtfc 



'^ " ■ ..\ 



* Manning and Bray, vol. iii. p. 463. 




ftEfc'fORY. 11 



ClIAPtEll ir. 

Rectory and iRectors. 
RECTORY : 

The Advowson of the Parish Chureh of St. MA#y, 
lAmheth, together with the Manor, formerly belonged to the 
Countess Goda, the* sister of Edward the Confessor. Part of 
the Manor w&s given to the Bishop and Convent of Rochester, 
by Eustace Earl of Boulogne/ who was second husband of the 
Countess^ reserving to himself the patronage of the Church ; *" 
it was iaken from the Convent by Harold ; and at his deftth 
William the Conqueror seized it, and gave part to Odo, 
Bishop of Baieux ; but afterwards restored it #ith tlie Churcli 
to the Convent; which grant was( cotifirmed in afanost the same 
ii^ords by William Rufus. 

In the year 1107 the Bishop and Church 6f Kochester 
granted the Manor of Lambeth, with the Advowson, to Hubert 
Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, and his su^cessors^ in 

exchange for the Manor of Darente, and other premises ; ^ and 

» 

it has been annexed to the See of Canterbury ever since. 

The Benefice is a Rectory, in the Deanery of Southwark, 
Archdeaconry of Surrey, and Diocese of Winchester : And 
hi the Liber Vahr of 20 Edw. I. anno 1292, it is rated at 45 



* Reg. Roflfen. p. 2. 

^ Rymer's Foedera, toI. i. p. 89—00. Cart Antiq. c. 18, Car- 
tulary of the See of Canterbury, Bodleian Library, p. 55, 57, 61^ 69, 
184, 186w Regist, Lamb. Warham, f. 148 a b, MSS Library, Lambeth 
Palace, Cart. Miscell. vol. xi. No. 17—29. 



£. 


s. d. 


1 


6 8 





4 



W RECTORY. 

marks, besides paying a pension to the Bishop of Rochester 
of £.3. G«. 8</. ^* quit rent to the Archbishop, 2s^ld,', 
synodals, 2^. If^. ; procurations, and to the Archdeacon,, 
7«. 7jrf. 

The Valuation taken 1^ the Commissioners of Henry VIII, 
2C August 1535, is as follows : 

The Mansion of the Hectory, with one house, 

garden, and half acre of land . . •' 

The churchyard of the said church, by the year. • 

12 quarters frUmenti [wheat] at Os, Sd. £. s, d. 

each» ••• 4 

20 quarters siliginis [rye] at 45. Sd. 4 13 4 

20 quarters ordei [barley] at 3^. 84^. 3 13 4 

60 quartos avenarum [oats] at 2«. 6 

18 6 a 

Tithe of wool and lambs 10 

pomorum, pirorum, <^ volemorum 

[apples, pears,, and warden pears]. • • • 2 

• •«#•• porcellorum et aucarum [pigs and geese] 013 4 

32 virgat. foeni [qu. loads of hay] , 

• eggs » • 1 4 

wax and honey • 4 

piscium recentium capt. in Thamesio 

[fresh fish taken in the Thames] • . • • 1 10 

• domorum jacentium infra paroch' ib'm 

juxta 8d, de nobili, 4 marcse 2 13 4 

• *.••• pro lactagiid [dairy] » 1 f^ 8 

• ••••• Talet etiam nt patet per le Ester boke 

com oblattonibns ex derdtione 

[Easter Book] 4 5 



* This hurt: item mttst be a mistake ia the M.S. or traii8crib«r, there 
beiag no corroboratire proof of the Rector's ineome being svbjeet to any 
</Qier pension, tiian five marks to the Bishop of Rochester. Adcknda to 
Hift. of liambeth, p. 301. 



RBCTORT. 18 

Tithe of oblaiiones in die parascete et Pas- £^ g. d. 
elite ' in adorando cnicem [b j offer- 
ings on the day before Good Friday, 
and on Good Friday^ at the adoration 

of the cross] 2 O 

in oblationibus per mulieres inquinatas 
& in pannis chrismatoriis [churching 
of women, and the cloth which covered 
the child's face, if it lived, but if it 
died it was used as a winding sheet, 
called a chr^'some] 2 S 



« • • • 



dG 14 4 

Reprises, as above • • . • 8 18 9j| 



82 16 6| 



It is worthy to be observed from the foregoing valuation, 
that the quantity of wheat which was grown was mudi smafler 
than that of rye or barley, and that the oats exceeded all the 
others put together.* 

By an Inquisition taken at Kingston, 28 June 1658, before 
Thomas Lord Pride, Major General, Thomas Kelsey, Major 
General, Lewis Audley, and others, CommisMonera under the 
Great Seal of Ivngland, out of the High Court of* Chancery, 
appointed to enquire what and how many spiritual and ecck» 
siastical Benefices, Livings^ and Donatives, with or without 
cure of souls, were in the Hundred of Brixton; how much 
worth yearly; names of patron and incumbent; whereupon 
they certified, that Mr. John Rawlinson was Rector of Lam- 
beth, and that he officiated and received the full profits, ..•• • 
£, 190 per annum. ^ 



* Manning and Bray, vol. iii. p. 501. 

^ Pafliameotary Soryeys, Lambeth Palace, vol. xxi. No« 6. 



14 RECTORSr. 

Rectors:— The following List of the Rectors of Ae 
Parish of Lambeth^ from the earliest period to the present 
limey has been collected with the greatest carC and diligence , 
from the most authentic documents. 

Gilbert bb (ji lanvtlle : 

He was a native of Northumberland, and Chaplain to Arch- 
bishop Becket; he was consecrated Bishop of Rochester, 
September 29,' 11B5 ; and was one of the Barons of the Ex- 
chequer in the 6tb and Gth of' Richard I. a(s ^so a Justice 
itinerant in Kent in 1104 , and was afterwards made Lord Chief 
Justice of England; he was Rector, 16 Calends of Junell97/ 
Died June 24, 1214. A handsome monument was erected to 
bis memory in Rochester Cathedral, the slab of which has been 
most injudiciously plastered over with a kind of cement, pro- 
bably with a view of preserviug the beautiful work with which' 
it is covered ; the upper end where part of the cement has been 
removed » will serve to give an idea of what the beauty of the 
whole must have been before it was thus defaced. An 
Engraving of the tomb, in its present State, is placed as* a 
Tignette at the end of this chapter. 

John de ExToi^ : 
He was Rector, 4 Dec. 1297;*^ and was empowered by 
Archbishop Winchelsey, to receive the tenths of ecclesiastical 
benefices^ granted for the war against the Scots, 

. Andrew db Brugge: 
Ju. Civ. Prof. 16 Calends of March 1311.« 

John de Aulton ; 
2^ l^ebruary 1312. He died in 1320.'' 



* Mr. Lysons jilaces it in 1196, in the pontificate of Godfrey, bishop 
of Winchester, Reg. Roff. p. 13. Denne's Additions, p. S04. History 
and' Antiquities of Rochester, p. 135. Cnstomale Rofiense, p. 168. 

^ Wilkins, Concil. II. 230. 253. 

* From Dr. Ducarel. 

< Bishop of Winchester, Reg. Woodl. 16 a. Asser, 13 ». 



RECTORS. If 

William be Drax, alias Drainer: 

10 November 1320. He resigned on exchange for HaiiweDt 
jm the Diocese of Lincoln.* 

John db Golonia : 5 Nov. ia85^> 

Thomas db Eltesle, Eltislee, or Elte^lby ; sen. ll^b, 

I^e was Chaplain to Archbishop Stratford, and the first 
master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, Vicar of St« 
Michael's at Long Sutton, and Rector of Grantchester; to the 
fatter of iirhjch he was presented by the College, and exchanged 
it a short tune before his death, with Thomas de Eltesle, juiy. 
for Landbeach ; was Rector of this Parish in 1348, but re- 
signed to Thomas de Eltesle, jun, in exchange for Long 
Stanton, In Ely Biocese : It is stated that he had many other 
exceHent preferments, widi a large paternal estate. He died, 
August 81, 60 Edw. in.« 

Thomas db Eltesle, jun^ 

He was Rector of Blechley, in Bucks, in 1353; pro 
Tho. de !0tisley, juniore, Pbro (Eliens.) in utroque jure 
Bacc. tenente Croxton, et Canon et Preb. line* He was 
Rector of this Parish, 7 Ides of August 1357.^ 

Richard Wodbland : 

He was presented to this living by Archbishop Islip, on the 
17 Calends of December 1301 ; the Archbishop also granted 
to him a commission to collect and receive the profits of the 
spiritualities of the diocese of Norwich, that should accrue 
during the vacancy of the See/ 



* Deane'fl Additions, p. 305. Asser, 13 a. Orlt. 11. 50 o. 
*" Orlt II. 50 a. 

^ Appendix to MasterB* Hist, of Corp. Chris. Col. Cambridge, p. 15. 
FoUer't Hist, of Cambridge, p. 44. 
' Reg. Islip, f. 298 a. App. to Master's Hist, of C. C. C. C. p. 15. 

* Wilkins ConciL voL iii. p. 86. Dcnnc's Add. p. 307. Reg. Islip, f. 39t«i 



16 RBCTORS. 

Hugh br Bdckknhull: 
He was presented to this Rectory by tfie King, in February 
1376, but afterwards exchanged with Nicholas Slake, for the 
rectory or custody of the free chapel of St. Radegun^, in the 
cathedral church ef St. Paul, London.* 

Nicholas Slake.** 

Philip Rogg'es : 
14 June 1388 ; but resigned immediately for Brasted, iq 
Kent.« 

John Elms: 
He was presented to the Rectory by the Archbishop, 10th 
June 1388/ 

John Launce : 
27 October 139d. He resigned November 7, 1399, on ex- 
change with Robert Rothbery, for Padlesworth, in the 
diocese of Rochester. He had been instituted to the Rectory 
of Ash, near Wrotham, in Kent, May 2, 1395, ou the pre- 
sentation of John Radyngton, Prior of the Hospital of Saint 
John of Jerusalem t and on the 28lh of July 1397, lie was 
collated by "^Yilliam de Bottlesham, Bishop of Rochester, to 
the Rectory of Southfleet ; on the 16th November, 1406, he 
was preferred to tiie Prebend of Firle, in Chichest^ Cathedral ; 
and he occurs as prebendary of St. David^s in 1412 ; he was 
made LL.B. and constitnted Official to Bishop W. Bottlesham, 
October 13> 1397; he was Vicar-General to his successor, 
BMiop J. BotlieaiiMi, Angnst B, 1400 ; as also to Ike Arch- 
bishop of Cmnlerbiiry, September 14, 14^» on the vacancy of 
the See of Rochester, by the death of that prelate.*' 



• Newcourt, Hepert. Wickh. ii. p. 3. fo. Up b. 
^ Reg. Swdbury, f. 120 a« ' 

« Id. 

A Wickk i. 191 a. 

• Id. 255 a. 298 6. Denne's Additioas, p. MT, Reg. W. Botileshau, 
fol. ea a. Ibid, fo!. 196. M. 89 «. Reg. J^is. Cicest. R. fol. IIO and 
IM*. tUf. i. Ud9^ Spis. Ro£ fol. 15 a. 159fl. 187 <i. 



HECTOItS. IT 

ROBISRT ROTHBER^.: 

^di November 1009. He rengfied OctolMr 14| 14089 on 
fidUMi^ with Robert Derby, for NeweiHl«ii) In fite d io —i ^ 
of Canterbury. He was Prebend of Mapesbury, ill tl. P^^ 
Cathedral, June 24, 1418/ 

Robert Derby! 
14th October 1408. He proposed an elcchlAg« Widi HmmU 
Gordon, for Wymondham, in the diocese of Lincoln ; but it 
se^ms that this did not take place, as he nade an exchange 
with Henry Winchestre, for Sondhai^t, Im the dioceie of CSan- 
terbury, some years afterwards. ** 

Hbnry Winchestre: 14 Oct. 1413.* 

Thomas Benham: 
He was Rector, May 14, 1416 ; but resSgned on exchange 
with Roger Paternoster^ for the Vicarage of Chedde^ in the 
diocese of Bath and Wells.' 

Roger Paternoster: 
He was presented to the Vicarage of Kensington in 1394, 
ITRic. II. He was Rector of this Parish, 14 May 1416 ; 
but resigned, on exchange wfth John Bury, for the Rectory of 
AiiS«iffti^ O«aoeehuroh-etreet, London.* 

John Bury : Oot. 25, 1419/ 

■ 

John Jbrbert, or Jerebert : 
He wmft Rector, 6 ttme 1441, add in 1449 1 resigned 



* Wickh. I. S98 6. Denne's Add. p. 308. Newcourt, vol. i. p. if 4^ 

* Ar. ihMartl. « Id. ' Reg. GJbickdUTi p.1. 1 7% b. 

« Dr. Jhicarel. ' Id* 

* Id. md Reg. Reff« W«Ugre, £piM«pi, MO a. Wainfleet, I. 46 K 

D 



is rbctohs. 

'BRomas Eggecomb : 

11th May 1462. He resigned yi 1401, on exchange with 
Thomas Mason, for the Mastership of St. John's Hospital^ 
Litchfieid.* 

Thomas Mason: 

9th June 1461 ; and resigned in the same year, with John 
Sugden, for St Swithin's, Worcester.*" 

John Svodsn, orSuGDON: 
8th July 1461 . He died in 1471.« 

Henry, Bishop of Joppa : 
4th April 1471 ; he resigned in 1472.'' 

Nicholas Bullfynch : 
16th April 1472. He resigned in 1473.* 

Thomas Alleyn, a.m. 
5th November 1473. He resigned in 1483.' 

Ambrose Payne: 

6th January 1483. He was Chaplain to the Lords Cardinals 
' Bourchier and Morton ; he resigned his living, 22 January 
1627, on a pension of £. 30 per annum ; and died 28th May 
1628. 

ROBBRT CHALNEH, Or CtlALONER, LL.D.; 

He was presented to the living, on the resignation of Payne, 
27th January 1627; he died in 1641.^ 



**WatiBieet, I. 466. 1096. ^ Id. 1096. nOa. * Id. 110 e. ii. 6 a. 
« R«(. Wint. Wainfl. ii. 5 6. 11 6. * Id. 11 6. S4 6. * Id. 84 6, 94 a. 

•Fox, V. U««, Gardner, 4S«. 



RECTORS. 10 

John WrrxwELt, or Whytwell, b.d. : 
He was Almoner and Chaplain to Archbishop Cranmer; 
and Rector of this Parish, 7th April 1541 ; he was buried at 
Lambeth, 21 March 1500.* 

Thomas Hall: 
Was Rector, March 1560, or 1 April 1561 ; he died in 
March 1562, and was interred on the north side of the 
chancel.^ 

John Byrch, or Burchall: 
He was Rector, 23 June 1562 ; he died in October 1563, 
and was interred in the Church.* 

John Pory, or Porie, d.d. : 
He was elected Master of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, 10 December 1557; he was presented to the Rectory 
of Landbeach, 21st October 1558 ; and upon the deprivation 
of Dr. Younge, Master of Pembroke Hall, in 1559, he was 
installed into his prebend in the church of Ely ; and two years 
after into the sixdi prebend of Canterbury cathedral, which he 
afterwards exchanged, 1567, for the seventh stall in West- 
minster Abbey ; he was presented to the Rectory of Lambeth, 
5th November 1563 ; he resigned the Mastership on the 1st of 
February 1560; and the Rectory of Lambeth a short time 
before his death ; he is supposed to have died in 1573.*^ 

John Matchett : 
He was presented to the living on the resignation of Pory, 
10 July 1570 ; he was Rector of Thurgarton, in Norfolk^ and 
Chaplain to Archbishop Parker, whose executors paid 
£.26. 13s. 4d. to redeem him from prison; he resigned in 
1573/ 



* Gardner. 42 a. ^ Horn, 2 b, Parish Register. * Id. 

^ Denoe's Additions, 310. 

* Strrpe'i Lift of Archbishop Parker, 460, ami ]Vrroodix7 1^2. 

Horn, 00 a, 



w rxctors. 

John Bungby, m. a. 

mil Jantiftty 157S ;. and resigoed in ld77. He mtrrkd a 
ttieee of Archbbhop Parker^s, and was his Chaplain ; he diad 
at Charthaniy near Canterbury/ 

Thomas Blagb, or Blague, b. d. 

25th April 1576. He was Chaplain to Archbishops Parker 
and Grindal; in 1591 he was installed Dean of Rochester; 
but was not Master of Clare Hall, Cambridge, as Wood has 
erroneously asserted, - On the metropolitan visitation in 1G07, 
he was returned as Rector of Lambeth, Braxted, Crayford, 
and Bangor; he died on the 11th October 1611. There is 
reason for supposing that he had a share in writing the '' Anti-' 
quities of the Church of England/' a book which goes under 
Archbishop Parker*8 name ; but which is generally supposed 
to hare been the work of several learned persons, who were 
entertained under his roof, and employed by him in divers 
fmefttl publications. In a letter from Edward Deening to the 
Lords, in which he endeavours to exculpate himself from the 
eharge of prophesying that Parker would be the last Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, he says, '^ that Mr. Blague commending 
in my presence, a work that he was about of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, I said, that he would do wall to be somewhat 
long in the life of the present Archbishop, as peradventure he 
was the last that would stt in Uiat place.'' ^ 

Francis Taylor, m. a. 

He was presented to the living by Archbishop Abbot, in 
October or December 1611. He was master of the free school 
al Guildford, where he had educated Archbishop Abbot, his 
brother, Robert Bishop of Salisbury, and Sir Maurice Abbot, 
who was Lord Mayor of London in 1638. He died in 1618.^ 



> Horn, 107, 109a. Benoe's Addltioni, Sll. 

^ Denne's Additions; 312. Lysous' JSarirons, i. 291. 

' Bilson, ^\h, 



R£CT01tS. S) 

Daniel Featlye, Featlby, or FairclougHi p. d. 

He was a native of Oxfordshire, aad was descended from % 
Laocashire family named Fairclough, which he changed to 
Featley, to the great displeasure of his nephew. Who wrote aq 
account of his life ; he was educated at Corpus ChrisU College, 
Oxford ; lie had the Rectory of Northill, in Cornwall, which 
he resigned on heing presented to that of Lambeth 6th February 
1618. He was an opposer of the !Roman Cathplics, and also 
one of the witnesses against Archbishop Laud ; he held some 
tenets of the Calvinists; and in 1642 was appointed by 
Parliament one of the Assembly of Divines, and remained 
with them a considerable time ; but withdrew himself on a 
message from the King, to whom he was chaplain. It was 
probably owing to this secession, that in November 1642, his 
church at Acton, in Middlesex, of which he was Rector, was 
attacked, and his bam full of corn burnt ; and that in February 
following, some of the Parliament soldiers rushed into the 
Church of Lambeth, during the time of divine service, with 
swords and pistols, wounded one person, who afterwards died, 
and killed another ; it was supposed that they intended to kill the 
doctor, but he escaped their vengeance. Articles were exhi- 
bited against him in the Assembly of Divines, before whom he 
. * made an able defence, but they refiised to hear any witness for 
Inm, and they voted him out of his living, and appointed 
another to succeed him ; his refusal to aissent to every clause 
in the Solemn League and Covenant, and his correspondence 
with Archbishop Usher, who was with the King at Oxford, 
occasioned his imprisonment. In September 1643, he was 
eommitted to Petre House,^ his own house, library and garden 
being seized ; he was in an infirm state of health when he was 
tnprisotied, and sfler eighteen months confinement, he got leave 
fron ^e Parliament to remove to Chelsea College, of which 
he was Provost,* for the benefit of the air, being to return to 
Ins prison in two months ; but he died on the day he was to 
have reCnrned, April 17, 1645, in Uie Cist year of his age; 

— — >— — MM— ■111 ■ I I I I ■ i-ii ^— — — a^M^^—— >— ■ I ■ ■— — »—[^w^ 

» Terfect Diunml, Oct. a, IGJ8. «' U alkct; p. ITO. 



SS RECTORS. 

and was buried, by his own desire, in the chancel of Lambeth 
Church, 21st April 1645. 

John White: 

He was put into possession of the living upon the deprivation 
of Featlye, in 1643; he was commonly called the Patriarch 
of Dorchester, to which place he went on leaving Lambeth ; 
he was considered one of the most learned and moderate 
among the Puritans ; he died in 1648. 



John Rawunson: 

He was Rector in 1650, and signed the Address of the 
Ministers in and near London, presented to the King in Xo- 
yember 1660, and was one of the Commissioners of the Savoy 
Conference, for a review of the liturgy. In 166:) he was re- 
moved for Non-conformity ; he died at Wantage, Berks. 



George Wylde, ll. d. 

Mr. Denne says, that Wylde ought to be classed amongst 
the Rectors, having been instituted and inducted by presenta- 
tion from the King, though he did not receive the profits : On 
the 22d June 1660, the House of Lords made an order, " that 
all tythes, &c, of livings sequestered without due course of 
law, be stayed in the hands of the churchwardens, until the 
claims of the sequestered clergy and the present possessors be 
determined." On the petition of Dr. Wylde, the benefit of 
this general order was granted to him, as to Lambeth ; two 
days after, a counter petition was presented by Rawlinson, 
alledging that the order in favour of Wylde was made on mis- 
representation ; there being different opinions, various days 
were appointed for hearing, but the business seems to have 
been dropped by Wylde withdrawing his pretensions, on an 
assurance of better preferment ; he was after^vards made Bishop 
of Londonderry, in Ireland, where he was highly respected : 



RECTORS. 88 

He expended d,000 /. a year in charities, and 200 /. a year in 
buildings/ 

Robert Pory, d. d. 

He was presented, in 1G40, to the Rectories of St. Mar- 
garet, New Fish-street, London, and Thorley, Herts, by 
Juxon, Bishop of London ; but in the time of the Usurpation 
they were sequestered : He was of Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, and in 1060 created Doctor of Divinity by royal man- 
date ; in the same year he had the Archdeaconry of Middlesex, 
Prebend ^of Willesdon in St. Paul's Cathedral, and the Rec- 
tory of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate ; but the last he resigned in 
September 1662 for the Rectory of Much Hadham, Herts, 
which he' held with that of Lambeth, to which he was presented 
tn 1063, by Juxon, then Archbishop of Canterbury ; he was 
also Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's. . As a phiraltst he was 
noticed by the compiler of ** Poor Robin's Almanack," first 
published in 1663; in tho first page of which was, " Imprimatur, 
Robert Pory ;" and it is generally considered that the title of 
the book was in ridicule of him. On the 13th December 1661, 
he was appointed one of the Commissioners for examining and 
revising the Book of Common Prayer ; in the same year he 
presented a petition to the House of Lords, for the purpose of 
obliging Hardy to discover where the bones of Archbishop 
Paiicer had been cast. 

Thomas Tomkyns, b. d. 

He was the son of John Tompkins, organist of St. Paul's, 
and grandson of Thomas Tompkins, an eminent organist and 
musician to King Charles I. ; he was of Baliol College, Oxford, 
in 1651 ; Fellow of All Souls, 1657 ; DoQtor of Divuiity, 
May 1673. He was Chaplain to Archbishop Sheldon, by 
whom he was collated to the Rectory of St. Mary Aldermary ; 
, which he resigned in 1669, being removed to the Rectories of 



• Wood's Ath. Oxon. ii. SC7. Lloyd's Msmoirs, p. 623. 



Lambeth aitd Moiikd Risborongh,. Bucks; in that year h« waft 
installed Chancellor of Exeter Cathedral, and in the san^ 
month elected Canoo Residentiary of that church. As Chap- 
lain to the Archbishop it was his duty to examine works pre- 
vious to granting a licence for printing ; and, amongst others, 
Milton's Paradise Lost was submitted to him, when his great 
penetration discovered treason in that nobl« simile of the sun 
in an eclipse, in the first book of the poem, and refused the 
imprimatur ; for which he has been severely attacked ; . yet in . 
1679 he gave the licence to Paradise Regained and Sampson 
Af onistes, in which are several severe strictures clearly pointed 
at the Restoration of Charles II. Perhaps he did not wish to 
provoke a fresh attack by a refusal. He died at Exeter/ on 
the 20th August 1676, aged 37; he was therefore of Baliol 
College St the age of 13. 

George Hooper, d. d. 

He was of Christ Church, Oxford ; and Chaplain to Morley, 
Bishop of Winchester, who collated him to the Rectory of 
Woodhay, Hants; he afterwards became Chaplain to the 
Archbishop, who gave him the preceutorship of Exeter cathe- 
dral in 1675 ; he was presented to the Rectory of Lambeth, 
6tk October 1G75. He had been Chaplain and Almoner to 
Mary, Princess of Orange, and on her accession to the throne, 
was appointed Chaplain to their Majesties ; and Dean of Can- 
terbury in 1691 : in 1700 Prolocutor of Convocation ; in 1703 
Bishop of St. Asaph, he remained but half a year in thb See, 
when he was translated to Bath and Wells : He died on the 
Mth September 1727, aged 00, and was buried in Ae Oatfa6- 
di^ at Wells.* 

SmcVND 0xneoK« s^d* 

Se wftflpfesented to the Rectory of Lambeth by the Queen, 
on ilie 17& November 1703, and was Bishop ^ Lincoln in 



RECTOBS. 2& 

1715, he held this in commendam one year ; was Bishop of 
London in 1723. He published an edition of Camden's Bri- 
^nnia, with considerable additions, in 1685 ; and the Codex, 
or body of Ecclesiastical Law. 

Richard IsBBTaoN, b. d« 

He was a nfitire of Yorkshire ; and was entered at Oriet 
College, * of which he was afterwards Fellow ; was Chap- 
lain to Archbishop Tenison, who conferred on him the Lambeth 
degree of Doctor of Divinity ; he held the Rectory of Har- 
leigh, in Suffolk ; and on the 30th of September 1717, was 
presented by the King to the Rectory of Lambeth, He was 
also Chaplain to Archbishop Wake, by whose favour ha^ was 
installed Precentor of Exeter cathedral in June 17^3 ; and 
Archdeacon of the diocese, November 172G ; he died *at Can- 
terbury on the 2d September 1731, and was buried in the 
Cathedral of that city. He published two sermons : one in 
1712, preached before the University^ on the diviivity of our 
Saviour; the other preached at the Assizes at Croydon, 15th 
March 1722, dedicated to Peter Theobald, Esq. High Sheriff, 
and the Gentlemen of the Grand Jury. 

John Dbnnb, d. d. 

Was Rector 27th November 1731 ; he was Archdeiu^on of 
Rochester, to which is annexed the sixth prebendal stall in 
that chilrch, the archives of which he arrang&i with great care 
and diligence, and made considerable collections towards its 
history, with a view to publication. He was also Chaplain to 
Bishop Bradford, whose daughter he married ; he was Rector 
of Bt. Margaret, Rochester, and Vicar of St. Leonard, Shore- 
ditch. He died at Rochester on the 5th of ABgfist 1767, 
aged 74, and was buried in the Cathedral,* 



•* MmMa^ Histoiy of Corp. ChEis. Col. Cambfldge ; and memorials of 
VM^^ftor Cathedral, p.StS, SMb^iMd to CnatppnO* IMtvm, p. m^ 
««d ITS j MJ^d AjftnOfX, p. 95. 

E 



i^. 



/ 



26 RBCTORS. 

Beilbt Portkus, d, d. 

He was the youngest of nineteen children, and was l>orn ai 
York on the 8th of May 1731 ; his parents were natives of 
Virginia, in North America, from whence they removed into 
England, and settled themselves in the city of York in 1720. 
At the age of thirteen he was placed under the care of 
Mr. Hyde, of Rippou, from whence he removed to Cambridge » 
and was admitted a Sizar of Christ's College. At the age of 
twenty-six he took orders ; and in 1765 he married the eldest 
daughter of Bryan Hodgson, Esq. in the same year he was 
presented by the Archbbhop of Canterbury to the livings of 
Racking, and Withersham, in Kent, and two years after he 
sucpeeded Dr. Denne in the Rectory of Lambeth, being at 
that time one of the domestic Chaplains to Archbishop 
Seeker; whose liSe he published, having been editor of his 
works in conjunction with his ' other Chaplain, Dr. Stinton. 
In 1770 Dr. Porteus publis\^ed a most impressive exhortation 
to a solemn observance of Good Friday. In the same 
year he was made Bishop of Chester. , In 1777 he re- 
signed the Rectory of Lambeth; and in 1779 succeeded 
Dr. Lowth in the See of London. Being endowed with an 
extraordinary activity of jnind, and possessing the most ardent 
9eal for the interests of Christianity, he sedulously and con- 
scientiously performed the functions of that important and 
laborious station for thirty years ; and even during a tedious 
illness, and the gradual decay of his corporeal faculties, had 
the singular happiness vouchsafed him of enjoying his intellects 
so far unimpaired, as not to be wholly incompetent to the 
official duties of his See, almost to the last day of his life* 
He was long distinguished for his eloquence in the pulpit; and 
his popularity, which attained its greatest height by the delivery 
of his. excellent Lectures on the Gospel of St. Matthew, in 
1790. and the three following years, wa^ of that kind which 
must be most gratifying to a rationat nmd ; it was not gamed 
by those arts, which, while they captivate the muHhude, 



RBCTORS. 27 



1 



disgust die judicioas hearer. His preaching was like his manners 
unaffected ; his language simple yet elegant ; and his delivery 
when the subject required it, animated and impressive. In the 
early part of his life he was disting^i^ed by his poetical 
talents, and he gained the Seatonian prize in 1759. Hb 
Sermons and Lectures have gone through several editions. 
This amiable prelate died at Fulham,* 14th May 1800, and was 
buried in the churchyard of Sundridge, in Kent. He had for 
many years a favorite residence in that parish, to which he 
was accustomed to retire in the autumnal months. In 1807 he 
built and endowed Ide Hill chapel, in a district of Sundridge, 
situated at a considerable distance from the parbh church; 
imd he has been a great benefactor by his will to that 
parish amongst others. Of those excellent institutions, the 
Sunday Schools, he was the principal founder; and to his 
advice and assistance, may be ascribed their general formation 
in the Diocese of London. The copyright of the Bishop's 
works, edited by the Jiev» Robert Hodgson, with his life 
prefixed, was sold for the sum of £.750.^ 

William Vys^, ll. d^ 

He was thirty-eight years Rector c»f this Parish ; was tho 
grandson of Dr. Smallbrooke, successively Bishop of 
St« Davids, and of Lichfield and Coventry ; he was educated 
at All Souls College, Oxford ; appointed domestic Chaplain 
to Archbishop Comwallis in 1771 ; took the degree of Bachelor 
ia Civil Law in 1772, and that of Doctor of Laws in 1774 : 
In 1777 he was presented to this living ; he was also Rector e^ 
Blasted in Kent, and afterwards of Sundridge, the latter of which 
he retained till his death ; In 1793 he was preferred to the 
Archdeaconry of Coventry, and was also Canon Residentiary 
of Lichfield, and Chancellor of that diocese. This ~ worthy 
divine was a most excellent character and diligent pastor^ 



* Fitulkner*s Fulham, 8to. p.2-5K ^ L}9oiu* Siipplemcut, p. ll.\. 



comtaotly eiideavouriug bolh in uid out of iha cbuich la 
promole the great ChrUtian iluties of cliarit}-, moderation, uitl 
benertdence : In 1 770 be published tbe sermon tbat be preached 
before tbe Hoitse of Commons, on tbc Fast day in that year. 
Ha died at tbe Rectory House, I^mbetb, 2tith Jt'ebruary 1S16, 
a^ed 7a, and was buried at Sundridge. 

Christopher WordswoBth, d. d. 
Appomted Master of Trinity College, Cambridge in 1830 ; 
on which be resigned the Rectory of Lambeth. He holds at 
present tbe Rectory of Buxted, in Sussex. 

George D'Ovlv, d. d. 
He w instituted to tlie Rectory of Lambeth, Oct. 10, 1830, 




Ttmli ^ Oiliert dc (llamyltt. ■ ■ 



IPABlSli CHURCH, 



CHAPTER ni. 
The Church. 

» 

At the lirst establishment ot Christianity in Engfaind, 
there were no parochial divisions of cures, for the Bishops, sent 
ottt their clergy to preach to the people as they saw occasion ; 
but after the inhabitants had generally embraced Christianity^ 
this itinerant method of going from place to place was found 
very inconvenient, and it was deemed necessary to settle the 
bounds of parochial cures. At first, they made use of any old 
British churches that had escaped the Saxon idolaters ; and, 
afterwards, from time to time, churches were built and 
endowed by lords of manors, and others, for the use of the 
inhabitants of their several districts. 

The word Eecle$iaf which we sender Church, priautrily 
denotes a religious assembly, and from &ence the wetd 
RrPI/fkoN, is generally used by the early Christian writcis* 
But though tnis be a very ancient and common signi- 
fication, yet it no less usually occurs in another sense, de- 
noting the place, or building itself, where the congregation 
meet together ; and in this acceptation it is opposed to the 
synagogues of the Jews, and the temples of the Headiens, as 
appears from a passage in die epistle of the Emperor Auretian,* 
where he rebukes tlie senate for hesitating about the opening of 



■ Vopiscus in Vit. Aurclian. 



W PARISH CHURCH. 

the SybiUine books, '' as if they had been in a debate in a 
Christian church." 

Before a building could be used for divine offices, it was re- 
quired to be consecrated by the Bishop, and dedicated to the 
purposes of devotion ; and at its consecration it received the 
name of some particular personage, who was celebrated in the 
great roll of ecclesiastical fame, the Calendar of the Church ; * 
this custom was observed among the lloman- Britons, and 
continued by the Anglo-Saxons.^ In the Council held at 
Chelsea, in the year 816, the name of the denominating saint 
was expressly required to be inscribed on the altar, on the walls 
of the chnrch, or on a tablet within it.^ 

Fairs and feasts were formerly held in the churchyard, in 
honour of the saint to whom the church was dedicated ; but in 
consequence of their being very much abused, they were finally 
suppressed 'in 13 £dw. III. as appears by the follQwing 
extract : — 

** And the Kynge commaundethe and forbiddeth 
that from henceforth, neither fairs and markets, shall 
be kept in churchyards, for the honor of the Church. 
Given at Westminster, the viii of Octobre, the xiii 
yeare of Kynge Edwarde's reigne." ^ 

But the fairs or wakes, arising out of this ancient custom, were 
continued in the adjoining town or village, and are still kept up 
in most parts of England at the present day. 

Lambeth Church is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and is 
situated near the water side, and adjoining the Archbishop's 
Palace; it is of an ancient foundation. In the Domesday 
Survey, a church is mentioned as being situate- in Lambeth, 
but no further information can be gathered respecting it 



* Spelman Gloss, v. Eccl. *> WhitUker*8 Hist, of Whalley, p. 95. 
'* Spelman Cone. torn. p. 327. Cave Hist. Lit. torn. ii. p, 2S6. 
lUpin, vol. i. p. »^2. * SUtuU Vetera Load, 159B, 



PARISH CUVRCH. 3| 

TKe age of tiM present structure is very difficult to ascertain. 
Dr. Ducarei considers the church to have been built in the 
pontiticatev of Archbishops Arundel and Cfaicheley : who were 
both great builders ; but the windows at the east end are of the 
reign of £dw. IV. (which began A. D. 1460,) at whidi 
period ^ose large windows first came into fashion; and the 
tower at the same time.* But Mr. Denne, whpse fatiier 
was Rector in 1731 , and who bestowed great attention on the 
subject, says, that the nave of Canterbury cathedral, and diat 
of the collegiate church of Maidstone, both built by Anindef, 
are so difierent in style and ornaments ftom that of Lambeth', 
as to render it improbable that it should have been built by that 
prelate ; and equally so to haye been the work of Chicheley, 
who was Archbishop from 1414 to 1443 ; because it was in a 
Tery ruinous state before the end of that century : In the inte- 
rior of the church he observed the head of a royal statue, the 
body mutilated, at the north-east corner of the steeple^ within 
the body of the church, over the organ-loft ; ^ and from the 
resemblance to the portraits of Edward I. particularly fba t 
engraved by Vertue, he cousiders the church was built by 
Tkam4U de Brotherton, the King's fifth son, created Earl.of 
Norfolk, and hereditary Earl Marshal of England, on giFUif 
him the whole estate of that earldom ; a part of which was their 
ancient family seat at Lambeth, which had reverted to the 
crown upon the death of Roger Bigod, without issue, 
35 £dw. I. A. D. 1306 : He adds, however, at the same time, 
that there seems some reason to surmise, that the church was 
of later erection by one of the Mowbray family ; the grand- 
mother of Thomas created Duke of Norfolk, September 29th, 
2 Richard II. A. D. 1307, was the sole daughter and hehr of 
nomas de Brotherton ; and his mother Elizabeth was her only 
child by Lord Segrove. ^o strengthen this conjecture, the 



* Nichols' Lambeth, p. 27. 

^ This statue, it it Mieved, was taken down on bnilding the seats 
Cor the charity children. 



SKS PARISH CHURCH. 

vp* of Mowbray Duke of Norfolk, viz. Englwid wkb a label 
of three pointi argent, wilhia a garter, of wbidi order be was 
made knight 19 Rkih* II. A. D. 1306, still remains between 
the second and tbinl corbels of the north-east window ; * an 
Sngxaving of which is placed as a vignette at the end of this 
Chapter. The acciuracy of the last conjecture is preyed by 
the Bishop of Winchester's Registers^ by which it appears the 
church was rebuilt between 1374 and 1377 ; in the former of 
thoae years tiiere was a conunission to proceed against such of 
the inhabitants of Lsnbeth, as refused to contribute to the re- 
bwlding and repairs of the church,** and in the latter of those 
years, there was another commission to compel the inhabitants 
to build a tower for their church, then newly rebuilt, and to 
fnniish it with bells.^ 

The north and south aisles were built about 1505, as appears 
\>y the tables of benefactions. 

The west end of the church was rebuilt in 1523/ at the ex- 
pence ef Ardtbishop Warfaam and John Fox, Archdeacon of 
Winchester, whose anus remain over the west door, and in 
Ihe body of die church, over an arch on the south side, where 
nine are the arms of several other prelates,* The east end was 
pvebably rebuilt before the list of benefactors commenced. 

The east end of the north aisle is called JSoicerd's Chapel, 
having been built in U22, by Thomas Howard, Duke of 
H'orfcdk, many of whose family are here interredj that of the 
Aontb aisle was built in the same year by Sir John Leigh, (son 
of Ralph Leigh, Esq. Lord of the Manor of Stockwell) who 
with. his My are here interred. 

The following are among some of the most remarkable 
occurrences that have happened in Lambeth Church. 



• De&ne's Add. p. 348, 249. ^ Reg. W. Wyk. part S, f. 11S6. 

* Ibid f. laa 6. ^ 1619 according to Lyaons* Edt. i, S7T. 

< Nichols's Iitmbttii, p.3T. 



PARISH CHURCH* 8S 

A.D. 1315, 4 Kal, Augnst, John de Rose, chancoUor, 
and Robert de Norton, auditor to * archbishop Walter 
de Raynoldyr made a* decree upon a difference between 
Thonuw de WoUham, bishop of Rochestetr, and Robert, 
▼icar of Dartford,^ respecting an augmentation ef the endow- 
Bent of that vicarage.* 

A. D. 1412. March 6. The Convocation which met m the 
Chapter-house of St. PauFs, London, was continued to Lam- 
beth Churchy where, on Wednesday, June 6th, archbbhop 
Arundelf, with the prelates and clergy, condemned a great 
BOmber of treatises, containing c^iftain heretical and erroneous 
coridosfons, and tiie tenors of those which were most obnoxious, 
to the number of upwards of three hundred, are specified in the 
register of that primate> 

A. D* 14W« July 16. The whole conTocation being assem- 
Ued in St. Paul's Cathedral, Simon Harrison, dressed in the 
habit of a d<Mninican, or preadnng friar^ was brought before 
the archbishop (Bouchier) and hi» brethren. He was appre- 
hended, on suspicion, by the archbishop's chaplain, whilst 
saying mass in Lambeth Church ; and,, on being interrogmted, 
he oonfessed, thai he had committed idolatry, by celebrating 
I, for a k>ng time, though he was only an acolyte. He 
deliTered into the custody of the bishop of Winchester, to 
he puushed ; but the sentence afterwaids passed upon htm is 
not 



« 



* Reg. Roffen. by Thorpe, p. 802. ^ Wilkins' Concil. rol. iii. p. S33. 



* Ihid. p. S85. Keysler* in lus Travels, vol. i. p. 414, deaoribet the 
nwA pQ^hjnent of a clergyman of Milan for tbe same offence. ^' A 
scaffold being erected before the church where the crime was conmitted, 
he was sentenced first to read mass, and as soon as he began, the first leaf 
wis torn out, after which his canonical robes were palled off, and he was 
deliTered to the ciril magistrate, by whose order, the thumbs with the 
fore and middle lingers of both his hands, between which at the elevation 
he bald the host, being first bumtd to a coal, he was hanged.' 

F 



»» 



94 :^ARI6H CHURCH. 

A* D. 15IMk iThe legatine Bynod, assembled at Lam^eCb 
Palace, was, February 10, by motioii from the prolocutor,, 
continued to tiie ne>xt day, to meet in Lambeth Church, fcr ^e 
purpose of hearing die publieatioB of the pcoTincial constitutlm 
of Cardbal Pole;* 

On the 10th of February 1642, in the midst of divine service,, 
wbikt th^ Te Deum was reading, four or five soidjers nmhed 
lutQ Lambeth Church» with jpistols and wwii swords», afirigbtaf 
•ut tbo whole i^ongregatioD, wouvded one of the iohahitaiits^ 
who soon after died, and shot another dead, as he huBg by hia 
hands on the churcb-yaf d wall* looking o^er to the palM^eHx^urt^ 
who might truly have said in th« words ^ tha poet» though id 
another s^nse, utvidi^ tU peril. It waa collected by maiqf 
circumstances, especially by depositions takea before tb^ 
coroner, and by the speeches that fell from theii own mouths^ 
that their principal aim at that time was to have movdered 
Dr. Featley, the then ractoi of Lambeth; whidi it is probable 
would hjave be<A effected, had not some honest inhabkniia 
pvemonished the Doctor, who was at ^e- tioM on hia way to th^ 
church, intending to have preached, Aboml tiie same ti»>i» 
many of 4hese muirdereia were heard expreeakig theur rancow 
against dw Doctor, some 8a3riag,. '* they would cbo]^tkavogM! 
as smatt as herbs to the pot, <or auffering pottage ^fW by UmU 
■ame tiwy usually styled the book of Commow Prater) to be 
read in Ua church;'' otiiers, '* they would acpteeae tlMpop* 
out of his belly ;" with such like scurrilous and malicioiM 
language.^ 

On the 23d of July 1710,. the vestry-room of this church was 
broken open, and a large velvet pall,, three fine holland sur- 
pKee», a damask table-clodi, a damask napkin^ a red Tclvet 
pulpit-cloth, and cushion covering of die saipe, a btack veltet 
Jiulpit-cloih, and cushions of the same, a fau(ge bible witii 
silver clasps, and a small Turkey-leathered bible,, were stolen,. 
Foity pounds were offered for a discovery.^ 

* Wil&hui* Concn. vol. lii. p. SS8. ^ Mercuriug Rusticus, p, tSI.. 

^ London Gazettie; July 25, 1710. 



PAR28H CHURCH. M 

Aificaig the entries in the churdiwardeas' books, in ihe first 
•n4 seoQikl jt9» of PtMlip and Mary, are the following itenui 
Pajd for a staffe for Judas crosse ••««•. «,.«0 4 
to the broyderer for mending of the ca- 

iiebe clothe,* and for mending iii copys O d 
for a lyttel belle to go with the Sacre- 

ment «••••* ,0 8 

for a holie water spryknell ^ » S 

for iiii staves to beare the canebe clothe 14 
to the waxe chandler for the heer lyghtc, 
and the sconse * lyghte for the visita- 
tion of sieke persons • , •«•••»• 4 8 

to Mr. Lee of Adyngton, for a coope^ 
of blew velfttt; with marlyans ^ of 
gold, and a sewte of vestments of the 
same, ibr prest, debon, and sub-deoon 8 6 8 



■**■ 



• ^flbe oSBopy cloth- n^antionied in the above accomat was a oommoa 
slate, set up in these times, oyer the high altar in aU churches ; under 
which in a pix, or small box of gold, silver, ivory, or crystal, hung the 
coaiecraled host, reserved^ there to be carried to the sick upon any 
emergency ; when it was taken down, and with the canopy over it, borne 
by the clergy in procession to the houses of such inhabitants as were 
dying, as they ihought, and called. for that sacred viaticum. 

^ A sortef loose brush used for sprinkling holy water. Cotgrave, in 
Aspersore, says, made of bristles. Nares' Gloss. 

* A teona is put for a lantern, in Holyokes, and the other old diction- 
aries ; whence it is still used for certain pendent candlesticks, as 
lilr. Todd with probability conjectures. Nares' Gloss. 

* A sacerdotal cloak or vestment, wom^in sacred ministration, (from the 
Saxon Coppe, the height or top of a thing.) Cop, head, from the British 
ward Koppa, the top or highest part. The eapa was oalled, a capiendo, 
h9otm»6 it contained or eovered the whole man, it was the prhmipal 

■ade close on bdtk stdes, and open only at top and bottom. It 
antiently covered with gold fringe. Fimbrin Anrea. Matt« Paris, 
flien, UI. sub. A. P. ISia. and Linwood, p« SSS* 

Tills antiaat habflimsat is frequenUy alluded to by the father of English 
poeiy ; ^ Alas ! why werest thou so wide a eope ? 
God yeve me sorwe, but, and I were Pope." 

The Moak's Prologue, 1S95. 

• A kiad of hawk. Kiliaa says, that it was the smallest sort of hawk. 
£lyBioIogr Tsatonicas liagiic. 



« » 



95 PARISH CHURCH. 

All the utensils and furniture that were of a superstitious 
cast, having been removed in the reign of Edward VL, new 
were to be provided after die accession ci Queen Mary to the 
crown ; and as liie royat commissipners were apprehensive^ 
and not without reason, that a sufficient sum of money would 
not be obtained by voluntary contributions, they enjoined the 
levying of an assessment, and it isihe first rate that occurs i^ 
this book. Happily for England, Mary's reign was of short 
duration; and in that of Elizabeth, the lately purchased 
tvessels, vetstments, Sec, were ordered to be sold. The follow^ 
ing inventory of tiiem, with tiie {irices annexed, is copied froqi 
the idhurchwardens' book :— ^ * 

A. D. 15G5. The account of tke ehurchvntrdens and 
others of the parish of Lambhithe, who, by virtue of a 
recognizance dated the xxvi daye of March* and exhi- 
bited to my lord's grace of Canterbury the xxx daye of 
June, for and concerning the sale of certain parcells of 
ornaments of the said churche. 

Tirst^ a crosse* of sylver doble gilt, vraying Ivi oz, 14 16 19 
Item, for a chalice^ with a cover waying xxi oz« 5 3 10 

Item, for verke clothe soldo ••••• 3 4 

Item, for broken vraxe soldo •••••« 1 



I — I * 



* It was usually placed on thh middle of Ibe altar, ^* Super altara collo- 
cetnr Crux in medio."^ Tliis had the image of Christ crpcified on it The 
Rubric of the Sfiaas-book oiden^ that the Priest wlien he approaches to 
the Altar, should before the lowermost step of at, stop and profoundly 
bow to tliis cioss, placftd upo^ the altar; ^ Cum pervenerit ad tJf^r^ 
3tans ante illi^s in/lmjum g^Jim^ liaput detegit, et altari, sea imaginl 
flmciiiuB desMper posi^ piofundtf iaclinat" Collectanea CurioMe, 
vol, IL f. isa. • 

^ Visitors were appointed to examine what ehufch plate, Jewels, and 
otihcr furaitnre, were in all churches, and to eompare their accounts with 
the iuTentories made in former visitations ; they were to have in every 
church ^ne or tiyo chalices of silver. As chalices were o!ten presents to 
churches they had many of them, and could let them out to hire. Burnet 
Hist Reform. voL i. Rapin, vol. viii. p. lOS. Fuller's Holy War.c. xiii, 
p. ISO. Floury Moeurs des Chretiens, p. 117. 



V 



PARISH CHURCH. Hf 

■ ' • 

Item, for whke plates ••••• 6 5 

Item, for broken yestmentSy and certen bannerdsy 

crosse clodiesy and pendents 5 8 

Item, for the firgins pastes, and the orfomes^ of a 

cope.'* ..^ '•»'•> • '• .•'•'•'•'•••>'• • • • 7 

Item, for an ddepaire of organs'^ ••••••;•#•••• 1 10 6 

Item, for theholie water stocke,* and 9i»0ken 

candlesticks « .«. '6 2 10 

Item, for olde laten' and pewter s<rfde after 

iii d. ob. Ae ponnd • ••.•«,••••••••••••• 9 7olip 

Item^ for a piece of an xAd cope of red yelTet. • • • 3 4 

Item, for a clothe of the stone of the passion. • •, .0 1 S 

Item, for a litel pointer ornett • • • •••••••• 2 

23 4 3ob. 

* Moft probably Orfrajs, wbteh is explained in Spegbtfi GloiMiy- 1» 
Cbaocer'i works, Aarifisinm, frizled clotb of gold. Vtu Cange expfadai 
ily ns a gold fringe, particularly on ecclesiastical yestments. Illos. of tba 
Manners and Expences in ancient times in England, 1797. 

k A pair of orgtms was tbe term at that timis, wben there were two 
kind of organs, tbe^one fixed and the other portable, adapted, peihaps, to 
the siseef the church, or to its rerenues. Hawkins' Hist Mus. TolM.p.447. 
The portable organs were probably dirisible into two parts, and thenee 
obtained the'^name of a pair. This continued to be the term so late as 
the reign of King James I. They were usuaUy placed in the rood loft, 
between tiie naVe and chancel of Ihe church. 

c The holy water s^Dck, or atoup, was a bason generally of stone, fixed 
oa one side of the great door (usually the east side) going into the 
ehareh, filled with holy water. One at Walberswyck, Co. Sufiblk, 
•toq4 ia tl|^e church-jard. Gardiner's Dnnwich. 

^ Latten is still a eoamon name for tin in the north : So TubenrHle ia 
U» book of Falconry, U7S— 

^ Ton must set her latten bason, or a Tessel of stone or earth." 
Agafai ia the old metrical romance of Sir Bevis of Hamptim, 1. 6* 

M Windows of latten where set with glasse.'^ 
We may suppose that pewter was, even in the time of Elisabeth, too 
costly ta be used in commoa, as it appears from the regulations aad 
estabHshmeats of the household of Henry Algernon Percy, the Mk Eatl 
•f NoffOmBbefiaiMi, that Tessels of pewter were hired by the year. 
fl tee^ ^M^ Aanetat Tto. Sferew. 



Paid to mastei Allen for wridng, when die 
cross and dialice, and other ye^menU, 

were defaced «•«•••«• ^....^AftM^*** 10 
For the dyners of BMater parson, church- 
wardens. &c. • • • ••••« 1 

BtH* writing diiB accompte when it wasdelyrer- 

edtonylqrdsgraceof Canterbuij«««« 3 4 
Paid for a copy of the recognizance, wherein 
we stode boande tp the queen's conunis- 
eioners, concerning the sale of oerttn 
other chundi jgoodes ••«••»«•*•»•««•• 10 

A. 157i). Vicesimo quarto die Mail, anno fteginte 

nunc Elizabeihae xii^ 
A note of all such ornaments with roode lofte, in the 
p a risho ehiifeh -of L ambeth , npprcy s od and eelde ^ these 
penwMs, whose naiiie» are hereunder wrjFtten^ the daye and 
ysie aforesaid. 

Imprimis, the syCnge of Che roode lofte • • • • 3 

Jtern^ onedeske m •••«,••••««••••• 10 

Itam, two streamOiS* ••»••• ••••••••» 0" 2 4 

Item, a border of an olde cope ••••••«••. ««0 O • 

Item, fcr the borders of the herse clodie,^ witii 

certaine imbrodered images o 3 4 

Item, for two peces of whyte satten 8 

lump for thre ^male clothes of whyte da- 

maake^ and one yalenee to tkesasM 10 
Item, for asepuleiireciothe^ of whyte sarsenet ^i 

with imagerye^wobtke •••»•• ••»••• 16 

« Thty wsie i^sd ia pnc§ftimm oa Rogalipa days, &«• CeUefitanea 
CuriiMHB^ moL ii« p. ISSl 

^ It was usual ea the dsath of gMsi jhmcsobs Iq fisctia different parts of 
Oe ehansh, Heises, er fiteges, 4s6oiatad with paU% tapsis^ ^c to their 
psBQiy* A |}ae spscimsa is la the Vetnsta Monaros B t a. Fcabroke'a £bc. 
nf Aaljq. vol. |. p. OS. - 

. * It wss caitoBMry upon Good FridsjTy to. saect a^SBMll hnildiag , to 
irspresent the sepoldire of our SaTignr. la tiiis thsy^ the ^MW^ and 



ItMtty forttnft eop^ of wfajtci diKiiiMk6 with 

inmgerf e woorke m O 

Item, fcnr'a copeof hawdk3rii^ •••••••••••• 2 

Item, tor asotlier eop« of greae bnwdkjrn^ • . • O ft 
Item, for one cope of blew velvet, widt mart' 
lets ^ of goiild, with deiieou and suIk 
deacon •••• •• •« 2 Y 4 



m 

Whereof there is owynge hf Mr. Saynt John 3 7 4 
A|MlbyMr.Pye«, ••^••••^ 2.10 O 

The inventory, previous to its being delivered to archbishop 
Parker, was signed by ThomoB Brik>ck, eante ; by four 
persons who stile themseHres- assistants; by six other pa- 
rishioners, who subscribe themselves coadjutors, as well as by 
the three churchwardens, and the three stdesmes', wha could 
only set their marks ; but Matthew Allen^ the othey chvch- 
warct«n« not only wrote his name, but in order to shew how much 
more learned he was than his brethren, he mentions,, in L^tin^ 
that nothing was valued by him, because he was absent. 

set a person to watch It both (hat night and the next. And the mondng 
following, rery early, tiie host being taken out, Christ is said to be risen* 
9m Cssge has giren ur a partieii^hut aecoimtol thi^cef^moi^y, akper- 
fauaui •tBtnm fc^F r at Oy whtfstfcsae pe w a as Is Ibmale haMai,'Weift 
ts^ (hsk aaft«lchia» an4 fiva atfUia wava^plaoed aeprasantioi^ angeii, trim 
told them Ghxiat was dsen* 

» It was the richest kind of stoff, the web being gold, and the woof aill^ 
with embfoidery. It was sometimes called Baldakin, or Bardarchiiw 
'' Paaaos omainm diti^simns, ciy vs utpote stamen ex filo auri, sabtames 
Mt aarftso t&tftary plmnarfo opere intertextus." Ha Cange. Minshew 
fiftai ourtf ' §&t h m if ftma Bawd, because', hesays, h wasrihventsdby 
saeh piiJBuus as an: altracUve omament; Nares^ Glossary. 

^ A kind of swallow.— Shakespeare. Flrfflips saya^ a tind of hird, 
ailMiis eredc, qpa^ beoauSa' it wittts ttte use of Mr feet— WbiM of 
Words* 



4Q PARISH CHURCH. 

'fhe images in the rood loft were removed early In the reign 
of Edward VI.^ doubtless by archbishop Cranmer's injunction ; 
and, after the king's . death, ^replaced by prder of » Queen 
Malay's cpmmissipners.. The charge of the new rood with 
Mary and John, was GL 13«. 4<i;; and another item in the 
same page of the churchwar^iena' accounts* was, ** St. Qd, payd 
to Jameff Calkett for washing cvwth the Scriptures owth of the 
clothe that hangyd before the roode lofte.'' 

Tlie present . church, is built of boulder, with some bricks 
and stone, rendered over, except the tower, with a finishing* 
The roof is covered with lead. It consists of a nave, two aisles, 
and a chanciBi ; the nave is separated from the aisles by 
octagonal pillars and pointed arches. 

Its dimensions are, length •••••••••• 111 feet. 

breadth*. »»•••••• 63 

height 33 

The tower to the highest partr 87 

Chnrch towers were formerly the parochial fortresses, and 
wisre fitted up with fire-places,. &c. the parishioners resorting 
to tiiem in time of danger.* This tower, which is built of 
stone, ' has a most pleasing and venerable appearance. In it 
is a peal of eight bells ; in 1678 there were only six, but in 
1723 they were re-cast and made into eight. 

Previous to giving a description of this Peal, the following 
brief historical account of Bells it is hoped will prove accept- 
able to the reader; it has been chiefly taken from Faulkner's 
History of Kensington, a work replete with erudition and 
entertamment. 

' The ancients had bells both for sacred and profane purposes, 
Polybius and Suetonius mention them ; ^ and we learn by a tale 

« FoBbroke's Enc. of Antiq. roL i. p. 108. 

k Suetonius in August, c. 91. Dio. cecciT, p. 52a. Glois. Dn Cange, 
▼• ii. p. 9&. 



MR THl HltTOlT or 




EROM AN ILLUMINATED HANVSCEIPT IN TUS 
BOYAL LIBRARY. 



TJkBISH CRIISGH3 



Soctemb^y ttefe sudMt tine was ^bwuimd Gy Otnk. Pikky 
>a88iire8 us that the tomb of Pomniia^ kipg cf Toscaay, wm^ 
ibung round with bells/ The hour of bathing was made known 
at Rome, hj the «ouiid of a hAU die night watchiiian carried 
■one, and it served .to calf up the servants kk great houses. Sfa^ep 
4iad them tied about their necks to frighten away wolves, or 
.rather by way of annlel.. 

Paulinas, bishop of Nola, is generally considered as the first 
person who introduced bells into ecclesiastical service, about 
the year 4M ; and we are told by an ancient historian,** Aat in 
the year ^0, Lupus; bishop of Orleans, being at Sens,- then 
besieged by the army of Clothair II., frightened away the be- 
^iegerv %y ringing the belk of St. Steph«i'i» ohurob, wkich i» a 
cfear proof tliat they were not at Ihalt time generally know» Ia' 
France. -' 

The first larger bells are-men^oned by Bode in Ike year tM,* 
before Ait period tiie eariy British Chrislians made use oli 
woodien rattles (tocnr Ht^na) to cttU the cengpsgatkm of the: 
fkidkAil together. 

Handobells probably ^rst appeared at religions processions ;, 
»aA were afterwards used by the secular musicians. The small ^ 
beDs were aol alwi^s held ia tbe hand, they were sometimen. 
sBipeoded upoe a stead, and Sitniek, with hemniefs. The an-r. 
DMLed figure/ mrhich ftSbr4e e ewQus^, example of tbisrkind. l|, 
copied from a manuscript of the fourteenth century; it ifl| 
intended as a representatioo of king David, and is affixed to 
<)iie of bit psalms/ 



* C. Plln. Natar. Hist. lib. xxxti. c. 13. 

* Tincent in Spec. Hist. lib. xcxiii. c. e. ttpnd Spel. Gl«8t« 

* BedsB Hist. Eccl. lib. iv. c. 23. Rapin, vol. i. p. 414. 
^ Most obligingly lent me by Mr. Faulkeer. 

* li, tbii Rofiyi UkntTr vmktA, n v. HI Stn^l^e S^QxU anJ 
PattilDef, p. 359. 

c 2 



44 PARISH eHUBCM, 



' ffh^ arrnral of kings and great personages, was ancienlly 
greeted by the ringing of bells ; 

** Bicardum Regem Angliae Accone in campanaruiQ 
pi^ssipo et cantu Ecclesiastico receptum fuisse.'' 

He Jftomutt tie ®alf rim, HI. S^, 

9Li ILotfratttf a noMre bint 

let la floittf ntottlt ioie U n»u 

Vri Sbeitit «Qfittrrrttt to»t fontvt\^al Vatif^ : 

0tt JBtv tofinttt n'i poiuon oir/ 

According to Ingulphus [foL53] the fint regular peal of 
hfitU W94 put up in Croyland Abbey , by the famous Abbot 
Turketullusy who died about 870r 

Six different names have been applied to bells used in the 
diuech service.^ Ingulpbusi abbot of Croyland , who died 
about 11100, speaks of the^ ibl^ being well known in his time, 
fMd says, that Turketnllus, the fi|rst ^bbot of Cfoylapd/ gave 
six bells to that monastery, that is to say, two great ones, 
which he named Bartholomew and JBfeUidine ; two of a middling 
size, called TurketuUum and Beterine ; two small ones, deno- 
minated Pega and Bega ; he also caused the great bell to be 
piade, called Onlti, which was tuned to die other bells, and 
produced an 'admirable harmony, not to be equalled in' 
IBngland." 

The bells used in the monasteries were sometimes rung with 
brass ropes, with silver ring^ at the ends for the hand ; ihey 
were ancien^y rung by the priests themselves, afterwards by 



* Matt Parjgy an. 1245, p. 4eS. 

^ 8p«lman. Olos^. Verbo, Camp. Dr. Jortin's Rsmarki pn Bccl. -Hilt, 
vol; ill. p. 2Sl. 



PARISH CHUECK. 4i 

the serrauUy and ■ometimes by those incafiable of other duties, 
as persons who were blind. 

*" 9tt ^t mottAAtni^ of ti28e0tmifi»t^ t^tt 
|0a» a tosre song nuitt koltofi koa* IiUiilie» 
mi^otii tl^e mpnlttf I^aH oiHrsiteli to iim0^ t|^^ 

The following ceremonies were fodmerly used at the baptism. 
Af bells : — 

1. The bell must be first baptized before it may be hung 
in the steeple. 

% The bell must be baptized by a Bishop or his deputy. 

3. In the baptism of the bell there is used holy water, 

oil, salty cream, &c. 

4. The bell must have godfathers, and they must be 

persons of high rank. 

5. The bell must be washed by the hand of the Bishop. 

6. The bell must be solemnly crossed by the Bishop. 

7. The bell must be anointed by the Bishop. 

8. The bell must be washed and anointed in the name of. 

the Trinity. 

9. At the jtmptism of the bell they pray literally for the 

bell. 

The following is part of the curious prayers used at the abora 
ceremony: 

*' Lord jgrant that whensoerer this holy bell, thus washed 
.and baptised and blessed, shall sound, all deceits of Satan, 



* ]>« Cange Verbo, Circuli Campsiia. Spelman, t. Csmpaoa. Golden 
Legend, f. clixxyiii. b. 



411 lenum. cHi]'«ff«.i 

* 

may be driven away , and that devotiiin mitji aitfrease m CHuriaH* 
tian men when they hear it : O Lord, pour upon it thy heavenly 
blessht^y thatwitoiivtsannds in Ay people's ears, ^y may 
.adoi« thee ; may Aefr tiSdlt and* dlsvotion iiicreaffe ; the devif be 
jafraid and trembUsy andliljratfthe so«nd of it: (XLord, sancr 
tify it by thy Holy Spirit, that the fiery darts of the 'devi! may 
be made to fly backwards at the sound thereof; that it may 
c M l y q p ii»fl«DBr tlle^iger of windy tlmodep, S^. r and grant. 
Lord, a)^^ all that come to the church at the sound of it, may- 
b%fr«QiirQiniaUitemptAtiomi dlthe dieviJL"^ 

The dislike of evil spirits to bells is extremely well described 
t>y "fTynken de Worde, ip-tjb^ (?oUen Legend*: 

'' -It is said, the evil spiryies, that be<i> in dbe regon 
of thayr«, doubte moche when they here the belles 
rmigen ; andf thb 10- tile eanae why- the Mies ben ron gen 
whan^it thondreth, and whan-grvtelMnpeets- and' outrages 
of w«thei h»|pe^f; to Ibe ende* thai tbe^ fiepde^ and 
wyched spirytes shold be abashed ajid fleey and cease 
ofthe movynge of Cempe^te.* 

It was customary to put the following verses within the 
itilaepl^, opetller> to i iiii btami yrpity^*^ 

Laudq Deum verum, plebem voco^ congrego clerum, 
itejkhctos phrol j^tem Jiigo, fiitadacwo. 

I praise the true God, call the people, convene the clergy » 
Laments Ihe' cwnv, flli||Mi pe8wlMi#^ whw gfpaverHBwfuiL 

ThQ gassijQig belLw^ anciently rung for two purposes ,^ one 
lo b^spe^k the pvayiers pf all good Christian people^ for a squI 



• P<mUficAle Romanum, Auctoritate Pontiftci». lil). iL cap. di 
Benedict. Signi rtX Cawpanw. V^nitifci, ItWK 

I Spelman's GloM. t. Campaaa. 



\ 



PABIfiH 



cArcv. ^ 



Jiiil dqpartitfg« 4be i^Atr to Am^ Mwmf Ihtteidl 4|>uEito mho 
fltood ai thft ked'« fool, XNc about ibeiioiisa* Hmia*! i^Aapf, 
ntclvtMYt ot tbe additicMial labour^ w^a aooaaiaafd thto Ugh 
price demanded for tolling the greatest bell of the clmctthi £^w 
that being the loudest, the evil spirits might go further off to 
be dear of ^eiMund.* 

Some MconntsMy, that at tbe 6mA <tf a mail teeelMHa 
were niDg ia honor of tbe Tmity ; at a wc^an'.s daoease mi^ 
IwOy because the second person of the Trinity apnnif. litim 
a woman.^ 

Sndi mM the general opittion Teg p ectlag £tte -t ttL e at y of beU» 
before the Refarmatkmi belt since ihti {nerkM "^ it ba» been 
the usual course in 'Ae C^bvrch 6t Bitglatidy anA it is- a very 
laudable one, that -when any sick person lay 'Cbswinif on, a 
bell should toll to gtre'iNitice to the aei gh lwn i fi i , that Aey might 
jpray for the dying party, which was commonly called a paasing^ 
beU, because the sick person was passing hence to another 
world; and when his breath had expired, the betl rung out, 
that the neighbours might cease their prayeni, for &at the 
f arty was dead.^® 

The saint^s bell was not so called from the name of the tlAat 
that was inscribed on it, or of the church ta which it belonged^ 
but because it was always rung out when the priest came to- 
' that part of tlie service beghmhig, ^ Smote, fiancte, Sancte 
Somine Deur Sabaoth;^ pnrpoi^dy tfiat those persons who 
could not come to church, might know at what a solemn office 
the congregation were at that instant engaged in; and so. 



■^••«««»Brt««*«toa«bitf««»*«aMM^--i»i^Hi.«aa*MM^— ^Marf>MaaM«K*aM^»-^_«M*_BAia«a 



^ Itt Dmiglair Kenia Mttaniiica is the fepve«etttatidti df al)«11, whith 

IM beea b«rle4 witk the 4eai, l^r tk# etp«likii «r ^vfl sj^ia^ beiag ttms 

*fled by the primitive British ChristiaiiB, who had imbibed this practice 

from their pagan ancestors. Plate xx^ fig. 4. .'Weker de SecreHs, lib,' 

»iv. c. 16^ 

^ Popular Aatiqaltie^ ii. p. 1210. 

^Chaaacef'anisteiy of Hertford, p. 167. 



48 PAnmi cnvncu. 

even in their absence, be once at least moved '' to lift up 
their hearts to Him tiiat made them." *• For this reason, the 
saint's bell was generally hung, where it might be heard the 
farthest!* 

** Bells/' says Dr. Fuller, ''are no effectual charm against 
lightning. The frequent firing of abbey churches by lightning, 
oonfuteth the proud motto commonly written on the belb in 
their steeples, wherein each beU intiiled itself to a six-fokl < 
efficacy; viz. '. 

fitun'i^ Heatl^ S ttlh tjt HoUfuU ftitfUt 
Uigl^tttittg anH Cj^unlier, 9 tvtiH Mw^tVp 
en S^ttat^ M, to tt^uvt^ 9 talh 
Cl^e tfterps itiOf 9 taiw from IirH, 
C)e kDiti]i0 00 lUrttf 9 Ho ti^vttf^t, 
0Un'» tvntl tsiqtf 9 Ho iLMWint.' 

Whereas it appears, that abbey steeples, though quilted with 
bells almost cap-k-pie, were not proof against the sword of 
God's lightning. Yea, generally, when the heavens in tem- 
pests did strike fire, the steeples of abbeys proved often their 
timber, whose frequent burnings portended their final destrue- 
tion." 

Weever gives the following as the original inscription, — 

Ftmera plango, fiUgurm frangOf Sabbaia pango, 
Exciio kntot, diaipo ventoi^ paco cruenioi,* 






It has anciently been reported," observes Lord Bacon, 
and is still received, that extreme applauses and shouting of 
people assembled in multitudes, have so rarefied and broken 
the air, that birds flying over have fallen down, the air not 
being able to support them ; and it is believed by some, that 



* Antiq. Rep. vol. ii. p. 49(1. 

^ Peck's Amikis of Stamford, lib. viii. p. 51, SS. Art. 97. 

■ Church Hiftory, b. it. c. 9. * Fun. Men. p. 122. 



PARISH cntmcft. 4» 

freat ringuig of beUa, in populovs oifties, hath chased awaj 
ihnder, and. abo dissipated pestilent air ; all which may be 
also from the concussion of the air, and not from the sound."* 

Ever since the introdoction of beljs, the English have been 
•distinguished for their proficiency iovthe art of ringing, and for 
4faeir partiality to this amusement 

HeQtzner, who wrote at the end of the sixteenth century, 
iSays, ^' the English excel in dancing and music, for they ar^ 
active and lively ;" a little fi^ther on, he adds, ** they are 
vastly fond of great noises that fill the air, such as firing cf 
^cannon, beating of drums, and the ringing of bells, so that it 
is commoii for a number of them, that have got a glass in their 
heads, to get up into some belfry, and ring bells for hours 
together for the sake of exercise«^ ^ Hence this country has 
been called, '' the ringing .island/' 

Most of our parish xlhurclies have a peal of bells, which are 
rung upon occasions of joy and festivity, and sometimes at the 
itineral of a ringer, when they are muffled, and the sounds thus 
^emitted are well adapted to ^ the mind with melancholy. It 
appears by the observations of a Imodem traveller, that in 
Catholic countries a very different method is adopted in ringing 
bells.* 



The custom of welconiing the arnival of Ung^ or ambassadors 
with a cheerful peal, -is a very ancient custom, and seems to 
have been derived originally from the French. ** Et est 
assavoir que en la dite ville, et semblablement par toutes les 
aatres villes, oh il a est^^ tant en venant k Paris comme en son 
jetour, il n'a est6 rejreu en quelque Eglise k procession^ ne 
jcloches sonnies k son venic^ An. 1378." ^ 



* Nataral Hist. Centii. p. 49. Lond. 16S5. 

^ Itin. published by Lord Orford. Straw. Hill^ p. 88. 

* Gait's Trarols in the Levant, 4to. p. 3S. 

* JDn 6wige, OloiB. Verb. Canpana. 

H 



60 PARIflM CHURCH. 

^ Bells were rung ia honour of the barons when passiog through 
towns.* It was anciently a sign ot dominion, and was often 
stipulated by charter. 

Ringing the morning and evening bell was to excite the 
people to repeat The Angehu, according to the custoni of the 
Catholic church.^ 

The custom of striking them with a hammer, not a clapper, 
orig^ated with the mode of summoning the monks to the 
refectory.* On the Thursday in Passion Week the ropes were 
tied ^p. 

flinging of rounds in sucoession, descending fironi the leasl 
to the greatest, produces no variety, for the repetition of the 
pBMne sounds in a s)iort time excites disg^t, for which reasoii 
the ringing of changes has beefi introduced, which, by cpffti.- 
Bually shifting the successioii of the bells, produces a mos( 
pleasing effect*' 

This improvement in the art of ringing, is thought to be 
peculiar to the people of this country, but the antiquity of it 
.iff not easily to be ascertained/ Ringing bells backwards 
19 mention^, ^n4 probably consisted in descending from 
the^mallest bell, ai|d ^n4ii|g ifith the largest; this is practised 
by the ringers a^ a mark of disgust. It clearly appears, from 
the observations of M. de Reaumur, in the ** Memoires 
de I'Academie Royale des Inscriptions,'' that the most eligible 
figure for bells would be the segment of a sphere, instead of 
the present shape* 

Of muffling oj buffeting bells, there is no precedent in and- 
qmty; and Brand thinks, th^t it was introduced after the 
Restoration.' 



T* 



> Berkeley MSS. p. 129. ^ Pop. Antiq. ii. 1S8. 

* I>ii Cange y. Tympanmn. * Faolkner's Kensingtoii, 4lo. p. SM. 

• S^wkins' Hist. Mua. rol. ir. p, W, Jll, 'Pop. Antiq. U. 12^. 



PARISH CHURCH. 91 

tn most churches the peal of bells consbts of eight in number 
Irhich are very seldom well performed on, except by the society 
of '^ College Youths/' the parish ringers being ignorant of the 
musical changes practised by the former. 

It b io be feared, that the foregoing brief sketch of the 
history of bells, will prove inadequate to the gratification of • 
the curiods. But it would be difficult to extend the enquiry 
to iiiy greater length on sofid ground. 

l*he following inscriptions are on the belb in thb tower : 

First BelL: 

liiese eight bells and frames, ancf all appurtenancesi were 
new made, and ii considerable weight of metal added to the 
old belb, A. D. 1723. The cost, near two hundred and fifty 
pounds, was defrayed by many gentlemen and other 
inhabitants of thb parish. Sit Deus propitius illb. 

Second Bell: 
R« Phelps made me, 1723. 

Third Bell: 

Cast 1672, Boydell Cuper, William Phillips, Q.Vf. 

New made with the other bells, 1723. 

^•B. There b cast on thb bell 24 Sang William's hitf crdwii#/ 

Fourth Bell: 
R. Phelps, fecit, 1723. 

Fifth Bell: 
it. Phelps, fecit, 1723V 

Sixth Bell? 

R. Phelps made me, 1723. 
K B. There b cast in thb bell six Kmg WiUiamVerowMhr 



£2 ^AttiBU cnvtten. 

Seventh Bell: 

Cast 1714, Edmund Gibson, D. D. Rector,^ Arthur Wamerr 
John Pace, Peter Courthbrpe, Church Wardens. New made 
with the other bells, 1723, R. Phelps, fecit. 

Eighth Bell: 

Cast 1678» George Hooper, d. d. Rector. 

Nicholas Wheatley, William Kemp, Church Wardens. 

New made, with the other seyen bells, 1723. 

R. Phelps, fecit. 

Belfries did not come into use till about the seventh century, 
Alfred is said to have first erected a tower for them at 
Athelney ; and they were not always hung in one tower ; * 
round the walls ^ of this tower seyeral boards are fixed, with 
the following inscriptions : — 

** Monday, 20Ui October 1^7, the society of College 
Youths rang in this steeple a true and complete peal of 
6,040 grandsire trebles, in three hours and ten 
minutes." 

On another — 

" Tuesday, 31 March 1778, the Society of London 
Youths rang ii^ this steeple a true and complete peal of 
6,190 Oxford treble bobs, in three hours aiidtwentj«>' 

one minutes.'' 

• 

On another tablet — . . 

<< On Thursday, February 20, 1806, the society of 
Westminster Youths rang in this steeple a true and 
complete peal of grandsire trippleSf consisting of 6,040 
changes, which was performed in three hours and 
thirteen minutes." 






m\ 



'S'E»d.>r Aati^. p. 108. Angl. Saor. I. 528. 



PARISH CHURCH. S9 

Ob another tablet, aear the last — • 

. Lambeth Yimths: 
** The above society rang in this steeple, on Monday, 
March 24, 1806, a complete peal of grandsire trebles, 
consisting of 5,040 changes, in three hours and twelve 
minutes." 

. The following are some of the most interesting items, diai 
occur respecting the bells, in the -churchwardens' books. 

A. 1579. Payd for making the great clapper to a 
smithe in White Chapel, it waying 
xxxi lb et dim at vi d. the pounde. ... 15 9 

A. 1598. Item, the olde great belle that was 
broken in the time of Roger Wynslo, 
Rychard Sharpe, and John Lucas, ' 
churchwardens, in 1598, did contein in 
weighte xiiii cwt. one quarter, and 
xxiilb •^••.•••.. 

A. 1623. Payd for ryngynge when the prince came 

from Spayne ..0 12 O 

A. 1630. 
June 27. To the ryngers the day the prince was 

baptized 3 

A. 1633. 
Oct. 15. Payd for rynynge on the duke's birth 

day , 7 

A. 1706. 
Ap. 10. Gave the ringers when the siege of' 

Gibraltar was raised • » 15 O 

Accotding to Dr. Ducarel, a beacon was formerly placed on 
the top of this tower,* but Mr. Denne says^ the short distance 
it is from the gate-house of the Palace,* where the valuable 
writings of the Prerogative Court are kept, makes it appear 

f Nichols's Lambeth, p. 27. 




M FABfSH CHURCHv 

very unlikely that it would be allowed. Lambkrd's Ferambiii*' 
lations in Kent, shews, that Uwr eastern beacon nearest 
London was upon Shooter^' Hill, and that in Middlese^L upon* 

Hampstead HiU, but in Hollar's view 
of London from Laibbeth, drca 1666^ 
the beacon is plainly shewn, as may be 
seen in the annexed engraving ; and also 
in Ms' view of^ Lambeth Palace, 1647 ; 
and in the view of Lambeth from the 
Thames, in Nichols' History. The bea- 
con is also shewn in a view taken by a 
Florentine artut in the suite of Cosmo, Duke of Tuscany, itf 
1060. At present there are no remiuns of it existing. 

The following a:re some of the principal items respecting the 
clock, that occur in the churchwardens' books. 

A. 1585. Agreed that Holloway shall have iiii«. 
a yeare-for oyle, for the clocke, and 
bells, and for candle to the clocke, ^. 

A. 1500. Payd ^to Lewis Smalle, for keping the 

clocke, his wages • 12 0" 

1605. To Smalle for keping the clocke ••••.« 16 

1632. Payd for a new clock for the church • • 5 

There were no clocks in England in Alfred's time. He is- 
said to have measured his time by wax candles, marked witb 
circular lines to distinguish the hours.^ 

The origin of the invention of clocks is not known. 

About the year ItOO, Ralphe Snowe, Esq. gave a flag- 
staff and silk union flag, which was hoisted at the north-west 
comer of the tower. About 1717 the flag blew down, and no 
other was erected till 1777> when die churchwardens fixed one. 



* Brand's Popular Antiqaities, p. 14. 



PARISH CHURCH. 66 

fmd on the usual rejoicing days displayed the flag as here- 
tofore-* 

In 1778 a handsome gothic portal was erected at the west 
end of the church, by the churchwardens, for the convenience 
of those parishioners who keep carriages. In the same year a 
{)ublic subscription was opened, and 43/. 5t. raised for adding 
% swell, and other improvements, to the org^n; the charity 
chHdren were also removed into a new gallery built for them 
near the organ, by faculty from Doctors Commons. 

In 1769 it was .discovered that the column next westward 
from the puljpit, had beep deprived of its foundation, by digging 
graves too near ; and that, instead of supporting the church 
walls, it was suspended, having no solid bearing; it was 
.accordingly repaired.^ 

The inside of the church is light, and handsomely ornamented ; 
the roof, over the nave is ceiled, with plaster ; but the side 
.aisles were covered with timber 6nly, till the year 1769, when 
.the churph w.as Iftst repaired, and the aisles plastered. 

The walls are wainscotjed about seven feet high, and higher 
liJA' about the nUoF; the pews are fropted with oak, and the 
galleries have also oak bplection-work fronts ; and over the 
entrance into the chancel is the Decalpgue, be.tween the Lord's 
Pray.er and Creed ; the first supported by Moses and Aaron 
in their habits, the other sustained by two angels. Immediately 
pver the Decalpgue is a glo^y, with the word rTTP surrounded 
with cherubims ; between two columns of the Corinthian order, 
on each side of the piece, ^d against the north and south sides 
pf the wall, are twp augel^, one sounding a trumpet, the other 
holding a flaming heart, the whole is well painted in oil colours. 
The altar-piece is painted in imitatiou of green marble, adorned 
on each side with carved pilasters, having gilded capitals ; with 
ientablature and compass pediment of the Corinthian order, gilt, 
under which is a glory, and in the middle is the Decalogue, 



« * Nichols' JLambttfa, Appen. p. 154. ^ Ibid, p. 1^9, 



J9 VABISB CHUKCm. 

wUfi the Lord's Prayerand Creed on either aide, in gold Jetten 
on a criauon ground, sarrounded wiUi a rich gilt border, the 
-whole has a very beautiful effect; aiid«ii the cornice are tiiree 
^t TftBes, placed at regular dbtances. 

In 1016, the church was repaired and ornamented bf 
VA^ntary contdbntions. A new marble font, su[^ited by 
octagonal pillars, the aide* 
' alternately fiiOed, and over 
It a handsome canopy, 
romid the edge «f which is 
painted, " Suffer little chil- 
dreD to come (into me, and 
forbid them aot, for of such 
is the kingdom of heaven ;" 
waa given by Mr. Hart ; and 
in allusion to the name of the 
donor, four heartu of lead 
were fixed within it ; the 
moulds, and the places of 
the rivets are still to be seen. 
It ia placed in a large pew, 
at the north-west comer of 
the north aisle. 

Fonts, in 4he primitive 
times, were not placed in 
chuiches, but the custom ot 
those ages waa to baptize in 
riven; 'or thebaptistcry was 
a kind of font in which the 
catechumens were plunged. 
" We go down into the 
water," says St. Barnabas, 
" full of sin and filth, bat we 




■ Ridley's Virw of EccL-andCiTtlLsw, f.lTO. 
ChretieM, p. 118. 



Flcorjr Mceon des . 



PARISH CHURCIL. 57 

mscend with fruits and benefits in our hearts ;'' * and so Tertullian 
represents baptized persons as " entered into the water/"* and 
''^ let down into the water;" and Justin Martyr describes the 
«ame by being washed in water, and calls the place where they 
-are baptized a washing place or a bath.^ 

But this practice was discontinued through persecution, and 
priyate houses were chosen for their reception* In more 
peaceable times they were established near the church, in a 
4ittle building purposely appointed ; afterwards leave was given 
io erect them in the church porch; and, at last, about the 
sixth century, they were placed inside the church, had orato- 
tories, and altars, and were adorned with various pictures, sudh 
as John baptizing our. Lord, Peter, Cornelius, <^c, the Font 
being of very rich work ; one is described as being supported 
by twelve oxen. The fonts were anciently locked up in Lent, 
because Easter and Whitsuntide, except upon peril of death, 
were seasons of baptism^ This custom was abolished about 
4he year 1100, chiefly because it wa» dangerous, from fear of 
death, and the number of infants who died ; but the old custom 
of baptizing at Easter and Pentecost remained long after.** 
Sometimes they were constructed of silver, of which kind were 
those for ancient princes, &c. the water was changed every 
seventh day.** 'Wheresoever they were placed they were held in 
the highest veneration. St. Athanasius complains sadly of 
impjety in his time^ «uch as never was heard of even in war, 
dutt men should set fire to churches and fonts : '' Good God ! *' 
he exclaims, ** Christ-killing Jews and heathenish atheists^ 
have, without any reverence, entered and defiled the fonts." ^ 
At first there were several fonts in each baptistery, because 
they baptized a number at once, all of whom received the 
eucharist and confirmation immediately after.* But these bap- 

* Bamab. Epist Cathol. p. 70. Oxon, 1676. ^ De Spectac, p. 5S8. 

De Baptis. p. 507. ^ Apolog. p. 94, 07. <l Fosbroke's £nc. of 

Antiq. vol. i. p. IDS. * Mede's Works, p. S30. ' -Epist. ad Orthpdox. 
' TertuU. de Coron. Milit. p. SS6. De Bapt p. 602. Domi Chardon. 
Hist, des Sacremens. torn. i. p. S, 405. Dom. Martin de Ritibus Eccl. 
Atttiqais, torn. i. Bingham, b. x. and xi. Dr. Jortin's Remarka, &cu 
voLiii. p. 102. 

I 



6S PARISH CHURCH. 

tUtries were only established in great cities where bishops 
resided, who alone had the right of baptizing : but afterwards 
they allowed parish churches to have fonts, for the more com- 
modious administration of this ceremony.^ 

The ancient duty for christening was the chrysome, or face- 
clodi, ^hich covered the child at its baptism ; but if it died, 
only two-pence, the woman's offering at )ier churching, the 
face-cloth being kept to wind the child in. Mr. Douce says, 
that it was the ancient practice in baptism, not only to use 
water but oil, which was called ^hrism, with this the priest 
made the sign of the cross on the child's breast, and between 
the shoulders; and, after imn^ersion, made another cross on 
the head with the oil, then the chrysome was put on, the priest 
askipg at the same time, the child's name, ai^d saying a prayer. 
It was sometimes ornamented with a sort of crown, worked in 
crimson thread, alluding to the passion of Christ, and the 
crown of eternal life obtained by his sacrifice ; it was to be 
worn seven days, and taken off on the eighth, symbolical of 
the seven ages of man's life. After the Reformation the oil 
was omitted, and the chrysome worn till the mother's 
churching.^ 

On the Saturday after Good Friday the following mysticid 
ceremony is observed in the Komish church : — 1 . The priest 
divides the water in the form of a cross, to teach us that it 
confers grace and sanctity by the means of Chrbt crucified. 
2. He touches it with his hai^d, praying that it may be free 
from all impression of evil spirits. 3. He signs it thrice with 
the sign of the cross, to bless it in the. name of the Holy 
Trinity. 4. He parts it with his hand, and casts out some of 
it towards the four quarters of the world, to instruct us, that 
the grace of baptism, like the rivers of Paradise, flows all 



• Faulkner's Keosingtoii, 4to. p. 196. ^ Robinson's Hist, of Bapr 

lasm, jc. 18. p. 110, seq. ArcbsDolog. vol. x. Lewis's Thanet, p. 14^, 
tpoace on Shakespeare, i. 488. 



#ARISH CHURCB. 69 

6ver the eiurth. 6. He blows thrice upon it in the form of a 
cross, beseeching God to bless it by the infusion of his Holy 
Spirit, that it may receive the Virtue' of sanctifying the soul. 
G. He plunges the paschal candle thrice inta it, praying that 
the Holy Ghost may descend upon it, as he did at the baptism 
of Christ in the waters of Jordan. 7. He mixes holy oil and 
chrism with it, to sonify that baptism consecrates us to God, 
and gives us spiritual strength to contend with, and overcome 
all the enemies of our soul/ 

In the Cotton MSS. in the British Museum, is '* The Life 
of Richard Beauchamp Earl of Warwick," in which he is ' 
represented as being baptized naked, by a bishop dipping him 
in a font of water.* 

What might have been the siz'e of the old font, ot what be- 
came of it is not known; it was, however, painted and lined 
With lead. 

Ih 1817 the chancel was wdnscotted by Mr. Woodward, and 
the .seats in the church finished by voluntary subscriptions. 

In 1G37 the communion plate was given by Mrs. Featley, 
and o(her voluntary contributorsr 

In 1681 the structure was so decayed as to require a new 
roof over the nave, and a reparation of the walls ; and in this 
year the roof of the church was raised.^ 

The whole church was beautified and adorned, in 1705, with 
wainscot, painting, carving, &c. 

On the wall over the north gallery is inscribed. 

The roof of this Middle Isle new built and 
parte of the walls repaired, Anno 1G81. 

William Jeanes, and Henry Hyett, Churchwardens. 

■ — — - ■ 1 

* The Office of Holy M'eck, London, 1803. p. xl. 
^ Bib. Cott Julius, £. iv. ^ Pennc's Add. p. 252. 



60 PARISH CHURCIi. 

Underneath the above, on the gallery, is hiscribed, 

A gaHery was built in this place at the charge of 
Mr. Roger Jeston, haberdasher of London, and a 
parishioner of Lambeth, Anno 1615. 

The old gallery was taken down, and a new one- 
erected at the charge of the parish. Anno 1704. 

Geo. Pottinger, "j 

Tho. Cqleman, > Churchwardens 

Fran. Cottrell, ^ 

On the front of the south gallery,. 

Raphe Snowe, gent, after many other bene- 
factions to this church during his life, left £. 100, 
by will, towards the building of this gallery. 

The remaining part of the charge was defrayed by voluntary 
contributions of the parishioners, and the gallery finished,, 
in the year 1708. Tho. Adams, Ob. Fairclough,. and John 
Skinner, Churchwardens. 

On the front of the west gallery, in which is a very large and 
handsome organ, is a dial, dated 1735, and the following 
inscriptions : — 

This gallery was built by the John Richins,*^ 
voluntary contributions of the Tho. Cooper, > Ctarch- 
parishioners. Anno 1C09. Sim. Lemon,. J 

This Church was repaiied and beautified, Anno 1815. 

The Rev. William Vyae, LL. D. Rector. 

John Brooks,. Stephen Keen, Walter Cesser, William Coward,. 

Churchwardens. 

In this church have been several monuments of noble and 
genteel families now lost. ** On a late alteration,'' says 
Mr.Denne, in 1795, ** it was found necessary to take down 




a 















^1 



«.r 



i-'». 









PARISH CHUaCH. 61 

the table monnmentSy but tlie inscriptioiiB of the principal oaies 
are preserved." 

Near the roof, on each side of the nave, are corbels, from 
which arches appear to have been sprung ; on each corbel b a 
dend-angd holding a shield, as follows : 

Smith Side. 

1. Quarterly France and England; most probably pnt op 
by some of the Norfolk {amily. 

2. Canterbury impaling gu. a fess or, in chief a goat's head 
erased; in base three escallops arg. at the base is^ &Ot)l 

9. Ar» a chevron between three cocks heads erased gn* 
quartering az. three crescents arg. impaling arg. a saltier «u 
in chief three escalops gu. 

4« Or or arg. a bend m. impaling gu. three j^lions rampant 
org. 

6. Quarterly az. and gu. four lions of England passant itrp 
on a chief indented arg. three ogresses. 

6. Gu. three goats heads erased arg. homed, and bearded 
er« 

Nwth Side. 

1. The instruments of the crucifixion. 

2. Canterbury impaling quarterly gu. aad erm. 1 and 4 
goats or antelopes heads erased, arg. Archbishop Morton. 

3. On., a lion rampant arg. Mowbray or Mompesson. 

4. Om. semie of cross-crosslets, three lions rampant arg. 
6. Barry of four arg. and $a. per pale countercharged. 
6. Arg. a croesi and in the dexter diief| a canton, gn* 



OS PARISH CHURCR* 

. Those shields were, probably , (with the exception o(6ne]^ 
to be commemorative of contributors to the fabric. It must 
be a matter of regret to the Antiquary, to be informed, that 
fonr out of the twelve, viz. 1. and G. on the North side, and 
1. and 6. on the South side, have disappeared; but for whafi 
reason is not known to the author. 

At the bottom of the middle compartment of the south-east 
window, is painted, on a pane of glass 24 inches by IG, the. 
portrait of a man walking with a pack on his back, a staff iff 
bis hand, and i^ dog following him. 

The idle tradition, that he gave the ground called I%e 
Pedlar^g Acre, for leave to bury his dog in the churchyard, i» 
like that of Mr. Smith, who died 162^, aged 79, the great 
benefactor to many counties, but to this in particular, having 
been a beggar followed by a dog. The latter probably took its 
rise from this picture. There is no obligation on the pari^ to 
repair this pane, though it was repaired by order of the vestry 
in 1610. In the vestry is a drawing of the Pedlar by 
Pouncey. 

In the churchwarden's books are the following items, con- 
nected with the Pedlar : 

1607. Paid to the glazier for a pannell of glasse, 
for the window where the picture of the 
Pedlerstands 2 

170S. March 6. Paid Mr. Price for a new glass 

Pedler 2 

It may be a rebus on the name of some person ; as the figure 
of a Pedlar, carved on a seat in Swaffham church, Suffolk, 
about which a like idle tale was handed down in the most 
serious manner, by Sir William Dugdale and Sir Roger 
Twysden, was nothing more than a rebus of the name of John 
Chapman, who was among the benefactors to the rebuilding or 
repairing of that beautiful church. 






II II I II 1 






1 ^_^ 








m 








% 


V*i 


St 


1 


c 


wf. 


? 



• 



PABISH CHURCH. OS 

Fomieily there was a painted window between the fourdi and 
fifth corbeb, quarterly 1 and 4 azure, three orescents argmi; 
fi and 3 arffent, a cheTTon^l between three cocks heads erased 
guki. - 

In the times of Popery^ the hk^ filti^r was not the only altar 
in Lambeth Church, nor, as jt is believed, in any other parish 
church in England. The churchwardens' accounts have 
rofer^ces to altars to the Virgin Mary, to St. Thomas, to 
fit George, ,to St I!iri(iholas^ a^d to St. Christopher j viz. 

A* 1620. Recieved of John Chamberiin, for the 

Vyrgin lyghtte 1 G 6 ob. 

A. 1522. Recieved of the dutches of Norfolk 
the xvii daye of Julie of the Vyrgin 
lyghU •••.••... 3 6 8 

Recieved of R.ich^ 3rowne for the 
Vyrginlyghtt ••^.•. .••••..*•••• 12 

Recieved of St. Thomas's lyghtt • • • • 13 ob. 

Recieved of John Symonds for St. 
George's lyghtt ..••.: 022 

Recieved of John Massey of St. 
George's lyghtt......^ .•••• 016 

Recieved of Harie Bull and John 
Syms for St George's lyghtt 2 2 

A- 1523. Payd for ii lb nex wex for St, Nicho- 
las lyghtt ^. ...... ,.,.., 3 9 

Pltyd to Calcot for St. Christofer's 
banner 4 8 

A« 1519. Payd for 2 bords for the gable end of 

St Christofer's ile 2 4 

The Virgin Mary being the tutelar saint of the church, it 
can hardly be doubted that her image was fixed in the chancel, 
^nd the allar in honour of her not far from it. Where the other 



\ 



Hi PAHiSH GHINRCH. 

idtetfireieflaced-Mittolbe tuNsMa^ but'dMire was W- 
laiiily an altar in Howard's ehapel, and one tDoat probably ia 
Lclgfa^s chapel ; that of 8t« Christopher gave its name to one 
of the aisles. As there was an altar to St. Nicholas, it is net 
extraordinary that the ceremony of the boy-bishop should be 
dbserred on his fe^ral. The following items, extracted from 
the churchwardens' aecoimts, relate to it : — 

A. 1623. 1529. Paid for a dossyn of mens glorys 3 
Paid for a dossyn and half of children's 

glovys • 1 6 

Paid for die biishopes glovys and tiie 

crossyer glovys ..^r •••.••« «•••••• 004 

Paid for the bushopes soper, and they that 

dyd wayt upon him into the countrey* .031 
Paid for the bushopes dynner, and his 

compauy on St. Nycholas day •••••• 2 8 

Paid to old John Gierke for his labor in 

going with the. byshof^e •• ••••••^. •• Oil 



In the churchwarden's books, fol. 309 — 314, 

** Accounts of Wardeus of the Brethren of Sent 
Crystdver, kept within the church of Lambeth, in the 
tim^of Henry viii.'* 

from which die following payments are extracted : 

Imprimis, Paid to Syr * William Webster, [the 

priest] for i year and i quarter • • • • 8 6 8 
Paid for a carpenter to mend the lyghtts 10 



* The clerical application of the title of Sir, became common with na 
about this time, but whether derived from the custom of France, from 
some pontifical grant, or from the establishment which the Eastern 
mon&itic knights, particularly those of SL John, had acquired in this 
country, is not known. [Brydson's View of Heraldry, p. 1T4, 175.] 
Tyrwhitt says, that '< the title of Sire was usually giyen by courtesy to 
priests, both secular and regular,'^ [Canterbory TUes^ ill. 887| note] ; 



PM for H preest when SyrWilliaB 

went on business •• 4 • 4 •••••.»•«• • 1 

Paid for odeiidtng tapets 1 & 

Paid for the expenses of fests ;.*..• 4^1 1 ' 

Paid for the drawght^ of the mortmayne S 4 

Paid for 2 new torches 4 ..•;... i .. ; 13 4 

Paid for 2 tapers ; i 1 O 

Paid for making the altar clothe • 8 

Paid for costs and charges of the fetite 2 7 8 

Christopher was a saint of such high repute, that the figure 
6f him was frequently placed near the principal door of 
^trance into the church.- He was presumed to be the 
gftardian against violent and sudden death ; but his protection 
Was supposed to be only in force from day to day, an4 to extend 
only to those persons who had in tlie day an opportunity of 
oontemplating his image. 

Of these altars^ only one seems to hare been replaced on thi 
Aviral of Popory> in the reign of Queen Mary, and Chat was 
th^ «ltar in Howard's chapel. 

A. 1557. Paid to Nycholas Brymsted, for making' 
up the syde awtor in my lady of Nor- 
folke's chapel, and paving in the 
churche, and for sande .^ 4 4 

l^reacfaing having be^ so unfrequent in p&rochial churche^i 
teerore the sixteenth century, it was not to be expected that 
much expence would be incurred in the structure of a pulpit t 

bat, considering the situation of Lambeth church, it is some* 

-—^ — ^ * — - ■ — - - - ■ 

mad that it *< it was so usually given to priests, that it has crept even into 
Acts of Parliament," in the reigns of Edw. IV. and Henry VJI. [Gl. vo. 
She.] In an early period, in England, priests were denominated God*a 
&iffghttf. [P. Ploughman, fol. (776.] Some of the Prebendaries hi 
CMIe<frab' in Pnnice, eBptcHlVf in Vienne, were called Milites Eccle* 
Itesttctf Irat thtr distlncttini was conferred, however, by royal charter, 
A.]^. ISor. [DttCange, ubi supra p. 740.] In Scotland, priests wera 
taiBad, in derision, Fpp^ Knights, At « Tery early period it was ase4 

% 



€0k PARISH CHURCH. 

what strange, that in 1522, when it was judged expedient to 
have a new pulpit, the old one. should not be worth more than 
eight pence * Tbe new one cost 20 1. and was in use till 1615, 
when Archbishop Abbot, of his own costs and charges, gave 
' another that cost 15 /. It was placed against the south east 
pillar of the njare. In it was fixed an hour glass, of which 
there are no remaioa. 

With respect to the use of hour glasses in churches, Mr. 
Den6e,^ says, "Some have imagined that the antient fathers 
preached, as the old Greek and Roman Orators declaimed by 
an hour glass; on the contrary it has been remarked that the 
sermons of several of thfem were not of this length; and it is 
particularly said that there arc many sermons in St. Austin's 
tenth volume, which a man might deliver with distinctness and 
ptopriety in eight minutes, and some in alnrost half that time.^ 
In the churchwardens' accounts of St. Helen's, Abingdon, in 
1599, '* fourpence*' is charged for an " Hour-glass for the 
Pulpit** This, Professor Ward, observed was the first 
instance he had met with it. It is not likely they were used 
for the same purpose before the reformation. ' 

In the churchwardens' accounts of this parish are two entries 
respecting the Hour-glass; the first is in 1579, twenty years 
before that at St. Helen's, when 1«. 4d. was " payd to 
Vorke for the frame in which the hower standeth" ; and the 
second in 1615, when 6s, fSd. was ** payd for an iron for th» 
Uowr-glass" 

' Mr. Fosbroke says " Preaching by the Hour-glass waspicf 
an end to by the Ptrrifanr.*' • • It 4iowevcr appears that they 
were made use ojf in the Puritanical times of Cromwell, when 
tl^^pfeacber ofi his' first appearanbe In the |>ulpit, and naming 
]tbe .text .tup^ i|p tjljegtass/'andif the sefmdn did not last till 
the: glass wasjou^ i^ was said by the con|;regation that ha was 

t hQlmnhw^rfijij^' Accounts. ^ Addfiod^ Hist lAnl^etbj^p^^sqa., 

livj« ^H :* ! -Bfi^ li<|#*f Antiq. Obrist.Cb. .b..v, e. 4. iffl.y , : 

' AroKflNilogia, vol. i. pp. IC, 23. « Eno. of Xiiii4ijjrfil^.f^l(l^ 




CURIOUS HOUR GLASS STAND, 

Id the Chnreh of St. Albu'i, Wood-MHat, LoimIm. 

m^ Plate is Migingli/ prtienled Id Iht Uirk by 

H.C.Boaln.Bi^.F.S.A. 



PARISH CHURCfi. OT 

Uij: and if on iht «>tber band, he contiiiued much longer^ 
they would yawn and stretch till the dbcouree was finished. * 
Butler, alludes to them as being used by the Puritans. ^ I think 
itmay he said that their Qse was not '* put an end to" by them, 
hut on the contrary was gpreatly increased. It n most probable 
that they were discontinued immediatehj after the Puritans, in 
the time of Charles II. when the minds of the people were more 
relax. Hogarth in his ^' Sleeping Congregation/' has introduced 
an hour-glass on the left side of the preacher, and Mr. Ire- 
land observes in his description of this plate, that they are "still 
placed on some of the pulpits in the provinces." Lecturer^' 
pulpits had an hour-glass on one side and a bottle on the other. * 
At Waltham, co. Leicester, by the pulpit was an hour-glass 
in an iron frame mounted on three high wooden brackets. <* In 
Ae present time a very perfect and interesting one exists in the 
church of St. Alban, Wood Street, London. On the right of 
the reading desk, is a spiral column, on its top an enclosed 
square compartment with small twisted columns, arches, &c. 
all of brass, in which, is the hour-glass in a frame of a long 
square form ; the four sides are alike, richly ornamented With 
pillars, angels sounding trumpets &c. Both ends terminate 
with a line of crosses pattce and fleur de lis, somewhat 
resembling the circle of the crown, ail of raised brass. 
" Mr. Thomas Wadeson, Parish Clerck, gave a brass branch for 
the church, and two small ones for the pulpit and reading dcs^» 
and a stand for the Hour- ff lass, " • 

Concerning the present pulpit there is this entry in the vestry 
minutes; "June 14, 1G98, where as Mr. Kaphe Snowe, tr^a- 
^urer to the Archbbhop of Canterbur}% observing the pulpit to 
be old, and to stand at present inconveniently, hath given 
ft new pulpit, reading desk, and clerks pew, to be fixed in 



t^ 



m 

* Gent iMag. vol'. Ixx'iv. p. 201. ^ Hudibrai, Part i. can. iii. v. lO&l. 

* Eac. of Aati<}. vol. i. p.tOT ■ * Ntcholfl' Hist, of Lete. it. p. 38ft. 

« Goat Mag. vol. xttt^ p aoo, where the r^ is as mgou'lni^ of it 



t$ ?4Rf8H (PBUfieS. 



; 



^ more ootMrentent place; it is this day ordered in the vestrf, 
that the new pulpit, &c. foe placed against the pillar joined I9 
the chancel on the south side; and that to make room for thenii 
the seats that are there at preset may be taken ^wa^ so far ai 
Ihere shall be occasion."' 

This pulpity and the desks, were subsequently remoired intg 
the chancel, and afterwards into their present situation at the 
fentrance from the chancel into the nave. 

The frame about the Communion table was fixed up in 1G2Q|, 
fA the following extract from the churchwardens' book shews. 

ImprimlS| Paid to James Simpson, joyner, . for 
making the frame about the commu- 
nion, with scrues and iron works • . 6 6 
Item, for lyme, sand, and works in levelling the 

chancel • 17 

Item, for matting the frame about the communion 

table 

Item, for wainscott and setting the upper end of 

^6 chancel ••••••••••• ••,.. 2 G 

8 16 6 

Other entries in the churchwardens* accounts relating to th^ 
' Pommunion table and chancel. 

lCfL6. Paid to Richard Carver for work done 
about the screens betwixt the church and 
chancel • •.•.....•.•..• 1 11 Q 

1643. Paid for taking down the rails about the 

communion table • 1 

1.644. Xteceived for iron bars that were about the 

chancel, weighing 842 lb. at 1} cf ^ • 2 3 

)G44. Paid to Edward Marshall for 2 day«s work 

in levelling the chancel ,•••••• ^ ,. .^ •• . 4 

I944* To the carpenter for taking down the screenes 

^(we^ tha cbiircli aii4 tfa^ dumod M • f ^ ^9 d 



PAmsH c^vRca. q^ 



s 



I.G44. Paid to th^ piuotor for writing the x Com* 

inandments * 2 6 

}fi^h The arch of the upper end of the church 

repaired where it w joined to the chaacel. 

Expended with several gentle^len going to 

several churches in London to view their 

altarpieces. ,, ,.^. 0)2 € 

At meeting the painters about the altiM^ wd 

king's arms at Charles Thorp's •••,,..• 147 
1A)9. Mr« Wood fall fpr extraordinary work in 

painting the altar .••••« .., •••• 2 3 

}.700. Paid Mr. W<M)iirall at several payments for 
paynting the x Commandments^ King^s 
armsy &c 90 

. The flagons now used, as the inscriptions shew, were bought 
at the charge of the parishioners in 1064. On a silyer 
plate for collecting the offerings is inscribed ''ex dono A. B^ 
3t. Mary Lambeth." The benefactress was Mrs. Ann Barstoo^ 
to whose memory there is a monument in the chancel. 

The Rood was an image of Christ upon the cross, generally 
iBiide of wood, and placed on a loft^ erected for that purpose, 
just over the passage out of the church into the chancel, Tbt 
place bearing the rood-loft was called a rere-dosse. The roo4 
was not considered complete without the images of St. John 
and the Virgin Mary standing on either side the cross, in allu- 
sion to John, chap. six. v. 20. They W«re of greaiesteemL 
The day was kept September 14. It is derived froin tba 
fiaxbnWord jRorfe, a cross.* 

Foraierly there was a gallery over the entrance into Ibe 
chancel, which was most commonly called the ropd-loft in 
which was usually an organ. The ^hurchwfirdens' aqoountaisf 
ILambeth notice one in this church. 

, t Gnei^i WorcNtefj pp« 01, l^. 



70 PARISH CHURCH. 

A. 1517. Paid to SirWylliam Argall for the 

organg '. 10 

16G5. Received for an old paire of organs • • 1 10 O 
1668. Paid to father Howe for his fee for 

keeping the organs one yere 1 

The royal arms were the immediate successors to the roods, 
(crosses) which were first ordered to be taken down Nov 14. 
1547, 1 Edw. VI. when besides the royal arms, (which is 
perhaps the only badge of royal supremacy our churches now 
bear) such texts of scripture were ordered to be written against 
the walls of the churches, as condemned images.^ 

The rood-loft was taken down in 1570, where the organ was 
afterwards placed, and how long the organ then in use 
subsisted^ is not known. The present organ was erected in (he 
beginning of the last century ; it is of a fine tone, and is placed 
in a handsome case over the western gallery ; and, from its 
elevated situation, forms a conspicuous and pleasing object. 
The charity children, during divine service, are seated on each 
side. 

It may not be improper in this place, to give some account of 
this instrument, so far as relates to the use of it in onr 
churches. 



At Rome, its first introduction is ascribed to Pope Vitaliao, 
io the seventh century ; and the ancient annalists are unanimous 
in allowing that the first organ which was seen in France, was 
sent from Constantinople, as a present from the Emperor Con- 
stantine Copronymus, in 766, to King Pepin. St. Jerome, 
who died in 420, mentions one with twelve pair of bellows, 
which might be heard at the distance of a thousand paces, or an 
English mile; and another at Jerusalem, which might be heard 
at the Mount of Olives.^ 



■«^ 



' Robinson't Stoke Newington, p. 15S. ^ Id. p. 1S4, 



PARISH CHURCH. 71 

Organs began to be generally used in ckurches about the 
year 828; and the form of this instrument was much improred, 
and received the addition of several pipes, by a person named 
Bernard, a Venitian. They were used in England, in monas* 
teries and churches in the time of King Edgar, who died anno 
975 ; and Durandus, who lived in the year 1 280, says, they 
were continued in churches in his time. George, the Salma- 
tian abbot, erected in the church of. hb convent, in Germany, 
an organ, whose greatest pipe was twenty-eight feet long, and 
four spans in compass, and diapason was of the same length, 
and the compass thereof proportionable to it.^ William of 
Malmesbury, who wrote about 1120, says, that the Saxons 
had organs in their churches before the Conquest ; and that 
St Dunstan, in the reign of King Edgar, gave one to Abingdon 
Abbey. 

At no period had the church music of England so just a claim 
to equality with that of the r^st of Europe, as during the , 
glorious reign of Queen Elizabeth. When her Majesty was 
entertained at Canterbury by Archbishop Parker, the French 
ambassador, who was in her suite, hearing the excellent music 
in the cathedral, extolled it to the skies, and broke out into the 
following strains, *" O Grod! I think no sovereign in all Europe 
ever heard the like ; no, not even our holy father the Pope 
himself.'' ^ Neal, in his History of the Puritans, says, that 
her chapel was not only sung with organs, but with other 
instruments, such as sackbuts and comets, on festivals. In 
t650 Queen Elizabeth published injunctions for the clergy* in 
the forty-ninth of which, there is one for choral music. 

During the civil wars, organs were held in abomination by 
the sectaries ; and the fury of their fanatic zeal, which seems 
to have been deaf as well as blind, destroyed many capital 
instruments.* 

* Chauncey's.Hist of Hertford, p. S58. 

^ Strype's Aaaals of the Refonnatioa, vol. ii. p. S14. 

* fKuthworth't Hist. Coll. part S, p. 30S. 




it pahi^b cutncvL 

The ctmpel oil tlie north ddeof the abancel, builc by Thakm^^ 
Duke of Norfolk, Was coliseorated in 1522. In th6 ohurch^ 
Wardens' accounts of that year, are the following entries z--^ 

. Payd for candy Is when the chapel was hallowed 2 

To my lady's grace for cloth for the awbys . . . • 1 
1507. Pa^d for mending a piece of glasse in 

the crucifixe in the Dewk's chapel. • • • 14 

On the east wall of Howard's chapel is ant 
ancient piece of sculpture, representing n 
shield with a lion rampant, which was most 
probably pait of one of the monuments of the 
Dukes of Norfolk. An engraving of it is 
here introduced .- 

Before the Reformation there were but few fixed seats in^ 
any of our parochial churches. In Lambeth Church, in the 
reii^n of Philip and Mary, there were, however, so many pews 
as to make it expedient to distinguish by labels to whom they 
were allotted. 

Paid for a skin of parchment to wryte 

mens names upon the pewes 4 

At a vestry called in 1564, it was agreed, that all who held 
seats in " Sir John a Lee's chapel," should pay quarterly 
towards the reparation of the church for their wives xii d. 

And all those who bad seats in the ** datcfaess of Norfolkli 
chapell," to pay the same. The rest of theinhabifaaits t6 p«y 
a 1 d. a quarter. 

A. 1573. Paid for a fote stole in Mr. Framton's 

pewe (} 6 if 

1574. Paid to a joiner for ii new pewes on the 
north side of the church, at the upper 
end of the ^le, and for ii seats for the 
olerke and the skolers to sit and saye 
sarvyzeia •••••• • 14 8 



PARISH CHURCH. 73 

1582. Paid to Henry Findon for one (layers 
work in cutting clown the partition 
between the church and the chancel, 
and making new setes ••• 1 2 

1584, Paid for removing the curates pew, and 

mending the clerk's seat ••• 

1608. Paid to the joyner for setting up a seat in 
the south quier, for the ease of women 
that come to be churched 7 10 

1616. Paid the carpenter for 26 single seats, in 
the middle row on the north side of the 
church 26 

Dr. Featley gave a sun dial which was placed over the 
church porch. 

Adjoining the church and at the east end of the south aisle is 
the vestry room in which is the church chest secured by three 
locks, &c. over this was formerly a room, of which the follow- 
ing items occur in the churchwardens book. 

A. 1569. Paidethe charges of the fynyshynge of 
the chamber over the vestry, with the 

stakes, &c 3 4 10 

1621. Payd to Thomas Mercer for repay ringe 

the the room over the vestrie house . . 1 8 4 



* 



A chantry was founded in this church in 1312, by Thomas 
Romayne ; and endowed with six marks annual rent, issuing 
out of certain houses ini L6ndon, after the death of his wife 
Juliana. And another chantry was founded by John Wynter, 
Lord of the Manor of Stockwell, but at what period does not 
appear. It was lestored by Ralph Leigh, Lord of the same 
Manor, in the reign of Hemry VI. and endowed with 10 /. 
annual rent. Sir John Leigh granted the lands which had be- 
longed to this chantry to Hepy YIII. 

In 1359, Nicholas de Sholveton was presented to a 

L 



14 PARISH CHURCH. 

perpetual chantry in this church, founded by the aforesaid 
Komayn.' 

Six handsome tables of banefactions are placed in ttiis church, 
as memorials of pious munificence, 

A handsome chandelier is suspended from the middle of the 
nave. It was given' fay Raphe Snow, Esq. to the parish in 1705. 
On a press at the north-east comer of the north aisle is the 
following inscription : — 

S L 

Gift of Capt- Philip Forsler, 

30 ■ 9* Loaves, the 1" Sunday 

in every Hontfa, to the Poor, 

On the opposite side is a similar press. 

This church witnessed a sad example offollen majesty, in the 
person of Maryd'Este, the unhappy queen of James II., who, 
flying with her infant prince from the rain impending ovei their 
house, after crossing the Thames from the abdicated palace of 
Whitehall, took shelter beneath the ancient walls of this church 
a whole hour from the rain of the inclement night of December 
eUi, 1G88. Here she waited with aggravated misery till a 
common coach procured from the next inn arrived and conveyed 
her to Gravesend, from whence she sailed, and bid an eternal 
adieu to these kingdoms.'' 

■ Reg. Islip, f. 151 a. ^ Pemunt's Landou, 4to. p. 26. 




Amu vf tkt Ualw i/ NmjWlr. 



I 



Ti 



'• ^ » 




S\)M3!EHZF in J-iStSSTR CantCH 



W 



/ 



MONUMENTS. 75 



CHAPTER IV. 



Monuments and Epitaphs in the Church and Churchyard, 



MONUMENTS AND TOMBS IN THfe CHURCH ! 

oEPULCHRAL monuments have been erected from tlie 
earliest ages, as memorials of piety and gratitude, and were 
much in use among the Greeks and Romans, to whom we are 
indebted for many of our funeral rites and ceremonies. 

The most ancient form of tombs were prismatic ; or triangular 
to shoot off wet, because the bottom part only lay in the 
ground.* 

The second form retains the prismatic lid, with the addition 
of oanring, A. D. 1160." 

The third form is the table monument supporting effigies or 
sculpture, priests were distinguished by chalices in their hands, 
prelates by pontificals, and knights by armour/ 

The fourth form is, tombs with arches oyer them ;- this kind 
of tomb was introduced about the beginning of the fourteenth 
century.** 

The fifth form according to Mr. Gough, includes monuments 
inclosed in sepulchral chapels, which were not additions to the 



> Cough's Sepulcbr. Monvm. Intro.j. p. 83. * Ibid. 

' Ibid, p. 84. ^ Ibd. p. 85. 



76 MONUMENTS AND EPITAPHS 

ouUiDes of a building, but were sometimes distinct erections 
within the church, these were not usual till the fifteenth 
. century.* 

The sixth form consists of monumental stones inlaid with 
brass : such monuments are very common, and Mr. Gough has 
discovered a few as early as the year 1308, but they did not 
grow into common use before the fourteenth century, and they 
continued so till the middle of King James the First's time. 
Though the portraits delineated by these brasses are purely 
imaginary, yet it is curious to observe the strict costume of 
habit, according to the rank in life of those persons they purpose 
to represent ; they formed a considerable object of traffic be- ' 
tween our merchants aud the manufacturers of Flanders, in 
which country they were madep** 

It has been considered, the Act of 3 and 4 £dw. VI. was 
the chief instrument of the destruction of the sepulchral brasses : 
but many of the ancient tombs were destroyed much earlier.*^ 

The seventh form comprises afl monumeiits either let into, or. 
fixed against the walls or pillars of churches. This practice 
has chiefly grown into use, since the Reformation.' 

It is impossible to present the reader, in these pages, yrith 
a more detailed and minute description of the forms of church 
monuments, the locality of the work and the necessity of not 
encroaching to much on the space alloted to other information, 
will excuse the author from entering on a more extended 
dig^ression on so interesting a subject. 

The modern monuments in this church are generally of an 
interesting character, and are executed in an able manner, the 
predominant style is the tablet and urn, which b well adapted 
to the mural inscription. 

* Gough's Sepulchr. Monum. Intro, i. p. 86. *> Ibid. 

*^ Robinaon's Stoke Newington, p: 160. 
^ Gough's Sepalchr. Monum. Intro, p. 87. 



IN THB CHURCH. 77 

At the west end of fbe church beneath the Organ gallery. 

On a handsome monument of white and veined marble with a 
compass pediment adorned with three iiaming lamps, and a coat 
of arm^ at the base. 

MewwruB et Veriutibut ioerum 

NiCHOLAi HooKBa Armigeri 

Canditi in iUo ^uem prope extruxii Ttunaio 

En Hotpa moriiure Virum, 

Qui 

Summam dubtii rebui probitatem 

Sincera in Deum pietaie 

Spectata in utmmque Carolum Fide 

Eximid in omnes Charitaie; 

Moribui 9uavimmi$ 

Et Limatiisimo Ingenio 

Omnibmi Eleganiioris literatura omameniis exculio 

Mire adomavU 

Hoc I 

Pignut pieiatii Monumentum patuit 

Job ANN B8 HooKES mperstes 

Nepos — n quis a/ttu Mccttissinnu 

Jk Lacrymarum comortio 

Obiit 7. iViw.1712 j^.M. 

Elmzabetha Ckmjux Charinima Obiit 29 Nav, 1601. 

QutBicumfratrtf sarore^ et multipUei prole) 

in eodem quieicit tumulo. 

Arms : Argent, a chevron between three owls Azure, on a 
scutcheon of pretence of the last, a chevron inter three pheons 
or, within a border ermine. 



78 MONUJiBNTft ANP BPITAPHS 

Against the west wall on a neat marble tablet* 

To the memory of 

Ann Seuna Storage 

who died the 24'**. day of August 1817, aged 54 

her affectionate Mother, 

Elizabeth Storage, % 

has erected diis Tablet. 

Ah! what avtnh the once resistless powW 
To gladden witKthy mirth the public hour? 
Ah! what avails that musich tun'd thy throaty 
And crowds enraptured hung on ev'ry note? 
The boast how vain — while o*er this votive stone 
Droops a hm mother — childless and^ alone! 
Yet memory to thy tafents not confined. 
Dwells on the generous virtues of the mind ; 
On Charity 9 on Filial duty dwells^ 
And the sunk heart with nobler sorrow swells. 

Lord ! before Thee a burthen^ d spirit bends ; 

But Hope aspires, and Faith to Heaven ascends. 

Sister of Stephen Storace, the eminent composer. Of her 
professional talents as a singer and an actress, it is sufficient 
to say that they were the delight and admiration of the 
public ; and certainly she was altogether unrivalled in her par- 
ticular line. She was not handsome, nor feminine in her person, 
but one of the most accomplished and agreeable women of her 
age, fascinating every one by her habitual good humour, her 
lively and intelligent conversation, and her open and ingenuous 
character. She had for a few years past retired from the stage, 
but her house at Heme Hill, was a seat of hospitality to 
numerous respectable friends. She has left one son.^ 



* Gent. Mag. 1817. part 1. p. 285. 



IK THE CHURCH. 79 

Close to tho. last, on «n oval tablet ornamented with 
cbenibs : 

Sacked 

To the Memory of 

Mr James Bryan, late of this Parish, 

whose Remains are deposited near this place. 

He died the 20<^ January 1804, 

Aged 04 Years. 

On the same wall is a neat marble tablet, with the following 
inscription : 

Sacred 

to the Memory of 

Alexander Porter Viner, 

late of Oxford; 

who departed this Life 

November 14^^ 18016. 

Aged 37 Years. 

On the north wall is the following inscription, on a marble 
tablet, enchased in black. 

sacred to the memory of 

PETER DOLLOND, 

(son of John Dollond, f. r. s.) 

OF ST Paul's churchyard, 

OPTICIAN ; 

WHO died JULY 2ND 1820. 

AGED 89 tEARS. 

also op his sister 
Susan Huogins, widow, 

WHO died APRIL 14TH 1798, 

aged 60 YEARS. 
ALSO OF HIS SISTER SARAH, 

WIFE OF Jesse Ramsden, f. r. s. 

WHO DIED AUGUST 28TH 1796, 
AGED 63 TEARS. 



fie MONUMEHTS AND EPITAPHS 

This gentleniany who died at Kenningioii at the advanced 
age of 89,-was a Member of the American Philosophical Society 
at Philadelphia ; and well known , wherever science is culti- 
vated^ as one of the most celebrated opticianb of his day. He 
was the eldest son of John DoUond, F. R. 8. the eminent 
optician, and inventor of the achromatic telescope* 

His father was bom in Spitalfields in 1706 ; his parents were 
French Protestants » who soon after the revocation of the edict 
of Nantz sought refuge in England, in order to avoid persecu- 
tion, and to preserve their religion. The first years of his life 
were employed at the loom ; but being of a very studious and 
philosophic turn of mind, his lebure hours were engaged in 
mathematical pursuits ; and though by the death of his father, 
which happened in his infancy, his education gave way to the 
necessities of his family, yet at the age of fifteen,. before he 
had an opportunity of seeing works of science or elementary 
treatises, he amused himself by constructing sun-dials, drawing 
geometrical schemes, and solving problems. An early marriage 
and an increasing family afforded him little opportunity of 
pursuing his favorite studies : but such are the powers of the 
human mind when called into action, that difficulties, which 
appear to the casual observer to be insurmountable, yield and 
retire before perseverance and genins ; even under the pressure 
of a close application to business for the support of his family » 
he found time, by abridging the hours of his rest, to extend hi» 
mathematical knowledge, and made a considerable proficiency 
in Optics and Astronomy, to which he now principally devoted 
his attention, having in the earlier stages of his life, prepared 
himself for the higher parts of those subjects, by a perfect 
knowledge of Algebra and Geometry. 

He designed his eldest son, Peter DoUond, (the subject of 
the present memoir) for the same business with himself; and 
for several years they carried on their manufactures together in 
Spital-fields : but the employment neither suited the expectations 
nor the disposition of the son, who^ having received much 



tN THE CHURCfH. ftl 

ififorhiation upon mathematical and philosophical subjects from 
the instruction of Us father, and observing (he great value 
which was set upon his father's knowledge in the theory of 
Optics by professional men» determined to apply that know- 
ledge to the benefit of himself and his family ; and, accordingly 
wider the directiCMis of his father , commenced optician. Success 
though under the most unfavourable chrcumstances, attended 
every effort, and in 1752, John DoUond, embracing the 
opportunity of pursuing a profession congenial with his mind, 
and without neglecting the rules of prudence towards his 
family, joined his son, and in consequence of his theoretical 
knowledge, soon became a proficient in the practical part of 
Optics. 

In the beginning of 1701, John DoUond was elected F. R. S, 
and appointed optician to his Majesty, but did not Kve to 
enjoy his honours long, as he died of apoplexy, Nov. 30, in 
the same year. An interesting account of this able philoso- 
pher and artist may • be seen in Chalmer's Biographical 
Dictionary, compiled from a life of htm, written by Dr. John 
Kelly. 

After his father's death, Mr. Peter DoUond carried on the 
optical business in partnership with his brother, the late 
Mr. John DoUond, till the death of that Gentleman, Nov. 6, 
1804 ; when Mr. Peter DoUond admitted into partnership his 
nephew, George Huggins, who, with the king's permission, 
shortly after took the name of DoUond, and has recently been 
elected F. R. S. ; wider the management oif this gentleman the 
business stUl flourishes with undiminished reputation. 

In 1765, a letter from Mr. Peter DoUond was read before 
the Royal Society, concerning an improvement which he had 
made in his telescopes. 
• 

In 1772, he communicated to the same Society, through the 
medium of his friend, Dr« Maskelyne, the Aiitrononier Royal, 

M 



84 MONUMENTS AND EPITAPHS 

Also two of his Children 

who died before him 

Also the Body of 

Mm Elizabeth Tearoe 

wife of the above said 

who Departed this life 

Dec'' y* 26th 17Q^ Aged 68 years, 

Ailjoining the last,-^ 

Under this Stone 
are deposited the RemaiDs of 

ELIZABETH 

late Wife of M» T. Atkinson 

died the !&<'' May 1805 

Aged 67 Veare. 

~-- • ■ . . 

Adjoining the last 

In Memory of 

Alexander Pil^fold of this Parish 

who departed this life 29 October 1760 

Aged 30 Years 

And four of his Children who died 

in their Infancy. 

Richard Svmmersell of this Parish 

who departed this life 16 November 1772 

Aged 62 Years. 

Elizabeth Summersell, Wife of the before 

mentioned RicHARD Summersell 

who departed this Life 26 April 1778 

Aged 66 Years. 

And seven of their Children who died 

in their Infancy. 

Alexander Pillfold Son of the before 

mentioned Alexander Pillfold 

who departed this Life 12 October 1706 

Aged 32 Years 



IN THE CHURCH. '85 

EUE^ PiLLFOLD who died ld<'> Tehf 
1815 ill the 80^** year of her A g^, 

Widow of the first named 

Alex>^ Pillfold and Daughter 

of RicH^ and Eliz" Summersell 

and Mother of the last mentioned 

ALEjS^iK PlLLFOLP. 

I 

The great grandfather of Mr. Summersell wrote his name 
Summersett, or Somerset, and was inmiediately descended 
from Somerset, first created Earl, then Marquis of Worcester, 
and afterwards Duke of Beauiort. He took an active part 
in favour of King Charles against Cromwell, during the 
civil war, a detachment of whose forces attacked him in his 
own mansion house, in the west of Eagl^nd, Which Somerset 
defended unjtjU the \jkfmB^ :Was tftken ky atorw^ when the victors 
hanged him and sixt^n ^rvj^ts; bis chiUruM), being two sons 
and a daughter, were £ktiffered to escape ; they soon parted, and 
never after heard of each other. The eldest, aged 13, came to 
London, altered his nan^e to Sumersell^ thpMgb he and his son 
John, and also his grandson, the above Richard, always made 
a line over the two ll's to keep up some remembrance of Sum- 
mersett, and being in great distress, went to sea, and was much 
at St. Kitt's, in the West Indies, where there was lately many of 
his descendants. When he was 70 years old, he returned and 
settled at Rotherhithe, and after^ar^s died in Gr^^n^ich Hos- 
pital. He left a son in England, John, who taught a school in 
Lambeth, and was the second or third master of the boys' 
charity school, wto afterwards made vestry-clerk there, and 
bailiff of the manor of Kemiington, in whieti he tsontinued till 
his death, wUck happened in 1738, his only son, Richard 
Summersell, immediately succeeding khn in all his offices ; 
he married Elizaheih ^pck, and, some time after, was made, 
bailiff of the manors of Vauxhall, Lambeth, and Walworth; 
surveyor of the Parish Roads ; also surveyor to Thrale's 
Brewery ; all which he retained till his death. He always 



M MONUMBNTS AND EPITAPHS 

used the arms of tke present Duke of Beaufort, with au 
esquire's helmet and a leopard crest. 

Within the south porch of the church, on a large slab. 

y To the Memory 

of M* William Gawlbr 

of this Parish who died the 29'^ 

of March 1707 Aged 62 Years 

Rey^ Thomas Pearce d. d. 
Died Feb. 24L^^ 1803 aged 57 Years 

Also M^ Henry Gawler 

who died the 17^^ of March 1800 

Aged 41 Yeajrs 

Also M^ Susannah Oawlcr 
Widow apd Mother of the above Menti- 
-oned who died the 20^^ of Nov^ 
1808 Aged 81 Years. 

Georoiana and i died in their 
Septimus Gawler 5 Infancy 1801 

Also WiLUAM Gawler who was 
many years Clerk of this Parish who 
died the 16^ March 1809 aged 60 Years. , 



On the same stone at the other end : 

Here lyeth the Body of Jane Wife 

of John Pace of this Parish near 

also Lyeth the Body of Ann Former 

Wife of John Pace, Jane died Oct 

lO^i" 1717 Aged 61 Ann Died 

April 8 1730 Aged 60 



IN THE CHURCIV. 87 

Qn another; 

Beneath this Stone 
lies the Remains of 

MARY 

Wife of Saml Linford Butcher 

of this Parish 

who died May le**" 1805 

Aged 38 Years. 

Near the last, on^ a braM^ plate let into the stone. 

The Entrance to 

Horatio Clagett's Vault 

1815. 

On a large slab of stone. 

To the Memory of 

Rob^ Lake WiLMt>T only 

Son of Jambs and' Mary 

WiLMOT of tku Parish 

Bom NoY. 28 1782 

died 9'* August 1799 

Also 

Mary Wilmot Mother 

to the above died Sep 14^ 181 1 

Aged 52 Tears. 

Adjoining the last. 

Here are Deposited the Remains 

of Nancy Waters Wife of 

Robert Watbrs^ Esq"" 

of this Parish 

who died the 6*' of September 1802 

Aged 35 Years. 

Adjoining the last is a large slab of grey stone, on which 
have formerly been the effigies of a man, with an inscription ; 



88 MONUMENTS AND EPITAPHS 

above his head are the places where two shields of arms were 
placed. It was probably removed » on some former repairs, 
from Howard's Chapel, and was to the memory of some of the 
Norfolk family. 

Northward of the last, on a large grave stone : 

In Memory of 
M«» LYDIA BROWNE 

late Wife of Mk John Brown k 

of Kenninoton Row Lambeth 

Bom 31" July 1754 

Died 28*** Jaii^ 1811 

also 

JOHN BROWNE, esqr 

Husband of the above 

who departed this Life 

on the 9^ July 181$ 

in the 70'*^ year of hia Age 

Also SOPHIA BROWNE 

fourth Daughter of the above 

died 18tk March 1822. 

Adjoining the last: 

Saered to the Memory of 

John Aixock Esq' 

of Kingtwood Surrey 

who departed this Life 

on the 2*'* day of May 1814 

Aged 62 years 

An Affectionate Hutband 

and a iincere Friend* 

On another stone» in the same part of the church, 

Sacred to the Memory of 

T. P. Duval 

who died the V* of Nov' 1810 

Aged 79 Years. 



IN THE CHURCH. «ll 

Oil a small stone, 

In Memory of 

Mrs Charlotte Frances 

Walus 

who departed this Life 

July 29«»» 1815 

Aged 42 Years. 

Adjoining the last^ 

In Memory of 

Nancy Mills 

Wife pf John Mills 

of this Parish 

Bom August 20<i' 1753 

Died June 1'* 1813. 

Also John Mills, Esq'' 
Husband of the above 

• - ♦ 

who died 18'^ January 1816 
Aged 71 Years. 

Sacred 

To the Memory of 

Mary Osbaldeston 

of this Parish 

Died the 23^ of January 1801 

Aged 60 Years. 



On another 



On a large slab. 



Mr. John Page 

late of king 

street Bloomsbury 

(undertaker) 

DIED DEC* 8th 1787 
Mt 57 YEARS. 

Mr* Mary Page 
DIED 16TH feby 1802 

aged 80 YEARS. 

N 



1)0 MONVMBNTS AND EPITAPHS. 

Nave. The nave denotes the body of the church, where the 
people are placed , reaching from the rails or balustrade of the 
choir, to the chief door. The nave of the church belongs to 
the parishioners, and they are bound to repair it* They were not 
always paved, whence arose the use of rushes, for warmth and 
better kneeling.** Men used to stand on the right hand, or south 
side ; and the women on the left or north. ^ 

On Trinity Sunday, in Clee church, Lincolnshire; diey strew 
it with new mown grass, and a small piece of land which has 
been let for upwards of a century past for the trivial sum of 
thirteen shillings, per annum, is said to have been left by a maiden 
lady that the performance of thb ceremony might be annually 
observed to the honour of die blessed and Holy Trinity.' 

Against the north sidSe of the Nave is placed a marble 
monument with the following inscription, — 

Sacred to the Memory of 

Jane, the Wife of John Aspinall, Esq'. 

of Standen. in the Co, of Lancaster; 

and Sole Niece of 

{Tnc Walslhman, Et^, m,d. of this Parish) 

She died at South Lambeth 

Nov 20«*» 1821, Aged 34 Years. 

Regretted by many Friends 

and Deeply Lamented by 

her surviving Relatives. 

Also df 

Walshman Aspinall, Son of the above ; 

who died Dec' 2^'^ 1818, 

Aged 6 Y'* & 7 Months. 



* Faulkner's Fulham, 8yo. p. 66. 
*> Nichols's Progress of Qoeen Eliz. ^ Dn Cange ▼. Pars Yirorum. 

^ Ancient Reliques, b. 2. vol. i. 




' IN THE CHURCH. 91 

Also of 

£ll«n, the Relict of £dm^ Robinson, 

of Sabden in the Co. of Lancaster ; 

and Mother of the aboye-mention'd ' 

Jane Aspinall, 

She died March 9**» A : d. 1823, Aged 75 Y" 

Their Remains are deposited 

in the adjacent Vault. 



OTf on a chevron between three gryphons 
heads erased sable. 



On a plain slab pf white marble enchased in black , is the 
following — 

SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF 

CHARLES COCK ESQ» 

OBIIT JUNE THE 9** 1820; 
AGED 60 YEAB3. 

On the same wall is an ^legant monument to the inemory of 
some of the Ooodbehere family, by Westmacott. 

IN MEMORY OF 

SAMUEL GOODBEHERE ESQUIRE, 

OF THIS PARISH, 

ALDERMAN OF LONDON, 

WHO DIED 18Tfl NOVEMBER 1818, 

AGED 63 YEARS. 

MRS. ELIZA GOODBEHERE, 
RELICT OF THE ABOVE, 
DIED 17™ OF AUGUST 1820. 
AGED 60 YEARS. 

HORATIO GOODBEHERE, ESQUIRE, 

SON OF THE ABOVE, 

SAMUEL AND ELIZA GOODBEHERE, 

DIED 22NI> AUGUST 1820, 

AGED 24 YEARS. 



M MONUMENTS AND EPITAPHS 

Anns : Ermine a fess embattled counter embattled gules for 
Goodbehere, on an escutcheon of pretence quarterly first and 
fourth or three boars heads azure for Wood, second and third 
azure, three battle axes or. 

Crest of Goodbehere : A griffin sergreant vert, wings elevated 
beaked and membered or. 

Alderman Goodbehere died at China Terrace, suddenly, 
of an apoplectic fit; he represented the Wtird of Cheap, 
and was for nearly thirty years a distinguished member of 
the Corporation of London. He acquired a considerable fortune 
by unremitting industry and perseverance in business . 

On a neat marble monument on the same wall, is the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

In Memory of 

Thos Theobald, Merch' 

Eldest son of peter Theobald 

of Lambeth who marri'd Martha 

Daughter of Thos Turner of Lincolns 

Inn Esq. by whom he had Issue 1 Son 4* 

2 Daughters who after 6 Voyages to India 

& 10 years Residence there return'd 20'^ 

July 1721 . & amidst y* Gratulations of his 

friends resign'd to Death y* 9^^ Septem\ 

following . In all Stations of life he behav'd 

like an Honest man & a good Christian & 

has left y* memory of his Virtues to be 

admired & Imitated by all. 

Arms: Qules, six cross-crosslets fitche6 three, two, and 
one, or impaling ermines, on a cross quarter pierced argent, 
four fer demoulins sable. Crest on a torce, a phoenix azure, 
beaked or, sacrificing itself proper. 

On a beautiful white marble monument, oppofitd the last, on 
the south wall, representing a cenotaph with a weeping figure 
on either side, exquisitely sculptured by Flaxman. 



IN THE CHURCH. 9» 

JAMES MORRIS, ESQ* 
MDCCLXXXI. 

He was in the commiaaion of the peace for the County of 
Surrey, and formerly High Sheriff. 

Beneath the last, on a neat whit^ marble slab enchased in 
▼eined marble, is the following. 

TO THE MEMORY 

OP 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL 

MORRIS 

OF 

HIS MAJRITT'S 

COLDSTREAM RROl^BNT 

OP GUARDS 

WHO FELL AT ALKMAAR 

BRAVELY FIGHTING 

IN THE 

CAUSE OP HIS COUNTRY 

SEPTEMBER THE 19TH 

1799. 

AGED 55. 

On a handsome monument executed by Coade is the following 
inscription. 

Sacred to the Memory of 

ROBERT LAKE WILMOT 

Son of James and Mary Wilmot 

of this Parish and Grandson of 
Robert Lake Esq' of Scoble Devon. 
Born 22** November 1782. 
Died 3^ August 1799. 
He was affectionate to his Parents 
And attentive to his Instructors 
Angels beheld him fit for joys to come 
And call'd by God's command their Brother Home. 



94 MONUMENTS AND £FITAPHS 

On a marble slab enchased in black, the following, 

in memory of 
Frances Isabella Lloyd. 

OBIIT SEPTEMBER THE ISth 1816. 

On a marble slab, like the last : 

TO THE memory OF 

John Foster Esq. 

who departed thjs life july 23, 1818 

aged 69 years. 

At the entrance into the Nave, on the floor. 

Thomas Tolsone, Esq 
died the ll^*" of 
September 1788. 
Aged 70 Years. 

On another slab: 

Here lies interred 

the Remains of 

Miss 

Frances-Smith Lane 

who died the 

U^^ of March 1798. 

Aged 9 Months 

On a plain slab: 

Here Lyeth y"" Body of 
EwiN RiciUNs Card, who 
departed this life y** 13 of 
Novemb' Anno Dom, 1715. 

Aged 40 Years. 
Here also Lyeth Mary y^ 

"Wife of y* above said 

EwiN Richins who died 

Oct*'^ y' 6th. 1737 Aged 

58 Years. 



IN THB CHURCH.. >. K 

Bebw the last. 

In Memory of 

loHN Clayton G^en'of 

this Parish who Departed thi» 

life y*' 27 of August 1723 in 

the 36 year of his Age 

Adjoining die last.^ 

Underneath lies the Remains of 

Mr. Samvbl Levick 

of Norfolk Stieet London. 

Who having lived a Ufe Univenally Respected 

Dyed Regretted by aUhu Acqitaintance 
August y* 6. 1769 in y' 37 year of his Age 

Also y* Remains of Saml Son of y* Above 
who Died July y* 4. 1757 Aged 5 Years. . 

Also the Remains of. 
Miss Ann Lbvick Daughter of y* 
above Mr. Samuel Levick 
who died the 26''' of Nov'. 1790. 
Aged 40 Years. 
ilft affectionate if much Lamented Daughter 

Also Mrs. Ann Levick Wife of 

The above Samuel Levick 

who died February 18'^ 1816 

Aged 89 Years 

John Levick Baq^ 
died 20^^ May 1822. Aged 32 Years. 



•C MONUMENTS AND EPITAPHS. 

On a blue slab : 

In Meteiory of 
Mrs. Jane Moore ' 

wife of 

EtrwARD Moore 

of Stocki^ell Esq~. 

who departed this life 

V^ of Sept'. 1 780. 

Aged 37 Years. 

And also 

In Memory of the above 

Edward Moore Esqr 

who departed this Life 

July V^ 17W 

Aged 56 Years. 

Mks Sarah Gray Moore 

Relict of Edward Moore 

Esq', of Stoekwell 

Surry 

who died August 6*^ 1807 

In the 56*** Year of her Age. 

Chancel : The Chancel is that part of the choir of the 
church between the communion taUe and the skreen that sepa- 
rates it from the naye ; it has always been considered as the 
most sacred part of the church ; and, by antient constitutions, 
no woman was allowed to stand within the chancel, or to 
approach the altar; and this custom continued till the 
Reformation.* 

^ Gibson's Codex, vol. i. p. 175. ArchsDologia, vol. xi. p. S88. 



IN THE CHVRCH^ 97 

On an elegant white marble monument, enchased in black, 
on the north side, b the following inscription : 



CONSBCRATBD 
BY THE SORROWS 
OF HIS DISCONSOLATE PARENTS 
TO THE MEMORY OF 

THOMAS ISAAC MELTON 

WHO EXCHANGED THIS LIFE FOR A BETTER 
ON THE 28?" FEBY 1820. 
AT THE PREMATURE AGE OF 
13 YEARS AND 6 MOITTHS. 

IN YEARS AN INFANT IN ATTAIN MSNT8 MAN 

Un MIND CAFACIO&8, BUT Hlfi LIFE A SPAN 

A MOTHERS UVBLIEaT HOPE; A FATHERS PRIDE 

HE QRIETED THEM ONLY ONCE WWA8 WHEN HE DIED. 

THIS FRAIL MEMORIAL 
ALSO RECORDS THE DEATH SUDDEN AS LAMENTED, OP 

HLABY ANNE MELTON, 

MOTHER OF THE ABOVE NAMED YOUTH : 
SHE WAS RECALLED FROM A MOURNING HUSBAND & FAMILY 

DECEMBER 19*" 18^ JETAT 33. 
AND REPOSES IN THE BLESSED HOPE OF REUNION, 
WITH THOSE WHO LOVED HER^ IN A HAPPY HEREAFTER. 

THE LORD OIVETH^ THE LORD TAKETH AWAY 
BLESSED BE THE NAME OF THE LORD. 

Anns: Azure a cross flory argent charged with a plain cross 
of the first between four cinquefoils or impaling azure, an 
escutcheon between four mascles or. 



O 



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MOlfUMBMTt AND SMTAPH8 



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IN THB CHUltCR. 06 

On a neat marble tablet, on the same side of the Chancel i 

To the Memory of 
Embua, 
Daughter of die late William Wili.1 ams of 
Tenh/ in the ComUyof Pembroke Bsq'. 

and a lineal Descendant from 

Robert Ferbar Bishop of Sk, DwbUPm 

who suffered Martrydom in ^kfence 

of the 

ProtettaaiU Rdigion 

A. D. 1536. 

She departed thb life on tha 26*^ Day of 

December 1799 : Aged 51 Years. 



Beneath the last, on an oval tablet ornamented with drapeiy , 
is the following inscription : 

Near this Place 
are deposited the Remains 

of Thomas James 

o( Cupmr's Bridos, Esq' 

died 2^^ Jan^ 1791. 

Aged a2. 

Mrs. Judith James. 

Relict of the above 

Thomas James, Esq'. 

died April 5^^. 

1803: 



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100 



MONUMENTS AND EPITAPHS 







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10t MONUMENTS AND BPITAPH8 



On a handsome marble tablet, somouated with an arn, is 
the foUowing inscription : 

Near this place lye baried'two aoas and five DanghtiBn of 

the Right Rererend 6BO9OB Hoopbr late Lord Kshop 

of Bath & Wbixs and Abigail his Wife Daughter 

of Richard 6nii.FomD late of this place Gent; 

who aU dyed ia their laCuiey Tha last in the year 1004 

TImi nomiiBent was greeted to ffieir memory 

by Abigail Prowsb tha only sanriving Child 

Widow of John Prowsb of Azbridge in ike 

County of SoBisiarset Esq'. 

Arms : Gjrronny of eight, w and erwdnCf a castle triple 
towered 9abk, impaling or a aaltire between four martlets 
saMe. 



Opposite the last, on the other side of the Chancel, on a 
handsome monument ; in the centre a shield, , containmg the 
arms of the See of Canterbury, impding table gutte d'Eau on 
a fees of the last, three cpmish choughs proper ; is the follow- 
ing inscription; 

FRBDS CpRNWALLIS 
ARCHIBP. CANTlTAR, MOCCLXVIII 
OBT XIX MART. A.l>. MDCCLXXXIII. 

JET. LXX. 

He was the seventh son of Chfurles fomlii Baron Comwallis ; 
educated at Eton : he took his degree of A. B* 1796, and 
S. T. P, in 1748 ; afterwards Fellow of Christ's College, 
Cambridge; Chaplain to his late Majesty, a t!anon of 



tN THB CfiniMtft tM 

', sod consecrated Bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, 
1749; appointed Dean of St. Paul's, 1706; eleraieii > Hi* 
Archbishopiick of Canterbury, 1968. His Orace married, 
1759, Caroline, daughter of William Townehend, X|Mi^;(tfaini 
son of Charles second Viscount Townriieiid) but had mmimme^ 
As metropolitan, he 'discharged all the duties of .dMI h^ 
<^ce with attention, punctuafity and deboraoL Bduig a true 
friend to the constitution both in dbxadk and state, b^ Sfnsh and 
aim was to presenre liem both uninjured and umnqptiivdL In 
shining talents and eslensihre learning, other prelates mafr haT» 
been superior to him; but 91 good solid sense and lender* 
standing, and a right AK^ennneiit ef men and Ihii^B, in 
prudence, moderation and benerolence, in affidiility^ imndtair 
and hoqatality^ he was infimor to none of his piedeoessocs« 



Below the Ust, on a neat taMeC 



IN AN 4U>JOINm0 VAULT ARB DBPOSITBD 

t 

BBMAIN8 OP B|as BLIZABKTH NBWBBBRT OF THIS PABtSH WVO^ 
DIBD THB 11 OP PBBBUABY MDCCIXXXV AGED IX JBAEM^ 

ALSO ROBBRT NBWBBBRT B^Q* 
HUSBAND OP THB ABOVB, WHO DIBP THB IX OP IHKCBMBBS 

MOCCXCII AOBD 7LXIX YEARS. 

ALSO WILLIAlf 8TBVBNS NBWBBRRT 
THBIR SON WHO DIBD THB XXV OP APRIL MPCCXCili 

m 

A6BD XXXIV T%kRS. 



104 



MONPMBNTS ANOt KPITAPH8 



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IN THB CHURCH. 106 

Over the tomb of Mompesson forraerly hung the hehnet, 
sword, gantlet, and spurs of Sir Noel Caron^ ajnobleman, 
Ambassador from the States of Holland in the time of King 
James the First,, who was buried here January 25, ] 624. There 
were also painted on the wall eight several coats of arms: 
those on the dexter side were, Ist. Argent, a bend nzurcy 
sem^e of fleurs de lis or ; 2d. Argent, a chevron sahle ; 3d. 
Argent y a chevron gtdes between three trefoils vert ; 4 th, 
(hf a saltlre sable. On the sinister side: 1st Argenty a 
chevron gules between three torteaux ; 2d. Or^ a fess em- 
battled, counter embattled sable i Sd. checqu^e Argent and 
gulesy a chief sable. The last was Verty but so much decayed 
that the charge could not be described.* 

On a handsome monument, with architrave, &c. supported 

hy two columns of the Corinthian order, surmounted by a 

shield : 

In the 

Adjoyning Vault 

Lyeth the Body of 

Aff< Elizabeth BdRSTONy 

widow late of this Parish, who 

departed this Life February the 

23«1 1703, Aged 46 years. 

In the same Vault lyeth also the 

Body of M« Ann Barston 
her daughter, who died the W^ 
day of August 1720, in the 37 tb 
year of her age. 

To the memory also of 

Jonathan Chilwell, Esq^ and Mary 

his Wifey Daughter of M^ James and the 

said Elizabeth Barston : 

he died on March ]9'h 1731, Aged 41 years: 



* Nichols's HUt. of Lambeth, Appendix, p. 163. 

P 



106 MONU1CBNT8 AMD EPITAPHS 

the died on July ^O*^ 1734, Aged 46 years. 
^ Abo of Jonathan ChilwklLj Esqr^ their 
son, who died on Feb. 14^h 1743, Aged 18 years. 

Arms : Argent^ three gryphons' wings erect sable* 



Bencfath the last, on a black marble tablet enchased in white, 
with a death's head wreathed with laurel at the base, is the iol- 
lowing inscription : 

NBSRE VNDBR JHIS PLACE LYSTH 
BVRYED YB BODYES OF WILLIAM BBBSTONE, 
ESQ. LATE OF THIS P*ISHE OF LAMBETH, 
WHO DYED Yi Q^H OF AUGUST 1639, & 
ALSO OF JEANE HIS WIFE, WHO DEP. 
THIS LIFE Y» 27TH OF MAY 1659. 
THEY LEFT BEHIND THEM ONELY 
ON DAVGHTBR, WHO MARRIED EDWARD 
LBVENTHORP, BSQ j AND BY HIM SHEB 
HAD ISSVB 3 SOMNS & 5 DAVGHTERS, 
SHBE BEING THB BRBCTBR OF THIS 
MONUMENT, ANNO D'M*N1 1653. 

Arms; Sable^ a bend 'between six bees volant argent^ 
Beeston, with a crescent for difference ; impaling^ a fess be- 
tween three boars* heads couped. 

Crest : On a torce a castle triple flowered, thereon an armed 
arm, the hand holding a sword. 

On a neat tablet enchased in veined marble : 

In Memory of 

Mr John Sampson 

of Lambeth House ; 

who died the ?7*h of Dec' 1794, 

Aged 74 Years, 



IN THB CUUACB. ' Ififf 

Beneath the last, on a neat oval tablet enchased in black, 
auxmounted with an urn, is the following inscription : 

IN 

MEMORY OF 

WILLIAM RICHAanSON, BSQ>(^ 

MANY YXARS DEPUTY CASHIER 

TO THB SOUTH SEA COMPANY, 

WHO DIED Sth deck 1800, 

AGED 86. 

Adjoining the last, on a handsome white marble monument 
fixed to the south wall, and supported by two composite fluted 
pilasters, and on the summit of the architrave an urn, is the 
following inscription : 

In the adjoyning Vault 

lieth ye body of Raphe Snowe, Gent. 

Treasurer, Receiver, and Registrar, 

to 4 Archbishops of Canterbury ; 

^ great Benefactor to this Church and Parish, 

and many other places 

and Societies. 

He lived 

a pattern of Piety, Prudence, and Charity, 

and dyed 

full of years and good works, 

with y« perfect vse of his reason Se understanding, 

in the 95^*^ Year of his Age, 

Mar. 91. MDccvii. 

He was head Steward and Secretary . to the Ardibishops of 
Canterbury for almost 50 years ; his benefactions at Canter- 
bury b and to this Church were numerous, A good portrait 
of him, painted in oil, ia placed in the vesUjF of the church. 

K.' . 



^ Hist, of the three Archiepuco|ial HotpitaU, p. 179. 



106 MONUMENTS AND KPITAPH8 

Above the last is a beautiful monument to the memory of 
Archbishop Hutton, of a pyramidal form, in white and veined 
marble, surmounted with an urn and coat of arms ; it bears the 
following inscription : 

INFRA CONDVNTVR RKLIQVIJB 

MATTHAEI HVTTON, S. T- P. 

EPISCOPI BANGORENSIS A. D. MDCCXLIII, 
DKINDB ARCHIEPISCOPI BBORACBNSIS MDCCXLVIIy 
TANDEM CANTVARIENSIS MDCCLVIl, 
QUI OBIIT XIX MARTII MDCCLVIII 
JETATIB SVAE LXV, 
ET MARIAE VXORI8 EIVS 
QUAE OBIIT XIII MAII A. D. MDCCLXXIX 
ABTATIS SUAE LXXXVIy 
DVA0VS RELICTIS FXLII8 
QVAB PIETATIS ERGO MONVMENTVM 
HOC VTRIQVE PARENTI POSVERVNT 
A. D. MDCCLXXXI. 

Arms : Canterbury, impaling Hutton — Gules% on a fess be- 
tween three woolpacks argent tasselled or as many fleurs de lis 
of the field. 

He was of Jesus College, Cambridge, where he took his 
degrees of B. A. 1713, M. A. 171 7> and at Christ's College, the 
degree of S. T.P. Com. Reg. 1728. He was appointed Pre- 
bendary of York, and in 1739 Prebendary of Westminster. 
His other preferments chiefly followed those of Archbishop 
Herring. He was elected to the See of Bangor in 1743 on 
Herring's promotion to York, and translated to York on his 
predecessor's further translation to Canterbury in 1747; and' 
upon his death in 1757 succeeded him in that high episcopal 
office^ which he did not long enjoy, dying the succeeding year. 



IN THE CHURCH. IO9 

On a tablet enchased in black : 

IN MEMORY OF 

THOMAS LETT, ESQ«, 

OF THIS PARISH, 

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE 

ON THE 98'rH JANUARY 1820, 

IN THE 85th Year of his age. 

On a small black marble monument, enchased in white, is 
the following inscription : 

HERE LYED, FOUR FOOTE 
DISTANT FROM THIS WALL, 
THE BODY OF WILLIAM SVTHES, 
GENT. A MAN ADORNED WITH THE- 
GIFTS OF GRACE, ART, AND NATURE : BY 
GRACE HE WAS RELIGIOUS AND CHARITABLE, 
BY ART HE WAS IN MASONRY EXQUISITE, 

BY NATURE HE WAS HUMANE AND 

AFFABLE. HE BY GOd's APPOINTMENT 

CHANGED HIS MORTAL LIFE OF MISERY 

FOR A GLORIOUS IMMORTALITY, ON THE S^h 

OF OCTOBER 1625.~ HIS SORROWFUL & 

GRATEFUL WJFE, MISTRESS ANNE SUTHES, AS 

A LOYAL TESTIMONIE OF HIR LOVE TO HIR 

DECEASED HVSBAND CAVSED THIS 

MONVMENT TO BE ERECTED FOR AN EXEMPLARY 

/ OF HIS WORTHINESS AND HIR AFFECTION. 

HE WAS MASTER MASON OF WINDSOR CASTLE, 

A CITIZEN AND GOLDSMITH OF LONDON, 

AND AN ASSISTANT OF THE SAID WORSHIPFULL 

COMPANY. HE LEFT THREE SONS TOWARDLY & 

HOPEFUL, TO BE EACH OF THEM THE 

IMITATORS OF THEIR FATHERS VERTVES, JOHN, 

JAMES 6c MATTHEW, & HEREIN THE READER 

MAY SEE EXPREST THE GOODNESS OF THE 

DECEASED HUSBAND & THE THANKFVLLNESS OF A 

SVRVIVING WIFE. 



\ 



110 MONUMBNTS AVD EPITAPHS 

HE NOW SINGS PRAISE AMONG THE HEAVENLY HOST, 
TO GOD THE FATHER, 80NN, AND HOLY GHOST. 

Anns : Sable, on a bend, between three cotizes argenty three 
martlets gtUes ; impaling barry of eight or and sable, three esco- 
cheons ermine. 

On the floor of the chancel and beneath the pulpit, on a blue 
slab, is the following inscription : 

Here lies Interred the 

Body of John Mason, Esq^j 

Who departed this life 

April the 6U> 1768, 

Aged 67 years, 

Who was Barge Master to his 

late and present Mqjestys, 

On the right of the preceding is another similar slab : 

SACRUM MEMORIAE 

ESTHERAE REYNELL, 

FORMA, INGENIO, 8UAVITATE MORUM, 

FRUSTRA, HEU ! FRUSTRA 

PRAESTANTIS : 

ANTE DIEM (PROH DOLOR !) OCCUBUIT, 

OCTAVO KAL i JULII, 

CIO lOCC XCI. 

ANNOS NATA 

XXXIX. 

UMBRAjugii ! nostras evasit corpus amores ! 

Cara sed ante oculos restat imago tui : 
Acdpias gemttus, nee moesta piactda spemas, 

Hoc misero tantum munus inane manet, 

8, T. T. X. 

Illatn qui vivam perdite ama? it, 

Illam qui mortuam semper lugebit, 

Hoc posuit marmor. 
Omnia perdidimus ! tantummodo vita relicta est, 
Praebeat ut sensum materiamque mali. H. R. 



^ 



IN.THB CHUBCH. H] 

Arms: Argent, masonry, a chief indented ^ai^, Reynell; 
impaling, Or^ a chevron ermine between three bows erect. 
Crest : a fox passant or. 

On the south side of the pulpit : 

Here lyeth the Body of 

Mr John Butcher, 

Merchant, who dyed the 

3rd day of August 1695, 

being in the 59^** year of his age. 

Also Here Lyeth the Body of 

Elizabeth Butcher, 

Wife of 

John Butcher, 

who departed this Life the 26^1> June 

1696, Aged 57 yer's. 

Near to the last, on a similar slab : 

Fred. Cornwallis 

Archiep : Cantuar : 

Ob : XIX Mart : 

A. D. MDCCLXXXIII. 
JBT. LXX. 

Adjoining the last is a slab, on which was formerly a brass 
inscription : 

Hie jacet Thomas Thirlebye olim Ep'us Elien*, qui ob. 26 
Anno Domini 1570.<: 

Henry VIIL designed to make a cathedral church at West- 
minster, and accordingly gave a congi d*4lire to that chapter 
in favour of Thomas Thirlebye, LL.^. who was the first as 
well as last bishop of that see. He was consecrated Dec. 19 
1543 ; but was translated to Norwich in the reign of Edw. VI. 
1550, and was aflerwards requoved to Ely by Queen Mary, 
1554, who made him one of her privy council. Upon her • 

c Nichols's Hist, of Lambeth, Append, p. 37. 



lis MOKUMENTS AKD EPITAPHS 

deaths as he obstinately refused to comply with the plan of 
reformation set on foot by Queen Elizabeth, he was imprisoned 
in the Tower, and deprived of his see by act of parliament 1559- 
After being kept there, not under very strict nor very long 
confinement, by means of his friends he obtained permission 
from the Queen to reside in the family of Abp. Parker, with 
Boxall, who had been his secretary, and Dr. Tunstall, Bishop 
of Durham, who had been also lately deprived, where he con- 
tinued till his death, Aug. 26, ] 570. 

On opening the grave for the interment of Abp. Comwallis, 
in March 1783, a stout leaden coffin was discovered, six 
feet six inches long, one foot eight inches wide, and but 
nine inches deep, in which had been deposited the remains 
of Bishop Thirlebye. The coffin was in shape somewhat like 
a horse-trough, and had all the appearance of never having 
been covered with wood, the earth around it being perfectly 
dry and crumbling. By the ill-judged officiousness of the 
grave-digger, who had accidentally struck his pickaxe into it, 
and afterwards enlarged the hole, the discovery became so 
public that the church was crowded before the matter was 
known to the proper officers, and before such observations 
could be made as the curiosity of the subject deserved. The 
principal circumstances that occurred were, that the body, which 
was wrapped in fine linen, was moist, and had evidently been 
preserved in some species of pickle, which still retained a vola- 
tile smell, not unlike that of hartshorn ; the flesh was preserved, 
and had the appearance of a mummy ; the face was perfect, 
and the limbs flexible ; the beard of a remarkable length, and 
beautifully white. The linen and woollen gatrments were all 
well preserved. The cap, which was of silk, and adorned with 
point lace, had probably been black, but the colour was dis- 
charged. It was in fashion like that represented in the pictures 
of Abp. Juxon. A slouched hat, with strings fastened to it, 
was under the left arm. There was also a cassock so fastened 
as to appear like an apron with strings, and scveraj small pieces 
of the bishop's garments, which had the appearance of a pil- 
grim*s habit. The above curious particulars were communicated 



IN THB CHURCH. 113 

to Dr. Vyse, who directed every part to be properly replaced in 
the coffin. The remains of Abp. Comwallis were afterwards 
deposited in an adjoining grave, which has since been properly 
covered over with an arch of brick.^ 

On a blue slab : 

xi. S. £• 

Reverendissimus in Christo Pater 

Matthseus Hutton, s. t. p. 

Archiepiscopus Cantuariensis. 

Ob. XIX Mart a. d. mdcclviii. 

Etatis Suae lxx. 

ET 

MARIA VXOR EIUS, 

QVAE OBIIT MAII XIII. 

MDCCLXXIX. 
ASTATI8 SVAE LXXXVI. 



Adjoining the last, and on a similar slab : 

HERE LIETH THE BODY OF 

PETER SCHRIEBER, 

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE THE 

26^^ OF SEPTEMBER 1715, 

AGED 57 YEARS. 



Near the last, on a blue slab : 



Hie depositum est quod mortale fuit 

Eleanore Morrowe, 

Hbnrici Morrowe Uxoris. 

Ohiit Decemb. xiii : mdccxci. 

Etatis $tuB LV. 



o Nichols** Hut. of Lambeth, Append, p. 88. 



V. 



114 MONUMENTS AND EPITAPHS 

Adjoining the last, on a similar grave-stone, and in the mid- 
dle of the chancel : 

HERE LYETH 

THE BODY OP ANNE LATE WIFE 

OF THOMAS LORD ARCHBISHOP OF 

CANTERBURY. 

SHE DEPARTED THIS LIFE ON 
THE XII OF FEBRUARY MDCCXIV-XV. 



HERB LYETH THE BODY 

OF THOMAS TENISON, late ^ 
ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, 

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE IN PEACE 

ON THE XIV DAY OF DECEMBER 

MDCCXV. 

This learned and worthy prelate was the son of the Rev. 
John Tenison^ B. D. by Mary daughter of Thomas Dowson 
of Cottenham in Cambridgeshire, and was born at that place 
Sept. 29, 1 636. His father was rector of Mundesley in Norfolk. 
Young Tenison was first educated at the fVee-school at Nor- 
wich^ but soon left it for Bene*t College, Cambridge. After 
having taken his degrees, at the age of 29 he was appointed one 
of the university preachers^ and about the same time was pre- 
sented by the Dean and Chapter of Ely to the cure of St. 
Andrew's in Cambridge. About 1667 he married Anne, 
daughter of Dr. Richard Love, some time Master of Bene't 
College. In 1685 he attended the unfortunate Duke of 
Monmouth at the time of his execution. Immediately after 
the revolution he was promoted to be Archdeacon of Lon- 
don, and shortly after nominated Bishop of the same dio- 
cese, and consecrated at Lambeth Jan. 10> 1692; afterwards 
raised to that of Lincoln ; and being in great favour with both 
their Majesties King William and Queen Mary, he was pre- 
sented by them to the Archbishopric of Canterbury. 

This mild and amiable prelate died at his palace at Lambeth 




SRASS OF TiHOIs^AS Cr^JElFJZ 



f^. 



IN THE CHUmCU. 115 

in the 79th year of his age. By Ina will he bequeathed a very 
large sum to charitable purposes. 

On the north side of the chancely on a blue grave-stone : 

Catharinje Battely, 

FjEMINiB OPTIMiEy 

Conjugi StiavissinuBy Fidimmce, Pientiss, 

QfUBVixU 

Annos xxiii menses ix dies 1. 

Obijt : Kal : Oct : moclzxxv. 

Joannes Battely, s, t. p. 

M.P. 

Beneath the last, on a flat stone, is the figure of a man in 
armour, engraved on a brass plate, with the arms of Clere. 
Over it was formerly a tablet with the following epitaph, written 
by the celebrated Earl of Surrey : _^ . / / ^ - 

Epitaphium Thomje Clere, qui ^iUi*^^ 

fato functus est 1545, auctore , 
Henrico Howard, comite Surry, 
in cujus felicis ingenii specimen, & 
singiilaris facundiae argumentum, 

appensa fuit hasc tabala per 

W. Howard, filium Thomae nuper 

Ducis Norfolciensis, filii ejusdem 

Henrici Comitis. 

Norfolke sprung thee, Lambeth holds thee dead, 

Clere of the count of Cleremont thou hight ! 
Within the wombe of Ormondes race thou bred, 

And sawest thy cosin crowned in thy sight. 
Shelton, for love, Surrey for lord thou chase. 

Aye me ! while life did last, that league was tender. 
Tracing whose steps thou sawest Kelsall 1)lase, 

Laundersey burnt, and batter*d Bulleyn render 
At Muttrell gates, hopeless of all recure, 

Thine Earle, halfe dead, gave in thy hand his will. 
Which cause did thee this pining death procure. 
Ere summers four times seven thou could fulfill. 



116 MONUMENTS AND EPITAPHS 

Aye, Clere, if love had booted care or cost. 
Heaven had not wonne, nor Earth so timely lost. 

Arms : Quarterly, 1st and 4th, a fets charged with three 
eaglets displayed ; ^d and 3rd, a cross moline ; a crescent for 
difference. 

I 

m 

On a large slab of blae stone, adjoining the last, is the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

JOHANNES ALSOP, ARMIOER, FAMILIJE 

CONTROROTVLATOR . RD • D . RICHARD 

THESAVRARIUS POSTEA • RD • D • GEOROI 

ARCHIEPISCOPORUM CANT. 

OBIIT 12 DIE IVLII 

ANNO DOMINI 1611, 

iETATIS 51. 

On a slab inlaid are the engraven effigies in brass of a lady in 
her mantle of estate, whereon are the arms and quarterings of 
Howard; 1st, on a bend, between six cross crosslets fitch^, 
an escutcheon, thereon a demi-lion pierced through the mouth 
with an arrow, within a double tressure counter-flowered ; 2dly, 
three lions passant-guardant, in chief a file of three points ; 
3rdly, a lion rampant; 4thly, checqu^, impaling, 1, a chevron 
between three mullets ; 2, on a chevron three fleurs-de-lis ;. 
3, on a cross five escallops ; lastly, two lions passant-guardant. 
At the feet of the lady a squirrel. The remains of a gothic 
canopy and several labels are to be traced upon the stone, to 
which was formerly affixed the following inscription : 

Here lyeth Katherine Howard, 

one of the Sisters and Metres of John 

Broughton, Esq. Son and Heire o/* John Broughton, Esq. 

and late Wife of the Lord Willm. Howard, 

one of the Sonnes of the Right High and Mighty 

Prince Lord Thomas, late Duke of 

Norfolke, High Treasurer and Earl 



//t. 




IN THB CHUaCIl. 117 

Marshal o/* England; tohich Lord William and Lady 

Catherine left Issue behveen them, 

latofiiUy begotten^ Agnes Howard, the only 

Daughter and Heir ; tvhich said Lady Catherine 

deceased the xiii Day ofApriU, 

Anno D*ni MCCCCCxxxv. iiohose Soule Jesu pardon. 

This lady, with her husband, were indicted for concealing the 
misdemeanors of her namesake Queen Catherine Howard, for 
which they were sentenced by Henry VIII. to perpetual im- 
prisonment, but were afterwards pardoned.<^ 

. On the opposite side of the chancel, on a large slab of blue 
marble, ornamented with a coat of arms deeply engraven : 

RoBERTVs Thompson, ll.d, 
Reverendissimis in Christo Patribus 

GiLBEBTO Sf GriLHELMOy 

Archiepiscopis Cantuariensibus 

nuper a secretis, 

J C^' peritissimus serous optimus, 

Eruditione non vulgaris 

Benignitate morum suavissimdy 

Amicitid strictissimd, 

Vitaq, Integritate summa spedabilis, 

Heic quod Mortale deposuit 

Mensis Februarij die 3°, 

Anno JErce Christiana mdclxxxiii. 

JEtat. 4«. 

Arms : Party per fess countercbanged between three falcons 
close. 

On a spacious slab of blue marble are the remains of an in- 
scription, probably for one of the Howard family : 

HERB LYKTH THE BODY.... 
HOWARD S 



« Collios' Peerage, edit. 1756, vul. III. p. 566. 



118 MONUMsmrs and epitaphs 

Within the altar rails, on a spacious slab, at the upper end of 
which are, Canterbury, impaling Bancroft, and at the base 
Bancroft singly ; also London impaling Bancroft. 

HIC JACBT &ICHAHDU8 BANCROFT, 

S. THEOLOOIiB PAOFE8SOR. 

B*FIJS LONDINBNSIS PBIMO 

DEINDB CANTUABIBNSIS 

ARCBIBP'US, & BBOI JACOBO 

A SBCRBTIOBIBUS CONSILIIS. 

OBIIT 2 NOVBMB. 

A. d'ni 1610, 
iBTATIS SUJB 67. 

Arms : On a bend cotized between 6 cross crosslets 3 garbs. 

This learned and excellent divine was the son of John Bancroft, 
gentleman, and Mary daughter of Mr. John Curwyn, brother 
of Dr. Hugh Curwyn, Archbishop of Dublin. He was bom 
at Farnworth in Lancashire, in September 1$44. After being 
taught grammar, he became a student of Christ College, Cam- 
bridge, where, in 1566-7? he took the degree of B. A. ; and 
thence removed to Jesus' College, where, in 1570, he com- 
menced M. A. Soon after, he was made Chaplain to Dr. Cox, 
Bishop of Ely, who, in 1575, gave him the rectory of Teversham 
in Cambridgeshire. The year following he was licensed one of 
the university preachers, and in 1580 was admitted B. D. 
September 14, 1584, he was instituted to the rectory of St. 
Andrew, Holborn, at the presentation of the executors of Henry 
Earl of Southampton. In 1585 he commenced D. D. and the 
same year was made Treasurer of St. Paul's Cathedral in Lon- 
don. The year following he became Rector of Cottingham in 
Northamptonshire, at the presentation of Sir Christopher Hat-* 
ton. Lord Chancellor, whose Chaplain he then was. Feb. 25th, 
1589, he was made a Prebendary of St. Paul's; in 1592 advanced 
to the same dignity in the Collegiate Church of Westminster ; 
and in 1594 promoted to a stall in the Cathedral of Canterbury. 



IK THS CHURCH. 119 

In 1597 Dr. Bancroft, being then Chaplain to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury (Whitgift) was advanced to the see of London, 
in the room of Dr. Richard Fletcher, and consecrated at Lam- 
beth the 8th of May. In 1603 he was appointed one of the 
Commissioners for regulating the a&irs of the Church, and for 
perusing and suppressing books, printed in England, or brought 
into the realm without public authority. A convocation being 
summoned to meet, March 20, 1603-4, and Archbishop) Whit- 
gift dying in the mean time, Bancroft was, by the King*s writ, 
appointed president of that assembly, October 9th, 1604, he 
was nominated to succeed the Archbishop in that high dignity, 
to which he was elected by the Dean and Chapter Nov. 17> 
and confirmed in Lambeth Chapel Dec. 10. Sept. 9> 1605, he 
was sworn one of his Majesty's most honourable Privy Council. 
This year, in Michaelmas Term, he exhibited certain articles to 
the Lords of the Council against the Judges. This was a com- 
plaint of encroachment, and a contest for jurisdiction between 
the temporal and ecclesiastical Judges, and, as Collier has well 
observed, ought to be decided by neither side : but the decision 
was against him. In 1608 he was elected Chancellor of the 
University of Oxford, in the room of the Earl of Dorset. In 
1610 this Archbishop offered to the Parliament a project for the 
better providing a maintenance for the Clergy, but without 
success. By his will he ordered his body to be interred in 
the chancel of Lambeth Church ; and^ besides other legacies, 
left all the books in his library to the Archbishops his suc- 
cessors for ever. He was a rigid disciplinarian, a learned 
controversialist, an excellent preacher, a great statesman, and 
a vigilant governor of the Church, and fUied the see of Canter- 
bury with great reputation. 

On a similar slab : 

Milo 'Smith, 
Reverendissimi in Christo PatriSf 

ac 
Dom, Dom. Gilberti 



ISO MONUMKlffTS AND JBPITAPUS 

Archiep*s*pi Cant. 

Secretariusy 

hicjacet. 

Obiit \7mo die Febr. Ano Dni 1671. 

Arms: A chevron between two couple closes inter three 
roses slipt. 

He was Secretary to Archbbhop Sheldon, and wrote a prac- 
tical paraphrase on the Psalms.^ 

In the south aisle, on a plain oval tablet : 

in memory 
of the late 
Mr* Ann Orme, 
WIDOW OF Robert Orme, ssqi, 

HISTORIOGRAPHER 

TO THE 

HONBLE EAST INDIA COMPANY ; 

WHO DIED AUGUST SlST 1818, 

AGED 80 YEARS. 

Against the same wall is a small monument of free stone, 
bearing the figures of a man and four sons, and a woman and 
three daughters opposite to each other, kneeling before a desk 
containing two books all in basso relievo, and under them the 
following inscription : 

AO fUMPTUM THOME POLKIS, 

A*0 DOMINI 1583. 

AONEf TYDNAM : MARIED : FIRST : TO : THOMAS : MARSHALL : TENN. 
TO : JOHN : MANNYNOS : LYETHl : BVRIED : HERS : SHE : LIVED : 8 : TYMCS : JC: 

AND : FVLL : 5 : TERES : 6 : children : BY : Marshall : she : had : 3 

WERE : SONNES : THE : OTHER *. DAWTORS : OP : THEM : NONE : LIVING : BEE : 

SHE : DIED : THE : xxU : daie : of : march : and t in : the : yeere : 
OP : OVR : lord ; god : as : by : the i date : here : written : maie : appeerb : 

Arms : Sahle^ a mullet between two bars or^ charged with 
three cinquefoils of the first, ^.1.; in chief, two crescents of the 
last. 

a A. Wood*! Atben. Oxoo. vol. II. p. 496. 



lA- 



/«*'„- 




IN THB CHURCH. 



131 



On the south side of the wall in the aisle, a smtfll white 
marble tablet with a small urn ; on its top this inscription : 

Near this place lyeth the 

Body of Martha Eldridge, 

who, on the 12^^ Day of May, 

Anno Domini 1714, departed 

this Life in the 8%^ Year of her 

Age, with a Christian Resignation, 

afler a careful Discharge of 

her duty here, and a frugal 

provision made for her 

Children, who in a pious 

Concern for her Memory 

have Erected this Monument, 

as the last Testimony 

of their Obedience 

and Gratitude. 




Azure, a cross formde fitch^e or ; on a chief 
of the last three covered cups of the first ; 
impaling, Argent^ a cross crosslet ^ic}s^gide$ 
between three martlets sahle. 



On a large slab at the west end of the south aisle on the 
floor : 

Here Lyeth the Body of 

Mr William Leigh, who died 

Octcr 24 1773, aged 68 years. 



On another : 

Here Lyeth the Body of M" 

Samuel Bowter, of this Parish, 

who departed this life February 

the 8th 1733-4, in the 59tb year of his 

Age. 



m MOKUMIMTS AMD SPITAPHS 

Here also Ly^ the Body 

of Mjif Mary Bowyer, late wife 

of the abovesaid M* Samuel Bowter^ 

who Departed this Life February 

the. 13th 1741-2, Aged 66 Years. 



Ob another : 



John Perkins, Esqr^ 

diedSl*tAprill798^ 

Aged 54 Years. 

Also Mrs Ann Russell, 

Sister of the aforesaid 
John Perkins, Esqh, 
died 28th May 1788, 
Aged 37 Years. 



On a similar slab to the last : 



Sacred 

to the Memory of 

Hayes Fortee, Esqb, 

who died the 2^ of Octr 1809, 

Aged 83 Years. 



On another : 



Here lieth interred the Body 

of James Morris, Esqr, 

late of this Parish 

who departed this life Deer 

the 7th 1781, aged 62 Years. 

Also of Roger Morris, 

Grandson of the abo?e, 

who. died the 24th of December 

1822, in the 2lst Year of his Age. 



Ill THB CHURCH. 133 

On a ^aciouB blue slab : 

In this grave is deposited 

the Remains of 
'Georgb Tbgxtm btsr. 

No further seek his Merit to disclose ' 
Or draw his Frailties from their dread abode. 

Where both alike in trembling hope repose 
Hie bosom of his Father and his God. 

He died the 19^h of April 1784, 
in the S4*^ year of his Age. 

Also Hannah his Widow, 
who died 15tb March 1809, aged 79 years. 

Here lie the remains of 
John Barnwell Murphy, Esqre^ 
who died the 98th of May 1899, 
Aged 68 years. 

On a very large blue slab, ornamented with a coat of arms : 

Here lyeth the Body of 

William Brouohton, Esq^, 

late Mercht and Citizen of Ix>ndon, 

who departed this Life the 1 1 day 

of Sepr 1715, in the 64 Year 

of liis Age. 

Done by order of 

Dame Elizabeth Irwin, 

, his widow and Executrix. 

Arms: Within a border a chevron between three bears 
passant. Crest : on a wreath a wolf passant. 

Near the last is a slab upon which have formerly been two 
figures', probably a man and his wife ; above them three smaller, 
and beneath the large figures are the remains of an inscriptiony 
and three coats of arms. 



IM M0NUMSNT9 AHD BPI.TAPHS 

At the entrance into the vestry is a large blue slab ; the in- 
scription nearly obliterated : 

Hie jacet indytus ille & erudltissimus 

Elias AsHMOLEy Lichfeldlensis, 

Armiger. Inter alia in republica 

munera, tributi in oervisias contra- 

rotulator^ fecialis. autem Windsoriensis 

titulo per annos plurimos dignatus : 

quiy post connubta, in uxo^em duxit 

tcrtiam, Elizabstham, Gulielmi Dugdale, 

Militis, garteri principalis regis armoruniy 

filiam : mortem obiit 18 Muj 16929 

anno setatis 76 ; sed durante Museo 

Ashmoliano Oxon. nunquam moriturus. 

Near this tomb was formerly placed an atchievement ; quar- 
terly, sable and or ; the first quarter charged with a fleur de lis 
of the second ; the coat of Ashmole, impaled with that of Dug- 
dale, argent a cross moline guleSf and a torteaux. Motto : jEx 
uno omnia. Crest : On a mount verdant, Mercury preparing 
to fly, between two naked boys (the celestial sign Gemini) 
sitting at his feet proper. 

This eminent plilosopher, chemist, antiquary, acnd founder of 
^he noble Museum at Oxford which still bears his name, was 
the only son of Mr. Simon Ashmole, of Lichfield, co. Stafford, 
by Anne daughter of Mr. Anthony Boyer of Coventry. He was 
born May 23, 1617; and during his early education in gram- 
mar, was taught music, in which he made such proficiency as to 
become a chorister in the Cathedral at Lichfield* In March 
1638 he married Eleanor^ daughter of Mr. Peter Manwaring, 
of Smallwood, Chester, and the same year became a Solicitor in 
Chancery. On Feb. 1 1, 1641, he was sworn an Attorney of the 
Court of Common Pleas ; and on December 5, in the same year» 
his wife died suddenly, of whom he has left us a very natural 



IN THS GHUmCH. Itt^ 

and aflfectionate memorial. He entered himself at Brazen-aose 
College^ Oxford^ and applied himBelf vigorously U> the sciences^ 
but especially natural philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy ; 
and his intimate acquaintance with Mr. (afterwards Sir George) 
Wharton, seduced him into the absurd mysteries of astrology, 
which was in those days in great credit. Nov. 16, 16499 he 
married Lady Mainwaring, and settled in London, where his 
house became the receptacle of the most learned and ingenious 
persons that flourished at that time. His marriage with Lady 
Mainwaring involved him in abundance of law-suits with other 
people, and at last produced a dispute between themselves, 
which came to a hearing on October 8, 1657, in the Court of 
Chancery, where, Serjeant MKynard having observed, that in 
eight hundred sheets of depositions taken on the part of the 
lady there was not so much as a bad word proved against 
Mr. Ashmole, her bill was dismissed, and she delivered back 
to her husband. In the spring of 1658 he began to collect 
materials for his History of the Order of the Garter, which he 
afterwards lived to finish, and thereby rendered both the Order 
and himself immortal. On Nov. ^, 1660, he was called to the 
bar in Middle-Temple hall ; and January 15, 1661, was admitted 
F. R. S. On February 9th following, the King signed a warrant 
for constituting him Secretary of Surinam in the West Indies ; 
and in 1669 he was appointed one of the Commissioners for re- 
covering the King's goods. On June 27> 1664, the White 
Office was opcnedj of which he was appointed a Commissioner. 
On Feb. 17^ 1665, Sir £dward Byshe sealed his deputation for 
visiting Berkshire. On June 9} 1668, he was appointed by the 
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, Accomptant-General 
and Country Accomptant in the Excise. His second wife. 
Lady Mainwaring, djring .April 1 in the same year, he soon 
after married Mrs. Elizabeth Dugdale, daughter to his good 
friend Sir William Dugdale, Knt. Garter King of Arms, in Lin- 
coln's-Inn Chapel, on November 3. On Jan. 39ri675» he re* 
signed his office o£ Windsor Herald, which, by his procurement, 
was bestowed on his brother Dugdale. 



196 M0NUMUIT8 AND BPITAPH8 

On a iHiite marble slab, partly hid by the staircase leading 
to the south gallery : 

IN TUB VAVLT UNDBRNBATH LTBTH 

INTBRE6D THB BODY OF RICHARD 

LAWRBNCBy OF THIS PARISH^ MART, 

AND ONB OF T> MBMBBR8 OF THB 

. LBV ANT COMPANY, WHO MARRIBD 

JOANNA STBPHYNS, Y> RBLICT OF 

MR HBNRY STBPHYl/s^ BY WHOM 

HB HAD IS8UB THRBB CHILDREN, 

VIZ. TWO SONS AND ONE DAUGHTER. 

HB DEPARTED THIS LIFE Y' 8th 

DAY OF OCTOBER, ANO D*NI 1661, 

AGED 53 YEARBS. 

ABSALOM HAD NO SONS, AND HE BUILT HIM A PILLAR. 

Arms : a cross raguly impaling three buckles, masde 
fashion. 

He founded the charity schools for twenty boys in the 
Marsh Liberty. 

Against the wall of the south gallery, is a handsome white 
marble monument ornamented with cherubs, drapery, &c. and 
a fluted urn and coat of arms at the top, with the following 
inscription : 

HERE 

. LTETB THB BODY OF JOHN GOFFTON, ESQ ; 

YOUNGER SON UNTO SIR FRANCIS GOFFTON, OFF 

8T0CKWBLL, WHO WITH HIS LADY WERE BURYED 

IN A VAULT IN THIS ANGLE, WHICH DOES. BELONG 

UNTO THAT MANNER HOUSE. HIS ELDER BROTHER 

FRANCIS DIBD IN FRAN8 1649, ANO 

HE DEPARTED THIS LIFE THE 

NINTH DAYB OF MAY, BBINO 








IK THB CHUmOB. 197 

III THE TIRE OP OUR LORD 

1686, 

IN THE 71 YBRB OF BIS AGE. 

Quarterly, ist and 4th, an unicorn's head 
erased ; 2d and 3d, ermine. 



On a white marble taBlet, affixed to the wall of the. south 
gallery, is the following inscription : 

Near the middle of this Chapel 

lies interred the body of 

William Hammond, Esq; 

of the Parish of Lambeth, 

Who had ye honour to serve his Queen 

and Country in the station of 

High Sheriff for the 

County of Surry, Ann. 1706. 

He departed this life in sure and certain 

hopes of a better, the 17tb Day of May, 

in the Year of our Lord 1710, 

in the 64th Year of hi. Age. ^^^^^^ 4^2 

Arms : Party per ipsiie gules and azure three demi-lions passant- 
guardant or; impaling party per pale indented argent and 
azure. Crest : on a torce a wolfs head erased. 

On each side the arms is a small shield, the first bears 
Hammond as before, impaling gules, a chevron between three 
owls or. The other is Hammond, impaling party per pale azure 
and gules, a chevron counterchanged between three eaglet dif« 
played argetU. Motto : Mors viUejauua. 

On a marble tablet against the same side : 

In the Family Vault, 

Under the Organ Gallery, 

Are deposited the Remains 



ISM Movuicurri Aim mntAvnn 

Of Joseph Pratt, Esq* ; 

Late of Vaux-hall, in this Parish, 

Descended from John Pratt, Esq', 

Colonel in the Army, raised by 

The Parliament or England, 

In Defence of their Civil fund Rehgious Liberties, • 

# 

And Representative, in 1653, for the County of Leicester. 

The said Joseph Pratt, Esqr, having lived 

Universally esteemed for his Integrity and Beneficencci 

Exchanged this Life for a better, on the 6^h Day of May 1754 ; 

Leaving Two Hundred Pounds, by Will, 

To the Poor of this Parish, td whom, 

Whilst living, he had been a constant Benefactor. 

In the same Vault is also interred 

The Body of his Brother William Pratt, Esqr, 

Who died Jany 14, 1749i aged 74 Years ; 

Of the latter's wife. Mart, who died April IS, 1746, 

In the 73d Year of her Age ; 

Of their son, Richard Pratt, Esqr, late of Vauzhall, 

who died on the 9^ Day of January 1756, 

In the 4S^ year of his Age ; 

Of Mary Pratt, widow of the said Richard Pratt, 

And Daughter of Jonathan Chill well, Esqr, of this Pturish, 

Who died on the dl«t Day of May 1777» 

I In the 54th Year of her Age. 

Also the Bodies of three of their Children, 

Mary Anne, bom Jany 8, 1744, died Oct« 19, 1755, of the 

Small Pox. 

Joanna Pratt, bom June 24, 1745, died aged 8 months. 

Joseph Pratt, Esqr bom May 6, 1747> died of the Small Pox 

on the IStb Day of May 1766, being then 

A Fellow Commoner of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Sir Joseph Mawbey, Bart, q^ Botlbys and Vauxhall, 

Sher^ in 17^7 Jbr this County^ 
Representative in two Parliaments Jhr the Borough of Southtioarkf 




IN THK CHURCH. 199 

And afterwards Knioht qfihe Shir^ Jor the County of Surrey^ 

Nephev) of the first named Joseph Pratt, JSiy*", 

And mho married Elizabeth, Daughter and Heiress 

Of his Cousin Richard Pratt, Esqr above mentioned^ 

Caused this Monument to he erected 

in the year 1779. 

Sahle, on a fess between three elephants' 
heads erased argent as many muUiets of the 
field. 



On the same side a black marble tablet enchased in white, 
with this inscription : 

Against this Place in the lie 

resteth the Body of Elizabeth 

Baylie, late Wife of John fiaylie, 

Ohiit 24 of lune, Anno D*ni 

1629» jEtatis svte 25. 

RBADBR, tread SOFT, UNDER TUT FOOT DOTH LTE 

A MOTHER BURTBD WITH HER PROOBNYB, 

TWO FEMALES AND A MALE } THE LAST A SONNE, 

WHO WITH HIS LIFE HIS MOTHERS THREAD HATH SPUNN, 

HIS BREATH HER DEATH PROCUR*DE (UNHAPPT SINNe) 

THAT THUS OUR JOY WITH SORROW USHERS IN, 

YET HBB BEING LOTH TO LEAVE SO KIND A MOTHER^ 

CHANGES THIS LIFE TO MEET HER IN ANOTHER. 

THE DAUGHTERS FIRST WERE ROBB*DE OF VITAL BREATH, 

THE MOTHER NEXT IN STRENGTH OF YEARS METT DEATH. 

THE father's ONLY JOYE, A HOPEFUL SONNE, 

DID LOSE HIS LIFE, WHEN LIFE WAS SCARCE BEGUN. 

IF HARMLESS INNOCENCE, IF LOYAL TRUTH, 

FOUND IN A CONSTANT WIFE COMBIN*DB WITH YOUTH, 

IF A KIND HUSBAKD*S PRAYERS, OR FATHER*S TEARES 

COULD HAVE PREVAIl'd, THEY HAD LIV*D MANY YEARBS. 

BUT THESE ALL FAILING, HERE RAK'd UP IN DUST, 

THEY WAIT THE RESURRECTION OF THE JUST. , 

s 



130 



MONUMBMT8 AMD EPITAPHS 



A husband's LOVB, a FATRBR*8 PIBTTBy 

DBDICATBS THIS VMTO tHBIB MBHOBYB j 

AND WHBM HB HATH HIS J>BaT TO NATUBB PATD, 

IN THB SAMB ORAYB HI1ISBI.P WIUU THBH BB LAYD, 

THAT ALTOdBTSBBy WHBW THB TB9MP SHALL SOUND* 

HUSBAND^ WIFE, CHlLPBBRy MAT IV CHRIST BE FOUND. 



On the north side of the South gallerjr a small white marble 
monumentyomamentedwithohenibfy.ftkulky fruit, &c. and an 
urn on the top, with the following inscription : 

Near y« Midle of 

this Chappie lyeth 

ye body of S»» Peter Rich, 

K% late Alderman of ye 

Citty of IjOTfTDov. He dy'd 

the 26th of August, Anno 

Dom. 1693, in the 

Sixty-second Year of his* Age. 

Near his grare, 

twelve of his Children^ 

who dy'd before him, 

lye buried. 



4'A> 




Gulesy a chevron between three crosses 
botone^ or. 



Near ^e last, and on a neat marble tablet, is the following 
inscription: < 



SACRED TO THB MEMORY 

OF ANNA CUTLER, 

WIFE OF ANDREW CUTLER, 

OF THIS PARISH, WHO DIED 

ON THE 5TU OF NOVEMBER 1756, 

AGED 69 TEARS. 



.•••' IM THS GMVHCH. ISl 

ALSO 

TO THB MBMORT'Or TBS 

ABOyS SAID ANDIBW CUTLBIf 

LATB CLBRK Ot THIS PABI8H, 

WHO DBPARTBD THIS LIFB DBCSR 9<^ 1771 > 

AGBD 71 TEARS. 

On a handsome monument of white and veined marble, sup- 
ported by two Corinthian pillars, is the following inscription : 

Underneath 

lieth the Body of 

Mk John Reynolds, Gentleman, 

of the Parish of Lambeth, 

who during his life was I 

a constant Promoter of Peace and Order, ' 

and at his death 

gave to the Poor of thisP&rifih lOOl. 

and to the Charity Schbol 50l 

He died on the 84^ Day of May. 

in the Year of our Lord 171 L 

And in the 6S^ Year of his Age, 

Arms : A shield bearing three coats paleways ; 1st, Argent^ 
a chevron checqu^ g^* and azure between three cross cross- 
lets fitch^ of the last, Reynolds ; 2nd, Argent, a cross moline 
gulesy in the first quarter a torteaux j Srd, i4rgeit^, afess'dancette 
between three roses gules* Crest : out of a mural crown or 
a demi-hound saliant argent^ eared and gorged of the first, 
whereunto is affixed a chain of the last. 

On a monument at the East end of the South gallery is the 
following inscription : 

HBRB LYBTU THB BODY OP 

JOHN ARUVDBLL, OF GWARNICK, 

IN THB COUNTY OP CORNWALL, 

BSa; SON AND HBIR OF ROGBR 

ARUNDBLL, OJf THB SAID COUNTIE, 



138 



MONUMENTS AND KPITAPHS 



KSa; A GBNTLBM4N Of AN 

ANTIBNT, HONOUBABLBy AND 

FAIR DB8CBNDBD FAMILT9 WHO 

DIBD TUB 25th of MAT 

1613, WITHOUT ISSUB, AND 

IN THB 56th YBAR of HIS AGB. 

SAPB ET PBJBVALB. 




SablCf three chevronels argent 



In the north aisle, on an oval tablet, surrounded by drapery, 
the following inscription : 

SACRED 

TO THB MEMORY OF 

MK JOHN GARRETT, 

MASTER OF THE BARGES TO 

t 

FREDERICK PRINCE OF WALES. 

WHO DIED 5th march 1757* 

AND OF MM ANN GARRETT 

HIS WIFE, 

WHO DIED 14th JANUARY 1750. 



THIS TABLET IS GRATEFULLY INSCRIBED 

TO THEIR REVERED MEMORIES 

BY HIM 

WHOM THEY ADOPTED AND 

EDUCATED FROM HIS INFANCY 

AND FROM WHENCE ISSUED, 

(by THB GOOD PROVIDENCE 

OF god) 

BLESSINGS : MANY YEARS 

HAPPILY BXFERIBNCBO 

I8O7. B. B. 



IN THE CHURCH. ISS 

On a marble monument in the same aisle : 

NBAR THIS PLACE LTBTH INTBRR*D 
THB BODY OP JOHN WAKBLINO) 
SON OP 
JOHN AND JANB WAKBLIN6, 

OP THIS PARISH, 

WHO DBPARTED THIS LIPB 

APRIL THB 30TH, 1754, 

AGED 26 TEARS } 

WHO NEVER OPFBNDBD FATHER OR MOTHER. 

ALSO 

THE BODY OF JOHN WAKELIN6, 

FATHER OF THB ABOVESAID JOHN WAKELINGy 

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIPB 

APRIL THE 14th, 1784, 

AGED 89 YEARS. 

LIKEWISE 

THE BODY OF JANE, 

WIFE OP THB LAST MBNTIOn'd 

JOHN WAKELING, 

AND MOTHER OF THE FIRST, 

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE OCTR 2d, 

1788| AGED 89 YEARS. 

They were kind Benefactors to 
the Poor of this Parish. 

On a small white marble monument, adorned with mantling, 
chef ubim, fruit, flowers, palm-leaves, &c. is the following quaint 
inscription : 

In the Vault under this Stone 

is the Remains of Richard Marsh, Esq. 

who sup*t (before he went to Bed) with Christ. 

He had Issue 15 children by Martha, his Wife and Relict, 

3 are buried in the Middle He against the Pulpit, 

& I lies in the Vault which he built for his family. 

He was exceeding glad at the beautifying of this House, 



114 MOKU¥«VX» 4N1> IBflTAPHS 

& though not ^uite finished* was begun m his time. 
Being full of hope, he departed this Life the 18tb of May, 

1704. Aged 61. 

Arms : On a bend, three leopards* heads. 

On a small white marble monument ornamented with gilt 
mantling, the following inscription : 

Near this Place lyeth interred ye Body 

of Mrs JvoETH RALsoHy the Wife 

of Capt. Georqe Ralbgh,<* some 

time Deputy Gouemor of y« Hand 

of Jersey, & Daughter of Thqs 

FermyNx of Bushbrook Hall in 

Suffolk, Esq' who departed 
this Life December ye 14th, 1701. 

Arms : Gulesy a bend fusiles argent, impaJing Salde, a cres- 
cent between two mullets in pale argent. 

On the floor of the nortli aisle, at the west end, is a blue slab : 

Here Lieth the Body of 
MiiiX FoBTj^UEj the wife 

o£ FR4IfCIS FORTESCUB, 

Mariner, and Daughter of 

Jno Knottssford, Esq. 

otHold/ttStlB WorceHerskire : 

who Departed this life 

the 5^ of November, 1764, 

in the M^Year tf her Age. 

Aa also hef Son, 

ChARLMS FORTMSCUSf 

Aged 3 Weeks. 

■ < nu.j i 'I ij uiii . II 11 J ■ ■ I I I I ■! I I i fi | i I "I I a 

<l Nepliew to the hmwu Sir Walter lUletgh. 



IN TBI CHURCB. 195 

Here alfo Lie the Reiiiains of 

Mm Constantia Sarot Wilmot, 

late of this Parish, wife of Isaac 

Sargent Wilmot, Esquire^ 

& Sister of the above Mary Fortescu£ ; 

who died March the 31*^ 1816, Aged 

Sixty-nine Years and Seven Mdnths. 

On a large slab is the following inscription : 

Here lieth the Body . 

of Mm £lizth Fitzwatrb, 

who departed this Life 

Septr 7th^ 1779, 

Aged 57 Years. 

Also Mb Cbarles Fitzwatbr, 

who departed this Life 

the 9^ of October 17S5, 

Aged 83 Y^^ars. 

Also Mm Ann Coltman, 

Sister of the above, 

who died the 4^ December 1810, 

Aged 48 Years. 

On another : 

Here lie interred the Remains 

of Eliztu Blachford, 

who died May 14^, 1776, 

Aged 16 Years. 

Also Daniel Blachford 

( her Father ) , who departed 

this Life Nov^ 24^, 1782, 

in the 73^ Year of his age. 

About the middle of this aisle is a stone, on which have for* 
merly been the effigies of a man in armour and his two wives, 
with an inscription. beneath them. 



136 MONUMENTS AN]> EPITAPHS 

Round the edge of a large grave-stone, now partly hid by 
the staircase : 

V 

HIC JACET MARGARITA CASTISSIMA & INTBGKRRIMA 
CONJUX QUONDAM MATTHJEI ARCHIBPISCOPI 
CANTUARIEN. QUE OBIIT 17 AUGUST, A. D. 1570 

And on the inside of the same stone : 

Hie jacet Matthjbus Parker, 

alter filiorum D*ni Matthei 

& Margarets Parker, qui 

obiit A. D. 1521, die 28 Sept. 

setat. 21* 

On a plain slab : 

Here lies the Body of 

M"* Jans Machell, wife of 

Capt. Willis Machell, 

who departed this life 

Octobr25, 1773, 

Aged 46 years. 

On a spacious blue slab . 

herb LYEIH YK BODY 

OF ANN, YB WIFE OF ROBERT 

ROBERTS, OF YS CITTY OF BRISTOLL, 

GENT. WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE 

the lOTH K0% ANNO DO. 1665, 

JBTATIS 8VJE 82. 

Arms : First and fourth, a lion rampant ; second and third, a 
birdbolt ; impaling a cross fretty between 4 mullets. 

On a neat marble slab : 

Margaret Maple .... 

Virgin. 

Expecting the coming of her 



tntmcHVikcH* 137* 

deare redeemer^ 

shee died ye 27* of j. . . . 

in y« IT*** yeare of her 

Age. 

« 

At the east end of this aisle has fonnerly been a brass plate 
of a large size, seemingly a female figure, and in shape and size 
very like the one previously described, p. 116, as being in the 
chancel. Above the figure have been two shields. 

On the side of the stairs leading to the North gallery, on a 
beautiful monument of white marble, ornamented with cherubs^ 
fruit, flowers, &c« is the following inscription : 

Near thit place 

Lye intenr'd in the same Gfave, 

the Bodies o£ the Hon^l< Colonel Cvtwrt Morlky, 

. who wu buried on the SOt*^ of June 1669. 

And of the Hon^le Bernard Granville, Esq', who esponsed Ann, the 

Dan. and Heiress of y« said Cutbert, and dy'd j* 14^^ June 1 701 , aged 71 yean. 

As also of J* Honbl« Ann Granville, Relict of y« said Bernard Granville. 

And daughter to y« said Cutbert Morley, by Catherine, daughter 

to Francis Earl of Searsdale^ who dy*d y« 80U* Sept. following, 1701. 

Hie juzta mortales depomit exuviat Bernardus Granville, 

Inclyti Herois Bevilii Granville, 

Qui ad Lansdoum in agro SomerseUnsi 

Regias Uiendo partes firtiter occulmit, Filius ; 

JoHANNis CumitU BalhonuB Prater: 

Nee mm Serenissimo Principi Carolo Seeundo a Camera, 

Cut tunc temporis eiulanii Prima ReditiLs auspicatisskmi omina 

FttUx Nuncius apportavit, 

Vxorem duxit Annam PiUam ymcam ac Hmredem^ i 

CuTBERTi Morley de Normanby in Agro Ebor: 

Ex Catherina Francisci Comiiis de Scarsdale FiiiAf 

Quam Annam Viduam inconsolabilem, prm pio dolore optumi eoryugitf^ 

Cum quo kiejhftiiur TYimtiiiim, non dm supersHiem reHquiU 

Hoe cum. Cutbbrto, CufiU grastanU Bdlo, 

Ilegij Juris Assertore strenuissimo, aortisque dUapsmfidissimo Comite, 

Amores ergb in Cotfptgem ac soeerum hie se recondijussiL 

T 



U8 



MOKVUMVT^ 4Nfi KPITAPHS 




Expr^edUtia ]!h^6u ^uaapU foMcMf 

BiviLiuMy GioRoiuM, Berhabdbm, Aitnam, ac Elizabetuam. 

In quorum JndoU Firtutis PaUrryK mpersutU Fe^igia. 

IHem ob, Supr. Jufi, QuarL Dee. 

Anno Mil. Sept. PrimB, 

JEtaiii Lzxi. 



Rubyy three clarions topazy impaling diamond 
a leopard's face pearl jessant a fleur-c^e-lls 
tofaz* 



On a handsome monament in the Sooth gallery^ ornamented 
with a shield, and at the base a skull : 

NBER^ TNDBR THIS PLACE LTBTH BTRTKI> 

THB B0DTB8 Of CHRISTOPHER WOBMALL^ 

LATB OF THIS PARISH OP I«AMBBTH> GENT. 

A6BD 84 TBARB8 ; HBB DBPARVBD THIS 

LIFE THE l^th PAT OP JTLT ANN^ D*M. 1639 ', 

AND AL80B OP MILLICBNT WORMALL. 

HIS SECOND WIPE, AGED 62 TEARE8 ; SHEB 

DEPARTED THIS LIPE THB 28*h xiaY OP 

SEPTEMBER ANN^ D*M. 1645, BY WHOM 

HBE HAD ISSUE TBNMB CHILDREN, VIZ. 



2. Richard. 

3. Christopher. 

4. WUliara. 
6. Robert. 



Olim sensaum, 

nunc vermium 

domiciliunu 



1. Millicent* 
5. Margaret* 

7. Anne. 

8. Elizabeth. 

9. Margarett. 

10. Mary. 

I Dccembr | iTtb Anno | Vermis el non homo. | D'nx | 1650 \ 




On a xdiief indented three lions rampant 
guardant, impaling a lion rampant crowned 
with an eastern crown. 






IH Tirv ctfUKCff* 199 

.In ihe passage leading from the Charch to the Palace, on a 
large slab: . 

Thomas Secker, 

Archbishop qf Canterbury^ 

died Aug. S, 1768, Aged 75. 

He was born at Sibthorpe, co. Notts^ In 1693, and was 
educated first at a school in Chesterfield, co. Derby^ which he 
left in 1703, and afterwards at a dissenting academy in 
Yorkshire, whence he proceeded to Exeter College, Oxford, 
where he took the degree of M. A. February 4, 1723; 
D. C. L. July 5, 1733, grand compounder. In 17^ he was 
made Prebendary of Durham ; 17d4« Bishop of Bristol on 
the translatiOli of Bishop Cecil to Bangor; 17379 translated to 
Oxford, on the translation of Potter to the see of Canterbury. 
In 1750 he became Dean of St. Paul's ; and in 1758, on the 
death of Archbishop Ilutton^ succeeded to the highest eccle^- 
astical honour, which he enjoyed many years, dying in 1768. 
By his will he bequeathed 1 1,000^. for charitable purposes. 



MONUMENTS AND EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCH-YARD. 

Church-yards had formerly various annexations, now partially 
unknown, viz. Lichgates^ or sheds at the entrance, where the 
corpse rested till the minister arrived. Church-housesy of 
which the upper rooms were used for holding the manerial and 
other qourts, parish courts, markets every Sunday morning for 
vending provisions and the parochial festivals. The lower 
rooms were habitations of the poor, and in some places the 
church-houses were converted into alms-houses. In some 
church-yards an altar was erected to St. Michael, and crosses 
were very common in all church-yards to inspire recollection 



, t40 MOMUIOBKTS AlTD KPlTAPHS 

and rererance. l^mb-stones were crowded on the South side 
of the yard for the benefit of paters and aves from persons 
entering the church, a 

The church-yard adjoining Lambeth Church was enlarged 
in IGiSf and still further a few years back. 

On the South side of the Church-yard, on a table monument 
surrounded with rails : 

Here lyeth the remains of 

F^ANCESy the wife of Thomas Baker, Esq!*, 

of the parish of S/. Margaret y Westminster^ 

who departed this life the 24th of May 1783, 

in the 21>^ year of her age. 

Also of Elizabeth Dellup, widow, 

of the same parish, who departed this life 

March 14t^ 1784, in the 62^ year of her a^e. 

On a similar tomb : 

In this vault lieth interred 

the remains of Elizabeth, the wife of 

Charles Brouohton, of this parish, and 

of London, merchant, who died the 

16tb day of August 1783> in the 47^^ year of her age. 

Also of Charles Hanbury, Esq. 

His Majesty's agent and consul for the circle of 

Lower Saxonyy 
who died the lltb of November 1783, aged 33 years 

and 3 months. 

Arms: two bars, impaling per fess three lions rampant* 
.Crest : on a wreath a lion*s head erased. 



» Fosbroke't £nc. of Antiq. vol. I. p. 108. 



Ill THE CHURGH*YARP. 1^1 

' On an upright stone : 

In memory of William Fadek^ 

of this parish, Gent. 

who departed this life the 93^ of May 1783, 

in the 72^ year of his age. 

He was many years a parishioner of St. Bride, Fleet Street, 
and was the original printer of ** The Public Ledger." He 
retired from business a few years before his death. 

On another : 

ti Mr. Hugh Hancock, 
Son of the Rev. John Hancock, late Prebend 

of Canterbury y died 

Oct. 95tb, 1752, aged 75 years. 

A skilful master, faithful to his 
friend, whose commendation lasted to the end. 

On another : 

Here lieth one that was belov'd by all, 
But it pleas'd the Lord for him to call ; 
Death at his door did knock full soon, 
His morning soon was set at noon. 

Charles Thomas Lloyd, 

departed this life Sept. 84'h 
1778, aged 10 days. 

On another : 

Here was laid the body of the Revd 

Alexander Mair, 

who died September 94S\ An. 1781, in the 

23^ year of his age. 

His parent, brethren, and kindred all. 

To each other in tears imply *d; 
Whom he re8ign*d to Nature's call. 
In innocence he liv*d and dy'd. 



i^ MolruMBirrd Aiib nPnA^ns 

A table monument of freestone was erbct^ in 166^, by 
Hester, the relict of John Tradescant ; it is covered on each 
of its four sides with sculptures ; viz. on the Northy a crocodile, 
shells, &C and a view of some Egyptian buildings; on the 
Southy broken columns, corinthian capitals^ &c. supposed to be 
ruins in Greece, or some eastern countries ; on the East, Tra- 
descant arbs : gA A bend three fleurs-de-Iys, impaling a 
lion paBs^ht ; on the JP'esty a hydra, and under it a skull, 
various figures of trees, &c. in relievo, adorn the four cornefc 
of this monument ; over it is placed a handsome tablet of black 
marble, with the following inscription : 

Know, stranger, ere thou pass beneath this stone. 

Lye John Tradescant, grandsire, father, son ^ 

The last dy'd in his spring ; the other two 

Liv'd till ^ey had traveird Art and Nature through. 

As by their choice collections may appear. 

Of what is rare, in land, in sea in air ; 

Whilst they (as Homer*s Iliad in a nut) 

A world of wonders in one closet shut ; 

These famous Antiquarians that had been 

Both Gardiners to the Hose ahd LOy Queen, 

Transplanted now themselves, sleep here ; and when 

Angels shall with their trumpets waken men, 

And fire shall purge the world, these hence shall rise. 

And change this Garden for a Paradise. 

Formerly the three following lines were on the monument, 
but when it was repaired in 1773 by public subscription, they 
were left out. 

Hiis monument was erected at the charge of Hester 

Tradescant, th^ relict of John Tradescant, late 

deceased, who was buried the 25^1^ of April 1662. 

This learned and truly valuable man, to whom posterity 
is mainly indebted for the introduction of Botany in this 



kiDgdoDit WBB, according, to Anthpny Wood> a Fleming, or a 
Dutchman. We are informed by Parkinson^ that he had' 
travelled into roost parts of Europe, and into Barbary> and 
there remains a tradition^ that in 1620 John Tradescapt entered 
himself on board a privateer going against the Algerine8> that 
he might have an opportunity of bringing apricot trees from 
that country. 

In his. travels he is supposed to have collected not only 
plants and seeds, but most of those curiosities of every sort, 
whidi, after his death, were given by his son to the famous 
Elias Ashmole, and deposited in his museum at Oxford. 

On what occasion and at what period he came into England, 
is not precisely ascertained, but it may be supposed to have 
been about the end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, or the beginning 
of that of James I. He is said to have been for a considerable 
time in the service of Lord Treasurer Salisbury and Lord Wes- 
ton. About 1699 he obtained the title of gardener to Charles 
1. ; he was a man of extraordina^ curiosity, and the first in 
this country who made any considerable collection of the sub- 
ject of natural history. He had a son of the same name, who 
took a voyage to Virginia, wheifice he returned with many new 
plants. They were the means of introducing a variety of 
curious species into this kingdom, several of which bore their 
name. Tradescant's spiderwort and aster are well known to 
this day; and Linnaeus has immortalized them among the 
botanists by making a new genus under their names of the 
ipidenvarty which had been before called ephemeron. 

He lived in a great house at South Lambeth, where there is 
reasoiS to think his museum was frequently visited by persons 
of rank who became benefactors thereto ; among these were 
King Charles the First, Henrietta Maria his Queen, Archbishop 
Laud, George Duke of Buckingham, Robert and William 
Cecil, Earls of Salisbury, and many other persons of distinc- 
tion. 

. The Tradescant's. were usually called Tradeskjn by their 
contemporaries ; the name is uniformly so spelt in the parish 



IM MOMCMIKTa AMD SPlTAfBS ' 

register, and by Flatman the painter, who, in a poenii mentions 
Tffadescant's collection : 

*^ Thus John Tradeskin starves our wondering eyes 
By boxing up his new-found rarities.'* & 

The elder Tradescant died in 1652> and the son in 1662 ; the 
curious monument was erected by Hester, the relict of John 
Tradescant the son ; a beautiful drawing of it in its original 
state is in the Pepysian library at Cambridge ; they have been 
engraved in the Philosophical Transactions.^ An engraving 
of it in its present state is placed as a vignette at the end of 
diis chapter. * 

On an upright stone : 

Sarah Maxwell, 
uxor Francisci Kelly 

Maxwell, Clerici, ^ 
Obiit die Novembris 18, 

anno / "^"'^ ^^^' 
X statis 52. 

Qjualis erat suprema dies indicabit. 

Near the South-west door of the Church, on an elegant 
monument surmounted with an urn, entwined by a snake ; the 
whole surrounded by iron rails : 

To the Memory of 

William Sealy, 

who died 25th of Oct. 1800, aged 48 years. 

Also Harriet Sealy, daughter of the above ; 



• FUtmui'i Poenu, p. 147. ^ Vol. LXIII. plates 4 and 5. 

c Appendix to NichoU'i History of Lunbeth, p. 96. Chalmen'* Biog. Diet* 
Tol. XXX. p. K Ljsons's Enviroiifl, vol.. I. p. 830» 
d Thtn Chaplain and Treasurer to the Asylum. 



^^<tK THE CHURCH-^TARD. 145 

•he died the 5th ^^ March 1799, in the l^^h year of her age. 

Likewise of Thomas Sealt : he died suddenly 

7^ January 1804, aged 20 years. 

Mrt Elizabeth Sbaly, she died 24 Aug. 1807, aged 54. 

Mr John Sealy, husband of the above, who died 

22d of Oct. 1813, aged 64. 

On an elegant monument of the Grecian form in the same 
part of the ground : 

To the Memory of 

Mary, the wife of Edward Shewell, Esqr. 

of StockweU Common^ 

who died 14th Nov. 1821, in the 

66^1^ Year of her Age. 

Against the wall of the Church near the South-east door: 

To the Memory of 

William Bacon, 

of the Salt Office, London, Gent. 

who was killed by Thunder and Lightning 

at his window July the 12^, 1787, 

aged 34 years. 

By touch ethereal in a moment slain, 
He felt the power of death, but not the pain ; 
Swift as the lightning glanced his spirit flew. 
And bade this rough tempestuous world adieu ; 
Short was his passage to that peaceful shore 
Where storms annoy, and dangers threaten no more. 

' He was killed at his house, near the Archbishop's palace, 
Lambeth, at about a quarter before six in the evening, by a 
flash of lightning. At the beginning of the storm he was drink- 
ing tea with his wife ; the back windows of the one pair of stairs 
to the South having been open all day, he went up for the pur- 
pose of shutting them ; and in the action of lifting up his right arm 
received the stroke, which tore his coat eight inches in length. 



146 >IONUM£HT8 AND XPITAMIS 

• 

and four in breadth ; whence it entered his right side^ nearly 
opposite his heart, went through his body, and out of the left 
hip, and down his left leg to his buckle (which melted), and 
tore the upper leather of his shoe from the sole. H|is dog 
being at that foot, was also struck dead ; after which the Ijght- 
ning penetrated the wainscot and floor of the one-pair of stairs, 
and made its way into the front parlour. North, where it tore 
the wainscot in a singular manner, and went off with an explo- 
sion louder than any piece of ordnance. Another account 
says, that he owed his death to a gun being laid across the 
window, placed there to prevent thieves from breaking into the 
housci which, on this occasion, operated as a conductor for the 
lightning ; for, at the instant that he was shutting the window, 
he received the electrical fire from the barrel of the gun, 
which he accidentally touched, and was immediately struck 
dead. The violence of the stroke was such, that it tore out 
his intestines, and made his body a most shocking spectacle. * 

On an elegant monument near the West gate : 

Here are deposited the^remains of 

Robert Robsonb, Esq. of Clapham Rise, 

who departed this life the 7^^ day of Sept. I807. 

Aged 52 years. 

On an upright stone near the same : 

In Memory of 

Walter Gibson, 

who died FeM 1, 1786, aged 75. 

Also Elizabeth, his wife, who died 
Sept. 1, 1780, aged 61. 

Also the Rev^ George Gibson, A. M. 

Son of the above, of 

Carlisle House, in this parish, 

who died in his 67*»» year, Sept. 16, 1821. 



• Geot. Mag. 1787, p. 645. 



IK THE CHURCM-YARD. lif 

Hie Rev. G. Gibson was proprietor and minister of Carlisle 
Chapely Kennington Lane, for 24 years. He waaiof Magdalen. 
Hall, Oxford, where he took his degree of M. A. October 25, 
1799. He married Mrs. Elizabeth Hamburgher, and had 
issue several children, of whom only one survives, married to 
a gentleman of high respectability. He was the master of 
Carlisle House Academy for upwards of 40 years. 

On a large raised slab, near the South-west gate : 

To the memory of 

John Forster, Esq. 

who died 23r<l July, 1818, aged 69 years. 

On a handsome table monument : ^ 

To the Memory of 
William Keale, of fValcot Places Esq. 
who died 22n4 Jan^, 1803, aged 73 years. 

At the East end of the ground is a large mausoleum belong- 
ing to D. and T. Smith, Esqrs. 

On a black marble monument : 

To the Memory of Sarah, wife of Hekry Richards, of 
this parish, who died 7^** Ap^ 171 1> Rged 60. 

Also Henry Richards, husband of the above, died 9'*^ 
Jany, 1711^ aged 63. 

Also Mr. Samuel Richards, second son of the above, who 
died 21 July, 1713, aged 33. 

Also Mrs. Ann Richards, daughter of the above, who 
died 84 Aug«S 1714, aged 27* 

Arms : A chevron between three dolphins baiant, impaling 
a bull passant inter three fishes hauriant, a chief checqu6e. 
Crest : On a wreath, a leopard's head jessant a fleur-de-lis. 



148 MONUMENTS AKD EPITAPHS 

III the East part of the ground, on an elegant monument of 
the Grecian form, surmounted with a blazing urn, on the West 
side iM the following inscription : 

Sacred 

To THE MEMORY OF 

William Blighi esquire, F.R.S. 

VICE admiral OF THE BLUE; 

THE CELEBRATED NAVIGATOR 

WHO FIRST TRANSPLANTED THE BREAD FRUIT TRBE 

FROM OtAHEITE TO THE WEST INDIES, 

Bravely fought the battles of his country, 

AND DIED beloved, RESPECTED, AND LAMENTED, 
ON THE 7^*> DAY OF DECEMBER, 181?, 

AGED 64. 

On the South side is the following inscription ; above which 
are the arms of Bligh, viz. 

Sacred to the Memory 

of Mrs. Elisabeth Bligh, the wife of Rear-admiral Bligh, 

who died April 15% 1812, in the 60*** year of her age. 

Her spirit soar'd to Heav'n, the blest domain. 
Where virtue only can its meed obtain. 
All the great duties she performed thro* life. 
Those of a child, a parent, and a wife. 

On the East side : 

In this vault are deposited also the 
Remains of William Bligh and Henry Bligh, 

who died March 21*S 1791, aged 1 day; 

JThe sons of M" Elizabeth and Rear-admiral 

Bligh ; and also W" BUgh Barker, Aeir 

Grandchild, who died Oct^ 22**^, 1805» . 

Aged 3 years. 



IK TMB CHURCH-TARO. H9 

The North side is vacant. 

Arms : Azure, a griffin segreant or between three crescents 
argent ; impaling Or, a bend gules, a chief indented azure. 

Admiral Bligh was a most skilful, prudent, and intrepid 
officer. In 1787, being then a lieutenant, he was appointed to 
the command of his Majesty's ship Bounty, fitted for the pur- 
pose of conveying young plants of the bread fruit-tree from 
Otaheite to the West Indies. The ship arrived without acci- 
dent at Otaheite, and had sailed away laden with plants^ when 
a mutiny broke out, headed by Fletcher Christian, the master's 
mate. Captain Bhgh, with such of the officers and seamen as 
would not jojn the malcontents, to the number of ejghteen, were 
forced into an open boat, without arms, ancl a very scanty stock 
of provisions. After suffering incredible hardships, the sixteen 
survivors reached Batavia. The captain on his return to Eng- 
land was tried Oct. 25, 1790^ for the loss of the vessel, but was 
honourably acquitted. In the same year he published a 
** Narrative of the Mutiny on board his Majesty's ship Bounty, 
and the subsequent voyage of part of the crew in the ship's 
boat from Tofoa^ one of the Friendly Islands, to Timor," 4to. 
In 1792 he published ^* A Voyage to the South Sea in his Ma- 
jesty's ship Bounty/* including the preceding narrative, in 
one volume 4to. Mr. Edward Christian, brother of the muti- 
neer, in a pamphlet published afterwards, vindicated his bro- 
ther's conduct at Captain Bligh's expense ; to which the captain 
wrote a spirited and manly answer. In the twelfth volume of 
the Transactions of the Society of Arts, are three papers by 
Captain Bligh, respecting the plants conveyed by him to the 
West Indies. About May 1805 he was appointed Governor 
of New South Wales. The colony was then in great distress, 
to alleviate which he found it necessary to enforce regulations 
that excited great discontent in many individuals. In January 
1806 he was deposed by the military, headed by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Johnson, who was brought to trial on the arrival of the 
parties in England in 1811, and sentenced to be cashiered. On 



150 MONUMENTS AND XPITAPHS 

the 3l8t of July, in the same year. Captain Bligh received his 
commission appointing him Rear-admiral of the Blue ; and on 
the twelfth of August the following year, was promoted to the 
rank of Rear*admiral of the White. In June 1814 he was 
appointed Vice-admiral of the Blue : the highest preferment 
he ever obtained. 

On an upright stone in the same part of the ground : 

In Memory of 

Isabella Parsons^ 

Wife of Robert Parsons, 

Obiit 19th March, 1795, 

iCtat. 9,6 years. 

Of gentlest manners, ever formed to please, 
The mildest temper, ever blest with ease. 
An humble mind, a meek and generous lieart : 
Good without shew, and lovely without art : 
Glad to oblige, and fearful to offend, 
A tender wife, and ever faithful friend. 
If Beauty asks, or Virtue claims a tear, 
Stop, gentle passenger, and shed it here. 



Church-yard in High Street. 

To the Memory of Mn Ann Hancock, born 14th Sept. 
1760, at St. Neot\ Cornwall s died 13 Oct. 1891, aged 61 
Years. 

O, born to sorrow ! in life's last sad scene. 

When suffering could not change thy brow serene. 

Whatever of grief, or pain, thy bosom knew. 

At that dark hour, thou bads't them all adieu ; 

And here, at last, (long sought) that rest hast found. 

Which, living, never had thy labours crown'd. 

To the memory of Mr Thomas Woreall, who died Aug. 
S6, 1814, aged 60 years. 



IN TBS CHURCH-YARD. IM 

. Here lies within a narrow span, 

Beneath the humble sod, 
The relics of an Honest man, 

The noblest work of God. 
Of him no farther seek to find 

Now he's repo8*d at rest; 
The virtues that adorned his mind 

Can never be exprest. 

On a table monument surrounded by iron rails : 

In this vault are interred the remains of Robert Barker, 
Esq. inventor of the Panorama ; who died Ap' 6^\ 1806, aged 
C6 ; also, of his youngest daughter Jessy Barker, who died 
May 18, 1807> aged 24 years. 

In Memory of Capt^ John Larmour, of the Royal Navy, 
who died Jan 16, ISOTy aged 52 years. 

To the Memory of Mr William Milton, an eminent en- 
graver, who died March S, 1790, aged 63 years ; 

Whose ingenuity and industry has greatly contributed to 
raise that elegant art to its present excellence in this country. 

To the Memory of William Blizard, who died March 8, 
1820, aged 61 years. 

To the Memory of Ninian Craio, late a Major in his Ma- 
jesty's service, who, afler faithfully serving his country 40 years, 
and undergoing numerous privations in the various climates to 
which his profession called him, terminated his mortal career 
m this Parish, on the 19^ of May, 1813, aged 65 years. 

On a handsome upright stone : 

To the memory of James Sowerby, Esq. F. L. S. bom 
March 21, 1757> died Oct. 25, 1822, and Ann his wife, who 
died Sept. 30, 1815. 



IM MONUMENTS AND EPITAPHS 

This ingenious artist and naturalist died, at his house, Meiul^ 
Place, near the Asylum, Lambeth, after an illness of nearly four 
months. He was originally a teacher of drawing, but having 
devoted himself chiefly to the delineating of plants, was noticed 
by some of our principal botanists^ particularly Sir. J. £. Smith, 
the President of the Linnean Society, who employed him to 
illustrate his works. Thus encouraged, Mr. Sowerby attained 
an extensive knowledge of Natural History, and collected a 
large museum, in the use of which he was very liberal. His pub- 
lications related chiefly to Botany and Mineralogy, and he 
occasionally contributed some Papers to the Transactions of 
the Linnean Society. 

In Memory of Samuel Goodbeiiere, Esq. alderman of 
London, of whom see p. 92. 

In Memory of Will"" Sibley Stribley, equestrian per- 
former at Astleys Amphitheatre, Westminster Bridge, who died 
March 9, 1815, aged 35. 

In Memory of John Dollond, Esq. who died 6th Nov. 
1804, aged 58 years, and ELiz.his first wife, who died 15 June, 
1793, of whom see p. 80. 

Mr. Dollond was the youngest of two brothers, who were 
for many years celebrated opticians in St. Paul's Church-yard. 

In Memory of Mary Paston, wife to Clement Paston 
of HoRTON, in the county of Gloucester, Esq. who died ^4 
March, 1774, in the SO^h year of her age. 

Arms: Argent, six fleurs-de-lis 3. 2. 1. azure, a chief indented 
ermine; impaling on a fess three escallop shells. 

Supporters: the dexter a bear muzzled, a chain reflexed 
over the back from the collar ; the sinister ai^ ostrich. 

Motto : De mieulx je pense en mieulx. 

In Memory of Mr. Wn> Fk Kohler, who died 11th Sept. 
1822, aged 39 years. 



IK THK CHURCH YARD. 153 

To the Memory of Mr* Mary Allsop, who died May 19^^ 
1823, aged 65. 

In Memory of Mr Lewis Gompertz^ who died the 5tb Oct. 
1821, aged 24. 

In Armory of Lieut. Col. Fs. C. Seymour, who died Dec. 
5th 1822, aged 68. 

On a handsome Grecian tahle monument : 

To the Memory of Thomas Cunkinoham, Esq. o£ Bedford 
New Road, Lambelhy who died June 9, 1820, in the 52 year of 
his age. 

On an upright stone : 

Margaret Morrison, daughter of John Morrison, 
writer to the sigbet Edinburgh -^ died Jan. 13, 1817, aged IS 
years. 
On a table monument surrounded with iron rails : 

Infra 
(cum plurimis familisD suae) 
JosEPHi Walker, 
de Wandsworth, in hoc comitatu, 
generosi, 
jacet corpus. 
Memorise cujus dilectae 
sacrum, 
unicus ejus filius supervivens 
Gulielmus 
hoc moerens posuit. 
Obiit 3lo Julii, 1777, 
Stat. 69. 
Hlc quoquc sepultum est 
£lizabethje Walker, 
conjugis & viduae percastse 
JosEPHi Walker, 

corpus. 
Obiit 22© Julii, 1782, 
statis suae 66. 
X 



iU MOIIDllEMTt AMD IPITAPUS. 

On an upright stone : 

To the Memory of David Allan, Esq. Deputy ( 
wry-Genenl to bit Majesty's forces, who died Oct. 23, 1621, 
aged 44 years. 

It would have afforded infinite satiEftclion to have tran- 
scribed all the tributes of parental and filial affection here re- 
corded ; but although these are sacred, yet the interest cease^ to 
the indiffi;rent stranger, when the person thas commeoMMmted 
has not been eminent durii^ life. Few of the remuning no- 
ntuMDts contain more than the age of the person nMntioMdi 
and the limited nature of this work would not admit of a mwa 
extended insertion. 




Tradetcattt't Tom6. 



HISTORICAL 0CCURRBNCI8. |&5 



CHAPTER V. 

Historical Occurrences-^Foundation of a Collegiate Church, Sfc. 

Historical Occurrences. 

The earliest historical fact on record relating to Lambeth is 
(he death of Canute the Second, called Hardicanute, which 
happened at Kennington, where there was formerly a Royal 
mansion, at a solemn marriage between Toni or Tuvi Prudan, 
and Gytha the daughter of Osgod Clapa, two noble Danes ; he 
died suddenly as he was at meat Wednesday the 6th id. June, 
1049. 



Hep fop^pepbe HapSacniir cyn^ set L^unb-hy^. j^ -^ he set hif 
bpince jtob. ;| he jrsepm^ jreoll ro |)sepe eop^an mib ejeflicum 
an^mne, ac hme ^a ^elaebton ^e ])sep neh psepon ;| he feoS^n 
nan popb ne ^pserS. ac ^epat on vi. ib. lun. * 

A. D. MXLII. ^ 

This year died King Harthacnute at Lambeth, as he stood 
drinking : he fell suddenly to the earth with a tremendous strug- 
gle; but those who were nigh at hand took him up; and he 
spoke not a word afterwards, but expired on the 6th day 
before the ides of June. 

Some think he was poisoned ; others insinuate that he died 
of intemperance, the latter of which is the most probable, if 
the assertion of John Rouse c may be relied upon, viz. ** That 
the day of Hardicanuie*s death was kept by the English as a 
holiday in his time (four hundred years aflerwards), and was 
called Hogs Tide or Hock Wednesday ;" that is, the high or 



* Ingram*! Saxon Chronicle, p. 913. — ^HoTeden. 
b BUhop Gibson maket it a year earlier, p. 156. 
.<^ D* RegibvM Anglice, p. 105. ed Hearne. 



156 HMTOftlCAL OCCURRENCES. 

great festival, hoo^h tibe, or from the Iseland ho^, slaughter, 
excision from the general joy on the final expulsion of the 
Danes. This was observed in some counties to the time of 
Charles I. It was kept on or about the Quidena of Easter, ^ 
which sufficiently refutes the notion of its being instituted in 
commemoration of the slaughter of the Danes by Ethelred, which 
was celebrated on the ISth of November, b It seems to have 
been kept for two days ; for we read of Hock Monday and Hock 
Tuesday, and it may be in the same manner as feasts of dedica- 
tions of churches, and other feasts, commenced on the day or 
vigil before, as an introduction to the real feast. In this parish 
there was clearly one day for the men, and another for the 
women, c The principal part of the merriment seems to have 
consisted in the men or women stopping the way with ropes, 
and drawing passengers to them, desiring something to be given 
to them, as now, except as to ropes, is done in the Eton Montem, 
but on this occasion for pious uses. In the direction of these 
sports the women took the lead ; a circumstance which has 
been thought by some to have had its rise from the wedding 
feast at which Hardicanute breathed his last. The money col- 
lected on these occasions was brought to account, and it 
appears from the churchwarden's books of this parish, that the 
sum collected by the women always exceeded the collection by 
the men ; the unmarried women took their part in collecting. 

The following entries are found in the churchwardens' books. 

1505. Of Hokkyng money 3 1 

1515. Received of the men for Oke money 5 7 

The wyfis for Oke money 15 1 

1516. Reed of the gaderynge of the churchwar- 

dens' weyfies on Hoke Monday 3 3 

1517. The men 5 O 



• Bloont'i Law Dictiunary. M«tt. Puis, anno 1S98. 

b Huntingdon. Manning. ^ Denne'i Additioni, p. S9S. 



HISTORICAL OCCURRENCES. 157 

«. d, 

1517. Thewyfi 6 4 

15ia The men , 4 U 

1619. The men 3 9 

The churchwardens' wyfi& on Hoke monday. 8 3 

1520. Thewyfe 9 11 

1591. Hoke money 11 3 

Reed of my lady of Norfolke, of Hoke 

money 32 3-J- 

1622. Of two women .' 6 8 

Of Bevers wyff Oke money 13 4 

Of the men 3 8 

The women 5 64^ 

1533. The women 10 O 

The men 3 4 

1554. Rec^ of John Brasy's wyff money that she 

received and gathered with the virgins. .56 

1555. Gathered at Hoktyde 21 6 

1556. Gathered at Hocktyde 22 2 

Vawse's wyff gathered with the virgins. ... 34 6 

1557. Gathered 17 4 

With the virgins .' 9 6 

1566. Of the wives gathered for the use of the 

church 12 O* 

The money collected was appropriated to the repairs of the 
church. The observance of Hoketyde declined soon afler the 
reformation ; there is, however, a curious passage in << Wyther*s 
Abuses striptand whipt/' Svo. Lond. 1613, p. 232, which seems 
to imply that it was still in a degree observed. 

'' Who think (forsooth) because that once a yeare 
They can affoord the poore some slender cheare, 

* In Kingston there was a gathering to late as 1678, and in Chelsea are eu- 
tries of the collection in 1606, 1607, 1611. Lysons' Environs, I. p. 999. 
Faulkner's Chelsea, p. 979. 



158 HISTORICAL OCCURBBVGXS* 

Observe their country feasts, or common doles. 
And entertaine their Christmass Wassaile Boles, 
Or els because that,^r the Churches goody 
They in defence of Hock-Tide custome stood: 
A Whitsun-aie, or 8«me such goodly motion, 
The better to procure young men's devotion : 
What will they do, I say, that think to please 
Their mighty God with such fond things as these ? 
Sure, very ill." — a 

King Henry III. kept a stately Christmas at Lambeth in the 
year 123 L, at the charges of Hubert de Burgh, his favourite 
and Justiciary ; and the next year, on the 14th of September, a 
Parliament was held here, wherein an aid of the fortieth part 
of the moveables of the whole nation was granted to this King 
for the payment of the debt he owed to the Duke of Bretagne^. 

On the 3rd of May, 12$1, 45 Hen. lU. a council was held 
at Lambeth in which the provincial constitutions of Boniface 
Archbishop of Canterbury were published. 

Another council was held here by Archbishop Peckham in 
the year 1280, S Edw. I. ; and a second by the same prelate 
the year following, by which the constitutions of the legates 
Otto and Ottobon were renewed, c and a subsidy granted by 
the clergy of a fifteenth for three years. 

In 1330 the clergy met here again, preparatory to the sitting 
of a council here. 

A, 1556, July 21. The Queen [[Mary]] removed from St. 
James*s in the fields unto Eltham, passing through the Park and 
Whitehall, where she took her barge, crossing over to Lam- 
beth unto my lord-cardinaPs palace. And thence she took her 
chariot, and so rid through St. George's Fields to Newington, 
and so over the fields to Eltham at five o'clock in the after- 
noon. She was attended on horseback by the cardinal, and a 
conflux of people to see her grace, above ten thousand, d 
* — -- — — — ^ — — - I - - — 

a Brmnd*8 Popular Antiq. vol. I. p. 165. >> Matth. Pwrii, p. 367* 

c Ibid. ^ Strype's Secies. Mem. vol. III. p. 304. 



HIStORICAL OCCUKEJillCSS. 1$^ 

loth June, 1640. About this time the << Bish. of Canter- 
bttry'8 palace, at Lambeth, was assaulted by a rude rabble 
from Southwark.*' A 

9th Jan. 1684. A great frost on the Thames, Evelyn says 
he walked across the ice, from Westminster stayres to Lam« 
beth, and dined with the archbishop, afterwards returning 
across the ice to the Horse-ferry. It continued from the 1st 
ef January to the 6th of February. On the 5th of the laat 
month he crossed in his coach from Lambeth to the Horse-ferry 
at Milbank. b 

In \7S6, mobs collected in Lambeth, interrogating the peo* 
ple whether they were for the Irish or not, who were at that 
time ve^r obnoxious, e 

In 1799, when the Country was in danger of invasion, the 
Parish «f Lambeth sent their quota, who were reviewed along 
with the other Yeoman Cavalry corps and Infantry of the 
county of Surrey, by the King, on Wimbledon Common, on 
the 4th of June, in the same year. 

CaTMi/f^«— Lambeth, commanded by lieutenant-colonel Sir 
Robert Burnett, 39 men. 

Infantry.^-'lambethf commanded by lieutenant<»colonel Sir 
Robert Burnett, 65 men. 

In 1813 the Local Militia for this parish amounted to 699 
rank and file, commanded by Thomas Gaitskell, Esq. 



Collegiate Church. 

An attempt was made to found a collegiate church in this 
parish, the site of which is not known ; and as the circum- 
stance caused a great ferment in England through the great 
opposition it received from the Pope and clergy in general, 
as a matter of curiosity the following has been transcribed 
principally from Mr. Nichols's History. 

A £velyn'8 Memoirs, vol. I. p. 9. ^ Ibid. p. 668. 

^ Gent. Mag. Aug. 1 736. 



100 COLLBOIATB CHURCH. 

Upon the death of Richard Archbishop of Canterbury, 1184> 
a contest arose between the sufiragan bishops of that province 
and the monks of Canterbury, concerning their several pre- 
tensions to a right of electing their archbishop. The monks 
appealing to Rome, great interest was made on behalf of eadi 
party, till at length a mandate wad obtained of the pope, 
wher^n the bishops and monks were directed to unite in the 
election. The time of election was appointed, but the refirac^ 
tory monks not appearing, the sufiragans chose Baldwyn, 
bishop of Worcester, for their metropolitan, which the monks 
highly -resenting, strenuously exerted themselves to invalidate 
the election ; but Henry II. who was a great favourer of Bald« 
wyn, being made acquainted with the demands and promises of 
the monks, prevailed on him to renounce his election, and to 
declare the same void. The monks having obtained what they 
wanted, proceeded to a new election, and according to their 
previous declaration re-elected Baldwyn. & 

This specimen of monkish obstinacy sufficiently indicating 
the aims of that body, the archbishop, whose advancement to 
the See had been stoutly controverted by the monks of Canter- 
bury, formed a design to humble the whole order of monks, 
and prevent their interfering in the civil and ecclesiastical coo- 
stititutions of the kingdom ; a plan that seems to have been 
concerted between the prelate and the king, who had suffisred 
so much from the insolence of Becket. Baldwyn was to found 
a college for secular canons at Hackington near Canterbury. 
The.better to cover his design, he pulled down the church there, 
which was dedicated to St. Stephen, and proposed to rebuild 
and dedicate it to St. Stephen and Thomas k Becket He had 
not only the royal assent and approbation, but was authorized 
by a bull of Pope Urban HI. with a grant of the offerings 
made at Becket*s tomb for the carrying on of this work« Not- 
withstanding all his precaution, the monks foresaw that if this 



• Gervase Dorab. Act Poat. 1568, inter X. Script. Parker, Antiq. Ecd. 
Brit. Godwin de Prsnulibos. Brompton 1875, inter X. Script. 



COLLIGIATS CHURCH. 1^1 

eoUege was completed, it might not only withdraw the arch- 
biahops from residing among them, but induce those pre- 
lates to make choice of that place both for consecrating bishops 
and clergy for the future ; besides, that being dedicated to 
Becket, it might divide the devotion and donations of his vota- 
ijeSy and the college be made the mother-church of the diocese, 
and the secular canons, the chapter, and so the monastery losie 
their- usurped power of election. Actuated by these consider- 
ations, they stirred up the whole body of the monks and peo- 
l^e, and applied to the pope. The archbishop, however, pur- 
sued his work, and not having stone ready for his chapel, 
erected one of wood, consecrated it, and placed in it secular 
priests and canons; alleging he had only fulfilled the inten- 
tions of Anselm and Becket, and, therefore, refused to appear 
to the appeal. The monks prosecuted their suit at Rome till 
diey prevailed on Urban III. to order the archbishop not only 
to stop his work, but to pull down and cancel all he had done, 
ta unhallow the ground which he had consecrated, and suspend 
all who should presume to officiate in that church. He accom- 
panied this letter with a very haughty one to the king, enjoin- 
ing him to see his commands obeyed, a 

Urban dying soon afler, the archbishop, having great interest 
with his successor, Gregory, again set his design on foot ; and 
%o give the monks less umbrage by fixing it at a considerable 
distance from Canterbury, he applied to the Bishop and Con- 
Tent of Rochester, to grant him a part of their estate there for 
the purpose of building a house for himself and his successors, 
near to London, and a church in honour of the blessed martyr 
as he was then called, Thomas h, Becket; intending also to 
erect buildings here for his canons. He accordingly obtained 
from them in 1 Rich. 1. 1 189, a part of their court at Lambeth, 
with 24 acres and 1 perch, part of their demesne lands there, 
withoutside their court, and the service which they had from 
4 acres of Hawise on the Thames, saving to them their rights 

* QtrnMe, p. 1517. Innet's Church Hut. vol. II. 339 — 335. 355. 

Y 



16^ COLLXOIATE CHUHCH. 

to the parish church, the ditches surrounding their court and 
garden, and a free current to and from their mill, and all things 
withoutside the bounds then marked out. In exchange, the 
archbishop gave them a sheep-walk in the island of Grren 
adjoining th^ sea, on the North side of the river Medway, and 
all appurtenances, in marsh land, com, &c. then held by John^ 
son of Eilgar, at the yearly ren( of 60s. and other services 
for ever.b 

Th^ archbishop, thus authorised, transported by water the 
materials which be had prepared for his college, and begai^ 
the foundation of the collegiate church here, c But he did not 
live to finish it; and Pope Celestine took advantage of the 
vacancy of the see to order the Bishop of Bath, with the Abbots 
of Reading and Walthaoi, to see that it was forthwith pulled 
down. They wrote to the managers ' of the chapel, who hav- 
ing read the papal sentence of condemnation, it was presently 
demolished by the mob. « It had been agreed that the^ canons 
should be removed to Lambeth. Archbishop Hubert Waltety 
who succeeded on the short administration of Reginald, ' ref 
sumed the work, and procured from the Prior and Convent of 
Rochester, in exchange for the manor of Darent the manor and 
church of Lambeth, which he caused to be confirmed to him- 
self and successors by Richard I. 1197* C At the same time 
this grant was made, Bishop Gilbert de Glanville, finding the 
buildings of his see greatly dilapidated, retained a spot of 
ground sufficient to erect a mansion for the use of himself and 
his successors at Lambeth, the site containing in length to the 
South 19 perches, to the North 18 perches 13 feet, across to 
the East 10 perches IS feet, and to the West II perches 9 feet, 



* He aftennrds gave in pure and perpetual alms to the church of Rocheiter 
a jearlj rent of iO*. sterling, for their sheep-walk in Gren, for which he had 
before paid 60m, 6d. yearly, in com ideration of their taking his son Robert as a 
■MBk, and admitting him and his heirs into their society. — ^Reg. RofF. p. 435. 

^ Reg. Roflfense, p. 434, 435, ex. Bibl. Cotton. Domitiao. A. X. 9. 

c Gervaise Dorob. p. 1564. ^ Rectores. * Genraise, p. 1&7S. 

f Godwin de Pnes. 79. S3. f Rymer's Fcedera, vol. I. p. 89. 



CbLLMlATB CtlURCB. iM 

wifli die buildittgt situate thereon, in considieration of five nDlrks 
of iilveir to be paid yearly into Lambeth church, by half-yeift'ly 
payuiieMs, which grant of the archbishop's was confirmed by 
Ifeniy thie prior, and the convent of Christ's Church, Canter- 
bWy^ by Geoffrey Bishop of Winchester, and by Walter prior of 
St 8#ithin*8 at Wiofchester. a 

Hob^ was doubtful how to proceed with his predecessor's 
desiga. On the one hand he was encouraged by the bishops 
attd dergy, who wished to deprive the church of Canterbury 
of its ancient digiiity ; the new created chapel and the houses 
Wli fti consequence of it, and the convenience of the spot in 
Hit neighbourhood of London and the court, which the arch- 
MAe^ was obliged to attend ; on the other hand, the danger 
thtt threatened the see if he proceeded through the jealous 
conduct of the monks ; and the fear of offending the convent 
of Canterbury, by whom he had been elected. He was unwil- 
llDJI^ to offend the bishops and clergy who had joined him, and 
urged him to the work ; and he knew the determination of the 
cWVent, and the prohibition of pope Celestine. In order to 
satisfy both parties, the archbishop resolved to relinquish the 
sehMe, and carry it on at Maidstone ; but this, being opposed 
by the monks, came to nothing, and the affair of Lambeth was 
resumed ; an active monk was sent to argue the point with the 
archbishop, who was so convinced by his reasoning, that he 
dmirmined to implore the divine direction in this business. He 
ilmt to the convent of Canterbury the abbots of Chertsey, 
Re4^g, and Waltham, with a proposal that every person to 
i^Mm he should give a prebend or canonry in the church of 
Lsbibeth should swear on the high altar of Canterbury, that he 
ihmld not, either by himself or another, claim to himself or the 
<3iin'cfa of Lambeth a right in the election of an archbishop of 
Citeterbury, nor consent to the translation of the see or the re- 
Bqtfet of Becket, or any other reliques to the prejudice of that' 
chutch ; even though any ecclesiastical or secular person should 
attempt such translation ; nor to the making of chrism by the 

• Reg. Roffense, p. «70. 



164 



COLLBGIAT£ CHURCH* 



archbishop in the church of Lambeth ; or to the diminiBhing of 
the just and ancient liberties of the church of Canterbury ; nor 
seek to be absolved from the oath, nor allow any other person 
to do it for him : that no person on whom such prebend or 
canonry should be conferred shall be installed by proxy, nor 
receive any profit from such dignity before his installation, 
and should after his installation forthwith proceed to Canterbury 
to take the oath aforesaid, on pain of losing his preferment. 
And, for the better confirmation of this agreement, the pridr 
of Canterbury was to have a prebend at Lambeth, and the first 
stall on the led side of the church and chapter-house, and to 
be admitted into the councils and secrets of the chapter, and 
wear a clerical habit while in the church of Lambeth, as in 
other churches whereof abbots are canons. All this to be con- 
firmed by the pope and archbishop under pain of excommuni- 
cation, and to be published by the senior canon of Lambeth, 
with consent of the chapter every year. The archbishop to 
obtain the King's confirmation, and the pope to require, every 
successive archbishop to swear to observe it when he receives 
tiie pall. * 

The monks desired a day's time to give their answer, at the 
end of which one of them declared the fixed determination of 
the convent to be as before, and produced a papal bull for ab- 
solving all the clergy of Lambeth from their oath. 

They had sent two of their body privately to Rome, and 
obtained from Pope Innocent a bull couched in the most 
haughty terms; not only commanding the demolition of the 
college at Lambeth, and the removal of the canons, but 
threatening that if this was not done within thirty days, he 
-would command the bishops of the province of Canterbury not 
to own the archbishop for their metropolitan, and to suspend 
him from his episcopal office ; and in a subsequent letter to the 
king, he tells him that he was God's vicegerent on earth, and 
with destruction of persons would punish the individuals and 



• Gervaiie, p. 1598, 1599. 



COLLBQIATJE -CHURCH. 1§S 

MtuHit that should presume to oppose' his command. Not* 
withstanding this proceeding, the king wrote to. the prior*and 
coDTent of Canterbury, charging them with obtaining .this bull 
fraudulently and by false suggestion, contrary to the express 
agreement before mentioned, confirmed by the pope,- and re- 
quiiing.them to desist. He at the same time took the monastery 
into his protection, and forbad any one to molest the archbi- 
shop. » In the mean time he appealed to Rome, and seized the 
temporalities of the convent, intending to oblige them to leare 
the dispute to the arbitration of the bishops and abbots of £ng^ 
lauLh The abbots returned, and ti^o monks were immediately 
dispatched all OTcr the kingdom to collect the sentiments of the 
nobility. For the abbots seeing and hearing the danger which 
threatened the church of Canterbury, dare not advise their 
consent, but proposed to sooth the archbishop, and not deter- 
mine upon the .case of the canons,||rhich had received more 
than one definitive sentence against it from the court of Rome. 
In December the bishops, abbots, earb, and barons, met the 
archbishop at Oxford, and thence some of the bishops and 
abbots accompanied him to Canterbury, to hear what the 
monks had to say against his proposals. It was agreed 
tfiat both parties should refer the case to the pope. The 
archbishop sent much money by his agents, and the prior 
privately two poor monks. They found Celestine dead, and 
in his stead Innocent, who had formerly been eye-witness to 
the depression of the church of Canterbury, and had heard 
the-wbole case in the court of Rome. To him, therefore^ they 
represented the danger that threatened the see by the com- 
pletion of the design at Lambeth, if he did not interpose. The 
aiiffabishop threatened the monks who had gone out of the 
kingdom without his leave, and the prior for. his negligence, 
insisting that the convent should recal him. Th^ archbishop's 
messengers came, express to tell him what had passed. The 
archbishop appealed publicly in London, and so did the 



• Gtmiff , p. ISOS, 1605. ^ Inneft*! Church Hist. vol. II. p. 869, S74. 



bUiop aAd convent of Roehester^ to the dUrpriid (of Che conihslit 
df Canterbury. Bnt next day came letteirs from the pope to 
the latter. They tent them by four of their body to the ardi- 
Ushop^ whd refused them admittance as monks of Canterbury 
three days; whereupon they demanded and obtained it as 
messengers frdm the pope. This letter* charged the arch- 
bishop with contempt of the prohibitions of Popes Urban and 
element^ and commanded him to demolish his buildings within 
thirty days ; Suspending the clerks Who should celebriite in the 
chapel till they had made satirfaction, to withdraw his apfleal, 
and put every thing into its former fttate, on paih of being hlih' 
self suspended, the pope considering the removal of the thipA 
fiirther from Canterbury as a more heinous ofience against the 
privileges of the church. The same letters were written to idl 
the sufiagan bishops. The archbishop Appointed the monks H 
time for answering this li^r, and in the mean time sent mes- 
sengers and letters to all the bishops of England and Wdes, 
complaining of the monks, and requesting theih to repair td 
Canterbury to assist at the consecratioh of the new Bishop 
of Coventry, Geoffrey, ^ and also to the kitig, to stir him tip 
against the monks ; and hearing, though falsely, that th<^ 
monks intended to meet him barefooted to efitreUt his favour, 
he came suddenly at day-break to Canterbury. It wai re* 
ported in that city that he was coming to besiege the church 
and convent with ah armed force. On this account he came 
ikme next morning, and entered the chapter-house With tli<^ 
bishops and abbots, clergy and clerks. All being seated fitid 
silent, the Bishop of Rochester made a speech eiitolling tiKi 
archbishop*s good intention for the glory of the diureh Hf 
Canterbury, complaining of the new opposition to the pi^e}^ 
dice of the church, and the affront of the archbishop. The 
arcMbishop himself spake to the same effect ; the answer of th^ 
convent was put off*, because the next day being Sunday, the 
new bishop was to be consecrated. Next day came into t&€l 



» Gertsiie, p. 1S09. b MutohsiDp, II99, iflO. 



COJL&BQIATl GHUmCH. Mf 

ck^el the abbots of Reading, Cbertsey, Feyeiaham, WaltbsBy 
and the prior and convent, not as messengers from tke ard^ 
bisiif^ but as friends of the church of Canterbury, to ende»* 
fCVir to conp^romise matters. In the midst of their debates came 
im Geoibry Fitz Piers and Hugh Fits Bardulf, sent by the Ipng 
to Ibrbid thdr proceedings against the dignity of h|s cro«m aa^ 
realm, and producing letters from him to the same purpose, if e 
wxote the same to all the bishops of England, ordering them to 
oppose his letters patent to the pope's mandates, and gmntiag 
the bearers thereof his licence to carry them abroad. A third 
letter was also brought to the archbishop, restraining him f^oni 
lajdag hands on the church of Lambeth. The king*s justices who 
brought those his letters accompanied with a threatening mes- 
sage, gave the convent but a short time for an answer ; but £nd- 
mg they trifled, they demanded immediate obedience, and the 
ikcnff of Kent was directed to seize their lands. This by the 
archbiahiqp's interposition was deferred till next day^ and in the 
mean time the prelates, abbots, and clergy, used evevy argument 
to persuade them to compliance ; but all their endeaTours prov* 
iag; firuitless, the archbishop went away in haste and anger, and 
die lands of the convent were seized into the kiDg>*s hands ; and 
tke archbishop seized first on the manor of Ckaitbam, whidk 
Bdward the Confessor had bestowed on them in frankalmaigne. 
The bishops and abbots continued their mediation, and afber 
their departure the abbots of Boxley and Robeitsbridge ; but 
tXL they could obtain was, that two of the brethren should 
r^air to the archbishop at London to confer privately with 
Uflii. One of them suspecting a trick, feigned sickness, and 
sl^ behind : the other went, and heard what the archbishop 
had to say, and answered him. llie archbishop commanded 
hia to withdraw the charges against him at the court of Rome ; 
bat the monk pretended some excuse, and retired to Canter- 
bury. In the mean time the archbishop set to work every 
engine with the pope and the king, and sent the latter a cargo 
of relicks of St. Ruffinus and Albinus, and a state of the case, 
full of misrepresentation, to which he prevailed on the bishops 
and abbots to set their seals ; but fearing he would be called on 



IM catLSoiATjit cHuitcir. 

to answer for seizing the possessions of the convent, he restored 
them. The cardinals wrote to him to stbp his building and foun* 
dation at Lambeth, and, together with the pope, wrote to the king' 
to defend the cause of the church of Canterbury. But the clergy 
so spirited up the king, that though two monks were sent to im- 
plore his favour, they could hardly obtain an audience, and 
were ungraciously treated ; and the king wrote to their convent 
from Andilly, to refer the matter to the arbitration of five 
bishops and as many abbots of their own order. They returned. 
fiNT answer, that they were afraid to trust to the arbitration of a 
set of men who were avowedly against them, both the Su&agans 
and' the Cistercian monks having written to the pope in strong 
terms against them. The king also wrote to him in favour of 
the ardibishop. In the mean time he sent an order to his vice* 
gerent- Geoffirey Fitz Piers, to appoint commissioners to view 
and report their treasures. The monks wrote to the archbishop, 
who was going over to Normandy, and who returned for answer, 
that he wished the king to see not only the treasure of the 
church of Canterbury, but his own, and that of the whole king- 
dom ; but ^^nolOf* added he, '< ut de vestro aliquod habeat scrip* 
turn vel clavem" The monks being thus stripped of every 
thing, the prior hastened to Rome ; and the archbishop ob- 
tained the king's letter to the chief justice Fitz Piers to restore 
the lands of the convent, but to cause an inyentory of their 
wealth to be taken by view of the archbishop's servants, and a 
fine to be levied on them for their offence against him. Before 
the prior could get to Rome, the archbishop's messengers deli* 
vered in a state of the case. The, two monks who were there 
replied next day ; and on the following day the archbishop's 
people were heard again. The pope and cardinals gave a defini- 
tive sentence for the demolition of Lambeth chapel, and sent to 
the archbishop an express command for that purpose, with let* 
lers to his suffragans and to the king a. 



A Gcrvaise, p. 1691, 1697. 



dOLttOlATl CHUHCH. * 169 

' About Micfaaelnlas 1]99,<^ the cause bo long in agitation 
between the archbishop and the monks about the rebuilding 
the chapel at Lambeth, and the churches and offerings which 
the monks claimed of the archbishops, after long disputes, 
allegations, and testimonies, before the Bishop of Ely, the 
Dean of Lincoln, ^ and the Abbot of St. Edmund's Bury, dele- 
gated arbitrators by the pope with the consent of both partaes, 
was determined, and all hope for ever taken away from the 
secular canons of returning. The chapel was to be pulled 
down to the ground. The archbishop might if he pleased 
build a chapel at Lambeth, and place in it canons of the 
Pkvmonstratensian order, not less than fourteen or more than 
twenty, who should not however be in the nomination of the 
archbishop, sede vacante. He might endow the same with 
100^. per annum, on condition that no bishop should be there 
consecrated, no councils held, no abbots admitted, no orders 
conferred, &c. but the archbishop did not think fit to build 
on these humiliating terms. Lambeth however was advantaged 
by this dispute, which procured it the honour of being made 
the residence of the archbishop. This award being agreed 
upon by the arbitrators at Westminster, and aflerwards at 
Canterbury, on the Sunday before All Saints day, iiii cal. Nov. 
was published by the Bishop of Ely, in the presence of the 
respective parties, and all the nobility, clergy, &c. of England 
assembled to hear this long contest decided, c 

These united thunders so terrified the king and archbishop, 
that they resolved on the demolition of the chapel. The arch- 
bishop published this resolution Feb. 1 199 ; the building was 
levelled with the ground, and the clergy ordered to reside 



* ISOO. Diceto, p. 707* Genraite, p. 1623, laya the award waa pubiiahed 
bj the archbiahop 12 cal. Feb. 1 199» and the chapel demollthed the 6th year of 
the tame decenrnawdu deli, Ubi tup. The Hiftory of Wiocheater in Ang. Sac. I. 
805, dates it 1202. 

^ In the room of Bishop Hugh, who was probably then ill ; for he died on 
All Saints Eve in this jear. Diceto, p. 708. 

^ Diceto inter X. Script. 708. 

Z 



IfQ COLLMQIATM OHUmCM* 

« 

nearer the sea coast. The pope's messenger seeing that 
nothing more was done in consequence of this mandatet and 
the Prior of Canterbury not knowing what had been done in 
England, brought his complaint before the pope, who wrote 
an angry letter to the King of England, and another of comfcnrt 
to the convent of Canterbury, and they finally recovered all 
their possessions. & 

This controversy is recited at large in a Harleian MS.* No. 
788, on paper, transcribed into three parts ; the first containing 
all the papal bulls, letters and rescripts; the second, the 
origin of the dispute by Archbishop Baldwin ; the third, the 
revival of it by Archbishop Hubert, and the final demolition of 
the chapel. ^ 

• Genrust Doror. inter X« Script. I6t3, Turner*! Not. Mem. 540. 
^ In tht Appendix to Nicholi*i Lambeth sre the whole of the paptn M 
len^. 




ITANOR OP LAMBBTH. 1^1 



CHAPTER VI. 

. Historical Account of the Manor of Lambeth^ and Lambeth 

Palace, 

Manor of Lambeth. 

There are three courts leet held in this Parish ; one for the 
manor of Kennington, one other for the manor of Lambeth, and 
a third for the manor of Vauxhall, with each from twenty to thir- 
ty jurors held once or twice a year for the choice of eight consta- 
bles, nine headboroughs, and six aleconners, to fine every person 
that is the cause of any public nuisance, and to present those 
officers that neglected their duty the preceding year. At the 
same times and places are held three courts baron, with each their 
homage jury of from two to ten, for the conveyance of copy* 
hold estates within their respective manors, in which last courts 
all conveyances of freehold estates formerly used to be regis- 
tered, a custom which has unhappily been discontinued fof^ 
many years. 

Li the year 1069, King Edward the Confessor granted by 
his charter to the abbey of Waltham in Essex, amongst other 
possessions, Lambehith cum omnibus ad se pertinentibus cam- 
piSy pascuis, pratis, silvis, et aquis. 

The boundaries are thus expressed at the end of this charter i*^ 

Dif fynb pa lanb ^emsepe mco Lambeh)^. sepesi: set Bpix^p 
p:aRe. ;j f|wi)X)p6 fvpjhe )>ane ^paj: t:oJ»am ODttpcbice. ;j fpa to buke 



1 



* Monastic. Anglic, vol. II. p. 1 1 



179 MANOR OF LAMBBTH. 

•cjteo, -} ppam bulce tpeo to P jpe* i jrpam pfye to JElfjrs^fi laecce 
3 fpa ep to ]>ape jftpate. -} fpa anblan^ jrpete ept to Bpixepfcan. 
Hi sunt terr« termini apud Lambehytham, Imprimis apud 
Brixii lapidem, * et sic prorsum per lucum b ad Mercduamy ^ et 
sic ad arborem verrucosam, et ab arbore verrucosa ad Hysam, 
et ab Hysa ad EUii clausum^ et sic iterum ad viam, et sic 
per tractum vise ad Brixii lapidem. 

After th^i4ieath of Edward the Cottfessor, Harold the son of 
Godwyn is said to have put the crown of this realm upon his 
head with his own hands at Lambhythe. ^ 

The next account we meet with of Lambeth is in Domesday 
booky tab. viiiy fol. 34, as follows : 

I 
Terra Ecclesia de Lanchei. In Brixistan Hundred, 



*• 



Saint Mary's Manor is that vyhich is called Lanchei. The 
Countess God& held it^ the sister of King Edward the ( Confessor J. 
It was taxed for 10 hides / e novo for ttoo hides and a half. The ara- 
ble land consists of 18 Carrucates. ^ In demesne are 8 Carrucates 



* Vel foMflm. BrixisUm, in Dometday, exactly answers to this. 

"^ Then being no such word ia'the Saxon dictionary as lmlc€t the translator 
was probably, led by the word byly carbunculus, bullaf a lvile{ to translate k 
verrueotui, a wirty or ibio^ tree. — Nichols's Lambeth, p, 2. 

^ Foesam limitaMm. ^ Malmesbury. 

* A hide of land fai the time of Edward the Confesser was 190 acres ; but land 
was not measured in England till about the year 1008, when the realmbecame 
tributary to the Danes ; and for the more equal laying on of the tax the country 
was measured, and the money levied pr. hide, and all paid Danegeld accord- 
ingly.^ — Domesday- 

< A carrucate (derived from the latin word carruca, a little cart) was as much 
land as could be tilled with one plough, and the beasts belonging thereto in one 
year, having meadow pasture and houses for householders and cattle belonging. 



t 



u\ 



4 S^P^sf L^'fe 



5 i* S l"^ 



^ 



5tlL 



"§- 



1^1 r? r i 



MAKOR OF LAMBETH. 173 

and 12 Villans ^ and 27 Borders b wUh 4 Carrucaies. There is 
a Church and 19 Burgesses in London, c xvho pai/ thirty-six 
shiUingSy ^ and there are 3 ViUans in gross, and 16 acres of 
Meadow. There is xvoodjbr 3 Hogs. In the time of King Ed- 
WARD, and after, it was tvorth 10^. ;« novo 11/. Of this Manor 
the Bishop of Baieux has one ctdtureqf arable land, txhick before 
and after the death of, Goda ^ lay in that Church. 



* So called from the Latin viHs, or m Lord G>ke hat it, firom Tilla. Th& 
Tittans here mentioned were such at held lands in pnre TUlanage; they btlooged 
principally to lords of manors, and were either villans regardant, that is, ai^exed 
to the manor or land ; or else they were in gross, or at large, that u annexed to 
the person of the lord, and transferable by deed from one owner to another. 
They could not leave their lord without his permission ; but if they ran away, 
or were purlobed from him, might be claimed and recovered by action, like 
beattt or other chattels. They held, indeed, small portions of land by way of 
sustaining themselves and families ; but it was at the mere will of the latd, who 
might ditpossess them whenever he pleased, and it was upon villan servicet> 
that it to carry out dung, to hedge and ditch the lord's demesnes, and any other 
the mmnest offices ; and their services were not only bate, but uncertun, both 
as to their time and quantity. A villan could acquire no property either in land 
or goods : but if he purchased either, the lord might eoter upon them, oust the 
villan, and seize them to his own use, unless he contrived to dispose of them 
tgain before the lord had seized them ; for the lord had then lost hb oppor- 
tunity. — Blackstonc's Comment, vo/. //. p. 93. 

^ Borders were those of a less servile condition ; they held small houses on 
the bords, or outsides of the manors ; they paid with poultry, eggs, and other 
provitiont for the lord's consumption, they performed vile services and domes- 
tic works, as grinding, threshiug, drawing water, cutting wood, &,c, -^Domesday 

* Several houses at the north-east comer of Carey-street ; other houses, 
which form the whole of Star-court in Bread-street, are now held of this 
manor. There were others in Watliog-street, not now known. — Manning gnd 
Bray,voLJILp.46B, 

^ The shilling consisted of 13 \ience, and was equal in weight to tomething 
more than three of our shillings. — Domesday, 

* The pound here mentioned is at the weight of a pound of silver, consist- 
ing of IS ounces. — Ilnd, 

' In a list of benefactions to the Church of Rochester, printed in Thorpe's 
R^^isirum Bflffense, p. 1 19, are particularized some ornaments belonging to this 
Countess, which were found at Lambeth by Jlalph the first keeper of the manor 
there, and brought by hira to Rochester. 



174 ^ MANOR OF LAMBSTH. 

The Countess marriedy 1. Waiter de Maigne; 2. Euitace 
Earl of Boulogne (whence she is called Goda tlie Countess }• 
She and the Earl gave this Manor to the Bishop and ConTont of 
Rochester, reserving the Church, a In the wars between tke 
Saxons and Danes it was taken from the Convent by Harold, 
who kept possession of it till his death, when William the Con- 
queror seized it. He gave part of it to Odo Bishop of Baieux, 
as we see by the record, but William Rufus restored it to 
tibe convent, and added the patronage of the Church.^ 
This was confirmed by Henry I. in 1103,*= Stephen, Henry IL 
and Edward I.^ But what he so restored does not seem 
to have included the land granted to Odo ; for in the survey, 
he b said to hold here unum culturum terra. According to 
Spelman a culture is the same as quarentene, i. e. a rood, or 
one fourth part of an acre ; but, qu. whether it is likely that 
so small a piece of land should have been worth that great 
Bishop's acceptance? From the smallness of the glebe now 
belonging to this rectory, Mr. Denne conjectures that Odo 
seized the greatest part of it ; and if so, it may be what is 
comprised in this culture. ^ 

In another part of Domesday Book it is said that land here 
was held by Earl Morteign, viz, Robert who was brother to 
Odo, and by the mother, to the Conqueror, and was afterwards 
created Earl of Cornwall, and married Maud, daughter of 
Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury. This Mr. Lysons 
conceives jefers to Stockwell. 

In the second of Richard L the whole Hallemot ^ of Lam- 

** Peretr u m (a pix) partim de auro, parti in d« argento ; textus evangeltonmi ar- 
geoto et lapidibus prettosis ornatus ; scampna fcrrea plicantia et ai^otaU ; et 
piUia qnatiior ; et baculot cautoriales } et craces argenteas et candelabra de cnpro 
deaniato.*' Lytons, Environs, vol I. p. 9S\. 

•» Thorpe's Reg. Roff.fo. n.a. 

^ Mon. Aogl. I. 27. a. Thorpe's Reg. RofF. 383. c Reg. RofF. 33. 

A Reg. Roff. 33. 38. 45. Cart. 3 Edw. I. n. s. 

* Manning and Bray, Toi. III. p. 469. 

' Tke Halletnot, acccording to Spelman, was either the nanenal qoiirt, or 
court baron of the ecclesiastical court. — Reg. RofF. p. 1 1. 



MANOR or LAMBXTH. 175 

belb was amerced two marcs for a false judgment, as was Os- 
berl the priest of Lambeth half a marc for false judgment in 
the court, at the suit of Hugh Bardul and his associates. a 

Gtmdulph (Bishop of Rochester from 1077 to 1105) ordered 
half a thousand lampreys to be furnished from this manor an- 
nually to himself and his successors, towards enabling them to 
keep hospitality, b Earnulph (bishop from 1115 to 1125) or- 
dered it moreover to supply the monks with one salmon on the 
aniiiversary of their founder and benefactor, Bishop Gun- 
du]ph.« In the reign of King Stephen (1141 to 1147) Bishop 
Aacelin attempted to deprive the monks of this manor, as not 
havii^ been given to their separate use ; but 4 mar the pope's 
legale, and Archbiahop Theobald, determined the dispute in 
their favour, d The bishops, however, had<right to .a lodging in 
the mansion-house when business carried them to London, with 
forage, straw, fuel, &c. whilst th6y stayed. « 

Ardlbishop Hubert and the prior and convent of Rochester 
exchanged the manor of Lambeth, with the church of the manor, 
and all liberties and free customs, and all other appurtenances, 
both in the said manor and in Southwark, and in the soken of 
London ; saving to the said bishop half the said soken. But 
the mill which the said monks had out of Southwark-on-the- 
Thamea to the east over against the Tower of London, and the 
manh in Gren, which Archbishop Baldwin gave them for the 
site <tf the chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr and the surround- 
ing area of Lambeth, were not included in this exchange, but re^ 
makied to the monks, though the prior of Lambeth used to re- 
eeive the profits thereof before this exchange. And the said 
Aroiibishop gave and granted to the said monks, in exchange 
An* the said manor of Lambeth, the manor of Darente, with the 
church and chapel of Holies, with all liberties, free customs. Sec. 
saving to the archbishop and his survivors his and their spiritual 



• Hcitpitia. ^ BiU. Cottun. Domlt. A. X. 9. fu. 98. 

^ Keg. Roff. 7. Salmon are sometimes, but rarely, taken in the Thames off 
Umbeth. d Reg. Rdff. 41. « Ibid. 141. 



176 MANOR OF LAMBXTH. 

right to the said church, till he and they should freely giire it 
up to the Bishop of Rochester ; and a sheep-walk, called Est- 
merse, in Cliff, with 290 sheep and a certain piece of land 
m CUff, belonging to the said marsh; and in the said town 
of Cliffy ten tenements, with their lands, rents, services, 
&c, so as that the said monks of Rochester shall have for their 
maintenance the aforesaid exchanges, as they before had the 
manor and church of Lambeth ; saving to the bishop of Roches- 
ter the rights he before enjoyed therein. And the archbishop 
and hb successors warranted the said manor of Darente with its 
appurtenances to the inhabitants ot Rochester, as they did the 
manor of Lambeth with its appurtenances to the archbishop ; 
yet so that he nor his successors could givf, sell, or exchange, 
or alienate the said manor of Lambeth from his see, nor the 
inhabitants of Rochester do the like with the church or manor 
of Darente, 'or any thing else granted by this exchange* 

The archbishop being thus seised of the manor, obtained 
from King John a weekly market and fair for fifteen days^ on 
condition that it would not be prejudicial to the city of Lon- 
don. In the MS. Library at Lambeth is a charter from the 
city of London, signifying their consent, but stipulating the 
day on which the fair should begin, which was on the morrow 
of St. Peter ad Vinculo ; & accordingly a fair was held annually 
and continued a fortnight; but having for many years been 
attended with much riot, it was abolished by the roagistrateSy at 
the desire of Archbishop Herring. ^ 

The manor has remained with the archbishops from that 
time, except during the usurpation of Cromwell, when it was 
sold to Thomas Scott and Matthew Hardy for 7072/. ; c but on 
the Restoration it reverted to its original owner. These per- 
sons were amongst such as were excepted out of the Act of Ob- 
livion, not extending to life. 



A Cart. Miscel. toI. XI. No. 15. Cart. 1 John, p. 9, n. 34. 

^ Nichols's Lambeth, p. 156. 

^ MS. Lambeth Library, No. .951, iotitiiled Lambeth Papers^ No. II . 



'.. A 



StAKOR or LABTBCtB. 177 

* The manor seems to be cut asunder by those cf Kennington 
and Stockwell, one part extending fVom the public stairs bj the 
diurch, along the river bank, till it meets that of Kennii^;toii 
and the Prince's Meadow, and then, bearing to the right, and 
going to the Fishmongers' alms-houses in Newington, it comes 
round again, leaving out Vauxhall, to the stairs where it 
began. 

The other division begins at the extremity of the south-east 
comer, at Vicar's Oak, where the parishes of Lambeth, Croydon, 
Cimiberwell) and Battersea meet ; thence over Beaulieu-hill and 
NiMWOod Common to Streatham Common, by Leigham Common 
to Rttshey Common on the top of Brixton Hill, to Cold Harbour- 
lape, by Stockwell Common, through Stockwell Park, over the 
Wash-way^ by Bowyer-lane, by the south side of Loughborough 
House, to the village of Camberwell, over Denmark Hill, to Nor- 
wood and to yicar*s Oak. 

In 1806 an Act was passed for dividing and inclosing the 
waste lands within this manor, in which it is stated, that the 
archbishop is lord, and entitled to 200 acres and upwards of 
Woods and wood*groimds in the manor, and to the soil thereof, 
thnber and woods thereon ; that the wastes contain about 450 
acres (diiefly lying about Brixton and Norwood). Qf the com- 
mons one sixteenth was to be allotted to the archbishop as 
lord of the manor ; the residue amongst the tenants of the 
manor* A question arose whether the lord was not entitled to 
an allotment for land in his own occupation, and for such land as 
was on lease from him to other persons ; but it was determined 
that the one sixteenth allotted to the lord as lord included 
all his^rights, his lessees obtained nothing, and the residue was 
diidded. 

Hie lands inclosed in this Act continue liable to tithes, ex- 
cept that for the first seven years the grass land is to pay only 
!#• an acre, other land 3s* 

A curious clause was obtained by inhabitants of houses whose 
windows faced certain parts of the commons, though perhaps 

2 a 



180 LAMBETH PALAGS. 

IX. That all copyholders of the manor may strip and waste 
upon their copyholds within the manor. 

X. That no copyholder may make a lease of his copyhold 
without the lord's license, for above the term of three years» 
upon pain of forfeiture of his copyhold. 

HISTORICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF 

LAMBETH PALACE. 

Previous to entering on the history and description of this 
ancient and venerable building, I must premise to my reader, 
that I have availed myself of the interesting and well-digested 
account compiled by Messrs. Brayley and Herbert. 

Of the original palace of Lambeth there is no account or de- 
scription ; there is every reason to suppose that it occupied the 
present site ; » and some parts of the building, now standing, 

* On a late trial (by which Lambeth palace was adjudged to be erfro-^cdv- 
ekUU *}, it was urged by the couotel, that a reHgUms edifice had fotmerly oecu- 
pied the tite of the palace : this however is a mistake j for, until its alieMilum 
to the tee of Canterbury, it was attached to the priory at Rochester, and was 
oocasionally inhabited by one of the monks, who, as bailiff or steward, had the 
superintendaooe of the farm ; and as such, it was not entitled to all the immuni- 
ties annexed to the precincts of the convent to which it appertained. 

A religious house certainly existed hereabouts, the same being mentioned t4 
be placed within the area or tract of ground in a deed dated 11 97. But tl^t thk 
chapel and area were situated not less than a quarter of a mQe from Ttnnheth 
palace^ may be satis&ctorily proved by an examination of an autbeMtie eontey 
ance in the Cotton library, which followed the first exchange made bntween 
the archbishop of Canterbury and the monks of Rochester in 1 189. This deed 
was executed after Baldwin had been compelled by the pope to demolish the 
chapel and college he had erected near Canterbury ; for bebg determined to par- 
sue hb plan at Lambeth (as before noticed), he, at the instance and raqoett of 
the long, procured from the monks of St. Andrew at Rochester ground on 
which ha might erect a house for himself and successors, and likeiQM edificealbr 
the prior and canons of his college. In the deed the site for the intended 
arohiepiscopal mansion is described to he a part of the court of the grantors, as 
n^ked by certain bounds ; and twenty-four acres and one perch of their 



* See the particufaurs of the trial in Dr. Ducarel's History of the Pdace, p. 89. 



LAMBXTB PALACE. I8l 

are evidently of great antiquity, though it may be venturous to 
detarmine that any part of the Saxon fabric of the Counteta 
Ooda it still mibristing. Dr. Ducarel was of opinion, that it 
mi^it be little better than a common dwelling ; but as it was 
the place of residence of a king's sister, it is most probable that 
it was an habitation suitable to a person of her exalted rank* 

Whether this was the building said to have been repaired 
afterwards by Archbishops Langton and Hubert, is unknown : the 
palace after their time, however, seems to have been neglected 
and to have become ruinous, and so remained until Boniface, in 
1916, as an expiation for his outrageous behaviour to the prior 
of St. Bartholomew the Great in Smithfield, •> obtained a bull 
from Pope Urban IV. (amongst other things) to repair the 
houses at Lamhie^ or to build new ones : from which circum- 
stance he is generally supposed to have been the first founder of 
the present palace, h 

It was gradually enlarged and improved by his successors in 
the see, and some years afterwards had risen to be an extensive 

denene Undt, vjUkout the court, were granted for building a church in hoaour #f 
Biihf^ Thomaa the Martyr, and for constructing habitations for the canona vbo 
were to lenre therein. 
* Vide Matt. Paris, and Stowe's Survey of London. 

^ TIm Doctor (Ducarel) it for giving Archbishop Boniface the eiedii of 
It founder of the present pahtce, but it appears upon very imoffieieot 
la the pepel grant to Boni&ce of a portion of the offerings atBecket't 
I, it aeema to be suggested that forty years past the archbishops had ex- 
mooey in repairing and improving the house, though there is an expcts- 
ii^ whieh Ukewlse implies that the debts contracted by these works were not 
This was notoriously the case respecting the great hall of the 
St Canterbury, as Bont&ce, writes Somner (Antiq. of Caaterbiirj, 
pb 19S), wae wont to boast, " My predecessors built the haU at a great expense, 
ThegdiidweU indeed; but they laid cut no money about this building, except what 
they borrowed : I seem, indeed, to be truly the builder of this hall, because I 
paid their debts,** One view of the papel grant might be to epable Boni&oe to 
clear off incumbrances at Lambeth. There is indeed an allowance to thU arch- 
bishop to rebuild the house upon the same, or upon a more coiivenient spot ; 
but there is no evidence of his availing himself of this permission ; nor, conii- 
dering the subsequent incidents of his life, is it likely that he ever engeged in 
iucli a work. — Deime*s Additions to Hist, of Lambeth. 



18f LAMBBTH PALACE. 

I 

and-magnificent pile^and as may be judged from the compidmt 
baltivarumf or steward'^ accounts, in the. time of Archbiifac^ 
Eeyndds (1391, 15 £d. IL), where the following names of 
rooms, && are found >— << The great chapel vfthuoiury* my lord*s 
chamber, chamber near the Aoi/, wardrobe near the chi^)^, an- 
other wardrobe, kitchen, bakehouse, great gate at entrance ; 
ia a[lso die poultrj^room, the wharf-mill near the postern, vhU^ 
htm super Tatninam" &c. 

Archbishop Chichele was a great builder and repairer here in 
the years 1494, 1495, 1499, 1431, 1434, and 1435 ; when he 
expended on the palace, as appears by his steward's accounts, 
great sums of money. He erected that large portion of the 
palace called the Lollard's Tower, and either repaired or re- 
built the great hall, besides making many other alterations and 
improrements. The increased extent of the building, in his 
time, appears from the following enumeration of places : ** The 
great chamber, the little chamber, study, parlour or prolocuio* 
riuniy great hall or porch, steward's chamber, steward of the 
household's chamber, auditor's chamber, registry, register's 
chamber, guard-chamber f camera armigerorumj, the arch- 
bishop's oratory, the great oratory (this could not be the 
chapel which is mentioned lower down), clerk of the kitchen's 
apartment, cook's room, chandry, ewry (adjoining to the cha- 
pel), stdr^ouse, pantry, larder, fountain or aqueduct in the 
kitchen, great cloister, little ditto;"* besides other meaner 
apartments. A rabbit-garden is also mentioned. 

John Stafford, who succeeded Chichele in 1443, is generally 
thought to have built the stables which adjoin the palace, from 
the great resemblance, in the brick-work, to the east and west 
sides of Croydon palace, known to have been founded by that 
prelate : Cardinal Archbishop Morton, about forty years after- 
wards, erected the present magnificent gateway on the site of 
the ancient one, which was decayed. 

Archbishop Cranmer was tlie founder' of the large apartment 
called the steward'^ parlour; the gallery was built during the short 
primacy of Pole, who is supposed likewise to have erected the 
remainder of the long pile of brick building adjoining to it. 



hAJUBEVH PALACM' 183 

the tfucceedifig additkons appear to have been unimporiant 
until tte time af' Archbishop Bancroft, who daims the honour 
of baiViBg founded the fine and extensive librarj» and the ser- 
vmta'hall. The former was begun in the year i610y. and at 
the founder's death the whole c^ the books therein were left to 
the use of his successors for ever. Archbishop Abbot bequeathed 
to it a^eat part of his books, distinguished by the mark QvC. 
in the same unlimited manner. The chapel was repaired and 
decorated by Archbishop Laud« 

After the Civil Wars, and in the time of the Commonwealth, 
when fimatical was united widi political fury, it was found that 
every building devoted to piety had sufered more than they had 
done m all the rage of family contest. The fine works of ar^ 
and the sacred memorials of the dead, were, except in a few 
instances, sacrificed to puritanical barbarism, or to sacrilegious 
plunder. Lambeth house * fell to the share of -the miscreant regi- 
cides Jkott and Hardynge, who pulled down the noble hall, the 
work of Chkheley, and sold the materials for their own profit. 
The chapel they turned into a dancing-room ; and because the 
tiHnb of the venerable Archbii^op Parker *' stared them in the 
foce, and checked their mirth, it was broken to pieces, his 
bones dug up by Hardynge, to whose share this part of the 
paUu^efell; and opening the leaden coffin, and cutting away 
Ae cerecloths, of which there were many folds, the flesh seemed 



* Ismhtiih houie, and thit manor qf Lambeth, teem to hare bem the wail 
aaiiiea ^ which dM aithbithopf dbUnguUhad thb letideBCB, sad not by tho 
ttodns tatlo of pvface, of which many examplet art giron in thek letten. M«c« 
afifieaa to havo been a ttnn appt opriaUd to the mansion of the biabof^ in the 
C^y thai gaoe name to the see. This diatinction it plainly marked by Bonner, 
Bbhop of London,* and by the ezecuton of Arehbitbop Orindal, in the leeaona 
oilerad why they ought not to pay the heavy dilapidations demanded by Arch- 
bishop Whitgift : not but that most of their manerial houses, whilst inhabited^ 
bfdie prelates, might be entitled to the greater part, if not all the p r i v i Jeye 
aonesed to their episcopal palaoes;*-Z)fliii«'r jUHtnia to Hist, of l 4 Mnhe t h . 

* Given at my hmae at Fulham, July 95, 1 549. Wilkins, IV. p. 36. Dated 
at the bbbop's palace of London, Oct. 26, 1 564. Ibid. p. 1 08. 



184 LAMBETH PALACE. 

very fresh. The corpse, thus stripped, was conveyed into the 
outhouse for poultry and dung, and buried among the offid ; but 
upon the restoration of King Charles, that wretch Hardjmge 
was forced to discover where it was : whereupon the arch- 
bishop had him honourably re*interred in the same chapel 
near the steps of the altar.** a 

The palace had for some time previous to this been made a 
prison for the royalists. Dr. Guy Carleton, afterwards Bishop 
of Chichester, having been ejected from his living of Bucklers- 
bury, CO. Berks, and another living in the north of England, by 
the Presbyterian Visitors, who styled themselves " The Triers,'* 
was imprisoned at Lambeth, and treated with great severity. 
Worn out by hardships, he plotted his escape ; and his wife 
having conveyed a rope to him in prison, a boat was pre- 
pared to receive and convey him away. The rope proving too 
diort, he broke and dislocated his limbs by the fall ; but he suc- 
ceeded in reaching the boat, which conveyed him to a place of 
concealment. He used to relate to his friends,, that he was 
then so destitute, that his wife, to pay for his cure, sold her 
apparel, and subsisted by daily labour and occasional charity. 
After more than a year passed in these sufferings, he found an 
opportunity of escaping to the Continent, where he joined the 
exiled king, and had the good fortune to he remembered by htMf 
at the restoration. ^ Kennet says, that of near one hundred 
ministers from the west of England, who were imprisoned at 
Lambeth, almost all died of a pestilential fever. 

Archbishop Juxon, on the restoration, found the residence of 
his predecessors a heap of ruins. His piety rebuilt a greater 
part than could have been expected from the short time he 
enjoyed the primacy. He re-founded the great hall <>n the 
ancient model, a fine noble fabric yet standing ; and on this 
occasion gave a magnificent entertainment. The archbishop, 
with his particular friends, sat at the high table : the steward, 
with the servants, who were gentry of the better rank, sat at 

* I>«rt*8 Attticjuitiei of CMiterbiiiy. ^ Dallawfty's Sntiex, toL L p. 89* 



. LAMBETH PALACE. . 105 

the. table on the right-hand side ; the almoner, the clergy,- and 
others, occupied the table on the left. None but nobility or 
privy-counsellors were admitted to the table of the archbishop. 
The bishops themselves sat at the almoner's ; the other guests 
at the steward*s. * 

J, Re^qpecting the later improvements of this venerable pile, we 
jl^U speak in describing the buildings themselves. Many addi- 
^tiottB weer made by the latq amiable and worthy primate Arch- 
j|^l8{iop Moore ; particularly to the great gallery (which is near 
^feet long by 15 feet 9 inches broad) has lately been added a 
i]MOw-window. An opening has likewise been made towards the 
jriver by cutting down a few trees, which admits a most beau- 
tiful view of the water, part of the bridge, of the venerable 
abbey, and of the cathedral of St. I^aul. 

Jn point of arcliitecture, the present palace of Lambeth exhf- 
* bits a motley appearance, convenience and accommodation hav- 
ing b^n studied in its various alterations and improvements, 
rather than uniformity of style ; taken as a whole, however, its 
eflfect is highly venerable and imposing ; particularly when 
viewed from the opposite bank of the Than^es, or the adjacent 
bridge of Westminster, where the ^cient parts are principally 
ooqspicuous. From the top of Lambeth church, and from the 
l^ds on the top of the great gateway, and Lollards* Tower, 
the views of the whole mass of building, with the park and sur- 
rbunding grounds, are uncommonly fine, besides a vast extent 
of country. The former are estimated to occupy a plot of 
ground of nearly eighteen acres. 

In surveying the different parts of this extensive pile, their 
connexion will be best understood by describing them agree- 
ably to local situation. Those most deserving mention may be 
taken in the following order: — The Library; Guard Hoom; 
Presence Chamber ; Dining Room ; old Drawing Room ;. Gal' 
lery ; Vestry; Chapel; Lollards* T&mer and Pris&n- ; CkU'^ 
dert; Crypt beneath the Chapel ; Stexoar^s Parlour ; Servants' 

Hall; Great Hall ; Entrance; Gatisxvay, SfC. 

— . ■■ , . — ■ ■ ■ — 

* Ptnoant't London. 

2b 



<lfii6 1.AMBXTH FALACC. 

Croifttii^ the gtetk htl\ from tiie 'first eourt*7ttrd, we 
the principd staircase ; on the top ciwtdoik, a door on the lift 
lends to 

THE UBRART. 

This occupies the four galleries over the cloisters^ naidiig m 
small quadrangle ; a form very advantageously adapted to todk 
a purpose. It is said by Aubrey * to have been fbonded by 
Archbishop Sheldon ; but that prelate could only have reatiMl 
it, or probably bebn the first to arrange the books after their 
dispersion ; as in the will of his predecessor Abbot, it is ezpireidty 
mentioned to have been founded by Ardibishop Bancrofts 
** Lett all men present and to come know and understand, that 
Richard Bancrofle, doctor of divinitie, first bidiop of IiObAoq^ 
and afterward promoted to the archbishopric of C anterbur y , 
being for many years a great gatherer together tif bookes, ' 
did voluntarily and of his ow^n action (aa in his ISfethne he Ind 
cift foretold he would), by his last wHl and testament give ani 
bequeath unto his successors the archbishops of Canteibury fitf^ 
ever, a greate and famous library of bookes ef divinity^ and dt 
many other sorts of learning.'* b 

The condition upon which Archbishop Bancroft left thfe 
library to liis successors was, that it ishould on no accountbe 
alienated from the see : to prevent which, he direCtcfd tShat thqr 
should ** yield to such assurances as should be devised ^ 
learned men for its preservation.'* In case of non-Compliance 
with the above condition, he bequeathed it to Chehea CoBege^ 



h ii 



^ rsnuBiNuKiDB 01 oum J* 

^ 8lMld«i*t own will In ^oBcUatM ^ to kmrnff sol biiqg tht orifiiii 
§mdu. ** Imn, I ftpt-md taywOk to myimommon AwMiiihn|ii of Cmm* 
loilblv ovtff, Iko M¥«ol boolDft, orvolasMt, nMnlioaod inibo otnlogoo or 
Hkiihh ■iniyiH, athtmahu to b««aaac«l, to thk mj wiO, tofoardt ikt U" 
ermm mid imi n wema Uqf4hepubiic library of thi it* rf" CmiUrburytJWfW uiiUi 
ol ItmbHh Home."— DocMort Hiu. p. 53. 



tobe eMctod, or, if thai should not be criolai withia ml 
aAor hk decease, to the unifersity of Ceidbridge.^ . 
. These books wrete remaining m the Lambeth libnury tiU 
IMi, two yean after the execution of Archbishop Laud, when 
heoig aeised by the Parliament, the use of them was at first 
to Dr. Wincocke. They were afterwards giTon to 
Collie, and many began to get into private hands ; so 
pvobably fearing lor their safety in times so Jnlmicai to 
^t Mr. Selden suggested to the university of Casabridgo 
ili s%|it to thenj, and they were delivered pursuant to an evdi« 
of PttUament, dated Feb. 1647> into their possession. 
On tlM Bestflffatbn, Archbishop Juzon demanded die fetuln 
Kbnry ; which requisition was repeated by his success 
Sheldon, as founded on the will of the pious donor; and the 
books were restored accordingly. An ordinance of Parliament 
was likewise obtained at the same time, that such part of the 
IS was in private hands should be imroediatdy deli« 
np^ and that the volumes in the possession of John Thur* 
laa and Hugh Peters diouid be seised, b 
'. Ihe whole nu^iber of printed books deposited in the Lan:* 
balii libtasy at the present time, is estimated at upwards of 
W^mi volomes. c They are, as mi^t be expected, chiefly of 



^^v^mm^t 



M not fwjwra a 6omf ffoa kb m cc cwCT i, thai umm of tli* bools 
IhsMrfiiiiUili tf die coa£ttoa of Hit beqmit (whioh hat been ilMod ia 
^Vfsopli), fanl only thai tbaj ** thonld jieM to fuch ainicaacM af «Aoii|fi bi 
tgf lMne4 n|0n«'* Retpeotiiig these astiuanoei, the toeceediiig aidi- 
Ui huy (Abbot) eomnlted Sir Fiancit Bacon, bj the comiaaiid of James die 
ftrsit wIm vsooannended an aoeiuate catalogue to be made and laid up amoofii 
At aidkhnes of the cathedral ohnrch of Caatefborj, and a daplicate to be kept In 
lis L — ibith libnury; but stated it as his opbion, that die afMbhopt shoold 
■Hhs i i y i wd te enter into any partiedar engi^enMst, by whidi mmm tbett- 
■nii sf po«n^ mifht perhi^ be foi letted for the accidental losi sf a snigle 
bptl^ sf eompanliTely veiy small value. Abbot, in his will, only Isgrs n tolinm 
B^junetioii on his successors to preserve the books caraluily a« he has done, baft 
■ahse no mention of any other security. 
^ Mercurius Politicus, May 1 7, 1 6^0. 
* 9 They are valued at ft,S00f. J. N. Neve's Lives, &c. 



/ 



188' LAMBSTH f ALACS. 

a deMription suitable to the 'Studies 'of the learned posscssoff 
and consist of scarce controrersial divinity, commentaries of the 
early iathers^ records of ecclesiastical afiairs, and rare and 
curious editions of the Scriptures : this noble repository is how* 
ever by no. means deficient in general literatiire ; and the cbl» 
lection of English history and topography is not only extensive^* 
but highly valuable. Many books in the latter class are diatiiH 
guished by the fineness o£ the copies, and some few by thtf 
splendour . of. their embellishments. A set of Speed's Gnat 
Britain, bound in morocco, in particular, has the maps, cbioi,' 
&c. throughout, coloured, and the arms beautifully emblazoHsd- 

The books left by Archbishops Bancroft, Abbot, !Laud, SSkA" 
don, and Tenison, are distinguished by their respective arms.* 
Those which bear the arms of Whitgift were undoubtedly pur- 
chased of his executors by Archbishop Bancroft. 

There is only one volume in the collection known to htem 
belonged to Archbishop Parker, which is a book of Calvin's 
writing. His arms are on the outside, and within is written, in' 
red lead, '< «/. Par&ery** which was the archbishop's son* An' 
English Psalter printed by Daye, but without date, has likewise 
the following memorandum written by Dr. Parker's wife : **T0' 
the right vertuouse and honourable ladye the Countetie.of 
Shrewesburye, from your lovinge frende, Margaret Parker.'* 
The worthy prelate Seeker was a great benefactor to the an^i- 
episcopal library : besides a considerable sum expended in- 
making catalogues to the old registers of the see, he leik' 
to it all such books from his own private one as were not bk\ 
the former, which comprehended much the largest and most 
valuable part of his collection. Archbishop Comwallis like- 
wise bestowed many valuable books in his lifetime. And :the: 
late Archbishop Moore gave a considerable sum for fitting up a 
pn^r repository for the valuable collection of manuscripts. 

Hie first complete catalogue of the printed books, which was 
formed on the plan of the Bodleian catalogue, was dniwn up by 
Bishop Gibson, the learned editor of Camden, .when librarian' 
here, and is deposited in the manuscript library. In 1718 it was 



LAMBATM PALACft. IM 



Wrly copied by Dr. Wilkinsy in throe volumet folio, and Im» 
beeo continued by his succeMora to the present time. ' , Othisr 
catalogues of separate parts have been made by Dr.l>ucare]. 

The fibrary contains the following paintings, &c. < 

1. Ah original portrait of the founder^ Archbishop Bancroft, 
with the date 1604. ^ > 

8. Archbishop Warham— a copy from the portrait pamted by 
Holbein in the long gallery ( which will be noticed hereafUf ) • 

S. Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester in the reigns of Henry 
VIL and Henry VIH. .: r t 

4. Dr. Peter Du Moulin, a learned divine, and domestic 
chaplain to Archbishop Juxon. 

5* Dr. Wiikins, formerly librarian. 

Over the chimney is a large painting, containing a south 
view of Canterbury cathedral, brought from Croydon palace, 
and said by Mr. Denne to have been a gift from Mr. Dodd, the 
bookseller, in Ave Maria-lane, to Archbishop Herring. 

The library is also embellished with an original impression of 
the large scarce plan of London by Ralph^Aggas ; va'jvahii&le 
set of prints of all the Archbishops of Cantefbury frbnu IMM^ 
oaUectedby Archbishop. Comwallis; and a series of the^inqst 
>iincnt refohners and fathers of .the Protestant cfa«irch ; a. set 
of proofs from the work called << Biographia EvangeUeaf* jpre* 
lented by the a\ithor Mr. Middleton. .. :. 

The windows in that part of the library appropriated to the 
purposes of study, contain a few specimens of stained glass de*' 
serving notice, which are said to have been collected from di^ 
ferent parts of the house to adorn this apartment. They con* 
sist of the arms of the founder Archbishop Bancroft ; those of 
Aiv^bishop Laud ; the arms of King Philip. H. of ^ Spain;, and 
the portraits of Archbishop Chichol^y and. St. Augustipe. . ' . ' 

The head of Chicheley is perhaps singular, inlrepr^sisiiting 
that celebrated prelate at an advanced period of life ; all the 
rest of his portraits (of which there are several thought to be 
<Hriginal) concur in giving him a very youthful -appearance ; 
yet the similarity between them and the. present • port^rait is 



ita «.Aata«T« tAVACB. 



la liWfrMH m t9mj0BiuKt AtA Am kftUr as 
Brnwl iha hai^p k the mrtilrted aMtto «^ Notes 
Twunvu^ wiidi helengei to ArcUbkbep CnonM^ «rf'ieei 
inifroperly {deeed hete by • ^aaer in A gqh bi A ep BEetfieg^s 
tbeop TUs portrahfaai ferm«rfy been very facillieBt;:lKitrtiie 
colours are at present much fielded. 

Ikt figocttof St Augosttne adjoias the aboTe, and is merely 
ImUflinarj It aeems to hare been remo^red from the windows 
eCdbo apartment called the PresenoeChamber^idiere there still 
ranmin its companions, St. Jerome and St. Gregory. Beneath 
ii am the fibUowiag lines : 

ST. AUGUSTIKUS. 

So careAil of his chardge, soe meeke a nmidey 
8oe deeply learned, so Christianlye incHifd ; 
And one that heretickes did tnore confound, 
Sfaice the apostles* tyme hath not beene found. 

Hediedin the year of our Lord 44Q, of his age 70- 

licar the dttsmey, opposite die abore portraits, hangs a sin* 
gukr cviostrf , die sbdl of a land tortoise, en which is pasted 
npaperiridi diefollowmginacription: ^Theshellof atorteias^ 
adUch was put into the garden at Lambedi by Ardibishop Lewi 
in the year IdSS, where it remained till die year ITftS, when 
it was unfortunately killed by the negligence of a gardeDar.** 

The araai of King Philip of Spam, the husband of Qneen 
Ibry (as a Knight ef the Garter), are fixed in n window abofo 
ihrpertraits of Chichdey and St. Augustine, and are very sphaa* 
did and brilliant. These were formerly in the oentio of dm 
bow^iwiodow of the gallery, where they were probably phoad 
by Cardinal Pole, its reputed founder, during his short pri- 
maqr, in compliment to the Spanish match. The arms ef 
Aiehbishqps Bancroft and Laud are on each side. 

TJBJi LiBEAay opr mavhscbipts 

is sanmed over due west side of that opntaining the primed 
hiooksr and is divided wtotwo parts ; the first of which centahH 



tdlMMTII 1>ALA€k« fill 

i» ngigta» ittd itfcMvei "rf the tee of CanietinBpy^ 
itm MS& ef n iniicelbKieocis natore. The r e giitew rehttetoWi 
tilMt'vaiie^'of fobjectKy imd eontaki entrtet of acts mpcctin g 
Ae iemperalities ^ die archbiihopfl; homilies ; popefbidlftt 
Mleit to andfrom popes, cardmakt, 1dngs> princesy and others';^ 
CJmmissieiM and proxies; dispensattons; appeals; mariiag e s ^ 
dhrorces; institutions and collations to b^efices ; appnoJpiii»> 
tfsni^lfvkigs ; regulations in re^ous 'honsesi enrolment and 
le gi s li a ti ons of wills and testaments; processes; sentenoes^ 
and a multitude of other judicial acts and instruments of TariodS 
kinds passing under the cognizance of the archbishops ^ongh- 
out the whole provmce of Canterbury. The r eg i sters of the 
see of Cteterbury donot go^o far back as those sf 'Some other 
sees, ^dibishop Kihrarby (who became arohbisbop in 197S» 
snd resigned the see in KT^y on being aoade cavdbiil and 
bishop of Portua) is said to hate carried the B e gi s iers of this 
seewiih him to Ronea (wheve Aey probdbly new venain, but 
have been hitherto unsuccesiftilly inquired after). The oldest 
rqjister at present deposited in the libsaiy at Lambeth^ is that 
ef Anshbishop Peckham^ whidi begins in June 1S79> ifhese 
is gistem were anciently kept in the priory of St. Cbegory at 
CanteAwy, but after iheircemo^al at T4imheth aeqidMd die 
aanetef ^ Lambeth tbgisters.** Besides the above, this part of 
the Ubsary contains ^Iwo large folio volumes of jwrj w rf iutti^ 
mnged aiphabeticaBy according to the names of die popes, vis. 
fiom 7ope Alexander IIL A. D. 1J56, to Clement VIL A.D. 
1684. AncUnt ekatttn and instrumenU netadve to the estetes 
of thoHne of Canteibury, Ac mosdy of diereign of Hehrj 
VIIL fcoimd up in thirteen folio volumes. Attgrnrnm/lkm ^ 






• Sat IUff.Peekham» 6)L i59» c. 

^ Hm Ptckham lUgister eoDUint S49 Imtm, nuJuog 498 uim | liM iMgil^- 
■ii^ is dividsd into eleven qiuakmHi but tbat metbodif noteontinned Uffoogh- 
oot. AfMlfni«,pfop«djtpeeking,Bnildirof perdimaBty^viM 
iMwee, nnUBgunteeBuleitftNilioneefUieee »• Iwigar ^ihMi stfia. ' Thie 



f • 
» - t 



> 1322 1349 



192 LAMBETH PA|«ACK. 

Ihingif'Ste* from IS47 to 1658, in fifty-eight Wiliunes, Pres^fi- 
tatioDB to benefices. Counterparts of leases of church landik 
Natitia parochiali^, or returns of the state' and condition of 
.church^es in djQerent parts of England, in six volumes. liefer- 
.ences ,to endowments of ..vicarages in the different dioceses, 
ipade from the registers of the bishops, religious houses, &c, by 
X)n I)ucarel», in two folio volumes. ' , .: •' 

l- llie. following is a list of these registers, with. the lumiefijby 
whiph they are called, and the time of their respective continM- 
anqe, via* 

« 

. .: Peckham From 1279 to 1292 

Winchelsey 1294 .... 1313 

Reynolds ....... ........ 1314 .... 1322 

N..B. Th^rj^ are not any regis-^ 
1 ten.of Accbbishops Mepham, 
StratiiMrd, Ulfotd, and Brad- 
.warden, venUttning ; they 
w'ece archbishops 

. ;bh>. .;•:.-........ i349 ...; 1366 ' 

Xangham ........ 1366 .... 1368' 

Wittlesey 1368 .... 1374 

: .Sudbury 1375 ..... 1381 

Courtney .1381 .... 1391 

Arundell (2vols.) 1397 .... 1413 

1 . Chicheley (2 vols.) . . ; ; 1414 1441 

.Stafibrd (1 vol.) 1443 145« 

•v^Kemp (Ivol.) 1462 ..... 1453 

Bourchier . • 14^4 .... 1486. 

Morton 1486 .... 1498 

Deane 1498 1499 

Warham , 1504 .... 1532 

C^anmer 1533 ,.... 1553 

Pole (Cardinal) ,. 1556 .... 1558 

r Parker (2 vols.) 1559 ..•. 1575 

Grindal 1575 .... 1583" 



... .'. 



LAMBETH PALACE. 



193 



Name. 

Whitgifl (3 vols.) From 1583 to 1604 

Bancroft 1604 1610 

Abbot (3 vols.) 1610 1633 

Laud (2 vols.) ^ 1633 .... 1644 

After which the see was vacant 16 years until 

Juxon 1660 .... 1663 

Sheldon. 1663 1667 

Sancroft 1667 1691 

Tillotson (3 vols.) 1691 1694 

Tenison (2 vols.) 1694 1713 

Wake (3 vols.) 1713 1736 

Potter ( 1 vol.) 1736 1747 

The whole of these registers occupy forty-one very large 
folio volumes. Those of the subsequent primates are kept in 
Doctors' Commons. 
N. B. There are proper indexes to the whole collection. 
The parliamentary surveys of bishops, deans, and chapters, 
made during the time of the Commonwealth, with a view to 
their sale, and which at the Restoration were, by the interven- 
tion of government, fortunately preserved to the use of the 
public, consist of twenty-one large folio volumes ; and though 
not the original papers signed by the surveyors, but transcripts 
made at the time, arc now admitted to be produced in evidence 
in the courts of justice as original records. 

The MSS. of a miscellaneous nature, and which occupy the 
other parts of the library, consist of four sets, namely, 1* 
those of Lambeth collected by the different archbishops ; 2 
those of Henry Wharton; 3. those formerly belonging to 
George, Lord Carew, Earl of Totness (the two last sets pur- 
chased by Archbishop Tenison) ; and 4. those of Tenison, 
given >by the said archbishop. — ^They are thus numbered : 



Codices MSS. Lambethani, 

Whartoniani, 
Carewani, 
Tcnisoniani^ 
2c 



No 1—576- 
577— 595, 
596—638.. 
639— 88S. 



194 LAMBETH PALACE. 

Which last was the number of MSS. entered in the catalogue 
in 1758; but the total in 1784 was 1147> and has since in- 
creased. 

Among these manuscripts the following are particularly 
curious : a^de*^^^^ ^SS" ^ty^ /^^T 

1. ''The notable wise sayings of philosophers/* translated 
out of French into English, by Anthony Woodville, Earl Ri- 
vers ; finished December ^4, anno 16 Edward IV. This beau- 
tiful MS. is written in as fair, regular, and even a Roman hand, 
as if it were printed ; and has before it the very fine illumina- 
tion of Earl Rivers presenting Caxton the printer to King 
Edward IV. in presence of his Queen, the Duke of York, and 
many others of the nobility, and likewise of his infant son, 
. afterwards Edward V. The portrait of Edward V. was sup- 
posed by Vertue to be the only authentic likeness of that 
prince extant, and as such was engraved by him in his series 
of the English monarchs. Horace Walpole has placed a print 
of the illumination itself J>efore his << Royal and Noble Au- 
thors ;*' and Mr. Harding, of P^ll Mall, has lately engraved the 
portrait of Earl Rivers for his ingenious Illustration of Stiak- 
speare. The colours in this little picture are beauUfully vivid, 
and the drawing of considerable merit for the age. 

S. A very beautiful Salisbury missal on vellum, in folio, sup- 
posed to have belonged to Archbishop Ghicheley, by his anus, 
finely emblazoned, being inserted in two places. 

4 The Chronicle of St. Alban's, on vellum folio, finely illu- 
minated, tem'p. Hen. VI. 

5. A most beautiful folio MS. on vellum, supposed to be of 
the thirteenth century, representing the Apocalypse of St^ 
John, with a short Latin exposition in seventy-eight matchless 
illuminatioms, whose colours are in very fine preservation, and 
the gold uncommonly brilliant. To this is added another sin- 
gular curiosity, containing several figures of our Saviour, the ' 
Virgin Mary, some saints, two antient archbishops of Canter- 
bury, the death of William Rufus, &c. &c. very curiously 
drawn, and in excellent preservation. 



LAMBETH PALACE. 195 

€. A curious Saxon manuscript of the eighth century, con- 
tmning a fine drawing of Aldhelm in his pontifical chair^ and a 
^ lady abbess presenting to him eight of her nuns^ who seem to 
be making their vows of chastity. & a^/e^Q*, fts^ Aki- 

7. A most uncommon book on vellum in quarto, without 
date, printed at Paris, with very antient Gothic types, contain- 
ing thirty-five very beautiful illuminations, representing " the 
Daunceof Machabee*' (commonly called Death's dance), with 
French explanatory verses. This is supposed to be printed 
from a French MS. translated by Lydgate, the monk of Bury, 

• 

who flourished in the time of Henry VI. and which is noticed 
by Dugdale in his History of St. Paul's, as being painted 
round the cloister of that church. 
An ancient MS. Virgil on vellum, but imperfect. 
Archbishop Cranmer's household book. 
i Here is likewise a complete copy of Archbishop Parker^s . 
f Antiquities, printed by Daye, in 1572, and of which only two 
I complete copies are known to be extant. It contains the very 
^ uncommon pwtrait by Berg (or Hogenberg), of the arch- 
bishop, taken just before his death, and has likewise a great 
number of manuscript additions, and curious original notices. abtU^^ ^• 

As matter of curiosity merely, it may be mentioned that/^^^^* 
there is still remaining in the manuscript library at Lambeth, 
the habit of a priest, consisting of a stole, manuple, chasuple, 
cord, two bands marked with the letter P, and the corporal, 
togetlier with a crucifix 'of base metal, with a string of beads, 
and a box of relics, sealed, with this inscription : 

'< In capmla sunt contents reliquiae Sanctorum BartholomM 
apostolL . . pars cruris S. Matthai, . . . sacrum cranium^ 
et etiampars cranii Sta* AppoUonug virg. Sf mart. ... 5. 
Elora virg...,et Storum. Francisci Assisiemis revua 
Sfapprobata d.. .." 

• Eugraved by S. Watts iu 17«6, and lately re-publifhed by Mr. WilkiMOD, 
printaellcr, in F«nchorch-str«et. 



196 LAMBETH PALACE. 

In the list of eminent men who have officiated at Lam- 
beth as librarians, appear the names of Bishop Gibson, the 
learned editor of Camden, and author of several other works * 
the ingenious Dr. Wilkins ; the late Dr. Ducarel, author of 
the Anglo-Norman Antiquities, History of Lambeth Palace 
(from which the major part of this account is compiled), the 
Histories of St. Katherine*s Hospital, Croydon Palace, and 
several other interesting works; and the 'Rev. H. J. Todd, 
editor of Milton, &c. 

THE GUARD-CHAMBER 

runs parallel with the west side of the Library^ and is a lai^ 
state-room, fifty six feet long by twenty-seven feet and a half 
wide. It is called the guard-chamber from having formerly 
contained the armour and arms appropriated to the defence of 
the Palace. By whom these were originally purchased does 
not appear, but they seem to have regularly passed from onfe 
archbishop to another. 

Archbishop Parker gave the arms in his possession to his sue* 
cessors, provided they were accepted in lieu of dilapidations. 
. Hiey were undoubtedly purchased by his successor, and so 
on ; for Archbishop I^aud says, that he bought the arms at 
Lambeth of his predecessor *s executors. ^ In the plundering 
of Lambeth-house in A64% these weapons, the quantity of 
which had been extremely exaggerated in order to increase the 
popular odium against Laud, were removed. They were, how* 
ever, restored afterwards, or replaced with others 3 for some of 
the old muskets and bandoleers of an ancient make, remained 
during Archbishop P6tter*s time in the burying-ground, the 
wall of which was pulled down by Archbishop Herring, when 
they were disposed of elsewhere. 

The guard-chamber, the ancient repository for these arms, is 
-mentioned in records of considerable antiquity, and tliere is 
little doubt refers to the present building, which has every ap- 

* History of the Troubles of Archbishop LauJ, p. 196. 



LAMBETH PALACC. 197 

pMnoce of great age. In the steward's account of the Sd of 
Henry VI. A. D. 1424, it is expressly mentioned under the 
name of camera armigerorufn. 

A. D. 1452. On account of the great infirmity of Arch- 
bishop Kemp, the convocation was adjourned from St. Paul's 
cathedral to the manor of Lambeth, to meet February 26, and 
to be continued from day to day. They assembled in the high 
great chamber [in altd camerd majorij ; and the collector of 
Nidiolas V. having represented the danger from which the 
pope and the conclave had escaped by a conspiracy planned to 
destroy them, the archbishop offered up a prayer of praise and 
thanksgiving for their deliverance. The chamber here noticed 
is most probably what is now called the guard-chamber. In 
the names of the rooms in the time of Elizabeth or James, ^ 
the first is the hall, and the second the "great chamber,** 
doubtless the room that communicates with the principal stair- 
case. 

A. D. 1633, Sept. 19. Archbishop Laud, in pursuance of 
his majesty's direction requiring him " to use all such ceremo- 
nies and offices, and to carry himself with the same state and 
dignity^ and to assume such privileges and pre-eminences as 
his predecessors had heretofore used and enjoyed,*' kept his 
solemn consecration-feast at his house at Lambeth, his state 
being set out in the great chamber of that house, and all per- 
sons standing before it in the accustomed manner, his steward, 
treasurer, and comptroller, attending with their white staves in 
their several offices. ^ The great chamber in which this feast 
was kept, it is plain, was the same room mentioned above^ 
though one would rather have expected that his grace might 
have thought it more suitable to his dignity to have held it in 
the great hall. 

Hie only thing for which this chamber is at present remark- 
able, is its venerable timber roof, which somewhat resembles the 



* IhaetnW History of Lunbeth Palaoe, p. S4. 

^ LeNere't Lives of the Archbishops, toI. I. p. 1S7. 



196 LAMBETH PALACB. 

one in the hall^ but is infinitely less ornamented : the windcma 
likewise are painted, and of an ancient forni. 

Over the guard-chamber door is the date 1681, which shews 
that there was something done to it in Archbishop Sancroft's 
time. 

The fine full-length portrait of Henry Prince of Wales, son 
of James I. now hanging over the chimney, was removed here 
from the lobby. 

THE PRESENCE-CHAMBER. 

This is a fine ancient room, thirty feet by nineteen, so called 
in imitation of the like apartments in royal palaces. 

The precise time of the erection of this part of the palace 
is not known. Archbishop Parker describes it in his will, <' In 
cubiculo illo quod minUiri regit vacant presentice,*' And earlier 
in the time of the same prelate, viz. March 10, 1559, it is 
said, << In a certain inner chamber within the manor of the 
archbishop at Lambith, called The Chamber of Presence^ the 
archbishop committed to Nicholas bishop of Lincoln, the 
ordination of such as were approved by his examiners. Then 
were ordained 190 deacons, thirty-seven priests; and seven 
took deacon*s and priest's orders together.** 

This room was formerly hung with tapestry, which being 
decayed, was removed by Archbishop Herring, who had the 
room handsomely wainscoted. It is at present only remark- 
able for the stained glass in the windows. Two of these con- 
tain portraits of St. Jerome and St. Gregory, with the following 

verses : 

St. Hibronimus. 

Devout his life, his volumes learned be, 

The Sacred Writt*s interpreter was he, 

And none ye Doctors of the church amonge 

Is found his equal in the Hebrew tongue. 



He lived in the time of Pope Damasus, A. D* 376. 



LAMBETH PALACB. 199 

On gtatt in the second window s 

^ Grsogrius. 

More holy or more learned since his tyme 
Was none that wore the triple diadem : 
And by his paynefull studies he is one 
Amonge the cheefest Latin fathers knowne. 

He lived about the year of our Lord 594. 

In the third or middle window is painted on the glass a sun* 
dial, and also a view of the Theatre at Oxford> with this 
inscription : ' 

'' Giber tus Sheldon, archiep' Cantuariensis, cancellar' univers' 
fecit. A. D. CI3 vi<^Lxiii.'* 

On one side of this view the arms of Canterbury and Shel- 
don. 

Date over the door 1681. 

So that this painted glass was in all probability done in the 
time, and at the charge, of Archbishop Sancrofl. 

In this room many causes relating to Merton and All Souls 
colleges were decided in presence of the archbishops of Can- 
terbury as visitors. 

GREAT DINING-ROOM. 

Iliis room measures thirty-eight feet three inches by nine- 
teen feet six inches. It contains a series of portraits of all 
die archbishops of Canterbury from Laud to Comwallis, in the 
U&cmmg order: L Laud, 1633, a remarkably fine picture by 
Vandyke. 2. Juxon, 1660, from a good original at Longleat. 
3. Sheldon, 1663. 4. Sancrofl, 1677. 5. Tillotsbn, 1691. 6. 
Tenison, 1694, by Simon Dubois. 7- Wake, 1715. 8. Potter, 
1736. 9. Herring, 1747, by Hogarth: a singular and curious 
specimen of this master's talent in the line of portrait paint- 
ing, a 10. Hutton, 1757, by Hudson. 11. Seeker, 1758, by 



• Bnon tognYed • fine folio print from this picture, which hit been lately 
'publifhed by Mr. Wilkbton, printaeller, of Fenchurch-ftreet. 



$00 LAMBXTH PALACE. 



Re3mold8. 12. Cornwallisy 1768, by Dance. In these por* 
traits, remarks Mr. Lysons, we may observe the gradual 
change in the clerical dress in the article of bands and wigs. 
A large ruff antiently supplied the place of the former. Arch- 
bishop Tillotson was the first who wore a wig, which resembled 
his natural hair, and was worn without powder. 

Archbishop Parker adjourned the convocation to April 97, 
to meet at Lambeth-house {ad cedes Lambethanas). The sixth 
session was held May 1 1 , when the bishops assembled in the 
Dining-room in coenacuio Lambethano J , and trgated about the 
affiEiirs of the church, the book of articles, &c. in private (secretef 
remotis omnibus arbitris), 

Tlie next room in the suite of apartments is called, 

THE OLD DRAWING-ROOM. 

It was formerly distinguished by the name of le vdvei-room^ 
from its being hung with purple and red velvet. *< In camera 
quadam vocata ' le velvet room,* infra cedes LambethanaSy*' as 
this apartment is described in the register of Archbishop 
Wake. A It measures eighteen feet ten inches by nineteen feet 
ten inches ; but neither its decorations nor furniture are at 
present any way remarkable. 

Tlie magnificent new drawing and dressing-rooms were built 
by Archbishop Cornwallis in 1769, and are very noble apart- 
ments. The former measures thirty-three feet by twenty 
two ', the latter, sixteen by fourteen. Both these rooms are 
elegantly though plainly fitted up, and are highly recommended 
by their fine proportions. 

From the old drawing-room is the entrance to the 

GALLERY. 

The building of the long gallery is traditionally ascribed to 
Cardinal Pole^ and probably with truth, as the style of archl- 

• June 1, 1718, fol. 2666, part 1. 



LAMBETH PALACE. ^i 

tecmre is evidently of that period. ^ This noble room nincr 
parrallel with the eastern end of the chapel, terminating the 
range of apartments on the sduth side of the palace, tmd 
claims particular notice for the fine collection of portraits of 
primates and prelates with which it is decorated ; among the 
prii^pal of which we may rank that of its reputed founder 
himself. This admirable picture of the Cardinal is the first 
which attracts notice on entering the gallery ; and though said 
to be only a copy from that in the Barbarini Palace, has all 
the spirit and beauty of the finest original. It is the size of 
life, and represents him seated in the splendid habit of his 
order, the scarlet of which is peculiarly bright and glowing. 
It is observable in this' portrait, that the beard is much shorter 
than what various prints assign Cardinal Pole ; which circum- 
stance, and its great resemblance to the Hoorologia print, has 
been noticed by Dr. Ducarel and Mr. Granger ; the face, how- 
ever, may be easily recognised by those who have seen any of 
his numerous portraits. 

The following are the most curious pictures in this room, 
betides the above : 

• Archbishop Arundel (temp. Hen. IV.), a copy from a very 
valuable and unique portrait of that prelate preserved in the 
Penshurst collection, among the pictures of the constables of 
Queenborough Castle (of which the archbishop was, it seems, 
one). This portrait is highly valuable, as it is the only autho- 
rity for the likeness of this prelate known to be in existence ; 
if we except an illumination in the British Museum, from 
'which, in the way it has been copied and engraved in 
Strutt's Regal and Ecclesiastical Antiquities, no idea what- 

*• Dr. Ducarel supposes the Cardinal to be the founder of the whole pile of 
bride building fronting the west betweeen the Lollards* Tower and the Great 
Qrarty for his motto was << Eslole prwkntes sicut serpenteSi dC irmocmtes sicut 
enbtmSwi** which motto^ with representations of a serpent and dove, are oa two 
panes of that building directly fronting the west gateway in a room belonging 
to the receiTer. The same archbishop, he sajrs, probably built or repaired the 
cloister under the gallery ; but thb part of the palace seems of a later dat6« 

2 D 






908 LAMBETH PALACE. 

tver can be formed* The features and expression in the face 
of this picture are strongly marked, and the folds of. the dra< 
pery, though rather stiff, better than could have been expected 
from the age. The archbishop wears a close cap on his head> 
and a fur tippet round his neck ; behind him are the mitre and 
pastoral staff, both gilded according to the taste of the tiipes. 
His arms, impaled with those of Canterbury, and a red rose, 
the badge of the house of Lancaster, fill the two upper comef» 
pf the picture. Between them is the following inscription : 

THOMAS FITZALLENVS FILIVS 

COMITIS ARVNDELLIE ARC 

HIEPISCOPVS CANTVARIENSIS 

CONSTABVLARIVS CASTRE DE 

QVEENBOVRGH, 27 AP^j 
LIS ANNO DECIMO REGNI 
HENRICI QVARTI. 

William Warham (the boast of this gallery), a very fine 
original, painted by Hans Holbein, and presented by him to 
that prelate, together with a head of his friend Erasmus^ 
These two pictures passed by the wills of Archbishop Warham, 
and his successors, until they came to Archbishop Laud ; after 
whose decapitation they were missing till the time of Sancrofti 
who fortunately recovered the present portrait by the inter- 
ference of Sir William Dugdale : that of Erasmus was irre- 
trievably lost. A The colouring of this picture, though at first 
unquestionably fine, appears at present rather chalky, appa- 
rently the effect of time ; in other respects it merits the high 
praises bestowed on it. ' The large print by Vertue amongst 
the << Illustrious Heads,*' renders a description of it unnecessary^. 
The mitre, &c. as in the former picture, are ridily gilded. 
Good copies of it are preserved in the library and vestry. 

Archbishop Parker, an original, painted in 1579, in all proba- 
bility, by Richard Lyne, an artist of great merit, retained by 



* These two pieiures in Archbishop Parker's time were T«lued at only 6L 



LAMBSTH PALACS. 90S 

die arcbbkhop on his establishment, under whom he jointly 
praetised the arts of painting and engraving. ^ This portrait 
was presented to Archbishop Potter by James West^ esq. presi- 
dent of the Royal Society. It extremely resembles the small 
prints the archbishop, engraved by R« Berg (alias Remigins 
Hogenberg), which is mentioned by Mr. Granger, who says it 
was thought by Vertue to be the first portrait engraved in 
Eagland. The same author informs us, that the archbishop so 
mock loved and patronized the arts, that he employed, besides 
the above painter, two engravers at Lambeth Palace. 

Martm Luther, a small head on board, from an old collection 
of pictures at Nuremburgh, whether original or not, is unknown. 
It has much of the character ascribed to that boisterous Refor- 
mer^ but is totally unlike a second picture of him preserved in 
this palace, and which will be noticed as we proceed. 

Cranmer, Whitgifl, and Grindal, have nothing about them 
remarkable. The same may be said of an imaginary head of 
St DuDBtan. 

Ardibishop Abbot is a very fine picture, bearing the date 
1610^ of great expression, and the colouring clear and brilliant. 

A second portrait of Archbishop Chicheley, painted on pannel, 
is in this apartment. He is represented standing within a rich 
Gothic niche, in the attitude of giving the benediction. The 
robei and mitre are the same as in the portrait in the library, 
before mentioned, but the colours are in better preservation. 
The inscription on this picture is : 

Henricvs Chicheley, Archiep, Cantvar. 
Fvndator Collegii Anima' O'ivm Fid* Oxon. 

The other portraits in this gallery are chiefiy those of emi- 
nent modem bishops, and are very numerous. They consist 
of full-lengths, the size of life, of the- following persons: 

Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Sarum, author of the " History 
of hiB own Times,'* &c. The picture is dated 1689, and repre- 

• See Gnuiger's Biog. Hist. Eoglaod. 



201 I^AMBKTH PA|«AC£. 

sente him in his robes as chancellor of the garter. This is a 
spirited piece, and the colouring rich and brilliant. Bishop 
Burnet was buried in Clerkenwell church, beneath a plain 
gravestone of grey marble, which was to be seen as a part of 
the pavement some time afler demolishing the old church. 

Bishop Hough, of Oxford, afterwards of Worcester, date 
1690. The determined manner in which this excellent man sup- 
ported the rights of his college, and of the university, in oppo^ 
sition to the arbitrary mandate of James II. places him in the 
foremost rank of patriots. His piety was no less conspicuous 
than his courage, and he attained the great age of nine^-three 
without being thought to have lived too long. — See his charac- 
ter, and a fine plate of his monument, in Green's History of 
Worcester ; in the cathedral of which city he lies buried. 

Lloyd (1699), the predecessor of Bishop Hough in the sees 
of Lichfield -and Worcester, and one of the seven prelates 
committed to the Tower by the despotic and infeituated James 
11. Burnet represents him as a holy, himible, and patient man, 
ever ready to do good. He has a most primitive appearance. 
• Patrick Bishop of Ely, 1691. He was first deafi of Peter- 
borough, and afterwards bishop of Chichester ; from whence 
he was translated to Ely. He was a most eminent casuist, and 
a consimimate master of the popish controversy ; an instance 
of which is mentioned in his life. Dr. Patrick a^id Dr. William 
Jane had a conference in the presence of King James with 
Gifiard, a doctor of the Sorbonne, and Mr. Filden, who went 
by the name of Dr. Godden. The subject of this dispute was, 
" The rule of faith, and the proper judge of controversy.*' 
The popish doctors were pursued through all the intricacies of 
sophistry, and so closely pressed by their antagonists, that they 
were fairly put to silence. The king lefl them very abruptly, 
and was heard to say, that he ^* never saw a bad cause so well, 
nor a good one so ill maintained.*' 

. Bishop Thomas, of Winchester ( 1761 ), and Terridc of Lon- 
don, are two good portraits, by Dance. Dr. Benjamin Hoadly, 
successively Bishop of Bangor, Hereford, Salisbury, and Win- 



' LAMBBTH PALACE* 90& 

ohester, is the production of his wife Mrs. Sarah Hoadly (Cur* 
tis)> as signified by the inscription beneath, and is a picture 
which confers much honour on his female artist. 
' A singular portrait of Catherine Parr has found a place 
here ; not without just claim, observes Mr. Pennant, it being 
reasonable to suppose, but for the death of her tyrant, she 
would have been devoted to the stake for the favour she bore 
to the reformed religion. This curious picture (a three-quarter 
length) is painted on board; the dress is scarlet and gold, un- 
oomroonly rich. The face is much younger and handsomer, 
and bears not a single trace of the print among the Illustrious 
Heads engraven by Houbraken ; but from several circumstances 
there is a much greater probability of its being genuine. & 

The other portraits are. Bishop Moore of Ely, 1707; Dr. 
fleetwood, 1714; Dr. Gooch, 1750; and Dr. Mawson, 1754: 
all styled bishops of the same see. A very fine picture of Dr. 
Pearpe, bishop of Bangor in 1747y and a large full*length of 
Charles I. a copy from Vandyke. 

These pictures, with such additions as have from time to 
time been made to them, have been left by each archbishop t# 
his successors. Archbishop Parker in his will gives to his suc- 
cessors for ever the pictured of Bishop Warham, and of Eras- 
mus, in his gallery << in deambtdatorio sttas.** Archbishop 
Grindal bequeathed the same to Jiis next successor. Archbiidiop 
Lai^ gave them to his successors in the same manner by a 
clause in his will : <* As for the pictures in the gallery at Lam- 
beth, I leave them to succession, as well those that I found 
there, as those which I have added ;*' but if the archbishopric 
was ^dissolved, he ordered that the pictures that were his 
should be added to his estate, in his time (the author of the 
*^ History of the Troubles, &c. of Archbishop Laud'* informs 
us) there were three fine pictures, which had been given by 
Cardinal Pole: 1. The four fathers of the western church, St. 



* A copy firom thU picture, in every respect totally unlike the original, hat 
Bmb engraved and published in « Thane's Brituh Autographs.*' 



906 LAMBBTH PALACE. 

Ambrose, St. Jerome, St. Augtutin, St. Gregory ; with a doTe 
above them. 9. The Ecce Homo^ as Pilate brought Christ forth, 
and shewed him to the Jews. 3. The third related to St. John, 
3U 1, 8 i and m it the pope and the friars were represented as 
climbing up to get in at the windows. ' 

The windows of this apartment are enriched with beautifol 
stained glass, containing the arms of many of the primates; 
particularly the bow window, in which are the arms of all the 
Protestant archbishops from Granmer to Comwallis. ^Fhese 
arms of Archbishop Granmer, remarks Mr. Wharton, meniioBed 
^* to remain in a window of Lambeth house ;" together witli ^ 
« arms of the other archbishops since the Reformation, and 
placed in the same window, were painted at the cost of, and set 
up by my lord Archbishop Sancrod not many years since. 

Those in. the other windows are certainly more ancient. As 
in the first window, 1. Argent j three Catherine-wheels within 
aborderMiMf ; 8. Erroneously supposed to belong to Boniface 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and the reputed founder of the 
present palace, b 

• Ift the second window, 1. Beauchamp first quarter, Warwick 
second quarter. 8. London and Kemp. 

In the fourth window, those of Bourchier and Chicheley. 

In the fifth, the arms of St. Edmund and Warham. 

And in the east window, facing the door, the arms of Arch- 
bishop Kemp, dated 1458 ; and those of Archbishop Reynolds, 
inscaription ^^ GnaUems Re^oldsy 1313 ;** both of which appear 
of a great age, and are very briHiant and well preserved. 

VESTRY. 

Returning from the gallery to the dining-room, a small door 
leads to the vestry, which contains the following pictures : 
1. A small piece unframed, representing an emaciated figure 



• Ducard'a LimbeUi. ^ They are the arms of the ancient fuaHj of Scott, 
of ScoU Hall, in Kent.— See DucareL 



LAMBBTH PAL4Ce* Wf 

in bed, a cap nearly draiirn over his eyes» apparently dead ; 
said to be Archbishop Juxon after his decease. 

S. An ancient painting on board, with a man and woman 
(three-quarter lengths), described as Martin Luther and his 
w&t but totally unlike the common portraits of the former, 
both IB dress and feature. ^ The figures in this picture 
an beautifully painted, and have a wonderful air of nature. 
The man wears a cap of that form usually worn about the 
leign of Henry VIII. and is regarding the female, whose hand 
lie hcrida, with a look of uncommon satisfaction. The lady 
appears pregnant, and has a sort of Dutch face, but very 
handsome and fair, and a most admirable expression of mo- 
desty. Nothing can be finer than the heads and hands in 
this piece. 

5. A curious ancient painting on board, being a portrait' of 
Cardinal Pole, and from the circumstance of the place in which 
it it fixed* and the inscription on it, probably a genuine resem- 
blance of that celebrated churchman. The style of execution 
in this painting is rather hard and stifi^, like most andent por- 
traits ; but there is much of character. On one side of the 
cardinal's head are his arms, impaled with those of Canterbury, 
Above them the following inscription : 

Reginaldus Polus R 6 Cardinalis 
CoUegii Corporis Xp*i Oxon. olim Socius 
Electus in dict*m Collegiu*, 14 Feb. 

And some words beneath, now totally defaced and illegible. 
4. Dr. Whichcote, the learned Provost of King's College; 

5. Mr. L. E. Dupin, the writer on Ecclesiastical History ; and 

6. Wniiams, Bishop of Chichester, with the date 1694. 

7* A young man in a clerical habit, or rather that of a stu* 
dent, with a nootto beneath, '< Rapido carUrarium orhoy** sup- 
posed to be Archbishop Sancroft when young. Date 1650. 

* Neither the curious original picture of him in the British Museum, nor 
that in the Lambeth gallery, bear the least resemblance to this. 



\ 



906 LAMBSTH PALACE« 

• 8. Archbishop Tillotson, unframed, 1694. 

9. Bishop Evans of Bangor, afterwards of Meath, 1707- 

10. Gardiner, Bishop of Lincoln, 1694. 

11. A copy from Holbein of Archbishop Warham. 

The door leading from the great dining-room into the vestry, 
was made by Archbishop Wake. Before his time there was no 
passage that way into the chapel, but the inhabitants of the 
palace used to go out at the side door by the stairs, and de- 
scending two steps, went to chapel through the vestry by a 
door now stopped up, and which is converted into a press for 
hanging the surplices. 

From the vestry is the entrance to the 

CHAPEL. 

This adjoins the cloisters, of which it forms the northern 
tide, and is bounded to the west by the Lollards* Tower, to the 
south by the gardiens, and to the east by the long gallery and 
other parts of the palace. 

A place for the celebration of divine worship is very ra- 
tionally concluded to have existed as a necessary appendage to 
the archiepiscopal residence from its first foundation ; and the 
present building bears sufficient evidences of high antiquity to 
warrant an opinion of its being coeval, or nearly so, with that 
remote period. 

It consists of a body, measuring seventy-two feet in length, 
in breadth twenty-five feet, and in height thirty feet, but divi- 
ded into two, an inner and outer chapel, by a handsome carved 
screen. On each side are three lancet-shaped windows, which 
bear a near resemblance to those in the choir of the Temple 
church, which was built in the twelfth century ; and a larger 
one at the east and west ends. The western window is divided 
into five lights, the others into three. In the midst of the 
former, which is partly walled up, is a beautiful little Gothiq 
shrine, or niche, supported by an angel holding a shield of 
arms. The chapel has a flat pannelled ceiling, painted in coni'^ 



LAMBETH PALACE. %0 

pertinents, and the pavement is composed of f quares of black 
and white marble laid chequerwise. 

The present ornamented ceiling is the'work of Archbishop 
Land, whose arms are painted over the communion-table in 
eight different compartments. They are also in the ante-cha- 
pdf above the west door, as are likewise those of Ardibishop 
Juxbd^ which, shew that they both repaired and beautified 
those parts. & Laud gives the following account of this build- 
ings in his time: ^^ The chapel is divided into an inner and outer 
chafiel; and the partition or screen of the chapel which makes 
tttwoy was just in the same place where it now stands from the 
very building of the chapel.** Before his time it ^' lay nastilyt 
but be greatly repaired and beautified it.*' 

This sacred edifice having been totally despoiled and dese- 
crated during the time that .Lambeth palace was possessed by 
Colonel Scott, the present elegant wainscotting and fittings up 
were most probably owing to the munificence of Juxon. They 
CdDsist of a handsome range of pews or stalls on each side for 
the officers of the archbishop*s household, with seats beneath 
for the inferior domestics; the screen which divides the two 
jjmpelsf the altar-piece, a gallery beneath the west window^ 
containing a sort of reading-desk in front, but from its situa- 
tion apparently built for an organ-lofl, the pulpit, and some 
etber decorations. 

Most of these parts are very beautifully carved i the screen 
is elaborately so, as well as the archbishop's seat or stall, which 
adjcnns the inner side of it, and is handsomely furnished. 

The altar-piece is of the Corinthian order, painted of a 
stone colour (as are all the other parts of the ehapel), and 
gilded. The floor which is raised a step for the communion- 
table, is railed in, and neatly carpeted, and above are the words 
*^8UR8UM coRDA.'* On the south side is a plain tnoveable 
pulpit, and immediately opposite, over the vestry room, a box 
■i ■ — J" 

* Th» last reparation of the chapel took place in the time of Archbiihop 
Seeker, who expended a considerable sum on it. 

2b 



ftiO I.AMBKTH PALACE. 

with crimson curtains, &c» in which his grace's family atlopd 
divine service. ' 

Notwithstanding the present handsome appearance of tins 
chapely it was undoubtedly more splendid in the Romish tunea. 
Cranmer probably removed many of its superstitious deoora* 
tions ; and those restored during the short primacy of Pole^ 
were, it is reasonable to suppose, all taken away by Archbishop 
IVirken 

An organ was here, however, even in the time of the latler 
prelate, for he bequeaths 5^ organa mea chorialia in saoetta Imm*- 
bUhi titOy** to his successors ; and Laud makes a similar beqocst 
of one in his will : it is therefore somewhat ^remarkable that 
the chapel should be at present unfurnished with this decent 
appendage. But the greatest beauty of this religious edifice 
before the destructive civil wars, was the very fine painted 
glass of its windows, put up by Archbishop Morton, as appeared 
by his device in those windows. The subject represented by 
this glass was the history of man from the creation to the day 
of judgment, three lights in a window. The two side-lights 
contained the types in the Old Testament, and the middle 
light the anti-type and verity of the New. The outward 
chapel had two windows with the day of judgment. TbtiB 
was particularly amongst them a crucifix (probably a r^iesen* 
tatipn of the crucifixion, a necessary part of the scriptoral 
story). Archbishop Laud, at his coming to Lambeth, found 
these wmdows ** shameful to look on, all diversely patdied, like 
a poor beggar's coat," as his words are; and repaired tiban. 

This laudable endeavour of the prelate, which would now be 
justly esteemed a mark of good taste and liberality, was in that 
narrow age of puritanical bigotry im^mted to him as a crime ; 
and it was alledged against him, << that he did repair the ftoty 
of those windows by their like in the Ma^s Book :*' but this he 
utterly denied, and affirmed, that he and his secretary nfade 
out the story as well as they could by the remains that were 
unbroken. These beautiful windows were all defaced by our 
outrageous reformers in the seventeenth century, who, observes 



i;aiibeth falace. 



Sit 



Dr. Ducarel, under pretence of abhorring idola, made no icniple 
of ctKntntttiog sacrilege. > 

Tliere is no account or appearance of intermentB, except that 
of Archbuhop Parker before mentioned. He died in 1675, 
•ged Krantjr.tiro, and desired by his will to lie here. Accord- 
iBf^, at his death, his bowels were put into an um (tipiteA«r 
one writer terms it), and deposited in the duke's chapel in 
Lambeth church. His body, by his request, was buried at the 
u^er end of this chapel, against the communion-table on the 
■OUth ^de, under a monument of his own erecting, and placed 
iy hia direction against that part of the chapel where he used to 
fnj, with a Latin inscription composed by his old iriend Dr. 
Walter Haddon, as followa : 

" Sobrius et pmdens, atudiis excultus et usu. 
Integer, et Ters religionis aroans, 
Mattbseua vixit Parkerus, foverat ilium 

Aula virum juvenem, font et aula senem. 
Ordhie res gessit, recti defensor et nqui ; 
Vixerat ille Deo, mortuus Jlle Deo esL" 
The spot where this prelate's body now rests is marked by 
tba fiiUowing notice, cut in a stone of the pavement immediately 
befiire the commnnion rails -. 

" Corpus 

' Mattuai 

Archibpiscopi 

Tandeh Hic 

qvixscit." 




91^ LAMBETH PALACE. 

The anctent monument, which originaUy stood near thit spot, 
18 ,at present placed in a corner of the vestibulum, against the 
wall. It is a plain altar-tomb of gray marble, in «the Gothic 
taste, and has at one end a small brass plate with the following 
Latin inscription, written and placed there by Archbishop Ban- 
croft, in whose time the body was discovered by the interfisrw 
ence of Sir William Dugdale> and re*interred as before m^ 
ticed.* 

**^ Matthaei Archiepiscopi coenotaphium, corpus enim, (ne 
nescias, lector,) in ad3rto hujus sacelli olim rite conditum, a 
sectariis perduellibus, anno mdcxlviii, effiracto sacrilege hoc 
ipso tumolo, elogio sepulchrali impib refixo, direptis nefioft 
exuviis plumbeis, spolatum, violatum, eliminatum $ etiam sab 
sterquilenio (prohscelusi) abstrusum : regedemum (plaudente 
ccelo et terr£i) redu^fite, ex decreto Baronum Angliae, sedulo 
qusesitum, et sacello postliminio redditum, in ejus quasi medio 
tandeixi quiescit. Et quiescat utinam, non nisi tub& ultimft 
solicitandum. Qui denuo desecraverit, sacer esto." ^ 

The communion plate in Lambeth chapel is mentioned by 
Dr. Ducarel to consist of the following utensils of silver gik c 
. A plate, or dish ; two flagons ; a chalice, or cup (on the ^ 
cover a lamb, holding a banner with a cross) ; two candle- 
sticks. 

This plate has generally passed from one archbishop to ano- 
ther, especially since the time of Sheldon, who gave it by will 
to his successors to hold in it a life interest only. 

'< The common prayer-books being old and worn out. Arch- 
bishop Herring bought several new ones in quarto, handsomely 

• <* It was the vile Matthew Hardj that caused Archbishop Parker to be da^ 
up aad buried beneath a dunghill, and sold the lead wherein he was enclosed,, and 
cou verted the tombstone to a table for the use of his own house. But in 1661 
the said Hardy was obliged, by an order of the House of Lords, to find the body 
and deposit it near the place where it was before buried, and also erect a like mO' 
nument over it (this must mean the original one], at his own proper cost and 
charge." *> Lysons* Euv. vol. I. 26*3. 



LAMBBTH PALACE. S13 

boond and gilt, and covered the great chair near the commu* 
flion-table) with some «iik, which was found in a chest in the 
vaitiy*'* It is now covered with tawny-coloured velvet. 

Besides the above, there appear to have been anciently more 
chapelsy or places of prayer, within Lambeth palace, mention 
being made of the - great chapel in Computus BaUtvorum^ 
15 Edward II. as well as in other places, and also in the time 
of dncheley, when William Tailour was brought before him— 
M.tfi ctpMa majori infra manerium suum de Lamehiih pro tri' 
bmuaUsedentef** which implies that there was a lesser one* Men- 
tion is likewise made of magnum oriiorium damini St oraiorium 
dominif which were distinct from the chapel. In which orato* 
ries were several ordinations, as we learn by the registers. ^ 

In archbishop Peckham's register, 1280, is a memorandum 
for the reparation of the present chapel ; and in the register of 
Archbishop Arundel, mention is made of a new one, or at least 
of a new altar in it (the words do not distinctly indicate which) 
being'^consecrated in 1407* 

THE POST-ROOM. 

- This apartment (so denominated from a large j90^ or pillar in 
the centre of it, which supports the roof) is a part of the build- 
mg called the Lollards* Tower, and forms a sort of vestibulum, 
or western entrance to the chapel. It is lighted on the west 
side by three low pointed windows, which open on the Thames. 
O(^>O0ite to these is the doorway of the chapel, a large circular 
stone arch, enclosing two pointed ones, and surmounted by the 
arms of Archbishop Laud. 

To what purpose the Post-room originally served, it is diffi- 
colt to say, other than as an avenue to the chapel. As a spe- 
cimen of domestic architecture, it claims the notice of the an- 



*■ Particularly in the time of Archbishop Anmdel, aa appears from the follow- 
ing iostauoes. 96 of Feb. 1400, Sunday — *' In oraUnio infra maneriuin de 
Lambeth^- Ifmis ordinavit RoberC TumUdl, rcctorem eccV poch' de KyUomb, 
Memven' dioc\** &c. (Kennet's Regist. and Chron.) 



214 LAMBETH PALACE. 

quary, beiog remarkable for the broad and massy duurader of 
ita wallsi and that certain gloomy air of antiquity^ which in this 
kind of buildmgs is so well calculated to recall the memory of 
other times. 

The fiat-pannelled cieling of this room is ornamented al the 
intersections with a Variety of grotesque forms, angels bearing 
shields of arms, scrolls, &c. One head is particularly remark** 
able, . the £ace being an exact resemblance of that of Henty 
VIII. Whether this was the result of accident or design, it is 
not easy to determine ; if the latter, it may serve to mark the 
date of this cieling's erection. 
Jo 




Near one of the windows of this room stands an ancient 
moveable pulpit or reading-desk^ possibly once belonging to the 
chapel, and now disused from age and decay. 

The Lollards' Tower (besides the apartments above de- 
scribed) contains various other rooms, now chiefly appropriated 
to domestic purposes. It is a large pile of stone buildiiig» and 
is thought to have derived its. name from, a little prison at the 
top of it (which will be noticed hereafter), used anciently fbr 
confining the religious sect called Lollards. This portion of the 
palace was erected by Archbishop Chicheley, and cost in the 
whole ^S^7S. 2s. 11^. Each item of the expense is set down 
in the computus haUworum^ or steward's accounts of the yeaf* 
By these it appears, every foot in height of this building, tft* 
eluding the whole circumference, cost \Zs. Ad. for the work. . 
The iron-work used abouL the windows and doors amounted 
to 1392^^. in weight, at three-halfpence per pound, to 
^10. lis. 11^.; and three thousand bricks were used for 
stopping the windows between the chapel and that tower. 



LAMBtTH PALACE. 3|5 

On the west side was a tabernacle or 
niche, in which was placed the image of St. 
Thomas, which image cost lSi^4d. A brick- 
layer's and a tiler's wages were then by the 
' day, with victuals, 4d. without victuals, 6d, or 
r ejd. i a labourer's with victuals, Srf. without 
~ victuals, 3^. But most of this tower was done 
^ by the grosa, as the computers call it, or the 
great. 

To inake way for the erection of this fabric, some other 
buJIdinga on the same site appear to have been taken down, 
and cleared away ; but of what nature they were, whether pri- 
■OM or not, is not known. 

It ia certain that the Archbishop of Canterbury had prisons 
bera before tliis tower was built ; for we have an account of a 




married chaplain brought before Archbishop Arundel in the 
year IWS, out of his prisons within his manor of Lambeth ; .but 
it is now impossible to ascertain where those prisons stood. The 
Lollards were very much persecuted in the times of Arundel 
and Chicheley ; and several of the proceedings against them are 
nUtX in the registers of this see. a William Tailour, in pnrti- 
nilar, was brought to Lambeth by Archbishop Cbicheley; but 
Iw was iwt iMXifined there, being expressly said, in Wilkios's 
Coumis, to have been theUf and long before, in the Bishop of 
Worceater'a custody, b However, some of the Lollards were 

■ IUg.Cb'«helBT, il. fuL ST. 
-* WilliHD Tiilour, prieit ud nuiWi of uU, mt hii 6nt *pptmae» u I^at- 
\tA, S«p«. IS, being bcoi^kt htfon the ucbbithop, taaai Chicbalaj id hii 
Mtrarif, (itting upon hli tribnii*!, whra Tailsuc codEnhiI that laartMn jcui 
MtniMhtd baan gxeommuMcMad b*Aiimd*l on ■ eharge of hcrea^ i bat dow, 
sbJnriBg Miiih notion!, mi taking tba raquiaita oath of nibmlmion to ranh MO- 
t*Dcc ai ibould he tubjoined, lia mi piomiied abaolutioa g tod on tba 4th of 
iIm nwiTnnmh br wu again bnnigbt bffora Arcbbiabop Chichelef inbia diapel 
it Lambatb, and nich thi uma) csicmoaj ralctMd from ths neonunaDUUiou. 
Fsbrau; 93i &c. tba mow yen, Tailosr ifpaand a thicd time before the arch- 



2\6 I,AMBETH PALACE. 

undoubtedly confined in this tower, which still retains the Lol- 
lards* name, and has all the appearance of a prison, for the cir- 
cumstance is generally noticed in history, though the persons 
are not particularly mentioned. 

In 1402 it is expressly asserted, that some of the poor perse- 
cuted Lollards were examined here in the time of Archbishop 
Arundel, and afterwards of Archbishop Chicheley ; and even 
John Wiclcf is said to have appeared before delegates in the 
chapel at Lambeth. — [T. Walsingham's Hist, and X Lewis's 
Hist, of J. Wiclef.] 

In 1511 Archbishop Warham*8 proceedings against divers re- 
puted heretics in his court held at Lambeth, are mentioned in 
Bishop Burnet's History of the Reformation. And in 1531, 
during the primacy of the same, the venerable Hugh Latymer, 
after being exconununicated for a supposed act of contumacy^ 
was ordered by the Archbishop to remain in close custody in 
his manor of Lambeth. 

A small pointed door on the south side of the post-room leads 
to the 

LOLLARDS* PRISON, 

Tile place were these unhappy persons are supposed to have 
been confined. The ascent to this room is by a small spiral 
stone staircase, the steps of which are much decayed. It is 
entered by a little pointed stone door-way, barely sufficient for 
one person to pass at a time,, which doorway has an inner 
and outer door of strong oak, thickly studded with iron, and 
fastenings to correspond. The first thing that arrests the atten- 

bithop, who WM then seated judicially in his chapel, and he was now convicted 
of being a lelapsed heretic. In consequence, he was on the kst day of the 
month deprived in form of all his clerical functions, and delivered up to the 
secular power. Chicheley himself presided in St. Paul's cathedral, when the 
sentence of deprivation was executed. 

The principal tenets deemed heretical in Tailour were — that prayer ought to 
be addressed to God only — ^that praying to any created being is idolatrous— and 
that the worship due to God was not due to Christ in his humatif but in his 
divine xAture. — Wilkins's Councils, vol. iii. p. 407— 413. 



1-17 




LAMBSHU PALACE. tl7. 

m 

OB eiiteriDgy is, the large iron rings fastened to the wain- 
whicli lines the walls. There are eight of these rings still 
Ijr fixed, and about breast-high, in this order ; three on the 
h tiAidfJour on the west side, and one on the north side. The 
iscot, the ceiling, and every part of this chamber, is entirely 
i with oak near an inch and a half in thickness. The en- 
oe doorway of this room is five feet and a half high, twenty- 
inches wide, and one foot seven inches deep : the oaken 
s are three feet and a half thicks The prison itself is 
ve feet long, nine feet wide, and eight feet high. The win- 
B are two feet four inches high, and one foot two inches 
^9 withinside ; and about half the dimensions on the outside, 
as two very small windows, narrowing outwards, one to the 
«, the other to the north. A small chimney is on the north 
, and upon the sides are various scratches, half sentences, 
bIs, and in one or two places a crucifix, cut out with a 
isi or some otlier sharp instrument, by the prisoners who are. 
KNied to have been confined here. 

he letters are all in the old English character, and in gene- 
nade so rudely as not easily to be deciphered. Dr. Ducarcl 
endeavoured to put together the following sentences : 

DcD fit tfiatianiin (ciationi*) acrid-— petit aougan|wm 

Tfye anH 'jMia JFeoc&e Bathu anH fusxMBx, 

XNiCBVcmeoutofaael conqyeneamm 

lyiimtMtf Iteaz— ibc coto tnorinfnff 

Ibic aMt— 9u0tiii— 3^ SSor^ 

Ct ca wm a)octoc— Jr9o0ce te iftfm 

ftilqMfe— 3li«n (3l*an) JFrodc 

Wiot asnac&li, (34n 2>oi&)* 
y a small door opposite the entrance to the Lollards' prison 
way to the leads of the chapel, which afford a very fine 
rpect of the palace, park, gardens, &c. At the top of this 
sr is fixed the chapel bell. 

he exterior of tlic Lollards* Tower, when viewed from the 
mes, has a fine venerable appearance, and is the only part of 
palace remaining that is built entirely of stone. It consists of 

2 F 



218 LAMBKTU PALACE. 

a large tower, and a Bmaller square projection on the south side, 
somewhat receding from it : the whole building is five stories 
high. The larger tower has in front a number of fine windows, 
which give tight to the several apartments it contains: the 
smaller one, at the top of which is the prison, is plainer and 
more massy in its appearance. Between the two windows of 
the third story of the former is the beautiful niche, in which 
originally stood the statue of Thomas k Becket, the sculpture of 
the upper part of which is still fresh and sharp, llie lower 
stories of these towers are now used as cellars. The whole is 
finely shaded by the venerable trees of what is called the 
<< Bishop's Walk.** A view of this tower is placed at the end of 
this chapter. 

CLOISTERS. 

Magnum Claustrum and Parvutn Claustrum, the Great Clois* 
ters and Little Cloisters, are mentioned in the steward's ac- 
counts for the years 1224 and 1443, and consequently at those 
eariy periods formed part of the palace. 

Of these, the Little^ or Inner Cloisters (though probably not 
the original buildings )y were remaining mitil the time of Arch- 
bishop Herring, by whose order they were taken down. Dr. 
Ducarel, who remembered them, says, they stood on the north 
side without the chapel, being covered and floored with tiles, 
and supported by twelve pillars. They reached from east to 
west parallel to the north side of the chapel (on the outside of 
a pantry, opposite to the steward's room, in which pantry stands 
one of the aqueducts), and went up to the garden- wall, being 
nearly as long as the chapel. 

Hie site of these smaller cloisters is called the Burying- 
groiind, possibly from its having been anciently used for inter- 
ments ; though when Archbishop Herring, on the removal of 
the cloisters, had it dug, and the weeds cleared, no bones nor 
any signs of them were found. 

The present cloisters stand on the south side of the chapel, 
their north side being bounded by the great hall> and their 



LAUIBTH PALACE. 8l9 

eBMent and western sides by the guard-chamber and the Lol- 
tards' tower. Hiey include an area but of small dimenuons, 
and are apparently of modem constructioo, that it to say, not 
auch older tbaothe library which they support (IGIO). Their 
■idea are plain, and the ceiling flat, composed of common laths 
and plaster. They serve as avenues to the various parti of the 
palace. 



CttTPT, OR UHDBR-CRAPEL. 




The cntranco to the undcr-chapel is from the north-east 
corner of the cloisters. This is generally thought to be the 
eldest part of the palace. It consists of a series of strong stone 
arches, supported in the centre by a short maaty column, and 
is thirty-six feet long by twenty-four feel wide : the height of 
the roof from the ground is about ten ieet. These vaults are 
now converted into cellars, but might possibly be once used for 
divine worship, as there is a second entrance to them from the 
north ude of the cloisters. At one end are remains of a 
building, supposed to have been of late years a balcehouse or 
kitchen. 

The steward's parlour, or great parlour as it was formerly 
called, is situated in this part of the palace : it is a fine noble 
room, as old as the time of Archbishop Craomer,* whose motto, 
" xoscs Tz iFSUM," IS painted in various parts of the large 



■ CctauolnDi iDfniiu (hodia dictum, (be gnat puloiu) ipod Jjm 
vu%. Not* MS. in AiiLiiiuitin of BilMin, Arahbiahop Cnomcr, 



2iO LAMBEtll PAIAC^. 



/ 



bow window, together with the royal arms of Engluid. Tfle 
servants' hall, which nearly adjoins it, is an apartment of the 
same description, and is supposed to have been built or repaired 
by Archbishop Bancroft, as it contains his arms, as also bis 
notto, <^ voLBHtB DEO.** The great kitchen, further on, was 
b^iilt by Archbishop Sancroft about the year 1^5. 

Returning along the eastern side of the cloister, we next 
arrive at 

TRK OaSAT HALL. 

Mention of the biiQ oceurs in the oldest steward's account 
extant ;* aifd such ifti Ipartnient ^iii, no dctubt, an appendage 
to the palaob ftdili iti fi>lt fbntiliaiibii ; but when or by whom 
originally built does iibt tipf^ar. tt was repaired or re-founded 
by Chicheley. ta the yeflr 1578 and 1571 Archbishop Parker 
" covered the great hall of Liixibeih with shingles ;" and its 
name appears in other accounts of a subsequent date. This 
ancient bidding (as before noticed) was destroyed by Scott, 
one of the regicides, in the year 164S. 

The present hall stands precisely on the site of the old one* 
It was ordered by its founder. Archbishop Juxon, to be bnih to 
resemble the ancient model as nearly as possible, and cost 
10^500^. i nor could all tlie' persuasions of men versed in litersi- 
ture, and of his friends, induce him to rebuild it in the modem 
way, and unite it to the library, though it would have cost less 
nioney, h It was not finished at the time of his decease ; but he 
left the following provision in his will : << If I happen to die 
before the hall at Lambeth be finished, my executor to be at 
the charge of finishing it according to the model made of it, if 
my successor shall give leave." This munificent prelate sat in 
the see only two years and nine months, and laid out in repairs 
14y847^. 7«* lOd. 



« Omipatoi 15 Ed.n. (ISSI), in the time of Archbishop Reynoldi. (Stew- 
ard ThomM Byttttche.) 
^ Aubrey*! Hiitory of Swrey, irol. V. p. t7B. 



LAMBST8 PALACfe. 5Ntl 

llie arduteeture of this magnificent fabric is of the mixed 
kindy as well as the ornaments, though the whole is intended as 
anintttatlon of the Gothic style. The walls are diiefly built of a 
fine rid briek^ and are supported by stone buttresses edged and 
ooped with alone, which do not terminate in pinimcles, but hi 
the centra rises a lofty and elegant lantern, at tbe top of whidh 
are tke arms of the See of Canterbury impaled with those «f 
Juxaoy and surmounted by the ardiiepiscopal mitre. 

Tbe interior measures in length nine^-three feet, in breadth 
thir^-«ight, and in height upwards of fifty feet. The depth of 
dM great bay-window at the north-wetft end is seven feet four 
inchesy and it reaches in height from the floor to the edge of 
the foof. The whole of the inside is profusely ornamented ; 
the roof in particular is constructed with much labour, and^ 
considering it was built in an age when such things were not 
motif may be called a fine piece of workmanship. It is entirely 
composed of oak, on many parts of which are carved the anna 
of JttxoQ ; on others Juxon impaled with the See of Canterbury, 
or the arms of Canterbury only ; and other parts a mitre be- 
tween four negroes* heads. 

At the upper end, above the archbishop's seat, in the large 
north window, the same arms are again seen in stained glass; 
they are likewise carved over the hall door, with the date 
MDCi.xtii. j and at the lower end is a screen of the Ionic order, 
on the top of which is the founder's crest, a negro head crowned^ 
The Iriiole hall is wainscoted to a considerable height, and the 
floor is handsomely paved. 

Two of the great oak tables have upon them the date 1664, 
and therefore were made at the charge of Archbishop Shekkm : 
the lowest on the east side is a shovel-board table. 

Hie reason (says the Historian of the palace) why such large 
halls were built in the seats and houses of our ancient nobility 
and gentry was, that there might be room to exercise the gene- 
rous hospitality which prevailed amongst our ancestors, and 
which was, without question, duly exercised by most of die 
great possessors of this mansion, though not particularly re- 



992 lAMBftTH PALACfe. 

corded ; but most eminently by Archbishop WincheUey» And 
the Archbishops CrannMsr and Parker, 

It was indeed suggested invidiously to Henry VIII, that 
Cranmer did not keep proper hospitality ; but Mr, Seymour, 
the person who had thus slandered him, being afterwards with 
his own eyes convinced of the contrary, made this confesskm to 
the king : <M do r^nember that I told your highness, that my 
lord of Canterbury kept no hospitality correspondent unto his 
dignity ; and now I perceive I did abuse your highness with an 
untruth. For, besides your Grace's house, I think he be not in 
the realm of none estate or degree, that hath such a hall fur- 
nished, or that &reth more honourably at his own table." ^ 
What great hospitality Cranmer maintained, we may judge by 
the following authentic list of the officers of his household, vU. 
steward, treasurer, comptroller, gamators, clerk of the kitchen, 
caterer, clerk of the spicery, yeoman of the ewry, bakers, 
pantlers, yeomen of the horse, yeomen ushers, butlers of wine 
and ale, larderers, squilleries, ushers of the hall, porter, ushers 
of the chamber, daily waiters in the great chamber, gentlemen 
ushers, yeomen of the chamber, carver, sewer, cup-bearer, 
grooms of the chamber, marshal, groom-ushers, almoner, 
cooks, chandler, butchers, masters of the horse, yeoman of the 
wardrobe, and harbingers. ^ 

Correspondent to this numerous retinue was the archbishop's 
state, " lliere were generally three tables spread in the hall, 
and served at the same time : Ist. The archbishop's table, at 
which ordinarily sate none but the peers of the realm, privy- 
counsellors, and gentlemen of the greatest quality, 2. The 
almoner's table, at which sate the chaplains, and all the guests 
of the clergy, beneath diocesan bishops and abbots. 3. The 
steward's table, at which sate all other gentlemen, llie sitfta- 
gan bishops were then wont to sit at the almoner's table ; and 



* Strjpt'a MemorUU. 

^ From a MS. in the Ltmbeth llbniy (not numbered), intituled, << (Men 
and Statute! of Household, obienred in the House of ThomAs Cnmmer, wNBe- 
tyme Lord Archbishop of Canterbury." 



LAMBSTH PALACE. 2^ 

archbishop Cranmer, in admitting his sufiragan Richard Thorn- 
den, prebendary of Canterbury and bishop of Dover, to his own 
table, did him unusual honour ; which was therefore noted, to 
aggravate the ingratitude of that man in conspiring against the 
said Archbishop." * 

Besides this hospitality, he administered proper relief to the 
poor at his gate. ^ 

Pole had a patent from Philip and Mary to retain one hun* 
dred servants ; which affords some idea of his hospitality and 
grandeur* 

Parker had a similar grant from Elizabeth for forty retainers ; 
but he had a great many more, as appears from the cheque-roll 
of his household : 

" All thes had allowance for their diett in the hall at Lam- 
bith ; as first was the steward's table on the one side for him- 
self; his two fellow-officers, gentlemen of the horse, secreta- 
ries, gentleman usher, that waited not at the archbishop's 
table, with other gentlemen waiters : and if al cold not sit 
thear th'ei were placed at the gentlemen's table. Next to that 
table, over against the steward's table on the other side of the 
hall, had the almoner his table, with the chaplcins and the 
stewdents ; and either of thes tables had like allowance of diet, 
manchet and wine. The gentlemen's long table^ at; first sitting 
was for some gentlemen of household and manors, and for the 
archbishop's waiters, when he had dined. On the other side 
against them sat the yeomen waiters and yeomen officers, that 
attended not, and meaner sort of strangers. At the table next 
the hall dore sat the cooks and attendant yeomen officers. 
Over against them sat the gromes before mentioned of the 
stable and other extern places. Then at the nether end of the 
hall, by the pantry, was a table whereat was dailie entertained 
eight or ten of the poor of the town by turns." 



^ Wharton*! Obtervationi on Strjpt't MemoruJt of Cmuatr, p. 858, Ap- 
pendis. 
I> Ibid. 



3M LAMBETH PALACE. 

** The sub-almoner had a ohest for broken mete and brede, 
and a tub with broken beer,' for relief of other poore, as they 
wer put in bills parted among them.** 

jStrype gives us this further account of Archbishop Parker's 
hospitality : 

** In the daily eating, this was the custom : The steward, 
with the servants that were gentlemen of the better rank, sat 
down at the tables in the hall on the right hand ; and the 
almoner, with the clergy and the other servants, sat on the 
other side ; wher6 there was plen^ of all sorts of provision, 
both for eating and drinking. The daily fragments thereof did 
suffice to fill the bellies of a great number of poor hungry peo- 
ple that waited at the gate ; and so constant and unfailing was 
this provision at my lord's table, that whosoever came in, either 
at dinner or supper, being not above the degree of a knight, 
might there be entertained worthy of his quality, either at the 
steward's or at the almoner's table. And moreover, it was the 
archbishop's command to his servants, that all strangers should 
be received and treated with all manner of civility and respect, 
and that places at the table should be assigned them according 
to their dignity and quality, which rebounded much to the 
praise and commendation of the archbishop. The discourse 
and conversation at meals was void of all brawls and loud talk- 
ing, and for the most part consisted in framing men's manners to 
religion, or to some other honest and beseeming subject. There 
was a monitor of the hall ; and if it happened that any spoke 
too loud, or concerning things less decent, it was presently 
hushed by one. that cried silence. The archbishop loved hosfrf- 
tality, and no man shewed it so much or with better orderi 
though he himself was very abstemious.** 

The lower end of the hall has two entrances immediately 
facing each other : that on the east side leads to a small court, 
containing the stables, coach-house, and other domestic offices : 
the one on the west, to the principal court-yard by whidi we 
entered. In the latter, the chief object worthy notice, besides 
the hall (which has been described), is 



LAHBSTH PALACE. 



THE GATE-HOUSS. 




. The " Great Gate" is enumerated among the buildings of the 
palace in the steward's accounts, 15 Edward 11. Cardinal 
Morton rebuilt it about the year 1490 in the manner we at pre- 
aent see it. This is perhaps the most magnificent building of 
the kind now remaining, not for the elegance of its workman- 
diip, but Tor its vast size and height. It consists of two im- 
nense square towers, with a spacious gateway and postern in 
.the centre; the whole embattled and built of a fine red brick, 
with stone dressings. The arch of the gateway is pointed, and 
die roof beautifully groined. Above is a noble room, called 
the " Record Room," wherein the archives of the see of Can- 
terbury are deposited. » The towers are ascended by spiral 
■tone staircases, which lead to the apartments on the different 
stories, now principally occupied as store or lumber rooms. The 
exterior roof of this large building is quite flat, and, being 
leaded, serves for viewing the very extensive prospect beneath, 
iriiich, oD a fine day, is scarcely to be equalled : the whole of 
the palace and gounds in particular are seen from thence to the 
. greatest advantage. 

, ' Tha ngiMtj of tha PRrogitin-offics vu ucieDtlj in ■ ground-roam on tlio 
U k ha a d (ilia M tlie going in M tbc gu«, ud (fteiwudi m titta right-bud c^ 
th* MON gntc oppoiiM to tb* porter'^ lodge. 



QM LAMBETH PAI.ACB. 

At this gate the dole, immemorially given to the poor by the 
archbishops of Canterbury, is constantly distributed. The word 
dole ^ signifies a share, and is still occasionally used in modern 
language. In former times it was undofflood of the relief 
given to the indigent at the gates of great men. Stow, in his 
examples of housekeepin|^y lament^ the dedine pf this laudable 
custom in his day, which h^f^te had been ap general, that 
almes-dishes (into which certaia portions of meiat f^ the needy 
were carved) were to be seen at every nobleman and prelate's 
table ; and the quantities of provision thus given away were 
prodigious. Richard de Bf&tfj^ Bishop of Durham, in the 
reign of Edward III. had every weel^ ei^^t quarters of wheat 
made into bread ifor the poor, besides his alms-dishes, fragments 
of his house, and great sums of money bestowed by him in his 
joumies. West« Bishop of Ely, in 1532, daily fed two hundred 
poor people at his gates ; and the Lord Cromwell usually the 
same number. Edward, Earl of Derby, fed upwards of sixty 
aged poor, besides all comers, thrice a week, and furnished on 
Good Friday two thousand seven hundred people with meat» 
drink, and money. Others were equally liberal. 

The archbishops of Canterbury, as first in place and dignity, 
appear to have exercised this antient virtue of hospitality in a 
supereminent degree. In Archbishop Parker's regulations for 
the officers of his household, it was ordered << that there should 
be no purloining of meat left upon the tables ; but that it be 
putt into the almes tubb, and the tubb to be kepte sweete and 
cleane before it be used from time to time." But the charily 
of the prelates before that time was truly astonishing. Robert 
Winohelsey before named, during his primacy, we are informed 
by Godwin, not only maintained many poor scholars at the 
universities, but was exceeding bountiful to other persons Jn 
distress, ** insomuch," says he, " as therein I think he excelled 
all the archbishops that either were before or after him. Beside 



• It it derived from the Stacon bsl, pars, porHo, from Mao, dmdere, 
buere. Cowel. 



LAMBBTH PALACE. t97 

Ad daily fVagmenU of his house, he gare every Friday and 
Sunder unto every beggar that came to his doore, a loafe of 
breade cf a farthing price (whidb no doubt was bigger than 
oar penny loafe now) ;& and there were usually such almsday 
fai tifkie of dearth, to the number of five thousand, but in a 
I^e^tiflil fbur thousand, and seldom or never under; which 
eommunilm annis amounted unto five hundred pounds a yeere. 
Of^ and above this, he used to give every great festival day 
oho hundred and fifty pence to so many poore people, to sonde 
difly neat, drinke, and bread unto such as by reason of age 
or sickness were not able to fetch almes at his gate, and to 
Mide flioney, meate, apparell, &c. to such as he thought 
ntnMd the same, and were ashamed to beg. But of all othen 
hil was wont to take the greatest compassion upon those that 
by floiy misfortune were decaid, and had fallen from wealth to 
jidor eMate.'* 

Hie dole now given at Lambeth gate consists of fifteen quar- 
ttttk loaveif, nine stone of beef, and five shillings worth of half- 
pence. These are divided into three equal portions, and dis- 
trHnited every Sunday, Tu^day, and Thursday, among thirty 
poor parishioners of Lambeth. The beef is made into broth 
thickened with oatmeal, divided into ten equal shares, and is 
dbtrlbuted with half of one of the loavei^ a pitcher of the 
Mtktfl, and two pence, to as many poor persons, who are thus 
weekly relieved by rotation. Besides this relief, his grace of 
Ctttt^rbury distributes a considerable sum annually to poor 
li^iJMkeepers. 

On Hie aiiftual aquatic procession of the lord mayor of 
London to Westminster, the barge of the company of Statio- 
aterSy which is usually the first in the show, proceeds to Lambeth 
ftfte6 ; where they receive a present of sixteen bottles of the 
iifdibiriiop*s prime wine. This custom originated at the be- 
ginning of t3ie eighteenth century. When Archbishop Tenison 
ei^byed the see, a verytiear relation of his, who happened to be 



• Stow says it was a loaf of bread sufficient for that day. 



^8 LAMBBTH PALACE. 

master of the Stationers' company, thought it a compliment jto 
call there in full state, and in his barge : when the archbishop 
being infonHed that the number of the company within the 
barge was thirty-two, he thought that a pint of wine for each 
would not be disagreeable ; and ordered at the same time that a 
sufficient quantity of new bread and old cheese, with plenty of 
strong ale, should be given to the watermen and attendants ; 
and from that accidental circumstance it has grown into a 
settled custom. The company, in return, present to the arch- 
bishop a copy of the several almanacks which they have the 
peculiar privilege of publishing. 

We must not quit the gate-house without directing the 
stranger's notice to a small room adjoining the porter*s lodge, 
supposed to have been used anciently as a secondary prison for 
confining the overflowings of the Lollards' tower* This room 
contains three strong iron rings fastened to the wall, and which 
have evidently remained there from its first erection. It is 
guarded by a double door ; the windows are high and narrow, 
and the walls lined with stone, and of a prodigious thickness. 
An additional proof of the ancient appropriation of this room 
is, that here is the same sort of writing as in the Lollards' 
tower, cut in the wall with a knife or other sharp instrument. 
The name of ^caftant in the old English character, is perfectly- 
legible, and near it are to be seen a cross, and other figures 
rudely delineated. 

Adjoining the gateway on the right hand is a large modern 
house called the *^ New Buildings,*' first begun 16 be built by 
Ardhbishop Tillotson about the year 1699, but finished by 
Archbishop Sancrofl. 

. On one side of this is the date 1684, and the same date 
appears upon a sun-dial on the other side. The stone quoins in 
the fore front shew where the first building ended, and the 
same is plainly to be distinguished in the back fronc 

A room which juts out over the hall door is said to have 
been Archbishop Tillotson's study, from whence he had pe^ 
holes into the hall, the court, &c. with glass in them, by whidi 



LAMBISTH PALACE* 999 

iheaAs he could see every body that came in and went out of 
the palace. 

On the ancient brick wall immediately opposite this building, 
and which bounds the court-yards on the Thames side, are 
aereral devices in glazed bricks. Among them may be dis- 
cerned three or four crosses of different forms very prettily 
worked, and which seem to fix the erection of this wall prior 
to the reformation. 

PARK AND GARDENS. 

Much of the beauty of the extensive grounds belonging tc^ 
Lambeth palace is owing to the late archbishop, who, besides 
considerably^ enlarging them, made many improvements, and 
caused the whole to be laid out with great taste. ^ 

The park and gardens, before the recent additions made to 
them, were estimated at about thirteen acres ; b they pow con- 
tain at least eighteen. Of this number the kitchen garden 
occupies between three or four acres, and has been walled in at 
a great expense. This, however,, it amply repays by the quan- 
tity of fruit and vegetables it produces. 

These gardens have long been remarked for containing two 
uncommonly fine fig-trees, traditionally reported to have been 
planted by Cardinal Pole, and fixed against that part of the 
palace believed to be founded by him. They are of the white 
Marseilles sort, and still bear delicious fruit. They cover a 
surface of more than fifly feet in height and forty in breadth. 
Hie circumference of the southernmost of these trees is 
twenty-eight inches, of the other twenty-one. On the south 
side of the building, in a small private garden, is another tree 
of the same kind and age; its circumference at bottom twenty** 
dght inches. 

At a small distance from the palace stood formerly a curious 
summer-house (solarium) y built in the time of Archbishop 
Cranmer, af\er an ingenious design of his chaplain. Dr. John 

* The •nnexed view of Lain1>et1i Palace from the gwdens was taken in 1 773, 
■ad waa kindly lent me by Mr. J. B. Nichols, F.S A. 
^ See Ducarers History of Lambeth Palace. 



930 LAMBKTH PALACE. 

Ponet, «r Poyneti who had great sldil and tMte in works of 
this kind. & This was repaired by Archbishop Parker^ but 
fidling very much to decay was some time since rempved, and 
its sire is Aow not exactly known. 

llie iinall garden next the Thames was walled and embanked 
by Afehbishop Comwallis. 

Oii the first of January 17799 a dreadful stomi) supposed 
equal to that of 1703, threw down three chimnies^ unroofed? 
great part of the palace^ and destroyed seventeen large timber 
trees in these gardens. 

In .the same place, on the 86th of May i7S4, a number of 
gold coins, supposed to have been deposited here in the time of 
Ardbbishop Laud, were found by several persons who were at 
work in the gardens. They were of three different sizes, in 
number one hundred and ninety-seven, and were sold to one 
Fisher at his shop in Leicester Fields, the morning they were 
found. Fisher carried them immediately to Messrs. Floyer 
and Price, refiners, in Love-lane, Wood-street. Hie number 
whicd Fisher sold (one hundred and seventy) were in weight 
thirty-seven ounces thirteen drams, at three pounds seventeen 
shillings and sixpence, for which Floyer paid to Fisher one 
hundred and forty-five pounds seventeen shillings and ten- 
pence. Mr. Floyer told Mr. Sampson, the archbishop's princi- 
pal stewaird, that they were all coins of James L and Charles I. h 

<^ In Strype's Memorialt of ArehbUbop Cr«Dmer u a circumttantkl detail ol 
the cenmoniet used at the consecration of Dr. Ponet to the see of Rocheetefy 
June S9> 1650. Ardibuhop Cranmev collated bim in 1543 to tbe reelofy of 
Si. Michael, Crooked-lane, in London (Newcourt, Repert. Vol. 1. p. 486), iak 
'H was ^ptdbAhf hj his grace's interest tbat be obtained tbe eSgbtb stall in Giat*- 
bory cathedral. In 1547 be was requested by bis friend, Roger Asohaaf to 
present an application to tbe arcbbisbop for a license to eat flesb. Memorials, 
p. 1S7« T^e gave to King Henry tbe Eigbtb a dial of his device, sbewing aot 
only the hour of tbe day, but also tbe day of tbe month, tbe sign of the fUii; 
the planetary hour, and tbe change of the moon. But what was more to bis 
credit than being an eminent raatbematiciaij and artist was, be shewed by Uf 
works in Latin and in English, tbat be was a man of great learning, and be is 
said to have been preferred by Khig Edward tbe Sucth in regard of some ezeel* 
lent sermons he had preachy before his Majesty. Godwin de Pnesul. tSS. 

^ Two of these were afterwards on sale at a silversmith's shop opposite Lan- 



L'AMBBTH PALACE. 9S1 



REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES. 



Archbishop Anselm, in the year 1100, called a synod at 
Lambeth) to consider of the propriety of the King's marriage 
with Maudy sister of the King of Scotland ; when it was deter- 
mined, that it was legal, as the princess^ though educated in a 
religious house, was not a professed nun. ^ Divers other synods 
were held at Lambeth after it became the residence of the 
meftropolitaxL 

Anno 1S45. In 19 Edward III. John de Montfort, Duke of 
Bpttaony, did homage to the King in Lambeth Palace. ^ ^ 
■^Ii^ 1381, daring the insurrection of Wat Tyler, the rebels 
not Qolj beheaded Archbishop Sudbury, then high chancellor, 
hat a par^ plundered this palace, and burnt most of the 
gpodfy books, registers, and remembrances of Chancery. The 
author of an ancient chronicle, c speaking of the manner in 
which the mob vented their fury on this occasion, says, <' Ad 
mflmarn^ suum de Lamhith descendetUeSf libros, vestes, ntappat^ 
etplura alia inibi relida igne combusserunif dolia vino rtfsrta 
cmifiregerunt et hauserunt.** Sudbury's Register Book fortu- 
mut^y escaped the devastation, and is still at Lambeth. 

The damage? done hf this lawless banditti were repaired in 
a great measure by Arundel and Chicheley ; but much was left 
for their successors to do, as may be reasonably concluded 
finm the , sums of money expended by Morton and Warhaou 
Tb^ Ittter in particular is said to have laid out thirty thousand 
pounds (a prodigious sum in those days) in rq)airing and 
hfB|utifying the archiepiscopal palaces, of which Lambeth, 
ll^fl^ is little doub( (though not expressly mentioned }j was 
the principal. 



in tb« Strandt both with Charles !.'• motto, FloreiU Concordia 
Sm the pUtet publUhed by the Soc. Ant. Gold G>iaa, p. xiii. Not. 1, 
5,Stc 

* Eadmer, p. 57. ^ ^ Collios' Peerage. 

* MS. in Bene*t coUege library, Cambridge. This \m a continuation by John 
Bfaiveme of R. Higden*s Chronicle to 1394, beginning from 19S6, and contains 
many.curioui particulars not to be fonnd in our ancient historians yet publbhed. 



939 ' LAMBXTH- PALACE. 

King Henry VII. a few days before his coronation came 
from Kennington, and was entertained by Archbishop Bour- 
chier at Lambeth. » 

In 1513, during a visit, it is presumed, from Henry VIII. to 
Archbishop Warham at this palace, Charles Somerset was cre- 
ated Earl of Worcester. *> 

Anno 1543. Though in the instance next to be cited the* 
same prince did not enter within the walls of the palace, yet 
his benevolent visit at Lambeth bridge to Archbishop Cranmer, 
the then most reverend owner of the house, deserves to be 
noticed. The occurrence alluded to is, the king's designedly 
coming one evening in his barge, and the archbishop standing 
at the stairs to pay his duty, his majesty called him into the 
barge, in order to put him into a way to frustrate the malicious 
contrivances of Bishop Gardiner and others to accomplish his 
ruin, c 

Catherine of Arragon, upon her first arrival in England, was 
lodged with her ladies for some days in the '< Archbishop's 
inne*' at Lambeth. ' 

Queen Mary is said to have completely furnished Lambeth 
palace for the reception of Cardinal Pole at her own expense, 
'^and to have frequently honoured him with her company. 

Anno 1556 (July 91), says Strype, the queen removed from 
St. James*s in the Fields unto Eltham, passing through the park 
to Whitehall, and took her barge, crossing over to Lambeth 
unto my lord cardinal's place ; and there she took her chariot, 
and so rid through St. George's Fields to Newington, and so 
over the fields to Eltham at five o'clock in the afternoon. She 
was attended on horseback by the cardinal, &c. and a conflux 
of people to see her grace, above ten thousand. 

In the winter of the same year the queen removed from St. 
James's through the park, and took her barge to Lambeth unto 
the lord cardinal's place, and there her grace dined with him 

*^ Stow*s Annals. b Magna Britan. Autiq. et Nov. vol. vi. p. 358. 

c Strype's Memoriak of Cranmer, p. 118. ^ Stow*t Annalt. 



LAMBETH PALACS. BSf 

ind diverv of the eouncil; and after dinner she took her 
JQinmej unto Greenwich, to keep her Christmas there. * The 
iMiowing year the queen dined At Lambeth with the .Lord 
Cardinal Pole, and after dinner removed to Richmond," « and 
there her grace tarried her pleasure.'* h 

In 1558 Cardinal Pole departed this life i^t Lambeth palace» 
though his name is omitted in the list given by Dr. Ducarel of 
prdates who died there. His body lay here in state forty day«» 
wlieii it was removed to Canterbury to be interred. 
. Queen Elizabeth was a frequent visitant to Archbishop Par* 
km ; * and the confidence she reposed in that prelate, induced 
he^ to employ him in many a£^rs of great trust. On his first 
pronotion to the archiepiscopal see, she committed to him in 
fie^ custpdy the deprived Bishops Tonstal and Thirlby, the one 
bishop of Durham, the other of Ely, whom to his great credit 
he entertained most kindly. These were both learned and 
eieeUent men, who, although they conscientiously adhered to 
the old religion, were of mild and tolerant principles. Tonstal 
survived his confinement but about four months, and dying 
Nofember 18, 1559, aged eighty-three, was buried in Lambeth 
church. Thirlby was the archbishop*s guest upwards of ten 
yearS| and was buried near Bishop Tonstal. Besides the above, 
were, consigned to his keeping Dr. Boxal, late secretary to 
Qne^ Mary ; the unfortunate Earl of Essex, previous to his 
Con(jpeini?nt in the Tower ^ ^ the Earl of Southampton ;e Lord 



s Scrype's Memorials of Cnnmer, p. 310. 

^ Tbne tUHi we noticed in the Churchwardent' Accounts of the psriah. 
**\996l 1SS7 — Pejde to the ringers when the king and the qnene earae Iron 
Bmtf^oa Comn to Grenewich, in the moneth of August — 84. 

M Xp tl|t iy#gen whan the queue's grace came from Westminster to I^fmbaty 
VI te jj^QBCth of Julj — 6d. 

**To the rjngers Septr. 9< when the quene's grace came to Lambeth church 



Xliiabeth*s visits to the archbishops are noticed in a similar manner, 
c d ww hw ardene' Accounts. ^ Dagd. Baroa. vol. ii. p. ISl. 

« Ibid. p. 884. 

8 H 



2d4 LAMBBTH PALACE. 

Stourton ; Henry Howard, brother of the Duke of Norfolk;^ and 
many others. All these, by the worthy primate's munificence, 
had lodgings, says a contemporary writer, to themselves ; '* sere^ 
ral with chambers for three men, and diet for them all in those 
lodgings ; save only when they were called tothe archbishop's 
own table (when he dined, as the speech went abroad, out of 
his own private lodging three days weeklie ; and then persons 
of the degree of knights and upwards came to him) ; fewel ibir 
their fier, and candle for their chambers ; without any allow- 
ance for all this either from the queen or from themselves; 
saving at their deths he had from them some part of their 
libraries that thei had thar. Often had he others committeid 
or commended unto him from the queen or privie council, to 
be entertained by him at his charge, as well of other nations as 
home subjects ; namely, the L. . . . as a prisoner^ and after the 
L. H. Howard, brother to the duke of Norfolk. Those ever 
sat (but when thei wear with the archbishop himself) at the 
steward's table, who had provision of diett answerable to their 
callinge, and thei had also fewel to their chambers.** 

In 1571 the queen took an airing in St. George's Fields, 
previous to which she had an interview with the archbishop on 
Lambeth bridge. It appears he had in some degree, about this 
time, fallen under her displeasure by speaking freely to* her 
concerning his office. The archbishop relates this incident in 
a letter to Lady Bacon — " I will not,** writes he, "be abashed 
to say to my prince, that I think in conscience in answering to 
my charging. As this other day I was well chidden at my 
prince's hand; but with one ear I heard her hard words^ and 
with the other, and in my conscience and heart I heard God. 
And yet, her highness being never so much incensed to be 
ofiended with me, the next day coming on Lambeth bridge 
into the fields, and I according to my duty, meeting her on the 
bridge, she gave me her very good looks, and spake secretly 
in my ear, that she must needs continue mine authority before 

• Parker's Antiq. Eccles. Brit. edit. Drake, p. 559, 55a^ 



LAMBXTH PALACE. 935 

the people to the credit of my service. Whereat> divers of my 
amies dien being with me, peradventure mervailed; where 
peradventure somebody would have looked over the shoulders, 
and slily slipt away^ to have abashed me before the world." a 

The following account of her visit in 1573 is given in Arch- 
bishop Parker*s Antiquities: <<The Queen removing from 
Haaipton Court to Greenwich, visited the Archbishop at Lam- 
bedi, where she staid all night. That day was Tuesday-^— the 
next day, being Wednesday, it was usual, as it .was the season 
of Lent, diat a sermon should be preached before the Queen. 
A pulpit, was therefore placed in the quadrangle, near the 
pump, and a sermon was delivered by Dr. Pearce. The Queen 
heard it from the upper gallery that looks towards the Thames ; 
the nobility and courtiers stood in the other galleries ^ which 
formed the quadrangle. The people from below divided their 
attention between her Majesty and the preacher. When the 
sermon was over, they went to dinner. The other parts of the 
bouse being occupied by the Queen and her attendants, the 
ardibishop received his guests in the great room next to the 
gaiden below stairs. Here on the Tuesday he invited a large 
party of the inferior courtiers. In the same room, on the 
Wednesday, he made a great dinner; at his own table sat 
nine ekrb and seven barons ; besides the usual table for the 
great officers of state, where sat the Lord Treasurer, the Lord 
Admiral, the Chamberlain, and others. The whole of this 
charge was bom by the Archbishop. At four of the dock on 
the Wednesday aflemoon, the Queen and her court removed 
^ Greenwich.*' c 

Arohbishop Grindall soon fell under the Queen's displeasure, 
and it does not appear that she ever honoured him with a visit. 

Hit successor Whitgift received repeated marks of her favour. 

• Strjpe't Life of Parker, p. 968. 

^ ^ TbeM galleriet appeu to be the Mtme which now fonn the library : there it 
•till a pump in the centre of the quadrangle below. 

* Parkmr't Antiq. Eccles. Brit. edit. Drakep. 657. 



\ 



I find nd lefts ihin ^een of her viHts to tilth upon record $ she 
frequently staid Wo, Hhd sblttetiihes three days at Lambeth; * 

King Jatneshonoiired Archbishop Whitgift with man y Tfsits ; 
the last of which w^ on February 1t8, 1^04. The prelate 
then lay on his deat^-bed. The king, from his sense of the 
great need he should hare of him at that particular juncture, 
told hlin, he would pray to Qod for his life; and that, if he 
coiild obtain it, he shotlld think it one of the greatest temporal 
blessings that could be ^ven him in this kingpiom. Hie arch- 
biriiop would hare said something to the king, but his speech 
fiinled him ; and though he made two or three attempts to write 
his mind to him, he could not ; the pen falling from his hand 
ihrough the prevalence of his disease, which was paralytic, h 

Lambeth palace became the first object of popular fury 
during the civil war. Archbishop Laud had always been 
disKked by the Puritans, and was grown particularly ob- 
iloafioas, from having advised the king to dissolve the par- 
liament, e On the 9th of May 1641, a paper, said to hare 
been written by John Lilboume, was stuck up at the Old 
Change, to excite the apprentices to rise, and attack the jmlace 
of Lambeth. ^ The archbishop had notice of their intention, 
and fortified his house as well as he could. Oi^ the 11th, at 
midnight, it was beset by about 500 men, « who continued 
there two hours, but did ho other mischief than breaking a 
few windows. Whitelocke says, they set at liberty some prison- 
ersv^ Some of the ringleaders were apprehended, and one 

» W ' ■ ■ ■ I . 

* Churchwardens' Accounts, Lambeth. It •ppe«rs that the ^tieen Wm at ihk 
uichlmhop't twice in I6S4 s in 1585 ; three times in 1587 ; in 1591 1 in 1699 ; 
in 1 69S } tiriet in 1 599 1 in 1600 ; and twiee in 1609. Variont aniBa ol mamtj 
were givcli to the ringers upon these ocoasioot, from two shillings to six diiltt^ 
and eight-pence. 

b Sti7pe*s Life of Whitgift. 

c Nalson's Collections, vol. i. 

A Biogriphia BrH. article Land ; and Nalson, roU. p. 343. 

* Archbishop Laud's Diarj, pp. 57, 58.— Lord Clarendon says some tluraiailA. 
f Memorials, p. 34. 



t » 



dt tfaem Wto eic^tated for high treason. ^ The archbishop, 
irbl)^ lift was daily threatetied, removed, by the kin|^*8 desif^^ 
16 Whitehall, b A few ittonths afterwards he was cointtiittaerd 
to Ae Toweir. 

Ih the toonth of January 164^, an ordinance wad made for 
removing the arms from Lambeth-house ; c but it does not 
app^r to hav6 been executed till the August following, when 
Ci^p^Qdn Royden entered the palace, for that purpose, with 900 
f6ot iBind a troop of horse. ^ Hie ntimber of arms whidi were 
fttittd there was very ifnuch exaggerated in the parliamentaiy 
jouhials. « The archbishop, in his Diary, declares, that he had 
no other arms than those which he bought of his predecessor*^ 
executors ; and that they were not sufficient to equip 200 men. 
Re complains that the officers left only six swotds, siic car- 
bine^, three halberts, and two half pikes, to defend that gr^t 
hdtise. 

The same year, an order was made by the House of Com- 
mons, that some of their members should receive the arch- 
bishop's rents, and apply them to the use of the common- 
wealth, f On the 8th of November, Captain Brown, with a 
party of soldiers, entered Lambeth-house, to keep it fo)r the 
Parliament. tS Soon after, the House of Commons voted that 
it should be made a prison, and that Dr. Layton, or Leighlon, 
who had been severely punished by the High Commission 
court, should be appointed ^e keeper, b At first, dome of the 

• 

* Some lay he wts a tailor ; othen, a oobler j and others, a taylor. Claien- 
don't Httt. of Rebellion, vol. i. p. 287. Heath's Chron. and Whitelocke's 
HeoMirials, p. 34. In Rymer's Fcedera, (vol. zx. p« 406.) i^ a praektfnaCion 
lor apprehending John Archer, glover; George dearee, pouKefer i and WHIiam 
SellnuB, shoemaker ; the principal ringleaders. 

^ Clarendon's Hist, of the Rebellion, vol. i. p. 148. Sto. 

c Diurnal of Occurrences, Jan. 17—34, 1649. 

d Hist, of the Life and Troubles of Archbishop Land, p. 196. 

• Ctttahi Special Passages, Aug. 1ft— 4«, 1649. Perfect Diurnal, same date. 
^ Wd. Nov. 7—14. 8 Archbishop Laud's Diary, p. 96. 

^ Certain Spechl Passages, Dec. 19—99, 1649. 



S38 LAMBKTfl PALACE. 

archbishop's servants were suffered to continue there; but 
upon a petition of Doctor Leighton, stating that they made 
his prisoners unruly, they were removed. <^ The furniture was 
sold, and the wood and coal reserved for the soldiers. The 
archbishop complains, that he was not indulged with any of it 
for his own use at the Tower, b 

Amongst the prisoners confined at Lambeth-house during 
the civil wars, were the Earls of Chesterfield and Derby ; c 
Sir Thomas Armstrong, who was afterwards executed for being 
concerned in the duke of Monmouth's rebellion ; ^ Doctor 
AUestry, a celebrated divine ; « and Richard Lovelace the 
poet, f There appears to have been a great mortality among 
the prisoners here in the^iutumn of 1645, when many entries of 
them are to be found in the parish register ; among others, is 
Sir George Bunkley, who was lieutenant-governor of Oxford, 
and distinguished himself for his valour and activity at the 
siege of Basing, s 

Lambeth-house was put up to sale in 16'48, and purchased, 
with the manor, for the sum of 7073/. Os. Sd, by Thomas Scot 
and Matthew Hardy. ^ The former was secretary of state to 
the Protector, and one of the persons who sat on the trial of 
Charles I. for which he was executed at Charing-cross in 1660. 

Anno 1694 (October 3), Queen Mary honoured Archbi^op 
Tillotson with a visit, as appears from an entry in the church- 
wardens' accounts, of five shillings paid to the ringers on that 
occasion. This was only seven weeks before the archbishop's 
decease. In the preceding summer his grace had called an 

• Perfect Diunwl, Dec. 87, 1649. 

^ life MidTroubles of Archbtthop Laud, p. 198. 

c Mercurius Politicut, Sept. 8—] 5, tad Sept. 16 — 33, 1659. 

^ BiognphU Britanica. * Ibid. 

f Occurrences from foreign parti, Aug. 33 — 80, 1659* 

f A. Wood's Athen. Oxon. vol. U. Fasti. 

b CI. 34 Car. pt. 3. No. 1.. Some differences which had arisen between the 
partners who bought Lambeth-house, .^ere ordered, to be referred to ■ eomiiil- 
tee in Nov. 1S4 8. Perfect Occurrences. 



XABffBSTB PAL ACS. 9S9 

attemUj of the bishops at his palace at Lambeth, where they 
agreed upon several important regulations which were at first 
designed to be enforced by their own authority; but upon 
more mature consideration it was judged requisite that they 
diould appear under that of their majesties in the form of royal 
iiljanctions. The queen was at different times consulted by 
the archbishop concerning this business ; and it is not unlikely 
to have been a subject of their conversation in her visit to 
Lambeth-house. These injunctions were issued in the king's 
name Feb. 1 5, 1694, and are published in Wilkins's Concilia, vol. 
iv. p. G94, and also in Dr. Birch*s Life of the Archbishop. 
. In the year 1697 Christopher Clarke, afterwards Archdeacon 
of Norwich, and prebendary of the fifth stall in Ely cathedral, 
was ordained priest in Lambeth chapel ; when the ceremony 
was honoured with the presence of the Emperor Peter the 
Great, Czar of Muscovy, who happened to be then in England 
on his travels. The particulars may be found in Bentham's 
History of Ely. 

In the riots of 1780, occasioned by the inadvertent zeal of a 
body of men calling themselves The Protestant Association^ the 
palace at Lambeth narrowly escaped destruction. The first 
alarm was given on Tuesday, June 6, when a party to thie num- 
ber of five hundred or more, who had previously assembled in 
8t» George's Fields, came to the palace with drums and fifes, 
and colours flying, crying <' No popery !*' Finding the gates 
dbuty after knocking several times without obtaining any an- 
swer, they hallooed out that they should return in the evening ; 
andjparaded round the palace all that day. Upon this alarm it 
was thought necessary to apply to the Secretary at War for a 
party of soldiers for the security of the palace ; accordingly a 
party of the guards, to the amount of one hundred men^ oom« 
manded by Colonel Deacon, arrived about two o'clock that 
afternoon, when centinels were immediately placed upon the 
towers of the palace, and at every avenue thereof. The mob 
still paraded round the house, and continufed to do so the fol- 
lowing day, notwithstanding the number of the soldiers. In this 
alarming situation the late Archbisliop Cornwallis, with his lady 



t40 LAUBWrm palace. 

luid familT, were with greet diffioukypreraOed upon to quit the 
palace, whither they did not return till the disturbances were 
entirely ended. On the 7th of June the guards quitted 
Lambeth in the afternoon, and in the evening a battalion 
of the North Hants militia, under the command of Sir Richard 
Worsley, arrived. These were ordered i^way the next day, 
and were succeeded by the whole of the Northamptonshire 
militia some weeks ; and when they left the place, two compa- 
nies of foot, under the command of Captain Clements and 
Captain Nash, did duty alternately till August 11, when the 
military quitted Lambeth. During diis period there were 
aometimes two hundred, sometimes three hundred men, quar- 
tered in the palace. TTie officers were lodged in the best 
apartments, and entertained in the handsomest manner at 
the archbishop's expense, by die two chi^lains, Drs. Vyse 
and Lort, iriio did the honours of the house, and con- 
tinued their constant residence during the whole of these 
troublesome times. As to the soldiers (who were relieved 
every other day), they attended chiapel regularly morning 
and evening, and with their wives and children had their 
meals in the great ball, consisting of the best provisions of 
all kinds. Such of them as were upon duty had their allowance 
when they came off, and during the whole time were so well 
supplied with all kinds of provisions, that they always quitted 
their quarters with great concern. They slept very comfort- 
ably in the stables, coach*houses, Ac and during their stay at 
Lambeth, from June 6 to August 11, not the least complaint 
could be made of irregular behaviour in any individual, through 
die attention of the different officers who commanded them 
whilst they were here. Itie noblemen who were at Lambeth 
on this occasion were the Earls of Sussex, Radnor, and West- 
morland, and the Viscounts Compton and Althorpe. 

Lambeth-house has, at various times, proved an asylum for 
learned foreigners, who have been obliged to fly fVom die into- 
lerant sphit of their own countrymen. Here the early re- 
formers. Martyr and Bucer, found a safe retreat * ; and here 

« Gilpin's Life of Craomer, pp. 133, 134. 






LAHBKTB PAtACE. 341 

the learned Anthonio, Archbishop of Spalato, was entertained 
bj Archbishop Abbot. The celebrated Duke of Onnood, then 
IiOrd Thurles.was educated, under the care of the same prdate, 
by command of James I. The Archbishop, who thought it a 
Tet; unreasonable task imposed upon him, is said to have been 
rerj negligent of hii charge. > 

In 1776 the Palace at Lambeth was determined to be extra-' 
parochial by a suit in the Common Pleas, b 



■ CMM'tLUaofttM Duke ofOrmoud, lol. i. pp. 4, S. 

k Sn Duemri Hiieoiy, when tha Tritl U printed ti full length. 




iMUardt' Timer from the River. 



949 ARCMBEBHOPS. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Historical and Biographical Notices ^the Arckbiskops of 

Canterbury, 

In compiling these notices of the Archbishops of Canter- 
bury, among whom may be counted some of the most pious and 
exemplary divines that have ever appeared either in England 
or on the Continent, and among whom the names of Augus- 
tine, Becket, Stigand, Cranmer, Parker, SancrofT, and several 
others, must always be mencioued with reverence, and whose 
lives would fill volumes, the Author regretted that he could 
not do justice to them inr the confined space of a topographi- 
cal work like the present ; he has therefore compiled, with great 
care, the following historical notices^ and hopes it will prove 
satisfactory to the general reader* 

Augustine, h Consecrated 59S ; buried ^ near the church of 

St. Peter and St. Paul in the Monairtery of St. Augustine, 

Canterbury. 
Lawrence, c Consecrated 611 ; died Feb. 9, (il9; buried in 

the Monastery of St. Augustine, Canterbury. ' 
Mellitus. (1 Consecrated 619; died of the gout April 95, 

694 ; buried in St. Augustine's Monastery, Canterbury. 
Justus. « Translated from Rochester ; consecrated 694 ; died 



* He WM a monk, some mj prior, of St. Andrew at Rome, and was brought 
up under Gregory the Great. 

^ The Uroe of his death is not ascertained. 

c A native of Rome, and fellow-priest with Augustine. 

^ A Roman, of noble extraction and of singular merit. He received letters 
from Pope Bonifi^e for regulating the English church. 

« A wise and just prelate. 



AftCHBISHOFS. Stf 

Nov. lO, 633; buried in St. Augustiiie*i Monastery, Gao- 

terbury. 
HoMORius. f Consecrated 635 ; died Nov. SO, 6&3 ; buried in 

St. Augustine's Abbey-church, Canterbury. 

[The See vacant one year six months.] 
Dkusdsdit. ff Consecrated March S5, 655 ; died July 14, 644; 

buried in St. Augustine's Abbey-church, Canterbury. 
DAMiANUS.h Consecrated 668; died at Rome; and Juried 

there. 

[The See vacant eight years and three months.] 
Theodorus. < Consecrated May 26, 668; died Sept. 80, 6M; 

buried in St. Augustine's Abbey-church, Canterbury. 
Brichtwald. k Consecrated June 30, 693; died Jan. 9, 731; 

buried in St. Augustine's Abbey-church, Canterbury. 
TAtwiNB. 1 Consecrated June 10, 731 ; died Aug. 1, 734 ; bu- 
ried in the Abbey-church of St. Augustine, Canterbury. 
NoTHELMus.m Consecrated 735 ; died Oct 16, 741 ; buried 

in the Abbey-church of St. Augustine, Canterbury. 
CuTHBRRT. n Translated from Hereford; consecrated 741; 

died Oct. 85, 758 ; buried in the Abbey-church at Canter« 

bury. 



' A Romui by birth, and scholar to Gregory tba Great. He Is laid to have 
divided his province into psrisbes. 

% He was a prelate of great virtue and learning, and was thence named h. Dm 
4aku; being likewise the first Englbh prelate. 

^ A South Saxon i died of the plague. 

^ He was a Greek, bom at Tarsus in Cilicia ; a man of counge, learning, and 
good tense. 

^ An Englishman, abbot of Reculver. 

1 A Mercian bom ; a monk of Boardaey Monastery. He wrote two books ; 
one of poems, and one of enigma*. " 

"* A native of London, and a person of very great learning. He was of great 
service to the venerable Bede in furnishing him with such materiaU for hie his- 
toiy as related to Augustine's mission, and the conversion of Kent. He wpote 
a book called the Life of St. Augustiue. 

n He was an Englishman, aud of noble extraction. He was Abbol of St. 
Mary at Linnings. 



944 ARCHBISHOPS. . 

Brsowtn.o Consecrated Sept. 29> 759 ; died Aug. ^ 76^; 

buried in the Abbey-church, Caiiterbury. 
Lambrith.p Consecrated 763 ; died Aug. ll, 790; buried ia 

the Chapter-house of St. Augustine, Canterbury. 
Athelard. h Translated from Winchester ; consecrated July 

Sly 793 ; died May 12, 803 ; buried in the Chapel of St. John 

the Baptist in the Abbey-church of Canterbury. 
WiLSRBD. ' Consecrated 804 ; died March 23, 8^9; buried in 

the Abbey-church of Canterbury. 
Fbolgbldus. Consecrated June 27 f 899 ; died Aug. 28, 829 ; 

buried in the Abbey-church of Canterbury. 
Cbolnoth.* Consecrated Aug. 26, 830 ; died Feb. 4, 870 ; bu- 
ried in the Abbey-church, of Canterbury. 
Athbldrbd. t Translated from Winchester ; consecrated June 

7, 879 ; died June 30, 889 ; buried in the Abbey-church of 

Canterbury. 

[The See vacant two years.] 
Plbomund. tt Consecrated 891 ; died Aug. 2, 923 ; buried in 

the Abbey-church of Canterbury. 
Atrblmus. Translated from Wells ; consecrated 924 ; died 

Feb. 12> 934 ; buried in the Abbey-church of Canterbury. 
WuLFHELM. X Translated from Wells ; consecrated 935 ; died 

941 ; buried in the Abbey-church of Canterbury. 



o A man of great modesty and piety. Of the miiaeles wrought at his tonb 
much may be read in his life, written by Osbem, a monk of Gmterburj. 

P Abbot of St. Augustine. 

<1 Formerly a monk in the convent of Canterbivy ; one of the most fowmfimrfi 
prelates that ever filled this see. 

' Formerly a monk in the convent of Canterbury. 

> He purchased the villsge of Chert, and gave it to liis church, a bene&ctMNi 
much extolled by the monkish historians. 

* A monk of the convent of Canterbury. 

« A nattve of Mereia, and a prelate of great piety and learning. In his youth 
he sequestered himself from the world, and led an liermit's life, in a retired pari 
ef the county of Chester. 

' A man of great piety and learniog. 



ARGBBISBOPS. S4d 

ODO.'y Translated from Winchester ; Gbnsecrafted 941 ; died 
July 4f 958 ; buried in the Abbey-church of Canterbury. 

El8ine.s Translated from Winchester ; consecrated 968 ; died 
959 ; buried in Winchester Cathedral. 

Brithelm.a Translated from Wells; died 973; buried in 
Wells Cathedral. 

DuNSTAN. h Translated from London; consecrated 960; died 
May 18, 988 ; buried in the Abbey-church of Canterbury. 

^THALGAR. c Translated from Selsey, now Chichester i con- 
secrated 988 ; died Dec. 3, 989 ; buried in the Abbey-church 
of Canterbury. 

JLiRicius^d Translated from Winchester; consecrated 989; 
died Oct. 279 994 ; buried in the Abbey-church 6f Canterbury. 

Aluric. « Translated from Winchester ; consecrated 996 ; died 
Nov. 17, 1006 3 buried in the Abbey-church of Canterbury. 

Alfhege. f Translated from Winchester ; consecrated 1006 ; 
died April 20» 1012; buried in St« Paul's, London ; afterwards 
taken up and buried in the Abbey-church, Canterbury. 

y He was of DanUli extraction, his parents being among those nvagers who 
eame over with Inguar and Hubha. <^t. Dunstan called him *' Odo the good." 
He was canonized after his death. 

* He was an enemj of the monks, and a prelate of very extraordinary learning. 

* I^tttle is known respecting this Archbishop. He resigned through the 
power of the monks. 

^ He was bom in the comity of Somerset, and educated at the monastery of 
Glastonbury. He had a large share of superficial holiness and austerity, with a 
coosiderable degree of cunning. On his death canomzation waa conferred on 



c He received his education in the monastery of Glaatonbuiy. 

^ Formerly Abbot of St. Augustine's in Canterbury. 

« A learned prelate. He translated great pert of the Scripture into the Staum 
tongue, of which work apart is still in the Bodleian Library. 

' Said to be bom of noble parents, in the year S54, or, aa others say, 9€8t 
but leaving them and all his inheritance when young, he applied himself to a 
nligioua life. When the Danes besieged Canterbury, they took him prisoner 
to London, and on hb refusing to purchase his ransom, they carried him to 
Greenwich, and on Sunday, 18 kaL May 101S, stoned him to death. 



M8 ARCHBISHOPS. 

LiViNd^ TransUitwl from Wells ; consecrated 1013 ; died Janfe 
19y )0^ ; buried in the Abbey-church, Canterbury. 

Ethelnoth. e Consecrated 1090; died Oct. 87» 1038 ; buried 
in Christ Church, Canterbury, before the Altar of St. Bene- 
dict. 

Eadsin. Consecrated 1038 ; died Oct. 29y 1049 ; buried in 
the Abbey-church, Canterbury. 

RoMUiT.h Translated from London; consecrated 1050; ejected 
1058 ; buried at Gemetica. 

Stioand. 1 Translated from Winchester ; consecrated 105S ; 
deposed 1070 ; buried in the Abbey-church, Winchester. 

Lanfranc. k Consecrated August 28, 1070 ; died May 37, 
1089 ; burfSed in the Chapel of the Holy Trinity in the Ab- 
bey-dburch, Canterbury. 

[The See vacant four years and a half.] 

AnsiLM.i Consecrated Dec. 4, 1093 ; died April 32, 1109 ; 
buried near the altar of St. Peter and St. Paul in the Abbey- 
church, Canterbury. 

, [The See vacant five years ] 

RoDULPH.m Translated from Rochester; consecrated 1115$ 
died Oct. 18, 1 122 ; buried in the nave of the Abbey, Can- 
terbury. 

8 Fonnerly of the monastaiy of Glastoiibiiry. 

^ A monk of the monastery of Gemetica in Nonnandy, where he resided 
vheB Edward the CooliBSSor waa iu exile in that country, and beoame one of hia 
gnatett frvonritea. 

i Okie of the boldeet and moat emment prelatea that ever filled the See of 
Canterhury. Hia first preferment was to be chaplain to King Harold ; and at 
that King's death, he refused to place the crown on the head of WaUiam after 
his invasion of Engbuad, and was ultimately degraded, through his and the monks' 
means, of whom he waa always an enemy. 

^ He was an Italian, bom in Lombardy, and Abbot of Caen in Normandy. 
He wrote several works, induding a Life of William the Conqueror, a Commen- 
taiy on the Psalms, See. His chari^ waa boundleaa. 

& A aativu of Fiedmont, and Abbot of Bee m Norauuidy. On hia deata he 
wua oanoaiaed. 

>n He waa a man of great piety and leamiog. 



ABCtLBisnovn. M7 

William Corboil. n Consecrated Feb. 19, 1 123 ; died Dec. 
19> 1136; buried in the north cross aisle of the Abbey, 
Canterbury, 

[The See racant two years.] 
Theobald, o Consecrated Jan. 8, 1 139 ; died April 19, 1161 ; 
buried in the Abbey-church, Canterbury. 

[The See vacant one year.] 

Thomas Becket.P Consecrated June 4^ 1169; murdered 

Dec. 39y 1170; buried in the Abbey-churdi, Canterbury* 

[TTie See vacant two years five months.] 

Richard, q Consecrated 1174; died Feb. 19, 1184; buried 

in the north aile of the Abbey-church, Canterbury. . 
Baldwin, r Translated from Worcester ; consecrated May IB, 

1185 ; died 1190 ; buried at Aeon in Palestine. 
Rbgikald Fitz-Joceline. s Translated from Wells; en- 
throned Nov. 27, 1191 ; died Dec. 26, 1191 ; buried in the 
AU>ey-church of Bath. 

[The See vacant two years.] 

Hubert Walter. t Consecrated Nov. 7, 1193; died July 13, 

1805; buried in the Abbey-church, Canterbury. 

[The See vacant almost two years.] 

Stephen Langton.u Consecrated June IS, 1207; died July 

■> Prior of Chiche : a weak man. 

• Abbot of Bee in Nxirmaiidy, an afEable and conrteona prelate, very charita- 
ble to the poor. 

. 9. HiB was a nan of consumfflate abliitie>> great ciinning» undannted confage, 
aad inflexible cormtancy in the prosecution of his designs. After his death he 
was canonized. 

4 A native of Normandy^ and Prior of Dover ; a prelate of mild temper^ inno- 
eeat life^ and moderate principles. 

' He accompanied Richard I. to Palestine, and died there of a flux at the 
si^ of Aeon. 

> He was elected by main force, and contrary to his own will. 

< He was made Chief Jnstioiary of England, snd afterwards Lord Chancellor. 
He built the wall and made the moat round the Tower of London. 
. * He was consecrated by Pope Innocent III. but thb by no means met with 
the King's (John*s) assent, abusing the Pope and Bishops, banishing the monVa 



\ 



348 ARCHBISHOPS. 

9, l9fiS ; buried in St. Michaers Chapel, in the Abbey-diurch, 

Canterbury. 
Richard Wethershed.x Consecrated 1230j died Aug. 3, 

1231 ; buried in the church of the Friars Minors at St. 

Gemma y. 
Edmund Rich. * lYanslated from the Chancellorship of Sa- 

rum ; consecrated April 2, 1234 ; died Nov. 17) 1240 ; buried 

at Soissji in Pontiniac. 
BoMiFACte.* Consecrated 1245; died July 18» 1270; buried 

at St. Columb in Savoy. 
RoBBRT KiLWAROBT.b Consecrated Feb. 19, 1272; buried 

at Viterbo in Italy. 
John Peckham. c Consecrated March 5> 1279 ; died Dec. 8, 

1292 ; buried in the Abbey-church, Canterbury. 
Robert Winchelset. ^ Consecrated Sept. 12, 1294; died at 

. _^ , • . . . .. 

and confiscatiug their goods. He for many jears prosecuted his opposition ; aod 
it was not till after the Pope had excommunicated, and hj sentence depoeed him, 
^iiat any reconciliation could be effected. 

> According to Dugdale's Monasticon, Magnus. He was a man of great 
learning and piety. Having a dispute with Hubert de Buigh, Earl of Kent, he 
went to Rome for the decision of the Pope, and on his return «ras taken iO at 
St. Gemma, and died, not without suspicion of be'mg poisoned. 

y The Keunet MS. quoted by Le Neve, says he was buried in Canterbury 
Cathedral. 

' Six years after his death he was canonized in the Council of Lyons, and his 
body enshrined with great po^np by King Lewis of France. 

A By his pride, exactions, and oppressions, he rendered himself so obnoxious 
to the English, that he was obliged to return to his own country, and died in 
the castle of St. Helena, Savoy. 

b About 1278 Pope Nich«4a8 III. made him Cardinal Bishop of Portna, in- 
ferior to Canterbury in wealth and superior in dignity, but he, preferring the 
latter, resigned the Archbishoprick. 

c He was a great benefactor to his church, and behaved himself to his clergy 
with great mildness ; in one respect only he is stated to have been severe— to- 
fhffds those who held pluralities, or were non-residents. 

^ He relieved about 8,000 poor twice a week, and was certainly, if we may 
believe the monkish historians, the most munificent prelate that ever presided 
over the See. 



ABCHBISHOP8. 940 

«t Oiford May ll» 1313 ; buried in the south cross of thd 
Abbej-church, Canterbury. 

Walter Reynold, e Translated from Worcester; conse- 
crated Feb. 18, 1314 ; died at Mortlake Nov. 18, 1337 ; bu- 
ried in the Abbey*church, Canterbury. 

Simon Mepham. f Consecrated Jan. 19, 1398 ; died Oct. 1% 
1333 ; buried in the chapel of St. Anselm, in the Abbey- 
diurch, Canterbury. 

John Stratford.? Consecrated Oct. 9, 1334 ; died at Maiys- 

- field 134S ; buried in the south cross of the Abbey-churdi^ 
Canterbury. 

John de Offord. h Died 1349, at Tottenham ; buried In the 
Abbey-church, Canterbury. 

Thomas Bradwardyn. ^ Consecrated July 19, 1349 ; died 
at Lambeth Aug. 25, 1349 ; buried in the chapel of St. An- 
sdm, in the Abbey-church, Canterbury. 

StMOV IsLip. ^ Consecrated Dec. 20, 1349 ; died April *i7, 
1366 ; buried in the nave of the Abbey-church, Canter- 
bury. 

SiMov Langham. I Translated from Ely ; consecrated Nov. 
4, 1366 ; resigned Nov. 28, 1368 ; buried in Westminster 
Abbey. 

William Wittlesey. m Translated from Worcester ; conse- 
crated Oct. 11, 1368; died June 6, 1374; buried in the 
Abbey-church, Canterbury. 

* He it said to have died of a broken heart, upon being threatened by, the Pope 
for consecrating, at the Queen's request, James Barley, Bishop of Exeter. 

' A native of Mepham in Kent, whence he took his name, and where he 
foinded a church for the use of the poor, 
f Thrice appointed Chancellor of England. He is much fiuned for his charity, 
h He died before consecration. 

* He was esteemed the most able divine of the age in which he lived. 

k So called from the place of his birth, ia Oxfordshire. He founded Canter- 
bury Hall, now part of Christ Church in Oxford. 

1 He was made Cardinal in 1368, when he gave up the See of Canterbury. 
"> Nephew to Abp. Islip, and a native of Huntingdonshire. 

2 K 



KO ARCHBISHOPS. 

Simon ds Suoburt. • Translated from London ; conseenHed 
April 6, 1376; beheaded June 15, 1381 ; buried in the Abbey- 
chorch, Canterbury. 

William Courtney, o Translated from London ; consecrated 
May 5, 1382; died July 31, 1396; buried in the chapel of 
.the Holy Trinity, in the Abbey-church, Canterbury, p 

Thomas .\RUNDELL.q Translated from York ; consecrated Feb. 
19» 1397; died Feb. 92, 1413 ; buried in the Abbey-church, 
Canterbury. 

Hekry CHiCHBLSY.r Translated from St. David's; conse- 
crated July 19, 1414; died April 12, 1443; buried in the 
Abbey-church, Canterbury. 

John Stafford. • Translated from Wells ; consecrated Aug* 
23, 1443 ; died May 24, 1452 ; buried in the Abbey-church, 
Canterbury. 

John Kbmpe. t Translated from York ; consecrated Dec II, 
1452; died March 21, 1454; buried in the Abbey-church, 
Canterbury. 

Thomas Bourchier. u Translated from Ely; consecrated 

^ Beheaded on Tower-hill, in the disturbances of Jack Straw and Wat Tyler. 

o Son of Hugh Earl of Devon and Margaret grand-daughter of Edward 1. 

P This prelate has a monument at Maidstone, where it is believed he was ac- 
tually mterred, agreeable to his wish in a codicil to his will. 

4 He was second son of Richard Fltzalan Earl of Arundell, first Ardideacon 
of Taunton, afterwards Bishop of Ely, then Archbuhop of York, was tnns- 
lated to the Metropolitan See. Upon a charge of high treason all his goods 
were confiscated, and he was banished the kingdom. Upon the deposition of Ri- 
efaard II. however, he returned and crowned Henry IV. 

' An excellent and charitable prelate. He founded and endowed a collegiate 
church and an hospital at Higham Ferrars, the place of his nativity. He like- 
wise built two colleges at Oxford, viz. Bernard's College, dissolved by Heaiy 
VlII. and afterwards restored by Sir T. White, and now called St. John's Col- 
lege, and All Souls College. 

• Son of Sir Humphrey Stafford, of Hook, in the county of Dorset. He 
wail Keeper of the Privy Seal to King He^ry V. 

t Bom at Wye, in Kent, where he founded a college of secular priests. 

« Son of William Earl of Eue and the Countess of Suffolk. He was ont of 
tht first causers of the introductioa of printiag in this country. 






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ARCHBISHOPS. S51 

r Jan. ^, 1455 ; died March 29, 1486 ; buried in the Abbey- 
church, Canterbury. 

John Morton. x Translated from Ely; consecrated Dec. 9r 
14S6; died Sept. 15, 1500; buried in the Abbey-church, 
Cabterbury. 

H&NRY DEANE^or Deny./ Translated from Salisbury ; con- 
secrated .. .. ; died Feb. 15, 1503 ; buried in the Abbey- 
church, Canterbury. 

William Warham. z Translated from London ; consecrated 
March 9, 1504; died Aug. 23, 1532; buried in the Abbey- 
church, Canterbury. 

Thomas Cranmer. • Translated from London ; consecrated 
March 30, 1533 ; burnt March 21, 1555. 

Reginald Pole, b Translated from London ; consecrated 
March 22, 1555; died Nov. 17, 1558; buried in Canterbury 
Cathedral. 

Matthew Parker, c Translated from London ; consecrated 
Dec. 17, 1559; died May 15, 1575 ; buried in the Chapel of 
Lambeth Palace. 

* A great favourite of Henry VIII. mod a learned and amiable prelate. 

f SocceMiYely made Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, Chief Jutticiarj 
of Ifdand, and Lord Chancellor of England. 

> Bom at Okeley, in the coun^ of Hants. He expended upwards of thirty 
thcNMand pounds in the repairs of the diiTierent archiepiscopal residences. He 
was an especial patron and friend of Erasmus, who has given him a very high 
character. 

* He was bom at Aslacton in Northamptonshire, and was appointed Arch- 
bishop in return for the services he had rendered Henry VIH. in the delicate 
aAib of his divorce. He was bnmt before Bdiol College gate, Oxford. 

^ Bom in Suffordshire, son of Sir Richard Pole, Lord Montague, by Marga- 
ret Plantage^et, daughter of George Duke of Clarence. He was edacated at 
Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. He was a prelate of great learning; and ha 
manity. 

« Bom at Norwich, edacated at Bene*t College, Cambridge. He was a great 
encourager of learning, and published Matthew Paris, Matthew Westminster, 
and Asser Mejievensis. 



, X 



252 ARCHBISHOPS. 

Edmund Grimdal. <i Translated from York ; consecrated 

Feb. 15, 1575 ; died July 6, 1583 ; buried in Croydon church. 
John Whitgift. « Translated from Worcester ; consecrated 

Oct. ^, 1583 ; died Feb. S9, 1603 ; buried in Croydon 

church. 
Richard Bancroft. ^ Translated from London; consecrated 

Dec. 10, 1604; died Nov. 9, 1610; buried in Lambeth church. 
George Abbot, s Translated from London ; consecrated 

May 4, 1611 ; died August 4, 1633; buried in Guildford 

xhurch. 
William Laud. b Translated from London; consecrated 

Sept. 19, 1633 ; beheaded Jan. 10, 1644 ; buried in the 

church of Allhallows Barking, London. 

[The See was vacant sixteen years and nine months.] 
William Juxon. i Translated from London; consecrated 

Sept. 20, 1660; died June 4, 1663, aged 81 ; buried in St. 

John's College, Oxford. 
Gilbert Sheldon. ^ Translated from London ; consecrated 

August 31, 1663; died Nov. 9, 1677; buried in Croydon 

church. 



^ Bom at Bees, in Cumberland, educated at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, H« 
was • verv grave, mild, cbaritable man. • 

* Bom at Ghreat Ghrimiby in Lincolnshire ; educated at Peter Houae, Canbridlge* 

' See page IIS. 

8 Born at Guildford, in Surrey ; educated at Baliol College, Oxford. H» wtB 
a prelatd of great learning, and a good orator* 

^ Bom at Reading, in Berluhire ; educated at St. John's College, Oxford : • 
bold and wise prelate, but he could not stand against the storm that shook Eng- 
land at this tim*. 

i Ha was bom »t Chichester, in the coun^ of Sussex, and educated ai Mar* 
ch»n( Taylors' achoo], thence removed to Oxford, where he was^ fellow of Su 
John's College. 

1^ Bora at Stanton, b Staffordshire ; educated at All Souls College, Oxford. 
He was a prelate of great wisdom and integrity, and very generous and charit»- 
hie. His monument in Croydon church is unequalled for fine workmanship. 



ARCHBISHOPS. S53 

William Sancroft.1 Translated from London; consecrated 

Jan. 27, 1678; resigned Feb. I, 1690; died Nov. ^, 1693, 

aged 77 ; buried in Fresingfield church. 
John Tillotson. m Translated from London; consecrated 

May 31, 1691 ; died Nov. 22, 1694; buried in the church of 

St. Lawrence Jewry, London. 
Thomas Tenison. n Translated from Lincoln ; consecrated 

May 16, 1695; died Dec. 14, 1715; buried ia Lambeth 

church. 
William Wake. o Translated from Lincoln; consecrated 

1715 ; died Jan 24, 1737 ; buried in Croydon church. 
John Potter, p Translated from Oxford; consecrated 1737; 

died June 17> 1759; buried in Croydon church. 
Thomas Herring, q Translated from York ; consecrated 

1747 ; died March 13, 1757 ; buried in Croydon church. 
Matthew Hutton. r Translated from York ; consecrated 

1757 ; died March 19, 1758 ; buried in Lambeth church. 
Thomas Sscker. s Translated from Oxford ; consecrated 

1758 ; died Aug. 3, 1768 ; buried in Lambeth church. 
Frederick Cornwallis. t Translated from Lichfield ; con- 
secrated 1768 ; died March 19, 1783 ; buried in I^mbeth 

church. 

' Bom at Fresingfield, in Suffolk ; educated at £manuel College, Cambrid^. 
He was an excellent good man ; but not complying with the Revolution, he 
resigned, and retired to bis native place, where he died. 

>B Bom atSowerby, iu Yorkshire. He was educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge. 
His Sermons will always be held in the highest estimation. 

n See p. 114. 

o Bore at Blandford, in Dorsetshire ; educated at Christ Church College, 
Oxford. He was a man of a pacific and benevolent spirit. He is said to have 
expended about 1 1 ,000/. in the repairs of the two palaces of Lambeth and 
Croydon. 

P Born at Wakefield, in Yorkshire ; educated at University College, Oxford. 
He was a prelate of distinguished piety and learning. 

4 Bom at Walsoken, in Norfolk ; educated at Jesus College, Cambridge ; a 
prelate of great natural and acquired abilities, and very cluritable. 

r See p. IDS. * See p. 139. < See p. 109. 



964 ARCHBISHOPS. » 

John Moorb. « Translated from Bangor ; consecrated April 
26, 1783; died at Lambeth Palace Jan. 18, 1S05, aged 74 ; 
buried in Lambeth church. 

Charlbs Mannbrs Sutton. Translated from Norwich; 
consecrated Feb. 98, 1805. 



V Thii unUblc preUte wm born In the city of Gloucester. Ht wm educated 
•t Chritt'e CoHege, Oxford. He married Mies Eden, a celebrated beauty, eister 
of Sir John Eden and Lord Auckland. 




O-i-i' 




"^^ 



MANOR or KSNNINGTON. V$ 



CHAPTER VIU. 

ilistancal Account of the Manors of Kennington^ VauxhaUp and 

Stochoell. 

MANOR OF KSNNINGTON. 

In Brixistan Hundred. 
Tro'dric, the goldsmithy holds of the king Chenintune. He 
held it of King Edward. Then it was taxed for five hides, now 
for one hide and three virgates. & The arable land consists of 
Wo eanicates and a half. In demesne there is one carucate 
and one Tillan^^and one bordar with two eanicates. There 
is one villan in gross and four acres of meadow. It was worth 
and is worth, 3/. ^ 

At this plaoe there was a royal mansion, in which the kings 
used frequently to reside. It was probably the place where 
Hardicanute died in 1041, at the feast as before mentioned 
Harold, son of Earl Godwin, who seized the crown afler the 
death of the Confessor, is said to have placed it on his own head 
at Lambeth, which doubtless meant at this place, c 

King Richard I. in his first year^ 1189> granted to Sir 
Robert Percy, the custody^ of all his demesne lands in this 
manor, with a bam and other easements without t^e pale there, 
conies, rents, perquisites of courts, and all other profits, during 
his life, paying to the king 20 marcs a year, and the office of 
steward of the lordship of Kennington, and the keeping the 
manor (manor-house) there, conies and garden during his lifb ; 
for which office of steward he was to have the accustomed 
wages, and for the office of keeper, 4d. a day, to be allowed out 
of the 20 marcs to be paid by him to the King. * 

* A virgAte generally contained twenty-four acrei, but it varied coniiderablj 
in varioot parts of the coantry. 

^ Dometday, tab. xiii. < Angl. Sacr. vol. i. 659* 

' Harl. MSS. 433, f. 63. 



tS6 MANOR OF KBNKINOTOir* 

In the 43d Hen. III. the custody of this manor was granted 
by the King to Richard de Freemantell. a 

King Edward I. was at Kennington Aug. 14, 1299> when he 
attested a writing which was to be sent to Ireland, containing a 
copy -of the statute de Malefactoribus in Parcis, which bad 
been passed in the 21st year of his reign, 1293. The note re- 
cording this circumstance is indorsed on the roll. ^ 

John Earl of Surry died here in 1304. c 

This is amongst the manors conveyed by John Plantagenet, 
Barl of Warren and Surrey, son to the last named Earl, to King 
Edward II. anno 9, 1316 ; in which year a commission under the 
privy seal was issued to John de Foxlee, Baron of the Exchequer, 
to survey the defects of this manor ;(i and which was re-conveyed 
by htm to the Earl ; e but, in the same year, the latter again 
(Conveyed it to the King.f Probably he held the manor for 
life, or he might have been keeper of the palace for the 
crown. Two years after, anno 11, 1318, the King granted it 
to Anthony Pessaigne de Janua and hia heirs, in exchange 
for premises in London; 9 but by some means it soon re- 
verted to the crown, either by exchange, forfeiture^ or 
escheat; for in the next year, anno 12, 1319> the King granted 
it, with Fauxhall, to Roger Damorie and Elizabeth his wife, 
f^ister and coheir of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of (iloucester, and 
niece to the king, and the heirs of the body of Roger ; H and in 
the next year he had a confirmation of it. i From the 1 1th to 
the 14th of that king inclusive, he had summons to parliament 
jSmongst the barons. In the parliament held in the 14th year 
of the king, 1321, he took part with the lords who had entered 
into a confederacy for removing the Spencers from the court ; 
and in the year following with Thomas Earl of Lancaatier. la 



« Pat. 43 Heo. III. m. 9. 

^ Barrington't « Observations on the Ancient Statatet," p. 145. 

c Gough't Sepulchral Monuments, vol. i. p. 80. 

<* Madox't Exchequer, p. 691. « Pat. 9 Edw. II. p. 2. m. 7. 

f Claut. 9 Edw. II. m. 24, dorso. g Pat. 1 1 Edw. II. p. I. m. 19. 

*» Pat. 12 Edw. II. p. 1. m. 11. > Pat. 13 Edw. II. p. <.m.87. 



MANOR OF KBNNINOTON. 



957 



liie last mentioned year he died at Tutbury Castle, whereupon 
command was given to seize his estates as a rebel, but to deliver 
them to Elizabeth de Burgh, as she was called his widow, a 

1, John De=pElizabeth, eldest daugh. of=p2. Theo-=Tp3. Roger 
Burgh, Gilbert de Clare, Earl of bald De Damo- 
Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, Verdon, rie. 
Ulster. by Joan de Acres, dau. of Lord 

King Edw. I. sister and Verdon. 
one of the coheirs of Gil- 
bert Earl of Gloucester, 
who died 1314, s.p.s. ; she 
was aged 90 in the 8th of 
Edw. II. 



John Lord Bardolph.=y:£lizabeth, daugh. and Isabella-Mar. 

I heir. garet. 

William Lord Bardolph,=Agnes, daugh. of Michael Poynings^ 
died 9 Rich. IL died 4 Hen. IV. 

Thomas Lord Bardolph, attainted==Ann, dau. of Ralph Lord 
5 Hen. IV. ; died 9 Hen. IV. Cromwell ; died 9 Hen.V. 

I ■ r 

Ann, wife, 1st, of Sir William Joan, 2d dau. and coheir, wife of 

Clifford; ^d. Sir Reginald William Phelip, who died 6 

Cobham; died s. p. 39 Hen. June, 19 Hen. VI.; she died 

VL 95Hen.VL J^ 

It seems, however, as if the manors of Kennington and 
Faukshall were not restored to Elizabeth ; for, afler the death 
of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, when the Spencers regained 
their power, and Hugh the father was created Earl of Win- 
chester, viz. on iOth May, 15 Edw. II. 1399, the king, gave him 
the manor of Kennington, late belonging to Roger Damorie, for 
his life, with remainder to Hugh the son, and his heirs ; b and 
in his 19th year, 1396, they had a grant of the manor of 
Faukeshall. c But on the death of the Spencers, in the 90th 
year of the king, 1397, it seems that Elizabeth de Burgh reco- 
vered these manors; for, 11 Edw. III. 1338, she conveyed 

» Pat. 1 Heu. IV. p. 7. m. 99, by intpexinms ad CUus. 16 Edw. II. m. 93. 
^ Cart. 15 Edw. II. n. 15. Dugd. Bar. i. 891. 
c Cart. 17 Edw. II. n. Id. Pugd. Bar. i. 391. 

9 L 



958 MANOR OV KENNINGTON. 

them to the king for the term of her life, in exchange for thote 
of nketshall and Clopton in Suffolk, & and ^Os. rent which Jc^n 
de Seckfprd paid yearly for his life for the manor of Clopton, and 
40s* rent from Waltham Abbey. And John Bardolph and Eliza- 
beth his wife, daughter of Elizabeth de Burgh, released to the 
king their right in these manors, b 

In the same year Hugh le Despenser late Earl of Win- 
chester, his son Hugh, Nicholas de Sudjmgton, William de 
Saundeford, and John Hasselegh, took Elizabeth Comyn, then 
wife of Richard Talbot, at Kennington, and imprisoned her 
there for some time ; then carried her as a prisoner to 
Woking, and from Woking to Purbright, and there kept her 
in prison for a year and more, till they had compelled her, 
under the threat of death, to convey to Earl Hugh her manor 
of Painswick in the county of Gloucester, and to Hugh the son 
the castle and manor of Goderich in the marches of Wales. ^ 

In the next year, 1339, the king was here in July and 
October. ** 

Edward III. in his 2nd year, 13299 purchased of Ro^rt 
Eglesfield the manor de la Hida de Laleham (in Middlesex), 
with all his other lands there and in Litlington ( Littleton ), 
and Stanes in the same county, in order to augment this 
manor of Kennington; and, in exchange, he gave him the 
hamlet of Ravenwich in Cumberland. 

In 1370 Edw. III. granted the custody of this manor and 
park to Helminge Legette for life. « 

Edward the Black Prince resided here, and it is supposed 
that King Edward III. granted this manor to him ; many of 
his acts being dated from Kennington. 

After his death 1377 it came to his son Richard (afterwards 
King Richard II.), who resided here with his mother at the 
time of the death of King Edward III. and ascended the throne 



a Pat. 1 1 £dv m. p. 9. m. 9. or 90. *> CUas. I £dir. III. p. 9. m. 90. 
c Laosdowne MSS. Br. Mus. Le Neve, fol. 40. 
<> Rymer't Foedera, vol. v. 131. 197. 9u0. 
• PaC. 4S Edw. III. p. 1 . m. 33. 



UANOa OF KEHNIHOTOM. 259 

June 83, 1377> >d which year John of Gaunt, Duke of Lan- 
cMter, came to them for shelter ftom the fury of the citizena 
i^London, who threatened hia life, la consequence of an inault 
which be bad offered to their Bishop at a meeting in Sl Paul's 
diurch, at which John Wicliff the reformer was summoned to 
Mtesd, and was protected by the duke and Sir Henry Percy, 
fi>r whom the duke had procured the marshal's staff. The 
citizens went to the Savoy to look for them ; hut they dined 
that day with John of Ipre, where they had notice of their 
dftnger, and getting into a boat crossed the Thames, and went 
to the princess at Kennington, by whose intercession all dif- 
ferences between the duke and the citizens of London were 
afterwards amicably adjusted. ■ 

BLing Henry IV. was here when the bishops and clergy 
made their complaints to him against Sir John Oldcastle and 
the Lollards.^ 

Tlie same king, in his 10th year, gave the manor, place, and 
a^urtenances to Sir John Stanley, ' probably for life only. 

It appears, by a record in the Augmenta^on Office, that in 
6 Henry V. Thomas fiurcester was the keeper {cuitai) of the 
manw of Kcnyngton, and of the garden and rabbit-warren 
there, and received for his wages from the prince 4d. per diemi 
and in 1430 he granted the same office to Adam Egeley, which 
office Is still kept up by the name of the steward of the manor. 

King Aenry VI. was here in June 1437 and May 1439. ^J 

King James I. ifi his Sth year settled the manors of Ken- 
nington and Vauxhall) with a messuage in Lambeth and New- 
ington, on Henry Prince of Wales ; and on his death, in 1613, 
on Prince Qiarles, and they have ever since been part of the 
eetate of the Princes of Wales as Dukes of Cornwall. 

A surrey was made of this manor in 1615) when the whole 

» Stov, 973, 974. ■> Bp. Winchnter'i Reg. Beiafbrt 1. 44.b. 

' CoUiu't Peer^c, Tol. ii. I4S, or342. 
* R]rmer'>Fixt<.vul.x. 670. 714.73- 



I 






960 MANOR OF KENNINGTON. 

was said to contain 122 acres, 8 thereof being a rabbit warren, 
let at 71^* Bs. Ad. a year; and the Prince's Meadow 39 acres 
and a half at 61/. 13«. 4d, a year. & 

In 1617 a lease was granted by the Prince to Sir Noel Caron, 
Knt* of the site and demesnes of his highnesses manor of Ken- 
nington, and all houses, buildings, &c. containing 122 acres, 
for 21 years, from Michaelmas 1616, at the yearly rent of 
16/. \0$. 9d, At the same time the Prince held a certain part 
of it as above stated. 

In 1624 Prince Charles granted to Francis Lord Cottington, 
his secretary, a lease for 18 years, to commence from 1637, 
when that to Sir Noel Caron would expire, of his manor 
house and demesne lands within the manor of Kennington ; and 
afterwards ^ further lease for three years ; and it was sold by 
order of parliament in 1649, Richard Graves, Esq. of Lincoln's 
Inn, being the purchaser. 

In 1626 another survey was made, and about the same time 
the gardens and site of the palace were let for the first time. 
It was then a stone building 231 feet long, and 156 feet deep, 
as appears from an old plan in the possession of J. Middleton, 
£sq. the present bailiff of the manor ; an engraving of which 
is here given. 

In 1649 a commission was issued for sale of the late king's 
and prince's lands, when the demesnes were stated at 1 15 acres> 
2 roods, 8 perches, valued at 307/* 7s. 6d. a year, and the 
Prince's Meadow, stated at 25f acres, 113/. J2^. 6</. a year. It 
was sold in 1650 as crown property, and was purchased by 
William Scott, of Little Marlow. 

On the restoration the king took possession, and on 26th 
January, 1661, demised to Henry Lord Moore, afterwards 
Earl of Drogheda, the capital messuage of this manor, and 
lands parcel thereof, and of the Duchy of Cornwall, and the 
capital messuage called Fauxhall, for 31 years, at the rent of 



' * Nichols*! Lftxnbeth, p. 94. 



MANOR OF KBNNINGTON. ^61 

150/. but with power to resume Fauxhall, making a proportion- 
able allowance of rent. The king did resume Fauxhall, and 
granted a new lease of the residue at a rent of 100^. a 

On the 18 July^ 17479 a lease was granted for 31 years to 
William Clayton, Esq. of Harleyford, Bucks (brother of Sir 
Kenrick Clayton, of Marden in tlie county of Surrey) ; of the 
capital messuage of the manor of Kennington, the great bam, 
and 8 acres adjoining ; the brick field 4 acres ; other land 14 
acres ; other land 20 acres ; 6 cottages of the butts ; 40 acres 
near Kennington Common, under the rent of 16/. iOs. 9^.; the 
capital messuage called Vauxhall is excepted* 21 September 
1765 a lease was granted to Mr. Clayton for 18 years from the 
expiration of the former, making the term then to come 31 
years. In 1776 an act of parliament was passed, in which the 
above-mentioned leases are recited ; and that, in order to en- 
able Mr. Clayton to let the ground on building-leases^ he had 
applied to the Lords of the Treasury to accept a surrender of 
his then subsisting leases, and grant him a new one for 99 years, 
determinable on three lives, which they had agreed to do. Hie 
act then enables Mr. Clayton, during his life, and the guardian 
of his infant children afler his decease, to make building and 
improving leases of these lands, and to raise money for the 
payment of fines and fees, and defraying expences. 

On the faith of this lease and act, buildings have been 
erected, producing about 2000^. a year in ground rents, h 

This lease is now the property of Mr. Clayton's son, the 
present Sir William, who succeeded to the title of Baronet 
on the death of his cousin Sir Robert Clayton. 



* Entry of warnmU tad gnnto of crown lands, hj the Earl of Sontbampton, 
IrtMiirer, in the papers of the late Thomas Astle, Esq. 
^ Manning and Bray's Hist, of Sarrey, vol. III. p. 488. 



262 MANOR OF KKNNINGTON.. 

CUSTOMS OF THE MANOR OF KENNINGTON, IN THE PARISH 
OF LAMBETH, IN THE COUNTY OF SURREY. 

Imprimis. There is a court baron kept at some known place 
within the said manor at the will of the lord thereof, and also 
a court leet kept once in every year. 

Item. The freeholders hold their land by doings their suit 
and service at the lord's court leet, and by paying their ancient 
rent ; and for want of appearance to be amerced. 

Item. The freeholders which do hold the said manor do 
usually pay to the lord thereof by way of relief. 

Item. The copyholders of the said manor hold their lands 
by doing their suit and service at their lord*s court baron, and 
by paying their ancient and accustomed rents ; and for want 
of appearance to be amerced. 

Item. That the copyholders of the said manor pay upon 
descent or alienation, when they take up their several lands 
and tenements. Fines merely arbitrable at the wiU of the 
lord. N. B. usually one year's improved rent. 

Item. That if a copyholder die, leaving two or more sons 
in life, the youngest son is heir to the father as to his copyhold. 

Item. That if a copyholder die without sons, having daugh- 
ters, the land descends to all his daughters as coheirs, and if . 
he dies without sons and daughters, having brothers, the land 
descends to the youngest brother, and if he dies without sons 
daughters or brothers, having brother's children living, t^e 
land descends to the youngest son of the youngest brother. 

Item. That a copyholder may out of court, before the 
steward or two tenants, surrender his lands to the use of his 
will, and then by this will may devise his land to whom he 
pleases. 

Item. That a copyholder may let and set his land from three 
years to three years, but no longer without license from the 
lord, which license being desired, the lord upon a small fine 
arbitrable, must grant the same for one and twenty years, 
and no longer. N. B. There are licenses granted by the pre- 
sent steward for 99 years. 



MANOR OF VAUXHALL. 263 

Item. That a woman being married cannot pass her estate, 
unless safely and secretly examined by the steward. 

Item. That a copyholder may at any time out of court, 
before two copyholders and customary tenants, surrender his 
lands and tenements to whose use he pleases. 

Item. That the freeholders and copyholders of the said 
manofi and their undertenants, have a right to put on their 
horses, cows, and other cattle, in and upon the commons 
belonging to the said manor, without number, stint, or license ; 
but they are to be marked with a commonable and known mark. 

Not. 28th, 1728. Matthew Lardy Esq. Lord Chief Baron of 
that part of Great Britain called Scotland, the present steward. 

Edward Whitakery Junr. Esq. chancellor-at-law, deputy- 
steward. 

John Summerselly Bailiff.* 



MANOR OF VAUXHALL. 

This manor was the property of Baldwin, son of William de 
Redters, or de Ripariis, fiflh Earl of Devon, and to whom the 
Isle of Wight had been given by Henry I. ^ ; whence he was 
also called de Insula. Baldwin married Margaret, daughter 
and heir of Warine Fitzgerald, and settled this manor on her 
as part of her dower. He died in the time of King John, in 
the lifetime of his father William, leaving by this Margaret a 
son named Baldwin, who on the death of his grandfather Wil- 
liam succeeded him, and became the sixth Earl of Devon. In 
1240 the second Baldwin was made Earl of the Isle of Wight, 
having previously married Amicia, daughter of Gilbert de 
Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, but died when young 
in 29 Henry UI. ] 244, leaving Baldwin his son and heir, who 
became the seventh Earl of Devon, and having in 1257 mar- 
ried Margaretta, a kinswoman of Queen Eleanor, died in the 
46th of Henry III. 1262, leaving one child John, who deceas- 
ed whilst an infant. 



* Comnranicftted by R. ioDdaaj, Esq. ^ Mod. Angl. II. p. ! 79. 



^64 MANOR OF VAUXHALL. 

Margaret, who had married his grandfather, was still living, 
and held this estate so settled on her as above mentioned. On 
the death of her first husband Baldwin, King John in his 15th 
year, 1214, compelled her to marry Fulk le Breant, a great fa- 
vorite of that monarch, but a man of whose origin we have no 
certain account, of whom the monkish historians speak with the 
greatest bitterness (which indeed is not to be wondered at, as 
he certainly paid no respect to them), but of whose violence 
and turbulence there are authentic accounts. In addition to 
this marriage the king gave him also the wardship of Baldwin's 
infant son, then heir apparent to the great earldom of Devon. 
These wardships were of great value ; the grantee, besides the 
profits of the estate, had the opportunity of matching his 
daughter with his ward, and as proof of their value the Earl of 
Gloucester afterwards gave the king 2000 marcs for this very 
wardship. Whatever might be the conduct of Fulk in other res- 
pects, he remained faithful to King John and to his son King 
Henry, till the commission of that act which brought on his 
ruin. He had seized divers houses and lands at Luton in Bed- 
fordshire, to recover which the owners had brought sixteen ac- 
tions of Novel Disseizin, which were tried at the Assizes at 
Dunstable in 1224. Verdicts were given against him in them 
all, and fines were imposed by the Judges, of whom Henry de 
Braybrooke was one. This so exasperated Fulk, that, as Bray- 
brooke was going to the parliament, or rather to the council 
which the king was then holding at Northampton, he sent a 
party of men, seized him and his attendants, and carried them 
to the castle of Bedford, of which he was then governor. The 
indignation of the king'and his council was excited by this,' and 
they went to Bedford, summoned the governor to deliver these 
prisoners, and to surrender the castle ; but Fulk had placed his 
brother as governor, who refused to give it up, whereupon 
Fulk was excommunicated by the archbishops and bishops tlien 
present, and the castle was beseiged, but so stoutly defended 
that it held out nine weeks, when they were obliged to surren- 



HAKOB or TAiniBALI.. 905 

d«T. The ganraar and lizteen of kia men wen in cqwe- 
. quence hanged.' 

Fulk wai at laat prevailed on to submit himself to judgment, 
when Ilia life was spared in consideration of his faithful services 
to the king's father, but it was on condition that he should for- 
fth oil his estates, money, and chattels and abjure die realm. * 
He iccordingly executed an instrument to this purpose, dated 
on the morrow of St. Bartholomew 1294 ; in it he acknowledges 
that he had been excommunicated, but had been absolved on 
pving up his lands and efect8.c He was then put on shipboard 
wiA five servants, and landed in France, where he was seized 
od imprisoned by the French king ; who threatened to hang 
Um on account of injuries he had done to divers Frenchmen in 
En^and. He was only saved by producing proof of his abju- 
ration, and of his having taken the cross, and then went to 
Bome, where he prevailed on the pope to write to King Henry 
in his favor. The letter however was conceived only in gene. 
lal words, recommending the king to be gentle in sueing his 
•ilbjects.d Fulk still urged the pope for his intercession ; and 
• new pope sending one Otto as his legate to England for the 
poipose of collecting money, took that opportunity of request- 
ing the king to permit Fulk's return into England, and that 
Iiis wife, lands, and goods might be restored to him.« The 
king in his answer states Fulk's o&nces, the judgment of the 
contt, that the care of the kingdom belonged to him, and that 
be onght to observe the laws and the good customs of the king* 
dom. Otto urged this suit no further, and contented himself 
with performing the other part of his commission. < Fulk then 
iMtituted a suit in some foreign Ecclenastical Court against his 

• Matt. Pu. 309, 310. Matt. Wot. ■■ 1114, pp. 115. llff. Vtjaot't 
Bseorii, II. p. 393. . 
b Prjone'i Ktcoiit, II. p. 89!. ' Rjrow'. ToA. I. 178. 

' U. ne. ' PrTDM'i RtcoidL, II. p. 398. 

Id. S9S. III. SS, S9. 

3H 



^^e MANOR OF VAUXHALL. 

wife ; to put a stop to which the kin^, anno 19, IS^S, wrote a 
letter to H. Cantori Tretensi, certifying Fulk*8 treasons, his sur- 
render of his estates, and abjuration of the realm ; and desiring 
him not to proceed in the suit against Margaret formerly the 
wife uf Fulk, especially as the suit was brought in a foreign court, 
and that Fulk having surrendered all his iands and goods had 
nothing in the king*s dominions which could be attached. & 
The latter argument had probably its weight, for no more ia 
heard of this suit. 

Whilst these things however were carrying on abroad, Marga- 
ret was not idle at home. She had been compelled to marry this 
man against her inclination, and she took the opportunity, as we 
are told, of applying for a divorce on those grounds. From the 
expression used in the king's letter it seems that she had suc- 
ceeded, the king speaking of her as formerly the wife of Fulk, 
who was then alive. It is certain that she obtained a divorce ; 
for soon afler she married a third husband, Robert de Aguillon, 
lord of Addington, whom she also survived, dying in 20 Edw. 
I. 1299. Her son and grandson, and the infant son of the latter 
having all died in her lifetime, Isabella, the only sister of the 
grandson, became heir, she being then the wife of William de 
Fortibus, third Earl of Albemarle of tliat name. 

On the inquisition taken on the death of Margaret, it was 
found that she died seised of a capital messuage and garden at 
Fauxeshall, value 2s, per annum ; 80 acres of arable land, at 4d. 
19 of meadow, at 3s.; rents of assize of customary tenants 14/. 
lOs, ^. The works of customary tenants were of no valuCt 
because more was taken for the work than it was worth ; pleas 
and perquisites of court 6s, Sd.; total ^\l. I4s, 6^(1. It was 
also found that she held this estate in dower, of the gifl of Bald- 
win de Insula, formerly her husband, of the inheritance of Isa- 
bella de Fortibus, Countess of Albemarle, who was sister and 
heir of Baldwin, and then aged 54.^ 



ft Rymer, I. p. 376. Pat. 1 3 Hen. III. m. 6. d. 
^ FfC SO Edw. I. n. 139. 



..* 



HAMOR OV VAUXRALL. 867 

iMbella had Hveral children by the Earl of Albemarle, all of 
whom died jroung, except a daughter named Areline, bom 1364> 
and married in 1369 to Edmund CrouchbacV, second aoo of 
Henry Ill.and afterwards Earl of Lancaster. By him she had 
no children, uad died at Stockwell 1 or 2 Edw. 1. 

King Edward had flattered himself that this marriage would 
bring back the Isle of Wight into the royal fkmily ; but his wish 
being frustrated by the death of Aveline without issue, the Idng 
entered into a treaty with Isabella for the purchase of it, with 
the manor of Lambeth,* and Faukshall, and a conveyance was 
executed for S0,000 marcs, to which 6000 marcs of silver were 
added for a further deed to rectify a mistake in the first. By 
the last-mentiooed deed in 1393 she conveyed to the king the 
Isle of Wght, together with other estates in Hants, the manor 
of Lambyth (Stockwell), and a manor in Lambyth called Im 
Sale Faukes. 

There is an entry in the register of Ford Abbey, co. Devon. 
which asserts that this deed was fraudulently obtained: the 
countess having constantly refused to part with her ancient in- 

fa^tance ; and that this deed had been forged by de 

Stratton her confessor, and her seal affixed by bim thereto after 
her death. This story, like many others, was probably exag- 
gerated, but the transaction was not free from suspicion. The 
-conveyance was executed when Isabella was on her death-bed, 
and Hugh Courtney, Baron of Okehampton, who was heir at 
law, claimed the Isle of Wight, and petitioned King Edward 11. 
that it might be restored to bim. The king hereupon directed 
an inquiry by what means these lands came into the hands of 
lus &ther.^ To this writ a return was made in Parliament in 
8 ud 9 Edward II. cer^ying a charter at Stockwell near Lam- 
beth, on Monday next after the feast of St. Martin 1893, where- 



Rol. Pul B. nd 9. Edv. II. 



M8 ¥AKoa or vauxhall. 

by the said IsabeUa, had, in consideration of 600a marcs, grant- 
ed to the king the whole Isle of Wight, the manor of Christchardi 
i|| Hants, the manor of Lambeth (Stockwell) in Surrey, and the 
manor of Faukeshall, situate within the before mentioned manor 
of Lambeth. This charter was witnessed by Anthony Bishop 
of Durham, Richard de Aston, Steward to the countess, and 
many others. To this were annexed the depositions of several 
persons who were, as they alleged, present, not only at the ex- 
ecution of the deed, but when the countess gave instructions 
M>r its being prepared* a 

Such is the statement of this extraordinary transaction, com' 
monicated by Sir Joseph Ayloffe to the Society of Antiquaries, 
and printed in the Vetusta Monumenta, vol ii« 

Sir Hugh Courtenay did not succeed in his suit for the Isle 
of Wight, and the king appears to have retained the manor of 
Fauxeshall as well as Kennington. In his 12th year an extent 
was taken of this manor, when it was found to consbt of a capi- 
tal messuage, 74 acres of arable land, 38 of meadow, a water- 
miU in Micham, for which the prior of Merton gave Sl<. per 
annumj also in IVCcham, Stretham, and South Lambeth 17 free 
tenants, 28 customary tenants, and 5 cotterelli who paid lol. 16s. 
8{tf« per annum, also 6 fowls at 2d. a piece, 7 cocks at l|<f. eachj 
the customary tenants to gather and carry the hay from the 
meadows, and to mow two days in harvest ; but this was of no 



* The witneiaet, whose depositioot are printed in the Rollt of FurliemeBt, vol. 
L p. 8S6, et leq., were, Walter de Langton Buhop of Lichfield and Corentiy, 
William de Gainiborough her confesaor. Sir Richard Atton, the Earla of Linoola 
ad. Warren, and othen . The entry in Ford Ahhey register calls her conftaaor 
' de Straiton. By the deposition* it appears his name was W. Gaiaabo- 

vong^l hnt this difference is of little consequence, as his real name m^gkt not be 
faiowii to the writer of the register. Italso appears that the seal was not in the 
cnetody of this confessor. There is another circumstance of mnch more ooose- 
fonsa. It is observable that the commissioners state the data of the duiter, 
wiMi they most have seen, to have been Monday qfter the ieaat of St. MaitiB, 
but the witnesses in their depositions say it was eiecuted theMoodqr ^^* Si* 
Martin^ and that she died before the next morning. Manning and Bngr !• p* 4*9* 




MANOR or VAUXHALU fM 

vslue^for they were to have a meal {prandium) twice a day, 
even though they did not work. There was also view of frank* 
pledges at Michaelmas, when a common fine of 5«. 6d» was paid, 
fuid the amercements were worth 2«. ; the pleas and perquisites 
of court ^. ; the sum total IS/. lOs, 4\i, ^ 

In the same year it was granted with Kennington, as before 
stated, to Roger Damorie and Elizabeth his wife, and the heirs 
of the body of Roger ;^ which grant was confirmed in the foU 
lowing year.« On the attainder of this Roger the king seized 
YjOM estates, but ordered them to be delivered to Elizabeth his 
widow. This order does not seem to have extended to Ken« 
nington or Vauxhall, as the former was granted to Spenser, 
who in his 17th year, 1324, had a grant of Vauxhall. ^ The 
Sponsors died in 20 Edw. II. 1327, after which she probably 
recovered some of her estates. In an Inquisition taken on the 
death of Roose de Burford in 3 Edward III. 1330, it was found 
she held land of Elizabeth de Burgh, Lady of the manor of 
Faukeshall. e 

' The following curious record, as connected with the manor, 
is here introduced; the lady mentioned is Elizabeth de Burgh, f 

Tlie Account of Alan Martyn, Reeve of Faukeshall, from the 
6th day of October until the 8th day of November, in the 
first year of the reign of King Edward the third after the 
Conquest. 
Beoahpii of RenU of Assize. ^-The same Alan answers for 
Bis* 3^. received for Rent of Assise, at the term of St. Mi- 
chael. Also the tenement heretofore of John de Meldon^ 
now in the hands of the Lady, used to render lOd. Also two 
gardens, now in the hands of the Lady, used to render IdL 

The sum besides the aforesaid ild. 6is. 3^. 



• laqoii. ftd quod dunB. IS Bdw.ll. ii.51. >> Flit. IS Edw. II. p. I. m. 11. 

« Pa. IS Edw.II. p. S. m. 87, 

^ Otft. 15 Edir. II. o. 15. D^gd. Bur. vol i. p. 891. 

I Etc. 3. Edw. III. rot. 3. ' Tht original if in the AugDMBtfttion QffiM. 



S7d MANOR OV VAUXHALL. 

Expences.-^ The same (reeve) accounts in payment to Hen- 
ry, Husbonde for the debt of the Lady,by war rant of Robert de 
Penckrich, Constable of Clare, 4Ss, Ad. Also for deliverance of a 
boat attached at Queenhithe for the aforesaid debt, 2^. 2i/. Also 
fbr wharfage, \d. Also in clouts and cart nails, 3^. ^ Also in ex- 
penses of two men with three horses and a cart fetching three 
quarters of wheat at Houneslow ^^. Also in horse shoes, M. 
Also in the expenses of John Bullok, going to Farnham with a 
sack to fetch corn, 3cf. Also in one new sack bought, 6\d, In 
cart grease bought, 1^. Also in 61b. of iron bought for the 
plough. Ad, ; in manufacturing the same iron. Ad. 

Also in the expences of two labourers fetching three quarters 
of com at Houneslowe, on the feast of St Edmund the Archbi- 
shop, with the toll, 9,d. ; at Kingston bridge, 6d. Also in great 
nails bought for the cart, \d. Also in one seed-cod bought, 9>d. 
Also in one bushel of wheat bought for seed, 6^. 

The Sum, 495. 7d* 

Wheat received. — Also he accounts for six quarters of wheat 
received of the Reeve of Farnham, for seed, by tally. Also 
two quarters of wheat received of John de Gouw, Reeve 
of Kenynton Grange for seed, and one quarter of wheat for the 
livery of the servants. 

Seed. — ^Whereof in seed on 26 acres of land in Clayfeld eight 
quarters and one bushel, every acre two bushels and an half. 

Liveries to Servants "^ Also in liveries of servants, viz. of 
two boatmen carrying dung for two weeks, four bushels each 
of them, taking by the week one bushel ; also in the liveries 
of drivers and holders, two bushels ; also in the livery of the 
mower and carter, two bushels. 

Also for 3d, paid for winnowing, to Thomas Blunting and 
Hamecote Bisshopes^ by order of John Gouw the Grange Heeve. 

S/ipencf.— Also paid to Dawe le drivere, for his stipend at the 



MANOR OF VAUXHALL. $ff\ 

tenn of St. Michael, Sf . iUL Abo to WiDiam le Man the car* 
ter, I8d. Also to John Gardinar for his wages, 8«. 

Sum, 6f. 

Sum total ; SBs, 7d. and so the Lady is bound 
to the said Martin in 15^. 

Elizabeth de Burgh prosecuted her claim so successfully as 
to obtain, in 11 Edw. III. 1338, a grant of the manors of Dke- 
tesshaO and Clopton in Suffi>lk by way of exchange ; she releaa- 
ing to the king her right for her life in Kennington and Vaux* 
hally John Bardolph, and Elizabeth his wife, who was daughter 
and heir of Elizabeth de Burgh, releasing their right also.i^ 

In die same year the king granted this manor to his son Edi- 
ward the Black Prince, ^ and a few years after, yiz. in 1354, * 
the prince granted it to the monks of Canterbury, with a tone* 
ment in Lambeth ; ^ which grant was confirmed by the king, 
and farther confirmed anno 36. « Out of this grant the monks 
were to allow 40 marcs a year for the maintenance of two priests 
who were to officiate in a chantry chapel called after his name. 
This chapel is under the upper south cross aisle of the choir of 
the cathedral of Canterbury. The chantry being suppressed 
by the act of 37 Hen. VIII. the chapel grew out of use, and is 
walled up from the rest of the undercroft. ' On the suppression 
of the monastery, Hen. VIII. anno 33. 1542, gave this manor 
with that of Walworth, to the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, 
to whom it still belongs. 

Xhere is a record in the Tower,8r which expressly says, that 
the manor of Faukes-hall, which had been granted to Richard 
Gereseye for life, and which was afterwards granted to Roger 



« Cvt. 1 1 Edw. III. p. 9. m. 20 or 9. ^ Ibid. m. 14. 

c It Menu that Sir James de Borford, hatband of Room before mentioiied, 
held it under the prince, for in 1351 he had license to have an oratory on his m. 

Borhere. 

* Somner's Canterbury, Appendix. No. 36. 

• Pbt. 36 Edw. III. p. 9. m. 93. or 38. f Hasted's Kent, vol. iv. p. 5tt. 
t Pitt. iHen. IV. p. 7. m. 99. 



*»*i><hi 



272 MANOR OF STOCKWELL. 

Damoriey was confirmed to Thomas Bardolf, heir of the said Ro- 
ger, and his heirs for ever, by Henry IV. This appears to be 
inconsistent, unless, as Mr. Lysons supposes, there were two ma- 
nors of Faukeshall, both of which belonged to Roger Damorie.* 

Thomas Hardress, Esq. was Steward from 1649 to 1681, 
under the successive description of Esquire, Serjeant-at-law, 
and Knight. W. Wellfit, Esq. is the present Steward. 

Courts leet and baron are held ; at the former of which, con- 
stables for Vauxhall, Stockwell, Mitcham, Streatham, &c. are 
elected. 

The Copyholders, of which in 1787 there were not more than 
sixty, pay a fine certain of double the yearly quit rent, and are 
subject to heriots. The tenure descends to the youngest sop, 
accordmg to the custom of Borough English. 



MANOR OF STOCKWELL. 



"The Earl of Moriton holds Lanchei. The Canons of Wal- 
tham held it of Harold. Then it was taxed for six hides and 
an half; now it is not taxed. The arable land consists of six ca- 
rucates. In demesne there is one carucate and five villans, and 
twelve bordars with three carucates. There is one villan in 
gross and six acres of meadow. In the time of King Edward it 
was worth 100^. and aflerwards and now 4/. The same earl has 
in Bermondsey of the king*s land one hide, where stands his 
house. . There is one bordar. It is worth eight shillings." ^ 

At the time of the Conqueror's survey there appears to have 
been two manors in Lambeth, one of which contained twelve, 
and the other six plough-lands. The latter was held by the 
monks of Waltham of King Edward the confessor, and was re- 
granted to them by King Harold. This Mr. Lysons, with great 



»» Lysons Env. 1. p. 567. *» Domesday, Uh. vili. 



y^ 




UAlfOR OF ITOCKWELL. ^3 

probability conjectures to have been what was afterwards called 
the manor of South Lambeth or Stockwell. The description of 
its boundaries in the Confessor's charter, and mention being 
made of the stone of Brixius as a boundary, tend to confirm his 
opinion. Mr. Bray says there can be no doubt of Brixton 
Causeway deriving its name from this stone, and this causeway 
is now one of the boundaries of Stockwell. The boxmds of the 
manor of Stockwell, as lately walked, begin at the south-west 
comer on the top of Brixton-hill in the turnpike road, and keep- 
ing the manor on the right hand, go near a windmill nearly to 
Bleakhall; to the north-east comer of Clapham workhousei 
cross the turnpike at Clapham rise, cross abridge at Union-place 
to the north-west comer of Paradise farm, to the north end of a 
raised foot-path dividing Paradise green from South Lambeth 
corner ; along that path to the middle of the cross tumpike roads 
opposite Uie north end of Stockwell-place along the tumpike 
road to Kennington common. Lord Holland's land on the left to 
the turnpike road at the south end of the wash way along the 
Streatham road by Brixton-place up the hill to where it began.* 

Robert Earl of Moreton was one of the Norman barons 
leagued with Odo Bishop of Baieux in the unsuccessful attempt 
to dethrone King William II. It is probable that the king soil- 
ed his estates; but if he restored them William his son i^as cer- 
tainly deprived of the Isle of Wight and all his lands in England 
by Henry I. for his insolent and perfidious conduct.^ That 
king gave the Isle of Wight to Richard de Redvers, Earl of De- 
von, and it is very probable that he gave him this manor alsoy as 
he did the adjoining one of Vauxhall. 

Baldwin, son of William de Redvers 5th Earl of Devon, mar- 
ried Margaret daughter and heir of Warine Fitzgerald. Hp 
died in his father's lifetime, in the reign of King John, leaving by 
this Margaret a son named Baldwin. The history of Margaret 
may be seen in the history of Vauxhall manor ; but an account of 

* lafonnA^on from Mr. Middleton to Mr. Bnj. 
^ Simtoik Dunelra. X Script, c. 939. 6. 

9n 



S74 MAMOR OV STOCKWIBLt. 

the lotiy to whom this manor belonged^ subject to her dower 
therein, shall now be given. He was an infant at the time of his 
father's death, which happened before 1814, and his wardship 
was given to Fulk le Breant on his marrying the mother; but 
on Pulk*s banishment the Earl of Gloucester, in 1227, paid the 
king 8000 marks for the wardship of this young nobleman, and 
married him to his daughter Amicia.* After his marriage he 
was made Earl of the Isle of Wight by King Henry III. while 
keeping his Christmas at Winchester in 1840> Hfe died five 
years after, leaving a son Baldwin an infant.^ The wardship of 
the latter was given in 1858 to Peter de Savoy, uncle to Queen 
Eleanor, to the end that he might be married to a kinswoman of 
hers, which Was done in 41 Hen. III. 1857 ; but in 1808 he with 
Richard Earl of Gloucester and others died by poison at the ta- 
ble of this Peter, whether by accident or design is not certain. 
He had issue only one son, who died an infant ; whereupon his 
mster Isabel, wife of William de Fortibus Earl of Albemarle be- 
came his heir.d On the death of Margaret, Isabel, as sister 
and heir of the last Baldwin, had livery of this and other estates 
which had been held by Margaret in dower. She had the cfaam- 
berlainship of the Exchequer in fee, as heiress of her grandmo- 
ther, whose grandfather, Warine Fitzgerald held it. She is so 
named in many records, and in 68 Hen. III. 1868, presented 
Ralph de Bray, as her deputy. 

Isabel married William Earl of Albemarle, who died 44 Hen. 
III. 1860, and had by her three sons and a daughter, who all died 
without issue ; but one daughter, Aveline, survived and became 
heir to her brother, and heir apparent to her mother; thus be- 
coming the greatest heiress in the kingdom. She was married 
on the 5th Ides of April,. 1869, to Edmund Crouchback, after- 
wards Earl of Lancaster, second son of Henry III. ; the king 
and queen and whole court were present She was then at the 

t^ of eighteen, according to the grant of her wardship first gives 



a Dugd. Bar. I. p. 357. ^ Stow. 4to. edit. c £cch. S9 Hen. III. n. 47. 
<i Dugd. Bar. I. p. 957. 



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MANOR OF 8TOCKWELL. 27& 

f 

to the Earl of Gloucester (but surrendered and given to Ed- 
ward the king's eldest son)^ or as others say at the age of six- 
teen. It must however have been eighteen, as in 1 Edward !• 
I97S9 a writ was directed to the Sheriff of Hants to deliver pos- 
session to her and her husband, the Earl of Lancaster, the es- 
tates descended to her from her father.* She had no issue, and 
died at this place 20 Edward I. 1292> The earl of Lancaster 
died in 1296. It has been said that Aveline gave him this es- 
tate ; if so, on his death it would come to the king, as his brother 
and heir. 

To whom it was granted does not appear. The next owner 
that we find was Juliana, wife of Thomas Romayne, oitizen of 
London, and a' founder of a chantry in Lambeth church ; they 
had a grant of free warren here in 3 Edward II. 13 1 0.^ His wi- 
dow died in 19 Edw. II. 1326, seized hereof described as a tene- 
ment in Stockwell, a capital messuage, two gardens, one dove 
house, 287 acres of land, 19 and a quarter of meadow, rents of 
assize of free and customary tenants 5/. Of. 8^. 19 villans {na" 
tioe) who held 84 acfes and three quarters of land, rents called 
Cherset, viz. nine cocks and nine hens, rents of capital tenants, 
common fine at the view of franc pledge of Vauxhall 13^. total I7/. 
Or. 10^. Roese wife of John Burford, aged 40, and Margery 
wife of William de Weston, aged 36, were her daughters and 
heirs.^ Partition was maide between them of their mother's es- 
tates, when this was allotted to Roese. « 

Roese, the wife of John Burford, died 3 Edw. III. 1330, seized 
of this manor, a capital messuage, two gardens, a dove house, 
148 acres of arable land, held of Elizabeth de Burgh, Lady of the 



* Claus. 1 Edw. I. m. 10. 

^ Dagd. Bar. I. pp. 65, 66, My friend, the kte Charles Alfred Stoth«rd, 
F. S. A. made a drawing and engraved the fiill length figure of this ladj, in No* 
iii. of bn valuable work the Mounmental Effigies of Great Britain, the beauty and 
aooniaey of which have never been equalled, and it is to be regretted that the ami- 
able artist did not live to complete his design. 

c Cart. 3 Edw. II. m. 10. <1 Esch. 10 Edw. II. n. 86. 

• Claus. 19 Edw. II. m. I. dorso. 



^(^ MAMOn or STOCKWSLL. 

manor of Faukeshall by the service of Id. ; 38 acres held of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury by the service of 5j. Id, per annum, 
and suit of court to the manor of Wyke, belonging to the arch, 
bishop ; 6 acres and a half of meadow held of the lady of Fauke- 
shall by Id. per annum ; 7 acres of meadow land, held of the 
archbishop by ^« per annum ; 3 cottages held of Roger de Wal- 
tham by 18^. per annum , 10 cottages in Southwark barre, held 
in socage of the prior of Bermondsey by Ss. per annum ; also 
do acres of wood in Stockwell, held of the Earl of Hertford, 
pleas and perquisites of court 1^. per annum, and rents of as* 
size in Stockwell 13<. 4d. James Burford was her son and heir, 
aged nine.ft 

In 1351 Sir James de Boreford had license for an oratory in 
hii( manor house at Stockwell ;*> and eight years after had a 
grant of free warren.c 

It afterwards belonged to John Harold, Burgess of Calais, 
who conveyed it to John Dovet and Sir Thomas Swinford. It 
was settled on Catharine the wife of Sir Thomas, who after- 
wards became the Srd wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lan- 
caster.d 

It was afterwards the property of John Wynter, who founded 
a chantry in the church of Lambeth. He sold it to Nicholas 
Molyneux, Esq. to whom and his trustees in ^ Henry VI. 1449 
Roger Wynter of the county of Worcester and others released 
their right.e 

Whether the king set up any claim under John of Gaunt 
does not appear, but in his 3l8t year Molyneux obtained from 
him a grant of this with Knollis and Levehurst.^ Ralph Leigh 
had purchased this estate in or before 1461, as he, describing 
' himself Lord of Stockwell, presented in that year to the chan- 
try founded by Wynter-and refounded by this Ralph.? In the 



« Esc. 8 Edv. III. n. 5f . ^ Reg. Wioton. Edyngton. p <, fb. 35 ». 

« Cart. 82 Edw. III. n. If. ^ Cftrt. Antiq. Brit. Mui. 49 F. 47. 

• CImis.97 Henry VI p. unica dors, f Pal. 81 Henry VI. p. 9. m. 81. 

' HUbop of WinoheaMr't Register, WainBete, 1. 109. a. 



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MAXOR Ot STOCK wet L. 't77 

|tdi of Edward IV. the beginning of whose reign id dated from 
4 March 1461, a farther release to Ralph Leigh and William. 
Biahcp of Winchester and Laurence Bishop of Durham, tiie two 
last beiag undoubtedly trustees for Leigh, was executed by one 
Clopeland,ii and in die same yetfr William Molyneux, sonand 
heir of Nicholas Molyneux late deceased, gave them a further 
celease of his right in this manor, and Levehurst and all other 
lands in Lambeth, Camerwell, and Streatham.^ Leigh died 
d>oUt this time ; £ot in 1471 we find Elitabeth Leigh hn widow 
presenting to this chantry.c Sir John Leigh son, and heir of 
Balph, was made a Knight of the Bath at the marriage of Prince 
* Arthur, eldest son of King Henry VII. 

ify Inquisition on the death of Sir John Leigh, taken 5 Nov. 
"Is Henry VIIL 1523, it appears that he died 27 August pre- 
ceding, seized of a very considerable estate in this count/;- of 
the manor of Stockwell, 400 acres of land, 9 of meadow, 58 of 
pasture^ and 40 of wood in Stockwell ; of the manor of Leve-^ 
hurst, 1 messuage, 100 acres of land, 8 acres of meadow, 56 of 
pasture, and 30 of wood; in Lambeth Deane, in the parish of 
Lambeth, 20 acres of land, 4 of meadow, 16 of pasture, 6 of 
wood, and of 1 messuage, 30 acres of land, 3 of meadow, 12 
of pasture, and 3 of wood in Lambeth ; lands in Walworth, 
Newington, and several other parts of the county to a consider- 
able extent. He made several conveyances to trustees to the 
use of his will, and by it, dated at Stockwell, 12 June 15 Henry 
Vni. 1523, he appointed Isabel his wife. Sir Richard Brooke, 
kt. the king's Attorney, John Spylman, Seijeant» at law, John 
Leigh, his nephew, son of Ralph Leigh his brother, and Roger 
Leigh, gent, his cousin, executors of his will. He willed t]iat 
lands of the annual value of 2001. should be to the use of an in- 
denture then produced, made between him and John Wynd- 
ham, kt. deceased ; that the said Dame Isabel should have for 
life his manor of Stockwell, and if she should die before her ne- 



« CUuifl. n Edward IV. ^ Idem. 

< BUhop'i Regitttr, ut rapn, II. 9. b. 



378 MANOR OF 8TOCKWBLL. 

phew John should attain 24 years, then the said manor should 
remain in possession of his executors till he did attain that age. 

Afler the death of Isabel the estate of 300/. a year, which she 
held in dower, should go to his said nephew at 34 ; if he died 
before, the executors should hold the same to fulfill his will ; 
but if he lived longer, the QOOl. a year should go to hnn^ except 
the manor lands and tenements of the jointure belonging to the 
wife of the eaid John. If he attained the age of 34 he should have 
the manor of Stockwell to him and the heirs of his body, with 
remainder to Ralph Leigh, brother of John the nephew, remain- 
der to Isabel Leigh, Joyce Leigh, and Margaret Leigh (sisters 
of John and Ralph )^ in succession, and the heirs of their bodies ; 
remainder to Erasmus Forde^ Dorothy Morton, Elizabeth SpeU 
man, and Joan lUyngworth in succession, and the heirs of their 
lM>dies; remainder to Roger Leigh, cousin of the testator, 
George and William Leigh, brothers of Roger in succession, and 
tbe heirs of their bodies, remainder to Francis Langley his 
cousin and his heirs for ever.* 

It was, found that John Leigh was his nephew and heir aged 
twenty one.i^ By his will he directed his body to be buried in 
the chapel by him lately built, and the chapel to be repaired by 
the owners of Stockwell and Levehurst.^ 

Tn 1547 this John Leigh the nephew, or a son of his of the 
same name conveyed Stockwell to King Henry VII.c 

Queen Mary granted it to Anthony Brown, Viscount Monta- 
gue, reserving a fee*farm rent of Si. 13^. 1 IdA In 33 Eliza- 
beth, 1580, the viscount granted to one Store the manor-house 
of Stockwell, and certain lands adjoining, for 1000 years, under 
a rent of 6l. ISs. Ad. But he died seized of the manor in 34 
Elizabeth, 1593, and the reversion of the premises so granted 
for the md term, leaving Anthony his grandson his heir .« It 
does not appear that the manor ever reverted to the crown, but 

« Esch. 15. Hen. VIII. b Not. n. 12. b Denne's Addenda, p. 9S4. 

^ Wilkins, Concil. III. 765. Grants in the Aogmeutation OfBce. 

^ Pat. 1 8 Aug. 1 & 2 Philip and Mary. « Cole's Esc. Brit Mus. 75S. . 



.it if mentioned among the king's manor houses in a household 
book of King James I.a It is however likely thai it was so de- 
icribedy on account of the fee-farm rent which had been reserved 
out of it. In the time of that king it belonged to Sir George 
CSiute. Bj a monument in Lambeth church it appears that* Sir 
Francis Goffton of Stockwell, and his lady, and John Goftoa 
their youngest son (Francis the elder having died in France), 
were buried in a vault there belonging to the manor house of 
Stockwell. John Gofton (or Sir Francift) died 9th May, 1686, 

aged 71. 

In the reign of King WiUiam IIL it belonged to the family of 
lliomicrofli Sir John Thomicrofl died possessed of it about 
the year 1760, and was succeeded by his sister, the wife of Gene- 
ral Handyside. She died about 1790, and devised it to a relation 
of the name of Thornicrofl of Cheshire, who sold the manor, 
mansion house, and about 14 acres of ground to William Lam- 
bert, Esq. Mr. Lambert was an oilman of Ludgate Hill, and 
at his death, in June ISIO, at Wellfield house, Brixton, devised 
this estate to his wife Elizabeth for her life, and then to his ne- 
phew James Lambert.^ 



MANOR OF LAMBETH WYKE, allaS WYE COURT. 

■ 

This estate, adjoining to Brixton Gaugeway, belongs to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, having been included in the ex* 
change with the church of Rochester mentioned before, and is 
granted out on lease for lives, or a term of years. It consists 
of the large mansion called Loughborough house and gar- 
den, (formerly Rushcrofl), and about 334 acres of land. 

In the taxation of 1391 it is called the Grange, or fiurm of 
Le Wyke. 

During the civil wars it was the property of Capt. John Black- 

* In th* Aihmolmn Mmemn At Oiferd. For waat of a mora apptopriite lail- 
piece to this chapter, the reader it thera presented with the Mtogrsph of Jae. I. 
^ Manniiig end BrB/s Historj of Snrrajr* HI* F* ^99. 



980 MANOR OF LBVEHURftT. 

welly and by an order of the house of Lords he was excepted 
out of the Act of Oblivion, on payment of 1580^. 10». 7{d. ibr 
this manor and the manors of Ashcam, Stone, and several parcels 
of- ground ,called Buckhall Lands, in Kent. * 

The lease was the property of Henry Fox, Lord Holland 
and it is held by the present lord. 



MANOR OF LISVEHURST. 



This manor appears to have been in Stockwell, or Lambeth 
Deane; but there is now no trace remaining of it. 

In 18 Edward L 1290> Pinus Bemardini, citizen of London, 
had a grant of free warren in his manor of Lefhurst, in the pa- 
rish of Lambeth> 

*20th June, 1326, John de Castleacre had license for a chapel 
in this manor for two years.c 

12 Henry VI. 1434, John Browe, Esq. son of Robert Browe> 
Esq. of the county of Roteland, released to John Wynter and 
Nicholas Molyneux all his right in the lands and tenements 
which were formerly of Robert Knolles, knt. and afterwards of 
David Bykley, in the parishes of Camerwell, Lamhithe, and 
Strateham. d 

27 Henry VI. 1449, John Audley Esq. William Venour, Esq. 
and others, released to John Stanley, Esq.. and his heirs all their 
right in the manor of Knolles, and in lands in the vills of Dyle- 
wysshe, Lambeth, and Camerwell.^ 

In.the same year, Roger Winter, of the county of Worcester, 
and others, released to John Stanley, Nicholas Molineux, and 
others, all his right in the manor of Levehurst, and in lands and 
tenements in Lambhithe, Camerwell, and Dulwyche.f 

31 Henry VL 1453, there is a grant from the king to Nicholas 
Molineux, Esq. of the tnanors of Stockwell, Knolls, and Leve- 

> MSB. lAmbeth Librvy, No. 951, entitled Lambeth Papers, No. 11. 
t> Cart. 1 8 Edward I . n. 8. c Bp. of Winch. Reg. Stratford, 1 6. a. 

<> Claus. 12 Henry VI. n. 19. . < Claus. 87 Henry VI. n.3. 
' Glaus. 37 Hen* VI. m. 9. 



' J 



If ANOftS OF BODLBTi UPQROVB, AMD SOARLBTTt. 281 

hmtf in the parishes of CamerweU, and lAmhith, and other 
lands.* 

Sbr John Leigh died seized hereof S7th August 1523> consist- 
ing of the manor, 1 messuage, 100 acres of land, 8 of meadow, 
M of pasture, and 30 of wood in Lambeth Deane, and by his 
will devised it to his nephew John. 

Sir Richard Sackville, fiuher of Thomas Earl of Dorset, died 
Snd April, 1556, seized of the manor of East Greenwich, by 
feal^ only, in free soccage. h 

Soon after it came into the possession of Robert Forth, Esq 
LL. D. who died Srd October 1496, seized thereof^ leaving 
Thomas his son and heir, aged 25, and was valued at 6L per 
annum«c 

Nothing further of this manor is known. 



If AVORS OP BODDILBTS, B0DILE8, OR BOOLBY ; UPGROVB ; 

AND SCARLETT8. 

By deed, without date, William, son of Edward de fiudele, 
granted to Thomas de Veteri Ponte a messuage and 130 acres 
of land at Budele, and 7s. Id. rent in the same village, in the 
parish of Lambeth, of the fee of the archbishop of Canterbury .^^ 

John Pelham and Thomas Mottyng, clerks, grant to Nicho- 
las Carreu, and Henry, bayliff of Suthwerk, all the lands and 
tenements which they purchased of Stephen Scarlett, in Lam- 
beth.e 

1S81, Nicholas Carreu gave to the hospital of St. Thomas, 
Southwark, his estate in Southwark, Lambeth, and Bermondsey, 
in exchange for their property in Beddington, called the manor 
of F^res, a water-mill, and two gardens.' 



• Fill. 81 Henry V. p.f. m. 81. 

^ Inquis. p. m. at Southwark, 18th May, 9 Elia. 

« Inquif. p. m. 37 Elizabeth. ' Mnnim. 905. • Id. SSS. 

t Pal8Ric.II.(>.t«m.l9. 

2o 



28S ii Ai^diui or flODLBV, vfowormi nitm icubim^ 



' in the Muniment Book of St. Thomas's hos^tal^iv this Me^ 
morandum; an acquittance for tEe purchase of the lands of 
Scarlet juxta Bodley, is written before the deeds'ofXiaidon.!i^ 

23 April, 34 Henry VIII. 1543, the king, by patenituiidertho 
seal of the Court of Augm^tations, granted to Six \Richard 
Longe> for life f inter alia J the manor of Bodley, fonn6rly be- 
longing to tl^e late house or hospital of ThomaakBe^el^in 
S0uthwark, and air manors, &c. in Southwark, Bemondse]^ 
Newington, and Lambeth, to the said hospital bdonging. 

15 September, 37 Henry VIII. a grant of the' reversion in 
fee of the inanors of Upgrpve, Scarletts,' and Bodley, and odier 
messuages, was made out for Richard Andrews ^and '^SUiam 
Grose, after the death of Richard Longe.^ The next day Ihey 
conveyed it to Sir Thomas Pope,^ and he conveyed it to John 
Leigh, Esq. who demised the manors to Richard Blunt and 
Margaret his wife for 90 years, 18 December, 15 Eliz. 1573 ; 
and on 13 October, in the same year, made a conveyance to 
John Glascock, Esq. and Edward Welsh ; but this was perhaps 
only a mortgage ; for, on an Inquisition taken at Guildford 20 
Aug. 7 Eliz. 1565, on the death of John Leigh, then a knight, 
it was found he died seized of the , manor of Boddiles and 
Upgrove, of the annual value of 201, held of the king in ca- 
pite, by knight's service, and also a messuage called Tlie Lion, 
in Guildford. 

84 January, 9 Eliz. 1567, Glascock and Wdsh joined with 
Edward Fiugarrett, Esq. and Agnes his wife, and John Leigh, 
nephew of the purchaser, in conveying the manors of Upgrove 
and Scarlett to John Moore and Richard Bostock, Esquires.<l 
Richard Blunt, Esq. died 17 November, 18 Eliz. 1576, seized 
of the manors of Boddiles, Upgrove, and Scarletts^ and a capi- 
tal messuage, near Pawles Wharf in London, called Chertsey 
Place, leaving Elizabeth his daughter and heir.« 

S September, 34 Eliz. 1582, Nicholas Saunder, Esq. and* 

« Maium. ^ Piftt. 37 H«b. VJU. p. 9. « Id p. S. 

^ Inquis. p. m. «t Sowthwark, 96 Jm. 88 
• Addliioiua MSS. Brit. Mu». 4705. 



M AirOftS OF BODLSTy VFGftOVB, AND SCARLBTT8. 283 

Elinbetli his wife (probably daughter .of Blunt), conveyed the 
nanors, 100 acres of land, SO of meadow, 100 of pasture, 100 
wood, and 40f. rent in Lambeth and Camerwell, to Thomas 
Jones and others. Jones suffered a recovery in Hilary Term, 
55 Elizabeth.! 

Nothing further is known respecting these manors, nor is 
there any land known by these names. 

« Addliioaal MSS. Brit Mot. 4705. 




LOCAL SURVEY 



or THE 



PARISH OF LAMBETH 



CHAPTER IX. 
Disttid of S^« John the Evangdutf or Waterloo * District. 

A few observations as to tlie former state of this district of 
the parish may be acceptable to the reader* Some Antiqua- 
ries have supposed that the Romans settled here before tn^ 
occupied the northern side of the river. Improbable as this 
appears, the conjecture has been supported by many eminent 
men, though on such slight grounds, and generally erroneous 
conclusions, that it would be takmg up the time of the reader 
, unnecessuily to e^ier into, the spirit of their disquisitions. His- 
torians generally ^gife^ tl^Rt the space betwen Camberwell hills 
and the rising grounds^at^eptrord and dapham, and as high 
up as Lambeth, was originally a vast b^ or lake, overflowed 
by Uie tide, a^ at low water a sandy plain ; .^d^niat when the 
Romans fixed themselves in England they improved it by 
banking against the Thames, and by draining. That they had 
a station in some part of St. George's Fields is generally ad- 
mitted, though the particular spot is not ascertained. In dig- 
gins the new sewer by Bethlehem Hospital, great quantities of 
their utensils were found, and Dr. Gale, Dugdale, and several 
authors mention similar discoveries. These, says the learned 
Dr. Whitaker, ** are decisive evidences that the wonderful work 
of embanking the river was projected and executed by the Ro- 
mans. It was the natural operation of that magnificent spirit 
which intersected the earth with so many raised ramparts for 
roads.*' Tliey probably began the embankments in St. George's 
Fields, continued them along the adjoining and equally shaUow 
marshes of the river, and finally consummated them in construct* 
ing the grand sea wall alone the deep fen of Essex. 

There are several recorcb existing respecting Uiese banks. 
In 22 Henry VI. Sir John Burcestre, knt. Richard Bamme, 
Richard Combe, William Osburne, Adam Lynelord, John Mar- 
tyn, John Malton, and William Kyrton, were assigned to view 
all die banks on the side of the Thames from Vauxhall to De^U 



ST. J0HM*8 DI8TEICT. S85 

fjprdt M also to make laws and ordinances for the safe-guard and 
repair of them, according to the laws of Romney Marsh ; and 
moreover to impress so many diggers and labourers, at compe- 
tent salaries, as should be necessary. Commissions were also 
issued for the same purpose, 25, 31, and 83 Henry VI, and 5, 
and 14 Edward I V.a 

Formerly, as was the case with all waste ground near the Me- 
tropolis, tli^ fields were appropriated to the practice of arch- 
ery, as appears from a scarce tract, published about 16. , , called 
**Axi aim for those that shoot in St* George's Fields." 

The parish of Lambeth was divided into six districts, viz. the 
Bishop's Liberty, the Prince's, Vauxhall, Marsh and Wdl, Lam- 
beth i>eane, and Stockwell ; but subsequently they were re- 
doeed to five, Lambeth Deane and StockweU being merged into 
the Out Liberty ; thus it stands at present in the Poor Books. 

This parish, being within the Bilb of Mortality, the Act for 
building 50 new Churches extended to it ; and in 171 1 the inha- 
bitants of Stockwell and Lambeth Deane were desirous of having 
a church in that part of the parish, and formed a subscription 
to defray the expence of making the necessary application. The 
Commissioners under the Act sent an order for a map of the pa- 
rish, and in a vestry it was directed to be made ; but it was not 
effiscted, and nothmg more was done. From the great increase 
of houses and population in this parish, it became apparent that 
some alteration was necessary. Accordingly the parish has 
been divided into five ecclesiastical districts, viz. Waterloo dis- 
trict, Lambeth Church district, Kennington district, Brixton 
district, and Norwood district. The boundary of the Waterloo 
district, as it appears in the London Gazette of Tuesday, March 
29, 1825, is described as under. 

** Commencing at the middle of Westminster-bridge, on the 
south side thereof, the boundary line passes along the middle of 
the river Thames through the middle of Waterloo-bridge, and 
thence to a place opposite to the comer of the soap-house of 
Messrs. Hawes*s manufactory, in the Commercial-road ; thence 
h makes a right angle, passing along an imaginary line, direct 
to the corner of the soap-house aforesaid, thence along Uie west 
wall of the said soap-house to the middle of the Commercial- 
road, and tlience in an easterly direction to a parish post, in a 
fine with the common sewer; it men turns to the south, and passes 
along the middle of the said common sewer, which runs at 
the back of houses in Broadwall, crossing Great Charlotte-street, 
and passing at the back of Christchurch Workhouse to a diverg- 
ing sewer which divides the parishes of Christchurch and St. 

« Nichols's Hist. p. 71. 



fl9B$ ST. JOBM'a DISTRICT. 

Geor|^ the Martyr, Southwark ; thence, turning to the soath- 
west, It passes along the middle of the said common sewer, diivid- 
ing this district from the parish of St. George the Martyr, 
Southwark, which said sewer crosses the Waterloo-bridge-road, 
and continuing nearly in the direction, passes under Gilbert*s- 
buildines into we Westminster-bridge-road, and thence obliaueFf 
across Uie said road to near the north-east comer of Mead-place ; 
it then turns to the north-west and west, and passes along the 
south side of Westminster-bridge-road (excludmg the foot-path 
all the way), to the middle of Westminster-bridge, on the south 
side thereof." 

As the most advantageous mode of describing the various ob- 
jects in this extensive parish, I have divided it into chapters, 
each containing the Topographical and Local survey of a dis- 
trict. I will therefore commence with 

WATERLOO BRIDGE, 

was originally projected by Mr. George Dodd, an eminent en- 
gineer, and is unquestionably the noblest in Europe. The 
original plan was to erect a temporary wooden bridge, 
which would have been accomplished for a comparatively 
small sum ; and from the profit, which would have been im- 
mense, to erect a stone bndge ; but the Citj^ of London op« 
posed that plan in Parliament for three successive sessions, at an 
enormous expence to the company, who were finally compelled 
to abandon their project of a temporary wooden bridge, and to 
undertake the building one of stone. For this purpose they en- 
creased their capital from one to five hundred thousand pounds. 
So sanguine was the company of ample remuneration from the 
toll for their advance of capital, that the additional sum of four 
hundred thousand pounds was immediately raised among them- 
selves, and the shares were at a guinea premium next day.* 

Accordingly in 1808 an Act of Parliament was passed, incor- 
porating a company to be called ^' The Company of Proprietors 
of the Strand bridge b/' and to enable them to build a stone 
bridge from some part of the precinct of the Savoy, to the op- 
posite shore at Cuper s bridge in Lambeth. Before commenc- 
ing the purchase of houses or land, 60,000^ was to be invested 
in three per cent, stock, and SOO^OOtf. was to be actually sub- 
scribed. 



* They ftlto» during the year 1813, rmited among themieWes an additional suai 
of three hundred 'thouiand pounds, although the shares at public sale were at a 
discount. 

^ By an Act of Parliament in 1816 the name was changed to Waterloo. 



ST. John's district. WJ 

Mr. Dodd having been dismissed the Company's senrice, they 
employed the late uunented John Rennie, the ablest engineer of 
the day, who, with much skill and unremitting attention, brought 
to a conclusion a work which will remain a monimient of his 
ability, and of the liberality and public spirit of the proprietors. 

The first stone of the bridge was laid on the eleventh of Oc- 
tober, 1811, by H.Swann, Esq. M.P.; a bottle, containing coins 
of his late Majesty's reien, was deposited in the first stone, over 
fi^ch a plate with the following inscription was laid :-— 

** This foundation stone of the Strand Bridge was laid on Fri- 
day the eleventh of October, 1811, by the Directors for exe- 
cuting the same, Henry Swann, Esq. M. P. Chairman, in the 
51st year of the reign of King George the Third, and during 
the Regency of His Royal Highness, George, Prince of Wales ; 
the money K>r building which was raised by subscription, under 
the authority of an Act of Parliament. 

Engineer, John Rennie, F. R. S. 

*^ Hie names of the gentlemen who have had the conducting 
of this work, are Henry Swann^ Esq. M. P. Chairman ; Sir T. 
T)rrwhitt, knight ; Sir J. S. York, M. P. ; Sir William Rawlins, 
knifffat ; Rev. J. Rush ; J. Kingston ; J. Duddell ; V. Rutter ; 
B. Bricknell ; £. Bilke ; J, Brogden, M. P. ; and J. Morris^ 
Esars. Directors.** 

On the 5th of June, 1812, the Committee reported to the 
Proprietors that they had expended, including purchases of 
premisses necessary for their works, 184,000/. ; that they had al- 
so contracted with the Rev. Mr. Jolli£Pe of Merstham, and Mr. 
Banks, to pay them for building the piers and abutments, which 
were to be completed by November 1813, 169,000/. and they 
had subsequently made a second contract with the same persons 
to turn the arches, and complete the bridge by November 1815 
at the sum of 280,000/. The expence of making the approaches, 
paying the Committee, Engineers, Solicitors, &c. would cost 
about 117,000/. ; making a total of 750,000/. ; but the last item 
was considerably exceeded. Three acres at Cuper*8 garden, 
which belonged to Jesus College, Oxford, and were let by them 
to Beaufoy and Co. for their manufactory of British Wines and 
Vinegar, were necessary for the bridge ; and the value of Beau- 
foy*s lease, which was short, and loss by removing their works 
and establishing new ones, was ascertained by a Jury at about 
36,000/. The company became possessed of it, ana it forms 
pact of the road leading from the bridge to the Obelisk, a 



* MunungAudBray, iii. Appx. xli. 



98S ST. JOHN'S DISTRICT. 



Dimensions of the Bridge. 

Length of the stone bridge within the abutments, 12^2 

Length of the road supported on brick arches, on the 

Middlesex side of the river, 400 

Ditto, on the Surrey side, 1250 

Total length from die Strand, where the building begins, 
to the spot in Lambeth, where it falls to the level 
of the road, 2890 

Width of the bridge within the balustrades, 42 

Width of pavement or footway on each side, 7 

Width of road for horses and carriages, 28 

Span of each arch, 120 

Thickness of each pier, 20 

Clear water way under the nine arches, which are equal, 1080 
Number of brick arches on the Surrey side, 40 

Ditto, on the Middlesex side, 16 

Height from the Thames, 50 

The whole of the outside courses of the bridge is Cornish 
granite, except the balustrades, which are of Aberdeen granite ; 
and the stones, like those of the temple of Solomon, were cut to 
their form before they were brought to the spot. 

There are 320 piles driven into the bed of the river under 
each pier ; the length of each pile was from 19 to 22 feet, and 
the diameter about 13 inches 3 there is one pile to every yard 
square. 

The scientific manner in which the centres were constructed 
was admirable ; and as all the arches are of the same sisse, the 
centres were removed from those that were finished, and placed 
on the piers where the arches were not yet thrown ; this was an 
operation that required great skill and care, and was ably ex- 
ecuted. 

When the centres were removed, so solidly and well was the 
masonry constructed, that in the middle they only sunk about 
one inch. Those of the Pont le Neuilly in France, six miles 
from Paris, which are nearly similar, sunk about 18 inches in 
the middle, after the centres were taken away. 

In circular arches, such as those of Westminster and Black- 
friars bridges, the pressure on the centres before the key-stones 
are put in place, is not near so great as in elliptical arches like 
those of Waterloo. 

On the 18th of June, 1817, his present Majesty, then Prince 
Regent, the Dukes of York and Wellington, and a splendid cor- 
t^e came by water in the royal barge, and opened the bridse 
amidst the firing of cannon and the cheers of an immense mm* 
titude. 



adiU^Q*. f\^yi^'b 7 ft 



ST. JOtttIS DISTRICT. 



Hie road from the bridge ta Stamford-Btreet is made on strong 
bifck archeB, and are used for cellars belonging to tiie houiM. 
Itis to be regretted that any ground was allowed jn trout of tbe 
house* ofthis road, as the uniformity of it is broken by stalls and 
various other nuisaaces which ought not to exist in a high road, 
nnquestionably the finest in tbe neighbourhood of London. 

The first building of importance which we meet ailer having 
paned the bridge is tbe 




KOYAL UNIVERSAL INFIHUAay TOK CHILDHEN. 

It is a neat brick building with a stone portico : the interior 
n neatly fitted up, end contains commodious committee rooms^ 
apartments and offices for the house surgeon, ftc. This ex- 
cellent charity was founded in 1810 by the late Or. J. B.Daris, 
and since upwards of 60,000 patients have been admitted U>. 
(Mrticipate in its benefits, of whom upwards of ^000 have 
been cured or relieved. It is to be regretted that die funds of 
this truly Christian institution are not in the flourishing state 
that every friend of humanity must wish. A design having bmn 
ioade gratuitously hy D. Laing, Esq. the architect of the Cusr 
lom House, and several other public buildings, it was accepted 
by the committee, and the foundation stone was laid by His 
Roval Highness the Duke of York on the 19th of July, 18j».l 
and on the 4tb of October, 1824, the business of the institutioq 
im removed from its temporary situation on SL Andrew's 
Hill to the present building. > 

On the right, and nearly oppoaite the last mentionctd build- 
ing is a new road, made according to the provisions of -tb^. Act 
orParliament for building Waterloo bridge, which provided tbit 
several new roads should be made lirain the bridge to certaM 
l^iceB mentioned. All of these have been executed. - In tliit 
KMd are the Saw Mills of Mr. Smart, worked by stCHs, 
arhich also employs several turners Working the lauic% . 'Qw 



ST. JOHK'K DISTBIcr. 



saws, which are of a .cylindrical ronii, ara nnmeroiu, aAd 
the tnachinery is in the best order. 
Paning Stantford-itreet on the left we arrive at the 



CHURCH or ST. JOHN THB KVAMOXt.tST, 

one of the four new churches buitt ia (his paruh under the 
prorisiooB of the Stat. 58 Geo. III. cap. 45. The architect is 
Francis Bedford, Esq. of Camberwell, a eentlflman who has 
built the church of St. Luke, Norwood, in this parish, and 
the neighbouring churches of the H0I7 Trinity, Newington, 
and St. George, CambenralL The p r tw i H budding was be- 
gun in Deceinber, 1822. The ground, which was selected for 
ue site, being a swamp, and partly ^>ccupied by a hone-pond, 
il was impracticable to make a secure foundation upon tfae 
native earut ; engines were therefore employed for the space oC 
above three months, in driring piles, and forming a oompleia 
finmdation of timber, previous to commencing the brick-work. 
On the SOth of June, 1S23, the first stone was laid by Us 
Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury in person ; the wocka 
after that period proceeded with great rapidity, and on tha 
3d of November, 1824, the church being in a slate ready for 
ewiaecration, that impreaaive ceremony was performed by tb» 
Lwd Bishop of Winchester, and on the succeeding Sunday was 
OpeMd for divine worship ; the Rev. Jon. Tyers rarrett, D. D. 
baisg appt^ted the first minister, and the Rev. J, Rigge tb« 



Tlie church is a large and subitantiat building of brick, witli 
■tone dressings. In plan it is an exact parallelogram, without 
any attached building or projection, having a steeple and potti- 
e& at tbetAsf end. Up6n the space between the roadway and 
dM church is raised a walk or terrace upon arched catacombs 
which extend also beneath the whole floor of the church. The 
entire western front consists of an hexastyle porticoof the Gre- 
ttiaa Doric order with entablature and pediment; the columns 
»rt fluted, and the whole raised on three steps : wi^n iba 
pWtie* we ivc doprs leading to the church, belfry, the prioci-g 



ST. jeHM*S DISTRICT. 991 

pal galleries, and those appropriated for the charity children* 
The wall above is markedf wiUi five windows, the centre beinff 
glased and lighting the belfry, the others blank. The sooth 
and north sides are uniformly, plain, each containing twelve 
windows in two series, the upper large and parallelognuninatic ; 
the lower small and slightly arched. With the exception of 
a single anta between tne windows nearest the west, marking 
the partition of the body of the church from the vestibules 
which contain the staircases and entrances, the walls are only 
brpken by the windows and several unsightly water-pipes. The 
elevations finish with entablatures and cornices without para- 
pets or balustrades. The east front is made by ants into 
U^pee divisions, the centre contains a window, lighting the altar, 
tfoA in the two lateral divisions are smaller windows belonging 
to the vestries ; the whole is finished with a plain pedimenti 
which, as well as that attached to the west front, is furnished 
with acroteria. The angles of the building are guarded by 
antSBy and the roof is covered with copper. It is to be lamented 
ip so large, and in general appearance so handsome a struc- 
t|ire, that some unwarrantable liberties have been taken with 
the architecture. To the critical observer who has admired 
the massively grand proportions of the Greek Doric, the want 
of breadth in the entablature, and the comparative slendemess 
of tliQ. columns in the present building would appear glaring 
defects if they were the only faults ; but there are other iimo« 
nations which even tend to confound and destroy the es&i* 
blidied distinctions between the several orders ; these are the 
entire omission of the triglyph% and mutules, the characteristic 
fflgtiires of both the Roman and Grecian variations of the Do- 
rip order, the places of the former being ill supplied by the 
chajplets of myrtle on the frieze, and the continuation of the 

Ette, which are only an appendage to the triglyphs, along 
^ whole of the fillet between the architrave and the frieze. 
Hmm^ variations from regular architecture remind us too forc- 
ibly of that new-fangled, fantastic, and ridiculous style of build- 
ing called ^' modem Gothic,** but known among scientific men 
by the more appropriate appellation of the <* &ntastic order." 
It is to be lamented the architect did not select for his models 
tjbe temples of the Greeks. The Parthenon or the temple of 
Thoeus would have been better authorities than the ChorMic 
monument of Thrasyllus, and the building would have been uie 
name pleasing, as it nearer a{>i>roached to the chaste architeo- 
tiiiie 01 tliose sublime compositions. The tower rises from the 
nu4dle<tfthe church, immediately behind the. western pedi^ 
n|9Pt. In the elevatioii it consisia of three, square diminishing 
HorieSf smporling an obelisk of tbeaame form tennin|^ed.bj'« 
stone Ml wi cxos^ Th». lower story is chiefly occupied hj 



292 ST. JOHH'h DISTAICT. 

a drcubor aperture, on the margia of which if j^ainted the dock 
dial. The next story contains a window with arched head 
between two Ionic columns, with ants at the angles, and the 
appropiate entablature. The third story is of the same general 
design^as the last described, excepting that the window is 
omitted, the sides being left open, and the columns are of no 
definite order. On this story is placed a square pedestal, which 
supports tlie obelisk with its ball and cross. On the angles of' 
each story are placed Gredan tiles. The whole design displays 
great taste, and may be considered as holding a high rank 
among the New Churches, whether the justness of its proper-* 
tions, or the elegance and symmetry of its form, are taken into 
consideration; nor will it suffer by comparison wiilv the nomer 
reus and elegant structures which ornament the opposite side of 
the river, if due allowance be made for confined expenditure. • 
. Hie interior is approached through three vestibules, the cen<- 
tre being the basement story of the tower, the lateral ones con* 
taining staircases leading to the galleries and entrances to the 
aisles of the church. It differs widely from the churches of Sir 
C. Wren, and the architects of the last century, inasmuch as it 
presents one large unbroken room, and in this respect ap- 
proaches more nearly to the erections of the dissenters than to 
our former notions of church building. The accommodation of 
a large congregation with a confined estimate may be allowed as 
an excuse u>r this deviation from ancient arrangement, but it 
must be admitted that the appearance of the building suiiers 
firom a want of church-like character. Three of its sides are 
occupied with galleries, supported on Doric columns ; th^ 
fronts are pannelled, but possess no architectural charactcar. 
The piers between the windows are ornamented with antae of 
the Ionic order, ranging from the floor to an entablature imnie- 
d^tely below the ceiling, which, together with the capitals} it 
richly embellished with the flower of the honeysuckle. The 
qeiling is divided by beams into square recessed jpannels, havii^ 
large flowers in their centres. At the east end of the church a 
portion of the aisles beneath the galleries on both sides are por- 
tioned off as vestries -, and'against the eastern wall, between two 
of the ante alreadpr mentioned, is the altar-screen, consisting 
of a pediment sustained by ants of white marble, the intervals 
biBtween them being occupied by slabs of black marble, con- 
taining the paternoster, decalogue, and creed. The design m 
mean and tasteless, and far below the dignity which should mark 
the altar of a church. Immediately above the screen is the 
eastern window, rather clumsily connected wi^ it, containing 
a dove within a border of stained glass, the whole together 
dil^laying a poverty of design^ ai^ leaving the spectator tf 
lament the want of a trifling expenditure, to embellish mora- 



8T. JOHM^» DISTRICT. 295 

appropriately what ou^ht to be the most striking part of a 
church. The communion table is covered with crimson velvet, 
having a glory encircling the initials I. H. S. with a small cross 
•in the front, and upon it stand two handsoro^ silver gilt cande- 
labra. The church plate was given by the Archbishop of Can* 
terbury. The organ, which was the gift of Mm Letf, Esq. "^^L^^ 
an inhabitant of the district, and a magistrate for the county, 
occupies the centre of the western eallery. The case is highly 
enrioied in imitation of rose wood, the front is omamentea 
widi four antse of the same character as those before noticed, # 

and a pediment. In the wall at the back of this gallery are 
two large recesses containing seats for the charity children, 
ranging over the gallery stairs, so that the children are placed 
in separate galleries without the body of the church, an ar- 
rangement by which much room is obviously gained. The 
pulpit and reading desk, varnished in imitation of oak, are 
^^aced on opposite sides of the church at a short distance 
nrom the altar rails. The forms of both are exactly similar, and 
the pulpit is placed on the north side of the cnurch.a The 
pews are well arranged for accommodation, and offer none of 
those obstructions to sight so much complained of in many of 
the older churches. In the centre aisle, and immediately under 
the western gallery, stands a handsome font of white marble, 
which was brought from Italy, and presented to the church by 
Dr. Barrett. It appears from the workmanship and carvings 
to have been made about the commencement of the last cen- 
tury : it is in the form of an urn, and with its cover stands up- 
wards of four feet in height. The two handles are carved into 
cherubim, and the sides adorned with two basso relievos of 
fismale saints, one having a lamb, the other bearing a chaplet 
and palm branch. The walls of the church are stained with a 
fight red tint. The building is lighted by lamps attached to the 
walls, and a magnificent chandelier of gilt brass richly andhand- 
•omely embellished, appendant from the centre of the ceilinff. 
The length of this cnurch is 120 feet, breadth 67 feet. It 
will hold 2,032 persons, of whom 851 can be provided with free 

' ^ The pulpit and desks should be placed on one side of the churchy by custom 
oa the south. An indecorous practice (sanctioned by the example of our metro- 
pelitaa cathedral) lately prevailed of placing them in the centre aile (an arrange- 
msat which remmded Sir Henry Englefield of the establishment of an auctioneer), 
and so situated as exactly to obstruct the view of the altar, and force the minister 
iMist Indecently to turn nis back to it. In the more recent churches this has Keen 
a«ioidsd; but in quitting one absurdity, the architects have fiillsn into another } 
we wuBp^lSbmntiin, in tM new churches two pulpits exactly alike placed on o|ppo- 
sile sides of the church, sacrificmg to uniformity at Uie expense of propnetr^ 
end as before the pulpit hid the altar, by the present practice the cleigymen oit- 
ciating at it are concoded from the congregation. 



'294 ST. john'^s district. 

'seats. The architect's estimate iocludinff incidental expences 
and commission, was 18,191/. Ss, Od. and the amount of the 
contract was 15,911/. I6s. Id. 

In the Tower is a good peal of eight bells, the tenor weighing 
near 19 cwt. On the 19th July, 1825, the Lambeth rin^rs 
tang the first peal in commemoration of his Majesty's coronation. 
It has a good clock. 

The churchyard is enclosed with a brick wall, except at the 
western front, where a light iron railing with stone piers sup- 
porting square acroteria, adorned with honeysuckles, separates 
the bmlding from the road. 

In the churchyard are these tombstones : 

In the north part, a flat slab to the memory of Mrs. Mary 
Eleanor Ibbott, who died March 10, 1825, aged 60. 

In the south part, an upright stone to the memory of Char- 
lotte Davis, who died July 31, 1825, aged 26. 

Time ! what an empty vapour 'tis ; 

And days how swift they are ; 
Swift as an Indian arrow flies, 

Or like a shooting star. 

The present moments just appear. 

Then slide away in haste. 
That we can never say they *re here, 

But only say, they *re past. 

Nearly opposite the church is Vine-street, one of the most 
ancient ways in the parish. Formerly here was a vineyard, 
from which it took its name, no remains of which have existed 
within the memory of the oldest inhabitant. 

Concerning the introduction of the vine into England, we pos- 
sess no satismctory information. That it was unknown in the 
earliest periods of our history, is abundantly certain ; for neither 
Caesar nor Plinynotice it in their descriptions of diis county, 
and Tacitus expressly excepts it from the usual productions of 
the soil. Camden and others, relying on a doubtful passage of 
Vopiicus, think that the earliest vineyards may have been formed 
towards the end of the third century ; but as Mr. Daines Bar- 
rington has justly observed, the permission to plant the vine, 
supposed to have been granted by Probus, coulu have been of 
little service, if the vine would not crow in Britain j and, be* 
sides, there is reason to believe that the name 'Britannis', in the 
passage alluded to, was meant to designate the inhabitantii of 
part of Belffic Gaul, rather than the ancient Britons. As in those 
timesy the fruit of Uie vine did not ripen thoroughly beyond the 
Cevennes, it could still less be expected to arrive at maturity 
in the climate of this country, whicn must have been even more 
moist and variable than it is at present : and Camden himself Is 



St. John's pistniCT. S65> 

» 

obliged to acknowledge, that in general it was cultivated more 
for shade and ornament than for use. In proportion, however, 
as the improvements of Agriculture extended, we may conceive 
thai the loreign settlers in the island, desirous of enjoying tfiose 
luxuries to which they had been accustomed in their omtu coun- 
tries, might attempt the cultivation of the vine. In some fa* 
voured situations tneir labours were probably attended with a 
certain degree of success : and as long as they had the means 
of obttf ning better liquors from abroad, they would be content 
with nich indifferent wine as their own lands afforded them.i^ 

: There b a considerable brewery here, called the Belvidere, 
the property of Mrs. Edwards, and opposite the private hou^, 
attocned to it, is a lone canal of water, 1 he site of this brew* 
eiy was formerly Dr. James's laboratory. Adjoining the brew<» 
esy is the steam flour mills of Mr. MatUiews, working two pair 
oratones. 

In Church-street, adjoinine the churchyard, are the new cha*> 
riur schools, erected for the mstruction of the poor children of 
thu. district. It is a neat brick buildine, the upper room being 
appropriated to the girls school, and £e lower for the boys* 
At each end of the buildine are commodious apartments for Uie 
mJMter and mistress. Mr. £ett has been a considerable benefitc* 
tor. The children are instructed on Dr. Bell's plan, the num- 
ber of boys are 250 ; the girls 200 ; present master and mis- 
tseta Mr. Green, and Mrs. Gilmour. This street leads to 
the Old Halfjpenny Hatch, about which I was in hopes I should, 
have learned something of olden times, and its inhabitants, but 
I was disappointed. It has been established near a century, 
and was tne nearest thoroughfare from Lambeth to the 
Ikirough. It was a pleasant walk with pollard willows on 
each aide. Near this hatch there were three pollard wilf 
lows^ called the three sisters, and the new house which has ri- 
sen on the site is known by the aforesaid appellative. 

^ RetuminK to the high road, and proceeding towards the Obe- 
lisk| on the left are two chapels, Uie first called Zion 
CfiAPaL, erected in 1822, for the Independents. It is a good 
brick building with a small portico in front; the interior is 
neatly fitted up with a gallery and gas chandelier suspended 
firom the ceiling; and is capable of containing one thousand 
persons. The present minister and proprietor is the Rev. J< 
Hadam. The other chapel, which makes a neat appearance 
firom the road, belongs to the followers of Rmanuei Sweden- 
boorgfa, and is called the New Jerusalem Temple. It has a 
gallery round three sides of the interior, and a good organ. The 

• Hendenon od Ancient and Modarn Wmet. 



SM ST. johm'8 district. 

Pulpit and reading desk are placed against the remaining blank 
wall. From making the foundations of this chapel without suf-*' 
ficient care> and alongside a ditch, the south wall has sunk con<* 
siderably. The present minister is the Rev. T. Goyder. It will 
hold upwards of five hundred persons. , A free school for the 
poor of this sect is held in a room adjoining the chapel ; but it is 
under consideration to remove it to better and more convenient 
premises. 

Opposite this chapel, on the other side of the road, is a build- 
ing erected in 1823, for the purpose of exhibiting an ancient 
vessel discovered near the river Rother, about two miles from 
Newenden, Kent, the site of the Roman Anderida» It was sixty*' 
three feet eight inches long, and about fifteen feet broad. It wak 
caulked with moss. Some persons have supposed that the ves^ 
sel in question was one of the Danish fleet that entered the Ro*' 
ther, A. D. 893 ; others that she was a foreign trading vessel/ 
and that, having disposed of her cargo, she was bound tiome- 
wards, and wrecked on her passage. A few articles were found ; 
the most curious of which was an old lock, a brass cock, a lea- 
thern ink4iom, several shoes and sandals, and the skull of a 
man. The whole were ultimately dispersed, the ship broke up, 
andf- the building converted into a coach -maker's shop. The 
ground was subsequently excavated, and now forma a badly 
called the Royal National Swimming School, m^^^ «6*c^ U- i^'fE^^l^ 

We have now arrived at Lambeth Marsh, a considerable ^^*f^^ 
thoroughfare from the east to the west end of the town. 

Twenty years ago Lambeth Marsh was considered a rural 
retreat; leading from it, were numberless pretty walks witlj 
pollard willows on each side. Hither the citizen would repair 
ror an evening stroll ; a windmill or two made up the rustic scene; 
in many places worthy the pencil of some of the best Dutch mat- 
ters. Numerous tea-gardens, with their sundry accomtnoda*' 
tions, attracted the notice of the lounger, eveirso late as 181^ 
when Mr. Bray compiled his History of Surrey. A notice' is 
preserved of simples growing wild in '<the Man^." It is 
printed in this work, p. 8. Buildings, or what may more 
properly be termed the tumbling up of tumble down houses, are 
so rapidly increasing, that in a year or two there will scarcely 
be a green spot for the resort of the inhabitants. Against co- 
vering of private ground in this way there is no resistance ; but 
against its evil consequences to health some remedy should be 
provided, and it is to be hoped that the legislature will turn an 
eye to the subject, and by some enactment provide, by the sel- 
tmg apart of open spaces, for the exercise of walking in the 
fredi air. .. --^ 




ROIAL COBURQ THEATBB. 

. Hie project of btulding this theatre origiDBted under the fol- 
lowing circurastancei : Mr. Jones, the leaseholder of the Sur- 
r^ theatre (then the Royal Circus), having become insolvent, the 
1mm came into the huids of five persons, his assignees and 
tniatees. They let the house to Mr. Ellistoa for 2200 guineas ; 
•nd three persons took it at 2000 guineas after he left it, at 
Lady-dsy 1814. One of this latter firm died soon after, anoliier 
becMDie a bankrupt, and the third continued until the expiration 
of the agreement, which was also the termination of Mr. Jones's 
lease. The property then reverted to the ground landlord. 
Temple West, Esq. who asked 4200/. per annum. The old 
ground rent was 900 guineas. Jones, with the last renter, came 
forward at Lady-day 1816, hoping to obtain the theatre, and 
leered 600/. for what had last let for 210W. and for which was 
tufw required 4200f. (a liberal ofier !). So trifling a sum was 
rsAiaed, with an indmatioD that a proper offer would be at- 
tended to. 

The licence, which was from Michaelmas, was held by the as- 
ugMCs for the lessee, and Mr. West offered t&em 600f. for the 
unexpired part of it (the licence could only be used at the 
RoTU Circus). This, however, they declined ; tikewue to 
male any furtfier offer. They thought by holding the licence 
to bring Mr. West to their terms ; but be, applying to Parlin- 



298 ST. .TOHN*S DlfiTBICT. 

ment, obtained an Act to perform at the Royal Circus from 
Easter to Michaelmas, 1816, although the assignees held the 
licence for that period. The leaseholders now stripped the 
Circus of every thing the law would allow, and immediately 
projected building a new theatre. The following prospectus 
was issued :— - 

ProposaU for the Royal Coburg Theatre, Mr. Jones, late 
proprietor of the Royal Circus, or Surrey Theatre, having a* 
greed for a piece of land near the foot of Waterloo Bridge, on 
the Surrey side, for the purpose of building a new theatre, and 
obtained the patronage of H. R. H. the Princess Charlotte of 
Wales, and His Serene Highness the Prince of Soze Coburg, 
proposes to dispose of a part, by way of subscription, as follows : 

The whole is estamated at 12,000/. 

A subscriber of one fifth of that sum to be considered a joint 
proprietor. 

Subscribers for one share of 100/. to receive interest at Bve 
per cent ; and each share to entitle the holder to a personal 
free-admission, transferable each season. 

The holder of ^ve shares to be eligible to be elected a trus* 
tee ; and the holder of two shares to be entitled to vote on all 
occasions. 

For the present subscriptions are received at Sir John Pin- 
horn and Co's, bankers, Southwark^ in the name of 

Each subscriber to pay down 25 per cent at the time of sub- 
scribing ; and 25 per cent monthly till the whole is paid. 

As soon as 4O00/. shall have been subscribed, a general meet- 
ing of the Subscribers to be called, for the purpose of framing 
Regulations for the government of the concern, and electing 
trustees, treasurers, and other officers. 

Materials to the amount of several thousand pounds, are al- 
ready purchased. The whole property, in scenery, dreads, 
&c. at the Surrey theatre, has been removed to this concern ; 
and the theatre is intended to open at Christmas next. 

Subscriptions are also received^ and farther information will 
be communicated, by Mr. Jones, near the Obelisk, St. George*8 
Fields; and Mr. Chippendale, Solicitor to tlie Uieatre, Great 
Queen Street, Lincoln s-Inn Fields." 

Few subscribers came forward to back this scheme, vdiich 
originated with Jones ; Dunn, the last tenant of the Circus 5 and 
one Serres, a marine painter. Tlie first, on tlie strength of his 
former connexion with the Circus, and procuration of the 
ground ; the second having a stock of scenery, dresses, &c. ; 
and the third having made interest with Prince Leopold of Saxe 
Coburg and the Princess Charlotte to procure a licence, which 
was issued at the Surrey Quarter Sessions, Oct. 16, 1816. 



ST. JOHM*S DISTRICT. 299 

Two days previous, the first stone of tlieir edifice was laid by 
Alderman Goodbehere, and may be seen, even with the ground, 
at the north-west angle, bearing the following inscrfption : 

This first stone 

of the Royal Coburg Theatre 

was laid on the 

14th day of September, in the year 1816, 

by his Serene Highness 

the Prince of Saxe Coburg, 

and her Royal Highness 

the Princess Charlotte of Wales, 

by their Serene and Royal Highnesses 

Proxy 
Alderman GooDBEHERBr 
The ground bein^ extremely swampy, the projectors of the 
theatre purchased Uie materials of the old Savoy Palace in the 
Strand (pulled down in 1817, to form an opening to Waterloo 
Bridge), with which they constructed the foundation of their 
huildung. 

The building, however, from want of money, proceeded but 
slowly, till the spring of 1817, when Mr. Glossop, sen. a tal- 
low-chandler, advanced a few hundred pounds, on account 
of his son. The workmen then proceeded till the day before 
Good Friday, 1817, when they struck, and carried off the scaf- 
folding. In this state the shell continued till the autumn, and 
it was expected ever to remain so, when Mr. Glossop, juor. made 
arrangements with the before -mentioned persons for taking the 
management of it into his hands, proceeded speedily with the 
bttildiog, and opened* it, Whit-Monday, May 11, 1818, but in 
an unfinished state, and it iias not completed for several weeks 
after. Subsequently he obtained the whole interest, and on 
the 8th of Nov. 1822, assigned it to J. W. Arkenstall, Esq. 
iipon certain trusts. 



* Ths following is a copy of tho bill of this night's eotertainment. Under a 
lam eut of the rrince*s anns is the motto " treu undfcst" Then follows :— 
« ROYAL COBURG THEATRE. Under' the immedUte patronage of His 
Royal Highness Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg. The above elegant theatre, 
ocMltd aoeordiog to the plans and designs of that celebrated Architect, Mr. Ca- 
liHid» will open for the season, on Whit-Monday, May'llth, 181S. At the 
dnuriag ap of the curtain will be sung the anthem of" Cfod tave the King" by 
thavtiole strength of the cdmpany. Immediately after which (written expressly 
lor tlia occasion, by Joseph Lunn, Esq.) An appropriate Address will be spoken 
1^ Mr« Mnnro. After' which will be presented, tor the 1st time, an entirely 
nev Melo-dramatic spectacle, with new Music, Scenery, Dresses and Decora- 
tioM, to be called Trial by Battle \ or << Heanen drfend the Right / " In which 
will bepourtrayed the ancient mode of decision by Kemp Fight, or Single Com- 
bat. Tne Scenery painted by Messrs. Morris, Scruton, Stanfield, and Wilklot. 



300 



Srr JOHN S DlSiTUlCT. 



On the 8th of July 1824 it was let by Mr. Arkenstall ta Metin. 
yiT^Aj I ^^^'^S^> B^Dgough, and Lq Clercq, the present managers. 
"^^ The front of the theatre, which is plain and of bncksliio 






{ 



1*he Machinery bj MeMn. Lewis and Craddock. The dretaes by Mr. Smithyea 
and Mrs. Cmsa. The properties, banners, and armour, bv Mr. Collet aud As- 
sistanu. The Meh>-draaia nrritten and produced by Mr. W. Barrymore. Baron 
Falconbridge, Mr. Munro, from the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh ; Albert, Mr. 
Davi4ge, from the Saas Wieilt Hubert (bis sob), Mr. M*CarUiy, from the The- 
atre Royal, Bsth ; Ambrose, Mr. Stebbiar, late of Astley's Royal Arophitheatie ; 
Rufus, Mr. Bradley* htte of the Surrey Theatre ; Henriet Mr. T. Blaachaid, 
fruro the Theatre, Liverpool ; Barnard, Mr. Gallot, from the Theatre, Chester ; 
Hufo, Mr. Morler, fram the Surrey Theatre ; Gilbert, Mr. Bryant, from the 
Surrey Theatre ; Little Jem, Miss J. Seott, from the King's Theatre ; Morrioe, 
(a silly peasant) Mr. Harwodd, from the Theatre floyal, York ; chorus of Smug- 
glers, Messrs^Staaley, Clarke, Willis, Hohnan, Webster, Duorov* and Geoige \ 
GCralda, Miss Cooper, from the WorUung Theatre ; Ninette, Mist £. Uolkwd ; 
Ladies of the Court, Mesdames Nicols, Brag, Hart, Smith, £nseoe, and Baylis ; 
Knights, Squires, Heralds, &c. by the lest of the Company. In the course of 
the piece, a Glit by Messrs.. Qallott, Morley, and Nelson. Khtt whieh, a 
grand Asiatic Ballet (composed and produced by Mr. Le Clercq, Ballet Master)* 
with new Music, Scenery, Dresses, and Decorations, called Atmnt, amd Npme ; 
oTt the Fairy G{fk The scenery painted by Mr. Scruton. Akors (j$n Kaatern 
PHoce), IVfr. Le Gercq ; his Suite, Mr. Gay, Mr. Cartlitch, Masters Ashbury 
and Honoer, Messrs. Qtanley, Holmao, Clarke, Willw, Webster, Simpson, 
George, and Ducrov, Misses Boscoe, Nicholas, Hart, Brag, Cooper^TlMvpo^ 
Holland, Baker, and Miss J. Simpson (pupil of Mr. Le Cleroo) ; the F^ry« Mim 
J. Scott'; and Nerine, Mrs. Le Clercq ; PeMants, Master Conviiy, MiMtt M. 
Nichols, C. Bennet, Brock, and Rountree (pupils of Mr. Le Clercq). In thf 
course of the eiiening, an entirely new Comic bong caHed <* 1 818 HhrndersfrnVti 
be sung by Mr. Stebbing. The evening's entertainments to eondnde with a 
new and splendid Harlequinade (partly from Milton's Masque dP Ccnniis), wifeh 
new and extenshre Scenery, Machinery, Mechanical chaogea, TrieiBy ud 
Metamorphoses, invented and produced by Mr. Norman, i9$^\9d Midnight Reodfyi 
or, UarUquin and Comus, The Music by Mr. Crouch. The dresses by Mr. 
Smithyes and Mrs. Cross. Comus (an Encnanter), Mr. Hobbs, lUe of the The- 
atre Royal, Haymarket ; Damon (afierwarda Harlequin), Mr. Kirby } Am (s^ 
terwards PaoUloou), Mr. T. Blanchard ; Bacchus (afterwards C]«wn)» Mr« Nor> 
man, of the Tlieatre Royal, Coveot Garden ; Sabrioa (goddess of the deep). Miss 
Lewis; Ariel (spirit of the air), MissJ. Scott» the Lady (afterwaida Colom- 
bine). Miss Ruggles, late of the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane ; Fauns, Satyrs, 
Baechanalians, Sylvians, Ariels, and numerous other charaeten incidental to the 
Pantomime, by the rest of the Coospany. The Chorusses and Vocal Deputneal 
arranged by Mr. Keeley, late of tne Surrey Theatre. The Machiaefy and Me- 
chanical Changes executed by Mr. Lewia and Assistants. The gmad Mtirit Sa- 
kkm, designed and executed by Mr. Series, Marine Fainter to hia Mi^es^. 
Stage Manager, Mr. Norman. The Proprietors, in order to meet the wiebaa and 
suggestions of man]^ noble patrons and friends, have appropriated the lowtr oiv> 
•les of boxes as dress boxes, llie aconnunuda^on of the frequenters of tkenpper 
circle has also been paid particular attention to—a full and perfect view of the 
stage is maintained — while the appropriation of a tastefully decoiated aaloos, for 
the purpose of refreshments, will, it is hoped, add to the general comfort. Lower 
boxes, 4s, Upper boxes, Ss. Pit, is. Gallery, Is, Doors to be opened tt half« 
past 5, to begin at half past 6. — Half-price at half-past 8. Pkcea fbr the boBM 
to be taken of Mr. Grub, at the Box ofiice firom 10 till 4." 



IT. JOJIH's DlfTRlCT. 901 

«0td» tUuids on the south aide of the New Cut, ind adjcHBing 
the Waterloo road. The boxes and [ut are entered by doors 
ni the front of the house, the gidlery by a door m the Waterioo 
inoady the stage door is on the opposite side of the house* On 
the front of the house, in raised letters, is «< Royal Coborg 
Ilieatre." There is no portico in front, and the boxes are w^ 
IpKoached by a vestibule 20 feet in depth and 34 feet in width. 
A double staircase in the middle leaos to the dress circle, or 
fint tier of boxes, another staircase on the left side of the tos- 
libide leads to the second tier or upper circle. The first tier of 
boxM are enclosed, and a lobby all round. There are 8 private 
boxes in the first circle, enclosed out of the other boxes, and 8 
am each side of the stage, exclusive of the boxes over the stage 
dkior. The same is continued in the second circle^ with the ex* 
caption of the 8 boxes, the backs of the boxes not being en* 
c los ed above breast high. Attached to the lobby of the first 
cbde is a spacious saloon, elegantly fitted up with paintings 
lepresenting the triumph of Britannia and Neptune at Algiers, 
views of Genoa, Naples, Shakspeare*8 Cli£^ and Dover Roads, 
1^ executed by Serres in his best maoner.s At the end oi this 
loom. is the box office, answering as a refreshment room in the 
efeohig. Above the door leading to this apartment is a three- 
fiarter length portrait of H. R. H. the late Princess Charlotte, 
painted by Cawse after Sir W. Beechey. Above tbe door lead* 
mg from the lobby to the saloon is a similar portrait of H. S. H. 
Pnnoe Leopold. These portraits are framed and ornamented 
in a handsome manner. The ceiling is painted in a neat style 
with the arms of England, Prince Leopold, and the Princess 
Charlotte. The depth of this saloon is 20 feet, and S5 feet in 
width ; between the piers formed by four windows are antique 
looking classes, brought from Hampton Court. The ^appear- 
ance of mis saloon exceeds that of any minor house in England. 
The upper circle is open at the back about four feet from the 
floor; toe lobby extends all round the boxes; a flight of stairs 
Ittids to a saloon neatly fitted up, 20 feet in depth and 24 in 
wUteh. The gallery is above this circle, and extends all round 
tfie auditory, with an extensive lobby at the back. The pit> 
whfcb is entered by the door next the box entrance on the left, 
is^ commodious, and surrounded at the back by a partition oi* 
about 4 feet in height, which durinff the winter season is com* 
filetely boarded up, and makes the oouse considerably warmer. 
Beneath the pit is a saloon of a perfectly unique d^cription. 
It is formed of a segment of a circle, and is fitted up with gilt 



^ • SeiTO was the fint appointed Scene PMfltcr to tbtt Theatre, and MariM 
fymer to hit laU Mijefty. 



302 ST. John's district. 

caryatides supporting the roof, and casts from the anti<]ue ; die 
half of the raaius is fitted up with looking glass, tad near it 
are places for refreshment ; tne whole is lighted by gas ; but 
from the lowness of the ceiling the heat occasionally is very op- 
pressive. The expence of this erection exceeded lOOtf. Two 
staircases descend from the lobby of the pit to this saloon. The 
Orchestra is extensive and capable of containing 30 performers. 
Hie ornaments on the front of the boxes are gold on a blun 
ground, which has a very neat appearance. Each tier, is sup« 
ported by gilt pillars. The Proscenium is in height about tS 
feet. A cut glass lustre is suspended over the pit, and one on 
each side of the proscenium, all lighted by gas, which is in ge^ 
neral use over the whole of the theatre. The Stage, which is ex- 
tensive and better fitted up than any minor house in £nglaiid, is 
in depth from the lights to the wall 94 feet, and width from sti^ 
door to stage door 32 feet. It gradually descends from the wwi 
to the pit. The scene-painting room is one of the most conve* 
nient in London, being fitted up with curious machinery for 
ptdnting, depth 32 feet, width 44 feet. The Property room is 
wery extensive, extending over part of the stage and auditory^ 
On the P. S. there are two flies or galleries ; on the O. P. onef 
all of them complete in their appurtenances. A gasometer^ and 
complete apparatus for making oil gas, is attached to the buiUU 
ing, but is now not used. The house holds 325/. 

The proximity of this theatre to the Strand, Covent Grarden, 
Fleet-street,Xharinff-cross, and the western parts of the Metro* 
p<^ls, gives it a decided advantage over the other Surrey theap 
• tres ; and in proportion as the buildings in the bridge, road pro- 
ceed, in like proportion will the chance of success attend this 
establiriiment. 

- From the Coburg Theatre a road proceeds to the right and 
left,; the rights which is called Lambeth Marsh, extends to the 
Westminster road ; the lefl, which is called the New Cuty leads 
to the Blackfriars road. In a street leading from it, on the. 
leh as you proceed towards the last-mentioned road, are Chubch 
STREET Almshouses. It is a neat brick building erected in I824p 
for ten poor members of Mr. Upton's particular Baptist Societjr 
in Church street, Blackfriars road. The nuisances complained 
of in the Waterloo Bridge road are in the New Cut of greater 
magnitude, and it often occurs that the passenger is obliged ^to 
leave the path for the road, his progress beine impeded by stalls 
and other obstacles which ought not to be allowed in any road| 
much less in a great thoroughfare. 

In Lambeth Marsh stood, until the beginning of July, 1823, 
when it was taken down, an ancient fragment of a building 
called Bonner's house, though much mutilated and altered from 
what it appeared a few years ago. Tliis is traditionally said to 



ST. JOHN^S DISTRICT. SOS 

IwTe been, part of a residence of Bishop Bonner, which for-* 
merlv extended a considerable way further in front. There is 
npUunff in the liistory of this place to prove that it belonged to 
any or the Bishops of London, except by an entry of an ordi- 
nation in Strype s '' Memorials of Cranmer,** which mentions 
the same to have taken place ** in the chapel of my lord the 
Bishop of London in the Lower Marsh, Lambeth.a*' The 
building bore evident marks of age ; at the back are the re- 
nuiiiis of some ancient brick walls vmich seem to have originally 
Korrounded a large garden. The annexed view was taken the 
day before it was pulled down. 

A little further up on the same side that Bonner's house stood 
is a respectable academy for young ladies, conducted by the 
Mines Ford and Bickley. This is said to have been part of ^ /3<m»it^^ 
dier building mentioned above. From the road it has an appear- ^/>u (4^ ihj 
ailee of antiquity ; but 1 am not aware of any part exceeding, / AuL /^ 
wtel I should call, the time of Queen Anne, or tne first George. rt*^>^ 

On the opposite side of the road, but nearer the Coburg 
theatre, are some old wooden houses probably of the age of 
James the First. 

In 1526 *^ certain ground lying in Lambeth Marsh** was held 
br Archbishop Warham of *' the Lord Prior of Christ Church, 
(Smterbury,** at the annual rent of 6/. ISs. 4 J. 

In this place resided Thomas Bushell, a man of great scien- 
tific attainments, and friend of the great Lord Chancellor Ba- 
con* He obtained from Charles 1. a grant to coin silver money 
for the use of the army when his mint in the Tower was denied 
hjou On Oliver assuming the protectorate he absconded, and 
hid himself in a house in << this Marsh where the piqued turret 
is," for upwards of a year, till his friends made his peace with 
Gromwell. He lay in a earret, which was the length of the 
irfude house, hung with black baize. At one end was painted 
a sk^ton extended on a mattress, which was rolled up under 
hn bead. At the other end was a low pallet bed, on wnich h^ 
lay, and on the wall were depicted various emblems of mortality. 
On the Restoration Charles II. supported him in some of his 
speculations. He died in 1674, at the advanced age of 80, and 
, was buried in the Little Cloisters, Westminster Abbey. 
' That eminent engraver, Simon Francis Ravenet, for some 
time resided in Lambeth Marsh. He was born at Paris, 1706» 
and settled in London, 1750. He died at a house facing the 
Mother Red Cap, Tottenham Court road, 1774, and was buried 
in St; Pancras churchyard. 

* HUmj is the prelate elluded to, who in the chepel of hu house in Lambeth 
Manh consecrated Henry Holbeach luflFiragan Bishopof Bristol, March 34, 1537. 
Stnrpe inadvertently styled it the Bishop of London's house.— >Denne*s Addenda 
' to Hist, of Lambeth, p. 244. 



'304 »t. jovm's niHtnict. 

In Lfwibeth Marsfa fended V^ntine Gottlieb. An in^hioUA 
tneehafiist and divil engineer. He was a natite of Germanyy 
and died here the beginning of the year 18%. His retidetice 
was what is now Messrs. Edwards*s hat manufactory. 

W^liam Curtis, the celebrated botanist, had a large piece of 

Sound in Lafnbeth Marsh, where he brought together the 
test and most complete arrangement of British plants ever be- 
fore collected. 

Among the traders' tokens printed in Mr. Nicholses History 
of this Parish h the following : — Obverse, Aron Cartar, and a 
dagger in the centre. Reverse, ^C^ In Lambeth Marsh. An 

engraving of it is presented at the end of this Chapter. 

ft appears that from and during the reign of Queen Eliia* 
beth to that of Charles XL the victuallers and tradesmen In 
ffeneral, that is all that pleased, coined small money or tokens 
m the benefit and convenience of trade. And for this there 
was, in a manner, a perfect necessity, since at that time there 
were but few brass halfpennies coined by authority* and no 
great quantity of farthings, which likewise were very small* 
The traders continued coinins in this manner until the ^ear 
1672, when King Charles 11. having struck a sufficient 
4iuantlty of halfpence and farthings for the intention and exl* 
gencies of commerce, these NHmmorum FamuZi were superseded, 
and an end was put to these shifts and practices or the vic«> 
tuallers and shopkeepers, as being no longer either necessary 
or useful. 

Mr. Moser, in his vestiges published in the European Maga- 
2ine,A says that a Lazar-house or Hospital existed m Lambeth 
Marsh, though the exact site is not mentioned. 

Having arrived in the Westminster bridge-road, we proceed 
to die ri^t. Here is the extensive manufactory of Messrs. 
Collinges for patent axle-trees, and all kinds of machinery. 
Farther on, on the same side, is a plain brick building, enclosed 
iVom the road by a dwarf waH, culed the 

eiBNERAL LYIKO-IN HOSPITAL, 

formerljr the Westminster Lying-in Hospital. This charity 
was instituted in the year 1765, by the humane exertions of thie 
late Dr. John Leake, an eminent writer on the diseases of wo- 
mei^. ^ It was principally intended as an Asylum for the wives of 
poor industrious tradesmen, and distressed housekeepers, who» 
either from unavoidable misfortunes or from the burthen, of 

a Vol. li. p. 3.31. 



ST. John's district. 305 

large families, are reduced to want, and rendered incapable of 
bearing the expences incident to the pregnant and lying-in 
atate, and also for the wives of indigent soldiers and seamen ; 
but the governors, in the spirit of true philanthropy, have ex- 
tended the benefits of this institution to unmarried females, res- 
tricting this indulgence, however, to the first instance of mis- 
conduct. 

The benefits of this institution are also extended to pregnant 
women who prefer remaining with their families, or who cannot 
conveniently be removed, and are supplied with all necessary 
naiedicines and medical assistance. This benefit could not be ex- 
tended fiuther than to such as reside within certain limks, viz. 
Vauxhall, Kennington, and Kent-street turnpikes ; Tower-hill,* 
Oomhill, the turnpikes at the end of St. John-street, Goswell- 
street, Gray's- inn-lane, Tottenham-court-road, Paddington, 
Tjrbum, Hyde-park, and Pimlico; but the benefits of this institu- 
tion were subsequently extended generally. Proper midwives 
ari9 appointed in the various districts to such women. A chaplain 
bMtizes the children, keeps the register, churches the women, 
and administers the Communion. For encouragement of bene- 
.Vi^nt institutions of this kind, an Act was passed, IS Geo. III. 
c^ %2y sect. 5, declaring that illegitimate children born in them 
shall not thereby be settled in the parish. 

Nothing worthy notice occurs till arriving at Westminster- 
bridee foot ; on the right is Pedlar*s-acre. This piece of ground 
adjoms to the river, and lies near the east end of the Surrey 
abutment of Westminster-bridge. It contains by admeasure- 
ment one acre and seventeen poles ; it does not appear among 
the benefactions in any of the registers. The parish were in 
poasession of it in 1504<, at which time the rent arising from it 
was carried to the churchwardens' accounts. In them it is called 
the Church Hoppys, or Hope,* which name it retained till 1623, 
wben it assumed that of the Church Osiers, probably from its 
swampy and damp situation. In a lease of it granted by Dr. 
Hoopier the rector, and the Churchwardens, dated August 6, 
1690, and for which, exclusive of a rent of 4/. per year, a fine 
was paid to the parish of 50/. ^ it is for the first time called Ped- 
lar*s<u;re. By the map of London 1^60, it appears that all the 
land on the Surrey side of the Thames, from Lambeth Palace 
to Christchurch, was a marsh ; which was inclosed at the end of 
die succeeding century in parcels of an acre each. Tlie tradi- 



* Hope or Hoppe signifies an isthnueor oeck of land projecting Into the rirer, 
or in inclosed piece oflow meadow or marsh land, 
k b Maitland*s London, p. 788. 

2r 



306 ST. JOHN*S DISTBICT. 

tionoftbePedlar*8-acre then prevailing, it is probable the acre 
was so calleci to distinguish it from the Maiden-acre, and the 
Archbishop's-acre, to both which it adjoins. The different rents 
at which this piece of ground was let are as follows: 





£. 


8. 


d. 




£. s. 


d. 


In 1504* 


. 


2 


8 


In 1565 


. 13 


4 


1514. 


. 


4 





1581 


. 1 6 


8c 


1554f 


. 


5 





1556 


• 4. 





1557 


. 


6 


8 


1690 


. 4 


Od 



In 1581 it was seized by Mr. Easton^'under, it is supposed 
an Act of 1 Edw. VI. c. 14, sect. 5, which vested all lands given 
for superstitious use in the Crown ; the title to it was defended 
out of the church stock, and it is presumed he lost his suit. 

It was held of the parish in 1752 by W.Willis, esq. of St«Duii^ 
Stan's in the West; tne lease was granted by Dr. Denne -the 
rector, and churchwardens, in consideration of a fine of 80tf. 
and the yearly rent of 100^. In 1813, on the expiration of the 
old lease, a major part of the Acre was let by a Committee of 
the parish, on three separate leases of 21 years each, by auction. 
The first producing a sum of 2,300/. and 12/. yearly rent; the 
second 2,000/. and 16/. yearly rent; and the last 1,700/. and 
20/. a year rent. 

An attempt was made in 1824 to sell or mortgage the pro- 
pertyi and build a chapel and parsonage-houses for the ministers 
attached to the new churches^ with the produce ; but it was in- 
jJi^M^ ^^dignantly scouted by the inhabitants. 
4tt'y i ^^ ^^y ^> 1798, a dreadful fire broke out in one of the buildr 
ings belonging to Mr. D. Smith's timber-yard, in Pedlar *s-acre, 
which destroyed the workshops and four dwelling-houses ; the 
amount of the loss was estimated at 1,000/. 

In PedlarVacre are the Steam Flour Mills of Messrs, Cook 
and Co. In this street is 

COADe's ARTIFICIAL STONE MANUFACTORY, 

established in 1769. The premises are very extensive, and -the 
composition is calculated to answer every purpose of stone carv- 
ing, naving a property peculiar to itself of resisting the frosty 
and consequently of retaining that sharpness in which it excels 
every kind of stone sculpture. This extensive concern has re- 
cently been purchased by Messrs. Croggan and Co. who are 
removing it to the New Road leading from Somers Town to 
Paddington. Amongst other works which have been executed 
at this manufactory, is the celebrated Gothic screen in St. 

c At that rent it was let for 2 1 yeart, at a fine of bU 
** Payable quarterly. 



ST. John's district. 307 

* 

GeoTffe's Chapel, at Windsor, supporting the or^an gallery ; 
akb me Gothic front, and the three statues of King Edward, 
Madonna and Child, and St. George and the Dragon, on the 
west front of the Chapel ; the arms, &c. of the Trinity-house ; 
of the barracks at Windsor, "^ork, and Northampton ; the 
Qyeen*s Guard-house in St. Jameses Park ; also of the barracks 
tl^ughout Scotland ; and different works in the gardens and 
on the screen of Carlton-house, &c. 

Vewc King*s-arms stairs in College-street, in 1694<, after a 
neat flood, was found a gold ring, weighing the value of forty 
diUHngs, which was left near tlie sand in the bank ; it was shewn 
tadie Society of Antiquaries by Mr. Theobald in 1727. 





Hie inscription (in old French) on the seal part, round a dove 
with an olive-branch in his mouth, which falls over his back, 
" 9tnti He inoH," — Think of me. Within the circle, << S)e tei 
ttt.'* — IVith hearty or heartuy. 

. The road that runs paraUel with the river is now called Bel- 
^ere-road, and is undergoing ^reat improvements, by taking 
down the old buildings, and substituting new and elegant houses 
in their stead. The former appellation of this place was Nar- 
row Wall, to distinguish it from Broad Wall, which runs from 
the river, and protected the ground in Christ-churdi parish 
from the Marsh. 

Belvidere-road, or Narrow Wall, is an ancient way, as it is 
depicted in old views of London, 1588 ; as is Vine-street and 
the Cornwall-road ; but no houses seem to have been on either 
.of them, with the exception of a fejK in and about Vine-street. 
. In 1704<, Jacob Vanlee, alias Valentine Vanlee, gave four 
alnis-houses on Narrow Wall for the poor of Lambeth, but the 
^houses falling down, the ground was let in 1779 to John Wil- 
SODy at 5/. per ann. In 1786 it was let for ^/. and was then 
vested in the Rector and Churchwardens. 

In an old view of London, a building is represented called 



308 ST. JOHN*8 DISTRICT. 

** the Glass House." That there was a glass-house in this neigh* 
bourhood is well known^ though the exact site is not ascer- 
iaioed. 

On the same side as Coade's factory is the 

LAMBETH WATER WORKS. 

In 1775 an Act of Parliament was passed for making Water- 
works on part of Belvidere wharf, formerly a garden, on the 
Narrow Wall, to supply Lambeth and parts adjacent with water 
from the Thames, wnich was carried into execution, And suc- 
ceeded well, except that complaints were made of the water 
being foul, which, afler some time, was discovered to be owing 
to its being taken from the border of the river. The Company 
then obtained leave from the City of London to take the water 
from near the middle of the river, which they are enabled to do 
by an ingenious contrivance ; a pile was driven into the bed of 
the river, surrounded by a case and iron grates, which supply 
iron pipes laid in the bottom of the river from the pile to the 
stjeam engine on shore. The water is taken from two or three 
feet above the bed, and as much below the surface, to avoid any 
disagreeable substances sunk to the bottom, or floating on the 
top. This has been found to answer well, and it is to be re- 
gretted the South London Water-works Company do not adopt 
the same plan. The pile and its case are painted white, to avoid 
collison with barges. The premises are extensive, being, from 
the Belvidere-road to the river, a distance of 320 feet. There 
are two engines; one eighty horse power, from the factory of 
Messrs. Francis and Co. Eagle foundry, Birmingham ; it raises 
nine tons and a half of water per minute. The other is by Boul- 
ton and Watts, of 36 horse power, and raises six tons three 
hundred weight per minute. The piston of the large engine 
(double acting pump) is nine feet eight inches, and raises 260 
gallons of water. This engine is one of the best in London, 
and is kept in excellent order. The whole of the premises are 
fire proof. In case of fire, water can be thrown into the main 
at five minutes notice. The present engineer is Mr. N. Shake- 
spear, an ingenious and well-informed mechanist. 

On the same side, a fine wet dock has been excavated, by 
Mess. Maltby and Co. which will greatly promote the interests of 
commerce, by facilitating the loading ana warehousing of goods. 
The numerous buildings and storehouses raised upon the spot, 
and the works now going on, are much admired for their soH- 
- x^ dity, plan, and architecture. A new Shot Factory is erecting 

S 7 kJj-^Mi *^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ wharf. It is of a circular form, and, when 
^ finished, will be considerably higher than its neighbbur. 

Opposite the site of the new dock and shot factory Mras an 
extensive building, recently pulled down, formerly a soap ma- 



ST. JOHN*S DISTRICT. 809 

nufiictory, commenced by several enterprizing individuals, but 
from want of a sufficiently extensive connexion the speculation 
failed. The principal manager was a person of the name of 

FhcJpS* ^ V ^*Asf/^ ^0^At4Ai^ 4tH.ifSti^t^ A*4 * /bL^ 4^;m««^ 

Passing beneath the Waterloo-bridge-road> by an arch turned 
in an admirable manner, we arrive on a spot celebrated as a 
place of public amusement. It was opened in the middle of the 
Uttt century, and called 

cuper's gardens, 

whidi in 1636 was the garden of Thomas Howard, Earl of 
Arundel, and continued so until 1649. At the former period 
he occupied the Princess meadow, adjoining the east side of the 
said garden. It is supposed he had a house on this warden ; but 
we have no account thereof, and it is imagined that he gave this 
estate to Jesus College, Oxford, as the Members of the College 
were afterwards the possessors. In an old plan of the '' liberty 
of Parris Garden,*' in the possession of W. Bray, Esq. F. S. A. the 
ground now known as Cuper's Garden, is called the Earl of Arun- 
aePs ; and there is a place pointing towards it, marked as the Earl 
(tf Arunders walk, between two rows of trees, which seem to be 
entered through a gateway at the end next I^Ambeth town. 
There does not appear to be a house on either part of it. 
Through the kind permission of the possessor of this curious 
drawing, I am enabled to present the annexed engraving. The 
gardens* received their name from Boydell Cuper, the EarPs 
gardmier^ by whom they were afterwards rented. The enter- 
tainments consisted of fireworks, illuminations, and music, par- 
ticularly with the performance of a celebrated musician on the 
harp, whose name was Jones.' The gardens were ornamented 
with several mutilated statues, the refuse of the collection 
brought by the Earl of Arundel from Italy. On its suppression 
in 1755, the more valuable part of the marbles above-mentioned 
were bought by Lord Leiij^ter, father of the first Earl of Pom- 
fret, and presented by the earl's widow to the University of 
Oxford. On the pulling down of Arundel house, on the other 
side of the river, to make way for the street of that name, these, 
and several others of the damaged part of the collection, were 
-rttooved to Cuper's Garden. Numbers were left on the ground 
naar the river's side, andoverwhelmed with the rubbish brought 
= from the foundation of the new cathedral church of St. Paul. 
These in after times were discovered, dug up, and conveyed to 
the seat of the Duke of Norfolk, Worksop manor. Injured as 
they are, they appear, from the etchings given in Nichols's 
' History of Lambeth, to have had great merit. 

The refuse of the collection was removed in the year 1717, 
having been purchased for 75/. from John Cuper by Mr. Waller, 
of Beaconsfield, and Mr. Freeman, of Fawley Court. Those 



310 ST. jpHM/S PISTRICT. 

which remained were covered with rubbish. They wer^^ after* 
wards duf; out by Mr. Tlieobaldy a subsequent prc^rietpr of 
t^e premises^ and most of them were given by him to. the Eari 
of Burlington, who took them to Chiswick ; me remainder waf 
sent to Worksop, the seat of his Grace the Duke of Norfolk. 

There was also a place called Belvidere^ but Mr. Nichols 
seems to think that it is the same with Cuper*s Gardens. Thif 
is very probable, from its situation << over against York Bujld- 
ings.** 

The following lines from Welsted's Epistle to Lord Pem- 
broke, " On False Fame,** w:ill shew the kind of estimiation in 

which Cuper*s Gardens were held in 1732 : 

» 

<< The light coquettish trip ! the glance askew ! 

To slip the vizor, and to skulk anew !. 

For Cfuper's Bowers, she hires the willing scull ; 

A cockswain's now, and now a sharper*s trull ! 

A different face, by turns, or dress does borrow, 

To day a Quaker, and in weeds to-morrow ! 

At windows twitters, or from hacks invites ; 

While here a 'prentice, there a captain bites ; 

With new success, new 'firontery she attains ; 
, And grows in riot, as she grows m gains : 

In tavern brawls, the shattered crystal flings ; 

Swears with the rake, and with the drunkard sings ; 

Shameless at length, that was but loose before ; 

A fleering, faithless, fluttering, flimsy w c ! 

When, lo ! at Hamsted Wells, Lord Lovemore spy*d 

The mimic charmer, in her plaster*d pride ; 

He saw, he lov*d, his eyes his passion tell ; 

And what he likes, the world must own a belle. 

Swifl thro* the town th' affected murmurs go ; 

And Cselia's praise is caught from beau to beau. 

Now, the rich equipage her pride proclaims ; 

The tissue brightens, and the diamond flames. 

Low bows the mercer, as her chariot flies ! 

Each booby stares, and every coxcomb dies.** 

Aflerwards,MarkBeaufoy, esq. erected spacious premises on the 
site of the Gardens, for the manufacture of English wines, and 
carried it on to a most surprising extent^ paying to the College 
a rent of about 1,2(XV. per annum. Mr. Pennant says, ** I ctax 
scarcely say how much I was struck with the extent of the a^i- 
dertaking. There is a magnificence of business, in this oce«a 
of sweets and sours, that cannot fail exciting the greatest adrni- 
ration : whether we consider the number of vessels, or their 
size. The boasted tun at Heidelberg does not surpass .&em. 
On first entering the yard, two rise before you» covered at tl^e 



ST. John's district. Sll 

« 

lo|i with a thatched dome ; between them is a circular turret, 
including a winding staircase, which brings you to their sum* 
nits» which are about twenty-four feet in diameter. One of 
these conservatories is full of sweet wine, and contains fifty- 
eight thousand one hundred and nine gallons ; or eighteen hun- 
dred an4 fifteen barrels of Winchester measuve. Its superb 
associate is full of vinegar^ to the amount of fifty-six thousand 
seven hundred and ninety-nine gallons, or seventeen hundred 
aod seventy-four barrels, of the same standard as the former. 
Hie fiunous German vessel yields even to the last by the quan- 
ti^ of forty barrels, a 

"Besides these, is an avenue of lesser vessels, which hold from 
thirty-two thousand five hundred to sixteen thousand nine hun- 
dred and seventy-four gallons each. After quitting this Brob- 
di^puigian scene, we pass to the acres covered with common 
barrels; we cannot diminish our ideas so suddenly, but at first we 
imagined we could auafi^ them off as easily as Gulliver did the 
little hogsheads of the kingdom of Lilliput." An engraving of 
this manufactory is here presented by permission of the Trus- 
tees of the British Museum. The original drawing is in Crole*8 
illustrated Pennant*s History of London. 

On the building of Waterloo Bridge, Messrs. Beaufoy re* 
moved their manufactory to more extensive premises at South 
Lambeth. 

The house on the left, after passing through the arch, and 
now belonging to Messrs. Browning, extensive timber mer- 
chants, was the residence of Mark Beaufoy, his premises ex- 
tending southward towards the church. On the site of this 
house and premises was the garden and residence of Sir Peter 
Rich, who was buried in Lambeth church, with a monument. 

Near Cuper*s-bridge was established in 1806, an institution, 
called '*The Refuge for the Destitute,'* for the purpose of pro- 
viding an asvlum for persons discharged from prison, or from 
the hulks, n>r unfortunate and deserted females, and others 
who, from loss of character or extreme indigence, cannot pro- 
cure an honest maintenance, though willing to work. In the 
firgt three- years after its establishment, out of nearly 600 ap- 
plicants, 250 were admitted, and 100 relieved out of the house. 
Of those who left the house, some were restored to their friends, 
and others placed in situations, and enabled to gain an honest 
livelihood. Upon the Act of Parliament passing for building a 
bridge here, the Society removed to more extensive premises 
near Hackney ; certainly a more airy and preferable situation. 



* According to Mr. Keysler, the Heidelberg vessel holds two hundred and 
fear tuns. 



313 ST. John's district. 

In this part of the parish was erected a Saw-mill during the 
protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, which was such a rarity in Eng- 
land (being perhaps the first of the kind) that Cromwell often 
went to see it, and was so much pleased with the contrivance, 
that, notwithstanding the clamour of several artificers about it, 
he got it confirmed by Act of Parliament. It stood in Belisderes 
Gardens ; probably another name for Cuper*s Gardens. 

In the spring of 1810 an Act of Parliament was passed to 
enable his present Majesty, then Prince Regent, to grant leases 
for 99 years, of the land caHed " The Prince's Meadow," con- 
taining 28 acres, 3 roods, and 10 perches, near CuperVbridge^ 
part of the Duchy of Cornwall. The land produced at that 
time to the lessees a rent of about 3,200/. but, on the expiration 
of the existing leases, which had five or six years to run, it 
was calculated to produce 5,076/. a year. According to ^e 
custom of the Duchy of Cornwall, tlie Prince had power to let 
leases for thirty-one years, at a small rent, taking a fine. The 
Act sanctioned this custom, and the land was advertised to be 
let for a term of 93 years and a half from the 10th of October 
1815, for the purpose of building a town, to be called Prince's 
To^n. The particulars described the land as having a front- 
age of about 1250 feet on the river Thames, and about 1200 
feet on tlie road leading from the intended bridge towards the 
obelisk in St. George's Fields. The whole was divided into 
twenty-five lots, to each of which was affixed a proportion of 
the annual rent of 5076/. (at which it had been valued*), which 
by the Act was directed to be reserved ; but, instead of sudi 
rent being made payable during the whole of the term, it was 
to be commuted T except as to a small portion of rent) by a 
fine, in consideration of full rent not to commence till the ex- 
piration of twenty-five years and a half from 10th of October 
1815, leaving the full amount of the rent to be payable during 
the last sixty-eight years of the term. The rents were fixei£ 
but the amount of the fine to be paid was left open to the bid*> 
ding of such persons as should be desirous of taking the pro- 
perty, and they were at liberty to deliver proposals for the 
whole, or any one or more of the lots, on or before the 20th 
of May 1810, on which day the proposals would be taken into 
X consideration ; but in the event of the whole estate being takes 
by one person, he was to be at liberty to make such atraiice- 
ment thereof as he might think proper, subject to the erection 
of such substantial buildings within twenty years, as, in the opi- 
nion of the Officers of the Duchy, would be sufficient to secure 
the rent of 5,076/. The whole was taken by Messrs. Thomas 
and John Lett, timber merchants, who were tenants of part of 
the premises, for which they paid a fine of 55,000/. They pur- 



312 




NEW SHOTMANrTFACTOJLY 



-ehued the existinif leaseg, and hare already expended many 

-dHxnand pounds in erecting buildings ameable to the plan.* 

One of the most conspicuoua objects from the river ii the 

MANUFACTORY FOR PATENT SHOT. 






It ia aituated near Waterloo Bridge, and established about the 
yeu 1789 by Messrs. WatU. The principle of makins this 
«hot. is to let it fall from a great height, that it may cool and 
harden in its passage througn the air, to such a degree as not 
to lose its spherical shape by the pressure of the water in which 
it is received below. The height of the tower at this manufac- 
tory is 140 feet, and the shot falls 123 feet. It is now in the 
possession of Messrs. Walkers, Parker, and Co. <Z*i4-/* WA> iW 

Oa the same side, further up the road, is the extensive tim- 
ber-yard of Messrs. Lett, and a commodious family residence 
fettached. In 1611, in making a dock on their premises, they 
dug up a colloBsal female figure and other fragments, part of 
die collection before-mentioned. The premises were formerly 
in the occupation of Mr. Peter Theohala. b 

Of the extensive timber-yards ia this neighbourhood Mr. 
Penaant says, ■' One would fear that the forests of Norway and 
the Baltic would be exhausted, to supply the want of our over- 



■ A copy of Mm PUn ii tegnrei ia Mkaniag uid Bnj't Riitorj i^ Sun«j, 
•ol. iii. p. GST. * Ibid. vol. iiu 4SI 



314 ST. JOHN'S DISTRICT. 

grown capital, were we not assured^ that the resources will suc- 
cessively be increasing equal to the demand of succeeding 

ages." 

From an engraving made in Amsterdam, in the reisn of Wil- 
liam and Mary, the part next the river is mentioned as << all 
wood-yards." 

In Duke-strcet, leading on the right from the Commercial- 
road, are the extensive 

MACHINE PRINTING OmCES 

of Mr. Augustus Applegath, employing upwards of 100 per- 
sons. The premises are extensive, and unite the type-found- 
ing, stereotyping, composing, and printing ; the last executed 
by a steam engme working several presses. Here is printed 
various and extensive works, both for Government and private 
individuals, among which are the John Bull and Examiner news- 
papers, Encvclopsedia Metronolitana, the Every Day Book,^ and 
the Scientinc Gazette, c A cnapel, which adjoins the premises in 
Duke-strcet, and was used by the Independents, has recently 
been purchased, and now forms part of the printing office. ^ 

The great importance of this improved method of printing 
over the old system must be obvious to any one acquainted with 
the '' art and mysterie " of printing, and therefore a concise 
account of the origin of Machine Prmtine is presented. 

Few of the mechanical arts seem to have made such rapid 
progresses to perfection as that of printing. For centuries 
after the invention little seems to have been attempted in point 
of improvement, and nothing discovered of material use ; in- 
deed, in all the essentials of printing, many of the earlier pro- 
ductions of the press equal any thing that has since been pro- 
duced. When the taste for printing in better style began to 
gain ground, it was soon found that the common press was defi- 
cient in the necessary power to produce numbers with sufficient 
dispatch, and to present the impressions of an equal colour. 
After various improvements, amongst whom are conspicuous the 
names of Earl Stanhope, Mr. Ruthven, a printer of Edinbursh, 
and Mr. G. Clymer, of Philadelphia (who invented what is caSed 
the Columbian Press, and which is in general use), as improvers 



b Tills register of the " Living manners as thej rise," and chronicle of the 
*' Deeds of olden Time,*' is a curious and perfiscdy original work, and reflects 
great eiedlt on Mr. Hone, its ingenious author. 

c Conducted hy Mr. Partington, of the London Institution, an elegant and 
yaluaUle work, Illustrated with numerous engravings, and containing papen from 
various eminent men both at home and abroad. 

^ Strauge to say, It has not altered Its title, the technical term for a printing 
office being a chapel, from the first printer, Caxton, working In a chapel attached 
to Westminster Abbey. 



8T. JOHN'S DISTRICT. 315 

of the art, came the grand invention of working a press bj 
•team. The cylindricsd mode of printing, which, in contradis- 
tinction to the old process by the press, is called machine print- 
ing, was invented by the late Mr. William Nicholson, well- 
kiu>wn in the scientific and literary world. He obtained a pa- 
tent, dated the 29th of April 1790, << for a machine or instru- 
ment for printing on paper, linen, cotton, woollen, and other 
articles, in a more neat, cheap, and accurate manner than is 
cAbcted by the machines now m use." It does not appear that 
fais plans and experiments ended in any actual practical result, 
as it required the types to be so formed as to be fixed upon the 
■mfkce of a cylinder. Another machine for printing was in- 
vented by Messrs. Bacon and Donkin, for which they obtained 
a patmit in the year 1813. This machine is so far different 
from Mr. Nicholson's, that in place of the types being required 
to be cast so as to be arranged on the surface of a cylinder^ 
they are firmly fixed in pages upon the surface of a revolving 
prism, having four, five, or any required number of sides. 
Shortly after the patent was procured, one of these machines 
was employed in the University of Cambridge, for printing 
Bibles and Prayer Books, but its structure, though very inge- 
nious, was too complicated, and too liable to derangement, to 
give any hopes of its being generally adopted ; and the subse- 
quent invention of a machine upon a different principle, and of 
which the moving power was steam, has rendered prior inven- 
tions of comparatively little value. 

This ingenious application of machinery to the operation of 
printing, was first brought to bear by M.K5nig, a native of Saxony, 
and a printer. M. Kdnig is said to have, many years ago, turned 
his attention to this subject, though his first efforts were bound- 
ed to give an accelerated motion to the common press. Whe- 
ther he was indebted to Mr. Nicholson for his elementary prin- 
ciples, or whether almost the same ideas spontaneously occurred 
to each individual, is a question that can only be satisfactorily 
solved by the former. Jlius much is certain, that M. Kdnig s 
hbours were the first that produced any fruit : and surely more 
is due to him who, afler years of persevering toil, succeeds in 
tile application of hitherto unapplied principles than to one of 
whom we can only say, tliat he was simply the first to suggest 
ideas. M. Kdnig soon found from the nature of the undeitidc- 
ing, considering the state of scientific pursuits in his native land, 
he could calculate on little success unaided by others, and fail- 
ing in his application for encouragement and support .at the 
hand^ of the most eminent printers in several of the continen- 
tal capitals, he turned his eyes towards England. Arriving in 
London about ISCH, he submitted his scheme to several nrin- 
ters of repute, who, not being disposed to incur the risk of pro- 



316 ST. JOHN'S DISTRICT. 

pertjr^ which a series of experiments were sure to entail^ and. 
perhaps placing little confidence in a successful issue, received . 
nis overtures very coolly : and it is probable his applications in 
this country would have shared the fate of similar attempts 
abroad, had he not finally been introduced to Mr. Bensley, 
senior, who« attracted by Mr. K5nig's plans, speedily entered 
into an arrangement with him. After a short course of expe- 
riments on the fabrication of a press which should have accele- 
rated motion, and at the same time render the work. of the man 
who inks the type unnecessary, the above gentlemen were, join- 
ed by Mr. G. Woodfall and Mr. R. Taylor, both printers, the 
former of whom, however, soon retired ; the remaining threef 
in no wise discouraged by the tediousness and expence, which 
all who are conversant with the proeress of any invention in 
niachinery well know to be unavoidable, persevered amidst un- 
foreseen perplexities, which were doubtless not diminished by 
the parties' deficiency in practical mechanical knowledge. It 
was at length discovered, that the intended improvement of the 
common press could not be brought to bear, and that much la- 
bour and prodigious expence would be thrown away, unless 
more radical alterations were invented. Cylindrical printing 
was now thought of, and af^er some two or Uiree years of re-^ 
newed exertion, a small machine was brought forth, the. cha- 
racteristic of which was, that instead of the printing being pro- 
duced by a flat impression (similar to the press), the sheet 
gassed between a large roller and the types still flat; and in 
eu of the old fashioned balls, used by hand to beat over the 
types, and so to communicate the ink to their surface, skins 
were strained round smaller rollers, on which it was contrived 
to spread the ink, and under which the form, t • e. the frame in 
which the types are fixed, passed in its way to the printing cy^ 
linder. Considerable promise ofsuccess attended this produc- 
tion; and, after continued experiments, it was deemed practi-* 
cable to extend the general principles to a more powerful ma- 
chine. To print a newspaper was considered highlv desirable, 
and on exhibiting to Mr. Walter, proprietor of the Times news- 
paper, the machine already erected, and showing what further 
miprovements were contemplated, an agreement was entered 
into with that gentleman for the erection of two large machines 
for printing his Journal. So secret had been the operations of 
the patentees, that the first public intimation of their invention 
was given to the reader of the Times, on Monday the 28th of 
November 1814, who was told that he then held in his hand one 
of many thousand impressions thrown off by steam. At this 
time but few persons knew of any attempt going on for the 
attainment of the above object ; whilst among those connected 



IT. JOHN'S DISTRICT. S17 

with printingy it had often been talked of> but treated as chime- 



The machines at the Times office^ cmnbrous and complicated 
as subsequent improvements have made them appear, are yet in 
many respects admirably adapted to the purpose for which they 
were erected, and it is believed will out last many contrivances 
lor printing which have been since brought out. 

The next advance in improvement was the manufacture of a 
machine for Messrs. Bensley, distinguished from those before^ 
mentioned by the mode of perfecting (or printing on both sides) , 
so that the sheet of white paper is placed in the feeder and de- 
livered from the machine, printed on both sides ! In addition to 
die essential difference between this madiine and those previ- 
ously made, it came forth with many obvious improvements, 
thoueh still unquestionably complex ; — and for the nrst attempt 
at e&cting register (causing the pages to fall precisely on the 
backof one another), a greater degree of success than might 
have been expected, was attained, subsequent experience shew- 
ing the many difficulties to be surmounted in the accomplish- 
ment of this object. Deficiencies were now detected in the 
inking : the strained skins wre found uneven in their surface, 
and attempts were made to clothe the rollers with an elastic 
preparation of glue, treacle, &c. which has at length attained 
perfection. 

But the greatest improvement which the printing machine 
has received was in the mode of inkine the types, invented by Mr. 
Cowper ; so superior was it to the machinery used for this purpose 
in Messrs. Bensley's machine, that they immediately adopted it, 
and it has continued in use to the present moment. Subse- 
quently to the fire which consumed Messrs. Bensley's premises 
in 1819, this machine was purchased b^ Mr. Applegath, who 
applied other improvements to it, by which its powers of print- 
ing were doublea — the cylinders now printing the sheets of pa- 
per at every revolution, whereas before they printed only at 
every other revolution. This machine also possesses extraor- 
dinary powers, it being capable of printing S,600 sheets on both 
sides per hour, or 7«200 impressions ; it is not, however, re- 
quirea to work at so rapid a rate. It was re-purchased from 
Mr. Applegath by Mr. Benjamin Bensley, and re-placed,in the 
printing room at Bolt-court ; and from the solidity of its con- 
struction and excellent workmanship it is likely to continue a 
useful machine for many years. 

The printing machines now used by Mr. Applegath appear sus- 
ceptible of little improvement. They produce excellent work, and 
the movements are attended with certainty and dispatch. Thedou- 
ble,or perfecting machine throwing offSOOto l,400sheets,printed 
on both sides, within the hour , and thesingle machine delivering 



318 



>T. JOttK*8 DlStKICT. 



1,000 to 2,400 done on one side; which in cases where onefonn 
oif the types ( as in newspapers ) is ready to be worked off while, 
the last side is preparing, is attended with the greatest advan- 
tage, since the rate of delivery thereby becomes doubled. ' 

Messrs. Applegath and Cowper's machines are used in print- 
ing the Morning Herald, the Morning Chronicle, the St. James's 
Chronicle, English Chronicle, at the King's Printers, Mr. Bald- 
win's, Mr. Clowes', and Mr. Bensley's (now Messrs. Mills and 
Co.) printing-offices in London ; also at the Imprinterie Royale, 
and several private offices in Paris and at St. Petersburgh. 

The annexed engraving represents one of Applegath and 
Cowper's Printing Machines, which was made by tnem for Mr. 
Benjamin Bensley, and which has been erroneously given in 
the literary Gazette and other periodical publications as Bens- 
ley*! printing machine. 

Nearly opposite Duke-street, in Stamford-street, are the 
Schools of tne 



BENKVOLENT SOCIETY OE S 




It IS a neat brick building, the centre consisting of the com- 
mittee rooms and apartments for the master, mistress, &c. the 
wings are the school rooms, and are extensive. This Society 
W8B formed In 1784, by a number of noblemen and gentlemen. 



■'■■i' 




mil 



ST. JOHM*S DISTRICT. S19 

natives of, or cotinected by property or alliance with Ireland, 
for the purpose of educating ana clothing children, bom within 
the Bills or Mortality, of Irish parents. For many years these 
children were placed at schools dispersed in different parts of 
London, but through the continued liberality of the supporters 
of this charity, the Committee, who superintend its administra- 
tion, have been enabled to erect a structure in Stamford-street, 
Blackfriars-road, where four hundred children of either sex are 
now educated. Of these, the whole are partially, and the 
greater number completely clothed once a year, besides being 
supplied with additional shirts, shoes, and stockings, at the com« 
mencement of the winter season. Having been educated, a 
fee is paid for placine them apprentices, and they receive a 
premium, if they faithfully serve through the period for which 
they are bound. His Majesty has contributed upwards of S,25tf . 
to the funds of this charity, since its formation. 

Passing the last building, on the right is Broad- wall, formerly 
Angel-street ; this road is not in the parish of Lambeth, neither 
are the houses, a ditch running behind them being the boun- 
dary ; there is nothing worthy of notice; the neighbourhood 
consists of the poorer classes. Mr. Henry Hunt, of political 
notoriety, has an extensive manufactory here for those useful 
articles, roasted corn, herb tea and tobacco, blacking and ink ; 
several furnaces are constantly employed in parching the com. 

Passing the New Cut and the intervening streets, we arrive at 
the Westminster-road, opposite the Asylum for Female Orphans, 
(which not being in this district, we do not describe at present); 
on tlie right is the extensive factory of Messrs. Maudslays, 
supposed to be the \nost complete in die kingdom. Steam en- 
gines, tanks for shipping, and all works connected with various 
factories, are here executed in the best manner. They occa- 
sionally employ upwards of two hundred men. /SZ/j n^^ fdf /l> ( 

Near the site of this factory formerly stood the Apollo Gar- 
dens. They were opened in 1788, by Mr. Claggett, proprietor of 
the Pantheon in Oxford-street ; it had one spacious room ele- 
gantly fitted up, and decorated in taste suitably to its intention. 
The gardens consisted of a number of elegant pavilions or alcoves, 
well adapted for the accommodation of different companies ; 
they were ornamented chiefly with a succession of paintings, 
relating to romantic histories, particularly the different adven- 
tures of Don Quixotte. It had a fine orchestra. The place 
being ultimately converted into a receptacle for loose and dis- 
solute characters, the magistracy very properly suppressed it 
about the year 1791. 

Pursuing our course along the road leading to Westminster- 
bridge, on the right is Oakley -street ; in this street, about half 
way down, is a public house called the Oakley Arms. It is 



Sl20 St. JOHN'S DISTRICT. 

noted for a treasonable conspiracy which was held there in 1802, 
and caused a considerable ferment in the country. At that 
period, Oakley-street was a bacfk private street with no tho- 
rough&re ; the whole of the ground on which the Coburg 
Theatre, and a considerable portion of the present Waterloo- 
road, was then garden-ground and fields. The leader in tlus 
conspiracy was Colonel Despard, a native of Queen's Coun^, 
Ireland, who was bom in 1750 or 1751, and was for thirty-four 
years employed in a civil or military capacity under Govern- 
ment, and honoured with the thanks of several General Officen, 
of the Governor, Council, and House of Assembly, in Jamiuca, 
and of the King himself, for very important services. But by 
the misrepresentation of certain persons at Honduras, from 
whose charges of grossest injustice, tyranny, and oppression, he 
had not been permitted to clear himself; after eight years at- 
tendance on all the departments of Government, was at last told 
that there was no charge against him worthy of investigation ; 
that his Majesty had thought proper to abolish the olice of 
Superintendant at Honduras, otherwise he should have been 
reinstated in it ; but he was then, and on every occasion, as- 
sured that his services were not forgotten, and would receive 
their reward. In bXV liis attempts, for nearly eight years, to get 
his accounts settled with Government, he had been equally 
fruitless and unsuccessful, though he had claims to a large 
amount. Afler being kept several weeks in confinement, m 
the spring of 1798, he was released, no charge being substan- 
tiatea against him ; but imtiiediately afler the suspension of the 
Habeas Corpus Act, he was again arrested, but was subse- 
quently discharged. Maddened with his itiisfortunes, he in the 
latter part of 1802 formed an extravagant scheme to overturn 
the Government. The place of rendesvouz was the Oakley 
Arms ; here, along with sever^ other misguided and ignorant 
men, he issued various seditious papers to seduce the military. 
He also administered oaths of a rebellious character to his ad- 
herents ; at last he was taken prisoner on the 16th of November 
1802, and was tried the 7th of February following, when hc^, 
and the rest of them were found guilty ; although the present 
Lord Chief Justice Best made a most ingenious and eloquent 
defence. Colonel Despard and five of his companions were 
executed at the top of the County Gaol, Horsemonger-lane, on^ 
February 21, 1803. Thus endea the life of the brave and un- 
fortunate, but rash Despard ; a man of a good heart and dispo- 
sition, and of whom Lord Nelson said on his trial, that if he 
had been asked his opinion of Colonel Despard, he would have 
said, <* If he is still alive, he is an ornament to the English 
army." His body was decently interred in the churchyard of 
St. Pancras, Middlesex. 



ST. John's dxstbict. 321 

Returning from Oakley-street on the right, in Mount-row, 
near the turnpike, was another place of public amusement, simi- 
lar to the one just mentioned. It was called the Temple of 
Floiia, and was situated about the middle of the Terrace called 
Momit^row ; it commenced about the same time as the Apollo 
Gardens, and was beautifully fitted up with alcoves and exotics ; 
and concerts of music were given each evenTng ; it at length, 
like the rest, became a place of assignation for loose and dis- 
sedate people and was ultimately suppressed by the Magistracy. 

We now arrive at the turnpike, at the entrance to Lambeth 
ibanht the lodge of which eznibits a neat piece of workman- 
sUlp, and which appears by the date, to have been erected in 
I797f J. Middleton, architect. Here ends our route and survey 
of St. John's District. 




2 T 



7 

' — I — M 

n A.* /-> 



/J 



322 ST. mart's district. 



CHAPTER X. 

District of St. Mary, or Lambeth Church Distrid. 



No portion of the parish of Lambeth ^e^erreB or claimf the 
attention of the antiquary or topographer go much as this Dis- 
trict ; it is filled with cunous objects ; and it is hoped that the 
history of them, compiled with considerable care and researdi, 
will gratify the reader. 

WESTMINSTER BRIDOB. 

The inhabitants of Westminster being of opinion that a bridge 
across the river Thames at their city would be of great adTan- 
tage to them, petitioned Parliament, in 1735| for power to erect 
one. Their petition havins been taken into eonsiderationy an 
Act was passed fior the buil£ng of Westminster bridge. 

The first stone was laid on the 2dth of January, 17S8-99 
by the Right Hon. the Earl of Pembroke. The architect was 
Mr. Charles Labelye, a native of Switzerland, but a natu- 
ralized subject of England. The bridge consists of IS semicir- 
cular arches, besides a small one at each end. The length is 
1223 feet, breadth 44, allowing 7 feet for each foot way, and 90 
for carriages. The centre arch is 76 feet, each adjoining *!% 
decreasing in a gradation of 4 feet, making the two last of the 
larffe ones 52, and those in the abutments about 20. The 
middle piers 17 feet, with a decrease of one foot in each, tiR 
the last is 12 feet at the spring of the arch. It cost 889,500iL 
part of which was raised by several lotteries, the rest being 
granted by Parliament. It was oj^ened Nov. 17« 1750, whi» 
happening on a Sunday, and the circumstance not being disco- 
vered till it was too late to alter it, the commissioners, to make 
the best of it, had the ceremony performed when the clock had 
struck twelve on the Saturday night, with flambeaux, dmin% 
trumpets, and cannon. • 

There are recesses over each pier, built in the form of al- 
coves, which are designed as places of shelter in bad wea^MTi 
and retirement in case of accidental danger in the passage. 

Mr. Pennant says, << In this bridge grandeur and simplid^ 
are xmited. Fault has been found with the great height of the 
balustrades, which deny to the passenffers a clear view of the 
noble expanse of water, and the fine Ejects, especially to the 



ST. mart's district. S23 

which are scattered with no sparing hand. I cannot agree 
the happy thought of the French traveller, •> who assures 
QSy that the cause was to prevent .the suicide to which the Eng- 
lish have so strong a propensity, particularly in the gloomy 
month of November ; for had they been low, how few could 
retiflt' the charming opportunity of springing over ; whereas at 
present, the difficulty of climbing up these heights is so great, 
that the poor hypochondriac has time to cool ; and, desisting 
from his glorious purpose, thinks proper to five his days their 
ftll length, and end mem like, a good Christian in his peaceful 
bed.*; 

It is constructed of the best materials, and in a neat and ele- 
smt taste. 

A person on one side the bridge, standing under the recess, 
and turning his face to the stone work, may, without raising his 
voicey hold a conversation with one standing in like manner 
under the opposite recess, at a time when no carriages are 
nassinsr.b 

The roadway has recently been covered with broken granite, 
nnon the plan of Mr. M'Adam. The bridge is undergoing a 
thorough repair. . 

Three celts were found in digging the foundations of this 
bridge.^: 

Adjoining this bridge is a street called Stangate, and here. 
Antiquaries generally agree, a Roman road crossed the river. 
The Watling-street, from Kent, has been supposed to have 
ended at St. Mary Overie*s dock, whence there was a passage 
Ofcr the river to Dowgate, where the Watling street was con- 
ttnued ; and to the west of St. Saviour's church is still a lane 
called Stoney street. But there was in Middlesex, from Harap- 
fltead, a branch of the Watling-street that had its direction to 
Westminster, and from this there was a passage across the 
river to Lambeth ; and, as it seems most probable, to Stangate, 
where it would communicate with the causeway that branched 
from the above-mentioned Watling street out of Kent. A no- 
tion has prevailed with several eminent antiquaries, that the 
late common horseferry above Lambeth palace was the passage 
frequented tiy the Romans. Mr. Bray, who advanced this no- 
tion, and yet conceives Stangate street to mark the line of this 
causeway, could not have attended to the considerable distance 
there is between Stangate and the Horseferir. Mr. Denncy 
also, was of this opinion, and remarks that another strong reason 
might be added to those already adduced, from the manner in 



* M. Grosley's Tour to London, vol. i. 37, 98. 
^ Monthly Mag. Nor. 1811, p. S4l. « 



Atebsologm, vol. T. p. 111. 



d24 ST. mart's district. 

which Bishop Gibson, in his edition of Camden's BritanmSy 
mentions the Roman highway, which was in his time visible ; 
for he immediately annexes it to the account of the college 
built by Archbishop Baldwin, on the site of part of which pre- 
mises Carlisle House near Stangate is placed ; and he >eems to 
speak of this road as lying between that house and Soutfawark. 
It is, however, to be wished that, as he must have observed the 
road, he had marked it with more precision ; and it is likewise 
to be regretted, that the places were not more accurately no* 
ticed, where the urn, presented to the Royal Society, and aiven 
other Roman remains, were dug up about forty years before 
Aubrey wrote his History of Surrey.^ Dugdale, indeed, has 
mentioned that the two pieces of brick pavement, one of them 
very curious, which he saw in 1653, were in what was called 
Southwark park, at the back of Winchester house, t> and it may, 
therefore, be reasonably inferred that near it there might be 
a way communicating between the east and west ferry, be« 
tween what is now called Southwark and Stangate ; though it 
should seem, by the essay above cited, that there were, when 
the compiler wrote it, some remains between Newington green, 
and Lambeth, of the Kent Watling-street. Thus far Mr. 
Denne. The least consideration would nullify the opinion of a 
road being made between Southwark and Stangate, on account 
of the wet and marshv state of the land. It is most probable, 
in my opinion, that the road was a branch of the Kent Wat* 
ling street, which turned off at New Cross or Deptford, and 
crossed the fields by St. Thomas k Watering, where in making 
the canal from Croydon to Rotherhithe, a great .quantity m 
chalk and faggots were thrown up, evidently part of an ancient 
causeway. From thence to Newington church, where, in mak- 
ing a drain in the summer of last year, a few 3rards north of the 
church, a quantity of chalk carefully laid on faggotts, was 
thrown up ; from thence across St. George's Fields, by Carlisle 
house to Stangate, which completes my idea of the route of 
this road. That the Romans should go to the. unnecessary 
trouble of making a road from one fercy to another seems to 
me very improbable, especially when we consider the state of 
the ground. The most probable idea is, that this road was a 
branch of the Watling-street. 

A new private road is now making for the convenience of his 
Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury. It is to run from Stan- 
gate, at the back of tne Mitre, to the back of the Jolly Sawyers. 
The road will then extend over the gardens to Lambeth palace. 

* AuVray» toI. v. p. 1 64. *> Hist, of Embanking, p. 65. 




•T. HAST'a DtlTBlCT. 32S 

Thit project, under judicious airaneenient, might be made 
highly advantageous to the public. 'Die walk on the banka of 
the rtTcr will become a beautiful promenade, in ca«e it should 
border a gay public road leading over the pleasure grouoda of 
LambcXh puace, to the main road. It is understood that con- 
•iderabke improvements are in contemplation, and that a carriage 
roadt which has been long wanted, will be carried from the foot 
of Weatminster-bridge through Lambeth to Vauxhall. It is said 
the tower, used aa a priaon for the Lollards and refractory 
ecdeaBatica, ia to come down ; but this, we sincerely hope, u 
untme. 

On the aide of the river are the extenatve barge-houaea bc- 
tonsing to his Majesty, the Admiralty and the City of London ; 
BDiTseveral of the City Companies have barge-houses here on 
lease from the Archbishop of Canterbury ; some eminent boat- 
builden have large premises extending from tiie highway to 
the edge of the river. An old house called the Nlitre adds 
to the picturesque and pleasing prospect as wc obtain a view of 
the river, Westniiniter Abbey and Hall, from the road, afler 
having passed the houses next the river. 

In this row of houses, facing the river, is one lately inhabited 
by Mr. Hubert, which popular tradition assigns as the residence 
of the celebrated Mra. Eleanor Gwynne, mibtress of Charlea IT. 
In cleaning out a drain at tlit- back of this house two spoons 
were discovered. By some marks on thtni 1 should be inclined 
to think they had belonged to some of the Stuarts. 

Proceeding on, is seen n public-house called the Two Sawyere, 
apparently built early in the last century. A provincial token, 
engraved in Nichols's History, is here presented. 




There is no doubt it was intended for this house, aa 
the banks of the river are called Narrow, to distinguish them 
from the Broad Wall which has been mentioned before. Probably 
the new plantation, mentioned thereon, waa name addition made 
to the .Archbishop's gardens. 

A curious circumstance occurred in 1728 connected with 
thia place. It appeared that on Friday ni^ht, July 19, 1728, 
Mr. Nathaniel Dustock, furnieriy a goldsmith, and afterwarda 
■ broker in Exchan^fe Alley, waa barbarously murdered upon 
the causeway betueen tht: Tlianies and the Archbishop's palace. 



ST. MAKVd DISTRICT, 



It wu about 1 1 o' clock when he wai murdered ; for about that 
hour two boyf in a boat near the place heard a man bee moit 
vetiemently to have his hfe spared, upon which they called out 
murder, but no help was near. In the morning his bat and wig 
were found upon the place all bloody, and cut in K*eral piece*, 
and the wall was besprinkled with gore. This account, it sub- 
■equently appears, turned out to be false ; for about the middle 
of August, 1729, he was discovered to have resided, ever unce 
the time of the supposed murder, near Truro, in Cornwall, un- 
der the name of Thomas Thornton, Esq. He was discovered 
tiirough sending up four East India bonds, which were to be 
paid off; but were stopped by the Company in consequence of 
the report of the murder and robbery. A commissioQ of bank- 
ruptcy was taken out agoiust him, and a warrant was sent to 
bnag bim up. 

We will now retrace our steps to the Bridge-road ; and, turn- 
ing on our right arrive at a place of public entertainment, called 

ASTLEY'S AUPHITHBATRX. 




It was built by the late Philip Astlev, Esq. an uneducated 
but enterpnzing roan, with a strong mind and acute undemand- 
ing, remarkable for eccentric habits, and peculiarity of manners, 
wbo built at different periods of bis life, at his own cost, and for 
his own purposes, nineteen theatres. As the history of the 
Amphitheatre is almost identified with that of his life, a thort 



ST. Mary's district. 387 

memoir of him will not be inapplicable^ He waa a man of 
Btroog muscular powers, above six feet in height, of an imposing 
appearance ; but in the latter part of his life extremely corpy 
l^t. His voice was perfectly stentorian. He was bora at 
Newcastle*under-Line in 1742, and came to London witKhis 
fkAer, who was a cabinet-maker, in 1753 or 4, and worked at 
his fiiUier*s business till 1759, when he enlisted in the 15th or 
£11iott*s own light horse. By his scrupulous attention to dis* 
dpline, and his undaunted bravery, he became a great fiivorite 
in the regiment, and was particularly noticed by General Elliott 
fafterwardsLord Heathfield). He served set en years during the 
Uennan war with high military reputation, and obtained the 
rank of serjeant-major ; but on the return of the army from the 
continent he solicited and obtained his discharge, with a most 
honourable certificate of service. During the time he was in 
the army he was made one of the rough riders, teacher and 
breaker to the regiment. His regiment, during the German 
war, being ordered for foreign service, while the cavalry horses 
were being landed at Hamburgh from flat-bottomed boats, one 
of the animals from fright sprang into the sea, and Astley, who 
observed it, seeing that the tide was carrying it rapidly away, 
plunged in, and catching the bridle swam back wiUi the horse, 
and reached the shore with it in safety before the boat, from 
which the horse had leaped. He was made seijeant as a re- 
ward for this act of intrepidi^. Again, at the disembarkation 
of the troops at the mouth of the Weser, he was Uie principal 
means of preserving several men and horses from imminent 
danger, from the accidental oversetting of a boat. At the battle 
of Emsdorff he took a royal standard of France, though his horse 
was shot under him ; but being re-mounted, he brought off his 
prise, in despite of an escort of the enemy's infantry, at least 
ten in number, by whom he was wounded. At the battle a£ 
Friedburgh, when in the advanced guard, which he had the ho- 
nour of commanding, he personally assisted under a very heavy 
fire, in bringing off the hereditary Prince of Brunswick, when 
his highness was wounded within the enemy's lines. These cir- 
cumstances are extracted from the certificate of service given 
to him with his discharge. While in the army Astley witnessed 
the performance of an itinerant eauestrian named Johnson, aind 
practised that species of riding auring his service, and, when 
disdmrged, made it his profession. General Elliott gave him a 
diarger, as a testimony of the high opinion he entertained of 



* From an tccoimt drawn up by C. Dibdin, Etq. for Messn. Britton and Pa- 
gio't Ilhutiatiout of the Public fiuUdings of London, a work which b equally 
above ay praise or ceniure. 



S88 ST. mary's district. 

him ; and with this horse and another which he purchased in 
Smidifield market, he commenced his equestrian performance* 
tn an open field, near the Halfpenny Hatch, Lambeth, for the 
gratuitous, but trifling contributions of those who were attracted 
to the spot by his hand-bills. To defray the expence of his 
exhibitions, he worked at the cabinet business during the time 
unemployed in his new professional pursuits, and also broke in 
horses. In process of time he engaged part of a large timber- 
yard, upon the site of which the present amphitheatre stands, 
inclosea it circularly with boarding, erected seats for an audi- 
ence, with a pent-house roof, sufficient to protect them from 
the rain, while he performed in a rope ring, assisted by the music 
of a drum and two fifes, under no roof but the canopy of hea- 
ren. Here he performed during the mornings ; in the even- 
ings he exhibited a learned horse, ombres chinoises, sleight of 
hand, &c. in a large room. No. 22, Piccadilly. The novelty of 
the entertainment drew a vast concourse of spectators, and the 
road on that side of the way was impassable in the morning, froin 
the number of children and others that attended to get a peep 
at the exhibition through the apertures of the deal partition. 
The price of admission to the space within the railing of the 
ride was sixpence. & 

Throueh rigid economy he was enabled^ eventually, to lend 
200^. to his landlord, a timber merchant, the wHole of the yard, 
and the timber in it, being mortgaged to him as a security* 
The borrower left £ngland upon receiving the money, and -was 
never more heard ot Astley, in due course of time, becoming 
poesessed of the property by legal investure, sold the timber, 
and with the money, thus raised, increased by 60^., the produce 
of a large diamond ring, which he found at the foot of West* 
minster bridge, and which was never advertised by th/e loser, 
he erected in 1780 a roofed building with a commodious audi- 
tmr, which he advertised to be opened as <' The Amphitheatre 
Riding House ;" that building he enlarged at different periods, 
as his profits enabled him, till he cove^ the whole extent of 
the ground in his possession. The prices of admission were, 
boxes 2s. 6c/., pit U. 6</., gallery 6d. The performances were 
at night. Mr. Astley, juiu as a boy, was an excellent rider, 
but was by no means so successful on the st^e, where he usually 
performed in pieces of serious action. M^. Astley from her 
mfismcy was a very successful exhibitor on horseback, and was 
for many seasons the heroine of the serious pantomimes. Ast- 
ley having been informed that the Royal Circus, which was then 
building, would be opened with musical pieces and dancing, as 

» LoDdlnia lllustrata. 



StV MARY*S DISTRfCT. 529 

%ell as horsemanship, to keep pace with his new rival, he adde^ 
tt stage and scenery to his riding circle, and opened on Easter 
Monday following with similar entertainments ; but not being 
licensed pursuant to the Act 25 Geo. II. he was imprisoned. 
He, however, obtained both his release and a licence through 
the late Lord Thurlow, to whose daughters he taught riding. 
He then enlarged his theatre, and called it the Royal Grove^ 
from the auditory being painted to resemble a grove ; and upon 
A future alteration of the edifice, he again changed the name 
to the " Amphitheatre of Arts.'* The admission prices were 
now, for the boxes 45. pit 2s. and gallery Is. That building 
DD the 16th of August, 1794<, during Mr. Astley's abode on the 
Continent, as a volunteer with the army, a was burnt to the • 
ground, with 19 adjoining houses. Unappalled by the calamity, 
although his property was scarcely, if at all, insured, he obtained 
leave of absence, came over to England, rebuilt his theatre, and 
opened it on the succeeding Easter Monday, 1795, under the 
designation of the << Royal Amphitheatre ; *' his present Ma* 
lesty, then Prince of Wales, and the Duke of York patronising 
it« On Sept. 2, 1803» this building, with nearly 40 houses, was 
consumed by fire, with the loss of every thing, except the 
horses. But the most distressing circumstance, was the loss 
t>f Mrs. Woodham, the mother of Mrs. Astley. She was seen 
at the two pair of stairs window of the dwelling house in 
fVont, and a ladder, was raised to extricate her. She 
appeared to intimate she had forgot something, which, it 
was conjectured was the receipts of the two previous nights 
performance (lefl in her care), and retreated for it, and almost 
unmediately returned to the window, but the very instant she 
appeared, the floor fell in and she was lost. The fire broke 
out in the lamp-room, occasioned by some sparks from the 
fire-works, used the previous night, falling on the tow. The 
loss in the theatre was estimated at 30,000/. of which on]y5}000/. 
was insured. Mr. Astley was at Paris when this event occurred^ 
where he had a theatre. He returned to England, and with his ac- 
coMomed fortitude^ perseverance, and celerity, he erected anew 
Amphitheatre time enough to open on Easter Monday 1804* 
He previously leased the property to his son, the late Mr. John 
Astley. He granted also a lease o£ the new amphitheatre^ to 
' ' son, who continued lessee during the remainder of his fa- 



* At the siege of Valenciennes lie took s piece of ordnance drawn by four 
hones, with which the French, who had captured it, were bringing it away. 
The Duke of York, as s reward for bis gallanuy, gare him the horses, which be 
aokl bj auction on the field, and expended the produce in providing comforts for 
tha soldiers of his &vourite troop, and others. The cannon was subeequentlj 
•ibibitcd at his theatre. 

2v 



530 ST. MART*S DISTRICT. 

lher*8 life. Mr. Astley, sen. went to Paris to dispose of iht 
amphitheatre he had built there, and died Oct. 20, 1814, aged 
seventy-two, and was buried in the cemetery, called Pere la 
Chaise. On the 19th of October, 1821, his son, who went to 
Paris for his health, died in the same house, chamber, and bed 
where his father breathed his last. After Mr. John Astley*s 
death Mr. William Davis, who had long been joint lessee with 
him, conducted the concern for himself, the widow of Mr. Ast- 
ley, jun. and her late husband's creditors, till the end of the 
season o£ 1824, when the lease expired, and the premises re- 

y^ Ha^ verted to the persons to whom Mr. Astley bequeathed it* The 

ground lease will expire in about 12 years, and then it devolves 
/ to the ground landlord. Hie rental of the last lease was 1000^ 

C^£/^0 per annum. The present proprietors are Messrs. Ducrow and 

West, the former of whom is one of the most extraordinary 
equestrians that ever appeared in this country. The perform- 
ances are conducted with great spirit on the part of the pro- 
prietors, and is met with corresponding applause and support 
by the public. Many attempts have been made to keep this 
* theatre open during the Winter season^ but it has uniformly 
failed. 

The progressive improvement in the performances at this 
theatre, may be judgea from the following extract of an adver- 
tisement of the exhibitions here in the year 1780, shortly after 
its first establishment as an inclosed theatre for evening enter- 
tainments : << Astley's Amphitheatre Riding House, Westmin- 
ster Bridge. This and every evening, will be presented the 
following pleasing amusements, with many new additions never 
exhibited in London. Doors to be opened at half past five, to 
begin at half past six o'clock precisely. Admittance, box 29., 
upper box 1;. 6d., pit U., side gallery 6d, Part I. will consist 
of the Lilliputian World ; or Chinese Shadows : the whole being 
adapted to the place of exhibition. Scene I, a curious opera 
dancer, with all the new attitudes in a comic dance called tlie 
Dutch Woman. Scene IL the dock yard, with a representation 
of the several artists at work on a large ship, to conclude with 
a song on Admirah Rodney's victory over the Spaniards, by 
Mr. Connel. Scene III. the Lion catchers. Scene IV. the 
Broken Bridge, with a song by Mr. Wilkinson. Scene V. the 
Duck hunters. Scene VL the Storm, &c. The wh(^e of the 
above exhibition to conclude with a hornpipe, in a most ex- 
traordinary manner. Between the acts of the Chinese shadows, 
will be presented an exhibition called the Theatre of Florence, 
representing several frontispieces of beautiful fireworks, which 
have been displayed in various parts of Europe. Part III. 
Horsemanship on a single horse, by Mr. Grimn, Mr. Jones^ 
Mr. Miller, &c. Part IV. Tumbling and other agility of body. 



ST. U&RY S DISTRICT. 331 

by Mr. Ne»it, Mr. Porter, Mr. Dawson, Mr. Garmon. Clown, 
Mr. Burt. Part V. HorBemftBship on two and three borses, ia 
a maoner truly entertaining. Part VI. Slack Rope vaulting on 
fuU swing in different attitudes. PartVll. Polanders' tricks 
oa chairs, ladders, &c. Part VIII. the Clown on horseback, 
with several parts of horsemanship burlesqued. Part IX. the 
Taylor riding on the dancer, the hunter, and road horse. The 
whole to conclude with the amazing performance of men piled 
m men, or the Egyptian Pyramids." 

The frontof the theatre, which IB plain, andof brick stuccoed, 
ttands laterally with the houses in Bridge-road, the access to the 
back part of the premises being in Staneate-street. There is a 
plain wooden portico, the depth of whicn corresponds with the 
width of the pavement. In tne front ofthis portico is the Royal 
amw. Withm the pediment, in front of the building, is the 
name " Astley's," in raised letters ; and on the front of the por- 
tico, in a similar style, " Royal Amphitheatre." Beneath this 
portico are the entrances to the boxes and pit ; the gallery eD- 
trance is lower down the road, and separated from the front of 
the theatre by several houses. 

The boxes are approached by a plain staircase, at the head of 
iriiich is the lobby, which is II feet 9 inches in depth, and about 
60 feet in length, with passages behind the side boxes, from 
which are staircases leading to the upper boxes. At the back 
of this lobby is a fruit roam. There are long seats attached to 
the wall of ^e lobby all round, and in the centre is a large and 
handsome patent stove. The backs of the boxes, from about 
five feet above the floor, are entirely open to the lobby, which 
is customary at most of the minor theatres, Tlie form of the 
auditwy is elliptical, and is lighted by a very large cut glass 
lustre, and chandeliers with bell lamps : gas is the medium of 
illumination used all over the premises. 

lliere is one continued row or tier of boxes round the audi- 
tory; above the central part of which is the gallery, and there is 
a half tier of upper boxes on each side with slips over them. 
There are tierce private boxes on each side adjoinmg the pros- 
cenium ; one attached to each extremi^ of the gallery, and 
one at each end of the orchestra. The floor of the ride within 
the auditory is earth and sawdust, where a ring or circle, 44 feet 
in diameter, is bounded bv a boarded inclosure about four feet 
in height, Uie curve of which next the stage forming the outline 
of the orchestra, and the remainder that ofthe pit, behind which 
ia an extensive lobby, and a box for refreshments. 

The proscenium is large and moveable, for the convenience of 
widening and heightening the stage, which is perhaps the largest 
and most convenient in the vicinity of London, and is terminated 
by immense platforms or floors, rising above each other, and ex- 



S32 ST. MARY*S DISTRICT. 

tending the whole width of the stage. These ar^ exceedingly 
massive and strong. The horsemen gallop and skirmish over 
them, and they will admit a carriage, equal in size and weight 
to a mail coach, to be driven across them. They are notwith* 
standing so constructed as to be placed and removed in a ^orc 
space of time, by manual labour and mechanism. When exhi- 
bited they are masked with scenery, representing battleroentSy 
heights, bridges, mountains, &c. There are several very con* 
eiderable inlets and outlets to and from the stage and the sta- 
bles, which communicate with each other. 

The stables, which range over a very extensive space of 
ground on one side of the stage to the right from the auditory, 
are very capacious, and, when they are wholly occupied by the 
numbers of beautiful horses attached to the establishment, con- 
stitute a most gratifying exhibition. The horses are kept in 
the highest order, and attended by several experienced grooms. 

Further up the road, on the same side as the Amphi- 
theatre, is Mr. Buckley's extensive Floor-cloth manufactory* 
one of the most complete in London or its neighbourhood. 
Having passed through the Toll-gate, on the right is Carlisle- 
lane, formerly called Back-lane, a narrow and dirty place, prin- 
cipally occupied by soap-houses ; but it is undergoing consi- 
derable improvements. A great part of the wall belonging to 
Carlisle house abuts on the pathway. 

In the broadest part of this lane, and on the exact spot where 
Carlisle-house boarding-school is built, formerly stood 

CARLISLE-HOUSE, 

Which originally belonged to the Bishops of Rochester. In the 
twelfth century an attempt was made to found a College, or 
Monastery, for Secular Canons on this site, by Baldwin Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, in the reign of Richard I. who obtained 
from the Bishop and Convent of Rochester (the then owners of 
the land) ** a part of their court at Lambeth, with twenty-four 
acres and one perch withoutside the same, and the service 
which they had from four acres on the Thames bank, saving to 
them their rights to the parish church, to the ditches surround- 
ing their said court and garden, and also a free current to and 
from their mill, and all things withoutside the bounds then 
marked out." On this ground the prelate commenced build- 
ing a fine chanel, but, dying in 1190, it was completed by his 
successor Arcnbishop Walter. Purporting to carry on the de« 
sign of building a College, as well as of fixing his own residence 
at Lambeth, he entered into a treaty with the Priors of Roches- 
ter for the whole manor of Lambeth, which was exchanged to 
bim» he granting to the Bishops of that See, out of it, a piece of 



■%r: UARy'B disthict. SS3 

riindnext to hit new chapel, dedicated to St. Stephen and 
Thomas, with the buildingB thereon, in order to erect an 
occasional residence for them. An account of the aubseqnent 
-proceedings of the Monks of Canterbury is printed in this 
work, page 159. They applied to Rome, and procured a papal 
mandate, to dismisi the Monks, and level the walla with the 
ground, which was accordingly executed in 1 199 ; the Church 
of RocheBter reserving to itself a milt in Southwark, and a 
marsh in Lambeth, which they had in exchange from Baldwin 
for the site of St. Thomas's church. 

On the ground before granted, Gilbert de Glanville, Bishop 
of Rochester, erected a nouse for himself and his successors, 
■who occasionally resided there till the sixteenth century. This 
gronnd contains, by recent admeasurement, two acres and five 
perches, and is now covered with the school, alluded to above, 
and its garden, Peniington-place, &c. On it was found, when 
cranted, gome of the ofd buildings of the dilapidated college. 
The house was called "La Place," till the year 1500, aiCer 
which the Bishop dated from their house in Lambeth Marsh. 
Archbishop Bradwardin died here in 1348, as did Shepey, 
Bishop of Rochester, and Lord Treasurer of England in 1360. 
Bishop Fisher is said to have built the brick wall round this 
place, still in a great part standing. 

In his time, Feb. 17, 1531, a most execrable murder wag 
committed here by one Richard Roose, the bishop's cook, who 
"by throwing some poison into a vessel, replenished with yest 
or banne, standing in the said bishop's kitchen, at his place in 
Lambeth Marsh, not only poisoned seventeen persons of his 
family, but also certain poor people which resorted to the said 
bishop's place, and were there charitably fed ; two of whom 
died." For which horrid deed, by an ex post facto Act (soon 
aftorwards repealed), the said Roose was attainted of high trea- 
son, and boiled to death in Smithfield, the Ttnther% Wedncs- 
day following, h 

When Bishop Glanvylle obtained the grant of the ground, 
he did not take proper care to secure access to it from the 
river, and the Archbishops claiming the land between that and 
the bouse, many disputes arose. In 8 Edw. I. 1280, there was 
a trial before John dc Reygate and others the Justices itiperant 
in this county, respecting bars placed by Bishop John de Brad- 
field on the banks of the Thames opposite the house called La 
Place. 

In IS2S, Bishop Haymo de Hethe being resident here, the 
steward of Archbishop Revnolds, and others of his domestics, 
assaulted Thomas dc Hettie and others of the Bishop's family, 

> Wedneidftj, in Tcnetrii. >• Huliiuhad, page 9Sli. , 



SM IT. KARt's DIITEler. 

endeATOuring to defltray the ban on the Thames wall, placed 
for making a way for the Bishop's carriageB with bis goods from 
the river to hia house. The Archbishop's men-failed in the at> 
tempL * At length Archbishop Islip was prevBiled on, in 1357,'' 
to grant a license to the then Bishop of Rochester to build a 
bridae over the Archbishop's soil, in a place called Stangate, 
for £e convenience of the Bishop, his family, and others with 
him. This bridge was erected across a sewer, still in existence, 
which runs behind the houses of Stangate facing the river, the 
land between this sewer and the river being the property of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury : therefore those that landed at Stan- 
gate could only get to the Bishop's house by the circuitous route 
of going along the wall as for as the town or Lambeth, and noiog 
from thence by what is now called Church-street and Carlisle- 
lane, to that place to which a straieht line from Stangate would 
have conveyed them by a short and direct way. This path way 
still remains from the river through garden ground to Cu^ 
throat-lone. There it ends, the remainder having been en- 
cloaed under a writ of ad quod damnum by Archbiuiop Moore, 
to enlarge his paddock, he giving a wider piece of ground in the 
Iront of Royal-row. 

Bishop Heath, in 1540, conveyed this house to (he Crown in 
exchange for a house in Southwark. Henry VIH. granted it to 
Aldridge Bishop of Carlisle and his Buccessors, when it took the 
name of Carlisle-house, but it does not appear ever to have 
been inhabited by the Bishops of that See, who leased it out. 
In 1647 it was sold by the Parliament to Matthew Hardy, a re- 

Eublican leader, for 22(V. ; but reverted again to the See of 
arlisle on the Restoration. A view of it, as it appeared at 
this period, is here given. 



kmi 



Since thai time its history exhibits some remarkable vicissi- 
tudes. On part of the premises a pottery was established ; 



a. k It u 3M*i Norembci 33, ISS7. 



ST. MART*S DISTRICT. 335 

which going to decay, the kilns, and a curious Gothic arch, 
were ttJcen down, and the bricks used for filling the space and 
oth^r defects in the walls. It was afterwards opened by one 
Castledine as a tavern, and became a common brothel ; and on 
his demise was occupied by Monsieur Froment, a dancing- 
master, who endeavoured to get it licensed by the Sessions, as a 

Eublic place of entertainment, but without effect, being opposed 
y Arcnbishop Seeker. What now remains is convertea mto a 
private dwellmg-house ; some acres of ground being encom- 
passed with a high and strong brick wall, which had in it, till 
very lately, a gate of ancient form opening towards Stangate. 
A smaller bacK gate in the south wall had over it two keys in 
saltire, and something resembling a mitre for a crest. Two 
bricks, one upon the other, served for a shield, and the work- 
manship of the arms was of as low a taste as the materials. Dr. 
Salmon, who gives us this account, is inclined to believe this 
belonged to Cardinal Wolsey, and that what stood above the 
keVs was not the crest, but a crown in chief, the arms of the See 
of York. But Mr. Nichols considers, with much more proba- 
bility, that the arms were those of the See of Rochester, St. 
Andrew's cross, surmounted by the mitre ; and that the brick 
gate was erected by Bishop Fisher, in whose time brick build- 
van became frequent in England. A part of the ancient wall 
still surrounds the whole. 

This house has for the last thirty years been occupied and 
known as an Academy of great respectability for young gentle- 
men. It is now conducted under the able superintendance of 
Bifr. Bennet, a gentleman of some literary talent, author of seve- 
ral poems and juvenile works ; and who kindly obliged me with 
the loan of the annexed plate. 

Adjoining these premises was the glebe barn, a small timber 
erection, long since decayed, and upon the site of which is built 
two small houses. 

Returning up Carlisle -lane into what is called Mount-street, 
a litUe upon the right, is Mount Gardens, which were, at the 
latter part of the last century, occupied as a tea-garden, and 
was very popular till, through its being the resort of loose and 
dissolute persons, it w&s suppressed. The site was, until lately, 
covered with smeJl cottages, which being situated in the middle 
of a sarden, had an extremely rural and pleasant appearance ; 
but we principal part of these cottages have been pulled down, 
and ^veral rows of houses erected in their place. ^K. '»\ -t . 

The next object of interest is situated within the angle formed 
by two roads, one leading from Westminster to the Borough^ of 
Southwark, the other leading from Westminster to Kennington; 
it is called the 



'. (> V • s c" 



336 ST. MARt*s Disi^mcr. 



ASYLUM FOR FEMALE ORPHANS. 

^rhis charitable institution owes its establishment to that vigi- 
lant and active Magistrate the late Sir John Fielding ; he had 
long observed that though the law had provided a parish settle- 
ment for all who could claim it by birtli, &c. yet many cases 
occurred in which such settlement could not be ascertained ; 
by the death of parents, orphan children were left, who were 
unable to give the necessary account, and when they happened 
to be girls, their case was peculiarly pitiable. To rescue thera 
from poverty, and the miseries and dangers to which their ten- 
der i^e unprotected might be exposed, this excellent chanty 
was formed, and happily carried mto execution. 

Soon ailer the completidn of Westminster-bridge, and the 
opening of the roads to it, a person built a house for an Inn at 
An angle in Lambeth Marsh, where one road goes to South- 
wark, the other to Vauxhall. It was called the Hercules, had 
large stables, and a spacious garden ; but not answering the 
purpose, was to be sold, and Sir John having induced several 
noblemen and gentlemen to second his philanthropic proposals, 
raised a fund sufficient to purchase the lease of the house and 
premises, which were soon fitted up, and the children first ad- 
mitted July 5, 1758. In 1800 they obtained a charter of incor- 
poration. 

The regulations are excellent, and the apartments commodi- 
ous. Ladies subscribing certain specified sums are entitled to 
vote by proxy. The children, who at the time of their admis- 
sion must not be under nine nor above twelve years of age, are 
regularly and alternately employed in reading, knitting, sewing, 
and in the business of the kitchen, &c. They also make the 
beds, clean the rooms, assist in getting up the linen, and in such 
business as may make them good housewifes, and useful mem- 
bers' of society. They are apprenticed out when fifteen years 
of age or upwards, in respectable families. A very neat chapel 
is included in the plan, in which some respectable minister 
officiates as preacher on Sundays. The girls also sing, accom- 
panied by a good organ. A number of the nobility and gentry 
frequent this place of worship, and at the same time become 
contributors to a noble charity, which preserves from probable 
destruction a great number of indigent female orphans, and 
makes them at the same time a comfort to their remaming^ rela^ 
tions, and a benefit to the community. 

About two hundred girls are maintained and educated in this 
excellent charity. Dr. Bell's system of education has recently 
been adopted.* 

■ I I — r I i • 

« Highmorc's History of Public Charities, p. 600. 



Ik.. 



BT. MAftT't PlfTRICT. SS7 

The Mlaries of the diflbreot olBcen, heludieg the chapel eata^ 
Uiahmeiiti are» chaplain and secretary 200^. per an^um ; alter- 
aate morning preachers lOOL each ; evening preacher 1261. ; 
4N1g»iiiat 6SL ( writing master SOl. ; apothecary (including sup- 
pi^ of medicine) 70L; messenger 5».; matron 601,; assistant 
imlroQ M. ; first achool-roistress 4Q{. ; two assistant mistresseiB 
W, 15i* each; nurse 20/.; chapel clerk 21/.; four chapel 
keepers 12k each. The funds arise from 32,5201. 3 per cent, 
consols i SJ5001. Na¥v 5 per cents ; I2,980l. 4 per cenU ; 1950C. 
Bank stock; 8,500i. Reduced; from annual subscriptions^ 
amounting to about 5001. per annum ; and 2,(XX)L per annum, 
09 an average* from collections. 

The rent of the premises was Si. lOi . per annum, and the 
lease expiring about 1823, the Corporation of the City of Lon- 
don, who are ground landlords, demanded SOOl. per annum. 
The managers obtained the fre^old for a sum amounting to 
near 16,00Q(. by which they diminished their annual income 
403/. 1/. 2d. They pulled down the old building, with the e](- 
ception of the chapel and residence for the officers and matron, 
and erected a neat but low edifice, with wings, from the de- 
sign of Mr. Lloyd, on the exact site of the former building. 

The ground about the Asylum was granted by Edward VL m 
1551, to the citizens of ijondon, by the description of << one 
dose of ground, late in the possession of John Billington, lying 
fai Lambeth Marsh, late part of die possession of Charles Duke 
of Suffolk.*' 

Mead*s-row (near the Asylum). On the Sd of February 
1795, aged 60, died William Parsons, of comic memory; he was 
a native of Maidstone, and was originally intended by his friends 
to have followed the profession of physic, but not liking it, he 
took to the stage, on which he continued forty-five years. He 
was twice married ; first, to a theatrical lady of the name of 
Plrice ; she died in 1787 ; second, to Dorotliy, one of the daugh- 
ten of the Hon. James Stewart, to whom he left the whole of 
his property, about 400/. a year, mostly in houses. 

Leaving the Asylum, we proceed along the road leading to 
Kennington. Arriving at the Three Stags public-house in this 
neighbourhood, contiguous to St. George's Fields, numerous 
Roman remains have been turned up. 

it has been a matter of doubt where PlautLus defeated the 
Britons, and where he rested his army whilst he waited tor the 
Enperor Claudius bringing reinforcements. The learned Gale 
thought that this defeat took place on die banks of the Severn ; 
but it does not appear that Plautius, in hie first campaign, had 
advanced farther than Kent and Surrey. Mr. Bray considers, 
that from tlie situation of the marshes here, overflowed by every 
tide, and that of the very strong camp at Keston in Kent, it ap- 

2x 



3d8 8T. Mary's district. 

pears thftt this was the place where the Romans got entangled 
and lost so many men, and that Keston was the place wnere 
Plautius fortified himself; some have considered tliat Keston is 
too great a work to have been made by the Romans in their situ* 
ation, and that it is at too (^reat a distance from the river. 
However this mi^t be, certam itis» that this people had a con- 
siderable station m the neighbourhood, though the particular 
spot is not ascertained. Gtue says, that in St. Greorge*s Fields 
many Roman coins, tesselated works and bricks, are found; he 
himself had a large urn, full of bones, which he bought of the 
men who were digging there, and who had dug many others not 
far from the Borough, on the south side. Tne most probable 
idea is, that they had here a summer camp, as it would have 
been almost impossible to have made a regular camp any where 
in this neighbourhood. 

In the road leading from Southwark to Lambeth is the Clerk 
of the Peace's Office, with a neat residence attached. The 
office is open from 10 till 4, except on holidqrs. 

Nearly opposite, is 

LAMBXTH CHAPXL. 

It was built in 1806, and is 70 feet in depth and 65 feet in 
breadth; it will accommodate 1,200 persons ; though on some 
occasions 1,800 have crowded into it. It belongs to the Wes- 
leyan Methodists. It is neatly fitted up inside, and has com- 
modious galleries round three sides ; the exterior is plain, with 
a neat portico supported by two pillars. The present minister 
is the Rev. Richard Reece. 

In Lambeth-green, which leads out of this road, on the left 
is the 

BOYS CHARITY SCHOOL. 



A Charity School for twenty boys of the Marsh Liberty 
founded and endowed in the year 1661 by Major Ridiard Law- 
rence, who by his will gave the building, called ** The Dog 
Houses,'* or ** Dog-house Fields,'* to the parish of Lambeth. 

The Vestry are empowered by his will to choose a master 
and four overseers of the said school. There was also a school 
founded in 1731 for thirty-four boys, and supported by sub- 
scription. When Lawrence's school-house was rebuih ia 1754 
on a large scale, a union of the schools took place, and have 
since continued united, as the Parochial Boys School. 

In 1808 the school-house was rebuilt by the contributions of 
the Archbishop, the Rector, and many of the principal inha- 
bitants, on an enlarged scale. 

The boys are now educated on the National system, and con- 
sists of from 358 to 380 in number. The twenty foundation 
boys are clothed, and fifty belonging to the parochial part of the 



Jj" 




8T. MARY'S DISTRICT. 359 

school. The master has a salary of 201. per annum from Law- 
rence's foundation, and 100/. per annum from the parochia 
fundy and resides in the school-house ; small rewards are also 

S>en to some of the boys as teachers. The funds arise from 
e rent of the estate left by Lawrence, which was let on a new 
lease about 1816» producing 1051, per annum; voluntary sub- 
•qripclonsy occasional benefactions after sermons, and tne in- 
terest of money, producing 80/. per annum. 

Pursuing our route along the road towards the river, on the 
riffht is the Rectory Housx, a plain building of brick within 
a dwarf wall. 

The Rector of Lambeth, as such, was always one of the 
Archbishop's domestic chaplains, and^ before the Reformation, 
resided in the palace. <^ In 1778, an Act of Parliament was 
Mned *' to enable the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury to en- 
nvnchise and grant a small parcel of glebe-land b and waste 
land belonging to the manor of Lambeth, in die County of Sur- 
rey* and also to enable the Rector of the parish of St. Mary, 
Lambeth, or liis successors, to build a panonage-house on part 
of the said glebe and waste JKround, ana to grant buildine leases 
of other parts thereof, and for other the purposes therem men- 
tioned." The rectorial house was erected on one ninth part ol 
die glebe orchard, and part of the front 3rard is where the Arch- 
bishop's pinfold was until the building of the rector's house. 
The pound field for many years prior to 1778, let for 9/. per 
annum, and in 1778 eight ninths of it was sold on a 99 years 
lease for 1,500/. which with a further sum borrowed upon a 
nortgage of the tithes, was applied to build the parsonage-house, 
and Uie lessees have built twenty-one other new houses upon 
Ibis part, at an expence of upwards of 9,000/. The parsonage 
b assessed to the poor's rate at 270/. per annum, exclusive oi 
die parsonage-house, which is assessed at 40/. ^ 

In Pratt-street, opposite the Rectory, died, August 1, 1799, 
Mr. B« J. Pouncy, an eminent engraver. He was pupil and 
broCher-in-law to the celebrated Mr. WooUett. He began 
his career by engraving seals for Dr. Ducarel and Mr. Astle, 
and foe-similes of Domesday for the counties of Surrey and 
Worcester, and afterwards executed several views and land- 
scuies, foreign and domestic, after eminent artists. 

In Church-street, a continuation of the road before men- 
tioned, formerly stood 



* Ducvel's Hiti. Appendix, p. 91. 

^ Tbe gUbe; &c. belooging to the Rector, U an ancient tenement and yard 
oppoaite the church, a bam and two small parcels of land near Lambeth 'given, 
containing about two acres. Nichols, Appendix, p. 1 9V. 

c Nichols's Hut. of Lambeth, p. 48. 



ST. MAXt B DISTRICT. 



en eneraving of which, from HoHar's View of London ran 
1660, is here given; Trom the situation of the horn e, bein Bt 
the base of the engraving, ooly half of it is shewn. 




This capital mansion belonged to the £arls and Dukes of 
Norfolk, and did not ultimal^ pass fVom them until the beKinr 
ning of the reign of Queen Elisabeth. "Yhe old Duke of Nor* 
folk, whosavea his life bjrHenrj the Eighth's dj^ing the night 
before his intended execution, and his son the celebrated Ean 
of Surrey, both lived here. Leland, the tutor of the latter, 
gloried that he had here taught so acconipliBbed a poet and 
' genius the Latin language. I'homas Howard, the third Duk( 
of Norfolk of this &inil^, had here a fine library for certain 
books, for which he petitioned the Lords, during bis confinor 
ment for high treason. On his attainder, this house was seised 
by the Crown, and was granted in fee by Edward VI. to WilUaa 
I^rr, Marquis of Northampton, by the tide " of a capital m«»- 
aion or house in Lambehith, late parcel of the ponacflsions of 
Thomas Duke of Norfolk, and 20^ acres of land in Cotmao's- 
£eld, 1 acre in St. George's-field upon Sandhill, 6 acres of 
meadow and marsh in Lambehithe .marsh, whereof 3 acres 
were within the wall of the marah, and 3 acres without, 1 close 
called Bell-close abutting upon Cotman's-field towards the east 
containing 1^ acre, 1 other close abutting upon the way (aid- 
ing from Lftmbchithe to the Marsh contaming E^ acres."* It 
was valued at S/. IQs. lOf. a year. 

In 1552 he exchanged it again with the King for the lordship 
and manor of Southwark, which had been the Bishop of Win- 
chester's ; but in the first of Mary, on a reversal of the Duke's 
attainder, Norfolk-house was again restored to him. In the 

' Psi. l£d*. Vl.p. fi. 



ST. IIA1Y*S DISTAICT. S4t 

Am yeAr of Elistabeth the Duke sold it to Bicband Gsrth find 
John Dyster for 400t Archbishop Parker's wife aAerwardi 
possessed it, whose son Matthew Parker, Esq. in 1574 devised 
it| br the description 0£ ** his house and land m Lambeth, called 
the I)uke of Norfolk hia house/' to the issue of which his wiSk 
was then enceient ; giving his wife the option of the middle part 
of it for her residence if she would dwell there, pay the land* 
lord's rent, and keep it in repair; and, fiiiling himself of issue, 
he devised it to Matthew, the son of his brraier John Parker. 
His wife was brought to bed of a soa^ who died in six months. 
His widow declin^ to live in the house, and John, the brother 
of Matthew deceased, inhabited it, and his son, who was - 
then an infant; but, on being knighted in 1613, he retired 
hence to Sittineboume, in Kent ; met which the house be>- 
oame neglected, and has been long since demolished, except 
part, which was recently standing. Mr. Nichols, in his History 
of Lambeth (1786), mentions, tmttnot long before, the original 
oiuaments in the ceiling of the drawing-room were perfect, and 
die remains of the parlour-chimney, with instruments of music, 
ifrc* in carved work, were also visible. Hollar, in his View of 
London and Westminster, shows a considerable part of Nor- 
iUk«4iouse as then standing ; at present ncme of^ the original 
buildings remain, the site of it being taken up with the exten* 
live distillery of Messrs. Hodges and Son, and several houses 
kk Pttradise-row, including a mw*house. 

The next obiect is the VK8TRY-RALL,whidi is situated nearly 
opposite the cmurch. It is a great room 36 feet long and 18 
broad ; at each end are windows ornamented with stained glass ; 
and the rebus of the lamb, and the date 1809. A dome skylight 
adds to the appearance of the hall, which is neat and respect- 
ablei» Around the room are various plans of estates belonging 
to the parish, as follows : A plan of the Work*house« surveyed in 
1771* A plan of the Walcot Estate, surveyed 1771. Plan of 
the New Burial Ground in High-street. Plaa of the boundaries 
of Camberwell and Lambeth, settled July 2, 1795. Plan of the 
fredliold estate of Mr. V. Vanlee, surveyed in 1771. Plan of a 
freehold estate purchased of Mr. Hales by the parish of Lam- 
beth, surveyed in 1771. Plan of a freehold estate in the 
diorch-yard belonging to the parish of Lambeth, surveyed in 
1771. Another plan of the Walcot estate, and various views of 
the new churches, the mother church, &c. Around the room 
are dispersed, in various ornamental ways, the staves used by 
the constables of the parish. 



S4fi ST. MARY'S DISTRICT. 

Opposite Lambeth Churdi, which has been taafAj described 
in Chapter IV. was the Rectory*housey an engraving of whidi 
M here presented. 

IVoceeding towards the river, is a house at present tenanted 
by Mr. Simmons. It is of considerable antiquity, though from 
its new brick front no person would suppose so ; probably it was 
one of the inns, of which several existed in this neighbourboo4» 
previous to the erection of Westminster-bridee ; the ceilings jh 
many of the rooms are of ancient plaster. Near this house is 
a Welsh Chapel, of small size, and mean appearance. 

In this street was held annually a fair on the first of March, 
until within a few years back. It was called *^ Tafl^*s Fair," 
'fr^m the number of Welsh who friequented it. Formerly there 
was a charter for a fair and weekly market, s « 

Mention is made by Mr. Lysons, of a house opposite the south 
side of tl^e churchyard, which had Archbishop Whitgift's arms 
painted in glass, with the date of 1595 in some of the windows ; 
no remains exist at the present time, that the editor is aware of. 

Arriving opposite Lambeth Palace, the spectator cannot fial 
rbeing delighted with the view down.the river; either in an his* 
torical or picturesque point, Westminster Abbey and Hall, .the 
Houses of Lords and Commons, ,the Banqueting-house, West- 
minster-bridge, &c. form a coup (TcM that is highly pleasing. '-: 

The Archbishops of Canterbury had formerly a .ferry-iN)f|t 
near the palace, the profits of whidb they granted by. patient tib 
some of Uieir officers. They received annually, for many year^, 
only twenty pence, but of late ten pounds. Upon the nmshine 
' of Westminster-bridge, in Nov«nber.l750, the ferry-boat ceawd 
by Act of Parliament, and an equivalent was given to the See.'itf 
Canterbury for the same ; and likewise to a£*. Folkes, the sur- 
viving patentee, for his interest therein. ^ 

In 1673 Archbishop Sheldon^ave 5tf . for paving the street 
in front of the palace. 

On the side of the river, near the Archbishop's palace, and 
opposite the church, is a house which was formerly his Grace's 
boat-house. 

An ancient inn is situated at the beginning of Fore-street, on 
the river side, its present sign is the Ship, lliis house is said 
to have been in great business for entertaining travellers iirhile 
the horse-ferry was in use, before the building of Westminster- 
bridge. Adjoining this house was a slaughter-house belonging 
to the Archbishop. 



a See p. 176 of this Work. b Docarers Lainbeth Palace, p. 79^ 



ST. mart's district; S4S 

Proceeding through Ferry«street, we arrire at High-ttreet. 
On the left is a burial-eround, which was given to the parish in 
1705, by Archbishop Tenison. It contains the remains of Ed* 
ward Moore, author of ^* Fables for the Female Sex," and other 
poetical and dramatic pieces. He was also editor of the col- 
lection of essays entitled *' The World," in which he was aissisted 
S' Horace Walpole, and other eminent literary diaracters. 
e died a few days after the appearance of the last number of 
this publication, March 5, 1757. In the same ground is in- 
terred Thomas Cooke, son of an innkeeper in Eaiex, who, de- 
voting his attention to literature, produced various works, of 
which his translation of Hesiod is considered the best. He at* 
tadced Pope in a performance, entitled the *^ Battle of the 
Poets," which procured him a niche in the Dunctad. He pub- 
liriied several dnunatic pieces, odes, a volume of poems, the 
life of Andrew Marvel, translations of Terence and Cicero, an 
edition of Virgil, and some treatises on religious subjects ; was 
for some years editor of the Craftsman, and died in extreme 

Kverty, January 1, 1757* Here also is buried the Countess de la 
otte, well known for the share which she had in some myste- y/r < ^>c^ ., k /f«: 
ijous transactions in the Court of France just before the Revo- ^. it,,,-,.*: />,. 
lotion. She ended her days in this parish in great distress ;/>a^ /..,.> ;/J / 
and a few weeks before her death, in order to avoid the bailii&,\r. y.*^ '/ 

jumped from a two pair of stairs window, by which rash act she * ^ ^"*^' *'*^ 
broke her thigh, and was otherwise dreadftiUy maimed. gtMt^^ k-frk^^i^Qi 

Nearly opposite the burying-ground is a public-house, of the 
sign of the King's Head. 

In the churchwardens* accounts is the foUowing item, proba- 
bly referring to it : 

1580. Llayd out at the King's Head when £* s, d. 

were chosen 6 6 

Tliey regularly went to this house when churchwardens were 
diosen, for several years. 

At the north comer of Calcot's-alley, on the same side of the 
street as the last mentioned house, resided Francis Moore, the 
original author of Moore's Almanack, where he followed the 
joint occupation of astrologer and schoolmaster, and perhaps of 
a doctor, as in his almanack he is styled physician. 

In or near this alley, was situated an inn, or house of enter- 
tainment, called the Chequers. In the year 1464, a licence 
was granted to its landlord John Calcot, to have an oratory in 
his house, and a chaplain^ for the use of his family and guests, 
as long as his house should continue decent and respectable, 
and adapted to the celebration of divine service. • 



^ LyiOQs. 



S4^ ST. mait's district; 

Nearly opposite Calcot*s-alley is the 

I 

OIRL8 CHARltir SCHOOL. 

This school was founded and endowed by Archbishop Teni- 
BOD, for the education of poor girkt in the year 1715 ; he also 
gave a ptece of land behind the school for a parish buriaU 
ffroiuid. Hie estate belonging to this school is situate in 
High-street and Faradise-row ; and in or about 1764, was let 
on a repairinff and building lease, at a net annual rent of 87/.; 
exclusive of Uie school-house, which has a handsome room for 
the trustees thereof to meet in. 

In the year 1817 a new school-house and school-room were 
built at the expence of 1»000/.; since which time the children, 
before taught in a school supported by voluntary contributionSy 
amounting to about sixty in number, have been removed into 
the new school-room^ and an union on the national system of 
the two institutions has taken place. The number of girls on 
the Archbishop's foundation is twenty, and the whole number 
taught in the united school is about ^00, which are as many as 
the room will hold. The twenty foundation girk and tmr^ 
others are clothed, and three of them boarded. The mistress s 
salary is 60/. per annum, and she b allowed 6 per cent, on the 
work done by the girls, and lives in the schooUhouse, and small 
rewards are given to the girls whe are employed as teachers^ 
The funds belonging to Archbishop Tenison's foundation have 
recently been very considerably increased by the improvement 
c^ the estate, and now amount to 419/. 8f . 2a. per annum, sub- 
ject to an annuity of 180/. which expired in 1824; and it is 
expected, that wnen the debt incurred in erecting the school- 
room is paid off, the Tenisonian fund will be fully adequate to 
the maintenance of the school 

The school-house is a neat brick building, and is the most 
respectable house in the whole neighbouriiood, which is wretch- 
edly dirty, and the houses geoemUy in a bad state of repair. 



»7. Muilsa I^STRICT^ 

In Utia atreet, mow converted into a paOdrj, tUatii 




This 18 a brick building with wings, apparentiy of no g^eat 
^e, and was once a residence of the Bishops of Hereford. The 
last bishop who resided in this place was Dr. Herbert Crotl, & 
author of a work entitled " Naked Truth." It has been appro- 
priated to its present purpose more than seventy years, having 
an earthenware ornament in front, the date 1750. 

Arriving in Broad-street we proceed to the left ; and pass- 
ing the Mustard-mills of Messrs. Thomas Rutter and Co. at 
lianibeth Butts, which have been established thirty years, and 
are worked by a steam-engine of twenty horse power, we arrive 
at the 

PARISH WOBKHOUSB, 

a plain building of brick, without the least ornament. 

About the year 1722 a piece dfland was either purchased of 
Mn. Sarah Pain, or was given by her, for the purpose of build- 

• The Udj Df thii preliu want into Moorfieldi C** <h> that ooCHion na tin 
pnctSc* Bitb mint reipecubia peapic) to k« wlioin ihc could relicvg j Hid tbars 
took notice of Elii. Peiry, whom >bs found tiltio; the third daj bj lome houH- 
hoU flimieuTfl belaaging to her fathert a grocer id Thamet-icrMBt who, being 
paaJjriiii, had been carried out of hi> houM to atoid the fire ( 1 666), and died a («w 
dajaaAar. Ilie mother vf thiiyoim^ noiziaD waaioiurpriiadat thobahaadiu of 
Kiag Chariei, that il broLUcht on her labour, Januanr SO, 1G43, and aha diod 
about twelie honn after. The Biihop'i ladj took £lia. Perrv and hei fumilura 
home, where ahe coatinned till iha «•« married to George Heanj, a Oerman, 
and a aword-entler i be engamd to build a lugu^houaa at Li«eipool, vaA 
aosdiat at Batteriea; Irom the proprietor! whereof be receind 1002. per 
anoiuB. When £lii. Perrj' and George HeoDj were married, iher oeither of 
them Vnew of a relation liring, a> b« eicaped a general meuaere in Saior nf (he 
ProteitaDti, by iwimniiDg o»er a river, holding bj a horie'i tall, upon wliicb hii 
uDcIe and aunt were ridinc ; who brnught him V> Eut;laDd. ud bound him ap- 
preMice at Li'rrpool. Ilieir children went to uhool to ihc celebrated fVancii 



946 ST. mart's district. 

ing ft workhouse^ which was immediatelj erected ; and in 1726 
a large new brick house was opened near Lambeth Butts, for 
receiving all the poor of the parish that receive alms ; where, 
in 17S1, there were sixty men, women, and children, employed, 
in spinning mop-yam. Experience having proved the place 
too confined, in 1768 an additional piece or ground was pur- 
chased by the parishioners of Jonaman Tyers, esq. and new 
buildings erected against the west end of the original house, to 
the amount of nearly l,00tf. which expence was defrayed by 
money borrowed upon life annuities ; and the number of poor, 
by a constant increase, was, in 17B4, augmented to 280. In 
1786 more new buildings were erected, forming the west side of 
a quadrangle, as the former did the north side. Inl8Mthe 
east side was built,, and raised one story higher in 1825. 

The ground and site of the buildings at the workhouse, con- 
tains just three quarters of an acre, and is inclosed within a high 
brick wall. 

On the left in George-street, is the 



LAMBETH ASSOCIATION SCHOOL, 

supported by public subscription, on the i^stem of the Fo- 
reign and British School Society. The building was erected 
in 1817, and can accommodate 300 boys. The present master 
is Mr. J. Hardwicke. 

In Gray's Walk, to which George-street adjoins, is a chqiel 
for the Calvinistic Baptists, erected in 1824', at an expence of 
nearly 1,000/. ; it will accommodate about 400 persons. The 
present minister is the Rev. J. T. Jeffery. The building is neat, 
01 brick, without galleries or organ. 

Proceeding in a westerly direction, we enter Lambeth Walk 
(formerly called Three Coney Walk, from a public-house bear- 
ing that sign ) . One hundred and fifty years ago there were few 
houses of consequence in this street, the principal part having 
ditches on each side. 

In the beginning of the last century there was a place of pub*, 
lie entertainment here, called Lambeth Wells, s It was at 
first opened on account of its mineral water, which was sold at 
one penny per quart. The music commenced at seven o*elock 
in the mornmg, ai^d the price of admission was threepence, b 

A monthly concert under the direction of Mr. Goodwin, or- 

fanist of St. Saviour's, was afterwards held here, and Erasmus 
ang, who had been coachman to Dr. Desa^uliers, read lec- 
tures, and exhibited experiments in natural philosophy^ dbe ad- 
mission being raised to sixpence. ^ 

- 

* It coasUtad of two wells, dittinguUhed m the oearar aiMlikrtlier well. Thif 
were open before 1697* No penon wm admitted with ft mmtk. 

^ Advertitement quoted in the History of Lambeth, p. 66. < Ibid. 



ST. maet's district. S47 

' A Penny Wedding after the Scotch ftshion, for the benefit 
of ayoung couple, was advertised to be kept here in 1752. ^^ 
These waters seem to have continued in some degree of re- 

Pition tiU eclipsed by those of St. George's Spa, situated 
on the outside border of this parish, which we find adver- 
tised in 1736. 

Lambeth Wells at length becoming a public nuisance, the 
premises were shut up, and ultimately let as a Methodist 
Bieeting-house. The music ffallery was used as a pulpit; 
but the preacher beinff disturbed greatly in his enthusiastic 
harangues, he was obhged to quit, when the premises were 
converted to various purposes, except the dwelling, which is 
now known by the sign of the Fountain public-house. 

Of the numerous streets which branch from this walk, we 
will take Walnut-tree-walk, one of the most respectable in this 
neiffhbourhood. It is a thoroughfare from Lambeth-walk to 
Walcot-place. 

A very considerable estate belonging to this parish, and that 
of St. Olave*s, Southwark, lies on each side of the road in which 
Walcot-place is situated.- It appears that Edmund Walcot, by his 
will, Jan.S, 1667, gave and devised 17 acres of freehold land, after 
the death of his father, in the following manner : a moiety to the 
Parson and Churchwardens of Lambew, and their successors, for 
ever, upon trust that they should dispose of the rents and profits 
thereotamongst the most needy and poor people of the said parish, 
according to their discretion $ the other moiety he gave to the 
Parson and Churchwardens of the parish of St. Olave, South- 
wark, upon similar trust. It appears from the vestry-books that 
the two parishes came into possession of this estate about the 
year 170b* From the same source we learn, that a Vestry meet- 
ing was held 9th May 1698, when it appeared that tl^e estate 
was in the possession of and claimed by Lord Herbert of Cher- 
bury, and Sir William Broughton, Bart. The matter was re- 
ferred, on the part of this parish, to Justice Wymondesold, 
and on the part of St. Olave to Justice Cooper, to inquire into 
the title, and see how and by what title Lord Herbert and Sir 
William continued to hold. The Justices did obtain possession ; 
ibr it appears from the vestry-books, that on the 4th February 
171 1» a committee was appointed to act with a committee of 
St. Olave to let it. In the year 1713 the parishes divided the 
DToperty by deeds of lease and release, dated the 4th and 5th of 
November 1713. On the building of Westminster-bridge in 
1750, new roads were made ; one from the Asylum to Kenning* 
ton passing through this estate, a sum of money was paid by the 



• Daily Adfertiaer, Jane 27. 



348 



«T. MiMS't DMTRICT. 



truate£s of tht road into ttu Hajettj's Comi bf Bxdie^aet, in 
dinrioution of the laud-Ux od the eatate. The pariah of LiiiD- 
betK granted building leaae*t and wer« quietly in pcMseiriati till 
181S) when it was discovered that the original devite wtm void, 
in st much as a panea and duirchitrardenB dm Imnf a eoTpanie 
body, cannot hold lands. In 1818 the Crown aeiied this aa an 
eaeheat, but were ob%ed to sbdndon it on aficOunt of aaKct 
Df the 9tliofGeorgein. wbibh disables thvOown to take anr 
estate, where tbe right had bHea beyond sixty years. Prdcem- 
ings are now pending between tiift parishes to obtain an Act of 
Parliament to legalise their title, and thiks settle the estate, lii 
the interim, the Court of Chancery have appointed a Receivcn 
In this road, bearer to the Afejlilin, has been ejected a new 
chapel, called 

VEBULAM CHAPCl,. 



Imp 




R 


^ ^^ 


i 

It 


m 


1^-- - 1 -■- 


^_ii-i- 


■•-^.-'-.m 



It is neatly fitted up, and has an organ, with gdleriea round 
three aides of the building, with spacious vaults beneath the 
.whole of the chapel. It will hold 800 persons. Mr. Boonin, 
of BrompCon, is the architect, and deserves great praise for the 
.neat and elegant taste which he has displayed in the fitting i^ 
and its general appearance. The Uev. H. Lacy, of the Jiide- 
pendent eonnexion, is the proprietor. ^ 

Nearly opposite the last building, and on the right of the 
road, as you proceed from Kennington towards the Asylasi, 
is a public-bouse, known by the sign of the Ship, 'nil 
house was the property of the celebrated John BrongtltOB, 
whose skill in boxing is well known ; he died here Janinty 
6, 1789, at the advanced age of 85. He was originally bred 
a waterman. His patron, the Duke of Cumberland, got Uai 
appointed one of the yeomen of die Guards, whidi place he 
enjoyed till his death. He was buried in Lambeth church ; his 



1. Knigl>l ind Un: 



iiive allowed tha me of the ibove 



/tT* HAHT'a DltTBlOT. SIS 

-Aiheral being fbUowtidbr several of fais friendt nk the met b£ 
MxUig.; He » fliuppaBed to hove died nroith 7<K)0iL 

PnsviouB 't6 the roed being made firem Weslminal^ to Kel^ 
ningtoh theiitfe wu fifeldi, widi a bridle way fr^)knJNeiring(ton 
ip'LBmhbth {kdietce and itairs« Tkis waiB of great ietdqiitty, and 
amae old people in Lambetk remeiaber iIm: fiithars meaiion- 
ing that Gedrge IL uaed to crmm the wiiter aad gd alone this 
ttitth^ attended by his courtiers^ to htmt m Gi^enirrch paa« and 
Blackheath. 

Returning along the road we laedt with no object worihjr of 
notice till we arrive at 

EenninotoX 

upon the etymology of this place our bntK^uaries and histo- 
rians have remaned silent 

Many placeis in this County have received their natnes from 
the Saxons; which will tend to support^ in feome measarey an 
•endeavbiiir to trace its erJigiii id that peo^e. 

Its Bource> probaUy, is td be rautid in the Sa^oH word 
Cynin^e, a king; and tun, a town or place, L e. £^nihs«-ttin» or the 
Town or place of the king. This opinion is materially supported by 
the facts, that at this place there was fenberly a ^fMdbce, in which 
some of our earlier jnoaarchs rjemded ; here it is supposed that 
Hardicanute fell a vicUm to the hands of the assassin by poison 
as earlv as 1042; aUd here Harc^d^ the son of Eal^l ubdwin, 
upon the death of Edward the GonfessoTy after usurping the 
throne and seizing the crown «f fijigland^ is snppoied to have 
placed the latter on his owii head. 

In the Norman Survey, ordered to be taken by William I. it 
is written Chinentune, evidently a corruption of the Saxon 
Cynm^e-tun. 

Of the palace of Kennington little can be gleaned With re- 

Sard to its possessors, and none respecting its architecture ; no 
oubt can exist but that it was an extensive pile, and probablv 
of Saxon architecture. Even so late as 1607 the reader wiu 
be surprised when he is told, that Camden should mention his 
looking for ^* sdes re^ia Kennington diets, ^o re^es Angliae 
olim secedere soliti, sea nunc nee nomen nee nidera invisnimus?" 
Not a fragment now remains above ground ; the last) which 
.was the old barn, was pulled down in 1795 ; but in soaoe ^f the 
Cellars of housies in Park-place, thick walls of flint, ^adk, and 
tubble-stone intermixed, may be seen. On the premises of 
Mr. Campion, digging a few feet below the surface, two Roman 
t!oins were found, but so defaced, that to what reign they be- 
longed could not be distinguished ; a little pottery, apparently 
ifioman, Was also turned up. To account for this an eminent 
antiquary vuggesCed, that as ^K^nnhigton had often been the 
residence of antiquaries, it might be some old fragments 



550 ST. MARY'a DISTRICT. 

thrown aside as not worthy preservation, but firom further dis- 
coveries which will be mentioned hereafter, it is very probable 
that the Romans were acquainted with this part of Lambeth. 

From the Conquest to the reign of Henry III. no instance 
Jias occurred of Kennington Manor being mhabited by any 
royal personUge ; after that time the following notices appear : 

The Parliament held by Henry HI. at Liunbeth is supposed 
by some writers to have assembled at this palace; and it is still 
more probable that he kept his Christmas here in 12S1. 

Edward UI. kept his Cnristmas here in 1S4<2. s 

His son Edward the Black Prince often resided here, and 
Prince's-road, leading by the workhouse to the water-side, was 
the way by which he came from Westminster. 

As it is not intended, in this work, to give biographical notices, 
except where the person died, or was buried m the parish; 
and as the history of this renowned prince is so intimately con- 
nected with the History of England, it will suffice to say, he 
was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, with a splendid monu- 
ment,l> a description of which, by a learned and distinguished 
antiquary, is here given. 

Along a tomb, which painted sculpture dress'd, 

Arm'd as for tourney, the knight warrior lay, 
His crossing legs a couching lion press*d, / . 

A helmet was his head's supporting stay. 

His limbs were mail'd in battailous array, 
A plaited gorget girt his shoulders wide. 

His belt was studded thick with bosses gay. 
The sword appendant kiss'd his stony side, 
Of rich work were his spurs, the knights distinguished pride.^ 

The two engravings of seals of the Black Prince opposite have 
been introduced from their rarity ; the originals were kindly lent 
me by a/gentleman whose collection of monastic seals exceeds 
any other in the kingdom ; they are both of green wax, and per- 
fect, the small one particularly so, and in fine relief. 

In 1377, a remarkable mummery was made by the citizens 
of London, for distort of the young Prince Richard, son to 
the Black Prince : 

** On the Sunday before Candlemass, in the night, ISO citi- 
zens, disguised and well horsed, in a mummery, with sound of 
trumpets, sackbuts, comets, shaJmes, and other minstrels, and 
inniunerable torch lights of wax, rode from Newgate through 
Cheap over the bridge, through Southwajk, and so to Ken- • 

* Stow'i Annali. ^ Eognved in the beit nuuiner in Stothard*! MoouhmbUI 
Effigies. c Key. T. D. Foibroke' iBritUh Momcliif n. 




IJEB THE BLACK. IPlSKKi'C:;', 



Jru 




. \ 



BT. Mary's distiiict* S51 

iibgton^vbetideB Ltmbeth, where the young prince remained 
with his mother and the Duke of Lancaster his wide, the Earls 
of Cambridge, Hertford, Warwicke, and Suffolke, with divers 
other lords. ' , 

** In the first rank did ride 48 in likeness and habit of esquires, 
two and two tqgt^er, clothed in red coats and gowns of say or 
sendal, with comely vizors on their faces* 

** These maskersi after they had entered the manor of Ken- 
ninffton, alighted from the horses, and entered the hall on foot ; 
which done, the prince, his mother, and the lords came out of 
the hall, whom^ tne mummers did salute ; shewing by a paire 
of dice on the table, their desire to play ¥ath the prince, which 
they so handled, that the prince did alwais winne, when he 
came to cast at them. Then the mummers set to the prince 
three jewels, one after another, which were a boule of gold, a 
cup of gold, and a ring of gold, which the prince wonne at 
three casts. Then they set to the prince's mother, the duke, 
the earls, and other lords, to every one a ring of gold, which 
they did also win. After which they were feasted, and the 
musick sounded, the prince and lords danced on the one part, 
with the mummers who did also dance ; which jollity being 
ended, they were again made to drink, and then departed in 
order as they came." 

The young prince was at this time only ten years old ; and 
succeeded to the throne of his grandfather in the same year, 
viz. 1377. 

These were amusements derived from the Satumaliia; and 
so called from the Danish mumme, or Dutch momme, disguise 
in a mask. Christmas was the grand scene of mumming, and 
some mummers were disguised like bears, others like unicorns, 
bringing presents. They who could not procure masks rubbed 
their faces with soot, or painted them. In the Christmas mum- 
meries the chief aim was to surprise by the oddity of the 
masques, and singularity and splendour of the dresses. Every 
thing was out of nature and propriety. They were often at- 
tended with an exhibition of gorgeous machinery. It was an 
old custom also to have mummeries on Twelfth-night. They 
were the common holiday amusements of young people 
of both sexes ; but 6 Edward III. the mummers or masque- 
raders, were ordered to be whipped out of London. Sometimes 
they were very splendid ; with grand processions, musick, &c, ■ 



• From that rtluaUe and cnrboi work. Rev. T. D. Fotbrokt'i Eneydopedia 
of A]iti«(uities, vol. ii. p. 595. 



A 



ar. mkKT'a oufRiCT. 



lite unexed ei^Mnti; ii taksii ftam * bMUtt^l nJaniucript 
written and illuminated in the reign of Edward III. in the Bod* 
leian Library, Oxford. ■ 




On the SOlh of November, 1396, the young qnoen Isabel, 
(commoniv called the Little, tor she was then not quite eigbt 
year* old,) was conveyed from Kennington through Southwaric 
to the Tower of London ; and guch a multitude of people vent 
out to see her, that on Loodon-bridKe nine pervons were 
crowded to death, of which the Prior of Tiptree, in Essex, was 
one, and a matron on Cornhill another, b The lodging of this 
illustrious princess at Kennington is a presumptive proof of the 
then grandeur of the palace. 

Henry VIL previous to his coronation, came from Kenning- 
ton to l.ambeth, where he dined wkh Archbishop Bourchier;* 
and Leland says, that Catherine of Arragon was here for a few 
days. ■) 

A Survey was made in 1623, an engraving of part of which 
the reader can refer to at p. 260 of this worL, e where the site 
of the Long-barn which run parrallel with Park-place is ex- 
hibited. Inis barn was pulled down 1795 1 an engraving of it 
IVom an original drawing is here given. In 1786 two large 
vaults were discovered near the great bam, but whether of 
Saxon or Gothic Architecture is out of the power of any per- 
son living to determiiie. This barn was one of the receptacles 
for the Palatine Protestors 1709. 

A Survey was taken in 1649 by order of the Parliament, of 
which a copy is printed below : 

■ Muk«lBod.264. ^ SMw'i Siuvs]', 1663, p. t9. < Stow'i Assah. 

<! CalltGUo. vol. V. p. 3Sa. 

' On it ii the TOftd to Weitminfter-bridgt ; thif menDS the reading- plun 
leading from (ht Thunei lo New P&li«-ji(d, itill uieil by tlic Ixiid Miion ef 
LundoD, on their nv/ to be »wom into office it the Exchwjuri. 



JJ^^ 




ST. MARy*8'DISTniCT. 355 



Surrey Ss*. 

Manerium de Kennington cum Juribus MemhrU et p^tine7i\ 

A Survey of the M ano* of Kennington w^h the rights, mem- 
bers, and appurten^ces thereof, lyin^ and being in the County 
of Surry, late p*cell of the poss'ons ofCharlcs Stuart eldest sonu 
of Charles Stuart, late King of England, as p'te of his Duchy 
of Cornwall, made and taken by us, whose names are heereunto 
subscribed, in the month of October, 1649, by virtut of a Com- 
tnission grounded upon an Act of the Commo* assembled in 
Parliament, for the sale of the Honors, Mano's, and Landes, 
heeretofore belonging to the s*d late King, Queene, and Prince, 
under the handes and scales of five or more of the Trustees in 
xhe s'd Act named and appoynted. 

Kennington Manor-JiotLse^ Mr. Richard Dobson, underf* 

All that capitall messuage, mansion, or manno*-house wt^ the 
scite thereof, commonly called Kennington Manor-house, 
•scituate, lying, and being in the towne or towneshipp of Ken- 
nington, in the parish of Lambeth, in the county of Surry, being 
built of bricks and covered w^ tiles, consisting of a hall, a par- 
lor, a buttery, a kitchen, and two shedds, y* will serve for ne- 
cessary uses^ three chambers above stayres, and one garret or 
loft over them, unfloared, one litttle court beefore the doore, 
planted with small trees, and paled w^* oaken boardes, one 
greate barne covered with tiles, consisting of twelve bayes of 
building and walled w^ stone on the eastside thereof, and w^ 
tJay and boardes on the west side therof, conteining in length 
52 yards, and in bredth 8 yards, on the west side whereof is 
one greate shedd for cowes, and onto the north end of which 
barne adioynes one tenem' of brick cont. two litle roomes be- 
low stayres and two litle roomes above stayres, w^^ one litle 
garden therewtli, occupied, lying between the sayd litle tenemts^ 
mnd the common pinfould of the s*d manor, one greate ffarden 
adioyning to the south and west sides of Uie s*d capitall mes- 
suage or mansion-house, planted wtb young trees apd gardiner*s 
fruite, one other garden adioyning to the north side of the 6*d 
capitall messuage, mansion, or mano -house, planted allsoe wth 
young trees, and wherein stands one pumpc ; which sayd capi- 
tall mess* or mano'-house wtb the scite thereof, and the sayd 
ffreate barne are bounded wtl^ the highway yt leades betwixt 
Newington and Kingeston- upon -Thames upon the east p*te 
diereof^ and doe conteine by estimac*on two acres and one rood 
of land more or less, and all wayes, passages, lights, easemti, 
waters, water-courses, commodities, advantages, and appur- 
te'nces, whatsoever to the sayd capitall messuagCi mansion, or 

2z 



$5i ST. mart's district. 

mano*-bouse and scite thereof, or any p*te or p'cell thereof, eny 
waves belonging or apperteyning p* ann. 2a. Ir. 14/. 10». Od, 

Memorandum. — The sayd mano' or mansion-house is in good 
tenantable repayre, and is valued in the materialls at 150?. 

After this nothing further is known but uhat is mentioned 
under Kennin^ton manor, and probably the house was pulled 
down during the Commonwealth. 

In 1720 Uiis place gave the title of Earl to William Augustus 
Duke of Cumberland, second son of George II. ; but dying 
-without issue, November 8, 1765, the title became extinct. 

Opposite the White-Hart (formerly a handsome mansion in 
which resided Sir Richard Manley in 1636) was a maypole, and, 
behind the house, gardens, in which on May-day all sorts of 
pastimes were held. The following description is interesting 
at a time when intolerance and hypocrisy are making rapid 
strides to put down all th*e amusements of our forefathers, who, 
undoubtedly were more virtuous and happy than the present 
generation, though certainly not so enlightened. 

This was the great rural festival of our fore-fathers. 
Their hearts responded merrily to the cheerfulness of the 
season. At the dawn of May-morning the lads and lasses left 
their towns and villages, and, repairing to the woodlands by 
sound of music, they gathered the May or blossomed branches 
of the trees, and bound them with wreaths of flowers ; then 
returning to their houses by sun-rise, they decorated the lattices 
and doors with the sweet smelling spoil of their joyous journey, 
and spent the remaining hours in sports and pastimes.^ 

The May-pole is up» 

Now give me the cup ; 
I '11 drink to the garlands around it ; 

But first unto those 

Whose hands did compose 
The glory of flowers that rrown'd it. *> 

Mention is made in the European Magazine, of traces of a 
cross being discovered at Kennington. Very probably there 
might have been one as there generally was at the beginning of 
most of the sreat roads. 

At Kennington resided, and died January 22, 1809, m his 
seventy-third year, Dr. John Andrews, a gentleman well known 
in the literar}' world. He was author of many works of a poli- 
tical and satirical nature. 

From Kennington-cross, runs a road called Kennington-lane, 
the right side of which, as you proceed towards town, is in the 

* Hone's Every-day Rook, 18'?ri. ^ Hcrrick. 




^J 



ST. mahy's district. 955 

Kenoington district, the led in the one being described. About 
halfway up is a large house called the Manor-house, but it is 
generally understood that it was never occupied as a manorial 
residence. a^»u^?a. J A /uux^ 4^d 

In this lane at the extreme corner adjoining the Newington- 
road and opposite the Plough-and- Harrow public-house, stood 
the house of Dr. Featley the Rector of this parish, who was de- 
prived during the Commonwealth ; it was on a copyhold estate, 
and in 1786 was held by Mr. Martin. Returning to Kenning- 
ton, and proceeding towards Vauxhail, the first object worthy 
attention is 

Vauxhall Chapel, a plain brick building, erected in 1816 
by voluntary contributions of persons of the independent per- 
suasion, and cost upwards of 2,000/. It will hold near 1,000 
persons ; the present minister is the Rev. Francis Moore. The 
chapel has recently been enlarged. Leaving the chapel, we 
approach Vauxhall Gardens ; and, passing the entrance, which 
we will describe shortly, we arrive at the corner formed by the 
road from London to Vauxhall by the way of Kenningcon and 
the road leading into Vauxhall along the water-side. Here 
when London and its suburbs were fortified by order of Parlia- 
ment during the Civil War in the reign of Charles I; a fort was 
erected, on the site of which is a mason's yard and premises. 

In a plan of the City, an engraving of which is given in 
Maitland's History of London ; it is called a *' quadrant fort, 
with four half bulwarks ; ** part of it was visible in 1786. * 

The following notices respecting these works are curious : 

In the month of October 1642, the Committee of the Militia 
of London save orders that trenches and ramparts should be 
made near tul the highways leading to the City ; accordingly 
the work was carried on for months. In May and June 1643, 
it was prosecuted with uncommon zeal, as appears by the fol- 
lowing extracts from the public papers : 

'^ May 8. The work in the nelds to trench the City, goes 
on amain. Many thousands of men, women, and servants, go 
out daily to work ; and this day there went out a great company 
of the Common Council, and divers other chief men ot the 
City, with the greatest part of the trained bands, with spadesi 
shovels, pick-axes, &c."b 

^' May 9. This day many thousand of citizens, their wives 
and families, went out to dig, and all the porters in and about 
the City, to the number of 2.000." 

*' May 23. Five thousand felt-makers and cappers went to 
work at the trenches ; near 3,000 porters, &c. it was wonderful 

* Nichols*t Lambeth, p. 59. 

^ This gave rite to the tatirical song, « Roundheaded Cockold^ cont dig.** 



356 ST. mart's district. 

to see how the women and children, and vast numbers of pe9-' 
ple« would come and work about digging and carrying of earthy 
to make their new fortifications." « 

In this neighbourhood some eminent antiquaries conceire the 
canal or trench made by Canute (for it is pretty well ascer- 
tained there was such a course, though the exact line is- lost) 
had its influx into the Thames. The cause of making this cut 
was as follows : 

On the death of Ethelred, his son Edmand Ironside, w89 
crowned king ; but notwithstanding this brave prince was every 
way deserving the crown, he found himself deserted by the 
clergy and many of the nobility who proclaimed Gnut or Canute 
(the son of Sivegen, the late King of the Danes) at Southamp- 
ton. On hearing this, Canute fitted out a considerable fleet to 
reduce London, the chief support of his competitor, but on his 
arrival he found that he could not pass the bridge, the citizens 
having strongly fortified it ; he therefore set about cutting a 
canal through the marshes, on the south side of the river 
Thames, that he might invest the city on all sides, and by pre- 
venting supplies from entering, to facilitate its reduction. By 
a diligent search of several aays, Mr. Maitland conceived be 
discovered the vestiges and length of this artificial water course r 
its outflux from the river Thames was where the great wei 
dock below Rotherhithe is situate ; whence, running due west 
by the Seven-houses in Rotherhithe-fields, it continues its 
course by a gentle winding to the drain windmill ; and with a 
west-north-west course passing St. Thomas h Watering by an 
easy turning it crosses the Deptford-road a little to the south-east 
of the Lock-hospital, at the lower end of tCent-street, and pro- 
ceeding to Newington-butts intersects the road a little south of the 
turnpike ; whence continuing its course by the Black Prince in 
Kennington, it runs west and by south through the Spring Garden 
atVauxhaU, to its influx into the Thames, at the lower end of Chel- 
sea reach. Mr. Maitland enquired of a carpenter of the name 
of Webster, who was employed in making the great wet dock at 
Rotherhithe in 1694<» and who remembered that in the course 
of that work a considerable quantity of faggots and stakes were 
discovered, which Mr. Maitland considers as part of the works 
intended to strengthen the banks of the canal.D 

That there misht have been such a water-course, as Mr. 
Maitland terms it, from the wet dock at Deptford, round by 
St. Thomas k Watering and Newington-butts, quite up to 
Vauxhall, and into the 'Hiames at Che&ea reach, is allowed by 
many eminent antiquaries. " 



* From New»p»]i)crs uf the time. ^ MalLland, rtl. 1739* p. S6L 




i I 



«-'i 



«T. IIARY*8 DISTftlCr. SST 

* 

In a letter from Dr. Wallis to Mr. Pepys in 1699, he says, " I 
had one Sunday preached for Mr. Gataker, at Redriff, and 
lodged there that night. Next morning I walked with him 
over the fields to Lamheth, meaning to cro^ the Thames to 
Westminster. He shewed me in the parage diverse remains 
of the old channel, which had heretofore been made from Red- 
riff to Lambeth, for diverting the Thames whilst London bridge 

'was building, all in a straight line, or near it, but with great 
intervals, which had been long since filled up. Those remaimr 
which then appeared very visible, are, I suspect, all or most of 
them filled up before this time, for it is more than fifty yeanr 
ago, and people in those marshes would be more fond of so 
much meadow grounds than to let those lakes remain unfilled f 
and he told me of many other such remains which bad been 
ivithin his memory, but were then filled up.*'* 

But when the time and ex pence, and needless labour such a 
canal must have required, to make it navigable for vessels that 
had been able td transport an army from the northern seas ib 
considered, and the little time the Danes had to execute such 8 
design in the enemy's country, there appear great obstacles 
against the opinion, Uiat the water-course above described mm 
the canal by which the Danish fleet sailed or were towed to die 
west side of the bridge. Another author supposed, that the cut, 
made by Canute began at the dock, near to the place called at 
this time Dockhead, in Rotherhithe ; and from thence in a small 
semicircle by St. Margaret*s-hiU, in Southwark, into the Thames 
again at St. Saviour's dock above bridee. But Mr. Buckmat^ 
ter, an ingenious and intelh'eent inhabitant, controverts both 
these hypotheses, observing that in the old plans of London, 
ihefena of London*bridge appears to be defended by a wall 
with towers at different distances, extended so as to take in and 
cover^e Bishop of Winchester's palace, &c. ; which wall was 
called the South-work, or out-work to the south. Now this work 
extending so far destroys the idea of Canute's trench ending at 
St. Saviour's dock (which was made sq for a ferry before the 
bridge was built), as Canute must have destroyed this South- 
work before he could have made his trench. He is equally against 
the former ; but thinks the trench begun at Dockhead, was con- 

^tinned through Five-foot-lane, in Bermondsey, to the end of 
Kent*street, where a bridge is built over it, and thence to Neir- 
ington, on the north side of the new road, into St. George*s- 
fidds, and terminated below the king's barge-house. Mr. 
Buckmaster then remarks on the Broadwall and its ditches^ 
and^ considers his line of canal to be pretty accurate by the 



* Pepjt' Corre^pondcDce, toI. ii. p. f 01 



S58 ST. mart's district. 

sewers being lefl so wide. His certainly is the most probable 
course. 

I conceive it can be traced from the north side of the Kent- 
road, by the Elephant and Castle inn, on the south side of the 
Fishmongers* almshouses. Here Mr. Maitland says is a moorish 
ground, with a small water-course, denominated the river Tygris^ 
which is part of Cnut's trench or canal already mentioned.* 
But what supports this supposition of Maitland*8 is, that during 
the year 18^ an extensive sewer was made along this road, in 
t(ie course of which, a few feet south of the almshouses were 
discovered several stakes driven into the ground several feet 
below the surface, and evidently, intended to protect an em- 
bankment ; a piece of one of those stakes I have in my posses- 
sion, excessive hard, and capable of a high polish, the colour 
black. This certainly corrobbrates Maitland so far ; from here 
the trench ran along at the back of the houses in the Lambeth- 
road, and what forms the boundary between the parishes of 
Lambeth and Sl George*s Southwark, pursuing its course 
along the north side of Brook-street. Here we lose it ; but it 
inost probably went into the Thames between Lambeth palace 
an4 Vauxhall, but certainly not so low as Mr. Maitland has 
placed it. 

Mr. Nichols conceived it went north of the palace a little 
beyond the king*B barge-house, and he says the ditches are still 
said to remain (1786). 

The annexed plate will more clearly represent the various 
conjectures on the course of this canal. 

That there was a trench cut somewhere, Mr. Bray remarks, 
is ojut of doubt, and that Canute brought his ships to the west 
side of London-bridge ; but even then the citizens defended 
themselves so stoutly, that he could not get possession of it till, 
by a treaty between him and King Edmund, Mercia, of .whidi 
liondon was the capital, was given up to Canute, h 

Returning, we proceed to 

VAUXHALL GARDENS, 

To which there are three gates of entrance ; one at the comer 
of Kennington-lane, the most frequented entrance, another ia 
the lane, lately erected, called the Chinese entrance, never 
opened except on gala nights, ^c. and the water, or house gate. 
The house is a plain building of brick, standing laterally with 
the road, with a portico and awning for visitors in wet weather. 
In this parish in the reign of James L lived a family of the 



a London, p. 730. ^ Manning and Braj, toI. iii. p. 657. 



ST. MARY*S DISTRICT. 859 

• 

name of Vaux which Mr. Nichols, in his History of Lambeth, 
conceives was connected with the incendiary Guy, or more 
correctly Guido Faux, more of whom will be mentioned here- 
after. Jane Vaux, widow, held some copyhold land here in 1615, 
called Stocdens. She died in the same year, leaving two daugh- 
ters and coheirs, one of whom married Dr. Barlow, Bishop of 
Lincoln. 

Mr. Denne has taken successful pains to distinguish this from 
the manor-house of the same name, and from mat which was 
properly called Copt or Copped-hall, with both of which it had at 
times been confounded. He says, however, that he has not been 
quite able to determine when it was first open for public enter- 
tainment; but he should ascribe the establishment of the present 
gardens to the beginning of the last century. 

In a plan lent Mr. Bray by Mr. Middleton, dated 1681, the 
present Vauxhall Gardens are called Spring Gardens, and are 
marked as being planted with trees, laid out in walks, and in 
the centre a circle of trees or shrubs. Mr. Middleton remem- 
bers large trees which must have been anterior to the time of 
Mr. Tyers, which by degrees died, the last of them holding out 
to 1806. 

I should therefore, with Mr. Bray, ascribe their origin to Sir 
Samuel Morland, who, beyond a doubt, had a house and gar- 
den at Vauxhall. 

Aubrey states, that in 1665 Sir Samuel Morland obtained a 
lease of Vauxhall-house, and two years afler built a large room, 
which he furnished in a sumptuous manner, and constructed in 
his garden some beautiful fountains. Mr. Lysons thought it 
did not appear that Sir Samuel ever possessed any part of the 
pr^ent Vauxhall Gardens, which belonged to Jane Vaux in 
1615, and which descended to her two daughters and heirs ; 
and Mr. Denne agrees in this opinion, and says that Sir John 
Hawkins is wrong in supposing that his house was here, as he 
has asserted in his History of Music. But the matter is put 
beyond doubt from the information of one of the late proprie- 
tors, that the present dwelling belonging to the garden was 
built by Sir Samuel Morland. fhe house is large, and from the 
back kitchen of it a lead pump was removed about the year 



1 S 6 
9 M 4 



1794', bearing Sir Samuel Morland*8 mark, viz. 
This pump was in the plate yard of the garden. 

The room above mentioned said to have been built by him, is 
supposed to have stood where the orchestra is placed ; in some 
repsdrs of which not long ago old walls were found. 

This, Mr. Bray conceives, is likely to be the place to which 
King Charles used to come with his ladies, and says, perhaps 
the room built by Sir Samuel, was so built purposely for his 
entertainment. 

2 z 4 



860 , ST. mart's district. 

Respecting Sir Samuel Morland, I have been fortunate in ob- 
taining original information from the venerable historian of the 
county, W. Bray, Esq., and a new and curious work, the Diary 
of Samuel Pfepys, Esq.^ 

He was successively Scholar and Fellow of Magdalen College, 
and was tutor to Mr. Pepys, afterwards Secretary to the Admi- 
ralty ; he became afterwards one of Thurloe's Under Secretariesi 
and was employed in several embassies by Cromwell, whose 
interest he betrayed by secretly communicating to Charles II. 
at Breda, in 1660, viuuable information, including a list of 
several persons who were in correspondence with, and received 
money trom Thurloe. Among others, he betrayed Sir Richard 
Willis, that married Sir F. Jones*s daughter, who had paid him 
1,000^. at one time by the |^otector*s and Secretary Thurloe*s 
order, for intelligence that he sent concerning the king. He 
was an ingenious mechanic, and is supposed by some persons to 
have invented the steam-engine. Every part of his house 
showed the invention of the owner. Hie side table in the 
dining-room was supplied with a large fountain, and the glasses 
stood under little streams of water. His coach had a moveable 
kitchen, with clock-work machinery, with which he could make 
soup, broil steaks, or roast a joint of meat. When he travelled 
he was his own cook.^ 

In 1682 he applied to the French Government to encourage 
an invention, which he claims as his own, for raising water by 
the force of steam ; and in the succeeding year he eiSiibited his 
invention to the King of France at St. Germain*s, at the same 
time presenting a manuscript by himself on the elasticity of 
steam ; in it he styled himself Master of Mechanics to the King 
of England. ^ 

On the Restoration, Charles II. created him a Baronet, by 
the name of Samuel Morland, alias Morley, of Suthamstede 
Banister, co. Berks, 18th July 1660, and settled on him a pen- 
sion of 5001, per ann. out of the Post Office for life, and the be- 
nefit of two Baronets. Both he disposed of, and the pension, 
which he sold to Sir Arthur Kingsby. He was a speculative 
character, and purchased ground in France for building, which 
turned out bad. On this he petitioned the king for assistance, 
stating that his life was in danger from threats, and sends a list 
of the king*8 enemies, at the head of whom stands the name of 
Sir Richard Willis. This Sir Richard was Governor of Newark, 
on the king*s part, when the king was prevailed on to go thither 



* Edited hj Richard Lord Brajbrooke, to whom the literary public an undtr 
great obligatioDB. 

b North's Life of Liord Keeper Guildford, p. 994. 

c This MS. is in the Harleian Collection, jBritish Maaeum, No. 5771. 



• ST. mart's disthict. S6i 

to meet Prince Rupert after the violent anger felt by the. King 
on the prince giving up Bristol; on this occasion Sir Richard 
went out at the head of a great party to meet and escort the 
prince into the town in open defiance of the King. 

He married Susanna de Millevilie, daughter of Daniel de 
Milleville, of Bossen in France, naturalized in 1662. When she 
died is uncertain ; but Sir Samuel survived a second and a 
third wife, both buried in Westminster Abbey ; he died at an 
advanced age. 

About the vear 1730, Mr, Jonathan Tyers became the occu- 
pier of this place, and there being a large garden, with a sreat 
number of stately trees,* and laid out in shady walks, and the 
bouse being converted into a tavmi, or place of ehtertainmenty 
it was much frequented. 

This place was opened, for the first time, by Mr. Tyers under 
the name of Spring Gardens, ^ on the evening of the 7th of June, 
1732, with illuminations, and a Ridotto al msco. c About 400 
persons attended ; the principal part of them in masks and do- 
minos. These entertainments were several times repeated in the 
course of the summer, and numbers resorted to partake of them. 
This encouraged the proprietor to make his garden a place of mu- 
sical entertainment. He decorated the gardens witn paintings, 
erected an orchestra, and alcoves for the company, engaged 
a band of excellent musicians, and issued silver tickets for ad- 
mission <i at a guinea each ; and on receiving further encou- 
ragement, he set up an organ in the orchestra, and fn a conspi- 
cuous part of the garden erected a fine statue of Handel, « tne 
work of Roubiliac, in the character of Orpheus, playing on a lyre. 

Till the building of Westminster Bridge, the only access to 
Vauxhall was from the opposite shore by water, or over London 
bridge, then through the borough of Southwark^ and ^'^enning;> 
ton, alon^ Kennington-lane to Vauxhall ; but on the Bridge 
being built, Mr. Tyers, ever alive to every improvement of this 
place, purchased and pullfed down a number of old houses^ 
opposite Lambeth church, called Red-lion-yard, which gave 
an opportunity for a coach-way to the gardens, before the new 
roads from the Bridge were made. On the first night the 
coaches reached from the gardens to the church, near a mile. 

From Mr. Addison's account in the Spectator, it appears, 

^ The state of these trees (in 1819) agrees very well with the idea that they were 
i4aiite<i by Sir Samuel Morland sixty or seventy years before the time of Mr. 
lyers. manning and Bray, vol. iii. p. 491 . 

^ Which is still retained in the annual license. ^ The Admission 

Ticket for this night is engraved in Nichols's History of Lambeth, p. 99. 

^ Several of these are engraved in Nichols's History of Lambeth, p. 100. 

^ This Statue was phused b the Gardens in 1738, tn which year the eotertain- 
ments began on May>dav. 

3 A 



362 ftT. MART*Jl DISTRICT. 

that masks were in general use by the company; that mead 
was a favourite liquor with the ladies, and that Burton ale, 
was in request with gentlemen. In a periodical paper called 
Common Sense, published in 1738, we are told that smoekinc 
tobacco in the gardens was common. In a postscript to a bin 
of fare posted up in different parts of the gardens, it used to be 
a direction that no one was ulowed to smoak except in seats. 
It need not be observed that smoaking has long been discon- 
tinued. The bills of fare, however, are still posted up with 
prices of the different articles^ to prevent impositions by the 
waiters. 

From an account of these gardens published by Dodsley in 
1761,^ it appears the gardens were lighted by about 1500 
lamps,b a piece of machinery called the waterfall consisting of 
a transparency, and the gardens were adorned by various 
paintings by Hogarth and Hayman, all of which are minutely 
described in Nichols's History .e 

Mr. Tyers died in 1767, and so great was the delight he took 
in this place, that possessing his faculties to the last, he caused 
himself to be carried into the gardens a few hours before his 
death, to take a last look at them. 

The followipg character of him by a contemporary is interest- 
ing : << He was a worthy man, but indulged himself a little too 
much in a querulous strain when any thing went amiss ; inso- 
much, that he said if he had been brought up a hatter, he be- 
lieved people would have been born without heads. A farmer 
once gave him a humourous reproof for this kind of reproach 
of heaven ; he stepped up to him, very respectfully, and asked 
him when he meant to open his gardens ; Mr. Tyers replied, 
''the next Monday fortnight/' The man thanked him re- 
peatedly, and was going away ; but Mr. Tyers asked him in 
return, what made him so anxious to know ; '' Why, Sir," said 
the farmer, '' I think of sowing ray turnips on that day, ^r you 
know we shall be sure to have rain*'^ 

In the woods at his house near Dorking he had cut walks and 
erected alcoves, in one of which was painted the calm serenil^ 
of a dying Christian, in the other the agony of the awakeneo, 
but dying Infidel. The inscriptions were appropriate; and 
there were others of a raoral tendency in other walks. 

He devised this property equally between his two sons and 
two daughters, Thomas, Jonathan, Margaret, and Elizabeth. 
The younger son conducted the gardens, and continued it till 
his death m 1792, when Mr. Bryant Barrett^ an eminent wax 

* The EnTirons of London. 

^ Lfttterly as msnj as 85,000 lamps have been used in one night. 

« Page 103. ^ Memoir of Joseph BrasbrlHge, p. 1S4. 



ST. mart's district. 363 

chandler, having married his daughter and only child, became 
part owner, and undertook the management; he soon after 
bought the other share. He died in 1809, and devised this 
estate to his two sons, George Rogers Barrett, esq. and the 
Rev. Jonathan Tyers Barrett, D.D. by the former of whom the 
entertainments were carried on for many years. 

In 1821, the Messrs. Barretts disposed of the property for 
upwards of 30,000^ to T. Bish, F. Gye, and R. Hughes, Esq. who 
have carried on the concern with great spirit, and widi a consi- 
derable deeree of credit and respectabihty ; no expense having 
been spared to render the gardens attractive and worthy the 
attention of the public. His Majesty most graciously allowed 
the present proprietors to place them under his patronage. 

In May 1786 was celebrated^ Jubilee of fifly years which 
had elapsed since opening the gardens in 17S6. The weather 
was highly favourable, and an immense company assembled, 
which in point of fashion had not been exceeded since the in- 
stitution. Great additions were made by new painting, &c. 
Fourteen thousand additional lights were exhibitea. 

On June 29, 1800, the Prince's gallery or Long-room, in 
Vauxhal], was burnt to the ground ; the cause was never ascer- 
tained. About thirty of the trees caught fire, the foliage was 
burnt, and that part of the gardens had a desert appearance. 

The price of admission was one shilling till the Summer of 
1792, when additional and more expensive decorations having 
been made, it was raised to two smllings. Tlie gardens used 
to be opened every night, except Sundays, which amounted to 
about 100 in the season ; but in 1806, Saturday nights were dis- 
continued at the instance of the late Bishop of Wmchester, and 
they were opened only on gala nights three times in the week, 
but with much additional decoration, and the price of admission 
was raised to three shillings and sixpence. The average num- 
ber of the company used to be about one thousand ; but on 
June 25, 1781, the Duke and Duchess of Cumberland having 
permitted notice to be given that they would sup in the gardens 
after the sailing-match for a cup which was annually given by 
the Duke, no less than eleven thousand persons enjoyed tlie 
festivity of the evening, and of them seven thousand were ac- 
commodated with provisions and refreshments. 

Originally the walks were open, but some years aso a cover- 
ing was placed over some of Uiem to guard against damps, or a 
•iidden snower ; in 1810 and 1811, this was extended to another 
walk, and was supported by iron pillars; the pavilion also was con- 
siderably enlarged, and in the front was placed a colonade of the 
Doric Order. In 1812 the rotunda was thoroughly repaired, and 
highly decorated ; the interior being made to represent an Indian 
garden room ; and the price of admission was advanced to four 
diillings ; at the present time it is three shillings and sixpence. 



S64* ST. MARY'S DISTRICT. ' 

Present appearance of 

The Royal Gardens, Vauxhall.* 

This enchandng and elegant place of amusement^ has 
arisen to a great degree, of popularity within the few last 
seasoHFy which is itiainlj to be attributed to the excellent 
amusements, and admirable manner in which the whole is 
conducted under the direction of the present spirited pro- 
prietors. The most advantageous entrance for tne purpose 
of a stirvej, is the Water or House-gate. The first scene that sa- 
lutes the eye is a noble avenue called the King's walk, about 
nine hundred feet in length, covered a conoderable way with an 
awning, to keep off rain, i^ich is ornamented with thousands of 
illumination lamps arranged ill the most fanciful groups ; at the 
end of diis vista is a small theatre, in which is exhibited the re- 
volving Evening Star, an elegant piece of workmanship. Ad- 
vancing into the garden to the right of this walk, is a quadran- 
gle or square, formerly called the grove, from the number of 
trees planted in it ; in the middle ia a superb and magnificent 
octagon temple for the orchestra, of Chinese Grothic construc- 
tion, curiously ornamented with carvings, mches, &c; the 
dome of which is surmounted with an immense regal crown 
of illumination lamps of great brilliancnr* Hie whole edifice 
is of wood painted white and bloom colour. The ornaments 
are plastic, a composition something like plaster of Paris, but 
only known to the ingenious architect who designed this struc- 
ture. At the upper extremity of this orcfae^Ha, a very fine 
organ is erected, and at the foot of it are seals and desks for 
the musicians placed in a semicircular form, leaving a space for 
the vocal performers in front. The concert begins at eight and 
finishes by twelve. One side of the quadrangle, that fronting 
the orchestra, is occupied by a l&rge pavilion of the Composite 
order ; it was built for His R. H. Frederick Prince of Wales, 
grandfather of his present Majesty ; the ascent is by a double 
flight of steps; the interior is handsomely ornamented with 
chandeliers, looking glasses, and coloured lamps. The expence 
of this erection was 2,000^. which was defrayed by a Ridotto 
al Fresco, the second ever exhibited in these gardens. On 
the left side of the walk is the rotunda, a spacious building, 
seventy feet in diameter ; the interior is fitted up in the Eastern 
style, the walls are painted from views in the Mysore, and froin 
the centre of the roof depends a large chandelier^ covered with 



* The proprietors, in the hmdsomest nuuiner, allowed me Moeii to the gar- 
dens at all times ; and their treasurer, Mr. B. Parker, exerted liimself in a ; 
that daims inj irarmest thnki. 



Tpt At ffiJhiiy of L^iul'fTh. 




4Sauitft//tw f'a.rr- 

£ Statuf Kt'Mi/ttm 
7 Stutjptmttrv 

ft C^intvf fntntncf 
JOjfrti/ufrs WfrA- .thofii 



■t3Mi»rthiff 



ru*tu»t^ ft JjmttflWV*r:lJJim 



tT. MARY'S DISTRICT. 305 

IfMOO coloured lamps. One side is capable of being opened, 
Witfiin which is an organ and space for the orchestra ; and a 
small theatre for fantoccini exhibitions. A few seasons nher this 
building was erected, the opposite side of it was thrown open, 
and a saloon added to it. The roof of this building is elliptical, 
and in it are two small cupolas; this is called by some the 
picture room, from six paintings in it^ viz. full-length portraits 
of His Majesty George the Third « and Queen Charlotte; 
the surrender of Montreal in Canada to the British army, 
commanded by General Amherst; Britannia holding in her 
hand a medallion of his present Majesty, and sitting on 
the right hand of Neptune in his chariot drawn by sea- 
horses, with Tritons, &c. bearing medallions of the most 
eminent officers during the war; Lord Clive receiving the 
homage of the Nabob; and Britannia distributing the laurels 
to Lords Granby, Albemarle, Townshend, and Cols. Monckton, 
Coote, &c. The entrance to this saloon, from the gardens, is 
through a Chinese Gothic portal. On the opposite side of the 
rotunda, by which we enter, is a passage leading to a noble sup- 
per-room, with spaces at each end, one for musicians, the other 
latterly used as a theatre for miniature scenic representations. 
Each corner of the room is ornamented with tropnies, &c. em- 
blematical of the four quarters of the globe; the walls are 
painted afler views in England, and from the ceiling depend 
several elegant chandeliers of coloured lamps. 

Having described those principal objects in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the orchestra which first attract the stranger's 
attention, we will now take a tour round it, and survey every 
thing that merits observation. Along one side o£ the walk men- 
tioned previously, are a row of alcoves or boxes, with a table in 
each, capable of containing six or eight persons. Formeriy the 
major part of these boxes h^ paintings in them by Hogarth, Hay- 
man, &c. ; very few, if any, of the first painter's productions re- 
main. For the sake of order we shall begin with our entrance 
into thegardens, and pursue our course round the three sides of 
the quadrangle. On the right is a Sea View ; Shepherd playing 
on his pipe, and decoying a Shepherdess into a wood ; 2. Land- 
scape ; 3. The Game of Quadrille, and the Tea Equipage ; 4. 
Music and Singing ; 5. Children building houses with cards ; 
6. Scene in the Mock Doctor ; 7. Landscape, and dancing 
round the May -pole ; 8. Thread my Needle, and Flying a Kite ; 
9. Story in Pamela ; 10. Scene in the Devil to Pay, the cha- 
racters are Jobson, Nell, and the Conjuror; IL Children play- 



4 On hl« Mijef^*s visiting the gtrdens he asked Mr. Tyen what he should 
grant him ; when the proprietor requested bis Msjestj to sit -ior hit portrut ; 
which he aeoordiogly did to the artittof the above pamtiog. 



366 ST. MARY*8 DISTRICT. 

iDg at Shuttlecock ; 12. Hunting the Whistle ; IS. Another 
story in Pamela, her flying from Lady Danvera ; 14. A Scene 
in the Merry Wives of Windsor, where Sir John Falstaff is put 
into the buck-basket; 15. Sea engagement between the Spani- 
ards and the Moors ; 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Land- 
scapes ; 25. Sea View ; 29. Landscape ; 32. Story in Pamela ; 
S3. Landscape ; 34. a Painting, subject not known ; 35. 37* 
38. 39. 40; 41. 42. Landscapes ; 55. Landscape ; 56. Ditto, Cot- 
tage and Bridge ; 57. Sea View ; 79. Dover Cli£& and Ca£tle ; 
80. 81. Views; 85. Sea View; 86. Dover ; 87. The taking of 
Porto Bello in 1740; 88. Madamoisselle Catherina the little 
dwarf; 89. Birds nesting ; 90. The play of Bob Cherry $ 91. 
FalstafTs cowardice detected; 92. The Bad family; 93. The 
Good family ; 94. See Saw ; 95. The Milk-maid s (|^land ; 
130. Landscape. Among those formerly in the rardens, were 
Hogarth*s inimitable paintings of Morning, Noon, Evening, and 
Night ; they are* in the possession of B. E^rett, Esq. Stockwell. 
Behind the orchestra was until the recent sale of the gardens, 
by the Messrs. Barretts, a statue of Handel by Roubiliac, in 
the character of Orpheus, playing on a lyre, and was the first 
display of that sculptor's su>ilities, at least to the public eye ; 
and was approved by the stern critic Pope. This statue the 
Rev. Dr. Barrett carried to Duke-street, Westminster, where 
it ornaments his hall. Returning to the King's walk, and passing 
the entrance to the rotunda on the left, the boxes take a sweep 
of five hundred feet in length in the form of a semi-circle, the 
front being ornamented in the Chinese Gothic Style,, so preva- 
lent in the last century. Between tne semi-circle and the walk 
is an elegant fountain, erected by the present proprietors. Pur- 
suing our course we arrive in a transverse w^k, known as the 
Chinese walk ; at the south end of which, is the Chinese en- 
trance, to the north a beautiful scene, partly transparent, of the 
bay of Naples and Mount Vesuvius during an eruption, which 
is varied annually. In an angle formed by this walk, and the 
grand walk, is the Theatre, \diere recently hydraulics, ballets, 
masques, and feats of jugglers, have been exhibited, the 
musicians sitting beneath a covering on one side of the stage, 
in rainy weather. The interior of this theatre is fitted up 
complete for the exhibition of the most intricate and difficult 
scenery. Opposite are seats erected above the boxes for 
more conveniently viewing the performances, to which ac- 
cess is had by stairs next the grand walk; the charge is one 
shilling. They are conveniently fitted up and covered in from 
rain. Continuing up tlie erand walk at the extremity is the 
small theatre, mentioned before, in which is the Evening Star, 
a curious piece ^ mechanism, and a full-length portrait of his 
present Majesty. * The walk to either side bounds the gardens 






ST. MAftY*S DISTRICT. S67 

on the east ; northward is the Hermit in bis cell, and south- 
ward the building called die Moorish tower, nearly lOQ feet 
high, from whence the brillant fire-works, for which these gar- 
dens have long been celebrated, are exhibited, and from whence 
Madame Saqui, and latterly young Blackmore the American, 
made their terrific descents and ascents. Further on is a 
scene called the Smugglers' cave, and facing a walk which 
bounds the south side of the gardens ; the trees in this walk 
are in a flourishing state, and form a pleasing grove. Ketum- 
log by the walk facing the Moorish Tower, we arrive at 
the opposite side of the quadrangle to that by which we made 
our tour; here are seats similar to those for viewing the theatri- 
cal performances, and for which the same charge is made. On 
the left is a similar semicircle of boxes to that mentioned on 
the op^site side of the quadrangle ; still further on is another 
smaller sweep completely covered in, and near which is a path 
to the Coach entrance in Kennington-lane. Havins finished 
our survey of the gardens we may observe, that, on the whole, 
the present state of them does great credit to the proprietors 
ho h&ve spared no expence in catering amusements for the 
public. We will conclude with Mr. Nichols, that ** in a dark 
night the illuminations, are very beautiful, and cannot fail 
to surprise and delight every susceptible spectator ; but in a 
moonlight night, there is somethine more peculiarly pleasing, 
which so strongly affects the imagination that it almost instus 
an idea of enchantment." 

Oiv^c north side of these gardens, Defoe seems to consider 
was a Roman fort or can/l^. ^ This, in some decree, has been 
authenticated for in digg^g the foundation of some houses, 
considerable quantiffes of the pottery peculiar to that people, 
were discoverecf and thrown up. A small utensil, engraved 
below, of the size of tbe original, is in the author's possession* 







In Vauxhall was formerly a tavern known by the sign of the 

» Tinur throagh GnM Britain, vol. i. * t34. 



x^ 



\ 



S68 



»T. MARYS. DISTRICT. 



Three Alaruiers.* On repalriqg. jt in 1752, in it waa foun^A 
remarkably high elbowed chair, covered with purple cloth, and 
ornamented with gilt naila. An old fisherman told Mr. BucJIt- 
master, that he heard his grandfather say, that King Charles II. 
disguised, used, on his water tours with his ladies, to freauent 
the above tavern, to play at chess, &c. and that the chair round 
was the same as the King sat in. The chair was repaired and 
kept as a curiosity by the late John Dav^on, Esq. but by neg- 
lect, was at the pulling down his old dwelling at Vauxnall w 
1777> destroyed. Mr. fiuckmaster sat in the (mair many times, 
' but his feet would not touch the ground. King Charles WB* 
•very tall. 

Ill Vauxhall is the extensive distillery of Messrs. Burnett, 
and' Co. employing a considerable number of people, and ex- 
tending from the road to the river side. 

On die site of the premises, adjoining on the north to the 
above distillery, and formerly in the occupation of Messrs* John- 
son and Co. distillers, was 



Copt Hall, 

a curious wooden building, an engraving of which is prefixed. 

In a Survey taken of the Manor of Kennington, in 1615, is an 
entry, that Sir Thomas Parry ^which family was distantly con- 
nected with Secretary Cecil, ana who was made ambassador resi- 
dent at the Court of France in 1601, and succeeded Sir John For- 
tescue as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Dec. 1607, when he 
was sworn of the Privy Council ) Chancellor of the Di^lQr of 
Lancaster, held by a copy,* " a haidsome tenement Duilt of 
brick, called Copt Hall, lying nea^L the Thames opposite the 
capital tenement called Vaux Hall To th^Vsputh, lying between 
the Thames, and the way leading towards Kingliton, widi a gar- 
den and orchard, on three sides, inclosed with a brick-wall.*'^ 

Whilst Sir*Thomas Parry resided here. Lady Arabella Stuart 
was committed to close custody in his house, on account of 
having married privately William Seymour, grandson of the 
Earl of Hertfora. This lady was the onlv bhild of the fifth 
Earl of Lennox, uncle to Kins James I. and great-grandson of 
King Henry VII. Her double relationship to royalty was ob- 
noxious to the jealousy of Queen Elizabeth and the timidity of 
King James I. w\y} equally dreaded her having legitimate issue, 
and prevented her from marrying in a suitable mftiner ; thus 



< 



v» 



* No tavern of this sign is known to exist ; but there if one of the sign of 
the *' Three Merry Boys/*s probably a corruption of the above name. 

b From the Londina lUustrata, by permission of the late Mr. R. WiUdosoo, 
which he had engraved from an original drawing in the possession of the late Mr. 
Simco. w c Deone'a Addenda, 416, 417. 



n. MAXY S D18TK1CT. 369 

[, the married SqrBndl^'and in coniequence both were 

___ mitted to cmtoij* Tke lady being confined at Vauxhall, 
and Seymour being Hot to the Tower. They both made their 
eacape, sa the fame day, Sd of June, 1611. He ^t to Flan- 
den, bit d>e was taken in Calais roads, and committed a cIcmo 
priaonvr to the Tower, out of which she never came alive. The 
aeiue of her undeserved oppressiona operated 90 severely on 
her high spirit, that ahe became a lunatic, and died in that state 
September 27, 1615. ■ 

On Sir Thomas Parry's death, this house descended to John 
Abrahall, Esq. of Ingston, Hereford, who in 1629 surrendered 
it to King Charles. After the death of that monarch a survey 
of the house and premises were taken by order of the parlia- 
ment, in which the house woe described as follows ; 

" Vaux Hall otherwise Copped Hall, valued in all that capitall 
raeasuage with the appurten'nce, commonly called or knowne 
by the name of Vaux Hall (otherwise) Copped Hall, scituate, 
Ireing, and being, in water, Lambeth, in the said county of 
Surrey, bounded with the river of Thames on the north-west 
ntut thereof, a narrowe passage from the watersyde to the 
nighewaye leading to South Lunbeth on the north-easte, the 
highewaye last menc'ooed on the south-east, and a broad pas- 
sage from the said highewaye to the common landing place att 
Vaux Hall south west, consisting of a faire dwelling housct 
strongly built, three stories and an halfe bighe, with a faire 
slayre case hreakeing out from the said dwelling house, <A 
nynetAne foote square, a^ all that building adioyneing to the 
southeast end of the said house being twoe stories and an halfe 
bighe ; togcather alsoe with ope other building adioyneing to 
the northwest end of the said house and vsed with the same ; 
with twoe breaks on the northeast parte of the last tsenc'oned 
building, all of them being twoe stories and an halfe highe." 
It was valued with the courts and grounds attached, at 751. per 

After this it was described by the name of Vaux HaQ only. 

San Act of the House of Commons, 17 July, 1649, for the 
s of the honors, &c. of the late King, Queen, and Prince, it is 
provided that It should not extend to the house called Vaux 
Hall, nor to the grounds, houses, buildings, models, utensils, or 
other necessaries for practical inventions therein contained; 
but they shall remain for the use of the Commonwealth, to be 
employed and disposed of by the parliament as they shall think 



-ft*»- 



> Ladga'dlluaWiaBiofEBg. Hiat.nt.p 1TB. 
* Record ia tbtAugnMntation O** 



m 



S70 8X. MARY*8 DISTRICT. 

fit. a But in 1652, the parliament resolved that this should be * 
soldy and it was purchased by John Trenchold of the City of. 
Westminster, b who held it till the restoration. 

On the restoration it came again into the king's hfmds, who 
granted a lease to Lord Moore, of this and the demesne lands 
of Kennington, with a power of resuming it, which the king ex- 
ercised the following year, and settled here one Jasper Calthofi^ 
a Dutchman, who was employed in making guns and other war* 
like implements for his Majesty's service. A part of the pre- 
mises was occupied a few years after by Peter Jacobson, a 
sugar-baker. ^ 

Mr. Denne seems to tliink it was to this house, and not to 
the Mariners tavern, that Charles II. and his ladies in his water 
• tours were wont to repair. <* ' 

Some years after it was granted by lease from the l5uke of 
Cornwall to Mr. Kent, distiller, who had a large distillery 
thereon ; but failing, the premises are in a ruinous state and 
unoccupied. The Tease, Mr. Lysons says, is the property of 
Mr. Snaith, banker, in London. It was then held under two 
leases. The Manor-house having been long demolished, one of : 
the leases was demised under the title of " the Manor," the 
other of <* Faux Hall Wharf," which comprised the whole of 
the ground occupied by the sites of Marble-hall and the Cum- . * 
berland Tea Gardens, the leases were both held by Mr. Pratt, 
who carried on the distillery. Sir Joseph Mawbey, Bart, many 
years Member of Parliament for the borough of Southwark, 
and afterwards Knight of the Shire |or the county of Sfrrey, 
having married the daughter of Mr. Pratt, held the premises, . 
and carried on the distillery till his decease in the year 1798 ; 
subsequently the estate has been held by Sir* Charles Blicke, . 
Knt. and several under tenants, among whom was Cuthbcrt "10 
Johnson and Co.e i 

It is traditionally reported that tliis house, or the neighbouring 
one of Vauxhall, was the residence of the incendiary Guido 
(vulgarly Guy) Faux, the principal person who figured in the 
Gunpowder Plot. 

Mr. Denne says that he applied to Mr. C. Benson, the Chap- 
ter Clck, to learn whetlier Guy Faux had ever any interest in 
estates in Vauxhall ; the clerk examined the records, but did not . 
find him mentioned as an under-tenant. 



• Append. Hist of Lambeth, p. 1 59. 

^ From the Augmenutioa Odice. ^ Lysons's Xnfirottt, vol. 1. p. 322. 

** Addenda, p. 418. 

c For a list uf the lesanes of this estate, see Denne*t Addenda, p. 415. 



ST. MARY*S DISTRICT. S71 

Had Guy Faux ever been possessed of any of the copyhold 
lands held of the Manor of Kennington, anno 1615, by Jane 
JF^ux, his supposed relict, on his being convicted of high trea- 
son, a forfeiture to the Crown must have ensued. But the fact 
is, that Jane Vaux was the widow of John Vaux, a citizen and 
vintner of London, and a benefactor to the parish of Lambeth. 
A family of the name of Vause, or Vaux, had certainly dwelt 
here for almost a hundred years; but had Guy been their rela- 
tion, and known to them (as he must have been had he inhabited 
a capital house at Vauxhall), he could never have thought of 
passing for a servant to Percy, who lived at Lambeth (as did 
John Wright, one of the conspirators), and from whose house 
some of the combustibles were conveyed across the Thames to 
the Horseferry, and placed under the Parliament-house, West- 
minster. The situation of this house I am not able to ^x ; but 
am apt to believe that Catesbye and Percy might be the joint 
occupiers of it, there being a sermon preached November 5, by 
Dr. Featley, and printed in Clavis Mystica, p. 824, with this mar- 
ginal note; *^ This last year (1635) the house where Catesby 
Slotted this treason at Ltunbeth was casually burnt to the ground 
y powder." » 
Afler all ii is not improbable that Faux did reside in Lambeth, 
being near Catesby, and such an easy distance from the scene 
of his infamous designs. 

Among the various manufactures carried on in this part of 
the parish, none have been so celebrated as Vauxhall Plate 
GlasiL In the thirteenth century the Venetians were the only 
people who had the secret of making looking glasses ; but 
about the year 1670, a number of Venetian artists arrived in 
England, the principal of whom was Rossetti ; and under the 
patronaee of the Duke of Buckingham, a hianufactory was es- 

' tablishea at Foxhall, and carried on with amazing success, in 
the firm of Dawson, Bowles, and Co. so as to excel the Vene- 
tians, or any other nation in blown plate glass. The emolu- 
ments acquured by the proprietors were prodigious ; but in the 

> year 1780,^ from a difference between them and the workmen, a 
total stop was put to this great acquisition and valuable manufac- 
tory, and a descendant of the above Rossetti ungratefully left in 
extreme poverty .*> The site of this celebrated factory is Vaux- 
hall-square. 

There was a shock of an earthquake felt at a pottery in this 
part of Lambeth, on March 8, 1750 ; it threw down the roof of a 
pot-house, and the fishermen then at work on the river, ima- 



» Denne's Addenda p. 416'. ^ Nichols's Lambeth, p. 121. 



372 ST. MARY*S DISTRICT. 

gined a porpobe or some other large fish, had risen under the 
boat. A 

Proceeding along Princes-street^ and Fore-street, running 
parallel with the river, and occupied by persons connected 
with the river, with potteries, whiting factories, &c. the onhr 
objects that the perambulator can notice is the extreme filth 
and mean appearance of the neighbourhood, the width of the 
streets in some cases not allowing more than one small vehicle 
to pass, without any foot path, and roughly paved. Even on 
the destruction of some ot the old hovels, the proprietors re- 
erect them on the same site, though in some cases half the 
building projects on the highway. Great hopes are entertained 
that a new road will be made from Lambeth Palace to Vaux- 
hall, and they are considerably strengthened by the fact that 
a Bill id preparing for next Session to obtain an Act of Parliament 
to erect a Bridge from Lambeth Palace to the Horse-ferry, on 
the opposite side of the river. If this should happen, and there 
is little doubt it will, a road must be made to Vauxhall, and thus 
will do away with several streets, filthy courts, and alleys, and 
various nuisances which exist in no part or neighbourhood of 
the metropolis in a greater degree than in this part of the parish 
of Lambeth. 

Having arrived at Lambeth Palace the neighbourhood of 
which has been described, we shall conclude Uiis Survey of a 
considerable and important portion of the parish with a notice 
of the proposed 

Lambeth Bridge. 

The extent and increasing importance of that portion of Lon- 
don which lies to the westward of Westminster Bridge, en- 
hanced, as it will shortly be, by the residence of His Majesty at 
the new Palace, and of many of the Nobility and Gentry in the 
new square and streets now building on Lord Grosvenor*8 
estates at Pimlico and Chelsea ; with the increase of trade and 
commerce which naturally results from a populous and wealthy 
neighbourhood, call for every facility to be given to the com- 
munication of that part of the town with the opposite shore and 
the country adjacent. The parish of Lambeth, which in many 
points of view is of equal consequence, would also be improved 
by the benefits inseparable from such communication ; for, by 
the erection of wharfs and other commercial buildings, and the 
consequent influx of trade and population, its wealth would be 
increased by the same means that its convenience is consulted. 
■ I .. — ■ — I 

*■ Philosophical Trftasactions, vol. xl?l. p. 700. 



BT. mart's district. 873 

The only route at present connectiBg the Surrey roads with 
the western extremity of the town, lies too much out of the 
general line of traffic, to promote effectually the great objects 
mentioned above ; abd it will be perceiyed, by &e Plan an- 
nexed that the roads intended to connect with the new bridge, 
beinff in a direct line, already well known to the publie, and in 
excellent condition, ensure to the present undertaking three 
important consequences ; namely, a saving of time to vie pas- 
sengers, of labour to the proprietors, and of money to both. 

It is now proposed to erect a cast-iron Bridge, of seven 
arches, with stone piers and abutments, stretching from Church- 
street, Lambeth, near the Archbishop s palace, (and where a 
ferry has existed for many years,) to the Horse-ferry road on 
the opposite shore ; and from whence the road will lesid directly 
through Pimlico, into the great Western road at Hyde-park- 
comer, and by Grosvenor-j^ace, Buckingham-house, Belgrave- 
square, and all the adjacent parts of Uiat improving and wealthy 
neighbourhood. 

From the Elephant and Castle, the point from which so many 
roads diverge, a considerable saving in distance will be effected 
by this new route, in preference to the road over the Vauxhall 
or Westminster bridges; a circumstance of itself sufficient (ex- 
clusive of all thelocd advantages) to establish the eligibility of 
this proposed undertaking, 

Tne practicability of the measure will be apparent to all who 
are conversant with the site ;— on each side tnere are good open 
roads down to the very banks of the river, and no part of which 
will require to be raised more than four feet : consequently the 
enormous expences which other Companies have been put to, 
in the formation of their approaches, will be here avoided. It 
is computed that the whole cost of land, &c. necessary to be 
purchased for cutting through into the main road at Fimlico, 
and for other necessary purposes, may be more than realized by 
the sale or letting of such &nd, when converted into frontage 
in the improved neighbourhood, which will certainly follow 
upon the completion of this undertaking. 

The daily transit of the two neighbouring^ bridges, for twelve 
hours in the day-time, having been ascertained from actual ob- 
servation on the spot, and taking into consideration that, from 
the superior local advantages possessed by the present situation, 
one third more passengers and vehicles than annually pass over 
the Vauxhall Bridge, will avail themselves of the convenience 
now offered, it is estimated that the total Receipts of the pro- 
4>osed New Bridge (including the probable transit for the time 
not mentioned in the above calculation) will exceed ll,500f. 
per annum. 



374> -ST. MARY^S DISTRICT. 

The estimate of expenc^ is as follows : — 
Total cost of building the bridge, including every ex- £ 

pence in that department . • . • 112,500 

For land (including buildings to be pulled down) ne- 
cessary to be purchased, in order to throw the ap- 
proaches open to the main roads on the Westminster 
side, and for completing the roads ; and including 
compensations ana expences 51,000 

,8ei63,500 



By the above estimate it is manifest that the investment of 
capital in this undertaking will be most favourable, as an inte- 
rest of from 6/. to 7/. per cent, may confidently be anticipated, 
and with a prospect of still greater advantages as the superi- 
ority of the accommodation developes itself to the public. 

In order to carry the above undertaking into effect, it is in- 
tended to raise (if it should be found necessary) a sum not ex- 
ceeding 200,000^ in shares of 50/. each, on which a deposit of 
2/. per share is to be paid down ; and as soon as one half of the 
proposed capital is subscribed, a general meeting of the pro- 
prietors will be called, for the purpose of electing a committee 
to manage the immediate afiairs of^the Company-^till when, no 
appropriation of the deposits will be made, but the same will 
remain to the credit of the trustees in the Bankers* hands : — 
Such committee to consist of thirteen members ; and a proprie- 
tor of ten shares and upwards, to be eligible to be elected 
thereon. Every proprietor of three shares, to have one vote 
on the election of such committee ; of six shares, two votes ; 
of ten shares, three votes ; of fifteen shares, four votes ; and of 
twenty shares and upwards, five 'votes: the committee to be 
duly elected by the majority of votes then present, it is in- 
tended to apply to Parliament early in the ensuing Session for 
an Act to incorporate the Company, and for carrying the above 
project into execution, which Act of Parliament will obviate 
all the difficulties attendant upon a Joint Stock Company, as 
each proprietor will be liable for no more than the amount of 
his own snares. 

Prospectuses, which will be accompanied by a proper form 
of tender for shares, may be obtained of Charles lioilis, esq. 
architect and engineer. No. 10, Upper Stamford-street, Water- 
loo-road: or, of Godfrey Goddard, esq. solicitor. No. 21, 
Thavies-inn, Holborn ; at whose offices, elevations and sections 
of the intended Bridge, and a Map of the adjacent neighbour- 
hood, and line of the intended road, may be seen. 

The plan has the sincere good wishes of the author^ and it is to 



ST. MARV'S DISTRICT. 



S75 



be hoped that the inhabitantH will exert their utmoEt endeavours 
in support of this praise-worthy undertaking ; and if the archi- 
tect raises a bridge proportionably elegant to the new church at 
Poplar, which was built from his design, it will be a consider- 
able omament to the river, and enhance the respect^ility, and 
ultimately the wealth of this extensive suburb of the great City 
of London. 




Asyhimfor Ftmalt Orplians, 1823. 



376 ST. mark's district. 



CHAPTER XI. 

District of St. Marh^ or Kennington Church District. 

The boundary of this district, from the London Gazette, 
March 29, 1825, is as follows: 

" Commencing at the middle of Vauxhall Bridge, on the 
south side thereof, it passes along the south side of the said 
bridee, and thence along the south side of Kennington-lane 
Hncluding the foot-path all the wa^), to the outer edge of the 
foot-path on the north-west side of Kennington-road, near the 
Plough and Harrow public-house ; thence turning to ihe south- 
west, it passes alooff the outer edge of the foot-path on the 
north-west side of Uie Kennington-road, and crosses the said 
road, obliquely^ to the north corner of Kennington-common ; 
thence, turning to the south-east, it follows along the middle 
of the ditch, wholly on the north-east side of the said conunon, 
and then it turns to the south-west, and continues, partly, on 
the south*ea8t side thereof to a D. C. landmark^ a little beyond 
the angle of Mr. Farmer's vitriol works; thence, turning square 
to the south-east, it proceeds along the middle of the ditch on 
the south-west side of a foot-path leading to CamberweU, to a pa- 
rish mark opposite the rear of gardens and paddocks belonging 
to houses in jBowyer-lane ; thence it turns nearly square to the 
north-east, and, crossing the said foot-path, passes along a 
ditch to the east side of a street, called Pitt-street, where it 
makes an acute angle and passes to a parish mark on the south- 
east side of Bowyer-lane ; thence, turning to the south-west, 
at an an^le nearly souare, it {>roceeds along the south-east side 
of the said lane, ana nearly in the same direction across the 
new road leading to CamberweU, and two fields on the south- 
west side thereof to a parish mark in the hedge : thence, form- 
ing nearly a right angle, it passes south -south-east along the 
hedge which divides the land of this district from that of Cam- 
berweU, to the south-west angle of the field. Thence, turning 
eastwardly a few yards along the ditch on the south angle, 
it passes southwards to a parish mark in the adjoining fidd ; 
thence, taking a direction south-west and south, in a curved line, 
by three parish marks, to the north-east comer of Loughbo- 
rough-house garden ; thence proceeding south along the ditch, 
on the east side thereof, it crosses a footrway leading from 
Stockwell to CamberweU, and, in the same direction, continues 
to an angle formed by a hedge which divides this district from 



St. MABK*8 DISTRICt. 377 

the parish of Camberwell ; thence it turns to the east, and passes 
along the agtid hedge until it quits the same, opposite the angle 
of a row of houses in a new street leading into Cold Harbour- 
lane, whence it passes in a north-easterly direction, by several 
parish posts, to a parish stone by the side of a gateway, and 
thente takes a northerly direction to the comer of an old lane, 
where it makes an acute angle, and passes nearly east, to the 
end of a wall at the back of nouses on Camberwell-^reen, and 
passes the end of the said wall, a few yards along a ditch to the 
comer of a carpenter's shop, where there is a parish post; 
thence it makes nearly a right angle to the east, and passes 
through the yard and house now occupied by Mr. Mayhew, 
a carpenter, to a LP. cut in the cill of the entrance gate, 
and thence to the edge of the foot-path opposite the Father 
Red Cap public-house; thence it turns south, and, includ- 
ing the foot-path, proceeds to the north-east end of Cold 
Harbour-lane; it then passes along the south-east side of 
CiAd Harbour-lane east, the west side of Green-man-lane, 
and the south side of Loughborough-house-lane, to the 
Croydon road, at North Brixton ; thence it passes obliquely 
across the said road to the south-east comer of Robert-street, 
and thence along the south side thereof, and of Love-lane, to 
Slockwell Tillage, whence it crosses the road obliquely, pro- 
ceeds along the north-west side of Stockwell-green. including 
the road, and continues on the south-east side of Bedford pn* 
Tate road to Clapham Work-house, whence it passes, in a 
northerly direction, along the east side of the Clapham-road, 
excluding the footpath, to a LP. stone in the wall of the fore- 
court to Mr. Wilmot*s house ; thence it crosses the said road 
to a parish stone in an opposite paddock, from which it takes ah 
oblique direction north-north-west to a bridge in Union-road, 
and thence along the middle of a common sewer all the way to 
Nine Elms, in the parish of Battersea, whidi sewer runs for a 
short distance noc inwards to a parish mark, and thence, nearly 
west, crossing l>arkhall-lane, and, continuing nearly in the 
same direction, to the front of houses in Chichester-place, situ- 
ate in the turnpike-road from London to Wandsworth ; thence 
passing under die same, it takes a curved direction to the south- 
west, and thence continues westward, by the side of a garden 
belonging to the southernmost house in Chichester-place afore* 
said, until it unites with another common sewer, along the middle 
of which the boundary line passes in a north-easteny direction 
all the way to Nine Elms aforesaid to a parish post over the 
said sewer ; thence it continues obliquely across the road to a 
parish mark on the foot-path, about three yards from the cor- 
ner of Belmont-row, and thence, passing at the sam6 distance, 
parallel, along the west side of tne garden belonging to Bel- 

3c 



378 ST. MABK*S PISTRICT. 

mont-housey and thence, by an imaginary line, to the middle of 
the ri?er Thames, and, by another imaginary line along th^ 
middle of the same, to the centre of Vauxhall Bridge uorer 
said." 

The first object of our survey, is 

Vauxhall Bridge. 

This bridge was projected in 1808, by Mr. Ralph Dodd, the 
father of the projector of Waterloo Bridge, '< to be of the lengtli 
of 300 feet from near Vau3(hall to the opposite shore, in a pa^ 
rallel Hoe, and at a suitable elevation to construct a superb 
Doric entablature, with interior elliptical or circular groinSf 
on which will be formed the bridge for the transit of passeiVr 
gers, 4^c. ^arded on each side by iron lattice railing, in the 
room of balustrades. This entablature to be supported by 
columns arising at suitable distances from piers constructed in 
the bed of the river.*' 

In 1809 an Act was passed (49 Geo. III. c. 142.) for in« 
corporating a company of proprietors to be called " Th^ 
Vauxhall Bridge Company," who were authorised to build a 
bridee from the south side of the river, at or near Cumberland 
Gardens, or Vauxhall turnpike, in Lambeth, to the opposit^ 
shore, called Millbank, in the parish of St. John, Westminster. 
They were empowered to raise 200,000^., .30,000{. of which was 
to be invested in the Three per Cents for the purpose of the Act 
before any lands should be purchased, or worka begun. Op 
some disagreement breaking out between the projector and the 
proprietors, he was dismissed, and the aid of John Rennie, Esq* 
called in. Before operations commenced, however, a new plan 
was brought under the notice of the committee by Sir Samue^ 
Bentham^ in conjunction with Mr. Grillier, to finish the bridge in 
two years, for 75,000/. ; and after much discussion, and it is said 
not a little intrigue, it was resolved to adopt it in preference to 
the other. Mr. Rennie, on this, withdrew from any concern in 
the undertaking, and the work was begun under the direction 
of Sir Samuel Bentham. In a short time, however, the suc- 
cessful knight was dismissed in his turn, and k, was left to (dr. 
J. Walker, an engineer of some eminence, to complete the 
structure. The first stone on the Middlesex side of the river ' 
was laid by Lord Dundas, as proxy of his Royal Highness the 
Prince Regent, on Ma^ 9, 1811, and the foundation stone of 
the Surrey side by Prmce Charles, now Duke of Brunswick, 
in 1813. The bridge was finished and opened to the public i^ 
August 1816. It is a light and elegant structuroj consisting tf 
nine arches of cast iron, each 78 feet span, and between II and 
12 feet rise, which rest on eight piers of 13 feet each, formed i\y 
building on wooden framing for a foundation with n casing of 



ST. mark's district, S79 

fttone, filled up with a mixture of Kentish rag stone and Roman 
eement. The total expence of the structure is stated to have 
been upwards of 300,000/. and a toll is levied as at Waterloo 
Bridge for the indemnification of the subscribers. 

On the south side of the road leading from the bridge to 
Kennington, and adjoining the river, was the Cumberland 
Tavern and Tea Gardens, a place of considerable resort, 
and which had been established tor many years, when in the 
tarlj part of 1825, the tavern was burnt to the ground, and the 
iite is now about to be occupied by the South London Water 
Works Company, who will thus be enabled to supply the public 
trith clearer water The freehold is the property of Mr. Lett, 
who purchased it of the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury ; they 
sold it to redeem land-tax. ji^A^^jt^ ^ S^^^^fu ^^^rftT 

On the opposite side of the road was an old inn, called the 
Royal Oak, with galleries round it ; it was taken down to make 
a road on part of its site for the bridge. On leaving this short 
road we turn on the right and cross a bridge erected by the 
eounty in 1703, at an expence of 150/. It is built over a creek 
which runs from the Washway to the Thames. In 1757 it 
was ordered to be widened and repaired; and Sir Thomas 
Hankey ofiered to contract to do for 20 guineas what was esti- 
mated to cost 85/. In 1760 they paid Sir Thomas the 20 gui- 
neas for widening and repairing. Mention is made of a bridge 
made at the Abbot of Westminster*s evftsence, between Vaux- 
hall and Wandsworth ; probably the same as the above a 

Proceeding along the road leading to Wandsworth and King- 
ston, on the right are alms-houses ror seven poor women, found- 
ed by Sir Noel Caron, of whom mention will be made here- 
after. On the gate to the above houses was this inscriptian : 

D. O. M. S. 

NoELUS DE Caron, Fland. Equ. 

Schoonewallici Toparcha illustr. 

Ordinum Confaederat. Belg. Provinc. 

Apud Screniss. Britan. Reg. Legot. 

Debits Deo Glorias 

Genti Gratitudinis 

Pauperibus Munificentise 

Monumentum oualecuno.; Anno 

Legatioms suae xxiix 

Restauratae Salutis 

CI3I3CXIIX 

p. 
Proverb, xix. 17. 
* Foeneras Jehovae' si recordaris Pauperum. 

^^M_L_^ _ IM •^~ 

* Etch. S7 Edw. I. No. 136. 



S80 »T. IIABK*S DISTRICT. 

The present income is 28^ per annum, exclusive of a legacy 
of 1100/. Three per Cent Consols, which produces SSL per ann. 
bequeathed to them in 1773, by the Dowager Lady Gower*. 
Sir C. Blicke, the present owner of a great part of Sir Noel*s 
estate, repaired the alms-houses, but in doing so, the careless 
workmen broke the marble which was inscribe as above. 

Adjoining to the alms-houses are the extensive distillery 
works of M. Saintmarc and Co. for extracting spirit from pota- 
toes. There is nothing worthy notice along this road, if we 
except Mr. Phillips's orchard u>r the rearing of fruit trees, in 
whicp he has been so successful as to receive two gold medals 
from the Society of Arts, for his improvements ; and a fine 
Hiring called Vauxhall Well. The water is esteemed 
highly serviceable in many disorders of the eyes, and in the 
hardest winter it is never known to freeze. The steps, &c. are 
kept in repair by the trustees of the roads. Nearly opposite 
are th^ nursery grounds of Messrs. Chandler and Buckingham, 
in whpse grounds numerous coins of ancient date have been 
thrown yp, but, unfortunately, none have been preserved to 
enable the author to describe them. 

We now return to the turnpike, and proceed along the road 
towards K^nnington ; on the right, and nearly opposite Vfiux- 
hall Gardens, were 

Spring Gardens, 

an early place of entertainm^t. Mr. Bray, the County His- 
torian, says, Moncony mentions a Spring Garden at Lambeth, 
as much frequented in 1663, having grass and sand walks 
dividing squares of twenty or thirty yards which were inclosed 
with hedges of gooseberries, within which were roses, beansy 
asparagus, &c. ^ Aubrey, who began his collections in 1673, 
but which were not finished till long after^ says that to prevent 
a surprise of London by the King's troops, there was a horn 
work belonging to the lines of circumvallation made by order 
of parliament in 1643, ** without the new Spring Garden.*' 
Mr. Denne thinks that this expression of Aubrey, New Spring 
Garden, was not applicable to a place that had been a public 
garden so long before as Moncony wrote ; and that if the one 
•which Moncony speaks of was at Vauxhall, which is not men- 
tioned, does not follow that it was the place which Mr. Tyers 
so highly embellished ; that Spring Gardens was no uncommon 
appellation for a place of pubhc entertainment in the vicinity of 
London, and that opposite the principal, entrance to the present 
Vauxhall Gardens was a field in which coaches, waitine for com- 
pany, used to stand, till 1780 or later ; at the east end of which 

* Archoeologia, ?ol. vii.p. 133. 



ST. mark's distbict. 381 

field was a sarden, which Mr. Denne had often heard called 
Spring Garden ; that before Mr. Tyera settled with the new, 
he was tenant of the old, and by retaining an interest in it for 
many years he prevented its being again opened as a place of 
public entertainment ; that this old Spring Garden was on a 
comparatively small scale, like that described by Moncony, 
whereas in that which Mr. Addison describes as having visited 
with Sir Roger de Coverley in 1712^ there were choice of 
birds which sung in the trees, and a loose sort of people that 
walked under uieir shade, f^om whence it may be fairly sup- 
posed to have been the present Vauxhall Gardens. 

On July 27, 1668, Pepys, in his Diary, says: 

<* So over the water with my wife, and Deb, and Mercer, to 
Spring Garden, and there eat and walked ; and observe how 
rude some of the young gallants of the town are become, to 
so into people's arbors where there are not men, and almost 
rorce the women ; which troubled me, to see the confidence of 
the vice of the age ; and so we away by water with much 
pleasure home.'* A 

The site of these wardens was where the new road turns off 
towards the Oval, of which mention will be made presently. 
The gardens afterwards were held by a Mrs. Comelly, who had 
a large white house for entertainment, but being frequented by 
loose and dissolute persons^ was suppressed by the magistracy. 
At the comer of her garden wall was the cage. On Airs. Cor* 
nelly leaving, Mr. Tyers resided for a considerable period, till 
the house was pulled down, and some new buildings erected on 
its site. 

In the new road leading to the Oval, and from thence 
in a direct line to Camberwell, are the Parochial schools for 
the Kennington District ; each are capable of containing 200 
children (one for boys and one for girls) ; and for their support 
and erection, the subscribers to the Lambeth Parochial School 
liberally contributed 900^. Three per cent. Consols, and several 
wealthy individuals of the district came forward and contri« 
buted towards their support. They are conducted on Dr. 
Bell's system These schools . are on the left hand side 
of the road, going from Vauxhall to Camberwell; and ad* 
joining the Ow, a beautiful nursery ground of an oval form, 
from whence it takes its name, the owner of which, a Mr* 
Mitchelson, lately died at the advanced age of nearly one 
hundred years, and who from his very long proprietorship here, 
was a sort of living chronicle of the former state of the neigh- 
bouriiood. This spot is peculiarly deUehtful, the sides of the 
road^ for some distance, being formed by this nursery ground, 

» Diwj, vol. a. p. U9. 



i. 



■••i 



iM ST. 1IAEK*S DISTRICT. 

and a fine plantation laid out to resenible a bark ; as also half a 
dozen or more charming little Tillas. ihe whole of this 

S'ound, and beyond, from South Lambeth to Vauxhall and 
ennington-lane, formed the park of Sir. Noel Caron, the 
Dutch Ambassador. 
Returning into Kennington-lane, on the right are the 

South Londok Water-works* 

In 1805 an Act of Parliament was passed for establishing a 
Company to be called the Company of Proprietors of the South 
London Water-works, who were to form reservoirs near Ken- 
nington-green to be supplied from the Thames along Vauxhall 
creek, or at a creek on tne other side of Cumberland Gardens, 
between that and Marble Hall, all in this. parish, and by cuts 
and channels to supply parts of Lambeth, Camberwell, Ber^ 
mondsey, Rotherhithe, Deptford, Newington, Walworth, Ken- 
nington, Stockwell, Clapham^ Peckham Rye, Dulwich, and 
places adjacent, in Surrey. They were restrained from in- 
terfering with those parts which were already supplied 
with water by the Lambeth Water-works. The proprietors 
might raise, 50,000/. to be divided into shares, and if ne« 
cessary, 80,000/. more ; to pay 5/. a year to the City pf Lon- 
don, as conservators of the river Thames, for the liberty of 
opening a communication betwen the Water-works and the 
river, but not to interfere with the Grand Surrey Canal, nor to 
take water out of the rivers Wandle and Ravensboum* 

The work was undertaken ; a field of five acres between Ken- 
nington-lane and the Oval, was procured, on which two reser- 
voirs were formed with steam-engines, a house for their clerk, 
a committee room, and other buildings. On the 17th June, 
1807, the proprietors celebrated the completion of the under-* 
taking by givmg a public breakfast at the place. The reser- 
voirs were intendea to bring the wat^ into a state of puri^ 
before it was distributed; but it was found that it did net 
answer thoroughly ; and they in 1812, proposed to adopt the 
plan of the Lambeth Water-works, and remove their steam- 
' engines from the reservoir to Vauxhall creek. This from some 
cause was not put into execution ; but since the destruction of 
jthe Cumberland Tavern, it is expected they will shortly remove 
|o its site, which will be of great advantage to the inhabitants. 
^ ,, ... Nothinff worth V of notice occurs, with the exception of the 
Licensed victuallers* Schools, a pla^ brick building, opened 
about 1807) fior the support and instruction of children of de* 
cayed victuallers. This excellent instijtution is under the 
patronage of many of the nobility. 

In the upper part of Kennington-lane is a Chapel erected by 



ST. MiMJ$ DIATEICT. 388 

the Rev. G. Gibson, formerly master of Carlisle^iouse board- 
ing school, on a piece of land hteld of the Prince of Wales for 
three lives. The subscribers nominate the clergyman, si^ject 
to the {mproval of the Rector. The present minister is the 
Rev. J. G. Sergrove. The interior is neatly fitted up with 
galleries round three sides, and a good organ. In front of 
the building is ameat portico, and on the top a turret with one 
bell. It is capable of accommodating about six hundred per- 
sons. At the extremity of this lane towards Newington is an 
old house known by the sign of the Plough and Harrow; 
it has an antique appearance, but there are no local anecdotes 
appertaining to it. Prom thence our course bends southward 
along the road to Kennington-common. On the right of this 
road, Lawrence Whitacre, Esq. steward of Kennington manor 
in 1636, and a member of the Long Parliament, dwelt in a very 
large house situate at a place where now the ends of York-row 
and Pleasant-row meet on the ruad from Newington to Ken*- 
nington-common, which house was afterwards divided into 
tenements ; and called Kettleby*s*rent8. This house has been 
pulled down a long time, but the name is still retained to a row 
of small houses. 

On the same side is a Chapbl for the use of the Indepen- 
dents. Jt is plainly fitted up with galleries round three sides 
and an organ ; and is capable of accommodating about five 
hundred persons. The present minister is the Rev, J. Hunt. 

Nearer to the common, on the same side, is Rrince's*«quare, 
which from its low situation is frequentlv overflowed firom high 
tides in the river. Proceeding on tne len is Ksnninoton Coic- 
Mov, an inclosed piece of ground containing about 20 acres. 
From its advantageous situation so near the metropolis, it 
might, by proper management, be made extremely visluable. 
*< At present it is common to all cattle, without stmt, belong- 
ing to those parishioners who reside within the Prince of 
Wales's Liberty, whose property it is, who pay a certain stipend 
per head; the sum goes towards defraying those expences 
which the keeping up of the fence, &c necessarily incurs. It 
is shut during the winter six months and opens again in spring ; 
but it is no sooner opened than the number of the cattle turned 
in is so great, that the herbage is soon devoured, and it remains 
entirely bare the rest of the season." « 

This was the usual place of execution for criminals tried in 
this part of the county. Such of the rebels as were tried by 
special commission in 1746 at St. Margaret*s-hiU, and were 
ordered for execution, suffered at this place, among whom 

» Malcolm*! Report, 4to. 1794. 



384 ST. mark's DismicT. 

were those who commanded the regiment raised at Mandiester 
for the use of the Pretender. 

This common was also the frequent of itinerant preachen, 
otherwise ranters, as appears from the following extract from 
an inimitable comedy : 

*' Lady Lambert. Did you ever preach in public? 

*^ Mawtoorm, I got up on Kenmngton- common, the last re- 
view-day; but the boys threw brickbats at me, and pinned 
crackers to my tail; and I have been afraid to mount, your 
ladyship, ever since.*** 

During the summer season it is much frequented by cricket- 
ers, for whom ample accommodation is made by the landlord of 
the Horns tavern. 

On the side of the high road is this celebrated inn, and 
attached to it is a large assembly-room. In this house died an 
eccentric individual, Joseph Capper, esq. He was bom in 
Cheshire, of huipble parents. His family bein^ numerous, he 
came to London at an early a^e, and was bound apprentice to a 
grocer. Mr. Capper soon mamfested great quickness and indus- 
try, and proved a most valuable servant to his master. It was 
one of the chief boasts of his life, that he had gained the confi- 
dence of his employer, and never betrayed it. Being of an 
enterprising spirit, Mr. Capper commenced business as soon as 
he was out of his apprenticeship, in the neighbourhood of Rose- 
mary-lane. His old master was his only friend, and recom- 
mended him so strongly to the dealers in his line, that credit to 
a very large amount was given him. In proportion as he became 
successful, he embarked in various speculations, but in yone 
was so fortunate as in the funds. He at length amassed a sum 
sufficient to enable him to decline all busines. Mr. Capper 
havingnow lost his old master, was resolved to lead a sedentary 
life. For several days he walked about the vicini^ of London, 
searching for lodgings, without being able to please himself. 
Being one day much fatiffued, he called at the Horns, at K^ 
nington, took a chop andspent the day, and asked for a bed in 
his usual blunt manner; when he was answered in the same 
churlish style by the landlord, that he could not have one. 
Mr. Capper was resolved to stop if he could, all his life, tp 
plague the growling fellow, and refused to retire. After some 
furUier altercation, however, he was accommodated with a bed, 
and never slept out of it for twenty-five years. During diat 
time he made no agreement for lodiging or eating, but wished 
to be considered a customer only for the day. For many years 



• Hypocrite, Act ii. iccue 1. 



ST. MARK*8 DISTRICT. 385 

he talked about quitting his residence the next day. His manner 
of living was so metliodical, that he would not drink his tea out of 
any other than a certain favourite cup. He was equally par- 
ticular with respect to his knives iand forks, plates, &c. In 
winter and summer he rose at the same hour; and when the 
mornings were dark, he was so much accustomed to the house, 
that he walked about the apartment without the assistance of 
any light. Ac breakfast he arranged, in a peculiar way, the 
paraphernalia of the tea-table, but firat of all he would read 
the newspapers. At dinner he also observed a general rule, and 
invariably arank his pint of wine. His supper was uniformly a 
nil of rum, with sugar, lemon-peel, and porter, mixed together: 
the latter he saved from the pmt he haa at dinner. From this 
economical plan he never deviated. His bill for a fortnight 
amounted regularly to 4/. 18^. He called himself the cham- 
pion of Government. He was extremely choleric ; and nothing 
raised his anger so soon as declaiming against the British Con- 
stitution. In the parlour he kept his favourite chair, and there 
he would often amuse himself with satirising the customers, or 
the landlord, if he could make his iokes tell the better. It was 
his maxim never to join in general conversation, but to inter- 
rupt it whenever he could say any thing ill natured* Mr. Cap- 
per's conduct to his relations was exceedingly capricious — ^he 
never would see any of them. As they were cmiefly in indigent 
circumstances, he had frequent applications from them to Bor- 
row money. " Are they industrious ?** he would enquire ; 
when being answered in the affirmative, he would add : *' Tell 
them I have been deceived already, and never will advance 
a sixpence by way of loan ; but I will give them the sum they 
want ; and if ever I hear that they make known the circum- 
stance, I will cut them off with a shilling.** Soon after Mr. 
Townsend became landlord of the Horns, he had an opportunity 
of making a few good ready-money purchases, and applied to 
Mr. Capper for a temporary loan. << I wish/' said he, " to serve 
you, Townsend ; you are an industrious fellow ; but how is it to 
be done, Mr. Townsend ? I have sworn never to lend, I must 
therefore give it thee ?*' which he accordingly did, the foUow- 
inff day. Mr, Townsend proved grateful for this mark of libe- 
rality, and never ceased to administer to him every comfort the 
house would afford ; and, what was perhaps more gratifying to 
the old gentleman, he indulged him m his eccentricities.** 

Mr. Capper was elected steward of the parlour fire ; and if 
any persons were daring enough to put a poker in it without 
his permission, they stood a fair chance of feeling the weight of 
his cane. In summer-time, a favourite diversion of his was 
killing flies in the parlour with his cane ; but as he was sensible 
of the ill opinion this wAuii^-oduce among theby-standers/he 



886 ST. MARK*8 DISTRICT. 

would with great ingenuity introduce a story about the rascality 
of all FrencSmen, " whom," says he, ** I hate and detest, and 
would knock down just the. same as these flies." . .This, was the 
signal for attack, and presently the killed and wounded were 
scattered about in all quarters of the room. This truly eccentric 
character lived to the age of 77 , in excellent healtli ; and it was not 
until the morning of the 4th of October, 1804^^ that a Tisible alte* 
ration was perceived in him. Having risen at an earlier period 
than usual, he was observed to walk about the house, extremely 
agitated sod convulsed. The landlord pressed him to suffer 
medical assistance to be sent for : to which Mr.:Capper then, 
as at all times, had a great aversion. He asked for aj>en and 
ink, evinced great anxiety to write, but could not. The land* 
lord, apprehending his dissolution nigh, endeavoured, but in 
vain, to get permission to send for Mr. Capper's, relatioos, aad 
tried to obtam their address for that purpose, but . could not* 
He died on the 6th of October, 1804, leaving the bulk of his 
propert]^ (upwards of 80,000^.) among his poor relations, aid 
was buried in a vault under Aldgate Church*. The eccentric 
character of the individual will be an excuse . for this long 
memoir b. < . . . . 

On the southern portion of Kennington Coramoo, on 'iJw 
upper part of a small triangular plot of ground* separated from 
a larger portion of the common by the road to Brixton asid 
Croydon, and recently bisected by another road, leading firom 
Camberwell to the yauxhall4iric[^e, is erected the second of 
the district churches of this parish. . The ground evidenoea 
the versatility of earthly a£BEurs« Wliat is now the scite of a 

church was formerly the ^^ftm^F^a 
place of execution for .the coun^ ; 
and is rendered, more interesting by 
its being the actualspot where, in 
1746, many of the unfortunate, ad* 
, herents to die.expatriated family of 
the Stuarts fell a sacrifice to prio* 
dples which, under favourable aui» 
spices, would have led them to ho- 
norable distinction, instead of the 
hurdle and the halter, and. the uis- 
. ' ^.T blessed grava of a. traitor. In-.prtv 

paring the foundations, the.site of the gibbet was disoovered* 
and a curious piece of iron, which probably was theswiiel, 
attached.to the headof the unfortunate criminal^ waa turned up* 
Of wliibh the above 18 an engraving. 




' M" »» I ■! »^» 



A GenLMftg. vpl. Ivur* partS«fp. 979. 

^ A portrait of him was published hj tha.Iate Mr. WilkiiwoD. 



ST* MABK I DI8TB1CT. 



S87 



The first stone of the 




Church of St. Mark the EvAMOELiaT 

WB» laid on the Ist Julj^ 1822, by his Grace the Lord Archbi^ 
shop of Canterbury, immediatelv afler the same ceremony had 
been performed at Brixton. The building being in a sufficient 
state of forwardness to accommodate the congregation, was, on 
thedOth June, 1824, consecrated by the Lord Bishop of Win^ 
Chester. It was opened for public Divine Service on the suc- 
ceeding Sunday, by Uie Rev. W. Otter, A. M. the first minister, 
and the Rev. • Wyatt, his dssistant. 

lie accommodation of a large auditory, in a neighbour- 
hood so populous as Kennington, being the primary object^ 
the- architect was necessarily restrained from expensive or 
superfluous ornament But notwithstanding the limited fund,, 
ana the great demand upon it, suitable, and indeed elegant 
ornament, has not been entirely discarded. The body of 
the church is constructed of brick, set off with stone dressmgs, 
with a vestibule and portico, at the principal front, of stone,' 
aunnounted by a steeple of the same materiaj. 

The western front is in the Clapham road. It is entirelji^ 
occupied by a Greek Doric portico, composed of fi>ur fluted 
columns and two ants, supporting the entaolature of the order; 
and finished with a pediment: The wall of the back part of tiie 
portico contains a large square headed doorway, with a window 
above,, of the same form, lightinff the belfry, both of these are 
Bounded by plain architraves. The steeple is diminuhed in diree 
stories : the first, which rises from the roof of the vestibule, be- 
hiiid the portico, is a square tower, flanked at the angles by but- 
tiesses ofihe same fonn,each of which supports a square peaettal, 
OF acroteria, formed of honeysuckles. Each face of uie tower 
<;bntains a window slightly arched, and filled with weather- 
Bofu^ing. ' In the second story, the elevation takes an octangular 
form : each angle being adorned with a buttress, finished with a 
Grecian tile. Four of the faces, which are larger than the 
others, and range with the sides of the tower, contain 



388 ST. MARK*i DISTRICT. 

dials, the others are plain. Upon this story is a circular plinth^ 
supporting a range of eight fluted Ionic columns, with the pro- 

Eer entablature, crowned with a plain spherical cupola, with a 
eautiful stone cross on the centre. Each intercolumniation con- 
tains an upright pedestal, supporting a metallic tripod. Between 
the portico and church are three vestibules. The central being 
the basement story of the steeple, is entered by the doorway just 
mentioned. The lateral ones contain the stairs to the galleries, 
and are approached by fliehts of steps from the churchyard. The 
entrances are on the North and South sides, with windfows above 
of the same character as in the western front. The entablature 
is continued from the portico along the sides of these vestibules, 
and from thence all round the body of the church, but the 
tryglyphs are only retained in , the west front. The body of 
the church is octaneular, the lon^st sides fronting the soudi 
and north : each of these is made into five divisions by ants 
without bases, resting on a continued plinth: the intervals 
contain two series of windows in the common dwelling-house 
style, without architraves; the upper are parellogrammatic, the 
lower nearly square, and both slightly arched at the heads. 
Above the conuce, the slated roof rises to a ridge in the cen- 
tre. The difference of style between this portion of the church 
and the west front must strike e^QTY observer. The classical 
Grecian portico contrasted with the body, which, with its win- 
dows, pilasters, and superincumbent roof wants but dripping 
eaves, to approach more closely to the mansion-houses erected 
afler the Italian fashion about two centuries back, appears to 
the architectural spectator a combination of little better cha- 
racter than that strange masonic jumble which the late James 
Wyatt imposed on the world as Gothic architecture, and in 
which the ignorant and vituperative assailants of the beautiful 
pointed sty^, find those very monstrosities and absurdities which 
they bring forward to degrade buildings which would not shrink 
from a comparison with the purest specimens of Grecian art* Hie 
eastern front is made to project : the angles are guarded by ants ; 
and in the centre of the wall is a window of similar formation to 
those alreadv described. Beneath the window is an attached 
building of orick, with antae at the angles, and finished with a 
stone parapet, containing vestries and other offices,, and beneath 
is a flight of stairs descending to the catacombs* Upon the 
^ whole, the eastern front is more church-like than the already 
described portions. The bold projection which indicates the 
altar approaches to the older style of our churches, and it 
far preferable to a plain conventicle- looking wall in the same 
situation, as is the case in St. John's Church, and too many 
others of modem erection, where the architects appear to have 
judged an oblong room to be the perfection of beauty. 

'Die interior is light and airy ; and though it necessarily suf- 



■T. mask's DIftTEICT. SW 

• 

ftn in appearance from the absence of pillarsy yet, b^ a jufC 
distribution of appropriate ornament, a neat, and m . som^ 
respects elegant design, has resulted. Galleries surround the 
bony of the church, except the eastern division : they are sus- 
tained on fluted Doric columns, the fronts adorned with an 
entablature and cornice. A double series of antse are continued 
along the walls of the church* on the piers between the win* 
dows above and below the galleries ; the upper range supporting 
an entablature and import cornice to the ceiling, which is ellip- 
tical, and ornamented with groups of foliage, "nie most pleasing 
feature of the interior is the altar-screen : it consists or a plain 
wall, by way of basement, flanked bv a buttress at each side of 
the altar-table. In the centre are four slabs of white marble, 
with the decaloffue, creed, and paternoster, inscribed on them* 
The buttresses aisplay the lotus m relief on the upper parts, and 
eadi forms a pedestal, supporting a pair of fluted Ionic columns, 
hi the same style as the Erectheum, ranging in a line with the 
walls of the building, and partly occupying a deep recess, in 
^e centre of the wul, at the back of which is the eastern win« 
dow, inclosed within an architrave. A dove and ^lory, in stieuned 
glass, adorns the upper part, and a border of cnmsdn glass, en- 
ridied with white scroll folia^, surrounds the whole window. 
The diaste and elesant embellishments of this part of the church 
are highly creditable to the taste and judgment of the architect. 
Limited in the distribution of ornament, he has shewn that he 
wlis sufficiently aware of the imperative necessity of rendering 
at least the altar an object of attention to every one entering the 
buildinff. By the juddcious selection of bold and elegant archi- 
tectural features, this object has been attained to a decree 
scarcely to be expected, in a building in which the limited 
estimate was so formidable an impediment to its architect's 
inffenuity. 

The organ-case, pulpit, and reading-desk, are executed in 
oak. The former is plain and neat, and faces the altar : on 
eadi side is an additional ^lery for the children of the national 
schools. The pulpit consists of a square frame of fluted Doric 
columns, with antae at the angles, entablature, and cornice, 
supporting an octangular story. The reading-desk is of similar 
design, but of simpler construction ; and, wiUi the clerk's desk, 
is situated on the north side of the body of the church, the 
pulpit being on the south. From the centre of the ceilinar 
depends a large bronze lamp of an antique desiffn, suspended 
upon chains rotating from a centre, and sustained by one lareer 
chain. Smaller lamps of a similar design are supported iiy 
brackets attached to the architraves of the ealleries, and others 
upon uprights, affixed to the superior members of the gallery - 
fronts. Lamps of a corresponoent character, upon taK pede- 
stals, are placed in the different vestibules, aud harmonise with 



tlto'g^erd ttHteful ctauiictef-oftlie edificei= The^dnndiyadl 
ipndosed within' a&iron nuling^ upon a-^mnite plinth*' Itnt 
brdkin at intei^s by aquare^gnmite'pien, navid]^ arched headr 
efnidied' wid< chaplets^ rappoKing large- lamps. Tii^ iripoda 
piacad^at diewdes of the different entvancei^fonnerljr oociqiiad' 
the istations of thtete lamps: the3r#^e removed on- aoodont of 
not gimgrtiiAcient light; The groimd'istastefuUjr laid ontaodr 
{^aotedrin the arrangemetit, however,. of the^l^rave^ the tet 
ewctad tomb^ustone shews an mmardonable^ d^vtatien- ftonr tlier 
aanenlj aiid 'laudable cmrtom'efaepOBithi||^ the oomse with. the: 
ftofc* ur the eastL Whatever maj^ have ^en> the emign of diie- 
oufitom^ OP whether it is grounded hi auperstitibn, isnootrwoatfa' 
the enquirjTi a sufficient veateonfrnPthe^oWrvanoe of ithithesr 
dqns'iiB the^fiuct, that fty>m' this atident and simnie'ookom; itA' 
the canJLae -assigned fbr the ohsewaifee ofl^. an' mvincfbte'iirgii« 
mentis drawn'ef thte-univeiaal belief and antieipafeioiioftiiegett^^ 
lalteMrrectiba of die-dead, fntmi tbeeariiesti^es of thedinndi) 
and would therefore be sufficient to i^ote the'soaliistfj^-of fher 
nmteriaiist, should hie endeavour to shake our Inliief in' this imt* 
portantdootrine^by assoitin^, (with those^hifidelrwho>denv(tfaa> 
etistence^ of the sacred Tnni^)^ that the 'early a^eaof tfe 
Churdi net«|i recalved-'the doctrine he has the tementyto dls^*: 
pute* T)S# arohitect is Mr. Roper, who deserves great oredii 
nft^a/skilfVil i^plieaeion of his funds^ it is much to be rejpetted' 
thit tfte greae demand fbr churchHroom neceiftariljr Imto thcf 
appKealkon of the paiiiamentaiy fUnds to verjr confintkl-esd^ 
ilNUesi' The architect who can successfViUy combat with a dif^ 
cui^ of such magnitude^ must possess' a considferable share of 

pno&ssional skill.. 1 

The length of this church is about 104* feet, bieadtfa ^ 
lfe#s. It will hold 9,016 persons, of whom 994 can- her provided 
with free seats. The architect's estimate, including incidentd^ 
expenses and commission^- was ]5>2i8/. Isad the amount of the 
oontrad waa 15,1t74^ M. 

• in the tower, which is large, are two bells, but it is ezpected- 
ihesd will be incnased to eight ^ and a good olocfc, with ibitr 

' Agsa'nst the east wallr in the noith gallery, is a small while 
marble tablet, surmounted by an urn partly oorered by^draperyi 
tlM- whole within » black marine border. 

SXCltsn to T^lt MEMORY OY ' 
BRMA, 

Foa A'pawsi^bat btokt^s tab bi^lovbd wuva ow 

CHA^tV* TABOR, OV BAt&AM HltL,, BSa'. 

▲VD BLt>B8rDAnCrRTEit'0V wm sftADBOLTf 

07 STOCKWBLL-COMMON, RBQT, 

8RB DIB0 OSr I8th APRIL, 1895, 



AT. MARK*» PMTRICT. .%i 

AND HBE RSIfAIMS AUK DSPOSiTBO 
IN A YAUIO^fA^N^ATIft X01S CHUflCH. 

IN THE DISCHAROB OF BVBRY CHRISTIAN 
AND MORAL DUTY SHB WAS 9IOST BXBMPLART, 

AND THE URBANITY OF HBR DISPOSITION 
DIFFU8BD HAPPINESS AROUND BBB* 

AnxiB ; Enninois, on a chevron engrailed between three lieni* 
heads erased Azure^ each charged with an Ennine spot Or, at 
manj talbots passant of the last ; a label for distinction ; Tahorj 
impaling* Azure, on a chevron Erminois between twotdemi^ioBa 
in chief> and an eagle's head erased in base Argent, as'Mail^ 
crosses patt^ Gules, ShadboU. 

Crest; On a wreath three bezants^ thereon a liott^s^eed 
^etased Azure, charged with an Ermine spotOr, and transfixed 
by.an.iuTow in fessproper. - i . . 

:. In the .churchyard: are the following insoriptions* ^ On the 
siorth part, on an upright stone : 
Margaret, wife of Ste^ien Staf^ died* March 1, 1835^ ^iged'«6 

years. 
•v: In the south part, on upriffht stones » : 

Mr. J. Newton, died. Oct. 2, 1825, aged 59. 
Master J. H. Hooker, died July 8, 1825, aged 11. 

Alonff the south aide of the churchyard is a small stream, 
over wnich is a bridge called Merton Bridge, from <ito for- 
merly .having been repaired by the canons of Merton Ab» 
hfju who hfl^ lands for that purpose. This road leads to Brix- 
lon I JUid the first object is a neat stuccoed, building, with a tur- 
nt, called Holland Cbafbl. The interior ia neatly fitted 'up 
frith galleries round three sides^ and a good organ, -llie- present 
minjBter is^^e Rev. J. Styles, D.D. at whose expeneeitwas 
arectedin.1823, and is. capable. of acconomodattng about lOOD 
|wrsona of the independent persuasiion. 

Immense improvements have been made in thb neighbooiw 
hood within the last tep years. This estate is the property of 
the Riffht Hon. Lord Holland, and is now of considerable yafue 
from the formation of numerous streets, with villas, &c. Alow 
the eastern side of this road was a small brook/ ^ow partfy 
covered over, from whence the place derived the name' of the 
Wash-way ; each side of the roaa is ornamented with el^^^t 
terraces and villas. In a lane leading out of the high road to 
the left is LouGHBORouoH House, miich Mr.Lysonsconsiderii 
was, at a former period, either tJbie property or residence lif 
Henry I«ord Hastings, of Leuffhborough. • t^ lioiise, wlUcb 
jp of c^msiderable size, ia built of red brick, and has a ha^ court 
smd orchard attached, all surrounded by bripk wf^is of ah 



992 ST. MAB&*» DISTRICT. 

ancient appearance'. It has long been knowm as a respectable 
academy, at present in the occupation of Mr. R. WiUetU 

Returning to the road, and croisingy we proceed through 
Love-lane, to 

Stockwbll. 

The etymology of this place is probably derived from Stoke 
(the Saxon itoCf a wood) and well, from some spring in die 
neidibourhood. . 

The two principal objects worthy notice in that portion of 
StockweUy m the district under observation, are the Cnapel and 
ScbooL 

Stockwell Chapel is a plain edifice of brick, with a small 
turret and belL The interior is neat, with a ^lery round three 
sides, and a jpood organ. The present minister is the Rev. H. 
Clissold. This chapel was built about 1767, on a piece of ground 
granted by the Duke of Bedford, on a lease for 200 yean. 
Archbishop Seeker save SOOlf towards the building, and the 
Rector ana others subscribed divers sums, but notsiuncient fbr 
the building, and a sum was borrowed, to liquidate which part 
of the pew-rents was appropriated ; but in 1778 a further sub- 
scription was made, and the debt was cleared. In 1810, the 
neighbourhood being much enlarged, the length was increased, 
at we east end, by one third of the original length, by which it 
now holds about 600 persons^ — ^The School is a low building 
of brick, in which about 200 boys and 200 girls are educate^ 
on the system of Dr. Bell. It was built by voluntary subscrip- 
tion in 1818, but the schools had previously been carried on in a 
temporary building since 1815. The present master and mis- 
tress are Mr.^ C.l£de and Miss Woolnough. The schoob are 
supported by voluntary contributions. I^vin^ Stockwell, we 
proceed in a westerly direction by die Swan inn, a house of 
considerable note and respectability, and crossing the road, 
i^>proach 

South Lambeth, 

celebrated for being, at sundry times, the residence of manv 
eminent men of learning. Nearly the first building on the UA 
of our road is 



* Mr. Nicholi nyi he fbniid it adrtrtued in the London Mofcnrj, Afiril 10, 
1688, ** to be lett l^ leue or yearly rent, a great pennyworth, LothbtwoMdi 
Houae, near Hanrd i Bridge, in the way to Croydon, and deMribed aa*' a mDe 
nnd a half from Fox-Hall, two milea from London Bridge, fit for two ^milttf, 
ham, coaeh-howe, and other cuofenient ont-houeing; two gaidcna, walled ini 
hanqoetiitf-hoofl^, Sco.i also a large orchard) containing, together, about m 
ncres."— Hist, of Lambeth, p. S4. 



3q ■? 



I. A 



r M 




♦ t 



\ ** 







/^. 



n. HABKt DIITMCT. 



TsASiaciNT'i HoDix, 
m plain building oT bride, with ■ court in front, and Urge iron 




Attached to thii hotue waa the Fhjdc Garden of the Trade* 
acanti, one of the firat establiahed Id thia countrv. The elder 
Tradeacant had travelled over a great part of Euri^ and 
Africa in aearch of new pUnta ; muj of thoae introduced bj 
Um were Img called bj bu name, mwn thia learned man firat 
■etded in England, which Dr. Ducarel, who aubiequentlv lived in 
a bouae adjoining TiadcKant'i Houk, Bujopoaei waa the l^ter 
sndofElis^Mth'areignor the beginning of Jamei I., he made a 
eoriont c<rilection of natural hiitory, coina, medalii and a great 
variety of uncommon rarities. A catal(^ue of them, puhhriied 
under the title of Huaeum Tradeacantianum, bj hia ion, con- 
tain! an enumeratimi of the many plaoti, din^i, treea, &c. 
growing in his garden, which was very extensive. His Museum 
wasfrequentlyvisitedbypersoni of rank, who became bene&ctoi* 
thereto ; among these were King Charles I, [to whom he waa 
mrdeoer) Henrietta Maria fhu queen). Archbishop Laud, 
Geom Duke of Buckingham, Robert and William Cecil, Earll 
of SaCsbury, and manv other persons of distinction : among them 
also ^ipears the philosophic John Evelyn, who, ^n his Diair, 

a the following notice: — " Sept. 17, 1657, I went to see Sir 



Robert Needham at Lambeth, a relation of mine, and thence to 
John Tradescant's Museum*." 

On the death of John Tradescanti Dr. Ducarel says his son 
strid the curiosities to the celebrated Eliaa Ashmole^; but Mr. 
Nichols, in a note, observes, that the Doctor must be in error } 



9M 8T. MARK*! bllTRiCT* 

for, according to the diary of Ashmole, it appears, Dec. 12, 
1659, Mr. Tredescant and hia wife told me they had been long 
considering upon whom to bestow their closet of curiosities when 
they died, and at last had resdved to give it unto me." On 
the 14th, he adds : << This aflemoon they gave their scrivener 
instructions to draw a deed of gifl of the said closet to me ;" 
and on the 15th, *' Mr. Tredescant and his wife sealed and deli- 
vered to me the deed of gift of all his rarities.** This is conclu- 
sive that Ashmole had them by gift, and not by purchase. Mrs. 
Tradescant, however, would not surrender them on her hus- 
band's death, and Ashmole '< preferred a bill in Chancery'* 
against her, and got possession of them. On this he removed 
from the Temple to South Lambeth. He added a noble room 
to Tradescant*s ark (as it was then called)^ and adorned the 
chimney with' his arms, impaling t|iose of Slir William Dugdale, 
whose daughter was his third wi&, where diey remain. The 
loss of her husband*s treasures seems to haye preyed on the 
mind of Mr8» Tradescant ; for, in the diary before quoted, under 
April 4, 1678, A^mole says: «< My wife told me that Mrs. 
Tradescant was found drowned in her pond. She was drowned 
the day before, at noon» as appears by some circumstance.** She 
was buried n a vault in Lambeth Chuixh-yard On Ajshmole'a 
deathy the curiosities went to Oxford, where they form pari of 
the Ashmolean Museum. Sir William Watson, and other mem- 
bers of the Royal Society, visited the site of Tradescant's gar- 
den in 1749, but found very few trees remaining which appeared 
to have been planted by the Tradescants The house waa pur- 
chased about 1760, of some of Ashmole's descendants, by John 
Small, Esq. Dr. Ducarel's house, once a part of Tradescant's, 
adjoins. 

A catalogue of the plants cultivated by I'radescant, at South 
Lambeth, with an accpnnt of the rarities and natural curiosities 
which he had collected, was published in 12mo, in the year 
1656ji by his son, under the name of << Museum Tradescan- 
tianum ; ' to which are prefixed portraits, both of the father and 
son, by Hollar. * Copies of them, and a bust of Elias Ashmole, 
were engraved by Mr. Nichols, for his History of Lambeth. His 
son, Mr.J. B. Nichols, very kindly allowed the use of the 
plate for this Work. 

Of Dr. Andrew Colt^ Ducarel, Mr. Nichols has ^iven, 
in his History, a curious and original memoir; but as it is too 
long for this Work; the shorter memoir of him, printed in 



* The original copper-plates by the abov« eminaat engnurer, an in (lie Bod* 
leian Library, impressions ffom whi«b art- scarce. 



Miehok^s History of St. Katherine*8, it here pretodted to the 
Retder. He was bom in Normandy, in 1 7 1 S, wnetice his ftther, 
who was descended from an ancient fkmily at Caen, came to 
England, and resided at Greenwich. In 1729y young Ducarel 
being at that time an Eton sdiolar, was three months under 
the care of Sir Hans Sloane, on account of an accident which 
deprived him of the sight of one ere. In 1781, he was admitted 
a Gentleman Commoner of St. Jonn*B College, Oxford; June 1, 
17S8, proceeded LL.D.; Oct. 21, 1748, wentoutammd com- 
pounder ; became a member of Doctors Commons in Nov. 1748; 
m 1749, married Susanna Desborough, who survived him ; advo- 
cate of the Court of Arches in 1756; appointed Commissary of the 
Diocese of Canterbury Dec. 1758, and of the Sub Deaneries of 
South Mailing, Pagham, and Terring, CO. Sussex, in 1776. Hewas 
elected F.S.A. Sept. 22, 1787, and was one of the first feUows of 
the Society on its incorporation^ 1755 ; admitted F.R.S. Feb. 18, 
1762. On Aug. 29, 1768, he was dected Member of the Society 
of Antiquaries at Cortoca ; became an Honorary Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Cassel, by Diploma, in 1778 ; and 
^at of Edinburgh in 1781. Dr. Ducarel closed a Kfe of unrc^ 
taittbg industry and application in antiquarian pursuits, at his 
house at South Lambeth, May 29, 1785, and was buried withfas 
the nortb side of the altar of St. Katherine*s church near the 
iWer, with an epitaph. He was author c^ several topogram 
phical and antiquarian works, among which are his Histories 
of Lambeth and Croydon Palaces ; a series of Plates of Anglo- 
Gallic or Norman coins ik the Kings of England. He mad^ 
valuable indexes to the Lambeth Registers ; and was perhaps 
with the exception of the late Richard Goueh, Esq. and John 
Nichols, Esq. toemost industrious and learned antiquary of his 
tine* On his promotion to be Commissary of St. Katherine*S| 
which save him greater satisfaction than any offioe be had ever 
enjoyedi his friend Dr. Walker wrote him a humoroos letter 
printed below, a A good portrait of Dr. Ducarel, engraved 



tm^ 



• *' Worthye Mayitere Doctor^ Cbmmissarye, and mj tisgukr goods 
Friende. 

'' After mjne haatye commeadatioiis to your wonhippa, I diMyre to adjoync 
myna aMorances to yoa, that it givytho me noche pleaMure to have tUs oppor- 
tunitye of teitifylng my ainoear goode wythe towards you ; foratmoche as for- 
tune puttyth it in my power to send you my congratuMcions as a smalle marlce 
of huT &vours, by wDiche I truste she meanythe wis onlve as an earnest penny ; 
and indede ryghte glad sholde I be yf the proQrte thereof excedyd the dygnitye 
of this your advancement ; for I doubte the dygnitye must in some sort com- 
pensate for the profyte ; howbeit it semythe not unliUye, to my poor conceit, 
that it may not perchance be unacceptable to your diapositlony on tl&e icore^ 



^906 



•T. MARK*! DItTltlOT. 



bjr Pouncyy k the firontuq^iece to hit Hbtonr of Lambeth pyaoe. 
Hii house is now the residence of John Hesekinet Esq. a gea« 
tfeman well known in the litenury world. 

Nearij adjoining to this house northward* is the extensive 
distillery of Messrs. Beaufoy for vinegar, wine^ aoelic add, Ac 
Their works were removea here miaii Cupen • Gndans, and 
their present premises cover a space itf five acres. On the sitft 
of this distillerji was 

Carom Hovsiya 

a noble residence with a large park adjoining, built by Sir Noel 
Garon, the Dutch AmbassMor to the Court of England for 
twenty-eight years in the reign of Elisabeth and James L It 
had a centre and two wings in the form of half a Roman H with 
a large park for deer, which extended to VauxhaU and S^n- 
nington. A great part of the walls surrounding this park still 
exist; particularly one piece across Keonington OvaL On 
the front of the gateway was this inscrqition : 

'* Omne Solum forti paria." 




llial ptndvtntiira at mqrc m ki^pra to idl o«l diat It tomf ■ A riajit a ! 
•eoMyom of fbtim oMmtyoat iii thovrtifouit lofnet} a amaot vwHyo to 
bo hoid in odmjncjoB of ml betjde wjgliiiMi nd oortw ia toit looi Fmm's 
tnunptt loodljo and (In thii mstanco) trewljt rtportjthe thoe to bo, vjp^ 
BjM owao portjcolar oeqaMntaanoe wytho tboe Toyfyetk to mj oo iti j i o 
loBowlodit, in veryo dodo on adept. 

Loitf tymo ntspt tbon theralbrt enjoje tbb nnit benifftt ; oad nojfo God 
Ahnjgbtye toko jou into hit gnde bepjge. Wytho wyiheo of ml bwlthi aod 
hi^pppoMO, I raiBayne youn in m frtndlye Mnrioe, 

DbOTMUS DXDlIKIt. 

What ia moitly compoaad of mortar and brick, 
Makat half of bt name, if that yon can nick. 
Crack a not, and half of what therein you finde, 
Maltea the reft. Cherohez done, I opme yoa're 
St* John's daye ad portaa Latinai 

MayetheGth. 
Yere of incamacyon mdcclv. 

A The aboTO Tiew u taken from one drawn on an oM plan in the pofaceaioa of 
BIr* Middkioai and whieh be communicated to William Biay, Eiq. FJSA. 



opme yoa're not bUade* 



J')^ 




•T. MARK*! DltTRICT. Of 

.FbH of this mantion was standing in its former state only a few 
•years ago as ** Caron House Seminary/* mitU tlie principal 

Kwas demolished in 1800; the remainder was modernittMl. 
original buildmg was Tery handsome. 
Sir }ioe\ is said to have been a very worthy diaritable man ; 
in 1617 he gave 10/. towards repairing the churchy and 50L to 
the poor or this parish. He was often visited by Queen Elisa- 
beth, especially in the year 1599, when she dined on the 87th 
ai July in her way to die Lord Burleigh's at Wimbledon ;ft 
and among a list ofgifts in the same year is the following item • 

** Mounser Caron, Item, g3rven by her sayde Highnes, and 
delyvered the 15th of October, anno pred' to Mounser Caron, 
Agent for Flaunden, at his departure out of England, parte of 
one chevne of golde, bought of Hudie Kqrlle, per oz., S5 oi. 
qr, of the goo&ess of 21 karretts du ^raine, and parte of one 
other cheyne, bought of the sayd Richard Martjm, per oz., 
9$ oz. €fjr. 8 dwt. 6 graynes, of the goodness of 22 karrets di 
graine ; m toto 68 os. m 3 dwt. 6 granes. 

ELIZABETH. 

Edwa. Csrye, Robert Cranmer, N. Bristow, 
Nicholas Holtofte, N. Pigeon.b 

There is a scarce tract extant entitled '< Hie Miraculous 
Recovery of a Dumb Man, at Lambeth ; or a Brief and True 
Relation of an extraordinary Distemper, which at Christmas, 
1671, seized upon Mr. Francis Culham of South Lambeth, in 
the county of Surrey, Chyrurgeon, and took away his Under- 
standing and Speech; and so continued for the space of four 
years and four months. With his wonderful Restauration on 
f^day the 12 of May 1676 by the immediate hand of God.** 
This b attested by Drs. Parr (of Camberwell), Gale, Elias 
Ashmole, and several others. « 

In South Lambeth is a Cbapxl, erected in 17M, on a piece 
of ground belonging to J. Bond, Esq. ofMitcham, who granted 
a lease of 99 years; and it was erected by^ subscription of the 
inhabitants, llie rector of Lambeth nominates tne minister, 
who at present is the Rev. C Wadsworth. It is a neat build- 
ing with a turret and one belL A gallery surrounds the in« 
tenor of the chapel, which is nealdy^ fitted up, with a good 
organ, and is capable ot aocommodaung 600 persons. 

This concludes the Survey of Kennington District, of which 



• NHMa'tIV««raM6t>ToLiiL|».440. ^ Ibid.p.S67. 

c TkklkwtofMlwvtSyUiathtlibnryofthcBntiihMiiifa^ 



9m 



9f^ JtAftS'i MStftlCT. 



ibm }ait deAoribed pUoe foniui m coondmM^ poriidtu At 
IV»|riau« tiine^ it bss oeen the retidenoe of nainr eminent per- 
M^fit fmon^ whom ^re the late D. Ricardo, Eaq. the oefe- 
brated political econonuat; the late Duke of Bninnrick; and 
th^ celebrated geniua 




Ita pleaaant aitualion and eont^utty td the metropelia 
it the raaost pf nmneroua roqpeotabte fiuniNea. 




n* KAarTHBw'ft numicr, J90 



CHAPTER XIL 

Diiirki of Si. Matthew, or Brixton Church Dittrkt* 
' Dutrict of St. Luke, or Norwood Church Dutrict. 

St. Mattrbw's District. 

On the derivatkm of the second title to this districty anti- 
qoaries vary. Soaie have Supposed it from Brixiy a f^esf 
oaaon proprietor in these parts; but 8ir John Bysshe says that 
^ Sir Jcha de Burstow ^eorrupUy called Bristow) on his nK 
torn from France, wWe he haa served under the Bhiok Princft 
repaired the public road h^e, beginning at the third mile-stoiio 
from London, at his own expence, with stone, which from him 
him hath ever ainc6 been called Burstow, or Briatow Cauifr' 
wttvr • 

How far this is correct, must be left to the reader*s . jiid|^ 
ment ; but certainly it teems more probable to have been de- 
rived from the farmer, as may be seen from an ancient MS» 
^lioted befcnre.b The land about Brixton is high and conse* 
qoently healthy. Many of the wells are 200 feet in depths 
running through a bed of (^ster shells cemented by clay, &o. . 

The boundaries of this district, as set forth in the authoritj^ 
before quoted, is described as follows : 

Conmencing at Clapham Work*house the boundary line 
passes along the south-east side of Bedford private road, the 
mMrth*west side of Stockwell-green,. the sotttlKeast side of Lovfi* 
lane and Robert-street, until it crosses the Croydon^roadit 
obhqnely to the risht, whence it passes along the south side 
of Loushborough-^house-lane, the west side of Green Man- 
lade, and the south-east side of Cold Harbour-lane east, to the 
north-east end thereof, at the outer edge of the foot-path on. 
the west side of the road through Camberwell village; tbqF 
boundary theace, turning to the south, passes on the west side 
of Denmark-htll-road^ including the foot-path, to a parish 
mark, whence it crosses the said road obliquely, and passes, in, 
the same direction, through a triangular paddock> opposite 
Denmark<»hiU, thence by the side of the said hill, in the samf ; 
direction, to a parish stone, in a paddock in the rear of the; 
same, where it turns squai^ to the east, and proceeds a shortr 



Note o» Upcoa dt Ofie. Alilt|vi,l>. «v. p. S7. ^ Pag« S* 



400 ST* ICATTHXW*! DiaTRICT. 



until it ioiiu the west side of the road to Champion- 
hill ; it there makes another square angle, and passes south-east 
by the side c^ the said road lo a parish mark adjoining the wall 
of a messuage on Champion*hill ; it then turns square, nearly 
west, and, following the said wall, crosses to the west side of a 
private road leading to Dulwich, whence it passes nearly in 
the same direction through certain pleasure grounds belonging 
to houses on the south-east side or Denmm-hill, to withm a 
few yards northward of' a double lodge, where there b a parish 
marK, and thence to another parish mark, near the red post al 
the comer of the road to Dulwich ; thence passing alonff the 
south-east side of the said road, to a parish marie withm die 
fence, to a little beyond the angle of Cassino-house ; it diere 
leayes the road, nearly at a ririit angle, for a few yards, and 
passes on to a parish mark in me pleasure ground belonging to 
the said house, and thence making an ob^se angle, proc^ds 
in a parallel Erection with the road, to a parish mark in the 
fore-court of the north-easternmost house on the projierty of 
Thomas Lett, Esq.; it then takes a soutih-easterly directmn, 
following the park pailins on the north-east side of ^ said 
property, to the comer or the orchard ; thence, making nearly 
a square angle, and turning east, it follows the same paolinc 
until it joins the road from Red Post-hill to Dulwi^, and 
tuming south, it continues to fellow the same palling, on the^ 
south-west side of tfale said road, to a parnh mark at the east 
comer of Mr. Lett's proper^; thence turning westward by the 
fence on the north-west side of a foot-paw which separaCes 
Mr. Lett's property from a triangular paddock belonging te^ 
Dulwich College, it proceds imtilit jmns the road iraii the 
Half Moon-bridge to Dulwich ; thenoe, continuing in froat of 
MV« Lett's lodfe and gradually diverging a few yards disfeni 
from the road, it passes through the kitchen-garden, and thence 
to the back of certain cottages fronting the Half Mooohroad, 
and thence by a line of trees to a fence on the north-east side 
of a foot-patn iriiich separates Mr. Lett's property, on the- 
south-west, from a certain other triangular paddocK belouffing to 
Dulwich-college, formerly called Iremnd-green; thence, rollow* 
ing the said fence, it joins ue parish highway upon Heara-hill, and 
Uien turns nearly square, and passins in a south-west direction 
alone the south-east and east side of Uie said highway, it crosses 
another highway belongmg to the hamlet of Duhricn, to an old 
hedge-row a few yards east of the Half Moon-bridge : thence 
it continues, in a southward direction, to firilow in me iiregular 
line of the said hedge row to a parish mark in Croxted4sine, a 
few yards distant nom Norwood-lane, from which point it 
passes south-west, and gradually approaches Norw<Md-lane, 
along a water*course, until it joins the said lane, nearly oppo- 



ST. MATTUEW*8 DISTRICT. 401 

site the pond of Brockwell-haU, it there follows the same 
water-course, on the south-east side of Norwood-lane, to a 
bridee-way where it crosses the same, nearly opposite to the 
Dorthem boundary of the Norwood district; the boundary 
then passes to the west, along a hedge-row between Brock- 
well-ball and Page's-fields, and thence in a line square, from 
Tulse-hill Lower-road, along which said road, on the east side 
thereof, it passes south for a few yards, and thence, turning, 
square to the west, it passes along the south side of Upper 
Tulse-hill-road to a small water-course, in which there is a 
parish mark, a few feet from the road ; thence it turns south 
to the said parish mark, and again, turning nearly at a square 
angle, it passes westward alonir an old hedge-row to a parish 
mark at an obtuse an^le of the same, whence it takes a 
northerly direction, nearly parallel with Upper Tulse-hill-road, 
along the same old hedge, until it unites with the said road, and 
a parish mark at the circular turn of the same, into the Brixton- 
road ; it then follows the south side of the said road a few yards 
to another parish mark, whence it diverges from the road, and 
passes, by an irregular line, in front of certain houses lately 
erected on Brixton-hill, and follows an old hedee until it ap- 
proaches to within a few yards of the turnpike-road from 
London to Streatham, where there is a parish mark ; thence 
making an acute angle, it passes obliquely, across the said 
turnpike-road, and proceeds through a lane opposite, following 
a water-course in the middle of the same, for some distance, 
and then passing near a windmill on the north-east side of the 
lane, until it crosses the lane to Streatham-common, near 
Bleak-hall, where there is a parish post ; hence it passes along 
the north west side of Streatham-lane, and the west side of 
Bleak-hall-lane and Bedford New-road, all the way to Clapham 
workhouse aforesaid. 

The most advantageous point to commence a survey of this 
district of the parish of Lambeth is at Camberwell-green, the 
houses on the west side of which are within the parish.-— 
Here there is nothing worthy of observation, except a small 
chapel for the use of the particular Baptists; which beine 
found too small, a larger one has been erected in Cold- 
harbour-lane : the interior is neat, and at the West end is a gal- 
lery. It was erected and opened for public worship in 1825i 
and is capable of accommodating 500 persons. The present 
minister is the Rev. £. Kean. 

On Denmark Hill is a Chapel of Ease, similar in form to the 
one at South Lambeth. The interior is neat, and has a gallery 
round three sides, with a good organ. It will hold about 1000 
persons. The present minister (who is appointed by the Rector 
of Lambeth) is the Rev. W. Sampson, D.D. 

3f 



402 ST. Matthew's district. 

Pursuing our course along the road in a southerly direction, 
we ascend and descend hills or small eminences known as Den- 
mark, Champion, Dulwich, and Heme-hills; from each of them is 
an unbounded prospect over the metropolis, and the principal part 
built on with villas, inhabited by wealthy citizens of London, 
who here enjoy a little of that pleasing solitude so necessary to 
enliven and dieer the mind after the hours of business and bustle 
are over. Generally speaking, they have a pleasing appear- 
ance ; a neat fore-court, laid out as a small fiower garden, with 
gravel paths, forms the approach to the house, which is usually 
of eight or ten rooms, witn offices attached, and a neat garden 
behind. The author need not observe, that the interior is uni- 
versally fitted up in that style of elegance united with economy, 
that is so inherent to the taste and wealth of a British merchant. 
From the back, as has been observed before, are delightful 
prospects over London and Westminster, with Hampstead and 
Uighgate in the distance. The general tout ensemble is pleas- 
ing ; and the place can boast of more eminent and celebrated 
individuals having resided here than any other suburb in the 
neighbourhood ofthe metropolis. 

The style of these erections is scarcely a legitimate subject 
for criticism ; with a very few exceptions, the houses in this 
district differ not from the generality of those which have lately 
been built in almost every part of the widely extended suburbs 
ofthe metropolis by the many speculating builders of the day. 
In some instances rows of tall houses with the appellation of 
terraces, in which a perpendicular wall, only broken by the 
doors and windows, make out the principal elevation ; in others, 
cottages as they are styled, being square detached tenements, 
generally with stuccoed fronts, ending in a gable, with an eco- 
nomical window in it, combining, in many instances, two houses, 
for the sake of effect, into one elevation. The Italian Cas- 
sino and the old English cottage, have been equally rejected ; 
the principal object of the builder was to run up his houses as 
cheaply and speedily as possible ; and let them as soon as built; 
hence none of these villas advance beyond mediocrity ; a tame- 
ness and monotony has resulted, which cannot fail to tire the 
spectator. 

It is to be regretted that the style of architecture that assimi- 
lates most with rural scenery, viz. the Gothic, is the most neg- 
lected ; and though it might be made the most elegant in ap- 
pearance, it universally shrinks into that degraded and shame- 
ful style the Chinese Gothic, than which nothing can be more 
barbarous or insignificant. 

The author is sorry to say, too many specimens of this bad 
taste are visible in a neighbourhood which presented sites for 



- • 



IDX^jjGTf FOR *J>3i:f^S)tff mS^LLa 




,,j,-*y, 






ST. MATTHEW'S DISTRICT. 403 

■ 

the erection of elegant and economical villas in that pleasing 
style. 

Descending Herne-hill, on an eminence is Brookwell Hall, 
the residence of John Blades, Esq. It is a neat building, and 
has a handsome and commanding appearance. From this road 
to the south, where the^ ground is not inclosed, may be seen 
Norwood, and the dark hanging woods of Dulwich ; on descend- 
ing this hill is a neat porch and gates leading to the hall just 
mentioned. Pursuing our route in a southerly direction along 
the road, we turn off, and proceed across the fields in a 
westerly direction towards a rising ground called Tulse*hil], 
on which have lately been erected several small villas in a neat 
style ; the delightful prospect of the surrounding country, and its 
airy and healthful situation, combine to make this one of the 
most pleasant places for residence in the neighbourhood ot 
London. From this hill Harrow, Hampstead, Highgate, 
ShooterVhill, Norwood, and the ** great city,*' may be seen 
distinctly. On the left, a road leads towards Brixton Cause- 
way ; in it is a villa in the Gothic style, perhaps one of the 
neatest in the neighbourhood of the metropolis ; it was formerly 
an old farm house, and by judicious management it has been 
converted at a small expence into a commodious and truly ele- 
gant villa residence. 

Arriving at Brixton hill or causeway, on the lefl is a short 
lane leading to the 

House of Correction. 

It is of small size, with a low brick wall round it, inclosing 
about two acres and a half of ground. It was opened in 1820; 
and is capable of containing from 170 to 200 prisoners & The 
airing-yards are spacious : their surface is well flagged ; but they 
have the disadvantage of being situated on the north side of an 
extensive circular range of building, three stories in height, 
which lessens the beneficial effect ofthe sun*s rays upon them. 

A chaplain performs duty twice a week, besides Sundays. 
The chapel is well arranged, the classes being seated in sepa- 
rate compartments, in view of the officers only. The whole 
cost of erecting, &c, this prison was about 50,000^ 

In this prison is a tread-wheel, or, as the Society for the 
Improvement of Prison Discipline designate it, discipline-mill, 
of which a view is prefixed. 

This view is taken from a comer of one of the ten airing yards 



'^ I am unable to gire Either infbrmatinn. A respectable officer in the Gerk 
of the Peace's office promised, for mnt months, to give the necessary infiMma- 
tion ; but unfortunately could not, or would not, find time to fulfil his promise. 



404? ST. MATTHEW*8 DISTRICT. 

of the prisoDy all of which radiate from the covemor's house in 
the centre, which is seen in the view at the opposite end of 
the yard, so that from the window of his room he commands a 
complete view into all the yards. The building which appears in 
the engraving behind tlie tread-wheel shed is the mill-house, con- 
taining the necessary machinery for grinding com and dressing 
the flour, also rooms for storing it, &c. ; on the right side of this 
building a pipe is seen, passing up to the roof, on which is a 
large cast-iron reservoir^ capable or holding some thousand gal- 
lons of water, for the use of the prison. This reservoir is filled 
by means of forcing-pump machinery below, connected with 
the principal axis which works the machinery of the mill ; this 
axis or shafl passes under the pavement of the several yards, 
and, working by means of universal joints, at every turn, com- 
municates with the tread-wheel of each class. 

The wheel is exactly similar to a common water-wheel ; the 
tread-boards upon its circumference are, howeveri of consider- 
able length, so as to allow sufficient standing room for a row of 
from ten to twenty persons upon the wheel.* Their weight, the 
first moving power of the machine, produces the greatest 
effect when applied upon the circumference of the wheel at or 
near the level of its axle ; to secure therefore this mechanical 
advantage, a screen of boards i» fixed up in an inclined posi- 
tion above the wheel, in order to prevent the prisoners from 
climbing or stepping up higher than the level required. A 
hand-rail is seen fixed upon this screen, by holding which they 
retain their upright position upon the revolving wheel; the 
nearest side of which is exposed to view in the engraving, in or- 
der to represent its cylindrical form much more distinctly than 
could otherwise have been done. In the original, however, both 
sides are closely boarded up, so that the prisoners have no ac- 
cess to the interior of the wheel, and all risk of injury from this 
cause is prevented. 

By means of steps, the gang of prisoners ascend at one end, 
and when the requisite number ran^e themselves upon the 
wheel, it commences its revolution. The effort, then, to every 
individual is simply that of ascending an endless flight of steps, 
their combined weight acting upon every successive stepping 
board, precisely as a stream of water upon the float-boards of a 
water-wheel. 



^ The Wheels erected at the House of Correction, at Cold Bath Fields, are 
each capable of containing forty or more prisoners, and the joint force of the 
prisoners is expended in giving motion to a regulating dj, which, by expanding 
of itself in proportion to the power, will keep any number of men, from twenty 
to three hundred and twenty, at the same degree of hard labour. 



ST. MATTHSW'ft DlSTRieT. iM 

4 

Daring this operation, each prisoner gradually advances from 
the end at which he mounted towards the opposite end of the 
wheel, from whence the last man taking his turn descends for 
rest, another prisoner immediately mounting as before to iiU up 
the number required, without stopping the machine. The in- 
terval of rest may then be portioned to each man, by regulat- 
ing the number of those required to work the wheel wiUi the 
whole number of the gang ; thus if twenty out of twenty-four 
are obliged to be upon the wheel, it will give to each man, 
intervals of rest amounting to 12 minutes in every hour of 
labour. Again, by varying the number of men upon the 
wheels or the worlc insiae ^e mill, so as to increase or diminish; 
its velocity, the degree of hard labour or exercise to the pri- 
soner may also be regulated. At Brixton, the diameter of the 
wheel bemg five feet, and revolving twice in a minute, the space 
stepped over by each man is 2,193 feet, or 731 yards per 
hour. 4^Mm >/i^ V^ /kj^^ i^4^ 

The invention of the tread-wheel, so far as regards females, 
is, in the opinion of the editor, only fit to be used in the dun- 
geons of the Spanish Inquisition. As long as this punish- 
ment is aUowed m our prisons, it will be a blot on our national 
character ; and I sincerely hope the time is not far distant when 
a different course will be pursued towards those unfortunate 
females. The late lamentea Sir John Cox Hippisley, Bart, and 
that truly excellent man and magistrate, J. t. Briscoe, Esq. 
exerted dieir pens and their interest, to suppress this unnatural 
employment. Unfortunately, neither were successful, though 
their observations and remarks excited great interest. 

The following account of a visit made by Sir J. C. Hippisley 
to Cold Bath Fields prison, certainly superior to the one under 
observation^ is as follows : 

*' The hour was half past eleven in the morning ; the ther- 
mometer at 60* Fahrenheit, with a cool and gusty breeze, 
which many have complained of as beins chilly, veering from 
north to south-west. We examined me subterranean ma- 
chinery, which with the ponderous fly above, was working at 
a fearmlly rapid rate, notwithstanding the slow paced motion of 
the principal shafl. The men were on duty on the wheels in their 
respective yards ; and the report is true that the shafl has asain 
broken, forming a fifth instance of failure ; and other workers 
been again thrown upon their backs on the raised platform, and 
must, in some instances, have fallen through to the stone pave- 
ment some ten or twelve feet below, had not the present vigilant 
governor, in anticipation of such an accident, prudently ordered 
the middle hatchway to be closed. I inspected the men as they 
descended in rotation, from the wheel, at the end of a quarter 



406 ST. MATTHEW*g DI8TMICT. 

of an hour's task work, and made room for fresh relays. Every 
one of them was perspiring, some in a dripping sweat. On 
asking them separately, anc^ at a distance from each other^ 
where was the chief stress of labour, they stated in succession, 
and without the least variation, that they suffered great pain in 
the calf of the leg, and in the ham ; while most of them, though 
not all, complained of distress in the instep. 

<< The palms of their hands, in consequence of holding tight 
to the rail, were in every instance hardened, in many horny, in 
some blistered, and discharging water. The keeper^ who ac- 
companied us, admitted the truth of all these statements, and 
added, it was the ordinary result of the labour !*'a 

In the females the same pains, << to which the female keeper 
added, very horrible pain in the loins, that generally veiy greatly 
distressed them.**b This pain was productive of the worst 
consequences to the unhappy sufferers c. << The perspiration, 
however, existing among the iWnales, is. bft6li seiy^^fipressive ; 
and one of them, not long since, fell down to the platform in a 
fainting fit ; the keeper herself, seemed deeply to feel for them ; 
her language was, that they often had not a dry thread belong- 
ing to them ; and, she added, you would be surprised. Sir, at 
seeing how oflen the finest of them, after having been a few 
weeks at work, are toom doxvn and emaciated. I inquired whether 
even on this account she did not feel it necessary to recommend, 
at times, a few days relaxation, that they might recover them- 
selves ; and she admitted that she was not unfrequently com- 
pelled to do so. The palms of their hands here, as in the case 
of the males, were hardened or horny, and in far more instances 
blistered, the leathery skin in some places peeling off*, and ex- 
posing a sore surface beneath. For all kinds of needle-work, 
and their descriptions of manual labour, they seem to be com- 
pletely unfitted, and the keeper allowed that they were almost 
always rendered useless for such purposes ! " d 

A woman is a woman, and whatever her conduct or crimes 
may be, her sex should be held sacred. The flogging of a 
negress is not one thousandth part so degrading and so afflict- 
ing as the labour of this torture-wheel to an English woman. 



*■ Pamphlet by the late Sir J. C. Hlppislej, Bart, on Prison Discipline, p. St 

*» Ibid. p. 33. 

c In the present work the author cannot enter, so deeply as his feelings 
would incite him, on this part of the subject, or he could bring forward some 
passages in Mr. Briscoe's pamphlet, noticing circumstances which would be a 
disgrace to the most barbarous nation in Europe. 

d Pamphlet by the late Sir J. C. Hippisley, Bart, on Prison Discipline, p. 34. 



ST. MATTHEW'S DI8TBICT. 407 

Hie first is a local, painful^ but brief punishment ; the second is 
a continuous wearing, and destructive alike to the character 
and constitution of the sufferer. 

Many of these unfortunate females are placed here for com-* 
paratively small o&nces. They are taken up under the sweep- 
ing definitions of a harsh Vagrant Act, are nurried in numbers 
at a time to heal a broken spirit in the regions of a gaol ; and 
to expiate on the tread- wheel the crime of being unfortunate ! 
There what do they meet? repentance — disgraced-misfortune-— 
soothed by torture, shame annihilated in infamy, and agony 
goaded to despair a. 

When I know mothers have been placed on this " rack of the 
nineteenth century,** this age of refinement, and a convict stand- 
ing by with her infant in her arms, waiting for its miserable 
parent to descend, to give her child suck, I am almost ashamed 
of my country. And for what was she placed on the wheel ? 
For not being able to support that child, being an illegitimate 
one. Perhaps it might be urged by some, that being a young 
woman, she could bear fatigue ; but why should an innocent 
infant participate in the punishment intended for its mother, 
incessantly crying for those necessary comforts which its help- 
less state demanded ; and the writer, who saw it, says, *^ almost 
perished with cold.**^ Women of fifty years of age, mothers of 
twelve children, have been placed on this wheel, with orders to 
work them as much as the younger women ! 

It is to be regretted, by all true lovers of their country, that 
this species of punishment was ever introduced into our [)ri- 
sons : it is totally unworthy the spirit of the age. Of the opinion 
which foreigners form of the << torture-wheel,** I am happy in 
being able to offer the following pcusage, from a report made 
in 1824*, by the Society for the improvement of Prison Disci- 
pline in Paris. 

*^ La Roue k marcher est un vrai supplice. C'est ce qui 
r^ulte de la d^cription m^me qu*on en donne, de Taveu qu'on 
fait des chdtes et des fractures caus^es par ces machines, et 
enfin de la terreur qu'elle inspire aux detenus. Si des m^d^cint 
ont-pu dire que cet horrible exercice fortifie la sanU et la conserve^ 
Us se sont perniis une raUUrie barbare. Voudraient-iU le con» 
seilUr ^ leurt malades, ou en /aire eux-m^mei V experience ?^~ 
Cette peine inflig^e aux prisonniers abr^gera, dit-on, la dur^e 



* These ve the observations of a writer who signs his name Juvenis, but 
whose language and opinions stamp him as an honour to his country. 

b Letter on the nature and effecu of the Tread-wheel, by J. I. Briscoe, 
Esq. p. 126, printed for Hatchard and Son. 



408 ST. IfATTHXW*!! DICTRICT. 

de leur detention. Mais, au nom de rhumanit^ est-il juste, 
est-il raisonable, de rendre une peine plus rude dans I'e^)^ 
ranee qu'elle sera plus courte? Les Romains se vantaient 
d'toe le peuple chez qui les peines ^talent les plus mod^r^ et 
les plus douces. La France aspirera au m^me honneur; et 
nous, membres de la Soci^t^ pour Tam^oration du regime des 

Srisons, nous ne proposerons jamais de I'am^iorer en y intro- 
uisant des peines nouvelles, Celles qui existent sent n^ces- 
saires; mais elles doivent suffire. Lsl Soci^t^ fond^ pour 
Tam^liorer des prisons crairait aller contre le but de son 
institution, si, pour mieux assurer la discipline, elle n'avait 
d*autre moyen que celui de rendre les prisonniers plus mis^ 
irables." 

Even the Society in England speak equivocally on the sub- 
ject; for though Uiey introducea the machine, which they 
acknowledged *< might become an engine of terrible oppression,** 
yet they subsequently observe, '< That the general employment 
of females at the Tread- wheel is licible to serious objections ; and 
aa there are, even in the absence of prison-trades, other kinds of 
labour to be found for women in gaol that are congenial to the 
habits of the sex, the practice of thus employing this class of 
offenders is not justified by necessity.*' Let this kind of treat- 
ment be observed, and numbers would come out reformed 
instead of confirmed in misery and vice. 

In this road is a Chapel, built of brick, erected in 1824*, 
and capable of containing about 300 persons, of the Wesleyan 
Methodist persuasion. 

Formerly this part of the neighbourhood of London, was ce- 
lebrated for game of all sorts. Among many entries are the two 
following : 

^' Licence to Andrew Pefne, a D.D. Dean of Ely, to appoint 
one of his servants, by special name, to shoot in any cross- 
bow, hand-gonne, hacquebut, or demy-hack, at all manner of 
dead marks, at ail manner of crows, rooks, cormorants, ky tes, 
puttocks and such like, bustards, wyld swans, barnacles, and 
all manner of sea-fowls, and fen-fowls, wild doves, small birds, 
teals, coots, ducks, and mallards, and all manner deare, red, 
fallow, androo."b 

In the reign of James the First, Alexander Glover, re- 
ceived as '< Keeper of the game about Lambath and Clap- 
ham, 12(/. per diem, and 265. 8^. per ann. for his livery;" in all 
36/. 10».« 



* He resided at Stockwell. 

^ Pat. 5 Eliz. p. S. 

c Narrative History of King James, for the first fourteen yean, 1651, 4tu. 



■T MATTHEWS DtSTBICT. 

Proceeding along the road on the right, ia 
St, Matthew's Church. 



3= 



This building claims precedence, id point of date, orer the 
other churches erected in thisparieh, in pursuance of the Act of 
Parliament already cited. The necessary excavations were 
made, and the foundations began, previous to Christmas 1821 ; 
and on the 1st July, in the succeeding year, the ceremony of 
laying the first stone was performed by his Grace the Arch< 
bishop of Canterbury, who immediately afterwards proceeded to 
the site of Kennington Church for the same purpose. 

The architect is Mr. C. Porden. In the chasteness and 
simplicity of the design, and the classical correctness of the 
architecture, the present edifice not only reflects great credit 
upon the taste of its architect, but is entitled to a superior rank 
among the many new churches recently erected in the environs 
of the metropolis. In plan, it differs but . little from the 
usual arrangement, being a parallelogram, with its two longest 
sides to the north and south, with a portico at theWest end, and a 
tower at the East. The order is the Greek Doric, which is con- 
tinued throughout the building. The west front is occupied by 
a portico, composed of four fluted colums and two antce, raised 
on a stylobate of five steps. The lateral walls of the Church 
are continued to the antte of the portico (which is consequently 
closed at the sides, like the pronaos of a Grecian temple). 
The columns, in their bold proportions and massive di- 
mensions, are formed after those fine specimens of temple 
architecture in the same order, which are the pride of Greece 
and the admiration of the whole world. The elevation is 
finished with the entablature of the order and a pediment. The 
lateral acroteiia, in the original design, were to have supported 
recumbent holy lambs, which, it is to be regretted, have been 
omitted. The anlce are fronted with large square pedeistals, in- 
tended to have sustained vases, if the West front had been com- 
pleted pursuant to the architect's deugQ, Within tbe portico 
3q 



410 8T. MAXTHEW'S DISTBICT. 

are three grand entrances to the Church. The central is higher 
than the lateral ones; and each doorway, in its formation, 
resembles the openings in Grecian buildings, the aperture 
diminishing in breadth from the base to the lintel. Tlie whole 
facade displays an air of grandeur, which few of the new churches 
can claim ; and it is to be hoped that the ornamental particulars 
alluded to will shortly be added, and the design completed in a 
style appropriate to the excellence displayed in its general fea- 
tures. In the interior of the portico the walls are coloured, 
in imitation of stone. The north and south fronts are uniformly 
built of white brick, with stone dressings. Near the west end, on 
each side, are flights of stairs descending to the catacombs 
beneath the floor of the Church, the entrances to which have 
handsome frontispieces, consisting of pediments, supported on 
antae. In each front is a series of lofty windows, similar in form 
to the western doorways, and bounded with bold architraves. 
The elevation terminates with the entablature, continued from 
the portico, in which the tryglyphs and mutules are retained; 
the omission of which, in every other part except the principal 
front, is a fault too common in modern buildings, and which 
has been already censured in St. Mark's church. The eastern 
front, which difiers from the majority of churches in having the 
steeple attached to it, is made into three principal divisions ; the 
central occupied by the tower, the lateral ones are formed into 
recesses flanked by antae, and flnished at the top with the 
continued entablature. The recesses are filled, to about half 
of their height, with porches formed of antse, supporting an 
entablature, in which the tryglyphs are omitted, the guttse being 
continued, without intermission, along the whole of the fillet, 
which divides the architrave from the frieze. The tower is in 
three stories : the first is square, and of equal height with the 
Church. It rests upon three granite steps, and is finished with 
a frieze and cornice. In the eastern face is a lofly window, 
crowned with a pediment. The second story is also square, 
and contains in each face two fluted Doric columns, with an 
anta at each angle, sustaining an entablature, and forming 
an open screen, within which the walls of the tower take 
an octangular form, having windows in four of the faces. 
This story is finished with a parapet, having a break in 
each side to receive the clock-dials.. Above this is a square 
plinth, which forms the base to an octagon tower, con- 
sisting of a plain architrave and cornice, the cymatium 
enriched with lions* heads, sustained on eight antse, correspond- 
ing with the angles of the octagon, and covered with a pyra- 
midal stone roof, enriched with scroll foliage. On its apex is 
placed a leaved capital, sustaining a plain cross. The steeple 
is> on the whole, too small for the edifice to which it is attached. 



ST. MATTHEW'S DISTftlCT. 411 

It is to be regretted that the funds would not allow of propor- 
tions more compatible with grandeur and magnificence ; for, 
although the design is in itself very neat and chaste> its want of 
elevation above me roof of the Church gives it an air of mean- 
ness. It only remains to be noticed, that the southern porch at 
the east end contains an entrance to the Church for the accom- 
modation of the inhabitants of the Tulse Hill road, and the other 
communicates with the vestry and the basement story of the 
tower, and that the roof of the building is slated. 

The western doorway leads into a vestibule, with a panneled 
ceiling, sustained by antae. In this are the flights of stairs lead- 
ing to the galleries. From this vestibule a spacious doorway 
communicates with the interior of the Church, which cor- 
responds, in the simplicity of its decoration, with tlie out- 
side ; and as far as a building in which columns are not applied 
to sustain the ceiling can be so, is even splendid. There is less 
of that nakedness and poverty of appearance so observable in 
many new churches, and which formed a subject of complaint in 
the interior of St. John's. In the present instance it is avoided 
by the ceiling being brought lower, and tastefully ornamented ; 
and it is but just to observe, that if even the allowed funds would 
have admitted of the display of architectural beauty, it must 
have given way to convenience of accommodation ; as a range 
of columns on each side of the Church, according in style with 
the portico, would have shut out half the congregation from 
either seeing or hearing the officiating minister. The south, 
north, and west sides, are occupied by galleries, resting upon ants. 
At the west end, upper galleries are formed in recesses situated 
over the staircases, for the accommodation of the Charity children, 
each of which galleries is bounded outwardly by the walls of 
the Church, and towards the centre of the building by antse, the 
organ occupying the space between them. Against the eastern 
wall is placed the altar, elevated on three steps, and covered 
with crimson velvet. The rails are executed in imitation of 
bronze, and formed like Doric columns, supporting an open 
frieze enriched with gilt crosses and chaplets. Immediately 
above the altar is a recess flanked by antae, and containing 
two fluted Doric columns. In the wall at the back of this 
recess is a window, which receives a false light from the lower 
story of the tower. Upon these columns rests an architrave 
and frieze, which is continued entirely round the walls of the 
Church. The architrave has one face, and is separated from 
the frieze by an enriched og^e : the same moulding, surmount^ 
ing a scroll, forms the upper member of the frieze. The cor- 
nice is not retained, llie ceiling is divided longitudinally 
into three portions by two architraves, ranging from the 
antse above the western gallery, to those at the altar. The 



il3 ST. MATTHBW*S DIftTRlCT. 

great length of these (artificial) beams, and the only sap-* 
port being applied at the extreme ends, has an unnatund 
appearance, and too plainly shews that they are themselves 
sustained by what they profess to support. The absence 
of the columns is rendered the more apparent, as it must 
occur to every one, that so long an arcnitrave requires the 
support of other uprishts than the extreme walls of a build- 
ing. Smaller ribs, placed at angles with the architraves, por- 
tion the lateral divisions of the ceiling into long compart- 
ments, every one being occupied by two rows of square pan- 
nels, with a star of sixteen points painted in distemper in the 
centre of each. The central division is plain, with the excep- 
tion of four full-blown flowers, inserted at intervals. The east- 
em window, dispensing only a borrowed light, gives to the altar 
a dull appearance, which might be effectually removed by the 
introduction of stained glass; the glowing tints and brilliant 
colours of that delightful material would be finely mellowed, 
and even improved, by the partial obscurity occasioned by the 
transit of the light through the exterior window. The taste 
of the architect has given to many portions of his building 
a degree of ornament hardly to be es^pected in an edifice in 
which his estimates were necessarily limited. This is ob- 
servable in the door-cases of the entrances to the galleries, 
which are tastefully ornamented with the honeysuckle mould- 
ings on their lintels. 

The front of the organ-case is formed of two columns, and 
the same number of antse, supporting an entablature, the frieze 
charged with gilt chaplets. The intercolumniations are oocu- 

Sied by the pipes of the instrument. The pulpit and reading«- 
esk are in conformity to the modern practice ; copies of each 
other, they are stationed on opposite sides, in the area of the 
Church. The form is a square pedestal, sustaining a circular 
rostrum, adorned with ants, and finished with a cornice. 

Afler the full description of the Church which has been 
given, it is almost needless to add, that the design is formed 
upon the model of a Grecian temple. The simplicity of the order 
has been most happily preserved, and the characteristics of the 
style rigidly attended to. In proof of this, it is only necessary 
to remark that, if we except the catacombs, an arch is no where 
to be seen in the building. Upon the whole, Brixton Church 
is entitled to rank among the few specimens of truly classical 
building in the metropolis. The resemblance between the out- 
line of the West front, and that of the Tuscan Church of St. 
Paul, Covent-garden, an edifice so oflen and so justly ad- 
mired, (^nnot fail to strike every one who has attentively 
surveyed the two buildings ; but, with all its intrinsic beau- 
ties. It is to be regretted that the present Church is not placed 
in the most fortunate situation. The edifice just mentioned has 



ST. MATTHBW'S DISTRICT. 415 

the advantage of an open space of great extent in its front. ' In 
the present, neither of the principal fronts are seen, in ascending 
or descending the road in which it is situated ; to any one coming 
to the Church from the north or the south, the fine portico is 
concealed from view until he arrives in the very front of it. llie 
sides of the Church, which are mere brickwork, with a series 
of windows, it must be obvious, are not objects of beauty when 
viewed by themselves. To the circumstance adverted to, St. 
Paurs, Covent-garden, owes much of its beauty, and to have 
been seen to equal advantage, this church requires a similar 
situation. However, this is a defect not attributable to the 
architect, but the site, over which he had, of course^ no 
control. 

It is, hbwever, to be regretted, that a Grecian design was, 
under any circumstances, adopted for Brixton. In Regent-street 
this fine portico would have been a distinguished ornament : it 
would have there harmonised with the surrounding buildings ; 
but its beauties are not fully appreciated, in a suburb so distant 
from the metropolis as the present. The country claims the 
pointed style, as peculiarly its own ; and with every feeling of 
admiration for the building before us, it must be confessed 
that a Gothic structure would have better harmonised with the 
surrounding scenery. The Church was consecrated on the 21 st 
June, 1824. The architect*s estimate, including incidental 
expenses and commission, was 15,340/. 13«. 7d. and the amount 
of the contract 15,192/. 9f. 

It is calculated to hold 1926 persons, of whom 1022 may be 
accommodated with free seats. The length of the Church is 
about 100 feet, breadth about 65 feet* In the tower are two 
bells and a good clock. The cemetery is inclosed with a taste* 
ful iron railing resting on a granite plinth, and broken at inter- 
vals by massive square pedestals of the same material. 

The Rev. E. Prodgers, and the Rev. E. B. Vardon, being the 
first ministers ; the present assistant is the Rev. R. Cattermole. 

Though many interments have taken place in the burying- 
ground, no monument or gravestone was set up until the latter 
end of the present year (1825), when the splendid sepulchral 
mausoleum was erected, at the north-west angle of the church- 
yard ; and which, from its correspondent cnaracter with the 
Church, and the unusualf magnificence of its form and decora- 
tions, merits a detailed notice. It is made, in height, into three 
principal stories, or divisions, raised on a stylobate, consisting of 
three steps of granite. The first story consists of four fronts, 
corresponding with the cardinal points, brought out beyond the 
line of the elevation, each of which b occupied by a veined mar- 
ble tablet, flanked by piers of stone, and crowned with a pedi- 
ment : the recessed angles made by the advance of the fronts, 
are filled with vases. The second story contains, in each face. 



414 ST. MATTHEW f DISTRICT* 

a window, giving light to the sepulchral chamber within, and is 
appropriately adorned with emblematic sculpture in relief. Be- 
low the window is a serpent, with its tail in its mouth, the welU 
known symbol of eternity : above is the winged globe^ the Egyp- 
tian' hieroglyphic of the Almighty Creator ; and on the pien, 
at the angles, are carved angels in basso relievo, holding in their 
hands inverted torches. This story is finished with a cornice, 
with Grecian tiles on its angles. The third story has on each front 
a dove, with expanded wings, surrounded with an irrradiation, in 
high relief, and is finished with a pediment formed of the segment 
of a circle. The whole design terminates in a square pedestal, 
highly enriched with mouldings, supporting a knot of honey- 
suckles of the same form. The entrance is on the west side, by 
a low door formed in the stylobate. Of the sculptures which 
adorn this monument, tlie emblems are too well known to require 
any remark by way of explanation. The whole stands about 
twenty feet high, and is without doubt the finest sepulchral 
monument in the open air in the metropolis, and perhaps not 
equalled by any one in the kingdom. It is erected by H. Budd, 
esq. to the memory of his deceased father. It is upwards of 30 
feet high, and was designed and executed by R. Day. 

Let us hail it as the first specimen of a new sera in monu- 
mental architecture, and view it as a step towards improvement 
in the decorative branch of that noble science^ whicn, it must 
be confessed, is much wanted. A beginning is all that was re- 
quired : it has taken place at Brixton ; and there is little fear 
tnat so good an example will want imitators. 

Leaving the Churcn, to the left is Acre-lane, in which is a 
neat brick building called Trinity Asylum. It was erected 
in 1822, by Mr. Bailey, and is capable of containing twelve 
females, of good character, above 50 years of age, who have here 
an asylum during the remainder of their lives. The building has 
a neat and elegant appearance from the road, and does infinite 
credit to the heart of its projector, who is an eminent citizen of 
London. 

From hence we proceed to Stockwell Common, on the left of 
the road. 

Here, at the north-west angle, is a house and land, which was 
the property of John Caldwell, of Brixton Causeway, whose 
daughter and heir, Elizabeth, married Justinian Angell^ fiflh sod 
of John Angell, and grandfather of the late John Aogell, whose 
will gave occasion to many suits by parties who endeavoured to 
establish claims under it ; several ejectments had been brought, 
besides four or five suits in Chancery and the Exchequer. Mr. 
Denne, in his Addenda to Nichols's History of Lainbeth, has 
inserted this extraordinary will at length a. It is undoubtedly an 
original composition ; and but for the space it would occupy, would 

• Page 430. 



ST. Matthew's district. 415 

be printed verbatim in this work. By this will, dated 26 Sept. 1775, 
it appears that he intended to found a college at Stockwell, and 
to endow it with 800^. a year, for seven decayed or unprovided- 
for gentlemen, that should be such by three descents ; two cler* 
gymen, an organist, six singing men, twelve choristers, a verger 
or chapel-clerk, a butler, baker, and groom: to be called the 
Gentlemen of St. John's College, Stockwell. The gentlemen 
and two clergymen were to eat together, the charges of their 
board and liquor each to come to about 26/. ; their clothing to 
be of light-coloured cloth, all of one colour ; for which, and a hat 
with a narrow gold lace, was to be allowed about 51. He al* 
lotted 4,500^. for building the College, and 1,500/. for the Cha-- 
pel. It was to be built m a freehold field in Stockwell, called 
Burden Bush. He died in 1783, and the statute of mortmain 
prevented this foundation from being carried into effect. On 
nis death, Willliam Brown, Esq. succeeded as devisee under 
the will, in default of there being any person capable of taking 
under the first extraordinary devise* of the testator, which devise 
has ever since continued to be the subject of constant litigation. 
This gentleman was grandson of Benedict Brown, Esq. by 
Frances, the daughter of William Angell, of Crowhurst, Esq, 
who was great-uncle of the testator, John Angell, who died, as 
before stated, in 1783. William Brown, Esq. took the name of 
Angell ; and on his death, the house and freehold land descended 
to his eldest son Benedict John Angell, Esq. ; and the copyhold, 
which was about 10 acres, to his youngest son, William Brown 
Angell, Esq.*> 

The house is large, and has extensive grounds attadied, in 
which are several evergreens of considerable age and height. On 
the front of the house, carved in stone, is a shield with the fol- 
lowing arms: 

1. Angell, Or^ three fusils in fess Azure, over all abendlei 
Gules ; 2, Povey, Sable, a bend engrailed between six cinque- 
foils Or ; 3. Eaolphe, Ermine, on a bend Sable three cinque- 
foils Argent; 4. Caldxvallj Azure, a cross patt^e fitchy be-' 
tween eight estoiles in orle Or ; impahne Gresham^ Argent, a 
chevron Ermine between three mullets pierced Sable. 

Over the iron gates in front of the fore-court is the crest of 
Angell, out of a ducal coronet Or, a demi-pegasus volant Ar- 
gent, adorned with gold. It has, within the last few years, been 
an academy for young gentlemen, conducted by E* M^In- 
tyre, LL.D. 

* The devise is in these words : — <' Item, 1 give and bequeath to the hein 
male* if any such there be, of William Angell, the first purchaser of Crowhnnt, 
aod fiither of mj great-grandfisther, John Angell, Esq. and their heirs male, for 
ever* all my lands and estates, both real and personal, in Surrey, Kent, and Sus- 
sex ; nevertheless subject, &c. &c/' 

b Manning and Bray, vol. iii. p. 499. 



416 ST. Matthew's district. 

Leaving this^ we proceed to Stockwell-^reen ; on the west 
side of which, two houses northward of the Tower public-house, 
and laying back from the road, is a house with a stuccoed front, 
celebrated as being the scene of the adventures of the 

Stockwell Ghost. 

On Twelfth-day, 1772, an extraordinary event occurred here. 
About ten o'clock in the forenoon, as Mrs. Golding, an elderly 
lady, was in her parlour, she heard the china and glasses in the 
badc-kitchen tumble down and break ; her maid came to her, 
and told her the stone plates were falling from the shelf; Mrs. 
Golding went into the kitchen and saw them broke. Presently 
after, a row of plates from the next shelf fell down likewise, 
while she was there, and nobody near them ; this astonished her 
much ; and while she was thinking about it, other things in dif« 
ferent places began to. tumble about, some of them breaking, 
attended with violent noises all over the house. A clock tumbled 
down and the case broke ; a lantern that hung on the staircase 
was thrown down, and the glass broke to pieces ; an earthen pan 
of salted beef broke to-pieces, and the beef fell about : all this 
increased her surprise, and brought several persons about her^ 
among whom was Mr. Rowlidge, a carpenter, who gave it as his 
opinion that the foundation was giving way and that the house 
was tumbling down, occasioned by the too great weight of an 
additional room erected above : << so ready," says the narrative, 
" are we to discover natural causes for every thing !" 

Mrs. Golding ran into Mr. Gresham's house, next door to her, 
where she fainted ; and in the interim, Mr. Rowlidge, and other 
persons, were removing Mrs. Golding's effects from her house, 
for fear of the consequences prognosticated. At this time all 
was quiet ; Mrs. Golding*s maid remaining in her house, was 

gone up stairs, and when called upon several times to come 
own, for fear of the dangerous situation she was thought to be 
in, she answered very coolly, and after some time came down 
deliberately, without any seeming fearful apprehensions. 

Mrs. Pain, the wife of a farmer, was sent for from Hrixton- 
causeway, and desired to come directly, as her aunt was sup- 
posed to be dead ; — this was the message to her. When Mrs. 
Pain came, Mrs. Golding was come to herself, but very faint 
from terror. 

Among the persons who were present, was Mr. Gardner, a 
surgeon, of Clapham, whom Mrs. Pain desired to bleed her aunt, 
which he did. Mrs. Pain asked him if the blood should be thrown 
away ; he desired it might not, as he would examine it when cold. 
These minute particulars would not be taken notice of, but as a 
chain to what follows. For the next circumstance is of a more 
astonishing nature than any thing that had preceded it ; the blood 
that was just congealed, sprung out of the basin upon the floor, 



ST. Matthew's district. 417 

and presently afler the basin broke to pieces ; this china basin 
was the only thing broke belonging to Mr. Gresham ; a bottle of 
rum that stood by it broke at the same time. 

Among the things that were removed to Mr. Gresham*s was a 
tray full of china, &c. a japan bread-basket, some mahogany 
waiters, with some bottles of liquors, jars of pickles, &c. and a 
pier-glass, which was taken down by Mr. Saville (a neighbour 
of Mrs. Golding's;) he gave it to one Robert Hames, who laid 
it on the grass -plat at Mr. Gresham's ; but before he could put 
it out of his hands, some part of the frame on each side flew off; 
it raining at that time, Mrs. Golding desired it might be brought 
into the parlour, where it was put under a side-board, and a 
dressing-glass along with it : it had not been there long before 
the glasses and china which stood on the side-board began to 
tumble about and fall down, and broke both the glasses to- 
pieces. Mr. Saville and others being asked to drink a gla^s of 
wine or rum, both the bottles broke in pieces before they were 
uncorked. 

Mrs. Golding*s surprise and fear increasing, she did not know 
what to do or where to go ; wherever she and her maid were, 
these strange, destructive circumstances followed her, and how 
to help or tree herself from them, was not in her power or any 
other person's present : her mind was one confused chaos, lost 
to herself and every thing about her, drove from her own home, 
and afraid there would be none other to receive her, she at last 
left Mr. Gresham's, and went to Mr. Mayling's, a gentleman at 
the next door; here she stayed about three quarters of an hour, 
during which time nothing happened. Her maid staid at Mr. 
Gresham *s, to help put up what few things remained unbroken 
of her mistress's, in a back apartment, when a jar of pickles 
that stood upon a table, turned upside down, then a jar of rasp- 
berry jam broke to-pieces. 

Mrs. Pain not choosing her aunt should stay too long at Mr. 
Mayling*s, for fear of being troublesome, persuaded her to go 
to her house at Rush Common, near Brixton-causeway, where 
she would endeavour to make her as happy as she could, hoping 
by this time all was over, as nothing had happened at that gen« 
tleman*s house while she was there. This was about two o'clock 
in the afternoon. 

Mr. and Miss Gresham were at Mr. Paln*s house, when Mrs. 
Pain, Mrs. Golding, and her maid, went there. It being about 
dinner-time, they all dined together. In the interim, Mrs. 
Golding*s servant was sent to her house to see how things re- 
mained. When she returned, she told them nothing had hap- 
pened since they left it. Some time after Mr. and Miss Gres- 
nam went home, every thing remained quiet at Mr. Pain's ; but 
about eight o'clock in the evening a fresh scene began. The 

3 H 



4>18 «T. MATTHBW*S DISTRICT. 

first thing that happened was, a whole row of pewter-dishei, 
except one, fell from off a shelf to the middle of the floors 
rolled about a little while, then settled, and as soon as they 
were quiet, turned upside down : they were then put on the 
dresser, and went through the same a second time ; next fell 
8 whole row of pewter-plates from off the second shelf over the 
dresser to the ground, and being taken up and put on the 
dresser one in another, they were thrown down again. Two 
eggs were upon one of the pewter shelves: one of them flew 
on, crossed the kitchen, struck a cat on the head, and then 
broke to-pieces. 

Next Mary Martin, Mrs. Pain*s servant, went to stir the 
kitchen-fire, she got to the right hand side of it, being a large 
chimney, as is usual in farm-houses, a pestle and mortar that 
stood nearer the left hand end of the chimney-shelf, jumped 
about six feet on the floor. Then went candlesticks and otner 
brasses, scarce any thing remaining in its place. After this the 
glasses and china were put down on the floor, for fear of under- 
going the same fate. 

A glass tumbler that was put on the floor jumped about two 
feet, and then broke. Another that stood by it jumped about 
at the same time, but did not break till some hours after, when 
it jumped again, and then broke. A china bowl that stood 
in the parlour jumped from the floor to behind a table that stood 
there. This was most astonishing, as the distance from where 
it stood was between seven and eight feet, but was not broke. 
It was put back by Richard Fowler to its place, where it re* 
inained some time, and then flew to-pieces. 

The next thing that followed was a mustard-pot, that jumped 
out of a closet and was broke. A single cup that stood upon 
the table ^almost the only thing remaining) jumped up, new 
across the kitchen, ringing like a bell, and then was dasiied to- 
pieces against the dresser. A tumbler, with rum and water in 
It, that stood upon a waiter upon a table in the parlour, jumped 
about ten feet and was broke. The table then fell down, and 
along with it a silver tankard belonging to Mrs. Golding, the 
waiter in which had stood the tumbler, and a candlestick. A 
case-bottle then flew to-pieces. 

The next circumstance was, a ham, that hune on one side of 
the kitchen chimney, raised itself from the hook and fell down 
to the ground. Some time after, another ham, that hung on 
the other side of the chimney, likewise underwent the same 
&te« Then a flitch of bacon, which hung up in the same chim- 
ney, fell down. 

. All the family were eye-witnesses to these circumstances, as 
well as other persons, some of whom were so alarmed and 
shocked, that tney could not bear to stay. 



ST. MATTHEW*! DISTRICT. 419 

At all the times of action, Mrs. Golding's servant was walk- 
ing backwards and forwards, either in the kitchen or parlour, 
or wherever some of the family happened to be. Nor could 
they get her to sit down five minutes together, except at one 
time for about half an hour towards the morning, when the 
family were at prayers in the parlour ; then all was quiet ; but, 
in the midst of the greatest confusion she was as much com- 
posed as at any other time, and with uncommon coolness of 
temper advised her mistress not to be alarmed or uneasy, as 
she said these things could not be helped. 

About ten o'clock at night, they sent over the way to Richard 
Fowler, to desire he would come and stay with them. He came, 
and continued till one in the morning, when he was so terrified, 
that he could remain no longer. 

As Mrs.Golding could not be persuaded to go to bed, Mrs. 
Pain, at one o'clock, made an excuse to go up stairs to her 
youngest child, under pretence of getting it to sleep : but she 
really acknowledged it was through fear, as she declared she 
could not sit up to see such strange things going on, as every 
thing, one afVer another, was broKen, till there was not above 
two or three cups and saucers remaining out of a considerable 
quantity of china, &c. which was destroyed, to the amount of 
some pounds. 

About five o'clock on Tuesday morning, the 7th, Mrs. Geld- 
ing went up to her niece, and desired her to get up, as the 
noises and destruction were so great, she could continue in her 
house no longer. Mrs. Golding and her maid went over the 
way to Richard Fowler's : when Mrs. Fowler's maid had seen 
her safe to Richard Fowler's, she came back to Mrs. Pain, to 
help her to dress the children in the bam, where she had car- 
ried them for fear of the house falling. At this time all was 
quiet : they then went to Fowler's, and then began again the 
same scene as had happened at the other places. All was quiet 
here as well as elsewhere, till the maid returned. 

When they got to Mr. Fowler's, he began to light a fire in 
his back-room. When done, he put the candle and candlestick 
upon a table in the fore room. This apartment Mrs. Golding 
and her maid had passed through. Another candlestick, with 
a tin lamp in it, that stood by it, were both dashed together, 
and fell to tlie ground. At last the basket of coals tumbled 
over, and the coals rolling about the room, the maid desired 
Richard Fowler not to let her mistress remain there, as she said, 
wherever she was the same thing would follow. In conse- 

Suence of this advice, and fearing greater losses to himself, he 
esired Mrs. Golding would quit his house ; but first begged 
her to consider within herself, for her own and the public sake, 
whether or not she had not been guilty of some atrocious crimen 



420 8T. MATTHEW*S DISTRICT. 

for which Providence was determined to pursue her on this side 
the grave. Mrs. Golding told him she would not stay in his 
house, or any other person's, as her conscience was quite clear, 
and she could as well wait the will of Providence in her own 
house as in any other place whatever : upon which she and her 
maid went home, and Mrs. Pain went with them. 

Afler they had got to Mrs. Golding's, a pail of water, that 
stood on the floor, bpiled like a put ; a box of candles fell from 
a shelf in the kitchen to the floor, and they rolled out, but none 
were broken, and the table in the parlour fell over. 

Mr. Pain then desired Mrs. Golding to send her maid for his 
wife to come to them, and when she was gone all was quiet ; 
upon her return she was immediately discharged, and no dis- 
turbances happened afterwards ; this was between six and seven 
o'clock on Tuesday morning. At Mrs. Golding*s were broken 
the quantity of three pails full of glass, china, &c. Mrs. Pains 
filled two pails. 

The accounts here related are in the words of the " narra- 
tive," which bears the attestation of the witnesses before-men- 
tioned. The aHair is still remembered by many persons ; it is 
usually demominated the *' Stockwell Ghost," and deemed in- 
explicable. Jt must be recollected, however, that the myste- 
rious movements were never made but when Ann Robinsoti, 
Mrs. Golding's maid-servant, was present, and that they wholly 
ceased when she was dismissed. Though these two circumstances 
tend to prove that this girl was the cause of the disturbances, 
scarcely any one who lived at that time listened patiently to 
the presumption, or without attributing the whole to witch- 
crafl. 

Mr. Hone derived, however, a solution of these " impossibi- 
lities" from the late Mr. J. Brayfield, at his residence in 
Southampton-street, Camberwell, towards the close of the 
year 1817. Mr. B. said, all London was in an uproar about 
the " Stockwell Ghost " for a long time, and it would have 
made more noise than the " Cock-lane Ghost," if it had lasted 
longer; but the attention to it gradually died away, and 
most people believed it was supernatural. Mr. B. in conti- 
nuation, observed, that some years after it happened, he be- 
came acquainted with this very Ann Robinson, without know- 
ing for a long time that she had been the servant maid to Mrs. 
Golding. He learned it by accident, and told her what he had 
heard. She admitted it was true, and in due season, he says, 
he got all the story out. She had fixed long horse hairs to 
some of the crockery, and put wires under others ; on pulling 
these, the " movables '* of course fell. Mrs. Golding was terribly 
frightened, and so were all who saw any thing tumble. Ann Ro- 
binson herself dextrously threw many of the tilings down^ which 



ST. MATTHEW'S DISTRICT. 421 

the persons present, when they turned round and saw them in mo- 
tion or broken, attributed to unseen agency. These spectators 
were all too much alarmed by their own dread of infernal power 
to examine any thing. They kept at an awful distance, and 
sometimes would not look at the utensils, lest they might face 
fresh horrors ; of these tempting opportunities she availed her- 
self. She put the eggs in motion, and afler one only fell down, 
threw the other at the cat. Their terrors at the time, and their 
subsequent conversations, magnified many of the circumstances 
beyond the facts. She took advantage of absences to loosen 
the hams and bacon, and attach them by the skins ; in short she 
efiected all the mischief. She caused the water in the pail to 
appear as if it boiled, by slipping in a paper of chemicsu pow- 
ders as she passed, and aflerwards it bubbled. ** Indeed,** said 
Mr. Brayfield. << there was a love story connected with the case, 
and when I have time, I will write out the whole, as I got it by 
degrees from the woman herself. When she saw the effect of 
her first feats, she was tempted to exercise her dexterity be- 
yond her original purpose for mere amusement. She was 
astonished at the astonishment she caused, and so went on from 
one thing to another; and being quick in her motions and 
shrewd, she puzzled all the simple old people, and nearly fright- 
ened them to death.A** 

The principal part of the above account is from a tract, 
the title of which is printed below. *> It must be a matter of 
surprise to the reader that Ann Robinson was not suspected 
before ; " for how can we suppose," says the narrator, " that 
a girl of about twenty years old, (an age when female timidity 
is too often assisted by superstition,) could remain in the midst 
of such calamitous circumstances, (except they proceeded from 
causes best known to herself,) and not be struck with the 
same terror as every other person was, who was present." 

Near this, and now in the occupation of a butcher, is an old 
building, in which, Mr. Nichols says, Thomas lord Cromwell 
lived, an engraving of which is annexed. Popular tradition also 
assigns it as the residence of the same individual ; but there is 
no record in existence to authorise the supposition that Lord 
Cromwell ever resided here or at the adjacent manor-house. 

• £very-Day Book, Jan, 7, 1 835. 

I> An authentic, candid, and circumstantial narrative of the astonishing trana- 
actions at Stockweli, in the county of Surrey, on Monday and Tuesday, the 
6th and 7th days of January, 177i, containing a series of the most surprising 
and unaccountable events that ever happened ; which continued from first to last 
upwards of twenty hours, and at different places. Published with the coosent 
and approbation of the family, and other parties concerned, to authenticata 
which the original Copy is signed by them. London, printed for J. Markt> 
booksellery inSt. Mtflb't-huM, 1779. 



422 IT. UIIXHKW I DISTBICT. 

Stockwell has been, at times, the residence of many celebrated 
characters. Edward Lee, Ardibiahop of York,was at Slockwell 
on the 14th June, 1533, when he judicially authenticated, under 
■eal, the answer of the clergj' of his province to the questioiis 
proposed concerning the validity of the marriage of King Henry 
VlII.withCatherineofArragon, the widow of his brother Prince 
Arthur. From the words used by Wilkins, it should seem that 
the King then resided here, though he did not purchase it till 
■ometime after. Several acts of John de Sprat, Lord Bishop of 
Winchester and Lord Chancellor, are dated from Stockwell. 

The old bouse certainly bears marks of age ; and the back of 
the house has a door, engraved below, die arch of which and - 
sides are of stone. It is at present let out in tenemests to poor 
people- 




On the same side of the road is a small mansion, on tlie site of 
which stood the manor-house of Stockwell, (formerly the resi- 
dence of the Earls of Albermarle and Devon,) when the Vise. 
Montague was in possession of the manor. He granted a 
lease for a 1000 years of the manor-house, and some land, re- 
serving a rent of 61. ISt. id. This lease was in the possesfiion 
of Thomas Colwall, Esq. and remained in that family ( of whom 
John became a knight, and seems to have taken Uie name of 
Shadwell,) till 1770, when Mr. Isaac Barrett an eminent wax 
chandler, purchased the same ; but the original mansion is 
stated to have been pulled down a little before the year I756t 
and another house built. From Mr. I. Barrett, it came to his son 
Bryant Barrett, who purchased the freehold of Mr. Lambert, 
and dying, Feb. 15, 1808, devised the same to his sons Ueorge 
Rogers Barrett, Esq. the present occupier, and the Rev. 
Jonathan Tyers Barrett, D.D. minister of St. John's Church, 
Waterloo- road. The house is elegantly fitted up, and among 
■ome interesting paintings are several of Hogarth's from Vaux- 
hall Gardens, more particularly his Morning, Noon, Evening, 
and Night. 

Anextensive botanic garden was formed in Stockwell by Benj. 



ST. 1IATTHIW*S DISTRICT. 429 

Robertson, Esq. a magistrate for the counhr. By his wilJy dated 
Sept. 1. 1800, he devised this and other freehold estates to several 
inaividuals upon trust to support a botanic garden at Stock- 
well, but upon application being made to the Court of Chan- 
cery, that part of his will was declared void, and the property di- 
vided among his relations, who till then were very poor. 

I will conclude my survey of this district by a notice of a 
Roman road, which passed at or near Brixton Causeway. 

It has been surmised by many eminent antiquaries that the 
Britons had public roads from one end of the island to the 
other, long before the arrival of the Romans. This opinion is 
adopted by Mr. Leman, a gentleman, who, with Dr. Bennett, late 
Bishop of Cloyne, has paid particular attention to the ancient 
roads in this kingdom, and who considers the Watling-street 
as a British-road, adopted by the Romans. That these people 
made, or improved at least, four principal roads is beyond a 
doubt ; and their names are recognised in the laws of Edward 
the Confessor, which speak of the. Watling-street, the Foss, 
the Icnild, and Ermine streets.^ Which of these is the most 
ancient, has been made a question ; but it seems natural to sup- 
pose it should be the Watling, as taking its rise from the part 
of the coast which was first resorted to by that people. Stuke- 
ley considers the Ermine-street as entitled to precedence. An 
argument against this may perhaps be drawn (says Mr. Bray) 
from ^e nature of the country through which a considerable part 
of it passes, which was undoubtedly at that time an impervious 
wood, covering in some parts a deep and stubborn soil of 
clay; and which would, therefore, probably be made when 
the country being subdued they had more leisure to undertake 
so difficult a work. Respecting its course antiquaries difier 
considerably: Higden describes it as commencing at St. D|i- 
vid*s and ending at Southampton.b Gale, that it went from 
the last place by Henley (Gale's Calleva) to London, c Stuke- 
ley makes it begin at Newhaven, Sussex, bv Shombridge, 
to East Grinstead, thence by Stanstead, Croydon, Streatham, 
by Lambeth ferry to London. Later discoveries have proved 
that this eminent antiquary was right in supposing that there 
was a road from Newham by or near East Grinstead, but he 
was wrong in making it enter Surrey at Stanstead ; it came by 
Godstone, and joined the Stane-street about Wood-cote or 
Croydon ; from thence it continued by Streatham, which Mr. 
Manning conceives obtained its name from its contiguity to the 
Stane-street, until it entered this parish about Brixton-hill, and 



* Hor»lej's Brit. Ronuuuu ^ Polychroaicon^ Gale's XV. Script, 

c Leluid'tltin.vi. 106. 



424 ST. MATTHEW*S DISTRICT. 

continuing its route almost in a direct line northward, crossing 
Kennington- common to Newington, and there was joined by 
the Watling-street ; the two roads thus united, divided, one 
branch going to Southwark, where the river was crossed to 
Dowgate, and not Belingate as Mr. Bray represents; the other 
went over St. George's fields, crossing the river at Stangate in 
Lambeth. 



District of St, Luke, or Norwood District. 

There are few objects worthy notice in this portion of the 
parish of Lambeth. Formerly the major part was common 
woodland ; this has been grubbed up, and neat commodious villa 
residences built thereon. Norwood can boast many pleasing 
prospects of the immense metropolis and surrounding country, 
especially from the Windmill on the summit of the hill. 

The name is contracted from North Wood, from its being situ- 
ated north of the town or borough of Croydon. This district, 
which about three centuries ago was covered with wood, in the 
time of Cromwell's usurpation was surveyed, and found to contain 
830 acres of land ; but it was discovered that such havoc had 
been made in the wood, that it contained 9,200 oaken pollards, 
and only 80 timber trees. 

The boundary of this district, as officially described, is as 
follows : 

Commencing at a small water-course, and a parish post 
about ten feet from Tulse-hill Upper-road, the boundary line 
passes eastward along the south side of the said road, until it 
crosses Tulse-hill Lower-road, thence it continues northward 
about one hundred yards on the side of the said road, and then 
makes a square angle east to the north -west corner of Page'a 
fields, and continues nearly in the same direction along the 
hedge on the north side of those fields to the water-course and 
bridge which crosses Norwood-lane ; thence turning to the 
south, along the east side of Norwood-lane, to a parish mark, 
it takes a south-east direction along the ruins of an old hedge- 
raw, where there are several parish marks ; then turning nearly 
square to the east, it passes along to the ruins of another old 
hedge-row in a curved line to its junction with the water- 
course running from the vicinity of the House of Industry, 
which continues nearly in the same direction to its junction 
with another water-course running from Hall-lane ; thence, 
making an acAte angle to the south, the boundary line passes 
along the last-mentioned water- course to Hall-lane, and along 
the east side thereof to a LP post at the corner of Hall-^een; 



tT. IfUKl's DISTRICT. 425 

thence it makes an obtuse angle south-east, and proceeds along 
an old hedge-row, crossing the parish hiehway leading to Dul- 
wich, to a LP post on the south-east side thereof, thence fol- 
lowing the hedge on the east side of Beaulieu-road, to a LP 
post at the spot from whence the road diverges from the said 
nedge, and continuing along an old hedge, and passing several 
parish posts up to the Vicar*s Oak ; thence it makes an acute 
angle, and passes along the north side of the Vicar's Oak-road, 
all the way to the corner of Elder-road, where it crosses Vicar*8 
Oak-road to the south side thereof, and where there are 
several parish marks ; and thence, making a square anele, it 
passes along the south side of the Vicar's Oak-road and 
Streatham-lane to the comer of Streatham-common, thence it. 
re-crosses the same road to the north side thereof, where there 
is a LP post, whence it turns nearly square to the westward, 
and passes along an old hedge to a LP post near a house be- 
longing to ^ Penoyer, Esq. from which place the boundary 

line turns square to the north, and passes along a hedge-row 
through three fields to a LP post ; thence making rather an 
acute angle, it passes eastward along a hedge-row to the 
comer of a field in the parish of Streatham, thence turning 
northward it follows an old hedge-row by an irregular line to 
Leigham-lane, and, crossing the same, continues alone the said 
hedge-row, in the same direction, to an obtuse angle formed by 
the same, thence in a north-east direction along the said hedge 
until it turns to the north-west, whence it continues to follow 
the said hedge to the parish mark in the small water-course aboiit 
ten feet from Tulse-hill Upper-road, as before -mentioned. 

Norwood has been celebrated for being the haunt of Gypsies. 
It is in the remembrance of many, when regular encampments 
used to be formed on the common, and a few may yet be found 
straggling about the neighbourhood. In Pepys' Diary, before 
quoted, is the following entry : 

** Aug. 11. 1668. This afternoon my wife and Mercer, and 
Deb. went with Pelling to see the gypsies at Lambeth, and 
have their fortunes told; but what they did, I did not en- 
quire." » 

Some observations on the history of this singular race of 
people may be interesting at this part of the work; any 
attempt, however, at a regmar history of them would be equally 
ditficuit and nugatory. 

It has long been supposed that these vagrant tribes^ called 



B Diarj, vol. ii. p. S53. 

Si 



4fi6 ST. LUKK*S DISTRlCt/ 

on the Continent Cingari, Zingari, and Chingali, Were a^ 
eastern origin. The former name has been supposed a cor* 
ruption of Egfptian, and some learned persons have judged if 
not improbable that their language might be traced to the 
Coptic. Ludolfus, in his History of Ethiopia, makes mention 
incidentally of the '' Cingari vel Errones Nubian!/' and gives a 
specimen of words which he had collected from these people in 
his travels, with a view of determining their origin. He dis- 
cusses the opinions of various writers concerning them, but 
forms no precise one of his own. 

It appears from the observations of Sir Joseph Banks and 
Mr. Marsden, that there is a great similaritv in the language 
of the English gypsies to that spoken by tne Zin^ari of the 
east ; and from the specimens of the vocabulaiy prmted, they 
are no doubt of the same origin. Polydore Vergil accounts 
them originally Sjrrians, Philip Bergoinas derives them from 
Chaldea, Feneas Silvius from some part of Tartary, BeUonius 
from Wallachia and Bulgaria, and Aventinus from the confines 
of Hungary. 

When this singular race first appeared in Europe they de- 
clared that they were driven from Egypt by the Turkk 
Munster, in his Geography, lib. iii. c. 5. and Murray in his 
excellent Abridgement of the History of France, say that they 
first appeared in Germany about the year 1417, living like a 
race of vagabonds without religion or laws, their faces dark- 
ened, speaking a gibberish of their own, practising secret theft 
and - fortune-telling, and that they were called Tartars and 
Zegins. In the course of a few years they sained such a num- 
ber of idle proselytes who imitated their language and. com- 
Elexion, and betook themselves to the same arts of chiromancy, 
egging, and pilfering, that they became troublesome and for- 
midable to most of the states of Europe ; hence they were ex- 
pelled France in the year 1560, and from Spain in the 1591 ; 
and the government of England took the alarm much earlier, 
for in 1530 they are described by the Statute 22 Henry 'VIU. 
c. 10. *< as outlandish people calling themselves Egyptians, 
using no crafl or feat of merchandize, who have come into this 
realm, and gone from shire to shire, and place to place, in 
great company, and iised great subtle and crafty means to de- 
ceive the people, bearing them in hand that they by palmistiy 
could tell men's and women's fortunes, and so many times by 
craft and subtlety have deceived the people of their mone3% and 
also have committed many heinous felonies and robberies.** 
Wherefore they are directed to avoid the realm, and not to re- 
turn under pain of imprisonment, and forfeiture of all goods 
and chattels, and it was enacted that upon their trials for any 



ST. Luke's district. 487 

felony which they may have committed, that they shall not be 
len titled to. a jury de Medietate Linguae. 

In the British Museum is a curious original letter* respect- 
ing gipsies. It is among the Cotton MSS.b 

" After my right hartie commendations. Whereas, the 
King's Maiestie, about a twelfraoneth past, gave a pardonne to 
a company of lewde [ignorant, unlearned] pcrsonnes within 
this realme, calling ihemselves Gipcyans, for a most shamfull and 
^ detestable murder commytted amongs them, with a speceall pro- 
viso inserted by their owne consents, that onles they shula all 
avoyde this his Grace's realme, by a certeyn daye, long sythens 
expired, yt shuld be lawfull to all his Grace's oifycers to hang 
them in all places of his realme, where they myght be appre- 
hended, without any further examynacion or tryal afler forme 
• of the lawe, as in their letter patents of the said pardon is ex- 
pressed. His Grace hering tell that they doo yet lynger here 
within his realme, not avoyding the same, according to his com- 
maundement and their owne promes, and that albeet his 
poore subjected be dayly spoyled, robbed, and deceyved by 
them, yet his Highnes' officers and Ministres lytle regarding 
their dieuties towards his Majesty e, do permyt them to lynger 
and loyter in all partys, and to exercise all their falfihods, fe- 
lonyes, and treasons unpunished, bathe commaunded me to sig* 
nifye unto yooe, and the Shires next adioynyng, whether any of 
the sayd personnes calling themselfes Egipcyans, or that hathe 
heretofore called themselfes Egipcyans, snail fortune to enter 
or travayle in the same. And in case youe shall here or knowe 
of any suche, be they men or women, that ye shalLcompell them 
to depart to the next porte of the See to the place where they 
shallbe taken, and eyther wythout delaye uppon the first wynde 
that may conveye them into any porte of beyond the Sees, to 
take shipping and to passe in to owtward portyes, or if they shall 
in any wise breke that commaundement, without any tract [stayy 
hesitation] to see them executed according to the King's High- 
nes sayd Lettres patents remaynyng of Recorde in his Chaun- 
cery, which with these, shallbe your discharge in that behaulf ; 
not fay ling t'accomplishe the tenor hereof with all effect and 
diligence, without sparing uppon any Commyssion, Licence, or 
Placarde that they nmy shewe or, afedge for themselfes to the 
contrary, as ye tend&r his Grace's pleasor, which also ys, that 
youe shall ^ve notyce to all the Justices of Peax in that Countye 
where youe resyde, and the Shires adjoynant, that they may ac- 

* This letter has been pr'ioted in Mr. Ellis's rduable eonection of original 
Letters illustrative of English History, a work irhich reflects great eredit on ita 
learned editor. ^ Titus B. i. 407. 



428 ST. LUKB*& DISTRICt. 

eomplishe the tenor hereof accordingly. Thus fare ye hertefy 
wel ; From the Neate the vth day of December the xxixth yer 
ef his Maties most noble Regne. 

Yor louyng fireend. 




To my verve good Lorde mv Lorde of Chestre, 
Fresident of the Marches of Wales. 
By statute 1 and 2 Phil, and Mary, c. 4 ; and 5 Elis. c. 20, 
it was enacted that if any such persons were brought into this 
kingdom the importer was to forfeit 100/. and if the Egyptians 
themselves remained one month in this kingdom, or if any per- 
son being fourteen years old, whether natural born subject or 
stranger, which had been seen or found in the fellowship of 
such £gvptians, or which had disguised him or herself, should 
remain m the same one roontli at one or several timea^ it was 
made felony without benefit of clergy ; and Sir Matthew Hale 
informs us that atone of the Suffolk Assizes, no less than 13 
gipsies were executed upon these statutes a few years before 
the Restoration. Holinshed gives the following account of 
their manners and habits in his time. " It is not vet full three 
score years since this trade began, but how it has prospered 
since that time it is easy to judge, for they are now supposed, of 
one sex or another, to amount to above ten thousand persons, 
as I have heard it reported. Moreover, in counterfeiting the 
Egyptain rogues they have devised a language amons umn- 
selves, which tliey name canting; but other pedlars, rrench« 
a speech composed thirty years since of English and a great 
number of odd words of their own devising without all order 
or reason, and yet such is it as none but themselves are able to 
understand, the first deviser though was hanged by the neck, 
a just reward no doubt for his deserts, and a common end of all 
that profession.*** Of late years some attempts have been 
made to reduce the numbers, and to civilize the habits of this 
useless race. In pursuance of this purpose, a society of gen- 
tlemen in the year 1816 made all the preliminary enqpries re- 
quisite to a proper understanding of the subject, a series of 
questions were proposed to competent persons, in the different 
counties of England and Scotland, and answers were received 

* HoUnihed*! Description of Eoglaad, p. 183. London, 1696. 



ST. LUKB*8 DIITRICT. 429 

from whicli it appeared that ** All gipsies suppose that the first 
of them came from Egypt, that tne gan^ m different towns 
have not any regular connexion or orgamzation. More than 
half of their number follow no business. When among 
strangers they elude enouiries respecUng their peculiar lan- 
guage, calling it gibberish ; do not know any person that can 
write it, or of any written specimen of it. Their religion sel- 
dom goes beyond repeating the Lord's Praytr. They marry 
for the most part by pledgme to each other without any cere- 
mony. Not one in a thousand can read. Some go into lodg- 
ings in London during the winter; but it is ciuculated that 
three fourths of them live out of doors in the winter as in 
summer.'* • 

In this neighbourhood resided Margaret Finch, Queen of the 
Qypsies* This remarkable person lived to the ase of 109 years. 
After travelling over various parts of the kingdom during the 
greater part of a century, she settled at Norwood ; whither her 
great age, and the fame of her fortune-telling, attracted nume- 
rous visitors. From a habit of sitting on the ground with her 
ehin resting on her knees, the sinews at length oecame so con- 
tracted that she could not rise from that posture ; after her 
death they were obliged to enclose her body in a deep square 
box. She was buried in Beckenham Church-yard, Oct. 24, 
1740. Her funeral was attended by two mourning coaches. A 
sermon was preached upon the occasion, and a great concourse 
0f people attended the ceremony. Her picture adorned the 
sign post of a house of public entertainment in Norwood, called 
the Gipsy House. In an adjoining cottage lived, when Mr. 
I^sons wrote in 1800, an old woman, grancUdaughter of Queen 
Margaret, who inherits her title. She is niece of Queen Bridget, 
who was buried at Dulwich in 1768. 

'< Her goods a basket, the old hay her bed ; 
She strolls, and telling fortunes gains her bread ; 
Farthings, and some small monies are her fees ; 
Yet she interprets all your dreams for these."^ 

The most important object in this district is the ch^rch» 
which is erectea within the angle formed by two roads, and 
from being erected on a high situation has a pleasing appear- 
ance on the ai^oach on London. 

* Geut Mag. vol. IxxEvii. p. 606. ^ Dr^den't JuveiuJ, S«tirt vi. 



xa DISTRICT. 



St. Ldxi's Chdrch. 



c 






This edifice was commenced in the latter part of the year 
1822; but owiag to the alteratioiu it wb> found necesaaryto 
nuke, for the accommodation of a larger congregation Uian 
was at first contemplated, it waa not consecrated until tbe 
last year. The ceremony was performed by the Lord Bishop 
of Wmchester on July 15, 1625, and the church was opened on 
the succeeding Sunday by the Rev. A. Gibson, A. M. the Mi- 
nister. 

It is a large and substantial building of brick, with stone 
dressings. The plan is in form similar to the general ar- 
rangement of new churches, being a parallelogram having ■ 
tower and the principal entrances at the west end, and a 
subordinate staircase and entrance porch attached to the east- 
ern front. It is erected from tbe designs of Mr. Bedford, of 
Camberwell, the same gentleman who was the architect of Sl 
John's Church in this parish, which has been already described 
in page 290. The west front !s wholly occupied byahezastrl* 
portico of the Corinthian order raised upon steps. The columns 
are fluted, and in point of detail differ materially from the speci- 
mens of the same order which We have been in the habit of see- 
ing in the buildings erected after the Italian school. What- 
ever might have been the defects of the style of building which 
in the present day has given place to the elegant and less 
formal introducdons of Grecian art, the architect of the. pre- 
sent building has not made the most felicitous choice in the 
peculiar example of the Corinthian order that he has selected 
u this instance. The capital is formed onl^ of a siiigle row of 
leaves, from which rise the volutes and caulicols ; the flower in 
the abacus being a honeysuckle. So much of the ornament 
which we have neen accustomed to witness in the capitals ot 
this order being denuded, the columns appear to an unpractised 
eye more to resemble the Ionic ; the bases, nowever, are more ^i- 
propriate to the order than the favourite attic base of tbe Italian 



•t. I.VKt*S DUTRIOt. 4S1 

•dioo]> to often made use of in modern buildings in which 
we have seen good taste in many instances given way to formalitf; 
The entablature is sadly deficient in embellishment ; the egga 
and anchors, the modillions, with their accompanying panels, are 
all omitted, and only a bare arcliitrave* frieze, and comicey 
remains ; the architect may plead his limited means as an ex« 
cuse for the liberties which have been taken with the detail ; 
but the same reason should have prevented the adoption of the 
Corinthian order when three others existed, in each of whichy 
plainness in decoration would be perfectly compatable with thS 
cheapest, as the most expensive building. The whole is crowned 
with a pediment. Withm the portico are five entrances in the 
style of St. John*s Church, the only difference being in the 
headways, which are slightly arched ; above the central doorway 
is a window lighting the belfry. The tower rises from behind 
the portico in three stories above the roof of the Church ; the 
first is rusticated, and contains in each of its faces a circular aper- 
ture for a dial. The second story consists of two fluted Doric co- 
lumns in each face, the intervals between them being filled in 
with weather boarding, ,with ants at the angles, sustaining an 
entablature and cornice, the frieze omamanted with a chap- 
let of myrtle above each column. Above this story the tower 
is diminished, and forms a low square pedestal, with a long 
panel enriched with foliage upon each side, forming the base of 
an octagonal tower, having an opening in each of the faces^ 
and surrounded with a peristyle of eignt columns attached to 
the several angles of the turret ; the capitals are bell-shaped» 
and, almost without ornament, do not belong to any of the esta- 
blished orders; the entablature is plain; the cornice is set 
round with Grecian tiles. A pyramidal roof ending in a square 
pedestal, on which is placed a capital of similar form to those of 
the peristyle, and supporting in its turn a stone ball and cross, 
forms the finish to the elevation. The steeple and portico are, 
with very slight exceptions, copies of those appertaining to 
Trinity Church, Newington. In the present edifice, as well as 
that Church, a Doric steeple is raised over a Corinthian portico^ 
in defiance of the established rule, which forbids an heavier order 
to be placed over a lighter one ; an offence not only against the 
rules of art, but the laws of good taste, and which gives to 
the whole building the appearance of having been erected at 
different times from distinct designs, like many Gothic build- 
ings in this country, whose steeples in the Pointed Style have 
been added to Saxon Churches. The north and south sides of 
the Church have each a single series of windows with arched 
heads, bounded with architraves of stone resting upon the 
belt which, divides the building into two Istories. The ar- 
rangement of windows in one tier has a much finer effisct 



4S3 ST* LVKM*B PISTEICf^ 

thsn the commoa iiio4e of diflposing them in two genes, by wlueb 
sn appearance of meanness is given to the building, the natural 
rasult of want of suiEcient dimensions* The angles of the building 
are guarded b^ antse, which are also introduced between the first 
and second wmdows from the west end, marking the division of 
the Church from the vestibules and staircases, which at that 
part of the Church are comprehended within the plan. The 
entablature is continued from the portico as a finish round the 
whole of the Church. The eastern end is made into three 
divisions by antse, and as originally finished had a window 
in the central division; this has since been concealed by 
an attached staircase, an addition to the original desien, 
at the time the enlargements before alluded to were made. 
This elevation, like the western, is formed with a pediment. 
The lower part of the staircaise projection was first intended 
fiir a vestry, and was covered in with a roof fixed just below 
the cill of the central window, until it was subsequently 
deemed necessary to carry it up higher, in order to con* 
tain a staircase, when it was finished as it now appears. The 
exterior has upon the whole a solid and handsome a|^)ear- 
ance. But in the internal arrangements some alterations 
have taken place, which, as is too commonly the case with 
interpolations upon an original design, are not improvements : 
hence, whoever looks at the exterior of this edifice will be 
greatly disappointed on entering it to find that the Church has 
been turned on one side ; where he expects to meet with the 
altar, he will find a gallery ; if he looks for the pulpit, it meets 
his eye in an unusual and awkward situation, rendered stili 
more apparent by its relative situation to the altar. ITie inte- 
rior, in Its ornaments and general form, greatly resembles Su 
John's. The ceiling is similarly pannelled, and antse are applied 
as decorations to the walls of the same order, and in the like situa« 
tions, as in that Church, and it would have resembled it still more 
closely if the original plan had been adhered to; as the Church 
was first finished, it had galleries for the charity children and 
organ at the west end, and no others ; the altar was situated 
as usual against the eastern wall opposite to the entrance^ in 
its appropriate station at the upper end of the building. To 
accommodate a larger congregation, an additional eallery was 
erected across the east end, the central window beinff con* 
Terted into a door, and the western gallery considerably en- 
larged, and made to correspond with its opposite neighbour. 
The altar was placed against the centre of the south wall, and 
the pulpit ana readinff desk in a similar part of the oppp* 
site one ; the organ still retaining its situation in the western 
^lery ; every things therefore, in the Church q>pears out of 



ST. LVKB*S DISTRICT. 4M 

Hs proper place, and ^eatly is it to be regretted that the ap- 
pearance of the intenor has been so much injured, by these 
alterations. The altar is destitute; of all ornament except the 
crimson velvet covering of the table ; the Commandments, &c. 
«re merely inscribed on slabs of marble and affixed to the 
wall above it. The organ is at present merely temporary, it is 
> an old instrument, a description is therefore unnecessary. It is 
difficult to assien a reason tor the church having been originally 
built without the usual proportion of galleries, standing as it 
•does in a neighbourhood which it was well known, at the first 
contemplation of it to be rapidly increasing. It must have 
been evident to every one that the body of the Church alone 
could not afford sufficient accommodation for the inhabi- 
tants of the district. It is more to be regretted that when 
the alterations were determined upon they were not effiscted 
with Jess violence to the ifiternal arrangement. It surely 
would have been far better to have built galleries in the 
usual situations, than to have destroyed so completely the 
uniformity of the design, a question which. In justice to 
the architect, ought to have been taken into consideration, 
before the awkward additions that have been made, were 
decided upon. The floor of the Church is raised upon cata- 
combs, and the church-yard enclosed with an iron railing. A 
trianeular piece of ground in the front of the Church is also 
railed in as a cemetery, and communicates by a flight of stepa 
with the elevated terrace, on which the portico is built. 

The Church plate was presented by the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury. In the tower are two bells. 

The situation of this Church is in a part of the parish so com- 
pletely detached from the populous suburb o£ the great me- 
tropolis, that in defiance of all the buildings which are fast 
rising around it, it will still, to a certain extent, be in the * 
country. On this account it is to be regretted that a Grecian 
Churcn was decided upon for a situation in which it is even 
more out of character than at Brixton. Surely the pointed 
spire of the old English Style of architecture would have far 
better assimilated with the adjacent verdant scenery than the 
present octagon, which to the distant sight gives the idea of anjr 
thing rather than a Church tower. The classical portico and 
the ornamented column are more fitting and appropriate in 
the gay metropolis than in the still and quiet scenes of the 




they give rise. The Source of beauty 
•tectural objects arises solely from the correct appropriatioB of 
tfaem. A Gothic erection in Regent-street coold not leok 
more out of character than a Grecian Church does in the 

Sk 



434 ST. LUKE*S DISTRICT. 

country. What admirer of rural scenery can ever forget the 
village spire, an object of veneration to every poet, to every 
artist, to all who have depicted the beauteous scenes of nature ; 
to such, a pepper-box elevated into a steeple can have no 
charms, it is rather regarded as an unsightly object, rendered 
the Ehore so by the unappropriate situation which has been 
chosen for it. 

The length of this Church is 105 feet, breadth 66 feel. It 
will hold 1,412 persons, of whom 688 can be provided with 
free seats. The architect*s estimate, including incidental ex- 
pences and commission, was 12,387 iL 8$. Sd, and the first con- 
tract was 11,457/. lSs.6d. 

The next object to the Church is the 

House of Industry. 

On the inclosure of the waste land at Norwood, some in- 
telligent officers prevailed on the parish to purchase a piece of 
ground in order to build a house tor the reception of the poor 
children (who were distributed about Norwood among the 

r^or cottagers) ; accordingly at the sale m 1809, they bought 
s^e 3 roods and 13 perches, for 277/. and Mr. Roberts, a 
boat-builder at Lambeth, gave a further piece of land, making 
up the whole about two acres, which being at the required dis- 
tance from London, they proceeded to build a house for the 
pauper children. The whole expense, including the purchaaOv 
was about 4,000/. and in 1812, there were about 200 children 
in the house ; they are learned to read, knit, spin, weave cot- 
ton, and mend their clothes and shoes. The present master 
and mistress are Mr. and Mrs. Gibbs. 

There is a neat chapel of brick in Norwood, for the use of 
the Independents, erected about 1817. It has no galleries or 
organ ; and is capable of holding about 600 persons. The pre- 
sent minister is Mr. Richards. Attached to the chapel is a 
school, erected in 1824, and conducted on the British and 
Foreign school system, in which about 250 of both sexes are 
educated. 

A neat brick building was erected in 1824 for district schools 
for both sexes ; a considerable number of girls and boys are 
^ucated on Dr. Bell's system. It is built on ground alloted 
to Archbishop TenisQu's estate in Lambeth. 

Respecting the Vicar's Oak, the Magna Britannia gives the 
following account : 

^* Here was a great wood, called Norwood, belonging to the 
Archbishop, wherein was anciently a tree, called the Vioar*a 
Oak, where four parishes meet, as it were, in one point. It it 
said to I^ave consisted wholly of oaks, and among them waa one 
that bore miseItoe> which some were so hardy as to cut for 



ST. LUKE*8 DISTRICT. 435 

the gain of selling it to the apothecaries of London, leaving 
a branch to sprout out. But they proved unfortunate after 
it; for one of them fell lame, another lost an eye. At length in 
the year 1678, a certain man, notwithstanding he was warned 
against it, upon account of what others had suflered, adven- 
tured to cut the tree down, and he soon after broke his leg.*' 

The following curious it^ms appear in the parish books : 

1583. When we went our perambulation at Vicar's Oke,^^. s. d. 

in Rogation week 26 

no*. Paid for lOOlb. of Cheese, spent at Vicar's Oke. .080 




14' 




l>r(™n i- Ztrh*d'bv r ABru 



APPENDIX. 



No. I. 

MOMUIIBNTS NOT IN THB ChURCH. 

Mr. Nichols, in bit History of Lambeth, p. 55, Appendix, isyt, <' there 
are two old tpaciout tombf on the south side, and one on the north sid« 
of Leigh's chapels. The formier without any inscription or arms visible, 
are for the families of Sir Georfe Chute, and that of Woodward, and the 
other on the north side, had fbrmerly an inaeriptioo." TIm whole 
of these have disappeared } when the chapel was flUed with pews, these 
curious tombs were broken up, instead of being removed into the churcb* 
yard. I have often considered it a great pity that there is no legislative 
enactment to prevent parish goths fmm destroying the monuments of our 
ancestors for which they paid, and which undoubtedly no person has a 
right to disturb. Fortunately for the antiquary, I have been able 
to present correct engravings of them as they appeared temp, Chas. L 
from a MS. in the British Museum;* the slab mentioned p. 1S3, seems like 
one in the plate opposite, they may have preserved it by placing it on the 
floor of the aile. 

In another part of Nichols's History (p. 163, Appendix,) I And the lbl> 
lowing! '* On the soath side of the east end of Lslgh'a ehapel, standa an 
ancient altar tomb of Sussex marble, enriched with the engraved poitraita 
on brass, of Sir John Leigh and his lady. He Is in complete armour with 
a mantle, whereon is his arms, vis. a cross engrailed, within a border^ 
quartering paly of six. His helmet, lying under his head, hath for its 
crest, on a wreath, a oock headed like a goat. On the lady's mantle are 
three losenges quartered with a chief, charged with a ereseent for differ* 
ence, either Worsley of Lancaster or York. Under them are the 6gurea 
of two of their cUldren^ a son and daughter ; but the plate whereon was 
the inscription is now missing." llie engraving opposite, is copied from a 
drawing in the MS. above quoted. Those who wish to search further re* 
speeting monuments not now in the church, will find a considerable list 
in the Appendix to Mr. Nichols's History of Lambeth. 



No.IL . 

Parish Registers. 

Parish Registers, says Du Cange, commenced /iih the Reformatioa* 
During the Commonwealth the banns of marriage were publislied fu 
towns upon market days, and the marriage ceremony was performed by a 
Justice of the Peace ; but in 16*57 mioikters were again empowered to 

marry.l> 

The Registers of this parish begin with ihe year 1539> and are conti- 
* Among the Additiooal MS. ^ Fosbroke's Ene. of Antiq. p. 499. 



438 APPBMDIX. 

nued to the present timej iu J 786, they were contained in thirteen 
volumes, well preaerved. * 

Extracts Jrom the Churchwarden^ Aecountt relative to the Registers, 

X.$,dm 

1566. Payd for paper, ryall, for the chrittenynge boke - - 6 

— Matthew Allen, by consente of the hole parishe for new 
writing of the olde boke of baptiime, marriage, and burial 6 8 
1574. For ii quere of paper to make a boke > - - > 8 

1 593. Paid to the Curat for writinge our book of christenings, wed- 
dings and burials - • - - - . - 030 

Transcripts from the Registers, 

1569. May 11, John Waters and Isabel Denam, both servants to my 
lorcPs grace of Canterbury, married without Bannes by hvs com- 
mand. 
1653. Nov. 7» Mark Perkins and Margaret Playtie, married by Thomas 

Cooper, iustice of the peace. 
1666. July 6, Buried John Ward, killed with a thunderbolt. 

The parish register records the interment of some remarkaUe charac> 
ters of whom no monumental memorials remain. Among these is I>r. 
Andrew Peme, Dean of Ely, and master of Peter House, Cambridge, who 
it accused of changing his religion four times in twelve years, who was 
buried here May I, 1589) and Simon Forraan^ t be celebrated astrologer, 
and physician, who was, says Lilly, « very Judicious and fortunate fai 
borary questions and sicknesses." Respecting bis death, the same au- 
thor tells the folk>wing curious story : 

** The Sunday night before be died, his wife and he being at supper in 
their garden house, she being pleasant, told him that she had been in* 
formed he could resolve whether roan or wife should die first. Whether 
shall I (quoth she) bury you or no ? Ob IVunco (for so he called her), 
thou wik bury me, but thou wilt sore repent it. Yea, bat bow long first f 
r shall die, said he, ere Thursday night. Monday came, all wms well $ 
Tuesday came, he was not sick ; Wednesdy came, and stUl he was well } 
with which his impertinent wife did taunt him in the teeth. Thursday 
came and dinner was ended, he very well, he went down to the water sld« 
and took a pair of oars, to go to some buildings be was in hand with, In 
Puddle Dock. Being in the middle of the Thames be suddenly fell dwwn, 
saying, an impost, an impost, and so died. A most sad storm of wind lo* 
mediately ensued.^" 

No. III. 

Poor Rate. 

In the parish chest is a very curious book which shews the manner In 
which money was collected for the relief of the poor after the dissolution 
of the religious houses ; and when their tables no longer supplied the ne- 
cessities of the indigent. It may be considered as the introduction of 
those rates so well known by the name of Poor Rates. It it on parch- 
ment, and entitled 



A. D. Lambhitb 

1559, in com. 

Surr. 



A Register Booke of the Benevolence of 
the Parishioners for the releife of the 
Pore made in h9 vi. Regis Edwardi vi^'. 
et in 



Anno D*nl 
dea. Ambrose 
Willowes, 

M. Cv. Lll. 



» Nichols's HUt. of Lambeth Parbb, p. 48. b Lilly's Life> p. 9f , §3. 




A1PPSNDIX. 468 

A Refpister 8ook« frevyne by nuacter Ambrose Wyllei, fetitylman, «lito 
the churche of Lambeihe, wherein it is declared tb« benerolencts o€ 
the paryshoners of Lambethe afforsatd towards the releiffe of tlt« poore 
iiihabitors there ; which be not of poore able to lyve wythoute the cheritje 
of ttte towiiey as hereafter in this booke duothe appere, particularlye 
every man^s name, and what his derosyon is to geve weklye towards the 
sustentacion of yher poore neygbours, according to the Kin^*s ht^bnesi 
prosedynf^s. And also inanoiher place of this boke, the distrebutyn|^ ««eke- 
lye cf the same cherite by the collectors appointed for the tyme beyvii^e. 

My lorde <f Canterbury's lordship,^ 

My lorde of Canterbury's grace. 

My lorde of Wynchester. 

My lorde of Suffrecane.b 

Master Parson for half ayear, I Of. 

My lorde of Carlyll. 

My lady Bridgewater, for a yere 6«. Sd, 

On Sundaye, October 30, there was nothing distributed, bycause that 
master Wylles did extend his cheritye among the poore householders. 

On Sundaye the 6th day of Auguste master Parsone did give his che- 
ret ye to the poor people. 

The sums collected in general were very small, and payable by the w^ek, 
or by the quarter, and diflferent sums given in different years by the saisfe 
persons. In Mr. Denne's Addenda<^ are numerous extracts relative to the 
poor; some of the most curious are printed below : 

£» s, d* 
1644. Collected at several communions for the poor - - % $ 

1 3 9 
In the poor's box - - - - - - - 1110 

i(i97. Received at the geReral fast for the poor - - • 9 19 S 
1665, June 5, It if resolved by the parishioners and inhabitants of tftie 
parish that the assessement for the poor shall be made re- 
cording to the ancient custom and not by a pound rate.^ 
1693, Feb. 19» Received of the Chamber 4>f London for the use 

of the poor 10 OO 

1699, April 3, Received the King's guift from the Chamber of 

London 80 

1700, The same 60 O 

The amount collected for the poor has gradually increased as follows : 
In 1749 the rates were raised by a tax of sixpence in the pound. 

£, s, d. 
1774 on a tax of two shillings, produced ... S363 
1783 on a tax of two shillings and sixpence, produced 5702 



s The persona here enumerated, were resident on My Lord of Cantei bury's 
inaoor. ^ Some Suffragan Bishop. < P. 393. 

^ Vestry Minutes. 



440 



APPENDIX. 



or the immense increase of late yean, the statement printed below for 
the information of the parish will show : 





Numbers 


No. Weekly 


Total Amount off 


Year. 


in the 


Payments to 


Rates in each Year, 




Workhouse. 


Out-door Poor. 


ending at Easier. 


Easter. 






£. «. d. 


1800 


413 


347 


11691 3 6 


1803 


477 


489 


147SI 18 9 


1806 


SOS 


423 


L4976 15 


1809 


603 


494 


17534 11 6 


1812 


758 


399 


8S837 13 


1815 


1003 


867 


33S43 1 10 


1818 


1350 


1867 


47870 3 6 



No. IV. 

Population. 

The following is extracted from official returns made to Parliament of 
tho population of Lambeth Parish, including the Palace : 



Males 

Pemales -------- 

Total 

Inhabited houses ------- 

Huw many families occupied by - - - - 

Houses building 

Ditto uninhabited ------- 

Families chiefly employed in agriculture - - - 

Ditto in trades, manufactures, or handicraft - 

All other families not comprised in the two preceding classes 5,344 

PlagMe. 

Mr. Lysons mentions that in 1603, there were 566 burials, of whieh 
58S were in the last six months. Twelve corses were frequently barled 
in one night, sometimes fourteen. In 1685 there were 683 biuialsi in 
1665, increased to 753 ; the greatest mortality prevailed in tho autUBa 
of each year, as may be seen by the following table : 



1811 


1881 


17,935 


85,798 


23,709 


31,846 


41,644 


57,638 


7,801 


9.894 


10,171 


13,047 


210 


848 


293 


377 


338 


447 


4,491 


6,969 


15,344 


5,631 



1635. 

In July 
August 
September 
October 
November 
December 



61. 
179. 
177. 

68. 

39* 
13. 






1665. 

In July 
August 
September 
October 
November 
December 



85. 

71. 
170. 
194. 
134. 

4S. 



APPENDIX. 441 

No. V. 
Land Tax. 

Tbii pariib ii divided into six divisioiit> uid wai, iD 179l» aMetted as 
follow! I 

Bitbop't Liberty 580 3 4 rated at 1 4 in tbe poand. 

Prince't Liberty 481 4 S 11 

Vaoxball Liberty 309 1 6 8 9 

Manb and Wall Liberty 999 9 6 16 

Lambeth Dean 475 6 8 

Stockwcll Liberty 188 18 6 16 

Annual amonnt of the Land Tax for the whole parish ^8,963 IS 0^ 

Land Tax 1893. 

Quota. Redeeased. Net charge. 

£, s, d, £• s, d, £. i» d, 

Bithop'i Liberty 473 18 6 86 9 4 387 16 9 

Manh and Wall Liberty 971 19 6 515 16 9 455 16 4 

Pri.ice't Liberty 367 5 6 70 8 996 17 6 . 

Stock well Liberty 909 19 81 13 II 190 18 I 

Vauxball Liberty 960 13 9 77 6 7 183 7 9 

Lambeth Dean 498 II 984 9 6 144 1 6 

No. VI. 
Roads. 

Tbe principal roads in the parish of Lambeth, are under tbe superintend- 
. aoce of tbe Ssurrey and Sussex (or Old Surrey), and the New Surrey Trusts. 



No. VII. 
Parish Ofpigxbs. 






There are four Cburehwardens and four Sidesmen. Tbe duty of the 
Utter is to assist the chorehwardent in pretentin|^ to tbe Ordinary sueh 
offenders as are punishable in tbe Court Christian. There are eight 
Overseers of the Poor, In tbe choice of which there is a very good direc- 
tion in an Act passed In 1810, for better assessing and collecting the po<ir 
and other rates, yix. foor are to be chosen at Easter, and four at Michael- 
mas, by which means there are always four in ofllce who have bad an op- 
portunity of seefnfg how the business is conducted. A Sunreyor to assist 
tha Orerteera i« Tabling tbe bouses, Ac There are eight 0»Uectors of 
tbe parish rates who reeeive 4id. in the pound. There are four Surveyors 
•f the highways, and a numerous Sdeet Vestry for the care and manafa- 
meat of the concerns of the poor, and also for the manafement of tiM 
District Cburebet» five Surgeons, a Master and Matron of the Workbouse, 
asMl also of tbe House of Industry, Norwood, four Beadles^ sisAle*eopn«fS« 
and tbUty-three Constables. 

No. VIII. 

fiBREFACTIOMS. 

The principal part of the Benefactions are vested .io the R#ctor and 
Chttfehward«ns for tbe time being. The amount, according to tbe Par- 
liamentary Returns in 1786, were 4980/. 4f. 9tf. netting an Ineome of 
619/. lU. 6<f.b 

• Lyions's Eov. vol. i. p. 998. I> The whole are printsd la Nichols's History. 

3 L 



ADDENDA. ET ERRATA. 



■Im g.i tn m . p.UB,l. 1^' 



ftnm tfac fimilx oF De Clcn 



Hiiben C^R orOrnrih^io tdo'rfUk i «id 



iktba^wC 



rith Wilfiam Iha LotiDucrui into EagWid.>*d fuB^ witb bi^ft hIm 
biHll gf Huling*. Hit mothsr <w duigliMC to Sfr Ednvd Bolrrn, uitfa hb 
of Sir Williim ailt^n, b] Mirgircl dku^Wt and co-heir to Thomu Ewl of 
OrAioDd ; tie wu thtHRin coniln to Queen Aoae Bolejo, whom h* msM bwa 
•^u crnva«d. He Ku the <nnGdea(i*l rrlenl ot the Ewi of Sonaj tnd aceoa- 



,*ftW 




Id dit Hintb put of th* gTMfti<oa»MliUimuihBM«iilh kUMf^b. 
t;^ of MatT, t)w itfMaoMM vdb of Munot. Ja>n t A» <lild Uhj.M, 



Short n* the date ktlotted to thj it^ 1 
Sodden the uU, Ootr, i^nirft^Wti^tubeT ! 
Udf ciHildl.ihK* thj lina, aod^wtlQ wsnh, . 
. .yMDotUn^Bt dune eirijOIi^^WD.M^! . 
ft« ihill I murour u tbe difu) '^wfWf 
Whish(ha'it reot nih^n,n|nrda4ci>M?. , . , . 
Ns, — ihM emTJctioa ilujl n|wi» th« *ig)ii 
And (h'me. ^kuipk Ceuh to Ut«— ^ta die 1 . 
Adoring HiH who took vhit HI h^ gino, ,,.^,. 
ITin [hnin;ht nf rhnii ihill winj; mj hminijnTiwww 
'la^lM tame put of ika gmmi ou >'iiniilw«ink; T*rib«MMMf af Ht. Wtu 
'MlMli>'«ra, whoiKed fi No*. 1761,'igcd A . Aln oT Mm. Mitrr Luv*. 
-WK^ePthii'iAieic, who dteO <-i ^fat. >M»,*e(d'eij Afcaaf WtutoM l«i^ 
''&<i.'idk oTtBc ibMi, *ha <Sed be ;tlM IND, i^ 71. Aha' of Mn. Hra- 
''4HtirlrI«Vii, irife of the ibori, «tn died Jtitf 1, Ifili, ■A*' fk Aha faf 
SMiMna, Jughtnof tfaeihdva W^b«Ai>,be. libo'dMmiyB, iTMiWad 
11. AlHof 14 children *ha died in iheirmfiuof. 'Altottf Smi* )fn(a<nr, 
wife of GrioaGi Bailly, E*S' ud dsoghter of the ebore Wm. aad HiaOAacT 
ytlf^r*, LiA VI I, who died Auf;, 7, ISil, igUl'fifl— ^. 147, L 7, ■ portnit of (be lUr. O. 
QibtOD, bu raccntlji been pohlitbad frpm u aHgiuJ crajroa ilnwiiig is CaHieb 
jL « f HonK — p. 194, unong the iiliubl* StSS. io't^i* librwy, are u Englidi tnu- 
"^ ' ktlcinnfthrdlUa, *iTl«eta ippuratif lata ia' Iha Uth WMity n^ )Mk:caa- 

turj hidieno unOeacribed t and iMiie cioiooa Dtaaacripta •litaafa lwAti|riAt 
IkS Lord Burehte}_p.'l«5,l.1,lheSal(bnMS.i«>t(a«haDf AWMlBwdcVir. 



> W^A* of HaptT KimM, Xarl of Snnj, *ol. i/p/aaa. 



ADQBNPA JIT K^MTA* 



HS 



gbitf^U. A oopjr of Arclfbif hop Etrlttr'* AoUqpiiiM itm told «l Dr. RawIintoiiU /• ^ 
•aie ftir 44/L— -p, S88, ther^ tft iifftC (olI-hoMwt on each «ule of (be briilffli ^ ^i* 
ifUhiQ Um iMt ]reM' tlie UfiUge Um befo lightad by gv— p< 389, 1. 31* o^rly 9p* 
^ Sniart't mjvi|uJU #n Uitt exteAnitfe preqiites bm«>n9iDg V> Metsni. Jolid^iiOt XrZw**. 
ao4 Cu. in«oiif«ctarf rf of emery peper, *ifr p i flBfl i I € > thr e rf en w m th e nft 
o^MMNMkMLeiepiip^i p* 90$f M M^ehe beeii 4mI 'tMi%'Vwoevcni eun ilie iieiUiiic ^. 
ii lyw rinnd — p. 800, 1. 1, Mr PayidfM U now ftole letMf » end \\m coaunepoea, ww * ^ ^ 
hie tetni in e fp«riu4 n)iinner : he he* impioy^d |l|e iol^riMr of ibe iheeire eadi 
encted « portico in Iraqi of the house— p. 3089 1.49f Tl»c new ehut vorke ere S ^ • 
finiebed. The (oiwei ie • greet om#in«n( lo ihe riveri and doet infinite credit lo ^ 
the erchiteoto^p. 904, 1.86, it i« generaJlv uedentood that tbie institiit«oA.vi& S^^ 
be removed to another situation — p. 306, 1. 91 , a bill is now in Parliament to le* O y 
galize the title of the paruh to the Pedlar*s Acre esute — p, 308, 1. i|g, oe the 
a i r e f i X rh e lee p fsiiui^ aiTftiUnji ^e dwul t is b e i n g eneevated — p ?^9. 1 nt. fur 
Inrd Leinsier read Lwwl f fm/irrsr— p.3I3, 1. 12, oo Jan. 5, 1896', about half H^ n 
past four o'clock in the afternoon, a great part of the metropolis was put into 
considerable alarm by the sudden aopearance uf flames at a great height, which 
were soon ascertained to proceed from the well-known maoufactorj of Messrs. 
Walker and Parker, the patent shot manufacturers, on the south tide of the Tbamea 
opposite to Surrey- street. No workmen were in the building, nor was business 
of any sort going im when the fire appeared. After the breaking out uf the fire 
at the top of the bu'.Idiog, the wiud being high, and the ventilation from the bot- 
tom upwards very strong, the fire soon descended from one floor to another, 
until the whole pile, about 140 feet high, was in one great blaze. The flames 
issuing from every aperture on each side uf this great quadrangular structure 
produced a grand and terrific effect. The upper tower, as it was called, fell in 
with a rooet tremendous crash ; and ihe lead in a liquid state fitlliog down, partly 
outwards, in nearly a constant strfam, was so frishiful, and the heat proceeding 
from the manufisctory so intense, that none u^ tee firemen could approach the 
place ; their efforts were therefor! directed to the adjoining premises, and they 
Kirtnnately succeeded in allaying Miy eppMlieosions for the safety of tlie neigh- 
bourhood. A neat lithographic eognnng wet published the next momine by ^ ^ 
10 o'clock ! — p. 394, 1. 49, it is witn regret that I observe the ancient way along •^¥ 
the side of the river from the Mkre pabUe-hovte to the Jolly Sawyers is to be 
stopped up, the row of hoosei palled down, and svarehouses abutting on the 
river erected ; thus closing out au view of Uie ablMT, hall, and houses of Parliap 
nent, a view unequalled for historic or picturesque beauty in the neighbourhood 
of the metropolis. The banks of the Thames are too much crowded at present 
with buildincs, and it is to be regretted that persons possessing splendid revenuea 
should be allowed to infringe on the little pleasures left to the lower and middling 
classes of our fellow citizens, by building on such • delightful walk as the one 
BOW going to be destroyed — p. 343, 1. 96, a watchouse has i«een erected on pert M^ /f 

of tM charch-yard — p 8 4^ , ! ■ fl, H s r e fnr d b n ui n is i n tb n pn a e iss i nB o f 

^*^***'*i gttf**' — r ^^^> '* ^> edjoining the manor house, resided Sir Joseph J A^ 
Ayloffe, hart. V.P. A.S. and F.R.9. He was descended from a Saxon fiunily anci- 
ently aceted at Bocton Aluf near Wye in Kent. He was author of several curiooe / 
aatiquarieB treatises, among which was his account of the pMntings atCowdray^ and 
deecriptioo of the interview between Henry VIII. and Francis I. at the Champ de 
Drap d*Or from an original painting at Windsor. He married Mrs. Marg. Railton, 
widow of Thomas Railton, Esq. by whom he had one son, who died at Trinity 
Hell, Cambridge, aged 91, Dec 19, 1766. Sir Joseph died at his house at Ken- 
aingtoo-laBe, April 19, 1781, aged 79 — p. 367, 1. 89, the aUnsil I have trans- ^^ 
fSrrrad to tlie fine collection of Roman remains discovered on the Surrey side of 
the Themes, in the poescuion of Oeorse Gwilt, Esq. F.S.A —p. 879, 1. 19, the ^ P^ 
Coeapeay intend to rebnild tlie Cumberland tavern on part of the gronnd ; the 
reaiesnder to lie occnpicd by the water works. Two steam-enguici are erectii^ 



444 



ADDENDA Itt BlimArA. 



of 80 hone power euh» which will ferae the wcter to the timiiBit fA Brizton-lifO 

where % piece of ground of several ecrei in extent hat been pufcheaed for the for* 

yV( ^ mation of a reservoir — p. 406, Sinee this portion of the work went to press I have 

- * been Informed that the width of the tread-board is not above four inches ! Let 

wBij person practise the exeroiee of wallnng on the ball of his feet fer ten mi- 

nvtes> and then let him say wliether snch mmishment is fit fer'a wonnn. 8a|^ 

Doae a person nras fer five minntea on the oaM of their feet, what a state of ea- 

baostion will he be in; thns it b with the tread-wheel, a pvobbment more dis- 

- gracefel than way in common use on the continent, and totally unworthy thie 

age of refinement.— From circomstanees, ont which I had no control, the plate 

mentioned at p.408 u omitted, and a correct section of a tnadwheel sicbetitnted. 




INDEX NOMINUM. 



Abbot,Abp.tB3,803,SS9B 



Adam*, t. 60 
£thfllcar, Abp.94S. 
Af^llloii.R.de868 
Aleock, J. ea 
Atlin, D. 154 
AlkD, H. ». 
AllMlij, Dr. 33B 
Allcfn.T. le 
AlplwKi, Abp. StS 
AlMp Il6 

H.1SS 

Altborpe, Vlieount 340 
Alur1o,Abp.S4S ' 
Amleia S63 
Andra«>,J.3M 
Anf\\,t.A\A 
Antcln, Abp.83I,94S 
AntbvDy, B|>. S6s 
Applecitb, A. 334 
Arkciutal], J. Vf. 399 
AnutronK. Sir T. 33S 
Arragoa, C*(h. of 333 
AniDdcl, Eiri of 309 
ArandcU, Ab|>. 33, 301, 

S50 

J. 131 

Aibmcde, E. 134, 394 

Aipinall.J. gO 
AMiey, J.329 

P.3Sfi 

Alton, R, 368 
AtbeUnl, At.p. t» 
Atbtldred, Ahp.S44 
A(hetiDU»,Ahp.«44 
Alkioton.K. 84 
ArBliM36T 
" r, J.3M 



»^ 



13 



AaCBM)ae,St.l89, 343 
Aalion, J.de 14' 
A.fMtt,8uJ.Att 



C.419 

Bmker.T. 140 
Baldwin, Abp. 947,333 
Banf.oft, Abf>.lie,lB3, 

IBG. 189, S&3 
Binki 307 
Btrdolpb, J. 95B 

W. Ldri 3ST 

Barker, R. 151 

W. B. 14B 

Burett, B. 3G1 

G. R. 363 

J. 433 

Dr.J.T. 990,363. 

497 
bntiHi, A. G9, loa 

Baiittr.c. IIS 

Bk7l)e,J. 139 
Bciafof 39C 

uid Co. 987 

W.810 

Bi!eket,Abp.34T 
Bedford 430 

r.!90 

BercheySlrW.SOI 
Beeilone, W-IOS 
Bci>Kou;h 300 
Bdih.ra, T. 17 
IlEnnet, R. 33S 
Brnlham, SirS.SiB 
BerMardini,P.3B0_ 
BiUinjton, J.SST"^ 
Binb, T. 363 
Blu:krord,D. 135 

E, 135 

Blackwrll, J 379 
BUdM, J.-4a3 
Blip;, F. 90' 
Blieke, »r C 3T0 * 
Blich, Admiral 140 
Blitard/W. 1S1 



Blunt, R. 989 
BonihceAbp. 161,948 , 
Bonner, Bp. 303 , 

Boreford, S)rJ.di'37tf 
H^tto<:k, N. 3» 
KoulognF, EarloMI ' ' 
Bourcliier, Abp. 33, IM, 
Bowyer.S. 191 
Boi«1, Ur. 333 
Brndford.Bp. 35 
Bridwardyn, Abp. 949 
Brifbriwke, H.deS64 
Bmylield. J. 490 
BreBnl, F. 1e 364 
Breg-jn, Abp. 944 
Brideei 499 
Briicoe, J. 1. 405 
Brii(rhital<l,Abp. 943 
Briibeloi, Abp. 345 
Britunj', Duke of 931 
Brlii 3 

Bnxikc, 8IrR.9Tl 
Brook*, J. BO ' 
Brongbion, C. 140 

J. llfi, I!3,a49 

Sir W. 347 

Brow*, J. 360 
Brown 937 

B. 415 

Browne, J. «8 ' 

L. »8' , 

BruK*, A. de-l4 - 

Bruniiii«k,J>nl;«or39d 

Brfui, J. 19 

Bunr 940 

Buekenfa uB, H. de 1 

Buckler 833 

H. 93 

Build. H. 414 
|)udrif,E.de981 
BulUyneb, N. la 

gulloek, T.33 
ungrj, J. 9U| ■" \ 



Ba*ca(cr,T.9S9 
Bnrcball, Mc Byrcb 
Burford,J.215 

R. de 3G8 

Barich, H.deSa 
Bdriict, Bp. 103 

and Co. 3U 

Sir EL 59 

Bunlos, Sir J. dc 399 
Burr, J. ir 
Baibell,t. SC3 
Butcher, 1. Ill 

■jKb,J.I& 

Catcot.J. M3' 
Odd«ll,J.1U . 
Cmkhbr, J, 37P 
Cwiqtc.SJnf,iSJi: 



IHBXX MOHIMUM. 

Corbeil, Abp. M7 
Cornel Ij S81 
Cornwillu, Abp. 

Ml.S&S 
OuoEr, W. 6d 
Codionuii, F.Lord 

Cnurthorpe, p. hi 

Courtnn. Abp. 860 

H.Sgl 

Cnwatd; W. GO 

CniK, N. ISI 

CrBiimcr, Abp, ISS.^SI 

Croli, BiiUp 34S 

Crugfsn ind Co. SQG 

CroiDHEll.Uiriliil, 4SS 

Culliani, f. 3ST 
i CuuilxrUiii], Difkf uC 
,. 3S4 



Car[*t(in, Bp. II 

Caron, SJtN. U>^, iliJQiJCuprr, B. $1, 30} ' ' 
3T9,3« " - •■* 

SE?W :- 

Cuttrnsh, 8,414 
Ciim SOI 

Ceuliiotb, Abp. J44 
Ch*laner,R.JB 
Chirlrtl.KinKSuS 
CheiiirGeli), Ctrl 338 
Cl>ifWUy,AL|>.l)tS, IS9, 

903,314, UD 
Chilwcll, J.IUS, I3B 
Cbult.SirU. !]9,3il 
CUa^lc 319 

H,B7 

a*pa 135 
Cluke, C. 339 
Clajlan.i. 95 

Sir W.S61, . . 

Clare, T.I IS, 4|8 



Cmd*: 



\-m 



T.1S3. . 
Hl^uprr, B.fi, 3(^ 
.Cunli, W.3M ; 
Cun.yn,J.l\B, 



Sxniwiah'Uip.im 

Damorle/ R. 95«, u;, 
S69 

DaridfC 300 

Pavi., C 89* 
, J. 8.389 

W.S30 

pawaon, and KaS?! 

Day, R. 4T4 

Peant, Abp. 3S1 

Dcllup, E-MQ 
,peraiii,J.4M 

Pennc, J, %i 

Derby, ft. 17 
., Eariaia 

P«buruu;ll,:L305 



DocrovSSO 

Daplali. E. 1S4 
), Duiidu, Lord 3T8 

UunnSSB 

DuBiiaii. Abp. 3U 
) Dupin, L. E. SOT 



EdKiMBb, T. » 
Edulpbe4IS 

!Le.STI,350 
Ert-.rdt 99S 

E^rlfj, A. -il^ 

EglelReld, R. 95^ 
KMr,dgf,M. IS! : 



r;;!^^'' 



Eltao,J.d<l4| 

Faden, W. If) .". 
Fawfluu^ iU 69, Iff 

r«"ev!*D. SI,3*,*S(, 

F«lEeld>.t.Ahp.!44 ,"■' 
F«rin.i.,T. 134 
FitMinB. Sir J. aSG 
Fipqb,M.4I9 
ntzgarrcil, E. SB9 
Fiiixaler.E. 135 
Ft«tw(H>d, Dr. 30& 
Forniiii, S. 438 
Fortler, J.94, 147 



Ciiburc, Piiu'w Li«ajp(i}4 Dodd, G. 386 



.PDnH,H.138' ' . 
FortctwcFTlM - 

; forth,, B. 18) 



f^olFman, T. SO 
CollingM, Mwrf.S04 
Co1un>a,J.d«IS 
Calt«>D,«.lai 
Caaipt<Hi,Vi*r.!UO 
Caayn, E. ^ 
CooktT.34S 
Cooper, T. 60 



po.. 



-P. 79 



...c.,Jr376, 

Ojly, Dr. G. 3( 
Taper, m Dnx 
>r«,W.d,ir 
)roKb*<U,f«eA(oof« 
incirel, pr. A.C. )96>, 






»-*W 



Ganliner, Bp. 3M 



Xci]e.W.MT 

LxDCHltflSt HaiMlcKh.J. 358 Knn,E.401 
G»l(T.W.tS ' HaynanSn KMD,a60< 
Ccnaar S Ilcaib,B^334 -Kill;, F) 144 
Gtrtiryr, IL9T1 i 'Hcnny,G.14S K*btv, T. f* 
Gibbi 434 Hcnrr III. KlnflAS Kcnp, W.H 
Gibioii, Rr-v. A-430 Hcrlwrt. Lord Mf ' Kcapr. Abp.flM 
Bp.S4,SI,l88 H.^rrii'fr. Ab|<.IU Kentro 

0. 148 Hdielii,,*, J.396 Kil-nrby.Abp. I^M 

Rn.G.n3,44« H.ibe.Bp.3a3 timi.iby,S,t /L»to; 

W. 14< Hip|,i.1ry, 8lrJ.C.4U KiiotI»f»rd J34 

Gilmour SSS ' MuadlyOi.. S04 Kohler, W. F. iS9 

Glki.T;1k,B|>. 11,333 llodf;<ixndSi.nMl Ktaiclf.^lt r 
Glucmk. J. BBS Hudcxui, B, 16 

Qlauop«99 Hue*nh W 3Si.sn .' 

Glorcr, A.4l)l ' HulUnd, Lord 3ltO, 391 Labclye, C 38t 

GloucciUr, Ekcl of tSC, Hanuriu<,Abp.343 Lncy, H. 348 

■ ei.N.TT L»ine,u.seo 



Godii, C«mtMi1i 


Haupff.' BM4, &!, IM 


L»inb<T«,W.8:( ,,. 


Ga(h*n. Sir F. S7S 


H««gh,Bp.S04 


Limbrlib, Abp.944 ■>.- 


J. IW 


Ho.ird 1 II 


La.,., F. S.94 ,-. 


Goldi«c4l6 


Lady K. lie 


Laiifranr, Abp. 946 


G<HDp«tk.b.Itl 

tiooch. Dn.HS 


tiuegiiis, S. 79 


Laiigbam, Abf.S4» .,<' 


Hugh«. R. 361 


Lai>gion,Abp.M7 .1. 


Goodbcbcir, AM.«W 


H<*Di,H.3IB 


Lant, M.eCa .,1 , 


8.91 


J.38S 


Larmour.J. 151 ;. • 


Goodwin 34S 


HuMoD, Abp. W, lis, L.tiB«. H SIG ,. t.. 


Goltlieb. V. S04 ■ 


3U 


Liud.Abp. 183,848 . . 


Gottcr, Udysm 


HfMi.H.U 


L.un«. j" 16 


Goj4.f. T. S»6 




L»-fence. Abp. 848 , 


Gr>nviUe.H«i.B.J» 


Jbl>«Uon,B.«ft 


R. 126. S3B 


Gravel, R. 9M 


Ibbot. M. C SH 


Leakt, J.S04 


GrMi) 39S 


4ntm,E.I33 


Lea»ii, W.443 


GrMbm41S.4l6 


l»btl,Q<>Mn,8S3 


M.448 


Grlllier 310 


l>hp. Abp. 94S 


LeClfroqSOO _. . 


l^riiidil, At>p. JSl 




L«, Abp. 4!3 


GuUdford, R. IM 


Jicnbton, P.37« 


Leg«ite. H.gJS 




J.n>»I.Kh.|;3Se 


Uigh 38,73,181 


G«ynnc,E.3tt 


' T.B9 


SirJ.e77,ai,«f> 


G,., F. 363 


Dr.tH 


B.S?f 






W. 181 




Jtabiy,J.T.846 


Um.r.,S.€0 


Hal., C. 398 




U»,T, 109,ai9,M8 :. 


Hal),T. 19. 


J«lon,R.«> 






Janllnc, Ab>.e4T 


L*virk, s. as -i 


HamaMn<I.W. ilT, 44* John.«n and Co. 368 


Liiifonl, S. 87 : 


H»i>bury. C. I4S 


JoliSa 187 


Liriciui. Abp. MS . . . 


Uaacock,A>:iW 


Jonn, »r F. 3«D 


Living, Abp. S4fi .. 


H. 141,150 


H. «9B 


Lloyd. Bp, 904 .,' 


Hank«,Si«TiSTS 


T. SB3 


C. T. HI 




H.448 


E. B3, 94 


Hardy, H.SSt. S34 


JdMM.K-Bf-o'l* 


Longe, R. Sej 


Hanld J. ne - . 


Jaitui, Abp. 34S 


Lu«, R. H4 ■ ,■ 


jDxon, Atl^ M«. MT 


, Lovelace, R. 238 


HaniMM, S. S3 . . 


BS8 "^ . 


Lulbcr, M.9a3 



HmIi(II,J. 136 
M*Inlxr«,E.4li 

Mkir, A. 141' 
Makhy, inilGaim 
M.nly. Sir R 8S4 
Min-iring,!". W4 
Maple, M.ISe 
Manb, aUS ' 
Mirtyn.A.jGg 
MWlrr34» 
Miry, QuMii.T+.1M' 



Norfolk, Duk«arBt,T*^l^>n><'><C.«IW ' 
Norihanimun, Jlani. vT Purteui, Bo. S6 

340 Pory.J. IS,«3 

Nonoti, R. de 33 Poti.r, Abp. S53 

NoiheloiHi Abp. au Put i inger. G. tiO 



Mai 



Hmubcf , Srr J. I3B, 370 
M>»on, Dr. 90& 
ll»well, 9. 144 ' 

Melliiui.Abp. 343 
Mellon, T.J. 97 
Mepbtin, Abp. 349 

Mills, A. S9 

— i.n 

Milliillr, D. deflSI 
Millon, W. ISI 
MilcbrUonSal 
MDl;neaui,N.976 
Mompmon, J, 61, 104 
MuiitRfue, Vliot. 37S 
Moure, Abp. 185, 9M, 
834- 

— Bp.ms ' 

B.343 

P. 343 ■ 

R*». P. ISS 

H. Lord 980 

— i.se 

Lord 370 

MoritoniBarloinS 
llMliM, Sir6.S99 
Morlev, Hon.C.43T 
Marni,J.93,'l» ^ 
Uorriion, H: ISS 

Morton, 'cftrdiBtl 91, 

IBS,!96,95I 
Mo[te,C't(Md<U34a 
MotIynf,T.98 
Moulin, P. da 89 



Odo,AlM.Mi 

— il^^ 

OITuH, Abp. S«ft 
<)ldcaiTlF,SlrJ.<G9 
Ora^ M no 
OrmoiKl, ItakvMI 

(JtbalJciiun, M. 89 



. Pauony.J. &flS,U9 

Pratt «I0 

Pride,T. LordlS 
Prod|m,itev,E.413 
PriMtM, J. 108 
Pnidui ISS 



OttoW 



^.387 



Radnor, EwlaE MO 
Rlififb,J. 134 
Ramiden, J, 79 
Haranet S. P.JOS , 
RaolinMi, J. IS, S8 
R<il>Fn, iR Dnuii 
Abp. .IS6. 108, Rftct, K. 3:;h 

Rennie, J. S87, 378 
Kejnrll, E.110 
RFya(>ld,Abp.949. 

J. 131 

Ricardo, D. 39B 
Rieb, Abp. S4t 

Sir P. 1.10 

Ricburd IL Kiat 9M 

Abp. 24: 

Ricbards 434 

H. 47 
Richirdion. W lOJ 



Nevbcrry, E, lbs ' 
NewiMi, J. 391 
Nldi(i(H>ii,'W.81S 



' PaM,J.S9,W 
Papj H. U 

PaiD4lfi 
S. 34S ■ 

Parki 

Mrt.341 

Parr, CJJuMa 906. 

P<irr^5irT.3<B " 
P«rMiu, J. l&O . 

W 337 
PHilan M. ISS 
Patcmotter, R. IT 
Pairirk. B9.904 
Pajne. A. 18 

H.438 

Pcarce, Bp. Wfi 

— T.B8 KieQiiii, 1. 
Peckhim, AI>p..lSd, 348 Rlgle.J.^l 

Fclham.J.S^I "■ P- 

Percy, Sir H.isg 

SirR. *S5 

Perkint, J. If S 

H. 438 

Pcmc, Dr. A. 408,438 
Perrr, E.34S 
Peter Ibe Great 839 
Pclan, R. 187 
Fcyntwln, H. 101 
Phclpt, R. S I 
Pbillipi 3B0 

W. SI 

Pillfold, A. 84 
PleEDiulid,Abp.i44 

- Cardinat SOT.SSi 



IS4 
Robert, Afap^S46 
Robert* 414 

R.13S . . 

RoblMon, El 9t 
Rabiooe, R.I1S 
Rock, E. 85 
Rudulph, Al>p.34ff- . 
RoEKPt, P. 16 

Ramaynr,T.73,ns ■ 

Ruoker, J.39I 
Ruote, R. 331 
RuperJSO 
Raie. J da 33 
i7l 



SSI 



Ruihberv,R.17 
RoiibiliacJfil 
RiumII, a. 139 
Rntter4DdC«^44i 





INDSX NOMIKUU. 


449 


Saekrillc, Sir R. B8I 


!:anoii,Abp.3S4 


Walker, Dr. 393 




S«iiibid,SirT.9TS 


— J. 153. 378 






Parker and Co.311 


Br. W.«l 




WaU*r309 


Swicroft, Abp, !5S 




Walli., C. F. 89 


Saville4II 


Tabor, S.39U 


Walthoi«n,T90 




T«lloi.r,W.SI5 ■ 


Walur, Hubert Abp. 11, 


Siundcr, N. S89 


Talbui, K. °38 


!4T 


St,tlw. s. iai 


Tat»ii>i>.Ab|j.343 


'Wirhxm. Abp. 61, IBSf 


Sebri.b.r, P. 1 13 


Tuylur.F.iO 


303, S08, 351,333 


Scott, 183 


Tm roe. A. 83 


Wurnar. A. 89 


R.I0O 


Tesaliiieyer,G.U3 


Watert, J. 43S 


T. S38 


T«nl«o[>,Abp.ll4, 193 


1, R. 87 


Stalf, VI. 144 


353,344 


Web*ler,.sir\V.64 - 


Seeker. Abp. 139,953 
Sercrove, Rw, J. G. 383 


Twdric SS5 


Wrllfn. W. ?)S 


1 Terrkl. Bp.«M 


Wrlih, E S83 


Setr».398 


TbeohRM,rtbp.847 


Weit 330 


Scymonr, F.C.IS3 


T.sa 


T. 897 


Shadbidl W. 390 


Tl,*uJ«ru*.Abp.S43 


Wetlmaraland. Earl 940 


Sbcldon, Abp. 186, SSS 


:, Tliirlbj-e, Bp. III,S33 


Wrihenbed, Abp.84S 


348 


Tbumii, Bp. !04 


Whation.H. 19:1 


SbewtU, E. MS 


Thompmii, R. ri7 


^Vhea^ley.N S3 




ThornicTolt, SFi J.9T9 


■iVhirhcote, Dr.MI 


Skinner, J. 60 


TharlM,J. 1ST 


Whitacra.L.3d3 


SUkP, N. i6 


Tb It flow. Lord 3«9 


Whltaker, E. 963 




TilIoUDii,Abp.SOe, 86S WliiK. .1. S3 


SnithSS 


Todd, H.J. 19« 


Wbi.gift,Ahp.953 


D. m 


ToUore,T.94 


Wilfred. Abp. 944 


M. 119 


Tomkvai, R. S3 


M'ilkl<i<lE9, l»< 


Snaith 310 


Taniull, Bp. S33 


WDIett, R. 3» 



Snow*, R. 84, 60, «7, T4, Totnm, Eari ot 198 

lOT . TradMcanti, 14S, 893 

Sowerbf, J. ISI TrcDcbold, J. STO 

Sf^at, J. d> 4SS Trelenil, H. C. SG6 

ttiaff, H. 391 Turner, T. 99 

SiaAjrd, Abp. I89,SB0 Tjrdnao, A. 130 
Stanlef, Sir J. U9 Tfcn, J. 361 

Mepbym, J. ISC 
6ticand,Ab|>.M6 
Siorace, A.8.rB 
Stratford, Abp. !49 
SlrXton, lie ti67 
Stribley.W.iLlH 

StDartj Li«lyA,3S8 



Sttlrl, 



.391 



Vanlee, J. 3UT 
VardBn,£.B.4l3 
Vain[.J.3»9,8Tl ' 
Viiicr,A.P. 19 
Vyw,W.S7,60 
■■■ r,Abp.SI 



Sudburv, Abp.SSI,'9» 

Suayiirtd'iN'daUB 

surdcii, J. 18 wadtwortb, ca»r 

S>BMMtidl,J.963 WAa,Abp. lU 

ILB4 Wak>l)nE,J. m 

liarm. Sad of 118, SBC, Wdeat, E. 847 

UO Waldlwm, Bp. S3 

Soaai. Ewl940 Wain, CbarlMU Pmw 

SBtb«,W.lU» afssa 



Ess' 

Wlllii,SirR.36D 

Vf. 306 

Wi1mDt,R.J. eT,93>l3S 
Wilson, J,307 
WlncbelKv, Abp. S4> 
WlnchetteV.EiirlotSU 
Winchntre, B. IT 
Willtptey, Abp. 349 
WadelandR. IS 
Woodbam 339, 417 
WoodmpdSS ■ -' 
WuulnouKb J9^ 
U'ordiKorih, Dr.Cill 
Wormall.C.HB 
Worrall,T. ISO 
Wrighl, J. 371 
WuKbelni, Abp. 944 
Wvall 387 
Wjtde, C. 23 



Wvlde, 

Wvllei, A. 439 
WVnl 



^. 



, s 



t ■ 



I N D E X. 



t * 



Brftnmfii U the SUgrapkieal NoHees tf penaiu mcntumedi in fifis wrh, 
wiU hefnmd im&r their retfteetive nameh in the Index " ' 



t. 



Arrieottore 7, aoeitot ,«t«t« pi 

w. :> 

AIoDtlMMiiety built by Sir Notl Cii- 
ron'379 

AlUfm ill Lambeth Church, severpl 
6S. esLtrftcti ^hb church war- 
deof' aecountt mpecting i&« 
destrojfcd at reformation 65. one 
placed temp. Maiy i^ 

Ampftiibeat(e« Astl«y's39^. burnt 
3S9* re-«erected t^ ' de»crip|ipn 
of 331 
. Ancellr Jobn, his cnrieni will 414* 
oetcent of bit property 415 < , 

Apollo Gardents a pliiiiee of enter- 

. tainment 319 

'Apprentices of Londonattack Lam- 
batb Palaca S36^ ringleaderf 
^ea ib. 

Arms removed from the palfce 
S3T. number much exanep- 
atediA. !• 

^•tley» Philip. life of 387. in- 
stances of his intrepidity i^. 
his early eqiiesti^^an perform- 
ances. 38d« elected an a^phi- 
theatre ib^ re-ereeleJ 399* Irit 
^eath'33a built nineteen the- 
atres 896, bis performances 33Q 

Asylum foir female orpli«ns 3364 eitr. 
cellent refutaiUooi' iK . 9elkim 
or thj^ officers ;i37 

Augustine, St. fifui« of 190 



Baj^Uam In primtttve tim^a AS. «#< 
ler comecratvd for 58. eeremo^ 
iMes att(r. Richard Beauchasapi^ 
Earl of Warwick idipped in ibe 
ipnt59 

fiawdk^n^ explained 39 ■ 

Beacon on the tower of Ltmbeth 
Church 54 

Belfries, when. empM iotot neo iA. 
iuscripfions in Launbeth belfry 
5«» 53 

Bells, history of 40.: market, timv 
aunottvced by them 4a. PtoiM 
. ieoBa't tomb bong with il» hour 
of bathins aiinpvnced hy,ik car^ 
ried by watcbmeii j>; .urotti -by 
sheep by way qf amnlac.ik k^ 
tcodiysfd into efciesiaHifidk i«s« 
by Pftiflioas {&« army friyhtmmdl 
^y /the rinfins of sAw usedl «Mf« 
temp<B3t». hmidbelkt^ imc 
M»,croft the urmai of fcki^ Job. 
. 44 firft regular peal aft Crisy* 
landi^. afai b^UiaiCkoykuidtaw 
their namef i^ . nwg urhh^fwi 
xiopes«nd stlter rl«gti&i mug 
by Mwd men 45.. ecfmBoms 
vsad ac baptism of «&. mrio^a 

, prayetB ueed at:Aw. diililmd by 
.iinl spirits 46. verses on tJu paa- 
9^- b#ll t^. holy ball,; eriws»* 
oosly called saini«' MSI fT^:;u^ 
charm against lightning 48. in- 



IVOBX. 



451 



tcrig^lMiM on bellt «. Baglkh 
p«ri iai to 4a mtiflled SO. Mrurk 
wUb A hafDmer» urif^iii of t&. 
. ritivng oU ancientlv a tifn uf 
domifiiuii t^. riii|(iii|r of cbanf et 
ptcttliar to EnfrUiid it. iiiscrip- 
on Lambeth belli 51, 69. «x- 
tractt rrom churcb wardens' books 
relative to 53 

B*4vidererpad307 

Benefactions 441 

BishopVwalk, pretended murder 
at SS5. built on 443 

Boddileys, Budilet, or Bodley» ma- 
norof S81 

Bonner, Bp. bit Ikmim in tbe 
Macttb 308 

Boundaries uf Lambeth parish 3. 
perambulation of very ancirnt 4. 
derived from tbe French i5. en- 
joined hy Queen Bliaabetb t^. 
form of «5« 

Bream, Pulk le, eeiaet Braybrooke, 
fuinf to the Parliament 864. 
exeommanieatcd t^. ordered to 
abjure tbe realm 865. imprisoned 
in Prance i6. T|m» Pope writet 
in Uvuur4if tfr. divorced 866 

Brixton, derivation of <t99. boun- 
dary of the district of ib, Hou«e 
uf Comet ton at 408 chapel 408 

Brixton hundred, «vby so called S 

— -> celebrated for gaaoo 40t 

Brookwell hall 403 

Bruughton, John, the boxer, ac- 
dount of 348 

Brown. Capt. entered the palace for 
the PkrliMMncarianfl 837 

Buildinfta. Hiei^aee of in Lambeth 9 

Burich, Elixabeth de, pedifrte of 
857 



Calrinittic i^apel 846 
Canebe-clotbe explained 35 
CaiMerbufy, Areabisbup of, right 
of electiii)^ the 160. dispute 
between the Suffraipin Bishops 
and monks ib, how settled ib. 
— — Arehbishepa of, ponraits of 
eminent 808—805. list of Abps. 
• •r 848— 8SC biographieal ao- 

tices otib, 
< cathedral, view of 189 



Caaote.the Gr«at, dcsRh of 155. 

partiettUrsoft5* 
' ■ ■ Treiieh, cause of 856. eoune^ 

of disputed s^. opinions respeet-» 

ini: 357» 358 
Capper, Joseph, hit eecentrie life 

8H4 . • , 

Carlisle House, belonged to the See 

of Rochester 338* murder at 38&> 

residents at ib. conveyed to the 

Crown 334. granted to the 8ee> 

of Carlisle t^. view of in 1 647 ib. 

various vicissitudes in its history 

335 
Caron^t almshouses 370 ) 

— — hoose396 
Cavalry, yeomanry, in 1799, 159. 

in 1818 f». 
Ceilings, ornamented, in Lambeth 

paUce chapel 809. the work ot 

Abp. Laud ib, in the po«t room 

814. resemblance of Henry ViJL 

&c« on c5. 
Chalices, several, in each churcb 36.- 

often given as prtients iL leitt 

on hire iik 
Chanipi«ui bill 408 
Cbancfl in churches $6 
Chantriei in Lambeth Chnreh 73, 

74 

Cbapel,epitcopal, Kennington-lane 
383. independent ib. 

—- — in Lambeth palace 808 

Charily school fur l>oys 338. lor 

girlt 344 
Christopher,Sf. brethren of in Lam-. 

beth church 64. extracts from 

churchwardens' hooks relative 

toik 
Churches^ origin of 89. dt rivatlmi 

of the wor4 ib. obliged to bo 

consecrated by the Bishop 30, 

dedicated: to saints ib. 
Church music, Queen EUsabeth 

aitaebed to 71. oqual in htr, 

reign to any In Bnrope ik 
— — street, almabouses 308 

towers used as fortresses 40 

— — wardens' hooks, extracts from 

35—39 
■ y ards, monuments in l39«-v' 

ISO. fairs Md feasts held in. In 

bofiQur of the patron saint 30. 

suppressed 13 Ed.«»|II. it. 
Clock extncta bom ohwchwwK 



453^ 



IflOBX. 



/ 



of inrention of not known ib» 
doitten in IrfinibMh palace 816 
Colmrf Theatre, Royal, view of 

297> orii^in of proposals for 998. 

erection of S99* copy of Ant 

iiig^bt's entertainment at ib de- 
/ •eriptionofSOl 
Coins diseovered at Lanbeib pa- 
lace 930 
Collegiate church at Lambeth, lit- 

tempc to found 1 59* opposed hy 

vbe Pope and dergy ib, deno- 

liibed 168 
Communion*fiible, extracts ffoai 

churchwardens* books relative to 
•68 
Cope, derivation of 35. alluded to 

by Chaucer it, 
Copt-hall .^8. bistorieal account 

of f^. survey of 369 
Correction, house ot 403. descrip- 

tiun of the tread- wheel at 404 
Creek, Vau&hall 379 
Crypt in Lambeth palaee 819 
Cumberland tavern burnt 879 
Cuper*s gardens 309. a place of 

entertainment 310. lines on ib, 
Curtis, Wm. celebrated botanist, 

in the Marsh 304 



Darenty manor of, given in ex* 
obauge for Lambeth 109, 175 

Denmark-hill cbapcl 401 

Derby, Edward Eatl of, his hospi- 
tality 8?6' 

Despard, Colonel, account of 390. 
bis conspiracy and execution sfr. 

D'Bste, Mary, Queen of James IL 
- took refuge in Lambeth ohureb 
74 

Dial, curious, given to Heftrf Vlil. 
830 

Dole, given at the palace gate 986. 
what it consists of 887 

Domesday book 1, 178, 855> 978 

Dulwich-hill 408 



Bartbquake felt at Lambeth 371 
Edward the Black Prince, resided 
at Kennington 3S0. bis monu- 
ment 1^. teals of tb, 
Elizabetb, Queen, ber ridothrodgh 



Siutey 839. «t TLanibttk md 

Greenwich 833. frequent ^kits 

to Abp. Parker 833^ 834» 88&. 

viaHed Abp. Whirgift afteeu 

times 836 
Eton Monicm, ceremonies stnsiUr 

to those observed at Hoc|Ktkio 

156 
Etymology of Lambeth I, 9 
Extent of Lambeth 6. lands lying' 

viaite in 5 



Featley, Dr. attempt ^4a^rder 3^ 

Finch, Marg. Queen of ibe gypsies, 
her funeral 499 

Flora, temple of, a plaee of enter- 
tainment 881. 

Forman, Simon, particolars of bit 
death 43a 

Footi, account of S^-^iS, locked 
up in Lent 57. cunatmoted of 
•ilver ib, ancient Sees for ebri^ 
tening at 58. ceremoniea ob- 
served in consecrating the water 
68 

Furniture, Superstitious^ removal 
of 36. inventory of t^. 



Gallery in Lambeth palaee 900 
Gate-house of Lambeth palaceb* 

most magnificent building of the 

kind 995. the dole distributed 

hereS9« 
Genway, Mr. his survegr of ibe pa- 
rish in 1718, 3 
Goda, Countess, oraanentsbelofiir' 

ing to, found at Lambetb I73» 

marriaiges of 174 
Great dining-room Lambeth p^^ce 

169 
<— hall in Lambetb palace 99a 
Gren or Graine, sheep walk in isUn4 

of, given to convent ^f Rocbeeier 

169 
Guard-chan^MT Lambetb patoc» 

196 
Gwynne, Mfi. Eleaiior, ho n ae of 

395 
Gypsies at Norwood. 4SS. Iilalorieal 

aceoontofA. letter raapectiag 

^87. b%\uU of 

Queen of 489 



lUDMX: 



45^ 



Hftellngtotif eollcfriate eliareli to 
befoandMatlGO. 6t.9tepbeft's 
cb«pel fmlled down ib» coUefti- 
mte church buSlt of wood 161. 
ordered to he pulled down hy 
Urhan III. «fr. 
Hardieanute, death of 155. parti- 

culari of t5. 
Harold, ton of Godwyn, erowns 

hineeUatLanheih 179 
Herelbrd- bouse 845 
Hcrte-clothe, bow used 38 
Hertes, when and where erected 88 
Hif^h-ttreet bnfUl-froond 848. oe- 

hrated |icraont burled In it 
Huketyde, origin of 155. deriira« 
tion of 156. how late obierved 
it, when kept U>. ceremonies 
at ib. extracts from chorchwar- 
dent* books retpeetinir tZr. ntfo- 
• ney bow appropriated 157. when 

declined t^. 
Holland tbapel 891 
Horns tavern 384 
Uoflpital, general l.?kif^in 804. be- 

nefitt of their extent 805 
Hofpitalitf of the ancient nobility 
8S6. decline of» lamented t2r. 
exercised by the Abpt. of Can- 
terbury in an eminent defrree il\ 
Host, consecrated, where kept 85 
Hour-glaitet, one in Lambeth cb. 
66. Denne'ft obsenrations on t^. 
at, St. Helen's, Abingdon ib. Pro- 
fbssur Ward's obterrationi on t^. 
extract from cbureb wardens' 
books respecting ib, preaching 
by, stopped by the Puritans ib, 
used temp. Cromwell ib, most- 
probable opinion respecting 07. 
noticed by Hogarth ib. at Wal- 
tham t&. at St. Alban's Wood- 
street, London, description of i^. 
Howard's chapel, Lambeth chorcb 
79. attracts from ehurehwar- 
dens' books relative to ib, an- 
tient pieoe of sculpture temain- 
login til 



Inflnnaiy, Royal Uni venal, for 

ehiklren98^ 
Isle of Wight pnrahMod of laabeUa 

Countess of Albemarle 967* ex- 

iraordlRary statements respect - 

iiigt».9«8 . 



KettnlngtoUiy etymology of ^9. 
Roman remains 850^ palaee349. 
bistorieal account of 350. mtim^ 
mery at 851. long bam 859 - 

-—i manor of, aeeount of 955. 
royal mansion at ib. Hilrdiea- 
nute died, and Harold crowned 
at ib, gram ed to Sir R. Petor ik 
to Richard de Freemantle 956. 
Edward I. at t^. granted and ^e- 
granred ib. residence of Edwtfrd 
the Black Prince 958. John -of 
Gaunt tales shelter at 959. H«n. 
IV. and VL at ib. leases of 960, 
961. customs of manor 969. 
survey of 858. maypole 384. 
fortlAeations at 355 ■* 

•-•*-' common 883. executions at 
ib. 386. itinerant pivachers 884 

— — district schools 881 

— — church district, boundary of 
376 



Laabethy divided into six disfrlttt 
986 • 

— association school 846 

-i— — bridge, prospectus of the Ih- 
tended 379 -'- 

-^— chapel 338 

— — > ehoreh, dedicated to the Vir- 
gin Mary 30. situation of t^*. roeti- 
tloned in Domesday t^. age of 
the present stri>eture 31. ascribed 
to rarious families ib. inhabi- 
tants compelled to build a tow^r 
to 39. Howard's -chapel in ib. 
eoitvoeations in 83. Legtetlne 
synod held at 84. attacked by 
the Parliamentarians 1643-8 9l» 
84. description of 40. dimen- 
sions of ib. the tower ib, Go- 
thic portal built 55* organ lin- 
proved ib. description of totn- 
riors^. fimt in 56. repafrsbf 
69* communion jdate giren'to 
ib. liiscriptioAS en fh>nc of gdl- 
leries t5. 6a arms in ^t. p«- 
traK of pedlar in 69. altnn in 
418. rood-loft in 70. Howard's 
thapel 79. seats in, evtmtts 
from churchwardens' book f%- 
tpeeUng79,78. sun->dlalon porch 
78. iresiry-room t5. chaHtHba 
in 73, 74. tables of beuefiiotkiiis 
74,- queen of James H. toek 



i54 



IVDBX*. 



•iMhtr ia iih, mononMiUt aoc| 

tonbt in 7&<-*l39 
Lambeth cbatch diBirict 388. 
«^ — - frottud ti» beloo|^i»f ip the 

(•n vtn t At Rttchettcr 161* {lart 

giYen to Ab|>. BiUdwyn to foypd 
' acoUegiattrfaufcbt^* 
.—>- flMiior of 171* granted to 

WAltham Abbey by Kdvard the 

CoRfeuor 17 li bouiidanet of 

it, Dofneidiiy accoaiit -of 178. 

pven to RocbMUr Abbey 1^. 

1^ Odo Bishop of BMOuSt &c. 
V^. rtttort d it. to iU|tD||J«|n- 

lireye for ibt bitbop't UDleNi75. 

given ia eiebanKe to the hb^it, 

market at 11 H, aboliahcd t^. 

sold \of QtommtiX it, featored. 

ik ast for ineloting, aatraota 

from 177» curious claoaa in 178. 

csfeMtoCobiMiiyifCAetiA. eau-. 

tomt of 178 
— — Marsh, a rural retreat 896 
— palacc,Htffmmif ofU Tcpagra- 
pkitml 4 u erifi im y 896. reUfi- 
» ous bout c near 1 8a improved and 
. enlars«ll81>ia8% rooms i« 188.. 
' huikttiiss added byAbpsXhiohele, 
Stafford, Cranmer,&e. 188. libim- 
t<ty in found by Abp. Baaeroft 183, 
•ufilered in tb« Civil Wars it. 
why called Lambeth-bouse ib. 
chapel turned into a daaeiaf- 
i«om t^. Abp. Parker's bones 
ditturbed t^* a prison for the 
royalists 184. near^ rebuilt by 
Juson ib» arobJieetitre of 186. 
motley appearance of t^. vievs 
fromik rooms in tl^ library in 
186. founded by Bancroft t^. 
conditions o« wbleb left to suc- 
oetsort it. 187. vrtn to Dr. 
Wiacoeke by the Hariiaasent 187. 
fivea to Sion CoUe^ ik, granted 
to Cambridge University it. re- 
stored it. number and rarity of 
books t^. 188,443. catidogue of i^. 
^portraits, paiatiugSf and stained 
gUm in 189* registers and ar- 
chives of the See of Canterbury, 
«ewinl9l,19S»l93. library of MS. 
in 190. 194, 1 95, 448. librarians 
19<K Gmmrd'chamttr 196, 198. 
why so called 196. convocation 
in 197* consecration feast in it. 
iu fiilf roof it. Pr€xn€9'€hamtfr 



•craefioliiof ttftcertain I98i hnngl 
witb tapestry it, painted glass 
\viit. Great dmbfg^r9am,9Bne9 
of fMirtniitsin 199^ conviocation 
In 800. Oid <fc-aw uy i ^e m 800. 
Gallrry built by Cardinal Pale 

- f^ t flu» oo1lectio«<»f portraits uC 
primates in 801—805. left by 
aach Abp. fo his sueeessor 805.^ 
arms on atained glam m 806. 
Feiiry, pict u res In 807. ChapHi 
situation of 808. deacriptitm of 
it. despoiled and desecrated 
A Commonwealth 809. elegant 
wainacoting is tk altar-piece 

- it. organ in 810. beautifid. 
painted window in ik rtpaired 
by Laud t^. destroyed in 17tb 
cent . it. interments in 8 1 1 . an- 
tient monument 319. itiscrip- 
tion an tti oommnnion plate 
belonging to it. Poti»r9tmf why 
so denominaiad 8 13. for what' 
purpose erected it. ornamented 
ceiling of 814. antient pulpit ia 
it. Cbritto^faar Clarke oidained 
priest ia 839. Lfttarttf iowrr^* 
description of 814. why so called 
t^ expense of A t abernacie or 
niche in 815. persons oonfine«i 
la dk Lolhirds confined 8ia' 
tba priaan room it. description, 
of 819. Inscriptions on the walls 
it. exterior of tower it. de- 
seriptiaa of 818. Osufrrv, tbeir 
faraane extent and description of 
818. present ones 819* Cryjn, 
description of it. apnrtmems 
la it. Ormt Aalf, destroyed by 
€oL Scott in 1648 880. present 
hall * built by Abp. Jttxon i^. 
arehltectaraof 8S I < description 
oft6. useof hifge'ballstfr. hos- 
pitality of Abp. Cranmer 888J 
af Abp. Parker 888, 984. Gafe- 
Aeasc, descripiioQ of 885. dole 
diatributad 886. room in, used 
as a prison 889. Statlonam' 
company aquatic excursion to 
887. new buildin;(s in 988. 
Farhamf fvavWiwf 889. two an-' 
commonly fine fig-trees in it, 
curioas sum m e r hn us a in At. iw»i 
marluble oeearrencea at :Laflli- 
beth paUoe89l. Syaada at #. 
attacked by tbc rebels itt1381, 




ijrotx. 



455 



' •». Httuy VII/ MUrUined 
at 9^8. viiiu of Henry VIII. 
to il^ Catfaerin* of Amffua 

'. lodgird at ib, |)vmn Maiy fft» 
qoently at i&. <Qucmi Elisa- 
betb'M vititt to 938, U3, «3S« 
Kins Jamet't vMt 9.16. at- 
laeked by the ParliaoMntariaiii 
t^. arms rtaoved from 937. 
ORiered by tho ParttaiiiefitiirUus 
and made a priaon aft. priaoDers 

. copfiaad doriac tbe civil wurt 
838. tiild to T. Sool and M. 

: Hafdy tft. assembly W biabops 
at 839. attaclced in 1780 ib. 
defended by soidiers ik, 840. a* 
sylum for learned foreigners 240. 
determined to be extra-parocbial 
in 1776 841 

Larobetb waterworks 806 

— wells a plaoa of antertain- 

• mem 346 

— •- Wylio^ manor o9f account of 
879 

Land Taa 1791 441. aaseosment 
in 1883 1^. 

L*aien, explained 37 

Lacar bouse in Lambetb Mamb 304 

Leveburst, maimr of, acoount of 
880 

Lilbume, Col. incitts »lw apprcn- 

. ticoa to attack tbe palace 836 

Lollards* tower, erected by Abp. 
Cbicbele 118,814 

— — prison in Lambetb palace 816 

L«Hidoo9 Sotttb, imcrworks S88| 



Leugbboraof b boMc 391 



Mbldstonc, roHcfiato cb«rcb to 

be foondod at I6S 
Martlet*, caplanat io» of 39 
Miry,- Virgin, totdaiy carot of tbe 

pariab68. altarioOk^ 
MaMsolcum, splendid^ la Bihrt«i 

cburebyard 413 
Mooamciiial Uascec aa early iC 

1306 76. Hrict eostuBM o^ 

served on ib. oljects of f real 
' indBcsfr. destmet i e a ofO.^ 
Moaumcntiy scpolebral, I* use a- 

mpng tbe Greeks and Remans 

73* nwat indeai ibrm ik. table 
•' «*. -vilh ■ffcbectfi. In sepvkikval 



. chapda^ *. bral«n kilsM 7«L 

in Lambetb cbureb 75-»189 
Monumealt noiaow in tbe eborch 

437 
Jloorct Praneia, tbe aUnDloger, bis 

residence 348- 
librland, S«f Samnelf aeeouot df 

360 
Mount tea-fardena 33b 

■^ . . - 

Narrow Wall, anetent way 307 
NavC of cburcbes, explanatioii of 
. 90. to wbom bcloiifinf ib. 

atnwed witb ruabea ib, sitoa- 

tion of men and women in c^. of 

Clee eburcb, co. Lincoln stnmcd 

witb grass t^. 
New Jenisakm Temp^ 895 
Nicbolat, St. altar to in Laoabetb 

cbureb 63, 64 
Norfolk booac diOt po a e essuu 

of t^. 
Norwood, derivation 484* distrier^ 

boondaryolA. bauocofgypciea 

4l88 
— bouse of industry 434. Cba- 
• peltl>. diMrkt acboolt a. VIeat's 

oak 435 
f— - obnreb, sUontion ol488 . ^ 
Nursery groundi 380 

f. 

(Hi Cbansa« paper Ineitlng tbo (kp- 

preiitices to rise, stock up at tB6 

Old dmaf Inrtooib Lambeth pnlnec 

809 
Old Halfpenny ilateb995 
Oftbard, Mn Pbilipe 889 
Oriomci, or OrfrajfncBpUiDedJT 
Organs, aeeoimt of 81 ' ■• • 
— -« one in Lambetb cbureb 70. 
account of ib, early onea no- 
ticed t^. one yMk twelvn pair of 
bellows ifr. -fpsbeeallp jMod* in 
ebnrcbeanbont 888»1 Limptoved 
by Bernard' Ob. need by ibe 
'. Saaona ib. fldeen BUaabcth 
fond of t^. abominated by Pu- 
ritans t6. 
Omamenu in Lambeth eburak tn 
be aold, list af 88» 89 



-•s 



'\ 



I 

■ • I 



Parish olllecrt 441 

Park and fevdano of Lambttlt pi« 

iSKe 989 » ■.;.'. i ..A 



N 



iM 



IWDBZ. 



fKrllndcBt at Ltmbetb in 1989 158 
Pedliir^fHiflrait al>a^ Hi LMibcth 
I churektfS. tstcioUlirMBclrarcli^ 

wardens' books reipeetiif; ib. 
. pAiifh notofali|^ to repsir ill. 

prubably a rebiiit tK 
jPediar'-a-acre, tradition netpectini; 

63, 305. posseuort of 309. bill 

to leiralioo title to 449 
Percy, Sir Robert, manor of Ken- 

nin^ton ffranied to 1255 
Tcwtcr, too costly for fenerai uio 
. 37k vessels of bired bytfae yeari^. 
•PUnts, raro, found wHd ia Ltm- 
. b«tb fi. 
^a(e.-frlei*tnuiulactirred at Vaax- 

ballSTI 
Poor-rate, fiarticulart reepcotinir 
. 48^ . 
Population 440 

^ott-rooip, Laiabetb palace SIS 
Potteries 378 

Prtncbkig, uBosnal in parish 
. cbaroes before !6tb oent.^ 
Presence-chamber, Lambetb palace 

198 
Prieat; habit of, remalnins in the 

library of Lambetb palace J 95 
Priestly. in Eni^nd, denominated 

God's knigbte 6h 
Prince's Meadow, leases of 318 
Printing offices of Mr. Applegath 
.814. deacfiptloD of hit ma« 
; ehiaet3l& 
PriiOferteoDfinedat iambetfa dur* 

ins the civil wars 338 mortality 

amongst them ib» 
Pulpits in Lambeth ehttvcb 66, 67« 
'j68. ^o^ir*glass affiled to tfr. 
— ^ situatioa of S98 



Reotora, list of 14—38 

Rectory,adtQwtonof II. belonged 
to Cauatati Goda i^. lubieqtieoi 

.: patroos of it. ecclesiaetioarsi- 

-.'luatiooofa^^ . . 

Reetory-house 339 

Refoga-for the destitute 311. 
; Remitters, parish . 437.. axtiacts 
from 438 

Remaikable orcnrrences in Lam- 
beth palace 331 

Rvfe'dosaet isplained ii8 

Richard, Prince, resided Mt Kcn- 



•ttiiiglBa 8oO..' teooMMhr befiNW 
.'.381 . . 

Aing • gold^ diioovafyMitf 80T 
RioU ai Lrfunhetfa m 1736 agaiott 

tbelriehlC^ . 
Roads 441 
Reman toads 483 • 
Rood* eaplanation of 69. Royal 

arma saccesnors to the 70 
Rood-loft aiiaattoB of 69. ooe at 

Lambct htjr. eatracta from churcb- 
. wandens' books recpeeting 70. 

taken down ih 
Rother, antient vessel disoovered 
. near the 896 
Royal Oak tavern 379 



Saw-millt 889 

Scarletts, manolr of, 881*-383 
Sconse ligbtSt meaiiiiig of 35 
Seats in churches, few fixed ones 
. prior to Reformation 73. «a* 

tracts from churcbwardejis' 

hor>ka respecting those in Laoa* 

betbt^. 73 
Sepulchre, Holy,repre6ente«l in tha 

church on Good Friday 38. the 
. host placed in it 39* uken out 

the following morning iii, how 
- per£urmed at Rouen tb. 
Shot, nanufaciary for patent 313, 

443 
Shrine, in Lambeth palace chapel 

908 
^r» eltrieal appeUatian of 64. ori« 

gin of ib. given by courte^i^. 

crept into acts of parliament 65; 

used in derision ib. 
Situation of L»ambeth 8 
Soil of Lambeth 7* 
Sautih UasbetiiftML .Tradescani*a 

house and maseeum at 143. viai- 

tors tof^. Dr. Duearel resided at 

'394. Caronbouae 896. chapel 

397. vinegardistjlleiy 396 
Spring gardens, histoiy of 38D^ 

Pepys* notice of 381. 
Springs, ogUneral^ in Lambeth 7 
SptyluieU, holy water, eaplaiijed 33 
Stangate, the alta of.a Roman road 

383» opiaiooa respecting 384 
-*-~ tarasination of Roman road 

at8 
Stationers, Oanpany o^ annoal 

aquaitic avcunioa ta LaaDbatb 

palace 887. 



iin>iz. 



457 



St. GMfrt't Fieldt, lUtean lUllon 

inSSi. arebery practiied in 965. 

Roman remains at 338 
St. John's district, boondarjof 985. 

obienrmtions on its former state 

S84 
church, erection of S90. archi- 
tectural description of 391. 

length S93. expense S94 

churchyard, tombstones in 294 

— ^ district schools 295. 

St. Luke's district, boundary of 

424. church, erection of 430. 

architectural description of ib, 
St. Mark's district, boundary of 

376 
——church 386. description of 

387. organ 389. dimensions 

390. monuments t&. 
St. Mary's district 322 
i>t. Matthew's district, boundaries 

of 399. church, its erection 409. 

architectural description of t^. 

awkward situation 413 

— churchyard, mausoleum in 
413. architectural description 
ofib. 

Stock well, derivation of 392. cha- 
pel ib, school ib, 

— manor of, descent of 972 — 
879. boundaries of 973. padi* 
free of the Earls of Albermarle 
and Devon 274 

•— — common 4 1 4. Anf til's bouse 

>*• ebost, account of 4 1 6—42 1 . 

Lord Croasweirs bouse at 421. 

manor boose 499. botanic*ear- 

423 
Stoue, Coade's manufactory of ar- 

tiacial 306 
Stoup, holy water, what it is 87. 

one at Walberswyck ib. 
St. Pktrick, Beneirolent Society 

of 318 
Streamers, when and how used 38 
Suffragan bbhops, opposed by tba 

monks 160 
Sun-dial, ^ven by Dr. Featley 73 
Sundridfe, Ide-hiil chapel at, found- 
ed by Bp. Porteus 97. Cavourlte 

residence of bis i^. 
Synods at Lambeth palace 93 1 . 



Tally's fair 349 



Tenfk of Flora, a place of aattr- 
tainment 39 1 

lliamesy f raat fniat on 159 

Three mariners^ anptnt tavem 
367. visited by Charles IL 868 

Tokens, traders^ 304» 895. acpouAt 
of 304 

Tortoise, ag^d, at Lattbtlb 190< 

Treadwheel at Briiton, deseiripticm 
of 404. observations o» tbe use 
uf 405, 444. disgraceful practice 
of placing females on 406. anec- 
dotes of ib. opinion of foreigners 
respecting 407 

Trinity Asylum 414 

Tulse-bill 403 

Tyers, Jonathan, anecdotes of 361, 
362 



Vauxhall, Guy Faux's residence at 
refuted 370. plate glass manu- 
factured at 371. earthquake ib. 

Roman camp at 367. pottery 

found there ib, 

— bridge, projected 378. its 
progress ib. expence 379 

-—- — chapel 355 

— — gardens, historical account of 
359 — 863. present appearance 
of 864— 367. paintings In 365. 
Roman camp neac 367. 

— — manor of, account of 5263— 
979. the account of Alan Mar- 
tvn. Reeve of 269* pedigree of 
d Armorie t^. granted to the 
BUck Prince 971- granted to 
tbe support of a chapel at Can- 
terbury ib. 

Verulam chapel 348 

Vestry-ball 341 

— ^ Lambeth palace 906 

— room 73 

Victuallers*, Kcensed school 888 
Vine, imroductMMi and coltivatioii 

of 294 
Vioegar-yardy at .Gupeir's gardens 

311 
Upgrove, manor of, 981—983 



Wttcot «ktati>, ptrtkttliii'M^tect- 

lng347 
Waterioo-bridge, account of 986, 
443. expenses of 987. dimensions 

Qao 



3 If 



■". ;•