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Full text of "The history and antiquities of the parish of Darlington, in the bishoprick"

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THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES 



PARISH OF DARLINGTON. 



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^,<jiUhi)B<m7j^ coLieoifi^ei 



ofB'uLckweU MaM, Esq: J. F. F. S.A. j 



THE 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES 



THE PARISH OF 



DARLINGTON, 



IN THE BISHOPRICK. 



list. I^Iton Bset tLongsttaf e, iSsti).; JF. ^.H. 



" Eoqoire, I pray thee, of the former age, and prepare thyself to the search of their 
fathers: for we are of yesterday, and know nothing. — Shall not they teach thee, and tell 
thee, and utter words oot of their heart."— (/o6, ?iii.) 




CABLINGTON ; 

THE PROPRIETORS OF THE DARLINGTON AND STOCKTON TIMES. 

LONDON : 

J. HENRY PARKER. 377, STRAND ; AND J. B. NICHOLS AND SON, 

25, PARLIAMENT-STREET. 

NEWCASTLE ; G. B. RICHARDSON, CLAYTON- STREET- WEST. 

1854. 



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%nM Mtn^ lllau, €s\\,, f, §>, 1., J. I., 

OF BLACK WELL HALL, 

IN THE PARISH OF DARLINGTON, AND OF BARTON, 

IN RICHMONDSHIRE, 

ONE OF HER MAJESTY'S JUSTICES OF THE PEACE FOR THE COUNTY OF DURHAM, 

AND NORTH RIDING OF YORKSHIRE, 

THIS VOLUME, 

DEVOTED TO THE HISTORY OF THE PARISH IN WHICH HE IS 

THE MOST EXTENSIVE LANDOWNER, 

AND THE VERY GROUNDWORK OF WHICH HAS BEEN FURNISHED BY HIS 

LARGE COLLECTION OF ARCHIVES, 

IS, 

FROM FEELINGS OF THE DEEPEST GRATITUDE 

FOR HIS UNIFORM GENEROSITY, 

DEDICATED. 



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PREFACE. 



Is pres^iting my patrons the condaaion of my labours, I haye to 
apologise for that delay in their appearance which is bo often and unavoid* 
ably die case in topographies^ works. It has greatly added to my facilities 
for the pictorial illustration and elaboration of my materii^y but it is a 
grief to me when I reflect upon the number of those subscribers who looked 
upon my pursuits witb the eye of kindness, and who are now beyond the 
sphere in which I could have laid their results before them. Death has 
laid his cold touch on some I looked up to, with the reverence due to the 
aristocracy of talent Sir Robert Peel, Sir Cuthbert Sharp, and Colouel 
William Havelock, K H., giants all in diverse walks, ore silent and in still- 
nes& My dear friends and fellows in the quiet walks of letters, Thomas 
Eastoe Abbott, William Rymer, and John Wilkinson, have died in the 
fulness of £^th and hope. And the gentlemanly and landless scion of the 
great house of Ogle, who, almost all unheeded, came to Darlington to die, 
and with whom I forgot canker and care, lies low in the cemetery of St. 
Cuthbert. Yet I have left me many to reprove or congratulate me with 
a loving voice. " There is but one society on earth — ^the noble living and 
the noble dead."" 

Had not the materials alluded to in my dedication, and referred to in 
almost every page, been laid before me, my book would have been a lifeless 
skeleton; and had it not received the pictorial illustrations which have 
proceeded from the same hand, its appearance would have been comparatively 
melancholy. I have, as I conceive, consulted the feelings of the valuable 
friend I thus dimly refer to, by thanking him in a less ostentatious place, 
and in the text itself. I have pursued the same course with almost all 
other kindly helps. The references tell their own tale. If my memory is 
not equal to my wishes, I rely on forgiveness from the injured. I have, 
however, reserved this place to state that the archives of His Grace the 
Duke of Cleveland and Edward Pease, Esq., in addition to those at 
Blackwell Hall, Clervaux Castle, the Bodleian Library, the Dean and Chap* 
ter's Library at Durham, and the Auditor's office, with the Halmot Rolls, 
the Parochial Rasters and accounts, and the Borough Books, have, in the 
most handsome manner been placed at my service, and I have thankfully 
used them as far as my limited means and time permitted. It would be 



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yilJ PREFACE. 

most ungrateful not to add that the courtesy of their custodiers has ever 
been exercised to me ; and that in addition to the above records, those of 
Newcastle have been fiillj as open to me, throogh the able agency of Mr 
G. Bouchier Richardson, who grudged his friend no amount of labour, where 
his excellent abstracts were likely to elucidate a subject. 

In the composition of this history, I soon found that if the value of my 
book was to depend on its authority as a book of reference, and a £uthfnl 
record of the mouldering MSS. I have had before me, it could not be of the 
light, sketchy, and amusing character I once chalked out I saw that the 
firsfc history of eveiy place is necessarily a magazine of evidences, to which 
the more popular writer can at every turn allude, to bear out his generalities. 
New matter has started up at every turn, and in my very pleasure at its 
occurrence, has harassed me in the alteration of my plans ; and I have been 
compelled, at a greatly increased cost of production and occupation of time, 
to crowd as many facts into every page as my type would allow, to avoid 
remarks, and allow the reader to form his own conclusions. 

It is the charm of Archaeology that the field of enquiry is never exhausted. 
This work does not form an exception to the rule. It is necessarily im- 
perfect Nay, it is doubtless inaccurate in some particulars. Though no 
document has been tampered with, and I have spared no pains in sifting 
evidence, information is sometimes unintentionally based on false or exag- 
gerated premises, and tradition is notoriously a corrupt source of history. 
But where no contemporaneous written proof exists, the experienced reader 
will be on his guard. I have related traditions sans colour, and sans 
alteration ; friendship has been broken with me for my zeal on this very point ; 
and I can safely put forth my book as an honest enquiry after, if not an 
absolute arrival at, truth. 



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LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



The names of Subecribers who have died since the commeneement of Ute Work are 

printed in Italics, 



His Grace the Duke of Cleveland, K.G., 12 copies, 2 large paper. 

Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel, Bart., M. P., large paper. 

Sir Cuthbert Sharp, Knt., F.S.A., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Lieut' Col. WnuHttveloek, K, H., 14th Light Dragoons. 

Lieut-Col. H. Havelock, C. B., 53rd Regiment of Foot. 

The Archsological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-npon-Tyne. 

The Society of Antiquaries, Newcastle-npon-Tjne. 

The' Darlington Mechanics' Institution. 

The Stockton Suhscription Library. 

Robert Henry Allan, Esq., F. S. A., Black well Hall, 12 copies, 6 on large paper. 

Miss Allan, Hare wood Grove, Darlington. 

William Allan, Esq., Blackwell Grange, large paper. 

George Allison, Esq., Darlington. 

WilHam Aldam, Esq., Doncaster. 

Rev. William Atthill, Horsford, St. Faith's, Norwich, large paper. 

Thos. Eastoe Mbott, Esq., Rose Villa, Darlington. 

Freville Lambton Burne, Esq. 

Mrs. Anstey, Norton, near Stockton-upon-Tees. 

The Rer, Dr. Bandinell, Bodleian Library, Oxford, large paper. 

William Backhouse, Esq., Darlington. 

John Church Backhouse, Esq., Blackwell, large paper. 

Edmund Backhouse, Esq., Middleton Tyas, large paper. 

Sir John Bernard Burke, Ulster King of Arms. 

Henry Belcher, Esq., Whitby. 

Wm. Bewick, Esq., Haugbton-le-Skerne, near Darlington. 

Thomas Bowes, Esq., Darlington, 

Mrs. Barclay, Blackwell. 

Mr. John Bewick, Eldon Cottage^ Bermondsey. 

Mr. Matthew Bell, jun., Richmond. 

Thomas Bouch, Esq., C.E., 1, Hanover Street, Edinburgh. 

W. G. J. Barker, Esq., Harmby, near Leybum. 

Augustus F. Bellasii, Esq., St. John's Wood. London. 



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LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 

Thomas Bell, Esq., NAwcastle-apon-Tyne, large paper. 

W. R. Bell, Esq., Norton Grammar School, near Stockton. 

Mr. John Backton, Darlington, large paper. 

Mr. A. C. Birchall, Darlington. 

Mr. Thomas Blyth, Darlington. 

Henrj Brady, Esq., Gateshead. 

W. H. Brockett, Esq., Gateshead. 

Francis Bennett, Esq., Gateshnad. 

Rev. Dr. Collingwood Bmoe, F.S.A., Newoastle-npon-Tjne. 

W. C. Copperthwaite, Esq., F.S.S., Borongh Bailiff of Malton. 

Mr. G. J. Crossley, Manchester. 

Mr. T. A. Cockin, London, 

Mrs. Cndworth, Coniscliffe Lane, Darlington, 2 copies. 

Captain CoUyer, large piq>er. 

Henry Chaytor, Esq., Croft, large paper. 

Captain Colling, Redhall, Hanghton-le-Skeme. 

Mr. W. W. Child, Bank, Stockton. 

Mrs. Dnnn, Hnrworth, large paper. 

H. C. Dakeyne, Esq., 34, Hamilton Terrace, St. John's Wood, London. 

Joseph Dodds, Esq., Stockton-npon-Tees. 

Mr. James Dees, C. E., Esk Meals, Rafenglats, Cnmberland. 

Mr. Thomas Dobson, jnn,, Darlington. 

Mr. Hngh Dnnn, Darlington. 

J. Dean, Esq., Staindrop. 

Edwin Eddison, Esq., Leeds. 

Mr. Geo. Elwin, Old Hall, Darlington. 

John Fenwick, Esq., F.S.A., Newcastle-npon-Tyne, large and small paper. 

Mr. Fossick, Darlington. 

Mr. Joseph Forster, land agent, Dnrham. 

Mr. Joseph Forster, Harewood Hill, Darlington. 

Mr. James Ferguson, Helmsley Blackmoor. 

Robert Fothergill, Esq., Bedale. 

W. S. Grey, Esq., Barrister at Law, Norton, large paper. 

Wm. Grey, Esq., Norton, near Stockton. 

John Grey, Esq., Stockton. 

Mr. David Grey, Bank Top, Darlington. 

Matthew Gannt, Esq., Barrister at Law, Leek, Stoffordshire. 

Matthew Gannt, Esq., Alderman of Leeds, Yorkshire. 

Francis Gibson, Esq., Saffron Walden, two copies, one on large paper. 

Mr. Oswald Gilkes, Darlington. 

John Hogg, Esq., Barrister at Law, Norton. 

The Rev. A. J. Howell, Incumbent of Darlington. 

WiUiam Harker, Esq , Theakstone Villa, Bedale. 

John Harris, Esq., C.E., Darlington, two copies, one on large paper. 

Richard HoUon, Esq., York. 

Thomas Horner, Esq., Darlington. 

Mr. John Harrison, High Row, Darlington. 

Mr. Robert Heslop, Darlington. 

Richard Hodgkinson, Esq., Pennerley Lodge, Beanlieu, Southampton. 

Joteph ma, Esq., Stockton. 

Timothy Hutton, Esq., Clifton CasUe, Bedale. 

William Hepple, Esq., Bishop Auckland. 

John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., Acton House, Felton, Northumberland. 

Henry Ingledew, Esq., Newcastte-apon-Tyne. 



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LIST OP SUBSCRIBERS. xi 

Mins Udiod, West Terrace, Darlington. 

T. Hajes Jackson, Esq., Darlington. 

Henrj Robt. Allan Johnsonj Esq., Bishopwearmonth, large paper. 

B. H. Keenlyside, Esq., M.D., Stockton. 

Mr, WilHam KUehing, Darlington. 

Mr. Jokn Kaj, Darlington, large paper. 

William Kell, Esq., F. S. A., Gateshead. 

The Rev. R. W. Lloyd, Wilnecote, Tamworth. 

Mrs. Livick, Darlington. 

John Bailej Langhome, Esq., Bichmond, large paper. 

Francis Mewbam, Esq., Borough Bailiff of Darlington. 

M. M. Milbnm, Esq., Sowerby, near Thirsk. 

Mrs. Mnbank, Blackwell. 

The Rer. E. J. Midglej. Medomsley, Gateshead, two large paper copies. 

George Milner, Esq., F. S. A., Hall 

John Moore, Esq., Sonderland. 

John 'Middleton, Esq., Architect, Darlington. 

Mr. Thomas Mac Naj, Darlington. 

Mr. Thomas Maclachlan, Darlington. 

Mr. George Mason, C. £., Darlington. 

W. Crawford Newbj, Esq., Stockton. 

CharUt Wailaee OgUy Esq^ Hnndons. 

Henry Omsby, Esq., Darlington. 

Mr. John Ord, Newtown, Darlington. 

Mr. John Robert Ord, High Terrace, Darlington. 

Mr. RichariOrd, Stockton. 

Mr. WHliam Olifer, Darlington. 

Edward Pease, Esq., Darlington, 5 copies, 1 large. 

Mrs. Pease, Feethams, DarUngton. 

Joseph Pease, Esq., Soath End, Darlington, 3 copies, 1 larg**. 

John Pease, Esq., East Mount, Darlington, 3 copies. 

Henry Pease, Esq., Pierremont, Darlington, 2 copies. 

John Beanmont Pease, Esq., North Lodge, Darlington. 

James Pallister, Esq., Little Bnrdon, 2 copies, 1 on large paper. 

The Rer. J. C. Plomer, Elstree, Herefordshire. 

George Peirson, Esq., Marske, Cleveland. 

Nathaniel Plows, Esq., Darlington, large paper. 

Henry Peckitt, Esq., Carlton Hnsthwaite, near Thirsk. 

J. S. Peacock, Esq., Darlington, large paper* 

W. H. Peacock, Esq., Bamsley, large paper. 

Thomas Peters, Esq., York. 

Mr. M. Potts, jon., Darlington. 

Mrs. Qnelch, Bowbnm, near Durham. 

Wmiam Rymer, Esq., Darlington. 

Thomas Richardson. Esq., Ayton, near Stokesley. 

Thomas Richmond, Esq., Stockton. 

S. W. Riz, Esq., Beccles. 

The Re?. Thomas Robson, Grammar School, Darlington. 

Mr. W. Robson, High Row, Darlington. 

Mr. James Readman, Stockton. 

Mr. Robert Robson, Sunderland, large paper. 

Mr. JervU Robintonf Blackfriars Road, London. 

Mr, WUUam Riehardionf Darlington. 

The Rev. J. Raine, Crook Hall, large paper. 



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xii LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 

H. Pascoe Smith, Esq., Hall Garth, near Darlington, two copies. 
G. J. Scnrfield, Esq., Harworth, near Darlington, large paper. 
iA r. Joseph Stephenson, C. E., Darlington. 
• Henry Stapylton, Esq., Judge of the County Courts, Durham. 
A. T. Steavenson, Esq., Darlington. 
Mr. Joseph Sams, Darlington and London. 
Mr. T. C. Sheppard, Darlington. 
Mr. Storey, St. Cuthbert's Schools, Darlington. 
Jonathan Thompson, Esq., Stubbing Court, Chesterfield. 
The Rev. W. S. Temple, Leamington. 
John Thompson, Esq., Wooler. 
Mrs. J. Brough Taylor, St. Thomas' Street, Newcastle. 
Mrs. I'odhunter, Harewood Hill, Darlington. 
Messrs. R. Thompson and Co., Darlington, ten copies. 
Mr. Edwin S. Thompson, London, large paper. 
J^icholat Trant, Esq,, Bedale. 

George Taylor, Esq., High Bailiff of the County Courts, Durham. 
The Rev. Geo. Thompson, YTisbeach, large paper. 
Robert Wise, Esq., Highfield House, Malton. 
T. G. Wright, Esq., M.D., Wakefield. 
H. R. E. Wright, Esq., Stockton. 
Albert Way, Esq., F. S. A., Wonham Manor, Reigate. 
O. B. Wooler, Esq., Darlington. 
The Rev. R. H. Williamson, jnn., Lamesley. 
Mr. John Wilkinson, Darlington ; two copies, one on large paper. 
Mr. G. J. Wilson, Darlington. 
Mr. Thomas Watson, Darlington. 
J. R. Wilson, Esq., Stockton. 
Thomas Wilson, Esq., Fell House, Gateshead. 



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DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 



The Binder will place the separately-printed Illustrations in the following order :— 



''St. Cnthberl's Church 

/ Darlington in 1790 '\^.. 

^Stalls and Misereres in St. Cuthhert*s, 2 plates 

^ Tnnity Chnrch 

^St JiAn's Church 

V Hylton Castle 

/ Local Tokens, Seals, and Autographs 

-^ Portrait of George Allan. Esq., M.P. 

yAUanArms 

^ Blackwell Grange 

^Aotogtaphs. «s 

Immediately after the termination of the divisions paged in Arabic numerals, he 
will place the pedigrees (which are unpaged) as they now stand in Part IV. To follow 
them he will transfer Division VI (which is paged in Roman numerals) from Part III. 
The Roman numerals then follow consecutively to the end of the Index. 

The Title, Preface, and List of Subscribers, to commence the volume, will be found 
at the conclusion of Part IV. 



.facing the Title-page. 


... facing 


page 38. 


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218. 


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247. 


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249. 


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203. 


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276. 


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xxi 


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xzix. 






xxxL 
xxxiii. 



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DARLINGTON 



ITS ANNALS AND CHARACTERISTICS. 



DIVISION I. 



fiSITHJ ATIDSTd VMSM9 Mm WiiVlSlSo 



I HE EIVER TEES, after dashing for swne distance 
I through rocka va^t and wild, receives the "rosy flow" of 
'i^ the Greta, and meandering through fields and green plan- 
' tatioas, with ey^r and anon a peaceful village or stately 
tnaDsiou 00 its banks^ arrives at a point of soft and deli- 
^'^ cate beauty. The Skemej a sluggish, but withal, in some 
T^^l partSj a pretty strtani, roBhes through a single arch into 
► the biger couj^e, on a dielving bed of I'ed sandstone, and gliding through 
i^ a deeply-recessed and noble bridge, of enormous Gothic arches, with some 
opposition loses its colour, and becomes one and the same with the Tees. 
At the confluence, it constitutes a boundaiy between two parishes, Darlington 
and HurwortL The former is an irregular district, boundering the Tees for 
some distance, and skirted by the parishes of Goniscliffe, Heighington, 
Haughton4e-Skeme, and Hurworth, in the palatinate, and by Gleasby and 
Croft in Yorkshire. It is divided into four townships : Darlington, Arch- 
deacon Newton, Blackwell, and Gockerton ; that of Darlington being sub* 
divided into the constableries of Darlington Borough, Bondgate, Priestgate 
or Prebend-row, and Oxen-le-fidd. 



BTTVOLoar OF THESE NAMES. 



Lamborde, in his Dictionary, p. 91, mentions '' Dabnton, Seantnstun, 
antiquitus, and Bearfnjiton/' as "a market towne in the byshoprike of 
Durham, which one Styr, by lycenoe of Kinge Etheldred, gave to Aldhune, 



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2 ETYMOLOGY OF THK 

Byshop of Durham, fmediately after that he came to eattle the sea at Dm'liam.'' 
Allan adds, " Darningtun, Derlyngton, Darneton, Darrhton, and Darlington 
(as the name of this town is variously spelt or written), .... Query, if any 
derivation from the Saxons." (ABan MSS,) 

Not to mention the popular joke of the name of Darlington having arisen 
from the circumstance of there having been originally only three fsum-houses 
on the site, called Z>ar, Lin^, and Tan, the derivations given are amusingly 
numerous. Behold ! cum notis : 

1. Deor or deorling^ dihctua, and tun or tony viUa, the chosen town, built on holy land,, 
and the favourite place of the prelates. — ZftOcMnson. 

2. '* I have somewhere seen that the Skeme was called the Dare, and Dare-inge-tum 
would very well represent the actual site of the place, amidst the deep rich inges or 
meadows of the Skeme." Surtees. — 4 Edw. VI. Demise to Lawrence Thomell, Gent., of 
the Low Parke of Darlington and the Medoufes on the Skeme. — " The These, beyng past 
Ramforth, it runneth betwene Persore and Cliffe, and in the way to Croftes Bridge taketb 
in the Skeme, a pretye water which riseth above Trimdon, and goeth by Fishbume, 
Bradbury, Preston, and Darlinfftm : and fatally meeting with the Cocke hecke, it falletk 

into the TTiese beneath Stapleton, before it come to Croftes bridge Leland, writing 

of the These, repeateth the names of sundry riuerets, whereof in the former Treatize I 
have made no mencion at all, notwithstanding that some of thdr courses may be touched 
in the same, as the Thurisgill, whose heade is not farre from the Spittle that I do reade 
of in Stanmoore ; the Grettey commeth by Bamingham and Mortham, and falleth into 
the These above Croftes bridge. 7^ Dare or Dere runneth by I>arli$igton, amd likewise 
into the These above the qforesayd bridge.^* Harrison's Description of England, prefixed 
to Hollinshed*s Chronicles, edit. 1577, pp. 30, 68.-37 Elia. A close of Nun-Stainton 
Manor on the Skeme is described as Darfyf^-close, 

8. The same derivation, substituting the Ck>ckerbeck as identical with the Dare. 
** Now, in the winter months, this stream, from being swollen, and rushing direcUy at 
right angles into the Skeme (which b then also much enlarged), overflows its banks, 
and causes a separate stream to run parallel with the Skeme for a considerable distance, 
eausing, however (though much improved of late), a quantity of wet and marshy gnmnd ; 
this gives rise to the ing, which is the Danish for a low and wet ground ; therefore, the name 
aignifies the town on the lugs of the Dare, the letter (Q being merely intoposed for 
euphony" (Darlington and Stockton Times, No. 1).— '' The These, a river that bearetb 

and feedeth an excellent salmon in the waie to Croftsbridge taketh in the 

Skeme, a pretie water, which riseth above Trimdon, and goeth by Fishbume, Bradburie, 
Preston, Braforton, Skirmingham, the Burdens, Haughton, and DarUngton, and there 
finallie meeting with Cocke-4>9cke or Dare, it felleth in tiie These beneath Stapleton, 
before it come to Croftsbridge, and (as it should seeme) b the same which Leland calleth 
Gzetteie or Orettie." Such b Hutchinson's quotation of Hollinshed, from some appa- 
rentiy later edition, veiy difierent from that of 1577 now before me. It seems to be an 
awkward attempt by a stranger to thb country to incorporate Leland*s description with 
Harrison's ; and the Cockerbeck as littie fulfib the former description of the Dare as the 
Skeme corresponds with the Greta. It does not flow into the Tees, as the Dare of 157T 
did ; nor could it be said to run by Darlington. As to Ing, it seems originally to have 
meant an in or inclosure, as dbtingubhed from the common field {Brocketfs Glossary}^ 
and b used for any low flat ground. Ihre says (Eng b a flat meadow between a town and a 
river, on which the market or fair b held, which b an exact description of the lugs on 
which the great fortnight fair for cattie b held at Wakefield. 

4. Dare, water, mg, a meadow, Um, a town, the Toum on ^e wOery meadows^ " from 
^ qoastity of water irhich fonneriy .overflowed the baoaki of the Skeme, eevering 



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TOWNSHIP NAMES. 5 

inany acres of ground for upwards of a mile.'' (E. S. Thompson, in Darlinffton mnd 
"Stociten Times, 1847.) Leland*s Dare was, however, clearly a river. 

5. Dar, water, Un§, diminutive (goding. See.) and Pm^ the town on the email stream. 
(Same paper. " Veritas.") But the / is modem. 

6. 7^ town o/Deom^s eon. Ing, in Saxon, being equivalent to eon in modem times. J. R. 

It may already have been surmised that I incline to Surtees's opinion; and 
this I do in consequence of the yeiy clear identification in the Hollinshed of 
1577 of die Dare and Skeme. In the earliest records, however, the name 
occurs as Deaminfftwn, Demington, Demigwtwne^ forms correctly contracted 
in Damlen and Demton, Now, Deme, in names of rivers, has a tendency to 
change into Dare. Thus, on the Seyem, Harrison mentions Dow or Doun^ 
steir-fitQ, Damty which runneth to DaringUm (a ooBmion spelling also of our 
Darlington), and into the sea at Damtmouth, and the Dame in the West 
Kding of Yorkshire (now Deme), which cometh to Barton (another ortho- 
graphy of my subject place) ward, to DerfiddSy &c The word which, in its 
form Damt or Demt, Harrison in describing a stream of the name which 
&IIs into the Thames, naakes identical with Darweniy is very common in 
names of rivers; witness the secluded Demess which flows into the Wear. 
In all probability the Skeme or Dure was anciently ike Deme. It may have 
'Connection with water, or with deme, deamenffa, Sax : secret, dark, hidden^ 
^r it nsay be to point out the sluggishness of the water, and be identical with 
the nortJbem Teme or Deme, a standing pool 

ffelbecie, in Westmoreland, so called " bycause it commeth from the deme and dinge 
monntaines by a town of the same denomination.'' Harrieon* Bailey gives EHUnge 
{aUeine, alone, Teut,) as solitary, lonely, &c ; and truly memy of the Westmoreland 
streams are deme and elinge. 
" The Teme riseth in a mere nere unto Teme Mere in Stafibrdshire.** Harrison, 
'^ Flass Hall stands low and sequeetered, within a reach of the Demess,^ &c. Surtees, 
In a cMfF on Hartside, Northumberland, is a strong cavernous fissure called Dam^ 
HaU, probably, says Hodgscm, from the wttter, which in some parts of the fissure can 
be ascertained to be in it by the splashing noise made at its bottom by throwing stones 
into it. [Qu. from Deme, hidden, and «^ or ea, water.] 

Parson and White's Directory mentions that Darlington is ''said to have derived its 
name from the lingering stream of the old Dar or Der, which evidently formed a pool 
4snd morass from opposite the chnxdi to tha miU-bolme.*' 

A Darlington, in Devonshire, occurs 1 Edw. I. {Ing,p, m!) arid a Darling- 
ton in Nott, 4 Edw. III. {Abb, Bat orig) Darrington, near Pontefract, 
oddly has Stapleton and Smeaton near it, like our Darlington. 

BoKDGATE. — " Unde FramweDgate ? It is, at any rate, a corrupt ortho- 
graphy, and has nothing to do with a weU, Leland, I observe, calls it 
Framagate, and. mentions a street of the same name at KendaL Now, will 
you have my conjecture ? for a fool's bolt, they say, is soon shot It should 
be written Framengate (as it is in one place by Leland), and was, originally, 
a street set apart for th^ habitation of foreigners, or persons not entitled to 
the franchise of the city : from Frem or Fremd, adimusy extraneus. It was 
x^ertainly a custom, in ancient times, for people 6f the same description to 



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4 ETYMOLOGY OF THE 

reside together, as the Jews do in most {daces to this day ; and hence your 
Bondgtxte in DarUngtcUy Auckland, &c You may overturn this fine system 
if you can." {Bitsm to Mr Harridon^ 1797). It is merely necessary to add, 
for the information of strangers, that Bondgate in Darlington includes those 
portions of the town not enjoying tfie franchise of tfie Borough and Prebend-row. 
In Hatfield's Survey (about 1380), CokyrUmrgtxte occurs as the name of the 
street now bearing die appellation of Bondgate in particular. 

Prebbni) Bow, or Pbibstgate. This little district takes its name firom 
its including the possessions of the Prebendary of Darlington, in the colle- 
giate church. Bow is Beewa, Saxon. ^^Bow and iZatr," observes Mr Hodgson, 
in his Histoiy of Northumberland, '^ are akin to the French rue ; but in the 
upland part of the northern counties were formerly chiefly confined to those 
Unes of dwelling-houses which lay along the fell sides, and had between them 
and the beck, or river of the dale, the inclosed ground, of which the houses 
were the several messuages.'^ 

As to gate in Priestgate and other streets, the word has no reference to 
fortifications, but simply means a way or road. In many northern villages 
the public road passing through is still called the tovmgccte; and we have the 
expressions, " Gbng your gate" (go your way) ; " What gate are ye ganging?" 
" How many gates (joumies) have ye taken T " To go iMgatewards '* (to 
accompany a short way). The word is Saxon. Families of the names of 
Wood and Wright were living at Damton Yatts, parish of Haughton, in 
the last century. 

OZENHALS, OXENHALL, OXEK-LE-FlELD, Ot OXBHETFISLD. A very proper 

name for a detached portion of Darlington township, locally situated in that 
of Blackwell, and containing the fiumous Hell-Kettle& Ea is water. In its 
singular number it occurs in Beaton on the Ewsbwm ; Eaton^ Water-Mtton 
(pleonastic), the river ii^olt, &c In its plural, in tfie rivers JEb, Aa^ Eek^ 
Ouse (on which is O^rborough), in Jetmond (originally Jetmouth, the mouth 
of the Ewsbum, the^ being nothing but the Saxon particle ^^, so long retained 
in our language, sometimes also pronounced hard, as in Gosbeck), OtM^mere 
(part of Ulleswater), and a long string of places, deriving from the various 
forms of the word. Egglesdifie sometimes oocurs as ExcHS and ^.iirclifie. 
Brewster remarks, that wherever ** aix *' occurs in names of towns in France, 
it implies the presence of waters, particularly mineral waters. Owen-4e-Field 
is ihe afield o/wcOen ; Oxenhale, the low place of waters. There is an Oxen- 
field in Lancashire, near Winander-meer, and an Oxenhall in Gloucestershire. 
Oxney Island, in Kent, is surrounded by the river Bother. The name 
extended to the township of BlackwelL In Hatfield's Survey, it is stated, 
under '' BlackweU," that Peter Thomesson, in right of his wife, held half an 
acre and half a rood in Oxenhal-Jlat, 16d. 

CocKBBTON, from the Cockerbeck. 

Archdeacon Newton. "The new town,"* where the Archdeacon of 
Durham has a manor. 



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TOWNSHIP NAM£& 5 

Blaokwell. Black is often a[^Iied to water, as in Blackmere^ Blackbarn, 
from the blackness of the Derwent on which it stands, &a ; hut the word is 
of Teiy extensive meaning. In such names as Bkudk Banks (in this town- 
ship), Bhudk Blaiekopey &;c, it evidently means bhctk, the former being part 
of Blackwell-moor ; bnt blaie, in the western parts of the north of England, 
indadee all the shades of terra di sienna, from dark-coloured gold to the brown 
of mahogany. It is yellow, tinged with red, but free from any blue. But in 
the Saxon blacian or blofoany which mean to blacken, to grow pale, to bleach, 
all warmth is taken out, and the hue becomes chilled mik blue or black 
shades {Hodgson). A wound in the North is said to be blakening when it 
puts on an appearance of healing. As to wiUy in this case it probably hacr 
reference to tfie sweeping turn of the river ; wdlen^ in German, signifying ^ 
twm. Thus the Latins have voho^ and wd implies waves, which are con* 
tinually coming and going. If it refers to water, it is simply the old word, Me^ 
water, aspirated by ir, in the same manner as it is by A in HothxAy HuU^ 
&C. There were certainly some wells at Blackwell, feunous enough to give 
names to fields. 



LOCAL FAMILIES NAMED AFTER THE TOWNSHIPS. 

Besidence or birth at Daiiington, of course gave name to fftmilies. A 
great number of ecclesiastics were named after it, some of which will here- 
after occur. In an early Denton charter among the witnesses occur 
'' Kcardo de Holynsede ; Bernardo filio et hsBrede de Derlyngton.'' A local 
race of the name occurs in the first roister, and the plague of 1697 carried 
off Robert Damton, or Darlington, his wife, William Damton or Darlington, 
and .... Damton. The name straggles on among the roisters and 
lists of freeholders, tiU 1622, when John Darlington, son and heir of Robert, 
lately deceased, was admitted to his fiither's burgage, in Blackwellgate, and 
excused the payment of his relief on account of poverty. John Damton, 
par. Winston, was married by license to Jane Richardson, par. Haughton, in 
1665, and William Damton, a Oranger^ was buried here in 1727-8. The 
name occurs again in frdl vigour at that period, and continues to this day in 
the town. A family of Damton has been settled in Leeds for between 200 
and 300 years past, of which race Damton Lupton, and John Damton 
Luccock, were respectively mayors of that town in 1845 and 1846. But the 
name occurs elsewhere in the West lUding, and its owners may be sprung 
fit)m Darrington., 

1568. J(M Docketh, dark carat, in Whitworih, leaves ^'to^iifMsf DamOon a 
gemer lambe, and Allcson Pidcering, my semands, a gemer lamb." 

There were some veiy respectable booksellers of the name in Darlii^toa 
Vesey and Damton occur in 1762, and Thomas Damton and WiUiam 



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^ DARNTON TATdlLT. 

Darnton separately occur in 1779. The latter was printer and seller of 
flome Pastoral Poems, by J. l^chardson, Yarm, in that year. The poems 
are full of Damons and Ghloefl, and are tiresome enough, but the printing is 
bold and good. In 1776, one of these Damtons occurs in partnership with 
one Smith, as printer of a sketch of the life of Biediop Trevor, but the tract 
was, in fact, one of Geoige Allan's, and the following passage fix)m his son's 
lively paper, in. Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, will sufficiently explain the 
circumstance. ''Being thus set up, as above, with a regular apparatus, he 
3iired a devil, a poor fellow that occasioned him more trouble than if he had 
done all the drudgery himself; but he beUeved the man to be honest, and as 
he was friendless, so far from dismissing him without remuneration, he 
enabled him to enter into partnership mth a bookseUer in DarUngton ; and 
^on finishing the Legend of St Cuthbert, he permitted George Smith to be 
placed in the title as the printer, with a view to gain him some credit in his 
profession. [Darlinffton: Printed by George Smithy 1777.] This partner- 
ship did not last long ; but, during its continuance, my fstther very kindly 
^corrected the press, even of every common handbill that went from the office ; 
and though he did not condescend to correct ballads, the printing of which 
was the chief part of the business, a copy was always brought to Iuhl He 
.liad a bundle of these performanoee, which I am not able to find^, but I 
recollect it contained a vast display of ribaldry and typographical error, which 
were equidly amusing. After Smithes fiiilure, he was agun retwied for the 
private press ; but he was the prapetwl cause of trouble and anxiety, for my 
&tber never went into the printing-room without being irritated by the dirty 
manner in whieh the iormB were kept, and the filthy state of the types when 
distributed Besides this, more time was lost in correcting reseated proofa, 
than he could well bear ; and the fellow becoming shamefully addicted to 
'oock-fi^ting, a vice very prevalent in this county, which my £gither, if 
possible, held in greater abhorrence than drunkenness, he was dismissed. He 
was, however, never totally abandoned by him; and is now living at Dar- 
lington, obtaining oocasional employment, having some relief fit>m the parish, 
vand sometimes partaking of a share of my bounty. The amus^nent was carried 
•on afterwards by the asaostance of a relation, whose time was his own ; and 
the correction of ih» press was latterly the only part my father performed." 
Many of my older readers will recollect the good ibr nothing reUuner to tiie 
Allans, Geordie Smith, and both old and young may still picture the last of 
liis partner's family, that '' ancient lady" Miss Damton, who so long was 
bookseller and sole newspaper agent for the town, in the [shop now Mr. 
-€harge, the sadler's, next to the Fleece. Her success made her rather 
saucy, and a gentleman told me once, that when a blushing modest youth, he 
cautiously went into her shop to ask for Shakiqpeare's Works, the answer he 
got was " Why, I think you're like one of Shakspeare's characters yourself," 
which made him blush still more, npr did he ever discover what sort of 
character .was alluded to. 



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NEWTON FAMILY. J 

The following coatfl are given by Burice, under the name of DarUngianx 
I. Az. guttee ar. or a fesse or, three crosses croeslet gu. Cregty a winged 
pillar. 2. The same arms, adding in chief a leopard s face of the second. 
8. Az. guttee ar. on a fesse between three leopards' heads or, as many 
crosses crosslet gu. The arms given for Darling, of London, are neariy 
■imilar, Az. guttee ar. on a fesse of the last three crosses crosslet fitchee gu. 
In the seal of John de Derlyngtone, Oanon in Lanchester Collegiate Church 
and Prebendary of the Prebend of Esh, 1380, he displays a shield bearing a 
plain cross, charged with five objects like ea^es displayed, and surrounded 
Iky the legend, 

''♦^tgaitt': to|)'t^: "Ut: tierlpngtone;:" 

I 
Qu. if not the arms of Duresme; Ar. on a croes ga. 5 ileur-de-lis or. The seal \» 

engraved in Surteee. 

In a collection of armorial bearings begun by Oeo. Allan, and continued by 
Mr. Edw. Bobson, there is a description in the hand of the latter of a coat for 
** Darlington town*'' without any authority quoted, viz., six lioncels rampant 
or, 3, 2 and 1. The heading of the Darlington Mercury in 1773, however, 
only displays the arms of the see. The old seal of the Qrammar Scho<^ 
presented a rebus, a rude D and a ^tm, and the same idea occurs in Foun- 
tains Abbey, in those parts which were built by John Dameton, abbot from 
1478 to 1494f. In the Nine Altars*^ Chapel, on a keystone of one of the 
older lights, is the bust of an angel holding a ftm, with the word dem 
inscribed on its breast ; above this is a large bird, a scroM, containing 
another dlusion ffn'd* fimtes Sw> (O fowniainM, bless the Lord). Above 
the laige window, over the western door, is a niche, supported by the 
figure of a bird, holding a crosier, and perdhed on a tun^ from whence issues a 
label inscribed dem, and the date 1494, In both cases, i( says Walbran, in 
his capital little Guide to Bipon, &c., the bird represents a ikruik, there waA 
exhibited a second rebus for the founder ThwnUm, but if an eagle, it may,. a» 
the symbol of St John, signify only the christian name ot Dameton.^ 

Abghdeacon Newtoh. Hugo de Newton held a burgage in le Chairm 
(Post House Wynd) by feaky, and three suits at the Borough Court. 
Bidiard Northman, son of Dionisia Orre, nephew and heir. 10 Ha^eld 

Blaokwell. In 8 Bury, Ralph BlaoweU held a messuage and five score 
acres in BlaokweD, by homage, fealty, and 24s. Richard, his son and heir, 
1^ 22. 5 Hatfield, Richard BlacweU, jomtly with SibB, his wife, a 
messuage and five ox-gangs, by 23s. 8d., value 406. Balph, son and heir, 
aged twenty Hsix weeks. At the time of Hatfield's Survey, (about 1380) this 
pioperty (which shows that twenty acres went to the ox-gang at Blaokwell) 
is holden by John Middleton, in right of his wife, by the description of one 
messuage and five ox-gangs, which were once John of BlackwelPe, and were 
granted by charter to hold by knight's service, and the 16th part multure 
[at BhM^ell Mill] et cooperabit* molas supra le Louthre, 23s. 8d. rent 
* Surtees, sab tit BlackweU* 



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S BLACKWELL AND OXENHALE FAMILIES. 

The same John holds a parcel of tillage called GrombaUy containing 16 acr. 
and 3 roods, and 2 parcels of tillage called Lynhclme * and Ehtantofiea ; and 
one tenement called Le Castle Billy with the herbage of BatAley, oontmning 
four acres of meadow and pasture : also, the same John holds one plot or 
parcel, which is built upon, and half an ox-gang ; a toft, with a croft of half a 
rood, 12d., and the toft which was once WiUiamof Oxenhaltsy with a croft of 
one acre, by charter, 2(L The &mily long continued at BlackwelL 

1675. Jane 31. John Myddleton of Blaokwell, to be buried in Dameton cbuidie 
Eldest son John Myddleton; son Robert xx/. over his porc'on— daughters Ellen and 
Jane x/. over their porc'ons — to the poore xs.«~to the repayre of Dameton Chuidi iiis. 
iiiid. — to James Whyte of London, my brother-in-lawe, and Anne his wyfe, to eyther 
a ryall— to Mr. Hall xiis.— Francis Wydyfieagoulde ryall, trusting he will be frendly 
to my children— my wife Elizabeth, Mr. Frauncis Wyclyfie, and Mr. Harrison to see my 
will performed. Witness, James Thometon, clerke, Leonard Dodsworth, John Harrison. 
Proved 7 Oct. 1575. 

5 Dec. 21 Eliz. Elizabeth, widow of John Middleton, held half a dose called Stkt- 
hitch, when she died, 29 June, 17 Eliz. John, son and heir, aged 18. (Sdck-a-bitch is 
a farm between Darlington and Croft At Hatfield*s Survey Emma Morrell held three 
acres at i^%l. Qu. StiekalntehfJ 

Thomas, son of John Midleton of Blaokwell Feildhouse, bap. Oct 21, 1631w— Same 
day, Elizabeth Midleton, wife of the said John, bur.— John Midleton, senior, of Black- 
well, bur. Feb. 29, 1631-2.— Katherine Midleton, widow, of Blackwell, hur. Sep. 26, 
1632.^John Middleton of Blackwell, gent., bur. Dee. 30, 1659«— William Middleton of 
Blackwell, the elder, bur. 20 July, 1671.— Mr. John Middleton of Cleseby, bur. 22 April, 
1686.— William, «. William Middleton of Blackwell, bap. 24 July, 1656.— Thomas, &&, 
24 April, leiS^^CDarlwgtm Par. Beg.) 

1633. Ralph Blackwell, adm. to Traham (Stresshohnes.)— (^JJo/bctf Cwrt Booki, 
BlactweU.J 

1642. John Middleton demises to Thomas Swinburne, executor to James BellaaiSy 
Esq., deceased, all right in a dose called IVeiham and some townland.«~^/i^.^ 

22 Cha. I. Eleanor Wintering^n, next of kin, (can$omg>) and hdress of Ralph 
Blackwell, adm. to premises at Cockerton. Ralph is called her wndt in the body of the 
admittance.— (Ralph Blackwell of Cockerton, bur. 2 Dec., 1644.— Par. Rog.) 

The name is found straggling previonsly both in Darlington and Haughton 
Registers. Most of the property of the BlackweUs and Middletons eventually 
came to the Allana 

OxENHALB. Under Boldon book, William held Oxenhall under certain 
services, and the same tenure is recited in the inquest on Nicholas de Oxen- 
hale, who died seized of the manor in 1337, leaving Richard his son and heir. 
The local name occurs no more, and the manor passed to the Nevilles. 

* Elisabeth, wife of Francis Wardel, of Linnam-Honse^ near Blackwell* buried 20tk 
December, 1695. 



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SCENERY. 



SITUATION AND CHARACTER OF SCENERY. 

When Raumer visited England in 1835, Richmond and Darlington, as 
well as Durham and the vale of the Wear, reminded him of the oountriee on 
the Elbe and the valley of the Elbe between Pillnitz and Dresden. The 
nearest mountains swell in but a distant view, '' clad in colours of the air/' 
no castles proudly tower in the skies, the vaUies are not confined by steep 
rocks, and there is an utter want of romance about the scenes near Dar- 
lington, but then bH this leads to a quietness of beauty which is on no 
account to be overlooked. The calm of mind produced by the silent shade 
of numberless varieties of trees, and by the sweet river side scenes, which as 
Howitt remarks, abound, and yet are so little observed by travellers in the 
north-east^n counties of England, arises from a more pleasing, though 
l^s nervous tone of admiration, than that caused by the rugged elegance of 
more broken country. There is a rich and comfortable appearance about the 
hidden vale of Tees, and the ideas produced on my mind on my first approach 
to Darlington, on a pedestrian excursion in 1842, when I left Stapleton and 
gazed on the various dyes of the woods of Baydale, have not yet departed, 
although now writing, immediately after a morning's walk, on this cold 22nd 
day of December. The snugness of the woody bounds of Grange, the sullen 
and half-congealed Tees, the waning moon and stars, and llie crisp hue 
formed by the leafless trees against the gradually reddening grey of the East, 
rising from a bosom of the hoar frost's silver, gave an effect to the appear- 
ance of Blackwell, which in no way yielded to its autumnal dress. The 
day scene from Woodside, and the unveiUng of the West, near the Nunnery, 
are two delicate morsels for any one who finds 

Books in running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in every thing. 

But I leave all details for my rural chapters, my distant readers will gather 
an inkling of what I want to be at, and picture a soft, fertile, and extensive 
valley. Fill ye up the scene with one or two rivers on their journey to the 
deep, a steeple on a height, a spire in a hollow, with pleasant seats and warm 
plantations ; such are the suburbs of Darlington. The old part of the town 
stands on a steepish declivity, feeing the East, with the Skeme slowly 
wandering 

Like human life, to endless sleep, 

at its foot It is a very central station, is on the course of the great line of 
road frx>m London to Berwick, one of the eight grand thoroughferes set out in 
Harrison's Description of England, prefixed to Hollinshed, and in his 
instructions, *' How a man may Journey from any notable towne in England, 

c 



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10 VICTIMS OF 

to tiie citie of London, or from London to any notable towne in the Realme/' 
it occurs in the way from Barwike to Yorke, thus : 

From Durham to Darington, xig. mile. 
From Darington to Northalerton, xiig. mile. 

In our days, these distances would stand as 18 and 16 mile& Darlington is 
distant 12 miles from Stockton, 16 from Barnard-castle, 12 from Richmond, 
32 from Newcastle (39f by rail), 48 from York (45 by rail), and 241 from 
the metropoUs. Dibdiu in his Tour (il 247), says that " Upon the whole 
the county of Durham all through, cannot boast, I think, a large aggregate 
of riches. Daelington would be nothing if it were not a post town. Hae- 
TLBPOOL is a poor inconsiderable fishing town ; and if it were not for the 
clerical revenue and patronage of Dubham, I should think tliat Sunderland 
might buy the whole county.'* The present state of afiiurs shows how very 
little Dibdin knew of the resources of DarUngton, when he says that it 
would be nothing without its posting. It is true that the new mode of 
transit has brought great wealth to some of its inhabitants, but independently 
of that, its maricets and manu&ctures have ever made it a place of some con- 
sequenca In Leland s time it was " the best market-town in the Bishop- 
rick, saving Duresme," and in later times " the most noted town in England 
for the linen manufacture, especially Hugabacks,"* nay more, if we adopt 
another writer's zealous assertion, for such manu&ctures it was " the most 
noted place in the whde world /"f 



THE WATEBS OF THE PARISH OF DARLINGTON. 

The parish is watered by three rivers, the Tees, the Skeme, and the 
Gockerbeck. The first of these eccentrically winds from Tees Cottage to 
Hackwell and thence to Croft; bridge, near which, as before mentioned, it 
receives the sluggish Skeme. The Cockerbeck flowing from Walworth, on 
its arrival at the Darlington territories, divides in times of flood, and causes 
a large portion of the parish to become an island, one branch assuming the 
name of Baydale Beck,| and Selling into the Tees near Tees Cottage, the 
other ret^ning its name and meandering along until it runs into the Skeme, 
at right angles, at the head of Northgate. 

ANNALS OF THE WATERS. 

And, first, their victims claim our notice. A long and dreary list might 
be presented to my readers, were I to include all that have been chronicled, 

• John Dyer'0 MSS. 
t Uoiversal Magazine, 1749, "from an ingenious oorrespondentt who sabscribes himself 

t This b^k only carries off the waste or overflowing waters of the Cockerbeck; its bead 
ti#iiag on a higher level than the bed of the larger brook. 



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THE WATERS. 11 

but knowing how harrowing it is to have the memorials of tlieir deaths 
dragged before eyes but newly tearless, I have confined the melancholy 
catalogue to the earlier entries of the register and one or two of the more 
remarkable of the modem records. 

1 008. May 23. — Agnes Thompflon, a lenrant of John Watson, drowned in Tees, and 
buried. 

1613. July 3. — John Homer, who was drowned, the son of Robert Homer of Dar- 
lington, buried. 

1690. May. — An infant drowned in the river of Skerae, buried. 

June 1. — ^Barbary Rutter, dau. of Ralph Rutter of Black well, drowned and 
buried. 

1621-2. March 1. — Henry Wctherelt of Aldbrough, drowned in Tees, buried. 

— 15. — A certain old woman called OldAgnei^ drowned in Skeme, buried. 

1623-4. January 18. — ^Agnes Thompson of Black well, drowned under the mill wheel, 
buried. 

1624. Oct 12. — Katherine Lawaonn, wife of Lancelot Lawaonn of Gainforde, drowned 
in Tees, buried. 

1624-5. March 10. — ^Bartholomew Langestraffe and Margaret Langstrai!e, «ofW 
(film ) of John Langstrafie of Blackwell. drowned, buried. 

1626. March 25. — Thomas Dent of Midleton a rawe, drowned in the river of Skerae, 
buried. 

1628. June 6. — ^Margaret Simpson of Ovington, drowned in Tees, buried. 

1638. July 22>^ William AUanson of Darlington, drowned in the river of Skeme, 
buried. 

1639-40. March 11. — Thomas Branson, of Darlington, drowned in the river of 
Skerae, buried. 

1641. Oct. 12. — Cuthbert Birde of Midleton tires, drowned in Tees, buried. 

1652. April 8. — Isabeil Sympson, the daugter of Anthony Sympson of Blackwell, 
who was supposed to be slaine, bap. 

1652. April 20. — Anthonye Sympeon of Blackwell, was Burried when he was found 
in Blackwell mill damme, and had not been sene for 18 weeke. 

1652-3. Feb. 26. — Frauds Sympson, late wife of Anthnie Sympson of Blackwell, 
buried. 

1653. Decw— Henry Firbanke of Foroet, in the countie of Yorke, who was found 
lying drowned in Blackwell Holme, buried. 

Blackwell Holme is the low ground lying South of the new road leading 
down to Blackwell bridge, under Holme Wood. It is probable that the 
unfortunate man was crossing the horse ford which was close to the place 
where the bridge now stands (the ferry being lower down, opposite Stapleton), 
and that his body was swept round the bold curve of the river into the Holme 
and left there. A holme signifies land overgrown with natur^ trees in the 
vicinity of water (as the Holmes at Thirsk) no matter whether flat or steep. 
In the latter character are the Hohne Bank and the High Hoimes near Hill 
House. 

Bladcwell Holme, which sometime belonged to Baby Vane, by marriage 
with the daughter of Archdeacon Sayer, is copyhold, and appears to have 
formed part of the vast district called Baydales, as in 1640 mention is made 
of ''Baddl banke in BlaekweU field aHas Blackwel Holme/' and in 1644, 



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12 VICTIMS OP 

" BlackwM Holme within Badell alias Badell Flatt"* At present, BaydaTe 
Banks and Baydale Bank Bottom are names in Mr. R H. Allan's freehold 
estate of Baydales. Both it and Blackwell Holme were the estates of George 
Allan, Esq., M.P.,but Blackwell Holme was subsequently sold to the Bowers of 
Welham. In draining the morass of Baydale bottoms, numbers of gnarled 
oaks were found, either Mien from the banks above, or swept to that position 
by the river. They were huge patriarchs of the forest, black as ebony, but 
sound at the heart withaL 

1653-4. March 2. — ^A stranger was buried who was found drowned in Skeame about 
Olassen-Sikes. 

Olassensikes is the name of certain closes of which (with Windmill Hill) 
Christopher Barnes (Borough Bailiff) died seised in 1630-1, and which were 
purchased from the feunily of Bowes of Thornton Hall, by Miss Allan. The 
Allans sold a portion of them piecemeal, but the lots were subsequently 
bought up and reunited by the late Jonathan Backhouse, Esq. This 
territory is watered by a small runner of the same name which flows past the 
new parsonage house and Harewood Grove, crosses under the Croft road 
(being formerly an open steU upon it) and jeans the Skeme at the place to 
which it gives name. The word is probably composed of Olassene, blue or 
grey, and sike, the old legal term for anything less than a beck, which in its 
turn is anything less than a river. The former word is still used for blue or 
grey in Wales, and the following extract frx>m the valuable notes to the Laye 
of the Deer Forest, ^c, by the Stuarts is too af^ropriate to be omitted. After 
remarking that grey was anciently the badge of the churl and peasant, they 
observe that there was another cause for which it was peculiarly disagreeable 
to the Highlanders when first introduced among them. 

** Among th^n grey was to their imagination what black is to their neighbours, a 
personification of sombre, superstitious and ghostly ideas, and hence associated with 
phantoms and demons. Thus, an apparition is called an Btochd—^e grey or wan; 
the spectre foreboding death, am bodach gloi — ^the grey carl; a phantom in the shape of 
a goat, an OUutig or ^'^oMlidAt— the grey; and as in the South, the great enemy is 
named familiarly *' the black gentleman,*' so in the Highlands he is called Mac-an- 
JRiochdor-'* the son of the Gr^.' In the ideas of the old wives and children of the last 
century, all these personifications, except one, were as nearly as posdble those of the 
modeni dubh-ghall deer-stalker in his hodden grey — wanting only the Jtm Craw,rujlan, 
or eruih hat, enormitieB which had not then completed the masquerade of Death and Satan. 

'* It is easy to trace the origin of this association. The ancient Caledonian hell, like 
that of Scandinavia, was a frozen and glassy region, an island named Jffrinn, far away 
among the *wan waters' of the Northern ocean, and inclosed in everlasting ice, and snow, 
and fog. In this dim region the appearance of the evil spirits, like that of mortab in 
nmilar drcumstanoes, was believed to be wan and shadowy, like men seen through a 
frosty mist'* 

* Hahnot C6urt Books, 
t ^ It has pleased a writer of the Coekney sohool of Highlanders to convert this word 
into Okulifft which^ we take leave to obsonrje, is unknown in the Highlands, and did not 
resist before the year 1841." 



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THE Waters. 13 

Sir Walter Scott, in his " Lady of the Lake/' alludes to the same super- 
stition : 

" His dazzled eyes 
Beheld the riyer-demon rise ; 
The mountain-mist took form and limb, 
Of noontide-hag or goblin grim ;" 

and adds, in a note, that " the noontide-hag^ called in Gaelic Gla84ich^ a tall, 
emaciated, gigantic female figure, is supposed, in particular, to haunt the dis- 
trict of Knoidart'' 

Now, though I by no means intend to assert that the glassene gentlemtm 
or lady (for I am unable to define the ghost's gender) haunting Glassensikes 
is seen at noonday,* I will maintain that Glassensikes has goblins as grim 
as any riyer-dasmons of Scottish land. Headless gentlemen, who disappeared 
in flame, headless ladies, white cats, white rabbits, white dogs, black dogs ; 
" shapes that walk at dead of night, and clank their chains ;"f in fiwjt, all the 
characteristics of the Northern Bai^est were to be seen in full perfection at 
Glassensikea It is true that these awful visions occasionally resolved them- 
selves into a pony, shackled in an adjoining field, or Stamper's white dog, or 
a pair of sweethearts " under the cold moon," (Qy : Did poets ever hear of 
persons walking above the moon, be she hot or be she chill ?) but still a vast 
amount oi credible evidence exists about the &llen glories of the night-roaming 
ghost of Glassensikes. The Glassensikes witnesses are not all thoughtless, 
and superstitious men. An old gentleman of DarUngton was, at the witching 
hour of midmght, returning from Oxeneyfield. It was a bright moonlight 
night, and the glories of the firmament led him, as he says, to possess a more 
contemplative turn of mind th^n he ever felt before or since. In such a 
frame he thought that if nothing was to be seen in the day, nothing could 
well haunt Glassensikes by night, and in firm fiuth, but without any wish to 
exercise an idle curiosity, he determined to look to it very narrowly, and 
satisfy himself as to the &llacy of the popular notion. Accordingly, when 
he came to the place where the road to Harewood HiU now turns oflF, he 
looked back, and was greatly surprised to see a large animal's head popped 
through the stile at the commencement of the footpath, leading by the pre- 
sent Woodside to BlackwelL Next came a body. Lastly, came a tail. Now 
my hero, having at first no idea that the unwelcome visitant was a ghost, was 
afraid that it would fly at him, for it bounced into the middle of the road and 
stared intently at him, whereupon he looked at it for some minutes, not 
knowing well what to do, and beginning to be somewhat amazed, for 
it was much laj*ger than a Newfoundland dog, and unlike any dog he 
had ever seen, though well acquainted with all the canine specimens in the 

* There is a noontide ghost not very fax off, howeyer,— of whom hereafter, 
t What does Grose mean by saying that ^ dragging chains is not the fashion of English 
ghosts; chains and black vestments being chiefly the accoutrements of foreign spectres, 
seen in arbitrary govemments: dead or aUve, English spirits are flfeet" for in the North, 
the chain-dragging is one of the grand characteristics of onhouselled spirits. 



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14 VICTIMS OF 

neighbourhood ; moreover it was as black as a hound of helL He thought 
it best to win the aifections of so savage a brute, so cracked his fingers invit- 
ingly at it, and practised various other little arts for some time. The dog, 
however, was quite immovable, still staring ferociously, and as a near 
approach to it did not seem desirable, he turned his back and came to Dar- 
lington, as mystified about the reality of the Glassensikes ghost as ever. Of 
late years, this harmless sprite has seemingly become disgusted with the 
increased traffic past its wonted dwelling, and has become a very well- 
behaved domestic creature. The stream, however, loves to make new ghosts, 
and by its stagnant nature does every thing in its power to obtain them. 

The headless man who vanished in flame, was, of course, the many-named 
imp, ycleped Robin Goodfellow, Hobgoblin. Mad Crisp, Will-the-Wispe,* 
Will-with-a-wisp, Will-a'-Wisp, Will-and-the-wisp, William-with-a-wispe, 
Will-o'-the-wisp, Kitty-with-a-wisp, Kit-with-the-canstick (candlestick), Jack- 
with-a-lanthom, Jack-w'-a-lanthoms, Fire-drake, Brenning-drake, Dicfce- 
a-Tuesday, Ignis &tuus, or Foolish Fire (because, says Blount, it only 
feareth fools). Elf-fire, Gyl-bumt-Tayle, Gillion-a-bumt-taile, Sylham lamps 
(being very frequent at Sylham in Suffolk), Sylens (Reginald Scot), Death- 
fires, Wat (seen in Buckinghamshire prisons), Mab (mob-led or mob4ed in 
Warwickshire, signifies being led astray by a Will-o'-the- Wispe) with all the 
varieties of Puck. When seen on ship masts it is styled a complaisance, 
St. Helen's fire, St. Helmes fires, the Fires of St Peter and St Paul, St 
Herrae's fire and St Errayn ; in classic times Helen, and when two lights 
occurred, Castor and Pollux. The phenomenon is a forerunner of death in 
popular fitncy, at sea it is a weather symbol, and in superstitious times the 
Romanist deigy persuaded the people that the lights were souls come out of 
Puigatory all in fiame, to move them to give money, to say mass for them, 
each man thinking they might be some relations' 8ouls.f 

The grand settlement of the Ignis £fttuus (a natural marvel never yet 
satis&ctorily explained) was in the little square field, now surrounded by 
roads. It revelled in its bogginess, the hedge near the Blackwell-lane was lit 
up by unearthly flames, and a woeful wight was unable to return fix>m Black- 
well on one occasion, in consequence of a great gtdph of fire there. I am 
given to understand that the Will-o'-Wisp has been seen even since Hare- 
wood Hill was built, and the field improved. I am not sure that the headless 
man of Prescott's stile (somewhat further up the bank, and hard by a little 
plantation of Nordykes, where the footpath to Blackwell turns out of the field 
into the lane) has quite disappeared from the ken of earthly eyes. I know 
not what the Prescotts did, but surely some dark deeds crossed their annals, 
or else their old deserted mansion at Blackwell, and their stile leading to it, 
would not have become the haunted spots they have. 

Lady ghosts are fitvourite accompaniments of water in the North. Both 
my former residences, Norton and Thirsk, had white ladies near them, on 

* A torch composed of a twist of straw. t Ellis's Brand, 1842, iii. 218. 



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THE WATERS. 15 

melancholy streams ; indeed, in the latter case, the runner took a name from 
the circumBtance, and is called the White-lass-beck. Like the Glassensikes 
spirit, the White-lass is rather protean in her notions, turning into a white 
dog, and an ugly animal which comes rattling into the town with a tremen- 
dous ditter-mj-clatter, and is there styled a barguest. Occasionally, too, she 
turns into a genuine lady of flesh and blood, tumbUng over a stila The 
Norton goblins are equally eccentric Two gentlemen (one, a very dear 
friend of mine, et est mihi scepe vocaiidm, now deceased) saw near a water 
an exquisitely beautiful white heifer turn into a roll of Irish linen, and 
then, when it vanished, one of them beheld a fair white damsel The 
Thirsk maid was murdered; and, some years ago, when a skeleton was 
dug up in a gravel pit near the beck, it was at once said to be that of 
the poor girl 

Glassensikes has a rival in a streamlet running across a most uncanny- 
looking Uttle glen between Darlington and Haughton, near Throstle Nest, 
where the maiden, the cat, and other shapes, gathered around the luckless 
traveller. But though they have not builders to blame for intrusion, they 
have &llen into the pet, and are now heard of even lees than their cousins of 
the glassene sike. 

So much de Mis puellis : on, on with the records of death. 

1714. May 14. — Joyce Habbs of Blackwell, drown 'd in the Teaze, bar. 

1721. Dec 19.— William Hall, servant to Christopher Wardel of Blackwell, drown*d 
i'th* Tees, buried. 

1722. Jnly 10. — The corpse of one snppoeed to have been a man cast up by the Tees 
near Blackwell, buried. 

1722. Dec. 31. — Robert Lnck of Darlington, bricklayer, buried, he was diown*d in 
tiieTeesatNesham. 

1724. April 1. — ^John LongstafT of Dariington, drown'd in the Mill-pott, buried. 

1725. July 1. — Mr. John Child of Blackwell, (who was drown'd in that part of the 
Tees call'd Consdif Caldron or Hob's hole on y 2d of June), buried. 

Here are more ghostly associations. Hob is a name for many spirits of 
very varying characters. There was a Hob Hedeless (Headless) who infested 
the road between Hurworth and Neasham, but could not cross the running 
stream of the Kent, a little stream flowing into the Tees at the latter place. 
He was exorcised and laid under a large stone^ formerly on the road side, for 
ninety-nine years and a day, on which stone, if any luckless personage sat, he 
would be glued there for ever. When the road was altered the stone was 
fearlessly removed. In the Goniscliffe case, Hob was probably one of the 
kelpies or evil spirits of the waters, who, as in Wensleydale, generally 
appeared as a horsa 

Kelpies of Scotland sat by the lake sides and lured women and children 
to their subaqueous haunts, there to be immediately devoured, or swelled the 
water beyond its usual limits, to overwhelm the hapless traveller. The 
later name for the goblin of the Tees is ^eg^otoUr, who is usehil in keeping 



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16 VICTIMS OF 

children from going too near the river.* Some of my readers will doubtless 
have a faint recollection of being awfully alanned in their youthful days, 
least when they chanced to be alone on the margin of the stream, " Peg 
Powler, with her green hair/*. should issue forth and snatch them into her 
watery chambers. The parental threat, " Peg-Fowler will get you," is 
synonymous with " the Boggly-bo will get you," which I well remember 
being frightened with by servants. The Bogle, however, like the Shelly-coat 
of the Scottish waters, and the brags and barguests of Durham is, I think, 
more plaguing than fatal. But who was BO, whose name is so terrific to 
children, and a test of manhood when addressed to a goose ? Warton gives 
him a Scandinavian origin, and describes him as a mighty cleaver of skulls ; 
while Chalmers has provided him with a Welsh pedigree.f Great must have 
been his fame. The name of Marlborough, who has been dead Uttle more 
than a century, is no longer terrific to the children of France ; Richard of 
the Lion's heart has ceased to be a bugbear to the sons of the crescent ; but 
BO, tremendous BO, still rules with iron sway the scions of the oaken- 
souled sea-kings of the nursing soil whence those transitory heroes sprung. 

The legend of Peg-Fowler bears much resemblance to the Irish superstition 
" embalmed in the affecting wail of the mother for her son, seduced by the 
daughters of the waters to drown in their coral caves," and to the ideas 
attached to the Chippeway lake Minsisagaigoming, or " the dwelling place of 
the mysterious spirit," who, as a beautiful lady or an old woman, took away 
to the spirit-land those whom he loved. A benevolent spirit resided in Bob- 
holey a natural cavern in Runswick Bay, Yorkshire, formed like the fairy 
coves at Hartlepool, and the recesses near Sunderland, by the constant action 
of the tide. Hob was supposed to cure the hooping-cough ; and an impious 
and idolatrous charm, till late years, was considered efficacious. The patient 
was carried into the cave, and the parent, with a loud voice, invoked its deity, 

iHj> batnt'^ gctun 't liinlt*foug]^, 
Caii't off, tafe't off.J 

1730. June 22w~William, son of William Oiovee, of Darlington (drown'd by acci- 
dent), bur. 
1730. June 26. — ^Elizabeth Lee, of West Auckland, a young woman (drowned), bur. 

1734. December 15. — ^Anna, wife of Leonard Lakenby, of Dariington, unfortonately 
drowned. 

1735. December 25.->Phillis, wife of Wm. Herd, of Darlington, accidentally drowned. 
1737 — 8. March 23. — John Nateby, of Black well, farmer, unfortunately drowned in 

* Her Pegsbip does not, however, confine hovelf to the rtuming waters. Neighbouring 
ponds are also honoured by her presence. 

t Rambles in Northumberland. The author assumes that Sir Walter Scott's barguest of 
Durham and Newcastle is a mistake for 6oguest. I know nothing about these two particular 
instances, but all the spirits of a similar name which have occurred to me in Yorkshire 
were certainly called (orguestsr and the likeness to the words brag, and the German baig- 
geist, satisfies me that this pronunciation is correct. 

t Ord's Qeveland, 303. 



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THE WATBBa 17 

the Tees, upon the dOth of Jannaiy last, and not taken up till Slst of this instant, 
buried. 

1746. AfHnl 8.— John Thompson, of Darlington, flax diesser, who had drowned him- 
self, buried. 

1751. August 5.^— Ann Jackson, a servsEnt-maid, who was drowned at Blackwell, 
buried. 

17(12. Nof«mba'9w--l^il]liamLei^itoii,oftheparishofShotlqr,inNorthumberiand, 
stonmnason, who was drowned in the river Teese^ about Winston, and carried by the 
force of the stream down to Blackwdl, and there thrown out, buried. 

1773. August 27w— James Teasdale, a labouring man, from Durham, and who was 
unfortunately drown'd in the river Tees, buried. 

1794. Bfaroh 9.— Jane Patter8on,of Bedale, wfaowas drowned in the river Tees, nigh 
Blackwell, buried. 

1796. February 17w*Lewis Hammond, cabinet-maker, an itinerant, drowned in the 
mill-dam, buried. 

1798. Joanna Husband, of Darlington, spinster, daughter of Edward Husband, 
^over^— March 14th, This poor woman was missed. Buried April 10, aged forty-two. 
Drowned in the mill-dam. 

1804. Martin Brown of Darlington, batchelor, aged 28 years, drowned in the Skeme, 
December 26, buried 27. 

1818. February. — ^An infant drowned in the Skem, found near Skem-House, about 
the age of one month, buried. 

This is the first of a series of records of similar outrages on humanity. 
Three children were found in one wedL in the sullen mill-dam. 

1826. Bfay 2.— John Newton, Barton, found drowned at Blackwell, aged 47, buried. 
1832. Nov. 6.— George Stout (drowned at Neesham Ford), Darlington, aged 42, buried. 

In the churchyard is the following inscription : ** Sacred to the memory of 
John Morton, of Liverpool, who vras unfortunately drowned whilst bathing 
in the Tees, the 10th of July, 1838, aged 27 years." 

January 5, 1840. Sunday afternoon. As Mr. John Ghisman of Biack- 
well mill, and Mr. Butter were walking on the shore of the river Skeme, 
about three hundred yards from the mill, on the way to Darlington, they 
observed something in the water like a flannel petticoat ; a foric was procured 
and a substance raised which proved to be the body of a female. It was 
carefully removed, with further assistance, to a granary at the mill, where 
an inquest was held before William Trotter, Esq., coroner for Darlington 
Ward, on the following ~ day and, by adjournment^ on the day succeed- 
ing. The evidence went to show that the deceased was a young woman 
named Susan Dagley, a native of Coventry, who had worked at Messrs. 
Pease's mill for about nine months, and was missed from her lodging at 
Priestgate, in Darlington, about five weeks previous, since which period every 
efibrt for her discovery had been unsucceesfiiL Thomas Brownrigg, a fellow 
lodger, had been taken into custody on the suspicion arising from the circum- 
stance diat, on the ni^t of Friday, the 29th of November, about half-past 
seven in the evening, she threw her tea-tin on the table of her lodgings and 
went out without £ipeaking a word to any one. Brownrigg, who lodged in 



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18 VICTIMS OF 

the same house, went out about seven and returned at half-pa^i nme o'clock 
the same evening when he ssud to another lodger, named Woodhams, 
'' Woodhams, have you seen anything of Susan V And before he had time 
to reply he ai^ed the same queetion of the old woman, Jane Scott, who kept 
the lodging-house. On the Sunday, Brownrigg told Woodhams he had 
been seeking aQ over for her ; and a female named Margery Newton deposed 
that about seven that morning she saw Brownrigg eoming up from the watw 
in a stooping position. Mr. Arthwr Strother had examu»d the body and 
found the arms and hips to be very nrach bruised, the Ivngs healthy, the hraiii 
much gorged with blood, no appearance of pregnancy, and considered that the 
murder must have been committed before the body was thrown into the 
water. The deposition of Brownrigg went to account for the use he made of 
his tone on the night in quMtioB, the portiealarB of whkb coincidBd with the 
statements which two or three other witnesses made as to the thnee when they 
saw him. Verdict of " Wilful murder against some person or persons 
unknown."* 

I8M August 2. A boy, of BliMskweU, named Fenwick, about 11 years 
old, while crossing the Tees, was carried away by a flood, whidi came down 
suddenly in consequence of the late rains. It is singular that in the same 
month in 1845, an inquest was held on the body of his brother Joseph, aged 
10, who had been an inmate of the Victoria Asylum, Newcastle, and was, at 
the time of his death, on a visit to his friends. Although blind, he could go 
about and had strayed on the high road at the time the Bichmcmd omnibus 
and Cook's circus carriages were passing each other. He was knocked down 
by the omnibus horses, and run over before it could be stopped, it being on 
the declivity of the hill leading down to Bladcwell bridge. 

Whit-Tuesday, 1846. A youth 13 years old, son of Mr. Wm. Nicholson, 
comber, of this town, while bathing a little above Tees Cottage, got out of his 
depth and was drowned, though the most strenuous eflR»i» were made by hb 
fellows to save him, (one of whom neariy experienced the same fete). ** The 
river Tees is exceedingly unsafe for inexperienced people to bathe in : the 
bottom, being chiefly of a sandy nature, is by the frequent floods ccmtinually 
shifting, and it is not an unfrequent thing for a person unacquainted with 
the water to slip fit)m a place not knee-deep into a hole eight or ten feet in 
depth.^'t 

1846.- November 26. Great excitement pervaded the town this day on 
the intelligence being received tliat the conductor of the mail cart from the 
York and Newcastle Bailway Station was drowned in the Skene, and the 
bags lost The poor man whose name was Heniy Nesbit, but who was 
better known by the cognomen tA Marry Boa^, set off from the station as 
usual, with the night mail bags, but not arriving at the King's Head Inn, 
inquiries were made, and one of the onmibus drivers said he had seen some^ 

* RichardsoB*8 Local Historian's Table Book. f Durham Advertiser^ 



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THB WATERS. 19 

iking Vk» a eait upside down m the MiU-poi The cart and horse were 
found, bttt pO(tf Httny wae not <fi80DT€a*ed till tiie momii^ of the 27ih^ the 
body haying been moving about in the MiU-pot the whole of the previous 
daj> as the plaee wham it was found had been dragged previooslj without 
soeeeaB. The rirver wm eonaiderabfy swollen, and it would appear tibat the 
d e e o a o 6d nust have attempted the nartow eoid dangeioiis passage called the 
Mill Bank; where there is no laiUng, and dipped off the bounding wall into 
the water. The mail-bags were found in a toleraUe eondiU(»i by Mr. Qent, 
of Polami a oonsidtfahle distanoe from the streanL ^^ Hany Boots'' was 
buried with wich roapeot^ and is eommesMvated by a tombstone in the 
duudiyaid 

Many of the melancholy aoMd^its I have menticmed were doid>tles8 in 
the time of 

FLOODS, 

which rapicUy rush down the Tees and Skeme. In February, 1763, the 
former rose in some parts fifteen feet above high water mark, washing the 
turnpike house at Croft down, whereby <f 50 of the road money was lost in 
the water. In a letter* dated from Bedmarshall, in March, Mr. Johnson 
writes to Dr. Birch, that ^'it drowned almost entirely all the viUage of 
Neesham, having destroyed eveiy house except one, to which all the people 
resorted, and by good luck saved their Uvea, though with the loss of all their 
cattle, and staoks of hay and «om.'' *^ The great flood," however, was par 
aninencB, that of November, 1771, which caused most disastrous conse- 
quences on the Tyne, Wear, and Teeaf The water passed through Qain- 
ford, and carried away about seven yards of the churchyard, with the coffins 
and corpses ; some of them stopped at Mr. Hill's ground at BlackwelL The 
Gaatle-hill at Blaekwell^ was washed away. The water was above six fe^ 
hj^ in William Allison's house at Oxeidiall Field ; it spoiled the com 
stacks, drowned two of his &t oxen, a mare and a foal, and [another ?] mdi 
foal, of the Traveller's breed, with a four years' old one of the eame sort, veiy 
valuable ; a draught horse, andarnm that cost him ten guineas, and spoiled all 
the household property below stairs ; 'twas as high as the ^ntre of his dock 
pointer. He ^aved his etallien, which was in a stable built en purpose for 
him, that stood on the highest ground, though he was up to the rump in 
water. The family at Slip Inn abandoned the house, and escaped with 
much difficulty to William Jolly's ; had they stayed three minutes longer 
they had been drowned. At Oroft, the flood was in the church, and the 

* BibBotheca Topogr&pluca Britan. 

t See RichsrdB0ii*8 Local Historian's Table Book, sab 1771,— CrewsteHs Stockton^ and a 
siuaU repriat of the accoonts of the terrible immdations dt 1771 and 1815, published by 
Ctetnlej, of Nirwusstle, tai 1618, frsm whl6h the foUowliig renaricB are taken. 

X This expresdon most be taken cum grano acdia. The flood, doubtless, was very destruc- 
Uve to this venerable remain, but its utter desolation has been in very gradual profiress, 
and a r^nnant stiU remains.— W. H. L. 



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20 FLOODS. 

gates carried away. There a man and a wife forced to the house top, clung 
by the rigging tree a long time, but at hist the old woman, being no longer 
able to bear herself up, tod^ leave of her husband and dropped, but he out of 
lasting aflfection, replied^ ^^no, my dear, as we have Uved forty years hiq>pily 
together, so let us die in peace and love/' and instantly leaving lus hold, 
resigned himself to the Will of Providenca It ha{q)6ned, however, that the 
upper floor of the house was left standing, and they wero hiq>pily saved 
thereon, the water having subsided. 

In this flood, the Tees rose twenty feet higher than the oldest man living 
could remember, and as the quantity of water in it and the Tyne and Wear, 
appeared so much more than the apparent quantity of rain which had fallen, 
incessantly, but not heavily, on two previous days, many conjectured that a 
water-spout must have broken near the sources, which are veiy near to each 
other. At Barnard-castle the water ejected a dyer fixHn lus oellars, just as a 
few tammies in the kettle were receiving their last process. After the torrent 
had subsided, he visited his kettle in great anxiety, when, removing the sand 
and mud at the top, his goods were found to have attained a colour beyond 
his most sanguine expectationa They were sent to London, and gave such 
satisfiu^on, that orders were forwarded for a further supply of the same 
shade, but the dyer, not being again assisted by the genius of the river, fiiiled 
in every attempt to produce it. 

€keat damage was also done at Darlington and along the banks of the 
Tees, by the floods of December, 1815. On February 2, 1822, a most tem- 
pestuous wind, with heavy ram, was the precursor of more heavy floods in 
the north. The Tees began to rise at nine o'clock on Saturday evening, and 
the road from Groft Bridge to Darlington was impassable. On Sunday 
morning the water was seven feet deep in the main street of Stockton, and 
the mail passed through Hurworth. The water stood fifteen feet on Groft 
Bridge. Another severe flood happened in July, 1828, and in October, 
1829, the Tees rose to a height not exceeded within the memory of the oldest 
inhabitant of Barnard-castle, sweeping away the new bridge, then building at 
Whorlton, to the ruin of the unfortunate buOdera The Tees was also very 
highin August, 1832.* 

This river is frequently frozen, notwithstanding the tides and rapid current 
In 1780 it was frozen eight weeks, and in 1784, when the ice was eight and 
a half inches in thickness, a sheep was roasted upon the river at Portrack. 

One of the most remarkable 

CHA&A0TEBI6TI08 OF THE TBB8, 

is its fimcy for winding in eccentric curves. From this circumstance, 
indeed, it derives its name, the Celtic Toot, signifying winding. We have 

* Sykes'fl Local Records, edit. 1833. 



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THE TEES. 21 

mcn^ liyers than one of this name in Her Majesty s dominions, and the 
Thiess, a large riyer, flows into the Danube. In '' the winding Tay/' we 
have the word in nearly its original form, and a pleonasm strikingly expres- 
sive of ihepropriety of its af^nrojuiation. Dyer fisll into the same venial error 
when he talks about ** the shady dales of winding Towy, Meriin's fi^bled 
haunt,'' Towy being only a modifieation of Tay. Every one recollects the 
Tajo (pronounced T^o) flowing past Lisbon ; there is a Tava flowing into 
the Danube, and another river of the same name in Moravia ; nay, there is 
even a Tay in Chima ! 
The following popular sayings connected with the Tees may amuse: 

An otter in the Wear, 

You may find bat once a year ; 

An otter in the Tees, 

You may find at your ease. > 

Theiyne, the Tees, the TiU, the Tarset and the Tweed, 
The Ahie, the Hlyth, the Font, the Tanet and the Bead. 

The Tees, the Tyne, and Tweed, the Tanet and the Till, 
The Team, the Font, and P<mt, tfaelippal and the Dill.* 

Eacaped the Tees and was drowned in the T^e. 

So the Welsh say ''To escape Gluyd and be drowned in Gonway,"" in general 

jffoverbial speech, '' out of the firyhig-pan into the fire,"' and '' out at Qod's 

Uessiug into the warm sun."" Here are two more locals of the same 

meaning. 

Oat o^BLsholirigt into Yorkahire. 

'* Tate} n^otn^'—made the lad leave Yorkahiie, 

And when he gat into Biahotrigg he was mner dune.J 

The Tees has, however, been celebrated in more polished numbers. It is 
intaxxluced by ''the gentle Spenser*' into his "Marriage of the Thames and 
Medway," thus : 

Then came the bride, the loVing Medway came. 
Her gentle lookee adowne her back did flowe 
Unto her waste, with flowers bescattered, 
The which ambrosial odours forthe did throwe 
To all about, and all her shoulders spred 
As a new-spring ; and likewise on her head 
A chapelet of sundrie flowres she wore : 
On her two pret^ handmaids did attend. 
One cal'd the Theise, the other cal'd the Crane ; 
Which on her waited, things amiase to mend, 
And both behinde aphdd her spredding traine. 

* The principal Northombrian rivers. t Bi8hoprio--^ar eminenoe-^t Dorham. 

t Doit 

§ This and the preoeeding ancient saws are from my friend Bir M. Aialabie Denham, of 
Pieroebridge's extensive collection of popular sayings of the five Northern coontiea May 
they sacceetfdUy increase and at length see the light of the world! 



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22 THE TSBS. 

Mason exdfthuB, 

Rejoice ! as if the thtindeiiqg Tees himself 
Reigned there amid his cataracts sablimei 

However, near Darlington, ihe poet's kka is not realized. This noUe 
stream ^that beareth and ftedefeh an exoelknt salmon" has passed the 
terrible giandear of tts &Db ; flown hj the eastle of the Baiiols, wUch 
'' standeth atately" on its cia^i ; and reached the vale idiere doping baidra 
and shady groves hang over it with rapture, and where, rolling amidst 
laughing meads in all the vmjBBbf of pride, it was first cheered by early 
civilization, as shown by the minute distribution of parishes, and gave name 
to the gallant race, who, first taking the sabnon as their ensign, showed their 
deep reverence for the waters of their home ^ super Teysam" How 
FaUier Tees meanders ! by the ricI^WDods of Baydale ; fay Chstle Hill and 
the sweep of Blackwell Holme ; through the time-w(Hnft arcade ol Groft ; 
jutting round Boek GEff ; kmdly saluting Hurwordi and Neasham ; hurry- 
ing south to endl>niDe the mA bwns of Soekbom ; and then dashing back 
again, entranced hy the luinriasit walks of Dinsdale; reaUy one might 
almost suppose he was seeking some Mr streamlet to woo and win, remem- 
bering his sweet union with die Greta : 

Where iming ^nan her darkseme bed, 
She caught the moraing'e eadem ved, 
And through the softening vale below 
Rolled her bright waves, in rosy flow, 
All blushing to her bridal bed 
like some Air aoM in eonvetit Ined. 



" After Derlington,^' says Gamden,* the Tees has no towns of more note on 
its banks, but washes tiie edges of green fields and countiy villages with its 
winding stream, and at length throws itself at a wide mouth into the sea.'' 
Yarm is, however, described as bipffer and better built than Darlington by 
him,-f to which charaeter we need only q>ply De Foe's remark on it ; " it 
has seen much better daySy" as it nowm^*ely eontuns 1500 inhabitants, while 
Darlington has nearly 11,000. 

The Tees abounds with fishes of the sahnon kind, consisting in popular 
diction, of sparling, brandlipg, troi^ salmon-trout or seurves, summer-cock, 
and sahnon. The convent of Duffaam oecasionally ptooored their fireeh water 
fish from the Tees. 



1508. To Edward Sfloyth for 8t>arling and pkoe apud Tttiss 

1539-40. For "900 sparlinge from Teys agiunst Christmas, 12d,X 

The fishery of sabnon is now, of coutBc, confined to certwn periods. The 
* Gough's edit. f Britannia, ii, 943. t Banar's books- 



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THE SKERNS. 23 

fence days fixed by the North Biding and Durham Sessions, in 1848, are 
Sept 17, and Feb. 14, the fish bdng tak^i in summer. Near Dinsdale are 
the celebrated Fish-locks, for intercepting them in their migrations. This 
<^)po0itk)n to the natund disposition of the salmon, to go some thirty miles 
fitfiher up the river in qNiwnii^ season, is exceedingly destructive to the 
race, and projects have been set on foot to procure its abolition, but they have 
^wajB fiuled. 

AmoQg the various other fish inhabiting the braupe riwr caBed Teexe^* 
some belonged to the Bidkop, by virtue of his regal privileges. 

Thai ikt Bpp has the n^altyes of the river of Tease, as Whalss, Stoigeon, Poipoees, 
or the like^ taken on that aide the river next the ooonty of Durham, within the manor of 
Stockton, and aO wracks of the sea, but know not what they are worth : — not 61* per 
ami.— AfTM^r </ Stodtton Manor, taken when the ParHameni eofd iheponeeekne of 
Mke IM. 

At this day ^* not one shillin^^ posnUy would be a more correct return. 
Whales we have nMW^ the parpiHses uselessly gambol near the sandbanks at 
the river's moothi and a stuigeon is a rarity. A remarkably laige one, 
oaq|;ht bdow Yarra, was eshihited alive at Darlington, in 1848 ; it mea- 
aani 1 fi. £ ik in length, and weighed about 8^ ^ In former days this 
^' Royal Fish" would very probably have grieved the pious soul of good old 
Cosin. The duogee of catching and curing five stuigeon at his manor of 
Howden, in 1662, what with dill and rosemary, eleven gallons of white wine 
at 2«. SdL the gallon, 16^ gallons of vinegar at !«. 8dL the gallon, and one 
thing and another, came to SL 17#. \d^ which the Bishop reasonably thought 
rather a costly matter, as the fish were chiefly given away to my Lord 
Clarendon, my Lady Gerard, &c. So he desired his Howden steward to 
€at6k no Vkore stwrgeom, and sharply adds '^ you need not have item'd me 
for yoor diU 0nd rotemary" For the first assizes after this prelate's con- 
secraticm, held at Durhani, Aug. 12, 166T, when all men's hearts were full 
of joy at the restoration, we have the following charges : 

For a litt oxe, bought of Wm. Man, of Peircebridge, llL 5». Od, 
To the carrier, for bringing a caee of sturgeon /ro' Darenton, 4s, lOd. 

Truly might Mr. Arden exclaim, " We are prepared to receive the Judges 
fwUy/* and doubtless Mr. Neile was equally true in asserting, ^ We eat and 
drink abomnably!' 

* Biewster^ StodEton, edit. 1796, p. 22. 



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24 THE SKERNE. 



THE SKERNE 



Is almost as amusing as the Tees in its twistings, as the low grounds 
adjoining the foot road from Darlington to Haughton, and near Blackwell 
Mill (where the ancient course conducts the waste water), may well testify^ 
but in all other respects it widely differs, being a small, still, sluggish stream, 
flowing through cars and marshes. From the Well-springs to the north of 
Trimdon, rises Hurworih-Bum, which runs east for nearly two miles, then 
turns south, crosses the Hartlepool road, and at the distance of half a mile to 
the south-west, sinks entirely, and disappears in a swallow-hole in the lime- 
stone rock. Near this spot the South Skeme rises and meets the North 
Skeme near Nunstainton. The latter has its source in the marsh which 
separates Thrislington from Ferry-hill wood, and is soon augmented by 
powerful feeders from the limestone rock skirting the morasa At Feny-hill 
the Convent of Durham had a swanpool, but the silver swans have long 
ceased to oar their way across their loch, and the swannery is now occupied by 
railroads and station-houses.^ A flat of marshy land, peat bottoming on 
clay, extends along the whole upper course of the Skeme, and has been 
much fertilized by draining, retaining its verdure in the most parching 
drought At Mainsforth the peat Ues uniformly about eleven feet deep, 
below that is blue clay of great depth; nearerthe edge of the level the peat bor- 
ders on limestone, through which constant springs, whidi never vary in winter 
or summer, burst with great force. The roots of the trees which have been 
planted on these grounds have run almost entirely along the surface, never 
venturing to plunge a fibre into the wet peat The roots of the willow in 
particular (of lai^ growth), are one complete mass of fibres closely inter- 
woven, and as regularly spread on the sur&ce of the peat as if levelled by a 
carpenter's plane. The Scotch fir has reached fifly feet in height, with a 
girth of six or seven feet, the root meanwhile, not striking two feet below 
the turf 

This little water of Skeme cont^ns twelve species of fish : 1, roach; 2, 
dace ; 3, chub ; 4, gudgeon ; 5, minnow ; 6, miller's thumb ; 7, stickleback ; 
8, trout, rare; 9, pike; 10, barbut or eelpout; 11, eel; 12, lamprey 
{petromyzon bnmehialis). 

Of these the barbut, gadius lata, is not of very common occurrence ; it is 
an inhabitant of still lazy streams like the Skeme, where it fi^uents the 
deepest pools or hollows under bridges; it is seldom caught by an angle, nor 
is more than one usually found in any one pool It is not unoonunon in 
the Wiske, near Northallerton. The whole skin seems like shagreen, or 
marked with the impression of small pin-heads. A barbut taken in the 
Skeme, near Hardwick-mill, June 21, 1811, measured sixteen inches, and 

* Raine, in the Glossary to the Dnrham Household Book. Surtees Society. 



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THE SKERNE. 25 

weighed 14^ ounces The stomach contained a minnow and some weed. The 
Saxon fisherman in Elfric's Dialogues, names among his fishes eels and 
se^Muts. The latter name seems now to be confined to the north. Both 
Plott and Morton mention this fish as of very rare occurrence, the latter 
saying that in Northamptonshire it is found only in the Nen. Plott states 
that only four had been taken in Staffordshire, in his memcMy, and gives a 
good description of the fish from a specimen twenty inches long, t^en in 
Faseley Dam, in the Tame, Aug. 1654, and presented to Colonel Comberford, 
of Comberford,* " who caused it to be drawn to the life and placed in his 
halL'' These general remarks are culled from Surtees, who feared the 
Nymphcea Alba, the beautiful white water lily, was extirpated, he certainly 
remembered seeing it in the Skeme, near Mordon, and mentions it as being 
preserved in ponds at Mainsforth. The yellow still exists. 

The Isle, a gloomy residence of the Llsles and Tempests, is completely 
insulated by the Skeme and small streams, and is always liable to be inun- 
dated. The capabilities of the Skeme, for such amusement, have been tested 
in a costly manner by the Bailway Company, who, from their piling bills, 
must have become well satisfied with the tmth of the old adage, 

When Roseberry Topping wears a hat, 
Morden-Carrs will sufier for thatt 

The Scotch have a similar saw anent a stream, with a ^milar name. 

When Caimsninir puts on his hat 
Palmuir and Sfyrebum laugh at that. 

The Skeme, in records, is frequently the Skyrea The following odd com- 
pound of Law-Latin and English, is too curious to be omitted. 

Carta Ricardi Prioris, de manerio de Woodham, ooncesso Thome de Whitworth per 
diyisaa. 

Omnibus, &c., Ricardus, Prior Dunelm. et ejusd. loci conventus. Noveritis nos 
dediase, &c. dilecto et fideli nostro Thome de Whitworth, pro homagio et fideli servicio 
SQO, manerium de Wodum, cum omnibus suis pertin. per metas et divisas subscriptas, 
viz. " a jforih vermts Ademore guod duett a WindUOon tuque Derfyngton, per petras ex 
parte orientali vie, ascendendo usque Dissyngtretawe, et 'a dicto Lawe usque parvum 
herre per unam petram jacentem juxta dictum kerre, et sic tunc ultra viam ex parte 

• A truly honourable race, who I find stuck close to their hall of Comberford, from the 
days of Stephen, till their extinction in the male line in 1671, and who little need the mar- 
veUoos proof of their antiquity, in possessing a sort of banshee, in the shape or rather 
sound of three knocks heard in the hall before the deceaRe of any of the family, though the 
party might be at never so great a distance. One branch was represented by the Ensors of 
Wilnecote, par. Tamworth, the ancestors of Sarah Ensor, <* whose grandmother was a 
Shakspear, descended from a brother of everybody's Shakspear" according to the assertion 
of her husband, John Dyer, the p^cntle author of Grongar Hill. 

t Dt'nham'H MSS. 

K 



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26 THE SKERK£. 

occidentali usque Wyndlilston Stctfald, per petras ex parte orienialidi cti Stot&Id et a 
dicto Stotfiald usque Holmealawe et a dicto Lawe usque magnam petram, et a dicta 
petra usque l>UMM}\ix\A unam semitam que ducit a Wyndleston usque Wodom. Et 
a dicta semita usque ad antiquam fossam per unam petram et unam tike quod extendit 
usque rivulum versus Chilton more ex parte oocidentali le Reshefibrthe, et sic per dictum 
riyulum desoendendo usque Staynton-Milne per unum sike usque SJteme, et sic per 
aquam de Sfyren usque Wodambum-matUhe, et sic per Wodombum equaliter asoendendo 
uaqnepredktumjbrthe, quod ducit a Wyndilstonuique DerlyngUm fvrn>,habendum, &c 

The monks had also a fish-pool at Ferry Hill, and as late as 1631, a lease 
of Cleves Gross &nn mentions the Ed-ark, a device it is presumed to take 
eels, still so abundant In 1364-5, the Bursar paid '' the expenses of a 
chaplain for two days at Ketton, about the fishing against the feast of S. 
GuUibert, in March, 4a. 3d" The fishery was probably for eels in this 
instance. The Skeme was also (Eunous for its pikes.* 

Small as this rivulet is, it is extremely important in a commercial point of 
view. Its water is so famous for bleaching linen, that great quantities have 
been sent hither for that purpose from Scotland,-^ besides the vast manufEhO- 
tured stock at Darlington. In 1810, in the course of thirteen miles adjacent, 
the Skeme turned twelve mills ; seven for com, two for spinning linen yam, 
one for woollen, one fulling mill, and one for grinding optical glasses. The 
sike running past Favordale joins it at Coatham Mundeville. 

There is a remarkable pentagonal field to the N.E. of Newton Ketton, in 
which four considerable rivulets arise, and during a great part of the year 
water ma}' be seen running in four different directions, occasionally in great 
quantities. The first runs from its S.E. comer to Byersgill, Stainton, 
Bishopton, Thorp and Blakeston, and passing between Norton and Billing- 
ham, flows into the Tees near Portrack. The second springs frx)m the south 
fence only a few yards from the first, and &lls into the Skeme, below Ketton 
County Bridge. The third proceeds from the S.W. comer, and penetrating 
the gloomy gill of Lovesome Hill, augments the Skeme near the factory of 
Coatham Mundeville. The fourth rises in the N.W. comer, and gliding 
past Preston Lodge, through the Earl of Eldon's estates, mixes with the 
waters of Morden Carrs, before Bicnall Grange, after passing beneath the 
Clarence and York and Newcastle Railways. Pity that such a singular 
close does not exist in the east, there it would have established the &me of 
some geographical speculator, and fixed the site of Eden at once. 

* Gough's Camden. f Luckombe*8 Gazeteer, 1790. 



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THE COCKERBECK. 27 



THE CXKIKERBECK OR COCKE-BECH. 

Flows from Walworth and joins the Skerne in Northgate. Many rivens 
bear similar namea Thus we have in Cumberland, 

The Codcer and the Calder, 
The Dutton and the Derwent, 
The Eden and the Ellen, 
The Eamont and the Esk, 
The Greta and the Oelt, 
The Leyen and the Liddal, 
The Irving and the Irt, 
The Mite and Peteril, 
The Wayer and WampooL* 

Camden takes the etymology of cockney frt>m the Thames, which he says 
was of old time called Cockney. A wicked writer in the Literary Qazette,-f 
says, " There was formerly a little brook by Tummill-street, called Cockney. 
Perhaps the ducking bath of the noisy Cyprians on the cucking^tool ? May 
not cockney and also cuckinff-stool be from the term coquean f If so, certainly 
a most unenviable deriTation." In our case, I sincerely hope the cucking- 
stool (alias ducking-stool) in the town was amply sufficient for all our 
" scolding queans" without any Cuck-her-becks being called into requisition. 
An joke aside, we may presume a cocke-boat is from the same source, what- 
ever it may be, as Cocke-beck. 

As before stated, Badle-beck in time of floods carries off the waste water 
of the Cocker-beck. It has its own resources in other seasons, in the shape 
of various gutters intersecting the low lands near, and which, with the main 
diannel, form a pool at the roadside, near Moudon Bridge, which may 
perhaps, properly be called the head of Badle-beck. In the hot days of 
emnmer, however, in spite of all its gutters, pools, springs, and drains, it is 
almoat if not completely diy. At the bridge near Badlerbeck Inn, it forms a 
very pretty little gill 



THE HELL-KETTLES. 

Then I do bid adieu 

To Bernard's battelled towers, and seriously pursue 
My coarse to Neptune's Court; but as forthwith I ronne, 
The Skem, a dainty nymph, saluting Darlington, 
Comes in to give me ayd, and being prowd and ranke, 
Shee cbanc'd to looke aside, and spieUi neere her banke, 

"^ Ponhain's MSS. f 1646, p. 426. 



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28 HELL-KETTLES. 

(That from their lothsome hrimms do breath a sulpherous sweat) 
Hdl-Kettles rightly cald, that with the veiy sight, 
This water-njrmph, my Skeme, is put in such affright, 
That with unusuall speed she on her course doth hast, 
And rashly runnes herselfe into my widened waste. 

Drayton'a Pofyolbum, 29th ^onff, Tees loquitur. 

An article in the Newcastle Magazine, for 1826, foncifully endeavoured to 
discover Homer's Hell in New Zealand ! but our Hells at home are quite as 
perplexing as those of Grecian bards. Spiritually, Hell is the place of the 
doomed; temporally, it is the same, but in the one case it is the receptacle of 
those who steal, in the other, the stronghold of the stolea Don't you recol- 
lect, good reader, the man who 

had, as well 

As the bold Trojan knight, seen Hell: 

Not with a counterfeited pass 

Of golden bough, but true ^old lace,* 

And the note explaining that tailors call that place hell where they put all 
they steal ? Again, HeU spiritual is sometimes Paradise ; so, in a minor 
way, is HeU temporal : 

BARLET-BBEAK, OB LAST IN HELL. 

We two are last in Hell : what may we fear 
To be tormented, or kept prisoners here : 
Alas ! if kissing be of plagues the worst, 
We*ll wish, in Hell we had been last and first. 

A verse from Herrick's Hesperides, alluding to a pleasant forfeit in the old 
game of Barley-break, in which three couples played. One went to each 
end of the ground, and ran across, when the couple in the middle (or Hell) 
caught, if they could, one of the running couples and placed them in Hell 
instead. In names of places the word is equally various in its signification. 
It may mean a hill, or a hole, or water, and as a place may be seated on a 
hill by the side of water, or vice versUy and if by water, in nine cases out of 
ten, must be low also, in the same proportion it is almost impossible to state 
the origin of a name with ffell in its composition. The confusion is made 
still worse by the word being often corrupted into hill, as in Hylton (anciently 
Heltun) by the Wear; Hellegate afterwards Hylgate, now Water-row, in 
Morpeth, leading from the Wansbeck ; Hilton, new: Staindrop, formerly 
Helton (on a hill) ; Hilton Beacon, in Westmoreland, formerly Helton 
Bacon (under a hill), &c Again, keUe is still used as a verb, " to pour out 
in a rapid manner,'' hence probably HelveUyn, a cascade on the Glaamsen, 

* Hudibras. 



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HELL-KETTLES. 29 

in Norway, and Helvellyn, in Cumberland, down which a cataract rushes. 
Lastly, it means solitary, lonely, as in Hellebeck. 

I have referred to this latter word in p. 3. Thoresby, in hia Diary for 1694, thus 
mentions it. " On the left nothing but a ghastly precipice to the Fell-foot, which, I 
think, may as well be called Hell-foot, as those riverets (which Camden mentions, p. 
727) Hell-becks, because creeping in waste, solitary, and unsightly places, amongst the 
mountains upon the borders of Lancashire.** 

Hodgson, in his Northumberland, decidedly says that the name of our Hell- 
Kettles means tPoter-kettleQ (being in Oxen-le-field, the Field of Waters), in 
iUostration of which I throw together half a dozen names in the parisL 

North and South Hdmer Arm, the names of two closes of 'the Wharton land 
between Darlington and Haughton, in 1771. Hdmer, Elmer, or Aylmer, is a pleonastic 
expression, sgnifying the lake of waters, 

Elstamtoftes, at Blackwell, see p. 8. 

EUdtanke$, at Darlington, mentioned in Hatfield's Survey, and probably on the 
Skeme. 

El fy ngmedowe^ wberdn the Punder, of Darlington, had half an acre at the same 
poiod. 

Le EOinffy a copyhold ck)0e in Bondgate, to which Jane Sober, widow of William 
Sober, was adm. in 1621.''^ 

EUvUj in DameCon, a copyhold parcel of land mentioned, 1642.t 

19 Feb. 42 Eliz. Wm. Hdcoat held one ox-gang ui Cockerton, late Edward Perkin- 
son's, by knight's service, leaving Michael his son and heir, who alienated to Marshall, 
Smith, and Lewlin. Ptfdon to John Marshall for 20 acr. of land, 20 of meadow, and 
20 of pasture, from Michael Helcoates, 9 Jac 1611. John Smith, 10 acr. of meadow, 
frmn Helooates, 26 July, 44 Eliz. Anthony Oilpyn had pardon for acquiring the same 
from John Smith, 20 Aug. 1628. 14 Feb. 42 Eliz. Richard Lewlin d, seijsed of lands 
purdiaaed of Michael Hdcotes, hdd by the 40th part of a knight's fee. Henry, his son 
and heir, aged 6 years. John Marshall d. seised of 20 acr. of meadow, as much of 
pasture and as much of arable, 1634, leaving Robert hi^ s, and h, ct 38.^ Francis 
Heloott and Heloior Todd, married 1594-5, Jan. 26. Par, Reg, 

10 Skirlaw, John Tesedale died^ized of lands in the Westfield of Darlington, in a 
certain place called HeU, which 9 Bishop Langley's time, were the possession of the 
Eures (Inq. p. m. Rad. Eure, 17 Langley) and Hutchinson thinks it not unreasonable 
that the Hell-Kettles took their name from being situate in this land, but I scarcely 
think it can be identified with the territory of Oxen-le-field, which lies nearly due south 
of the town. The Punder held half an acre in the Westfield, at Hatfield^s Survey. 

Another writer derives the name from the British Ao/, an alkali (whence 
halm^ salt) and kiddle, or kidte, a dam : Hal-Kiddles, salt pits.§ But the 
most daborate idea is that in Hutchinson. 

"Most of our lime works, marle-pits, and allum-pits are wrought much deeper than 
six yards ; water standing in hollows, from whence marie has been gotten, will taste 

* Halmot Court Bks. 
\ Ibid.— I Geo. 1, Wm. Davison and Eliza ux. to George Allen, merchant. Elvis alias 
Mings alias Le Ings, 

X Sorteefr § Beauties of England and Wales. 



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30 HELL-KETTLES. 

pungent on the tongue, and curdle mUk and soap [as that of these pools does] : we 
know of no allum being wrought here, though it abounds in Cleveland, not many miles 
distant, but the use of marie was very early, and it is probable these were marle-pifis : 
they resemble the workings in other counties, where marling is still practised. Marie 
was known to the Romans, and by them exported hence to foreign countries ; we have 
statues mentioned by our antiquaries, dedicated to Nehallennia or the new moony particu- 
larly some inscribed by Negodator Cretarius BritannicianWy a dealer in marie, chalk, or 
fuller's earth, to the British territories ; and these being called Nehdllennia's Kettles, or 
of Nib-Hel, in the old German tongue, from the trader's dedication, might be corrupted 
to, or called Hell's Ketties, and the monastic writers, to efiace the memory of the old 
superstition, might devise the miraculous account." 

And yet, after all these solemn devices for a name, I verily believe that the 
earthquake ori^n, is, in the main, true, though it may be handed to us in an 
exaggerated form, and that the name has merely a reference to the infernal 
character of the production and water of these marvellous kettles. Such 
was the popular idea of it in Harrison's time, as appears from the following 
singular passage: 

'' What the foolish people dreame of the Hell-KetUes, it is not worthy the rehersaU, 
yet to the ende the lewde opinion conoeyvod of them maye growe into contempt, I 
will say thus much also of those pits. Ther are certeine pittes or rather three liUe 
poles, a myle from Darlington, and a quarter of a myle distant from the These bankes, 
which the people call the Kettes of Hell, or the DemVt Ketteles, as if he shoulde seethe 
soules of sinfuU men and women in them: th^ adde €tlso that the spirites have oft heene 
harde to crye and yell abottt them, wyth other like talke, savouring altogether of pagane 
infidelitye. The truth is, (and of this opinion also was Cuthbert Tunstall, Byshop of 
Durham) that the colemines in those places are kindled, or if there be no coles, 
there may a mine of some other unctuous matter be set on fire, which beypg 
here and there consumed, the earth falleth in, and so doth leave a pitte. In deede 
the water is nowe and then warme as they saye, and beside that it is not deere, the 
people suppose them to be an hundred faddame deepe, the byggest of them also hath 
an issue into the These. But ynough of these woonders least I doe seeme to be 
touched in thys description, and thus much of the Hel-Ketties.'*— Harrison in Hollin- 
shed, 1677, Ld4. jk 

Gertes, the idea of the spirits being boiled is most horrible ! 

The ketties next morning were boiling and foaming, 
A groan in thdr deeps was full ghastily booming, 
A sulphureous stench was ymixt in the air, 
And the carles they were cowed and said many a prayer. 

But the days when the peasants could boil their pottage in the Hell-Eettles 
have long fleeted, and travellers by rail may not say like those by road of 
1634,* " The three admired deepe pitts, called Hell Kettles, we left bayling 
by Darlington/'* 

* A Relation of a short Survey, begun at the city of Norwich, on Monday, August 1 1th, 
1634, and ending at the same place. By a captain, a lieutenant, and an ancient ; all three 
of the Military Company in Norwich. 



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HELLKETTLES. 31 

Neither do authors write thus : 

In the country hereabouts (in htQUs €igro, in a field belonging to this place, G«) are 
three pits of a surprising depth, commonly called Hell-Kettles, from the water heated 
in them by the compression {Ani^^eristans, Reverberation, G.) of the air[!]* 

And notwithstanding Daniel De Foe says so decisively " As to the Hell- 
Kettles, so much talked up for a wonder, which are to be seen as we ride 
from the Tees to Darlington, I had already seen so Uttle of wonder in such 
country tales, that I was not hastily deluded again. Tis evident they are 
nothing but coal pits filled with water by the River Tees," — we do not find 
that coal or otherf- mineral has been dug thereabouts, and certainly pits of 
114 and 75 feet diameter bear no very great resemblance to coal pits 
drowned Besides the depth, notwithstanding the superstitions and the 
proverb 

9itf Betp Hi t^t Ken &ettktf,$ 

occasionallj applied to convey the idea of an unfathomable mysteiy, is very 
moderate. Dr. Jabez Kay wrote to Bishop Gibson : — " The name of bottom- 
less pits made me provide myself with a line above 200 fathoms long, and a 
lead weight proportionable. But much smaller preparations would have 
served. For the deepest of them took but fifteen fathom or thirty yards of 
our Une." According to the measurement of Mr. Grose and Mr. Allan, 
however, October 18, 1774, the figures stand thus : 

Diameter of the three larger kettles abont . . .38 yards. 
Ditto smallest abont .... 28 ditto. 

Depth of the four kettles respectively, 19}, 17, 14, and 5] feet. 

Another class of popular ideas includes a number of floating traditions of 
passages from the kettles to the Skeme and Tees having been discovered. 
One legend connects itself with some eastern diver, or " man of colour" who 
dived and passed from one of the pools to the Skeme, but the story is more 
common of a goose or duck, which found its way into the Tees. In Leland's 
time there Uved a prudent wary man, ycleped Anthony Bellasyse, a doctor 
in civil law, master in Chancery, and one of the council of the North, who 
was younger brother of Richard Bellasyse, Esq., and laid the foundations of 
the Newburgh House of Bellasyse, by obtaining a grant of the scite of the 
abbey there, which he settled on his nephew. Of this worthy, Leland notes§ 
in this wise, " Mr. Doctor Bellazis tolde me that a dukke, markid after the 

* Gotigh's Camden. An old translatioti of Camden has it thtis :—** In this Townefield are 
three pitts of a wonderful depth, the common people tearme them Hell-Kettles, becaose 
the water in them by the Antiperistasis or reverberation of the cold air striking thereupon 
waxeth hote.** 

f I have somewhere seen the Hell-Kettles supposed to be lime-pits. 
X Denham MSS. § Itin. vi. 24. 



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32 HELL-KETTLES. 

fascion of dukkes of the Bisliopricke of Duresnie, was put into one of the 
poolee called Hel Ketelles, betwixt Darlington and Tese bank, and after was 
found at [Crofte] Bridge, upon Tese thereby, wher Grervalx* duelleth, and that 
be it the people had a certain conjecture, that there was gpecus mtbterr. 
betwixt the ij places." Surteesf shrewdly remarks that nothing is more 
natural than that the duck should leave the sulphureous brackish pool in 
which she was placed, and walk across two or three green fields, to the Tees. 
Camden attributes this discovery to Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall, and calls the 
animal he had marked a gocm. Gibson makes a sad mistake when he says 
that the tradition has ceased in the neighbourhood. 

The &ct is, that any subterranean passage is impossible, and the l^nd 
ridiculoua The opening of such would be visible in a river, though it is not 
in the kettles, and the latter would rise in floods to the same level with the 
stream. But there they are, sable, solemn, still, sulphureous. Floods and 
droughts come and go with then* effects on the Tees and Skeme, but the 
Hell-Kettles rest the same evermore. They are, in reaUty, fest flowing 
springs. Three of them are joined by a sur&ce channel, and the water is 
carried away by a steU or streamlet which supplies the neighbouring farms 
with water, and runs into the Skeme, the fourth and smallest pool is detached 
and close to the road. The water is drunk by the cattle, and does not 
seem to be at all injurious to them, but the pike and eels frequenting the 
kettles, always eat soft and watery, as if out of season, being in truth, natural 
prisoners, where a freebom fish would certainly fret awaj all his fatnesaj 
Surtees mentions the following plants as growing at Hell-Kettles, Hippuris 
VidgcmSy mare's tail ; Cliara hispida; Utrictdaria Vtdga/rU, conmion hooded 
milfoil ; Schcsnm mcmscus, prickly bog-rush ; Potamogeton pectinatumy fen- 
nel-leaved pondweed ; Lemna trisulca, ivy-leaved duckweed ; and carea^ 
stricta. The ponds are much choaked with vegetation. 

The chronicles of Henry H's. reign§ are full of " uncouth wonders," and 
the year 11 78 must have been a most marvellous one. 

♦ aervaux of Ci-ofl. f Vol. i. 20-2. t Gordon's Guide to Croft, &c, 1834. 

§ I do not think the following has Ix^n added to any of our county histories, thougli it 
forms a capital gloss on the grant by this king to Bishop Flambard, of a market at Norton, 
on the Lord's Day, and is extremely curious in a literary point of view, to boot:~In 
Brompton's Chronicle, it is related that as Henry was passing through Wales, on his return 
from Ireland, in the Spring of 1172, he stopped at Cardiff Castle, on a Sunday, to hear mass; 
after which, as he was mounting his horse to be off again, there was presented before him 
a somewhat singular apparition, a man with red hair and a round tonsure, a distinction 
which would seem to imply that there were still in Wales some priests of the olden church 
who held out against Romish innovations, and retained the ancient national crescent- 
shaped tonsure. He was lean and tall, attired in a white tunic, and barefoot. This indi- 
vidual began in the TetUxmic tongue, " Gode olde Kinoe," and delivered a command from 
Christ, as he said, and his mother, from John the Baptist, and from Peter, that he should 
suffer no traffic or servile works to be done throughout his dominions on the Sabbath-day, 
except only such as pertained to the use of food ; which command, if he observed, what- 
ever he might undertake, he should easily accomplish. Although only the three first 
words are chronicled in what the writer calls Teutonic (i. e. Saxon or English) there can 



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HELLKETTLES. 33 

'^ Thk yeare," aays old Hollinahed, ** on the Sunday before the nativitie of S. John 
Baptist, being the eighteenth of June, after the setting of the sunne, there appeared a 
marveUous sighte in the aire vnto certaine persons that beheld the same. For whereas 
the newe moone shone foorth very faire, with his horns towardes the east^straighte wayes 
the upper home was derided into two, out of the middee of whiche devision, a brenning 
brand sprang up, casting from it a fe^m off coales and sparkes, as it had bin of fire. 
The body of the moone in the meaue time that was beneath, seemed to wrast and writh 
in resemblance like to an adder or snake that had bin beaten, and anone after it came 
to the olde state agayne. This chanced above a dosen times, and at length from home 
to home it became halfe blacke.* 

In September following, the moone beyng about seyen and twentith dayes olde, at 
sixe of the docke, the sunne was eclipsed, not universally, but particularly, for the 
body thereof appeared as it wer homed, shoting the homes towards the west, as the 
moone doth, being twentie dayes olde. The residue of the compasse of it, was covered 
with a blacke roimdell, whiche comming downe by little and little, threw about the 
homed brightneaae that remained, til boUi the homes came to hang down on eyther 
side to the earthwards, and as the blacke roundell went by little and little forwardes, 
the homes at length were turned towards the west, and so the blacknes passing away, 
the sunne received hir brightnesse againe. In the meane time, the aire being fal of 
doudee of divers coulours, as red, yellow, greene, and pale,holp the peoples sight with more 
ease to disceme the maner of it. (A strange edips of the sunne, in the marffin.) The 
K. thys yeare held his Christmas at Winchester, at whiche time, newes came abroade of 
a great wonder that hadde chaunced at a place called OxenhaUy within the Lordship of 
I^erUngUmy in which place a part of the earth lifted it selfe up on height in apparance 
like to a mighty Tower, and so it remained from nine of the clocke in the morning, 
till the even tyde, and then it fell downe with an horrible noise, so that all suche 
as were neighbours thereabout, were put in great feare. That peece of earth with the 
fall, was swallowed up, leaving a greate deepe pitte in the place, as vxu to be scene many 
yeares after."t 

It does not seem to have struck the chronider that the pit still remained in 
the shape of Hell-Kettles, nor does he account for its disappearance. The 
event is more minutely detailed in Brompton's Chronicle.^ 

be no doubt that the rest, though recorded in Latin, was in the same, and it appears that 
the king understood English, though he might not be able to speak it, for he, speaking in 
French^ desired his attendant soldier to ask the rustic if he had dreamed aU this. The 
soldier (who most have spoken both languages) made the enquiry accordingly, in English^ 
when the man replied to the king in the same language as before, " Whether I have 
dreamed it or no, mark this day ; for, unless thou shalt do what I have told thee, and 
amend thy life, thou shalt within a year's time hear such news as thou shalt mourn to the 
day of thy death." Then he vanished, and calamities thickened on the perverse king. 
His pro&ne market at Norton waned and fell, and like the heap at Oxenhale, the place 
of the Market Cross is marked by a large pool, called Gross Dyhe^ which, as dyke is applied 
to any thing formed by digging, may have been artificially caused. Some years ago I 
remember its being p^fectly dry in a hot summer, but was too young to observe whether 
any remains of the Cross foundations existed. 

• Grerua. Dors, in margine, 

t An. Reg. 25. Rog. Hone. 1179. in mwrginey i. e. the year 1179 began at the Christmas 
in mention. Roger Hoveden wrote at the end of 12th and beginning of the 13th centuries. 

X Brompton was abbot of Jorevale or Jerveaux, in Yorkshire, and Selden has shewn 
that the book was by no means written by him, but merely procured for the house while he 
presided. The chronicle begins with St, Augustine's mission, and ends in 1199, though the 
author (who wrote it in or after 1328) intimates at the commencement his design of bringing 
it down to the time of Edward I. It is compiled from earUer authorities, some of which 
we do not now poosess* 

r 



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34 HELL-KETTLES. 

1179. Abottt Christmas, a wonderful and unheard of erent fell out at Oxenhale, 
Yiz^ that in the very domain of Lord Hugh, Bishop of Duiliam, the ground rose up on 
high with such vehemence, that it was equal to the highest tops of the mountains, 
and towered above the lofty pinnacles of the churches ; and at that height remained 
from the ninth hour of the day even to sunset. But at sunset it fell with so hor- 
rible a crash, that it terrified all who saw that heap, and heard the noise of its fall, 
whence many died from that fear ; for the earth swallowed it up, and caused in the 
same place a very deep pit.* 

Camden, quoting a nearly similar passage from the Chronicles-f* of Tyne- 
mouth, says that the earthquake origin of Hell-Kettles was at his time 
adopted by " the wiser sort and men of better judgment." Lord LyttletonJ 
observes that in the account " only one pit is mentioned, and naturally the 
&Iling in of an heap of soil so raised would form but one. This hill probably 
was puffed up by subterraneous fires, like that in the Lucrine Lalce, now 
called Monte-novo ; but what has filled up the chasm caused by its sinking, 
or divided it into different cavities, it is not easy to say." Gordon adds that 
'* as modem philosophy has ascertained that sulphur and water are active 
agents in the production both of earthquakes and volcanoes, it seems highly 
probable that the water of the spring having found its way into the bed of 
sulphur, which impregnates the Spas at Croft and Dinsdale, excited the vol- 
canic action described by the chronicler ; then as soon as the pent up vapours 
got vent, the ground would, of course, sink down, and the spring having thus 
gained the sur&tce, would produce the hollows which subsist to this day. In 
fact we learn from Sir William Hamilton's account of the great earthquake 
in Calabria, in 1783, that circular hollows filled with water were produced in 
the plain of Rosamo, during that awful convulsion of nature." When roads 
were bad and communication slow, events would become much altered in 
their transmission from mouth to mouth, before they reached the chronicler's 
ears, and if the j^enomenon was of irregular extent, and caused more hills 
and pits than one, the largest would probably only be recorded. Allowing 
that there is a difficulty in the identification, is there not a much greater one 
in answering the question, " If Hell-Kettles are not the vestiges of the eartlb- 
quake, where was the deep pit, and what has blotted its trace from Oxen-le- 
field f ' In Cheshire, A.D. 165.., " a quantity of earth foundered and feU down 
a vast depth,"§ and near Leeming a similar occurrence took place about a cen- 
tury ago. The ground gave way and a deep pond appeared. Men with 

* Ann. 1179. IntrtL vero idem natale Domini oontigit apud Oxenhale quoddam mirabile 
a seciilo inauditum, exilicet, quod in ipsa Domini Hugonis Episcopi Dunelmensis culturay 
terra se in altum ita vehementer elavit quod summis montium cacuminibus abequaretur, 
et quod super alta templorum pinnocula, emineret, et ilia altitudo ab hora diei nona usque 
ad occasum soils permansit. Sole vero occidente, enm tarn horribili strepitu cecidit, quod 
omnes cumulum ilium videntes, et strepitum casus itiius audientes perterruit ; unde multi 
timore iUo obierunt ; nam tellus eiun absorbuit, et puteum profundissimum ibidem fecit. 

f They mention the ** deep pit" as being ** to be seene for a testimony unto this day." 

t Life of King Henry II. Appendix, p. 24. 4to. edit 

§ Aubrey's Wiltshire, Roy. Soc. p. 106. 



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HELL-KETTLES. 35 

teams were em^^oyed to fill it up, and had almost succeeded, when one day, 
on their return from dinner all had disappeared, and the hole was as deep as 
ever. It is said to be unfathomable, is nearly fuU of water, and now sur- 
rounded by a strong hedge to prevent accidents. A man is reported to have 
sunk with the earth, and the field is called C^e Carti^qua&t dFitHr.* By the 
way, some fiifty years ago, a gentleman lodging at Jamie Trenholme's, in 
Blackwellgate, leaped into one of the Hell-Kettles, and was drowned. 

Thrice happy associates, who keep up the sport, 
To the field haste away, to Hell-Kettles resort ; 
And crown, boys, and crown all confusion's dear joys, 
With rancour, and malice, and nonsense, and noise. 

Deny down, &c. 

And whilst you are drinking from Cocitus* cup, 
And Lucifer kughs as you quaff the toast up, 
The muse who hangs loitering upon your dull heel, 
Will further descriptions and characters steal. 

Deny down, &c. 

Such are the two last stanzas of <' Nimrod's Ga&land : or, Darlington 
Ghace," a desperately personal tract from Greoige Allan's press, a piece of 
no incident, and whose allusions are too local to be veiy interesting. It was 
succeeded by " A Tail-piece to the Darlington Chase," and " The Dismal 
Lamentations of a Monopolist of Game, some time since moumfrilly sung 
on the banks of the Don ; at present applied by Christopher Fungus, Esq., 
to himself and his brother, Nimrod Fungus, Esq., and bellowed out widi 
greater pathos on the banks of the Tees, to the tune of '^ Babes in the 
Wood.'' MukUo nomine, de ts Fabvia narrcOur. London : Printed in 
Kackwall Close, 1783. Licensed and entered according to order." This 
latter is not without spirit, but in the present excitement on the game ques- 
tion, may not be exactly suitable to the pages of a book for all readers, 
though withal highly amusing. 

H [i] 11 had a great ox — sheep I've in store, 

Hare or mutton, our dinner's the same ; 
Our servants will not think of neck-heef. 

When their bellies are filled with Gamb. 

An odd tract was published by M. Damton, in 1791, entitled " Hell- 
Kbttlbs, with Thb Origin of Darlington : a Dramatic pastoral," 
prefifcced by a short and rather important description of the place. Tl^ei^ 
eomea an apology from the author in lines of a peculiar construction : 

His work, devoid of rhetorical charms, 
But aims at narrative — ^not stage alarms. 

* Ex inf. Nicholai Trant de Bedale, Chirurg. 



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3G HELL-KETTLES. 

The Dramatis Person® are^ Mmerva ; Sylvia, a sheph^ess ; Areadins, a 
shepherd betrothed to Sylvia, and the Gbnius of Darlington. Sylvia, in a 
grove, pensive and terrified at the convulsions of nature, is approached by 
Arcadius, who, in horror asks if his hapless absence has '^ forced hesperion 
drops from those adorable luminaries,'' whereupon she gives an account of 
the direful presages which had happened near the confluence of the Dare and 
Tisa, and the tremendous sounds which " reechoed from the neighbouring 
mountains.''* Arcadius informs her that these things were pronounced at 
Adey's sacred grove, and is interrupted by Minerva, who calms their fears 
and explains in a way not very relevant to the catastrophe, how the 
Naiads, Neptune, Sol, and Vulcan, would combine to bless Deira. The 
Genius of Darlington sings about Mercury visiting " the sweet banks of the 
Dare," and with Ceres, Pan, Bacchus, and Silenus, forming a mart at 
Darlington, which Jove approves : 

Old Cathbert, whose miracles fill the dull page 

Of monastic transcribers from Rome ; 
His bones claim the merit our pains to assuage, 

His veiled courtesy softens our doom. 
Appalled by this pretext, the son of great Ulph, 

Adds the Umn to his patron's domains. 
In hopes of ayoiding Charybdis' feigned gulph 

And the torment of Chimera's flames. 

Grave Leland in after-times prancing this way. 

The archives of famed Albion to trace, 
'Tis meet, said the Sire, to my Prince to convey 

A picture so apt for his grace : 
He noted the Temple, the Palace, and Mart, 

With the soft-flowing stream of old Dar : 
All Phoenix-like risen, not harmed by the smart 

Of frenzy, disaster, and jar. 

The happy association of the stately Outhbert, with Bacchus and Silenus, 
the idea of Stjr son of Ulphus having ever dreamed of Charybdis and 
Chimera, and the gallant contempt of vulgar chronology, displayed m the 
genius of 1179 recalling Leland and blufi" Hal in his narration, all are as 
refreshing in these iron days as a cucumber in sununer, and exhibit a vigour 
of conception well deserving of a guerdon from the Pastoral Aid Society. 
There is, after all, something curious, considering how DarUngton has caused 
railways to spread over the globe, in Minerva's bouncing prophecy of a time 
when "this fertile district shall be the luminary of agricultural science; 
distant empires shall profit by her instructions ; and the Scythian deserts be 
ameliorated with her implements." 

One note more as to marle-pits. I have just been to Hell-Kettles, tasted 

* Where are they \ 



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WELLS. 37 

all their waters, and could not distinguish any pungency whatever, they were 
slightly fiiYoured with iron,* and by no means unpleasant to the taste. A 
dog drank them readily, and completely nullified the popular notion that the 
canine species will not venture to swim across these pits of Avemus. The 
water of the large pool waer beautifully clear round the margin, discovering a 
bed lined with vegetation of an exquisite green, indeed it merits the appella- 
tion of a very pretty little mere, the two conjoined were darker, and the 
smallest quite muddy. There was something about all these pits, neverthe- 
less, unevthly and solemn, producing an effect upon the mind, peculiar and 
lasting. A firiend adds one more origin for them, viz., that they were 
workings for iron stone. Poor old chroniclers, what liars we modem sceptics 
would make you ! 



WELLS. 



In 1645 when Henry VIIL granted the/nessuage in Darlington which had 
belonged to the Priory of Mountgrace to Thomas Whytehed (neariy related 
to the last Prior and first Dean of Durham), in free socage, it is described as 
" all the messuage formerly in the tenure of BicL Aleynson. now of Chris- 
topher Hogge and Agnes his wife in Darlington otherwise Dameton upon 
the welL"f This was, doubtless, the q>ring which gave name to Tubwell 
Bow, more anciently le well rawe^ juata TubbweUyl and which was, like the 
well in Skinnergate, of sufficient consequence to need annual overseers. The 
overseers of le TubbtteU and 8kinnergaite WeU (two for each) occur from 
1612 when the Borough books commence, and cease during the hiatus 
(1633-1710) in them, for in 1760 the overseers of the Highways were 
amerced for not repairing the TubweU. It is now covered by a pump. 

1612. The JoroTB lay a paine that none shall wash doathes, fish, or such like things 
at the Tubwell to putHfie the same' upon pidne of 6s 8d. 

1621. A paine none shall washe any clothes, fyshe, or scower any skele8§ tubbes or 
other vesseb, bat at or below the Utle weU tU the tubwell upon paine of 38. 4d. (Borough 
Booh.) 

The well in Hundegate || is mentioned in the charter by which Bishop 
Beke gave to the Church of Darlington a messuage as a vicarage house, near 
the gate of his mansion, with one venell^ which formerly led to the well, by 

* The presence of iron is very visible near them, and a spring strongly impregnated with 
it originates a steU in a neighbouring field. 

t Snrtees. t Borongh Books, 16l2i 

§ A skele ia a small round tub of wood, with an upright handle of the same material, 
rising at one side instead of an arehed one across of iron* || F<mtem de Hundegate. 

f Narrow Vaemge* A veneU, eaUed Hundgate WeU, Is mentioned as a boundary in 1507. 



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38 BRIDGES. 

the taking in of which the messuage was enlarged. This was in 1309. In 
1621 the daughter of Mrs. Hearyn and the wife of Henry Shawe were 
amerced for abusing the well in Hungate.* 

In the Nessfield estate, close to the Skeme, is the Drop- well, covered by a 
brick arch by the Allans and of very tardy flow* which, accompanied by a 
group of cattle in the summer, constitutes a happy picture. Between Dar- 
lington and Haughton also, near the foot-path from Northgate is the Bock- 
well, which springs from rock seemingly formed of small stones united by a 
limey substance. This, with its canopy of trees, is also a beautiful Uttle 
scene, but it has been much injured in latter years by a wholesale plunder of 
part of the rock, to the great regret of all lovers of nature's elegance. 

16 Jas. I. Surrender of a dose in Cockerton, called Capsay-hill, bounded on the 
S. by Cole-street, and on the W. by (hpsay well dose. — {Halmot Books,) 

1642. Thomas, Lord Faulconbridg Baron of Yaram, nephew and heir of James 
Bdlans, Esq. deceased, adm. to Grasse Inn Moore, Kilnegarth, Kay Close, Cheisley, 
East and West Myers, Wdl leezes, Annat Thome, AnruU weU, and HuntersheQe field, 
in Blackwdl, which belonged to his uncle, James. In the next court, James's widow, 
Isabella, adm. to some of the Towne land, Blackwell, and his executor, Thomas Swin- 
bome, to all the closes specified above. {Halmot Books.) James Bellasis lived at Owton, 
and in Stranton church is a costly monument to him, displaying his efligy as rising 
from the tomb and throwing off a winding sheet, with a long epitaph in the usual fill- 
some style of the period. 

One of the springs in the Baydales estate flows down a grim little glen 
called Grimsley Gill (a most appropriate cognomen), and uniting with a larger 
runner which proceeds from anotiier spring rising in the middle of a field 
and is never dry, finds its way to the Teea 



BRIDGES. 

In some old charter at Durham I remember mention being made ot a ford 
at Darlington, but a Bridge existed here in very early times. In 1343, 
Cecilia Underwood-f* leaves ^^ponti ttUra aquam de Skyrryn 13*. 4rf. Item 
ponti de Halghton fo. 8rf. Item qui vocatur Walkebrigg 28, Item pontibus 
inter viUam de Norton et Herdewyk 3«." Leland says, " Darington Bridge 
of stone is, as I remembre, of three arches,'' but, in after times, it possessed 
nine goodly arches, which are very conspicuous in Bailey's print of 1760, and 
which Defoe, in 1727, mentions as "a high stone bridge over Uttle or no 
water." In fiwjt at that time and until a very recent period the river was 
wide and shallow and formed a vast morass along its banks on the eastern 
side. At the October sessions, 1751, a view and report were ordered of 

* In 1666, laod called Homidwells Is mentioned in Hanghton. Hutch, iii. 181. 
t Of whom hereafter. 



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BRIDGES. 39 

Haughton and Burdon* Bridges, and also the road at the N.E. end of Darling- 
ton Bridge ; and in April, 1752, the report of Tho. Davison, Geo. Allan, W. 
Sutton, John Emerson, and Henry Thorpe, justices, who, with the county 
surveyor, had viewed the premises, certified : 

" That the said Bridges and road are very insufficient and Dangerous in the winter sea- 
son for Carts, Carriages, and Persons passing on horseback along the same, by reason of 
the Deepness of the said Road and the overflowing of the River Skeam upon the same, 
and at the said bridges (even in very small floods) whereby not only carriages but also 
laden horses are frequently stopt for several days together ; and we do also eertify that 
the said Bridges and Road have been, time immemorialy, used for Carts and Carriages, 
and (as it appears to us) have been constantly liepaired and Amended by the County of 
Durham ; and we do also certify that it will (in our opinion) be absolutely necessary, 
and for the Publick good, to enlarge the said Bridges and Road, viz., by Building another 
large Arch at the East End of Burdon Bridge sufficient for Carriages, and to raise the 
road at each end of the said Bridge ; also, by taking down and widening the Arch of 
the Bridge at Haughton, and raising the Road at the East End thereof; also, by raising 
the Road at the North-East End of Darlington Bridge with a Battlement or Flank 
Wall on the side thereof, so as to make the same sufficient, and fit for Carts and Car- 
riages to pass along the same with safety.*' 

The estimate in 1753 of John Hunter for building the proposed wall, for 
" 10 cundels to take off the springs in that part of the road," for levelling the 
road to ijje height of the wall and paving a " causey " in front of the houses 
was cf 50 7s. The wall was to be 1 yard high and 1 2 yards distant from 
the houses. 

In 1767 Messrs. R and W. Nelson, of Melsonby, contracted to build a 
new bridge for <je860, of Gatherley Moor stone. In this estimate, the para- 
pet was to be of brick, but in 1768 Counsel moved that at an extra cost of 
<f 140 (making the total cost ^1000) a stone parapet should be erected by 
Nelsons on the ground of the insecurity of a 140 yards line of brick which 
would be a perpetual charge to the county '* as it was in the old Bridge 
where repaired with bricks.'' Six out of ten magistrates consented.^ 

This bridge is a plain one of 3 arches, much too narrow (especially in the 
footpaths) for the traffic upon it as an approach from the Bailway station, 
and shamefully encroached upon by ugly sheds, &a, built upon the parapet 
walls. It stands at the foot of TubweU Bow (which is called Briggate by 
Hutdiinson) by the side of the scite of the old nine-arched bridge, which, 
after all, had a very gallant effect 

The Skeme is also crossed by iron bridges at the feet of Priestgate and 
Workhouse lane, and by sundiy smaller bridges communicating with North- 
gate, none of which deserve mention. Those by which the two railways pass 
over it are, however, fine structures, that on the York and Newcastle line is 

* In 1430 Bishop Langlej granted indulgencee to all those who should give alma and 
monies for makiiig a bridge between Halghton and Burdon. 
t Papers pente R. H. Allan, Esq. 



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40 BRIDGES. 

indeed a most el^ant object near the Drop-Well, consisting of light elliptical 
arches on lofty piers. Between the town and the Tees, the Skeme rons under 
Nought or Snipe Bridge and Oxenfield Bridge ; the latter being almost at its 
estuary, over it the Croft road passes. Snipe bridge is of brick, very narrow, 
and apparently built upon the remains of a wider one of stone. It has two 
arches, the Skeme running through one, and a Uttle sike flowing by the terri- 
tory of Humble-sykes, through the other, joining the Skeme under a willow's 
shade just after. Snipe House is close by, and the place has a degree of 
beauiy about it. 

1649. That Francis Goundry, pinder, of Damton, shall scoore and dresse the stell 
nere Damton Bridge before Whit S<mday. (ffaimoi Books.) 

1592. The Dean and Chapter of Durham bestowed out of their funds for repairing 
highways and bridges, '' To the highway between Cottom and Darlington £1 lOs. 
To Skeme Oxen bridge £\P £20 a-year was spent by the Chapter for this purpose, 
upon their foundation. 

1710. John Dent, oi Ncughi Mc^e, par. Darlington occurs. (Borough Books,) 
Nought (neat) is a general word for cattle. We have a Nought Fair. 

The Gockerbeck after leaving the head of Badle-beck (which is crossed by 
Moudon Bridge, near Moudon House, and the Barnard-castle road) flows 
under a good stone bridge (near which is Stepping-stone Close), and another 
in Northgate, which has recently been widened, and near which John, the 
son of Robert Hutchinson, of Thurslington Hall, a young man, was slain by 
a tail from his horse in 1713. (Par, Beg.) 

1620. Bridgend house and Bridgend close, Cockerton, occur. (Hcilmoi Books,) 
1627. Christopher Skepper adm. to Cockerton Briggs Close (Haimot Books,) 
This fellow was son of Christopher Skepper, of Durham, who was derk of the Halmot 
Court, steward of Darlington Borough Court, 1612, and ''the 13th son of his father." 
He died 1623. Young Kit was a ^ prodigal," and when he was admitted to his father's 
lands, hy order of Mr Justice Hutton, in 1625, it was only on giving security to pay his 
fathei^s dehts, for which he was then imprisoned, and to keep harmless his two brothers, 
William and Moses. The latter was clerk of the Halmot Courts, and Christopher Sher- 
wood, Rector of Bishopwearmouth, preached his funeral sermon (1641), from the odd 
text, '' Moses my servant is dead." (MickUton's MSS.) There are Skepper's Closes 
in the Hill Close House estate, which are leasehold of the Bishop, an unusual tenure 
here. Chr. Skepper was amerced in 1621 for keeping undersitters in his house. 
f Borough Books, 

\* 1619. A paine of d9s, that Richard Patteson shall, hefore the feast of St John 
Baptist next, eyther joyne with Hurwoorth and make a hridge hetwixte the Lordshipp of 
Hurwoorth and the grounde belonging the Borrough of Darlington in the usuall way on 
Brankin Moore, or otherwise avoyde his cowegaite hefore that tyme of the said moore 
for ever hereafter, for which charge he hadd the said cowegait formerlie graunted. 
(Borough Books,) A small runner divides the townships of Hurworth and Dariington. 

Formerly the coaches from Mchmond, fee., came round by Croft, but, in 
1832 the foundation-stone of a bridge of Gatherley-moor freestone was laid. 
It consists of 3 Hght elliptical arches, the centre one being 78 feet and the 



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BRIDGES. 41 

two side arches each 63 feet span, and was designed bj Mr. Green, of New- 
casUe. A Toll is exacted on both horse and foot passengers. On Dec. 16, 
1833, the Tees rose with great rapidity to an unusual height, and, as a 
labourer was attempting to secure some timber* at the new bridge, it was swept 
away with the man upon it, and carried down the stream. On arriving at 
Croft Bridge, the dangerous situation of the man was observed by a gentle- 
man on horseback, who immediately galloped to Hurworth, and gave the 
alarm ; and, on the timber arriving at that place, the man was removed by a 
boat, in a state of great agitation, and safely landed aahore. 

Grott bridge is one of the noblest bridges of ancient date that we have in 
the NortL It has 6 large arches and 1 smaller arch on the Southern side, 
each of which is boldly ribbed, and the widening of the bridge instead of de- 
teriorating from their beauty has added greatly to tlieir richness, the new 
part being similar to the old, though the bounding line is very visible on 
close inspectioa The North Riding of Yorkshire repairs 95 yards 2 inches, 
and Durham 53 yards and 2 inches. 

The blue boundary stone is on the pier of the 3rd arch from the Durham 
side, and is inscribed - — '' Duk.) contbibvat nobth bid. con. ebob. et com. 
DfTKEL. STATV. APVD SESS. VTBtf GEN. PAC. AN. DO. 1673." In former times, 
however, the metes and bounds on a Tees bridge when thieves " took Dam- 
ton Trod" were matters of life and death as much as of £, s. d. now, a cir- 
cumstance seized by Surteas in his excellent ballad founded on the fiict of 
James Manfield, of Wycliff, gentHman^ claiming sanctuary at St Cuthbert's 
door in 1485, for having, with others, assaulted and slain the Rector of Wy- 
cliff with a Wallych bill (Welsh bill or axe.) 

He twirled till he wakened brother John ; 
" ho," the friar cried, 
" We 8et lygbt by these mad pranks on the Tees, 
If they keep the southern side. 

" But hadst ihou done so in DamUm Ward, 

At the Blue-stone of the Brigg, 

By'r Lady, thou had far*d as hard 

As Dallaval did for his pigge.f 

" Ho, penancer ! here's a jolly fellow 

Has slain a Tees- water priest*" 
" Gramercy," quoth he, "if the 'vowson be ours. 

The damage will be with the least. 

• The wreck of a jetty swept down by the flood. The labourer's name was Jeffrey 
Bntterfield. 

1 1 have heard it oft told, that one morning of old, Seaton DelavEd Hall was a Tynemouth 
monk's staU. This &t monk he did prig the roast head of a pig, Just about to be eaten by 
the gay lord of Seaton, who whacked him so sore that he eat little more, and died, as they 
81^, in a year and a day. But the prior and each monk, put the knight in a fdnk, and 
made him give lands to add to their sands, and cut on a cross, now scarce worth a toss, 
their own rhyme on the guilt he had done with his hilt. Now, thus ran that note on the 
rascal he smote— 

® l^orrftl \ient ! Co Itill a man for a pig'jf \){nt. 

o 



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42 BRIDGES. 

" These rascab are neither streight, nor strict ; 

They keep not St. Cuthbert's rule ; 
He that follows not Benedict 
I count him for a fule. 

\* 1598. Bishop Matthew writes to Archbishop Hatton informing; him that the 
pledges lately delivered by Sir Robert Kerr, Warden of the Middle marches of the 
Scottish border, were to be conveyed to York, and be received at Alnwick by Mr, Wm. 
Fenwick, from whom the Sheriff of Durham was to receive them at Gateshead and deli- 
ver them to the Sheriff of Yorkshire at Croft Bridge, ** being the utuaU place hetwme that 
emtntie and this to deliver and receave all maner of prisoners,*^ However, the event was 
that the Under-Sheriff of Duiliam received them " at the Blewe Stone upon Tine brigg** 
and conducted them all the way to York * The prior circumstances are curious. 1^ 
Robert Carey, deputy-warden of the East marches of England, wrote to Kerr to fix a day 
to take order for quieting the Borders till his return from London. Kerr made Carey's 
man drunk, left him and came to an English village, broke up a house, took a poor fel- 
low whom he murdered, went home to bed, and sent the messenger next day virith the 
appointment. On the day fixed Carey left Kerr in the lurch and rode to London, and 
on his return sought redress in vain. The Scotch Borderers, glad of the quarrel, stole in 
all directions, Carey often caught them and coolly hanged them, and says *^ AU this 
while we were but in jest." At last Kerr's favourite Geordie Bourne was taken, and 
though on the representation of the Borderers, who feared Kerr's fury, Carey suspended 
his execution and posts were sent to Kerr that he might make terms, yet Car^ on 
hearing from the thiefs own lips what a villain he had been, in the meantime executed 
him, and Kerr^s coming was a second time a mere hoax. A Commission of the two 
kingdoms now sat and found many malefactors guilty on both sides who were to be 
delivered as pledges till satisfiaction for the thefts was made. Kerr failing in bringing his 
prisoners yielded himself and actually chose Carey for his guardian. The two became 
good friends. Kerr was delivered to the Archbishop but his pledges were got and he set 
at liberty. Carey thenceforth obtained justice at his hands, and the friendship so 
curiously formed was lasting. 

There are some good old bridges, too, at Barnard-castle, Piersebridge, and 
Yann on the Tees. Formerly a great nmnber of travellers crossed at 
Neasham Feny and drank a naulum with Gharon-f* there, who, when I 
crossed a year or two ago, was represented by a sort of Flibbertigibbet of im- 
portance and impertinence the most comical that could well be imagined. 

Dear Reader, did you ever see the soldier on Damton Bridge, who, when 
you approached, gave a jump on the wall and dashed headlong to the waters 
below with a gurgle and splash ? If you have not, others have, that is alL 

* Hutton Correspondence, Surtees Society, IS?* 139. 
t Tour of Thomas Kirk, of Cookridge, co. York, 1677. Richardson's reprints, No. 25. 



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lAreh in the Old ffaU, Darlington.^ 



DIVISION II. 

^ffwuitx i. Annals from ftft fBaxlmt ^erioti to t^t 
Beatl) of mttfwc^ MSt. 

A little rale, a little sway, 

A sun-beam in a winter's day, 

Is all the proad and mighty bare 

Between tiie cradle and the grave. — Cfrcngar Hill, 

Let me on entering apon this field of labour, trespass somewhat on my 
ecclesiastical diyision, and drag from thence the possible cause of Darlington's 
standing higher than its neighbours. In 893 the Lindisfame clerks thought 
it high time to look about them, for they began to understand '^ that the 



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44, ST. CUTHBERT»S 

Danes would not (like the Devill) be afl^ghted away with holy water, and 
saw by the bad successe of other monasteries, that it was not safe trusting to 
the protection of a Saint."* So, forthwith wandering 



-from Holy lie, 



O'er northern mountain, marsh, and moor. 

From sea to sea, from shore to shore. 

Seven years Saint Cuthbert^s corpse they bore. 

" While these things were going on," says Prior Wessington,f " Saint 
Cuthbert ceased not from performing miracles ; for which reason, in those 
parts, at a distance from the eastern coast (in partibus occidentalibus)^ where 
the said Bishop and Abbot for a while sojourned, through fear of the Danes, 
many churches and chapels were afterwards built in honor of Saint Cuthbert 
—the names of which are elsewhere contained.''^ The Prior here refers to a 
list of these churches which he had compiled and placed over the choir door 
of his Church of Durham. Of course among them is Ecdesia CoUegiata de 
Darlington,^ The Bishop and clergy would rest here on tlieir way from 
Westmoreluid, Cutherston|| (Cuthbert's Town), and Barton, to Cleveland. 
They selected their places of safety with great judgment, and we cannot 
wonder that the hidden pastures on the verge of the Dome should tempt 
their sojourn. Barton is, I think, popularly noted for its two bridges and 
two churches, St Maiy's and St Cuthbert's, and concerning these latter an 
odd legend is kept up respecting two sisters, whose hatred of each other was 
so intense, that they would not worship their Creator under the same roof; so 
instead of building none at all, as would now be the case, they built two 
churches. Of course I do not guarantee the occurrence of any truth at all 
in so unlikely a story. 

The wanderers after visiting Cowton (Cudton, the town of Cuthbert, as 
spelt in Domesday) and divers places in Cleveland, arrived at Craike, (a 
lonely hill there, surrounded by deep forests, so thick, that according to old 
tradition, a squirrel could hop from thence to York from bough to bougL) 

They probably passed through Sessay, a little detached parish of Allerton- 
shire, whose churdi is dedicated to St Cuthbert, though not mentioned in the 

* Hegge's Legend, fee. 

t MS. D. and C Lib. B. III. 80. The assertion is amply borne out by tradition. 

t Raine's St. Cuthbert, 44. 

§ Sanderson's transcript. 

n <* Cotherston, where they christen calves, hopple lope, and kneeband spiders.*' Some 

hot-headed fanatics of the 17th century actually did perform the profiEuae rite alluded to, in 

contempt of baptism, but I do not know whether Cotherston was pre-eminently flamed for 

such doings. The latter characteristics of Cotherston are inexplicable. On the south side 

of the road, near Doe Park (Ledger HaU) stands the pedestal or socket of what has been 

probably a cross ; it resembles a trough, and here it was where they christened calves as 

they say. Others state that it was for resting coffins upon. This reminds me of a rude 

trough near Borrowby, co. York, where Roman Catholic fiinerals stop in their procession 

to the auld kirk-yard pf Leek. 



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WANDERINGS. 45 

list The old church of Sessay has been pulled down and a new one erected ; 
it was a miserably Italianised structure, but had points of interest Zigzag 
mouldings built up here and there testified its Norman origin, and the 
stained glass was curious. On entering, you saw in the West window, first 
and foremost, a bird composedly playing the bagpipes, and the arms of Eng- 
land and France. Then in the North windows was a chest or coffin contain- 
ing bones oi ghastly hue (reUcs ?) a noble Tudor crown, and the rebus of 
Thomas Magnus, an Agntul^ Dei with M thereupon-|- and his motto above, 9^ 
doll tupll. But who was this great man whose tntuuses alone kept their 
place in the midst of blue flags marked with the matrices of others ? The in- 
seription under his noble figure tells you that he was "Archideacon of 
thest Bydyng in the Metropolitan Ghyrehe of Yorke and parson of this 
Chyrche whiche Dyed the xxviij^ day of August Anno domini M»occcc*L" but 
the villagers will tell yon something more. They will tell you how " Master 
Thomas Magnus'' was found an in&nt in a basket on the morning of St 
Thomas's day, and brought up jointly among the inhabitants of Sessay 
where he was found^how the Saint's day furnished a Christian name for the 
embryo parson, and his bringing up a surname, Q^omatf 9mang u€— how 
b^g a steady youth, he was noticed by the respectable family of Dawnie 
(ancestors of Lord Downe, present owner) and was engaged as a servant to 
one of the young gentlemen, which afforded him an opportunity of obtaining 
some learning—how he improved his abilities and rose to high preferment, 
and then growing ashamed of his style changed it to Thomas Magnus or 
Thomas the Oreat-how pious a man he was, (for all effigies in churches are 
said by peasants to have represented good men)— but not how he imagined that 
according to his motto " As God will," when Qwi had decreed the disgrace 
of Wolsey it was proper for all good men to shun and insult him, and how 
he excused himself from receiving the Cardinal at his official residence, as 
kit house was too poor for such a guest! Magnus was Rector of Bedale also, 
and according to Camden, (who places his finding at Newark, and doubtless 
he would know the truth from " our &thers,") he was a most dreadful 
pluralist 

" Schollers pride hath wrought alterations in some names which have been sweetned 
in sound, by drawing them to the Latine Analogie. As that notable non-resident in our 
fathers time, Doctor Magnus, who being a foundling at Newarke upon Trent, where hee 
erected a grnunmar schoole, was called by the people T, Among us^ for that hee was famous 
among them. But he profiting in learning, turned Among ««, into MagnuSy and was 
famous by that name, not only here, but also in forraine places, where hee was Ambas- 
sadour."! Camden's Remaines, Ed. 1637, p. 146. 

* ** Doctor qnam magnvjs I gravis his, his mitis ut <ignu8*^^ 
+ The herbage is full of columbines, and the corner brasses of the tombstone bear colum- 
bines and lambs alternately* Query, if the former does not allude to his origin ! 
The Columbine^ in tawny often taken. 
Is then ascribed to such as are forsaken, 

Browne's Britannia's Pastorals, 1613, b. i. song 2. 
i He was at Flodden Field. 



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46 STYE'S GIFT 

Wherever it be localized, the legend is probably quite true. Nam es for 
foundlings were often manu£Eu;tured in like manner, thus Guthbert Gknlsend 
was christened 17 Feb., 1565, at St. Nicholas, Durham. But such a name 
in a Darlington case was £eu* too humble for our worthies of 1601 to register, 
so GUnisend was latinized, and the following stately entry inserted : 

t^omsa a treo mti^i^ui^, putt egenuij, itfultva. 

in plsdn English :_Thomas Godsend (sent by Gk)d) a destitute boy, buried. 

To return to Saint Outhbert, whose travelling propensities were of a dis- 
gustingly modem stamp (not to speak of his trip down the Tweed from Mel- 
rose to Tilmouth in a stone coffin*), as much so as those teetotal feasts of his 
votaries at Blencogo in Cumberland, where nothing was drunk save the 
beverage furnished by the Naiad of HMy (Holy) Well nigh S^i. Cuti)bert'tf 
dtane. Another of his wells exists at Scorton near Bichmond, and is called 
CuM^ Kell. It is said that it is good for cutaneous diseases and rheumatism, 
and that there was a monastery or church to the Saint near the spot, though 
no vestiges remain, being probably a site chosen as his resting place. As to 
DarUngton, it may be matter of conjecture whether, as we gather from ^'ould 
wrytynges very pythye and pytyfull for to reade," that women were excluded 
from all churches and cemeteries where St. Guthbert's body had rested,-f- the 
Western bays of the church nave might possibly serve as a Lady Chapel, in 
the same way as the Western chapel or Qalilee of Durham, built by the same 
" joly byshop," Hugh Pudsey. They were never pewed, and there is some 
tradition about a carved oak screen which divided them from the remainder 
of the churcL Sed quasre, how could fair maidens enter this suppositious 
chapel of theirs without treading the cemetry with their unhallowed feet ? I 
am afraid my suggestion must fall through. 

The monks on returning fi^m Craike, settled at Chester-le-Street, but the 
Danes ejecting them again in 995, they briefly sojourned at Bipon, and finally 
settled at Durham. All this I have introduced here, simply because here 
we have our first recorded event at Darlington, and perhaps one reason for 
Styr's gift of Darlington to the churcL 

The earUest direct occurrence of the name of Darlington is found between 
1003 and 1016, when four magnates met at the fiur city of York. These 
were Ethelred the unready king. Archbishop Wulstan, Bishop Aldhune of 
Durham, and Styr, son of Ulphus, civis ditesy who had obtained licence from 
the hapless monarch, that he might give Deamingtun with its dependencies 
to Saint Cuthbert ; and now before the king, archbishop, and bishop, with 
many others of the chief personages of the realm, the donation was solemnized 

* This legend I slur over, because it is probable that it emanated from the fertile brain 
of Master Lambe, Vicar of Norham, whose song of the Laidley worm was printed by 
Hutchinson, as ^ a song 500 years old, made by the old mountain Bard, Duncan Frasier, 
living on Cheviot A. D. 1270, from an ancient MS." 

t Richardson's Table Bk. Leg. Div. ii, 344. 



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OF DARLINGTON. 47 

with a heavy curse on all who should violate the patrimony of the Saint* 
In those good old days, grants were made in some worshipful presence, and 
at some solemn tide or assembly, and in the absence of charters a visible token 
was frequently added to witness the &ct before all men for ever, like Jacob s 
pillar, round which his l»rethren cast an heap of stone&f Witness the gallant 
horn of Ulphus, who in Canute's time was prince of Deira (in which division 
of Northumbria Darlington generally seems to have been situate) still to be 
seen in the metropolitical cathedral of the province. As this worthy was 
very probably the father of Styr, I give Camden's account of the transaction. 
" By reason," says he, " of the difference which was like to rise between his 
sons Bhoni the sharing of his lands and lordships after his death, he resolved 
to make them all alike ; and thereupon coming to York with that horn where- 
with he was used to drink, filled it with wine, and kneeling devoutly before 
the altar of Grod and Saint Peter, prince of the Apostles, drank the wine, and 
by that ceremony enfeoffed this church with all his lands and revenues.'' 
Nor did the offering of tokens cease with the general usage of written docu- 
menta Bishop Flambard, dying and sorrowful, made restitution to the con- 
vent of Durham of the lands he had withheld from tliem by a charter, but 
not content with that, the conscience stricken prelate commanded his atten- 
dants to carry him to the high altar, resting upon which he publicly lamented 
his transgressions; and offered a ring on the altar in restitution of all things. 
A gold ring was frequently placed in the wax seal, and I now look at a deed 
of as late a date as 1628, whereby John Oswolde, sen. of Darlington, yeoman, 
settles all his effects on his 3 daughters " as yet of tender years," to which as 
a seal a perforated half groat of James L is attached and sewed to the pen- 
dant slip of parchment} 

Styr, then, with a swinging long curse on all possible future violators ot 
the church's privileges, which was a very necessary part of the ceremony, 

" Terras Cathbertl qui non spoliare verentnr 
Ease queant certi quod morte mala morientur.*'^ 

gave to St. Cuthbert, Deamingtun or Darlington with its appendages, || to- 
gether with lands in Coniscliffe, Cockerton, Haughton, Normanby, and Seaton, 
and by this grant it is presumed the manors of the Bishops in this town arose. 

" Theae,'* says Uegge, " were the beginnings of the church of Durham, where Ald- 
winns (the last Bisbopp of Chester and the first of Durham) first ascended the episcopall 
chayre, anno Dom. 996, in the reigne of King Ethdred, who (whiles St Dunstan was 
baptizing him,) * ♦ * ♦ at which St. Dunstan sware by God, and his mother, that he 
would prove a larie fellow. 

* Simeon iii. 4. f Grenesis xxxi, 45. 
:|: This document is the property of R> H. Allan, Esq. 
§ Engraved on a beam in Trinity College, Oxford. Hegge's Legend of St. Cuthbert, edit. 
I. B. Taylor, p. 31. 

II ** lllis diebos quidam nomine Stir filius Alfi, tempore Ethelredi Regis, contulit S. Cuth- 
bert© Dcrlington cum suis appendiciis."— Lei. Coll. i. 425. 



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48 STYR'S DESCENDANTS. 

" flowever, to miuntaiiie the lazines of the Monks of Durham, he gmve 6t Cothbert 
Darlington, with the appurtnances : where, afterwards, Hugh Pudsay built both a 
niannour and a church. To these possessions, Snaculfus, one of the nobilitie, added 
Bridbyi-ig (Bradbury) Mordun, and Socceburge (Sockbum). So ready was the devotion 
of those iim&B to give all to the church and to become poor, to be made rich in the world 
to come, as if, forsooth, the monks were only the men that must be happie in botli 
•worlds.'** 

It has been mentioned that Coniscliffe was a locality where Styr gave 
lands,-f* and it may be that his father Ulphus was the son of Thoraldus and 
identical with Ulphus, J from whom the Greystocks professed to descend. 
Certainly they long held the manor of Coniscliffe, having a manor house at 
Nether or Low Consicliffe, described in the 15th centuiy§ as "the site of the 
manor house, 12 messuages, value 20«.; a close called the Hallgarth 6 acr., 
value 20s" &c. The present Hallgarth is a field facing the traveller on 
passing down the town street lull of mounds and foundations. In 1292 Lord 
John of Greystock had " within Cunoisclyve Gallows and Ingfangenethe^ 
chattels of felons condemned in the court of the same franchise, &c But 
whatever might be his origin, Styr is known as the Either of Sigen, who was 
the third wife of Uchtred, Elarl rf NOTthumbria. Uchtred had been formerly 
married to Ecgfrida, daughter of Aldhune the Bishop, but, tiring of her, he 
sent her back to her fether ; she married, secondly, Kilvert, a Yorkshire 
thane, who also sent her back ; at last she became a nun, and waa buried in 
the cemetery of Durham. Aldhune had gilded his daughter with Barmton, 
Skemingham, and Elton, but they were returned to the church on her re- 
pudiation by Uchtred Sigen is stated to have been given by her father to 
the earl as a bribe for kiUing his great enemy, Turebrand;|| but, after 
marrying a third wife, Elgiva, daughter of King Ethelred, Uchtred was 
himself treacherously slain by a rich and noble Dane, of that name, after 
submitting to Canute, who is said to have winked at the plot. His son 
Aldred (by Ecgfrida) slew Turebrand Hold, the murderer, but was himself 
murdered by Carle, Turebrand's son, in a wood called Risewood, and was 
succeeded by Eadulph, his half-brother, son of Sigen, who made sad depre- 
dations on the Welch, and gave great displeasure to Hardicanute. He 
submitted to that monarch, but was slain inmiediately afterwards by Siward 
who " reigned in his stead." 

1041. — In this year also Hardicanute betrayed Eadulf, the earl, while under hb pro- 
tection: and he became tlius a belier of his " wed.'* — Anglo Saxon Chronicle. 

* Taylor's edit. I have left Ethelred's offence to the reader*s imagination. Hegge gives 
the credit of the subject's generosity to the monarch it seems. 

t According to the Red Book of Durham, these lands were given by Snaculph, son of 
Cykell, who also gave Sockbum, &c., as above. 

X The name has survived the wreck of ages. Henry Hix Ulph, of West Ham, Essex, 
has just crossed my eye in a newspaper. 

§ Inq. p.m. Joh. Graystook, mil. 30 Langley. 

II Simeon Dun. 80. The whole history of the Northumbrian earls is full of difficulties. 
I have referred to Hodgson's Northumberland, on the subject throughout. 



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STYE'S DESCENDANTS. 49 

The haplefls earls son, Osnlph', was in after years made Earl, north of the 
Tyne, by Earl Morcar, but being deprived of his office by the Conqueror, 
and succeeded by Gopsi, he collected around him a band of desperadoes in the 
like circumstances, with whom he beset a house where Gopsi was at a feast, 
and pursuing him to a church, whither he fled for sanctuary, they fired it, 
and he was slain by his expelled predecessor at the gate. In the following au- 
tumn Osulph himself received a mortal wound by the spear of a robber 
whom he imprudently attacked. The blood of Styr however still flowed, 
but in a more quiet channd. Gospatric, Sigen's younger son, who never at- 
tained to the honor of the earldom, had a son Ucthred, lord of Baby in the 
time of the Confessor and Conqueror, who had two sons, Dolfin the progeni- 
tor of the Fitz-Meldreds and gsJlant Nevilles, and Eadulf, sumamed Bus, who 
seems to have inherited all the fiery disposition of his race. 

fmt folbtneti^ ti[ie 1iiil^'6 Cragetip, or a natrattin of a iii^of htiu% ilaia 
in iDoefttl fniit hg hoidM men iofio took n}it too i^i^. 

It appears that on the death of Earl Walthec^, son of Siward, who was 
beheaded 1075, more that the king might get his riches than for anything 
else, Walcher,* the first Norman bishop, bought the earldom of Northum- 
berland in the same manner as Hugh Pudsey did in after days. The offices 
of Earl of Northumberland and Earl Palatine of Durham, were distinct 
The latter was a perpetual right, the former a granted one for life only. The 
people viewed Walcher's exercise of the spiritual and temporal powers united 
with very Uttle reverence, and his severities under the usurper made the 
union still more detestable. Liulph, a Saxon nobleman who had married 
Aldgitha, a granddaughter of Uchtred, was in great &vour with the Bishop, 
and his estates suffering dreadfully from the oppression of his deputy and 
kinsman Gilbert, he complained to the prelate of his officer's misdeeds. The 
latter in resentment beset the Saxon's house in the night-time and put him 
and the greatest part of his family to deatL The popular odium was in- 
creased to perfect madness at this event, and the bishop's useless anger 
against the offence, the perpetrators being allowed to go at large ; and at his 
council held at Gateshead, it brought forth fruit. Nothing could save him, 
all his promises, all his threats were in vain, and under the leadership of 
liulph's kinsman, Eadulf Bus, the mob gathered round the doomed assembly 
with the watchword dt)ort nOe, gooK reOi, slUa ^e t\)t bi4i)oypef The few 
guards and the hated Gilbert at once met their fate, but the bishop's end was 
sdemn and dignified. The church to which he had retreated was fired and 
all who rushed out were instantly slain. The last of the assembly was the 
venerable prelate. The fire urged him to the enemy's sword ; the enemy 
drove him back to the flames. But the time was none for irresolution. The 

* Pnmonnoed Walker, as the word is in &ct spdlt in HoUinshed. 
t That is, the shortest advice is the best. 

H 



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50 STYR'S DESCENDANTS. 

fire blazed upon him on every hasid. Short was his prayer to Heaven, he 
advanced to the howling multitude. With one hand he made a fruitless 
signal to command silence ; with the other he sanctified himself with the sign 
of the cross ; and, folding himself in his robe, he veiled his &ce, and was in- 
stantly pierced to the heart with a lance, when his awful remains were inhu- 
manly mangled with many a sword. The hasii that held the lance is said to 
have been that of Eadulf^ the hand by which Eadulf was soon after slain was 
that of a woman. He was buried at Jedburgh, but his body was cast out by 
the command of Turgot, when prior of Durham, and left to rot upon the 
earth*; while the Bishop rested in his own chapter-house. He had gone with 
but few guards, it seems, in spite of a prediction by one Eardul^ who rase 
/rom the dead at Bavensworth for the express purpose. At his funeral he 
started up, and after his friends were recovered from their fright by a proper 
quantity of holy water, he told them all that he had seen, during a trance of 
12 hours.-|- He had seen many of his old acquaintances blessed in flower- 
covered mansions, but, oh, as to the torments he witnessed for the incorrigi- 
bles then alive, and especially for the murderers of Walcher, let me breathe 
them not. 

Yon might almost smell brimstone, his flames were so blue. 



And so much for the blood-stained descendants of Styr the donor of Der- 
ningtun. Few and evil were the days of the earls of Northumbria, yet fiincy 
loves to linger round some of their memories ; as that of Oslac, hoary-haired 
and prudent hero, driven in 975 over the rolling tide— over the gannet^s bath 
— over the water's throng— over the whale's domain— of home bereaved ; and 
Siward the noble giant (albeit his grandfather was a [ lover disguised as a ?] 
bear), who lives in Shakspere's rhythm, founded on a popular anecdote, 

Siward, Had he his hurts before ? 

Mosie, Ay, on the front. 

Siward. ^^X) then, God*8 soldier be he ! 

Had I as many sons as I have hairs 

I would not wish them to a fiEurer death. 

and who rose from his death bed and once more buckled on his armour, say- 
ing " That it became not a v^aliant man to die lying like a beast," and there- 
with gave up the ghost 

In one of the English versions of the popular romance of Horn, the hero's 
fitther is called Hatheolf, and he ruled over all England north of the Humber. 
Horn's companions were "eight knave childer," whom the king intrusted to 
the care of his steward Arlaund, who was "to lem hem to ride." Meanwhile 

♦ Hutch, vol. L 
t If this were the whole time elapsed since his death, how quickly was the poor 
to be hurried to his long homob 



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STYE'S DESCENDANT& 51 

tbe Danes inyaded the northern countiefi of Engknd, and had ooUeeied thnr 
phinder ready to be borne to their shipe in Cleveland : 

AUe her pray to schip thai ben. 
In Clifland bi Tese aide. 

King Hathelof thereupon assembled his army on '' Alerton More '\ hastened 
to attack the invaders while they were still in Cleveland ; and gained a oom- 
plete victory over thenL 

Whoso goth or rideih ther-bi, 
Yete may men se ther bones ly 
Bi Seynt Sibiles kirke. 

After this snccess the King hunted on '' Blakeowe more/' and having given 
a feast at Pickering, he went to York, and there met Arlannd with Horn, 
and caused his subjects to swear fealty to the latter as his successor. Nine 
months afterwards came three kings out of Ireland : — 

Ont of Yriand com Kings thre ; 
Ther names can y telle the 

Wele withouten les. 
Ferwele and Winwald wem ther to, 
Malkan king was on of tho, 

Fronde in ich a pres : 
Al Westmerland stroyed thay. 
The word com on a Whissonday 

To king Hatheolf at his des. 

He met the Irish on "Staynes more," when two of the three kings were slain, 
but Hatheolf fell by the hand of the remaining one Malkan, after having 
been overpowered by the multitude of his assailants, who withdrew to their 
own coimtry, but " an earl of Northumberland,'' taking occasion of the death 
king, and of the minority of his son, seized upon his Ungdom, and Arlaund 
fled with Horn to the court of Honlac, a king who reigned '^ fer southe in 
Inglond." Here his intercourse with the king's only daughter, Bimneld, was 
discovered by Wigard and Wikele, and he was obliged to fly, under the 
name of Godebounde,'^to Wales. He there met a knight in a forest who con- 
ducted him to King " Elydan " who held a court at "Snowedoune." Here 
he obtained fitvour, and Elydan's son " Tinlawe," a king in Ireland, having 
sent to request idd against the same Irish who had invaded Horn's own 
country, he accompanied the messengers back with a favorable answer. The 
king of Wales with his men were however detained by contrary winds; 
Horn and the two sons of the Irish king, with their army, were obliged to 
%ht against superior numbers ; the two princes were taken and put to death 
and Horn wounded, but he had slain Malkan, amd his death was followed by 



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52 THE PERCYS. 

ibe defeat of the invaders. Finlak^s daitghter, Acola, tended Horn's wounds, 
and became deeply eniftnoured of him. She decliu^ to him her love, but he 
was &ithfiil to Bimneld, and, the seven years he had made the term of his 
absence being passed, with a hundred knights he set out, rescued her from 
King " Moging," who would have married her, slew Wigard, and compelled 
Wikele to confess his treason. He then returned to Northumberland to re- 
cover his hereditary possessions which it appears had been usurped by 
Thorobrond, Here the poem ends abruptly by a defect in the MS. It 
agrees in general plot with the French and older English versions, but the 
names and places are in it so essentially English that it appears to have been 
formed on a more ancient model, and may be the last form of a purely Saxon 
legend.* The names of Hatheolf and Thorobrond in this curious old ro- 
mance bear a strong resemblance to those of Waltheof (father of Styr's son- 
in-law), and Turebrand in real history, yet the incidents seem to refer to a 
date before the Danes gained any regular settlement in Northumbria. 

In 1086 Robert de Molbray was earl of Northumberland but was devested 
for rebellion in 1096. Henry, prince of Scotland, of the blood of Waltheof 
the last, was created earl by Stephen in 1138, and by a charter he apprises 
his barons and men of the monks of Durham (shewing that the church of 
Durham was still considered to be within the jurisdiction of the earldom), 
of all their possessions being '^ in his own hand and in his own protection and 
in his peace," and he charges them to hold such m peace and preserve them 
from all harm. His son Malcolm, afterwards King, succeeded, but Henry II 
in 1157 wrenched from him the restitution of Northumberland, Cumberland, 
and Westmoreland, and though William the Lion was proclaimed Earl, by 
Duncan earl of Fife and others, the inheritance had for ever gone from Scot- 
land. Simon de St Liz. III. also of the blood of the old f^ls then succeeded. 
Hugh Pudsey bought the earldom in 1192 for life, and in 1377 Henry 
Piercy was created Earl of Northumberland ; but all the ancient jurisdiction 
seems well nigh to have passed away. 

Yet never, in its palmist days, had the earldom seen a more gallant race 
than] that which now gained its &ded honours, and whose crescent badge 
graces the initial on my first page. The Percys— heroes of chronicle, ro- 
mance, and song<-*were no mean successors of the warlike sons of Waltheof 
and they seem almost to have succeeded to their bloody &te. The first earl 
of Northumberland and his brother the earl of Worcester, both served with 
honour in the French wars of Edward III : both long enjoyed the £ftvour of 
his weak successor and were by him elevated to their earldoms ; both deserted 
his fskUing fortunes and combined to place the domineering Bolingbroke on 
the throne ; and both, unable to bear the rod they had given, endeavoured by 
open war to depose him, and perishedf Follow to ''the Hotspur of the 
North ; he that kills me some six or seven dozen of Soots at a breakfieist^ 

* Wright's Eways on ** Mediffivai English Literature," &c. i. 123. 
t W. E. Surteee, in ** Richardson's Table Book." Leg. Dir li. 287. 



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THE PERCY& 53 

washes his hands and says to his wife,-.' Fy4 upon iki$ quiei lift I I want 
i0orV*— to his death field of Shrewsbury, amidst the eonflioting cries of 
" Si Creorge" and " Esperance, Percy"f —and to the second eail, slain for 
the Bed Bose at St Albans—to his sons, Thomas, slain in the same cause at 
Northampton, Ralph, who fell at Hedgely Moor with the proud boast " I 
have sayed the bird in my bosom"" (his loyalty), and Bichard, slain for Lan- 
caster at Towton — to the third Earl who met with the same fg^te— to the 
fourth f^arl slain at his own manor-house of Oocklodge, near Thirsk, in up- 
holding the seyenth Hsury's oppressions— to his grandson Sir Thomas, be- 
guiled by those who raised the cry '^Thousands for a Percy I" to a traitor's 
death at Tybum-.to the seyenth Earl, betrayed by a Douglas (the name so 
ok opposed to Pen^), and beheaded in the Payement at York— to the 
eighth E2arl, who shot himself in the Tower«-to the scion of the race inyolyed 
in Gunpowder Plot^to the betrothed of Elizabeth Pen^, sole heiress of her 
house, Thomas Thynne, assassinated in 1682 ;«-nay, do eyen more, lode at 
that bold and bad man who for a time had possession of the dignity, Jdm 
Dudley ; look back to the older eark of Northumberiand, and say if eyer 
title had been more luckless to its possessors and their £Emiiliea Out of 
eight eark of the Percy race in two centuries, only two died in their beds. 
Craik notes also the reluctance of Percy blood to flow in other than female 
yeins to the present day as a remarkable &ct 

if at any time more male births have taken place than have barely sufficed to keep up 
the descent of the title from father to son, thoy have usually proTed unproductiye. In- 
deed, this has been uniformly the case, with one exception, for more than three centuries, 
to go no further back. The serenth Earl of Northumberland, who succeeded to the 
title in 1537, left only four daughters. His brother, tbe eighth Earl besides three daugh- 
ters, had eight sons, but all of them died either unmarried or without issue. The ninth 
Eari left two sons and two daughters ; out of the sons only the eldest had issue. The 
toith Earl had six daughters and only one son ; and that son wbo became the eleyenth 
Earl, left only one child, a daughter. Tbat daughter, the second heiress of her house, 
bendes six daughters, had seren sons ; but of them all only the eldest had issue ; and he 
again left only a daughter, once more and for the third time to transfer the stream of 
descent to a new chaunel. Her eldest son, the second Duke, left two sons ; but the Met 
of the two, who became the third Duke, died without issue ; and the present Duke, who 
is the younger, has no family. Of the second son of the first Duke, however, who suc- 
ceeded his father as Baron Louvaine, and was afterwards created Earl of Beverley, the 
posterity in both sexes is very numerous.^ — Bomanee of the Peerage. 

One more odd circumstance, if it were true, is disclosed in the proceedings 
relating to the claim of James Percy, the trunk maker, to the Earldom of 

♦ Shakspere. Henry IV. 
f The family motto is Esperance en Dieti, sometimes slightly varied. 
t Some remarkable instances of this tendency occur to me. The estates of George Strong 
esq., of Sutton by Brongh, co. Leie. descended Uirough no less than five sncoenve heiresses 
vis. those of Strong, Ensor, Dyer, Gaunt, and Franks. In like manner the manor of th« 
moaasiery of Guisborough at Stranton, passed successively through the heiresses of Gibson, 
Kitchen, Weemes, and Hylton, and even after this female heirship had oeased, for two suc- 
cessions only one weakly son in each earned down the honours of the family. 



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54 THE PERCYS. 

Northumberland, in 1680, wherein he says, ''when jou came first to me, I 
shewed you a mold like a half-moon upon my body, ( bom into the world 
with it,) m hath been the like on some of the Percys formerly. Now search 
William Percy, and see if Grod hath marked him so ; surely Grod did foresee 
the troubles, although the law takes no notice ; but God makes a true decision, 
even as he has pleased to make Esau hairy and Jacob smooth." The parlia- 
ment viewed this divine signature (as James called it) with much less re- 
spect, and he lost the f^ldom. 

The origin of the name Algernon in the £ftmily, it seems, is to be found in 
the circumstance that William de Percy who came over with the Gonqueror, 
was amongst his contemporaries sumamed AUgemonSy or William teitk the 
Whiskers, 

And the Percys of romance, what rhymes have they created, what lofty 
and soaring though simple stanzas. How " Chevy Chase," and the '' Battle 
of Otterbume " warm the chilliest soul ; how the sorrows of the " Nut-Brown 
Maid," and the " Fair Flower of Northumberland " melt the roughest heart I 
The former of these two ballads is supposed to relate to Lady Margaret Percy 
the daughter of the fifth earl, and her husband Henry Clifford, who is said to 
have lived the life of an outlaw before he succeeded as eleventh Baron Clifford, 
and is printed by Percy ; the latter narrates the dismal deceit practised by a 
&lse knight of Scotland whom the " Fair Flower" released from captivity in 
cells of her &ther the good Earl of Northumberland. It is a choice produce 
tion of the hatred formerly shown to the Scotch on the Borders, and may be 
found in Richardson's Table Book.* 

All you, fiair maidens ! be warned by me, 

(Follow my love, come over the strand ! ) 
Soots never were true, nor ever will be, 

To Lord, nor Lady, nor fair England. 

The days when such words of feud were sung, are happily passed away, and 
let me pass from the gallant Earls of Northumberland, into whose association 
Squire Styr has so lengthil;y led me, by throwing together a note or two 
about their lands in Darlington. 

1617. The Earl of Northumberland, a freeholder in the Borough. 

1627. Rowland Place, Esq. adm. to a burgage of arable land lately pertaining to the 
Earl of Northumberland. The old Percys occur no more. 

1722. Sir Hugh Smithson of Stan wick, co. York, Barronett, leases to William Chipsis 
of Darlington, yeo. Vazie dose, containing 3 acres at Black wellgate end. ( " The cor- 
ner dose between Blackwell and Conisclifie laines.") The dose probably belonged to 
the €k)niscliffe family of Vasey, a visitation family of 1615 ( no arms entered, though 
the fiEunily afterwards assumed those of the old Lords de Vesci), and of whom John 
Vasie, gen. was a freeholder in the Borough in 1617. In his inventory 1642, are men- 
tioned ''one bugle horn, lOs, ; his armour, IL lOf. ; and 12 London drinking-glasses, 7#." 

♦ Leg. Div. i. t25. 



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PALATINE POWERS. 55 

He was son of Christopher. In 1636 John Kelsey was adm. to a burgage in Mather- 
garthes between the borgage of Oeorge Jackson of Bedall on the South, and a burgage 
formerly Xpofer Vasye's on the North, and being le nienih rigg a U Sowth Dike. (Va- 
zie Close is now occupied by new streets.) 

1817. Hugh, Duke of Northumberland, settled to uses all that dose or parcel of 
ground ntuate in Darlington, containing or reputed to be two burgages as it lyeth and 
acfjoineth on a street called Bathgate ; and all those two closes or parcels of ground com- 
monly called Va»9ty^$ Cloees lying at Blackwell-gaU and in Darlington ; and all manner 
of pasture Gates in a Moor called Brankin Moor to the same belonging. And all those 
seyeral closes or parcels of ground within the precincts and territories of Darlington ; 
commonly called Batthdll alias Batheil Field, Turner Cloee, and BaideU eloiei, there- 
tofore purchased of Henry Garth, gent, ( These fields are situate on Baydale Beck at its 
junction with the Tees.) 

1773. July 2. The Duke and Dutchess of Northumberland arrived in this town, in 
their way to Alnwick, on which account a man, generally known by the name of Siguier 
Pecketto, saluted them, as usual, with his patereroes ; the last he fired unluckily burst, 
and there being a number of spectators, some of the splinters flew among them and shat- 
tered the hand of one boy, and tore the leg of another in a shocking manner, and many 
others were slightly wounded. — Darlington Mercury. 

This seems no improper place to glance at the princely estate of the bishops 
of Durham, who will henceforth appear more as sovereigns than prelates. A 
work confined to one parish of their domains seems no fitting field for any 
dissertations as to whether the Palatine jurisdiction began before the conquest 
or after, or in what particulars it differed from the privileges of the earls of 
Northumbria. It is however extremely probable that though the office of the 
latter was not abolished, it was consriderably modified as to Durham, and the 
Palatine powers then given to, or by tacit permission assumed by, Walcher 
and continued by his successors. At all events from that period we constant- 
ly find the maxim true that Quicquid Bex habet extra, Episcopui habet %ntr€L 



" The vicinity of Scotland, then an active and vigilant enemy, and, not less, 
the insecure state of the Northern province, always restless under the severity 
of the Norman yoke, demanded tiiat at such a distance from the seat of 
Government a power should exist capable of acting on emergency with vigour 
and promptitude ; and the motives are apparent which would incline the 
Monarch to select for this important trust an enlightened ecclesiastic, ap- 
pointed by and attached to the Crown ; in preference to a hereditary noble, 
kfis easily conciliated, and already possessing a dangerous share of local influ- 
ence. Owning henceforth within the limits <^ the Palatinate, no earthly su- 
perior, the successive prelates of Durham continued for four centuries to exer- 
cise every right attached to a distinct and independent sovereignty. Of this 



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56 PA^/ATINE POWERS. 

royalty, the limits were at all times co-extensive with the bounds of the 
Palatinate."* 

By this extraordinary franchise, the bishops levied taxes, made traces with 
their enemies, raised troops within the hberty, imjM'essed snips for war, sate 
m judgment of life and death, and h^ld execution of life and limb. They 
created Barons, who formed their council or parliament : the greater part c^ 
the lands within the liberty were held of the bishops in capite, as lords para- 
mount ; they coined money, built churches, instituted corporations by chart- 
er, and granted &irs and maricets ; they had all manner of royal jurisdiction, 
both civil and military ; they were l(»rd high admirals of the sea and waters, 
that lie within or adjoining the palatinate ; had vice-admirals and courts of 
admiralty, judges to determine according to the maritime laws, registers, ex- 
aminers, officers of beaconage, &c., &c.-f 

The barons of the bishopric seem to have been generally the Prior, Hylton 
of Hylton,:^ Ckmyers of Sockbum, Bulmer of Brancepeth, Surtees of Dinsdale, 
Hansard of Evenwood, Lumley of Lumley, Fitz-Mamiaduke of Bavenswortli, 
and "two of the county of Lincoln," but varied at different periods. Some 
of these &milies, such as Gonyers, Hylton, and Bulmer, had a prescriptive 
right to supp(»ters of their anna John Fitz-Marmaduke (who dying in 
1311 in Scotland, was boiled in a hugh cauldron, and his bones transported 
at leisure across the border) although apparently only a baron of the bishop- 
ric, subscribed in 1 300 the memorable letter of the EngUsh barons to Pope 
BonifM^, asserting the independence of the English crown, and renouncing 
his interference in the dispute with Scotland. His daughter was styled 
Countess c^ Bavenshelm. These barons§ constituted a Chamber of Peers at 
Durham, under the presidency of the Bishop, who was by no means an arbi- 
tary Sovereign, his power being considerably limited by his barons who were 
consulted, or interfered of their own accord in matters ot importanca Thus : 
when Bishop Beaumont had soUcited vexatious bulls and instruments to an- 
noy the Monks, at one time procuring the sole and aii>itary appointment to 
the Priorate, at another a fourth (A the annual revenues of the church to de- 
fray the expences of the Scottish war ; the Council prevented the Bishop 
from putting these oppressive instruments into force. 

Having thus given to the reader the necessary information respecting the 
singular sovereignty exercised by the bishop and his barons over Darlington 
and the remainder of the Palatinate for many generations, I shall proceed to 

* Surtees, i. xvi. It will be remembered that the Scotch royal race claimed the North- 
umbrian jurisdiction by descent. The Ck>nqueror also erected Chester into a Palatinate, as 
being on the hostfle borders of Wales. 

t Sharpens Hartlepool, 12. 

X Qui baroniam Hilton tenuer. de episc. Dur. The HyHons were however more than 
once summoned to Parliament, perhaps as barons of the realm. John Hylton, Esq., **■ the 
last of the barons " of the bishopric, (for though the Amotion was lost, popular courtesy al- 
ways gave the old title) died in 1746. 

§ Amongst the charters of Pudsey, another baron is mentioned. ** Habeat, &c. sicut ali- 
quis Baronum nostrorum."— Carta fiu^ WiU, fil. Will. fil. regis Stephabi de terra de Parva 
Halcton.— Geo£Arey d'EscoIIand was a baron of the bishopric in Flambard*s time- 



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SAXON BISHOPS. 57 

giye the remainder of this chapter in a chronological form, noticing all the 
way the successions of Bishops for purposes of reference, as many documents 
are dated accordii^ to the years of the pontificate of the bishop, rather than 
the reign of the monarcL 

1018. Died, Aldhune, first bishop of Durham, in whose episcopate Dar- 
lington had been given to the church by Styr. He seems to have been mar- 
ried, at all events he had a good-for-nothing daughter, sent home by two 
husbands as before mentioned. After his death the See remained vacant for 
three years ; at last while the ecclesiastics were sitting in chapter, a joking 
priest called 

EADMUND 



jestingly exdaimed, ''why cannot you make me a bishop ? '' a careless speech 
which was instantly considered to be produced by divine impulse, and St 
Guthbert from his shrine confirmed the idea ; ''or perchance a Monke his 
good friend, that lay hid under it : for I do not read that St Guthbert ever 
drank in his pottage that (by the proverb) he should speak in his grave/'* 
Eadmund however sorely lamented his jest, yet he proved himself a very 
proper man to be a Bishop. He was succeeded by 

EADBED 

in 1041. This fellow had by some means seized the treasures of the church 
and therewith bought the nomination of Hardicanute, however in a few 
months he died, and again undue influence of the crown was used in procu- 
ring the appointment of 

EOELRIC, 

a monk of Peterborough, in 1042, who abdicated in &vour of his brother 

EGELWIN. 



1069. Robert Cumin, whom William had placed over Northumbria, 
having provoked the people of Durham by his crudties, they rose up and 
slew him and his seven hundred guards. William immediately marched 
North. A detachment met with a fog at Northallerton, which with divers 

• Hegge. 



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58 THE CONQUEROR'S 

tales of the people* anent St Cuthbert, drove them back. But the Con- 
queror cared not a whit for the Saint, and pressing forward, caused the monks 
to flee with his body to Lindis&me. For 60 miles between York and Dur- 
ham, he destroyed houses, villages, monasteries, churches and all, reducing 
the tract to a horrible desert. A dreadful famine followed, and mortality un- 
heard o£ Men were glad to eat horses, cats, dogs, and at last even human 
carcases. The lands lay untilled for nine years infested by robbers and beasts 
of prey, and the poor remnant of the inhabitants spared from the sword died 
in the fields, overwhelmed with want and misery.-f 

1070. Scarcely had the last plague passed ere another came. Malcolm, 
king of Scotland, made an inroad through Cumberland (then in his hands) 
and carrying dreadful devastation down the course of the crystal Tees, pene- 
trated into Cleveland and burnt and destroyed everything in his march. At 
Hunderthwaite, opposite Eggleston, the people of Teesdale made a stand and 
were routed with great slaughter. Meanwhile Grospatric, the earl of North- 
umberland, invaded Cumberland, and returning with many spoils, shut him- 
self up in Bambrough castle, and by sallies from thence, weakened and annoy- 
ed Malcolm's forces on their return by the eastern coast. Enraged by these 
sufferings the Scottish king committed most horrid cruelties upon the people, J 
and carried such multitudes into captivity, that for many years after scarce 
a cottage in Scotland was destitute of English slaves.§ 

1071. Egelwin, borne down with the miseries of his country and church, 
fled with considerable treasure for Cologne, but by adverse winds was driven 
into Scotland. He afterwards joined Morcar in the Isle of Ely, was taken 
prisoner, and died a miserable death of famine and a broken heart 

Such was the end of the last Saxon bishop of Durham. From this time 
a much greater splendour attaches to the history of the Prelates, in conse- 
quence of the palatine jurisdiction becoming apparent Shorn as it was by 
Henry VIII. of its attributes, it still preserved a wonderful degree of state in 
later times. In 1 682 Pepys writes to Mr. Hewer, that he and Mr. Legg 
had "made a step to Durham, where the Bishop seems to Hve more like a 

* *^ God having pitie upon them,*' (the inhabitants.) Stowe, 
f Bad as the tyrant's oonduct might be, I really think, from subsequent events, that the 
accounts are exaggerated. Hollinshed's language is more elegant than the majority of old 
chronicles i—'* The goodly cities with theyr towers and steeples set up on a stately height, 
and reaching as it were into the aire : the beautifull fields and pastures, watered with the 
course of sweete and pleasant rivers, if a straunger shonlde then have behelde and also 

knowen before they were thus defaced, hee woulde surely have lamented. The King's 

army comming into the countrey that lyeth betwixt the Rivers Theise and Tyne, found 
nothing but voyde fieldes and bare walles, the people with their goodes and catteU being 
fled and withdrawen into the Wooddes and Mountaynes." 

t Ford,l. V. c. 18. 
§ The tradition that Ulnaby, Carlebury, Walworth, Ac, w€rre bnmed on an incursion of 
the Scots perhaps refers to this raid. The old Norman ehapel of Walworth remains as a 
bam. with a piscina, in Chapel-Garth, and the foundations of the old village are distinctly 
visible. 



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DEVASTATIONS. 59 

prince of this, than a preacher of the other world" And the Bishops would 
appear to have flourished in bodily estate in their prosperity. I have heard 
in Darlington, lads puffing off their " Herrings, fine herrings ! " in this style 
" Now, mistress ! here's harrings wiv bellies hke bishops,' " but how far is it 
below that glorious old Newcastle cry :— " 'Ere's yer caller herrin' ! 'Ere s yer 
caller fresh herrin ! 'Ere's 'resh heerin, resh heerin ! Power a penny ; fewer 
a penny ; fewer a penny, caller heerin !'«««♦«««♦ 'Ere's yer caller 
ware, Wi' bellies as big as Bishops' ! Fresh heerin ! fresh heerin ! ! " 

WALCHER 

who succeeded to the see, was invited oyer by the king in 1072 to take this 
episcopacy. 

1072. The cleigy of Durham having returned from Lindis£a>me, the 
Conqueror on his return from a Scottish expedition, wherein he had forced 
Malcolm to propose terms of accommodation, determined to " see the incor- 
ruptible Saint so magnified. And never were the Monks so afraid to have 
their imposture discovered, for now they had not leisure to cheat the specta- 
tors, with a living Monk, instead of dead Si Cuthbert, but made so many 
delays and entreaties to the contrary, that the king in a fever of anger was 
itrook with such an heat, that hastening out of the church, and taking his 
horse, the Monks (in their historic) make him never stay his course till he 
passed over the Teese, and out of the presincts of the bishoprick, where he 
received his former temper."* 

" The King, I fear, is poisoned by a Monk." 

Shatspere, 

1080. May 14. Walcher was murdered in the manner before described, 
and the palatinate again felt the effects of William's displeasure administered 
by his brother Odo. After a vacancy of six months the king, on Nov. 9, 
nominated to the Bishopric 



WILLIAM DE GABILEPHO, 

a Norman Abbot and chief Justiciary of England, who was consecrated Jan. 
3. His removal of the secular priests from his cathedral will be found under 
the Ck)llegiate Church. He died Jan. 6, 1096, and after a vacancy*!* of more 
than three years the see was filled by 

♦Hogge. 
+ During which the king '* transferred into his treasurie dOM. by yeere forth of the 
Bishoprioke.*' St9wt. 



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60 BATTLE OF 

RALPH FLAMBABD, 

a most obsequious exactor of the Bed-faaired king, consecrated June 5, 1099. 
On Henry's accession he was thrown into prison for his enormities. How- 
ever he was afterwards restored and his palatine franchise confirmed. His 
death happened on Sep. 5, 1128. 

GALFBID BUFUS, 

Chancellor of England, was consecrated . Aug. 6, 1133, the see having been 
vacant for nearly five years. 

1138. David of Scotland having penetrated into England as &r as North- 
allerton, was routed on Oowton Moor (Battle of the Standard.) 



The liver Tees fall oft did sigh. 
As she^roUed her winding flood, 
That ever her sUver tide so dear 
Should be swelled with human blood. 



The English were led by the venerable archbishop Thurstan, and were great- 
ly assisted by another veteran, Walter de Cbunt, of great repute in arms, 
whose fiither was nephew to the Conqueror's Queen. 

" Now tell me yon hosts," the king he cried, 
'* And thou shalt have gold and fee — 
And who is yon chief that rides along 
With his locks so aged grey ? " 

" Oh, that b Sir Walter de Gaunt you see, 
And he hath been grey fall long, 
But many^s the troop that he doth lead, 
And they are stout and strong.*^ 

The Gbunts, or Gbnts, sometime Earls of Lincoln, held Hundmanby in York- 
shire, and their name is still kept up among the populace. 

Gilbert Gant 
Left Hundmanby moor 
To Hundmanby poor. 

That they might never want 

* The Battle of Cuton Moor, a modern ballad in Evans's coll. 



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THE STANDARD. 61 

Such is the rhyme formerly smig round the market cross there on every 
Shrove Tuesday, in everlasting remembrance of the good donor. Query if 
not " Gilbert the Good " who died 1241.* But his days were evil 



Gilbert de Gkint — 
And in those days good women were scant, 
Some said they were few and some said they were many ; 
But in the days of Robert Coultas 
One was sold at the Market Cross for a penny. 

Or, according to another version, which doubtless the ladies of Hundmanby 
would prefer to sing, 

Gilbert Gant— 
And in them days good men were scant, 
Some said they was scarce and some said they was many ; 
But when Robert Coultas was a Lord 
There was one sold for a penny. 



These odd and rather amusing remnants of olden verse are I think unpub- 
lished, and were lately gathered by Matthew Graunt, esq., of Leek, from the 
lips of Hundmanby seniora 

1139. Peace was restored by the cession of the earldom of Northumber- 
land to Heniy, prince of Scotland, who however was to have no jurisdiction 
over the palatinate. This seems to prove the non-existence of the franchise 
of the Bishoprick in early times, else why was it now so expressly reserved ? 

1140. May 6. Died, Bishop Bufus. At his death a Scotch priest cal- 
led William Cumin usurped the see, and actually forged Apostolic letters. 
However the ecclesiastics would not elect him, and in obedience to genuine 
orders from the Pope, escaped to York and chose 



WILLIAM DE ST. BARBARA, 



Dean of York, March 14, 1143. The intruder's nephew attempted in vain 
to convert into a fortress the church of Merrington,'f and Boger Conyers who 
had protected his lawful prelate in his fortress of Bishopton, by some means 

* In Heckin^n Church windows, Lincolnshire, was for years preserved the simple bat 
appropriate sentence ** The Lord love De OauntJ* 

t It was not aniumal to make church towers serve as fortresses. Bedale Tower has a 
fire-place, portcullis groove, and even tkforiea of stone throughout. There is a strange tale 
about a fire-placed room in Middleham Steeple connected with a dean who is said to have 
lived there to avoid arrest. 



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62 HUGH PUDSEY. 

had the address to bring the usurper to become prostrate at his feet. St. 
Barbara was enthroned Oct 18, 1144. Cumin had made Durham a perfect 
" Hell upon Earth," and used every cruelty. Some of his prisoners were 
suspended across ropes, with heavy weights attached to their neck and feet, 
others were repeatedly plunged into the frozen bed of the river ; of others the 
naked feet, protruded thi*ough an aperture of the wall, were exposed to all the 
severity of the night, in feet his genius would have done honour to an Inquisi- 
tor-€reneral himself Barbara died 1152, Nov. 14, and was succeeded by the 
magnificent 



HUGH DE PUDSET, 

Elected Feb. 1152, consecrated 20 Dec 1153, and with the monks who had 
chosen him, soundly whipped, naked, at the church of Beverley, for not ha- 
ving consulted the Archbishop. The good men soon regretted their choice 
and sufferings, for Pudsey was haughty, austere, and reserved. He was 
nephew to King Stephen. 

1164. This is given* as the cirdter date of the erection of the Manor- 
house or Hall of the Bishops at Darlington by Hugh Pudsey, and the archi- 
tecture of the Chapel would seem to confirm the truth of the appropriation. 
See a full description of this building hereafter. 

Pudsey's Bible m four vols., folio, remains in the Dean and Chapter's Li- 
brary, and is one of the finest MSS. there. The illuminations exhibit every 
vaiiety of the Norman style of architecture. The books have, however, suf- 
fered sorely from Dr. Dobson's Lady or nurse, who on rainy days amused his 
child in the hbrary and cut out the " bonny shows " for it to play with. 

1183. Pudsey caused a general survey to be made of all the ancient de- 
mesne and villenage lands of his bishopric, in the manner and form of Dooms- 
day-book. This is called Boldon-Buke, probably either from being compiled 
at " Canny Bowdon,'' or from the other manors being regulated according to 
Boldon Manor, which is the first in the record. I quote the entries relating 
to DarUngton parish from the Record Commissioners' edition, taken from the 
very accurate transcript in the Bodleian Library. The variations in the co- 
pies kept at Durham are given in brackets. 



Derlinoton. In Derlington there are forty-eight oxgangs, which the villains hold a» 
well of the old villenaget as of the new, and render for each oxgang 6s, and are to mow 
the whole of the Bishop's meadow and win and lead his hay, and to have a corrody^ 

* Hutchinson, i. 181. 
t ** Tarn de veteri villenagio qaam de novo quas villani tenent." Surtees says "which 
the tenants in villenage hold as weU under the old as the new bailiwick." 
X An allowance for maintenance. 



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BOLDON BUKE. 63 

once ; to enclose the plantation* and the court ; and to perform the accustomed eenrices 
at the mill ; and for each oxgang to lead one wain of Wodeladet and cany loads in the 
Bbhop*8 jonmies ; and besides to fetch three loads annually of wine, herrings and salt. 

Twelve farmers hold as many oxgangs and render rent as the villains, hut do not 
work, nor go on the Bishop's embassies, [and they go on the Bishop's embassies.] 

Osbet Bate [Kate] holds two oxgangs and renders rent 32d. [22d, Surtees] and goes on 
the Bishop's embassies, [wanting in some copies.] 

The son [sons] of Wibert holds two oxgangs for which William [Gilbert] used to ren- 
der St. and now renders for the same, with an increase of four acres, lOf. and goes on 
embassies. 

Odo holds a toft and sows thirty-three acres of tillage (unless they be barren) [where 
the beech grove} was] and renders lOs. only [without services] and in another part 2^ 
acres for which he renders 10^. until Robert son of WiUiam de Moubray, who is his 
ward, attains his age. 

Oaufloie [Galfrid Joie] twenty acres by 40d, and goes on the Bishop's embassies. 

(Engeliamus, son of Robert Marescall, six acres by I2d.) [Lambert holds six acres.] 

The smith holds eight acres ( by famishing the iron-work for the ploughs of Little 
Halton, and the small iron- work within the court of Derlington ) [at the will of the 
bishop.] 

(Four cottagers render I8d, for their tofts) [four cottagers render 3«. and help in ma- 
king muUions} of hay, and carry fruit and work at the mill for their tofts.ll] 

The Punder holds nine acres and has traves** like other Punders, and renders five 
flcore hens and five hundred eggs. 

(The Borough renders 5/. 

The Dyer of cloths half a miurk) [The Borough, the Dyers, and the farm-rents render 
thirty marks.tt] 

The Mills of Derlington, Haluton and Ketton, render thirty marks. 

Blakswell. In Blakewell there are forty-six [forty-seven] oxgangs which the vil- 
lains hi^d, and render, and do service in all points as the villains of Derlington. 

Five fanners hold four oxgangs, and render and do service like the farmers of Der- 
lington. 

Thomas, the son of Robert, holds an oxgang and renders 40d. 

Four acres which were of John Russey [Rufus] render 16rf. 

Adam, son of Ralph de Stapelton, holds four oxgangs and one parcel of tillage of six- 
teen acres and three roods, and renders 5f. 4d,, and shall be overseer of the keepers of the 
portion land^ and goes on the Bishop's embassies. The same Adam renders for the 
herbage of Batella 32d. 

* ** VirffuUum*** ** The limits of the court, from whence the term, " The verge of Vie 
tovart " seems to be derived." Hutch, 

t That is, laden with wood for fuel at the Hall and other purposes. 
X Ubi fagina fait. 
§ Hay Ricks. 
H A Toft is a piece of ground whereon a hoase stood or stands. The Tofts at Piersebridge 
constitute a field at the entrance of the village on the river, and the small Roman brass 
coins found ^here are called Toft Pennies, A Croft is a piece of ground attached to the 
TofL 

•♦ A trave or throve of Com is twenty-four bundles or sheaves. Hutch, iii. 217. 

ft Ten marks. Surtees, 

tt Surtees has it ^and he shall look to the performance of the Bishop's autumn tillage." 

The original is ** et orit sup' p'cac' custod'." Porccuno, a certain portion, one long ridge or 

rig, from porca, a rig of land rising like a hog's back. Thus we have the Four Rigs in 

Bondgate, and see p. 55. 



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64 BOLDON BUKE. 

(Seren Cottagers render 3^. lOd.) [Ten Cottagers render 6s. and assist in making 
mullions of hay, and carry fruit, and work at the mill.l 
Robert Bland for a little parcel of land near the Tees 6d. 
Hugh the Punder for one acre, I2d. and one toft of the waste. 

CoKERTON In Cokerton there are forty-seven oxgangs which the villains hold, and 
render and do service in all points as the villains of Derlington. 

Four fiamiers hold three and a half oxgangs and render and do service like the farmers 
of Derlington. 

Six cottagers render 3s, lOd. and do service in all points as those of BlakewelL 

OxENHALE. William holds Oxenhale, viz. : one carucate and three [two] portions of 
tiUage within the territory of Derlington, which Osbert de Seleby used to hold under 
fee-farm in exchange for two carucates of the land of Ketton, which his father and him- 
self used to hold in drengage"^ and which he for himself and his heirs quit-claimed to the 
bishop and his successors for ever. He ought also to have a horse-mill and is quit of 
multure, he and his land, and of service at the mill, and renders 60s, per annum, besides 
doing the fourth part of one drenge, viz. : he ploughs four acres^ and sows with tiie 
Bishop*s seed, harrows, and tills four portions in autumn, viz. three with all his men, and 
all his household, except the housewife, and the fourth with one man from every house 
except his own proper house, which shall be free. He keeps a dog and horse for the 
fourth part of the year, carries wine with a wain of four oxen and p^orms utfforr' 
when it shall be laid on the bishopric. 



William of Oxenhale evidently held the chief rank among the tenants in 
the Parish. As to tUvarrf or mcttDard aa Hatfield's survey has it, Hutch- 
inson (who calls it Vaware) imagines that it "related to the chaee, and im- 
plied an out-watch at the extremities of the chace, it being usual to make a 
kind of circumvallation, if the term may be allowed, or circle of watchmen, to 
prevent the game from escaping the bounds : it is still practised in some of 
the Northern counties, where the lords have a boon-hunt ; of which an in- 
stance is in Martindale, in Cumberland, a chace belonging to the Hasell 
family." " Such a custom," adds Surtees, " was certainly common from 
India to these Islands ; but the text rather seems to imply some service of 
only occasional occurrence. May not outtoard refer to the more serious op- 
erations of war, and intend the keeping watch or scouting on the advance of 
an enemy." 

The expression " the Borough, the Dyers and the farm-rents" (Jwrm) has 
also been very diflferently construed. Surtees thinks it a most curious con- 
clusion that the tolls of this ancient and prescriptive borough were £ajined 
out and on lease, while Hutchinson says " Thefermey or firmay our best law 
expositors define to be a royal tribute, for the sovereign's entertainment for 
one night on Ids journies, and it was the badge of a royal borough or vilL 

* Spelman says that those who hold under this servile tenure, were tenants in capite, and 
were such as at the Conquest, being put out of their estates were afterwards restored. The 
nature of the services in this country maybe seen by the description of those performed by 
William for bis fourth of a drenge at Oxenhale. 

t The term recurs as tot ware* in the drenge tenure of Robert Fitz Melred (lord of Raby) 
at Wessawe. 



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HUGH PUDSEY. 65 

In Doomaday-book dmes meriton tempore Regis Edwardi reddebat firmam 
nmtts twctisy it is also named in £ang Edgar's charter to Ely.^ It may be 
remarked that under Durham, in Boldon Buke, it is stated that ^^Erat 
atUem Civiku ad firmam'* 

The Bishop evidently at the date of the record kept at least an occasional 
household here, and the tenants in villenage were charged with the carriage 
of wood and wine, to which are added two rather uncommcm items, herrings 
and salt, the first probably from Hartlepool, the other from Seaton or the old 
salt-works at the Tees-moutL Indeed with the beeves and mutton which 
the deep meadows of the Skeme would furnish to salt for winter store, there 
would be little else to lead for the hospitality of the house. A provision is 
also inserted for the transport of such articles of use or luxury as the bishop 
might require when he moved from manor to manor.* 

These extracts from Boldon Buke would not be complete without the fol- 
lowing, under the head of Little Haluohton, which was then in demense 
in the lord's hand. Pudsey afterwards granted it to the grandson of Stephen, 
(p. 66) 

Adam de Seleby holds at fEimi the demesne of this place with a stock of two ploughs 
and ^wo harrows, and with the land sown sicut in ciroffraffo contained ; with the Grange 
and fold yard {curia elauaa) and renders eight marks. And be finds a litter for tlie 
Lord BLsbop in his joumies at Derlington. 

And besides he has the custody of the house and court of the Lord Bishop at Derling- 
ton and those things that are brought thither, at his own cost, in consideration of a cer- 
tain parcel of tillage called Hacdale, which he holds in the fields of Derlington opposite 
the Hall on the E. side of it, across the water. 

(The pasture with the sheep is in the hands of the Bishop, but Adam, if he will, may 
have in the same pasture one hundred sheep during the term for which he shall hold the 
the said farm.) 

1189. While Bichard I. was preparing for his crusade, the bishop caught 
the military mania and took the vow also, making most splendid preparations 
at the expence of his grievously taxed people. He rued in time, but the 
king had heard of all this, and was graciously pleased to wish to borrow the 
money raised and now useless. This brought about a bargain for the pur- 
chase of the earldom, wapentake, and manor of Sadberge, to be annexed to 
the see of Durham for ever, together with the earldom of Northumberland for 
Kfe, for which the prelate was to pay 11,000/. Henceforward the mitre of 
Durham was graced with an earl's coronet, and the sword accompanied the 
pastoral staff The young king at his investiture of the vain man could not 
help laughing merrily at the inconsistent characters he was joining, saying 
"Am not I cunning, and mj craftsmaster, that can make a young Earl of an 
old Bishop ? '' But this prelate was fit to be an earl, for the world (as one ot 
that age said of him) was not crucifixus to himy but infixus in him.\ 

* Surtees. 
t Camden's Reniaiue& 



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66 HUGH PUDSEY. 

Hollinsbed says that Richard '^ sold to h jm the manor of Seggesfielde ctt 
Sadberge, with the wapentake belonging to the same, and also fomid means 
to perswade him to buy his otcne pratince, which he did, giving to the King 
an inestimable summe of money, and was thereupon created an Erie by the 
Eling for the same : whereupon he was entitled both Bishoppe and Earle of 
Durham,* whereat the Kyng woulde jest afterwards and say, what a can- 
ning craftsman am I, that have made a newe Elarle of an olde Bishoppe.'' 
One thousand marks more procured the i^pointment of chief justiciary of all 
England and regent north of the Humber, while similar means obtained a 
dispensation of his vow from the Holy see, '^ which fayleth no man that is 
surcharged with white or red mettall, and would be eased/' The r^nt of 
the North was however soon sorely handled, for Longchamp instead of al- 
lowing him to act in conjunction with him very coolly shut the prince-bishop 
up in the Tower. 

1194. On Richard's return our bishop did not &re much better. Hugh 
had ftimished 2000^. of silver towards his sovereign's ransom, and had even 
resigned his earldom on the king's coolness being manifest, but the latter 
learned that the bishop had only remitted a small portion of the sums he had 
extorted frx)m his vassals on pretence of raising the ransom, on which account 
he devised repeated occasions to impose various fines and penalties on the em- 
bezzler ; and this he did with greater severity, as the Bishop did not in any 
way conceal his riches, and among all his mischances and troubles ceased not 
fix)m the building of our church at Deminfftonf nor fi^m other religious 
worL«. Soon after, William of Scotland being in treaty for the restitution of 
Northumberland, for a sum of money, the bishop outbid him, and set out for 
London with the money (2000 marks), but died at Howden, (having eaten 
at Graike too many good things at supper). Mar. 3. He made restitution to 
the monks of all lands he had illegally dispossessed them o^ adding the vill 
of Newton, which he purchasedand confirmed to them by charter, and left the 
2000 marks to the Idng he had promised him. St. Godrick the holy saint 
of Finchale, had told him he should be seven years blind before his death, 
this the Bishop beUeved in a literal sense, and deferring his repentance till 
the time of his blindness, " dyed unprovided for deatL But if good deeds 
be satisfactorie, then dyed he not in debt for his sinnes." If one may judge 
fix)m the silly bargains he made, he was indeed blind. Throughout his life 
his ambition was unbounded, and the only reflections which can fill the mind 
on viewing the magnificent temple and the once handsome mansion which he 
erected at Darlington are those which point alike to his other works, and 
mark them all as monuments raised b}' pride to his memory, inscribed with 

* Stowe repeats this statement. Dnrham was therefore, still in some respects incladed 
in the earldom of Northumberland. 

t Sic. Gauftridus de Coldingham. Surtees Society. 



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RICHARD D£ MARI8C0. g7 

the perpetuadon of the vile extortions and grievons oppressions he committed 
00 Ids distressed prorinoe.* Still he was a great man in his way. 



PHILIP DB POICTBU, 

a native of Aqnitaine, was elected 30 Dec 1 195: consecrated 12 May, 1197. 
His quarrels with the monks exceeded all those of his predecessors in Tio- 
lence, and give one a queer idea of episcopacy. He beset the cathedral with 
troops ; commanding fire and smoke to be put to the windows and doors, and 
exhibiting the most supreme contempt for St Guthbert, with a tumultuous 
mob interrupted the convent in the holy offices of his festival, breaking in 
upon the altar, laying impious hands on the sacred furniture and dragging 
forth the prior and monks ministering there. He died 22 April, 1208, and 
the see was vacant for nine years and a half 

RICHARD DE MARISOO, 

CSiancellor of England, consecrated 2 July, 1217. One of his seals repre- 
sents him standing on an insulated piece of ground, surrounded by bubushes 
growing out of the water — de marisgo. 

Two confirmatory charters of this Bishop, or possibly one of him and one 
of his successor, relate to Bishop Philip's grant of Mayland, Satley, to Bar- 
tholomew de Mariscis under the tenure of a pair ofgiU spurs^ to be presented 
to the bishop on St Culiibert's feast in September. One of these charters is 
dated " at Deiyngton, 6 May, the first year of our episcopacy.^f 

He died 1 May, 1226, after a stormy reign spent in disputes with the 
monks : however one of them made him an odd epitaph of a dozen lines all 
ending in Uis. He was found d^ad in bed at Peterborough Abbey after ha- 
ving daintily refireshed himself with costly meats, in going with a " great 
rowt of men of lawe " towards London, in maintenance of *' his most filthy 
quarrell he picked against religious persons.""^ 

RICHARD POOR 

Had the Boyal assent 22 July, 1228 ; died 15 Apr. 1237. 

* I have adopted almost the very words of Hntchinaoii, I can devise none more effectiTe. 
Bot let m give the prelate his due. He redeemed the plate of the church which, with that 
of other fiines, was caUed into reqoisition for the king's ransom. Richard was not very soru- 
paloos aboat sacrilege, and the punishment attendant on that sin overtook him at Chaluz. 
Christe, Tui ehdlieU preedo fit pneda Cheducis : 
(Ere brevi rejicis qui tnlit oera crucis. 

t Surtees. t Stowe. 



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gg SADBERGE CROSS. 

During his episcopacy, Peter de Brus, Lord of Skelton, whilst guardian of 
Hartness during the minority of the fifth Robert de Bras, opposed the pre- 
latical claim to the wreck of the sea, in his ward's lordship, and caused his 
servants to carry away a wrecked boat, for which they were fined 50«. by the 
Justices of Sadberge, and it seems that a burgess of Hartlepool named 
Gerard de Seton had on the occasion of the dispute been &yourable to the 
prelate's claims. Peter, upon the fine being inflicted, sent one of his servanta 
called Hugh de Haubgere and many others, who took the unfortunate bur- 
gess and lodged him in the dungeons of Skelton. The Bishop was not to be 
outdone. He pronounced all the pains and perils of excommunication by 
name against those who seized his supporter in the hberty between the Tyne 
and Tees, and compelled the mighty baron to disgorge his prey and allow 
poor Gterard to go quietly back to his own fire-sida And now came his 
revenge. 

For the capture &c. Peter de Brus was fined 20L by the Bishop s justices. 
However, William, Earl of Albemarle, and John de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, 
came to the Bishop at Derlyngton, where they remained three days for the 
express purpose of endeavouring to bring about a reconciliation ; and at their 
instance the Bishop relaxed in his demand of the fine, and the quarrel was 
brought to an amicable conclusion, upon condition that henceforth the bidiop 
should have the wreck of the sea without contradiction. 

After this there was a dispute about another vessel wrecked, but* the Bai- 
liffs of the Bishop seized it, and the Justices of Sadberge ordered that from 
its mast should be made a wooden cross as a memorial^ which in Bp. Kd- 
lawe's time, nearly a century afterwards, was yet standing in a place called 
Blakelawe, on the high road [alta strcUd] between Sadberge and Hetrepol, 
and from its yard was made a candlelabrum, upon which were placed the wax 
and candles in the church of Sadberge.* 



" Three times tell an Ave-bead, 
And thrice a Paternoster say. 
Then kiss with me the holy reed. 
So shall we safely wend our way." 



Sadbury Cross is now the name of a field between Sadbei^e and Long-New- 
ton, and a floating tradition states that in the time of the plague, all the 
trade of Sadberge was transacted at this place. There is a similar legend 
about Marske Cross in Cleveland, whither, it is said, the market of Guis- 
brough was removed, when the pestilence had well nigh depopulated the 
town. 

* Bp. Kollawe's register. 



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NEWCASTLE BURGESSES. 69 

NICHOLAS DB FARNEHAM, 

Elected 11 Jane, 1237 ; resigned 8 April, 1240. Before his election there 
was a repetition of the disgusting cont estbetween the convent and the crown 
which had distinguished many former electiona Whilst the Monks were 
pressing for the confirmation of their Prior, Melsonby, whom they had 
elected, one of them exclaimed, " Sire, it is no great matter of &Your that we 
ask ; " "And if ye want no favour," retorted the angry Monarch, ^'none shall 
ye have." 

WALTER BB KIRKHAM. 

Elected 21 Apr.; consecrated 5 Dec. 1259 ; died 9 Aug. 1260. On the re- 
verse of his seal he is seen praying to St. Cuthbert in this unscriptural verse. 

fretful Cnt^itttt, rejpiem itipn ttfytta per te. 
Bishop Cuthliert, may I reign above the skies by thee. 

which is very different from Bishop de Insula's harmless superscription 
i&tsnttm Cutf^lmti iignat ^enreta Sbberti. 

In Kirkham's time, the Durham monks were for long interdicted for oppo- 
sing the Pope's exactions. "Oh, (sayeth Matthew Paris) if in that their 
tribulation they might have had fellows, and in their constant doings aiders, 
how happily had the Church of England triumphed over her tormentors and 
oppressors.''* 

1260. Henry III. was obhged this year to interfere with Kirkham's offi- 
cial, Boger de Siton, (master of Sherbum hospital). He had cited forty ol 
the Burgesses of Newcastle to appear before him (xt Derlington on uncertain 
business, and with the Archdeacon of Northumberland, had made it a prac- 
tice to enforce them to appear at his courts and visitations, from day to day 
at distant places out of their borough, contrary to custom ; and to inquire 
into matters-f- against their wiU. From the expence and loss of time attend- 
ing this grievance, the merchants and artificers were so injured and worn out 
that some of them were actually reduced to the miserable necessity of beg- 
ging. The King, on application, issued two severe writs to the offenders and 
to the Bishop himself, commanding them at once to desist from their usur- 
pations ag^nst his crown and dignity. J Seyton or Siton however rose to 

• HoUinshed. 
t They conndered themselves liable to sift causes of Matrimony and Testament only. 
t Clans. 44 Hen. III., p. i. m. 12. Prsmne ii. 826., a book extremely scarce, the greatest 
part of the impression being burnt in the Great Fire. Allan MSS, 



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4K} AlNTHONY BKIC£. 

be a Judge of the Common Pleas in 1268, and in 1274 he was bound with 
Hugh de Derlington, Prior of Durhun, for the executors of Bishop Stichill 
to pay his debts to the King. 



BOBBBT DE STICHILL, 

Elected 30 Sep., 1260 ; consecrated 13 Feb., 1261 ; died 4 Aug. 1274. 
His seneschal Geoffrey Bussell founded, in 1274, a chantiy in the chapel of 
St Mary Magdalene, at Gotum Amundeville upon Seym, par. Hau^ton, 
for a chaplain to pray for the souls of Tho. de Amundeville, Ralph his &ther, 
and Glare his mother. This chapel is utterly demolished, but the cemetery 
was used for interment long after the reformation, as appears by entries in 
Haughton register. 



ROBERT BB INSULA, (eNQLISH, HALIBLAKB) ALIAS, DE COQUIKA, 



Elected 24 Sep., 1274 ; died June, 1283. The bishop was of very humble 
origin, which he never hid. To his mother he gave an honourable es- 
tablishment, and once when he went to see her, he asked ''And how fares 
my sweet mother ? " " Never worse," quoth she. "And what ails thee, or 
troubles thee ? hast thou not men, and women, and attendants sufficient ?'' 
"Yea," quoth she, "and more than enough; I say to one *Go,' and he 
runs ; to another, 'Gome hither, fellow,' and the varlet £eJ1s down on his 
knees ; and in short all things go on so abominably smooth, that my heart 
is bursting for something to spite me, and pick a quarrel withaL" 

1278. October. The charter of appropriation of the church at (Bishop) 
Middleham to Finchale Abbey by this bishop, is dated at Derlington. 



ANTHOKT BEKB. 

Elected 9 July, 1283 ; consecrated 9 Jan. 1283 ; died 1310, March 3. In 
his time the court of Durham exhibited all the appendages of Royalty ; no- 
bles addressed the Palatine sovereign kneeling, and instead of menial ser- 
vants, knights waited in his presence chamber, and at his table, bareheaded 
and standing. He gave 40«.* for as many fresh herrings ; and hearing one 
say " this cloth is so dear that even Bishop Anthony would not venture to 

* The price even now wonld be exorbitant, bat the reader must remember the much 
greater vahie of money at that Ume to arrive at the proper idea of the bishop's magnifi- 
oenoe. A0$, would perhaps now be about 8(V. ! 



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EDWARD I. AT DARLINGTON. 71 

pay for it f he immediately ordered it to be bought and cut up into horse 
dotha* 

In tlus bishop's episcopacy begins the series of prelatical coins of Durham, 
which have been fully described by Mark Noble, in his Dissertations on the 
subject, in which he was ably assisted by Geo. AUan, (as acknowledged in 
his prefEhce) and had access to the cabinets of that gentleman, Mr. Barker, 
and John Scott Hylton, Esq., from which he took some of his specimens. 
Several other types might now be added A yery curious penny of Bishop 
Sherwood with S on Bichard Ill's bust is given in the Pictorial History of 
England. Mr. M. A. Denham has a penny struck in the reign of Henry 
IV^ v., or VI., on which is a roundel (not an annulet) and a mullet at the 
sides of the king's bust. My father had one of Hatfield, with the pastoral 
staff turned to the left ; and in my own possession is a curious one of Beau- 
mont, found at South Kilvington, near Thirsk, in which the mint mark is a 
lion rampant with ttco fleur de lis at one side of it only. Many more varie- 
ties might be raked up.-f- 

Surtees in one place^ makes this bishop builder of the episcopal palace at 
Darlington. I am not even aware of any material alterations made by him 
in it, and the historian was possibly confounding him with the other proud 
prelate, Hugh Pudsey, for the moment I beUeve however that Beke paled 
the enclosed park belonging to the manor.§ 

Anthony was a staunch member of the church militarUy but sometimes 
went further than his talents warranted. At the battle of Falkirk against 
the^Scots, he received a severe rebuke fi^m Lord Ralph Basset, of Drayton, 
" My Lord Bishop, you may go and say mass, which better becometh you, 
than to teach us what we have to do, for we will do that which belongeth to 
the order of war.''|| 

Indeed Beke lived in a degree of splendour and military pomp inferior to 
none but his sovereign. When Edward came down to Newcastle in 1296, 
with an army of 30,000 foot and 4000 heavy armed horsemen, he was ac- 
companied by the forces of the bishop consisting of 1000 foot and 600 horse. 
In the war with Scotland he had with him twenty-six standards of his own 
&mily or principaUty, and his ordinary suit comprised 140 knights.^ St 
Guthbert's banner floated over this princely array, and a monk of Durham 
was the standard-bearer. At the battle of Falkirk, Beke had in his compa- 
ny thirty-two banners.** 

1291. On the 16 April, Edward I. dated a sununons at Derlyngton to 
fifty-seven of his military tenants of the northern connties, among whom are 
named John de Baliol, Robert de Brus, William de Vesey, Hugh de Lovall, 

* Oraystones, c. 14. 
t Th<mias Lincoliie of Derlyngton, bondsman in I4d0 for George Strayll, mintmaster of 
Bp. Sherwood. 

t Vol. 1. p. cix. § Hatch, iii. 188. |i Hollinshed. 

^ Graystanee- ** Scala Chronica* 



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72 BEKE EXCOMMUNICATED AT DARLINGTON. 

the lady de Ros, Margaret de Ros, and William de Heron, who were to ae- 
company him with horse and arms, and all the service they owed him, at 
Norhara, for six weeks, reckoning from Easter ; and th^ sherifis of the north- 
em counties received orders to give notice to all within their districts, wha 
owed the king mihtary service, to give the same attendance.* At the as- 
sembly convened at Norham, the bishop of Durham addressed the states of 
Scotland, informing them that Edward's purpose in coming to th3 borders 
was to maintain the tranquiUity of that kingdom and to do impartial justice 
to the claimants of the crown, in the character of supreme lord of Scotland, 
and that he gave them three weeks to deUberate on the matter. At the close 
of that time his title was recognised, and in 1292 he gave judgment for 
BalioL 

While Beke was employed in the service of his sovereign, the Archbishop 
of York renewed the claims of his predecessors to jurisdiction over the bishop- 
rick. He sent to Durham his notary-public and clerks by the pope's autho- 
rity with official letters of citation, who were immediately placed in close 
durance by the bishop's officers, and Beke sent word that they were to be 
detained in defiance of all admonitions to enlarge them. The archbishop 
thundered a sentence of interdict against him, and issued lus precept (May, 
1292) to the prior of Boulton to excommunicate the bishop in his own 
churches of Alverton, Derlington, and other places, which the prior obeyed, 
and the case came before parliament.-f- The archbishop found himself in a 
much more awkward predicament than his predecessor, who fled from Dur- 
ham on a one-eared palfrey in an attempt at visitation ; for his high offisnces 
in presuming to enforce the release by ecclesiastical censures, instead of the 
king's process, and to excommunicate any person in the king's service or at- 
tending on his person, were adjudged by the parliament as worthy of being 
punished not only then but in all succeeding ages, by imprisonment of the 
ecclesiastics who should be guilty thereof, and by heavy fines and ransoms* 
Accordingly notwithrftanding his pall, the archbishop found himself in the 
same sorry case as his officials, being committed to the Tower and obliged ta 
find sureties for the payment of the large sum of four thousand marks to the 
king.J 

♦ Rymer, v. ii. fo. 525. 
t PlaciU Pari. 2). Edw. 1. 1292. 
t In Bp. Beaumont's time, whenever the archbishop came to Allertonshire to visit, the 
bishop of Dm'bam opposed him with an armed force. A conproroise was oome to in 1330 
when the church at Leak was appropriated for the maintenance of the bishop's table, with 
the reserve of an annual pension to himself, and another to the chapter of York. Leak 
Church stands lonely amidst green fields near a solitary Hall. A north Chapel is screened 
oflf by a rich parclose of the 14th century retaicing its original paintings of birds and flow- 
ers, and in the south chapel ( to which is attached the Cross Keys farm of some £150 per 
annum, appropriated to the repair of Five Sisters window at York) are two magnificently 
carved stall ends dated 1519. On an ancient bell, said to come fh)m Rievanix, is the humi- 
ble legend, + : PATER : AELREDE : GRENDALE : MISERI : MISERERE. «0 
Father, commiserate the miserable Aelred Grendale." 



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ANTHONY BEKE* 73 

1293. An inquisition was taken touching the bishop's liberties before 
Hugh de Cressingham and his fellow justices, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, under 
the statute de quo warranto. The bishop and those holding liberties in his 
palatinate, had neglected to justify their title, on the statutory proclamation, 
on which default the liberties were seized into the king's hands, until they 
should answer. However the bishop having pleaded in parliament various 
matters, as well in error as otherwise, had full restitution. The record, a- 
mong other matters, states that he had three coroners in the three wards of 
Durham, and others at Sadberge, Bedlington, and Norham, and that he had 
£urs and markets at Durham, Derlington, and Norham. The full palatine 
powers are recapitulated. An inspeximus of this record was obtained in the 
time of bishop Langley, 1409.* 

1302. Mar. 5. Edward L dates at Derlyngton an instrument addressed 
to the pope, appointing ambassadors and proctors to treat with him. By- 
mers Fwdera. 30 Edw. I. 

In the latter part of Edward a reign the Bishop fell sadly from his high 
estate. His barons led a dissention against him for compelling the people of 
the palatinate to go out of its limits in warfare, which as hali'tcerke folks 
(holding by the service of defending St. Outhbert's patrimony) they were not 
bound to do, while the pope pronounced his suspension for not answering a 
charge of illegally interfering in the election of a prior. He went with a 
splendid parade to Rome in consequence, and came back with honour ; but a 
worse enemy was at homa Edward had long been jealous of his potent sub- 
ject, and seized the circumstance of his leaving England without licence, with 
other matters of offence, as an excuse for depriving him of his bishoprick. 
He was restored, and againf deprived ; but Edward's own hour-glass was now 
run out, and in his successor's time the prelate emerged from disgrace with 
the distinguished dignities of Count palatine and Bishop of Durham, Earl of 
Sadberge, King of Man, (so created by the new king) and Patriarch of Je- 
rusalem (a title conferred by a new pope of 1305). He was the first bishop 
buried within the walls of the cathedral ; respect for St Cuthbert having de- 
terred his predecessors from suflfering a body to come there. But Beke re- 
sembled Cuthbert in no small degree, for his continence was so singular that 
he never looked a woman full in the face, and alone among the bishops pre- 
sent, dared to touch the remains of St. William of York on their translation, 
bold in his conscious chastity. He never took more than one sleep, saying 
that it did not become a man to turn himself in bed, and he was perpetually 
riding from one manor to another, or hunting or hawking. 

• Rymer, viii. 572. 
t The borough of Derlington is expressly raentioned in the bishop's petition to Parlia- 
ment 35 Edw. I., 1307, for the restoration of the temporalities in consequence of the incon- 
teaience from his not being able to hold Court-Baron, &c. Referred to the king's Justices. 



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74 THE RAID OF 

BICHABD KELLAWE, 

Elected 31 Mar., 1311 ; consecrated 20 May ; died 9 Oct, 1316. 

1316. In fklw. II.'s wars with Scotland, the Scots often ravaged the 
Palatinate, and this year they entered the bishoprick by the moontainoos 
passes of the Western frontier, and, avoiding Barnard-Castle, rolled like a 
destructive flood down the vales of the Wear and Tees, then united their 
forces, and wasted the country round Durham. The country was exhausted 
with miseries ; funine* and pestilence followed war, and the marches of the 
two kingdoms were reduced to a state of destitution which had not been felt 
since the days of the Norman tyrant A new invasion followed the next year, 
and three seasons of sterility had carried distress to the highest pitch. All 
this had arisen from Bannockbum, for aflier that event Bruce and Douglas 
had ravaged the palatinate, exacted tribute, and retreated by the course of 
the Tees and Swale, leaving their marks of destruction behind them. Their 
way was plain in after years.'f 

LEWIS BEAUMONT. 

Leave of election 19 Oct, 1317 ; consecrated 26 March, 1318. 
Cl^e SUtto of t|^( Bu^l^op. 

Bishop Lewis Beaumont was a near relation of the Queen ot England, 
through whose interest he became Bishop of Durham. During the election 
the Earls of Lancaster, Hereford, and Pembroke waited within the church the 
event of the conclave ; Henry Beaumont, his brother, was also thera Some 
of the savage nobiUty threatened that if a monk were elected they would slap 
his shaven crown ! Notwithstanding, the electors preserved their purity and 
elected their aged prior, but the tears of Edward's queen prevailed on her 
wavering consort to reftwe confirmation, and to write letters to the pope who 
obeyed the injunction, and bestowed the see on the heartless wretch for whom 
it was asked Beaumont proposing to be installed on the feast of St Cuth- 
bert, in September, 1317, began his progress to the north, attended by a 
splendid retinue, accompanied by his brother, Henry Beaumont, and two 
cardinab fr^m Home. At Darlington the bishop was met by a messenger 

* The descriptions of the £aniine are so horrible as to be scarcely credible. Tlie poor 
stole fai dogs to eat. Those dogs became fat by feeding on the beasts and cattle thai died* 
Some others in hidden places did mitigate their hunger with the flesh of their own children. 
The thieves that were in prison did pluck in pieces those that were newly brought io, and 
greedily devoured them half alive ! 

t Surtees. 



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THE BISHOP. 75 

from Durham to warn him that the road was in possession of marauders, bat 
the high rank and sacred dignity of Lewis and his companions seemed to place 
danger at defiance, and the friendly information was not only treated with 
great contempt, but the most improper motives were attributed to the Prior 
who sent it, the bishop and his brother saying that he wished to impede the 
oonseoration. They turned their backs on the convenient Hall of Dtu*lington 
and wended on.* A few hours verified the prediction. At Bushyford a 
desperate band waited the.arrival of the party, and the Bishop and his com- 
panions were speedily enveloped in a cloud of light horsemen under the com- 
mand of Gilbert Middleton, a Northumbrian gentleman. Afiter rifling the 
whole party, Middleton restored the cardinab' horses, and suffered them to 
proceed. The Bishop, however, and his brother, were carried off to Mitford 
CSastle,-f- and thrown into prison. 

The capture of Bishop Beaumont, (says Surtees,) took place where between Woodham 
and Ferryhill, the road crosses a small sullen riyulet, in a low and sequestered spot, well 
calculated for surprize, and the prevention of escape. In Rymer*8 Foedera, it is said to 
have taken place at ^f2s, (qu. Ade^ i. e. Aycliff^,) where the passage over the Skeme 
would be equally convenient 

The outlaws at first intended to spare the cardinab, and their immediate attendants ; 
but when one after another cried out, '' and I belong to the cardinal," they began to 
think they would have bat little pay for their trouble, and, wise in their generation, 
they took the summary resolution of rifling the whole party. 

Hollinshed says, that Sir Gilbert Middleton '* being offended y* Master Lewes Beamont 
was preferred unto the bishops sea of Durham, and Henrie Stanforde put from it, that 
was first elected, and after displaced by the King's sute made unto the Pope, tooke the 
sayd Lewes Beamont and his brother Henrie on Winglesdon Moore, nere unto Daring- 
ton, X leading the Bishop to Morpath, and his brother the Lorde Beaumont unto the 
Castell of Mitford, &c., and that the knight was so advaunced in pride therewith, that 
be prodamed himselfe Duke of Northumberlande, and joyning in friendshippe with 
Robert Bruce, cruelly destroyed the countie of Richmond." 

Gilbert de Middleton was a kinsman of Adam de Swinburne, sheriff of Northumber- 
land, whom the King had used harshly in some Border matters. Sharing in his 
wrong, he flew to arms, and assemhling a large collection of desperate adventurers, took 
all Uie Northumberiand castles, save Alnwick, Bamburg^, and Norham, and carried 
fire and terror through Cleveland. But the Loyalists assembling, his army began to 
forsake him, and he shut himself up in his castle of Mitford, when he was taken, through 
the treachery of his followers. On his trial, in 1318, the King gave sentence, that he 
should be dragged through the city of London to the gallows, and there alive hung up, 
and aUve taken down, and beheaded : his head sent to the dty of London : and as liis 
heart had had the audacity to excogitate the horrible fdonies he had done against God, 
the holy churdi, and his liege lord, they were ordered to be burnt under the gallows, 
his body to be quartered, and one part sent to Newcastle, another to York, the third to 

♦ Ad vadum Cirponim inter Feri et Wodom. Oraystomea. 
t Hutchinson. But see Hollinshed. 
X " When they came neere unto the towne of Derlington, certayne robbers breaking out 
of a vaUey, GUbert Middleton and Walter Selby beeing their captaynes, sodaynelie sette 
upon the fSeunilie of the Cardinalles and of Lodowike on Wigelseden Moore, &c. Stowe^ who 
also states that the two Beaumonts were conveyed to different castles. Windlestone moor 
is meant. 



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76 SCOTCH INCURSIONS. 

Bristol, and the fourth to Dover. Many forfeitures succeeded. The wars of Scotland 
had reduced Northumberland from prosperity to a desert, and the inhabitants were left 
without subsistence, save the plunder they could get in Scotland, and their ill-paid 
wages, as soldiers. When therefore, the sheriff, for representing their hardships, was 
disgraced by imprisonment, can it be wondered at that they should turn the weapons 
their weak and cruel lord had put into their hands, against himself, and liege subjects. * 
War will always turn against its originator, and, after all, poor Middleton has been 
overloaded with guilt. Of Sir Ralph Fitz Robert, who assumed the name of Oreystock, 
says Dugdale, " he besieged Gilbert de Middleton, and divers others with him, in the 
castle of Mitford, for certain traitrous actions done by them, in Northumberland ; and 
that not long after, being in Gateshead, at breakfast, he was, through the contrivance of 
the same Gilbert and his party, there poisoned, 3rd July, an. 1323, 17 Edward II, and 
buried in the Abbey of Newminster, t near the high altar." The fact is, Middleton 
was executed five years before, in 1318, by the most undeniable evidence. His seal is 
engraved in Surt^es, plate x. 22. It is attached to a receipt for money levied under a 
pretence of protecting the Palatinate at that period. 

The treasures of the church were lavished for Lewis's redemption, and the 
captives were liberated. Beaumont was consecrated at Westminster on the 
26th of March, 1318. The monks must have been shocked and surprised 
at the strange mixture of levity and ignorance which this new bishop exhibi- 
ted during the solemnity. Unable to pronounce the word metropolitice in 
the official instrument, he cried out in his native French, " Let us suppose it 
read." Proceeding further, in (snigmate stopped him altogether, when he 
exclaimed, "By St Louis, it is not courteous to introduce such worda" 
Lewis's conduct towards the convent to whose liberality he was so deeply in- 
debted, J was marked by a most capricious exercise of power. In vain the 
monks attempted to conciliate his fovour by gifts or by attention. "You do 
nothing for me," said he, " nor will I do anything for you ; you may pray 
for my death, for whilst I live you shall have no favour from me." His pri- 
vate expenses were enormous. He died In September, 1333, and was buried 
at Durham, before the high altar, in the place where his gravestone has been 
lately found, consisting of two immense slabs weighing about six tons. It is 
believed that in point of magnitude and weight they have no equal in Eng- 
land ; consisting of two slabs of north country blue marble, and not charac- 
terized by the ancrinites which are found in the marble of the Wear near 
Stanhope. They were probably procured from the bed of the Tees near 
Barnard-Castle. 

1317. Sir Gosseliue Deinvile and his brother Robert, with two hundred 
men in the habit of Friars, did many notable robberies, they spoiled the bishop 
of Durham's palaces, leaving nothing in them but bare walls, for the which 
they were after hanged at York. Stowe, 

1318. The Scots penetrated into Yorkshire, sacking Northallerton, Ripon, 
&c , and spread destruction over the whole country, and in 1369, while the 

* See Ahbr. Placit 33*3, and Hodgson's Northumberiand. 

t NeJir Morpeth. 

X Even the habits, plate, and jewels of the church liad to be sold for the pui-pose. 



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SCOTCH INCURSIONS. 77 

king was beseiging Berwick, came by the Western march and discomfited 
Uie English at Myton upon Swale. 

1321 . " After the Epiphanie, when the trace fayled betwixt the two realmes of Eng- 
land and Scotland, an army of Scots entred England, and came into the Bishoprike of 
Durham. The Earle of Murrey stayed at Darinfftan, but James Dowglas and the Stew- 
ard of Scotland went forth to waste the country, the one towards Hartilpoole and Cleve- 
land, and the other towards Richmont : hut they of the countie of Richmont (as before 
they had done) gave a great summe of money to save their countrie ^m inuadon. 

'*The Scottes that time remayned within Englande by the space of fiftene dayes or more. 
The Knightes and Gentlemen of the north partes, came vnto the Earle of Lancaster that 
lay the same tyme at Pomfret, offering to goe foorth with him to giue the enimies bat- 
ttule, if bee would assyst them : But the Earle seemed that he had no lust to fyght in 
defence of hys Prince, that sought to oppresse hym wrongfally, (as he took it) and 
therefore he dissembled the matter, and so the Scots returned at their pleasure without 
encounter.** Hollinshed. 

Before this the Pope had cursed Robert le Brus ; and he, James Douglas, 
and Thomas Bandulf, Earl of Murray, were accursed throughout England 
every day at mass three times. This " put the king and the reahne to great 
cost and charge," and yet Robert le Brus and co. cared not a whit for 
their cursings. 

1322. While the English forces were assembling at Newcastle, Robert 
Bruce passing them " came with a great power of Scottes into Yorkeshir, and 
king Edward being at York, and hermg of this came to Blakehoumore with 
such pour as he could sodenly gather, and toke a hylle bi Bylaund Abbay 
for his fortresse, wher the king and his cumpany were discomfitid, and the 
Count of Richmont taken, and the Lord Sully, a baron of France, and many 
others ; and the King's self scarcely escapid to Rivalles Abbay." (Leland, 
CoB. I. 550., II. 474.) The royal plate, jewels, and privy seal were seized, 
and Ripon and Beverley plundered. A truce for thirteen years was concluded 
in 1323, and the Commissioners swore to its observance on the souls of Bruce 
and of EdwardJ*^ Some write that on their return from the expedition of 
1322, the Scots spoiled Northallerton and the other towns on their route.-f- 

ROBERT DB GBAYSTANES, 

Uie Historian, was elected by the monks, and even consecrated on 14 Nov., 
1333, but the temporalities were denied him and he was forced to succumb 
to the King's tutor, 

RIOHABD DE BURY, 

who had been provided by the pope, and to whom the temporalities were re- 
stored, 7 Dec., 1333 ; died 1345. 

* Rymer, lii. 1001-2, 1021-2. t Fabian. 



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78 SCOTCH INCURSIONS. 

Bury's love of books was so violent, that, as he says himself, it put him in 
a kind of rapture and made him n^lect all other business. From his work 
Philobiblas, a treatise for the management of the splendid library, which he 
founded for the students at Oxford, he was called PhUobiblos himself a lover 
of books. He frequently corresponded with Petrarch, 

It is said of this munificent man that when he travelled from Durham to 
Newcastle, he gave twelve marks in charity, between Durham and Stockton 
eight marks, between Durham and Auckland five marks, and fr^m Durham 
to Middleham 100^.* 

1327. Edward III. preparing to invade Scotland, the Scotch invaded 
England and penetrated as fekr as Stanhope Park. They sent ambassadors 
to Edward at York to treat for peace, but not succeeding, and observing that 
the English soldiers were '' doathed all in coates and hoodes embroidred with 
flowers and branches verye seemely, and used to nourishe theyr beardes,'' 
they affixed in derision this rhyme on the cathedral doors ^'towarde Stangata'' 

Long beardee, hartelesse, 
Paynted hoodes, wytleeee, 
Gaye coates, gracelesse, 
Make Englande thriftlesse.t 

Edward, according to lord Hailes, left York on the tenth of July, halted at 
Topdifie the eleventh and twelfth, and reached Durham on the thirteenth. 
According to Froissart, he left York in the morning and reached Durham at 
night, which is rather a forcing on reason of a forced marcL The Scotch, 
to E^dward's great annoyance, retreated without a battle, and he lay on the 
tenth of August at Durham again, disbanding at York on the fifteenth. 

"At this tyme Archibald Duglas toke great Prayes in the Bishopriche of 
Duresme, and encounterid with a band of Englisch Men at Darlington, and 
killid many of them Shortely aft»r the Scottes by covine fledde clere away 
from Stanhop Park in the Night Wherefore the yong king Edward wept 
tmdrdy, and retumid to York." (Scala Chronica in Ldan^s Coll) 

Peace was concluded in 1328, and the heir of Scotland married to Ed- 
ward's sister Jane, called Joan of the Tower, and by the Scots Joan make 
peace. But clouds soon overspr^Eui the glowing prospect 

1333. Apr. I. E^dward marched north and was again at Durham. He 
entered Scotland in aid of E^dward Baliol, bore down all opposition, and clo- 
sed the campaign by the bloody victory of Halidon HilL During his sojourn 
in Durham, his queen Philippa, after supping with the king in the priory, 
retired to rest St Guthbert was no respecter of persons, and though the 
poor queen was not doomed to penance, like two women irom Newcastle who 
" by instigation of the devil and attempt temerarious," attempted to see the 
saint s shrine, yet she was compelled by the monies to quit her husband's bed 

* Stowe. t HoUinshed, edit 1677. 



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EDWARD III. AT DARLINGTON. 79 

and make for the castle in all haste, clad only m her nether garmenta* fki- 
ward entered Scotland m aid of Edward Baliol, bore down all opposition, and 
closed the campaign by the bloody victory of Halidon Hill, at which Archi- 
bald Donglas, the governor of Scotland in the absence of king David, was 
slain, to the great consolation of Darlington, I trow. 

1336. June 18. King fkiward III. granted a Ucence to John 6ros, of 
Berwick, to assign property to Tynemouth Priory. This document is dated 
at DarlingtoiL-f- Two days after we find him at Newcastle, on his road to 
Scotland to suppress the revolt against BalioL All however was in vain, and 
ihe indomitable spirit of that country wearied Edward out 

1338. Mar. 26. Letters Patent ''pro Roberto de Artoys, de annuitate/' 
are dated by the king at Derlyngton. (Bymer's Fcsdera,) This was in his 
northern journey connected with the seige of Dunbar. 

1342-3 Feb. 20. The bishop hy common counsel and amseni o/tiewhole 
community of his liberty, having made composition for a truce with Scotland, 
by promising payment of one hundred and sixty marks, and 8£ 13«. 4dl for 
expenses of ambassadors, &c., orders by precept of his day that John Ban- 
dolf should raise the proportion payable by DarUngton Ward by taxation.^ 
On the sixth of February proceeding, Buiy appointed Bobert Brackenbury, 
grand&ther of the celebrated Ueutenant of the Tower, and thirty others to 
array all the defensible men in Darlington Ward to oppose the Scots. 



THOMAS HATFIELD. 

Elected 8 May, 1345 ; died 8 May, 1381. 

1346. In the king's great expedition to France this year, which ended 
in the glorious contest of Cressy, he was accompanied by Master William 
Killesby, clerk, who is named by Stowe as one of those leading a great army 
of soldiers well appointed, at the embarkment at PortsmoutL This church- 
man was more than once employed in warlike affiurs. Edward was also 
accompanied in his luckless Flanders trip of 1340 by 'Hwo chapleynes that 
were his Secretaries, Sir William Killesby, and Sir Philip Weston f and 
again HolUnshed writes that his Secretary, Sir William Killesby, stirred him 
to take displeasure against the archbishop of Canterbury John Stratford, who 
was accused of preventing the king in his late campaign being furnished with 
money, by not looking after the collectors, and charging the king with op- 
pression while he had the rule of the realm in his hands under the king. 
The prelate was a man of spirit, excommunicated all who did violence to the 
eleigy or their goods, a sentence which struck at Edward himself ; smd wrote 
a letter to the king ftiU of the hi^est claims for ecclesiastical superiority over 

* Raine's St Cuthbert, 37. 
t Pat 9 Edw. III. p. ]. m. 7, vel a Tanner's Not Mon. 
::: Rot Bury, ached. 13. 



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80 THE THREE PREBENDARIES. 

kings. This was not a likely way of obtaining the pardon of Edward, who 
omitted his name in summoning parliament Stratford appeared in full Test- 
ments, demanded entrance as the highest peer, and after two days rejection 
forced the king to give way. 

Eillesby was in Brittany in 1345 in an army on behalf of the duke of that 
country, who however soon died, and he returned to England.* 

Both Killesby and Weston held prebendal stalls in Darlington church,-f- and 
appear to have been in high favour with the king. In 1343 royal letters is- 
sued, extending special protection for William de Kildesby of all his prefer- 
ments, he having, by the king's licence, gone into foreign parts, and " by 
reason of laudable obedience to us by the said William bestowed," that king 
now extended his gracious favour to him, and prevented any man from inju-^ 
ring him in his possessions. These were of no small value, for besides the 
"prebend in the church of Derlyngton," he held five other prebends, one hos- 
pital, one church, one free-chapel, and six other chapels dependant^ So 
much for the purity of the church at that time. 

Philip de Weston was admitted Dean of York in 1347, both by the king's 
and archbishop's letters on his behalf. When he died is Hot known, but tJie 
next dean occurring itf cardinal Talyrandos de Petagoricis, whom, Mr. Willis 
says, the pope thrust into the deanery, and outed Weston. The same au* 
thor adds that he enjoyed it till 1366, when he died. (Drakes Eboraoum,) 

The collegiate church must have been well stocked with these king-caressed 
ecclesiastics, who doubtless looked after their spiritual charges in very slight 
fashion, for, in 1343, Weston was made a commissioner to treat with the 
Flemish in company with Master John Waweyn, who as Canon of Derlynjs:- 
ton learned in both§ laws," often occurs with John de Montgomery knt in 
public instruments in 1336, being called by the king his " trusty proctors 
and ambassadors."!! 

As to the titles of Sir and Magter, g^ven to the three prebendaries, take a note from 
Percy's Reliques : — 

" The title of Sir was not formerly peculiar to knights, it was given to Priests, and 
sometimes to very inferior personages. 

Dr. Johnson thinks this title was applied to such as had taken the degree of A.B. in 
the universities, who are still styled Domini, "Sirs," to distinguish them from undei^grad- 
nates, who have no prefix, and from Mastei-s of Arts, who are styled Magistri, 'Masters.' '* 

General usage in early times gave the title of Domnus to an ecclesiastical superior, re- 
serving Dominus for our Lord. Cslestem Dominum, terrestrem dicito domnum. 

1346. During the king's invasion of France, David of Scotland rushed 
down on our fair vales with an immense anny. In this campaign he "ap- 
pointed to preserve foure tounes onely from burning, to witte, Hexham, Cor-' 
bridge, Darington, and Durham, to the ende he might in them lay up such 

* Hollinsbed. 

t Allan's Collectanea Dunelmensia. t Rymer's Fcedera, sub 17 Edw. III. 

§ Civil and canon. i| Rymer's Fcedera. 



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CROSSES. gi 

store erf vitayles, bb he should provide abrode in the Gountrey, wherewith to 
SQsteyne his army daring the time of his abjding in those parties/' * I do 
not however trace him further South tkm the entrancing seat of Beaupaire. 
The end of this border raid came to pass at Bedhills or Neville's Gross, near 
Durham on October 17, where, by the assistance of Si Cuthbert's Ciorporax 
doth, the Scots were totally routed, their Idng taken, and the Black Bood of 
ScoUand,-}" miraculously delivered to one of his predecessors, transported to 
the church of Durham. Neville's Gross had existed on the spot long before, 
but a new and very fail cross of stone was now erected by Lord Balph Neville 
" one of the most excellent and chief persons^' at the battle. In 1639, " in 
the night time, the same was broken down, and de&ced by some lewd, and 
contemptuous wicked persons, thereto encouraged (as it seemed) by some who 
loved Ghrist the worse for the Gross sake."| As for the previous cross on 
the spot, take the following hint from Baine. § 

'^A CT08B was the UBoal boundary or march stone between Lord and Lord, and most 
especially wh«:e three Lords might have met and shaken hands with each other from 
their respective estates. The Nevilles were owners of Brancepeth, and in all probability 
tiie eld cross might have taken its name from the fact, that it stood upon the precise 
spot at Which a man who was bound to my Lord Neville, of ^ancepeth, would quit the 
great and much frequented ecclesiastical way between Durham and Bearpark. The 
cross of the Nevilles, I dare say the very saltire of their shield, would remind a young 
Lumley, or a Hilton, of the place to which he was going, and would prompt him to spur 
on his steed till he had reached the side of the Prior of Durham, in whose suite he had 
ascended the hill, and wish him solace at Beaorepaire, gently bidding him fuewell." 

When orass occurs in names ot fields, I believe it almost always has refers 
ence to ancient metes and bounds. Sandhutton Gross, at the junction of tilie 
townships of Thirsk and Sandhutton, still stands. There are boundary crosses 
at Borrowby in the same country on the Gross-Keys &rm ; and here we have 
Crass- Woods, the first two fields in Blackwell township, boundering Glaiteen- 
sikes, and Lamb-Cross HiUy^ the field at this side of Prescott's stile, where a 
cross would be useful, either as a bound between it and the territory of Nor* 

« HoUinshed. 

t There is no man that could tell of what matter this croese was made, whether of me^ 
tall , stone, or of tree. HoUinahed' 

X The Kites, &0., of the charch of Duiliam, collected oot of ancient MSS. about the time 
of the suppression, published by J. Davies, of Kidwelly, 1672. An extremely scarce little 
12mo. of 164 pp. A degree of peculiarity attaches to it, in having two dedications to the 
teme man, James Mickleton, esq. dated respectively Sep. 4 and Oct. 4, 1 67 1 , (I speak only 
from my own copy ) in differing language, but to the same effects Mickleton is men- 
tioiied as collector of the subject matter, and is weU known as an earnest Durham anti- 
l[uary. He died in 1695, leaving his MSS. for four years to Sir Robert Eden, Bart., Abra- 
ham Hilton, gent, and John Spearman, and afterwards as to certain of his MSS. to the same 
persons, or their nominee^ td be printed. 

§ St. Cuthbert, 106. 

D Does this refer to a cross with the Agnus-Dei ftiirly sculptured thereon, or to the soft 
sward on which the lambkins capered I 

M 



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82 THE NEVILLES. 

d^es, or if we take the North side of the close, as between Blackwell and 
Darlington townships. Then there is Croo^/kxtt or Cro89e-flatt, an estate of 
the yeiy Nevilles jnst spoken of, and situate in Clay Bow, which was sold by 
Henry, &ther of the last Earl of Westmoreland, to the Stories, from whom 
it passed through the CoUings and Crosbys, to die Allans.* It was a cus- 
tom to erect crosses where churches first burst on the view. Grosse-flatt 2aA 
Lamb-cross-Hill would both be veiy proper places for such mementos, where 
the traveller frx>m Yarm Qr from Richmond, on the brow from whence Uie 
tapering spire of the collegiate church was delight to the eye, would pray and 
praisa 

In the conreyance from Francb Stoiye, of Mortham, (Morton) oo. Durham, gent^ 
and Henry his son and heir, of Harleshawe, co. York, gent, to Francis Foster for 120^ 
of Crosse flatt, sixteen acres, [called one close in 7 James I.] it b described as ''a paroell 
of the lait landes of Henry, lait Earle of Westmerland, and by him sold to Cnihberte 
Storye, lait father of the said Fraoncband laid fourth by partition of the said townshipp 
of Darlington, in leue of a part of the said Earle's landes," and in the feofiment accom- 
panying, as bounded by W. Foot Riggs, belonging to the Olebe of Daiiington ; 8. The 
King's street, (i. e. the i^oad to Tarm.) t In I73I it contained twenty-six acres, seren 
perches, and the whole North side of the Bank Top colony is built upon it. It is in 
the township of Bondgate, but is freehold. 

The head of the &niily was Gilbert de Neville, an admiralj in the fleet of 
the Conqueror, in 1066. His grandson G^ffirey married Emma, daughter 
and heiress of Bertram de Buhner, and obtained Brancqieih and Sberiff- 
Hutton lordships. His son Heniy dying 1227, s. p. his daughter Isabel 
succeeded to the estates, and marrying Robert Fitz-Melred, lord of Baby, 
her son G^ffirey assumed the Neville surname, and from him all the later 
Nevilles sprung. 

Greoffirey was the &ther (^ Robert, whose son, Robert the younger, died 
in his Other's life-time. He had married Mary, daughter and eventually 
sole heiress of the great Baron Ranulph Fitz-Ribald, of Middleham, but the 
union was hapless. Mary of Middleham, said to have been £ur and gentle, 
wept over the early grave of her husband, who died the victim of a savage 
revenge ;§ she survived on her own inheritance, and dying in 1320, lies bu- 
ried at Goverham Abbey, founded by her ancestors. Her only son Ralph 
Neville succeeded his grand£Ekther as lord of Raby, and was an indolent man, 
sometimes showing gleams of gallant bearing, but generally fonder of the so- 
ciety of the canons of Goverham than of Uving in his paternal homes. It is 
to be hoped that the character of the monks is not to be judged by the deeds 
of their devotee, for Kellawe obliged him, when long past the period of his 

* Included in the Grange estates sold. 

t Archiyes penes R. H. Allan, esq. 

t The old Neville coat was ''Or, fretty Go. on a canton Sa. an a/Mient ship.** 

§ ** Robertus iste de Neville membra, manibus irati viri ciuusdam cigas uzorem inge' 

nuam yiolaverat, apod Craven perdidit." 



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THE NEVILLE . 33 

yoath, to do penance for a deplorable delinquency.^ Mary Fitz-Banulpb 
deeming her son none of the most competent to manage this world's wealth, 
settled her manors of Middlaham and Goverdale on her grandson Bobert^ 
e3^e 9eaault of t^ i^x^. 

He, in iuperbiis, ''for despite who might role most/' afisaolted and slew 
Bichard Fitz-Marmadoke, son of the boiled baron,-f- on Elvet bridge, as he 
was riding to open the Goonty Ooorts, but, next year, in leading a disorderly 
band to plunder the Scottish march, was slain. himself at Bewyck Park, 
leaving a brother Balph to gain the glories of Neville's Oross. 



In 1651, the manor of Winston was hsld of Baby by one broad anow feathered with 
peacock fiat^en. At Middleham in a house opposite the castle, a sculpture of a pheasant 
or peacock is built io. Above the North door of Staindrop church also, is a sculpture 
far more like a bird than a lion, as it has been designated. It is therefore probable that 
the proud by-name of Robert might originate in a badge, like Richard III.'s " bloody 
boar of York." 

The reader must not imagine that the phrase '* VU nevel thee,'' or ^'giye thee a nerd- 
ling'' scattered orer the norths has any relation to this family, uproarious as some of 
its members were. Nevel simply means to beat violently wiUi the fist or niet The 
word is still used. 



^SheHl deal her Neavea about her, I hear tell 
She's timerons to please, and varra Fell, 
First thing that comes to band she'U let it flee, 
Neans yaUe to abide her Cmdtie ; 
Shell Nawpe and Nevd them without a cause." 

A Ywhthire Dialogue. 1697. 



And it is classical English :— 



Give me your mi^f ; Monsieur Mustard-seed 1 

Jliidsummcr Night*8 Dream, 



In 1290,^ or in Hugh de Derlyngton's preyions priorate^ acoording to 
Dugdde, had arisen a dispute between Balph Neville and the prior of Dur- 
ham. The Nevilles, in respect of the honour of Baby, annually offered a stag, 
and Balph claimed that he and his company should be feasted by the prior 
on the occasion. Imagination easily pictures the woe of the brethren, how the 
priOT would explain that the noble's numerous train would sadly reduce both 
stag and usual larder, and how a portly brother would solenmly demonstrate, 

* CHado Domini Rannlfi de NeriUe, publicata tam in ecdesia de Stayndrop, quam in 
mauerio suo de Raby xrii Octr. anno 3 pontit pro incestu et adulteriis cum Anastasia, filia 
sua, uzore Domini Walter! de Fanconberg. 

t See page 56. 
t Qraystanes. 



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«4 THE NEVILLEa 

like Toby Heyrick* of later days, the impossibility of the fet spinning ronnA 
The npshot was that the Prior declined to accept the stag when laid at the 
flhrine of the abstemious Outhbert. Long were the fiwes of the hungry re- 
tainers, bitter were their words, and most awfdl were their nevellings of the 
sonsy monks at the altar. Up rose the courage of the latter, and down 
came the huge candles they were carrying on the offenders, with such 
good will that they beat a retreat, leaving the stag. The succeeding Balph 
(of Nevilles cross) claimed in 1331 the privilege with an aggravation, for he 
wanted not only a dinner, but to stop all day and demolish a breakfast next 
morning. However on the prior's remonstrances and submission for that 
once, the Neville brought but few with him, more for an honour than a 
burden, and shortly afber dinner left, saying, ^' What doth a break&st signify 
to me ? Nothing/' The stag was brought in with winding of horns, and a 
very old rhyme, the lament for Bobert, hiher of Mary of Middleham's spouse, 
runs: 

VUl, qiofl HtH i^ix i^onuK blau, 
f^alp VM t^i trap? 
jlou ii i^e ireke ank lui lain 
QHatf iDont to blob t^aisn ajj.t 

The hero of the fight left a son John, Lord Neville, who inherited all his 
&ther'8 talents, and filled the highest offices of the state4 His two brothers 
stand in curious juxtaposition— one was archbishop of York, the other a chief 
leader of the Lollards ! He died in 1388, being seized of a messuage and 
nine acres at Blackwell held by fealty only, and of a messuage in Gockerton, 
and four oxgangs.§ This John Neville and John Fau^ax, clerk, acquired 
moreover the manor of Oxenhale from John, son of Boger de Belgrave, be- 
fore 1378, which, under Hatfield's survey, was held by Lord Neville in dren- 
gage by the old service of Boldon Buke, and the estate descended to the last 
Earl. 

His son and successor, Balph, raised his fiimily honours to the highest 
pitch of magnificence, and by his second marriage with Joan, legitimized 
daughter of John of Gaunt, became brother-in-law to his sovereign. Engaged 
as he was in all the events of the day, his character stands forth in unmista- 
kable colours. Staunch in loyalty, he used means none the most scrupulous. 
He prevented his former associate Northumberland joining his son Hotspur 

* Vicar Toby of Gainford, who actuaUy once wrote a note declining to partake of a 
haunch of venison, apologising, as a reason, that he understood /our were invited : and as 
Mr.— was one of them, he was sure there would not hefaifar more than two ! 
t Graystanes. See further in Hutchinson, it 84. 
t Licence to castellate Raby, 1379. It was the age of such works. Witness Hylton and 
Lumley. Darlington is distinctly seen from Raby Tower. 

§ Inq. p. ra. John Nevyll, Chivaler, I Skirlaw. 



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THE NEVILLES. 85 

al the fight of Shrewsbury, and in the second insurrection in the nortfi he 
dispersed the insui^nts on Shipton Moor, by an artifice of more dubious 
character, sending their leaders, whom he had paltered with, to the scaffold. 
Balph received his title from the deserted khig in 1397, when ^'the Lord 
of Westmorland, named Dan Baby Novell,'" ♦ was made Earl of Westmore- 
land. With Heniy he was in highest fstvour, sometimes putting in an old 
rhyme to assist his arguments, such as 



HHj^ io iD^n jTraunce io^mui tmti^t lottj^ J^cotlanK Igtit begtniu.t 

He died full of years and honours in 1426, being buried under a magnificent 
tomb of alabaster, in his own collegiate church of Staindrop. 

From the earl's first bed sprung the Earls of Westmoreland, from his se- 
cond, the princely line of Warwick and of Salisbury, (whose blood mingled 
with that of Plantagenet ), the lords of Fauconberg, Latimer,^ and Aber- 
gavenny,§ and Bishop Bobert Neville of Durham. 

The Earl died seized of the Manors of Oxenale, val. 20/., and Blakwell ; one messnage 
and three oxgangs in Cockerton, val. 13*. 4d, ; seven messuages, twelve cottages, twen- 
ty-four burgages, four oxgangs, six acres of land, and eox acres of meadow in Derling- 
ton, and one close and one Dove-cote, val. 409. 

A t^ement in Cockerton (then in possession of the (Earths) is described as NeoiTs 
house in X683. Surtees. 

Pardon from Bp. Nevill (a<^ 5) to hb nephew Ralph (2nd earl) for lands at Darling- 
ton, formerly acquired without license, by Ralph, Earl of Westmoreland, deceased, from 
Sir Thomas Gray, knt 

Bobert the adulterer and Bobert the Peacock had well nigh passed out of 
remembrance, and the &te attendant upon the lords of Neville, of seeing their 
first-born die in their lifetime, seemed to slumber, but it suddenly revived, and 
for three generations the earldom never passed from father to son. John, 

* Stowe. Dan is the exact and propw rendering of Dominua, HoUinshed prints DaurabUs 
and Leland calls him Da RaJby, Hutch, iii. 264. 

t HoUhished. 

t The last N6viUe,lord Latimer, in a direct line, John, who died in 1577, is buried under 
a gallant effigy in Well Church, near Masham, the table on which it rests being covered 
with incised names. These, fh>m the dignity of the persons thus commemorating them- 
selTeSy seem to be marks of honour paid to the deceased rather than mere emblems of a 
foolish passion for defSadng monuments with initials and shoemarks ; and to have been 
done at much the same time, probably by a party of gentlemen visiting the ^chureh 
together. Here are some :— ''Cha&lbs Faikfax— Mabmaduke Danbt : July : 9 : 1618 : 
— Th : Bakbis. 1618. obatias.deo. — ^Will. Lvmley— Io : Iebton— Wiliam : Wakdes- 
FOBD—JoHK : Cole : 1618 :— Ro : Fbakcxlix. 1618." Some appear to be fkcsimUes of 
signatures. Here too rests Dorothy Vere, predecessor of Queen Catherine Parr in the bed 
of the lord Latimer ; and here is a slab which might vie with Bp. Beaumont's, 12 ft. i in. 
by 4 ft. 8 in., formerly covered by brass. 

§ The brazen shield of Richard, son of the first lord Abergavenny, torn from his tomb 
and affixed to the font at Staindrop, still retains the deep gules of the Neville quartering. 



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86 THE NEVILLES. 

the great earl's gallant son, who disoomfited fifty Frenchmen with Uurteen 
English, died in his {Esther's lifetime, leaving a son, Balph, to suooeed to the 
earldom and a diminished estate ; for Middleham, and many a Mr lordship 
were rent away for the descendants of Joan of Lancaster. His only aon, 
John, died without issue, and he himself in 1484, being memorialized by 
wooden effigies of himself and wife at Brancepeth, on which the Lsmcastrian 
collar of SS, has given way to the white rose and sun with the silver boar 
of Richard. His nephew, Balph, was third earl, whose only son, Ralph, 
perished like his predecessors in early prime, and was buried in the southern 
chapel oi Brancepeth, ''whereupon the erle took much thoght imd dyed at 
Homeby Castle, in Richmontshire, and there is buryed in the paroche 
chirche." The lost heir had left a son, Ralph, who became (burth earl, and 
died in 1549, leaving Henry, the fifth earl, who died in 1563, and was 
buried in Staindrop Church, under a handsome but debased wooden altar 
tomb. He was succeeded by his son Charles, of whom, alas ! I have moum- 
fid things to relate anon. 

Perhaps this most ancient and historic race had been somewhat shorn of its glory be- 
fore the fifth earl sold Croce flatt. The second eaii had granted a burgage in le Wel- 
rawe (situated hetween two burgages which he retained) to Thomas Bichbome, who 
rendered 3«. 4d, per ann. to him in respect of it, before 23 Henry VL* 

The fifth Earl also sold lands in Blackwell, in 1563, to Edward Perkinson, of Beau- 
mond HUl. The race was in rapid decline, and during the Rising of the North the queen 
instructed Sussex to state that " one of the earles has already so spoyled his owne patri- 
monie, as he will not let to spoile and consume all other men's that he may cume by.'' 

Raskelf (pronounced Rascal) seems to have been a sort of appendage for younger 
scions of the Nevilles, 

S hutiUn btllt atOi ^atlni cf^urct Utttph. 

PoptUar Bhifme, 

And what a steeple ! Four hugh trunks of oak run up the comers from top to bottom. 
It is an addition to the original structure, the old west window forming the Tower arch. 
On one of the bells is the odd legend, (S. F.) R. W. REMEMBER THY END AND 
FLIE R. D. 159a-GOD SAVE THIS NAVEL A. H. (S.F.), and in a window is a 
decayed effigy, in stained gkss, of a Neville (i4th cent) resting on a pillow marked with 
thesaltire. 

At Heighington church are three unnotioed but very intoesting hells.t The two 
first are dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, as fancied securities against tempests. 
The inscriptions are in ornamented gothic capitals, and read thus : — ^First, *^ t PUROA- 
TOS. NOS. lUNGITOS. AULE. CELL PAULE." Second, "tTU. PETRB. PUL- 
SATUS. PERUERSOS. MITIGA. FLATUS." The third has a figure of the virgin 

* Archives penes R. H. Allan, esq* 

t Var, a drunken parson. 

t On Bedale beU is a curious rhyming legend : 

"f lOU : EGO : CUM : FIAM : CRUCE : CUSTOS : LAUDO : MARUM : 

DIGNA : DEI : LAUDE : MATER : DIGNISSIMA : GAUDE." 



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HATFIELD'S SURVEY. 87 

and dnld, well ezocnted ; and the arms of Nerilk and ...(three animlets), with this 

ihyming inyocatioii to the Tirgiii, in black letter, ** f O. mater, dia. me. eana. bona. 



1348. The Bishc^ issued his mandate to Bob. de Brackenbury and others, 
to levy on Darlington Ward its {proportion of four hundred marks, with the 
amteni of the nobles, headmen, and aU the commonalty of his royal liberty of 
Durham, in compensation of the expense he had sustained in his preparations 
for its defence.* The instrument is remarkable, it issues with the assent of 
a ooUectiye l^islative body, in the same language as the king's mandates, 
issued with the assent of parliament, (magnates proceres et tota communitas,) 

CSrca 1380. A general survey of the 'bishop's lands was made, after the 
fiidiion of Boldon Buke, called Hatfield's Survey, but in addition to the de- 
mesne and villenage lands, containing a reoord of tilie freeholders paying 
rents. 

By this survey Darlington comprised, 

Thirty-nine free tenants, who hold fifty-seven parcels of gronnd and messuages by 
divers several rents, payable at the four nsnal terms. 

The tenants hold amongst them certain lands, viz. : Calfhouse, Swatergate, Eles- 
bankes, Sadhergate, Cockyrtongate, Bathelgate, Doresmgate, Prestgate, and Huraworth- 
gate, by ancient custom, as it is said, from which the lord receives nothing, notwith- 
standing that these are parcels of the lord's ancient and proper waste. 

Fourteen tenants hold ten oxgangs of the demesne under twenty shillings rent per 
oxgang. 

There is a plot of gronnd in the occupation of the Vicar of Derlyngton, worth, as it 
is said, twelve-pence per annum. 

There is a place within the enclosure of the manor, with a curtilage on which a house 
Is built, in which the Janitor dwells, worth per ann. as is said, three shillings and four' 
pence. 

Balph of Eseby holds two messuilges and two oxgangs, and pays for each oxgang 
five shillings, [the services exactly as those of the tenants in villenage under Boldon 
Book ;] in all ten shillings. 

Thirteen other bond -tenants hold twenty messuages and thirty oxgangs on the same 
terms, [of the services of the bonds nothing is said here, quiapostea in Villa de Cokirton] 

The tenants jointly hold the common forge ; four-pence I'ent at the four terms. 

For toll of iJe from the tenants in villenage, twelve-pence ; for toll of ale from the 
burgesses of Derlyngton, two shillings. 

William de Hoton and John de Teesdale hold the whole fishery by metes and bounds 
in the field, and pay two shillings. 

The same tenants pay for the office of Punder fifty-three shillings and four-pence, to 
which office appertain nine acres of land and meadow, viz. : in Besfield, three acres ; in 
Dodmersfield, half-an-acre : in the Westfield, half-an-acre, within the verge {virguktim} 
of the manor, half-an-acre of meadow at the end of EUyngmedowe, half-an-acre in 
Polinpole, one acre of meadow, and one acre of arable. 

For the toll of the market place and market of Derlyngton, with the profits of the 
Mills of Derlyngton, Blakwell and Holughton and the suit of the tenants of Queshowe, 
the bakehouse, the assise of bread and ale, the profits of the Borough Court with the 
Bye-houae, there is rendered four score and ten pound8.t 

• Randal's MSS. 
t AUan. 94/. Surtees. 



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38 HATFIELD'S SURVEY. 

The afot^BBAid bond tenants among them Tender yearly at Christmas thiJrty-five hens ; 
the same tenants render yearly for Wodsilvei^ at the aforesaid festival two shillings* 

Twenty-seven tenants hold various messuages, tenements, cottages, with diveis acres 
under the name of Exchequer-lands. 

All the tenants of Exchequer-land perform among them the services of four oottagers, 
fiz.: in making hayricks, and they cany fruit, and work at the mill whenever it is de^ 
dared what oottagers ought to do those services. 

flngelram (}entill and his partners hold the borough of Derlyngton with the profits 
of the mills and the Dye-house, and other profits pertaining to the borough, rendering 
yearly four score and thirteen pounds and six shillings. 

0xENH.4LB. Lord de Neville | holds the manor of Oxenhall rendering yearly at the 
four usual terms sixty shillings. Also for services at Martinmas 6^. 6d, viz. for the 
ploughing of four acres of land, and he harrows four acres of land sown with the Bishop's 
seed, and tiUs four portions in autumn, viz. three with alibis men and his whole fiEunily 
except the housewife, and the fourth with one man from every house except his own 
proper house, and keeps a dog and horse for a quarter of a year, and carries wine with 
a vrain of four oxen, and perfonns OtUeward in the Bishopric when imposed, as much 
as pertains to the fourth part of one Drenge, rendering yearly at the terms aforesaid, 
inaR668,Sd. 

Blakwbll. I}ree4enaiU9. John Middleton holds by right of his wife, one messuage, 
and five o^gangs of land by charter, formerly of John de Blakwell, by knight's service 
and multure (one sixteenth) ei eooperabU molas supra le Laitthre, rendering ^. 6d, 

The same John holds a certain parcel of tillage called Oromball, containing 16 acres 
3 roods, rendering 

The same John holds there two parcels of tillage, called Lynholm and Ellestantoftes 
containing 16 acres by estimation, rendering 

The same John holds one tenement called le CastelhiU, with the herbage of Bathley, 
containing 4 acres of meadow and pasture, rendering 

The same John holds one place built on, and half an oxgang of land, rendering 

The same John holds one toft with 6ne croft, containing half a rood of land, rmdering 
yearly at the usual terms I2d, 

The same John holds one toft, formerly William de Oxenhall*s, with one croft, con- 
taining one acre, rendering by charted 2d, 

William Stiygate, chaplain, holds one acre at Elleetontoft by knight's service, render^ 
iDg4d, 

Emma Morrell holds three acres at Spykbyt by knight^s service, rendering l4d, 

Peter Thomesson, in right of his wife, holds half-an-acre and half a rood, lying in 
Oxenhalflat, rendering I6d, 

Four other tenants hold certain lands by knight's service, and pay 

Bond-tands. John Verty holds one oxgang, rendering yearly at the four usual terms 
and is boimd to mow the whole meadow of the Bishop, and make and lead the hay, and 
to have a corrody once, and to enclose the verge and ootfrt, and to do the works which 
he is accustofned to do at the mill, and to lead one wain (guadrig,) of Wodlade, and to 
carry loads in the joumies of the Bishop ; and besides three loads yearly, to fetch wine, 
herrings, and salt ; retidering yearly at the fotir usual terms 5^. 

* Money paid for the liberty of cutting and gathering wood ! 

t This is evidently an addition to the original survey. Surtees. 

t His ancestor, Fitz-Melred, under Boldon Buke held a carucate at Qnoeshur (WheesoiO 

by similar services. Surtees remarks that the involntions of the feudal systems fluently 

present the spectacle of a gallant noble holding by a servile tenure under a much meaner 

lord than the Bishop of Durham. 



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HATFIELD'S SURVEY. S9 

Ninetven other tenants hold twenty-four meBsnagee, and thirty-nine oxgangs and a 
half, on the same terms. The same bond-tenants hold amongst them fire oxgangs, 
which was once bond-land, rendering at the Feast of the Pnrification of the blened Mary 
as it is said, ten quarters of wheat, and five quarters of bariey, and fifteen of oats. [For 
the services of the bond lands nothing is said, qmapattea «• tiUa de Goberi(m,] 

Ooitaffers. John Pothow and Peter Thomeeson hold one cottage, make hay-iicks, 
carry fruit and work at the mill, rendering yearly at the four usual terms 2ld. : toar 
other cottages are held by doing the same serWces, and rendering yearly a rent of 

Ezek^quer-lands, Twenty-five tenants hold certain tofts and crofts, tenements and 
lands by the name of Exchequer Lands, free of all service {sine cperiku), only paying 
divers annual rents. 

All the tenants of the Exchequer answer for services and cottages as above, till it be 
seen on which tenements those services should be charged. 

The bond-tenants hold an acre of land called Punderland, rendering yearly at the 
same terms 28, 6i. 

The same bond- tenants pay for the office of Punder yearly 10». 

The same tenants pay at the festival of the Nativity of St. John for Wodlades ll«. 9tL 

The same bond-tenants hold among them the toll of ale, rendering yearly 3^. 

hold among them a pasture called Rathel, rendering yearly 

lOs.Sd. 

All the tenants of the vill hold a tenement, once Roger Stapilton*s, rendering yearly 6d, 

From the township for an increment of one toft, yearly, at the usual terms, ISd, 

From the aforesaid vill for a pasture called le Longdraght, a yearly rent at the usual 
terms of 16^. 

From the aforesaid vill for Wodsilver at Martinmas, one hen ; at Christmas, 2#., 
thirty-two hens. 

There is there a water-mill, and it is in the hands of the tenants of the viU of Der- 
lyngton with the farm rent. 

CoKiRToK. Free-TetunUs, John Morton holds a messuage and four oxgangs, by 
knight's service, and 20»., and one parcel, once of Margaret Ralph, rendering yearly 12<i. 

Geoffrey Kellaw holds a messuage and oxgang, and renders one hen and a farthing at 
Michaelmas. 

John Dowe holds one tenement, which he acquired from John Morton, 12d* 

CoUagers, John Dow holds a cottage and garden containing an acre of meadow-land ; 
rendering Zs, 4d. yearly, and shall drive cattle (fiiffovU animalia), to the lord's manor- 
house when required ; and he cleans the houses within the manor-place of Derlyngton 
against the coming of the lord or his officers. Three others hold cottages on the same 
terms. 

All the tenants of the cottages make hay-ricks, carry fruit, and work at the milL 

Bcnd-landi. John Comforth holds two messuages and two oxgangs, rendering 
yearly for each oxgang 5«. at the four usual terms, and is bound to mow the whole mea- 
dow of the Bishop, and to make hay and lead it, and to have a corrody once, and to en- 
close the verge and court, and to lead a wain of Wodlades, and to carry loads in the 
Bishop's joumies, and three loads yearly besides, bringing wine, herrings and salt ; 
and to do the works he is accustomed to do at the mill, rendering at the terms aforesaid 
lOf. 

Eighteen other bond-tenants hold thirty-seven oxgangs and twenty-nine messuages by 
the same conditions. 

The same bond-tenants render yearly at the Feast of St J<^ for Wodlades \i$.\Od, 

The same tenants for the office of Punder, yearly, lO. 

The same tenants for the toll of ale there, yearly, 2^. 

All the tenants there are bound to answer for the rent of a plot near the gate, (juMm 
pofttmj formerly in the tenure of Stephen the Punder. 

H 



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90 ROYAL CONFIRMATIONS OF 

The same tenants fbr an increment of a croft, and a croft formerly Ralph Fit2-Ralph^9 

28. 

Bondsertfiees. From the bond-services of Bondgate, Blakwell, and Cockirton, viz., 
for five score and thirteen oxgangs for each I6d. and more, in the whole 2^. 4d. at 
Michaelmas, as is said, whence a total sum of. 

Bond-lands at Pen^ferme. Eleven tenants hold eight oxgangs, rendering 185. 9c2. an 
oxgang, at the four usual terms. 

Excheqtier-lands, Thirteen tenants hold nine tenements and other parcds under a 
yearly rent. 

All the tenants of Exchequer-land, except those who are charged as above with ser- 
idces, perform amongst them such services as pertain to two cottages, until it be shown 
from whom those individual services are due. 

Little Haughton occurs thus, 

Free^enants* William Walworth, chivaler, a messuage and oxgang 6^. 

Bond-tenants. William Donkan pays, inter alia, one hen to the Punder of Derlyng^ 
ton. Six others hold six messuages and oxgangs by the same rents and services. 

Demesne4ands. Hugh de Westwyk, chaplain, holds half the manor of Haughton 
called Retomondy for £6 I3s. Sd. The other half is in the hands of the Bbhop, and the 
Bailiff of Darlington reckons for it in his account. The said manor contains eight ca- 
rucates and each oantcate is six score acres, worth a groat CI) an acre, and nine acres of 
meadow in Halekeld-holm, which used to be sold (i. e. the hay 7) for 469. Qd, are in the 
hands of the Bailiff of Derlington, who accounts for them. 



JOHN FORDHAM 

Was provided by the pope, 9 Sep., 1381. He encouraged Richard II. in all 
his indiscretions, and was by coercion of the barons, banished by the king in 
1388, from this see, to acquire that of Ely. 

1384. Dec. 16. King Richard II. by charter, reciting that the bishop 
and his predecessors held the manor and wi^ntake of Sadberge, and the 
manors and towns of Derlyngton, &c., &c., confirms the possession of them 
and all the privileges of the liberty of the county palatine. 

WALTER SKIRLAW 

Was ^pointed by the pope the same day that Fordhara was removed. He 
died in 1405. 

He was said to be the son of a sieve-maker, to which origin his arms were 
supposed to allude ; Argent, six wands in true-love proper. He built a 
strong tower to Howden church, whence cometh the rhyme 

ISii^op J^itklatD itOreek loai^ goDtr to J^ii people, 

He built t^ent a i^cf^oo^outfe antr l^ti^Unt^ t|^ liteeple. 

Surteos says that his arms are on the front of Hylton castle, and remarks 

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DARLINGTON TO THE SEE. 91 

•'The mitres of Cosin and of Crewe (in spite of Pope's sarcasm) deservedly 
continne to decorate om* churches, but what must be the merits of that future 
Prelate whose bearings shall grace the halls and gateways of our lay Sectors?" 
I doubt the &ct The saltire of Neville in an adjoining shield is moulded in 
liie same style (a mannerism of the age), and I ^imagine the plain cross so 
<)niamented is simply that of VescL The mouldings do not interlace at alL 

CABDINAL THOMAS LANQLET 

Elected 7 May, 1406 ; died 20 Nov., 1437. 

1407. By the interest the cardinal possessed at court (being chancellor) 
he obtained a royal diarter from Henry IV., confirming all the Uberties and 
{Mivileges granted to the bishops by the several potentates, from the estab- 
lishment of the see. Darlington manor is mentioned in the inspeximus of 
Bichard IL's charter. 

BOBBBT NEVILLE 

Son of the great earl by Joan Beaufort, translated from Salisbury 1437, died 
9 July, 1457. His doings for DarUngton will be noticed under the Colle- 
giate GhurcL 

LAWBENCB BOOTH 

Consecrated Sep., 1457; translated to York 1476. He was a staunch 
Lancastrian, having been chaplam to Queen Margaret, but after the chivalry 
of the red rose had died die Dominica in ramis Pahnarwm* at Towton, and 
a short disgrace and suspension from his temporalities, he adopted the flower 
of pallid hua 

WILLIAM DUDLET 

Elected Sep., 1476 ; died Nov., 1483 ; after seeing the blood of Edward IV. 
set aside, and Richard, duke of Gloucester, one of his justices in the first year 
of his pontificate, placed in their seat 

JOHN SHEBWOOD 

Elected Jan., 1484-6 ; died 12 Jaa, 1493. He walked on one hand of 
* So in the Inqoisitions of the fallen. The battle was fought on Palm Sunday. 



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92 RICHARD lIL's HOUSE 

Richard at his coronation, forgetful of many fiivours conferred by the late 
monarch, and for some reason had not the temporalities restored till withm 
sixteen days of that bloody battle in which Uie crown was torn from the 
house of Plantagenet and placed on the brow of Tudor. Richard loved the 
stately inheritance of Anne of Warwick, and abode at times in the Bailors 
walls. It would be conyenient to him to have a resting-place at the spot 
where he would leave the high road, and wander along the Tees, to that &- 
voured seat ; and this leads me to the following Inquisition. 

An Inquisition upon the death of Richard^ late King of England. An Inqnisition in- 
dented, taken at Auckland in the county of Durham, on Thursday, the 15th day of June 
in the 2nd year of the pontificate of John, &c., before Thomas Fenton, esq., eschaetor of 
the said Bishop in the coimty of Durham, by virtue of his office, upon the oaths of Roger 
Conyers, knt, Thomas Lumley, esq., John Eshe, esq., Robert Dalton, esq., Thomas Sur- 
tays, esq., Thomas Lambton, esq., Alexander Fetherstonhalgh, esq., Thomas Poesel^ 
esq., John Claxton, esq., Robert Pollerd, esq., Robert Walker, Thomas Delvas, John 
Southern, Tho9ias Goundou, jurors : who upon their oath say. 

That Richard, late King of England, de facto but not dejure, at a Parliament holden 

at Westminster the day of. in the year of the reign of King Henry VII., wot 

attainted of high treason,* and by the authority of the same Parliament it was ordered 
and appointed that the said Richard, late King of England, and all others who have any 
estate in lands or tenements in fee simple, or in fee tail, to the use of him, Richard late 
I(ing of England, shall forfeit them by authority of Parliament aforesaid ; and that the 
said Richard, late King of England, was so seized in possession as of fee on the day on 
whidi he died, of one capital messuage, forty acres of land and thirty acres of land with 
their appurtenances in Derlyngton, late Henry Elstofle's, which are held of the said 
Lord Bishop in chief by military service, and by service of roidering him the Lord 
Bishop yearly, at his Exchequer at Durham, at the usual terms there 21#. Sd,, and of 
doing suit in the county of Durham de quindena in quindenam, and are worth yearly in 
all proceeds beyond reprizes IOO9. And the said Jurors say that the said Richard, late 
King of England, did not hold other or more lands or tenements in possession or re- 
version, nor any other person for his use in the county of Durham.t And that he died 
the 18th:t day of August last past. In witness whereof the Jurors aforesaid have to this 
Inquisition interchangeably placed their seals the day and place aforesud.^ 

At this distance of time I am unable to trace this property of the last of 
the Plantagenets, nor do I know the history ai Kings hatue, in right of which 
Eklward Whitehead stood constable of Bondgate in 1696.|| The old rhyme 

* A high flight of Parliament (saith Buck^ the ^M>logetie historian of Richard) to attaint 
A King of High Treason, 
t Barnard Castle was not considered within the palatinate at this period, and did not 

«B6heat to the bishop. 

:J: The battle was however fought on the 22nd. 
§ The original latin is given in Snrteee, i. dxvL 
n A Booke of remembrance, or an inrolment of memorable things belonging to Bondgate 
in Darlington. The constables and other officers were chosen in respect of lands, alternate- 
ly liable to famish them. The book has belonged to the greeves, and contains lists of 
officers, beginning 1638-9. It will be hereafter referred to as Bondgate Book. The follow- 
ing information is valuable :— ** 30 acres is an azgang at Sedgefield, 16 acres at Hurworth, 
and 20 in Yorkeshire." 



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AT DARLINGTON. 



93 



flaciu of fiotSolkt be not too botee 

dTor 9titon t||^ nutfttr ii bougltr anH itoOle 

would at first thought lead us to Didon-kistSy (which with Town-end fields and 
Thorney Beck doses constituted an estate of the balival iamilj of Barnes) as 
possibly memorializing Bichard, but I belieye that they took their name from 
the firauly of Dickons, descendants of Balj^ Dykone, Sector of Haughton- 
le-Skeme in 15... 

Sic transit gloria mundi :_the stream of Lethe has flowed on and washed 
away all traditions connected with Bichard in the NortL The very site of 
his capital messuage and land at Darlington is unknown, and at Middleham 
itself the Nevilles are seldom named. The memory of their ^ory has passed 
away like a morning cloud, save with the few who shew a cherished match in 
their pedigree, and claim to be descended of their blood. The great Plan- 
tagenet is forgotten in that place he loved so well and cherished so truly. 
Gentle Lady Anne is never named in what was once her heritage. But of 
their son, the flower that perished so timelessly one slight memento yet re- 
mains in a small ruinous apartment of the castle named 




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e^optet Si. Ete StUiotd. 



" Thoa retnemberest 

Since once 1 sat upon a promontory, 

And heard a mermaid, on a dolphin's back 

Uttering such dulcet and harmonious breath, 

That the rude sea grew dvil at her song ; 

And certain stars shot madly from their spheres, 

To hear the sea-maid's musick." 

Midsianmer Nighi'e Dream. 



The White Rose had ceased to bloom, but its fragrance was remembered. 
The Hawthorn never gained the affections of the people of the North Gountrioy 
who during the whole period of the Tudor dynasty remained in an ahnost 
perpetual commotion. 

Biichard was greatly beloved in the North. He seems to have had the 
welfare of his neighbours at heart, and his foundation of the colleges of 
Middleham and Barnard-Castle give but little countenance to the ogre-Uke 
character generally attributed to him. When the people of Thirsk rose 
against his exactions, and slew the earl of Northumberland in attempting to 
enforce them, it was affirmed " that the Northern men bare against this earl 
continual grudge ever since the death of King Richard, whom they entirely 
fevoured."* Tins feeling died out, but another soon rose. There was no 
part of the north where the '^ first pale and struggling ray of the refonnation 
broke with more unwelcome lustre," and Sadler stated in 1569 that " there 
be not in all this countrey, ten gentillmen that do &vour and allowe of her 
majesties procedings in the cause of reUgion/* 

The state of religion had been low indeed. The &rce of St Cuthbert's 
incorruptibiUty and power had been implicitly believed, and the reUc lists of 
the Church of Durham catalogued with the most ludicrous items. 

According to an enumeration of 1383, the monks possessed a pix of crystal, contain- 
ing the milk of St. Maiy the Virgin ; portions of the sepulchre and chemise of St Mary 
the Virgin, and part of the rock upon whidi St. Mary the Mother of our Lord mulffebai 
lac mum ; a portion of the bones of St. Alkmond, of St. Exuperius the martyr, of the 
Annunciation ofSt, Mary, &c. &c. in a bag of doth of gold ; apiece of the breast of St 
Gradan the Virgin and Martyr, sc. inter mamUUu ; two daws of a Griffin ; three 
Griffin's eggs '^ Manna from the Virgin Mary's grave ; a portion of the bread the Lord 
blessed ; a piece of the identical tree under vrhich were the three angeb with Abraham ; 
a stone, said to be bread turned into stone ; portion of the stone with which St. Stephen 
was stoned ; a piece of wood of the prison of St John the Baptist ; a piece of the throne 

* HoUinshed. 
t St. Cathbert's followers were fond of soch things. In the British Museom is a horn 
inscribed f Gbyphi Vnovis Divo Cvthberto Dvnelbiensi sacer. This Griffin's claw 
is in fact the horn of the Egyptian Ibex t 



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THE REFORMATION. 95 

where JeBus sat with his disciples ; a piece of the stone upon which the Lord wroie when 
his disciples questioned him of the law ; and a piece of the twelve thrones of the 

• je. 



APOSTLES 

But though they thus enslaved the populace^ the Durham ecclesiastics them- 
selyes had assumed a tone of independence, and had manfully resisted the 
exactions of the pope, who had besides the British senate to contend with, an 
alarming spirit of opposition having risen which threatened a total exclusion 
of his supremacy. His fears were lightened by Edward III/s application to 
him for the election of his secretary, Hatfield, to the see of Durham in appo- 
rtion to his own acts against Bomish interference ; the request was as halm 
to his wounded spirit, and he piously exclaimed " Truly, if the king of Eng- 
land had made interest for an ass he should have been gratified." 

In a temporal point of view, the Reformation worked badly enougL 
Poverty pervaded the kingdom, poor-laws crept in, and estates increased by 
sacril^ fell to pieces. The profligate waste attendant on the new move- 
ment alarmed and disgusted the old nobility. The distress of the poor on 
the dissolution of monasteries, the evident unconcern of government for pro- 
pOT spiritual arrangements, the hurt done to the pride of the magnates by the 
abolition of many long cherished privileges of the palatinate, and the piety of 
the*]last ^popish bishop, had ^deep effect on the haly-werke folks. Tunstall's 
zeal was amusing. He bought up Tindal's New Testament to bum in 
Gheapside. Tindal was delighted, as the edition was faulty, and he too poor 
as yet to issue a new one. The next year he sent an amended cargo from 
Antwerp, with the laughable information that the greatest encouragement he 
had had was from TunstalL Our prelate however became afterwards very 
moderate in his opinions and acts, submitting to changes which he could not 
assent to. He was deprivedfin Edward VI.'s reign, restored in Mary's, and 
again deprived in Elizabeth's, ending his blameless life in privacy. His dio- 
cese had escaped persecution, through his refusal to bring any man's blood 
npon his head ; and the disgrace of shedding blood in it for religion was re- 
served for the pontificate of a protestant bishop and the reign of a protostant 
queen.'" The ancient feith all the while "lay like lees at the bottom of men's 
hearts ; and'if the vessel was ever so little stirred came to the top." The 
arrival of the Queen of Scots also created universal interest and added to the 
motives inspiring the discontented spirits appearing in the annals to which I 
now return. 

1487. Lambert Simnel's rebellion took place, in which the Plantagenet 
bias of the people seems apparent. Henry personally conducted a severe in- 
quisition in j^_the* northern parts, and by virtue of a royal writ, the bishop 
Sherwood (himself in no Jgreat favour) issued a commission to enquire de 

• See the'whole'list in Raine's St. Cuthbert. 
+ Because Dudley was entranced with his revenues. The bishoprick was dissolved and 
the usual fate of sacrilege, followed- Edward died in his youthful bloom, and Dudley per- 
ished on the scaffold* 



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96 THE PRINCESS MARGARET'S 

insurrectionihus infra regiam lihertatem Dundm. He died in 1493 at Boin^« 
His errand was perhaps rebellious, for his effects were sequestered by the 
crown. 

RIOHARB FOX, 

Translated from Bath and Wells, Dec. 1494 ; translated to Winchester, 
Oct. 1502. He was a warrior and councillor for Henry VII. to whom he 
was executor, but his fortunes waned in the succeeding reign before the as- 
piring Wolsey. 

1502. Margaret, eldest daughter of king Heniy VII., passed through 
Darlington. In Leland's Collectanea is an account styled " The Fyancelles 
of Margaret, eldest daughter of King Henry VII., to James [IV.], king of 
Scotland : together with her departure from England, journey into Scotland, 
her reception and marriage there, and the great feasts held on that account. 
Written by John Younge, Somerset Herald, who attended the Princess <m 
her journey." This worthy says, 

'* The xlxth day of the said monneth (July), the qnene departed from Allerton, in 
fayr aray and noble companyd, and Syr James Straungwysch, knight, scheryfie for th« 
said lordschyp, for the said bishop, mett hyr welle accompanyd. 

After sche drew to Dameton to hyr bed, and three mylle from the said place cam to 
hyr the Lord Lomley and hys son, accompanyd of many gentylmen and others welle 
apoynted, ther folks arayed with their liveray and well monted, to the nombre of xxiiij. 
horsys. 

'* At the village of Nesham she was mett by Syr Rawf Bowes and Syr William Aylton 
[Hylton], weUe apoynted, with a fayr company arayed in their liverays, to the nombre 
of xl. horsys, well apoynted and well horst. 

" In the saide place of Nesham was the saide qnene receyved with the abbasse and 
religyouaes, with the crosse without the gatt, an4 the bischop of Durham gafib hyr the 
sayd crosse for to kisse. At two mylle ny to the said towne of Dameton, mett the 
queue, Syr William Boummer, scheryfife of the lordship of Durham. In company with 
hym was Syr William Ewers, and many other folks of honor of that centre, in fayr or- 
der, well apoynted of liverays and horst ; to the nombre of six score horsys. 

^' By the said company was sche conveyed to Damton. And at the gatt of the church 
of the said place, war revested the vicayr and folks of the church, wer doing as sche had 
done on the dayes before, sche was led to the manayer of the said byschop of Durham 
for that nyght. 

'' The xxth day of the said monneth the queue departed from Damton in fayr aray, 
and with the precedente company went to the town of Durham," &o. The account 
says that at Durham ''sche was well chery scht, and hyr costs borne by the said bischop.*' 

Fox, who more than once occurs as prime mover in courtly pageants, had 
taken part in the ceremonies at York. A great feast was given to the prin- 
cess at Durham, on the 23rd July, the anniversary of his installation. 

It is related of Margaret's affianced that having taken arms agamst his 
&ther, he imposed on himself the penance of continually wearing an iron 



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VISIT TO DARLINGTON. 97 

chain about his waist Some amusingly pompons stanzas on the marriage 
occur in Evans's Ballads : — 

O fair, fidrest of ereiy fur, 
Princess most pleasant and predare, 
The lustiest alive that be, 
Welcome to Scotland to be queen. 

Young tender pUnt of pulchritude, 
Descended of imperial blood. 
Fresh fragrant flower of £urhood sheen, 
Welcome to Scotland to be queen. 

Sweet lasty imp of beauty dear. 
Most mighty king*s daughter dear, 
Bom of a princess most serene. 
Welcome of Scotland to be queen. 

Welcome the rose both red and white. 
Welcome the flower of our delight, 
Our spirit njoicing from the spleen, 
Welcome of Scotland to be queen. 

The princess's mode of travelling may interest She rode on a ^^re pal- 
frey, but after her was conveyed by two footmen, one varey riche litere,* 
borne by two &ire coursers varey nobly drest, in wich litere the sayd qwene 
was borne in the intryng of the good tattnes^ or otherways to her good play- 
snr." 

WILLIAM SBVBB, 

Translated frxmi Carlisle, Oct, 1502 ; died 1505. 

CARDINAL CHRISTOPHER BAINBRIGO, 

A native of Hilton Beacon, near Appleby, received restitution Nov., 1507 ; 
translated to Yoric 1508. He was poisoned at Borne in 1514, by his house^ 
steward whom he had struck in a fit of passion. "A servant will not be cor- 
rected by words." Prov. xxix. 19. "A Bishop must be no striker." 1 Tim. 
iiL 3. So Fuller pleads both for and against him. 

THOMAS RUTHALL, 

Nominated Apr. 1509 ; died in London Feb. 1522-3, of chagrin, having de- 

* When Qneene Elizabethe came to the Crowne 
A Coach in England then was scarcely knowne : 
Then 'twas as rare to see one, as to spye 
A tradesman that had never told a lye. 

Taylor^ the Water Poet. 



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98 THE PILGRIMAGE 

livered, by'mistake, the inventory of his own private fortune (instead of a 
survey he had compiled of the royal revenues) to Wolsey, who with malicious 
satisfaction placed the record before his sovereign, observing that though he 
would be disappointed of the expected information, he would know where to 
apply for assistance. 

CARDINAL THOMAS WOLSET, 

the cause of Buthall's death, succeeded, and sat on the Durham tlirone from 
April, 1523, to April, 1529, never once visiting his diocese, I once more 
light upon the name of 

CUTHBBRT TTJNSTALL, 

Translated from London 1529. 

Leland says he was bom at Hacforih, in Richmontshire, and was '' buse sunne to 
Tunstal, as I hard, by one of the Comers daughters." Some doubt is thrown upon the 
statement,^ but even if true, his mother was not the only erring maid of the gentle blood 
of Conyers. Agnes Ck>nyer8 was excommunicated Feb. 18, and puUished 13 March, 
1608-9.t On xMay 24, 1609, " the infant of Agnes Conyers illegitimately begotten" was 
buried at Darlington. 

Reginald Tunstall, chaplain, was presented by his namesake (perhaps relative), to the 
prebend of Newton, p. m* Tho. Hall, der. in 1540. 

1536. The people of the noi*th, from causes already hinted at, readily 
joined company with many a noble and many a clerk, and rose in the Pit- 
grimage of Grace imder Robert Aske,J but listening to offers, appointed 
deputies to treat with Henry. In answer to their demand that the liberty 
of the church of Durham should have old customs by act of parliament, he 
plainly said that " they were brutes and inexpert folks,'' and gave a general 
pardon, which amused and dispersed them. But the ejected clei^ induced 
the leaders again to rise in arms in 1537, when they were taken and put to 
death, the abbots of Fountains, Jervaux, and Rievaulx, and the prior of 
Bridlington being in the number. Lady Bulmer was burned for rebellion. 
The first &milies of the bishopric had been concerned, the heir of Lumley 

* See Sortees. Leland was however a contempolmy. 

t Darlington par. reg. iSy-leaf. 
X Forth shall come a worme, sai Aske with one eye. 
He shall be the chiefe of the mainye : 
He shall gather of chivalrie a fuU faire flocke 
Half capon and half cocke. 
The chicken shall the capon slay 
And after that shall be no May, 
^hese rhymes, Wilfred Holme says, were recited in the host as an ambignotur prophecy 
of their eaq^edition. They may be part of the absurd, but ancient prophecies of Merlin, 
revived in every popular movement* Was Aske really defective in sight 1 and does the 
last line allude to some intended destmctlon of all successors to the hatetham badge of the 
seventh Henry I 



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OF GRACE. 99 

\?as executed, and the general fear and tykell feeling of the good folks of 
Darlington is most graphically drawn in the following curious letter from 
Sir Balph Sadler, dated at Newcastle 28 Jan., 1537-8* 

ForaBmuch as I wrote unto your lordeship from Yorke, the success of my jomey 
thither, it may please you also, semblably, to hear what state I hare founde the countrey 
in betwixt Yorke and Newoastell, which, as I wrote unto your lordeship in my last 
lettree, was reported unto me at Yorke to be very wilde. Nevertheles, to declare the 
treweth as hrte as I coulde perceyre throughout all the bishopricke as I rode, I saw the 
people to be in very good quyetnes ; and none of the honest sorte, that had any thinge 
to lose, desiring the contrary, except such as having nothing of their owne, wolde be 
^lad to have such a worlde as whereby they might have opportunytye to robbe and 
spoyle them that have ; and that generally is the opynyon of all men in these parts ; 
for undoubtedly the honest sorte of men throughout all this contrey do gretely desyre 
quyttness ; and yet there hath ben som stinying in the bishopricke ; and, not passing 
ii or iii dayes before my comyng, musters made in Cliveland uppon the hilles, which 
was by means of dyvers billes and scrowes sett uppon posts and church-dores thoroughly 
out the bishopricke, and tost and scatered abrode in the contrey by some sedyteous per- 
sons, which do nothing else but go up and downe to devise mischief and devision ; and 
by such meanes it was put into the bedds of the people, that my Lord of Norff. cam 
down with a grete armye and power to do execucion, and to hang and draw from Don- 
caster to Berwyke, in all places northwarde, notwithstanding the kinges pardon .; and 
so the people throughout all the northe be brought in worse case then the Lincoln- 
shire men : which tales and ymaginacions beyng so sowen amongst the people, did in 
such wyse styrre and incense them, that surely, as I am informed, had not Mr. 
Bowes com Home when he did, it had ben very lyke to have made a new insurrection. 
Undoubtedly he hath well don his parte, as I have lemed of divers, in stayeing off the 
contrey throughout the hole bishopricke ; and now they have taken such order, that 
whatsoever Msehods or reports, billes, lettres, or scrowes, shall be sowen abrode, they 
shal gyve no light credit unto tiiem, but rather do their devoyres to apprehende the de- 
vysors and reporters of the same, and so the people be in good staye and quyetness in 
all places of the bishopricke ; and fully determined, as Mr Bowes told me, to make no 
more assemblies, but to rest uppon my Lord of Norff. comyng. Syr, I saw no likeli- 
hood of any lyghtnes or desyre of deviMon amongst the people throughout the hole 
bidiopricke, which is a gp«t countrey, savyng in one towne, which is called DaryngUm; 
and there I noted and perceyved the people to be very fykell. My chance was to come 
into the towne in the evenyng about vi of the clock e, or somewhat afore ; and when I 
alyghted at my lodging, I think there was not passing iii or iiii persons standing about 
the inne doore, assuring your lordeshipp, that I was scant ascended up a payr of steres 
into my chaumber, but there was about xxx or xl persons assembled in the strete afore 
my chamber wyndows, with clubbs and batts, and there they cam roonyng out of all 
quarters of the strete, and stode together on a plompe [i.e. in a body], whispering and 
rownding together ; whereuppon I called unto me myn host, who seemed to be an honest 
man, and I asked him, what the people meant to assemble so together ? he answered 
me. That when they saw or harde of any comying out of the south, they used always so 
to gather together to here newee. I told him it was ill suffered of them that were the 
heddes of the tonne to let them make such unlawfull assemblies together in the strete ; 
and that it was a very ill example, and harde to judge what inconveniencys might fol- 
lowe, or what attemptats they wold enterprise when such a nomber of light felowes 
were assembled. He answered me by his fEuth, that the hedds of the towne could not 

* Cotton MSS. CaliguU ii. 344. Sadler, ii. 597. 



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100 SIR RALPH SADLER. 

rule them, ne durst, for their lyves, speke any fowle words to them ; and, quod he, ye 
shall see that I shall cause them to scatter abrode, and erery man to go to hishome 
by and by. Mary, quod I, if ye do well, ye shoulde set som of them by the heles. No, 
quod he, God defende ; for so mygfat we bryng a thousand in our toppes within an 
bower ; but, quod he, ye shall see me order them well ynough with fayre wordes ; and 
thereuppon he went to the rowte in the strete, as they stode whispering togither, and, 
with his cappe in his hands, prayed them to lere their whispering, and ereiy man to go 
home ; and there come they all about him, and asked him who I was ? whense I cam ? 
and whither I wold ? Myn hoste told them, that I was the Kyng*s senrante, and going 
from his highnes in ambassade into Scotland : Whereunto one of them replyed, and 
sayed. That could not be true, for the Kyng of Scotts was in Fraunce. Neyertheles, in 
fine, mj-n host so pacyfyed them, that every man went his way ; but mocheado he had, 
as he told me, to pei*suade them to belere that I went into Scotland ; and they all, with 
one Toyoe, asked. When my Lorde of NorfF. wold com, and with what company ? And 
so myn host cam to me, as a messenger from them, to know the trewth ; and I sent 
them worde that he wolde be at Danncaster at Candlemas even ; and that he brought no 
more with him but his owne household servants ; which pleased them wonderous well ; 
and so every man departed, and I harde no more of them. I assure your lordship the 
people be very tykell, and, methinketh, in a marvellous straunge case and perplexity ; 
for they stare and loke for things, and fayne wolde have they cannot tell what. So as, 
in my poure opynyon, it requyreth a gret diligence and circumspection for the edefyeing 
and establishing of them ; which aperteyning to the office of a prynce and kyng, it be- 
cometh not me to taike of ; not doubting but our most gracious Prynce and Sovereign 
Lorde, with the mature advysement of his Most Honourable Counsule, will so provyde 
for the same as shall apperteyne. 

This letter was written on proceeding on a reconnoitreing embassy to 
Scotland during the absence of James V. in France. Surtees remarks that 
Sir Bafe was both stout and sage, yet mine host proved the wiser man. The 
duke of Norfolk had acted with great rigour in the executions after the se- 
cond outbreak, till the king's free pardon closed the butchery. 

These impolitic outbreaks hastened the destruction of the religious houses, 
and it was thought expedient to curtail the dangerous powers of the counts 
palatine of Durham. The bishop was deprived of his choicest r^alia ; pre- 
vented from screening any offenders by a clause taking pardons of treasons 
and felonies away from him ; various processes were to be thenceforth in the 
king's name, and his justices acquired jurisdiction in the franchise. The 
glory was departed. Henceforth I shall cease my bishop headings, for the 
shadow of royalty alone remained. The Durham house of peers occura no 
more. 

1538. About this year that famoas antiquary John Leland began his 
peregrinations, under a commission from Henry VI H., to bring our monu- 
ments " out of deadly darkness to lively hghf The fruits of this enterpriser 
which lasted some seven years, he presented to the king as a new year's gift, 
in the thirty-seventh year of his reign. 

Almost every page of this delightful old author evinces his deep appreciation of beauty. 
The " exceding pleasaunt ground" of Sockbum a little beneath whose " maner place is 
a great wei-e for fisch" did not escape his penetrating eye. He had crossed the 'Urajec- 



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SIR RALPH SADLER. ]01 

tus oyer Teee" there, and oome to Neasham, '* and then a t. mfles to Darington by pore 
good come. Darington Bridge of stone is, as I remember, of three arches, it is the best 
market town in tbe Bisshoprick, saying Dnresme. There is an exceeding long and fair 
altare stone de vario marmore, hoc est, nigro albis maeulis disiineio, at the high altare in 
the collegiate paroche church of Darington. There is a Dene longging to this college 

and prebendaries. The Bisshop of Duresme hath a praty palace in this tonne. 

From Darlington to Acheland eight good miles by resonable good come and pasture." 
His descriptions are alwaj's to the point, nothing could giye a better idea of magnificence 
than the statement that '* Raby is the largest castel of logginges in al the North Cunteiy," 
though its grandeur had already declined under the late Neyilles; 'Hhe great Chaumber 
was exceding large, but now it is fals rofid and devided into two or three partes*' and a 
petigre in coloured glass had giyen way to plain. He recounts *' the Quikke market of 
Dariington standing betwixt Teese and Were." " Hugo de Puteaco, as the Dene of 
Duresme tolde me, made the howse that the Byshops of Duresme have at Darlengton/' 
and from an old book at Durham he found that Stiregaye with St. Cuthbert, Darington, 
two carucates in Lumley* 

On May 5, 1643, Sir Ralph Sadler writes to the council that the earl of 
Angus prayed him '^ to write to your grace, that it might please the same to 
send so much money to Berwick to Mr. Shelley, to be paid to mine appoint- 
ment, as should be sufficient to pay his wages and his brother's ; for that, he 
thinketh, it would be noted, if he should send his servant so far within Eng- 
land as to Darlington for money, whereof might grow some bruit and sus- 
picion, which he would be glad to avoid." This was during Sir Ralph's em- 
bassy, to arrange the marriage between the young queen of Scots and prince 
Edward, when Angus was in the pay of England. 

On the 30 Oct, 1543, Sadler writes that lord Somervail having been ap- 
pointed to repair to Henry VIIL with the minds of the lords of Scotland, 
Sir George Douglas (brother to Angus), had said to him " that he will ac- 
company the said lord Somervail to Darlington, because himself will speak 
with my lord of Suffolk, both touching such things as the said lord Somer- 
V2ul hath in charge, as also for the Border matters, wherein he complaineth 
much of the damage done daily to such as," he saith, '' be the king's majes- 
ty's friends." In the correspondence between the council and Sir Ralph 
Evers orders are given not to spare the friends of Sir George Douglas in the 
incursions, as he was suspected to be a false friend. Sir Ralph's next dis- 
patch, Nov. 6, shows that Somervail had been taken by the opposite party : 
" But sir George Douglas hath sent me word, *that he will forthwith repur 
to Darlington to my lord of Suffolk, to advertise him of all such things as the 
said lord Somervail had in charge, to the intent he may signify the same to 
the king's highness.' " On the eighth he says " I am advised sir George 
Douglas was at Berwick on Tuesday last ; and therefore I think, or this 
time, he is with your lordships." Sir George had been in England before, 
he and the earl of Glencaim promised in May " they will ride it in eight 
days," i. e,y to London, and he was again dispatched in June to the king. 
The French interest completely outweighed Henry's, had it not, Mary's 



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102 THE BRACKENBURIES. 

flames might have never burned, Elizabeth's axe never been lifted. Lady 
Jane have pursued her classics in comfort, and Mary of Scotland never lost 
her head. 

1553. " John Darington, yeoman of the close carre of the roobes/' had 
four yards of black cloth at Edward VL's funeral ArcAoeoloffia. ^ 

Another local name occurs, that of Wm. Brackenburye, gent, rider, surveyor of the 
stable. A gleam of interest is thrown over the family from its connection with the 
stout lieutenant of the Tower, who is represented by Shakspere as a passive adversary 
to the priuoes" murder, and who had the posthumous honour of being connected with the 
master for whom he died on Bosworth field, as the only other person forfeited who held 
Palatine lands. An entail saved Selahy. The great grand nephew of the lieutenant 
appears in all the ceremonies of the maiden queen, and was perhaps in Shakspere^s eye 
when he characterized the Lieutenant with all courtly deference. Thus, when Richard 
praises, without saying wherefore, Jane Shore*s cherry lip and pretty foot, with ludicrooB 
gravity he answers " With that, my Lord, myself have nought to do." 

Selaby finally passed to the Vanes, and is in the language of Surtees, one of the most 
sparkling gems in the Cleveland coronet, one of the loveliest emerald spots in the Vane's 
domiun. It was for many years the residence of the Hon. Frederic Vane, second son of 
the first Earl of Darlington, and owes many beauties to his simple and elegant taste. 

1617-8. Wm. Brakenhurie of Cockerton, bur.— 1618. Ann, d. of Thomas Brakoi- 
burie of Cockerton, bap. — 1644. Dorithy, d, of Matthew Breckenburie of Newton, 
bap. — 1698-9. Dorothy Brackenbury of Newton, bur. 

1660-1. Elected, James Pilkington, s. t. p., the first protestant bishop 
of Durham, a Oalvinistic exile. The queen having heard that he gave his 
daughter a <£^10,000 portion, as much as Henry VIII. had bequeathed her^ 
scotched the see of <f 1000 a-year and settled it on her garrison at Berwick.* 
Elizabeth, as is well known, detested marriage in ecclesiastics. The bishop 
stood stoutly for his chnrch's possessions, but he himself so wasted them tha^ 
an action was brought against his executors for delapidation, a previously 
unknown occurrence. He converted the college bells of Auckland, which he 
bruit in peaces, to his own use, made a bowling-alley and archery gallery 
where divine service was before celebrated, and took away a voiy fair steeple- 
head from Stockton manor, &c.,f He misliked the surplice and the square 
cap, " because the head is not square," though he generally pressed non- 
resistance to trivial matters of form in this dark province where " the priests 
went with swords and daggers, and such coarse apparel as they could get" 
His obsequies were in accordance with his life. 

" He died at Auckland the 23d. of January, 1579; presently after whose death one 
being appoynted to bowell him, who shewing himself unskillful therein, leaving un- 
finyshed that work, whereof one Williams of Dameton heing sent for, for that purpose, 
soddenly putting his hand into the dead body unawares, hurt hymself upon the said 
knyfe, not knowing of the same. He was streightway after buryed in the parish church 
of St Andrew Auckland without any solempnitie, for that he did not like nor allowe of 
such ceremonies. But he was afterwards, by \h<b appointment of some that were in 
authority, taken up agayn, for that they were given to understand that he was not so 

• Strype. • f Hunter's MSS. 



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THE RISING OF THE NORTH. 103 

honorably bnryed as became such a Bysshop to be, by reason whereof his body was 
taken up agayn, and was carryed to Durham upon a very tempestuous day, and there 
lyeth buried in the quire of the cathedral! church of Duresme, under a marble tunne 
taken out of ye CoUedg of Auckland, being ye tttnM (Ita.J of one Tompson, once 
Deane of ye said CoUedg, and from thence carr}'ed to Durham; and in cariage a comer 
of the said stone did burst, notwithstanding it was set together again, and so lyeth erected 
^ aboTe ye said Busshop." Hunter $ MSS. 

The grandson of his brother Leonard the Prebendary, also named Leonard, was bap* 
tized at Merrington in 1614, and lived at Darlington, dying in 1674, lus inventory being 
dated March id, an* His dau. Alice was baptized here 1640, May 30, and his wife Alice 
was bnr. May 4 foUowing. He must have married again, four more children occurr- 
ing:— William, bap. 1643, bur. 1644-5; Leonard bap. 1645-6; Elizabeth, 1647-8; and 
Dorothy, 1652. 

1569. The Rising of the North. The dissatisfection of the people 
at the change of religion, and their attachment for the feudal lords, had long 
prepared them for a general rise, which was hurried on by the arrival of the 
beautiful Mary of Scotland, and the fears for the safety of her imprudent 
suitor the Duke of Norfolk On the first alarm, Elizabeth summoned the 
Percy and the Neville chiefe to court, where perhaps, (as their talents were 
but indifferent) a mere temporary restraint awaited them, they were, however, 
practised upon by Romish emissaries who persuaded them that their lives 
were in danger. On the night of the day on which Thomas Percy, Earl of 
Northumberland, K. G., received the queen*s letters in his manor-house at 
TopcUffe, certain conspirators perceiving him to be wavering, caused a servant 
to bustle in and knock at his chamber door, willing him in haste to shift for 
himself for his enemies had beset him, whereupon he arose, and conveyed 
himself to his keeper's house : in the same instant they caused the bells of 
the town to be rung backward, and so raised as many as they could.* There 
is an old post and pan house, with a striking gable end, at Thorpfield at the 
junction of the Thirsk and Topcliffe townships, which is perhaps the keeper's 
house alluded to. At all events it is on the road to Brancepeth, and contains 
a mantelpiece finely carved with the full insignia of the unfortunate earl 
surrounded with the garter. Motto, Sifprranct Situ. The next afternoon 
he departed to Brancepeth where he met Charles Neville, Earl of Westmore- 
land and confederates in similar fears. From thence they issued some pro- 
fessedly loyal proclamations, commanding the queen's subjects, in her high- 
ness' name, to repair to them for the security of her person. 

The rebellion had at first been shghted, but the queen's party soon began 
to assemble, though in number few in the bishopric. William Hilton,-f esq., 
(afterwards knighted in 1570 at Carlisle by Sussex) furnished 100 horse 

* HoUinahed.^ Sharp's Memorials of the Rebellion. These two works, with Stowe, are 
consulted throughout. The dates are nniformly from the Bowes MSS. in Sharp. Stowe 
and HoUinshed vary materially. 

t Connected in more ways than^one with the^Bowes family by intermarriages. Baker, 
p. 570, sayv that the Queen repaid the sums of money borrowed, '^which won her no less love 
than if she had given it." 



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104 THE RISING OF THE NORTH. 

and lent the queen 50/. on her privy seal Christopher Addy, gent, who 
had been coroner of Darlington ward under Tunstall and some other gentle- 
men did the like. 

On November 13, Sussex, the president ot the north, wrote to Sir Geoi^ge 
Bowes from York, that he heard that sixty of the eari's horsem^i were to 
lodge at Damton, and pay (me penny a meal, and one penny day and night 
for hay. The council at York also wrote to the queen that they had ordered 
2500 footmen to be at Dameton on the 21st Sussex despatched letters 
from her majesty to the rebel noblemen once more demanding their ^)pear' 
ance, and backed them himself, promising that their friends would stand 
firmly with them, but they were too far advanced to submit On the 15th 
Bowes wrote to Sussex that he had requested his party to assemble at Barnard 
Gastell ; that people armed and well mounted, came daily northwards over 
Teyse, as of Sunday last, in the afternoon, came over at Croft and Newsam 
(Neasham), where he had continual watch, within eight persons of one 
hundred, well horsed and Uke to have privy coats, but not warlike weaponed, 
except some daggers ; and that the rebel army diminished rather than in- 
creased, they riding at night southwards and coming again of the day north- 
wards, to make shews. " For any rate, at a pennye the meal, or a pennye 
leverage, Dameton, I have sent to knowe ; but there was, nor ys noo suche, 
neither any lyenge there, save th' Erie of Northumberland's fawkener, with 
hys hawks." A most hurried* letter to Sussex followed, informing him of 
the acts of the rebels at Durham. They entered the Minster, tore the Bible 
and other books, and the same night returned to Brancepeth. Their pro- 
ceedings are amusing enough, and to shew the sad havoc made among the 
soUd books provided by our reformers, take the proceedings at Sedgefield. 
Bichard Fleitham of that place, husbandman, deposed, 

'^ That passing throwgh the towne streit he mett with Brian Headlham to whom, 
when this examinate tolde that he went down to Roland Hixson house, the said Brian 
wylled hym to bydd Hixson send up the church books, and he might bom the books 
byfore he went to Darlington, which roessaidge this examinate dyd to the said in his 
bedd ; hut what the said Roland and other dyd with the books, or at the homing of 
them, he cannott depose ; howbeyt yeisterday this examinate hard Isabell Gulling and 
Margarett Snawdon told this examinate and John Johnson at the crosse, that Roland 
Hixson, seinge the flames of the books fleinge up, said, ^Lowe, wher the Homiliei flees 
to the detyU: " 

Hixson, who was churchwarden, denied all this, and stated that '' when one old 
booke of the dark's was in buminge, this deponent said alowd, '' See wher the b^ble 
bornes ;** which word he spoke to the intent that the byble should not be canld for, 
which is yett safe therebye. Margaret Snawdon deposed that she saw Roland when 
" lyfting up the leaves of them with his staff, he said, ' Se the dyveU donUnesf fie into 
the tUfyment :' "X and another witness flatly says that Roland was the cause of all the 

* So hurried, that Bowes actuaUy directed it in mistake to the rebel earl of Westmore* 
land, as president of the North council. 

f Apparently a slang term for the Homilies. t Element— here the air. 



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OF THE NORTH. 105 

muehief in Sedgefidd Church, " and yett wold cover his doing by setting bis faulte of 
Brian Headlham and others.*' 

We find onder the head of Brancepeth the deposition of Henry Rutter, of Durham, 
oonoeming the baptism of his child, who said, that he " was at home in Elvet, wher he 
dwellith, at the birth of his child articulate,* which was borne upon % tewsday, the 
morrow after the Earles rose, and at that present tyme this examinate was sent for to 
John Byers, to wait upon his lorde and master, the Earl of Westmerland« and to be 
with his lordship the morrow next after, being Weddensday, at Darlington,'* During 
his absence it appears that his child was christened by the curate at Brancepeth, b}^ my 
Lady Westmoreland's commandment, after Popish fashion.t 

November 16. " This night, J in the evening, both the earls, with a great 
band of horsemen, did ride forth, and was seen pass southwards, towards 
Dameton, and, as the brutte (report) goeth, meaneth to pass to Ryehmonde, 
which town is greatly misliked, and upon good cause. We hate a marvellous 
lack of armour, but specially of weapon ; and can not tell how to supply it^ 
either for these [at Barnard-castle] nor for those footmen appointed to be in 
readiness at Dameton on the 21st of this month/'§ Bowes. 

On this day, the rebels were at Darlington, and sent horsemen to gather 
as many recruits as possible. The proclamations of the earls all accuse the 
queen's counsellors of seeking to destroy the ancient nobility and true religion. 
The Darlington proclamation assumes more chai'acteristic importance firom 
its having been penned by Thomas Jenny, at the dictation of Marmaduke 
Blakiston, and by the command d Westmoreland. 

Thomas, Earl of Northumberland, and Charles, Earl of Westmoreland, the Queen^s 
most true and lawful subjects, and ^to all her highness' people, sendetb greeting : — 
Whereas, divers n^ get up nobles about the Queen's Mi^esty, have and do daily, not 
only go about to overthrow and put down the ancient nobility of this realm, but also 
have misused the Queen's Majesty's own person, and also have by the space of twelve 
years now past, set up, and maintained a new found religion and heresy, contrary to 
(j^*s word. For the amending and redressing whereof, divers foreign powers do pur- 
pose shortly to invade these realms, which will be to our utter destruction, if we do not 
ourselves speedfly forfend the same. Wherefore we are now constrained at this time to 
go about to amend and redress it ourselves, which if we should not do and foreigners 
enter upon ns we should be all made slaves and bondsmen to them. These are there- 
fore to will and to require you, and every of you, being above the age of 16 years and 
not 60, as your duty towards God duth bind you, for the setting forth of his true catho- 
lic religion, and as you tender the common wealth of your country ; to come and resort 
unto ns with all speed, with all such armour and furniture, as you, or any of you, have. 
This fail you not herein, as you will answer the contrary at your perils. God save the 
Queen.— JffiS. HarL 6990,44. 

" And at Damton,'' writes Bowes on the 17th, " they offer great wage to 
such as will serve them ; and hath not only stayed the people in many parts 

* That is, named in the article now answered, 
t Durham Eccl. proc. Sur. Soc p. 177. 
t ''Last night " appears to be meant. 
§ The orthography is here modernised, a liberty I shaU sometimes adopt when the pro- 
nunciation is not afifected. Obsolete words and names are given as in the original. 



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106 THE RISII^G OF 

of Bichmondshiie from assembling to me, and the commissioners hither, but 
hath in the bishopric called all the people in Dameton together, and this 
day they make their musters there, and appoint captains to such number of 
footmen as they have levied. They have constrained, by force, sundry to 
follow them ; as the people of Bishopton, tenants of John Conyers,* my son- 
in-law, being ready to come forwards to serve the Queen's Majesty under 
him here, they not only forced them to go with them, but compelled the rest 
of the town, armed and unarmed, to go to Dameton ; and hourly advertise- 
ment Cometh, of their constraining men to serve them. And the fear is so 
increased, that in manner no man dare travel" 

He further reports that " masse was yesterday at Damton ; and John 
Swinbum, with a 9taffey drove before him the poor folks, to hasten them to 
hear the same/' Stow states that "they had holi-water, but no masse for 
want of vestmenta" Hollinshed,-|- however, (a bitter enemy, it must be 
owned), says that at Darington they " had masse, which the earles and the 
rest heard with such lewde devotion as they had," and in another edition 
quoted by Drake in his Eboracum that " they lewdly heard mass, and be- 
sprinkled all their army with Holy Water." The 'earls now declared that 
their object was to determine "to whom of mere right the true succession 
of the crown appertaineth." 

From Darlington the earls marched on the night of the 16th to Richmond. 
Bowes on the 20th recounts their movements :— ** On Tuesdaye, to Daring- 
ton,J there they sente for the simdrie precepts : proclamations most wicked. 
Wednesdaie, to Richmond, where they altered the manner of their procla- 
mation, whiche is suche, if they be suche as the copies delivered, purporte, 
that it would grieve any honest hearte to heare it" 

The rebels proceeded to Clifford Moor, where they mustered about 560C 
men, their greatest number. The city of York had become active, and on 
the 18th November John Lutton, esq. at Mace, " was directed to conduct 
one hundred men to Damton, at the citie charge ;— to have 40s. towards his 
chardge, and further allowans at his home comyng." This order was revoked ; 
and Mr. Dawson, with one other honest person, was to conduct them to 
Dameton. Yorkshire was more loyal than Durham, and from some cause 
or other undetermined, the earls turned their backs upon it and returned to 
the bishopric. On the 29th, Bowes says, 

" They have a greate number of fatt cattell that they have epoyled in theyr joymeye, 
which they dry ye to Demeton warde ; and, as I am infonned, meanethe to bestowe 
abowte Stocton, where they have fogge and haye, greate plentye, of the Byshoppe of 

* Of Sockbom, who married Sir George's daughter, Agnes. He actiyely supported his 
father-in-law. 

t Edit. 1577. 

:|: In 1573, in answer to certain queries by Lord Burgbley concerning the rebellion, Sir 
George laments that two proclamations of the Earls had been stolen from his house at Cow- 
ton. " The one proclamcd at Dameton, which was but simple : and the other proclamed 
at Ripon, wh'ch was the most effectuall thing they did." 



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THE NORTH. 107 

Durham's and myne, and come enewffe, of the Deanea and others harde by them ; and 
the beste contrethe of come joynethe to thoyse parts, of thys reyer of Tees, of bothe 
^ds ; as of the one, Byllingham, Norton, and such lyke ; and of the other syde, 

Cleveland, where Xpofer Nevell nowe ys. They everye day come and ofier scrym- 

yahlnge and beareth in oure sconte and scewryers ; but we take noo layrom, but 

kepethe close* The general brewte here ys, they wyll besege me ; but I am in noo 

feare. And there footman ys fallen in theire marohe towards Dameton, which seamethe 
they rather wyll imploye them abowte Hartlepoyle, rather [than] to hasserde thys 
place." 

Hartlepool however being secured, a long seige of Barnard Castle followed. 
Bowee gallsuitly defended it, but was obliged to surrender honorably (partly 
owing to the numerous desertions to the rebels). 

From a list of the levies assembled at Barnard Castle, who required pay I find that 
there were musters of horsemen at Dameton on Nov. 24, and of footmen on the 26tlL 
41 light horsemen entered there had I6d. per day, each, 98 foot soldiers 6d, Their 
captain, Rauff Tailboys, Esq., of Thornton fiall, had 8«., his lieutenant 4s., ensign 
bearer I2d,^ sergeant 12^., drumm^ I2d. 

Bowes, marching out of the castle under a composition, proceeded to Ses- 
saj, where he met the Earl of Sussex, Lieutenant-General in the North, 
with an army of some 5,000 men, and was made Marshall of the conjoined 
forces, which marched by Groftbridge, Dariingtonf and Aydiiflfe, to Durham. 
But a more formidable muster was behind. 

" They (the rebels) were not onely pursued by the Erie of Sussex and other with him, 
hauing a power with them of 7,000 men, being almost at theyr heeles, but also by the 
Earle of Warwike, and the Lorde Clynton, high Admyrall of Englande wyth a &rre 
greater armie of 12,000 men raysed by the Queenes MaiesUes Commission out of the 
South and middle parties of the realme.- - The coming forward of these forces, caused 
the rebeb so much to quaile in courage, that they durst not abyde to trie the matter 
vrith dint of sworde. For whereas the Erie of Warwike, and the Lord Admyrall, 
being aduanced forwarde to Darinffton, ment the next day to haue sent Robert Glouer 
then Portculeys, and now Somerset Herault (who in this journey attended on the Lorde 
Admyrall, as Norrey king of Armes did vpon the Earle of Warwike) unto the rebels, 
vpon such message as for the time and state of things was thought conuenient, the 
same night aduertisements came from the Erie of Sussex vnto the Erie of Warwik, and 

♦ ** Coward, a coward, of Barney Castell 
Dare not come out to fight a battell." 

PoptUar rhyme still current. 
t ■'The xiith day, I intende to be at Dameton." Stuaex to Sir W. Cecil 8 Dee, On the 
17th, Hunsdon, Sir Ralph Sadler and Sussex met at Ooft-Bridge, oonsolted, marched for- 
wardy and hearing that the rebels, understanding of their appointment to be at Dameton, 
had fled, stayed their footmen at Dameton until they might see whether it should be ne- 
cessary to draw them on to Dure8me,or that they might casse (dismiss) a great part of them 
for diminishing of charges. On that day, Sussex wrote to Cecil fW)m " Smyton four miles 
from Dameton," at 2, a.m., the confederates to the council fh>m " Arclif (Aycliffe) between 
Dameton and Duresme," and the Eai4 of Rutland to Cecil ''from Eghinton (Heighington), 
betwene Durham and Daraton." On the 18th, T. Sutton writes from Darlington,—*' The 
rebeUs fled yesternight from Durham to Hexham, accompanied with their horsemen ; only 
having discharged all their fotmen, and willed them to provide for themselves." 



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] 08 THE RISING OF 

to the Lorde Admirall, that the two Earles of Northumberiande, and Westmeriande, 
were fledde, as the truth was they were in deede, first from Durham, whither the aayde 
Olouer should haue bene sent vnto them, and now ypon the Earle of Sussex his comming 
vnto Exham, they shrank quite away, and fled into Sootlaude, without bidding thdr 
companie farewell." — ( HoUinshed.) 

The puissant army of Warwick marched on to Durham though the re- 
bellion was completely at an end. 

The Countess of Northumberland was left on foot at the house of a borderer : — ^ He 
is weil kend, Johne of the Syide — a greatar thief did never ryide*' — ^' a cottage not to be 
compared to any dog-kennel in England.*' However he kept faith and the Oiuntesa 
escaped to Flanders. Her luckless husband was betrayed by Hector Graham, of Hare- 
law to the Regent Murray, whose successor Morton sold him to Lord Hunsdon to 
expiate his errors on the scaffold. To take Heotob's Cloak has become proverbial 
for betraying a friend, and the villain somehow fell suddenly from aJBuence into unac- 
countable poverty. I annex a few of Sir John Forster's charges in the conveying of 
Percy to York and in his return with his company— < 

For three post horses from Durham to Damton 3#. lOef. 

For the charges at Damton, on Wednesday at night and Thursdaye 

morning 19/. 18*. 

For three post horses from Damton to Toplef. 6s. 2cL 

On Sunday night at Damton (^on Am re^um^ 11/. 10». 

Westmoreland housed at Carr of Femiherst's, where Sir Robert Constable a York- 
shire gentleman and relation of the Earls visited him, '' Hector of Tharhwes hedd was 
vnshed to have been eaten amongs us at supper,^' Constable told the exile of the miseries 
of his house and followers till the tears overhayled his cheks abundantfy ; the villain 
professes to have not been able to forbear weeping to see him so suddenly fall to repen- 
tance, and yet was all the time trying to allure him to ruin in England. He came with 
missives to the Countess who remained at Brancepeth. He kissed her lord's ring, and 
gave it to her. She was passing joyful, and told him in the simplicity of her heart of 
her counsel to her lord to throw himself at the mercy of the Queen. Constable had 
*'*' talked with many but never with her like," and yet notwithstanding the impression 
this excellent lady made on him, he wUed from her every secret and transmitted them to 
Sadler with jewel tokens delivered for her lord and his hosts. As to the ship is anchor 

AND CABLE, So TO THY FRIEND BE THOU, CoNSTABLE.* 

The Earl was of a very amorous bent The beautiful ballad by Surtees suggested by 
an old tower on the brook in Langleydale (which is said to have been the residence of 
his mistress) is well known.t Constable hints at a jealousy of the Lord of Femiherst 
about Westmoreland and his ''new wanton lady." At an age little suited for suchan en- 
terprize and in exile, he was wooing Richardot's daughter most attentively for his second 
spouse, but her father required more pension from Spain before consent. He was in 
some warlike business abroad, but contumely was showered upon the hapless wanderera 
and he closed his day alone and in obscurity. His Countess and daughters received an 
allowance from the queen, and the latter became veiy notorious in harbouring seminary 



* A quaiut scrap under a ship (Constable's crest), m Knight's MSS. Caios CoU. Camb. 

f The first verse of the Lamentation of John Musgrave, a robber, was probably in Surr 

tees's remembrance. ^ , , ,. , 

Down Plnmpton Park as 1 did pass, 

I heard a bird sing in a glen : 

The chiefest of her song it was, 

Farewell the flower of serviug-men. 



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THE NORTH. 109 

1569-70. JatL 1. Among the prisoners remsuning in the gaol at Duriuun 
in Bowes's custody, was Gathbert Storye, of Darlington, hating inheritance^ 
and he was still there on the 26tL During their durance vile, the gentle- 
men paid 6i. Sd. and the '' meaner sort '* ^ 4ed. weekly for their meat and 
drink 

On the 15 May, the bill of attainder was passed. Among the attainted 
are Thomas Norton, John Gower, Cuthbert Wytham, and Thomas Jenny, 
gent, the penner of the Darlington proclamation, who finally escaped to 
Flanders. 

^ To the secreCaiyahip, indeed, I drew them ther last pTodamatioii, which I did at 
I>oniiigt<Mi, b^ng comanded thereto by the Earl of Westmerland, who tooke me by 
the arme, and said, sence you are amongst os, we wUl make yoa do the thing we will ; 
and therapon oomanded one M. Blaxton* to give me instruction, and I penned it 
accordingly ; and then was the first that ever I knew what they intended in taking up 
aimes." — State Paper ^ Jem^^B ew m ma lkm, 

Jan. 8. Sussex sent a note to Cecil of 300 and odd persons to be '^ exe- 
quuted by marciall lawe,'' in this county, in which occur " of townesmen of 
Dameton, 16." In this town forty-one were appointed to be slain, composed 
of " prisoners here, two, constables, twenty -three, of the towne and not yet 
taken, sixteen."' In &ct at Dameton were to be executed '^ all thd constables 
of Dameton warde,— the townesmen of Dameton." Well might the Bishop 
lament that " the cuntre is in grete mysere,'* lor " few innocent are left to 
trie the giltie.""!- 

About 481 joined in Darlington Ward, of whom ninety-nine were exe- 
cuted The seat of the rebellion was essentially in this ward. The names 
of the "meaner sorte" executed, possess little interest, but ^^ Hobby that 
God sent vs, at Darlington," is an exception.^ 

Sir Geo. Bowbs to the Earl of Sussex. 

My humble duty, &c The executions are done, or will this day, and to moirow be 
d<me tiuough all the Byshopricke, according to your L. direction, saving in a part of 
Dameton Ward, where as yet I command ; although I have both by day and night 
caused to search their towns, but they be wholly fled, the names of which towns I send 
your lordship in a Inllet here inclosed ; which be of the worst doers of the whole coun- 
try, and lieth, for most part, of the street But I hope that upon my going from Dame- 
ton they win draw home, upon^whose coming I hare taken such order, that I will 
send of my horsemen suddenly ; and hopeth by that means, to get them, thinking reiy 
convenient that they should have the harder justice for their evil dealing. I have taken 
such order with these that dealeth with the goods of those executed, that they should 
deal favorably with the wives and children, so as they might only not have cause to 
complain, but be satisfied ; and, so fcff as I know, so they are : for in all Dameton, by 
this composition, I caused [to] make for me an agreement with the wives, cometh but to 

* Marmaduke Blaldston, younger son of Tho. B. of Blakiston, esq., " a principal wrytor 
of things." 
t Sadler, ii. 95. X Bowes MSB. to which through Sharp I am so much indebted. 



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110 THE RISING OF 

8/. for where I find them^ and hath many children I take nothing at all. And for the 
more favonring of them, I have committed the doing hereof to the worshipful neigh- 
bours, with instructions to &your the poor, and to deal fayorably with alL I have 
newly taken order for receipt of prisoners to be received from the Lord Scrope, but my 
servants waited all a day and night before I got them word what to do : and I humbly 
desire to know whether I shall stay these prisoners at Barnard Castle or to bring them 
to Richmond, where I fear there will be very strait room, for I hear it is very full ; and 
this day, by ten of the clock, by Qod's grace, I will be there. But sure time is conve- 
nient to be somewhat prolonged, for in this course I find the constables, in sundi-y 
places, hath accused these that did least, and excused the greatest offenders ; and many 
of themselves that denied before your Lordship to be with the Earls, both was with the 
rebels in all their joumies, and strained the rest to the same by hard words, which I 
have sought for, but cannot get ; for which cause I mean not from henceforth, to deliver 
any of the constables before the justice be ended, and then, if they be dear to let them 
pass. I use even that course your Lordship did, and execute none tliat hath not both 
been of the first journey, and in some of the second joumies, accompanied with the 
rebels. And, thus ready to set towards Richmond, I humbly take my leave. From 
Dameton, the 8th of January, by eight of the dock in the morning, 1569. 

Jan. 9. In a list of names of such as the Earl of Warwick and the Lord 
Admiral had received into their protection are the names of Hefa. KittinffhaU, 
and John Comeforihy [of the Blackwell family ?] 

The Yorkshire executions (200) followed those of the Bishopridt, and 
Sussex who seems to have been thoroughly disgusted, writes to Cecil from 
Damton, ^' I was first a Ueutenant, I was after little better than a marshall; 
1 had then nothing left to me but to direct hanging matters!' The Queen 
hurried the executions on. Bowes appears to have been more contented with 
his lot than Sussex, for on hanging one Harrison in his own orchard, tradi- 
tion ascribes to him the savage expression ^' that the best fruit a tree could 
bear, was a dead traitor,'" and his conscience, if popular £uicies about a cer- 
tain room at Streatlam be true, will not suffer his unquiet ghost to rest 
The Queen's command was that none who had freeholds or were noted wealthy 
should be executed, ih&j purchasing their Uvea 

The following extract will show how Darlington headed the melancholy 
catalogue of pla<^es most deeply involved :— 

Joined. Executed. 

Broughe of Dameton 55 10 

Bondgayte in Dameton 28 6 

Cockerton 14 3 

Blackewell 18 4 

Haughton 4 1 

Sedgefield 19 5 

Billingham 22 5 

Wolveston 19 4 

Hart 17 4 

Norton* '. 

^ Byshopton 16 4 

FaryeontheHyll \ 15 5 

* Left blank. Bowes M88. 



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THE NORTH. HI 

Joined. Executed. 

Eglyston 16 

Wolflyiighain 16 4 

In^leton 13 3 

Staynedroppe 44 7 

Rabye 27 6 

Forest of Langleye 19 4 

Saynt Elen Awkeland 12 2 

CockefeQde 15 3 

Pearebrige „ 13 2 

Lyndsecke 11 

Aykecliflfe 21 3 

None of the other townflhipB exceed 10 in their nnmbers. 

After the Rebellion was quietly over, there seems to have been a sale of 
horses at the usoal Whitsuntide fiGur at Darlington by the Council's com- 
mand. In][tlie dispute about the will of Sir Robert Brandling of Newcastle, 
(1568-9) Henry Brandling said that Christopher Chaytor refused on the 
Friday that Sir Robert died " about Whitsondaye " to make his will, for that 
" he must lyde that night towardes Darlington^ for markyn of horses there 
to be sold in the £Eur, by the Conselles oommandmente ; and promised to 
conune to hym agayne within a week after."* 

A reyengeful inroad to Scotland followed the putting down of the rebellion, 
in which one Captain Darrington had the command of fifty horsemen. 

In 26 Eliz. we find John Trollop, a pardoned rebel, presenting before " John Awbrey 
and the rest o^theJQueen's Commissioners of concealed lands, then sitting at Derling- 
Hofi,** the'messuage called Thomley, as '* concelement,*' and obtaining a grant of the 
estate under 10». crown-rent for ever. The estate had been given to Ralph Bowes, Esq., 
who seems soon to have come to an understanding with the forfeited family, and 
granted the patent to the use of John Trollop. Trollop died in extreme age in 1611, 
after constant troubles about his lands with the crown, and is oddly said in the Kelloe 
register to have been buried by Mmselfe.f His father was perhaps the happier man, 
pleasantly stating inlus will that Ood had given him ''an honeste parte in this world, 
which IB a good wyfe, who haithe been and is not onlie moche comfortable to me, but also 
moehe profitable,^* 

OutAbert iWitham attainted, was son of William Witham,} of Darlington, whose 
grandfather Thomas lived at Brittonby, near this place, and married Inet co-heiress of 
Wanton of Clifie. In 1535 William Witham as bailiff of Derlyngton returned 16/. 
town-rents to thejbishopland received as fee I00s.§ 

Cuthbert Storie, of Darlington, appears not only to^^ve been*pardoned but to have 
kept his lands. II Some were however alienated before. In 1586 he was a picker and 
stealer and was made to disgorge the stones [and planks which he had taken away from 
a bridge over the mill dam at the North end of Norgait, and which was ordered to be 
rs-eonstmcted with a Landstaith four yards^wide for the ease of the people at the costs 
of Bondgate.ir 

Thomas Norton, of Skemingham, was"* arrained at Westminster, 6 April, 1570, and 
confessed his treason. He was brother of the patriarchal rebel Richard Norton, who 

• Ecol. Proc Sur. Soo. 123. f I. e. in his own porch. 

t Thoreaby's Doc Leod. § Valor EcolesiasticiiSi 

B Terr. Cnthberti Storey attinct. Redd. tene. in Dameton 40/. 6^. Sadler's State Papers^ 
ii. 2D0. 1[ MiU papers. R. H. Allan, esq. 



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112 PERSONS INVOLVED IN 

bore a crofls with a streamer before liie army, and whoee descendant Maior or Maolger 
Norton, of Clowbeck, co. Ebor. bought a burgage in Blackwellgate of George Fether- 
stonhaugh, of Thomaby-upon-Tees, in 1623. The whole tribe of the " wicked people" 
of Norton Conyers were infected with disloyalty* Thomas married Elizabeth, ooh. of 
Eshe, and jure uxcris possessed Skemingham. He was '* an offender in the rebdlyon 
in the tyme of King Henry Vlllth,"* and for this second offence was drawn, hanged, 
beheaded, and quartered at Tyburn in presence of his nephew Christophw, who imme- 
diately after sufiered the same fate, very repentant.t The latter stated that -*' by the 
way betwixt Dorham and Damton cam Mr. Agramont Ratlef, and T. Gfeny, [and] Blax- 
ton, which comfortyd the coman sorte ; and the next day in the monyng, came about 
1000 fotmen and horsemen to the Earlls. Thayt day Uiaye to Rychemond, to store 
[stir] Ryd^mondshirCf wheare the Earll of Northomerland staid that nygt, and West- 
merland com backe to Damton againe. They ij aponted to meet at Alarton, the next 
day, as they did." I do not enter here into the sorrows of the main branch of Norton, 
not even daring to be captivated with Exalted EmIlt — Maid of Ihe blasted Family, 
but I may state one curious fact. In the brazen shields in the Norton porch at Wath 
Church Uie &mily arms are carefully erased, the impalement of Ward remaining per- 
fect ; and in a window, the quarterings all gleam upon the chancel floor, save the pater- 
nal coat. It is totally destroyed. 

In 1573 the Queen granted Skemingham manor to Ralph Taylboys, Esq., who pur- 
chased in trust for the ancient family, and in 1597 Robert Tailbois, of Thornton, re- 
conyeyed to Thomas the son of the slain. He did not long possess it. In 1606, be with 
Dorothy his wife, Elizabeth Taylboys his mother, and Elizabeth his only childj granted 
all his bonny lands away luid retired to the neighbouring town of Darlington, worn 
down probably with pecuniary incumbrances he had been unable to shake off. He was 
buried in our churchyard on Apr. 29, 1615, as '* Thomas Norton, gentleman, of Dar- 
lington, and late of Skirmingham." j: 

John GotDer, of Richmond, gent., was pardoned at the warm intercession of Sussex, 
as he simpfy was led to this hb first f&ult. His mother was about to be remarried to 
Cottrell, Sussex's secretary, besides, the land was scarce 50^. per ann., one-half whereof 
Was settled on her. 

Sussex begged for him to be allowed to compound, but the land was all confiscated^ 
and according to Sadler, ii. 193, was worth some 135/., of which his Darlington tene- 
ments were set down at 20/. Ralph Gower his father had purchased Bennetts lands in 
Darlington, which the Queen granted to Robert Bowes, £sq.{ Bennet HaU^ Bennet 
t^ield, and Dowcroft, occur together a century afterwards. 

Robert Ckuston, of Bumhall, was pardoned at the earnest request of the Bowes famOy, 
with whom he was connected by marriage. He had a son Anthony, a brother Anthony 
who died an infant, and an uncle Anthony. In 1602, Anthony Claxton married Mar- 
garet Newton at Darlington. George Claxton of the Hulam family alienated property 
in Hungait next the Deanry in 1564-5 to the Hodgsons, who sold it with Kilnegarth, in 
Hungaite, to Buhner Prescote in 1626. In 1624 Richard Potter was ordered to hinder 
none from carrying water from the lane in Hungaite at his kilne.side, and was fbed for 
harhouringe roguishe people in hu hilne.\\ 

* Sortess, i. Appendix. 

t Their heads were set on London Bridge and their quarters upon the gates of the city- 
Thomas in sayiog his prayers in Latin, prayed the preacher not to molest his conscience. 
He at last consented to say the Lord's prayer and belief in English, and desired the andi- 
enoe and all the saints in hearen to pray for him as well then as after his death. 

t A Mr. John Norton sometimes said to be of Skemingham, sometimes of Lasenby, and 
sometimes of Ravens Hall, par. Lamesley, was executed for harbouring Thomas Palli8er,a 
seminary priest, at Durham, 1600. His wife, Margaret, supposed to be pregnant, was re- 
prieved and afterwards pardoned. The story may relate to John son of old Richard Nor- 
ton, and Margaret Readshaw his second wife, though he would be 76 years old. 
§ Mickleton, xxxiii., 101. || Borough Books. 



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THE RISING. 113 

John Claxton, of DarMngton, gent., In 1663-4 dtatras to bo buried at Horwortli, near 
bia wifi, kaTee to hk eon George the care of John, Margaret, and Mary Ckxton, whose 
grand&th» was Edmand Hogeaon, and to his mother an old angel. He was a legatee 
of John Claxton, of Chester le Street, gent., eonsin of Sir John of Nettles worth, the son 
of Robert Claxton, of Old Parke, another rebel of 1569, who was sared from execution 
bj Leicester. The Claxtons were asakmsly attached to the Nevilles in all their 



Hemry JKiUififfkaUj es^., of Middleton St. Geoige, (see p. 110) possessed the Greets and 
Nioludaon HiUt in the field of Nessfield. His grandfather Robert had settled lands in 
Derljmgton on his widow, which were greatly increased by his f&ther John by purchase 
horn John Lord Lumley and Jane his wife. John in 1572 left lOv. to the poor of Dar- 
lington, inenti(His his leased eoUpitte$hi Wyndlaston and Ryton ; leaves to his loving 
nrter Anne Parkinson^ his thre Mttea in his cbawbwr that he laid in at Mydleton ; his 
atandisbe ; and his estate at Kerieburie to use at her discretion to her oontmtaciom and to 
the profit ai his children if she should think meet : and Trasfourthe Hill and his pur- 
chased lands at Daiiingtcm to his son Heniy. Then he di)q>oses of his horsss, giving 
his ^ nephe Henrye Parkinson a bays colts, Raphe James«i baye farralas hors^, Robert 
Bankes my horse cauld Im^ in tkt h0Uffh$ (a eunous name alluding to de£»rmity), and 
Thomas Brsrstowe my graye ga'son hor8e."§ William, John's elder brother, from whom 
he derived, charged estates in 1521 " for the sustentacon of an hone^ preste which I 
will shall syng for the sowles of me, myn aunoestors and heires in the parishe churche 
of Midilton George by the space of seven yeres next after my death peroeyving yerly 
for his salary vij markes.*l{ Henry had a son Francis who was proceeded against in 
1636foradandestinemarriage with Maiyery his pretended wifis. ** Margery KiUinghall, 
of Daiiington, buried 1644-5 " is perhaps identical with her or her husband's sister 
Maigery. She occurs on the flyleaf of Uie register among some recusants.ir 

Tub Nbvillbb. — The claims of the eiq>iring line of Weardale were never advanced, 
but the younger line of Latimer petitioned for the lands and honours of Westmoreland, 
and Edmond Neville reminds James 1. of his assurance that '* if you were King of 
England, I was Earie of Westmoreland without exception ; the credit of which mes- 
sage was warranted by a letter from my Lord of DarUngUm (DirleUm f quoth Surtees) 
assuring further, that now my fortunes shall rise with yours ; and irrevocably ratified 
by your sacred Majestic in your postscript, written with your royal hand, which was 
never yet known to retract what it deliberately set downe, in the words, * I shall now 
with grace promise you to your right, and satisfy you to your expectation '; which 
letters was likewise styled to the Barl </TFestmoreland" James not only broke his word, 
but Edmund was actually dted for having assumed the title with which the king had 
accosted him. The Judges decided that the earldom was forfeited, and that Edmund 
had no tide to the honours of that earl who fell *'/ar his service and afieticn to the King*s 
mother, ^^ An empty honour at Eastham in Essex records him 83 '' Ijord Latttmer, Earl of 
* Sharp's Memorials of the Rebellion. 

t These freehold lands (except 6a. Sr. Sop. and the old farm-stead on the top of the hill, 
sold to John Pease, esq.) as well as Nessfield, are now the properties of R. H. Allan, esq., 
a descendant of Heniy KiUioghall, and of the Sobers, of Nessfield. 

X He married Anne, daughter of Richard Perkinson of Beamond HilL Standis?ie signifies 
an inkstand* S Archives penes R. H. Allan, esq. — Query. Oarsm, a youth, here applied 
to a young horse* Farralas is still used in the sense of barren, 

H Original will, penes R- H. Allan, esq. There is a curious endorsement in his ''awne 
hand wiytyng" whereby he " by gud delyberation and for speciall cause" cancels a legacy 
of 160^ out of West Hartbum. 

S Middleton George. 1611. Spiritual Court Proceedings sgainst Wm. Kyllyngall, esq., 
who "entertayneth in his house as kitcbin wench a woman that hath had two basterds at a 
birth (as if that made the matter worse !), it is not pretended he is suspected with her, but 
he owes 89. kd* sessement, and licks the churchwarden with his staffe when he calls for it.'* 
Mr. K. answered that ''he acted out of Charitie, and struck the churchwarden lightlie with 
a small gold-headed cane which he useth to walk with ordinarily." Surteee MSS. 

Q 



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114 



THE NEVILLE MANOR 




Westmerland, lineally descended from the honorable blood of kings and princes, and 
the seventh Earle of Westinerland of the name of NeviUs." The barony of Latimer 
however fell into abeyance among the daughters of John, who died in 1677. 

It would be endless to give any idea of the memo- 
rials of the Nevilles. Their saltire occurs everywhere. 
JohnClervaux is proudly recorded at Croft as "nephew 
to Ralph Nevil the first Earl of Westmoreland," and by 
the same connexion his son Richard as "of the blood of 
Edward IV. and Richard III. in the third generation." 
His monument (date 1490) is bespangled with a 
singular badge, of which I give a cut, apparently a 
muzzle of some sort The deceased was Esquire of the 
body of Henry VI. and his arms are surrounded by 
the SS. ornament. A race of the name occur as smaU 
resident burgesses in Skinnergate, in the 17th centnry. 
The Chaytors, representatives of the main line of 
Clervaux, also^eld burgages in Skinnergate (south of 
the Grammar School property). Black wellgate, and 
Huligate, " as more fully may appear by an old book 
called le Terrier containing all deeds and evidences of lands,*' to which William Chaitor 
was admitted in 1612, but being under age, the Bailiff and Steward granted him leave 
to claim admission again when of full age. 

1662. " The 6th day of Oc'ber a very sad accedent befell Mr. Henrie Chaiter of Gaine- 
ford as he toas coming firom Darlington in soe much that he fell from his horse and was 
suddenly slaine, from which Good Lord deliver us, and was buried nobly by his friends 
and neighbours the 8th day of the foresaid mounth, together with his funeral sermon, 
the subject of which was the 22 of Revelations and the 12th verse.— Et ecce venio 
cito : Et merces mea mecum est : Etc : &c." Gainford Par, Reg, 

Among the widely extended possessions of the unfortunate Neville which were con- 
fiscated, were some at Blackwell.* His predecessor Henry had, as we have seen, granted 
certain lands there to Edward Perkinson, of Beaumond Hill, who died in 1567 seised of 
1 messuage, 5 cottages, 100 acre^ meadow, 40 pasture. Henry was his heir, but he de- 
vised part of Blackwell to his second son Cuthbert, then under age, who was afterwards 
a gentleman living at Darlington, and buried there in 1618. The Pai'kinsons were tinged 
with disaffection, and Sadler mentions Mr. Perkinson, of Beamond-hill, as being re- 
ported " to have saved the Earl in the rebellion time." 

In 1609 Bartholomew Gamett, gent, died seised of lands in Blackwell, sometime 
Perkinson 's, held by knight's service and 24*. \Qd. rent. Robert was his son and heir. 
I have little doubt that this rent is identical with the 23«. 8rf. or 24*.t rent formerly 
paid by the Middletons for the messuage and five oxgangs they had heired from the 
BlackweUs, and which were also held by knight's service* The manor of Blackwell 
held by Ralph the great Earl probably consisted of all their freehold:^ (including Castle 
Hill) as well as the small estate held by John Nevyll, Chivaler^ in 1388, by fealty only. 
Lang-drafts also, which was Exchequer Land, eventually joined thefreehold.§ 



* Hutch, iii. f Vide p. 7. X They only held copyholds in later times. 
§ 16*22. Partition of Blackwell Ck>mmons. To George Parkinson in leiwe and considentcon 
of the six and half oxg. of freehold land and to such other persons as shall have right to the 
said freehold, these grounds, Badell banck, Langdraught, Cald, Rell, and Dowdie bancks, 
with all other grounds lyeing under the banck from the holme towards Consclyffe, be- 
longing to the Towneshipp of Blackwell, alsoe eight acres in the southend of Snipe abutting 
upon Brankinmoor neer Skerne, and alsoe the residue of Brankinmoor (not otherwise 
aligned) as pai-t of the said freehold land, also the eatage of the loaning in Brankinmoor. 
There are something like manorial rights to freehold wastes recognized here, no quantity 
is prescribed, as in the cases of the other assignees. 



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OF BLACK WELL. 115 

Robert Gramet before 1631 conveyed a moiety of a capital messuage and six oxgangs, 
late his father Bartholomew's to Matthew Bracken gent>. The entirety passed to Qeoige 
Parkinson, of Haghonse, gpnt., in 1638, being held by knight*8 service. 

The Parkinsons now probably possessed the whole of the Neville property, for pre- 
viously to this a messuage and farmehold late occupied by Robert Gamett had oome into 
their hands, which Margerie Parkinson, of Woodrington,* co. Northum., widow of the 
suspected rebel Henry Parkinson, gent., (who had sold Beaumond Hill) conveyed in 
1615 to George Parkinson, of Haghouse. The deed was produced in 1617 in evidence 
on behalf of Margerie and George against Anthot^ NeneU and Mathew Bracken oom^ 
plainants. I do not know the relationship of the man thus mixed up with a portion of 
the Neville manor to its lords, but he lived in gentle state near their green fields. In 161fi 
he occurs as of Blackwell in the sherifi^s list of all the Knightes, Esquires, and Gentle- 
men resident in the Bishoprick, and in 18 Jao. 1. no heirs appearing at the Halmot 
Court on three callings, Timothy Comyn, gent, and Wm. Hall, draper, were adm. by 
the Bishop V special mandate to a close called France formerly Anthony Nevell's. In 
1622 half of France and some of the Towneland, viz., Mayland, were demised by 
Matt. Bracken, survivor of Anth. Nevell, deceased. In 22 Jac. 1. the heir had turned 
up, for Charles Nevill, s. and h. of Anthony was adm. to the other half of Franc a parcel 

* She was daughter of Sir John Widdrington, or Woodrington, knt. I take it that the 
entry " 1592. June 1. James Witheringt on, son of Isacke Witherington, baptized :'* in our 
register, refers to a child of her brother Isaac who had issue Robert and Elizabeth, 
both living in 1625, and that the opnnection with the neighbouring family of Parkinson, 
brought him here. In the inventory of his nephew Roger Widdrington of Harbottle, 
1641, are some items which show that the deceased must have had a splendid taste for 
jewellery, for he had 8 watches in his pocket, 10 bloodstones, 2 silver seals, one gold 
tooth-pick, one gold signet on his finger, and 103/. in his purse. A trunk sent away in danger 
of the Scotts, contained of gold and silver imbroidered gloves i^ pare; of plaine gloves vi 
paire; of wrought purses with gold and silver ii; table booke of silver i; setof silver counters, 
viz., 38 with a silver box i ; silver boxes ii; red silk and silver points viii; bracelets of 
currjUl and curralline ii; black cheane i; black braceletts ii; gold and silver thred of 
pearles ii; diver bell I; silver hatband i; hot- water celler of plush i; black bonelace ^— 
jewelles, in one box, corsanits with dimond i, pearle braceletts i, co... in gold i, gold 
crosses ii, gold rings ix, aggat beads, xv silver bodkins, corrall one peece, box with spirit 
of rosemarie, plushe petticote,''colour reed, with silver lace i, scarlet waistcote with silver 
lace 1, brode reed scarfe with silver and gold lace i, hollon smocks i^, night vails laoed i. 
These are only some of the articles hut they show the magnificence of Roger and his spouse. 

To give an idea of what the counters would be like, I will briefly describe some similar 
articles of silver, kindly put into my hands by O. B. Wooler, esq , of Darlington. Th^y are 
of the size of half a crown, very thin, and engraven on one side with figures of street 
vendors, on the other with birds and fiowers, being contained in a silver box fiowered, and 
containing in the inside of the lid a fine embossed head of Charles 1. The numbers range 
to thirty-six but some are lost, the remainder are all curions as giving the cries of the time- 

*• Lanthome and a whole candeU light.— Haue you any chaires to mend. — Codlinges hot, 
hot codlinges. — By a cocke or a gelding, (A woman with a toy windmiU and horses* heads 
for children^ on sticks. }Sand strings or hankercher btUlons.^Mussels, lilley white mussels^— 
MaasreU, new maearell. — Haue you any work for a Tinker. — What kichin stuffe haue you 
maids. — Sum broken Breade and meaie. — White vnions, white St.Thomas vnions. — Workefor 
cooper, worke for cooper^^Chimney sweepe—I haue fresh cheese and creame.—I Jiaus ripe 
hartichokes Mistris.—Buy my dish of great smelts^— Ells or yeards by yeard or EUs^—Buy a 
bresh, buy a bresh. — Buy a screene or straw haU. — Fine oranges fine lemons. — SmaU cole a 
penny a peaks. — New Jloumders new. — Buy a Steele or a tinder-box. — What ould iron or 
sowrdes or rapiers. — Haue you any comes on your feet or toos, ( a man with a staff, on his 
breast a tablel whereon are divers corns extracted, armed with most awfuJUy long roots-}— 
New bookes newly printed and newly com forth*— What ragges^ what ould ragges." 



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1 1 6 THE T^EVILLE MANOR 

in Badell B&ncke, drc, and in 1631, he (called "gentleman '') sold to Wm. Coraeforth, 
two oxgangs in Bladcwell. So ceased the name of Neville there*. France is now the 
name of a six-and-a-half acre close belonging to R. H. Allan, esq., adjoining hb ^ttata 
called Far Howdens &rm, and in 1526t I find mention made of Fraunoe-^wsey which 
was perhaps the residence of the last Neville of Black w^. As to Baditt Bweke^ it 
was a general name for all the banks overhanging ^ deep amphitheatt^ of the Tees 
from Blaokweli Holme to Badle Beck4 

The (iametts were perhaps nearl j rdated to Anthony Qamett, Lord of EggleeclLSe« 
who died in 1631, and whose grandfather James was " of Blasterfield in Westmerland.''§ 
In 1026 Anthony son of Robert Qarnett, of Blackwell, gent., deceased, was appreatioed 
to Geotge Famaby, Merchant Adventurer and Booihmaa of Newcastie-uponrTynt, for 
ten years, and was in 1627 set over to Jatie (Harnett. In 1658 this Anthony, then a free 
brother of the community, petitioned that part of his arrears paid in might be restored^ 
in regard his poll money was doubled and he absent in Yorkshird when warned to 
several courts and for absence fined. He hsd 30^. rtstored.4J In 1642, Qeoi^gB Ganiett*T 
was a copyholder at Blackwell. 

In 1666 John Gamett, Lord of Egglescliffe (son of Antho&y) entered his petSigree at 
Dameton. Three ydars afterwards, Alice "&e onely daughter and child of Mr. John 
Gamett " was laid beneath the sod, and the next year (1670) the childless father, who 
had been captain of horse in the R^^ent of Col. G^. Heron, and deeply engaged in 
the service of Charles L, sold his fair manor and retired to Darlington, where he only 
survived four years, being buried there 2 March, 1674-5. By his will he left 50^ to the 
poor of his former home. His wife AUce, daughter of Chr. Place, of Dinsdale^ Esq., 
and widow of Micha^ Pemberton, Esq., of Aislaby, a mcgor in the serrice of Charles I., 
was buried at Daiiingtoti in 1685. 

The Parkinsons of Hagghouse, near Durham, were evidently one of the many 
branches of the Beaumond Hill race. The Seal of George the purdiaser exhibits the 
usual coat Gules, on a chevron between three ostrich fitUhdrs arg. as many pdkts, a 
mullet of six points for difference.** The Perkinsons were in fact originally FetkenUm- 
haughs^ one of that family called Perkin having a son Perhinson.ff In 14 Cha. L 
George Parkinson and his son and heir Edward mortgaged the property bought from 
Margerie (rate Si. per cent.) to Tobye Ewbancke, of Stainthropp, gent.,j:^ who must 
have acquired the whole estate in fee, holding 12 oxg. in Blackwell in 1679. 

* Is Nevelson a decadence of Neville or Novell I Isabella Nevelson, d. of Niolurfai 
Nevelson of LangtoH, par. GMUfM^bap. l€AS,'—Dorlmfftan P. Ji» 

t Bishops Rolls. t Vide p. 11. § Visit. 16)6. Ii Merchts. Bks. N.C. 

If Son of Robert, he had a son John, adm. to BlatkholTnef Badell Bankes in Blackwell 
field, some Bord Land beyond le Jfariutones, &o. He also possessed Stresham Closes and 
Garth Ends (now part of Mr R. H. Allan*s Southern Estate), and had a son George who 
sold to the Sayers. Bord Land is land appropriated by the lord of a manor for the support 
of his board or table. 

** Rickat#oB deeds penes R. H. Allan, esq., from whose valuable ooUeotions of title 
deeds the whole evidence on the Blackwell freeholds are taken, except where otberwiae 
expressed. ft Visit. 1575. John Fetherstonhaugh confirmed the narration. 

tt Toby's first wife, Elimbeth, was widow of Richard Stobert. In her will she makes 
her father4n-law, Stephen Hegge and mother Anne Hegg» goardiaos to her daughter Ann 
Stobert. Stephen H^gge and Ann Walthom were married at Darlington, 27 October, 1596. 
Robert Hegge> the author of the Legend of St. Cuthbert, ** replete with good ienae and 
refined wit," (who had |b brother, Stephen, a parson, bur. at Whitworth in 1662)) was bom 
in 1599 at Durham, his parents being Stephen Hegge, notary-public, and Annoi dan. of 
Robert Swyft, a prebendary. Whea Mr. Taylor was preparing his edition of the Legend, 
Surtees found the entry of their burials in the €!athedral, but not of their eon's, and was 
much annoyed. ** What a beast Hegg must have been not to be buried there too, or what 
a brute the Sacristan must have been to omit his register !" He died in 1629. 



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OF BLACKWELL. 117 

The lingering of the BUckwell fre^old in the blood of its ancient owners b coriouB. 
The present poesesBor, R. H. Allan, Bsq., descends directly from the great earl through 
the Greys of Heton and ChilHngham, whose coat also formed the most cherished quar- 
tering of the Ewhankes, as appears from the seal of Henry Ewhanke afiixedtoa Black- 
well deed of 1670. 

Tobye, who removed to Eggleston, fell into difficulties, and in 1658 Leonard Scott, of 
Hall, gent., obtained a judgment against him for 600^. debt and 21#. costs. In SST 
Cha. II , a messuage, garden, orchard, and four doses called Loftuf Draught, Broad 
fsUd or LambflaUj Cattle hill, and Ckutle bancke, were extended as a moUfy of his pos- 
sessions at Blackwell, and delivered to Scott till payment. 

In 1668, old Toby (then of Stainthropp again) and bis son and heir Henry conveyed 
the property mortgaged by Parkinson in 14 Cha. I. to John Tempest, Esq., and others 
88 Trustees to secure annuities, viz., 70^. to himself, 50/. to his wife Mary,"*^ 301. to Mary 
Stoiye, widow, 10^ to Toby the younger, and 20/. to Roger Bainbrigg. The property 
passed through different hands to Francis Forster, of Durham, in mortgage. In a fine 
of 1675 it is described as 4 mess. 1. orch. 40 acr. of land, 230 acr. mead, 230 acr. past, 
in Blackwell and BlaektoeUffome.f In 1684, the heir Henry Ewbanck, of Winsor, oo. 
Berits, esq., sold Blaekwdl Freehold Farme (Robert Gamett, and Chr. Talbott,J Esq., 
named among the former occupiers) to Wm. Richardson, of London, gent,§ who had 
acquired Scott's interest, and now received all the usual privileges of a manor ; '* Court 
Leet and Court Barron, perquisits and profitts of courts, goods and chattells of felons, 
fugitives, persons outlawed and putt in exigent, and felons of themselves, deodands, 
waiis,e8crays and all other royalties." Seijeant John Jefierson and Doctor Isaac Banre\\ 
oi Durham, released their legal estates. In 1688, Forster's dau. and h. Elizabeth and 
her husband the hon. Charles Mountague, Esq., (Collins* Peerage il 2d2) also released 
on pe^yment of mortgage money. Richardson was a major. 

Blackwell Freehold Farm was settled by Richardson on his daughter Martha, who 
married Richard Booth, of York, gent., and in 1721 the two settled a messuage and 
garth on the backside thereof and the parcels called the Long DrauphU, the Middle 
holm, the Farr holm, the Bonis , Dowdoe, and Castle otherwise Cattle HilL Booth left 
these possessions to his daughter Ann and her husband Wm. Staines. She in her widow- 
hood at Stockton sold to Chr. Denton, of Gray*8 Inn, Esq., from whom it descended to 
his sister Elizabeth who married Thomas Hill, Esq., of Manfield. In 1803 the Hills 
sold tlus estate, as well as Blackwell Holme, to George Allan, Esq., M.P., from whom 
the late John Allan, Esq., purchased Blackwell Hall (which he enlarged) and the Home 
Qarth (near it) with Castle Hill in 1808, and the rest of the freeholds including the tithes 
were sold to him by Mr. G. Allan's representatives in 1833. In addition to which, some 

♦ Generally called Margaret, and queried as ** ! Dor. or Mary " in the Grey pedigree in 
Raine's North Durham. In Surtees's Bwbanke ped. Mary is properly given. She was the 
daughter of Henry Grey, esq., fourth son of Sir Ralph Grey of Chillingham, knt. (descended 
from Sir Thomas Grey, of Heton, knt., who married Alice, daughter of Ralph Neville, K.G. 
first Earl of Westmoreland by the Lady Margaret Staflbrd),by Maiy, daughter of Sir John 
Widdrington, of Widdrington, knt., and was married at Grindon, oo- Durham, 31 Jan. 1613. 
Her sister Isabel Grey also was married at Grindon, 8 June, 1612, te John Pemberton, of 
Aislaby, esq. The Pembertons who were seated at Stanhope in 1400, are now represented 
by the Allans, who are of course entitled to the Grey quartering, 
t In 1684 called Blackwell Holme 

t Chr. Talbott, or Taubart, often held public offices for Blackwell and Bondgate between 
1660 and 1700. 

§ In 1686 the freeholders of Blackwell were Wm. Richardson, gent., in London ; 
Whayre Fawcett, gent, [the heir of John Comforth] ; Thomas Garthome (sold to Peter 
Hutchinson who lives at Comforth.) 

II The great royalist, who fled the kingdom to propagate the doctrine of the Church of 
England among the Greeks and the Arabians. He was prebendary of the 7th stall. See 
his life by the Rev. W. N. Darnell, Rector of Stanhope. 



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1 18 THE NEVILLE MANOR 

copyhold closes formerly calleti Well -Garth, Gill-Garth, Grimsley-Gill and Dockes, 
with two closes in Darlington township called Damton close* and Ravensnah, (the 
latter added by the present owner) now form the Northern estate ; while the Southern or 
Hall portion has been augmented by copyholds chiefly derived from \Vatson,t Vane and 
Arden, the two latter families taking from Sayer and Prescott. Almost the whole of tiie 
houses (including the old deserted mansion of the Prescotts, popularly styled " The Old 
Manor House''') in the village, were bought by the late Mr. John Allan, whose purchases 
in the township of Black well amounted to £34,3004 

The old manor of Blackwell having thus become consolidated, no subowners were left 
to do suit and service, the manorial customs tacitly expired, and in '* these piping times 
of peace " the military service is excused to its lords. Not so, however, the rent of 24f. 
\0d. which is still duly and truly exacted by my Lord of Durham's officers. 

*^ Cuthbert Waistell,§ of Baydale, near Darlington, married Anne Bunny (bap. 
1690) of the ancientfamily of Bunny of Newsham. Her brother Edmund wasatthe sum- 
mer assizes, 1708, defendant in some cause relative to lands there, against Edward and 
Sarah Wren, plaintifls, in wliich after he had obtained a verdict he was shot dead in his 
return on the spot of ground between the rivers Wear and Browney.|| The money and 
wutch on his person were untouched and the mystery was never explained. His brother 
George Bunny's daughter Mary married John Burton, of Darlington. 

The Neville estate is full of entrancing nooks and shady dells, from which 
glances of the Tees and all its rich banks and fertile flats may be obtained. 
The Seat-house, " bosomed high in tufted trees," is placed on the brow of a 
hill in a most choice station, rising over the river, and commanding the deep 
meadows and green levels of the Tees wliich form an amphitheatre of three 
or four miles hemmed in by rising wooded grounds. From various portions 
of the domain — from Castle Hill — ^from Baydale wood and Eavensnab, the 
views are " beautiful exceedingly." A rare combination of wood and water, 
hill and dale, characterises the scenery, and the coup d! ml, is at once rich, 
varied, and romantic. 

In consequence of the irruptions of the "thundering Tees," which here 
makes a singularly sudden and rapid sweep, that portion of the freehold 
called Castle Hill, is much reduced in quantity. In the memory of old men 
now living, its ample brow was decked with the cotter's dwelling and his 
sunny garden, all of which have fallen, one by one, into the dark remorseless 
stream below ! The formation of a strong embankment, together with a for- 
midable jetty or pier composed of Barton stone, recently eroQted at much ex- 

* The comer field opposite Salutation. In 1703 it was called Scot's Close or Bedall Bank, 
and the road leading past it was styled the coal street from Cockerton to Blackwell. 

t John Watson, a Stockton merchant, derived partly in 13 Geo. I. fix>m John Middleton, 
whose messuage abutted on a tenement late of Wm. Comforth on the E. now iUso the 
Allans'. 

t The freeholds in the whole territory are :~The Hall and pleasure grounds formerly 
Home Garth, 4a.— Long Draughts, 68a. — West Holm, 10a. 2r. 4p.— West Bottom, 3r. 18p.— 
East Holm, (subdivided) 18a. Ir. 13p.— East Bottom, 2r. Up.— Chilton field, 20a. Ir. 20p.— 
Twelve acres, 11a. Ir. 20p. — Low Cow Pasture, 20a. 2r. lOp. — Baydale bank, 8a> Ir. Ip. — 
Baydale bank Bottom, 5a. 9r. 34p.— Crooks, la. 2r. 21p<— Dowdy bank, 3a. 3r. 1 Op.— Dowdy 
Bank Bottom (subdivided), 7a. 2r. 34p. — Castle alias CJastle Hill, la. 5p.— Damton Close, 
4a. 2r. 3p.— External Lands (adjoining the river Tees), 20a. 18p.— Gravel Beds, 7a. 24p.— 
Total freehold, 214a. 9p. 

§ Mr. Geo. Wastell was constable of Blackwell in 168 K" for freehold." 
II Between Browney Bridge and Sunderland Bridge. 



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OF BLACK WELL. 119 

penaeby the present proprietor, has, at last, when all other appliances failed, 
effectoallj secured this venerable remain from further demolitioa* 

Battela in Boldon Buke is considered by Hutchinson to be identical with Bat- 
tle-law^ or hill, and in Hatfield's survey Castle Hill and the herbage of Bath- 
leygo together. It is remarkable that at Kendal opposite the Castle is Castle- 
law-kill, and immediately below it is a spot called Battle place.f In Wol- 
sey^s time the councillors to my Lord of Duresme ordered that the inhabi- 
tants and husbandmen of Bondgate should have to farm a ground called the 
Battel/eld. The subject will occur under Bathele Hospital and Badlefeld 
Chapel, and as it is said that **W^tn Sultuit CatHAV bait a iting, Sobeit 
Cattle iBUi a taxnova ^ini,**^ perhaps I had better leave Blackwell Battle 
and Castle to a like misty antiquity. One might easily multiply instances 
of similar titles given to places without even a tradition of blood, indeed at 
present such places are the chosen resorts of fairy elves. What would 
Tower Hill (or CcuteUarinm as Ralph Surteys calls it in an eariy charter) at 
Middleton be without the sweet little folks who wash their clothes in the 
Tees, or Pudding-pie-hill§ near Thirsk without the philanthropic race who 
famish puddings and pies and vouchsafe subterranean music on Pancake 
Tuesday to the giddy Uttle votaries who run round and round the hill first, 
stick their knives in, and apply then* buzzing heads to hear those glad strains. 
Blackwell anyhow is a lovesome vill, but the innocent thraldom of fairy land 
notions will clothe its verdant mounds and fragrant flowers with a more 
abundant elegance. 

When the sun is westward flying, 
Cloudless tints of crimson dying, 
Fitful lovers farewells sighing, 
Kine by hedgerows idly lying ; — 

When through the wood-lined vale of Tees 
Sweeps a mild and whispering breeze, 
I'hat brings to Crooks and Grimsley Gill 
The freshness of each pebbly rill, 
And scatters scents from blossomed leas 
On hawthorn bounds and wedded trees ;\\ — 

When mists of murky eve are thrown 
Where stately stood the altar-stone. 
And sweetly chimed the sanctus-bell 
In Baydale's fair and free chappelle ;— 

♦ See page 19. t Beantiee of England and Wales. 

t Denham's MSS. There was a BaUeUavie at Hawthorne in 1 1 Jas. L Badayle is an arch- 
aism for Battle. See HaUiweU's Diet. § Said to have had a watch tower to Thirsk Castle. 

B In one part of the estate, behind the old Tithebarn,an ash and a sycamore spring from 
One hugh trunk : so closely did they cuddle when young. What would the good Miss Allan 
have said to them ! She, like the maiden queen, had no appreciation for ends and determi- 
nations put to virgin estates in her household, and invariably dismissed any offending 
members of her miniature court. One poor feUow's affection was too mighty for him, and 
he rushed into the matrimonial Charybdis. A gentle hint to depart of course followed, but 
the love-stricken victim never left Grange. He shot liimself there, and hence, perhaps, 
originated many a thrilllug tale of ghastly complexion, which used to be told of that plea* 
aant place. 



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120 THE NEVILLE MANORS. 

When homewurd peasants tread the path 
Through pastares green to Blackwell Watb ; * — 

Castle HiU and NeviUe^s deU 

Brighten under elfish spell, 

Voices ring around the well,t 
Light as murmured hum of bees ; — 

And with echo soft and long 

Midst the wild and gleesome throng 

Sinks to sleep the gentle song 
Of the maiden sprite of Tees.^ 

The manor of Oxen-le-field was also among the possessions of the lady- 
loving lord, as well as some burgage pn^rty in Tabwell adjoining other that 
had been granted off under a yearly rent, and in Northgata 

By letters patent, 1574, the Queen granted to Thomas Brickwell and Andrew Palmer, 
the messuage called Oxnetfield Ghnnge, to hold of the Crown by the 40th part of a 
knight's fee. A free-rent of 3/. 6f . 6d. was due from the premises to the Bishop of Dui^ 
ham. In 1602. Palmer released to Brickwell, who in the same year sold to William 
Bore. Before 1700, Oxneyfield was purchased by the Milbankes, and is still parcel of 
the entailed estate. 

A lease of Oxen-le-field had been granted to Henry the 5th Earl in the decadence of 
the family. The truth is that he got the fortune of his step-daughter Margaret Gas- 
ooigne (daughter of Sir Henry Gaseoigne, of Sedbury in Richmondshire, by Margaret 
Cholmk^ afterwards the Earl's second wife) and gare her the lease in its stead. The 
editors of Spelman's Sacrilege of course attribute the misfortunes of the later NeyiUes 
to their possessing certain dissolved monasteries, and it seems that the Deanery of Dar- 
lington may be added to them. The lady's wardrobe is interesting. 

''An Invitory of all the goods and eattells wich were Maigaret GbbBcoigne's, single- 
woman, within the bishopbrick of Durham, lait deceased, at the whjrt friers in London, 
praised by Thomas Lacy, gentUman, Anno Domini, 1567, the xxliij. of March. 

" First, one lesse of grang called Oamold FM night DoQinfftan^ maid by the Right 
honorable Henry lait Erie of Westmerland, to hir in recompenc of hir child's porcon 
wich he had remaining in his hands of the yerely value of Ix/., the rents paid and all 
other paments discharged. Item the said erle did by bis last will and testament geve 
and bequith vnto hir all that his interest and lease for terme of yeres wich he had in the 
deanrye of DarlingUm of yerly value the rents paid, &c., of xl/. She nether aught 
any debts nor yet gave any legaces.- -First a goune of chaungable tafiatie laid one with 
gold laic 66«. 8i. A goune of silk grogram laid one with silke laic 468. 8rf. One old 
goune of moccado 26^. 8J. Two kirtells wherof one of changable tafiatie th' other of 
grogram 30f . Two peticotts thone of skerlet th' other of stamell 35*. Two frenche 
hodes with lytle billiment of gold 66*. dof. Other necessary apparell 269. 8dl Summa 
of the appaiell 14/. 18«. Ad:'% 

A survey was taken 14 June, 1570, of the Lordship of Raby by Com- 
missioners. They reported the Castle as being " tenne myles from Dame- 
ton," a " marvelouse huge house^ — yet ys there no order or prcporcion in the 
buyldinff thereof—lyke a momtrouee eld Abbey, and will soone decay, yf it be 

♦ The old fbrd. The flrlendly ferry was but a few paces further on. f In Well-garth. 
X Peg Powler was no maliciotis naiad slow -gliding on the silvery stream. I believe her pil- 
ferings were solely prompted by excessive affection for the ''bonny bairns** she bore away. 
^ Surtees Soc. Wills and Inventories. 



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LORDSHIP OF RABY. 121 

not continnaQy repayred, yt staudyth so open — upon the greate waste called 
Feuds FM and Weredale."* 

1632. Feb. 12. Contract between the citusens of London and Sir Hen. Vane for lands 
within the Lordship of Raby, riz., Raby, Bolam, the Carrs in Staindrop, Langleydale, 
Langleydale forest, three parts of Striekley parks with the mill there, DarlingUMf 
Langton, Somerhouse, Houghton, Stilfington, and Pethraw, all of the yearly rent of 
166/. 3f. 6dr, and lands in the Lordship of Bamardcastle, rent 116/. 16«» 3c?., the two 
lordships sold together at the rate of 36 years' purchase for 9904/. 11«. 3{/.t 

1577. Richard Barnes, Bishop. He soon wrote to Lord Burleigh 
about his stubborn churlish flock, who shewed but J<juk of Napes charity in 
their hearts, and who slandered him " according to the Northern ffuise, which 
is never to be ashamed however they bely and deface him whom they hate,J 
yea thottgh it be before the honorablest" He calls the church of Durham an 
Auffie Stabulum, " whose stinke is grievous in the nose of God and men." 
The crown soon demanded more than the discharge of his duties, and extort- 
ed leases every year. 

In 1578 the watermills of Darlington and Bkckwell were granted to the queen for 
forty years, rent 22/. She granted them to William Appleton. Barnes's second wife 
Fridesmimda, was sprung ex ilhutri ae generosa Criffardorum famiHa, and was related 
to the Darlington family of that name. Hutchinson gives her epitaph at St. Andrew's 
Auckland, as being in brass, partly on the verge of a stone in which a female figure is 
inlaid, and partly above and near the figure. The effigy is that of an ecclesiastic, and 
the inscriptions are all on an oblong brass on another stone. The Bishop died in 1687. 
His dau. Elizabeth m. Robert #. of Ralph Talboys of Thornton Hall, esq., luid his son Tim- 
othy Barnes, gent lived there in 1594 when be acquired Hunden Closes in Bondgate, late 
of John Barnes, of Haughton, clerk. His daughter Fridesmunda was bom at Auckland 
in 1616. In 1621-2 he filled public offices here, in 1623 he reeovered in the Borough Court 
from Tho. Atkinson onegoulde ringe inamled or 19#., and in 1624 was surety for Robert 
Barnes. The Rector of Haughton-le-Skeme was an unscrupulous chancellor for his 
brother the bishop and a bitter enemy to Barnard Gilpin ; he acquired lands from 
Henry Killinghall, gent., in 29 Eliz. He had two daughters of whom Margery (event- 
uaJly sole heiress) m. Wm. Lambton, of Stainton, esq., who left two daus. and oohs.,viz. 
Anne, m. to Nich. Chaytor, esq., and Mai^garet, m. to John Killinghall, esq. 

1594. Before giving a narration of a martyrdom in Darlington, it must 
be observed that it was not professedly for religion that the poor man suffered, 
but for high treason, a circumstance which drags it into this division of my 
book. The severities against Papists and Puritans in Elizabeth's reign are 
startling. It is true that the seminary priests were generally downright 
rebels, plotting and corresponding with the enemy continually ; it is also 
true that all dissenters were very aggravating in their conduct " Roaring in 
time of divine service in the queer*' was not a solemn way of difliising opin- 
ions at Bishopwearmouth ; the "slacke comers to church" at Whitburne 
were also "common scouldes," and the Harrisons of Barnard-Castle did wrong 

* Gyirs MSS. quoted by Allan. f Allan MSB. R. H. A. 

t This is in fact rather a compliment than the reverse. Wo were not backbiters. 

R 



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122 MARTYRDOM OF 

in •*pipeing and dancing in divine service-time on the Sabaoth,^ however 
much they might hold the Protestant observance of that sacred day strict 
and puritanical. However, the poor folks of Borne were sorely tormented. 
If they did not go once a month to church,* they were imprisoned, if then 
they did not conform, they were banished, and if they returned, the penalty 
was death. Priests made by Roman auth(»ity were f<»i>id under pain of 
death to come into England, and from 1577 to 1603, one hundred and twen- 
ty-four priests, and fifly-seven laymen and women for harbouring them^ suf- 
fered the extreme penalty. 

I have given an instance or two in the foregoing sentences of reensant bufiboneiy 
from Surtees's MS. notes out of the Spiritual Court bopks. My readers will thank me 
for a few more extracts of odd cases. 

ChOeshead, 1677. Rich. Wilson for enclosing a burial place for Secretaries {Sectaries) 
— Bp, Wearmouth. 1613. Grace Burdon for denying the clark's wages — she laid the 
blame on her son Tho. Burdon who had the money, and I suppose spent it. — Alice 
Colin of the same place '' confest that she is an mttrageous scolde and a disquieter of the 
neighbourhood whereby much disquietnes doeth arise," absolved on admonition. — 
WharUon, Sad complaints against Alice Lawsou an cutragious papist for pulling forth 
RaufT Heighley's servant out of his stall in church time, and interrupting AUson Heigh- 
ley in her stall in the chappelL — Sedgefidd. John Atkinson for brawling in church and 
drawing his dirke or dagge before he left the same upon Geo. Brabin.— Cbc/^^d. oAc. 
contra Will. Lodge p. suspic. ad. cum Margar. Lodge. Appeared and cleared himself 
saying that she was **a very decrepite ugly old looman,^ and that he had not the least 
suspicion, &c., but thought the information came of the malice of Kitty Stevenson, late 
sei'vant of Widow Lodge, detected for stealing " a pare of lether britches belonging the 
said widow and some other plough geare." — 1615. Offic. contra Edw. Blackett, gent., 
on a similar charge. Lyonel Fargeson, a piper of Wolsingham, deposed, that *' about 
m'ne yeares since he married Isabel Sympson, having then a child of two yeares old 
called Mary Blacket, bora at the house of the said Edward Blackett at Hoppeland, and 
which he promised to maintain, and to give the said Isabel two-pence a week, but hath 
never given nothing save IQf. 6c^. in money in all nine years ; a gix)te at another time and 
an ould pair of britches riot worth a boon, three shillings, &c., &c. 

In 1523, Ralph Swalwell was chaplain of St. James's Chantry in the 
Bishop s Palace at Darlington, and the family in irfter years was evidently a 
suspected one. In 1570 Thomas Swalwell, Curate at Ebchester, Medoms- 
ley and Brancepeth successively, was accused of having upheld confession, 
"abusinge the example of the tene leapers, whome Christ commaundyd upon 
there clensinge to shew themselves to the prest," but he denied that and other 
charges.^ Poor George is said to have been bom at Darlington, the place 
of his execution. He was ordained in 1577, became reader or curate at 
Houghton-le-Spring, and was presented by the Master and Brethren of Sher- 
burn to the vicarage of Kelloe, but Bp. Barnes refused institution, claiming 
the presentation hunself. The remainder of his life will be found in the fol- 
lowing extract from ChaUoners Missionary Priests, 

* At the last sermon preached by Archbp. Hutton at York, tlie Popish recusants who 
were present iu obedience to orders, were so obstreperous that they were obliged to be 
gofffjcd, t Sur. Soc. Dur. Eccl. Proc. 



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GEORGE SWALWELL. 123 

George Swallowell* was bom in the bishopric of Durham, and brought np in the 
protestant religion ; and for some time officiated in the donble capacity of reader and of 
schoolmaster at Hoaghton-le-Spring, in the same bishopric. Going one day to visit a 
oatholic gentleman imprisoned for his recusancy, and &lling in discourse on the subject 
of religion, he was so closely pressed by the gentleman upon the article of his mission, 
and that of his prelates, that he was foroed, by way of a last slip, to shelter himself un- 
der the queen's spiritual supremacy, and to derive their commissions from her authority. 
The gentleman exposed to him the absurdity of making a woman, whom St. Paul did 
not allow to speak in the church, the head of the church, and the fountain of ecclesias- 
tical jurisdiction ; and treated so well both this and other points of controversy, that 
Mr. Swallowell, who was none of those who are resolved to be rebels to the light, yield- 
ed to the strength of hb arguments. And not content privately to embrace the^truth, 
he, not long alter, publicly professed from the pulpit, that he had hitherto been in an 
error ^ ha woe now contineed that they had no true mission in their church, and therefore 
he toonid no longer officiate there. 

Upon this he was apprehended, and committed to Durham gaol, and, after a year's 
imprisonment, was brought to the bar, at the same time with Mr. Bost and Mr. Ingram, 
uid stood between them. At first, through fear of that cruel death to which he was 
condemned, he yielded to go to the church and to conform to what the judges required 
of him. Whereupon Mr. Bost. looking at him, said, George SwattoweHy what hast thou 
done? At these words of the confessor of Christ, he was struck with a great damp and 
confession, and desired the judge and the lord president (who at that time was the earl 
of Huntingdon) for God*s sake to let him have his word again. To which the judge re- 
plied, Swallowell, look well what thou doest ; for, although thou he condemned, yet the 
queen is mereifid. But still he craved to have his desire granted. Then the judge an- 
sw^ed. If thou he so earnest, thou shaU have thy word again, say what thou wilt* Then 
presently he recalled what he had formerly yielded unto, and courageously said, that in 
that faith wherein those two priests did die, he would also die ; and that the same faith 
loftaeA th^ professed,'he did also profess. With that Mr. Bost looked at him again, and 
said, Hold thee there, Swallowell, and my soul for thine : and with these words he laid 
his hand upon his head. Then the lord president said, Aujay with Bost, for he is recon- 
dling him. Upon this his judgment was pronounced, which was, to be hanged, drawn, 
and quartered at Darlington. 

Upon the day designed for execution he was brought two miles oflF the place on foot, 
and then was put into a cart, where he lay on his back with his hands and eyes up to 
heaven, and so was drawn to the gallows. To terrify him the more they led him by 
two great fires, the one made for burning his bowels, the other for boiling his quarters ; 
and withal, four ministers attended him to strive to bring him over to their way of 
thinking ; but he would not give ear to them or stay with them, but went presently to 
the ladder, and there fell down upon his knees and continued for some time in prayer ; 
then making the sign of the cross, he went up the ladder, and having leave of the sheriff 
to speak, he said, I renounce all heresy : and spoke some other words which were not 
well heard by the people ; with which the sheriff being offended, struck him with his 
rod, and told him that if he had no more to say he should go up farther, for the rope 
should be put about his neck, which being done, Mr. Swallowell desired if there were 
any catholics there they would say three paters, three aves, and the creed for him : and 
BO making the sign of the cross upon himself, he was turned off tlie ladder. After he 
had hung awhile they cut the rope and let him fall ; and the hangman, who was but a 
boy, drew him along by the rope yet alive, and there dismembered and bowelled him, 

* From a manuscript in my hands, and from bishop Yepez's History of the Persecution, 
1. 5, c. 5, who had his informations from letters sent over from England, two months after 
Mr. Swalloweirs execution. ChaUoner* 



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124! GEORGE SWALWELL. 

and cast his 'bowels into the fire. At the taking oat of his heart, he lifted up his left 
hand to his head, which the hangman laid down again ; and when the heart was cast 
into the fire, the same hand laid itself over the open body. Then the hangman cat off 
his head and held it up saying, '* Behold the head of a traitor ! " His quarters, after 
they were boiled in the cauldron, were buried in the baker's dunghill. 
He sufiered at Darlington, vulffo Damtcm, July 86, 1694 * 

Boat suflfered at Drybuni,f and Ingram at Newcaetla 

1589. Matthew Hutton, Bishop. His son, Timothy Button of Marske, 
<lied in 1629, **(mno uUimce patierUiw sanctorum/'l having charged his son 
always to keep a Lemte in his house. 

Timothy Hutton of Blackwell, m, Margaret Comeforth (qu. dau. of Cuthbert 
Comforth of Blackwell, and bap. 1598.) in 1621, and had issue Elenor, bap. 162S, Anne 
1623-4, (bur. 1634) Christofer 1629, and Robert 1634. Par. lUff. 

Robert Hutton, S. T. P., Rector of Haughton-le-Skeme, deores in 1619 to be buried 
" in the Quyer at Haughton, neere his wyfe's staUe, under the Uewe stone in the east 
side of the churche." Anne, the daughter of this rererend man CvenerMlia nrij, m. 
John Vaux, or Wausse a gentleman of Darlington, who proceeded in 1616 against 
Rowland Vasie for unjust detention of a book called Jo, Vigo, damage 20f. and ob- 
tained an order for the redelivery of it to Richard Packering (formerly steward of the 
Borough Court), at Damton, at or before Great Monday next after Martinmas. Vasie 
next courted Vaux for ui^ust recovery of Jo. f^tgo, damage 26f., the latter made defiMili 
and lost. (Condenmaiur.J 

1595. Toby Mathew succeeded as Bishop ; ripe in learning, eloquence, 
and wit He said that he could as well not be, as not be merry , and when he 
left Durham for York, that it was for lack o/ffrace, for according to a home- 
ly Northern proverb, York has the highest rocky but Durham the deq^er 
manger. 

1697. Sep. 21. Captain Slouch buried. (He died of the plague.) Par. Reg. 
1599. John Evered, a soldier on travel (miles porpgrmus), who died in BlackweU, 
buried. Par. Reg. 

* A little variation occurs in a Brussels printed Church Hist of England from 1500 to 
1688, of 1732, where it is said that ^ Boast observing Swalwell to be somewhat intimidated 
during his trial, and that his answers insinuated something of conforming, clapped him on 
the back, saying, •* Oeorge, lake courage, my Soul for thine, ail will he wdl, take oourag^.^* 
Upon this Swalwell recovered himself from the consternation he lay under, and went 
through the remainder of his trial with great resolution ; the Jury brought him in guilty of 
death for being proselyted to the Church of Rome. He was attended to the place of exe- 
cution by four ministers of the Church of England, whose assistance he reftised with a 
great dMl of good manners ; he kneeled down at the foot of the ladder, and made a public 
profession of the Roman Catholick fiuth. He suflfered at Dariington 26 July, 1594, and his 
body was thrown into a hole near the Oallowa. 

t Near Durham. When turned oflf the ladder, he was instantly cut down, and ^^M^d^^g 
on his feet was butchered alive. At the taking out of his heart he said aloud, ^ Jesus, 
Jesus, Jesus, forgive thee." Toby Mathew, his coUege friend, exclaimed ^ It was pky so 
much worth should have died that day." 

t Monument, Richmond. 



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<!tf)a))ter m. Wi)t Sbtnmn. 



fiarnton |atf a hnnnpf honnp tf^ux^, 
Wm^ a broad) upon t|K nUtfiU: 

But fiantton ii a mucbf, mucbp tobn^ 
fintr mair i^am on t|^e peopb.« 



So says this rude old rhyme now, so siud King Jamie, and Defoe a century 
ago considered that Darlington had " nothing remarkable but dirt, and a 
high stone bridge over little or no water/' And though any condemnations 
did not come well firom the mouth of that royal oddity, whose skin was so 
soft and irritable that he could not bear to wash it, who was always tumbling 
into fluids impure while hunting in most clumsy wise, and whose tongue was 
so lai^ that he could not drink without bespattering the bystanders ; yet it 
must be owned that a town whose streets were only lately paved in 1749,f 
and were described in 1790 J as being very dirty in winter not being paved, 
had a very good title to the terms " Dirty Damton,*' and " Damton iV dirt.*'§ 
In olden times, however, people put up with much more than they do 
now. Each house had a dunghill on \\j& fore front. As late as 1710 it was 
ordered " that eveiy one keep their dunghill in winter well shuffled up, and 
that the same be carried away before Whitsuntide,'' and though in 1 621 the 
householders Were to keep and cause to be sweeped the street clean before 
their doors, and cause the mire and dung to be carried away, the injunction 
was but little regarded. The old orders occur again for a grand removal be- 
fore Whitsun even, or as in 1631 before Midsummer. Nor were they the 

• Denham'8 MSS. The same saying with change of name is afloat respecting Chester- le- 
streel. Broach is a Northern Word for any spire ; in Leicestershire and other districts it 
signifies a spire springing from the tower without any intermediate parapet In York- 
shire it is hroikh^nA** Wakefield broitch.'* Darlington broach is very fiunoMS as a laad- 
Hiark. ''Aye, I got in seet o' Damton broach.'* From Roseberry Topping 
" Fair DarUngton's taU spire, emerging, gleams." 
I always think of a good roast goose on seeing it, for hroche is a spit, a spire being point- 
ed like one. 

t Unirersal Hagaaine. X Lockombe's Gasetteer. 

§ ** The weavers are aU out o* wark 
For the mills are all at a siaad, 
The combers are aU oat o' wark tee 
And there's not a bit wark to be fSand : 
Sae weell all to Stinking Shildon, 

For it's ower wi' Damton-in't-Dirt, 
Sae wee'U aU to Stinking Shildon, 

And the Deevil tak Damton -in't-Dirt. 
[ Var : And Dirty Damton may gang to the Deevil.] 

A vm'sefrom a modern song* 



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126 JAMES I. AT 

smaller streets only which were so treated. The Market Place and the 
King's Street (any thoroughfare), are the places named in the orders.* 

It was in April, 1617, that James I. proceeded to have another look at 
his ancient landa The usual order does not occur till May, so he would 
have full advantage of all dunghills, sandholes, and other nuisances. A mi- 
nute and very general tradition represents the king arriving at the old Mud- 
house in Tubwell-Row. This fabric, which is still remembered, was where 
Watson the saddler's shop now stands, and its rough material was tastefully 
beautified with cows' horns intermixed here and there. Within were " the 
wainscotted room," and " the little wainscotted room," in the latter of which 
the king slept on his journey to Scotland, the event being commemorated by 
a panel which I cannot follow the fate of, but some of the other woodwork 
is in the hands of Mr. Wm. Kitching. Unless the monarch was very closely 
boxed up in travelling, I do not see why he should be unaware of the dirt 
and designation of Darlington, but perhaps he was in the humour for one of 
those quaint flights of subacid humour for which he was so &mous ; how- 
ever he opened his window and popped out his head to enquire " where he 
had got to ?" "Damton" was the reply. "Damtan ! — Humph ! — / thinkit's 
Damton li Dirt*' excWmed James, with the success attendant on all royal 
wits, and ever since the byname has been perpetuated. Doubtless the dung- 
hills were much worse fevoured objects than the beatific lands of wealth he 
surveyed firom the high place on which he sat above Houghton-le-side, at his 
first arrival, and which still delights in the name of Legs Gross. 

Two inns only are mentioned at this period, the BuU Inn (next the BuU- 
Wynd, where the Bulmer crest is still ascendant), and the Crown, in the 
Well Rawe, bought by Rowland Burden of the heir of Margery Lassells in 
1 629.* Was not the latter the very house where James abode ? His grand- 
son was memorialized on the sign of the Royal Oak on the High Row, where 
the king in the oak and a fat Roundhead or two beneath were fairly pour- 
trayed. The house so adorned was thatched like many other houses in the 
same row, in the memory of seniors yet alive. 

I should like to know what James would have said to the dismal deeps of Cat-ldll 
Lonnin. A visit there could not but have been gratifying to the Royal crusader ag^nst 
vntchcraft, and the awkward huntsman. It is the lane which intersects Newtown and 
leads from the great North road at Travellers' Rest to Sadberge and Yarm, being for- 
merly much used by waggons and carts in conveying lime and coab to the fimns further 
South, and to many parts of Cleveland. Bnt the roads of Great Stainton are improved 
and railroads are still better, so the lane at Newtown is seldom used, and in most parts 
is in a wretched state. It is called Sadberge, Broom, or Cat kill Lane or Lonnin. The 
Broom has now disappeared, with the exception of a single plant which sprang from the 
ground where much soil had been removed, and perhaps had remained there as a seed 
for centuries. As for the name of Cat-kill, a friend well recollects a nurseiy tale when 
he was young, reciting that during some night in the year (it was either Halloween or 
April fool een or some other een), all tlie cats in the neighbourhood for many miles 



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DARNTON IN THE DIRT. 127 

rotmd held their meeting and hirouacked in a particular place in the lane, holding an- 
nual omsaltationa, devising future schemes, planning, plotting and contriving, mewing 
and squalling. There were hlack cats, white cats, grey cats, yellow cats, and not a few 
tortoise-shell cats ; and the story goes on to say how they dispersed prior to day break, 
and how the most dreadful noises and horrifying screams caused by their disagreeing 
and fighting were heard. For the latter amusement was not to be wondered at, seeing 
that 80 many outrageous and belligerent creatures were congregated together ; and in 
proof of aU Uiia marvellous narration's coiTectness, if any person visited the place next 
morning, there laid before him the ground quite saturated with grimalkin gore-— nay 
more, to remove every doubt as to assassination and slaughter having been the order of 
the night, six, eight, or ten bleeding male or female tabbies were sure to be found, laid 
grim, gdid, and ghastly, where the infernal conflict had been lost and won.* 

And yet this place of horrid deed is in summer very fair. There grows the witches- 
vervain (fit denizen of such a spot), the veronica, the valerian, the elegant and varied 
eglantine, the wiling woodbine, the creeping bryony, the fragrant thyme. The wild 
strawberry furnishes fruit plentiful, large, delicious, and the blackberries, bumblekites 
or brambles, are so abundant that their votaries readily come five and six miles for 
them. Many a basket is annually taken thence to Darlington and there sold for miokle 
profit, and in the season it is very usual for parties to call with their baskets or tins at 
Newtown to enquire the nearest road to the far'famed Cat-kUl. But in winter, woe be 
to the luckless traverser of that miry way. 

At the end of Cat-kill Lonnin, where four roads meet near Stainton, is Patie*s Nook, 
a place of ghastly grey renown. Patie*s beer-house was a place of no very good asso- 
ciations in any way. One marketnlay, at Darlington, two farmers, Pringle and Race, 
fell out sadly, and Pringle threatened " Before the sun rise to-morrow, I will be revenged 
of you." Race passed through Haughton, Pringle after him, and that was the last time 
that he was seen alive. Two butchers intended to halt at Patie's Nook at midnight, 
but looking in first, they saw two men by a glimmering light ; one supported a dead 
man's body bleeding from ear to ear, the other held a basin to catch his blood. The 
butchers fled in horror. It was conjectured that Pringle and Patie burnt poor Race's 
body in an oven, but no evidence was procured ; the murderers escaped, and the vile den 
has wholly passed away. 

James had a i^amesake who became Bishop James in 1606, and who was 
&irly scolded to death at Durham by King James, so roundly that he re- 
tired to Auckland and died of a violent fit of stone and strangury, brought 
on by perfect vexation three days afterwards. The cause was, perhaps, the 
bishop's contest with his citizens relative to privileges and representation, or 
his neglect in the Damton journey in not brewing any ale for the king, till 
within five days of his visit to Durham. 

The two James's had met before, when the king on his first arrival was feasted by the 
Lord of Lumley, whose pedigree was expatiated on by the future bishop (some relation of 
the family) Mrithout sparing him a ungle ancestor credible or incredible, till the Scotch- 
man wearied with the eternal blaion, exclaimed ** Oh ! mon, gang na further; let me 
digest the knowledge I ha gained, for, by my saul, I did na ken Adam's name was 
Lnmley.'* The expression was cutting, and came as ill from the monarch's mouth as 
his Darlington one did. Thoresby was delighted in 1703 at seeing at good Mr. Parker *s 
the pedigree of I^ing James from Adam, probably sometliing like the marvellous genea- 
logy of his ancestors in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which deduces Ethelwulf from 
Woden and 34 other barbarous old fellows to Sceaf, ** that is the son of Noah, he was 

* It is probable the idea Ib founded on fact, it is well known tiiat a moaning; cat has 
often drawn together crowds of pussies, whose ** horrid sympathies" ended in a frightful 
massacre of each other. See Bewick's Quadrupeds. 



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128 BISHOP MOHTON. 

born in Noah's ark ;" and from Noah to " Adam the first man, and our Father, that is, 
Christ. Amen." 

John Lumley, gent., of Archdeacon Newton (second cousin of Henry Bh&kiston, of 
the same place) who was buried at Darlington in 1636, was son of Roger Lumley, '* Uiat 
dyed in the jayle,** and was '* buried in the queer" of & Maiy-le-Bow, Durham, m 
1606, of ih» Asselbouses or A^cwell branch. Cauandrt^ Lumley, a daughter of John 
Lumley, was bap. 1639, and a bwer iieunily of the name runs throughout the registen. 
Loml Luml^ was a weaver in 1716. 

1617. BiOHA&D Nbile, Bishop. One of the most unprincipled flatter- 
ers of James I. 

1620. Sep. " Symon GiflFord, of DamtxHi parish, gent., for not shoeing 
one private corslett," and other parties upon a muster for Darlington ward 
(Aug. 11.), having " contemptuously by their defaults hindered, and in a sort 
frustrated that his Majesty's service," the Bishop orders Mr. Fra. Wrenn, 
of Heighii^ton, and John Dowthwaite, high constable in Damton Wani, to 
summon the offenders before him. J, B, Taylor's MSS, 

1627-8. Geobge Montbigne, Bishop. 

1628. John Howson, Bishop. 

1632. Thohas Mobtok, S. T. P., a man after the &shion of Tunstall, 
succeeded to the bishoprick. The Darlington ringers received ''for ringing 
at my Lo. Bpp's. [Howson] first coming'' 2*. 6d,* but they got a penny 
more for a very equivocal compliment to the new-made bishop in this year, 
"To ringers at my Lo. Bpp'& going out of the countrey 2«. Id" 

I add a few more bellringing charges, of a very turncoat spirit 1632. 
For ryngynge for the kynge, &. 3d. 1651. Payd the ringers when Wor- 
cester defeate was,5«. 1660. To the ringers upon proclaiminge the Kinge, 
and for a sacke of cooles, 8«. M. 1668. For taking down the great bell, 
\l 10. ; for bulging her up, in all, and wages, 10«. 1678. July 8. Paid 
the ringers at the Duke of Monmouth his return 5«. [after his campaign 
against the Scotch Covenanters and the victory of Both wellbrig.] 1 684. Feb. 
16. To ringers when king James II. was proclaimed 10«. 1688. To the 
ringers on thanksgiving day for the young Prinsef in money, ale, and coles, 
7«. 4rf. 14 Feb. For tarr-barrell, coles, and ringing a peele 2^. 6rf. 1689. 
Rin^ng for King William's victory .... 1690. For coales, tar-barrells, 
and ringing on the victory in Ireland, 6a 4(£ 1767. To a half-hour glass 
for the bell ringers 1^ 1 790. John Longhom, he declining being any 
longer a bell-ringer, 3^. 1796. Bell-ringers, Prince William of Gloucester, 
past through Darlington in a coach, 9^ Do. on the Duke of York going 
to and returning from Newcastle (good, in pencil) 18*. 1800. Mar. Bell- 

♦ Par. Bka. 1680. 
t The Pretender, introdnced by Swift in linee on the prayer prepared by the bishops of 
Chester, Peterbrough, and Durham (Nathaniel Crew.) 

Two Toms and Nat. in council were sat 

To rig up a new thanksgiving, 
With a dainty fine prayer, for the birth of an heir, 
That's neither dead nor living. 



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CIVIL WARS. 129 

lingers, on a victory, but name forgot, ds, 1808. Fancy ringing nightn 
and mornings, 51 5s. 1818. Bell-ringers, (Queen s funeral day), very hard 
tlayy 2L 4«. 1819. Bell-ringers on Prince Leopold passing, Ifo. 1827. 
Sep. Bell-ringers, Marquis of Cleveland, 18*. Do., Duke of Wellington, 
II Is. 1832. Bell-ringers, on flarl Grey passing through Darlington, 12*. 
I, of course, do not give a tithe of state ringings. In 1832, were two or three 
Reform Bill ringings. 

They were evil times that I enter upon. The register and parish books 
show this. 

1637. Jane 29. Hagh Spencer, seryant of Henry Ellstobb of Darlington, who died 
a violent death, buried at Armitage* heade. 1638. December 17. Beatrix Harrison of 
Darlington, who died a violent death, buried p. Blackwell lane. 1639-40. January 17. 
Jane, wife of John Sigswicke of Darlington, who died a violent death, buried. A 
great many Scotch and soldiers occur. 1640. Aug. 26. John, a soldiw , whose sur- 
name was unknown, soldier, buried. 1643-4. Feb. 12. Patricious Davison, soldier, 
buried. 1649-50. Obedience, dau. of Henry Paris, soldier, was buried. Puritanical 
names are excessively rare in the Darlington registers. Faith Rohinson had placed faith 
in Cuihbert Stricklin before her final act of faith, on July 28, 1633, when she married 
him, for their son was baptized in November following. 1655. Henry Casson, liew- 
tenant to Captain Hargrave, and Dorothie Perkins, of Darlington, marryed att Hen- 
knowle, by Francis Wren, esq. 1658-9. Jan. 15. Christopher Allinson, a trouper, 
whome was under the comand of Maigor Ginkins, drowned besides Ketton Bridg, was 
buried. 

1635. To a souldier which came to the church on a Sunday, 6d, 1648. To three 
companies of Irish, It. 1649. To a gentlewoman that came from Ireland with a 
passe, 6d, 1650. To three companyes of Irish travellers, U. These were, probably, 
persons who fled from the horrors of the Irish rebellion. 

In " a taxation upon the county of Durham towards 2000/t. to a ship to be 
sent out a^ 1636," occur the items ;— The tithes of Ne\¥ton, Blackwell, and 
Cockerton, value 70L ; Damton Deanery, with the tithes and glebe there, 
200i ; William Bower, of Oxnetfield, 100/. ; Peter Boubanke, of Darling- 
ton, 150i ; Thomas Long, of Blackwell, 50L ; Cuthbert Robinson, of 
Cockerton, 50L; William Middleton, of Blackwell, 50L;f all in the division 
of Mr Bichard Comforth. Many other obnoxious orders for ship money 
occur on the county. 

1639. Much iJarm was caused by the Spanish Armada being prepared 
in great strength this year. Sir Robert Dudley, Sir GriflSn Markeham, and 
Sir Ghiy Stanley were colonels in it, " also there is one Necil, who termeth 
himself Earl of Westmerland, who hath a great command." % Whatever 
were its intentions, it was totally defeated by the Dutch. 

♦ I have no other record than the name about the hermit's lowly dwelling place. Ed- 
ward Robinson, of Mermitage vtdgo Banck Top, was bur. 1712. It afloined the Horsemill 
on the E. See under Mills. 

+ Randall's MSS. The ecclesiastical revenues were taxed at 2 per cent, the personal 
estates at 13^. 4d. per cent. 

t Rushworth. Who was this Neville ! The luckless lord of 15(59 died in 1601. And where 
are aU the Raby records I From CoUectanea Curiosa (ii. 218) it seems that the Lord Bar- 

8 



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130 THE FOSTERS. 

1639. Among the gentry of the bishopric charged with the equipment rf 
light horse for the service of Charles I., is his unfortunate northern expedi- 
tion, " in which the tclemn league and covenant first reared its hydra head/' 
occurs, " Mr. Francis Forster, of Darlington, a horse." 

See the Foxster pedigree in Surtees, making Francis the son of Christopheif* (will 
1580) by Maid d. and cob. of Qeo, Fennyet of Darlington, potecaiye, who, by will, 
mentions his daughtra Maid Forster, her children Francis, Margaret, Jennet, Christofer. 
But this (George Femiey and his wife Margery, settle their burgage on le well rawe, 
(subject to rent to Charles, Earl of Westmoreland,) in 4 Eliz., on Cuthbert Foster and 
Matilda their daughter in Uberum maritoffum, and Cuthbert sold it with quoddam pan- 
num e crinibut eanfictum, angUce a iilne haire, to the Jefiraisons who sold to the 
GKfiisirds. There seem to have been two Fosters of the name of Francb,| one of ^om 
(who M. Elizabeth, dan. of Richard Heighington of Oraystones, gent) bought Nichol- 
son's Hill and Croceflat,$ sold by his son Richard of Morton and Darlington, who (with 
a younger son, Mr Thomas Foster of Darlington, papist,||) had a s. and h. Frauds, of 
West Hartbum, (the Killinghall mtmor or Forster House, which passed to the Rev. W. 
Addison Fountaine) and he had a son John. '' Here lies the body of Margaret Foster, 
wife of John Foster of West Hartbume, gentleman, and daughter of Thomas Askne [of 
Dinsdale, Yorks.], gratleman. She was buried the sixteenth day of March, and in the 
year 1094." M.LSoMum. 

Jane Foster, iUeg» d. of John Foster and File Rogerson of Darlington, bap. 1633 

nard had them not, and that Mr. Carte could no where find them. They were missing so 
early as 1616 when the commissioners after minute enquiries in the neighhourhood, were 
content to learn from viva voce testimony the metes and hounds of the long lands which had 
passed in one race for so many centuries. Did they foUow the unfortunate earl across the 
sea in higtesy or were they destroyed by the powers that were ? 

* A Christopher Foster occurs here in 31 Hen. 8. The name is almost invariably Foster 
rather than Forster. 

t Daughter Eliz. BeUamyey her children Cuthbert, Thomas, Margaret, and Elizabeth — 
dau. Alice— nephew Christofer Ilee, 4i, per ann. out of Clarybutts (see 1le>— nephew 
Robert Uee a house in Darlington— &rotib«r Christofer Fem/my a goulde ringe. Was not this 
George the brother of James Fenny, jxiMicgrie, of Newcastle ! who, by wiU, (1560 !) leaves 
to *^ my hroQitT Oeorge^s doughter Janne one silver sawlte with a cover doble gilte beinge 
my lesser salte and syxe silver ^ones of the maydenheddes; my said brother his daughter^ 
Elizabethe Fenny e^ one playne pece of silver contening xiiy unc'; his dotoghter Mawde 
Fenne fyve poundes towarde her marriage; brother Xpofer FeneeJ* Surt, Soc. Wills. 

t Margery d. Francis Foster bap. 1593-4 (m. Mr John Wilkinson of Barton, and had 
issue Francis Wilkinson of Monkend, near Croft.— Marmaduke GiU, merchant, who dyed at 
Mr. Francis Wilkinson's of Darlmgton, bur. 12 May, 1654. Timothy Wormely, the son of 
Henry Wormely of Rickell, esq., who dyed att Mr. Francis Wilkinson's house, bur. 18 Aug., 
1654. Dor. Par. Beg.) Richard Foster and Jennet Robinson, 1593, (she d. a widow, 1638). 
The wife of Frauds Foster bur. 3 September, 1597 (plague). Robert Foster, bur. 1598. Jen- 
net, d. Francis bp., 1 601 . Christopher s. do. bp. 1603, bur. 1 606. <}reorge do. bp. 12 May, 1605, 
bur. 1605-6. (Francis Foster of Darlington, and Elizabeth Heighington of Graystones, 
19 May, 1605, Haughton,) Cicily w. Francis Foster of D. bur. 26 Apr., 1606. Richard s. 
Francis, bap. 15 Mar., 1609-10. George do. 1612-3. (Three in&nts bur 1611, 1615, 1616.) 

§ Also lands at Middleton, Iligh Moore, and Swyneflatt from Ralph Hedworth, gent. 
Marmaduke Surtees granted them in 1566 in trust for John, son of Richard Hedworth of 
Whickham and Ann his wife, granddaughter of Marmaduke. Anne Hedworth^ widow, 
and Ralph, her son, and Eleanor, his wife, alienated in 1612 and 1619 to Place and Forster. 
Ralph Hedworth of Darlington, gent, bur. 1627; Elinor, widow, 1628. (Nicholson's Hill 
was sold lately by R. H. Allan, esq., to John Pease, esq.) 

II By a second marriage. Elizabeth, his first wife, was hurried in 1634-5, when her dau. 
Margaret was hap. 



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THE GIFFORDS. I3I 

(He was s. of Chtisiophar, mentioned in Geo. Fennye*s will, and bur. 1618, and was bap. 
1014). Mary, wife of Robert Foster, buried with her infant, 1667. John 8. of John 
Foster of East Wltton, in Wensadaill, a stranger, pro etifut edMcaUone matmeapior eti 
ChmUdmu Clarke, bap. 1615. (Undertakers for the bringing up of every fiUuM nuUiut 
and stranger^s chOd, seem to have been oompelled to enter into an obligation deposited 
with the churchwardens. The Register is full of such minutes. Chargeability to the 
parish was thus sought to be guarded against) 

Frauds Foster was a disclaimer hi 1615, but ill 1649, Richard, his son, conveys the 
Greets, and Nicholson Hill, parcel of Nesfield, sometymes of Henry Killinghall, esq., 
tnth the »eaU crpewe in the ehwrehe heUmginge the premieee^ and uses a seal wiUi the 
Yoricshire Fosters' coat, a ehevnm between 3 huffle-hame, while his son Francis, on the 
same document, oddly seals with the ragufy bend and parbt of KilUnghaU, having per- 
haps picked np such a seal on the premises. Richard also used the device of the pelican 
and her young. 

As to Simon Gifibrd, * the contemptuous subject of 1620, and purchaser of Forster's 
Neville property, he lived in a cA«^ AofM0 in Priestgate, and Prebend Row, (forming 
the angle), having bought part of the Prebendal passeesions in 1619, of D^ley and 
Crompton. He sprung from a veiy ancient family of Staffordsh. and Bucks , and 
displays a gallant shidd in the Durham visitation of 1615, Gifibrd (Gu. 3 lions 
passant in pale ar.) quartering Kirkstowe, Vaulx, Winslow, and Nuns^le. His father 
was John Gifibrd, prieety and his eldest brother was Robert Gifford, f of Darlington, 
whose only son (by Jane, d. of John Prestland, of Sounde, Chesh.,) John was bnr. in 
1501-2. In 1004, Elizabeth Jenyson, of Walworth, widow, bequeathed "to Mr. Gyfibrd, 
of Dameton, a booke, being a conference betwixt Doctor Whitguifte and Mr. Cartwright, 
ftnd 40^., and to his wief sixe silver spoones with apostles' heads, % and to his brother 
Simon Gyfibrd 40ff.'' Simon was the fourth son, and m. 1 . Meriol, d. of John Middleton, 
of Blackwell, in 1604, she d, in 1630, and he m. 2. Dorothy Anderson in 1637-8, (Mrs. 
Dorothery Qtfforth, bur. 1675.) who was, probably, sister (and bap., 1584, at St. Nich., 
N.C.) of Roger Ander8Qn,§ who m. Jane Bower, of Oxenlefield, children of Francis 
Anderson, alderman, of Newcastle. By Meriol he had issue, 1, Colonel John Offfbrdf 
of Coulovolye, co. Cork, bap. 1604-5, conveyed the Prebend-row property to hb bro. 
Robert, in 19 Cha. II. 2, 3, Boffer, Nicholas, d. inf. 4, William, bap. 1609, living 
1615. 5, Elizabeth, bap. 1616-7 m, Nicholas 8winbome,ll derke, 1639. G, Franeety 

* Gtflizrd in the registers. The G is soft ChforOi or Jcfford was the popular pronunciation. 

f In the register of his son's burial, the word m'rt (magistri) is inserted above his name, 
an unusual title in the early registers here. 

t It was the custom to decorate the hnoppee of spoons with saints, angels, apostles, 
scallop shells, lions, our Lady, or maiden's heads. Spoons so decorated were, and plain ones 
still are customarily given in many places at christenings or on paying the first visit to a 
lady in Hravnine, 

§ Mr. John Anderson, the son of Sir Henry Anderson, knight, of Long Gowton, in York- 
shire, bur. 1668. See a Naboth sort of story in the Star Chamber record (8 Car. 1.), given by 
Rnshworth, about Sir Henry Anderson coveting to gain the reetory of East Cowton from 
one Bacon, who reftised to sell it. Maultns, a factotum of Anderson's, met Bacon in East 
Cowton, bidding him get out of the town, like a skipjack fellow as he was, or else he should 
be'^beaten out, and afterwards picking another quarrel, took hold of his horse bridle and 
struck him on the breast with a staff in the presence of Sir Henry, who, after one Green 
had also beaten poor Bacon about the neck and shoulders with a pitchfork, said that he 
was not cudgelled half enough. The knight and his son Henry, Green and Maultus were 
committed to the fleet and heavily fined, besides paying 1002. to the stricken Bacon. These 
Andersons came from Newcastle also. 

Susanna Manors, the wife of Henry Manors, gentleman, who was tabled with Mr. Ander- 
son, was buried, 1664. Par. Reg. 

R Roger Swinburne et Limkell sepuU, 26 Feb., 1590-1. The latter name is also spelt 
Lineeale. The mode of registry is curioua 



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132 CIVIL WARS. 

bap. 1619. Both these lasses are remembered in ihe will of Dame Elizabeth Ffeville, 
(dau. of Eliz. Jenison above,) in 1631. 7, Robert, master and mariner, Kingston-upon- 
HuU, bap. 1628-9, succeeded to the Neville burgage, and died before 1669. His son 
Robert, merchant, HuU^ joined his mother, Ann, in selling the whole Prebend-row and 
Tubwellrow properties to the Boulbys (Pierremont, the seat of Hen. Pease, esq., is built 
on part of Boulbys' Lands) in 1688. 

In 21 Jas. there was a decree in the Durham chancery against Simon Jeffbrd^ for 
" the newe erecting of a horse milne within his burgage, and hawking and grinding of 
come of the burgesses, &c., within the Borough, and the coppyholders, &c., within 
Bondgate and Ck>ckerton." 

1640. Aug. 28. The victory of Newburn (where the Scotch artillery so 
frightened the English army that Sir Thomas Fairfisix, one of their com- 
manders, did not stick to own that till he passed the Tees, his legs trembled 
under him, ♦) having, in feet, given Leslie's morose army of Scottish 
covenanters, with their blue ribbons, in profane allusion to Numb. xv. 38, 
possession of Northumberland and the bishopric, where their extortions 
were excessive, the bishop fled to Stockton castle, and Dr. Belcanqual, the 
dean, (who as runaway Doctor Balccmki has become proverbial,) was still 
more hasty in his flight, having written the king's large declaration agsunst 
the Scota Strafford received intelligence of the defeat at DarUngton, "14 
miles south of Durham, and about 26 miles from Newcastle, and as far 
from Yorf He had purposed to have been with the army before any 
engagement ; but now endeavouring to make the best he could of an ill 
business, he sent a messenger to the army, requiring the chief officers to 
ralley all scattered forces and to keep close in a body and march into York- 
shire. The same day the king advanced to Northallerton towards the army, 
" being ten miles short of DarUngton/' anticipating a personal encounter with 
the Scots, but on the sad news reaching his ear he hastened back to York. 
On the SOth, the earl issued the following order, in pursuance whereof the 
majority of the country people drove their cattle and sheep into Yorkshire, 
and removed most of their famiUes thither also.-f 

^^ The Earl of Strafford, Lord Lieutenant-General of his Majesties army, to all Sheriffii, 
Constables of the Peace, High Constables, and other his Majesties officers: — ^Whereas 
his Majesties army is now marching ftrom Newcastle to Darlington, and the villages 
thereunto adjacent. These are specially to require you, and the rest of the High Con- 
stables, to use your utmost diligence in causing to be brought hither, by four a clock 
this afternoon at the farthest, all such quantities of butter, bread, cheese, and milk, as 
you can possibly furnish, for the victualling of his Majesties said army, which, being 
brought hither by the several owners, I shall take special care to see them justly satis- 
fied the price of their commodities; it being his Majesties gracious intention there shall 
be no burthem nor oppression to his Majesties good and loving subjects. These are 
likewise farther to require you, that with the assistance of the Justice of Peace adjoyn- 
^^%y you g^ve order for the taking away of all the upper milstcnes in all the mills in 
that your ward, and to buiy or otherwise to break them, that the said mills may not be 
of an}' use to the army of the Scotch rebels. You are likewise to require all his Ma- 

* Burnet. f Rushworth, ii. 1239, 1240. 



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CIVIL WARS. 133 

jesties sabjects to remove all their cattle and other goods, as soon as possibly they can, 
oat of their countrey into places more remote and of greater safety for them, until the 
return of his Majesty, which will be very shortly, by the help of God, that his good 
subjects may be powerfully secured from the fears and dangers threatned by the said 
rebels. Given under my Hand and Seal, at Darlington, Aug. 30, 1640.-^traffokd. 

A grievous tax of 350/. a-day on the county, by the Scots, followed, with 
hay and straw oj libitum, (sans recompense). By the Bipon treaty it was 
agreed that the Tees should be the bounds of both armies, and that 850^. 
a-daj was to be levied out of Northumberland and Durham, Westmoreland 
and Cumberland,* which burden continued till August, 1641, when the Scotch 
received 60,000/. for disbanding, and government stood indebted to the pala- 
tinate in 25,663iL ISs. lOd. in balance. 

1640. A royalist broadside is preserved in the Bodleian library, and is published in 
Richardson's Table Book, Leg. XHv. i. 199 entititled *^ Good Nbwes from the North. 
Truly relating how about a hundred of the Scottish rebels, intending to plunder the 
house of M. Pudsie, (at Stapleton in the Bishoprick of Durham), were set upon by a 
troupe of our horsemen, under the conduct of that truly valorous gentleman Lieutenant 
Smith, lieutenant to the noble Sir John Digby; thirty-nine of them (wherof some were 
men of quality) are taken prisoners, the rest all slaine except four or five which fled, 
wherof two are drowned. The names of them is inserted in a list by it selfe. This was 
upon Friday about fore of the dock in the morning, the eighteenth day of this instant 
September, 1640." 

The English troop are described by being " not far thence," t . e. from Stapleton, 
and Darlington, Pieroebridge, or Blackwell is veiy probably the station meant, indeed 
they must have been as near, for the ballad says, 

Atfoure oth clock i'th morning, 
(Let all the rest take warning,) 

About a hundred of these rebels came; 
To M. Pudsey^s house, S^c, 



The English went 



- with all speed to Stapleton, 



With all courage they rode on, 
While Jockey was drinking his last carouse. 

And yet a note at the end says, " At Stapelton, three miles beyond Peace bridge, toee 
met with the Scots at 4 of the clocke in the morning at Master Pudseys house in the bishop- 
rick of Durham at breakfast." Those who fled " escaped by Croft bridge, where they 
say they made their randevous,'' and two, in their hurry to depart, were drowned as 
some alledged. On the list of thirty-eight prisoners are ^'Sir Archibald Douglasse, 
Sergent Maior to Collonel," " Ja. Ogl^ (Ogle), Sergeant to the said Mayor," and " Allen 
Duckdell, a dutch boy, wounded.'* 

The moral is that as the pitcher may go so often to the well that it may come home 
broken at the last, so Archibald Douglas may take great preys in 1327, and his name- 
sake be taken in 1640, and that it is well to get your business done before beginning to 
eat and drink a solid Friday's breakfast. 

* Rush worth* 



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J 



134 CIVIL WARS. 

1642. Prince Rapert landed at Newcasde " with armes and ammunition, 
and, as it is said with money ; such speed hee made thence to his majeetie, 
as his neck had Uke to have suffered a prejudice neere Dameton. The 
passage at Tinmouth, wotwithstanding the supposed guard of shipping is 
very easie, the parUament is feure off, and sees not the connivance."' SpedaU 
Passages^ 4y^ 

In November, the Earl of Newcastle (afterwards Marquis) formed the four 
Nortliem coimties into a Boyalist associatioa Of it the " Fair£suc corre- 
spondence" says : — 

'' It Ib now more than time to proyide against this Northern storm. Sir Christopher 
Wray, Captain Hotham, and Captain Hatcher, with their three troops of horse, and 
four companies of foot, advance towards the bishopric of Duriiam— MfiMnft* oocwrre 
morbo. At Damton they hare the first advantage, which, by lighting upon a troop of 
the enemy which resisted little, gave good fleshing to their soldiers. For, besides the 
routing of it, it struck such a terror through the bishopric of Durham, that itself could 
not be confident of its security. 

Here was the Danish Ambassador met with, whose errands might have merited a 
worse entertainment than a fiGur dismissal; but his comrade, Colonel Cochrane, escaped 
not so well; whose interception (to some well known) was not of the least consequence. 
From Damton they proceed to Perde Brigg, a place fortified by the bishopric forces, to 
make their pass by into Yorkshire. Here they fell upon their works, and not without 
success neither. Here was the first man of note slain on either side, since this storm 
begun. Colonel Thomas Howard, with .... men of his; and not one lost, nor above 
three wounded, on the other side. 

" But this was a hold too tenable to be forced. From hence our friends take the 
courage to invite the encountering of my Lord of Newcastle, and press it as a thing 
feasible. Brave resolutions had need of other judgments ; for, had we had forces enough 
to encounter them, yet had we without any coercion opened the pass to the Yorkists, 
to have fallen upon our best friends in the western parts of Yorkshire, which, y^ for 
the satisfiiction of those who desired it, was not altogether declined; but how difficult a 
thing it would be to regain it, after an encounter of equal hazard, every man may safely 
judge." 

The Marquis, Dec. 1, forced the passage, " with great cannon," after a 
sharp conflict, with a small party of Fair&x's horse, under Hotham, on his 
march to York. 

Blackwell seems to have had a sad time of it In April, 1 646, '^ by reason 
of the inordinate multitude of Scotch soldiers who have disturbed the town 
of Blackwell, the tenants there, who owe suit to this court, dare not come 
forth from their houses," and are excused. (Hdlmot Bks.) The following 
extracts frx)m the township books will give an idea of the heavy burdens of 
our ancestors. 

1656. The sesses at Blackwell were "at pound" 2^. for repaire of bridges, 14f . for the 
armie and narie, and 48, for other disbursements, among which I find, 

For a laime souldier at Jane Harrison al night, 4d. For four baggage horses to Aller- 
ton, 28. 8d. To a souldier going to his colours, 2dL Fixing of a common muskitt, 6d. 

1657. Aug. 14. To a man that had losse by Dunkirkes, 4d, Dec. 29. To a roan 
and wife that had great losse by Dunkirkes, U. Jan. 9. To a souldier and his wife 2d. 
To two men with a passe from Colo. Wren, 4rf. 



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CIVIL WARS. 135 

1658. Among the sesses of Blackwell is one of *" d#. at ii, for procnring knightes and 



For a lame sonldier his nightes lodging, 2d, — ^for earning him to Dar'n on horsbaoc, 2d, 

1659. To a lame souldier with a passe, 4d, — for six haggage horses to Allerton, 2^., 
they receiving Is. a peece ther per hire— for five horses to Durham, who received Is. 
hire ther a peece, 3s. Ad. — ^for three horses to Durham more than state wages, 3s., and 
for a hoy to helpe bacc with horses, 6i. — ^for the constables charges going with them 2s. 

November the 23th. 37 of Capt. Birde his draggoons quartered in Blackwell for five 
dayes, at 16(^. per diem for man and horse. 

December the 3f A. A parte of Capt. Backhouse his horse quartered in Blackwell for 
twenty dayes, at 2ldd. per diem for man and horse. 

December the 24th. Capt. Palmer with ensigns and 70 of his men quartered in 
BlackweU, one day. 

(These lusty fellows, with Lamber's armie, swallowed up a sesse of 45/. being 15f . per 
oxgang. Captn. Hoyles and his man with 71 of his footmen belonging to General 
Lamber, were quartered in Blackwell on the 21st. and received 8i. a day.) 

1659-00. Jan. 7. 98 baggage horses and 60 men belonging General M(mter\' were at 
Blackwell for two nights and a day east after Sd. a man and ed. a horse more than they 
paid. On the 10th, 108 foot under Colo. Emerson arrived for three days, at the rate of 
4d a day for a man, and 40 men and one horse for other three days. On the 19th 39 
baggage horses and 20 men stayed one nightt 2d. per horse, Ad. per num, and on Feb. 
18, 51 of Capt. Hardstaffe's men were quartered two days at 8^. per day, to the total 
cost of Blackwell township of ISL Os. 8d. 

1644. April Several matters of minor warfiu^ took plaoe in the early 
part of thiB year between the royalists of the north and Leslie's army, which 
came to the assistance of parliament. The disasters of the former in York- 
shire dragged the gallant marquis of Newcastle away. He marched on the 
13th from Durham to Auckland, and fix)m thence, the next day, to Barnard- 
castle and Piercebridge. At the same time LesUe broke up his camp at 
Quarrington and moved to Ferry Hill, and next day to Darlington, where his 
horse came np with the rear of the marquis's army, and made some prisoners. 
The marquis entered York on the 19th, and on the 20th Leslie joined Fair- 
bx at Tadcaster. The fatal fray of Marston Moor completed the king's 
ruin in the north. 

1646. The act of Parliament passed for abolishing episcopacy, and 
another soon followed for the sale of bishops' lands, 

A valuation of the temporalities of the bishopries was taken in 1647, when the sale 
of episcopal lands commenced. All the residences and manors of the Bishop of Durham 
are returned. The present rents and profits of Darlington yearly were 262/. 6s. Id. and 
the improvements above per annum, 2061. I3s. Ad.^CBawlinsan's MSS.) 

1651-2. The style of the borough court was *' The Court Barron of the Right hon. 
Sir John Wollaston, knt, John Fookes, James Banco, William Oibb, Samuell Addy, 
Tho. Arnold, Chr. Packe, John Bellamye, Edw. Hooker, Thos Noell, Ric. Gilde, Wm. 
Hobson, Fra. Ash, Jno. Babington, Law. Bromfeild, Alex. Jaaces, Ric. Veiner, Ste. 

The palatinate was admitted to the previously unknown privilege of parliamentary 
representation daring Cromweirs usurpation. 

t Why was such an out-of-the-way place as Blackwell chosen in such important 
inarches 1 See the histories for the effects of Monk's proceedure. 



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136 RICKATSON THE RECUSANT. 

Eswicke, Rob. Meede, and James Stoiye.* John Middieton, gent., baliffe; and George 
Dale, gent, Seneschall." In 1667 it was " of the Right Woril. Stephen Eswicke, esq., 
alderman of the city of London.** George Kirby, gent., filled Dale*8 place. In the same 
year May 5, Richard Hilton occurs in his stead. 

1645. The Court Halmot of our Lord Charles, now king, &c., (the temporalities of the 
bishoprick being in the hands of the said king by virtue of orders of Parliament. — ^23 
Cha. 1., of John WoUaston, knt., and the other trustees as above. — 1652, of ihe Right 
WorshipfuU Steven Estwick, Esquire, lord of the mannor of Darlington, &c.^l659, of 
the Right Hon. Robert Lord Tichbume and three others aldermen of the city of London. 

1647. April 11. Buried,-^ George Rickatson of Dai'lington, gent, a 
recusant, and consequently a sufferer. 

He married, firstly, Alice bur. 1623, Aug.; and, secondly, in the succeed- 
ing January, Jennet, the widow of Robert WaTde, (who had a son Chr. Wanle,)and sued, 
in 1624, for money lent to John Gnye, deceased, by Warde, andfor the detention of one 
dothbayte, damage 3^. Sd., for one yarde of sage culloured broade baze sold by Warde 
to Guyo, and one yearde and a halfe of cotton 3^. 6d.X 

He was steward for the borough from 1617 to 1633 or later, with a slight hiatus in 
1626-7 when Richard Mathew, gent., occurs on the change of bishops. In 1625 he and 
the bailiff, Thomas Barnes, Ufere both fined in their own court for orerstint on Brankin 
Moor. The jurors were in truth independent to a £&ult In open court, in 1622, 
Thomas Sober '' stubbomfie refused to serve of the lordes jnrie saying he could not serve 
for he had other business to goe aboute," and the following year Richard Wood attended 
and said he would not serve, Of course, both were fined. The bailiff, Barnes, refused 
to accept the verdict of the jurors in 1629, and the steward would not hazard the respon- 
sibiliy of taking it, so that court was useless. The suitors were little better. Henry 
Shawe, a defeated plaintiff, was fined in 1622 for saying in court that the jurors '^ hadd 
not donne justice betwixt him, Eastgate and Beecroft,** and in 1625 John Chambers, 
jun., for exclaiming ^o«i0 wUl do the deviU; Icaire notapinne/or yowrfyiwngty "mean- 
ing if he were fyned for his misdemeanor." 

Bickatson was probably a backslider, for he served as cburcbwarden in 
1623. He compounded as " Greorge Bixon of Dameton, a convicted recu- 
sant" in 1632 with the Recusancy Commissioners at York, by a lease to be 
made to him of his majesty^s two-thirds of his lands for 41 years if the same 
should so long be forfeited by reason of his recusancy, rent 40«. All actions, 
debts, and forfeitures were stopped and remitted for 20/., and the rent was 
paid till 164.., when the property passed away. 

A gentlemanly race of Buttons were settled at Walworth, Cockerton, and Woodham. 
In 1551, Ralph Button of Walwoorth, gent., settles property in Sunderland, Woodham, 
and Darlington on himself, rem., as to Sunderland and half of Darlington on George his 
8. and h.; and Woodham and the other half of Darlington on Robert, his younger son, 
for life, rem. to George. By his will, the same year, this Raff Booton bequeaths "my 
soull to Almightie God my Creator and redemor, and to our blessed ladye Saynt Marye, 

* These were the parliamentary trustees. 

+ From an affidavit with the Beckfield deeds, R. B. Allan, esq. The registers were 
very carelessly kept, and his name does not occur. 

X Borough Books. The Wards were a gentlemanly family, abounding at Burworth, 
Dinsdale, and Darlington. Robert Ward m. Janet Roukwood at Darlington, 1595. Robert 
Ward, borough bailiff 1606, a disclaimer 1615. 1627, Robert Ward of Over Dinsdale, co. 
Ebor. yeo.» settles a third of various borough lands, some ner ClararubtiUe, to uses. Isabel 
Ward of Darlington, an old maid, bur. 1695. 



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HICKATSON THE RECUSANT. 1*^7 

and to all the hollye ooiupaiiye of bevon ; iiiy bodye to be buryed in Uie parishe churche 
at Heighington, with my mortuarye due and accustumed." Having three rings of gold 
not equal in valne he gives tbeni to his daughters according to ages, the best to tlie elder. 
His heir received the rich portion of ** a silver salt with silver spoones and a silver pece-" 
Some burgages in Derhngton (not settled) were destined for Robert for life, on paying 
thereout 20/. to his sisters ; if he refused, George the reversioner had tbe offer, and if 
this hard-hearted wretch also declined property saddled wkh so vaHt an incumbrance 
(which after all was no joke in those days), parental fondness directed it to be sold, and 
the Qkoney divided among the daughters. Had George left male issue it is evident the 
younger son would have had to make the best of his bequests while he lived ; however, 
events turned out favourably for him. The testator left him executor, and appointed 
his *' welbeloved cosinges and frendes Roberte Tempest of Holmset,^ John Hooton of 
Hunwike, William Smythe of Eshe, Edwarde Perkynson of Beamont-biU, Francys 
Perkynson the yonger, and Nyehodas Yonge of Heigliington supervisors. Then follows 
one of those legacies, so common in old wills, to a superior. *^ To my lanJslord, Mr. 
William Askughe, knight, and to my ladye his wyfe, and to Mr. William Askughe 
there eldest son to everye of them one old lyallfor a token to the entt nte to be good to my 
children,** The policy of remembering the heir of a declining feudal lord is self-evident. 

George removed to Sunderland, where his sister Mary had married one Biggins, and 
granted to her and her two sons, Christofer and Henry, his Sunderland lands, and to 
Hemry^ and John Biggins, two other of her sons, his Dameton moiety. His brother Ro- 
bert sorrowed to see it go out of the name, and George in bis will of 1618, after reciting 
the grants, and that '* my brother Robert seemeth discontented and threatneth sutes 
whereby my bondee for performance of said grantes may be endangered to the great 
greafe and troble amongst freinds,'' offers him a bait of the luoiety of all Dameton 
landes not yet disposed of, and all Woodham, on condition of his confirming the grants, 
a proposal too good to be slighted. He also gives his niece Margai-et Foster 4/. per tmn. 
out of these lands '* not yett passed awaye.*' He luid previously granted a lease of half 
of them to his sister Margaret Huton, of Sadberge, for thirteen years after his death. 

The moiety granted to the Bigginses had been the inheritance of Robert Millott, esq.^ 
and was composed of lands in Cockerton and Bondgate. They sold them to George 
Rickatson, of Darlington, yeoman, formerly when of Thornton in Cleaveland a lessee 
of the property under George Hutton. A dispute soon arose with George Parkinson of 
Hagghouse, trustee § for Robert Hutton. Arbitratora in 1624 insisted that ** the said 
parties shall be lovers and freinds," and the moieties of Htttton*s Lands were set out. 
Robert and his son Thomas, then gentlemen of Cockerton,|| received property in Hun- 
gait, Brankinmoore, Symson's feild and adjoining Cockei-ton, the Banekeclose, Winter- 
feild nigh Stooperdaill, Stooperdaill and Kelley Meadowes. Rickatson took tlie decayed 
fruntstead and garth next Mr. Thomas Barnes his house, the Bcckfeild and Elley hill 
" being sommer ground frome tlie gait neere Norgait bridge unto the gait adjoyning 

* He was attainted with his sou Michael for the Rebellion of 1569, and fled. His cousin 
Grace married Cuthbert HuUon of HuUon-John, iu Cumberland, esq. Cuddy's family bore 
cushions in their shield as well as the archbishop^s people of Lancashire, but their crest 
was two eagles* heads erased hi saltire enfiied with a coronet. The Huttons of Walworth, 
and the Bigginses always sealed with the fl^^ure of a bird of uncertain genus, neither on 
shield nor wreath. The Hunwick Huttons bore an eoffle displayed^ with an ostrich's head 
between two ostrich wings expanded, holding a horseshoe as a crest. 
f Had she two sons of that name I 

t Hutton, then of Durham, bought the property in 1574 of Thomas Melott of Whitell, 
par. Chester, esq. § Robert married Anne Parkinson 

at Witton Gilbert in I597,and settled his lands on George and on Wm. Parkinson of 
Northfolk, co. York, gent, as trustees in 21 Jac. 

11 Robert Hutton of Cockerton, gent. bur. 1633 ; Thomas of do. 1630 ; Jane of do. widow 
1644-5. 

T 



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l;J8 BARNES THE DKMNQUENT. 

upon Qrainge Close Loaninge/'* Hutton went to Woodharo, and his descendants long 
held the property there. 

One may almost trace the decay of the wearied victim of Protestant persecation. His 
elaborate signature, the key to his identity in rarious capacities gives way to a rude 
mark €^to. R, in 1641, and in the following year, he with his son and heir WilHara, 
an apothecary of Westminster, sells to Wm. Priscott for 445/., two parts of one cottage 
in Darlington, found by inquisition and certified into his Majesty's Court of Exchequer, 
and three little crofts not so found, t and Beckfeild and Elley-hill ; 100/ was to be re- 
tained till a discharge was obtained from the Excliequer, but in 1646, for 20L allowed 
out of the purchase money, Rickatson was released from further trouble and Prescott 
agreed to discharge himself. 

Rickatson's fellow oflScer, Barnes, lost his estates in another way. The 
following singular document will explain itself. 

"xvijmo: die Aprilis 1646. Dunelm. — Whereas Buhner Priscott late of Darlington, 
deceased, was indebted to mr. Thomas Barnes of Darlington aforesaid, likewise deceased, 
as by a bond thereof may appeare, and whereas the said Thomas Barnes and William 
Barnes, his sonne, were both of them delinquentes against the state so that by ordinance 
of Parliament the said debt is nowe become due to the state, and upon payment thereof 
to the estate^ the said Buhner Priscott and his executors and administrators by the said 
ordinance of Parliament is to be discharged of the said bond and all penaltyes touching 
the same. And whereas William Priscott, sonne of the said Buhner Priscott, hath this 
day payed and satisfyed to this Committee or such as they have appoynted for that pur- 
pose the aforesaid summe and debt of Twenty pounds. It is therefore thought fitt, and 
so ordered by the said Committee, That the said William Priscott and Margarett Pris- 
cott his mother, and the executors and administrators of the said Bulmer Priscott shall 
from henceforth stand and be dearely freed and discharged off and from all penaltyes, 
payments, forfeitures, and losses touching the said bond, or by reason of any clause or 
condic'on therein conteyned. Given at Durham the day and yeare above said, Richard 
LiLBURNE. — Geo: Lilburne: — Geo: Grey.— Jo: Hall: — G: Vane: — Chr: Fulthobpe. 
— Fran : Wren. — Cl : Fulthorpe. 

A prill the xvij*» 1646. — Received of William Priscott of Darneton, the some of fower- 
teene pounds, fower shillings, three-pence, in part of twenty pounds oweing by his father 
Bulmer Priscott, late deceased, to William Barnes delinquent, I say received for the use 
of the Commonwealth the some of xiiij/t. iiij«. iijd!. Jo. Middleton.** 

1649. Sep. 27. William Barnes having paid his full fine, the Commissioners for 
compounding, freed his estates from sequestration. The next day he was in trouble 
again, and gave a bond for payment of 388/. by instalments of 601, which was paid by 
1654-5 and the estates freed again. His estates in 1650 let for 148/. 6«. 8d, and stood in 
the book of rates at 80/. ; among them occur Glassin sikes,^ Winmill hiUs, Hendons, 

* Title deeds, R. H. Allan esq. 

t Rickatson made sure of a cottage and three little crofts (not found) by passing them to 
Prescott, who in 1642 settled them on the recusant's daughter Elizabeth and her heirs, rem. 
Meriott wife of Mat. Cooper and Margaret Rickatson his daughters and heirs, rem. Wm. 
his son. The roundheads were extremely harsh to the popish recusants, as well as to the 
members of the national church, yet Prescott, the buyer up of recusants' and delinquents' 
lands, evidently acted kindly to them on the sly. Matthew and Meriott had loved not 
wisely, but too well. Their illegitimate son, Christopher Rickatson, alias Cooper, was bap* 
23 Mar. 1641. 

X The statement in page 12 is not quite correct. The moiety of a moiety of a moiety of 
an oxgang passed from Robert Bowes [of Bondgate] and Margaret fGregorie] his wife in 
1642 to the Turners who bought the other moiety fh>m the Gregorics aud sold to John 
Theobalds, 22 Cha. 11., who held a field called Polam, ** parcel of the office of the pinder in 



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CROMWELL AT DARLINGTON. 139 

[Heddons] behind Cockerton, and Thornbeck hill. WasteWs house and some other pro- 
perty were sold by him in 1654 to Wm. Priscott, grosier, for 625/. and for one white 
faced couU. Micklemyree, an estate of Richard Oswold of Neither (Low) ConsUy^ was 
doubly sequestered : first, in respect of John Wytham of Cliffe, a recusant who had lent 
money on it ; and second, in 1644, of William Barnes who had a lease of it. Oswold 
sold it to Prescott, and the land was freed from sequestration hi 1653,* no trust appear- 
ing for Wytham, and Barnes's lease having run out. 

1648. Nov. 4. A soldier under the command of General Cromtcale 
buried (Par. Reg,) Cromwell at the time was moving rapidly about in 
these parts, quelling the royalists. He had a meeting with the gentlemen 
of the four Northern counties, who agreed upon a petition to the Parliament 
for justice against delinquents, and for a Commission to be sent down to try 
such as they should apprehenAf 

1650. The Parliament caused the King's Arms to be de&ced and expun- 
ged out ot all places of public worship, and courts of Judicature, throughout 
their Dominions J : " to make the giddy people forget the Garlick and 
Onyons of Egypt thev much hankered after" 

Accordingly we find in the Darlington Church Accounts the entry in 1660, 
" For debidng the King's Armes Is." This proved a dear job in the end, 
for in 1660 occurs " To John Deniss for y* drawinge y* King's Armes, 
U 188. 6d. 

1653. An address to Cromwell and his council was presented trom ''many 
honest people" of the county of Durham, expressing their gratification at his 
goodness in performing his engagements '' to Grod and this poor nation," and 
their adherence to him and his government, but it is signed by only one per- 
son of really ancient and considerable family, John Brakenbury. It contains 
the Darlington names of Jo. Middletong and WiUiam Priscott. The former 

Darlington," (the Polinpole of Hatfield's Survey) and the two moieties as Polam Hill, alias 
Glaasensikes. In 17 1*2 John Theobalds of Brafferton, gent, sold the latter property to the 
Warwickes of Whitwell in the Whyns, par. Catterick, who parted in 1727 to Robert Hylton, 
Suxgeon. Hylton sold to Lawrence Brockett of Hilton, par. Staindrop, and joined in con- 
veying to the Wensleys three closes called Glassen-sikes, alias Heads Closes, from whom 
James Allan, esq., purchased in 1754 as Polam Hill alias Glazensykes. Polam bad passed 
to the Lambtons b^ore 1 790. I do not know the history of the Barnes portion of Glassen- 
sikes. Title Deeds* R.U.A. 1675, For lying the stippin stones at Glassinsik 2d. Bond- 
gaieBoohs* 

* Title deeds. It H. Allan, esq., in the old fashion, being enclosed in a little box covered 
with leather and lined with black letter scraps. 1 have seen more than one of those, 
t Memorials of the English affairs, &c. (1682). 
X Britain's Triumphs, a coeval publication. 

§ The numerous Johns of this family are rather confusing. Jouk (1.) who d. 1575 (see p. 
8) left a son John (II.) aged 18 in 21 £liz. and buried 1631-2 as aenior. Johk (III.) who 
lived at Blackwell-feUd-house, occurring as junior till his father's death, must have been 
an extraordinary character. He married five times, and from Thomas, his child by his 
fourth wife being baptized 21 Oct' 1631* we may well imagine of his third wife btir. 23 Mar. 
1630-1, that in i>opular but expressive dialect he brust her heart. I give his wives as they 
stand* 1. Agnes Lightfote, m. 1607, bur, 13 Mar. 1610-1 as Anne. (Agnes and Anne were 

identical in those days> 2. Anne bur. 27 Feb. 1625-6. 3. Elinor Marshall, m. 27 

Jone 1626 (only four months after her predecessor's death) bur, 23 Mar. 1630-1. 4. Eliz. 
Gouldsbrougb m. by licence 8 June 1631. I have already hinted at the sin attendant on 



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140 THE COMMONWEALTH. 

in 1657 was appointed one of the perpetual visitors of Oliver's college at 
Durham, which, after some show of success, sunk in silmtio at the Restoration. 

Bishop Morton after many troubles, died in 1659, and it is pleasing to 
observe old Sir Henry Vane, the arch-enemy of Bishops, assisting him to a 
comfortable income. 

1656. May. " The Commissioners for the county of Durham for secu- 
ring the peace of the Commonwealth," were sitting at Darlington, decimating 
estates and playing havoc among delinquents.* 

Then were the days when sword-alipers abounded and the craft passed from father 
to son. Anton Eastgatte, of Darlingfton, Well Row, Sword-sliper, bur. 1662. Anthony 
Rastgate, of Darlington, Sword-sliper, bur. 1682. A sword-sliper was properly the ma- 
ker of scabbards, but the word was of much larger acceptation. "SwardsleipeTy a dres- 
ser or maker of swords ; so used in the North of England ; and a cutler with them 
deals onely in knives*** Blount, 

I throw tog?ther a few military entries here. 1707-8. A seijeant who travelling 
through this towne was seized with sickness and died, buried. — 1712-3. Robert, son of 
Dorothy Taylor, a stranger, (and as shee says) wife to John Taylor a lame soldier, bap. 
-r-1720-1. William, son of Wm. Hammerton, who pretended to be married but could 
not make it appear, a dragoon in Captain Morgan's troop of Evans's R^ment, bap. — 

this marriage, and the Christian may almost trace retribution in the fact that tlie christen- 
ing of her child attended her own burial on Oct. 21 foUowing. 5. Qa. Margaret Glover fii. 
with lie. 10 Sep. 1632. The residence of the John Middleton she married is not recorded, 
and the draper might be meant ; however, our hero certainly did marry once more, for he 
had more children, — the first, Jane, being bap* Nov. 10 foUowing. This John Middleton of 
Millfeild niyhe BlackwflU and John his fw>n of Darlington, yeoman, were trustees for Simon 
Gifford (who m. the elder John's sister Meriol) refipectinjr some Neville property in Wel- 
rawo. The younger John sealed with his initials as a merchant's mark and was doubtless 
the draper. Old John was huV' as of Black well Field-house, srent in 1659. John (IV.) was 
a draper at Darlinj?t^n ; the honse at the comer of the Bnll-wynd where the bull stands 
being described in 1666 as late in his possession. His republican and puritanical notions 
are at once discemable by the scriptural names aboundinic in his family, John, Nathaniel, 
Samuel, [William], Joshua, Sarah, Daniel, Deborah, Joseph. He is called gent, in the col- 
lege appointment, and beinj? boronsrh bailiff for the usiirpers of the see must have been a man 
of education and rank. Mrs. Elizabeth Middleton of Durham, widow, hur. here in 1689 was 
perhaps his relict His eldest child, John (V.) was hap, 28 Jul. 1633, occurs as minimw* 
natu in attestations as distinct ft*om his father who signed junior in 164P, and d. in 165.9. 
His brother Joshua was a qnaker and a freeholder in 1685. Nathaniel, (second son) was 
entered of Gray's Inn 1655, held property here, but resided as «?ent. at Durham ; he mar- 
ried Thomasine d. of Richard Loe, of Durham, in 1655-6, and died 1692, leaving a son the 
famed ** Lawyer Middleton," of Bee's diary, John, (VI.) Barnster-at-law , recorder of 
Durham and Richmond, bailiff of Darlington 168**,, who m. Anne d, of John Harrison, of 
Scarbrough, " Mrs. C?i*adock's cousen," 1685. He d. in Feb. 170*2-3, she in Aug. following, 
leaving poor little John (VII.) bap Sep. 1701, to shift f:r himself. And now for a bit of 
episcopal tenderness. His father being " eminent in his profession, and retained for the 
side af^inst the bishop [Crewe the tory] on elections, held by lease for a footway, a piece 
of waiste for twenty-one years. Mr M. died before the bishop nineteen years, and left a 
son two years old ; the lease run to within three or four months. About a month before 
the Bishop died he refiised to renew, and made Grey his secretary enter in his own name, 
Grey would not let the young gentleman have it under twenty-five years — as much as it 
would be worth if freehold." (OotolaruTs MSS-) The •* young gentleman" was an esquire 
of Durham, and dying in 1745 ordered his estate to be sold and divided amongst his five 
sisters (all older than himself). i 

• Hutton Correspondence, Sur. 5>oc. 



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THE RESTORATION. 141 

1722. William, daughter of Mr. James Ramsey, a Captain in Clayton's regiment, bap. 
— 1729. Samuel Aloock, a dragoon in Capt Ogle^s* troop in Carpenter's regiment, bur. 
—1737-8. James Cunnengham of Darlington, an old soldier, bur. — 1745. John, son of 
Dorothy Coates of Darlington, wife to Robert Coates, a private man in Col. Batterau's 
Regiment of foot, of which, the battalion he belongs to, is now, and has been a considera- 
ble time abroad, bap. — 1750. A male child left in Skinnergate by one John Williams, 
a disbanded soldier, and afterwards called by the same name, bur. — 1760. Alice, dau. 
of Maijory Sanctus (which must be translated onholy) wife of Nicholas Sanctus, a sol- 
dier in Gen. OflFerril's Regiment and who has been abroad in America several years, 
bap. — 1760. Francis, son of Thomas Walker, late of Darlington, Woolcomber, now a 
private man in the Durham Militia. N.B. This child is about two years old, and, 
through the parent's neglect, only now baptized, [with a sister Mary, evidently to save 
expense. The custom afterwards became general.] 

In no place was the restoration of the king and bishops hailed with greater 
joy than in the north. Hope inspired the loyal lines, whose members had 
wasted their land and lives in the cause of the Stuarts, but they were woe- 
fully deceived, and nearly all the main gentry fell into the sere leaf of decay, 
borne down with sequestrations and incumbrances. 

Among the petitioners for the restoration of the ** primitive government of the church, 
for the good of their souls, and the county palatine, for the safeguard and governance of 
their estate," are Uie Killinghalls, Wm. Barnes, Edw. Suerties, (Elizabeth Barnes's 
mother-in-law, wife to John Bncke, of Sadberge, gent, who dyed in Uie house of Edward 
Sureties, in Darlington, was buried June 17, 1657, — Edward Sureties, of Darlington, 
Head Row, bur. 1663,) witli numerous neighbouring gentry, such as Ralph Willie, of 
Croft bridge, who had compounded as a delinquent. 

1660. John Cosin, S. T. P. Bishop. 

* In ** Joaks upon Joaks, or no joak like a true joak " are some comical humours of an 
earlier military Ogle. According to this history, John Ogle was '* the younger son of a 
gentleman in Northamptonshire ; his fortune being small, he quickly spent it, but his sis- 
ter, being mistress to the Duke of York, got him into the first troop of guards, under the 
command of the Duke of Monmouth.** Of the tales here related, the following may serve 
as a sample : — ** There bein^r a general muster of life-guards in Hyde Park, and Ogle having 
lost his cloak at play, therefore he borrowed his ladyship's scarlet petticoat ; so, tying it 
up in a bundle, put it behind him, then mounted safe enough, as he thought. So away he 
went, but one of the rank perceiving the border, he gave the Duke of Monmouth some item 
of it, and fell into his rank again. The Duke, smiling to himself, said, *OtrUUmtn^ cloaJe 
aU ' ; which they did, except Ogle, who, stammering and staring, saying, < Cloak all, doak 

aUf what a must we doctkfor f It donH rain* : but not cloaking, the Duke said, *Mr. 

Offle, why donH you obey the word of command f Cloak y air ! ' Said Ogle, * Why, here (ken, 
and peeping his head out of the top of the petticoat, saying, ' / canH doak, but I can peUi- 
coat with the best of you*; which caused great laughter among the whole company." 

In 1696, there was a sale of some property of Wm. Killinghall, esq., probably caused 
primarily by the civil wars. His steward states, that ** Mr. Thomas Ogle bought all Mr. 
Killinghairs moiety of Stainton at 16502., but bajled him out of 251. on account of a gentle- 
wfman Mr- Ogle proposed as a rnatch for Mr. KiUinghaU, which if he had married the 
purchase was to be 16002. onely, but [he] was to pay 16252.** Robert Colling, of Long New- 
ton, who bought Haughton Field, also diddled him out of 10/., ** by reason his money had 
laid ready some time; and Mr. Spoarman calling in his 16002. at this juncture wee were 
glad to comply with him and Mr. Ogle, by reason wee could not raise moneys any other 
way.*' Mr. Robert Hilton, of Stockton, bought a farm, &c. for 5002., and the lawyers were 
all growing fat out of the decaying squirarchy.— Bent Holh, R. If. A . 



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1 +2 RECEPTIOxN OF BISHOP 




iSockbum Church-] 



" It is time to acquaint you with a petty triumph at the river Tees, at my Lords' first 
approach to his County Palatine, which I believe exceeded not only the entries of all the 
present Bishops of England into their Bishopricks, but all Uieir predecessors. My Lord 
having notice that the High Sheriff^, accompanied with the whole of the gentry of the 
county and the militia-horse, expected his approach, took horse a little before his coming 
to the river side. As soone as he came in sight of the banks the trumpetts sounded, and 
the gentry, with the troops of horse, all in one body, judged to be about 1000, moved into 
the midst of the river, where, when my Lord came, the usual ceremony of delivering a 
great drawne faulchion was performed, after which the trumpetts sounded againe, and 
great acclamations of the people followed; which ended, they proceeded in order to Dar- 
lington." — Miles Stapleton. Esq, to Sancroft (afterwards orMp, of CcuOerbufyJ, 1661 

" The confluence and alacritie of the gentry, clergy, and other people, was very great, 
and at my first entrance through the river of Tease, there was scarce any water to be 
scene for the multitude of horse and men that filled it, when the sword that killed the 
dragone was delivered to me with all the formality of trumpets, and gunshots, and 
acclamations that might be made. I am not much affected with such shews; but how- 
ever, the cheerfulness of the county in the I'eception of their Bishop, is a good earnest 
given for better matters, which, by the grace and blessing of Ood, may in good time 
follow them."— C<EMtii to Sancroft, Aug. 22, 1661. 

I do not wish my readers to be "troubled wUh worms,'^ but let me mention that John 
Coniers, chivaler, as early as 1396 held by showing one fawehon, the manor of ** Sock- 
hum, where Conyers, so trusty, a huge serpent did dish up, that had else eat the Bi^'tq>, 
But now his oldfitukhion's grown rusty, grown rusty.'** This formidable weapon consists 
of a huge broad blade, two feet five and a half inches long, fixed in a handle covered 
partly with ash. On the pommel ai-e two shields : — 1, The three lions of England. 2. 



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COSIN AT SOCKBURN. 14;j 

An eagle, displayed. The croes is engraTed with the stiff, crisped foliage of the tliir- 
teenth oentiuy, in which dragons, with long leafy tails, form very prominent features. 
This sword is the title-deed to the estate. On the first entitmce of every new bishop of 
Darham into his diocese, the lord of Sockbnm, meeting him in the middle of Neasham 
ford, or Croft bridge, presents him with the falchion, addressing him with these words : 
— " My lord bishop, I here present you with the falchion wherewith the champion 
Conyers slew the worm, dragon, or fiery flying serpent, which destroyed man, woman, 
and child; in memory of which, the king then reigning, gave him the manor of Sock- 
bum, to hold by this tenure, that, upon the first entrance of every bishop into the 
county, this feJchion should be presented.** The bishop returns it, wishing the lord of 
Sockbum health and long enjoyment of the manor. 

The legendary tale is simply this, as described in Bowes' MSS.: — " In an ould mana- 
scripi which I have sene of the descent of Connyers, there is writ as followeth: Sir John 
Conyers, knight, slew that monstrous and poysonous vemiine or wy veme, and aske or 
werme, which overthrew and devoured many people in fight, fo** that the sent of that 
poison was so strong that no person might abyde it, and by the providence of Almighty 
God this John Connyers, knight, overthrew the said monster and slew it. But, before 
he made this enterprise, having but one sonne, he went to the church of Sockbum in 
compleate armour, and offered up that his onely sonne to the Holy Ohost That place 
where this great serpent laye was called Oraystane; and, as it is written in the same 
manuscript, this John lieth buried in Sockbum church, in complete armour Before the 
Conqueat:'' 

The g^y stone is daly pointed out in a field near the church, as well as a trough, 
where, like the Laidley worm, the worm drank its milk, bathed itself, and returned to 
the river. The effigy is that of a fine knight of the 13th century, contemporary with 
the faulchion, his feet rest on a lion in mortal conflict with a winged loorm or a«t, and 
there b some tradition of the knight being covered with razors, (Lambton-like,) in the 
infernal fight, and that the horrid reptile is buried under the grey stone, 

Barbara Conyers, widow, bur. 18 April, 1591. George Conyers, 16 Nov., 1596. 
William Conyers, of Darlington, gent, 14 Mar. 1666-7. George Conyers, a stranger, 
who d. at Cockerton, 2 April, 1667. Mr. William Conyers, of Elton turnpike, 4 Mar., 
1749-40. Conyers Blenkinsop, of Darlington, weaver, 16 Mar., 1791. Frances, his 
widow, of Cockerton, 14 Mar., 1799, aged 82 years, (maiden name, Richardson, m. 
1763). Catherine Flemming, a stranger, dau. of John F. and Eleanor, his wife, late 
Conyers, aged 1 year, 17 May, 1809. Conyers s. Conyers Blenkinsop, of Cockerton, 
weaver, bp, 1782. Wm. Conyers Smith, flaxdresser, and Mary Robson, spinster, both 
of this parish, m. 1807. David Conyers Bui-ton, witness to a marriage, 1779. Par,Reg, 

The Sockbum family held a burgage in Mathergai-thes here, at the commencement of 
the 17th century. Rich. Conyers, gent, a freeholder, 1710. Thomas Conyers, of Oxan 
Feild House, bought a messuage in Tubwell Row, 1687. 

Barbara Kennet, dau. Wm. Kennet, of Sockbum, knt., bur. 24 Jan., 1617-18. Sir 
William, who was of Sellendge, Kent, m, 2ndly, Catherine, dau. Sir John Conyers, and 
had a dau., Dorothy, bap. 1618, at Sockbum. The Darlington entry probably refers to 
a child by his former wife, Barbara Egleston, of Essex. The Kennetts, from the Plan- 
tagenet to Stuart, were " dancers, tilters, and very ancient courtiers." 

Cosin restored the Bishops' manor house at Darlington from a state of 
ccHnplete dilapidation. Here is an accomit for part of the work. 

Aprill 18th, 1668. Collected an assessment by order of a bye law of Z$, Gd. per Oxgan 
of all the towneland^ of Bondgate in Darlington for paying for the leading of slates, 

* 1647* Mem. By custom we find that the tenants of that copyhold land which is called 
Town-land, are to carry and lead to the manor-house of Darlington, for the use of the 



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144 REPARATION OF THE 

stones, timber, and biick, for the bushop's hall and the toll-bootli, which said assessment 
amounted unto 6L 178, iOd. 33 oxgan : 3 foote and a half, as apperes at large per this 
booke. * 

£ s. d. 
Paied, to Mr. Lamb 349., for what the neighbourhood of Bondgate 
did want, and fall short of ther proportion of draughts as to the 

aforesaid worke, I say 1 14 

Pd. to John LongstafF, IO9., for leading 3 load of slates, for the 
bushop's hall, from Engleton, and hehad all the sallery besides, 
which was dew to us, as ^^d, per myle: flackett and wallett 
fdled : and diners which we accompt as good as As. 4d* every 

load or draught, I say pd. him in money ^ 10 O 

Pd. to Tho. Emerson, for leading 2 load of slates from Engleton... 6 8 

Pd. to Antho. Elgy, for leading 3 load slaies from Engleton 10 

More for 3 voages t to Sedburge, for stones, and once to Brankin 

Moore, for brick, for bushop*8 hall ^ 6^ 8 

Pd'. the like sum to Chr. Hodgson, for the same worke 16 8 

lord of the manor, wood, lime, and stone, not exceeding a tunnweight, in a wain, for this 
repair of the toll-booth of the Burrough of Darlington, and for the mills and bake-house in 
Darlington; and the tenants are to liave 2^d. a mile, not exceeding 7 miles from the manor- 
house, nor going out of the county; and they are to have drink in their flasketo, meat in 
their wallets, and their dinner when they come home Witnesses, George Bowbenk, tat, 
57; Ra. Collin, set. 60; Robert Branson, »t. 60; William Maine, sM. 66; William Helcott, 
set 60. — Halmot Court Books, DarlingUm Manor* 

A verdict of the Jurors of Blackwell, Cockerton, and Boundgate in Darlington, this 
seventh of October, 1667* Given unto Samnell Davison, esq. stuart of the Halmot Court, 
houlden the day and yeare albresaid. First. Whereas ther was a retume made in the 
Halmot Court, houlden at Darlington, the 23rd of Aprill, 1633, the Coppihoulders was to 
have but 2d, a mile for the leading of wood, stone, and lime, we doe fiud it an absalute 
mistake in the Clarke that then was and we have proved it by som of the J'urora of that 
saide Jury and other witnessis, viz. John Sober, George Garnet, and Thomas Rowter, who 
was sworne that 2^d, a mile is the custommarie due for everie draught, which was alwayes 
paid or ought to be paid time out of miend; and that they are to have meat in ther wallets, 
beare in ther flackits, and dinners at ther retume; and that they are not te exceed or goe 
above seaven miles from the Manner house nor out of the County. Witnes, Thomas Dob- 
son, greeve [of BlackwellJ; jurors, George Gamett, Willm. Comefourth, Guth. Comfourth, 
Willm. Midleton : John Lodge, greeve [of Cockerton] ; jurors, John Dennis, l^rancis Biakey, 
Mathew Thomp<«on, Edward Robinson: Willm. Priscott, greeve [of Bondgate] ; jurors, Jo< 
Marshall, Rob. Nickleson, Rob. Corson, Ralph Collin. Bondgate Book. 

In 1799, some accident having happened to the Tollbootli, the lessee of the Tolls, J. 
Wetherell, esq. of Field House, near Darlington, conceived he had a call on the Copyholders 
for repairs, and consulted Allan. The antiquary answered, that in Boldon Buke and Hat- 
field's survey no such service appeared, but that about 1662 and at some subsequent periods, 
he believed the lessee had claimed assistance, and accordingly inquests were taken at the 
Halmot Courts to the effect above stated, but that no evidence could be found of the per- 
formance of the custom, and that his father, though receiver of the tolls, never claimed itt 
in fact with the other copyholders, absolutely refused assistance to both Tollbooth and 
Mills. After hinting that by innovations, perversions, and unwarrantable exactions the 
lessees of both had forfeited any claim, Allan sensibly observes that were he lessee, he 
would neither fill the flacketts nor wallets of the copyholders, nor regale them with a good 
dinner, which would be far more expence than hiring workmen. The correspondence, 
owing to a report that he was assisting the lessee, was printed by Allan at the Grange press, 
and circulated among the copyholders. 

* Referring to a list of the various owners. The tcni^ne ^oiuf is there stated to be liable to 
repair the Tolbooth, Hall, and Mills. There occurs also a rental of the HaUAand & oxgang» 
The book is the Bondgate book of remembrance. 

t Voyages, joumies. Still used : *^ We're ganging for a vage o' staanes^" 



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MANOR-HOUSE BY COSIN. 145 

£ s. d. 

Pd. to Rob. Sober, for leading 2 load slatee from Engleton* 6 8 

More for 2 voages to Sedburge, and one for sand 3 7 

Pd. to Mr. Daniell Gill, for Fetum farme rent for 3 yeres gon 7 6 

Vd,/ar repaireing the church garth wall, which belongs to the copi- 

hculders acfjc^fneing on kufy Hrk gtile well 16 5 

Pd. when we agreed with Mr. Lamb, as the rest of Greeves did ... 8 

Soe this accompt is right ballanced 5/. i7s. lOd. 

p. me, Wm. Friscott, G reeve. 

Bishop Cosin was not fortunate, the character of one of his daughters, 
Lady Burton, was marked at least with leTity. He speaks of a rogueing 
letter which he had from Mr. Jo. Blakiston, (with whom he had more causes 
of quarrel than one,) boasting and triumphing of having ruined his daughter 
Burton in an ale-house in Westmoreland. His only surviving son, John, 
whom he solemnly laments in his last will as his lost a/nd only son John 
Cosin, twice forsook the Protestant religion, having been perverted by the 
Jesuits and at last took orders in the church of Rome. He, in fact, left 
England under his maternal name of (Christopher) Blctkistotiyf and pro- 
fessed himself in a convent at Paris.| No threats or in treaties could per- 
suade him to return, and his subsequent history is unknown. 

Mr. Neile (nndersheriff, and grandson of the bishop of that name) writes to Mr. 
Stapylton, in 1661-2, from London: — " I have several times bin with Mr. Cosens, he 
complains mach of all the diskindnes of his father, and hath as fresh in his memory all 
the little petty things and the great ones betweene his sister and him, with all the cir- 
cinnstances of my Lord's taken his part, and is so full of that that he never talks of 
religion but only if it be put to him what religion he is of, as t have severall times done, 
Ui€fi religion comes in at the tayle of all. There is noe body knows how to begin to 
worke upon anything, he is of the old hamonr, so violent and so passionate. This day 
Mr. Sandcroft was with him, bat no hopes of anything, both for his passion and because 

he talks of going far beyond seas on Thursday at the farthest The Papists here 

allow him not a farthing; saith he hath lived ever since he came out of the north of 
what he brought with him,** && — It appears that this obstinate, and, possibly, weak 
young man, refused the bishop's very moderate and proper offer to him, to maintain him, 
m ease he would go and live privately with his brother-in-law^ Charles Gerard, } in the 

* Slates are not procured at Ingleton, and such entries probably mean then it was the 
depdt for the materials brought from Shipley and other places, above Barnard-castle. 

t The bishop's wife was Frances, dau. of Marmaduke Blakiston, prebendary, of Newton 
Hall, younger son of John Blakiston, of Blakiston, near Norton. Curiously enough the 
lady's brother was John Blakiston the regicide- 

t Cosin had been deemed a papist himself while prebendary of Durham, the puritans 
mapping at some *' cozening devotions" with a leiod title page having I.HS., &c., on it, and 
the turbulent Peter Smart carping at every decent ceremonial in the cathedral, and preser- 
vation of ancient art. 

§ Charles Gerrard, esq., (brother to Sir Gilbert) married Frances, 3rd dau. of Cosiu. He 
was the bishop's housekeeper of Darlington and bailiff of Gotham Mundeval. John s, 
Charles Gerard, [GarraU erased} gentellman, bap. 1662-3, [hv. 1671, d, before 1673, s.p.] ; 
Ratlifedo. 1664 [</. before 1673] ; Charles s. Charles Gerrard, esq., of Darlington, 1665, [bur. 
1666] ; (In 1673 Vere Gerard was sole child and heiress of the elder Charles); Charles 
(Gerard, esq., bur. 15 April, 1665.— Par. Beg. 

V 



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14() BISHOP COSIN. 

biihop's manor-house at Darlington, *' till his mind be satisfied;'^ ^' but I never see man 
(adds Mr. Neile) so madd as Mr. Cosens when he was told it, swearing the Inqtddtion 
would not he so ill as that, and death itself e as pood." Mr. Neile concludes a very long 
letter by some directions to Mr Stapylton how to send Mr. Cosens some clotbw and 
immediate necessaries, ^* which he believes my lord will wink Ht, though be will shew 
him no countenance openly." 

A few days after Mr. Neile writes that Mr. Cosin's journey ended " by com'ande from 
head and M. B. there, upon some report or other, for the present only to a more retyred 
lyfe here: he (Mr. CJosin) sayth he here his man takes upon him to weare his clothes, w* 
he thinkes, if may speake any thing, is to bould a tricke." In a subsequent letter M. B. 
is explained to be the head of a college abroad, of w^ Mr Cosens had become a member, 
and whose orders he was bound to obey, to cross the seas and repair to head qiiarters 
when required. Mr. Cosin is afterwards represented as receiving small sums, sometimes 
with, and sometimes without the bishop's connivance, from his friends and relatives, and 
chiefly from his sister. Lady Gerrard.* 

Darlington, July 29^A, 1662. — Sir, — I am come as £arr as this place to meet the judge, 
who lay last night at Allerton, but is not comeyett. We are prepared to entertaine him 

nobly at Durham Castle. Pray will you go to the Woolsacke in the Ponltre near 

the Compter, Mr Turford*s shop, and there buy a gallon of his best oyle, and barrel of 
his Luca olives, if he has any fresh and very good come in: buy them in the same long and 
slender barrills they came in, and tell him the last oyle I had of him was none of his 
best. You may please to pay him out of my lord's money, and account it with me. If 
you can find any large good damaske prunes, which are not easily got, we want some 
for my lord, which pray gett for him. These things you may send any day fit)m Bil- 
lingsgate to Newcastle. Direct them to Mr. Jo. Blakiston's, at his house in Pilgrim- 
street, hut not toume-clerke. Sir Jo. Marley giving him 300A for it, to conclude all dis- 
putes, who intendes it for his sonne. Sam. Davisonf says, his brother Cosin shall not 

* Mary, Cosin's eldest daughter, married Sir Gilbert Gerard, knt and bart of Fiskerton, 
CO. Line; Sheriff of Durham, 1660; Constable of Durham castle, and M.P. for Northallerton, 
1678-9-80. He entailed the title on his issue by Mary (she being his second wife). He was 
son of Ratcliff Gerard, nephew to the Lord Gerard of Gerards Bromley, and, by Mary Cosin, 
had issue, Gilbert, aged 4, 1666, (2nd baronet; he had no issue, and the title became 
extinct, called OHheri Cosine Oerard); % Samuel ag. 2. (The bishop conveyed, in 1668, 
to his dau. Dame Mary, wife of Sir Gilbert Gerard, the manor of Great Cliilton for her 
separate use. In 1697, Dame Elizabeth Gerard, relict and devisee of Sir Samuel Grerard, 
knt, of Brafferton, co. York, [who d, 1695,] and Thomas Owen alienated it) 3. Geoige, 
6. after 1671, mentioned by his brother Samuel in 1695; and two daughters, Charlotte and 
Mary, living 1671* Lady Gerrard re-married Mr Bassett, who became entitled to most of 
the bishop's estate, and, /or preventing disputes, burnt eight or nine large chests of episcopal 
records, including the most ancient evidences of the see, at Helperby. 

See in Pepys's correspondeuce, the lachrymose narration of Sir Sam. Morland in 1687, 
how, while ** almost distracted for want of moneys," he was induced by a person whom he 
had relieved when starving, to marry ** a very vertuons, pious, and sweet dispositioned 
lady, and an heiress who had 500/. per ann. in land of inheritance, and 4000^ in ready 
money, &&, &c.f' how he ** really believed it a blessing from Heaven for his charity to 
that person f* how she immediately turned out to be '* a coachman's daughter, not worth 
a shilling, and one who, about nine months since, was brought to bed of a bastard ; how, 
with great difficulty, he got a sentence of divorce; how •'Sir Gilbert (Serrard who had 
Kept her ever since Christmas last and still kept her, and had hitherto fed lawyers to sup- 
port her ui^just cause, proceeded to get a certain proctor to enter an appeal against the 
sentence;" and how he asked sneaking Pepys to **move the king to speak one word to my 
Lord Chancellor** to put an end to his troubles. 

Seal of Sir GUbeH Oerard in 1675. Quarterly, 1 and 4 [Arg.] a saltire, [gules] (a cres- 
cent for difference); 2 and 3 [azure] a lion rampant [ermine] ducally crowned [or], in the 
centre the bloody hand of the baronetage. Crest. A lion passant. 

t Steward of the Halmot Court, and the third of Lady Burton's four husbands. 



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BISHOP COSIN. 147 

want I have a great minde to send his trnncke with his clothes, if you know whither I 
may direct it. If yon see him, my service to him: tell him if he will but go to church 
with us, and doe as others doe amongst them, he may goe to heaven in good company 
without borrowing the keyes of the gates at Rome. My service to your wife. Your 
affectionatt, humble sefvantt, Edw. Ardek. — For his hon1)le friend Mr. MylesStapylton, 
at Mr. Hinde's house in the new buildings in Lothbury. 

" We go, on Saterday, to Sunderland, my lord lies at Etterick's: [Walter Ettrick's, 
esq., first collector of customs at Sunderland, appointed by Government:] he preaches at 
Bpp. Wearmouth on Monday, he dines at Sir Tho. Davison^s, and sees Stockton, and 
retumes to lie at Sir Tho. and next day to Darlington and so home.*' — Mr. Ardm to 
Mr. Stapylton, 9 Oct., 1662. 

Cosin writes to Mr. Stapylton, 1667-8. Mar. 19. I reed, the draught of the lease for 
Bedboume parke, &c. — You have mentioned my daughter, not as the relict of Charies 
Gerrard, but as the wife of T[homas] Bflakiston]* which I have not yet acknowledged, 
nor was it ever made knowne to mee that they were legally married and whensoever it 
shall be so made knowne I must professe beforehand that I am eztreamly displeased 
with it, for I was most treacherously used above and for my part shall never owne it. 

London, April I9th, 1670. To Mr. StapyUon.i If T. B. doth not purchase the 
moiety for one life from Comefoorth at Darlington mills, hee is an ill manager of his 
business.^ If he doth purchase it I will be content to renew it in three lines for nothing 

* Thomas Blakiston, gent, sometime of Darlington, and 'bailiiT of that town in 1669, 
afterwards of Durham, married Frances, widow of Sir Charles Oerard, i;nt, (see Surtees,— 
but called e9q<^ only in his burial reg.) as above. She was buried in 1668-9, Mar. 10, at Dar- 
lington, as his wife. He died in 1710, and was buried in the cathedral, his only daughter 
Frances (bap. here in 1667), having died under age. George Goundrey to Thomas Blakiston, 
the office of the pnnder of Darlington, 1 660. (ffaimot Bhs. ) He was son of Henry Blaki- 
ston of the Gibside family, and had a cousin Roger, who, I suppose, was identical with 
Roger Blackeeton, of Black well, gent., whose dau. Elizabeth was bap. 1661-2. An Blaik- 
itone, of Blackwell, widow, bur. 1687* Thomas's great uncle, was Hckht Blakistok, of 
Archdeacon Newton, gent, who m. Mary, d. of Henry Tonge, of Thickley and Denton, esq., 
in 1608-9. In those good old times when daughters stooped to the wisdom of their mothers 
most dutifully, we almost invariably find the bride at the house of her parent at her first 
maternal experience, accordingly, in 1609-10, Mary Blaxton, the d. of Henry, was chris- 
tened at Denton, her step-grandmother Tongue and Ralph and Elizabeth Blaxston being 
sponsors; she m. Stephen Thompson, of Humbleton, co. York, in 1628^ The succeeding 
children were Sir William Blakistov, of Archdeacon Newton, bp. 1613: (a distinguished 
loyalist, colonel in the service of Chas. I., knighted at Oxford, 1643, desperately woimded 
in the attack on Masseys quarters, Sep., 1644, administered to his father 1665; who m. 
Uaiy, d. of Sir Rich. Egerton, of Ridley, Chesh. bur. 1665 here, and had a dan. Mart, bap. 
1631-2): Henry, bap. 1619-20, bur. at Heighington, 1623 : Ralph, bap. with his twin brother 
Henry, and bur. 1619, at Heighington. according to Surtees, but entered in the Darlington 
register: and Penelope, bur. at Heighington, 1617. 

Henry, of course, accompanied his wife to Denton, j>ro tem. and resided there in 9 Jas. 
when William Morton, archdeacon of Durham, leased his manor of Archdeacon Newton to 
Thomas Liddell of Newcastle, merchant; Henry Blakiston of Denton, gent; and Anthony 
Byerley of Pycall, oo. York, gent; rent, 21^ In 17 Jas. he again leased it to Ralph Blaki- 
ston of Oibeide, esq., (created baronet in 1642, and nephew to Henry) for the lives of 
Henry's children, William and Mary, and Thomas Liddell of Newcastle, merchant. 
Henry's aunt Ann m. Greorge Lumley of Axwell houses, and we find that John Lumley, her 
grandson, d- at Archdeacon Newton leaving his cousin Henry Blakiston, his sole executor, 
who acquired from his uncle William of Gibside, his ** oolemynes opened and not opened in 
the Snype, for 21 years,** and 602. and died in 1665, having apparently married a second wife 
Jane , bur. 1659. 

t From the original letter in the collections of the late J. Brough Taylor, esq.— The 
correspondence is gleaned from the extracts given by Surtees. 

X I do not think that the nogociation prospered, as John Ck>mforth, of Blackwell, gent., 
(see Crariths) devises his moiety to his nephew Whajrre Fawcett. 



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148 LADY JARRATT. 

upon condition thai if his daughter dyes that fine (which is worth 100^. or 80/. at least) 
shall he given to Fanny Hutton* or her mother. As for the other moiety it is allready 
settled upon Mr Charles Gerard's children who must likewise haue the leaze renewed 
gratb: hut you say nothing of all the goods which my daughter left in the house and 
itie half-yeere*s rent at Bedhoume parke and other places which f think belonged to her 
children by Mr. Charles Gerard more than to her pretended new husband Mr. T. 6. and 
his interloping daughter.t If he cannot agree with Comefoorth to buy him out at his 
his owne diarges for the benefit of this his daughter, I pray set your mind upon't and 
try what you and Mr. Kirby can doe to agree with him and buy out that one life which 
is lost that all the lease and the three liues may be renewed to Mr Charles Gerard's 
children for whom there is but a sorry provision hitherto made, — Jo. Durbsmb. 

1670. Jan. 31. " You tell me Mr. MathewJ is the DarlingUm^ and that you thought 
you had said so in your former letter, which, if you had, I should not have understood 
you no more than I doe now ; nothing being added to the word DarUngton, though I 
may guess at it, that you meaned IktrlitiffUm Steward, but it seems you let your penne 
run too fast." 

Cosin died in 1671-2, having left by will 51, to the poor of Darlington. 

The Crerrards or Jarratts would be left in a very incomplete state were I 
not to glance at the unearthly tread of Lady Jarratt, who still inhabits the 
old Manor House. It would be unpardonable to omit the veracious oral 
chronicles of her being murdered by some soldiery, and her leaving on a wall 
a ghastly impression of thumb and fingers in blood for ever, and far be it 
from me to attempt to philosophize on the fact that no scouring or white- 
washing could ever eradicate it. Yes, there were crimson spots on both wall 
and floor. And though workhouse arrangements have caused their destruc- 
tion, poor Lady Jarratt's fate is still remembered. She has but one arm, for 
the other was cut and carried off by the ruthless warriors, that they might 
obtain a valuable ring thereon. Like the Silkies and cauld lads of the north, 
her ideas are composed of mischief and benevolence in equal proportion& 
Her grand sanctum is a supposed subterranean passage leading from the 
mansion to the church, which has been (oredat Judosus Apella !) sometimes 
discovered but never dared to be explored, yet she is fond of perambulating 
in the midnight chill and the golden sunrise. She sits on the boundary wall 
and terrifies children on their road to toil on the opposite side of the stream 
at the factory which she mortally hates, making a house near it perfectly 
untenantable. Her musical tastes are not very refined, she jingles the pans 
of the establishment, and rattles the old pump handle wLen it is locked with 
great assiduity. These pranks accompany a very undesirable liking for 
maidens' bedsides, when '^ the bedclothes from the bed pulls she, and lays 
them naked all to view ; twixt sleepe and wake, she does them take, and on 
the key-cold floor them throw;" and generally are perpetrated before births 
and deaths in the workhouse community. On these occasions she relents, 

* The daughter of Lady Hutton, by her first husband Henry Burton, of the Goulda* 
brough family. She married Cuthbert Sisson, apothecary. 

+ His daughter Frances, bap. in 1667. 
X Richard Mathew, gen., occurs as steward of the borough in 1669. 



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THE GLOVERS. 149 

and makes coffee for the sick, and in all her various appearances and offices 
within doors invariably makes a mstle-me-tustle with her stiff silk dress, but 
in the town she sinks into the very numerous community of white rabbits 
scampering about the market place in most gallant style. In &ct she is 
Bobin Goodfellow under another name. One thing more must be remem- 
bered, an old pair of spectacles tossing about the house in a mahogany case, 
are most stoutly affirmed by the master (rather fond of a joke, by the way) 
to be her Ladyship'a In truth, they are rather extraordinary, being large 
goggle glasses set in a leather frame, which has no legs, but is fixed by squeez- 
ing the nose, being elastic and capable of distention. The case seems modem. 

Lady Janratt is not the only Darlington sprite associated wiUi coffee. A house in 
Tnbwell Row used to be sorely infested by one who kept grinding away at a coffee mlD 
continually. Its operations were at last traced to a wonderful door, the slightest opening 
of which hushed the noise, as it does in many a house besides. To show the public 
fervor for such superstitions, a large dog was once lying in the passage adjoining, from 
which a lad was most desperately ,/2ci^m{ by seeing a ghost like a white calf with e^es as 
biff as saucers. 

1665. Aug. 12. John Glover, of Darlington, vintner, executes a bond for 
40i to Charles II. conditioned for paying to his Royal Highness James Duke 
of York lOi on Mar. 25 next, and other 10^ on Sep. 29 following. The 
money was paid, and the bond rests among muniments relating to a burgage 
on the High Row bought by Peter Glover, pos^maister, 3 Jas. I. of Toby 
and Henry Oswold. 

The Glovers were one of the oldest families here, occurring as tanning skins in Skin- 
nergate, and doubtless once made gloves in Glover's Wiend, where their property lay. 

In 1615, the heralds disclaimed the coat* of Oswald Glover of Dameton, as a gentle- 
man. His father was Christofer Glover, gaoler of Durham, under Tobie Mathew. 
Christofer built a house in Owengate, and died in Claypath, in Henry Wandles* house. 
His successor, in 1613, was Nic. Hodshon, dietus Makeshift ; the next gaoler, Tho. 
Sonkey, built a house called Sonkey^s Folfy. This man's widow was ffaolotrix till 1632, 
his daughter married Samuel Martin, clerk, dicttu Baggs: John Peacock succeeded in 
1632, his widow was also gaoloresSy and remarried John Joplin, gaolor,^f*f uxoriSy and 
who was hanged at York 1674-5. These from Mickleton, a goodly company truly. 
Christopher had the honour of holding the safe custody of the Lady Katherine Grey, one 
of Westmoreland's daughters, which buxom widow had been judged i for too great 
familiarities with a seminary priest, with the flesh mark in his face. She was to be kept 
forthcoming in his private house. Whether in this office of 1599 she corrupted him, I 
will not say, but one thino: I know, that Christopher Glover, of Durham, caused Agnes 
Branson to be judged at Darlington, in 1605.J: So much for the gaoler, now for the 
postmaster. 

* John Glover, the postmaster of 1561, and his son seal bonds with ** Ermine, a chief, 
charged with a label of fiye points." 

t Censured in reputation. << Judge not, lest ye be judged." 

X Branson House, the property of Wm. Bewick, esq., in Cockerton road, stands on the 
<M estate of her family. Little Isabella, nolhay died an inftint. Robert Tailboie, of Thorn- 
ton Hall, who died a prisoner in Durham Gaol, leaves ''to Chrietopher Olover, my keeper, 
for ray dyet in the gaole and for my other expences, after the rate of 10*. weekly since the 
sixth day of Februari, 1603 ; to my brother John Barnes, (he had married Bp. Barnes's 



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150 THE GLOVERS. 

^'John Olover, master of this ho'^ and postmaster of Damton,** attests William 
Williamson, of Bushopaucland, gent's setting over to Peter Glover, tanner, of the ward- 
ship marriage and custody of the body and estate of G«orge Marshall, son of a dead 
tanner, in 1591; and in 1596, George Bainbrigge, of Dameton, gent, conveys hhpoO- 
shippe of Dameton to Peter, (son of John 7) 

In 1619, Toby Oswoldt of Barmeston, co. Durham, gen., dolefully petitions ^' Sir 
Francis Venilam, the Lo: chancelor,*' against Peter. In 42 Eli2. he had possessed 1 cub- 
bord with 3 great puter chargers 6/. ; 1 counter or cubbord with a fourme40». ; 1 long table, 
with a long-setUe and a fourme 309. ; 1 other lesser seate 6f . Sd. ; certain iron barrs and crakes 
lOf.; 1 standing bed steed 40».; 1 long wrought table with a settle 40».; 1 other standing 
bedd steed 20f.; 1 other bed steed 3/.; 1 beafeledd4/.;lcawell withatable40ff.;l6fiidale8 
20f.; total 25/. 69. 8(1., in his burgage at Dameton. In 17 Ellz., he had let the box^gage to 
Glover, '' and your orater being then a young man, and being unwilling to sell tiie 
goods aforesaid,'* had allowed Glover the use of them till he should demand the 
same, and accordingly Glover received them as they stood in the hall, parior, chamber 
over the hall, chamber over the mell doores, the little house behind the shopp, the kitchen, 
the loft, and the oxhouse, in the said burgage. After this Oswold sold the burgage to 
Glover, about 8 years before his petition, and demanded the goods or their value. But 
he, " not meaning nor intending to deale soe frindly and kindly with your orator as he 
deserved,'* refused to do so, and detained the goods, to the damage of 30/. to the orator. 
The latter then prays that 'as many of the witnesses were ''old and decrepit," or did 
'^ remaine in remote severall places farre from the county of Durham,*' and could not 
conveniently be brought to any one place to give testimony by a tryall at the conmion 
law, and as he was persuaded that hee, the said Peter Glover, being a plaine dealing 
man, will truly confesse the receyving, &c.," the Lord Chancellor would issue a writt of 
subpoena, commanding Glover to answer the petition. An order was directed to John 
LiBle,^ James Todd, Tymothy Barnes, and Robert Ward, gents., to appoint a day 
to receive defendant's answer. 

dau. Eliz.) for my wyfe*8 dyet for three years at 3W. yearly,*' Proved, 1606. — Helen 
Tailbusse bur. 1591.— Elizabeth Tailbus, bur. 1597 (in the plague, she was, I fancy, the 
widow of the unfortunate Thomas Norton, sen., who re-married Anthony Taylboya). 
Margaret Tailbois, of Darlington, widow, bur. 1607^— Par. Rtg, 

Thornton Hall, on the road to Staindrop, is an interesting relic of the Tailbois family. It 
has much altered by the Sidvin and Bowes races, but much of the projection, towards the 
road, is Perpendicular Gothic, being ornamented with right ugly nondescript animals near 
the top. In the upper story of this par tis a fine Jacobean ceiling with the arms and crest of 
Tailbois, and the devices of an anchor; fleur-de-lis, and escallop, in the pannelling* A still 
finer and older one is on the ground fioor, intersected with beams carved with elaborate 
late Gothic tracery, and adorned with ciphers on the bosses and half way along the beams. 
The roof is evidently shortened, but the part remaining contains ciphers disposed as 
follows: — 

RVIdAl rRAIFAlNDIANJ 

E iVI BJ '^ IE TALBOIS W-'^' 
evidently pointing out Raife Talboys, who m. 2. Jane Bertram, and d* 1591, as its con- 
structor. 

* The place where deeds are executed, is frequently set forth at that time. What would 
a modem lawyer say to such an attestation as that on a deed which '^ was sealed in the 
shoope of Francis OswoIde,betweene the howres of ix.and x. of the clock before noon,xy}. 
day of Februry, 1571. !*' Glovers bouse was no doubt the later Post-house or Talbot Inn. 

t 31 Eliz.; Francis Oswald settled the (Greets on the marriage of his son John with Eliz. 
Glover.— John Oswald, a disclaimer, 1615.— 1621-2, Cuthbert Smith and Elizabeth Oswold 
clandestinely married in the night, at Sedberge.— Par Reg, 18 Jas. I., presented that Ra. 
Nicholson prevented Rob. Oswold from placing his 'ladder, to mend said Roberta house. 
Ordered that he be allowed to let him do so^ Halmot Bh&. The Oswolds migrated to 
Coniscliffe. 

X A lawyer, of Durham city, who sported a lion rampant on his seal the arms of De 



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THE GLOVERS. 151 

Peter the ' poitmaister, by will, Apr. 90, 1625, as a *' yeoman, not sick in bodie, bat 
partfy infirme," leares to his daughters, Jane, as yet unadvanced in marriage, 100/., to 
be paid in 1} year after her marriage; Margaret, (in the same predicament, she after- 
wards married John Middleton), 100/., and Dorathie 100/., to be paid her on the day of 
her marriage. This contingency happened yery soon, as soon indeed as Peter became 
fuHy in£rm, as appears from the two extraordinary entries, joining each other in the 
register. " 1626, May 11, Charles Husband, [a lawyer, who wrote an exquisite hand,] 
and Dorothy Oloyer, married by licence. — 12, Peter Glover, father of the said Dorothy, 
of Darlington, buried."— (Did the excitement kill the old man ?) — He leayes " to the 
poore people of the parish of Darlington, to be distributed at the church door 41. — ^John 
Glover my son and heire, executor — ^my righte trustie, and dear beloved brother-in-law, 
John Ketlewell, and Jasper KetleweU, supervisors; to either of them a Jacobus peece 
of gold, as a token and pledge of my love and last farewell, referringe every ambiguity 
(if any shall arise) in this my will, to be expounded construed and explained by my 
supervisors." 

John «i. Eliz. Stainsby, and had a son John, who was postmaster in 1651. He had 
male issue, John, vintner, (who was bound as in the text,) Peter, a clothmaker, 
of Holtbeck, co. York, Cuthbert a hotpresser, of London, and Benjamin, a mariner, 
of Newcastle. They sold the High Row property, ( bounded on the South by 
Chair^;ate or Glover's Weand, and long after the poHtbouse*), to Robert Clifton, a 
Sadler, of Clifie, in 1681. The fixtures were in '^ the little chamber, the lad's chamber, 
Rob. Shippard's chamber, Elizabeth Harrison's chamber, the lord's chamber, the parlor, 
the haD or forehouse, the battery, " and included all things in the stables except ^' Nyne 
fj&rdailes in the farr stable." 

1669. " For lousing na from good behavor, 14a 4d," Par. Bk$. The 
town had been bound over to ite good behaviour, and was loused fxom the 
recognizance. 

I throw together one or two more items. — 1685. Paid at the visitation, for the pro- 
damation concerning the rebells, prayer bookee and court fees, Is. Gd, [Monmouth's 
Rebellion.] 1770. To Mary the daughter [of] Haward, a solgar, to cloth hir for sarvis, 
lOt . — 1798. Calling a meeting on government account, 1*. 6rf. — 1800. Postage of a 
fist of armoriall bearings pasting up at church, \8, O^d, 

1674. The Hon. Nathaniel Crewe, Bishop. He afterwards became 
Lord Crewe of Stene, co. Northamp., and was a man made of courtly meanness, 
but Cretc^i charity throws a veil over all. I have been told that he was the 
last bishop who resided at Darlington Manor House. 

1677. In a return of Blackwell lands " at the full rack according to a warrant to us 
directed for the same purpose, and for raising the summe of 584,978/. 2#. ^d. according 

Insula. He occurs as bailiff of our borough court from 1606 to 1 622 when he died, and was 
once sned therein by the grassmen for hirdwage on Brankin moor, 1«^ buys of the daughters 
of John Pape, deceased, in 1606, Pkhcdl, two closes between Yarm lane and Turner's 
close, sometime of Wm. Pudsey, of Barford, esq., seUs Huntington*8 Close to Thomas 
Barnes, in 1618.— Barbaria Lisle, widow of Darlington, bur. 1630. 

* Sold by Hen. Burdon, inholder, in 1 567 to Francis Oswold, merchant* The sign of a talbot 
springs forth in metal, and one windy day, the tongue being corroded flew off. Whereupon 
it passed into a popular joke that the wind was once so strong at Darlington that it blew a 
dog's tongue out- 1 have not mentioned this inn in p. 126, as the sign does not occur at the 
time there aUuded to. It, however, was evidently the Posthouse from the )6th century 
downwards. 



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152 THE BRASS MURDERS. 

to act of parliament, for the speedy building of 30 ships of warre/* Mr. Tobyas Ewbanck 
occurs as chief owner, rent 105/. 

1678. Nov. 21. " Laid on a sesse of 9d, per oxgang at Blackwell, for the Trainband 
going to Durham. From other entries 1 find that the trainbands used to assemble at 
Bellasse Head and Hunwick Edge. The word militia first occurs in 1687, and is called 
MallUia in 1691 in the Blackwell books. 

1679. Blackwell township paid 6f . for the chmrge of leading one load of lime to the 
Old HaU; and 4f . towards the repairing of the ToUbooth staires; and in 1680, for leading 
slates and lime to the same buildings^ 8s. per load. 

1682-3. Jan. A company of troopers passing from Darlington to Durham 
are said to have assisted Mr. Brass to seize the probably insane Andrew 
Mills who as is well known, on Brass and bis wife's absence on a Christmas 
visit murdered their three children at their residence near FerryhilL 

Tradition adds that the wretch's intention as to the youngest child was half frustrated 
by her entreaties and promises of bread, butter, and sugar, and some toys, but that in 
going of the room he met in the passage a hideous creature like a fierce wolf with red 
fiery eyes, its two legs were like those of a stag, its body resembled an eagle, and was 
supplied with two enormous wings; this apparition addressed Mills with a most un- 
christian croak, in the words 

00 badt, tl^ott l^atfful l»md), rei^ume t^jf cuxHtti &nife, 
< Inns tn bteb) more blootJ, if wet not tf)e poung ont'i life. 

And the injunction was obeyed. It is said also that the old Brasses on their return 
heard the most dreadful bowlings of dogs and screechings of owls, the horse bolted conti- 
nually, and at last, at the place where Andrew Mills's stob afterwards stood, would not 
move a peg more. Andrew sprung from a thicket, and on enquiry told his horrid deed. 
The mother fell to the groimd, and the troopers who were passing at the time helped 
to secure the murderer. Mary was conveyed to a place of safety, Dobbing again went 
on, and the hapless father arrived at his bloody homot There is s further supernatural 
story of Andrew's living several days on the stob or gallows from whence his agonised 
cries were heard for miles round; and of the people of Ferry Hill and the adjacent ham- 
lets actually deserting their dwellings till life had departed from the poor wretch. A 
beautiful tale connects this surviving with the tenderness of a peasant girl beloved by 
Mills, who brought him milk every day, and fed him through the iron cage in which 
his tortured limbs wei'e bound. He had persisted in his confession, that he had acted on 
the immediate suggestion of the devil who hid Idm kill all I kill oil! The eldest giri 
struggled with him for some time, and he did not murder her till he had broken her 
arm, which she had placed as a bolt to secure the door of the inner chamber, where the 
younger children were sleeping. Children is not perhaps a proper expression, ^although 
used on their tomb, since the daughter who was about to be married was aged 20, the 
son 18, and the youngest daughter 11. Mills was 18 or 19. The stob was cut to pieces 
for charms. 

1684. To Mr. Bell, with a letter from London with the names of the 
Royal family, 6rf. — Par. Bks, This is a curious item ; for it shows that the 
mercuries, diumals, and intelligencers of the day, were not deemed sufficient 
for satisfactorily advertising public events to the minister and people. 

1686-7. Charges for carts and can*iages with baggage to Allerton and Auckland 
occur in the Blackwell books. 



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THORESBys VISIT. ir>3 

1688, July. "Articles to come U. 8rf. Tarr barrell is, 6d. For new lock and stock 
i0a.2d. BlaekweU Boots. 

1688-9. 3 red coats for the tnunl>and cost each 6s, 6d, 

The following items occur in the parish hooks of St. Maiy, in the South Bailey, 
Doriiam: — 1688, Sep. 21. Six horses and two men to Darlington, 2s^ — 1689, April 2. 
A man and horse to Daiiington with Capt Dekval's company, Is. 6i.— June 6. Two 
horses to Newcastle with General Oinkell, one with Capt. Dekval to Darlington, Us. ed. 
— Oct 6. Two horses to Darlington with the Princess Anne's dragoons, 7id. — Dec 6. 
Twelye horses with the Danes to Darlington, 3^. 

James II., while Duke of York, had, in 1660, married Anne, daughter of 
the odebrated Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, who, when a young barrister, mar- 
ried a female of obscure parentage, and there are some who assert that she 
was the daughter of a laundress at Darlington: this, however, is very uncer- 
tain, and the more probable opinion is that she was the dauj^ter of a brewer, 
in a small town somewhere in the south of England. Whencesoever sprung, 
Hyde's humble fftvourite became grandmother of two reigning Queens of 
England, and, by her prudent, amiable, and exemplary conduct, secured the 
reepeet and admiration of the exalted circle in which she moved.* 

1689. May. Blackwell raised 4/. Ss. 6d. for the first 3 months of their Majesties* 
supply of 70,000/. per month for 6 months. 

1692-3. " Then proportioned the aid sess for their Msjestyes K.W. and Q.M. for the 
year 93 for carrying on a vigorous warr against^rancer, the towneshipp of Blackwall was 
cast that every 20s. in the book of rates to be 1/. 11*. 3<f. — The sum to be raised quarterly 
is 9/. 2s. 7d.'^ This payment continued at least till 1696. Arthur Prescott was head 
owner, Migor Richardson the next. The ardour of the rustics is quite refreshing. 

1693. 4 April. ^* Laid on a sesse for the trainband being to meet at Darlington, on 
Friday next, being the 7th April, of 10^. per It., for fixing armes with 2 musquetts 
stocks and 2 swords, scabards, and a sword and belt bought of Wm. Middleton, at Ss. ; I2d 
a^peeoe, Muster Master, beside there pay. Sesse raised, 2/t. 2s. 3^., q' how dL«iposed on.'* 
Blackwell Boots. Trophe money occurs as paid to the high constable, on May 3, this 
year. 

1703. Thoresby, the Antiquary, sets down that on 

** May 18. We passed the river Tees, in a fruitful country, which produces very large 
sheep; we stayed little in Darlington, hastening to Durham.'* 

" May 20. We baited at Ferry-upon-the-HiU, which answers Kirk Merington (in 
the other road) as to its lofty situation, and got in good time to Darlington; viewing the 
town, where, by the encouragement of the late Queen Mary, b settled the linen manu- 
fecture; they make excellent huckaback and diaper, and some damask, &c. Went to 
transcribe what moniunents I could find in the church; was pleased to find there several 
young persons met to sing psalms, which the:j(j)erformed very well, with great variety 
of tones, &c., hut was concerned to see the adjoining house of the Bishop of Durham con- 
verted into a Quaker's workhouse. There being a funeral, we had the happy opportunity 
of public prayers, which was comfortable. 21. The river Tees not being fordable by 
reason of the late rains, we went about by Croft bridge, where Sir William Chater has 
a seat, by which means we had the convenience of seeing the Hell-Kettles,' the best 

* Gordon's Guide to Croft, &c I do not believe one word of the statement. I always 
underBtood that Hyde m. 1st a daughter of Sir Groo. Ayloffe, who d. s. p.; and 2Dd, Frances, 
don. of Sir Thos. Aylesbury, who had with many other children, this daughter Anne. 

W 



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154 THORESBY'S VISIT. 

account of which b in my late kind friend Dr. Jabez Cay's letter, iaserted by Dr. 
Gibson in the new edition of the Britannia, p. 782.*' 

Thoresby often passed through Darlington. At the age of 23 he came 
expecting to have met with Captain Widdrington here. This was on 6 
April, 1680. On the 7th he was up early and went on to Durham where 
he found him, and thence to Newcastle, returning on the 8th. He and the 
Captain seem to have got rather too jolly occasionally in London, especially 
once " late on Saturday night at Captain Widdrington's, where was too great 
plenty of the strongest liquors, which afflicted me by their conquest of my 
friend, which being partly en my accaunty I desire may be for my humiliatiotL* 
On May 17, 1680, he was here again with his uncle, Michael Idle, and 
" carried pretty sister Abigail (her dear father's picture) along with me, and 
got safe to Darlington, 40 long miles, and yet she not at all weary." He 
passed through on his return from Newcastle on the 22nd following, " a most 
stormy rainy day/' His fother had died the preceding year, and the anti- 
quary reigned in his stead as a merchant 

In September, 1681 and 1682, he was again in the town on his northern 
peregrinations. 

A family of Thnrsbie, or Thoresby, occur at School Ayclifie and Brafierton as early as 
1682. The following entries are from our own register. Ralph Thursbie, of Archdeacon 
Newton, buried at Heighington, 24 Aug., 1622. George Thersbey [a sadler], of Dar- 
lington, occurs 1690 — 1698. Thomas Thursby^ attorney, and Jane Theobalds, spinster, 
married 4 June, 1705. Jane, wife of Mr. Thomas Thursby of BraflFerton, attorney, 
buried 7 April, 1717. Affidavit that she was duly buried in woollen in obedience to the 
statute, made 12 April. 

In Heighington churchyard is an ancient decorated coffin-lid bearing a cross, at the 
foot of which is a nondescript animal enclosed in a crocketted arch. There is a sword 
at the side, half the cross bar of which is cut off to make room for an inscription in 
ordmary Roman capitals :— 10 : THVRSBIE . HIC . lACET. 

The name is embalmed in the memory of John de Thoresby, archbishop of York, 1360, 
who was a diligent preacher and a positive reformer. " Hear God's law," said he, 
" taught in thy mother tongue, for that is better than to hear many masses." 

In Thoresby 's caustic remark about the workhouse is seen an evident prejudice against 
the Friends, although he was himself a dissenter. " 1683. I cannot whoUy omit my 
concern for some poor deluded quakers who were hurried down tliis street to York castle 
in greater numbers than was ever known in these parts. The Lord open the eyes of 
one party, and tender the hearts of the other. . . . 1702. With W. P. and another 
quaker about business ; found under a pretence of a holy simplicity, downright treach- 
ery, was tricked out of two guineas. Lord, pardon them ! " 



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<Eri)apter iV. annalst ftom tfje accesHsum of ®feorge E 
to t^t pttfitttt timt. 

1721. William Talbot, Bishop. The abuses created in the palatinate 
by his son-in-law, Dr. Sayer and others, were crying enough to produce the 
fiunous Enquiry by Spearman in 1729. Amongst them was the corrupt 
granting and entering surrenders and copies of land as copyhold, which really 
were freehold, as in the case of the Pindar-dose* at Darlington to John 
Theobalds, who afterwards mortgaged it to Mr. Warwick, as copyhold, yet 
again sold it as freehold to a third person, who^ upon an ejectment brought, 
recovered it ; and to make the fi^ud more colourable, the officer (Mr. Hut- 
chinson) had entered a sham title in the paper-books, and contrived many 
surrenders from several persons, deriving in all appearance a plain title, and 
many persons successively interested for the space of 60 years, though not a 
word of truth or £&ct occurred in the series of that descent and title. 

1730. EnwAiiD Chanblbb, Bishop. 

It may be remembered to the bonoor of Bp. Chandler, that he never sold any of his 
patent offices, tho' he was offered several hundred pounds by Mr. R. R., an attorney at 
D , for the clerkship of the Halmot Court, vacant on the death of Mr. John Mow- 
bray, in 1735, which he nobly refused, and gave to his secretary, Mr. Whitaker, who 
was succeeded by Mr. Wyndham. On Mr. Ralph Trotter's surrender of the two patents 
as keeper of Birtley Wood and housekeeper of the old palace cU Darlington^ he granted 
the former to Mr. Christopher Johnson, his receiver, for three lives, and the latter for 
life, and also appointed hkn county clerk; which two last offices he still holds. — 
Hutchinson. 

About the year 1730, Mr. Edward Walpole (afterwards Sir Edward, 
Knight of the Bath) returned from his trayels on the continent, where the 
munificence of his &ther, the famous statesman, had enabled him to make a 
brilliant figure ; and so yery engaging was he found by the ladies, that he 
had no other appellation in Italy than that of '^ the handsome Englishman." 
It appears that at the time Mr. Walpole on his return liyed in Pall Mall, 
there was opposite, and nearly fsuAng Carlton House, a ready made Unen 
warehouse, where gentlemen procured everything necessary for their ward- 
robes, such as gloves, &c. This shop was conducted by a very respectable 
female named, Mr& Bennie, assisted by several others, among whom was a 
pretty, interesting girl, named Maiy Clement. Her fitther was at that time, 
or soon after, a postmaster at DarUngton, a place of 40/. per annum, on which 
he supported a large family. This young woman had been bound apprentice 
to Mrs. Bennie, and employed in the usual duties of such a situation, which 
she discharged (as the old lady used to say) honestly and soberly. Her 
parents, however, from their extreme poverty, could supply her but very 

* See p. 138, note, all the properties mentioned in which are treated in the transactions 
there stated as copyhold. Spearman most he received with caution. 



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156 THE POSTMASTER OF # 

sparingly with clothes or money. Mr. Walpole often passed a quarter of an* 
hour in chat with the young women of the shop, and there was one of them, 
the attractive Mary Clement, who could make him forget the Italians and 
all the beauties of the English court. Mr. Walpole observed her wants, 
and had the address to make her little presents, in a way not to alarm the 
vigilance of her mistress, who exacted the strictest morality from the young 
persons under her care. Miss Clement was beautiful as an angel, with good, 
though uncultivated parts. Mrs. Bennie had begun to suspect that a con- 
nection was forming, which would not be to the honour of her appr^tice. 
She apprised Mr. Clement of her suspicions, who immediately came up to 
town to carry her out of the vortex of temptation. The good old man met 
his daughter with tears ; he told her his suspicion, and that he should carry 
her home, where, by living with sobriety and prudence, she might ohanoe to 
be married to some decent tradesman. The girl, in appearance, acquiesced, 
and left the room shortly afterwards, as her parent imagined, to prepare for 
her return home, but she had other and far more ambitious plans. Whilst 
her father and mistress were discoursing in a Uttle dark parlour bdiind the 
shop, the object of their cares slipped out, and without hat and cloak nm 
directly through Pall-Mall to Sir Edward's house,* at the top of it (that 
afterwards inhabited by Mrs. Keppel) where, the porter knowing her, she was 
admitted, although his master was absent. She went into the parlour, where 
the table was covered for dinner, and impatiently waited his return. The 
moment came ; Sir Edward entered, and was heard to exclaim with great joy, 
" you here I" What explanations took place were, of course, in private ; but 
the fair fugitive sat down that day at the head of his ^le, and never after left 
it. The fruits of this connection were Mrs. Keppel, the first ; Maria after- 
wards Lady Waldegrave, and subsequently Duchess of Gloucester, the 
second ; Lady Dysart (the wife of Lionel, fourth Earl of Dysart, died sans 
issue 1788), the third ; and Colonel Walpole, the fourth ; in the birth of 
whom, or soon after, the mother died. Never could fondness exceed thai 
which Sir Edward always cherished for the mother of his children ; nor was 
it confined to her or them alone, but extended itself to her relations,f for all 
of whom he in some way or other provided. His grief at her loss was pro- 
portioned to his affection : he constantly declined all overtures of marriage, 
and gave up his life to the education of his children. He had often be^ 
prompted to unite himself to Miss Clement by legal ties, but the threats of 
his fether. Sir Robert, prevented his marriage ; he avowing that if hb son 

* This incident is irreooneilable to a statement in some editions of this true romance, 
that Walpole was lodging at Mrs. Rennie's, and so became acquainted with Fair Mary of 
Darlington. 

t Hammond Clement, esq. occurs in our registers as Ensign in Brigadier General Price's 
regiment of foot in 1747, and in 1759 as one of the Clerks to the Exchequer at London when 
his son Edward was buried. Captain Clement and Mr. John Clement, both of Darlington, 
received funeral papers and gloves at John Killlngbairs funeral in 1762, and in 1781 John 
Clement was a banker here. 



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? DARLINGTON'S DAUGHTER. 157 

' married Miss Clement, he would not only deprive him of his political interest, 
bat exert it against him. It was, however, always said by those who had op- 
portunity of knowing, that had Miss Clement survived Sir Robert, she would 
then have been Lady Walpole. 

In the year 1758, her eldest daughter, Laura,* became the wife of the 
Hon. Frederick Keppel, brother to the Earl of Albermarle, and afterwards 
Bishop of Exeter. The Miss Walpoles now took a rank in society in which 
they had never before moved. The sisters of the Earl of Albemarle were 
their constant companions, and introduced them to persons of quality and 
fashion ; they constantly appeared at the first routes and balls ; and, in a 
word, were received eveiy where but at court The shade attending their 
birth shut them out from the drawing-room, till marriage (as in the case of 
Mrs. Keppel) had covered the defect, and given them the rank of another 
&mily. No one watched their progress upwards with more anxiety than the 
Earl of Waldegrave. This noWeman (one of the proudest in the kingdom) 
had long cherished a passion for Maria. The struggle between his passion 
and his pride was not a short one, and having conquered his own difficulties, 
it now only remained to attack those of the lady who had prepossessions ; and 
Lord Waldegrave, though not young, was not disagreeable. The marriage took 
place in 1759. Her very amiable conduct through the whole life of her lord, 
added respect and esteem to the warmest admiration. About five years 
afier their marriage, the small-pox attacked his lordship, and proved fatal 
His lady found herself a young widow of rank and beauty. Had Lord 
Waldegrave possessed every advantage of youth and person, his death could 
not have been more sincerely regretted by his amiable relict At length she 
emerged again into the world, and love and admiration everywhere followed 
her. She refused many offers ; among others the Duke of Portland loudly 
proclaimed his discontent at her refusal But the daughter of Mary Cle- 
ment was destined to royalty ! The Duke of Gloucester was not to be re- 
sisted, and two children, a prince and a princess (the late Duke of Gloucester 
and the Princess Sophia Matilda of Gloucester) were the fruits of their 
marriage , and hence it came within the bounds of probability that the de- 
scendants of the postmaster of Darlington might one day have swayed the 
British sceptre.-|- 

1 740. Immediately after a very severe winter the price of grain arose 
considerably, and a great scarcity was apprehended There were great riots 
at Newcastle and at Stockton, where the mob rose when they saw some com 
shipped. — "June 3. Our rioters still continue, and am much afraid will grow 
worse, and have a large reinforcement from the country ; for there was a riot 
at Darlington yesterday, and they threaten to come to Stockton. — Nov. 30. 
A turbulent spirit is in every town in these parts, and some disturbances 

* OccasionaUy given as Louisa, 
t Flowers of Anecdote* Globe Newspaper, 7 Feb. 1845. Private information by favour 
of Mr. James Ferguson of Staindrop, and tradition. 



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158 THE SCOTCH 

have been at Darlington and Bernard-castle, and a little here."* In Aug., 
1795, wheat was so scarce, that at Darlington and many other places it sold 
at a guinea per bushel, and oats at 5«."|" 

1745. The loyalty of the Friends in Darlington was very remarkable at 
the time of the rebellion. On receiving intelligence that the Duke of Cum- 
berland was coming from the south at a wintry time when the weather was 
severe, and by some means hearing that the soldiers were badly clothed, and 
lacking a sufficiency of creature-comforts, they in a most praiseworthy man- 
ner set to work and manufactured a great number of flannel waistcoats, which 
were ready for the poor men on their arrival at Darlington, and which, as 
the old ladyj who remembered the Duke's march and gave tWs carious fact, 
remarked, might possibly be one cause of the Prince's defeat at CuUoden. 
Less zealous were the farmers of Newtown, for they, ere the Duke approached 
Great Aycliffe, conveyed all their oxen and horses (which they considered 
might be of service to the forces, in carrying their carriages and luggage along 
the highway) and secreted them in a deep ravine and lonely, about a mile 
distant, and ycleped by foxhunters Byers GilL There was, indeed, some 
excuse for this conduct, as many &rmers in the neighbourhood had their 
beasts of burden taken away by compulsion along the road for many miles, 
without a recompense, some of which were never restored to the owners. 

At that time lived one Gideon Gravett PhiUips, esq., a Friend, a zealot in 
politics, and a liberal, upright man. An idea of his character may be formed 
from his obituary in the British Magazine for March, 1800: — "Died at 
Darlington, in his 90th year, G. Phillips, esq., a quaker ; he has bequeathed 
the sum of 500i to Mr. Combe the present lord-mayor for the city of Lon- 
don, and 100 guineas to Mr. Sheridan. At the late election of a lord-mayor 
Mr. Philips entered with the utmost zeal into the interests of Mr. Combe, 
and during the whole of the election was as warmly affected for the same, as 
if his own life and honour had been involved in the issue. He then resided 
at Darlington, and waited impatiently every day for the arrival of the papers 
to know the result When the election terminated in that gentleman's 
fevour, he was transported with joy, and put him down in his will for 500i 
as a testimony ot his approbation of his public character and conduct" This 
rural patriot lived in the house now Mr. J. H. Mowbray's, in Northgate, 
and when a body of the troops, marching north in 1 745, were passing through 
and were quartered for the night on the private inhabitants as well as the 
inns, he received the eight or ten men allotted to him with great hospitality 
and plied them with ale and viands most vigorously, adding thereto a weighty 

* Win. Barker of Stockton's correspondence. Brewster, 152. 

•f MSS. of Robert AUan, esq. Sunniside. 

t Mrs. Simpson, of Aycliffe. The same alacrity prevailed aU over the north. See Sykes, 

i. 176. The Friends furnished 10,000 woollen waistcoats in four or five days at their own 

expense. They were made to double over the breast and belly, under the soldiers' own 

clothing. 



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REBELLION OF 1745. ]59 

breakfast before they departed. They, howeyer, only inarched to Durham 
and then retumed, then: services being too late.* 

On the 25th September, there had been a muster of militia on Framwell- 
gate Moor, to which Blackwell famished a quota ot six men at the expense 
ofl9i l7s.Sd, 

On the 2l8t rf October, the purveyors of General Wade's army arrived at 
Darlington and employed all the bakers in that town to get bread ready 
against the arrival <rf the army, then on its march to Wewcastlaf St Greorge's 
Dragoons arrived shortly after,J and on the 31st General Wade's horse, 
Montague's horse, and St. Greorge's dragoons were at Durham. Previous to 
the arrival of these and other fcurces his Majesty's Boyal Hunters from 
Yorkshire had passed through, with the brave General Oglethorpe at their 
head ; they made a most gallant appearance, being well equipped with mar- 
tial accoutrements and mounted on fine horses, and arrived at Newcastle on 
the 25th October. " My fisither," says a venerable gentleman,§ " used to go 
behind where the Friends' meeting-house at present stands, to hear the fife 
for the first time in 1745. The Hessian soldiers were encamped there ; they 
entered the fields from the Croft road, where my son Joseph Pease's gate 
now stands, and marched out via Cockerbeck to the north road and thus 
avoided the town altogether. I have a large dragoon s basket-headed sword 
found on the place of encampment" The unfortunate issue <rf Prince Char- 
lie's daring need not be recapitulated* The Duke of Cumberland in his 
journey northward, had passed through Piercebridge, a short distance north 
of which his carriage broke down, but on his return he paid Darlington a 
visit in July 1 746. Tradition says that he reported the road between Dar- 
lington and Croft as the worst he had ever travelled. R H. Allan, esq. 
possesses a guinea of 1 733, wrapped carefully in a paper and placed in a neat 
small bag of wash leather. The paper is rudely inscribed : — " This is the 
GuinSy tchich the Duke of Cumberland sent to John Dunn, (on his presenting 
him with a Bunch of Ripe Grape's : which grew at the Grainge) on his re- 
turn to London from Scotland ;" and is endorsed, in James Allan's hand- 
writing, " Duke of Cumberland — John Dun Gr" 

What is the meaning of a seal used by Francis Lowson, in 1751, on the 
deeds prepared by him ; the bust of a flowing-haired cavaUer in tartan, with a 
low hat and military belt ; and at the sides P. C. ? |[ 

Two Swiss soldiers of HirtzePs regiment were buried here in December and January, 
1745-6, and John Hess, a Dutch soldier, who died at Cockerton, papist, was buried 9th 
Jan. Blakeney^s and Barrel's regiments are also mentioned about this time. In 1747 
a child fathered upon ^— Mackane, esq. a caption in St. Oeoi'ge's regiment of Dragoons^ 
was bap. 

• W. K. t Sykes. t George Grey of Southwick*s letter, Surtees, ii. 19. 

§ Edward Pease, esq. 

U Deeds of the house late Tolson's, Northgate. Edward Pease, esq. 



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160 DEATH OF ENSIGN HART. 

1750. Joseph Butlbb, Bishop, Uie celebrated aathor of the "Analogy." 
He had been presented to the rectory of Haughton-le-Skerne m 1722, where 
there was a necessity of rebuilding a great part of the parsonage-house, and 
Mr. Butler had neither money nor talents for that work, though he had ex- 
pended 60/. which the executors of his predecessor, Richard Bellassyse, had 
paid him for delapidations, with a further sum in providing materials for it. 
Bishop Talbot very kindly gave him Stanhope Rectory instead, and the 
materials were taken by his successor, Thorpe, who partly repaired the pre- 
sent parsonage. 

1762. Richard Trbvor, S. T. P., Bishop. 

1761. The Hexham Riot of this year took place on the 9th of March, 
and had its origin in the opposition shewn by the inhabitants to the newly 
established re^^ulations for raising the militia. A mob of at least 5000 per- 
sons assembled in the market-place of Hexham, where proceeding from out- 
rage to outrage, they eventually shot an ensign belonging to the North- York 
militia (Mr. Joseph Hart, of Darlington), and a private soldier. The reluc- 
tant magistrates at last ordered the soldiers to fire, who immediately cleared 
the rabble. The man who shot Hart was instantly despatched. Twenty- 
four were left on the spot, eighteen of whom were dead and the rest danger- 
ously wounded. Hart lingered till the morning of the 10th, and was buried 
at Hexham, with every honour, in the evening. On Aug. 1 7, Peter Patter- 
son and Wm. Elder were attainted, and sentenced to 'be drawn, hung, cut 
down alive, disembowelled and their entrails burnt before their eyes, beheaded 
and quartered. Elder was pardoned, but Patterson was executed at Mor- 
peth on October 5, when the rope breaking he unfortunately fell down before 
he was dead, and exclaimed more than once, "Innocent Mood is hard to spitt" 
A new halter was procured, and after he had hung the time required by law, 
he was cut down and dismembered.* He was a tenant in Ogle barony, and 
had been unwillingly pressed into the rioters' service on their road from 
Hexham to Morpeth. 

1770. April 18. On account of Mr. Wilkes's enlargement there were 
great rejoicings at Darlington, the bells were rung all the day, forty-five 
pieces of cannon were fired oflF, and in the evening there were bonfires and 
illuminations. An e&gy was carried round the town and afterwards com- 
mitted to the flames.-|- 

1771. John Egerton, Bishop. 

1772. June 4. Being the anniversary of his Majesty's birthday, the 
morning was ushered in by ringing of bells, &c., and in the evening there 
was a most brilliant assembly ;J a thin^ now quite unknown. 

1773. " Last week as some workmen were digging for sand in Haughton' 
church-yard, they found a human skeleton of a very extraordinary size ; 

♦ Denbam'8 MSS. Sykes's Local Records,!. 234 ; ii. 374. f Sykes. 
t DarliDgton Pamphlet. 



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THE DARLINGTON VOLUNTEERS. ]fi| 

what is most reinai*kable some of the teeth in in its jaw were 2|in. long, and 
liin. broad."* 

A great namber of skeletons have been found to the West of the church, especially 
in that part of the churchyard which is now applied to the useful formation of cottage 
gardens at a small rent. There are some vestigia of entrenchments near Red Hail, and 
a very general tradition of a great battle " once upon a time there/* exists. Haughton 
church is a massive Norman remain high above the road, with a western door ; an 
unusual feature in small country churches in this locality. There is a flag-memorial to 
one of the prioresses of Neasham under the tower, and part of a Saxon cross of knot- 
work is built into the chancel south wall. The church is most nobly fitted up with 
wood- work of Ck>8in's time, being a sort of imitation of Gothic- work, and very imposing 
it is. 

J 787. Thomas Thurlow, D.D., Bishop. 

1791. The Hon. Shute Barrington, D.D., Bishop. At his entrance 
to the see he dined at Darlington, with his attendants, after receiving the 
Sockbum Mchion from the hands of John Erasmus Blackett, esq., as sub- 
stitate for Sir Edward Blackett, bart, lord of that manor. 

1 798. Aug. 30. The ladies presented Colours to the Darhngton Volun- 
teers (Sir Ralph Milbank, colonel), the event ending in the cultivation of 
their ancient acquaintance with a smoking surloin. A new song, " The Dar- 
lington Volunteers", was composed, of very refined expression, as one verse 
will show : — 

Though base-hearted fellows, will merit deny, 

Come forward, be firm, and all traitors defy ; 

For those who in darkness can thus love to dwell, 

Will meet a reward, and a great one, in H — ; 

Then join hand and heart, to repel all our foes. 

For we never can rest, till we give them a dose. 

Fire away ! fire away ! may our brave volunteers, 
Ne'er suffer the Frenchmen to put us in fears.t 

1799. Sep. 5. On the news arriving of the Dutch fleet in the Texel 
having been surrendered to admiral Mitchell, the Darlington Volunteers met 
in the market-place of that town, and fired three fine vollies, and the town at 
night was brilliantly illuminated.]; 

The Darlington Volunteers, like most other volunteers, fell into much 
ridicule, and three thundering broadsides from Simpkin in Darlington to his 
brother Simon in Wales, (in other words, from Dr. Peacock to the public at 
large) were the result The scene opens with a general meeting, where 
Squire Noddy, with the resolutions filmed by himself and his friend Natty, 
is foiled by Buffhead ; and one of the company wishing to know, supposed 
the French came, what were they to do, was called a fool for his pains, nay, 
Noddy disputed he had any brains. The second scene discovers Noddy 
reading an address to the town, which was as properly styled an address to 
the moon, declaring inter alia "that his guts had been plagued with intestine 

* Darlington Mercury. t Original broadside. I merely give this milgarimn as a sign 
of the times. % Sykcs. 

X 



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162 THE DARUNGTON VOLUNTEERS. 

commotions, which at church and at meeting, disturbed his devotions,'' and 
concluding 

• with such a fine jingle 



Of words, which he had so contrived to mingle, 

That whether read backwards, or sideways, or straight ; 

It was equally sensible, equally bright ; 

Which, soon as the wooden committee had heard. 

They the wonderful orator three times three cheered. 

Then each gave him thanks in a bumper of wine. 

And Natty declared, " it vxUh 'oethjf fine,^ 

This letter ends with the melancholy black-balling of Natty as an officer, who 
sinks in anguish and is recovered by his friend Dr. Simpers phlebotomj. 
The third epistle is so good, that I give it nearly entire. 

The Halnaby brewer, red-fieu;'d as a dragon. 

Got a barrel of yeast, by the Newcastle waggon. 

And in carrying it home to recruit his strong beer, 

(The house, you know, always remark M for good cheer), 

The sun screening off by his coat like a wise man. 

Was met in the street by a cunning Exciseman: 

Who question *d him 'bout the contents of his cask: 

The brewer, with an oath, said ** he'd no right to ask," 

The gauger not liking the size of his fist, 

Call'd in the military now to assist; 

To the scene Captain Noddy, a file of men led, 

With Corporal Nat and Barebones at their head; 

The brewer, with such heroes, not liking to quarrel, 

Very deliberately set down his barrel, 

And soon as the screw put the bung into motion. 

Each house in the Market-place felt the explosion; 

But oh! had you seen our brave warriors then, 

Here laid Captain Noddy, and there laid his men, 

So besmeared with yeast from the foot to the head. 

They look'd like Falstaff's men, all in buckram laid dead; 

All our medical men were call'd on for assistance. 

It was weU that the Faculty were at no distance. 

With cordials and lancets, mops, dishclouts, and soap. 

Captain Nod was enabled one winker to ope. 

And the first words he spoke to the folk who stood by, 

Were, " My friends, Fm resolved to conquer or dief" 

Ever since he has been with false notions impress'd 

No one can convince him, the whole was but yeast* 

To please him his friends in the delusion join — 

To this day he believes he was blown from a mine. 

While Barebones was blind, undergoing the drench. 
He thought he was feather d and tarr'd by the French^ 
He begg'd " that the monsieurs would spare but his life, 
** For tlie sake of his little ones and his dear wife." 
He confessed " that he had chang'd sides it was tnie, 
" But his customers threaten 'd, and what could he do, 



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THE DARLINGTON VOLUNTEEUS. 163 

" That his sentiments still reouiinM fixt and the same, 
'* U/ore'd to disguise them, he was not to blame." 
He was going on thus, when he opened his eyes. 
(You may better conoeive, than describe his surprise.) 

Poor Natty got pretty well clear of the matter, 
Tho' some half-crowns it cost him in lavendar water. 

Now soon as these tidings had reached Sir Ralph, 

And (tho' he'd lost his yeast), that our captain was safe, 

He sent for our officers with him to dine. 

To wash off the disgrace with a soaking of wine. 

O what hurry and bustle "was there to get ready 

Their imiforms to meet Sir Ralph and his Lady. 

And before these smart beaux could appear out, God bless 'em. 

They had each to send for the drill sergeant to dress *em. 

But now they set forward in post-chaise and four, 

(The colonel and lady had gone on before), 

As soon as the squad reached Halnaby gates. 

And the servants had once got a sight of their pates. 

Away they all flew, and close bolted the doors. 

Expecting not one was to live many hours. 

Sir Ralph some other friends asked to meet *em, 

(With a more curious dish sure he never could treat 'em), 

They were all in the drawing-room chasing the vapours, 

And killing dull time with light-chat and the papers. 

When in bolts the valet like one in despair. 

So pale was his face and erect was his hair, 

His mouth was wide open, and staring his eyes. 

When he stammered out " Sir, here's the French in disguise I' 

The confusion had now very general grown, 

Such running and screaming both up stairs and down, 

AVhen the colonel luckily looking ont saw 

His bedizened brethren all waiting below. 

The doors were unlocked and in came such a corps, 

(Captain Nod at their head) as was ne'er seen before, 

The ladies arranged their dress and their features. 

Not doubting a conquest 'mong five handsome creatures; 

But with what contempt did each turn up her nose, 

When she saw sucli Monmouth-street pegs hung vnih clothes, 

They bow'd and they scrap 'd moving both feet and head, 

Look'd as tame as five lambs, but not one word Avas said. 

When dinner was servM they laid siege to the dishes. 

But still they remaiu'd as mute as five fishes. 

Sir Ralph, to break silence, begg'd Noddy would join 

His lady or him in a glass of good wine. 

Noddy answer'd him straightway '^ blown up by a miner* 

This strange exclamation made the ladies all stare. 

Expecting they all should be blown in the air. 

But Noddy nnmov'd, took his mutton and wine, 

Tho' whenever he spoke, 'twas " blown up by a mtneP' 

The fears of the ladies being somewhat suppress'd 

They endeavoured to get something out of the rest. 

They address'd little Doctor— tho' before looking simple. 

His face brighten 'd up and he show'd off his dimple. 



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164 THE BOULDER STONE 

" Captain Simper," said one, " do permit me to ask, 
*' For if one don't know, 'tis an awkwardish task, 
" How to fill a smelling-bottle without making a slop." 
" Maam" he answered, " lodwa^s pat the battle in a cap." 

This superfine lingo set all in a roar. 

And not one of them rentured that day a word more. 

To narrate the excitement in the town on the arrival of every post, and 
the rejoicings on the news of every victory, would be merely to write the 
history of every other town. The contents of the newspapers were duly pro- 
claimed from Bulmer's Stone in Northgate by old Willy Buhner, to a host 
of rustic counsellors assembled roimd him, and arrayed it with more conse- 
quence than even its marvellous revolving properties, for 

In Samton toune ti^tr t^ a ^tane, 

9ntr moi^t i^traunge ii pt to tell, 
C^at pt turned nine ttmetf rountr aboute 

Wi\itn pt l^eartf pe Clocit tftrt&e ttoell. 

Bulmer's stone stands in the front of some low cottages constituting North- 
gate House, and was only saved from the inhuman picks of some overseers 
who wanted to turn sextons, by being claimed as an appurtenance to those 
tenements, which were in a great measure built with round cobble stones. 
Like the many other rounded or water-worn fragments of the rocks at Shap 
Fell in Westmoreland, scattered over the North, it is called a boulder stone, 
as also irom the use the weavers made of it to beat their linen yam upon, a 
battling stone, A similar stone, used for a similar purpose, is on the brink 
of the Tees on the Yorkshire side at Piercebridge, and both have survived 
their occupation ; since " the times ai'e changed ,and even we, seem changed 
with the times to be." 

I have seen in a MS. letter the Boulder stone of Darlington classified with 
the black stone of Mecca, the cUich Dhu or black stone of Scottish villages, 
and the smooth stones of the stream which the idolatrous people of God 
chose for their portion.* It may be so. Villages and towns oft-times arose 
around the Boulder stones, and legends almost invariably attach themselves 
to them, seeming the last Ungerings of an old superstition which sprung irom 
a natural feeling of reverence in men. They well knew that the finger of 
God had placed them there in some awfiil operation or disruption of nature, 
and congregated beside what gradually became an object of adoration. 

This is not the place for any discussion as to the cause of boulders rolling 
up hill and down hill from their native cliffs to the places they now occupy, 
sometimes above and sometimes below their origin^J level It is, however, 
probable that they marched under the influence of glacial action, in whatever 

* Isaiah, Ivii. 6. 



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IN NORTHGATE. 165 

tnanner it might be developed Further this deponent sayeth not, and 
leaves the stone alone, j^t non bin jacere I)unc lapAem, permtttt jactrt. 

1826. William Van Milder^, Bishop, and last Count Palatine. For 
in our own time of restless and useless change, the legislature decreed that 
this blameless prelate should be uUimm suortmhy and the fitting splendour of 
his obsequies, in 1836, were attended by a respect and a feeling which shone 
brightly in the cold mists of reform. Verbum sap, — " Yon kingless throne 
is now for ever bare ! " 

1832. May 16. A large meeting was held in front of the Town Hall, 
when a petition to the Commons, praying them to address the king to recall 
Earl Grey to the nation, and also to withhold all supplies to government of the 
public money, until such a reform as would satisfy the country be granted, 
was unanimously agreed to. The speakers were Thos. Bowes, esq., Warren 
Maude, esq., Messrs. Sherwood, Mewbum, John Pease, Joseph Pease, sen., 
Nesham, Bobinson, Coates, Hogarth, &c.* 

1832. June 9. A meeting in the Town Hall resolved to express their 
satisfaction at the passing of the Eeform Bill, by giving a dinner to the 
operatives of the town, and a committee was nominated to make the neces- 
sary arrangements. The following Tuesday was fixed upon, and many gen- 
tlemen and ladies purchased tickets which they distributed gratis. Three 
laige oxen were bought, with a suitable proportion of bread, ale, and vegeta- 
bles, besides a large supply of plum pudding, which was furnished by the 
liberality of private individuals and of the principal innkeepers, the latter of 
whom also undertook to cook. Every department was allotted to committees 
of three or four gentlemen. All the trades were marshalled under their 
respective banners by Mr. Geo. Elwin, and the order in which they were to 
march was fixed by ballot. The Darlington and West Auckland bands 
volunteered their services, and were provided with tickets for the dinner. 
The timber-merchants furnished deals, which were formed into tables, from 
20 to 50 yards in length, in the market-place, and these were covered with 
doth, furnished by the drapers. The tables were so arranged, that the ele- 
gant gas column in the square formed the centre, the spaces being wide 
enough to admit of the attendants freely passing each other, and the ale was 
m the shambles, under the charge of three gentlemen who were to distribute 
it to the tables. At 12 o'clock precisely the procession moved in the follow- 
ing order, from the Town Hall, amidst the thunders of thousands of voices : 
— The National Flag, one hundred gentlemen, four abreast ; Earl Grey s 
Arms ; Lord Brougham's Arms ; the Darlington band ; an Emblematic 
Flag ; the Lodge of Odd Fellows, in full dress ; a banner ; the Woolcombers, 
with a sliver of blue and white wool across their breasts ; a banner ; the 
Coach-makers ; a banner ; the Coopers ; a banner ; the Worsted-weavers ; 
a banner ; the Linen-weavers ; a banner ; the Bricklayers ; a banner ; the 

• Sykes. 



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1()6 THE REFORM BILL. 

Flax-dressers ; a banner ; the Shoemakers ; a banner ; the Carpenters ; a 
banner ; the Tanners, Curriers, Skinners, and Finishers, in their respectiye 
dresses and banners ; a banner ; the Bleachers ; a banner ; the Carpet- 
weavers, mth a skein of blue, red, and white worsted yam across Uieir 
shoulder ; a banner ; the Sawyers ; a banner ; the Tailors ; a banner ; the 
Smiths ; a banner ; the Cardeners, with a triumphal arch and crown of ever- 
greens ; a banner ; the Painters ; a banner ; the Plumbers ; a banner ; the 
Shopmen ; a banner ; the Railway men. The procession marched round the 
town-boundaries and through the principal streets, the bands playing, bells 
ringing, guns firing in all directions, and colours waving from the windows, 
roofe, and chimneys. Multitudes from the neighbourhood flocked in to wit- 
ness the magnificent spectacle. Upwards of SOOO men walked in the ranks, 
and so far as could be calculated, above 12,000 people were congregated on 
the occasion. The men of one tan-yard agreed to fine any one of themselves 
5s. who should be intoxicated on that day. After perambulating the town, 
which occupied nearly two hours, the whole body was drawn up round the 
market-place. The bands which had continued playing incessantly during 
the march, ceased, and, with them, the acclamations of the people ; for 
a minute there was a dead pause, all heads were uncovered, and at a given 
signal, three cheers from thousands rose to the skies. The various compan- 
ies then filed ofi" to the tables till all were stationed, that every man might 
know his own place. The people were then dismissed for an hour. At three 
o'clock the trades arrived and took their places at the tables, on which the 
attendants expeditiously placed the smoking viands, and the disused custom 
was revived of servant and master exchan^g duties with each other. The 
delegates and committee were engaged in carving for and waiting on, the 
people ; and at 4 o'clock they assembled at the work-house and dined to- 
gether, thus concluding a day of rejoicing such as was never before witnessed 
in the North of England. The workmen of Messrs. Parker, of Haughton- 
le-Skeme, joined in the procession, carrying their banners, and returned to 
Haughton, where they were sumptuously regaled with plum-pudding and 
roast beef The wives, sisters, and daughters of those who had dined in 
public, were regaled with tea and cakes in the open air, in various parts of 
the town, by the kind contributions of the ladies of DarUngton. The follow- 
ing are selected firom hundreds of mottoes that were emblazoned on the float- 
ing draperies of the trades' banners and other private flags : — The glorious 
triumph of 1832 — May the Sun always shine on real Reformers, Earl Grey 
for ever — The Voice of the People is the Voice of Grod — Long live Earl Grey 
and all Reformers — The Day is ours — May the Sons of St. Crispin ever 
flourish with Reform — Let us rejoice, Reform is accomplished — The King, 
the People, and Reform — Reform is won. Victory is ours. — Let the merry 
bells ring. Grey, Brougham, and the Bill— By Perseverance we have con- 
quered — Truth and Justice have decided our Cause — Cleveland we adore — 
Durham we delight in-Long live Grey, Brougham, aud their Colleagues, 



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SIR ROBERT PEEL'S VISIT. 1(J7 

the Champions of Reform — A day of Liberty is worth an Eternity of Bond- 
age —Success to the Town and Trade of Darlington — No Corn Laws — No 
Tithes — The righteous Man falleth seven times and riseth again — Let the 
King put away the wicked from before him, and his throne shall be estab- 
lished in Righteousness — England must be free as the Thoughts of Man — 
United we stand, divided we fell — Grey and Brougham — Victory follows the 
Brave — The glorious Triumph of Grey and Brougham — England expects 
every Man to do his Duty.* 

1836. Edward Maltby, bishop. 

1847. Sep. 1. On his road to Wynyard Park on the occasion of the 
marriage of the Earl of Portarlington to Lady Alexandrina Vane, Sir Robert 
Peel was received in the Central Hall, at DarUngton, by not less than 
from one thousand six hundred to two thousand persons. The borough 
bailiff, Francis Mewbum, esq., introduced the Right Honourable visitor, and 
Joseph Pease, esq., with an eloquent speech, presented him with the follow- 
ing address — 

** To the Right Honourable Sir Kobert Peel, bart., M.P. — ^We, the gentry, merchants, 
snd inhabitants of the town of Darlington and its neighbourhood, in public meeting 
assembled, b^ leave most respectfully to express to you, sir, the high satisfaction your 
arrival in this connty has afforded us of addressing you, and giving utterance to our 
feelings of profound respect for, and admiration of, your distinguished talents, by which 
tills country has, on many and important occasions, and under trying circumstances, 
been so signally benefitted. 

'' We contemplate with admiration the fidelity, zeal, and ability, with which you 
discharged the high duties of Prime Minister to our most gracious Queen, and your 
patient, persevering, and successful advocacy of an enlightened policy, calculated to 
develope the immense resources and advance the general well-being of this great country. 

" To this tribute of our applause, respect, and gratitude, we add an expression of 
earnest desire that you may enjoy a long and uninterrupted life of health and happiness; 
and that whether in a more or less active sphere (as circumstances may require), you 
may still continue to give your Queen and your coimtry the benefit of your services.'* 

Sir Bobert, on rising, was received with tremendous cheering, and pro- 
ceeded to reply to the address : — 

" Mr. Chief Bailiff, Mr. Pease, and gentlemen, — As my visit to this county has been 
influenced solely by considerations of private friendship, and as it necessarily will be of 
very limited duration, I did not expect that I should be called upon, to acknowledge any 
public demonstration of respect or approval, on account of the course which I have 
deemed it my duty to pursue as a minister of the crown, and as a member of the legis- 
lature. But I felt that I should make but an ill return for the kindness with which 
you were dbposed to welcome my anival in this ancient town, if 1 had shown any 
hesitation in receiving this addi*ess, in the manner which I was informed would be most 
satisfactory to those who have been parties to it. And perhaps I may be permitted to 
avail myself of this opportunity of returning to other parties, with whom 1 have not the 
same advantage of personal communication, my cordial acknowledgements for tlieir 
willingness to confer on me similar honours, had it been in my power to accept tlieni. 
(Hear and cheers.) I consider myself very fortunate that I am enabled, in your presence, 

* Sykoa. 



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168 PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION. 

personally to express to you the deep sense which I feel of the honour which has heen con> 
ferred upon me. (Hear, and loud cheers.) I thank you for your assurance of confidence 
and esteem, and for the hearty good wishes which are conveyed in this address (renewed 
cheers). You do me justice in helieving, that it has been my earnest desire to exert my 
influence or authority which I may have possessed for the advancement of the great ob- 
jects referred to in this address — ^the developement of the national resources, and the 
promotion of the well-being and comfort of all classes of the community. (Loud and 
reiterated cheers.) By continuing to give my zealous support to all such measures as 
shall be calculated for the attainment of those important ends, I hope to be enabled to 
justify your confidence and to retain your favourable opinion (cheers). I now take 
leave of you, expressing my sincerest wishes for the prosperity of the town and neigh- 
bourhood of Darlington, and for the individual happiness and welfare of all whom I see 
around me." (Loud and long continued cheers.) 

Thanks were then accorded to the distinguished guest for his visit, and to 
the BaiUE Sir Robert afterwards sUghtly partook of a luncheon, and left for 
Wynyard in a carriage and four, amidst the hearty cheers of thousands. 

This speech of the ex-minister created some sensation, and was freely re- 
marked on in the prints of the day, therefore 1 have given it a preference 
over coronation rejoicings, and other petty events, which occurred in every 
other town in the kingdom. 

These annals may properly be concluded by those of 



PARLIAMENTARY RBPRBSENTATION. 

Under the old palatine system, no knights were returned for this county 
to the general parliament, nor burgesses for the boroughs. In 1614, a few 
discontented gentlemen, who said '' that they would humble the bishop and 
his courts together with all his clergy,"* attempted to obtain representatives 
for the county and city of Durham and borough of Barnard-castle, and in 
1620-1, the modest number of fourteen members in all for the same districts, 
and for divers other boroughs in the county, which, as Surtees remarks, 
" might possibly be DarUngton, Stockton, and Gateshead," were claimed very 
unreasonably, as the house reasonably considered. Hartlepool and Barnard- 
castle were picked out, the one being a port town, the other " the Prince his 
town," and the rest rejected "because o{ pestering the house; and because 
these incorporated by the bishop, not bv the king," Somehow all were thrown 
out When the see was dissolved, the city and county each returned a 
member, on the restoration the privilege was swept away, but in 1666 a 
powerful attempt was made to regain representation, it being urged that the 
county since James I.'s time had paid the general taxes (from which border 
service had before exempted it) and ought to have members to vote in their 
impositions. Gosin stood out manfully for his palatine privileges, and in 
1668 the bill was rejected, Mr. Vaughan declaimg that if the commons had 
all Iheir members there they would have no room for them. After his death, 
however, two for the county and two for the city were obtained (1673), 

♦ Cosin ill 1667. 



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PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION. 169 

which arrangement continued till 1832, when the connty was divided in two, 
and Darlington became the political metropolis of the southern division, which 
returns two members. 

A conmiittee was formed in Darlington to secure the return of two Uberal 
members for the new district, at the first election, and, subsequently, one of 
their number, Joseph Pease, jun., esq., (of the society of Friends), was nom- 
inated and was successful. The whole three candidates were, however, of 
liberal fninciples. They were 

Joeepb Pease, jun., esq., Darlington, who polled .... 2273 
John Bowes, esq^ Streatlam Castle, do. .... 2218 
Robert Donoomb Shafto, esq., Whitworth, do 1841 

The novelty of the occasion brought in immense crowds on the chairing 
day, (Dec. 24), on which occasion the carriages and chairs provided for the 
two members, Pease and Bowes, were profusely decorated with ribbons and 
evergreens. They were returned without opposition in 1836 and 1837. 

To the historian, any particular manifestation of popular opinion must ever be re- 
garded as a sign of the times, and the progress of thought resulting in action. Such 
was the withdrawal of severe enactments against our fellow subjects attached to the 
chnich of Rome, and their admission to the Houses of Parliament. Such, under another 
phase, was the pasEong of the Reform Bill, the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, 
and, of a similar character, the decision of the constituency of South Durham. It was 
sanctioned and approved by the assembled Ck)mmons by unanimous vote, when Mr. 
Pease took his seat as the first quaker member of their powerfid House. The manner 
in which his duties were performed constitutes no part of my history, but the circum- 
stance is interesting as an illustration of the onwiuxi working of opinion and its local 
developement. His subsequent appearances at Court, the drawing rooms and levees of 
Royalty, and at the coronation of Her Majesty Queen Victoria in the court costume of 
the *' earlier Friends,*' were incidents specially noticed in the public journals of the 
time, as marking a change of sentiment. May it not be termed a proof of the waning 
reign of prejudice, and an advance beyond toleration, to the free enjoyment of privileges 
vested in electors and the elected, worthy of our happy and envied constitution. And 
may it not be truly said that South Durham and Darlington bore a conspicuous place in 
the march of mind and civilization. 

In 1841, Mr. Pease retired, but Mr. Bowes was again in the field, the 
candidates being 

Lord Harry Vane, (brother to the present duke of Cleveland) liberal, 

who polled 2547 

John Bowes, esq., liberal, who polled 2483 

James Faner, esq«, Ingleborough, Yks., conservative, do. . 1739 

The successful members were conducted through the town on horseback, 
in lieu of chairing, on June 12, and a violent thunderstorm eflFectuaUy damped 
all incipient disturbances, about which much apprehension had been felt. 

The proceedings at this election were marked throughout with riot. This was 
especially exemplified on Mr. Bowes's visit to Darlington, on the 28th June, for the 

y 



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170 PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION. 

purpose of addreasmg the electors. A more imposing spectacle has seldom been wit- 
nessed — ^the cavalcade, consbting principally of electors from Weardale, followed four 
and five abreast immediately in the rear of Mr. Bowes, who, with three of his friends, 
filled the first quadruple car. The following was the order of the procession: — Two 
gentlemen on horseback : the band playing *' See the conquering hero comes : " the 
candidate and his friends : about three hundred horsemen, four abreast : a procession of 
carriages, filled with electors, succeeded by two hundred voters on horseback, each 
decorated with blue and white rosettes, &c., amid a large collection of banners. The 
procession paraded through the streets, and afterwards dispersed to the post houses. At 
2 o'clock, Joseph Pease, esq., late M.P. for the division, appeared in front of the Sun 
inn, and introduced Mr. Bowes. The scene which ensued baffles all description. Sta- 
tioned below the platform, were a few persons who commenced hooting, roaring, and 
bellowing, in such a manner as totally to prevent any below the platform hearing a single 
sentence delivered by Mr. Pease, who spoke, notwithstanding the tumult, for about 
twenty minutes. Mr. Bowes then followed, with a similar result for the space of half 
an hour, audible only to those dose by him. After the speaking, the mob hovered 
about the market-place and on the High Row, with occasional outcries and the infliction 
of personal injury, until half-past 7 o'clock, when an altercation respecting a ribbon 
having taken place between two lads, they commenced fighting. The police interfered, 
and finding themselves, through their rashness, in an awkward dilemma, struck out, 
and one man, well known as a quiet inoffensive character, of the name of Robeon, 
a butcher in Skinnergate, was unluckily struck by a police truncheon, and for some- 
time it was thought he was killed. A general attack was then made on the police who 
were obliged to fly in all directions, with loss of hats, truncheons, &c., two or three 
took refuge in the Town Hall, on which an attack was commenced and the windows 
smashed unremittingly, until past 11 o'clock, when their destruction being complete, a 
rush was made to the entrance door, which after some delay, was broken in, and had it 
not been for the scheming of some gentiemen in the news room at the south end of the 
building, who disguised the police, and smuggled them out by a private door, when the 
mob rushed in at the north end, they would doubtiess have been massacred vrithout 
mercy. The mob finding that they had escaped, tore up the bar railings, broke the 
forms and chairs, and committed every kind of outrage. They then formed in parties, 
and on their way home broke some windows in the upper story of Mr. D. Hampton s 
house, in the market-place, and made an attack on the Swiss Villa of T. E. Abbott, esq., 
Qrange-road, and broke several windows.'*^ 

Mr. Bowes behaved in a truly honourable manner, in 1846, when he 
boldly published a letter to his constituents announcing a change in his 
views on agricultural protection, and his determination to support the com- 
mercial system of the government A meeting was held at Darlington to 
express the approval of his supporters. He retired in 1847, having spent 
«£^30,000f in contesting this division. In July, of that year, Lord Harry 
Vane and Mr. Farrer were returned without opposition, and perambulated 
the town in four-horsed carriages without being chaired. 

\* " Darlington, Posthouse, 10 September, 1789. Mr. Milbanke presents his most 
respectful compliments to the worthy freeholders of the town of Darlington, and will 
think himself greatiy honoured to have the favour of their company at the Posthouse on 
Saturday Evening, €U half-past Six o'CloS; to ntpper,'* — The immaculate candidate was 
successful, but the election did not take place until 28th June, 1790. 

* Richardson's Table Book. 
t Statement of Mr. Mewbum on the hustings. 



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A recorded title derived from this town derives only from 1685, but " Lord 
Darlington" figures in two ballads of great antiquity. One is a mere adapta- 
tion of " Lord Barnard and Little Musgrave," though the alias hereabouts 
is Bamabys rather than Barnard. The other is common to both sides of the 
Border, and I am in doubt to which side it properly belongs. However, I 
give Darlington in Durham the benefit of the doubt, and present the reader 
with a version,* cum natis : — 

lorH Satltttgton. 9n flitrinit SallaH. 

" we were sevent brave sisters, 

Five of us died wi' child ; 
And nane but you and I, Maisrey, 

So well gae maidens mild.} " 

"O baud your tongue now, Lady Margaret, 

Let a' your folly be ; 
I'll gar you keep your true promise, 

To the lord§ ayont the 8ea.|| ** 

* Given in Richardson's Tahle Book, by J. H. Dixon, esq , Tollington Park, Homsey 
Middlesex, as ** transcribed from a MS. copy, in possession of an antiquarian friend, col- 
lated with one printed in Buohan's Ancient Ballads and Songs ; Edinburgh, 1828." I have 
alao had Buehan's reading before me, and have slightly altered Dixon's version. The in- 
ddenta are precisely the same as those in ** Fair Mabel of Wallington" given in the Table 
Book also, from Ritson, but the latter is a splendid ballad. 

f An indefinite expression, as in scripture, so in ballads. 
O we were sisters, sisters seven 
We were the fEurest under heaven. — Go9p<UriC' 

X The exact translation of mitis, which is of the titles given to the Virgin and is rendered 
mild in many versions of the andent hsrmns, though ffentle would now more properly ex- 
press the meaning. 

§ Lad in Buchan. If the locality is Scotch, Laird is probably meant, but if English, what 
shaU we say t The manors of Darlington are episcopal, Newton is archidiaconal, but the 
freehold ones of Oxen-le-field and Blackwell are free to Mr. Dixon's proposition, that the 
Lord of a manor is meant. Yet in the next verse a baron is evidently meant, as superior to 
a knight. It must be observed that although the names in ballads are generally taken from 
some actual fiunilies or places, yet the reciters often adopted them for their own fictions 
at the dictation of fancy, exactly as do modem novelists, and it may be that Lord Dar- 
Hngton is as much a fancy name as any of the Stanleys or Nevilles in later romance. It 
might however be a bye-name, and it is a coincidence that Adam de Suatone and Eve his 
wife granted property at Derlingtone, about 1320, to Wm. de Walleworde, who, with Olive 
his wife, granted **m€merium deDerlyngUme,** (which, as maneriutn was of extensive import, 
must have been a small freehold estate) to Richard Porter, and a burgage to his wife Agnee. 

Q Supposing that Seaton Delaval was the lady's residence, no one in a Northumbrian 
village would now caU Darlington ayont the sea, or a peasant thero talk of bringing his 
bride o'er the sea from our borough, but when*we call to mind how the interior of the 
northern counties was, in the feudal ages, infested with robbers, raiders, and marauders of 
all sorts, we may easily conceive that a Durham lover who, a la * Johny Cope,' liked ** to 
sleep in a hale skin," would prefer a sea voyage to Seaton Delaval, to a then more dangerous 
one by land. Dixon. 



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172 TITLE. 

"0 there is neither lord nor knight, 

My love shall ever won ; 
Except it he Lord Darlington, 

And here he winna come.'*^ " 

But when the hour o* twall was past 

And near the hour o* ane ; 
Lord Daiiington came to the yetts,t 

Wi' thirty knights and ten. 

It*s he has wedded the Lady Margaret 

And brought her o'er the sea ; 
And there was nane that liyed on earth 

Sae happy as was she. 

But when nine months were come and gane, 

Strong trayailling took she ; 
And ne*er a leech in a' the land X 

Could ease her maladie. 

" Where will I get a little wee boy. 

Will won baith meat and fee ; 
That will gae on to Seaton s yetts 

And bring my mother to me ? ** 

O ! out then spake the little foot page, 

And knelt on bended knee — 
** here am I, a little wee boy, 

That will won meat and fee ; 
That will gae on to Seaton's yetts, 

And bring your mother to thee." 

Then he is on to Seaton's yetts 

As fast as gang§ could he ; 
Says " ye must come to Darlington, 

Your daughter for to see." 

But when she came to Darlington town, 
Where there was little pride, || 

* In Dixon's version the 2nd and 4th lines stand :—** My true lover e'er shall be"— ''And 
he winna come here to me." 

t Afterwards called Seaton's yetts. There are three Seatons on the northern coast, 
Seaton Carew, Seaton Delaval, and Monk Seaton. As the yetta must mean the outer ffcUea 
of some large mansion, probably Seaton Delaval is the true locality, and the heroine was 
one of the fiunily of Delaval. So Dixon, but Bnchan says that the unfortunate lady the 
last [but one] of her sisters was of the house of Seaton, Aberdeenshire, which certainly 
was much ftuiher ayant the sea. 

t ** And nae physician in the land." Buchaiu 
§ I suspect it is here meant that the page took a land journey. 

II Whether this is any distinguishing mark of the present time it behoves me not to say. 
No very powerftil family has ever resided there any time, and little else than a substantial 
council of burgesses and yeomen appear. The only place now in Scotland of the name is a 
modem portion of the inland manufacturing village of Stewarton, in Ayrshire. This sub- 
urb, originally called Templehouse and now Darlington, was fenced out by a Mr. Draus, 
who died in 1828, aged 49. A well-known author of Scotland informs me that in all his 



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BALLADS. 1 73 

The soobbfi* were in the lady's moath 
The sharp sheer in her side. 

Lord Darlington stood on the stair, 

And gart the gowd rings flee ; t 
'^ My halls and bowers, and a' shall gae waste 

If my bonny loTe die for me." 

'* O hand your tongue, Lord Darlington, 

Let a* your folly be ; 
I bore the bnrd within my sides, 

111 snier her to dee. 

" He that marries a daughter o' mine 

I wot he is a fule : 
If he marries her at Candlemas tide 

She*U be frae bun at Yule4 

** I had seven anoe in oompanie, 

This night 1 go my lane ; § 
When I come to the salt water|| 

I wish that I may drown." 

The other ballad was so imperfect that I had to supply the long blanks of 
my traditionary copy with verses a little altered from Percy's Lord Barnard 
and Little Moffgrova These are given in brackets. 

lorfe fiarluigtott anH Etttle 0iui^ht. 

It was upon AU-Hallows day 
Of all the days in the year; 

antiquarian dabblings, he neyer, to his recollection, feU on the name of Darlington con- 
nected with an actual place. In David Macpherson's accurate geographical index of Scot- 
land* in which all the places mentioned in the old writers of Scotland are inserted, Darling- 
ton occurs in black letter, which is his manner of indicating places not in Scotland, and 
from the reference given to the situation in the accompanying map, our Darlington is at 
once seen to be the place meant. Still, under 1650, it is stated both in ** Britain's Tri- 
umphs^and ** Memorials of the English affairs,'* two publications of the 17th cent., that the 
English surprised a party of moss-troopers in DaHington OasUe, which is associated with 
proceedings against Dalhousie and Roslin Castle, two places in Midlothian well known, fh>m 
which one would expect to find Darlington within ten miles of Edinburgh. Yet the afore- 
said courteous author, who resides in that ancient capital and is familiar with the districf, 
nerer heard of such a place, and, as it does not occur on an inspection of Thomson's map of 
Edinburghshire, suspects that the English journalists have mistaken it for Dalkeith. 
Among my northern brethren be this Grordian knot. I am unable to trace the seal of ''Lord 
Darlington, in yellow wax, ancient," mentioned in Fox's catalogue of the Allan Museum. 

♦ Sores, 
f ** She Idckt the tfeble with her foot, she kickt it with her knee. 
The silver plate into the fire so far she made it flee." 

Fair Mabel of WaUington. 

t The young ladies, according to Calyin's doctrine, had been predestinated ere they were 
bom, to die in childbed, and nothing could have saved them, as the decree had gone forth. 
Aidium. § L e. my way. 

D ''And when I come to Clyde^s wKter^^'—Buchan* This passage points out Darlington 
as lying south from Aberdeenshire, although the scent cannot be pursued fturther, our good 
town being on the east side of the island instead of the west. 



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1 74 TfTLE; 

LitUe Musgrove to church would go 
To see all the ladyes fair. 

The first he met was clad in red, 

The second was aU in green, 
The third she was my Lord Darlington's* Lady 

The £Euire6t that ever was seen. 

[She cast an eye on Little Mosgrove 

As bright as the summer's sun, 
O then bethought him Little Musgrove 

This ladye*s heart I have won. 

Quoth she, '* I hare loved thee. Little Musgrove, 

Full long and many a day." 
" So have I loved you, my lady fair. 

Yet word I never durst say." 

*' I have a bower at Oxenhall,t 

Full daintily bedight. 
If thoult wend thither, my Little Musgrove, 

Thou shalt lie in my arms all night." 

Quoth he, " I thank ye, ladye fedr, 

This kindness ye shew to me ; 
And whether it be to my weal or woe. 

This night I wiU lie with thee.'* 

All this beheard a little foot-page, 

By his ladye's coach as he ran : 
Quoth he, " Though I am my ladye's page. 

Yet Tm my Lord Dariington's man. 

Lord Darlington he shall know of this, 

Although I lose a limbe. 
And where the briggs are broken down 

rU lay me down and swim.** 

Like a harried man] sometimes he walked, 

[A mile] sometimes he ran, 
Until he came to the broken brigg. 

Then he laid on his back and he swam. 

["Asleep or awake, my Lord Darlington, 
As thou art a man of life, 

* See the notes on this name in the last ballad. 
t Bucklesford-Bury, in Percy. It is evident that in both versions the bower was an 
estate distinct from the iigared husband's own lands. In mine the lady talks of her father^a 
shepherd, and in Percy's Lord Barnard offers all Bncklesford-Bury to his page if he told 
true, an offer palpably absurd had it been his own ancient inheritance. To suit the Dur- 
ham edition, I have taken Oxenhall as a fitting place. The reader may imagine that the 
lady was the heiress of the Oxenhalls, who became extinct circa 1340, and that Lord Dar- 
lington treated their estate as his own in expectancy of his father-in-law's death. — It will 
be observed that the lady reached the bower by a co(ich from the parish church, a circum- 
stance which also pointed out Oxenhall as convenient for me. 



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BALLADS. ^iJif 

Lo ! this same night at Oxenliall, 
Little Musgrove he lies with thy wife.*' 

'* If it be true, thou little foot-page, 

This tale thou hast told to me, 
Then all my lands at Oxenhall 

I freely will give to thee. 

But and it be a lie, thou little foot-page. 

This tale thou hast told to me, 
On the highest tree at Oxenhall 

All hanged thou shalt be." 

" Rise up, rise up, my merry men all. 

And saddle me my good steed ; 
For this night must I to Oxenhall ; 

God wot, I had never more need.*'] 

There was one of Lord Darlington's shepherds 

That bore Musgrove good will, 
He put his horn unto his mouth 

And blew both loud and shrill. 

And all the words that he did say 

Were "Away, Musgrove, away ! 
For if Lord Darlington catch you here 

With a sword he will you slay.*' 

Little Musgrove he did arise 

To hear what the bom did say, 
[" Methinks 1 hear Lord Darlington's bom 

I would I were away."] 

" Lie still, lie still, my Little Musgrove, 

And keep me from the cold : 
Tis only one of my fathers shepherds 

Coming riding through the fold. 

[Is not thy hawke upon the perch. 

Thy horse eating com and hay ? 
Is not a gay lady within thine arms : 

And wouldst thou be away ? " 

By this Lord Darlington reached the door 

And lighted upon a stone : 
And he pulled out three silver keys. 

And opened the doors each one.] 

" How do you like my bed, Musgrove, 

How do you like my sheet ? 
How do you like the fair ladye 

That lies in your arms so sweet ? " 

" It is weU I like your bed, my Lord, 
And better I like your sheet, 



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176 TITLE. 

And better I like the fur ladye 
That lies in my arms so sweet." 

''Arise, arise, my little Mnsgrove, 

And put your clothing on : 
It shall never be said in all my life, 

That I slew a naked man." 

The Tery first blow Lord Darlington gave 

His wife got a deadly wound, 
The very next blow Lord Darlington gave 

Musgrove lay dead on the ground. 

" Make a grave both wide and deep 

To put this couple in : 
And lay Lady Darlington on the r^^ht side* 

For she's come of a £ar better kin." 

So merrily sung the nightingale, 

So sorrowful sung the sparrow ; 
Lord Darlington he has killed two to-day 

And he's to be hung to-morrow. 

I add one more ballad, of exquisite sadnes& 

iPrince JRohtrt. 

Published in SgoWs Border Minstrelsy , frcm the recitation of Miss Christian 
Rutherford, sister to Sir Walter Scott s mother. 

Prince Robert has wedded a gay ladye. 
He has wedded her with a ring: 
Prince Robert has wedded a gay ladye, 
But he dama bring her hame. 

'' Your blessing, your blessing, my mother dear! 
Your blessing now grant to me!" — 
'' Instead of a blessing ye sail have my curse, 
And you'll get nae blessing frae me." — 

She has called upon her waiting-maid, 
To fill a glass of wine ; 
She has call'd upon her fause steward. 
To put rank poison in. 

She has put it to her roudest lip. 
And to her roudes chin ; 
She has put it to her fause fause mouth. 
But the never a drap gaed in. 

♦ ** But lay my ladye o' the upper hande, 
Forshee comes o* the better kin."— Percy. 
The Musgroves were however a most exceUent fEunily of Cumberland, ponessing ^'theLuck 
ofEdenhall" 

The concluding stanza has no likeness to Percy, and the punishment of hanging is im- 
probable under the circumstances. f Haggard. 



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BALLADS. 177 

He has pat it to his bonny mouth, 
And to his bonny chin, 
He has put it to his cherry lip, 
And sae fast the rank poison ran in. 

'^0 ye hae poisonM your ae son, mother, 
Youre ae son and your heir ; 
ye hae poison'd your ae son, mother, 
And sons you'll never hae mair. 

'' where will I get a little boy, 
That will win hose and shoon, 
To rin sae £ut to Darlinton, 
And bid fair Eleanor come ? " — 

Then up and spake a little boy. 
That wad win hose and shoon,— 
" I'll away to Darlinton, 
And bid fair Eleanor come." — 

he has run to Darlinton, 

And tirled at the pin ;* 

And wha was sae ready as Eleanor's sell 

To let the bonny boy in. 

'* Youre gude mother has made ye a rare dinonr, 
She has made it baith good and fine ; 
Your gude mother has made ye a gay dinour, 
And ye maun cmn tiU her and dine.** — 

It's twenty lang nnles to Sillertoon town, 
The langest that ever were gane : 
But the steed it was wight, and the lady was light, 
And she cam linkin't in. 

But when she eame to SiUertoun town,} 

And into Sillertoun ha', 

The torches were burning, the ladies were mourning, 

And they were weeping a*. 

"0 where is now my wedded lord, 
And where now can he be ? 
O where is now my wedded lord ? 
For him I canna see."— 

" Your wedded lord is dead," she says, 
''And just gane to be laid in the clay : 
Your wedded lord is dead," she says, 
" And just gane to be buried the day* 

* In the old method of latching doors there was a pin inside which was turned round to 
raise the latch. The expression here, I suppose* Is synonymous with our ^ rattling a sneck.** 

f lUding briskly. 
t Silton, near Northallerton, supposed to be the Seleton of the Saxons, is perhaps meant, 
but, ae before mentioned, little dependence must be placed on ballad localities. Indeed 
Motherwell's editoin of Prince Robert, substitutes Sittengen's Rocks for Darlington. 

Z 



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17& TITLE, 

" Ye'se get nane o' his gowd, ye'se get nane o' bis gear, 
Ye'se get nae thing frae me : 
Ye*8e no get an inch o* his gude braid land, 
Though your heaft suld burst in three.** — 

*^ I want nane o' his gowd, I want nane o* his gear, 

I want nae land frae thee : 

But ril hae the ringa that's on hb finger, 

For them he did promise to me/ — 

** Ye'se no get the rings that's on his finger, 
Ye'se no get them frae me ; 
Ye'e no get the rings that's on his finger. 
An your heart suld burst in three." — 

She's tum'd her back unto the wa', 
And her fiice unto a rock ; 
And there, before the mother's face, 
Her yeiy heart it broke. 

The tane was buried in Marie's kirk. 
The tother in Marie's quair ;* 
And out o' the tane there sprang a birk, 
And out o' the tother a brier. 

And thae twa met, and thae twa j^t. 
The birk but and the brier ; 
And by that ye may very weel ken 
They were twa lovers dear. 

I return to proYon histories. 

1685-6. Jan. 2. Catherine Sedley, daughter of Sir Charles of el^ant 
and profligate memory, created by her royal paramour James II, Baroness of 
Darlington and Countess of Dorchester for life only. 

" Sedley cursed the form that pleased a king," and eiccused his defection from James 
in the keenest irony, '' I hate ingratitude, and as his majesty has done me the unlooked 
for honour of making my daughter a counUss, I cannot do less in return than endeavour 
to make his daughter a queen." Catherine inherited much of her father's wit and all his 
indelicacy. She siud of herself and colleagues (Lady Susan Bellasis and Miss Godfrey) 
" I wonder why he keeps us; it cannot be our beauty, for he must see that we have 
none ; and it cannot be our wit, for if we have any, he has not enough to find it out." 
Personal charms indeed she had none, with the exception of two brilliant eyes, the lustre 
of which, however, seemed fierce and unfeminine. Her form was lean but stately, her 
countenance haggard. Charles II. liked her conversation, and course repartees, but, laugh- 
ing at her ugliness, said that the priests must have recommended her to his brother by 
way of penance. She laughed too, yet loved to adorn herself magnificently, and 
appeared in the' theatre and the ring plastered, painted, dad in Brussels lace, glittering 
with diamonds, and affecting all the graces of eighteen. 

Catharine had been the cause of much uneasiness to Mary Beatrice, of Modena, while 

* The last two verses are common to many ballads, and are probably derived from some 
metrical romance, since we find the idea occur in the voluminous history of Sir Tristrem* 



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CATHARINE SEDLEY. 1 79 

herhusband was duke of York. Onhisaooesdon to the throne, hifl mistress was pounced 
upon by Rochester and his party, as a medium for influencing him in opposition to 
to the queen's Catholic friends: seemingly pure and highminded cavaliers encouraged 
thisTile design of tormenting a young queen, and even the countess of Rochester entered 
into it Soon after James's accession the entreaties of his priests induced him to bid 
Catharine an eternal farewell, but she refused to leaye Whitehall, and the amour was 
soon rmewed by the instrumentality of Chiffinch. Catharine told her soyereign plainly 
what the Protestant lords only dared to hint, that his crown was at stake and that he 
was led to his ruin. In a fit of fondness^ he determined to make her baroness of Dar- 
lington and countess of Dorchester; she saw all the peril of the step and declined the in- 
Tidious honour; but he himself forced the patent into her hand. She at last accepted 
it on one condition, which was that he would giye her a solemn promise that if he ever 
quitted her, he would himself announce his resdution to her and grant her a parting 
interview. 

Day after day the queen's dishes were untasted, and tears rolled down her cheeks in 
the presence of the whole circle of courtiers. " Let me go," cried she to the king, " you 
have made your woman a countess; make her a queen ! Put my crown on her head! 
Only let me hide myself in some convent where I may never see her more." — " You 
are ready to put your kingdom to hazard for the sake of your soul; and yet you are 

throwing away your soul for the sake of that creature!" ''Sir, is it possible thai 

you would, for the sake of one passion, lose the merit of all your sacrifioesr The fact 
is that the king was alternately sinning and whipping himself, and Mary treasured up 
and at her death bequeathed io the convent of Chaillot, the scourge with which he had 
vigorously avenged her wrongs on his own shoulders. At last he was inveigled into a 
mourning multitude of Jesuits ; the queen told him she was determined to witness no 
longer her own degradation, she would withdraw into a convent, and when sobs choked 
her voice, his majesty was instantly assailed like the tyrant in a Greek chorus, by the 
united remonstrances of the chorus, until he stated that he conferred the title to break 
off the connection more decently and promised to banish her. He implored Catharine 
to depart. He owned his promise, but added " I know too well the power which yon 
have over me, I have not strength of mind to keep my resolution if I see you." He 
offered to convey her in all dignity to Flanders, and then threatened Ae should be sent 
by force. She answered that she was a martyr, a Protestant victim, that she was a fr«e- 
bom Englishwoman and would dwell where she pleased, while the Habeas Corpus Act 
and Magna Charta were laws; the king must remove her by force and then she would 
appeal to these laws of her country, and recover her liberty; " and Flanders,'^ she cried 
" never! I have learned one thing from my friend the duchess of Mazarine, and that is 
never to trust myself in a country where there are convents;" and " I will not cany my 
shame among strangers." The king urged that it might be said " if she remuned in 
England that she had still some power over his mind," she replied " that it was his 
majesty to whom the power appertained, yet she would be pulled to pieces by four 
horses before she would consent to be parted from him." At last the bribe of a large 
estate in Ireland prevailed on her to retire to that country, however she soon re- 
turned and again was intimate with James, but he^was more cautious, the queen more 
forgiving, the mistress had no political influence, and is littie more heard of, while 
Rochester reaped retribution, in disgrace. 

Catherine had two children by the king (or Col. Graham the keeper of his privy purse) 
who owned them, 1. a son, who died young on the coronation day, and thus added to 
the many ill omens to tiie unhappy king on that event, and 2. Lady Catharine Damley 
who was married 1. to the earl of Anglesey, and 2. to the Duke of Buckingham. She 
possessed some influence over her brother the Pretender, was extravaganUy proud of her 
royal blood, and was in every respect a very spirited and extraordinary woman. 

When Maiy, the daughter of James, after the Revolution, as queen, turned her back 
on the Baroness of Darlington, the latter exclaimed '* I beg your majesty to remember 



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180 TITLE. 

that if I broke one of the commandments with your fietther, you broke another agaitut 
him. On that score we are both equal." After James's flight she married Sir David 
CoUyer, first Earl of Portmore, by whom she had two sons, to whom she said " If any 

one calls you sons of a ^you must bear it, for so you are ; but if they call you bastards 

fight till you die, for you are Sir David's sons."* 

1722. Apr. 10. Sophia Charlotte, Baroness of KUmanseck, Gottntess of 
Platen and Countess of Leinster in Ireland, was created Baroness of Brent- 
ford and Countess of Darlington for life. 

The women of the Meisenberg fiEunily for three generations engaged the amorous 
attentions of the house of Brunswick Loneburg. The Countess of Darlington's mother 
(daughter of Count Earl Philip von Meisenberg, and wife of M. [afterwards Count] 
Platen) was mistress to the old Elector of Hanover ; she herself (and it seems almost 
incredible) to Qeorge I. his son, and her niece, the Countess of Yarmouth, to Qeorge II. 
Her mother had been too intimate also with the Count Konigsmark, and to stop the 
scandal had offered her daughter in marriage to him, but to his own murder and the 
melancholy imprisonment for life of the young queen of Qeorge I., he declined on scm- 
plee of conscience. These by no means afiBicted Qeorge, who accepted the young Count- 
ess Platen as a mistress. She made a hasty match vdth a M. Kilmanseck to conceal 
her profligacy, and slipping her creditors, joined the Elector on his journey to England 
at a time when his other favourites hesitated to leave their own Hanover to redde in 
such a place. The king was pleased with her zeal, and she was for some time his 
reigning sultana. Honours were showered on the Qerman demireps who made pretty 
pickings out of everything corrupt, and obtained the emoluments of various posts, the 
vacant ones being happily smaU, or else the degraded kingdom might have had the 
Countess of Darlington for Archbishop of Canterbury. One of the Qerman ladies being 
abused by the mob, was said to have put her head out of the coach, and cried in bad 
English, " Qood people, why you abuse us ? We come for aU your goods ! " *' Yes, 
and be d — d to you,*' answered a fellow, ^'and for all our chattels too." 

" Lady Darlington,*' says Horace Walpole, "whom I saw at my mother's in my in- 
£uiqr, and whom I remember by being terrified by her enormous figure, was as corpu- 
lent and ample as the Duchess of Kendal was long and emaciated. Two fierce black 
eyes, large and rolling, beneath two lofty arched eyebrows ; two acres of dieeks spread 
with crimson ; an ocean of neck that overflowed, and was not distinguished from the 
lower part of her body ; and no part restrained by stays — ^no wonder that a child dreaded 
such an ogress." 

So unwieldy in bulk was tiiis distinguished ornament of the court of St. James's, l^at 
the wits of the day bestowed on her the eogncMnen of " The Elephant and Castie." 
From another valuable authority we have a delineation a little less repulsive. " She 
had a greater vivacity in conversation," observes Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, " that 
ever I knew in a Qerman of either sex. She loved reading, and had a taste for all 
polite learning. Her humour was easy and sociable. Her constitution inclined her to 
gallantry. She was well-bred and amusing in company. I%e knew both how to please 
and be pleased, and had experience enough to know it was hard to do either without 
money. Her unlimited expenses had left her with very little remaining, and she made 
what haste ^e could to take advantage of the opinion the English had of her power 
with the king, by receiving the presents that were made her from all quarters; and 
which she knew very well must cease, when it was known that the kings idleness carried 
him to her lodgings without either r^ard for her advice or affection for her person, 
which time and very bad pdnt had left her without any of the charms that once attracted 

* Macauley and Llngard's Histories. Burnet's Own Time. Strickland's i^ueens of Eng- 
land. Suffolk Letters, &c 



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MADAM KILMANSECK. 181 

him.*' The nctorial History of England, ir. 383, makes a carious mistake, *' The old 
lean mistrees, the dachees of Kendal, stood firm for Walpole, but Carteret had secured 
the younger and thinner mistress. Madam Kilmanseg, now countess of Darlington, and 
her sister Madam Platen." This " thinner mistress" was '* the Elephant and Castle," 
and she had no sister.* 

No wonder the mob of London were highly diTsrted at thdr sovereign's tastes, and 
ereiy sort of abuse was directed by the Jacobites agunst the court.t 

'* The ogress" had one daughter (Charlotte) by the king, who shared handsomely in the 
general plunder, and afterwards married Viscount Howe, by whom she had a son des- 
tined to raise the family to an enviable distinction. He was Admiral Lord Howe. 

The countess of Darlington died some years before the Duchess of KendaL Her arms 
are inserted in Allan's Illustrated Camden. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Az, three mullets ar. 2, 
or, a lion rampant gu. 3, vert, two fox's heads erased (Argent ?) facing each other. On 
an esoutoheon of pretence Ar. three roses gu. Supporters, two lions rampant gu. 
crowned or, each charged with an escutcheon (arg. three roses gu.) 

I gladlj pass from these unpleaaant characters to a gallant race of our 
Engfish Aristocracy, and msert 

Cl^ S^^tgrte of t^t famtip ot tBmt, 6arb ot Sarlmston antr 
Suiti ol Cbbelan^. 

The early part of the Vane pedigree is much confused, but may be seen in the peer- 
ages. The family came from Monmouthshire to Kent The first of the race connected 
with this county was 

SIR HENRY VANE, a distinguished politician. Ambassador to various states, and 
Secretary of State to King Charles I., having been knighted by James I. in 1611. His 
<Hm«i«^1 from his offices and enmity to the Earl of Strafford (who, out of contempt to 
the Vanes, had been created Baron of Raby), with his consequent adherence to the Par- 
liament, are matters of general history. He purchased Raby and Barnard Castle, and 
all the demesnes thereto belonging, from the crown (see p. 121). He entertained Charles 
I. at his castle at Raby in May, 1633, in his way to Scotland to be crowned ; and he 
did the Hke in April, 1639, on the King's expedition to Scotland, when Sir Henry com- 
manded a regiment of 1000 men. He died in 1654-5, aged 69, having m. Frances, d. 
and coh. of Tho. Darcy, of Tolshunt-Darcy, in co. Essex, esq., (she was bur. at Ship- 
bourne, in Kent, 1663) by whom he had issue ; 

I. Sim HcmiY, his sacceasor. 

II. Thomas. \ j . ^ 

III. John. \^*nf. 

IV. Sia George Vake, of Lone Newton, knighted 1640, m. Elizabeth, the dau. and 
heiress of Sir Lyonel Maddison of Rogerly, co. Durham and Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. He d. 1679, and was buried in Long Newton church, where there is a 
monument to him. 

HIS HOlfODR WOmrS I'tH FIELD LIES HERE IN DUST, 
HIS HONOUR GOT BT GRACE SHALL NEVER RUST ; 
THE FORMER FADES, THE LATTER SHALL FAILE NEVER, 
FOR WHT, HE WAS s'R GEORGE ONCE, B*T ST. GEORGE EVER. 

He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

Lionel, M.P. for the ooant? of Dnrhun, eboMn 1698, 1700, 1701, who mar. CathoriM, dao. and 
at Iragth eo*b«r of Sir Geo. Fletcher. Bart., and waa grandlkther of 

Thb Rev. Henry Vane, D.D., Rector of Long Newtoo, and prebeadary of Durham, 
created a Baronet in 1784, who mar. Frances, dan. of John Tempeet, eeq., and at 
lenffth eole heiren of her brother Jobn Tempeet of Wjnjard, and Old Durham, esq, 
and waa raeoeeded bj hia oulj eon and heir, 

* Memoirs of Sophia Dorothea, Colbum, 1845, whence this sketch is chiefly derived 

+ Horace Walpole. 



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182 TITLE. 

Sir Henet Vane, Bart:, who aafomed the tdditional ntme of Temptst; he 
mmr. 38A April, 1799, Anne Catherine, Coanteti of Antrim, md djbg in 
1613, WM socoeeded bj hie onlj dnn. end he ir aw. 

FRANCES Annb Bmilt, born 16 Jnn , 1800, mar. 3 April, 1819, to 
Chsriea- William, present Marqoie of Londondeny, irho bj ropl 
beenee aeenmed ue name of Vane oolj. 

V. Sir Walter Vane, of Shipboume, a mi^or-general under the Prince of Orange, 

killed at the battle of Seneffe in Germany, Aug. 1647. d. s. p. 

VI. Charles Vane of Chopwell, Durham, d, unm- 

VII. William. > . .,^^ 

VIII. Edward. ]d'^^' 

1. Bfargaret, m. Sir Tho. Penham* 

2. Frances, m. Sir Robert Honeywood. 

3. Anne. m. Sir Tho. Liddell of Kavensworth. 

4. Elizabeth, m. Sir Fra. Vincent. 

5. Catharine, d, unm, 1692. 

SIR HENRY VANE (knighted by K. Char. 1. 1640) " whose fame speaks trumpet- 
tongued to the hearts of Engltshmen," is immortalized in Milton*s beautiful sonnet, and 
no less 80 by Cromwell's celebrated ejaculation, *' Sir Harry Vane, Sir Hairy Vane— 
the Lord deUver me from Sir Harry Vane.** In Oeneva he had imbibed many odd 
notions against the form of the government and the liturgy, inclining to the opinion of 
Origen that devils and all should be saved.* His subsequent attachment to the Parlia- 
ment brought him strikingly out in the scene of politics, and Charles II. thinking that 
" certaynly he is too dangerous a man to lett live, if we can honestly put him oat of the 
way,"t brought him to the block 14 June, 1662, when the drums struck up to prevent 
his being heard. While Treasurer to the Navy, (a place he held till the first wars be- 
tween the English and Dutch) his fees amounted to little less than 30,000/. yearly ; 
which he considering to be too mudi for a private subject, with rare honour gave up 
his patent (from Charles I. for life) to the then Parliament, desiring but 2000^. yearly 
for an agent he had bred up to the business, and the remainder to go to the pablic4 
He was bur. at Shipboume. His wife, Frances, dan. of Sir Chr. Wray, of Glentworth, 
Line. Bart., d, in 1679 and was bur. at the same place, having had issue 

I. Henry. ^ 

II. WilUam. \d.s,p. 
in. Richard I 

IV. Thomas, m. Frances, dn of Sir Tho. Liddell ; he was elected M.P* fbr the county 
of Durham, 21 June, 1675. He was attackeKl by the small-pox, and ** was in a 
fever at Raby upon the dav of his election, whereby he died the fourth day alter, 
June 25th, in the morning.'' He died «. p., aged 23, and was bar. at Staindrop. 

V. Chrtstophbiu 

VI. CeclL ^ 

VII. Edward. \ d. inf* 

VIII. Henry, i 

1. Dorothy, m. The Crispe of Essex, in 1679. 

2. Frances, m. Edw. Kegwick, esq. 

d. Mar^,fie. Sir James TUlie, of Pentillie Castle, Cornwall, knt(2.«.p. 1683,biir.at 
Shipboume. 

4. Anne. \ . ^.^ 

5. Catherine, f «•«****• 

6. Albinia, m* Henry Forth, esq., an Alderman of London, and had issue Hen. Forth, 

esq., of Darlington, who m. Ann dr. of Richard Hilton, esq., and was bur. amon^ 
the Hiltons at the entrance of Darlington Church in 1746. (See further in pedi- 
gree of Heltov, Hyltok, or Hilton hereafter.) 

CHRISTOPHER VANE, created Babon Barnard of Barnard CasUe, 8 July, 1699, 
with remainder to heirs male. The title of Raby would have been preferred, but it was 
still in the male descendants of the nnfortonate Strafford's youngs brother. He suc- 
ceeded his brother Thomas Vane as M. P. for the county of Durham 25 Oct, 1675, and 
was ousted in the elections of 1679 and 1680. He d, 28 Oct. 1723, aged 70, and was 

* Surtees letters. J. a T. f Royal letter. Lansdown Collection, p. 125. 

t ColUns. 



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THE VANES. 18;} 

bar. at Shipbonnie. He m, EGzabeih, eldest daa. of Gilbert Holies, Earl of Clare, and 
sister and oo-hdr to John^ Duke of Newcastle, by whom he had issue 

I. Henry. "I ^ .'-^ 

II. Christopher. / ^- *'V- 

in. GlI^BKHT. 

lY . WoLLiAJc, chosen M.P. for this coonty in 1708, created Visconnt Vane and Baron 
of Duncannon, co. Tyrone, in 1720, a. suddenly of an apoplexy, at hi4 seat of 
Fairlawn, 20 May, 1734, aged 68, haying three days before been elected M.P. for 
Kent, br. 6 June at Shipboume. He m. Lucy, dr. and co-heiress of Wm. Jolliffe, 
esq^ of Cayerswell, Staflik She d, 27 March, 1742, was bar. at Shipbourae, and 
had issue 

I. Chrutopber, d. 17tl, aged 17, bor. st Shipbonnie. 

II. John. d. at Naples, i Feb. 17S3, amd 17, bor. at Shipboone 17 Apr. 

III. William, b. 1714, eoeceeded as VISCOUNT VANS in 17S4, mar. Fraoeee, dan. of Franeie 
Hawe«,eeq. and widow of Lord William Hamilton. </« 5 Apr. 1789 «. p. when Uie title became 
extinct, bor. at Shipboume. An Aet paaaed for the aale of hie eatatet tojMf hie debts, and 
the tithes of Darlinaton which had been settled upon these Lords of Fairlawn, reverted 
ihereopoo to the main line hj pnrdkase. 

1. Elizabeth. \ 

2. Albinia. >d,in/. 
S. Mary. J 

4. Grace, suryiyed her father. 

GILBERT VANE, Baron Barnard, d. 1753, aged 75. 01. Mary, dr. of Moigan 
Randyll, of Chilworth, Surrey, esq. ; she <f. at Newark, 4 Aug., 1728, aged 47, haying 
hadissae 

I. Hsvnr. 

n. Morgan, made Comptroller of the Stamp Office in 1782, m, Margaretta, dr. of Mr. 
Robert Knight, formerly Ceshier to the South Sea Company, by whom there was 
a son, Morgan Vane. Sne d. at the Bath in May. 1739. He mar. secondly Anna 
Mariai dan. of— Fowler, esq., and thirdly to Maiy, sister to John Woodyear, 
esq., by whom he had a dan. Mary Vane. 

m. Thomas, d. 19 Feb. 1768. 

ly. Gilbert, a Lieut.-Colonel in the Army, died unmarried in 1772. 

y. Randal, died unmarried 1736. 

yi. Charles, of Mount Ida, Nort, had an only dr. Henrietta, who m. Sir William 
Langham, Bart. 

1. Anne, maid of honour to i^ueen Caroline ; she d* at the Bath, unm. 11 Mar. 1735^. 

2. Elizabeth, m. Sir WUliam Humble, Bart She died 22 Feb. 1770. 

3. Jane, m» Thomas Staunton, of Stockgroye, Bucka, esq., and had issue. 

HENRY, 3rd Baron Barnard, b, 1705, sometime (1747) M. P. for Durham and for 
Lannceston and St Maws, Cornwall, yice-treasnrer of Ireland, &c.. Lord lieutenant and 
Vice- Admiral for Durham in 1754. In that year, (Apr. 3.) on the formation of the 
Dnke of Newcastle's ministry he was created Viscount Barnard and Earl of Dar- 
UNOTON, and filled high official employment Hb character was yarionsly represented 
in consequence of the hot state of party. Horace Walpole lashes him in his most 
bitter style, while the premier Duke panegyricised him in the Lords as *' Harry Vane, 
who neyer said a false thing, or did a bad one." He dL 6 Mar. 1758. His^wife was 
Grace Fitiroy, granddaughter of Chaaies II. by the beautiful Barbara Villiers, Duchess 
<tf Cleyehmd, and heiress to her brother the second Duke of Cleyeland ; she d. 1763, 
aged 66, haying borne him issue 

I. Hskrt. 

n. Frederick, of Sellaby, a man'of the roost elegant taste, M.P« for Durham, 1761, 
(an election which lasted nine days) b, 26 June, 1782, d, 1801. He m. Henrietta^ 
sister of Sir Wm. Meredith, Bart., bur. 10 Mar., 1796, at Gainford, *• above 70,'* 
and secondly on 7 Sep. 1797, at Gamford, Jane, eldest dr. of Arthur Lysaght,esq. 
of Bath, CO. Somerset. 

in. Raby Vane, owner, ^r^ uxoris^ of lands at Blackwell, &c., chosen M.P. for co. of 
Durham, 1758. 6. 1736, d. 23 Oct 1769, m, Elizabeth, dr. of George Sayer, D.D.. 
Archdeacon of Durham. 17 Apr. 1768, Mar. The Hon. Raby Vane, esq., third 
brother to the Earl of Darlington, to Miss Eyres, of Lower Grosyenor Street, 
daughter to the late Bishop Eyres. Lloyd's Evening Pott, and Oent. Mag of the 
dap- The marriage seems to haye escaped Surtees (iy. l33) and the Peerages. 
His widow Elizabeth lived at Staindrop Hall, d. 28 May, 1789, aged 47, and by 
her own request was buried near the N.W. comer of Staindrop church-yard, 
where an altartomb perpetuates her memory. 

1. Anna, m. first the Hon. Chas. Hope Weir, hro. of James, 9td Earl of Hopetown, 

and secondly Brig.-Gen. the Hon. George Monson. 

2. Mary. m. Ralph Carr, of Cocken, esq., d, $, p. 1781. 

3. Henrietta, d, unm, 20 Jan. 1769. 



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184 TITLE . 

HENRY VANE. 2iiv Earl of Darlington, bora in 1726, succeeded as Lord Lient 
and Vice-Admiral of the ooanty in 1758. He was chosen M.P. for Dnrfaam, on his 
father being made a peer, in 1753, and was rechosen in 1754, Master of the Jewel Office 
and Ooveraor of Carlisle^ Alderman of Durham city, and Colonel of the Militia of Dor- 
ham county, he <i 8 Sep. 1792, aged 65, h&ng commemorated by arecumbent effigy and 
distant view of Raby on a mural monument of white marble, in Staindiop chancel. 
He is there called " a sincere and pious christian," who "stood forth in an age of m- 
creasing relastttioii, a good and great example,** and when, in 1775, Geoige Cdman, jmL, 
in company with his father, (whose observation to a South Durham post-boy was " in 
phrase too classical for a north-country post-boy to understand; and the post-boy 
answered in a dialect quite incomprehensible to the translator of Terence*^ visited 
the Earl, who was an old acquaintance, he thought the first glimpse beneath his roof 
" presented a warmer picture of ancient hospitality than he had ever witnessed, or might 
perhaps ever see agun." In like manner my grandsire, William Longstafie, the worthy 
vicsor of KeUoe (who non oUtante his doth, had been appointed a deputy-lieutenant 
under the Militia acts by this gallant old Earl in May, 1785) vidted him in a tour of 
July following, and after a night's experience of Raby dining and dreaming, very sensi- 
bly notes his diecided conviction, that the " most capadous and grand Gothic edifice" 
was indeed possessed of " comforts and conveniences, in a Miperior manner to any 
modera house he ever saw." All this hospitality has done anything but waned vnth 
the accession of a dukedom, and to have a proper idea of such q>lendour it must be 
remembered that the Nevilles themselves wer^ at last borae down with the weight of 
doing everything in accordance with " Raby, the largest castd of logginges in al the 
North Cuntery." During this eari's time, in 1778, Mary Hildray died at Piercebridge, 
aged 107 years, all spent in single blessedness, and nearly 90 of which had seen her a 
tenant under the Raby family. His farm and fEurmyard were objects deserving the best 
attention, the feom included lands of the annual value of 1200/. wherdn all the im- 
provements in agriculture were practised. His lordship however retained one andait 
usage, for on his fimn the tallage lands were ploughed by between 20 and 90 teems of 
four oxen each. In the fBomyturd were dose stands for upwards of 40 oxen, beddes an 
open spadous fold with a dstern of water perpetually running ; there were covered racks 
and pens for 800 sheep, and various'other conveniences ; the superintendence of all thb 
being a treasure of enjoyment and health to the noble owner. 

The Earl m. on the 10th March, 1757, Margaret, dster of James, the first Earl of 
Lonsdale, who d, at Langton Orange, deservedly lamented by all her poorer ndghbours, 
on the 11th September, 1800. She had issue (with two daughters who d, inf.) 

WILLIAM HARRY VANE, 3rd Earl or Darlinotok, Viscount and Ba»m 
Barnard, 6« 27 July, 1766, Lord lieutenant, Gustos Rotulorum, and Vioe-Admiral 
of Durham, Colond of the Durham Militia, and sometime M.P. for Winchilsea, 
created a Marquis in 1827, and Duke of Cleveland and Baron Raby in 1833, 
dected K.G. in 1839, d. 29 Jan. 1842, aged 75, at his residence in St James's 
Square, bur. in Staindrop Church where there is a recumbent effigy on an altar tomb to 
his memory. His grace m, first 19 Sep. 1787, Lady Katharine Powlett, 2nd dr. and coh. 
of Harry, sixth and last Duke of Bolton, and coh. of one moiety of the Barony of St. 
John of Basing, she d. 17 June, 1807 ; and secondly on the 27 July, 1813, Elizabeth^ dr. 
of Robert Russell, esq. By his first lady only his grace had issue 

I. Hekrt. 

II. William John Frederick, who assumed the name of Powlett, 6.3 Apr, 1793jNMBe- 

time M.P. for this county, m. 3 July, 1815, Caroline, 5th dr. of William. Earl of 
Lonsdale, K.G.. b. 17 Feb. 1792. 
Iff. Harry George, 6. 19 April, 1803. M.P. for South Durham. 

1. Louisa-Catharine-Barbara, 6. 4 Jan. 1791, m- 29 July, 1813, to Francis Forester, 

esq., brother to the late Lord Forester, and d. 8 Jan. 1821. 

2. Caroline-Mary, 6. 8 Feb. and d. U May, 1795. 



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THE VANES. 135 

3. Ani!:n8ta-Henrietta, b. 26 Dec. 1796, m. 2 June, 1817, to Mark Milbanke, esq., of 

Thorpe Perrow, near Bedale, Yorks-, M.P. 

4. Laura, m. 24 Feb. 1823, to Lieat^Ck>l. William Henry Meyrick, of the 3rd Foot 

Guards. 

5. Arabella, 6. 2 June, 1801, m. 25 Apr., 1831, to The Hon. Ricliard Pepper Arden, of 

Pepper Hall, Yorkshire, now Lord Alvanly. (See Pedigree of Prescott here- 
after.) 

HENRY VANE, Second Duke and Marquis of Cleveland, K. G., Earl of 
Darlington, Viscount and Baron Barnard of Barnard Castle, and Baron Raby of Raby 
Castle, CoL in the Army and Col. of the Durham Militia, and sometime M.P. for the 
county of Durham, b. 16 Aug., 1788, succeeded to the title in 1842. He mar. 16 Nov., 
1809, Sophia, eldest dau. of John, 4th Earl of Poulet, K.T., b, 16 March, 1785. On the 
occasion of his attaining his majority as Lord Barnard in 1809, an ox was roasted whole 
at Darlington and distributed with plenty of strong ale to the populace, and similar 
rejoicings occurred at other places. The skull of the ox roasted at Piersebridge is pre- 
served in a butcher ^s shop there, the horns are gilded. ^ 

Arrns. Quarterly. I. and IV., az. 3 sinister gauntlets or,* for Vane. II. and III. 
iloarterly, 1 and 4 quarterly France and England ; 2 Scotland, 3 Ireland (being the arms 
of Ch%rles IL) over all a baton sinister, compony ar. and az. for Fitzroy. 

Gresta- I. On a wreath, a dexter hand, couped above the wrist, erect in a gauntlet proper, 
bossed and rimmed or, brandishing a sword, also proper, for Vane. II. On a chapeau gu. 
tumed-u]) ermine, a lion passant, guardant, or, crowned with a ducal coronet az. and 
gorged with a collar counter-compony ar. and az, for Fitzrot. 

Supporters' Dexter, a griffin ar. ; sinister, an antelope or, each gorged with a plain collar 
az. (formerlv the griffin was worn charged with 3 gauntlets as in the anns, and the antelope 
with 3 martlets). These are the supporters of Vane, but those of Fitzroy have occasion- 
ally been adopted, viz. dexter, a lion guardant or, crowned and gorged as in the crest ; 
sinister, a greyhound ar. collared as in the dexter. 

Motto. Nee temere, neo timide. 

%♦ I will here throw together an anecdote or two which occur to me, and which would 
confuse the stream of pedigree. 

In 1714, the first Lord Barnard having taken some extraordinary displeasure against 
his son, on whom the castle of Raby was settled, got 200 workmen together of a sudden, 
and in a few days stripped it of its covering of lead, iron, glass, doors, boards, &c., to 
the value of 3000/. The Court of Chancery, however, no only granted an injunction to 
stay committing waste, but decreed that the castle should be repaired and put in the 
same condition it was in August 1714 ; for which purpose a commission issued to ascertain 
what ought to be done, and a master appointed to see it done, at the expense of Lord B. 

The second Duke of Cleveland, brother to Grace Fitzroy, often resided at Raby, and 
in the hunting or sporting season, had also an occasional dormitory and refectory 
(both one room) in the house of one of the Raby tenants, at Piersebridge, which 
is still pointed out. He seems, judging from the popular traditions floating in 
South Durham, to have been a quiet, unoffending man, of the roost unassum- 
ing simplicity. He doated upon the chase, and once when out on his favourite 
bent, his horse happened an accident, and he was compelled to mount a hay- 
stack to obtain as wide a scope of view as possible. The farmer s wife tenanting 
the adjacent farm bustled out and fiercely called him down. The peer's gentle 
explanation, " My good woman, I am the Duke,'' only added fresh fuel to the 
termagant's fire. •* Why, I dinna care whether ye be duie or draJbe, ye shall 
come down." Another story has been bandied about in newspaper Uterature in 
fifty changes, but it is very generally localized in Darlington Ward. It seems that the 

• There is a tradition that the original arms were a bloody hand, which was afterwards 
covered with a steel gauntlet. But does it not rather refer to the crest f 

2a 



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18(> " TITLE. 

hot blood of Finch did not satisfactorily naturalize itself with ^the amiable dnke, who 
used to hold his high-spirited wife*s hanks of linen thread while she wound them, but 
often entangled them with his awkward handling. On one of these occasions she 
angrily exclaimed " you fool you," a taunt which even he could not tamely submit to, 
for he replied sharply " yes, I was a fooUwhen I married you." 

To pass to the Long-Newton members of the family of Vane. An old cartwrightof 
Long-Newton, who made divers articles for one of them (Dr. Henry Vane, who was 
made a Bart, in 1782, 1 believe), being unable to write, used to make his bills out in a 
system of hieroglyphics, describing the items by rude drawings. In one of these pre- 
cious documents there was a simple circle which puzzled the patrician most woefully, 
he recollected nothing of the sort being done for him, and in despair went to the old 
man to make enquiries. The latter however was more accustomed to invent hiero- 
glyphics jwo tern, than to read them when accomplished, and had completely forgotten 
the signification of the mystery. " Why," said he, scratching his head, " it's like a 
eheege, but what I nivver sould a cheese to your worship ! — cheese — cheese — Oh ! I know 
what it is, it^s hgrundstone, and I've furgetten to put a pop int' middle on't" 

In 1794, John Tempest, esq., of Wynyard, died. This benevolent gentleman had for 
upwards of forty years employed William Garthwaite, of Wolveston, as carpenter at 
the Hall, and afterwards as porter at the Lodge. Two or three days before he died, he 
asked the old man, if he could do anything to make him more comfortable, but he ex- 
pressed himself to be quite content as he was. The squire died ; Madam Tempest 
his widow, requested nothing except the miniatures of her husband and son, and left 
Wynyard for Little Grove, near London. Harry Vane, of Long-Newton, was the hdr 
to his uncle, but his long absence on the continent, his precarious health, and the total 
want of intelligence, rendered his existence extremely doubtful. One day his valet 
accidentally took up an English newspaper, and saw an advertisement requesting the 
immediate return of his master, and they both arrived at Wynyard with all possible 
expedition. At the entrance to the grounds they reined in their horses and were 
gently riding through, when, to their infinite surprise, a loud voice exclaimed '' Come 
back ! '* On looking round, a tall elderly man approached from the lodge, demanding 
where Harry had got authority to ride through without his leave ; a smile pervaded the 
baronet's features, which exasperated the old porter still more, and he fiercely cried 
" Thou's somebody's dirty lick-plate,* or thou never would come here in such an im- 
pudent manner ! " After amusing himself a little longer, the lick-plate threw o£P his 
disguise, and told the porter plainly who he was, for the porter had completely forgotten 
the young heir's features. The astonishment was now on the other side, but Sir Hairy 
Vane Tempest (to give him his later title) told him good-naturedly to get his hat and 
stick and accompany him to the hall, talking over the events of his absence on the way. 
A visit to the lodge, to present the faithful creature with a guinea for a new wig, soon 
followed, and in his infirmity he was pensioned with his son and daughter at Darlington, 
and eventually was placed, through Sir Harry's influence, at Kirkleatham Hospital, 
where he died in 1816, aged 88.t 

* A contemptuous epithet for an ill-bred person. I think I have seen somewhere, that 
the more menial servants in the houses of gentry-folks in olden times, were only allowed 
the privilege of licking the platters, after the superior servants had gobbled up the ''cream 
of the dish." 

t Ex inf. John Burlison, of Darlington, the hero's great grandson. 

t4^ A lady in Darlington still performs the singular custom of presenting ihret red roses 
on Midsummer-day at Raby Castle, by which tenure she holds certain property near Cock- 
field (at Pethraw, I believe.) 



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[ View of the Ma»crhowe temp, Oeo, AUan^ arcAcso^.] 



Chapter Vi. Ctatjuteriatica. 

Wb have but little left at Darlington in the way of remains of former glory. 
We may not say that this was a Roman station or Saxon fortress. Cade 
oonjectm^ that the Roman road from York, came by Graike to Nesham and 
Sockbom where it crossed the Tees and ran on by Bishopton, Mainsforth, 
Old Durham, and Chester to Gateshead On the other side Leeming Lane 
creeses at Piersbridge, which has become very famous for its Roman remains. 
" The direct road," says he, " firom Darlington to Durham, I conjecture to 
have been a later work of some of the bishops ; for, if you observe, when 
Canute came on penance here, he walked barefooted from Qarmonsway" 
[to Durham].* In 1 790, he wrote to Gk)ugh, that "a most Valuable collection 
of Roman silver coins has, this year, been taken up out of the bed of the 
river Tees, near Darlington. I had about a dozen sent me for inspection ; 
some of Trajan, Grordianus, Hadrian, Severus, Antoninus, Carausius, and 
others. Those that I saw were as perfect as if almost taken from the mint, 
but the treasure dispersed into divers hands." In later times a vast quantity 
of Roman 3rd. brass coins have been discovered in the Cockerbeck, between 
Mowdon bridge and Darlington, and in Baydalebeck, near the same bridge. 
The main deposit was adjoining the lands of William Allan, esq. I have 
seen an inmiense number in the hands of various owners. They are in the 
most perfect preservation, and are all of the Constantino £unily.f 

* Correspondence. Nichols' Library Anecdotes- 
t Those which have occurred to me are coins of the imperial ladies Helena and Flavia 
MaTJma Fausta, of the two Constan tines and Crispus. Many have on the exergue P.LON. 
00 very rare characteristic, though an interesting one, it being considered to denote money 
struck at London. The rare reverse of Constantino II. Virtus Exercit. (a trophy be- 
tween two captives), occurs among the London specimens. Mr. Sams has a fine collection 
of these Cockerton pieces. 



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188 THE BISHOPS' 

Castle Hill has already been mentioned at sufiBcient length (p. 1 18), and 
the Tees has left it but little character ; it is opposite the seathouse of R H. 
Allan, esq., whose labourers, in 1848, found in his grounds a singular leaden 
ornament with pellets in compartments. 

The bishop s manor house at Darlington, is situate due sputh of the church. 
On entering the court-yard from the lane, opposite the porter's lodge is a 
small modern room, in which are two fine old oak chests, both of much the 
same age. One is beautifully inlaid in elegant panel-devices : the other is 
interesting as having the arms and crest of Eure (which appear to have been 
inlaid), and this inscription : " 1575. B. e. the. eight. worshipfvll. eavpe. 
BVRIE. THELDER. 1575/'* Balph Eutye, esq., was made borough bailiff in 
1561, and the main branch of the Euros held lands at DarUngton and 
BlackwelL The other chest is said to have been brought from Thornton Hall 
where it was enchanted, and stood for generations unopened, no one daring to 
meddle with it. Passing through the court-yard, we come to a doorway on 
the north of "the building, which has been pointed ; indeed, the bounding 
label still remains^ In a direct line with this is a neat little early English 
arch (see cut, page 43), the remnant of Pudsey's work, shut up in a sort of 
pantry. It was formerly the entrance of a long arched passage, leading to 
what is now a hen-house, supposed to have been a dungeon ; though why, it 
would be somewhat difficult to find out. This passage is now completely 
removed, and the hen-house so modernized as to retain little that appertain- 
eth to "hoare antiquitie" save the massive stone walla To this I ought to 
add that the floor hajs been raised, and the arch somewhat curtailed of its fair 
proportions. To the right of the space between the outer doorway and the 
arch is a large room of later architecture, apparently a halL It is lighted by 
small, square, oblong lights ; and at the west end are two doorways, flat 
four-centered ; one leading into a closet, the other into the modem part of 
the workhouse. The wall-plate of the roof — also late florid — remains above 
these arches, showing the moulding of the ribs, which appear to have divided 
the roof into a series of square panels. The exterior roofs of the whole 
ancient part of the building are of good pitch, and are plain oak, as the work- 
house-master informed me ; but the exact plan of the mansion cannot now be 
ascertained. One high square chimney retains an early corbel table, formed 
of minute archea To the left of the entrance, and opposite the hall 
before described, is " the chapel" [St James's], which is deUneated in Allan's 
cut to the right The whole of the exterior is roughcast One may still see 
three Norman lights in the eastern gable (pointing out the date, 1160, as a 
probable one), and the sides had also small circular-headed lights of extremely 
deep splay. The chapel formerly opened out of the entrance passage by an 
enriched doorway, but the whole is now modernized. The foundation will be 
noticed in the Ecclesiastical Division. Up stairs, are the remains of what is 

* The eve is awkwardly made into three, and the date seems 1S75; but the frand is too 
palpable. 



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^^ MANOR HOUSE. 189 

termed " the anquetting roorn," which has had traceried windows, one now 
fbnning a doorway. There is also a plain early stone fireplace. 

In ancient times, we find the plot of gromid on which die mansion stands 
called HallgartL 

1311. Bishop Kellawe finding that personB had been treading the grass in the flat 
[in facea^ between the gate of his manor and the vicar's hoases, in length from the 
gate aforesaid to the msadow called Fycton * gives it to the vicar for life [in order that 
some honest person should have it, I suppose.] This bishop was a very exact and pro- 
per man, for in the next year, having heard that the nobles of England were gathering 
their forces, for the purpose of having a grand toumamerU at DarlinffUm, he writes a 
peremptory mandate to hb coroner of Sadberge, instructing him to prevent any such 
thing, for he would not have it in his liberty .t The flat abovementioned (now, I pre- 
sume, the worthy workhouse master's fertile garden), is again mentioned in 1320, as 
fimaium epueopi^ near a piece of meadow granted to Wm. s. Wm. de Walleworthe, by 
John 8. Wm. s. Benedict de Derlington, who evidently took under a charter of 1290 
from Bishop Beke to bis father, of 4a. 3r. 4^, of land in the field of Derlingtone, super 
BUeopflat.. In 1314 ? the same John granted to Wm. de Walleworde and Margery ux. 
le HcUlefiat, The excessively small parcels of ground conveyed in those early periods 
plainly shew the sad uncultivated state of the " fields.** % 

At the conclusion of the 13th century we find Stephen de ButeUria de Derlingtone, a 
seller, and Robert Janitor^ a buyer, evidently officials of the bishop, the latter being pro- 
bably father of Richard Porter y mentioned p. 171. 

The custodiership of the Manor House is still a patent office, although the hcue in quo 
has been sold. It accompanies the bailiwick of Coatham Mundeville and entitles ita 
holder to 4 quarters of wheat from the bishop's tenants of Blackwell. 53«. 4d, is payable 
to him as bailifl* of Coatham. The holders were generally lawyers. 

The Manor Honse was bought by the township in 1806, for the purposes 
of a poor-house. It had been so used for some time before. A large pile of 
new buildings was erected to the south in 1808, the cost being partly defer- 
red by the bequest of Mr. G. G. Phillips, (see p. 1 58), indicated on a slip of 
paper attached to his will " Town <£*100." Mr. Creorge Elwin is workhouse- 
master, and everything is conducted in the most " apple-pie order." 

POSTCRIPT. 

Visit of Queen Victoria. On the 28th of September, 1849, Darlington was once 
more in the route of a royal progress. Her present Majesty on her journey from Scot- 
land to the Isle of Wight, most graciously consented to receire an address here. The 
Bank Top Station was repainted, and hung with evergreens and banners, platforms and 
terraces were prepared, floral crowns§ furnished, and all the petty splendour a rural 
town could muster was brought to bear on the event. At a public meeting, (Robert 
Henry Allan, esq., in the chair) the following address was decided upon, to be presented 
by the borough bailiff, such of the local nobility as could attend, the two membera for 
the division, the magistrates of the district, the clergy and ministers of the town, together 
with Messrs. William Backhouse, Edmund Backhouse, Joseph Forster, Henry Hutchin- 
son, John Kipling, Michael Middleton, Francis Mewbum, jun., Edward Kipling, James 

* Qu., the modem Feethams, which, however, in 1631 was Fetholmee, 

t Kellawe's Register. t Charters. D. and C. Durham. 

§ Mr Marley, of Bank Top, furnished one, composed entirely of the richest dahlias> 



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]<)0 QUEEN VICTORIA'S 

Overend, Joseph Pease, J. B. Pease, Nathaniel Plews, Henry Pease, J. S. Peacock, and 
George Allison. 

May it Pleasb your Majesty. We, your Majesty's dutiful and loyal snhjects, the 
Nobility, Magistrates, Clergy, Ministers, Grentry, Merchants, and other inhabitants of 
the town of Darlington and the neighbourhood, approach your Majesty with feelings of 
the most respectful and dutiful attachment to your august person and throne, and beg 
to ofier the warmest and most cordial expression of our welcome on this your first 
Royal progress through the County of Durham. 

We beg to express our grateful sense of the deep interest which your Majesty has ever 
been graciously pleased to evince in the welfare of your Majesty's subjects at large, and 
which has been so especially shown towards the inhabitants of Ireland by the late Royal 
Tisit to that country, which we fervently hope will strengthen the ties that attach them 
to your Majesty's throne and person. 

We pray that your Migesty's reign may be long and prosperous, — chaiaeterized by 
that continued progress in social advancement which has rendered Great Britain so pre- 
eminent amongst surrounding nations. 

We heartily desire that the remainder of your Majesty's journey may be safely 
accomplished, and that you, your Royal Consort, and Children, may possess every 
blessing which the Almighty can bestow, and every happiness which this world can 
afford. 

Signed, on behalf of the Nobility, Magistrates, Clergy, Ministers, Gentry, 
Merchants, and other Inhabitants of the town of Darlington, and the 
Neighbourhood, in the County of Durham, m public meeting assembled. 
FRA. MEWBURN, Chief Bailiff of DarUngton. 

On the day of presentation, the rain fell heavily, and but partially cleared up on the 
auspicious occasion. The enthusiasm of the many thousands assembled was however 
immense, and quiet and reverential withaL Nothing could be done with more decorum, 
and the appearance of so many magbtrates and clergy in their vestments, as well as the 
plainer preachers of the Non-conformists, gave the precise spot of action more than 
common state. The shops were all closed and the bells of the churches of St. Cuthbert 
and St. John sent forth their merriest peals. 

At 1*35 p.m. the Royal train appeared. The band struck up the Royal Anthem, and 
amidst deafening cheers the Queen entered the station. Her Majesty, as previously inti- 
mated, did not alight, but Sir George Grey having introduced the borough bailiff, he 
presented the address* to her Majesty, who received it in the most gracious manner. 
She also most benignly accepted a magnificent bouquet from Mr. John Harrison's Grange 
Road Gardens, and a large paper copy of all then published of this work. Captain 
Robson, of Heighington, formerly commander of the Royal Yacht, and Lord Hany Vane 
were both acknowledged by the Queen, who wore a light plaid shawl and white silk 
bonnet, trimmed in the simplest manner. Prince Albert and the Royal Children also 
won golden opinions by their condescension. One worthy old man was certain that 
<* the little girl pulled the nosegay from her mother, sir, and smelt at it very mucA." 
The Marchioness of Douro alighted and remained a few minutes in the station. After 
remaining about fifteen minutes in the station, the train moved slowly through the 
crowded lines of spectators for York, amid repeated peals of cheers. 

* I crouch in a note. It was on vellum, in the fullest decoration of medieval art I could 
combine with chastity of effect. In an initial letter hung the arms of England. In the 
copy of my work presented, I inserted a blank page containing a rich cross of foliage, 
which wreathed round four shields, 1 and 4, England; 2, Scotland; and 3, Ireland, 
** Humbly presented to her most gracious Mi^eety Queen Victoria, upon the occasion of 
her first royal progress through the county palatine of Durham, by her moat dutifiil subject 
the Author." 



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PROGRESS THROUGH DARLINGTON. 191 

The day was completely a holiday, the shops were dosed, and a glorious bonfire and 
heaps of noby fireworks, with an illumination or two, made night cheerful. 

POSTSCRIPT 2. 

Thb Rising of ths North. Among those who accompanied the Earl of Westmore- 
land " across the sea, and bid farewell to bower and green,'* was Henry S^pson, who 
returned in 1671 and confessed that he was a native of Darlington^ 2d years of age ; 
that he had served as a soldier under Captain Sanders, at Newharen (Harre), who had 
married his aunt, and that when the town was given up he was suflfering under the 
plagne ; that he now wanted to get a place at Newcastle or York as a hat maker ; that 
his wife was a French woman, and her mother lived at Valencia ; that he had heard 
the English, then at Lovyne, often " wishe that the Erie of Westmerland had taken Sir 
George Bowes at the Jirste, and kepte hyme stylle, for then they might have gone and 
taken York, and then all England wold have taken ther partes ;" and that one Sher- 
wood, a priest of Durham, sent home young Trollop, sick of the falling sickness. It 
seems from his account that the Earl of Westmoreland kept a good house at Louvain, 
having forty or fifty that came to meat with him. 

\* Since writing the commencement of this division, I find that Kemble in his 
" Sucons in England" includes our Darlington, and Darlingscott, Wore., as sites of 
Saxon marks, which derived their name from the Deorlingas, a family, but I do not 
alter from my sentiments in p. 3. However, the subject is curious. 

Land held in common was designated by the names Mark, and Shire. The smallest 
of these divisions, the Mark or March, was a plot marked out on which freemen settled 
for mutual profit and protection. The word denoted the territory, but especially ap~ 
pHed to the woods, wastes, and boundary pastures, protecting the cultivated space,* and 
in which the Markmen had common rights. In a wider sense we have the Marches of 
Wales and Scotland, over which we had lords, like the Markgraves of Germany, with 
certain bounds to watch. The Marks increased with civilization and joined, the old 
boundaries became commons and wers apportioned to the different parishes,t and at last 

* In charters in the Treasury of the conclusion of the 13th cent, we find mention made 
of Nesse [ Nessfield, a promotory or nose ], a meadow called Langsike, the field of 
Dedmire [Dodmirel, U Oros/latf Rotherum [a family of the name occur about 1590 here], 
Hundon and Granhou. All these small cultivated territories, and various others *' in the 
field" were disposed of in the smallest quantities from two or three acres to half a rood, a 
circumstance bespeaking scarcity of good dry land : indeed a grant about 131 3 of " the hay 
STowing in the marshes of the field of Derlington," doubtless included the produce of an 
unmense tract, such as it was. 

t In Wolsey's time, for the appeasing of variancies betwixt iYieburgessea and inhabitants 
of the Burgh of Dernton, and the husbandmen and inhabitants of Bondgate in Demton, 
concerning the common of pasture in Brankinmore and on the West-more in Bondgate 
with other pastures the burgesses claimed within Bondgate, it was ordered by Master 
Willyam Frankelyn, clerk, cnaunceller of the Byeshoprick, Sir Willyam Bulmer the elder, 
knt., sheriff of the same. Sir Wra. Euro, knt., Sir Thomas Tempest, knt., steward of the 
Bisshoprick, Robert Bowes, esquier, and other councillors to my Lord of Duresmt^ that the 
inhabitants burgesBOs of the Burgh should have Brankinmoor with the inhabitants and 
tenants of BlacKwell, and Hurworth ; and the inhabitants and husbandmen of Bond- 
rate the i>asture called the West-more and Bondgate, and all other their pastures in 
Bondgate, and should have to farm a ground called the Battdfeld^ with the pasture 
to the same belonging, paying as accustomed. Then follows an order 25th August, 
1626, by Frankleyn, Buimer, Eure, William Strangways, clerk, his Grace's surveyor, 
and Jonn Bentley, eouncdlors of his Oraee, within the bysshoprick of Duresme, ^* that 
the inhabitants of the Burgh of Damton shall have in severaltie, without interrup- 
tion of the tenants of Blackwell and Hurworth, all their parcels of ground lying be- 
betwixt FjrrUifeUd and Dodmerfield, and ooue other parcel 1 of ground lying upon a leche 
unto a stone brigge [see p. 401, and from thence unto Gawtmyre, and from thence extend- 
ineunto the South side of Fraunce-howse ; and that the inhabitants of Hurworth and 
Blackwell schall from henceforth use ne occupye eny comou within the precincts of the 
said ground assigned unto the Burgh of Demton unto tyme that they shew a lawfull tytle 
why they ought to have comon, &c. ; and that unto that tyme the inhabitants of the Raid 
Burgh achall have and use the said parcelF^&c*, in several tie, and may enclose at their peril 



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192 THE SAXON MARKS. 

even given in shares to private estates. The boundaries were generally a take, as be- 
tween Darlington and Hurworth : a cross, as between Darlington and Black well : an 
oak,* a hill, a 8tone,t and whatever it was, it was a marked and sacred emblenui^ 

The markmen had a court or Markmoot, reined in the territorial jurisdiction of 
manor-lords, and frequently held, like the shire-moots, on a hill. The Hill af the 
Sessions at Sadberge as applied to a wapentake,^ and the Castle Hill at Blackwell to a 
freehold manor seem instances of these customs. 

The borough of Darlington with its surrounding moors will give a tolerable idea of a 
mark on a small scale. 

If Mr. Kemble*s system is tenable, Cockerton would (as ing is not a necessary adjunct 
of a patromymic, being merely the genitive plural or generative case) be the seat of hia 
Coceringas, who also settled at Cockerington, Line I am clear that unless rivers took 
their name from families, that my former opinions are correct, but £btantofte at Black- 
well smells strongly of the Saxon name Helmstan. 

It is evident that parishes, manors, &c., took their origin from the Saxon marks, but 
streets took their names from bodies of men as well as topographical features. Olovers 
Wynd might perhaps refer to the property of the family of that name being situate in 
it, notwithstanding its proximity to Skinnet^te, but the latter, with Bondgate, Priest- 
gate, and Prebend Row were obviously the peculiar dwelling-places of t*»e men their 
names refer to. Bull Wynd commemorates the Buhners, the other ancient streets are 
named from their situation. What is Hundgate ? 

unto tyme the mater is otherways discussed. And all the inhabitaunts of the said Bnirh 
shall from hensforth geve their attendance upon my Lord's Orace his Scheriff and hit 
Baylly of Derlyngton for the tyme being, and tnei ne ony of them aehall not he reteyned to 
serve eny other ^ upon peyne of forfeiture of the penaltie conteyned in the Statute of Retey- 
nours ; and also upon payn of forfeiting all such liberties and profits as tbev or eny of them 
claymeth or be entitled to have by reason of the said Bur^h or otherwise.^' 

The Blackwell commons were divided in 1612 and 16*22 by a commission issued from 
Durham Chancery. The Commissioners set out for every oxfifanff 19 acres in the Towne- 
feilds and one acre upon Brankinmoor. Sinckehill, Sinckebanck and broad Scoine in 
Stresham feild with a way through Blackwell nooke, Walk mill nooke, abutting on the 
Skeme on the E. and Briggie Loaning on the N., Snipe Sike, France Dike, Dowda, Wheat- 
land gate, Sowrebancks, Brigghill and the Staggfold nooke occur, and may amuse the mi- 
nute topographer and etymologist. A common passage was to be sett out and dowdd 
[marked by aowles or m^res] to jBrankinmoor. 

The portion of Brankinmoor occupied by the burgesses was divided into cattlegates sep- 
arated by dikes. To order these, four grassmen were appointed each year, who sold the 
whins off the moor for the general benefit of the borough, but were frequently forestalled 
by roguish burgesses who '*^willfullie and obstinatelv" stole them for their own use. They 
had an oflScer called a Hirdraan, who was not to be hired by the grassmen without consent 
of the bailiff and jury. A new Hird-house was ereeted in 1624. Kic. Johnson was fined in 
1626 for depasturing horses in le loaning vocai. Yarme loning. 

* In the freeholds of Blackwell are some ancient thorns^ standing alone, and said by the 
rustics to mark the extent of the freehold portion. They are in the Langdraughts, and 
evidently boundered the Exchequer Land- See Hatfield's Survey. 

t ** Le Bordland and land extra lees markestones*' mentioned at Blackwell in 1622l— 
Halmot Bks. 

X 1612. John Liddell presented at the Barton Manor Courts, Yks. ; because his wife 
having been warned by the overseers of the common works to come to repair the common 
ways, refused, and did not come ; and for removing quondam terminum (Anglice, a dowU^ 
mere or marke)^ between himself and John Gibson. 

From the same rolls (penes R. H. Allan, esq., lord of two of the Barton manors) it i^>- 

pears that Richard Wycliffe of Darlington, gent., in right of his wife, widow of 

Bettes, held Clowbecke house and Bettes* lands at Barton m 1517-8, and was dead before 
1582. At lngleby*8 court in 1479 the Abbot of St. Mary's, York, was declared contuma- 
cious in not rendering an ancient rent of a pound of pepper. Congers Umyng and Castell 
Hilles are mentioned in 158d, and in 1599 there are persons amerced *' for keping a goosse 
without a gander," and **for keping a skabbed mare." 

§ Darlington Ward has occasionally been termed a wapentake. Collins, in his Peerage 
supposes the Stanhopes, Earles of Chesterfield, to have sprung from Stanhope in ** Darling* 
ton- wapentake in the Bishoprick of Durham." 



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\Tii€ Deanery. Temp. Geo. Allan, arcJiceol.] 



DIVISION III. 

Chapter i. ^^opal. 

Seven hundred years ! The sun has risen and set, the trees have growri 
green and returned to golden, the bonny Tees congealed and thawed, but the 
ehurch of God remained in all its beauty, like the pure expanse, to which its 
soaring spire directed the pilgrim's steps — seven hundred years, as near as 
may be. It is a long long time. More than twenty generations have wor- 
shipped there in their varying creeds and changing forms. Each of those 
races has passed into dust around it. Man of Grod ! pass it not with light 
and listless heart 

Seven hundred years !---nay, I have gone back already in my tale for 
nearly a thousand.* I hurry on, and lead you to the times, nearly eight 
htmdred years ago. The broach wa^ not there, and probably a plain Saxon 
fabric occupied the site of Pudsey's glorious pile. But I may not look to 
the beautiful and its annals only. 

After the first Norman Bishop, Walcher, William Carilepho succeeded, 
"who," says honest Hollinshed, "was the originall founder of the Univer- 
sitie Golledge in Oxford, and by whose assistance, the Menkes gaping both 
for riches, ease, and possessions, founde the meanes to displace the secular 
Priestes of the CoUedge of Durham, that they mighte get into theyr rooms 
as they did indeede soone after, to their great lucre and advantage." The 
change took place about 1084. 



See pa^c 44. 



2b 



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194 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

This idea had been a favourite one with Walcher, and it is mentioned 
that the secular or ordinary clergy assisted the discontent which ended in 
his murder. At the eventual change, they were invited to become monks 
and remain, but only one accepted the offer. The bishop^s acts were duly 
licensed by the pope, and a comfortable retreat and ample provisicHi were 
made for the exiles in the churches of Auckland, Darlington, and Norton.* 
The foundation does not seem to have been perpetual Auckland was re- 
founded in 1292, and Norton does not present prebendaries till 1227. 

As to Darlington, this order of things had evidently died out, for Pudsey 
is said by Cteoffrey of Coldingham to have decreed, that the order which was 
formerly in Durham should be restored in the church he was building at 
Demington. This was not the only offence of Pudsey against the monks^ 
since he encouraged a rival colony of exiles from Guisbrough in Darham 
itself, and very ill they bore the a&ont. I have already stated that the 
church here was building in the midst of the prelate's troubles in 1194, and 
I have but to add that four prebends were founded by him. The foundation 
charter cannot be found, but the constitution is fiilly set forth in the reform- 
ing ordinances of Bp. Neville, when the idleness and corruptions in the pre- 
bendaries had reached the maximum point. He curtailed the prebend of 
Darlington most woefully, founded a wealthy deanery by amalgamating its 
revenues with the vicarage, and the succession rf deans and four prebend- 
aries continued under that arrangement until the refcnuiation. The sweep- 
ing changes then made, and the general status of the college at various 
periods, will be fully understood by the following documents and the accom- 
panying notea 

In 1288, Pope Nicholas IV. granted the tenths to Edward I. for six years 
towards defraying the expence of an expedition to the Holy Land ; and that 
they might be collected to their full value, a taxation by the king's precept 
was begun in that year and finished in 1292. Another, called Nora Tcutatio, 
as to some part of the province of York, was made in 1318, chiefly on 
account of the invasions of the Scots, by which the clergy of those border 
countries were rendered unable to pay the former tax. 

Taxation of 1292.] Portions of Derlinton. — The portion of Andrew de Kirkenny, 
16/. 138. 4d, : Robert de Bele, 16/. ISs, 4df. : John de Metingham, 161. IZs, 4d. : Walter 
de Langeton, 16/. I3s. 4d. : Vicar of the same, 6/. 23». 4d. : [Total, 73/. 6f. 8d.] 

New Taxation, 1318.] Portions of the church of Derlington. The portion of Roger 
de Waltham in the same, 9/. : Ellas de Sordich, 9/. : Richard de Ayremynne, 9/. : 
Master John de Insula, 9/. : Vicar of the same, 1/. 4f. : total of the said portions, 37/. 4s. 

Return, 1312.] The collectors of the tenth, yielded by the clergy to the bishop, gave 
tiie following account of the " Portions of Derlington." 

* Some add Lanchester, Chester, Easington, and Heighington. ** Prebendse de Akeland 
Derlington et Northton instituUe a Guil. Episcopo, jussn Gregorii VII, Pont. Ro.ne deeset 
honest us clericis e Dunelmen. ecclesisB expulsis victus." — Lei. Collect, i. 385. ** Propter 
hoc creditur quod Prebendaa de Akelande, Derlington, Nortonna, et Ekington, fandse 
faemnt tantnm pro illis canonicis at haberent unde viverent. Tarn non sunt prebends^ in 
Ekington, et putant nunquam ftiisse.— 76. 332. 



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PAPAL. 195 

From the portion of Roger de Wiltham for the second term 12#. 8d. [stmck out, '' He 
shews an aoqoittanee'' added]. From the portbn of Elias de Schordlche, for the second 
tenn 168. Sd. From the portion of Master John de Insula for the second term 16f . 8d, 
from the time of Master W. de Ewell. From the portion of Sir Adam de Middleton for 
a whole year 339. 4eL* 

Ifmtier, 1400.] — Henry IV. meditated a Scotch expedition, and musters were every- 
where made to ascertain Uie strength of the kingdom, as well of clergy as of laity. The 
Durham church militant assembled on St. Gileses moor, when there were charged 

The official of Durham because a prebendary of Derlington with 1 lancer and 1 archer. 
The Ticar of Deriington with 1 lancer and 2 archers. Master Robert de Dalton, pre- 
boidary in Derlington, with 1 lancer and 1 archer (does not appear). Master William 
Hull, prebendary there, is charged otherwise as Rector of Stanhope, [in which capacity 
he appeared with I lancer, 1 hobler, and 3 archers]. John Maxfelde, prebendary there, 
with 1 lancer and 1 archer (does not appear).t 

Bishop NenlWs OrdMoncef.]— Bishop Neyille materially altered the constitution of 
the collegiate church. In the preamble to his ordinance he states, that the church of 
St. Cuthbert, of Darlington, was graced with a number of prebendal stalls amply en- 
dowed ; yet that none of the prebendaries either resided or provided a deputy, leaving 
the whole parochial cure charged on the Vicar, Master Richard Wytton, who was no 
longer able to support the burthem, his revenues being minished and brought low, as 
well by the pestilence which was rife among the people, as by other misfortunes and 
accidents ; and moreover, on account of his exile revenues, the name of Vicar was little 
homaured among the people. On the petition therefore of the said Vicar, and in gracious 
consideration of the premises, the bishop instituted an inquisition into the revenues of 
the same church ; the return to which writ of inquest stated, 

'' That there were four prebends in the church of Darlington, of which the first in 
order is named the Prebend of Darlington, the second of Ck>kerton, the third of Newton, 
the fourth of Blackwell. 

" The prebendary of the prebend ci Deriyngton has annexed to his prebend ten tene- 
ments within the vill of Deriyngton, then on lease as affirmed for 117«. ; he has also two 
oxgangs of arable land, with the meadows pertaining to them, worth 269. Sd. per ami., 
and these are certain and settled, and form the Corpus Prebendoe, He receives also of 
uncertain matteis the tithes of hay and grain of Deriyngton,^ which he shall hold for 
three successive years, if he shall so long live ; and during each of those three years he 
diall pay to the prebend of Cokerton 409., to the prebend of Newton 409., and to the 
prebend of Blackwell 4/1; and when the same three years are elapsed, the prebendaiy of 
Deriyngton is to transfer and betake himself, as to the perception of tithes, to the pre- 
bend of Blackwell, and to receive the tithea of hay and com of Blackwell for three suc- 
cessive years ; and for the next three of Newton ; and for the next three of Cockerton ; 
till having completed his cyde, he returns to Darlington." The prebendaries of Coker- 
ton, Newton, and Blackwell succeeded each other in order, and each enjoyed the tithes 
of Darlington three years in twelve. 

" The prebendary of Cokerton has for his Corpus Prelfendas two granaries leased for 
269. 8dL, and two oxgangs of arable land, 269. Sd. per ann. 

** The prebendary of Nekton has one new granary and three tenements leased for 
309. 6d.y and two oxgangs 269. 8d. 

" The prebendary of Blakwell has one granary, two tenements, and a parcel of waste; 
sometime leased for 249., and two oxgangs 269. 8d, 

** The prebend of Darlington with all its appurtenances is worth 18/. per ann. ; the 

• Treasury, D. and C. 8 Loc 18. f The Three Historians. Surt Soc. p. elxxxv. 
t The Tithe-bam was in Feethams, in front of Mrs. Pease's house. Mr. Pease used to 
pay leu. per annum for the site, but afterwards bought it of the late Duke of Cleveland. — 
E. P. The wheeling arrangement which follows is extremely curious and—inconvenient. 



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196 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

prebend of Cokerton 16/. ; the prebend of Newton 12/. ; and the prebend of Blakwell 
20/. 

" The said four prebendaries are only charged with the repairs of the chancel, and 
with the Royal Tenth when it shall happen, viz. : each of the above prebendaries is 
then charged with 18*. ratione Prebendas sucb." 

And apon these premises, after mature advice, and with the consent of the prior and 
convent of Durham, bishop Neville ordained that the name of Viear should cease and 
be changed into that of Dean ;* and for the support of such decanal dignity he erected 
and established one additional prebend, to be perpetually held conjointly with the said 
deanery ; which prebend was ordained to consist of the oblations, mortuaries, aherage, 
and offerings, which the vicar then held, together with his aneierU manse ;f "and further, 
whenever it shall happen that the prebend of Darlington shall become vacant by death, 
removal, or resignation, all the tithes of grain and hay whatsoever of the said prebend 
shall become integrally attached to the deanery ; and the prebendary who shall be col- 
lated to the prebend of Darlington shall rest content with his two oxgangs of land, and 
his pension of 408. ; and after the said dean shall have held the tithes of Dariington 
three years, he shall then give up the said tithes, and, betaking himself to the next 
prebend, according to the cycle in the said collegiate chnrch established, shall recuve 
the tithes of Newton, Cockerton, and Blackwell in succession, each for three years, and 
so return to Darlington." 8 Nov., 1439. — Confirmed by Pope Eugene IV. 6 id. Jan. 
1441.t 

II. Another ordinance follows, 21 May, 1443, that every prebendary shall provide 
one officiating clerk, or shall in default pay five marks to the dean. 

III. A third ordinance of the same prelate in 1451 on the petition of Roland Hard- 
gyll, dean of Darlington, stating that it is inconvenient and prejudicial to the decanal 
hospitality to exchange his ptebend in coui'se, as well in the carriage of tithes as in 
the heaviness of the expences incurred, orders that in future the prebendaries of Dar- 
lington, Blackwell, Cockerton, and iVbrton, shall claim no pension from the prebendary 
occupying the tithes of Darlington, and that when the dean next goes in course to 
Darlington, he and his successors shall perpetually thereafter keep the said prebend, and 
remain tliere, leaving the other three prebendaries to their usual course of rotation. — 
fUcff. Eccles. Dun. IV. 11, IS.) 

1501. Nov. 19. Visitation of Darlington Collegiate 6*i^i«rcA.]— Ralph Lepton, dean, 
does not reside, but is in the service of the bisliop. Sir Wm. Wighteman, chaplain 

* When the Dean of Darlington is named in documents of an earlier period, the ordinary 
rural dean is meant. Three instances of the bishop writing to this officer may be seen in 
Walbran's Grainford, pp. 65,67, one of the epistles (1313) being adiressed ^dilectojUio 
Decano chnstianitatis de Derlington" and enjoining that excommunication be pronounced 
in all churches of his deanery against some nonpayers of tithes to the convent of St. Mary 
at York, who had been excommunicated themselves in 1311, for nonpayment of their share 
of the expence of sendin^if proctors of the clergy from this diocese to the Carlisle parliament. 

t ** To all, ^c, Anthony [Bekc ] by divine permission bishop of Durham, greeting. 
Know ye that we, by the influence of divine grace, have granted, &c^ to God and the 
blessed Mary the virgin, and to all saints, and to the church of St. Cnthbert of Derlington, 
and to Robert de Roveston, perpetual vicar of the same chmrh, and all his successors for 
ever ; All that messuage with the appurtenances in the town of Derlington, near the gate 
of our manor, which Adam do Stokeslay and Cecily his wife heretofore held of us, and one 
venel which heretofore led to the well of Hundegate, by [the taking in of] which the said 
messuage is enlarged and at one side is bounded by it. To hold, &c , Witnesses, Master 
William de S. Botulpho, now archdeacon of Durham, Sir [D*no] Thomas de Levesham, Sir 
Peter de Thoresby, Sir Guychard de Charron, John de Saundon, John de Skyrmyngham, 
Roljert de Levingthorp, Wm. s. Benedict de Derlyngton, John de Blacwell, Peter the 
Clerk, Adam do Smeaton, and others." Confirmed by the Prior and Chapter 26 Mar. 1.329. 
t Reg. 3 Eccles. Dun. fo. 2U. 



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PAPAL. 197 

priest of St. James there ; Sir Thomas Gierke, Sir Thomas Robinson, Sir Thomas Simp- 
son, Sir Robert Dickson, Sir W. Knairsdale, and Tho. Tompson, chaplain, appeared. 
Richard Durham, John Duff, Tho. Tompson, and John Thompson, parishioners, say, 
that iAe glass urindoufs of the chancel ar€ broken, and that the proprietors* ought to 
sufficiently mend them before Christmas upon pain of lOs.f 

Old Fahr in Bishop Tunstalfs Register, p, 1.]— The Deanery of Darlyngton 26/. per 
ann. In the charch of Darlington ; the prebend of Prestgate 3/., of Newton 5/., of 
Cokerton 10/., of Blackwell 10/. 

Valor in JUmdalPs MSS.] — Darlington Collegiate Church. Deanery of Darlington 
d6L 13». 4d. Prebend of Cockerton 6/., of Blackwell 5/., of Newton 5/. 0*. Sd., of Rowe 
1/. l^is, 4d., all in the patronage of the Bishop of Durham. 

Valor Eeclesiaslicus, 1535.] — The Deanery of the church of Derlington. Cuthbert 
Mersshall dean there. The aforesaid deanery is worth in the site of the mansion of the 
said dean there, and two oxgangs of arable land of the glebe of the same 26«. 8c/.; tithes, 

ablations and other profits there 35/. 6s. 8d. Total value per annum SQL 14«. 4d. 

Rents paid, viz. monies yeariy paid to the archdeacon of Durham for sinodals and pro • 
euiationa 2»., free farm rent to the Lord Bishop of Durham 3f., and for the salary of 
Robert Kelde, the chanters, and sacristan in the same churcii as by the foundation of 
his prebend in the hands of the said dean remaining 40^. Total per annum 5s. (sic) 

Sum of the reprises 5#. ttf supra, Salaries of chaplains, viz. monies yearly paid to 

two chaplains conducting the divine service celebrated daily in the said college, for the 
aalavy of each of them yearly 100»., besides which, the dean there and his successors for 
the time being are held and bound by the foundation of the same to sustain and support 
such honest chaplains there with meat and drink, salary, and other necessaries as 
becometh. Total per annum — . Clear value 36/. Hs. 4J. Tenth part thereof [the 
king*s, for the computation of which the survey was made] *J2s. lOe/. 

Prebends founded in the church of Derlyngton, viz. Prebends there, viz. Richard 
Mancbest^r, prebendary of one prebend there per annum 100«., tenth part thereof 10«. 

.... Hewes, prebendary of one prebend there per annum 100s., tenth part 

thereof 10». - •• - Thomas Hall, prebendary of one prebend there per annum lOOf ., 

tenth part thereof 10*. Total value of the aforesaid prebends 15/. which is their 

dear valae. 

The Chantry of a certain free chapel called Badlbfeld. Richard Manchester ; what 
pertains to the said Richard. The aforesaid chantry is worth in rents of a certain pas- 
ture and other fruits of the said chantry, yearly 40*., tenth part thereof 4*. - - - Thomas 
Chambre, perpetual chaplain, prebendary in the church of Derlyngton, of a certain 
FREBEND in Prestoatb Derllugton aforesaid. The aforesaid ohantryi^ ^ worth in rents 
of certain cottages in Prestgate aforesaid, yearly, 33f . 4d, which is the clear value, tenth 
part thereof 3*. 4d. 

The chantry of All Saints ^ founded in the collegiate church of Derlington. Leo- 

• The prebendaries. f MSS. D. and C. Durham. 

t ThiB is a carious arrangemont. The revenues of the prebend of Priestgate or Row ar^ 
applied in famishing another chaplain to Badlefield. Chamhre died in 1545, when Simon 
Binkcs socceeded, and is called *' chaplain.^ They also occar in the same order as prebend- 
aries of Osmanderly church, Allcrtonshire. Chambre was Rector of Winston, and Binkes 
succeeded Wm. Carter, prebendary of Newton, as Rector of Redmershall. So they fared 
pretty respectably. Arrowsmith in his map attached to the Valor has mistaken the mean- 
ing of the record, he gives Prestgate as a chantry, and places the chantry of St. James at 
Hallgarth near Coatham Mundeville. 

Richard Manchester, the other chaplain, was prebendary of Cockerton, and was succeed- 
ed by Robert Bushell, who also held both poets. 

^ This chantry, which in Hunter's MSS- appears under the title of AU-hallowes, has been 
hitherto inadvertently split in two, Robert Marshall's chantry (under which name it ap- 
pears in the Grammar School charter) being considered as separate. A sou of Robert 



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IQg ECCLESIASTICAL. 

nard Melmerby chantry priest of the same chantry. The aforesaid chantry is worth in 
rents of divers lands and tenements in divers towns and fields to the same chantry be- 
longing 6l.68.6d. From thence in money annually paid for alms (at the yeariy 

obit) for the souls of Robert Mershall and his parents for ever, and for the benefactors 
of the said chantry, as appears by computation 4s. (23*.)* (dear value 103». Sd.) - - - 
From thence in reprises, viz., rents paid to our Lord the King for free rent out of lands 
in Thormondby, in the county of York, 5* ., and for ancient free rent paid to the Lord 
Bishop of Durham, for lands in the town and fields of Heighington, in the county of 
Durham, 3*., and for free rent to the said Lord Bishop 4d., and to the church of Der^ 
lington 4d,, and for the farm rent of a certain close in Thormondby aforesaid, possession 
of which is not allowed, and consequently no profit as yet comes therefrom, in all 8ff. 8ef . 
- - - Clear value 114». (4/. 15*.) Tenth part, 11*. 6rf. 

The CHANTRY of the chapel of St. James in the manor of the Lord Bishop of Durham 
in Halgarth there. Thomas Emerson chantry priest of the same. The said ch^uilry is 
worth in money yearly received from the Lord Bishop of Durham in part of the salary 
e08.,t and from the Lord Prior of Durham in money reckoned yearly 4 marks.} Total 
per annum 113*. 4d. which is the clear value. Tenth part, 11*. 4d, 

Commissum. 2 Edw. VL (1648.)]— Thomas Hilton and Robert Brandlynge, knights ; 
Robert Mennell, seijaunte at law, and Henrye Whilreson, esquyres, were Commissioners 
for Duresme to survey all colledges, deanries, chauntries, stipendiarie priests, free 
chappells, &c. The return states as follows. 

" The paryshe of Derlington havinge of howselinge people abowte {blank). 

Marescall is named in Boldon book. To give an idea of what allowance must be made in 
perusing these ancient accounts, I just note that in 1823 the possessions of this foundation 
produced £247 8 6 ! 

* The record here has been altered. The alterations are given in ( ). 

t Two chantries are confounded here. The 60*. was paid by the Bishop in respect of his 
chapel of St. James attached to the Manor house. But the priest also held St. Mary's 
chantry in the church (for which the prior paid), and officiated at both places. In 1424 the 
Bishop collated Ralph Byrd, priest of the diocese of York, to the chantry in his manor of 
Derlington, stipend 60*. payable by his bailiff of Cotum Mundevyle, to wMch in augmenta- 
tion the prior and chapter collated him also (by consent of the Bishop) to the chantiy of 
St. Mary the virgin, in the church of Derlington, stipend 4 marks payable by the bursar. 

X This was for St. Mary's Chantbt, and in the reprises of the convent is again men- 
tioned. "To Thomas Emerson and Thomas Coward, chantry priests in the churches of 
Derlyngton and Dedynsall, for their pensions issuing out of lands in Burden, according to 
the foundation of Wm. Briton by charter, 106*. 8d." - - - "< To all, &o., Ralph [Kemeck, 
1214-1233] the prior and the monks of Durham, greeting. Know, &c., that we ever will 
sustain two honest chaplains, of whom one shall receive 4 marks yearly and the other in 
like manner four, &c ; and of whom one shall celebrate divine service in the church of 
Derlyngton, and Uie other in the church of Dytensale for all the faithfhl, and for the souls 
of William Briton and Alice his wife, and all their ancestors and heirs. Moreover we will 
give to Agnes, the daughter of the same William whom he had by Biatilda de Brafferton, 
and her heirs she shall conceive in lawAil matrimony, one mark of silver in every year. 
But if it shall happen that the said Prior and Monks shall withdraw themselves from the 
aforesaid agreement, the vill of Bnrdun, with the mill and all other things, shall revert to 
the heirs of the said William Briton. The Chapter being witness." [Reg. Ecdes. Dundnu 
pars l,/o. 107]. The salary was duly paid in 1531 by two instalments, and so in following 
years. - - - John Litster held two mess, in Northgate, rent 3*. 4d^. to the altar of the blessed 
Mary in the church of Derlyngton of ancient grant. Supervis. Hatfield pag. 1. Hunter's 
MS8. - - - In the Treasury are two charters, one of the 13th cent, from R. the prior to 
Wm. Briton of all the vill of Burdon which he bought of Roger s. Roger de Burduna ex- 
cept two oxg. which Roger the father had prius eleemosynaries dederat, rent two marics: 
the other of 1334, dated at Derlyngtone, John de Halughtone, chaplain, to Juliana dr. Wm. 
de Hackesby of property in Burdone, Derlyngtone and Bermeton, which he (John) had of 
the gift of John de Burdone s. Gilbert de Kettone, husband of said Juliana. 



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PAPAL. 199 

" The Chauntrey of All Seynts, or the free scole* in the parishe church of Derlington. 
Thomas Rycherdson of the age of xxx yeres Incumbent. The yerely valewe iiij/. xix*. 
The repryses vj«. viijrf. The remaine iiij/. xij*. iig<f. Stoke, &c., none. 

" The Chauntry of Seint James, founded within the Bushope of Duresme Manor 
Place, Rawfe Cootes incimibent, liaving moreoyer a pencion of ids. by yere paid by the 
King's Recevor of th' Angmentacon. The yerelie valewe with liij*. iiyi. of pencon 
paide owte of the courte of th' angmentacon and Ixs. of pencon owte of the Excheker 
Tj/.t Stocke, &c., none. 

" The Deanrye and prebendes of Derlyngton in the parishe churche aforesayd. The 
incumbents ther Cutbert Marshall, dean and vicar, beinge a prebendary, William Carter 
prebendary, Symond Binks prebendary, the yerelie valewe liij/. vj*. viijdL Repryses 
that is to wytt in wages of iiij curats found by the dean xv/. v*. The Remaine xxxviij/. 
xxrf. Stocke, &c., none. — Leade not mentioned. 

" The yerelie obits within the churche aforeseyd. The yerelie valew v*. ij<f. Stocke, 
&c., none. 

" The rente perteyninge to the mayntenance of a lighte.^ — The yerely valew ij*. — 
Stocke, &c., none. 

" Rente bequethed to the afforsfyd Grame Skole. The yerly valewe iij«." 

This survey is signed by Thomas Hi]ton,§ Robert Brandlyng and Thomas Eymis, 
before the signatures there being the following explanation. 

" Memorandum. That the goodes and omamentes perteyninge to the premysses be 
remayning moste parte according to the inventoryes therof taken by the former Com- 
mysyoners at the fyrste survey sithenns whiche tyme they have not bene otherwyse 
praysed or estemed, howbeyt they are synce by weringe or damaging very sore decayd 
from the g^oodness and valewe that they were then praysed to be of." 

Rcyal Bents, temp. Edw. F/.}— In the Allan M^S. [D, and C. Lib.] there is an im- 
perfect copy of the account of Tho. Coilens, collector of the rents and firms here. From 

* See Free School hereafter 
t Here St. Mary's is again confounded with St. James's chantry. 

X Thomas s. Jolanus de Morton held two burgages by 3 suits of court at the toll booth, 
and 8 pounds of wax to Darlington Church. Inq. 5 Bury. 

I This baron of Hylton.was'a striking character. He married the coheir of Clervaux, 
and his arms gleam behind a gallery in a window at Croft, but he had no children, although 
at the end of his life he might say, ** if I survive— I'll marry five." Whether his wives 
tired of him and left this world in disgust, or he tired of them and slew them, like '* brave 
Timothy ! by wedlock three times bound— and thrice he snapt the chain the villain priest 
had bound," I dinna ken, but certain it is that he was a very sensibly changeable spirit, 
sobmittingto events he could not alter. In 1536 he joined the Pilgrimage of Grace, and 
went under St. Cuthbert's banner to Pomfret, to resist the king's encroachments on the 
ancient faith, but he bent like the willow, and obtained a pardon (and a lesson). He grew 
into favour with bluff Hal, and went along with his son's ministers in all the searching com- 
missions of the time, notwithstanding which. Queen Mary appointed the quondam pilgrim 
and Protestant to be' her Governor of Tynemouth, when he detained a Flanders ship laden 
with salt, took wares out of ships as passed him, " as he thought meet," and at last had di- 
rections from the privy council to forbear ** to meddle with ships from countries in amity 
with the Queen." After all this, we find him on Elizabeth's accession wheeling round again 
and making an honest Protestant will without mention of a single saint, wherein he leaves 
a most gallant ** gold chyne weing 33 ounces and half an ounce 100^." {Inventory) to accom- 
pany his whole lands to his heir, who was to be bound for both, that they should ** discend 
from one to another, as is conteyned in my taile aforesaid." His brother William was a 
horrid wretch, if Dr. Bulleyn (whom he accused of poisoning Sir Thomas) is to be believed. 
Lady Hylton his brother'sawidow had^redeemed his land, and lent him money, yet he sought 
her ** shame, los8e,yea, and bloode," and when he should have repaid her, ^ then he graii- 
fv^ her, 08 he did mee.*' 



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200 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

it I gather that he accounted for 53/. is. 8d* rent, of the house and manae of the late 
Dean, and of two oxgangs of arable knd of the glebe of the church, and of all tttlies, 
&c., ^hich to the late dean and perpetual vicar and prebendary of the prebend of 
the altar did belong ; and of tithes, two oxgangs and two bams, of the Cockerton 
prebend ; the same items including two orchards, of the Black wall prebend ; the 
same items including two gardens, of the Newton prebend ; and the prebend of 
Rawe prebend ; all which had been granted 2 Edw. YI. to Thomas Windsor, at that 
rent, cliarged with 28. from the prebend of the altar to the archdeacon for the cure, and 
3ff. to the bishop, and the assigning a sufficient priest ui aid of the Vicar, whose stipend 
the king had to pay. And for 66^. tid, being 6^ . Sd rent of one burgage in Derlington, 
and 60s, to the said chanters [St. James's, though not before mentioned] by the 
Bishop out of his charity and devotion. And for 468. 6d. rent of lands and tenements 
in vill of Bondgate, mentions grant from Edw. VI. to John Perient, knt., and Tho. 
Reave, gent, for a competent sum, of the late free chapel of Batilfelde and all its lands, 
&c., in the fields of Batelfieldet on the West side of Derlington between the waste moore 
and Nether Cunsclifie. And for 78. 2d. rent from lands and tenements [belonging] the 
taidX obit, and the maintenance of one lamp and other lights there, viz. out of two 
burgages in Assendale§ in the tenure of Tho. Theughe 2s. 6d, ; and one buigage in 
Derlington in the Dean's hands, 2^. Sd. ; and one close called Midam Close in the ten- 
ure of Edmund Hodgson 28., sum, 78. 2d, And for 25f . 4d., rent of four cottages of the 
said chantery. And for 70^. rent of tenements of the said late chantery.|| 

Pensions payable to incumbents of Religious houses and chantries 1553, as the same 
were issued out of the crown revenues from the receipt of the Abbt^ lands. H] — Darlington 
College, 1553. To Robert Bushell, pi*ebendary of Cockerton, II. lOs. ; Simon Binkes, 
prebendary of Prestgate, 1/. 13*. 4d. ; John Hewis, prebendary of Blackwell, 1/. 135. 4d.; 
Robert Warde, William Thompson^ and Marmaduke Fayrebame, each 3/., 9^ ; An- 
thony Wilde, 21. ; Thomas Richardson, minister [of All Saints chantry], 4/. ; total, 
19/. 16*. Sd. HxEeg. Tunstall. Ep.Dun.p, 31. To Robert Bushell, incumbent of 
Battlefield Chapel, k.68,Sd. 

* The values set down in the Valor of 1535 including Priestgate 1/. \Zs, Ad, exactly make 
this sum. 

f It is clear that this foundation was close beside Badlebeck Inn, See pp. 55, 119, and 
Bathele Hospital hereafter. It was in the patronage of the bishop and the chaplain or 
cantarist, had an annual sum paid him out of the Bishop's exchequer, ab (mtiquo. Cade 
had an odd idea that the ruins opposite Gainford were those of this chapel. Free ohapela 
were places of religious worship exempt from all ordinary jurisdiction, save only that tlie 
incumbents were generally instituted by the bishop and inducted by the archdeacon of the 
place. Most of these chapels were built upon the manors and ancient demesnes of the 
crown, whilst in the king's hand, for the use of himself and his retinue when he came to 
reside there. And when the crown parted with those estates, the chapels went along with- 
them, and their first freedom ; but some lords having had free chapels in manors that do 
not appear to have been ancient demesne of the crown, such are thought to have been built 
and privileged by grants ttom the crown. All free chapels with the chantries were given 
to the king 1 Edw. VI. except some which are excepted in the acts, or such as are founded 
since- And by acts 26 Hen. VIII. and 1 Eltz. free chapels are charged with first fruits ^ 
but this the late Mr. Serjt. Hill conjectures must mean only such as were in the hands of 
subjects. 

The king himself visits his free chapels and hospitals and not the ordinary : which office 
of visitation is execnted for him by the chancellor. — Bwni's Eccl- Law. 

X It is evident that Allan's clerk, or whoever was his transcriber, has left out all the 
titles of the various accounts rendered. The 7^. corresponds with the revenue of the obits 
and light in the last document. 

^ A lociil family of the name occurs at the commencement of the register. 

II These two items refer to All Saints chantry, corresponding to the £A 12 4 and 3s. iir 
tho last document. 

1) Willis's Hist, of Abbies, vol. ii p. 73. 



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PAPAL. *>0l 

SHpmd reserved at £H39oiuiiom.] — To the vicar of Darlington, 24 marks, 16/. ; to the 
aasistant curate, 12 marks, Si, ; — total, 24/1 Deductions claimed at the Exchequer ; 
poundage at 5/. per eetU. lA 4^. ; for two debentures at 3^. Sd, each, 7e, id, ; for each 
debenture more Is., 2«., — in all 1/. \Zs. 4dL Remains de clare 22/. 6f . 8c/. 

The nltiinate fiite of the collegiate posRessions may be shortly summed up. 
In 1626 the rents reserved by the crown were settled by Charles I. on his 
liapless consort, Henrietta, for life.* Of the property charged with those 
sums, the deanery including the tithes^f- and the ^ebe, passed to the Nevilles 
(see p. J 20) and with their other property to the Vanes, who still hold it, 
and repair the chancel The other prebendal possessions are briefly noticed 
below. The rector of Haughton receives portions of tithes from DarUngton 
and Cockerton townships, but they are very inconsiderable. 

5 Jaa Patent to Qeo. Warde and Robert Morgan, gents., in consideration of the ser- 
vice of Thomas Viscount Fenton, captain of our guard ; the portion of Robert Bushell, 
derk, late prebendary of Cockerton, and the two bams belonging, rent 4/. Vis. ; same 
of John Hewes, late prebendary of Blackwell, and two bams and two orchards, 4/. \2s.\ 
— and the prebend called " Prebend Rawe," in burgage, in our borough of Darlington, 
alias Dameton, late received by Simon Binks 33f. 4</., which were late parcel of the 
possessions of the late Deanery or Rectory of Darneton, alias Darlington, and came to 
Edw. VI. by Act of his first year for the dissolution of chantries, colleges, &c.: except 
two oxg. of the prebend of Cockerton, rent 8^. ; and two oxg. of that of Blackwell, 8f., 
granted to Gellius Meyrick and Henry Lindley. To hold of the manor of Estgreen- 
wich in Kent, in free socage, subject to said rents. The tithes of Newton, late received 
by Wm. Carter, late prebendary, 4/. 12*., were granted in 13 Jas. to Francis Morice and 
Robert Smith, two London gentlemen. 

The Wards gradually purcliased up all four prebends, Newton, Cockerton, Blackwell, 
and Row. The tithes of the first were sold by them to the Whelers, and a moiety were 
about 1823 conveyed to Lord Redesdale ; the second were bought by the various landed 
proprietors concerned, in 1744 ; and the third by proprietors also, Chr. Hill paying 
2200/. for a large portion in 1775 ; they are principally vested in the Allans. The 
prebend of Prebend's Row was bought l^ Sir John Lowther, of Lowther, bart., in 1661, 
consisting particularly of a messuage with Tenter Close and the Milne Close, three mes- 
suages (rent 3^. 4d. each) having been before granted to Simon Gifibrd, Wm. Hutchin- 
son, and Alice Thady. In 1722 Lowther released his portion under the name of the 
King's Head, to Wm. Stevenson, innholder, who in 1726 released to Robert Bowes, of 
Thornton, esq., by the same name, including Long Close and Abrey Pickhalls.— The 
rents are still paid by that property and other burgages in Priestgate and Prebend 
Row. 

The ecclesiastics jm)bably had their own officers of defence, for Priestgate J 

* 36/. 139 4<2. out of the deanery of Diirlington, and out of the tithes of wool, lambs, and 
calves in Darlington ; \\LB8,Ad. out of the prebends of Cockerton, Blackwell, and Rawe, 
parcel of the deanery. Newton is omitted. 

t ** The tythes of this parish are predial and mixed, but no tythes are due to the minis- 
ter. For the township of Darlington, Lord Darlington as impropriator has all tythes and 
mortuaries ; and for the other townships, except Oxen-a-field, which pays a modus of 
139. 4</., his lordship has only the mixed tythes : the predial tythes from such lands as are 
tythable, being the property of sundry laymen."— Terrier. The tithes have been commut- 
ed in all the townships. 

t In 1313, Wm. de Barton (by charter in the Treasury) was bound to restore to John s. 
Wm. Benedict the charter of Preatrnenholme at Deriington. 

2c 



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202 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

is a constabulary, and its inhabitants repair their own Iiighways, and have 
overseers for the purpose. It is considered as part of the borough, though 
the bailiffs in former days had sad work with its tenants, who refused the 
title of burscesses and would do neither suit nor service. However, thev 
cooled down. It is remarkable that this is the only part of the parish where 
women are by custom eligible to servo as constables, surely a remnant of St. 
Cuthbert's contemptuous opinions. 

My readers may probably be interested in the amount of possessions the 
other religious houses acquired, during the long reign of papacy in England, 
at Darlington. They were the following. 

. Byland Abbey, Yokks. In a lease of Darlington tolls, &c., the Bishop coyenanta 
to allow out of the rents 4^. for the free rent of certain burgages in Darlington, then in 
the king's hands, and late belonging to the dissolved monasteries of Byland, Rievaulx, 
Mountgrace, and Firvax.* — Rob. Nevil, Bp. of Durham, in 1444, confirmed the grant 
of land at Darrington from Helewise wife of Geoffrey Fitz David to this house.t 

JoRVEAUX Abbey, Yorks. Had possessions in Richmond, Derlyngton, and Alverton, 
rent 23*. QtLt in 1535. 

Mount Grace Priory, Yorks. Had possessions in Derlyngton, rent 10». in 1535.J 

Easby Abbey, Yorks. Had ^^ Lands and tenements in Darlington,,?*.*' at the dis- 
8olQtion.§ 

RiEVAULx Abbey. See above. 

Staindrop Church. Some lands in Darlington were given for maintaining the lights 
in Staindrop church and for celebrating the obit of John Spicer.|| 

Kepier Hospital. Bp. Pudsey gave thereto a toft in Darlington.^ In 1535 the 
hospital held a free farm rent issuing out of a burgage in Derlington 3^., having leased, 
I should think, the toft for a long term.]: 

Neasham Priory. A licence occurs to the prioress to purchase premises here in 13 
Neville. In 1535 the nuns held property here worth 5s, yearly, J which probably passed 
to the Lawsons with the other priory lands, as they occur as freeholders fixjm 1617 of 
three burgages in Mathergarthes. 

Let me now pass on to the church accessories, for it must be interesting 
to till up the picture oi the collegiate church and its officers. 

Vestments ffiven ly Bishop Skirlaw, and named in his inventory 1406.] — " A set of 
vestments** of white silk, wrought with vine branches, leaves, and bunches of grapes, 
and little dragons, all de hlanco^W containing one chasuble and three copes with golden 
borders, having images of saints in tabernacles [canopied niches], and other two copes 
Jiaving borders of oversea gold cloth [depanno atireo ultramarino] and two tunics hav- 
ing running borders, with 3 albs, 2 amices, 2 stoles, and 3 maniples, with a frontal^^ 

* Allan MSS. Jervaux is meant. f Reg. de Byland.^Bui-ton. 

t Valor Eccles. See p. 37. § Clarkson's Richmond. || Rot W. James- No. 42. 
t Hutchinson, ii. 384. 
** Vestimentum. By which word, says Raiue, is implied a complete set of robes as they 
were to be worn one above another on festivals. It is impossible to give any idea of the 
various garments without cuts, but I may refer to Raine's North Durham and St Cuthbert, 
and any work on costume. The outer vestment or cope was always extremely fine, and 
was worn at Durham to a very late period. ft Embossed in white. 

tt The items which follow were for the altar. The curtains would project from the East 
waU at each end of tlie altar on iron rods, leaving sufficient room for an officiating priest 
between. See the Rites of Durham, &c. 



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PAPAL. 203 

hanng the salutation of the blessed virgin, and a plain subfrontal, and a pulvinar 
[cushion] of the sanie material. Item, two curtains of white tarterain* with 
upright embossed stripes of white [pakUo bianco] interlined with gold. Given to the 
church of Derlyngton." The testator appointed Alan de Newerk (our prebendary) an 
executor, and enriched all his collegiate churches from his own splendid vestry. 

Plea of Oyer and Terminer j 27 May, 1509. 9 Ruthall.}— The Jurors on the second 
presentation found that John Watson, late of Warkworth, in the county of Northum- 
berland, yeoman, did on the third day of March in the first year of Thomas Lord Bp., 
&c., at Derlyngton, in the county of Durham, about the hour of midnight, break and 
enter, with force and arms, into the church of Derlyngton, and into a certain house 
within the said church, called the 7^esor-howse,f and did from thence feloniously steal, 
take, and carry away, thirteen silver zones,} parcel gilt, called our Lady Jewells, of the 
value of ten pounds ; one stagg of goulde, with a precious stone called a sapphire, set in 
it, ten marks ; one golden eagle, 13«. 4^. ; one silver tabemacle,§ parcel gilt, 13«. 4d, ; 
one jewel, called an Agnus Dei, with a broche of silver gilt, 6^. ^. ; and one silver 
image, 6f. 8^. ; being the goods and chattels of the said church, and then in the custody 
of John Thomson and Willyam Stapelton, against the peace of the Lord Bishop, &c.|| 

Commission of 1553.] — Sir Gteorge Conyers and Sir Thomas Hylton, knights, and 
William Bellacesand Richard Vincent (the bearer of the certificate) esquires, were made 
Commissioners to receive all the " goods, plate, Jewells, and redye money perteyning to 
all churches, chapels, guilds, fraternities, brotherhoods, and companies in the countie 
of the Byshopricke of Duresme, to the King's Highness' use." Indentures were taken 
for the safe custody of the remainder. They received " a vestment, two tynacles, and a 
cope of cloth of tyssue at Dameton," and left at " Dametone, two challices, th'one gilt, 
th'other ungilt, with one paten weying zxxi unces ; foure bells in the stepell, a sanoelT 

* TofrtarxnO'—k cloth brought from Tartaiy or of Tartarian work. Duoange. 

f Perhaps identical with the present modernised vettry on the South of the choir ; and 
here arises a curious coincidence. On the 1 Ith of February, 1846, the same place was again 
entered, and an attempt made to open into the safe, but fS&iling, the thieves attempted, by 
breaking through one of the Sedilia, to enter the back of it. This intention was also 
fhiitless. The thieves, whose ringleader was named Thomas Watson, were afterwards 
discovered, and though legal evidence was insnfficient to bring home this particular rob- 
bery, he was convicted on another charge and transported. Robbery seems the fate of the 
valuables here, for on 1st April, 1774, the vestry was broken open, " and part of the com- 
munion plate stolen thereout, viz., a silver chalice and cover, that will hold about a wine 
pint, gilt with gold,but much tarnished, on the cover either the years 1517 or 1571 is engraven; 
a large plain silver salver, and a smaller one, the latter having gadrooned edges and 
hoUonu^'—fBeward Notice.) 

t The thirteen zones (a number in allusion to Christ and his apostles) had probably 
formed an offering for the use of the image of our Lady, at her chantry altar, on some high 
festival when it was the wont of the clergy to deck up their saints in ** their better blue- 
breeches." Other items were also donbtless offerings, some might be gifts from the rich 
Mercatores of Darlington in the olden time, and others, such as the stag, [possibly in im- 
itation of the living one yearly offered at the palatine church] from the old Raby lords of 
Blackwell and Oxenlefield. 

§ The casket containing the smaller casket or pix, which held a portion of consecrated 
bread, for use at times elapsing between mass and mass in cases of emergency. See North 
Durham, 97. II Hunter's MSS. 

t The Sanctus-bell, Sancte-bell, or Sacring-bell was used to call attention to the more 
solemn parts of the mass, as at the conclusion of the ordinary, when the words ^ Sanctus^ 
Sanctus, Sanctus, Deus Sabaoth*^ were pronounced. It hung in the *• Sancte-bell-cote," a 
turret on the exterior, to which a rope reached from the interior of the church ; but smaller 
hand-bells were also used [ now almost universally ], of which there were some at 
Darlington. 



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204 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

bell, two hand bells, iij lyttle sacring bells, a lyttyll bell that the dock smyteth one,* 
with a holy water fatt of stone." t 

I annex one or two later notices of old bordogy at Dariington. 

Die SabbatL 20 Apr., 1594. Offic. against Robert Atkinson, William Bower, Robert 
Nicholson, B'rands Oswald, Miles Grey, John Fawoett, Michael Jefferson, William 
Huetson, Oeffrey Holume, Peter CoUon, Lawrence Elgy, William Helcot, Lawrence 
Warde, John Dobson, Anthony Elgey, Lawrence Catherick, William Marshall, Robert 
Emerson, James Dalle, John Atkinson, Richard Stockdale, Peter Glover, George Lasseb, 
William Comefourth, Richard Prescott, John Middleton, James Rokebie, Robert Bran- 
son, parishioners ; Richard Stockdale and James Daile, churchwaitlens, and all the 
other parishioners, declared contumacious, for nonappearance ; and the said churchwar- 
dens summoned to appear and shew what they had done touching the re-edifying of 
their clock in Darlington Church, heretofore commanded to be done by the Right Hono- 
rable Henry Earl of Huntingdon, Lord President of the North, and the Lord Bishop of 
Durham ; which day the same Richard Stockdaile appeared, and alledged that assess- 
ment was already made, according to a particular then by him shewed to the Judge, 
and desired the Judge would ratify the same, &c. 

1638. Paid John Davison making the Clock, 61. — Chturch Accounts. 

Richard Hogget, of Darlington, who rang the hour of eight fgui puUabat horam 
octavamj bur. 10 Sep. 1638. 

The following extract irom a will of the period may not be out of place at 
this stage of my labours. 

In the name of God Amen. Wednesday next before the feast of Saint Thomas the 
Apostle, A. D. 1343. I, Cecilia Underwod, wife of William, of Durham, merchant, — 
my soul to God and the blessed Mary and to all saints, and my body to be buried in the 
cemetery of Saint Cuthbert of Derlyngton— for my mortuary^ the better cloth and the 
better beast happening to be my portion— to m^ high altar lOs. — ^to the fabric of the 
church of Derlyngton lOs. — [bridges, see p. 38] — ^to the priest officiating for my soul 10/. 
— ^for alms to the poor 20s. — ^to every priest officiating in the church of Derlyngton at 
the time of my decease 12<i—;- Peter the clerk§ I2d. — two other clerks I2d. — Cecilia de 
Barton 208. — John Underwod || and his children 201. — John de Halghton, chaplain, 10*. 
— ^the children of John de Heworth 40*. — ^the children of Robert, son of the clerk, 40». — 
Sir Adam de Exteldesham, chaplain, 6s. Sd. — Sir Richard de Manfeld, chaplain, 68. 8d. 
— the children of Richard de Herwyk 40s. — Agnes dr. Richard de Herdewyk 20s. — Ma- 
tilda dr. of Richard my son 40s. — ^the mother of the same Matilda 68. Sd. — Cecily dr. of 
Wm. 8. Wm. — ^for the expences to be incurred at my funeral 10/. — John de Heworth 
20s. — Agnes de Blakeston 28. — Alice Tynkeller 2*. — Thomas s. Wm. de Burdon 6s. Sd. 
—Cecily BroysIF 6*. 8c?.— John de Exham 12i.— Wm. de Thorp 40(f.— Alice my grand- 
daughter 68. 8d. — ^John s. Alexander de Dunelm 13*. 4d. — Wm. de Morton 20*. — ^John 
Slauer 13*. 4d. — ^Amice de Thorp 6*. 8(/.— Adam de Qwytebem 20*.— tlie clerks and 
widows praying for my soul and keeping watch round my body 10*. — Robert Carl' 

* This is curious. We now choose the large bell 
f The stoup or bason standing at the entrance of the church, with the contents of which 
the congregation were sprinkled. It does not appear in this instance to have been fixed in 
the wall, but seemingly was a moveable chattel. 

t The corpse- present to the church, usual at funerals. 
§ Inq. p. m. 19 Hatfield, Peter son of Peter Clerkson : property here. 
II Inq. p. m. 9 Hatfield ; Maude, widow of John Underwode, of property here : sister 
Enuna Bruys coheir with Cecily of Thorpe. 

H luq. p. m. 9 Hatfield ; John Bruys, of property here ; dau. Emma cohdr with his 
grandchild Cecily, dau. of Alice of Thorpe :- - - Charters appear from Walter of Shotton 
and his d. and h. Cecily of Thorpethcwles. 



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PAPAL. 205 

12$, 4 J.— John de Norton 6f. 8d. — John and Cecily children of John Underwod two 
chests which are in my chamher, together with 3 beds — Isabella, the wife of Robert 
Clerkeson my veil [revale] with a tunic — John Underwod my doak (damidem) — Sir 
Richard de Manfeld, chaplain, one bed convenient for him — William de Norton the 
cook IQ0;— Robert called Brige 6f . 8<i.~John of the Stable [de Stabuio] 4(kl.— residue to 
my son John and his children. Proved 81 Feb., 1343. 

I now come to the incumbenta 

VicAKS.— Ptfter,* Persona de Derlinffton, occurs in the latter part of the 13th century 
as witness to a charter of Walter Bee, Baron of Eresby, father of the great Anthony 
BekCy granting Redmarshall property to Adam the carpenter of Darlington, whose son 
Richtfd again alienated. In 1320, Wm. de Wallewrde grants to William son of Peter 
the clerk (Petri clericij, of Derlingtone, three roods in exchange, and in 1329, Walter, 
son of William, son of Peter the clerk of Derlyngtone, grants to Wm. de Walleworthe 
and Olive his wife a wood in Oranhou there. 

Robert de Rovest&n, occnrs perpetual vicar in 1309, in whose time Beke granted the 
vicarage-house. 

Hemy de AppiUf in consequence of infirmity submitted his vicarage of Derlington, 
in 1341, to Kellawe to make arrangements, and because his seal was unknown to many 
people, he used the seal of the rural dean of Derlington. The bishop settled twelve 
marks yearly out of the fruits of the living upon him, and then by another instrument 
he resigned, to which John de Halgton put hb 8eal.t The living was given to 

TJwmoi de Mainham, who however resigned in 1343, and his successor^ was 

William de Wekon, who perhaps resigned and reassumed, for in Dr. Hunter's MSS. 
he is stated to have succeeded in 1364 on the death of 

Richard de Hadynffton, who occurs Vicar in 1344. Bishop Hatfield granted to John 
Verty, the valet of his kitchen, property in Northgate late of Richard de Hadyngton, 
vicar of Darlington. 

William de WeUon occurs again in 1354. 

Robert de Hun$nanby occurs Vicar July, 1360.§ 

William Hoton occurs July, 1398. || Rector of Walkington in Howdenshire 1393, 
which he resigned for this living.1I 

Richard Wytton occurs 1400.** 

William HetUe occurs 1411. (see p. 208.) 

William HtUm occurs 1415.tt 

Stef^ken AueteU occurs 27 Mar., 1416, and again as perpetual vicar in conjunction 
with Sir John Orismes, chaplain, 1 May, 1424.^j: He resigned in 1428, and was after- 
wards Dean of Lanchester, dying 27 Feb. 1461. Thurstan Ryston, rector of Stanhope, 
and Robert Poutheroun of Durham, chaplain, feofied the churchwardens and parish- 
ioners of Lanchester, in 1462, of lands at Greencroft, on condition that they caused yearly 
plactho and dirige with mass to be solemnly celebrated in the church for the soul of 
Stephen Austell, late dean thereof, on hb anniversary, viz. 27 Feb., and find a light 

* Several Peters de Derlington occ as priests in early times. 

t Kellawe's Reg. t Ibid. 

§ Randal. From a copyhold bk., A. p. 277. il Ibid. B. 264. f Hutchinson, iii. 

♦♦ Hutch. List in Par. Reg. by Geo. Allan. ff Hutch, from Hunter's MSS. 

Xt Randal, from Copyhold Bk., G p. 168. 



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206 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

burning before the image of St. Catherine, where his body was buried. Under an arch 
in the side wall of the North aisle of that church is the recumbent effigy of an ecclesi- 
astic with his hands elevated, clasping a chalice, well cut in Stanhope marble^ which 
is believed to represent this ancient pastor of Darlington.* 

Richard Wyttofiy vicar 1428, p. res. Austell, made Dean in 1439 by Bp. Neville's or- 
dinances, (see ante). In 1436, Jan. 1, occur Richard Biehdmrn^ vicar, Richard Peny- 
maystr cl. and Tho. Tracy, chaplaint here, and in 1441, 13 Sep. Richard Bichebura 
occurs as Vicar,X although the Deanery was then established and " Richard Wytton, 
Dean of Derlyngton" is mentioned as at the enthronement of Neville on 11 April that 
very year. That the word vicar should still accidentally be used, is very likely, and as 
Bitchbnm and Witton-le-Wear are close together, I suspect that Wytton and Bichebum 
are one person. Richard Witton, S. T. B., was chosen master of University CoUege in 
1426, and ceased 1440.§ 

Deans.— i?tcAani WyUon, first dean, 1439. 

Sit\\ Roland Hardgyll, cl., confirmed 1451, occ. 11 Apr., 1455. 

Sir Robert Symsm, cl. ooc. 14 Aug. 1466.f 

Ralph Lepton, in Decret. Baoc. occ. 9 Nov.. 1497, p. m. Symson, and 19 Nov., 1601. 
Sir Thomas Clarke occ. as parochial chaplain, 7 Jan., 1497, 25 Ma:y, 1499, and 19 
Nov., 1501.** In 1507. the dean was present at the S3mod held in the Galilee on the 
bishoprick affairs, the see being vacanttt Sir Leonard Melmerbyey ooc. as curate 24 
June, 15334t ^® ^^ chaplain of All Samts chantry in 1535. 

Sir Robert Melmerby is placed among the deans by Hutchinson, as occurring on the 
above date 24 June, 1533. A Robert Melmorby occ curate of Witton-le-Wear ui 1558, 
and of Hamsterly in 1562. 

Ctahhert Mershdllj S. T. P. last dean, ooc. 1535, 1547. I^e was vicar of AycUflfe, 1533, 
and Rector of Whitburn from 1525 to his death in 1549.—" Here lieth the body of 
Cuthbert Marshall, D.D., late archdeacon of Nottingham, prebendary of Ustwayte, 
canon residentiary of the metropolitan church of York, of whose soul God have mercy ; 
the burial of whom was the xxvth day of January, in the year of our Lord God 1549."§§ 
I suppose he would be the same Sir Cuthbert Marshall, master of the grammar school 
of the Abbey of Durham, who in 1510 was called in to witness the statement of two 
claimants for sanctuaryJ||| 

A list of the prebendaries would be useless and uninteresting, but besides 
the pluralists spoken of at p. 80, there were a few men holding DarUngton 
honours, ot importance enough to need a passing mention. 

* Hutchinson. 
+ Randal, ex Inqnis. Rot. (A) Nevil, No. 102. % Randal. 

§ Wood's Athenae. II Dna in orig. Perhaps Dan would be as correct a rendering 

in this and other instances. H Hutchinson from Randal. 

** Randal's MSS. Hutchinson gives him as a dean on the dates mentioned, 
ft In Wolsey's time the dean of Auckland was very obstinate about the ** prest money" 
required of the clergy for the King, and Frankelyn Uie temporal chanceUor writes to the 
bishop that he had part of the offender's seditious speech, ^ which your grace shaU see 
under a notarie signe subscribed with hands of Mr. Wardale your commissarie, Mr. 
Wytham dean Damton and Mr. Folbury, master of your gramer scole at Duresme, whiche 
be right honest and substantial! men." The chancellor goes on to state with ludicrous 
gravity that the rebel's **act and dealyng was not farre discrepant from his own nature and 
keynde for his fadir grandsir and all other of his progenie tofr Scottiehemm home and whe- 
der he be so or not I stand in dowte." 

XX Randal, from Reg. Tuiistal 12. ^§ Drake's Eboracnm. 

nil Sanetuarium Dunclmcnse, Surt. Soc. p. .W. 



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PAPAL. 207 

Thomas de Netill was a prebendary here at the time of his death in 1362. He suc- 
ceeded as master of Sherbum Hospital in 1339, and was prebendary in the churches of 
York and Howden as weU as rector of Thorp Basset, co. York. 

Henry de Ingelby who by his own account held fiye stalls and the valuable living of 
Haughton-le-Skerne, is interesting as the prebendary perpetuated by the Ingleby shield 
of arms on Darlington sedilia. He might well afford to subscribe a large quotum to the 
chancel repairs. He was second son of Sir Thomas Ingleby (one of the Justices of the 
court of Ck)mmon Pleas, and founder of the family of Ingleby of Ripley, &c.), and his 
wiU was made and proved at York in 1375. " Henry de Ingelby, prebendary of the 
prebends of Southcave and Castre in the cathedral churches of York and Lincoln, of 
Oxton and Crophill in the church of Suthwell in the diocese of York, also prebendary 
in the Collegiate church of Derlington, and rector of the parish chureh of Halghton in 
the diocese of Durham, knowing that nothing is more certain than death, nor uncertain 
than its hour, — ^my soul to him who redeemed me by his most precious blood — ^my 
wreidied body to be buried without worldly pomp in the cathedral church of York if I 
die at York or near it ; if elsewhere, at the place of one of my benefices, then in the bene- 
ficial church of that place, before the high altar if convenient ; but if at a place distant 
thirty miles from any of my benefices, then in the parish church there or in its ceme- 
tery — to the prioress and convent of Neceham five marks, [and to other religious bouses 
and persons] to pray especially for the souls of Thomas de Ingilby my father and Ede- 
line my mother. Sirs John de Ingilby, David de Wollour, and William de Dalton, and 
William de Benham, as well for the good estate of onr Lord the King during life, and for 
lus soul when he has departed this life, and for the souls of all the benefactors of my 
said friends as well as myself, and of all the faithful deceased, — ^to the chapter of York 
my iron diest which was Master Thomas de Nevell's, and stands in the revestry of 
tlie church of York.'* 

Alan de Newark occurs in most of the Commissions of truce with Scotland in the 
latter part of the I4th cent, the clergy being then the only persons who in general were 
acquainted with the civic code, and high preferment usually rewarded their services in 
the 1^^ way. Alan himself was amply remunerated as appears from his testament 
He was in utroquejure bacaUarius, and perpetually occurs as executor to his cotempo* 
rary clergy. John de Ciyfford, the treasurer of York Cathedral, left him in 1393 one 
great cup, one great covered bowl of silver and 409. His will, dated in tlie hall of his 
house at York in April, 1411, opens thus : — " In the name of our Lord JliesusXi^hrist, 
Amen. I, Alan de Newerk, clerk, in the diocese of York, knowing that in this vale of 
tears I have no abiding city, but seek another (oh ! that by the infinite goodness of God 
it may be a happy one !), and seeing that dust as I am I shall return to dust, but when, 
where, or how is reserved to the divine knowledge only ; that the transitory goods C0I7 
lected by me may in after timed be of profit towards the recreation of the poor, the 
increase of religious training, the saving of mine and others' souls, and the praise of the 
divine majesty ; do make and ordain my testament in this manner. I bequeath my 
soul to the infinite goodness of God and to the glorious Virgin Mary the mother of 
Jhesus Christ, to saint John the Evangelist and all saints of God, by the intercession of 
whom I firmfy trust to have eternal life, and my body to be buried in the catheditJ 
church of York, near the altar of saint John the Apostle and Evangelist, my master.* 
situate in the South inxisei^i\in parte australt] or elsewhere, if I die out of the province 
of York, as occasion as require." Leaves all his estate to charities to be named in codi- 
cils afterwards to be made. One of these was soon made. He names various establish- 
ments, benefices, and persons, to which he bequeaths sums that *' they might pray for 
him to God." But I will only select a few passages. " I will that 10/. be distributed 
among the poor and needy parishioners of the collegiate church of Derlington where I 

* I suppose it was at his altar that Newark officiated. 



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208 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

have a prebend— WveX on the day of my obit my execotore shall dine with my friends to 
be invited by them, and feed fifty poor people, and hare the fragments themselves— that 
one chaplain officiate at the altar of St. John the Evangelist in the church of York, for 
the souls of my bro. Thomas, my parents and of all those who hold of them, and my 
own soul for twenty years next ensuing my death, and shall have yearly lOOf .— to have 
an obit in the church of York of 30».— to the convent of St Mary at York one gilt cup, 
having the form of a chalice, covered, on the top of which the image of a lion b fixed, 
and having the feet of lions — to William my kinsman erne silver cup covered, figured at 
the bottom and on the covei^-to Master William Newerk, my kinsman, the gilt silver 
cup which I have in daily use — ^to Lawrence Stafford, my derk, one gown of hlaemedle 
furred, and two hoods of black cloth de ^*— and to Peter Gell, my clerk, my gown 
de bianco furred, which has a hood." Proved 6 July, 1411. The testator was buried 
in the place he desired. " Orate pro anima Alani de Newark, curie Eborum quondam 
advocati, qui obiit xiii die mensis Junii an. Dom. 1412,t viam universe camis est hi- 
gressus. Cujus anime, &c." 

Nicholas Hulme occurs prebendary in 1427. He was rector oi Redmarshall, and 
master of Greatham Hospital, and along with the bishops of Norwich, and Coventry and 
Lechfeld, Richard Earl of Warwick, Richai-d Earl of Salisbury, &c.,fwas one of Cai-di- 
nal Langley 8 executors in 1439. The bishop left him " a gilt silver cup covered, chased 
ad modum columbini* as it is intitled in my inventory." In 1436, John Palman, alias 
Coke [buried at Auckland] left him " i tabill,' and in 1427 he is a legatee of one book 
of eleven chaptei-s of Richard Ermet, in the will of John Newton the rector of Hough- 
ton-le-Spring, and master of Sherbum Hospital *^ a bad man." A beautiful brass in 
Oreatham Chapel, with elegant blackletter raised on a cross-hatched ground reads';; — 
'* Orate pro a'i'abus Nichoku Hulme Joh is Kelynget Will'mi Estfelde derioor' quonda' 
huius hospitalis magistror' ac parentu' Fundatoru* suor' benefactom' atq* om'i* fideliu* 
defu'ctor' quor' a iab' p piciet' deus AMEN." 

William Tart, named a prebendary in 1414, (when he was appointed with the bishop's 
official, to hear a dispute)^ also occurs in Newton's will as a legatee of one silver cup 
with a cover. 

Chapters frequently met in the church to determine knotty points, and 
inquisitions often taken therein. Thus the claims ot Ralph Surtees against 
the convent to the patronage of Dinsdale rectory, J were defeated in 1240 
" coram toto capitulo de Demington — in ecclesia de Denrnigton." Thus in 
1235, in the foundation of Stockton chapel it is stipulated that if the inhabi- 
• tants were found " contumacious and rebellious" in performing their duties 
at the church of Norton, the vicar with the consent of the archdeacon of 
Durham, and the chapter of Derlington^ might revoke the celebration of divine 
offices and ministration of the sacraments at Stockton altogether. Tims 
again in 1412 the archdeacon conducted an inquisition in this coU^iate 
church as to the vacancy in the vicarage of Gainford ;§ and such instances 
might be enumerated with Inquisitions post mortem taken here ad infinitum, 

* Blacmedle would be a black material mixed with another colour or fabric, and the 
hoods were plaited or bad wreaths like the strings of a lyre. Ad modum columbini :— 
wreathing or twisting round the cap like the flower of that name. 

t Drake. A mistake for 1411. The whole of the will and codicil in the latin mny be 
seen In the Testamenta Eboracensia, Surtees Society. 

X It had been granted to the church by charter made between 1174 and 1180, to which 
** Master Peter, canon of Der'ington," was witnpss. 

§ Hunter's MSS. e Reg. Langley. The jury were, William Hesile, vicar of the church of 
Derlyngton ; Sir Richard Gardner, rector of the church of Dittensal ; Sirs John Ucl^arby, 



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PAPAL. 209 

I neoeaterily find in my ecclesiastical jottings, specimens of that ** awful 
doom which canons tell shuts paradise, and opens helL" In 1311 Robert de 
Gokerton, a notary public, being excommunicated and remaining still in 
scorn of the sentence which was to restore good angels to him, was to be 
avoided by every man, &a, according to bishop Kellawe's injunction.* This 
was the bishop who prevented the tournament being held at Darlington, 
who spared not the great baron of Baby himself (p. 88) when caught 
in an unpardonable breach of morality ; and here comes John de Alwent 
nearly as bad, having confessed before this ghostly prince that he had com- 
mitted adultery with Agnes de Eaby, and Annabella de Durham : and also 
failed to prove that he had not committed the like oflFence with Christiana 
Clergis, Annabella de Castle Barnard, and Emma le Aumbelour. The pre- 
late mitigated the sentence somewhat in consequence of the station in life of 
the offender ; nevertheless he was, clad only in linen, to be whipped round 
his parish church of Grainford on six several Sundays and festivals, and also 
round the market-place at Darlington on six several Mondays, during that 
part of the day when it should be most thronged. The vicar of Gainford 
was directed, under pain of the major excommunication, to monish publicly 
the said John to appear, and to see that he did appear on the succeeding 
Sunday in the churchyard and so forth, from the one day to the other, until 
the expiration of the term : and it was provided that, if he did not submit 
himself, he should be excommunicated tliroughout the whole archdeaconry 
of Durham, and shunned by his fellows as excommunicated until he should 
conform.-f- There is a still more laughable record of the same period pre- 
serveAJ The then vicar of Darlington was walking through one of the 
streets when he fell in with a drunken man, who belaboured him so unmer- 
cifully that he was taken home, where he was confined for some time. The 
Ecclesiastical Court forthwith summoned the offender, but the summons was 
quite lost upon him, he did not appear, and being in contumacy, the pains of 
exconmiunication iollowed. These produced such feelings of alarm that he 
i^peared in court and confessed his guilt, whereupon the sentence was re- 
versed on his submitting to the following punishment He was to stand at 
the Western portal of Darlington church, his only clothing the penance 
sheet ; until the service was half over, when the congregation was to be edi- 
fied by seeing one of the officials whack the barefooted sinner most soundly 
through the aisles with a whip of cord right stout and long. And as if that 

Wmiam Smole, WHliam Gseby, Thomas Norman, Thomas de Morton, and Thomas Langton, 
chaplains ; and Thomas Zole, Adam Cor, John de BlackweU, Thomas Sharpe, WiUiam 
Werdall, and John Zole, laymen. 

%♦ Acta capitoli de Hextildeshara apud Derlyngtone contra Johannem Johannis Fery- 
man de Bnbbewyth pauperem, presbyterom providendum de beneficio ecclesiastico in dioo. 
Dunelm. 1335.— Z>. avid G, Treasury. Catalogue No. 2629. 

♦ Kellawe's Reg. f Kellawe's Reg. Walbran's Gainford. 

t The eminent antiquary who told the tale was unable to find the record at the moment 
again. I have no doubt but that my short version gives sufficiently the purport of it. 

2d 



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210 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

was not sufficient, the next day being market-day he was to be whacked 
through the street more soundly still. The following eyidences of penance 
in protestant times will speak for themselves. 

" Anno Domini 1608. Persons excommunicated. Elinor Shaw, widow ; Mary 

the wife of Francis Shaw, a stranger ; Agnes wife of Thomas Robinson ; Jane wife of 
John Wallis ; Jennet Dent [bur. as " recusant" 8 Mar., 1636-7*] ; Elizabeth Oswold 
wife of Henry Oswold ; John Wetherell and hb wife ; Christofer Potter and his wife, 

strangers ; John Dent ; Recusants- Jenet Coltard and Elinor Harrison ; Isabella 

Harrison ; Excommtmicated for fornication, Robert Husdons ; Tho. Qowlande ; 

Wm. Shaw ; Ann Buswell ; Jane Colthard ; Scyth Smithson ; Stephen Storie ; Mark 
Shaw ; Elizabeth Johnson ; ]Sf argaret Lancaster ; Richerd Dickeson ; Margrett Thomp- 
son ; Agnes Conyers [see p. 98]; BaJkdFdyrmry 18, PMished March 12, 1608. 

Tho. Newton ; Cuthbert Thornehill, absolved ; Richard Johnson, absolved ;t 9 Mareh^ 
1610w - - Margrett Stocdale ; Raulph Maugeham ; Frances Sayer ; Isabell Salterston; 
Robert Husdons ; Elizabeth Johnson ; 1609, ExcommuniccOed at Durham^ 27 April y 
1611, Published 5 May. (Darlington Par. Reg, fly leaf.) 

Die Jovis, 1625, Dec. 16, infra sede ven. viri RL Hunt S. T. P. Decano coram ipso Et 
▼en. viris Joh. Cradock S. T. P. Cane. Dunehn et Jo. Lively, S. T. B.— " Offic. contra 
John Harperley de Stockton pro incest, cum Eliz. Wright soiore uxoris sue. W^ day 
hour and place he being preoognized appeared and confessed and was enjoined acknow- 
ledgment in penitentiflJ manner, in the churches of Norton and Stockton, w** he per- 
formed, and had also been ordered to perform the like penance aJt the market crosses of 
Durham and Dameton which he commuted and paid 01. for y* same, and therefore 
desired that he might be no further proceeded against Ordered to enter into recogni- 
zance in 40/. and sureties 20/. each, and to^^rtify before 12 June next." — ( Brewster'* s 
Stockton,) 

1768. Sep. To washing the Pennance sheet,J 3d — Church Accounts, [This is the 
last entry of the kind in the Darlington Books.] 

* Fly-leaf of register. 

t This and some other of the names are erased in another ink, probably on absolution. 
Some have crosses opposite. 

X A ludicrous allusion to penance is made by Bishop Dodgson when describing his liv- 
ing of Elsdon in 1762. He says his richest farmers were Scotch dissenters, whose religion 
descended from father to son more as a part of the personal estate, rather than the result 
of reasoning or enthusiasm, and goes on to state that churchmen and presbyterians had a 
very good understanding, ** for they not only intermarry with each other, but frequently 
do penance together in a white sheet, with a white wand, barefoot, in one of the coldest 
churches in England, and at the coldest season of the year : I dare not finish the descrip- 
tion, for fear of bringing on a fit of the ague - - - If I was not assured by the best authority 
upon earth that the world was to be destroyed by fire, I should conclude that the day of 
destruction is at hand, but brought on us by means of an agent very opposite to that of 
heat - - - The whole country is doing penance in a white sheet, for it began to snow on 
Sunday night, and the storm has continued ever since." 

I add an extract or two more from this amusing divine's letters :— " My journey pro- 
duced a great deal of pleasure till I reached Darlington, when I quitted the coach and 
began to fly, but my wings soon failed me, for the post horses which I hired at Durham 
were not able to move an inch further than the ninth mile stone. — A clog-maker combs 
out my wig upon my Curate*s head by way of a block, and his wife powders it with a dredg- 
ing box. The vestibule of the castle is a low stable, above it is the kitchen, in which are 
two little beds, joining to each other. The Curate and his wife lay in one and Mar- 
gery the maid in the other. I lay in the parlour between two beds to keep me 
from being frozen to death. - - - I have lost the use of every thing but my reason, though 
my head is entrenched in three nightcaps, and my throat, which is very bad, is fortified 
with a pair of stockings twisted in the form of a cravat. As washing is very cheap I wear 



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PAPAL. 211 

A long list oi eccleeiastics who took name* from this their birth-place 
might be fiimished, but the only characters really interesting are the 
following : — 

1258. Hugo de Derfynffkm was elected sub-prior of Durham, and in 1286 he was 
made prior. During the wars of the barons, he conducted himself so prudently as to 
save the possessions of the church from depredation by either party. He contributed 
largely to the magnificence of his convent, and among various fine worksf built the 
belfrey on the summit of the great tower of the cathedral, and enlarged the organ. Nor 
was hb hospitality less notable. Whenever he came to his house, the poor people to 
whom his kitchen was ever open, danced before him. It is said of him that the common 
coinage of a penny was reduced to five mites, that he might distribute handfuls of that 
small money to a greater number of objects. When advanced in years and obliged to 
travel in a chariot, he constantly threw money from thence to the poor. Graystanes 
gives an instance of the prior's authority. ** Bishop Stichill whilst he was resident in 
the castle at Durham, made it his custom to send wine to the convent. One day he 
ordered his brother to carry wine to the sub-prior*s table, which on being presented gave 
offence to prior Hugo, who presided at the upper table, and thereupon he struck the 
table, and put an end to the dinner in the middle of the mess.** In 1273 he resigned, 
and his successor, Richard Claxton, prior of Holy Island, was confirmed at Darlington. 
For some reason or other the new prior abdicated in 1285, when Hugo was recalled. 
He assented to the archbishop's jurisdiction during a vacancy of the see, and before his 
second resignation in 1290, was quite superannuated, yet so obstinate and resentful that 
when application was made for his removal, he sent to the bishop with the promise of 
laige bribes if he would deny his assent, but the bishop at once hastened to Durham 
and Hugh was forced into a cession of hts office. Qraystanes gives the foUowing 
graphic passage as to Hugh's second reign. After mentioning his removal of Richard 

two shirts at a time, and for want of a wardrobe hang my great coat upon my own back, 
and generally keep on my boots in imitation of my namesake [Charles XII] of Sweden 
Indeed since the snow became two feet deep (as I wanted a chappin of yale from the pub- 
lic house) I made an offer of them to Margery the maid, InU her legs are too thick to make 
use of the offer, and I am told that the greater part of my parishioners are not less sub- 
stantiaL**— J?icAarc3C»on*j Table Book. Leg, Div. 1. 232. 

* ** It was flashionable for the clergy,*' says Fuller, ** especially if regulars, monks and, 
friars, to have their surnames (for syr-names they were not) or upper-names, because su- 
peradded to those given at the font, from the places of their nativity ; and therefore they 
are so good evidence to prove where they were bom, as if we had the deposition of the 
midwife, and all the gossips present at their mother's labours. Hence it is that in such 
cases we seldom charge our margin with other authors, their surname being author enough 
to avow their births therein. 

** Some impute this custom to the pride of the clergy, whose extraction generally was so 
obscure that they were ashamed of their parentage : an uncharitable opinion, to fix so 
foul a fault on so holy a function ; and most fedse, many in orders appearing of most hon- 
ourable descent Yet Richard bishop of London quitted AngerviU, though his father Sir 
Richard AngerviU was a knight of worth and worship, to be called of Bury, where he was 
bom ; and William, bishop of Winchester, waived Pattin to wear Waynfleet, though he 
was eldest son to Richard Pattin, an esquire of great ancientry. 

•* Others say, that the clergy herein affected to be Levi-like, •* who said to his father and 
mother, I have not seen him," (Deut. xxxiii, 9.), practising to be mimics Melchisedeoh, 
•• without father, without mother, without descent," (Heb. vii, 3.), so as to render them- 
selves independent of the world, without any coherence to carnal relationa Surely some 
were well minded herein, that as they might have no children, they would have no fathers 
bidding the place of their birth, as co-heir at least to their estates, to which many did 
plentifully pay for their nursing therein." 

t See Hutchinson. 



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212 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

de Hoton from the priory of Lithum to Coldingham, when he was flonriahing at the 
former place, he adds ^^ for he bated hun, because, while sab-prior in the days of prior 
Claxton on coming to Fynchall on St. John Baptist^s day to visit the place and the 
brethren, as was the custom with the sub-prior, he asked to whom did Hugh the quon- 
dam prior confess ; when Hugh aforesaid answered, *' I know, son, what I have to do, and 
to take care of my soul as well as you do yours." Therefore the enquiry was the spring 
of envy, and gave occasion for hatred. Whence when he was afterguards made prior, 
out of dislike of Richard de Hoton, who was a gracious youth, he sent monks to study 
at Oxford, and magnificently furnished sufficient expenses to them, I had rather it was 
the occasion of doing good, as an ill action. Hence came our redemption.** Richard de 
Hoton was his successor, a fact which explains the prior's disinclination to resign. 

1284. Died, John de Derlinoton, who took the name of the place whereat he was 
was bom, viz. Darling^n in the bishopric, which may be justly proud of bearing so 
famous and learned a man and such a respecter of the Book of Books. He was 
bred a Dominican friar,* and a great clerk. Matthew Paris gives him the testimony 
that he was one " qui literatura poUebat excellenter et canstlio;^* and employing hhnself 
in acquiring a minute knowledge of the Scriptures, the fruit of his labours was '* The 
Great " or " The English Concordance,"t which he finished about 1270, and was prob- 
ably the first work of the kind ever attempted in this country. Henry III. made him 
his confessor (which argues his piety that so devout a prince used him in so conscientious 
an office), and in his time there arose a hot and high contest between the prior and con- 
vent of Trinity church, Dublin, who had elected William de la Comer, as archbishop, 
to that see, and the dean and chapter of St. Patricks, who had chosen Fromund le Bran 
the Pope's chaplain. Pope John XXI. cassated both elections and pitched on our Dar- 
lington as a good expedient for cutting the question short, and appointed him Arch- 
bishop, being in fact a person in whom king and pope met in some equal proportion, 
he being confessor to the one, and collector of Peter-pence (as also to his two snccessoxs 
Nicholas III. and Martin IV.) through all Ireland. Retuming to England he sickened, 
died, and was buried in Preaching Friars, London 4 He was the author of various 
works, amongst others " Disceptationes Scholastics,'* and Rudd in his catalogue of MSS. 
Dean and Chap. Lib. Durham, imagines him to be identical with the author of " Ques- 
tiones XII iibromm Metaphisice et lY librorum Ethicorum disputate a magistro Jo. de 
Ditenshale Anno Dni. M.CC. octogesimo tertio,'* in that collection. " For although 
they say he died in 1284, so small a diffi^renoe might easily happen. That he was 
called Derlington perchance occurred (after he began to be notable) by his taking the 
name ^m the neighbouring town, so noted for its market, rather than from the ignoble 
vill [Dinsdale] in which he was bom. Many instances of such changes might be 
adduced." 

jS^tr Adam de DerUfngUm occurs as a wealthy priest and landowner in the Cleveland 
district, in the 14th cent.§ He was Rector of Crathome in 1348. 

1346. John de Derlingtcn, a canon of Ouisbum, confirmed prior of that place. 

1455. Thomas Darlington, a canon of Guisbum, in like manner oonfirmed. 

John BlakeweU, appointed Chaplain of Hilton chapel within Hilton castle, 1443, died 
before 1450. 

1519. Thomas DemUm, alias Shepherd, was last Abbot of Eggleston, and received 
13/. 6f. Sd, per ann. pension. || 

♦ Hollinshed.— •• Ordinw Prorftixrforttwi.'* Leland*8 Coll. ii. 281. 

+ Ibid. X Fuller, almost verbatim. 

§ Brewster's Stockton. Inq. p. m. 18 Edw. III. Rot. Abbrev.temp. Edw. 111., &c. 

II Whitaker's Richmondshire. 



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PAPAL. 213 

JoAn Dameton, the Abbot of Fountains from 1478 to 1494, seemi to have been an 
active and enterprising character, whose energetic building propensities caused the al- 
terations detailed in Walbran's Guide to Ripon, &c. 

THE COLLEGIATE CHUECH 

ranks in importance among the Durham ecclesiastical edifices now in use, 
next to the Cathedral, and bears indisputable marks of the latter days of 
Bishop Pudsey. Hence it may be said to be in its general features a Trans- 
ition rather than an Early English building, " and for elegant simpUcity, 
may vie with any in the kingdom." It presents the solitary instance of a 
Durham church retaining its lofty roofs, which with the spire form a compo- 
sition of no ordinary beauty. 

The ground plan is much as Pudsey designed it, and comprehends a cen- 
tral tower, a choir with a small apartment attached on the South, now a 
vestry, but probably used formerly as the " Tresor-house," two transepts, a 
nave and two aisles, and until very lately a South porch. The Tower is 
peculiar, and measures two feet more from N. to S. than from E. to W. 
The general style is Early English but of varying character, the south tran- 
sept appearing to be of later date than the other portions, which are quite 
of transitional detaiL In the 14th century a serious settlement* of the 
building took place, the original stone roofs seem to have been supplanted by 
wooden ones ; the windows near the t(A\'er were blocked-f" and rood-lights 
inserted in two of them, while substantial corner supports were added ; the 
aisles were completely rebuilt though the doorways were retained ; the tower 
lights received decorated tracery ; and the roodloft, sedilia and piscina were 
furnished ; all this, by heraldic evidence, being in the time of Prebendary 
Ingleby who died in 1375. The fifteenth century witnessed the addition of 
the fine woodwork of the choir, the sixteenth the Easter sepulchre and the 
choir and vestry roofs, and the seventeenth the font cover and old pews in 
the North transept With these preliminaiy remarks I shall proceed to 
give the details of this fine &bric, which belong to the period I have been 
chronichng. 

Admeasurements. (Inteeior). Length of Choir, 33 ; Tower, 22 ; Nave, 72 ; total 
len^h of centre, 127 feet. Length of Aisles, 74 (the Western wall of theae is two feet lees 
in thickness than that of the Nave) ; breadth of transepts, 18 ; total length of wings, 92 
feet. Length of each transept, 26 ; breadth of Tower, 24 ; total length across transepts, 
76 feet. Breadth of Nave, 24 (to centre of pier) ; of each Aisle, 10 ; total breadth at West- 
end, 44 feet. Breadth of Chancel, 21 feet Vestry, 16 by 12 feet. Nave composed of four 
compartments. 

* This has twisted and shaken the whole of the church, especially the West-end, which 
is very much out of the perpendicular. It is attempted to be supported by long iron rods 
paadng from the tower and bolted into the walls, but ** it is to be regretted that an amount 
of money, which would have gone for towards rebuilding it, should have been spent in 
perpetuating a positive deformity." 

t Billings's well-intentioned expression, •* the blocking up of windows (as if the window- 
tax affected churches)," is not borne out by the fact. The Darlington folks have hurt their 
church enough, without being made answerable for necessary supports to the tower in the 
days of old. 



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214 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

Altar. The " exceeding long and fair altare stone de wurio marmore, lioc est, niffro albit 
mactdis diatincto at the high altare'* which Leland saw, has totallv disappeared ; it proba- 
bly came from the *' faire quarre of blak marble spottid with white, in the very ripe of 
Tees," which he mentions as being ^ about a qoarter of a mile beneth Agleston [Priory]." 
There is nothing peculiar about the present arrangements. The two altar-books are in- 
scribed *'Darlinaton Altar, J, H* 8-^* on a good old binding which on one side ofetMchbook 
only has unluckily been supplanted by a new one of very inferior execution, with /. H. 8. 
on, for show. Within is an Indian -ink drawing of a boy, pointing to a representation of 
one of the books inscribed ** Tliia Book and its companion were the gift of Mr. John Cade^ 
A.D' MDCGLXXI. For the use of the Altar in DaHington Chvrch. 8[amuel] Wiilkin- 
son] Delin:' 

Arches. The tower rests on four superb obtuse arches of rectangular mouldings. They 
rise from clustered piers, of which the main pillars are of a point^ section, and each oif 
them is furnished with two sub-pillars enclosed in rectangular formations. A large square 
block intervenes between the inner mouldings of the arch and the abacus. Some of the 
capitals are flowered, others moulded only, and both capitals and piers have been sorely 
cut and built upon, partly in the fourteenth century when the roodloft was constructed, 
and partly in later days. The S. W. cluster from which four arches spring In various di- 
rections, is still perfect and has a poble effect. Above these tower arches are four others 
opening into the roofis. Before the ceilings hid the latter they would appear to have been 
visible from below, and formed a sort of lantern, and must have had a very singnlar effect; 
they are plain chamfered. Each aisle opens into a transept by a single arch of fine detaiL 
The Nave arches are curious. The three Westernmost are very wide and obtuse, of three 
orders chamfered, while the Easternmost is much narrower, of fine proportion and elegant 
mouldings. The same alteration takes place in the piers. Those under the plain arches 
are simple cylindrical and octagonal alternately, with corresponding responds at the W., 
but the more ornamented arch rests on a clustered respond and a beuitiftil pier, compodea 
of four cylindrical and filleted shafts separated by pear shaped or pointed bowtells. Never- 
theless they are coeval, for the clerestor;^ does not alter, and one of the plainer arches 
partly rests upon the clustered pier. Owing to the settlement at the West end, the end 
arch is nearly circular, but throughout the church the prevailing feature of the whole of 
the architecture is endless variety and irregularity, though the general character is so ad- 
mirably preserved that there is not the slightest appearance of incongruity. 

Arch-buttresses. These are some masses of masonry inserted in the angles of the 
cross plan to support the tower. Thev cut off the angle and are supported by arches high 
above the gronna, interrupting the plain early English strips which preceded them. 

Aumbries. Small closets for various purposes. There is one in the Newel staircase at 
the S. W- comer of the S. transept, near the summit It runs three feet into the thickness 
of the wall, and is wider than the entrance splay in the wall leading to it, which occnpies 
1 ft. Sin. of the 3 feet. 

Base-table. In the original work of the transepts and chancel, this is a simple slope 
into which the flat buttresses die. 

Battlement. The South Aisle has a plain decorated parapet, and the vestry a debased 
one, the other parts of the church are furnished with battlements, which are all of compa- 
ratively late date. 

Brasses, Sepulchral. Within the altar rails the mark of a fimre and inscription on a 
veined marble slab. The like near the North stalls in the choir. Marks of two inscriptions 
in the North transept, on an enormous blue slab (which with the rest of this transept is 
elevated) bevelled at the S. edge. Next to it a slab with the mark of a chalice and in- 
scription ; this style of brass is excessively rare in England, and the perfect one at Leeds 
is perhaps unique. It no doubt covered a chantnr priest. Close to the North wall of this 
transept a slab which appears to have contained two full length figures canopied, with 
kneeling fibres round, the matrix of one remains on a comer. Near the font tne mark of 
an inscription. The like in South aisle just within the door. The like in the pavement of 
the destroyed South porch, in which also are the marks of two figures, inscription, and 
four comer pieces. 

Buttresses. In the early English parts these are of very small projection, much re- 
sembling Norman ones. At the comers they form turret -like buildings of square form. 
The decorated buttresses are very irregular and more for use than show. See Arch- 
buttress. 

Capitals. All fine. In the window and arcade shafts they are generally moulded with 
fine deep undercut members, but they also occur with the nailhead ornament inserted, 
and the crisp foliage of the period. The abacus is mostly round and overhangs in a very 
graceful manner, but in many instances (as in the pier capitals) it is of a square Norman 
character. In the South transepts the foliage introduced is of peculiar beauty. The pier 
capitals partially follow the form of the pier, but are in manv instances square, and are 
only foliated in some instances. The unusual form of an Early English hexagonal capital 
occurs on several shafts in the North transept. 

Chamfer, an arch moulding exceedingly abundant. In the North transept it springs in 
one instance from a fleur-de-lis ornament intervening between it and the capital of the 
supporting shaft. 

Chantries. The North transept (see Brasses) has evidently been a chantry, probably 
that of All Saints, as I have observed that foundations to our lady are more usually on the 
Southern side of churches. 

Corns, A stone coffin dismantled of its lid lies near the choir door. Part of a cofflnlid 
with cross flory was dug up in the churchyard a year or two ago but was suflGnred to be 



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PAPAL. 



215 



destroyed. The early stone in Bamingham churchyard, Yorks., of which I present a out 




seems to be aooffinlid, and of Saxon date. It is nearly covered with crass and soil, but 
seems about three and a half or four inches thick. The coffinlids thus decorated served as 
monumental slabs, but in the Saxon period a sort of high dos dane monument appears to 

have been used, of which examples occur at Bedale. ^ 

Corbel-tables remain under the later battlements in the Nave 
and transepts, consisting of small blocks simply 
moulded and supporting the parapet. 

Cross. There is no vestige of one, but there 
are the remains of two fine Saxon ones at 






[DeUnU of Saxon tomb in Bedale Church, which has a tiled rw^ae belov.] 



AycHffe, five miles off, which are supposed 
to commemorate the two synods held 
there in 782 and 789. There are remains 
of the usual churchyard cross of Saxon 
^date at Hauxwell, near Richmond, and 
at Bedale. Since writing p. 81, Ifind that 
as early as about 1313 the Wal worths had 
tamUy transactions respecting one rood on 
le CrosJUU, See cuts over. 



^^.rrS0^^ 





[Part ofSaxon txmb^fimnd in Bedale Churchy 
nowpene* W. Marker, E$q. Theakstone nita.] 



[Part of Cross at Bedale.] 



DooRWAT8« The Choir door is a plain square chamfered one in a buttress-like projection. 
The West door is grand in its simplicity. It is situate in a triangular headed projection of 
the wall. The capitals of three shafts (which have evidently been stolen for the marble) 
at each side alone remain, they support rectangular sets of deeply undercut roll mouldings, 
within which is a continuous bead moulding, sadly cut, to accommodate itself to a modem 
door. The North and South doors have chamfered mouldings and two shafts at each side ; 
the latter has had a porch, but the former is placed in a projection which has a short piece 
of moulding at each side above the doorway. The outer door of the destroyed South i>orch 
was obtuse pointed, and is shown in Cade's print. 

Dripstoves generally run on in a string. Those of the Tower arches rest on shafts, and 
are adorned with an ornament like a nutmer pared down to an hexagonal form. In the 
arcades of the South transept a cruciform flower, animals and human heads occur ; the 



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216 



ECCLESIASTICAL. 




latter are modem, being moulded partly from the physiogno- 
my of a dranken man, and have nevertheless a good effecc 
and a much more sensible expression than would be ex- 
pected. The North door has moulded terminations, the 
South, rosettes* The decorated windows have masques. 



^tm 




[ Crotsea at Ayeliffe. Seep.lXb.] 



Eppioy. There is but one monumental figure, of which I give a cut, (see next p.) but 
it must be nearly coeval with the fabric, being a female in the dress of the twelfth cent., 
holding a book (!) and supported by an angel. A fibula appears beneath the neck and an 
an avlmoniert is suspendea from the girdle. Altogether the figure is much like that of 
Richiurd I's. queen, Berengaria. It now stands upright in the church near the Western 
door. 

Font. Plainish circular shaft, on two steps of the same form ; the basin is octagonal 
lined with lead. It is coeval with the building, but is painted over. The fine late perpen- 
dicular cover (perhaps as late as Cosin's time) is also painted to imitate the material of 
which it is constructed— oak ! 

Galilee. See p. 46. The Glossary of Architecture says that *' in some churches there 
are indications of the West end of the Nave having been parted off fh>m the rest, either 
by a step in the floor, a division in the architecture, or some other line of demarcation : it 
was considered to be somewhat less sacred than the other portions of the building.*' At 
present the West bay only of our Nave is screened off as a porch, but this is quite a mo- 
dem arrangement, and the screen was further eastward some few years ago. I am not 
even quite sure that the change of architecture at the commencement of the Eastern- 
most arch of the Nave is without its meaning, for in Middleham church the mark of a 
screen of considerable height across the whole church at the same point is distinctly visible. 

Material. " A hard grit-stone little injured by time." Cade- "The expenceofthe 
fabric before xm was immense ; for the stone of which it is built, according to the opinion 
of judicious workmen, was brought above twelve miles, from the quarries of Cockfiela-felL'* 
— /TutcAiiMOfi. 



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PAPAL. 



217 




"PHI i'^¥IB"5SSt 




$ik 



{Cro»» at Hmucweir, !step. 215.] 



Nrwell-staircases. One at the S. W. of 
the South transept in a turret which changes 
from a square to an octagon. At the top this 
tmret has small qnatrefoil windows, and lower down plain slits ; it has a door into the 
churchyard and forra<^rly had another into the church ; the staircase continues to the top 
of the turret, hut at present is only used to attain the flat ceiling of the transept on which 
there is a passage heneath the old roof to the upper arches of the tower, which form the 
sides of a charoher for the hellringers. There is another newell-staircase in the roodloft. 

Niches. A trefoiled one above the S. door, another at its W. side, and a third above 
the W. door, apparently for images. 

PixNACLES. Those on the tower are modem, but at each side of the Western gable is 
an early example, with small pannels terminating in an octagonal spiret. At the summit 
of that on the S. is a mutilated sitting figure. 

PracixA. In the Sttst wall. The masonry is mainly ori^nal, but the blundering label and 
shields (one of which is charged with a mullet in bad imitation of Incleby's estoile) are 
modem and of wood. There are two cinqnefmled recesses, the S. one has a basin dirided 
into two parts, the North one runs deeper into the wall and is plain, having probably an- 
swered as a credence table. The two basins are apparently for the two uses of the piscina, 
the washing of the priest's hands and the rinsing of the chalice. 

Roodloft. The Darlington example is perhaps unique. It is a massive stone gallery 
or platform, the whole width of the great cnancel arch, some 13 feet in height and 7 in 
de^tb, having a wide ribbed archway in its centre, leEidinff from the nave to the chancel. 
This arch is ribbed precisely like a bridge arch, and the whole now presents a bald effect : 
bot it appears that formerly it was ornamented heraldically, as Cade, in ** Hell-Kettles'^ 
(which, since writing p. 36, 1 have found from a letter to Mr. Allan about offering it to Miss 
Damton, was his production), laments ^ the destruction of the arms of benefactors to the 
fabric, cut in stone, and properly blazoned over the entrance into the quire, by a late re- 
former.^ The images of the rood were in allusion to St John, xix. 26, ''Christ on the cross 
saw his mother ana the disciple whom he loved standing by." The sound of a door re- 
mains on tapping at the North end, and a portion of a winding staircase is still used as an 
access to the organ on the Sooth. In the two blocked windows of the choir next to the 
choir arch are the remains of two small Decorated windows, (the South one with a trc- 
foiled head, the North one having a ciuquefoiled head and oinquefoiled transom) which 
served to throw light upon the Roodloft, which ia also of Decorated date. 

2b 



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218 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

Roofs. Ajifainst the first piers from the West, on both sides of the Nave, there are clear 
evidences of the plan of vault adopted in the Aisles, consisting of portions of chamfered 
ribs, and in the North Aisle opposite these remains, an elegantly moulded corbel remains 
on tne wall on which the ribbmg fell. In the Nave where the two architectures join, a 
triply-shafted pillaret runs up the wall to the string beneath the clerestorv, which latter 
VMi of the building has been so modernized as to leave no clue to what the shaft supported. 
Whatever was the contour of the Earlv English roofis, they have onlv left their moulding 
on the tower walls above the present une of leading, being snpplantea by Decorated oaken 
roof^ of five cants, there being no tie-beam or king-post. These remain in the Nave and 
TranseptSybut are hidden by a modem plain pannelled ceiling, which extends to the Tower. 
The choir has a flattish Tudor roof as well as the Vestry. My own impression is, that the 
original roofs were vaulted arches, corresponding in shape and altitude to the upper arches 
of the tower, that the passage to the tower was m>m the newel staircase throujph the space 
between that arch and the apex of the weather moulding ; and that the weight of tneee 
roofs being blamed for the settlement in the fourteenth century, they were replaced by the 
canted ones which are of the later style of cant. It is remarkable that at one side only of 
the weather mouldings there is a hitch ; that of the South transept is shewn in my plate. 

Sedilia. Three in gradation ascending to the East, consisting of trefoiled ogee arches : 
the compartments formed between the heads and the square outer moulding are also foiled, 
and contain shields, only one of which is charged and contains the estoile of Ingleby. The 
original depth of these seats cannot be ascertained, as the safe behind has interfered with 
them . The Sedilia were seats for the officials during certain parts of the mass. 

Sepulchre. The Easter Sepulchre (at which were transacted some strange theatrical 
mysteries at Easter : see the Rites of Durham, &c.) consists of a Tndor-arched recess in 
the North wall of the Chancel nnder a sqnare head embattled ; the spandrils formed by 
which are filled in with fbliage, on which a colouring of green may still be dimly traced. 

Spire. This feature of the church is part of the originaV design and is octagonal, each 
face being eight feet broad at the base At the angles are bold undercut bowtells, and 
some distance up, on the four cardinal fronts, are small trefoil lights with transoms of De- 
corated datCb The height is 108 feet, 180 feet from the ground. It is supported partly on 
the main walls of the tower and partly on squinches in the comere. 

On July 17, 1750, this beautiful spire, considered the highest and finest in the North of 
England, was rent and shaken from top to bottom. On the N. W. side of it, about three 
yards below the top, the stones were thrown quite out, so as to lay the inside open for a 
space near ten yards ; between which break and the bottom were several others, but none 
quite so large : the church also was much hurt and damaged. Several houses in the town 
were much shattered and laid open in many places ; some people were likewise struck 
down with the sulphureous blast, and lay senseless for several minutes,but none were kill- 
ed. This storm occasioned fifteen yards of the spire to be taken down and rebuilt in 1752, 
and divine service could not be performed until the spire was taken dowii and the church 
repaired. The agreement with Robert Nelson of Melsonby, stone-cutter, and Robert 
Comey of Coatham, carpenter, stipulates that the spire should be rebuilt the same height 
as before, and that the fifteen yards required to be done accordingly should be performed 
fbr 1 051, Unfortunately the mason omitted the moulding at the angles in the new part, and 
thus deprived it of much b^iuty. It is a coincidence that the only two spires of considera- 
ble elevation in the county, Chester and Darlington, should both have the same rhyme 
connected with them (p. 125), and have required rebuilding from the same cause. 

'^ ^ 'isidc -■' • • 



Stalls. On each side of the choir are eood panelled desks and miserere seats with car- 
ved elbows, fine fiorid. •* Their oak bench ends, full five inches thick," says Billings, **are 
Che most massive specimens we have ever met with. Their numerous edge mouldings 
would seem rather to belong to a large archway." The arms of Cardinal Langley fix them 
to a date about 1430, and the same insignia occur on the more numerous but lees massive 
stalls at St Andrews Auckland, at which church, and at Lanchester, the bishop had the 
first stall on the S. side ; the dean the firet on the N., and at Durham the prior sat on the 
N. side in Tike manner. We may presume the same arrangement was followed at Darling- 
ton, The North stalls are impenect, three of them having been demolished to make room 
for a great ugly pew at no distant period. There ought to be nine at each side, two being 
against the Roodloft. The desks and stands are handsomely panelled with bold tracery 
and the elbows and poppvheads are full of beautiful foliage, quiet angels, and comical heads 
with lolling tongues. The designs of the misereres, b^inning at the W. stall of the N. set 
are these: 1, a little man with laced boots gathering or supporting fiowere ; 2, a lion's 
head ; 3, the little man asleep, his boots unlaced ; 4, a winged and clawed mocster with a 
human head ; 5, (Easternmost of S. side) a human head ; 6, an eagle (a device which oc- 
cure in other parts) ; 7, an angel and open book ; 8, a winged monster having a lion's body 
and eagle's head ; 9, our said little man with one boot laced, the other unlaced, haviu^ a 
chain round the neck of a clawed monster whose Iconic physiognomy seems to be smilmg 
with amusement at the fierce strokes the little man gives with a ragged staff on his head 
(there is evidently a legend connected with this little man] ; 10, a human head ; 1 1, a 
crowned figure with two sceptres [whose face is much like that of the small man] 
between two grifiins sejant gorged. This would be the bishop's seat. Five misereres are 
wanting besides those of the destroyed stalls. On the backs of some of the stalls are cutt- 
ings by the knives of some idle officials, " W " " Maria," in black letter, &c. 

Steeple. A massy central tower of which the transept sides are two feet shorter than 
those of the Nave and chancel. 

Strings. These occur in great abundance and of varied mouldings. One on the W. 
wall of the S. Transept terminates in an elegant rosette, and there is a very effective one 



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DARLINGTON COLL.EGIATE CHURCH. 

UI8BREEIB8. 



W. HyltoB Lokfrtaib, dd. 



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DARLINGTON COLLEGIATE CHURCH. 

BMD AMD MTSERBRB OF THE BISHOP'S STALL 



W. RyltOB LongrtaffB. 40. 



O. Jtwltt, M. 



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PAPAL, 2 IS 

on the W. front consisting of a xigsag formed of lanreMike leaves slanting in different 
directions. 

Tooth Orvambnt. This occurs in one place only, the architrave of a small window in 
the W. side of the S. transept, which is generally of richer work than the rest of the 
building. 

WiKBows. These are the glory of Darlington Church. The West front is a rery fine 
composition. Above the deeply recessed doorway in its shallow porch is an arcaade of five 
rather obtuse arches with banded pillars, two of which are open as windows ; over these a 
triplet, the centre only open, in the gable. The East end, which in a late pamphlet of high 
authority is said to be " quite Norman,'' is in fact ^ quite modem" from a short distaiMe 
off the ground, and has four plain semicircular lights. ^ The East end of the quire," savs 
Cade, '^being out of its perpendicular, by taking away the leaded conic roof (after tne 
alienation of the college, temp. Edw. VI.) was repaired in the present humble manner by 
Lord Viscount Vane, the patron, in the year 1748 ; until that time, the stalls in the quire 
and architecture of the East endf had a venerable appearance, being-adorned with six large 
windows, and excellent Gothic work in stone and wainscot." Both Transept-ends have 
four lij^hts disposed two and two ; in the N. one above these is a triplet of arcnes, the cen- 
tre being pierced ; in the S. the gable is filled by a rose window consisting of a quatrefoil, 
the foils floriated. The other sides of the Transepts and choir have two sets of windows, 
pierced in fine internal arcades, of very vaiying detail in each arch. The nail head orna- 
ment occurs profusely, and the two centre lights of the lower set on each side of the choir 
are ornamented luxuriantly with a lozencnr decoration of Norman contour, in which the 
lozenges at the angle of a rectangular moulding are filled up with a sort of four-leaved fiower. 
In the small arches of the upper set near the Chancel arch in the N. Transept and Choir 
the peculiar feature of a smaller shaft ^overtopping and restinff upon the ordinary shaft, and 
supporting one member of the mouldmgs onhr, occurs. In the same Transept some of the 
li^ts have a different pitch of arch to that of the mouldings, the variation being remedied 
by the inelegant device of making the inner cylindrical moulding to grow broader towards 
its summit. The whole of the work in this part is of plainer character than in all other 
portions of the church. One of the arches in the choir arcades is semicircular. The South 
transept is peculiarly rich. The South side has two triplets with banded shafts, the cen- 
tres blank, the sides pierced, in the lower range two rosettes of extreme chastity and ele> 
gance are introduced in the spandrils. On the E. the upper set has banded shafts and 
arches, with exquisite sunken trefoils and quatrefoils in the spandrils ; the lower range 
has a profusion of nail-head < 



1 ornaments which extend to the trefoil and auatrefoil spandril 
panels, the shafts are plain. The W. window arcades are of the same ricn character, and a 
rich rosette panel is introduced in a spandril, composed of four marigold-like flowers with 
five quatrefoiled fiowers in the intervening spaces, the whole beinff surrounded with nail- 
heads. The clerestory of the Nave is ruined with plaster internally, and the plan is not 
apparent, but at the exterior it is a fine array of arches, disposed in triplets, the centre of 
each being pierced as a window. The aisle windows are square decorated, of prebendary 
Ingleby's time, and of much the same pattern as the sedilia, their heads are filled with or- 
dinary and not venr rich fiowing tracery. The tower has a series of five Early English 
arches at each side filled with Decorated traeery, the centre one pierced as a belfky window. 

My plate will exhibit the main features of this fine church, in which I 
have restored the shafts of the West Door, left out the circular plates in the 
West end, to which the supporting rods are fastened ; and as few headstones 
last a longer time than fifty or sixty years, I have not entombed and hurt the 
proportions of the work of Pudsey. In 1774, Cade published a S. W. view 
by Sam. Wilkinson, of very stifi" execution. He gave it to his friend, Greo. 
Allan, whose son the M.P. presented it to Mr. Nichols, who placed it at the 
disposal of Surtees, for the use of his history, but it was not adopted.* The 
plate in Surtees is by Blore, it is efiective, but all the arches are too sharp, 
and the tower too narrow. Billings, in his Architectural Antiquities of the 
County, has given beautiful N.W. and S. views of the exterior, a portion of 
the interior of the fine S. Transept, and smaller illustrations of portions of 
the zigzagged window of the choir and stall -work. The largest S.W. view 
is the latest, a lithogrs^h from a drawing by Mr. Stephen Humble, of Dar- 

* ** I thank yon for the handsome prints, in return for which I wiU send youmy copper- 
plate of Darlington Church ; it nuiy be useful in your femily (as a private plate), but do 
not wish to put you under any restrictiom^"— (7a<ie io Allan, 1788. The plate in Hutchin- 
son is reduced from Cade's engraving. 



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TIO 



ECCLESIASTICAL. 



liugton ; it includes a large portion of back ground, and ii^, with one or two 
exceptions, a correct likeness. 

The Deanery in its former picturesque state is presented to my readers at 
the head of this chapter. Roughcast has been plentifully daubed thereon, 
and the mere outline of the building now remjuns to the S. W. of the churcli- 
yard.* 

" The common seal of the said Collegiate Clmrch,"" used by the churdi- 
wardens in 1507, f was a round one of the style of the thirteenth centur>^ 
The Virgin and child are seated under a fine Elarly English canopy. 
+ SIGILLVM : COMMVNE : DE : DERNINGTVN. 



* That Mr Robert Crompton [of Skerne, co> York, and much mixed up with tithe deal- 
ingii in the parish] shall within thirty days avoyde out of the Deanry the poor woomen 
dwelling there."— JSorou^A Bookt. 

t See the instrument under St. Paul's Rekts hereafter. 





[Saxon fibvla of bronze, ornamented unth silver twist JowmL on the shoulder of a skeleton in 
Leeming Lane, near Bedate, whost breast teas transfixed unth a rusty spear head. The 
ornamental top is moveable, and is shown only in tlie upper cut. By leave of the oumer, Mr. 
Wm. Hedley, of Monhoearmouth, this rare type of brooch was exhibited by the author at the 
Archcsolofjical Institute's Meeting at Lincoln^ A dual size.] 



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L The Cuubch of England. 

I RESUME the succession of Incumbents, who are now styled Perpetual 
Curates. 

">S'«r John Clc^ham, vicare of Darlington/' occ. 1560. 

Sir John ClaxUm, ooc. 1561, 1565. 

James Thornton, died 1571. 

John Wekhe, 1571, died of the plague in Darlington.^ 

John Wood/ally 1584. The Register commences June, 1590,t but it b remarkable 
that the first and second books are numbered 2 and 3. 

Robert Gesjord, 1601. 

Rchert ThonUinaony 1602, signs '' Ro. Thomlinson, vicar,'' in the registers which were 
then first signed at the foot of each page by the incumbent and churchwardens. This 
practise continued till Clapperton's time Margaret Thomlinson wife of Robert Thom- 
linson vicar of D. bur. 29 Jan., 1602-3. Robert Thomlinson and Alice Pape mar. 8 Sep., 
1603 (the entry an autograph). Mi-s. Alice Thomlinson had a house in the Head-rawe 
at Darlington, 1630. Alice Thomlinson of D. widow, bur. 8 Dec. 1644. 

^ A sermon preched by me Henrye umfray the first of Januaiye beinge licensed by 
the Right Reverend farther in God Doctor Oerton [Overton] bishop of Caventre and 
Lech£eld anno Domini 1603." Par. Reg. p. 1. 

I know not whether the wretch in the following entry from the Eiyholme Register 
was a relative of our parson :— '* 1665. June 3. Richard Bamet and Martha Nesum 
of Dalton, mar. This Martha Nesum was the widow of John Nesum, who was barber- 
ously murdered by one Tomlinson, of Oxneyfield, cuming from Darlington. This 
Tomlinson was brother to Parson Heberon, of Croft, who he got to advance his Tythes." 

Isaac Lotoden f signs *' vicarius ilnd.," and "Eoelesia} Rector") 1606. Bur. 3 Jan. 
161 1-2 as " minister of the word and vicar of this place." 

Brian Chant, (vicarins ifndem) 1612. Bur. 26 Jan., 1621-2 
Ralph Donkine, son of John Donkine, a clergyman on travel (Clericiperegrinij bap. 
10 Dec., 1620. Johu [the father] undertaker for his bringing up. (See p. 131.) 

* " He died of the phigae at Darlington, A.D. 1597, there were buried in the month of 
August 89, and in Septembtf 136."— iTuto^. This passage is obscure, but Welshe must 
have died at an earUer period, and is not among the registered victims of 1597. 

t The Register is at first arranged in a way not very likely to tempt wary batchelors to 
enter the holy estate of matrimony, ** The names of those baptized within the parish of 
Darlingtonn Anno Domini 1590."-— *< The names of those buried and joined in matrimony 
in the year aforesaid 1590." This arrangement has puzzled some stupid fellow who has 
altered the dates after 1590 till he came to 1596, when he found himself three years wrong, 
he having altered it to 1599, here he stopped, and so we now skip back from 1599 to 1597, 
from which year the dates are correct With a little care and the guide of the queen's 
reign, we may detect the mistake all the way, but this is awkward in searches, and I 
should suggest the original year being restored in red ink. The years 1591 and 1592 begin 
with Feb. 1, the succeeding ones with March 25 as the practice was till 1752. 



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222 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

Robert Hope ("curate " and "minister") 1622 ; bur. as "vicar," 10 Feb., 163940. 
The following windy entry of the Cromwdlian period perhaps alludes to his daughter 
Mary, bp. 1623-4. 

1653. Dec. 4. The first publicac*on* was made in the parish Church of Darlington 
of a maniage intended Betweene Symon Willie the son of John and Margaret Willie of 
Thornton in the Beanes in the parish of North Otterington in the Countie of Yorke on 
the one p'tie and Mary Hope the daughter of Anne Hope Widdow in the parish of Dar- 
lington and no exceptions made. — 11. Th« second publicac*on was made of the same 
persons and no exceptions agunst them. — 18. The third publicac^on was made of the 
same parties and no exceptions came against them [" to hinder their p'oeedings in mar- 
riage" often added in other cases.] — ^21. The said parties was married in Yorkeshire. 
[In the Durham matches these words are usually added " By Francis Wrenn Esquier 
at Auckland one of the Justices of Peace for this Countie."] 

(Jeorge s. John Vincent, preacher (concumatoris) of D. bp. 20 June, 1636. 

" The first day of November in the yeare of our lord god 1638 Thomas Ingmethorx)e 
of Darlington, clerk, buried at Staindon." — Par, Beg. p. 1. He was bom in Worces- 
tershire, quitted Brazennose Coll. Oxon. without a degree ; reputed a good Hebrew 
scholar, and appointed Master of Durham School, 1610 ; Rector of Stainton, 1594 ; de- 
prived for " a reflecting sermon ** against Ralph Tunstall, prebendary of the tenth stall. 
On his submission he was allowed to return to Stainton, where he taught ten or twelve 
boys till his deceasct A mercer of the same name d. at Darlington in Dec., 1650 ; and 
in Feb. following a Thomas Inglethorpe and Isabell Rymer are entered in our register 
as being married at AUerton. The name is very variously spelled. In 1648-9, Dr. 
Basire writes from Paris, " To my very loving friend, Mrs. Frances Basire, at Eagles- 
difi^e, neare Yarum. Leave this with Mr. Ingmelthorp at Darlington in the County of 
Durham." 

John CU^fpertonn (" minister") 1640. There was a John Clapperton, vicar of Wood- 
horn in Northumberland, whom Walker mentions as one that was driven from his 
living by the zealots during the Usurpation ; and that his living was then valued at 
120^ a year, j: There is only one signature of Clayperton m the Darlington register, 
and it is in 1640. After April, 1645, there is a gap of half a year and the r^^ister be- 
comes exceedingly imperfect 

1641. Sep. Nathaniel Warde, the loyalist vicar of Staindrop, (who becoming too 
militant was mortally wounded at Milium Castle seige in 1644) writes : — I heard only 
yesterday that all the clergy of Darlington district had been summoned by the magis- 
trates to confirm by an oath that P. P. P. of the mob. They even say that the clergy, 
churchwardens, and overseers are compelled when they have taken the oath, to admin- 
ister it to the rest of the parishioners, which when the mule breeds I will do." 

John Buddy minister, bur. 29 March, 1646-7. 

A dreary gap occurs, and parish registrar8§ were introduced during the time of the 

* The late clerk of Coniscliffe, all smiles and crimson, used to vociferate the moment 
after the first banns of any couple were published^ ** God speed them webl !'* 

t Athen. i. 510. 

t ** Bishop Morton disposed of his spiritual preferments to none but bis own chaplains, 
tried and found faithAil. He however broke through this rule in fEivour of John Weemes 
and Anthony Maxton, two Scotchmen, for whom Charles I. asked and obtained prebendal 
stalls during his Northern progress in 163... The latter was also Rector of Wolsingham» 
and Clappurton, another Scot, obtained through the same royal recommodation the vicar- 
age of **-^Surte€S i. xciv. n. 

§ Christopher Wilkinson Book Auno Dora. 1651. (erased), — So this booke was Finished 
vp the said xxixth of September 1653 and a new Register Begun According to Act of Par- 
liament, By me John Cooke The Chosen and Swome Register for Darlington.— The sue- 



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PROTESTANT. 223 

rebellion. Yet it b comfortable to think that in the worst of times, the people of Dar- 
lington had not forgotten their God and their church. In 1654, WiUiam Priscott (a 
Parliament man, by the way) paid to " the churchwardens for the use of the church/* 
a heayy assessment of 20». 5d. upon the land he had given 6251. and a colt for, and the 
sendees of a minister who preached ** when we had not a ministere" were valued at 6f. 
worth of cheering sack. 

John Damton was an intruder during the Protectorate in Bedlington vicarage. " He 
was put in by sequestration." 

Mr Coup of Darlington elareeus br. 24 Dec. 1659. In the Middleham registers the 
word claricus is used to designate a parish clerk in 1681. 

George Bell,* was the first minister after the Restoration, 1661. He was father of 
George Bell, rector of Croft. The Rev. Mr. George Bell, minister of D. bur. 20 Mar. 
1692-3. In the church accounts for 1691 is an item of Is. 4d. '^ for a pint of brandy 
when Mr. George Bell, [the rector of Croft], preached here." 

Chiistiana Melioensis filia Danielis Melicensb Magistri Artb Perigrinorum, bp. 3 Apr. 
1665. 

Mr James Tate, minister of Byshopton, br. 9 Jan. 1686-7. He lived at Darlington 
and occurs in the registers as minbter of Sadbiidge, Sadbiridge or Sadbury. He had 
numerous children. 

Chcrge Thompeon, D. D., 1693. He m., in 1701, Mrs. Jane Hodgson of Fieldhouse in 
thb parish. " Here lieth the body of George Thomson D : D : Minbter of Darlington 
and vicar of Conisdiffe who Departed thb life March the 21st Ann. Dom. 1711 ^tat. 
47. Here lieth the body of Jane the wife of George Thomson who departed thb life the 
29 [June, \l\zr\-Slah%n DarlingUm Nave. 

Memorandum. That on Satterday the 24th of Aprill Anno Domini 1697 : The Hon. 
Robert Boothe Archdeacon of the Archdeaconry of Durham, with the Rev. Hammond 
Beaumont Official Visitted thb church personally and then enjoyned, That the Sacra- 
ment of the Lords Supper be Administred Monthly, a Course of Catechizing through- 
out the whole year, duely performed, and Railles to the Communion Table Sett up, the 
performance of all which are to be certifyed at the next Michaelmas Visitac'on under 
the Minister and Churchwardens Hands. The said Catechizticall Lectures to be per- 
formed on every Sunday in the Afternoon, instead of a Sermon. — Posth : Smith, 
Registert 

In 1705, a Brief was obtained for collecting throughout the kingdom alms for the 
reparation of Darlington Church. The Town received only 368/. 18«. Od, out of 
939/. 108. 2d. the expenses of coUection being 570/. 12^. 2d. 1% 

John HalU 1712, lived in the old Elizabethan brick house between Tubwell Row and 
the church-yard, now the Nag's Head,§ br. 2 Jan. 1727-8; his widow Barbara br. 1740-1 . 
Hb son Thomas was " buried close before the Reading desk" in 1721. || 

ceeding book was " Sould by William Hutcheson Bookeseller in Durham 1633.*'— Apr : 
the xxxth 1657. Bee it remembred that John Hodshon of Darlington gent, did this day 
take the oath for execution of the office of Parbh Register within the parish of Darlington 
(being also duely) according to the forme of the Act of Parliament in this behalfe lately 
made and provided Before Tho : Liddell . Fbak : Wrek.— Par. Reg. Cook and Hodgson 
were schoolmasters. The registers begin to be in English in 1651. Up to Apr. 1 645 they 
are beautifully kept, apparently by the clerk, certainly not by the clergyman. Then comes 
a gap of six months, and after that a very imperfect regbtry, for the new system was by 
no means an efficient one^ 

* The Latin was restored to the registers in 1664, but in Bell's time they are most shame- 
fully kept, as many as six months together being totally wanting sometimes, 
t Par. Reg. t Allan's MSS. § Title deeds. 

II Hall and his two successors may truly be called '' the three good registrars," and give 
a treat after the wretched productions of the idle parsons of Stuart days. HlII certifies 



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224 ' ECCLESIASTICAL. 

Cornelius Harriumy A.M., 1727, was^son of John Harrison by Mary dr. of Cornelius 
Ford of Kings Norton.^ Her sister Sarah was Dr. Johnson's mother, and the man of 
the Dictionary was therefore our parson's own oonsin. *' Next morning," says the 
sage in a letter to Mrs. Thrale, 12 Ang. 1773, on his tour to the Hebrides, ^ we changed 
our horses at Darlington, where Mr. Cornelias Harrison, a ooosin-german of mine, was 
perpetual curate. He was the only one of my relations who ever rose in fortune above 
penury, or in character above neglect. The church is built crosswise, with a fine ^ire, 
and might invite a traveller to survey it ; but I perhaps wanted vigour, and thought I 
wanted time. " 

Harrison had died in 1748 '' universally lamented,"! and was buried in the Sooth 
porch where a decaying brass remains. " To the memory of the Revd. Corns. Harrison, 
A. M., who departed this life Oct* 4th, 1748, aged 49. Likewise of Mary his wife who 
died Aug. 6th., 1798, aged 77. It is requested that this stone may never be removed.'* 
It b remarkable that Uie mural monument to his son Cornelius of Stubb House, esq., 
at Bowes, also states that ^* It is requested that the great stone below may never be dis- 
turbed." The marriage here, of ^* Mr. James Robson, of Ellerton im Yorkshire, to Miss 
Harrison, sister to Cornelius Harrison, esq., of Stubhouse ; an accomplished young lady 
with a large fortune''^: oa 16 Oct., 1772, may be added to Dinsdale's pedigree. 

Andrew TFood,^ A. M., 1748, master of St. John's Hospital, Baniard-Castle, rector of 

that from 18 Oct. 1710, to 2 June, 1712, he found the register imperfect and empty, yet he 
contrived to fill up the vacuum very respectably. 

* The whole connection may be seen in Dinsdale's Edwin and Emma, p. 48. 

t ** N.B. When hereafter in this Register I shall set after the name of any Person bu- 
ried the letters r. a., I would be understood to mean that I received in due time an affi- 
davit of that Person's having been buried in Woollen, according to Act of Parliament ; and 
when I shall add after any name n. A. not., with any day of the month, I desire it may be 
understood that I received no affidavit, and notified the same in writing under my hand 
to the Church Wardens on the day specified. Sept. 20th, 1736. Cornelius Harrison." 

In 30 Car. 2, it was enacted that the relations of the deceased should within eight days 
after interment bring an affidavit to the parson That the person was not put in or buried 
in any shirt, shift, sheet, or shroud made or mingled wiUi flsjc, hemp, silk, hair, gold or 
silver, or any other than what is made of sheep's wool only, or in any coffin lined or fkced 
with any cloth, stuff, or any thing made or mingled with any material but sheep's wool. 
And if no affidavit brought, the Parson was to certify to the Churchwardens or Overseers, 
and to enter burials and whether there was an affidavit in a Register. This Act was for 
the promotion of the Woollen manufacture, and was repealed 54 Gbo. III. The Darlington 
entries are nearly all ** n. A. not." 

t Darlington Pamphlet. 

§ The handwriting of Wood was truly beautiful, and the registers were painftilly exact 
** Memorandum. The Parchment of this Register b^ng exceedingly bad to write upon, 
1 have been in use to keep the Register of Baptisms first upon paper, and then at some 
leisure time (after preparing the parchment for receiving the ink) to transcribe it into this 
Parchment Book : And unfortunately before the said Transcript was made of the Baptisms 
from the 26th of June, 1767, to the 20th of March, 1768, both inclusive, the paper register 
containing the same was taken away or stolen out of one of the drawers under the Table in 
the vestry, where it was kept (in order that my Curate and I might equally, on all occa- 
sions, have access to it), and probably has been wantonly or mischievously destroyed. I 
have therefore taken all necessary pains to supply the said loss, so that I would fain hope 
there will be very few, if any, omissions or mistakes. Those who were baptized privately 
were chiefly supplied from the Curate's Pocket Boof, wherein he entered the names and 
dates of those so baptized, at the time of the Baptisms ; and the others were collected from 
the testimony of Parents, Sponsors, Midwives and Nurses, who were diligently examined 
with regard to the same. Note also, that if any oliservation occurs in this Parchment 
Register of Baptisms referring to a time posterior to the date of the Baptism of the child, 
such observation \f as made when the said paper Register was transcribed into this parch- 
ment one. See an example. Nov. 16, 1764^ ^nd. Wood, Curate." The example alluded 



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PROTESTANT. 225 

Gateshead, and Hedl^ in Samy, and chaplain in ordinary to the King. He died of a 
ferer, Thursday, 12 March 1778, and was boried in the choir of Gateshead chnich, ^diere 
there is a mural monument in the South Aisle, inseribed *' To the memory of Andrew 
Wood, M. A., Rector of this church. Bom zxiz May, MDCCXV ; inducted ix Sept, 
MDCCLIX ; interred, amidst the tears of his Parishioners, xy March, MDCCLXXII. 
This monument of their esteem, affection, and gratitude, was oeeted by the people of 
Gateshead." 

Wood was one of the drawers up of tfa» inscription for Noble*s monument at Bolton- 
on-Swale. He was the constant correspondent of vicar Toby Heyrick of Gainfbrd : and 
his lesidenoe was divided between Darlington and Gateshead. When at the former, he 
was always one of Toby's convivial guests. ' He was an uncommonly lively writer, as an 
epistolary correspondent ; and was in hb time the pHmmm mcHU and the very soul of 
festivity amongst the Maids of Honour and the chafdains at St James's.* Mr. John 
Eden, of Gainford, one dii^ invited Heyrick to dine with him ; but, previous to the ap- 
pointed time, requested him to call at his house, when he afforded him a preliminary 
gratification by the exhibition of a fine haunch of venison, that was aoquiiing a proper 
gusto in the larder. Toby paced round and round the joint, r^oicing in prospective at 
its forthcoming demolition : while Mr. Eden was discussing who should be invited, and 
hinted that Wood might beone. '*Wood! No,no," said Toby, ''Wood! No. Hel 

to is tlus. 1764. Nov. 16. *^ Dorothy Daughter of James Robson of Darlington Breeches- 
Maker, and Mary English of Darlington (who at first alledged that they were married at 
Durham but since were married here in this church by Licence the 20th of December 
1764) baptised." 

** James Smith of this parish and Jane Garth of Saint Andrew Auckland spinster, mar- 
ried by licence &c by T. H.Tidy, Curate of GtStamton" 28 May 1764. '■N.B. To supply 
Mr. Tidy's omission in the register of the above marriage, I observe, that the said James 
Smith is a derk and my assistant Curate, and that the said Jane Garth is a spinster and a 
minor, and was married with the consent of Bowes €rarth her natural and lawftill Father. 
AwD. Wood, Cur.** Smith was afterwards minor canon of Durham and vicar of Ellingham 
CO. Northum. 

On another occasion, having left two pages bliuik by turning two leaves over at once, he 
notices the fiict nx times, covered six lines on one page with small crosses, and where he 
does not notice the error he wrote ** Blank" three time» onevervline of the form, and then 
narrates with proper pride what he had done. In 1765, Allan writes to Ralph Bigland, esq 
Garter King of arms, thus : 

** The ^Observations on Marriages, &c.,' [by Bigland himself] gave me inexpressible 
pleasure ; and the more so as they in every respect agreed with my own sentiments. I 
have for along time talked to the minister of our Parish, to make his entries in the same 
manner in the Register : and have offered voluntarily to be Public Regbter myself fbr the 
whole Parish, would he but give me leave. But what he alledges, is, that the public and 
late acts have prescribed a certain form, fh>m which he dares not deviate. However, one 
may expressly follow that form ;U>ut surely additions can never do harm. One other part in 
regard to sealing Deeds, Wills, &c. with the person's own seal, has ever been a rule with me 
in the course of my profession, and which I ever will stick to ; and so nice am I in this point, 
that when three or more seals are to be affixed to a Deed, and perhiqw the party executing 
has none,— rather than there should be two alike, I frequently send to the shops for com- 
mon penny seals." George has been busy with the registers, adding statistics and what 
not, and in one book ** Si quia RegiaVrwm hoc vel mtUilare in uUa parte f vd nomen aliquod 
delere, addere, out in faUum immulare, vel qwovia alio modo violare audeaifpro ecLcrilegio 
habecUtar a Domino,** . 

* €reo. Allan the M.P. in Nichols's Lit Anec. We once had aa Anthony Wood here who 
was fined for digghig a sand hole in the market place, 1626 ; and (to return to the eaters), 
NiehoUu son of Thomas Wood of Darlington, was bp. in 1629, but I have no evidence that 
like his namesake of Kent he could at one meal demolish thirty dozen of pigeons. Cath- 
erine dr. of Mr. Wm. Wood of Darlington, M.D., br. 24 Ap. 1752. George Wood of D. 
gent uncle to Andrew Wood minister, bur. 28 June 1769. 

2f 



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226 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

eat it all. We must not have him.'* Wood accordingly was not invited ; bat shortly 
after, he heard of the circnmstanoe, and had not long to wait before he had an opporta- 
nity of paying Master Toby in his own coin. One Monday morning he espied him in 
Darlington market, purchasing a pair of soles, which he eyed with uncommon delight, 
and carefully deposited in the pocket of his upper coat Wood being assured that, ac- 
cording to his usual custom, he would call at his house before he left the town, patiently 
waited his advent, for the consummation of his joke. On his arrival, he lavished every 
species <^ attention on him, uid invited him to dinner. Toby, in the contemphition of 
the delicacy in his pocket, declined. Wood became still more urgent, and induced com- 
pliance at last, by the announcement that a remarkable fine pair of soles was to form 
pprt of the entertainment. So he stayed, and was delighted ; and at length departed in 
peace to his vicarage at Gainford. He had not long been ensconced in his pai'lour, be- 
fore he cried out, "Lucy, take those soles out of my coat pocket.'* Lucy forthwith 
duly searched the coat, but to no purpose, and reported the same. " Child you're mis- 
taken,'* cried he ; " go again.'* A " non inventus'' was again returned to the inquisition; 
and his own personal investigation confirming thb dread certainty that they had 
vanished, he very justly exclaimed ; " Oh, that Wood, that Wood, he has dene me .'"* 

" The Revd. Mr. Clark, Minister of Cliesby, Yorkshire,*' was bur. here 4 May, 1755. 

Hmvry HemngUm^ 1772. In the same year a subscription was opened for an after- 
noon lecture, and the Rev. Jos. Watkins, A. M., the sub-curate (who was much es- 
teemed) commenced to preach two sermons accordingly in July. "Not only the op- 
portunity this subscription will give servants and others in various situations to hear 
sermons, but the present prevailing taste for novelty in religion, makes it the more 
necessary.**} 

The following monuments to the Sisson family occur in the church. On a slab in the 
nave : — *^ This stone sacred to the memory of Mr. Jonath'n Sisson of this town gent,§ 
and Grace his wife was laid by their only son the Revd. Mr. Wm. Sisson Rectr. of 
Markshall in Essex, Sec, He was the third son of Theodoras Sisson Esqr. of Kirkbar- 
row in the parish of Barton Westmr. and died Deer. . . . 1743 aged 78. And she 

• Walbran's Gainford. 

+ " To the Churchwardens of the Parish of DARLINGTON in the County and Diocese of 
Durham. 

Whereas it hath been represented unto me Samuel Dickens, D.D., archdeacon of Dur- 
ham, that it has become a Practice in your Parish, to bring corpses to he buried at an un- 
seasonable and improper Time, to the great inconvenience of the minister and other officers 
whose Duty it is to attend and perform the Funeral Service at the Interment of the De 
ceased ; And whereas the General Rule laid dowu by your minister (who has a Right in 
this case to prescribe such Rule,) is, that in the Winter Season, (to wit,) from Michaelmas 
to Lady-day, every Corpse be brought to be buried by four o"* Clock in the Afternoon : And in 
the Summer Season (to wit,) from Lady-day to Michaelmas, by seven o* Clock in the After- 
noon. These are to acquaint you, that 1 approve altogether of the said Rule, and moreover 
desire, that you will give Directions to the Clerk of your Parish, to signify this my appro- 
bation to the Parish in general, by publickly reading, or causcing to be read, this Letter 
addressed to you, iu your church after Morning Service, upon the three following Sundays 
after it comes to your hands ; in order that all the Inhabitants of your parish may hereby 
be duly apprized and admonished to bring tlieir Corpses to be Buried at the times above 
stated and directed ; and that they may likewise be made to understand, that the Minister 
will be justified in refusing to bury that day any Corpses that shall not be brought to the 
Place of Burial by the time appointed to bury in the Summer and Winter Seasons respec- 
tively. Given under my Hand at Durham this FourUi day of December in the year of our 
Lord 1776. Samuel Dickens, Archdeacon of Durham. 

X Darlington Pamphlet. 

^ See Gramra*r School. " Mr. Jonathan Siss(,u late of Darlingtou, Grocer, bur. 12 Dec. 
1743." 



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227 



the Daughtr. of Mr. Fi-ancis Kaye Gent, died Febiy. 10th. 1739-40, aged 79." 

On mural monmneiit, North aisle : — " Sacred to the memory of the Revd. William 
Sisson, A. M. who lies buried in this church ; he was Rector of Marks Hall, and of the 
Donative church of Patswick in the County of Essex, Vicar of Norton in this County, 
and chaplain to the Garrison at Berwick-upon-Tweed ; He departed this life January 
27th 1773 aged 75." 

William Chrdon, A. 3f., 1784. Being non-resident, the Rev. James Topham officia- 
ted as sub-curate from 1792 to 1820. Against the vestry of Coniscliflfe is a headstone 
inscribed, '' In this place are sacredly deposited the mortal remains of The Revd. James 
Topham, vicar of Conisdifie, who died July 12th, 1832, aged 76 years. In the year 
1820 he was presented to this vicarage in the most handsome manner by the Hon. and 
Revd. Shute Barrington, Bishop of Durham, for hb long and laborious services in the 
ministiy of the large and populous town of Darlington, for the period of twenty-eight 
years. Qmescat in Pace."* 

John William Drage Merest, (vicar of Staindrop and Rector of CockBeld) 1831, p.m. 
Gordon. He resigned in 1846 for Wem in Shropshire. 

The Rev. Wm. Nassau L^;er, A. B., was assistant to the sub-curate during part of 
this ministry, and since his incumbency of St. Marjrs at the Tower, Ipswich, has printed 
some separate sermons, one of which on " The true fEUth,** was preached in Norwich 
Cathedral. 

Alexander James HoweU, M.A., 1846. The Rev. Wm. Mark Wray is sub-curate. A 
parsonage house has lately been built in ConiscMe Lane by the munificence of the lay- 
rector, the Duke of Cleveland, to whom Mr. Howell is domestic chaplain. 

Darlington Curacy. The Duke of Cleveland Patron. Certified value 20/ 
— Proc. ep. 7*.— Lord Crewe's legacy lOi per annum.— Real value about 
300/1 Not in charge. Subscribed augmentations 1720 and 1732, 200/. 
each tima Queen's Bounty thereupon 200/. each time. The whole 800/1 
laid out in lands, 1 735. 

The Pew book commences 1 700. The front part of the gallery in the 
North Transept was erected in that year, and similar obnoxious erections 
gradually intruded themselves into the Soutii Transept, both aisles and 
acrofls the Nave.f 

1763, Ordered [hy the vestry] that no person shall huiy in the church at a less sum 
than one guinea for the layer-staU^X for a grown person, and half a guinea for a child. 
By a child is meant one of ten years and under. There is to he no difference in the 

* " Erected in memory of Lieut. William Topham, R. N., who died on hoard H.M.S. 
Vanguard on her passage from Athens to Malta, Octr. 1837, aged 41 years, and was huried 
at sea." - - - " In a vault near this stone are laid the remains of James Anthony Topham, 
late aseistant surgeon in the 10th regiment of foot, and died Deer. 3d. 1841, aged 44 years." 
—Darlington Churchyard. 

t There are some curious Jacobean pews in the North Transept, ornamented with beau- 
tiful iron scroll work hinges. Cade truly says tbat **• the inside of the church is oacum- 
bered with very irregular seats and galleries which destroy the symmetry of the whole," 
and ** at this time requires the assistance of some generous benefactors, towards beautify- 
ing and new modelling it upon a more improved and eligible plan." 

X The layer-etaU is the place of burial, the layer-stone the slab placed thereon. When 
burials were more customary in the church, they formed a handsome item of income to 
the church funds. In 1824, the church- wardens were directed in vestry to chai^ge W, for 
every interment in the church, and only to allow lead coffins to be used for the purpose. 



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228 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

price upon the score of plaeee. That the Sexton ahaQ make the graves foar feet* 

deep for a grown person, and three feet for a child. And that the Churchwardens do 
proTide proper iron rods, that the persons concerned may (if they please) measore the 
said depths. 

1804. Faculty granted for resolution of restry that the Churchwardens should im- 
mediately cause to be enclosed the middle and side Isles on the West-end of the church 
with folding doors, also that the vpperpart of the taid ehmvh thoM he enclosed for the 
purpose of making the said church more eommodious and tMirm,t and that the stair- 
case leading to the West gallery should be remored, and placed against the North and 
South wall of the said church, and that pews should be erected and built in the vacant 
space where the staircase stood, and also other pews erected on vacant apaces at the 
West-end, and in the West gallery of the said church. 

(In 1835 a number of pews were added at the West-end by the Churchwardens, and 
by them sold. The screen was removed back to range with the back part of the West 
gallery.) 

A few extracts from the Terrier of 1806 shall follow : — 

A person is appointed by the Churchwardens to toll a bell every morning during the 
summers half-year at five o*clock and during the winters at six.^ 

Over its [the chancel's] entrance is a gallery erected for the blue coat boys, ab ve 
which is a picture with the device of a lion and unicorn rampant, and a crown placed 
betwixt them.§ 

(In 1709, a bookcase of theological books to the amount of some 21^. were given to 
the church, and are now in the vestry.) 

There are four church-wardens for this parish, viz. : two for the towndiips of Dar- 
lington and Oxen-a-field, one for the towne^ps of Archdeacon Newton and Cockerton, 
and one for the township of Blackwell. They are chosen in the veetry|j eveiy Easter 
Tuesday out of those who profess the Protestants' persuasion. One of those for Dar- 
lington and Oxen-a-fidd is chosen first by the minister, the other by the parishioners, 
as are also the other two chosen by the parishioners of their respective townships. 

The mimster demands for every churching, 1#, 6<i — For every burial, 1#. lOrf. (ex- 
cept from another parish, in that case Zs. Sd,, being double fees) — For every marriage 
by licence, lOff., and for every ditto by banns, 6*.— The Easter ofierings are collected 
every year at Easter, chiefly from the principal householders in the parish, who pay 
two-pence a head for themselves, and those of their &milies who are fourteen years of 
age and upwards. The whole of the surplice fees at this time amount to upwards of 
63/., which (^o» no terrier is to he found J we suppose to be substantiated by custom. 

The clerk's demands, for every burial in this parish are 6c/.— the sexton's, 1^. 8c/. (1#. 
for tolling a bell,1f and 8</. for making a grave) ; but if any person is brought here to 
be buried from some other parish they then demand double fees. Likewise, the clerk 
demands 2^. 6i. for a marriage by licence, and 1#. 6d. for a marriage by biums. The 
sexton, 1#. for a marriage by licence, and 6(/. for one by banns. The derk likewise 
demands 4</. every Easter of each principal householder in this parish. At that time 
the sexton procures what he can from each principal householder's benevolence. Each 
receives from his office about 30/. a year. The cleric is appointed by the minister, the 
•exton by the minister and churchwardens. 

* Altered to 4ft. Gin. in 1 831 . Fee of 1(/. per inch for additional depth to the sexton. 

t AccordiDgly the screen was carried up to the roof, and the Western Bay completely 
blocked out. X Discontinued. 

§ There are now two paintings of the royal arms on the West screen. One dated 1733, 
the other quite modem. || See Grammar School Charter, jpo^f. 

% Former Iv the sexton at Darlington tolled the bell immediately alter death, even if in 
the middle of the night. 



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PROTESTANT. 229 



BAPTISMS.t . . 1693, Mary dr. Richard Bacchus - - - 1594, Elizabeth Boucher 
dr. William Bouchar 1594-5, Alice dr. William Ahram - - - 1598, Dorothy bap- 
tized : Avarilla Lawson dr. oiConan of Blackwell.| 1601, Elizabeth dr. Manaoih 

Bolton, a traveller - - - 1603, Thomas Smith alias Lonehishir^ s. John Smith of D. 

1603-4, Richard Harrison, an orphan of Arch. Newton ; ChrUtabella dr. Binian 

Englishe of Kirk Newton in Northumberland 1607-8, Catherine dr. Thomas 

Pharoah of D. 1608, William Allon illeg. s. William AUon and <me Joke - - - 

1614, An infismt, a stranger, his father and mother being unknown - - - 1620, Barbary 
BlacimarUle dr. John Blackmantle late of Bishopton - - - 1620 1, Thomas Tipladie, 
illeg. s. Persie Tipladie and Robert Tailor - - - 1629-30, Francis s. Leonard Emerson 
of Bondgait, bap. 17 Jan. but bom the 6th of the month aforesaid. || - - - 1631, Frances 
(daughter of no onelF erased J whose father and mother were unknown - - - 1648, 
Jane, d. John Bradforth of D. (Memorandum. It is credibly informed that Jane should 
be Dorothy by the Godmother Alice Middleton the wife of Michael Middleton, an inser- 

turn J 1652, William Liddell the sonne of Jane Lidle who was a traveller and was 

brought to bed at Ck)ckerton : A child that was a travellers which lay at Luke Calverts 

in Skinnergate was bap., the name was Mary 1662, An A Zee^ dr. Frances A 

Lee of Cockerton 1666. Bell s. Lawrence Scrivener, gent of D. [evidently a law- 
yer] - - - 1678, Wm. s. Mr. William Orescy of D.-H" : George s. GJeo. I>emmcus,B. 
stranger - - - 1702, A wandring beggers child baptized 1708, Frances dr. Eliza- 
beth Whitlock begotten by Robert Smith in adultery - - - 1710, Peace s. of Praise 

Wadman of D. Inn keeper [a Patience follows in 1715] 1717, Hector s. John 

Ross a poor blind begger - - - 1718, Lucy the bastard d. of Anne Asquith and one Old 
Thorn : Jane the wife of Robt. Lyddel of D. who had been educated from her infancie 

in the principles of Quakerism, aged 23 years or thereabouts 1720, Sarah, dr. 

CHiristopher Gascoine of D. a child of a year old or thereabouts : Isabel d. of Mary 
Brunton. N.B. She was with child before married her present husband Thomas 

Brunton, as shee dedar'd to me, by one Thoms. Martin of Durham, attorney 1721, 

Thamer C!ook a young woman of about 20 years of age, a Quaker - - - 1723, Samuel 
Hedley a Quaker aged 38 years or thereabouts - - - 1732, John, bastard son of Jane 
Macdonald of Blackwell, who refused to name the fiather 1738, Judith, dr. Wm. 

* On the fly-leaf are numerous loose entries, many relating to other parishes and recus- 
ants. ** 1625, collected and given upon a briefe for the poor of London, 59. 2\d, ob. 

t A huge dice of christening cake is presented to the first person the procession may meet, 
in this neighbourhood, and the first time a child visits a neighbour or relation it is pre- 
sented with a small quantity of salt, bread, and an egg ; or, an egg, salt, and matches. 

t Blackwell delighted greatly in Averillas. We find Averill Simpson (of a Blackwell 
fiamily) bap. 1594 : Avarilla Boos, dau. of Christoferof Blackwell, bap. 1598 (the entry 
nreceeding Avarilla Lawson) ; Avarilla Branson of Blackwell bap. 1598-9 ; and Avarilla 
Langstaff of Blackwell bap. 1601 ; while Henry Parkinson of Whessoe had a wife Averilla 
bur. 1607-8. 

Both the kindred races of Nesham and Brough Hall held freehold lands in Darlington in 
the 17th cent, and we find in one admittance a clear instance of the peculiar use ofcoiisin 
or consanguineus for grandchild in the same way as nephew or nepoe often expresses the 
sfune thing. Hennr Diwson, esq., cousin and nearest heir of Ralph Lawson, knt., deceased, 
viz. son and heir of Roger , son and heir of the said Ralph was postponed admittance till he 
brought forth the writings of his title. 

§ " Given Lancasheare on his goeing away 12d. 1631." 
II The interval seems short, but it was evidently then thought fax too long. 

^ FHia nuUius, Bastardus est fUius nuUius atU fUius poptdi, in law. ** C^myn of un- 
gentyl fadyr and gentyl moder, spurius, a, of fadyr g«itylle and modyr ungentylle, nothtu^ 
a.'* (Promp.Parv.) 

** Lee only in 1666. William Lea (commonly called William a Lee) of Morton, bur. 
1649. Haagkon. 

ft O Phoebus, what a name ! 



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530 ECCLESIASTICAL 

Smelt of Cockerton, weaver, was baptized privately the 6th of this instant by the Rev. 
Mr. Brunton late curate of Manfield, of which thro' the neglect of the parents I was 
not informed till this day, (Mar. 24.) - - - 1739, Thomas bastard son of a stranger 
who lay-in at Elizabeth Neesham's at Cockerton, and obgHnaUfy refosed to confess 

either her own name or the father s* - - - 1741, Anne, bastard dr. Martha K , 

late servant at Bishop-Middleham, fathered upon Mr, John Spearman of the same place 

1743, Margaret dr. (supposed bastard) of John Stelling, joyner, and Margaret 

Story, both of D. and now under sentence ofexcommunicaiion for cohabiting as man and 
wife, without any proof either of Storey *s husband being dead, or of their being married 
[still under sentence in 1746] 1760, Charles s. Roger Trueman and Grace Ste- 
phenson of D. who continue to live under sentence of excommunication for a cause asdgn'd 

July 24, 1748 in this regbter [there described as " clandestinely married " a line 

scratched out] 1761, James s. James Crawthom and Margaret Bygate of Black- 
well tcho pretend to he married by one J. fVaHerf - - - 1754, William s. David Hen- 
ireta of London, shoe-maker : Dec. 26, Christopher s. James Catherick weaver. N.B. 
This child Christopher Catherick was bom August the 9th 1748, as his father informs 
me ; his mother I found was a Papist, and it was therefore probable that the child was 
before baptized by a Romish Priest, but his father being interrogated at the font, and 
answering that he did not know whether the child was already baptized or no, I bap- 
tized him according to the hypothetical form at the end of the office for private baptism. 

And. Wood, Curate. 1766, John, supposed bastard s. of Margaret Reason, wife of 

John Reason (she living at D. and he somewhere out of sight) - - - 1769, Elizabeth dr. 
of Wilfred Lawrance late of D. house and sign painter (who, for a time, passed for a 
member of the church, and afterwards professed himself a quaker, and has long deserted 
his family) a girl of about 15 years of age, and is now in the workhouse of the poor of 

the township of D. : Ann, dr. Christopher B labourer and Margaret Taylor both 

of D. who gave out that they were married in Scotland. (N.B. They were refused 
marriage here in this church after the banns were asked out, upon the score of affinity ; 
the said Margaret Taylor being, as is alledged, daughter of a sister by the half blood, of 

the said Christopher B — ^'s deceased wife) 1773, Thomas Blackett of Mount- 

Pleasure,! brought up in the principles of the anabaptists, aged 23 years, and a school- 
master. 

MARRIAGES.§ 1594, Oawain Ratcliff and Agnes Richardson|| 1620, Mat- 
thew Rimer and Elizabeth Mauleverer 1683, John MiUon and Margaret Ne^'ton. 

[They had several children.] - - - 1701, Richard Wood Bridler and Dorothy Hodgson 

spinster maried poor Darling'.IT 1713, Wm. Davison and Elizabeth Crawforth 

both widowers of D. 1722, Micbael Crent and Margaret Dent both of Cockerton 

1766, George Bamhrough of this parish fell cutter and Elizabeth Bambrough of 

this par. spinster. Mark made by me for George Bambrough X ^ heing without both 
his hands, — ^And. Wood, Cur. 1794, Adam Varker,** yeoman and Ann Mudd 

* All our former clergy professed to adjudicate in such cases and peremptorily named 
the father in their registers. The ire of Dr. Johnson's cousin was evidently great on this 
contumacy. 

t Of the Cuthbert Hilton school, no doubt The couple were properly married the same 
year. 

t Beyond Cockerton. 

^ The running for the ribbon and firing of guns at these events seem extinct here, 
though well remembered. 

So n ) cadets of the " radiant Ratcliffes" have embalmed their name in Ratcliffe Close 
at Blackwell. Thomas Radcliffe, ^nt., of Cockerton (whose sister and heiress Anne m, 
I>eonard Dykes of Warthol Hall, Cumb., esq.) d. 1593, and a Thomas Ratcliffe of Darling- 
ton, gent., was living 1670. 

% She was not a " poor darling," but both were poor and of Darlington. 

•• Better known aa Blind Adam, He lived in Tubwell Row'and died 1816, aged 57, 
having been blind from his birth. He poraessed an extraordinary memory, especially 
appliS to the registering the number of deaths, &c., which had occurred in the town for 



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PROTESTANT. 231 

spinster, both of this parish - - - 1816, [A marriage entry even to the minister's sig- 
nature.] J B [the bridegroom] desired me to write the above, but he and Miss 

F proceeded no farther. This marriage was not solemnized. [The lady became 

reconciled and a proper entry occurs the month after]. 
BURIALS. 1591, A child of good man Blandes buryed : John Raynard child 

buryed* 1593, A child of Elizabeth buried 1594, Ray's wife (Ray uxor J 

1596, Willyam Turner wives mother - - 1597, Emmot Tunstall widow : July. 

Here began the Plague. fHicineipiebatpestisJf : December, Chippey buried. 

upwards of forty years. Without hesitating a moment, he could tell how many deaths had 
been in any given year or month, the exact day when the individual died, to whom they 
were related^ &o. He was noted for the keeping of poultry, in which he greatly excelled ; 
his hens, owing to his superior management, laid their eggs in the winter season ; he knew 
them from each other, and could tell their name, colour, ac, as soon as he got them in his 
hand. Although he was descended from poor parents, and had but a small pittance called 
the blind's bounty, with the benevolence of a few charitable individuals, the profits arising 
from his poultry, Ac, enabled him to realize 200Z. 

In 1804, died at Haughton-le-Skeme, Margaret Tate, aged 1 5. She " was bom blind, she 
had no eyes, not even an aperture in the eye-lids,"— ( Haughton Beg,) 

* The 's of the possessive case is still much omitted in the South Durham dialect 
f As the Penrith register truly states, there was ** a sore plague in New Castle, Durrome, 
and Demton in the yere of our lord God 1597." King's sermon at York in that year, says 
** The spring was unkind, &c., our July hath been like to February, our June even as ApnI. 
God amend it in his mercy and stay this plague of waters." Hence probably arose the 
plague from the wet and inclement seasons and their attendant scarcity, but a contagious 
fever was prevalent in the North during all the latter years of Elizabeth. The exact na- 
ture of the Visitation of 1597 does not appear, though its very conta^ous nature seems 
evident from whole households being swept away, whilst in very neighbouring parishes 
where it had not found introduction, no unusual mortality occurs. Thus Darlington, Ay- 
cliffe, Merrington, Ferryhill, and Durham, adjacent to the great North road were severely 
visited, whilst Middleham and Sedgefield entirely escap^. The assizes of July 4 were 
deferred on account of the pla^e then raging at Newcastle, Durham, Darlington, &c. In 
that month twenty-seven burials occur in the Darlington registers, but the disease had 
probably been hovering on the town for some time, for in the February previous were 
fourteen burials^ a number above the average. August is also headed **Pe8tis" and has 
eighty-nine bunals registered. September nas the awful number of one hundred and 
thirty-seven, and as if the fatal sword had cut off all the usual religious transactions of life, 
only one baptism. The first two days of October have thirteen burials, and then a fear- 
some gap exists till Nov. 30, when ordinary entries occur— the plague was stayed. During 
this horrible period the multitudes of entries cause them to be unusually brief, and they 
are arranged m double columns. ** Jane Watson tom tylars maid : Widow Watson Tilars 
wife ; Emerson [the omission of the christian name occurs abundantly] ; Fetherston 
Hodgson maid ; Hunters servant ; Christofer Bland ; the wife of Christofer Bland ; a 
woman from the house of Christofer Bland ; a sister of Grace Painter ; the maternal aunt 
(mtUertera) of John Dobsou ; Dandy Revill ; a waiting maid (ancUlvla) ; a man of Bond- 
gate ; a woman of Bondgate ; Bagmarian [Marian, an old rag woman ?] ; Tomisia Groser ; 
Helen [the !] Pedlar of Bongat ; Mabell." Could anything be shorter ! for the minister 
had ceased to put ** buried" to the entries on the 12 Sep. The Damtons were completely 
swept out of the registers, and six Creathornes occur as buried, From another authority 
we learn that on the 17 Oct. ** ther wer dead of the plague at Darlington 340." In Jan. and 
Feb. 1.597-8 tl^ plague ceased at Durham aud Darlington, but broke out again the 15 Sep. 
the same year at the former place. " The Gate of Tongues unlocked, 1633" has ** The 
Pestilence or Plague, darting and casting botches, impoatumes, and carbuncles or running 
sores, suddenly and unawares waxeth strong, wasteth, destroyeth and killeth up great 
peoples and nations." 

** 1605. This yeare the plague was in Dameton, in Northallerton, and in Nesome," (Ery- 
holme BeO') there being buried in September, 20, and October, 22. In 1605-6. Richard 
Bowswell his wife and two daughters were all buried ; in the Aug. following there were 
31 burials, two and three out of a family ; in September, 21 ; in October. 15 ; and even this 
last number was above the average. In April, 1623, were 17 burials. The great plague of 
1636, so malignant at Barnard Castle [Sykes erroneously reads Darlington^ that the Majj- 
dalene-tide fair was called down, does not appear in our registers; but in 1644 and 1645 it 
prevailed in both towns. In Dec. here were 24 deaths ; Jan., 27 ; Feb., 49 ; Marchj 35 ; 
April, 18, the ordinary number bring seldom more than a dozen. The Hurworth Register 
states " 1645. The Lord struck three and forty people here in this month of July, near all 
in this town, viz. Hurworth." 

In 1757, 27 were buried in Sep., and 29 in Oct. In 1775, " the small pox very fatal these 
three months," viz. July, 30 ; Aug., 26 ; Sep., 19 burials. It was also very virulent in 1802. 
The diarrhaea and disentery have of late been fatal in summer-time, but the Asiatic 
Cholera has never yet desolated the town. Darlinptou was formerly famous for agues, 
which have been eradicated by the Skerne improvements. 



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232 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

> - - 1599-1600, A serrantof Robert Sober by name OrwAed Will - - - 1601, A poore 
chUd traveilling from towne to towne : A base gotten child bom att Caraabyes of 

Blaokwell 1602, Margery a deaf woman of D. : A poore creple trayeilling toward 

Scotland died att Cockerton and buried here : A man of Northumberland called Talour 
died at Jo. Scottes and here baried - - - 1602-3, Tristram Stainthropp, serrant of 

lUchard Stockdale of Lowfe HiU, Darlington 1604-5, ... Laidman, a travelling 

woman of Stapleton, par. Croft - - - 1609, Margaret Douglasse, a traveller : William 
8. Xpofer Fawcett* of D. buried apud Hericly 22 July - - - 1611-12, A certain woman 

a traveller, her name being unknown, a guest of John Bolton of Black well 1614, 

Elizabeth, widow of D. 1616-7, A poor woman, a traveller unknown, of Black- 
well 1620, Mary (her father and mother unknown) brought up with James 

Rokesbie of D. 1621, An infant dead-bomt illegitimate of Matthew Lorriman and 

Elizabeth Morton 1622, A certain destitute woman a traveller 1622-3, 

John Sigswicke a poor and destitute traveller 1623, A certain woman, a destitute 

traveller, whose name was unknown : Laurence Cathericke maximus natuX : Oeor^ 
Willson (who a long time was blind) of Claie raw : A poor traveller unknown : A cer- 
tain destitute woman a traveller, who died at Blackwell : A destitute boy, a traveller, 
whose name was unknown : A certain destitute woman, a traveller, found dead in a 
house of Blackwell : A poor man with a woman, traveller8§ - - - 1624, June 6, Xpofer 
Simson of Thomabie, a traveller|| . - - - 1625, Cicily Wilkinson of Blackwell Bridge 

* A frequent name. Fawcetts Closes, part of Polam Hill &rm penes R. H . Allan, esq. 

t No '< sunnv-side*' for it, the cold North part of the old church-garth would suffice for 
the unbaptized.. In these parts few persons are interred on the back side of the church, 
from an old custom of reserving it for dead-bom, unbaptized, suicides and exconununica- 
ted persons. 

t Probably a grandfather, in superiority to Senior or Major neUu, 

§ A heavy year on travellers. The situation of Darlington on the Great North Rf>ad 
^used a great many chance rites» 

11 The following inquest will be read with great interest, as illustrative of the singular 
hold a common superstition had on the neighbours of Blackwell. The old man was mur- 
dered late on Saturday, they found him, rode to Aldborough, brouffht the murderer who 
could only just have arrived, got the deputy coroner to the spot, held the inquest and fu- 
neral, all on Sunday. The defence of goinff to Darlington to buy more boots on Sunday 
morning, is an odd one. <<Dunelm. Com. Inouisition, die Sabati 6th June, 1624, at Bay- 
daill Bancke, within the territory of Blackwell, par. Darlington, upon sight of the body of 
Christopher Simpson, of Thomabie, co York, labourer, found murdered there. 

Whe find that Christopher Simpson, of Thomabie within the countye of Yorke, laborer, 
havinge, upon his occasions, traveled from Thomebye in Cleveland to Audborrowe in 
Bichmondsnire within the said countie, to Raph Simpson of the said towne of Audbor- 
rowe ; and as it appereth by the confession of the said Raphe, beinge examined befor the 
deputie and us ; [ne having] before the deputie coroner and us of the iurie confessed, that 
Christopher Simpson, beinge his kinsman and frend. did upon Thnrsdaye last, beinge the 
third oaye of June instant, come unto the house oi the said Raph Simpson in Audbor- 
rowe ; and after they had conferred tof^ther, they then did agree to eoe unto the house 
of one John Metcalfe, of Gunnershield m Swaudaile, the next daye, wher the said Raph 
Simpson did buy of the said John Metcalfe a littell blacke mayre, and i%;eived of the 
said John tonne shillings in moneye : and then uppon Satterdaye they retomed into Rich- 
mond, and their Raph Simpson did buy a pair of bouts, and soe they retorned unto Aud- 
borrowe : and he saith his uncle (as he used to call him) did leve his baye mayre with 
him, beinffe tyred, and that he did never see him after untill he cam to the place, beinge 
sent for wher he laye murthered. 

And by the information of Francis Rawlinge of Audborrowe, and of Thomas Wilson of 
Manfeild feild House, in Yorkshire, ffiven unto the deputie coroner Francis Raesbie, he 
[the said Francis Rawlinge] saith, tnat he did, upon Satterdaye in the eveninge, see 
Christopher Simpson passe by him on foote, and saluted him, and presenUy after Raph 
Simpson cam rydinge upon a littill blacke maire^ and did leadfe a baye mayre in his hand 
after old Christopher : and Thomas Wilson he saith upon his information, that upon Sat- 
terdaye the fift oay of June, laite in the eveninge, he and his wife havinge had an oocation 
to walke into their grounds, which lye uppon the Hyghway side that leadeth from Man- 
field to Neather Countsclife, to see their goods, that he tneir espied too men coroinge 
ridinge towards Countsclife ; that they one did lyde upon a littell blacke, and the other 
upon a dunnish baye, and that he of the blacke did lead the wave to him of the baye, ani 
openned the gaite unto him : and he stayinge and earnestly looKinge after him, too of his 
tennants did come from Manfield unto thein, to whom he said, " What men weer those did 
passe by yowe even nowe V* whoe answered, that it was Raph Simpson of Audborrow and 



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PROTESTANT. 233 

Hill 1625-6, Dorothy Fenwkke and her infant 1626-7, A certain rery poor ser- 

Tant commonly called Agnes the traveller [vulgariter vocat' Agnes p*^] 16 27 

An infant whose name was unknown : [same day] the mother of the said infant - - -^ 

1638-9, Thfthie Kirby, a poor and destitute woman 1655, Magdalene Parie, a 

stranger wHo dyed at Marie Shaws in Darlington 1657, Francis Hall of Worsell, 

who died in D. by a fall from a horse 1658, A boy, a stranger, which came from 

Hull - - - 1660, A litde which fell of a horse goeing to the colles, a stranger 1662- 

3, John Stevens, a cripell whom died att Anton Scottes of D. 1668, A lad which 

was slane in Carter thome pitt 1666, Pereevel Senex peregrinus 1669, Comey 

Cook of D .♦ 1673-4, Elizabeth, wife of ^e Watson 1680, A traveler which 

was at Mrs. Heighingtons died and;was buried - - - 1688, Peter cmd PauU^ and whose 
simame was Boyes, a Dutchman, dyed in Darlington - - - 1694, A poor man brought 

from one constable to another died at Darlington and was buried 1696, Funee 

Langdale, a stranger papist 1697, Jane Robinson, a poor passenger who dyed at 

Newton : a childe of George Thursby's of D., buried unbaptized 1698, Mary 

Donwell of D., which recehed alms,f - - - 1701, Sep., A poor woman, a traveller : 
John Eraser, a traveller : a poor man, a traveller : a wandering beggerj: 1702-3, 

an old man with him, and they passed towards Nether Countsclife ; and he with his wife 
and tennants went unto their owne house* 

And Bartholinewe Harrison, of Neather Countsclife, beinge examined beforus the jurve, 
he saith^ that he did nieete Raph Simpson, upon Sunday morning before the snnne did 
arise, within twelve score of the place where Christopher laye murthered. But Raph 
beinfr examined if that he had beene of that ground this day or not, he answered and said 
that ne was not their ; but Harrison beiuge called, he could not then denye but that he 
was their upon the ground, and said that he intended to have gone unto Darlington to have 
bought a paire of boots, and beinge within halfe a myle wanted money, as he saith, that 
would pave for a paire. And his pocketts beinse searched by the deputie coroner and 
Thomas Emmerson hye constable their was found in his pockett a corde maide of throunies 

tthe warp ends of a weaver's web] which was bloody, and beinge demaunded to what end 
le had kept it, he answered that he did use to tye a wallet with it, and, being asked how 
the blood aid com one it which was fresh and undried, he could not answer thereunto. 

Likewise William Middleton of Blackwell beinge examined, he saith, that he having 
chardge of cariinge hiin to the gaole of Durham, he the said William saith that he wished 
him to confesse his fault and aske God forgeviness, to [which] Raph Simpson replyed 
and said, ** Alas it would doe yow noe good that I should confesse it, and it would undoe 
and cast me awaye." 

And lastlye, wee applyed the cord to the circle that was about the necke of the party 
murthered, and it did answer unto the cirkle ; atui wee caused the said Raph to handle the 
hodye ; and upon his handlinge and movinge, the body did bleed botJi at mouth, nose and 
tares. 

All these circumstances and profes considered, wee the jurye, whose names are under- 
written, doe find and thinke that Raph Simpson, of Audborrowe within the ceuntye of 
York, weaver, haith, bv the instigation of the Devell or of sorame secret maliee, murdered 
and strangled Christopher Simpson, late of Thomabve in Cleveland within the eountye of 
York, laTOrer, at and in a place of ground commonlv called Baydayle Banckes Head, it 
being the fift day of June at night, this present year 1624. The names of us the jurioi-s, 
Fbancis Cathericxe, John Middleton, William X Stainsbt, Thomas X Gbeoort, 
Thomas X Middleton, Robert X Lister, John Hodoshon, James Johnson, John x 
Hooper, Anthony X Wren, Thomas X Potter, Roberts X Dobson, Christopher x 
Dun^Tell, Arthur X Swainston."—^ Copied /rom (he originaXin the Consistory Court 
at Durham by R. H, Allan, esq.) 

** The Baydayle Banckes Tragedy*' has been the subject of more than one ballad, one 
of which thus opens : — 

O Blackwell is a lovesorae vill ! and Baydayle Bankes are bright ! 
The Sabbath breeze the crystal Tees with wavelets has bedight ; 
Its oaks and elms are cool and thick, its meadows should be green. 
But there are blades of deeper shades, a bloody red is seen. 
•* Come tell me, child, my Averil mild, why hairied thus you be !"— 
** Father ! there is a murthered man beneath yon greenwood tree." — 
** Ho 1 neighbours mine, — liere Cornforth bold, and Middleton of might, 
For there nath been a slaughter foul, at BaydSskylo Head last night." 

• •* 1668, To Jo. Cook and Comey at severall times in there sicknes," &c. Church Ac- 
counts, 

t I have heard that some years ago nothing could be more opprobious a taunt in Dar« 
lington than the accusation of receiving parish relief. 

t A pestilence surely must have afflicted the wandering tribes in September. 

2a 



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2S^ ECCLESIASTICAL. 

Mary Jaqnes, a poot^ fatherless and motherless girle buried, Blaokwell 1706, John, 

a wandering be^jar : 3fabellf - - - 1708, Magdalene Oar, a wandering beggar - - - 

1713, A certain stranger deaf and dumb$ whose name unknown 1713-4, Philis 

Unthank of D., widow, buried, found dead and supposed to be torn with dogs or swine 

1714, A certain young woman, a beggar, whose name was unknown 1715, 

A certain poor woman 'called Margaret Brown who bore a child at Newton and died at 

Cockerton 1716, Wm. Sourby, a poor servant who came to this market to be 

hired : John Lodge, heir of Rice-Carr§ house, who died very suddenly 1716-7, John 

Anderson, a poor man brought to this town by a warrant - - - 1717, — son of George 
Tweedy of D., killed by the fall on an house : Mabil Scafe, a poor stranger who died at 
Coldsides : Eliz. dau. of one Wilfat whose wife liv'd on Tubwell Row : a certain poor 
stranger, said to come from Lumley, who died on childbearing: David Counsellar, com- 
monly called French Doctor 1719, John Powek of Arch-Deacon-Newton, who 

died suddenly as he was going to Cockerton : John Smith of D., glover, who was hiUed 

by drinking Geneva : John Pearson of D., who died in one of his fits 1723, A man 

found dead at Black well-Moor : a certain poor stranger found almost dead in the way 
to Cunsc'iiF: Margaret Blackett and Dorothy Brookbank, sisters buried in one gra/ee 

1724 John Wilson of D., shoemaker (commonly called Goeemor\\) - - - 1725, 

William Gibson, a poor blind beggar : Mr. Edward Turner of Arch-deacon-Newton, a 
Londoner: Elizabeth Beck, widow (commonly called Potter) of D. : Catherine Kelloe 

of D., buried) a papist, no office perform 'd 1726, Samuel Gramswhas, who died 

suddenly at Thomas Hall's : Jane Cawell (commonly called Scotch Jenn^) of D. - - - 
1727, A certain poor man who fell down dead in the street : Alexander Rutherford, a 

poor cobler belonging to Gateshead 1729, Henry Henderson of Gateside** Fell, a 

poorcobler: John Raven, a poor blind man ofD. : Anne Denton of D., a poor c^it- 
tracted woman : a girl called Mary Simpson, but supposed to be the daughter of Mr* 

Ralph Ashmole ofMwick Hallif 1731, Robert Roy, a journey-man shoemaker, 

and Scotchman from Aberdeen : John, s. Joseph Argent, travelling pedlar 1733, 

Thomas Craggs of Seaton (who shot himself at Blackwell) : Mrs. Ann Woolrich, an 

old widow gentlewoman of D. JJ 1734, Mary, d. James Smith of North Froding- 

ham, Mousetrap-maker - - - 1737-8, Anne Flint, widow, a vefy antient woman, mother 
of Robert Flint, farmer, at Stick-a-bitch,§§ near D. 1738, Stephen Luck of D., 

* At this period the word poor is perpetually placed after the entry, 
t Nothing else, not even " buried." 

t On New-years day, 1844, a little ** dummy*' who had been about Darlington fornp- 
wards of two years, friglitened his wife (to whom he had been married only three montns 
before) no smalU bv li^nning to talk and shewing symptons of good hearing. He had 
pfofeased to be demand dumb for years, and so gushed was he at all times, that when he 
had been put to bed drunk be never betrayed himselt 

^ Ryacar in 1785-6. It is near Whessoe, opposite Honeypot. 

II Nick-names are extraordinarily prevalent here. Aa old fortune-teller was called 
Powder^Blue, from her employing that substance in preference to the ordinary tea-leaves 
in her craft : and an aged servant of Mr. Richard Kitching, who died in 1848, was always 
Jemmy Waddieduck, 

H To Scotch Jane Ad."* Oh, ace, 1676. •• Was Gateshead famous for cobblers! 

■H* The Ashmalls were staunch Romanists ; the last, Ferdinando, was a popish priest, and 
survived ail his father's house, dying at the age of 104. 

±± Sister of Wm. Killinghall, esq., of Middleton-St.- George, whose will.dated 1694, and 
wiaow of Philip Woolrich, esq. 

§§ Stickbitche, afterwards Stick-a-bitch, is the name of a large district, formeriy the 
Comforths', between the road fW>m Blackwell to Croft, and the Tees. Stick-a-bitch proper, 
which is now the property of Mrs. Colling, was bought by Johuy Wardell or Wearoale, 
the miser of Ketton, who flourished some eighty or ninety years ago, and was a well-known 
character at Barnard-castle and Richmond markets when there was no mart at Darlington 
for corn. The roads were bad and carts were little known, so John^ went in procession 
with six or eight horses laden with wheat, which he tied to the whins at the end of the 
town to save Uie expense of bait On these occasions he was clad in a home-spun costy 
manufactured hy females on his farm, his feet were covered with rough shoes, and hogsers 
(large old stockings) covered his legs outwardly, and came to above his knees. ^His 



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PROTESTANT. 235 

bricklayer, unfortunately killed by the falling of an arch of a ocUar upon him at Cleasby 

1739, FredswUh alias Priscilla Hardy of D., widow 1740-1, Robert Hill of 

D., brought up to no business 1741, William Mason of D., a poor damb man : a 

poor woman, whom they were carrying through the county as a vagrant, and of whom 
no more is known than that she was called in the warrant wife of John Robinson of 

Aberdeen 1743, Hugh Ewer, a travelling painter, supposed to be of Edinburgh 

- - - 1744-6, Isabel Tindal of D., a poor blind woman 1746, Joseph Baines, ser- 
vant to John Hall of Whitehouse, near Sockbum, unfortunately Idll'd by his cart 

1746-7, Jane Dent of D., an ancient woman out of the workhouse - - - 1740, John 
Rather* a stroller - - - 1750, Sarah, d. Wm. Leas, a strolling blind beggar - • - 1757, 
Alice Stephenson of D , (spinster, erased) single woman - - - 1758, William Robeon 
senior of D., bricklayer, George Waters of D., carpenter, both killed by the fall of an 
arch in building a cellar for Mr. John Peaset - - - 1766, George Stedham (a convert 

to popery) of D., whitesmith - - - 1773, Honour, s. Wm. Ptolon^ 1799, Robert 

Crosier John Mensforth of D., s. Charles Mensforth gent., and his late wife Jane Smiees^ 
aged 39 weeks 6 days: Samuel Gramshaw, &c., aged 16, scalded by falling into a fur- 
nace 1801, Ann Pears of Cockerton, late Cauvill of Stenton, widow of David Pears, 

flaxdresser of D., aged 101 yearsj - - - 1804, T— Rr- of D. batchelor, plebeian 

1807, J— M— of D., founder of metal, aged 26, suffocated by spirituous Uquors- - - 

leathern smalls, having been worn by his grandlkther and father, descended with other 
heirlooms to himself, and in the service of three generations had become so thickly frescoed 
with grease and dirt, that with the assistance of an old msty nail, they served at market 
the purpose of a Roman wax tablet in the calculation of Johns's accounts. In this queer 
trim he appeared at Stick-a-bitch sale, when the vendors disputed his credit, but Johny 
assured tnem that whatever he bought he would pay for, ana pulled an antique stocking 
from his pocket, which, to the astonishment of all, was weighty with old golden guineas. 
His ideas of another world were gross and earthly i—'^They may talk ofheevens as they wiU, 
butffieme Ketton Oreens [a remarkably fertile field] which grew seven crops of oats in seven 
years,** It was suggested to him that he was merely gathering money for his heirs to 
spend, but he contentedly replied : **Beins, lads, if they hev as much plisshur in spending 
aslhevin yetherin* it,eenlet them he deeing.** Yet though he professed to wink at future 
spendthrifts, he by no means approved of folly in hiscotemporaries. He heard the hounds 
of neighbour Stephenson, of BrafTerton, passing throuflrh his estates, ''^«tfw, ladSfdeeye hear 
them ponder, they are crying esh and yaJ^* (ash and <Mik) ; he heard a new Lincohishire pack 
of a louder and a differing tone, '*Beins, kids, dee hut hear 'em, they roar out land and aU; 
land and aU /" and sure enou|Hb, Stephenson's folly kicked timber, land, and all away.— 
Warden owned High Beaumond HilU Aycliffe Wood, Chapel House opposite Gainford and 
Stickabitch, but Ketton was the Milbankes'. At their tenants' dinners, his toast was ever 
loyal to his landlord :--** PUgieyea worthy and respeetaUe gentleman^ Mr, Sir Ralph Mil- 
hanke^ esquire^ knight and haron-hniglU " Laugh not. Southrons, at immortal Johny; your 
own Twickenham register of 1705 records a bffonet as a harin night. When farmers want 
a handful of straw to stop a sack-hole in carrying com, the usual command is, "Run away, 
lads, and bring me one 6* Johny WardelVs clouts^* or, •* a Bamey-OasseU unsp," His 
daughter m. the son of Bryan Harrison of Barmpton, and their sons, I am told, were great 
men at bets, associated with George lY. and spirted Johny's estates through the air. 
* It may be a failed decadent scion of the lordly house of Ryther of Harewood. 
t A grocer, who came ftt>m Whitby. His family sprung ftt>m West Auckland. 

t John Nichols, a labourer, died here in 1782, aged 107,— (Oent. Mag.) William Dixon, 
taylor, 1802, aged 100. Dorothy Pickney, late Blackett, widow of Jonathan Pickney, 
farmer, 1810, aged 102. Alice Turner, single woman, 1812, aged lOO^Por. Reg.) John 
Yarrow, 1814, at Polam Farm, aged 110. He was a native of Mason Dinnington, in North- 
umberland ; was a servant to a farmer near North Shields in 1715 ; and remembered as- 
sisting at the plough when the constables went into the field and demanded the horses to 
convey military stores during the rebellion. He was able the preceding summer to cut 
turf in a field, as well as to attend to many domestic and rural occupations ; his diet 
chiefly consisted of bread, milk, and chee6e.--<2^oca/ Papers.) Isabella Bumsides of Bond- 
gate, 1817, aged 104. Mr. Benjamin Gamett, 1820, at Salutation, in this parish, a«red 
102.— (Par. Rep,) He never experienced one day's illness, and walked about till a few 
hours before his death, and had the use of his faculties to the last— (XoooZ Papers*) Jane 
Rutherford of Bondgate, 1820, aged 100. Esther Parkinson, 1832, aged 103. Elizabeth 
Brocket of Blackwell, 1833, aged 101.— (Par. Reg.) Mrs. Elizabeth Hurworth, 1842, aged 
108. Mrs. Brown, 1848, aged \(^S^— {Local Papers.) In 1843, Seijeant Vickers's inftmt was 
christened here, its grancuather, grandmother, great grandfather and great grandmother 
being sponsors. 

1705, Nov. 20. Tho. Whetstone was then buried, being turned of the age of 104 years, 
and bom in the parish of l)amiou,—Eryholme Reg, 



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236 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

1828, a person unknown, found dead in the township of Cockerton 1833, Eliza- 
beth Stress, Stnms, or Strowp, Newcastle, aged 29 : Peter Medici, Darlington, aged 
13 months. 

The Ghurchwardens' accounts commence in 1630. 

1630. For the fountt Iron, \2d, : for soape to the bdles, 2J. : for keeping the docke 
and regester booke to the elarke bs* : a locke to the Awde-warpe dore, 3(f. : to a poor 
minister, 6<i. : for fetching of a $lee dogg, Qd,* There was a child left at Cockerton the 
16tli of August, 1630, which was delivered to Roger Specke to keepe, and he had giro* 
to buy close for the child, S^.f: Michaell Rew for makeing the crying wench a coat, 6<iL: 
to Renold Shawe and mother, when the rsioi\xeT pretended to take the child [which they 
kept for the parish] away, 12<f. : to a poore child lying sick on the Armitage head, 6d. : 
to Mr. Goodwineij; a distressed schooler, 2«. Qd, : received for Rogue money for the whole 

parish, 47«. Ad.^ 1631. To a poore schoUer, 12i. : to Duke Stapleton, Ad, [Mar- 

maduke Stapleton lived at Blackwell]: to Susanna Liddall for putting her to be an i^h 
printice at London, 3i. Ad. : given to an Irish gentleman that had foner children a$kd 
had Earlei MarehallW passe, 12</. : to Hen. Auckland dureing imprisonment, 8<f. : to 
Eliz. Jonson for eureing Ann Spence seatM head, 2s, id, and apoumdof pick [pitch] 
Zd. : to one John Browne of the city of BristoU being blind, had by an accident of fire 
all his goods destroyed, 6d : to Mrs. Kath. Russell, a Scoth gewtletooman, who had the 
kings majesties decretory passe and was great in distress, 1#. : to Mary Rigby of Hav- 
rat [Haverford] West in Pembrokeshire in Wailes, who had the Earles of Pembroke 
passe president of Wailes who had brunt with fire about the value 900/., 1#. : to Den 
Dent, 2d, : to two distressed Irish gentlemen, 6d. : for mending all the tops of the hie 
windowes which was cloven : for id yeards and iij quarters of fine Scotch cloath for a 
surplesse for Mr. Hopp, i7s. Id. : for iij yeards of a Scotch cloath for a commnnion 
table cloth, 3i. ^. : to Mres Hope for making table cloth and surplesse, 2l0d. IF: for 
French grening the borders of the pulpitt,"** ai»d whittening the walls : for mending the 
communion taffity table cloth and silk for mending it, being much tome in manypeeces, 
2s. 6d. : forgetting rushesff against Judges coming for struing in the church, I6d.: to 
Wilfrey Lambe and carpenter's charges at their seooond coming. As, : for lying downe 

* The use of sleuth or blood hounds was then much in vogue, and Denton in Northum- 
berland and Chester-le-street appear to have been the places where the owners, and prob- 
ably breeders of these animals lived. In 1592, James Watson, having escaped the clutches 
of the council of the North at York and fled northwards, was the cause of some chm^e to 
the Newcastle corporation, who sent men in all directions in the hope of obtaining tidings 
of the fugitive. They ** paide for the ohairges of three horses two days, and riding to 
Dameion and Sheiles to make enquirie for James Watson, commanded by Mr. Maior, 
6s. 6d^** and amusingly enough ** for a sloohound and a man which led him, to go make 
enquirie** after him. 

t At this period there were distinct overseers of the poor for the Borough and Bondgate, 
the assessments for both were delivered to the churchwardens and they were relieving 
officers. 

t Perhaps the <*poure soholler, being a churchman, and wanting means to travell withall" 
relieved at Chester-le-street the same year with id, 

§ 1677, ^ Laid on a sesse of 2d. per oxgang for [reliefe of] prisoners in the Kind's Bench 
Marsbalsey, house of correction at Durham, &c., commonly OEdled Rogue Monej,— Black- 
weU Bks, 

II Both minister and churchwardens were saddled with charitable aids to itinerants, and 
noblemen granted passes in the manner of briefs. 

% ** Item, to Mris Hope upon Sot. Paules day for washing surpleesee, 2s,** Both she and 
her successor Mrs. Bell received an annual sum for this office, which with the making gives 
us an agreeable idea of the plain useful parson's wives of those times. The said garments 
are called in the accounts surpdotheSjSurpUts, &c. 

** There are other charges for wood for the Pulpit cover, and for iron, lead^&o., for 
pulpit. 

ft Generally resshes, and an annual affair till about 1660. 1634, To Francis Jobber for 
getting of flaggs \28,, Item for leading of them d6s„ Item for dressing them and lieing them 
/fnd the fioore 21. 6$. The reason of such heavy expenses does not appear. 



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PROTESTANT. 237 

and sowderingf of vj webbs of leads which was tome up with a violent a$id boysterous 
wind, 4#. 2^. : for the great bell head yoake, Iseing about xxvj inches square, and almost 
y yeards long, and for brining of it from Elme Parke being sixtene myles, xy#. : for 
Qnenes prayer, 4d. : to Mr, Henry Barnes clarke tyf BradUy Bume forge for new bel- 
clapper which weyeth y stones and iij lb. at ij ob. {\) p. lb., 15f. 2\d. : given to Mr. 
Windfeild a preacher who preached three sermons, 38. ^, [An assessment follows, made 
by ^* poundy poole, and gaits of BranJtinmoore.'*] ['^Sic vale ** end these accounts.] - - - 
1632. A new fine pulpit cloth of velvit, with a large silk fringe, which cost 20#. : Reed, 
of Charles Husband [the preceding warden] monye belongyng to the churche, 44s, 
whearofiker was 2». infarthynges : for one shatehell [bag] to put the churche bookes in 
I2d. : for wrytyng a letter to the bell caster and sendyng yt to Durham, 20d. : to a poor 
preacher, I2d,*: spent at Ranfe Hutton Court, 28. 4d, : for dressing the churche loftes 
and the churche styll - - - 1633. Rec. for wine silver of all the parishe,t 31#. : to the 
bell founder for casting the greate bell anewe, 11/.| : spent the same night the bell was 
casten upon the bell founder and the woorkmen, 7#. : for a quart of secke to Mr. Arch- 
deacon [at his visitation] 12i, : for two flaggons and a bason, 33«. 1634. To John 

Dennis for writinge of sentences in the church, 21. 16^. 8<^. : to the ringers upon the 
fift day of November, Zs, : for a sacks of coales and a tar barrell, I6d, [the first occur- 
rence of such a custom, which became annual§] : for a pottle of secke to Mr. Chandour 
and others, 2s. : our charges when we went to make oath upon the presentment ftr 
recusantes goods and lands, 4s. : George Langstrafie for washing \\ the organs and caning 
the greate bell tongue to BUckwell and bringing it back againe, 60?. : to a poore schol- 

ler, ed. : a quart of secke for Mr. VincentIF 1636. Por making the newe stalls, 

9/ 6(f. : to three Irish people which weare in want, 6d. : to Charles Husband for one ell 
of his beet blacke stufie for making up the cushen, and one peniworth of threade, 2s. Id: 
to Francis Emmerson for three ounces and a halfe of silke fringe and buttons, \0s. : 
John Bennet for loope lace and silke to the pulpit cloth and woorkmanshipp, \2d. : a 

quare of paper for writing, 4d. 1636. Tow bookes for the fast, 2s. : an hours 

glass^** and a standards j 28. 2d.: a quart of wine to Mr. Bullocke in this towne, 12c^. 

1637. George Langstafe for taking away the ould stalls, 6d,: to the ringers when 

the Bishop went by to London, 2^. 3d. : Mary Nicholson placead in first seat in the 
fourth stall from the font on the south alley because it was hir mother's, hir grandmo- 
ther's, and hir great grandmother's, and paid for it 6rf.tt 1638. To the ringers 

when the buship of Durham caime from London. 2*. : one gallon of brunt wyne which 

• The clergy were evidently on a miserably low footing throughout the 17th century. 

t This money fell sadly short of the requirements, for twenty-two gallons at a cost of 
21. 1 89. were consnmed this year at the communions. 

t Besides, the oost of 100/&«. of mettall at Sd. ; 100^. at 7i<f- ; 75lbs. at 7d., and 24lbs. of 
pewther at I let. came to \0l. Sb. 4d. The casters used to come from Durham and do there 
work here, probably to save carnage, a matter of great difBculty on the bad roads of the 
period. 

§ Discontinued from 1653 to 1660. 

II Misprinted valuing in Surtees. There is a tradition that our organs were purchased 
for Sedgefield church and carried thither, but the present instrument there is of much 
later date. After a long reign of fiddles and pitchpipes, a 500^ or^an bv Flight and Robson 
was procnred for Darlington in 18*20 by subscription. Mr G. J. Crossley performs on this 
remarkably sweet instrument, which is placed on the roodscreen. 

% See p. 222. 

•• For the pulpit. Gay's parson *' spoke the hour-glass in her praise quite out" It 
would be placed in the slandarde or frame. 

ft On St. Paul's day the churchwardens let the stalls to persons wanting seats. Thev 
only let a single **room" or seat to each person, and a small fee was exacted. At the death 
of an individual, his representative had to be readmitted, and although hereditary claims 
were respected, they did not pass as a right The members of several families would sit in 
one pew, and even where a family had erected a stall, seats to other parties were let by the' 
waraens. The allottee sat till change or death. Before the century was out the assign- 
ment of pews were in vogue, and the expression *' by consent of the churchwardens" grad- 
ually ceased 



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238 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

wee gave to Mr. Richinson and the rist of the woorkcmen when they had done there 
woorke consarning the pillar and frame, 4a. ; in JnJteit [coarse tape] for sirp clothes 
to Mr. Hope, IcL ; to a poure gentelman iMch had bene a golfer in the lowe amtres, Is. : 
John Dennes for penting the dyell, 1/. Is, 4d, : for penting the hack of the pulpit, 4d, : 
given more to him [George Haton, the window mender] in r^garde of the greate wynds 
which did great harts, 4s, - - - 1639. Paid for John Sygsworth child when he was at 
the Leager, 5s. : paid for Mr. Clapperton when he came to the towne and when he went 
to Auckland to me lord, 20d, : for all our fower dinners and beere upon Easter tewes- 
day * 5s. : for a poore sicke soldyer at WilL Boyes house and for oonvaying him out of 
towne, 2s : for Mr. Thompson that preached the forenoon and aftemoone for a quart of 
sack, l4icLf : for Mr. Scott at Buhner Prescots when he preached, 20i. : to a poore min- 
nister wife that was robed, 29. : to a poore minnister that Mr. Clapperton sent. Is. : for 
our vaoffes [see p. 144] to Auckland at severall tymes, 8s. - - - 1643. Paid old Elstoob 
besides the pore stocks and bason. Is. 4d. : for one quart off wine when Mr. Doughty 
preached, lOd. : for one quart wine and one pinte sacks when an other gentleman 
preached which lay att Georg Steresons, 1#. 6J. - - - 1646. To the ringers on the 
thankesgiveing day, 2s. : Greorge Longstaff for keeping the dock and ringing at five a 
ck>ck and eight, i3f . 4i. - - - 1648. To Irish women in May last, 1#. 6d : to three 
companies of Irish, 1j. : for Mr. Couper j: Bedrome for twelve weekes, 4i. : to a minister 

¥dth a passe, l#. 1648. To a poore man travelling from Idnoolne to Richmond 

with one man to guide him and three children, 6dL : for pounder haver [oats] for Howden, 

ls.5d. 1650. Six quarts of sacks to the minister that preached when we had not 

a minister, 9#. - - - 1651. A quart of sacks to preaching ministers, 1j. 6c?. - - - 1653. 
To Jo. Smith's son for setting of Jenet Wards legg, 5s. : to Geo. Pary for carryings 
him to the weUs,\ 2f . : to a poore distressed Irish woman and seven diildren, 1#. Gd : 
for a primer to a poore boy, 4d. : for Edw. Holmes a poore schoUer att the petit school 
for halfe a yeares teadiinge, 3«. 3dL : to Widdow Ward for teaching three poore children 
three weeks, 9c?. - - - 1654. To Mr. Johnson for preaching one Sunday in sacks. Is. : 
to a stranger that preached one Sunday for a pinte of sacks, 1#. : to Alley Gibbon for 
keeping Ruddes woman, 4s. : for a new beU rope to John BeU, lOr. : to WlUm Priscot 

for a quire of paper, 6(f . : to the lasse which went to Newcastle, Is. 6d. 1655. My 

horsehire and my charges to Durham to give in a presentment for recusants, 2s. 6d. : 
George Langstraffe for earring the money which was collected for the protestants in 
France to a Justice, ed. ; John Woodmas for tMit0r|| for Roger Jewet, 1/. Ss. Qd. : Qua- 
wald Fawcit wife for her paynes and charges in curing Roger Jewet, 5s. : leyd out for 
an accidence for a poor boy, 6(f . - - - 1656. Receaved of the arears of the sesse for the 
Inkle Stock, 2/. IZs. 4d. : for a pint of wyne and a pint of sack when Mr. Jesse preached, 
Is. 6d. : a poore widow which had a lose by fyer, Is. ; to widow Lumley for hir rebafe 

♦ The day of election of wardens. 

t Thompson took up his abode here. In 1644-5, U. 2d. was paid for the puritaniciU 
** directory*' for him, and in 1646 and the following year or two, an annual charge of Zs. Ad. 
for his [verv bad] keeping of the regerstur or rMgeater, in lieu of poor Henry Carter the 
clerk. In 1647 there was ^more given to Mr. Thomson in regaird of his great necessitie, 
6s. 8c{.," and in the same year, after cooious potations of ** wine and beare** had been ad- 
ministered to this poor minister, and others that preached here» there was 6$, ** more given 
to Mr. Thompson when he laid sicke." 

t The Coup of the register (p. 223) and evidently a very poor minister, there being a 
number of items for his relief. 

§ Were these the Croft wells, or some miraculous spa farther off! '^The sulphur well 
springing in a rich piece of sround cal'd the stinking pitts" at Croft was in fiune for dis- 
eases of animals, about 1690, bnt was first made convenient for human votaries by Sir Wm. 
Chaytor, about 1670. After that a son of Mrs. Lodge, of Darlington, who had been blind 
several years bv hnmours in his eyes, which had cost her in doctors about lO^.., after ten 
times bathing, became quite well. '* Old Mr. Middleton, of Blackwell," was also cured of 
the gravel by it.-^ MS. penes Chaytor /am. Dated 1714.) 

II Was this the Croft water again ! It was sold in flasks at the metropolis in 1718 at U. 
each. It will be observed that the sum paid by the wardens is a high one. 



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PROTESTANT. 239 ^ 

and for watching of hir tn Air dutracHmy St. 6i. - - - 1657. Cloath to the pulpit eod^ 
69.8d.: to the tayknr for mending the cod and leather for the inner lineing to it, 1#. Qd, 
- - - 1668. A shett to Bridgwells lade to winde him in, U, 4i. : two pints of sacke and 
a pint of daiett sent to tow minesters which did preach heare, 2s. 6d. : for righting and 
macken np oar acoonts, 49. : 1659. Reced. of Tho. Lackenh j far trawUinff en the lords 
de^, S9. : of the brick man for his boy trangressin the lords day, It. : pd. with Orai$ 
Ikm^ son to Stockdayle when he was putte an aprentice, 2Qf . : Longstaff for dreMiing 

the ehureh after the Otturdtrf (kept, erased) fnii,2s. 1660. To a distressed min- 

68ter with a briefe, ed, : for the booke of Common Prayer, 18#. : paid the ringers at the 
ooronation day and bear, 7#. : giren to the Docktor for his paines in offitiatinge the place 

and taking paines att severall times, 1/. 1661 . Recd« from Sir Wm. Blakestone against 

Christmas, 2/. : pd att 'seaverall times in beare when Mr. Steward preatched, 1#. 4d. : 
to an old man which had bene att the sessions being in wantt, 6d. : a pinte of sack 
when Mr. Bell preached, 1#. : a persons [parson's] wifie in distresse, U. : for gUzeing 
the great winder ^ 16f. ed, : for afoxe head James Steed, 1^4 • ^ "^o* Cla^^ being sick 
att severall times, 2*. Id, : for makeing the table cloth and scouring thepewther^ for the 
chnrcb, Qd, : pd. for officeiateing the place for preaching nighe four months, 6/. - - - 
1662. To five sonldiers that came with a passe to all churchwardens for releife, Is : 
John Taylor to help to heale his legg^ 6d. : for makeing a clot to the puipit, ed,: bringing 
two loads of stones to the font, \6s,8d,: to the may son for the stones and setting tip the 
ftmt, 21. I8s. 8d. : for the Letany seat, 4s. ^.: to a poore man that had heene in Turfy^ 
4d. ' ' ' 1663. For Leonard Pilkington charge to / ranspeth\\ and FerryhiU to enquire 
for workemen to make a font cover, Zs. 6i., Item, when Robert Bamlet and Bryan 
Heavysides came over, and because of their deareness we could not agree with them, they 
had for their charges 6s. : whins to the church wall. Is. : a rope to the watch worke of the 
docbCy 8«. 6i. : wine to doctor Stewart when he preached, 2s. : John Cooke for wryting 
the retnme of the nonsolvents befoie Mr. Gerard at Cockerton, 1#. 6d. : to Matthew 
Towley [the bell caster] for his charges when he st<gted till he was agreed with, 15s. ^: for 
beere when Mr. Gerrard was present, 1#. : for earring the beUs from the church doore 
to the forge, 3s.ed. - - - 1664. For ringing on the kings birthday to Chr. Wood to 

pt^ the ringers before Mr. Gferrard, 9# : for a tarr barrell and coales then, 2s. 4d. 

1665. Fot the fast day booke, 2f . 6dL : for coates and a tarr barrel the third of Jane, 

1#. 6d. 1666. For mending the great ckist and poor box, Zs. 6d. : for ringing one 

night when order [the school orders ?] came from my lord, 5s., for drink and candles 
that night, lOd* : one quart of sack bestowed on Mr. Jellett when he preached, 29. 4d. : 
more bestowed on him at Ralph CoUings when Mr. Bell was there, 1#. Sd. : Thomas 
Newbey Hairy Richardson charges to Aukland to appear before my Lord upon Mr. 
BeUs promotion, 5f . - - - 1667. For plabtering or beamfilUng throughout the whole 
outside of the church, 13*. 4rf. - - - 1669. For lousing us from good behavor, 14j. 4d** 

* In a former year called cood, i.e. a cushion. 

t Before this entry turned up, a tradition of republican soldiers having quartered them- 
selves in the church was familiar to me. 

t A similar item occurs in 1675, 1686, 1688, &c. The Reynard breed were, like the 
wolves of Edgar's time, under a ban. 

f The very mediocre oommunion vessels of the day. 
n Where Cosin was fitting up the church with the most gorgeous oak work* 

% A heavy sum, bespeaking potent potations to tarn the screw. The wardens had pre- 
viously buckled up their courage by ** beere at our geuerall meeting when the worke fur 
the bells was agreed upon." 

** In the preceding year there was a civil war between the Darlington wardens, Thomas 
Blakiston and Robert Colthirst, two ** gentlemen," and those for Cockerton and Blackwell, 
plain John Dennys the painter of the kines armes, and Wm. Comforth the veoman. 
Blakiston would only give credit to Comforth for M. 16«. received from him for Blackwell 
collection, ** but there was xxv«. more," says the yeoman, he having paid ** to Mr. Thomas 
Blakiston at Jo. Hall's 36«. Item to him at Mr. rinleyee 25«. which is not acknowledg.*' 
The gentleman had evidently forgotten his transactions in his oups, and the dispute ran so 
high, that the two aristocrats would not entor their accounts ; the eountrymen had to 
petition the bishop and archdeacon against ** Mr. Coultus and Mr. Blakiston our piurtners 



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240 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

1670. To Will. Bellwood with yomg Clarfax, XL 6f . : to the lame docker for 

curing Duke WiUson of the evell, 48. Qd.*: for a bear [bier] cover, 3f. 6d, : for a quart 
of wine for parson Raine, 1#. : collected upon a breefe for a fire in the towne of Wol- 
singham, 6s. 5d. : do. upon a peticion for one John Ridall of Northumberland, 3f . 3^. 

- - - 1671. To Mr. Bell for burying The Clarfax, \\d. 1672. May 11th. To the 

ringers for ringing when the bishopp came from London, 4f . 6<i : for making one new 

cover for the heert and one new side and bars for the here^ 5s. 1673. Given Jane 

Oirlington beinff neeesesitated, Is. [she kept a pauper for the parish] : bestowed of Mr. 
Sissons^^ eurtiesies received, 3«. Sd. : ringers upon proclameing the peace, 6s, : for a 
tar barrell and coales, 1^. Scl. : for helps for Wharington lass her hearetng, ls» - - 1674. 
George Heddon sitrwyor far Grainge Close : James Cook for three pettecotes, 89. : col- 
lected or gathered upon a breif about Oxford a very great losse by fire, amounting to 
the summe of 1700/t. and upwardet, 8s. 6d, ob. one farthing. It was at Blsciter within 

ten miles of Oxford 1675. Given a poore boye for carrying the certificate for 

freeing the poore from hearth money, [an old church due] Id. : to three seamen that had 
lost their shipp they haveing a strong pass from the Justices of peace besides being 
objects of chaiity, Qd.itott disstressed captaine, his wife and child, is,, haveing a cer- 
tificate from as well severall Justices in this countye as others and goeing to the king, 
being all night in towne : for a winding sheet for old Widdow Longstafe, \s. 6d, : to 
two destreesed men that came out 0/ the Indes, 6d. i for a quart of darrett when Mr. 
Nevell preached, Is. : for two quarts of clarret for comunicants, 28, : to two going for 

the kings tutch. Id. 1676. Wm. Clervax wynding sheet, Is. ed. 1677. Reed. 

** from the old churchwardens 3s. 9d,, Item, of tliem one copper shilling : to John 
Dennis senior for writting the lords prayer and creed in capitall letrs drawein^ coUoring 
of the frams and gild, I6s. : for drawing our presentments and attending thtfjustices att 
the petty sessions att Houghton, 28, : for a quarte of seek for the minister that came from 
Westmorland, 28, 6d. : to Captan Humble Read which had a pas with the kings broade 
seal, 28. 3d. : paid for a quaker that we had prisoner a night, to carry before Sir Henery 
Calverley, Is. : two new prayer books for the publicke fast, 6s. : for goeing to the private 
sessions att Haughton, Is. : for two vages to Durham att the visitations, 89. - - - 1678. 
For paper when wee went about with St. Pauls breife, Id. : given the Arch Bpp. of 
Somes [Samos] in Greece, haveing a comic'on from the king, 5#.t: Dorothy Apleby for 

keeping Tho. Marrsliall's w — e and bastard, Is. 1680. For sealeing where Thomas 

Stainsiy brok downs. Is. 6d. : for making poore box : Hickson and Wright for earring 
Isabell MonerdXfrom my dore, 2<^. : to a poore lame shoulder who had a pass, Qd.: for a 
coat for Beedyrll, 68. 9d.: to Henry Walker kaptaine of a merchantt man who had a 
passe from Sir Ro: Claijton and Ld. Mayr of London, 28. 6d.: to a gentelwon who her 
hutbond burnt in lyrland, Is, - - - 1682. To two seawrecked gentlemen, 1*. ed. : when 
Mr, reamont pi-eached, for a bottle of wine, 1*.§ - - - 1683. Mrs. Bell for exchangeing 
one of the communion flaggons, Is. 8d. : Allowed Thorn. Windall for the buryall of 
Jock*s child, 28. 8d. 1684. To a pilot whose ship was cast away upon the Irish 

not delivering the church booke church evidences and seale,*' and when they did get the 
boohey the writer could only say " I leave the rest for Mr. Blakston to enter " which he 
partly did. The consequence seems to have been a recognizance for the whole parish to 
keep the peace, but the wardens of 1669 went ** to gitt the church booke," a^r various 
meetings ** about the booke,** and were loused. 

♦ The cure was skin deep. " 1672, Lanstafe for making duch Wilson grave, 4d.** 

t Some more of these wandering Greeks and Armenians who ''used their mitre for a 
beggar's cap," occur in other church accounts of the county. 

t A troublesome woman. The same item occurs again, and one for her keep. 

§ In the ensuing year of oflSce, 1683*4, communion was celebrated at Pentecost, three 
bottles, two loaves ; Midsummer, three bottles, two loaves ; Michaelmas, two bottles, one 
loaf J— (Christmas !) one bottle, one loaf ; Sunday before Eaister, two bottles, two loaves : 
Good Friday, two bottles and one pint, two loaves ; Satumday before Easily one bottle, 
one loaf ; Easterday, seven bottles, five loaves ; Sunday after Easter, five bottles, three 
loaves. 



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PROTESTANT. 241 

coast, 6^. : to the parsons order, given to a man both deafe and dum oeing sent from 

minister to minister to London, 6d. 1685, To the ploomar in ale when wee first 

mett with him. Is. : to an oald distressed minister, 6d. - - - 1686, Ralph Coats for 

making the clock, 13/. : to a captaine from France with a pass, 1*. 1688, To a 

traviUing schoolemaster with a strong passe. Is.: to a disbanded officer in Ireland, Is. ; 
at the bone fire on kings birth-day, is. Qd. : to Mr. Ansells sonn whose father was taken 
prisoner by the Turks, towards his ransome, 4s. : spent at drawing up the certificate 
for reading dayly prayre and the new prayres for the king, 6d. : a load of coles and 
tarr-barrells on corronation day, 2^. lOd. - - - 1689, Receved John MiUrni child lare- 

stall, 1*. 8rf. : linging the 11th Aprill, 11*. : tarr-barrll and coals, 2*. 1690, A 

botle of Hock to Parson Tons/*^ when he preached, 2^. : a botle of wine to Mr Batty, a 
Lancashire minester, when he preached, \s. 6rf., more given him being in destresSy is, 

1691, To the ringers for the victory of takeing Limerick, and a tar-barrell, 6*. Sd.: 

when the Dean of Durham preached here, spent in a treat with him, 3*. 6d.: to a par- 
son wife goeing to London with a pass, 6d. : for a winding sheet for a pooer begger 
womans child. Is* 2d. : for ringing for the victory at sea and ale to the ringers, 8*. 2d. : 
a strainger that preacht, a dozin of ale. Is. : to the parson of Bppton when he preached, 
one dozin of ale, 1*. : to Thomas Lainge for keeping and fyeing the plank at the Bridge 

end when the water is out, and takeing it upp and washing and wRiNiNof t«, Is. 

1692, Dec. 3, For a fox head, 1*. : Feb 22, to Widd. Tindal lying in, 1*. : March 3, 
to the same, 1*. ; Apr. 7, to the ringers when Mg Lord Lumbly was here, 10*. : brief 

collected for the Christians in slavery in Turkey, \l.\Ss.2d. 1693, A collection 

made for Mr. Danll. Thwaites, minister, who preached twice that day. - - - 1694, To 
Henery Langstafie for carrag of the bell, 1/. 1*., for taking down the great bell, wages 
and ale, 10*., for hanging her up, in ale and wages, 10*. : for prayer books when 

we got out of place, 6s. : for tolling the great bell the fifth of March, 1*. 

1767, To Robert Preston for burying the Human Bones found in Nelson's GarthJ 4<f. 
1768, To usual allowance for keeping this account 5*. 1769, To Geo. John- 
son for a Scutcheon to a lock to Vestry Box, 1*. 1770, To Richard Robson for 

stopping Rat-holes in the church 1772, Ordered that the churchwardens do attend 

Mrs. Eden and Miss Allan, and return tliem thanks in the name of the whole parish for 
their present (on Good Friday h&i) of two large silver flaggons for the use of the Com- 
munion Table in this church.§ 1771, A bottle of wine for Mr. Addinson when 

♦ Rector of Brancepeth for thirty years. See Tonge ped. in Surtees, iv., 4. 

+ It may be wrming ; however, the word is written in a larger hand than the rest of the 
item, and I suspect that old Richard Hilton, the churchwarden, was perpetrating a joke. 

t 4 July, 5767. As some workmen were digging In a field belonging? to the town of Dar- 
lington, in order to lay the foundation of a house, they discovered the skeleton of a man. 
The bones were remarkably large, and by the position thev were found in, it is imagined 
the I)ody had been buried in the earth quite doubled.— GfiV/e^py'* Coll. 

§ The flaggons cost 55^. 19*. 6rf., and their engraving \L 1*. On their sides, /. H. S, On 
their bottoms, Vasum sacrce Menace Deo et Ecclence 8. Cuthherti in Darlington HumiUe 
offerunt Hanna Eden tt Anna Allan, Anno Domini 177*2. The rest of the plate com- 
prises a cup and two patens. On the side of the cup /. H. 8.^ encircled with, Poculum 
Benedictionis^ cui benedicimus, nonne Sanguinis Chrtsti. (st f On the rim of its lid, Dar^ 
lington Church, 1775. Donum Parochianorum de Darlington, A. D. 1776. Under its 
bottom, Hodgson Thornhill, Thomas Pickering, Gubernalorea. On the bottom of each 
plate /. ff. 8; encircled with, Pants quern frangimus, nonnc Communio Corporis Chrisii 
est ? quoniatn unus est Panis, unum Corpus nos qui multi sumus, nam omnes ex uno illo 
Pane participamus. On the outside of the bottom, Donum Parochianorum de Darlington^ 
A. D. 1775. Hodgson ThornliiU, Thomas Pickering, Ovbernatores. 

In a letter to J. Brough Taylor, esq., Surtees says in reference to some old Archdeacon's 
visitations of the commencement of the 17th cent., ** There's another very odd story about 
a man at Darlington that could not take the communion, because he did not feel easy in his 
mind that he was in charity with all men, and after trying till another Sunday be said 
" he was not in charity nor noe man should make him in cbaritie with Franck Oswold and 
Will Hewatsoo, till they paid him his demands for otes and ended all matters, &c., and 
being advised, &.C., he did ^oon outrageously and fell sick upont, and would not be any 
way persuaded. — Dismissed, as it seems they did not know what to do with him. These 

2n 



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242 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

preach, 28*; A Hud for Mr. Watkin when maid Master of Arte I/. 17*. 2d. ; Aug. 18, 

To calling down Cockerton fesai,f2d. : To Robert Hunter for teaching — Jackson 

sum of Len'd Jackson to play 50 tunes upon the Violin 1/. 1*. ; to a new violin for him 

18#. 1772, To Postage of a letter and bill with Lade Daw Dole^X 6i. ; seling and 

plaistering belfray 10/. 19*. 1773, George Feetham cunstable attending to loke 

after the gamesters \8. 1778, Collected for Kirkburton inundation from house to 

house, 2/. 17*. 5J. ; collected by the quakers for do. 4^. 6d^ 1783, To a stronger 

sick, 2*. 1784, Mr. Downey for one of the Sentonces l/.§ 1791, For calling 

churchyard 2J. 1791, Building Churchyard wall, 6\L 9*. 1799,|| Postage 

Birmingham letter with rules for soup society 1*. 1800, Peid Wm. Askew con- 
stable for attending the churchwardens at the churchyard, town, and places adjacent, to 
prevent Sabath brecking, gameing, &c., the last year. Fifty-two Sundays at 6<i. p. 

Sunday, 1/. 6«. ; An umbrellali for Mr. Topham, 16*. 1802, To Robert Walters 

for Lock to Stocks, lOrf.** 1803, Bellman for calls suppressing disorder on Easter 

Sunday^ l*.tt; Nov. Vinegar for stoving the church 1*. 3rf. - - - 1804, Sope and BUick 

Lead for momimente 181 1, May 27, Summonsing four boys for transgression on 

Sundays and one put in Stocks ; To paid for destroying vermin 4d. 1814, AUoW' 

ance, S^c, to Church Pillars 21. ; Removing Pillara and Walls building 1/. 16*. 4d. 

1818, Gteorge Omsby Chaisehii-e to sifkjf deeds [of extra burial ground] 11. 16*. 

1819, Sand to clean church 6*. 1826, June 27,JJ Constables attending Blackwell 

Feast 10*. 1827, J. Spark watching churchyard 3*. 1829, Tho. Todhunter's 

bill for Lamp posts in the Churchyard, should have been paid by the Commissioners but 

refused, 2i. I7s. ed.. 1830, May 25, Wine and Biskets 7*. Sd., Glases at Mr. Piggs 

on account of the Bishop of Chester 2*. ; Nov., Relief to a poor family on travel 
2*. 9d. ; Men getting up trees and gathering stones Churchyard 4*. 6d. ; Men watcliing 
the trees in churchyard 2*. ; John Rutherford for mending holes in several graves, 4*.§§ 

things really give one a very odd idea of the times and of the strange inquisitorial extent 
of the Spiritual Court, about the cleanly wight of the fireside at Darlington, and the work- 
ings of this other man's conscience, and Mr. Killinehairs kitchen wench, and some 'drunk- 
erdsand slacke comers to churche' at Bp. Midlenam 1618. — My father remembered old 
Thompson, vicar of Middleham, fining absentees for 3 Sundays together one shilling." 

The cleanly wight was one Wm. Johnson who ''^ (inter pocula) in Willm. Hunsdens of 
Darlington his house ligtdas [pointes] sttas laxaJbai ei braccas suas dimittebat before some 
gentlemen and others aud there offered alvum exonerare by the fire, which he partly ef- 
fected before he could be stopped in p'sence of all the company as is informed by the said 
William Hunsdens his wife greatly therwith offended.*' On the 20th Sep., 1600, he ap- 
peared, and having been gravely admonished by the archdeaconry ofiScial in the Spiritual 
Court, was so dismissed. 

* Similar items for various preachers perpetually occur. 

t A series of local feasts begin the last Sunday in July at Neasham, and proceed, I think, 
in the following order ; Hurworth, Aldbrough, Stapleton and Blackwell, Cockerton, 
Hau^hton, Harrogate and Burdon, Sadberge and Coatham, Brafferton, Aycliffe. Duck- 
huntmg, racing, drinking, banquetting and all sorts of secular sports are the order of 
the day, on the Sabbath and a day or two afterwards. Redworth hopping occurs as soon 
as the hay is won, when there is a run upon the fog. 

t Lady Day Dole I Lady Calverley's charity. 
§ There are some modern panels with sentences of scripture in different parts of the 
church. II Sunday Schools are mentioned this year. 

1[ For funerals. The said umbrella lasted seven years. 

•* The stocks, once the terror of Sunday sinners, repose from their labours in the sex- 
ton's closet in the church. " Jane Buttrey of Darlington, was sect in the Stoxe at Crofte, 
and was whipte out of the Towne the 8 day of Jan. 1672." Croft Par. Reg. " 1657, For 
mending the iron of the stockes, 8d. 1685, To Rich. Fawcett which was arreare for stocks 
makeing, 1*. 6d."-~Blackwell Bks. 

ft In south Durham the brave take off the shoes of the fair, and demand a ransom, from 
twelve at noon on Easter Sunday to the same time on Monday, when the lasses whisk off 
the laddies' hats in similar fashion for twenty-four hours. 

XX This feast is much later in the year. 

§^ About the time of the Burkite disclosures, an artist was travelling by the Courier 
coach from Newcastle to Darlington in company with his rather laree and newly made 
packing case, which carried with it the strong rozeny smell of newly-dressed deal ; there 



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PROTESTANT. 243 

1831, Saxon's [Sexton's] son for catching mice in the church 2*. - - - 1833, Feb. 

12, Distribnting bills on Church Robery 2^. 1836, Removing stone coffin. 6^. 

The cemetery of St Cuthberts contains two acres and thirty-eight perches, 
exclusive of the church, and from 1798 to 1847, eight thousand four hun- 
dred and sixty-three persons were buried in it The varying nature of its 
soil en'U)urages decomposition, but it sadly wants closing for twenty years 
at least The following inscriptions, with others scattered among the pedi- 
grees, &c., occur in the church and churchyard. 

North Transept.] — Here lieth the Body of Hannah, the wife of John Scafe^ who 
died the 19th of January, 1766, in the 3...th year of her age much and deservedly la- 
mented. Also James [1] their son who died May 16th, 1762, an infant. 

South Transept.] — J. G. 

In a vault, in the churchyard, lie the remains of TVtlliam Allison^ surgeon, who died 
Sepr. 6th, 1832, aged 70 years. And those of his widow, Hannah Allison, who died 
March 7th, 1833, aged 78 years. Also those of their grandchildren, the sons of W. J. 
Allison, of Ilford, Essex, viz. John Allison, who died Feby. 5th, 1820, aged 1 year and 
4 months ; and William Dixon Allison, who died March 12th, 1820, aged 2 years and 5 
months. Likewise, those of Harriet Hodgshon, the sister of Hannah Allison, and relict 
of the late Richd. Hodgshon, surgeon, of this place, who was buried June 2nd, 1837, 
aged 67 years. 

Sacred to the memory of Robert Botcherhy, who died July the 8th, 1838, aged 47 
years. This tablet was erected by his affectionate wife.* 

Chancel.] — Near this place Ues the body of John Trotter, M. D.,t an honest «nd 
humane man, who during a residence of twenty-three years in Darlington practiced 
medicine with reputation and success. He departed this life Feb. 8th, 1784, aged 53. 

[John] Trotter, M.D., 1784. [On slab beneath last,] 

were also some hampers of '* Newcastle salmon" and sundry old greasy traces on the coach. 
As evening deepened and all earthly scents grew powerful, the combined savours drew 
many a mysterious glance from the "outsiders," who commenced to whisper, then to speak 
to the grnard, who mounting snuffed about with officious activity ; the upshot being that 
horror was depicted on every face. At last a clergyman stood up and pomting ominously 
to the suspected package asked the artist ** Is that your box !" *• Yes." " There is a very 
offensive smell /rom it. Sir." And down he sat. It was needless to hint at the fish ham- 
pers, the dead body was in that box, and all slirunk from the Resurreciion'man* When the 
coach stopped at the Cleaver, in Skinnergate, the supposed villain ordered great care in 
lowering his horrid charge, and the clenryman, whose suspicions were coufirmed, de- 
manded on behalf of the whole passengers that the box should be opened. The apple-faced 
host laufrhed outright ; ** The luggage of a passenger I have known all my life shan't be 
touched." But the ** whole coach" was peremptory, and the owner, to satisfy the inquisi- 
tive multitude, unlocked tJie box. As the lid turned on its hinges, a crack and a screach was 
heard ; all fell back in breathless anticipation of the horrid exhibition, many Quitted the 
room, and a lady fainted away. They looked again, and the most divine face that human 
genius could i>ourtray burst upon them. It was the Madonna from the hand of Raphael ! 
rich in piety, innocence, and perfect beauty, which with great care the owner had brought 
from Italy. The clergyman apologized, the lady knelt (as a good Roman-Catholic should 
do), and all were enthralled by so wondrous a si^ht. 

* Churchyard.]—** Erected in memory of Eliza Botcherby, daughter of Robert and 
Anna Botcherby, who died Feby. 10th, 1826, a^ed 10 months. Also of EobtH Clark Botch- 
erby, their son, who died June 5th, 1830, aged 18 months." 

&jtJTH Aisle.] — In memory of Thomas Clark, who lays interred on the South side of 
this churchyard, died September 18th, 1829, aged 75. 

Sekcred to the memory of Robert Botcherby, who died Jan v. 15th, 1821, aged 76 years, and 
lies inter*d on the West side of this churchyard. Also of Elizabeth Botcherby, widow of 
the above Robert Botcherby, who died October 28th, 1835, aged 78 years. 

t Father of John Trotter, esq., of Haughton-le-Skeme and Staindrop, who married the 
heiress of Dale, and had issue John Trotter, esq., M.D., Durham ; Geoive Dale Trotter, 
esq., county treasurer ; William Trotter, esq., Bishop-Auckland ; Charles Trotter, esq., 
surgeon, Stockton, &c. 



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24* ECCLESIASTICAL. 

Here lies interred the body of Jamei Baisbeck, late alderman of Stockton, who de- 
parted this life April tlie 30th, 1778, aged 78 years.* 

Nave.]— To the memory of Ralph Tunstall, who died April the 21st, 1788, aged 80 
years. He was an affectionate husband, a sincere friend, and a kind master. Also 
Mary TunstaU, mdow of the above Ralph Tunstall, who died July the 8th, 1803, aged 
88. Thamasin Laurence died 13th April, 1805, aged 82. 

At the Foot of this Pillar lies Jnterr'd Charles DaUon Foord son of Chariest and 
Mary Foord of London. 

All those accomplishments he had acquired 
For which a youth is valu'd and admir*d. 
In Witt and Learning he supremely shone, 
For at his age he was excell'd by none. 
At Westminster he daily did improve, 
And merited from all applause and love. 
He much endur'd but was all patient mild, 
A man in virtue tho* in vice a child. 
Such was his life we doubt not but believe 
A full reward he did at Death receive. 
He died Deer. 29th, 1754, Aged 14. 
Elizabeth Steadman, died Feb. 12th, 1748, aged 18. 
RoBT. Stbadman, died Febry. 17th, 1749, aged 27. Jane Steadman died March Sth, 

1750, ag Here lieth the of Christopher son of lohn 

Steadman who February the [half covered by the Font'l. 

Here lieth the body of Michael Aiselby who departed this life the 15th day of Janu- 
ary 1762, aged 84 yeai-s. J 

Here lyeth the body of Robert Clifton, grocer, son of John Clifton, attorney att law, 
of this town, who departed this life the 28th of May, 1734, aged 26 yeais. 
SisTE viator, et respice paululum. 
Si quid amica Mater, si Matrona modesta. 
Si Uxor amantissima, si intacta Pudicitia 
redolens Virtutem 
Ad quod lespicias, habeat 

♦ He was mayor of Stockton in 1736, 1742, 1746. and 1756, and mar. Ist. Jane CoUinjr of 
Hurworth, of the family still seated there; and 2nd. at Darlington 24th July, 1759, Eliz. 
HaytoD, of this parish, spinster, who was buried here 15th July, 1790. By his first wife he 
had issue Thomas, who aied unm. ; Anne, who m. Tho. Sheen of Newcastle, a descendant 
of Sheen of Surrey ; and Jane, m. to Thomas Bone of the same place. Mr. Sheen's two 
daughters, Anne and Elizabeth, m. respectively the Rev. James Thomson (Vicar of 
Orm esby and perpetual curate of flston, whose grandfather, James, was cotLsin to Thomson 
Ihe Poet, and who himself was a "poetical parson," and published five or six vols, of poems 
and novels), and James Henzell or Newcastle. Both Ristei-s had families : the fair portion 
of the former live at Norton and are old friends. They formed a trefoil, but my worthy 
brother-fancier of literature, Mr. W. K. Bell (the pedagogue of the ancient grammar school 
which rose on the site of the Hermitage at Norton), bit a leaf off. From James Raisbeck's 
brother Thomas, the later Raisbecks of Stockton descend. 

t '* Doorkeeper to the House of Lords."— Par. Reg. 

X The Aslakbys (of Aislaby near Egglescliffe) held lands in Darlington. Sir Robert 
Danby of Thorpe Perrow near Bedale, knt., chief justice of the common pleas, held 
lands, &.C, in Durham, Darlington, Gateshead, Ac, m co. pal. jure uxoris Elizabeth 
daughter and co-heir of John Aslabye, e^q , who had died 1432. Michael Aiselby 
was a great tanner who migrated from Barnard C^tle, bought a tannery in Pre- 
bends Row in 1718, and rose to the rank of aentUman. He was a near relation to the 
Studley family which produced a Chancellor, and to the forefathers of my antiquarian friend 
Michael Aislabie Denham of Piersbridge. His large acquisitions produced the now rather 
old fashioned mansion of Monkend near Croft, and one of his three daughters, Marffaret, 
was the wife of James Mewburn, esq. (of a Croft family), who lived jure uxoris at Monkend. 
The Aislabies were so fond of the name of Michael that one of them at Bowes having only 
daughters, and fearing that no son would ever arrive, ealled one of them Michal. The 
Pembertons, who acquired Aislaby by purchase only, were equally disposed to the name. 
Mother Shipton says : ** When Egglescliffe sinks and Yarm swims, Aiselby will be the 
market town.* 



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PROTESTANT. 245 

Hie jaoet Anna Holmes Uxor Francbci HoIium 

In hoc Oppido Mercatoiis : 
Honestis nata Parentibus, honestis digna 

Parentibos : 
Maltis flebilis occidit, Uxorio flebilior Marito 
In cujus Memoriam hoc reposuit Marmor. 
Obiit ilia 27 : die Aprilis Anno Doml 1722 
.£tat : 34. 
.... mannore etiamque reqoiescit Franciscua Holmes Vir integer iidelis, £t in 
oroni Negotio Egregio, Obijt Die quarto Junij 1747 ^tatis Anno 69 : Filios Reliqait 
Dao8 Johannem In hoc Tumulo Conditnm £t Franciscom Superstitem. Obgt Johannes 
die 4o. Febm'g 1747. ^tatis Anno 39.» 

E. P. 

HiRB lieth the body of Isabel the wife of Ralph Sanderson, and daughter of John and 
Elizabeth who died January the 19th, 1723, JStat. Sue .... 

W, 

South Aisle.] . . . . ms Collinff, died 1794, aged 85. 

ughter of lo martha WiUso .... dy'd 14 o'f febry. ... 64, 

aged 1 ye . . . 

Sacred to the memory of William .... rgetrth lieutenant 97th regiment 

of died on the 27th 27 years. 

To the memory of James the son of James and Ann Wilson^ who died December 22nd 
1791, aged 2 years. 

In memory of Newby Lotoson, who died January 1st, 1781, aged 40 years. Lucy, 
daughter of Lucy and Newby Lowson, died March 4th, 1778, aged four years. 

North Aisle.]— J. B aged 76. 

To the memory of John Culfy Harrison of Newton House in the county of York, 
Esquire, who died April XIII. A.D. MDCCC. aged XLII years : And also to that of his 
maternal relations Mr. Thomas Burrell of Darlington aged LXVIII ; and Mrs Frances 
BurreU aged LXXXI. This monument is inscribed by his afifectionate relict D. 
Harrison. 

In memory of Ralph MUbankCy only son of the late Captain Ralph Milbanke, R.N., 
of Blackwell, first lieutenant of Her Majesty's ship Childers, who died at Hong Kong, 
in China, deeply and sincerely regretted by all who knew him, Augt. 28th, 1843, in the 
34th year of his age. 

In the CnuRCHYARD.t] — In memory of Edward CharleUm, Northumberland, formerly 
major of the 5th reg. of foot, in which regt. he served ten years, and late major of the 
11th regt. of foot, bom Febry. 22nd, 1759, died May 22nd, 1839, aged 80 years. Who 
after a life of strict integrity and domestic virtue, departed this life with every hope, 
resting on the merits of a Divine Saviour, and saying to his beloved daughter " The 
same Saviour that supports me now will support you ;" words to her most precious and 
full of richest comfort. 

This stone is erected to the memory of David Johnston of Allonby in Cumberland, 
and late acting foreman, for 8 years and 6 months, to Alfred Kitching of the Railway 
engine works, near this town ; by his fellow-workmen, as a tribute of their respect and 

* The pith of this inscription is given on a mural monument : — ^* Sacred to the Memory 
of }Ar* Francis Holmes of this Town Gent, Ann his wife, and John their son, who are 
Buried in the middle Isle of this Church. This monument was erected in the year 1776, 
by Francis Holmes as a Testimony of his Duty towards his Parents, and Affection towards 
his Brother." 

f On a stone commemorating the famllv of Robert Robinson, innkeeper, 1766-1772, are 
the arms, crest and motto of the Ma^ons^ Companv (as of London), with various mystic 
symbols. On another headstone are represented a skeleton creeping from under the cover 
of an altar tomb, two palm branches, a scull, a serpent biting its tail (eternity), two 
trumpets, under an eye enclosed in a half circle of clouds, and a very chubby cherub's 
head in clouds at each side of the last device. 



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246 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

esteem for his ability and exemplary conduct, which he exercised towards them in the 
discharge of his various duties. He died of consumplion Jany. 29th, 1847, aged 35 
years. 

In Remembrance of Wm. Burton^ Junr., student in medicine and surgery, who died of 
a fever the 29th of August 1804, before he had attain'd the 21st year of his age. 

Peace to his ashes — ^to his memory Fame ; 

Let these few lines intrinsic worth proclaim. 

From Virtue's pleasing Paths he never rov'd, 

Of man a lover, and by man belov'd. 

Oh had he livM till learned age had run 

The glorious Race his youth had but begun. 

Then future myriads by Diseases torn. 

Had thankful blest the day that He was bom.* 
Also his Brother Joshua Burton late a Capt* ia the Navy died the 4th of Deer., 1810, 
aged 24 years, much respected. 

*J^ 1755. The four old bells in Darlington church were recast by Lester of London, 
and two new ones added. They were hung and tuned by the ingenious Mr. James 
Harrison, from Barrow in Lincolnshire. Four of them were cast anew in 178 . . at the 
cost of 188/. 9«. *7\d. The weight of the six is 58c wt. Iqr. Harrison's curious piece of 
mechanism, which changed the tunes chimed every four hours, had baffled the skill of 
all our local mechanists for years and had fallen into complete disorder, when in 1843 

* Here are a few more specimens of the muse unlearned :— 
Discontented mother left to weep, 
Dear Mother let me lie and sleep. 
Her .... worth was only known to those 
Who stood distracted while her eyes did olote. 
Hark : from the tombs a doleful sound. 

My ears attend the cr;^, 
** Ye living men, come view the ground. 

Where you must shortly lie. 
Princes, this clay must be your bed. 

In spite of all your towers ; 
The tail, the wise, the rev'rend head. 
Must lie as low as ours." 

My plant did flourish fair 
Like to a rose in June, 
But Death with his cold blast 
Has crept my tender bloom. 
Weep not for her that's won the golden portal 

With all her jewels crowned nor stain'd nor dim : 
AH that she triumphed in is now immortal, 
Nor hush the seraph host's eternal hymn. 

Those lovely buds so young and fur 

Call'd hence by early doom, 
Just came to show how sweet those flowers 

In Paradise would bloom. 

Remember Man, as thou goes by, 
As thou art now, so once was I. 
Repent in time, no time delay, 
I in my prime was snatch'd away. 

19 years 1 was a maid and 3 years was a wife. 
The mother of 4 children ana then departed life. 

No marble marks thy couch of lowly sleep 
But living StahUcs there, are seen to weep. 
Affliction's semblance, bends not o'er thy Tomb 
Affliction's self ; deplores thy youlhfull doom. 

Farewell dear Grandmother dont fret for me 
For long I have wished my dear mother to see 
But now its pleased the Lord to take roe away 
And left my Brother a short time to stay. 
The three last rhymes are on one stone, date 1846. The SUUnle one became quite popu- 
lar, and in one instance is improved by reading ^* Statutes their,** 



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PROTESTANT. 247 

Mr. OeoTge Hoggart, a self-taught organ bailder, put it into proper order and substi- 
tuted some new tunes. The chimes play " Grod save the Queen," ** Britons strike home," 
** Life let us cherish," "See the conquering hero/* and the 4th Psalm tune, in rotation 
during the week till Sunday morning, when the barrel shifts to the psalm tune and 
resumes its place in twenty-four hours afterwards. 

TRINITY CHUKCH 

stands on the road to Gockerton, and the foundation stone was laid by the 
new Bishop of Durham, Dr. Maltby, 4 Oct., 1836, when a silver trowel was 
presented to the Bishop by John Allan, esq., of Blackwell Hall. The style 
is Early English, the church consisting of one large Nave, two Aisles, and a 
porch tower on the South, in the second story of which is the vestry. The 
stair turret is crowned with a spiret, which in some situations has a rustic 
and extremely happy eflFect as contrasted with the thick surrounding foliage. 
The interior is light and convenient, but the flat ceiling detracts much from 
its beauty. There are 1010 sittings, 600 of which are to be free for ever. 
Some additional accommodation, by plain and good stalls, has recently been 
effected. 

A good organ, built by our townsmen Qeo. Hoggart and Sons, was added 
in 1844. 

The district attached to this church comprises that part of the parish 
West of the following boundary. As to the township of Darlington, proceed 
South down the Great North Road, up Albion- street, down Commercial- 
street to Bondgate, cross to the end of Skinnergate and proceed down that 
street ; the remaining boundary is formed by Coniscliffe Lane. It also con- 
tains the whole of the townships of Archdeacon Newton and Cockerton. 

The incumbents have been, 

Robert Hopper Williamson, Jm., son of the rector of Hurworth, resigned for Lames- 
ley in 1847, when a silver salver was presented to him by hb parishioners. 

Thomas WM Minion, 1847. For twenty years his zealous services in connection 
with St. Cuthbert's Church, had been gratefully felt by the parishioners, who, on his 
cessation from those offices, in consequence of the present curate being resident, presen- 
ted him with a handsome coffee-pot, teapot, sugar basin, cream e^ver, and purse of 10(V. 
The income is about 180/. per annum. 

The following monumental inscriptions occur : — 

On a mural Gothic monument in the South Aisle, adorned with emblematic figures under 
rich canopies and surrounded by a bust in a niche.] — Sacred to the memory of John 
Woody esquire, of Woodlands, who departed this life November the 25tb, 1843, aged 67 
years. " Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord, fi-om henceforth : yea, saitb the 
Spirit, that they may rest from tlieir labours : and their works do follow them." — Reve- 
lation, c. 14, V. 13.* 

* His loss was much felt Among other charities, he had a soup kitoben at bis own resi- 
dence, in the winter months and at his own expense, whence the needy were bountifully 
supplied. 



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248 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

In the Churefyard,}SmH}^ j^arp Copbp fourti^ Ilaugi)Ur of Mr Joljn 
9enUton fiSHlbaxAt of l^alnab; baronet bom ii^qptnnber iE{ebent|^ fl'o 9*t 
fa*o ntcthl eSife of etftoarH CI)oniatf Coplco of fitt^tv I^M near 9on# 
carter e^quitt tKietK 3une firrft a'o S'i flfC'o trcccrnrib.* 

Sacred to the memory of William Rytner, esq., solicitor, who died Dec. 28th, 1848, 
aged 53 y^ars. — He looked for a City which hath foundations, whose Builder and maker 
i8God.t 

ST. John's church. 

For some time a new town had been gradually arising on the East of the 
Skeme in Darlington, and at last an immense accession in the shape of a 
most populous colony, which gathered round the scene of its members' daily 
labours on the York, Newcastle, and Berwick Railway at Bank Top, ren- 
dered evident the need for forming a new church district, which, under Sir 
Robert Peel's Act, was accordingly effected, and made to include the whole 
of the parish East of the Skeme, with a population between three and four 
thousand. Until a church was built a warehouse belonging to the Railway 
Company was by them set apart tor Divine worship. The church of St 
John the Evangelist, now completed and open, affords accommodation for 
about six hundred and fifty persons. The Rev. George Brown is incumbent. 
John Middleton, esq., is the architect, and the style of the new building the 
Early English, somewhat late in the period. The plan consists of a chancel 
with vestry at North side, nave with North and South aisles (the latter with 
a porch), and a tower at the West end, which is intended to carry a spire 
160 feet high. The tower opens to the nave by a lofty arch, beneath which 
is a stone screen for the support of an organ. Under the East window is a 
delicate reredos of seven trefoiled arches. The roofs are all open ; that of 
the nave is arched, and that of the chancel canted. There are open stalls 
throughout, with richly carved poppyheads. The reading-desk and pulpit 
are placed at opposite sides near the chancel arch ; the latter is richly arcaded 
and composed of Caen stone, being the gift of the architect The stained 
glass in the great East window is arranged in circular and vesica-formed me- 
dallions, on which are presented Moses, the raising of the impotent man, St 
Matthew, the Nativity, the celebrated symbol of the Trinity, the Saviour's 

* This inscription is in relief ronnd the sloping sides of a coffin-shaped stone, on the top 
of which is a decorated cross. A rich head-stone cross near is equally in the advance, but 
the first is the best The rustic muse has scarcely obtained a footing here. 
All you who come and see this stone, 

Think how quickly I was |tone : 
Death does not always warning f?ive, 
Therefore prepare while you live. 

t Mr. Rymer was a native of Malton, and being quite an enthusiast in the etymology of 
names of places, was to me a most agreeable companion. Although unable for some years 
to stir in his seat without assistance, and suffering great pain, he was ever quietly jocose, 
and his conversation had a vein of true religion which nnobstrusively sunk deep mto the 
hearts of his listeners. In all movements relative to the observance of the Sabbath and to 
the promotion of the cause of God, Mr. Rymer was foremost, and died in the full triumph 
of £^th. His memory shall be blessed.—** Each honest neighboor shared his soul sincere, 
the orphan dropped a tear, and called him kind." 



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■^-('^^[[Ijurrl) of p Jolju, DarlliigtDTi.>^-;i'..^ 



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PROTECTANT. 249 

the monogram I.H.S., St. John (the patron Saint), with his symbol the winged 
serpent in a chalice, the Last Supper, St Mark, the Ascension, St Luke, 
the Crucifixioa The side windows of the chancel and the clerestory lights 
are filled with yarious quarried patterns. The East windows of the aisles 
contain SS. Peter and Paul and foliage, the amount required for which was 
raised by the Misses Benson. There is a peal of six musical bells. The font 
was presented by Archdeacon Thorp, and is inscribed "The oflfering of Charles 
Thorp, D.D., Archdeacon, Anno Domini, 1 848." The embroidered covering 
for the communion table was also presented by Mrs. Colling of Monkend, near 
Croft ; and the tesselated pavement within the communion table by Herbert 
Minton, esq. It is of a very rich running aud circled pattern in blue, red 
and yellowish ; the Evangelistic symbols, the angel of St Matthew, the 
\nnged lion of St Mark, the winged ox of St. Luke, and the eagle of St 
John being introduced. The remainder of the chancel is similarly adorned. 
The conmiunion plate, costing 80/., was munificently presented by Robert 
Henry Allan, esq., of Blackwell Hall ; it consists of a paten, chalice, flagon, 
and offertory basin, all richly moulded and embossed with foliage and other 
decorations, in the same style as the church is built — the designs were fur- 
nished by the author. On the chalice is " /. H. C," and on the basin, ^^Deo 
Optimo Maantno hcec vasa eucharistica in usum ecclesiw Sancti Johannis, 
Evatiffelistw, dot diccU dedicat Bobertus Henricus Allan, Armiger, Black- 
wOerms, Anno Domini MDCCCXLVIIi:* The latter also bears the 
quartered shield of Allan, Pemberton, Hindmarsh, Killinghall, Herdwyke, 
Lambton, and Dodsworth, impaling Gregson quartering AUgood, with crest 
on a cap of mail, and motto. The simple impalement of Allan and Gregson 
also occur on the other vessels. The foundation stone of this elegant edifice 
was laid by George Hudson, esq., M.P., then Lord Mayor of York, Septem- 
ber 10th, 1847. The church has cost about 4000/, and it is a matter of 
r^^t that the building committee are responsible for a very large debt 

The incumbency is worth about 1 70/. 

The Mother Church and Trinity Church have National Schools attached ; 
the former in the Leadyard,* the latter in Commercial street"f" A new 
school in connection with Trinity is now erecting in Union street All three 
churches have Sunday schools, and there are branches of the Missionary and 
other societies connected with the church. 

IL The Roman-Catholic Church. 
In 1 767 the Roman-Catholics in the parish were 84 (29 males, 55 females), J 

♦ Number of scholars, boys' day and Sunday school (Mr. J. A. Storey), 157 ; pirls* ditto 
(Mrs. Dowell), 86. f -Boys' day school, 160 ; Sunday, 130 (Mr. Horace St. Paul Ann- 

strong) ; girls' day, 100 ; Sunday, 140 (Mrs. Wilson). These sliding numbers at Trinity 
school are curious. 

X Randal's MSS. Some of the descriptions are curious. ** Ann Menel, spinster, supposed 
to be brought up a papist and bom at Craythorn, agod 30, Milliner. Mary w. Sam. Daine, 
brought up a papist ; her husband a quaker ! Am Hiiyson, spinster, brought up n papist, 
6. at Byers Green in this co., servant maid. William Bulmer, brought up a papist, b. at 

I 



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250 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

but about sixty years ago they liad dwindled down to some twenty souls who 
"were accustomed to creep silently into a garret to avoid the insults 
of bigotry/' and till 1824 were attended but once a month by a priest 
from Stockton. In 1827 (the chapel attached to the Witham mansion at 
( /Uffe, seventeen miles off, having from untoward circumstances been sold and 
converted into a coach-house) the present chapel was opened, the old one 
being in a very bad state. It is behind Paradise Lane, and is built in the 
debased Gothic style, seventy by forty feet. Over the entrance are the 
Witham arms, and there are schools attached. The Very Rev. William 
Hogarth, D.D., Bishop of the Northern District, is incumbeni, and the 
number of conmiunicants now amount to nearly three hundred. 

After the house of Carmelite or Tereeian Nuns of the English nation (ex- 
pelled at the reformation) had flourished for almost thirty years at Antwerp, 
a colony^ went forth from it to Lierre, in Belgium in 1648, consisting of ten 
sisters, with the mothers Margaret and Ursula, botli of the Mostyn (of 
Wales) family. They continued there till the approach of the French army 
obliged them^to fly, and at a very short notice they quitted their convent in 
1 794 for London. Under the patronage of Sir John Lawson, of Brough, 
they settled at St. Helen's Auckland, thence they removed, in 1804, to 
Cocken Hall, near Durham, where they remained till 1830, when they settled 
at Field House, between Blackwell and Cockerton, which was christened 
Carmel House, where some eighteen or twenty nuns under Madam Catherine 
Hargitt still reside, the Rev. Joseph Brown being confessor. He succeeded 
the Rev. James Roby, who died in 1841, aged 79, at Mount CaiiLel, he 
having been for more than fifty years the affectionate father of the commu- 
nity. He was one of the alumni of the EngUsh College at Douay. An ex- 
tremely elegant Early EngUsh chapel is now erecting at the Nunnery, and 
it is just to remark that Mr. Priestman, of Darlington, a mason, with much 
taste for sculpture, is executing it in the most meritorious manner. 

III. Protestant Nonconformity. 

In 1645 the Parliament ordered four godly divines into the county, who 
were each paid 1*^0/. yearly out of the possessions of the Dean and Chapter. 
Three were sent to the cathedral, and one to Barnard-Castle, viz. John 
Rogers,* a most virtuous man. At the Restoration he was ejected, aud 
presented by Lord Wharton to Croglin Rectory in Cumberland, from which 
he was again ejected by the black Bartholomew Act of Uniformity. A vran- 
dering life succeeded; but in 1672, the laws being mitigated, he licensed 

Barnard CovStle, weaver, aged 35. Sylh Smith, widow, brought up a papist, h. at Catherjck, 
CO. York, auc'd 70, lives on her own, resided 1-12 [of a year]." Keariy all the families men- 
tioned were of mixed creeds. 

* The xviij of Aprill 1650 when Mr. Marsh and Mr.Jiof/ers preached, their chardges and 
their Company at dinner, 4«. ; 1659, for one pint sjick bestowed on Mr. Rogers when he 
preached here, U. (same item for Mr. Moxsh)— Darlington Church Accounts. 



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PROTESTANT. S")! 

rooQis aiid pi'eacbed in Darlington and throughout Teesdalo with great feuc- 
cess. He was intimate with Sir Henry Vane, (who sometimes rode over from 
Raby to attend his labours), and died in 1688. He was succeeded by Mark 
Lisle,* and various other ministers^ till 1797, when the Rev. Wm. Norris 
was sent here under the auspices of the Societas Evangelica (of Independent 
principles, and the Home Missionary Society of the day) : he was succeeded 
in 1804 by the Rev. Wm. Graham, J whose Presbyterian bias caused a se- 
cession of the Independents in 1806, and in 1812 the present [Bethel] chapel 
was built for them in Union street by J. lanson, esq., of London. It was 
enlai^ed in 1822 and will seat five hundred persons. School-rooms were 
built in 1832, but proving inefficient for the Sabbath school, new ones were 
opened in Kendrew street, in August, 1849, at a cost of 620/. (200L of which 
was munificently contributed by J. C. Hopkins, esq.). Nearly three huucred 
ciiildren are taught in the school. The Rev. R C. Pritchett, pastor. 

The Society of Friends were located in early times at Darlington, and 
were subjected to some persecution.§ In 1776 its members in this parish 
numbered 160, average deaths per annum, 4. These statistics will be but 
little altered now. They first met at Oockerton, and their old burial place 
was, I believe, behind the Black Bull Inn at the angle of Blackwellgate and 
Grange road. They have now a handsome meeting-house (with a cemetery) 
in Skinnergate, and the Society has for some time been one of prevailing in- 
fluence in the town.|| 

• Lyonel, s. Mr. Lisle a dissentinfi: teacher, born 19 June, 1720 ^Startforth Reg- Shuftoe, 
daugMer of Mark Lisle formerly Dissenting Teacher at Darlington, bur. 1728-9. Darlington. 

+ A child of Andrew Hunter of D. said to be baptized by the Dissenting-Teacher, buried, 
but no burial office performed, 1722. Christopher Robinson of D. weaver, bur. but no 
office performed because a Presbyterian, 1723-4.— Par. Beg. About 1754, a Mr. Wood, a 
surgeon, preached in a room in Northgate ; afterwards Mr. Carlisle, and then Mr. Tuff, 
married in 1772, to ** Miss Polly Yellowley, a most accomplished young lady, with a hand- 
some fortune." His character was but indifferent and the Presbyterian society broke up. 
John Nixon of D., gunsmith, died 1798 of an ** apoplectic fit in the Presbyterian meeting- 
house." 

t He published In 1809 "The grand Question considered, 'Am I in a state of grace V 
with Miscellaneous gatherings" on various subjects, ftiU of curious facts and odd opinions 
against instrumental music, &c. 

5 County of Durham. The Information of William Thomaby of Richmond in the Count. 
Yorke, Whoe saith that upon the third day of July last being Sonday there was a meeting 
of Quakers that did meet at the house of Cuthburt Thomsons in Damlinton and there did 
assemble themselves together and did hould a conventicle the said day contrary to the Act 
of Parlliamet which I shall prove by the oath of two witnesses as the said Act doth direct 
in that case made and provided. The names of those persons that did meet being foremer- 
ly : — Cuthburt Thomson and his famely of Darlinton, bis fines for suffering this meeting to 
be holden in his house. 20^. ; John Craford and Margrett his wife of Blackwell, U. received 
and returned; Peter Gouldsbrough, same, 10*. ; Lawrence Appelby, Darlington, 10«., re- 
ceived Apr... ; Edward Fisher and Vrsselle his wife, of the same firste meeting ; James 

Wastell of Hanghton -; John Robinson of Cokerton and Ann his wife, 6»., ilrrst meet- 
ing, 58. Convicted these persons before Sir Francis Bowes, the 20th July, by the oath of 
these two witneses, Henery X Johnson his marke, Rich ah d Paekin. 

I Sept, 35 Chas. IL Edward Boyes and Thomas Radclife, par. Darlington, come before 
Sir Robert Eden, Bartt., and Cuthbert Carr, Justices, and swear that Joshua Midleton 
mercer, Lawrence Apleby, William Dobson, Thos, Hodgson, Ursula Fisher, Anne King, 
Margarett Nixon, par. Darlington, and Christopher Hodgson, par. Hurworth, attended a 
Conventicle in Darlington on Sunday, 26 Augst., at the house of Robert Truman. There- 
fore we fine Midleton, Apleby, Dobson, Hodshon, King, and Apleby, 10*. each, they having 
been previously convicted. On Ursula Fisher and Margaret Nixon, 5*. each, being their 
first offence. On Robert Truman, 20/t., but by reason of his inability to pay the same, 10 
on Tho. Hodshon and 10 on Ursula Fisher. 

II The late Mr. S of Durham, a Friend, was travelling by stage coach to Darlington, 



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2.^2 FXCLESIASTICAL. 

The followers of Wesley existed in Darlington from an early period ot the 
history of Methodism, though it does not appear that he preached m Dar- 
hngton before 1761, it being merely a road station on his route to and 
from Newcastle. But some of his coadjutors had preached in Darling- 
ton in a small thatched cottage with a mud floor in Clay Row, which 
stood on the site now occupied by.the house of Mr. Middleton the currier. The 
hearers seldom numbered more than half a dozen, but on Wesley's visit, not 
half the congregation could obtain admittance, and he preached in the yard 
The Wesleyans removed then into an obscure room in Northgate,* and in 
1778 to a chapel built in Bondgate, still standing aa the cabinet-maker's shop 
of Mr. Peverley.-f- On Sunday, 9 May, 1779, Wesley "preached in the 
Market Place, and all the people behaved well, but a party of the Queen s 
dragoona" His pulpit was a large stone (recently removed) at the church- 
gates, and, in reproving the rude soldiery, he reminded them of the tolerant 
principles of their master, George III., who at the time resisted the anti- 
Methodist feeling at court, and used his interference to secure the benefit of 
the Toleration Act as a protection to the Methodists from the continual vio- 
lence of mobs. In 1 786 the chapel was enlarged and side galleries erected, 
when Mr. Wesley re-opened it after the enlargement, and also preached in 
the " Raff-yard" (Commercial-street). J On another visit he stood on a hogs- 
head at Mr. Pratt's door by the buildings which now bear his name. 

when a gentleman near him avowed infidel sentiments and began to ridicule the sacred 
volume. " Friend," said Mr. S., " what dost thee find so ridiculous in the Bible 1" •• Oh !" 
said the infidel, " what man in his senses can believe that a stone fW>m a sling could sink 
into a man's head and kill him." "Why," said Mr. S., "if Groliah's head was as soft as 
thine, there could have been no difficulty about it ! " 

The leading families of the Friends have made their fortunes with their own right hands, 
and have settled down in all the best and snuggest mansions near the town. They love 
ample ^rdens and green plantations, plain houses and high walls, and there is an air of 
the qumtessence of comfort in their grounds. They are active in all works of public inter- 
est and improvement, and have always stood firm and active champions against war and 
slavery. To one of them, says Howitt, "Joseph Pease, sen., we •we the formation of a 
society, — that of British India, — which, if properly siyiported bv the public, would confer 
more blessings on the population, both of this country and of the Indian peninsula, than 
it has ever yet been the privilege of human nature to work out." 

*»• Richard Lindley of Darlington, of the society of Friends, bequeathed 85(W. to be 
placed at interest ; 15W. was to be invented in government securities, and the dividends to 
be applied in the encouragement of a schoolmaster or schoolmasters of his own society ; 
the remainder was secured in houses adjoining the Friends' Meeting-house, and the inter- 
est is divided among their poor members. 

1773, May. "Died, in the Quakers' Almshouses in this town, Thomas Kipling, Wool- 
comber, aged 84, a sober, industrious, honest man, who left a widow, a few years older than 
himself. They were married near 59 years and supposed to be the oldest couple here. 
He lay near two years a prisoner in Durham gaol, at the suit of Mr. Hall, then Curate of 
this place, for his roarriajge fees, though they were married at the Quakers' Meeting." — 
Darlington Mercury. 

* Subsequently the meeting-house of the Independents before a secession led to the erec- 
tion of their present chapel. It is in a nameless passa^ South of the Post-office. " An 
olddisciple"remenibers, as a bo^, joining in the derisive shout, common in those times, 
when " Michael Gingles," the onginal beadle of Methodism, carried the pulpit on his back 
from Clay Row to Northgate. 

t It merely contained an end gallery, but the wonder of the age was, how it would ever 
be filled. The financial records of the Darlington society commence in the year 1778. 

t He died in 17P1, when Darlington had 183 members. Previously to 1805, Darling- 
ton was, in succession, an appenda?e to the Dales*, the Yarm, and the Stockton circuits, 
but, in that year, became the head of a circuit which swallowed up two older circuit-towns, 
Yarm and Stockton, and included Hartlepool. Stockton is now a circuit-town with these 
ifowns attached. 



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PROTESTANT. 25:5 

The present cliapel, a handsome Italian brick pile,* with stone dressings, 
'stands in a recess on the South side of Bondgate, and was erected in 1812.f 

The number of Wedeyans in Darlington in 1850 is 300, in the circuit 
(including twenty-four surrounding villages) 717. The ministers at present 
stationed here are the Rev. George Jackson, chairman of the Whitby and 
Darlington district, and the Rev. Luke H. Wiseman. 

Wesley devoted much attention to what he called " the noblest institutions 
which have been seen in Europe for many centuries," Sunday Schools. They 
were adopted in the old Bondgate chapel soon afiber 1790, and removed to a 
large room in " Pratt's Buildings." In 1 81 8 Thomas Pickering Robinson, esq. 
gave land in Skinnergate on which Sunday schools were builtj The first 
collection for missions occurs in 1799;§ there is a r^ular branch of the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society. The Darlington Benevolent and Strangers' 
Friend Society commenced in 1815, and employs visitors in visiting the 
sick poor of all denominations. The committee grant relief and the visitors 
administer it, adding seasonable religious instruction. || 

In 1 840, a handsome chapel was built in Paradise Row, by ** the Wes- 
leyan Methodist Association." It will seat from 700 to 800 persons, and 
has convenient vestries and spacious school rooms connected with it ; in the 
latter of which a flourishing Sabbath school is conducted, consisting of up- 
wards of 450 scholars. The premises were erected at a cost of about oP2700.^ 

* 64 by 62 feet, interior measnrements. There is a gallery all round, and a semicircular 
apse at the West end containing communion arrangements and an orchestra above. Num- 
ber of seats, about 1400. At the time of erection it was one of the largest Wesleyan chapels 
in the kingdom. Architect, Jenkins of London. Cost, above £4000. Class rooms, a large 
vestry, and two ministers' houses with small gardens, constitute the whole one of the most 
comfortable and complete religious establi^ments for miles round. A good organ by 
Nicholson of Rochdale (300^.) was added in 1840. Mr. Wm. Foggitt, gratuitous organist. 

+ Another chapel was built in Park-street, in 1831, for Darlington beyond Skeme ; seats, 
300. It has not been found so neci^ssary as was anticipated, and is principally used as a 
Sunday schooL A small chapel at Cockerton was built in 1823 ; seats, 150. 

± Day schools under a separate trust were allowed, and a Lancasterian boys' day-school 
is kept below, and a Wesleyan girls' day-school of industry above. The girls are taught by 
a teacher from the Glasgow Training establishment. Number, upwards of 70. The Wes- 
leyans occupy both rooms on the Sabbath. Children in these schools, upwards of ACtO ; 
teachem, about 80 ; children admitted since their establishment, nearly 6000. Ten village 
schools in connection have upwards of 400 scholars. 

§ The circuit included Stockton, Yarm, Hartlepool, Darlington, Bishop- Auckland, & ., 
and the collection was 2/. 129. In 1848, the Darlington circuit, with its circumscribed 
bounds, produced 275/. I6s. ]d, 

II ** The Wesleyans disclaim the designation of * dissenters,'' that word conveying a dis- 
tinctive idea on a principle of Ecclesiastical Polity, which they do not hold, i.e., the Scrip- 
tural unlawfulness of £lstablishments. Wesley commenced his labours as supplementary 
to those of the clergy, to rouse them to greater activity ; and he intended his members to 
be embraced in their communion. Many of the most excellent churchmen have expressed 
their regret that his purposes and plans were not appreciated. His followers, therefore, 
became Nonconformists by fate, not by design ; and they do not now. like some who have 
seceded from them, deny the Scriptuial lawfulness of an Established Church, or join in the 
agitation for the separation of church and state. With Wesley, they wish such reforms as 
would give greater spiritual efficiency to the Established Church ; but in all agitations 
their position is that of friendly neutrality. Wesley's motto was, * The friends of all ; the 
enemies of none.' " 

H "The society worshipping in this chapel (known as the Wesleyan Methodist Associa- 
tion) withdrew from the Weslevan Methodists in 1836, adopting a liberal form of church 
government, which they regard as being more fully in accordanc<^ with the principles of 
the New Testament. In matters of Christian doctrine, and mode« of worshij), there is no 
diiierence between them and the body from which they separated." 



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254 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

The Primitive Methodists have a chapel in Queen-street, built in 1821 ; 
and the Baptists have one in Archer-street. 

There are schools connected with the various persuasions, and bmnches of 
many of their religious and moral societies. 

*^f* I must now notice two eccentrics in religion. 

In 1822, the notorious Jonathan Martin came into the employ of Mr. George Middle- 
ton, a tanner here, and then experienced some of his remarkahle visions about Bona- 
parte's son reigning in England, &c. He spent his evenings in preaching and praying, 
and boasted in his autobiography, printed here in 1825, that through his labours in 
seven weeks, two hundred precious souls were set at liberty. He said that prayer-books 
hod been the means of sending many to helL In 1824, he had a coat and boots of seal 
skin with the hairy side outwards. After that he procured an ass, as useful in selling 
hb publication and in imitation of our Saviour. He preached at the Market Cross to a 
society of Odd Fellows. Yet he was a good workman, lived a good deal among the 
Methodists, and took great care of his son whom he had placed with a Jewish pedlar, in 
in tlie idea that he was to assist in converting the Jews. 

Almost every one that has frequented the markets of Darlington, Stockton, and other 
places in the county for the last fifty years, must recollect a middle sized, and fresh- 
looking man for his years, very plainly but decently dressed, who paraded the streets or 
visited the Inns, carrying under his arm a huge collection of ballads or pamphlets which 
he modestly offered to the persons he met with, ciying " Boy a l>ook, buy a book !" If 
one was bought for a penny, he was perfectly satisfied, and the gentlemen who had 
known him in better times would occasionally present him with a sixpence or shilling. 

True it was that old George had once known better times. His father occupied a 
farm at Great Stainton, under the Pennyman family, his judgment being considered 
very superior in selecting cattle, and many came from a great distance to purchase his 
bulls and cows ; nay, I believe that Old Ben — the Messrs. Ceilings' bull, from which 
descended most of their celebrated animals — was, when a calf, bought of Benjamin Ord, 
the father of our enthusiast, who was an only son, bom in 1755, and a spoiled one. His 
attendance at school was very irregular, and frequently no coaxing could get him there 
for a single day in a whole week. Once in Stainton church during service, an older boy 
was experimenting on George's toe-nails, and by some means cut him to the quick : the 
agonised boy, sans reverence, roared out most lustily, for which he was deservedly 
reprimanded and his unlucky tormentor well whipped. Another day as he was sailing 
his ship in a deep well, a mischievous lad, called Jack Kemp, pushed him in head fore- 
most and then ran off. He was saved from being drowned by a woman that was hay- 
making neai*, who drew him out by the legs, exclaiming, "//?'* plain thou loas^t not 
bom to be drovmed, thou great booby.'"' Again, he was standing near the filthy reser- 
voir of a farmer's middens^ when a gigantic fellow leapt upon his shoulders, George gave 
way, and both were engnlphed, our hero undermost. He had on hb Sunday garments 
and was hardly i-ecognised by his play-fellows. 

However, he contrived to live, and his father dying when he was young, and the 
Pennymans at that time requiring more rent, his mother engaged another farm at 
Cowpen near the sea. In tiis youth he had the vanity to suppose himself handsome, and 
fancied every young female that looked at him was in love with him. Vet he made a 
prudent choice in his first wife,* who, for the few years they lived together, made an 
amazing improvement in her husband, but unfortunately after five or six years she died 
in childbirth of twins, leaving them and other three children to the i^idower. He soon 

• 1773. March. *• Married at Hilton Chapel, near Ynrm, by the Rev. Mr. Peacock, Mr 
Geoipre Ord, an eminent farmer, to Miss Polly Preston of that place, a sprightly and well- 
accomplished young lady of 18 years of ago. endowed with those perfections that promise 
the greatest folicity to the nuptial niaiQ^—Darlinfffon Mfvcury. 



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PROTESTANT. 2.55 

got a much inferior helpmate ; she was virtuous, careful and industrious enough, but 
then she gave in to all his whims and ways, and a dormant mental malady b^an to 
appear. 

He left the Cowpen farm, took one of Sir John Eden at Preston-on-Tees, near Yarm, 
and having always been a humming, drumming, dreaming, musing fellow, now began 
to suppose himself superhuman and to see most absurd and chimerical visions. Every 
thing went wrong, his com failed for want of cultivation, for want of attention his cattle 
died. He was now a vagabond, carrying his dreams, visions, and hymns, from one side 
of the island to the other, and twice he ^Tote, (without of course receiving any answer) 
to Mr. Pitt, representing that the nation was in the greatest danger, and could not be 
saved without his helping hand. 

Although he could scarcely spell a word right, he was continually using his pen on 
hymns and spiritual plays of the most doggrel character. Sometimes he sung them at 
the Market crosses during the hirings of servants, or at other public meetings, and he 
commonly had a crowd of disorderly persons about him, some commiserating his situa- 
tion, others casting dirt, stones, or vile potatoes in hb face. He has been seen at Dar- 
lington near the Towns-house chanting hisdisnud rhymes, and tlie blood streaming from 
his nose, caused by some too well-directed aim ; yet he never ceased his singing, and 
seemed to take no notice. 

He wrote some of his tad and unconnected stuff to his worthy landlord Sir John, who 
for long had suffei'ed him to remain, but wearied at length by his foolish conduct, he 
let the good farm to a more deserving tenant George had a host of children by his 
second wife, who, with his elder ones, were reduced to ruin and distress. He was father, 
grandfather, and great grandfather to descendants almost innumerable, living in low 
employments ; most of them he married off when they were little more than childi-en ; 
the old boy being a great stickler for matrimony. 

He had once an interview with Johanna Southcote, but as two of a trade seldom agree, 
they came to cross purposes in their doctrines outrageously, for George considered him- 
se/fihe true Shiloh, and the vulgar prophetess was then destined to become the mother 
^Shiloh. In his writings he styled himself the chosen minister of God, the only true 
Branch, the Great I am, tlie Messiah or Shiloh, the Prince of Peace, and many other 
names, and the good folks that knew him called him a second Solomon. Preacher George, 
the Antichrist, the Pope in disguise, the Ancient of Days, and sometimes the wandering 
Jew. 

He traversed the three kingdoms: often when his finances were low he was conveyed 
in a pass cart from one township to another, and sometimes on his route homewards 
was farther from Preston-on-Tees at night than he had been in the morning. He de- 
clared most solemnly tliat he would never die, and was certainly, notwithstanding 
his age, very active ; he rambled about in 1830 from house to house with great ease but 
was not so erect as foi-merly, he had lost his teeth, and his hair was wliite as snow. 
Still he was as amorous as ever, and the matrons and young lasses scampered off on his 
approach to avoid a divine salute, or a Sion kiss from the Ancient of days. Such dam- 
sels as submitted patiently to his talcs of heavenly love and delight, were immediately 
registered in his Book of books, being destined afterwards to be seen hand in hand with 
him, singing and dancing in the air, and kicking with their feet the heads of those who 
were so stubborn as not to hearken to the charmer s voice. 

The head of George's eldest son was full of perpendiculars, diameters, and wheels 
within wheels. He was uu'lcr the finu impression that he had discovered the true per- 
petual motion, and was like bis fatlier very pn^lific. 

The patriarch was, notwitlistaiiding his pi-edictions, gathered to his fathers. Both he 
and his son were buried at Seymour, in Clcvtland, where a small property had been left 
them, the former to the very last lesolutely niaiiitainir.n; liis opinion tliat he was a true 
prophet. 



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256 ECCLESIASTICAL. 



Ci)aptn: Mh e^axitm Mongmg to ti)ii8 ^arisij. 



The Free Grammar School, a mean building, stood Eastward of the Church 
on the Skeme, but in 1813 the site was added to the burial ground, andbj 
agreement, the parish built another school of similar dimensions, to the So h 
of the churchyard, to which an upper story was added in 1 84?6. The notes 
appended to the following pith of the charter* will explain the whole foun- 
dation. 

(1 ) " ELIZABETH,t &c., &c.,. Know ye that at the humble petition of our much 
beloved and faithful cousin, Henry, Earl of We8tmerland,J and the Rererend Father 
in Christ, James,§ Bishop of Durham, on behalf of our faithful liege subjects the inhabi- 
tants of the town of DARLYNGTON within the county palatine of Durham, to us, for 
a Grammar School there, to be erected and for ever established for the perpetual educa- 
tion, erudition, and instruction of boys and youth of that town,|| there to be trained, 
instructed and taught ; of our special grace, &c; we will, grant, and ordain for us, our 
heirs and successors, that from henceforth there may and shall be a certain Grammar 
School in the said town of Darlyngton, which shall be called " The Free Grammar 
School of Queen Elizabeth*'* for the education, training, and instruction of boys and youth 
in Grammar,1[ to endure in future times for ever ; and that school, of one master** or 

* The original Latin, with various other school papers, constitntesone of the Allan tracts. 
Hutchinson tran^ted it in 1788 for James Allan, esq., and this reading: was published by 
the town in 1818, and again in 1845 with an address on the school generally by T. E. Abbott, 
esq. In 1666 there was paid '* to Mrs. Colthirst for the translating^ of the scholl patten into 
English, l.V The husband of this blue stocking was Rob. Colthirst, then Borough Bailiff; 
he was of Guisbrough in 1678, when he seals a law letter " for Mr. Samuel Bviler^ of Man- 
chester, a haberdasher of hats, now at Yorke," with a fess between three cx>lts passant ; 
crest, a derai-lion rampant aflFrontee ; the insignia worn by Colthirst of Somersetshire : and 
was evidently of the family of Colthurst of Upleatham. See Ord's Cleveland, 350. 

+ The initial E of the charter contains the vin^n queen in most gallant array. A good 
old full length portrait of the foundress, with the charter in her hand, was placed in the 
school by George Allan the antiquary, in remembrance of having: received his first rudiments 
of literature there^ The schools founded and sanctioned by Elizabeth are very numerous- 
She founded one at Yarm on the supplication of Tho. Conyers of that place, and by will 
1589 he leaves his house and tenement at Damton, &c., to Francis Nicnolson, his wife's 
nephew, changed with 20^. yearly to the school of Yarome for ever. It is the property of 
James Johnson. 

X Warden of tlie West Marches, and *'a sensible and toell edticaUdf as well as a brave 
man" as appears fh>m his letters- 

§ Pilkington. 

II " Tho* the toum of Darlington be only mentioned, yet the intention of the instituting 
such school is plain, that it is for the service of the parish, two of the Governors living al- 
ways out of the township, and the twenty-four who chuse those governors, living roan^r of 
them likewise out of the township ; yet such school is desired for the further instruction 
of those that can read, and not to teach children to read." — Opinion of John Middleton, esq., 
of Durham, councellor ojt law, 1688. 

^ This word is considered to imply the teaching of the dead languages, and they only 
are taught free. 

•• "1631. Paid for fewer burdens of Rushes and for dressing the Scholehouse at Mr. 
Richard Smelt entrance to the same, 16<2. Item, for a bottle of wine and sugar for inter- 
taininfre Mr. Smelt into the said Schoole house, "Is. 1638, For one quart of Clarit wyne 
when Mr. Robinson went to enter of the Skoule, M. 1666, For beare and tobaco bestowed 
on Mr. Bell and his schollers in the Rotation weeke, \s. \Qd. 1667, For ale and cakes in 
Rogation weeke for th<* schoUars, 1*. 6fi. 166.0, Spent at Mr. Bells, 4rf., for cakes to the 
scoTers, 6rf. 1677, To Marmvt Parkinpson that the parson and scolars dnmko when they 
wont a proambulation att Cockerton, 2*." Other similar entries relating to the " beating 
the bounds" of the parish occur. 



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PROTESTANT. S'T 

pedagogue, and one usher or sub-pedagogue,* for ever to continue and endure, we erect, 
ordain, create, found, and establish by tliese presents." (2) " The four wardens of 
Darlyugton, for the time being, shall be and shall be called Governors of the said Free 

Masters.— Robert Hall, Scholl MV of Darlington occ. 1559, 1571 . Rob. Ovin^ton, de- 
prived by Rev. Hen. Dethicke, A.M., Surrogate, and Rpv. TIio. Burton, offlc. at Auckland 
chapeL witnesses having been examined, and churchwardens ordered to elect new master, 
1579: Lewis Ambrose, occ. 1587: Hob. Hope, curate, lie. \G'22: Tho. Hardy, Ir30 : Ric. 
Smelt. 1631 : Rob. Gierke, lie. 163:2: Ric Birkbeck, lie 9 Oct.. 1634 : (Matt. Phillipp, 

schoolmaster of Darlington, bur. 30 Apr., 1634, in the church] Robinson, 163tt : 

Ralph Johnson occ. 165*2: John Couke, 1653: John Hod<)liun, K^*n., 1(>57: Rev. Geo. 
Bell, curat**, 1666: Isaac Richardson, occ. 1720. bur. 1723: Jonathan Sisson, 1723, 
bur 1743; Rev. Tho. Marshall, discharged 1739, bur. 1740, "Curate of Barnard Castle 
an -'late Master of the Free School :" Rev. William Addison, formeily usher, app. 
173J», resigned : Rev. Cuthbert Allen, of Hartforth, RxV., 1747, difichariced 1748 : Rev. Tho. 
Cooke.of Darlington, B. A, 1748, discharged 1750: Rev. Robt. Meetkirke, M.A., of Ickle- 
field, Herts., M.A., U-M), resigned: Rev. Tho. Morland, 1756, d. 1807, ag. 78: Rt»v. Wm. 
Clementson, 1807, d. 1836. Rev. Geo. Wray, 18:^6, discharged 1840: Rev. Tho. Marshall, 

Srpsent master. The Rev. Thomas Robson.a native of Kirkby There, is the present usher, 
lobert Wilson, esq., whs upwards of 14 years usher, and died 1836, aged 40. His successor 
was Hen. Wade, e$^., a talented artist, who became master of Norton Grammar School, and 
now holds that of Wolsingham. 

* 1738. Bom at Ravensworth, near Richmond, Cuthbert Sliaw, the son of a shoe- 
maker, in low circumstances. After having, for some time, been usher in the Free Gram- 
mar school at Darlington, where he, in 1756, published his fii-st jtoem, entitled ** Liberty"; 
he became an actor, professing a handsopie figure. But the speculation did not succeed, 
and he was reduced to VDriting for bread. He satired his contemporary poets, but his best 
work was his ** Monody to the memory of Emma," his wife, who forfeited the countenance 
of her family, which was good, for his sake, and died in childbirth of an infant who did 
not long survive her. He instructed an infant son of the celebrated Philip Dormer Stan- 
hope, Earl of Chesterfield, for some time; and George Lord Lyttleton, on readi«;g the 
verses on a sorrow similar to that which inspired his own celebrated " Monody," desired 
Shaw's acquaintance, and distinguished him by praise, without assistance of a more tangi- 
ble kind. Judging from the following lines in the Monody: — 

Come, Theban drug, the wretch's only aid. 
To my torn heart, its former peace restore, A;c. 
we should suppose the poet gave himself up to dissipated habits, opium, and intoxicating 
liquors. He died in 1771, in the prime of lite, but sadly emaciate(i. Poor Shaw ! Who 
speaks of him ? Yet he expected immortality. In 1769 he wrote to George Allan, esq.. — 
•• Dear George, — I heg vour pardon for having troubled vou with a letter relative to Mr. 
Smart, fpoor Christopher, the poet] whose pretensions, i am since informed, are merely 
visionary, and indeed from that and other circumstances, 1 am led to believe he still re- 
tains Sfunething of his former insanity. I have withdrawn myself from him for some 
weeks past* I hope, or at least am willing to flatter myself, your not answering my letter 
proceens from the above frivolous application to you - - - The Monody is universally 
thouL'ht to be the best of the kind in any language ; and I flatter mvself you will be 
pleased to hear that it has procured roe the regard of some of the most distinguished cha- 
racters in the kingdom ; among the rest 1 have the honour to be visited by Lord Lyttleton, 
a distinction he has not paid to any body since the days of Mr. Pope. Mr. Wilkes has sent 
me bis acknowledgments in the most warm and sensible manner, and said if Lord T. &ime 
into administration, I have reason to flatter myself with something more substantial than 
fame. You now see plainly, that, though the malicious part of the world have regarded 
me as a vain pretender, so far from over-rating my abilities, I did not even dream of what 
I was capable of, on exerting myself. It is impossible to describe to you how desirous 
numbers of fortune and fashion shew themselves to cultivate my friendship. And must I 
yet solicit the continuance of yours in vain ! You, who know me so firmly attached to 

you, that despight of all your unkindness, my heart will not suflier me to forget you." 

" As to the esMiy you ask of me. 1 hope I have thought of something that will please you 
better. What think you of an Ode to Gratitude, inscribed to you as the projector and 
manager, and the rest of the subscribers. If this is agreeable to you, I will endeavour to 
delineat(»4>n it the manuer of our stwlies, and way of living, going a hunting, &c., with Mr. 
Noble's character. I mean to make it a shilling pamphlet. I wnit your answer on this 
head. I confess 1 could wish to be among the number of subscribers, but on my soul, the 
vast expense of physic and asses' milk which I am obliged constantly to use, have not Uft 
me a guinea to spare. I have something at heart which I must tell you. There is a ring 
(a mo0t beautiful topaz set round with diamonds) which, when I was thought a dyiug man 
about two years ago, I had left you with some other matters. This ring, out of necessity. 
1 was obliged to send — you know where — ^about eight months ago. I cannot bear it should 
be lost, as it was always intended for you, and had 1 not met with a late disappointment 
you should have had it, e'er this, without any demands on your pocket I had five guineas, 
so you may easily imagine 'tis a ring of value. Therefore if vou will be so kind as either 
trust me in this matter or send money to anybody else, that will be secret, I will give them 
the ticket, with directions where to get it. You are the only person in the world that has 
the least idea of my being at all straightened, otherwise I flatter myself there are many 



IK 



that would be proud to offer me their purses. But think not, mv dear friend, 1 have en- 
deavoured to be reconciled to you, to be troublesome ; no, I would die sooner than have 

K 

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258 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

Grammar School, and of the possessions, revenues, and goods of the said free schooL*' 
(3) Nomination of "our beloved Marmaduke Fayr bame,* John Blackelock, John 
Dohson, and Stephen Camber, the present wardens of the said church of Darlyngton, to 
stand and be the first and present Governors," " the said office well and faithfully, to exe- 
cute and hold, from the date of these presents, so long as they shall continue wardens of 
the same church.** (4) The same Governors and their successors shall be "a body corpor- 
ate and politic of themselves for ever by the name of Governors of the Free Grammar 
School of Queen Elizabeth, within the town of Darlyngton, within the county palatine of 
Durham, and of the possessions, revenues, and goods of the same hee school.'* (5) They 
"shall have perpetual succession, and by that name may and shall be fit and capable 
persons in law to have, acquire, and receive to themselves and their successors, Goveiv 
nors, SfCy manors, lands, tenements, possessions, revenues, and hereditaments, and also 
goods and chattels whatsoever of us, our heirs, and successors, or of any other person or 
persons whomsoever." (6) When "any one or more of the said four Governors for 
the time being shall die, or shall be removed from his office, then it may and shall be 
lawful for the four and twenty more substantial and discreet inhabitants of the said town,t 
or the major part of them, to appoint another fit person or other fit persons out of the 
inhabitants of the said town in the place or places of him or them so dying, or removed, 
as successors to the said office of Governors to elect and nominate, and so from time to 
time as often as the case shall happen.";^ (7) The Governors and their successors " for 

harboured so despicable a thought, and to f^ve you a proof of this, 'tis ray resolution, if I 
live till summer, to retire somewhere into the country, where my small income will be 
more than equal to my necessities." - - - •♦ The critical (who are a set of Scotchmen that 
1 have trounced in the second edition of the Race) hate me past all endurance, and never 
commend mo but when thej^ are betrayed into praise, not knowing the author. I'll very 
shortly make scare-crows of 'em. They know I intend it, and are now trembling with ap- 
prehensions. My fome, dear George, is above their reach, and whilst I am happy in the 
friendship of those that are dear to me, ten thousand such squibs shall never hurt me." 
On Shaw's death, Doctor James Cowper, who had assisted him with both food and medi- 
cine in his gi-eatest distress, wrote to Allan requesting that his poor relations at Dai ling- 
ton should be informed, as he had died intestate. ** You must know that he is richer of 
late than formerly, by being concerned in some quack nostrums, of which ho has had so 
good an income of late as to be able to set up his equipage, house, servants, &.C-, but by 
this, though he hurt himself, yet as the business he was engaged in continues to thrive, 
and by indentures now in niv custody for the sake of doing justice to his legal executors, 
I observe that they run f^ood, for fifty years to come, to him. his executors and assignee ; 
therefore it would be doing a charity to his poor relations to acquaint them of this affaire, 
and if they cannot come up directly, I believe a power of attorney to me to act for thera 
and in their stead would be sufficient, for some time, least by delaying it his estate should 
be embazled by a number of people of bad character about him." 

* Received a pension, 1553. P. 200. f Parish is meant. 

t It would appear that previously it had not been considered necessary to fill up vacan- 
cies in the wardens. In 1631, the churchwardens delivered their accounts to "the minis- 
ter, the fewer and twentye, and the new elected churchwardens," and in 1668 paid their 
balance in hand " after this accowpt teas by them and sundry of the xocit'ij perused and 
examined." In 1651 " the churchwardens and the fewer and twenty" agreed upon a rule as 
to foreigners and undersettlers, whose hosts were to appear before Mr. John Middleton, 
Baliffe, and give security to keep tlie parish harmless. In 1653, it was ** unanimously con^ 
discended unto and concluded upon" by the wardens "and the fewer and twenty, according 
to the custome for letting thereof intrusted," that no person should let the school property 
without the consent of "the cimrchwardens of the said totone and fewer and twenty afore- 
said or the greater part of them to be agreed upon at a publique meeting in the church or 
elsewhere uppon publick notice." 1659, "Given to Widdow Richardson for to carry her 
son to London by the consent of the 24 that was at the church that time, \3s» id" 1663, 
Payd for beere at the conclusion of the sesse when the most part of the foure and twenty 
was present, 5*." In 1668, achurchrent in arrear was left to the xxiiii to consider of. 
In 1671, it was agreed " by the churchwardins and severall of the four and twenty that an 
assesmentof twenty shillings per pound shalbefourthwith leavied for flagging the church 
throughout the parrish." In 1675, the twenty-four consented to the wardens paying the 
balance due to a former overseer of the poor, and in 168*2, to their giving Becke U. Sd. In 
1688, Mary Bell, aged 12, was " by tlie consent of the 24, the churcli wardens and overseers 
of the poore," put as an apprentice or servant to Cuthbert Corneforth," and her sister to 
Mr. Arthur Prescott in like manner. " The parish of Darlington has a select vestry of 
twenty^four. They are elected and proportioned as under : For the town and burrough 
of Darlington, 12 ; for the lownHhip of Blackwell, 6 ; for the townships of Cockerton and 
Arch-DeaisoD-Newton, 6,"— {Church Bks, i. 615). In 1714, it was agreed by the twenty-four 
in vestry that in granting any future leases of the school property, public notice should be 



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PROTESTANT. 259 

ever hereafter shall have a common seal* to their acts aforesaid, and others iu these our 
letters patent expressed and specified, or in any wise touching or concerning any part 
thereof, from time to time to he transacted and done, so often as to them shall seem ex- 
pedient, and the case appear to require the same,*' and *' hy the name aforesaid, may 
plead and be impleaded, defend and be defended, answer and be answered for, in any 
courts or places, and before any Judges, and in any causes, actions, acts, suits, com- 
plaints, pleas, and demands, of what kind, nature, or condition soever the same shall be 
touching the premises or things hereinafter contained or any part thereof, or for any 
offences, trespasses, things, causes, or matters, by any person or persons done or com- 
mitted or to be done or committed.** (8) Grant that " the same Governors, and their 
successors, or the major part of them for the time being, for ever, may and shall have 
full power and authority, from time to time, of electing, nominating and appointing a 
pedagogue and usher to the said school, as often as to the same successors [siCf read 
ffcvemara] or their successors, or the major part of them, from circumstances them 
moving thereto shall seem [expedient] ; and of removing the same pedagogue and usher, 
or either of them, from the same school, according to their sound discretions, and of 
placing or constituting others or other more fit, in their stead or steads, and of perform- 
ing and doing every other thing which to the said free-school, or to the studies adopted 
in the same [seu inetmbentibus Uteris in eadem] shall be necessary and expedient. (9) 
And that the same Governors and their successors, with the assent of the Earl of West- 
morland and Bishop of Durham for the time being, from time to time do make and may 
have authority and be able to make good, fit, and salutary statutes, decrees, and orders 
in writing concerning and touching the management, order, government, and direction 
of the pedagogue and usher and scholars, of the said free school and each of them, for 
the time being, and the stipends and salaries of the same pedagogue and usher and all 
other naatters whatsoever touching and concerning the said free school and the order, 
government, preservation, and disposition of the rents, revenues and goods appointed for 
the maintenance of the said 8chool.**t (10) Grant of '' two messuages or tenements, 
and 24 acr. arable land, 8 acr. meadow, and 40 acr. pasture, in Heighington, then or 
late occupied by Nicholas Yonge or his assigns -,% & ^^^^'gi^ '^ ^^ Vf^ Rowe in Dar- 

given in the church of the vestry meeting to contract with the tenants, the migority of the 
twenty-four to a|?ree upon terms ; and that accordingly the churchwardens should be cho- 
sen out of^ the twenf y-foiir on Easter Tuesday, any one refusing to act as warden in his 
turn to quit, and another be elected in his stead hy a majority of the twenty-four present 
and consent of the minister. It thus appears certain that by ancient custom whereof the 
memory of man runneth not to the contrary, the twenty-four of Darlington have ftill and 
exduHve power, as in the adjacent parish of Aycliffe, in all matters relative to the election 
of wardens, and the audit of their accounts, the levyingof assessments and the management 
of church property. Indeed in 1794, the custom was so fully proved, that the Archdeacon 
refused to swear Harrington Lee as churchwarden for Darlington at his visitation, in con- 
-sequence of the protest of Geo. Allan, the antiquary (worth all credit singly), that the 
•* right of election was by antient custom solely vested in the twenty-four and not in the 
parishioners,** As early as 1507, when the wardens (see St, Paulas rmtsj granted away 
church property, it was done ** by and with the consent of the twenty-four electors,** 

* The present seal, made in 1748, contains an ugly figure of Queen Elizabeth. ** COM. 
81GILLUM. LIBR€. GRAMATICAL. SCHOL. REG. ELIZABETH. IN. VILLA. 
DE. DARLINGTON. 1667." [Should be 16631. The ancient seal presented a royal 
image full horrible to behold amidst a few posies and a D and tun, ** X SIGILLVM. 
LIBRE. SCHOLE. GRAM EL'AB*I.»' 

t •* 1666, For the drawing of the orders for the school and for getting them presented to 
my Lord, 10»." Some statutes were made in 1748 by the wardens by the assent of the 
Bishop, ** the title of Earl of Westmorland named ip the letters patent being then extinct.' 
They were printed by Allan with the charter. One of such statutes ordained that no mas- 
ter should be removed '* unless some good and sufScient cause of complaint or misbeha- 
viour, shall be exhibited in writing against such upper master and signed by us or our 
successors ; and the same cause of complaint be first allow-ed of and declared by us or our 
successors for the time being, to be a sufficient cause to displace or remove such upper 
master." In 1840, the wardens removed Mr. Wray in their discretion, and it was decided 
in the Queen's Bench and Exchequer, that they had power so to do, and that the bye-law 
was invalid, as restraining and incompatible with the full powers of the charter, and that 
the master was removable without summons or proof of any charge. See the Law Reports, 
1844. t This farm contains 74a. 3p.— Rent in 1840, 14«. Arkoles (Hercules) 

Pickerin held it in 1638. 



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260 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

lyngton, then or late occupied by John Dobson or his assigns ; another burgage in 
Well Rowe^ Ihen or late occupied by Robert Hall or hb assigns ;t a free and annual 
i-ent of Ss. 3<i. out of a burgage in le Haade Rowe, then or late occupied by Thomas 
Thewe or his assigns ; a similar rent of 4s. 3d, out of another burgage iu le Heade Rowe, 
then or late occupied by Anthony Ashenden or his assigns ;{ and a dose of land con- 
taining by estimation two oxgangs in the Town-fields and parish of Thomabye. oo. 
York, then or late occupied by Ralph Burden or bis assigns ;§ all lately parcel of the 
possessions of a late Chantry called Roberte Marahalles Chaunterf late founded in the 
church of Darlyngton then dissolved : as fully as any late cantarist, chaplain, or any 
other governor and minister of the chantry, or any other person seized of the premiaea 
had enjoyed them ; which premises lately amounted to the clear yearly ? alae of 
5/. 4«. \0d, ;|| to the said governors, to be holden *' of us, our heirs, and sucoessors as of 
our manor of Est Grenwiche, co. Kent, by fealty, in free socage only and not in capite, 
in lieu of all rents, services, &c" (11) Grant of all revenues of the premises from the 
feast of the annunciation 1 Edw. VI. *' hitherto coming or growing, to have to the said 
Governors of our gift, without an account or any other thing for the same, to us, our 
heirs or successors, in any manner rendering/IT (12) License for the governors or 
their sucoessors to acquire from the crown or any other person, *' any manors, mes- 
suages, lands, tenements, rectories, tithes, or other hereditaments whatsoever, within oar 
realm of England, so as they do not exceed the clear yearly value of 10/. and are not 
held of us, our heirs or successors in capite,^ the statute of mortmain or any other 
thing to the contrary notwithstanding. (13) Grant that the Governors should have 
these letters patent under the Great Seal of England without any fine or fee " in our 
Hanaper, or otherwise to our use in any manner to be rendered," — Test. Westminster, 
15 June, 5th year of reign. [1563] " By writ of privy seal and of the date aforesaid 
by authority of Parliament, Phyllippes. InroUed 20 Oct. 1567 by me, Willm. Clopton, 
Deput. Anth. Bone. Aud.'* 

I give the remaining charities in chronological order. 

1699. June 9. John Papb charged his burgage on the Head Rawe (now the pro- 
perty of Mr. John Thompson) with four horse loads of coals, and 3^. Ad, annually to 
the poor people of Darlington, the former to be paid at Christmas, and the latter to be 
bestowed in bread at Easter by the vicar and churchwardens ; the aged poor and impo- 

* The Tub well Row property is on le^se to the following parties. No. 3 in the report of 
the Commissioners of Charities to the Tnistees of Mark Feetum from 1798 for .99 years, 
rent, 8/. 6*. No. 5, Wm. Walters from 1827 for 40 years, AU. 10*. (it was 46^. but some out- 
buildings were annexed to No. 6.) No. 6, Messrs. R. Wilson and C. Watson from 1828 for 
31 years, 15/. No. 7, Trustees of R. Smith, from 1801 for 99 years, U. 

No. 4, Priestgate, Ann Haw, from 1 797 for 99 years, 2/. ha. There was also a piece of 
garden ground in Priestgate, let to Wm. Feetum, in 1801, for 99 years at M. per annum, for 
which the Commissioners stated that no rent was paid, the then master having sold his 
life interest for Al. to Wm. Feetum, whose representatives now hold it. 

There is also some ancient property in Skmnergate adjoining Dr. Peacock's propertv, 
held in 1840 by Rob. Wilson and Mary Rymer at a rent of 101. 15«. per an. was formerly 
paid for a room belonging: to it and occupied by the late Dr. but nothing had been received 
for 30 years previous to the report. (No- 8-) 

t He was schoolmaster before the charter was obtained^ in 1559, and occurs in 1567 as 
enrolling a deed in the (Dourt Rolls of the Borough, under the title of ** Clerk of the 0>urt." 
X These rents are paid by the owners of the Talbot Inn and the house adjoining. 

§ Anciently called Cheavits farm— contains 27a. 2r. lOj). Rent, £25 10«. in 1840. Hutch- 
inson sajrs ^ There are four stints or beastgates in Brankin-Moor belonging to this school, 
and three were formerly let with the Tubwell-Row bous«^, and one with the Skinnersate 
house, and then rented at 8*. each, which, at this time, would be worth 40*. each. For a 
number of years by past, they have not been looked after, and are in a fair way of being 
lost. N.B. Charities are not barred by length of time, nor the statute of limitations.*' 
II Revenue in 1840, £251 3«. 6c;. 

% The revenues of All Saints or Marshall's chantry had previously been supplied to the 
purposes of free education. See p. 199. 



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PROTIiSTANT. 261 

tent to be especially relieved. 3s, 4d. is paid in lieu of the coals,* and the like sum for 
bread at Eister is now added to the Christmas distribution.t 

1616. CuTHBERT CoRNBFORTH of Blackwell, bequeathed to the poors stock 4/. A bond 
for this sum was taken from Wm. and Tho. Cornforth his sons in 1644. The former 
borrowed 51. more, and the latter had 10/. for ten months in 1659. 

1630. The stock of the poor mounted to 20/ , the yearly interest being 32s. 61, of 
this sum was in the hands of the churchwardens, and the remainder out on bond for 
two sums, 8/. i2s. lOd.y and 71. Us. 2d.y the odd shillings being '* consideracons for 
them." The 5/. was handed to Richard Wood in 1632. 

1632-3. Francis Forster, *' for the great and good affection he bore unto the poor and 
aged people of Damton," conveyed his two lesser houses, lately erected in Northgate, 
with liberty to go through his other house and gartlis for water to the Skeame, for the 
use of six poor men or women, impotent or too old and infirm to labour, bom in Dar- 
lington or resident there for three years, to be nominated by his heirs and assigns with - 
the assent of the churchwardens, or any two of them ; he and his heirs to repair the 
houses;^ or pay 209. rent-charge out of the other house and garth. The cottages are 
occupied by two widows placed thereby the churchwardens. The thatch was pulled off 
and tiles put on and otlier repairs to the amount of nearly 30/. done by Miss Russell^ 
the owner of the adjoining property on the South, who sold it to Mr. John Smith Dyer. 

1636. The poors stock amounted to 37/. consisting of the charities of Mr. John Lisley, 
Balyfe of Darlington, 4/., Comeforth, 4/., William Johnson, 10/., sol^ Robert Sober, 10/.,§ 
'* Maide upe sence by the churchwardens, 2/.: more, William Teller, 5/.: more, Richard 
Pieherinff, 2/." 

1636. Oct. 10. James Bbllasses|| of Owton, co. Pal., esq.> bequeaths his *' messuage, 
burgage, tenements, and hereditaments that 1 lately bought of Ralph WilsonlF in Dar- 
lington, with four beast gates in Bracken Moor,'* '* that there shall be severall houses 
built of the front of the said tenement, for the erecting of which 1 have already made 
good provision of timber, bricke, and stone, and for the furthering and perfecting thereof 
I do bequeath 20/., and the same to be bestowed in the said work, thereby to place work- 
men for a lynningor wooling trade,"^ in such manner and sort as shall be most needful! 
and usefuU for the towns of Blackwell and Damton, and for the country next adjoin- 
ing," and puts in trust " my well-beloved the Ballff, Burgesses, and the headmen of the 
burrough of Darlington in full power and authority from time to time, so often as need 
shall require, to order and dispose thereof, according to such uses as in my last will and 
testament is here set down and expressed.**^" unto my nephew Sr. Wm. Bellasses, kt., 
one piece of plate left me by my uncle called the nuttj which I desire may be an heir- 
lome to his house,'* — " a tenement in Plumbton, co. Cumberland, called the Hallrigge, 
with another tenement thereunto adjoining called Clarke's tenement,** and " my two 

* On Christmas eve, 1670, the owner Widdow Priscott distributed " four lood of coals," 
and at Easter, in bread 3tf. 4d. herself*' in the presence of the churchwardens.*' 

t The extreme minutiae of these charities will be found in the copies of the foundations 
in the Church Account Book, i. 468. 

± The item. ** 1688, For building foure rood of Mtid WcUl in the Alms house, 16^."— 
{Church acc.)f can scarcely refer to this charity. 

§ Bonds for this sum were taken from his son Edmund Sober in 1934 and 1652. 
II He died 1640. See p. 36. 

% Called in 1655 "one house standini? in Blackwellfi^ate now in the occnpacon of Raphe 
Wilson which he under pretence detaineth from the poore contrary to the will of James 
Bellase deceased,** and which the wardens were ordered to obtain possession of. The pro- 
perty is in Skinnerfrate near Blackwellgate corner and is marked " Alms houses left by 
James Bellasses, esq., 1636." These tenements have for many years been occupied by three 
poor widows of the parish appointed by the churchwardens. 

** Qu. if a manufactory of coarse tape was not established there. In 1656 the church- 
wardens received the arrears of the Tnkle mony or the sesse for the Inkle Stock, and evi- 
dently made nothing by the speculation wherever its locality waSj for in 1661 they paid 
** for takeing downe the Manchester lome Qd,* and in 1662 '* received for the loome, of 
Micliaell Middleton M 9s." 



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2f)2 KCCLESIASTICAL. 

tenements in Deaton." — *^ I bequeath the land in HoWden and Biackwell in which Sr. 
Wm. Bellasses were nominated joynt purchaser bought of Robert Parkinson* and 
Francis Parkinson to be surrendered and made over to the Baliff, Burgesses, and head- 
men of the burrow of Darlington for the setting forward of a trade and to be joyned to 
my house at Darlington, and for such like uses as the house is giren and provided for, 
desiring that my said nephew Sir Wm. Bellasses that he will make a surrender of the 
said lands in Biackwell and Howden to the said uses before-mentioned, which I hope he 
will do ft* which if that my said nephew Sir Wm. Bellasses shall refuse, then my will is 
that the said Hallrigge, Clarke's tenement, and the two farms in Deaton shall be to the 
uses, limitation and purpose to be joined with the house at Damton for the uses afore- 
mentioned. | 

1640-1. Feb. 26. Henry Hilton, of Hilton, esq., Baron Hilton (i.e. Baron of the Bishop- 
rick) by will devised the whole of his pat«mal estate for ninety-nine years to the City 
Chamber of London, charged with charities to some forty parishes, of which Darletan 
was to have 24/. annually, to be paid among the poor inhabitants, each individual to 
receive 40ff., § and the parochial officers to return a true note of the names of the 
recipients to the next quarter sessions, at which it was to be filed in the sessions records.|| 
His vanity and melancholy might now have occasioned serious doubts as to the sanity 
of hb disposing mind. He had deserted the seat of his ancestors and buried himself in 
the seclusion of Billinghnrst and Mitchel Grove in Sussex, accompanied only by one 
trusty kinsman, Mr. Nathaniel Hilton, the '* faitheful and painefuU pastor" of the former 

* 12 Jas. I. Stirr. from Robert Parkinson, gen^ and Isabella nx. (examined apart from 
her husband) to Wm. Bellasses, esq., and James Bellaraes, icen. of one oxgang tn the Urri- 
tories of Biackwell and one cottage in Biackwell. ** This the Howdens^ Poor Howdens 
contains four fields comprising aU>ut an oxgam? (twenty acres), and is (like Biackwell Hill 
or Fidler's Close, the Northernmost dose of the Grange grounds) improperly included in 
Darlington township. In the old church book the Lord's Rent is frequently paid to the 
Biackwell collector. 1665, Paid for Howdon part in leading stones to the bakehouse 8d» 
to Goundry for pinder haver [pinder's oats] 1*. 6d. 

t He hoped in vain. In 1652 the parish asreed **by the consent of the churchwardens 
and the fower and twenty," to defend Howdens* tenant against Lord Falconbridge, who 
claimed the rent. No surrender was ever made to either the parish or the heir at law of 
Sir Wm., and the property had escheated to the Bishop as part of his copyhold manor of 
Bondgate ; but in 176» he ordered a Rrant to two persons to be nominated by the twenty- 
four, and James Allan and Newby Lowson, ** nominated as trustees by the headmen and 
burgesses of the borough," were admitted in 1771. Allan survived, and the property re- 
mained vested in his family till 1830, when Mr. John Allan Wright surrendered it to other 
trustees. There is a road from (Geneva House to it (see church accounts, ii. 139, and Vestry 
book for 1840), another from the Croft road bought in 1841, and a third, through the 
Polam Hall Grounds, belonging to Edmund Backhouse, esq. 

X In 1683 and I693rthe land rent, joined with that of Poor Moor, was spent in appren- 
ticine: poor children, fitting them out with clothes and for ringing the 5 and 8 o'clock bell 
for the convenience of the linen and woollen trades no doubt. The funds were long spent 
in apprenticing, but in I8'28 the inhabitants and headmen resolved that the charity should 
be managed by a committee of twenty-four (in which number are included five tmstees« 
and the minister and churchwardens) who are to accouut to, and have vacancies filled up 
by the Vestry on Easter Tuesday ; that the funds be lent to Linen and Woollen manufac- 
turers whose capital does not exceed 3002., in sums not less than 50^ and not mote than 
200/. at interest of one per cent., on two competent householders Joining in security ; that 
the sum borrowed be refunded on the manufacturer giving up his business, or being sup- 
posed to have realised the sum of 500/. ; no term of loan to exceed seven years ; surviving 
trustees to surrender on every vacancy to themselves and new trustees appointed by the 
Vestry, at the next court after the appointment. 

In 1769, Poor Howdens land was let at Elizabeth Cade's, " for the benefit of trade hy 
Inch of Candle :" a system of auction exploded by the sand-glass plan. 

§ *' 1666, Given to severall poor people in their sickness and distress out of Barranei 
Hilton money, as by the pattcuJer may appear, 3/. I89. 6</. 1682, Expended at Mr. Finly 
about Baml Hilton money 6rf. : Reced. bameU Hilton mony iriven to the poore : Received 
Bar' Hilton money l6/t. and fdven to the poor by consent of the neighbours- 1688, Rec'd of 
Baron Hiltons Dole 16/t. and disposed on according to the donor's will, as appeares by re- 
ceipts." The parish books give much less sums as paid to each recipient than the 40it. so 
magnificently intended by the odd and perhaps super- vain testator, but no list occurs before 
1693. 

II ** 1678j Paid Mr. Crosby for flleing the accqt. for Hilton money, U. 1698, For entring 
[this charity] in the Court Rowdies, 1*. 



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PROTESTANT. 26;J 

place. His h«r at law during the term was to have 100/. aunaity , and at its expiration 
to regain possession, provided the claimant should not profess to be the issue of the tes- 
tator's own body. This proviso is repeated more than onoe with almost insane precan- 
Uon, the Baron declaring *'to his griefe, that if anie person shall pretend to be a child of 
my body begotten, which I hope noe body will be soe impudent and shameless : I hereby 
ddling Ood and man to witness that I have no child liveing of my body begotten, and 
if any such shall pretend so to be, I hereby declaire he or she so doing to be a very im- 
posture.'** The residue of his estate was to bind five children of his kindred to be 
apprentices, thereby to learn 8ome honest trade to live in an honest vocation. 

John, the heir, perilled the skeleton of an estate in the royal cause ; he would not 
give up his claims, and after the Restoration an amicable decree was obtained, the son 
of the gallant loyalist resumed his property, but the wasted revenue was unequal to the 
charges. Henry his successor complained that " hee and hb wife and children have 
nothing to live on f and all the payments were at last reduced by one-third,t still 
leaving serious burdens, and ceased in 1739, in the last baron s time, at whose period the 
ancient part of the castle appeared in the state shown in my plate. 

1641. Nov. 20. Francis Forstcr, and Richard his son and heir, gentn., by Inden- 
ture (reciting that Christopher Forster, butcher, deceased, had by indenture, 1 Jan., 1605, 
demised to the said Francis a close joining on the N. upon the high road to Yarm for 
1000 years) granted the same (now called Carlton close, about 2} acr.) to the four 
churchwardens *' of the Colegitt parish Church/* and tlieir successors, the profits to go 
to the use of the most poor, aged and impotent of the burrow and to>vn of Darlington and 
Bondgate in Darlington, bom there, or resident for three years and by law not remotfoblSf 
on the feast of St. John the Baptist and the 20th of December. Power for re-entry in 
case of default, and agreement that the churchwardens might demise the close for one 
year hut no longer inserted.} The rents now form part of the Christmas distribution. 

1642. Nov. Thomas Barnes of Darlington, by his last will gave to the poor of Dar- 
lington 10/. for a stock. It was in the hands of his son Wm. Barnes in 1655. 

1655. " Reed, of Lawrence Emerson 2/. which was given by Raphe BlackweiU ioit 
the ase of the poore. ' 

1655. The churchwardens were ordered to call in the sums left by Barnes, Sober, and 
Comeforth. 

1659. " Reed, of Mr. Glover for his rayles the use of the power. It." The rails ars 
in 1660 described as " att Norgatt end.*' 

1659. Apprentices* Fund. The churchwardens and overseers of the poor of Dar- 
lington township from the Poor Stock purchased§ of William Middleton of Blackwell, 

* This strange proviso evidently points to some eating feeling of domestic disgust. His 
seclusion rai^ht be ** upon some discontents between him and his wife, thcv having lived 
apart near 20 ^ears," as well as " upon some discontents between him and his brother :'* 
neither of which were much to be wondered at if it be true that he made his charitable 
will '* to merit pardon for 30 years, vicious life led with the Lady Jane Shelley, [his execu- 
trix]." When Guillim coolly wrote about the ** great grandson of thisf^nerous gentleman" 
one can imagine the ** melancholy baron" j^ivinga twitch of agony in his coffin. He was 
buried in Old St. Pauls, but Lady Jane Shelley never expended the lOOOZ. left to make him 
a tomb like Dr. Donne's, according to Hilton's wishes. Ralph S|)earnian of Eachwick (the 
veritable Jonathan Oldbuck of Sir Walter) mentions an on dit that the Baron conceived 
displeasure at his next heir (Robert, who survived him only a few months) for refusing to 
come to his immediate presence till he had finished a game at cards. 

t This parish joined in suit for the money in 1653 and 1680, in which last year it •* paid 
Finleyfor Mr. A trick [Ettrick] and Lady Hilton when they promised ^aroncW Hilton 
monev." Some six parishes stuck out, and a decree for reducing the doU. to I(j7. was ob- 
tained by the then baron in 1691, but, before 1666, Darlington had compounded for 16/., of 
which 1'. 159. was apportioned to Blackwell. Mr. Ettrick's man was generally money- 
bearer. •* 1683, To Mr. Aterricks man hs., for a treat for him 2». lOd. 

It will be observed that the local meaning of baron was forgotten, and the burgesses of 
Darlington knowing that the family were not peei-s of the realm, thought that baronet 
must have been the baron *s proper title. 

t " 1670. Dec. 24, to the poore, Forsters daile. \l lOi."— C^. Ace, 
^ § Churchwardens' account book 1767-1801, p. 66. being returns to the parliamentary 
inquiry of 1786 by Geo. Allan. *» 1669. Dece. 22th : pd. to James Midleton for : 6 : achers 
land on Blackwell moore for the use of the power of Damton \U*^* 



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264. ECCLESIASTICAL. 

six acres of copyhold land upon Blackwell Moor, now called Poor Moor, which were 
sarrendered by him accordingly, the rents to be applied for the placing ont poor boys 
as apprentices. The property now comprehends three closes of nearly thirteen acres. 

At the Vestry of 1828, this fund (erroneously styled AUddletotCs Charity) was ordered 
to be applied in giving a sum not less than ZU nor more than 51, to each apprentice, to 
be laid out in necessary expenses and clothing during his term at the discretion of the 
churchwardens and overseers ; the boy not to be bound in the manner of a parish 
apprentice ; and a statement by the said officers of their accounts to be laid before the 
Vestry for passing the ordinary chuixshwardens^ accounts each year. These resolutions, 
as well as those concerning Bellasses' charity, were approved by the Charities* Commis- 
sioners, and were piinted in 1830. 

1675. Mar. 1. John Cornforth, yeoman, Blackwell, gave by will 401, to trustees, 
therewith to purchase land or put out for consideration, the profit to be distributed 
amongst the poor of Blackwell within the twelve days of Christmas. Whayre Fawcett 
(who married Jane, testator s sister) was compelled to pay this sum by the Bishop on 
inquisition of deceased*8 propei-ty, but it continued in his and his son's (Captain Whayre 
Fawcett) hands (the interest or Cornforth dole being distributed with Baron Hylton*s 
dole,* every Christmas) till 1740, when " in regard great danger and difficulty had 
attended. the putting out the said sums at interest,'* tliis and Pre8cott*s legacy (together 
60/.) were invested in a copyhold field, formerly the waste of the Lord called Stick Bitch, 
surrendered from Prescott Pepper, esq., to George Allan, jun., esq., and his sequels^ in 
trust for the poor of Blackwell. The land in question is the orchai'd opposite the Nag's 
Head, between Darlington and Croft, and now lets for 12/. yearly, which is paid to 
Blackwell poor. 

1671. Sobers 10/., and 5/. left by the brother of Anthony Elgie (who held it) were 
out at use for the poor. 

1686. May 22. Thomas Barker, of East Newbiggin, yeoman, charged his lands 
there with 20». yearly to Darlington parish. The sum is paid by the Marquis of Lon- 
donderry's tenant, and forms part of tlie Christmas distribution- 

1704. July 18. George Buck, of Sadbury, gent., " being now attained to good old age, 
and not knowing how soon my summons may be to my last end," by will gave 100/. to 
be laid out in lands, three parts of tlie profits to be paid to the poor of Darlington parish, 
and the fourth part to the poor of Sadburry, to be paid yearly the first and second Sun- 
days after the eleventh of November to the minister, and churoh wardens, and overseers 
of the poor of the said parishes, to be by them distributed to the most indigent This 
100/. was laid out in the purchase of a copyhold close called Butt Close, alias Been Close, 
and an acre of waste land adjoining, and surrendered to Michael Hodgson, of Field 
House, and his heii-s in trust. The property contains three parcels of about/3! acres, 
and adjoins the South East end of Northgate bridge, and was surrendered that the 
pi-emises sliould from time to time be surrendered as the said ministers, churchwardens, 
and overseers should appoint. The rents (after paying Sadberge its proportion) now 
form part of the Christmas distribution. There is still a " Buck " Inn at Sadberge. 

1706. Feb. 2. Arthur Prescott, gent., of Darlington, by will gave to trustees 40/. to 
be placed out at interest, one-half to be yearly distributed among the poor widows of 
Darlington, the other among the poor of Blackwell. The Darlington 20/. was in Mow- 
bray's bank, which failed in 1814, but G. L. Hollingsworth, esq., one of the partners, 
paid the amount in 1827, and in 1828 it was invested in the purchase of 19/. 13*. Id. 
new four per cents., and formed part of a sum standing in the names of Robert Botch- 
erby and George Homer. The dividends fonii part of tlie Christmas distribution. For 
the Blackwell moiety see John Comeforth's charity. 

1713. Apr. 19. Dame Mary Calverley, by indenture, assigned to trustees 1000/. due 

• Sax. dflsZ, a portion. Many charities are still called doles in Durham. The funoiil 
dole is perhaps extinct. It was to procure rest to the soul of tlie deceused. that he mi^iic 
fiud his judge propitious, as we learn from Chrysostom*8 Homily xxxii. in Matt. cap. uou. 



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PROTESTANT. 265 

to her on bond from Edward Pollen, and by indenture of even date they declared it to 
be in trust for such persons as she should appoint, and in default to lay out, after her 
decease, the principal, or so much as should come to their hands in the purchase of 
lands and tenements^ and to apply the rents, (and interest until such purchase should be 
made) for the support of a charity school intended to be established at Darlington, for 
instmcting poor children there in the principles of the Christian religion according to 
the Church of England, and for clothing them, and teaching them to read, write, and 
cast accounts, and buying them books, and putting them out apprentices to trades, and 
for the maintenance of a schoolmaster, under such regulations as the trustees should 
think proper. Vacancies in the trustees to be filled up by the survivors under hand and 
seal. 

A subscription* was commenced in 1714 on the consideration that " profaneness and 
debauchery are greatly owing to a gross ignorance of the Christian religion,'' and in the 
following year Lady Calverley gave 150/. due from Mr. Kitt Pinckney to her. In 1719 
Robert Noble of Darlington, apothecary, charged on the same house as his charity, 40^. 
yearly for the use of the Blue Coat Charity School, on condition that the several 
masters should be licenced by tlie bishop, be conformable to the liturgy as then estab- 
lished, and train up the boys in the principles and communion of the same, in default 
legacy to cease. The requirements have not been obeyed and the legacy b not received. 

In 1722 Pollen's bond produced 650/., and in 1729 the capital stock of the school 
amounting to 900/. (lent on bond to George Allan, sen.), it was tlienceforth supported on 
the same, voluntary subscriptions having ceased. In 1750 George Allan (the son) ac- 
counted for 1280/., and in 1800, 1392/. 9«. stock three per cent consols were transferred 
into the names of Samuel Forster, Jonathan Backhouse, and Stephen Buttery, which 
were afterwards changed to Jonathan Backhouse, junior, Samuel Forster, junior, and 
Thomas Buttery, being transferrees from the survivor of the first three. 

There does not appear to have been any room appropriated to the school, and the 
scholars have been transferred to the master of the National School, who receives 18/. 
per annum for their tuition, his bill for school requisites, and 15«. for firing. The 
children receive an entire suit of clothing yearly, being in number twelve ; they are 
named by the trustees and are called the Blue coat heps, though their pecuUar dress is 
discontinued. The dividends amount to 41/. 15«. 4</. 

1714. May 1. Matthew LAMst gave to George AUan, of Darlington, merchant, and 
the churchwardens and their successors, heirs, and assigns, his yearly rent of 12«. of 
lawful Britannish money, charged on a burgage in Blackwellgate!^ and paid yearly on 
Good Friday ; to be distributed at the discretion of George AUan, his heirs and assigns, 
and the churchwardens of Darlington to twelve of the poor and needfuUest widows liv- 
ing in the town 1*. each, on Good Fryday. The amount is given accordingly at Christ- 
mas by the churchwardens. 

1716. May 10. Dame Mary Calverly, widow of Sir John Calverly, by will directed 
the leddue of a mortgage debt of 15l0/- upon Sir John Husband s estate at Ipsley, War- 
wicks, (after payment of legacies) to be invested at interest, or in the purchase of lands, 
the yearly dividends or rents to be paid amongst such poor people in any of the parishes 
between, and including Northallerton and Darlington, if an object required, as her ex- 
ecutors and trustees should think fit. Up to the year 1821 the chui-chwardens received 
10/. from her representatives, which they distributed to tlie poor of Dailington. Since 
that time nothing has been received An application was made in 1830 to Beilby 
Thompson, esq., of Escrick Park for the money since 1820, when Richard Thompson 

• Papers. R. H. A. 
t Steward of the Borough Court, 1710. His son William was deputy postmaster at Nor- 
wich, and becoming a defaulter in about 1000^., extents were issued against his sureties John 
Raine, of Snowball, and his father. The crown sold the latter's houses in the West Row 
(High Row) and the Sheep-market or East Row in 4 Geo. II. 
X Formerly the Golden Lyon Inn. 

2l 



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266 ECCLKSIASTICAL. 

(who had paid it) died, but his steward answered that the case had been fully investi- 
gated at York by the Commissioners of Charities, who decided against any claim upon 
him ; that none of his estates were liable ; and tha' he was not executor to his unde 
Richard. 

1719. May 20. Robert Noble, of Darlington, apothecary,* charged his burgage on 
the High Row with 20*. yearly to the churchwardens on the 29 Sep., who were to dis- 
tribute the same from time to time to the poor of the town not receiving sess. The sum 
forms part of the Christmas distribution, being paid by Mr. Joseph Forster. 

1720. May 20. Catharine Catherick, spinster, by willf charged her two copyhold 
messuages and orchard in Bondgate, in Darlington, with 52s. annually to the minister 
and churchwardens on the Ist. May and 1st November, to be laid out in 12c^. worth of 
bread every Sunday, and distributed amongst the poor people of the town in their discre- 
tion most needful. The 2^ 12^. is paid annually in December, and bread to the amount 
of 48 4d. given away on the last Sunday in every month in Id, and 2d. loaves, to poor 
persons attending divine service, according to a list, the vacancies of which are filled up 
by the minister and churchwardens. 

1791. Apr. 11. Elizabeth Walker, widow, by will proved at York, 1792, gave to 
the minister and churchwardens 50/. to be laid out on government security, and the in- 
terest divided on Christmas-day among twelve poor widows belonging to the town, as 
the minister and churchwardens should think fit. 58/. 3s, five per cent Loyalties, 
standing in the names of James Topham, Stephen Buttery, and Shaftoe Carr, were 
bought in 1800, and the dividends form part of the Christmas distribution. 

1809. Jan. 1. Shaftoe Carr, by will gave to the churchwardens of the township of 
Darlington 50/. to be invested at interest, which was to be distributed on St Thomas's 
day yearly, among such poor people belonging to the township, as they should think fit. 
50/. stock five per cents, was bought in 1819 in the names of Robert Botcherby and 
George Homer, reduced to 52/. lOs. new four per cents., the dividends augmenting the 
Christmas distributions. 

1820. June 20. Mrs. Mary Pease, widow of Mr. Joseph Pease, of Dariington, 
woollen manufacturer, having purchased property in Chairgate, otherwise Glover's 
Weind, or Post House Weind, from Richard Scott and wife, and built thereon four alms- 
houses, by indenture of thb date Scott's trustees convey the same, with a piece of ground 
used as a common road to the same and to dwelling-houses of Edward Pease the elder, 
and Joseph Pease the elder, and John Crawford, for a residue of a term of 980 years, to 
Edw. Pease, Jos. Pease, sen. (dead), John Pease, Jos. Pease, jun., John Beaumont Pease, 
Edward Pease, jun. (dead), Isaac Pease (dead), and Henry Pease, on trust to repair and 
insure the alms-houses, and permit four poor widows, aged sixty at least, of good moral 
character and not of the society of Quakers, to dwell therein, on paying 5s. a piece annu- 
ally, these sums to be remitted in the discretfon of the trustees, and to be used in repair- 
ing, insuring, and incidental trust charges, the surplus to accumulate in the funds or 
other security until, with compound interest, it should amount to 20/., when the alms- 
houses should be rent free, and the interest be applied in trust charges, and the surplus 
divided among the alms-women, or accumulate until the next Christmas-day after the 
appointment of new trustees and then divided, so that the accumulation might always 
begin anew with new trustees. The trustees to fill up vacancies, and expulsion to follow 
marriage or gross impropriety in the alms women. No person to continue trustee after 
ceasing to be a member of the monthly meeting of Friends of Darlington district, and 
when the trustees are reduced to three, their powers to vest in the society of Friends at 
their monthly meetings, who were there to nominate as soon as convenient fit persons 
to make up the number of twelve to whom the premises were to be assigned. 

♦ " Here lyeth the body of Mr. Robert Noble, of Darlington, apothecary, who died on 
the 16 of July in the 41 year of his age Anno Dom*i 1719." Arms, On a chief a lion pass- 
ant (same as Noble of Rerosbie, Leic.) ; impaling, a chevron between 3 covered cups.— 
Entrance of Nave, Darlington Ch, f •* To Elizabeth Betessu half a crown.**^ 



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PROTESTANT. 



267 



The 58. rents have been occasionally demanded, but the cost of repairs, &c., have, it 
is believed, as yet prevented any investment. Four poor widows occupy the almshouses 
according to the donor s intentions. 

The several charities distributed at Christinas* are osually augmented by 
a portion of the sacrament money, and some of the widows receive more in 
proportion, in respect of Elizabeth Walker's charity. The poor of the other 
townships of the parish, and occasionally persons of other parishes (if deserv- 
ing), being resident in Darlington, receive a portion of the money thus dis- 
tributeA-f" 

There is another item of parochial revenue in the St Paul's rents, being 
ancient rents reserved on church property + leased in perpetuity, and paid on 
St Paul's day, when much church business was formerly transacted.§ The 

• 1660, Given to the poor att Ckruta Tide, Mis. 3d. 
f Thomas Morton, of Darlington, left £3 to Gainford poor, before 1664, and in 16S7-8 
Edward Morton, of Morton Tinmoth, par. Gainford, was bur. here. In 1688, Mary Finley, 
of Darlington, widow, gave a third part of Broadgates ill. 8».) to Barnard Castle poor. 
t I subjoin the pith of the original deed, from the wardens, of the burgage, afterwards 

the Kilnegarth in Hundgate. It seems the pay- 
ment on St. Paul' 8 day was an after arrange- 
ment for convenience. "Christ (xp^c.) To all 
by whom this indented charter shaU be seen 
or heard, John Thomson, John Gragrete, John 
Thomson, barker, and William Stapilton, war- 
dens (IconomU literalljr economists )^ or masters of 
the fabric of the collegiate church of Derlyngton, 
greeting. Know us the said wardens, or masters, 
by and with the consent of the four and twenty 
electors, to have given, &c., to Stephen Bland, of 
Derlyngton, our one messuage or burgage, in 
Hundgate. as it lies there between the burgage of 
the said Stephen, on the went, and the venell 
called Hundgate Welle, on the east. To have, &o., 
of us, the said masters, and our successors, the 
wardens or masters of the said church, for the 
time being, to the said Stephen Bland, his heirs 
and assigns, for ever. Paying and rendering to 
us and our said successors yearly Zs. Ad-, at the 
terms of Penticoet and St. Martin, in winter, by 
equal portions. And if it happen that the said 
annual rent shall be in arrear and unpaid for half- 
a-year, no sufficient distress being found in the 
same messuage, then it shall be nilly lawfbl for 
the said wardens, for the time being, the said 
messuafire, &.c, to re-enter, and peaceably re-faave 
and hold, &c.. And the said Stephen Bland shall 
repair, sustain, build, and repair, the said messu- 
age, in all necessaries and edifices, at the proper 
expenses of him and his heirs for ever. [Usual 
warranty.] In witness whereof, to this, our pre- 
sent indented charter, we have caused to be affix- 
ed the common seal of the said collegiate church. 
Dated on the feast of the conversion of St. Paul, 
A.D., 1507." (Seal as in margin). Endorsed:— 
" An auncient dead ft*ome the churchewardens of 
Damton to Stephen Bland, for a house in Hon- 
gaitOi — Hond Gayt Kows.** —( Translated from 
orig. penes R. H. Allan^ ^Q-) 
u, w uouiM. auiAuiv t/^ip^viov^TL.. A diuucr was enjoyed by the minister and war- 
dens, which costmg some 6s. Sd' or Is., and " towlling the bell then *' 2d., left a very 
handsome assistance to the rates. In 1642, the puritans fed two ministers, two churchwar- 
dens, the clerk and sexton for 3s. Qd. only. But, miserabile dictu, the price of dinners and 
the number of feeders has so increased, and the rents by neglect diminished, that now the 
annual dinner cannot be kept up, and the rents accumulate for 8 or 4 years until a proper 
sum is raised. In 1763, the churchwardens were to ** pay at the least 1 guinea for the pub- 
lic dinner on Easter Tuesday, and 6s. a-head more for every one of the company, which 




§ And, as usual, a drink perpetrated. 



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2G8 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

list in the notes is from the church accounts of 1630-1-2, with minutes of the 
later owners.* 



P. 203 afid seq.] I extract from a letter of an antiquary (dated " Spa, Belgique, Sep. 
15, *49,) on some of the eruciculce on these pages. " 1 think you will find the zanei of 
our lady (p. 203) in the York Minster Inventory, in Dugdale, but what they were, I 
know not, save that they were doubtless ex votos, and hung around shrines, which seem 
to have been curiously bedizened with all manner of odds and ends, rings, beads, monilia, 
as for instance the stag, probably the hart couchant of Richard II., a badge so curiously 
shewn in his portrait at Wilton, in which al) the attendant angels wear his livery of the 
hart, appended to their necks. 

" Each altar required a bell, (pp. 203-4) and they took the host to the sick, with hand- 
bell and candle. I just now saw from my window the priest issue from the church, 
bearing a large silver ciborium, and preceded by his acolyte, who, dn the huny of the 
emergency, had slipped a rochet over the blue butchers-like smock-frock here worn by 
all the lower orders, and with lantern and bell scuffled away to some one in extremii. 
The distinction between sanoe bells and sacring bells is remarkable, the latter, I suppose, 
properly to be used at the elevation in the mass.t 

exceed one-and-twenty. The same rule for St. Paul's day." "1768, Jan, 25. To Paul 
dinner, £1 1«.: Ministers and curates extraordinarien hs.: Bell-ringers* drinks 5t. 6(2.: and 
servants 2*. *^d." In 1830, the rents were thusapplied:— " Feb. 24. 64 old men dined at 
Three Tuns, 1«. 6dL, 4/. 1 6«. The above 64 old men averaged 66 years of age^ Total amount 
of their ages, 4,224 years.*' 

* Mris. Alice Tomlinson for her house on the Headrawe (John Thompson, also subject to 
Pape's charity) 12d. John Glover for his house (Talbot. Inn) ]2». Bulmer Priscot for his 
kilnpfirarth in Hungaite (afterwards the Allans' residence, now R. Thompson's property) 
39. Ad, Mr. Tho. Barnes for a burgage in Skinereaite (in the Rose and Crown yard, Tnomas 
Homer's in 1818) M. Henry Booth for John Glover's house in Skinergait (Punch Bowl 
yard ; Tho. Tutin 6(1., John Dixon 8(2., W. Dixon 1«. 2(2., Miss Robinson Sd.^ Wro. Robinson 
of Haughton 6(/.) Ae. Henry Elstobb for Renton's house in Skinner8:ate 18e{. Ant. Renold 
for his house \M, John Stephenson for a house in Skinnergavte 18a?. (In 1818, 2 houses in 
Skinnergate, Rob. Walters and F. Priestman, paid 1«. %d each.) Tho. Giarth for his house 
in Skinergait 3«. (Rose and Crown.) Ann "Wilson widdow nere the well in Skinergaite for 
her house 3». (Dr. Peacock.) Mris. Dorethie Hearing for her bouse 3». 4d. (EUerson's house 
in Blackwellgate.) John Vasey for his house and garth at Black wellgait end 6«. Ofviftey 
Close, lost by subdivision in building plota) Mr. John Turner for his burgage next Ben- 
net Hall (elsewhere Bennit field. Dove or Dow Crofts, late Dovers Oofts) 83. Mr. John 
(3owton for his house at the church gaites 8«. Ad. (afterwards inhabited by parsons Hope 
and Bell.) Mr. Geo. Ricatson for the Lambe Flatt (alias Lampe F'at, now Lamb's Flats) 
3». More of Mr. Ricatson for house in theWeand 12(2. (elsewhere r€n(2, now Woodhouse's 
house in Posthouse Wynd.) Wydow Rutter for one house in the Wend that was John 
Ward of Hurwourthe (alias in Chairegate) 12(2. Mr. Bulmer He for his house in Ratten 
Rawe 6*. 8(2. (C!hurch Row, Miss Ness and Mr. Milbum each jnny 8*. 4(2.) Rob. He for his 
doore into the church yeard 6(2. (" Mr. Robson's house the Flower Pot cou'd not get any 
thing for the door into the church yard this year shou*d be 6(2.") John Middleton for Geo. 
Marshall's bouse in the borrow 6«. 8(2. (Joint Stock Bank.) Roger Specke for his house in 
Bongavt 18(2. (Wm. Milbum !«. the Qd. was lost before 168&) John Dickson for Belies 
house m Bongate, 3(2. (F. Fumess.) Tho. Wilsofi of Brafferton for his house in Noreayt 12(2. 
(Edward Pease, formerly Nathan Robson.) John Harnpon for house in Norgay t 3<. ( J. H. 
Mowbray.) Wm. Stainsbye for his house in Norgayt 6*. Zd. (J. Kipling.) Mr. Skepperfor 
a close at Ockerton bridge end 1«. (Skipper Close. Dr. Harper.) Viocent Hodgshon for his 
house 6«. M. Margery Budles for her house ?(2.— Total Al. 8^., reduced to 3/. 10«. 3(2. in 1818, 
and now becoming gradually less. 

+ Certainly. "Vide Eccl. Proceedings, Sur. 5>oc. p. 137. And in despite of both Cam- 
bridge and Oxford societies, I believe that the sance bell was quite distinct from the 
Sacringe bell, and for a different purpose. 

The saint-hell calls ; and, Julia, I must read 

The proper lessons for the saints now dead ; 

To grace which service, Julia, there shall be 

One holy collect said or sung for thee 



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PROTESTANT. 269 

*' Are yon sure the word is revale? (p. 205.) Can it not be renafe? [n being hastily 
read u.] I have met with it before, but have never made it out. Renale might be the 
short ' polka/ so much in feshion, reaching only to the hips. Tissues of various mixed 
colours are often named in old times and hlac fnedle, (p. 208.) I take it to be nothing 
more than our * Oxford mixture,* or pepper and salt. Cloth de Z^e fib. J I imagine to 
have been fabricated at Lira,* in the north of France. The cup ad modwn columhini 
was in form of a columbine, and an exquisite standbig cup it must have been. The 
flower was a favourite device : I speak without any means of reference here." 

p. 200.] In Jas. Allan's MSS., an office copy of Collen's account occurs. The last 
two sums of 25^. 4d, and 70s.y refer to a chantry at West Raineton, and another in 
Houghton-le-Spring church. In line 11 of this page for chanters read chantry. 

P. 213.] The three churches of Darlington, and Blackwell Grange are conspicuous 
objects from Newtown Hill House, which stands near the centre of Newtown or New- 
ton Ketton estate, and from which upwards of thirty churches and chapels are said to be 
seen with the naked eye, and even York Minster with a good glass. 

P. 218.] It appears from the application of the money collected by the briefSs of 1705, 
that the canted roofs of the church were lowered in pitch in 1707. The carpenters were 
" to take down all the wood roofes of the three high pitches, from the top to the bottoms 
thereof, and in re-building of the same, to lower the said roofes according to designe — to 
shirt the same, and every peice of shirting, above 2 inches broade, to drive or put in two 
nailes at every sparr — ^to lay the ilooer, and plaine all the boards, on the upper side 
thirof — to make a gutter in every of the said pitches betwixt the severall roofes and the 
battlements — to sow and dres all rabters, dormans, and wall plates, and to put in what 
new dormans as shall be thought necessary — and to tume, dres, and order the old ones 
as they shall be directed — ^to sow. dres, and put in new sparrs where the old ones are 
wanting or decayed.*' The same style was therefore to be kept, and new wood only to 
be put in where wanted. The trustees to find timber, and the contractors, nails, and to 
have 50/. Battlements were to be built along the side, of freestone, from the quarry at 
Bmssleton, *' 8 inches thick and 36 inches hie, lup and crese,'' for 24/. 

P. 221.] In Elizabeth's time, much energy seems to have been exerted to Christian- 
ize the massss, by means of voluntary intinerant preachers, who were either dignitaries 
of the church or energetic incumbents. The custom continued for some time ; and from 
Bishop Barnes's list of the preachers to be engaged, " from Michaolmes 1578, untUl 
Michaellmes 1579, of their benevolent good wylls in assisting him in hisgreate cure and 
paroche, over and besides ther ordenarie quarterlie and monethefye sermones in their owne 
peculier cures and churches," I gather that, besides one preached by himself, a sermon 
was to be preached in Darlingetone by each of the following clergymen : — Mr. Leaver, 
(a prebendary), Mr. Archedeacone of Durham, Mr. Henry Nanton, (a prebendary), and 
Mr. Thomas Wheatone, (vicar of Coniscliffe.) 

P. 222.] Kennet*s Register mentions one Parish as an intruder here, in Cromwell's 
time ; he conformed after the restoration, and had a living in Yorkshire, but was ejected. 
-Jo*. Allans MSS, 

P, 223.] In 1661, Sir George Fletcher, hart., the then owner of the Deanery, pre- 
sented Greorge Bell to the " rectory," who waited on Bishop Cosin with the presentation, 
on the vacancy caused by the death of Robert Hope, last incumbent. The bishop denied 
the right of the impropriator, the written presentation was returned, and be presented 

Dead when thou art, dear Julia, thou shalt have 
A trental sung by virffins o*er tny grave ; 
Meantime we two will sing the dirge of these, 
Who, dead, deserve our best remembrances. 

Herrick^s HesperideSy no. 436. 
t But if named from the style of manufacture as noted p. 208*, may it not be freely trans- 
lated Lvle-string ? 



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270 ECCLESIASTICAL. 

Bell himself, but Fletcher detained the churchyard from the new parson until he obtain- 
ed a request for it. In 1693, Lord Barnard, purchaser from Fletcher, presented Oeoige 
Thomson. The bishop admitted him in compliment to his lordship, but denied the 
right of the latter to collate. On this occasion, Oeorge Bell, rector of Croft, Toluntarily 
wrote to the Rev. Mr. Pickering, stating that Ws faUier was admitted to the curacy by 
Bishop Cosin, that the question raised *' is matter of wonder to me that hath 'frequently 
heard that Mr. Grant, Mr. Hope, and Mr. Thomson, [Thomlinson 1] enjoyed and entered 
upon the abovesaid living by the samd power before the rebellion against King Charles 
the first, that my father held it from 1661, nor did the impropriator of Darlington^ 
church ever collate any minister. - - - The present candidate for the place Mr. HaU, 
[who succeeded Thomson], who officiates in the parish church, is a person whom I never 
saw ; so that at the instance of a friend of mine, though I be a stranger to you, I shew 
my respect to justice.** 

In another letter he requests Thomson not to subpiena him to Durham, not being 
very capable of taking a journey, and ends : — ** God grant me heaven, for this world 
is not a place for clergymen to live in with ease like other men." He states that his 
father accepted the living *' by the report of a bill read twice in the House of Commons 
to make every market town p. ann. which became frustrate." 

Disappointed in the collation dispute, Lord Barnard in 1710 sued Thomson and 
wished to deprive him of his surplice fees, small as the living was. The actbn was de- 
fended by subscription, and failed. His lordship depended, inier alia, on his presenta- 
tion, which was denied. 

In 1712, Hall was presented by Lord Vane. (OHff, Documents, Jos. Allan's MSS.J 

\* William Dunbar, one of the very best of the old Scottish poets, and who was an 

itinerant preaching churchman of the order of St Francis, about 1480, in one of his 

pieces makes the devil appear to him in the likeness of his patron saint, with a religious 

dress, and advises him to renounce the world and be a friar ; and the poet, hinting that 

he would go to heaven with more satisfaction if invested with a Bishop's robes, continues 

•* Gif evir my fortoon wee to be a freir. 
The dait thiurof is past full mony a yeir ; 

For in to every lusty toun and place 

Off all Yngland, from Berwick to Kalioe, 
I haif into thy habeit maid gud eheir. 

In freir's weid full fairly haif I fleichit ; 
In it haif I in pulpet gone and prelchit 

In Demtoun kirk, and eik in Canterberry ; 

In it I past at Dover owre the ferry 
Throw Piccardy, and there the peple teichit." 

t4.t 1681, Died James Forrest, of D., "parioche clerke : to be bnryed in the pa- 
rioche churche of Darlingtone neere to the stalls next vnto the quire doore : I desire the 

churchwardens and xxiiij of the sayd towne to be so good vnto Katherine my 

grant her soome benefite of my sayd office for one yere after my decease towanl her re- 
liefe and bringinge vp of my children : I will that my wife paye vnto the colyar of 
Windlinton 2s. 4d. : rest to be divided betwene Katherine my wife and my two child- 
ren Wm. Forrest and that other wherof she is not yet delivred and doe make theime 
[all three, unborn baby and all I suppose] joyntly executors.*' Inventory mentions the 
hall, the chamber by the hall, and the chamber beside the entrye, in which were a par 
of claricords (for practise in psalmody, no doubt), 5*.,** and " ij paynted clothes, 3ff." 
Parish clerks would never dream of burial in churches now, but at that time when 
learning was a prized jewel, being selected from the most highly educated inhabitants, 
as the beauty of the early registers, which they kept, testify, they sustained a much 
higher rank in society, and apparently exacted higher fees in proportion. 



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,lpliiil,fp] 




\Old ToU BooUi, <tc., Darlinytwi.\ 



DIVISION IV. 

Dablinoton parish is composed of lands and burgages held under sereral 
tenures. 

The whole of the copyhold portions belong to the episcopal Manor of 
Bondgate, in Darlington, for which two Halmot* Courts are held annually. 
Archdeacon-Newton is principally leasehold under the Archdeacon of Dur- 
ham."}- Other small territories in the parish are leasehold under the Bishop 
and the Dean and Chapter. The freehold is partly rent-free, but some por- 
tions pay small rents to the Bishop (see Blackwell manor), and a large pro- 
portion of that within the township of Darlington is in the BorotLgh of Dcur- 
lingUm^X which is a prescriptive episcopal one.§ 

The Borough constitutes a distinct episcopal freehold manor, for which 

* Hallmot — the moU or assembly met in the customary haXL. 
+ Lord Redesdale is the lessee of the principal portion. 

% The borongh includes the market-place and the greater part of the old gatu or streets 
except Bondgate, with three farms called Brankin Moor, Geneva House, and the Dog and 
Gun. The bounoaries are kept up in the highway assessments, and are sufSciently detailed 
in Snrteee for the purposes of future antiquaries. The freehold, not comprised in the 
borough and Priestgate, is, with all the other tenures, in the township of Bondgate. The 
buildings on Bakehouse Hill are presented in 1741 as gi-anted as copyholds and as ^ in- 
croachments g^t from the freehold of the Burrow Streets,*' and the jury presented that the 
I^rd could not grant any more waste there, it belonging to the common town street and 
king's highway. 

§ Perhaps the freedom from toll of the burgesses at Darlin^on and Auckland markets, 
with other exemptions, were granted by Pudsey at the same period as he did the like good 
for Durham, which was also governed by a bailiff. 



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272 DOMKSTIC. 

Courts Leet and Baron are held twice a year, though formerly the latter 
were held about every three weeks. There is the usual steward *who jointly 
with Hfe Bjuliff* presides over the Court ; indeed since about 1710 the two 
offices have been united in one person, appointed by the Bishop (Francis 
Mewbum, esq., present BaiUff and Steward). The Bailiff performs by his 
officers (the Serjeants or constables) the duties of a ^eeve, but having the 
fall management of the borough for the Bishop, is also clerl.: of the market,*!" 
and acts in summoning pubUc meetings and permitting exhibitions in the 
public streets as a Mayor^ does in an incorporated borough. Some obsolete 
powers will appear in the annals which follow. In the older records, a clerk 
of the court,§ two constables, four afferors|| and searchers of the markets, 
tasters of ale, bread, and butter, two searchers of black leather,^ two ditto 
for red, two ditto for weights, two overseers of le Tubbewell, two ditto of 
Skinnergait well, and four grassmen and a bird -man for Brankin Moor 
appear as annual officers, and a common beadle,** and a cryer or bellman*f"^ 

* Fee lOOtf. and the rent of a close of land (now " Bailiff's Close") at Dodroires, Bank 
Top, which was given by Edw. Backhouse, esq., in 1809 in lieu of ** Court Close" in the 
Croft road. 

The Bailiff was more connected with the Court Leet, the Court Baron was a mere manor- 
ial one, and often held by the steward alone. 

The Duivesses on every change in ownership, by death or otherwise, are to be admitted 
on the roI& and thereupon become free of toll, and are to appear to do suit twice a year at 
the Courta Leet. ^v 

f The bishops had power to create and rule markets. '* ]o20, For that there haith beene 
at this courte greate complaint made of the negligence of borrowmen in giveing attendance 
to Mr. Bailiffe of this borrough for the rvding or walking the faires and markettes upon 
such cheiffe faire dayes as heretofore haith been acciiHtomed for the proclaminge thereof 
in the Kings Mat*s name and the Lord Bishopp of Durham the chiefe Lord of this Bur- 
rough, the same being a principall parte of theire service which they owe unto the said 
Lord Bishopp ; And therefore m tyme mav be a disparaigmeut to iiis lordships Roialties 
and services m this place. It is therefore thought meet and so ordered by this Courte that 
everye Borrowman within this Borrough of Darlington shall upon everye cheiffe and heade 
faire day from henceforth eyther himselfe or some other sufficyent man for him (with some 
decent weapon in theire hanaes^ whereby they may be distinguished from other ordinarie 
merkett people) repaire uuto the Tolboothe of Darlington by uveu of the clock in the fore- 
noone of eacn of the said heade faire dayes to give theire attendaunce upon Mr. Bailiffe for 
the tyme being for the better grate and more orderlie and dewe execution of the nid 
service." 

The bishop had his own standard of weights and measures which he could alter at will. 
An established com measure is mentioned in Pudsey's time [Surtees^ /. 27]. In 1727 pro- 
per avoirdupoise weights were delivered to the Bailiff from His Majesty's exchequer for 
the use of tne borough. 

t The Bailiff of Darlington occurs in company witli the Mayors of Stockton and Hartle- 
pool in 1433 as swearing with the other magnates of the Liberty of Durham, before the 
bishop in the cathedral, to observe an article mentioned in certain royal letters to the pre- 
late, who summoned his principal lieges. — Surtees^ i. cxxxi. 

§ Robert Hall, the first master of the Free School, signed as such in memorandums en- 
dorsed on deeds registered in the Borough Books. 

II To fix the amount of fines not expressly assessed by the jury. 

H Shoes sold in the market of bad and insufficiently tanned leather were try^ by ** six 
honest and expert tryers" on oath, and if found bad, forfeited, and the owner amerced. 

♦• Garvan Whaller was amerced in 1624 " for beating the common beedle of the-town." 

+t It has been held by the bailiffs that persons exercising the vocation of bellman in 
opposition to the officer appointed by the bailiff cannot recover their charge in the borough 
court. Edward Coates, painter et preco fercdis [a cryer of fnirs or qu. of funerals ?] bur. 1632. 
Margaret Longstaff, qondam hell tooman of D., widow, bur. 1726-7. John Longstaff, town 
cryer [alias bellman], bur. 1731-2. The Longstafiesof Darlington were public men in their 
way. Have we not seen George Langstaffe^s importance in the church accounts, whose 
relation, Thomas [salarv Ss. 8(£J, reigned in his sexton's stead. John L. was Thomas's 
understr^per. Wm. Longstafl'^ parish clerk, of liquid memory, d. 1825. The name is 
abundant in the vale of Tees, and begins with our register and continues down. A Long- 
staffe, of Darlington, should have been its historian, not a mere namesake of Westmoreland 



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BADELE HOSPITAL. 273 

whose oflSces were of longer terra, occur. Many of these oflScers have dis- 
appeared. 

Such is the constitution of the town. The rest of this division will consist 
of its domestic events in chronological order. 

1170. Died Saint Godric, of Finchale, near Durham. Reginald (his cotemporary) in 
an account of his miracles giyee ns the sole evidence of a hospital at Baydale for lepers, 
which probably originated the free chapel that existed long after the cessation of the 
disease made the former establishment useless.* There is, says he, a vill in the bishopric 
called Hailtutte [Haleton or Halughton, the ancient name of Haughton-krSkeme] well 
known from all other towns in that region, in which dwelt a widow and her only daugh- 
ter who was grievously tormented with a most loathsome leprosy. The mother re- 
married a man who soon began to view the poor girl with the greatest horror, and to 
torment and execrate her after the usual manner of a step -father. The mother yearned 
towards her offspring by another, and did all she could to screen her from her husband's 
persecution, yet could not admit her to any society not even her own family. She fled 
for aid to the priest of the vill, who, moved with compassion, procured by his entreaties 
the admission of the damsel to " the hospital of Demigntunef which was almost three 
miles distant, and was called by name Badele,*^f and accompanied by the mother and 
other poor friends, conducted her thither himself. In that " infirmary for those who by 
the secret judgment of God were stricken with the contagion of leprosy,** she remained 
three years, but only grew worse daily. For a putrid scar, which never healed, com- 
pletely crossed her face, and, with open sores of raw flesh here and there, running with 
gaping courses over the sound part in a poisonous stream, rendered her whole visage 
most horrible. A withered line marked the extremes of her lips all around, by reason 
of long sickness which had eaten the parts belonging them away to the bottom. These 
and other operations of her disease had so reduced her wasted frame, that all hope of any 
health at any period of life altogether seemed vain. At length with faith placed against 
the belief of all, having heard of the frequent mirades done at the sepulchre of the Saint, 
the mother led her afflicted offspring thither and earnestly entreated the compassion of 
the man of God. Once and twice, night and day, did her prayers seem lost and she re- 
turned home ; but at her third approach Godric hearkened. Such a sudden pain darted 
into the head of the patient while at the tomb that she could scarcely bear so severe and 
sudden a feeling, for the clemency of the Saint was poured out, and he settled and re- 
moved the noxious humours. The sweat was so fervid that the mother led her to the 
water, washed her face, moistened her head, and returned to the tomb. She remained 
quiet for some time there, and drew the hood with the covering over it from her head, 
when her mother drawing nearer, and looking into her face, beheld it perfectly sound ; 
all the sores of her former leprosy had disappeared, her lips were healthy and delicate, 
and her whole countenance clear as when a child. They returned home in joy, and never 
again did the disease return, but the patient lived long to extol the power given by God 
to his servant Godric. Of this miracle there were, continues the historian, as many true 
witnesses as there were men who frequented Haliettme and the hospital of Badele, as 

blood I In the Halroot books [the familv being smaU copyholders at Blaokwell] the name 
b Lanffstreth. In the registers it is chronologicallv Langstaff, Langstaffe, Lanffestaffe, 
Langstreffe, Langestraffe, Lanntrafe, Langstraife, LangstrafT^ Longstaffe, Lancxestafe, 
Lang^taf, Longstaf, Lonf^staff. In 1624, none were to ** let Richard Langstaffe a howse 
within the borroug of Darlington upon paine of Z9s, 1 \d," In 1598. Wni. Hodgson, of 
Manor Honse, Lanchester, gives ** To one John Longstaffe of Rabie yf he be living at the 
daye of my deathe and yf he be dead to his children, in considerac'on of his losses he sus- 
teyned by me in the layte rebellyon in the North in the sarvioe of Cbarlos the late EUtrl of 
Westmorland, 30^." 

* Pudsey did much for this parish, and as he erected Sherbnm hospital, it is probable 
he completed his good works here by a similar establishment. Possessed of royal sway in 
the palatinate, he nad power to erect a free chapel and annex it. f Var^ Badclu. 



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274 DOMESTIC. 

well as Ralph Haget, tlie sheriff [for Bishop Pudsey], who told the prior and convent 
that he had himself seen the girl both before and after it, and that although she was 
perfectly whole, the scars were marked by a slight redness, and that the extremes of her 
lips, which were surrounded by broken flesh, were round and fiill but rather elevated 
above the rest. Normanrus, the kind priest, asserted the same things, and exhibited his 
charge, wholly restored, in his church to the parbhioners. 

1197. The temporalities of the see, during a vacancy, being in the king^s hands, the 
Borough of Derlinton' rendered account of 8/. : there was in the treasury' 71. 12* : owing 
8ff. The Bondmen 69*. 8d. : in the treasury 64*. Sd. : owing 5*.* 

\* In the Treasury at Durham are a number of charters relating to the possessions 
of the Benetst and Walworths, the early magfiates of the town, in which are many cu- 
rious early names. Tho. Pannebrihite, Ric. Cissor, Walter s. David Tifu^otji Roger de 
Hundegate and William s. Hervioe U Raper occur at the end of the 13th cent. : James 
PeUiparius (of iSHnn^rgate no doubt), William le Mareschale,^ Walter s. Duncan le 
Barker )\ (elsewhere TanncUor), William caUed Redhode of Derlingtone, &c., in the 
early part of the 14th. 

♦ Pipe Rolls. NC. Soc. Ant. 1847, p. 201. 
t Benedict de Derlingtone had a son William ^called FUius BenedicH and BeneUe) liv. 
1290, whose son John Benette m. Eustachia dr. Wm. de Mundeville who held much land 
about Bnrdon. She and her husband alienated le Hallejlat at Derlingtone and numerous 
other properties at Burdon and Darlington to the Walworths. Bennet Hall and Bennet 
Field occur ages afterwards. I lose sight of the Walworths about 1 360. A gleam surrounds 
the northern families of that name from the probability that the celebrated Lord Mayor of 
London, who turned the stream of Wat Tyler's rebellion, in 1381, was of their blood. In 
the same year he was executor to Bp. Hatfield. Thomas Walleworth, a canon of York, 
(cousin of Wm. Walleworth, rector of Haughton-Ie-Skeme, who died 1401,) bequeaths in 
1409 to his sister Agnes, a gilt piece of plate, which formerly belonged to his brother 
Sir Wm* WaJhworthy knight^ deceased. The early charters have WaUewrde and WaUe- 
wrihe. The Beuets soera to have originated as a local family in Benedict de Bermtone, 
to whom Ralph the Prior confirmed Bp. Marisco's gift of property in Derlingtone between 
1217 and 1226. 

4: He sold a burgage in Vranqelythe in the field of Derlingtone. The antiquity of the 
Dyers as a craft in Darlington has been seen in Boldon Book. At the close of the 13th 
century the Walworths had transactions about property on le Madergarthes, evidently the 
place where the dye was grown, and which* in the 17th century, occurs as Matherqarthes, 
and was then split up into numerous burgages. " The time hath been," says Harrison, iu 
1577) *' that waa and madder, have beene (next unto our tin and woolles) the chief commo- 
dities and merchaundize of this realme." Vrange-lytlie is connected with Madder-garthes, 
the medieval name of the plant being varantia, quasi veraniia the real, genuine dye. 

? Robert s. Guydo Faher occurs about the same time. Peter del Smethe held property 
here 8 Bury. Robert Rainert of Smithi^-hill (Bakehouse-hill f where there was a forge) in 
Darlington, bur., 1623. A singular brass seal of Ralph, who calls himself the farrier of the 
bishoprick, (rather a large field for his labours,) was discovered near Darlington some vears 
ago, and is now in the possession of Mrs. Todhunter, Harewood-hilL 
It is of the I4th century and reads (round the implements of the 
craft), "St IGILLVMJ RADVL[PHI] MARESCHAL [LI] DfE] 
L'EVECHIE D[E1 DVREME.'' He was doubtless in a similar 
capacity here as the smith of Boldon Buke, who worked at the 
forge which, at Hatfield's survey the anti-monofiolist tenants had 
got into their own hands, and L'EVECHIE is either an engrav- 
er's mistake for L'EVESQVE, or an evidence of a pettv pride 
assimilating to that shown by our craftsmen ** to the Queen " 
of the present day. The name of Marshall (akin to Smith, Faber, 
Farrer, Ferrar, &c ,) has come to denote, not the primitive horse- 
shooer, but a governor or master of the horse, ana eventually the 
highest military rank generally. The name ascended while the 
craft fell. A smith among the Britons was an ovate in the Bard- 
ic order, and a high personage among the Anfflo-Saxons« and the progress of his descent 
in rank is curious. The sroithery was evidently a feudal oppression, and we cannot feel 
surprised that the tenants of Darlington took it in the end into their own hands, as well 
as the mills, paying an annual rent. It seems clear from the way in which the ploughs of 
Little Haughton are mentioned in Boldon Buke (pp. 63, 65) that some of the agricultural 
implementa were not private property, but lent out by the landlord from man to man. In 
every respect the episcopal surveys present most exact pictures of the mode of living before 
money-rents were rully mtroduced ; which payments, as Mr. Surtees justly observes, com- 
ing in course of time to bear no proportion to the real value of the tenures, the modem 
wealthy farmer thus grew out of the ancient villain. As to the company of smiths, vide 
sub anno 1628. 
II There was a Cecily le Barker (probably Walter's mother) living at the same time, and 




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MARKETS AND FAIRS. 275 

1302. After Beke*s disgrace, he had to make peace with his vassals by the concession 
of seyeral important privileges. One of them runs *' And whereas no freeman ought by 
custom to be impleaded except in the free court of the bishop, yet the bishop's bailiffs 
compel them to be impleaded at the halemotes, and amerce them among villains, con- 
trary to the common law of the realm ; The Bishop grants, that no freeman shall come 
unless he will come there to complain against a villain ; and if wrong b done him by 
any villain, and he will complain of It elsewhere, in the free court, a writ shall be 
granted him.*' He also granted that no carriage was to be taken, except in time of war, 
from the freemen, and that no sub-buliff of the coroner should be mounted on horse- 
back.* 

The coroner of Darlington Ward was formerly chosen by the bishop, and was sometimes 
the bfulifif and steward of Darlington also. There is a tale offelo-deszA connected with 
the coroneiship of George Omsby, Esq., (1806-1816.) One Webster, a love-slighted 
swain, tossed his carcase into the Skeme, near Polam. The coroner being absent, old 
Attorney Arman reigned in his stead. The jury were about to return a verdict of felo- 
de-se, when one solid yeoman became alarmed at the deplorable ignorance of his com- 
peers : — " iVay, lads, nay, that toad niwer dee, everybody knew that he threw hi'seU int' f 
Skeime, folks wad all think us Jules T 

1311. Bishop Kellawe ordered that notice be given in Darlington church on Sundays 
and holydays that no person was to be molested in coming to the market and fairs which 
were of great uflefulne8s.t It was a favourite mart of the religious houses.^ There is 

the name may either be a marital one or denote the fem<de tanner who continued the busi- 
ness ^her diseased spouse. Her daughter was Alice BeeJte ; and Walter Bee, perhaps the 
same as the Walter in the text granted land at Redmarshall to Adam the carpenter of 
Darlinirton. ♦ Hutch, i. 248. f Kellawe's Rei?. 

X Holy Island. **1392-3. Expencee of the Prior to the Mr (nundinas) of Derlyngton." No 
cattle were sold by the priory this year to the mother house of Durham, and tnerefore the 
Prior's object must have been to lay in stock for the larder. Prior Aslakby. as his name 
implies, came f^om Aislaby, near Stockton, on the banks of the Tees. He would therefore 
meet his relations and friends at Darlington. — Raine. 

Finchale Priory* In 1360-1, the cellarer was allowed his exT)6n8es at Derlington. In 
1S63, were paid **for the expenses of Sir John de Tykhill (the prior himself) going to Der- 
lyngton fair, and 12 platters, 12 ditto to serve up meat in, and 12 saucers of copper, I bra- 
sen candlestick, with parchment bought, 189.9c?." Other joumies to our fairs occur, and at 
that time Sir Ralph de Derlington was a brother. In 1458-9, the cellerar bought 21 twyn- 
ters (cattle two winters old) here for 6/. \2s.bd, 

Durham Priory. In 1530-1, the Bursar's accounts contain items of " 15 cows bought at 
Damton by Americ Dande, the 21st of June, at different prices, together with the expen- 
ces there, £7 ISs. 6c{.," and " 2 cows bought at Damton at m. 4(f.,=209. 8dl And expences 
at Hexham and Damton, 39. 8c{. And expences at Damton by Robert Best and comrade, 

In 1531-2 are two items for driving cattle at Damton, one on the fair after Whitsuntide, 
Qd., the other at Martinmas (in die Martini), 9d, 

In 1532-3 occur 18 cows bought at Damton the fair after Whitsuntide by Americ Dande 
and comrade, Bl. fis. Ad^tknd in 1533-4 at the same fair are bought by Americ Dande and 
Robert Best at Damton, 31 cows, whereof 16 were at Ids. Qd, (82. 10«. Sd) and 15 at 10«. 
(7/. 10»)— 16/. 0«. Sd, On the 23rd November in the same year Americ Dande bought 13 
cows at Damton at 12^. ill, \6s,), his expenses there were 20c/. Ho is styled <* Oustos ani- 
malium.** 

The times of holding fiairs in these remote times has not altered. 

Mabket autd Fair Days. — Pay toll save where excepted. — EvPiy Monday is a market- 
day ; also the day before Christmas-day. The first Monday in March, a show of homed 
cattle, sheep, &c. (pays no toll for cattle). Easter-Monday, for cattle and all goods and 
merchandize (pays no toll for cattle, save horses and pigs). Monday, before and after old 
May-day, a hiring day for servants. Whitsnn-Monday [mentioned as a fair-day even by 
Harrison in 1577], for homed cattle, sheep, and all goods and merchandize. Great Monday, 
after Whitsuntide, which is always the Monday fortnight j the same. Every Monday fort- 
night from Whitsun-Monday to Christmas is called a fortnight-day for homed cattle, sheep, 
Ac The 9th of November for horses, &c. ; the 10th of November [Nought, i.e. Neat, 
Fair] for homed cattle, sheep, &c. ; the 13th of November for hogs and piRS. Monday, 
before and after old Martinmas-day, a hiring-day for servants. Nov. 22, 0\d Martinmas- 
day, for homed cattle, sheep, and all goods, &c. Great Monday, after Old Martinmas, 
which is always the Monday seven-night after Martinmas-day, except when Martinroas-day 
falls on a Monday, then Great-Monday fair will be that day fortnight, for homed cattle, 
and all other goods and merchandize. (From the Toll-table, by order of Chancery, in 
James AUwi's time). Every Monday fortnight is now a " fortnight," or fair day. 



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276 



DOMESTIC 



a saying used as a gentle retort to one who is relating marvelloasly cheap purchases 
made at some distant fair : — *^ Well, and what of thai! I saw three stiris sell'd t* 
Darnton market for Jive pounds apiece, as big as Churches ! ** 

1362. Margaret, wife of Robert de Orleyenes, died seieed of a messuage and 15 acres, 
in Cockerton, held by the service of paying one penny farthing towards the reparation of 
the mill and the mill-oogs of Darlington mill, and one hen called a wodehen at the Na- 
tivity, leaving William her s. and h. {Inq. 17 Hatf,) See Hatfield's survey (p. 89) for 
wodsilver paid in hens. 

Circa 1381. Died Alexander Surteys, chivaler, of Dinsdale, who according to the 
escheat after death (36 Hatfield) had enfeofifed trustees of a burgage and other small pro- 
perty at Darlington,^ with Le Ryddin and Felling injraudand colkuian, to deprive the 
prince palatine of the wardship and marriage of the heir, an infant of twenty weeks' 

* John de Mart on (who had relinquished a paternal for a local name) gave lands in 1325 
in Murton on the Moor, which he had by gift of his father William Surteys, to Ivo Bek of 
Derlyngtion. John was grand uncle to Gooeline Surteys (younger brother of Sir Thomas 
Surteys of Dinsdale) who had (Inq. pm. 22 Hatfield) lands in Darlington and a host of 
other places of a very heterof^eneous locality, which It is difScult to account for as posses- 
sions of a younger son except by supposing them purchases, indeed some at Neeham are 
expressly stated to be a mortgage. Dying «. p, these estates passed to his nephew Sir 
Thomas, the father of Alexander. Thomas Surtees dying childless in 151 1. left a sister 
Catherine by the same mother and a brother Marmaduke by the same fSather out differ^it 
mother, and although the latter was on every principle of justice the true heir, a barbarous 
feudal principle decreed that the most distant descendant of the whole blood might inherit 
hefore the nearest half blood. Marmaduke however was full of fire, tore the estates with 
the fangs of law, and forced the Places to assign him the manors of Over Middleton and 
Morton, &c* 

This Idarmaduke on one occasion beat a parson out and out Some lands in Middleton- 
one-Rawe (of which Marmaduke is described as lord) had been granted by the family to 
his uncle John, who was incumbent of Dinsdale, for life and 20 years following, but after 
the lease had expired, the clergyman wished to consider it as part of the glebe. In 20 Eliz. 
John the only son of Marmaduke had a trial with the then parson about it, and John H udson 
of Morton, grassman, aged 54, deposed that he was when '^but a boy of a dozen or xiii years 
of age present at the buriall of John Sewerties [the parsonl and then had a penny given 
him (the funeral dole)," that Marmaduke borrowing 109. of Rowland Clerk (a succeeding 
parson) upon his signett, the latter within or about a month after requested to have his 
his money, when Marmaduke told him '* that it was but a small thing that he the said 
Marmaduke had of him. and that therefore he thought that the said Rowland would not 
have bene so haistie with him. * For,' quoth the said Marmaduke, * if I would I could take 
the two ox^anges of land which thoue occupieet here in this towne from the, which is a 
hundreth times better than than the money thow lent me.' * Nav then,' quoth the said 
Rowland, * that I thinck yow cannot do.' * Yes,' quoth the said Marmaduke, * that I can. 
But be thow ((ood to me, and I will be good to thee.' * Why, sir,' quoth the said Rowland, 

* anything 1 have you shall comaunde.' * And well then,' quoth the said Marmaduke, 

* come hither to me againe such a day and I will show the good specialtie that the two 
oxgang:es is m^e to do with what 1 list.' And so for that tyme the said Rowland departed.** 
On their meeting the perplexed parson found that Surtees had right and had to compound 
for 4/. lOs. and the \0s. he had lent, for a life interest. He paid by instalments, and Archer 
another witness saw him come to Marmaduke at Darlington and say ** Sir, now I have 
paide yow all my money according to our afrement, and therefore I pray yow now let me 



have assuraunce made fbr mv life, that I T)e not any more troubled.' '' Marrie, parson,' 
quoth the said Marmaduke, ^ that 1 will with ^ood will. And come go with me to Mr. 
Hailcs.' And so they went together to Mr. Hailes to have assuraunce made." At a later 
period, a parson of the adjoining parish of Middleton St. George was doked. Wm. Killing- 
hall, who lield a moiety <» the rectory, wanted Csae the rector to join him in suing Francis 
Forster of Darlington for their joint tithes due ftrom West Hartbum. The rector refdsed 
because by his daughter he had received at Darlington from Forster ** 208. io buy a doke, 
3 bushells of ry, and besides the said Francis Foster being a good IHend unto him."— ^r- 
chivea^S, H, A. 

The coheirs of Catharine Place, Blakiston, Brandling, and Wyclifile occur as burgesses, co- 
temporarily with some collateral Places (sans blood of Surtees) to whom they had alienated 
most of their mother's possessions in Dinsdale, &c. Sir Robert Brandling nad no surviv- 
ing issue by his heiress spouse, and her lands descended to his coozen William the son of his 
brother Thomas. This William was *• bom beyond the seas," and Sir Robert procured an 
act of denesasion for him . The knight had a younger brother Henry, who, in vain, at- 
tempted to set up some testamentary notes of Sir Robert on papire which he had been in- 
duced to make on " the unkynd dooings of William Branlynge, who was sodenly dep'ted 
into Flanders ;'* as well as a forged settlement by him of the Darlington and other lands, 
which, after long suits, the Star Chamher on violent presumpcions,SLO^ decreed was forged. 
{Star Chamber Record, penes W;H.L.). William seems to have been a blustering, licen- 
tious roan, from the Surtees Society's vol. ofEcdesiastical proceedings, pp. 72, 73. 



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APPOINTMENT OF BAILIFF. 277 

age, ^Hhfi intention of the feoffment being that they should not disinhent the heir but 
that they should pay the debts of the said Alexander and should enfeofif the heir when 
he came to full age ;** a very virtuous disposition, as things now stand, in order to pay 
the dying man's debts and leave a little fund in friendly hands, to assist the heir some- 
what beyond the strict allowance of a Court of Wards ; but then at the expense of the 
Bishop and his vested rights. Perhaps the Ryddung (probaUy The Riding in Lanches- 
ter parish) paid the forfeit of the attempt, as it appears no more in the Snrtees inquests. 

1/SOI. A most honest correspondence passed between Bishop Fox and Prior Castell. 
It seems that the system of farming the tolls, &c, of the boroughs, which from Boldon 
Buke appears to have been the plan adopted, even in the 12th cent. , proved unsatisfactoiy, 
and that the usage of the dean and chapter confirming the appointment of bailiff' has no 
remote origin. There is something extremely touching in the Prior^s simple language.* 
*' My especiallest good lord, in my most humbly and due manner I reconmiend me unto 
your good lordship. And whereasyour lordship wrote unto me lately for the confirmation 
of the bailiffWick of Derlyngton unto Wm. Betts ; my lord, there is one office passed afore 
unto master Hadoke of the office of Derlyngton ; and, my lord, I have made search 
within our records of the same office, and I can find no precedent thereof that ever your 
mitre was charged with any such fee. And, my lord, I have at your former command- 
ment confirmed your grant both of Oatesheved and Aukland, whereas I can not per- 
ceive that ever any such grants was made aforetime, either by your records or ours. 
My lord, I am right well content to perform your commandment or pleasure in every 
behalf to the uttermost of my power, and yet, my lord, please it your good lordship to 
call unto your remembrance what your lordship would lay and say unto me, in case 
like, if I should charge your mitre with such fee as never was afore in your records nor 
in ours. Your lordship might be miscontent with all. My lord, how your successor 
will lay such matter unto my brethren's charge and mine, my lord, I know not ; but 
aye, my lord, I doubt the worst And, my lord, secular people will say, that and if 
your bedemen, my brethren and I, confirm office or thing that your lordship or your suc- 
cessore is most content with ilk, then, my lord, the party will say that they will €ush 
their fee of me and of my brethren, which is against all right and good conscience* My 
lord, I beseech your lordship to take with me no displeasure, thof I show your lordship 
my poor mind ; for, my lord, in time of need or cause of complaint, I have none other 
comfort of refuge and counsel but only in your good lordship. And I beseech the same 
so to use me and take me, and ever, my lord, to shew your good mind and lordship that 
will help in trouble or business in time of need. And thus to the blessed Trinity's keep- 
ing I ever commend your good lordship. Frem Duresme, the 14 day of August, with 
the hand of your humblest chaplain and orator, Thomas Priour of Dueesme.'' 

The Bishop answera : — " ^ght entirely well beloved brother, as heartily as I can I 
commend me to you : and well I remember, that amongst other, I wrete unto you for 
the confirmation of Wm. Betts* patent of the bailiff'wick of Derlyngton ; and by your 
last writing unto me I conceive ye make a difficulty therein for two causes ; one is that 
my servant Tho. Haidok hath one office of Demton ; the second is that ye can not in 
your r^^ister find any grants of the said office with such a fee. Truth it is, Tho. 
Haidok hath a grant, but that is of the custody of the manor and not of thebaillffwick ; 
and where the boroughs have been commonly and for the most party before my time 
letten to farm, which was the occasion of evil justice and much extortion ei hindrance 
of the lord's profits both at Derlyngton, Auckland, and Gateshead, I have in my time 
caused all the said boroughs to be occupied by way of approvement, and so I have 
granted this office of Derlyngton to Wm. Betts by way of imprevement, which I make 
you sure hath been to me, and shall be to my successors, much more profitable than to 
let or put them to farm. Doubt you not, brother, I shall no thing desire you to do that 

* The original orthography may be seen in the appendix to the Three Historians.— Sur- 
teosSoc. 



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278 DOMESTIC 

shall be' hurt or prejudice to the mitre of that my church, and therefore eftsoons I pray 
you, as heartily as I can, let the said William have my said grant of the office of Der- 

lington confirmed And thus heartily fare ye right, as I would do myself. At 

Richemount, the sixth day of Septembre, with the hand of your loving brother, Ri. 

DURBSME." 

The prior, I presume, consented, as in 1514 Bishop Ruthall desires him to confirm 
unto his servants ** Richard Waldgrave^ th' office of baily of Derlyngton and Thomas 
Banks the crownership of Norton," which he did. In 1516, Ruthall's auditor delivered 
to the gaoler of Durham Castle the bodies of the collectors of Goundou and Redworth, 

Ric Perkynson coroner of Derlyngton ward, and Thomas T . . . . baUiff of D 

to be kept and subsist out of their own proper goods according to the statute, for their 
arrears due to the bishop on their Michaelmas accounts. 

1511, Mar. 24. John Bulman, of Blakwell, begged sanctuary at Durham Cathedral, 
having in the house of one William Bulman, at Ripon, 13 years before, feloniously struck 
one N. Walley with a dagger in the breast super le wyMane, of which within two days 
he died.t 

1526, July 30. Robert Holme, late of Dameton, co. Dunelm, pewterer, came to the 
sanctuary of St. John of Beverley for a debt only. And he was admitted and sworn. 
The men of the bishoprick often seem to have considered themselves safer at Beverley 
than under St. Cuthbert's privileges at Durham, and vice versa, 

1558, Aug. 16. Will, of " Laurence Thomell baylyf of Darlington : my soule to 
Almyghtie God my maker and redemer and to our blessed ladye, &c. : to be buried in 
the churche yarde of Darlington at the Quere end : Francys Perkinson, 40^. ; and to 
Bryan P., Richarde P., and Dorathee P. everye of them 6/., besydes theyre chyldes por- 
c'ons [step-children] : Rychard Thomell my bastarde sonne 10/. ; Sir Robert Wykinson 
[an unnoticed incumbent f] IOj?. : the heyghe alter 3«. 4d. : churcheworkes 20tf. : every 
one of my men servaunttes at Darlington a ly veray coote and bs. : my women ser- 
vaunttes at D. an ewe or the price of an ewe : Marmaduke Fayrbame and Mr. Halle 
and Wm. Tomson [p. 200], eyche 3*. 4d. : residue to Barbara my wyfe : Mr Henry 
Ducket my brother in lawe : brethren Nycholas T. and John T. : Francis Perkinson 
my wyfes sonne.'* A demise occurs, 4 Edw. VI. to Lawrence Thomell gent, of the Low 
Parke of Darlington and the Medowes on the Skerae. In Hartlepool chancel is a bra- 
zen effigy of a lady dressed in an open gown disclosing a richly embroidered petticoat, 
and most gallantly decked out with the hoop, mfi^, hat and slashes of the period in 
which the maiden Queen held sway. A scroll from her mouth displays Casta hdes 
TicTRix, and beneath is her name displayed. Here vnder this stone lyeth bvryed 

THE BODIE OF THE VERTVOVS 6ENTELLW0MAN IaNB BeLL, WHO DEPUTED THIS LYFE THE 

vi Daye or Ianvarie, 1593, bbinoe the dowohter of Laverance Thornell of 
Darlington. Gent, and late wyfe to Parsavel Bell Nowe Maire of this Towen 
of HARTINroOELL Marchant. ^tatis svje 40. 

QBI^otf htxiviti if tf^ou totlt ht^tXnt 

Venule tf^ii tabel {yanginge bpe 
WSiiii^ totll ti^e dame to tf^e bnfoOf 

b^ {ytr gooty I^fe leame tf^ou to trie. 

Arms. In a lozenge, Gules, 2 bars gemelles and a chief argent, on the latter a martlet 
for difference. — Thomell (of Yorkshire). J 

• In 1528-9 Wolsey appointed Wm. Wytham on Waldegrave's resignation. 

+ Sanct. Dunel. Sur. Soc. 

X 44 Eliz. Thomas Singleton, D.D., and the scholars of King's Hall and College of Bra- 

senose, Oxford, v. Percivall Bell.—Disputed claim to copyhold and freehold lands, via. : 

Sadbuiy demesnes ; Darlington otherwise Damton Court ; co. Durham. — Catalofftu of 

Pleadings in (he duchy of Lancaster, 



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WILLS AND INVENTORIES. 279 

1560, July 23. Will* of Richard Somersett of Oxnelfeyld : mj- brother Foreman 5/* 
and my bafie iedder coote : George Herrison my satten dublett : wife Margaret! Somer- 
sett two of my best kyen. 

1564. Michell Spence, of Derlinton, to my daughters Isabell, Barbara, Jayn and 
Cecill and to every of them 40 shepe, that b to saye 20 ewes and hoggs [sheep in their 
first year] : to Alyce Pacoke one hawket whye wiche 1 bought of my brother Willm. 
at Bedall and one ewe : Mr. Myghell VVandisforde and Mr. Bryane Palmes supenrisors. 

1565, Mar. 5. Will of Maude Wilson, of Darton. " I will that there he bestowed 
att my bringing forth 5s. : to my brother [in law] John Laynge and [my sister Agnes] 
his wife for the paynes that they have taken with me or els Iluui died in the strettts one 
brasse potte the which my brother Xpofor Cottes and ray sister [Jetmett] his wife have 
in keapinge. Also the sayd Xpofor Cottes my brother in lawe hayth of myne in cus- 
todye and keaping 24«. 86?. the which I will shall be distributed as is above written [in 
small legacies] : to my curate Sir John Claxton 12<i.'* A Christopher Cottes made his 
will 11 June, 1568. " Xpofor Cotts of Oxneldefelde, seke in body but holle of m3mde : 
yf it shall please [God] for to tacke me unto his roarcye at this present tyme I will that 
my body be buried in the Southe croft yle of the church with my mortuary dewe by the 
lawe : unto the poore mens boxe 12«?. : unto church works 12J. : sonne Georg one quy© 
of iijre yeares olde in full contentacion of liis filiall porcion : sonne Nycholes one whyt 
reged cowe with one plaitt cotte : Jane Wate my dowghter one quye calfe, in full re- 
compense of hir chylds porcion : sonne John one playt cotte one sword one dager one 
bukler one blacke spere one graye coulte stagg of iijre yeres owld : wyfe Elizabeth and 
dowghter Elizabeth all my houshold stufe : Xpofor Cots my god sone one quye canlfe : 
Xpofor Wate my good sonne one gymmer : if anye of these named doith swarvc and 
will not agre theyshalbe utterley excluded and have nether part nor parsell of my 
goods bnt for to a byde the order of Lawrens Horseman Thomas Watson whom 1 do 
mack supervisors^" (Lyen Toropson clerke, a witness). 

1567. Mathew Bland of Darton : Esable Gibson my wife : To Sir John Clapham 
12c?. to pray for me [this was in Elizabeth's reign] : to the pore folks one bowU of wheat 
to be distrybuted in bread the day of my buriall (Anth. Coyngeres a witness). Mr. 
Edw. Parkinson owes me for wolle 13*. Ad. Mrs. Parkinson owes me in money that I 
did len her 20«. For meat and drynk the tyme that he [testator] laid and the day of his 
buriall 8». 7c? 

1567. Cuth. Marshall, of Cockerton, to the heghe allter for my forgottin tythes 12cf.: 
I will that al maner of arlowmes [heir-looms] the which my father left at his house re* 
ma3me to Wm. my sonn that is to say, 1 stepe led [to steep the malt in] and one bruyne 
[brewing] lede, i. mask fatt and one wort stone and a flesh trowe, a brasing morter, a 
pestell, a great arke in the whet bame, and another in the chamber and a grett chist 

1568. Chr. Addison, of Damton. — Inventory p. m. states his funeral expenses as 4^. 
and " for bred and drink and other vittalls to the [four] prasei's 12c?." 

1569. Edw. Atkinson, of Damton Pessee of the mills], to be buried in the churche 
earthe of D. : owing to me ; Sir John Clapon, to be paid of great Monday next 33*. 4c?.. 
For bringing forth my husband 40*. : one cote of plaite, &c., 40*. 

1570. Apr. 19. An Inventorie of the goods and cattails off Cristopher Dayllf lait 
disseasied of the parisshe off Darlington, inholder, — In the Hall : Two silver peces weing 

Thomell bur. 6 Sep. ; the wife of John Thomell 21 Sep.. 1597 [both of plague]. Chnsos- 
tome Thomell and Margery Thaddie, m. 1 Jun., 1615. Cuthbert Thornell, gent., of Darliug- 
ton, bur. Sep. 1616. Darlington. — Thos. s. Paterick Thonihill, of Darliogton parish, bp. 
23 Oct., 1642.— J?p. Wearmouth. 

* The extracts from wills and inventories are given to illustrate costumes, manners, and 
rustic wealth. If any p^reat and familiar names occur, they are noticed ; but for genealo- 
gical purposes the ongmal documents must be searched. 

+ 29 Dec., 1570. Jenet Daill of Archdeacon Newton wedowe; to be buried in the parish 

churchyard of Darlinton ; Anthony Dale [a name in the Dales of Staindrop] my sonne the 

. hole lease of my fermhold whcrin I nowe dwell, James Dale his sonne, ana his daughters ; 

Margaret Dale ; Alleson Stainsby my best gowne (to these two was left her household 

stuflf) ; Chr. Stainsby five nobles that he doth owe me for a horse that I sold him ; his wife 



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280 DOMESTIC. 

16 unces at 4i, 4d, the ounce, 3/. 9s, 4d, : eight silver spoinnes 32f. : twelve pair of lyn 
sheits, four paire off harden sheits, twelve codwaree 40s, : two cubbords, a long table, a 
counter, two formes, a longe settell, three old chares, 169. : six puter platters, three lat* 
ten bas8ons,a litle puter basyng, six latton candellsticks and ten old puter potts, ISs. 4d. : 
an iron chymnaye, a pairr of tongs, a por and a fyre shovell lOv. : summa 9/. 6d, — The 
Parlour above the Hall: One long table, one forme, one chare, one litle round table, a 
litle open cubard, 6^. Sd. : two standyng beddes, a trindell bed, furnished with bed and 
bolster, 40s. : a litle iron chymnay, a bason and ane ewer 2s, : putter candelsticks, three 
quysshons 7s, — 7%e Chamber over the Hall: Two standyng beddes fumisshed with 
fether bedd and bolster and other furniture thereto belonging, two litle counters, one 
forme, 40s. — 7*he Newe Chamber : Three standing bedes furnished, one trindell bed fur- 
nished, a litle table, a carpet, 269. 6d.^ The LiUell Chamber : Two beddes furnished for 
men-servants, ane old chaire, a litle table, lOf. — The loft henethe the doores : Two beddes 
fumyshed for women servants lOs, — The BtUtrie : One presse, two chists, one herd, a 
bi^ead grate, 109. : twenty peces of puter, ten sawcers, twelve puter plates, a litle brasen 
morter, 269. 8d, — The Kyehen : A capon cawell, two herds, %)d, : potthookes, a pair of 
cob jrrons, two dripping pannes, three speets, 69. ^, : two cawdrons, six brasse potts, four 
pannes, 409. : four tobes, a brewing lead, a masfat, a troughe stone, a latin laver, 26». Sd, 
— The Stable: Haie one lode 69. 6d, : six oxen, two kie, one horsse, 71, : come in the 
feild iOL : one iron bound wayn, on long wayne, four yokes, two teames, one plowe 
and the plowe gere* belongynge, 40s.— sum of the goods 49/. 199. 4d, 

1570. An action was brought in the Durham Ecclesiastical Court by Isabella Wal- 
ker against William Walker of Durham for restitution of conjugal rights. Thomas 
Whitfeilde of Durham, draper, said, '* that as towchinge hir, the said Isabella Walker 
crowelness, or seeking of his (William's) death, he knoweth nothing. Mary, he think- 
ith the said IsabeU dyd not use hir selfe honestly to William Walker, hir husband, for, 
as it was commonly reportyd emongest hir neighbours, she went twyse frome hir hus- 
band, once in this towne, being then baliffe, and one other tyme to Darlington, And at 
hir going to Darlington she had hir husband's licenc to fett momy that she had borrowed 
ofdjfvers; but one John Peirson, that caried hir thither, culde not bring hir home with 
fytn. And yett afterward, at her home comyng, the said William Walker, by intrety 
ci neighbours, was content to take hir again. He cannott tell for what cause she came 
into the oontree. He thinks that William Walker is more lyke to bett IsabeU his wyf, 
than she the said William.** The fact was that when Isabel! again left Walker, he took 
the matter very philosophically, and calmly married another woman, and altogether 
seems to have been an odd character. He was rather aged, but a witness thinks him 
" sufficiently able to curry [ruyll interlined] the said Isabell yf she were with hym." 

1572. John Hope of Damton, if we may judge from his inventory, might have car- 
ried his whole estate on his back. It only contains : — One dagger, I2d, ; two Jerkins, 
I6d* ; thre sherts, I2d. ; one dublett, ij pare of hose, 29. 

1572. Nov. 19. Will of John Frankeleyne of Coken [and Archdeacon Newton] gent. 
He appears to have belonged to the Yorkshire family of Frankland, and mentions York 
kindred. He was third husband of Isabel, widow of Ralph Carr, of Cocken, eaq. After 
a long and singular religious preamble he proceeds : — ^ My bodye as it most vyle Dunge 
slyme and earthe and by god creatid and made of the same, unto thetthe therefore I 
will g3rve nnd bequeath it agayne theire to remayne to the last daye wherin Gkxl by his 
potencyall power shall reigne in his glory as a most victorious conqueroure and as a 
most righteous juge shall geve sentence upon all humayne fleshe that ever were or 

and children ; Tho. Simpson's wife, Sissely her daughter a gret broad panne and every of 
her children bedd, an ewe ; Agnes Dobson my sister, a kerchif, a vaill, a smock, an apron, 
and all my workday ray men t ; Jenet Dobson a kerchif of my best lyne ; the poure people 
of Darlington 20d., and to my curate for his paines 2a,, and to the clarke \2d, 

* A word used in all materials— woodgeare, waingere, &c.— the furniture of any thing. 



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WILLS AND INVENTORIES. 281 

shalbe from the begynnynge to the endynge ; and my goods lyke as I have by Gods highe 
provydence and goodness received of the worlde even so by Gods grace I will leave them 
to the worlde agayne, utterlye relynquysshynge and forsakynge the same for ever : My 
derelye belovyd wife Issabell Frankeleyne my parte of Archdeacon Newton which I pre- 
sentlye do and hertofore have had and occupied durynge her lyf : af