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London 8^ its Environs. 



OfCripplegate Withtmi.— Fore-street. ^St; Giles, Cripple- 
gate. — Dissenting Meeting'houses.^^Grul' street. ^-Ge* 
neral Monk's House. — Whitecross^street. — Hospital of 
Si. Giles. — HedcrosS'Street. -^'Williams's lAbrary.^^^ 
Cfowder's fVelL — Jewin-street. — Barbican.-"^ tVil" 
longhby House. -^ Garter^ Place. — Bridgewater-square.^^ 
Beech-tane.^-^Drewrie House. -^^ Askew* s Alms-houses. 
-^Glovers' Hall. 

The hounds and principal streets of this part of 
the ward were mentioned in the last chapter ; we 
now proceed to the survey of it. 

Parallel to the wall is Fore-street, which extendi 
from Moorfields to Redcross-street, and is one o the 
handsomest streiets in the city of London, whether 
it be considered for its length and breadth, or for the 
neatness and uniformity of its buildings ; the whole 

VOL. III. B of 

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of the south side having been built bv public con-* 
tract with the ci^, upon an uniform plan. 

At ]the south^'We^t conier of thia ntreeU and feeing 
Redcross-street, stands the parochial ehurch of St. 
Giles, Cripplegate. 

This church is so called Irom being dedicated to 
a saint of that name, bom at Athens, who was Ab- 
bot 9f Ni^n^^ J9 Fmnce. It was fou9(Je4 about the 
year one thousand and ttiaety, b^ Alfiine, the first 
master of St Barthoiomew's-hospital. 

The old church was destroyed by fire, in the year 
15*5 ; after which the present structure was erected, 
and is one of the few that fortunately escaped the 
drc^^ cmiflagfatioiji i^ 166Q., 

This ancient edifice may very properly be num- 
bered amongst the best of our Gomic buildings. It 
18 one hundred and fourteen feet in length, sixty* 
three feet in breadth, thirty-two feet high, to the 
roof, and one hun^r^and twenty-two feet to the 
i top of the turret* " The body of the church is well 
eiilighteqe^ bv twp rows 9f windows, which are 
trwiy of jt^e Qoijm order, anc) the 9p9^e$ betw^n 
Hl^ )mkf£asm lor t^ auf^port of ^e waA. The 
tewef: 10 weH-popartknied, the eonieia of 4t aie mp- 
ported by a kmd of buttfess-woik, and at each cor- 
ner is a sngiaii tu^et. Th^ piincip^l turret, in the 
(Centre, is light and open ; it is $treti|^Qed by but- 
tresses, and crowned with a dome, from whence rises 
th^ vane. Oliver the sK^uth-east door of the church 
is ;^ hef^iiifMl figure of Tin^e, with ^ ^c^^l^e in one. 
hand, and an hour-gl^ in Ht^vi gthe^. 

Tl^pc^pji^e of tjii? chucph %^worigiMUy in prir 
ya|e hm^y t^l it deace94e4 ia one Alemund, a 
priest, who granted the s^te (ailber bj$ death, and 
. th9t of Hugh, h\$ only $on) to the Dean and Chap- 
ter of St. raul>, whereby they became not only 


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LOMBOll MX9 KM gU f lJW W, 

QidiDi^ietof Ibepwith, Uitlik«wi»p pflirvMoftte 
vicaF^, firom that time to the prawn . 

l¥ei€ are aevefal mdowmtwta Moi^dg to <his 
ciMvcii, fw the perferinaBce of divine setvi^ H^ 
fefeni times in the year, parlkukoij aix a wnnjw t* 
he preaehed iit Lent, and »gift aannoii oa AS 9«idtif 
dqr ; when the donatioiiBs left by setent beaefaneie^ 
to be given on that day, are dittnbotAl to the foev» 
at the dia<^etion of the tiear and obuioh^MieM. 

The site of this parish was anciently ar §m^ ef 
Boer, and the houaea and ganfem i he fe ii po n y #ere 
aeeooDted a vill^e withoat ihewail et LondoB^ ealM 
Mora; which, hi ppoeesa of tioM/ kiereased gV^iifiy 
ia numhet of buildings, and wes mealituled a pi^ 
hood of St. Fanfa cathedral, of that appetiaticw. AtfA 
DOW tfaia Tilhge m totaUy swaBowed op by LcMdeA^; 
and the prdbendavy of Mora, or Mora #ith6uC the 
watt of London, hath the mak stvlft dft the f ighf 
sideef the chow, i* St. Paulfa Ctttbedral; df #hMl 
it 18 said, Nigellus Medicus was the fiM pH^ 
besdavy* g* 

Fart ef the old watt of the dRy rtsmtim on th« 
south and east sides of the cburch-yaitl, betoiigiag 
to Ihia parish V particnkvly one of the bastions, 
whieh ia efeaa agaiast the htfch part of Blafbarflf-i 

ThiacboTch hae receive the ramainsof ae^end 
eaihieat wTitersi) ameiig whom may be named Speed, 
die celebrated Bnglisb hieteriari and ca^^ogMpher; 
Fos, the martyroto^ ; GfaMrer, aii^ t tt defctfjgable an^ 
tiqoarian, and die MMMrtal Mibkiav whe* weft hMied 
ittthesdianeek, aiid wheae feoiaim'were \att\f diace^ 
▼ewdy in wmimg senMb aileMf ioM^ in* diat peft 6f Che 

At die 8Mitk«»t angjie of AftfelMMAlM^ 
if a Tety hambeoitf meetiag^^Mwe, iKult of^ W^k ; 


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and there is another, equaUy handsome, at the cor* 
ner of Coleman-street. 

; On . the opposite side of Fore-street is Grub'-street, 
<:elebrajted as the residence of unfortunate authors: 
In Haiwver-squdre, on the east side of this street, 
la: the house formerly occupied by General Monk, 
^who.was created Duke of Albemarle, for his services 
in restoring King Charles II. Farther to the nort^ 
is Son-alley, which forms the boundary of the city 
on this side. 

Proceeding westward, the next street is White-, 
cross-street, which is of considerable length; but 
this ward only takes in a small part of it. In this 
street was an hospital of St. Giles, founded in the 
feign of Edward I. but, being a cell to a French pri- 
ory, it was suppressed, among other foreign founda- 
tions, by Henry V. who soon afterwards re-founded 
it, for a domestic fraternity of St Giles, and reserved 
the appointment of a custos to himself and his suc- 

This street, with Grub-street, Golden-lane, and 
Chiswell-street, in Cripplegate parish, remained un- 

Eaved, until the 35th of Henry VIII. when they were 
. ecome almost impassable; in consequence of which 
an act of parliament was passed for paving them. . 
Opposite to St. Giles's church is Redcross-strc^t, 
ft Wide and well-built street, on the east side of 
whiohj near the middle, is a library, founded by Da- 
niel Williams, D. D, a Presbyterian minister, for the 
use of the dissenting ministers of tlie Presbyterian, 
Independent, and Baptist persuasions. This gentle- 
man, in 171 1) bequeathed his valuable collection c^ 
books, and nxanuscripts, for this purpose, with a 
handsome salary fof a librarian and a housekeeper, 
and, in pursuance <>f bis will, a neat building wa$^ 
erected in R^-cross-street, with a genteel apart- 
- ' '■' "• * ' ment 

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Aent for the librarian, &c. and a room/ capable 
<jf contaioing forty thousand volumes. . In this 
library is a register, in which dissenters may record 
the births of their children. 

This foundation, which has been greatly HUg* 
mented nnoti^. its first institution, is under the. direc-- 
tion of twenty-three trustees, viz. fourteen ministers 
and nine laymen, who must be all Presbyterians, 
under whom th^^ejs a secretary and a steward. Here 
are likewise some curiosities; as, an E^yt^tian mummy, 
and a glass bason, which held the water wherewith 
Queen Elizabeth was baptized. This last is kept in 
a bag, whereon is fixed a paper, that explains how 
the bason came into the possession of the managers 
of the library. 

This and Whitecross^street derived their names 
from a red and white cross, which stood in Beech* 

On. the north side of the town-ditch, and at the 
west end of St. Giles's church-yard, was a pond of 
watery fed by a considerable spring; but the. former 
being filled up, the latter Was arched over, about the 
year i44^, at the expense of Sir Richard Whitting- 
ton, and prefixed by the name of Crowder's well, 
which still remains, and is worthy the attention of 
the curious .antiquary. Crowdei^'sAvell-alley, which 
took its name from the well, is now converted into 
a handsome modern-built street, called Well-street. 

From tlie south end of Redcross-street, runs Jewin- 
street, of old time called the Jews' Garden, as being 
the only place appointed them, in England, for 
the interment of their dead, before the year 1177f 
when, after long suit to the king and parliament, 
at Oxford, they were permitted to have a place 
assigned to them in every quarter where they 


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Tim piece of gronnd was i^teined by dud Jeww 
till the time of theis total baimhnieDt from £iq(l«Q<l^> 
after wbkb k was cmverled into gai^en^plata wd 
summer-houses. This place, with the appurleimiiccs^ 
was aneietitly called Leynestowe, which King £d* 
ward I. granted to WilKam de Moste Fort^ i)eaii 
erf St .PanFs, London; baing » place (a& it is 
esipressed in a record), witb^t Cripplegaite, ioA 
tbe suburbs of Londoiiy ealled Leyrestowe, and 
whiqh waft the bvrying-place of the Jews of 
LondoB; which was Tahied at forty sbiilroga per 

Nearly firontmg the north end of Redcrosv-streety 
m former times, ^ood » watch-tower, called Bul'gh-' 
Kenning, or Barbican ; a kind of advanced j^oaC foe 
Cripptegate. These Bsrbccana were considered of 
sudu imiportntee, that the custody of daem was aL* 
ways intrusted to some person of consequence in tbe 
slate. This tower being granted byEdwatdULto 
file Earl of Strffbih, became hfis city resideiiee. It 
afterwards descended to Lord Wfttov^hby de Paiw 
bam, aod acquired the naane of WiHoi^Ut>y-house. 
The name of tbe Barbiean is still preserved ia that 
of the street which runs ftoos this spot to Alderagate-' 

Ad^joming to tbe Barbican, on the east, was asothtf 
stately edifice, called the Garfeer4iouse, wbiek Wa9 
erected by Sir Thomas Writhesley, Garter Kii^ at 
Arras, uncle to the first £ari of SoutiMmipton. On 
4iie top of this buiktine was a efaapel, called by the 
name of Santiasimsf Trinitatis in alto. Tbe site is 
now occupied by Garter-phtte. 

At a diort distance to tbe novth-west is Bridgb^ 

w^ter-square,, a small, neat quatdvangle, of plain but 

handsome houses, with a gras»-plat rad gravel^waHi, 

surrounded with iron rails. This square is buikt M 

? the 

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uOivmL AHD ITS EmriBons. 7 

the site of the house and gardens belonging to the 
Earb of Bridgewater. 

From the east end of Barbican rans Beech-lane, 
which Strype conjectures was named from Nicholas 
de la Beech, Lieutenant of the Tower of London, 
dismissed from that office in the 1 3th of Edward 10. 
In this street, a part of the stately laansion-house of 
the AUbol of Ramsey, in HuntingdkMMhire, is still 
itmaiiiiBg, the rooms wiiereof are very spacious and 
lofty ; and, judging by the dimensions of the kitchen, 
H must have Men built for the i^e of a numerous 
fiunily. In the time of Charles II. this was the re** 
sidenc^ of Prihce Bupeit. It afterwards came into 
the possession of Sir Drew Drewrie, and obtained 
die name of Drewrie-house, and is aow let out in 

At the north-east end of Beech-lane is a set of 
alms-houses, built in the year 1540, pursua^ to the 
wiU of Lady Ann Askew, widow of Sir Cbristophec 
Askew, Lord Mayor of London, in the year 1533, 
fior eight poor widows of the Drapers' companv, with 
an allowance of tluree pounds per annum, and half a 
chaldron of coals; ivnich endowment was left in 
trust to the company of Drapers. 

On the south side of Beecn-lane is Glovers'-CQurt, 
in which stands Glovers'-hall, a very old building, 
which has been some time deserted by the com- 
pany, who now transact their business at the George. 
and Vulture Tavern, jUunbard-^tr^eet. 


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Of Aldersgate IVdrd. — Bounds. — Precincts. — -Principai 
Streets. — Aldersgate-street.-^'St. Botolphj Aldersgate. 

"^'London- house. — IVestmoreland-liouse Old Ra^^ 

moon- tavern.^— Shaftesbury - house. ^^Lit tie Britain . -— » 
St . Anne^ Aldersg/ate. — St . John- Zachary . — Goldsmitfis* 
HalL-^St. Leonard, Foster-lane. — St. Mary, Staining. 
Coachmakers' HalL — Bull and Mouth-street. — Liberty 
' of St. Martin* s^le^Grand. 

Aldersgate Ward takes its name from the 
gate, which formerly stood about thirty yards south 
of St. Botolph^s church. It is very extensive, and is 
divided into Aldersgate-vvard within, and Alders-^ 
gate-ward without the walls. 

It is bounded on the east and north bv Cripple- 
gate-ward, on the west by the wards of I^arringdon 
within and without, and on the south by that of Far- 
ringdon within. It contains eight precincts, four in 
each division, and is governed by one alderman, 
eight common-council-men, fourteen inquest-men, 
eight constables, and two beadles. 

The principal streets in this ward are, Aldersgate- 
street, Foster-lane, Noble-street, Liitte Britain, and 
parts of Goswell-street, Barbican, Long-lane, Jewin- 
stceet, &c. 

Aldersgate-street, which is long and very spacious; 
runs northerly, from the gate to Barbican on the 
east side, and to Long-lane on the west. 

On the west side of this street, at the south cor- 
ner of Little Britain, stands the parish church of St. 
Botolph, Aldersgate. 

This church received its name from being dedi- 
cated to St. Botolph, a Saxon monk, and its vicinity 
to the gate. It was anciently a rectory, the patron- 
• . * age 

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ftge of which Wts' in the Dean and Canons of St 
M9rtinVle-Gf&ttd;,but it continued unappropriat^, 
until the year 1399> when Richard U. by his letters 
pateat> dated May ike 3l6t, at Pembroke, gave li- 
cense to Thomas Stanley, Dean of St. MartinVle- 
Grand, to afSpropriate the income, at that time, not 
exceeding five marks per annum^ to his collegiate, 
church, for the celebration of a perpetual anniver- 
sary for his deceased consort Anne, upon the day of 
her death, during his life ; but, after his demise, the 
anniversary to be solemnized upon his obit for ever. 
■hk consequence of this license, the church of St. 
Botolph was appropriated to that of St. Martin's-le- 
Grand, by a commission firom the Bishop of London, 
to his official, the dean and canons being bound 
to provide a sufficient maintenance for a chaplain to 
serve the cure ; since which time it has continued a 
donative or curacy* 

When Henry VII. in the year 1593, annexed the 
collegiate church of St. Martin's-le-Grarid to the 
ccmvent of St. Peter, Westminster, this church also 
became subject to that abbey ; but at the suppress* 
acm of monasteries was granted, by Henry VIII. to 
his new Bishop of Westminster. That bishopric, 
however, being dissolved on the accession of Queen 
Mary, and the abbot and itionks restored to their 
convent, this church reverted to its old masters; and 
when the monks were finally expelled, and the con- 
vent converted into a collegiate church, by autho- 
rity of parliament, in the reign of Queen ^i^abeth, 
she granted the curacy to the dean and chapter, who 
stdt retain it : Itis^ liowever, subject to the Bishop 
and Archdeacon of London, to whom it pays pro- 

The antiquity of this church may be collected 
from the parisif records; from which it appears that 
a house, anciently given to the parishioners, was, in 

VOL. III. Q the 

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to HISTOftY AND «U|tV£T 09 

the yetf 1319, demised by tbeiB, upon IcMe, t#*^ 
Bicfaard Rothing. 

It escaped the fire of LoodoDt ia 1666, but be* 
^me so Tuinous, that it has beea since r^uilt Ift 
is a plain brick edifice, with a wooden tower, 
crowned with an opai turret There is one kurge 
arched window, at the east end ; but the Ught is 
principally derived from sky-lights in the roof. 

On the same skie of the street, a little fertfaer to 
the north, stood a pakice, that was the residence of 
theMarquisof DcHrchester,andafterwards that of Lord 
Petre, of whom it was purchased, after the Bestora- 
tk)n, for the city mansion of the Bisliq> of London; 
from which time it was known by the name of Lon* 
don-house. It was a large commodious Mck buildings 
and had a neat chapel belonging to it; but bein|^ at 
length deserted by the prelates, it was let out mto 
several tenements and warehouses. This ancient edi* 
fiee was destroyed by fire, since which new buildings 
have been erected in its stead; the principal of 
which is that occupied by Mr. Seddon, and still 
called London-house, 

A little to the south of London-house, formerly 
stood the fine mansion of the Eails of Westmoreland; 
but this being also deserted by ita noble possessors, 
was let out in tenen^eftts, and to mechanic uses, and, 
at length, became so decayed, that, about forty years 
ago, it was entirely taken down: Uie site is now oc-* 
cupied by Westmoreland-buildings, and the adjacent 

To the north of London-house is the old build* 
ing, formerly the Half-moon Tavern, celebrated 
as the place e( resort, of the most noted wits of the 
sixteenth century. It is at present let in separate 
tenements; but th^ oM- front, ornamented with 
foliage and grotesque figures, has sufifered very Uttl^ 

4 On 

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LON0OH AJib its SHTlBOm. It 

On the east tide of tbe street^ neariy opposite to 
tiiese buildings, is Shaftesbury, or, as it is sometimea 
called^ Thaoet-hbuse. This edifice, which b |>y the 
masterly hand of Inigo Jones, is built with hnckt 
and ornamented with stone, in a very elegant taste. 
Ihe fiont is adorned with Ionic pihnters, from the 
▼(dutsa of which hang garlands of foha^ Tbne 
pilasters aie doubled on each side of the centre win« 
dow» over which is an arched pediment, opaicd for 
Ae ieoq>tion of a shield. The door is arcbed, and 
fiem each side of it sprines an el^ant scroll, for the 
support of a balcony. This structure had been let 
cot fixr mechanical uses, and was goioM^ fast to deday^ 
when, in the year 17^> the London L^ing-in-hospi« 
tal wes instituted. The promoters of tbat charity, 
havi^ hiied this house, repaired it thoroughly, and 
preserved it, for a time, from the fate of its opposite 
neighbours. The increase of that institution having 
rendered a kurger building necessary, they quitted 
ShafteAury^house, in 1771 9 and were succeeded by 
the General Dispensary, which still occupies tfaSb 
bade part of it. The front is di^ded into tenements, 
andlet to raspeelable shopkeepers* 

Littie Britain was formerly called Britain, or Bre« 
tBgne-atreet, fimn the mansion of the Duke of Bwr 
tagne, which stood near St. Botdph's church, but 
b^ been many years destroved. This street waa 
also the residence of several of our own nobility : th* 
Earl of Peterborough's house stood at the Gomer« 
when die south part of BarthdomeVs hospital now 
stands; and the whole east side of the street was oc* 
cu|^ed by a stately mansion, belonging to Lord Mon* 
tague ; the name of whith is still pseserved in Mon# 
lague^urt. , 

On die north side of St. AnneVlane, within Al« 
dersgate, ia the parish church of St. Anne, AU 
den^ } i^hicb it to called fiom it» dedication 


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St. Anne, the mother of the Virgin Mary, nd itt 

. This church was anciently denominated St. Aime'sy 
in the Willows, from the number of trees of Aat 8pe«> 
cies growing in its neighbourhood. Its foundatiim 
cannot be. traced, but it appears to be of some antU 
quity,' by John de Chimerby being collated thereto^ 
on the ^ of July, 1322. It is a rectory, the pa-f 
tronage of which was in the Dean and Canons of 
St. MartinVle-Grand, until that church, with its 
appurtenances, was annexed to the Abbey of West- 
minster ; by virtue of whichr the abbot and convent^ 
and, after them the Bishop, of Westminster, became 
the patrons ; but on the suppression of the Bishopric 
of Westminster, Queen Mary grai\ted the advowson 
to thelBishop of Lx)ndon, and his auccessora; ia 
whom it still remains. 

The old churdi shared the common fate in the 
great fire of 1666; soon after which, the present 
one was erected^in its stead, and the parish of St; 
John, Zachary, xmited to it. 

' It is a very plain edifice, enlightened by a few 
large windows, cased with rustic. The tower is 
square, consisting of two stages above the roof, and 
crowned with a wooden turret. The body of th<i 
church 4s fifty* three feet square; the altitude of the 
roof, which is supported by four handsome Corinthian 
pillars, is thirty*five feet, and that of the tower and 
turret, eighty^four feet. 

The parish of St. John, Zachary, is also a rectoty^ 
the church of which stood at the north-west comer of 
Maiden-lane. The patronage of this church appears 
to have continued in the Dean and Chapter of St. 
Paul's, from its foundation ; for it was rated to pay 
an annual sum to the Canons of St. Paul's, as early 
as the year 1181, at which time^it was denominated 
St; John Baptist's, The site of it is now a cemetery 

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fiif tli^ use of the pariabioners/ Part of the walls of 
the old church is still remaining in the church-yard, 
9iid £^uiidatioQ8 of t^e adjacent buildings. 

At the nonh-east comer of Foster4ane, standi 
the hall bekn^ng to the company of Goldsmiths, 
llus. spacious building supplies the place of one 
which was originally erected by Drew Berentin^ 
aboutf the year 1407> but was destroyed by the fire 
of London^ It is an irregular structure, built with 
brick, md the corners wroi^t in rustic of stone* 
The door is lajge, arched, and decorated with Doric 
€x>lumns, wMch support a pediment of the arched 
Hind, but open for a shield, in which are the*arms 
of the company. The hall-room is spacious, . and 
both that aad the other rooms are all well enlight- 

In the court-room is a fine portrait of Sir Husk 
Myddelton, with the words Pontes Fodincs^ on the 
picture to signify his double attention to hismineg 
and the NeW Riv^r, Here are also some other good 
paintings, particularly a portrait of $ir Martin Bowes, 
]ord mayor in 1545, in the costume of his office* 
The date on the picture is 1566. 

On the west side of Foster-lane stood the paro- 
chial church of St. Leonard, Foster-lane, which was 
limtided about the year 1S36, by William KirkhanC 
Dean of St. MartinV^^-Grand, in the court-yard of 
die collegiate church, for the use of the inhabitants 
of the sanctuary. It derived its name from its dedi^ 
cadoQ to a French saint, and its situation was added» 
to distinguish it from another church, dedicated to 
the same saint, in Eastcheap. 

It is a rectory, the patronage of which was an* 
ciently in the Dean and Canons of St. MartinVle- 
Graiia; in whom it continued till that deanery was 
annexed t6 the Abb^y of Westminster ; the dean 
and chapter of which still possess itrbut the church 


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being destroyed by the fire of London, and the pa« 
rish united to that of Christ-church ^ Newgate^street, 
they present alternately with the govemon of St 

The church of St. Mary Staining, or Stone-church, 
before the fire of London, stood on the north side 
of Oat-lane. The reason why it received the addi* 
tional epithet of Staining, is very uncertain ; some 
imagining it to be derived from the Painter-atainere, 
who might probably live near it, while oth^^ sup- 
pose that it was originally called Stany, or Stony, 
from its being built with stone, to distinguish >tfrom 
those in the city, built with wood, &c. This church 
not being rebuilt after the fire, the parish was united 
to that of St. Michael, Wood-street; but, in consi^* 
deration of the small endowment of this parislh, it 
ivas provided by the act which united them, that the 
patrons of St. MichaeFs should present twice in &ree 

The advowson of this rectory was anciently in the 
prioress and convent of Clerkenwell, in whom it con« 
linued till their suppression by Henry VIIL when it 
came to the crown, in whom it still I'emains. 

The site of this church is now used as a burial- 
phce for the parishioners, who hold a jB;eneral vestry, 
and have two churchwardens and four overseer*, 
thoufi;h there are only forty-seven houses in the 

Near the north end of Noble-street stands a con« 
vcnient hall, originally built by the company of Sen- 
veners; who, being reduced to low circumstances, 
Eold it to the company of CoachmakcrB, to whom it 
atill belongs. 

Bull and Mouth-street, a small part of which is in 
this ward, takes its name from an inn standing in it, 
and formerly known by the sign of Boulogne Mouth, 
•r Harbour, of which the present appellation is a cor- 


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ruptioii. At tbe corner ci this street, in Aldengate^ 
ftreet, was the city mansion of tbe Earis of North** 
umberlaod. In tbe 7th year of his reign. King 
Hemy VL gare this house, with die tenements-there* 
unto bekHigiog, to his Queen Jane, and it then ac<» 
quired die appellation of her Wardrobe. 

St MartinVl^ijhrand, which is considered as a 
part ci this ward, is a distinct liberty, subject to the 
Uean and Chapter at Westminster. It was or^inaily 
a college, founded in the year 700, by Wythred, King 
of Kent, but was rebuilt and endowed,about the year 
10J6, 1^ a noUe Saxon, named Ingelricus, and bis 
l»other £dwardus, for a dean and secular canons, or 
priests, and was dedicated to St. Martin: tbe epithet 
le Gram^ was afterwards added on account of the 
great aod extraordinary privileges, particularly the 
dwgerous om of sanctuary, granted to it by different 

William the Conqueror confirmed the endow* 
ment of this bouse, and the possession of the lands 
given by the founders, to which he added all tbe 
Sloor4and, without Cripplegate, and freed it and its 
cancms from all disturbance and exaction of any bi« 
fhops^ archdeacons, or their ministers, and from all 
regal services* He likewise granted them sac and 
soc, t^ md team, and a Ions et cetera of Saxon li- 
bertiea, in the foUest manner that any church in Eng- 
land possessed diem. His charter, which bears date 
in 1068, and is sanctioned by John and Peter, the 
Pope's legates, concludes thus: ** If any person 
whatsoever rihall presume to alter any thing hereby 
gfanled, let him be punished with Judas, the 

This charter was confirmed by King Henry IIL 
who granted the dean <^ the monastery and church 
more amj^e privileges. And it was again confirmed 
by Edward 1I« with an additional privilege, that no 

inhabitant VjOOQ IC 

inhabitant within this jurisdiction should be Sued 
out of their own court) except before the king, or 
Ills chief justice. 

By the charter of Kine Edward IIL it was ordained 
that all inquisitions, to be taken by tiie justices, and 
other the ministers of the men of the city of London, 
should be taken at Great St. Martin's, in London, and 
tkoi elsewhere ; except inquisitions to be taken in 
circuits of the Tower of London, and for the gaol 
delivery of Newgate. But King Henry VIII* in the 
year 1519i revoKed that charter, and removed the 
sessions of the peace from St. ^Martin's to GuildhalK 

King Henry VI. confirmed the foregoing charters; 
but he established certain articles concerning its 
sanctuary, in cases of debt, felony, and treason ; by 
which it appears, that St. Martin's was, at thdt time, 
a sanctuary for great disorders, and a shelter for ti)» 
loosest sort of people, such as rogues, ruffians, thieves, 
felons, and murderers; and that every excess of vice 
and irreligion, fraud, oppression, and breach of the 
laws, were exercised within its liberty. 

To so great a height of licentiousness was thi» 
sanctuary grown, that, in the reign of Heniy VII. 
the sheriffs of London venturing to take from thence, 
by violence, a person who had been guilty of murder, 
the Abbot of Westminster (to whom the deanefy , with 
its sanctuary and privileges, had been granted), ex* 
hibited a bill to the king against them; upon which 
the cause was heard in the Star-chamber, and the 
sheriff severely fined. 

This place was occasionally the residence of the 
kings of £ngland ; as appears fix>m a writ of Edward 
I. being dated here on the 30th of October, in the 
first year of his reign. And, in the same reign, the 
king's court appears to have been held here; for, in 
1293, a cause was removed from the Court of Hust- 
ings, to be tried before Gilbert de TbornvtUe, and 
• • ' other 

Digitized by 


^ LOKDON AKD m filHriROKS. 17 

Others, at St. Mirffm^s the Gkreat, in London ; and 
the custos'atid sh^ffi were commanded to bring tbe 
record, and process, and all things pertaining to it» 
before them. 

The deans were also among the greatest men in 
the nation ; for, in the reign m Edward IIL William 
Mulse, who held that office, was chief chamberlain 
of the Exchequer, and receiver and keeper of the 
king's treasure and jewels; and, in die preceding 
reign, Petrus de Sabaudia was promoted to the archi* 
episcopal see of Lyons, in France. 

The church of St. Martin's-le-Grand was anciently 
in the donatioik of the king ; as appears by Edward L 
baving, in the 8thyearof his re^,grantedthe deanery 
to Galfridus de Newband. 

In the Bishop of London's Register of old wills, 
it is called a parish, and a curfew bell was rung here, 
as at Bow-church, St. Gilea's, Cripplegate, and Bark* 
ing church, to* give the citizens warning of the time 
of night, and to keep within doors. 

This coll^;e was surrendered to King Edward YL 
in the year 1548, and, in the same year, the college 
church was pulled down, and many tenements 
erected on its site, which were immediately taken at 
high rents, by non-freemen, in consequent^ of being 
exempt from the jurisdiction of the city. 

In the year 1 58;$, a great number of foreign trades^ 
men and artificers planted themselves on this spot; 
among whom were John James, and Anthony Eme- 
rick, subjects of Philip, King of Spain, who were 8ai4 
to have been the first silk-twisters, or silk-throwers^ 
in London, and to have brought that trade into 

The street of St. Martin's-le4jrand leads from the 

north-east end of Newgate-street, formerly called 

Blowbladder-street, from being a place where blad«* 

ders were sold, to the spot where Aldersgate stood; 

ToiJ.iix, D but 

Digitized by 


t8 juwoftv jL¥Si ^3iur£9r pjt 

bnt ibe liberty extends -ftr as AigeUrtmot 
«uvl BeilrsquMre, iMnr.St Aane'ftJane; thefeottiiider 
Jbeing i|i die fiqedom of the^e^. This ptrt of ^ 
street, with the courts and alleys adjoiniDgt is oonsi* 
ideced.asfMit of ihe Ijjboity of W eMimQsfeer» and the 
sidiabitaiits an governed, aod vote a€€Dndiogiy» Mid 
cany on {their trades, iiiridMWt ibeing free lOf the icit^ 
fifLondop. IthasdsoBCQurtof iMordvilbinHseit, 

Ebj€ct <to dhe Dean and Cbi^pter of Westminalert 
lid ieveiy Wednesday, for the trial of M pepsgnai 
actions, of what nature soeiser« In this oourt, the 
leading poooess is a eapias against the body, or an 
4itiaehment againit die goods; so. that a manis goods 
inagr be sekaed in his own house, upOQ the iixyt |>rQ» 
cesS| if he himself be Qot lakea* 


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Loiwoir Am iM Bimaom 19 

Of f& ft^drdofParringianJP^tlltn. — As /Uerftt^ idere 
Utit OfMeni^eletfHVe.'^^miis.—Prednctf.'^Chedp' 
side^cross.'^-^St. Peter', JVeHchedp.-^The JjoHg SHop.--^ 
Embroiderers* HalL^f^,Velk»t\ PMter-hHe.^Ati Mi- 
chael Queme.-^'SQUers' MaHb9m,J!¥idty', 
street.— Tke^ Old G/un^di — iS#« AmtHn.^'^^St. Faith.^ 
'^Newgate-street. '•^Bagnio'Court.'^'-Charles Lst's Gt- 
gantic Porter and Dwarf.— Chrisi-ofiurchf Newgate^ 
street. — GretfFriars.'-^Si: J!ftich6las, Shambles.— St* 
Physicians. '-^Newgate market.-'^PMnier'alley.—'Si*' 
PmefsCaiMfnk^'*^Chaptigr-hmise.*^St^. Paul's School. 
"-^Stationers' Hall.-'— St. Martin^ Ludgate.'—Blach* 
friars^^Apotheea/ries' HaU. 

Ttg»yfMfft^i^&n BM thar df FalMngdoil Widiotftr 
ifiSMHSSP^KM WiUimil F^endori) CithfM aAd g6ld^ 
«iidiidfkkoddlft]> whdl'^th hiir Mn Ni<5holte; ^i#ei« 

«Ml>fiitft nnr bf dlmtfota, but' by^ puMhM^ or-inheH'' 
SM!^, air wiU'-a(jpearft(^ the fbH6Wifag abWidet^df tf 
d«(Kl^iliid^itf)tten0lgh of King^Edwbrd L 

'^*llbM]iif«d€^Aftl^^,«iine add beiietaSif<I&ltflf 
jMMM; Km; gmtited' t&Bxi^ le I^ure, dtizeil 
of^LMdQH; oif^of tbd i^rifllbi ih fh« yigir]l977; 8(ff 
€lNMi<4CffMfi#; ^Vitb th^appdtt^MKJIf^^ ^tUnlli^ 
city of London, Bfi& 9\i\Hlib§ dfi the'^tti^,' bftw^ri 
tiiidgM^MdN^lv^M^rflndal^' Without' the ddme 

dlttirf^ his IMer;' by lHef git^Vff df> th^ Mtd^TlJoma^ dli 
ilMeM^' ttf^lMfl^ 8rtfd> t%^h6id^urit6'th^ strM'iUtpKi 

mg, therefore, yeerely, to ttttf^sMl^l^eliHiSP^ aftd> li{« 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

so. nmOMY AND 80RTET OF 

heires, one clove (or slip) of ^Iliflowers, at the feast 
of Easter, for all secular service and custome, with 
warrantie unto the said Ralph de Feure, and his heira^ 
against all people, Christians and Jews, in considera- 
tion of twenty markes, which the said Rdph de 
Feure did give, before-hand, in name of a gersum, 
or fine, to the said Thomas, &c. 
Dated the 5th of Edward L 
Witnesse, G. de Rokesley, maior. 

R. Arrar, one of the sherfffes. 

H. Wales, 

P. le Taylor, 

T. de Bassing, 

J. Horn, 

N. Blackthorn, alderman of London.*' 

After this, John le Feure, son and heir to the sacid 
Ralph le Feure, eranted to William Farendon, citi- 
zen and goldsmith of London, and to his heirs, the 
said aldermanry, with the appurtenances, for the ser- 
vice thereunto belonging, in the 7th of Edward L in 
the year of Christ, 1S79. This aldermanry descended 
to Nicholas Farendon, son to the said William, and 
his heirs: which Nicholas Farendon, also a gold-, 
smith^^was four times mayor, and lived many yean 
after. He made his will in 1 361, which was fi{ity*three; 
years after his first being mayor, and was buried- in 
St. Peter's church, in Cheap. . So this ward continued. 
under the government of William Farendon, and Ni- 
cholas, his son, the space of eighty years, and letaios 
their name unto this present day. 

The first name of this ward was Fori ; and the ad- 
dition of within the wall of London, and without the 
wall of London, was given to each part^ when the 
large possession of the Farendons was divided into 
two aldermanries, to be governed by two aldermen^ 
chosen by the inhabitants. 


Digitized by 



Thk ward istonnded' 6n the east by Ch^apside 
and Caade Baynaid-wards, on the north by Alders^ 
eate and Cnpplegate^wards, and the hberty of St. 
MvtinVle^Ghrandy on the west by. the wand of Far- 
ringdon witlKmt, and on thesoudi by <!:;astle Bay- 
nard-ward and the river Thaaies.' 

It la divided into eighteen precincts, and is go*- 
vemed by an alderman, seventeen' common-counctl- 
men, nineteen c(Mistabtesi» seventeen inque8t<*nien9! 
and two beadles. 

We shall b^in the surv^ of this ward i at the east 
extremity, which takes in that part of Cheapsifltei ' 
where formerly stood the great cross. 

TliiB was one of the crosses erected by Edward L 
in token of his affection for his deceased Queen .£Ii^ 
n<nr, at every place where her. body rested in its way/ 
to int^rmcot, in the year 1290. It had, originally, 
the statue of the queen, but, falling to decay, was* 
lebnilt, in 1442, by John Hath^ley, mayor of the' 
dty^ and several of the citizens, when it was orna^ 
mented with images of the resurrection, the Yirgini.* 
Edward the Confessor, and some others. Aft^ the 
Beformation, these inn^s gave great offence, and- 
were frequendy mutilated; for which reason, the 
goddess Diana wais substituted for the Yii^n Mary. 
At length, in 1643, the puritanic bigotry of the par- 
Ikonent occasioned a resolution for taking down all 
cKMea, and demolishing all popish paintings ; and 
die destruction of this cross being committed to Sir 
Robert Harlow, he went on the service with true 
seal, attended by a troop of horse, and two compa- 
nies of foot, and executed his orders most effec- 

At the aouih-west comer of Wood-street formerly 
stood a church, dedicated to St. Peter, and distin- 
guished by the addition of Westeheap, or Wood- 
street. It 13 a rectory* the patronage of which was 


Digitized by VhOOQIC 

wmientky In die aU[)otl ancb <a»bmat^oi 9bL AUxtflts ; 
ia^wbom id contkiued till- the jn^ppreaBioit o£ thbm. 
monaBtery;^. whea Henry VliL. ffitiatod it tt> the Edsk 
of Soutfaampton^ it is^ now in the gift of private: pB^' 
flonai. Thfr chordu beiagr destlxqi^ by the fin^ in*^ 
1666, was not rebuilt; aad the pariah was antted to? 
thai of St..Matt)iew^ Fridi^^dreet 

Blithe yeas 1401i, a iicenae wasgibkUed tothe^^in^- 
hsdstants^of thiaipariri}; to erect a^ediedi or ah<^, ba^- 
fore their church, in Cheapside, for which th^ wever 
tO" pay^. aimualiy,' to the chcHnbcr of ILdndtmv the 
sum. of thirty rfiiUin^ s,nd ibur pence; but thifn 
ground-rent proving: too high, it wea reduced to thir*' 
tefeit^ahillinga and four pence. On die site' of ttiia 
buildingvwnich was called the Long. Shop, four ahopai 
warn auevwerda erected with nxuns over them: 

Westward from Wood*>&itreet,. on the same side iat 
GSattei^ane, on: the west side of which, is* Em^* 
faroiderers •hally a smalL but very handsome biuld^' 
iBg, and conveniently adapted for ther management) 
of: the afSaiirs of the. company. 

A little farther to the west is Bsster-^kiae; en th ei 
eaat^side ofwhich'stands the paroehial chuitdirofTStl^ 
¥0dast^ alias Eoster^s; 

This church, which is a rectory, is sadenominlitedb 
from bein^ dedicated tb St VddaM, Bisboip'of Ar^ 
nm; andtakeaitheadd}tioaal^pelhMk>nj.ei«har£Rmi 
the^plaoeof its^tuation, oFti)eft)under^ ambeiktoe;^ 
The ^rtt mention made of'this'cbutohi^ is^^tbafei Wali^ 
ten deeLcmdon^ was' presented thetete in: thtif^ yio^ 

The pstrona^e of tKist church wa^ aMi<(lntiy']if{4 
and continued with the Prior and Convent of Can> 
terhmy, till dieyearas^^^ wtieti irwa^^ tnaisfeited 
to^theacchbisfaop. It hto bean in him^an^Ms ^90%^ 
oasaom ever since, and is one* of the thirteei^'pecii^' 
IkOT in^^this city,%betonging^tt> the^^aehiepisoopakigiw. 
9 Though 


Digitized by 



-Tfaongli this chnich \fas not eirti«iy< deati i i ye d fsy 
die diettdftil conflagralaon in 1666, yet itTOceived 
^eiy conaderable oMuge; and was «ftevwaidi la- 
paioed^ ^r ^die meat pasftj oipon the cAd vaih. The 
^ieepLe «lood till the year 169A, wfaeD it was Ibiiad 
ia fiuoh a weak cooditiai^ that the ponabiooeDi had 
it taiaen dcmn and sebiitlt, at their own charge, en« 
tinly af atone. It is six^-nine feet ioog, fi%Hooe 
/e^broad, and thirly-six feet high, to the 0O0C; aad 
is 'well enlightened by a range of vindoura^ pkoed 
iso high, that the doers open under llievi. 

Tne neglected tower of Itiis church is one cf Sir 
Christopher Wren's happiest efforts, and deserves 
that admiration which is due Id success in « difficult 
lusdwtakinff. The author of the Critical Review of 
ilfae Pubhc Buildings, says, *^ It is not a glaring pile, 
4faat aliikes tiae eye, at the ficst view, with sn ideaef 
.gnuideiir and magnificence, but then tlie beautiftil 
fsyiaaiid it forms, and the just and weii-piopoitioned 
simplicity of all its parts, satisfy the mind so effi^tn- 
aHy, that nothing seems to be wanting, and nothing 
ean be spared/^ 

After the fire of London, the parish of St Michael 
Qttenie was annexed to that of St. ^edast. The . 
latter is a rectory, the church of which stood at die 
wast end of Cheapside, fronting the street; but, not 
being rebuilt, its site was laid into the street, in pur- 
fuanoe of the act for rebuilding the city. 

The easiest account we find of this chnrch, is in 
the year 1181, when the state thereof was returned 
to the De»yi and Chl^pter of St. Foul's; at which time 
k appeals to have beea only a chapel, and as such 
it centtnrued many years after. It was not made a 
rectonr, till possessed by Thomas Newton, who waa 
buried in <i)e choir, in the year 1461. In ancient 
records it is caHed St, Mi<ihael ad Bladum, i. e. at 
the Cora (which posterity has conrupdy pronounced 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Queme); because, at the time this church was 
founded, there was a corn-market, that reached up 
from it, westward, to the shambles, or flesh*market ; 
from which situation it was sometimes called St. 
Michael de Macello. At the east end of this church 
stood the Old Cross, in Westcheap, which was taken 
down in the year 1320, to make way for the en- 
larging of the church, and for the erection of a lit- 
tle conduit, at the north-east gate of St. Paul's 
church-yard ; which appears to have been the stand- 
ard where Walter Staple ton, Bishop of Exeter, and 
Treasurer to Edward IL was decollated by the po- 
-^ulace, in 1326. 

At the south-east angle of Foster-lane, and fronting 
towards :Cheapside, stands Sadlers'-hall. This is a 
very neat building, the inside of which i& adonied 
with fret-work wainscoting, and, though small, ex- 
ceeds many others, both in beauty and convenience^ 
It is situated in a small court, with a handsome gate 
to the street. 

On the south side of Cheapside is Friday-street, 
at the north end of which stands the parish church 
of St. Matthew, Friday-street ; which owes its name 
to its dedication to St. Matthew the Evangelist, an4 
ks situation. 

The patronage of this church, which is a jectDi^i^ 
was in the Abbot and Convent of Westminitter^ titt 
their suppression, when, the conventual church be* 
ing converted into a cathedral, Henry VIIL confer- 
.red it upon the bishop. But the new bishc^iric being 
dissolved soon after, Edward VI. in the year 1551, 
granted the advowson of this church to the Bishop of 
London and his suQeessonn in whom it still con* 

The old church was destroyed by the fire of Lou** 
don, and the present structure erected upon its 
ruins. It is a plain stQue building, mtk osie aeries 

Digitized by 



of large arched windows ", and at the east end is the 
steeple, which ccnisiats of a square brick tower, 
ivholly devoid of ornament. 1 he length of this 
church is sixty feet, its breadth thirty-three feet, the 
height of the rooi thirty-one feet, and that of the 
tower seventy-four feet. 

Farther to the west, on the same side, is the street 
called the Old Change, from the King's Exchange, 
or office for receiving bullion in exchange for coin, 
standing there. It was fanned to the citizens of 
London, who received the old coining irons, and de* 
livered new ones to all the mints in England. 

At the comer of this street, and Watiine-street, 
stands the parish church of St. Austin, called, in 
old records, Ecclesh Sancti Augustim ad partum^ 
because it stood near the gate leading out of Wat- 
ling-street into St. PauPs church-yard. 

It is a rectory, the patronage of which appears to 
have been always in the Dean and Chapiter of St. 
Paul's; for it is mentioned in their books, in the 
year 1181, when Ralph de Diceto was dean. 

The old church was destroyed by the fire of Lon- 
don, on the ruins of which the present edifice was 
erected. It 'is a substantial structure, built with 
stone, and well pewed and wainscoted within : the 
pulpit is finely embeUished, and the altar-piece is 
spacious and beautiful, with a very handsome pedi- 
ment in the front, supported by pillars, in imitation 
of porphyry, and on the top of the pediment are the 
king's arms. 

The length of this church is fifly-one feet, the 
breadth forty-five feet, the height of the roof thirty 
feet, and that of the steeple, one hundred and forty* 
five feet. 

After the fire of London, this church was made 
parochial for the parish of St. Austin and that of 
St Faith, which was united to it. 

VOL, III, E The 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The church of St. Faith was ofigifially a distinct 
building from St. Paul's, at the east end of it, bu4 
was demolished between the yealrs 1951 aud 1S5&, 
to make way for the enlargement of that csfthedrai ; 
end 'm lieu of it, a place of worship was given, to the 
parishioners, in the cryptis (corruptly, toe crowds)^ 
or western part of. the vaults under the choir of the 
cathedral, which, being dedicated to St. Faith, ao* 
quired the appellation of Ecclesia Sanctas Fidei in 
tryptie. Here the inhabitants continued to perform 
their religious duties, until the year 1551, when the 
chapel of Jesus, at the east end of the vault was supr 
pressed, which being much larger, and better en- 
lightened^ they were permitted to remove into it« 
and continued to occupy it until the cathedral was 
destroyed by the fire in 1666; after which, this pa- 
rish being united to St. Austin^s, the parishioners 
were no longer in want of a church. It is a rectory, 
and one of the peculiars belonging to the Dedn aad 
Chapter of St. Paul's^ where they are both patrons 
and ordinaries. 

Part of the church-yard belonging to St Faith's 
parish was taken to enlarge the street at the east end 
of St. Paul's church- yard, and the remainder lies 
within the inclosore, and serves for a burying-place 
for the parishioners of St. Faith. 

Leaving the eastern extremity of this ward, we 
pass from the north-west comer of Cheapside inlQ 
Newg«ite*street; which took its name from the gat« 
formerly standing at the west end of it. 

On the north side, of it is Bagnio<-court, which 
took its name from a bagnio situated in it, and th4 
fk^ miDroduced into this capital. 

In the front of a house, at the entrance of BiJK 
head-court, is a small sculpture in stone^ of WilKam 
Evans ^nd Geofiry Hudson : the forager thd gigantic 
porter of Charles I« wtiose stature Iraa seven feet 


Digitized by 


lilWllOK AKD lis EinriAoics. S7 

«Ad a half; the Mter, dwarf to the iane monarch, 
wid ottfy fintee feet nine iachqs in height. 

Farther to the weat,<m die same aide, is a passage 
^rlHch leads to Christ-K^hurch, Newgate-s^eet. 

This church is dedicated to the name and honour 
cif our Saviour, and originally belcmged to the con* 
vent of Grey^Here, or Francisoans, hut feUing to- the 
cFO%vn, at the dissolution of that religious house, 
Henry ¥Ifl. g^e it to -the mayor, commonalty, and 
oitifleBs of London, to make a parish church, in liea 
of the two churches of St. Ewen, in Newgate<>nMir- 
iiet, «ear the north comer of Ekjeness, now called 
Warwick-lane, and of St. Nicholas, in the Shambles^ 
<Mi the north aide of Newmte ; 'both which churohes, 
and their parishes were mereupon demolished, an4 
as iflfiuch of St. Sepulchre's parish as laid within Nervr^ 
gate, was added to this new-erected parish, which 
was then ordered to be called by the name of Christ- 
•church ; irora which time it was made a yioarage, 
in the patronage of the mayor, commonalfy, and ci^ 
tiMns of (xHidon, as governors of the hospital of St. 
Bifftholomew, also of the foundation of Heniy Vill. 

King Henry VIH. gave five hundred marks pet 
annum, in land, for ever, for the maintenance of the 
said chureh, with divine service, repairs, fee. la 
consideration whereof, the -mayor, commonalty, and 
eitissens, did covenant and^rant (inter alia), to "find 
and sustain one preacher at this church, who was to 
be, -from time totime, vicar thereof; giving unto him, 
yearly, ^or his stipend, sixteen pounds thirteen shil- 
lings and four pence, to the visitor (now called the 
Ordinary of Newgate) ten pounds, and to the other 
^ve priests in Christ-church, all to be helping in di- 
vine setvice, ministering the sacraments and sa- 
ennnentals, eij^t pounds a-piece; to two clerks, 
six pounds each; and to a sexton, four pounds 


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The old church was destroyed by the fire of Lou* 
don, after which the present structure was erected. 
It is built of stone, very strong, spacious, and band- 
some. The tower is square, and of a considerable 
height, crowned with a light handsome turret, 
adorned with vase». The inside ^ neatly orna«i 
mented, the walls and pillars are wainscoted, and 
tbeie are very large galleries at the west end, and 
on the north and south sides. On the south side of 
the church without, has been lately erected a plain 
but neat brick building, to be used as a vestry-room* 
for the better convenience of the ministers who offi- 
ciate in the church. 

After the fire of London, the parish of Sjb. Leonard, 
Foster-lane, whose church was destroyed, and not 
Tebuil^ was annexed to Christ-church; and the pa* 
tron^e of the former, which is a rectory, being in 
the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, they, and 
the governors of St. BartholomewVhospital, present 
alternately to these united livings. 

The Grey Friars were friais minors of a religious 
order, or society, founded by St. Francis, of Assisi, 
who was canonized by Pope Gregory IX. in 1298 ; 
of whom a detached body of nine brethren, viz. five 
priesjts and four lay brothers, was sent from Italy to 
settle and propagate their order in England. They 
arrived at Dover in 1234, from whence four of them 
repaired to London, and the other five settled at Can* 
terbury. Those who came to I^ondon, were received 
and entertained by the Friars-preachejrs, at their 
house, in Hplborn ; from whence they removed to 
a house in Comhill, provided for them by John Tra- 
vers, wherein they continued for about a year; but 
being much straitened for room, in consequence of 
the great increase of their numbers, John Iwyn, a 
physician and citizen of London, who afterwards be* 
came a lay brother among them, granted all his land 


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' and hou8e9f in the parish of St. Nicbolas, Shambles^ 
to the mayor and commonalty of London, for the 
purpose of providing them with a spot of ground, 
whereon a building for their use mi^ht be erected. 

A site being thus procured, which was consider* 
ably enlarged by the additional benefactions of the 
mayor and commonalty, as well as by the munifi- 
cence of private citixns, divers of the principal in- 
habitants of the city, began, in the year 1336, to 
erect, at their own expense, a house and chapel, fof 
the better accommodation of these friars. But their 
numbers continuing to increase, the chapel became 
too small for the celebration of the divine officG&^ 
wherefore, Margaret, consort to King Edward I. be* 
gan a stately and very spacious church, which was 
twenty-one years in building, and, in dimensions, 
exceeded all the places of worship in this city, except 
die cathedral ; it being no less than three hundred 
feet in length, eiehty-nine in breadth, and sixty-four 
feet in height. This magnificent structure, which 
extended from Butcher-hall-lane to Grey Friars*- 
gateway, was erected at the charge of Queen Mar* 
garet and the two sdcceeding queens, and of the no- 
bility and citizens of London. 

Ajnong other bene&ctors to this convent, was Sir 
lUcfaard Whitthigton, who, at his own expense, 
erected a library, one hundred and twenty-nine feet 
long, and thirty-one broad, and furnished it with 
good store of books. 

Weaver, in his Funeral Monuments, informs us^ 
that here were buried four queens, four duchesses, 
four countesses, one duke, two earls, eight barons, 
and thirty-five knights; and, in all, six hundred and 
sixty-three persons of quality were here interred, be- 
fore the dissolution of the convent. In the choir 
were nine tombs oi alabaster and marble, inclosed 
with iron bars. One tomb, in the body of the church, 
2 coped 

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C!Dped tvith iron ; and one hundred and forty marble 
«rav«*6tone<§, m divers places; all wfeicb were pulled 
down, fiemoved, and sold, by 'Sr Martin Bowes, lord 
iiiay<M'of Lond&B, in 1545, for fifty pounds. 

The churcfh of St. Nicholas, Shambles, which was 
pulled down when Christ^ohurdi was erected, took 
its name ffom its dedication to St. Nicholas, and its 
additional epithet 'fiom its situation ; Ihe Shambles 
having been the ancient name <j( Newgate-street, 
from the flesfa-mat^ket therein. It stood at the cortier 
of Butcher-hall-*Iane. That of St. Ewen, or Owen, 
was on the south side of Newgate-streel, between 
Ae market and Warwick-lane; the remains of which 
were veiy lately existing in the <sellaars of the houses 
on that spot. 

Adjoining lo this church, at the north-west cor- 
ner, 4s ChristVhospital. 

This is a Toyal foundation, for the maintenance 
and education of poor and fa^erless children, to be 
virtuously brought up, and -fitted for trades. It was 
originally gran^ to the city, by 'Henry VIM. in fte 
year 1537, and conifirmed m 1552, by charter <tfEd^ 
ward VI. who also endowed <he hospital with cer- 
tain lands and tenements, belonging to the Savoy, of 
the yearly value of six hundred pounds; whiOh so 
Animated (he citizens, that, on the 96th of July, 
1552, they began to fit up the bte Grey Friars* mo* 
nastery. Tor the reception of poor orphans, «id pro* 
. secuted the work with such zeal atid dkcrity, thati 
mi the 23d of November, in the same year, three 
hundred and forty boys were admitted ; which num* 
ber was increased, by the end of the^ear, to three 
hundred and eighty. Almost the last action df this 
young king's life, was granting permission to the go- 
vernors of this hospital to purchase lands in mort- 
main, to the value of four thousand marks pet 


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LONBOlf klXJ> ITS £NViBOV«. 91 

This hmdaUe foundfttidi of Kiog Edward VI* was 
gieatly incKeased by th^ beu^af^tions of his subjects, 
^f WJJiiaiKi Chester, knt. and aldermaD, and John 
Catthrop, dtiseo aad draperi built the brick walls on 
the side next to St. BartholomewVbospital, and 
arched over the town^itch, from Aldersgate to 
Newgate, as being offensive to the hoi^ital. 

Id the year 16739 King Charles II. added a ma- 
thematical school, and a ward to the hospital, for 
the instructkm of forty boys in navigation, and en- 
dowed it, for seven years, with one thousand pounds 
per amium,.to be paid out of the Exchequer. Tea 
of these boys are put apprentice, every year, to mas« 
ters of ships, and ten others, of the best genius, are 
elected to supply their places. But, lest this mathe* 
matical school should fail, for want of boys prc^rly 
qualified to supply it, one Mr. Stone, a governor, left 
a legacy, to maintain a subordinate mathematical 
school, of twelve boys; which is called Stone's 
School, where they are prepared for reception into 
the KingVward. 

All tbe boys in the hospitalNare publicly examined 
twice a year, before the governors, assisted by the 
faead-Hiaster of St. Paul's-schooli and other proper 
exafflifters. The mathematical boys are presentt^d to 
the king every New-year's-day, when they carry 
some of their mathematical productioas with them, 
as evidences of their proficiency. They are also pre«> 
sented once a year to the lord chancellor, the lords of 
the treasury, and the lords of the admimlty, sepa- 
rately. ^ from four to six of these boys pass au exa- 
nuaation every half year, before th^ eider brethr-on of 
the Tnai^-house, pievious to their being put to 
sea. . .... 

The fMunbei' of c^ldveii ib this hospital at one 
time has oiften amounted lo mote than one thousand* 
ilieif 4reaa wnsisto cf ak)t)^ owt of bi^ oloth bang* 


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ing loose to their heels, girt about their waist with 
a red leather girdje, buckled; a loose petticoat un- 
derneath, of yellow cloth (of late years the boys are 
allowed breeches), a round thrum cap, tied with a 
band, yellow stockings, and black low-heeled shoes. 
The boys in the mathematical school, as a badge of 
distinction, wear on the breasts of their coats a plate 
of silver, with an emblematical device on it, the dye of 
which is kept in the Tower, where they are all 
stamped. The principal figures on this plate are, 
Arithmetic, with a scroll of accounts in one hand, 
end h^ other hand placed on a blue-coat boy^s head. 
Geometry, with a triangle in her hand. And Astro- 
tiomy, with a quadrant in one hand, and a sphere in 
the other. Round the plate is the following inscrip- 
tion: Auspicio Caroli Secundi Regis, 1673. This 
badge they retain during their apprenticeship, as a 
security against their being pressed Into the king's 
service in times of war. 

There is also another mathematical school for 
thirty-seven boys, founded by Mr. Travers. 

The children are received into this hospital at 
seven years of age, and those who have not already 
been taught to read are sent down to Hertford ; at 
which place there is a school and proper instructors 
to prepare them for being sent to the hospital in Lon- 
don ; where they are received as room is made for 
their admission by the eldest boys being bound out 
apprentices. The girls are also all sent to Hertford, 
where they receive the whole of their education. 

The principal buildings of this hospital form the 
four sides of a large area, which have porticoes con- 
tinued round them. These have Gothic arches, and 
the walla are supported by abutments, being the re- 
maining cloister of the old priory. This part was re- 
paired by the direction or Sir Christopher Wren, 
and serves for a thoroughfare as well as a place df 


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recreation for the boys, especially in rainy wea- 

The exterior view of the hospital is very irregular; 
the several parts haying been erected at difierent 
times, and being theretbre a mixture of the Gothic 
and modem styles of building. 

The- great hall was built at the expense of Sir 
John Frederick, Alderman of London ; and here the 
boys occasionally dine and sup. On the western 
side of this room is a laige picture, by Verrio, who 
has introduced his own portrait, in a long wig, re- 
presenting King James II. sitting with his nobles, the 
governors, &c. with the half figures of King Edward 
VI. and Charles 11. hanging as pictures in the same 
piece. Beyond this is a very handsome picture of 
King Charles II. at full length, dressed in his royal 
rob^, painted by Leiy in 1662. At the other end 
of the hall is a laige piece representing King Edward 
VI. delivering the charter to the lord mayor, who, 
with the aldermen behind him, are kneeling ; the 
young king is accompanied by Bishop Ridley and 
several others standing about him. In this hall is a 
good organ that is played when the boys sing their 
psalms or anthems on Sundays and other special 

In the court-room are portraits of Edward VI. and 
the chief benefactors to the hospital. That of the 
kins; is a capital picture/ and indisputably one of 
Holbein's best productions. 

The records and other papers belondng to this 
hospital are kept in a room, all the walls of which 
are stone: among them is a curious piece of anti* 
quity, being the earliest record of the charity, and 
coot^ining the anthem sung by the first chil^re^t 
very beautifully illuminated. 

There are eight wards in the hospital, eauA. of 
which contains upwards of fifty beds for the children. 

VOL. III. F There 

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Tbei^ 19 algQ another €pnyeni<pnt war^ set apprt. 
for the side, to which they are removed, and due 
care takep of them. This wsird is a<;cominodated 
with a (kitchen, a copsultatioD chfimber, wd other 
cjinyenieDjt offices. 

The writing-school is a peat edifice, sup|)!prt€xl. 
on pillais, and built with brick ^d stone, in the 
yefur 1694, at the ^nd of th^ gr?at hall. It ^jras 
fpunded by Sir John l^oore, o|ie of the aldermen of 
th0 city, and president of the hous^, whom it is s^id 
to hf^ye cost ^ve thousand pounds and coQtaimi 
Ipug writing-hoanfe sufl^cient fqr the use of five 
hundred boys. At the upper epd of the room is a 
Qiche, m which was formerly the statue that is now 
placed on the outside of the schopl, under which is 
the following inscription : 

Anno Dom. 1694. 
** Tl^is writip^-school, and stately building, was 
begun, and completely finbbed, at the sole 
charge of Sir John Afoore, K^t. and Lord 
Mayor of the city, iij the year MDCLXXXI. 
now president ^f this house, he having beeii 
otherwise a liberal benefactor of the same.'' 

' The namviar school is situated on the north side 
ff th^ hospital, near the passage into Little-Britain. 
It was erected in the y^r 1793^ and is whoUy of 
brick, except the omamei^tal parts, which are stone. 
. Over the south gate that leads into the cloisters, 
is a statue of King Edward VL now much mutilated, 
beneath which is writtei», in letters of gold, the foU 
k>win§ iascriptioD: 

** Edward the Sixth of famous memcHry, King of 

England, was the founder of Christ's Hospital^ 

and Sir. Robert Clayton, JS^nt. and Alderman^ 

' * some 

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U>!Cb09 AKD its EKTIBONlt iS 

some time lord mayor of tfab city of l!<ondoD» 
erected this statue of King Edward, abd buitl 
most part of this iabrick, Anno Dom. 1682*' 

It is only from the passage leading to this gatet 
and the backs of the houses in Newgate-street, that 
the principal, or south firont of the hospital can be 
seen. It is a handsome piece of brick-work, (XTia- 
mented with pilasters of the Ionic onler, and having 
a circular pediment in the centre. 

On the east side of the building, opposite to the 
counting-house, is a much more perfect statue of 
Edward VI. standing on a slab of black marble, in 
the attitude of delivering the charter. Aiid in the 
niche, over the western entrance from the Grey 
l^ars, is a statue of Charles 11. in the royal robes. 

One of the boys is annually sent to Cambridge 
to be educated for the chUrch; and every third year 
one is also sent to Oxford. 

The children are chosen into this hospital every 
Easter, and each governor has the privilege of pre- 
senting an unqualified child, that is the child of a 
non-freeman, whose parents are alive, at every' third 
turn of presentation. 

The number of the governors is unlimited : bene- 
factors of four hundred pounds or upwards being as- 
sociated with the lord mayor and citizens who are 
governors by the chatter. 

The permanent funds of this charity consist in 
an annual revenue in houses and lands ; the licens- 
ing and looking after the carts allowed by the city, 
each of which pays a certain sum for sealing ; and a 
duty paid upon every piece of cloth brought to 

It is computed that the atmual expenditure of this 
hospital amounts to thirty thousand pounds per an- 
pum, including the board and clothing' of the 


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children and the salaries to the officers and servants 
of the foundation. 

A plan is in agitation for rebuilding this institu- 
tion, and a subscription has been already commenced 
foi* that purpose. 

Opposite to the south-west entrance in to this hospi* 
tal, on the south side of Newgate-street, is Warwick, 
lane, which derives its name from the inn or house of 
Hichard Nevil, the king-making Earl of Warwick. 
Speaking of his coming to London to the convention of 
145 8, Stow says, he was accompanied by " six hundred 
men, all in red jackets imbroidered with ragged 
staves, before and behind, and was lodged in War- 
wicke-lane : in whose house there was often six 
oxen eaten at a breakfast, and every taverne was 
full of hismeate, forhee that had anie acquaintance 
in that house, might have there so much of sodden 
and rost meate, as he could pricke and ciirry upon a 
long dagger/* The memory of this earl is still pre^. 
served by a stone status in front of the hou^e at the 
west corner in Newgate-street. 

Qn the west side of this lane, near the north end, 
b the College of Physicians. 

This is a very noble structure built with brick and 
stone, the entrance to which is through a grand oc- 
tangular porch, crowned with a dome that finishes ii| 
a cone. The inside was designed by Sir Christopher 
Wren, and is very elegant and well enUghtened. 
The central building, which contains the library and 
other rooms of state and convenience, was the design 
of Inigo Jones. The ascent to the door is by a flight 
of steps, and in the under part is a basement stoiy. 

The whole front i$ decorated with pilasters of 

, Ionic and Corinthian orders. In the center over the 

door-case, is the .statue of King Charles II. placed in 

a niche; and directly opposite, on the inner front of 

the octangular porch, stands that of Sir John Cutler, 


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The buildings that compose the two sides of the 
court, are uniform, and have the window-cases htod* 
somely ornamented. The orders are well executed, 
and the whole edifice is both beautiful and commo* 

1 he different apartments beloi^ing to this college, 
consist of a committee-room, a library furnished with 
books, by Sir Theodore Mayerne, and the Marquis 
of Dorchester, a great hall for the quarterly meetings 
of the doctors ; a theatre for anatomical dissections ; 
a preparing-room, where are thirteen tables, contain- 
ing all the muscles in the human body; and, over 
all, there are garrets, to dry the herbs for the use of 
the dispensary. In the hall are the p^Ktraits of se^ 
veral of the most eminent of the faculty ; among 
which are those of Sir Theodore Alayerne, physiciao 
to James I. and Charles L Harvey, who discovered 
the circulation of the blood; Sir Edmund King^ the 
transfuser of blood from one animal to another; Sy*- 
denham, who first introduced the cool regimen in 
the small-pox ; and the celebrated anatomist, Yeua^^ 
iius. The latter is a very good portrait on wood, by 
Calkar. Here are also busts of Hervey, Sydenham^ 
and Mead. 

This society's first college, which was given them 
by Dr. Linacre, physician to King Henry VIII. was 
in Knightrider-street. . They afterwards removed to 
a house, which they purchased in A men-corner, 
where Dr. Harvey built a library and a public hall, 
which he granted for ever to the college, and en* 
dowed it with his estate, which he resigned to them 
in his life-time. Part of this estate is assigned for 
^n annual oration in commemoration of their benefac* 
tor, and to provide a good dinner for the societ}'. 
This building perished in the flames, in 1666; after 
which the present edifice was erected on a piece of 
grov^d purchased by th^ fellows, 

A little 

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A little to the east of Warwick-lane is the entrance 
into Newgate-market. 

This market is kept on a commodious square piec« 
of ground, measuring one hundred and ninety-four 
feet from ea^t to west, and one hundred and forty- 
eight feet from north to south, with a large market- 
house in the centre. Under the market-house are 
vaults, or cellars, and the upper part of it is princi- 
pially used as warehouses for fruiterers and gardeners* 
The shops within this building are for the sale of 
tripe, butter, eggs, &c. The houses that extend on 
each of the sides, which form the square, are most 
of them occupied by butchers; and the avenues that 
lead to the market, from Paternoster-row and Ne\*''- 
gate-street^ are occupied by poulterers, fishmong- 
ers, &c» 

Before the fire of London, this market \Vas held 
in Newgate-street, where there was a market-house 
for meal, and a middle row ofshe'ds, which were afteri 
wards converted into houses, inhabited by butchers; 
tripe-sdiers, &c. while the country peopte, Avho 
brought provisions to the city, were forced to stand 
with their stalls in the open street, wheref their persons 
and goods were exposed to danger, by the passage of 
coaches, carts, and cattle, that passed through the 
streets. At that time, Butcher-hall-lane was filled 
with slaughter-houses for the use of this market; 
and Blowbladder-street was rendered remarkable by 
blown bladders hanging in *the windows of the shops 
where bladders were sold. 

Farther to the eeist is Pannier-Galley, the north end 
pf'Which almost faces St. MartinVle-Grand. In this 
alley is a stone pedestal, supporting a pannier, with 
yi'flgure of a boy upon it, and this inscription : 

When you have sought the city round. 
Yet still this is the higliest ground. 


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Returning a little to the west, 6^ the %80uth side 
of Paternoster-row, is Canop-alley, which leads into 
St. Paul's church-yard, in the centre of which is si- 
tua^^ pa^edral church of St. Paul. 

"Ice has heen generally supposed to have 

jTed in the place where anciently stood a 

'icated by the Romans to the goddess 

I jgpiinion derived from the tradition of the 

K the horns of deer, and the tusks of 

: oeen commonly dug up there; but ^ 

A^i;^, iq clearing the fouiylatioiis gf 

j^tructure, found none of these, he justly 

I tbe« opinion; and his son, in his Parei^ta- 

m a di^erent account of the origin of the 

Itieman observes, that the first cathedral 

i see of London, was built in the area, 

^n the Roman Pnstorian camp, and in 

on which all the succeeding fabrips 

\1iukt this structure was denu)lish€d during 

the g||ea||| f|wl* general persecution uiii4er. the £mperor 
DiodMw^ 'I'his persecution was, however, short : 
thecki}|npb is supposed to have been re-edified under 
CoBstqy^liae ; but it was afterwards destroyed by the 
PagaiiwSnons, apd restored again upon the old foun- 
dations, when tb^y embmced phristianity in the se-. 
venth century, when Sebert, King of Evsex, ad- 
vanpfi4 Mellitus to the bishopric of London. 

Is^fi^iy we find Erkenwald the fourth Bishopof Lon-* 
don fe^ Mellitus, expending great sums of money in 
rep^ngand beautifying the ancient edifice, augment- 
ing Its rev^ues, and procuring for it the most con* 
sidbnible privileges from the pope and the Saxqn 
prioces then reigning : for these works the bishop 
was canonized at his death, and his body placed in % 
glorious shrine above the high altar in the east part 
of the church, where this shrine remained the ad^ 


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miration of succeeding ages, liU the fatal destruction 
of the whole febric by fire. 

■ This catastrophe happened in the year §61 ; and, 
as it \yas rebuilt in the same year, it is highly proba- 
ble, that these early structures, how magnificent 
soever they niight then be thought, were only small 
wooden buildings. 

During the Saxon heptarchy, this church flourish- 
ed extremely ; Kenrad, King of Mei cia, declared it 
as free in all its rights, as he himself desired to be at 
the day of judgment ; Athelstan endowed it with 
fifteen lordships ; Edgar, with two ; and Egleflede 
his wife, with two more ; all which were confirmed 
by the charters of Ethelred and Canute, which 
solemnly imprecate curses on all who dare to 
violate it. 

The next benefactor to this church was Edward 
the Confessor; but, at the Norman invasion, which 
soon followed, some of its revenues were seized by 
the conqueror : however, he was no sooner seated on 
the throne, than he caused full restitution to be 
made; and even confirmed all its rights, privileges, 
and immunities, in the amplest manner; with bene- 
dictions upon those who should augment its posses- 
sions, and solemn imprecations upon all who should 
violate any of the chartere made in its favour. 

In that reign, a dreadful fire consumed it a second 
time, and by this conflagration, which happened in 
1086, the greatest part of the city was "also laid in 
ashes: but this destruction served to make way for a 
more magnificent building than had ever yet been 
applied to the purposes of devotion in this kingdom. 
Maurice, then Bishop of I^ndon, having undertaken 
this great work, obtained of the king the old stones of 
a spacious castle in the neighbourhood, called the 
Palatine Tower, situated near the river Fleet; but 
though he lived twenty years, and prosecuted the 
:i work 

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work wiHi uncommon earnestness, yet he left the" 
completion of what he had begun to succeeding ge- 

The successor of this bishop followed his eitample, 
and even applied the whole revenue of his see towards'- 
the advancement of this great work, but, like the 
former, left it unfinished ; after which it is supposed 
to have been completed by kty persons; but at what 
time, or in what manner, is no where mentioned. 
Indeed, William Rufus, who succeeded the Con* 
queror, is said to have exempted all ships entering 
the river Fleet with stone, or other materials, for the 
new cathedral, firom toll and custom ; and it is not 
improbable, that he might take this structure under 
bis own particular direction. 

But, notwithstanding the length of time, and the 
great expense bestowed upon this church, it had not' 
long been completed, when it Was thought not suffi- 
ciently magnificent; the steeple was therefore rebuilt ' 
and finished about the year 1331 ; and then Roger 
Niger, being promoted to the see of London, in 1329i ' 
proceeding with the choir, completed it in 1340, and 
solemnly consecrated it afredh, the same year, in the 
presence of the king, the Pope's legate, and many 
lords both spiritual and temporal. 

The spacious and magnificent edifice of St, Paul's 
cathedral, being thus finished, a survey was taken of 
it, by which its dimensions appear to have been as 
foltows. The length of the body of the church was 
six hundred and ninety ieet, the breadth one hundredi . 
and thirty, the height of the roof of the west part, 
within, one hundred and two feet, that of the east 
eighty-height, and that of the body one hundred and 
fifty; the height of the tower, firom the ground, was 
two hundred and sixty feet; firo«i whence arose a ' 
wooden spire, covered with lead, two hundred apd 
seventy-four feet in length; on the top of which was 

vorl.iii. Q a ball) 

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44 I^KTOflY A^p «9^V£lf QW 

H ball> iiiHe fw% obq. ioch i^ cir<;^lAferenoe. This» 
wa9 crowned with a cios$, that was fifteen feet in 
length, and the traverse six feet* 

The ornajneots of this cathedrc^l exceeded tho^fB of 
^very. other church in the kingdom. The high, altw 
sjtQod betweefi tw.o qolumn^ adorned with precious, 
e^QQes, and surrounded with imagcas nxosA beaubfuHy 
Y/rought, a,Dd covered w(ith. a canopy of wood, cgri-. 
o^siy pf^ioted^ witji tl)c representation of saints. aMdb 

iher new serine of St Erjceuw^ld stood on the 
east side of the wail above tb^ high ajtar, and. w«^. 
adpri^ed Avith gold, silver, and precious. stones; but. 
npi bfing thought sufficiently rich, in 1339* tbcee. 
goldsmiths of London were retain/ed by the d^ai^.aud; 
chapter to work upon it a wbolje ye^i:, at the eod:Of 
ifhich. its lustre w,a^ s^ great, that prioces, nobles^^ 
i^mbasi^^rs, and other £c>i:eigner^ of rank, flacked 
ftjOOQ, ajl parts, to. visit it, and to offer their oblar 
tipns before it: among these we find all the rjogs 
aud jewels of Walter de l'horp» and the besiL 
sjipphire 9tone of Richfird de Preston; which last 
\va^ applied to the curing of infirmities of the eye»f 
and proclamation of its virtues, was made by theoxr 
press will of the donor. 

The p^:tufe.of St. Paul, finely psiinted^ was^ placed 
11^ a. wooden tabernacle, on die right side of the 
Ivght altar, anfcl< was esteemed; a. masterly perform^ 

Against aj pillar, in die bodjf of tliQ churchf aftoodia. 
beautif^il image oC the ViigiivMary; and Jobn^Bur*. 
n^t, Bishop of J^ath aj|d \^ells9 b^ueatbed 9^ 
hf^ndsQ92e estate;, that a lapop might continually - 
bp kept burnipg before, it, and au anthem su^gi: 

In the center of the chjirch stQ^,^. large cross* 
and/ toward^ the nortji d<)or, a ci^jci&c^.at which, of? . 
. •• * . . fmngs 

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fisrin^ w«re made, that gteatly idisreated the revennd 
of the dean aad canonic. 

The last piece of orftament deserting of ttention^ 
was the fine dial belonfging to the great cktek, Which 
befiD^ visihle to ail who pa^ed by, care wad takeil 
that ft should appear with the otriioat splendor, andj 
in particular, an angel pointed to the hour. 

St Fmrs CathlHinil was encompassed with a wsdl^' 
about tl^ year 1 109, which extended frotn the north<^ 
^ast comer of Ave-Mary-kine, eastward, along Pater- 
noster-row, to the north end of the Old Change, in 
Cbeapside; whence it ran southward to Carter-lane, 
and, passing on the north side of it fa Cref^d-Iane, 
turned op to Ludgstte-street* To this wall there 
were six gates, the principal of which was situated 
near the end <k Creed-feii'e in Ludgate-street, The 
Second was at St. Paul's^-atley, in Patefrtoster^mw r 
Che third at Canon-alley; the fourth, called the Littlef 
Gate, was situated at the entrance into Cheapside; 
the fifth, called St. AnStin^s, led to Watling^street; 
aild the sixth fronted the south gate of the church, 
near PauFs-chain. 

In the middle of the church-yard, within the north 
dide of this inclosure, was situated a pulpit^^^rbs^, at! 
which sermons were preached weekly; and' here wad 
held the fblkmote^ or genertil Convention of thd citi- 

Facing this dross stood a chapel, called tlie Chair- 
nel, m which the bones of the dead were deceiitiy 
plied up together; a thousand cart-loads whereof 
Were removed to Fmsbury-fields, irt the r^gn of Etl- 
*»d yi, and there laid in a iliOori^ plkce, Witb to 
much earth to cover them, aft raised a considerable^ 
M>ant, on which was erected th^ee windiirfll^. 

At Ae lioithiwest OOrtler of the churtih-yarti, VJ^H 
rtie e^iseopal pklace, contiguous to Whi(?h, on th^ 
east, was a cewewiy, denominated Paitteh-cftiUrbh-* 


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baw; where Gill^rt Becket erected a chapel, in tb« 
reign of King Stephen. Tins chapel was rebuilt io 
the reign of Henry V. by Thomas Moore, Dean of St. 
Paul's, who also encompassed it with a cloister, on 
the walls of which was painted the Dance of Death; 
a common subject on the walls of cloisters, oc reli« 
gious places. This piece represented along train of 
different orders of men, dancing into eternity, each 
having Death for his partner. A painting of the 
same kind, in the cloister of the Holy Innocents, at 
' Paris, gave birth to a poem, consisting of the speeches 
of the different personages, aud the answers of Death, 
which was originally written in the German Ian* 
guage, by Madiaber, whence the painting itself ac* 
quired the appellatibn of the Macbabray, or Ma- 
chabre. From a French version of this poem, our 
old poet, Lydgate, made an English translation, of 
which each speech was given to its corresponding 
figure in the picture. 

In this chapel were several sepulchral monuments, 
which, according to Stow, exceeded, in curioua 
workmanship, those in the neighbouring cathedraK 

Over the east side of this cloister was a handsome 
library, founded by Walter Shyrington, Chancellor 
of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

. On the east of the church-yard was a clochier, or 
bell tower, by St. PauPs-schooI ; wherein were four 
great bells, called Jesus-bells, from their belonging 
to Jesus-pchapel, in St. Faith Vchurch; but these, to- 
gether with a fine image of St. Paul, on the tap of 
the spire, being won by Sir Miles Partridge, Knight^ 
of Henry VIII. at one ca^t of the dice, were, by that 
gentleman, taken down and sold. 

It may not be improper, here, to take notice of 
the celebration of divine service, the obsequies, anni- 
versaries, and chauntries, particularly belonging to 
tbi9 cathedr?4- as to the ^rat, Richard Clifford, Bi-. 


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L06CDOV AKP ITS £JffyiB0tC8.^ 4< 

abc^ pf LondoD, in 1414v ivith ihe qonseot of tbe 
dean^ and chapter,, ordained, that, from theBcefort 
ward, it shoudd be alteced from the old fouaa^ and 
made. conformable to the chUfich of Sahata}ry,..aiid 
other cathedrals within this kingdom. . 

The performance of oba^uks^fiaF-gx^at ^peiBOni 
deceased, was, however, retained aa'^.pec«dtarprivi<» 
lege of this cathedral, from wheiieei great profits 
afoae* ^' Indeed, the state add order/ obaerved oh 
these occasions/' says Sir William EKigdafae,''^ wai 
little inferior, to that uted j at the fuherals of. t;boae 
great personages; the church and cb(Mr beiog hung 
with\black, and • escutcheons of their ariiisr their 
horses set up in - wonderful magniikieuoe,iadomeii 
with rich banner-rolls, &g« and environed with, bar-*' 
riers; having chief mcHiinecs and assist^nrls/iateoni;'* 
panied bysev^al bii^hoi^s and abbots, in their proper 
habits; die ambassadors of foreign princes, .many of 
our nobility, the knights of tlie Garter, the brd mayors 
and the several com{»nies of: London, who all at« 
tended with great devotion at these ceremonies.'^ 
This author adds a list of emperors, empresses^ and 
kings, whose obsequies were performed in this ca« 

As to anniversaries, those of the conversion and 
commemoration of St. Paul, the consecration of the 
church, and the canonization of St. Erkenwald, were 
the principal. It is very remarkable, with respectto 
thet\vo first of these anniversaries, that Sir William ie 
Baud, Knt. in the third year of Edward L granted a 
good fat doe, annually, on the day of the conversion 
of St. Paul, and a good fat buck, upon the day of 
commemoratioii, which, till the reign of Queen Eli- 
zabeth, were received with great formality, at the 
steps of the choir, by the canons, clothed in their 
facred vestments, with garlands of flowers on th6ip 
h^adfi. Camden, who was an eye-witness of tliis qo-f 
jj l-mnity, 

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46 ' lUSlOaT A3ID SURVEY 'or ' 

komity, myst tfalft the hofda bf the buckwigre Ml% 
ried on a spears in procdssion^ rouai ^faci kiAide of the 
ohurck, the men bbwitig boitis, (8tc. an4 therii the 
buck, being offend at the higb'ahat^ a shilling was 
ordered by the dean and (^pter^ for the ^ntevtaifi^ 
ment of tbe,SQrtfaBls.ii?fao brougkt it ; and this oon- 
duded tfar)cereiB0riy« 

The »niiivei8arie» of the consecfation and ea^ 
nonixictioii^ were oelebratdd at the public expaoee ; 
but there were .o(ber aBniverearies, of a private n^ 
tare, provided for by partiNsular endowmenid, as -that 
of Sir John Pbonieney , Knt. who had been four timea 
Loiid Mayor of London^and aaaigned annual aakirieft M 
all who bore office about the chufcb, togetiwr with aa 
allowance of aix shillings and eight pcoice to the lord 
nnyor, fiveabtUmgt to tbe leeoraer, six sfailKngs and 
- e^lfct pence to the iwo shcrifik) three ahillings and 
icmr- pence to the common crier, she sbittings and 
fright pence to the lord mayor^s seiyeemta; and ain 
ttknllin^s and ei|fkt pence to the nueter of the colliege 
of St- Laurence Fouuteney, provided they were pie* 
sem a^ bis anniversary ; but, if any were absent, thot 
share was to be do^buted to ifae poor. There word 
many other anniversaries of the same kind. . 
. The chauntries were founded by Bien of condition, 
for the maintenanQe of one or tWo priests, to cele«< 
biate divine service daily, for the release from pur^ 
gatory of theirsouls, the soul& of their dearest friends 
and relations, and of all the faithful deceased*; but 
Itiese were». ma short tione, increaaed to such, a de« 
grae, and the endofUments were so slender, that, so 
sarly-as the reign of ^Richard II. Bishop Bmyb^k6 
eauaed forty-four of t^em to be united into one so^ 
itmn service. 

liaving thus taken a transient survey of this mag* 
inficent^edifice, in its flounshing^ state, with all its 
qipendttgea, we shall' now view its decline) and Itace 


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Le^ipotH- ANi> IXi £9¥IJt6M. 49^ 

this vcMi»U« Gotbiie stmolorqi to ite final destnie^ 

TNq fiim rew^rktbto mMft>itu»e that Weil it wm 
lA Il44i4> wben, abour. t^m Q^;L9ek. hi tbe^ afternMD^. 
m k^ty w^ockA 8f>ii?e was fir«d^y l^taMg;, boty. 
hy ibe fmiimty cS (he eitiaefia, ii was, «aoiiv sMinh* 
11991^9 ^xtipgwhed: however, td.t^r gfrntcSunpoM: 
swd tQQGOP^ it. brcdM qut ag^ia with rediHAhM.ftiry at. 
a^Mi iwe o^ctoak ai night ; bat,;by tho iiuteft^igahk) 
{l^Qsof the lord Baayx>c anfl ciUmog^ it waa at last; 
effectually extinguished. Xh« djimafe )vaa; not;, 
h^rwevec^ fiiUy repaired till the year 146% wihen the 
spiittrwaa.Qonftpifete^ aiadi a. beaiilifUl Taoe of; g^ 
cQppev iof the formi of^ an eaglet waa plaeed upon it. . 

AhoM an. hjuadred. yean, after this aacident^. 
aopth^r of. the same: kind. happened to it, genenaJbfr 
sittfibuted to the aan>e canae., \mt mneh more fatal in: 
its consequ^neea ; thefu-e-conaujBingnationly'ttiafiMi 
s^ire^ butthe uppec roof of the church^afidtbat.of/thei 
aisles ; for, in the space of four hours it burnt ail the* 
mfteasi, and every thing else that T^as combustible : 
l)ut tbqugb it waa universally believed tbait this* fiiac; 
was occasioned by lightning, yet, Dc* Hef]rltn> si^^, 
an anejeot pliiinGJber confeased, at hisfdeath^ that: it:; 
waa ocoaaiqned; through his negligence, in. carelessiyr 
laaxriiig aipSin of: coala- in; the steeple^, while he: went! 
tpi^dinner^ which taking hold of the dry timber iau 
th^ spine, was got tQ,such Si height H histreturn^ thalri 
h(^ judged, it impoasible to quenoh. it» andthesefoo^i 
Cfmciuded it would be ibore conaNilefii with^ faja? 
safety not to contradict the comotion import 

This calamity was* foUowied by a.genecsi cantrip 1 
b^tion among the: cl^gy<, nohfelity^ afld<gmaAvOflEk)^iiy/ 
of Hate, tb^ai):yi^. London, and Qm^o Eltaabfil^ 
hefaelfi whQ:gare a: thousand marks in gold toi¥iiKid9:» 
it^ sppedy repair>» with, a; wanrant. ioc: at.thousandl) 
lQ*ij.ojgtimteii tQ M. cof,< any nfi.her woods,,. 


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48' fttStORl? UKD strfevBV off 

wlo^rever it should be (bund most convenient ; so 
that in five years time, the timber roofs were entirely 
finished, and covered with lead, the two largest 
being framed in Yorkshire, and brought by sea; but 
some difference in opinion arising about the model 
of the steeple, that pitrt of the work was left unat^ 
tempted ; and it was never after rebuilt; for upon 
raising the roofe the walls were found to be so much 
damaged by the fire, that it was judged neii^essary 
to make a general repair of the whole building ; but 
this was deferred for a long time. 

At length Mr. Henry Farley, after above eight 
years earnest solicitation of King James I. prevailed 
on his majesty to interpose in order to prevent the 
ruin of this venerable fabric, when that prince, con- 
sidering of what importance appearances are in the 
promotion of public zeal, caused it to be rumoured 
abroad, that on Sunday, the 96th of March, 16S0, 
he would be i»^sent at divine service in St. Paul's 

. Accordingly, at the day appointed, his majesty 
came- thither on hoi^eback in all the pomp of royalty, 
attended by the principal nobility and great officers 
of his court, and was met by the lord mayor, alder* 
men, and livery, in their formalities, who, upon the 
king's alighting at the great west door, joined in the^ 
procession. When his majesty entered the church, 
he kneeled near the brazen pillar, where he prayed 
for success; and then was received under a canopy, 
supported by the dean and residentiaries, the rest of 
the preben4s and dignitaries, with the whole compa- 
ny Of singing-men advancing before him to the cboir» 
which, on this occasion, was richly adorned %vlth 
hai^ngs. Here he heard an^antliem,.at)d then pro- 
ceeded to the cross, where Dr. King, Bisihop of Lon- 
dbn, preached la sermon suitsrble to the occasion, from 
a, text given him by his majesty, in Psalm cii. 13, U* 


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and this sermoD was afterwards circulated with con«« 
' sidenible effect through the whole kingdom. After 
divine service was endued, his majesty and the whole 
court were splendidly entertained at the bishop's 
palace^ where a consultation was held, in which it 
was agreed to i^ue a commission under the great 
aeal^ directed to the principaf personages in the 
kiogdom, empowering them to consider of the 
neceasaiy repairs, and to raise money for carrying 
them into execution. But though the commis* 
sicmeis afterwards met t6 prosecute this inquiry, yet, 
as it was found that the ruin of the bishop and prin^ 
cipal dignitaries of the cathedral was chiefly aimed 
at, the whole affair came to nothing. 

However, in the succeeding reign another com- 
mission was obtained for the same purpose, by the 
assiduity of Archbishop Laud, which was attended 
widi better success; so that in 16:33, Inigo Jones, 
his majesty's surveyor-general, was ordered to begip* * 
the repairs at the south-east end, and to bring them 
along by the south to the west end. 

This celebrated architect prosecuted the work 
with such dili]^ence, that in nine years time, the 
whole was finished 1[)oth within and without, except 
the steeple^ which was intended to be-entirely taken 
down^ and a magnificent portico of the Corinthian 
order, was also erected at the west end, at the sole 
expense of King Charl^ I. ornamented with the 
statues of his royal father and himself. 

Everything being now in readiness for erecting 
the steeple and spire, which were to be of stone, an 
estimate was made of the money contributed, and 
that already expended in repairs; whereby it ap* 
peared that one hundred and one thousand three 
hundred and thirty pounds four shillings and eight* 
pence had been received into the chamber of Lon- 
don on this account, and but thirty-five thousand five 

VOL. III. H " hundred 

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liundred and fifty-one ponnds two shillings and 
four pence paid out, so that there appeared to .be a 
fund in hand sufficient to erect it in the most mag- 
nificent manner : but the flames of civil war soon 
after breaking out, a period was put to this great 

The revenues were now seized; the famous plilfHt 
cross in the church yard was pulled down ;• the 
scaffolding of thesteeple was assigned by parliament 
, for the payment of arrears due to the army ; the 
body of the church was converted into saw^pits ; - 
part of the south cross was suffered to tumble down; 
the west part of the church was converted into a 
stable, and the stately new portico into shops for 
milliners and others, with lodging-rooms over them, 
at the erecting of which, Dr. HeyUn observes, the 
magnrficent columns were piteously mangled, being 
obliged to make way for the ends of beams, which 
penetrated their centers. 

However, at the restoration, a new commission 
was procured for its immediate reparation, and 
great sums of money raised by a voluntary contribu- 
tion ; but before any thing material could be ac- 
cotnplished, the dreadful fire of London reduced 
the whole edifice to little better than a heap of 

After two years fruitless labour in endeavouring 
to fit up some part of the old fabric for divine wor- 
ship, it was found to be incapable of any substantial 
repair. It was therefore resolved to raze the founda- 
tions of the old building, and to erect on the same 
spot a new cathedral that should equal, if not exceed, 
the splendor of the old ; for this end letters patent 
were granted to several lords, spiritual and temporal, 
authorising them to proceed in the work, and ap- 
pointing Dr. Christopher Wren, Surveyor-general of 
all his mjyesty's works, to prepare a model. Con- 

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tributioos came in so extremely fast, that in the 
firet ten years, above one hundred and twenty-six 
thousand pounds were paid int6 the chamber of Lon- 
don ; a. new duty for the canrying on of this work 
was laid on coals, which at a medium produced five 
thousand pounds per' annum, and his majesty 
generously contributed one thousand pounds a-year 
towards tlie same. 

Dr. Wren, afterwards Sir Christopher, was now 
called upon to produce his designs: he had before 
dfawn several, in order to discover what would be 
most acceptable to the general taste; and finding 
that persons of all degrees declared for magnificence 
and grandeur, he formed a very noble one,, con- 
formable to the best style of the Greek and Roman 
architecture, and having caused a large model to be 
made of it in wood, with all its ornaments, he pre- 
setted it to his majesty ; but the bishops not approv- 
ing of it, as not being enough of a cathedfal fashion, 
the surveyor was ordered to amend it, upon which 
he produced the scheme of the present structure, 
which was honoured with his majesty's approbation. 
Thesurveyor, however, seta higher value upon thefirst 
design, which was only of the Corinthian order, lik^ 
St. Peter's at Rome, than on any other he ever drew 5 
and, as the author of his life observes, would have 
put it in execution with more chearfulness, than 
that which we now see erected. This curious model 
18 still preserved in the cathedral, and may be seen 
at a small expense. 

All things being now ready, and many difficulties 
surmounted. Dr. Wren, in the year. 167^9 began to 
prosecute the work; the puUing down the old walls, 
which were eighty feet high, and clearing the rub» 
bish, had cost many of the labourers their lives ; and 
this put him upon contriving to facilitate its execu* 
don by art. The first project he tried was with 

gunpowder ; 

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gunpowder; for, on their coming to the tower of die 
steeple, the men absolutely refused to work upon it ; 
for its height struck the most hardy of them with 
terror. He therefore caused a hole, of about four feet 
. wide, to be dug in the foundation of the north-west 
pillar, it being supported by four pillars, each four« 
teen feet diameter, and then, with tools made on 
purpose, wrought a hole, tw6 feet square, into the 
center of the pillar, in which he placed a little deal 
box, containing only eighteen pounds of powder. A , 
cane was fixed to the box with a match, and the 
hole closed up. again with as much strength as pos* 

Nothing now remained but to set fire to the train ; 
and the surveyor was exceeding curious to observe 
the effect of the explosion, wbicti, indeed, was won- 
derfuh for this small quantity of powder not only 
lifted up the whole angle of the tower, with two 
arches that rested upon it, but also the two adjoining 
arches of the aisles, and all above them ; and this it 
seemed to do somewhat leisurely, cracking the walla 
to the top, and lifting up, visibly, the whole weight 
about nine inches, which; suddenly tumbling to its 
centre, again caused an enormous heap of ruin, with* 
out scattering; and it was half a minute before this 
huge mountain opened in two or three places, and 
emitted smoke. The shock of so great a weight from 
a height of:itwo hundred feet, alarmed the inhabitants 
round about with the terrible apprehensions of an 

A second trial of the same kind was. made by a 
person appointed by Dr. Wren, who, being too wise 
in bis own conceit, disobeyed the orders he had re- 
ceived, put in a greater quantity of powder, and 
Dmitted to take the same care in closing up the hole, 
' or digging to the foundation; but, though this second 
trial had the desired effect, yet one stone was shot, 


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18 from die mouth of a canoon, to the opposite side 
of the church-yard, and entered a private room, 
where some wooien were at woii^; but no other da- 
rn^ was done, besides spreading a panic among the 
neighbours, who instantly made application to the 
government against the farther use of gunpowder; 
and orders were issued from the counciUboard ac« 

The surveyor being now reduced to the necessity 
of making new experimen.t8, resolved to try the bat* 
tering ram of the ancients; and therefore caused a 
strong mast, forty feet long, to be shod with iron at 
the biggest end, and fortified every way with bars 
and ferrels, and, having caused it to be suspended, 
set it to work. Thirty men were employed, in vi- 
brating this machine, who beat in one place, against 
the iralK a whole day, without any visible eliect. 
He, however, bid them not despair, but try what 
another day would produce ; and, on the second day, 
the wall was perceived tp tremble at the top, and, 
in a few hours, it fell to the ground. 

In clearing the foundation, he found that the north 
side had been anciently a great burying«-place; for, 
under the graves of the latter i^es, he found, in a 
row, the graves of the Saxons, who cased their dead 
in chalk-stones ; though persons of great eminence 
were buried in stone coflins : below these were the 
graves of the ancient Britons, as was manifest from 
the great number of ivory and wooden pins found 
among die mouldered dust; for it was their method 
only to pin the corpse in woollen shrouds, and lay 
it in the ground; and this covering being con- 
sumed, the ivory and wooden pins remained entire. 
At a still greater depth, he discovered a great num*» 
her of Roman potsherds, urns, and dishes, sound, 
and of a beautiful red, like our sealing-wax ; on the 
bottoms of soflftc of them were inscriptions, which 
3 denoted 

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denoted their having been drinking vessels; and, on 
others, which resembled our modern s^lad dishes^ 
beautifully made, and curiously wrought, was the 
inscription, DZ. PRIMANL and, on others, those of 
RECINIO, &c. The pots, and several glass vessels,; 
were of a murrey colour; and others, resembling tims, 
were beautifully embellished on the outsides with 
raised work, representing grey-hounds, stags, hares, 
and rose-trees* Others were of a cinnamon colour, 
in the form of an urn, and, though a little faded, 
appeared as if they had been gilt. Some, resembling 
jugs, were of an hexagonal form, curiously indented, 
and adorned with a variety of figures in basso 

The red vessels appeared to have been the most 
honourable ; for on them were inscribed the names 
of their deities, heroes, and judges ; and the matter of 
which these vessels were made, was of sxich an ex- 
cellent composition, as to vie with polished metal in 

There were also discovered several brass coins, 
which, by their long continuance in the earth, were 
become a prey to time; but some of them that were 
in a more favourable soil, were so well preserved as 
to discover in whose reign they were coined: on one 
of them was Adrian's head, with a galley under oafs 
on the reverse ; and, on others, the heads of Romulus 
and Remus, Claudius and Constantine. 

At a somewhat smaller depth, were discovered a 
number of lapilli, or tesselae, of various sorts of mar* 
ble, viz. Egyptian, porphyry, jasper, &c. in the form 
of dice, which were used' by the Romans in |>aving 
the (H^toriura, of gendraFs tent. 

On searching for the natural ground,. Dr. Wren 
perceived that thefoundation of theold churchstood 
upon a layer of very close and hard pot^earth,* about 


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mx feet deep) on the. north side, but grad^iy thin- 
ning towards the scHitb, tilU on the declivity of the 
hill, it was scarce four feet; yet he concluded that 
the same ground which had borne so weighty a 
building before, might reasonably be trusted again^ 
However, boring beneath this, he found a stratum of 
loose sand; and, lower still, at low water-mark, water 
and sand, mixed with perriwinkles and other sea 
shells; under this, a hard beach ; and, below all, the 
natural bed of clay, that extends. far and wide, un- 
der the city, country, and river. 

The foundations appeared to be those originally 
laid, consisting of Kentish rubble^sione, . artfully 
work^, and consolidated with exceediug hard mor- 
tar, after the Konaan manner, much excelling what 
be found in the superstructure. What induced him 
to change the site of the church, and era^se the old 
foundations, which were so firm, was the desire of 
giving the new structure' a more free and graceful 
aspect; yet, after all, he fopnd himself too much 
confined, and unable to bring his front to lie exactly 
from Ludgate. However, in his progress, he met 
with one misfortune, that made him almost repent 
of the alteration he had made: he beean tl>e foundar 
tion from the west to the east, and then, extending 
his I'ue to the north-east, where he expected no in- 
terruption, he fell upon a pit, where the hard crust 
of pot-earth, already mentioned, had been taken 
away, and, to his unspeakable mortification, iilled up 
with rubbish; he wanted but six or seven feet to 
complete his design, yet there was no other remedy 
but digging through the sand, and building from the 
soUd earth, th^t was at least forty feet deep. He 
therefore sunk a pit, eighteen feet wide^ though be 
wanted, at most, but seven, through ail the strata 
that has been already mentioned, and laid the foynda- 
tions of a square pier, of solid masonry, which he 

carried . 

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66 lirsToHY AKD roftTkv C9 

carried up till iie came within fifteen feet of liie pre* 
sent surfoce, and tiien turned a short arch under- 
gitMind, to the level of the stratum of hard pot^arth ; 
iipoti which arch the iiorth-east comer of the choir 
now stands. 

This difficulty being surmounted, and the founda- 
tions laid, he, for several reasons, made choice of 
Pordand-^tone for the superstructure; but chiefly as 
the largest scantlings were to be procured from 
thence: however, as these could not be depended 
upon for columns, exceeding four feet in diameter, 
it determined this great architect to make choice of 
two orders instead of one, and an attic story, as at 
St Peter's, at Rome, id order to preserve the just 
proportions of bis cornice, otherwise the edifice must 
have fallen short of its intended height. Bramante, 
in building St. Peter's, though he bad the quarries 
of Tivoli at hand, where he could have blocks large 
enough for columns of nine feet diameter, yet, tot 
•want of stones of suitable dimensions, was obliged to 
diminish the proportions of the proper members of 
his cornice; a fault, against which Dr. Wren resolved 
to guard. On these principles he therefore proceeded, 
in raising the present magnificent edifice; the first 
stone of which was laid, by Mr. Strong, the chief 
mason, on the 21st of June, 1675. 

The geoeml form of St. Paul's cathedral is a long 
cross: the walls are wrought in rustic, and strength'- 
ened as well as adorned by two rows of coupled pi- 
lasters, one ov^ the other; the lower Corinthian, and 
the upper Composite. The spaces between the 
arches of the windows, and the architrave of the 
lower order, are filled with a great variety of curious 
enrichments, as are those above. 

The west front ^ is graced with a most magni- 
ficent portico, a noble pediment, and two stately 
turrets, and, when advancing towards the church 


Digitized by 


IOhboii AiiD Its tJiYiMisfSi 47 

lk>4^ Ludgate, the el^ant construction of this fnqDt^ 
^ fine turrets over eaph corner, and the vast dcnne 
Whind, fill the mjn<ji with a pleasing astpni^hmept. 

At this end^ there is a noble flight of steps of black 
nai^le, that extend the ^hole length of the portico^ 
which consists of twelve k^ Corinthjan columnjs) 
Jbelow,.and eight of the Coniposite .order above; 
those are all coupled and fluted 4 The upper seriea 
supports 1^. noble pediment, crowned with its acro-» 
t^(i» . In this pediment is a very elegant representor 
ti<^, in. has. reliefi of the conversion of St. Paul; 
.which wa3 executed by Mn Bird, an artist, who, by 
this pi^ce, has deserved to have his name transmitt 
ted to posterity «. Nothing could. have been con^- 
petved more difficult to represent in has relief, than 
this conversioii, the most striking object being natu<» 
rally the irradiation. of light; but even this is well 
^xprem^i and the figures are excellently performed^ 
The magnificent figure of St. Paul, on the apex 
of the p^iment) with St* Peter on his right, and Su 
James on his left, have a fine effects The four Evsxh- 
gelists, with their proper emblems, on the front of 
the toweni^ are also vejry judiciously disposed, and 
well executed: St. Matthew is distinguished by an 
angel; St. Mark by a lion ; St, Luke by an ox, an^ 
St. John by an ^agle* 

To Ae north portico, there is an ascent by twelve 

Cficular steps of black marble ; and its dome is supn 

ported by six laige Corinthian columr^, forty-eight 

inches in diameter. Upon the dome is a large and 

'Well-proportioned urn, finely ornaniented with fes- ^ 

toons4 and over this is a pediment, supported, by pi* 

rktf^l^rs JA.the wall, in the face of which is the royie^ 

anns, with< the regalia, supported by angels. And, 

lest tbis.view pf the cathedral should appear Void of 

.sulBcieQt <MTwnent, the statues of five of the Apostleii^ 

^weplaoefi qn ^ top, at proper distances^ 

YQU.llU I Th^ 

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« The t^Knjth ^9ortico nnftWimi' t^ Aie nordfi, ^MT tip 
^ced directly opposite to it^ Tll4)»v Uk^ the 4Mfa«iv 
is a dome, fiiijp^rted ijj «idb W^Ue Corihlllicrflr 
eokitnns: but, asth^*^rotmdiis€<MI9ideiiAblyicy^«roi» 
tlM,thaa on theotheri^fde ot tite thurcby the nsdeM^ 
by a flight of twenty*ve flftepjr, ?%ite fortfco iWi^ 
jtMaa pediment above, in t^bich k a ph^bifix YtoifiM^ 
l>nt of the flames- with the metta RESURGrAll 
Underneath it, as an ^nMem tif the ftbuilAiifg tfve 
dittrch after th« five. Thiis device i»ad, pcithaptf^ iMf 
ongin ironr Im incident wbi<;h' hafliMMd at tiM^ 
Ikrgitiifiing of the ivorkr and wa^pattfciilartytcMmriPr 
(ed by the architect sBs a fevbiiftiMe^mieft. Whi)n19lv 
Wren himsdf had aet Out Updifi the pllttseHi^ dfansw- 
Mens of the bciildiag, and lixisd ^tSptni llieeeimfritf' 
the great dothe, a commoii latbttver Wafro rdWt 4<tr 
bring him a flat ^ane^ the first te Ibund aiflMg <i» 
tubbi^h, to Idate a& k tifBtk df direietidii tiS Aift^ 
inMons; ifie iMone %hidi 'the fellow koifght tdr 
this purpose, hisippetied to be af piece of *agw^-2gMite, 
With nothing remainim^ of th^ iij^crip&>ii^hM^i» 
!»ingle wovd in large capitat»y ']^Sl>R€rA!M ; "a 'dfu 
teumsttmce wiiich Or, Wreh nt?fW fbtgot. On ^h 
kide of the building ate likeWiiSe five atafUMa^^MlMb 
^ake iheir sittiatidn ifr^Hii rtheft of ^t* AnditfW nallt^ 
apex of the last mentioned pedhHttltt. 
' At the efeustend of the church i^^sW^M^ildlilar 
](ir6jection for the altar, flnel}' omametited wil^tfa^ 
'Orders, and with tJecorated idculpt(lt«^. 

The dome \Vhit!;h rises in the center ^ tift mMb^ 
-iipp^ts exttemehr ^rstwJ. T««nin«y *fo«t 'tA^o^^thfe 
•iodfoftheiAntch l^a-dtctitettaitgfeitf lfafr«yuMt> 
^knrtns, withnicbe* pfeded e)tad%'ai^iMt "OHms 
within. These ^retefmitfatedbjrAeir dUHJbkMnffl, 
iVhich suptM>rt^ a handsome |ratteiy,'bAit^ 
%ah}Mrade. A^bt^e these cohimtfs f» «i ^MM^ ^ 
jpilastersr^ith Windows beWTrtn*; ^aAd<fl^ '«te«i« 

* >taMtture 

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fi40l^Iy ; «hI 4wq .feeit ai)Qve tb^ U 19 again qoq* 

<IMM* FiWA thi» PfUt tbe ^t^^fl^ji SHr€;Qp of t^^ 

dome begins, aod the arches meet at fifty-two lee| 
•bO^^w - On ; the f umixnit pf Ibe d^mcr is an el^arit 
falkony; ,md firam its QQP^^ i^i^^ itbe ^Dtern> 
tda»^ Wtb Corinthi^o poiuEQUgs and the whpU^ 
ImftHMlM by ft ball, from whi^h ri9e« « crq«f , bqtl^ 
nln p ii^ ly «|ik. Tbesf^ part*, which ^ppes^ fp(i)]| 
iMlOfir of A neiy oiod^mto f u;?, are ei^emely (^e. 

niit m9t md iioUa&brie, whipb i# t^fp |Jboi/a^(| 
IVQ kwdlittd ftiid oioety-rt^Q feeX in ^xcfim^^^Wfi^ 
m4 thMfi hiM3i4i«d ia4 ^Qrty leet; jq i^ht^ to tbf 
tv of 4bfi cn)M> is Bimoy^nd^d ^ a pcc^r di^t^qcf 
kyM flwirfafewe wnU, ^^d wh»k » pl»P^4 the inof^ 
iwcnifinfi.MiiitJftdr of ^mH^ inm p«fli)i^)» in .^^ 
lifiiiiiwi^ ^ dwnt fiw fmt.Aiy: iDphfs m h^igt^t^ 
wliwinn x>f tiM ivnilf In this # lately vpi^kMnf^^ m 
wnm bflMMifiU iipa gpatofi ivbkh^ tffgdthti? w'}^ % 

liimdMsd» nwigb tWA blUldmci l#n» ^nd eyilMyH^ne 
pUMMb, iriMh l^Tliif WRtffiirpeq^e per ^(wndi th^ 
wM0t witk otbet jsha«g€«, ftm|U»M ^ «1^«9 
' 4«0 hmidri4fW4 two pQM«4s 9<)4 ft^l^r 

Ja the wea of the grand w^ fropti m a fM^&^ 
of excellent workmanship, stands a 9M(M^ of Qu^fl 
Atme^ f^no^d tf ivhito tnarki^^ with {»op^ d^qlra* 
tiom« l>f ftguiMPQ th« l^ii^ reprffMMit |^^nQi«> 
vkh her spear; Gfilli^y with n crowp i^ hii)r.Up; 
itifaccBia,.%fi(tb her bftrp ; and A«^ic» m^ her bow. 

these* and th^ colossal iil^t^es with ^hlch thi| 
cfauack 19* adorosd, were sU done by thi^ Ing^iour 
Hr« Hiilt vho wm chiefly f^mployed i& tt^ deoorsr 

The »orth*M8k part of the chun:b-y«rd )1m»1<)P9P to 
^ idiabitaots ff $t Faith'i^ imrish» whifl^ i» wite4 


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to St. AustinV, for the interment of their dead ; m 
^oes the south-east part* of the cemetery,, with' n 
vault therein, to St* Gregory's parish for the Mme 

On ascending the steps at the west end, wis find 
three dooi^ ornamented on the top with has rdiefc; 
the middle door, which is by far the laijgest, is cased 
with white marble, and over it is a fine piece of 
basso relievo, in whifeh St. Paul is represented pveacii* 
ing to the Bereans, On entering this door, on tlie 
inside of which hang the colours taken firdm the 
French at Louisburg in 1758, the mind is struck by 
the nobleness of the vista ; an arcade, supported by 
lofty and massy pillars on each' hand, divide 4ie 
church into the body and two aisles, and the vie«r it 
tentiinated by the altar at the extremi^ of A% 
choir. The above pillars are adorned with cdunmi 
land pilasters of the C<^nthian ' and ONafKMtttft 
biders, aiid the arches of the voof are enriched 'iwitfa 
shields, festoons, chaplels, and other ornaments. 

In one 'aisle is the consistory, and apposite to it 
hi the other is the morning prayer ckiapel, whem 
divine service is performed every morning, Sunday 
ex<!epted : eaiih of these has a very beautifiilacreea 
of carved wainscot, and is adorned with twelve 
columns, arched pediments, and the royal ann^ 
0nely decorated. 

' On proceeding forward, we come to the large 
cross aisle between the north and south porticoes i 
over whidh is the grand cupola, of dome. Here is a 
fine view of the whispering gallery, of the paintings 
iEibove it, and the concave of the dome, which fills 
the mind with surprise and pleasure. Under its 
center id fixed in the floor a brass plate, round which 
the pavement is beautifully variegated ; but the 
figures into which it is formed can no where be so 
^eU seeii as from t)ie. whidperin| ^lerv. I|i this 

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le fafliig" tbe cokyuis taken fi»ai £he Ffehdh by 
tiord ' 'Howe ;' from the Spaniaids by' Lords St. 
Vibe^nt and Nekwm, and from the Dutch -by Lord 

' S'rom hence . the spectator has a foil view of the 
agan^ richly oroamented with carved work, with the 
mtrance to the ohok diteotly under it. The two 
aisles on the sides of the choir, as weU as thexhok 
itself, are enclosed with very line iron raits and gates. 
- The OEgan gallery is supported by eight Cori^ian 
icolmnns of blue^and white .marble, and the ^hoi^ 
has on each side thirty stalls, besides tbe bishop's 
thione on the south side, and the lord mayor's on 
the north. The carving? of the beautiful rai^e of 
stadia as well as that of the csgan, is much admired. 

The re^^s deak, which is at some distiyice from 
.the pulpit, is an enclosure of brass rail^ gilt, in whiob 
is a gilt brass pillar, supporting an eagle of brass, 
gilt, th^t holds tl)p bi[^ on bis back a^ expan4ed 
swings. . • '. 

^ Tbe altar piece is adorned with four, nobie fluted 
.piksters, painted and veined with gold» in imitation 
fii lapis lazuli, and their capitals are doubly gilt« 
jn the int^rcolumniations are nine marble pnnniela; 
the table is covered with figured crimson v/^lvet^ aa4 
above are six windows, in two series. . 

The floor of the choir, and, indeed) of the^wbolf 
jBhuQchi is paved with marble, ejccept that part witk^ 
in the rails of the altar, which isf of porphyry, poti^ 
0d and l^d in several gepmetrical figuries 
. 9ut to be more particular: as the dispot^itipn of 
th^ yaifltings >¥ithin is s^n essential beautyi ^ithot|t 
which many other ornaments wouk| Ipse their effect, 
#0 the architect ws^ particularly capful ip thi^ r^f* 
apect. *^ The Romans,'^ says the author of tH^ 
^aireptalia, '^ used hemisphei'ical vaultings, and Sif' 
iQJtrjstopUef cl^ose t|ipse as be|ng demonstrably 

Digitized by 


ISs nnomi Am wmtsv Mr i 

fighter than AeJiM%onBictcm.wMioiltA^. BoAfai.nriMlt 
^Mukof S% Pted'aiCiipfl»i^.-of fevonty firar cupda 
est off .semieirGubiv with ne^fnBaH^joimtmthc 
great arches one way, and which are cut aacM.tfae 
Athor, with oliptkuH cyliodtM teilefe iii the Jifif>er 
lights uf the nave ) but in thaaiiloa the Iqipar 
^cupolas are both imys onto an semicirouhn- sMlioa^ 
and altogether maika agrseefai geooietrical. fern; 
^isttnguMMl with oirciiiar wreatks/ whirii is tiie 
iiorisontal section ef the evpoia^ far tjie hemis* 
phere may be cut ail numner of wjm into oiMuiar 
4Bqctions; and the arches and wreaths l>eiiig<ifat«tie 
carved^ the spandpels between are nf souiid hriefcw 
inTCSted with stucco of cackte«>sh^ lim^ whiok 
becomdB as bard as PofCknd stone} and whiah luMit- 
Inpf lams planes i^tween the steos ribs^ are ei^ble 
lar the rarthet' omatnents of pMMing, if re^radL 
^ Besides these twentyr^dur eupcfa^ thfre le 
n ha)f eapola at the east» and the great enpoUqf 
one hundred and eight feet in diameter at the wAif- 
die of (flie cMasing of Che grsaft aMee. in this 4he 
atrohitect Imitated tibe Pteitheon at Romfc, exee|^« 
ing that thfe npper order is there only nrahratde^ 
and'dfistiBgukthcfd by different eolo nrcd marUes ; ia 
B€. PauPs It is Extant out of «he waR. The Bin«- 
theon is no higher within than fts dkmeter: 8(t 
Fetei^s 1d two diameterB ; this shews too high» the 
otfier too low; St. PEtuKs is a mean proportion bisw 
tffetti hothy which shews its concave every way, 
and is very lightsome by the windows of the un** 
pef order, winch strike down thp light thnjugh the 
greftt i^olonade that encircles the dome without 
and serves for the abntn^ent of the dome, which 
is brick of two bricks thick ; but as it rises every 
way, fire feet high, has a course pf excellept bric& . 
of eighteen inches longb^idipg through the whoie 
thicknesi ; and mdreover^ to make it still mor6 

4 secure, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

kb>MHro«ndUaraiAi«.TMt ciMifi «C \f9n^ 
m m %ikj \wdM^ «ogttfcbr iat evciyi tim ftet Tbai$ 
«Mfe % Art )iMiBr« vlnmtd wt <t>U ^i«4}«iMia|^ «^ 
P«Minid'«toii«^ iHrni defended Iwom tbo WAth^ jbjr 
Miitftbe groove wilklndL 
' *'9ltt«iac»vcwBtnnndiipotia'cettkr; wlufii 
«M jodgei stoeBSBty t» leeep the wmk e^n tod 
IniQ^ itboiifk ft oMMa mi|^ be buHt withjo^Jl* 
cmMr-; Imt •tittrtmrrable that the oestor "wa* 
kai w ^h ogtany sMMhrdsftom b(ik>w to support.; 
aad •«* it ^-was both tentefkig *»d 4«tffoldiDg^ it 
remained for the tue ^ <tlte .paisier. £vc<y -Mory 
elf iMevcaibkltQg being dvcvlar, aad the. ends of 
dl thelc^MS Meeting at jo maajr rtng% and truty 
ti>raugbt, it s^iported ilsdC This machine wa» 
an oMghd t>f the JbimI, and wiH lie <a& 4i«Bfi4 
fi^tot {for «bB 4ihe vodc» to an awhitiBat liere* 

^ it wat^M cewnj r ^^jpyfca gveater height th«ii 
tftteifpcfo wobM gmceAdlyaUo« irkbM^ tbaugli 
It it csotttidenMy above the roof of 'tbs QbHWhi 
yet tile oM «hifroh luMog before had « veiy Mljsy 
9^ «f >ttliA«lr<aBd lead, the vorki expectfcd that 
Wb wm iMtk thoM not, in ^his M;f»ect» &U 
ahttit of the old; the architect ««» thoe^rft 
^1]|^ tt> comply wMi >the <h«nuour of th^agi^ 
tnid t5-h^ ano^ier stmotureoverthefoitcupolfL; 
abd Am iMittoone of>briok, ao built ;•» to sup* 
Mkt:tfttoiie'4iiftte»n of an «le|piBt figuit^ AadwrfU 

" Ite-vb^ wlMle tihttrdi !abo«K the vaiiktng i^ 
(«¥brad'iiriKi%Wb9tatttial oidcen roo£ aad kftd, 
fbe AiAiM durable covcriog in bar cUmats^ jlo.^a 
bovtMdlMdiJiid •out of^^tte brick c«a«, wltb 
aMMhfircttpala oftiitberouidlead; and fadtweon 
tirit-Midltlwoom^ a»eeasy]>taits«bataM«iid tothc 
Imtem, Here the apa atat a r 'ttiiy thaoe a vkw. #if 


Digitized by 


64 MnSTOE* Am)rSV]LVXT*0» : 

such amazing cdntrirances asi are indeed astooisil^ 
hi^r He forebore' to make little lutiiem wiodonrst 
hi the kaden clupola, - as are done out of St Peter's^ 
because he had otherwise provided for light enough 
to the stairs from the lantern abovci and round 
the pedestal of the same, which are now seen be* 
iow; so that he only ribbed the outward cupola^ 
%rhich he thought less gothic than to stick it full of 
MCh little lights in three stories one above another^ 
as is the cupola of St Peter's, which could not 
without difficulty be mended, and, 4f neglected^ 
would soon damage the timbers." 

As Sir Christopher was sensible, that paintings^ 
though ever so excellent, are liable to decay, hq 
intei^ed to have beautified the inside of the cupola 
wit4i mosaic work, which strikes the eye of the be^ 
holder with amazing lustre, and without the least 
decay of colours, is as durable as the building itself; 
b«t4n this he was unhappily over-ruled, though 
he had undertaken to procure four of the.mosfe 
eminent artists in that profession from Italv; this 

I art is however richly decorated and painted b^ Sip 
ames Thorn hill, who has represented the pTi{i,ci-«. 
pal passages of SU Paul's lire in eight comport-* 
ments, viz. his conversion ; his punishing Elyinas,^ 
the sorcerer, with blindness; his preaching at 
Athens; his curing the poor cripple at Lystra, an4 
the reverence paid him there by the priests of Ju-« 
piter as a God; his convecsion of .the Jailor ; hi» 
preaching at Ephesus, ^nd the burning of the mar 
gic books in consequence of the miracles he 
wrought there; his.triaLbefore Agrippa; his ship? 
wreck on the island of > Melita, or Malta, with th^ 
miracle of the Viper. These paintings: ai^ nil seen 
to advantage; by means of a circular x>penings 
through which, the light is transmitted with admir« 
abl&eiect frooLthe katern above* ,■ , 


Digitized by 


U>)<ddN AMD tfS fcKVlkOKS. ^5 

*rhe highest or last stoticon the top of the'laiitern, 
Vas laid by Mr. Christopher Wren, the son of this 
great architect, in the year one thousand seven 
hundred and ten; and thus was this noble fabric^ 
lofty enough to be discerned at sea eastward, and at 
Windsor to the west, begun and compleated in the 
space of thirty-five years, by one architect, the 
great Sir Christopher Wren; one principal mason, 
Mr. Strong ; and under one bishop of London, Dr* 
Henry Compton : whereas St. Peter's at Rome, 
the only structure that can come in competition 
with it, continued an hundred and fifty-five years 
in building, under twelve successive architects; 
assisted by the police and interests of the Roman 
see; attended by the best artists of the world in 
sculpture, statuary, paintingand mosaic work; and 
facilitated by th? ready acquisition of marble from 
the neighM>iiring quarries of Trivoli. It has been 
already observed that the old cathedral contained 
many beautiful monuments to the memory of illus- 
trious personages; but till within a few years no 
ornament of this description embellished the pre- 
sent edifice, though it is very probable Sir Christo- 
pher foresaw that at some time it would become the 
repository of these testimonials to departed virtue 
and genius. The two monuments first honoured 
with a situation in this building, were those of Mr. 
Howard, and Dr. Johnson, both of which are 
single figures, by the late Mr. Bacon. The first, 
in which the character of active benevolence is 
finely expressed, stands upon a pedestal of white 
marble, on which is a group in bas relief repre- 
senting a scene in a prison, where Mr. Howard, 
having broken the chains of the prisoners, is bring* 
ihg provisions and cloathing for their relief. The 
other represents a moral philosopher, with the at- 
titude and expression of intense thought^ leaning 
VOL. III. K asrainst 

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against a coiunvn, indicati^ce of the iirmncfis of 
mind and stalnlity of principles of the man it is fo^ 
tended to commemorate. On the pedestal of thi» 
statue is inscribed a Latin epitaph. These wcfc 
opened for public ii»Skpection in tlie beginning e€ 
the year 17S6. 

It should be recorded to the credit of the dean 
and chapter of the cathddral that on applicaiioa 
being made to them for permission to erect the fir^t 
of these statues, they consented without requiring 
any fee for its admission, making it, however, a 
condition that no monument should be erected, 
unless the design was first approved by a com- 
mittee appointed by the Royal Academy ; in order 
to prevent the introduction of any which might 
kni discordant with the building, or incompatible 
^with general propriety. 

In the course of the year ISO^, two monuments 
Were erected to the memory of Captains Burges 
and Faulkner, M'ho fell gloriously in the last war, 
fightiug in their country's cause. The first i« bjr 
Banks, and is composed of a full length figure of 
Captain Burges receiving a sword from the hands of 
•victory. In the other, . victory is placing a crown 
of laurel on the tiead of the hero, who is represented 
dying in thearms of Neptune. This is executed by 

^^ To these has been lately added, a statue by 
iSacon, erected hy tlie East India Company, in 
honour of Sir 'William Jones; and two monuments 
are now erecting near the north door ; of which 
the one on the right hand is to the memory of Cap- 
tani Westcot, and the other in honour of Captains 
Moss and liiou. 


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CuriesiHes which strangers, pftyfor stimg* 

On enteringthe south door, there is a pair of stairs 
Within a small door on the right hand, leading to 
the cupola, and the stranger by paying two pencQ 
may gratify his curiosity with a prospect from the 
iron gallery at the. foot of the lantern, which in 9 
clear day affords a fine view of the river, of this 
whole metropolis, and all the adjacent country, in- 
terspersed with pleasant villages. 

The ascent to this gallery is by five hundred and 
thirty-four steps, two hundred and sixty of which 
are so easy that a child may ascend them without 
difficulty I but those above are unpleasant, and 
in some places very dark ; the little light that is 
afforded, is, however, sufficient to show amazing 
proofs of the wonderful contrivances of the archi- 
tect. But as the first gallery, surrounded by a 
stone ballustrade, affords a very fine prospect, ma- 
ny are satisfied, and unwilling to undergo thie 
fatigue of mounting higher. In the, asc^t to 
the iron gallery may be seen the cone of brick- 
work that supports the lantern with its ball an4 
cross ; the outer dome being turned on the outside, 
?nd the inner on the inside of the cone. The tim- 
ber work, which at once supports the outer dome 
and the cone, is also worthy of inspection. 

On the stranger's descent be is invited to see the 
whispering gallery, which will likewise cost two 
pence; he here beholds to advantage the beautiful 
pavement of the church, and from hence he has 
the most advantageous view of the fine paintings, 
in the cupola, which are now going to decay. 
Here sounds are magnified to an astonishing degree j 
the least whisper is heard round the whole circum- 
ference; the voice of a person speaking softly 
against the wall on the other side, seems as if he 


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Stood at our ear on this, though the distance be- 
tween them is no less than an hundred and forty 
feet ; and the shutting of the door resounds through 
the place like thunder, or as if the whole fabric 
-was falling. To this gallery there is an easy ascent 
for persons of distinction, by a most beautiful flight 
of stairs. 

The stranger is next invited to see the library, 
the books of which are neither numerous nor va- 
luable ; but the floor, which is formed of two thou* 
sand three hundred and seventy-six small pieces of 
pak, is artfully inlaid, without either nails or pegs, 
and is not only neat in the workmanship, but 
beautiful in appearance; and the wainscoting 
and book-cases are not inelegant. The principal 
things pointed out to the visitor, are, several beau- 
.tifuUy carved stone pillars, some Latin manuscripts, 
written by the monks eight hundred years ago, 
and an illuminated manuscript, containing rules 
ifor the government of a convent, written in old 
English about five hundred years since: these, and 
some other manuscripts, are in very fine preserva* 
tiom Over the fire-place is a portrait of Dr, 
Compton, the prelate that filled the sec during the 
whole time of building the cathedral, who fitted up 
the library at his own expense, and gave it to the 

The next curiosity is the fine model Sir Christo- 
pher first caused to be made for building the new 
cathedral. It was not taken from St- Peter's, at 
•sRome, as is pretended, but was Sir Christopher's 
ovirn invention, and the model on which he set the 
highest value ; and it is greatly to be lamented 
that this design was not executed; the superiority 
of which becomes evident, on a comparison of the 
inodel with the building. It is of one story only, 
jipd, in every respect, much more simple than the 

patbedral ;j 

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cathedral ; while, at the same time, it possesses all 
tliat elegance which results from the happiest uniou 
of simplicity and variety. Here is also the model 
of an altar-piece, which Sir Christopher intended 
for thi^ cathedral, had his plan been followed. 

He is next shewn the great bell in the south 
tower, which weighs eighty-four hundred weigh^. 
On this bell the hammer of the great clock strikes 
the hour, and on a smaller bell are struck the quar- 
ters. The great bell is never tolled, except on the 
death of one of the royal family, the Bishop of Lon^ 
don, or the Dean of St. Paul's; and, when tolled, it 
is the clapper, and not the bell, which is moved. 
The clock-work is also very deserving of attention, 
both for its magnitude, and the accuracy of the 

Among the things shown, are. what are com- 
monly called the geometry stairs, which are so art- 
fully contrived, as to hang together without risible 
support; but this kind of stairs, however curious 
in theijiselves, are neither new nor tincommon. 

The ascent to the ball is attended with some dif- 
ficulty, and is encountered by few ; yet, both the 
ball, and the passage to it, well deserve the labour. 
The internal diameter of the ball is six feet two 
inches, and it will contain twelve persons. 

The cathedral church of St. Paul's is deservedly 
esteemed the second in Europe, not for magnitude 
only, but for beauty and grandeur. St. Peter's, at 
Rome, is undoubtedly the first,' but, at the same 
time, it is generally acknowledged, by all travellers 
of taste, that the outside, and particularly the front, 
of St. Paul's, is much superior to St. Peter's. The 
two towers at the west end, though faulty in some 
respects, are yet elegant, and the portico finely 
marks the principal entrance. The loggia, crowned 
\vith a pediment, with its basso relievo and statues, 



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make, in* the t^'hde, a fine shape, whereat St. Pew 
ten's h a straight line, without any breafc. The 
dfome is extremely magnificent, and, by rising 
higher than that at Rome, is seen to more advantage, 
on a near approach. The inside, though noble, 
falls short of St. Peter's. The discontinuing the 
architrave of thegreat entablature over the arches, iir 
the middfe of the aisle, is a fault architects cane 
never forgive. Notwithstanding, without a criti- 
cal examination, it appears very striking, especially 
on entering the north or south door. The side 
arstes, though small, are very elegant, and, rf it 
does not equal St. Peter's, there is much to be said 
in defence both of it and the architect, who was 
t\ot pern>itted to decorate it as he intended, through 
a want of taste in the managers, who seemed to 
have forgot that it was intended for a national oma- 
nient St. Peter's has all the advantages of paint- 
nig and sculpture of the greatest masters, and rsr 
Encrusted with a variety of the finest marbles j nor 
cost being spared to make it exceed every thing of 
Its kind. The great geometrical knowledge of the 
architect can never be sufficiently admired; but 
this can be come at only by a thorougli inspection 
of the several parts. 

For the farther satisfaction of thecniious reader, 
we shall conclilde this article with an account of 
the dimensions of St. Paul's cathedral, compared 
with those of St. Peter's, at Rome ; the proportions 
of the^ latter being taken from ihe authentic di- 
mensions of the best architects of Rome, reduced 
fo English measure. 


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The extent of the ground-plot, on wbicli St, 
Pauls cathedral stands, is two acres, sixteen perches, 
twenty-three yards, and one foot ; and the whol^ 
expense of erecting this edifice, deducting thp sums 
expended in fruitless attempts to repair the old ca- 
thedral, amounted to seven hundred and thirty-six 
thousand seven hundred and fift^-two pounds twq 
shillings and three pence. 

On the north side of St. Paul's church-yard is a 
handsome edifice belonging to the pathedral, caUe4 
the Chapter-house. 

In this building the convocation of the prpvin<;e 
of Canterbury formerly sat to consult about ecclcr 
siastical affairs, and to form canons for the govern- 
ment of the church ; but, though the upper and lower 
House are called by the king's writ, at the commence* 
ment of every session of parli^nient, ypt they arc 
always prorogued as soon as they have chosen pro-r 
locutors, and before thpy can have time to proceed 
in the execution of any kind of business. 

Fronting the east end of the cathedral is St. 
Paul's-school, founded by Dr. John Colet, Dean of 
St. Paul's, in the year 150p, for one hundred and 
fifty-three boys to be taught free, by a master, 
usher^ and chaplain. The founder directed, that 
there should be paid to tbe upper master, a salary 
of thirty-four pounds thirteen shillings ^nd four 
pence; (o the under master, seventeen pounds six- 
shillings and eight pence; and to the chaplain, 
eight pounds per annum ; which, together with the 
annual sum of thirty-eight pounds six shillings and 
three pence balfpenny, for repairs, &a amounted 
to one hundred arid eighteen pounds fourteen shil- 
lings and seven pence halQ)enny, the sum total 
with which the school was endowed; but by the 
progressive improvement of the estate, the good 
management of the Mercers* company, tp whoni 


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the triist i$ committed, and some additional sums 
left to the foundation, tiiese salaries are become 
teiT considerable. 

This school is at present governed by three mas- 
ters, all of whom are clergymen, besides an assist- 
ant to the head miister. The under master was 
formerly chaplain, and read prayers in the school, 
besides teachmg ; but the prayers are now read by 
some of the senior scholars. 

The original building was consumed by the fire 
in 1666, soon after which the present one was 
erected. It is a very handsome, though singular 
edifice t the middle buildings in which is theschool, 
is of stone; it is much lower than the ends, and has 
only one series of windows, which . are large, and 
raised to a considerable heighth ftom the ground. 
Tlie center is adorned with rustic, and on the top 
is a handsome pediment, in which are the founder's 
arms placed in a shield; upon the apex stands a 
figure, representing Learning. Under this pediment 
are two windows, which are square^ and on each 
side are two circular windows, crowned with busts^ 
and the spaces between them are handsomely orna- 
mented in relievo. Upon a lerel with thtf foot of 
the pediment runs, on either side, a handsome ba- 
lustrade, on each of which is placed a laige bus^ 
with a radiant crown, between two flaming vases. ^ 
In the front of ilie building are written these 
words: Schola Catechizationts Puskoruic 
IN Christi opp: maximi pidc kt Bonis Li- 


The buildings at each end are of bricks orna- 
mented with stone, and are appropriated to the uses 
of the first and second master. They are lofty and 
narrow, consisting of three stories, each story of 
three windows; the central windows are arched, 
and those on each side rectangular. A fourth een- 



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tral win<iow i$ cootioued aliove tb^e corni<sej $uft^ 
ported yvith scwUs, and over that a Isaluetrade. 

The school within is spacious. It consisto of 
eight classes, or forms; iu the first, the ebildren 
learn tbeir rudiments ; ffooi tbeivcej apcordii^g to 
their proficiency, they are^advanced untoth^ other 
forms, till they rise to the esighth : whe&ce, beiog; 
generally well instructed in Latin, Greek, and He* 
brew, and, sometimes, in other oriental langua^GSy 
they are remov^ to tli^ universities ; where tnej 
lure allowed, from the foundation, thirty pounds^ 
per annum, for the first four years, and forty pounds 
for thr^e years more, towards their maintenance. 

At the west einl of St. Pauls church-yard i^ 
Ludgatenstreet, wbicli extends westward to Fleets 

Oa the D^rth side pf this street, in Stationers'- 
court, is St^i<Nieiis'-hQil# This building stands oa 
(the ^ite of a iKianaio?! which anciently belonged ta 
the Dukes of ^r^tagne ; after which it was possessed 
by the £^ls of Pembroke, and, in Queen Eliza* 
hetb's tiine, by Henry, Lord Abergavei^ny. Finally, 
it belonged to the Stationers' companyi who rebuilt 
it of wo^, aiHl Viade it their hall. This building, 
lu>wevef, sharod in tlie cwi^q^on caUmity of 1666^ 
a^d was su^cceeded by the present brick edifice^ 
which was newly fronted with stone, about two 
years aga* It is a sp^ious, convenijEint building, 
enlightened by a singly series of wimlows, over each 
of* which is placed .a ne^t medallion. The entrance 
is from a small paved court, enclosed with a dwarf 
w»ljl, swrmounted by ^n iron railing. Beneath the 
hali, and at the north end of it, are warehouses for 
the company's stock. 

At a small distance, west of Stationers'HCourt, 
and on the same side of Ludgate-street, is the 
parochial church of St* Martin, Ludgate; so 


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called ivom its dedication to St. Martin, and itsir 
vickaty to the old gate. 

The fiatronage of tliis church, which is a rec- 
toiy, was originaUy in the abbot and convent of 
WestmiiaAter, in whom it continued till the sup- 
jiiessicm of that nionastery by Henry V Ilf . who 
erected Westminster into a bishoprick, and con« 
feri^d it on the new bishop. That see^ however, 
beiog disserved by Edward VI. Queen Mary, in 
the year 1553, granted theadvowson of thischurcb 
to the bishop of Lcmdoui and his successors, in 
whom it still remains. 

The old church was destroyed by the fire of 
London, after which the present edifice was erected 
en its ruins. It is a plain building, tolerably well 
enlightened ; and tne steeple consists of a plain 
tower, with a lofty spire raised on a substantial 
arcade, on the summit of which rises the vane. 
The IcBgth of this church. is' 66 feet, its breadth 
57, the height to the roof 59 feet, and the alti*^ 
tude of the steeple 166 feet. 

It was in digging the foundation for the new 
church, after the fire of 1666, that the sepulchral 
stone mentioned in VoL I. p. 14. was found, and 
hence it is probable, that the site of this church 
was formerly a Roman cemetery, and without the 
original walls of London. 

Adjoining tothe southwest corner of the church 
of Sl Martin, stood Ludgate ; and directly opposite 
to it, within the walls, stood the great house of 
llie Dominicans, called the convent of the Black* 
friars, or Friars- preachers; founded about the 
year 1S76, by the interest and exhortations of 
Robert KiUvarby, Archbishop of Canterbury. Ed- 
ward I. by whose assistance the archbishop was en* 
abled to build the monastery and a large church 
richly ornamented| kept his charters and records 

here ; 

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7S tttSirORY AND StfitVlEY 61f 

here ; and in his time the precinct was croirded 
with the habitations of the nobility. This mohas-^ 
tery obtained every immunity which any religious 
house had. Its precinct, which was very extensive, 
was surrounded by a wall with four gates, and con^L 
tained a great number G^f sliops, the occupiers of 
which exercised their trades and mysteries though 
not free of the dity, being subject only to the King, 
the superior of the house, and their own justices. 
These ample privileges of the Blackfiriaiis precinct, 
tho ugh now lost, were preserved long after the sup-^ 
pression of religious houses ; for when, afker the 
dissolution of the priory, the itiayof interfered with 
them, he was peremptorily cdralmanded to desist^ 
by Henrv VIII. who sent him word that ** He was 
as well able to keep the liberties as the friars were :*' 
and in the reign of Mary the citizens made a fruit-* 
less application to parliament to grant them juris- 
diction over the Blackfriars preciilct. At present, 
it is included in the tvard of Farringdon within by 
the name of the precinct of St. Anne, Blackfriars* 
the church of which b^ing destroyed by the fire in 
l66S, was not rebuilt, and the parish was annexed 
to that of St Andrew Wardrobe. 

The priory church was very large, two lanes and 
the tower of Mountfitchet having been pulled down 
to make way for it. In this church were held se-^ 
veral parliaments and other great meetings. The 
parliament called the Black Parliament, was begun 
at the Black-friars, in the year 1524, in which a 
subsidy of two shillings in the pound on all goods 
and lands was granted. In 152.9, Campeijus and 
Wolsey sate at the Black-friars to annul the mar- 
riage of Henry VIII. with Catherine of Arragon, 
and in the month of October of the same year, the 
parliament which condemned Wolsey in a prsmu^ 
nire, met here. 

2 la 

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In the fourth year of his reign, Edward VI, 
granted the m hole house, site or circuit, compass 
aod precinct of the late friars^preachers, with other 
lands and tenements in London, to Sir Thomas 
Cawarden, knight : but the hall and the prior's 
lodgings had been sold in the first year of his reign 
to Sir Francis. Brian, knight, being valued at forty 
shillings per annum. 

After the suppression of the monastery, and de^ 
molition of the church, the inhabitants of the 
Blackrfriars jitted up an upper room 50 feet in 
length, and 30 in breadth, for a place of diyine 
worship ; great part of the roof of which fell down 
in the year 1597. After this accident, the inha- 
bitants obtained a piece of ground from Sir George 
Moore, to enlarge their church with an aisle fifteen 
feet in width on the west side ; under which they 
erected a warehouse: and in I61S, the church was 
again enlarged, after which the parishioners pur- 
chased the unde/ tenements, but they did not pos- 
sess them long, for in 166Q, the church was de- 
stroyed by the fire, as has been already men- 

Withiij this precinct, on the east side of Water- 
lane, stands Apothecaries Hall. 

This is a very handsomBf^fouilding, with a pair 
of gates in front that lead into a paved court ; at 
the upper end of which is a grand flight of stairs 
leading into the hall-rooin, which is built with 
brick and stone, and adorned with columns of the 
Tuscan order. The ceiling of the court-room and 
pf the hall are elegantly ornamented with fret-work : 
the wall is wainscotted fourteen feet high, and 
adorned with the bust of Dr. Gideon Delaun, apo- 
thecary to King James L and with several pieces of 
exceeding good painting ; among which are por- 
traits of King James I. and of the gentleman w lio 


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procured their charter, and who had been obliged 
to leave France for religion. 

In this building are two large laboratories one 
for chemical, and the other for nlenical pre{ia- 
lations ; where great quandtieft of the best medi* 
cines are prepared for the use of apothecaries and 
others ; particularly for the surgeons of the royal 
navy, who here furnish their chests with all usotiI 
«nd necessary nedicineg. 

CHAP, xxv; 

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Of Bread'Sifeet Ward. — Bounds. — Precincts. --^Principal 
Streets.^'- Allhcdlowsy BrecLd-street. — St. John the Evan- 

feUst^ — "St. ^Mildredf Bread-street. — St. Margareiy 
4oses. Cordwainers-halL — ^Gerrard's Hall -Wn.— ^ 

Goldsmith* s RoWk 

Bread-street ward takes its name from the 
principal street in it, where formerly was held the 
Bread-market ; in which the bakers were obliged 
to sell the bread openly and not in shops, as ap- 
pears by an order, dated in the 30th of Edward I. 

This ward is bounded on the north and north- 
west by the ward of Farringdon within ; on the 
east, by Cord wainer's- ward;, on the south, by 
Queenhithc-ward; and on the west, by Castle 

It is divided into thirteen precincts, and is 
governed by an alderman, twelvecommon-council- 
men, thirteen constables, thirteen inquest men, 
and a beadle. 

The principal-streets and places in it are, Wat- 
ling-striet, Bread-street, Friday-street, DistafF- 
lane, Basing-lane, >vith the east side of the Old 
Change, from the corner of St. Austin's gate to 
Old Fish-street ; and the north side of Old Fish- 
street and Trinity-lane, with part of the south side 
ofCbeapside, betwixt Friday-street, andSt.Mary- 
le-bow church. 

Bread-street is a well built, open street, on the 
east side of which, at the corner of Watling-street, 
is the parish church of AUhallows, Bread-street. 

This church received its name from* being dedi- 
cated to all the samts, and its situation. It is a 
rectory of very ancient foundation ; the patronage 
of which was originally in the prior and canons of 

VOL. III. M Christ- 

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Christ-church in Canterbury, who remained patrons- 
of it till the year 1 365, when it was conveyed to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury and his successors, in 
whom it still continues, and is one of the peculiars 
belonging to that see in the city of tendon. 

The old church being destroyed ^' the fire of 
London in 1666, the present edifice was erected in 
1684, at the expense of the public ; and serves not 
only for the accommodation of the inhabitants of 
its own parish, but likewise for those of St John 
the Evangelist, which is annexed to it by act of 
parliament. This church consists of a plain body, 
of the Tuscan order, seventy-two feet in length, 
thirty-five in breadth, and thirty in height to the 
roof; with a square tower eighty-six feet high, di- 
vided into four stages with arches near the top. The 
inside is handsomely wainscoted and pewed, the 
pulpit finely carved, the sounding board veneered, 
a neat gallery at the west end, and a spacioua altar- 
piece well adorned and beautified. 

The parish church of St John the Evangelist, 
stood at the north east comer of Friday-street, in 
Watling-street ; but being burnt in the fire of Lon* 
don it. was not rebuilt. It is a rectory, founded 
about the same time as Allhallows, and was also in 
the gift of the priory of Christ-church, Canter* 
bury, till it was conveyed with that church to the 
Archbishops of Canterbury, who still retain it. 
The site of the old church is now a burial place for 
the use of the parishioners ; and though the parish 
consists of no more than twenty-three houses it 
]ias a separate vestry, and two churchwardens. 

On the same side of Bread-street, south of Basiog- 
lane, stands the parish church of St. Mildred, 
Bread-street ; so called from its situation, and its 
dedication to St. Mildred, niece to Penda^ King of 
the Mercians^ who having devoted herself to a 


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religious life, retired to a convent in France, froiti 
whence she returned, accompanied by seventy vir- 
gins, and founded a monastery, in the Isle of Tha- 
net, of which she died abbess, in the year 676. 

It is a rectory, founded about the year 1300, by 
Lord Trenchant, of St. Alban's: but it had neither 
vestry-room nor church-yard, till 142J^, when Sir 
John Chadworth, or Shadworth, by his will, gave 
a vestry-room, and church-yard to the parishioners, 
and a parsonage house to the rector. 

The old church was burnt down in 1666, and 
the present building was erected in 1683. It con- 
sists of a spacious body, enlightened by one large 
window on each of the four sides, with a circular 
roof. The length of the church is sixty-two 
feet, its breadth thirty-six feet, the height of 
the side walls fortv feet, and to the center of 
the roof, fifty-two feet. At the south-east corner 
is a light tower, divided into four stages ; from 
whence rises' a tall spite, the altitude of which is 
one hundred and forty feet. The front of it is 
built of free-stone, but the other parts of brick : 
the roof is covered with lead, and the floor paved 
with Purbeck-stone. Within is a neat wainscot 
gallery, and the pulpit is enriched; the altar-piece 
is handsomely adorned, and the communion-table 
stands upon a foot-piece of black and white marble. 

The advowson of this church was anciently in 
the prior and convent of St. Mary Overy's, in 
Soutbwark, by whom it was granted, in the year 
1533, to John Oliver, and others, for a term of 
years ; at the expiration of which it came to Sir 
Nicholas Crisp, in whose family, or assigns, it still 

When the present edifice was built, it was made 

Srochial for this parish and that of St. Margaret 
OSes ; the church of which stood at the south- 

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west corner of Little Friday-street, opposite to Dis- 
tafF-Iane, and was thus named from being dedicated 
to St. Margaret) and from one Moses, or Moysea^ 
who had formerly rebuilt it ; but, suffering by the 
^re in 1666, it wa^ not again rebuilt. 

It is a rectory, and was numbered among the 
most ancient fpundations in the city ; for, in the 
year 1 J 05, it was given, by Robert Fitzwalter, to 
the priory of St. Faith, at Housham, or Horsham, 
in the county of Norfolk : which gift being con-? 
firmed to tbem, h\y a bull of Pope Alexander III. 
in the year 1 163, it was possessed by thjC prior and 
canons, till the suppression of their convent by Ed- 
ward III. as an alien priory, when this church fell 
to the crown, in which the patronage has conti- 
nued to this day. 

^ One part of the site of this church was sold to 
the city, by virtue of an act of parliament, for the 
purpose of widening the street, between Friday-f 
'Street and Bread-street; and the money arising 
from the sale, was applied towards paving and beau^ 
tifying the church of St. Mildred: the other part 
was reserved for a buriaUplace for the parish of St. 

On the north side of Distaff-lane is Cordwainers'- 
hall; a handsome convenient building, consisting 
of se^veral rooms, the principal of which contains 
portraits of King William and Queen. Mary. A 
new stone front has been lately added to this build* 
ing; over the center window- of which is a mc^dal- 
lion, representing a country girl, spinning with a 
distaff, in allusion to the name of the lane ; and at 
the top is a carving of the company's arms. 

Gerard 's-halWnn, on the south side qf JBasing- 
lane, is built upon the remains of a mansion-house, 
formerly belonging to the ancient family of Gysors, 
some of \yhom served the principal ofliices in the 


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magistracy of this city ; and in those days it was 
called Gysor s-ball. John Gysor, mayor of Lon- 
don, was owner of it in the year 1245, and, by de- 
scent, it came to another of the same name, in 
1386, who made a feoffment of it. From this cir* 
cumstance it may be reasonably conclndedy that 
the present appellation of Gerard's^ball, is no more 
than a corruption of Gysor Vhall. Some curious 
remains of the ancient building are still to be seen 
UBder the house, where is an old arched vault, sup- 
ported by nine pillars. This vault was formerly of 
greater extent, but a part of it has been lately 
led off for the use of the adioining house. 

In that part of Cbeapside which is within this 
ward, stood a beautiful set of houses and shops, 
called Goldsmith*s-row. This row of houses was 
built by Thomas Wood, goldsmith, one of the she- 
riffs of London, in the year 1491. It contained, 
in number, ten dwelling-bouses, and fourteen 
shops, all in one frame, uniformly built, four sto- 
ries high, beautified, towards the street, with the 
Goldsmiths'-arms, and the likeness of woodmen, in 
memory of his name, riding on monstrous beastis ; 
all which were cast in lead, and richly painted over 
and gilt. These he gave to the Goldsmiths, with 
a stock of money, to be lent to young men who 
inhabited the shops. The front was again new 
painted and gilt, in the year 1593, Sir Richard 
Martin being mayor. 


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Of Queenkithe JVard.-^-Bounds. — Precincts. ^■'^Prmcipal 
Streets. — Trinity the Less.^^Oerman Lutheran Church^ 
^St. Nicholas Coleabbey. — St. Nicholas Oktve. — Si^ 
Mary Somerset. — Si. Mary MomUhaw^i'^St. Michael, 
Queenhithe. — Queenhithe.''^Painter*Stainers* Ho//.— - 
Blacksmiths' HaU. 

This ward takes its name from a water-gate, or 
harbour, anciently called £dred*s Hithe, and after- 
wards the Queen's Hi the. It is bounded on the 
cast by Dowgate-ward, on the north by Bread-street 
and Cordwainer-street*wards» on the west by Castle 
Baynard'ward, and on the south by the Thames. 

It is divided into nine precincts, and is gpverned 
by an alderman, six common-council-men, nine 
constables, thirteen inquest>men, and a beadle. 

The principal streets in this ward, are. Knight* 
rider's-street, Old Fish-street, Thames-street, Great 
and Little Trinity-lane, Bread-street-hill, and Lam* 

At the north*-east corner of Great and Little 
Trinity-lanes stood the parish church of Trinity the 
Less; so called from its dedication to tlie Holy 
Trinity, to M'hich the additional epithet of Less 
was added, to distinguish it from the priory of the 
Trinity, at Aldgate, 

This parish is a rectory, the patronage of which 
was in the prior and canons of St Mary Overy's, 
in Southwark, until their dissolution; when, coming 
to the crown, it was soon afi^r granted to the Dean 
and Chapter pf Canterbury, in whom it still re- 


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The chttfch was burnt ia the fire of London, but 
not being rebuilt, and the parish being annexed to 
that of St. Michael, Queenhithe, some German 
merchants purchased the sfte of it, in order to erect 
a church, for the celebration of divine service ac« 
cording to the. Augustan, or Lutheran confession; 
since which time^ this has been their place of pub- 
lie worship. 

On the south side of Old Fish-street, at the isomer 
of Labour*in-vain-hiU, stands the parish church of 
St. Nicholas, Coleabbey; which is so denominated 
from being dedicated to St Nicholas, Bishop of 
Mera ; but the reason of the additional epithet ia 
not known ; some conjecturing it to be a corruption 
of Golden-abbey, and others, that it is derived 
from Cold*abb^, or Coldbey, from its cold or 
bleak situation. It is known that there was a 
church in the same place, before the year 1377, 
when, according to Stow, the steeple, and south 
aisle, which were not so old as the rest of the 
church, were rebuilt ; but the last structure being 
consumed in the great conflagration in 1666, the 
present church was built in its places and the parish 
of St. Nicholas, Olave, united to it 

This edifice consists of a plain body, built of ^ 
stone, well enlightened bv a single range of win«^' 
dows. It is sixty*three feet long, and tbrty-three 
feet broad ; thirty-six feet high, to the roof, and 
one hundred and thirty-five to the top of the spire* 

The tower is plain, but strengthened with rustic 
at the comers ; and the spire, which is the frus* 
tnim of a pyramid, and covered with lead, has a gal- 
leiy, and many openings. This was the first church 
built and completed after the fire. 

The advowson of this rectory was anciently in 
the Dean and Chapter of St Martin's-le*Grand; 
but, upon the grant of that collegiate church to the 


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8S strroRT AKD strnvrir o» 

Abbot and Canotts of* Wcstmioster^ tbe patrdndge 
devolved to that convent, in whom it continued 
till the dissolution of their monastery ; when, com- 
ing to the crown, it remained therein till Queen 
Elizabeth, in the year I J60| granted the patronage 
thereof to Thomas Reeve, and George Evelyn, and 
their heirs, in soccage, who conveying it to others, 
it came, at last, to the family of the Hackers, one 
whereof was Colonel Francis Hacker, commander 
of the guard that conducted Kins^ Charles I. to 
and from his trial, and, at last, to tne scaffold ; for 
which, after the Restoration, he was executed as a 
traitor, when the advowson reverted to the crown, 
in whom it still continues. 

The church of St. Nicholas, Olave, stood on the 
west side of Bread-street-hili, where the church- 
yard now is. It is a rectory, of very ancient foun- 
dation, as is evident from Gilbert Foliot, Bishop of 
LondoD, having given it to the Dean and Chapter 
of St. Paul's, about the year 1172» in whom it still 
continues. The additional epithet is supposed to 
be derived from Olave, or Glaus, King of Norway. 
. Thames-street runs through the heart of this 
ward, and contains, on the south side, several lanes 
that lead down to Wood-wharf, Broken-Wharf, 
Brooker's-wharf, Brook's-wharf, C^oeenbitbe, and 
other places, on the Tham^^-^ide ; on which ac- 
count this divison is greatly thronged with carts 
employed in carrying goods and merchandise. 

In this street, opposite Broken-wharf, is situate 
the parish church of St Mary, Somerset. 

This church is so called from its dedication to 
tlie Virgin Mary, «nd its situation ; the word 
Somerset being supposed only a corruption of 
Somers-hithe, from some small port, or hithe, so 
called from the owner of ic being of the name of 

2 It 

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It appears, by ancient records, that a church 
was situated on this spot before the year 13S5. 
The old church, however, sharing the common fate 
of 1606, the present structure was soon after erected 
in its stead. The body of this edifice is enlight* 
cned by a range of lofty arched windows, and the 
wall is terminated by a balustrade. The tower is 
square, well proportioned, and rises to a consi** 
derable height : it is crowned at each corner with 
a handsome vase, supported on a pedestal, with a 
neat turret between, in the form or an obelisk, and 
crowned with a ball. It is eighty-three feet in 
length, thirty-six in breadth, and thirty in height, 
to the roof, and the altitndie of the tower is one 
hundred and twenty feet 

The patronage of this church is in lay hands; 
and, being united to St. Mary Mounthaw, which 
is in the gift of the Bishop of Herefonl, they 
present alternately to the living. The church 
of St. Mary Mounthaw, which was destroyed by 
the fire of London, and not rebuilt, was situated 
on the east side of Fish- street-hill; and the spot 
OQ which it stood is now used as a buriaKplace 
for the |>arishioner8. 

This church was also dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary, and obtained its additional epithet front 
having been formerly a chapel belonging to the 
city mansion of the Montaltos, or Monthauts, c£ 
the county of Norfolk. This mansion, with the 
chapel, was purchased by Ralph de Maydenstone^ 
Bishop of Hereford, about the year 18S4, who set- 
tled lK>th on his successors in that see, whereby 
they became possessors of the house, which they 
used for their city residence, and of the patronage 
of the chapel, which they have retained ever since. 
It is not now known when, or by what means, 
this chapel became converted into a parish church. 

VOL. iir, N On 

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On the same side of Thames-street, directly op- 
posite to Queenhithe, is situated the parish church 
of St Michael, Queenhithe; so called from its 
dedication to St. Michael the Archangel, and its 
situation near that hithe. It was formerly called 
St. Michael de Cornhithe, all the corn brought to 
London from the western parts of the country be- 
ing landed here. 

The earliest authentic mention of this church is 
in the y6ar 1404, when Stephen Spilman, who had 
served the offices of alderman, sherif}^ and cham« 
bertain, died and left part of his goods to found a 
chauntry here. 

The old church being destroyed by the fire of Lon- 
don, the present structure was erected in its stead. 
It consists of a well-proportioned body, enlightened 
by two series of windows; the first a range of tall 
arched ones, and over them another range of large 
port-hole windows, above which are cherubs 
heads, and underneath ' festoons that adorn the 
lower part, and fall between the tops of the under 
series. The tower is plain, but well proportioned, 
and is terminated by a spire crowned with a vane 
in the form a ship. The length of this church is 
seventy-one feet, its breadth forty, and its height to 
thereof, which is flat and covered with tiles^ is 
thirty-nine feet. The altitude of the tower and 
spire, is one hundred and thirty-five. 

The patronage of this church is in the Dean and 
Chapter of St. Paul's, but it is subject to the arch* " 
deacon. On its being rebuilt, the parish of Tri- 
nity the Less was annexed to it ; and the patronage 
of the latter being in the Dean and Chapter of 
Canterbury, they and the Dean and Chapter of St. 
Paul's present alternately to the united living. 

Queenhithe, from which this church derives its 
distinctive appellation, belonged in. old times to 


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one Edred, and was then called Edred's hithe ; but 
felling into the hands of King Steplien, he granted 
it by charter to William de Ypres, by whom it was 
given to the prior and convent of the Holy Trinity 
within Aldgate, subject to the annual payments of 
twenty pounds to the hospital of St. Katharine; 
one hundred shillings to the Monks of Bermondsey ; 
and sixty shillings to the hospital of St Giles. 

After this it came again into the Kings hands, 
though by what means does not appear, and in the 
reign of Henry HI. was called Ripa Reginae, or 
the Queen's Hithe, the revenues of it being settled 
upon her. In this reign orders Were repeatedly is- 
sued to the constable of the tower, to seize the 
vessels of the Cinque Ports and others, carrying 
com and fish, if they were not brought to the 
Queen's Hithe to be unloaded. 

It afterwards came into the possession of the 
mayor and commonalty of London, by grant from 
Richard Earl of Cornwall, to John Gisors, then 
mayor; which grant was confirmed by Henry III. 
on the 26th of February, in the 31st year of his 
reign : but it appears to have been repossessed by 
the earl, at the death of the King ; for upon a 
complaint from the citizens that it was wrongfully 
detained from them, an inquisition M'as taken before 
the King's Justices in the third of Edward I. who 
restored it to the citizens, since which time the 
charge of it has been committed to the sheriffs. 

On the west side of Little Trinity- lane, is Painter- 
stainers hall. This hall is adorned with a hand- 
some screen, arches, pillars, and pilasters of the 
Corinthian order, painted in imitation of porphyry, 
with gilt capitals. The pahnels are of wamscot, 
and the ceilings are embellished with a great variety 
of historical and other paintings, exquisitely per- 

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formed ; amongst which are the portraits of King* 
Charles II. and his Queen Catharine, by Mr, 
Houseman; a portrait of Camden; a view of Lon- 
don on fire in 1666; and a fine piece of shipping 
by Monumea. 

In the court room are some fine pictures, most 
of which are portraits of the members of the com- 
pany ; and in the front of the room is a fine bust of 
Mr. Thomas Evans, who left five houses in Basing- 
hall-street to the company. 

Mr. Camden, the famous antiquarian, gave the 
Fainter«stainers' company a silver cup and cover, 
which they use every St Luke's day at tlieir elec- 
tion ; the old master drinking to his successor out 
of it. On the cup is the following inscription : 
GuL. Cahdenos Clabenceux filius Samp- 


On the west side of Lambeth-hill stands the ball 
belonging to the company of Blacksmiths, a hand- 
some brick building now gone to decay, being de- 
serted by the company, and let out for a warehouse 
to a cooper. 


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Of Castle Baynard Ward* — Bounds. — P/ecmc/*.-— Prin- . 
dpal'Streets. — Si. Bennet, Paul's Wliarf. — St. Peter^ 
PauVs JVharf.—The Herald's Collese.— Doctors Com- 
nums. — St. Mary Magdalen, Old Fish-street. — St. Gre- 
gory. — St. Paul s College. — Residence of the Bishops of 
Lomdon^^^. Andrew, IVardrole. 

This ward takes its name from a castle which 
stood on the bank of the Thames, built by one 
Baynard, a soldier of fortune, who came over with 
M^illiam the Conqueror. He received many marks 
of that 4cing's favour, and obtained from him the 
barony of Little Dunmow, which being forfeited 
to the crown, in the year Jill, by the- felonious 
piactices of William Baynard, was given by Heury 
to Gilbert, Earl of Clare, and his heirs, together 
with the honours of Baynard's Castle. From him 
ltdescended in the female line to Robert Fitzwalter, 
who was castellan and banner-bearer of London, 
in the year 1213; about which time there arose a 
great contention between King John and his barons, 
on account of Matilda, called The Fair, a daugh- 
ter of the said Robert Fitzwalter, whom the king 
unlawfully loved> but could not obtain ; for which, 
and other causes of the like sort, a war ensuecl 
throughout the realm. The barons, being received 
into London, did great damage to the king; but in 
the end the king was successful, and not only banish- 
ed Fitzwalter, among others, out of the kingdom, 
but likewise caused Baynard^s Castle, and two other 
houses belonging to him to be demolished. After 
which a messenger was sent to Matilda the Fair 
about the king's suit; but she, not consenting to 
it, was poisoned. 


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King John being in France in the year 1214, 
with a great army, a truce was made between the 
two kings for five years. There being a river or 
arm of the sea between the two armiesi a knight 
among the English^ called out to those on the other 
side to challenge any one among them to come 
and take a just or two with him : whereupon, 
without any delay, Robert Fitzwalter, who was 
on the French side, ferried over, and got on horse- 
back, without any one to help him, and showed 
himself ready to face this challenger; and at the 
first course struck him so violently with his great 
spear, that both man and horse fell to the ground ; 
and, when his spear was broken, he went back 
again to the King of France. King John; seeing 
this, cried out, " By God's tooth (his usual 
oath) he were a king indeed who had such a 
knight." The friends of Robert, hearing these 
words, kneeled down, and said, '* O king, he is 
your knight ; it is Robert Fitzwalter." Where- 
upon he was sent for the next day, and restored to 
the king's favour ; after which a peace was con- 
cluded, and Fitzwalter was restored to his estates, 
and had permission to repair his castle of Bay- 

This Robert died, and was buried at Dunmov, 
in the year 1234, and was succeeded by his son 
Walter. After his decease, the barony of Baynard 
was in the Wardship of King Henry, during the 
minority of another Robert Fitzwalter, who, in 
the year 130S, laid cliim to his rights before John 
Blount or Blounden, the then mayor, in the fol- 
Jowing terms. 

'' The said Robert and his heirs ought to be and 

are chief bannerers of London, in fee for the cas- 

tellary, which he and his ancestors had, by Castle* 

baynard in the said city. In lime of war the said 

2 Robert 

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Robert and his heirs ought to serve the city ia 
manner as foUoweth : that is, 

'* The said Robert ought to come, he being the 
twentieth man of arms, on horseback, covered 
with cloth or armour, unto the great west door of 
St Paul's, with his banner displayed before him of 
his arms. And, when he is so come to the said 
door, mounted and apparelled as before is said, the 
mayor, with his aldermen and sheriffs, armed in 
their arms, shall come out of the said church of 
St. Paul unto the said door, with a banner in his 
hand, all on foot ; which banner shall be gules, 
the image of St Paul, gold ; the face, hands, 
feet, and sword, of silver: and as soon as the said 
Robert shall see the mayol*, aldermen, and sheriffs, 
come on foot out of the church, armed with such 
a banner; he shall alight from his horse and salute 
the mayor, and say to him, Sir mayor ^ I am come 
to do my service which I owe to the city. 

'^ And the mayor and aldermen shall answer, 
fFe give toyou, as to our banneret of fee in this city, 
the banner of this city, to bear and govern the honour 
of tfiis city to your power. 

'' And the said Robert and his heirs shall receive 
the banner in his hands, and go on foot out of the 
gate, with the banner in his hands; and the mayor, 
aldermen, and sheriffs, shall follow to the door, 
and shall bring an horse to the said Robert, worth 
twenty pounds,^ which horse shall be saddled with 
a saddle of the arms of the said Robert, and shall 
be covered with sindals of the said arms. 

'' Also they shall present to him twenty pounds 
sterling, and deliver it to the chamberlain of the 
said Robert, for his expenses that day. Then the 
said Robert shall mount upon the horse which the 
mayor presented to him, with the banner in Jiis 

hand ; 

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hand; and, as soon as he is up, he shall say to the 
mayor, that he must cause a marshal to be chosen 
for the host, one of the city ; which being doae, 
the said Robert shall command the mayor and bur- 
gesses of the city to warn the commons to assem- 
ble, and all go under the banner of St Paul ; and 
the said Robert shall bear it himself to Aldgate, 
and there the said Robert and mayor shall deliYer 
the said banner of St. Paul to whom they think 
proper. And, if they are to go out of the city, 
then the said Robert ought to chuse two out of 
every ward, the most sage persons, to look to the 
keeping of the chy after they are gone out. And 
this counsel shall be taken in the priory of the Tri- 
nity, near Aldgate. And before every town or 
castle which the host of London shkll besiege, if 
the siege continue a whole year, the said Ro- 
bert shall have, for every siege, of the common- 
alty of London, one hundred shillings, and no 

" These be the rights that the said Robert hath 

in time of war. , ^. , , 

** Rights belonging to Robert Fitzwalter, and to 
his heirs, in the city of London, in the time of. 

peace, are these : , ^. , , , 

" That is to say, the said Robert Fitzwalter had 
a soke or ward in the city, where was a wall of the 
canonry of St. Paul, which led down, by a brew- 
house of St. Paul, to the Thames, and so to the 
side of the mill, which was in the water, coming 
down from Fleet-bridge, and went by London-wali, 
betwixt the friars-preachers and Ludgate, and so 
returned by the house of the said friars, to the wall 
of the canonry of St. Paul; that is, all the parish 
of St. Andrew, which was in the gift of his ances- 
tors, by the said seigniority ; and so the said Ro- 

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belt had, arppendant' ukito the md soke, all the 
diings^ undeiviitten : 

** Thathft oiiglit to have a sokeman, andto plhcd 
what sokemab he Mri)l, so he be of the sok^manrj;^, 
or the same ward; and if aiiy of the sokemanry be 
impleaded^ in the (xuildhail, of any thing that 
touchetfa not the body of the mayor that fbr the 
time is, or that toucheth the body of no sheriff, it 
is la^rf^ll fbr the sokeihan of tlie sokemanry of 
the said Robert Fitzxiraltler to demand a court of the 
said^ Robert; and the mayor; atid his citizens of 
London, ought to grant him to have a court; and 
in his court he ought to bring his judgments, as it 
IS assented atid s^^d Upon in the Guildhall, that 
shall be given himi 

" If any, therefore, be taken in his sokemanry, 
be ought tb have his stocks and imprisonment in 
his soketi; and he shall be brought from thence to 
the Guildhall, before the mayor, and there they 
shall provide him' his judgment thlit ought to be 
giinen of him; but his judguielit shall not be pub« 
lished till he come into the court of the said Ro« 
bart, and in^ his liberty. 

'' And'the judgment shall be such, that, if he 
have deserved death by treason, he to be tied to a 
post in the Thames, at a good wharf, where boats 
arefastbned; twoebbings and two flbwiugs of the 

*' And, if he he condemned for a common thief, 
heoaght to be led to the elms, and there suifer his 
judgment, a^ other thieves. AUd so the said Robert, 
and bis heirs^ hath honour, that he holdeth a great 
franchise withiii the city, that the mayor of the 
city^ and citizens^ are bound to do hinl right; that 
is'to say, that, when the mayor will hold a great 
council^ he ou^t to call the said Robert, and his 
heirs, to be wiUi bim in council pf the- city; and 

VOL. III. o the 

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98 KI970i|Y AND tCOlVBY Off 

the said Rol^rt ought to be sworn to be of council 
ivith the city, against all people, saving the king 
and his heirs. And when the said Robert cometh 
to the hustings of the Guildhall of the city, the 
inavor, or his lieutenant, ought to rt&e against hioiy 
andf set hini down near unto him;, and, so long a^ 
he is in tfie Guildhall, all the judgments ought to 
be given by bis mouth, according to the record of 
%he recorders of the said Guildhall; and so many 
waifes as come so long as he is there, he ought to 

five them to the bailiffs of the town, or to whoni 
e wi:llj by the council of the mayor of the city." 
The old castle was destroyed by fire, in 1428, 
after wbich it was rebuilt by Humphrey, Duke of 
Gloucester. At his decease, Henry VI. gave it to 
JUchaFd^ Oukeof York, who resided here, with his 
aj*med followers, to the number of four hundred, 
duriug the important convention of the great men 
of the nation, in 1458, the forenmnsr of the civil 
wars, between the Houses of York and I^ncaster. 

This was also the residence of Riclwd III. when 
be took upon hJQi ibe tjtlre of king. It was after- 
wards beautified, and made more commodious, by 
Hen. V 1 1. who fre<i4ji^n.t]y lodged here ; and thie privy- 
council met here, on the l^th of July, 1553,. for 
the piir}>ose of piorlaiming Queen Mary ; at wbich 
. tinie it was the property and residence o£ William 
Herbtrt, Earl of Pembroke. But no trace now re^ 
mains of this anck^nt and magnificent building, the 
scene of so many eventful transactions. The same 
fate has attended the casrie of Montfitchet, and 
another cjibtle. built by King Edward I L which, 
from being afterMards. a^wropriated for the lecep* 
tipn and resnleqce of the Pope's, legates, was. called 
Jjegate's-inn ; and also BeaiunontVinn, afterwards 
HyijtiugdoU'hou^ft a, very noble palace^ built ia 
Tl»iD«sr^i««lj Pf>pQ^jb&St..]Patfii*srhiU; in the sath 


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roKBoy aud its smriBONi* SO 

of£d\7atd IV.; the city mansion of .the family of 
Scnoop, on the wostside (»f PaulVvharf; Berkeley « 
inn, or palace, in Addle-street; and the stately pa- 
lace belonging to the priors of Okeburn, in Wilt- 
shire, which stood in Castle^lcine, with many otheiB 
of less note, in this neighborhood. 

This waitl is bounded on the east by Queenhithe 
and Bread»street-wards, on the south by the river 
Thames, and on the west and north by the ward o£ 
Farringdon within. 

It is divided into ten precincts^ and is governed 
by an alderman, ten eommonK;ouncil*men, nine 
constables, fourteen inquest'^men, and a beadle. 
The principal streets and lanes in it are, the vest 
end of Thames-street, St Peter's-hill, Bennett's^ 
hill. Sermon-lane, Carter-lane, Paurs*chain, part of 
St Paul's church-yard, and the east sides of Crecd- 
laae, A ^C'^mariarlane, and Warwick«lane. 

At the south'^west corner of Bennrt's-hill, on 
the north side of Thames^street, stands the parish 
church of St. Bennet, Paurs«-wharf ; which is so 
called from its dedication to St Benedict, and its 
vicinity to the wharf. It is of very ancient 
fimndation, and appears in the register of Diceto, 
Dean erf St. PauFs, under the year 1181. The dis* 
tiognishing epithet has, however, been frequently 
changed ; for it has been called St Bennet, Huda 
and St Bennet, Wood-wharf, as well as by its pre** 
sent appellation. 

The old church being destroyed bj' the fire iti 
1666, the present one was erected in its stead, from 
a design of &r Christopher Wren. It is a very neat 
brick structure, ornamented with stone, and the 
body is well proportioned. The tower, which is 
also of brick, with rustic work in stone, at the cor* 
ners, is surmounted by a dome, from whence rise a 
turret and amall spire. The length of the chur ch 


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h fifty^foor feet, its bfcadth fifty feet, (the faeigfat 
of the roof tbirty«six &et, and ^that of the steeple 
one hundred and eighteen feet. 

It is a Tectory, the patronage of .whidi appears 
^toiiaveiieen always in the Dean andiChapter .of 
St. Paul's. 

After the fiie, the parish of «t. Peter, PaulV 
«rbarf, -the churoh ^f which was not rebuilt, ivas 
annexed to ^this ^parish. 

It is also a rectory, in the gift of the Dean and 
IGhapter of St. Paul's, and of equal antiquity .with 
-St. iBennet's parish, ibeing found in the'same reg;ift« 
ter; but was anciently denominated St. Peters 
iPanva, from the smollness of its dimensions, ^art 
of .this parish is in this wacd, and part in that 
of Queenbithe. 

.On the east side of Btonet's-l^iU stands the He^ 
raid's college, or office. The old building, wimc 
this office v^ kept, was destroyed by t£e fi^e ia 
\66^ and, hy the act for rebuilding idie^ty, the 
firesent edifice wsas to haxe been begun in Jtbces 
^y ears after. Tlie estimate of the expense for buildisi^ 
it amounted to &ve tliousand pounds, but the4:fiM> 
pocation noti)e;ing able to disc^i^ d>at.sum, pe^ 
-citioned his jnajesty for a commission to receive the 
-subscriptions of the nobility and genl^y. This pie« 
tidon was refened to the jcommissioners for eaoe^ 
cut^ng tiie office of jearUmarsiiai ; and, upon theiv 
report, was granted on the 6th of Decembef, 16%S. 
fiut the connmssipn diisecting the money collected 
to lie paid to ^och persoiis, and laid out in sach a 
manner, as the eartmarsiml should appoint, so di&- 
g^usted the officers, that it caused a coolness in 
them to promote tiie subscription; in consequracc 
of 3^vliich, though they had reason to hope for 
large contributions, little more than five hundnui 
^unds were taisoL What sums were &rther.iu£es«- 


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-«i7»^wne'nuuk up out cyf tlie fftneai jfees and |h»- 
fits of the office, or by Jhejeontribiitioii of^ftmcn^ 
-kr raembeis. 

The novtli-wert'Conierof this builditig wu^ect- 
^ at tiie sole chasge of Sir (ViUiain Du^ale ; mA 
'Sir Hemy fit Greorge, ClaKociettx, gave the pro* 
fits of some visitations made bg^ideputies apfMUn^jsA 
by him for that puqiofie, amoummg to fiye kiiii- 
dved and thirty pounds.. Tbe houies on the east 
s^ide, and south-east comefi were eiectad upon a 
building leasee agreeable to the original plan; bf 
which means the wbole was made one uniform 
^quadrangular buikUng as it aow appears. It is a 
very liandsome and weU designed eoifice; and the 
liollow arch of the gateway is^steemed'a gi«at curio* 

Tiie4;ollege bekig iiaisbed in die month of No* 
v€iBffoer9 l<6S9y tbe rooms wepe divided amongst 
tbe oi&oei« aecordiag to their degrees, by mutuai 
agreement, which was afterwards confirmed by iht 
eari*marsbal ; and these apartments have been ever 
since annexed to the respective offices. The m- 
aides of the apaxtments were finished at different 
tifiies by the officers to whom they belonged. 

Hien-ont of this buiMing is ornamented with 
nistiey OB which are placed four Ionic pilasten 
tiiat support an angular pediment. The sides, 
whichare conformable to this, have arched pedi* 
ments, which are also supported by Ionic pilas- 
ters. Within is a large room for keeping the 
eourt of honour; as also a library, with houses 
and apartments for the king's heralds and pur- 

This corporation consists of thirteen members, 
Vi^. three kings at arms; six lieraids at arms; and 
four pursuivants at arms. Tl>ey are nominated by 
the £arl*marsbal of England, as ministers subor^ 

din ate 

Digitized by 


lOS jiieioKy Asm tcmvsT of 

4)mate to him m the execotiiNi of their ofiices, and 
hoid their pUoes by fiatODt. 

Though these officers are of great antiquity, lit- 
tle meBtkm is made of their tittes or names before 
the time of Edward IIL In bis reign hemldry 
mm m high esteem, aA appears by tlie patents of 
the kings of arms, vhic^ refer to that period. 
£dward IIL created the two Provincials, by the 
titles of Clanencteuxand Norray : he also institut- 
ed Wi&dsor and Chester iieraids, and btuemantle 
pursuivant ; besides several others by. foreign titles. 
Prom this time we find the officers of arms employed 
Abroad and at home, both as militar}* and civilofficers : 
•B military officers, with our kings and generals 
in the army, carrying defiances, and making truceap 
or attending at tilts, tournaments, or duels: as.civU 
officers, employed iii negociations, and attending 
our ambassadors in foreign courts : at home, waitr 
ing on the king at court and parliament, and 
directing all public ceremonies* 

In the 5th year of ^e reign of Henry V. anng 
vere regulated, soon after which that prince insti- 
tuted the office of garter king of arms ; and at 
a chapter of the kings and heraids, held at the siege 
of Rouen, in Normandy, on the 5th of January, 
1420, they formed themselves into a regular society, 
with a common seal, receiving garter aa their 

The first charter of incorporation was granted by 
King Richard IIL who assigned them a proper o^ 
fice and residence. This charter was afterwards 
confirmed by Edward Vli and Queen Mary, the 
latter of whom not only incorporated theui agatn« 
but also granted them the messuage or house called 
Derby-place, which form'erly belonged to the Earl 
of Derby, and was the building destroyed by the 
fire of London. 


Digitized by 


Tlie kiogs at arms are distinguLshed by t&e foK 
lowing titles ; 



The office of garter king of arms was iDstitutsai 
by King Henry V. for the service of the most no* 
ble order of the garter; and, for the dignity of 
that ofdei), he was made sovereign, within thr 
office of arms, over all the otlier oificers, sahject 
to the crown of England; by the name of Garter^ 
king of arms of Englanri. By the constitution of his; 
office he must be a native of England, and a gen- 
tleman bearing arms. To him belongs the correc* 
tian of arms, and ail ensigns of arms, usurped: 
or Iwrne unjustly ; awl thepower of granling arras, 
to deserving peFSOBiS, and suppiorters. to the nobility 
aiui knights of the Bath. It is also his office to 
go next before the sword in solann processk>n>. na 
one tatenposinig except the marshal; ta administer 
the att the officers of anas ; to have a. habit. 
Hke the register of the order, baron's service in the 
eourt, and lodgings in WiudsoT'-Qaflitle: lie bearsr 
his white rod, with a banner of tlie ensigns of the: 
otrkt thereon, before the sovereign^. When any^ 
Uinh enters the parliament d^amber^. it is his posfe 
t/^ assign him his place, according to his dignity^ 
and degree; to carry the ensign of the order toi 
foreign princes, and to do, or procure to Ife done,, 
what the sovereign shall enjoin relating to the order; 
with other duties incident to his office of principat 
king of arms.. 

The other two kings are called pcovincial kings, 

who have pafticular provinces as^gned them, 

w^Udit tc^tber comprise the whoje kingdom of 

£agbnd;. that of Clarencieu^^ compreheioudin^ all 

2 trom 

Digitized by 


109 Hi>si!orv JiKD 8ini?np or 

fidm the ri^er Trent smith wstfdy and that of NTor- 
roy all from the river Trent northward. 

These kings at arms are distinguished from eacli 
other by their respective badges, which they may 
wear at all times, either in^ gold chain or a ribbon, 
garter's being blue, ^nd the provincial^ fforple. 

The kings of arms were originally created by the 
sovereign^ with great solemnity, oh some high 
festival; but, for a considerable^ time pas^ they 
have been cr6atediby the earl mal%hal, by virtue of 
the soi'creign 'swarran t When one of these officers 
is* created, he takes his- oath ; wine i% poured upon 
his head out of agilt cup; his title is pronounmt ; 
and' be invested with a< tabard of the royal aM*ms* 
richly embroidered upoU'Velvet; a collar of SS. with 
two portcuHisses of silver gilt; a gold chain; witli 
»badge of his office.; and the eari-marshal places 
on his head the cro\rn of a king of arms^ which 
fiMinerly resembled a ducal coronet; but, sinoc^ 
Ae restoration in has been adorned with leaves re- 
sembling those of the oak^ and circumscribed ivith 
these words, Misehzrk mec Decs secukdom 
VAONUM MfSERicoRDiABi* TUAM. Garter has 
also a mantle of crimson satin, as an officer of ttie 
order ; with a white rod or sceptre^ with ' the sove-.- 
reign's arms on thetop^ mdiich he bears in the pre- 
sence of the sovereign; and he is sworn ina chap-» 
ter of the garter^ the sovereign in\xsting^ him 
with the ensigns pf his office. 

The heralds at arms are distinguished by thQ 
following titles : 

Somerset, Windsor, 

Richmond, Chester; 

Lancaster, York; 

These six heralds take place according to senU 
prity. They are created with the same cerempny 


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LbkodK AKd Its Ef^TiaotiSi lOi 

&s tlie kings, taking the oath of an herald, and 
cire invested with a tabard of the royal arms em* 
broidered upon satin, not so rich as the king's^ 
but better than the pursuivants> and a silver collar 

The kin^ and herakts ate swdhi tipon a sWord 
as vreil as a book, to show that they are military as 
well as civil officers. 

The Putsuivapts^ i^fe , 
Rouge DragoD> Portcullis^ 

Blue Mantl^ Rouge Croi^c^ . 

These are also created by the earl-mai-sbal, and 
when they take their oath of pursuivant are invested 
with a tabard of the royal arms upon damask. It is 
the duty of the heralds and pursuivants to attend 
in the public office) one of each class together^ in 
monthly rotation. 

It is the general duty of the kings, heralds and 
pursuivants to attend his majesty at the house of 
peers, and, upon certain febtivals, at the chapel 
royal; to make proclamations; to marshal the 
proceedings at all public processions; to attend the 
installation of the knights of the garter, &c« 

These heralds are all the king's servants in ordi- 
nary i and therefore, whenever it happens that the 
earl-marshal is absent, they are sworn into their 
offices by the lor4'-chamberlain» 

Their meetings are termed chapters, which they 
hold once a month, oroftenjcr if necessary, wherein 
all matters are determined by a majority of voices 
of the kings and heralds, each king having two 

These officers, as before observed, have apart- 
luents in the college annexed to tlieir respective 
offices* They have also a public hall^ in which 
the earl-marshal occasionally holds courts of chi- 
valry. Their library contains a large and valuable 

VOL* zii. p eoUection 

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}0t mmoET A^B mm^v9' o¥ 

€oUefti0n^f origmal records of tfhc pedigrees and 
y ms^ of families, funeral certificates of the nobilitjf 
and gentry, public ceremonials^ and other branches 
ef heiaWry and antiquitie»v 

The arms of the college and corporation are; 
argent, St. Gcorge*s^ cross between four doves 
d2ure, one wkig open to fly, the other close, with 

this motto, DILIGENT AND SECK«T. CfCSt^ a 

dove rising on a- ducal coronet. Supporters, on 
either side- a lion guardant ai-gent, gorged with 
a ducal coronet. These arnis^ crest, and' sup- 
porters are upon the common seal, thus circuin- 
scrihed, Sigillum commune Corporathnis Officii* Ar^ 

Opposite the north-west comer of the llerald> 
Olli<?e is a pftssage Hiat leads into Doctors' Com- 

. This is a' college for such as study and practise 
the civil law; and here causes in civil and ecclesias- 
tical cases are tried under the Bishop of London, 
and tht Archbishop of Canterbury. The addition 
of comnwns is taken from the manner in which 
the civilians live here, comnioning together, a» 
practisedin other colleges. 

The front of this college, which is an old brick 
buildings, is in Great Knightrider-strcet; and it 
consists of two square courts, chiefly inhabited by 
doctoi's- of the civil law. Here are tried all causes 
by the court of admiralty, and the court of dele- 
gates. Here are offices where wills are registered 
and deposited; and licences for marriage, &c arc 
granted, and a court of faculties and dispcusa* 

The causes, whereof tlie civil and ecclesiastical 
law take cognizance, are these; blasphemy, apos- 
tacy from Christianity, heresy, schism, ordina- 
tions; institutions of clerks to benefices, celebra- 

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IIOK0D1I ASay m wmvam. lOf 

tton fif div'fne service, matrtmony, divorces^ boi*- 
tardy, tythcs, oblations, obv^ntiotis^ iDortiiaPte% 
dihtpiilationsy .reparation of churclies, probate of 
wills, administrations, simony^ incests, fornica 
tioQs, aduheries, sc^Ucitation of chastity, p?n- 
saoDs, pruouiations, commutation of penance, 
right of pews, and other such like, veducibhe to 
these inalters. 

There are many courts belonging to the civil and 
ecclesiastical law; the most particular of wkidi 
are these: 

1 . The Court of Arches. This court takes its name 
from Bow-chttrch, which was originally built upon 
arches, and in which it first sat for the dispatch of 
business. It is the highest court under the juris- 
diction of the Archbishop of Camterbury. Here all 
appeak are directed in ecclesiastical matters within 
tbe province of Canterbury. The judge of this 
court is stiled tbe Dean of the Arches, because ht 
hoids a jurisdiction over a deanery in London, con- 
sisting of tliirteen parishes, exempt from the Bishop 
of London's jurisdiction. The oiiieers under this 
judge are, an examiner, an actiiwry, a beadle or 
crtei', and an apparitor ; besides advocates^ and 
Itrocurators or proctors. 

2. TJie Prerogative Court This court is thus 
denominated from tbe prerogative of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, who, by a special privilege 
beyond those of his suffragans, can here try all 
disputes that happen to arise concerning the last 
wills of persons within his province, wlio have left 
goods to the v-alue of five pounds and upwards, un- 
iess sjhcb tbsage ai-e settled by compositfou between 
the jneti*opi>litati and his ^uflVagatis; M in the dio- 
cese of LoihIqh, where it is ten pounds. To this 
court belongs a judge, who is sftfled Judet Cnrke 
FrtrogatipiB Cuntuarienm; and 9 r^git^e/, who 


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hath convenieot rooms in his office, for the dis^ 
posing and laying up safe all original wills aiid 
testaments. This register also hath his deputy, 
besides several clerks. 

S. The Court of Faculties and Dispensations* 
This court can empower any one to do that which, 
in law, he could not otherwise do, viz. to marry 
without the publication of banns; to succeed a 
father in an ecclesiastical benefice ; to hold two or 
more benefices ; to hold two or n^ore benefices, 
incompatible, &c. This authority was given to 
the archbishop by the Statute 35 Henry VIII. cap. 
SI. And the chief officer of this court is called 
Magisterad Facultatcs; under whom is a register 
and his clerks. 

4. The Court of Admiralty. This court waa 
erected in the reign of Edward III. and, in former 
times, kept iu Southwark. It belongs to the Lord 
High Admiral of England, and takes cognizance 
of all trespasses committed on the high seas, and 
all matters relating to seamen's wages, &c» The 
judge of this court must be a civilian, and is called 
Supremof curke admiralitatis anglias locum tenensju-- 
dfuv. Under the judge is a register and marshal, 
.the latter of whom carries a silver oar before th^ 
judge, besides an advocate and proctor. This 
court is held in the hall of Doctors* Commons, 
where the other civil courts are kept, except in' 
the trial of pirates, and crimes committed at ^a; 
on which causes the Admiralty Court sits at the 
Sessions- house in the Old Bailey, 

5. The Court of Delegates. This is the highest 
court for civil affairs belonging to the church, to 
which appeals are carried from the spiritual courts ; 
for upon the s^bolishing of the papal power withiu 
this kingdom, by Henry VIII. in the year 1534, 
)t W4S enacted b^ parliamenti th^t qo appeals should 


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from thenceforward bemade to Rome : and in default 
of justice in any of the spiritual courts, the party 
aggrieved might appeal to the king, in his court of 
chancery, upon which a commission under the 

freat seal, snould be directed to such persons as 
is majesty should think fit to nominate. These 
commissioners, to whom the king thus delegates • 
his power, generally consist of noblemen, bishops, 
and judges, both of the common and civil law ; 
and; as this court is not fixed, but held occasion- 
ally, these commissioners, or delegates, are varied 
at the pleasure of the lord chancellor, who appoints 
them* No appeals lie from this court; but, upon 
good reasons assigned, the lord chancellor may 
grant a commission of review. 

Tlie practisers in these courts are of two sorts, 
viz* advocates and proctors. 

The advocates are such as have taken the degree 
of doctor of the civil law, and are retained as coun- 
aellers or pleaders. These must, first, upon their 
petition to the archbishop, obtain his fiat; and 
then they are admitted, by the judge, to practise: 
The manner of their admission is solemn. Two 
senior advocates, in their scarlet robes^ with 
theif mace carried before them^ conduct the doctor 
tip the court with three reverences, and present 
him with a short Latin speech, together with the 
archbishop's rescript j and then, having taken the 
oaths, the judge admits him, and assigns him a 
place or a seat in the court, which he is always to 
keep when he pleads. Both the judge and advo- 
cates, if of Oxford, wear, in court, scarlet robes, 
and hoods lined with tafFaty; but, if of Cam- 
bridge^ white minever, and round black velvet caps. 
The proctors, or procurators, exhibit their proxies 
for their clients; and make themselves parties for 


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J 40 H|S70E¥ AKD SV^VfY OF 

thetti, and draw and give pleas, or libels und all««- 
gation^i in their behalf; prodwoe witBCsses, prepare 
causes for «eirte4ice, and attend the advocates with 
the proceedings. These are also admitted by tli« 
archbishop's fiat, and introduced by two senior 
proctors. They wear black robes and hoods lined 
with fur. 

The terms for the pleading and ending of causes 
in the civil courts are hut little different fronrtbe 
term times of the common law. Tlie order, as 'to 
the time of sitting of the several courts, is as fal- 
lows: Tl>e court of arches having the pre-cani- 
nence, sits first in the jnorniog : the court of ad- 
miralty sit« in the afternoon, on the same day ; jami 
the prerogative court sits also in the afternoon. 

In this collie is a Jibrafy, well stocked wnth 
books of all sorts, especially in civil law and his- 
tory ; for which they are greatly indebted to James 
Gibson, Esq. who g^ve a great number of the 
books, and to the benefoctions given by every bi^- 
$hop at his consecration, to pwchase books for ihta 

This learned body was originally '^situated in 
JPaternoster^row ; but tha4: situation being found 
very inconvenient, Dr. Henry Harvey, DeaB of jhc 
Arches, purchased and provided a large bouse in 
Knightrider-streett, which, at that tittk, w^ an old 
stQne building, belonging to, aad let out by, the 
Canons of St Paul's. 

The present college was built upon the ruins of 
that house, which was bnrnt down in the generail 
conflagration of this city, in 1665; on which oc- 
Casio^i, the business of the institution was tranf- 
ferred tcv (^<)d cai ricd on at Exietedochapge, in the 
^trand, till the new college \Ka8 finished in a more 
convenient and elegant manner. 


Digitized by 


LOKDjOM AlCD rrft EtTYlltaKS. Ill 

On the ftorth side of Knightridcr^strcct, at the 
^est corner of the Olcl Change, standi the parish 
charch of St, Mary Magdalen, Old Fish-sti-eet; so 
caliM from its dedication to that saint, and its an* 
crent situation in the fish-market, the principal 
part of which was in that street. 

ITiis church w^s a Vicarage, in the tenure of the 
canons of St. Paurs, in the year 1181; but for 
some ages past, it has been a. rectory, in the gift of 
the clean and chapter of St. PaaKs. The old edifice 
was destroyed by the fire of London ; and the pre- 
sent structure was erected in the year 1 685, 

This is a small but well-proportioned church, 
built with stone, and enlightened by a single series 
of arched windows, each ornamented with ii cherub 
and scrolls, supporting a cornice which runs round 
the building ; but these windows are so high from 
the ground, that the doors open completely under 
them. The tower is divided into two stapjes, in 
the upper of which is a large window on each sidb; 
From tlie top of the tower the work diminishes, in 
themanner of high steps, on each side; and on the 
top of these is a turret, with a very short spire, on 
which is placed a vase, with flames. 

To this parish is annexed that of St. Gregory; 
the church of which stood at tlie south-west corner 
of St Paul's cathedral. It is a rectory of very an- 
dent fbuudation, and tbok its name f\'om Pope 
Gregory the Great, who sent Austin, the monk, 
to convert the English nation to Christianity. The 
patronage of Jt is in the Dean and ChafOrer of St: 
Paul's, who are both patrons and ordinaridl. After 
its dejtruction by the fire of London, the ground 
on which it stood was laid inta St* Paul's church- 

Behind, of the demolished* church is. St. 

Paul's. college, which* is a small cx^urt; consisting of 

3 divers 

Digitized by 


divers houseSi appropriated to the petty canons 0^ 
St. Paul's cathedral, who, in the 18th of RichardlL 
obtained that king'^ letters patent) constituting; 
them a body politic, by the name of the College 
of the Twelve Petty Canons of StPauVs Church. 

Facing this college, on the spot of ground now 
called London-house yard, formerly stood the Bi* 
shop of London's palace, a very large and magnifi- 
cent house, which was destroyed by the fire of Lon* 
don. In this palace King Edward V. was lodged, 
when he was brought to London to take possession 
of the crown. 

On the east side of Puddle-dock-hill, near the 
wharf, is the parish church of St Andrew, Ward* 

This church is a rectory of very ancient founda*^ 
tion, originally denominated St Andrew, juxta 
Baynard castle, from its vicinity to that palace t 
but the ofiiceof the king's wardrobe being removed 
to a house in Carter-lane, built bv Sir John de 
Beauchamp, son to Guy de Beaucnamp, Earl of 
Warwick, and afterwards sold to King Edward IIL 
the site of which is now occupied by Wardrobe* 
court, the distinctive appellation of this church 
was changed. 

It is very probable that this church was founded 
about the same time as Baynard'8-castle> and per* 
haps by the same nobleman ; for the advowsou was 
anciently in the noble family of Fitzwalter, from 
whom it passed through many hands, until the 
year 1663, when it came to the crown, in which it 
still ren)|iinjs ; but the parish of St. Anne, Black- 
friars, being annexed to it after the fire ; the. right 
of presentation is alternately in the crown and the 
parishioners of St Anne. 

The present structure was erected on the ruins 
of the old one, in the year 1670. It is a handsome 


Digitized by 



building of Jl>rick, ornamented with stone, and 
supported by twelve pillars of the Tuscan order, in 
allusion to the twelve apostles, to one of whom it 
is dedicated. The body is enlightened by two rows 
of windows, but the tower has neither turret, pin- 
nacle, nor spire. The roof is adorned with fret- 
trork of flowers, fruits, &c. The pews ate vcty neat, 
and the walls well wainscoted, with two handsome 
galleries, a carved pulpit, a veneered sounding- 
board, and a very complete altar-piece« It is se- vc feet in length, fifty-nine in breadth, and 
thu-ty-eight in height^ to the roof; and the alti« 
tude of the tower is eighty-six feet. 


_ ' ' Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1)4 BlM01tY^MII» fSBTBY 0» 

CHAK xxvm. 

-^'Precincts. — pTindpaf Sfreets.-* — l'7^c/-irf«rft^^j— — 
Fleel'ditch,—The Fleei Prhm. — Bridewell HosfiM. 
^^'Dvrset'Sireet. — Salisbury -sq^tare. — S#. iM»9«**^ 
-^The TempU.r-^ttmjffle-hur.^SUTeriBme.^kanmp^ 
Une.r^Sfmmd:s-iw[i.— Chapel ojiie RqlU^^Cl^ff^rdTs^ 
inn.^^St, Dunsian in the tvest, — Scot's ffalL-^Petter^ 
lane. — Siafde's-inn,^^ Barnard^ s-inn. — TAatrlf'^tmi.— 
St. Andrew, HMom.'^Holbom Hall. — Bangor^kmisem 
— Ely •place. — Hation-garden. — Rtrntvari-iw*!.— — 
SnoW'hill.^'Skinner'Street. — St. SeMltbre. — Farthing* 
office. — Old'bailey. — Newgate. — The Sessions-bimse.^^ 
GiltspuV'Streei Compter. — Pye'Cwner.-'-^Smithfield.'^ 
St. Bartholomew s Hospitat — S^ Bartholomew the 
Less. — St. Bartholomew the Great.^-^Bartholomew^ 
close. — Remains of the Old Priory. — Long-lane^'^^ 

The ward of Farringdon witbout, which is very 
large, forms the western extremity of the city. In 
the time of the Saxons^ the principal part of the 
city lay west from Ludgate^ and what is now the 
heart of the city, was but thinly inhabited, as ap- 
pears from Fabian's Chronicle. H6 say$» that m 
^ing Egelred'a, or Ethelred's, reign, which began 
in the year 981, or, according to Stow, in 978, 
l/^ndon had more houses, or buildings, from Lud^ 
gate towards Westminster, and little or none 
where the chief of the city now is, except in divers 
places was housing, but they stood without order ; 
so that many towns and cities, as Canterbuiy, 
York, and others, passed London in building in 
Ikoso^ (Ki/«, ^ b» 'had seea^ and knowui . by an old 


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book in the Giriklfaftll of London, named Dooms- 
day. But, after the conquest, it increased, and 
shortly surpassed and excelled all the others. 

TUs wara f$ bounded on the east by the ward^f 
Farmigdon within, iht precinct of the late pridry 
of St fiartholpnxv, and Akier&gate-ward, on the 
north by the Charter-house, the parish of St. Jobn^ 
Clerkenweli^ and part of that of ^. AndreTi^ without 
the freedom^ on the west by the parish of St. CJe- 
meirt's Daieii and on the south by the river 

It extends from the piaejes wlieie Newgate and 
Lndgate formerly stood, in the east, to Temple-bar« 
and Hoibom'-bars, in Ihe west, and fitMn Long* 
l<n0 and 9niitbfie!d-bars, ki the north, to the river 
TfaaBws in the somtfa. 

Wtthia this district are included the whole pre- 
cinct of St« fiarthoiottiewt a part of Long-lane, all 
fimitlifiddtla the bars in St. John's-atreet; Holborn, 
to the bars at the east end of Middle- row; from 
vfaeooe it runs southward, between Staple s-inn and 
Caatle-etrect, and crosses tlie south end of C'Jian-* 
cery^laie, obliquely, to Temple-bar, and from 
thence to the Thames, where, turning easterly, it 
contitiuds its course to the place formerly called 

It is divided into fourteen precincts, and is go« 
?emed byanaldenmn, sixteen, common- council* 
ftten, twtnty^tbree constables^ forty-eight inq>uest- 
Sien, attd foor beadles. 

The principal streets in it are, Ludgate-hiil, 
Fleft'Stiieet, Bridge* street, part of Chancery-lanei 
Fetter, or, as it was anciently called, FeuterVlane, 
Holborn, Castle-street, Hattoa^ garden, £iy-place^ 
Skinner-street, and the Old-bailey. 

Between Lndgate«>hilK and Fleet-street, on the 
dortb side, is Fleet- market, which is erected on the 


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ancient watercourse of the Fleet-rivulet, orj as it 
was afterwards denominated, * when it became 
choaked with filth, Fleet-ditch. 

This rivulet was increased in its course to the 
Thames, by Turnmill-brook, or the river of Wells, 
and a stream called the Old Bourn, and was for- 
merly navigable as high as Ilolborn-bridge, or, ac- 
cording to some authors, much higher; for Mait- 
land relates that an anchor had been found, a short 
time before he wrote his History of London, at 
Black Mary's-hole, and that it was commonly re- 
ported, that one had been found at Pancras. How- 
ever this may be, it is certain that flood-gates weic 
erected in it, in I606, and that, after the fire of 
London, it was cleansed, enlarged, and made ca- 
pable of bringing barges of considerable burthen 
to Holborn -bridge, where the water was five feet 
deep in the lowest tides. The side walls of this 
canal were built of stone and brick, and the wharfs 
on each side were thirty-five feet in breadth, and 
covered with warehouees for storing provisions^ 
coals, and the various commodities brought here 
for the supply of that part of the metropolis conti* 
guous to it. 

Over this canal were four bridges of Portland- 
stone, viz. . at Bridewell, Fleet-street, ^leet-lane, 
and liolborn. 

In clearing it from the rubbish of the fire in 
1670, many Rojnan utensils were found at a depth 
of fifteen feet; and, still lower, a great quantity of 
Roman coins, in silver, copper, brass, a^d other 
metals, which were conjectured to have been thrown 
in by the terrified inhabitants, at the approach of 
^oadjcea, with her aimy of Britons. The silver 
poins were the ring-money of several si»s, from 
that of a crown to a silver two-pence, each having 
^ snip in ^be ed^e. 


Digitized by 


UmitmM AKD ITS «IfTI10KS« . | If 

Besidte these antiiquieifli tk number of others were 
fouod, inai;ked with Saxon chAracters^ such: as ar^ 
row heads, sfwr-fQwels pf a hand s breadth^, dago 
gers, seals, and keys/atid a cojpsiderable numjber of 
modem nsedals with cros&es, ctupitixes, &c« . . 

But theexf^ense of keeping this canal navigSi* 
ble, proving extremely burthensoixie to the cjU^ 
^ens, it was at last neglected, and became a* great 
and dangerous nuisance^ which occasioned the city 
to apply to parliament for power to arch it over^,- 
and make it level with .th€ street; and, haviqg ob«* 
tained an act for that purpose, the work was begun 
in the year 1734, and a marketibouse, with other 
eonreniences, being erected on the place, it was 
opened on the SOth of September, 1737, by tho 
name of Fleet^market. 

This market consists of two rows of shop;, a!^ 
mo^ the whole length of it, with a passage between; 
paved with rag-stone. In the center la a turret^ 
with a clock; and at the north end is a large area 
for dealers in vegetables. 

By the act of parliament to enable the ci{i;sens 
to erect this market, the fee-simple of the ground 
on which it stands is crested in the mayor, common- 
alty, and citizens of Lopdon, for ever, with a pro« 
yisotbat sufficient drains shall be kept.through the 
p)iannel, and that no houses, or sheds, exceeding 
^fteen feet in height, shall be erected thereon. 

On the east side of this market, between Lud^ 
gate-hill and Fleet-lane, is the Fleet-prison, which 
was a place of confinement for debtors, as early as 
the reign of Richard L 

It is a brick building of considerable lengthy 
with galleries in each story, that reach from one 
fud to the other, in which are the rooms for th^ 
prisoners. There are about one hunched and twenty^ 
^ve of these rooms, besides a (:pmmou kitchep^ cofp 

4 f^'C 

Digitized by 


1 1t flrmoKY APfD vnrwmow 

fte and tap-rooms ; im4 beUnd tiM {hwou k m ijpa* 
eious area, in which the prisouciB walk, and lensr* 
eise themselvea at diiiwefit dii;«rsi«M|. 

It k properly the prison heloi^aig toiAia cdwt 
of Common-pleas; but persons in contempt of «h« 
eotttc of Chancery are also committed to it The 
fceq>er it called Wanden of the Fleet, and his plact 
is of veiy great profit as wd\ as trust Prisoners for 
debt, in any part of England, may be temoved to 
the Fleet by habeas corpus, and enjoy the rules^ ot 
keep a house within tbe liberties, provided thenf 
give sufficient security to the warden, t^ iftdeiSK* 
nify him in case they should exceed them. 

The rules or liberties of the Fleet are, all 4^ 
flortb side of Ludgate^hill, the 01d»bailey, up to 
Fleet-lane, down that lane into the market, an4 
then, turning the corner on the left, all the east 
side, aloiig by the Fle^*>prisoa to the bottom o# 

Directly opposite to Fb«t-market is an elegant 
spacious openmgp called Bridge-street, leading to 
BlackfriarS'-bridge. On the west side of tius Stieet 
is Bridewell-hospital 

This buiidiog is situated on the spot whem oti4S« 
stood a royat palace, even before |he conquest; 
and which continued^ with some little intermission^ 
in that state till the reign of King Edward VI. |t 
was rebuilt by King Henry VIII. in the year ISWf 
for the reception of the Emperor Chartes V. who 
gave it the name of Bridewell ; on account of a; 
lemarkable well thereunto adjoining, and its vict« 
nity to St;. Bride's church. 

in the year (553, King Edward VI j^ff^ this 

Klace to the mayor, commonalty and citieens off 
mdon, to be a working-j^xiuse for- the poor and 
idle persons of the city, and to be a house of cor* 
rectioHi wiiji seven hundifed marks of land, foimerly 


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o£ 1h9 JMMMBI0119 of tlK house of Savoy, and all 
dMs: beddingi asd otbet fiflrnif ure of the said hnuse^ 
tovsnji tke maimrnsmce of Bridewett, and the hos- 
pital of St. 4 hem® ia aoBtkwark. But King Ed^ 
wvd djrhig soon after this giant w» made, preu 
WBtod the city's entering upon the prennses and 
tdLnn^poaiession, till it wasconfinned two ycarsaftef 
hf Qtitra Maiy. After which Gerard the niay<»v 
entered and took possession thereof : ajid in ofdei to 
farwMd ao good a work, the foilowihg act of com- 
flsOD cnoQcil was made the last day of Febraary, ill 
liw woond and tllhrd of Pbilip and Mary : 

^^ Foraamoch as King Edward VI. h^R gtven his 
kioaa of Bridewell imto the city, partlj for the 
aettiogof idleand lewdpeopie to work, and partlj^ 
fat tbe lodgiBg aod harfaoariog of the poor, sidi^ 
liOsVi, aod sore people of this city, and of poor 
wajF-fiiring people, repairiagtx> the same; and bat 
for tbia hut purpuie gtren the bedding and fnmif«> 
tMT of tlio Savoy : thenforo in coaaderatioit that 
wsry great charges wiii be required to the fifttiag'of 
the said house, and the buying of tools and bed^ 
diii§; they ordesod to be gotten, up amongst the 
lidi people ctf the companies of liOndoa, &c.'* 

la the foikxwing reigDs, granariifs and stoie^ 
hoMCi for ooals wete erecsed at the expense of tiio 
city within this hospitad,. aard the poor were em« 
plor^ed sw grmdiiig corn witb hand mills; whictl 
wen greatly improTcd. i» tlie reiga at' Queoa^ Eli** 
zabeth, when a citizen invented a mill^ by which 
twa 109a might griod as. much corn iw a day, as 
CDoM be gr^nd by ten men with the other mcUsj 
aod being, to be worked either by the hands or iteti 
if the poor were lame in tie arms,, they earned 
their Isrivg with their feee^ and if they were. lame 
im. tbenr legs^ they earaedi their Koiag with their 


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130 .mStORT AtHD lUETET O* 

The old building was almost wholly destrojcSd by 
the dreadful fire in 1666^ together with, all die 
dwelling-houses in thc^ precinct of BrideweU^ from 
whence had arisen two thirds of its revenue ; the 
hospital, however, was rebuilt in 1668, in theman^^ 
lier it at present appears, except the front which 
has been lately taken down, for the purpose of 
erecting a row of houses in a line with those m 

In this hospital is an establishment for arts-mas- 
ters, in several branches of trade, who, being de- 
cayed citizens have houses granted them by th* 
governors, with the privilege of taking appnentices. 
These lads are cloathed by the charity, and at the 
expiration of their service, are entitled to ten 
pounds, and the freedom of the city. Their 
cloathing formerly consisted of blue douUets and 
trowsers with white hats, but for some years past 
the form of their garments, which are of blue clotb^ 
is the same as those in common use, the only dis- 
tinction being a button bearing the head of £d« 

This place is also used as & housci of coirection 
for pick-pockets, vagrants, and disorderly women^ 
who are committed by the lord mayor and alder* 
inen. Disobedient apprentices may also be con* 
fined hereby orders of the chamberlain. All the 
prisoners are confined to hard labour, and if their 
offences require it are subjected to the punishment 
of whipping. 

Part of the building which forms the present 
fiont^ and th^ south end of the remaining, courts 
l^hich escaped the fire in 1666, belonged to the 
palace erected by Henry VIII. 

The hall is a very noble room^ at the upper end 
of which is a fine painting of Edward VL deliver^ 
ing the charter to Sir George Barnes, the loid 


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iMmikftf Asm nt feirmoirs. HI 

tiiayor.. lluft piece oootaiiid ten portmti beside^ 
that of the kiair, aiiiong whom are WHUam Earl 
of Pembroke, me Bisliop of £lt, X^d Chan- 
cellor of England, and Holbein himself, the re- 
puted tiaiater, though dome doubts an^ entertained 
bf fati having competed it, from his death having 
happened ao very aoon after the tranaaction. There 
sre Mine otliicr very good portraits in this halL 

The cbapd «rhich was on the sotfith side of the 
first omitt has been p4illed^oWn^ atid instead of it 
m neir ^ne is bnildtng at the north end of the pre*- 
tent front 

Th«a{foit6<»f this hospital are managed by the 
^ver^ofs, who ate above three hundr^, besides 
tbe k>Fd Mayor add court o^ aldermen, ail of whom 
«re Kke^iride governors of Bethlehem Hospital; 
for these hoa^tals being 6ne corporation, they 
have the sanie preirident, governors, clerk, physi* 
ciaft, burgeon, And apothecary. This hospital, 
however, has its ^wn stew^lrd, a porter, a tiiatron, 
4rad four beadles, oiie df whom has the business of 
torrecting tbt criminals. 

On the south side of Fleet-street is Dorset-Street 
and Salisbiiry-squard, so called from being the sit6 
of thpft mansion ^touse of the Bishops of Salisbury, 
ivhieh waaafterwards inhabited by theEaris of Dorset. 

Between Salisbury ^square and the Thames, is the 
office belonging to the New River Company ; a 
haa<bome brick edifice^ built in a very neat and 
uniform stile. 

At the bottom of the street ftottting the Thaipes, 
wto formerly a magnificent and spacious theatre, 
whertin plays were acted till the abdication of 
James II. 

Ott the east side ctf" the entrance into this square 
is a passage leading to tile parish church of St* 
Bridget, usually called St Bride^ 

VOL. II i« R This 

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This church seems to be of some antiquity from 
itshaviqg had three rectors before the year 1362. 
It was a very small building, till about the year 
1480, when it was greatly enlarged by William 
Venor, warden of the Fleet Prison, who caused a 
spacious fabrick to be erected at the west end thereof, 
consisting of a middle and two side aisles ; to which 
the old church served as a choir. It was originally 
a rectory in the patronage of the abbot and 
convent of Westminster, and is supposed to 
have been converted to a vicarage about the year 


When Henry VIII. dissolved the Convent of West- 
minster, and formed it into a bishoprick, this church 
was conferred upon the new bishop, and when 
Edward restored the deanry, the patronage was 
granted, to the dean and chapter, iti whom it has 
ever since continued, except during the reign of 
Mary, who re-established the dissolved convent. 

In I6l0 the Earl of Dorset gave a parcel of 
ground, . on the west-side of Fleet-ditch, fqr a 
new church-yard ; which was consecrated on the 
Sd of August that same year, by Dr«. George Ab- 
bot, Bishop of London. 

The old church being destroyed by the fire of 
London in 1666, the present edifice which was de- 
signed by Sir Christopher Wren, was completed by 
him within fourteen years, in such a masterly and 
elegant manner, as to exceed most of our parish 
churches in delicacy and beauty : it is one hundred 
and eleven feet long, eighty-seven broad, and the 
steeple is two hundred and thirty-four feet high, 
which is thirty-two feet higher than the monument. 
It has a plain and regular body, the openings all 
answering to each other : the roof is raised on pil- 
lars ; and the altar-piece, like the outside of the 
cliUTch, is very roagnificenti The circular pedi- 
3 ment 

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meat over the lower part, issupportecl by six Corin- 
ditan colatnns. The steeple is a spire of extremely 
delicate workmanship, raised upon a solid, yet 
light tower: and the several stages by which the 
spire gradually decreases are well designed, and 
skilfully executed. In this steeple is a ring of 
bells particularly noticed for the melody of their 

Farther to the west are several streets, lanes, and 
alleys, erected on the site of the convent of the 
Carmelites, or White Friars, whose house and gar- 
dens extended from Fleet-street to the Thames. 
These friars took their name from their cloathing, 
which was white, and, having made a vow of poverty, 
lived by b^ging. Their convent was founded in 
1241, by Sir Richard Grey, ancestor of the Lord 
Greys, of Codnor, in Derbyshire, and was rebuilt 
by Hugh Courteney, Earl of Devonshire, about 
the year 1350, when the ground given to the order 
by Edward I. to enlarge their buildings was taken 
in. Many persons ot distinction were inteiTcd in 
the conventual church which was built by Sir 
Robert Knowles, a great warrior in the reigns of Ed- 
ward HI. and Richard II. The company of cur- 
riers had a guild in this church, whence it is pro- 
bable that the members of that profession resided 
in the vicinity. 

At the dissolution of this convent in the SOth of 
Henry VII I. the revenues of the house were 
valued at sixty-two pounds, seven shillings, and 
three pence, when tlie king conferred difterent 
portions of the building upon his favourites : and' 
in 1557, Edward VI. granted the church, chapter- 
bouse, and other parts of the priory to the Bishop 
of Worc^ter and his successors. 

In the year I6O8, the inhabitants of this district 
obtained a chapter from King James I. to entitle 


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124 BlSieitV AVP WBTBV 09 

them to several liberties, privileges, and i 
ff oin ttie jurisdiction of the city of JUimk^Ot wlucfa. 
reiidered the place an asylum for insolvent debtors, 
cheats and gamesters, who gave it the name o^ 
Alsatia* Put the iucqnvenieqcfs procKictil by thi^ 
place of fefuge, and the riotous proceedings carried 
on there, at length induced the legisl^urc to inter- 
pose their authority, and \\\ the year I6969 aaact 
of parliament was passed to deprive the district of 
privileges so injurious to the commiiiuty. 

f^rqceeding westwards on the same side of Flectf 
street, is Serjeant's Inn, which consists of^ ^tsiy 
handsome uniform buildings. It was feotDeriy am 
inn of court^ but is now private property^ and the 
hall is converted into an office for the Aniioibl^ So? 
ciety for a pei^etual assurance, incorporated in the 
year 1 706. The present eleeant bouse for the tran? 
sactipn of the busine^ of this Society was erected 
in 1793. It consists of a rustic basement story, 
the ascent to which is by a doable flight of steps 
]vith a handsome iron railing; the principal story 
IS embellished with four neat columns of tbe Ipaic 
prder supporting an entablature, above which b a 

Elain triangular pediment; and the top of the 
iiildini^ is terminated by a light ballustrade« 
More to the west are the entrances into the Tern* 
pie, one of our most celebrated inns of courts 

This place is so called from its having been anci- 
ently the residence of an order of people called 
knights Templars, w|to settled herein the rci]gn of 
Henry II. These knight^ who were truly inembers 
of the church militant, by combining demotion an4 
heroism ^n ^heir profession, ^ere united on the fol* 
lowing occasion.' Several of the crysadcn having 
settled at Jerusalem about the year Did, formed 
them:>elves into an unifibrm militia, under tiie name 
pf TemplarS; or knights of the Tempkr, a nanvs 

Digitized by 


liHUMnr jkMo ixt rannoirsr lt| 

AtfBBmsnncd fn>» being <}aaitercd orer ^ pburch 
built OD tbe.^»ot where Solomon's temple ha4 atoo^L 
They first guarded the roads for the security of the 
p^rims who canieto viark the holy sepulchre ; ^ti4 
some time after tltey had a rule a^^potnted them hf 
fOf]^ Slonocins IL who ordained them to wear ^. 
white habit; after which they werf fertber distim 
goisbBd by h^rbg grosses made of red cloth on 
their »pper garaeitts. The profession of Tefnphii^ 
was soon ack>pted by men of bulb in all parts of 
Enrope^ ivho became brethren of the ord^r : tliey 
built tfaeiaselves taemples in many principal cities 
after the Sotm of the If cdy Sepulchre, particut^rTy 
in England, where this in Fleetrstreet was then* 
chief house, aad often used as a sanctuary, in trou-? 
blesome times, fW the preaervatiop of treasure ^n4 
valuable eifectSy 

The Knights Tempkrs wpre in so flourishing a 
eoodition in the ISth century, Uiatthey frequently 
evtertsuned the nobility, foreign ambassadors, and 
ef^en the king himself; and many great coqncila . 
and parKaments were held in their housea. At 
length, however, their wealth produced a relax* 
ation ftom the rigid obligations of a monastic life ; 
when the knights hospitallers of St John of Jerur 
salem, whose poverty as yet preserved them from 
the lite corruptions, availing themselves of the 
opportunity, succeeded to that popularity the Tem* 
plats had lost by their indolence and luxury. 

The order of Knights Templars was totally abo^r 
lisbed bv Fiape Clenent V. at the instigation of 
Philip, king of Fravce; after which the knights in 
^iBgland wer« distriboted in other converts ; and, 
by the Pope*8 orders, their possessions Wfre trans^ 
fiensed to the ovder of St John, wlio had theif 
chief house where St John<*square is now siftuated« 
These knights soon afte^ let oat the building that 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


beloQged to the Templars to students of the com* 
mon-law : in wbosepossession it has ever since 90a* 

This spacious place is divided into two parts, viz. 
The Inner Temple, and the Middle Temple; and 
though they have separate halls, yet both houses 
resort to the same church. The buildings, which 
have been erected at very different periods, arc 
perfectly united ; but it is almost impossible to dis- 
tinguish the separate inns of court, except at their 
entrances, which are the only visible fronts to the 
street : one of these is opposite the south end of 
Chancery-lane, and the other nearly adjoining to 
Temple Bar. 

In the space of ground which forms the Tempi© 
are many courts of handsome new-'built. houses ; 
and behind the whole are gardens and walks fiont^ 
ing the Thames. These gardens have been much 
enlarged by a new embankment of the river; and 
their situation is exceeding pleasant, as they com* 
mand not only a view of Blackfriars and West* 
minster bridges, and the boats and craft on the 
river, but have also an agreeable distant perspec* 
tive of the hills on the opposite shore in the county 
of Surrey. Shakespeare makes these gardens the 
scene of the fatal quarrel between the rival houses 
of York and Lancaster, which occasioned thQ 
shedding of so much English blood* 

The entrance into the Middle Temple from Fleet- 
street, is by a very handsome gate, which was- 
built in the stile of Inigo Jones„ in the year l6it4« 
The front of it) though narrow, is graceful: it ia 
built of brick with four large stone pilasters of the 
Ionic order, and a handsome pediment. In a 
course of stone between the first and second story, 
is cut the following inscription : Surrexit impemis 
jocietat. Med. Templi, mjdclxxxiv. and beneath 


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it, just brer the gate, is the figure of a Holy 

The great hall belonging to the Middle Temple 
is very spacious and beautiful^ and is esteemed one 
of the fincM halls in the kingdom. It was originally 
built in the Ireign of Edward III. but the present 
edifice was erected in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
in tlie year 1578. It is ornamented with paintings 
by Sir James Thomhill, and contains full length 
IVtftraits of those pillars of the law Littleton, and 
hisr able but insolent commentator Coke* 

III the treasury^chamber of the Middle Temple 
is liresenred a great quantity of armour which be- 
longed to the Knights Templars^ consisting of 
helmets, breast and back pieces, a halbard, and 
two very beautiful shields, with iron spikes in their 
centres, of the length of six inches, and each about 
twenty pounds weight. They are curiously engrav* 
ed, and one of them richly inlaid with gold ; the 
insides are lined with leather stuffed, and the edges 
are adorned with silk fringe. 

In Garden-court, in the Middle Temple, is a 
library founded by the will of Robert Ashley, Esq. 
in the year 1641, who bequeathed his own library 
for that purpose, and SOOl. to be laid out in a pur* 
chase, for the maintenance of a librarian, who 
tiiust be a student of the society, and be elected 
into that office by tlie benchers. 

The Inner Temple is situated to the east of the 
Middle Temple, and has a cloister, a large garden, and 
more spacious walks than the other. In th is divi* 
. sk>n there is also a handsome hall. 

The chief officer bek)nging to each of these socie- 
ties is a treasurer, who is annually elected from 
among the benchers or senior members ; and whose 
office is to admit students, and to receive and pay 
ail ca&h belonging to the society. Both the Tem- 

Digitized by 


138 itistoitt iiri) sntyftir d# 

plet, hoORfcter, nte utidtt ode master^ wfad^ iihee 
the reign of Henry VIII. has been a divine^ and 
constituted b^ letters patent from the ctoWn inth-^ 
<Nit any otiier indnctkNi. 

The moat, remarkable building ia the Traiple» is 
the old church, which ie common to both spcietie^ 
and was the church that belonged to ike Knights 
Templars of Jerusalem. It was origioatly founded 
in the year 1185, and dedicated to the Virgm 
Mary; but was fdore generally known by the name 
of the founders, than the petMn to ii^h^m it waa 
dedicated. The original church liras taken down 
in 1840, and another erected after the samemodei^ 
which is that of the Holy Sepulchre. The present 
•edifice was one of those that escaped the fire of 
London; but in 1695, the soath wost p^Mtwna 
new built, and in 1706 the whole was thoroughly 

. This beautiful Gothic structure is built of atone^ 
^mly put together, and enridied with omaihenta» 
It consists of a long body with a turret, and at the 
west end is a tower that has much the appeat^hce 
of a piece of fortification. This tower is forty** 
eight feet high; its diameter at the floor is fifty^one 
feet, and its circumference one hundred and sixty 
feet The length of the church, from the alttf 
to the screen, is eighty^three feet; the breadth 
sixty; and the height to the roof, thirty-fdur 

The windows that enhghten the body of thechutch 
are large and well proportioned: they are composed 
of three Gothic arches ; a principal, and a lower 
on either side. The windows aresoclose together^ 
that there are but very slender piers between them 
to support a heavy roof: they are thertfbra 
strengtnened with buttresses ; but these buttresses, 
9A in most Gothic structures, exclude more light 


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than the piera would have done, had they beea 
larger, and the windo^rs considerably less. Tb« 
tower, which is very massy, has but few windows, 
and those small ; yet there are buttresses carried 
up between them. The top of it is crowned with 
plain sqtirare battlements, and from the centre rises 
a vane. The turret on the body of the church is 
small and plain, and serves to receive a bell. In 
«bort, the outside of this building has a most ve- 
nerable aspect; but the beauties of it are within. 

The round tower, which is the entrance to the 
church, is supported within by six pillars wains- 
coted with oak, six feethigh, and adorned all round, 
except the east part, which opens into the church, 
with an upper and lower range of small arches, 
ajpd black apertures ; but the most remarkable ob- 
jects in this part are the tombs of eleven of the 
Knights Templars who lie interred here ; eight of 
which are covered with the figures of armed 
knights: of these, five lie cross-legged, to indi- 
cate that they had made a vow to go to the Holy 
Land to make war with the Infidels. The first of 
these was William Marshall the elder, Earl of Pem- 
broke, who died in the year 1219- The second 
was William Marshall his son, who died in 1231 : 
and ^ the third was Gilbert Marshall, brother to 
William, who was slain in a tournament at Hert- 
ford, in the year 1 24 1 . The other effigies lie strait- 
legged. The rest of the tombs are only coped 
with stone, but they are all made of grey marble. 

The tower is divided from the body of the church 
by a very handsome screen in the modern taste^ 
The body of the church has three roofs, supported 
by tall and slender pillars of Sussex marble. The 
windows are all adorned with small neat pillars of 
the- same atone, and the floor is paved with black 
and wbite marble. The aisles are five in number ; 

VOL, III. s three, 

Digitized by 



three, as usual, running east and west, and two 
cross aisles. The walls are neatly wainscoted with 
oak about eight feet high; and the altar-piece, 
which is of the same wood, is much higher, finely 
carved, and adorned with four pilasters, and two 
columns of the Corinthian order : h is also oma* 
mented with cherubs, a shield, festoons, fruit and 
leaves. The pulpit, which is placed near the east 
end of the middle aisle, is finely carved and veneer* 
ed ; the sounding-board is pendant from the roo^ 
and enriched with several carved arches, a crown, 
festoons, cherubs, &c. 

The screen that separates the tower from the 
body of the church is of wainscot, and adorned 
with ten pilasters of the Corinthian order, with 
three portals and pediments. The organ gallery is 
supported by two fluted Corinthian columns, and 
ornamented with an entablature and a compass 
pediment, with the king's arms well carved. Near 
the pediment, on the south side, is an enrichment 
of cherubs, and a carved figure of a Pegasus, the 
badge of the society of the Inner Temple ; and ia 
the pediment, on the north side, is an enrichment 
of cherubs, and the figure of a Holy Lamb, the 
badge of the society of the Middle Temple : for 
though these two societies have one church, they 
seldom sit in it promiscuously ; the gentlemen oif 
the Inner Temple sitting on the south, and those 
of Middle Temple on the north side of the middle 
aisle. The organ is considered one of the finest in 
the world. 

This antique church contains the monuments 
and tombs of many eminent judges, masters in 
chancery, and lawyers; among whom may be di$* 
tinguished the celebrated Selden, an^ Plowden^ 
treasurer of the society in 1572, a lawyer of the 
most distinguished abilities; of whom Camdeu 


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says, that in integrity he was second to none of 
his profession^ 

We&t from the entrance into the Temple, and at 
tke extremity of the city liberties, is Temple-bar. 
On tiie spot where this gate stands were, anciently, 
postSy rails^ and a chain, as in other places where 
the city liberties terminated. Afterwards, a house 
of timber was erected across the street, with a nar- 
row gateway, and an entry through the south side 
of it. But, since the fire of London, the present 
structure was erected, and is the only remaining 
gate at the extremity of the city liberties. 

This gate is a very noble one, and luts two pos- 
terns, one on each side, for the convenience of foot 
passengers. It is built entirely of Portland-stone, 
of rustic work below, and of the Corinthian order. 
The great arch is elliptical and very flat. Over 
the gateway, on the east side, iii two niches, are 
stone statues of Queen Elizabeth and King James I. 
with the city arms over the key -stone, and on the 
wesjt side are the statues of King Charles I. and 
King Charles II. in Roman habits, with the royal 
arms on the key-stone. 

Retuniing from Temple-bar, on the north side 
of Fleet-street, is Shire-lane, which is so called be- 
cause it divides the city from the shire. 

More to the east is Chancery -lane, in which are 
many public buildings; but none of theni are 
within this ward, except Serjcants'-inn, and the 

Scrjeants*-inn, in Chancery-lane, is the only re- 
maining inn of court for the judges and vserjeants 
of the law, and contains chambers only for the ac \ 
commodation of these gentlemen ; whereas, in that 
in Reet-strcet, each one possessed a distinct house. 
The degree of a serjeant being the highest in the 
law, except that pf a judge, it is conferre<l, by the 


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sovereign, on those of the profeasion most emi*? 
nently distinguished for their abilities and probity; 
and this order is held so honourahlCi that none are 
admitted to the dignity of a judge, but the mem- 
bei-s of it. According to the opinion of some of 
our ablest lawyers, among whom may be named 
Sir Edward Coke, this degree is of very ancient 
standing, and it is expressly mentioned in a statute 
of the third of Edward I. cap. xxix. 

The Rolls-chapel is the place for keeping the 
rolls, or records in chancery. 

This house was founded by King Henry III. in 
the place where stood a Jew's house, forfeited to 
that prince in the year 1233. In this chapel all 
such Jews and infidels as were converted to the 
Christian faith, were ordained, and in the buildings 
belonging to it were appointed a sufficient main- 
tenance ; by which means a great number of con« 
verts were baptized, instructed in the doctrines of 
Christianity, and lived under a learned christian 
appointed to govern them ; but, in the year 1290, 
all the Jews being banished, the numbler of oaam 
verts decreased, and, in the year 1377i the house, 
with its chapel, was annexed by patent to the 
keeper of the rolls of chancery. 

ITie chapel, which is of brick, pebbles, and some 
free-stone, is sixty feet long, and thirty-three feet 
in breadth; the doors and windows are Gothic, 
and the roof covered with slate. In this chapel the 
rolls are kept in presses fixed to the sides, and or« 
namented with columns and pilasters of the lotiic 
and Composite orders. These rolls contain all the 
records, as charters, patents, &c. since the begin* 
ning of the reign of Richard III. those before that 
time being deposited in the record-office in the 
Tower; and these being made up in rolls of parch- 
ment, gave occasion to the name. 

• 4 At 

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At the BQ)rth-we9t angle of this chapel 10 a bencK 
when Uie master of the rolls hears causes in chan<» 
eery. And attendance is given in this cb^el, from, 
ten o'clock till twelve, fOr taking in and pay^ 
ing out mosey, according to order of court, and 
for giving an opportunity to those who come for 
that purpose to search the rolls. 

The minister of the chapel is appointed by the 
naster of the rolls, and divine service is performed 
there on Sundays, and holidays, at about eleven 
and three. 

On the walls are several old monuments, partU 
eularly at the east end, is that of Dr. Young, master 
of the rolls, who died in the year 1516. In a welU 
wrought stone coffin lies the effigy of Dr. Young, 
ia a scarlet gown; his hands lie across upon his 
breas^ and a cap with corners covers his ears. Oa 
the wall, just above him, our Saviour is looking 
down upon him, his head and shoulders appearing 
out of the clouds, accompanied by two angels. 

The office of the rolls is under the government 
of the master of the rolls, whose house is by tha 

The place of master of the rolls is an office of 
Xreat dignity, and is in the gift of the king, either 
K>rlife, or during pleasure. He is always the pria# 
eipal master in chancery, and has in his gifl the of* 
fiee of the six clerks in chancery, of the two exa« 
minera of the same court, and of the clerk of tho 
chapel of the rolls, who acts immediately under him 
tn that office. He has several revenues belonginjEt 
to the office of the rolls, and, by act of parliament 
receives a salary of twelve hufldred pounds per an« 
naHit out of the hanaper. 

East from Chancery-lane, in Fleet-street, is Clif» 
Ibrd's-inn, which is so called from having been the 
eity residence of the family of the Cliffi3rds ; it 


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bavmg been demised, in the year 1345, by Isabel, 
widow of Robert de ClitFord, to certain students 
of the law ; since which time it has continued ta 
be inhabited by gentlemen of that profession. 

It is an inn of chancery, and an appendage to the 
Middle Temple; but its present occupiers are chiefly 
attornies and officers of the Marshalsea-court. 

Adjoining to this inn is the parish church of St 
Dunstan in the west ; which is so called to distiii^ 
gnish it from another church in Tower^ward, dedi-^ 
cated, to the same saint, and called St. Dunstan ia 
the East. 

It is a very ancient foundation, in the gift of the 
Abbot and Convent of Westminster, who, in the 
year 1237, gave it to King Henry III. towards the 
maintenance of the foundation of the house called 
the Rolls, for the reception of converted Jews. . It 
was afterwards conveyed to the Abbot and Convent 
of Alnwick, in Northumberland, in which patroa* 
age it continued till that religious house was 
suppressed by King Henry VHI. Edward VL 
granted the advowson of this church, under the 
name of a vicarage, to Lord Dudley. Soon after 
which, the rectoiy and vicarage were granted to 
Sir Kichard Sackville, and the impropriation has 
continued ever since in private hands. 
* This is one of the churches that escaped the fire 
of London, the flames having stopped within three 
doors of it; since which time, however, it has been 
frequently repaired, and the inconveniencies that 
formerly arose from a number of small shops, or 
sheds, that stood in the front of it, have been re- 
medied by their removal. 

The cliurch, which is built of brick and stone, 
consists of a large body, with a very disproportion* 
flte square tower. It is ninety feet in length, sixty 
feet in breadth, thirty -six feet in height, to the 


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toof, and the altitude of the turret is one hundred 
feet. The dial of the clock projects over the street, 
en the south side of the cnurch, and the clock-« 
house is formed of an Ionic porch, containing two 
figures erect, carved and painted, and as large as 
life, which, with knotted clubs, alternately strike 
the quarters on two bells hung between them: 
these figures were set up in the year l67h In a 
niche, at the east. end of the church, is the statue 
of Queen Elizabeth, which formerly stood on Lud-» 
gate, and, when that gate was taken down, was 
purchased by Alderman Gosling, and placed in its 
present situation. 

The ground in this neighbourhood appears ta 
have been anciently of a marshy nature, or else 
within the course of tlw tide ; for, in digging at 
the end of Chancery *lane, and further eastward, in 
Fleet-street, in the year 15<)5, a stone pavement was 
discovered at the depth of four feet from the sur- 
face, which was supported by a number of piles, 
driven very close to each other. 

A little to the east of St Dunstan's church, and 
near the south end of Fetter-lane, is Crane-court, 
in which is a neat plain buildings called the Scots'-* 

This corporation was instrtuted for the relief of 
the poor and necessitous people of Scotland, that 
reside within the cities of London and Westminster. 
It owes its origin to James Kinnier, a Scotsman^ 
and merchant of this city ; who, on his recovery 
from a long and dangerous illness, resolved to give 
part of his estate towards the relief of his indigent 
countrymen; for which purpose, having prevailed 
with a society of Scotsmen, who composed a box-^ 
club, to join their stock, he obtained a charter, by. 
which he and his coadjutors were, in the year 166S, 
constituted a body politic and corporate^ with se- 

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ireral privileges, which King Charles II. a^Gtmed 
the following year by letters patent; wherein are 
recited the privities granted in the forcner char- 
tcTf with the addition of several new ones, vis^ 
That they might erect an hospital, within the city 
or liberties of London and Westminster, to be 
called,, " The Scots Hospital of King Charits 11.- 
to be governed by eight Scotsmen, who were to 
chuse from among themselves a master, who, toge* 
ther with these governors, was declared to be a 
body politic and corporate, and to have a commoa 
seal. They were also empowered to elect thirty*^ 
three assistants, and to purchase, in mortmain^ 
four hundred pounds per annum, over and above 
an annual sum mentioned in the first charter; the 
profits arising from these purchases to be employed 
in relieving, poor old Scotsmen and women, and ia 
instructing and employing poor orphans, the dc* 
acendants of Scotsmen, within this city. 

Fetter-lane extends from Fleet-street, in the 
south, to Holborn, in the north, and was anciently 
called FewtcrsMane, from the number of idle per- 
sons who used to frequent it, it being surrounded 
with gardens and houses lor dissipation. West of 
the north end of it are the bars, which divide the 
city liberty from the county, on this side. 

Within the bars, on the south side of Holborn^ 
is Staple's-inn, which is an inn of chancery, and a 
member of Gray's-inn, and consists of two large 
courts, surrounded with good buildings. 

This inn is said to have been anciently a hall for 
the accommodation of wool-staplers, whence it de-^ 
rived its appellation. It was, however, an inn of 
chancery, in the year 1415, though how long be- 
fore is Unknown. In the year 1529, the benchers of 
Gray's-inn purchased this place of John Knighton, 
and Alice his wife, by the name of ^' All that mes^ 


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suaige, or isn of chancery, eotnmoiily called Staple's 
ipn ;*' since which time it has continued to be an 
appendage to Gray Vinn. 

Proceeding eastward, on the same side of Hoi* 
bom, IS BaraardVinn, which is also ati inn of 
chancery, and an appendage to Gray's-inn. It was 
anciently denominated MackworthVinn, and was 
given to tlie society in the year 1454, by the exe- 
cutors of John Mackworth, Dean of Lincoln* 

A little farther, on the saa>e side of the street, is 
ThavieVinn, which is an ina of chancery, and a 
member of Linooln's-inn ; to the society of which 
It was granted by Gregory Nichols, citizen and 
mercer of London, in the year 1549* This inn ap« 
pears to be of great antiquity, by its having be* 
longed to John Thavie, from whom it is denomi- 
nated, in the reign of Edward IIL by whose will, 
dated in 1548, it appears to have been then an inn 
for students of the la^. 

Contiguous to this inn, at the north-west angle 
ef Shoe-lane, stands the parish church of St. An- 
drew, Holbom. 

This church escaped the fire of Ix)ndon; not« 
withstanding which it was found so ruinous, that 
it was entirely rebuilt in 1687» except the tower, 
which was not erected till 1704. The body of the 
church is one hundred and five feet long, sixty-three 
feet broad, and forty-three feet high, and the height 
of the tower is one hundred and ten feet. The body 
is well built, and enlightened by two series of win- 
dows, and on the top of it runs a handsome ba- 
lustrade. The tower rises square, and consists only 
of two stages, crowned with battlements and pin« 
nacles at the corners. The first stage, which is 
plain, has the dial : in the upper stage there is a 
very handsome window to each front ; tall, arched, 

vof.. 111. T and 

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and decorated with Doric pilasters, which support 
a lofty arched pediment, decorated within by a 
shield. The cornice, that crowns the tower, is sup- 
ported by scrolls; and the balustrade that rises 
above this has a very firm base. Each corner of the 
tower has an ornamental pinnacle, consisting of 
four large scrolls, which, meeting in a body, sup- 
port a pine-apple ; and from the crown of the fruit 
rises a vane. The inside is extremely neat, and well 
finished. Over the communion-table is a large 
painted window, the lower part of which represents 
the Messiah and his disciples at the Last Supper ; 
and in a compartment above is represented his re- 
surrection from the grave. The church stands at 
an advantageous distance from the street, from 
which it is separated by a wail, that ificlbses the 
church^yard, and the entrance to it is by large and 
elegant iron gates. 

This church is a rectory, the patronage of which 
was originally in the gift of the Dean and Canons 
of St. Paul's, who transferred it to the Abbot and 
Convent of Bermondsey, who continued patrons 
of it till their convent was dissolved by Henry' 
VIII. when that prince granted it to Thomas Lord 
Wriothesley, afterwards Earl of Southampton, from 
whom it descended by marriage to the late Duke 
of Montague, in whose family the patronage still 

Opposite to this church, in Shoe-lane, was situ- 
ated a large house, denominated Holborn-hall, but 
when or by whom erected does not appear, though 
by its name it seems to have been the manor 

Lower down, on the same side of Shoe-lane, is a 
burial-place, belonging to the parish of St. An- 
drew, over the entrance into which is a carving of 


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TtntrrmrrA fi»r Lambert* HUVanrT- of I. air Jon. 


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the general resurrection, which is well executed; 
but, having been repeatedly covered with paint, 
all the sharpness of the figures is lost. 

Nearly opposite to this, in Bangor-court, are the 
remains of the city mansion of the Bishops of Ban- 
gor; the east end of which has some appearance of 
having been formerly used as a cha|>el. In the win- 
dow, in this end, is a coat of arms, in stained glass, 
with the name of Fletwood, On the south side of 
the building is an ancient door-way, ornamented 
with military trophies. The reversion of this mes- 
suage, with a t[uantity of waste land belonging to 
it, measuring one hundred and sixty-eight feet in 
length; from north to south, and one hundred and 
sixty-four feet in breadth, from east to west, was 
sold in the year 1647, by the trustees for the sal^ 
of bishops' lands, to John Barkstead, Knt who pur- 
chased it for the purpose of building on the vacant 
ground; as appears by an act of parliament passed 
in 1656, for restraining new buildings in and about 
the suburbs of London, in which there is a special 
proviso to enable him to build thereon, in consi- 
deration of his having given a greater sum for the 
purchase of it, on .that account, than he would 
otherwise have done. The last Bishop of Bangor, 
who appears to have resided here, was Bishop Dol- 
ben, who having been formerly Vicar of Hackney, 
contributed thirty pounds for repairing the cause- 
way leading from Clapton and Hackney, to Shore- 
ditch, of which he informed the inhabitants of 
these villages, by a letter dated from Bangor-house^ 
in Sboe-Iane, the 1 1th of November, 1633. 

On the north side of Holborn, nearly opposite to 
St Andrew's church, is Ely-place, a handsome well 
built street, shut in with iron gates, on the site of 
the ancient mansion*hou§e of the Bishops of Ely. 


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This place was origiaally given to the Bishops of 
Blyi hy William de Luda, bishop of that see, in 
the reign of Edward I. by the name of the Manor 
of Oldborne, with the appurtenances. Thomas 
Arundel, Bishop of Ely, in the reigns of Edward 
III. and Richard IL rebuilt it, with a gateway and 
front towards Holbom. But the several buildings 
belonging to this palace having goqe to decay, an 
act of parliament was passed, in the year ITTS, to 
enable the bishop to alienate the whole of it. It 
was accordingly sold, and the n^oney received 
from the sale was applied to the purchase anderec^ 
tion of a house in Dover-street, Piccadilly, which 
is settled upon the bishops of this see. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, there were forty 
acres of orchard and pasture land belonging to 
this palace, and inclosed with a wall, part of which, 
at tne western corner, was granted to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton, for a term of twenty years, whereoft 
he built a magnificent house, and afterwards pre<» 
vailed on the queen to apply« to Bishop Cox to 
alienate the whole, with the garden behind it But 
the bishop steadily refused to injure the property 
of his successors ; wherefore the business was de-> 
ferred till the death of the bishop, when, the 
tempbralities devolving to the crown, Elizabeth 
gran^d the house and grounds to Sir Christopher 
and his heirs for ever. The house has been since 
pulled down, and the ground laid out into streets, 
among which that called Hatton-garden is reputed 
one of the handsomest in London. Great and 
Little Kirby-street, Charles-street, Cro^s-street, and 
Hatton-wall, are also built upon the ground m 

The gardens of Ely-palace were formerly cele* 
brated for the excellence of the strawberries pro« 


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dqced hi tbem : Holin»hed ret^tM thAfi SitdkaxA 
II L at thfi council heklin tbe Tower^ on th<$ mornn 
ing Locd Ha3tings waa beheaded) requfsted a dish 
of theoA from the bishop* 

Tbe cbap«l bekinging to it ia preserved; it 
•tanda on tb^ west side of £ly*place» and has a 
ccypt under it, the whole length of tbe building. 

Farther west is Furnivars*inn» a handsome old 
building, with a garden behind it It was an Inn 
^f <:hanQery, smd an appendage to LincolnVinn,. 
and owes itjsname to Sir John Furnival, who, in the 
year 1388, was proprietor of two messuages and 
thirteen shops* on the site of which this inn was 

At the east end of Holborn is &iow-hiiI, an 
in«gular and formerly very inconvenient avenue 
into the city from the north western parts of the 
metropolis ; but tlie erection of a new street, in a 
direct line fronv the bottom of tbe hill to the end 
of the Old Bailey, has removed the inconvenience^ 
and added greatly to the beauty of this part of the 
city. It is now nearly completed, and has been 
named Skinner-street, in honour of the late Alder- 
derman Skinner, an active member of the conw 
mittee for improving tlie entrances into the city at 
Teniple-bar and Snow-hiil 

At the top of Snow-hill, on the north-side, stands 
the parochisTl church of St. Sepulchre. 

This church, which is so dedicated, in comme* 
moration of Our Saviour's sepulchre or grave at 
Jerusalem, is now a spacious building, but not so 
large as of old time, part of the site of it being 
let out upon a building lease. It is supposed to 
have been founded about the year 1 100, at which 
time a particular devotion was paid to the Holy 
Sepulchre ; and was so decayed m the reign of £dk 
ward IV. as to require rebuilding. Roger, Bishop 


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142 ttXSTORY AK1> StntlTEV O^ 

of Salisbury, in the reign of Henry I. gav^ the 
patronage of this church to the prior and convent 
of St rartholomew in West Smithiield, who esta- 
blished a perpetual vicarage in it, and held it till 
their dissolution; when it fell to the crown. King^ 
James I. in the seventh year of his reign granteci 
the rectory and its appurtenances, and the advow- 
son of this vicarage, to Francis Philips, and others ; 
after which the parishioners purchased the rectory 
and its appurtenances, and held them in fee-farm of 
the crown. And the advowson of the vicarage was 
purchased by the president and fellows of St John 
Baptist College, Oxon, who continue patrons 

The present structure was much damaged by the 
fire of London in 1666. The outward walls and 
the tower were, however, capable of reparation ; and 
the middle aisle of the church was at the same dme 
made with an arched roof, which was not so ori- 

This church, in its present situation^ measures 
IS6 feet in length, exclusive of the broad passage 
at the west end; the breadth, exclusive of the north 
chapel, is fifty-eight feet. The height of the roof 
in the middieaisle is thirty-five feet ; and the height 
of the steeple^ to the top of the pinnacles, is one 
hundred and forty-six feet. The body of the 
church is enlightened with a row of very large 
Gothic windows, with buttresses between, over 
which runs a slight cornice; and on the top a plain 
and substantial battlement work, in the style of 
the public buildings in the reign of Edward IV. 
And the steeple is a plain square tower, crowned 
with four pinnacles. 

Opposite St. Sepulchre's church is Angel-court, 
at the upper end of which is a handsome old house^ 


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formerly the Farthing Office. It was afterwards 
occii{Hed by the Hand in Hand Fire Office, and is 
now the residence of Mr. Spilsbury, a printer. 

fietweeu Snow-htll and Ludgate*hill, runs the 
street called the Old Bailey, which many of our 
antiquaries are of opinion is a corruption of Bale- 
hillj an eminence whereon was situated the Baky 
or BailiiTs-faouse, wherein he held a court for the 
trial of malefactors ; and this opinion seems to be 
corroborated by such a court having been held here 
for many centuries, in which there is a place of 
security, where the sheriffs keep their prisoners 
during the session, which still retains the name of 
the Bale-dock. 

On the east side of the Old Bailey, and contigu- 
ous to the place where the Newgate of the city 
formerly stood^ is the gaol for the county of Mid- 
dlesex, which from being appropriated to the same 
uses, also bears the name of Newgate. It is a 
massy stone building, consisting of two parts, that 
on the north being appropriated for debtors, and 
that on the south for felons, between which is a 
dwelling house, occupied by the keeper. The 
whole of the front is formed of rustic work, and 
at the extremities of each face is an arched niche 
for a statue, but only the two in front of the felon's 
side are yet occupied. 

Contiguous to this building, and only separated 
from it by a squarecourt, is Justice-hall, commonly 
called the Sessions-house. 

This was formerly a plain brick edifice ; but it 
has lately been rebuilt entirely of stone, and is 
brought so much forwarder than the old one as to 
be parallel with the street. On each of the sides 
is a flight of steps that lead to the court-room, 
which has a gallery on each side for the accomuio- 


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dation of spectators. The prisoners are brought 
to this cxmrt from Newgate by a passage that 
closely connects the twt> buildings; and there i« 
a convenient place under the Seissions^housein frotit, 
for detaining the prisoners tiH they are called upon 
thei r. trials^ There are also rooms for the grand^nd 
petty jury, with other necessary accomnicNdations. 

A court is held here eight times a year by the 
king's commission of oyer and terminer, for the 
trial of prisoners for crimes committed withfn the 
citv of London and county of Middlesex* The 
judges are the lord-mayor, the aldermen past the 
chair, and the recorder, who, on such occasions^ 
are attended by both the sheriffs, and by one or 
more of the national judges* The offences com- 
mitted in the city are tried by a jury of citizens and 
those committed in the county by a jury formed of 
tthe house-keepers in the county. 

The crimes tried in this court are high and petty 
treason, murder, felony, forgery, petty larceny; 
burglary, &c. 

At the back of tlie Sessionsrhouse is a conveni- 
ent passage covered over for the judges and coun- 
sellors that attend the court 

Opposite to the north end of the Old Bailey is 
Giltspur-street, which leads into Smithfield. On 
the east side of Giltspur-street, in a line with New^ 
gate, is Giltspur street Compter. U is composed 
of three pavilions crowned with triangular pedi- 
ments, and connected by two galleries with flat 
roofs. The whole of this building, like Newgate, 
is of rustic stone work, but having arched win- 
dows to the front, it has a lighter appearance. 

The corner opposite the north end of this build- 
ing, is remarkable for being the spot where the fire 
of London terminated : which event is commemo- 

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ijordon am> its environs. . 145 

rated by the figure of a bloated boy on the corner 
house, bearing an inscription, purporting that this 
dreadful conflagration was a punishment for the sin 
of gluttony. 

Soiithfield, or as it is sometimes called to distin- 
guish it from a place of the same name in the east- 
ern part of the town, West Smithfield, is the great- 
est market for black cattle^ sheep and horses, 
in £urope; for the latter of which it was cele- 
brated by Fit2-Stephen, towards the close of the 
twelfth century. It is also a market for hay and 

Smithfield is supposed to have received its name 
from one Smith, the owner thereof, and from its 
having been originally a smooth or level field. 
It was anciently much larger than it now appears, 
its area being greatly diminished by the buildings 
with which it is enclosed : the whole west side ex- 
tcndedas far as the sheep-market does at present, 
and was called the Elms, from the number of 
those trees that grew there. This spot appeai-s to 
have been the common place of execution for cri- 
minals in the year 1219. 

King Henry II. granted to the priory of St. Bar- 
tholomew the privilege of a fair to be kept an- 
nually at Bartholomew- tide, on the eve, the day, 
and the morrow, to which the clothiers of England, 
and the drapers of London repaired, and had their 
booths and standings in the church-yard withiq. 
the priory, which was separated from Smitlifield 
only by walls and gates that \^ere locked every 
night, and watcheJ, for the safety of the goods de- 
posited there ; and the narrow street or lane after- 
wards built where the cloth was sold, still retains 
the name of Cloth Fair. 
VOL. III. u This 

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This fair, which was at first iiisituted for the con-^ 
venience of trade, was at length prolonged to a 
fortnight, and became of little other use but far 
idle youth and loose people to resort to ; on which, 
in the year 1708, an order of coramon council was 
made, by which it was again reduced to the origi- 
nal term of three days, and the booths for drolls 
and plays erected in the middle of Smithfield, by 
the falling of which several persons had lost their 
lives, were prohibited 4n future ; but the latter part 
of the order is no longer attended to. 

A court of pie- powder is held daily during this 
fiiir, to determine all differences between the per- 
sons frequenting it. 

In the days of chivalry, Smithfield was the place 
where justs and tournaments were held before our 
kings and their courts; of which several instances 
are upon record, particularly in the reigns of Ed* 
ward III. Richard II. Henry IV. V. VL and Ed- 
ward IV. 

In the middle part of Smithfield, and in the 
centre of the space how inclosed with rails, many 
martyrs were burnt at the stake, for their steady 
adherence to the principles of the Reformation, 
and their opposing the doctrines peculiar to the 
church of Rome. 

Though Smithfield is a very extensive stjuare, 
surrounded with many good buildings, yet the area 
of it is in general exceeding filthy ; owing to the 
greatnumber of cattle, horses, &c. that are brought 
to it twice a week. Th6 area is the market-plac^ 
for beasts and horses ; the north-west corner for 
sheepand calves, and the north-east comer for hogs» 

On the east side of Smithfield is the magnificent 
hospital of St. Bartholomew, which appears to have 


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been the first establishment of this nature in Ten- 
don, having been founded in the year 1102, by 
Habere, minstrel to Henry I. who quitting his gay 
life, founded a priory of black canons, which he 
dedicated to St. Bartholomew, and became himself 
the first prior. He afterwards obtained from the 
king a piece of waste ground, on which he 
built an hospital, for a master, brethren, and 
sbters, and for the relief of the diseased and 
maimed poor, which he placed under the care of 
the priory. 

Both the priory and hospital were surrendered to 
Henry VIII. who, in the last year of his reign, 
refounded the latter, and endowed it with an an- 
nual revenue of five hiindred marks, on condition 
that the city should pay an equal sum ; which pro* 
posal being accepted, the new foundation was in- 
corporated by the name of ** The Hospital of the 
Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of London^ 
Governors for the Poor, called Little St. Bartho- 
lomew's, near West Smithfield." Since this time 
the hospital has received considerable benefactions 
from charitable persons, by which means the 
governors have been enabled to admit all indigent 
persons maimed by accident, at any hour of the 
day or night, without previous recommendation ; 
and the sick, on Thursdays, on which daysacon> 
mittee of governors sit to examine persons apply- 
ing for admission^ The patients, whether sick or 
maimed, are provided with lodging, food, medicine 
and attendance, and have the advice and assistance 
of some of the most eminent physicians and sur* 
geons in the kingdom. 

Notwithstanding the old building escaped the 
dreadful fire in 16^, yet the chief part of its re- 

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venues being in hdusesy the hospital was gmtlj 
injured by that calamity. In the year 1729, the 
hospital became so ruinous that there appeared an 
absolute necessity for rebuilding it ; and a sub* 
scription was entered into by many of the gover- 
nors, and other charitable persons, among whom 
was Dr. RatclifFe, for defraying the expense, upon 
a plan then prepared, containing four detached 
piles of stone building, to be connected by gate- 
ways, and to form a quadrangle. 

The first stone of this building was laid on the 
S)th of June, 1730, by Sir George Brocas, the 
lord-mayor, in the presence of several aldermen 
and governors ; and the eastern side of the square, 
which compleatedthe whole, beingfinished in 1770, 
it is now one of the most pleasing structures in 
London, when viewed from the area within^ which 
it surrounds, and where only it can be seen to ad^ 

That part which opens to Smithfield, and which 
may be esteemed the principa,l front, is allotted for 
the public business of the hospital. It contains a 
large hall for the g^eneral courts of the governors ; 
a counting house for the meetings of committees ; 
rooms for examining, admitting, and discharging 
patients ; with other necessary offices. In this 
part of the building is a stair^^case painted and 
given by the late Mr. Hogarth, consisting of two 
pictures, representing the Good Samaritan and the 
Pool of Betbesda ; which, for truth of colour* 
ing and expression, are thought to equal any thing 
of the kind in Europe. 

In the hall is a full length portrait of Henry VIII, 
and another of Dr. Ratclifie, who bequeathed five 
hundred pounds a year to the hospital^ for the im« 


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provemeBt of the diet; and one hundred pounds a 
year to buy linen. In one of the windows, is a re- 
presentation in stained glass, of Henry VIII. de* 
livering the charter to the lord-mayor. 

The front of the hospital towards Smithfield is 
adorned with pilasters, entablature, and pediments 
of the Ionic order, with the figure of King Henry 
VIII. standing in full proportion in a niche ; and 
the figures of two cripples on the pediment. Be- 
neath the figure of the king is the following in- 
scription : 

'^Bartholomew's Hospital, founded by Rahere, 
Anno 1J02. Refounded by King Henry VUI. 
Anno 1546." 

Underneath which is the following : " This front 
was rebuilt Anno 1702, in the first year of Queen 
Anne. - Sir William Prichard, Knt. and alderman, 
president. John Nichol, £sq. treasurer/* 

The other three sides of the quadrangle contain 
the wards for the reception of patients ; in each 
of which are between twenty and thirty beds. 

There are three physicians, tlir^e surgeons, three 
assistant surgeons, and an apothecary, belonging 
to this hospital. 

Within the principal gate of this hospital stands 
the parochial church of St. Bartholomew the Less, 
which was originally a chapel to the hospital, and 
founded at the same time; but at the dissolution 
of the priory, it was converted into a parish 
church for the inhabitants of the precinct of the 

It is a vicarage, the patronage of which has been 
in the governors of the hospital ever since the- 
grant of that establishment to the citizens of Lon- 
don. The church is an old fabrick, enlightened 
with a single series of windows, and having a 


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square tower with a turret at one eorner, likic 
the fire beacons of many of the old churches. 
It is ninety-nine feet in length, forty-two in 
breadth, and thirty-four in height, and the alti* 
tude of the tower is seventy-four feet ; and as the 
building escaped the fire jn 1( 66, it is very an* 

On the CBKt side of Smithfield, and at the north 
end of Duck-lane, stands the parish church of St. 
Bartholomew the Great. 

This church was originally a parish church ad- 

{'oining to that of the priory of St. Bardiolomew ; 
>ut when the latter was pulled down to the choir, 
that part was annexed by the king's order, for the 
enlargement of the old church ; in which manner 
it continued till queen Mary gave the remnant of 
the priory church to the Black Friars^ who used it 
as their conventional church till the first year of 
queen Elizabeth, when the friars were turned out, 
and the church was restored^ by act of parliament, 
to the parish. 

The present church is the same as it stood in the 
reign of Edward VI. except the steeple, which be- 
ing of timber was taken down in the year 1628, 
and a new one, of brick and stone, erected. . It is 
a spacious edifice of the Gothic and Tuscan orders, 
one hundred and thirty-two feet long, fifty-seven 
broad, and forty- seven high ; and the altitude of 
the tower is seventy-five feet. 

On the north side of the chancel is an elegant 
monument of Rahere, beneath an arch, supported 
by tabernacle work. His effigy is recumbent with 
his hands joined over his breast There is an angel 
at his feet, and a friar in the attitude of prayer, on 
each side of him. This monument was repaired and 
beautified by William Bolton, the last prior. 


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De^Khedir F.r^r-cd (bcLazubcrf* IfifiB'jot" Loajion. 

^^iyU'7/u/'/,'^ cj///^ h/^^^^'Tif r/\:^a^^^v/u^^ 

r^^/kM ty r rti^ht StaArrur.- ^urr frt I/<»J 

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The patronage of this church, which, in all pro- 
l^s^jiity, was anciently in the prior and canons of 
"^ tholomew, is now in private hands. This 
F.MiU claims an exemption from the jurisdic- 
^dic city, so far as to protect non-freemen in 
Iff on tneir respective trades, 
the south side of this church is a large open 
piece of ground, called Bartholomew-close, where 
was anciently a cemetery, and the court-yard be- 
longing to the old priory of St. Bartholomew; in 
which the fair was kept till it was removed into 

Part of the cloisters is still preserved in the 
Black-horse Livery-stables, consisting of eight 
arches, ornamented with the rude sculpture of the 
times ; and there are several vestiges of the priory 
to be seen in a narrow passage to the north of the 
stable; adjacent to which is part of the south 
transept, now converted into a small burial-ground. 
Northward from this is Long-lane, built without 
the north wall of the priory, in the time of Henry 
IL when, according to Stow, the booths in the 
church-yard being taken down, a number of tene- 
ments were erected in Long-lane, for such as 
would give great rents. It is probable that none 
of the original buildings remain ; but those on the 
south side offer the largest aggregate of the rude 
dwellings of our forefathers now in existence in 
the metropolis. Whoever considers the materials 
of Which these buildings preformed, and the ob- 
struction that must have been given to a free cir- 
culation of air, by the method of constructing them 
with one story overhanging another, and extends 
his view to a metropolis composed chiefly of such 
fabrics, will cease to wonder at the frequency 
and extent of the conflagrations, and pestilen- 

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tial diseases, with which London was formerly af- 

On the north side of Smithfield is the great 
opening, called Smithiield-bars» from the bars 
which separated the city liberty from the county, 
on that side, having been placed there. 


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t)f Bridge-ward withoHt J dr, the Borough of Southwark. 

— Extent. Principal-streets ^^^St. OlavC'^St.Johnj 

Harsley-down. — Bnige-house, — St. Saviour, or, St. 

Mary Overies, Winchester-house. — The Stews.^^^ 

Sioney 'Street. — St. Thomases-hospital, — St. Thomas^S' 

church. Guy*s-hospitaL — -S/. Margaret* s-hilL—^ 

Town-hall. Marshulsea Prison and Court. ^--^---Old 

County-gaol. — 5^. George. — The Mint, — Union-hall.-^ 
Kmg's-iench-Prison. — "New-gaol, Horsemonger-lane. 
— Obelisk. — Christ-church. — The Magdalen-house.'^^ 
Free Mason's Charity -school. 

Bri DO E-WA RD without^ though a part of the 
jurisdiction of the city of London, is in another 
county, and is divided from it by the river Thames. 
It contains nearly the whole of the Borough of 
Southwark, and extends from London Bridge to 
Newington in the south, almost to Lambeth in the 
south-west, and to Rotherhithe in the east The 
principal streets in it are the Borough Uigh-street» 
St Margaret's- hi 11, Blackman-street, part of Long- 
lane, Kent-street, Tooley, or St -Olave's-street, 
and a new street leading from St. Margaret Vhill 
to Black-friars, called Union-street 

This ward may be said to be only nominal ; for 
though it has an alderman, he is not elective by 
the inhabitants, nor have they any representatives 
in the court of common-council. The senior 
alderman of London, who is termed father of the 
city, is therefore removed to this ward, whenever 
a vacancy occurs, us an honourable sinecure which 
relieves him from the fatigues of ward business. 

Some authors have supposed that Southwark was 
the first place of trade with the Romans^ and that 

vol.. Ill X London 

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London arose from it; but although this opinrati 
is without foundation^ it is however certain that 
ever since London began to flourish,* Southwark> 
as one of its appendages, and connected with it in 
commerce, has experienced a proportionate pros- 
perity. . 

The first mention we find of Sonthwark in his- 
tory, is in the reign of Edward tlie Confessor, 
about the year 1053; at wliich time it appears to 
have been a corporation governed by abailifi', and 
it contiiiued in that state till the year 1S37, when 
the city of London obtained a grant of it from 
the crown, and the mayor was to appoint all its 
oflScers. Some few years after the inhabitants re- 
cm'ered their former privileges, and kept possession 
of them till the reign of Edward VI. when the 
crown made a second grant of it to the city of 
London, for a valuable consideration. 

At the same time London purchased all the pri- 
vileges belonging to the archbishops of Canterbury* 
and abbots of Bermondsey in Soutlnvark ; and from 
that period it has been annexed to London, and is 
governed by one of the aldermen, and a steward 
and bailiff appointed by the mayor and common- 
countil; the former of whom holds a court of record 
at St. Margaret's-hill. for all debts, damages and 
trespasses within his limits. 

That part of the Borough of Southwark, which is 
subject to the city of l-,ondon, is called the Borough 
Liberty;, the other division is called the Clink, 
find belongs to the Bishop of Winchester, who ap- 
points a stCM'ard and bailiff, under whom that dis- 
trict is governed. 

Notwithstanding the royal grants of the Borough 
of Southwark to the city of London, the Surrey 
magistrates preserve an authority of" appointing 


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constables, licensing victuallersy and exercising 
other powers as justices of the peace for the 

We shall begin the survey of this ward or borough 
at Tooley, or St. Olave's-street, which is situated 
on the east-side of the entrance into the Higb- 
street from London- bridge. This street is long, but 
in some parts narrow, and is in general exceeding 
dirty, owing to the great number of carts that 
are continually passing with goods from the 
different wharfs on the south side of the river 

At a small distance from London-Bridge, on the 
north side of this street, stands the parish church o^' 

Though it cannot be ascertained at what time a 
church was first situated on this spot, yet it is meiv- 
tioned as early as the year 1481. However, part 
of the old church falling down in 1736, and the 
rest being in a ruinous condition, the parishionera 
applied to parliament tor apower to rebuild it, which 
Mng granted, the remains of the old building 
were taken down in the year 1737, and the present 
structure finished in 1739. It consists of a piaiu 
body strengthened with rustic quoins at the corr 
ners ; the door is well proportioned without orna- 
ment, and the windows are placed in three series; 
the lowest is upright, but considerably broad; 
those above them circular, and the others on the roof 
are large and semi-circular. The tower consist^ 
of three stages, the uppermost of which is consi- 
derably diminished : in this is tlie clock, and 14 
the stages below are large windows. The top of 
the tower is surrounded by a plain substantial balusr 
trade, and the whole has an air of plainness apd 

This parish is a rectory, the patronage of whicb 
is in the gift of the crown. 


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The parish of St. Olave, like many others in the 
suburbs of London, being greatly increased both 
in number, of houses and inhabitants, the com-t 
missioners for erecting fifty new churches within 
the bills of mortality, purchased the ground, in 
which the trained bands of Southwark formerly 
exercised, and, from that circumstance, called the 
artillery ground, whereon they erected a parish 
church, for the district of Horsley-doWn, and 
dedicated it to St. John the Evangelist, the inha^ 
bitants having obtained an act of parliament for 
constituting this portion of the parish of St. Olave 
into a separate parish, and making a provision for 
its rector. 

This church was finished in 1732. The body 
of it is enlightened- by two ranges of windows^ 
with a Venetian one in the center, over the door. 
The east end is circular, and with a dome; and at 
the west end is a square tower rising from the roof^ 
ornamented with pilasters, and having a balustrade 
on the top, within which is a square course sup- 
porting a neat fluted spire crowned with the volutea 
of the Ionic order. This parish is a rectory, and 
being taken out of St. Olave's, the patronage is in 
the crown. 

Near St. Olave's church is situated the Bridge-r 
house, which consists of several buildings adapted 
as store-houses for timber, stone, and other ma- 
terials for repairing London-bridge. In former times 
liere were several granaries for the service of the 
city in times of scaicity; and also ten ovens and a 
brewhouse for making bread and b??r for the relief 
of the poor citizens ; but these granaries are now 
applied to the use of the cornfaciors, who here lay 
in consfiderable quantities of corn. The Bridge* 
house is under the management of the bridge- 
masters, whose pffice is to look after the repara- 
tion of London-bridge. 


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Adjoining to the Bridge house-yard formerly 
stood a large house of stone and wood, the city 
residence of the abbot of St Augustin's in Can- 
terbury ; which afterwards descending to Sir An- 
thony Sentlegar, the site thereof was converted 
into a wh^rf, which, by an easy transition, is now 
called Selleuger's Wharl; 

On the east side of the Bridge yard was formerly 
situated the mansion of the abbot of Battle in Sus* 
sex, the name whereof is partly preserved by the 
place called Battle-bridge ; opposite to which, on 
the south, lay its fine and spacious garden, wherein 
was a maze, or labyrinth, the name whereof is also 
preserved by the spot of ground, which consists 
of several streets, being at this time called the Maze. 

West of London Bridge is the parochial church 
of St Saviour, or St. Mary Overies. 

On thespot where this church standswas anciently 
situated a priory of nuns, founded by one Mary, 
the owner of a ferry over the river Thames, before 
the building of London*bridge. This accounts 
for the derivation of the latter name, which cippears 
to have been originally called St Mary ot the 
Ferry; but at length, as we now find it, St 
Mary Overies. 

The priory was afterwards converted into a colp . 
lege of priests ; but that establishnjent, as well as 
the former, proving of no long duration, it was, 
in the year 1 106, foundrd by two Norman kniglits, 
William Pont de la Arch, and William Dauncy, 
and the Bishop of VVinchester, for canons regular; 
and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. 

In the year 1207, this college was burnt down ; 
but Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, re- 
built it, and added to it a fine chapel for the use 
of the canons, which he dedicated to St. Mary 
Magdalen. This structure remained till the reign 
3 of 

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of Richard 11. when the whole was pulled down 
and rebuilt, togetli^r with the conventual church, 
which, by act of parliament in the reign of Henry 
VIII. was made parochiali and sold by that prince 
to the inhabitants of St. Maj^garet's on the Hill 
)and St. Mary's, after which it was called by the 
name of St. Saviour's. 

This is, perhaps, the largest parish church in 
the kingdom, and is a noble Gothic structure in 
the form of a cathedral, only that some additions 
have been made to it of brick. These, however, 
being placed in the room of such parts as were de- 
cayed, the uniformity of it is not hurt, and the 
whole has a grand and venerable appearance. 

The length of the church is two hundred and 
^ixty feet, and that of the cross aisle one hundred 
and nine; the breadth of the body is fifty-fourfeet, 
and the heighth of the tower, including the pin- 
nacles, is one hundred and (it>y feet. Tlie con- 
struction of Che windows, entrance, and every 
other part, except one door, which is modern, is 
purely in the Gothic style. The tower, whicli is 
«quare, and well proportioned, is supported by 
massy pillars jover tlie meeting of the middle and 
cross isles : it is crowned with battlements; and at 
each corner is a tall slender pinnacle. 

The inside is extremely grand, and in it are many 
monuments to the memory of eminent persons, 
3ome of which have been lately repaired by tlie de- 
scendants of those families who have made choice 
of this place for their interment. Among these, in 
a chapel at the east end of the church, is a re- 
markable monument belonging to the family of the 
Afistin s, erected in the year 16^6 ; and again^ 
the north wall, is that of the celebrated English 
poet John Gower, a great benefactor to the 
church in thereigusof £dward lU. and Richard XL 


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This church is noted for having a fine peal of 
bells. It is a rectory, in the gift of the parish. 

Adjoining to this church is Montague Close, so, 
called from the mansion of the loi^ Montague, 
which was formerly situated on this spot, as was 
also that of the lord Monteagle. In this close it 
is said the Gun-powder-plot was discovered by the 
miscarriage of a letter, to one of which lords it 
was delivered by mistake instead of delivering it to 
the other; for which happy discovery; Montague 
Close enjoyed several distinguishing privileges, 
particularly one, viz. that whoever dwelt there was 
exempt from having any actions of -debt, tres- 
pass, &c. served on tliem. But this privilege, with 
several others, has been long suppressed. 

At the west end of St. Saviour's church was an- 
tiently situated Winchester-house, which was at 
first erected by William GifFord, bishop of that 
see, about the year 1 107. Till the civil wars, this 
was the town residence of the prelates of that sec 
during their attendance on parliament. Much of 
it is yet standing, tenanted by different families, or 
converted into warehouses. The great court is 
called Winchester square, fcd in the adjacent 
street is the abutment of one of the gates. Ad- 
joining to it on the south, stood the mansion of the 
Bishop of Rochester, but when, orby whom erected, 
is not known. 

At a small distance from this, and in the place 
now called Bank-side, were formerly the stews, or 
public bawdy-houses, licenced and regulated by 
the Bishop of Winchester; for the government of 
which certain regulations were made by the said 
bishop that were confirmed by parliament. Among 
these were the following : 

** That no stew holder shall molest or obstruct 
any single woman from li^ving access to, and 


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160 HIstdAir AK0 AtJEVBV 6f 

liberty to withdraw from, his house at pleasure. -*»• 
lliatno stew-keeper permit any woman to board ia 
Ills house. -^To take no more for a woman's apartment 
than fourteeo-pence per week. — Not to keep open 
the doors on holidays. — Not to detain any single 
woman thatis willing to reform. — Not to receive any 
woman that is devoted to religion, uor any man's 
wife. — No woman to take money for lying with a 
man, unless it be for a whole night. — No man to 
be artfully deluded into a stew. — That the several 
stews be searched weekly, by the bailiff, constables, 
&c. — That no stewholder entertain any woman 
that has the perilous infirmity of burning; nor 
to sell bread, flesh, ale, or auy other sort of provi- 

These orders were to be observed by the said 
«te\v-holders on very severe penalties : and for 
securing all persons accused of crimes committed 
in this district, a prison was erected, denominated 
the Clink. This prison is still in being, and the 
Bishop of Winchester's steward tries pleas of 
debt, damages or trespass, in the liberty, for any 

These stews, or hewdy -houses, were plundered 
by Wat Tyler, in the year 1381, at which time 
it appears they were kept by Flemish bawds. In 
the year 1506 they were shut up by order of Henry 
VII. but, being again opened soon after, their 
number was reduced from eighteen to twelve : and, 
in the year 1546, they were, by proclamation of 
Henry VIII. entirely suppressed. 

A little to the west of this church is Stoney- 
street, which terminating on the bank of the 
Thames, nearly opposite to Dowgate, was probably 
the continuation of the Watling-street road. 
• Near the middle of the borough High-street, 
on the east side stands St. Thomas's Hospital, a 


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very handsome itooe building, and a fioUe and 
extensive charity for the reception of the neces* 
sitous sick and wounded. 

With respect to the origin of this hospital, it is 
to be observed, that the priory of St Mary Overies 
being destroyed by fire in the year ISOZ^ the canons 
erected an oc^casional edifice, at a small distance, to 
answer the same purpose, till their monastery could 
be rd>u]lt; which being accomplished, reterde 
Ruptbus, Bishop of Winchester, for the greater 
convenience of air and water, pulled it down in 
IS 15, and removed it to a place where the prior of 
Bermondsey had two years before built«an almonry, 
or alms*house, for the reception of indigent 
children, and necessitous proselytes. The hospital 
was now dedicated to St. Thomas the Apostle, and 
endowed with land to the value of 3431. a year : 
from which time it was held of the Abbot of Ber- 
mondsey, until tlie dissolution of the religious 
houses, when it fell into the hands of Henry VIII. 

When the corporation of London purchased the 
manor of South wark, in 1551, the hospital was 
immediately repaired and enlarged ; and, in the 
November following, there were received into it 
two hundred and fifty sick and helpless objects. 
The hospital still retained its original name of St. 
Thomas; and in 1552, as hath been already men- 
tioned, King Edward VL granted a charter, by 
which the mayor and commonalty of London were 
incorporated governors of the same. 

Tliough this hospital escaped the great fire in 
]666, yet grea^ part of its possessions were then 
destroyed ; and two other fires, that afterwards 
happened in Soutbwark, reduced it to great dis* 
tress. The building g;rew old and wanted repairs, 
and the funds on winch it depended for support 
failed. However, in 1699, the governors opened ^ 

vol.. III. r subscription 

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subscription for rebuilding it on a more extemive 
plan, which was executed at different times, and 
completed in the year 1732. 

The hospital now consists of three quadrangles, 
or square courts. In the front, next the street, 
is a handsome pair of large iron gates, with a door 
of the same work on each side, for the convenience 
of foot-passengers. These are fastened on the sides 
to'^stone piers, on each of which is a statue repre- 
senting one of the patients. These gates open into 
a very neat square court, encompassed on three 
sides with a colonnade, surrounded wilh benches, 
next the waH, for the accommodation of people to 
sit and rest themselves. On the south side, under 
an empty niche, is the following inscription : 

This building, on the south side of this court, 
containing three wards, was erected at the 
charge of Thomas Fredcrick, of London, 
Esq; a worthy governor and liberal benefactor 
to this hospital. Anno 1708. 

On the opposite side, under the same kind of 
niche, is this inscriptioti : 

This building, on the north side of this court, 
containing three wards, was erected at the 
charge of Thomas Guy, Esq. citizen and 
stationer of London, a worthy governor and 
bountiful benefactor to this hospital, Anno 

The center of the principal front, facing the 
street, is of stone. On the. top is a clock, under 
a small circular pediment, and beneath that, in a 
niche, the statue of King Edward VI. hohliug a 
gilt sceptre in his right hand, and the charter in 

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his left. A little lower, in niches on each side, is 
a man with a crutch, and a sick woman ; and, an* 
der them, in other niches, a man with a wooden 
leg, and a woman with her arm in a sling. Over 
the niches are festoons, and between the last- 
mentioned figures, the kings arms in relievo : un* 
der which is this inscription: 

King Edward the Sixth, of pious memory, 
in the year of our Lord 155£, founded and 
endowed this Hospital of St. Thomas the 
Apostlk, together with the Hospitals of 
Christ, and Bridewell, in London. 

Underneath this is a spacious passage, down se* 
veral steps, into the second Court, which is more 
elegant than the former. This has also colonnades, 
except at the front of the chapel, which is on the 
north side, and is adorned with lofty pilasters of 
the Corinthian order, placed on high pedestals. 
On the top is a pediment, as well as in the center 
of the east and west sides, and above the piazzas, 
the fronts of the wards are ornamented with hand- 
some Ionic pilasters. 

In the center of this court is a handsome brass 
statue of King Edward VL by Mr. Scheemakers ; 
behind which is placed, on a kind of small pe* 
destai, his crown laid upon a cushion. The statue 
is enclosed with iron rails, and stands upon a lofty 
stone pedestal, on which is the following inscripi^ 
tion, in capitals : 

This statue 

Of King Edward the Sixth, 

A most excellent Prince, 

Of exemplary Piety and Wisdomi 

above his years ; 


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The glory atad oroament of hfl tge, 
and most munificent foundei 

Of this hospitai, 
Was erected at the expense 
Of Charles Joyce, Esquire, 
in the year MDcdxxxyii. 

On the opposite side of the pedestal is the same 
inscription in Latin. 

In the center of the east side of this court is a 
spacious passage into the next, the structure above 
being supported by two rows of columns. The build- 
ings in the thiid court lire older than the ethers, 
and are entirely surrounded with a colonnade, 
above which they are adorned with a kind of long, 
slender, Ionic pilasters, with very small capitals. 
In the center is a stone statue of l^ir Robert Clay- 
t<in, dressed in his robes as lord mayor, surrounded 
l¥ith tfon rails; upon the west side of the pedestal 
is bis arms in relievo, and on tht south side, the 
following inscription : 

To Sir Robert Clayton, Knt. born in Northamp- 
tonshire, citizen and Lord Mayor of London, 
pitrsident of this hospital, and vice-president 
of the new workhouse, and a bountiful bene- 
factor to it ; a just magistrate, and brave de- 
fender of the liberty and religion of his coun- 
try. Who (besides many other instances of 
his charity to the poor) built the girls' ward 
in Christ's hospital, gave first, towards the re- 
building of this house, six hundred "pounds, 
and left, by his last will, two thousand three 
hundred pounds to the poor of it This statue 
was erected in his life-time, by the governors, 
An. Dom. mdcci. as a monument of their 
esteem of so much worth, and^ to preserve his 
,9 jjnemory 

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memory after death, was by them beautified, 
Au. Dom. MPGCxiv. 

Sioce the foundation of this extensive charity, 
ao incredible number of distressed objects have re-> 
ceived relief from it ; and though the estates origin 
sally belonging to the hospital were ruined, yet, 
hy the liberality and benevolence of the citizens 
sod others, its revenues have not only been re* 
stored, but augmented, and its annual disburse- 
ments now amount to a very considerable sum. 

It contains nineteen wards, and upwards of five 
hundred beds, which are constantly occupiedi and 
the mode of admitting patients is the same as at 
Sl Bartholomew's hospital ; for which purpose, a 
committee of governors sits here oh every Thurs^ 
day forenoon. 

Contiguous to this hospital, on the north side of 
St Thomas's-street, stands the parish churcli of 
St Thomas, which was originally erected for the 
use of the hospital; but the number of houses 
within the precinct of the hospital having increased 
greatly, it was judged necessary to make the church 
parochial for the inhabitants, and to erect a chapel 
in the liospital for the use of the patients: this 
church is therefore a sort of impropriation, in tlie 
gift of the governors of the hospital, who chuse 
ooe out of two persons returned by the parishioners. 

Thia church is a plain brick building^ enlight- 
ened by one series of large windows, and the cor* 
ners strengthened and adorned with rustic work. 
The length of it is one hundred and fifty*six feet, its 
breadth thirty-three feet,the height of the roof twenty, 
eight feet, and that of the tower ninety-two feet 

Behind St Thomas's hospital, on the opposite 

side of St Thomas's-street, stands another founda** 

tion of the same description, little inferior to it ia 

. extent, 

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extent, but more remarkable from the circumstance 
of its having been built and endowed by a single 

Mr. Thomas Gu)% the founder, had, from a small 
beginning, by industry and frugality, amassed an 
immense fortune] but more particularly by pur- 
chasing seamen's tickets, in the reign of Queen 
Anne, and by buying and selling South-sea stock, 
in the year 1720. He was never married, and had 
no ftear relations; therefore, towards the close of 
his life, considering how he should dispose of his 
wealth, he at length resolved to be the founder of 
the most extensive charity ever established by one 

Mr. Guy was seventy-six years of age when he 
formed this resolution, and, having no time to lose, 
immediately purchased of the governors of St. 
Thomas's hospital, a lease of a piece of ground, 
nearly opposite to that hospital, for the term of 
nine hundred and ninety-nine years, at a ground- 
rent of thirty pounds a year. As this spot was co- 
vered with small houses, that were old and ill- 
tenanted, he gave proper notice to the inhabitants 
to quit them ; which being done, he pulled down 
the buildings in the year 172 1, and proceeding with 
the greatest expedition, he caused the foundation 
of the intended hospital to be laid the following 
spring; and the building was pursued with such 
alacrity, that it was roofed in befori the death of 
the founder, which happened on the 27th of De- 
cember, in the year 1724. 

The only motive which induced Mr. Guy to 
erect this hospital in so low and close a situation, 
was, his design of putting it under the management 
and direction of the governors of that of St. Tho- 
mas's. By the advice of his friends, he altered his 
r^olution ; but it was then too late to think of 


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chusing another sicufttion; for the building was at 
that time raised to the second story. However, he 
rendered the place as agreeable as possible, by its 
elevation above the neighbouring streets. 

The whole expense of erecting and furnishing 
this hospital, amounted to the sum of eighteen 
thousand seven hundred and ninety-two pounds 
sixteen shillings, great part of which Mr. Guy ex-* 
peaded in his life- time; and he left two hundred 
and nineteen thousand* four hundred and ninety- 
nine pounds to endow it ; both together amounting 
to two hundred and thirty-eight thousand two 
hundred and ninety-two pounds sixteen shillings; 
a much larger sum than was ever left before in this 
kingdom, by one single person, to charitable pur- 

This building consists of two quadrangles, beside 
the two wiqgs that extend, from the front to the 
street. The wing on the west side has been lately 
added, and is built with such elegance and uui* 
furmity, as to make the whole a very handsome 
and regular edifice. 

The entrance into the building is by an elegant 
and noble iron gate, supported by stone piers. 
These gates open into a snuare, in the center of 
which is a brazen statue of the founder, by Mr.. 
Scheemakers, dressed in a livery gown, and well 
executed* In the front of the^ pedestal is this in« 
scription : 

Thomas Gut, sole Foundkr op this Hospi^ 


On the west side of the pedestal is represented^ 
in bassQ relievo, the parable of the Good Samaritan; 
on the south side are Mr. Guy's arms; and on that 


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I6S Hiwoay and sunvfiv of 

side of the pedestal facing tl>e east, is our Savioiit 
healing the impotent man. 

The superetrHctiire of this hmpital has thvee 
floors besides the garrets, and the same construe* 
tion runs thix>ugh the whole building, which is so 
extensive as to contain twelve wards, in which are 
four hundred and thirty-five beds, exclusive of 
those that may be placed in the additional part ; 
and the whole is advantageously disposed for the 
mutual accommodation of tlie sick, and those who 
attend them. 

A short time after Mr. Guy's decease, his exe- 
cutors, pursuant to his last will, applied to parlia* 
nient, to get themselves, with fifty-one other gen- 
tlemen nominated by the testator, to be incorpo- 
rated governors of the intended hospital; upon 
which all these gentlemen were constituted a body 
politic and corporate, by the name of the President 
and Governors of Guy's Hospital By this act of 
incorporaticm, they were to have perpetual succes- 
sion, and a common seal, with the power of possess- 
ing the real and personal estates of the late Thomas 
Guy, Esq. for the purposes of the will, and to pur- 
chase, in perpetuity, or for any term of years, any 
other estate whatsoever, not exceeding twelve tlwu- 
sand pounds per annum. 

As soon as this corporation was established by 
parliament, the governors immediately set about 
completing the work, by finishing and furnishing 
the hospital, and taking in patients, the number of 
whom, at first, amounted to four hundred and two. 
The olEcers and servants belonging to this hospital 
are chosen by the governors, who have, ever since, 
carried on this noble charity in such manner as to 
answer, in the strictest degree, the benevolent in- 
tentions of the founder. 


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The sne^kal establisliitieiit aod forms of admis- 
sion are similar to those of Stw Tliomas's hospital, 
but the day for receiving patients i» Wednesday. 
Then is a Kbrary, and a collection of anatomical 
pveparatfcm bdeng^og to this instttntion. 

Some farther notice will be taken of the fouMlcr 
in the biographical department 

At the south extremity of the Borough High- 
street, formerly stood a church dedicated to St« 
Margaret on the Hiil, the site of which is now oc- 
cupied by a court of justice, or town-hall. It is a 
ttodern built brick edifice, the front of which' is 
ornamented with stone, and consists of a rustic 
basement story, above which are a series of lonie 
pilasters, and the whole is crowned with a hand- 
some batastrade. 

The steward for the city of London holds a 
couvt of record here, every Monday, for all debts, 
damages, and trespasses, within his limits. 

Besides thi^ court, there are three court^leets 
held in the bdrough, for its three liberties, or ma- 
nors, vi2. the great liberty, the guildable, and the- 
king's manor; in which are chosen coustable9, ale* 
conners, &c. 

Sooth from tliis court runs a spaciotis, well built 
street, inhabited by substantial tradesmen and- inn* 
keepers, and called St. Margaret's-hill. 

On the east side of this street is the Marshalsea 
prison, which is a place of confinement for person^ 
who have committed crimes at sea, as pirates, &c. 
and also for debtors. In this prison is the Mar- 
sbalsea-court) the judges of which are the lord 
steward of his majesty's household for the time 
being, the steward of the court, who must be a bar-* 
rister at law, and a. deputy steward. In all civil* 
actions^ tried in this court, both the plaintiff and' 
dtfendant must belong to his majesty's household. 

VOL. III. z The 

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The persons confined in this prison for crimes at 
sea, are tried at the Old- bailey. 

In the same prison, is the palaoe-court, the juris- 
diction of which extends twelve miles round tlie 
palace of Westminster, the citjj^ of London ex- 
cepted. Actions for debt are tfied in this court 
every Friday ; and there are the same judges as in 
the Marshalsea- court, and a prothonotary, a se- 
condary, and deputy prothonotary, four counsei- 
loi^, and six attorneys. But, in this court, neither 
plaintiff nor defendant must belong to his majesty's 
household. The buildings of this prison are greatly 
decayed, but the court-room is spacious and con- 

Farther to the south is the old county gaol, near 
which, at the south-east angle of the street, is situ-* 
ated the parish church of St. George ; which is so 
calletl from its dedication to the patron ssunt of 

This church is of some antiquity, as appears from 
its having been given by Thomas Arderne to the 
abbot and monks of Bermondsey, in the year 1 122. 
In the year 1629, the old church was repaired and 
beautified ; but the decays of age at length rendered 
it necessary to take it down ; the parishioners there- 
fore applied to parliament for power to erect a new 
one, and, having obtained an act for that purpose, 
the first stone of the present edifice was laid on St. 
GeorgeVday, in the year 1734, l>y Dr. Hough, the 
rector, as proxy for King George II. and the build- 
ing was completed in 1736. 

It is a very handsome structure, with a lofty and 
noble spire. The ascent to the great door is by a 
flight of steps, within a row of plain iron rails, that 
extend along the whole front of the building. The 
door-case, which is of the Ionic order, has a circu- 
lar pediment, ornamented with the heads of chc- 
3 rubs 

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rubs in clouds, and, above this pediment, the front 
is adorned with balustrades and vases. From this 
place rises a plain square tower, strengthened with 
rustic quoins, as is the body of the buildins;; and 
on the corners of the tower are -again placed vases. 
Above this is an octangular tower, with arched 
openings on the four principal faces, and a series of 
Ionic columns at the corners supporting the base 
of the spire which is also octangular, and crowned 
at its apex, with a ball from which rises the 

This church is a rectory which, as has been ob' 
served before, was anciently belonging to the 
priory of Berniondsey. It is at present in the gift 
of the crown. 

Bishop Bonner, of infamous memory, who died 
in the mdrshalsea prison, was buried in the cemetery 
belonging to this parish, under the east window of 
the church. 

Opposite to this church anciently stood a mag- 
nificent mansion, belonging to Charles Brandon, 
Duke of Suffolk, the favourite of Henry VIIi: 
After his death, in 1545, it came into the king's 
hands, who established a royal mint here. At that 
time it was called Southwark-place ; and was after* 
Wards given by Queen Mary to the Archbishop of 
York, as an inn or residence for him and his sue* 
cessors, whenever they repaired to London. This 
place continued for many years an asylum for frau* 
dulent debtors, who took refuge here with their 
efiects, and set their creditors at defiance; but be- 
coming at length a pest to the neighbourhood, by 
giving shelter to villains of every description^ the 
attention of parliament was directed to it, and hi 
the reign of George I. all its privileges were totally 
suppressed. The name is still preserved in Mint* 


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Nearer to London-bridge, on the same side of 
St. Margaret's-liill is Union -street, on the south 
side of which is Union- hall, one of the police of- 
fices instituted a few years ago, for the better ad- 
minfstration of the office of justice of the peace. 
It is a plain brick building with a stuccoed 
front, ornamented with pilasters of the Doric Or- 

The street from St, George's church, southward, 
is called Black man -street ; at the south west corner 
of which there is a.road, that runs through St* 
GeorgeVfields to Westminster*bridge. At the 
north east corner of this toad stands the KingV 
Bench- Prison. 

This is a place of confinement for debtors ; and 
for those sentenced by the court of King's-bench 
to suffer imprisonment for libels and other misde- 
meanors; but those who can purchase the Itberticd 
have the benefit of walking through a part of the 
IJorough, and in St George's-fields, 

This prison is situated in a fine air ; but all pros'* 
pect of the fields, even from the uppermost win- 
dows, IS excluded by the height of the walls with 
which it is surrounded. It has a neat chapel for 
the performance of divine worship, and only one 
bed in each room; but these rooms are extremely 
small ; they are all exactly alike, and none above 
nine feet in length. It is a very extensive brick 
building, without A\'hi<»h the marshal, who has the 
keeping of this jail, has very handsome apartments* 
Prisoners in any other jail may be removed hither 
by Habeas Corpus. 

Nearly opposite to this prison, in Hprsemonger- 
lane, is the new jail for the county of Surry. It 
w a massy brick building, surrounded with a strong 
wall; and the place of execution is a temporary 
scaflfold erected on the top of the lodge on the 


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north Side of it. The keeper*d^house is a handsome 
buiMin^ on the west side. 

In that part of St. George's-fields where the 
roads from the three bridges meet, stands a plain 
neat obelisk, on which is written the distances from' 
thence to London-bridge, Fleet-street, and West* 

The road from this place to Black-friars- bridgo 
is very spacious, and has many good buildings on 
each side of it. On the west side, at a short dis-* 
tance from the bridge> stands the parish church 
calleil' Christ-church. 

This parish was formerly a district belonging to 
St Saviours-parish, and consists principally of the 
old manor of Paris-garden, in which was situated 
one of the ancient p^ay-houses of the metropolis, 
and here were also exhibited the bear baitings so 
much in request among our ancestors. Speaking 
of the Bear-garden, Stow says *' herein were kept 
bears, bulls, and other beasts to be bayted, as also 
mastives in several kennels, nourished to bayt them. 
These bears and other beasts are there kept in plots 
of ground scaffolded about for the beholders to 
stand safe." The safety of this scaffolding wa^, 
however, very problematical, for, in the year \5b% 
one of them suddenly fell, by which accideni 
multitudes of people were killed, or miserably 

The church was founded in the year 1637, in 
pursuance of the will of John Marshal, gent, of 
the Borough of Southwark, who devised the sum 
of seven hundred pounds, towardserectinga church, 
and endowe<l it with sixty pounds per annum for th« 
maintenance of a minister. With this sum, and 
others collected by the trustees under the will, a 
church was built, and the inhabitants of the dis* 
trict applied to parliament in the year 1676, for an 


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act to make it a distinct parish from St Saviour *5, 
which being granted, it has been ever since inde- 
pendent, tliereof. 

In the year 1737 the foundations of the old 
church having become very ruinous, a new appli- 
cation was made to parliament, and the present 
edifice was erected at the expense of the parish- 
ioners. It is a regular, well constructed building, 
consisting of a plain body^ enlightened by two 
ranges of windows, with a square tower, and a 

This church is a rectory, the patronage of which 
is at present in thirteen persons, the representatives 
of the founder* 

On the. same side of the road near the obelisk, 
stands the Magdalen- house for the reception of 
penitent prostitutes. 

This benevolent institution was projected, in the 
year 1758, by Mr. Robert Diugley. It was at 
lirst kept in a large house, formerly the London 
Infirmary, in Prescot-street, Goodman Vfields, and 
was called the Magdalen Hospital. The utility of 
this charity was so conspicuous, and so well sup-> 
ported, that the views of the benefactors extended 
to the building an edifice more enlarged and con- 
venient for the purpose; in consequence of which, 
the spot on which the present edifice stands was 
made choice of; and on the 28th of July, in the 
year \7(i9, the Earl of Hertford, president, with 
the vice-president and governors, laid the first 
stone at the altar of the chapel, under which 
was placed a brass plate xsith the following inscrip- 
tion : 

On the 98ih.of July, 

In the year of our LORD 



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And in the ninth year of the reign of 

his most($acr,ed Majesty, 


King of Great Britain, 

Patronized by his royal consort 



For the reception of 

Penitent Prostitutes, 

Supported by voluntary contributions, 

Was begun to be erected, 

And the first STONE laid by 


Knight of the most noble order of 

the garter, lord chamberlain of 

his majesty's houshold, and one 

of his most hon. privy-council, 


Joel Johnson, Architect 

This hospital consists of four brick buildings, 
which inclose a quadrangle, with a bason in the 
center. The chapel is an octangular edifice erected 
at pne of the back corners ; and to give the in- 
closed court an uniFormity, a building of a similar 
front is placed at the opposite corner. 

The unhappy women for whose benefit this hos- 
pital was erected, are received by petition, a printed 
form of which may be obtained gratis on applica- 
tion at the door, and there is a distinction in the 
wards according to the education or behaviour of 
the persons admitted. Each ward is entrusted to 
its particular assistant, and the whole is under the 
inspection of a matron. The treatment of the 
women is accompanied with eveiy possible degree 
of tenderness, that the establishiVient, instead of 
a house of correction, or labour, may be thought 

a safe 

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a safe tetvt^ki from error, and its attendaM wretch « 
edness. They are instructed and practised in the 
duties of the christian religion, and each one is 
employed in such kind of work as is suitable to her 
abilities, or trained in the various branches of do- 
mestic employment, in order to qualify her to ob- 
tain an honest li-velihood by service. 

When ayoung \ix>man is admitted into the house, 
and has given satisfactory proofs of her inclination 
to quit the paths of vice, great pains afc taken to 
bring about a reconciliation between her and her 
friends, and, if they are people of honest fame, to 
put her under their protection ; but no woman who 
behaves well in the house is ever dismissed from it, 
except afe her own request, until she is provided 
with the tneans of obtaining a reputable livelihood ; 
and as a further eticouragement to a perseverance 
in rectitude, every woma^i placed iu service from 
this institution, who, at the end of a year, can 
obtain a satisfactory testimonial of her good be- 
hdiviour for that t?Fme, receives a gratuity from the 
irommittee a9 a reward for the past, suid an 6ncou<- 
ragement for her future good conduct. 
' To enlarge on the utility of such an institution 
must be needless. • It is obvious that there cannot 
be greater objects of compassion than young, 
thoughtless females, plunged into vice and ruin, 
by temptations to which their youth and personal 
advantages, no less thair those passions implanted 
by nature for wise, good, and great ends, expose 
them. But to no class is such a sanctuary mohe 
beneficial than to those who, having been seduced 
by promises of marriage, are deserted by their 
seducerfr. These have never been in public pros- 
titution, but abandoned by their relations in the 
first moments of anger^ thrown upon an unfeeling 
world>^ without money, without character, and 


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Without a friend, the stern impulse of hunger 
would compel them to embrace a life of guilt and 
misery, or to seek a more dreadful alternative iu 
suicide, did not this mansion offer them a secure 
retreat from further temptation and a peaceful, vir- 
tuous abode, until the resentment of their parents 
became cooled by reflection, or they had acquired 
the means of procuring a creditable maintenance 
by honest industry. The seeds of virtue are not 
suddenly destroyed, and, though paralyzed for a 
time by delusion, would frequently revive, were an 
assisting hand stretched forth. This truth was never 
more strongly exemplified than in the annals of the 
Magdalen Hospital. Of several thousands received 
into it since its institution, very few have been 
discharged for improper behaviour, or from dis- 
like to the constraint, and upwards of two thirds 
have been restored to society ; have become reputable 
and industrious members of it, many of them vir- 
tuous wives, and tender mothers, who, but for it, 
might have been forced to linger out a miserable 
existence, by preying on the unwary, and spread- 
ing profligacy, ruin, disease and death, through 
the human species. 

Nearly behind this house, in the road leading to 
Westminster- bridge, stands a kindred institution : 
the Royal Cumberland Freemason's School. 

This establishment was commenced in 1789, for 
the support and education of female children and 
orphans of Freemasons; at which time a house for 
their reception was taken at Somer's-town. But 
the liberal support which this charity experienced 
from the fraternity, enabling the governors tOkj^x- 
tend its benefits much beyond their original plai|» 
the piece of ground on which the school now 
stands was hired on lease from the city of liondon, 
and the present commodious structure erected at 

VOL. III. A A an 

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tn ca^pe^se of upwards of two thousand five hundred 
popDds, in the year 179S. It is a neat plain buiid* 
ing with a rustic basement storyi which contains 
the kitchens, offices, &c. The ascent to the prin- 
cipal entrance is by a flight of steps from a small 
garden. In tiie front are three elegant and appro* 
priate statues of Faith, Hope, and Charity ; the 
two former in niches on the two sides, and tlie 
latter on the top of the structure. These wer^ a 
present to the institution, in the year 1801, ftom 
Messts. Van Spangen and Co. 


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LONDOH AND ItS ^llYtlldirB. 179 


Of the River Thames.'^Iis Rise and Qmrse.—'Niwigation^ 
'^CaTud^.'-'^ Ancient State.^-^ Embankment. "-^Present 
State. — Its natural Advantages as a Harhour. -^Modern 
improvements. — Wet Docks. — The Lord Mayor's Juris" 
^ction^ — Its Fish* — Sir John Denham*s Description.-^^ 
London^lridge.''^^ Westminster'lridge.'^''BlackfriQTS^ 

Having completed the survey of the twenty-six 
wards, of which the city of London is composed, 
it remains now to speak of the Thames, the princi- 
pal source of its wealth ; and, though certainly not 
the largest, yet, i« respect of its navigation and 
produce, the chkf river in the world. The limits 
of an island are a natural bar to that extent of 
course, which is considered the boast of many con- 
tinental rivers, but, in utility and commercial con- 
venience, the Thames is second to none.* 

This river takes its rise from a copious spring, 
called Tliames-head, two miles south-west of Ciren- 
cester, in Gloucestershire. It has been erroneously 
said, that its name is Isis, till it arrives at Dor- 
chester, fifteen miles below Oxford, when, being 
joined by the Thame, or Tame, it assumes the name 
of the Thames, which, it has been observed, is 
formed from the combination of the Avords Thame 
^nd Isis. The origin of this popular error cannot 
now be traced ; poetical fiction has, however, per- 
petuated and invested it with a kind of classical 
sanctity. Camden says, " It plainly appears, that 
the river was always called Thames or Terns, before 
it came near the Thame; and in several ancient 
3 charters 

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charters granted to the Abbey of Malmsbury, as 
well as that of Enshani, and in the old deeds relat- 
ing to Cricklade, it is never considered under any 
other name than that of Thames.'* He likewise 
says, that it no where occurs under the name of 
Isis. All the historians who mention the incursions 
of Ethelwold into Wiltshire, in the year 905, or 
that of Canute, in 101 6, concur likewise in the 
same opinion, by declaring that they passed the 
Thames, at Cricklade, in Wiltshire. Neither is it 
probable that Thames-head, an appellation by 
which the source has been usually distinguished, 
should give rise to a river of the name of Isis ; 
which river, after having run half its course, should 
re-assume the name of Thames, the appellation of 
its present spring. 

About a mile below the source of the river is the 
first corn-mill, which is called Kemble Mill. Here 
the river may properly be said to^ form a constant 
current; which, though not more than nine feet 
wide in the summer, yet in the winter becomes such 
a torrent, as to overflow the meadows for many 
miles around. But in summer Thames-head is so 
dry as to appear nothing but a large dell, inter- 
spersed with stones and weeds. 

From Somerford the stream winds to Cricklade, 
where it unites with many . other rivulets. Ap- 
proaching Kemsford, it again enters its native 
county, dividing it from Berkshire, at Ingleshem. 
It widens considerably in its way to Lechlade ; and 
being there joined by the Lech and Coin, at the 
distance of one hundred and thirty-eight miles from 
}!^ndou, it becomes navigable for vessels of ninety 

At Ensham, in its course north*east to Oxford, 
js the first stone bridge; a han<lsome one, of three 
grebes, built by the Earl of Abingdon. Passing the 


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ruins of Godstow nunnery, celebrated as the place 
of interment of Fair Rosamond, the river reaches 
Oxford, in whose academic groves its poetical name 
of Isis has been so often invoked. Being there 
joined by the Charwell, it proceeds south-east to 
Abingdon, and thence to Dorchester, where it re- 
ceives the Thame. Continuing its course south- 
east, by Wallingford, to Heading, and forming 
a boundary to the counties of Berks, Bucks, Surrey, 
Middlesex, Essex, and Kent, it washes the towns 
of Henley, Marlow, Maidenhead, Windsor, Eton^ 
Egham, Staines, Laleham, Chertsey, Weybridge, 
Siiepperton, Walton, Sunbury, East and W>st Moul- 
sey, Hampton, Thames Ditton, Kingston, Ted- 
dington, Twickenham, Richmond, Isle worth, Brent- 
ford, Mortlake, Barnes, Chiswick, Hammersmith, 
Fulbam, Putney, Wandsworth, Battersea, Chelsea, 
and Lambeth. Below these, on the north bank, are 
Westminster and London; and on the opposite 
side, Southwark, forming, together, one continued 
city, extending to Limehouse and Deptford. From 
hence the river proceeds by Greenwich, Blackwall, 
Woolwich, Erith, Purfleet, GraysThurrock, North- 
fleet, Gravesend, and Leigh, into the ocean ; and 
in this couise, from Dorchester, receives the rivers 
Kennet, Loddon, Wey, Coin, Mole, Brent, Wandle, 
Lea, Roding, Daren t, and Med way. 

Though the Thames is said to be navigable one 
hundred and thirty-eight miles above the bridge^ 
yet there are so many shallows, that in summer, 
when the springs are low, the navigation westward 
would be entirely stopped, were it not for a number 
of locks. But these are attended with a considera- 
ble expense; for a barge from Lechhule to London 
pays, for passing through them, thirteen pounds 
fitteen shillings and six pence; and from Oxford to 


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London* twdve pounds eighteen shillings. This 
charge, howevei-^ is in sumnier only, when the wa- 
iter is Jow; »d there is no lock bet^veen London- 
bridge and Bolter's Lock, a distance of fifty-one 
mi 1^8 an<I a half. 

The plan of new cuts has been adopted in some 
places, to shorten and facilitate the navigation. 
There is one near Lechlade, which runs nearly pa- 
rallel to the old river, and contiguous to St. John's 
Bridge; and there is another, a mile from Abing- 
don, which has rendered the old stream, towards 
Culbam-bridge, useless. 

But however advantageous to the navigation of 
the Thames these cuts may be, they yield infi- 
nitely, in importance, to the communications made 
lately between it, the Severn, the Trent, and the 

A canal had b^^en made, in 1730, From the Se- 
vern to Wall-bridge, near Stroud. A new canal now 
ascends by Stroud, through the vale of Chalford, 
to the height of three hundred and forty-three feet, 
by me^ns of twenty-eight locks; and thence to the 
entrance of the tunnel, near Sapperton, a distance 
of nearly eight miles, the canal is forty-two feet in 
width at the top, and thirty at the bottom. The 
tunnel, which passes under Sapperton-hill, and that 
part of Earl Bathurst's grounds, called Haley-wood, 
a distance of two miles an^ tliree furlongs, is fifteen 
feet in width, and navigable with barges of seventy 
tons. Descending hence by fourteen locks, the 
canal joins the Thames at L-ecblade, the level of 
which is one hundred and thirty-four feet below 
the tunnel, and the distance upwards of twenty 
miles. The whole extent of this vast undertaking 
is more than thirty miles, and the expense of it ex- 
ceeded the sum of two hundred thousand pounds. 
This canal was completed in 1789. 

A similar 

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A similar comtnunicatioa with the northern and 
eastern parts of the island has been effected by 
means of the grand junction canal, extending from 
the Thames at Brentford, to a canal which unites 
the Trent and Mersey, with which it communicates 
at Braunston ; and a branch from this canal has 
been lately opened from BulFs- bridge to Padding- 

To enumerate the many advantages which ne- 
cessarily result from the^e artificial navigations be- 
tween the metropolis and the ports of Bristol, Li- 
verpool, Hull, &c. as well as the principal manufac- 
turing towns in the inland parts of the kingdom, 
would extend this digression from the immediate 
subject in question too far: it will, therefore, be 
sufficient to observe here, that as the promoting of 
commerce is the principal intention in making ca- 
nals, their frequency in a nation must bear a pro- 
portion to the trade carried on in it. 

It is worthy of observation, that the idea of a 
junction between the principal rivers of England 
had struck several of our p6ets long before it was 
carried into effect. Pope mentions that of the 
Thames and Severn, in one of his letters to Lord 
Digby, dated in 17SS; and, in his poem of the 
Fleece, Dyer says, 

" Trent and Severn'g wave 
By plains alone disparted, woo to join 
Majestic Thames. With their silver urjis 
The nimble footed Naiads of the springs 
Await, upon the deW^ lawn, to spesd 
And celebratis the noioiu" 

With respect to the ancient state of the Thames, 
it has been already observed (Vol. I. p. 7.) that 
the Romans recovered the low lands abourt St. 
GeorgeVfields, by drains and emlntnkoients : their 


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labours, however, were not confined to that spot 
only, but extended on one side or the other, ac- 
cording to the nature of the soil, from Richmond 
to the mouth of the river* Mr. Whitaker, whose 
acquaintance with the ancient state of London is 
inferior to none, is of opinion, that, when the Ro- 
mans settled at London, the waters of the Thames 
roamed over all the low ground from above Wands- 
worth to "Woolwich, Dartford, Gravesend, and 
Sheerness, on the south side, and from Poplar and 
the Isle of Dogs, over the levels of Essex, to the 
sea, on the north side. He says (Gentleman s Mag. 
Aug. 1787), *'The spirit of Roman refinement 
would naturally be attracted by the marshes imme- 
diately under its eye, and would as naturally exert 
itself to recover them from the waters. The low 
grounds of St. George^s-fields, particularly, would 
soon catch the eye, and sopn feel the hand, of the 
improving Romans. And from those grounds, the 
spirit of embankment would gradually go on along 
both the sides of the river ; and, in nearly four 
centuries of the Roman residence here, would erect 
those thick and strong ramparts against the tide, 
which are so very remarkable along the Essex side 
of the river, and a breach in which, at Dagenham, 
was with so much diflSculty, and at so great an ex- 
pense, closed even in our own age. 

** Such works are plainly the production of a re- 
fined period. They are therefore the production 
either of these later ages of refinement, or of 
some period of equal refinement in antiquity. Yet 
they have not been formed in any period to which 
pur records reach. Their existence is antecedent to 
all our records. They are the operation of a re- 
moter age.. And then they can be ascribed only to 
the Romans, who began an aera of refinement in 
this island, that was terminated by the Saxons, and 


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loSdok and its Ei^ynioKs. 185 

that did not return till three or four centuries 

** But let me conjfirm my reasoning with a few 
facts. It is well known, that a dispute was formerly 
maintained between Dr. Gale and others, concern* 
ing the real position of the Roman London, whe- 
ther it was on the northern or on the southern side 
of the river. The dispute was a very frivolous one, 
London undoubtedly .was then, as it is now, upon 
the northern ; but I mean to turn the dispute into 
its right channel. And I can demonstrate, I thin^i 
the embankment of the Thames to be a Work of the 
Aomans, from some incidents that came out in the 
course of it. 

*' It can hardly be supposed," says an antagonist 
of Dr. Gale's, who has considered the ground more 
attentively than any other author^ " that the saga- 
cious Romans would have made choice of so noi'» 
some a place for a station, as St George's-fietds 
must then have been. For, to me, it is evident, 
that, at that time, those fields must have beeh 
overflowed by every spring-tide. For, notwith- 
standing the river's being at present confined by 
artificial banks; I have frequently, at spring-tides, 
jscen the small current of water, which issues from 
the river Thames through a common^sewer, at th^ 
Falcon, not only fill all the neighbouring dutches, 
but also, at the upper-end of Gravel-lane, overflow 
its banks into St. George's-fields. And considering 
that above a twelfth part of the water of the river 
is denied passage, when the tide sets up the river, 
by the piers aud starlings of London-bridge (it 
flowing, at an ordinary spring-tide, upwaras of 
nineteen inches higher on the east, than on the west 
side of the said bridge): I think this is a plain indi* 
cation, that, before the Thames was confined by 
banks, St. GeorgeVfields thwi have been coMi- 
voL. ui. B b derably 

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deiiably under water, every bigli tide; and that 
part of the said fields, called Lambeth-marsh, was 
under water not an age ago. And, upon observa- 
tion, it will still appear, that, before the exclusion 
of the river, it must have beep overflowed by most 
neap- tides." Alaitland'^ History of Londotiy p. 8, 
** This gives us sufficient evidences, that, natu^r 
rally and originally,- the large level, which we de- 
ponunaleSt/George's-fieldSj was, previously to the 
embankment of the Thames, all covered with the 
^eadipg waters of the tide, at every spring.. Yet, 
this very strand of the sea appears to have been ac- 
tually -used, by the Rouians. The Romans had 
houses upon it ; the Romans had buryingvgrounds 
within iti . * In^JiVs Campis quos Saucti Georgii 
pltbs voicat/ says Dil G>ale, for another purpose, 
*,raulta Rpmanorum .numismata, opera tesselata,* 
the tiue floors of. Rom^^n parlours, • lateres, et ru- 
dera,^ubind^ rieprebensa sunt. . Ipse urnam niajus- 
pulam, pssibys r^fertam, tjupeii redemi a fossoribus^ 
fjyi,: non proCfPl ab-.h^c Burgo/ Soutlnvark, * a4 
AuMri)m, niutto^i alios simul eruerunt;' ^ntonini 
ftin, p..65t 

^' ^'iThis^rgumentfriay be pursued still further, car- 
ried. oyijr the very site of Southward itself, and ex-* 
tended, :up Jo J)epti;or4, and Blackhealh beyond^ 
All tbeK'^are.a part of the original marshes of the 
Thames, Sputhwark even stands upon what is. pro- 
perly a part of St. Gporge's-fjelds. -YctSouthwarc 
ift^expre$sly mentiojjpd go e^arly as 1053, and began, 
T4ndoubted[ly, rWith the bridge, which is noticed so 
early as 10l§. . Artd,:as Dr. Woodward remarks, in 
Opposition to Dr. Gale's discoveries in St. George a- 
Ijelds^ ''There have been other like antiquities dis- 
covered, from that place onwards, for sonie m\les 
^a^tward, n^ar the.Lock, in the gardens along the 
spwlfhsidgof Dep,tford-rpad) aUttle beyond Deptford, 
.: .2 oix 

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LOilDOlsr A!fD Its lENVIROItS. 187 

on Blackheath, &c. — Thav6 now in my Custody the 
hand of an ancient Terminus, with two faces. — 
There were found along with it large flaf bricks, and 
other antiquities, that were unquestionably Roman. 
All these were retrieved about twenty years since, in 
digging in Mr. Cole's gardens, by the (Deptford) 
road mentioned above. I have seen, likewise, a sim- 
pulum, that was digged up near New-cross, And 
there were, several years ago, discovered two urns, 
and five or six of those viols, that are usually called 
Lachrymatories, a little beyond Deptford. Nay, 
there hath been, very lately, a great number of urns> 
and other things, discovered on Blackheath." 

" These are decisive evidences, that tlie wonder- 
ful work of embanking the river was projected and 
executed by the Romans. It was the natural opera- 
tion of that magnificent spirit, which intersected 
the surface of the earth with so many raised ram- 
parts for roads. The Romans first began it in St. 
GeorgeVfields, probably. They then continued it 
along the adjoining, and equally shallow, marshes 
of the river. And they finally consummated it, I 
apprehend, in constructing the grand sea-wall along 
the deep fens of Essex. 

'* To what I have thus said, I can add only one 
thing more. There is, I remember, in. Wren's Pa- 
rentalia, a passage upon this very subject, contain- 
ing the opinion of Sir Christopher Wren respecting 
it. There, Sir Christopher, if I remember right, 
extends the overflow of the tide considerably more 
into the land than I have done. But he attributes 
the embankment, as I do, to the Romans; though 
he has not appealed to that striking demonstration 
of the opinion, the British state of St. GeorjgeV 
fieids, &c. contrasted with the Roman condition of 


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It is not in the power of language to describe 
the beauties which adorn the banks of this noble 
river, between London and Windsor. The numerous 
yillageSi and magnificent mansions of the nobility 
and gentry, with the luxuriant prospect of the sur- 
rounding country, impress the mind of a beholder 
with a scene more easily conceived than expressed ; 
and a stranger would be equally surprised tp see, 
not only the prodigious number of barges and boats 
continually in motion above London, but also the 
amazing fleets that constantly lie below it, for an 
extent of several miles. 

It is to its situation on this river that London 
is, in a great measure, indebted for its affluence, its 
harbour being of such extent, that it can contain a 
greater quantity of shipping than any other harbour 
in Europe, while its distance from the sea is not 
only a security against the attacks of an enemy, 
but a shelter from the tempests, which more ex- 
posed anchorages are liable to. It was with a iriew 
to these advantages, and tfie consequent influx of 
commerce and wealth, that, when, in one of h\» 
capricious moods, James L threatened an alderman 
of London with removing the seat of royalty, the 
parliament, &c. from the capital, the citizen replied, 
'* Your majesty will, at least, be graciously pleased 
to leave us the river Thames." 

If, with these natural advantages alone, the 
Thames was of such importance to London, how 
greatly must its value be increased by the modern 
improvements in it The vast increase of trade in 
the port of London, required additional conveni* 
ences for loading and unloading vessels; and hence 
the various extensive docks which have been lately 
constructed on the north bank of the Thames were 


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xjokdok and its environs. 189 

Those appropriated for the use of the West India 
trade are wholly on the Isle of Dogs. The northern 
one is for receiving loaded vessels inv^ards : it co- 
vers an extent of thirty acres, and can accommodate 
from two to three hundred ships, such as are used 
in that trade, at one time. The southern one, 
which is appropriated to loading vessels outwards, 
occupies only a space of twenty-four acres. The 
openings into these docks are at Blackwall and 
l^imehouse, and there is an extensive range of 
warehouses all round them, for storing West India 
produce ; the whole of which must now be landed 

South from these docks, and in a line parallel to 
them, is a canal across the Isle of Dogs, by which 
ships are enabled to avoid a very circuitous pas- 
sage round that peninsula, in their passage up and 
down the river, on payment of a small sum, in 
proportion to their bulk. 

The London or Wapping Docks occupy a space 
of ground, extending, in a line with RatclifFe- 
highway, from Shadwell id Old Gravel-lane, and 
communicating with the Thames, at the Hermitage, 
Wapping Old Stairs, and* Shadwell. The largest 
and westernmost dock is capable of receiving five 
hundred ships, and between it and the Thames at 
Wapping, is a smaller dock for holding small craft, 
and a bason for the same purpose, communicating 
with the river at the Hermitage. The easternmost 
dock, which is not yet completed, is to be named 
Shadwell Dock, and will also be provided with an 
outer bason. These docks will also be surrounded 
with warehouses. 

The jurisdiction of the lord mayor and corpora- 
tion ot London, over the Thames, extends from 
Coln^ditch, above Staines-bridgc, in the west, to 
Yeulet, or, as it is called in old deeds, Yen land 


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190 ttlStORY ANtt SURVEY d** 

versus mare, in the east, and includes part of thtf 
rivers Lea and Med way. And not only the watet 
of the Thames, with the fish therein, belongs to 
the city, but also the soil and ground of it, as ap- 
pears from the following memorandum found among 
the manuscripts of Burleigh, lord treasurer in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth. *^ Also, for proof of the 
prince's interest in rivers flowing from the sea, the 
Thames, and conservation thereof, was not only given 
to the city of London, but, by their special suit, the 
king gave therewithal the ground and soil under the 
same : whereupon, if any that hath a house or land 
adjoining, do make a strand, stairs, or such like, 
they pay, forthwith, a rent to the city of London, 
how high soever they be above the low-water 

The lord mayor has a deputy, or substitute, called 
the water-bailiff, whose office is to search for, and 
punish such offenders as may be found infringing 
the laws made for the preservation of the river. He 
also holds four courts of conservancy yearly, in the 
four counties of Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, and Kent, 
and impannels a jury of each county, to make in- 
quisition of all offence^ committed on the said 
river, in order to proceed against those who may 
be found offending. 

These privileges of the city, on the river, have 
been repeatedly confirmed, as well by letters pa- 
tent and charters, as by acts of parliament, and de- 
cisions of courts of justice. 

The bed of this fine river is either gravelly or 
clayey, according to the nature of che soil through 
which it flows, and it produces, in different parts 
of its course, every species of fish found in the 
other rivers of Britain, except four, viz. the Bur- 
bot, the Loach, the Spiny Loach, and the Samlet. 

The account of the Thames cannot be better 


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closed than with Sir John Denham's most admira^r 
ble description of this river, which, for justness of 
sentiment, and elegance of language, has nevei' 
been excelled, ^>d possibly never equalled, 

My eye descending from the hill, surveys 
Where Thames among the wanton valjeys dtrays; 
Thames, the most lov'd of all the Ocean's souS| 
By his old sire, to his embraces runs. 
Hasting to pay his tribute to the sea. 
Like mortal life to meet eternity. 
Tho' with those streams he no resemblance hold. 
Whose foam is amber, and their gravel gold ; 
His genuine and less guilty wealth t' explore. 
Search not his bottom, but survey his shore } 
O'er which he l^indly spreads his spacious wing. 
And hatches plenty for th' ensuing spring. 
Nor then destroys it with too fond a stay. 
Like mothers which their infants overlay ; 
Nor with a sudden and impetuous wave. 
Like profuse kings, resumes the wealth he gaye* 
IsTo unexpected inundations spoil 
The mower's hopes, nor mock the plowman's toil : 
But, godlike, his unwearied bounty flows ; 
First loves to do» then loves the gcxxl he does. 
Nor are his blessfugs to his banks confin'd, 
But free and comnioi> as the sea or wind ; 
When he to boast, or to disperse his stores 
Fall .of the tributes of his grateful shores 
Visits the world, and in his flying tow'rs 
Brings home to us, and makes both Indies ours; 
Finds wealth where 'tis, bestows it where it wants, 
Cities in deserts, woods in cities plants. 
80 that, to us, no thing, no place is strange, 
While his fair bosom is the world's exchange* 

O, could 1 flow like thee, and make thy stream 
My great example, as it is my theme ! 
Tho' deep, yet clear, tho' gentle, yet not dull. 
Strong without rage, without o'erflowing full : 
Heaven her Eridanus no more shall boast, 
Whose fame in thine, like lesser currents lost* 

The communication between the opposite shore* 
pf theXbam^Si at London, is maintained by means 


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of three stone bridges, a description of which is 

The oldest is London-bridge, which was origi- 
nally built of wood, but at what period is not 
known ; though it must have been prior to the 
year 1016, when the passage of Canute's fleet up 
the Thames, being obstructed by the bridge, he 
caused a canal to be made round the south end of 
it, for conveying his vessels further up the river; 
and subsequent to 993, when Anlaf, the Dane, 
sailed up the Thames as far as Staines, with ninety- 
three ships, and ravaged the country on both 

On this subject Stow, in his Survey of London, 
quotes the authority of Bartholomew Linsted, alias 
iowle, the last prior of St. Mary Overies church, 
Southwarkj in the following words: ** A ferric be- 
ing kept in the place where now the bridge is builded. 
Bit length, the ferriman and his wife deceasing, left 
the same ferric to their only daughter, a maiden, 
named Marie, which, with the goods left by her 
parents, as also with tlie profits arising of the said 
ferrie, builded a house of sisters, in a place where 
now standeth the east part of St. Mary Overies 
church, above the queere, where she was buried; 
unto the which house she gave the oversight and 
profits of the fierrie: but afterwards, the said house 
of sisters being converted iqto a college of priests, 
the priests builded the bridge of timber, as all other 
the great bridges of this land were, and, from time 
to time, kept the same in good reparations; till, at 
length, considering the great charges of repairing 
the same, there was, by ayd of the citizens of Lon- 
don, and others, a bridge builded with arches of 

More modern writers, however, discredit this 
account of the foundation of London^bridge, and 


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tven affect 'ta doubt the existence of a religious 
house in South wark, so early as the Conquest; but 
a confirmation of this fact is to be found in an ex- 
tract from Domesday-book, inserted in Bishop 
Tanner's Notitia Ecclesiastica, which runs thus^ 
" Sudrie Terra Episc. Baiocencis. Ipse Episcopus 
habet in Sudmerche unum Monasterium^ etc/* 
whence it is clear, that a monastery did exist there 

This wooden bridge was, in a great measure, de* 
stroyed by fire, in the year 1136, and, notwith^ 
standing the reparations then made, it was in so. 
ruinous a condition, in the year 11 63, that it was 
thought necessary to build a bridge of stone ; the 
superin tendance of which was given to Peter, th« 
curate or minister of St. Mary Golechurch, who 
^as then a person of the highest reputation for his 
skill in architecture. 

The ancient wooden bridge abutted on Botolph's 
vharf, but the new bridge of stone was orderedi to 
be built a little farther to the westward ; and a tax 
upon wool having been granted, towards defray* 
ing the expense of this great undertaking, a vuU 
gar error arose from that circumstance, that the 
bridge was built upon woolpacks. 

It appears from undoubted authority, that, either 
through death, or the infirmities attendant on a 
very advanced age, Peter, the curate of Golechurch^ 
^vas prevented from finishing the great work he had. 
undertaken ; for, among the records in the Tower 
of London, there is a letter, dated in the third year 
of the reign of King John, in which that monarch 
recommends to the mayor and citizens of London, 
one Isenbert, as a proper person to complete the 
said bridge. 

Notwithstanding this royal recommendation of 
Isenbert, it doesvnot appear that the citizens ac- 

voi^ III, c c cepted 

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194 mStMT AND fiJOftYEV 0V 

cepteci bis services, in the vcboitdiDg'tlieir brie _ 
ibr none of our historiasis make memlaom, of baD 
tb« architeel, and it i» well kiio\vn^ thai aftes 
fWer of rolecbnpeh, the caw ol this^ wotk was 
coa»tnkt««) to Serte Mercer, WiXian Afaaaine^ 
Benedict Botewrite, metchdnts of London, 
%vho$e i«spectiou the fip9t stone bridge lias 
fiettd m the yea^ ]a09* 

While Peter of Colechurch had the svpcfintead* 
ance of the work, he, ait hi» own expense, erected a 
chapet on the ea»t side oC the ninth pier from tho^ 
north end, and endowed it lor two prie^ four 
clerks, &e. This ehapel,. which wa& dedicated t» 
St. TtKHnas, wa& a beautifut aixrhed Gothic afemcy 
tore, sixty-five feet liong, twenty fiset and a lutf 
broad, and fourteen* in heigl^ It was paved inth» 
jMack and white^ marMe, and m the middle was a 
sepulchral monnment^ under which it was sop*^ 
posed Peter of Coleclvuich was bariedi. Clusters of 
sraall pilLirs arose at e^ual distances- on the sides,, 
and beiMiing over the roof, met in the center of the 
arch, where they were bound together by kcge 
flowers eut in the saufie stone : between these pillnra 
were the windows, which were arched^ and afSoided 
a view of the Thames on each side. It had aa en-» 
trance from the rivep, as well as from, the stiset, 
fit)H> which last there wa^ a descent- by a fliglMs of 
scone steps winding round a pillar. This venoraUe 
edi^ce remained nearly in its original fbrm tttt the 
total demolition of the houses on the bridge, above 
fifty years ago, at which time it belonged ta tha 
occupiers of ^a dwelling-house evecDed above it^ by 
whom it had beeu converted into a warehouse. 

In the, year 1280, this bridge hadi from varioua 
accidents, become so ruinous, that £dwaixl K 
granted a brief to the keeper of it to solicit the 
assiistance of his subjects throughout the kingdom^ 


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towaidB r€]Niiriiig it; besides which, he caused let- 
ten to be cifCHlated to the clergy of all degrees, 
earnestly pccssing titem to contrilnite to so lauda- 
hie ^ work ; biitthfis method of raisiug money not 
pfuiriog sufficient to defray the expenses, his ma- 
jesty, ia the year ibliowing. granted his letters pa- 
leot for takii2g a toll^ to be applied to that pur- 

While these affairs were iu agjtatioo, tire ruin of 
tlie bridge waa completed, by five of the arches 
being totally carried away by the ice and floods, 
after a aevem frost and deep Siiow^ in the ^near 

Thet€ afe no lartlier records of the state of this 
bridge^ until the year I486, when a drawbridge, 
which at first had a tower on tlie north side, and 
was 80 omCrived as to permit the passage of siitps 
loaded with fH^ovisions to Queen hitlie, as well as to 
resist the attempts of an enerny^ was begun to be 
built. But about ten years after, two of the arches 
at the south end, together with the Bridge-gate, 
fell down, and, the ruins being suffered to remain, 
OM of the locksi or passages for the water, was al- 
most rendered useless ; whence it received the name 
of the liock-locki and it is frequently taken for a 
natural rock* 

From that ttmf, the buildings on the bridge in- 
creased slowly; for, in 147.I9 when the Bastard 
Fauoonbfidge besieged it, there were no more than 
thirteen houses, besides the gate, and a few other 
buildings erected upon it. 

In Stow's time, however, both stde^ were built 
up, and it had the appearance of a regular sU^^ 
there being only tliree openings, secured with stone 
walls and iron rails, to afford a prospect up an<l 
down the river. Tliese were over three of the widest 
arches, usually called the navigable locks* 


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This was the state of the bridge till the year 
1632 ; in which year, on the isth of February, a 
dreadful fire broke out at a needle*inaker*s, near 
St Magnus's church, which burnt down two and 
forty houses on the bridge ; an accident, which 
was, in a great degree, owing to a scarcity of wa^ 
ter, the Thames being almost frozen over at the 

The bridge remained in this ruinous condition 
for several years, owing to the confusion of the 
state, which interrupted the peace and government 
of the city, and put a stop to all improvements ; 
but at length, in the years 1645 and 1646^ several 
houses, on the north side of the bridge, were 
rebuilt with timber^ in a strong and handsome 

The bridge had not entirely recovered from its 
ruinous condition, when it again sufiered jn the 
general conflagration of the city, in 1666; by 
which all the buildings, except a few at the south 
end, erected at the first building of the bridge, 
were totally consumed, and the stone work received 
$o much damage, that it cost fifteen hundred pounds 
to repair it. 

This was no sooner accomplished> than a suffi- 
cient number of tenants ofiered to take building 
leases tor sixty-one years, and ^ build in a pre- 
scribed manner ; which proposal being agreed to, 
the whole of the north end was covered with houses 
four stories high, with a street twenty feet wide be- 
tween, in less than five years ; after which, the old 
buildings at the south epd were rebuilt in the same 
manner. " 

At length, the city became sensible of the incon- 
venience of not having a footway, which had occa- 
sioned the loss of many lives, from the number of 
carriages continually passing; and the buildint; 


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leases being expired, a plan was projected for re- 
building the street, with a colonnade on each side, 
by which foot-passengers might pass in security, 
and be also sheltered from the weather; and this 
was partly carried into execution at the north-east 

In the year 1746, however, the lord mayor, al- 
dermen, an.d common-council, considering the many 
liTes that were lost through the narrowness of the 
arche^ and the enormous size of the starlings; 
which took up one fourth of the \rater-way, and 
occasioned the fall, at low water, to be no less than 
£ve feet, as well as the great expense of repairing 
the bridge^ which for several years had amounted 
to two uiousand pounds per annum, came ta a re« 
solution to take down the houses entirely, and to 
widen one or more of the arches. 

Ap act of parliament for the above purposes be- 
ing obtained, in the year 1756, orders were imme- 
diately given for taking down the houses on both 
sides of the bridge, and a temporary wooden bridge 
was erected upon the western starlings, for the pas- 
sage of carriages as well as persons on foot, till the 
intended alterations were completed. This tempo- 
rary bridge, as has beelt already mentioned, was 
destroyed by fire, but the interruption to the com- 
munication was not of long continuance, the da- 
mage being repaired in less than three weeks. Ano- 
ther act of parliament was shortly after passed, for 
granting the city fifteen thousand pounds to- 
wards carrying on the work, which was completed 
in a short time, as it now appears; the two center 
arches of the old bridge having been thrown into 
one, for die convenience of vessels passing through. 
The length of this bridge is nine hundred and 
fifteen feet, and it is forty-five feet broad. On each 
tide is a spacious foot pavement, adorned with 
4 handsome 

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liandsofYie balustrade^ m'hich support a sirflioieiit 
number of iaoips for enlighteuiog the bricfge by 

By a survey of t\ie brklgCi made in tlie year 1 73Q^ 
it appeared, tltat tbc exterior part of tbe foumda- 
tiOD, on which the stone piers are laid, consisted of 
Jiuge piles of timber^ driven close together, on the 
top or which were laid large planks, ten inches in 
43iickne$% whereupon the bases of the stone pien 
were laid, three feet below the starlings, and nine 
fiset above the bed of the river. 

It fikewise appeared, that the lowermost h^ers 
of the original Btones were bedded in pitch, in* 
•tead of mortar, which appears to have oeea done 
with a view of preventing the water from damaging 
the work, till it was advanced above the hig^- water 
mark ; for the oHMlem niethod of building within 
a caissoon, as hath bceq. successively practised at 
llie erecting of the bridges at Westminster and 
filackfriars, was then totally unknown. 

A plan has been lately suggested for removing 
London-bridge, and supplying its place with a cast- 
iron bridge, of one arch only, with a view to the 
an^rovement of the navigation upwards: many 
well-informed persons, however, are of opinion, 
.that the inconveniences which would arise from 
permitting the water to have a more rapid course 
downwards, would more than counterbalance all 
its advantages. 

At the north end of the bridge, under the first 
.five arches, are fixed the water*works for supplying 
the city with Thames^water. These were first pro- 
jected by a Dutchman, named Morict^ in the year 
1588: they were afterwards improved by Mr^ Sero- 
cold, in the beginning of the last century, and, 
since that time, by Mn Hadley, who rendered them 
far superior to the celebrated water*engine atMarli. 


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LOmOBT AKD TXS EKnwmsi 199 

The wfaedsy wfaicii are placed under the arches^ are 
mored by the atream or the tide, and fierce the wa* 
ler into a resrnroft one kundpedand twenty fieetia 
heigfit. The quantiQr dwy raise in die cousie of 
a day, exceeds forty-six thousand hogsheads^ and 
k is conveyed tbfongh the different parts of the 
city by nieans of wooden pipes* There is a very 
accurate description of the macUnery in Desaffu* 
licr'a Mathematics. The Borough b supplied Witb 
water by similar wodcsi at the south end of the 

Tb& next in seniority is Westmznster^bridge, 
whichy thottgb notwithm the city (^ London, shalt 
be described bese^ in order to keep the whole in 
one chapter. 

An act of parliament was passed ini the yeas 173^ 
fbc bnilding a bddgeacross the Thames^ fsomNew 
Palace-yardy Westminster, to the opposite shore m 
the county of Surrey. This act. was not obtained 
without great opposition from, some of the inhabip^ 
t«its of the city of London and die Borough; omd 
ako iVom the watermen of the Thames ;. but private 
interest was obliged to give way to public advan-^ 
lage, and this great undertaking was carried intoi 
effect, under the sanctioa of the legislature* 

The ballast*men of the Trinity-liouse were em^ 
ployed t6^ open a large hole, for the foundation* of 
the first pier, to the depth of live feet under tho 
bed of the river ; and tins hein^ finished and level*" 
led at the bottom it was kept clear by a proper in** 
ciMne of strong piles. In. the mean time, a strong 
case of oak, called a caissoon, was prepared, of the 
fomv and dimensions of the intended pier in tb« 
clear : this was made water-proof, and, Imug 
brought over the place, was secured within the 


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In this wooden case the first stone' was laid oii 
the 29th of January, I7S8-9, by the then Earl of 
Pembroke. The caissoon was above the high vra* 
ter mark, and, jinking gradaally by the weight of 
the prodigious blocks of stone, the men could work 
below the level of the water, as conveniently as oa 
dry ground* Thus the middle pier was first formed, 
as were all the rest in the same manner, and, when 
finished, the sides of the caissoon being taken asun* 
der, the stone work appeared entire. 

The last stone of the bridge was laid on the 10th 
of November, 1750, by Thomas Lediard, Esq. in 
presence of several of the commissioners; and, on 
the 17th of the same month, about twelve o'clock 
at night, it was opened by a procession of several 
gentlemen of the city of Westminster, the chief ar- 
tificers of the work, and a great number of specta- 
tors, preceded by trumpets, kettle-drums, &c. 

Westminster Bridge is universally allowed to be 
one of the finest in the world. .It was built by Mr. 
Labelye, a Swiss architect, and consists of thirteen 
semi-circular arches, besides a very small one at 
^ each end. The ascent to it is very easy, and there 
IS a semi-octangular recess over every pier, with 
benches in them, for the accommodation of passen- 
gers. Twelve of them are covered over head with 
semi-domes, viz. the two middle and two extreme 
ones on each side. These recesses are supported by 
solid buttresses rising from the foundations, which 
form the angular extremities of the piers below. 
Over the central arch are pedestals in the balus- 
trades,, intended for groups of ornamental figura, 
which were never carried into execution. The di* 
mensious of this noble structure are as follow : 


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The whole length of the bridge - • ISfiS 
Width of the center arch - - • 75 

The rest decrease regularly four feet in width 

on each side 
The width of the two small arches^ at the 

abutments, is each abbut * - SO 

Width of tlie raised footways, on each side 7 

Heighth of the balustrade within, six feet 

nine inches* 

At the sides of each abutment there are large 
flights of steps down to the river, for the embark- 

' ing and landing of goods and passengers. 

The foundation of this bridge is laid/on a solid 
and firm mass of gravel, which lies at the bottom of 
the bed of the river, but at a much greater depth 
on the Surrey than the Westminster side ; and this 
inequality of the gfround required the heights of 

• the several piers to be very different, as some have 
their foundations laid at five feet, and others at four- 
teen feet, under the bed of the riven The piers are 
all four feet wider at their foundation than at the 
top, and are founded on the bottoms of the before* 
mentioned caissoons. 

The materials of the piers are much superior to 
those commonly used on such occasions ; the in* 
side is generally filled up with chalk, small stonel) 
or rubbish ; but here, all the piers are the same 
within ns without, and consist of solid blocks of 
Portland stone, many of which are four or five tons 
weight, and none less than a ton, except the closers, 
or smaller ones, intended for fastening the others, 
one of which is placed between every four of the 
larger ones. These blocks are perfectly well wrought 
for uniting ; they are laid in Dutch terrace, and 
fanned together with iron cramps run in with 
vov^ III. V d lead 

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lead. All the iron work is, however, entirely con- 
cealed, and so situated as not to be in the least 
affected by the water. 

The soffit of every arch is turned and- built quite 
through, the same as the fronts, with large Portland 
blocks, over which is built, bounded in by the Port- 
land, another arch of Purbeck stone, four or five 
times thicker on the reins than over the key ; so 
calculated, that, by the help of this secondary arch, 
together with the incumbent load of materials, all 
the parts of every arch are in equilibrio : thus each 
arch can stand singly, without affecting or being 
affected by any of the others. Between every two 
arches there is also a drain, so contrived as to carry 
off the water and filth, M'hich in time might pene- 
trate, and accumulate, in those places, to the great 
detriment of the building. 

Though the greatest care was taken of laying 
the foundation deep in the gravel, and using every 
probable method to prevent the sinking of the 
piers, yet all this was in some degree ineffectual; 
for one of them sunk so considerably, when the 
work was near completed, as to retard the finishing 
it a considerable time. This gave the highest sa- 
tisfaction to those who had opposed the work ; but 
the commissioners immediately ordered the arch, 
on the sjde where it had been sunk, to be taken 
down, and then caused the base of the pier to be 
loaded with an incredible weight of iron cannon, 
till all tlie settlement tlmt could be forced was made. 
After this the arch was rebuilt, and has ever since 
been equally secure with the rest. 

The time this bridge took building was eleven 
years and nine months; a very short period, con*^ 
Bidering the greatness of the undertaking, the pro- 
digious quantity of stone made use of, hewn out of 
the quarry, and brought by sea, the interruptioes 


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of Winter, the damage frequently done by the ice 
to the piles and sca^bldin^, and the unavoidable 
interruptions occasioned twice a day by the tide, 
which, for two years together, reduced the time of 
labour to oniy iive hours a day. 

The whole expense of erecting this bridge 
amounted to three hundred and eighty-nine thou- 
sand five hundred pounds; a part of which was 
raised by different lotteries, and the rest granted 
by parliament. 

Between London and Westminster Bridges is 
Blackfriars Bridge, built in pursuance of an act of 
parliament passed in the beginning of the year 1756, 
by which the lord mayor, aldermen, and common- 
council were empowered to erect a bridge, and to 
levy a toll on all carriages, horses, and foot-passen- 
gers, cros^ng it, for defraying the expense. 

A committee was shortly after appointed to re- 
ceive plans and proposals for the undertaking, and 
to superintend its execution, who, after examining 
several designs, gave the preference to that pro- 
duced by Mr. Mylne; and the first pile was driven 
in the middle of the river, on the 7th of June, 

The preparations for the commencement of the 
building were carried on with such alacrity, that, 
on the 3 J St of October following, the first stone 
was laid, at the north end of the bridge, by the lord 
mayor, in presence of the bridge committee, and a 
considerable number of citizens. The ceremony 
was performed by his lordship's striking the stone 
with a mallet, the officers, at the same time, laying 
on it the city sword and mace. Several gold, sil- 
ver, and copper coins of the late king were deposited 
under the stone ; as was also a large tin plate, on 
whicli, by order of the court of common-council, 


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$04 BtsYOftY Ain> Bvnytrt or 

vas engraved a latin toscription ; of wbich the 
following is a tran^tion : 

On the last day of October, in the year IT^JO,- 

and in the beginning of the most auspicious reign of 

GEORGE the Third, 

Sir Thomas Chittt, Knight, Lord Mayor, 

laid the first stone of this Bridge, 

Undertaken by the Common- Council oi* Loodoo 

(In the height of an extensive war), 

for the pnUic accommodation, 

and ornament of the city; 

Roi^ERT My lbi k being the Architect. 

And that there may remain to posterity 

a BMinument of this city"^ aflPection to the inaa, 

who, by the strength of his geniua, 

the steadiness of his mind, ^ 

and a kind of bappy contagion of his probity and 


(under the Divine favour 

and fortunate auspices of George the Second)^ 

recovered, augmented, and secured 

The British Empire, 

in Asia, Africa, and America, 

And restored the ancient jeputatioii 

and influence of his country 

amongst the nations of Europe, 

Tlie Citizensof London haveunanimously voted this 

Bridge to be inscribed with the name of 


This bridge, which was completed in the year 
1769, is a very convenient and majestic structure. 
It is all of stone, and consists of nine arches, 
which being elliptical, the apertures for navigation 
are large, while the bridge itself, when viewed from 


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LOKBOJi JkMO m EKTlROlCt. £65' 

tkc mnUr^ zffeax^ rety low. The dimenamis €>f it 
^re as follow : 

Ft, In. 
Length of the bridge from wh^rf to wharf 99^ 
Widtli of the central arch - - 100 

Width of the arches on each side, reckon- 1 ^ 


ing from the central oijc$ towaucd* the > ?- 
shores . - - .J yj 

Width of the carriage-way • « SS 

Width of the raided foot- ways cm each side 7 
Heighth of the balustrade on the inside «- 4 10 

Over each pier of the bridge is a recess, or bal* 
cony, supported below by two Ionic pillars, and 
two pilasters, which stand on a semi-circular pro- 
jection of the pier, above high-water mark. These 
pillars give an agreeable lightness to the appearance 
of the bridge on either side. The bridge spreads 
open at the extremities, the footways rounding off 
on each side, by which an agreeable and useful ac- 
cess is formed on the approach of it At each end 
are two flights of stone steps, defended by iron 
rails^ for the conveniency of taking water. 

The wooden frames on which the arches of this 
bridge were turned, were very ingeniously contrived 
for strength and lightness, allowing a free passage 
for boats under them while standing. A curious 
model of one of the arches of Blackfriars-bridge, in 
mahogany, showing the construction of the wood 
work Bnder it, with the foundations of the piers 
below, is preserved in the British Museum. 

Though the general construction of this bridge 
merits great praise, it must be remarked, that the 
inconvenient height of the balustrades prevents the 
foot-passenger from having any prospect of the 
river, either through or over them. 

3 During 

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During the time employed in erecting this bridge, 
a temporary wooden one was laid over the river, 
for the accommodation of passengers, as well as for 
the sake of the toll, by which a considerable sum 
was raised while the work was carrying on, and a 
great accumulation of debt prevented. This pru- 
dent measure, with the care and attention of the 
bridge committee, in the management of the reve- 
nues arising from the toll, enabled them to pay the 
whole expense of the building in less than twenty 
years after it was finished, with a toll less than half 
what they were allowed to take by act of parlia^ 


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Of the civil Government of the City of London. — 3fa- 
gistrates.^^^Officers, — Courts. — ^Ceremonies to be ob- 
served hy the Lord Mayor y Aldermen^ and Sheriffs, on 
particular Occasions* 

No authentic documents are in existence to show 
what was the nrture of the government of London, 
during the time it was under the dominion of the 
Romans and Saxons ; and as, when it was brouglit 
under the Danish yoke, they made no otiier use of 
it but as a place of security to fly to, in case of ne- 
cessity, for shelter and defence ; tliere is, therefore, 
no probability that a regular government existed 
during that period. At length, in 886, Alfred hav- 
ing dislodged these freebooters, rebuilt the city ia 
a more magnificent manner than it had formerly 
been, and committed the government of it to 
Ethelred, Duke of Mercia, as was noticed in vol. I. 
p. 22. 

From this time to the reign of Edward the Confes- 
sor, no mention is made of tlie names or functions 
of the municipal officers, though it is evident that 
London had a government and privileges peculiar 
to itself, before the reign of the last-named king^ 
from some fragments of a charter granted by him, 
and adchessed to the portgrave, whereby all the 
ancient customs and usages were confirmed, and 
others were added. 

This title of Portgrave, or Portreve, in its more 
confined sense, belonged to an officer appointed 
by the king, whose duty it v/.cis lo collect the 


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fiOS ttXStO&T A9D SmiTEV OF 

public imposts of a commercial port; but from 
this charter,^ and that of William the Conqueror 
(vol. I, p. 43), the portreve of London appears 
to have been also at the head of its civil govern- 

After the Norman conquest, the appellatioa of 
portreve gave way to that of mayor, which is a va- 
riation of the word maire^ a derivative from the La- 
tin majar^ wherewith the chief magistrate of Rouen, 
the capital of the dukedom of Normandy, was dig- 

In the year 1813, the citizens of London ob* 
tained the privilege of choosing their own mayor, 
but with this condition, that he should be presented 
annually to the king, or, in his absence, to his jus- 
tice, to be sworn into his office. 

These, and the other elections for city officers, 
were, at first, made tumultuously, by all the citi- 
zens, without distinction ; but this giving rise to 
great disturbances, the magistrates were afterwards 
chosen by a select number, sometimes more, and 
sometimes fiewer, out of each ward ; and thb select 
number was called the commonalty. Tliis mode of 
election by delegates continued from the reign of 
Edward L or, perhaps^ earlier, to that of Edward 
IV. in whose reign the elections were made by the 
liverymen of the respective companies ; which nic« 
thod has continued ever since, and is established by 
act of parliament By virtue of this authority the 
livery assemble annually, on Michaelmas day, at 
Guildhall, for that purpose. 

Soon after thei election, the new lord mayor, ac- 
..companied by the recorder and several of the alder- 
men, is presented to the lord chancellor, as his ma- 
jesty's representative, for his approbation, without 
which the person elected has no legal audiority to 


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triMsute Itte ofllice; but this being obtained, he is, 
ott the 8tb of November, sirorti ,iTfto the office ot 
mayor, at Oirildball, and, the next day, before tht 
Barons of the Exchequer, at Westmroster. 

On the morning of the 9th of November^ being 
f!kt day on which the lord mayor elect enters tipoA 
hh office, the akiermen and sheriiis repair to his 
yetidence, from whence they attend him to Guifd"* 
hdt, in a procession fotmed by coaches, which, 
about noon, proceed to the Three-crane-stairsj 
irhere the lord mayor, aldermen,- recorder, and 
sheriffir, go on board the city barge, attended by 
several corporations of the citizens, in their for- 
malities, and stately barges, elegantly adorned with 
a great nmnber and variety of thgs and pendants; 
aitd thence proceed to Westminster, forming n 
gratid and magnificent appearance; 

The ceremony being over at Westminster, thtf 
processioir returns by water to Blackfriars-bridge^ 
whence the livery of many of the city cfompamet, 
preceded by colours and ikuds of miisic, march te 
thefr stands, which are erected on the sides of th6 
Btfcetn through which his lordship is to pass. 

Whew the lord maytwr lands at Blackn'iars, he 19 
J^cttved by the artillery company, a military body^ 
composed principally of young citieens, who take 
fhcr teed of the procession, awdare- followed by thtf 
eofffpttuy to which his lordship belongs i afler thestf 
come some others^ of the city companies, among 
irhem-, that of the Armourers- frequently attends^ 
p fec ecl e d by a person on horseback, dressed in po- 
Ifehed armour. Next march the lord mayor*s offi* 
ecrs^antfservantSj foHowed by his lordship in the 
city state-coach; and afler him come the aldermen^ 
Reorder, sheriffs, chamberlain, common-sefjeant, 
lowir*clerk, etc in their several carriages and 
splendid equipages ; and in this manner they pro-* 

i^L. jix« £ e cee<l 

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ceed to Guildhall, where an ele^nt entertainment 
is provided. The procession being over, the seve* 
ral companies repair to their respective halls, where 
they are sumptuously entertained. 

On ^1 public occasions the lord mayor is clothed^ 
according to the season, either in scarlet or purple 
robes, richly furred, with a velvet hood, and golden 
chain, or collar of S. S. with a rich jewel appendant. 
When he goes abroad in his state cdach, the mace* 
bearer sits upon a stool, in the middle, facing one 
of the windows, and the sword-bearer upon another 
stool, opposite tl^ other ; and when on foot, his 
train is supported by a page, and the mace and 
sword are carried before him. 

The principal officers belonging to the lord 
mayor, for the support of his dignity, are, the 
sword-bearer, the common hunt, common crier, 
and water-bailiff, who have all great salaries or per- 
quisites, with each the title of Esquire. He has 
also tlu-ee serjeant carvers, three Serjeants of the 
chamber, a seneant of the channel, two yeomen of 
the chamber, tour yeomen of the water-side, a yeo* 
man of the channel, an under water-bailiff, six 
young men waiters, three meal-weighers, two yeo- 
men of the wood-wharf, an officer called a foreisn 
taker, and the city marshals. There are, besides 
these, seven gentleaiens' men; as, the sword-bearer's 
man, the common hunt's two men, the common 
crier's man, and the carver's three mtn. 

Nine of the foregoing officers have liveries of 
the lord mayor, viz. the sword-bearer and his maii^ 
the three carvers, and the four yeomen of the water-* 
side. All the rest have liveries from the chamber 
of London. 

Although the office of lord mayor is elective, it 
may be said to be, in some measure, perpetua^l; 
for his power does not cettse on the death of the 


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*y Google 


king. When this circumstance happens, the lord 
mayor is the principal officer in the kingdom^ 
and takes his place accordingly in the privy-coun- 
cil, until the new king is proclaimed ; in proof of 
which, when James I. was invited to come and take 
possession of the throne of England, Robert Lee, 
the then lord mayor, signed the invitation before 
all the great officers of state and the nobility. His 
power is very considerable ; for he is not only the 
king*s representative in the civil government of 
the city, but also first commissioner of the lieu- 
tenancy, perpetual coroner, and escheator, within 
the city and liberties of London, and the Borough 
of South wark, chief justice of Oyer and Terminer 
and gaol delivery of Newgate, judge of the court 
of wardmote at the election of an alderman, conser- 
vator of the rivers Thames and Medway, perpetual 
commissioner in all affairs relating to the river Lea, 
and chief butler of the kingdom at all coronations. 
He also sits every morning at the mansion-house, 
to determine any differences that may happen 
Among the citizens, and to do the other business in- 
<;ident to his office of chief magistrate. 

Tlic person of the lord mayor is inviolable, and 
it is a high crime to assault or resist him. Thus, 
in the year 1339, in the mayoralty of Andrew Au- 
brey, he, with some of his servants, being assaulted 
in a popular tumult, headed by two persons of the 
names of Haunsart and Brewere, these two ring- 
leaders were apprehended and tried for that offence, 
at Guildhall, and, being convicted, were imme- 
diately beheaded in Cheapside. 

The title of dignity. Alderman, is of Saxon ori- 
ginal, and of the greatest honour, answering to 
that of earl ; though now it is no where to be found 
but in chartered societies. And from hence we 
may account for the reason why the aldermen and 


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CommopaUy of London were c^Utxl l^rofis afiejr 
tl)e conquest. These magietratefi are frd|)ierly tfaui^ 
subordi/iate governors of their respective wartto^ 
lioder the lord mayor^s jurisdiction ; aivd they or»^ 
ginally held their aldermanries either jby inheritance 
or purchase ; at which tini^> the ald^manries, or 
wards, changed their names as often as their gp^ 
pernors or aldermen. The oppressions, to which 
the clt&ens were subject from such a govemmea^ 
put them upon means to abolish tlve perpetuity of 
that office ; and they brought it to an annual elec« 
tion. Out that ibanner of election being attended 
with many inconveaiences, andj beconiin|^ a conti* 
pual bone of contention amongst thjs citizens^ tlM 
. parliament, in tl>e year 13^, enacted^ Tbat the al« 
dermen of London should continAie in tb^k Sfeyei^ 
offices during life, or good behaviour ; .a«4 so iistiU 
continues, though the manner of eloet^ing im MveiF 
Tal times varied. At present it is rcigui^ted by an 
^ct of parliament, passed in the year 17«i5, m4 U>f 
pei^son so ekcCed is to be returned by tbfi lord 
mayor (or other returning o^er in his stead, iM^ 
qualified to bold a court of wardmote) to the court 
of lord mayor and aldermen, by %vhom 4be peT^a 
so returned must be admitted and sw4Nm ivtft 
the o^ce of alderman, before he can act^ If ilne 
person chosen refuses to 5er>ve tte tiffice qf f^l^ 
derman, he is subject to a i\m <^^^t h^ifidfed 

Tbese high officers conatitute a second |Art nf the 
city legislature, wbcn ajssembled i<i a coiTiOjrate iciu» 
pacity, and exercise an execytii^ power in theix 
l«spective w^rds. ^U the ajdermeaa keep their 
wardmote for choosing Mard ofiicers, and ^ettimg 
the business of the ward, fov redressing grievanc^^ 
Ac. In. the management of these affairs, every aL» 
i^iman has his deputy, who is by Vun appointed 

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MlN0O)i AKD its WyiftQW. fil3 

09t tff 'tlie coixiiiioii'*ooimcU of 1ms ward; aiid» in 
iame of tbe wwds that are very large, the aldermaa 
baa two depqtiea. The aldenoea who have passed 
the dtftir ar^e juatiees of the quorum, and all the 
other alderaien are justices of the peace. 

Tlie office ^ jsheriff, or governor of the shire, or 
county, is an office of great antiquity, tniat, oui 
. attthority. The lord mayor and citizens of London 
faavie the aheri0alty of London and Middlesex, in 
fee, by charter; nnd the two sheriffis are by them 
anmally elected. If one of tbe sherifis dies, the 
other cannot act till a new one is chosen; for there 
must be two sheriffs for London, whidi is a dty 
and a coimty, tbougfa they make but one aheriff 
lor the county of Middlesex. Anycitiisen m^ be 
chosen alderman be£»ne he lias served the office of 
sheriff; but he must discharge that pffice before he 
can be lovi mayor. The aherifls are chosen on MM* 
summfiT'day, and enter into the office on MichaeU 
mas*day. It a person chosen sheriff refuses to serve, 
be pays a fine of four hundred pounds to the. city, 
and thirteen pounds sixteen shillings and eigiit* 
pence to tlie ministers of tl)e city prisons, unless lie 
sinears himself not worth fifteen thousand pounds; 
and if he serves, he is obliged to give bond to tbe 
corporation. Their business, in general, is, to col* 
lect'tbe public revenues within their jurisdictions; 
to ^tber into the exchequer all fines beloi^jng ia 
the crown ; to serve the king's writs of process; to 
attend the judges, and execute their ordefs; toinu 
pannel juiies, and to take care that all condecnned 
eriniNiais be duly punished and executed^ In par* 
ticuJar, they are to discharge tiie orders of 4be court 
of ^t^nnnoiucounci], when they have resolved to 
petition {Mirltament, or to address his majesty. They 
naTcaiko a power to make arrests, and serveexecu^ 
tJQna on the dwr Thanesr 


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The election of city officers, in common-hall^ 
as has been already mentioned, was regulated by an 
act of parliament passed in tlie year 1725, in con-* 
formity with which it is now. the custom for the 
new lord mayor, attended by the aldermen and 
fiherifis, to appear on the hustings ; when a procia* 
nation being made by the common crier, for the 
liverymen to draw near and give attention, accord- 
ing to their summons, and for all others to depart 
the hall, on pain of imprisonment, the recorder, or 
conimon-serjeant, declares to the livery the purport 
of their meeting ; after which the lord mayor and 
aldermen retire, leaving the intermediate proceed* 
ings of election to the sheriffs only. The coitimon* 
Serjeant then proposing the candidates, the sherifis 
form a judgment in whose favour the ms^rity of 
iiands appear. If a poll is demanded, it is taken b^ 
clerks under their appointment: if a scrutiny is 
demanded, it is referred to their judgment; and, 
after all, it is they who make a declaration of the 
majority to the lord mayor and aldermen. This 
being done, his lordship returns to the hustin^, 
attended as before, and, by- the mouth of the re« 
corder, or common-serjeant, declares the election 
to the common-hall ; after which, by his lordship's 
order, the court is dissolved. 

To this rule, however, there is an exception, in 
sleeting representatives to sit in parliament, as they 
do not come under the denomination' of city ofH* 
cers* These are chosen by a common-hall of the 
liverymen of London, by virtue of a writ directed 
to the sheriffs. In this case, the sherifl^ only are 
concerned, who have exclusive power to convene 
the voters, to preside at the. poll, to adjourn from 
time to time, and to make the final declaratioii. 

In the election of a lord mayor, all the aldei;men 
under ih« chair^ who have served the office of 


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sherifF, are proposed in rotation, two of which are 
to be returned by the connmon-kall to the court of 
aldermen ; and the majority of that court determine 
on which of the two the election is fallen. It has 
lieen. the usual custom of the liverymen to nomi* 
nate the t\iro senior aldermen under the chair; and 
the court of aldermen upon the like example, have 
usually elected the senior of those two into the of- 
fice. Each of them, however, have a right to dcr 
viate from this usual method; and, in c&ses where 
a particular dislike is taken to any of the aldermen, 
especially when the city is divided into parties, oa 
pcMitical disputes, the order of rotation is seldom 

in like manner, upon the election of sherifTs, all 
the aldermen who have not served that office, are 
first put up in their or^er of seniority ; notwith* 
standing which, the livery have the privilege of 
choosing whom they think proper, either out of 
that court, or of those persons, who, having been 
drank to by a lord mayor, as proper to be chosen 
to that office, are also put in nomination on Mid"* 

After the sheriffs are elected, on Midsummer- 
day, the livery chuse the chamberlain of the city, 
and other officers, such as the bridge-masters, the 
auditors of the city and bridge-house accounts, and 
the aleconners. 

The chamberlain is an officer of great trust, and, 
though elective annually, is never displaced, unless 
for some great crime. . He is the city treasurer; he 
receives all the money belonging to the corporation, 
for which he annually accounts to the proper audi? 
tors; and in his custody are all the bonds and se- 
curities taken bv the city, and the counterparts of 
thecity leases ; for which reason he gives greataecu* 
rity.for the fidelity of his conduct 


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Sid ]»«rofiy Mtr» mmmf «« 

Tiie ftcovdefy mAhj m a cowMellor e j p cileaw e il 
Id the la% is ckesen hy the levd^mayor aud alder« 
neB for their instroctloii and assistance in matters 
(^ justice and prcycee^ngs according txy law ; aed 
eontinu^ in his office dufing life. He takes place 
in alt courts, and in that of the common^cauncil* 
before any one that hath not been ntayor. He is 
one of the justices of O^ awtTermiiicr, anda jos^ 
tice of peace, for putting the laws in execution: to 
preserve the peace and governtnenft of iSie city. Hfe 
speaks in the name of the city upon all eittraordi(« 
fidry occasions ; reads and presents their addresses 
cathe king; and when seated upon the bench, deK»* 
vers the sentence of the court. He is the first officer 
iw order of preoedenee who is paid a salary, which 
originally was no more than ten poundsf per annumy 
with someperqnisites, but it hss' beenitonr titnt to 
time augmented^ to one thousand pounds* per atinnm^ 

Besides these officers of trust beitonging tsiy tl^e 
oorpomtioif, there arc the fo^llowrng, 1^12?. The 
eommon-seijeant, the town-clerk, and the city 
refnembrancer : aU of whoih are appoiftted by the 
court of common council 

The common^serjeant is to attend the lorrf mayor 
and court of aldermen on court days^ and to* bera 
council with them, on aH occasions; within or 
wi«hou« the precincts or liberties of the city. He 
is to take care of orpliaus' estates, either by taking 
attcount of them, or to sign their indentures, be^ 
fore tlieir passing tlie lord-mayor and court of 
aldermen, , H« is likewise to let, sell, and maurage 
the orphans* estates, according to bis judgment, to 
their best advantage. 

The town-clerk, or common-cleric, is an* officer 
who keeps the original charters of the city, the 
bcPoks, rolb, and other records, wherein are regis- 
tered the acts and ptoceerfings* of the city; so 


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uatboii idiB j». EK^tdQifB* jilt 

tlml he may not be imptoperly styled thexsity re« 
gister. He attends the lord-mayor Snd aldermen 
at thcin courts, in order to take down any extraor^ 
dmary proceeding that majf occur. The town 
..K and common seijeant take place according 
to seniority. 

The city remembrancer is to attend the lord- 
mayor on certain days, and to put his lordship in 
mind of the select days when he is to go abroad Mritb 
the aldermen* He invites the great officers of 
state on lord-mayor's day, and is also to attend 
daily at the parliament house, during the sessions^ 
and to i^ort to the lord^mayor such proceedings 
of the house as may a^ifect the city of London. 

The fotti^following (^cers, viz. the sword-bearer, 
eommon^hunt, common-crier, and water<*bailiff, be 
long to the lord-mayor's houshold, and are esquires 
by virtue of their places. The two first purchase 
their'Oifice^, and tlte other two are in the appoint- 
cnent of the common^counciL 

Tbe sword bearer is to attend the lord-mayor, 
af>d carry the sword before him on all public occa- 
sions. The carrying of the sword before the )ord- 
mayorbeing an lionour, be is entitled to as the re- 
presentative of his majesty, Gerard Leigh, in his 
Accidence of Armourtf, folio 94, says " That th^e 
bearer must carry it upright, the hilt being holdeli 
under his bulk, and the blade directly up the midst 
of his breast, and so forth between the sword- 
bearer's brows. This in distinction from bearing 
the 8\rord in any town for a duke, or an earl, or a 
baron. If for a duke, the blade thereof must 
lean from the head, between the neck and the right 
isho.ulder, nearer to the neck than the shoulder. 
And for an earl, tlie bearer must carry the same be- 
twe€;n the point of the shoulder and the elbow ; and 
VOL. III. F f so 

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tl8 .Hitxo&ir Avo snvrrr ot 

ao there is another diftrent bearag of the swoict 
for a baran.'^ 

The commoii bunt» whose business was fonneiiy 
to take care of the hounds belonging to the city, 
and to attend the lord-mayor and ckizens in hunt- 
ing on those grounds which they were authorized 
by different charters to flu, b now chiefly occupied 
'in attendance upon the lady mayoress, and acts as 
master of ibe ceremonies at public balls, &c* 

The common crier is to summon all executors 
and administrators of freemen to appear, and to 
• bring in inventories of the personal estates of free- 
men, within two months after the decease; and he 
is to have notice of their appraisements. Ue la 
likewise to attend the lord-mayor on set days» and 
at the courts held by the mayor, aldermen, and 
common-council ; and he carries the mace on pub- 
lic occasions. 

The water bailiff is to look after the preservation 
of the river Thames against all encroachments, 
and to prevent the fishermen from destroying the 
young fry by unlawful nets. For that end there 
are juries for each county, that hath any part of it 
lying Oft the sides or shores of the said river : which 
juries, summoned by the water bailiff at certain 
times, make enquiry of all offences relating to 
the river and the fish, and make their presentments 
accordingly. Ue is also bound to attend the lord- 
mayor on set days in the week. 

There have been various o{Mnions respecting the 
share which the commonalty of London anciently 
possessed in the government of it That the 
government by aldermen is of Saxon origin, is 
almost demonstrable by the charter of Henry I, 
(vol. I. p 60) which was granted to the city only 
tbirty-five yeai> after tbt conquest, whereby aU 


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Strangers ^re Gommaiicled to *' give custom to Bone 
but to him to whom the soke appertains/' i. e. the 
alderman, '^ or to-fais officer/' But il is equally 
evident from the same charter that tlie government 
was not vested in the aldermen exclusive of the 
commons, for the citizens are empowered to chuse 
their own sheriff and justice; wherefore it cannot 
be doubted that they coiistituted a part of the city 

In the absence of Richard L in Palestine, John, 
£arl of Moreton, his brother, attended by the 
Archbishop of Rpuen, and moat of the nohility 
and bishops, repaired to St Pauri Church Yard, 
where, being met by the tblkinote ef Loodoa, they 
unanimously agreed to degrade the Bishop qf Ely, 
Chancellor, and one of me regents, for ail tyran-^ 
nical government, (vol 1. p 7^.) 

Many other instances, as well as those eked Above, 
will be found in the former oart of the work, to 
pr^ve that the great body or the citizens were al- 
ways considered an integral part of tl^ government 
9f the city: but when by the great iocrease of the 
cidseus, chese folk motes were found to lie attended 
with great inconveniences from the numbers who 
frequented them, they were discontinued, and the 
citizenschose from among tlien\selves acertain num- 
ber out of each ward as their rq)re;»entatives ; who 
being added to the lord mayor and aldermen, con- 
stituted the courts denonuivited the common- 

At first tlie Bumber returned for each M^ard was 
only two{ but these being thought by the citizens 
insufllicient to represent their numerous body, it 
was agreed in the year 1347t that each ward 
should chuse a number of common-council-nieop 
proportionate to its extent, but none to exceed 
twelve, or be less thafi six; which has been since 


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S20 UlStOltY A^» SmrVEY OF 

increased to the present numbcrof two hundrecf 
anci thirty-six. 

The common-council are choseti after the same 
manner as the aldermen, only with this dificretice, 
that, as the lord mayor presides in: the wardmote, 
and is judge of the poll at the elcdtien of an 
alderman, so the alderman of each ward is judge 
of the poll at the election of a common-coun- 
cil- man, No act can be performed in the name 
of ihe city of Loiidon, without their concur* 
rence; but they cannot 'assemble Without a sum- 
mons from the lord n^ayor, wfabse duty it is, 
nt*vertheles», 'to cali a conimon^council, ^^Hen* 
ever it shall be demoded, ion e^ctraordinary oc- 
ca&ibn^. •» • • ' ' 

- . Thei-edre varfous cour't^ held in the city of* Lou- 
don, for the due admini^tratipn 'of justice aihoog 
the citizens} the most an cieivt of Which is''the«c&fi7Y 
pf kftstrngs^h beiftg pf Saxon otigint-Ae^^,' ih the 
Saxon 'language, 'liignitying a house, and dking^ a 
plea; or cailsef ; whence the tbrni hasting limplies a 
h'AUse of pleas. "• This'i^* a court of record, arnl'tlie 
iupreine judicitfare ofthecity of London. Ct is 
held weekly, on Tuesdays,, an d'wafrorigmaHgr esta- 
blished for the preservation of the laws, franchises^ 
and customs of the city. The judges are; the lord 
Inayorand sherrffs, who are assisted by thenscorrier 
upon all causes of'c5nsequenc6. In ibiacourt, all 
lands,' tenements, rents, and services, within the 
city of London, are pleadable, in two hustings ; the 
one called busting of a plea of land, and the Other, 
hunting of common pleas; which are held dis- 
tinctly ; for one week, pleas merely real are lield, 
and the next, mixed actions are decided : here deed^ 
itr^ Snrolled, recovcrres' past, a»d writs of right^ 
Waste, partition, dow^r, and replevins arc dcter- 

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The Lord Mayor's Court is a court of record, held 
before the lord mayor, aldennen, and recorder, 
every Tuesday, in Ouiidhall, wherein actions of 
debt, trespass, attachments, covenants, &c. arising 
within the city and liberties, of atiy value, may be 
tried, and actions from the sherins'-court may be 
removed hither, before the jury be sworn. 

This is also a court of chancery, or equity, re« 
specting affairs transacted in the city and liberties; 
and gives relief when judgment is obtained in the 
aheriffs'-court for more than a just debt. This 
court has an ofiice peculiar to itself, consisting of 
four atcornies, by whom all actions cognizable 
therein are entered, for the execution whereof there 
are six seijeants at mace, who daily attend in the 
aaid office. It is the most extensive court in the 
kingdom ; for, whatever is cognizable in any of 
the several courts of England, can be brought be« 
fore this, if the cause arises within the city of Lon- 
don* The juries for trying causes in this and the 
sheriiTs^courts, arc -chosen annually in their re- 
spective wards, and serve monthly in the following 

Months. Wards. 

January, Aldgate, Portsoken, and Cornhill, 

February, Cheap- ward. 

March, Bassishaw and Crippl^te. 

April, Vintry and Bread-street. 

May, Tower and Billingsgate. 

June, Farringdon Without^ 

July, Bridge-ward. 

August, Aldersgate, Coleman-street, and Broad- 

{September, Farringdon Within^ and Castle-Bay- 


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October, Queenliithe, Dowgate, and Waiibrook. 
November, Laiigbourn, and Lime-street 
December, Candlewick, Cordwainer, and Bishops* 

The Court of Jjord Mayor and Aldermen is acourt 
of record, wherein is lodged a great part of the 
executive power. All leases, and other instruments 
that pass the city seal, are executed^ the assize of 
bread is ascertained, contests relating to water- 
courses, lights, and party-walls, are adjusted, and 
the city officers suspended and punished according 
to the notoriety of their several offences, in this 
court. It has also the power of appointing many 
of the city officers, such as the recorder, the justice 
of the bridge-yard, the steward of South wark, the 
clerks to the lord mayor and the sitting aldermen, 
the keepers of the different prisons, and some 
others of inferior note : and no person can be ad- 
mitted to the free<lom of the city by purchase^ or 
without serving a regular apprenticeship, unless by 
an order obtained from this court. 

Tke Court of Common-council consists of the lortl 
mayor, aldermen, and representatives of the several 
wards, who assemble in Guildhall as often as the 
lord. mayor, by his summons, thinks proper to con- 
vene them ; and their general business is to make* 
laws for the due government of the rity. Out of 
this body are chosen the various committees for 
inahaging all the concerns of the corporation ; but 
it is a standing order of the court, that no commoner 
be eligible to serve on more than four committees. 
Tiiis court has the appointment of the common-ser- 
jeant, the town-cleik, the judges of the sheriffs' 
courts, the comptroller, the remembrancer, the 
solicitor^ the common-crier, the bailiff of South- 


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vark» the comptroller of the bridge*house, the water- 
bailiff, and most of the subordinate officers. 

TheSheriffy Courts arc courts ofrecofcl, held at 
Guildhall, every Wednesday and Friday, for actions 
entered at Giltspur street Compter; and on Thurs- 
days and Saturdays, for those entered at the Poultry 
Compter ; of which the sheriffs being judges, each 
has his assistant or deputy, who are called the judges 
of those courts; before whom are tried actions of 
debt, trespass, covenant, &c. To each of these 
courts likewise belong a secondary, a clerk of the 
papers, a prothonotary, and four clerks sitters. 
There are also sixteen serjeants at mace, for each of 
the prisons belonging to these courts. 

The Courts of IVardmote are the reliques of the 
Saxon folknu>te, from which they only differ in 
being composed of the inhabitants of a single 
ward. - They are summoned by the lord mayor, - 
and are held before the alderman of the ward, or 
bis deputy, to correct disorders, remove annoY* 
ances, and to promote the common interest, of the 
ward : but when the business of tlie court is the 
eifction of an alderman, the lord mayor pre* 
sides. In this city, parishes being as towns, and 
wards as hundreds, this court resembles that of the 
leet in the county : for, as the latter derives its au- 
thority from the county court, so does the former 
from that of the lord mayor ; as is manifest by the 
atrouai precept issued by the lord mayor to the se- 
veral aldermen, for holding their respective ward- 
motes on St Thomas's- day, for the election of pro* 
per officers in each ward. 

The Court of Conservancy is held four times a year 
before the lord* mayor, at such places and times as 
he shall appoint, within the respective counties of 
Middlesex, Essex, Kent, and Surrey ; in which se- 
veral counties he has a power of summoning juries, 


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«94 mstoftr AJiD stRVfcir ot 

who, for the better preservation of the fishery of 
the river Thames, and regulation of the fkhermen 
that fish therein^ are, upon oath, to make inquisi- 
tion of all ofiTences committed in and upon the said 
river, from Staines-bridge, in the west, to Yenfleet, 
in the east. 

Court of Requests^ or Court of Conscience. This 
court determines all disputes between citizens, where 
the debt is under five pounds. It is V)f gr6at use to 
pei-sons who have small debts owing to tfaem, which 
they could not otherwise recover without entering 
into expensive proceedings; and it is also of great 
benefit to such persons as are not able to pay their 
debts at once, as the court' can order the payment 
to be made in such portions as are suitable to the 
debtor's circumstances. The lord mayorand convt 
of aldermen appoint, monthly, such aldermen and 
commons to sit as commissioners in this* cotfrt, as 
they think fit ; any three of Whom compose a court, 
kept in Guildhall-chapel, every Wediaescjay and 
Saturday, from eleven till two o^clofck, to h^r and 
determine such cases as are brought' before them. 

The Chamberlain' s Court \s held daily, btfore the 
chamberlain, to determine differences bet\wen mas- 
ters and apprentices, to enroll and turnover the 
latter, and to admit all who are duly qualified to 
the freedom of the city. 

'TheCourt of Orphans is held, occasionally, befoFC 
"the lord mayor and aldermen, who are guardians to 
the children of all freemen, under theageof tM^nty- 
one years, at the decease of their fathers. The 
common -Serjeant of the <iity is authorised by the 
the court of aldermen to take accounts and inven- 
tories of freemen's estates ; and the youngest attor- 
ney of the mayorVcouTt, being clerk to that of the 
'orphans, is appointed .to- take securities for their 
several portions, in the name of the chamberlain of 
a London, 

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LomnoB AXD Its MMiiMoM* ii5 

LondoQ) who, for this purpose, is a sole corporatioa 
of himself, for the service of the said orphans. A 
recogniiaoce, or bond, therefore, made to htm upon 
the account of an orphan, shall, by the custom of 
London, descend to his successor. 

It is here to be observed, that a freeman's widov 
may require a third part of his personal estate, after 
all incumbrances are discharged ; his children are- 
entitled to another third part thereof; and he may 
dispose oi the remaining third part by his will. If 
he leaves no children, his widow may require a 
moiety of his personal estate. If a citizen dies with« 
out a will, aclministration shall be granted to his 
wife, who may claim one^third part, by the custom 
of London ; one^third part must be divided among 
the children; and the remaining third part between 
the wife and children: in this case, the widow is 
generally allowed two-thirds of this last third part. 

It is likewise to be observed, that, when a free^ 
tnandies, and leaves property to his children, either 
in money or estates, the executor or executors make 
application to the court of aldermen, to admit such 
property into the orphans' fund. On this applica- 
tion a wheel is brought into the court, containing 
t number of tickets, which mention the respective 
sums belonging to those %vho have arrived at full 
^g^i or whose stock has lieen sold and transferred 
to some other person. The lord mayor then dra^vs 
from the wheel as many tickets as contain the sum 
requested to be admitted by the new claimant, when 
the proprietors of the old stock have notice given 
them to receive their property in three months. 
Four per cent is allowed for the money during the 
time it continues in the fund. 

Jmtice4uUl'C0uri^ in the 01d*bailey, is held eight 
times in a year, by the king's commission of Oyer 
&nd Terminal ibr trying offenders for crimes com« 

voju III. ^ S mitted 

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mitted within the city of London and coutlty of 
Middlesex. The judges of this court are, the lord 
mayor, the aldermen past the chair, and the recorder; 
ti^I)o, on ^U such occasions, are attended by both 
the sheriffs, and, generally, by one or more of the 
national judges. The offenders, for crimes com- 
mitted in the city, are tried by a jury of citizens; 
and those committed in the county by a Middle- 
sex jury. The crimes tried in this court are, high 
and petty treason, murder, felony, forgery, petty 
larceny, burglary, &c. the penalties incurred by 
tvhich, are, the loss of life, corporal punishment, 
raising of ballast in the river Thames, transportation, 
amerciaments, &c. 

The Coroner's'^cout't is held before the lord mayor, 
who is perpetual coroner of the city, or his deputy, 
to enquire into the cause of the death of any person 
supposed to have come to an untimely end ; and 
likewise into the escape of the murderer. It is 
also the duty of the coroner to makcf inquisitio& 
respecting treasure-trove, deodands, and wrecks al 

TbeCourt ofEscheatorh also held before the lord 
mayor, he being perpetual escheator within tl>ecity, 
or his deputy ; to him all original writs of Diem 
clansit ^vtremum. Mandamus Dcoencnunt^ Melius 
inquiren^' &c. are directed to find an office for the 
king, after the death of his tenant, who held by 
knight's service. The escheator may also find an 
office for treason, felony, &c. 

To these courts may be added that called the 
PiC'-pcfwder' courts a court of record incident to 
every fair, which is held in London before the 
lord mayor and the steward, during Bartholomew- 
fair, to administer lustice between buyers and sel- 
lers, and for the redress of such disordei*s as may 
arise there, in breach of the followiug^roclamation, 


Digitized b^ 



ivhich is annually made before the lord mayor, on 
the eve of St. Bartholomew, for the better regular* 
tion of the said hir. 

" The right honourable >, lord mayor of 

the city of London, and his right worshipful bre- 
threa^ the aldermen of the said city, straightly 
eharge and command, on the behalf of our sove- 
reign lord the king, that all manner of persons, of 
whatsoever estate, degree, or condition they be, 
having recourse to this fair, keep the peace of our. 
sovereign lord the king. 

^* That no person or persons make any congre-* 
gation, conventicles, or affmys, by the which the 
same peace may be broken or disturbed, upon paia 
of imj>risoninent, and fine, to be made after the di- 
rection of the lord mayor and aldermen. 

" Also, that all manner of sellers of. wine, ale, or. 
beer, sell by measures ensealed, as by gallon, pottle, 
quart, and pint, upon pain that wilt tall thereof^ 

** And that no person shall sell any bread, except 
it keep the assize ; and that it be good and whole- 
some for man's body, upon pain^ that will follow, 

" And that no manner of cook, pie-baker, nor 
huckster, sell, or put to sale any manner of victual,* 
except it be good and wholesome for man's body^ 
upon pain that will fall thereof. 

" And that no manner of person buy, nor seH^ 
but with true weights and measures, sealed accord- 
ing to the statute in that behalf made, upon psLi% 
that will fall thereof. 

'' And that no person or persons take upon him 
or them, within this fair, to make any manner of 
arrest, attachment, summons, or execution ; except 
it be done by the officers of this city, thereunto as- 
^igned^ upon pain that wjU befal thereof. 


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*' And that no person or persons whatsoever, 
within the limits or bounds of this fair, presume to 
break the lx>rd'8-day, in selling^ showing, or offer- 
ing to sale, or in buying, or offering to buy, any 
commodities whatsoever; or in sitting, tippling, or 
drinking, in any tavern, inn, ale-honse, tippling- 
house, or cook*s-house, or in doing any other thing 
that may tend to the breach. thereof, upoi^ the pains 
and penalties contained in several acts of parlia- 
menf, which will be severely inflicted upon tlie 
breakers thereof. 

^^And, finally, that what persons soever find 
themselves grieved, injured, or wronged, by ahy 
manner of person, in this fair, that they come with 
their plaints before the stewards, in this fair, as- 
signed to bear and determine pleaa; and they will 
minister to all parties justice, according to the laws 
of the land, and customs of this city/* 

The C&urt ofHallmote is a court which is held 
Cccasionally, by each of the city companies^ in their 
respective halls, or places of meeting, for the tran&- 
;Scttons of tlie private affairs of their corporations. 

The Court of the Tower of London is a court of 
record, held by prescription, within the verge of 
the city, on Great Tower-hill, by a steward ap- 
pointed by the constable of the Tower; by whom 
are tried actions of debt, for any sum, damagCg and 

It has been customary, for many centuries,- for the 
magistrates of the city of London to appear in robes 
on all public occasions; but, anciently, the colour 
and ibrm of these seem to have been varied at plea- 
aure. In the year 1568, however, a small tract was 
published by John Day, containing the customs for 
meeting on particular days, and for wearing the 
babits; which being still observed, it is inserted 

4 here 

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bere m ft necessary addition to the histoiy of the 
civil government of the city of London. 

Up&n Midsummer^y^ for the Election of the 
Sheriffk of Lonion^ 8^c. My lord mayor and ttie 
aldericen, with the sheriflTs, meet at the Guildhall, 
at eight of the clock in the morning, apparalled 
m their violet gowns lined, and their cloaks of 
scarlet Imed, without their horses. 

And when they have been together in the coun** 
cii-chamber a certain time, concerning the nomi- 
nation of certain persons to be elected, my lord 
and the aldermen come out, and put on their 
cloaks in the orphans'-court, and then go down in 
order to the hustings^court ; and there being set, 
Mr. Recorder standeth up and maketh his obei« 
saucer first to my lord, aud then unto the com* 
mons, and declareth unto them wherefore they are 
assembled together, showing unto them that it is 
for the election of one of the sherifis of London 
and the sheriff of Middlesex lor the year next en- 
suing, and the confirmation of the other sheriff no* 
minated by my lord mayor, according to his pre* 
rogattve, and also for Mr. Chamberlain and other 
officers. Of late years, however, the election is for 
both sheriffs. 

But my lord and the aldermen go up to my 
lord's court, and there remain until the sheriff l>e 
named and chosen, the door shut to them. 

Then Mr. Sheriffs, Mr. Chamberlain, Mr. Com<^ 
iMn-Serjeant, Mr Town-Clerl^ and the counseU 
brs of the city, and other officers, remain still in 
the hastings*court to take and receive the name of 
htm that shall seem by their judgments freely and 
with one consent to be nominated and elected, and 
jostlv tried out, not only by voice, but also by 
bsod^ to be sheriff for they^ar following. 


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Then the commons go to the election of Mr. 
Chamberlain, the two bridgemastcrs, the auditors 
of the city and bridgehouse accounts, and the 
surveyors of beer and ale, according to the accus-. 
tomed manner. 

That done, the sheriffs, master chamberlain^ 
master common-serjeant, master tovn-clerk, the 
counsellors of the city, the two secondaries^ and 
the wardens of the head companies, master com- 
mon crier going before them with his nriace, carry 
up the report to my lord and the aldermen of their 
said election. 

Whieh report received, my lord and the alder* 
men come down again to the hustings-court, and 
there bein^ set in order iand placed, master re- 
corder standeth up as he did before, and maketh 
rehearsal of the names of those whom they have 
nominated and chosen, asking them be 
their free election, yea or no? And they gran^ 
Yea, yea. Then master recorder giveth them 
thanks, and so they arise and depart home. 

On St Bartholomew Even, for iht Fcnr in Smith-^ 
^eld. The ahlermcn meet my lord and the she- 
riffs, at the Guildhall chapel at two of the clock 
after dinner, in their violet gowns lined, and their 
horses, without cloaks, and there hear evening 
prayer ; which being done, they take their horses, 
and ride to Newgate, and so forth of the gate, en- 
tering into the Cloth Fair, and there make a pro- 
clamation. , The proclamation being made, they 
ride through the Cloth Fair, and so return back 
again through the church-yard of Great SL Bar- 
tholomew to Aid ersgate, and so ride home again to 
the lord mayor's house. 

On Sl Bartholometv Day for TFrestUng. So 
UKiny aldermen as do dine witfe my lord maypr 


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wd the sherifTs be apparelled in their scarkt 
gowns lined, and after dinner their horaes be 
brought to them where they dine ; and those al* 
dermen which dine with the sheriff^ ride with 
them to my lord's house, to accompany him to the 
wrestling. Tlien when the wrestling is done, they 
take their horses and ride back again through the 
fair, and so in at Aldersgate, and so home again 
to the said lord mayor's house. . 

The next day, if it be not Sunday, for the 
sbopting, as upon Bartholomew«<iay ; but if it be 
Sunday, the Monday following. . . 

For our Lady-day in Southwark.* My lord 
mayor and the sheriffs ride to St. Magnus church 
in their scarlet gowns lined, without their cloaks, 
after dinner at two of the clock,^ and there the 
aldermen meet my lord, and after the evening 
prayer they ride through the fair till they come to 
St Greorge's-church, and farther to Newington- 
bridge, or to St. Thomas of Waterings, to the 
stones that point out the liberties of the city (if it 
be so their pleasures) and they return back again 
unto the bridgehouse, and have a banquet there, 
and then over the bridge, and there the aldermen 
take their leave of my lord, and depart the next 
way every one to his house. And after all is done^ 
and my lord brought home, my lord mayor's officers 
have a supper made them by the bridge-masters. 

For the Swearing of the Sheriffs upORMichaelmaS" 
eoen. What day soever it falleth, so many of the 
aldermen as be bidden to^dinner to either of the 
sheriffs, come thither to breakfaist, or else to drink, 
at eight of the clock in the morning, in their vio- 
let gowns furred, with their violet cloaks furred, 
brought with them, without horses. And if the 
sheriff be an alderman, then they must put oh 

* Embroidered cap, pearl, sword, collar o£ SS without hood. 


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£58 filROET AK0 SU»TXY Of 

tbeir cloaks and the sheriff likewise bis cloak, and 
0<f go to the Guildhall between two of the giejr 
cloaks : and if the sherifT be no alderman, then to 
come between two of the aldermen without cloaks, 
and the sheriff in his livery gown and his bood. 
And aftet; when he is sworn, then to put on his 
violet &3ynk and cloak, and his chain thereon; and 
the aldermen must bring him home to his pUce^ 
with their cloaks, to dinner, and ao after dinner 
take their pleasure. 

Upon MkhaUmas-day^ for the Election tf n^ 
Lord Mayor. All the aldermen meet my lord and' 
the sheriffs at eight of the clock in the morning 
at Guildhall, in their scarlet gowns and their 
cloaks furred, and their horses : and after thejr 
have been a certain time together in the council- 
chamber, they come forth into the orphaas'-court 
and put on their cloaks, and so go in order to 
the chapel, there hearing service and sermon, and 
my h>rd with certain aldermen receive the com** 

And then after the communion ended, and thejr 
have offered, return again into the council-cham* 
ber, and pausing awhile, return to the place where 
the hustmgs is kept, and being set in order, 
snaster recorder ariseth up and maketh his obet-^ 
sance first to my lord, an4 after to the commons^ 
and declareth unto them, That they of old cus* 
torn know,^ that the cause of their assembly and 
meeting together is for the election of the lord 
mayor for the year ending *y declaring unto them 
divers grants from the king's progenitors for this 
their election from time to time. That done, my 
lord and the aldermen go up into my lord's cour^ 
and there tarry (the door being shut to them) till 
the election be brought to them. Then standeth 
up master common-serjeant, (the sheriffs standing 


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tOl^DOi^ AI^D Its ENVlftOKS. 233 

on either side of him, and by the sheriffs, master 
chamberlain, master town-clerk, the two seconda- 
ries, and the counsellors of the city) in the said 
hustings-court before the commons ; and he the 
said common serieant maketh a short rehearsal of 
that Mr. Recorder had spoken to them before, 
saying. There resteth no more for him to say, but 
to put them in remembrance in what order and 
sort they should use themselves in their election ; 
that is, How they must nominate and choose 
two, of the which two my lord and the aldermen 
must confirm one. Which two being nominated, 
elected and chosen, Mr. Common-Serjeant, the 
sheriffs, with the rest before-named, and certain of 
the head wardens of the chief companies, go up to 
my lord and the aldermen, and there present the 
names of those two which the commons have no- 
minated in their election. 

Then the lord mayor and the aldermen proceed 
by scrutiny to elect one of these two persons which 
the said commons had before nominated. Then 
Cometh down my lord again to the hustings-court, 
and he whom they have chosen on his left hand, 
and so my lord and the aldermen sit down again 
in order; but he who is chosen sitteth next unto 
my lord on his left hand. Then standeth Mr. Re- 
corder up, and readeth unto them the names of the 
persons whom they have nominated and chosen, 
of which my lord and the aldermen have admitted 
one, whose name is N. asking them, whether it 
be their free election, yea or no ? And the com- 
mons answer, Yea, yea. Then the sword-bearer 
taketh off his tippet, and hath it for his labour, 
and putteth on his chain, and the mayor new 
elected standeth upon the hustings-court, and 
giveth thanks, &c. That being done, the old 
mayor doth likewise give them thanks, &c. Then 

VOL. III. H h they 

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they arise up and put off their cloaks aiid my 
Iprd mayor hath the lord elect ridiug with him» 
to the eldest sherifF^s to dinuer 

For the presenting of my iMrd elect ^ to the Lord 
Chancellor (or Lord Keeper.) Then after dinner 
my lord elect goeth to ray lord-chancellor (or lord 
keeper) if he be at home at his place« or near unto 
it, with five or six of the aldermen and master re- 
corder with him, in their violet gowns, either by 
foot or by water, as the dwelling-place of the chan* 
cellor (or lord keeper) requireth. The commou 
hunt, with the extraordinary officers, and those 
that be at liberty, attend on him. 

The morrow yter MkhadmcU'day for the Sheriffs 
going to Westminster. All the aldermen must be 
at the two sheriffs houses in the morning at eight 
of the clock, in their violet gowns furred, and 
theip horses, without cloaks : but my lord, master 
recorder, and the two sheriffs must be in their scar* 
let gowns furred, and their cloaks borne to WeA* 
minster with them, and so ride to the Guildhall^ 
and from thence totheVinetree, and tber« taking 
barge, land at Westminster- bridge, and in the hall 
put on their doaksif and so go up to the exche* 
quer ; and there the two new sheriffs be presented, 
and the old sworn to their account. 

Then they put off their cloaks, and take barge,, 
landing again at the Vinetree, and there take horse, 
and my lord mayor rideth to the eldest sheriff's 
to dinner, Mr. Recorder and the sheriffs riding next 
my lord, the two sheriffs carrying two white rodsiq 
their hands, and their bench-men going after them. 

The order for Simon wdJade's-day. The old 
mayor shall have so many of the aldermen as 
dine with him, come to his . place at eight of 
the clock in the morning, in their violet gowna 
furred/ with their violet cloaks furred, and 


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hones, anil the sheriffs lo fetch him to the hall, 
and there tarry in the council-chamber until the 
new mayor comcth, and the rest of the aldermen 
come, with the company of either of the lords be-, 
Ibre them : and after they have been together a 
certain space, come forth into the orphans'-court, 
and put on their furred cloaks, and go to the hus- 
tings-court; and there being set in order, the 
common crier maketh procfamation, commanding 
every man to keep silence. 

Then Mr. Town clerk giteth him his oath; and 
when he hath taken his oath, the old lord ariseth 
and givcth the new lord his place, the old lord 
taking the new lord's place; and then Mr. Cham- 
berlain delivereth first to him the sceptre/ next the 
keys of the common seal, lastly, the seal of the 
office of the mayoralty ; after Mr. Sirord-bcarer 
giveth him the sword. Then they arise and put 
off their cloaks, and the old lord rideth home with 
the new lord to his place, and there leaveth him, 
and as many of the aldermen as dine with him. 
And the old lord, with the rest of the aldermen, 
ride to his place, the sword borne before him ; and 
so after dinner the aldermen depart home at their 

On the morrow after Shnon and Jude^s-day, for 
my lord's going to take his oath at fVestminsier.^ 
All the aldermen and the sheriflfb come to my new 
lord at ^ght of the clock, in their scarlet gowns 
furred, and their cloaks borne with them, and their 
horses, and so ride to the Guildhall, and the bache- 
lors and the livery of my lord's company before him. 

:(• But the old lord rJdeth from his own place to 
the hall alone, having no officers to wait upon hirii 

* A vdvet hood, cap of maintenance. 
t A velvet hood for both mayors 

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but the common hunt, as a gentletnan-usher, 
going, and those officers that be at liberty, and the 
common hunt his man, (with his own men follow-* 
ing him) and so tarrieth at the hall. 

And after they be come all together, they take 
their horses and ride to the Vinetree, and there 
take barge to Westminster-bridge. 

And after they be landed, the lord-mayor and 
the aldermen put on their cloaks within the pa- 
lace, and go round about the hall, making cour- 
tesy in the hall, and so go up to the exehequer to 
be sworn. Then after the oath taken in the ex* 
chequer, they come down, and go fii-st to the 
King's bench, then to the Common-pleas, and so 
put off their cloaks, and go about the king's 
tombs in Westminster-abbey, and then take barge 
again, aod being landed, he rideth to the Guild- 
hall to dinner, and all the companies of the city 
with him ; and at their coming into the hall, the 
new lord mayor, with two of the ancient alder- 
men, Mr* Recorder, and the sheriffs, go up to my 
lord*s table to bid them welcome, and likewise all 
the other guests there, and from thence to the lady 
mayoress' table, and so come out to the gentle- 
womens* table, and to the judges : and so from 
thence my said new lord mayor goeth into the 
chamberlain's office, wh/ere he dineth : and the old 
lord mayor, at their first coming into the hall, go- 
eth up to the high table in the hustings, and there 
keepeth the state for that feast ; and after the hall 
is almost served of the second, then the new lord 
mayor goeth, with master recorder, and those 
aldermen that dine with him, to bid the old lord 
^^id all thegu^ts in the h^U welcome. Then after 
dinner goeth to St Paul's, with all the companies 
waiting before my lord. 


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Forgoing to St. PauVs on All Samfs-day, Christ- 
fnas-d^ttf^Tweifth-datf^andCandlemas-daT/.* All tlie 
aldermen and the sheriffs come to my lord's place 
in their scarlet gowns furred, and their cloaks and 
liorses, and from.thence ride to the Guildhall, my 
lord's company apd the bachelors before him, and 
there hear evening prayer ; and when prayer is 
done, they ride to St. Paul's, and there both the 
new lord mayor and the old put on their cloaks, 
and go up to the quire, and there hear the sermon ; 
which done, they go about the church, and there 
put off their cloaks where they were put on. Then 
they take their horses again, and the aldermen 
bring my lord home; and then they have spice- 
bread and hippocras, and so take their leave of my 

Upon St^ Thomais-day. t The lord mayor and 
every alderman is to sit in his ward, in his violet 
gown and cloak, furred. 

For the Christmas- holidays.^ For Christmas- 
holidays, until Twelfth-day, if my lord and the 
aldermen go abroad to any public meeting, they 
are to wear scarlet; but on the working-days. 
Within the twelve days, if my lord go to the Guild- 
hall, markets, or streets, they wear black. 

Upon Innocents- day. ^ The aldermen dine at my 
lord's, II and the sheriffs in scarlet ; but the ladies 
wear black. 

For Monday after Twelfth-day. My lord and the 
aldermen meet at the 6uildhall, at eight of the 
clock in the morning, in their scarlet gowns, furred, 
and their cloaks furred, without horses, to receive 

* A Tclvet hood for both. All Saint8*-day is the last day that the old 
lord rides with the new cap of maintrnancr. 

f If it be not Sunday. 

} No cloak. € No state. 

11 The lord mayors of Londoii had no fixed place of residence till the 
year 1753, when the Mansion-house was finished for that purpose. 

1 of 

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dS8 nmnmr Avn sctstby m* 

of thefr wapds their indentures ef thewai4motehx« 
quest, and for the swearisg of the constaUes snd 

ForUoodFridajf.^ My loni and the alderm^o 
meet at St Panrs^rofis, at one of the clock, to hear 
the sermon, in their pewk gowns, and without their 
chains and tippets^ 

Far Monday and TueBday m East€i^<tH^k.f All 
the aldermen and sheriii^ come utito my lord's place 
before eight of tliecloek, to breakfast, in their scar- 
let gowns, furred, and their cloaks and horaes^ and, 
after breakfast, take their horses and ride to tlie 
Spital, and there put on their cloaks, and so sit 
down in order to hear the sermon ; which done, 
they ride homeward, in order, till they come to the 
pump within Bishopsgate, and there so many of the 
aldermen as do dine with the sheriffs, take their 
leave of my lord, and the rest go home with him. 

For tVednesday in Easter-wiek. Like as before, 
in the other two days, save that my lord and the 
the aldermen must be in their violet gowns, and 
suitable cloaks; but the ladies in black. 

For Law Sunday. AH the aldermen meet my 
lord and the sheriffs, at St. PaulVschool, in their 
scarlet gowns, furred, without their cloaks or horses, 
to hear the sermon. 

For Whitsunday. All the aldermen meet my lord 
and the sheriffs, at the new church-yard, in their 
scarlet gowns, lined, without cloaks, to hear the 
sermon ; which being ended, they depart. 

Far Monday and Tuesday in Whitsun-week. All 
the aldermen must meet my lord mayor j; and the 
sheriffs, at St PauKs, in their scarlet gowns^ without 
cloaks, to hear the sermon* 

* Black swoid. 

f A hood for my lord, cap orinaintexuace. 

t If his pleasure be to go. 


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for the Lord Mayor's tmighthood. All the aMer- 
men meet my Jord, either at the Tliree Cranes, if 
the king be at VVe&tmiuster, or at St. Mary-hill, if 
the king be at Green wicli, by seven of the clock in 
the, morning, in their scarlet go^ins, and cloaks 
borne with them ; and, after morning prayer, they 
take a barge to the kiu^'s places where tliey attend 
til] that ceremony foe ended, and so go home with 
my lord mayor to dinner. 

For going to Si. Paulas tht first Sunday of every 
term- All the aldermen meet my lord and the she- 
rifTs at St. PauPs, in their scarlet gowns, furred or 
lined, without cloaks or horse, as the time of thii 
year requireth, when the term begin net h. 

For election of kniglus and burgesses of tkePar^ 
Hatnent. All the alaeriuen meet my lord and the 
sheriffs, at Guildhall, at nine of the clock, in their 
violet gowns, and their cloaks furred or lined, as 
the time of the year when tliey shall be chosen 
requireth^ and sit in tlie husUngs-court while the 
commons choose them. The order is, That they 
must choose Master Recorder for one of their 
knightSj and one gray cloak for the other, and two 
commoners for the burgesses; which done,. tliey 

Far the Lords of the Council coming daum for Sub' 
sidies. For the lords and commissioners coming 
down to assess the subsidies, my lord mayor and 
the aldermen wear their black gowns, as at other 
times; and the commissioners are to be warned by 
Master Sheriff's officers. 

For the election of Master Chamberlain, and 
Bridge-mastersj if any of them depart within the year. 
My loid and the aldermen sit in the hustings-court 
while they be chosen, in their violet gowns, with* 
out their cloaks, and do not remove until the elec- 
tion be done. 


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Por the coronation of a king* All the aldermen 
meet my lord and the sheriflfe at the Three Cranes, 
or the Vinetree, at the hour of their summons, in 
their scarlet gowns, and cloaks home with them, 
lined, or furi^, according to the time of the year, 
where, taking barge, they land at Westminster, and 
there they attend in the Chequer-chamber (being 
served with wine and cakes), until they are 
called by the heralds: then they put on their 

The use of my lord's cloak, f From Michaelmas 
to Whitsuntide, violet, furred ; and from Whitsun- 
tide till Michaelmas, scarlet, lined. 

The lord mayor, and those knights that have 
borne the office of mayoralty, ought to have their 
cloaks furred with grey amis ; and those aldermen 
that have not been mayors, are to have their cloaks 
furred with calabre. 

And, likewise, such as have been mayors are to 
have their cloaks lined with changeable tafFaty, 
and the rest are to have them lined with green taf- 

For the Jirst day of every quarter sessions. The 
first day or every quarter sessions, in the forenoon 
only, my lord and the sheriffs wear their violet 
gowns and cloaks furred ; but at Midsummer quar- 
ter sessions, the first day they wear violet gowns 
and scarlet cloaks, and on the other days black. 

For the burial of aldermen. The aldermen must 
be in their violet gowns, except such ais have their 
friends black gowns. When any alderman dieth, 
Master sword-bearer is to have a black gown, or 
thirty-three shillings and four pence in money ; and 
if he giveth my lord a black gown, Master Sword- 

* My lord in a crimson velvet gown, collar of S. S. and sceptre. No 

t Beginniog upon Michaelmas e\-cD. 


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bearer is to have another, or forty shillings in mo- 
ney, the price thereof, and so carry the sword in 
black before my lord. 

Master Chamherlain is not to wear his tippet, but 
when my lord mayor or aldermen wear their scarlet 
or violet. 

Fw the Nommatum cf an AUerman. My lord 
wearetfa his black gown and violet cloak, and both 
the sheriffs black gowns. 

For the Orphans' Court My lord and the alder- 
men meet at the Guildhall in their violet gowns, 
without cloaks; but my lord mayor must have his 

This court the common-crier warneth. 

For the Election of Gooernars of Christ's Hospital, 
&C. For the election of the governors of the seve- 
ral hospitals, the lord mayor and aldermen wear 
their black gowns. 

VOL. in. I i CHAP. XXXII. 

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Ui HWir^^ A5b SwjttTKY or 

CHAt. XXXli. 

Of ihn tiviry x^ LonHon^'^jlecoimi cfih^ Incdfp&ritHom 
nf tiu Arts mi Mysteries iff m Citizens* 

The Kverymen of London are a body dwt%ict 
from the ircemen at large, and Jnvesfccfifkh tile 
sole privilege of dectinp the tMgistrates 6f ^he 
city and its representatives to parliament. Ill is 
f privilege appesfrs to have been obtained aboot the 
fifteenWi.year of the reign' of Edward ly. when 
the master, wardens, and liveries of the sey^Ml 
companies were taken in to assist at the electioii 
of mayor, sheriffs, &c. and has continued uninter- 
rupted ever since, except in the time of the con>* 
monwealth, when it was disputed ; but Stow says, 
^ How this was carried in the new commonwealth 
that was then set up in this nation, when many 
other ancient laws and customs were violated^ 
I cannot^ tell : but when the ancient kingly go- 
vernment* was restored, the old custom of election 
prevailed as it still doth ; and the liveries are the 

They are all members of some one of the city 
companies, each of which is a corporation within 
itselt^ possessed of the power of holding courts 
called hall-mptes, for regulating the concerns of 
the company, as was observed in the last chapter. 

These companies were anciently called guilds ; 
a term which, in its earliest use, was only applied 
in a secular sense, for there were also ecclesiastical 
guilds to the body or community of a city or 
town. Afterwards we find the aggregate body 


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of the merc^wto or 'traders of a city or town, 
oUled by the name of Gilda. M^fCatoria ; and 
the b^d ofl^f^er thereof was usuaelly called alder- 
man of ttie xqef chants' guild, whoseoifice seepis to 
hdxe beet* similar to that, of tt^e Dean of Guild in 
the royal borpughs of Scotland, at the pre3ent day,. 
In process of time^ as tiading towns increased in 
number of mh^itants^- the retailers find artizans 
in ^reat^ townf obtained charters for incorporating 
their respective callings ; i. e. for engrossing and 
monopolizing all the business of thejr town, ii^ 
exclusion of non-freemen : they also obtained the 
names of guild, fraternity, aiid corporation,^ 

We fipd^the last^-qanied kind orguilds m Lon-> 
don pretty soon aftpr the Norman conquest: Mr. 
Madox, in his Firma Burgi, takes notice of seve* 
ral guilds iq Lopdon as early as 1180, that wercs 
amerced to the crown as adulterine, iV e, Sjet uff 
without warrant from tl^ king; as the goldsmiths, 
butchers,, glovers^ /curriers, &c. On the other 
hand, there were then also several warranted or 
lawful guilds, for it appears that the weavers of 
London paid a rent or ierme, as it is called in the 
style of the exchequer, to King Henry L who 
reigned between 1100 and 1135, for their guild, 
and had, in after tijnes, great disputes with the 
city of London, concerning their high immuni- 
ties and privileges* 

But the oldest charters now in being, of the 
most eminent companies in London, are of a later 
date ; viz. the goldsmiths and skinners, nut till 
the year 1327; the grocers, in 1345; and the 
other companies still later. 

Of the present companies, twelve are called the 
chief, and are sometimes stiled honourable. Who- 
ever is chosen mayor, must be free of one of these 
eompanies ; and whenever it happens that the lord 


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mayor elect is of any other company, he must take 
up his freedom in one of these. 

Subjoined is a list of the city companies^ each of 
which will be noticed ^parately, with their order of 
precedency ; but some of them have neither hall 
nor livery. / 







Merchant Taylors 















Armourers and Braziers 















Tylers and Bricklayers 


















Farriers - 





Spectacle- makers 


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Clock'inakers Tobacco*pipe- makers 

Glovers Coach and Coach-har* 
Comb^makers * ness-inakers 

Felt-makers Gun-makers 
Framework-knitterf . , Gold and Silver Wire- 
Silk- throwsters drawers 

Carmen Long Bowstring-makers 

Pin- makers Card- makers 

Needle-makers Faq-makers 

Gardeners Wood-mongers 

Soap«makers Starch-makers 

Tin-plate-workers Silk-men 

Wheel-wrights Parish-clerks 

Distillers Fishermen 

Hatband-makers Porters 

Patten-makers , Watermen 

Mercers. 1. 

The company of mercers, which is the first of 
the twelve principal companies, was incorporated 
by letters patent, granted by King Richard II. itL 
the year 1393, under the title of, *' The wardens 
and commonalty of the mystery of the mercers of 
the city of London," with a license to pprchasc 
an estate of, twenty pounds per annum, in mort- 
main, which by numerous gifts and additional 
grants is so increased, that when, in 16^8, the 
company accepted of Dr. Ashton*s project for 
providing a maintenance for clergymens* widows, 
they invested upwards of fourteen thousand pounds 
in a fund for securing thirty pounds per cent, per 
annum, to the widow of each subscriber, during 
life : but this annuity being found larger than the 
fund could bear, it was afterwards reduced to 
twenty percent. The members of this company 
are not only exempt from quarterage, but upon 
their admission to the livery, pay only a small finCi 


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.t4^ HintoRY AKH snyjBT o»:' 

They are goveraed by a prime, and: tliree ^ther 
wardens, aiid a court' of assistants. ' It is a vealtl^ 
company, an4 th^y pay in. charitable beiiefa<itK»i» 
about three thousand poynds'per annum* . ' ^ 

, . Grocers/ -2. , 

The grocers' cbmpany anciently denon)inated 
pepperers, were incorporated by letters-patent of 
king Edward III. in the year 1345, by the name 
of " The wardens and commonalty of the mystery 
of the grocery of the city of Ixjftdon,'* which wa» 
afterwards confif^med by King Henry VI. in 1429^ 
who. also granted to this company the office .of 

farbling, in all places throughout the kingdom of 
Ingland, tbe city of. London only excepted. 

These grants were confirmed by a new charter, 
granted by King Charles I. in the 15th year of 
his reign, with an additional power ^ of searching 
and inspecting the goods and weights of all p^^ 
sons, using or exercising the trade of a grocer, iq 
the city and suburbs of London, or within three 
miles round the same. 

Anciently they bad also the management of the 
king's beam in this city, with a right of appoint- 
ing a master weigher and four porters to attend it. 

This company formerly held the highest rank 
among the city companies ; for in the reign of 
Henry IV. there were no less than twelve of the 
aklermen, at one time, belonging tp it. It ha^ 
also been dignified with the nam^s of five kings 
enrolled among its members. 

It is the second of the city companies, and is 
governed by a master, three wardens, and fifty- 
two assistants. The fine on admission to. the li- 
very is twenty guineas. * 



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Drapers. III. 

The drapers' company was an incieht society or ^ 
guitd, det^oterl and dedicated to the Virgin Mary; 
aud was incoq>orate(l by letters patent of Henry VI. 
A. D. I4S9, by the style and title .of " The master, 
wardeod, brethren a#i<i sisters of the guild or frater* 
nity of the blessed Mary the Virgin^ of the niys<- 
tery of drafters of the city- of London." 

This is tn« third 6f the tw^Iye principal compa* 
aies, and is governed by a master, four wardens, 
and a court of assistants. .They have veryjargc 
estates, aad pay considerable sums annually to cha* 
xitable usps. * . • " . 

The fine oft admission basbeen raised fr6m tithe 
to time to twenty-six pounds. Henry Pitz-Alwihe - 
tlie first mayor was a member of the ancient guild: . 

Fishmongers. 4. 

^ The company of fishmongers is the fourth in the 
li3t 6f the ctty corporations: they were originally 
two bodies, viz. stqck-fish mongers an4. salt fish* . 
mongers ; and between them had no less (ban six 
halls ; two iu Thames-street, twa ia N^ew Fish- 
street, and two in Old Fish*stteeL 

This company, as well, as other-persons con- 
cerned in furnishing the city with provisions, weic 
anciently under th.e imriiediate direction of the 
courts of lord mayor and aldermen, to whom this 
power was confirmed by an act of parliament ia 
the seventh of Richard H. in the year 1884. 

The salt-fishmongers were incorporated, A. D. 
1433. ' The stock-fishmongers not till 1509. But 
this separation proving prejudicial to both, they 
united, and obtained a charter* from King Henry 
Vin. in;153&, by which they were incorporated 
by the name of *^ The wardens and commonalty 


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of the qiystery of Fishmongers of the city of 

This corporation is governed by a master, five 
wardens, and twenty-eight assistants ; and the li- 
very fine is thirteen pounds, six shillings^ and 

Goldsmiths. 5. 

The company of Goldsmiths is the fifth in the 
order of precedence ; and appears to be of great 
antiquity ; for in the reign of Henry II. in the 
1 1 80, it was, among other guilds, fined for being 
adulterine, that is, setting up without the king's 
special license. But at length, in 1327, Edward III. 
in consideration of the sum of ten marks, incorpo- 
rated this company by letters patent, by the name 
of *• The wardens and commonalty of the mys- 
tery of goldsmiths of the city of London;** and 
granted them the privilege of purchasing an estate 
of twenty pounds per ann. in mortmain, for the 
support of their valetudinary members, which 
grant, in the year 1394, was confirmed by Rich- 
ard ir. for the sum of twenty marks. These 
grants werC afterwards confirmed by Edward, IV. 
in the year 146S, who also constituted this society 
a body politic and corporate, to have a perpetual 
succession, and a common seal. By the said grant 
they had likewise the privilege of inspecting, try- 
ing, and regulating all gold and silver wares, not 
only in this city, but in other parts of the king- 
dom ; and this privilege has beeii since &o mate- 
rially enlarged, that they have the power of in- 
specting all gold and silver wares in the following 
particular places, viz. Birmingham, Sheffield, Ches- 
ter, Newcastle, Norwich, and Exeter ;. with the 
power of punishing all oflenders concerned in 
working adulterated gold and silver ; and of mak- 
ing bye*laws for their better government. 

1 This 

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- This fratertiify isfotertted by a mtoter, thteewatw 
dens, and ninety-tiigbt assistants; and the livery fin« 
is twenl!^^one potindsv 

Skinners* 6. 

TTie Skinners* company was incorporated by 
King Eij ward I If. in the year 1327, by the appeK 
lation of ^' The master and wardens of the guild 
or fraternity of the body of Christ, of the skinners 
of London."". • This charter was afterwards con- 
firmed by Henry VL in tbeyear 1438, which deed of 
confirmation directs, that every person, on bis ber 
ing admitted to the freedon) of the company, is to 
be presented to the lord mayor. By these grants the 
corporation were restrained from making bye-laws. 

This is thp sixth of the twelve principal com- 
panies ; and is governed by a master, four warr 
dens, and sixty assistants. The fine on admis* 
sion IS fifteen pounds. 

The members of this company pay no quarter- 
age, owing to their being possessed of great estates 
left fir trust to them by^several benefactors, out 
of which they pay large sums annually to chari- 
table puiposes. 

Merchant Taylors. 7. 

The qompany of Merchant Taylors, whioh was. 
anciently denominated '' Taylors and Linen Ar-» 
morers," was incorporated by letters patent, of the 
fifth of Edward IV. iu-the year 1466 ; but many 
of the members of the company, being great mer- 
chants, and Henry VII. a member thereof, he, by 
letters patent, of the eighteenth of his reign, A. D. 
1505, re-incorporated the same, by the name of 
" The master and wardens of the Merchant-Tay- 
lors, of the fraternity of St. John the Baptist, in 
the city of Londgn." They are governed by a 

VOL. Hit 'Kk master,. 

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S50 HIW0»1i AND. «P|LVEY OV 

ms^tfSi fwr w^rcterts, ^4. a coiurt of thbrtjr^ 
eig:ht 9a$i9t4|it(94 Their livery k ni^merous^ and 
their estates are very comidejrable ; out of wktch 
they pay to charitable uses, pursuant to. the wills 
of the respective docioi^^ »b&u4{ two thousand 
pounds per annum. rT^y.ars; the seventh of the 
city companies, s^nd their,. livery fine i;^ tlvirty 

Habepdashers. ,S. 

Tlie company ()f Haberdashers, whicti is the 
eighth in order of precedency, was anciently known 
by the name of Hurriers and Milainers, from their 
dealing principally in merchandize imported from 
Milan in Italy. They were after>k'ards incorpo- 
rated by Kin^ Henry VI. in the year U'ffT, by the 
style of •* Ihe fraternity of ^t. Cutherine the 
Virgin, of the Haberdashers of the city of Lon- 
don. *'. At presetrt, however, they are denomi* 
nated ." The master and four wardens of the fra- 
ternity of the art or mystery of Haberdashers in 
the city of London • but by what authority does 
not appear. 

This corporation is governed by a master, four 
wardens, and a numerous court of assistants. It 
is a livery company, and has at all times been of 
such repute, that they have been intrusted with 
the benefactions of many pious persons, pursuant 
to the wWU and dirjections of whom, they pay 
annually for charitable uses about the^um of three 
thousand fiw hundred potirtds. The Hvery fine is 
twenty-five pounds. 

Salters, 9. 

The company of Salters appears to be of great 
antiquity, from the grant of a livery by Rich- 
ard IL ill the year 1394; but we do not find they 
• were 

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were incorporated till the first of Queen Elizabeth, 
in the yeai 1558, when, by letters patent, they 
were stilerf, " The msistefi wardens, and common- 
alty of the art or mystery of Salters of London.^ 

This is the ninth of the twelve principal compa- 
nies; and is governed by a master, two wardens, 
and twenty-three assistants. The fine, on admis- 
sion, i^/twenty pounds. 

They have considerable possessions, out ofwhicii 
they pay large sums annually to charitable uses* 

Ironipongers. 10. 

The Ironmongers* company was incorporated by 
charter from King Edward IV. in the year 1464, 
and is tbe tenth of the twelve principal companies 
in this city- It was incorporated by the name and 
style of "The master and keepers, or wardens, and 
commonalty of the art or mystery of Ironmongers 
of London."' And, by virtue of the said charter, 
the government of this fraternity is now in a 
master, two wardens, arid a court of assistants, 
which consists of the whole livery, and represents 
the commonalty or whole freedom. The livery 
fine is fifteen pounds. • 

This company enjoys very great estates both in 
their own right and in trust from several donors, 
by whose wills they pay yearly near one thousand 
eight hundred pounds in charities ; besides the in- 
terest or profits of twenty-six thousand pounds, 
left to them by Mr. Tliomas Betton, a Turkey mer- 
chant, in the year i724, under the special trust of 
employing one moiety of the said profits perpetu- 
ally iti t\\Q redemption of British captives from 
Moorish slavery, and the other moiety to be 
equally distributed between the poor of the com- 
pany of Ironmongers, and the several charity- 
wbools within the bills of mortality. 


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Vintners. 11. 

The Vintners* company was anciently denomt* 
nated ^' Merchant JVineiunners of Gascoync \ and 
was composed of two sorts of (lealers, viz. the 
Viniinariiy who were the importers of the wine, and 
the Tdbernarii^ who were the retailers of it. 

Some authors have erroneously asserted, that 
the craft of Vintneri was inc^orporated by Ed- 
ward III. which mistake arises from his chapter, 
granted in the year 1365, to enable them to carry 
on an exclusive importation trade from Gascony. 
ybcy were incprporated in the year 1437, by Ut- 
ters patent of King 'Henry VL by the name of 
V The roaster, wardens, and freemen and com- 
monalty of the mystery of Vintners of the city of 
Londpn. This is the eleventh of the twelve prin- 
cipal companies; and is governed by a master^ 
three wardens, apd twenty-eight assistants. The 
line, oa admission, is twenty-six pounds nve shil- 

The freemen belonging to this company have 
|;he privilege of retailing wine without a license. 
1 hey have considerable possessions, oiit of which 
\\\ey pay large sums annually for the relief of the 

Cloth-workers. 12. 

The company of Cloth- wo rkers^^v^s at first in- 
corporated by letters patent of Edward IV. in the 
year 14&2, by the name of *' The fraternity of 
the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of 
the Shearmen of London, which was confirmed by 
Henry VIII. in the year 1528. Buf they being 
afterwards re- incorporated by Queen Elizabeth, 
she changed their first title to that of '* The mas- 
ter, wardens, and commcnialty of freemen, of the 
^ art 

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jLTt said piystcry of Cloth-workers of the city of 
London*" Ihis Uut charter was confirmed by 
CJ^arlesI. in 1634. 

This is the hist of the twelve principal Compaq 
nies; and is governed by a. master, four wardena^ 
and thirty-nine assistants. The fine, on admisr 
sion, is twenty pounds. They have considerable 
estates both in their own right, and in trust for 
others ; out of which they pay large sums annu- 
ally to charitable purposes. . . 

Apothecaries* 58. 

The company of Apothecaries was incorporated 
at first witli the Grocers \n the year I606 ; but 
such a connection not answering the purposes of 
their incorporation, they were separated by ano- 
ther charter granted by King James L in the year 
1617, and incorporated by the name of ** The 
master, wardens, and society of the art and mys- 
tery of Apothecaries of the city of London :" at 
which time there were no more than one hundred 
and four Apothecaries' shops within the city and 
suburbs of London. 

The members of this company, who by divers 
acts of parliament are exempt from ward and parish 
offices, are governed by a master^ two wardens, and 
twenty-one assistants. It is a livery C9mpan^,'and 
the fifty-eighth on the city list. The fine, on ad- 
mission, is sixteen pounds.^ * 

Armourers and Bratziers. 22, 

The company of Armourers was incorporated 
by King Henry VL about the year 1423» by the 
title of *' The master and wardens, brothers and ' 
sistei*s of the fraternity or guild of St. George, 
of the men nf the mysteries of the armourers of the 
city of I^ndon." Xhe same prince also honoured 
. 3 the 

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the company by becoming one 6f their members. To 
this company, which formerly made coats of mall, is 
united that of the Braziers, who are jointly governed 
by a master, two wardens, and twenty-one assist- 
ants. It is a livery company, and the fine, on ad- 
mission, is fifteen pounds. 

^ Bakers* 10. 

The company, of Bakers appears to be of great 
antiquity ; for in the year 1 154, it was charged in 
the great roll of the exchequer with a debt of one 
mark of gold for their guild ; by which it seems as 
if the ancient guilds had held their privileges in fee- 
ftirm of the crown. This company, however, was 
not incorporated till about the year 1307; after 
which their charter was renewed by Henry VII. 
and confirmed by divers of his successors. It is 
incorporated by the name of " The master and 
wardens of the mystery or art of Bakers of the city of 
London.'* It is a livery company, and the nine- 
teenth on the city list. The fine, on admission, is 
ten pounds. 

Barber^Surgeons* 1 1^ 

The art of Surgery was anciently practised in 
this city only by the Barbers, who were incorporated 
by letters patent granted by King Edward IV. in the 
year 1461 ; and in \5\% an act was passed to pre-* 
vent any persons besides the Barbers from practising 
Surgeiy within the city of London, and seven miles 
round, except such as were duly examined and ad- 
mitted by the Bishop of London, or Dean of St, 
PauFs, and such persons expert in Surgery, as they 
shoukl think proper tof call- to their assistance. At 
kngth several persons, who were not Barbers, being 
examined and admitted as pmctitioners in the aft 
«f Surgery, the parlianent united them* in the 


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thio^HieoDisd year of the teign of King HemyVIII. 
by the q>peUatioa of *' The masMr or gov€rm)rB of 
the mysteiy or commovialty of Barbers and Sufgeoiis 
of the city of London ;'^ and by this act, all persons 
practish^ the art of sbtfviiig, were strictly eRJoined 
not to intetmeddle with that of Surgery^ except 
what belonged to drawing' of teeth. Thus this com- 
pany obtaiiMul the nanie of Barber-Surgeoos, which 
they contimied to enjoy till the eighteenth year of 
the reign of his late majesty King George II. when 
the Sui^eons applying to parliament to have this 
union dissolved, were formed into a separate com- 
pany ; though the Barbers Were left in possession 
of Uie bail and theatre, and were constituted a body 
poKtic, under the name e£ ^^The master, gover- 
nors^ and . commonalCy of the mystery of Barbers 
of London.^' 

This is a livery coftipany^ under the government 
pf a master, three wardjens^ and twenty-six assist^ 
^nt9; and the admission fine is ten pounds. 

Basket-makers. 52. 

The Basket-makers area fraternity by prescription 
and not by charter ; but when, or by whom erected 
into a fellowship is unknown. They are, however, 
included in the list of the city companies^ by the 
title of " The wardens, assistants, and freemen of 
the company of Basket-majters of the city of Lon- 
don.^^ This community is governed by two wardens 
and forty-eight assistants ; but has neither livery 
nor hall. 

Blacksmiths. 40. 

The company of Blacksmiths was anciently a 
guild or fraternity by prescription, in wliich state it 
continued till the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the 
year I57I, Avhen they obtained a charter of incor- 


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poratien^ by tfa^ name of ^^ 'the koepern'Or wcntlenfr 
.and society of the art and mystery de i^ Blacks 
atnitha, of London ;^' w hich-^was confirmed by Kiog 
James L 

This company is governed by a master, three 
v^ardens, and twenty^-one asaistants^ It js tbe ibr^ 
tieth on tbe city Ifst ; and the fine, on admissioR, 
is eight pounds. Since the company has abandoned 
the hall on Lambeth^bill, the business <i>f it ja. trans* 
acted atXIutler's-hall. 

Bowyers. 48. 

The Bowyers were a fraternity by prescription^ 
till the eighteenth of James I. when they were m-* 
corpofated by the name of " The master, wardens^ 
and society of the mystery of Bowyers of the city 
of London/' 

It is somewhat singular, that this company should 
not have been incorporated until the above period i 
and that it should have been incorporated thenf 
when the use of the bow, as a military engine, was 
superseded by the introduction of fire-arms. 

This is* a livery company, and the thirty-eighth 
in the list of city companies. It is under the mn 
verqment of a master, two wardens, and tweh^e 
assistants;, but having no hall, their business i^ 
transacted at the new London-tavern. 

Brewers,, 14. 

The Brewers' company, which is the fourteenth 
among the city companies, was incorporated by 
King Henry VI. in the year 1438, by the name of 
" The master, and keepers or wardens, and com- 
monalty of the mystery or art of Brewers of the 
city of London.*' King Edward IV, not only con- 
firmed that charter, but granted- them a further 
power to make bye-laws. 


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This corpomtion anciently bore the arms ofHiO'* 
ni»4L-Becket, impaled witb their own; but that 
sabit's bones bdng taken up and bnmt, and un-« 
sainted, by the powers in being, Clarencieux, Bjng 
at arms, in the year 1544, separated them, and gave 
the Brewers a crest in lieu thereof. It is now a 
livery company ; and is governed by a maaler^ three 
wardens, and twen^-eight assistants ; and the fine^ 
on admission, is six pounds, thirteen shillings, and 

Batchers, 24. 
The company of Butchjers appears to be of great 
antiiquity ; for, in the 36th of Henry II. it was fined 
for setting up a guild without the king's license. Its 
present charter was not granted till the third of James 
I. who, on the 16th of September, 1605, did, by let* 
tew patent, incorporate them by the name of " The 
master, wardens, and commonalty, of the art at 
mystery of Butchers of the city of London.'' It is a 
livery company, and the twenty-fourth in the city 
list ; and is governed by a master, five wardens; and 
twenty-one assistants. The fine on admission is 
ten guineas. 

Card-makers. 83* 

The Card-makers' company was incorporated \>y 
letters patent of Charles I. in the year 1629, by die 
name of '^ The master, wardens, and commonalty, of 
the mystery of the makers of piaying^ards of the 
city of London.^ It» is governed by a master, two 
wardens, and eighteen assistants ; but has neithei^ 
livery nor hall. 

Carmen. Q7. 

By an act of common-council, passed in the reign 
of Henry VIII. the Carmen were constituted a feU 
lowship of the city of London; 'and, in 1^06, they 

you III. JL 1 were * 

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were incorporated with the fraternity of FuellQrsv 
under the . denpmination of Woodmongers, with 
whom they continued till the year 16(58 ; when the 
latter, having been convicted by the parliament of 
enormous frauds in the sale of coals, and being ap- 
prehensive of the consequences, threw up tbeirchar- 
ter; on which the Carmen were re-appointed a fel- 
lowship, bv an act of common-council, under the 
title of " 'f he free Carmen of the City of London/' 
They are governed by a master, two wardens, and 
forty-one assistants, under the direction of the court 
of lord mayor and aldermen, but have neither hall 
nor livery. 

Carpenters. 26. 

This ancient fraternity was incorporated by letters 
patent of Edward 111. in the year 1.344, by the name 
of '^ The master, wardens, assistants, and common- 
alty, of the mystery of the freemen of the carpenters 
of the city of London ;'* with a power to make bye- 
laws for their better regulation. 

It is a livery company, and is governed by a mas- 
ter, wardens, and court of assistants. It is the twenty- 
sixth on the city list ; and the fine on admission is 
twelve pounds. 

Clock-makers. 6 1 . 

This fraternity was incorporated by Charles L in 
the year 1632, by the name of "The master, wardens, 
and society of the art of Clock-makers of the city of 
London/' It is governed by a master, wardens, and 
twenty-eight assistants ; but has no livery nor hall. 

Coach-makers. 70* 

The company of Coachmakers was incorporated 
in 1671, by letters patent of Charles II. by the name 
and>. style of " The master, wardens^ assistants, and 
commonalty, of the company of Coach and Coach- 

• harness-n^akers 

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darness-makers of Londoi>/^ It is governed by a 
master, tbree wardens, and twenty-tbree assistants; 
and the livery fine, on admission, is nineteen pounds. 
The number of this company, in thfe order of pre- 
cedence, is seventy^-nine. 

Comb-makers* Q3. 

The Comb-makers' company was incorporated hy 
K. Charles L. in the year 1636, by the name of 
** The master, wardens, and fellowship, of the Comb- 
makers of London/' It consists of a master, two 
wardens, and thirteen assistants ; but has no Wvev}^ 
• nor hall. 

Cooks. 35. 

This society was incorporated by letters patent of 
Edward TV. in the year 1480, by the name of " The 
masters, and governors, and commonalty, of the 
mysteiy of Cooks, in London." 

Every person who is desirous of becoming a mem- 
ber of this company, must be presented to the lord 
mayor,.before he can be admitted to the freedom. 

This is a livery company, and governed by a mas- 
ter, wardens, and twenty-five assistants. They had 
formerly a convenient hall in Aldersgate-street, wiiiclj 
was destroyed by 'fire in 1771, and not being rebuilt, 
the business of the company is transacted at Guild- 
hall. ' 

' Coopers. 36. , 

The Coopers' company was incorporatkl in IdOl^ 
by letters patent of King Henry VIl. under the title 
of " The master, wardens, and assistants, of the confi- 
pany of Coopers o^ 'Londoh 'tfttd subOrb^ thereof/^ 
and, in the sUcceedia^ reiigh', was etrt|to^eped,'by tH* 
actofpstrHament; tojaeal^and gau^e 411 b6er, al^i 
and sdstp^ vessels, wilhln the c*tV of London, and^ti^ 
miks roun^ytsfitiburbs, forwbkh they%<^c^Ml€ifwd(f 

^ a farthing 

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960 8ISTOBV 4V0 SmtTSY Of 

t §9n\mg for each cask. Tbey ve gofcroad by it 
Qiastert thme wardeas, imI twenty aaaiitairiB ; and 
their livaiy ar9 v^ numefoua. Tm fi^a on adiMi- 
aioa ia fi^n pounda. 

Cordwainers« 27. 

tlie company of Cordvrainers or Shoemakeia, was 
u iiat incorporated by Kiog Heniy IV. m the year 
t4flO» by tb9 naaae of Cordwaioera and C^)teiat the 
latter of which names was at that time fer firom betn; 
CQate8aptible» aa it signified not oaiiy a stioemaker, 
but a dealer in shoes ; nor does it appear that the 
Mfotd shoemaker was then in use. 

Since the original incorporation, the company have 
obtained a fresh charter, by which they are now 
caUed, *^ The master, wardens, and commonalty, of 
the mystciy of Cordwainere of the city of London.** 
It is a livery company, and the twenty-seventh in 
the city list. The line on admission is ten pounds. 

Curriers* 99* 

Tbe Cunriers are a company of considerable anti- 
ijuity, and founded a eurld, or brotherhood, in the 
conventual church of W hite-friars, in Fleet-street^ in 
the year 1 367* King James I. incorporated them on 
the 30th of April, 160.5, by the style of ** The mas- 
ter, wardens, and commonalty, of the art or mystery 
of the Curriers of the city of London.^' 

It is a Uvery company, governed by a master) two 
wasdpna, awl a court of asaistenla. 

Gutje][rs. 18. 

T^e C^tlwa' oompany waa inoorpoiated by King 
Henry V. in the ye^ Hi7) b^ the aQ4e of '' The 
master, wiaf^eMi ttd ooprnKwalty of <ie^ niyatenrof 
CuUeraof Londoii/' Ami tbey iv^teafterwuida anked 
|o the S^lt awiL.SliMtlHKaken* ti is # lifery oosbn 
1 pany. 

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^ftm(jfi9f>ywmiihy a smier^ two mmlens/iuid Urmty-^ 
OK tM9taatft; and idba fine on admiaiiM. is ten 

Distillers* 74. 

The Distillers were incorporated by K. Charles I. 
in the year 1638, by the name of >• Tiie master, war- 
dens, assistants, and commonalty, of the trade, art, 
or mystery of DhrdUers of London/' 

n^his is a livery eooipany^ and is gfovemed by a 
maatier? three ward^is, aad nineteen assirtanta; bM 
i^viflg no hall belonging to it, die joaeetinga of the 
company are held at DraperVbaU« 

Dyers. 13. 

This coaipany waa incorporated by King Edward 
IV. lA ^eyear 1473, by the name of ^' The waidens 
and commonalty, of themystery of Dyers of London.*' 
Among other privileges granted to this company, by 
their charter, is that of keeping swans on the river 
Thanes^ This was originaUy one of the twelve prin- ' 
cipal companies* but it is now numbered as the thip> 
teentli^ It is governed by two wardens and thirty 
aasiatanii ; and the livery fine is fifteea pounds. 

Embroiderers. 48. 

The fimbrdderer^ were incorporated in 1561, by 
l(9ttera nateBt of Q^een Elizabeth, by the name of 
'^ The keepers, or war^lens, and company, of the art 
or mystery of Broderers, of the city of Londoo^^' They 
are a livery company, governed by two keepers, or 
wardens, and forty assif^ntfr; and the fine upon ad- 
mwion i^ five pounds. 

Faji-makers. 84. 

This company was incorporated by Queen Aniie> 
in the year I709» by the appellation of *' The mas- ^ 
ter, wardena, assistants, and society of ' the art or 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

S62 Hismttv jiUft sonTKy i^tf^a 

«}qstai^ of Fan*>iinkerl/'m the 'dfii»'«of 

and Wmtoiinster, and 'twmity ^miieft' round tk^ 
same/^ It is governed by a master, two warded^/ 
and twenty assistants; bu( has neither livery nor 
hall. Their meetings are held at. the . London* 
tavern in Biahopsgate-street. 

Farriers. 55* 

. This frateraitjr watf incorporated, by K. Charles 11. 
in the year 167S, by the style of *^ The master^ 
wardens, assistants, and oonunonalty of the com- 
pany of Farriers, LoDd<»i/' 

It is a livery company, and is governed by a 
master, three wardens, and twenty-four assistants ; 
and the fine, on admission, is five pounds. Having 
no hall, they meet at the George and Vulture, 

Felt-makers* 64. 

The f'elt or Hat-makers were anciently united 
with the Haberdashers ; but a separation being ob^ 
tained by the former, they were, by letters patent 
of James L in the year 1 604, incorporated by the 
name of '' The master, wardens, and commonalty 
of the art or mystery of Felt-makers of London/' 

This is a livery company, governed by a master, 
four wardens, and twenty-five assistants ; aiid their 
livety fine is five pounds. They hold their meetings 
at Pewtierer's-hali. 

Fishermen. SQ. . 

The company of Fishermen was incorporated by 
letters patent of James II. in the year 1687» by the 
name of " The Free Fishermen of London ." But 
they have neither livery, hall, or arm«/ ' 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


If » 

Fletchers, 39. 

Though this is only a cop)pany by prescriptioo, 
it has nevertheless obtained a co^t of arms ^d ^ 
livery ; aad appears to be in ail respects as 6rmly 
established as those incorporated by letters patent* 
It is gdvepned by two wardens^ and ten assistants. 
They had formerly a convenient hall in St. Mary- 
Axe ; but it having for some years past, been used 
as a warehouse for goods, they now meet ^t the 
George and Yukure in Combill. The livery fine of 
this company is t^n pounds^ 

Founders. 33. 

The fraternity of Founders was incprporated by 
letters patent of the twelfth of King James I. in the 
year 16 1+, by the name of " The master, wardens/ 
and commonalty of the mystery of Founders of the 
city of London ;^' and they have power to search all 
brass weights, and brass and copper wares, within 
the city of London, aiid three miles theireof. And 
all makers of brass weights within that circuit are 
obliged to have' their several weights siz^d by the 
company^s standard, and marked with their common 
mark : and such of these weights as are of avoir- 
dupois weight, to be sealed at the Guildhall of this 
city ; and those of troyrweight at Goldsmiths-halL 

It is a livery company, governed by a master, two 
wardens, and twenty-four assistants ; and the fine 
paid on admission, is eight pounds, seven shillings 
and six*pence. 

Framework-knitters. 65. 

This fraternity was incorporated by letters patent 
of King Charles IL in the year 1663, by the name 


Digitized by 



of ^^ The master, wardens, assistants and society of/ 
the art and mystery of Framework-knitters in the! 
cities of London and Westminster, the kingdom of 
England, and dominion of Wales/^ It is a hvery 
company, and is under the direction of a master, 
two wardens, and eighteen assistants. ^^Y o^^t 
: at the Kmg's-head in the Poultry ; and the fine, on 
admission, is ten pounds. 

Fruiterers* 45. 

This company was incorporated by letteis patel^t 
of James I. in the year 1605, by the name of " The 
' master, wardens, and commonalty of the mystery ot 
Fruiterers of London/' 

It is a lively company, and is governed by a mas- 
ter, two wardens, and thirty assistants.- The fine, on 
admission to this company, is five pounds. 

Gardeners. 70. 

The Gardeners were incorporated by letters patent 
of James I. in the year 1616, by the name of "The 
niaster, wardens, assistants, and commonalty of the 
company of Gardenei:s of London. Though this 
company is incorporated by charter, yet it has nei- 
ther hall or lively. It is governed by a masrter, two 
wardens, and eighteen assistants ; and its meetings 
are held at Guildhall. 

Girdlers. 23. 

This company was incorporated in the twenty- 
Seventh of Henry VI. on the sixth of August, 1449 ; 
and re-incorporated with the Pinners and Wire- 
drawers by Queen Elizabeth on the twelfth of Oc- 
tober, 1568, by the name of " The master and war- 
dens or keepers of the art or mystery of the Girdlers 
of London." It is a livery company, governed by 

a master^ 

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% master^ three waideiii, and tweoty-four assist- 
ants ; and the fine, on admission, is ten pounds. 

Glazier& 53. 

This company was incorporated with that of the 
Glass^painters by letters patent of Charles I. in the 
year 1637, by the appellation of ** The master^ 
wardens, and commonalty of the art or mystery of 
Glaziers and Painters of glass of the city of Lon- 
don/' It is a livery company, and is governed by a 
roaster, two wardens, and twenty-one assistants; 
but their hall having been destroyed by the fire in 
1666, was not rebuilt. Their meetings are held 
at present at the New London Tavern. The ad- 
mission fine is three pounds. 

Glass-sellerst 77. 

The Class-sellers and Looking-^lass-makers were 
incorporated by King Charles 11. m the year 1664, 
by the name of ^^ The master, wardens, assistants, 
and conmionalty of Glass-sellers of the city of Lon- 
don.*' This is a livery company, under the direc- 
tion of a master, two wardens, and twenty-four 
assistants ; and the fine, on admission, is five pounds. 
They meet at the Antwerp Tavern. 

Glovers. 62. 

The company of Glovers was not incorporated 
^j'l the fourteenth of Charles L who, on the fifth of 
September, in the year 1638, granted them a char- 
ter by the name and style of " The master, war- 
dens, and fellowship of the company of Glovers of 
the city of London/' It is a livery company, 
governed by a master, four wardens, and thirty 
assistants ; and the fine on admission is five pounds, 
thirteen shillings, and four-pence. Their hall in 

VOL* III. Mm Beech-lane 

Digitized by 


BIsetfMf-l^Mte'liiLi^g ^oA^ to diec^^ my !n«I% M Oi^ 
George ttttdVukore, CwrtWtt. 

Gold and Sivfer Wite-di^awers, 81. 

^'hts rraterhity Xvas incorj)bratecl ty tetters patent 
of king" James 1. irt tlie yenr 1623, t>y the name of 
^ 1'h'c governor, assistants, ahd commbAiJtY, &c.^ 
but being re-inc6rpoVated by King XVilliam an^Qiieen 
R-Tafy, m tfie year 1693/th'e title Was changed to 
^hat of '* llie master, wardens, assistants, and com* 
tndnalty of the art ari^ mVstery of drawiht afid flat- 
ting of gold arid silver wire, and making atfd spinning 
of gold and silver thread arid stuffs, in 6ur city w 
Loiidoii." • 

This company is goveYTied by ^ thistef, t\v6 War- 
dens, and eighteen assistants ; but fhey have neither 
hall or livery ,^and hold their meetings at the New 
L6nddn Tavern. 

Giirr-m^ikfei-s. 80. 

,1'hjs society was incorporated by letters patent of 
King Charles.!, iii the year l6'JS\ by the naipe of 
'*' The master, wartlens^ and society of Gun-naakeis^ 
of the chy of London." U consists of a master, two 
wardens, and eighteen assistants; but they hav6 no 
livery or halh Thev hold tlieir meetings at Guild- 

Hatband-makers. 75* 

This fmterriity was incorporated by tetters patent 
of King C'hfflrle:? 1. in the year I6ri8, by the appella- 
tion of " The blaster, wfirdens, assistants, and fellow- 
ship of the mysfery <'f Hatband-makers of the city 
of London/ It is governed by a master, jwo trardens, 
and tw^elve assistants; but has not any Irvery, or 


Digitized by 


When nek hfttWuds were mv^ ^worp, t|^ cQOh 
pony vas m a very flouriiiltipg 99P<^i^<W ; tt^t ^b^( 
faahion having been loapy years Wid aside, p;;^^ Ihk^-v 
iMBi 16 now so reduced, tM U^^ne are v^xy few of 
the pvofession, who |i>eet »t preset ia Cuil^'^^ai), 

Homers. 54/ 

This eamfBiny was iacarpontted by lettei:s patent 
of Charles I. in the year 1 638, by the name of " The 
master, wardens, assistants, and commonalty, of the 
art and mystery of Homers of the oily of Lc^^^q/' It 
consists of a master, two wardens, and nii^c assist* 
$aits ; but has no livery, or hall. 

Innholders. , 32. 
This company was incorporated by King Henry 
VIII. on the 21st of December, 16\6, by the name 
of ** The master, wardens, and company, of the art 
or mystery of Innholders of the city of i^owdon." It 
is a livery companv» the thirty-second on the city list; 
and is governed by a master, three wardens, and 
twenty assistants. The fine on admission is ten 

Joiners. 41. 

This company was inoorpor^ted by Qupen Eifzs^- 
bedi, in the year 1669, by jthe na^n^ ci ^' The master, 
aodl wardeos, and copmion^dty, of t1;ie faculty of the 
Joiners and Ci^ra of iA)\9d9a.'' They are govpffted 
by a master, wardens^ and twc^ntyr^fo^r ^stfiats ; 
and the fine on admission is eight pQUuds. 

LeathersQ]lex& 15. 

The conipany of Leathersellers Avas incorporated by 
a diarter Kom King Henry VI. in 144^, hy the style 
of '^ The wardens and society ol, the jvystery, or ait, 
of Leathersellers of the city of London." And, hy 
a grant from King Henry VM. the wardens of this 


Digitized by 



company were empowered to inspect sheep, Iamb, 
and calf leather, throughout the kingdom, in order 
to prevent frauds in those commodities. The corpo- 
ration is governed by a prime, and three wardens, and 
twenty-six assistants ; and the fine, on adnussion to 
the livery, is tweuty pounds. Since their hall has 
been pulled down, this company meets in a house 
in Little St. Helen's, belonging to themselves, but at 
present let on lease. 

Long-Bow String-makers. 82. 

This is not a company by charter, but only by 
prescription; and may therefore be considered as an 
adulterine guild. However, it has obtained a coat 
of arms, and, in point .of precedence, is numbered 
the eighty-second on the city list. It consists only 
of two wardens, and a small number of assistants; 
but has not any livery, or hall. 

Loriners. 57. 

Though the company of Loriners appears to be 
very antient, yet they were only incorporated by let- 
ters patent of Queen Anne, iti the year 1712, by the 
name of ^^ The masters, wardens, assistants, and com- 
monalty, of Loriners of London.*^ 

This is a liveiy company, under the government 
of a master, two wardens, and twenty-four assistants; 
and the fine, on admission, is ten pounds. Not hav- 
ing had a hall for some years, the aflRiirsof this com- 
pany are transacted at the NagVhead in Leadenhall- 


The company called by the name of Marblers, for 
their excellent knowledge arid skill in the art of 
insculping figures on CTave-stones, monuments, and 
the like, were an ancient fellowship; but being no 


Digitized by 



incorpomfaed cx)nipany of themselves, are now joined 
with the company of Masons. 

Masons. 30. 

The company of Masons was originally incorpo* 
ratted about the year 1410, by the name and style of 
" The Free MaBons," In 1474*, William Hanck* 
stow, Clarencieux king at arms, granted them the 
arms of their society, as borne at this time; but the 
present company act under the incorporation granted 
by letters patent of the twenty-ninth of Charles IL 
on the 17th of September, 1677, by the name of 
^' The master, wardens, assistants, and commonalty, 
of the Company of Masons of the city of London/^ 
It is a livery company, governed by a master, two 
wardens, and twenty-two assistants. The fine on 
admission is one pound sixteen shillings. 

Musicians. 50. 

This society was incorporated by letters patent of 
James I. in the year 1604, by the name of "The 
master, wardens, and commonalty, of the art or sci- 
ence of the Musicians of London.*' it is a livery 
company, and is governed by a master, tvyo wardens, 
and twenty assistants. The fine on admission is 
twenty shillings. 

Needle-makers. 69. 

This fraternity was incorporated by letters patent 
of OUver Cromwell, in the, year 1656, by the name 
of **-The master, wardens, and society of the art and 
mystery of needle-makers of the city of London.'' 

This^is a livery company, under the government' 
of a master, two wardens, and eighteen .assistants ; 
and the livery fine is three pounds, six shilhngs, and 
eight pence. Having no hall, this company nieets at 
that belonging to the cutlers. 

2 Paintcr-Stainers. 

Digitized by 


870 utncmv ado jMr»v«v w' 

Painter-Staineps. dft. 

This fraternity was incovporated by letters patent 
^f queen Elusabeth io the year ld81» by tbe name 
of ^^ The master, wardens^ and commonalty of the 
freedom of the art and mystery of painting, €Med 
painter-stainerst within the city of London.'^ It is 
a livery company, and governed by « niaster, two 
wardens, and nineteen assistant. It is the sath oa 
the city list; and the fine on admis8i6a is fourteen 

: ^ • Parish Clerks, 88. 

This company was incorporated by letters patent 
of Henry 111. in the year 1233, by the naoieof 
** The fraternity of St. Nicholas ;" by which they 
were known till re-incorporated by James I, in the 
year 161 i. 

These grants were aderwards confirgied by letters 
patent of Charles h in the year 1636, who incor- 
* porated them by the name of '* The master, war- 
dens, and fellowship of parish clerks of the cities of 
London,* Wesminster, Borough of Southwark, *and 
fifteen out parishes" 

This company consists not only of a master, two 
wardens^ and nineteen assistants, but also the whole 
body of parish clerks within the bills of morta- 

Patten-iHAkers. 70. 

The company of patteAimakers wfis iiicc«pomted 
by lett^» patent of Charles II. in the ye^ 1670, by 
tlie name of ^* The ma^t^, wardens, ftssiatants, and 
fellowship of the company of pattennnaken of tjbe 
city of London/^ 

It is a Hverv company, and is governed by a mas- 
ter, two wardens, and twenty-four assistant. The 


Digitized by 


tfh^^S&^xxAto^m^t «ftt |^lfd«; and die tte^ngs ttf 
f ke cetl^ny a]«f Bbia « €<i)ldb«il: 

Payiours.: 6^ 

Hiis is a compatiy only by presol^tion^ and may 
therefore be esteemed an adulterine gu^d. How* 
^^f it hfti obtain^ a roat bf arms, and in point of 
pk^^dence aihong the txty corporations, is num* 
be^ed at aboVe. It is govenred by.' a nlaste^, three 
^v'^em, and twenty- five assiirtants; but has neither 
l^afl « KVeiy. 

Pewterets. 10. 

The firaterniW of pewterers was incorporated by 
letters patent of the thirteenth of Edward IV. in tho 
year 1474, by the title of •' The master, wardens^ 
and commonalty of the art and mystery of pew* 
terers of the city of London/* And m the year 
1^4, the wardens of this company or their depu-* 
ties, were empowered by act of parliament to have 
the Ttispfection <)f pewter in all parts of the kingdom, 
in order to prevent the feale of basfe pewter, and 
the importatioil df pewter vessels from abroad. And 
as a farther ericouragement to this company, all 
Englishmen are^by the sajd act strictly enjoined not 
to repair to any foreign country to teach the art or 
mystery of pewterers, on pain of disfranchisement. 
Add for the more efipectually preventing the art from 
being carried abroad, no pewterer shall take as an 
apprentice the son of an alien. 

This corporation* is governed by a master, two 
wardens, and twenty-eight assistants. It is a livery 
company, and the 6ne on admission is twenty, 

Pin-makers* 08. 

This company was incorporated by King Charles L 
in the year 16S6, by the name of •* The master, 


Digitized by 


97s; mstpft^ir ▲xfD svav&v oir ' ' 

waxdenst assistants :9ad conunaoalty of thejartor 
mystery of ^inmiakerB of the city of Londoa.^' It 
isgoveroedbyamaster, two wardens, and eighteen 
assistants ; but has no livery. 

Plasterers, 46; 

This company ww incorporated by King He^ry 
Vll. in the year 1501, by the name of " The mas- 
ter and wardens of the guild or fiatemity of the 
blessed Maty,, of Plasterers, London.^^ And this 
charter was confirmed by King Charles II« in the 
year 1667. It is a livery company^ and the 46th 
in order of pfecedence'. It is governed by a master, 
two wardens, and thirty-two assistants ; and the 
fine on admission is eight pounds. 

Plumbers* 31 • 

This company was incorporated by King James L 
on the 12th of April l6l 1, by the name of " Tha 
master, wardens, and commonalty of the mystery 
of Plumbers of the city of London.^' It is a livery 
company, governed by a master, twowardeps, and 
twenty-four assistants ; and the fine on admission 
is thirteen pounds. 

Porters. 00. 

This fraternity, which consists of tackle and ticket 
Porters, was constituted by act of common-council 
in the year 1646, with a power of annually chusing 
from among themselves twelve* rulers, vix. six of 
each denomination, for their good government, and 
•for hearing and determining all differences that might 
arise between the members of the united body. 
However, the court of lord-mayor and aldermen, 
have reserved to themselves a power of appointing 
one of their own body as the chief determinator of 


Digitized by 


«L019I>09 ANO ITS CMT-IBdKS* fiTS 

ill controversies. This fraternity iiM Reither hull, 
livery, or arms. 

Pouker€rs. 34* 

This company was incorporated by liters patent 
tjf Henry VIl. in the year 1504, by the.tiame of 
** The master, wardens, and assistants of Poulterers, 

This is a livery company, governed by a master^ 
two wardens, and twenty three assistants ; and th« 
fine on admission is twenty pounds. 

Sadlers. 25. 

The fraternity of Sadlers appears to be of great an« 
tiquity, by a coDVention between them and the dean 
and chapter of St. Martin's-le«*Grand, about the 
reign of Richard L But it does not apoeftr that 
they were legally incorporated till £dward I. gran^ 
them a charter by the style of ** The wftr(kns or 
keepers, and commonalty of the Inystery or art df 
Sadlers of London.*' It is a liveiy company, the 
S5th in the city list; and is governed by a prime, 
three other wardens, and a court of assistants. The 
fine on admission is ten pounds. 

.Scriveners, 44* 

This company, which was originally denominated 
" The writers of the Court Letter of the cityof Lon* 
don,^ was incorporated by letters pateqt of James L 
in the year 1616, by the name of ^* The master^ 
wardens, and assistants of the Society (rf Writers X)f 
the city of London.*^ 

This is a livery compahjr, and id governed by a 
master, two wardens, and twenty four asdistantSi 
They had fiw-merly a hall in Noble-street ; but beingi 
reduced to low circumstances they sold it to Iht! 

VOL. III. N a company 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

\ 97 i . HWSOSiY Jk^O SURVEY QW ; 

coifipany of <xMLCh'*makeiB, in whose possession il 
still remains. Their livery fine is five pouods. 

Shipwrights- 5Q. 

. * This was a society by prescription for a great iitim- 
^ fi^ .ber of yeai3, but was at length incorporated by 
J^ ' King James If. in the year 1605, by the name of 
** the master/wardens, and commonalty of the art 
or mystery of Shipwrights, London*^^ . 
; It is governed by a master, two wardens, and six- 
teen assistants ; and was admitted to have a Uvery 
in the year 1782. Their hall which stood at Ratclifi'e 
Cross, being puUed down, they now meet in the 
Irish chamber, at Guildhall. 

Silkmen. 67^ 

; This frat^rfiity wa9. incorporated, by letters patent 
,of King Charles L in the year 1631, by the naine 
of , " The governor, i^ommonalty, and assistants of 
:the art. or mystery -of Silkraen of the city of Lon* 
<|on.'^ It is under the direction of a governor, end 
' .twenty assistants; but has not any Uvery or 

Silk-throwers. 60. 

This art was first practised in London in the reign 
;of Queen EIizabeth<» by foreigners ; whose descend- 
ants, and others, in the year 1369, were constituted 
d fellowship of this city; and by letters patent of 
.Cbailos I. in the year 1630, were incorporated by 
.the naipe of *^ The master, wardens, assistants, and 
commonalty of the trade, art, or mystery of Siik- 
.tbrowers of the city of l^oudon,*^ 
. They are governedtby a master, . two wardens, 
end twpnty assistant j^ but they have no livery or 

^^i'-< . . ^ .. . ' / .. •; . ; 

Digitzed by VjOOQIC 


Soap-makers. 71. 

ITie fratnemity of ^Soi^maken ws»- ihcarpomted 
hy letters patent of King Cha(rtesl.i|i<ittej^ 1638; 
by the name of ^ The master, wardens^ '^nd com^o 
monalt y of Soap-maken, Lcttdon// Th^^ comiat of^ 
a master, two wardens, aird eigbteta ^assistacrtsjbijr 
have no livery, or halt . . b> * 

Spectacle-raaJfers. . 60U ^ 

This society was incorporated by letters. p^t^pniof 
Charles I. in the year HiJO, by the/iiajne of '•.Thp, 
master, wardens, arici fellowship of SpectacWwakers, 
of London." ' '• 

They consist of a master, two wardens».:and fif- 
teen assistants ; but have no livery. 

Starch-makers, 80* .. 

This company was incorporated by letters patent 
of James L in the year 1662, by the appellation of, 
** the master, wardens, assistants, and commonalty 
of the art or mystery of Starch- makera, London.'* 

They are governed by a master, two wardens, and. 
twenty -four assistants ; but have no livery, or 

Stationers, 47. 

This ciompany was incorporated by Pliilip auid 
Mary, in the year \6579 by the name of '* The 
master, and keepers or warden??, ^nd commonalty 
of the mystery or art of a Stationer of the city of 
Iy)ndon/* It is a livery company governed by 4 
master, two wardens, and twenty-nine assistants ; 
and the iinf^ on admission is twenty pounds. 


Digitized by 


i2T$ utaaam akb wbxex. of 

Tattow-clffindbrs- 9i- 

Vm mde^ ^'W mcorporaCfid b[f Kii^' &d-^ 
wii^ the^yeiir I460y by the imaie of '' The 
iMitar att(f koepemof tbe «rt wd mystery of TaUbw- 
dmndfeiR o£ tbe ^ty ol Lood«/' It U tbe dlat 
oa the aty list; and is gOVisarDeid by a loflster^ four 
wardens, and court of assistaots. The fioe, on ad* 
inission, is fifteen pounds, eight shiiliogs. 

Tilers and Bricklayers- 37. 

Though this fraternity appears to be very ancient^ 
yet tney wiere not incorporated till tifie reign of 
iQucen EBzabetfis who, b^r her letters patent, dated 
the 3d of August 1568, incorporated them by the 
iiamc of *^ The master, and keepers, or wardens of 
the society of freemen of the mystery or art of 
^Tilers and Bricklayers of London/' 

This i^ a Kvery company, and is governed by a 
master, two w^pdens, and thirty-eight assistants. 

liiey had formerly a convenient ball in a court on 
the south side of Leadenhall-street; but it hai* beeii 
long deserted by the company, and is now used as a 
Jews Synagogue. The Injsiness of the company is 
transacted at the New London Tavern. 

Tinrplate-workers. 72. 

This fraternity was incorporated by letters patent 
of King Charles 11. in the yeai- 1670, by the name 
of ^^ The master, wardens, assistants, and com- 
monal^y of the art and mystery of Tiu-plate-workei-s, 
alias wire-workers, of the city of London." 

They consist of a master, two wardens, and twenty 
assistants ; but have no livery, or hfill. Their meet- 
jngs are held at GuildhalL 


Digitized by 


TobeGco-pipe-makeFS. 78. . 

This comply was im^ lettevspateol; 
cf Kiag Cbarks iL iq the year 1663, by tb^ styie* 
aad title of '' Tbe inastcar, wandensr a96ist^(»to aodi 
feHQWship of the coiaapany &f ^ipe-makm^ of the. 
cities of LoodoQ and Westminster/' 

Tbey aie goveroed by a master, two wardens, and 
eighteen aaaistaii^ts ; but have likewise no iivery, or 
bftll, and hold their meetingis at Currier's Hall. 

Turners. 51. 

The fraternity of Turners was incorporated by 
letters patent of King James 1, by the name of " The 
master, wardens, and commonalty of the art or 
mystery de lez Turners of London/* 

This is a Itvery company, under the government 
of a master, two wardens, and twenty four assist- 
ants; and the fine on admission is eight pounds. 

Upholders, 40. 

This company was incorporated by letters patent 
of King Charles L in the year. 1627,. by the iiame of 
*' The wardens, and conam^^nalty of the mystery 
or art of the Upholders pf tlie. city of l^ndbn/' 

This is a livery company, and is goven^d by ^ 
master, wardens,, and court of assistants. 

Watermen. 91* 

The watermen do not appear to have had any 
charter of incorporation before the reign of Philip 
and Mary, when they were established by parlia« 
ment; and it was enacted in the 2d and 3d of that 
reign, cap. 16, That, out of the watermen between 
pravesend and Windsor, eight ovei*seers shall b« 
J ' chosei\^ 

Digitized by 



chosen by the court of aldermen of the city of Lon« 
don, to. keep order orer tjie whole; bpdy^ .Besides 

it is ordained, that their wHerfies are to be twelve 
feet and a half long, and four feet and a half broad 
m tfee midship, or be liable to fcrfeitupe : watermens 
Aames are to be registered by the overseers, and their 
feres appointed by the court x>f aldermen^ &c. and 
the lord mayor and aldermen of London, and the 
jtistices of the peace of the counties adjoiniiilg to 
the Thames, have power to determine offences. 

Bv Stat 1 1 and 12 W.III c. 2K lighte«»men-, &c.on 
the Thames, between Gravesend and Windsor, are 
to be of the society of watermen and wherry men, 
who are made a company. The lo;rd mayor and 
courtof aldermen shall yearly elect eight of the best 
\\ atermen, and three of the best lighterman, to be 
overseers and rulers ;. and the watermen shall cbiisa 
assistants^ not exceeding sixty, nor 1^ thun forty, 
and the lightermen nine, at the principal stairs,, foe 
presrjrving good gqveminent< 

The rulers, &c. on their court days are to appoint 
forty watermen to ply on Sundays, betwixt Vauxhall 
and Limehouge, fgr carrying passengers across the 
liver, and to pay theih for their labour, and apply 
the overplus of the money for decayed waternien,&c. 
they may make rules to be obsen^ed under penalties ; 
and the lord-mayor and aldermen, on complaint, arc 
to 'bear and determine offences, &c. None but such 
as have served their time, or are servants or ap- 
prentices to watermen, shall row or ply on the 

• By an act passed in the second year.of the reign of 
King George II. no waterman on the Thames shall 
take any apprentice or servant, unless he registers 
the place of his known habitation with the clerk of 
the company, on pain of ten pounds, and if any 
person, not having served seven years tp a waterman, 


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shall rowany boat for hire, be incurs the lij^e penalty; 
but gardeners^ boats, dung-boats, lighters, &c. are 

There is also a court of assistants, which, by 
the same act, is restrained to the number of thirty. 
It is the 91st on the list of companies. 

Waxchandlers. 20. 

This company was incorporated by letters patent 
of King Richard III. in the year 1483, by the name 
and style of " The master, wardens, and common^ 
alty, of the art or mystery of Waxchandlers of Lon- 
don.'* It is a livery company, and the twentieth on 
the city list. They arc governed by a master, wai*- 
dens, and court of assistants ; and the livery fine is 
five pounds. 

Weavers. 42. 

This fraternity is very ancient, and appears to be 
«ne of the first incorporated .societies in the city of 
London. The Weavers were originally caUed The- 
larii ; and, in the reign of King Henry L they paid 
sixteen potinds annually to the crown, for their im- 
munities. The company originally consisted of ta- 
pestry and cloth^weavers, and, by an act of parliament 
passed in the reign of King Henry IV. they were put 
under the management and authority of the lord 
mayor and aldermen of the city.. At present, how.- 
ever, the company chiefly consists of worsted, cotton, 
and si Ik- weavers. It is a livery company, governed 
by two bailiffs, two wardens, and sixteen assistants; 
and the fine on admission is ten pounds. 

Wheelwrights. 78. 

The company of Wheelwrights was incorporated 
by letters patent of King Charles II. in the* year 
1670, by the name of " The master, wardens, as- 

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380 HISYOaii; AND SmiV£Y Of 

ststants, and commonalty, of the art ami mystery ci 
Wheelwrights of the city of London.^' 

They consist of a master, two wardens, and ^enty- 
two assistants ; and were admitted to be a livtery com* 
pany about fifty years ago. 

Woodmonger^s. 85* 

This fraternity was incorporated with that of the 
Carmen, by letters patent of James L in the year 
1605, with whom they cx)ntinued till the year 168S, 
when being found guilty of mal*practices, they threw 
up their charter to avoid a more severe punishment. 
However, by an act of common-council passed in 
the year 1694, they obtained the privilege of keep- 
ing one hundred and twenty carts (exclusive of those 
kept by carmen] for the more effectually executing 
their business. 

This company had die management of the public 
carts committed to them for some time ; but by rea^ 
son of their bad conduct, the privilege was taken 
from them, and the charge of inspection restored to 
Christ's hospital. 

Woolmen* 43. 

Though the antiquity of this society may reason- 
ably be supposed to be equal to that of the wool- 
trade in this kingdom, yet it is only a fraternity by 
prescription. However, it is one of the city com- 
panies, and is distinguished by the name of "^ The 
master, wardens, and assistants of the fraternity 
or company of Woolmen of the city of London." 

They consist of a master, two wardens, and a 
number of assistants ; but they have neither bailor 


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Early Commerce of London. — EstabUshment of Comm^r^ 
cial Companies, — Regulated Companies. — Hamburgh 
Company, — Russia Company. — Eastland Company, — 
Turkey Company, -^-AJHcoti Company. — Joint" Stock 
Companies. — South-^Sea Company. — Easi-India Com^ 
pany,^-^Hudson'S"3ay Company. — Sierra- Leone Con^^ 
pajny,—Bank oj England.^ fFest Mia Dock Company. 
-^London pock Company* 

It has been already shown, in the two first chap« 
tere of the first book, that, at 4;he time of the Roman 
invasion, London enjoyed a considerable portion of 
such commerce as then existed ; though the real 
nature of it must ever remain conjectural : it is how- 
ever, highly .probable, that, at that period, it was, 
principally, if not. wholly, confined to an exchange 
of the raw commodities of the Britons, fpr the goods 
of their neighbours, the Gauls, who eame hit her for 
that purpose; there not being any reason to sup«> 
poise that this traffic employed a single British ves* 
>el, or that the Batons possessed any capable of be* 
ingso employed. 

w hile things were in this state, the Romans in* 
vaded Britain, at a period, when the art$ and sci* 
ences ^er^in the most flourishing condition, through 
all the territories under. their dominion. The obsti^ 
nate resistance opposed by the hardy Britons to tbeit 
mote piblished invaderss long operated as a hindrance 
to the introduction of the arts, and the^ wants of ci* 
vilization ; yet by degrees, the natives acquired th/r 
manners and customs of their conquerors, and be* 
came &miliarized to them. With learning and po« 
liteness the Romans introduced foreign commerce, 

VOL. III. o o and, 

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andf according to, their usual policy, were as attidu- 
ous io establishing marts, or emporia^ for the conve- 
nience of traders, as they were in fixing camps and 
military pG^ts, for the security of their conquests. 

The local conveniencies of London* independent 
of any previously established trade, would not have 
escaped the Roman penetration, and it would doubt- 
less have been chosen by them as one of their com* 
mercial stations, bad tl^y not found it already pos- 
sossedof an intercourse with theGauIs,theonly foreign 
nation then known to its inhabitants. Accordingly, 
we find several of the Roman historians speaking of 
it as a place of great trade, very soon after Claudius's 
invasion, which took place in the year 4S ; and He* 
fodian calls it ^' a great and wealthy city/' at Ili6 
end of the second century. 

After the departure of the Renins, a new dduge 
of barbarism was introduced with the Saxonsi idio 
destroyed nearly all the imptovementB of diexr €i» 
vilized predecessors; yet appear to have had araie 
inclination for foreign commelcei since Bede tells 
tis, that, in the year 604, London was a iuiious 
mart of many nations that traded thither l^ sea ; 
end there are authentic testimonies, that Alfred the 
Great bad formed projects of vast discoveries in the 
porth, and actually sent men of great abilities to the 
east; the curioiities th^ brought home having been 
preserved for a series of ages in the treasury of the 
cathedral of Salisbury: this disposition, however^ 
tvas. checked and counteracted by the successive ar« 
tival of fresh swarms of barbarians* 

' During the short period of the Danidi donrina# 
tion, the commerce of Loudon, though far £rom bet- 
ing well regulated, partook of that increase which 
was the natural result df the extendedsway of that 
people, not only on the northern shores of France, 
but ^n*6tft^r parts of Europe ; and ?o \x\^\y was mar 

- • • ' -> ritime 

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umpom A»D m iKVfEQirs. fiSS 

jjttme oonmeroe valued, that, m tluf year 995« 
Atbdatan, wiM> had succeedacl in expeUiog the 
Danrss fiom London, and the southern parts of the 
•slaiid, enacted a kw, ^^ That every merchant, i who 
4Bade thvee voy^ies to .the Mediterranean sea, on 
Jhb own account, should be raised to honour, and 
eojoy the privilq^ of a gentleman/' 

The Danes were succeeded by the Normans, whc^ 
pertly under colour of right, and partly, by force, 
^atotad that moaasciiy, which, with various alteram 
ii<m$ isad changes, stili subsists. To that monarcbj/^ 
ao established, and to those changes .and .aAteiation8» 
me owe tbediaippy constitution under which we Uve ; 
tbetlomestic tvadhs, which nourishes, aoiiumerous. a 
fHsoplc,iby amply rewardii^ their industiy, and the 
£Hteosive ^fore^ eooMoerce, which is at once, the 
BSMosce/of our wealth, and the support of our inde»* 
fendence cas B nation. 

.During the turbulence of the reigna which sisCi- 
eedkd the jNorman conquest, while the.people wen 
kept in a fennent by disputes Jieiative to the succe^ 
sion to the throne, and their minds were' inflamed 
«iihidie religions frenzy, inspired by the promoters 
crf'ifae.crusadeSfihe commerce of London Was wholly 
usurped fay the German merchants of the Steel** 
yard, who had obtained a footing there, even prior to 
^e overthrow of the Danish line of kings; and carried 
on tbefore^ trade for their owuv benefit, and in 
tiwir own dipping: for neither London, .nor the 
Cinque ports, had, at that p^iod, either merchants 
or ^hippng of any importance. Yet, under these 
4liflBdii»[itage8, and while the sole exports were the 
unmanufactured commodities of the kingdom, the 
balance x>f ^tiadefwas in its favour, and a gradual; 
though^Iow, acquisition of wealth followed. 

At dengtfi, the CQaaprehensive mind of Edward 
JpiL j)erceived the vait benefits accruing to the 


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284 ^ HIStOftY AttD 90RTEY OP / 

Netherlands, from their extensive. wooUainuni«» 
facture, the principal material of which tbejr owed, 
ehiefly, if not soieiy, to hi^ own kingdom; and he 
detenuioed to remove every obstacle, in order to 
attain the same benefits and advantages to him« 
aelf and his people. This salutary object was, 
however, greatly injuned 1:^ the king's earnest 
|mnmit of .the conquest of France, which deprived 
the kingdom of much wealth and people, and in 
the end proved alxn^tive. Bat, notwithstanding 
this drawback, he was successful in establishing the 
Bianuiactttre of woollen goods in London and its 
suburbs, wheie, and in the adjacent countfes, it con* 
tinoed until the increased coounerce of the capital 
so enhanced the price of provisions and labour, as to 
ticcasion the clothiers to remove into more distant 
counties for cheapness. This was the first attem{A 
of any of the ^reat monarchies of Christendom to 
lienefit by home, mafuufactures and foreign com* 
snerce; both of whioh were left to the petty states 
Und free cities of Italy and the Netherlands, and to 
khe Hans towns. 

From this period until the reign of Quden £Iiza«> 
beth, by whom the merchants of theSteel^yard were 
€nally suppressed, the commerce of London was 
subjected to continual fluctuations, caused by the 
avarice or caprice of the different naonarchs who 
swayed the sceptre of England, some of whom laid 
severe restrictions upon foreign merchants, while 
others invested them with ejctraordinary immuni* 
ties: thus keeping the native nierchant in a state of 
iiiicertainty, higlily injurious to hisr^peculations and 
ptrtsuits^ V 

* The cominercial history of tlf6* rei^ of £tizabefth 
would occupy a space much fa^f ond what the limits 
icfttns workman afford; su^e it, therefore to say, 
^hat she passed many laws for the public jgocid, 
^ .. J. ^ erected 

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Google • 


erected teveral oommercial c^ompanies^ and saw that 
those companies pursued the ends for which ikkej 
weiB erected; she excited and encouraged industiy 
4tt home; put her subjects upon improving their ^ 
commodities and manufactures, introduced the art 
of ship-building, filled her ports with able seamen^ 
showed a just. respect to English merchants, whom 
she enabled to c^tain stock and credit, and, in a 
word,, sowed the seeds of British wealth, though the 
harvest was reaped- by her successors. 

In this genend diffusion of the benefits of com* 
merce^ it is impossible to distinguish those pecuUar 
to London from the mass, except in the few instances 
where the establishment of companies gives a locali^ 
to their operations, which renders the spot on which 
they are established the center of all their mercantile 


Without entering into the discussion of jthe ques* 
tioBy whether exclusive commercial companies are 
or are not ultimately beneficial to a nation, it must 
be admitted that they have been the general parent 
of all the foreign commerce of th»3 country. They 
are of two sorts ; viz. Regulated companies, and 
Joint<s(ock coo^panies* In the first, any persoii pn> > 
perly qualified, and agreeing to submit to the regu- 
Jations of the company, may be admitted upon pay- 
ing a certain fine ; but every member trades upon 
his own stock, and at his own risk. In the second^ 
the trade is carried on upon a joint stock, and each 
member shares in the common profit or loss, in pro^ 
portion to his share in the stock, which is transfer^* 
able at the will of the bolder. 

Of the regulated Compames. 

Regulated companies resemble the incorporations 
of trades treated of in the preceding chapter,and are a 


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ftort 9fedlm%eA }mmap»)] w of the aniie kniiL in Ifar 
bmM jBdmit i^flkMi^ the fcmlegm oi vppteatice- 
s^p-were the:8B]BejQiei in Diber ooqpKv^lMU* and en* 
titkid the pmnn whp.liad s^ved :hb tune to amen^ 
l3«r«(f the compiay, to beoGmie fahiuietf a ineaber, 
ioitiMtriiridiOQt panpngafiike, or upoa fayiog a mudi 
fiUMUer one than wiiflt was exac^ f(if:filber people. 
SThe uboal xroifcraitiosi Mpirit pretails in til jsgulated 
«oinJHmies,riiliaRitiisJaat restnrioed^ and as 

so inhabitant of a townean^^icri'ciseaa: adarporated 
4BradiK, ^Utttil he has t&rst (ifatas^^ initbe, 

vbiliiMitimi, 00^ in amfet: oaees, naauignctof the state 
ccaa itwrfuHy «arpy: Jafi^ any dbKanch of £9Teigh Inde, 
ifWHcyMdt a laegulertifdQompaiqr is^eatiAdiBhed, witb- 
anitiyrst ^beconiiiig'ia manber jcrf that ieompan^« 

ThK ii^aibiled compaaies for lioiseigD oonsieics, 
which at present subsist, are, the Hambucgh/Gom- 
^faay^theBuMsmCbinpiiiy^ the EradaaddC^panyt 
tiie'faidiieyCoiiipaTiy^^ the ACtibnn <2biE^|»Djfw 

! The IK^JtMirgh dompanyt 

^iPhe -Mamburgh Company is the oldest trading 
^tablishment in the 4c!ngdom. it was originaDy 
-formed alboirt the year 1996, and fs &i^hi to iiave 
Hiisai from tthe gwiW'of Mercers df the city pf ^jon- 
-dwi, Who were the first English merchants 'Aat at- 
tempted to the maatrfactore of woollen gpoads in 
En^and, and, having obtained pri^vileges of ^hn, 
IDifte of cBrabant, ^tablished a staple at Antwerp, 
where they joined w4fh all the dther English mer- 
chants tradmg thither. In 1406, this company ob- 
tained a charter from King Henry IV. 'by their an- 
cient name of " The brotherhood of Sir Thomas 
Becket, Afcbbishop of Canterbaiy,'' whereby they 
were enabled to govern themselves in their com- 
merce both at home and abroad. Before the grant- 
ing of this charter, all the English merchants, who 


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titffletad Out 6l the realm wemisftto thm^owli 
discretion^ and managed their B&drs widi foneigiiM 
erd as beat aiiited their respective interests, without 
any regaid to th« general commerce of the natioft; 
Henry .endeavourea to remedy the disorder arising 
from this want of ccaxttonl^ by uniting all the m«r« 
chants of his dominiotls into one body ; wherein^ 
without loding the libeiiy of trading, each for him^ 
self) they might be subject to regulations which 
should secure the general interest of the national 
commerce, without prejudice to the interest of indi^ 
viduaisi His charter, which contained but few Arti- 
cles, was afterwards much aii|mentf^ byHenir VIL 
who gave them the title of "The Cotaipanym Mer^ 
chant-adventurers trading to Calais, Holland, Zea* 
land, Brabant, and Flanders/^ 

This charter, however, was not sufficiently eac* 
plicit to prevent dissentions among the memba:t 
of the company, who, in 1664, petitioned Queen 
Elizabeth for an explanation of certain articles in jt, 
and a confirmation of the remainder ; when, to pre- 
vent all disputes, that princess incorporated theni 
anew, by a charter dated in the same year, uudef 
the title of •' The Company of Merchsmt-adven* 
turers of England/^ This is the first charter whidi 
constituted them a body {)olitic or corporaticm,' iu 
England ; and by it they were allowed a common 
teal, perpetual succession, and libarty to purchase 
lands, and exercise government in any part of Engf 
bud : but if any of the .members should marry a 
foreigner, 6r holil lands in or neat any of the places 
to which they ttaded, he was to be, ipsofdcto^ dist 
ftanchizcd and excluded fi'om the privileges of the 

In 1586, Queen Elizabeth granted them a second 

charter confirming the former, and granted, them 

♦ ' ^ the 

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^ 5288 nmo&Y and avatey or 

the privilege of exciusioQ, with power to appoint a 
standing council in each city within their grant* 

Hie revolutions which happened in the low coun- 
triea towards the end of the sixteenth century, hav« 
ing hindered the company from puiauing their c<Hn- 
merce with their ancient' freedom, they were obliged 
to direct it almost wholly to Hamburgh and the 
cities on the German ocean ; whence some people 
took occasion to change its name to that of ^^ llie 
Hamburgh Company, but the old title of Merchants 
adventurers is still retained in all their, writings. 

The privileges of this company were confirmed 
and extei^ded by James I. and Charles I. the latter 
of whom fixed their freedom fines at ^fry pounds 
for merchants dwelhng in London, and twenty-five 
pounds for those of the out-ports : but these fines were 
doubled by the parliament in i64;j, who, in oon^- 
deration of an advance of thirty thousand pounds 
passed an act for settling and connrming the privi^ 
legeS'Of this fellowship. 

About the middle of the seventeenth century^ 
fi:equent complaints were made to the parliament by 
the clothiers and free traders of the west of England 
against this company as monopolistB, who confined 
the trade and oppressed the mannfactures of the 
country; and in the year 1661, a full statement of 
the accusations on one side, and the defence on the 
other, was laid before that body, but no law was 
fussed in consequence of those proceedings ; and 
since that time, we hear of no more complatnts 
. jfiom the company of separate traders, or, as they 
called them, interlopers, nor on the other hand^ of 
any uneasiness of merchants not fi^e of it ; but of 
late years this company has fsdien to decay. 

^ Russia 

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Russia Company. 

The Russia company took its rise from the dis- 
coTeiy of a passagie to that country by the northern 
extremity of Norws^ and > Lapland, in the latter 
part of the reign of E!dward VI. who died before he 
had completed a very ample charter to the adven- 
turers; their first charted of incorporation was 
therefore executed on the fifth of February, in the 
first and second years of Philip and Mary. By this 
charter the association was declared a body politic, 
under the name of ^^ The Company of Merchant- 
adventurers of England for the discovery of lands, 
territories, islands, Sec. unknown or unfrequented,^ 
and they were invested, amopg other privilges, with 
an exclusive right of trading to Archangel, atid 
other ports of Muscovy, not yet frequented by th^ 
English. "^ • 

Thi% charter, however, not being sufficiently 
guarded, an act of parliament was paissed in the 
eighth year of Queen Elizabeth for confirming it ; 
by which it was enacted, that the company should 
from thenceforth be called " The Fellowship of 
English Merchants for discovering new tradeis ;'' un* 
der which name they should be capable of acquir- 
ing and holding all kind of lands, manors, rents, Sec. 
not exceeding one hundred marks per annum, and 
not held of her majesty ; that no part of the conti'^ 
nent, no inland, harbour, &c. to the north, or north- 
w^t or north-east of London, nor anfy part of the 
continent, islands, &c. under the obedience of the 
Emperor of Russia, or in the countries of Armenia, 
Media, Hyrcania, Persia, or Ae Caspian sea, should 
be visited by any subjects ; of England, to exercise 
any conunerce, without the consent of the said com- 
pany, on pain of confiscation. The said company 

VOL. III. ' p p .► shall 

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shall use no ships in their new con^meTce, except 
thpse of the nation ; nor transport any cloths, serges, 
or wooUeu stuffs, till they have been dyed and 
pressed. That, in case the company discontinue of 
itself to unload commodities in the road of the Ab- 
bey of §t. Nicholas, in Russia, or some other port 
on the north coasts of Russia, for the space of three 
years* the other subjects of England shall be allowed 
to traffic to Narva, while the said company disconti* 
nues its commerce into Russia. This was the first 
statute made for the establishment of an exclusive 
commercial company. 

The English Russia company remained entire 
masters of the trade to Archangel, until the death of 
Charles L when the Dutch, having gained a power- 
ful influence in the Russian court, the ministers 
thereof laid hold of that opportunity, under pretence 
of resentment against a nation who had murdered 
their king, to introduce the Dutch into the Archangel 
trade, upon condition of their paying fifteen per cent, 
upon both exports and imports. After the Restora- 
tion, the remains of the company re-established part 
of their commerce at Archangel, but with very infe- 
rior success. 

This company is under the direction of a governor, 
four consuls, and twenty-four assistants; and, by an 
act passed in the lOtb and 1 1th of William IIL the 
tine, on admisaion, was reduced to five pounds. 

Eastlaud Company. 

The Eastland .Company was incorporated by 
Queen Elizabeth, in 1579, under the title of " The 
Fellowship of £^tland Merchants,'' who were to 
enjoy the sole trade through the Sound, into Norway, 
Sweden, Poland, Lithuania, except Narva, which 
was within the Russia Coqipany's charter, Prassia, 
1 Pomerania, 

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Pomerania, from the river Oder, eastward, Dantzick, 
Copenhagen, &c. 

This conapany, which was principally designed for 
the encouragement of English merchants, in oppo- 
sitioji to the llanseatics, was empowered to have a 
common seal ; to cho»»se a governor, a deputy* or de- 
puties, and twenty-four assistants; to hold courts, 
and make bye-laws for their own government, and 
to impose fines, imprisonment, &c. on all non-free- 
men trading to those parts. By the articles of their 
charter it was provided, that no member of any other 
company, or retail dealer, should be admitted a mem- 
ber of this; nor any qualified merchant, w^ithout pay- 
ing six pounds thirteen shillings and six pence.- 

This charter was confirmed by Charles I. in 1629 j 
with this addition, that no person, of what quality 
soever, living in London, should be admitted a mem- 
ber, unless hfe were free of the city. Nevertheless, 
the company having been frequently complained of 
by the merchants, as a monopoly, their privileges 
were curtailed by act of parliament, in» 1672; and, 
since the Declaration of Rights, &c. in 1689, the 
company can only be said to have had a nominal 
existence, though it continues to elect officers anpu-^ 
dly, and holds its meetings in Stepney-lane, Wood- 

Turkey or Levant Company, 

The first provisional charter for the incorporation 
of this company, was granted by Queen Elizabeth, 
in the year 1 j81, for the term of seven years, to Sir 
Edward Osborne, an alderman of London, and three 
other merchants, with power to admit twelve other 
English merchants into their association, and to make 
bye-laws, appoint factors and servants, &c. on con- 
dition that they annually exported so much goods 

• to 

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to Turkey^ as should pay five hiuidred poutiib ciis-. 
torn to the crown. 

Though thVs charter 'must have expired in 1588, 

;it does not appear to have been renewed until the 

year 1599, when the queen granted a second charter 

of inc(»*poration to fifty-three knights, aldermen, bnd 

I merchants, for a further term of twelve years, under 

the name of " The governor and company 6f mer- 

'chants of the Levant,'' the limits ci their charter' to 

be the Venetian territories; the dbminiOQs of the 

'Grand Seignior by land and sea ; and, through his 

/countries, overland, to the East Indies, At this time« 

there appears to have been a separate blanch of this 

c6mpany,who traded on a Jointstock, and Were called 

., the Morea Company; but the general Turfcey com- 

pany was always a reflated one. 

On the expiration of this term, in 1605, King 

1 James I. incorporated a perpetual conipany, by the 

^designation of ^* The Merchants of England trading 

to the Levant Seas/' This, charter enables a nurni* 

'ber of persons therein named, and their sons, and all 

; others who might be afterwards admitted, or made 

free of the company, annually to elect a governor, 

deputy governor, and eighteen assistants, to manage 

all matters relatine to the trade, freedom, &c. Thie. 

admission fine to be twenty *five pounds, for peisoba 

under twenty-six years of age, and fifty pounds for 

those above it ; but all apprentices of the members 

to be admitted, on payment of twenty shillings 

During the civil wars there were seveiral innova- 
,tions in the government of the company; many 
.persons having bieen admitted members, not qualified 
.by the charters of Elizabeth and James, or that did 
liot conform to the regulations prescribed. Charles 
II. endeavoured to re-establish it upon its ancient 
l^isi to which end, in the year 1661, he graiited a 


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new, or 8UppleiiientiiTy» charter to the company^ 
inrhereby, after ratifying and confirming the charter 
o£ 1605, it is directed, that no perBon residing within 
'twedty miles of Lobdon, except noblemen and gen- 
tledien of qiiality, \5hbll be 'admitted into the fr^edoth 
of the daid'ctiinpany, urikss first 'made *fi^e of the 
'city of London. . 

' In the year 1744, an attempt W«s made to h^ 
'this frade open, land a bill for that purpose ivas intro- 
'diiced into the House of Commons; btitthe com- 
pany being heard at the bar of the house, gave such 
^convincing reasons against the bill, that it was drop- 
'ped: and, in \7^S, an actwas passed for r^^Iating 
and ^ttlai^ng their trade, by which the fine Was re- 
'dOced to twenty pounds, and the privilege 6f admis* 
^ion extended to every British subject, \vho, on his 
"iB^dknissidn, must swdar not to bend any merchandize 
fo the Levant, but on his oWn account, 6r jointly 
y?ith other members of the company, and • not to 
' consign them to any butsuch as are free of the com* 
' ftaqy, or the agents or fbctors of it 

The company has a court or boaid atL6nd6n, 

^ i/^hich ii <^6mposed of a governor, deputy gOvernibr, 

'and eighteen directors; or asdBtants,all of whom must 

11 Ve In London or the suburbs. They hai^e afeo a 

* deputy governor in every city or port, where there 
' are any members of the company. The bdard it 

* London sends out the' vessels, and regolates the 
'pribe at which £uit)pean merchandize, sehtto'the 
; Levant, is to be sold, and the quality 6f the mods to 
^ be returned. It also rslis^s taxes on the merchandize, 
^ to deftay the duties and ihe common expenses Of the 
' ctimpany ;* presets the' kmbismsador sent by the kirig 
|td the Porte, and dbcts consuls ibr Smyrna, Conitan- 

tinojile, &c, 


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African Company. 

. The first African company wa^ incorporated ia 
the year 161 8> by KingJanifes I- who granted an ex- 
clusive charter to Sir Uobert Rich, and other Lon- 
doners, for raising a joint stock for a trade to Guinea; 
bnt.9S the separate traders could not be prevented 
from resorting to that coast, such disputes arose be* 
tween them, as soon ended in the dissolution of the 

In 1631, King Charles I. granted a charter to a 
second company; by which he not only prohibited 
bis own subjects, the patentees excepted, but like- 
wise the subjects of every other prince and state^ 
from resorting to, or trading within the limits of, ttie 
said company, which extended from Cape Blanc, in 
twenty de&rees of north latitude, to the Cape of Good 
Hope. These patentees proceeded in erecting forts 
and warehouses on the coast, at a vast expense; but 
the separate traders broke in upon theni, as they had 
done in 1618, and, in a great decree, forced the trade 
open again ; and so it remained until after the Re- 
storation; when a third exclusive African company 
was incorporated, for the purpose of supplying the 
West India plantations with negroes. At the head 
of this company was the Duke of York, afterwards 
James II. from which circumstance, and the know- 
ledge of the king^s inclination for a rupture with the 
Dutch, they engaged in war instead of attending to 
commerce; and, having lost their forts, and wasted 
their treasure, they surrendered their charter to the 
crown. In 167^, a fourth exclusive company was 
erected, with a capital of one hundred and elevoi 
thousand pounds, the whole of which was subscribed 
in nine months ; thirty-four thousand pounds of it 
being allowed to the late company tot their three 


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Jbrts, viz. Cape Coast Castle, Sierra Leone, and James 
Fort, on the river Gambia. This company soon im- 
proved their trade, and increased their forts; but on 
the passing the act of parliament, commonly called 
the Declaration of Rirfits, in the first year of William 
and Mary, it shared the fate of all the exclusive com- 
panies not authorized by parliament, and the trade 
was again thrown open ; but the company continued 
to exist. In 1698, all private traders to Africa were 
obliged, by act of parliament, to pay the company 
ten per cent, to assist in maintaining their forts and 
factories. But, notwithstanding this heavy tax, the 
company were unable to maintain the competition, 
and their stock and credit gradually declined. 

At length, having become, in every respect, a 
bankrupt company, notwithstanding a parHamentaiY 
grant of ten thousand pounds per annum, toward 
their support, they were dissolved by act of parlia* 
ment, in the year 17 -'>9, and their forts and garri- 
sons vested in the present regulated " Company of 
Merchants trading to Africa,*^ which had been esta- 
blished by the same authority two years before. By 
this act, all the British subjects trading to Africa, 
were constituted a body p9litic, with perpetual suc- 
cession, a common seal, and the other privileges of 
a corporation ; and the fine for admission was limited 
to forty shillings. They are, however, prohibited 
from trading in their corporate capacity; from hav- 
ing a joint stock; from borrowing money on their 
cominon seal, and from laying any restraints upoii 
the trade, which may be carried pn freely from all 
places, and by all British subjects, on payment of 
the fine. The goyemment is in a committee of 
nine persons, who meet in London, but are chosen 
annually by the freemen of the company, resident 
at London, Bristol, and Liverpool, three from each 
place; but an v committee-man, or any servant of 


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Ae<XHaa|i9n3r, vaBjf be team^t for mii^avjotit^ \^ 
a comuuU^e o£ coiw^il. Tbe cbmmi^e^ are pi»hi« 
l>it9d from cacryiiig oa aay tradci, to 6t froix^ Afijqa^ 
with tbe inooey belpoging to the coiupany; but^ 
lifter defr^Qg the aalaii^ c^ theif officers,' apd other 
cb^e» of BvmweiiieQt, are allowed to divide tbe 
^ufplus am<»Dg u&ein^yei, a» a compepsation for 
their tropbli^. An anoual sum is allotted by parlia- 
neat, generally about thirteen thousand pouods, for 
fnaiataining the forts and settlementa in Africa, and 
the acpountf of the coxapany are examit^ed upon 
Ofith, before the curiitor ^^aron of the Exchequer, 
preparatory to their beiqg lai^ b^ote parliamentt 
and al$o before the gf nei^ meeti^ oi tbeur ow^ 
mqEi^bm in London, Briatol, and 

Tbu^ this veiy cbij^iderable branch of British 
Gomfl^erce «|9suined a npv appearance, ^£ter najrinff 
passed thfiough several 4^^^^^ constitutioqis ana 
vaoouf (sonditiouB. The relations e^tabUshed by 
thisfc^, rfemain still in force, and with general apr 
pijpbation; d^ough there are not wantins some, who 
think a tn^e of such in^portance should be und^ } 
. stiicter goxemqient, and eveo in a joint-stock cor- 

Of the Joint'Stock Companies. 

The trade of a joint-^ck company is always ma* 
ju^ed by a court of di^ectoi^. Thi^ court, Indeed, 
is frequently subject, in many respects, to the coo- 
jtroul of a general court of propcietors. The grefiter 
part of those proprietors, however, ^Idom pretend 
to understand any thing of the business of the com- 
pany, and, unless when a party spirit prevails, give 
Ijbemselves no trouble about it, but.receive, content- 
edly, such yearly or half yearly dividends as the di- 
rectors think proper to n^ke them, or thev are cDti- 
Itled to. This total exemption from trouble, or riak, 


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Lomxm AN]> imsKvinoKs. t97 

beyond a. litBiiied aufli> eocMrigw Moy people to 
become adveotuwrs in igi0tHiili)qk jcompaities, who 
would not hazard, their iortuuea jn a private cm 
paitnerahip. . Such compenied, thtvelbre^ communty 
draw to themselves muob grt'ater^ stocks than any 
other paitaeiship can boast of. JBut the directcns of 
s«Kh companies, being the managers rather of the 
money of others than of their own, catinot be ex- 
pected to watch over it with equal vigilance ; and 
hence negligence and profusic^ must alwa^^s prevail; 
mctte or kss, in the conduct of their afiairs. It is 
upon this account, that, joint-stock companies for 
foreign trade are unable to maintain a competition 
against, private adventurers. They ba^'e, therefore; 
veiy sekioin succeeded without an exclusive privi- 
lege; and frequently have not.succeeded with one. 

The mercantile joint-stock companies^ at present 
6ub»sting in London, are, th<^ South-Sea and £ast^ 
India companies; to which may be added, though 
of very inferior magnitude, the HudsonVliby Com- 
pany, and the Sierra-Leone Company. . ' 

The South-Sea Company. 

During (he long war with France, in the reign of 
Queen Anne,* there arose a very large arrear .of navy^ 
yictuaUingrand transport debentures, and also of 
«my debentures, &c« without any established fund 
for putting them .into a regular course of being dis<* 
chaigi^d; for which reason they were at a discount 
of forty, . or even fifty per cent. By this, means a 
Itfge part .of :the national debt, amounting, to nine 
million four hundred and seventy-one thousand three 
biindn^ and twenty <-five poUnds, was in the hands of 
usurers; The Earl of Oxford, Lord Trrasurer totbe 
Qu^env thought he should secure the monied inte- 
lest^oftthafState, tf wfund could b^: established Jov 

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the regular pvjtMnt of this Itrge anrear; and ac- 
cordin;aly, an act of parliament was pasBed, in 171 19 
for making good defiQiMoi€6,and aatisfyiiig the pub« 
lie debts; for erecting a coiporation to carry on a 
trade to the South Seas, &ic. 

We roust here obsenre, that some of our adven- 
turers to South America, in Queen Elisabeth's time, 
as well as the Bucaneers, had raised in the minds of 
the people the highest ideas of the advantage of a 
trade thither; and these ideas were strengthened 
by observing the vast riches which France had pro- 
cured from thence, while the Duke of Anjou ruled 
in Spain. It was also remembared, that, so early as 
the twenty-first of James L a company, or associa- 
tion, for a Spanish West^India trade, had been pro- 
posed in the House of Commons, and that, in King 
William^s reign, as well as in the former put of 
Queen Anne's, during Lordpodolphin's administra- 
tion, there had been much discourse of an expedi- 
tion to the Spanish West-Indies, in order to make a 
permanent commercial settlement there. At this 
time there Were schemes handed about and pub- 
lished, setting forth the advantages of .forming esta- 
blishments in the South Seas, even by force, on ac- 
count of the vast quantities of gdd, silver, rich 
drugs, Sec. found there; which, with the considera* 
tion of the immense profit made by the Spanish 
merchants, 6n the £uropean merchandize they sent 
thither, joined to the feebleness of the Spanish go- 
vernment IB those parts, were plausible allui^ementa 
for a nation, of a genius so enterprizing and -com- 
mercial as ours, to strive for a participation in these 
advantages at first hand. 

In this state of the public mind the bill was passed ; 
by which her majesty was empowered to incorporate 
all the proprietors of the dektsabovt-meniioned r and 
In pitiai|anqe4)f 4his4u:t liheywere incorporated by 

: w .a charter. 

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LOHDON J^ian Its SKTI10N8. fi99 

a charter, dated <m the 8th of September, 171 1, ua* 
der the title of <^ The Goyemor and Company of 
MetcbaDts of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas, 
aod other parts of Amenca, and for eaoQuraging th« 
Fishery.'' By this charter the company was allowed 
to t^KTea court of direcCofs, &c. to appoint courts c^ 
judicature in their forts, factories, and settlemaits; 
to raise a miiitwy force for tbe defence of them, and 
to acquire others withiu their limita. And by an act 
of pariiament passed in the following year, all the 
powers, 'privileges of commerce, &c. were made per-^ 
petual to the company, notwithstanding any redemp* 
tion of their fund. 

But though tbe company seem^ to be formed for 
the sake of qommerce, the ministry never thought 
seriously about making atiy settlement on the coast 
of South America^ which was what flattered the ex«^ 
pectations of the people; nor w6s it ever carried 
into enecutioH by the conpipany.. 

In the year 1715, tbe capital stock of this com* 
pany was advanced to' ten milliona, and' two years 
aftar, the interest on. it was reduced from six to five 
per cent, and tbe cc^npany made a further loan of 
two millions to the goveromeot 

By the statute of the sixth of George I. it was de* 
clared, tbut they might redeem alU or^any of the re- 
deemdMe naliOiial debts ; io^ ccwsideration of which 
the company was empowered to augment their ca* 
pital, aocwding to the su ms they should discharge ; 
and for enabling theqi to raise such sums for pur* 
chasing annuities, and exchequer bills, carryingf on 
their trade, &c. they might, by such means as they 
should think proper, raise ^uch sums of money, as in 
ageneml court of the company should be judged ne- 
cessary* Tbe company was also empowered to bor^ 
row money on contracts, bonds, or obligations, under 
tb^ common seal, either ibr tbe purpo«e(| of this 

• act, 

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300 tiisixmrr xieor soktct or 

«er, <ir:for carrymg oii theirtcade, at such interest as 
4;key shaU'think tit, and for atiy time, notilessthan 
six months. It w«:^«lsa*f>fovjded^ ^hat/ notwith* 
«ti(nding'l;heir fund b)%bl be redeemed at ^wj time 
utter Midsummer, 17)2^^ on; giving otie ycWs notice, 
'yet their tkade and eorporatecap^eity iras^tocontinui 
fd'ever* . .- \ - . .i .n •,, ?. 

' The fatal Souch«*Sea scheme of 1 T90\' originated in 
the Ittst^nientioued statute. The* com^iiitiy bad «et 
out with good success, and the valuq of their stock, 
for thetfirsl ii?e yean), had arisen tasterthati that of 
«9y 0tbe^oompaifiy ; aad his^ majesty, after pufcbasr 
ing ten thousand pounds stock, had condescended to 
be their goverilob; ''i^i^ tr^eie in^ tkM situation, 
Irfaen, talcing advantage >df the above sftatnte, the 
Sottth-Sea> Bubble 4Vtts^)K^ected. Th^^r6tenee waa^ 
to rais^ a fund for oarmug on a trade to the Sootlu 
Seas^ and for^ parehsCt^ing t^cf aflnuitiess &<$l paid t& 
the other companies; and proposals wtre printed "and 
disCriUut^d,'8hox^iiig^ thff advantages of this design. 
9(he sum neeessary for carrying it on, together tvith 
theprofltB that were to arisd from it, were divided 
tntOA certain numb^ ol^sbarets, or subscriptions, to 
be purchased by persbns disposed to adventure there- 
in ; and,^ttie better *to*o^rry oh the deception, the 
directors evigaged to msfke very large dividends. To 
such a height was th^frem^ of ino«diAate^gain car^ 
ned, by these delusive pwposiails, that, between the 
1 4th of Aprii, when the first subscriptiioo was opened, 
fdid the Sd of June t^liowilig^ when the infatuation 
ivM. strongest, shares; of tffte bundled pounds contt- 
Tiued to* advance .ia|>idly in price, until they were 
'fiotd' for eight hundred and ninety pounds, -^rom 
this* time to tbe.end of August, 'nhe* variations wene 
comparatively small:^ but, in^September, the fdMiKj 
of the scheme becatin^ apparent^ and ^ shares Ml to 
oaa htt]iGd«ed.aH(i:riftyip6undSrby which- multitudes 
.:.- of 

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of' altt raiikf were ruined, and such a scene of dis* 
treas occasicned^ as can scarcely be conceived. * 

The stock-jobbing specuktiong. of this company 
novr' became the svbjeot of parliamentary in vesti^ 
gatjab,«tid various acts were passed for t^e rebef of 
the BUfifer^rSyH' detail of wbich^and of all the visi^ 
onaiy' projects the company had -engaged' in, would 
extend muf^h bet^d thck limits our work win allow: 
we must ther^fere^ return to their commercial trans^ 
actions, whieb, without being so destructive in theiif 
consequendesi, appear to have been no better con-* 
ducted. ' 

The fitist trad^they engag^d'irt, was that of sup- 
plying the Spanish West-lndleS' with negroes, of 
which,' in consequence of What was called the As- 
riento contmct, granted them* by the treaty of 
Utredityth^y had the'exclusivfe priviteg^. But as 
ft was HOC e^^ctedthat much profit could be made 
by this tnide/l)Oth the ftench and PortUgueze cotni 
panies, wh<y(had enjoyed' it Oft the same terms be* 
fore tbetifi, having been rttined by it, they were al- 
lowed, as^ai-comjpensation, to send annually a shiji 
of five hUkidrtSQ tons burthen, to^ trade directly te 
the Spanish We$t-lndies. Of the ten voyage.4 made 
by this ai^iiual ship, they gained by only one, that ' 
of the Rbyal CaroKne in 1731, and w4re tosers, 
mor^ or Jess, by all the rest. Their ill Success ^as 
imputed* by their factors dild agents, tothe'extortioh 
and oppnetekm of the Spstoish goverrraieiit ; but was 
move probabty Wmg to the conduct of those very 
factors ^nd agents, since in 1734, in consequence 
of the repeated representations of the King of 
Spain's agent »» London, coticeming the bad ma- 
nagement "t)f their fectors, a general court of the 
company agi^eed linanimooslyv to empower their di* 
rectors to petition his majesty for permission, to dis* 
^pcne of the trade and tonnage of their annual ship. ' 


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In 17945 this company ondertook the Greeitftnd 
vh^te-fii^bery. Of tliis, indeed^they had nomooo* 
poly; but 90 long as they carried it od, noottier 
British subjects appear to have engaged in it. This 
speculation was as unsuccessful as the fintner. They 
continued it with an annual loss for eight yeais, at 
the expiration of which, when they had: sold their 
ships' stores and utensils, th^ found; that the total 
deficit by this tr^de, exclusive pf interest^ on their 
annual advances^ amounted to upwards of one hun- 
dred and seventy-seven thousand pounds* 

Two years before the company embarked in the 
whale-ikihery, they applied to parliament for per- 
mission to divide their immense capital of upwards 
of thirty-three millions, the whole of wjuch had 
been lent to gov^nment ipto two equal- parts s the 
one^half to be put upon the ^me footing as the 
other government annuities, and not. to l^ subject 
to the debts contracted, or losses incuired by the di- 
rectors of the company, in the prosecution of their 
mercantile projects ; the other half to remain^ ias be- 
fore, trading stock, subject to those debt^ and losses. 
The petition was too reasonable tobe.tH^fused, 

In 1733, they again petitioned pafrhament, that 
three-fourths of their trading stock might be turned 
into annuity stock, and only one-fourth remain as 
trading stod^, exposed to the hazards arising from 
the b^ management of their directcH^. Both their 
annuity and trading slocks bad by this time been 
reduced two millions each ; so that this fourth 
amounted only to five million, six hundred and 
sixty-two thousand, seven hundred and eighty-four 
pounds and a fraction. In 1748, the peace of Aix« 
La-ChapeUe was concluded, wtdiout any stipulations 
in point of commerce, between Great Britain and 
Spain ; and as only four years of the Assiento con- 
tract remained, and it was evident, thi^ Spain ^ ha<i 
4 determined 

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detevmilied not to renew^ it, at least upon terms, 
which wouid have atforded any promise of advan- 
tag^e tu the company, who had hitherto been losers^ 
by it ; it was concluded by the British court, to in- 
struct her minister at Madrid^ to obtain the best 
equivalent he could for the remaining part of the 
conti^ct. Accordindy a treaty was entered into in 
October, 17o0, by which the King of Spain engaged 
to pay one hundred' thousand pounds to the com- 
pany, as a compensation for all their demands and 
privileges in virtue of that contract ; and thus aft 
end was put to their trade with the Spanish West- 

Since that time the company has ceased in every 
respect to be a trading company, and the* remainder 
of its trading stock has been converted into an an- 
nuity stock. 

By an act of parliament passed in the year 1753, 
the mans^ement of this company is vested in a go- 
vernor, sub-governor, deputy -governor, and twenty- 
one directors ; but no person is quali^ed to be go- 
vernor, his majesty excepted, unless he is possessed, 
in his own name and right, of five tliousand pounds, , 
in the trading stock : the sub-governor must have 
four thousand pounds ; the deputy-governor three 
thousand pounds ; and each director two thousand 
pounds in the same stock. 

East-India Company. 

The first, or as it is called the t old East-Indiit 
Company,, was established by a charter for fifteen 
years from Queen Elizabeth, dated on the 31$t of 
December, 1600; but for some time, the partners 
seem to have traded with separate stocks, though 
only in the 'Ships belonging to the company. In 
1610, though : their : first charter was not expired* 


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King James L was prevailed upon to giant ithem a 
new one, because of the ^^ profit and kSnour .wbich 
this trade brought to the nation, wherefore his ma^ 
jesty was now induced to render the company per- 
petual,*', with the usupl powers <Mf making bye«* 
laws, having a common seal, &c. They had not 
adopted the mode of trading under a joint stocki 
but went on iu the method of several co-partner- 
ships and lesser stocks; and when, in I6l9, they 
commenced trade for the joint benefit, they sent but 
one ship on that aK:count. At this timie. their Capi- 
tal amounted to about seven hundred and forty 
thousand pounds, and the shares were as low as 
fifty pounds each; but notwithstanding their char- 
ter had not received the sanction of parliament, it 
was looked upon as sufl^ciehtly valid, and very |6w 
ventured to interfere with their trade, which was in 
general successful, although they experienced some 
heavy losses, chiefly through the malice of the Dutch 
East-India Company. 

In consequence of the increased value of the 
commerce with the East-Indies, Sir Thomas Rowe 
was, in the year 1614, appointed by King James I. 
his and the company's ambassador to the Great 
Mogul, " for treating with him about an inter- 
course of the commerce of England, to and from 
East-India/^ This embassy, which was the first 
that was invested with the royal authority from Eng- 
land to that remote coi^ntry, was undertaken at the 
East- India company's request and expense ; and the 
ample infc)rm^ion they received from this able mi- 
fiist^r; for theprotectioa of their trade^ proved the 
wisdom of the choite they bad made. . 

Some idea of the importance pf the company s 
ffade, even in this eariy stage^ may he formedfrom 
4at very ingenious treatise, pubiisbed T)y Sr Dudley 
«piggs, in the year }6l^, in which itisstated> that 


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lOKDOir AMD Its £MViftOK8. 305 

the greatest talae of the exports to the EastJbdies, 
in any one year, had not exceeded thirty-six thou'^ 
sand pounds, while the saving to the nation in the 
prices of pepper, cbves, mace, and nutmegs, for 
hoine consumption only, Was annually seventy 
thoiisai!kd pounds : and the Value of the same spices 
exported m the year preceding, had amounted to 
two hundred and' eighteen thousand poutids, besides 
indjjgo, calicoes, China silks, drugs^ &c. It is oib- 
servable, that neither porcelain or tea are yet no- 
ticed among the commodities imported by the com- 
pany, but ffom the mention of China silks,- it is evi^ 
dent, that a iidsAe with the Chinese had oom^ 
menced, though indirectly. 

From the same author we also learti, that the bur« 
then of the ships employed in that trade, was then 
equal to the largest now in the service, He says, 
one of their ships was of one thousand, two hun- 
dred, and ninety-three tons burtbeh ; one of on^ 
thousand, one hundred ; one of one thousand and 
six^, and the rest Smaller ; the whole number they 
had employed from the beginning was twenty-four, 
of which, four had been lost. 

In 1619) am attert^pt Was made to settle a trade 
with China bnd Cochin-china, but without sue-. 
ceks ; both the English and Dutch factors in the last 
named country being massacred, under pretence 
that the Dutch had a little before burned one of their 
towns. The neglect of this trade was assigned by 
Charles I. as one of the reasons, for granting a li- 
cense in 1633 to some other persons to make a 
voyage to Goa, the coast of Malabar, and also the 
cosists of China and Japan. But the losses by this 
adventure were so heavy, that the new company 
was soon mined. 

Such temporary grants, however, to others, added 
to the encroachments of the Dutch East-India com- 

roh. iir. . ^^ P^*^y 

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paHy were so iaJMrious, to thlt ititerests of the Eng^ 
lish copfipany, that their tnvde.sooj^ fell, into ^ decHo- 
iug state,, and in l647i appears to have been nearly 
sunk ; their shares Ijeiug sold at thirty or forty per 
cent loi^> and sooiqtiioes n^uch more, . 

In the early part of the Protectorate, Cromwell 
dissolved thi^ pompany, and threw the trade open ; 
but the private traders were such losers in the end, 
that they were among the most forward of the peti- 
tioners for restoring the company's charter. Ac- 
cordingly they were re-established in 1637, with a 
joint stock of seven hundred and thirty-nine thou- 
sand seven hundred and eighty-two pounds : only 
fifty per cent however, being called for, their real ca- 
pital amounted but to half that suo). 

After the llestoration, Charles IL granted a new 
charter to the company, dated the third of April, 
1661, under the former name of " The Governor 
and Company of ]!J>erchants of London, trading to 
the East-Indies," to be governed by a governor, de» 
puty-governor, and t^wrenty-four committees, since 
Called directors, who were to be elected annually. By 
this charter the company had not, as at present, one 
transferable joint stock, but every one who was free 
of the company, paid a certain sum on the fitting 
out of their voyages, for which he had credit in the 
company's books, and his proportionable, dividend 
on the profits of each respective voyage: neither 
were they an irrevocable corporation, as they might 
be dissolved on three years' notice. , 

It appears from Mr. ftHexfen's discourse on trade, 
published in the y^r 1 696, that '* till after the 
year I67O, the importations froip the East-Indies 
were chiefly drugs, salt-petre, spices, calicoes, and 
diamonds : then throzvsfers^ recovers^ dt/erSy &c. 
xceresenl to IwHa^ by the compam/^ for teaching the ] 
Indians to please tlie European fancies." And f his 


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brought to us such an inundation of wrought silks * 
and stufis of many various sorts* that our o\\^n ma- 
nufactures were greatly obstructed : wherefore, long 
after, the legislature found it absolutely necessary to 
prohibit the wear of them at home ; and they are 
BOW all re-exported. 

In 1 676, the company having made considerable 
profit by their trade, decreed' in a general court, that 
instead of making a dividend, the profits sliould be 
added to their principal stock, so as to double the 
same. Thus every fifty pound share being now 
made one hundred, their whole rapitai amounted to 
the nominal one at their re-establishnicnt by Crom- 

About this time many doubts and objections were 
started, whether the company could legally act as' 
an exclusive company, not being sanctioned by an 
act of parliament, awl these objections having pro- 
voked a discussion of the advantages of the East- 
India trade to the kingdom, it appeared from the 
statements of the writers in support of it, that upon 
a moderate computation the annual balance of the 
trade, in favour of the nation, amounted to five 
hundred thousand pounds. From the same source 
we learn, that there still was no trade to China ; 
but in I6i>l, in an answer to the complaints of the 
Turkey company, given into the privy-council, they 
state that *' they have made many generous, 
chai]geable, and successful attempts, for obtaining 
a trade to the north-east parts of India, viz. to 
Siam, Cochin-China, China, and Japan/' 

The legality of the company's monopoly had been 
frequently disputed during the reign of Charles II. 
by whom, however, they were so highly favoured, 
that he granted thepi no less than five charters. In 
1684, it became the subject of investigation in a 
court of justice, in consequence of an action being 
1 brought 

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308 HisTO&T Avn suAVEVonr 

brought by the East*Iiidia ceanpany agiddst oae 
Sands, fpr hi^viQg fitted a ship out for India,. wittj^r . 
out having obtained a licence from th^t company. 
In his defence, Sands showed, that the company 
was an ill^al monopoly^ cpotraiy to Ms^giwi 
Charta, and several subsequent statutes, in wmci) 
he was supported by Lord Chief Justice Pollexfen ; 
but the kin^s prohibition agaipst the aailing .of 
the ship, obhged Sands, after a year'4 suspense, to 
sell it a^ the caiso at a great loss. 

Similar proceedings occurred in th^ fbllowing 
reigns; and after 96me endeavours, to procure a 
parliamentary regulation of this trade, which were 
rendered unsuccessful by the great influence of the 
company, the house of commons addiiessed King 
William in 1.692) to dissolve, the company at the 
end of thr^ years, agreea)>le to the power reserved 
to the crown in their charter. ; but without effect, 
for in the course of the two foUowiog years, WiU 
liam granted them three charters. 

The sinister practices of the compapy with the. 
ministers, in obtaining these charters from King 
Wijli^m, notwithstanding the above address, and 
also in endeavouring to get an act of parliament for 
their legal establishment, became the subj^t of an 
enquiiy iq the house of commons in the year L694, 
when it appeared, that in the preceding year alone, 
upwards of eighty thousand poupds had been 
expended ibr secret services ; whereupon the go-< 
yernor and some othe]» implicated in these trans^ 
actions, were committed to the Tower, and the 
houfife impeached the Duke of Leed^, president of 
the council, on the diune account; but the pro* 
rogation of parliament put an end to their pro- 

The frequent recurrence of these cQmplainta 
against the company, together with their inability 


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' -i^ymi^ ANi>''iT$ .VNYuavs. . 909 

to laakefi^Qr divi4rad& for ^ev^ral yem precediog 
iii^ j;ear ..l6^dy:Qi^^a«o^ bj l^iigre^ losses d[ 
ships' aii4*T]ehcfUPt;6ies, duri«g tk^ war with f rducey 
created subh a g^a^ral dkfiij^^ m the people against 
theai, that» in the apiin^ pf thi^t year, the hoiijse of 
commpDis again, to^ the 9ti^» of the East-India 
trade iotoVt^ii; '.serious q(>osidei^^ which so 
ala9Xied the coinp^y, that they'^viow* thought it 
prudent to make a proposal t^ parliament, to ad* 
vanc^ seven bi^ndred thousand pounds for thepub* 
licdervice^.at four percent: provided the exclusi^a 
trade to India might be legally settled on them; 

But^while this proposalseemed to obtain afkvonr* 
aUe reception ». a number of mi^^bants, counte^p 
Danced -by the chanceUof of the exchequer, oifened 
to advance two millionB, at eigb^ per cent, on coii^ 
dition that the trade should be settled exdlusively 
OD.theni{;. but with a proviso, that the subacilbers 
shduid not bis obliged to trade on a joinjk stoc^ un^. 
less they afterwan^ desiced to be incofipomted^ in 
which case a charter should be granted them. 

Yhe. last proposal was accepted* notwithstanding 
the old qompany's offer to opeo^ subscriptions fov 
two millions ; and an act of parliament was passed 
for carrying it into effect, by which the' new sub^ 
scribere^ who were called ** The general soeiety of 
traders to the j^st^lndies,'' were impowered to 
trade thither, either directly tliemselves, or to license 
others in their stead ; but so as not to trade anniu 
ally for mere than the ayibunt of their respective 
shares. It was, however, provided, that the old 
company should be allowed to trade to India until 
Michaehnas, 17OK * - 

No sooder was this new company erected, than 
gFeat difficulties and objections were raised against 
their proceeding to trade during the old company's 


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remaining three years ; the* latter being in possessicii 
of the forts, and of the privileges granted in India 
by the Moguls, &c: and even at the expiration of 
the three years, they were at liberty to dispose of 
their forts, factories, settlements, &e. at their own 
price, and, if they chose it, to foreigners. Besides^ 
the old company^ bad subscribed three bimdred and 
fifteen thousand pounds into the new stock, in the 
name of their treasurer; whereby they possessed 
above one-seventh part of the whole cajHtal of two 
millions^ To confirm this possession, they, in the 
next session of parliament, obtained an act, import- 
ing, that in consideration of the old company hav- 
ing directed Mr. Dubois, their treasurer, to sub- 
scribe the above sum in trust for them, the said 
compmy was to continue a corporation : thus esta- 
blishing two rival companies. 

Indeed, in all this business there was a strange 
jumble of inconsistencies, contradictions, and diffi- 
culties, not easily to be accounted for ; and a coa- 
lition of the two companies seemed to be the only 
effectual remedy for these absurdities. In fact, their 
contentions were carried to such a height, that at 
length the public tranquillity became endangered ; 
and, in 1702, the coalition was effJected by an in- 
denture tripartite, to which Queen Anne was the 
third party. By this agreement, the old company 
purchased as much of the stock of the new, at par, 
as gave them an equal moiety of the whole capital, 
except twenty three thousand pounds retained by 
some separate traders. The new company paid to the 
old, half the difference between the values of their 
respective dead stocks. * The trade was to be carried 
on by each comp^my separately for seven years ; 
after which, all trade to be carried on on the joint 
account, and the company to be called, **, The 


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fJnited Compahy of Merchants of England trading 
to the Easit Indies/* Thus a prudent stop was put 
to much contention* 

This arrangement receired the sanction of par- 
liainent in 170S, when an act was passed for 
prolonging the term of Iheir exclusive trade, from 
Michaelmas, 17ll> to Lady-day, 1796. By the 
f^ame act the capital of the company was auraiented 
from two millions to three millions two nundred 
tliousand pounds, in consequence of a new loan 
of one million two hundred thousand pounds to the 
government; and the interest of the whole debt 
owing to the government was fixed at five per cent. 
instesKl of eight, as it had formerly been. * 
X To complete all that is needful to be known con- 
cerning the union of these two companies, it must 
b^ observed, that the following regulations took place 
in consequence of it, viz« 

For every hundred pound, old stock, there was 
given one hundred pounds eight shillings and teit 
pence, of the United Company^s stock. 

A call of twenty-five and a half per cent, was 
made on the proprietors of the old company, for 
enabling them to be joined to the united one. 

The remaining effects of the old comimny, and 
• the debts owing to them, were vested in trustees for 
the payment of their outstanding debts, and after- 
wards for the benefit of the proprietors of the old 
company, who were so at the time of the union. 

Since this time, the company's charter has been 
repeatedly renewed, and, being freed from all com- 
petitors, and fully established in the monopoly of 
the English commerce to the East-Indies, it has car- 
ried on a successful trade ; and .in consequence of 
its extensive territorial acquisitions, which are now 
added to the dominions of the crown, its history has 
become so intimately blended with that of the whole 


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3t2 itIdtdttV AH0 MTRfsir df . ; 

kingdom^ that, to follow it farther jju detail* would 
&r exceed our liibits. Suffice it, therefore, to ob* 
serve, that, since the year 1784, the civil aod miln 
tary governmeot of India has been subjected to the 
auperintendance- of a board of controul, consisting 
of the secretary of state, the chancellor of the ex« . 
chequer, and seven other privy-counsellors, nomi^ 
nat^ by his majesty. The ooonnercial affairs of the 
company are, however, managed by a court of 
twenty-four directors, chosen for four years ; six of 
whom are changed annually. Out of these directors 
are chosen committees, who have the particular in- 
spection of different brsmches of the company's bu- 
siness ; such as the committees of correspondence^ 
buying, treasury, warehouses, shipping, accounts, 
private trade, &c. 

The shipping chieQy employed in the commerce 
from England to the East-Indies, belcmgs to persona 
who build them purposely for letting them out, on 
freight, to the company; for^ by their bye-Iavns, no 
vessel is to be hired wherein any director is con- 
cerned, directly or indirectly, either as whole or 
part owner. 

Xfl<^ vast amount of the importations of this com- 
pany, may be judged of by the number of extensive 
warehouses employed for receiving the cargoes of 
their homeward bound ships. There are, at present, 
twenty-six, and more are in contemplation. Some 
of them are well-built modem buildings, oocupying 
a considerable space of ground, and worthy of notice, 
as conveying an idea of the immensity of the trade 
of their owners. 

Hudson's-Bay Company* 

The IIudson's-Bay Company derives its origin 
from the reports of two Frenchmen, who, having 


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travellcid into the countiy of the Ec^uimaux^ and ob« 
served what a valuable trade might be carried oa 
there, represented the matter to the French govern* 
meat; but receiving no encouragement in their owa 
couatry, they came over to England, and communis* 
cated their observations to Prince Rupert, and soms 
other persons of distinction^ seventeen of whom en* 
£aged in the trade^ and sent out two vessels, in 1669^ 
for that purpose* The accounts. they received from 
Iheir ^ents being favourable^ these noble adventurers 
obtained a charter of incorporation from Kine Charles 
II. dated May the seconci, 1670; by which an ex- 
clusive trade to this bay was granted to them, by the 
tiame of *• The Governor and Company of Adven- 
turers of England, tradii^ to Hudson's Bay/' They 
^ere also to have perpetual succession, a common 
«eal, and the power of making bye-laws ; with the" 
prQ|»erty of all the island^ and lands within their lU 
mitSy not possessed by any^ther nation, which were 
to be called Rupert's land, and to be holden of th^ 
manor of East Greenwich, in free and common soc- 
The capital fund of the coibpany was origi-* 
ten thousand five hundred pounds. 

are possessed of several forts on the west 
the bay, vi^. Prince of Wales's Fortj upon 
Churchill River^ Nelson, New Severn, and Albany^ 
'which are garrisoned by one hundred and eighty-six 
men. In July, 178S, the French took these forts, 
and havmg destroyed them and the settlements, &e« 
evacuated the place in September following; sinqe 
fwhich time, they have baea agpun erected by ihe 

The commerce of this company, small as it is, af- 
Jbida immense {m>fit to the members, and maqy ad-« 
vantages to the state; for the commodities exchanged 
arith the Indians, for their peltry, ariei all manuiactured 
In Britain^ and, as the Indians anp npt v«ry nice in 

WQL. 111. ss their 

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their choice, those articles are sent, which, in the 
mercantile phrase, are drugs at home. On the otiier 
hand, the skins and furs brought back, enter largely 
into our manufactures, and" aflord materials foir 
trading with many nations of Europe to great advan- 
tage. These circumstances prove, incontestibly, the. 
immense benefit that would result to Great-Britain 
by extending this trade ; which might easily be done, 
since the company do not appear to possess such an 
exclusive right to it as to prevent others from cm- 
barking in it, 

Sierra-Leoue Company. 

Sierra-Leone, from whence this company derive* 
its name, is part of the west coast of Africa, lying 
between Cape Verga and Cape Tangrin. A^ consi- 
derable river of the same name, enters the ocean on 
this coast, in latitude 8^ north, and longitude 12«» 30' 
west, the mouth of which is nine miles wide, but itft 
source is unknown. The climate and soil* of the 
tract of country, on both sides of this river, appear to 
be the most favourable to European constitutions of 
any in Africa, and, in the opinion of many, would, if 
properly cleared and cultivated, be equal in salubrity^ 
and superior in produce, to any of the islands in the 
West-Indies. These advantages had induced the 
first African Company to establish one of their fac- 
tories at Sierra-Leone ; though they did not select 
the most healthful situation, having, for the benefit 
of a spring of good water, fixed their rosidence in a 
low valley, which is frequently overspread with mistt 
and noisome vapours, while, on the summits of the 
hiils, whither they might easily have conveyed the 
water, the air is cleftr and serene. 

Being ^hinly inhabited, Sierrd^Leone appeared t« 
some benevolent gentlemen in Eogland, to be m 

. , place 

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^I^pe, where, without incommoding the natives^ 
a suiigcient. quantity of gr9und might be bought, 
on which to i^ttle a great number of free negroes/ 
who, in 1776,.$ warmed in London^ in idleness an4 
want. About four hundred of these miserable ob- 
jocte, together with sixty whites, mostly women of 
loo^e character, were accordingly sent out to Sierra^ 
Leone, at the expense of government. Necessity, 
it was hoped, would make ihem industrious and or- 
<lerly ; ,and Captain Thompson of the navyi who.* 
conducted them, obtained a grant of land to his ma- 
jesty, from King Tom, a neighbouring chief, which 
was afterwards confirmed by Naimbanna, the king 
of the country. The colony, however, soon went 
to min, but the land which they occupied, about 
twenty miles s<]uare, his majesty was enabled to 
grant to anothei colony, founded on better princi- 
ples,, and f^r a nobler pur|>ose ; which, though not 
..solely commercial, was blended with an endeavour 
to establish a new branch of trade. . 

The . most intelligent members of the society, 
who liad lalioured so strenuously to procure the 
abolition of the slave trade, concluding that the na«; 
tives of Guinea would reap very little benefit from 
the attainment of their object, unless they should be 
taught the.priuciples of religion, and the arts of civil 
life, which alone can render them really free, con- 
ceived the plan of a colony, to be settled at Sierra- 
Leone, for the purpose of civilizing the Africans, by 
maintaining a friendly intercourse with thcin, aud 
a commerce. in everything but men. This plan 
cpuld not be carried into effect but at a groat ex- 
pense. Subscriptions were therefore opeue<l, and a 
6Um deemed sufficient was speedily raised. Nothing 
now appeared to be wantmg, to give full effect to 
their benevolent design, but the sanction of the kv 
jjislature; an act of parliament was theiVfore ob- 

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$1$ ursimttv AKD nntvEv or 

lained, by vrhich the subscribew were hicdrpoeMM 
under the denonainatioii of ^^ The SieiT»-L(iM)iie Com*^ 
party;'' and, in parsuance of it, they faeU their fiiM 
iBeeting at Lond(H), in October, 179 1« 

The leodipg object of the company wM, to sub* 
tftitiite for that disgraceful traffic, which ]m suMMed 
teo long, a fair co^[lIQl^^^ with Afiica, and nil the 
benefits which might be expected to attend it^ Wfom 
tfiis connexion considerable advantages appeared 
Wtehf to riesult tp Great Britain, pot only in obtain-* 
ing several commodities cheaper* but also in opening 
market for British manufactures, to the increasing^ 
demands for which it is impossible to ^ttsign aoT 
Jimits : while Africa was Kkely to derive the still 
inore important blessingB of religion, mcHBli^, mid 

To accomplish these purposes it was necessary 
for the company to possess a tract of land^ not cmly 
as a repository for their goods, but which the Afri^p 
cans mij8;ht cultivate in peace, secure frc^ the ra« 
vages of the slave tmde. It had 1i>een aseertanied 
beyond a doubt, that the climate and soil of this 
quarter of the gbbe, were admirably suited to the 
growth of sugar, spices', coffee, cotton, indigo, rice, 
iand every other species of tropical produce, The 
c(impany proposed to teach the natives to raise these 
articles, and to set them the example, by a spirited 
cultivation on its own account; to which end, among 
pther measures, an experieqced WestJndia cultiva- 
tor was engaged to commence a sugar plantatioii. 
At the same time, directions were given to the com* 
mercia) agents to use every exertion in promoting i^ 
trade in the present produce of Africa. 

Things being thus settled upon the most bcnevo* 
lent principles, the ships sailed with the British co^ 
lonists, to whom, ip March, 1792, one diousand one 
hpnc|red ^nd thirt^«ope blafks fron^Nova^cotia were 


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The natire chtefii being reconciled to the 
plan« and being made to understand its beneficent 
(L^ndency toirards their people, the colony proceeded 
to build a Um n, to be oained Free Town, en a dry 
a9d eieirAfed 9pot» on the south side of the river. It 
eMmted 6f Bbont four hundred houses, each having 
a amall piece of ground annexed, for raiviag vegeta^ 
bieft-, disposed in nine streets, intersected by three 
ao$^ streets, all eighty feet in width, except the 
prnicipal street, iff hich contained ail the public build- 
ings, and was one hundred and sixty feet broad* 

In the first year, the col<mists suffered greatly from 
the raitty season, agamst which they had not had 
Ifenie to provide a sufficient protection; but after 
Aat» they in a great measure recovered their health 
mtd spkitSt and proceeded with alacrity in executing 
we various purpioses of their settlement Before the 
^d of two years, from the institution of the colony. 
Older and industiy had begun to show their effects 
in an increasing prosperity. The woods had been 
eut down, to the distance of three miles, all round 
the fown ; by which means the salubrity of the set* 
dement had been promoted, and sickness diminished^ 
The fame of the colony had spread not only along 
tile whole western coast of Africa, but also to parts 
fer distant from the coa^t: embsussies of the most 
friendly nature had been received from kings and 
princes, several hundred miles distant; and the na^ 
tives had begun to send their children, with full coDp 
/idence, to the schools established in the colony, to 
be instructed in reading, writing, and accounts^, and 
to be bfought up in the Christian religion. In ^ 
word, it was not without grounds, that the oompany 
looked forward to the period, when, by the influence 
of their measures, the ccHitinent of Africa should be 
rescued from a state of ignorance and miseiy, and 
exhH>it the agreeable picture of Jqiowledge and cit 


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vilizatioD, of peaceful industry and domestic com- 

But their hopes were disappointed, at least for a 
time. At the commencement of the late war, the 
French convention authorized one of their agents to 
write to the directors, requesting a full account of 
the design of the institution, aiid the names of the 
ships employed in their service; and to assure them 
of the good wishes of the French government to so 
Boble an undertaking. How completely that govern^ 
ment fulfilled its premise is very generally known. 
Having, in Eurojte, vindicated the rights of men, by 
the violation of every principle of truth and justice, 
' they determined, to use the same means, to give light 
and liberty to the Africans ; and that they carried tfieir 
determination into the fullest effect in their power, 
may be proved from their treatment of this colony, i 

On the 28th of September, 1794, they arrived in 
the river, with a fleet of eight sail of armed vessels, 
disguised as English ships, and carrying the British 
flag; nor did the unfortunate inhabitants, who might 
be considered as wholly defenceless against such a 
force, discover the deception, until the town was 
fired upon, and several persons were killed and 
wounded, even after a flag of truce was displayed on 
the governor's house. In the afternoon they landed, 
and, finding the town nearly deserted, began to pluQ- 
der. What they did not want they burnt, or threw 
into the river. They killed all the cattle, and every 
H^imal they could meet with, even cats and dogs; 
and continued these proceedings for upwards of a 
week. At length, after having destroyed all the pub^ 
lie and private buildings of the Europeans, and in- 
flicted the greatest hardships on them they could 
Buffer, short of the loss of life, these marauders took 
.their departure on the l^th of October, leaving the 
town «-people in the most dreadful situation ; with. 
4 out 

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out provisions, clothes, medicines, houses, or furni- 
ture, and, but for the assistance of their friendsi 
both natives and Europeans, every individual must 
have perished. 

Thus the friends of the whole human race per- 
formed their promise of '^ spreading light and li- 
berty through the world/^ The Sierra-Leone co- 
lony was established to abolish slavery, to enlighten 
the Africans, and to render them virtuous, rational, 
free and happy ; and the chaihpions of the rights of 
man, destroyed that colony with every circumstance 
of wanton cnielty. But though this event ha0 
thrown a considerable damp upon the proceedings 
of the company, there is still reason to hope, that 
their endeavours will be ultimately successful. 

By the act for incorporating this company, they 
are to be under the management of a chairman, de- 
puty-chairman, and eleven directors, to be chosen 
annuafly by the proprietors. They are also empow- 
ered to have perpetual succession, and a common 
seal, to make bye-laws, to purchase land9> and to 
trade upon a joint stock. 

The above are the principal commercial companies 
at present subsisting; but there are some others, 
which though not in strict terms, " commercial," 
are so connected with the commerce of London, as 
to require that they should be noticed here : these 
are the Bank, the West-India, London, and East- 
India dock companies. 

The Bank of England. 

It may be considered extraordinary that, in a na- 
tion abounding so much in w^lth and commerce, 
no national bank, capable not only of supporting its 
own credit by a paper cuwency, for the convenience 
of comutnerce, but also of assisting the national cre- 

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SSO HinoET Aff9 suRVsy or 

dlit, should hare ^>een estaUished before the yur 

Mr. ?inili8in Pateisoo^ the prajector of the Bonk 
of England, obtierviDg the difficulty of raising the 
annual supplies for the service of tbie stale, hra ta^ 
boured from the year I69I1 to obtain the incorpo* 
ration of a number of persons, well affected to the 
government) who, on being invested with eer|tain 
poweis and privileges, would advance a laige sum, 
oy WW of loan, for the pubKc exigencies. At this 
time the ministry were so distressed to raise the an« 
nual supplies, as to be compelled to solicit the 
common-council of London, to advance one or two 
hundred thousand pounds, at a time, on the first 
payments of the land-tax ; and even this sum was 
procured by applications being made by the com- 
mon^councilmen, from door to door through th« 

This prcject naturally experienced the opposi^ 
tion of the monied men, lest it should, as it cer* 
tdnlydid soon after, diminish Xheir exorbitant gains 
from the public distresses; Sot even eight per cent, 
on the land-tax, besides additional premiums, 
though payable within th6 year, did not satisfy 
them : while other anticipations of the public reve- 
nue were much higher ; the interest, premiums, and 
discount, running up to twenty, thirty, and even 
forty per cent. 

At length, however, after long debates in tha 
privy-council, on the expediency and efficacy of the 
measure, a bill was brought into parliament and 
passed, in 1644) for laying a duty on tonnage, &c. 
and also to empower their Majesties, King WilKam 
and Queeii Mary, to take subscriptions from such in^ 
dividuals, as should be willing to advance one mtl* 
lion two hundred thousand pounds upon the ore* 
dit of the rates so imposed, and to incorporate them 


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%jmV9n AVD ITS SNTIK019S. 931 

hf ^ mmit of ^ The Governor and Company of 
the Btak of Engiand,^^ with a yearly allowance of 
OQe htittdrtel thousand pounds, viz. ninety^six thou-f 
aand poomk for interest, at eight p^ cent, and four 
thouMpd pounds as an allowance for chaises of ma- 
nagement. The iuqd to be redeemable af&r the Ist 
of August, 170i,.upoD a years notice, and payment 
of the. principal, and then t^e corporation to cease. 

Ja consequence of this act of parliament, the sub- 
soriptions for the on& million t^o hundred thousand 
poiuds were completed in ten days time, and 
twenty-five per cent, paid down: and the charter of 
mcorpoiation wasexedu^d on the 97th of July, \69*. 
By this charter, the company is put under the ma- 
nagameot of a governor, deputy governor, and twenty- 
hur directors, to be elected isnnually, thirteen or more 
to constitute a court, of which the governor or deputy 
governor to be always one. They are to have perpe- 
tual «ucoessioo, a common seal, and the other usual 
fommm ojT ccvporations ; but must not bonrow money 
Qodef their tmamon seal, without the authority of 
pttlittnent. • They -are not to trade, or suffer any per- 
son m trust for them to trade, in any goods or mer- 
ebandin; but they may deal in bills of exchange, in 
bisying or sdling bullion, and foreign gdld and silver ' 
coin, iuu They are also empowered to lend money 
oa pawns pr> pledges, and to sell those which shall 
not be fedeemed at the time agreed on, or within 
tltfe^' months after ; but this is a power which the 
owpomtipn has made liwle or no use of. 

* Various oadsascontribated to occasion great difii^ 
calty and distress to this infant bank, among which, 
tibe iMici^cy <tf the funds ifor the annual sup-. 
idiesy tni^* b^ oensidered as the moist prominent ^; 
ntfdto tlM may %e' added the bad state of the silver^ 
coimig6,Whieh*4bey biHl taken ^t the nominal valQ<^^ 

- t9i.. III. T t in 

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3i2 nistoRY AND smiYEv or . 

in exchange for their own notes pdydbiie oaSemikd i 
and, on the re*K;oina^e of that moDey, did Rotrnkleivc^ 
enough from the mint to ^answer the daiiy deniand 
on them: so tha^ in the year I696, their cash dM^ 
were at a discoun;t of fifteen or twenty per emit and, 
in the tlien well known newspaper, called the Post* 
man, of the 29d of June, \697i id the ibllowii^ 
paragraph: ^' Bank notes were yesterday between 
thirteen and fourteen percent discount/' Yet^in 
a few months after, by the re^coinage being com* 
pleted, and by a second, or engmftment aubsoiptioii 
of Exchequer tallies and orders, &c. authodzed by 
an act of parliament passed in thatywr, the credit ^ 
the Bank was quite restored. By the same act^ the 
term qf their charter was enlarged,and it was provided 
that not more than two-thirds of the directors should 
be re-chgsen at tl>e annual election. > < 

. To explain this sudden change in the afiaiia of 
the Bank, it may be necessary to observe^ thatdw^ 
Hig^the re-cqinage of the .silver j aU great dealiogaweie 
transacted by tallies, bank bills^ and notesi aiid pi^ier 
credit supplied the.want of current cash. .The Kx* 
chequer tallies, owing to the backwai^neas in the 
payment of them, were at forty or fifty per cent, disk 
count; 4md hence the monied men ne^bcted trade^ 
and turned usurers. To remedy these levils,. and re* 
store the public credit, the above Act of p^ament 
was devised, which, at the same time that it in* 
creased .the capital of the Bank, b^ enahtogMt tia 
take in these tallies ^ a n^w subscription^ provided 
a fund iot paying them off byaniuial inatidments, 
and rescued them out of the hands of the stodD' 
jobbers : and a {»oyision being also made for iKsspiiig* 
up. the payments of government to. tbe *Biink> ^e 
Q^it of the corporatiQn was restiMed^rtod £xcW^ 
qwer. tailing .were bought at ooe Jmndr^ atid tw^ve* 

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per cent, tb he given in payment for the new sub- 
serifillon^^ by which great estates were raised in a 
short timet 

The payment of these Exchequer tallies had re^ 
Sliced the fcapital of the Bank to its original amount^ 
when, in the year 1706, it was again increased by 
the temporary addition of one million one thousand 
one hundred and seventy-one pounds, the value 6f 
one million five hundred thousand pounds in £x* 
chequer bills, at four and half per cent, which the 
Bao^ undertook to circulate; and, by the same act^ 
it waa to remain a corporation until the redemption 
of all the said Exchequer bills. This is the first 
instance of the circulation of government securities 
thm:^ the medium of the Bank, who, by this mea- 
sure, connected themselves immediately with the 
government, and have ever since maintained the 
connection, by taking such ^nirities, from time to 
time, on moderate terms, until, in consequence of 
these various additions, their capital is increased to 
upwards of eleven millions and a half. 

The credit of the Bank experienced another trial 
in 1708,' when, on occasion of an apprehended inva- 
sion by f^nce, in support of the Pretender, the de- 
mand, or run, as it is termed, upon the Bank, was so 
great, that they were obliged to make a call of twenty 
per cent, upon their capital, which, with the offer of 
considerable advances from some of the principal 
nobility, enabled them to surmount that difficulty. 
And so little was their credit injured by this event, 
that, in the following year, when an act was passed 
for enabling them to double their capital, the whole 
sum, amounting to upwards of two millions two 
hundred thousand pounds, was subscribed within 
four hours, and near a million more would have been 
iubficribod had there keen room for it. 

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. In 1711 » a clduse was iotroduced iatoitaii Mt lor 
enabling and obliging the Bank of £n^liui4' >()> es* 
change Exchequer bills for ready money, .by wludl 
it was provided, that no peiaoft dioidd be a dvector 
of the Bank and of the East faicUa Copupany at te 
same time* 

Until the year 17^9, the cash notes of the Bmk 
were all issued for sums twenty pounds 
or upwards; but in that year w iimiaiial scaroity ot 
gold and silver prevailed, arisiog fiom the qumtily 
of specie taken out of the country to pay troqMi in 
Germany and America; in consequence wherao^ 
the Bank issued notes for fifteen*^ pounds an4 ten 
pounds each, which proved a great accommodation 
to the pubhc. In the year 1790, notes of five pemds 
were put in circulation, and in Maix;h, 1797, an act 
of parliament was passed to legalize smaller notes^ 
when those of one and two pounds were issued. 

In the same session <^parliament»an aet was pasoed 
Sot limiting the cash payments of the Bafik, previous 
to which, they were required to keep aauffidentanm 
of ready money, not only to answer the common^but 
^so any extraordinary demand upon them* Whatever 
money they have by them, over and above the sum 
supposed necessary for these purposes,; is employed 
in what may be called the trade of the company; 
that is to say, in discounting bills of exdiangC) bi:^. 
ing, bullion and government securities^ '&c. The 
amount of the ready cash necessary to be reserved to 
meet the demand for cash notes and credit of ac- 
counts, has been frequently the subject of coogectare: 
for such it must ever remain to the world. TUs may 
perhaps be termed the fair and reasonable secret of 
banking, which should never be enquired into, with- 
out there should arise a reasonable suspicion of fiaud 
or misconducJ:; for it is a politifial observatioii af 


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loog ma^^tt^t 9veii powerful jrtates asd m^ 
naichieeroften subsist more by conunon fsaae or c^ 
moQ, than by re^l strength or ability : and this ob- 
servation is. Oiuch more applicable to banks of ail 
descriptions, and to most of the great commercial 
societiea^ whose intemal condition, circumataDces and 
pro^ ought not to be the atilgect of public and i». 
nute investigation, while tbey are punctual in tbdf 
transactions, ainoe, without danger to their creditom, 
th^ laay not be alike prosperous at all times. 

In its present state, the stability of the Bank of 
En^and is equal to that of the British goremtnent: 
ail that it has advanced to. the public musi: be lost 
before ita craditoia can austahi any injuryl No oAer 
banking company can be established in Engknd hw 
theaothority of parKsnnfent, nor can any pi:ivate bank 
consist of idore than six membeta^ It acts, oot only 
as an ordinary bank, but as a gieat eng^ie of stale; 
lecaTMg and paying the greater part of the annuities 
which ans due to Aie orediteNrs of the public, circus 
ktiBig Excheipier bills, andadvancibg to goreramea^ 
the annnai amoun('Of the hoid and nmlt taxes, which 
are fteqoently not paid up till some years after, ik 
likewise has, upon several difierent occasions, sups- 
ported the credit of.the principal mercantile bouses 
in England, and sometunes those of Hambui^h and 
Holkmd ; and, in one instance, is said to have ad- 
vanced a million six hundred thousand pounds, prin^ 
cipally in bullion, within a week. 

in the year 1781, Uie last act of parliament for 
continuing the charter of the Bank, was pasaedf by 
which the term is prolonged nntill the year 1813; 
after which it may be dissolved, upon twelve months 
notice, and repayment of the whole of the public 
dd[>t owing to that body; but this is an event not likely 
to happen, and the corporation may therefore be con*' 
sidered as perpetual, though it will necessarily require 



future aMs of parliament to give a l^alatri#8aQctk>n 
to its continuance. ' ♦ » . . 

The West-India Dock Cbmpany. 

The dodcs described p. ISQ^ of this volume, have 
beeb formed at the expense of two companies, incor- 
pfMtjad by dififerent acts of parliament Of these, 
the West-India Dock Compimy was first established, 
the act for that purpose havmg been passed ut Julj^ 
1799 * It is a joint-stock company, the capital of 
which was originally five hundr^< thousand. pounds, 
but with a power to increase it to six hundr^ thou* 
sand pounds, with the consent of Ae nug^rity of the 
subscribers, whose shares are transferraUe. 

All' ships returning fvom the West4ndies, or hav* 
iDg West-India produce on board, mu6t be unloaded 
in the docks belonging to this company, under a 
penalty of one hundred pounds: but a power is 
vested in the Commissioners of tbeCuttomB to di»* 
pense with this law^ iii the event of the docks being 
/SO full as to be incapable of i^eodving the whole <^ 
the homeward-bound trade. The outward-bound 
vessels must also be loaded, here, under th^ same pe* 
nalty: . 

The- company i^ under the direction ora ohair«- 
man, deputy chairman, and nineteen directors; eight 
of whom, viz. four aldermen and four oomnKm- 
council-men, are appointed by the city; the other 
thirteen are ohbsen by the company; and the quali* 
fication for a director, is the actual ppssession, in his 
own right, of two thousand pounds stock. Five di- 
' rectors go out annually, in rotation. 

This ,comj>any is invested with the usual powers 
of corporations, with this exception, however, that 
their bye-laws are to be approved of by the L^rd 
Chaace^Uor, the two chief justices, and the Chief Ba» 


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LOKPOor Am m eittxeohs. 997 

fom of ttnJBsdMfufer, or aone one of tbtm, bdbre 
tbey cafi'fae curied into ^fecL " • 

The London Dock Company: 

The proprietors of this company were incorporated 
by an act of parliament passed in June, 1800, under 
the denomination of'' The London Dock Company,^ 
with a capital joint-stock, which must not exceed 
one miUion two hundred thousand pounds ; and are 
empowered to make wet docks, and to purchase lands, 
&c. for that purpose, within the parishes of St. B6- 
tolph, Aldgate; St. John, Wapping; St. George, Mid- 
dlesex; and St. Paul, Shadwell. 

The government of it is in a chairman, deputy 
chairman, and twenty-four directors, of whom the 
lord mayor for the time being must be one, in virtue 
of his office as conser\'ator of the river Thames. 

The East-India Dock Company. 

This company was incorporated by an act of par- 
liament passed in July, 1803, for the purpose of 
making docks within the parishes of St/Dunstan, 
Stepney, and Bsomley St Leonard^ for the reception 
of the ships employed in the service of the East- 
India Company, which are prohibited from unfead- 
ing elsewhere^ except in Long Reach, for lessening 
ite draught ofi water, under a penalty of five hundred 
pounds. There. is, however, a similar power given, 
lo the Commissioners of the Custpms, in case these 
docks should be full, aa is given by the. act for esta- 
blishing the West-India JDock Company. Outward 
booad ships must load either in these docks, or 
bek>w Limehouse-creek, under a penalty of two 
hundred pounds. 
• 4 . ' There 

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f.lUr«^4tf6 thirteen AnetaB^tyf ^'crtk||i^ f<Mir 
<^ whom must be diratitbiB/af the fiH^IaiQia C^hk- 
pany; and tbe other nine, three of whom go out in 
rotation annually^ must each be poss^ssecU in his 
Qwn ri^ht^of two thousandpounda in the company 's 
ftopli;, and must alsQ be either a director of the East- 
India Company, or an agent, husband, or consignee 
vf, or posseted of a share, of the value of five thou- 
^nd pounds, in some ship actually in jthe employ of 
that company. 

Tlie' capital stock of this company is limited to 
three hundred thousand pounds. 

The docks belonging to this company are a short 
distance below the ^VestJndia Docks, and, should 
tKey be conpiplet^ in time, shall be described in the 

We cannotclose this sketch of the commercial 
history of Lk>ndon, without noticing the custom of 
insurance upon ships and goods, which was intro* 
duc^d into mode^ co^fnerce, by tbe London mer* 
chants, in the sixteenth century. 

It is asserted, that the practice waft used by the 
Romansy and that it originated under Qaudios Coe- 
aat; and the sea laws of Oleron creat of it as far back 
a» 1 194: it is, however, certain, tfaaC it had been so 
long discontinued as to have been f(Mrgottem when it 
wa9 brouj^ht inio us^ by the English, about the y^ar 
I06O, when an ofiice for that purpose, tbe fisst on 
itecord; was held in Lombard-stveet. lUs is evident 
from Guicci^rdini's Description of the Netheriands ; 
who, after having given an account of the extensive 
eommo^e betWec^n the .Nedierlanda aind Eaglaml^ 
sttys,- ^^^ Neither of which countries could pdesibJ^ dis-* 
penae ^ilh this their vast mutual oointnerds'; of 
which ih^iBerchaiits on both sides nt« so sensible, 
that they have Jallm info a way of iMUfing their 


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fnercbandiee from losses atsea, by a joint confribu- 
tiim:'^ which is a strong proof, that the custom was 
new to the merchants of that period. And that it 
was in iise in England somewhat earlier than on the 
continent, may be reasonably inferred from Malynes, 
who, in his Lex Mercatoria, says, *^ And whereas 
the meetings of merchants in London were held in 
Lombard-street^ so called because certain Italians of 
Lombardy kept there a pawn*house, or Lombard, 
long before the Royal Exchange was built, all tbe 
policies of insurance at Antwerp, which then were, 
and now (1633), yet are made, do make mention 
that it shall be, in all things concerning the said as- 
surances, as was accustomed /o be done in Lombard^ 
street J m London; which is imitated . also in other 
places of the Low Countries/^ 

In 1601, we have the first statute for regulating in- 
surances; the preamble to which states the advantages 
arising to merchants from the practice, and recites, 
that, ^* Whereas heretofore such assurers have used 
to staAd so justly and precisely upon ther credits, as 
few or no controversies have arisen thereupon ; >and, 
if any have grown, the same have, from timb to 
time, been ended and ordered by certain grave and 
discrtet merchants, appointed by the Lord Mayor of 
London ; until of late years, that divers persons have 
withdrawn themselves from that arbitrary course, and 
have sought to draw the parties assured to seek their 
monies of every several assurer, by suits commenced 
in her raajestjps courts, to their great charges and 
delays/^ It wf^ therefore now enacted, that the lord 
chancellor shodld appoint a standing yearly commis- 
sion, to consist of the Judge of the Admiralty, the 
Recorder of liOnclon, two doctors of the civil law, 
two common lawyers, and eight merchants; any five 
•f whom to have power to determine all causes on 

VOL. Ill, V V policies 

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polioies of assurance in a summary way, and to meet 
weekly, at the office of insurance, on the west side 
pi the Royal Exchange, for the execution of their 
commission, without fee or reward. 

The mode in which the business of this office w«8 
conducted is not now known; it is, however, pro* 
bable, that more than one existed prior to 1627, 
when Charles I. granted a monopoly for nuiking and 
r^stering all manner of assurances, &c. made up<Hi 
any ships, goods, or merchandize, in the Royal Ex- 
change, or other places within the city of London. 

Among the schemes produced in the year 1720, 
which proved so fertile in projects and bubbles, 
were several for insuring ships and merchandize, 
only two of which were successful, viz. the Royal 
Exchange and London Assurance Companies; both 
of which, in pursuance of an act of parliament, 
passed a»few days before, were incorporated by char- 
ters from King George I. dated on the 34th of June, 
in that year : each corporation having undertaken to 
. pay three hundred thousand pounds towards th^ 
discbarge of the civil list debts ; btit, in consideration 
of the difficulties they laboured under, part of this 
sum was remitted to each, by an act passed in the 
following year ; when they also received other char- 
ters to enable them to insure houses and goods 
against fire, which is now their principal occupation ; 
for though th^ir first charters were exclusive, as to 
corporations, they were not ^ as to individuals. 
The prevailing mode of effecting insurances, at pre- 
sent in use, is to employ a broker, who procures 
subscriptions from a sufficient number of indivi- 
fluals, to cover the sum insured; on payment of a 
premium, which varies according to the circum- 
stances of the case. The subscribers are known by 
|)y the name of l/nderwritets, and, from the division 

•;•: • \" . ' • pf 

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of the amount insured among so many, it is consi- 
dered less subject to the misfortunes or'faiiure of 
the insurers, than when the whole is taken by one 
person or corporation ; though many well informed 
merchants prefer a public company to private in- 

► « 

Chap, xxxiv. 

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CHAP, rscxiv. 

Of the Ecclesiasticql Government of the City of Londmu 
— Extent of th^Diocese. — Privileges and Duties of the 
Bishop and other spiritual Officers, — Ancient State of 
the Parish Priests. — Annual Stipends settled on them in 
lieu of Tythes, — Number of Parish Churches, and other 
religious Ijistitutions, formerly, — -TAc Title of Saint 
ad&d to the Name qf the Church.^^Bills of Mortality. 

We have already shown, in Book L Chap. 11. 
that the Christian religion was introduced into Bri- 
tain, and that London was a bishop's see, before the 
Romans abandoned it, although the Pagan worship 
of the Saxons appears to have supplanted Christianity 
in the interval between that event and the conversion 
of the latter people, which is attributed to Austin, 
or Augustine the monk, a missionary from Pope Gre- 
gory, who, in 604, constituted Mellitus«a bishop, 
and sent him to preach among the £ast Saxons, of 
whose kingdom I^ndon was, at that time, the capi- 
tal, and it has ever since remained the chief city of 
the see. 

This diocese, which has never experienced any 
alteration, being formed of the ancient kingdom of 
the East Saxons, is in the province of Canterbury, and 
is composed of the counties of Middlesex, Essex, and 
part of Hertfordshire. It is governed by a bishop, 
who is assisted by a dean, precentor, chancellor, trea- 
surer, five archdeacons, thirty canons or prebendaries, 
twelve petty or minor canons, six vicars choral, a 
sub-dean, and other inferior officers. 

In common with all the bishops of the realm, the 

Bishop of London has the power of holding a court 

in his owii diocese, for the trial and punishment of 

* *»- spiritual 

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spiritual offences, in which he may either sit as judge 
bifnself. or depute his power to a chanceiior, suiira- 
gan, or other officer. The bishops' courts, therefore, 
though held by. the king's authority, are not properly 
to be accounted the king's courts, since none of the 
judges possess this privilege, neither are writs from, 
them issued in the name of the king, but of the 

In {precedence, the Bishop of London ranks next 
after the two archbishops, and is stiled, in some of 
the old statutes, Primus JBaro Regniy the ecclesiasti- 
cal barons taking precedence of all the temporal ba- 
rons* It is also the privilege of tliis diocese, not to be 
suliject to the visitation of the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury : there are, however, thirteen parislies in the 
city,. under his immediate government, and stiled his 
peculiars, which are exempt from the bishop's juris.^ 

The d^n is to assist the bishop in ordinations, de- 
pnvations, and other affairs of the churqh.; and oix 
the king's writ of Congi d^elire; the dean and pre«^. 
bendaries elect the bishop ; but tbis'ekction is now a. 
mere maliter of form, since the pefsou reconmiefided 
by the king is always chosen. The dean is also 
elected by the chapter, on letteiB missive fix)m the 
king, whc^ assent must be obtained before the bi- 
shop can confirm and give power to instal him. 

The precentor, or chanter, is to superintend the 
church music. Under him is a sub-chanter, who 
officiates in his absence. The second stall, on the 
north side of the choir, belongs to this officer, whose 
corpa is in the church of Stortford, of wliichhe is 
proprietor, and perpetual rector, and patron of the 

The chancellor was anciently called Mugiater 
scho/arumy from having had the charge of literature 
within the city of London, whereby he was em- 

' powered 

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powdered to license all the schoolmasters in the <!ity« 
except those of. St. J\tary-le-Bow, and St« Martin^ 
le-Grand: but at present, he is only secretary to 
the chapter. He has the third stall on the north side 
of the choir, and his corps is-in the church of Bore<« 
ham and Yelling. 

The treasurer has the custody of the valuables be-> 
longing to the cathedral church of St. Paul; for the 
faithful keeping of which he is sworn before the dean 
and chapter. ^ tJe has the third stall on the south 
side of th^ choir, and his corps is in the church of 
Pelham and Aldebri. Under him is the sacrist, who 
is also sworn to the faithful discharge of his ofiice, 
'three vergers, and the inferior servants of the 

The five archdeaconries are those of London, Eb-^ 
sex, Middlesex, Colchester, and St Albania. Their 
office is to visit the several cures within their respec* 
tive archdeaconries, and to enquire into the repara- 
tions and moveables belonging to them ; to reform 
slight abuses in ecclesiastical matters, and to brii^ 
affairs of moment before the bishop. It is also the 
office of the archdeacon to induct clerks into their 
benefices upon the bishop's mandate. 

The thirty canons, or prebendaries, with the bi- 
shop, compose the chapter, by which the affairs of 
the church are managed. All the prebends are in 
the collation of the bishop, and out of them there are 
three residentiaries, besides the dean ; so called from 
their continual residence in the church. 

The prebends belonging to this cathedral are as 
follow, viz. ^ 

Bromesbury, or Brandesbury, wliose corps lie in 
the parish of Willesdon, in Middlesex; whose stall 
is the fomteenth on the left side of the choir. 


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I BrowDswood, or Brownsword, in the parish of 
Wiltesdon, Middlesex, hath the sixteenth stall on 
the right side of the choir. 

Cadington msyor, in the xmuot of Cadinjs^on, in 
the county of Bedford, now called the manor of 
Aston-bury, with a further revenue ftom certain 
houses in St. Paul's church-yard; has the seven- 
teenth stall on the left side of the choir. 
. Cadington minor, in the parish of Cadington, Bed- 
fordshire ; has the fifth stall on the left side of tlie 

Chamberlain-wood, in the parish of Willesdon, 
Middlesex ; has the fifth stall on the right side of 
the choir, 

Chiswick, in the parish of Chiswick, Middlesex; 
has the eighteenth stall on the left side of the choir. 

Consumpt. per Mare (or in Waltone), in the parish 
' of Walton in le Soker, Essex, about three miles north 
of the Gunfleet upon the sea-coast. This corps is so 
called from having been swallowed up by the sea, 
bef<Nre the conquest. It holds the thirteenth stall on 
the left side of the choir. 

£a]and, of £ldelond, in Tillin^ham, near Dengy, 
in the deanery and hundred of Dengy, and county 
of Essex ; hath the tenth stall on the left side of the 

Ealdstreet, in the parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, 
Middlesex; has the eighteenth stall on the right side 
pf the choir, 

Harleston, in the parish of Willesdon, Middlesex, 
has an additional revenue from some houses in St. 
Pauls rhurch-yard; and th^ 7th stall on the right 
side of tlie choir. 

Holboume, in the parish of St. Andrew, Holbora, 
in the suburbs of London ; hath the sixth stall on 
tlie right 5fide of the^chpir. 


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Holywdi, alias Finsbury, in die manor of Fins- 
buiy, situate in th/e several parishes of St. Giles, Crip- 
plegate^ and St. Leonard, Shorec^itcb ; hath the fourth 
stall on the right side of the choir. 

In the year 1315, May 23, an agreement was en- 
tered into between Robert de Baldock, Prebendary 
of Holywell add Finsbury, and John Gizors, the 
mayor, and commons of London ; whereby the said 
Robert, for himself and successors (with the consent 
of the dean and chapter), did grant all his right and 
claim in Mora de Holywell and Finsbury, to the same 
mayor and commonalty ; for which they were to pay 
him and his successors twenty shillings rent per anh. 

Hoxton, of old named Shoreditch, in the parish of 
St. Leonard, Shoreditch, or within the limits thereof; 
hath the ninth stall on the left side of the choir. 

Isledon, or Islington, in the parish of Islington, 
Middlesex ; hath the eleventh stall yn the left side 
of the choir. 

. Kentish-town, in the parish of St. Pancras, Mid- 
dlesex ; hath the tenth stall on the right side of the 

Mapesbury^ or Maplebury, in the parish of Willes- 
don, Middlesex ; hath the twelfth stall on the right 
side of the choir. 

Mora, or More extra London, in the parish ^f St. 
Giles, without Cripplegate; hath the ninth stall on 
the right side of the choir. 

Nelsdon, orNeasdon, in the parish of Willesdon, 
Middlesex ; hath the fifteenth stall on the left side of 
the choir. 

Newinijton, or Newton Ginonicorum, in the parish 
of Stoke Newington, Middlesex ; hath the sixteenth 
stall on the left side of the choir. 

Oxgate, in the parish of Willesdon, Middlesex ; 
hath the thirteenth s.taU on the right side of the choin 

3 Sit 

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St. Pancms, in Middlesex, near Londbn r hath th^ 
sixth stall on the left side of the choir. H 

N. B. The Prebendary of St. Famcms was origi* 
Daily the Bishop of London^s confessor ; and to thi»' 
diay^ whoever is Prebendary of St. PdiicrM, is admit- 
ted with the office of confessor and penitentiary 
thereunto anneiied. 

Portpoole, or Pourtepol, extra London, in and 
about Portpoole-lane and Gray's-inn-lane, in the pa- 
rish of St. Andrew, Holbbrn ; hath the eighth stall 
on the right side of the choir. 

Reculverland, in the parish of Tillingham, in Es- 
sex ; hath the seventh stall on the left side of the 

Rugmore, in the parish of St. Pancras, Middlesex; 
hath tbe seventeenth stall on the right side of ther 

Sneating, in the parish of Kirkeby, in Essex ; hatb 
the fourteenth stall on the right side of the choir. 

Tottenhall, or Tottenham-court, in the parish of 
St. Pancras, Middlesex; hath the fourth statl on the 
left side of the choir. 

Twyford, called East Twyford, in the parish of 
Willesdon, Middlesex ; has the eleventh stall on the 
right side of the choir. 

W^nlakeVbarn, otWellakf^bury, in the parish of 
St. Giles; has the fiftea^th stall on the right side of 
the choir. 

Wildland, in the parish of Tillingham, Essex; has 
the eighth stall on the left side of the choir, 

Willesdon, or Willesdon-green, in the parish of 
Willesdon, Middlesex ; has the twelfth stall on the 
left side of the choir. , 

The twelve petty canons are usually chosen out of 
the ministers and officers belonging to the chiircb. 
•They were constituted a body politic and corporate, 
by letters patent of Richard 11. dated in 1399, ^n- 

VOL. III. XX der 

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derthedrnoinination of " The college of the twelve 
^tty canons of St. Paul's." Thej are governed by 
a warden chosen from among themselves, and have 
the privilege of a conunon seal. 

One of the petty canons is appointed sub-dean, by 
the dean with the consent of the chapter and minor 
canons. His office is to supply th^de&ns place in 
the choir. Two others are denominated cardinals of 
the choir, to which office they are elected by the 
dean and chapter, and are to superintend the duly of 
the choir. 

With respect to the ancient state of the parish 
priests of London, it is to be observed that their re- 
venues did not arise from a glebe, or from tythe of 
lands, but from customary payments issuing out of 
the houses of their parishioners according to the 
value of the rents, which were called oblatiomy be- 
cause they were small pieces of money oifered by 
each parishioner to Grod and the churth, on certain 

This custom had been used for many ages, but 
the earliest document on record. for regulating the 
amount of the payments, is the constitution of Roger 
Niger, Bishop of London, from 1229 to 1241, 
whereby the citizens were enjoined to pay to their 
respective parish priests on ail Sundays and festivals, 
the vigils of which were to be observed as feasts, 
one farthing for every house at ten shillings a year 
rent ; a halfpenny for one of twenty, and for those 
of forty shillings one penoyeach: all whjch. amounted 
to about two shillings and six pence in the pound ; 
for there Were but eight apostles days oii which these 
payments were to be made, and if any of these 
chanced to fall on a Sunday, there was only one paj- 
ment made for that day, 

ITiis mode of payment continued, until the 
1 3th Richard 11. when Thomas Arundel, Archbishop 


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of Cailterbury, publi^ed *^ An Explanatioo''* of the 
constitution made by !Niger, in which he added 
tB"enty-two other saints days, by which the payments 
were increased to three shillings and five pence in the 
pound; but this having occasioned contests between 
the inhabitants and their pastors, a bull of confimui- 
tion was issued by Popef Innocent, in the 5th year of 
Henry IV. Still the citizens were dissatisfied, and 
notwithstanding a second bull of confirmation by 
Pope Nicholas, in tl^e 31st of Henry VL they caused 
a record or protest to be made, in which they asserted, 
that the order of explanation by the archbishop of 
Canterbury, was surreptitiously obtained, without the 
knowledge and consent of the citizens of London, and. 
was to be considered rather as a destructive, than a 
declaratory law. 

Notwithstanding this opposition of the citizens, 
they were constrained to pay on the additional saints 
clays, until the seventeenth of Henry VIIL when 
the matter in dispute being referred to the Lord Chan- 
cellor and Privy Council, an act of parliament, 
founded upon their report, was passed, by which the 
rate was reduced to two shillings and nine pence in 
the pound. 

But although the citizens obtained this diminution 
of the rate, they remained equally unwilling tp pay 
it, and sought to reduce it by various stratagems, par- 
ticularly by taking their houses at low nominal rents,, 
and making up the difference to the landlord by 
yearly or quarterly fines, annuities, new years 
gifts, &c. wliereby the clergy were defrauded of 
their just demands, which occasioned repeated ap- 
phcatioUvS to parliament, and to the king and council, 
but no effectual redress was obtained, until after the 
fire of London •. 

By this event, eighty four of the* ninety seven 
parish churches within the walls were destroyed, and 


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thdr number being greatly reduced by the iiiriting of 
several parishes into ope, in pursuance of the act for 
rebuilding the city, it was found necessary to make a 
more certain provision for the incumbents of the 
several livings; in consequence of which an act was 
passed in 167 1 9 for providing a fixed annual revenue 
for the maintenauce of the parsons, vicars, and cui^tes, 
of the respective single or united parishes, to be 
raised by an equal assessment. This act remained in 
force until the year 1804, when in consequence of a 
petition of the London clergy, for an increase of their 
annual stipends, anew act was passed by which they 
were setded as follows: - £• s. d. 

AUhallows, Lombard-street SOO 

St, Bartholomew, Exchange 200 

St Bridget or St. Bride's 200 

St. Bennet Finck 800 

St. Michael's, Crooked-lane 200 

St. Dionis Back-church 200 

St. Dunatan in the East 333 

St. James, Garlick-hithe > 200 

St. Michael, Cornhill 233 

St. Margaret, Lothbury & St. Christopher 366 13 
St. Michael, Bassishaw 220 

St. Mary, Aldermanbury 250 

St.Marttn, Ludgate 266 

St. Peter's, Cornhill 200 

i5t. Stephen, Coleman-street 200 

St. Sepulchre's 333 

AUhallows, Bread-st. and St. John Evan- 
gelist " . - 233 6 a 
AUhallows the Great, and AUhallows the 

Less **- - - 333 6 '8 

St. Alban^s, Wood-st. and St. Olave'a Sil- 
ver-street - - .283 6 8 
St. Anne, St. Agnes, &St. JohnZachary's 233 6 8 
St. Aus^ustine and St. l^aith r 286 13 4 
















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LOVPOK ▲»!> 1X8 £NVlAONft» S41 

St» Andrew Wardrobe, and St. Aaoe« ^'^ ^. <ij^« 

Black-friars - ^ - fidd 6 ^8 

St. Antholine, and St, Jehn Baptist 200 Q 'o 
St. Benet's, Grace-church, and Sl Leo- 
nard, East-cheap - - 233 6 8 
St.Benety haul's- wharf, and St. Peter, 

Paul's-wharf - - - gOO 
Chriftt^s-church, & St. Leonard,Foster-lane 2J3 6 8 
St. Edmund the King, and S£. Nicholas 

Aeons - - 300 © 

St. George, Botolph-lanc, and St. Botolph, 

Billingsgate - .- 300 0. 

St. L4avvrence, Jury, and St. ^lary Mag- 
dalen, Milk-street - iiOO 
St. Magnus, and St. Margaret, New Fish-st 28 J 6 8 
St. Michael Royal, and St. Martin Vintry 233 6 8 
St. Matthew Friday-street, and St. Peter 

cheap - ' - - 250 
St. Margaret Pattens, and St. Gabriel Fen- 
church 200 

St. Mary at Hill, and St. Andrew Hubbard 333 6 8 
St. Mary VV^oolnorth, and St, Mary ^Vool- 

church . . - •- 266 13 4 
St. Clement E-cheap, & St. Martin's Ogars 233 6 8 
3t. Mary Abchurch, and St. Laurence 

Poultney - - 200 

St. Mary Aidermary, and St. Thomas Apos- 

• tie's . . . • 230 

St. Mary le Bow; St. I'ancrass Soperlane, 

and Allhallows, Honey-lane - 333 6 8 

St. Mildred Poultry, and St. Mary Cole- 
church - - 283 6 a 
St Michael, Wpod-st.andSt. Mary Stain- 
ing - - 200 0' 
St. Mildred, Bread-st. an 1 St. Margaret 

Moses - - - 216 13 4 

^, Michael, Queenhithe wid Trinity 266 13 4 

^ St, 

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St. Maiy Magdalen, Old fisb-st. and St. £. s. d. ' 

Gre^ry - • 200 

St. Mary Somerset, and St. Mary Mount- 
haw - - * 200 
St. Kcbolas Cole-abbey, and St. Nicholas 

Olave'8 - - - - 216 13 4 

St. Olave Jewry, and St. Martin, Ironmon- 
ger-lane - - 2©0 O 
St. Stepb.Walbrook,and St. BennetShere- 

hog - - - 200 

St. Switbin, and St. Mary Bo:haw 233 6 8 

St Vedast, alias Foster's, and St. Michael 

le Quern - - 266 13 4 

The annual stipends are over and above glebes, 
gifts^ bequests, and surpUce fees ; and the vicar of 
St. Sepulchre's is entitled to one third part of the im- 
propriate ty thes, ill respect of that part of the parish 
whicii is within the county of Middlesex. 

We learn from Fabian's Chronicle, that in his time, 
the number of parish churches in London, amounted 
to one hundred and thirteen, and that there were 
also twenty-seven hd(fel*s of religion, monas- 
teries, colleges and chapels, which were not paro- 

The first .instance of adding the word saint to the 
name of the parish, occurred in the weekly bill of 
mortality, from January 15th to January 22nd, 1^*34; 
but this was thought so great a profanation, that^in 
1642, in the maj'orally of Alderman Pennington, 
the title of saint was ordered to be expunged for the 
future, and so it continued till the restorartion of 
Charles II. when it was again brought into use. 

The origin of the weekly bills of mortality is in- 
volved in great obscurity. In a work entitled " Re- 
flections on the Weekly Bills of Mortality,^* pub- 
lished in 1665, it is said that the keeping of them 
began in the year 1592, being a great year of sick- 
' nes& ; 

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ness ; and, after some disuse, was established by* 
order in the year 1603, the next year of sickness: 
the first of the continued weekly bills of mortality, 
commencing October S9th, in the same year,, being 
the first year of the reign of Ring James I. Dis- 
eases begaxi first to be distinctly taken notice of in 
the year 1629- On this subject, however, Strype 
says, " 1 meet with an older bill of mortality, viz. 
for the year 1562, and ending 1563, when a 
pbgue raged in the city/' The account whereof was 
as ibllows : . 

Buried in London, and the places near ad« 
joining, from the Ist of January, lo62, to the 
1st of January, 1563, in the whole number 93630 
Whereof of the plague - - 20136 

The true number of all that were buried 
within the city and liberties ' - - 204 14 

The true number of all that were buried" in 
places near adjoining to the city, and -wtthput 
the liberties r- . - 3216' 

Here is set down likewise, how many died in- 
each parish. This bill of mortality might be the 
first of this kind ; at least much okler than Ihat men- 
tioned by Captain Grant, viz. 159^, 15y3, which he 
seems to hold to be the oldest. . /^ 


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Of the Military Govem/nent of tJfe City of London— Mus* 
ters of the Citizens — Trained Bands-^pondun Militia^^ 
Artillery Company^ — f^olunieer Regiments. 

Thovgh the origin of die military government of 
London cannot be ascertained, it nevertheless must 
be of great antiquity, for in the reign of Alfred, the 
London forces being .joined to the regular army, 
they, in 886, besieged and took a castle car iort\ 
erected by the Danes on the coast of Essex ; and, in 
the following spring, in conjunction with the neigh- 
bouring auxiliaries, dislodged the Danes from a 
strong position they occufued near the site of the 
present town of Hertford; Heoce it is highly pro- 
bable, that a 'military government was establi^lied 
by that prince in London, immediately after he had 
recovered it from the Danes. 

In LOO9, the Danes, who had peuetnited as far 
as Oxford,, were so terrified at the approach of an 
army x>f l^nd^iers,^ that, taking a circuitous route 
through the county of Surrey, they hastened 40 their 
ships in Kent. 

How soon the city became possessed of a military 
government, distinct from that of the state,' does not 
appear ; but Edward H. having received military as- 
sistance from the city of London, in the year 1321, 
in besieging the castle of Leeds in' Kent, granted a 
charter to the citizens, whereby it is declared, that 
the same shall not be prejudicial to the mayor and 
good men of the city of London, their heirs, &c. 
nor be drawn into example in time to come. 

In the muster of the citizens in 1585, mentioned 
in vol. 11. p. 17, the men were provided by the dif- 

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fepeat companies, in proportion to their abilities ; 
ai) account of which was delivered to Sir Thomas 
PuUyson, the Lord Mayor, from which the follow- 
ing list of the numbers sent by the twelve principal 
companies is extracted, viz. 

Mercers 294 Haberdashers 395 














Merchant Taylors 






The total chaige of this muster to the several 
companies, including a sum of, two hundred and 
eighty-nine pounds three shillings and two-pence, 
coUected from the non-freemen inhabiting the city, 
amounted to fiye thousand and twenty-three pounds 
four shillings and three-pence. 

In the middle of April, 1660, about six weeks be- 
fore the Restoration of King Charles II. there was a 
muster in Hyde-Park of the troops belonging to the 
city, when there appeared six regiments of trained 
bands, six regiments of auxiliaries, and one regiment 
of horse. Of the twelve regiments of foot, eight had 
seven companies, and the other four, six companies in 
each; in all, eighty companies of two hundre(land 
fifty men, making eighteen thousand effective in- 
feiJtry. The regiment of horse consisted of six 
troops of one hundred men each. The assembling 
of this force before his majesty's return, was judged 
to be highly instrumental in facilitating that happy 

This force being judged very usefiil, not only 
for the defence of the city, but for the safety of the 
king's person, his majesty, soon after his restoration^ 

VOL. III. Y y appointed 

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appointed a comthission of lieutepanef for the city 
of I^ndon, which he invested with the same powers 
as those possessed by the loird-lieu tenants of coun- 
ties, by whom the traint^d bands were new-modelled* 
The number of the regiments of infantry remained 
the same, but the cavalry was increased to two regi- 
ments of five troops, with eighty men in each.- 

The six regiments of auxihary infantry and the 
cavalry, were not however kept up longer than ne- 
cessity required, and the permanent military force of 
the city of London was settled in the six regiments 
of trained bands, the effective strength of which 
was as follows : 

Number of men in the bliie regiment 
in the greeh 
in the yellow 
in the orange ' 
in the red 
in the white 

Oflficers and drums 336 

Total 10,i98 

Subsequent to the period when this establishment 
was made, the continued tranquillity of the city 
rendered any call upon theit own forces unnecessary, 
in copsequence of which, the trained bands went to 
decay, though they Were nominally kept up, and 
the commissions filled with th^ chief citizens ; each 
regiment being commanded by an alderman, who 
was also usually a knight. But when on the break- 
ing out of the late war with prance, it was found 
necessary to put forth all the energies of the coun* 
try, the inisufficiency df the trained bands was so 
apparent, th^t a neW^^y^tem was resorted to ; and 
1 in 

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LQ^Bpl^ 4NP lys ENviapys. . 347 

in July, J 79*5 an act of parliameftt was passed, for 
raising two regiments of njilitia for the defence of the 
city, tfi be traiqed and exercised under the super- 
intendence of the commissioners of lieutenancy ; for 
which purpose, tivo courts of lieutenancy are held 
annualfy^ viz. oq the third Wednesdays in January 
and June. 

By the above act, it was proposed to raise the 
men by ballot, in the following manner : every per- 
son or corporation within the city, possessed of a 
tenement of the annual value of filteen pounds, and 
less than one hundred pounds if ^allotted, was to 
serve, or find one substitute : from one to two hundred 
pounds, to find two substitutes ; and above two 
hundred pounds, three substitutes. 

The men so provided, weieU> be formed into two 
regiments of six hiundred ran)c and £ie each, and to 
be officered witlt citizens, and exercised in a similar 
manner to the other militia regiments ; but when 
embodied for service, one regiment to be put under 
general pfficers in any pa^^,Qf the country, within 
twelve imiles of JLondon, or in the nearest encamp- 
ment ; ^he other to remain iu the city for the de- 
fence of it and the suburb^. 

This mode of jjallpt, however, being found on trial, 
to be attended wjth many Jnconveaiencjes, a second 
act was passed jn May, 1796, by which it was 
enacted, that a certain number of men should ^be 
raised, and the expense be defrayed by an equal 
assessment upon the different parishes, in pursuance 
of which, the numbers appointed to be raised in 
each w^rd, are as follow : 

Jp^r the east regiment. 

In Aldgate ward - gO 

jBassishavv . 12 

J3illjngsga(9 .- . 41 


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In Bishopsgate within 








Candle wick ' 










Lime street 








For the west regiment, 

Aldersgate within, and 

St Martin Vle-grand 1 8 

without - 21 

Bread-street -24 

Castle Baynard - 44 

Cheap • 44 

Cordwainer - 29 

Cripplegate within - 44 

without - 36 

Farringdon within - 84 

without - 192 

Queenhithe - 21 

Vintry • 33 

Wallbrook - 27 

The commissioners of lieutenancy for the city of 
London are the lord mayor, aldermen and their de- 
puties, the recorder, chamberlain and common-ser- 
jeant for the time being, with one hundred and fifty- 
five of the prUicipal citizens, appointed by his ma- 

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jesty. Their usual place of meeting is at Barber's 

Besides these two regiments of militia, the city 
is defended by the artillery conipany, which is a vo- 
luntary enrolment of the younger citizens, and others^ 
of long standing ; and by eleven regiments of volun- 
teers, formed daring the last and present wars, and 
amounting to near eight thousand of the citizens, 
their sons and confidential servants. 

The following is the account of the origin of the 
artillery company, as given by Strype, from Howe's 
Chronicle. " In the year 1585, the city having 
been greatly troubled and charged with continual 
musters and training of soldiers, certain gallant, ac- 
tive, and foi*ward citizens, having had experience 
both at home and abroad, voluntarily Exercised 
themselves, and trained up others for the ready use 
of war. So as within two yeai^, there were almost 
three hundred merchants, and others of like quality, 
very sufficient and skilful to train and teach common 
soldiers the management of their pieces, pikes, and 
halberts, to nmrch, counter-march, and ring. Which 
said merchants, for their own perfecting in military 
affairs and discipline, met every Thursday in the 
year, practising ail usual points of war, and every 
man by turns bare orderly office, from the <!0rporal 
to the captain. Some of them, in the dangerous 
year 1588, had charge of men* in the greistt camp at 
Tilbury, and were generally called captains of the 
ajtillery garden, the place where they exercised* 
These took precedent from the merchants of Ant- 

" But this useful artillery exercise became after- 
wards discontinued for a great while, till'^the year 
i6lO; when, by means of Philip Hudson, lieutenant 
9f the said company, Thomas Laverock, Roberf 


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950 HISTORY AkO ^V^VSY of 

HttgbB, Saoq. Artbois, Robert *Greenhurgt, ^nd divers 
other gentlemen and citizens of London, tliis br^ve 
exercise was reviewed and eet oo. foot s^in. These 
gentieinea a^^sociated in the said garden, h^LVMig suf-- 
.ficieot warrant and toleration granted them by the 
lords of King James's privy-roouncil, to whom they 
became huu^le suitors in the begi^ning» for prevea- 
tion of aU future misconstructions of their hoodst in- 
tent and actions therein. Aqd having duly considered 
the necessity of the knowledge pf arm^ in so popu- 
lous a place, and the inconveniences that happened 
to Antwerp, and other theijr late populous and flourish- 
ing neighbour-cities, principally by reason of their 
. neglectof that most nobieexercise c^ arms aad martial 
discipline, in timesof wealth and peace. Th^se^ there-? 
fore, now m[Klertook, at their own private and partis 
icular charge, a weekly ^^ercise of arms, after the 
modern and best fashion and instructipu then in us^. 
Audo moreoveir, for Itheir better ease and conveni- 
«ncy, they erected a strong and well fun^isbed armoiy 
in the said ground ; in which were arms pf several 
fiorts, ai)d jof such extraordiaary beauty, fashion, a«d 
goodness for service, as w-ere ba^rdiy to. he watched 

^ From this period, the artillery company ^r^aaed 
^eatly. Gentlemen resorted to the Artillery-gc^nd 
from all parts, to learn milijtary discipline, and bavii^ 
acquired a competent knowledge of Uie art of war, 
returned home to instruct the trained bands in every 
part of the kingdom. 

At length, the company grew so numerous, a- 
mounting to nearly six thousand men, that, the Ar- 
tillery-garden was too small to oontain them ; where- 
fore they were obliged to seek for a more convcaai^t 
and capacious place toexeroise in, and, having pro- 
cured a lacgie iiekl without Moorgate, t^ey rennoveii 


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thither, about the end of the reign of James I. This 
is the ground in which the company continue to 

The Artillery company id governed by a president, 
vice-president, treasurer, and court of assistants. His 
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales » their captain- 
general ; but all their other military officers are cho- 
sen anniliilly. 

In addition to thjs force, which may be considered 
as peculiar to the city of London, there are^lso one 
regiment of volunteer jnfantry, belonging to the Bank, 
and three regiments o^the same description belong- 
ing to the EABt4Ddia Company; all of which are 
composed of the sertants of these two companies, 
and are officered by the directors, and the principal 
persons in their employ. These regiments were raised 
for the purpose of defending the immenise, property 
belonging to these bodies, in case of insurrection or 


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From the earliest Accounts to the present Yetr. 

1189 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 
JI90 Henry Fitr-Alwyn 
ligi Henry Fitz-Alwyn 
IJg2 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 
Ijga Henry Fitz-Alwyn 
1?94 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 
J 195. Henry Fitz-Alwyn 

1 196 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 

1197 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 
II9& Henry Fitz-Alwyn 

1199 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 

1200 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 

1201 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 

1202 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 
1203- Henry Fitz-Alwyn 
I204« Henry Fitz-Alwyn 
1205 ^Henry Fitz-Alwyn 
1206* Henry Fitz-Alwyn 
1207" Hedry Fitz-Alwyn 
1208- Henry Fitz-Alwyn 

1209 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 

1210 .Henry Fitz-Alwyn 

1211 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 1 

1212 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 

1213 Henry Fitz-Alwyn 

1214 Serle Mercer 

1215 William Hardel 

1216 / '^acob Alderman ^ 
(. Salmon Basing J 

1217 Serle Mercer 

1218 Serle Mercer 

1219 Serle Mercer 
1220' Serle Mercer 
1 22 U Serle Mercer 

Henry deCornhcll, Rich. Reyner 
John Herlisum, Roger le Duk 
Will. de^Havylle, John Bokoynle 
>^icho]e Duket^ Peres Nevlam 
Roger le Due, Roger fit. Alani 
Will. fil.Ifiabd, Will. fiLAluf 
Robert Besau), Jukel Alderman 
Godard de Antioche, Ro. fil. Dorant 
Robert Blundul» Nicbole Duket 
G>nstantioe fil. Aln^ Rob. de Bel 
Arnaud fil. Aluf, Rich. fil. Barthelmi 
Roger de Desert^ Jacob Alderman 
Sim. de Aldermanbir, Will. fil. Aliz 
Norman le Blunt, John de Kai 
Walt, le Bran, Will. Chaumbteleyn 
Tho. de Hanlle, Hamund Brand 
John Waleran, Rich. Wincestrie 
John Elylond, Edmund de la Halle 
Serle Mercier, Hen. de Sent Auban 
Robert de Wincestre, Will. Hardel 
Thomas fil. Neel, Peres le Due 
Pores le Juneen, William Wite 
Stephen Crassul, Adam Whiteby 
Goce fil. Peres, John Gerlande 
Const. Unienis, Randulob Elyland 
Martin fil. Aliz, Peter Bac 
Salmon de Basing^ Hugo de Basing 

Andrew Nevelun, John Trovers 

Benet le Seynter, Will. BInndus 
Randolph Elyland, Tho. Bokerel 
Goce le Pesur, John Viel 
John Viel, Richard de Wimbledon 
Richard Renger^ Goce Juniens 

1222 Serle 

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Richard Renger, Tbomas Lambert 
Thomas Lambert^ WiUiam Jovner 
John Travers, Andrew B6kerel 
Andrew Bokerel, John Travers 
Roger le Dae, Martjn fil. William 
Martyn fil. William, Roger le Due. 
Henry de Cochin , Stephen Bokerel 
Stephen Bokerel, Henry de Cochin' 
Rob. fil. John, Walter de Wencestre 
John de Woburhe, Rich. fil. Walter 
Walt, de Bufle, Mich, de St. Ifeleyne 
Henry Edemontoit, Gerard Bat 
Roger Blondus, Simon AL Marie 

1235 Andrew Buckerell Radulph Aswy, John Normad 

1236 Andrew Buckerell Gerard Bat» Robert Hardel 
Hen. de Cochin, Jordan de Coventre * 
J. de Walbroc, Gervase Chamberleyne 
John de Wilchale^ John de Coudres ' 
Remer de Bungeye, Radulph Aswy 
Michel Tony,. John de Gysors 
John Viel, Thomas Dareme 
Radtilpli Aswy, Robert fit. John 
Adam de Gysebume, Hugo Blundul 
Nichole Bat. Radulph de Arcubus 
Nichole Bat. Robert de CdrnhuB 
Sim. fil. Marie, Laurence de Frowick 
Wiljiam Viel, Nichole Bat 
Nic. fil. Jocei, Galdfred de Wincestrt 
John Tolesan, Radulph Hardel ^ Faber, Wifl. fil. Richard 
Nichole Bat, Laurence de Frowik 
Will. deDuremlP, Tho. de Winburnt 
Rich, Picard, John de Norhamton ' 
William Aswy, Henry Wafemund 
Mathias Bokerel, John le Mtnat' 
William Aswy, Richard Ewelfe 
Tho. fil. Thomas Rob. de Catelene 
John Adrian, Robert de CornhuU ' 

1260 Will. Fifz-Richard Adam Browning, Hen. de Coventre 

1261 Will. Fitz-Richard Rich. Picard, John de N6z;hamtoi^ 

1262 Tho. Fitz-Thomas Philip de Tailur, Rich, de Walebroc 

1263 Tho. Fitz-Thomas SufFolchia.Rt.deMunpeylers 
1264- Tho. Fitz-Tbomas Gregori de Rokesle, Thomas de Forda 
1265-Tha. Fitz-Thomas Edward Blund, Peter Aun^er • 
126(5 Will. Fitz-Richard Greg6ri de Rokesle, Simon Hadestok 

Tot. xiu '' 2 2 1267 Alein 

1222 Serle Mercer 

1223 Richard Rehger 

1224 Richard Renger 
122^ Richard Renger 

1226 Richard'Renger 

1227 Rc^er Duke 

1228 Roger Dulce 

1229 Roger Duke 

1230 Roger Duke 

1231 Roger Duke 

1232 Andrew Buckerell 

1233 Andrew Buckerell 

1234 Andrew Backerell 

1237 Andrew Backerell 

1238 Richard Renger 

1239 WyllyamJoynour 

1240 CerardeBat 
i241 Reginald Bongay 
1242 . Reginald Bongay 

1243 RauffeAsfaway 

1244 MvchaelTony 

1245 Johan Gysors 

1246 Johan Gysors 

1247 Pyers Aleyne 

1248 MychaelTony 

1249 Roger Fitz Roger 

1250 Johan rforman 

1251 Adam Basing 

1252 Johan Tholozane 

1253 NycholasBatte 

1254 Richard Hardell 

1255 Richkrd Hardell 

1256 Richard Hardell 

1257 Richard Hardell 

1258 Richard Hardell 

1259 Johan Gy sours 

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267 Ale'mSouch 

268 AletaSouch 

26Q Tho. Fitz-Thomas 
270- Johan Adryan 

271 Johan Adryan 

272 Sir Walter Harvey 

273 Sir Walter Harvey 

274 Henry Waleis 

275 Gregory Rolceslie 

276 Gregory Rbkeslie 

277 Gregoiy Rokeslie 

278 Gregory Rokeslie 

279 Gregory Rokeslie 

280 Gregory Rokeslie 

281 Gregory Rokeslie 

282 Henry Waleys 

283 Henry Waleys 

284 Henry Waleys 

285 Gregory Rokeslie 

286 Rauf Sandwich 

287 Johan Breton 
298 Rauf Sandwich 
289. Rauf Sandwich 
290- Rauf Sandwich 

291 Rauf Sandwich 

292 Rauf Sandwich 

293 Rauf Sandwich 

294 Sir Johan Breton 

295 Sir Johan Breton 

296 Sir Johan Breton 
Og? Sir Johan Breton 

298 Henry Waleis 

299 Elyas Russell 

300 RIyas RasseU 

301 Johan Blount 

302 Johan* Blount 

303 Johan Blount 

304 Johan Blount 

305 Johan Blount 

306 Johan Blount 

307 Johan Blount 

308 Nych. Faryngdone 
1-309 Thomas Rumayne 

13 10 Richard Roffham 

1311 Johan Gysours 

John Adryan, Luks Badecot 
Tbo. Basynge, Rob. de Gomehytt 
William de Durham, Walter Henry 
Will. Haddystoke, Anketyll de Alveme 
Walter Porter, Philip Taylour 
Gregory Rokysle, Henry Waleys 
Rycbard Parys,,John Bedyll 
Johan Home, Walter Potter 
Nic. Wynchester, Henry Coventre 
Lucas Patincoorty Henry Frowyke 
Johan Home, RaufFe Blount 
Robert Braoeyi Rauffe Fefioar 
Johan Andryan, Walter Langley 
Robert Basyng, Wyllyam Mazarer 
Thomas Box, Rauffe More 
Wyll. Faryngdon, Nic Wynchester 
Wyll. Mazarer, Nic. Wyncbester 
RaufFe Blunt, Hawkyn Betnell 
Jordan Goodchepe, Martyn Box 
Stephen Comebyll, Robert Fokesby 
Walter Blount, Johan Wade 
Thomas Crosse, Willyam Hawteyn 
Wylljram Hereford, "nomas Stanys 
Wyll. Betayn, Johan of Canterbury 
Fulkeof St. Edmunde, Saln.Langfoide 
Thomas Romayn, Wyll. de Lyra 
RaufFe Blount, Hamonde Boxe 
Henry Bale, Elys Russell 
Robert Rokesley, Martyn Awbry 
Henry Boxe, Richarde Gloucester 
Johan Dunstable, Ad. Halyngbery 
Thomas SuC Adam de Fulhan^ 
,Jo. de Stordforde, Will, de Stortfordc 
Richard RefFham, Thomas Seley 
John Armenter, Fry ngeryth 
Luke Haverynge>*Rich. Champeis 
Robert Caller, Peter Bosham 
Hugh Pourt, Simon Parys 
Wil. Combmartyn, Johan de Burffsrde 
Roger Parys, John LyDCCmn 
Raynold Doderell, Will. Cansyn 
Symon B'>let, Godf. de la Conduyt 
NicholiKS Pygotte, Mygbell Drury 
Wyllyam Basynge^ John Butler • 
James of St. fidmunde^ Rog. Palmer 

J 3 12 Johao 

Digitized by 





1312 Johan Pounteney * Simon Scroppe, Peter Blacniiy 

1313 Nycb. Faiyngdone Simon Merwode, Rycb. Wylfordt 
^ John Lambyn, Adam Lutekyo 

Adam Harden, Hugh Gayton 
Step. oP Abyrgdone, Ham. Cbykwell 
HainoDdc Goodchepe Wil. Redynge 
Wyllyam Caston, RanfiB Palmer 
Johan Pryoure, Wyll. Furneure 
Johan Pontenay, John Dallyiige 
Symon Abyngdon, Johan Pre«tcm 
Reynoldeat Conduyt, Wil.'Prodham 
Rych. Constantyne, Rich. Hakeney 
Johan Grantham, Rycharde of Ely 
Adam Salisbury, Johan of Oxynforde 
Benet of Fulham, Johan Causton 
1327 Hamond Chyckwell Gylbert Moordon, Johan Cottoa 
j328 Johan Grauntham Henry Darcey, Johan Hawteyne 

Sym. Fraunces, Hen. Gombmartyne 
Ry chard Lazar, Henry Gy sors 
Robert of Ely, Thomas Harwodc 
Johan Mockynge, Andrew Awbry 
Nicholas Pyke, Johan Husband 
Johan Hanionde, Wyll. Hansarde 
Johan Kyngston, Walter Turfce 
Walter Mordon. Richard Upton 
Wyllyam Brykelswonh, Jn. N6rthaH 
/Walter Neale, Nychoks Crane 
Wyll. Pountfreyt, Hugh Marble 
Wyll. Tliorney, Roger Forshara 
Adam Lucas, Bartholomewe Marred 
Richard Berkynge, Johan RocVyslee 
Johan Luskyn; Richard Kyslyngbury 
Johan Stewarde, Johan A ley sham 
Geffrey Wychyngham,Tho. Legge 

1346 GefF Wychyngham Edm. Hempnall, Johan Glouoeter 

1347 Thomas Leajge Johan Croydon, Wyllyam Cloptok 
Adam Bramson, Rich. Besyngstoke 
Henry Pycarde, Symond Dolsely 
Adam Bury, Ratiffe,Lynne 
Johan Notte, Wyllyam Worcestre 
Johan Wrothe, Gylbert feteyndiope 
Johan Peche, Johan Stodeney 
Johan Welde, Johan Lytell 
Wfll. Totyngham, Richard Smert 
Thomas Forster, Thomas Brandon 
Richard Notyngham, Tho. Dosell 

1358 Jehain 

1314 Johan GySours 

1315 Steph. Abyngdone 

1316 Johan Wentgrave 

1317 Johan Wentejrave 

1318 Johan Wentgrave 

1319 Ham. Chyckwell 

1320 Nich. Faryngd one 

1321 Ham. Chyckwell 

1322 Ham. Chyckwell 

1323 Nych. Faryngdone 

1324 Ham. Chyckwell 

1325 Ham. Chyckwell 

1326 Richard Betayne 

1329 Symond Swanland 

1330 Johan Pounteney 

1331 Johan Pounteney 

1332 Johan Preston 

1333 Johan Pounteney 

1334 Reyn- at Conduyte 

1335 Reyn. at Conduyte 
133§ Johan Pounteney 

1337 Henry Darcey 

1338 Henry Darcey 

1339 Andrew Awbrey 

1340 Andrew Awbrey 

1341 Johan Oxynforde 

1342 Symond Frauncess 

1343 Johan Hamond 

1344 Johan Hamond 

1345 Richard Lacere 

1348 Johan Lewkyn 

1349 Wyllyam Turke 

1350 Rich. Killingbury 

1351 Andrew Awbrey 

1352 Ada%Frauncey3 

1353 Adam Fraunceys 

1354 Thomas Legge 

1355 Symond Frauncej-s 

1356 Henry Picard 

1357 Johan Stody 

Digitized by 





1358 J.ohan Lewkyn 

1359 Symond Doffelde 

1360 Joiian Wroth 

1361 Joh»n Pcche 

1362 Stephen Caundish 

1363 Joban Notte 

1364 A4amBuiy 

1365 Jpban (^wkyn 

1366 JohaaLewkyn 

1367 Jaoies Andrew 

1368 Symond Mordon 
1569 Joban, Chychester 

1370 Johan Bernes 

1371 Joban Bernes 

1372 Johan Pyell. 

1373 Adam pf Bury 

1374 Wyll. Walworth 

1375 Johan Warde 

1376 Adaild $ta{>le 

1377 Nicholas Bfembyr 
i378 Johan Phylpot 

1379 Joban Hadley 

1380 Wyll. Walworthe 

1381 Johan Northainpton 
1882 Johan Northampton 

1383 Nicholas Breipbyr 

1384 Nicholas Brembyr 

1385 Nycholas Brembyr 

1386 Nycholas Exton 
. 1387 Nycholas Exton 

1388 Nicholas Swyfprd 
1.389 Wyllyam Venour 

1390 Adam Bamme 

1391 Johan Heendf! 

1392 Wyllyam StondoQ 

1393 Joban Hadley 
1394 , Johan Frenphe 

1395 Wyllyam More 

1396 Adam Bamme 

1397 Rich.Whittington 

1398 Drew Barentyne . 

1399 Thomas Knolles 
1400. Johan Frau^cef^ 
14oi Johan, Shadworth 
1401 Johan Walcot 
1403 William Askam 

Stephen Caundysher Bart. Frestelyng; 
Johan Bernes, Johan Buryn 
Symond de Beoyngton, /• Chychester 
Johan Denys, Walter Borney 
Wyllyam Holbech, James Tame 
John of St, Albones, James Andrew 
Richard Croydon Johan Hyltoste 
Johan of Metforde, Sym. de Mordoo 
Johan Bykylswortb, Johan Yrelande 
Johan Warde, Wyllyam Dykman 
Johan Tei^olde, Wyll. Dykman 
Ad. Wymbyngham, Rob. Gyrdeler 
Johan Pyell, HughHoldyche 
Wyllyam Walworth, Rob. Gayton 
Robert Hatfelde, Robert Gairton 
Joh^nPhylpott, Nycholas Brember 
Johan Awbry, Jdxan Fysshyde 
Rycharde lyoiVB» Wyll. Wodhonse 
Johan- Hadley, Wyllyam Newporte 
Johan Northamton, Rob. Launde 
Aqdrew PyVman, Nich- Twyforda 
Jphai> Bosebam, Tho. Comwaleyt 
Johan Heylessonj Wyllyam Baret 
Walter Doket, Wyll. Knyghthode 
Johan Rote, Johan Hynde 
Johan Sely, Adam Bamme 
Symond Winchcombe, John More 
Nicholas Breton, Johan Frensbe 
Johan Organ, Joban Ch3rTchemao 
Wyllyam Stondon, Wyllyam More 
Wyllyam Venour, Hughe Forstalfe 
Thomas Austeyne, Adam Cathyll 
Johnn Walcot, Joban Loveney 
Tho. Vyvent, Johan Praunoes 
Johao Cbadworth, Henry Vamere 
Gib. Manfelde, Tho. Newyngty^ 
Rich, Whyttington, Drew Barentyne 
Wyllyam Brampton, Tho. Knolles 
Roger Elys, Johan Sheryngbam 
Tho. Wylforde, Wyll. Parker 
. Wyll. Askeham, Johan Wo^ecoke 
Jobian Wade, Johan Warner -«*** 
Wyllyam, Waldem. Wyll. Hyde 
Wyllyain Wakele, Wyll. Eliot . 
, Wyll. Valour, Wyll. PremyDghan 
Richard Marlowe, Rpbert Chicheley 

1404 JohaB 

Digitized by 






Tbomas'Fawconir^ Thomas Poll 
Ayilfiam Lowste, Steph. Spylmun 
Henry Barton, Wyllvam Cro\vner 
Nych. Wotton, Godfrey Brooke 
Henry Poinfret, Hetity Hatton 
Thomas Dake, Wyllyam Norton 
Johan Lawe, W3rllyam Cfaycheley 
Johan Pcnne, Thomas Pyke 
Johan Raynewell,Wyll. Gotton 
Hauf Levenham^ Wyll. Sevynok 
1414 Thomas Fawconer /Johan Sutton, Jdhan MicoU 
1415. Nicholas Wotton ^ Johan Mychell, Tho. Aleyn 

Johan Hyjknde 
Johan Woodtxxjt 
Rich. Whittington 
Wniiam Stondoa 
Drew Barentyne 
^ Richard Marlowa 
141Q Thomas Knolfea 

1411 Rohert' Chycheley 

1412 William Waldren 

1413 William Crowmer 


1416 Henry Bartr>n 

1417 Richard Marlowe 

1418 William Sevenoke 
14J9 Rich. Whittington 

1420 Williani Cambrege 

1421 Robert Chictelee 
1422. William Waldem 

1423 William Crowmer 

1424 Johan Michel 

1425 Johan Coventre 

1426 William Ryttwdl 

1427 Johan Gedne;y 
1428. Henry Barton 

1429 WMlliam Estfeld 

1430 Nicholas Wotton 

1431 Johan Wellis 

1432 Johan Pameys 
1443 Johan Brokley 

1434 Robert Otley 

1435 Henry Frowyk 

1436 Johan Michell 

1437 William Estfeld 

1438 Stephen Brown 

1439 Robert Large 

1440 Johan Paddesley 

1441 Robert Clopton 

1442 Johan Atherly 

Aleyn Everard, Tho. Cainbrydge 
Rob. Wodtyngdon, Johan Coventre 
Henry Rede, Johan Gedney 
J. Bryan, Rauf. Barton, J. Parnasfie* 
Robert Whytingham, Johan Butler 
Johan Boteler, Wyllyam Weston 
Richard Gosselyn, Willyam Weston 
William Estfelde, Robert Tetersale 
Nycholas Jafries, Tho. Wadeforde 
Symon Seman, John By water 
Wyllyam Mylred, Johan Brokle 
Jonan Arnold, Johan Hyghmaa 
Henry Frowick, Robert Otley 
Tho. DnflFhouse, Rauffe Holand 
Johin Ruffe, Rauffe Holand 

' Water Chertsey, Robert Large 
Johan Addyrlee, Stephen Brown 
Johan Olney, Johan Paddysley 
Thomas Chalton, Johan Lynge 
Thomas Bernwell, Simond Eyer 
Thomas Chatworth, Robert Clopton* 
Thomas Morsted^ Wyll. Gregory . 
Wyll. Chapman, Wyll. Halys 
Hugh Dyke, Nicholas Yoo 
Robert Marchall, Phylyp Malpas 
yrJohan Sutton, Wyll. Whetynhale 

■ William Cumbys, Richard Ryche 

1443 Thomas ChatwoVth Thomas Beaumont, Rich. Nordon 

1444 Henry Frowick 

1445 SymkenEyer 

1446 Johan Olney 

1447 Johan Gedney 

1448 Stephen Brown 

Nych. Wyfforde, Johan Norman 
Stephyn Fofster, Hugh Wyche 
Johan Derby, Geffrey Fcldyng 
Robert Home, Godfrey Boloyne 
Wyllyam Abraham> Thoitias Scot 

1^9 Thomas . 

Digitized by 





1449 Thomas Chalion Wyll. Cantlow, Wyll. Marowe 
Wyllytm Hulyn, Tho. Cwynges 
Johao Mydylton, WyUyim Dere 
Math. Phylyp, Chryslofer Warton 
y Richard Lae, Ricbarde Alley 
^ Johaa Waiden, Thomas Coole 
Johan Felde, Wyllyam Taylour 
Johaii Yonge, TIiocna» Oulgrave 
Johan Steward^ Raufe Verney 
Wyllyam Edward, Thomas Reytier 
yRaufe Jo^dyn. Ricliard Ne.leham 
^Joban Plummer, Wyllyam Stockcr 
Ryoh. Hemynge, Jobaa I ambarde 
Johan ^oice, George Iielande 
Will. Hampton » Bartylmew Jemys 
Robert Basset^ Thomas Muschamp 
John Tate, Johan Stone 
Sir Henry Wavyr, James Constantyoe 
Johan Brown, H. Bryce, J. Stockton 
Humffiy Heyforde, Thomas Stalbroke 
Wyll. Haryot, Symond de Smyth 
Robert Drope> Richard Gardyner 
Johan Cvowjf, Jobaa Warde 
Johan Alley n, Johan Shelley 
Johan Bro\iney' Thomas Bledlow 
Johan Stoker, Robert Byllysdon 
Edmond Shaa, Thomas Hylle ' 
Hugh Bryce, Robert Colwych 

1477 Humphry Heyforde Richard Hawsoo^ Wyllyam Home 

1478 Richard Gardiner . Johan Stocker, Henry Colet 
Robert Hardynge, Robert Byfelde 
Thomas Ham, Johan Warde 
William Danyell, William Bak9n 
R. Tate, Wyll. Wyking, R. Chawr>- 
Wyllyam Whyte, Johan Matthewe 
Thomas Norlond, Wyll. Martyn 
Richard Chestir, Thomas Bretayn 
Robert Tate, Johan Tate 
Hugh Clop ton, Johan Percy yall 
Johan Fenkyll, Johan Remyngton 
Wyllyam Isaak, Rauf Tilny 
Wyllyam Capell, Johan Brooke 
H. Coote, R. Revell, Hugh Pemberton 
Thomas Wood, Wyllyam Browne 
William Purchase, Wyll. Walbek 

1494 Richard 

1450 Niclas Wygbrdc 

1451 William Gregory 

1452 Ge^rey Feldyng 

1453 Johan Norman 

1454 Stephen Forster 

1455 William Marowe 
.1456 Thon»8 Caning 
1457 Geffrey Boleyn - 
145S Thomas Scot 
1459 William Holyo 
1400 Richard J^e 

1461 HughWvche 

1462 Thomas Cooke 

1463 Matthew Philip 

1464 Rauf Josselyne 

1465 RaaF Verney 

1466 Johan Yonge 

1467 TkomaCOwlgrave 

1468 William Taylour 

1469 Richard Lee 

1470 Johan Stockton 

1471 William Edward 

1472 William Hampton 

1473 Johan Tate 

1474 Robert Drope 

1475 Robert Basset 

1476 Rauf Josselyn 

14/9 Bartilroew James 

1480 Johan Brown 

1481 William Haryot 

1482 Edmond Shaa 

1483 Robert Billesdon 

1484 Thomas Hylle 

1485 Hugh Bryce 

1486 Henry Colet 

1487 William Horne 

1488 Robert Tate 

1489 William White 

1490 John Matthew 

1491 Hugh Clopton 

1492 William Martyn 

1493 Rauf Astry 


Digitized by 




I4g5 HeorjColet 

1496 Joban Tate 

1497 William Purchase 

1498 JoKan Peicivat 
14^9 Nicholas Alwyn 
J5CX> Jofaan Reymifigtcfi 

1501 Sir John Shaa 

1502 Bartholomew Reed 

1503 Sir William Capett 

1504 Johaa Wyiigar 

1508 Stephen Jenyn$ 

1509 Thomas firadbarj 

15 10 Henry Keble 

1511 Roger Aichiley 

1512 Sir Will. Copin^er 


1494 Richard Cbawry Robert F&byan, Johan Wyngar 

Scholas Alwyn, Johan Warner *^^ 
omas Kneswortb, Henry Somyr 
Johan Shaa, Richarde Haddon 
Bartholomew Reed, Tho. Wyndowght 
Thomas Bradbery, Steven Jenyns 
Jamy« Wilfofde, Rychard Broad 
Johan HawySf William Stede 
Sir Laurence Aylemer, Hen. Elede 
Henry Keble, Nicliolas Nynes 
Chryst. Hawys, R. Wattes, T. Granger 

1505 Thomas Knesworth Roger Acyhlly, WyHyam Brown 

1506 Sir Richard Haddon Richard Shore, Roger Grove 

1507- WiUiaa. B^ { ^fc^rf?;',?./'*"*^' 
William Butler, Johan Kirkby 
Thomas Rxmew, Rychard Smyth 
George Monox, John Dogct . 
John Milborne, John Rest 
Nicholas Skelton, Tho. Mirfine 
1513 W. Brown & J. Tate Robert Aldames, Robert Fenrother 
15 J 4 Geom Monoux John Dawes, John Bridges 
15 J 5 Sir William Butler James Yarford, John Monday 

1516 John Rest Henry Warley, R. Grey, Will. Bailey 

1517 Sir Thomas Exmew Thomas Seimer, John Thurston 

1518 Thomas Miifin Thomas Bald rie, Ralph Si mondes • 

1519 Sir James Yarford John Allen, James Spencer 
John Wilkinson, Nicholas Patrich 
Sir John Skevin^ton, John Kyme 
John Breton, Thomas Pargetor 
John Rudstone, John Cbampneis^ 
Michael! English, Nich. Jenines^ 
Ralph Dodmer, William Roch 
John Caunton, Christopher Askew 
Stephen Peacock, Nich. Lambert 
John Hardy, William Holies 
Ralph Warren, John Long ••— ' 

1530 Sirl'homas Pargitor Michael Dormer, Waher Champion 

1531 Sir Nich. Lambard William Dauntsey, Richard Chamt>ioa 

1532 Sir Stephen Peacoke Richard Gresham, Edward Altham 

• *o« o- r^u • * A 1 f Rich. Reynolds, Nicholas PJnchon,l 

1533 S.rChr«top.A.kew | John krtin, John Priest } 

1534 Sir John Champneis William Forman, Sir Tho. Kitson 

1535 Sir John Allen Nicholas Levison, Will, Denham 

1536 Sir R^lph Waren Humfrey Munmoth^ John Cootes 

1537 Sir 

1520 Sir John Broge 

1521 Sir John Milborne 

1522 Sir John Munday 

1523 Sir Thomas Baldry 
J 524 Sir William Bailey 

1525 Sir John Allen 

1526 Sir Thomas Seamer 

1527 Sir James Spencer 

1528 Sir John Rudstone 

1529 Ralph Dodmer 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1537 Sir Richard Gre^iam Robert Pajpt, Wlljiam Boyer 

J 538 William Formaa Sir John Uresham, Thomas Leweo 

1539 Sir William Rolles William Welkenson, Nich. Gibson 

1540 Sir William Roch John Fciry> Thomas Huntlow 

1541 Sir Michael Dozmer Sir William Laxton, Martin Bowes 

1542 JohnCootes ^Rowland Hi! U Henry Suckley 

^^^^ {sijy/WaTJn^} ^^^ Habberthome,Hefi. Amcotes 

1544 Sir William I^ton Joha.Toleus, Richard Dobbes 

1545 Sir Martin Bowes John Wilford/ Andrew Jude 

1546 Sir H. Hubarthome George Barnes, Ralph Alley 

1547 Sir John Gresham Ridiard Jarvds, Thomas Corties 

1548 Sir Hedry Anxx)te8 Thomas White^ Robert Cbarsey 

1549 Rowland Hill William Locke, Sir John Ailife 

1550 Sir Andrew Jude Richard Turke, John Yorke «— -^ 

1551 Sir Richard Dobbes Augustine Hind, John Lyon 

1552 Sir George Barnes Jolm Lamberd, John Cowper 

1553 Sir Thomas White William Gerard, John Maynaxd 

1554 Sir John Lyon ThofnasOfiey, William I&^et 

1555 Sir William Gerard David Woodrofe, William Chester 
l§56 Sir Thomas Offley /Thomas Leigh, John Machil 

1557 Su: Thomas Curties William Harper, John White 

1558 Sur Thomas Leigh Richard Malorie> James Aitham 

1559 Sir William Huet John Halse^ Richard Champion 

1560 Sir William Chester Thomas Lodge, Roger Martin 

1561 Sir William Harper Christopher Draper, Thomas R.ow 

1562 Sir Thomas Lodge Aleaxnder Avenon, Hump. Baskerville 

1563 Six John White Will. Alin, Richard Chamberlaine 

1564 Sir Richard Malorie Edward Bankes, Rowland Hey ward 

1565 Sir Rich. Champion F^dward Jakeman, Leonel Ducket 

1566 Sir Christo. Draper John Rivers, James Hawes 

1567 Sir Roger Martin Rich. Lambert, Ambrofe I^icholas 

1568 Sir Tho?nas Rowe Thomas Ramsey, Willi^ Bond 

1569 Alexander Avenon John Oleph, Rob. Harding, J. Bacoa 

1570 Sir Rowl. Heyward Henry Beoher, William Dane 

1571 Sir William Allen Francb Bernam, William Box 

1572 Sir Leonel Ducket Henry Miles, John Branch 

157/3 Sir John Rivers Riohard Pipe, Nicholas Woodrofe 

15/4 James Hawes James Har vie, Thomas PuUisoo 

1575 Ambrose Nicholas Thomas Blancke, Anthony Gacnage 

1576 Sir John Laogley Edward Qsborne, Wolstane Dixie 

1577 Sir Thomas Ramsey William Kimpton, George Bame 
li7B Richard Pipe Nich. Backhouse; Francis Bowyer 

1579 Sir Nich. Woodrofe George Bond, Thomas Starkie 

1580 Sir John Branch Martin Gal thorp, John Hart 

1581 Sir James Harvie Ralph Woodcock, JohnAlate 

• 1582 Sir Thomas 

Digitized by 




15S2 Sir Thos. Blanckc Richard Martin, William Webbe 

1583 Edward Osborne William Rowe; John Havden 

1584 Sir Edwd. PuUisoQ^Yilliam Masham, John Spencer 

1585 Sir Wolftane Dixie Stephen Slany, Henry Billingsley 
X5S6 Sir George Barne ^^Vnthony Radcliffe, fienry Parnell 

1587 Sir Georj^e Bond Robert House, William ElRin 

1588 Martin Calthorp Thomas Skinner, John Ketcher 
158g Sir John Hart Hugh Ofley, Rich. Salteabtall 
15gO John Allot Richard Gurney, Stephen Som« 

1591 Sir Wm. Web Nicholas Mo>1ey, Robert Broke 

1592 Sir Wm. Rowe William Rider^ Bennet Barnham , 

"^ {sijR'.Sf^'S }joho Gerard, Robert Taylor 
I5g4 Sir John Spencer Paul Banning, Peter Hanton 
15Q5 Sir Stephen Slany /Robert Lee, Thomas Bennet 

^"^ {InilllkSy } Tho"" Low. Leonard Holiday 

/1I597 Sir RickSaltenstalLJohn Wattes, Richard Godard 
1598 Sir Stephen Some Henry Rowe, John More 

1599 Sir Nich. Mosley Edward H.)Inneden, Robert Hampsoa 

1600 Sir Wm, Ryder Humphrey Weld, Roger Clarke—- 

1601 Sir John Gerard Robert Cambell, Thomas Smith 
l6Q2 Robert Lee Henry Anderson, William Glover - 

1603 Sir Thomas BcnnetJameB Pemberton, Joho Swinnjrton 

1604 Sir Thomas Low ^Sir W. Rumney, Sir T. Middleton 
1605- Sir Hen. Hollyday Sir Tho. Hayes, Sir Roger Jones 
1606 Sir John Wats Clement Scudamor, Sir John Jolles 
J 607 Sir Henry Rowe \Villi3m Walthall, John Lemon 

1608 Sir Humph. Weld Geffrey Elwes, Nicholas Style 

1609 Sir Tl]o. Cambell George Bolles, Rich 'rd Farrington 
l6rO Sir Wm. Craven Sebastian Harvey, William Cockaine 
161 1 SirJames Pemberton Richard Pyat, l-rancis Jones 

J 612 SirJohn Swinnerton Edward Barkham, George Smithes 
1613 Sir Tho. Middleton Edward Rolherham, Alexand. Prescot • 
1^14 Sir John Haye« Thomas Bennet, Henry Jaye 

1615 Sir John Jolles Peter Proby, Martin Lumley 

1616 Sir John Leman William Goare, John Goare 

1617 George Bolles Allen Cotton, Cuthbert Hacket 

16 18 SirSebastian Harvey William Holyday, Robert Johnson 
16^9 Sir Wm. Cockain Richard Hearne, Hugh Hamersley 
J 620 Sir Francis Jones Richard Deane, James Cambell 

1621 Sir Ed w. Barkham Edward Allen, Robert Ducie 

1622 Sir Peter George Whitmore, Nich. Raintaa 

1623 Sir Martin Lumley John Hodges, Humfrey Hanford 
J624 Sir John Goare y Ralph Freeman, Thomas Moulsoa 
J<^25 Sir Allen Cotton ^Rowland Heili:Jr Robert Packhurst 

VOL* III. A a a 1626 Sir 

Digitized by 




1626 SirCuthbert Atet /'^^i^' .^^V^?^ Ellis Crispe, John 

I Poole, Christopher Cletherowe 

1627 SirHu.HawimersleyRdwardBromfieW, Richard Fenne 

1628 Sir Richard Deane Maurice Abbot, Henry Garway 

1629 Sir James Cambell Rowland Backhouse, Will. Acton 
103O Sir Robert Ducy Humphrey Smith, Edmund Wright 

1631 Sir Geo. Whitmore Arthur Abdy, Robert Cambell 

1632 Sir Nich. Raynton Samuel Cranmer, Henry Prat 

1633 Ralph Fieeman Hugh Perry, Henry Andrews 

1634 Sir Thos. Mou?on Gilbert Harrison, Richard Gumcy 

1635 Sir Rob. Packhurst John Hijrhlord, John Cottiall 

1636 Sir Christ. Cletheroe Thomas Soame, John Gayer 

1637 SirEdw. Bromfield William Abelt, Jacob Gerrard 

1638 Sir Richard Fenn Thomas Atkyn, Rdward Rudge 
'639 Sir Maurice Abbot Isaac Pennington, John Woollaston 

1640 Sir Henry Garway Thomas Adams, John Wamer 

1641 Sir William Acton JohnTowse, Abrah. Reyftardsata 
1^42 Sir Richard Gurney George Garret, George Clarke 

1643 Sir I !)aac Pennington John Langham, Thomas Andrewa 

1644 Sir John Woollaston John Fowke, James Bunce 

1645 Sir Thomas Atkins William Gibbs, Richard Chatnbers 

1046 Sir Thomas Adams John Kendrick, Thomas Foote 

1047 Sir John Gayre Thomas CulU'jn, Simond Edmonds 

1648 Sir John Warner Samuel' Avery, John Bide 

1649 Sir Ab. ReynardsonThomas Vyner, Richard Browne 

1650 Thomas Toote CKr. Pach, Rowld. Wilson, J. Dethi^k 

1651 Thomas Andrews Robert Tichbome, Richard Chiverton 

1652 John Kendrick John Ireton, Andrew Ryccard 

1653 John Fowkes Stephen Eastwick, Will. Underwood 
^1654 Thomas Vyner James Philips, Walter Big 

/ 1^55 Christo|)JpfcAi#k Edmund Sleigh, Thomas Alleyn 
l656|fbhn Dethick William Thomson, John Frederidc 

"^^^7 Robert Tichbome Tempest Milner, Nathaniel Temsc 
16^ Richard Chi verton J. Robinson, T. Chandler, R. King 
, 1659 John^^bn Anthony Bateman, John Lawrence 

1660 SirJI^Kias Alleyn JF'rancis Warner, William Love, Esq.'— 

1661 syPtcb. Brown /Sir W. Boulton, Sir William Peake— 
1^^2 aJMoBn Fred prick Francis Minell, Samuel Starling, Esqrs. 

1663 ^ John Robinson Sir Tho. Budwortb, Sir W . Turner 

1664 jjji- Auth. Bateman Sir Richard Ford, Sir Richard Reeves 

1665 Sir Jtihn Lawrence Sir Geo. Waterman, Sir Charies Doc 

1666 .SirTho.Bludworth Sir Rob. Hanson, Sir Will. Hooker 
160'^ Sir Will. Boulton ySir Robert Viner, Sir Joseph Sheldon 

/1 668 Sir William Pdake^Sir Dennis Gaudcri, Sir Thomas Davis 
/ 1669 Sir Wm.Tiirner John Forth, Esq. Sir Francis Chaplin 
^^1^ Sir Samuel Starling Sir J. Smith, Sir James Edwards 

1671 Sir 

Digitized by 





.1671 S^ Richard Ford Samuel Ford, Patience Ward^ Esqn. 
1672 Sir Geo. Waterman SirJ.Dawes, SirR.ClaytoniSirJ.Moore 
J §73 Sir Robert Hanson Sir Will. Prichard, Sir James Smith 
1574 Sir Wm. Hooker Sir Henry Tulse, Sir Robert Ge&ry 
^1675 Sir Robert Viner Sir Nath, Heme, Sir J.LethieuUJer 
^l&76 Sir Joseph Sheldon Sir Thomas Gould, Sir John Shorter 

1677 Sir Thos. Davis Sir John Peake, Sir Thomas Staippe 

1678 Sir Fran. Chaplin Sir Tho. Raustem, Sir John Beckford 

1679 ^^' James Edwards Richard How, John Chapman, Esqrs. 
1660 Sir Robert Clayton Sir Jonath. Raymond, Sir Sim. Lewis 
1681 Sir Patience Ward Slingsby Bethel!, Hen. Cornish, ^sqrs- 
](>82 Sir John Moore Tho. Pilkina;ton, Sam. Shute, Esqrs. 

1683 Sir Wm. Prichard Sir Dudley North, Sir Peter Rich 

1684 Sir Henry Tulse Peter Daniel, Sam. Dashwood, Esqrs. 
1686 Sir James Smith Sir Will. Gustlyn, Sir Benj. Vandeput 

1686 Sir Robert GefFery Sir Benj. Thorowgood, Sir T. Keosey 

1687 Sir John Peake Sir Tho. Rawlinsoo, Sir Tho. Fowler 
rSir Jchn Shorter Sir Basil Firebrace, Sir John Parsons 

Sir John Eyles — no Freeman of London. 

SSS^] Sir HumphiyEdwInvSir John Fleet 

1690 Sir Tho. Pilkington Sir Christ. Lethieullier, Sir J. Houbloa , 

1691 Sir Tho. Pilkington Sir Edward Clarke, Sir FrancisChild 
J692 Sir Thos. Stampe Sir W. Ashhprst, Sir Richard Levett 
1^3 Sir John Fleet Sir Thomas Lane, Sir Thomas Cooke 
1694 Sir Wm. Ashhurst Sir Tl^o Abney, Sir William Heilges 
J 695 Sir Thomas Lane Sir John Sweetapple, Sir Will. Cole 

1 6g6 Sir Jnhn Houblon Sir Ed. Wills, Sir Owen Buckingham, 

1697 Sir Edward Clarke Sir John WoolFe, Sir Samuel Blewitt 

1698 Sir Humph. Edwin Sir Barth.Gracedieu, Sir James Collett 
^dgg Sir Francis Child Sir William Gore, Sir Joseph Smart 
^7W Sir Rich. Levett Sir Cha. Duncombe, Sir Jeff. Jefferiet 
37OJ Sir Thomas Abney Sir Rob. Beachcroft, Sir Hen. Fumeso 
i-iM a- Mj /- f Sir Will. Witters, Sir Peter Floycr 
1/02 Sir Wm. Gore | Sir James BatetJian 

1703 Sir Sam. Dashwood Sir R.Bedding:feld, Sir Sam . Garrard 
^704 Sir John Parsons Sir Gilb. Heathcote, Sir Jos. Woolto 
1705 SirO. Buckingham Sir J. Buckworth, Sir W. Humphreys 
1700' Sir Tho.Rawlinson Sir Charles Thorold, Sir Sam. Stanier, 
i707 Sir R. Beddingfeld Sir Will. Benson, Sir Ambrose Crowley 
J7O8 Sir Wm. Withers Sir Benjamin Green, Sir Charles Peers 

1709 Sir Cha. Duncombe Sir Charles H.>b>on, Sir Richard Guy 

1710 Sir SamUfl Garrard Sir Richard Huare, Sir Thomas Dunk 

1711 Sir Gil. Heathcote Sir George Tliorold, Sir Francis Eyles 
17 i2 Sir Rob. Beachcroft Sir John Cass, Sir William Stewart 
i/lS Sir Richard Hoare Sir William Lc^\en, Sir Sam. Cluke 

1714 Sir 

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1714 Sir Samuel Stainier Sir Francis Forbes, Sir Joshua Sharp* 

1715 SirW. Humphreys Sir Aob. Breedon, Sir Randolph Kiupe 

1716 Sir Cliarleg Peers Sir John Ward, Sir John Fryer 

1717 Sir James Bateman Sir Gerard Conyers, Sir Charles Cooko 

17 1 8 Sir William Leweo Sir Peter Delme, Sir Harcourt Master 

1719 Sir John Ward Sir John Bull, Sir Thoraai Ambrose 

1720 Sir G. Thorold Sir JohnEylcs, Sir John Tash 

1721 Sir John Fryer Sir George Caswall, Sir Willi Billen 

1722 Sir WiU. Sicwart Sir George MerUins, Sir Ed' Beecber 

1723 Sir Gerard Conyers, Humphry Parrions, Esq. Sir Fr. Child 
t'TOA <i' T3 , T\\ /Sir Rich. Hopktn?, Sir Felix Feast, 

1724 Sir Peter Delme { Sir Edward Bellamy 

1725 Sir George Mertlins Sir Robert Baylis, Sir Joseph Eylei 
I'roR e- 1? - 1? I fSir Francis Portcn, Sir Jeremiah 

1726 Sir Fran, Forbes { Murden, Sir John Thompson 

1727 Sir John Eyies, Bart. Sir John Lock, Sir William Ogbouro 

1728 Sir Edward Beecher Sir John Grosvenor, Sir Tho. Lombe 

1729 Sir Robert Baylis, Sir Richard Brocas, Rich. Levptt,Esq. 

1730 Sir Richard Brocas John Barber, Esq. .^ir John Williams,- 

1731 Humpu Parscns, Esq; John Fuller Esq. Sir Isnac Shard 

3 732 Sir Francis Child Samuel Russel, Thoma^ Pindar, Esqrs, 
' .1733 Jolui Barber, Esq j Robert Alsop, Esq, Sir Henry Hankey 

1734 Sir Williana Billers R. Westley, Daniel Lambert, E«qrs. 

1735 Sir Edward Bellamy Micajah Perry, Esq, Sir John Salter 
1/36 Sir Jchn Williams Sir John Barnard, Sir Rob. God^cbatl 
1737 Sir John Thompson Sir Will. Rous, Benj . Ra whr.g. Esq. 

,738 Sir John Bamanl • { ^'t"^2:rTS"rt;?° ''""^'^- } 

1739 Micajah Perry, Esq ; James Brooke, W.Wcstbrocke, F.^qrs. 

1740 Sir John Salter Geo. Heathoote,Ksq,Sir J. Lt^uesne 

^741 {g: LSSq ; {HenryMarsball. Ricb.Haare.Esq«. 

^7^2 { G!5;atSS"q ; { «"''• ^'"''""*' Will, Sn,hh.E«i«. 
1743 Rob. Willimot, Evq ; Will. Pcnn, Charles Eggleton. Esqrs. 
1^44 Sir Robert Westley, Sir Robert Ladbrok*, >ir Wil. Calvert 
J 745 Sir Henry Marshal, Walt. Bernard, E-q. SirSaTi. Pennant 
1/46 Sir Ricl'.ard Hoare, J. Blanrhf.>rd, Fra. Cokayne, Esqrs. 

1747 William Benn, Fsq ; Tho. Winterbottom, R. Al^op, Esqrs. 

1748 Sir Robert L^dbroke Sir Crisp Gascoyne, El. Davie^ Esqrs, 

1749 Sir William Calvert Edw. Ironside, Tho. Rawiinson Esqn. 

^7«> [f I^aclTfTF^, f W.Whkaker.S. T. Janssen.R«ps. 
1751 Fran. Cokayne, Esq. Will. Alexander^ Robert Scott, Esqrs 

^7"{ Job!'Ai;:pX™ ['■ ^*'^''^'' ^- ^''='^"' ^^"• 

Digitized by 




1753 Sir Crisp Gascoyne, Sir Chkrles Asgill, Sir Richard Olyn 

1754 [|^-£;tt'nX ] Si' T. Chitty, Sir Mat. Blakistoa 

1755 ^*^" '^' •^*""^? } Sir Sam. Flidyer, Sir Jcbn Torriano 

1756 Srme:sb> Bcthdl Esq. Will, Beckford, Ive Whitbread Esqr»* 

1757 Mar. Dickinson, F-sq. Will. Bridgen, W, Stephenson, Esqi^* 

1758 Sir Charles Asgill, Geo»-ge Nelson, Fr. Gosling;, Esqrs. 
J 759 Sir R.Glyn Alex, Master, J. Dandridge, E^qrs. 
IJtjO Sir Thomas Chitty, Geo, Errington, Paul Vaillant Esqrs 

1761 Sir Mait. Blakiston Sir Robert Kite, Sir William Hart 

1762 Sir S. Fludyer, Sir Nathan Nash, Sir J. Cartwright 

1763 Will. Beckford, Esq. Sir Tho. Challenor, Sir Henry Bankea 

,;64 WU..Bndgen,Esq. J »<'s'^JirTu"S'E^'"'^^""' 
1765 Sir W. Stephenson, Sir Thos. Harris, Brass Crosby Esq. 

1767 Sir Robert Kite, 'Sir Robert Darlini;, Sir James Esdaile 
176s Rl. Hon. T. Hailey Richard Pe*rs, William Na-h, Esqrs. 
1769 Samuel Turner,Esq. Sic T. Hallifax; J. Shakespear, Esq. 

'770 [^^ r^^lSkSq. J JamesTownsend.JSawbridge,fesqr,. 

1774 Bra^s Crosby, Eq. William Baker, Joseph Martin, E*qrs. 

1772 William Na^h Esq. John Wilkes, Fredt»rick Bull, Ksqrs. 

1773 J. fownsend Esq. Rich. Oliver, E^^q. Sir Watkin Lewes 
177"^ Fred. Buil, Esq, Steph. Sayre, Will . Lee, Esqrs. 

1775 John Wilkes, Esq. William Plomer, John Hart, Esqrs. 

1776 JohnSawbiidge,E^q.G. Hayl^y, N. Ne>vnham, Esqrs. ^ 

1777 SirT. Hallifax, Knt.Sam.Plumbe, Nath. Thomas, Esqrs. 

1778 Sir J. Esdaile, Knt. Rob. Peck ham, Richard Clark, Esqrs. 

1779 Samuel Plumbe E<q, John Burnell, Henry Kitchen lisqTs. 

1780 Brackley Kcnnet Esq. Tho. Wrio^ht, Evan Pugh, Esqrs. 

1781 Sir W. Lewes Knt. Tho, Sainsbury, Will. Crichtnn.Esqs. 

1782 Sir W. Plomrr Knl. Will. Gill. Will. Nicholson Esqrs. ^ 

1783 Nat.Newnham Ebq. Sir R. Taylor, Knt. Renj. Cole, Esq. 

1784 RobertPcckh.m.hsq. 1 S^.S^Sj^vlf "' ThoSkinoer. 

■ J Will. Pickeu Esqrs. 

1785 Richard Clark Esq. J. Hopkins, J. Bates, J Boyd el I Esqrs. 

1786 Thomas Wright Esq. Sir J. Sanderson, Knt. B. WatsonEsq. 
J787 Tho. Sainsbury Esq. Paul Le. Mesurier, C. Higgins Esqrs. 
1788 John Burnell Esq. James Fenn, Matt. Qloxham, Esqrs. 
1769 William Gill, Esq. ' W. Curtis, E^q. Sir B. Hammet, Knt. 
1790 William Pickett Esq. Will. Newman, Thos. Baker, Esqrs. 
U91 John Boydell Esq. G. M. Macauley,R. Carr Glyn, Esqrs. 
179-^ John Hopkins, Esq. J.\V.AndcrsonHarvey,C.CombeEsq8. 

' a . 1793 Sir 

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3793 Sir J. Sanderson. Knt. Alex. Brander,'Benj. Tebbs, EUqn 

1794 P.Le Mesurier Esq. Peter Perchard, C. Hamerton Esqrs. 

1795 ThomasSkinnerEsq. Sir J. Eamef Knt. T. BurnettBsq. 

IjgQ Sir Will. Curtis Bt. Rich. Glode^ John Leptrap, Esqrs. 

1797 ^^^ ^' Watson,Bart Sir S. Langston, Sir W. Staines Kats. 

179s SirJ.W.Anderson,Bt. Sir W. Heme Knt. R. Williams Esq. 

o- -D r^ i-i - i>* fW. Champion, Peter Mellish E«q. 
J799 8irR.CarrGlyn,Bt. sir C. Price. Bart. ^ 

Bt. [^ 
Esq. W. 

Sir C. Price, Bart. 

1800 H.Chris. Combe Esq. W. Flower John Blackall EMrs. 

1801 Sir W. Suines, Knt. John Perring,Tho. Cadell, Esqrs. 

1802 Sir J^ Earner, Knt. Sir W. Rawlins, Knt. W. A. Cox Es. 

1803 Sir C, Price, Bart. Sir R. Welch, Sir J. Alexander Knt 

1804 John Perring Esq* J. Shaw Esq. Sir W. Leighton, Knt. 

1805 Peter Perchard Esq. Geo. Scholey, W. Domville Esqrs. 
180^ James Shaw Esiq, John Ansley, Thomas Smith , Esqrs. 


As far back as could be obt^ed from ancient Records. 

1293 John de Norton. 
1304 Job ndeWangrave 
1321 Jeffrey de Hertpoll. 
1321 Robe-'t de Swalchyne. 
1329 Gregory de Norton. 
J 339 Roger de Depham. 
1363 Thomas Lodelow. 
1365 William deHalden. 
1377 William Cheyne. 
1389 John Tremayne» common-Serjeant. 
1392 William Makenade. 
1394 J< hn Cokam 
J398 Matthew de Suthworth. 
1403 Thomas Thornburgh. 
1405 J »hn Preston. 

1415 John Barton, «enior, afterwards made a Serjeant, 
1422 John Fray, made lord chief baron in 1436. 
1426 John Simonds. 
1435 Alexander Anne. 
•1440 Thomas Cockayn. 
1440 William (alias John) Bowis, 

1442 Robert 

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1442 Robert Danvers^ common-serjeant. 

145 1 Thomas Billing, iwho was afterwards made {be king's 8er-> 

jeanty afid at lengtb chief justice. 
1455 Ttiomas Unwjck, common-serjeant, afterwards made chief 

1471 HampbreyStarkey, made chief baron in 1484. 
1483. Thomas Fits- William, made Speaker of the House of Com-* 

moDS in 1483. 

The Recorders from this period follow in regular order. 

1508 Sir Robert Sheffield, Knt. 

1506 John Chalyner. 

1511 Richard firook, made i. justice of Common-pleas in 1 52 1 . In 

1526, made chief baron. 
1530 William Shelley. In 1522, made a Serjeant. In 1527, 

made a justice of the G>mmon-pleas. 
1527 John Baker, one of the judges of the sheriff* courts. 
1536 Sir Roger Choimley, serjeant at kw ; afterwards made king's 

Serjeant ; and in 1 54 6» made chief baron . 
1546 Robert Brook, oommon-serjeant. In 1554, made justice of 

the Common-pleas. 
1553 Ranulpb Chomley, one of the judges of the isherifTs courts 

who was made chief justice of the Common-pleas. 
1563 Richard Onslow. In 1556, made queen's solicitor. 
1566 Thomas Bromley. In I569, madequeoo*s solicitor. 
156^ Thomas Wilbranam, one of the common pleaders. 
1571 William Fleetwood. In 1560^ made a seijcant. In I5g2, 

made queen's seijeaot. 

1591 Edward Coke. In 1606, made chief justice of the Common- 

pleas* lu 1613, made chief justice of the King's-bench. 

1592 Edward Drew, Serjeant at law. In I596, made a queen's 


1594 Thomas Flemynge^ who was degraded in 1595. 

1595 John Crooke. 

1636 Henry Montagu. In I610, madeking*s serjeant. In 1616, 
made chief justice of the King's-bench. 

1616 Thomas Coventry, one of the judges of the sheriffs courts. 
In the same year made king's solicitor. 

I616 Anthony Benn. 

16 J 8 Richard Martin. 

1618 Sir Robert Heath. In l620, made kirg's solicitor, 

1620 Robert Shute. 

1620 Heneage Finch. In 1623, made a serjeant. 

1631 Edward Littleton. In 1634, made king's solicitor. 

1634 Robert Mason. 

1635 Henry Calthrop, queen's s ^.11 cI tor ; afterwards made attorney 

of the court of wards. 

1635 Thomu 

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1635 Thomas Gardiner. 

1643 P^er Pheasant, seijeant at law.' 

1643 JohnGlyn, made king's seijeant in I66O. 

l04g William Steete. In 1655, made lord chief baroa. 

1655 littleburn Long. 

1658 John Green, one of the judges of the sherifFs coart. 

1659 William Wylde. In l66it made a serjeant, and kk]g*s ser* 

jeant. In 1668, made a justice of the Common-pleas. In 
1672» made a justice of the King's-bench. • 

1668 John Howell. 

1676 Sir William Dolben. In 1677* made king's serjeanC . In 
1678, madejusticeof the King's-bench. 

)680 Sir George Jeffreys, common-serjeant. In I683« made 
chief justice of llie King's-bench^ and afterwards lord 

I68O Sir George Treby. In I692, made chief justice of the Com- 

1683 Sir Thomas Jenner, by commission* In l685, made one of 
the barons of the Exchequer. 

1685 Sir John Holt, by commission.' 

1687 Sir John Tate, Serjeant at law, by commission. 

iQpJ Sir Bartholoi^icw Shower, by commission^ Oct. 6. Sir Geo. 
Treby reinstated. 

1692 Sir Salathiel Lovell, serjoant at law, in the room of Treby, 
who had been restored upoq King James's re-granting the 
city's liberties, and was now made justice of the Common* 
pleas. In 17O8, made baron of the Exchequer. 

17O8 Sir Peter King. In 1714, made chief justice of the Common- 
pleas j afterwards lord chancellor. 

1714 Sir William Thompson. In 1716, made king's solicitor- 
general, and afterwards one of tho barons of the Ezche* 
ohn Strange, Solicitor-general. In 1742," made master 
of the Rolls. 

1742 Sir Simon Urlin, serjeant at law. 

J 746 John Stracey, Esq. senior judpe of the sheriffs court. 

1749 Sir Richard Adams, senior of the four common pleaders. Id 
1753, made a baron of the Exchequer. 

1 753 Sir Wm. Moreton, senior judge of the sheriffs court. 

1763 Sir James Eyre, senior city counsel, made a baron of the Ex- 
chequer in 1772. 

1 772 John Glyn, Esq. serjeant at law, and member for Middlesex. 

^779 Jame^ Adair, Esq. serjeant at law. 

1789 Sir J. W. Rose. 

1803 John Silvester, Esq. 

CHAP. xxxy. 

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Of ike Antiquity and present GGvernment of the City of 

Westminster received its name from the abbey, 
or minster, situated to the westward of the city of 
London, which, according to several historians, was 
thus denominated to distinguish it from the Abbey 
of Grace, on Tower-hill, called ]?^stminster ; but 
Maitland proves this to be a mistake, by showing- 
that the former is called Westminster, in an undated 
Charter of Sanctuary, granted by £dward the Con* 
fessor, who died in 1066, and that the latter was not 
founded till \ii59: he therefore supposes, that the 
appellation of Westminster was given to distinguish 
it from 6t. Paul's church, in the city of Juondon. 

In ancient times, this was a mean, unhealthy 
place, remarkable for nothing but the Abbey, which 
was situated on a marshy island, surrounded on one 
side by the Thames, and on the other by what was 
called Long Ditch. This ditch was a branch of the 
river, which began nearly where Manchester-build* 
ings now stand; and crossing King-street, ran west* 
ward to Delalhay street, Where it turned to the south, 
and continued its course along Princes-street, until 
it crossed TothilUstreet, from whence it passed along 
the south wall of the Abbey-garden, to the Thames 
again. It has, however, been arched over for many 
years, and is at present a common sewer. 

This island was, exclusive of the minster, an entire 
waste, and so overgrown with thotnsand briers, that 
it obtained the appellation of Tborney Island. In 
process of time, howev^, a few Jiouses were erected 

toL^ III. B b b round 

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S70 uisToair and survey or 

round t^e monastery, which, at length, grew into a 
small town, called in ancient books, '* The Town of 
Westminster/' But the principal cause of the in- 
ttease of Westminster, was the continual jealousy of 
the government against the privileges and immuni- 
ties claimed by the citizens of London. To this cause 
must be attributed the establishment of the wool- 
staple, at Westminster, in preference to London, 
which occasioned a great resort of merchants thither. 
Another cause of its growth, was, the royal residence 
being generally »here ; for which reason, most of the 
<;;Jiief nobility also erected inns, or town-houses, in its 
vicinity, the sites of many of which still retain the 
names of their former owners. 

Westminster continued for many ages a distinct 
town from London, and the road between them, on 
the sides of which the street called the Strand was 
afterwards built, passed along the river side, and 
through the village of Charing. This road, however, 
from the frequent passing of horses and carts, had 
become so dangerous both to men and carriages, that 
in the year 1 ^35 J,- a toll was laid on all merchandize 
and provisions carried to the staple of Westminster, 
for repairing it. In 1 J85, it was new paved from 
Temple-bar to the Savoy ; and some years after, by 
the interest of Sir Robert Cecil, who had an elegant 
mansion where Cecil-street now stands, the pave- 
* ment was continued as far as his house. 

In course of time, Westminster became a place of 
some consideration ; but it received its most distin- 
giiished honours from Henry VIII. *who, on the dis- 
solution of the monastery of St Peter, converted it 
into a bishopric, with a dean and twelve prebenda- 
ries ; and appointed the whole county of Middlesex, 
except Fulham, which was to remain to the Uishop 
of London, for its diocese. On this Occasion West- 
minster became a city; for the making of which, 
^ according: 


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according to Lord Chief Justice Cc^e, nothing 
more is required, than to. be the Wat of episcopal 

The old palace, near the Abbey, having been nearly 
destroyed by fire in 1512, Henry VIH. took up hk 
residence at Whitehall, which he purchased, in 1530> 
of Cardinal Wolsey. He aik> built the palace of St. 
James, and inclosed a fine spot of ground, which he 
converted into a park, fbr the accommodation of both 

From this period, the buildings about Westmin^ 
stcr b^an greatly to increase t but it did not long 
^njoy the honour of b^ng a city ; for it never had 
but one bishop, Thomas Thirlby, who being translated 
to the see of Norwich, by Edward VI. in 1 550, the 
new bisho[Nric was dissolved, and its right to the 
epithet of city was thereby lost. However, West- 
minster is still considered as a city, and is so stiled 
in our statutes. 

The city of Westminster, properly so called, con- 
sists but of two parishes, viz. St. Margaret and St. 
John the Evangelist; but the liberties contain seven 
parishes, which are as follow: St. Martin, in the 
Fields, St. James, St. Anne, St. Paul, Covent-garden, 
St. Mary-le-Strand, St. Clement Danes, and St. 
George, Hanover-square; to which must be added, 
the precinct of the Savoy, and that of St. Martin4e- 

The government of both the city and liberties of 
Westminster is under the jurisdiction of the Dean 
and Chapter of St. Peter's, as well in civil as in ec^ 
clesiastical affairs, whose authority also extends to 
some towns in Essex, and the whole of their district 
is exempt from the jurisdiction of the Bishop of 
of London, and of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Since the Reformation, the management of the eivil 
part of the government has been in the hands of lay- 

f men, 

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meo, elected, or, wben appcMnted by their pnncipate, 
confinoed by the ikan and chapter. 

The tbrm of the civil ffovemmeDt of Westnunatef 
naa aettlad by ^m act of parHaiDeae passed in the 
STtki of Queen Eliflabeth, iDlituled, '^ An Act for 
the good iiovemment of the City and Borough of 
Westminster;'^ vihkh <iiecta the appointment of 
twelve buigeaaes, and twelve asaislants^ annually, to 
pi«aide over the twelve wank into which Weatmin- 
ster was at that time divided; and gives power t?o 
the dean, high steward, or his deputy, and the 
twelve burgesses, or any three of them, whereof 
the dean, high stewaid, or his deputy, to be one, to 
bear, determine, and punish; according to the laws 
of the realm, or lavdahle and lawful customs of the 
city of London, all matters of incontinency, eommon 
scolds, inmates, common annoyances, &c« and to 
commit persons ofiendi«g against the peace, to pri- 
son; but to ^ive notice, within twenty-four hours, 
to some justice of the peace for the county. • Ail 
good orders and ordinances, made by the dean and 
high steward, with the assistance of the burgesses, 
concerning the government of the inhabitants, and 
not repugnant to the queen^s prerc^tive, or the laws 
of the land, to be of ftill force and strength. 

Though the increase of the liberties ^ Westmin- 
ster has rendered some alterations in this statute ne- 
cessary, yet the substance of it is still the basis of 
,the government of this city. 

The first of these magistrates is the high steward, 
who 19 usually one of the chief nobthty, chosen by 
the dean and chapter. His oflice has sonoe lenity 
to that of a chancellor of an university ; and he holds 
his place during life. On his death, or resignation, 
a chapter is called for the election pf another, m 
whitrh the dean sits as high steward, until the elec« 
tion is determiiied. 


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L0V90N ANA IM EmmOX^i ^S 

Hie deputjr stewaid la appoiulad by ti» bigk 
iMemrd^ and confiimfid by the dean and chapte. 
He la cbainnan of tbe oourt-leet; t>y wkiGh the high 
GODstsible^ the petty canstaUea, and the aimoyaiica 
JQriea aie appoioted. 

The high bailiff is Dominated by the dean, and 
confinoed by the high steward, and holds his place 
for life. He is leturning officer at the election tat 
memhera of parliament, wd enjo^ considerable pro«- 
fits from fines, forfeitures, &c. The office is gene- 
rally executed by a deputy, who is m attorney of 

The burgesses are at present sixteen in number; 
each of whom has an assistant. They are nearly si- 
milar to the aldermen and deputies in the city of 
Londi>n; but the exercise of their office is now prin- 
cipally confined to attending the courts leet, &c. 

Under the high constable, who cannot hold his 
office more than three vears, are eighty pet^ con- 
stables, appointed annually, at Michaelmas, viz. four- 
teen for the parish of St. Margaret; four for the pa- 
rish of St. John, the Evangelisf; twelve for the parish 
of St. George, Hanover-^quare; fourteen for the pa- 
rish of St. Martin in the Fields; fourteen for the pa- 
rish of St. James; eight for the parish of St. Anne; 
six for the parish of St. Paul, Covent-garden ; ^\k 
for the parish of St. Clement Danes; and two for' 
the parish of St. Mary-le-Strand. 

Before the year 1696, the inhabitants of West- 
minster were liable to be called upon to serve as 
jurors at the quarter sessions for the county of Mid- 
dlesex ; but a clause was introduced into an act, 
passed in that yeapfor regulating jurors, by which 
they were exempted from this duty. 

Notwithstanding the great extetit of Westminster, 
the government of it bears but little resemblance to 
that of a large city; the inhabitants have no exclu- 

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sive OHporatidn privileges, nor are there any trading 
companies witbifi its jurisdiction. The two mem- 
bers who represent it in parliament, like those of a 
eonmon country borough, are chosen by the inhabi- 
tant householders at large ; and the only courts held 
in Westminster^ are, the court-leet, the quarter ses- 
sions, and two courts of requests, for the recovery 
of small debts. Westminster has, however, long 
be^i the seat of the royal palace, the high court of 
parliament, and of our law tribunals. 


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Of the CUy of f^esfminster, — WeUminsleT" Alley, — Hennf 
the Seventh's ChapeL — The Cloisters. — The Chapter^ 
House. — The Sanctuary, — 5/, MargareCs Church,-^ 

tVestminsttr^Hall. Courts of Justice. House of 

Lords. — House of Commons. — Painted Chamber. 

Westmimter^School. — St. John^s Church. 

The city. of Westminster, as has been already 
observed, coutains but two parishes; viz. St. Ma*^- 
garefs and St, John's. We shall begin the survey 
of this part of the metropolis with the former, the 
most remarkable building in which, is the ancient 
abbey church dedicated to St. Peter. 

There are so many miraculous stories related of 
the foundation of this abbey, in the legends of 
monkish writers, that by this enliglitened age the 
bare recital would hardly be excused : all that can 
with truth be said, amounts only to this, that Sebert, 
king of the East-Saxons, who died in 6 1 6, being by 
Austin's preaching, and his uncle Ethelbert's exam- 
ple, converted to Christianity, threw down the tem- 
ple of Apollo, west of London, and there most de- 
voutly erected a church, which he dedicated to the 
honour of St. Peter, prince of the apostles, and ap- 
ppinted Mellitus,' then bishop of London, to conse- 
crate it accordingly. Ranulphus, indeed, does not 
particularly mention Sebert, but has these remark- 
able words, '* That some one, at the instigation of 
Ethelbert, built a church to the honour of St, Peter 
in the west part of the city of London, in a place 
called Thorney, which signifies an island of thorns, 
but is now called Westminster.'' 

Sir Christopher Wren, however^ whose opinion 

is by no means to be contemned, r^ects as fabulous 

2 the 

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the notion of a temple to Apollo in Tboraey iriand ; 
and the rather, because it is said to be destroyed by 
an earthquake in the reign of Antonius Pius, in or- 
' der to make way for a Christian church to be erected 
by King Lucius upon its ruins. Sir Christopher, to 
strengthen his opinion, declares, that when he was 
employed to survey Westmjnster-abbey, though he 
examined both the walls and ornaments about it 
with the nicest care, yet he couid neither discover 
the least fragment of cornice or capital, to indicate 
the work of a Roman builder, which he thinks he 
must undoubtedly have done, had the fact been 
true, as eardiquakes break few stones, though they 
overturn edifices. 

The dedication of this ancient abbey is a matter 
as uncertain as. the foundation of it ; the church 
historians will have it miraculous, and none but 
St Peter himself, though dead five hundred yearn 
before, must be admitted to that honour. 

The king had ordered Mellitus to perform the 
ceremony, out St. Peter, as the legend says, was 
beforehand with him; for over>night he called upon 
Edricus, a fisherman, and desired to be ferried over 
to Thorney, which happened to be then flooded 
round by heavy rains: the fisherman obeyed, and 
the apostle (having* consecrated the church, amidst a 
grand chorus of heavenly music, and a glorious ap» 
pearance of burning lights, of which Edricus was 
both an ear and an eye-witness,) discovered himself 
on his return, and bid the fisherman tell Mellitus 
what he had heard and seen ; giving him at the 
same time, a specimen of his divine mission, by a 
miraculous draught of salmon, of which kind of 
fish, when in season, the apostle assured him, none 
of his occupation should ever want, provided they 
honestly ma!de an offering of the tenth fish to the 
use of the newljj^ consecrated churck This custom 


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appears to have been continued until the end of the ' 
fourteenth century. 

That the above romantic tale was generally cre- 
dited for many ages after, is evident from two royal 
charters. The first is a charter of King Edgar, who 
says, " this church was dedicated by no less than 
St. Peter, the Prince of Apostles, to his own ho- 
nour.'^ The other is a charter of Edward the Con- 
fessor, which is still more explicit, affirming it to 
be " dedicated by St. Peter himself with the at- 
tendance of angels, by the impression of the holy 
cross, and the anointment of the holy chrism.'^ 

This church and its monastery were repaired and 
enlarged by OfFa, King of Mercia ; but being de- 
stroyed by the pagan Danes, they were rebuilt by 
Edgar, who endowed them, and in the year 969, 
granted them many ample privileges. But having 
again suffered by the ravages of the Danes, Edward 
the Confessor pulled down the old church, and 
erected a most magnificent one for that age in its 
place, in the form of a cross, which was begun in the 
year 1049? and became a pattern for that kind of 

The work being finished in the year 1066, he 
caused it to be consecrated with the greatest pomp 
and solemnity ; and by several charters not only 
confirmed all its ancient rights and privileges, bvt 
endowed it with many rich manors and additional 
immunities; and the church, by a bull of Pope 
Nicholas!, was constituted the place for the in-' 
auguration of the Kings of England. But as 
an abbey in those days would have been nothing 
without relics, here were to be found the veil 
and some of the milk of the Virgin ; the blade- 
bone of St. Benedict; the finger of St. Alphage ; 
the head of St. Maxilla ; and half the jaw-bone of 
St. Anastasia. 

VQL. III. ccc William 

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William the Conqueror, to show his regard to 
the memory of his late friend King Edward, no 
sooner arrived in London, than he repaired to this 
church, and offered a sumptuous pall, as a covering 
for Edward's tomb. He also gave fifty marks of 
silver, together with a very rich altar-cloth, and two 
caskets of gold ; and the Christmas following was 
solemnly crowned there, which was the first coro- 
nation performed in that place. 

The next prince that. undertook to enlarge this 
great work was Henry III. who built a chapel to 
the Blessed Virgin, then called the new work at 
Westminster, the first stone whereof he laid him- 
self on Saturday. before his coronation, in the year 
1220. But about twenty years after, finding the 
walls and steeple of the old. structure much de- 
cayed, he pulled them all down, with a design to 
enlarge and rebuild them in a more regular manner. 
He commenced this great work in 124-0, in the 
style of architecture which began to prevail in his 
days, but did not c^ny it further than four arches 
west of the middle^ tower ; and the vaulting of this 
part was not completed until 1296. He did not live 
to accomplish his design. It was continued by his 
successor, and carried on slowly by succeeding 
princes ; and from the portcullises on the roof of 
the last arches it appears, that either Heniy VH. or 
• VIIL had spme concern in it, that being the device 
of these monarchs. The building was never finished, 
the great tower and the two western towers remain- 
ing incomplete at the Reformation, after which the 
two present towers were erected. 

About the year 1502, Henry VII. began that 
magnificent structure, which is now generally called 
by his name : for this purpose, he pulled down the 
chapel of Heiu'y III. already mentioned, and an ad* 
joining hoL^^j, called the White Rose Tavern. This 


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chapel, like the former, he dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin ; and designing it for a burial place for him- 
self and his posterity, he carefully ordered in hi9 
will, that none but those of royal blood should be 
permitted to lie therein : and, for the health ^f his 
soul, he procured a bull from the Pope, for uniting 
te this abbey ^the collegiate church of St. Martin's- 
le-grand, and the manor of Tykill, in Yorkshire, for 
the maintenance of a chauntry of three monks and 
two lay bretliren. This was the origin of the juris- 
diction of the dean and chapter of Westminster, in 
St. Martin's-le-grand. * 

On the general suppression of religious houses, 
the abbey was surrendered to Henry V 111, by Wil* 
liam Benson, the abbots dnd seventeen of the 
monks, in the year \f>b9^ when its revenues 
amounted, according to Speed, to three thousand. 
Dine hundred and seventy-seven pounds, six shil- 
lings and four-pence per annum, a sum, at least 
equal to twenty thousand pounds a year of present , 
money. Besides its furniture, which was of ii^* 
estimable value, it had, in different parts of the 
kingdon), no' less than two hundred and sixteen 
manors, seventeen hamlets, with ninety-seven towns 
and villages ; and though the abbey was only the se« 
cond in rank, yet in all other respects it was the chief 
in the kingdom, and its abbots had a seat in the 
house of lords. 

, The abbey being thus dissolved, Henry VUI. 
erected it first into a college of secular canons, un- 
der the government of a dean, an honour which he 
chose to confer on the last abbot. This establish- 
inent, however, was of no long duration, for two 
years after he converted it into a bishopric, whicli 
was dissolved nine years after by Edward VI. who 
restored the government by a dean^ whiph Continued 
till Mary's accession to the crown » 

"^ In 

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Id 15579 Queen Mary restored it to its ancient 
conventual state: but Queen Elizabeth again ejected 
the monks, And, in 1560, erected Westminster Ab* 
bey into a college, under the government of a dean, 
and twelve secular carious or prebendaries. She also 
founded a school for forty scholars, denominated the 
Queen'^, to be educated in the liberal sciences, pre^i^ 
paratory to the university, and to have all the neces- 
saries of life, except cloathing, of which they Were to 
have only a gown every year. To this abbey belong 
choristers, singing*m^n, an organist, twelve alms- 
men, &c. 

No very material alterations were made in the out- 
ward structure of this church after the death of 
Henry YII. till the time of King William and Queen 
Mary; when it became the object of parliamentaiy 
concern, and was rescued from that ruin into which 
it was falling, by a thorough reparation at the national 
expense ^ and though the ravage that was made 
within it by Henry VIII. and the havoc without it, 
during the unhappy civil commotions that deiiaced 
the ancient beauty of all the religious houses in this 
kingdom, can never be recovered; yet by the labour 
and skill of Sir Christopher Wren, and those who 
succeeded him, it has been decorated with such or- 
naments as have rendered the building more com- 
plete than it had ever been. 

This venerable fabric has been new coated on the 
outside, except that part called Henry the Sevenih'a 
Chapel, which is, indeed, a separate building; and 
the west end has been adorned with two new stately 
towers, that have been thought equal, in point of 
.workmanship, to, any part of the original building, 
^ut though such pains were taken in the coating, to 
preserve theancientGothic grandeur, thatthis church, 
in its distant prospect, has all the venerable majesty 
of its former state, y6t the beautiful carving with 


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ynbich it was once adorned, is inetrieyably lost: the 
buttresses once coped with free-stone, and the sta- 
tues of our ancient kings, that formerly stood in 
niches, near the top of those buttresses, are for the 
most part removed. Some of. these statues are still 
standing next the towers, on the north side, and, 
indeed, it is on this side that an oiatward view of the 
Abbey mQ$t be taken, the other being so incumbered 
with buildings, that even its situation can hardly be 

In viewing the outside of this building, the atten* 
tion is particularly engaged by the magnificent por- 
tico that leads into the nort^ cross, which has been 
stiled The Beaulifulj or SoIomon^Sj Gate. It is pro- 
bable, that this was built by Richard II. asliis arms^ 
carved in stone, were formerly over the gate. 

This portico is Gothic, and extremely beautiful; . 
and over it is a most elegant window of modern date, 
and admirably well executed. On the south side is 
a window, set up in 1705, which is likewise very 
masterly. But the principal beauties of this structure 
are to be found within. 

The length of the building, from east to west, is 
three hundred and seventy-five feet, measuring from 
the steps leading to Henry the Seventh's Chapel. 
The length of the cross, from north to south, is one 
hundred and ninety-five feet; and the breadth of the 
nave and side aisles is seventy-two feet. The height, 
from the pavement of the nave to the inner roof, is ' 
one hundred feet, and from the choir pavement to the 
roof of the lantern, is one hundred and forty feet. 

On entering the west door, the whole body of the 
church presents itself at one view ; the pillars which 
divide the nave from th^ side aisles being so curi- 
ously formed as not to obstruct the side openings; 
nor is the sight terminated to the east, but by me 
fine painted window over the portico of Henry 


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Vllth 8 chapel, which, anciently, when the altars 
low, and the beautiful shrine of Edward the Confes- 
sor was included in the prospect, must have afforded 
one'of the grandest sights the imagination can paint. 

These pillars terminate toward the east by a sweep, 
thereby iQplosing the chapd of Edward the Confes- 
sor in a kind of semi-circle: and it is worthy of obser- 
vation, that, as far as the gates of the choir, the 
pillars are filleted with brass, but all beyond wiA 
free-9tone; from which circumstance, some take oc- 
casion to determine the bounds of the different en- 
largement of this church at different times, but with 
much uncertainty. Answerable to the middle range 
of pillars are others in the walls, which, as they rise, 
spring into semi-arches, and are every where met in 
acute angles by their opposites; thereby throwinff 
the roof into a varietyof segments of arches, decorated 
with ornamental carvings at the closing and crossings 
of the lines. On the arches of the pillars are galle- 
^ ries of double columns, fifteen feet wide, covering 
the side aisled, and enlightened by a middle range 
of windows, over which there is an upper range of 
larger windows; by these and the under range, to- 
gether with the four capital windows, facing ,the 
north, east, south, and west, the whole fabric is ad- 
mirably enlightened. 

At the bottom of the walls, between the columns, 
are shallow niches, arched about eight or ten feet 
high, on which the arms of the original benefactors 
are depicted ; and over them, in Saxon characters, 
their titles, &;c. but these are almost all hid from the 
sight, by the monuments of the dead being placed 
before them. 4 > . ^ 

The next objects of attention, are, the fine paint- 
ings in the great west window, of Abraham) 
Isaac, and Jacob; Moses and Aaron, and the twelve 
patriarchs; the arms of King Sebert, King Edward 

3 • *tLe 

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IjONDON and its £NV1E09S. 383 

the Confessor, Queen Elizabeth, King George II. , 
and Dean Wilcox, Bishop of Rochester. This win- 
dow was set up in the year 173::$, and is very curious. 
To the left of it, in a less window, is a painting 
of one of our kings, supposed to be Richard IL 
but the colours being of a water blue, the features of 
the face cannot be distinguished. In tbe window, 
on the other side the great window, is a lively repre- 
sentation of Edward tbe Confessor, in his robes, add 
uader his feet his arms painted. These are the most 
perfect of the many remains of this ancient art, to be 
seen in the different windows of the Abbey. 

After surveying this part of the church, the next' 
thing to be noticed is the choir, which may always 
be seen during divine service, and at other times is 
shown to those who pay for seeing the monuments 
in the north cross and western end of the Abbey. 
Tbe grand entrance to it is by a pair of beautiful iron 
gates, and tlifi floor is paved with black and white 
marble. The stalls in this choir were formerly painted 
of a purple colour, and in it, near the pulpit, was an 
ancient portrait of Richard II. six feet eleven inches 
high, by three feet seven inches bix)ad. He is repre- 
sented sitting in a chair of state, with a globe in one 
hand, and the sceptre in the other; a crown on his 
head, and his dress, which is a green vest tlowered 
with gold, extremely rich and elegant, and marked 
in many places with his initial R, surmounted by a 
crown. The countenance of this portrait is remarkably 
fine and gentle, little indicative of his had and op- 
pressive reign. Latterly, the choir has undergone a 
considerable alteration in the position of the stalls 
and seats, which are rendered much more commo- 
dious for public worship, and are so contrived, that 
they can be removed to make room foi' the celebra- 
tion of any service which requires greater space, and 
c^ be replaced without injury, or much expense. 


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SiDce this improvement, the portrait of Richard has 
been bung up in the Jerusalem chamber. 

Beyond the choir is the fine altar, surrounded with 
a curious balustrade, within which is a pavement of 
Mosaic work, made at the charge of Abbot Ware, 
' and said to be the most beautiful in its kind of any 
in the world- By some Latin verses it appears, that 
it is composed of porphyry, and some other stones of 
various colours, and that it was laid in the year 1379- 

This beautiful pavement sustained irreparable in- 
jury during a fire, which destroyed the roof of the 
lantern above it, on the 9th of July, 1803. The fire 
was occasioned by the negligence of some plumbers, 
who were employed to repair the lead work of the 
roof, and, for a short time, seemed to threaten the 
destruction of this venerable pile ; for the height of 
the phce is such, that water was not conveyed to it 
without great difficulty. Happily, however, it was 
extinguished without comn^unicating to the long 
timber roofe, which extend in every direction from 
this common center of the building; and the damage 
has been since repaired with so much skill, that, 
when the freshness is worn off the new work, it will 
scarcely be distinguishable from the old. 

The altar, which formerly stood in a chapel at 
Wl^itehall, is a stately and beautiful piece of white 
- marble, and was removed from the stores at Hampton- 
court, in the year 1707, by order of her late majesty 
Queen Anne, who presented it to this church. There 
is, however, a striking impropriety in the appearance 
of an elegant specinaen of Grecian architecture, as 
a part of a Gothic temple. On each side the altar are 
marble doors, opening into St. Edward's chapel, 
where, at their coronation, our kings retire to refresh 

The chapel of St. Edward the Confessor is inclosed 
in the body of the church, at the east end of the 


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choir, and directly behind the altar. The. principal 
object in this chapel is the ancient shrine, erected by 
Henry III. to the memory of Edward the Confessor, 
King of England, and the last of the Saxon race. He 
died ia the year 1066, and was canonized in ]969» 
by Pope Alexander III. who caused his name to be 
placed in the catalogue of saints, and issued his bull ' 
to the Abbot Lawrence, and the Convent of West-* 
minster, enjoining, ** That his body be honoured her« 
on earth, and his soul be glorified in heaven/' A 
cloistered life was his sole happiness; and though he 
was married eighteen years to one of the most ac- 
complished women of her time, daughter to Earl 
Godwin, yet 'tis said, she confessed on her death-bed, 
he suffered her to hve and die a virgin. This shrine^ 
which was once esteemed the glory of England, is , 
now much defaced and neglected. It was composed 
of stones of various colours, beautifully enriched 
with all the cost and art that human imagination 
could project; and consists of three rows of arches, 
the lower pointed, the upper round ; and on each side 
of the lower is a most elegant twisted pillar: a lamp 
was kept continually burning before it. On one side 
stood a silver image of the Blessed Virgin, which, 
with two jewels of immense value, were presented 
by c^ueen Eleanor, the wife of Henry III. On the 
other side stood another image of the Virgin Mary, 
wrought in ivory, presented by Thomas Beckett 
Archbishop of Canterbury. To this shrine Edward I. 
offered the Scots regalia and chair, in which the kings 
of Scotland used to be crowned. About the year 
1280, Alphonst), third son to Edward I. offered here 
the golden coronet of Llewellyn, Prince of A Vales, 
and other jewels. 

The beautiiiil mosaic pavement of this chapel was 
the performance of Peter Cavalini, inventor of that 

f OL, III. odd species 

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species of ornament* It is supposed that he was 
brought into Eng.dMd by the abbot Ware, who visi- 
ted Itome in 13ob. M eever, in his i^'uneral Monu- 
ments, says; " He brought from thenc& certain 
vcrknien, and rich porpbery stones, whereof ho 
made that curious, singular, rare pavement before the 
high altar; and with these stones -and workmen he 
did also frame the shrine of Edward the jCoofesaor/" 

This shrine is now so stripped as to afford but 
little satisfaction, except to the curious ; however, 
some of the stone-work with which it was adcnrned 
is still to be seen. This stone work Is hollow 
within, and now encloses a, large chest, .which 
Mr. Keep, soon aftar the coronation of James II. 
ipund to contain the remains of St. Edward ; foe 
it being broken by accident, he discovered a 
number of bones, and turning them up, found a 
crucifix richly ornamented and enamelled, with 
a gold chain twenty inches long, both wldch he 
presented to the king, who ordered the bones to 
be r^'placed in the old coffin, and inclosed in a 
new one made very strong, and bound with iron. 

In this chapel are several other memorials of de^ 
ceased royalty on the south side of the shrine lies 
Editha, Queen to St. Edward, one of the most ae« 
complished women of her age, w.ho survived her 
husband eight years, and beheld all the miseries eon- 
sequent on his dying without issue. She was how- 
ever treated with great respect by William the 
Conqueror^ who allowed her an apartment in his pa •< 
lace at Winchester, where she died, and was interred 
here, by his express orders. 

On the north side of the chapel is the tomb of 

Henry III. the pannels of which are of polished p(H- 

phyry, surrounded by mosaic work of scarlet and 

gold. At the corners are twisted pillars, gilt and 

3 enamelled; 

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enamelled ; and upon it is the efiigy of that king in 
brass, gilt, finely executed, and supposed to be the 
first brazen statue cast in this kingdom. 

At the feet of Henry III. is a table monument of 
grey«arble^ on which lies the effigy of Eleanor, 
<|oeen to Edward L It is remarkable that only the 
body of this qnieen was interred here, and that her 
heart was placed in the choir of the Friftrs Predi- 
cants, in London. 

tTere is also a large plain coffin of grey marble, 
composed of 45even stabs; four of which form the 
sides, two the dids, and one the cover. This rough 
onpolished tomb incloses the remains of Edward I. 
jQst m^entioned, who was named m honour of the 
Confessor, and surnamed Longshanks, from his tall 
and slender habit of body. 

On the south side of this chapel is a black mHrbli 
monument to the memory of Fhiiippa, queen of Ed* 
ward III. to whom she was married forty-two yeaWj 
and bore him fourteen children. Edward bestowed 
a profusion of expense on her tomb, round which 
Were placed, as ornaments, the brazen statues of 
thirty kings, princes, and noble personages her 

' Adjoining to this under a gothie canopy, is the 
tomb of Edward III. The effigy of this prince is 
placed recumbent upon a table of gTey marble, and 
though his tomb is distinct from that of the queen, 
yet their bodies were deposited in the same grave, 
according to her request on her death bed. Like the 
former, this tomb is surrounded with statues, parti- 
cularly those of his children ; and at the head of it 
are placed the sword and shield carried before him 
in France. The sword is seven feet long and weighs 
eighteen pounds. 

Next to this is a tomb erected to the memory of 
Richacd II. and his first consort Anne ; over which 


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is a canopy of wood, remaiicabiefor a curious paiot* 
i^^9 still visible upon it, of our Saviour and the 
Virgin Mary. This prince was murdered in Pomfinet 
(.'astte, on Valentine's day, in the year 1399- The 
robing of his effigy is curiously wrought with peas- 
cod shells open and the peas out, supposed to be in 
allusion to his having been once in full possession of 
sovereignty, which, before his murder, was reduced 
to an empty title. 

In this chapel are deposited the coronation chairs 
of our kings and queens, the most ancient of which, 
as has been already mentioned, was brought with the 
regalia from Scotland, by King Edward L in tha 

{ear 1S97, and offered at the shrine of St EdwanL 
Jnder the seat of this chair is a square stone, 
which, according to the Scots tradition, is believed 
to have been Jacob's pillow. The other chair was 
made for Mary IL At the coronation, one or both 
of these chairs, as circumstances require, are cover- 
ed with gold tissue, and placed before the altar, be- 
hind which they now stand. 

Along the frieze of the screen of this chapel are 
fourteen legendaiy sculptures respecting the Con- 
fessor, The first is the trial of Queen £mma ; thi? 
second, the birth of Edward; the next his corona- 
tion ; the fourth represents the manner in which he 
was terrified into the abolition of the dane-gelt, 
by seeing the devil dance upon the money casks ; 
the fifth is the story of his winking at a thief who 
was robbing his treasury ; the sixth is intended to 
represent the appearance of our Saviour to him ; 
the seventh shows how the invasion of England 
wa^ frustrated by the drowning of the Danish king ; 
the eighth represents the quarrel between the boys 
Tosti and Harold, predicting their respective fates ; 
the ninth contains the Confessor's vision of the 
«»even sleepers; the tenth shows his meeting with 


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St. John the Evangelist, in the disguise of a pilgrim; 
the eleventh, the curing the blind by washing their 
eyes in his dirty water; the twelfth represents St* 
John deiivering to the pilgrims a ring; in the tbir« 
teenth they deliver the ring to the king which he had 
unknowingly given to St. John as an alms, when he 
met him in the form of a pilgrim : this was attended 
with a message from the saint, foretelling the death 
of the king ; and the fourteenth shows the conse- 
quent haste made « by him to complete his pious 

The chapel of Henry the Fifth is only separated 
J&om that of ^. Edward by an iron screen, on each 
side of which are images as large as life, * guarding, 
as it were, the staircase ascending to the chantiv 
over it. In it is his monument, which is of blacK 
marUe, surrounded with iron rails and gates, and on 
it is placed his statue made of heart of oak; but the 
head, with the sceptre and r^alia being, of beaten 
silver, were sacrilegiously stolen, according to the 
account of the guides, in the time of Oliver Crom- 
well. The beautiful gothic inclosure of this tomb 
was erected by Henry YU. in compliment to his illus- 
trious relation and predecessor; but he paid less res- 
pect to the memory of his grandmother, Catherine, 
the relict of this prince, who was interred in the 
chapel of the Virgin. When Henry VII. ordered 
that to be pulled down to make way for his own 
magnificent chapel, he neglected her remains, 
which he suffered to be carelessly flung into a wooden 
chest and removed into this chapel. 

On each side of this chapel is a winding staircase, 
inclosed in a turret of iron work, the tops of which 
spread into roofs of uncommon elegance. These 
stairs kad to a thantry, over the chapel, from 
which the inner part of the Confessor's shrine can 
be sMn. Here are a helmet, shield and saddle, which 


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;3^ tflSTORY AN0 SU&VEV QfT . 

are belieted to* be those u&ed by Ueniy V« M tHe 
b)Bi4fde of Agiucourt) and brought here, as the cusMa 
^a^, at his fiinemk The various models designed 
by Christopher Wren* and other eminent architects, 
which had remained for many years in an obscure 
pArt of this church, were brought here jn 1779. 
The section of the Abb^, with the spire, as designed 
by Sir Christopher, is greatly admir^. 

Arbund the chapel of St Edward ace nine chapels^ 
besides that of Henry the seventh, which a|^ 
pear not to have been comprehended in the origimil 
pl^n of thn building, though tliey were eneeted 
by H6nry HI. Beginning at the north crosb and 
passing round to the south they are in the follow^- 
, ilig order: St. Andrew's; St. Michael's; St. Joha 
the (^Evangelist's ; (slip's, or St John the Baptist's ; 
St Erasmus's; St Paul's;. St. NIcholsig's; Sl £d- 
mund's aind St. Benedict's. 

These chapels with the whole of the aiiea,- theatale^ 
the nave, and the north and south crosses are fiUed 
with* such a wilderness of monumentsy liiat it 
would require a volunoie to give the descriptions 
of them all ; we shall therefore confine oursehres to ^ 
noticing some of the most remarkable. 

In St. Michael's chapel is a monument to die 
memory of Joseph Gascoigne Nightingale- and his 
lady, which is one of the capital performances of 
that great master in sculpture, Roubiliac, and is vi- 
sited and admired by all judges of el^nce and 
ingenuity. . ' 

-Above is represented a lady expiring ia the wms 
of her husband ; and beneath, slily creeping fnom a 
tomb, the Jiing of terrors presents hij^ grim vi- 
sage, pointing his unerring dart to the dying figure^ 
at which sight the huHband, struck with astonish- 
ment, horror and despair,'endeavours to waixl off the 
fatal stroke from^the distressed object of his caie. 


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liMIDON A1II> 1T$ 1^NVIfi098. 891 

Oa it 18 the foUowiDg^ inscription; " Here rest the 
aabes cS Joseph Gaacoigne Nightingale, of Mamhea<lj 
in the county of Devon, Esq. who died July the 
20tb, 1752, i^ed 56; and of lady Elizabeth his' 
ivife, daughter and coheireas of Waabington,/{^rL' 
Ferrers, who died August the 17th, 1734, aged S7** 
Their only «:»n Washington Gascoigne Nighjingate^ 
lilsq. deceased, in memory of their virtues, did« 
by his last will, order this monument to be erected/^ / 
In the centre of the chapel of St. Johii the Evan-i 
gelist is a curious monument, erected to the rae«* 
xnory of Sir Francis Vere, a gentleman well skilled 
both in learning and arms ; but being brought ilp 
from his youth in the camp, he dedicated his study 
to the art of war, in which he wasL equalled by few* 
atfid not excelled by any. He commanded in front uo- 
6er Prince Maurice, at the battle of Newport, againstf 
the Spanisli army, who came to the rdief of that 
towrt, under the. command of the Archduke Albert, 
then goveraioi of the Low Countries. • Vere, in post- 
ing the English soldiers advantageously, had occa- 
sion to pass a ford, in order to which the sold ieri 
were preparing to strip ; but he prevented that de- 
lay* by telling them that what they were goipg ix> 
do was- entirely useless, for in a few hoius they 
might either have dry clothes, or need of none. By 
this seasonable encouragement, the enemy ^s .horse 
that had left their foot behind, were beat back,.aad 
the English, who were not above one thousand five 
hunflred in number, gained the eminence of the 
downs, supported by a body of Friesland foot, 
ready to sustain the first shock of the enemy's fire. 
Though tliis was a dangerous enterprize, in which 
Yere himself was wounded, his hors^ shot under 
him, and half the English slain, yet it proved the 
cause of victory to the Dutch : for Prince Maurice 
advancing suddenly with his fresh troops, while th« 


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Spaniards were yet greatly exhausted by their at- 
tack upon this small body, found it easy to put them. 
to the r ut, and th^eby obtained a complete victoiy. 
The monument is a table, supported by four knights 
Jkneeling, on which lie the several parts of a complete 
tuit of armour, and underneath the effigy of Sir 
Francis, in a loose gown, lying on a quilt of alabaster. 
There is a short description in Latin, on the base of 
the monument, signifying that he was nephew to 
the Earl of Oxford,, and that this was consecrated to 
his memory by his disconsolate widow. He died in 
the fifty-fourth year of his age, on the 38th of Augu^, 

In former times, there were many ancient monu- 
ments in this chapel, of which only one is now re- 
maining. It has the figure of an abbot, in his mass 
habit, curiously engraved on brass, representing John 
de Eastrey, who died on the 4th of March, 1498. 
By the records of the church, he appears to have 
been a g^eat benefactor to it. He adorned the west 
window with many grand paintings on glass, a small 
part of which still remains : he built the screen to 
this chapel, and presented. two ims^es, gilt, for the 
altars of St. Peter and St. Paul; and one for the 
Chapter-house. Tis very singular, that, in breaking 
up the grave, in the year 1706, the body of this ab- 
bot was discovered in a coffin quilted with yellow 
satin, dressed iii a gown of crimson silk, fastened 
round bis waist with a black girdle. On his legs 
w*re white silk stockings, and over his face-a clean 
napkin, doubled up and laid comer- ways. The fecc 
was in some degree discoloured, but the legs and 
arms were firm. 

In the chapel of Islip are two monuments deserv* 
ing of notice ; that of John Islip, Abbot of Westmin- 
ster, and founder of this chapel, and that of Sir 
Christopher Hatton. 


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Iflfip's mcnumeiit is a plain ixiaible table, supported 
by fiiur filkm of brasB: a^e it, on the roof, was 
formerly a fine pain ting of our Saviour on the cross; 
which was dcistrqyed in Cronradi's time, by the 
puritans^ who were enemies to every thing that ap-> 
peared to be connected with popish idolatry. Islipr 
was eaiployed l^ Henry VIL in decorating his new 
chapel» ami in repairing and beautifying the whole 
abbey^ to #hich he added several embellialiments,* 
espedniiy the statues of onr kingd, along the but^' 
tKsses. He adso prdjeeted a most superb dome, or 
kmtem^ to be erected in the center of the cross ; but- 
the piUsffS' were found too weak to support it. Hii^ 
own chapelt he dedicated to St. John the Baptist; 
and died the second of Jamiafy, in the year 1510. 

The other monument is erected to the menu>ty of 
Sh* Christopher Hatton, Knight of the Bath, ami 
aeafedt of ki», in the male line^ to Sir Christopheir 
Hatton^ Chancellor of liJigland, in the rei^gnof Queei^ 
Elizabeth. Acicording to the inscription, he died ctt 
the 10th of September, 1619. The figures on the 
tomb- are, a knight in armour, and a lady in deep 
mourning, both resting on the ascending sides of a' 
triangular pediment, separated in the middle by a' 
trunkless helmet. Over their heads \i a neat piect^ 
of ancMlecture, in the center whereof is a scroll, 
with their arms, held op by naked boys; the one 
over the knight holds a torch, put out and reversed, 
to show thpt Sir Christopher died first ; the other, 
over the lady, holds his torch erect, and burning, to 
signify that she survived him. 

In a chantry, over this chapel, are handsome wain- 
scot presses, which contain the effigies in wax» of 
Queen Elizabeth, King William and Queen Mary, 
and Queen Anne, in their coronation robes. Here 
19 also an excellent figure of the late Earl of Chat- 
ham^ in his partian^ontaiy robes. 

TOL. in. lee Against 

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Against the south widl of St 'Erasmuses chapel^ tir 
tn antique stone moaumenti on which, under aGothic 
canopy, lies the figure ot a bishop properly habited^ 
and is supposed to be Thomas Ruthal, made Bishop 
of Durhainiby King Henry VIII. He had been se- 
cretary of state to Henry VIL and was made a privy- 
counsellor, and sent abroad on various embassies by 
Hen.VII}. Hediedintheyear 15S4. Bishop Goodwin 
relates the following circumstance, relative to the 
diiieovery of his possessions, which occasioned his 
deaths viz. That, being commanded to write down 
a true state of the kingdom in general, for his ma- 
jesty's private information, he took great pains in the 
performance, and, having fairly transcribed it, caused 
the book to be bound in vellum, ^ilt, and variously 
ornamented ; and, at the same time, having taken 
an account of his own private estate, widi an inven- 
tory of his jewels, plate, and money, he caused that 
likewise to be bound and ornamented exactly like 
the other, and laid them both carefully together in 
his closet However, it so fell out, that the king, 
on some occasion, sent Cardinal Wolsey in haste for 
the national tract, which he had so long expected 
from Ruthal ; but by mistake, Wolsey received the 
book containing the schedule of the bishop's own 
wealth. The cardinal soon discovered the mistake, 
but being willing to do Ruthal, to whom he had-no 
liking, a shrewd turn, he delivered the book to the 
king, just as hq received it, telling his majesty that 
now if he wanted money, that book would inform 
him where he mfght command a million ; for so 
much did the bishop's inventory amount to. When 
the bishop discovered his errcH*, it affected him so 
much that he died soon after. 

In the middle of this chapel is a large table mo* 
nument, erected to the memory of Thomas Cecil, 
Earl of Exeter, Baron Burleigh, Knight of the Garter, 


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piYy«<iotmsellor to King James; on which is his effigy, 
m his robes, with a lady on his right side, and a va^' 
cant space for another on his left Dorothy Nevit, 
Ills first wife, who was daughter and co^heiress to 
the noble Lord Latimer, kiys on his right sid^ ; and 
the blace that is vacant w^ left for his second wife, 
fVancfss Bridges, who was of the noble famify of Chan- 
dois. This ladj however, gave express ordeM in her 
i^in, that, aS'th^ right side was taken up, her effigy 
should ik>t /bef placed on the left; notwithstanding 
whieh, agte^ble to the iitecriptiorlj they are itll bu-^ 
ried together in one vault. >. . ^ 

On the south side of thin chapel is a monument 
erecCed to the memory of Colonel Edward Popham, 
and his lady; the statues of whom are in white taar- 
ble, as big as the life, and stand under a Idfly canopy, 
resting their arms in a thoughtful position on a niarbte 
aitar^ on whi^h He the gloves of an armed knight. 
This geittleman was an active officer in CromwelPsr 
army, and his at^bievements were inscribed on'hi^ 
tomb. At the time of the Restoration, this inscrip- 
tion was ordered to be defaced^ and the whole mo- 
nument destroyed ; but at the intercession of some 
of his lady's relations, who had been particularly use* 
ful to his majesty, the stone on which the inscrip- 
tion was engraved, was only inverted, and the mo- 
nument received no other injury. The time of his 
death cannot be ascertained, as the inscription is en- 
tirely oblitelrated. 

>fearly in the centre of St. Paul's chapel is a mag- 
nificent monument of alabaster, with pillars of Lydian 
marble, gilt ; on the table of which lies the effigy of 
an old man, in a chancellor's habit, wjth the figures 
of his eight children, four sbns' and four daugliters, 
kneeling on the base. This monument was erected 
to the memory of Sir Thomas Bromley, Knt, privy- 


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couffB^^Qjfi #ad eight yedis qbanpeUff ^n Qutpi^ 
tlliz^b^ti^,.]^ ^bicb office he diec) Apnl IStlf), 1587f 

jhiere i^,4^*^ monuo^^iU of hl^(^ tou^hstofiet xe^ 
p3arli:a^ly.di0*eFen^ troin wy qtherip the fibbey. Q^ 
the^ top of it is £^ circiilar iraip^ of giU brasf^. whiqh 
enclosjt.^ the bust ot* Apoi, l^fidy CpttiogtoD, wi% 
to t^Yawci^, Lor<;l Cottiqgton, . j^ejae^tfit Qp a table 
mopuHieat, lies ihe, e%y of her hmb^ip4t ^^f^g ^ 
]i^8 left arm ; and over ^hc');tead of a pt^ty^f iaji}e folr 
lowing iflscnp^ipn; '• H?^ Ij^ FmAqis ^^r^ Cot^ 
tingt;QD, of Hs^owpfttll^t ^^ko, in the r«^ga of ^ipg 
Charles L was chancellor of (^isni^jesl^jf'f e^tchequer^ 
iDa^ter of f^ie Q^^ift oi ward^, qou^aUll^ o( the T^vver, 
lord higi) l^'fta^u^friof En^^nd^ ai^^ Qne4>f iU||e pfivy^ 
com^l- Hje wai^ tjjjJQe axvba^a^cff Jn ^paip^one^ 
for tbf^.s^id king, andrS(;$eoond fii^e fw^ing Cl^arle^ 
il. flftw Teigping,- to bpti^ which t^ ffiioat « igwUy 
slp^w^ his. ^allegiance and fide^ity^ di^ring the ua- 
Vappy. <pi,yik broils of those tinges ; aod % h^feithfttf 
^^^erence to the cro^q (the usjurper pravailwg) 
^d& forced V> fly hi9 country, a«d during bis exife, 
di^d at Yaladoiid i« Spain, June I9th, l^^^ in the y^ar of his age, wh^ence his body was broug^, 
and here interred by C^aiies Cpttingtpn, Esq^ his 
nepheyv and heir, in 1Q79*'' This gjreatr loaa was 
secrets^ \o C'harles, pripc^ of Wales* whom be at- 
tended om bis journey to yi^t th^ l^M^ of ^piMiU 
wh^n pn the point of m^riage with that: prtnc^ss. 
Lady Cottington died the S2d of F^bruiwy, 16^3^ ia 
the 33d year qf her age. 

Adjoining to the ^a^t wall of the chapel of $t. 
Kicholas is a stately mpaument of various c(Joure<i 
iparble, (greeted to the memory of Anne, Ducheaa 
of Son^/ei^et, wif^^ to Edward duke of Sotnerset, 
brother to the tl^jrd wife of ll/enny YIIL Queen 
Jane Seymour, uncle to Edward VI. and some time 
S regent 

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.^Ufiog hi9 miiiwty. He was afterwards 
fHtgPMMldl accused of Iroasonable practioes against 
tb« 'kwgy imd by his peers« aod acquitted ; but am« 
d«illie4'of feb&y in levying armed men contrary to 
\s,wj l» conaequenoe of which he was sentenced 
to be )img^> but, io respect to his high quality, was 
b^Mfedii^ on Tower-hill, the 92d ctf Jaouary, in ther 
ye^ \&^U Ttee iMcriptioo on the tomb is m Latin 
^nd English, and deseribes the noble lineage of this 
greiA lady, who died at Hauworth^ the 1 6th of April, 
1587» id the ninetieth year of her age. 

At a awaU distance from this is a very elegant 
monusMOt erected by die great Lord liorleigh^ 
ta tiie neoiory of Miicbred his wife, and their 
daug^iit^ lady Anoe, Cotintess of Oxford. It repfe^ 
9enis a oMgrnfieent tedoapie made c^* porpbyiyt and 
Qthef kinds of marble gilt It is divided into twoi 
compartments, one raised over the other. In the 
upper is the figure of a venerable okl oran, in l^e 
robea, Mdr ensigna of the garter, kneeling, as it were, 
at prayers, and is supposed to be designed for Lord 
Burleigh. In the lower compartmieiit Hes Lady Bur- 
leigh, with b^' daughter Lady Jane in hei arms, and 
at behead and feet are Ker grand-children kneeling. 
There is a long Latin inscription explaining the 
figures, and setting forth their respective virtues. 
This acnbble lady died at Greenwich the dtb of June 
in the year 166S. 

On the west side of this chapel, against the waH, 
is a beautiful monument erected to the memory of 
Lady Winifred, who was first married to Sir Richard 
Sackvillci Knt. and afterwards to John Paulet, 
Marquis of Winchester. In the front of this monu'- 
ment, on tkebase^ are the figures of a knight armed 
and kneeling ; opposite him is a lady in deep moum^ 
iDg, in the like attitude ; behind whose baqk, on a, 
baptismal font, lies an in&nt with its head supported 


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by a pillow. By the inscriplion it appeatv, timt she 
was desceaded from illustnous parento, and nterried 
first a gentleman, of an ancient house whoae^ anc«s- 
t^rswere renowned before the Conqueror's time; 
and that her second husband was of noble blood. 

Next to this is a handsome monument, erected t» 
the memory of the late Duchess of Northumberland. 
Between two large figures of Faith and Hope, is a 
group of distressed objects, to whom her Grace, in 
the character: of Charity^ is distributing her bounty. 
Above are two Genii weeping over an um. Tbur 
inscription recites her illustrious descent and titles ; 
and concludes thus : ^^ Having lived long an ornament 
of courts, an honour to her country, a^ pattern to the 
great, a protectress of the poor, ever distinguished 
for the most tender affection for her family and 
friends, she died December 5th, 1776, aged sixty, 
universally beloved, revered and lamented. The 
Duke of Northumberland, inconsolable for the los^ 
of the best of wives; hath erected this monument to 
her beloved memory." 

At the door c^ tliis chapel lie the remains of that 
great and learned antiquarv, Sir Heniy Spdman, 
who died at upwards of. eighty years of age, in the 
year 1641. « 

At the entrance of St. Edmund's chapel, on the 
right hand, is the ancient monument of William de 
Valence, whose effigy lies in a cumbent posture 
on a chest of wainscot placed upon a tomb of 
grey marble; the fisrure is wood, covered ori- 
ginally with copper gilt, as was. the chest in which 
it lies, but the greatest part has been taken away ; 
and of thirty small images that were placed in little 
brass niches round, scarce one remains entire. He 
was treacherously slain at Bayonne in the year IS96, 
but his body being brought to England, was interred 
in this, chapel, and an indulgence of one hundred 


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days gianted to all devdutpeopfo who should pray 
for the* welfare of his soul. 

Near this is a moat magniffcent moDument, partly 
iDcloead, to- tbenfemory of Edward Talbot, eighth 
Earl of Shrewsbury, who died February the 8th, 
1617) aged fifty-seven, and his Lady Jane, eldest 
daughter, and coheiress of Cuthbert, Baron Ogle, 
wfaoae effigies in their robes he on a black marble 
table, supported by a pedestal of alabaster. This 
monument is finely ornamented, and the carving on 
the various coloured marble is exquisite. The in- 
scription contains nothing more than his titles and 
character, which is indeed veiy high : he was ho* 
nound)le without pride : potent without ostentation : 
telieious without superstition : hberal both in mind 
and bounty ; warded ever against fortune, his whole 
life was a path of justice ; and his innocence 
escaping envy, continued through the whole course 
of his life. 

Under the window, fronting the entrance of this 
chapel, is a very ancient monument representing a 
Gothic chapel, in which is the figure of a knight in 
armour, in a cumbent posture, with his feet resting 
on a lion's back. This monument was erected for 
Sir Bernard Brocas, of Baurepaire in the county of 
Haats, chamberlain to Anne, queen to Richard IL 
But this princess dying, and Richard falling under 
the displeasure of his people, who deposed Tiim* 
Sir Bernard stiil adhered to his royal master in his 
misfortunes, which cost him his life ; for beins con- 
cerned with many others in. an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to restore him to the crown, he shared the 
comqioh fate of ahnost all the leaders of that conspi- 
racy, and was beheaded on Tower-hill in the month 
of January, 1399- 

On the east side of this chapel is a monument 
sracted to the memory of John of Dtham» secohd 


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4Q0 Hinoay avd svevky of v^ 

•O0of KiqgEdvrard IL and af^callecl fiNnnEltfam 
in Kent, the place of his nativity. Hia atatua is of 
white alabaster^ tbe head encircled in a Coronet of 
greater and leis leaves^ and hia habit ia that of an 
armed knight* He died in Scothad at the a^ of 
Bineteen^ uamamed^ though three different matches 
had been proposed to him « the last of which, to 
Maty, daughter of Ferdinaiid king of Spain, he ac* 
ceptedvbut did not live tsocoBsuminate it. Hia fu« 
oerai was so magniBcent and costly, that the prior 
and conveoi demanded one htindfed povnda (a great 
aum at that time) for a hone and anaour pwatniteJ 
there on the day of hia iliteiment. 

On the esoA side of St. Benedict's chafiel, where 
once stood the aHar of St. Benedict,, ia a beantifiil 
moaumeut, composed of various kinds of maihle^ 
erected to the memory of Lady Frances, Covnteas 
of Hertford, who is here represented in her robea in 
a cumbent posture, with her head resting on an ena* 
broidered cushion, and her feet on a lion's back* 
The sculpture of this monument is exceeding cis^ 

Between this chapel and the next, against the 
wall, is a monument of Mos«c woik, the mles in 
piaitt' paimels, but the top of the table wrought itf 
flgures, said to be donr with the same kind of 
stones as* the iloor before the altar,, and eieeted for 
the children of Henry L and Edward L Of«r dui 
tomb is something which 'seems to have been a 
piece of church perspective^ but now almost de« 
fiieed. This certainly was once a rich and ccady 
monument ; for in the records of the Tow^, them 
is the kin^s order for erecdng such a one in . this 
place, and for alk>wing Master SimottdeWella five: 
marks and a half, to defray hi^ expenses in brioging 
from the city a handsome brass image to set upon 
his daughter Catharine's tonth ; and for payii% to 


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tOKiMH iND Its £!9Vf&DKS; 401 

Simoli de Gloucester the king's goldsmith, for a sil- 
ver image for the like purpose^ the sum of seventy 

On the north side of the area, ac^joining to St* 
Andrew^s chapel, is the superb monument erected 
at the e3lf>efi8e of the nation to the memory of Gcr 
neral Wolfe. The front of the pediment represents 
the laading of the troops at Quebec, and the diffi* 
culties they hod to encounter in getting rcip therr 
canooa and <^iiibjng the rocks ; and in the back- 
^und is a representation of the city, with the 
engi^eiiieot. The monument is supported by lions* 
and on jeach side of it is ft medallion, with a wolf's 
head. The general appears in the agonies of deaths 
supported by a grenadier, who seems to express^ 
by pointing with his finger to a distance, that the 
victoiy is gained. Behind the general is the faith** 
fill Highland seijeant who attended him, leaning on 
his halbert, and looking at the dying hero with ad« 
miiation wd grief. At the feet of the general lie 
his hat, fusee, gorget, &c. Near these is the repre- 
sentation of a tent, underneath which is a group of 
figures. Behind the tent is seen a large tree, and 
by it lie a tomahauk, scalping-knife, and hatchet, 
the Indian weapons of war. . On the top of the 
monument i* the figure of Victory descending with 
a crown of laurel to immortalise the dying victor. 
In the front of the monument is the following in- 
scription : 

To the memory of 

Major«General and Commander in Chief 

Of tlie British land-forces 

On an Expedition against Quebec, 

Who, after surmounting by ability and valour 

All obstacles of art and nature, 
VOL. III. p f f Was 

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Was slain in the moment of victory, 

On the 14th of September, 17*^9, 

The King and Parliament of Great-Britain, 

Dedicate this monunlcut. 

Nearly opposite to this were fornierly three an- 
cient tombs, all of which afe now almost obli- 
terated. The first of free-stone, made like a close 
bed, was walled up, and another tomb placed against 
it. This monument was covered with rfn- (mcient 
Gothic arch, the sides eJdomed with vine branches 
in relief, and the roof within springing into many 
angles, under which lies the imaj^re of a lady in a 
very antique dress, her feet resting upon Sons,' and 
her head on pillmvs supported by angels, sitting 
on each side the effigy, gilt and painted. On the 
side of the tomb are six niches, in which seem to 
have been painted monks, and on the pedestaj afe 
still to be seen some remains of paintings. This 
monument covered the remains of Aveline, Cotintess 
of Lancaster, who died the 4th of November, l§9^i 
the very year of her marriage. This lady vrsis daughter 
to William de Foitibus, earl of All>emarle and Hol- 
demiesse, and married Edmund Earl of Lancaster, son 
to King Henry II. 

Adjoining to this is another ancient monument 
of grey marble, erected tx> the memory of Aymer de 
Valence, second and last Earl of Pembroke of this 
family, who was poisoned in France, by the secret 
contrivance of the Earl of Arundel, the 93d of June, 
1324. He had been three times married, but had 
no issue by either of his wives. In the time of 
Edward I. he was a great general, and not only at- 
tended that prince in his expedition to Flanders, but 
lik'ewiseaccompanied him toScotland, where that king 
died. He is said to have been one of the judges who 
fi^ave sentence against the great Earl of l^ncaster, 
• - Tht5 

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The third is an ancient monument to the memosy 
of Edmund Crouchl)ack, fourth son to Henry III. 
so called, as is supposed by some, tVoui the deformity . 
of his person; others imagine it arose from his at* 
tending his brother in the ' holy wars, where they 
wore a crouch or cross on their shoulders, as a badge 
of Christianity. On the base of the tomb, towards 
the area, are the remains of a curious, and perhaps 
the most antique English painting extant, but much 
defaced, being ten knights armed with banners, sur- 
coats of armour, and cross-belted, representing, un- 
doubtedly, his expedition to the Holy Land, the 
number exactly agreeing with what M,atthe\v Paris 
reports, namely, Edward and jiis brother, faur earls 
and four knights. • It was originally a very lofty mo- 
nument, .painted, gilt and inlaid with stained glass. 
The inside of the canopy has been a feky with stars, 
but by time i^ changed into a dull red, — From this 
prince the House of Lancaster claimed their right to 

In this area lie the remains of many persons of 
note, among whom may be mentioned x\nno of 
Cleve, who was married to Henry VIlL on the 9th 
of January, I539,and in July following, divorced, wilh 
liberty to marry again : but being sensibly touched 
with the indignity put upon her, she lived in retire- 
ment with the title of Lady Anne of Cleve, and saw 
the r.val who supplanted her in the king's affection 
suffer a worse fate. She died in i 5 j7, four years 
after the death of the king. * • 

Near the ashes of this lady lie those of a more 
unfortunate queen, Anne, daughter of the'great Earl 
of Warwick, and wife to Richard III. She was poi-. 
soned by her husband to make way for his marriage 
with Elizabeth, daughter of his brother Edward IV. 
This marriage, however, was never consummated, 
Hichard being slain at the battle of Bosworth. 


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H^re are also the remains of ao ancient monUineot^ 
erected to the memory of Sebert, King of the Bast 
SexoDS, who first buiU this ehurch) and died in 
July, 6 16. 

Quitting the area ait the south west extremity we 
Tetum to the south eross, of, as it is commonly calied 
from the nuQiber of persons of that description buried 
here, the toets* comer, from whence we ^all pn^ceed 
round the open part of the Abbey to the north cross. 

Intfae poets' comer the monuments are ao croAvded 
upon each other ais to obscure or wholly conceal from 
view some of the most ancient ; while the confusion 
among those exposed to view is such as to bewilder 
the eye of the spectator, and cause him to pass over 
many beautiful specimens of monumental arehitec- 
ture, which, were they single, would command his 
admiration. Here are to )>e found the names of 
Davenant, Dryden, Cowley, Chaucer, Phillips, 
Drayton, Johnson, Spenser,. Milton, Pk'ior, Shake^i 
spear, Thomson, Rowe, Gay, Goldsmith, Bulfer, and 
many others of inferior note : ai^d here also are the 
toml)s of Handel and Garrick. Among these we 
shall, particularise the most striking. 

Th^^t to the memory of Matrtievv Prior is a most 
beautiful monunjent, and richly ornamented. On- 
one side of the pedestal stands the figure of Thalia, 
one of the nine muse,s, with a flute in h<T hand; 
Bn^ on the other, History, with her book shut ; be-, 
tween both is the bust of the deceased upon a raised 
altar of fine marble. Over this is a handsome pedi- 
ment, on the ascending sides of which are two boys, 
one with an hour dass in his hand run out; the 
other holding a tordi reversed ; on the apes of the 
pediment is anurn, and on the base of themonument 
a long inscription, setting forth the principal em- 
ployments in which he had been engaged; particu- 
larly, by order of King William and Queen Mary, iq 


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ho»DOin Ann ixs EirriAONS. 4(T5 

asBistiDg at the congitss of the confederate powers 
at the Mague in Vi^iX In 16979 he was oRe-of the 
plenipotentiaries at the peace of Ryswick ; and in 
the following year was of the esibassy to t rance. and 
also secretary of slate in Ireland. Id 1700 he was 
made one of the board of trade; in 171 1 first corn* 
missioner of the customs ; and lastly, in the same year, 
was sent by her majesty Queen Anne to Lewis XIV; 
of France, with proposals of peace. All which trusts 
he executed with uncommon addresB, and the most 
fircQ integrity. On the outermost side of the bust 
IB a Latin inscription, impoiting, that while he was 
busied in writing the history of his own times, death 
interposed, and broke both the thread of his discourse 
and of his life the eighteenth of September, 1721, 
in the 37th year of his age. 

The design and workmanship of Sbakespear's 
monument are both extremely elegant. In the 
figure of the immoital bard the sculptor hf»s most 
delicately expressed his attitude, his dress, his shape, 
bis genteel air, and fine composure. The heads 
on the pedestal, which are likewise proper ornaments 
to grace the torlib, lepreseiit Henry V. Richard IIR' 
and Queen Elizabeth'. In short, the taste here shown 
does honour to those great names, under wh<!>se di*- 
rectton, by the public favour, it was sO elegantly con- 
structed; namely, theEarl of Burlington, Dr. Mead, 
Mr. Pope, and Mr. Martin. It was designed by Kent, 
and executed by Scheemakers ; and t^e expense de^ 
frs^ed by the grateful contributions of the public. 
The lines on the scroll, which were written by him- 
self, are very projierly adapted* 

The clou<l-cap*d towers, the gorgeous palaces, 
The solemn temples, the great ^lobe itself; 
Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve, 
And, like the haseless fabnic of a vision, 
lie^ve not a wreck behind. 


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Next to this is a moQument to the memory of 
Thomson, the authoc oflthe Seasons, and other 
poetical works. It was erected in the year 1762, 
and is the workmanship of Michael Henry Spang, 
after a design of Adam. The figure of this gentleman 
is represented sitting, with his left arm leaning on a 
pedestal, holding a book in one hand, and the Cap 
of Liberty in the other. On the pedestal is carved, 
in basso relievo, the Seasons; to which a bay points, " 
ottering him a laurel crown, as the reward of bis ge- 
nius. At the feet of the figure is the tragic mask, 
and the ancient harp. The whole is supported by a 
projecting pedestal, and in a pannel i3 this Inscription: 

James Thomson, 
.Etatis48. Obiit 27 August, 171S. 
" Tutored by thee, sweet Poetry exalts her voice 
to ages, and inf)rms the page with. music, image, 
sentiment, and thought, never to die.'^ 

Against the south wall of this cross is a lofty and 
magnificent monument, inclosed with rails, and de- 
corated with figures as large as life, erected to the 
memory of John, Duke of Argyle and Greenwich. 
The figure of Minerva is on one side the base, and 
that of Eloquence on the other; the one looking sor- 
rowfully up at the principal figure above, the other 
pathetically displaying the public loss at his death. 
On the top is the figure of History, with one band 
holding a book, and with the other writing, on a 
pyramid of finely coloured marble, the titles of the 
hero, whose actions are supposed to be contained in 
the book ; on the cover of which, in» letter;^ of gold, 
are inscribed the date of his graces, death and ago. 
On the pymmid is the following epitaph: 


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Briton, behold ! if patriot ^orth be dear, 
A shrine that claims thy tributary* tear ; 
Silent that tongue, admiring senates heard, 
Nerveless that arm opposing legions feared. 
Nor less, O Campbell, thine the power to please. 
And give to grandeur all the grace of ease. 
Long from thy life, let kindred heroes trace, 
x^ns which ennoble still, the noblest race; 
Others may owe their future fame to me, 
1 borrow immortality from thee. 

Under this is written in large lett^, 


at which point the pen ^f History stops'; the latter 
title having become extinct on his death. • 

The inscription on the base of the monument 
runs thus: " In memory of an honest man, a oon- 
stant friend, John, the great Duke of Argyle and 
Greenwich, a general and orator, exceeded by none 
in the age he lived. Sir Henry Farmer, Bart, by 
his last will left the sum of fiv^ hundred pounds to- 
wards erecting this monument, and recommended 
the above inscription." 

On the west wall is HandePs monument, the last 
which that eminent statuary Roubiliac lived to finish. 
It is a curious fact, that this ingenious sculptor first 
became conspicuous^ and afterwards closed his la-» 
hours as an artist^ with a figure of this extraordinary 
man. The first erected in the gardens at Vaux- 
hall,and theJast is this monument; in which the whole 
figure is very elegant and highly finished, and the face 
is said to be a strong likeness of its original. The 
left arm is resting on a group of musical instruments, 
and the attitude is very expressive of great attention 
to the harmony of an angel playing on a harp in the 
3 clouds 

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408 KigfORY AND WlLVEV i^ - 

clouds over l»is heiid. Before it lies the eelebcated 
Messiah, with tbatjMurtopeii) where is the much ad- 
mired air, Ikrnm that m^ Jiedeemer Uveih. Under* 
neath is the following short inscription: '^ Geoige 
Frederick UandeJii, Esq. horn February 2% 1684» 
died April 14, 1769/' 

Near this is a very el^aat monument, erected to 
the memcury of tliat eminent divine and philosopher. 
Dr. Stephen Hales. In the front are two heautiful 
figures in relief; the one representing Botany, the 
other Religion. The first is presenting a medallion 
of this great eaq^orer of nature to public view ; the 
latter is deploring the loss of the divine. At the feet 
of Botany, the winds are displayed on a globe, which 
alludes to his invention of ventifators. The inscription 
is in Latin ; a translation of which is as follows : 

" To the memory of Stephen Hales, Doctor in 
Divjnity, Augusta, the mother of that best of kings, 
Geor^ the Third, has placed this monument ; who 
chose him, when living, to officiate as her chaplain ; 
and after he died, which was on the 4tfa of January, 
1761, in the 84th year of his i^lionoured him with 
this marble." 

On the same side is the monument erected, to the 
memory of David .Garrick, Esq. It consists ot* a 
figure of this unrivalled actor, in an animated post* 
tion, throwing aside a curtain, which discovers a 
medallion of the great poet whom he has illustrated ; 
while Tragedy and Comedy, adorned with their re- 
spective emblems^ and supported by a pedestal* seem 
to approve the tribute. The curtain is intended to 
represent the veil of ignorance and barbarism, which 
daurkened the dramatic works of the immortal bard, 
(Ui the appearance of Garrick. The caressing atti- 
tude, airy figure, and smiling countenance of the 


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^omic muse, is iadicativcl of the satisfaction she 
derivte froni it, nt lengtli, beholding a memorial of 
Jier &¥Oiirite; while Melpomene^ with a more ma- 
jeatie and'dignified mien, raising her veil, gazes with 
charaetftristii: admiration on the ^' sovereign of the 
willing soul,^ whom she at oace delights in and de- 
(dores; The similitude te Garrick, will be felt *by 
every spectator who holds the featured of the origi- 
nal in remembrance : and wiiere is the person of 
taste, who has seen htm, even once, '^nd can forget 
the resemblance ? The teick ground Is formed of a 
beaubful dove-coloured marbte, to relieve^he figuiibs 
whicfa are iir pure stetualy marble. The inscriptibn^ 
which is the composition of Mr. Pratt, is bA follows. 
f* *' < * . '•' •• 

To the memory of David Garrick, 
who died in* the year 1779> 
"'- •'' ' at the age <rf 63. • • 

To paiat &ir nature^ by divine command, 
Her magic pencil in his glowing hand, 
A Shakespeare rose: then, to expand his famei 
Wide o'er this breathing world, a Garrick came« 
The' sunk in death the forms the poet drew. 
The actor's genius bade them breathe $inew. 
t*ho^ like the bard b^self in night they lay^ 
ImoKHtal Gairick ci^lPd theite back to day; 
And, till Eternity, with power sublime. 
Shall mark the mortal hour of hoary' Time, 
Shakespeare and Garrick like twin-stars shall shiiie^ 
And earth irradiate with a beam divine. 

t This monument, the tribute of a fr iiend , was erected 


Webber, Fecit. . 

- At the north-west corner oi this'ci*oss is an ancient 

monument to the great recorder of our antiquities, 

rou III,. G g'g William 

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William Camden, who is represented in a hatf-length^ 
in the habit of his time, widi his left hand heading a 
book, and in his right his gloves, resting on an altar, 
on the body of which is a Latin inscriptidn, setting 
forth ^his^ indefatigable industry, in illustrating the 
British antiquities, and his candour, sincerity, and 
pleasant good humour, in private life. This m<Hia- 
ment lias been repaired and beautified, 'and inclosed 
with iron rails, at the expense of the University of 
Oxford, where he received his education. 

AiBong the stones which compose the pavement 
of this cross, are many memorials of ^^ the silent te* 
Dants of the house -appointed for all living;'' which 
barely record their names and ages. The most re^ 
markable of these, is that which covers the ashes of 
Thomias Parr, who was born in the county of Salop, 
in the year 1483. He lived in the reigns of tea 
princes, namely, Edward IV. Edward V. Richard HI. 
Henry Vll. Heniy VllL Edward VI. Queen Mary, 
Queen Elizabeth, James I, and Charles I. and, hav- 
ing attained the great ^ge of one hundred and fifty* 
two yeai-s, \vas buried here, .November 15th, l63i. 
One of the extraordinary circumstances attending 
the life of this wonderful old man, is, that at the age 
of one hundred and thirty, a prosecution was insti- 
tuted against him for bastardy, and with such efiect, 
that he did penance publicly in church foe that 

Almost at the south-west corner,- is an ancient 
stone of grey marble, on which, by the marks, has 
been the figure of a man in armour. It covers the 
remains of John Haule, a private soldier in the reign 
of Richard 11. and Henry IV. At the battle of Na- 
jara, in Spain, he, together with John Shakel, his 
comrade, took the Earl of Denia prisoner, who, un- 
der pretence of raising money for his ransom, ob- 
tained his liberty, leaving hjs son as surety in their 


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liaadii Upon their coming to England, John of 
€jiminti Duke of l^ncaster, demanded him for the 
king; biit they refused ta deliver him up without a 
ninaom, and were therefore both committed to the. 
Tower; from whence eacapiug^ they tooli Sanctuary 
in 1dm abbey« Sir ilalph Ferreris and Alan Buxal, 
tiie.pDc governor, the other captain of the Tower, 
with fifty mep7 pitmued them, and having,, by fair 
pramise^, gained over Shakel, they attempted to seize 
Uaule by force, who made a desperate defence; but^ 
being overpowered by numbeisi was slain Aug. ll^ 
^37^yVk the- choir, before the prior^s stall, com* 
mendmg^ himself to^Gbd the avenger of wro^ ; and^ 
at the same t'utte, a servant of tne Abb^ fell with 
him. Sudbury, Archbishop of Canterbury, > made^ 
tfais'faveadi- ofpiivtlege the ground of a complaint to 
pffiriiaRie«»t;iand the church was shut up for four 
months^ ttUitwas purified from this profanation^ 
The ofenders were exoommunicated, a largfe sun:^ 
of mottqr pctid to the church, arid all its privil^^ 
confirmed iii the next parliament. Shakel bad been 
throwD into prison^ but was afterwards set at liberty; 
and tbe King and Council of England agreed to pay 
him, for the ransom of his prisoner, five hundred. 
marks, and one hundred iparks per annum* Some 
years^ afterwards Shakel died, and was likewise bu-^ 
ned here, in 1396. 

In the south aisle is a stately monument erected 
to the memory of Sir Cloudesley Shovel, on the base 
<sf which is represented in b^s relief the ship Asso-^ 
ciation, in which the admiral bailed, striking against 
a rock, with several others perishing at the same time, 
and at the top are two boys blowing trumpets. This' 
great man received the honour of knighthood the 
46th of May, 1689. The inscription on the monu- 
ment 'is as follows: ^* Sir Cloudesley Shovel, knt. rear 
admiral of Great. Britain.; and admiral and com* 


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inander in chief bf the fleet, the jast^iis ward of hitf 
long and faithful servic^. He was deservedLjPliil^ 
ioved of his coujstry, and esteemed, though. dr^3Klcad« 
by the eneipy who had oftea experienced his jcon-; 
duct and courage. — B^ing shipwreokedof^.the^jrocU 
of Sqilly, in his voyage from Toulonvthe 22<|, of Oc^ 
lober, 1707, at lu^ht, in the 57th yeatofhia age, hii 
fkte was lamented by alt, but eapeciaUy by vth^ ae^*. 
fering part of the nation; to whom he wa^i a gener 
fOus patron, and a worthy example.^ — Hia body wtit 
flung on the shore, and buried with others in the 
sand; but being soon* after taken up, wasi placed 
under this monument, which his royal miitreas had 
caused to be erected to commemonUs hiaatcadly Ioy« 
aky, and extraofdinary virttaes.*' .. . , 

' The execution of this monument has been ceo* 
sured by many men of judgment, andameo^ otiieis 
Mr. Addison, who complains that instead of tbe 
lough bravety which ishould characterise a aMman, 
the Bgure of the gallant* admiral is repi-escnted in the. 
garb of i beau, reposing on velvet cushions under a 
canopy of state : he likewise objects to the. inacrip* 
tion, which, instead of reciting the long andfaithftU 
aerviceid of which this memorial is said to be the just 
teward, related only the manner of his death, fironi 
which he could not obtain any glory. But with aU 
these defects the aggregate is not undesarviog of 

.Within the gates which separate the western part 
of t%e thurch from the 80«ith cross is a neat monii^ 
ment in statuary n^arble ; composed of a surcopba^ua^ 
elevated on a pedestal, upon the face of which is eii^ 
graved the following inscription: " Sacred to the 
memory of Mejor Andre, who, raised by his merit, 
at an early p% nod of life, to the rank of Ac^utaiit- 
General of the British forces in America, and em* 
ployed in an important, but hanrdoua ^nterprize^fdi 

a sacrifice 

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a «|qnfic9 wt)iifiia;eal for bis king apd country^ oplhe 
Sdio/f October, lF5S^Oragedi29t.:,umvei^alHy beloved 
^od ev^med by the army w vvbich be<$t^rvcv)|.wd 
lamsnted eyen by i^ ^i^^* Uis gracious, sove^jsigii 
i^^i^« IIL bfts caused this monument to bQ ete^t^^ 
« .On the front of th&sarcopbague. General \Vaabing«i 
ton ]» rq>re8ented in bis tent, at the .tmomAit < when 
ke b^d rpcciWcd tb|^ repo/t of thOtCourt'^Martial held, 
on Major Andre, at the same time that a flag of truoe 
arrived from; the British Army, with a letter for Gep&r 
rai Washington, to treat for the Major's life. 'But the 
fatal sentence being already passed, the flag was jsent 
back without the hoped for clemehcy in his favoiif. 
Major Andre; t^ceived his condemnation with that 
fortitude whicH had always inarked his. character, 
and is rfepresetited going, with ' unshaken s;>irit, to 
meet his doom. On the top of the sarcbphagtis is ^ 
%iira of BrftwfMaJamentittg the fate of ao-^aUant 
an q#c0r^i. h is greatly to be re^tted thafc sevodil 
^ the fi^misoQ dvs»as well a9,maay other, of- th^ 
montiments in the Abbey!, i^ave. been wantonly 

. General Hai^ra^t's monument is the production of 
fk^ubiMac* It consists, of the representation of the 
reswrrectioa of a body from a sarcophagui9, and of a 
iKkufltct between Time and Death^wberein theformnr 
prod^^ victODious. divests bis antagonist oi^ his power 
by breaking his dart,and tumbling him down. Abofve. 
it a great pile of building in a state of dissolution, 
md. i^ cherub in the clouds souodix^ the last trumpet; 
The wfapla ia^nely iaiagin€MJ, and as ingeniously, 
executedi. This gentleman was Lieutenant-General ^ 
c^ bismBJesly's forces, Colonel of the royal flnglish* 
FiixileeiB, and Governor of Gibraltar, who karing 
been S7 years a eommisstooed officer, died the Sltt 
of January, 174s8, aged 79* 


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Over the door which opens into die doiBters is a 
very stately monument for General Wade. Inr tiie 
center is a beautiful marble pillar, enriched with ttii- 
litaiy trophies exquisitely wrought. The principal 
figures represent Fame pushing back Time, who 
IS eagerly approaching to pull down the {Hilar, ^th 
the ensigns of' honour that adorn it The G^ieral^ 
head is in a medallion, under which is the following 

^ "To the memory of George Wade, field-matshal 
of his majesty's forces, lieutenant-general of the ord- 
nance, colonel of his majesty^s third regiment of 
dragoon guards, governor of Fort William, Fort Au- 
gustus, and Fort George, and one pf his majesty's 
most honourable privy-council. He died March 14, 
I748,agqd75,'' • • ' . 

Near this is a highly.finished buM of Dr. ThonM, 
Bishop of Rochester, accompanied by emblems of 
his sacred office. A long Latin inscription gives « 
eharacter of the decfsased^ who died August the 10th, 
1793, aged 81 years. 

Between the pillars <A) the south side of the nave, 
«tands the moiiuuient eiteted to the memory of 
Captain Montague, who was killed in the engage^ 
ment on the Istof June, 1794, under Earl ifowe. 
A msyestic figure of this brave commander stand) on 
a marble pedestal, with his hand rioting on a sword. 
Oyer his head is a figure of victory descepdhig with 
a crown of laurels. In front of the fiedestal is )a re- 
presentation of the engagement; on the right side is 
Neptune^s trident, and a crown of oak, and on the 
^leftj a wreath of laurel containing the .#ofd ** Con- 
ititution." On the back of the pedestal is a trophy 
of naval flags waving over a' group of prisoners. 
This is a very classical coitopositton and- doea hoaou; 


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to tb» mrtist, Mr. Flaxinan, who first introduced de* 
tached monuments into this abbey. 
' Directly opposite, and in a similar, situation, na 
monument to the memories of Captains Harvey and 
Hutt, wlio died of the wounds they received in the 
aame afction.^ It is composed of two Colossal figures 
of BritaHniaand Fame, placed one on each side of a 
large v^se, oa which are medallions of the deceased 
Captains. Britannia is decorating the vase with lau- 
lel, while Fame points to the names of the heroes 
engraved on the base which supports it. On the 
front of the pedestal is a representation in alto relievo . 
of that part of the action in which they were ei^aged ; 
over which isa small flying angel, with a palm-branch 
in one hand, and a pair of scales in the other, illustrative 
of a superintending {H'ovidence, who bestowed the 
victory in approbation of the justice of the cause in 
.which they fought* The design of this monument^ 
,whic^ is by Mr. Bacon, Jun. is very happy, and the 
figures are very elegantly sculptured. 
, Both of these monuments were <^rected at the 
public expense. 

'Nearly behind Captain Montague's monument is 
a very magnificent one, erected about thirty years ago 
to the memory of Admiral Tyrrell, designed and 
executed by that ingenious artist Mr. Read, who 
was pupil to the celebrated Mr. Koubiliac. On the 
top of the monument is an archaf^gel descending 
with a trumpet, summoning the admiral to eternity 
from the. sea. The clouds moving and separating 
discover the celestial light and choir of cheruU wha 
appear singing praises to the Almighty Creator ; the 
back^ground representing darkness. The admiraFf 
countenance, with his right hand to bis breast, is ex* 
preesive of conscientious hope; his left arm signifi* 
eant of seeing something wonderfully awful. He 
appears rising out of the sea from behind a large rock, 


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^416 HISTORY AND 8UETSY 0» > ,* .^^ 

whereon are > placed his arms, with the emblems' of 
Valour, Prudeace, and Justice. . The sea is discerned 
•ver the cock at the extremity of sigbr; Wtl&e^clouds 
mad water «eem to join* On one side the rook, an 
•ngel'has wrote this inscription : "^^ The sea shall give 
tip her^dead, and every one shdl be rewarded ac* 
Wording to their works." In her left hand is a ce* 
lestial crown, the reward of virtue, Utid her right band 
is e^ctended tows^cds the admiral with a countenance 
foil of joy)^ and happiness. Hibernia leaning on m 
globe, with her finger on that part of it t^^here faia 
body wss committed to the sea, lamenting the loss of 
her favourite son with a countenance expressing 
heart*felt grief. :On one side the rock is^e Buck- 
' ingham (the admiral's ship) with the masts disabled : 
on the other side^« large flag, with the trophies of 
war, near which is the following inscription ; ^ 
^ Sacred to the memory of-* Kichard JTyrrel, £sq« 
who was descended from an ancientfamily in-Ifeland, 
and died rear-admiral of the White on the 36th day" 
of June 1766, in the 50th year of his iq^er Devoted 
from his youtb to the naval service of hift oountryi 
and being formed under the discipline and animate<) 
by the examine of his renowned uncle Sif Pete? 
Warren, he distinguished himself as an ableundex*- 
perienced officer in many gallant actions; particularlj^ 
on the third of November, 1768^ when commanding 
the Buckingham of 66 guns, and 479 men, he at-* 
tacked and defeati^d three French ships of war, on6 
of which was the Florisant of 74 guns and 700 men ; 
but the Buckingham being too much disabled to take 
possession of her after she had struck, the eneniy^ 
under the cover of the night, escaped. In this ac* 
tion he received several wounds, and lost three fin-^ 
gers of his right hand. Dying on his return to 
England from the Leeward Islands, where he had 
for three yeaiis commanded a squadron of his majesty'a 

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ships, hift^ body, aecordiag tq his own desire, was 
committed to the sea, with the proper honours and 
ceremonies. ^^ 

On the south side of the great west entrance is a 
noble monument to the memory of Captain Com wall, 
who was killed in the battle between the English 
fleet under Matthews and Lestock, and the combined 
French and Spanish fleets. This monument, which is 
thirty six feet high, has at the back of it a pyramid of 
rich Sicilian maible, beautifully variegated and finely 
polished, standing upon a base of the same marble; 
Against ^ the pyramid is a rock, embellished with 
naval trophies, sea-weeds, &c. in which are two 
cavities : in the one a Latin epitaph ; in the other, a 
view oif the sea-fight before Toulon, in basso re- 
lievo; in the fore-ground whereof, the Marlborough 
of ninety guns, is seen fiercely engaged with Admiral 
Navarro's ship, the Real, of one hundred and fourteen 
guns, and her two seconds, all raking the Marlbo- 
rough fore and aft. On the rock stand two figures ; 
the one represents Britannia under the character of 
Minerva^ accompanied with a lion ; the other figure 
is expressive of Fanle, who having presented to 
Minerva a medallion of the hero, supports it, whilst 
exhibited to public view. The medallion is accom- 
panied with a globe, and various honorary crowns, 
as due to valour. Behind the figures is a lofty 
spreading palm-tree, whereon is fixed the hero's 
diiield or coat of arms, together with a. laurel-tree ; 
both which issue from the naturally-barren rock, as 
alluding to some heroic and uncommon event. The 
inacriptipn is as follows : 

rou III* u h h Amongst 

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Amongst the monumjeiit»4>f ancient ^ent, 
in this sacred cathedral, iet the name of 


Bej^reserved, the tHrd son oF Heory (^orDtntll, 

Of Bradwardin Castle« in th^ coonty of Hewfosd, Esq. 

WJiQ fiom the very old and lU^ajtrioips stock of 

the Pknta^enets, . ^ 

Derivixig a trul^ anqient spidt, became 

A naval commander of the first emittenoe. 

Equally and deseivedly hohoiued by theteaift and 

Applaive of BrkoB9> a$a man 

Whobiavely defending the ca^ise of hi& country. 

in that sea-fight off Toulon j 

And being by a chain-shot deprived 

Of both his legs at a bkiw» fdi uaooo^uewd 

OQ,tVe;27th of Feb. 1743, in iht 43ih year of hs3 ago, 

Beij^eathing his animated' example to his fi^Ubw, 


As a*1^icy of a dying Englishman, 

W1ios» eztcaordinafy valdnr could not be recoalmtaMt 

To the emulation of posterity in a more am^Weologf 

Than by so singular an instance of honpujr ; 

Since the parUament of Great Britain,' by an unanimom 


JtesolvM that a monument at ithepi^Kn cxpeDon. 

should be consecrated to the memory 

of this most heroic person. 

General Killigrevv's monument, on th)3 north side, 
is a fine piece of sculpture ; tbeemi^UishmentBare 
very picturesque, and the inscription modest. It is 
as follows: Robert Kiliigrewi of Am^eeaclb, in 
Cornwall, Esq. Son of Thomas and Charlotte; Rige 
of Honour to Charks II ; Brigadier General of her 
Majesty's forces; killed in Spain, in the battle -of 
Almanza, April 14th, 1707. i^tafis-^u© 47. 
MiLiTAVij A N N IS 24. But the greatest singularity 
of this monument is that it is cut out of a single 
stone. • 

In the north cross, on the west side of the screen 

jpf the transept, is a aiQnument to the memoiy of the 

• '^ ' {benevolent 

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beaevoleot Jones Hauw^y, erected by the voluntary 
subscriptioa of his friends and of the ^larine Society, 
of iwhich he was one of the founders. It consists of 
a pyramid of black marble, standing on a pedestal of 
the same. At the top of the pyramid is a lamp, em- 
blematic of 'eternal light, and on the face of it is a 
medallion of the deceased, immediately under which 
is a sarcophagus, supposed to contain his romain^. 
It is decorated at the top with his arms, festoons, &c. ^ 
and on the body of it is a reUevb of Britannia, seated 
on her lion, and surrounded by the emblems of Go- 
vernment, Peace and War, Trade and Navigation, 
with a baiiign countenance, distributing clos^thing to 
an almost naked boy, alluding to the charitable pur* 
pose/or which the Maiine Society was instituted. A . 
second boy is supplicating for the like bounty, his dis- 
tresses visible in his imploring countenance, and a 
third, who appears to be made happy, by being fitted 
out and trained for sea, supports a ship's rudder with 
one hand, and, with the other, points up to his bene- 
factor. Above the sarcophagus, on the right hand 
side of the pyramid, flies^the British flag, over a con- 
quered one, and on the other side is the banner of 
the Society, with its motto, '' Charity and Policy 
United." The following inscription is on the front 
of the pedestal. 

" Sacred to the Memory of ' 
Jonas Hanway, 

Who departed this life, Sept. 5; 17S6, aged 7t: 

Butwho^e Name Uveth5and will ever live, 

Whilst active piety shall distinguish 

The Christian ; 

Integrity and Truth shall recommend 

The British merchant; 

And universal kindness shall characterize 

The Citizen of the world. 


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The helpless Infant, nurtured through his car^. 

The friendless Prostitute, sheltered and reformed. 

The hopeless Youth, rescued from misery and ruin. 

And train'd to serve and to defend his country^ 

United in one common strain of gratitude. 

Bear testimony to their Benetactor^s virtues. 

This was the Frienp and Father of the Poor!" 

Next to this is a monument, erected by bis widow, 
to the memory of Brigadier (ileneral Hope, Lieute- 
nant Governor of Quebec, where he died in 1789, 
aged 43 years. It consists of a female Indian, whose 
alection has brought her to the monument; she 
kneels on the pedestal, and, bending over the sarco* 
phagus, expresses the sorrow occasioned by the loss 
of sucha benefactor. 

Adjoining is the monument erected by the East 
India Company as a memorial of the miUtary talents 
of Lieutenant General Sir Eyre Coote, K. B, Com- 
ihander in Chief of the British forces in India. It 
consists of two figures as large as life. The one, a 
Mahratta captivp weeping beside a trophy of Eastern 
armour, indicating the subjugation of a part of that 
country, pours the contents of a cornucopia into a 
British shield. The other, Victory decorating a mili- 
tary trophy with a medallion of Sir Eyre Coote, by 
hanging it on a palm tree which rises from behind the 
armour. The Mahratta figure in this monument is 
particularly admired. 

On the east side of the screen, near the north door, 
is a most magnificent monument erected by a vote of 
parliament to the mem(^ry of the late Earl of Chatham, 
and executed by Mr. Bacon, the same ingenious ar- 
tist tliat was employed to erect his lordship's monu- 
ment in Guildhall. It consists of six principal figures: 
in a niche, in the upper, part of a grand pyramid, is 
placed the statue of the Earl of Chatham, in his par- 

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liameiitaiy rbbes ; he is represented in the action of 
speaking, the right haad thrown forward, and ele- 
vated, and the whole attitude strongly expressive 
of that species of oratory for which his lordship wa^ 
80 deservedly famed* On a sarcophagus, underneath, 
recline Prudence and Fortitude ; and below these is 
Bxitamkia seated on a rock, with Ocean and the£arth 
at her feet ; intended to depict the effect of his wisdom 
and fortitude in the greatness and glory of the na- 
tion. Prudence has her usual symbols, a serpent 
twisted round a mirror : Fortitude is characterized 
by the shaft of a column, and is cloathed in a lion's - 
skin. The energy of this figure is strongly contrasted 
by the repose and contemplative character of Pru- - 
dence. Britannia, as mistress of the sea, holds in 
her right hand the trident of Neptuiie, while her left 
is supported by her own shield. Ocean is represented 
leaning on a dolphin, with a severe countenance and 
an agitated action, which is opposed by the great 
ease in the figure of the £arth, who reclines on a ter- 
restrial globe, with her head crowned with fruit, 
which also lies in profusion at the foot of the pyra- 
mid. On the center of the plinth is the following^ . 
inscription : 

" Erected by the King and Parliament, 

As a testimony to 

The Virtues and Ability 


William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, 

During whose Administration, 

Ih the reigns of George II. and Gtorge IlL 

Divine Providence 

Exalted Great iJritain 

To an height of Prosperity and Glory 

Unknown to any former Age. 

Bom Nov, l^, 1708. Died May U, 1778/' 


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^ A4iokiiQg to tlw 18 aDotber natiooftl mopnawptt 
el:ect^d to the memory of the bfave 4:aptaiiis, who 
lost their lives in the engagements b^^een tb^ 
British fleet, under L^d Rodney, and the French 
fleet, under Count De Grasse, in the. West Indies, in 
April, 17 83. The back ground is &>niied by a tali 
pyramid, before which stands a rostcated ootlumn of 
black marble, on which a genius hangs three me* 
dallions, containing the portraits of the captains. 
Round the upperone is inscribed, LordRo^RTMAK- 
i!i£RS, aged 24? ; and round the other two, Captain 

\ Willi W Bay^e, aged 50, und Captain William 
Blaib, aged 41. At the foot of the column is the 
figure of Neptune, sitting on a sea-horse, and point- 
ing out the portraits of the heroes to Britannia, who 
stands on the other side, with a countenance finely 
.expressive of sorrow, as examples for posterity to 
emulate, and worthy of their country's gratitude. 

. On the lop of the column is an elegant figure of 
Fame, holding a crown of laurel. On the right side 
of the pedestal, which supports the pyramid, is a 
globe, ^c.and on the left a naval trophy; and in the 
center i^ the following inscription : 

*' Capt. Wm. Baynb^ 

Capt. Wm. Blair, 

Capt. Ld. Robt. Manners^ 

were mortally wounded 

in the course of the naval engagements 

under the command of Adm. Sir Geo .Brydges Rodney, 

on the IX & XII of AprH, M.DCC.LXXXIL 

In memory of their services, 

the King and Parliament of Great Britain 

h^ve caused this monument to be erected.'* 

Considered as a whole, this monument, which is 
by Mr, NoUekins, has a grand and impressive effect 


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The %wie Of Neptune is partieularlf dassical, and 
the left haad^indacvixi inimitably executed; and the 
giou|Mng o( the^ figures-does goeat bcttionr lo ttke tamtj 
tttients, an^ geimis, of the seulplor. . ' 

BbhveM this monumieiit aad the na^e; is thai 
lately erected to the memory of the Eartiaf Mana-^ 
fields and the iiist whichitvas' placed between the 
pittai^ of the AVbej, witbimt a wall to- block «f^ the' 
arch, anddestj'oy the beauty of the building, for the 
sake of the monument. The introduction of this 
improtrement in monumental sefolpture, will per- 
peMai^ tile name of Mr. Fiaxmao, the ingeni*^ 
ous artist, who, unfettered by an adiiefeDce la ex- 
ample, dared to throw aside the prejudice of anti- 
quated error, and act from the imptiise of his own 
judgment. The earl is represented in judge's robes, 
sitting on the judgment-seat, which is placed on a 
circular eUevation of peculiar eleganee: in his left 
hand he holds a scroll of parchment; his right hand' 
rests OQ his knees and his left' foot is a little ad- 
vanced. This attitude is taken from the celebrated 
painting by Sir Joi^ua Reynolds, but'^is executed 
with sp-much judgment and spirit bjr tiie sculptor, 
that it .has the appearance of being done from the. 
life. Oil his right hatid. Justice Holds^ a balance 
equally poised, and- on his left hand, Wisdom is read- 
ing in the Book of Law. Between the statues of 
Wisdom and Justice is a trophy, composed of the 
Earl's family arms, surmounted by the coronet, the 
mantle of honour, the fasces, or rods of justice, and 
the curtana, or sword of mercy. On the back of the 
chair is the Earl's motto: — ^^Uni ^Equus Virtuti,'* 
inclosed in a crown- of laurel. Under it is a figure 
of Death,' a* represented by the* ancients: a beauti- 
ful youth', leaning on an- extinguished toixh, and on 
each side-of this figure is a fune/al altaip. 


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'^if UIStORY ANO aUBTSy 09 

Sir Petec Warren^s is a most superb moi|ument of 
white marble^ executed by that great master of his 
time, Roubiliac. Against the wall isalaigeflas hangiog 
to the fls^-staff, aod spreading in natural folds behind 
the whole monument. In me front is a fine figure 
of Hercules placing Sir Peter's bust on its pedestal ; 
and on one side is a iigujre of Navigation, with a 
wreath of laurel in her hsuid, gazing on the bust, 
with a look of melancholy mixed wifti admiration. 
Behind her is a cornucopia, pouring out fruit, com, 
the fleece, &c. and by it is a cannon, an anchor,, 
and other decorations. In the front of the monu- 
ment is the following inscription : 

Sacred to the memory of 

Sir Pjeter Waioien, 

Knight 'of the Bath, vice-admiral of the red 

Squadron of the British fleet, tind 

Men^ber of parliament 

For the city and liberty of Westminster* 

He derived his descent from an ancient 

I Family of Ireland: 

His fame and honours from his virtues and 


How eminently those were displayed, 

With what vigilance and spirit they were 


In the various services wherein he had the honour 

to command, 

And the happiness to conquer, 

Will be more properly recorded in the 

Annals of 

Great Brixain. 

On this tablet affection with truth must say, 

' That deservedly esteemed in private life. 

And universally renowned for his pubUo 

S The 

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LOin>0y AMD ')f§ IS^TIROAS. 495 

The judiciotis and gallant officer 

Pomesoed all the amiable qualities of the 


The gentleman, and the christian r 

But the Almighty, 

Whom alone he feared, and whose gracious 


He had often experienced, 

Was pleased to remove him from a place of 


To an eternity of happiness, 

On the 29<|i Day of July, 1752, 

In the 4'9th year of his age. 

On the nofth side of the entrance into the choir, 
18 a beautiful and sUperb monument to Sir Isaac 
Newton. The great man, to whose memory it w^as 
erected^ is sculptiMred on it recumbent, leaning his 
rigirt arm on four books, thus titled : Divinity, Chro- 
nology, Optics, and Phil. Prin. Math, and pointing 
to a scroll, supported by winged cherubs. Over 
him is a large globe, projecting from a pyramid he^ 
hind, whereon is delihfeated the\!ourse of the comet 
in 1680, with the digns, constellations, and planets. 
On this globe sits the figure of Astronomy, with her 
lK>ok shut, and' Iri a very thoughtful and composed 
mood. Beneath the principal figure is a most cu- 
rioils relief, reptiesenting the various labours in which 
Sir Isaac chiefly employed his time; such as disco- 
^ring the causer of gravitation, settling the princi- 
ples of light and colours; and reducing the coinage 
to a determined standard. The device of weighing 
the sun by the steet-yard, has been thought at once 
bold and striking, and, indeed, the whole monument 
does honour to the sculptor. Tlie inscription on 
the pedestal is in Latin, short, but full of meaning,' 
miA iittiniatesv that, by a spirit nearly divine, he 

¥ot. HI. I i i solved^ 

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solved, on principles of , his o^, ihe qtotion and 
figure of the planets, the {laths of the coEoets,;aDd thcr 
ebbing and flowing of the sea; that he discovered the 
dissimilarity of the rays of light, and then properties 
of colours from thence arising, which none but him- 
self had ever dreamt of; that he was a diligent, wise, 
and faithful interpreter of nature, antiquity, and the 
holy scriptui^; that by his phtlct^phy he main- 
tained the difl;nity of the Supreiiie.Being; and by the 
purity of his life, the simplicity of the gospel. He 
was born on the 25th of December, Itk-f, and died 
on the 20th of March, 1726-7., . 

On the other side of the enti*ance ipto the choir 
is another magnificent monument, erected to the 
memory of James, Earl Stanhope ;/ the principal 
figure of which represents the earl leaning upon his 
ann, m a cumbent posture^ holding in his right band 
a general's staff, and in his Jeft a parchmenjt scrolL 
Before him stands a Cupid, resting himself upon a 
shield. Over a martjal tent sits a beautiful Pallas,, 
holding in her right hand a javelin, and in the other 
(L scroll. On the middle of the, pedestal are two ine« 
dais, s^nd one on each side the pilasters. Under the 
principal figure is a Latin inscription, sjQttipg fcfrtb 
th^ merits of this great man as a soldier, a^Etfatesm^n, 
and a senator. He died in 1721, in the 47jt&^e|U'of 
his age. 

Near the gate leading to the ^apals, is ^.)iw)d^ 
some monument to the memory of Dr.^sbjf.. Qn. 
It is the figure oC the doctor, in his go^n> loo)cioj^ 
earnestly on the inscriptipa. In his right h^i^- 1^ 
holds a pen, aiid iu his left a book opep. . IJndcini^sHtb, 
on the |)edestal, are a variety of books, and .at the- 
top his family arms. The inscnptipn is elegantly 
written, and highly to bis praise: it iptjin^tes, tl)st 
whatever fame the school of^nvp^er boasts^ 
sod whatever advantages ma«kini;jk.|Sl)^^fp9p,frwi 


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tfrence, in. time to come, are all principally owing to 
the wise institutions of this great man. He was made 
Blaster of Westminster College, in the year 1640; 
el<3cted Prebend of Westminster, July 6, 1660 ; tred- 
surer of Wells, Aug:u8t 1 1, the same year; and died. 
April 5, 1695. 

Having now taken notice of the monuments most 
•worthy of observation, we shall return to Henry 
VII.^s chapel, which, as has been already mentionecf, 
is a distinct building from the Abbey. 

This chapei, which is stiled by Leland, the Won- 
f/er of fie Worlds is situated to the east of the Ab- 
bey; to which it is so neatly joined, that, on a supeF- 
fidial view, it appears to belong to the same building. 
It is supported without by fourteen Gothic buttresses, 
all beautifully ornamented, and projecting from 
the building in different angles; and is enlightened 
by a double range of windows, that throw the light 
into such an advantageous disposition, as at once to . 
please the eye, and inspire reverence. The buttresses 
extend up to the roof, and are made to strengthen 
it by their being crowned with Gothic arches. In 
these buttresses are niches, in which formerly stood 
a mimber of statues ; but these, being greatly de- 
cayed, have been long ^ taken down. 

The entrance to thi? edifice is, from the east end 
of the Abbey, by a flight of steps of black marble, 
under a very "noble arch that leads to the gates open- 
ing to the body or nave of the chapel ; for, Jike a ca- 
thedra), it is divided into a nave and side aisles, to 
which there is a passnge by a door on' each side. The 
gates, at the entrance of the nave, are of brass frame- 
work, curiously wtought, and have, in every open 
pannel, a rose and portcullis, alternately. 

' Being entered, the eye is naturally directed to the 

J^y*eeHff)g, which*i« wrought with such astonish- 

^9 ing 

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ing variety of figures as to exceed description. The 
stalls are of brown wainscot, with Gothic canopies, 
most beautifully carved) as are the seats with scrange 
devices; more particularly th^ Pftfying under tlie 
{Seats, which are monstrous represeotatiooA of beasts, 
but so strongly expressed by the artificer, that no- 
thing on wood is now remaining equal to it. 

The pavement is of black and white marble, laid 
at the charge of Dr. Killegrew, oDce prebendfiiy of 
this abbey, as appears from tw^o inscriptions,, one on 
a brass plate, near the foupder's tomb, and the other 
cut in the pavement. The view from th^ entrance 
presents the brass chapel and superb tpmb of the 
founder ; the work of Pjetro Torregiano,^ ^ Italian 
sculptor, who had, for hi&^ bbour and the mat^ab, 
one thousand pounds ; and round it, where the east 
endforms a semi-circle, ar^ the chapels of theDukes 
of Buckingham and Kicbnond. 

The walls, both of the nave and side aisles,* are 
adorned with the most curious imagery, and oontaiii 
an hundred and twenty statues of patriarchs, saints, 
martyrs, and confessors; under which are angels 
supporting imperial crowns, beside innumerable small 
ones, all of them esteemed so curious, that the best 
masters are said to have come from abroad to take 
a copy of them. 

The roof of the side aisles is flattish, and sup- 
ported by arches tttrning upon twelve stately Gothic 
pillars, curiously adorned with figures, fruitage, and 

1 he windows, beside a spacious oi^e at the east 
end, are thirteen on each side above, and as many; 
below ; and were formerly of painted glass, having 
in each pane a white rose, the badge of the House 
of Lancaster, an H, the initial letter of the (bunder's 
name, or portcullises crowned, the badge of the Beau^ 
fortes family ; of which tbeje ^rt SQme Kill icsnainiag. 


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• The fei^b of tbk cbapel, withiQ» is niaety-nioe 
fe^t» tha brea4tb .8i|:ty«»i;(, and the height fifty-ipuf . 

,Tif» origioal intent of this cbapel waa w a qepu)- 
chrfyia which none but the remains of the royal i^- 
miiy were to be deposited ; and so fai: has the will 
of the fiMinder >l^eeii observed* that iKme bav^yet 
been iaterrt^d th^re^ but those of high quality, wb^ 
desceiit may gt qemiiy be traced from sobm of our 
WC| wt kings. 

In the.niiddle of the east end of the iia^e is 4itii* 
ated the magnificent tomb of Plenry Vll. jaooi £ii3a^ 
.beth his qivieep. It is inclosed io a cpAriou* spreen 
of cast hfdssy beautifully designed and well execute^. 
Thi»>8«KW is iuaeteen feet in length, 0leye9 in 
braadtb and the aam^ ia height; and ottiameBUi^ 
with statues, of which those only of St. George, Sik 
James, St. Bartholomew, and £>t. Fdward, nre now 
remaining. Within it are the effigies of the royal 
pair, iq their robes of state, lying ciose to each other 
OQ a tomb formed of a ba9altic stone* called in the 
language of those days Touche^ the head of which is 
Aipporied by a red dragon, the ensign of Cadwalla- 
dar, the last king of the Britons, from whom king 
Hepry VU. was fond of tracing his descent ; and 
the foot by aii angel. There . are various devices 
aUuding to bis family and alliances ; such as port«. 
cullises, signifying hia relation to the Beaufoct' ' 
faici mothei's side; roses twisted and crowned io me* 
inoi^ of the union of the two houses of Lancaster 
snd Xock, by his ma^'riage ; and at each esida crowQ 
in. a bush, alluding to the ccown of Kichard III. 
found io 0, hvtwtbiirn, in Bosworth field. He died 
the twenty rfiist of April, 1509, in thie Jfifty-third 
year of his age. 

Within the grate of the tomb was an altar of a 
Biogle piece of touchstone, destroyed by the fimaticK; 


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%iO ' -^'BrtSTORY Ai^D SURVEY" D* 

to^wbiA-fce beqiieatlied ** our greteS piece "*of^ tte 
hc^ CHTOSBei Which, by the high promioD of our 
Lord God, wds convened, brought aod ddiverad to 
Oisfrom the isle of Cyo, in Greece, set in gold and 
gamidhed with perles and precious Btbnes: dnd also 

' ttlr^ piMioufie relique of oon 6f fhe legges of St 
Geotgei set in silver parcel-giite, which came into 
4h^ hands ofonrbroder and cousyn^Lewys of France, 
the time that he wan and recovered thecitie of Milleini 
and giVeti and sent to iiaby our cousyne the cardinal 
of Amtokse.^'* 

At tt^ head of this tocib tie the reimins of Ed* 
•Ward VI. gmndson^ to Henry VI I. who died in the 
sixteenth year tif his age, and the seventh of his 
wigQ. A fine monument was erected to his memory 
ky queen Mary^ his sister and Accessor'; it was 
aoorned with curious sculpture, representing the pas* 
sion and resurrection of our Saviouf, With two angels 
on the top kneeling, add the whole elegantly finished; 
but it was afterwards demolished as a relict of Popish 

On one side of Henry's tomb, in a small chapel, 
is'a monument of cast brass, in which are the efiigies 
of Lewis Stuart, Duke of Richmond, and Frances 
his wife. They are represented as lying on a marble 
table under a canopy of brass curiously wrought; 

' 9nd suppwted by the figures of Faith, Hope, Cha^ 
rtty, and Prudence. On the top is a figure of Fame 
taking h^ flighty and resting only on her toe. This 
illustrious nobl^tnan died the sixteenth of February; 
1693;- and his lady the eighth of October, 16,19^ 
Here is likewise a pyramid of black and white tnarbie 
supporting a small urn, in which is contained the 
heart of Esme Stuart, son to the Duke of Richmond 
and' Lenox, who died in France the fourteenth of 
August, 1661. 


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L09D09. AKD^'. Iff» %WtlB0H^4 40V 

- On ffae'north side of tbtsitomb isV mbtfiniifiBtidle^i 
Wtated with several embieaiatical %iines^ in:gHti 
bvMS ; .the principal of whicb are Neptutieiin a ipdo^^ 
sive posture with bis trident reversed, and Mars with! 
his head crushed. These figures support the tomb 
on which lies* the effigy of George Villars, Duke of 
Buckinghabi, the great favourite of Kiiig* James I. 
aad King Charles I. who fell ft> sacrifl<5e to fiatioaal 
resentmentv and perished by the hands 6f an'ie^ssin. 
His duchess, Catharine, daughter of the £ttrl of 
Rutland, who caused this monument to befi^eoted 
to his memory, lies in effigy by his side on the same 
tomb. There is a Latin inscription, which'representa 
his high titles and honours, and alludes to the un- 
happy ieause of his deaths 

Of a later date, and superior in design and work- 
manship, is a noble monument erected to themmaory 
of John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham; in which 
his gfacQ^s statue, in a Roman habit, is laid in a half 
raised posture on an altar of fine marble, andlhift 
duchess, Catharine, natural daughter of the Duke of 
York, aft^fWards James II. is standing at his feet 
weeping/ On each side are military tiiophiesi and 
over all ^u admirable figtir^tof Timej holding several 
medallions, representing the heads of their Grace's 
children.* This monument is greatly admired. It 
has been observed that the 'duke hhnself appears the 
principal figiire in the grpup, and though belies in a; 
jecumbent posture, tod bis lady is placed, ^in the 
moBt^ beautiful attitude at his/eet, }et;her figure iJiso« 
characterized, as to be only a guide to his, and both 
refl^ibiick j^ibeMtyjon each.mher.f The deoorations 
^re extt^diy 4)lcture8quQ*aod elegant \ the trophies 
at hiB M^^'thi figure o^iTimearbotvey with the 
nMi^llions c^, hia childreOifiUUp all thi^ spaqw with 
8uch:pro|^i^ty«vt^ftt little;. coukl be« addk'itf and no*^ 
thiag appears sup^t^QiM... The ioscri{Kion.i^sets' 
. > forth 

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fbittKllie Diikeof Buckitighan's potts, «rd blb:(|Ua- 
MGcations m apdet And a fine writer ; and o¥e^ fa» 
stBtneisi inscribed soma Lstinsenttaoes iotthefollew- 

. Ilived doubtfuji, npt dissdlnt^t . 

I die upresotvf»dy not uanssigi^ed. 

Igaotanc^ a^d error itfe incident to human natofie* 

I trust in an Almighty and All;gopd God« 

T^ou Kiog of Kings have mercy upon me* 

And underti^atit : 

For my King 6fteri, for my Country ahrays. 

At the end of. the north aisle^ against the east 
wall is a monument in the form of a beaiitiftfl altar^ 
rsised by King Charles 11. to the memory of £dward 
V. and bis brother. The inscription, which is in 
Latin^ is thus translated '* Here lie the fdi^fiies of 
Edward V. Kine of £nffiaiKl, and Riekard,- Dwke of 
York; wIk> being eonnned in the Tow««y ^^nd tl^re 
fltiOsd with pillows^ wisre privately andittttaiklj^ buriecl 
by order of tbnr perfidious iincle Bichapdthe usurper : 
their bones^ long enquired after and wiifaed for, after 
lying 901 years m the rubbisbof the staivs^ (those 
latety leading to tbe chaf^l of die White Tower) 
were, on the 7th of July, 1 674^ by undoubted proo6 
discovered/ being buried deep in that pbce< Charles 
U^ pityinfr their unhappy fate, ondered those anfoN 
tmiate pnnces to be laid amongst the reliques of their 
predecessors) in the year l678y and the 9(Mh ef his 

At the east end of the same siste is a vrntft, in 
which are deposited themmsins of ¥aQg Jahies I. 
and bis Qtteen Anne, wh*wai^dauglitert«>Fi^ederick 
II* King of Deiimark. Thris' prince r^^ed over 
Scotland fifty-nine yfam, and Ei^land twenty-ttwo; 

spdditdchelfiihof Alarefarl^^ - 


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Over this viiiilt is a small tomb aklomed vritfa the 
figure of a child, erected to the memory of Maiy the 
third daughter of James L who was born at Green- 
wich in 1605, and died dt two years old. 

There is also aoothcf monument, on which is the 
representation of a child in a ccadle, erected to the 
memory of Sophia, the fourth daughter of the same 
king, who was bom at Greenwich in 1606, and died 
thiee days after. 

In this aisle, is a lofbjr and beautiful monument 
widia canopy over it, erected to the memory of 
Queoi Elizabeth by her successor King James L 
The inscription describes her character thus: ^^ she 
was the mother of her eoiintcy, and the patroness of 
religion and learning: she was skilled in many Ian* 
guages, adorned with every exoellence of mind and 
person, and emdowed wiUi princely rirtues beyond 
her H^L ; in her reign religion was refined to its 
primitive purity; peace was establiriied; money Te- 
stored to its juit value ; domestic insurrections quell- 
ed; France delivered from intestine troubles; the 
Netherlands supported; theSpanish armadadefeated; 
Ireland, almost lost by the secret contrivance of 
Spain, recovered ; the revenues of both universities 
improved by a law of provisions ; and, in short, alt 
England enriched; that she was a most prudent go- 
verness, forty-Bve years a virtuous and triumphant 
queen ; truly religious and blessed in all her great 
afi&irs ; and that Bfter a calm and resigned death in 
the seventieth year of her age, she eft her mortal 
part to be deposited in this church, which she esta- 
blished on a new footing, till by Christ's ^ord she is 
called to immortality.^ She died the 24th of March, 
in the year I602. 

In the south aisle of this chapel is a iliagniAceDt 
monument erected to the meraoi^'of M«r.v Queen 
of Scots, the mother of King Jame^ l.'vrViO was be- 

TOL. iii» K k k headed 

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headed on the 8th of February, I587rat Fotheringbay- 
castle in Northamptonshire, on a scaffold erected in 
the hall of that oastie. She was afterwards pomp- 
ously interrint by order of .Queen Elizabeth in the 
cathredral church of Peterborough ; but, on the ac- 
cession of her son to the throne of England, her re- 
mains were removed from thence, and placed near 
this monument amongst her ancestors. . 

Near this, inclosed with iron rails, is a handsome 
table monument, on which lies, finely robdd, the 
effigy of Mai^ret Douglas, daughter of Margaret 
queen of Scots, by the Earl of Angus. . Her son, th& 
Lord Darnley, father to King James I. is repre- 
sented foremost on the tomb kneeling with the crown 
over his head: and there are seven others of her 
children represetited round the tomb. This great lady, 
though she herself never sat on the throne, had, ac- 
cording to the English inscription, King Edward IV. 
for her great grandfather ; Henry VII. for her grand- 
lather; Henry VHI. for her uncle; Edward VI. for 
her cousin german ; James V. of Scotland for her 
brother, Henry, King of Scotland for her son, and 
James VI. for her gi'andson. She had for her great 
grandmother and grandmother, two queens, bpth 
named Elizabeth; for her mother, -Margaret, Queen 
of Scots ; fox her aunt, Afary, the JVench Queen ; 
for her cousins German, Maryland Elizabeth, Queens 
of England, and for her niece and daughter in law, 
Mary Queen of Scots. She died March 10th, 1677. 

At the east end of this aisle is the royal vault, in 
which are deposited the coffins of King Charles II. 
King William III. and Queen Mary his consort. 
Queen Anne, and Prince George. 

The nave of this chapel is used for the ceremony 
of the installation of the Knights of ihe most ho- 
nourable order of ^he Bath, which order was revived 
by King Gi^orge i. in the year 1795. In their stalls, 


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which are ranged on each side of the nave, are 
brass plates of their arms, &c. and over them hang - 
their banners, swords and helmets* Und^r the stalls 
are seats for the esquires, of whom each knight has 
three: their arms are also engraved on brass, and 
placed upon the back of the seats. 

Underneath the body of this chapel is the vault 
prepared in 1737^ on the death of Queen Caroline, for 
the reception of the present royal family. It consists 
of a double range of arched chambt^rs, three on each 
side, open to the middle walk between them. This 
middle walk terminates with the principal vault in 
fix)nt, where, in a large marble, sarcophagus, lie the 
two coffins of the late King George II. and his 
Queen Caroline ; the side boards of which'were, by^ 
the express command of the king, su constructed as 
to be removed, in order that their dust might inter- 
mingle. The coffins of Frederick, Prince of Wales, 
his princess, two Dukes of Cumberland, the Duke of 
York, Prince Frederick William, the Princesses 
Amelia, Caroline, Elizabeth, and Louisa Anne, and 
two infant sons of their present Majesties, the Prin- 
ces Alfred and Octavius also lie here. 

The exterior of this fine example of Gothic, ar- 
chitecture is in a most ruinous condition. The roof 
has been lately repaired ; but the turrets and the 
arched buttresses are going fast to decay, and, if not 
throughly repaired, must soon fall to total ruin. 

From the south aisle of the abbey there are two 
^itrances into the cloisters, which are entire, and 
consist of four arched walks on the sides of an open 
quadrangle. There are many monum^ts in these 
walks, but as they have nothing particular to distin- 
guish them we.shall pass them over, with the excep- 
tion of four very ancient ones, on the pavement at 
the east end of the south walk, under which lie the 
remains of four of the Abbots of Westminster. 


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The firet is of black marble, called Long Meg i rora 
Its extraordinary length of eleven feet, eight inobes, 
and covers the ashes of Gervasius de Blois, natural 
son to King Stephen, whddied in 1 10^« 

The second is a raised stone of Sussex marble^ 
under which lies interred the Abbot Laurentius, who 
died in 1 176, and is said to have been the first who 
obtained from Pope Alexander Ill.lhe privilege of 
using the mitre, ring, and globe. 

The third is a sioae of grey marble, to the menuny 
of Geslebertus Crispinus, who died in the year 1 1 J4. 
His effigy may be still traced on his grave-stone by 
the fragments of his mitre and pastoral staff. 

The fourth is the most ancient of all, and was 
formerly covered with plates of brass inscribed to 
the Abbot Vitalis, who died in 1082- All these seem 
to have had their names and dates cut afresh, and aie 
indeed fragments worthy preservation. 

From the east side of the cloisters is the entrance 
into the Chapter-house, through an archway, the 
workmanship of which was in the first style of 
Gothic elegance, but now much defaced. In the 
centre of the design was the statue of the Virgin, 
exquisitely finished, which has been removedto make 
way for a mural monument, that also conceals a 
great part of the surrounding decorations. 

The chapter-house is of an octangular form, and 
was originally very lofty, with a clustered* column 
rising from the floor to support it, the groins of which 
arched to the several angles of the structure. From 
what remains uncovered and unmutilaled of the 
ancient pert of this building there can be no doubt 
that it was decorated with every degree of excellence 
which the endless variety of Gothic ornament could 
afford ; but since the place has been em][doyed as a 
Fepositoiy for tb^* public records belonging to the 
Treasury of the Exchequer, all t^e lower parts are 


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IxmPON AMD in XNY»01I8« 4S7 

liidden by preases and galleries, filled with rolls of. 
parchment, that very little of its original mauuiti* 
c^ice can be seen. 

This structure owes its foundation to that magni* 
ficent monarch Henry III. and was used for ihe 
meetiiigB of the ComnionSf in the time of Edward 
III. and several succeeding monarchs. Among the 
ancient records^ at present deposited here, tha 
curious edquirer will iind thos^ of the court of fitaN 
chamber, and tlie original Doi2iesday-4xxiik« w)aiich is 
still as legible as the first hour it was written. 

Beneath thechapter*house is a very singular orypt. 
The Toof, on which rests the floor of tha former, is 
supported by ^ short, round pillar, quite hollow, at^d 
spreads vifito piiain massy ribsw The wails are not less 
' than eighteen tieet thick, and form a secure base to 
the superstructjure. They were fornaerly pierced 
with several small windows, which are now concealed 
by the vast increase of eaith on the outside : oiie 
only is just visible in the garden of an adjoining 
house, from which alone the crypt is accessible. 

Against the south west part of the west front of 
the abbey is the north front of the Jerusalem cham- 
ber, which was built by Abbot Littlington, and was 
part of the abbot's lodgings. It is remarkable 
for being the place where Henry IV. hreatbed bii^ 
last. . 

Noith from the abbey stood the Sanctuary, the 
place of refuge allowed in old times, to crimioals of 
a certain description. The church belonging to it 
was in the form of a cross and double ; one being 
above the other^ It was of vast streng4ih, and re- 
quired great labour to demoUsh it. Kdward the 
Confessor is supposed to have founded it. Within 
its precincts Edward V. was born ; and here his un- 
happy mother took refuge, with her younger son 
Richard, to secure him from his uncle; who had 


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already possession of the King. The site pf this «aoc« 
, tuary wasafterwardsoccupied by Westtnitister-market, 
ivhich, in its turn, has given way toanew court-bouse, 
now building for the accommodation of the West- 
minster magistrates. 

To the west of the Sanctuary stood the Eleemo- 
synary, or Almonry, where the alms of the Abbey 
were used to be distributed ; but it is more remarka- 
ble for having been the place where the first print- 
ing press ever known in England was set up. Here, 
in 1474, William Caxton, probably encouraged by 
the learned Thomas Milling, at that time abbot, 
produced " The Game and Play of the Chesse,^' the 
first book printed in these kingdoms. There is a 
slight difference of opinion, respecting, the exact 
place where this book was printed, but all s^pree, that 
It was within the precincts of this religious house. 

At a small distance from the north door of the 
Abbey, stands the parish church of St. Margaret. 

This church was originally erected by Edward the 
Confessor, who, having resolved to rebuild the con- 
ventual church of St Peter with great magnificence, 
imagined that it would be a dishonour to his new and 
stately edifice, to have the neighbouring people as- 
semble in it as usual, for the performance of religious 
worship, as well as prove troublesome and inconve- 
nient to the monks; therefore, about the year 1064, 
he caused a church to be erected on the north side 
of St. Peter's, for the use of the neighbouring inhabi* 
tants, and dedicated it to St, Margaret, the virgin and 
martyr of Antioch. 

This church, which is situated only thirty feet to 
the north of tha Abbey, was rebuilt in the reim of 
King Edward 1. by the parishioners and merchants 
of the staple, except the chancel, which was erected 
at the charge of the Abbot of Westminster. In the 
year 1735, it was not only repaired, but its tower 


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vn9 cased, at the expense of thi^e ikhousand five 
hundred pounds^ granted by parliament, in considera* 
tidn of its being the church where the House of 
Commons attend divine service on stated holidays, 
as the Peers <fo in Westminster Abbey. 
. . It is a plain, neat, and not inelegant, Gothic 
structure, weii enlightened by a series of large win- 
dows. . It has two handsome galleries of considerable 
length, adorned in the front with carved work: these 
are supported by slender pillars, which rise to the 
roof, and have four small black piilars running along 
each, of them, adorned with gilded capitals, both at 
the galleries and at the top, where the flat roof is 
neatly ornamented with stucco. The steeple consists 
of a tower, which rises to a considerable height, ^nd 
is crowned with a turret at each comer, and a small 
iantem, ornamented with carved work in tfie center; 
fiom whence rises a flag-staff. 

In 17^8, this church was again repaired and or- 
namented at the public expense ; and, lately, the 
inside has been entirely rebuilt, and a new porch 
added at the west end. 

At the east end of the church is a very beautiful 
window of painted glass, made by order of the ma- 
gistrates of Dort, in Holland, and designed by them 
as a present to King Henry VII. for his new chapd 
in Westminster Abbey. But that monarch dying 
before it was finished, it was set up in the private 
chapel of the Abbot of Waltham, at Copt-hall, near 
Epping. At the dissolution of that monastery, it was 
removed to New-hall, in Essex, which coming afi:er- 
wards into the possession of General Monk, he pre- 
served the window from the destroying hands of the 
fanatics. In 175b, when this church underwent a tho- 
roughrepair, it was purchased by the inhabitants, from 
the then owner, for four hundred guineas, and placed 
in its present situation. The subject is our Saviour's 


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44A OlftFOftV ASP tfH&VEY 09 

cracifixioo ; but there aie naojF. sutprdinate figures, 
whjdb are finely executed. Ott one wle 18 Henry 
YU. and ooi the other his (|ueeQv both kneeliiig. 
Their portndls were taken ftram origiMl pictures sent 
to Dort for that purpose. Over the kUig is the figure 
of St* Geotge, his patroa saints mdi al^ve that, a 
white rose and .a red one* Over the queen is the 
figure of St. Catharine, of Ale^ndria, and, above 
htf head, the anus of the kingdon» of Greeds. 

This church is a rectory, in the gift of the Dean 
«m} Chapter of WestminsDer^ It js one hundred and 
thirty feet in length, sixty-fivie in breadth, and fi>rty- 
five in height ; the altitude .o£ the tower, to th^ tpp 
of the pinnacles, is eighty^fiv<9 feet* 
. To the east of this c|ikuroh, andle&tending to the 
Thaniesyistbesiteof theorigiml royal pialaceof West- 
minster, founded by £dward> the Confessor, the &at 
prince who had a regular residence here The staics 
item it to the river ^11 retain the name of Palace- 
stairs; aad the; two Palaf:e^yands also bdonged to 
this extensive palace. 

Many parts of this ancient pulace^atitt, exist, con*- 
verted iAto other uses. The.great ball was built, or 
poasibly rebuilt « by William Rufus* a great hall being 
too necessary an app^fidage to a palace ever t& have 
been neglected. The entrance into it, fram New 
Palaee<»yard, was bounded on each side by towera, 
noost magoificratiy ornamented with statues,^ in rows 
above each other, now lost, or concealed by modem 
buildings.. In the reign of Richard II. the old 
building had becon^e so ruinous that he ordered it to 
he pulled down ; and the present hall, which is now 
know by the name of Westnsiinster hall, was erected 
in its frt;ead and completed in the year 1397$ and 
called the New Palace to distinguish it from the 
Old Palace, where the Houses of Lords and Commons 

I ThU 

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-This dbcient butUing.ia €f * stODe^^Uhe front of 
which is omametited'With twatowiem, adorned with 
carved work. The ha^l, within,- is reckoned the 
largest .room in Europe* unsupported by pillars, be- 
ing two hundred and seventy ieet in length, -and 
seventy^four in breadth. The pavemertt is of stone, 
and thereof of oak, of curious Gothic workmanship, 
wtich is greatly admired. The candlivers which sup- 
port the roof, fire decorated with angels, each bearing > 
in his hands a shield, with the arms of Richard. II. 
or those of £dward the Confessor. It was formerly 
covered with lead, but that being found too weighty, 
it has been for some years past covered with 

In the year 1399) King Richard held his Christ* 
mas here; during which time, the number of his* 
guests, ^ho were entertained in this hall, and the 
other rooiQS of the palace,- amounted to ten thousand; 
for who^e supply, eighty oxeo, three hundred sheep, 
and an innumerable quantity of poultry were daily 

Parliaments frequently sat in this hall, and in it 
was held, the ancient court of justice, in which the 
king presided in person. 

la thi^ hall the Kings of England have for many 
ages, past held their coronation feasts. It is also ge- 
nerally used for the trying of peers accufeed.of high 
treason, or any other crimes committed against the 
state ; and it was in this hall that Charles I. was.tried 
by a self*constituted court of judicature. Ever since 
the reign of Henry III. the three great courts of 
Chancery, King's-bench, and Common-pleas, have 
been held here ; and the court of Exchequer is also 
held in an apartment belonging to the old palace,, 
the entrance to which is from this hall. 
. The most ancient of the courts held under this 
venerable roof, is that of the chancery, which took its 
. VOL. III. L 1 1 name. 

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name, GamnelUma^ finm the cmsd-baw cf kon^^ or 
wood> cflUed b^ the BowiaiiB^ ca$u»Uii, wMi wbieh iC 
was formeily inclosed, to prteeiit the odkersheiag 
iDcoiBmocied by the croirdiog* of the^ pmpte. The 
supreoieaml sole jiuige of this ccutt is the lord h%h 
^haojcelbe. This gteat officer, who is assialed hy the 
masters in GhfiQcery, takes precedency after the Arch~ 
bishop o£ Cautechury; and, nes4i to the kin^' aad 
princes of th^ b)ood, ie the highest pelson* m Aa 
kiagikiin in eivii affaiis^ He is ^oevalfy keeper ef 
the great seal, and is theace stiled Lord^keeper. 

The first chancellor we find on recopd was Uflf- 
wooR, chancellor t;o OSsi^ K.^"? ^ Mercia, who 
reigned from the year 7-57 to 79^). Till about the 
year 1669s this high office waa^mostJy filled with 
ehurchmeo, who presiding over the king's chapet^ 
became keepers: of tht^ king^s Ktonscie^te ; and, ia 
TijtMe of this oflce, the lord chiiiiceik)r for the lime 
being, ia visitor, in righted the king^ of all hospitals 
ail^d Colleges o£ the kuig^s^ftm^dati^m; andpalvon of 
ail the king's livings, under the value of twenty 
pounds per annum, in the kii>g^ books. 

The chancery consists of two- distinct tribunals; 
the one ordinary, being a court of common laW.; the 
other. extraoixlinaiy,)>eing a court of eqoity. In ease 
of the izhftncellofs absence, bis place upon the bench 
is suppli^ by the Master of the Rolls. 

In this court is. kept the n/^'i^ma ;W^^, out ol 
which ave issued writs for parliament, charters^ pa- 
tents for. sheriffe, writs.of cet^tiorari to remove re- 
cords and felse judgments: in inferior coititS) writs of 
mo^rata misericomia^ when a person bes been 
amerced too high, and ihr a reasonable part ^f goods 
for iW.ic|ows and orp})ans« Here also ane sealed and 
enrolled treaties with foreign princes, letters patents 
oocHmtssions of appeal, oyer and terminer, bank- 
rupts, &C, 

... No 

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LOKpov anA its emviroks. 445 

No.jttriies are summODed to this court, for the V6^ 
lions are all by bill, or plaint^ and 4tie depositionB df 
the witiietaeb ^ire taken at the £arataiit»im)t}*office, 
and afterwards read in court as sufficient evidence : 
BO that thedetertninatioB of the sentence is vested 
in ^he judg^alcMie. 

The twelve masters in chancery are assistants of 
the cfastfKeUor, or lord-keeper; the first of ivhotn ik 
master of the rolls, which is a place of gneat dignitv^ 
and is in the gift of the king. These geniletneii sit 
at Westminster*haU, widi the loitl chancellor, threfe 
at a tioiei while the term lasts, and t^o at a time, 
wtien the cfaaneeUor sits to heai' causes in his tma 

This court is held on the right-hand sid^ bf th^ 
stairs leading up to the court of Requests, and oppo- 
site to it is that of the King's-bench : the ancient 
Curiia Domini Regis; a court in which the kingwai 
formerly accustomed to sit in person. T^ejusticiariui 
Anglice presided when the king did not ; but on the 
supfvession of that office, iti 1967) the name was 
changed to camialisjusiiciarius, and the first chief 
justice was Rooert de Brus. 

As the king in person is still presumed in law to 
Sit in this court, though only represented by the 
judges, it is said to have supreme authority, and the 
proceedings are supposed to be coram nobis, that is, 
before the king. 

All cHmes against the public good, though they 
do not injure any particular individual, are under the 
cognisance of this court ; and no subject can suffer 
any unlawful violence or injury against his person, 
liberty, or possessions, but a proper remedy is af- 
forded him^ here ; not only for satisfaction of damages 
sustamed, but for the punishment of the offender : 
and ttrbenever the court meets with an offence, con- 

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.trafy to the principles of justice, al^ough not com* 

plaioi^d of, it oiay punish it 

The court of King's-bench is divided into a crown 

side and a plea side; the one determining ci^minai, 

<an^ the, other civiU causes. On the crown side it 
has jurisdiction in all criminal causes, from high trea- 
son to the mcfet trivial misdemeanour, or breach of 
the peace* On the plea side, it determines all personal 
actions, commenced by bill or writ ; as actions of 
debt, upon the case, detinue, trover, ejectment, tre^ 
pass, waste, &c. against any one in the custody of 

. the marshal of the court; as every person sued here 
is supposed to be in law. The court consists of a 
lord chief justice^ who takes precedence next to the 
lord chancellor, and of three puisne justices, or 

About the middle of the hall, on the right hand 
Bide, is the court of Common-pleas, the next in se- 
niority. Originally, the Communia placita followed 
the king's court wheresoever it happened to be; but 
this being found a great inconvenience, it was reme- 
died by tlie tyventy-second article of Magna Charta; 
which provides, that the Common-pleas shall not 
follow the court, but be held in some certain place ; 
and Westminster-hall, as being in the principal 
palace of our kings, was the place appointed. The 
first chief justice was Gilbert de Preston, appointed 
in 123J. 

M\ civil causes, as well real or persona^ are, or 
formerly were, tried in this court, according to the 
strict law of the land. In personal and mixed actions, 
it has a concurrent jurisdiction with the King^s- 
bench, but has no cognizance of pleas of the crown. 
The actions belonging to the court of Common-pleas 
come thither by original, as arrests and outlawries ; 
or by priyil^e or attachment, for or against privileged 
nersQns ; or out of inferior courts, not of record. Like 
9 the 

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IXmW)^ ^St> ITB ENViaOKS. 445 

the Kiiig's Bench it id composed of a Lord Chief 
Justice and three other judges; but no person can 
plead, here,, except atNisi Prius, until he has been , 
called up to the degree of a Serjeant at law. 

On entering the hall, at the great north gate, there 
are: stairs on each side : those on the right hand lead 
to the court of Exchequer ; and those on the left, to 
the office where the revenue is paid in, called the 
Receipt of the Exchequer. 

The couit of Exhequer is so called from a che- 
quered cloth, which anciently covered the table 
where the judges or chief officers sat. This court 
was first established by William the Conqueror^ for 
the trial of all causes relating to the revenues of the 
crown; itsniodel being taken from a like court esta- 
blished in Normandy, long before that time. An- 
ciently, its authority was so great, that it was held iii 
the king's palace, and the acts of it were not to be 
examined or controuled in any other of the king's 
courts; but at present, it is the last of the four courts 
at Westminster. Originally, a certain number of 
lords spiritual and temporal sat as judges; but the 
present judges of this court are, the Lord Chief Ba- 
ron of the Exchequer, and three other judges, called 
Barons of the Exchequer. There is also one called 
the Cursitor Baron, before whom the sheriffs are 
sworn into their office;, but he does not sit upon the 
bench. If any case should appear so difficult that 
the judges are divided in their opinion, the vote of 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer finally determines 
the matter. 

To the south of Westminster-hall is that part of 
the old palace which, was used for the meetings of 
the peers, and thence called the House of Lords. But 
since the late union of Great Britain and Ireland, the 
spacious rocMn, called theCourt of Requests, has been 
Atted up for that purpose ; and the tapestry hangings^ 


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«nd furaitiire of the fonaer Houteof JmA faatfe 
|)eeq removed hither. 

The outside of tl^e south end of this loom diows 
the great antiquity of the l>uildiBg« having ia it two 
great round iichesi with aig^ oiouldiags, our most 
imcieot species of architecture. This court took its 
name from being that wher^fi a}l sails made to th^ 
king by ly^y ^^ petition were h^ffd tad ended ; and 
it was also called the Poor Mm% Courts because 
there he coydd have , fight without being piit to 
expense* ., . ' 

The present House of (jords does ilot oecupjr^i^ 
whole of the Court of lUquelstbt ikatt'of the berd) 
end being formed intoailobby^ i^ which the torn- 
mons pa3s to the upper hous^ ; tbi height is aisi> 
greatly reduced by an elevated floor of wbdd dvitf 
the original stone pavement. Th6 fitting up of the 
toora is nearly similar to that of the old one. Th« 
^jiesign of the fine old tapestry with which it is hung 
was drawn by Cornelius Vroom, and the taptetry was 
executed by Francis Spieridg. Vroam had a bun- 
dred pieces of gold for his lalx>ur: the tapestry itself 
cost one thousand six hundred and twenty ^gbt 
pounds. It represents the defeat of the Spanish 
armada in loSS, and was bespoke by the Earl of 
Nottingham, Lord High Admiral, and commander in 
chief in the engagement The earl sold it to James 
I. but it was not put up till the year I6i50, two years 
after the extinction of monapchy, when the Home of 
Lords was used as a committe-room by theCommons* 
Before it was put up in its present situation it was 
cleaned and is now judiciouidy set off by hrge frames 
of brow^ stained wood,, that divide k into four oom- 
partmeiits, respectively containing th6 several p^^ 
tiopsL^jof .the story, vi2. 1 • The fint- apfMctrance of 
t^^pWish fleet. 3. The sevclral forma in which it 
lay at q^^erent times on our coasts. 2^ The place 
» .. ana 

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waASefSMMon of it when engaged wtdi the Enghrii 
BeefL JloBtd huntt^, ils .departure. 

The head» oCithe sntal heraesi who qomaande^ 
on tiwik ^ofidua As^y farm a matchlefls- bordilr vound 
llie < wQrib^ laaiinadiig peBterily . tOi emukte their lUiUi* 

At<tfae upper «8ui ;of .th^ rmoat Ib die diione, on 
whichitbekjHig i%Beiited,6B partiiicutaroaeaaons^ in him 
lolbeSiiiMdLiimccotaiim his bead, and adonxd withr 
^;tlke eutgm of maj^HBtyi (i)te itheirighft band oil 
the throne is a seat for the Prince of Waks; on thd 
fait iaiaootfaerfion die msxt pciBOiiof the npfyai ikmiiy ; 
aiubbehindi the^thoone are places for the yoiuigpMi9 
iirbo JuvreoKl/nretes in the lH»Hdev ^ ' 

. JBbBdatfaf'tfaediroiievOnftheking^s right hand wt^ 
the^teaita of Ihe two archbidldps, anda Jsttiie beloir 
thctnfth^'hincb of bishops^ Aifore the ihmiteai^ 
thfee broad asateacreas. thetroom^ on which me seatedl 
tjie-^d^gnilancs of the ItM, On the fimt of tbcM 
Heanest the thioiie site Aleiloid i^hancellor, or Itaepef 
oPthe gTMi seat, who^. bye hk office^ is speaker of thia> 
house of lords :. on the 6dier two sit the lord daaUst 
jpstibefitlvb master of therolls^ and the othen judges, 
Ti^bcikMbild oidcasitinally to be oonsuified in pointEUof 
laiB. wfVh^ bfeoches. l6nthe> lordd are coridred with 
Mdvkitbi4iariidUiiiir& isi a; bairia,cio8s the house at the 
eiMbioppiMlfe (hpKthethroisel^ Without the bar sits 
tke; kiiif Jinpti gentlemati usfaer^ called the Black 
liadlliiiMmmUpQk '^mnA he caortei in his hand* 
VDd(Mdi)qa.isai^oiDanlu^er who waitsattbe inside 
of'liv^tei'; aocrier #ithour>»aad aserjeantat maoe, 
whoubvtiySiatHidsaAoUird ohancellor, ^ 

When the^eing A present with the crowD on his 
head; thelorife sit uncovened^ and the judges stand 
till his majesty gives them leave to sit. In the king's 
absenpe. dbe brds, at their enlraoce, do reverence to 
tlie. throne^* aadoaU who enter the presence ch^m* 


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448 Hisamra ARo sratvcnr ot 

ber. The judges, ii^ the king's aiisteoev ttHut liot he 
covered till the lord^cfaanc^tkM- or keeper: eognifieB to 
themtfaattbe lords permit themso^tobe.* . . 

The <kiiig usually goes in state to the liouiBe of 
Lords on the first and last days of the Sessions, when 
he opens or closes the parliament with a speech iiroiB' 
the throne ; and he ako goes octesionally during the 
session to pass such bills as require dispatch.: but 
either of these parts of the royal ofitoe-mi^/be ex-* commissioners specially autbmzed- for 
that purpose. 

: On his majesty's arrival at the House of Loids^ be 
tntMB a . room adjoining to it, called the iiViiice^ 
Chamber, where he puts oA iiis robes and crown, and 
from thence is conducted into the house by the lord 
chamberhun, where all the lords are dressed in their 
scarlet robes ; and his majesty, being seated on the 
throne, sends for the commons by the 'gentleman 
usher, of the Black Rod, When the commons appear, 
his majesty's speech is read ioy the lord chancellor to. 
this grand united assembly; after which his migesty 
return^ ia the same state as he came.: 

The House of Lords, in conjunction^^ thelung 
and commons, have the power not only of Miking 
and repeaUng laWs, but of constitutinf; the sttfueme 
judictri;ure of the kingdom ; the IchxIb htse' 

bled take cognissance of treasons aad lilUb crifliea 
committed by the peers and others ; try JMIpho am 
impeached by the commons ; and acquit or MMtaM 
without taking an oath, only laying tlieir jsghi iMHid 
upon their breast, and sayings Ouiuy^ or Not ^wMty^ 
upon mif honour. They feoeire ideate from ful 
other courts, and even sometimes feveMe^he decrees 
of chancery ; and from this highest tribunal hes no 

All the lords spiritual and temporal have the pecu^ 
liar privilege of appointing proxies to vote in. their 


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t0MD6n AKD Its tVTIEOVS 44f 

itead^ when (torn «ckne88 or any other cause, they 
caoaot conveoieatly appear ; but duck as would 
make proxies ace obliged, at the beginning of every 
j^liameoty to eitter tfaeoi in person* Each peer has 
also a right, by leave of the house, when a vote passes 
contrary to his aentimeots, to enter his dissentxin 
the journals of the house, widi the reasons for such 
dissent, which his usually stiled his pmtest. 

The lords give thar suffrages or votes, beginfiing 
at the puisne, or k>west baron, and theii proceeding 
in a regular series, every one answering apart, content j 
or not content. If the affirmatives and negatives are 
equal, it pass^ in the negative, the speaker not 
being allowed a voice, unless he be a peer of the realm. 

Adjoining to the south east angle of Westminster 
Hall is a building called St. StefHien's Chapel, frcmi 
having been foimerly dedicated to that saint. In the 
year 1347, it was rebuilt in a magnificent manner by 
King Edward IIL who converted it into a collegiate 
church : but on its suppression in the reignof fidward 
VL it was adapted for the assembly of Uie represent * 
. tatives of the commons of England ; for which pur- 
pose it has been used from that time to the present, 
and is now- generally known by the name of the 
House of Commons. 

This is a spacious room, wainscoted to the ceiling, 
from the center of which hangs a very handsome 
branch • It is large enough to hold six hundred per* 
SOBS ; and about it are very commodious apartments. 
The benches for the members gradually ascend one 
i^bove another, and are covered with green cloth: th^ 
floor is matted, and round the house are galleries 
supported by slender iron pillars adorned with~Co<* 
rinthian capitals and sconces, in which strangers ara 
often permitte;d to sit and hear the debates. 

The chair in which the speaker sits is at the upper 
^end of the room; it is ornamented behind with 

vox,. III. M'm m Corinthian 

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Corinthian c6luiniis, and over it are the king's anm 
carved, and placed on a pediment. Before the 
speaker is atable, at which the clerk and his assistant 
^t near him on each hand, just below the chair ; and 
on either side the room, as well below as in the gal- 
leries, the members are placed promiscuously. 

The speaker and clerks always wear gowns in the 
house, as the professors of the law do in term time ; 
but no other of the members ever wear robes, except 
the first day of every new parliament, when the 
four representatives^ for the city of London are dress- 
ed in scarlet gowns, and sit all together on the right 
hand of the chair next the. speaker. 
. The House of Commons have an equal share with 
that of the Lords in making laws ; nor can any be 
made without the consent of the Commons, who are 
the guardians of the liberties of the people: and as 
they are the grand inquest of the nation, they have a 
power to impeach the greatest lords in the kingdom, 
both spiritual and temporal. 

The west front of this ancient building, with its 
beautiful Gothic window, is still to be seen in as-* 
ceudingthe stairs to the Couit of Requests : it con- 
sists of the sharp pointed species of Gothic. Be- 
tween it and the lobby of the house is a small vesti- 
bule of the same sort of work, and of great elegance. 
At each end is a gothic door, and one in the middle, 
which is the passage into the lobby. On the south 
side of the outer wall of the chapel, appear the 
marks of some large Gothic windows, with abutments 
between, and beneath, some smaller windows, oncei 
of use to light an under chapel. 

The undercroft or basement chapel has been a 
most beautiful building ; a great part of which is still 
preserved. It consists of five divisions, made by 
clusters of columns supporting the groins, in which 
are bosses, with rich religious basso relie\'os, of simple 


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ud raaaey forms, well calculated to sustain, and give 
a pleasing introduction to the light and refined ele- 
gance of the profuse enrichments in the chapel above- 
A part of jt IS the present passage from Palace-yard 
to Westminster-hall. 

One side of the cloister is entirely preserved, by 
being found convenient as a passage; the roof is 
Gothic workmanship, so elegaut as to surpass the 
beautiful roof of Henry's Vll chapel. 

A gallery runs over each side of the cloister, from ' 
one part of which is a flight of stairs leading to ^ 
very ancient square tower of stone, standing almost 
close to the side of Westminster-hall, which proba- 
bly was a belfry, to hold the bells that roused the 
members of the chapel to prayers. 

Close to Waghom's Coffee House in Old Palace 
Yard, in the crypt beneath the old House of Lords, 
is the vault or cellar, in which the conspirators of 
l60d lodged the gunpowder, designed to annihilate, 
at one blow, the three estates of the realm. 

Adjoining to the house of Lords is the Prince s 
Chamber, where the king is robed when he com^ 
in state to the parliament. This apartment is bung 
all round with tapestry. The subject of the com- 
partment on the west side is the birth of Queen "^ 
Elizabeth. Anne Boleyn is in a grand bed, with 
hangings and appropriate decorations, receiving cor-* 
dials from her attendants, some others of whom are 
employed in taking care of the royal infent. On the 
right' is Henry VliL in regal state, surrounded 
by bis nobles and guards, giving his orders on this 
important occasion. The remainder of the cgni- 
partnients, except one which contains a rural sub^ 
ject, is made up with the different occurrences 
attendant on a battle, and total discomfiture of one 


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On the other side is the Fiainted Chamber, which 
16 at present used for the occasional conferences be- 
twe^i the two houses of parliament. It is a loDg, 
lofly room, enlightened by windows of the ancient 
simple God^ic, and is aUo hung with some beautiful 
ancient tapestry, in six different compartments, re- 
presenting some of the principal events in the siege 
of Troy- From the circumstance of part of the 
history of that cdebrated siege being wanting, it is 
presumed that it does not, at present, occupy its ori- 
ginal situation > which fhom tl^e height of toe hang* 
ings agreeing with that of the walls of the great hall, 
from the pavement to the sills oi the windows, is 
supposed to haye be^i there; and this conjecture is, 
in some degree, corroborated by an ob9ervati<Hi in 
Stow's Survey (p. 470. Edit, 1603), who, qtieaking 
of a royal feast, given by Henry VIL on Twelfth-day, 
in thie ninth year of his reign, to the lord mayor, aN 
dermen, and commoners of London, says, ^* And after 
dinner, dubbing the maior knight, caused him, wi^ 
his brethren, to stay and behold the disguisings, and 
other disports, in the night following shewed in the 
great hall, t0hich was richfy hanged wiik armfr/' This 
room is said to have been Edward the C<»ifes8or'a 
bedchamber ; whiJe others assert, that it was erected 
by St. Thomas a i3ecket; but neither of tbeae asser- 
tions appear to rest on any solid foundation: it is, 
howeyer, certain, that it waa included in the andent 
palace of Westminster, It was in this room' that the 
warrant for the execution of Charles I. was signed ; 
and here was held that celebtoted conference between 
the Lords and Commons, which, though ineffectual 
Ht the tin^e, was followed by the glorious Reyo^ 

On the south side of Westminster Abbey is West* 

lOinster^school, or college, founded by Queen Eliza- 

\ beth. 

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bcth, in tiie year 1590^ for the educntinn of forty 
boys, who, have been ever since called the Queen 's^ 
or King's schoian^ as the case happens to be. 'i hid 
school, since its establishmait, has been rendered ope 
of the most considerable in the kingdom ; it having, 
for several years p^t, been likewise the place of edu« 
cation for many of the sons of the nobility and gen- 
try, for the acconunodation of whom there are sevei^al 
boarding-houses in the neighbourhood. 

Out of the scholars on the foundation, a certaiu 
aumber of them, when properly qualified, are sent 
to the UniverBities, via. to Trinity College, in 1 am- 
bridge, ttid to Christ Church, in Oxford, where they 
have a very competent maintenance from the founda-^ 
tien ; the former till they are fit for the ministry ; the 
latter for life. The scholars have each a black gown 
every year; and there are four of them that are dis- 
tinguished by the name of Lords Scholars, who wear 
purple gowns, and receive an annual stipend from 
the treasurer of the college, out of certain rents, set- 
tled for that purpose, by John. Williams, D*D. Lord- 
keeper of the Great Seal, and Archbishop of York* 
This prelate was also a great benefactor to the 
library of this college, which is well furnished with a 
good collectiw of books, and is open every term. 

There appears to have been a school here from the 
first foundation of the Abbey. Ingulphus, Abbot of 
Crowland, speaks of his having been educated at it; 
and of the disputations he had with the queen of the 
Confessor, and of the presents she made him, in mo- 
ney, in hi^ boyish days* 

in St Margaret's parish are n^any charitable founda^^ 
tions, by different persons, for the relief of the poor. 
Among these, near TothilUfields, is the Grey- coat 
Hospital, founded by tetters patent, in the year 
l70^Yf or seveaiy boys,and forty girb, who are main- 

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tained widi ail necessaried, and put out to diiSewnf 
trades, according to their abilities. 

Here is also another charitable (oundation, called 
the Green- CO AT Hospital, for the relief of poor 
fatherless children of this parish, established by King 
Charles I. in the year 1653, tvho endowed it with 
fifty pounds per annum, which is paid out of the 
Treasury. This hospital was rebuilt at the charge of 
Dr. Busby, and Charles Twitty, Esq. in the year 

, Near the Green-coat Hospital, by Tothill-fields, is 
a bridewell, or house of correction, for such as beg, 
live idly, or lead loose lives, in this city or its liber- 
ties, it is also a jail for criminals, who comoiit of- 
fences within the said city and liberties; and was so 
made by act of parliament, in the reign of Queen 

Lady Ann Dacres Alms-houses, called £manuel- 
College, were founded by her, on the 17th of De- 
cember, anno 1601, for ten pix>r men and ten poor 
women (each of whom has liberty to bring up one 
, poor chiki), according to the settlement) for seven- 
teen of St. Margaret's parish, one of Hayes, and two 
of the parish of Chelsea ; though over the door it is 
said to-be for sixteen of St. Margareti2s palish, two 
of Hayes, and two of Chelsea. She gave one hun- 
dred pounds per annum, issuing out of the manor of 
Bramsburton, in the county of York, until the ex- 
piration of a lease of one hundred and ninety •'nine 
y^ars; and afterwards, the whole manor (said to be 
worth six hundred pounds per annum), is to^accruct 
to augment this foundation. The one hundred pounds 
is paid out of the chamber of London, and is under 
the care and inspection of the lord mayor and court 
of aldennen. No person that is wicked, or cannot 
say the creed and ten ootnmandments in English, 


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«>r umfer fifty years of age, or who has inhabited less 
than three years in one of the said respective parishes, 
to be admitted into this hospital. 

South of Westminster Abbey stands the parochial 
church of St. John the Evangelist. 

The parish of St. Margaret being greatly increased 
in the number of houses and inhabitants, it was 
judged necessary to erect one of the tifty new 
churches within it. This church being finished, was 
dedicated to St. John the Evangelijt; a parish was 
taken outof St.Margaret's,and the parliament granted 
the sum of two thousand five hundred pounds, to be 
laid out in the purchase of lands, tenements, &c. for 
the maintenance of the rector ; but, besides the profitsr 
arising from this purchase, it was also enacted, That, 
as a farther provision for the rector, the sum of one 
hundred and twenty-five pouncjs should be annually 
raised, by an equal pound rate upon the inhabi- 

This church was begun in 1731, and finished in 
1738, and is remarkable only for having sunk while 
it was building, which occasioned an alteration, in 
the plan. On the north and south sides are magnifi- 
cent porticos, supported by vast stone pillars, as is 
also the roof of the church. At each of the 
four corners is a beautiful stone tower and pin- 
nacle: these additions were erected, that the whole 
might sink equally, and owe their magnitude to 
the same cause. The parts of this building are" 
held together by iron bars, which cross even the 

The advowson of this church is in the Dean and 
Chapter of Westminster: and to prevent this rectory 
being held in commendam, all licenses and dispen- 
sations for holding iit are, by act of parliament, de- 
clarefl null and void. 


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Beyond this church is the aocient Hone-t&nyf 
between Westminster and Lambeth, which was sup« 
pressed on the building of Westminster-bridge ; and 
a sum of three thousand pounds settled on the 
Archbishops of Canterbury, who were the pro- 
prietors of this ferry, in lieu of the profits arising 
from it. 

CHAP xxxvn 

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tOtSiDOU XHJ> 1X9 tiNTlttOl^Sk . 4i7 


The Liberty of the Duchy of Luncaster.^^^Sl. Cleinent 
Danes. -^Outer Temple.*^Essex'house.*^Clement*S'tnn . 
tnarket. — Picketi-street. — ArfrndeC-^house.^'^'^ Craven-^ 
bouse. — Craven-buifdings.''^St. Mary'le-Slrand. — The 
Mojf'pole. — Somerset ^nouse.-^The Savoy .-^Si, Mary- 
le-Savoy. — Eixeter- Exchange. 

We shall begin the Survey of th€ Liberties of 
Westminster at Temple-bar, on the outsicle of which ^ 
begins the liberty of the Duchy of Lancaster, which 
was granted to reter of Savoy, from whom it passed 
to the House of Lancaster, by Henry liL in the 
thirtieth year of his reign, in the following words, 
^^ All those houses upon the Tliames, which sOme 
time pertained to Brian de Insula, or Lisle, without 
the walls of the city of Lofidon, in the way or street 
called the Strand, to hold to hin^ and to his heirs,yield- 
ing yearly in the Exchequer, at the feast of St, Mi- 
chael, the Archangel, three barbed arrows, for all scr* 
vices. Dated at Reding, &c." 

The extent of this liberty includes all the buildings 
between the south side of the Strand and theThameSf 
from Temple-bar to the east side of Cecil-street, On 
the north side of the Strand, it reaches from Temple-* 
bar. to where, the May-pole stood; that is, near the 
west end of the church of St. Mary-le-Strand, and 
returns from thence through Holy well-street, includ- 
ing all Butcher-row, which has been lately pulled 
down, to Temple-bar. Beyond the May- pole, the 
liberty begins again in Catharine-street, at the Foun- 
tain-tavern, and reaches from thence into the Stranii^ 
as far as Exeter change ; then turning up Burleigh- 

voL» iir* Nnn street, 

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Street, it runs to within four houses of Exeter-stceet, 
whence it passes through the buildings to the Foun- 

Anciently this spot was occupied by the palaces 
of the chief nobiHty, the names of which are still 
preserved in the streets, &c. built on the sites of 
these mansions, and 4he gardens belonging to them. 
Hence we find here, Ejssex-street, DevereuxHWirt, 
Arundel-street, Norfolk-street, Howard-street, Sur- 
rfey-street, Burleigii-slreet, Exeter-street, Craven- 
buildings, Drury-lane, and several other names of 
titles, or families of distinction. 

At a small distance from Temple-bar, on the noitb 
eride of the Strand, is situated the parish-church of 
St. Clement Danes. 

The first part of this name is derived from its de- 
dication to St. Clement, a disciple of St. Peter, the 
Apostle^ but the latter part has beea always an ob- 
ject of conjecture. Baker says, it derived tiiiis name 
from having been the placeof re-interment of Harold, 
whose brother, Hardicanute, had caused his body to 
be due up and thrown into the Thames, where it was 
ftmnd by a fisherman, who " buried it in the church- 
yard of St. Clement, without Temple-bar; Me» called 
the Church of the Danes.^* WiHiam of Malmesbury 
lUentions la church here, before the arrival of the 
Danes, which, he says, they burnt, together with 
the monks and abbot, and that they continued their 
flavage and sacrilegious fury throughout the land. 
He men gofes on, ** Desirous, at length, to return to 
Denmark, they were about to embark, when they 
/Were, by the just judgment of God, all slain at Lon. 
don, in a place which has since been called the 
Church of the Danes." 1'here is also another reason 
given for the denomination of this church, namely, 
that when most of the Danes were driven out of this 
kingdom, thoso few that remained, being married to 
• . English 

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English women, were obliged to live between the 
Isle of Tborney (Westminster), and Caer Lud (Lud- 
gate), where they built a synagogue, which was o/^ 
ierwards consecrated, and called, ^^ Ecdesia Cte« 
mentis Danorum." This is the account given by 
Fleetwood, the antiquary. Recorder of London, to 
the Lord-treasurer, Burghley, who resided in this 

The old church was taken down in 1680, and the 
present structure erected in 1682, under the direc- 
tion of Sir Christopher Wren; but the steeple was ' 
not added to it for some years. 

It is a very handsome structure, built entirely of 
stone. The body of it is enlightened by two series 
of windows; the luwer plain, btit the upper well or- 
namented ; and the terminition is by an attic^ whose 
pilasters are crowned with vases. The entrance, on 
the south side, is by a portico, to which there is an 
ascent of a few steps ; the portico is covered with a 
dome, supported by Ionic columns. On each side 
the base of the steeple, in the west front, is a small 
square tower, with its dome. The steeple is carried 
to a great height in several stages; where it begins 
to diminish, the Ionic order takes place, and its en- 
tablature supports vases. The next stage is of the 
Corinthian order, and above that stands the Compo* 
site, supporting a don^e, which is crowned with a 
snaaller one, from whence rises the ball and its vane. 
This church is a rectory, the patronage of which 
was anciently in the Knights Templars; but, after 
passing through several hands, it at length came to 
the Earls of Exeter, in whdm it still remains. The 
length of this church is ninety-six feet, its breadth 
sixty-three, and its height, to the roof, forty-eight 
feet; and the altitude of the steeple is abo^t one 
hundred and forty feet. , 


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At the dissolution of the order of Knights Tcin- 
plars, the advowson of this church, together with 
certain lands, and fiv^ messuage in this parish, were 
conferred upon the prior and canons regular of the 
church of the Holy Sepulchre; which lands and 
messuages were probably that part of the Temple, 
called the Outer; for, in the year 1:394, the prior and 
canons liaving disposed of them to Walter, Bish6p 
Of Exeter, he erected a stately edifice upon that site, 
as a city mansion for himself and his successors, 
which he denominated Exeter House. This build- 
ing being alienated some time after, it came to the 
noble families of Paget and Leicester, and, at last, to 
that of Essex. Now, that this building was within 
the bounds of the Temple, is evident from the ac- 
count given by Stow, pf Ihe extent of that establish- 
ment. He says, " It contained all that space of 
ground, from the White friars, eastward, unto Essex 
Houscj, without Temple-bar; yea, and a part of that 
too. As appears by the first grant thereof to Sir Will. 
Paget, Knt. Secretary of State to Henry VI II. Pat. 2. 
Edw. VI.'' 

It was from this house that the Earl of E^ex, the 
imprudent favourite of Elizabeth, made a desperate 
«aliy,'in hopes of exciting the city to arm against their 
sovereign ; which proving ineffectual, he was com- 
pelled to return, 'and, after sustaining a short 
siege, during which a piece of artillerj^ was placed 
on the tower of St. Clement's church, to batter 
his strong hold, he surrendered, and being uken 
to the Tower, was shortly after tried and exe- 
cuted. ' 

Behind St. dementis church, on the north side of 
Wych street, is an inn of chancery, belonging to the 
Inner Temple, and called, from its situation, Cle* 


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The antiquity of this inn cannot be ascertained^ 
but it is mentioned in a book of entries, dated 'in 
the 19th of Edward IV. Could Shakespeare's au- 
thority on the subject of dates be relied on, it must 
have been much older than this; for in the second 
part of his historical play of ilenry IV. he makes 
one of his justices a member of that society. " He 
must to the inns of court I was of Clement's once 
myself, where they will talk of mad Shallow still.*' 
In the 2nd of Henry VII. Sir John Cantlow demised 
this inn to John and William Elyot, probably in trust 
for the students; and in 1538, it descended to Sir 
William Holies, then lord mayor, and froM him to the 
Earl of Clare, in who^e heirs it still continues. 

There is a tradition, that an ann for the reception 
of pilgrims and penitents, who came to St. Clement's 
Well, anciently stood upon this spot, and that a reli- 
gious house was, in process of time, established, to 
which the foundation of the church is attributed. 
Whatever may have been the reputed sanctity or 
virtue of the waters of this well, it is recorded by 
Fitzstepben as being a place of great resort in his 
tinie. He says, " There are, near London, on the 
north side, special wells in the suburbs^ sweet, 
wholesome, and clear; among which, Eloly-well, 
Clerk's-well, and Clement's-well, are most famous, 
and frequented by scholars and youths of the city, 
in summer evenings, when they walk forth to take 
the air." This well, which is still in use, is situated 
in Clement's-Iane, and has a pump erected over*it; ' 
but its medicinal fame, in the cure of cutaneous dis« 
eases, is lost. 

Adjoining to Clement's-inn, on the west, is ano- 
ther inn of chancery, called the New-inn. It was 
founded about the year 1 485, for the reception of the 
students of an ancient inn, formerly situated at the 
south'-east corner of Seaco?iHane, in Fleet-l^ne, 


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where part of the stonewalls are still remaining. 
This inn is an appendage to the Middle Temple. 
When the Strand-inn was destroyed by the Protector 
Somerset, the students removed hither. 

Opposite to the New-inn, on the south side of 
Wych-street, is LionVinn, which is also a house of 
chancery, belonging to the Inner Temple. It was 
anciently a common inn, having the sign of the 
Lion, and is said to have been in th6 possession of 
the students and practitioners .of the law, ever since 
the year 14S0. 

At the north-east corner of Clement's-inn, is a 
passage which leads into Clare-market. 

' This market receives its name from John, Earl of 
Clare, by whom it was built and opened, in the year 
1 656. It contains two market-houses, and is as well 
supplied with all sorts of provisions, as most mar- 
kets in or near London. 

Before proceeding westward in the survey, we 
must notice the commencement of the extensive plan 
for the improvement of this entrance into the city of 
London, submitted to thecourt of common-council, by 
a committee appointed for that purpose, in December, 
1793, by taking down the whole of Butcher-row, and 
throwing the fronts of the new houses back in a line 
with the north side of Wychstreet. This new range 
of buildings has been called Pickett-stieet,iD honour 
of the projector of this improvement; to complete 
which, according to his design, and the recom- 
mendation of /the committee, the houses on the 
south side of the Strand, from Tlianet-place to Mil- 
tbrd-lane, must be taken down, and a street fifty feet 
wide, be formed on the south side of St. Clement s 

Westward from Essex House stood the Bishop 
of Bath's inn, which in the reign of Edward' VI. 
was severed from the bishoprick a(id granted to 


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Lord Thomas Seymour, high adn^iral, wheo it re- 
ceived the name of Seymour place. It came afters- 
wards into the possession of Thomas Howard, EsltI 
of AVundel, who, on the attainture of the high admi- 
ral, purchased it of Edward VL with several other 
messuages in the parish for forty one pounds six shiU 
lings and eight pence, when its appellation was 
changed to that of Arundel-house. Though this build- 
ding covered great extent of ground, it appears from 
Thane's views of it to have been low and mean. 
When it was pulled down and the four streets bear- 
ing the family name and titles, were erected on its 
site, there was a design to build a mansion house for 
the family out of the accumulated rents, on thut part , 
of the gardens next to the river, and an act of par- 
liament was obtained for that purpose, but the plan 
was never executed. 

At the west end of Wych Street, and the south 
end of Drury-lane stood the ancient mansion of the 
noble families of Drury and Craven, and abo that of 
the Queen of Bohemia, the unfortunate daughter of 
James I. The remains of the latter have been lately 
taken down to make way for a new Equestrian 
Theatre, under the direction of Mr. Astley. 

Drury-house was built, according to Pennant, by 
Sir William Drury, a most able commander in the 
Irish wars, who unfortunately fell in a duel with Sir 
John Boroughs, in a foolish quarrel about prece- 
dency. During the time of the fatal discontents of 
the favourite l&ex, it was the place where his im- 
prudent advisers resolved on such counseb as termi- 
nated in the destruction of him and his adherents. 
This house afterwards came into possession of the 
heroic William, Lord Craven, who, in 1673, was 
created Earl Craven. Part of it i^ now a public 
house, and on the site of another part is erected a 
TOUFt called Craven Buildings, at the upper end of 


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which is a portrait of this hero in armour, with a 
truncheon in his hand, mounted on a white hprse. 
On each side is an earl's and a baron's coronet, iCbd 
the initials W. C. It was supposed that this illustrious 
nobleman aspired to the hand of his royal neighbour, 
whose battles he had fought^ and that he succeeded 
and married her privately. This conjecture was not 
a little strengthened some years ago, when on digging 
in the stable yard behind both houses, a subterranean 
passage was discovered communicating between 

Opposite to the end of Little Drury lane is situated 
the parish church of St. Mary-le-strand, commonly 
called the New Church in the Strand. 

The original church belonging to this {parish is 
mentioned so early as the year 1222, when it was 
named St. Mary and the Innocents of the Strand; 
but how long it stood before that time is uncertain. 
It was then situated on the south side of the Strand 
nearly opposite the present edifice, but was taken 
down in 1549, by order of Edward Sejmour, Duke 
of Somerset ; which depriving the parishioners of a 
place of worship, they joined themselves to the 
church of St. Clement Dunes, and afterwards to that 
of St. John Baptist in the Savoy, where they conti* 
nued till the year 1723. At length the act having 
passed for erecting the fifty new churches witliinthe 
bills of mortality, one was appointed for this parish, 
and the firststone laid on the 2Jth of February, 1714. 
It was finished in three years and a half, though it 
was not consecrated till the first of January, 1723, 
when, instead of its ancient name, it was called St. 
Mary-le-Strand. It was the first built of the fifty 
new churches. 

This is a very superb, though not a very exten- 
sive edifice: it is massy, without the appearance of 
being heavy, and formed to stand. for ages. At the 
3 entrance 

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•ntraQce oo the w^t end 19 ao asoeQt by a flight ef 
steps cut in the sweep of a circle. These lead to s, 
circular portico of Ionic columns covered with 1^ 
doaiC) which is crowned with m elegant vase. The 
columns are continued along the body of the churchi 
with pilasters of the same order at the coFners, and 
in the intercoluminations a^^ niches handsomely or- 
namented. Over the dome is a pediment supported 
by Corinthian columns, which are also continued 
round the body of the structure, over those of the 
Ionic order beneath ; between which are the windows 
placed over the niches. These columns are sup- 
ported on pedestals, and have pilasters behind with 
arches sprung from them^ and the windows have an-^ 
gular and circular pediments alternately, A hand- 
some balustrade is carried round the top, and its sum* 
mit is adorned with vases. . The steeple is lig^t 
though soUd, and ornamented with Composite co-^ 
luorns and capitals. The whole building is sur^ 
rounded by a dwarf stone wall, ornamented witk 
very stroog and handsome iron mils. 

Thia church is a rectory, the patronage of which is 
if) the Bishop of Winchester. The value of the living 
is two hundred and twenty five pounds per annum, 
besides surplice fees ; of which sum one hundred 
pounds was settled by act of parliament, and e»e 
hundred and twenty five pounds is raised by a 
pound-rate upon the inhabitants in lieu of tythes. 

On the site of this churchy until its erection, stQo4 
a maypole, which on May morning, as well as on 
other days of festivity, was decorated with streamers 
and garlands of flowers, and much resorted to by 
the maidens and youths of London and Westminster: 
when taken down it was found to be one hundred 
feet in length. It was obtained by Sir Isaac Newton 
and conveyed to Wanstead Park in Essex, at that 

TOL. HI- 000 time 

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466 MistoRir AKD fiTTRvnr or 

time the seat of Sir Richard Child, afterwards Ijord 
Castlemain, where, under the direction of the Rev, 
Mr. Pound, it was placed for the erection of a teles- 
cope one hundred and twenty five feet long, the 
largest then in the world, which was given to the 
Royal Society, by Mons. Hugon, one of its members. 
Pope has immortalized this maypole in the following 
lines : 

** Amidst the area wide they took their stand. 
Where the tall Maypole once o^erlook'd the Strand: 
But now., so Anne and piety ordain ; 
A church collects the saints of Drury-Iane. 

Opposite to this church is Somerset House, which 
was originally built, about the year 1549, by the 
Duke of Somerset, uncle to Edward VI. and protec- 
tor of England, who demolished the palaces of the 
Bishopsof Chester and Worcester, and an innof chan- 
cery called Strand Inn, with the church of St. Mary 
le Strand that stood there ; and building this palace 
with the materials obtained from the church of St. 
John of Jerusalem with its tower, and the cloisters 
on the north side of St. Paul's church, together with 
the chapel and charnel-house, all of which he caused 
to be destroyed for this purpose, it, from him, obtained 
the name of Somerset House. But the duke being 
soon after attainted, it fell to the crown« In this pa- 
lace Anne of Denmark, Queen to King James L 
kept her court, whence it was called Denmark-house 
during that reign j-* but it soon after recovered the 
name of the founder. It was afterwards the resi- 
dence of Queen Catharine, dowager of King Charles 
il, and, by an adt passed in the second year of the 
leign of his majesty King George ,111. it was settled 
tipon the present queen for life; but has since been 
lexchanlged for Buckingham House. * 


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Hiis palace consisted of several courts, and h^d a 
^rden behind it situated on the bank of the Thames. 
The front next the Strand was adorned with columns 
and other decorations, and in the center was a hand* 
some gate that opened into a quadrangle. On the 
south side of this quadrangle was a piazza before the. 
great hall or guard room : beyond which were other 
courts that lay on a descent towards the garden. 
The back front next the Thames was added to it by 
King Charles 11. and was a magnificent structure of 
free-stone, with a noble piazza built by Inigo Jones. 
In this new building were the royal apartments, 
which conmianded a beautiful prospect of the river 
and the adjacent country. The garden was oma* 
mented with statues, shady walks, and a bowling- 
green : but as none of the royal family had resid^ 
there after Queen Catharine, dowager of Charles IL 
several of the officers belonging to the court were 
penBJtted to lodge in it ; and a great part of. it was 
for some time used as barracks for soldiers. 

In Somerset-yard, on the west side of th^ palace, 
were coach-houses, stables, and a guard-room for 
the use of the soldiers on duty ; the gateway to which- 
fronted Catharine-street. These coach-houses were 
afterguards used as barracks for soldiers. 

The propriety of erecting the public offices, neces- 
sarily connected with each other, on the same spot' 
badloQg been perceived by the government, when, 
in 1774, the conveniency of this old building, which 
already belonged to the crown, pointed it out as the 
most eJigible situation for the purpose. An act of 
parliament was ther^ore obtained for embanking the 
river Thames, before Somerset House, and for build- 
ing on the ground thereof various public offices 
which were specified, together witli such others as 
His Majesty shouU think proper. 


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This noble and m^nifioent edifice, which is 
erected after a design of Sir William ChamberB, oc-* 
cupiea a space <tf five hniidred' feet in depths smd 
nearly eight hundred in width ; and is distributed 
into a large quadrMgular court, three bundled and 
forty feet long, and two hundred and tad wide, 
with a street on each side, extending parallel with 
the court, four hundred feet in length, and sixty in 
lireadth, to a spacious terrace, fifty feet in ^idtn, on 
the banks of the Thames, raised fifty feet above the 
bed of the river, and occupying the whole length of 
the building. The streets on the sides aie not, how- 
ever, yet completed. 

The Strand firont of the building is composed of a 
rustic basement, suppcxrting Corinthian columns, 
crowtied in the center with an attic, and at the ex* 
tuemities with a balustrade. 

The basement consists of nine large arches, the 
three middle ones open, and forming the entrance to 
the quadrangle ; and the three at eaoi end, filled wilb 
windows of the Doric order, adorned witii pilasters, 
entablatures, and pediments. The key^-stones of the 
arches are finely carved in alto relievo, with nine co- 
lossal masks, representing Ocean, and the eight chief 
rivers of Great Britain, viz. Thames, Humber, Mer- 
sey, and Dee, on the right side of Ocean, which is 
in the center, and, on the left side, Medway, Tweed, 
Tyne, and Severn, all decorated with suitable em- 

The G>rinthian order, above the basement, con- 
sists of ten columns on pedestals, with regular enta- 
blatures, correctly executed, and in the most ap- 
proved atyle of antiquity. Two floors arc compie- 
hended in this order, a princifpal and a mezzsnine; 
the windows of the latter being only surrounded with 
architraves, while those of the pn*«(icipal floor have a 


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faailuBtnde before Ihem, and are ornamented with 
JoQic pilasters, entablatures, and pediments. ' The 
three central windows have likewise large tablets^ 
<:overi«g psrt of tiie atchitrave and frieze ; on which 
are tepresented, in basso relievo, medallions of the 
•King, Queen, md Prince of Wales^ supported by 
lioos, and^adimied respectively with garlands of lau« 
rel, of myrde, and of oak. 

The attic, which extends over three interoolunuii«- 
ations, and distinguishes the center of the front, is 
divid^ into three parts by four colossal statues, 
placed over the columns of the order ; the center di* 
vision being ^reserved for an inscription, and the two 
side ones having oval windows, adorned with festoons 
erf* oak and laurel. Tlie four statues represent ve- 
tienii>le oien in senatorial habits, each weaning the 
cap of liberty. In one hand they have a fasces, coia^ 
pcAed of reeds firmly bound together, emblematic of 
strength derived from unanimity ; while the other 
sustains, respectively, the scales, the mirror; the 
sword, and the bridle, symbols of Jurtice^ Tradi^ 
Valour^ and Moderation. The whole terminates 
with a group, consisting d( the arms of the British 
empire, supported on one side by the Genius of 
England, and on the other, by Fame sounding her 

The length of this front, is one hundred and thirty* 
five feet* 

♦ The three open arches, already mentioned, form 
the only entrance. They open to a spacious vesti- 
bule, uniftm^ the strecft with the back front, and serv- 
ing as the general access to the whole edifice; *but 
more particularly to the Royal Academy, and to the 
Royal and Antiquarian Societies ; the entrances to 
all which am un^er cover. 

This vestibule is decorated with columns of the 

Doric order, whose entablatures support the vaults, 

1 which 

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^hich are ornamented with wdl-chosen antiques ; 
among which the cyphers of their Majesties and the 
Prince of Wales, are judiciously intermixed* 

Over the central doors, in this vestibule, are two 
busts, executed in Portland-stone, by Mr. Wilton : 
that on the Academy-aide represents Michael Angeio 
JSociarotti, the first of artists ; that on the side of the 
learned Societies, Sir Isaac Newton, the first of phi« 

The back firont of this part of the building, which 
feces the quadrangle, is considerably wider than that 
towards the Strand, being nettr two hundred feet in 
extent ; and is composed of a corps de logis^ with 
two projecting wings. The style of decoration is, 
however, nearly the same, the principal variations 
being in the forms of the doors and windows, and in 
the use of pilasters instead of columns, except in the 
front of the wings, each of which has four columns, 
supporting an ornament composed of two sphinxes, 
with an antique altar between them, agreeably intro- 
duced to screen the chimnies from view. 

The Aiasks on the key-stones of the arches are 
intended to represent lares^ or the tutelar deities of 
the place. 

The attic is ornamented with statues of the four 
quarters of the globe. America appears armed, as 
breathing defiance: the other three are loaded with 
tributary fruits and treasure. Like the Strand front, 
the termination of the attic, on this side, is formed 
by the British arms, surrounded with sedges and sea- 
weedii, and supported by marine gods, ajrmed with 
tridents, and holding a festoon of nets filled with fish 
and other marine productions. 

The oth^r three sides of tlie quadrangle are formed 
by massy buildings of rustic worif, corresponding 
with the interior of the principal front. The center 
of the south sid^ is ornamented with an arcade of 


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four Corinthian columns, having' two pilasters on 
each side, within which the windows of the front 
are thrown a little back. On these columns rests a 
triangular pediment, in the tympanum of which is a 
basso relievo, representing the arms of the navy of 
Great Britain, supported by a sea nymph, riding on 
dea-horses, guided by tritons blowing conchs. On 
the corners of the pediment are military trophies, and 
the whole is terminated by elegant vases, placed 
above the columns. 

The east and west fronts are nearly similar, but 
less heavily ornamented. Jn the center of each of 
these fronts is a small clock tower, and in that of the 
south front a dome, 

. All round the quadrangle is a story sunk below 
the ground; in which are many of the offices sub- 
ordinate to the principal ones in the basenient and 
upper stories. . 

Directly in the front of the entrance is a bronze 
cast of the Thames, by Bacon, laying at the foot of 
a pedestal, on which is placed an elegant statue of 
his present maj^esty, also in bronze. 

The front next the Thanaes corresponds with the 
south front of the quadrangle, and is ornamented in 
the same manner. Before it is a spacious terrace, 
supported by arches, resting on the artiHcial embank- 
ment of the Thames. These arches are of massy 
rustic work; and the center one, or water-gate, is 
ornamented with a colossal mask of the Thames, in 
alto relievo. There are eleven arches on each side 
of the center one, the eighth of which, on both sides^ 
is considerably more lofty than the othere, and serves 
as a landing-place to the warehouses, under the ter- 
race. Above these landing-places, upon the balus* 
trade which runs along the terrace, are figures 
of lions couchant, larger than life, and finely exe- 


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The principal offices held in Someis^^house, are 
those of the Privy Seal and Sigset, the Navy, Navy 
Fay, Victualling, and Sick and Wounded Seaineiis' ; 
the Stamp, Tax, and Lottery ; the Hackney-coachs 
and Hawkers and Pedlars^; the Suhreyor General of 
Crown Lands; the Ducbiea of Cornwall and l^ao- 
caster; the Auditors of Imprests; the pipe, the 
Comptroller of the Pipe, and the Treasurer's Remem-* 
brancer: and when the streets on the two sides are 
finished, there will be dwelling-hou^s for the trea* 
surer, paymaster, and six commissioners of the pavy; 
three commissioners of the Victualling-office, and 
,their secretary ; a commissioner of stamps, and one 
of sick and wounded; several of whom already reside 
here. There are also commodious apartments in 
each office, for a secretary or some Confidential 
officer, and for a porter. 

The Strand front of this noble edifice is appropri* 
ated, by royal munificence, to the use of the Hoyal 
Academy, the Royal Society, ^md the Royal Anti<> 
quarian Society. 

Farther west, between the Strand and the Thames, 
is situated an ancient palace, called the Savoy. 

This place obtained its name from Peter, Earl of 
Savoy aad Richmond, who built it aboijit the year 
1$4J, and afterwards transferred it 'to the Friars of 
Moutjoy ; of whom Queen Eleanor, the wife of King 
Henry III. pui;chased it for her son, Henry, Duk^ 
of Lancaster. The duke, in 1 338, enlarged and beau* 
(ified it, at the expense of fifi^*two thousand marks; 
and so superb was it, at that time, as to exceed, in 
magnificence, every other structure in the kingdom. 

In this palace John, King of France, resided, when 
a prisoner in England, in tne year 1357) as also on 
bis return thither, in the year 1363. 

In 1381, this stately palace, with all its furniture, 
was destroyed by the Kentish rebels ; but the ground 


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LOKDOiv J^itb Vis Etmibdks. 4M 

lieVolTing to the crown, Heniy VII. be^n to reT)mlcf 
it in the manner it now appears, as an hoepitd, for 
the reception of o6e hundred distressed oll^jects. He 
says, in his will, he intended, by this foundation, 
• to doo ami execute Vl out of the VII works of 
pitie and mercy, by means 6f keping, susteynyhff> 
and mayntenyng of common hospitallis; wherein, if 
thei be duly kept, the said nede pouer people bee 
bdged, viseted m their sicknesses, refreshed with 
mete and drinke, mid, if nede be, with clothe, and 
also buried, yf thei fourtune to die within the same ; 
for lack of theim, infinite nombre of pouer nede peo- 
ple miserably daillie die, no man putting hande t)F 
belpe or remedie.'* That prince, however, not living 
to see it c^ompleted, his son, Henry Vlll. in the year 
151 1, not only granted his manor of the Savoy to 
the Bishop of Winchester, and others, executors of 
his father's will, towards finishing the hospital, but 
by his charter, dated July 5, 1513, constituted them 
a body politic and corporate, to consist of a master, 
five secular chaplains, and four regulars, in honout 
of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and St. John Bap- 
tist ; and at the same time directed, that the founda- 
tio n should be called, " The Hospital of King Henry 
VIl. late King of £ngland, of the Savoy." 

This hospital was suppressed in the reign of Ed- 
ward VL when the revenues amounted to five hun* 
dred ^nd twenty-nine pounds fifteen shillings and 
seven pence per annum; which, with all its furni- 
ture, that prince gave to the citizens of London, to- 
wards the new foundations of Bridewell and St Tho^ 
mas's Hospitals. 

Upon the demise of Edward, his sister Mary 
re-founded this hospital, and endowed it anew; 
when her ladies and maids of honour completely 
furnished it with all necessaries, at their own ex- 

vot. HI. ^PP pense^ 

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pense; but it was agaio suppressed on the accession 
of Elizabeth to the crown. 

At present, the Savoy is the property of the 
crown ; an act of resumption having passed in the 
4Ui and 5th of William and Mary. The wails of 
the old building, which was in the form of a cross, 
Are almost entire. Part of it is used as habitations 
and warehouses for private people, and part as a 
prison for deserters from the army, and oth^r mili- 
tary offenders. Here is also the ancient chapel be- 
longing to the hospital, which was originally dedi- 
cated to St,« John the }3aptist ; but when the old 
church of St. Mary-le-Strand was destroyed by the 
Protect6r Somerset, the inhabitants of that parish 
united themselves to those of the precinct of the 
Savoy ; and this chapel being consequently us^d as 
their parish church, it acquired the name of St. Mary- 

This structure being built of squared stone and 
boulder, in the Gothic style, has an aspect of great 
antiquity. Contrary to the general construction of 
^ireligious edifices, its greatest length is nortii and 
south, and the altar is placed at the north end. The 
roof is remarkably fine, being adorned with carved 
figures of the Holy Lamb, shields of arms, and other 
decorations, within elegant circular compartments. 
It was completely repaired in. the year 1721, at the 
expense of His Majesty King George L who also 
inclosed the burial-ground with a wall ; and it has 
been, repaired and beautified within a few years. 
There are many ancient monuments in this chapel^ 
some of which are very magnificent. 
, This precinct is extra-parochial, and the right of 
presentation to the chapel is in the lord high^ 
treasurer^ or the commissioners &>r executing that 
difice. . . 


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Nearly opposite to the Savoy is Exeter Exchange, 
which was originally a handsonnie building, with aa 
arcade in front, and a gallery above, with shops iu 
both; but the plan failing, the arcades were filled 
up, and it now contains two rows of dark shops, witft 
a paved passage between them. The gallery is prin- 
cipally used as lodgings for the shopkeepers; and at 
the east end is an exhibition of living subjects of na- 
tural history. This place takes its name from hav- 
ing been built upon the site of the mansion4iouse of 
the Earls of Exeter, a part of which still remains. 
On this spot formerly stood the parsonage house of' 
the parish of St. Martin ; but Sir Thomas Palmer, a 
creature of the Protector Somerset, emulating th^ 
infamous example of his patron, obtained it by conii- 
position, and began to erect a stately mansion of 
brick and timber. This afterwards came into the 
hands of the Lord Treasurer Burleigh, who finished 
it in a very magnificent manner, and adorned it with 
four square turrets. He di^^d here, in 1598; after, 
which it descended to his son, and took the name of 
Exeter House from his title. 

A little farther to the west, an the south side of 
the Straqd, Js Beaufort-buildings, where formerly 
stood the mansion-house of the Earls of Worcester. 
Speaking of this place. Pennant says, *' The Earls of 
Worcester hac^ a very large house, between Durham- 
place and the Savoy, with gardens to the water-side. 
The great Earl of Clarendon lived in it before his 
own was built,. and paid for it the extravagant rent 
of five hundred pounds a year. This was pulled 
down by their descendant, the Duke of Beaufort ; 
and the present Beaufort-buildings rose on its site* 
This had originally been the iown-house of the Bi- 
shops of Carlisle/* 


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$Mlislury Houser^Durham Bouse. — AdelpkL — Iffw JEr* 
change. — York Bnildings. — Hungerjard Market. — Si. 
'Martin in the Fields — Northumberland House. — Cha^ 

ring Cross. The Meu/s^ — Castle-sireet lAbrarv and 

School. — Admiralty Office, — Scotland-vard.^^- Ivhiie^ 

hall. — Horse Ouardit. — Tilt-yard. — Treasury. St^ 

Jameses Palace.— St. James's Park.— The Queen's Pa- 
lace. — Green Park. — Marlborough House.^-^Carlion 

; House.r^ Opera House. — Little Theatre. — Leicesfer 

. Quitting the Liberty of the Duchy of Lancaster, 
%t Cecil-street, we enter the parish of St. Martin, in 
the Fields, which, in ancient times, included the 
whole of the Liberty of Westminster; the parishes of 
St. James, St,. George, St. Anne, and St. Paul, Co- 
vent-garden, having been taken out of it at different 

Cecil-street and Salisbury-street, are built upon the 
west, wasIHirham Hp\ise,built, according toStow,by 
Thomas Hatfield, who was made Bishop of purham 
in the year 1345, and continued bishop thirty-six 
yeafs : but Pennant says it was built originally by 
Anthony de Beck, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and Bi- 
shop of Durham, in the reign of Edward L and de- 
signed by him for the town residence of h\\a and his 
^successors; and that it was rebuilt by Hatfield, in 
\3Sl. In the 26th of Henry VHL Bishop Tonstal 
conveyed this house to the king, and received in 
exchange, Coldharborough, and other bouses in 
lx)udon. About the second year of bis reign, Edward 
YI. gave Durham Hoiise to bis siste? Elizabeth, for 


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life ; Quieen Mary, however. Festered it to the see, by 
granting the ce version to the, bishop; aod) upon the 
denth of Klizabetb, Toby Mathew, the then bishop, 
afterwards Archbishop of York, entered into posses- 
sion of it, under the authority of an opinion of the 
judges, against the claim of Sir Walter Raleigh, to 
whose use it was granted by Queen Elizabeth. 

While this mansion belonged to the crown, the 
Mint was established in it, under the management 
of Sir William SharringtOn, and the influence of 
Thomas Seymour, Lord Admiral, who proposed to 
coin money enough here to accomplish his designs 
on the throne; but his.practices being detected, be 
sufiered death, It afterwards became the residence 
of John Dudley, Earl of Northumberland, who, ii| 
May, I663i caused three marriages tobe solemnised 
ID this palace, viz. his son. Lord Guildford Dudley, 
with Lady Jane Grey ; Lord Herbert, heir to the 
Earl of Pembroke, with Catharine, younger sister of 
Lady Jane ;^ and Lord Jlastings, heir to the Earl of 
Huntingdon, with his youngest daughter. Lady Ca- 
tharine D-udley, From hence he forced the reluctant 
victim, his daughter*io-law, to the Tower, there to 
be invested with the regal diguity; and, in eight 
months, his ambition led her to the nuptial bed, -the 
throne, and the scaffold. 

In 1640, it. was purchased of the see, by the Earl 
of Pembroke,. who pulletl it down, and converted it 
into a range of buildings and wharfs, which were 
called by the general name .of Durham-yard. 

These buildings having become very ruinous, three 
brothers, of the name of Adam, purchased the ground, 
and covered it with a magnificent mass of buildii^s, 
which, in honour of their fraternal partnership, was 
ealled the Adelphi, the Greek woi?d for Brothers. \\\ 
. the year 1773, the wh6le was disposed of by lottery, 
th^ sh^es in which 9old for fift^ poun(|s each. 


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The great descent to the river, that ran down Dur* 
ham-yard, is entirely removed, by these buildings 
being raised on strong ^lofty arches. Fronting the 
Thames is a most beautiful row of houses, before 
which is a spacious terrace, secured by veiy 
handsome iron rails. From this terrace is a very 
pleasing view of Blackfriars and Westminster bridges, 
with the vast expanse of water between them. At 
the east end of the terrace is a street, which commu- 
nicates with the Strand. Another street extends 
between the river and the Strand, parallel to the 
terrace, and leads into York*buildings. In this street 
is a very handsome edifice, used by the Society for 
the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and 
Commerce. At the western extremity of this street 
is another, that leads to the west end of the terrace. 
The end and central houses of the terrace are parti- 
cularly handsome, and are distinguished by being 
ornamented with pilasters and cornices of artificial 

The vaults under the houses are very extensive, 
and are converted into ranges of warehouses, coach- 
houses, and stables, with proper subteiraneous com- 
munications between, enlightened by wells, in the 
back yards of the houses above. From the old en- 
trance to Durham-yard is a wide passage for car- 
riages, under the houses, down to these warehouses, 
^nd tt) a spacious wharf below the terrace; and there 
is another entrance that opens to the street, on the 
side next York-buildings. The summits of the arches, 
fronting the river, are adapted as counting-houses for 
the warehouses below, or as kitchens to the houses 

Between Durbaiq House and the Strand, was the 
old stabling belonging to the mansion, which being* 
a great evesore in so conspicuous a situation, Robert 
}|j4)rl of o^^lisbury, Lord High Treasurer to James I, 


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purchased them, and, under the audioes of his royal 
master, iu the year 1 608, erected a magnificent stone 
building, upon the site of them, nearly on a similar 
plan to that of the Koyai Exchange ; there being an 
open paved walk, with rows of shops below and 
above, and cellars beneath. When this building was 
finished, the king, attended by the royal family, and 
many lords and ladies of his court, honoured its open* 
ing with their presence, and bestowed on it the name 
of Britain's Burse, which was afterwards changed 
to that of the New Exchange. This building -was 
taken down in the year 1737, and a handsome and 
uniform row of houses erected in its stead, which 
form a part of the street. 

Westward from the Adelphi-buildings, are several 
streets, which are included under the denomination 
of York-buildings, from having been built upon the 
site of the town mansion of the Archbishops of York^ 
This had originally belonged to the Bishops of 
Korwich, but about the year 1556, Nicholas Heath, 
Archbishop of York, purchased it tor the use of 
himself and his successors, in consequence of White* 
hall, their ancient palace, having been sold by Cardi- 
nal Woisey to Henry VIII. Mathew Toby, who had 
before exchanged Durham House with the crovvn, 
also exchanged this, and received several manors in 
lieu of it After this, it was granted to Villiers 
Duke of Buckingham) whose son George ^disposed 
of it to builders, who converted it into streets and 
alleys, in which his name and title are 43tili pre^ 
served; they being called OeorgQ-street, Villiers- 
street, Duke-street, Of-alley, and Buckingham-^ 

At the bottom of these streets, next the river, is 
a very elegant stone gate to the stairs. The (iesign 
of this gate is greatly admired, and is eveiy way 
worthy of itj^ architect, Ipigo Jones. It is of the 


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-480 HaSTORV AKO SC&VEY 01^ 

Tuscan Girder, and orftamented with rustic work» 
Tbe stairs have fallen mto dimse within the last 
twenty ye»i», from the causeway to them having 
been so long neglected, as to- render the apfKoach of 
boats altnost i«if>ossible, except at high water. 

Near these stairs is a high wooden tower, caited 
York-buitdiilgs Water Works, er-ected for raising 
water for the supply of that neighbourhood. The 
eofapany to whom it betoms, were incorporated by 
act of partian»ent in the year 1691<^ 

Farther west is Hungerford-inarket,'8itoated be- 
tfween the Strand and the Thames. In this place 
was anciently a large house and gaiklen belonging to 
the Hungerfords of Fairleigh in Wiltshire, tn the 
i^eign of Charles 11. Sir Edward pulled down the 
family laansion, and converted it into several build- 
ings, and among them this market, which from i^ 
proximity to the Thames^ and the conveniency of 
the stairs f )r gardeners to land their goods at, was 
principally designed ibr 'a market for vegetables : 
the plan, however, failed, and the mairket never 
flonrished. Here is a good market-house, oa the 
north side of which is a bust of one of the Hunger- 
ford's, in a lai^e wig. 

Nearly oppoute to Hungerford market, behind 
the houses on the north sadte of the Strand, i9 the 
parish chuik^h of St. Martin in the fields, which is so 
Called from its dedication to St. Martin, an Hunga- 
rian saint, and its original situation it) the fields. 

The origin of this chtirch is buried in joblivion; 
it must, however, be ofgneat antiquity, for there are 
authentic records of a dispute in 1923, between the 
Abbot of Westminster and the Bishop of London > 
' concerning the exemptrofi of the church of St. 
Martin in the fields, from the jurisdiction of. the 
Bishop of London. How long before this -.a build- 
ing for the service of religion was erected here, is not 

3 ' easy 

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oasy to determine; but it was probably a chapel for 
the monks of Westminster, when they visited thrii 
convent garden, which then extended to it. How- 
ever, the endowments of this church ftU with the 
monks who possessed it, and in Henry the VlHth's 
reign a small church was built there, at the king^s 
expense ; but this structure not being capacious 
enough to accommodate the parishioners, it was 
greatly enlarged in 1607, by the addition of a spa- 
cious chancel, which was erected at the expense of 
Prince Henry and some of the nobility. At length, 
after many expensive repairs, that building was 
taken down in 1721, and soon after the first stone of 
the present edifice was laid. Five years compleated 
the work, and in 1796 it was consecrated. 

On laying the first stone, his majesty King George 
I. ^ave one hundred guineas, to be dismbuted among 
the workmen ; and some tim^ after, he also gave 
fifteen hundred pounds to purchase an organ. The 
whole expense ot building and decorating this church, 
amounted to sixty thousand eight hundred and ninety- 
one pounds ten shillings and four pence ; of which, 
thirty-three thousand four hundred and fifty pounds 
were granted by parliament, and the rest raised by 
voluntary subscriptions, added to the ^bove royal be- 

The church of St. Martin in the Fields, is a very 
elegant edifice, built with stone. In the west front 
is an ascent, by a' long flight of steps, to a very 
noble portico of Corinthian columns, that support a 
pediment, in which are the royal arms, in bas relief. 
The same order is continued round in pilasters, and 
in the intercolumniations are two series of windows, 
surrounded with rustic. The doors on the sides are 
near the corners, and are ornamented with lofty 
Corinthian columns: th^ roof is concealed by a 
handsome balustrade, and the ^pire is stately and ele- 

Yoj.. III. Q q ^ gant. 

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gant The decorations within are exceeding bean* 
tiful; the roof is richly adorned with fret-work ; 
slender Corinthian columns, raised on high pedes* 
tab, rising in the front of the galleries, serve to sup- 
port both them and the roof, which, on the sides^ 
rests upon them in a very ornamented arch-work. 
Hie east end is richly adorned with fret-work and 
' gilding, and over the- altar is a large window finely 

With respect to this edifice, the author of the Cri- 
tical Review remarks, that it would be a great ad- 
vantage to the building, if the front was laid open to 
the Mews. ** The portico,^^ says he, ** is at once 
elegant and august; and if the steps, arising ftota 
^he street to the front, could have been made regu- 
lar^ and on a line from end to end, it would have 
given it a very considerable grace; but as the situa- 
tion of the ground would not allow it, this is to be 
esteemed a misfortune rather than a fault. The 
round columns at each angle of the church are w^ell 
contrived, and have a very fine effect in the profile 
of the building; the east end is remarkabi) elegant, 
and very justly challenges a particular applause." 

In the steeple of this church is a good ring of 
bells, greatly admired for the harmony of their sound. 
I'he church is a vicarage, the patronage of which is 
in the gift of the Bishop of London. 

This parish, which is supposed to have been origi- 
nally taken out of that of St. Margaret, has so in- 
creased both in houses and inhabitants, that it is/iow 
one of the largest and most populous in the bills of 
mortality ; and though the parishes of St. Paul, Co- 
vent-garden, St Anne, St. James, and St. George, 
Hanover-square, have been taken out of i the num- 
ber of houses still exceeds five thousand. 

At the south-west comer of the Strand, opposite 
to the end of St. Martin Vlane^ stands Northumber- 

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land House^ which was erected on the site of thq^ 
hospital of St. Mary Rounceval, a cell to the priory* 
of the same name, in Navarre, founded ancl<:adowed 
by the Earl of Pembroke, in the reign of Henry III. 
This hospital was suppressed, with other alien prio- 
ries, by Henry V. but was re-founded, in 1476, by 
Cdward IV. After the general suppression of reli- 
gious houses, by Henry VIII. Edward VI. in the 
year 1549, granted the chapel, with its appurte- 
nances, to Sir Thomas Cawarden. After this, it 
came into the possession of Henry Howard, Earl of 
Northampton, who, in the reign of James I. erected 
three sides of the quadrangle. After the death of 
this nobleman, it became the property of his rela- 
tion, the Earl of Suflfolk, and was then known by the 
name of Suflfolk House. 

In the reign of Charles I. Algernon, Earl of North- 
umberland, Lord High Admiral of England, married 
the daughter of the Earl of Suffolk, and, about the 
year 164^2, became the proprietor of this house; from 
which time it has borne its present name* 

This earl, finding it inconvenient to reside in the 
apartments built by Lord Northampton, on ac- 
count of their nearness to the-street, completed the 
quadrangle by building the fourth, or south side, 
which is at such a distance from the street as to 
avoid the noise of the carriages, &c. and enjoys all 
the advantages of retirement. Thi ; part was built 
under the direction of Inigo Jones, as the other three 
sides hud been under that of Bernard Janssen. It 
was in a conference held in one of these apartments, 
between the Earl of Northumberland, General Monk, 
and some of the leading men of the nation, that the 
restoration of Charles H. was proposed, as a measure 
absolutely necessary to the peace of the kingdom. 

The front, next the street, was began to be rebuilt 
by Algernon, Duke of Somerset, who became pos- 

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sessed of it in 1748, in right of his mother, the 
daughter and heiress of the K^rl of Northumberland; 
and from him it descended to his son-in-law, and 
daughter, the late Duke and Duchess of Northum- 
berland, by whom the new front was completed, and 
such improvements' made, as have rendered this 
building an object of admiration for its elegance and 

The front of this building, next the street, is 
exceeding magnificent. In the center of it is a 
grand arched gate, the piers of which are continued 
up to the top of the building, with niches on (»ch 
side from the ground, decorated with carvings, in a 
sort of Gothic style. They are connected at the top, 
by uniting to form an arch in the center, opening 
from the top of the house to a circular balcony, 
standing on a small bow window over the gate be- 
neath. Over the arch, on a pedestal, is a carved 
lion, the crest of the Duke of North umberlatid^s 
arms. The building, on each side thte center, is of 
brick, containing two series of regular windows, five 
on each side, over a like series of niches on the 
ground story. At each extremity is a tower, with 
rustic stone corners, containing one window each in 
front, corresponding with the building. These towers 
rise above the rest of the front, first with an arched 
•window, above that a port-hole window, and the top 
is terminated with a dome, crowned with a vane. 
The center is connected with the turrets over the 
building, by a breast-work of solid piers, and open 
lattice-work, alternately, corresponding with the win- 
dows beneath, which have stone-work under them, 
carved in like manner. 

The four sides of the inner court are faced with 
Portland-stone, and the two wings, which extend 
from the garden-front towards the river, are above one 
hundred feet in length. The principal door of the 


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house opens to a vestibule, about eighty-two feet 
long, and upwards of twelve feet wide, properly or- 
namented with columns of the Doric order. Each 
end of it communicates with a stair-case leading to 
the principal apartments, which face the garden. 
They consist of several spacious rooms, fitted up in 
the most elegant manner. The ceilings are embel- 
lished with copies of antique paintings, or fine orna- 
ments of stucco, richly gilt. The chimney-pieces are 
of curious marble, carved and finished in the most 
correct taste. The rooms are hung either with beau^ 
tiful tapestry, or the richest damasks, and magnifi- 
cently furnished with large glasses, settees, marble 
tables, &c. with frames of exquisite workmanship^ 
richly gilt. They also contain a great variety of pic- 
tures, executed by the most distinguished masters, 
particularly Raphael, Titian, Paul Veronese, Salvator 
Rosa, Rubens, Vandyke, &c. Among these is the 
Cofnaro family, painted by Titian, which was sold to 
Algernon, Earl of Northumberland, in the reign of 
Charles I. by Vandyke, for one thousand guineas. 
In some of the rooms are large chests, embellished 
with old genuine Japan, which, being great rarities, 
are esteemed invaluable. 

The gallery, or ball-room, in the east wing, is 
decorated in a very elegant manner. It is one hun- 
dred and six feet long, and twenty-seven feet wide. 
The ceiling is carved and ornamented with figures 
and festoons, richly gilt. The flat part of the ceil- 
ing is divided ii^to five compartments, ornamented 
with fine imitations of some antique figures; parti- 
cularly, a Flying Fame, blowing a trumpet; a Diana; 
a triumphal car, drawn by two horses ; a Flora ; and 
a Victory, holding out a wreath of laurel; The en- 
tablature is Corinthian, and of most exquisite work- 


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The gardea lies between the hoiMie and tht 
Itiames, and with a little expense might ha^Fe a 
terrace walk on the bank of the river, equal, in the 
extent and beauty of its prospect, to eitbei Som^«- 
«et-house or the Adelphi. Some years back it was 
4;ioped that this improvement would have taken 
-place, the duke having obtained all the ground 
'from the garden to the river from the crown in 
exchange for lands in Northumberland, which were 
wanted for the erection of batteries to protect thdt 

At the west end of the Strand is a large opening, 
mailed Charing-cross, which is so denominated from 
Jhaving been anciently a village, named Charing, in 
which King Edward !• caused a magnificent cross 
to be erected in commemoration of his beloved 
Queen Eleanor, part of which continued till the civil 
irVars in the reign of Charles L when it was 
entirely destroyed by the populace, as a monument 
of popish superstition. However, after the re- 
storation, an equestrian statue of King Charles L 
was erected op the spot where this cross stood, 
which is still called Charing^cross. It has the ad- 
vantage of being well placed at the meeting of three 
great streets ; the pedestal on which it stands is 
finely elevated, and the horse full of fire and spirit ; 
but the man is not thought to be equally well 

This statue, which is of brass, was cast in 1633, 
by Le Sueur, who made the curious brass monu- 
ment of the Duke of Buckingham in Henry Vllth's 
chapel, for the Earl of Arundel. After tlie execu- 
tion of Charles 1. the parliament ordered it to be 
destroyed ; it was however purchased by a brazier 
in Holborn, of the name of Revet, who concealed 
it until the rei^toration, when he presented it to 


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Charles II. who caused it to be erected in its pre>* 
sent situation. 

On this subject, M. Grosfey in his Tour to Londcm^ 
vol. 1. p. 803, says, " I diall speak of it only to re- 
mind the reader that this statue, being in the heat 
of the rebellion sold by auction, was knocked down 
at a low price to a cutler, who declared by adver-' 
tiseoient, he would melt it down, and make handles 
for knives of it. He, in fact, caused knives with 
bronze handles to be exposed to sale in his shop, by 
which he soon made a fortune ; the faction which 
opposed the king being all desirous of having some 
part of his statue debased to a knife handle.'' 

To the north of Charing-cross is a large square^ 
on one side of which is a handsome building, used 
as stables for his Majesty's state holrses, and known 
by the name of the Kinjps-mews.'* 

This place is of great antiquity, and is thus de- 
nominated from the word Meia^ a term used among 
falconers, signifying to moult or cast feathers. It 
was used for the accommodation of the king's fal- 
coners and hawks, so early as the year ly?? ; but 
the king's stables at Lomesbury (now called Blooms- 
bury) being destroyed by fire in the year 1537, 
King^ Henry Vlil. caused the hawks to be removed, 
and the Mews enlarged and fitted up for the recep- 
tion of his Majesty's horses; and the royal stables 
have ever since been kept in this place. 

The old building being greatly decayed, the north 
side w^ erected in a magnificent manner by his late 
majesty, in the year 173V. This side of the Mews 
is exceedingly noble, particularly the center, which 
is enriched with columns of the Doric order, and a 
pediment. The smaller pediments and rustic arches 
under the cupolas or lanthorns, are properly subor- 
dinate to the principal one, but set so close to the 
fcalustrade, that its intention as a gallery is de- 

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fttroyed. The edifice itself is greatly injured by the 
mean buildings that form the other sides of the qua- 
drangle. If these were made to correspond with the 
main building, and a suitable entrance formed from 
Charinj2;-cross, the royal stables would be a dis- 
tinguished ornament to this part of the metropolis. 

In Castle-street, near the Mews, is a free-school» 
with an excellent library over it, both founded and 
endowed in the year l68o, by Dr. Thomas Tennison, 
vicar of this parish, and afterwards Archbishop of 
Canterbury. Adjoining to this library and school is 
the workhouse for the poor, all of them erected 
upon a piece of ground granted to. the inhabitants 
of this parish by King James L for a burial ground. 

A little to the south of Charing-cross, on the west 
side of the street leading from thence to Westmio- 
sterrabbey, and nearly opposite to Scodand-ysird, is 
situated the Admimlty-office, a massy building of 
brick and stone. It has two deep wing», and is 
entered by^ a lofty portico, supported by four very 
tall stone columns, with Ionic capitals, to which 
there is an ascent by a few steps; but this por- 
tico, which was intended as an ornament to the 
building, rather di^usts than pleases, in consequence 
of the immoderate height of the columns. It is said 
that the architect who built this portico, had made 
the shafts of a just length, when it was observed 
that the pediment interrupted the light of some of 
the apartments, in consequence of which he was 
compelled to violate every rule of architectural 
proportion, and carry his columns to the roof of the 
building. Happily, however, this clumsy pile is 
concealed from view by a very handsome screen, 
built by Messrs. Adams', in the center of which is 
an arched gateway, over which runs a balustrade. 
On each side of the gate is a niche, surmounted by a 
pedestal, on Which is the figure of a winged sei^ 
. - 2 horee, 

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horse. In front of the screen is a colonade of the 
Doric order, and at each extremity are three niches» 
above which are tFJangular pediments; in one of. 
these pediments is a basso-relievo of the prow of a 
Roman galley, and in the other the bow of a British 
three-decked man of war. 

Besides a hall and other commodious apartments 
for transacting business in the main building, the 
wings are formed into six spacious houses, and are 
adapted for the residence of the lords commissioners 
of the admiralty. 

This office was originally held in the large house 
at the south end of Duke-street, Westminster^ 
which overlooks St. James's Park ; but in the reign 
of King William it was removed to Wallingford 
House, on the same spot as the present building, 
which was erected in the late reign. 

Scotland-yard, on the opposite side of the street, 
derives its name from a magnificent palace built there 
for the reception of the Scotish monarchs, whenever 
they visited this capital. It was originally given by 
King Edgar to King Kenneth III, for the humiliating 
purpose. of his msdiing an annual journey to this 

flace to do homage for his kingdom of Scotland. 
!i after times it was used by his successors when 
they came to Westminster to do homage for the 
counties of Cumberland and Huntingdon, and other 
fiefs held by them of the crown of England. 

Contiguous to this is a large building called the 
Banque ting-house, but more generally known by 
the name of Whitehall. 

The old palace of Whiteliall, to which this 
building was annexed, was originally erected by 
Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, who in the year 
1242 bequeathed it to the Black Friars in Chancery- 
lane, Holborti, in 'whose church he was interred. 
But in 1248, these friars having disposed of it to 
VOL. m. arr Walter 

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Walter de Grey, Archbishop of York, he left it to 
his successors, -the archbishops of that see, for their 
city mansion, and hence it obtained the name of 
York Place. This mansion, with two gardens, three 
acres of land, artd the appurtenances, were seized 
by Henry VIll. in the twenty-first year of his reign, 
when Caitiinal Wolsey incurred the premunire by 
which all his goods and possessions \yere forfeited 
to the crown : and when the kiijg afterwards restored 
the possessions of the archbishoprick of York to him, 
this place was reserved. 

Henty was no s<x)ner possessed of this palace, 
than he enclosed the park for the use of this and 
the paface of St. James, and also built the beautiful 
gate across the street, of which a view is annexed. 
To this he added a magnificent gallery for th« 
accommodation of the royal family, the nobility, 
and great officers of state, who sat there to see the 
tournaments and military exercises performed in the 
tilt-yard ; and, soon after, the king, who had a 
greater taste for pleasure than for elegance in his 
mansions, ordered a tennis-court, a cockpit, and 
bowling-greens to be formed, with other places for 
different kinds of diversion. 

The design of the gate was by Holbein. It was 
built with bricks^of two colours, glazed and disposed 
, in a tesselated fashion. The top of it, as well as those 
of an elegant tower on each side, were embattled. 
On each front were four busts in baked clay, in 
proper colours, which resisted every attack of the 
weather to the last. When this gate was taken 
down, about fifty years ago, William Duke of 
Cumberland had all the parts of it numbered, with 
an intention of rebuilding it at the top of the \<m^ 
walk at Windsw; but this design was never carried 
into execution. 

*' From 

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From the time of Henry, Whitehall became the 
royal residence of the kings of England, and so 
continued till the year 1697, when, by an accidental 
fire, it was entirely destroyed, except the present 
edifice, which had been added to the old palace by 
King James 1. in the year 1649, according to a 
design of Inigo Jones. 

. This magnificent structure is built entirely of 
stone, and is divided into three stories. The lowest 
story has a rustic wall with small square windows, 
and serves as a basis for the orders.. On this is raised 
the Ionic, with columns and pilasters; and between 
the. columns are well proportioned windows, with 
arched and painted pediments. Over these is placed 
the proper entablature, on which is, raised a second 
series of the Corinthian order, consisting of columns 
and pilasters like the other. From the capitals 
are carried festoons, which meet with masks and 
other ornaments in the center. This series is also 
crowned with its proper entablatures, whereon js 
raised a balustrade with attic pedestals between, 
which crown the work. 

This building was only a small part of King 
James's plan for rebuilding the royal palace ; the 
remainder was left unexecuted on account of the . 
turbulence of the times. It was to have consisted 
of four fronts, each with an entrance between two . 
square towers. The interior was to have contained 
five courts, viz. a large one in the center, and tv^o 
smaller at the ends; and between two of the latter, 
a beautiful circus with an arcade below, the pillars 
of which were to be ornamented with caryatides. 
The length of this palace was to have been 1 1 o2 feet^ 
and the depth 874..^ 

The great room of this edifice is converted into a 
chapel, in which service is performed every Sunday 
morning and evening ; Geoige L having granted a 


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salary of thirty pounds per anaum to each of twelve 
clergymen, selected equally fronni Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, who officiate a month in turns. The ceiling 
is richly painted by Rubens, the subject is the 
Apotheosis of James /. which is treated in nine 
compartments, and for boldness of design and suc- 
cessful execution, cannot be too much admired. 
This fine performance is painted bn canvass, and is 
in fine preservation, A few years since, these 
paintings were re-touched by Cipriani, with so 
much address, as to leave no apparent difference in 
the work. The altar-piece was preserved ftoxn the 
fire which destroyed Whitehall, and given to this 
chapel by Queen Anne. 

The cost of erecting the banqueting-house was 
seventeen thousand pounds. Rubens received three 
thousand pounds for painting the ceiling ; but the 
.remuneration to the architect was very dispropor- 
tionate ; who, according to Mr. Walpole, received 
only eight shillings and four-pence a day as surveyor 
of the works, and forty-six pounds per annum for 
house-rent, a clerk, and incidental expenses. 

This place was chosen by the regicides who 
brought Charles I. to the block, for the last act of 
his mortal existence. On the morning of his exe- 
cution he was conducted hither from St. Jameses, 
and after passing a short space in his bed-room, 
went from thence through a breach in the wall at 
the north end of the room upon the scaffold. The 
passage still remains, and is the door of a small 
additional building. 

In the court behind the Banqueting-house is an 
'e:(ceUent statue in brass of James II. executed the 
year before he abdicated the throne, by Gririyn 

The old palace lay in ruins for many years; at 
present the site of it, with a great part of the privy- 

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garden, is covered by the dwelling-houses of dif- 
ferent noblemen and gentlemen, among which, 
those of the Dukes of Richmond and BMccleugh, 
and the £arl of Fife, are the most conspicuous ; the 
embankment behind the latter is a great improve- 
ment to this part of the banks of the Thames, and 
commands a very extensive view of the water 
between Blackfriars and Westminster Bridges. 

Opposite to the Banqueting-house is a substantial 
stone edifice, called the ItiorSe-guards, from the 
circumstance of the King's guard of horse being 
stationed here. 

It consists of a center and two ^vings, and has an 
air of solidity perfectly agreeable to the nature of 
the building. In the center is an arched passage 
into St. James's Paric, with a postern on each sid^ 
for foot passengers, above which is a pediment, 
having the royal arms in has relief in the tympanum ; 
and over all is a cupola, serving as a clock tower* 
At each extremity of the center is a pavilion. The 
v^ings are plainer than the center ; they consist of 
a front projecting a little, with ornamented win- 
dows in the principal face, and a plain one in the 
sides. Each has its pediment, with a circular win- 
dow in the center. 

Adjoining to the Horse- guards is the Tilt yard, 
already spoken of as the scene of Henry Vlllth's 
military amusements. It retained its use during 
the reign of his masculine daughter Elizabeth, who 
was not less fond of witnessing athletic exercises 
than her father. Here on the first of January, 1581, 
was held a most sumptuous tournament, in honour 
of the commissioners sent from France to prop<^se a 
marriage between the Queen and the Duke d'Anjou. 
son of Catharine de 'Medicis ; and here were the 
annual exercises of arms during her reign, "by a 
society of knights consisting of twenty-five of the 
' most 

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most distinguished personages of the court. But 
.this place was not the scene of chivalrous exploits 
alone, it was sometimes devoted to more. ignoble 
purposes, as may be seen in Sydney^s state papers^ 
voK I. p. 194, where, in an account of Queen Eli* 
^abeth^s amusements in her sixty-seventh year, it 
is said, ^* Her majesty says she is very well. This 
day she appoints a Frenchman to doe ieates upon a 
rope in the conduit court. To-morrow she hath 
commanded the bear, the bull, and the ape to be 
bayted in the tilt-yard/^ The site of this place is 
now occupied by a convenient guard-room, aad 
other offices for the use of the foot guards. 

That part of St. James's Park behind the Hofsq- 
guards^ is called the Parade, from being the place 
where 'the reliefs for the different guards about the 
palace ar^ paraded and inspected every morning. At 
the south end of this place is a stone building, called 
the Treasury. 

The whole front of this edifice is rustic ; it con- 
sists of three st(M'ies, of which the lowest is of the 
basement kind, with smaH windows, though they 
are contained in large arches. This stoiy has the 
Tuscan proportion, and the second the Doric, with 
arched windows of a larger size; the upper part of 
this story is, with great inconsistency, adorned with 
the triglypbs and metopes of the Doric frieze, though 
the range of ornament is supported by neither co- 
lumns nor pilasters. Over this story is a range of 
Ionic columns in the center, supporting a pediment. 
A variety of offices are under the roof of this^build- 
ing, among which is the Council-chamber, com- 
monly called the Cockpit, where, until within a 
few years, his Majesty's intended speech was read to 
the members of both houses, on the evening pre- 
vious to opening the parliament. There are vaulted 

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passages through this building into Downing-street 
snd Farliament-street. 

On the north side of St. James's Park, and at the 
west end of Fall-maH, is situated the royal palace of 
St. James. 

This palace stands on the spot where was once 
^n hospital dedicated to St. James, originally 
founded by the citizens of London, for fourteen 
^vomen afflicted with the leprosy, who were to live 
a. chaste and devout life; but afterwards additional 
donations coming in, the charity was greatly ex- 
tended, and eight brethren were added to admi- 
nister divine service. This hospital is mentioned 
iTi a manuscript in the Cottonian library, so early as 
the year 1 100. The custody of this hospital was given 
to litoii college, by a grant of the 28th of Henry VI. 
hy whom, in the year liSl, it was surrendered to 
King Henry VIII. who took down the whole edifice, 
except the chapel, and erected the present palace in 
its stead, which from the saint to whom the hospital 
was dedicated, was called St. James's Palace. 

In this edifice our kings have kept their court ever 
since the palace at Whitehall was consumed by fire, 
in 1697. It is an irregular brick building, without 
the least ornament. In the front, next St. James's- 
strect, is a Gothic arched gateway, that leads into a 
small square court, with a piazza on the west side: 
on the south side of this court is the guard-nom, the 
entmnce to which is by the grand stair-case, situated 
at the sotiA-west comer of the piazza. The build- 
ings are low and plain; and there are two other 
courts beyond, that have very little the apjxjarance " 
of a palace. The windows, however, look into a 
large garden, and command a very plea'Sant view of 
* St. James's Park. 

On the west side of the square is the chapel, 

Which is the same as belon^red to the ancient hospi- 

l tal, 

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tal, and, ever since that building was demolished^ 
has. been converted to the use of the royal family. 
It is a royal peculiar, and exempt from all episcopal 
jurisdiction. The service is performed in this cha- 
pel, in the same mamier as at cathedrals ; and there 
belong to it a dean, a lord-almoner, a sub-dean, 
and forty-eight chaplains, who preach in turn before 
the royal family. 

Uncreditable as the outside of St. James's Palace 
may look, it is said to be the most commodious for 
regal parade of any in Europe ; and although there 
is nothing very superb or grand in the decorations 
or furniture of the rooms, they are very conunodious, 
and contain some excellent paintings, principally 

There are two levee rooms, the one serving a& an 
anticliamber to the other, which were fitted up, as 
they appear at present, on the marriage of the Prince 
of Wales. The walls are hung with very beautiful 
tapestry, which, though made for Charles 11. is quite 
fresh in its colours, having accidentally lain neglected 
in a chest, till a short time before it was put up. In 
the grand levee room is a xery elegant bed, the fur- 
niture of which is of crimson velvet, manufactured 
in SpitalBelds. This bed was put up on the same 
occasion. The canopy of the throne was made for 
the first public court day after the Union ; which was 
the day kept in honour of her majesty's birth. It is 
also of crimson velvet, .laced with broad gold lace, 
and ornamented with embroidered crowns, set with 
fine pearls. 

To a stranger, the exterior of St. James's Palace 
conveys a very mean idea of both king and people. 
In other nations, the attention of foreigners is struck 
with the magnificent residence of the sovereign, on 
which all the decorations of architecture are lavished, 
without the least regard to expejose. The outside is 


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grand and noble, and the galleries and apartments 
sure adorned with ail the choicest specioi^is of art, 
the finest efforts of genius, and the most rare and 
precious productions of nature ; for the magnificence 
of the palace is intended to give an idea of the 
power and riches of the kingdom. But^ if the power 
and the wealth of Great Britain should be estimated by 
the appearance of this palace, how egr^ious would 
be the mistake ! It is, however, a reproach to the ^ 
public spirit of the nation, that the principal, palace 
of their sovereign, in which he receives the ambassa^ 
dors of other powers, should be so vastly inferior to 
almost every public building in the metropolis. 

In the reign of Henry VIII. St. Jameses Park was 
a desolate marshy field; but that prince, on his build- 
ing the palace, inclosed it, laid it out in walks, and, 
cmlectii:^ the waters together, gave to the new inclosed 
groiind, and new raised building, the name of St. 
James. It was afterwards much enlarged and im- 
proved by King Charles 11. who added to it several 
fields, planted it with rows of lipne-trees, laid out the 
Mall, which is a vista half a mile in length, and waa^ 
at that time, formed into a hollow smooth walk, in- 
closed by a border of i^ood on each aide, with an 
iron hoop at one end, fpr the purpose of playing a 
game with a ball, called Mall. He also fonped the 
water into a canal of one hundred feet broad, and 
two thousand eight hundred feet long, with a decoy 
and other ponds for water-fowl. One of the avenues 
formed by him, acquired the name of the Bird-cage- 
walk, wluch it still retains, from his aviary besidp it» 
and the number of cages hung in the trees. '^ Here,^^ 
says Cibber, in the Apology for his Life, " Charles 
was often seen, amidst crowds of spectators, feeding 
his ducks, and playifig with his dogs, and passing 
his idle moments in a&bility, even to the meanest 
of h£3 subjects, which made him to be adored by the 

vou III. s s 8 common 

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common people/' Succeeding kings allowed the 
people the privilege of walking in it, and King Wil-^ 
liam ILK in l699i granted the neighbouring inhabit 
tants a passage ipto it from Spring-garden, on condi* 
tion they kept the pavement in repair. 

This park is nearly a mile and a half in circum- 
ference, surrounded by many magnificent snructure&y 
and always open for the accomnaodation and recrea- 
tion of the public. Many improvements have bc^en 
made in it since the days of Charles ; in particular, 
his decoy has been destroyed, and the canal has been 
much curtailed of its original length. 

At the west end of St. James's Park, fronting the 
Mall, is a very handsome building, now called the 
Queen's Palace. 

The first edifice on this spot was originally knowR 
by the name of Arlington-house; which being pur- 
chased by the Duke of Buckingham, who rebuilt it 
in 1703, it was called Buckingham-house, till the 
year 1763, when his present majesty bought it ; and 
It has obtained the name of the Queen's Palace, 
from having been settled on her majesty in 177^) iii 
lieu of Somerset-bouse. 

This edifice is a mixture^of brick and stone, in the 
front of which is a spacious court-yard, enclosed by 
a semi- circular sweep of iron rails. The ]»*incipat 
door is placed between four tall Corinthian pilasters, 
which are fluted, and reach to the top of the second 
story. Within this compass are two series of very 
large and lofty windows, over which is the entabla- 
ture. Above is an attic story; with square windows 
and Tuscan pilasters ; and the whole is crow^ned 
with a jt)aiustrade, which conceals the roof. On eadi 
side of the building are circular colonades^ of the 
ionic order, also crowned with a baluslwleand vases. 
These colonades join the offices at the extremity of 
the wings to the. main building; and on the top of 


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each of these offices is a turret, supporting a dome, 
from which rises a weather-cock. 7 

The situation of this palace is exceeding pleasant ; 
for it not only commands a prospect of St^ James's 
Park, in front, but has also a spacious park behind it, 
together with a laige garden and terrace ; from the 
latter of which, as well as from the apartments, there 
is a beautiful prospect of the adjacent country. 

Several new buildings have been lately added to 
it, particularly a library and a riding-school. The 
library is furnished with the best authors, in vacious 
languages; and in both that and the gallery are great 
numbers of curious prints and paintings, executed 
by the best masters. Among these were the famous 
cartoons of Raphael, which are now removed to 

On the north-west side of the Queen's Palace is 
the Green Park, which extends from St. James s 
Park to Piccadilly; from the latter of which it is se- 
parated, in some parts, by a wall, and by an iron- 
railing in others. The ranger's lodge at the top of 
the hill, fronting towards Piccadilly, with its garden^ 
and pleasure-grounds, forms a very picturesque ob- 
ject,, and is seen to advantage from the ride on the 
south side of the park, called Constitution-hill. This 
park coipitributes greatly to the pleasantness of the 
two palaces, as well as to the surrounding houses, 
that are situated so as to command a view of it. 

To the east of St. James's Palace, behind the ■ 
bouses in PalL-mall, stands Marlborough House, 
built in the reign of Queen Anne, at the public ex- 
pense, lliis is a very large brick edifice, ornamented 
with stone, and built in a peculiar taste. The front 
is extensive, and the wings on each side. are deco* 
rated at the corners with a stone rustic. The' top of 
it was originally finished With a balustrade, but that 
has been since altered, and the first storv is crowned 


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with an attic story raised above the cornice. A small 
colonade extends on the side of the area, next the 
wings, and the opposite side of the area is occupied 
by offices. When this structure was finished^ the late 
Duchess of Marlborough intended to have opened a 
way to it from Pall-mall, directly in the fronti as 
appears from the manner in which the court-yard is 
formed; but Sir Rebert Walpole havhig purchased 
the house before it, and not being upon good terms 
^ith the duchess, she was prevented from executing 
her design. The front, next the park, resembles the 
other, only, iu3tead of the two middle windows in 
the wings, there are niches for statues; and, instead 
of the area in front, there is a descent by a flight of 
steps, into the garden. The apartments within are 
noble and well disposed, and the furniture is exceed- 
ing magnificent. In the Vestibule, at the entrance, 
is painted the battle of Hochstet, in which the most 
remarkable scene is the taking the French general, 
Marshal Tallard, and several other officers of great 
distinction, prisoners. The figures of the great Duke 
of Marlborough, Prince Eugene of Savoy, and Ge* 
neral Cadogan, are finely executed. The expenseof 
this building exceeded forty thousand pounds. 

On the same side of Pall-mall, near the east end, 
is Carlton House, the residence of his Royal High- 
ness the Prince of Wales. The. old house was the 
favourite residence of his majesty's mother, when 
she was Princess Dqwager of Wales. The present 
building was erected a few years ago, and is a veiy 
handsome, though low, structure. It is 6f stone, 
with two projecting wings, and contains a principal 
and a mezzanine story. The grand entrance is by a 
magnificent Corinthian portico, over which is a tri- 
angular pediment, containing the prince's arms, in 
basso relievo. Round the top of the whole building 
is a balustrade, which conceals the roof. In front of 


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the house is a^ndsonie colonade of the Ionic order^ 
on the ceDtre of the e&tahiature of which is a very neat 
military trophy, between the royal supporters; and 
behind the homse is a very handsomegarden, extending 
to St. JamM^s Park, in the vr^l of which there is a 
gate, with asummer-houae over it. There are several 
magnificent apai'tments in this building, and the 
;finest armoury in the world. The coUection is so 
extensive as to occupy four rooms, and* consists of 
specimens of whatever is cupious or rare, in the annv 
of every modern nation, wi'th many dioice specimeDa 
of ancJent avmeur 

At the east end of Pall-mall is a long spaciousi 
street, known by the name of the Hay-lnarket, tad 
so called fix^m its beii^ a great market for hay and 
straw, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. 

On the west side of this street is the Opera-boose^ 
which was originally built, on the same site, by Sif 
John Vanburgh; though Pennant, by an unac- 
countable error, names Sir Christopher Wren as the 
architect. This building stood until the year 1789, 
when it was destroyed by fire ; immediately after 
which the present edifice was erected ; but owing^ 
to a want of money, the front of it is not yet finished. 
The interior of this theatre is fitted up in a style of 
great magnificence ; and the representations usually 
commence in December, and continue till June, or , 
July, on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, only. 

Opposite to this is the Little Theatre, which is a 
plain brick building, with nothing to distinguish it, 
except a portico to shelter the persons waiting for 
admittance from the weather. The performances at 
this theatre commence on the 1 5th of May, and clos^ 
en the 14th of September. 

To the east of the Hay-market is a spacious square, 
containing an area of between two and three acres, 
which is called Leicester Square, from a large man- 

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tion which formerly stood on the north side of it, 
and belonged to the Earls of Leicester. This bouse 
was the residence of Frederick, Prince of Wales, 
father of his present majesty ; and this was the birth- 
place of the whole of the family, except the king, who 
was born at Norfolk House, in St. James's-square. Th« 
site of this building is now occupied by a handsome 
modern street, called Leicester-place. Adjoiniug to 
this is a large brick building, called Saville House, 
which was the residence of his majesty when Prince 
of Wales, and afterwards of Sir Geor^ Saville ; from 
whose family the name of the house is derived. The 
inner part of the square is inclosed with iron rails, 
and adorned with grass-plats, plantations of trees, 
and gravel walks, hi the center is a gilt equestrian 
statue of his late majesty, George 11. which waa 
brought from the Duke of Chandois's seat, at 
.Cannons, near Edgeware. 


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CoverU Garden.-^St. PauL'^The Themres.'--^Drury Lane% 
''-^Poliet Officas.'^^SL Anii/B.^^^Geraird House.-^Soho^ 
vptare^r^^St. James^/^^Piccadilly^ — BurU,ngicn House* 
— Dfgvanskire Hausc-^^Albany^^^^Poget House. — St. 
James^s^quare* — The PatUhem. — Camaby Market.'-^ 
Golden-square. — St. George.'^Hanoyer-sauare.'^Gros^ 
venor^square.^'Ckmduit'Street. "Trinity CnapeU^Berke^ 
ley»5quare.''-^Lansdoum House. — May ^f air. -— * Ckes^ 
t^rfieid Hmkse.^St. Gewrg^s Hospital.— Hyde Park. 

Of the parishes taken out of St. Martin in the 
Fields, that of St. Paul, Covent-garden, is the roost 
ancient. The place whereon the greatest part of it 
is situated was anciently a large garden, belonging 
to the Abbot and Convent of Westminster; whence 
it received the appellation of the Convent Garden^ 
which it still retains, with a trifling variation. At 
the suppression of the religious houses, by Henry 
YIIL this garden devolved to the crown ; and in the 
year 1547, Edward VI. conferred it upon the Duke 
of Somerset. Upon his attainder, it returned into 
the hands of the king, who, on the 9th of May, ISAi^ 
granted it, with a field on the north side, denomi- 
nated the Seven Acres, though, from its length, mom 
commonly called the Long Acres, to \Fohn, Earl of 

Soon after Edward had gmnted t^e precinct of 
Covent-garden to the Earl of Bedford, he built a 
house therein for bis town residence. This house, 
which, till the year 1704, stood on the north side of 
the Strand, where at present the lower end of South- 
ampton-sti^et is situated, was a mean wooden build- 
ing, shut out from the street by a brick wall, and 
with a garden behind, under the north wall of which 
4 ^he 

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jSOfk jutnnT Amn mmw%Y mt 

the market was kept: but when SoatfaamptoB and 
Tavistock streets, and Maiden-lane, were erected on 
the site of Bedfard-home ajul gmidens, the maffket 
was moved farther into the square. Had this square 
))een completed on the plan designed for it l^lhigo 
Jones, .it would have formed .one of the hand- 
WBMSt in Etuttpe. The piarraj whieh wm only 
erected on the north «nd «ast aides, is grand «nd 
noble, and the saperstmcture it supports is light and 
elegant; but the introduction of die market piars 
she whole design. 

The churob,. which is^tuntedonihe west aide of 
the square, was erected by the Eari of Bedford, for 
the use of his tenants, prior to the year 1638 ; in 
which year^ as appeals irom a manvscript in the 
HatidflA ooUeciioB, . kiserted in the Gentleman's 
M^gaoiae, JGk November^ 1789» a dispute between 
the ead and the Vicar of St. Martin's in the Fielda, 
wlatLve to the right of patronage, was hsasi befoie 
the privy-cottncii; by whom it was -d^termified, ^at 
it sbotikl be .a chapel of ease to St. Martin's parish, 
vntil aA act of parliament could be passed for makii^ 
it parocbial. After the settlement of this dkspute, 
the cfaa^ was consecrated, by William Jux-on^ Bi- 
^op of LondcoQ, on the 3.7th of Septemher, ia the 

The unsettled period which followed, prevented 
ithe passing of an act as agreed on ; however, en the 
7th t)f January, in the year 1645, the lords and com- 
mons, sitting at Westminster, issued an ordinance, 
wihereby it was separated from St. Martin^ and 
constituted an independent parish, with power to 
^ect officers, and raise money for the necessary ex- 
penses of the new establishment. But this being an 
JUegal ordinance, an act of padittmeht was obtained 
immediatdy after the restoration of Chades^ IL 
ibr the same puqpoae, by which the {^tronage of 


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it WAS vested in the Earl of Bedford, bis heirsi and 

This church, which is dedicated to St. Riul, the 
Apostle, 10 remarkable for its majestic simplicity. It 
is said, on the authority of Lord Oxford, that wheii 
the earl engaged Inigo Jones to build it, he told him 
he wanted a chapel, not much better than a bam : tb 
which the architect replied, " Well, then, you shaU 
have the handsomest barn in England.'^ In the front 
is a plain but noble portico, of the Tuscan order, exe- 
cuted in the most masterly manner ; the columns are^ . 
massy, and the intercolumniation large. Though m 
plain as possible, the building is happily propor^ 
tioned. The walls are of brick, but were cased with 
stone about the year 1788, at an expense of eleven 
thousand pounds, including the other repairs at that 
time. Tlie windows are of the Tuscan order, to cor- 
respond with the portico, and the altar-piece is 
adorned with eight fluted columns of the Corinthiaa 
order. The roof was entirely of wood, and consi- 
dered a most inimitable pie<:e of architecture, being 
supported by the walls alone. Unfortunately, this 
was destroyed by a fire, which, consumed the whole 
interior of the church, on the 17th of September, 
1795; since which it has been, repaired, and is very 
little different from its original appearance. 

The patron of this parish enjoys the unusual pri- 
vilege of nominating a churchwarden; the rec- 
tor nominates another, and the parishioners elect 
a third. 

The election for members to serve in parliament, 
for the city of Westminster, is held in front of this 
church, on temporary hustings erected for that pur- 

Within the square is the principal market for ve- 
getables and fruit in the metropolis. 

YOL. HI. T 1 1 In 

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In the north*east comer of the square, under the 
piazza, is one of the entrances into Covent-garden 
Theatre ; but the principal entrance is in Bow-street. 
This building id so environed with houses, that v^iy 
little of its exterior form can be seen. 

At a small distance from hence, in Brydges-street, 
is Drury-lane Theatre, which, should it be finished 
according to the design prepared for it by Mr. Hoi*- 
land, the architect under whose direction it was 
erected, will form one of the most distinguished or- 
naments of the metropolis. The embarrassments of" 
the concern have, however, pressed so heavily on its 
funds, that the building has been suspended for 
some years. 

The origin of the English stage is not known with 
certainty; but it is much more ancient than isc(Hn- 
monly supposed, and may be traced nearly as £ar 
back as the Conquest. Fitsstephen, who wrote his 
Descriptio Nobiiiissimce Cwiiaiis Lofuhmce^ in the 
reign of Henry II. says, ^^ Instead of conmion inter- 
ludes belonging to the theatre, London has plays of 
a more holy subject; the representations of those 
miracles which the holy confessors wrought, or of 
the sufferings, wherein the glorious constanov of the 
martyrs appeared.^' This author died in the year 
1191, and as he does not mention these representa- 
tions as novelties, but as the common diversions in 
use at the time he wrote, it must be evident, that 
' they are entitled to a date considerably anterior to 
his publication, which is much earlier than any other 
nation in Europe can trace their theatrical perform- 
ances. About one hundred and forty years after 
this^ in the reign of Edward III. it was ordained by 
act of parliament, that a company of men, called 
Vagrants^ who had made masquerades through the 
whole city, should be whipt out of London, because 


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they represented scandalous things in the Utile ale- 
houses, and other places where the populace assetn- 

But the year 1378 is the earliest date we can find, 
in which express mention is made of the representation 
of mysteries in England. In this year, the scholars 
of Paul's School presented a petition to Richard 
11. praying his majesty " to prohibit some unexpert 
people from representing the History of the Old Tes- 
tament, to the great prejudice of the said clergy, who 
have been at great expense, in order to represent it 
publicly at Christmas.** 

Stow, after relating from Fit2Stephen, the sports 
and pastimes used by the Londoners, says, ''These, 
or the like exercises, have beeq continued till our 
time, namely, in stage-plays ; whereof ye may read 
in Anno 13915 a play, by the parish-clerks of 
London, at the Skinner's-well, beside Smith field, 
which continued three days together; the king, 
queen, and nobles of the realm being present. And 
of another, in the year 1 409) which lasted eight days, 
and was of matter from the creation of the world; 
whereat was present most part of the nobility and 
gentry of England. Of late times, in place of thos0 
stage plays, hath been used comedies, tragedies, in« 
terludes, and histories, both true and feigned; for the 
acting whereof certain public places have beeqi 

These mysteries were a rude, undigested jumble, 
in which some miraculous history from the Old or 
New Testament, was represented in a very uncouth 
manner. They were succeeded by the Moralities, 
in which there is some appearance of design, since 
they had a fable and a moral : the dawnings of poetry 
were also perceptible in them, iii the personification 
of the virtues and vices. The Moralities were like« 
wise of a religious tendency; for religion was then 


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SOi jaiSTORY XV D fturnvsr of 

every one's coQcem, and the adherents of eaeb 
party employed these representations to favour the 
introduction of their tenets. The prevalence of this 
practice was so great, that in an act of parliament 
passed in the 34tb of Henry VI IL for pronooting. 
true religion, there is a clause prohibiting all rhymers 
or players from singing in songs or playing in inter- 
ludes, any thing &at should contradict the esta- 
blished doctrine. 

Comedies and tragedies b^gan to make their 
appearance in the re^ of Queen £Iizabeth; Gam- 
mer Gurton's Needle, our oldest comedy, having 
first appeared in print in 167^* The licentiousness 
of theatrical representations had become so great 
at this period, as to be a subject of regulation* 
Strype, in his continuation of Staw's Survey, speaking 
of the stage, says, " This which was onoe a re- 
creation, and used therefore now and then occa- 
siiNially, afterwards, by abuse, became a trade and 
calling, and so remains to this day. In those former 
days, ingenious tradesmen and gentlemens' servants 
would sometimes gather a company of themselves, 
and learn interludes to expose vice, or to represent 
the noble actions of our ancestois^ These they 
X played at festivals, in private houses, at weddings, 
or other entertainments, but in process of time it 
became an occupation, and these plays being com- 
monly acted on Sundays and festivals, the churches 
were forsaken, and the play-houses thronged. Great 
inns were used for this purpose, which had secret 
chambers and places, as well as open stages and 
galleries. Here maids and good citizens' children 
were inveigled and allured to private and unmeefc 
contracts ; here were publicly uttered popular and 
seditious matters,. unchaste, uncomely, and shame- 
ful speeches,^ and many other enormities. 


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^* The cotiaideration of these things occasioned 
thd express prohibitioD of plays by the queen and 
the, lord-mayor. And Sir James Hawes, mayor, in 
the year 1574, by an act of ccnnmon-council, re* 
gulated them/^ 

The substance of these regulations, the preamble 
to which sets forth, that they were for ^^ the lawful, 
honest, and comely use of plays, pastimes, and 
recreations," is as follows: — I. No play to be acted 
within the liberty of the city wherein should be 
uttered nay words, examples, or doings of any un* 
chastity, sedition, or such liUe unfit and uncomely 
matter. S* No play tD be acted until first perused 
and allowed by the lord-mayor and court of alder* 
men. 3. No person to suffer plays or players in 
his house or yard, unless with permission of the 
iord-mayor and aldermen. 4, Persons^ having ob- 
tained this permission) to give bond to the cham- 
berlain for the maintenance of good order. 5* Not 
to exercise this permission at anytime when the 
same ^all be c<«inanded by the4ord-mayor and 
court of aldermen to stay or cease; nor during the 
time of divine service on Sundays or holidays. 
6. Persons licensed, to pay such suras as shall be 
agreed on between them and the lord-mayor, during 
the continuance of the licence, to the use of the 
poor of the city. 7- All forfeitures incurred for any 
offence against this act, to be for the relief of the 

These orders not being properly enforced, the 
lewdness and immorality of the representations in- 
creased so much, that they were afterwards totally 
suppressed for a short time, but upon application to 
the Queen and council, they were again tolerated 
under new restrictions. 

" But," continues Strype, « all these prescrip- 
tions were not sufficient to keep them within due 


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order, but their plays so abusive oftentimes of vir- 
tue, or particular persons, gave great offence, and 
occasioned disturbances, whence they were now 
and then stopped and prohibited.^^ This will serve 
to shew the customs of the stage at that time, and 
the early depravity of it. 

There is some uncertainty as to the number of 
playhouses in Tendon at this period. Two com- 
panies of children, under the denominations of the 
Children of the Chapel, and the Children of the 
Revels, were very famous. The former, who were 
the singing boys of the Chapel-royal, were esta- 
blished in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign^ 
and the other very soon after. The queen Imd 
also formed a company of twelve of the principal 
players of that time, who went under the name 
of her Majesty^s comedians and servants, to whom 
she paid handsome salaries ; and in addition to these, 
many noblemen retained companies of players, who 
acted not only privately in their employers^ houses, 
but also publicly under their licence and protection. 
Stiype says, " Players in former times were retainers 
to noblemen, andf none had the privilege to act 
plays but such. So, in Queen Elizabeth's time, 
many of the nobility had servants and retainers who 
were players, and went about getting their liveli- 
hood that way. The Lord-admiral had players ; 
so had Lord Strange, that played in the city of 
London. And it was usual, pn any gentleman's 
complaint of them for indecent reflections in 
their plays, to have them put down. Thus once 
the lord-treasurer signified to the lord-mayor to have 
those players of the lord-admiral and Lord Strange 

Srohibiled, at least for some time, because one 
fr. Tilney had for some reason disliked them. 
Whereupon the mayor sent for both companies, 
and gave them strict charge to forbear playing till 


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fbrther orders. The lord-admiral's players obeyed, 
but the Lord Strangers, in a contemptuous manner, 
ivent to the Cro6S-keys» and played that afternoon. 
Upon which the mayor committed two of them to 
the Compter, and prohibited aU playing for the 
future, till the treasurer's pleasure was further 
known/' This was in 1589- 

Many of our ancient dramatic pieces were per* 
formed in the yards of carrier's inns; in which, in 
the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign^ the co- 
medians, who then first united themselves into 
companies, erected an occasional stage. The form 
of these temporary play-houses seems to be pre* 
served in our modern theati*e. In them the galleries 
were ranged over each other ori three sides of the 
building. The small rooms under the lowest of 
these galleries answer to our present boxes ; and it 
is observable that these, even in theatres built in a 
subsecjuent period expressly for dramatic exhibir 
tions, still retained their old name, and are fre- 
quently called rooms by our ancient Writers. The 
yard bears a suflScient resemblance to the pit, ^ at 
present in use. We may suppose the stage to have 
been raised in this area, on the fourth side, with 
its back to the gateway of the inn, where the money 
for admission Was taken. Hence in the middle of 
the Globe, and probably of the other public theatres, 
in the time of Shakspeare, there was an open yard 
or area where the common people stood to see the 
exhibition, from which circumstance, they were 
called by Shakspeare, " the groundlings," and by 
Ben Jonson, ^^ the understanding gentlemen of the 

The scunility and licentiousness so justly com- 
plained of at the period of our dramatic history we 
have spoken of, was not, however, of long dura- 
tion. Towards the end of Elizabeth's reign the 


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reputation of the players increased, and tbeir per^ 
form^nces grew mote respectable; in consequence 
of which, they were not only tolemted, but en- 
couraged ; and in the first year of the reign of 
James I. a licence, under the privy seal, was 
granted to Shakspeare, Fletcher, and several others, 
authorizing them to act plays, not only at tbeir. 
usual house, the Globe, on the JBankside, but in any 
other part of the kingdom, during his majesty^s 
pleasure. '■ About this time there were no le^ than 
ten theatres open in London. Four of these were 
private houses, viz. one in Blaclrfriars ; the Cockpit 
or Phoenix, in Drury-lane ; one in Whitefiriars ; and 
one in Salisbury-court- The other six were called 
public theatres; the Globe, the Swan, the Rose, 
and the Hope, oti the Bankside ; the Red Bull, 
at the upper end of St. John^s-street, and the For- 
tune, in Whitecross-street. Mr. Malone, whose 
supplement to Shakspeare has furnished a consider- 
able portion of the information contained in this 
account, very justly observes, that the peculiar and 
distinguishing marks of a private play-house were 
not easy to ascertain ; but that it vras small, and 
plays were usually represented there by candle-^ 
light. Perhaps this was the only difference; for 
the private theatre in Blackfriars, and the public one 
at the Globe, both belonged to Shakspeare's com- 
pany of " comedians, and the performances at the 
latter were always by day-light. One of these 
theatres was a winter, and the other a summer 
house, and as the Globe was partly exposed to the 
weather, it was probably the summer theatre. 

The price of admission into the best rooms or 
boxes, about this time, appears to have been one 
shilling. TTie galleries, or scaffolds, as they are 
sometimes called, and that part of the house which 
in private theatres was named the pit, probably from 

1 . > the 

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the Cockpit in Druiy4ane, seem to have been sd 
one price; and in houses of reputation, such as 
the Globe, and that in Blackfriars^ the price of ad- 
mission to those places was sixpence, while in some 
meaner play-houses it vfos only a penny, and in 
others two-pence. 

From several passages in our old plays we learn, 
diat spectators were admitted upon the stage^ and 
that the critics and wits of the time usually sat 
there. Some were placed on the ground, otheis 
sat on stools, of which the price was sixpence or a - 
shilling, according to the commodiousness of the 
situation; and they were attended by paees, who 
furnished them with pipes and tobacco, which was 
stnoaked here as well as in other parts of the house; 
yet it should seem that persons were suffered to sit 
on the stage only in the private play-houses, where 
the audience was more select, and of a higher class, 
and that in the public theatres no such licence was 

For many years after the time of Shakspeare ther 
female characters were represented by boys or young 
men. Sir WiUi6m Davenant first introduced females 
in the scene, and Mrs. Betterton is said to have been 
the first woman that appeared on the English stage. 
Andrew Pennycuicke played the part ofMatilda, in 
a tragedy of Davenport's; in 1655 ; and Mr. Kynas-* 
ton acted several female parts after the Restoration, 
with such address, that a contemporary writer says, 
M It has since been disputable among the judicious, 
whether any woman that succeeded him touched 
the audience so sensibly as he.-' 

During the whole reign of James T. and great 
part of timt of Charles I. the theatre seems to have 
reached the height of its glory and reputation, but 
the pn^ess^ of Puritanism was alike fatal to the 
constitution and. the drama. From the commence- 

▼01. III. u u u ment 

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Hieiit of hwtilities between the kifig 9bA dig fm* 
liament, thc^ perforinaQees were ftequepttj inters 
rupted, and, at length, plays and plajr-houses weie 
totally suppressed. 

' This erent took place on the Uth of VAnmrf^ 
1647, at. which time an ordinance was issued by 
the Lords and Commons, whereby dll staee-|dqrera 
and players of interludes and coounon {Nays wete 
declated to be rogues: and the Iwd-niayor, jtisticc* 
ef the peace, and sheriflb of the cities of Loedoil 
and Westminster, and of the boilnties of Middleaex 
and Surrey, weire authorised and required to putt 
down and demolish all fday-houses witkia tibeir 
jurisdiction, and to apprdiend the a6toni» wbo 
were to be publicly whipped^ after which thi^ weie 
to be ccminitted to prison till th^gare security 
that they would not act again. It was also dectered. 
that all the monby collected at the play-housei 
should be forfeited to the poor ; and a penalty of 
five shillings was imposed on every peHsoii yrba 
fbQuld be piresent at any dramatic exbihiticHifc 

Some few attemt)ts to revive the drama wereawdk 
luting Ae interremum^ though widl very little 
success in the eany parts of it ; but the pieaauis 
which Imd been received fvom dramatic .enterlbin- 
ments was too deeply idipressed od the public aiiad 
to be .wholly eradicated. Amidst the gkxxD of 
fanaticism, and while the royal caus^was censidenBd 
as desperate, Sir William Davenauft Without mo^ 
Icstatton^ sxhibiteci entert^nments df dedaoiAtfta 
^nd music, after the manabr of the aaeieslB^ At 
Rutland-house. He began in the year 1656, andiwA 
j'ears after removed to the Cockpit, in Drui7--*kulet 
where he performed until the eve t^ the Ratoratica. 
. On the uppiearance of that ev^t tal^og plaeei ' 
the remaifiiiEig performa^coMected themselvea, and 
began to resume ^eir former ^ns^loEjneatSi «t 4kt 


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yHfid ]Siifl, i« St. Ju^VsAreeti md jjo the year i6M, 
JVb. ilhQ4^i!, « bookseller, >\(bo had been ^rxnerly 
i¥ar4iK>be«]c4^e|)Mer t<> tj^e qcmpany wbicb acted iq 
Bl^kfriftm, fitted tip the Cockpit, Iq Drury-Iaue* 
Xbe «ci((M!9 be |«Qciu:ed \Kece chiefly »ew to the 
lUii^ ; but frcmi tbfi 43figerne99 with .which two par 
le^ta w^f^ .i^btalne^ ^ti^ the ccQwn, epoo ^ier Abe 
j^H^tioD^ it may be presumed tha^t both conxpar 
fki^fgififL s^itjb ft co«£iider£ifa|le sbai^ of success. 

Sfs IfiUiwi Dav€^;^Dt obtained one of these ,ipar 
teo^ afl4 ;KiUigrew 4be other. The 4iir8t had held a 
|N|tei^ ^Qta Charley L ^d therefore his cl^im to a 
fiew OPe was Ibiwde^s as well.oiY his former posses* 
010% a9 fQPjhi^ secvices and sufferings in the royal 
cayse: the latter h^d seodared biniMlf acceptable to 
Ilia sovaf^ign, ps much by bis vices and follies, as by 
|us:witjand;attachment to .the king in his distress. 
JKiVigraw took the remains of the old companies, and 
JPa^eiia&t the .actors who had been empl^ed by 
jElbodes; ;f(nd all of them were sworn fby the lotd 
johamb^rlfiipi as servants of the.qrowp ; the former 
Leiqg^Q'M tbeKing^s company, 4<l(l < the latter the 
|>iike of York's. 

The king's company removed from the Red Bull 
to |i t^w-buiit house, situated in Gibbons's Tennis* 
!Ppurt, nepir Qare-market; but this theatre being 
-^F^y fflcomniodious, they were obliged to erect a 
«[iore<:on.veniedt one in Drqry-lane. This latter was 
-^i^hed and opened on the 8th day of April, l66fi, 
^With Beaumont and Fletcher's comedy of " The 
liumoiirous Lieutenant;" which wias acted twelve 
-Sights successively.^ 

I)arif)g tlie femovals of the king's company, their 
rivals were shifting their places of performance, and 
iWere §ome time^ before th^ were wholly settled, 
j'pom the Cockpit, they went to -a new theatre, buik 
hi Xiacpl^r»*lpn-jFields, which was opened in the 


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spring of the year 166S ; but this playhouse was like- 
wise soon discovered to be. ill-contrived and incon- 
venient; and Sir >\^llianx Davenant found it neces- 
sary to seek a new spot, where he might erect one 
more commodious. He chose Dorset-garden ; but 
before his new theatre, which was fitted up with 
much greater munificence than that in Lincoln^ 
Inn-fields, was finished, he died* This house was 
opened in November, 1671 ; and here soon after was 
introduced a new species of entertainment, in which 
music, singing, and dancing, were added to splendid 
scenery^ Dramatic operas, with expensive decora- 
tions, soon came into fashion, and gave the duke's 
company an advantage over their competitors, whicb 
they were not entitled to by their merits. 

In Januaiyt 1671-9, the playhouse in Drury-lane 
took fire, and was entirely demolished, with between 
fifty and sixty of the adjoining houses. After this 
(iccident, the proprietors resolved to rebuild dim 
theatre with all the improvements of which it was 
capable, and for that purpose employed Sir Christo* 
pber Wren to draw the design, and superintend the 
execution of it. This theatre was opened on the 
S6th of March, 167*. 

After a rivalry, in which the emoluments of both 
houses appear to have been very small; the one be- 
ing but little frequented, on account of the superior 
splendour of the other, while the great expense <^ 
maintaining that splendour, was too heavy for thek 
receipts, it was discovered that it would be to their 
mutual advantage to unite^ and open but one house. 
This junction took place in 1682, when the duke's 
company quitted ^Dprset^garden, and removed to 

This united company had not all the success 
V^hich was expected to attend their junction, if e 
judgment m^y be formed from the frequencgr with 


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t^liira the property was transfened to new adven- 
turers. At ten^h, in 1690/ Mr. Christopher Ribh 
l^ecame a propnetor, and soon contrived to engross 
the whole power into his own hands. By various 
instances of misconduct and tyranny, he alienated 
the aiTections of the principal performers, who ap* 
plied for, and obtained, a license to act in a new 
thtatre, i(K themselves. This theatre was erected in 
liincdn's-Inn-Fields, and was opened on the 30th 
of April, 1695, with extraordinary success; and the 
•performers remained here until, upon Sir John Van- 
4>argh's plan for erecting a larger and more magnifi^' 
t;ent playhouse, in the Hay-market, being made 
public, it was agreed that the license should be 
assigned to him, and the company act under his 
direction. This building being completed; was opened 
on the 9th of April, 1705, with an Italian opera, 
which, however, did not succeed as was expected j 
and the representation of English pieces was found 
much more profitable. 

Still the existence of two companies appears to 
lHivel>^en more than the public patronage would 
support, and a new attempt was made to re-unite 
fcbem, which, in 1708, was effected, through the in- 
terposition of the lord chamberlain. It was then 
resolved, that the Hay-market house should be 
appropriated to Italian operas, and that in Drury- 
Jane to plays. Rich, however, still retained the 
jflMMgament of Drurylane, and, in less than a year, 
.by persisting in the same tyrannical and oppretisive 
conduct to the performers, forced them to solicit the 
ebamberlaifn's permission to return to the Hay -market ; 
which was not only granted, but an order was issued, 
jcrbidding the patentees of the other house from 
performing any longer. 

In the folldwipg year, Mr. Rich was driven from 

^fi|,ry*lanehouser and a license granted to Mr. Col- 

4 Her* 

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lier^ to take the management of the coiBpifiy: h 
1714, Sir Kkcliard Steele procured a patent for per* 
formances at this theatre, to be in force djirimg hit 
life, and for three years after his death ; which has 
been renewed at ditfercnt tim^, and the perform^ 
Alices of the company have coDtiaued uniiiteirapteil 
£nce that period. 

When Kich was driven from Drury lane, he set 
about rebuilding the theatre in Lincoln VInnrfields, 
but could not get the prohibition, uiKler 'whiph hii 
jNitent laboured, recalled^ until the ye^ 1744, w4 
did not live to see his new house Otpen^^ wldch took 
f^lace about six weeks after his death, under the ma^ 
nagement of his son. Thjs compaoy c^ perforoHm 
^nder his direction, weie » much infenor to iho^ 
jof Dniry-lane, that the new matiager wad compell^ 
to have recourse to his own genius 6>r a speo^^af 
•entertainment, which, however much it is decaned 
as ^lly and cwtemptible, has always bfsen {otloii^ 
and encouraged. I Pantomimes were now brou^ 
ibrward as substitutes for good perforaiers,f|tid would 
as certainly have turned the tide of popuhor farrow 
against the rival house, as the dramatic c^eras^f j^ 
last century did, had not tlie Drury-lafie fc^mpapjr 
^iven way to the public taste, and adopt^ the same 
measures. In the year 1733, the pre^^ theatre ia 
Covent^rden was finished, and Mr. .Ricfa'a coodr 
'pany immediately removed thither. 

The number of theatres in London waa increased 
tti the year 1790,. by a new one in the Hay-market, 
which was not built for any particular company, hnt 
seems to have been intended as asp^UhrtioaJby the 
builder, who relied onitsibeine hired .occasioQAUy 
for dramatic -exhibitions. This taeatre ha^ i»Mn fre- 
quently occupied, in the summer seRSOn^ Ivy vhrti^ 
of licenses from the Jotd chamberlain, wb«h in the 
month of July, 17€6, it was advamed Qojtbed^ly 


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fi a Theatre Royal ; a |>atent being then made out,^ 
.to Mr. Foote, authorizinfl; him to build a theatre, in 
the city and liberty of Westminster, and to exhibit 
dramatic performances therein, from the 15th of 
May, to the 14th of September, inclusive. On thi^ 
grant being passed, he purchased the old playhouse, 
which he immediately pulled down and rebuilt, in 
time to he opened in May, 1767* 

There was also a theatre erected in GoodmanV 
fidds, in the year 1739; but it was never very suc«* 
cessful, nor was it of long duration. 

The year 1737 produced an event which, however 
arbitrary it was thought at the time, has contributed 
peatly to preserve the drama from the reproach of 
immorality, of which it was formerfy so deserving. 
An act of parliament was passed in this year, prohi- 
biting the representation of any performance not pre* 
viously licensed by the lord chamberlain: the bistoTf 
of which transaction is thus related in the Biographia 
Dramatica. ^^ During the administration of a certain 
premier ministre, the late Mr. Fielding, whose ge^ 
nuine wit, and turn for satire, were too .considerably 
to need our expatiating on in this place, had, in two 
or three of his comedies, particularly those of Pa9« 
quin, and the Historical Register, thrown 4n some 
strokes, which were too poignandy levelled at certain 
measures then pursuing by those at the head of af- 
fairs, not to be severely felt, and their consequences, 
if not speedi^ put a check to, greatly dreaded l^y the 
minister. Open violence, however, was not the most 
eligible method to proceed in for this purpose. Not 
a^restraiat of liberty, already made use o£y but a pre- 
vention of licenliousness to come, was the ptop^tc 
weapon to employ in such a case. A pieee, there- 
fore, written by jsmnehedtf or other^ was offisred 4o 
Mr. Henry Gimftl, the manager vi GiQQf^s^s^^M^^ 


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theatre, for representation. This piece was entitled 
the Golden Rump, in which, with, a most un- 
Dounded freedom, abuse'was vented not only against 
the parliament, the council, and the ministry, but 
even against the person of majesty itself. The 
honest manager, free from design himself, suspected 
none in others, but imagining that a license of this 
kind, if permitted to run to such enormous lengths, 
must be of the most pernicious consequences, quickly 
fell into the snare, and carried the piece to the mi- 
nister, with a view of consulting him as to his man- 
ner of proceeding. 'The latter, commending highly 
his integrity in this step, requested ^only the posses- 
sion of the MS. but, at the same time^ that the 
manager might be no loser by his zeal for the in- 
terests of his king and country, ordered a gratuity, 
equal to what he might reasonably have expected 
from its representation, to he paid to him. Being 
now become master of the piece itself, together with 
the corroborating circumstance of the necessity of 
employing the public money to prevent even abso- 
lute treason on the open sta<^e, unless some autho- 
rity of another kind could be found tor stopping 
her mouth, he made such use of it as immediately 
occasioned the bringing into, and pas^ng in par- 
liament) the abovementioned bill.'^ . 

This act was exceedingly unpopular, and did not 
pass without opposition. It called forth the elo- 
quence of Lord Chesterfield, who answered all the 
arguments in favour of it, and contended against the 
necessity for such a measure ; while out of the 
house it was combated in every shape which wit, 
ridicule, or argument could assume, but without 
effect. The bill passed, and the then, and all 
future ministers were freed from any apprehensions 
of mischief from the wit or mdice of dramatic 


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writers. But notwithstanding its unpoprriarity at 
the moment, the test of experience has proved the 
wisdom and policy of the measure. 

A theatre is, of all places, the most improper for 
the discussion of political topics, and the exclusion 
of them from the stage would alone have sanctioned 
the restrai[)t ; but when, in addition to this, we 
consider that it is equally a check upon that indeli- 
cacy of J language and ideas so prevalent in many of 
our old plays, the salutary tendency of it will be 
evident, and without enquiring mto the motive 
which produced it, we must rejoice that it exists. 

Drury-lane is so called from Drury-house, which 
stood at the south end of it. Pennant observes, 
that ^' it is singular that this lane, of later times ^so 
notorious for intrigue, should receive its title from 
a family name, which, in the language of Chaucer, 
bad an amorous signification ; 

Of bataille and of chevalrie 

Of ladies love and Druerie\ 

Anon I wol you tell.*^ 

It will, however, be difficult to show any relation 
between intrigue and Druerie, whidh is used, not 
only by Chaucer, but by all our ancient writers, 
to signify a modest and decent deportment. Nor 
was the place less famous for intrigue formerly than 
it has been in later times. In the forty-sixth num- 
ber of the Tatler it is thus humourously described ; 
" There is near Coven t- garden a street, known by 
the name of Drury, which before the days of Chris- 
tianity, was purchased by the Queen of Paphos, 
and is the only part of Great Britain wh^re the te- 
nure of vassalage is still in being. All that long 
course of building is under^ particular districts or 
ladyships, after the manner of lordships in other 

vol.111. XXX partf^, 

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parts, oyier which matrons of known abilities pre- 
aide, and have, for the support of their s^ and 
infirmities, certain taxes paid out of the rewards of 
the amorous labours of the young. This seraglio of 
Great Britain is disposed into convenient alleys and 
apartments, and every house, from the cellar to 
the garret, inhabited by nymphs of different orders, 
that persons of every rank may be accommodated 
with an immediate consort to allay their flames, and 
partake of their cares." 

In Bow-street is the principal office of police, 
not only for the city and liberty of Westmin^er, but 
also for the county of Middlesex. As this may 
be considered the parental seat of the system of 
police now exercised through the whole extent 
of the metropolis, with the exception of the city 
of London, we shall take this opportunity of no- 
ticing the improvements introduced into' it in the 
year 1792. 

In a population so prodigious as that of the 
metropolis, the number of the idle, the dissipated, 
and the criminal, must be immense. According to 
authentic accounts there are more disorderly people 
to be found within its precincts than the whole 
amount of the inhabitants of any other city in the 
kingdom. Hence a d^ee of vigilance was ne- 
cessary in the magistracy of it, for more extensive 
and rigid than men of opulence and integrity chose 
to exert. Their unwillingness to undertake so 
heavy a charge obliged the government to have 
recodrae to individuals of inferior character, who, 
in accepting it, had an eye to the profits and emo- 
luments arising from the exercise of the judicial 
powers entrusted to them. From the period when 
the .ancient and respectable office of a justice of 
peace was thus degraded, it, by degrees, lost the 
reverence in which it had been held; venal and 
I inerceiiary 

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mercenary individaals sought and obtained it^ whose 
base practices became so notorious, that they drew 
down general contempt and odium both upon 
themselves and their functions ;^ and the villifying 
appellation of a trading Justice was at last applied 
with too much reason to many of those \yho exer- 
cised that office* 

To rectify the abuses imputed to these men, and 
to rejtore the office itself to a proper d^ree of re- 
spectability, a bill was brought into parliament in 
March, 1792, for regulating the office of a justice ' 
of peace within the metropolis, and after some 
opposition, passed into a law. In pursuance of this 
act, seven offices, in addition to the one in Bow- 
street, were opened in different parts of the metro- 
polis, viz. in Queen-square, Westminster; Great 
Marlborough-street; Hatton-garden ; Worship-street, 
Spitalfields; Lambeth street, Whitechapel; High- 
street, Shadwell; and Union-Street, Southwark* 
Three justices are appointed to each of these offices^ * 
with a salary of three hundred pounds per annum 
to each of them. They are prohibited from ap- 
propriating any part of the fees taken at their 
respective offices to their own use, but the whole 
of them are to be paid monthly to a receiver, and 
the surplus, after payment of the salaries and ex- 
penses of the different offices, is paid into the 
Exchequer. And, in order, at the same tim^ 
wholly to suppress the name and business of a . 
trading justice, no fees are allowed to be taken by 
any other person in the commission of the peace 
within the London district. 

By this act government are enixbled to pr6vide 
the public with respectable magistrates, who, while 
they are paid for their trouble, have no pretext for 
exacting money, or encouraging petty disputes 
among the ignprant for the sake of fees or war- 

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rants, and who will be fearful to act oppreswvdjr 
while they are liable to be displaced for misconduct, 
No^ greater proof of the efficacy of this measure 
can be given than a comparison between the num* 
ber of recognizances returned to the clerks of the 
)>eace for various offences and disputes in the ses- 
sions immediately preceding and during the pro- 
gress of the bill, and in the corresponding sessions 
in the year after it passed. In the former they 
amounted to 3673, and in the latter to 1247i 
making a difference of 1+26 in a very few months. 

But notwithstanding the evident advantages of 
such an establishment, the influence of government, 
from its apf3oiiiting officers whose authority was to 
extend over the 'whole metropolis, \vas a subject of 
jealousy and disapprobation to many; for which 
reason, the promoters of the bill intioduced clauses 
prohibiting these magistrates, or any person under 
their controul, from voting or interfering, either di- 
rectly or indirectly, in the election of any member 
of parliament, and from sitting in parliament, and 
also, for limiting the duration of it to five years, li 
has, however, been twice prolonged, though always 
with. the addition of these restrictions, and will 
probably continue to be renew^ed at the expiration 
of each successive five years, while the labour 
attending the office of a justice of the peace in 
the metropolis shall remain such that persons of 
opulence cannot be prevailed upon to undertake it. 

Tlie parish of St Anne was separated from that 
of St. Martin in the Fields by an act of parliament 
passed in the year l66l ; previous to which, a piece 
of fffound was laid out, under the authority of the 
Bishop of London, in Kemp's field, now King-street, 
for the site of a church and church- yard, and also 
for a glebe for the support of a rector. But tlie 
inhabitants not being empowered by this act to raise 


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money for accomplishing their purpose, the building 
of the church >was long interrupted, and at length 
a second act vvas obtained, to enable them to raise 
the sum of five thousand pounds, for the comple- 
tion of the church, rectory house, &c. and on the 
25th of March, 1 680, the church and cemetery 
were consecrated by the Bishop of London. 

The walls of this church are of brick, with rustic 
quoins of stone, and at the east end is a large mo- 
dillion cornice and triangular pediment. Tins church 
has been lately repaired, and a handsom^ painted 
4?las8 window has been put up at the east end. 
'rbe tower and steeple at the west end were also 
rebuilt at the same time. 

The interior of the building is handsome. The 
roof is arched and divided into pannels. It ^ is 
supported by columns of the Ionic order; and the 
gallery is raised on those of the Tuscan order. The 
organ is the gift of King William UL 

The parish is a rectory in ihe gift of the Bishop of 

Against the tower is a tablet erected to the me- 
mory of Theodore Anthony Newhoff, King of 
Corsica, who died in this parish in the year 1756, 
soon after his liberation from the King's-bench prison 
by an act of insolvency. The malice of fdrtune 
pursued this unfortunate man even after death. The 
friend who sheltered him in the last days of his 
wretched existence, was himself so poor as to be 
unable to defray the cost of his funeral, and his 
remains were about to be consigned to the grave 
by the parish, when a Mr. Wright, an oilman, in 
Compton-street, declared hejor once would pay the 
funeral expenses of a king; which he actually did. 
The marble was erected, and the epitaph written by 
the honourable Horace Walpole. It is as follows: 


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The grave, great teacher, to a level brings 
Heroes and beggars, galley slaves, and kings. 
But Theodore this moral learo'd ere dead, ^ 
Fate pour'd its lessons on his living head, > 
' Bestow'd a kingdom, and denied him bread. ^ 

Behind the gardens of Lei€ester4iouse^ where 
Lisle*street now runs, was a military yard, esta* 
blished by Henry, Prince of Wales, son of James I. 
It was afterwards used as %. place of exercise for the 
Middlesex and Westminster Trained-bands« 

'Farther north was Gerard-house, part of which is 
still remaining. It was the residence of Gerard, 
Earl of Macclesfield. 

Soho^ or KingVsquare, was built in the reign of 
Charles II. It is of considerable extent, with a 
garden in the middle enclosed with iron rails. In 
the center is a statue of King Charles IL standing 
upon a pedestal, placed in the midst of a small 
bason ; at his feet lie the representations of the four 
principal rivers, the Thames, Trent, liumber, and 
Severn. This square was originally called Mon- 
mouth-square, in honour of the Duke of Monmouth, 
whose mansion stood on tlie south side of it. This 
house afterwards came into the possession of Lord 
Bateman, by whom it was pulled down, and tbti; 
site of it and the gardens covered with a number of 
dwelling houses. The name of the square was 
probably altered to King-square after tlie downfal 
of the duke; which Mr. Pennant, upon the autho- 
rity of Samuel Pegge, Esq. says, was changed to 
Soho, by the admirers of that unfortunate man, that 
being the word of the day at the battle of ^iedge- 
moor. On the east side of Soho-square, at the 
comer of Sutton-street, is Carlisle-house, celebrated 
some years ago as a place of evening entertainment 
for the nobility, and gentry; and immediately ad- 


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LOVDON aud its evtikoks. ' 597 

joining is Bei^eley^house, which is now converted 
into a coffee^iouse. 

On the south sid^ of Piccadilly is the parish 
church of St. James, Westminster. 

This is also one of the churches that owes its'rise 
to the increase of buildings ; for the church of 
St. Martin in the Fields being too small for the 
inhabitants, and too remote from those in this 
quarter, Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban's, with 
other persons of distinction in that neighbourhood, 
erected thiS' edifice at the expense of about seven 
thousand pounds. It was built in the reign of 
King Charles 11. and though a large fabric, was 
considered as a chapel of ease to St' Martin's, it 
was consecrated in 1684>, and dedicated to St. James, 
in compUment to the name of the Duke of York, 
and the next year, when that prince had a^ceinded 
the throne, the 'district for which it was built 
was by act of parliament separated from St 
Martin's, and made a distinct parish. The walls 
ace brick, supported by rustic quoins of stone ; 
and the windows, which are large, are also Closed 
with stone. The tower at the west end rises 
regularly from the ground to a considerable height, 
and is crowned with a neat, well constructed 

In this church is a most beautiful baptismal font, 
of white marble, by Grinlyn Gibbons. It is supported 
by a column, representing the Tree of the Knowledge 
of Good and Evil, on which is the serpent Offering 
the fruit to our first parents, who are standing be- 
neath. On the font are three pieces of sculpture: 
St. John baptizing Christ ; Philip baptizing the Eu- 
nuch ; and Noah's Ark, with the dove bearing the 

Over the altar is some exquisite carving in wood, 
by the same artist, representing a pelican feeding its 


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young, between twa doves ; there is abo a veiy cfe- 
gant festoon, wrth targe thiit, flowers, and foliage. 

The organ was presented to the church by Queen 
Mary, in the year. 1691. 

This parish is a rectory, in the gift of the Bishop 
of London. 

Piccadilly, in which this church is situated, ap- 
pears to have taken its name from a gaming-house 
for the nobility. Lord ( larendon, in his History of 
the Rebellion, describes it as " a place called Picka- 
diUy (which was a fair house for entertainment, and 
gaming,' with handsome gravel walks, with shade, 
and where were an upper and lower bowling-green, 
whither very many of the nobility and gentry of the 
best quality, resorted, both for exercise and conver- 
sation).^^ This was in the year iSiO: the street was 
completed in the year 1649, as far as^ the present 
Berkeley-street. The first good house built in it was 
Burlington House; the site of which was chosen by 
its noble founder, ^' because he was certain no one 
would build beyond him/^ It is on the north side of the 
street, and fenced in with a brick wail, about two 
hundred and twenty feet in length, in which are 
three gates for the admission of carriages. The front 
of the house is of stone, and )s remarkable for the 
beauty of the design and workmanship. It has two 
wings, joined by a circular colonade, of the Doric 
order. The front was built by the father of the late 
Earl of Burlington, and is more modem than the 
house. The apartments are in a fine taste, and the 
stair-case painted with great spirit, by Seb. Ricct. 
Behind the house is a spacious garden. 

Farther west is Devonshire House, built on the 
site of the ancient tnansion of the Berkeley ia- 
family. It is a modern building, principally of 
brick, and, though plain, is very elegant and well- 
proportioned. The offices on the wings are properly 


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subordinate to the house, and make a con^stent 
whole. The state rooms are reiy rich and magnifi** 
cent. The collection ,of pictures is thought fiir su- 
perior to any other private collection in the kingdom. 
Mere is also an excellent library, and a fine collec- 
tion of medals. 

Opposite to St. James's church is a place to which 
the name of Albany has been lately given, which 
extends from Piccadilly to Burlington-cjfardens, a 
street so called from the north Wall of the gardens 
of Burlington-house forming one side of it. The 
front of Albany, in Piccadilly, is formed by two 
handsome buildings, between which is a passage into 
the court yard of Melbourne-house, late the resi- 
dence of His Royal Highness the Duke of York, from 
whose second title its name is derived. It is now 
converted into a hotel ; and in the gardens, behind, 
are two rows of convenient chambers, on a plan nearly 
resembling those of the inns of court ; to which there 
. are entrances at each end. Between these ranges of 
buildings is a long paved passage, covered by a roof^ 
supported on small pillars; and the entrance to each 
door is sheltered from the weather in a similar man- 

'On the north side of Burlington-gardens is Paget*- 
house, the town residence of the Earl of Uxbrifdge. 
It is a very large building, with a handsome $tone 
front, consisting of a rustic basement story, support- 
ing a range of lofty pilasters of the Composite order, 
crowned with an entablature, above which is a low 
balustrade, to conceal the roof. 

Between St. James's church and Pall-mall, is St. 
James's-square ; in the center of which is a large 
oval bason of water, one hundred and fifty feet in its 
longest diameter. This square is surrounded, except 
on the south side, with exceeding good buildings, 

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some of which are very elegant; the largest is Nor- 
folk-boose, at the south-east corner. 

Jennyn-street» and St. AlbanVstreet, on the north 
and east sides of the square, take their names from 
the Eari of St. Alban's, who was the principal con- 
tributor to the foundation of the church, and are 
built upon the ground belonging to his house, which 
stood near the north end of St. Alban*8-street. 

On the south side of that part of Oxford street, 
f^hich is within this parish, stands a building called 
the Pantheob, erected in the year 1 773) as a place of 
evening entertainment for the nobility and gentry; 
but which has been principally used, of late years, 
for exhibitions, and, occasionally, for masquerades. 
It was a superb and beautiful structure, though con- 
cealed from public view, except the two entrances, 
the principal of which is iu Oxford-street, and the 
other in Poland-street.^ After the destruction of the 
Opera house, by fire, the subscribers to that esta- 
blishment removed the performances to this place; 
but, in the month of January, 1793, it shared the 
same fate, the interior of it being wholly consumed 
by the same destructive element. 

A short distance to the south-west is Camaby- 
market, built on the site of the west part of a piece 
of ground, called the Pest-field, from a lazaretto being 
erected there, in the year l66o, for the reception of 
persons seized with the plague; some thousands of 
those who died in that calamitous year, were interred 
in the cemetery, which was in a distant part of the 

Near this is Golden-square, which is very neat, 
though small, containing about two acres. The center 
of it is encompassed, by a plain iron railing, within 
which are grass-plats and gravel walks ; and the whole 
is surrounded with handsome and unijform buildings. 

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It was originally called Gelding-square, from the sign 
of a neighbouring inn. 

. West of St. James's parish, is that of St. GeorgeT, 
Hanover-square, thechurch of which stands in Great 

This parish was also taken out of St. Martin's, in 
the Fields. The commissioners for building the fifty 
new churches, appointed by virtue of an act of par- 
liament passed in the reign of Queea Anne, observ* 
ing the want of one in this part of the town, on ac- 
count of the great increase of buildings and inhabi- 
tants, erected this elegantstructure, which was finished 
in 1724, and, in compliment to the reigning monarch, 
was dedicated to St. George, the Martyr. It has a 
plain body, with an elegant portico; the columns, 
which are Corinthian, are of a large diameter, and 
the pediment has an acroteria, but without further 
ornament. It has a tower, which is elegantly adorned 
ati the cpmers, with coupled Corinthian columns that 
are very lofty; these are crowned with an entablature, 
which, at each corher, supports two vases; and over 
these, the tower still rises, till it is terminated by a 
dome, crowned with a turret, that supports a ball, 
over which is a vane. 

It is a rectory, the patronage of which is in the 
Bishop of London. 

The ground oo which this chutch stands was given 
by Lieutenant General William Stewart, who also 
bequeathed four thousand pounds to the parish, 
towards erecting and endowing a charity school. 

At the north end of George-street is Hanover- 
square, from which the church receives its distinctive 

Tliis square is so called in compliment to the 
present royal family. It contains about two acres of 
ground, in the center of which is a garden, enclosed 
with rails: the houses, which are built in the modem 


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taste, make an elegant appearance, and are inhabited 
by persons of the first distinction. The house in the 
south-west comer is^ considered the best piece of 
brick-work in the metropolis. 

West from Hanover-square is Grosvenor-square, 
which is so named from Sir Thomas Grosvenor, its 
original proprietor. 

The area of this square contains about five acres, 
and in the middle is a latge garden, surrounded with 
pallisado rails, placed upon a circular dwarf wall. 
The garden is laid out into walks, and adorned with 
an equestrian statue of King Geoi^ I. gilt, which 
stands on a pedestal in the center. The square is sur- 
rounded with elegant houses, which, however, are very 
far from being uniform; some being of stone, others 
of brick and stone, and others of brick (xily. Indeed, 
here is the greatest variety of handsome buildings 
that is any where to be met with in so small a 

The south end of George street terminates in 
Conduit-street, which, with great part of New Bond- 

- street, is built upon the site of a field, formerly called 
Conduit-mead, from one of the conduits which 
supplied this part of the town with w6ter. 

In Conduit street is a chapel, called Trinity-chapel, 
the history of which is very remarkable. It was 
originally a wooden •field-chapel, erected by James^ 
II. and fixed upon wheels," for the purpose of being 
conveyed wherever bis majesty went ; it being fitted 
up for his private masses. In the year 1 686, it was 
in his camp, at Hounslow-heath, where it remained 
until sometime after the Revolution, when it was 

, removed, and placed near the north efid of Old Bond- 
street. Here it remained, and was used as a chapel 
by the neighbouring inhabitants, until the year 1716, 
when it was demolished, and the present building 
'erected for the same use. 


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Fiom the west end of Conduit- street, is a street 
called Bruton-street, leading into Berkeley-square, 
which derives its name from its vicinity to the former 
mansion of Lord Berkelev, of Stratton. 

This square contains about three acres of ground, 
laid out in the form of a toBff parallelogram. It is 
surrounded with very elegant buildings; and in the 
center of it is an equestrian statue of his present 
Majesty, erected by Her Royal Highness the Princess 
Amelia. The whole of the south side of it is occupied 
by the magnificent mansion and gardens of the Mar- 
quis of Lansdown, which are separated from the 
square by a brick wall. 

- On Hay- hill, at the south-east comer of this square, 
a skirmish took place, in the year 1654', between ti 
party of insurgents, under Sir Thomas Wyat, and a 
cletach!tiefit from the royal army, in wh'ich the former 
were repulsed. After the subsequent defeat and 
capture of Sir Thontas, at Ludgate, he was executed^ 
and his head set upon a gallows, at this place ; and ^ 
three of his associates were hung in chains near their 

West of Berkeley*square is May-fair, formerly an 
open space, whereon a fair was held annually, in the 
month of May, but now covered with a chapel, several 
streets, and a small market, called Shepherd's-market. 

On the north side of May- fair is/^'hesterfield-house, 
an elegant structure built by the late Earl of Ches- 
terfield, from whom it derives its name. It consists 
of a main body with detached wings, connected by 
a very beautiful colonade, the entablature of which 
is crowned with an attic balustrade and pedestals 
above each column, on which are placed elegant 
vases. 1 his is one of the very few buildings in 
London, which M- Grosley allows to be equal to 
the hotels of the nobility in Paris. See his Tour 
to London^ vol, I. p. 49. 


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TJiat part of Piccadilly which is in this parish, 
was formerly called Portugal-street. It is only t)uilt 
Oil the north side, the other being formed by the 
wall and railing of the Green Park. This row of 
houses contains several very handsome buildings, 
and is terminated by the magnificent mansion of 
Lord Bathurst ; behind which is a pleasant gardea, 
separated by a dwarf stone wall and iron railing 
from Hyde-park. 

At the €fud of Piccadilly, on the south side of the 
road leading to Kensington, stands St. George's Hos- 

This undertaking was set on foot, in the year 
17iJJ, by some gentlemen who had been concerned 
in a charity of a siu)ilar description in Chapel- street, 
Westminster. But the house in which that institu- 
tion bad been carried on, being old and ruinous, it 
was found necessary to remove, when a conaderable 
number, but not the majority, gave the preference 
to this building, which had been the residence of 
Lord Lanesboruugh, who died there in 1724, but 
was then vacant. Having determined upon tliis spot, 
and being supported by the medical department, the 
minority separated from the old institution, and siv 
licited subscriptions for thei mew establishment, with 
such zeal, that in less than three nK)nths, the wings 
were built and in a condition to receive patients. 

This hospital enjoys a fine situation, and has all 
the benefit of a clear and pure air. It is a very neat 
building, and though it is extremely plain, yet is not 
devoid of ornament. It has two small wings, and a 
large front, with only one^door, which is in the mid- 
dle, and to which there is an ascent by a few steps. 
On the top of this part of the building is a pediment 
raised above the rest of the edifice; and under this 
ornament is a stone with an inscription, expressing 
the noble use to which this stiucture is applied. 


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Hyde Park, a considerable part of which is in 
this parish, is a royal demesne, at the west extremity 
of the metropolis, extending, between the great 
western road on the south side, and the mad to 
Oxford on the north, to Kensingtcm. It is part of 
the ancient manor of Hida, which belonged to the 
monastery of St. Peter, at Westminster, till, in the 
reign of Henry VIII. it became the property of the 
crown. It was originally much larger than it is at 
present, having been reduced since the survey in 
1652, when it contained six hundred and twenty 
acres, by inclosing Kensington-gardens, and by grants 
of land, between I Jyde-park Corner and Park-lane, for. 
building on.. According to a suiTey taken in the 
year 1790, its present extent is three hundrdd and. 
ninety-four acres, two roods, and thirty-eight poles* 

The scenery of this park is very pleasing, and its 
natural beauties will be greatly heightened, when 
the plantations made in it lately have reached ma- 
turity. The Serpentine River, at the west end, is a 
fine sheet of water, formed by Queen Caroline, in 
the year 1730, by enlarging the bed of the stream, 
which taking its rise to the north-west of Bayswater, 
on the Uxbridge road, passes through Kensington- 
gardens and this park, and falls into the Thames, near 

On the north side of the Serpentine River is a 
cluster of houses for the keepers and deputy rangers 
of the park, which, being built on the edge of a 
grove of tall oaks, forms a pleasing and picturesque 
object in the landscape. The one nearest the river 
is built of timber and plaster, and is of considerable 
antiquity. It was known by the name of the Cake- 
house, in the beginning of the last century, and 
probably much earlier. In the garden belonging to 
this house, is the building erected by the Humane 
Society, as a receiving-house for those who are un- 
fortunately drowned in the neighbouring river. 

1 * At 

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At the north-west corner of this park is a very 
beautiful inclosed eminence, called Buckden-hilh . 
which being only separated from Kensington -gardens 
by a haha, appears, at a distance, to be a part of it.~ 
On the decHvity of this hill is the grove of oa^Ls men* 
tioned before, in which are two medicinal springs; 
the one, a slight chalybeate, is drank as a tonic,, but 
its virtues ought probably to be attributed to the 
exercise tal^en in going thither ; the other is reputed 
a specific in some disorders of the eyes. ' There is a 
foot-path across this hill to Kensington-gardens. 

On the south side of the park are very handsome 
barracks for the Royal Horse-guards; and on. this 
side are two carriage roads to Kensington ; one of 
which is better known by the name of Rotten-row. 
These have become the resort of the fashionable 
world, instead of the Ring, and are as much fre- 
quented, especially on Sundays. 

The open part of the park was, till lately, used for 
the field- day!» and reviews of the horse and foot- 
guards, and also for those of the volunteers, by 
which the sward of it was so much injured, that it 
had become a dry sandy plain, with scarcely a ves- 
tige of verdure. At present, however, these exer- 
cises are forbidden, and the surface of it is sown 
with grass seeds, and covered with the mud taken 
from the reservoir at the lower part of the Serpentine 
River, .which will restore it to its pristine beauty. 

Park-lane, on the east side of Hyde Park, contains 
many handsome modern l)uildings, which, from their 
situation, oommand an extensive and very agreeable 


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