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Full text of "The history and antiquities of the Exchequer of the kings of England, in two periods: to wit, from the Norman conquest, to the end of the reign of K. John; and from the end of the reign of K. John, to the end of the reign of K. Edward II"

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7- J^f 'i' 


Hiftory and Antiquities 



O F 7^ H E 




From the N o r m a n Co n clu e s t, to the End of the 

Reign of K. John; 


From the End of the Reign of K. John, to the End of the Reign 

of K. Edward II. 



A Corredl Copy of the Ancient Dialogue concerning the Exchequer, 
generally afcribed to Gervasius Tilburiensis. 


A Dissertation concerning the moll ancient Great Roll ot the 
Exchequer, commonly ftyled The Roll of Quinto Regis Stei'hani. 



With a Full and Compleat Index. 

• — ^_^— ^-^^^ 







M2 : h 







Prefatory Epijlle concerning this 
Book, p. iii. with a large Di- 
grejfion touching the Romaniclc 

p. xvii. 


Of the Court of the Kings of England, 
from the Norman Conqueji to the End 
cf the Reign of King John. 

I. 'The IntroduElion. Page i 

II. A View of the King's Court. p. 2 

III. Of the Bufwefs or Aas of the King's 
Court : In the Reigns of KK. Wil- 
liam I, William II, Henry I, Stephen, 
Henry II, Richard I, and John, p. 6 

IV. Of the Court of fome of the Ancient 
Francick Kings and Dukes of Nor- 
mandy, p. 25 


Of the Great Officers of the King's 

I. IntroduSlion. p. 30 

II. Of the Chief Jujliciers : In the Reigns 
of K. William I, K. William II, 
K. Henry I, K. Stephen, A'. Henry 11, 
K. Richard I, and K. John. p 31 

III. Of the like Great Officer in Nor- 
mandy, Naples, ^«i Aragon. p. 37 

IV. Of the Confiahle. P- 39 

V. Of the MarefchalL p. 43 


VI. Of the Senefchall., Dapifer, and Ma- 
jor-domus. p. 48 

VII. Of the like Great Officer in fome 
foreign Countries. P- 53 

VIII. Of the Chamberlain. P* 55 

IX. Of the Chancellor and Vice- Chan- 
cellor, p. 60 

X. Of the Treafurer. P* 7^ 


Of the Judicature of the King's Court. 

I. Of the principal Acceptations of the 
phrafe Curia Regis. p. 8r 

II. Of the Sovereign Court of Ordinary 
Judicature called Curia Regis, and of 
the Curia Regis ad Scaccarium. ibid. 

III. Of the ancient State of the Great 
Judicature called Curia Regis, p. 84 

IV. Of the Original of that Judicature. 

p. 92 

V. Of the Perfons ivho fat and ailed 
therein. P- 93 

VI. Of the Pleas ufually pleaded and 
judged there. P- 95 

VII. Of other Bufmefs tranfa5led there. 

p. 112 

VIII. Of the Privilege, not to be impleadei 
except in Curia Regis. p. 1 16 

IX. Of the like Privilege in Normandy. 

p. 121 

X. Of the Inflitution cf Iters. ibid- 

XI. Juflicis Itinerant in Normandy, p. 


XII. Of the Iter Regis. ibid. 




The Table of Contents. 

c II A P. IV. 

Of the Exchequer of the Kings of Eng- 
land, /rw« the Normnii Conqnejl to the 
End (f the Reign of K. John. 

I. Of its Rehticn to the King's Court. 

, P- ' 54- 

II. Of the Prince's "Treafioy in foreign 
Countries. P- ^57 

III. Of the JFcrd Sczccm\.ym. p. i6o 

IV. Of the Exchequer of Normandy. 

p. 162 

V. Of the Lifiitution cr Origind of the 
Exchequer in 'E.x\<^\zrn\. p. 177 

VI. 0/ //'£ Duo Scaccaria. p. 189 

VII. Of fame Subordinate Exchequers. 

p. 190 

VIII. That the Kin^, when he pleafed, 
fct and ctkd in Perfon at the Exche- 
quer. P- 191 

IX. Where the Exchequer was holden. 

p. 192 

X. 'That the King's Chancery was kept in 
his Court and in his Exchequer, p. 19.4 


Of the Perfons who fat in the Exchequer 
during this firfl Period. 

I. Explication of the Terms here ufed. 

p. 197 

II. Of the Chief Juflicier. p. 200 
HI. Of him and the other Barons, p. 20:? 

IV. Of the King's Chancellor. p. 206 

V. Of the Treafurer. p. 20.7 

III. Of Buf,nefs of divers Kinds. 

IV. Of Affairs of Policy. 


p. 214 
p. 219 


Of the Exchequer of the Jews. 

I. Of the Revemte of ]udiiL\im. p. 221 

II. Of the Exchequer of the Jews. p. 2 3 x 

III. Of the Juftices of the Jews -, their 
Appointment to their Off.ce ; their Pri- 
vilege, and Jurifdioiion. p. 233 

IV. Of the Jcwilh Charailers and Starrs. 

P- 237 

V. Of the Chirographers and Cofferers of 

the Judaifm. p. 238 

VI. Certain Laws or Jfftzes of the Ju- 
daifm. p. 244 

VII. That the Revenue of Judaifm, and 
the Exchequer of the Jews, were under 
the DireHion and Contrail of the Trea- 
furer and Barons. p. 249 

VIII. The Conclufton, P- 255 


Of the Receipt of Exchequer. 

I. Of Payments in Thefauro. p. 262: 

II. Of Payments in Camera CurijE. ib. 

III. 0//^f Scaccariun' RecepLse. p. 266 

IV. Of Payments in the Wardrobe, ths 
Tower of London, and the New 
Temple. p. 267 


Of the Crown Revenue. 

Of the Bujinefs of the "Exchequer, during I. Of the Species wherein the ancient- 
the faid firjl Period. Crown Revenue was ufually paid. 

p. 272 

I. or Revenue. p. 208 II. Of the Payment ad Penfum, Blank 

II. Of Caufes or Common Pleas, p. 209 andbyT'i\t. P- 274 

111. Of 

The Table of Contents. 

III. Of the Cctnhujlion, Examen, and 
Ajfay. p. 2S1 


Of fame 'Rotable Parts or Branches of 
the Crown-Revenvie. 

I. Of the "Dcmeanes of the Crown, p. 295 

II. Of Efcheats. p. 296 

III. Of vacant BifJiopricks and Monofie- 
ries. p. 302 

IV. Of the Feudal and other Profits 
arjfng out ef the King's Daneanes and 
Efcher.ts \ viz. lieiiefs, Wardfldps, 

Marricges p. 3 1 5 

V. Of the Yearly Ferms of Counties, and 
of 'Tozvns or Burghs and Gilds, p. 3 ^ 6 

VI. Of Fines and Amerciiunents. p. 342. 

VII. Of Aids, Scut ages. Tallages ana 
Ctifiomes. ibid. 

VIII. Of the Cafud Revenue. ibid. 

IX. Of the Alms ufually charged on the 
Revenue. p. 348 

X. O//^^ Aurum Regin.'e. P- 350 

XI. Of the Levying and Receiving of the 
King's Revenue. p. 253 

XII. Of the Manner of Paying cut or 
Ifjuing it. Of Dijl'urfements by Fermers 
and Accomptants. p. 362 

XIII. Of Imprejl, Affigmnent, Privy Seal, 
md Liberate. P- 3^7 

II. Of Fines for Writs., Pleas, Tryah, 
and Judgment. P- 429 

III. Of Fines for Expedition of Pleas, 
Tryals, and Judgment. P- 447 

IV. Of Fines for Delay thereof, p. 448 

V. Of Fines payable out of the Debts to 
be recovered. p. 45 1 

VI. An Expofttion of a Claufe in IVIagna 
Charta. p. 455 


Of Fines of divers Sorts. 

I. Of F.nes relating to Offices. p. 456 

II. Of Fines made by Tencnts in Capite 
for Licence to marry, i^c. p. 463 

III. Of Fines for Leave to trade, p. 467 

IV. Of Mifcellaneous Fines for Licences. 

p. 470 

V. Of Fines for the King's Favour, p. 47: 

VI. For bis ProteHion and Aid. 

VII. For his Mediation. p 

VIII. For Seifm. p 

IX. For Replevin or Bail. p, 

X. For Acquittal. p, 

XI. Fines of divers Kinds. p, 

XII. Counterfines and concurrent Fines. 

p. 511 

XIII. Of the Way of Fining ufed in Nor- 








Of Fines and Amerciaments. 


Of Amerciaments. 

I. II. Of Fines for Liberties. p. ^(^c^ I. Of the Difference bet-iveen a Miieri- 

coxA'xz and an Amercement, p. 527 


Of Fines touching Law-Proceedings. 

I. Of Fines to have Juflice and Right. 
5 P- 425 

II. Of the Amercements of Barons, p. 528 

III. Of Freedom from Amerceraents ; viz. 
By Prerogative, By Charter, By Pri- 
vilege, p. 539 

IV. Of Amercements granted to Lords of 
Seigneuries. p. 540 

V. Of 

The Table of Contents. 

■V. Of the Amercements jet in general 
Term;, De Mifericordia, ^ De Mi- 
fericordia Regis proForefta. p. 541 

VI. Of particular Amercements; viz. For 
or by Reafon of Murders or Manjlaught- 
ers. .p. 543 

VII. For Trefpajfes or Mifdcmeaners. 

p. 544 

P- 549 

VIII. For Diffeiftnes. 

IX. For Recreancy. 

X. Fcr Breach of AJfize. p. ^52 

XI. Fcr Defaults. ibid. 

XII. For Non-appearance, & quia non 
habuit quern plegiavit. p. 554 

XIII. For Fafe Judgments. p. ^s:,^ 

XIV. For not making Purfuit. p. 536 

XV. Of Mifcellaneous Amercements', viz. 
for Trefpaffes of divers Kinds. ^- S57 


Of the Revenue arifing by Aids. 

J. Of the three Notable Aids, viz. Aid 
to make hts eldefl Son a Knight, to 
marry Lis eldeji Daughter, and to ran- 
fom his Perfon. p. 569 

II. Of the Aid to tnarry K. Henry the 
Second'' s Daughter, raifed upon Baronies 
and Kiights Fees. P- 57' 

III. Of the Aid for that Marriage raifed 
out of the Demeanes and Towns, p. 585 

IV. Of the Aid raifed for the Ranfcnn of 
K. Richard I. as well by Scutage upon 
Baronies and Knights Fees, as other- 
wife, p. 590 

V. Of the Aid to marry K. Plenry the 
Third's Sifter. p. 593 

VI. Of the Aid to marry K. Henry the 
Third's eldeft Daughter. ibid. 

VII. Of the Aid to make K. Henry the 
Third's eldeft Son a Knight. p. 596 

VIII. Of the Aid to marry K. Edward 
the Firft's eldeft Daughter. p. 598 

IX. Aid pur faire Fitz-Chivaler, or pur 
Fille marier, was not chargeable on 

hands holden in Frankalmcigne or So- 
cage, p. 599 

X. Of Aids of feveral Kinds. p. 600 

XI. Of Fines for Aid. p . 6 1 2 

XII. Of Aids to private Lords: viz. 
Aid to knight his eldeft Son, to marry 
his eldeft Daughter, to ranfom his Per^ 
fon, to pay his Fine made tvith the Kingy 
and his other Debts. p. 614 


Of the Revenue arifing by Scutage or 

I, II. Efcuage Money arofe out of Fees 
holden of the King in Capite. p. 619, 


III. Some Serjeanties paid it. p. 650 

IV. It was in lieu of perfonal or actual 
Service in the King's army. p. 652 

V. If Barons or Knights holding in Ca- 
pite did not do perfonal Service, they 
fent Knights in their ftead, or made 
Fine Ne transfretent, i^c. according 
to the Shiantity of their Fees. p. 653 

VI. And then they were acquitted of their 
Efcuage for fuch Fees. Of the Writs 
of Acquittal ufual in fuch Cafe. p. 663 

VII. Efcuage was not chargeable on Lands 
holden either in Frankalmoigne or So- 
cage, p. 670 

VIII. The King's Tenants in Capite by 
K:ights Service had Efcuage of their 
Tenants by Knights Service of the Fees 
for which they paid Efcuage to the King. 

P- ^75 

IX. How that Efcuage was colleSled. 

p. (i7<) 

Of the Revenue arifing by Tallage. 
I. Of Danegeld. p. 6^^~ 

II. Of 

The Table of Contents, 

II. Offalhge under the Name of Donum 
t? Affifa. p. 694 

III . Of the Tallage of the King's Demeanes, 
Efcheats, and IVardfJiips . p. 700 

IV. By whom Tallage was zvont to be 
affeffed and colle£led. P- 732 

V. Of Tallage per Capita t? in Com- 
muni. p. y^6 

VI. Of Fines for Tallage. p. 743 

VII. Of Exemption from Tallage, p. 744 

VIII. Of Tallage rendred to an inferior 
Lord. p. 751 

IX. Of Tallage in Normandy, p. 763 

Of the Revenue arifmg by Cu domes. 

I. Of the Term Cuftome. p. 764 

II. Of Prize. -p. 765 

III. Of the Difme and ^inzime of Mer- 
chants Avalage^ &c. P- 771 

IV. Of the Chamberlainfjip of London, 
Tronage, &c. p. 775 

V. Of Cuflomes and Duties in general. 

p. 781 


Of the Divifion of the King's Courts.- 

I. Of the Ereiiion of the Bznk, or Com- 
mon Bench. V- 7^7 

II. Of the Tim^ and Manner of its Erec- 
tion, p. 788 


Explanation of Breviatures ufed in this Book. 

DgRADNA&CA. Pat. or Rot. Pat. 

Dei gratia Rex Anglic Dux Nor- . Rotulus Patentium, the Patent-RoU. 
manniae Aquitanis &: Comes An- 

degavias. p. 

T .IT cc Rotulus Claufarum, the Clofe-Rdl. 

In c r t h L n f r p. ' •' 

In cuius rei teftimonium has Literas 

noilras fieri fecimus patentes. Rot. Fin. Rot. Oblat. 

Rotulus Finium, Rotulus Oblato- 

r n. rum, the Fine-Roll, and the Oblata- 

regni noftri. Roll. 


Rotulus Liberatarum, the Liberate- 

di & fi. 

diledo & fideli. 

r c. 

reddit compotum. 

' Chart. Antiq. 
In th 1, Et Q^e. ChartfeAntiqu^e, the Rolls (^/Chartje 

In thefauro liberavit, Et Quietus eft. Antique in the T'oiver of London. 

N P & N C. 

Nova Placita & Novze Conventiones. Rot. Plac. 

Rotulus Piacitorum, the Plea-Roll. 

B e in f M. 

Breve eft in forulo Marefcalli. & m fimilibus. 

Mag. Rot. 

Magnus Rotulus, The Great Roll of Whenever the Memoranda (or Com- 

the Exchequer, commonly called the »jk«m, &c.) of the Exchequer are cited 

Pipe-Roll. in this Hiftory, the Memoranda on the 

Treafurer's Remembrancer's Side are 

Chart, cr Rot. Chart. meant; unleis itis faid, yWf»;(jr. tfx/i2ri;? 

Rotulus Chartarum, the Charter- Remem. Reginte. 





Mojl Dread Soveraigne, 

YOU are gracioufly pleafed to permit Your obe- 
dient Subjeds to come into Your Royal Prefence, 
to give Your Majesty Affurances of their Af- 
fedlion and Duty. Amongft others who enjoy the Ho- 
nour and Benefit of that Indulgence, I now humbly make 
my Obeifance to Your moft Serene Majesty. I come 
with a Heart full of Duty and Loyalty, to lay at Your 
facred Feet the Hiftory of the Exchequer of Your Royal 
Progenitours Kings of England : a Hiftory difplaying in 
fome Meafure the Splendour of that Imperial Crown, 
which from the renowned Saxon and Normannick Race 
rightfully defcendeth to Your Majesty, and is placed by 
Divine Providence upon Your illuftrious Head. 

It is Your Majesty's Felicity, that You are fprung 
from ancient Kings ; and efpecially, that You inherit, 

a by 


by the peculiar Favour of Heaven, their Royal Virtues. 
They, in their refpedive Times, in the Courfe of feveral 
Ages, were famous for their Wifdom and Magnanimity, 
their Munificence, Juftice, and Clemency. It was their 
Glory, to protect the Innocent, to relieve the OpprefTed, 
to vindicate Right, to fupport Religion and Virtue ; in 
a Word, to rule juftly. And thefe are the Royal Virtues, 
which fhine-forth in Yqur Majesty's Perfon and au- 
fpicious Government. By Meafures fo becoming a good 
Prince, Your Majesty is rendered truly Great, and 
Your People truly Happy. 

But the Influence of Your Royal Virtues reacheth 
even beyond thofe large and mighty Nations which are 
fubjed; to Your Majesty's Rule : it reacheth to foreign 
Princes and States ; to fome of which, Your Amity is no 
lefs beneficial, than Your Arms are terrible to others. 
May it pleafe Almighty God, to grant Your Majesty a 
long and happy Reign, with an Increafe of Profperity 
and Glory. This is tlie ardent Wifh and Prayer of, 

May it pleafe Your Majesty, 

Your Majesty's 

Moft loyal, 

7iioJl obedienfi, 

and moji devoted SubjeSff 

Thomas Madox* 






IT is obferved, that the Science of Antiquities hath in this lad 
Age been cultivated in England with more Induftry and Succefs^ 
than in feveral Ages before. Of this, divers Caufes have been 
conjedturally afligned by curious Perfons in their private Converfations. 
Some have thought. Men have appUcd themfelves to this Sort of 
Study, becaufe they found, upon taking a View of the State of Learn- 
ing, or at leaft fancied, that moft other Subjeds were in a Manner 
exhaufted, whilft this had been extremely neglefted. Others fup- 
pofed it was, becaufe the Antiquaries, being led by a certain Curiofity 
or Ambition natural to Mankind, have been touched with a Defirc 
of knowing thofe Things of which the generality of Men are igno- 
rant. Others, that it might be owing to Accident, or that Turn and 
Viciffitude of Men's Humours and Difpofitions, which Time is wont 
to produce. For my Part, though I do not oppofe any of thefe Con- 
jedlures ; yet I think another probable Caufe may be affigned : and 
that is, the Encouragement which hath been given to thefe Studies, 
by feveral Perfons of eminent Learning, and of fuperiour Order in 
the Realm, in their refpedlive Times. It is, no Doubt, a great Ho- 
nour to the Science of Antiquities, to have on its Side fuch cele- 
brated Names as it can boalt of. Amongil: the Patrons it hath in 

a 2 th 


iv Prefatory Epistle. 

the prefent Age, Your Lordfhip may juftly be placed in the upper 
Rank. But in Regard the other Bodies of learned Men in the Civil 
Community may affirm each for the themfelves, that You are a 
Mafter of their Science ; the Antiquaries muft be content to have fuch 
Share in Your Lordfliip, as is confiilent with the jufl: Claim of the 
learned of other Faculties. I know, my Lord, the Lovers of Anti- 
quities are commonly looked upon to be Men of a low unpolite Ge- 
nius, fit only for the rough and barbarick Part of Learning. But they 
are perfuaded, that fuch an Imputation cannot hurt them, whilft they 
have on their Side Perfons fo polite and accomplifhed, as (to omit 
others) Your Lordfhip is univerfally known to be. 

Although the Subjeft of the E?iglijlj Antiquities hath (as I faid be- 
fore) been pretty well cultivated of late Years ; it is flill capable of 
great Improvements. Considering therefore, that there are many 
Parts of it, which want a further Illuflration ; I have pitched upon 
One (that of the Exchequer) which I prefume is well worthy of the 
Pains I have beftowed on it. It deferved indeed a more fkilfuU 
Hand. But feeing Others better qualified would not engage in the 
Undertaking, I have. If I fhould fay, I was incited to it by the 
fervent Zeal I had for the publick Service (as Men commonly fpeak 
upon the like Occafions) I might expedl to be credited as much as 
others ufe to be, who fay the fame Thing. But though it is true, 
that I had a due Senfc of my Obligation to fe?ve the Publick, and a 
Defire to acquit my felf tolerably therein : Yet if, in the courfe of 
thofe Years which have been employed on this Subjed:, I had not been 
fometimes relieved by that Pleafure which ftudious Perfons are wont to 
meet with in their Difquifitions, I am not fure my Zeal for the Pub- 
lick Service would, fingly of itfelf, have carried me through fo tedious 
and toilfome a Work. It is fufficient therefore, if I had fuch a Zeal 
to ferve the Publick, as an honeft and induftrious Man ought to 

Your Lordfhip hath at prefent condefcended to bear the Perfon of 
the Reader. And I count my felf very fortunate, that it happens to 
be be fb. You being Mafter of that Candour, and thofe other Qua- 
lities which they that write Books defire to find their Readers poiTe^: 
of ; I am willing to hope, that other Readers will difpofe themfelves 
to be fuch as Your Lordfhip is : But if it fhould fall out otherwife, 
I fhall be the better guarded againfl the Exceptions of ungentle Per- 
fons, in- Cafe my Performance be able to endure the Cenfure of your 
exadt Judgment. But there are likewife fome other Things, which 
make oiy Addrefs to Your Lordfliip in this Cafe the more natural 


Prefatory Epistle. v 

and proper. It is not long fince You prelided in a Court, wherein 
Equity and Clemency are Afleflburs to Juftice (a). And in Virtue of 
the Office of the King's Chancellour, which You then held. You 
were in a Sort allied to the Exchequer. For Your ancient Predecef- 
fours in that Office ufed ordinarily to fit and adl with great Power at 
the Exchequer, amongft the King's Barons there ; as may be feen in 
feveral Places in thefe Volumes ((^). I may be permitted to add, 
that Your Lordffiip in Concurrence with the Right Hcnourable and 
Right Reverend the Peers and Bifhops, Lords Committees appointed 
by the Houfe of Peers in Parliament, to confider the Method of keeping 
Records in Offices, has laid a folid Obligation upon the Antiquaries. 
Your Lordlhips the Lords Committees have fliewn a vigilant and pru- 
dent Care of thofe venerable Remains of Antiquity the Records of 
this Nation. You have deliberated together, to find out proper Means 
for keeping them fafely, and for rendring them ufeful to the Publick. 
You have vifited perfonally feveral of the Repofitories wherein they 
are laid, and have obtained from her Majefty's Treafury divers large 
Sums of Money (which out of her Majerty's wonted Munificence 
were readily granted) for repairing and fitting up the Buildings, where 
the Records are laid, and for other Services. This, my Lord, is a 
publick Benefit to the Nation. Future Ages as well as the prefent 
will be obliged to Your Lordffiips for it. And the great Share Your 
Lordfhip hath had in this Affair, juftly engageth not only the Anti- 
quaries, but all other curious and inquifitive Perfons that are Lovers 
of Hiflory, to make particular Acknowledgments to Your Lordihip 
upon that Score: Which I now do, for my own- Part, with the mofl 
lively Sentiments of Refpetft. 

In the next Place, if Your Lordfhip pleafeth, I will proceed to give 
a fuccindt Account of fome Things (proper for the Publick to know) 
touching this Book. I fuppofe it will appear that this Work is altoge- 
ther new. The Hiflory of the Exchequer hath not been yet attempt- 
ed by any Man. Some Treatifes have indeed been written concerning 
the Exchequer, or fome Part of it, or fome Sort of Bufinefs tranfaft- 
ed there : which Treatifes may be good and ufeful in their Kind : 
But they may rather pafs for general Lines or Sketches, than jufl Dif- 
courfes : And I think one may fay, without Offence or Difparage- 
ment to any Man, that they are infinitely below the Dignity of the 
Subjeft. It cannot therefore be faid, that I do aSiiim agere : the 

[a) a J*6 iTn'iK^s. )^ ivyvaixoiTuua. rrdft- [b) Cap. ^./eJ?. 4.. Vol. 2. Cap. 21. feSI. I. 

J'e9i Tivifbirirraf J'maiocrvjia.f. Fragm. Dio- Cap. 25. pajfim. Item Dial, di Scacc. L.I. 
Ugenis apud ylrljlot, in Polit. p. 610. cap. 5. Cancdlarius in. 


vi Prefatory Epistle. 

Path I take, being hitherto, in Effedl, untrodden For Example : 
I have purfued my Subjedt to thofe ancient Times, to which, I prefume, 
the original of the Exchequer in England may properly be afTigned. 
From thence I have drav/n-down an orderly Account of it through 
a long Courfe of Years. And having confulted as well the Books that 
feemed neceflary to be looked-into upon this Occafion, as alfo a very 
great Number of Records and Manufcripts, I have endeavoured all 
along to confirm what I offer, by proper Vouchers fetched from thence ; 
which Vouchers are fubjoined Column-wife in each Page, in a Me- 
thod eafy and obvious to the Reader's Eye, fave that in the 20th and 
the four following Chapters of this Hiflory, I was forced (to prevent 
exceflive Length) to take-out of my written Copy the Tenourof ma- 
ny Records cited, and in ftead thereof to fet-down barely the Term or 
Tear with the Number of the Roll. I have alfo made it my Choice 
to take my Memorials rather from Records and Manufcripts not hi- 
therto publiflied, than from printed Books ; that the Reader may be 
entertained with fomething new, which he had not before in his 
Study in printed Books, and with fomething (I hope) equally curious 
with what he had there of this Sort. Upon which Ground, I have 
taken as much Care as I well could, not to reprint Things that have 
been already printed in other Books. However, I have been the lels 
in Danger of reprinting at unawares, becaufe my Subjedl is in a 
Manner new and untouched. The Records which I here vouch, 
were taken by my own Pen from the authentick Membranes ; unlefs 
where it appeareth by my References to be otherwife ; and except 
haply in two or three Inftances, which it I§ not material to recoiled:. 
And in giving an Account of the ancient State of the Exchequer, I 
have for the mofl Part contrived (as far as the Subjeft-Matter would 
permit) to make Ufe of fuch Memorials, as ferve either to make 
known or to illuflrate the ancient Laws and Ufages of this Kingdom. 
For which Reafon, the prefent Work may be deemed, not only a 
Hiflory of the Exchequer, but likewife an Apparatus towards a 
Hiflory of the ancient Law of England. 'Tis true, thefe Volumes 
defcend from the Norman Conquefl, no lower than to the End of K. 
Edward the Second's Reign. They flop there, to avoid being too volu- 
minous. But if I do not continue the Deduction to the recent Ages ; 
it may be hoped that fome other Perfon will give it a finifliing Hand : 
The mofl diliicult andobfcure Part of tbeHiilory (as I fuppofe) being 
already fo far maflered, that the next Volume or Continuation will 
(if I projedl right) be both more eafy to compile and of a fmaller Size. 
It mufl be acknowledged, m.y Lord, that amidfl the great Variety 
of Things recounted in this Hiftory, there are feveral (incidentally 
J mentioned) 


mentioned) that appear to be very different from the Ufage not only 
of the modern but even of the next foregoing Ages. This is to be 
expelled from any ancient Hiftory. Some of thefe Things w^ere al- 
tered by exprefs fubfequent Lavi^s or Judicial Adls : Some became an- 
tiquated, or difufed in Courfe of Time j other new Ufages being in- 
troduced in their Stead. And yet, it was neceffary to mention them, 
whilft one is giving an Account of the refpedlive Times antecedent to 
fuch Alteration. He that writes the Hiftory of any Age, muft re- 
prefent things truly, as they were in the Age of which he writes. 
That is a Rule which a faithful Hiftorian cannot but obferve. Be- 
fides, it is likely to be moft beneficial and inftrudive to the Reader, to 
be apprized of the ancient State of Things as well as of the modern : 
That by comparing them together, and by enquiring into the Caufes 
of fuch Alteration as was afterwards fuperinduced, and the Manner' 
in which it was brought about, he may comprehend the Subjedt- 
Matter in its full Extent. In Truth, writing of Hiftory is in fome 
Sort a religious Ai5t. It imports Solemnity and Sacrednefs : and ought 
to be undertaken with Purity and Recftitude of Mind. Wilfully to^ 
mifreprefent, and to offer at putting Fallacies upon the Publick, is to 
violate common Faith and the decent Refpedl that is due to Mankind :- 
In Sum, it is the Part of a Man alienated from Virtue and Honefly. 
As for me, I fhall only fay, that I have ufed all the Care I could to 
avoid falling juftly under that Imputation. 

I will now humbly acquaint Your Lordfliip, in what Method I be- 
gan and proceeded in compiling this Work. Which I chufe to make- 
known ; becaufe it will tend to fhew,, that I defigned to adl therein 
with Candour. The firft Part of my Bufinefs was, to make as full a- 
Colledfion from Records as I could, of Materials relating to the Sub- 
jed:. Thofe Materials being ranged in a certain Order in feveral 
Books of CoUeBanea, I reviewed them, and weighing what they im- 
ported, and how they might be applied, drew from thence a general 
Scheme of the projedied Defign. When Ihad pitched upon Chapters 
or Heads of Difcourfe, I took Materials out of the Stock provided,, 
and digefted them in proper Places under the Chapters or Heads af- 
fumed. In doing this, I ufed for the moft Part to write down, in the 
Draught of this Book, the refpedive Records or Teftimonies firft of 
all (that is, before I wrote my own Text or Compofition) ; and from' 
them formed my Hiftory or Account of Things ; connedling and ap- 
plying them afterwards, as the Cafe would admit. For I thought I 
Should by that Means be held more fteadily to the Rule I defired to 
Qbferve, which was, to give fuch an Account of Things as might be 


viii Prefatory Epistle. 

elicited and drawn out of the Memorials cited from Time to Time ; 
and not to cite Memorials and Vouchers for eftabliihing of any private 
Opinions preconceived in my own Mind. As to the firfl Part of my 
Bufinefs, the colledting of Materials, that, one may guefs, was labo- 
rious enough. The Labour, befides the Expence, of reforting often 
and often to Repofitories of Records in diftant Places, of enoteing 
and copying Materials from thence, and of perufing a vaft Number of 
Things, for a few comparatively that one a6tually colledls : I fay, the 
Labour of this cannot eafily be eftimated by any Man who has not 
had fome Experience of it. Infomuch that I have often been put in 
Mind of what Sir H. Spelman fays upon the like Occafion, Grave eft 
omnia ab archivis rhnari, & incertiim eji quodnon inde petit ur [cj. How- 
ever I was the better fupported under this Labour, by the Encourage- 
ment I had from feveral Perfons of Honour and Worth whofe Favour 
and Civility made my Accefs to Records and Manufcripts as eafy to 
me as the Nature of the Thing would permit. I am extremely 
obliged upon that Account, to the Right Reverend Thomas Lord Bifliop 
of Rochejier Dean oi Wejhninjlej-, to the Reverend the Dean and 
Chapter of Canterbury, to Dr. G7-eme Mafter of Corpus Chrijii College 
in Cambridge, to Peter le Neve, Efq; Norroy King at Arms, a Deputy 
Chamberlain of the Exchequer; and efpecially to the Right Honou- 
rable William Lord Vifcount Cheyne late Mafter of the Pipe-Office -, to 
" Sir John Cooke Knight, Dr. of Laws, Dean of the Arches, prefent 
Mafter of the Pipe-Office ; and to Richard Topham, Efq; Keeper of 
Her Majefties Records in the Tower of London. The Memorials or 
Vouchers contained in this Work are taken from Records of the 
Higheft Nature ; to wit, from the Great Rolls of the Pipe, the Me- 
iuoranda of the Exchequer, and the Rolls of feveral Sorts in the 
Tower of London. All which Records, having been written by 
publick Officers and by publick Authority, at the Time when the 
Things recorded therein were done, carry in them a full and un- 
doubted Credit. Great Regard is indeed to be had to the Annals 
or Hiftory contained in Regifters of Churches ; and in the Manufcript 
CoUeftions of ancient Writers ; particularly in Relation to Things 
done in their own Life-time, or lying within their perfonal Knowledge. 
But no doubt, the publick Records of the Crown and Kingdom are 
the moft important and moft authentick of all. And thefe are the 
Foundation which fuftain the whole Fabrjck of this Hiftory. A 

{c) GloJ. p. 314. coL 2. ^ , , 

I Foundation 

Prefatory Epistle. 


Foundation folid and unfliaken. In truth, the Superflrudure is alike; 
it confifting of the fame Kind of Materials. So that in the Frabrick 
there is nothing feeble except what is properly mine ; namely, Dif- 
pofition and Workmanfliip. However, I hope I fliall be the more 
eafily pardoned for what may be amifs ; if it be confidered, that with 
my own Induftry and Expenfe, the Materials here ufed were dug out of 
deep and hidden Mines, the Model of the Building was framed, the 
Columns adjufted, the ftones fquared, weighed and difpofed, in Sum the 
whole Fabrick raifed and perfected in fuch Manner as it is. I will 
confefs to your Lordfhip, that whilft this Work was going forward, 
I was fometimes moved with a Sort of Ambition ; which, probably, 
will not be thought culpable. I am upon my guard, that I do not 
fpeak any Thing before Your Lordfliip and the Publick, that may 
be judged inconfiftent with Decorum. My Ambition was, to form 
this Hiftory in fuch a Manner, that it may be a Pattern for the An- 
tiquaries to follow, if they pleafe ; I mean, purely in Reference to 
the Method of vouching Teftimonies. For I think it is to be wiflied, 
that the Hiftories of a Country fo well furnished with Records and 
Manufcripts as ours is, fhould be grounded throughout (as far as is 
pradlicable) on proper Vouchers. And for my own Part, I cannot 
look upon the Hiftory of England to be compleatly written, till it 
fhall come to be written after that Manner. Upon Confideration of 
this Matter, I muft make a Requeft to the gentle Reader : to wit, 
that when he perufeth this Book, he will pleafe to read not only the 
Narration or Text, but alfo the Teftimonies couched in the Margin : 
for they are, in my Opinion, the moft valuable Part of the Work ; 
and by Confequence the moft worthy to be read. 

A ^Qw Things, My Lord, may be here remarked concerning fe- 
veral Paflages in this Hiftory, which may feem to require Explana- 
tion. As to the Quotations made from the Great Rolls of the Pipe: it 
is to be known, that many Entries are here cited, which are not taken 
out of the Great Roll in which the Debt fpecified in fuch Entries was 
originally or firft put in Charge. For Example ; where a Man fined 
or was amerced in a Sum of Money, fuppofe C/, and paid Part of 
the Fine or Amercement, fuppofe L/ in Hand, and ftood charged 
with the Remainder, viz. 'LI, in a fubfequent Year: I have fome- 
times cited the Roll of fuch fubfequent Year. In that Cafe, I held 
it fufficient, to fay that the Party fined or was amerced at L /. For 
it would have been too laborious a Thing, and was not material in 
itfelf, to trace the Debt (which, perhaps, might continue in Charge 
many Years together) to the Roll wherein it was firft put in Charge : 

Vol. I. b it 

X Prefatory Epistle. 

it being equal (as to the Purpofe for which I make the Citation) to take 
the Entry out of the Roll of a former or following Year. Again ; 
fome of thefe Entries may chance to miflead Chronologers, unlefs 
they apply them cautioufly. For it is frequent to find Perfons ftand 
charged in thefe Rolls with Debts to the Crown, after the Perfons 
Debtors were dead. It being the Courfe of the Exchequer, that 
Debts, when once put in Charge pro Rege, fliould be kept in Charge, 
till they are paid or legally difcharged. And the Manner or Time 
of putting a Debt in Charge doth not feem to have been fo certain 
and fleady, but that a Chronologer may be either puzzled or mifled, if 
the Thing he looks for falls within a narrow Compafs of Time. 

In the Catalogue of the Barons of the Exchequer (in Vol. 2. Chap. 
XXV.) the Perfons named for Barons during the firft Period, are fuch 
as at that Time fat and a(5led at the Exchequer, and were then ufually 
comprized under the Denomination of Barons. Befides thofe that I 
have fet down, there were, no doubt, feveral others in mofl of the 
Years. It is to be taken for granted that the chief Jufticier, the 
King's Chancellor, and his Treafurer were AffelTours at the Exche- 
quer, although they happen not to be named in the Records 
- of fome Years : for they fat and acfted there ex Officio. There 
were alfo in fome Years other Barons who are not named in the 
Catalogue in thofe Years : as, when in the Records fome Ba- 
rons are exprefly named, and 'tis added, 'Et alij Barones. Again, 
when fome Barons are not named as fuch in one Year, and are 
named as fuch in the Year or Years next foregoing and next follow- 
ing, in fuch Cafe it may be well prefumed, that they were Barons 
in the intermediate Year wherein they happen not be named. How- 
ever, I have been fo wary as to put none into the Catalogue, but 
fuch as are exprefly named in the Records cited. And though I do 
not count the Catalogue effential to the prefent Hiftory, but rather 
Matter of Ornament j I have beftowed on it fome Pains; perhaps 
more than a Chapter confifl:ing barely of Mens Names, may, in the 
Opinion of many Perfons, dcferve. In forming this Catalogue, and 
in feveral other Particulars fetched from the Rolls of the Chancery, 
I had great Affiftance from my very good Friend Mr. Holmes, De- 
puty-Keeper of the Records in the Tower of London. 

At the End of this Hiftory I have publiflied a Copy of the Treatile 
concerning the Exchequer, written Dialogue-wife and commonly 
afcribed to Gervn/ius Tillmriefijis. The Treatife is very ancient, and I 
believe, intrinfically valuable. And that fingly is a fufficient Reafon 
for making it publick. But if I had not publiflied it, there is caufe to 
fear, it would have been afked, v/hy I did not. As to the Treatife itfelf 

I I have 

Prefatory Epistle. xi 

I have given fome Account of it, in the Epiftle to my Lord Halifax 
which is fet before it. 

I have not, in thefe Volumes, given any hiftorical Account of the 
Records repofited in the Exchequer. I think that may be more 
properly done (if there is Occafion for it hereafter) in the Continua- 
tion or next Partj that is, at the End of the whole Hiltory; in 
which Place, it may be done in a Series once for all. But I, who 
am fhut-up within two Periods of Time, the Latter whereof goes 
no lower than the Reign of K, Edward II, cannot attempt to do it 
here, without offending againft the fettled Method of this Work. 
For there are many Records in the Exchequer fubfequent to the 
Reign of K. Edivard II. But my Method forbids me to treat of 
Things that were done or recorded fmce that Time. For fundry 
Reafons, I have thought it expedient to fay fomething concerning 
the mofl ancient Great Roll of the Exchequer, namely that of ^into 
Regis Stephani. My Enquiries concerning it were at iirft defigned to 
be included in this prefatory Epiftle to Your Lordfliip. But finding 
they would pufli me beyond the proper Limits of an Epiftle, I was 
obliged to put them into the Form of a feparate Dilfertation. That 
DifTertation I have placed in the Appendix at the End of this Hiftory. 
It ftands ther^^amongft Tradls that are in Latin. And for the Sake 
of Conformity, I have put it into that Language. It is my Requeft, 
that I may have the Honour of addreffmg it to Your Lordfliip. 

In fome Cafes (as the Reader will foon difcern) I have put-together 
a great many Inftances of the fame Thing. I take that Courfe, the 
better to fhew how the Pradlice and Ufage was : which is to be 
fhewn, not by a fingle Inflance, but by repeated and continued ones. 
On the other Side ; it is likely fome Parts of this Hiftory will feem 
fcanty and defedive. And no Wonder. For wherein authentick 
Memorials are not extant or have rarely occured, therein I think it 
proper to be either wholly filent or fparing of Difcourfe. 

For the Sake of fome of my Readers that haply are not verfed in 
ancient Membranes, it may be convenient to notify here two or three 
Things. In old Times they frequently wrote only the firft Letter of 
a Chriftian-name^ efpecially in the Cafe of Perfons of high Rank: 
as y. for Johannes ; G. for Galfridus, W. for Willelmus, and the like. 
This they did, not only in AcSs of light Moment, but even in the 
moft important Records and Writings. So alfo they oft-times wrote 
Men's Surnames fhort or abbreviated ; as Baj-d. for BardolJ] Maid, for 
Malduit, Hum. for Humet &c. And they did the fame in the Names 
of Places. Again ; they frequently wrote capital Letters in the mid-. 

b 2 die 

xii Prefatory Epistle. 

die or latter End of a Word amongft the fmall Letters whereof the 
Word was compofed. This was done even in Things that were 
written with the utmoft Care and Exadlnefs : and this (if I obferve 
right) is, here in England, often a Mark of the great Antiquity of the 
Hand : and how improper foever it may feem to be, many Things 
thus written do look very fine and elegant. I would willingly have 
caufed fome Inftances hereof to be engraven for Example's fake : as 
I would likewife feveral other Things occafionally inferted in this 
Hiftory : but the Expenfe of graving forbids me, who am unaflifted 
by the Publick in thefe Labours, to attempt it. They alfo common- 
ly wrote Idem for lidem ; and fometimes M diphthong for the fingle 
E, as in Mcclejia JEdwardus &c ; and contrary wife, almoft univerfally 
e for ce in Words of femine Gender, as mee, nojlre, for meee, nojirce 
&c ; but fometimes (in the Ages next after the Norman Conqueft) 
e for e and for ce, as ecclejie, foe for eccJefoce face &c. Again ; fome- 
times they broke an entire Word into two Parts, as id circo, en 
coimtre, ki kunkes, &c : at other Times they wrote two Words joined 
as if they were one Word, pacisfraBuram, Blachetoritonhundredum, 
Jidedignosy &c. In fine ; in the Reigns of K. K. Henry III and Edward I, 
they fometimes wrote rengnum, ajfingnare, &c, for regnwn, ajjignarej 
&c ; and the like. There are alfo many other ancient Peculiarities of 
writing ; too many to be recolledled and inferted here. I have men- 
tioned thefe for Inftances ; that they and other like may not be looked 
upon to be Miftakes of the Copyift. The Reader is alfo to be ad- 
vertifed, that in many Cafes where the Termination of a Word is 
doubtful, by Reafon the Word is written contracted in the Record, 
I have added the Termination in Crotchets ; as will appear in many 

When a Man, though a Native of this Ifland, comes frefh to pe- 
rufe a Syftem of Antiquities, or a Piece of ancient Hiftory of the fame 
Ifland, he is like one newly landed in a ftrange Country. He finds 
himfelf in another Climate. He obferveth many Things ftrange and 
uncouth in Language, Laws, Cuftoms, and Manners. The Scene 
which I here difplay to the Publick may be new to many Men. But 
it will not be fo to Your Lordfhip ; who are converfant in the ancient 
Hiftory of this Kingdom as well as the modern, and in the Hiftory 
of foreign Countries as well as of our own. 

May it pleafe your Lordlhip, to them who fhall diligently read 
this Book, it will, I prefunie, appear, that the regal Exchequer of 
England v/as eredled and contrived with great Wifdom. The feveral 
Parts of it are compail and correfpondent j various, yet orderly j. 


Prefatory Epistle. xiii 

ftrong, yet finely compofed. The Affifes and Cuftoms of it are 
grounded upon fare and fteady Maxims. The Bufinefs of it is mani- 
fold j and requireth great Knowledge, Induftry, and Experience in 
Affairs j efpecially in the fuperior Officers, who are to give Motion 
to fo great and noble a Syflem. The Miniflers of it are numerous, 
but with mutual Controulj and have their refpediive Funftions re- 
gularly diflributed, for the Benefit and Safety both of the Crown and 
People. In fine, the Conflitution of it is admirable ; and not to be 
altered or touched without great Caution and mature Judgment. 

But, My Lord, whilft I am bufied in illuflrating ancient Hiflory, 
I forefee an Objedtion that will in all likelihood be made againfl me. 
There are fome Perfons who feem habitually difpofed to fpeak mean- 
ly of all Parts of Learning which are not diredlly lucrative. They are 
apt to fay. Of what ufe are thefe old antiquated Things ; give us what 
is more fuitable to the Age we live in ; and fuch like. But if we 
examine thefe Allegations, they will, I fuppofe, be found to have no 
Force. Every Part of Learning is of fome Ufe. Though one Man 
may not know or confider the Ufe of it, another Man may. If no 
Books mufl be read befides fuch as treat of Things which ferve di- 
reiflly for Profit or prefent Ufe, all Hiftory of ancient Times or of 
foreign Countries may foon be laid afide. No Man of Senfe has ever 
yet been found fo hardy as to fpeak exprefly in Dilparagement of 
Hiftory, or pretend that it was or is a ufelefs Thing. Hiftory is an 
effential Part of the Encyclopcedia : and fo many handfome Things 
have been fpoken in Praife of it by judicious Men in feveral pafl 
Ages, that there is no need to fay any Thing here upon the Subject, 
Now Hiflory may be faid to be twofold, ancient and modern. The 
former confifls of Antiquities ; and cannot even in thought be fe- 
parated from them. It appears therefore, that the Knowledge of 
Antiquities is a Part of the hiflorical Learning, and cannot be im- 
pugned without impugning Hiflory itfelf. More particularly as to 
the Objection which I have mentioned above : l( the Gentlemen 
who object in that Manner are Scholars, their own Conduct is incon- 
fiflent with their Objedlion in this Cafe. They themfelves have be- 
ilowed much Time, Labour, and Expenfe, in learning foreign 
Languages, and in reading foreign Books. They have been conver- 
fant in Books written many Ages ago, in Greek and in Laii/t, by 
Philofophers, Hiflorians, Philologers, Orators, and Poets.. They 
have Willingly fubmitted to this laborious Study, in Order to get a 
Knowledge of the Laws, Manners,, Rites, and Cufloms, both ancient 
and fubfequent, of the Greeks and Rotnans, in their nafcent, mature, 
er declining State,. Then the Preceptors of thefe Gentlemen told 



Prefatory Epistle. 

them, that by attentive Study and converfing in well-chofen Books, 
Men whole Minds are capable of juft Improvments, leam the Ex- 
perience and Wifdom of paft Ages, and acquire fuch a Ripenefs of 
Judgment and Comprehenfion in Affairs, as quaUfieth them to ferve 
their Country, And then, they believed this to be true ; as no 
doubt it is. For Reafons of the like Kind, they have travelled into 
foreign Countries, where Pohtenefs is planted ; to obferve and learn 
their Laws, Cuftoms, and Manners. But do the political Conftitu- 
tion. Laws and Manners of ancient Greece or Romeheur a nearer Affi- 
nity or Refemblance to thofe of Britain at this Day, than the ancient 
Conflitution, Laws, and Manners of Britain do to thofe of Britain in 
the modern or prefent Times ? Are we concerned to know the Manners 
and Cuftoms which were in ufe amongft the Grecians and Romans 
many Ages ago : and not concerned to know the Cuftoms and Man- 
ners of our own Anceftours, at a far lefs Diftance of Time ? Do we 
think it beneficial to be verfed in the Hiftory, both ancient and mo- 
dern, of foreign Nations : and are we at the fame Time content to 
defpife or negledl the ancient Hiftory of our own ? It is true, 
fome foreign Hiftories, efpecially thofe of ancient Greece and 
Romey are more valuable than our own, conftdered fimply in them- 
felvesi the former being much better written : but that (I prefume) 
is a Confideration which fliould excite us, in general, to cultivate 
the hiftorical Learning in Britain rather than to negled: it ; and in par- 
ticular, to imitate the noble Patterns of this Kind which the Greeks 
and Romans have fet. It is alfo true, that fome Hiftories may appear 
to be more ufeful and excellent than others, upon a Comparifon 
made of them. Modern Hiftory (if equally well written) may be in 
fome refpedls preferable to ancient, as being better adapted to pre- 
fent Ufe, Neverthelefs, when the ancient and modern are well con- 
joined, the Hiftory is more complete, than if it was barely ancient, or 
barely modern. Becaufe it is of greater Advantage to have Things re- 
prefented in their full Extent, than only Parts. But what I faid at lirft 
will ftill remain true, namely that Hiftory whether ancient or modern, 
is of threat Ufe. Which is all that I do at prefent contend for. 

Conftdering the great Variety of the Matters contained in this 
Hiftory, and the Nicenefs of fome of them, I may be apprehenfive 
of the Criticks. But as I have taken Care to produce from Time to 
Time coeval Proofs for what I advance, and to avoid propofing any 
Thing as certain, that is really doubtful or fallacious ; I have Reafon 
to think myfelf fufficiently guarded againft any hoftile Attack. Cri- 
ticks there are and will be as long as there are Writers. Men are 
generally fo prone to the Humour of criticizing, that fometimes they 

Prefatory Epistle. xv 

fall into it without any Ill-will, and as it were by Chance. The 
Warmth which Reading and Study excite in the Brain, may produce 
that Difpofition. But the mofl: general Motive to it is, a Defire to 
fliew one's own Superiority of Learning. This is in fome Degree ex- 
cufable, becaufe it is by Nature or Habit incident to Mankind. But 
there is a latent Fault. Let us recoiled;. It is chiefly by Books that 
the Lovers of learning who are at a Diftance in Time or Place, have 
Converfation with one another. And as in free Converfations amongfl 
Gentlemen, no well-behaved Man claims fuperiority by Reafon of 
his Titles or Eftate : fo alfo ought it to be in the free Converfations 
of Scholars that write and read Books. There, no Man fhould 
affedl Superiority : where mutual Deference is more proper and 
becoming ; in fine, where mutual Entertainment and Improve- 
ment, and efpecially the Advancement of Learning, ought to be the 
principal Motive and Defign. There are alfo fome Readers who flop 
fhort upon Writers, purely out of Diffidence. They are upon their 
Guard againft the furprizes of Errour ; and will not give AfTent till 
they have examined and revifed. Thefe Men I do not fear : nay I 
embrace and efteem them, as Perfons that are in the right Path to 
Science. Pondering Things of this Sort, I have bethought me of 
fomewhat that I had formerly written in my Diflertation introduc- 
tory to the Formulare Anglicanum (which I had the Honour to addrefs 
to your Lordfhip) and of an Exception that was foon after made to 
it by a very learned Gentleman, Dr. Hicks, in his incomparable Book 
entituled, Thefaurus Imguarum Sepientrionalium &c. 1 would beg 
Your Lordfhip's Patience, whilft I make a Digreffion to fpeak upon 
that Subjedl. The Difference between the Dodlor and me in that 
Cafe is, I think, very fmall. I have the Honour to agree with him 
(without any previous Communication had between us) in many Par- 
ticulars relating to the diplomatick Subje(fl. And it would have been 
a favour fuitable to the Curtefy he ufcs upon other Occafions, if he 
had elTayed to reconcile my Notion about the Charta to his own. 
This the Dodlor could have done beft by much. But feeing he hap- 
pened not to undertake it, I will. In order to flate the Matter fairly, 
I have fet-down, hereunder in the Margin, as well the Claufe in my 
Differtation, as the Dodlor's Words in his Preface (</}. 


[(I) From the Time of the Norman Con- raon Ufe hy the Normans ; as Iij£uIfoh(eives.. 
queft, thole which we now caW Deeds or '7'is true, the Word C^i7r/»/flt)oes Ibmetimes 
JVrhings, were generally called charice, char- occur in the Latin Charters of the Jnglo- 
tas. This Name was brought into com- /axon Age. Whether thofe i«//w. Charters 



Prefatory Epistle. 



But the Cafe is in fliort this : I faid, " That the Word Charta 
was brought into common Ule in 'England by the Normans ; that it 
ibmetimes occurs in the Latin Inftruments of the Anglofaxon Age; 
that Charta in this [viz. in the Ariglonorman or modern] Senfe was 
not, as it Teemed to me, a received Name in the AnghfaxonTiixits ; 
and, that from the Time of the Conqueft it became a Word of 
general Ufe, and fo continues." Upon this the Dodlor animad- 
la the firil: Place, the Doftor, fpeaking of my Formidare, is 
pleafed to beflow on me feveral Encomiums j which are owing to his 
innate Civility. Then he proceeds to fliew fome particulars wherein 
he agrees with me ; and then the Point wherein, he fays, we difFer. 
The Sum of what he fpeaks upon that Occafion is this : " That I, 
" relying on the Authority of Ingulf, was of Opinion that the di- 
*' plomatick or Law Word Charta was not received amongft the Afi~ 
" glofaxons; that he could not conceive why I lliould think fo, fee- 
" ing cartula or kartula was in frequent ufe amongft them : that, 
*' neverthelefs, I affirm that it feldom occurs in the Inflruments of 
" Donation which in the Anglofaxon Times were written in Latin ; 
" that Inguf's Authority ought not to hinder us from believing that 
*' Charta was often ufed by the Anglofaxons ; that I, following Spel- 
" fnan as he did Ingulf feemed to think, the Anglofaxon Inftruments 
" that were in Latin, and wherein the Word Charta occurred, were 

are Genuine and Originals, or whether they 
are not fometimes only Tranflations, made 
after the Conqueft, I will not ftay to en- 
quire. But it fhould feem, that Charta in 
this Senie was not a received Name in the 
Anglofaxon Times. However, I think 'tis 
certain, that from the Time of the Con- 
queft, it became a Word of general Ufe : 
aiid fo continued long after. Form. Anglic, 
in DiJJert. p. 3. 

ita alijs in nonnullis a nobis forte 

difFert, ut in prsefationis fuae p. 3, ubi auc- 
toritate Ingulphi fretus, vocem forenfem feu 
diplomaticam, chartam vel cartam, non ufu 
receptam fuifle apud Anglofaxonei fe exifti- 
mare fcribit. Then the Doilor refers to his 
Ep'iflolary Dijfertation. Neque crede mihi, 
Ottleye, vel fingere animo pofTum li charta 
ufu fatis receptum non fuifle apud Anglo- 
faxones, quibus cartula vel kartula maxima 
in ufu erat. quod tamen ille affirmat, non 
nifi raro occurrere in codicibus donationum, 
qui Anglofaxonum temporibus Latins faili 

erant. Here the DoSlor refers to the Textus 
Roffenfn. Quamobrem, me judice, non ob- 
ftare debet Ingulphi auftoritas, quo minus 
& diplomaticum iftud Carta fatis in ufu An" 
glofaxonibus fuifle credamus. Verum Ma- 
doxus H. Spcbnannuin, quern admodum ille In- 
gulphum fecutus, videtur putare Latina An- 
glofaxonum diplomata, in quibus legitur Car- 
ta, non exemplariaefl'e habenda, fed Saxonl- 
corum exemplarium verfiones Latinos poft 
Conqueftum fcriptas. Verum quo minus in 
banc fententiam eam id facit, quod mem- 
brana Cottoniana quam citavi in diflertatio- 
nis epift. p. 63. originalis inft:rumenti fpe- 
ciem prae fe omnino ferat ; videatque fi ve- 
lit, Madoxus, an Eadgari illam, quam ille 
exhibet Libri fui p. 174, in Eadgari tempo- 
ribus fcriptam efle manus non oftendat : 
fiiSta quidem charta efle poteft ; fed efle La- 
tinam e Saxonico converfam ut credam, a 
me non poflTum impetrare. CI. Hickcftj An- 
tiquitatt. Septentr. in praf. p. 30, 

" not 

Prefatory Epistle. xvii 

*' not to be accounted Saxon Exemplars, but Latin Verfions of them, 
*' written after the Conqueft : that he, the Do(fl:or, could not be of 
" that Opinion, for a Reafon which he mentions in the 63d Page 
*' of his Epijlolary DiJ'ertation ; and that I would do well to con- 
" fider, whether K. Edgar's Charter cited in my Formulare, was not 
" really an Original, written in K. Edgar's Time." This, My Lord, 
is the Cafe ftated in Ihort. And this, as I take it, reduceth the 
Matter in Difference between the Dodlor and me, in effedl to this : 
whether, Charta, was frequently or only fometimes, ufed in original 
Anglofaxon Inftruments ; or, whether it was a received Name in the 
Anglofaxon Times, and in the fame Senfe or Notation as in the An- 
glonorman. I will not fpend Time about the more or lefs frequent Ufe 
of a Word. But what I am going to fay will, I fuppofe, in fome 
Meafure reconcile the Dodlor and me. The Do<5lor, in his Preface 
which I have cited above, proceeded (if I guefs right) upon the 
Foundation of what he had delivered in the 63d and 64th Pages of his 
epiftolary DifTertation. He fpeaketh there, concerning certain origi- 
jial Saxo7i Charters extant in the Cottofiian Library and elfewhere. The 
Word Charta is found in fome of thofe Charters. Upon the Credit 
of their being original Charters, or to fecure their being reputed fuch, 
he feemeth to have been induced to fpeak in the Manner he does 
concerning the ancient Ufe of the Word Charta. In Point of bare Fadl 
and Ufage, the Doftor was (for ought that I know) nearer to the Truth 
than I was ; according to the Meaning in which he took my Words, 
and in which it was natural enough to take them. But if I am per- 
mitted to explain myfelf in the Manner I have done juft above and 
fliall do hereafter in this DigrefTion, I prefume the Matter may be 
brought to Terms of Accommodation between us. The Do(flor feems 
to have taken the Word Charta in its moll general Senfe, as it is de- 
duced from the ancient Latin : and I took it under a peculiar Nota- 
tion, as it is deduced from the fucceeding Lingua Romania. Con- 
cerning which Matter I muft now humbly open my mind to Your 

Upon the Declenfion of the Roman Empire, it came to pafs, by 
Wars, the Migration of Nations, or perhaps by the Fate of Things, 
that the Language of feveral of the European Countries received a 
great Alteration. This was remarkable in Italy, France and Spai7U 
The Roman Language was once planted in thofe Countries ; but in 
Procefs of Time came to be very much depraved and altered -, three 
feveral Languages [Italian, French^ and Spanijlj) refembling yet dif- 
fering from each other, having been formed out of it. When the 

Vol. L c Barbarick 

xviii Prefatory Epistle. 

Rcirbarick Nations (I ufe that Epithet, purely in Compliance with 
theCuftom of fpeaking, and without any intent to offer Difrefpeft to 
thofe noble and potent Nations which are wont to be comprized 
under that Name) I lay, when the Barbarick Nations came to fpread 
themfelves over Europe and to gain Empire, a Diftincftion was made 
between the genuine Language of the aforefaid Countries and the 
Barbarick. The Former, in Oppofition to the Latter, was called 
Lingua Romana and Riijiica Romana [e) ; and they that ufed the For- 
mer were fometimes for Diftindlion-fake called Romatii (f). I will 
ftraitway give an Liftance or two of this, in Reference to the 
ancient Language of Frajice. But if we take the Lijzgua Ro- 
mana Romanica or Romanefca extenfively, as I fhall do by and by, 
we may comprehend under it, as well that Part of the French 
(for Example) or Gallick Language which was evidently, as alfo 
that which was not fo evidently, fetched from the Latin, pro- 
vided it was not of Teudtfcan original j and, in the fucceeding Ages, 
even fome Teudifcan Words [g) which were affumed into it. The 
like, I fuppofe, may be faid of the Italick Lingua Romanica, in Re- 
lation to the Gothick or Longobardick. This Diftindtion between the 
Gallick Lingua Romana and the Lingua Barbarica, is very ancient. 
When Louis and Charles, Sons of Ludovicus Pius, came to an Agree- 
ment about dividing their Father's Empire, they confirmed their 
Agreement by mutual Oath. Louis fwore in the Lingua Romana, 
and Charles in the Teudifcan. The Oath of Louis was in the Words 
hereunder written {JS). Aboat the fame Time, the Subjedls of each 


{e) Ponton. Or'ig. Franc, p. 600. Monjieur Baluze and Monjieur Dufrefne 

\f) Sciant itaque Optimates, Comitcs, rehearfe this Oatk, zvith little Difference, thus. 

Gonfiliaiij, Domeftici, & Majores Domus Pro Deo amur & pro Chriftian poblo, & 

noftri, h Burgundiones quoque & Romani noftro commun falvament, dift di in avant, 

. Gundobadi Regis praf. in Leg. Bur- in quant Deo favir & podir me dunat, ft 

guml. apud Herold. p. 179. falvarai io cift meon fradre Karlo, & in ad- 

(g) For Example, Senefcallus, Marefcal- judha & in cadhuna cofa, fi com om per 

lus, he. dreit fon fradre falvar dift, in o quid il mi 

(h) Ludovicus quidem Romana hac lingua altre fi fazet. Et ab [al] Ludher nu] plaid 

in hum moduni Jacramenium dixit: Pro Do numquam prindrai, qui meon vol cift meon 

amur, & pro Xpian poblo, & n7o coirTun f^^^re Karlein dnmno fit. Baluz. Capitular. 

feluament, dift di en avant in quant Do T. 2. col. /^o. ad A. D. 842. Dufrefn. 

l>vir & podir me dunat, fi I'aluarai eo cift Gloff. Lat. tn prtefat. 

meon fradre Karlo, in adiudha & in cad- ^t »'^y ^^ roidred in Latin Word for JVord, 

huna cofa, fi cum per dreiti fon frada fa- "per this Manner, if the Reader pleafeth : Pro 

luar dift ino quid il mi altre fi fazet & ab- Dei amore, & pro Chriftiano populo, he 

kdher nul plaid nunquam prindrai, qui noftra communi falute, de hoc die in antea 

meon vol eift meon fradre Karle in damno ['« pofterumj, in quantum Deus fcire & 

:lit, Pontani Orig. Francic. />. 605. poiTe 

Prefatory Epistle. 


Prince were fworn in their proper Language. The Oath taken by 
the Subjedls of Louis was, in the Lingua Romana, of the Tenour un- 
derwritten [f). This was fome of the Lingua Romana of France. I 
cannot give Specimens of the ancient Lingua Romana of Italy and 
Spain. If any Fragments thereof do remain in Libraries, it were to 
be wifhed the Antiquaries of thofe Countries would favour the Pub- 
lick with Copies of them {k). The moft ancient Spatiijh Compofition 
(written in the middle Ages) that I have feen, is that which I have 
here fubjoined. It is a Piece of Spanifi Latin, with fome Mixture, 
as I guels, of Moorijh. It imports a Divife or Bequeft made by Dojt 
Pedro Royz Knight. He gives to the Monaftery of St. Peter of Ar- 
lanfa, his knightly Accoutrements and Chatells, to wit, his Saddle 
Morzerzel with the Bridle, his Sword, Belt, Spurs, Target and Spear, 
wrought Swords, Helmets, plain or unwrought Swords, Horfes, Mules, 
Apparel, his other Spurs and filver Bridle. The Words of this Be- 
queft, as they are fet-down by Priidencio de Sandoval Bifliop of Parji- 
plona, may be feen hereunder in the Margin (/). There are alfo fome 
Hifpanifms in the Letter or Writ of Don Alfonfo an ancient King of 


pofle mihi dederit, fie falvabo ego hunc 
meum fratrem Karolum, & in adjutorio & 
in qualibet re [caufaj, ficut homo per rec- 
tum [jus] fuum fratrem falvare debet, nifi 
quid ille mihi aliud fecerit. £t de [cum] 
Ludherio [Lothario] nullum placitum nun- 
quam capiam [nullum confilium inibo], 
quod me volente meofratri Karolo in dam- 
no fit. 

(i) Saeramentum autem quod utrorumque 
poptdus, quifqiie propria lingua tejiatus ejl, 
Romana lingua fic hahet : Si Lodhuuig fa- 
granment que fon fradre Carlo jurat con- 
fervat, & Karlus meos Sendra in fuo part 
n los tanit, fi io rcturnar non lint pois, ne 
io, ne neulfcui eo returnarint pois, in nulla 
aiudha contra Lodhuuig nun li juer. lb. p. 

Mejfuurs Baluze and Du Frefne recite it 
after this manner : Si Lodhuvigs facrament 
que fon fradre Karlo jurat confervat,& Kar- 
lus meo Sendra de fuo part non Io ftanit, fi 
io returnarnon lint pois, ne io ne veuls cui 
eo returnar int pois, in nulla ajudha contra 
Lodhuvig nun li iver. Baluz. Capit. T. 2. 
iol. 41. i^ Du Frefn. Glojf. Lat. in praf.feSi. 
It may be rendered verbatim in Latin thus : 

Si Lodhuvicus facramentum quod fuo fratri 
Karlo juravit confervat, & Karlus meus 
Senior [Dominus] ex fua parte non illud te- 
net, fi ego avertere non eum inde pofTum, 
nee ego nee alius quifpiam eum avertere in- 
de potefl, in nullo adjutorio contra Ludhu- 
vicum non cum eo ibo. 

(k) Bernard Aldrete (a worthy Man) 
hath publi/hed a Treatif: concerning the ancient 
Caftilian Tongue or Romance iijed in Spain. 
It is not my Part to Difparage his Labours : 
But I muji own that his Perfonnance is not fa- 
iisfaiiory ; partly bccaufe it is not duly Jlrength- 
ened and illujlratedwith Pieces of Antiquity, and 
partly hecaufe he doth 7iot fern to have been 
majier of the Secret which Jhould have been his 
Clew in the Cafe, to wit, the Knowledge of the 
Romanick Diale£t. His Treat'fe is entitulcd 
Del Origen de la lengua Caftellana o Ro- 
mance &c J and was printed at Rome, 

(/) Fue muy devoto defte Monafterio 
[de San Pedro de Arlan^a] Petro Royz 
Cavallero principal, natural de Celada, y 
hizole donacion de todos fus bienes dize 
afli, Mea divifa 5c meos atondos, id eft mea 
fella Morzerzel cum fuo freno, & mea cfpata 
c 2 & mcii 


Prefatory Epistle. 

Caftile, publifhed by Monfieur Leibnitz in his Codex Diplomaticus (;«). 
In the Tower of London there are two or three original Letters mif- 
iive, written in Spanijh by Princes of Spain, to K. Edivard I, of 
England after the Conqueft. I wi(h I had fonie ancienter Pieces of 
SpaniJ}:) : but thefe are the oldeft that I find at prefent. They are 
printed in Mr. Rymer's Colledlions («). However, I have (here in 
the Margin) fet-down the Tenour of one of them more correctly (o). 
With your Lordfliip's leave, I will here fubjoin a Fragment of old 
Vafconick French: Pieces written in that Dialeift being, for ought that 
I know, fomewhat rare. I wilh I could have found a more ancient 
Specimen of this Kind. But fuch as it is I have copied it pretty ex- 
adly. The Original is written upon Parchment in a good diftindl 
Hand : but is torn at the End of the Lines, fo that many Words of it 
are loft. It imports to be a Letter of Supplication written to Edward 
II, King of Efiglatid and Duke of Guienne, by the Mayor and Jurates 
of Bayone ; praying him to take Meafures with the Potejlad oi Genoa, 
for Reftitution or Amends to be made to certain Citizens of Bayone, 

& mea cinta, & meas efpulas, & mea Ata- 
reca cum fua hafta, hi alias nieas efpatas la- 
bratas, & meas loricas & meos Elmos, & 
alias efpatas que non funt labratas, & meas 
atare^as, & meos cavallos, & meos mulos, 
& meos veftitos, & alias meas efpolas & alio 
freno argenteo, quantum potueritis invenire. 
Sandov. Htjioria de Idacio Ohijpo bfc, viz. a- 
mongft the Notaciones or memor'ias antiguas, p, 
342. ad A. D. 1056. 

[m) Leibn. Cod. jur. Gent. D'lplom, T. i. 
in Prodromo, p. 2. 

(») Rymeri Feeder a T, 2. in cake, inter 
Omiffa, p. 1 07 1, is'c. 

(0) Al muy noble & much[o] onrrado 
Don Odoard, por la gracia de Dies Rey de 
Inglatierra, Senor de Irlanda & D[uc] de 

Aquitana, don San- 

ch[o] fijo mayor & herederodel muy Noble 
Don [Alfonjfo por efla mifma gracia Rey 
de Caftiella, de Toledo, de Leon, de Galli- 
7,ia, de Sevilla, de Cordoua, de Murcia, de 
Jahen, & del Algarb[ia], falut afli como a 
Rey que amo muy de corazon, & porquieh 
faria quanto fapieffe & pudiefle, en todo lo 
que fuefle v[ueft]ra onrra & v[ueft]ra pla- 
zer, & poraquien querria tanta vida & 
tanta falud como pora mi mifmo. Rey por 

que Macftre JufreNotario del Rey mio pa- 
dre & mio clerigo, es omme en qui mucho 
liamos, & qui fabe todo el fech[o] del Rey 
de Francia & del Rey mio Padre & de mi, 
como paflb fata agora, & que es aquello que 
tenemos en corazon de fazer y daqui ade- 
lante ; Et otrofli que es la n[ueft]ra volun- 
tad en razon del cafamiento entra mi & la 
fija del Rey de Alimana. Por ende tome- 
mos por bien de embiarlo alia a vos fobre 
eftas cofas. Onde vos ruego, que vos le 
querades creer en aquellas cofas que vos el 
dixiere en efta razon de mi parte, & que 
punnedes de fazer y aquello que fea onrra 
& pro de vos & del Rey mio padre & de 
mi. Dada en Toledo dos dias de Mayo, era 
de mille trezientos & dies & fiete annos. 

D Alfonfo Royz la fis efcrevir por man- 
dado del Infante. Ex autogr. in archive Re- 
gio Turn's Londoniae. Tlje original Letter 
is written upon Paper. It may he noted, that 
this Letter is dated in May in the Era 131 7. 
The ufual JVay of reducing the Spanifti Era to 
/^^ Annus Chrifti is, by deditiiing 38 from 
the Era, or adding 38 to the Annus Chrifti. 
By that Method, I think the Era of this Letter 
is the Annus Chrifti 1279, viz. the jih Tear 
of /^.Edv.'ard I, 


Pp. efatory Epistle. A'xi 

for a Robbery or Piracy and Murder committed by fome Genoefc, upon 
the Ship St. Marie ot Bayone fp). In Reference to the Lingua Ro~ 
ma?2ica, the Cafe feemeth to have been much alike in the three Coun- 
tries before mentioned. But this was peculiar in the Cafe of Spain ; 
namely, that their Language, befides the Mixture of Gothicky hath 
had a great Deal of the Moorijh incorporated in it. And the Spaniards^ 
probably from their great Averllon to and hatred of the Moors, have 
been wont to call their native Language Romance, in Oppofition 
chiefly to the Moorijh. Infomuch that with them Romance is ufed 
even at this Day to lignify the Cajiilian or genuine Language oi Spain. 
But concerning the Spani/h I ftiall fay no more here. In general ; it 
may perhaps be worth the while for curious Perfons to obferve the 
Nature and Force of this Romance or Bajlard Roman whereof we are 
fpeaking. In Procefs of Time, it was (as hath been hinted above) 

(/') Au trop excellent prince Mofleinor dizen. E a pres certificad de le caufe e de 

Edwart per lagraci de diu Rei Dangleterre la dijte arraubeirie, lo dijt Seiiior voftre 

Seinor Dirlande & Due de Guiaine, Lo pair requeri par fas letres le Poteftad e lo 

Maire & los Juradz de la , a noftres vezins lo damp- 

lor medihs davant voftre nadge que feit los aven, entro ale valor de 

Reiau Maieftad humiumentz en clinadz. le fome de fus dite ; qui arres non fen mas 

Per lo gran dampnadge que nos e totz les que refcriuon a E vos Seiiir 

autres habitantz de le voftre Cipi . . . apres de le foe bone fin, avedz efcriut fober 

, fober le mort deu Rei- aqueft medihs feit a les noftres pregaries a 

naut dcu Verger Maefter de la Nau Sanfta le Poteftad e lo cofleille 

Marie de Baiones, e de fos compainhons per lor letre foque alor pladz. Per que fup- 

noftres amadz vezins, E fober larr . . . plicam a le voftre Reiau Maieftad anos care, 

caufes cargadz en a- & en cui apres de Diu 

quere, feitz per los habitantz de la Cipiat . . , lo dampnadge a nos e a noftres 

de Geno, efcrifcom ab dolor Scab complante vezins fobredijtz, fecit e dat per los dijtz 

a n[oft]re car Seinor de bone recordaci . . Genoes com dijt es, vos defplafce . . . 

pair, a cui Dius per de pietad, e per noftres 

fa merce fa^e verai perdon, eu pregam e re- pregaries, que los noftres vezins deu damp- 

querim per n[oft]res letres, que lo damp- nadge que pres an pufquen aver, e. arr 

nadge a nos & a noftres vezins feitz & dat e forme que a le 

per qui en eftadz voftre Reiau Dignitad fera vift de far, e eiv 

arraubadz e damnificadz, volos & deinhas maneire fi a le voftre Noble Seinoric pladz, 

auireiar Marque, contre los beis deus cipta- que aus en avant 

dantz de Geno, qui foren trobadz en fon convinq; affar meflions mas que ab lo voftre 

mana enquerir bon adiutori pufquen aver e crubar lo lore 

daqaere arraubeirie, E fo trobat per lo fe- fuftentar ab aquero que 

grament de prcfTones dignes de fe, que los guard Dius le voftre Reiau Dignitat qui a 

beis & empleites de noftres vezins qui . . nos los fous fervidors deinhi Manar fa vo- 

Nau, & ab los appareilhs luntat, Le quau em appareLlhadz . . 

valen, es montauen en fome ij Milie e CC dies en le nies de Mars en 

& vint& duesIbTs defterlins, e affi fo efcriut Ian de noftre Seifior M. CCC & Nau. Ex 

.es trobera en lo Rodle antogr. in anhivo Rtgio Turns Londonix. 


xxii Prefatory Epistle. 

fettled in the three Countries beforenamed ; that is to fay, in three 
feveral Forms; and was the Language of thofe Countries refpedlively. 
So it obtained the Name of Romance or Romanick. The Inhabitants 
of thefe Countries, when they came to write in Latin, formed many 
Latin Words out of their own Romanick Language ; or, if Your Lord- 
fliip pleafes, in the Compofitions or Difcourfes which they wrote in 
Latin, they frequently u{cd Latin Words in the diftorted Senfe which 
they bore in the Romanick. Thefe kind of Words, or moft of them, 
were originally Latin : then were tranfmuted into Romanick, and 
thereby gained a new Turn or Notation : and laftly, were made 
Latin Words (if I may be fuffered to call them fo) again, but with 
a new, to wit, the Romanick Stamp. So that if we would under- 
fland the Force and Propriety of Words of this Sort, we niufl: 
not reduce them diredlly to the ancient Roman or Latin ; but to the 
Romanick or Bajiard Roman, from which they received their lafl 
Signature, and by Means w^hereof they became imprefl'ed with that 
Signification in which they are ufed by the Romanick Writers. This 
Matter may be illuftrated by fome Examples. In Latiri Gens, 
fignified a Nation or Family : in Romanick, it iignifieth Men, or 
Folks {q). The Latin Word Senior, Elder, hath a new import in 
the Romanick. There, it fignifieth a Lord ox Superioiir {r). Fidelis, 


{q) Henrlcus de Ver — venit illuc cum -Arag. T. i. L. \, fol. 34. a. ad am. 1102. 

gente fua, & — . Hoved. P. 2. p. b^"^. n. ^o. — hoc falvo, quod Epifcopus cum ho- 

temp. Hen. 2. minibus & gente fua in praedi<ftis debeat efle 

alter qui vixerit, pecunias defuniSli, & ad expenfas proprias ipfius Epifcopi — . In 

gentes habebit ad fervicium Dei faciendum, charta faiia Epifc. Vapinc.dat. 128 1. Gall, 

ib.p. 664. «. 20. anno 2. Rk. i. Cbrlf. Tom. 4. p. 1 126. col. I. 

— nullum auxilium faciet, nee per pecu- (>) Volumus vos fcire, fratres, quia Dom- 

niam, nee per Milites, nee per gentem, nee nus & Senior nofler Karolus Rex gloriofus 

per fe nee per alium. Rym. Foedera P. 1. p. . Baluz. Caplt. T. 2. col. 313. A. D. 

118. J.D. 1200. 866. 

Et in cuftamento mittendi unam navem Ego Eudo divina favente gratia, & mer- 

ad Swine, ad inquirendum de adventu Ducis cede Dominorum Regum Seniorum meo- 

Lovaniffi & Brandini, cum gente fua, ad rum . In charta Eudonis Camerinenfts 

transfretandum in Angliamin fervitium Re- Epifcopi, data A. D. 944. Ughdli Ital. Sac. 

gis, xls, per breve Regis. Mag. Rot. 4. T. i. «/. 595. 

Job. Rot. 15. i. m, I. Kent. — ad reconciliandos animos feniorum & 

y. Dei gratia isfc. Et de gente vejlra militum, ut ad invicem femper inveniantur 

7nittatis ad conducendum thefaurum ilium Concordes, & ut fideliter nobis & fiiis fenio- 

ufque Bedeford . Memor, 6. Hen, 3. ribus ferviant — . Heroldi Leg. Francic. p. 

Rot. 4. a. 344. tit. unico par. i . 

— y que llevava con figuo trezientos de Deinde miniftri, completis omnibus, ad 

cayallo y mucha gente de pie. Anal, de Seniorem fuum [w'2. to Serlo Bijhop of Li- 



E F A T O R Y 

P I S T L E. 


is in Latin, faith fiil ; in Romance, a Liege-?7ian or one tiiat owes^de- 
litateniy Fealty {/). In Rommice, Homo, is a Homager, or Man that 
owes Fealty or Service to his Lord {t). In Latin, Confuetudo lignifi- 
eih Cuftom or Uiage; in Romanick, Duties, Prefentations, or Pay- 
ments of many Kinds {li). Comes is in Latin, a Companion ; in 
Romance an Earl or Count {la). Villanus is in Latin, a Villager j in. 
Romanick or Romance a Villain, or a villanous and bafe or mifchievous. 
Perfon [x). Parentes, in X^//;^ Parents ^ in Ro}?iance Kinsfolk fy). 

fieux] redierunt. Orel. Fit. p. &78. a. ad 
A. D. 1 123. 

Hither refer the JFords, Seigneur — ie. 
Signer — ia, Sennor — ia — io. 

— & omni alia jurifdittione, coercitione, 
juftitia, & Seignoria, in quibufcunque cau- 
fis- Sc rebus — • In charta data 1281. Gall, 
' Chri/i. T. \. p. II 26. col. 2. 

— recognovit pro didlo Domino, & Sen- 
horia didti Regis. — . lb. p. 1127. col. 2. in. 
Jcripto data 1 309. 

Y llamarfe Sennores [the rices hombres 
were Jo called) en las principales ciudades 
del reyno, tenia origen de los tiempos anti- 
guos en el Imperio Romano, que llamauan 
Jsefiores no folamente a los mas ancianos, 
pero a los que eran mayores en feiiorio. 
Anal, de Arag. T. 1. L, 2. f. 102. ad ann, 


{5) — omnibus fidelibus fuis Francis & 
Anglis falutem. Form. Angt. nu. II, LXI, 

Sic promitto ego Ille partibus Domini mei 
Caroli Regis & filiorum ejus, quia fidelis 
fum & ero diebus vitae meae, fine fraude vel 
malo ingenio. Her. Leg. Franc, p. 309. ca, 

4^- ... 

Formula facramenti fidelium Imperij fub 

Frid. I. Imp, Aug. Ego N. juroquod amo- 

do inantea ero fidelis Domino meoFriderico 

Romanorum Imperatori — . Gold. Conjiit, 

Imp. p. 64. A. D. 1158. 

Feuduii; a fidelitate di(Slum eft. Duaren. 
de confuetud. feud. L. 2. ///. 3. cap. 1. feSt. 3. 
Dicitur enim fidelis, a fealis : & Princeps 
omnes fubjeftos fibi feales, id eft fideles, 
•vocat, ab hac fide qu^ Domino debetur. lb. 
cap. 2. fea. 3. 

[t) Cil qui fait hommage doit eflendre 
les. mains entre celles a celuy qui le recoit, 

& dire ces paroHes, Je deviens voftre hom- 
me a vous porter foy &c. Gr. Coujl. de 
Norm. c. 29. f. 44. b. 

— refpondit fe effe hominem Comitis 
Johannis, & velle in curia fua juri ftare. 
Moved. P. 2. p. 'J27- ^' 3°* 

Ricardus de Luci, omnibus hominibus 
fuis Francis & Anglis falutem. Form, 
Ang. nu. CCLXXXFIII; & vid. ib. nu. 

(u) Hi/?, Scacc. cap. l%.fe£i. i. Et vid^ 
Gall. Chrijl. pafftm ; i^ Ital. fac. pajftm ; ac 
Archteologos Spelmann. fcf Cangium, ad vo- 
ce /n. 

(w) Apud auSforci Feudales, Formulares,. 
Hiftortcos &c. paffim. 

Hither refer Comitatus an Earldom or 
County; Vicecomes, Vifcount, Vifconte, 
Vizconde &c. 

(x) Vid. Form. Angl. nu. CCCXCIX,- 

ou il a acouftume a la trai<Sier vil- 

lainement ; car ainfy ne doit len pas chaftier 
femme. Gr. Coujium. de Norm. cap. loo.- 
fol. 117. a. 

(y) — qitod fi nee parentes fiierint qui 
ei legitime fuccedere poterint, fuccedat ei 
Curtis Regia. Lindenbr. de L.L. Longob. 
Lib. I. tit. cap. 2. 

YzTznits, kindred; Herold, Leg, Salic, p. 
33. tit. 65. 

— propinqui parentes ejufdem qui occi« 
fus fuerit — . Herold. ib. Leg. Longob, p.. 
212. tit. 9. Et p. zi-2. tit' 12. Et ib. p. 
214- tit. 13. tff 14. 

Hie parentes vocat agnatos : les parens • 
in lingua Gallica. Duaren. de Feudis ca. 10. 
fea. 5. 

Ord. Vit.p. 552. h.adA. D. 1080. (2 p,. 
584. a. 




E F A T O R Y 

E P I 

S T L E. 

Mandatum in Latiriy a Command ; in Romance a Meffage (s). ^ietus 
in Latin, quiet or at reft ; in Romanick, quit, free, or difcharged {a). 
DireBum in Latin, diredt or ftrait; in Romanick, droit. Law or legal 
Right [b). Tcncre in Latin, to hold or keep; in Romance, to 
hold in Vaffalage or in Demeane {c). Ingenium in Latin, wit ; 
in Romance, unfair Device, and Engine (d). Pietas in Latin, 
Piety ; in Romance, Mercy or Pity (ej. Probitas in Latin, Probity ; 


{%) Andinus Praeful Ebroicenfis per lega- 
tum iuum mandavit, quod — . Ord. Fit. pi 
846. d. ad J. D. II 18. 

eventum Regi mandaverunt. lb. p. 921. 
h. ad aim. 1141. 

expedabat [R. Ric. I.J mandatum 

Regis Francis, qui mandavit ei quod die 
illo vifitaret illuni in manu hoftili. Cujus 
mandatum Rex Angliae laetus fufcipiens, 
renunciavit quod ipfe expedlaret euni ■ 
Hoiked. P. 2. />. 741. >!. 20. 

— poenituit eum tale feciffe Regi man- 
d-atum, expertus quod — mandavit Regi 

quod infra bicnnium . lb. p. "jb"]. 

n. 50. 

& in mandate pauperum \_Jbns fent to the 
Poor}. Mag. Ret. 19. H. 3. m. 1. b. 

Hence the known Phrafe in ctxr Law- 
Procefs, Dominus Rex mandavit breve fu- 
um, &c. 

[a) quietede fcutagio& omnibus 

fccularibus confuetudinibus -, Hijl. 

Excheq. cap. 16. fe£f. I. in charta R, 
Hen. I. 

Calumpniatur quod Rex Henricus avus 
Domini Regis clamavit ecclefiam fde 

Taviftoke] quietam . Mag. Rot. 

22. Hen. 2. Rot. 10. a. El vid. Hiji. Scacc. 

— immune & quittum ab omni meo fer- 
vitio. In charta Raymundi Comitis Tolofa, 
data A. D. 1149. Gall, Cbriji. T. 4. p. 745. 
col. I. 

— quiti fint & immunes ab omni pedagio 
& alia coftuma quacumq;— — . Neuji. Pia, 
p. ()\ A. D. 1269. 

— fece renoncia & quittatione delli beni 
paterni. Fatto ^ difc. delta caufa di Moti' 



{b) — in cadhuna cofa fi cum per dreite 
— . Pontan. de Orig. Francic. p. 605. 

— nullui ne toilie a fon Senior fun dreit 
fervife. Leg. JPIll. 1. cap. 34. in notis J. 
Seld. ad Eadmer. p. 184. 

— ellos yrian a fu Corte para eftar a 
drecho con el. Annal. de Arag. T. I. L. 3. 

f. 210. a. ad A. D. izj^.. 

eftar'con fu enemigo a derecho y jufticia. 
Ib.f. 176. a. 

Hither refer the noted La:^- Phrafe, ftare 

(f) This is fujiciently hnoivn. Hence alfo 
Tenura, Teneiites, Tencmcntum. 

i^d) Si quis per malum ingenium ; 

Heroldi Leg. Sal. p. 21. tit. 2~- Llcm Leg, 
Franc, p. 297. m. 27. per quodlibet in- 
genium ; Lindenbr. Leg. Longob. Lib.- 1. ///. 
15. c. 4. Sine fraude vcl male ingenio ; 
Her. leg. Franc, p. 309. cap. 46. 

• ■ per bonam fidem& fine omni enga- 
no, laudo & concede dimilto & reddo— . — 
Gall.' Chrijl. T. 4. p. 744. col. 2. 

Et in liberatione Alnodi Ingeniatoris, x 1 

& xij s & xj d . Alag. Rot. 9. Hen. 2. 

Rot. 7. a. Londonia (^ Midd. 

Nos enim nobifcum adducimus prse- 

diftum Urricum in fervicio noftro, ad fa- 
cienda Ingenia noftra, ita quod a nobis 
non poteft recedere. RoU Liherat. 3. Joh. 
m. 5. 

Quod falmunculi non capiantur nee de- 
ftruantur per retia nee per alia ingenia ad 
ftagna molendinorum. Stat. Wejlm. 2. ap, 
Tott. P. I. fol. -ji.feSf. 47. 

[e) Henricus Divina pieCate fecundus 
Romanorum Imp. Aug. Lindenbr. L. L. 
Longob. L. I. ///. 9. C, 39. 

— quae 

Prefatory Epistle. xxv 

in Romankk, Prowefs ff). Charta in Latin, Paper, and by meto- 
nymy a writing ; in Romanick, a Charter or Diploma. Concerning this 
Word Charta, 1 will fpeak more largely anon. To the Lift which I 
have here above fet-down, may be referred a great Number of other 
Words, derived from Latin but impreffcd with a new, to wit, the Ro- 
tnanick Stamp. Of this Sort are, Advocatiis — atio, Avoue, avocato, 
abogado ; rendiim, rent, rendita, renta ; medietas, medium, fg) ineite, 
moite, met a, mitad ; dijidare — atus, deffire, diffidare, sfidare, dcfafiar ; 
data, done, data, dada (h) ; divifa, divife, divifa ; curia, ciirtis, curte, 
cour, curia, corte ; excidere, exci-exca-dentia, efcheoir-eute efcheite, ex- 
chaeta efchaetta, caducita {i) ; dominium dotnanium demanium, domaine, 
dominio ; Miles, 7?iilitaris, militia [Knighthood] ; caballus, cheval, ca- 
vallo, chivaler, cavalliero, cavallero [^Knight] ; foras, for, fuor-i, fuera, 
Joris meumjiagile fk) ; forisfaBum-ura, foyjaidi, intendere, entendre de- 
ment, intenderc-dimento, ejitender-dimiento ; fdpere, faver fcavoir (I), fa- 
fere, fauer, fiputo, fauido ; ante, en avant, en avanti innajizi, inantea, 
da aqui adelante ; cognitiones, cognifances ; ligeus-eantia-gantia ; arrera- 
gium, "vaffalhis ; and many other, which may be recolledted by Perfons 
that are verfed in the Language of the middle and lower Ages. 
Again ; under the Name of Romance or Romanick taken in Latitude, 
may (as hath been hinted above) be comprehended many other Words, 
that are not (at leaft not fo nearly and evidently) of Latin Original ; ia 
Regard they became by Cuftom ingrafted into the Roinanick, and were 
alfo Words of frequent or ordinary Ufe. Of this Sort are, Spat at 

quae faplens arbiter omnium difponit lb. p. 890. b. Et vid. ib. p. 717. ad A, D. 

InefFabili pietate. Ord. Fit. p. 764. a. 1094. i^ ib. p. 720. b. ad A. D. 1095. 

Tunc Willehnus affli£lione Regis pietate (g) medium Regi & medium contra 

motus . Dudo de S. ^tintino de aflis quem caufavit. Herold. Leg. Longob, p, 255. 

Norm. L. 2. p. 9. b. ap. Diichefn. fcript.. tit. 6. 

Nonn. [b) Hif. Scacc. cap, i^.feSi. i. Ego Jo- 

Oftende quaefumus pietatem, fuccure fer hannes. 

opem miferis. Ge/ia Norm, ante Rollcn, ap. (i) Ne li farebbe ftato rimefla !a caducita, 

JDucheJti. p. 24. d. fe prima non era feudo. Fatto della canfa di 

Pius Dominusi qui flagrat omnem filium Montferrato fol. 44. a. 

quem recipit. Malm. Hiji. de Her. i. L. omnia quae poterunt exchaire. 

5. p. 172. K. I. Form. Angl. nu. CCXXVIII. 

Dei omnipotentis immenfe pietatis mag- (^J foris meum ftagile quod ibi retinui. 

nitudineni collaudarsius. Eadm. Hiji. Nov, Gall. Chrijl. T. 4. p. 744. col. 2. ad A. D. 

L. 5. p. 127. Un. 47. 1149- 

■(f) ut in tali gymnafio fuas often- ('/) Ego ille Karolo Hludouvici & Juditiitae 

taient probitates. Ord. Fit. p. 6<)2. b. ad. filio, ab ifta die in ante fidelis ero fecun- 

ann. IC90. dum meum favirum. Baluz, Capit. T. 2. 

Goiftredus Comes Moritoniae vir in mul- col, 71. 

tis probitatibus proedicabilis zegrotavit . 

VuL. L . d tallio, 

xxvi Prefatory Epistle. 

fallla, francus franchefia, baUlum bailhus, catalhim, bannum-kus, cafa- 
merit u??i Marriage (w). Jclo-nia, finifcalctn, Marifcalcus, Baro a Noble 
Baron and Baronia, cujlunm, plata, guardia, giierra, ga?-cio, pakfridus^ 
%vara7itum, &c ; and many of the Terms ufed by the Feudijis of the 
pofteriour Ages, and by Perfons that dealt in Heraldry, Chivalry, and 
Diplomaticks. Moreover, it is to be confidered, that this Lingua 
liomaiia taken (as I have faid) extenfively, was not fettled at once, 
but in Succelfion of Time ; as in Truth all Language and Cuftomare 
wont to be. He that would enquire with Exadnefs into the Time and 
Manner of its Settlement, muft confider the Rife and Progrefs of it 
in each Country apart. He muft take-in a great deal of Hiftory, 
Chronology, and Language. He muft write, not a Preface only, bu£ 
a Book. At prefent I do not attempt to fpeak elaborately upon the 
Subjeft. However, a Word or two may be added, concerning the 
Lingua Romana of France and England. I am not prepared to fet- 
forth, in what Manner or in what compafs of Time, that Dialedl was 
introduced and fettled in the Kingdom of France. And I look no 
furtiier now than the Reign of Charles the Great. Soon after his Reign 
we find this Dialed: there. Let us, if Your Lordfliip pleafes, fup- 
pofe, it was working towards a Settlement in that Country for three 
or four hundred Years after ; viz. from the eighth to the eleventh or 
twelfth Century ; or perhaps for a longer or ihorter Space of Time. 
On tlie other Part, this Dialed (if I obfcrve right) came late into our 
liland of Great Britain. It came (as it feemeth) from France to En^ 
vjand ; but moftly at fecond Hand : the Normans having received it 
from the French, and the Englijli at firft or for the greater Part from 
the Normans. It is true, we find fome few Words of this Dialed 
fc.ittered here and there in the Writings of fome Englijlmien, earlier than 
the Time of fettled Communication between England and Nonnandy. 
Perhaps that might be, by Reafon that fuch E7tglijli Writers had been, 
abroad in the Court or Kingdom of France or in Italy, or had been 
inftruded by or conrefponded with fome Perfons that were by Birth or 
Education French or Ital/ck ; or perhaps it might be from fome other 
Caufe. But upon the mod exad Obfervalion that I have made, it 
doth not appear to me, that this Dialed was commonly or gene- 
lally ufed in England before the Norman Times. There are, I fup-. 
pofe, few or no Footlfeps of it in the Anglojaxon Language. But 
from the tenth to the twelfth or thirteenth Century, it was grown in- 
to familiar Ufe amongft the Inhabitants, efpecially the more literate,, 

[m) Adhuc juvencs fine cafamento fi. e. coelibes) funt. IV. Gemet. L. 7. cnp. 29. 

5 o^ 

Prefatory Epistlk. 


of this Ifland. It may require many Inftances and much Difccurfc, 
to make this out to Perfons who are haply unconverfant in Difquili- 
tions of this Kind. Let each Man fatisfy himfelf therein by reading 
of ancient Books and Membranes. Now I vvi!l go on and finifh 
I intended to fay here about the Word Charta. The Charters (if 
one may fo fpeak) of the Rotnan Emperours, were commonly called 
Mandatiim, refcriptiim, Imperiale, Divlnum, Regium, Divak ; Uteres 
Imperiales, facra ju[Jio, diploma, &c : The Charters or Inftruments of 
private Men, Libelhis, Utera, epijlola, fyngrapha, ch'wgrapbum &c : 
moil ufually Uhcllus ; as libelhis mutui, venditionis, i-atihabitionis, &c. 
Afterwards, in the Days of the Longobardic, Fi'ancick, and Aleman- 
nick Kin2;s, the Word Charta came into common Ufe in Foreioti 
Countries, and was in Procefs of Time fo generally received, that it 
feems to have fupplied the Place of libellus itlelf (;z). In England, 
about the 9th and loth Century, the Word Charta is found in'foiB« 
Inftruments or Writings : For Example ; in that of K. Edgar dated 
A. D. 978 (0) ; in thofe mentioned by Dr. Hickes (p) ; and in others. 
To recapitulate. I have before fet-down Charta as a Romanick Word : 

(n) Et qui voluerit hoc facere, per kar- 
tam de rebus fuis, ad Ecclefiam ubi donare 
voluerif, finnitatem facial, & teftes vj vel 
vij adhibcat, & nomina eorum ipfa (carta 
continear, & coram facerdote qui ad Eccle- 
fiam defervit, fuper altare ponat He- 
roldi Leg. Akin. p. 61. ///. I. Et vid. ib. tit. 
1. Et p. 64. tit. 17. 18. 19. \_lt is alfo cal- 
led, as it fcemeth, epiftola firmitatis ; lb. 
Leg. Alem.p. 61. tit. 2. i^ p. 65. tit. 20. 

ipla manumiilione, in chartula li- 

bertatis commemoretur. £t fi chartulam 

lion feccrit, tamen libertas ci permaneat. 
Her. Reg. Longob. p. j86. tit. gi. cap. 8. 9. 
Et ib. Leg. Longob. p. 216. tit. 17. cap. 2. 1/ 
///. 18. cap. 2. 

Si quis chartam falfam fcripferit, aut qiiod- 
libet membranum; manus ei incidantur. Ib. 
Leg. Longob. p. 188. tit. 98. \_ln thej'c Times, 
an Injirument was alfo fonictiines called fcrip- 
tura. Scriptura non valeat, nifi in qua an- 
nus & dies evidentur oftenditur. Her. Leg. 
Alem. p. 70. ///. 44.] 

Chartula is fometimcs ufed ; Her. Leg. 
Longob. p. 234. tit. 66. Defcribis ; ^ tit. 
QO. p. 241 : At other Times Charta ; Ib. 
Leg. Longob. p. 237. ///. 76, De donatinnc ; 
i3 ib. tit. 74 ; iJ rb. tit. 7. p. 255 i Et ib. 


inter Leg. Fraric. p. 297. cfip. 28. I'/a. ch.hl.i. 
ingenuitatis ; t^ ib. p. 29H. cap. ^t^. 

In a Charter of Bifhop Speciofus, — iit'c per 
chartulam coiicambitionis, neq; per conve- 
nifntiam libelli — ; «/;;/ per chartulam cam- 
biationis vel per cohvenientiam libelli — ; 
and & hanc ofterfionis cliarculam — . Ac- 
tum Florenti;e felicitcr. Dated anno 12 
Luiprandi Regis Lungobardorum. Ughelli 
Ital. Sac. T. 3. col. 27, 28. 

In a Charter of Atr'oald and others, ci m?.- 
num in chartula ipfa fubfcribere — ; & o- 
fienfa chartula ipla vel relecla — ; prrcfens 

chartula qualiter fuperius legitur . It is 

dated regnante Carolo & Pipino ejufq; filio; 
Actum Florcntias ; and is fubfigned,. Ego 
Atroald in hac charta quae offerfionis — ; 
Ego Adonald in hac charta qus ofFerfionis 

— ; Ego Adelpald in hac chaita q o ; 

Ego Gratolfo Notarius in hac chartula q o 

— ; Ego Rimpertus in hac chartula ofFer- 

fionis ; Ego Decdetto Notarius in hac 

charta . Ugh. Ital. Sac. T. 3. col. 29, 

3O' 3I' 32- 

(0) Form. Angl. p. \ 75. 

{p) CI. Hick. Antiquitatt. Septenir. m dif- 
ftrt. epiji. p. 63. 

2 and 

xxviii Prefatory Epistle. 

and will now give the Reafon why I did fo. The Reafon doth in 
fome Mealure refult from what I have juft now faid. Although 
Charta is a true Ro?nan Word : yet we do not, I think, find it cur- 
rently ufed, even in Foreign Countries, for a Diploma or Inftrument, 
till the Romam'ck Ages. Then, as I fuppofe, it received the Romaiiick 
Stamp ; and hath ever fince uninterruptedly been ufed in that Senfe 
by Notaries, Diplojuatijisy and Forinularians,. In Reference to E7iglandy 
there feems to be Caufe to date the Entrance of the Romanick Lan- 
guage from the Time of K. Edward the Confeflbur. He had been 
abroad in Normandy ; and likewife in the Court of France [q). In 
his Time that Dialeil entered lightly ; from and after the Norman Con- 
queft it came to be completely fettled here ; that is, to be generally re- 
ceived and ufed by Eiiglijhmc7i, efpecially in fuch of their Compofitions as 
were written in Latin or French. It is true, Inftruments and Writings 
were, as Dr. Hicks hath rightly obferved, fometimes called by the Names 
of Charta, karta, and cartiila, before the Times of which I am here 
fpeaking. Thofe Words are found in many Latiii Charters which were 
entred fince the Conquefl in Regifters or Chartularies of Churches, I 
fay, in Charters that import to have been made or written between the 
Year of Chriji 950, and the Year 1050. I do not fay they were not ufed 
before. But there are two or three Things to be conlidered in this Cafe. 
In the firfl Place, a great many Charters of the Anglofaxon Ages deferve 
to be weighed and examined before they are admitted for genuine. But 
let us fuppofe that thofe Anglofaxon Charters are genuine, wherein the 
Words charta and cartida are found. In the next Place, thofe Charters 
might be written in Etigland by fome Clerks or Scholars who came from 
foreien Parts. For though the Romanick Dialed in general was not yet 
brought into England ; yet by Realbn of a Communication which pro- 
bably there was, between the Englifo Clerks or Notaries and the Foreign, 
efpecially thofe of the Roman Court, fome Romanick Words relating to the 
Diplomatick or Notarial Art, in particular, thofe about which we are en- 
quiring, :i)ight eafily be introduced into England in thofe Times. Laftly, 
it is to be confidered, that in Englijlj or Angloj'axon there were no Words 
anfwering, by immediate or diredt Verfion, to charta or chartula. The 
Cafe was otherwife v/ith the French, Italians, and Spaniards. They, 
from ancient Time, dealt in the Lingua Romana : and therefore had in 
their own Language Words, fuppofe charte or chartre and. carta derived 
fiom the Latin, charta. On the ether Part, in Anglofaxon, an Inftrument 

(g) Hoc aflerebat ipfe Rex [fc. Edwar- omnium vitiorum eflet. Le^. Ecliv. Conf. 
dus] fe audifleiii Curia Regis Francorum^ ditore Lambanh cap. ■^■j. 
dum ibidem moraixtur, quod -ufura radix 

2 or 


Prefatory Epistle, xxIx 

or Writing was ufually called boc, lanbboc, jejipit-c, and cpybe ; Names very 
different from Latin and Romanick. The Words boc and bnbboc have 
been ufually rendred in Latin, Codex, codicilhis de Terra-, ■^.^-^V'^'^ fcriptiim ; 
and cpybe teflamentum. In the Anghnorman Times, cbarta as it feems fuc- 
ceeded in the Room of boc and lanbboc ; and Breve, fcriptum, or rcjcrip- 
tum, in the Room of jepprc. To conclude. I have here, by Way of Ef- 
fay, placed the Words cbarta and cartula amongft others of the Romanick 
Dialedl : whether rightly, let the Publick judge. What hath been faid 
may ferve to fli^w, that the Matter in Difference between the learned Dr. 
HicJzes and me, was fit to be amicably compofed. If what I have offered 
will not perfedly compofe it, I fhall refl fatisfied in this, that I have en- 
deavoured to do it, in a Manner fuitable to the jufl efleem I have for his 
Perfon. It is alfo fome Contentment to me, that by difcourfing about the 
Cbarta, I have gained an Opportunity to treat of the Romanick Dialed. 
Wherein I have been the more copious, partly becaufe that Dialeft hath 
not hitherto been fufficiently illuflrated (r), and partly becaufe what I 
have faid concerning it, may be, as I fuppofe, of coniiderable Ufe (if 
rightly applied) to explain feveral Laws and Cufloms that were, as it 
feemeth, introduced into divers Countries of Europe in the Romanick Ages. 
Now I mufl: beg Leave to notify one Thing, in Relation to my Ccndudt 
in this Matter. I thought it would ill become me, even to feem to write 
againfV the Dodor, without firfl conferring with him upon this Subjed j, 
feeing I have the Honour to be acquainted with him. And therefore be- 
fore I began to print thefe Sheets, I made known to him the Subftance of 
this Digreffion. And he hath given me Leave to declare, that he affent- 
eth in the Main, to what I have here fpoken concerning the Romanick 
Dialed:. He hath alfo affured me, that when he wrote the General 
Preface to his Book, he would have conferred witii me about the cbarta, 
before he committed that Preface to the Prefs ; but that the urgent Inftan- 
ces of fome Perfons who fuhfcribed to his Book, and an uneafy State of 
Health, forced him to omit that and fome other Things. Of thcfe 
Matters, hitherto. 

There is another thing which affedls me with a greater Concern 
than the Subjedl of the Digrefiion abovewritten ever did. In my 
Differtati'on (p. lo.) placed before the Formidare it is faid, the Earl of 

•^r) Monfieur Du Frefne a/" immortal Me- vciir to hammer and form rny Notiom upon that 

viory, in the Preface bcfjre bis Latin Gkjjhry, Si(bje£i as it were ex propria minerva. yind- 

viz. fe£i 28, is feq, and in that Gbjjary ad I conceive I have here fet it upon the right bafis ; 

•vocem, Romani, hath treated of the lingua in extending it, not to the Gallick Cjiniry on- 

Romanica, learnedly and elaborately ; as he ly, but alfo to Italy and SpTiln. 
ifeth to do, Nevsrtbetefs, I made- it my endea- 


XXX Prefatory Epistle. 

Warivick gave Seifin of Lands to the Prioury of Lewes, per capHhs 
capitis fui &c. Inftead of the Earl of V/arwick there, it ihould have 
been the Earl of Warremie. That Miftake crept into the Print by 
this Means. In the Gr-eat Roll there cited, it is written abbreviated 
Comes de Warr. Now IVarr. ftanding either for Warre-wico or JVarrennay 
the Copyift happened to write it Wan-ewico. Which was an eafy and 
pardonable Miliake ; for it is well known that Warr. llands a hun- 
dred to one oftner for JVarrewicimz than for Warrenna. When the 
DilTertation was printing-off at London, I was fick in the Countrey. 
So the Miftake was not perceived till the Formulare was publifhed. 
But I fear my Digreflions have exceeded the proper Bounds. I now 
moft humbly take my Leave : having the Honour to declare, that I 
am, with deep Refped, 

My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 

mojl obedienty 

and devoted Servant 

Middle Temple 
10 Aug. 1708. 

Thomas Madox. 



History and Antic^uities 




Of the Court of the Kings of England, froui the Nor- 
man Conquefi^ to the End of the Reign of King John. 

I. Tihe IntroduBion. 

II. A View of the Kings Court. 

III. Of the Bufmefs or ASls of the Kings Court: In the Reigns of 
KK. William I, William II, Henry I, Stephen, Henry II, 
Richard I, atid ]o\\n. 

IV. Of the Court of fome of the ancient Francick Kings and Dukes 
g/" Normandy. 


I. "y N thefe Volumes I defign to reprefent the Ancient State of the 
Exchequer of the Kings of 'England. And I propofe to do it 
in this Method : namely, to begin at fome given Period, and 
deduce from thence an hiftorical Account of Things, accord- 
ing to the Order of Time, I am fenfible, this Method will be ac- 
companied with great Labour and Difficulty : however, that has 
not deterred me from making Choice of it, becaufe it is likely to be 
moft fatisfadtory and advantageous to the Reader. But in regard 
Vol. I. B the 

2 Of /<^^ K I N g's Court. Chap. I. 

the King's Exchequer had an hnmediate Relation to the King's 
Court, and was a Member of it, as will hereafter appear : Before 
I come to treat exprefly of the Exchequer, I mult endeavour to re- 
prefent the ancient State of the Palace or Court &f the Kings of 
England. Which I fhull do with all convenient Brevity. And as in 
our Enquiry concerning the Exchequer, we mean to afccnd no higher 
than to tlie Norman Conquelf; fo, our Enquiry concerning the. 
Kind's Court fliall commence at that Time. 

II. By the King's Court, we may here underftand his Palace, or 
the Place of his royal Reiidence, where he was attended by his 
Nobles and Great Men. The King had many Palaces within the 
Kingdom, and ufed to hold his Court and celebrate the high Fefti- 
vals of the Year at one or other of them, as he thought fit. So the 
Hiflorians frequently take notice, that at fuch a Feaft he held his 
'Court at fuch or fuch a Place. It is fufficient for my prefent Pur- 
pofe, to confider the King's Court in general, as holden in the Place- 
of his ufual Refidence. In which refpecl, his Court and Palace are 
laid in a Charter of K. Stephen fa), to have been at Wejiminjlsr^ 
At his Court, and more efpecially at fome folemn Times of the Year,, 
he held his great Councils, and ordinarily tranladed fuch Affairs, as 
were of great Importance, or required Pomp and Solemnity, accord- 
ing to the Cuftom of the Times. There he was attended by his 
Barons and Knights, who were to accompany him in his Wars and 
Expeditions. There Coronations, Marriages, and Knighthoods of 
the King's Children, and Solemnities of great FeiHvals were cele- 
brated. , There, was placed the Throne or fovereign ordinary Court 
of Judicature, wherein Juftice was adminiftred to the Subjedls, either 
by the King or his High Juilicier. There, was the Confluence of 
the Nobility and Prelates, who ufed to be near his Royal Perfon. 
And there, the Affairs of the royal Revenue were managed, by the 
King himfelf, or (moft ufually) by his Jufticier, Barons, and Pre- 
lates^ employed therein by his Command. This may ferve for one 
View of the King's Court. To vary the Profpeft, let us take a View 
of it another way. The Realm of England v/as anciently deemed 
one great Seigneury or Dominion (bj ; of which the King was Sove- 

(<^) Quoniam Curia & Domus Regix in {I) Heme it ivas e/illed Regnum Angliae, 
fundo illo [fc. in Manerio Weftmonafteriij the Kingdom or Realm of England (which- 
confiftuni. Form. Aiiglic. num. D. Phrafe lath continued iu ufi ever ftnce to this 


chap. I. Of the K I -ii g' s C o u r t. 3 

reio-n or Chief Lord ; having under him many Barons or great Lords, 
and many Knights and mihtary Tenants, befides Socagers, Burgefles, 
and others. In order to furvey the Court of this Chief Lord of tlie 
Regnum, or Terra Anglice, we may confider \\m\ as refiding in his 
Palace, and furrounded by his Barons and Ofiicsrs of State. The 
Baronage, attending on his Royal Perlbn, made a confiderable Part 
of his Court. They were his Homagers : They held their Baronies 
of him : He was their Sovereign or Cliief Lord, and they were 


Day) ; and Terra Anglise, or Terra Regis 
Anglias, the Seigneury or Dotninion of Eng- 
land. For exmnple : K. Henry I. calls it 
Terra mea, in a Charter of his granted to the 
Monks of Bathe : Henncus Rex Anglo- 
rum, omnibus Baronibus & Miniftris luis 
falutem. Praecipio h dcfendo i'uper forif- 
facluram menm, ne aliquis difturbet mi- 
niftros Monachorum de Batha, fi quid emc- 
rint ad opus eorum ; fed fint quieti de 
Theloneo & omni confuetudine ; Sc habe- 
ant firmam pacem per totam Terram 
meam. T. Epifcopo Saiefberix apud Win- 
toniam. Per Walterum de Gloeceftra. ^.v 
Cod. perantiq. AiS. Mifcellanea G. in Bibl. 
Coll. Corp. Chrifii Cantab, p. io8. in the 
Reign of K. Henry II. Randulf Fitz- Wal- 
ter fined in Tzventy Marks., for going out of 
England (de terra Regis) : Randulfus filius 
Walter! reddit compotum de xx marcis, quia 
exivit de terra Domini Regis ; In thefauro 
X marcas, & debet x marcas ; Mag, Rot. 
29 Hen. 2. Rot. 5. a. Everwichfcira. K. 
Richard I. granted leave to Hugh Oiftl and 
Adam his Brother, to buy and fell, in Terra 
Domini Regis ; Pojlhac, cap. 13. Se£i. 3. 
K. John granted leave to Nicholas the Dane, 
to trade per totam Terram Regis ; lb. Sefi. 
3. K. ^o)\n granted leave to Simon Curle- 
vach to export five Lafls of Leather from Eng- 
land (a Terra Anglise) to St. Valerie; lb. 
Sea. 3. 

The Kingdom of Scotland iv.ts alfo called 
Terra Regis Scotia. 77;;? Sheriff of York- 
fhire returned to the Barons of the Exchequer, 
That William de Sumerville, one cf the Kings 
Debtors, refided at Loeneis, luithin the Land 
or Dominion of the King of Scotland : Wil- 
lelmus de Sumervill debet xx marcas argenti. 
Sed manet in terra Regis Scotise in Lionels ; 

Afag. Rot. 4 Hen. 2. Rol. 5. a. Everwichfcira. 
Sarah de Burgh fined to K. John, that fine. 
might marry to uhom jhe pleajed m the Rcaliii 
»/" England, but nit to any one of the Realm 
of Scotland ; Ut pofTit fe maritare cui vo- 
luerit in Terra Regis, praeter Terram Re- 
gis Scotiie ;, Fojlhac, cap. 13. SeSl. 2. In like 
tnanner there %vas Terra Francis and Terra 

l^'lthin the Kingdom or Terra Anglias, then 
'Mere many fubordinate Seigneiirtes, fuch as 
Honours, Baronies, Manours, Sic. which ivere 
holden either mediately or immediately of the 
King as fupreme Lord. Thefe fubordinate. 
Seigneuries were alfo frequently ftyled Terra 
of fuch or fuch a Lord. The Bifnop of Elys 
Seigneurie is fo called; Et in Terra Epifcopi 
de Ely, viij I. 61 x s. & iij d. ; Mag. 
Rot. 2. Hen. 2. Rot, I. a. Nortf. Et ib. Rot. 
I. b. Sudfolc. Hamon Son of Meinfelin 
granted to the Prioury of Lufl'eld, the whole 
Tythe of the Bread of his Houfe, Ubicunque 
(faith he) fuero in Terra mea : His Char- 
ter runs thus, Univerfis S. Matris ecclefis 
filijs, Hamo filius Meinfelini falutem. No- 
verit univerfitas veftra, me dediire & in per- 
petuam elemofinam, allenfu Hamonis fiiij 
mei & hsredis, conceffiffe decimam totius 
panis domus meae ubicunq; in terra mea 
fuero de proprio lucre meo, Alonafterio de 
Luft'eld. Praeterea, quia Prior & fratres 
Monafterij de Lufl'eld, juri quod fe in Cella 
mea de Eradeweila & in ecclefiis de terra 
mea habere aflercbant, lenuntiaverunt, ec- 
clefiam de Torneberga liberam &i quictam 
inperpetuum eis concede & hac carta mea 
confirmo. Hijs teftibu.s, Alano iilio Mein- 
felini, BartholomaeD de Luct, RoggeroVis 
de Lu, Michaele clerico de Sloch, Radulfo 
de Bealchamp, with fivni othes. Ex autogr. 
B 2 in 

4 Of the K I N g's Court. Chap. L 

his Men, as to Life, Limb, and earthly Honour Cc). They were 
called Pares or Peers, as they were Peers or Convallals fJJ of his 
Court ; Peers to one another, and all of them Liege-men to their 

As Peers they had an immediate relation to 


Chief Lord the King. 

In archh'o Ecclef. Colleg. TVrJimon. This' Char- 
ter is without Date. , / refer it to the Reign of 
K. Henry II, Richard I, or John. In truth. 
Terra -Mas a gtmral name ufed for any large 
Seigneury. In the 33^ Year of K. Henry II, 
certain femurs, or cuftodes accompted for the 
following Lands or Ef.ates : viz. Honor Wil- 
lelmi de Velci ; Terra Radulfi de Caugi ; 
Terra qiias fuit Henrici de Effexa ; Terra 
Thomae de Malcamp ; Terra Willelmi 
Painelli ; Terra Ruelent de Auuers ; and 
feveral other Lord/hips ; Mag. Rot. 33 Hen. 2. 
Rot. 2. a, l^ ib. b. £jf alibi in Magnis Rott. 

(c) Homage ivas done to a Lord in this form. 
Devenio homo veller de tenemento quod de 
vobis teneo [vel alitcr, quod de vobis teneo 
& tenere debeo] ; ti fidem vobis portabo de 
vita & membris & terreno honore ; [fecun- 
dum quofdam, vel aliter, fecundum alios] 
de corpore & catallis & terreno honore ; & 
fidem vobis portabo contra omnes gentes 
[qui vivere poterint & mori, fecundum 
quofdam] ; faiva fide debita Domino Regt 
& hxredibus fuis. BraSion. de Legib. Angl. 
L. 1. c. 35. §. 8. fol. 80. a. 

Regi autem fic \that is. Homage luas to be 
done to the King in this form'] : Devenio ho- 
mo vefterde feodis & tenementis quje de vo- 
bis teneo & tenere debeo, h fidem vobis 
portabo de vita & membris, corpore & ca- 
tallis, h omni terreno honore, contra om- 
nes qui vivere poterunt & mori. FLta L. 3. 
c. 16. §. 21. p. 207. 

Et vid. Spelm. Glojfar.advocem, Homagium, 
p. 296. 

(d) They zvho are acquainted with the Feu- 
dal Ciijhms knovj very well, that, Vaffal, was 
anciently a Word importing the mafl honourable 
Tenure and Service ; And fgiuficd the fume as 
Homager or Feudatary. This appears from 

Jill the Feudal IVriters that I have perufed, and 
from many other Authors, A feiv Injiances 
hereof may fujfce upoji this occafion. In truth. 
Marls, Barons, and even Kings that were fuh- 

ordinate to others, are Jlyled Vaffals with rela- 
tion to their Superiour Lords. 

Sunt autem Pares Curtis, qui & Pares 
Curise dicuntur nonnunquam & Pares Do- 
mus, Convafalli, qui ab eodem Domino 
eademve Domo feuda tenent ; non quafi Pa- 
tricij, ut volunt ignari Feudorum. Curtem 
dixere pro Domo, Caftro, Palatio, Prasto- 
rio. Cujac, Comment, in Lib. 1. de Feudd. tit. 
I. p. 18. 

Inveftire fiquidem hie eft inducere in pof- 

fefTionern. Quod fit ufitatis casremonijs 

quibus utitur Dominus in transferendo feudo 
in eum quern vafallum fuum cupit effici. 
Aliquando hafta, annulus, & gladius adhi- 
betur. Duaren. in Confuetud. Feud. c. 7. §. 2. 
Addendum eft & teftes quoq; adhibendos 
eiTe, vel pares Curia; id eft Convafallos e- 
jufdem Domini ; interdum extraneos. 
Pares Curias dicuntur Vafalli ejufdem Do- 
mini ; non quod Pares funt Domino, fed 
quod Pares funt inter fe refpeftu ejus Curiae. 
Eadcm ratione Pares Francias appellantur : 
non quod Pares fint Principi, fed quia Pa- 
res inter fe. Duaren. ih. c. 7. §. 3. Si in- 
ter Dominum & Vafallum lis fit de invefti- 
tura, felonia, vel fimili cafu ; per Pares^ 
Curije id eft Vafallos ejufdem Domini ea 
terminabitur.- Ib. c. 20. §. i. 

Vaffi quoq; & Vaflali noftri nobis famu- 
lantes volumus ut condignum apud omnes 
habcant honorem, ficut a genitorc noftro 
& nobis fsepe admonitum eft. Capit. Karoic 
y Lud. Impp. ap. Lindenbr, in Cod. Ltgg. 
Antiq. p. 864. cap. 24. 

De aiiecuratione Dominorum a Vafallis : 
I. Rex Guilelmus : Domini a Vafallis fuis 
alTecurari debent, &:c. Then follows the Oath 
of Fealty. ConjUtt. Sicul. L. 3. tit. i. apud 
Lindenbr. ib. 

Vafallos quoq; & feudatarios, & omnes 
& fingulos qui eidem Fidelitatis vinculo te- 

nerentur. Sentent. lata ab Hen. 7. Imp. 

in Robert. Regem Sicil. A. D. 1311. apud 
Golda/i. p. 07. 

A. D. 

chap. I. 

Of the K I N g's C o u r t. 

his Court. In that refpedl:, they are ftyled his Fideks &c Fam/uires, 
his Liege-nien and Domefticks fej ; and Barones Ctirice Regis (fj. 

A. D. 1386, Johannes EpifcopusDertho- 
nenfis enfeoffed and invejled Johannem Ga- 
leaz V'icecomitem, in Caftro de Surla, & 
territorio, curte, & pertinentijs, inero h 

mixto imperio ; & tali modo fecit pras- 

diftam infeudationem & inveftituram in feu- 
dum, videlicet quod ipfe praefatus D. D. Ga- 
]eaz quoquo modo conceflerit habeat, te- 

neat the f aid Cnjile \_and Pre miffs'], fe- 

cundum moiem & confuetudinem boni va- 
falli, hi fecundum quod vafalli, liberi, no- 
biiis, & antiqui feudi, Dominis fuis facere 
debent & tenentur. Ughelli Ital. Sac. 

r. 4. col. 874, 875. 

El Conde D. Beitran de Tolofa ■ 

vino a fu Corte, y fe hizo fu vafTalJo ; he 
hecame Vojjhl to the King ^Aragon, and did 
Homage to him. Anales de Arag. de Sunt a 
T. I. L. I. f. 40. b. ad Ann. 11 16. 

Gafton Vizconde de Bearne did Homage 
to the King «/'Aragon, as his Vajfal, for the 

Lordjhip fl/"Beajne, For aquel Senno- 

rio 5 y le prefto homenaje como va- 

fallo, por fi y fus fucellbres, dc toda la 

tierra de Bearne y Gai'cunna . lb, T. i. 

L. 2. /. 85. al£ b. ad Ann. 1 187. 

In a Charttr of Alfonfo King of Caftiie, 
the King e/" Granada, the King of Murcia, 
and the King of Stehula, are Jfjled V a(i\\\s cf 
King Alfonfo. Aboabdille Abenazer Rex 
Granatae vaffallus Domini Regis confirma- 
vit, Mahomat Abcnmahomat Abenhut Rex 
Muici:E vaffhllus Domini Regis confirma- 

vit; Al inahfot Rex Stebulae vafiallus 

Domini Regis confirmavit, &c. Ry/neri Feed. 
& Acia Pub. T. I. p. 531. fub data Anni 
Dom. 1254. 

In or cd'cut the Tear 1 130, Roger the Tirfi 
King o/"Naples, became Liege-man andY?.i- 
fal cf the Church or See (3/" Rome. Ruggieri 
ando in Bcncvento e vifito Anaclcto, e n' 
ottenne il titolo e lacorcna di Re d' amen- 
due le Sicilie, e cio fu a 25 di Luglio 1 1 30, 
e fu il primo che di quefla parte d' Italia il 
titolo Regio havefle, e fi fece huomo ligio e 
vaffillo di S. Chiefa. &c. Mazzclla Defcritt. 
del Regno di Nup. p. 426. 

Tanquam fidelis Vafiallus & Princeps 
Imperij. In charta Sigifmondi I?np. Data A. D. 

143 r. Fatto & difc. della caufa de Monferr. 
f. II. b. y itcrum ibid. f. 12. b. 

Vaff.illagium, ValFalli obfcquium] : Itaq;. 
Homagium h Vafl'allagium pro fynonymis 
ui'urpantur ; ut in Neap. ConlHt. L. 2. tit. 
36. Hotomann. de verbis Feudal. 

Le Vaflal efl tenu apres ce qu' il a faicS 
hommage a fon Seigneur de la chofe qu' il 
tien en hed, de bailler au di6t Seigneur de- 
dans quarante jours apres le dicl hommage 
faict, fon denombrement & declaration de. 

la chofe qu' il tient de fied. Confueiud^ 

Ducat. Burgund. Rub. 3. §. 4. col. 425. 

Le Vaflal doit porter honneur a fon 
Seigneur, fa femme, & fon fils aifne, com- 
me aufli les freres puifnes doivent porter 
honneur a leur frcre aifne. Berault. Conjlum. 
de Norm. Art. 124. p. 149. 

Si le Vaflal eft convaincu par jufl^ice avoir 
mis la main violentement fur fon Seigneur, 
il perd le fief, & toute la droiture qu' il y a, 
revient au Seigneur. lb. Art. 125. p. 150. 
Vid Form. Anglic, yjum. DXXXIV. 

Pareillement le Seigneur qui met la maia 
fur fon homme U. vaflal pour 1' outrager, il. 
perd r hommage & teneure, rentes & de- 
voirs a luy deus a caufe du fief de fon vafla].. 
Berault, lb. Art. 126. p. 152. 

ivt cognofcatiir quis eorum, videlicet 

utrum Dominus majus jus habeat retinendi 
in Dominico, an vafiallus tenendi hanc de 
eo. Glan. de Leg. Angl. L. 2. cap. 13. 

Et ex hoc liquet quod vafiallus non poteft 
Dominum fuum infefiare falva fide homagij 
fui, nifi forte fe defendendo, vel nifi ex prae- 
cepto Principis, cum iverit cum eo contra 
Dominum fuum in exercitum. Ib.L.^. c. \. 

Et vid. libros Fe/uiafe: pajfi-n. 

(e) Haec eft Finalis concordia faifla in 
Curia Galfridi filij Petri, & poftmodum re- 
cordata & irrotulata in Curia D<imini Regis 

• coram- & alijs Fidelibus &; familia- 

ribus Domini Regis ibi tunc prseientibus.— — 
Glanv. de Leg. I. 8. c. 3. 

& aliorum familiarium Domijii Re- 
gis. Hoved. P. 2. p. 700. de, Ric. 1. 
Et fi forte Dominus. 

(f) Hie, Cap. I. S:£l. 3. ad A. D. 1165,. 
y ad A. D. 1 1 77. 


6 0/ //6^ K I N g's C o u R T. Chap. I. 

With them the King confulted in weighty Affairs, and did many 
Iblemn Afts in their Prclence and with their Concurrence. They, 
or luch of them as ordinarily attended in the King's Court by his 
Command, were (together with fome of the Biiliops and Prelates) 
concerned in managing the Affiirs of the Revenue, and in diftributing 
Publick Juftice in Caufes brought into the King's Court : And came 
in procefs of time to be called the ConJiUarij or ConcUhim Regis, the 
King's Council. And fome of them held and executed the refpedtive 
Minijieria or great Offices in the Kings Court ; Of which I fhall treat 
more exprefly in another Place fgj. Thefe Particulars, and others 
of like Nature, may be colledled out of the Hiftorians and Records of 
this Kingdom. Some of them will be exemplified hereafter in thefe 
Volumes i and fome in this and the two next Chapters. In order 
to fet before the Reader a more particular and diftinft View of the 
ancient Court of the Kings of Rngland, it will be neceffary to recol- 
ledl fome ancient Memorials concerning it, during the firfl fix Reigns 
next after the Conqueft. I would rather have taken thofe Memorials 
from Records : but feeing there are no Records for great part of thofe 
Reigns now extant that will give fufficient Light to the Subjedl, I 
iliall be obliged in this Cafe to make ufe of hirtorical Books j and 
muft be content with what is to be found there. Let us fee then, 
what fome of the Hiftorians have delivered to us, concerning the 
King's Court, the Manner of holding it, and the Affairs tranfadted 

IIL King William I. in the fixth Year of his Reign, held his Court 
at Winchejier in the Feaft of Eafter. There, the great Caufe between 
Lanfranc Archbifhop of Canterhiiry, and 'Thomas Archbifliop of Tork, 
concerning the Primacy, was begun and ventilated. At the Whitfon- 
tide following, the King held his Court at Windfor. And there that 
Caufe was determined, in the Prefence of the King, and of divers 
Bifliops and others (b), la the 19th Year of his Reign, at Chrifl- 


(g) Cap. 1. caufa de Primatu, quem Lanfrancus Doro- 

(h) Anno ab incamatione D N I C mil- bernenfis Archiepifcopus fuper Eboraccnfem 

lefimo reptuagefimo fecundo, Ponrificatus Ecclefiam, jure fuas Ecclefias proclamabat — 

autein Domini Papae Alexandri undecimo, Huic Conltitntioni conlenferunt prasfatus 

regni vero Wiilelnni gJoriofi Regis Anglo- Rex & Archiepifcopi Lanfrancus Cantuari- 

rum & Ducis Northmannorum lexto, ex enfis & Thomas Eboracenfis, & caeteri qui 

prsBcepto ejufdcm Alexandri Papa?, annu- interfuerunt Epifcopi : Ventilata eft autem 

ente eodem Rege, in praefentia Ipfius & hxc caufa prius apud Uuentanam Civitatem 

Epifcoporum atq; Abbatum, ventilata eft in Pafcali folemnitate in Capella Regia 


chap. I. 

Of the K I N g's C o u r r. 

mafs lie held his Court at GkuceJIer, at Eaflcr at IVinchejler, at Whit- 
fontide at London or Wejlmlnjier ; and knighted his Son Henrys and 
toolc Homage of ail the Land-holders ol England, to whofe Fee foever 
they belonged, and afterwards Fealty; and then, having raifed great 
Sums of Money upon fuch of his Subjects as were really or colour- 
ably obnoxious, he went into Normandy (ij . In or about the Year 
1085, at Chriftmafs he held his Court [with his Nobles -f-] at Glou- 
cejicr ; where he gave Bilhopricks to three of his Chaplains, viz. To 
Maurice that of London, to William that of 'Thetford, to Robert that 
of Chejler. In the next Year, he commanded the Prelates, Barons, 
and Sheriffs, with their Knights, to meet him z.t Salijhv.ry -^ and there 
he took an Oath of Fealty of their Knights fk). FIc was a very 
magnificent Prince j and wore his Crown three times every Year, 
when he was in England ; At Eafler he wore it at Winchejler, at 
Whitfontide at Wejlminjler, and at Chriftmafs at Gloucejler. And at 
thofe times tliere ufed to be with him all the great Men of Eng- 

quae fita eft in Caflello, poftea in Villa 
Regia quje vocatur Uuindifor, ubi & fineni 
accepit in praefentia Regis, Epifcoporum, 
Abbatum diverforum Oruinum, qui con- 
gregati eranl apud Curiam Regiam in fefti- 
vitate Pentecoftes. -\- Signuiii Willelmi 

Regis. 4- Signum Matliildis Regina:. 

Ex Autogr. in archive Ecchfiee Ckrijii Cantuar. 
The tenour of this Injlrument may be feen alfa 
in Malm. Hiji. L. 3. />. 117. 

(i) Willelmus Rex fortis anno decimo 
nono regni fui, cum de more tenuifTec Cu- 
riam in Natali apud Glouceftre, ad Pai'cha 
apud Winceftre, ad Pentecoften apud Lon- 
doniam, Henricum fiiium fuum juniorem 
virilibus induit armis. Deinde accipiens 
hominium omnium terrariorum Anglise, cu- 
jufcunq; fcudi eiTent, juramentum etiam 
f idelitatis recipere iion diflulit. Poftea Rex 
adquifitis magni thcfauri C(;piis fuper quof- 
cunq-, aliquani caufam invenire poteiat five 
jufte five injufte, ivi: in Normannianl. Hen. 
Hunt. L. b. p. 370. nu. 20. 

Rex Wilhelmus in fefto Pentecoftes apud 
Weftnlonafterium cepit Homagium homi- 
num totius Anglise, & juramentum Fideli- 
tatis, cujufcunq; efleiit Feodi vel Tene- 
menti. Eodem tempore per prius Henri- 
cum hlium fuum juniorem cingulo donavit 
Militari. Extorta igitur maxima pecuniae 

fumma de quibus aliquam fophiftice cau- 
fam poterat invenire, in Normanniam in— 
nunieris maledictionibus laqueatus transire- 
tavit. Rudborn. HiJi. IKinton. apud Angl. 
Sac. T. 1. p. 258. 

t Chron. Sax. CI. Gibfini ad J. D. 1085. 

Pus aNowel [viz. aniioGrati^eMLxxxv] 
tint fa Curt a Glouceftre, e dona iij evef- 
chees, ke furunt deliverez a fes iij Chape- 
leins, ceft a dire a Moris le efvefchee de 
Loundres, e a Willam de Belfe le efvefchee 
de Tefort (kar adone !e fee de Norv/yz fu 
la), e a Roberd le efvefchee de Ceftre. 
Anno Gratias MLxxxvi, en b. fameine de 
Pentccofte fift il fon fiz Henri Chivaler a 
Weftmufter ; e toft apres fift afembler tute 
la Clergie e tuz les Earouns a Salesbires ;. 
e les fift jurer ke il fereicnt feus e lewes a lui 
encontre tute genz. Chron. MS. p. 30 y 31. 
in Cod. MS. R.g. II. in Bibl. Coll. S. Trin. 
Cantab. [Ciijus codicis tnihi copiani fecit Rev. 
isf CI. FirJokinncfLaughton S. T. B. Biblic- 
theca publico: Cantabrigienfn Cujios, & Ecclefics ■ 
JVigornienfts Canonicus.'\ 

(k) \n Nativitate Domini Curiam fuam 
Glavornffi tenuit, ubi tribus fuis Capellanis, , 
Mauricio fcilicet Lundonienfem, Willelmo 
Theodfordenfem, Roberto Ceftrenfem dedit 
pisfulatum. In the Tear 1086, he caiifed to 
be madi the General Survey or Defcripiicn of 


8 Of the K 1 N g's Court. Chap. I. 

land, Arcbhiiliops and Bifliops, Abbots and Earls, Theines and 
Knights (I). 

K. William II. about the beginning of his Reign, held his Court 
in Chriftniafs at London j where were prefent Lanfranc Archbifliop of 
Canterhury, I'honms Archbifhop oi York, Maurice Bifliop oi London, 
Wakhelm BiHiop of Whichejler, Odo Bifhop of Baieux, Jufticier and 
Chief Man of all England, with others fmj. In the Year 1094, at 
Chriftniafs he held his Court at Gloucejhr (n) . In the Year 1095, 
at Eafter he held his Court at Winchejler ; and in Whitfontide at 
Wind/or ; where were prefent all his Noblemen, except the Earl of 
Northumberland foj. In the Year 1096, at Chriftmafs he held his 
Court at Wind/or. And in the Odlaves of the Epiphany, the King and 
all his Nobles were at Salifbury ; There Gosfrey Bainard accufed Wil- 
liam de Oil the King's Kinfman of Treafon [in the King's Court], and 
vanquiflied him in fmgle Combat; whereupon, the King commanded 
William de Ou's Eyes to be put-out, and his Tefticles to be cut-ofF, 
and his Dapifer (one William by Name) to be hanged; and there 
Eoda Earl of Campania the King's Son in Law, was deprived of his 
Lands, and others were put to Death at London, by the King's Com- 
mand [for being concerned in the faid Treafon] fpj. In the Year 
1099, the King was in Normandy at Chriflmafs; At Eafter he came 


England, [i.e. That Survey was finljlied in 
that year-l Poft haec in hebdomada Pente- 
cofles filium fuum Henricum apud Weft- 
monafterium, iibi Curiam fuam tenuit, ar- 
niis militaribus honoravit; nee multo port 
manda\it, ut Archiepifcopi, Epifcopi, Ab- 
bates, Comites, Barones, Vicecoinites, cum 
fiiis militibus Cal. Augufti fibi occurreient 
Sarcsbiriae ; quo cum venill'ent, A/iilites il- 
loium fibi Fidelitatem contra omncs ho- 
mines jurare coegit. Hoved. P. i. p. 460. 
«. 20. 30. 

(I) €ac he psE]- yyiSi pujicJpul, &c. Ad- 
liEC, fuit admodum magnificus; ter geflit 
fuam Coronam jingulis annis, quoties efl'et 
inAnglia; ad Pafcha earn geffit in Win- 
ccaftre, ad Pentecoften in Wcilmynftre, 
& ad Natsles in Glcaweceaftre. Et tunc 
prasfto apud eum fuerunt omnes Optimates 
qui erant per totam Angliam, Archiepif- 
copi & Dioecefani Epifcopi, Abbates h 
Comites, Theigni & Milites. Chron. Sax. 
J>. 190. ad ami. 1086. 

(m) Rex igitur novus Curiam fuam ad 


Natale tenuit apud Londoniam, in qua 
aftuerunt Lanfrancus Archiepifcopus qui 
eum facraverat in Regem, & Thomas 
Eboracenfis Archiepifcopus, & Mauricius 
Londonienfis Epifcopus, & Walchelmus 
Wintonienfis [and others], & Odo Epifco- 
pus Baioccnfis Jufticiarius & Princeps totius 
Angliae. Hunt. L. 6. p. 371. n. 30. 

(n) Chron. Sax. ad ann. ilium. 

(0) Anb fa to faj-rpan heolb ye cyn5 
hij- hi) eb on Wmceaj-qie, &c. Poftea ad 
Pafcha tenuit Rex fuam Curiam in \Vjn- 
ceafler. Poftea ad Pentecoften fuit Rex in 
Windlefora, omnefq; fui Optimates cum 
illo, prster Comitem Northymbrias. Chron. 
Sax. ad ami. MXCV. p. 202. 

(p) On Jjifon jeaj-ie heola j-e cyn^. Sec. 
Hoc anno tenuit Rex Willelmus fuam Cu- 
riam ad Chrifti Natales in Windlefora; 
atq; in odtavis Epiphaniae fuit Rex omnefq; 
ejus Optimates in Searbyrig. Ibi accufavit 
Gosfrei Bainard Wiilelmum de Ou Regis 
propinquum, [afleverans] eum fuifi'e parti- 
cipcm confpiratioais contraRegem, & duello 


Cliap. I. Of //^^ K I N g's C o u r t. (5 

into England', and at Whitfontide he held his Court the firft time 
in the New-Hall at Wcjlmhijier ; where he gave to Ranulf his Chap- 
lain the Bilhoprick of Durham fgj. And in the Year 1 1 00, (the lalt 
Year of his Reign), at Chriftmafs he held his Court at Gloiicejler, at 
Eafler at JVincbeJier, and at Whitfontide at Wejiminfier frj ; but no- 
thing memorable is mentioned to have been done there. 

In the Year iioi, K. Henry I. held his Court at Chriftmafs at 
Wejlminjler, and at E after at Winchejler fsj." and fo he did alfo the 
next Year ftj. At the Michaehnafs following he held his Court at 
Wejl7mnjler. There, were prefent all the chief Men of England, 
both of the Clergy and Laity (u) : and Archbifhop A^ifelm held an 
ecclefiaftical Synod (la), wherein many Canons pertaining to Re- 
ligion were made, and feveral Perfons were deprived of their pafto* 
rai Staves and Dignity (x). In the Year 1103, at Chriftmafs the 
King held his Court at U^ejliiimjler ; and in Eafter at Winchejler ; 
and raifed upon the People manifold Gelds or Tributes fyj. In the 
Year 1104, the King held his Court in Chriftmafs-time at JVeJi- 


cum eo decertavit, eumq; praelio fimplici 
vicit ; & poftea, fuperato juflit Rex oculos 
erui, ac deinde tefticulos abfcindi : & illius 
Dapiferum ( hij- p:iparv& ) Willelmum no- 
mine, filium amitre illius, iuffit Rex in cru- 
cem tolli. Tunc etiam fuit Eoda, Comes 
de Campania, Regis gener, multiq; alii 
privati terris ; & nonnullos Lundoniam de- 
du£ios, ibi interfecit. Ibid, ad arm. MXCVI. 
Et Hoved. P. I. p. 466. m/. lo. 20. 

(q) j^eji pnej- j-e cynj Willelm to mibe 
pmrpa on Nopmanfeij, &c. Hoc anno, 
fuit Rex Willelmus ad Natales in Norman- 
dig, & ad Pafcha hanc in Terram venit ; 
atq; ad Pentecoften prima vice fuam Curiam 
in Nova Aula apud Weftmynftre tenuit, ubi 
Rannulfo fuo Capellano Epifcopatum apud 
Dunholme dedit, qui multos jam annos fuo 
confilio univerfam Angliam gubemavit. lb. 
cd Ann. MXCIX. 

(r) On pifon jeape y-e cynj Willebn, 
&c. Hoc anno. Rex Willelmus tenuit fuam 
Curiam ad Chrifli feftum in Gleaweceaflre, 
& ad Pafcha in Winceaftre, & ad Pente- 
coften in Weftmynftre. lb. ad ann. MC. 

(s) Jxp on Jiipum gear-i to Epip:«)- 
maejyan, &c. Hoc anno ad Chrifti feftum, 
tenuit Rex Heanrigus fuam Curiam in 

Vol. I, 

Weftminftre, & ad Pafcha in Winceaftre. 
lb. ad. ann. MCI. 

(t) On Jj!f um jtape, &c. Hoc anno ad 
Natales fuit Rex Heanrigus in Weftmyn- 
ftre, & ad Pafcha in Winceaftre. lb. ad ann. 

(ti) Principes Regni fui omnes, tan' 
Ecclefiaftici quam fecularis ordinis. Hovcd. 
P. I. p. 469. n. 40. 

(tv) Magnum tenuit Concilium, Havcd, 
ib. n. 40. 

(x) Da fsep reptep, &c. Poflea ad S. 
Michaelis feftum, fuit Rex apud Weftmyn- 
ftre, omnefq; Primarij Viri hujus Terrs, 
Clerici ac Laici ; Et Archiepifcopus An- 
fealmus habuit Clericorum Synodum, qui 
ibi multas Leges confecerunt ad Religio- 
nem pertinences : multi item turn Franci 
turn Angli ibi baculis fuis & dignitate pri- 
vabantur, quam ij injufte fuerant adepti, 
aiit in qua inhonefte vixerunt. Chron. Sax-, 
ad ann. MCII. 

(}') l^'^P on jj:j-um jeape', &c. Hoc an- 
no, ad Natales fuit Rex Heanrigus apud 
Weftmynftre. Deinde ad Pafcha tenuit 
Rex fuam Curiam in Winceaftre. Hoc 
anno multis anguftijs premebatur hsc Terra 
propter multifaria tiibuta. Cl^rsn. Sax. ad 
G ann- 

10 0/ /Ai? K I N g's C o u R T. Chap. L. 

miiiflcrt in Eiifter at IVincheJler, and in Whitfontide at Wcjlminjlcr fzj.. 
In the Year II05^ at Chriflmafs he held his Court at Windjor ; and 
raifed this Year many Tributes (a). In the Year 1106, at Chrift- 
iiiafs he held his Court at Wejlminjler ; and before the Lent fol- 
lowing, at Northampton ; and thither his Brother Robert came to him 
out oi Normandy, to get Reflitution of fome Lands which the King had 
taken from him; but went away again v/ithout Suecefs. At Eafter 
the King was at Bathe, and at Whitfontide at Salijbury ; for that he 
was unwilling to hold his Court beyond-fea fbj. Either this Yect.- 
or the next, about the Beginning of Augiift, there was a great Af- 
fembly of the Bi£l:iops, Abbots, and Barons in the King's Palace [at 
Wejlminjter'\ fcj. In the Year iioj, at Chriftmafs the King was in. 
Normandy, at Eafter he held his Court at Windfor, and in Whitfon- 
tide at Wejlminjler. Afterwards, about the beginning of Aiigujl he: 
held his Court at Wejlminjler -, where he filled up a great many 
vacant Bifhopricks and Abbotricks both in Ejigland and Normandy y 
£b many, that the like for Number were never before, within Me- 
mory, difpofed of at one time fdj. In the Year 1108, the King 
kept his Court at Chriflmafs at Wejlminjler, at Ealler at Winchejier, 
and at Whitfontide at Wejlminjler (ej. In the Year 1 109, at Chrift- 

cnn. MCIII. Haved. P. i. p. 470. n, lo. 

(z) Chron. Sax. ad ann. MCIF. 

(a) On fip-um jsarie to Natiuite^, 
&c. Hoc anno ad Natales tenuit Rex 
Heanrigus fuain Curiam apud Windlefo- 
ram. Hie aanus fuit valde calamitofus in 
hac Teira, propter fruduum interitum, & 
propter multa tributa, a quihus, nunquam 
cefTatum eft, five antea quam Rex tranf- 
fretaret, five quo tempore ibi ageret, five 
poftquam reverfus fuillet. Chron. Sax, ad ann. 

(b) Jjep on Jiifon jeaiie, &c. Hoc an- 
no fuit Rex Henrigus ad Natales in Weft- 
mynftre, & ibi fuam Curiam tenuit. Poft 
hjec, ante Qiiadragefiraam fuit Rex apud 
Northamtune, & Comes Rotbertus ejus 
frater e Normannia eo ad ilium pervenit : 
verum quoniam Rex ei recufabat reftituere 
quod in Normannia ei eripuerat, animis 
inimicis difceflerunt. Ad Pafcha fuit Rex 
apud Bathan, & ad Pentecoften apud Scar- 
byrig, propterea quod nollet abfens [ab 
Angliaj apud tranfmarinos Curiam tenere. 
lb. ad ann. MCVL 

(c) Done [fub anno Gratia MCFI.] 1e. 
primer jur avant les Kalendes de Auft, fufb 
fet un grant affemble de evefkes, e abbes,. 
e barons, en le paleis le Rey, en la pre-- 
fence feint A nfelm le ercevefke ; elagranta 
le Rei e eftabli, ke de eel jur en avant nul- 
homme ferreit veftu ne feify de nule ren de. 
feint eglife, par le Rey ne par nul homme 
lay; e la granta feint Anfelm, ke null 
evefke ferreit privee de fa dignite, pur ho- 
mage ke' il feit au Rey. £:$■ Fet. Chron.- 
MS. i2. 9. II. /« Bibl. Coll. S. Trin. Cantab., 
p. 36. 

(d) On }ii)'um jeape to Epifzer* maej-- 
j-an, &c. Hoc anno ad Chrifti feftum fuit, 
Rex Henricus in Normannia. Poftea, ad. 
Pafcha fuam Curiam tenuit in Windlefora,. 
ad Pentecoften autem in Weftmynftre. Poft. 
base, Augufti [menfis] initio fuit in Weft- - 
mynftre, & ibi Epifcopatus Abbatiafq; fup- 
plevit, quae five in Anglia five in Norman-. 
nia carebant Prasfidibus & Paftoribus. Ibi, 
tot [donavit], quot nullus unquam memi- 
nerit uno tempore quenquam donavifle. . 
Chron. Sax. ad ann. MCVII. 

(e) lb. ad ann. MCVHL. 


Chap. I. Of //6^ K I N g's C o u R T. ii 

mafs and at Eafter the King was in Normandy; he returned into Eng- 
land before Whitfontide, and then kept his Court at Weftminjler. 
There the Contrad:s were made and Oaths taken, relating to the 
Marriage of his Daughter to the Emperor ffj. In the Year iiio, 
the King held his Court in Chriftmafs-time at Wejlminjier, in Eafter 
at Marleburgh, and in Whitfontide for the firft time at Ne-xv Windfor. 
And this Year before Lent he fent his Daughter beyond-fea, liaving 
given her in Marriage to the Emperor j^y/. In the Year im, 
the King was in England, but did not wear his Crown either at 
Chriflmafs, or at Eafter, or at Whitfontide (hj. For the greater 
part of the two next Years he was in Normandy (ij. In the Year 
1 1 14, at Chriflmafs the King kept his Court at Windfor; and kept 
no Court at any other time this Year. About this time he gave the 
Archbiflioprick of Catiterbury to Ralf, who was before Bifhop of Ro' 
chejler, and the Archbiflioprick of York to his Chaplain Tiirjiein. 
He alfo made Ernidfvfho was Abbot of Burgh, Bifhop of Rochefter, 
with the Approbation of the Archbifliops, Bifliops, and all the No- 
bility o{ England fk). 1116, at the King was at St. 
Albans; at which time the new-built Monaflery there was confe- 
crated. This Year great Tributes were exadled. On the Fourteenth 
of the Kalends of April, the Earls and Barons of all Englatid met 
the King at Salijbury ; where the great Caufe between the Arch- 
bifhops of Canterbury and Tork was agitated. At Eafler the King 
was at Wudiham flj. The next Three Years, and great Part of the 


(f) Jjep on );i)-on jeape &c. Hoc anno 
fuit Rex Henricus ad Chrifti feftum & ad 
Pafcha in Normannia, & ante Pentecoften 
banc in Teriam venit, fuamq; Curiam in 
Weftmynftre tenuit. Ibi erant padiones 
confedlae & juramenta praeftita de Filia fua 
Imperacori [in uxorem] danda, Jb.adann, 

(g) On Jifum jeape, &c. Hoc anno 
tenuit Rex Henricus fuam Curiam ad 
Chrifti feftum apud Weftmynfter, & ad 
Pafcha fuit apud Maerlebeorge, & ad Pen- 
tecoften prima vice fuam Curiam in Nova 
Windlefora tenuit. Hoc anno mifit Rex 
ante Quadragefimam, fuam Filiam cum 
multis thefauris trans mare, eamq; Impe- 
ratori [in uxorem] dedit. IL ad ami. 

(b) On fifun jeape ne baep j-e cynj, 
&c. Hoc anno corona fua non indutus eft 

Rex Henricus five ad Chrifti Natales, five 
ad Pafcha, five ad Peatecoften. lb. ad ami. 

(}) Ibid. p. 217. 

(k) On jjifon gespe heolb j'e cyn5 
Jjenpi, &c. Hoc anno tenuit Rex Hen- 
ricus fuam Curiam ad Natales in Windle- 
fora j neq; rurfum hoc anno tenuit Curiam. 
Hoc item anno Rex dedit Archiepifcopatum 
in Cantwarabyrig Radulfo, qui fuit prius 
Epifcopus in Hrofeceaftre ; & Archiepif- 
copo in Eoferwic Thorns mortuo fiiccefiit 
Turfteinus, qui fuit prius Regis Capellanus. 
Sub hoc tempus Rex millt Literas ad Ab- 
batem de Burh Ernulfum, & coegit ilium 
fufcipere Epifcopatum de Hrofeceaftre, & 
una cum Rege, Archiepifcopi, & Epilcopi, 
& tota Nobilitas in Anglorum terra. Ib^ 
an am. MCXIV. 

(I) On J)ij-on geape.pae)- p cyn5 Jjenpi, 
C 2 &C, 

12 0/ fBe KiK g's C o u r t. Chap. I. 

Fourtli Year, the King was in Normandy, bulied in his Wars (nt), 
la the Year 1 1 2 1 , at Chriftmafs he was at Brampton, at Eafter at 
Berkley, and at Whitfontide he held a great Court at Wejhninjier -y 
and then marched with an Army againft Wales (n). In the Year 
1 123, at Chriflmafs the King was 2XDunJlaple, where he received an 
Embaffy from the Earl of Anjou ; from thence he went to JVood- 
ftock, and his Bifliops and whole Court with him. Soon after, 
he fent forth his Letters or Writs throughout Englatid, and com- 
manded his Bifliops and Abbots, and all his Theines, to meet him at 
Gloucejler, at a Council of the Nobles to be held there upon. Candle- 
mas-Day ; which they did accordingly. And there, an Archbifliop 
was chofen for the See of Canterbury. Afterwards- he kept his Eafter 
at Winchejler, and made Alexander Bifliop of Li?icoln (o). In the 
Year 1124,. the King being in Normandy, between St. Andrew and 
Chriftmafs Ralf BaJJet and the King's Theines held a Council of the 
Nobles at Hundhoge m Leicejierjbire, and caufed Execution to be 
done upon many Malefaftors. At this time great Tributes were 
raifed upon the People fpj. In the Year 1 1 27, at Chriftmafs the 
King held his Court at IVindfor ; at wiiich were prefent David King 


Sec. Hoc anno fuit Rex Henricus ad 
Natales iipud S. Albane, & ibi permifit 
Monafteiiuin illud confecraii ; atq; ad Paf- 
cha apud Wudiham. Hjec Terra 6c hie po- 
puliis erant hoc anno frequenter graviterq; 
oppreffi tributis quae Rex exegit turn intra 
Burgos turn extra. Chron. Sax. ad ann. 
MCXVI. Comites & Barones totius Anglias 
apud SalefberLam decimo quarto Calendas 
Aprilis convenerunt. Habita eft ibi caiifa 
de querela qua; inter Archiepifcopum Can- 
tuarieniem Radulfum & elefbum Pontifi- 
cem Turftinum Eboracenfem per integrum 
annum verfata fuerif. Moved. P. I. p. 473, 
KU. 40. f'lb ann. 1 1 1 6. 

(m) ' Chr. Sax. ad ann, ilks. 

(n) Chron. Sax. ad am. MCXXI. 

(0) On }))Yfum ^eape paej* j-e King 
})eniii, &c. Hoc anno fuit Rex Henricus 
in Chrilto fefto apud Duneftaple, quo ad 
eum venerunt iiuncii Comitis de Angeow ; 
& inde ivit ad V/udeftoke, atq; ejus Epif- 
Gopi totaq; Curia cum illo. Statim port 
ha;c, mifit Rex fuas Literas [ hij-e ppiw] 
.per totam Anglorum Terram, & julfit 
iuos Epilcopos & fuos Abbates, & fuos 

Theines omnes ipil.obviam venire ad Pro- 
cerum Concilium [to h;j' sepiretne mocj 
in Candelarum die tefto, ad Gleawceaftre ; 
quod ab ijs facium. Tunc elegerunt [in 
Archiepifcopum Cant.] quendam Clcri- 
cum, Willelmum de Curboil nomine, fifte- 
bantq; eum coram Rege, & Rex ei dedit 
Epifcopatum, ac omnes Epifcopi ilium 
fufceperunt ; verum rejecerunt Monachi, 
& Comites, & Theini patne omnes qui in- 
terfuerunt, &c. 3. ad anna MCXXI Jl. 

(p) €:dl fif seane paey- j-e Kin^ beanpi, 
he. Toto hoc anno fuit Rex Heanricus 
in Normannia. Hoc ipfo anno, pofl S. 
Andrece feftum, ante Chrifti fefrum, tenu- 
erunt Radulfus BafTet & Regis Theini Pro- 
cerum Concilium [gepicene mo";] in Le- 
thecaeftrefcire apud Hunde-hoge, & fuf- 
penderunt ibi tot fures quot antea nun- 
quam ; fcilicet in parvo temporis fpatio, 
omnino quatuor & quadraginta viros. Sex 
item viros privarunt oculis & tefticulis. 
Admodum gravis fuit hie annus. Qui 
quicquam bonorum habeb-it, ijsprivatus erat 
per magna vciSligalia, & per iniqua [Pro- 
cerumj decrcta [mib j-rpange gcolbe;- -jf 


Chap. I. Of tha K i n g's C o u r t. 13 

of Scots, and all the chief Men of the Clergy and Laity of England. 
There he caufed the Archbilhops, and Bifhops, and Abbots, and 
Earls, and all the Theines, who were prefent, to fwear to his 
Daughter Mthelic (late Wife of the Emperor of Sexlande) that they 
would yield to her England and Normandy after his Death fqj. 

King Stephen, upon his Acceffion to the Throne, wore his Crown, 
and kept his Court at Chriftmafs at London. From thence he went 
to Reding, and with the Archbifhop of Canterbury and many Prelates, 
and Noblemen, aflifted at the Interment of K, Henry \. At Eafter 
he held a very fpiendid Court at London. Afterwards, in the fame 
Year, he hunted at Brampton near Huntendon, and there held Pleas 
of the Forefh frj. In the fame Year, the firft of his Reign, when 
he celebrated the Feilival of Eafter (as is juft faid) at London, that 
is at Wejiininjier, he held there a General Council. At that So- 
lemnity were prefent, the Archbifhops of Cajiterbury, Tork, and Roan,. 
eleven Bifliops of England and Wales, four Bifliops of Norinandy, 
the King's Chancellor, the King's Nephew, the King of Scotland's 
Son, three Earls, two Conftables, two Chamberlains, one Dapifer,. 
one Butler, and fix Barons. In their prefence, K. Stephen by his 
Charter granted and confirmed the Billioprick of Bathe, with the Ap- 
purtenances to Rodbert, to hold to him as fully and amply as Bifliop 
"^ohn, or any other of his PredccelTors held the fame (sj. In the 


mifci j^epan^e mo'cef ] ; qui nihil habebat, Proceres- fepelierunt Regem Henricum cum 

periic fame. Ih. adann. MCXXIl^. debita tanto viro revercntia. lb, p. 387. it, 

(q) Dij- jeape healb ye. Kynj, &c. i. Rediens autem Rex Stephanus in Qua- 
Hoc anno, tenuit Rex Heaniicus fuam Cu- dragefiina tenuit Curiam fuain apud Lon- 
riam ad Chrifti feftum in Windlefoure ; doniam in folemnitate Fafchali, qua nun- 
wbi adfuit Scotoruni Rex David, omnefq; quam fuerat fpendidior in Anglia multitu- 
viri Summi, Clerici ac Laici, qui erant dine, magnitudine, auio, argento, gemmis, 
in Anglia. Ibi adegit ad jusjurandum Ar- veftibus, omnimoda dapfilitatc. lb. p. 387. 
chiepii'copos, & Epifcopos, & Abbates, & n. 20. Rex venit veiiatuin apud Brampto- 
Comites, & omnes Thsinos qui inteifue- niam quce abeft milliario ab Huntendonia ;, 
runt, [quo fe obftrinxeruntj filiac ejus ]£,- & ibi placitavit de P'oreflis Procerum fuo- 
thei:c32 (quae olim fuerat uxor Innperatoris rum, id eft, de Sylvis & venationibus. lb. 
de Sexlande) dare in ejus poteftatem Aug- p^ 387. n. 30. Ilcved. P. I. p. 481. n. 30.. 
lorum Terram &i Normanniam poft illius 50. p. 482. ;/. 20. 30. 
, obitum. lb. ad ann. MCXXJ'II. (sJ Stephanus Rex Angliorum, Archie- 

(r) Diadematus igitur [Rex Stephanus] pifcopis, Epifcopis, Abbatibus, Comitibus, 

Curiam fuam tenuit ad Natale apud Lon- Vicecomitibus, Baronibus, & omnibus Fi- 

doniam. Hunt. L. 8. p. 386. n. 30. Rex dclibus fuis per totam Angliam conftitutis. 

venit a Curia fua quam tenuerat apud Lon- fal«tem. Sciatis uie dediiFe & conceffifle 

doniam in ipfo Natali contra corpus Patrui. Rodberto Epifcopo Bathoniae EpifcopatunL 

fui [apud Redinges], & Willclmus Archi- Bnthoniie in terris & honiinibus, in dnmi- 

epifcopus. Camuafiaa & multi Prstiules & nijs & feodis, ia oniiiibus rebus alijs aA- 


ix Of the K I N g's C o u r t. Chap. I, 

Year 1137, the King called an Aflembly or Council at Oxford, and 
tliere arrelted Roger BiHiop of Sare/bury, Alexander Bifhop of Lincolny 
and his Nephew Roger the Chancellor ; and committed them to 
Cuflody (t). About the fifth Year ot his Reign, there was opened 
a difmal Scene of Wars and Tumults, From that Time during this 
King's Reign, the folemnizing of great Feftivals, and the Celebrity 
of the Royal Court, were laid afide (u). 

King Henry II. upon his coming into England, after King Stephens 
Death, was crowned at London the Sunday before Chriftmafs-day, 


'Epifcopatum pertlnentibus, canonica prlus 
electione prscedente, & communi veftro 
confilio voto & favore piofequente. Quare 
volo h praicipio, quod bene & in pace, & 
honorifice & quiete h libera teneat prafa- 
Tus Epifcopus, in bofco & piano, in pratis 
^ paftuiis, in via & femitis, in molendinis 
ik efcluiis, in vivarijs h pifcarijs, in mareis 
& ftagnis, in parcis & fugatijs, in divifis & 
foreftis, in ferijs & mercatis, in aquis & 
extra, in burgis & .civitatibus & extra, in 
omnibus rebus & omnibus locis, cum focna 
& faca, cum Toll & Theam & infangene 
theof, cum omnibus confuetudinibus & li- 
bertatibus & quietationibus h omnibus re- 
bus aliis, cum quibus Ecclefia fua & Epif- 
copus Johannes vel aliquis praedecefforum 
iuorum epifcoporum unquam liberius & 
plcnius h quietiiis tenuit tempore mcorum 
prasdecefforum Regum Anglorum. Audi- 
entibus &: collaudantibus omnibus fidelibus 
meis bic fublcriptis : Apud Weftmonafte- 
rium in Generalis Concilij celebratione, & 
Pafchalis fefti folennitate hoc aftum eft: : 
WillelmoArchiepifcopoCantuarienfi; Tur- 
ftino Archiepifcopo Eboracenfi ; Hugo- 
re Archiepifcopo Rotomagenfi; Henrico 
Epifcopo Wintonias ; Rogerio Epifcopo 
Sarefberis ; Alexandre Epifcopo Lincoliae ; 
Nigello Epifcopo Elienfi ; Safaro Epifcopo 
Ciceftrenfi ; Rodberto Epifcopo Herefor- 
denfi ; Johanne Epifcopo Roffenfi : Ber- 
nardo Epifcopo Sanfti David ; Symone 
Epifcopo Wireceftrenfi ; Ebrardo Epifcopo 
Noruuicenfi ; Audino Epifcopo Ebroicenfi ; 
Johanne Epifcopo Sagienfi ; Algaro Epif- 
copo Conftancienfi ; Ricardo Epifcopo Ab- 
rincenfi ; A^elardo Epifcopo Carl[iolenfi]; 
Rogerio Cancellario ; Henricp Nepote Re- 
gis ; Henrico filio Regis Scotiae j Willel- 

mo Comlte Warennae ; Galerio Comite 
Metll[enti] ; Rogerio Comite Waruuic ; 
Rodberto de Ver Coneftab[ulario] Regis ; 
Milone Gloeceftria Coneftab[ulario] ; Al- 
berico de Ver Camerario ; Willelmo de 
Pont[earca] Camerario ; Rodberto filio 
R.icardi Dapifero ; Willelmo de Albino 
Pincerna; Rodberto de Fered Bar[one] ; 
Rodberto Arundel Bar[one] ; Gaufrido de 
Magnavilla B[ar.] ; Ilberto de Laci Bar. ; 
Willelmo Peurel Bar. ; Gaufrido Talebot 
Bar[one] ; E Cod. MS. perantiquo, Mif- 
cellanea G, in Bibl. Coll. Corp. Chriji. Can- 
tab, p. 117. 

(t) Da \i Kinj Srephne co finjlalanb 
com. fa macob he hif gabepins ?ex. Oxene- 
uops, &c. Quum Rex Stephanus in An- 
gliam venifiet, concilium indixit apud Ox- 
eneford ; ibiq; prehendit Rogerum Epifco- 
pum de Serefberie, & Alexandrum Epifco- 
pum de Lincoln, & Rogerum Cancella- 
rium fuum nepotem, atq; commifit omnes 
cuftodijs donee dederent fua caft;ella. Chron. 
Sax. ad mm. MCXXXVU. 

(u) Quinto anno regni fui fugavit Rex 
Stephanus Nigellum Epifcopum Elyenfem 
de Epifcopatu fuo. Ubi autem ad Natale, 
vel ad Pafcha fuerit, dicere non attinet. 
Jam quippe Curias folennes & ornatus Re- 
gij fcematis ab antiqua ferie defcendens 

prorfus evanuerant. Pax in regno nulla j- 

casdibus, incendijs, rapinis, omnia exter- 
minabantur, &c. Hunt. L. 8. p. 390. «. 
I. And the Norman Chronicon gives the 
fame Account of things at this time, in almojl 
the fame words ; Chron. Norm, apud Duchefn, 
p. 978. ad ann. 1 139. 

Anno Gratise Mcxl, ke fufl: le v an de 
fon regne, encha^a le Rey Ncl le Eveflce 

Chap. r. Of //^^ K I N g's C o u R T. 15 

and held there a great Court (w). In the tenth Year of his Reign, 
he married his Daughter Maud to Henry Duke of Saxony. And 
called a great Council, about fettling the Laws, and compofing the 
Difference between him and Thomas Archbifhop of Canterbwy fxj. 
A while afterwards the King called together the Clergy and People 
of the Realm at Clarendon. There the King commanded all the 
Earls and Barons of the Realm, to go forth and recolledf the Laws 
of K. Henry his Grandfather, and to reduce them into Writing : 
which was done. Then the King commanded the Archbifliops 
and Bifliops to fet their Seals to the Writing. Some Difficulty being 
made about thatj he caufed thofe Laws to be written in a Chiro- 
graph, and one Part thereof to be delivered to the Archbifhop fyj. 
Thefe Things were done, as it feems, in the King's Court ; for it is 
faid, that the Archbiflaop withdrew from the Court fzj under the 
King's Difpleafure.. Li the Year 1165 (11 Hen. II), the King called 
a great Council at Northampton. The Archbifliop fent Word to the King 
that he would not come to Court, till the King had caufed the Men 
and Horfes, which he had put into the Archbifliop's Hoftels, to be 
removed. The next Day after the Council met, the Archbiihop 
came to the King's Court into his Chapel. The King challenged 
him to anfwer before him for a Wrong done to "John his Marefchal, 
who had complained that he could not have Julfice done him in the 

de Ely hors de feveche, ke fuft neveu lav- 
antdit Roger Evefke de Salefbires. Adonc 
evanifl tute manere de Nobleye ke foleyt 
eftre en Curt; kar il ni out point de pees 
e nul lui en le reaume, ines arfons e roberies 
c homicides furunt par tut. Ex Vet. Chron. 
MS. R. (j.ii. in Bibl. Coll. S. Trin. Cantab. 
/>. 40. 

(w) Da he ro Cn^lelanb com, 5cc. 
Cum venit in Angliam [comes Henricus], 
luit reccptus perhonorifice, & in Regem 
confecratus in Lundene die Dominica ante 
diem Natalium, & [ibi tenuit] magnam 
Curiam [micel cupr] Chron. Sax. ad ami. 

(x) Armo gratiae 1164, qui erat annus 
10. regni Regis Henrici fiiij Matildis Im- 
pcratricis, idem Henricus dedit Henrico 
Duci Saxoniae Matildem fili;nn fuam in 
uxorem. Eodem anno Rex inagno con- 
gregato Concilio, & omnibus Archiepifco- 
pis & Epifcopis Anglix in unum coram illo 
congregatis, pctijt ab eis, ut ipfi pro amore 

& fervitio fuo, & pro ftabilitate Regni, reci- 
perent Leges Henrici Avi fui, & eas fideliter- 
cuftodirent, &c. Moved. P. 2. p. 492. n.. 

(y) Et paulo poft, congregate Clero & 
Populo regni apud Clarendun, pcenituit 
Arcliiepifcopum, quod ipfe conceflionem 
iHam fecerat Regi, &c. Tunc prsecepit 
Rex univerfis Comitibus & Baronibus regni, 
ut irent foras, & recordarentur Legum 
Henrici Regis Avi fui, & eas in fcripto 
redigerent. Quod cum faftum fuiflet, 
praecepit Rex Archiepifcopis & EpiCcopis, 
ut figilla fua apponerent fcripto ilii. Cumq; ■ 
vidifietRex, quod talimodo non pofiet pro- 
cedere, fecit Leges illas in Chirographo po- 
ni, & medietatem illius tradidit Cantuarienfi 
Archiepifcopo. HovecL P. 2. p. 493. n. to. 

(z) & fic recefTit Archiepifcopus a Cu- 
ria ; fed in nuUo gratiam Regis alfecpi po-- 
tuit. Ibid p. 493. 71. 30. 


Of the K I N g's Court. Chap. I. 

ArchbiOiop's Court, touching certain Land which he had claimed 
there to hoLl of him by Right of Inheritance ; in which Caufe the 
Plea had long depended there undetermined. The Archbifliop al- 
ledged certain Things in his own Defence, and infifted, that the Pro- 
ceedings in that Cafe in his Court before his Jullices were according to 
Law. But the Barons of the King's Court adjudged the Archbifhop to be 
in the King's Mercy. Accordingly he v/as amerced Five Hundred 
Pounds J and thei-eupon departed from the Court, and fell fick fa). 
Soon afterwards he went to the King's Court, bearing his Crofier in his 
right Hand. The King fent and ordered him to come and render 
fbraightway an Accompt of all his Receipts of the King's Rents re- 
ceived by him whilll he was Chancellor ; and particularly, of 
thirty thoufand Pounds of Silver. The Archbilhop anfwered. That 
he had accompted for the fame already, and was acquitted thereof at 
the King's Exchequer ; and the ixfore would not plead or anfwer 
for the fame again. Whereupon, the King commanded his Barons 
to pafs Judgment upon him forthwith, for that being the King's 
Liege-Man, he refufed to fland to Right in his Court. Accordingly, 
they adjudged him to be imprifoned. Which Judgment was decla- 
red to him by Reginald Earl of Cornwall and Robert Earl of Lei~ 
cejler (b). This Year the King made a fevere Edidt to retain the 
Clergy in their Obedience and Duty (cj. In the Year 1170 (16 

{a) Anno gratije 1165. qui erat annus 
undecimus regni Henrici Regis, filij Ma- 
tildis Imperatricis, idem Rex Henricus 
Magnum congregavit Concilium apud Nor- 

thamtun. Sed Archiepifcopus manda- 

vit Regi, quod ipfe ad Curiam non veniret 
tlonec hofpitia fua vacuarentur ab equis & 
hominibus fuis. In craftino Colloquij ve- 
rit Thomas Archiepifcopus ad Curiam Re- 
gis in Capella fua. Dixit ei Rex, tu 

prius refpondebis mihi de injuria quam fe- 
ciiti Johani Marefcallo meo in Curia tua. 
Conqueflus enim erat Regi idem Johannes, 
quod cum calumniatus effet in Curia Ar- 
chiepifcopi terram quandam de iilo tenen- 
dam jure haereditario, & diu inde placi- 
tafiet, nullam inde potuit afTequi jufticiam 

• Cui Archiepifcopus refpondit. Nulla 

juftitia defuit Johanni in Curia mea, &c. 

Et Barones Curiae Regis judicaverunt 

cum effe in mifericordia Regis ; & quamvis 
Archiepifcopus niteretur judicium illud fal- 
■iificarc, tamen prece & Concilio Baronum 

pofuit fe in mifericordia Regis de quingen- 
tis libris, & invenit ei inde fidejuflores. Et 
fic a Curia recedens ad hofpitium fuum ivit, 
&c. Hoved. P 2. p. 494. n. I. lo. 20. 

(b) Archiepifcopus impofuit collo fuo 
ftolam, &c. & profeilus eft ftatim ad Cu- 
riam Regis. Ipfe autem crucem fuam 

portabat in manu fua dextra. Hoved. P. 

2. p. 494. n. 40. Tunc mandavit ei Rex 
per milites fuos, ut fine dilatione veniret & 
redderet ei plenariam computationem de 
omnibus receptis. Quibus Archiepifco- 
pus refpondit, Dominus meus Rex fcit 
quod ego fsepius ei reddidi computationem 

de omnibus his. Quod cum Regi con- 

ftaret, dixit Baronibus fuis, cito facite 
mihi judicium de illo, qui homo meus li- 
gius eft, & ftare juri in Curia mea recufat. 
Et exeuntes, judicaverunt eum capi dignum 
& incarcerem mitti, &c. Ibid. p. 495. n. 

(c) Ibid, p. 496. «. 30. 


Cliap. I. 0/ M^ K I N g's C o u R T. 17 

Hen. 11.), the King kept his Eafter at Wind/or. From thence he 
came to Londo72, and there put out of Office moft of the Sheriffs in 
Engla?id, and put them to Ranfom for Mifdemeanors. In the Feaft 
of St. Barnabas he held a great Council at London, with the Gran- 
dees and Nobles of his Realm, concerning the Coronation of his 
Son Henry ; and on the Sunday following caufed his faid Son to be 
crowned King at Wcjhninjler, with the Confent of the Clergy and 
People. On the Morrow of that Coronation-day, he caufed JVil- 
Uani King of Scots, his Brother David, and the Earls and Barons of 
England, to do Homage to the new King, and to fwear Fealty to 
him, faving their Fealty to K. Henry the Father (d). In the Year 
1 175 (21 Hen. II.), the two Kings of England v;ent to Tork ; and 
were there met by William King of Scots and his Brother David. 
There they renewed the Peace and final Concord which the King 
of Scotla7id had before made with his Lord the King of E?igland at 
Palais. This final Concord was made and agreed to in St. Peter's 
Church at Tork, before K. Henry, the King's Son, Roger ArchbiOiop 
of Tori, Hugh Bifliop of Durham, and the Earls and Barons oi England : 
and before the Bifhops and Abbots, Earls and Barons of the Kingdon\ 
of Scotland. The Hiftorian recites the Tenour of it (e). In the fame 
Year, in the Odlaves of St. Michael, the King held a great Council 
at his Court at Wind/or, where were prefent the young King, the 
Archbifliops of Canterbury and Dublin, and the Bifliops, Earls, and 
Barons of England. There a Fine and Concord was made between 
the King of England, and Roderick, King of Conaught in Ireland. 


(d) Eodem anno [1170.] fuitRexHen- 
licus apud Windefhores in I'olemnitate Paf- 
chali. Deindc venit Rex Londonias, & 
ibi depofuit fere omnes Vicecomites Ang- 
lix', & laifla inquifitionc de prifis illorurn 
per facramenta hominum Regni, redemit 
eos. Deinde in fefto S. Barnabse Apoftoli, 
idem Rex magnum celebravit Concilium 
Londonijs, cum principibus & magnatibus 
tcrrce fu:e, dc Ciloronationc Henrici hlij fui ; 
fc Dominica fequenti, clero & populo con- 
ientientibus, fecit ipfc prx-dictum Hcnri- 
ciim iilium fuum coronari & in Regem con- 
fecrari apud Wcftmonillerium. Et in cra- 
itino Coronationis illias, fecit Rex Pater 
Willelmum Regem Scottorinn, & David 
fri-trcm fuum, h. Coiiiitcs & Barones Reg- 
ni dcvenire homines Novi Regis, & jurare 

Vol. I. 

ei fidelitatem contra omnes homines, falva 
hdelitate fua. Hovcd.P. 2. p. 518. n, i. 
10. 20. 

(e) Deinde [anno 11 75. f] smbo Re- 
ges perrexerunt Eboracum ; ubi occurre- 
runt eis Willelmus Rex Scottorum & Da- 
vid frater ejus, fere cum univerfis Epifcopis 
& Abbatibus & alijs Magnatibus Terrarum 
fuarum. Et ibi renovat.i eft Pax & Finalis 
Concordia, quam praediiStus Rex Scotiae 
fccerat cum Domino fuo Rege Anglias Pa- 
tre apud Falefiam dum eflet in captione ejus, 
coram Rege filio, 5c Rogero Eboraccnd 
Archicpifcopo, & Hugone Dunelmenfi E- 
pifcopo, & Comitibus & Baronibus Ang- 
lias ; & coram Epifcopis & Abbatibus, 
Comitibus & Baronibus de Regno Scotia-, 

t Ihid. p. 542. H. 20. 

D in 

i8 Of the Yi I n g's Court. Chap. I. 

The Hiftorian recites the Tenour of it (f). In the Year 1176 {12 
Hen. II.) at Chriftmafs the two Kings kept their Court at Wind/or. 
At the Converiion of St. Paul the King went to Kotingbam, and 
there held a great Council, concerning the Statutes or Laws of his- 
Realm; where were prefent the Archbifliops, Bifhops, Earls, and 
Barons ; by whofe Advice the King divided tlie Realm into fix Parts, 
and for each Divifion appointed three Juftices itinerant ; who were all 
fworn to obferve and caufe to be obferved certain Affizes or Statutes 
which were formerly made at Clarendon, and renewed at Northampton. 
The Hiftorian rehearfeth them {g). In the fame Year, the King held 
at London a Council of all the Bifliops, Earls, and Barons of the 
Realm, about marrying his Daughter ^oan to William K. of Sicily [IS), 
In the Year 1177 (23 Hen. II.), Alfonfo King of Cajiile, and Sanchez 
King oi Navarre, after great Contefts had been between them, fub- 
mitted their Caufes to the Determination of the King of England. 
Each of the fud Kings fent their Deputies ad allegandum & probandiwi 
pro Dominis Juis, and to hear the Judgment of the King of England's- 
Court in the Cafej and each of them likewife fent a Knight fur- 
niflied and equipped, according to the Cuftom of that Age, to wage 
Duell in the King of England's Court, if Duell fhould be awarded. 
Hereupon, the firft Sunday in Lent, the King came to London, and 
held a general Council at Wcftminjler, at which were prefent, Richard 
Archbilhop of Canterbury, Gilbert Bifhop of London, Hugh Bifhop of 
Durham, Geoffrey Bifliop of Ely, Walter Biiliop of Rochejler, Reginald 
Bilhop of Bathe, Robert Bifhop of Hereford, John Bifhop of Norwich, 

in Ecclefia S. Petri Eboraci lefta eft & 
coiicefla in hunc modum. Willelinus Rex 
Scotia? devenit homo ligius Domini Regis, 
he. Hoved. P. 1. p. 545. n. lO. 20. 

(f) Eodem anno Henricus Rex Pater 
magnum celebravit Concilium apud Win- 
defhores in oftavis fcfti S. Michaelis ; prae- 
fentibus Rege filio, & Ricardo Cantuari- 
enfi ArchiepiCcopo & Epifcopis Anglije ; & 
coram Laurentio Dublenenfi Archiepifcopo, 
prsefentibus etiam Comitibus & Baronibus 
Anglias. In quo Concilio, &:c. Hie eft 
Finis & Concordia quze fa£la fuit apud 
Windefhores, &c. Hovcd. P. 2. p. 546. 
n. 40. 50. 

[g) Anno gratiae 11 76, qui erat annus 
vicefimus fecundus Regni Regis Hcnrici 
filij Matildis Imperatricis, idem Rex & Rex 
Hemicus filius luus fucrunt in iefto Na- 

talis Domini apud Windeftiores. Poft Na- 
tale Domini in fcfto Converfionis S. Pauli 
venit Dominus Rex Pater ufq; Notingam, 
& ibi celebravit Magnum Concilium de Sta- 
tutls regni fui, & coram Rege filio fuo, 
& coram Archiepifcopis, Epifcopis, Comi- 
tibus, & Baronibus Regni fui, communi 
omnium Concilio divifit Regnum fuum in 
fex partes ; per quarum fingulas, tres juf- 
titiarios itinerantes conftituit, quorum no- 
mina hsec funt, &c. Hoved. P. 2. p. 548. 
n. I. 10...50. & p. 549. 

(/;) Eodem anno venerunt in Angliam 

Nuntij WiUelmi RcL;is Sicilis. Habito 

igitur inde Concilio Londonijs, Rex Pater 
coniilio univerforum Epifcoporum, Comi- 
tum, h Baronum Regni, conceffit Regi 
Sicilia: filiam fuum. Hovcd, P. 2. p. 551. 
K. I. 10. 


■chap. I. ■ Of the King's Court. 19 

Bartholome'W Bifliop of Exeter, Roger Bifliop of JVorccJler, John Bifliop 
of Chicbejler, Chrijlian Bifliop of Candida Cafa, the Biihops of St. 
David, St. v^/^ and £^z«^cr, and the Abbots, Priors, Earls, and Ba^ 
rons of England (/). In this Caufe, feveral Charters and Adls, as 
well on the part of the faid King of Cajlile, as on the part of the faid 
King of Navarre, were alleged and read before the King of England 
and his Barons (k). And upon hearing the Allegations on both 
fides, the King of E?7gland, before Judgment was given, caufed the 
Deputies of the two Kings contefting, to fwear that their Mafters 
flaould fland-to and perform his Judgment. And in fine, the Earls 
and Barons of the King of England's Court, adjudged, that each 
Party fliould reftore to the other all that was mutually demanded 
between them (I). And the King of England fent to the Kings of 
Cajlile and Navarre, a Charter containing the Judgment given in his 
Court in the faid Caufe (m). In the Year 1179 (25 Hen. II.), at 
Eafter the King kept his Court at Winchcjler : and afterwards, held 
a great Council at IVind/or i and appointed Juftices itinerant (nj. In 


(/) Eodem anno [1177,] AldefonfusRex 
Caftellie & Sandtius Rex Navarras avun- 
culus ejus, poft multas, & magnas debclla- 
tiones inter eos habitas, compromiferunt fe 
in Regem Angliae Patrem, de controverfijs 
& calumnijs quae inter illos erant. Ve- 
nerunt itaq; in Angliam ex parte Regis 
Caftellae, & ex parte Regis Navarras, qua- 
tuor viri eleiSti quos fideles notabant, mifli 
in Angliam ad audiendum judicium Curiae 
Regis Angliae & ad illud reportandum prae- 
didis Regibus Hifpanias, &c. Hi omnes 
miffi erant ad allegandum & refpondendum 
pro Doniinis fuis. Venerunt etiam duo 
Milites cum equis & armis bellicis, unus 
ex parte Regis Caftellre, & alter ex parte 
Regis Navarrae, ad fufcipiendum duellum 
in Curia Regis Angliae, fijudicatum eflet. 
Prima igitur Dominica Qiiadragefimae, Do- 
niinus Henricus Rex AngliK venit Lon- 
donias, Concilium generale celebraturus, 
eui interfuerunt Ricardus Cantuarienfis 

Archiepifcopus, & Abbates, Priorcs, 

Comites, & Barones Angliae. Q^iibus in 
unum convenientibus apud Weftmonafte- 
rium, the King commanded that their Alkgn- 
iions Jhould he -put itilo ivriting, ut fic per 
interpretationeni ipfe & Barones fui poflent 
intelligere calumnias cc allcgationes illo- 

rum ; quia neq; Rex neq; Barones Curiae 
intellexerunt loquelam illorum. Hoved, 
P. 2. p. 560. n. 20. p. 561. n. 30. 40. 

(k) Ikd. p. 562, 563, 564. 

(l) Henricus Rex Angliae, prolatis co- 
ram omni populo Sanftis Evangelijs, fecit 
pra;nominatos Nuntios jurare ante Senten- 
tiam prolatam, quod Domini eorum, &c. 
His itaq; pera£lis, Comites & Barones Re- 
galis Curix Anglis adjudicaverunt plena- 
riam utriq; parti fupradiftorum quae in jure 
petita fuerant, fieri reftitutionem. Hoved. 
P. 2. p. 564. «. 50. Vid. hie Cap. 3. 
Sea. 4. 

(711) Unde Rex Angliae in hac forma 
fcripfit fupradid:is Regibus Hifpaniae. Char- 
ta Henrici Regis Angliae de Judicio in Cu- 
ria fua fafto inter Regem Caftella; & Rejrem 
Navarrje. Henricus Dei gratia — &c. Tef- 
tibus his, Ricardo Archicpifcopo Cantuar. 
and fourteen BiJIiops, feven Earls, and nine 
Barons by name., & alijs multis tarn clericis 
quam laicis. Hoved. P. 2. p. 565- n. i. 

20, 30, 40. 

(n) Id. P. 1. p. 590. n. 40. 

{0) Eodem anno cum Gilbertus de Plum- 
tun Miles nobili profapia ortus duflus efTet 
in vinculis ufq; Wigorniam, & accufatus 
D 2 effet 

20 Of the K I N g's C o u r Tr Chap. L 

the Year 1184 (30 Hen. II.), at the King's Court at Worcejler, Gil- 
bert de Plmjztim, Knight, was accufed before the King of a Rape, by 
Ra?iulf de Glanvlll, Juflicier of England ; the Jufticier would have- 
condemned him (unjuftly, as the Hiftorian relates) and he was ad- 
judged to be hanged. But tiie King being moved with Pity, and 
knowing that the Jufticier had done this out of Envy, fpared his 
Life (0). In the Year 11 85, the King kept his Chriftmafs at 
Windfor. There came into 'England Heracl'ms, Patriarch of Jeru- 
falem, and fome of the chief of the Hofpitalers and Templars, with 
a Letter from Pope Lucius to the King, defiring Aid for the Holy 
Land. On the firft Sunday in Lent, the King, the Patriarch, and 
the Biihops, Abbots, Earls, and Barons of England, and William, 
King of Scotland, and David his Brother, with the Earls and Ba- 
rons of his Land, met at the King's Court at London, to confid^r of 
this Affair ; and, after Deliberation had, came to a Refolutioii 
therein fpj. In the Year 11 88 (34 Hen. II.), the King called a- 
great Council of the Bifliops, Abbots, Earls and Barons, and many 
others, as well of the Clergy as of tlie Laity, at Gaintington. There 
he caufed to be recited certain Ordinances which he had lately be- 
fore made in his Countries beyond Sea, for a Difme in Aid ot the 
Holy Land. And thereupon, he fent fome Perfons, both Clerks, 
and Laymen, into all the Counties of England, to colledl the Difme^ 
according to the faid Ordinance. Out of each City of England he 
caufed the moft wealthy Men to be chofen,. viz. out of London 
two hundred, out of Tork one hundred, and out of other Cities a 
proportionable Number according to the Bignefs of each, and to be 
presented before him at Times and Places appointed for that Purpofe. 
And took of them a Difme of their Moveables according to an Efli- 
mate made by trufty Men. And if any Perfons were refraftory, 
he caufed them to be imprifoned till they had paid the laft Far- 

efiet de raptu coram Domino Rege a Ra- Glanvilla^ Moved. P. 2. p. 622. n. 50. (if 

nulfo dc Cilanvilla Jufticiario Angliae, qui p. 623. n. 10. 

euni condemnare volebat, injufto judicio (p) Hoved. P. 2. p. 628. n. 10. Ad 

Judicatus eft fufpendi in patibulo, &c. Rex quam Dominicam [pri?nam quadragefimie\ 

pietate commotus, confilioq; fuorum pras- Dominus Rex, & Patriarcha, & Epifcopi, 

ccpit fic [cuftoditum] euni manere, donee & Abbates, & Comites, & Barones Regni 

ipfe aliud de illo fieri praecepiflet ; fciebat Angliae, & Willelmus Rex Scotiae, & Da- 

enim quod per invidiam fecerat base illi Ra- vid Frater ejus cum Comitibus & Baronibus 

nulfus de Glanvilla, qui eum morti tra- TerrE fuae convenerunt Londonijs, & ha- 

dcre volebat propter uxorem fuam, &c. Sic bito inde cum deliberatione coniilio, placuit 

itaq; A'liles ille a morte liberatus, ufq; ad univerfis quod Dominus Rex confuleret 

t/bitum Regis fuit incarceratus per R. de inde Dominum fuum Philippum Regem 

Francis, &c. lb. p. 629. «. 10. 


chap. I. 

Of the K I N g's Court. 


thing. He dealt with the ^Jews of England in like manner. And 
afterwards fent Hugh Biihop of Durham, with other Clerks and 
Laymen, to William King of Scots, to colledl the Diline in Scotland; 
but they met with fome Oppofition there (q). Philipp King of 
France in like manner, caufed a Difme of Rents and Moveables to be 
colledled in all his Countries frj. 

K. Richard L after his Father's Death, viz. on Sunday the third 
of the Nones of September [A. D. 1189], held a fplendid Court at 
Wejh?nnjler ; where were affembled the Archbiihops, Billiops, Earls, 
Barons, and a great Number of Knights. At which Time and 
Place he was crowned King of England. Roger de Hoveden rehearfes 
the Order of his Coronation fsj. Whilft the King fit at Dinner, 
fome principal Men of the Jews came to bring him Prefents. But 
becaufe the yews were commanded the Day before, not to come to 
the King's Court on the Day of his Coronation, the common People 
committed great Outrages upon their Perfons, and the Londoners flew 
many of the yews within the City, and burnt the Houfes of many 
of them, and of divers other Perfons. Hereupon, the next Day,, 
the King caufed feveral of thofe Malefactors to be arrefted, and 
adjudged them to be hanged (t). The fecond Day after the Coro- 
nation, the King received Homage and Fealty of the Bifliops, Ab- 
bots, Earls, and Barons of England (u). Not long afterwards, the 

(q) Hoved. P. 2. p. 641. Dominus vero 
Rex magnum congregavit Concilium Epif- 
coporum, Abbatum, Comitum, & Baro- 
num, & aliorum multorum tarn Clerico- 
rum quam Laicorum, apud Gaintington ; 
ubi in publica audientia recitari fecit om- 
nia fupradiila capitula quae conftituerat de 

Cruce capienda. Et tunc Dominus Rex 

mifit fervientes fuos clericos & laicos per 
fingulos Comitatus Angliae ad Decimas 
colligendas fecundum prasdidtam prasordi- 
nationem in terris fuis tranfmarinis confti- 
tutam. Sed de fingulis urbibus totius An- 
glise fecit eligi omnes ditiores, viz. de 
Londonia 200, & de Eboraco 100, & de 
alijs urbibus fecundum quantitatem & nu- 
iTierum eorum, & fecit omnes fibi piaefen- 
tari diebus & locis ftatutis, de quibus ce- 
pit Decimam mobilium fuorum fecundum 
aeflimationem virorum fidelium, qui nove- 
rant redditus & mobilia eorum ; fi quos au- 
tem inveniffet rebelles, flatim fecit eos in- 
carcerari, & in vinculis teneri donee ulti- 
mum ^uadrantem perfolverent. Deinde 

mifit Hugonem Dunelmenfem Epifcopum, 
&c. Ibid. P. 2. p. 642. n. 20, 30, 40. 

(r) Ibid. p. biSt2. n. 40. 

(i) Deinde idem Dux [Ricardus] venit 
Lundonias, congregatis ibi Archiepifcopis, 
Epifcoprs, Comitibus, & Baronibus, & co- 
piofa Militum multitudine, in occurfum 
ejus ; quorum conciiio & afienfu ipfe Dux 
3. nonas Septembris die Dominica confe- 
crattis & coronatus eft in Regem Angliae 
Londonijs apud Weftmonafterium a Bald- 
wino Cantuarienfi Archiepifcopo ; feveral 
BiJJ}ops here named, & omnibus fere Abba- 
tibus, & Prioribus, & Comitibus, & Ba- 
ronibus Anglia aftantibus. Ordo Coro- 
nationis Ricardi Regis Angliae, &c. Hoved. 
P. 2. /'. 656. n. 10, 20, 30. 

(t) Ibid. p. 657. n. 30, 40. 

(u) Secunda autem die poft Coronatio- 
nem fuam Ricardus Rex Angliae recepit 
homagia fua & fidelitates ab Epifcopis, & 
Abbatibus, & Comitibus, &: Baronibus An^ 
glia2, Ibid. p. 657. n. 50. 


2 2 .0/ ify^^ K I M g's C o u R T. Chap. I. 

King came to the Abbey of Pipewcll, where Baldwin Archbifliop of 
Canterbury, JValttr Archbifnop of Roan, John Archbifhop of Dublin, 
with many other Bifliops, and almoft all the Abbots and Priors of 
'England, being aflembled at his Court, he gave the Biflioprick of 
Winchefter to Godfrey de Lucy, and feveral Bilhopricks and other eccle- 
fiaftical Preferments to feveral other Perfons (wj. Whilft the King 
was abroad in the Holy War, there arofe fierce Contefts between 
John Earl of Moreton, the King's Brother, and William de Longchamp, 
Bifhop of Ely, who was then chief Jufticier, Chancellor, and Papal 
Legate in England. By the Mediation of fome Bifhops and great 
Men, thofe Contefts were compofed. In the Compofition made be- 
tween them, it is, amongft other Articles, contained : that if the 
Chancellor fliould do any Trefpafs to the Earl, and fhould not, 
upon Requeft, forthwith make Amends for the fame, according to 
the Award and Judgment of the Archbifhop of Roan and other Peers, 
and of the King's Court, then certain Caftles therein mentioned were 
to be reftored to the Earl : that the Bifliops, Abbots, Earls, Barons, 
Vavaffors, and Frank-tenants, fhould not be diffeifed of their Lands 
or Chatels, at the Pleafure of the Jufticiers, or other of the King's 
Minifters, but fliould be dealt with by the Judgment of the King's 
Court, according to the lawful Cuftoms and Aflizes of the Realm, 
or by the King's exprefs Commandment; and that Earl John fliould 
obferve the fame Rule in his Lands : that Gerard de Camville fliould 
be replaced in his SheriiFwick of Lincolnjlnre, and have a Day prefixt 
him to appear in the King's Court to hear his Judgment ; and if 
the King's Court adjudged him to be deprived of his Sheriffwick, 
or the Cuftody of the Caftle of Lincoln, then he fliould be deprived 
thereof; otherwife he fliould retain the fame : and that Earl Jolm 
fhould neither fupport the faid Gerard in Oppofition to the Judg- 
ment of the King's Court, nor fliould, after Notice given him in 
that Behalf, entertain or fuffer to be entertained in his Lands, any 
Outlaws or Enemies of the King ; bift if any Perfon were accufed 
of any Mifdemeanor againft the King, Earl John might lawfully en- 
tertain him in his Lands, in cafe fuch Perfon was ready to ftand to 
Right in the King's Court (xj. King Richard after his Ranfom and 


(w) Deinde venit Rex ad Abbatiam quse 
dicitur Pipewell & congregatis ibi Baldwi- 
no Cantuar. Archiepifcopo, & Abbatibus 
& PrioVibus fere totius Angliffi ; idem Rex 
<3edit Godefrido de Luci Epilcopatum Win- 
tonienfem, &c. Ibid. p. 638. k. 40, 50. 
-y/>. 639. n. I. 

(x) Et fi forte Dominiis Cancellarius in- 
terim erga prsdiftum Comitem exceflerit, 
& excelTum ad confilium & confiderationem 
praedifti Domini Rothomagenfis, & aliorum 
familiarium Domini Regis, & Cuiias fuae, 
requifitus emendare fine dilatione noluerit, 
prasdidla caftella pnedicto Comiti reddent 


chap. I. Of the K i n g's Court. ' 23' 

Return into Kngland, at his Court at Notingham held a Council of 
his Bifhops and Nobility, wherein he difleifed Gerard de Camville of 
the Caftle and Sherivalty oi Lincoln, and Hugh Bardolf oi the Sheriff- 
alty of Yorkjlnre and the Caftle of York, and of the Cuftody of Wejl- 
merland. On the fecond Day of that Council, he demanded Judg- 
ment to be given upon Earl John his Brother, for afting contrary to 
his Duty and Fealty, and for adhering to the King of France, and 
upon Hugh de Nuna?it Bifliop of Coventry for the like. Hereupon 
it was adjudged, that Earl John and the Bi£hop of Coventry fliould 
be peremptorily cited ; and if within forty Days they did not come- 
and ftand to Right, then^ it was adjudged, that Earl John had de- 
merited the Realm, and that the Bifliop of Coventry, fliould ftand to- 
the Judgment of the BiOiops, as he was a Bifhop, and to the Judg- 
ment of the Laity, as he had a Lay-Bailywick under the King. On 
the third Day of the Council the King ordered, that two Shillings 
fhould be paid him out of every Carue of Land in England, that 
every one fhould do to him the third Part of the Service of a Knight 
for each Knight's Fee, upon his Voyage into Nortnandy, and that 
the Cijlercian Monks fliould yield up to him all their Wool of that 
Year j but becaufe this latter feemed heavy and infupportable, the' 
Cijlercians made a pecuniary Fine with him for the fame. On the 
fourth and laft Day of the Council, divers Complaints were brought 
in againft the Archbifliop of York and Gerard de Camville. The 
Archbifliop of York made no Anfwer to what was laid to his Charge : 
and Gerard denied all that was laid to his. So the Profecutors found 
Pledges to profecute, and Gerard found Pledges to defend himfelf 
[in Combat] by one of his free Men. And then the King ap- 

& reftituent. Sed & concefiuni efl-, quod mini Regis Vicecomitatum vel caftellum 

Epifcopi, & Abbates, Comites, & Barones, Lincolniae perdere debuerit, perdat ; fin 

Vavafibres, & libere tenentes non ad vo- minus, retineat ; niii interim alio modo 

luntatem Jufticiarum vel miniftrorum Do- pax inde fieri poffit. Nee Dominus Johaii- 

mini Regis, de terris & catallis fuis difiai- nes ipfum contra judicium Curiae DominL 

fientur, fed Judicio Curiae Domini Regis Regis manu tenebit ; nee uthlagos vel in- 

fecundum legitimas confuetudines & affifas imicos Domini Regis, qui ei fueriiit nomi- 

Regni traflabuntur, vel per mandatum Do- nati, receptabit, nee in Terris fuis recep- 

mini Regis. Et fimiliter Dominus Johan- tari permittee. Sed fi quis retatus fuerit de 

nes in Terra fua faciet obfervari. Refai- aliquo forisfaiSlo Domino Regi fac&o, bene 

fina Vicecomitatus Lincolniae fiet Girardo licejjit Comiti ipfum in Terris fuis recep- 

de Camvilla, & eodem die dies ei conve- tare, quam diu ipfe obtulerit fe ftaturum. 

niens praefigetur ftandi in curia Domini ad Redtum in Curia Domini Regis. Hotied.. 

Regis ad judicium ; quod fi contra eum P, 2. p. 7OO. «. 20, 40, 50. 
monftrari poterit, quod Judicio Curiae Do- 


24- Of the K I N g's C o u r t. Chap. I. 

pointed a Day for his fecond Coronation at Winchejler, to wit, on 
the Clofe of Eafter fy). 

In the Year 1201 K. 'joJm kept his Chrillmafs at Guildeford fzj. 
In the Year 1204, he kept Chriftmafs at Canterbury. And on 
the Morrow of the Circumcifion he held a Colloquium at Oxford with 
the great Men of England; at which time certain Aids were granted 
to him faj. In the Year 1208, the fame King celebrated Chrift- 
mafs at Winchejler, the great Men of the Realm being prefent ; and 
at the Candlemafs following he took a Tertiadecima of all Moveables,. 
Gfr. as well of the Laity as the Clergy fbj. In the Year 121 1, he 
kept Chriftmafs at Tork, with the Earls and Barons of the 


(y) Tricefima die menfis Martij feiia 
quarta Ricardus Rex Angliae celebravit pii- 
iTium Concilij fui diem apud Notingham ; 
cui interfuerunt Alienor Regina Mater ejus, 
&c. Eodem die Rex difl'aifivit Gyrardum 
<]e CainviUa de Caftello & Vicecomitatu 
Lincolnienfi, he. Hoved. P. 2. p. 736. 
n. 40, 50. Tricefima prima die menfis 
Martij, Rex Anglia celebravit fccundum 
diem Concilij fui ; in quo ipfe petijt, fibi 
fieri judicium de Comite Johanne fratre 
fuo, qui contra fidelitatem quam ei jura- 
verat, &c. Similiter & de Hugone de Nu- 
iiant Coventrcnfi Epifcopo, &c. Et judi- 
catum eft, quod Comes Johannes & Epif- 
copus Covcntrenfis peremptorie citarentur ; 
& fi infra 40 dies non venerint ncc juri fte- 
terint, judicaverunt Comitem Johannem 
demeruiife Rcgnum, & Epifcopum Coven- 
trenfem fubjacere judicio Epifcoporum, in 
CO quod ipfe Epifcopus erat, h judicio 
Laicorum, in eo quod ipfe Vicecomes Re- 
gis extiterat. Kalendis Aprilis praediclus 
Rex Anglise celebravit tertium diem Col- 
loqu'j fui ; in quo conftituit fibi dari de 
unaquaq; carucata terras totius Angliae duos 
folidos, quod ab antiquis nominatur Te- 
Ttiantalc. Deinde prtecepit quod unufquifq; 
faceret fibi tertiam partem fervitij Militaris, 
licut fingulus feodus apportat, ad tranf- 
fretandum cum eo in Normanniam. Deiiule 
exigebat a Monachis Ordinis Ciftrenfis to- 
tam Lanam fuam de hoc anno, &c. Se- 
cunda die menfis Aprilis celebravit diem 
quartum & ultimum Concilij fui ; in quo 
omnes qui volebant conqueri de Archiepif- 
cfjpo Eboracenfi, fecerunt querimonias mul- 

tas, &c. Deinde Girardus de Camvilla fuit 
retatus de receptatione prredonum, &c. Prae- 
terea appellaverunt eum de Ijefione Regiac 
Majeftatis, in eo quod ipfe ad vocationem 
Juftitiarum Regis venire noluit, nee juri ftare 
de praedi£ta receptatione raptorum, neq-, 
COS ad juftitiam Regis producere ; fed re- 
fpondit, fe efle hominem Comitis Johannis 
& velle in Curia fua juri ftare. Praeterea 
appellaverunt eum, quod ipfe fuit in vi & 
adjutorio cum Comite Johanne, &c, Gi- 
rardus vero de Camvilla negavit omnia quaj 
objiciebantur ei ab illis ; & illi dederunt 
vadium de profequendo, & Girardus dedit 
vadium de defendendo fe per unum de Li- 
beris hominibus fuis, &c. Ibid. p. 737. n. 
I, 10, 20, 30. 

(z.) Anno Gratiae MCCI, Rex Anglo- 
rum Johannes celebravit Natale Domini 
apud Guildeford. Matt. Par. ad ann. il- 

(a) Anno Gratis MCCIV, Rex Jo- 
hannes Natale Domini celebravit apud 
Cantuariam. Deinde in craflino Circum- 
cifionis convenerunt ad Colloquium apud 
Oxoniam Rex & Magnates Anglias ; ubi 
conceffa funt Regi Auxilia Alilitaria, de 
quolibet fcuto fcilicet duae marca: fc dimi- 
dia. Nee etiam Epifcopi &; Abbates, five 
Ecclefiafticai Perfonn;, fine Promifiione re- 
ceilerunt. Idem ad aim. ilium. 

(b) Anno Gratis MCCVIII, Rex Jo- 
hannes celebravit Natale Domini apud 
Wintoniam, praefentibus M.agnatibus Reg- 
iii. Deinde in Purificatione B. Marias, 
cepit per totam Angliam Tertiamdecimam 
partem ex omnibus mobilibus & rebus alijs, 


Cliap. I. Of M^ K I N g's C o u R T. 25 

Realm (c). In the Year 12 14, at Chrillmafs he held his Court at 
Wind/or with great Feftivity fdj. What hath been faid may ferve 
for a Specimen of fome Things that occur, relating to the King's 
Court or Palace, and the Affairs ufually tranfadled there, durino- 
this firfl Period. Thefe Inftances do illullrate in fome meafure the 
Particulars above fet-forth in the fecond Sedlion of this Chapter. 
And further Light will be given to this Argument in the two next 
Chapters, which treat of the great Officers, and of the Judicature, 
of the King's Court. 

IV. The Attendance of the Proceres at the King's Palace or Court, 
and the Cuftom of celebrating the high Feftivals of the Year, and of 
holding great Councils at the King's Court at thofe or fuch like So- 
lemnities, were ufed anciently not only in Engla?id, but alio in fome 
foreign Countries. Thefe Things are recounted by foreign Hifto- 
rians in relation to the Princes of their Nation, in like Manner as by 
the Rnglifid Hiftorians in reference to the ancient Kings of England, 
Some Inftances of this Matter may be given from the Memorials of the 
E?)ipire, France, and Normandy. Hlotharhis the Emperor, in the firll 
Year of his Reign went into Italy, and held a Placittim or Convention [of 
his Nobles] fej. Louis the Emperor held a Convention of his No- 
bles ir; his royal Palace at Pavia ffj. Charles the Emperor cele^- 
brated his Chriftmafs in Almaigne, and his Eafber at Ratijbon ; and at 
the latter held a great Convention fgj. In another Year he kept 
his Eafter at Ratijbon fhj. ArnolfxhQ Emperor kept his Chriflmafs 

tam de Laicis quam de viris Ecclefiafticls diflicne III, menfe Februaiio, die mcnfis 

& Prselatis ; cun(5tis murmurantibus fed ejufdem quarto, cum Dominus Magnificen- 

contradicere non audentibus. Idem ad ann, tilTimus Hludouvicus Auguflus apud Tici- 

///. nenfem Civitatem in auguftali aula refiderct, 

(c) Anno Gratiae MCCXI, Rex Anglo- traftaturus de ftatu fanfl.-c matris Eccle- 

rum Johannes fuit ad Natale Domini apud fias , prsefentibus Optimatibus fuis, 

Eboracum, praefentibus Comitibus & Baro- dixit : Crebo veftram fidelitatem . lb, 

nibus Regni. Idem ad ann. ill. T. 1. col. 355. 

(d) Anno Domini MCCXI V, Rex An- (g) Caefarin Alamannia Natalem Chrifti 
glorum Johannes ad Natale Curiam fuain cclebravit. Inde paulatim iter fuum ad 
tenuit apud Windlefliores, ubi multa Mag- Baiouuariam dirigens, Pal'cha Domini ho- 
natum fuorum multitudini feftiva diftribuit norifice Radafpona civitate manfit ; ibiq; 
indumenta. Idem ad aim. ill. habito Conventu, diverfis rebus ab Italia 

(e) Incipiunt Capitula, qua; Dominus auditis, illuc reverfus eft. Annaki Francor. 
Hloiharius Imperator primo anno imperij Fiddenfes ap. Diichcfn. Hijl. Franc. ScripW. 
fui, quando in Italia acceflit in fuum ge- T. 2. p. 575. a. ad A. D. 883. 

nerale Placitum, curte Olonna inftituit. (h) Natalem Domini Imperator Rada- 

Balnzlj Capit. T. 2. Ccl. 321. Tit. 3. fpona celcbravit. lb. p. 577. a. A. D. 

(f) In nomine Dei Omnipotentis. Anno 886. 
Incarnationis Dominicje DCCCLV, In- 

VoL. I. E , • and 


Of the K I N g's C o u r t. 



and liis Eafler at Ratijhon (i). In the next Year, he kept Chrift- 
m:ifs /;/ iirhc Rcgino (k). In another Year, he kent Chrillmafs ^t 
Uhn (I). In another Year, he kept Chriftniafs at his Court at JVdb- 
/i,'?g (m). And in another Year he kept the Chriftmafs at his Court 
at Ottng (?i). Otho the Emperor kept his Chriftmals with the Pope 
at T^odi (o). Henry the Emperor kept his Chriftmais at Frankfurt ^ 
and Eailer at ^idelingaburb (p). He afterwards kept Chriftmais at 
Pdlis (f). In another Year, he kept Chrift-mafs at T^hornburgb, and 
Eafter at Aquifgrane (r). In anotlier Year, he kept the Eaftier at 
Merjeburch, and the V/hitfontide at Cologne (s). In another Year, 
he kept Chriftmais at Tbornbiirgh, and Eaftcr at Laodida (t). In 
another Year he kept Chriftmais at Pavie, Eafter at Ro/?2e, and 
Wh.itfontide at Babenbiirg (u). Henry the Emperor kept Chriftmafs 
at Babenbwg, Eafter at Mardebtirgh, and Whitibntide at Gajlare (wj. 
In the Year 1107, Henry the Emperor kept Chriftmafs at Rati/bon^ 
and Eafter at Mentz (x). In the Year 11 39, the Emperor kept 
Chriftmafs and Eafter in Italy, and Whitfontide at Barum (y). And 
it was- Lifual for thefe Princes to hold their great Conventions at thefe 

(i) Rex Arnolfus urbe Radafpona re- 
cepiis Piimoribus Baiowariorum, oricntales 

Francos, Saxones, Natalem Domini & 

Pafcha ibidem hoiiorifice celebravit. lb, 
Annnl. FiilA. p. 578. A. D. 888. 

(k) Urbe Regino honoritice Natalem 
Domini celebravit. Ibid. p. 579. a. A. D. 

(I) Rex de Francia cum victoria in Ala- 
niannia Curte Rcgia Uhiia honorifice Na- 
talem Domini celebravit. Ibid. p. 580. b. 
A. D. 8q2. 

(m) I pie m OX in itinere pofitus Natalem 
Domini Curtc Rei;ia Weibiiinga manfit. 
Annul. Fuld. Ib.p.^s^i. a. A. D. 894. _ 

(n) C^far vero cum Curte Regia Otin- 

gffi Natalem Domini celebravit. Ipfe 

vero habito generali Conventu Urbe Regi- 
no hiemare difpofuit. Amtal. Fidd. lb. 

p. 583. a. ad A. D. 89-. 

(0) Impera'ior Otto Natalem Tudertinse 
cum domino Apodolico celebravit. Chron^ 
Hiidnijlh ap. D:(cb. Hiji. Franc. Script. T. 3. 
p. 517. b. A, D. 1002. 

{p) Rex [Henricus] Natalem Domini 
FranlcanauuorJi, Pafcha autem Qiiideling- 
aburh. celebravit. Ibid. p. 517. b. A. D. 

(q) Rex Nativitatem Domini Palidi man- 
fit, lb. p. 517. c. A. D. 1004. 

(r) Rex Natalem Domini Thornburh 
feriavit. Pafcha vero Aquifgrani celebra- 
vit. lb. p. 517. c. A. D. 1005. 

(s) Rex Nata'em Domini Palidi, Pafcha 
Mcrfeburcb, Pentecollen vero Agrippinse 
feriavit. lb. p. 518. /;. A. D. 1008. 

(i) Rex Nativitatem Chrilli Tliornburg, 
Paicha autem LaodiciE celebravit. Ib.p, 
518. c. A. D. 1012. 

(f.) Natalem Domini Rex Papis cele- 
bravit. Inde Comitatu Regali Romam per- 
gens , ibi fanftum Pafcha feriavit. In- 
de regrediens Pentecoften Babcnberg feftive 
peregit. lb. p. 519. a. b. A. D. 1014. 

(iv) Heiiirichus Imperator Nativitaterri 
Chrifti Babenberg, Pafcha Parthenopoii, 
Pent6coflen vero Goflare honorifice cele- 
bravit. /i. />. 521. a.A.D. 1024. 

{x) Rex, Heinricus obviam Paps Radif- 

ponam venit, ibidem Natalem Domini 

celebravit. Pafcha vero Mogoncias cele- 
bravit. lb. p. 534. c. A. D. 1 107. 

(y) Imperator Natalem Domini, fimili- 
ter & Pafcha, in Italia celebrat. Pente- 
coften vero apud Barum cum gencrali Itali- 
corum Principum. lb. p. 539. b. c. A.D. 


chap. I. 

Of the K I N g's Court. 


folemn Feftivals of the Year. For Example : Charles the Emperor, 
loon after Eafter held a general Convcntiis at Pavk (z) ; and in the 
next Year, he held a Flacitum at IVeibling, as foon as the holy Day 
of Eafter was paft (a). The Emperor Arnolf, having held a Flaci- 
tum with the Franks at the royal Court at Frankfurt, paffed into 
Bavaria, and kept a fplendid Chriftmafs there (b). 

In France, the Barons and great Men gave in like Manner their 

Attendance at the King's Court. Such were the Dapifer, Butler, 

Chamberlain, Conftable, Chancellor, and others. When the King 

did any publick or folenm Aft, they were commonly prefent and 

gave their Atteflation, Louis Kini? of France made a Charter ot 

Donation to the Monks of the Holy Trinity of Canterbury. It is 

dated at Canterbury A. D. 1179. (the King ol France being come 

thither out of Devotion to St. Fbomas) and is atteftcd by Earl 'Fhco- 

bald t\-\Q Dapifer, G^/j the Butler, i^c^/Wi/ the Chamberlain, Ra//' the 

Conft-able fcj. Aad thefe great Otiicers did fo ufually or conilantly 

attend at the King's Court, that v/hen the Office of any of them Vvas 

void. Notice is often taken of it in publick Ads or Atteftations, to 

fliew the Reafon of their not-attefting. For Example : Louis King 

of France made a Donation to the Monks of Canterbury. It is dated 

at St. Germaine en Laye A. D. 1235. It is attefted by i^s^t-r/ the 

Butler, Amalrick the Conftable, Dapif'ero nulla, Camerario nullo, and 

vacante Cancellaria fdj. Fhilipp King of France made a Charter to 

the Church of Autun. It is attefled by the Officers of the Palace ; 


-Propter aSinitatem Imperatrr!s, 

qui tunc aJ Curtem Olonnam Pafcha ni?ai- 
fit, timore in fugam lapfi . Poft Paf- 
cha, habito generali Papia; Conventu, Im- 
perator per Burgundiam, &c. Annal. Fiud. 
up. Duchefn. Hiji. Frmuic. Scriptor. T. 2. p. 
577. ad A. D. 886. fuh. Car. Ccdvo. 

(a) I'ranfafto die fando Pafchre habi- 
tiim efl Placitum Weibiliiiga. lb. p. c,j-j. 
.ad A. D. 887. 

(b) Sed antea Placitum -Curte Regia 
Franconofurt habcri cum Francis Rcgi 

'complacuit. 'Inde per Alamanniam 

tranigrcdiens Baiovvariam urbe Regino ho- 
rorifice Natalem Domini celebravit. Annal. 
Fuld. ibid. p. 579. a. adA.D. 8S9. 

(c} In nomine Sanct;c & individure Tri- 
niratis, Amen. Ludovicus Dei gratia 

Francorum Rex . Adum Cantuaris 

anno ab incarnationc Domini MCLxxix : 

A.lantibus ia Palacio noilro quorum no- 
mina fuppofita funt & fignn. Signum 
Theobaldi Comitis Dapiferi nodri, Sig- 
num Guidonis Buticularij, Signum R<-'gi- 
iialdi Camerarii, Signum Raduifi Conila- 
bularij. Datum per manum fecundi Hu- 
gonis Cancelarij. Ri\^{/1r. A in Tbejaurana 
Afchiccclefice Caiituar. fd. 339. a i^-b. 

(dj In nomine Sandlae & individuas Tri- 
nitatis, Amen. Ludovicus Dei gratia 

Francorum Rex . Actum apud S. 

Germanum in Laya anno incarnationis Do- 
minies A'lCC tricefiino quinto, Regni vero 
noflri anno nono ; Aftantibus in Palacio 
noflro quorum nomina fuppofita funt & 
figna. Dapifero nullo, fignum Robcrti 
ButicuLirij, Camerario nullo, iignum Amai- 
rici Conflabularij. Datum va-ante Cancel- 
laria. Regijl. A in Thifciur. Arcimcdef. 
Cay.tunr. fcl. 139. b. 

E z datum 


Of the K I N g's Court. 

Chap. I. 

datum "cacante Cancellaria fej. Philipp King of France made a Char- 
ter to Bartholomew de Roya chief Chamberlain of France. It is dated 
in the Vacancy of fome Officers of the Palace ffj. Again, there, 
feems to have been no lefs Refemblance between the Court of the 
Dukes oi Norinandy, and that of the ancient Kings of England; par- 
ticularly in the Manner of holding the Norman Court, in the Attend- 
ance of the Norman Barons, and the celebrating the great Feftivals 
there. IVilUam Duke of Normandy made a Charter to the new Mo- 
naftery at Oi'Jche ; and then delivered it to his Norman Billiops and 
Barons [of his Court] to Sign or Atteft it (g). And again (b). 
The fame Duke oi Normandy in the Year 1080, at Whitfontide kept 
his Cou'-t at Dieppe -f- ; where he held a great Council with the Bi- 
ihops, Abbots, Earls, and other Noblemen of Normajidy (i). Hen- 
ry!. \o\. England\ Duke of Normandy, ufed generally at Eafler to. 
keep his Court at Fifcamp with his Barons (k). 

]n the Year 1106, K. Henry I. came to Li/ieux, and there held a 
Counfel of all the Optimates of Normandy (I). In the Year 11 07, K, 
Henry I. held an Alfembly of his Proceres; and there impeached 

(e) Philippus Dei gratia Francorum Rex 

. A£tuiii Parifijs anno ab incarnatione 

Domini MCx.Kcix Regni noftri anno x. 
adflantibus in palatio noftro quorum no- 
mina fuppofita funt & figna. Signum Theo- 
baldi Comitis Dapiferi, S. GuiJonis Buti- 
cularij, Signum Matthaei Camerarij, Sig- 
num RaduTti Coneftabilis. Datum vacante 
Cancellaria. Gall. Chrlft. T. 2. p. 47. 

(f) Philippus Dei gratia, &c. A6lum Pa- 
rifijs annolncarnationis DominicseMCCxxi 
regni vero nollri 42 ; allantibus in Falaiio 
quorum nomina fuppofita funt & figna ; 
Dapifero'nulio, Buticulario rwllo, Signum 
Bardiolomnei Camerarij, S. Matth:«i Con- 
ftabularij. Data vacante Cancellaria. lb. 

^- 3- P- 457- , „ . . 

(g) Et inde chyrographum audtontatis 

fuc-e in Saltu Leonis fanxit ; & Epifcopis 
ac Baronibus Normannicis ad confirmandum 
tradidit. JF. Gemet. de Ducib. Norm. L. 6. c. 
23. edit. Francof. 1602. 

(h) Hsec omnia Guitlelmus Rex concef- 
fit & in Carta coram Proceribus fuis regali 
auctoritate confirmavit. Ord. Fit. ap. Du- 
chefn. p. Sl^- ^- (id anil. 1080. 

t Juliobona qua: 54 Deppa. Valef. Notit. 
Gull. p. 256. 

(i) Anno ab incarnatione Domini 
MLxxx, Rex Guillelmus in fefto Pente- 
coftes apud lllebonam refedit, ibiq; Guil- 
lelmum Archiepifcopum, & omnes Epifco- 
pos h Abbates, Comitefq; cum alijs Pro- 
ceribus Normannite, fimul adefie prscepit. 
Ut Rex juflit factum eft, Igitur odtavo 
anno Papatus Domini Gregorij Papae VII. 
celebre Concilium apud Jullam — bonam 
celcbratum efl; : & de ftatu ecclefiae Dei to- 
tiufq; Regni, providentia Regis cum Baro-- 
num fuorum confilio, utiliter traiflatum eft. 
Then follow the Statutes made in that Council. 
Order. Vit. ap. Duchefn. p. 552. a. ad ann. 

(k) Ibi [viz. Fifcanni] etiam erat folitus 
fere omni tempore fuam Curiam in Pafchali 

folcmnitate tenere. Ipfa vero die poft 

Mifias, antequam ad Curiam fuam iret atq; 
cum Baronibus fuis comederet, veniebat — . 
JV. Getntt. Hiji. Norm. ap. Duchefn. p.. 
317. a. 

(I) In medio Oclobri Rex [H. I.J Lux- 
ovium venit, cunctos Optimates Neuftria; 
convocavit, & utillimum Ecclefiae Dei Con- 
cilium tenuit. Ord. Fit. ap. Duchefn. p. 822. 
a. ad ann. xio6. 


chap. I. Of thz K I N G*s C o u R T. 29 

Rodbert de Montfort of Treafon [or Difloyalty] (in) : in the fame 
Year the Norman Hillory laith, that the King often called the Ma- 
gijlratus popidi to his Court ; that in 'January that Year, there was an 
Aflembly of the Proceres holden before the King at Falaife -, and 
that in March the King held a Council at Lifieiix, and by the Ad- 
vice of the Magnates made feveral Edids or Statutes profitable to his 
Subjefts (n). In the Year 11 13, K. Henry I. attended by a Mul- 
titude of his Nobles came to Oufche, and there celebrated the Feail: 
of Candlemafs with great Feftivity. About the fame Time, the 
King made a beneficial Charter to the Abbey of Oufche. He himfelf 
confirmed it with the Sign of the Crofs, and delivered it to his Op~ 
tiinates that were prefent, for them to confirm it likevv'ife with the 
Sign of the Crofs (0). In the fame Year Rodbert de Belcfme a Nor- 
man was condemned for divers Mifdemeanors, by Judgment in the 
King's Court (p). K. Richard. I. made a Charter to the Church of 
Roan. It was fealed by the King in the Prefence of feveral Barons 
and great Officers of his Court, viz. of William Marefcall Earl of 
EJlrigol, Wi/liam Fitz-Ralf^itwzvA oi Norma?idy, Robert de Torneham 
Steward of Anjou, William de Homet Conftable of Normandy, Hugh le- 
Brun, i^«^' Chamberlain de 'Tanquarvilk, and others (q). 

(j/i) Anno ab incarnatione Domini 
MCVII, Henricus Rex Proceres fuos con- 
vocavit, & Rodbertum de Monteforti pla- 
citis de violata fide propulfavit. Ibid. p. 
823, c. 

(n) Anno ab incarnatione Domini 
MCVII, indiaione XV, Henricus Rex 
Anglorum faepe ad Curiam fuam magiftra- 

tus populi accerfijt . Menfe Januario 

Fallefiae confeffio Procerum coram Rege 
fcit. — Menfe Martio idem Rex Concilium 
apud Luxovium tenuit, & necefiaria fub- 
jeflis plebibus edidta ex confultu Magna- 
torum provide fanxit. Ord. Fit. ib. p. 831, 
d, 832, a. ad arm. 1 107. 

(0) Anno ab incarnatione Domini 
MCXIII, Indiaione VI, Henricus Rex 
Anglorum Procerum multitudine fuorum 
flipatus Uticum venit ; ibiq; Purificationem 
£. Maris cum magna hilaritate celebra- 


Tunc confilio Rodberti Comitis de Mel- 
lento Rex juffit Cartam fieri, ibiq; omnia 
qusecumq; Uticenfis Abbatia eo die poffide- 
bat breviter colligi. Quod & faaum eft. 
Deinde Ernaldus Prior & Giflebertus Sar- 
tenfis Rotomagum Regi Cartam detulerunt. 

Ipfe vero libenter earn cum cruce faaa fir- 
mavit, & Optimatibus fuis qui aderant Cru- 
cis figno fimiliter corroborandum tradidit, 
Subfcripferunt itaq; Rodbertus Comes de 
Mellento, and others here nained. Haec ni- 
mirum Carta confilio fapientum faaa eft 
contra cupidos hjeredes, qui fingulis annis 
elemofynas parentum fuorum diripiebant, i-c 
Monachos crebro placitare cogebant. Unde 
Rex praefcriptum teftamentum figillo fuo ■ 
fignavit — . Ib. p. 840, b, c. ad arm. 1 113. 

(p) Ib. p. 841, a. ad ann. 1 1 13. 

(q) In a Charter of Exchar^e made betivecn , 
K. Rich. I, and the Church o/Roan ; Tefti- 
bus, among ft others, Guilielmo Marefcallo 
Comite de Eftrigol, Guilielmo filio Raduifi 
Senefcallo Normanniae, Roberto de Torne- 
ham Senefcallo Andegavis, Guilielmo de 
Homet Conftabulario Normanniae, Hugone 
Bruno, RadulfoCamerario Tanquarvillse. — 
Datum per manum Euftachii Elienfis ekai, 
tunc agentis vices Cancellarii, apud PvOtho- 
magum, anno ab Incarn. Domini AlcxCj 
xvii die Oaobris, regni noftri anno VII [. 
Inter Cbartas Ducwn Norm. ap. Duchefn, 
p. 1053. b. 





Of the GREAT Officers of the King's Court. 

T. IntroduBion. 

II. Of the Chhfjufticier: in the Reigns of K. William I, K. Wil- 
liam II, K. Henry I, K. Stephen, K. Henry II, K. Richard I, 
and K. John. 

III. Of the like great Officer in ^oxm-Skiidrf , Naples, and kxxz^ow. 

IV. Of the Confable. 

V. Of the MarefchalL 

VI. Of the Senefchall, Dapifer, and Majordomus. 

VII. Of the like great Officer in fome foreign Countries. 

VIII. Of the Chamberlain. 

IX. Of the Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor. 

X. Of the Treafiirer. 

I. O O M E fay, it was the Manner of the Normans to affedt 
r^ Splendor. And the Obfervation feemeth juft. The Kings 
of England of that Race were exceeding pompous both in Court and 
Gamp. In their Court they fliewed their Magnificence feveral 
Ways : in the Statelinefs of their Palaces, the Richnefs of their Furni- 
ture, the Splendor and Number of their Retinue, the Plenty of their 
Provifions, and the like ; of which, it is not my Bufinefs here to 
treat. They fhcv/ed it likewife in other Inftances : their Court was 
the Centre' of Refort for all the Barons and great Men of the Realm : 
who beino- Peers of the King's Court gave, as Occafionrequired, their At- 
tendance there ; and more particularly, as fome of them were ordinarily 
inverted with the great Offices of the King's Court: I fay, the Splen- 
^dor of the King's^Court appeared very much in the Confluence of 
the Nobility and chief Men of the Realm, and in the Greatnefs of 
his Officers or Minifters. Of fome of thefe great Officers we are 
now to give an Account in brief. And as I am here led to fpeak of 
■thefe Officers of State, becaufe of the Relation feveral of them had 
to the Exchequer : fo, I mufl treat chiefiy of fuch of them as were 
concerned there. Of this fort were- the Chief Juflicier, the Con- 


chap. ir. of the K i n g's Court. 31 

ilablc, tlie Seneichall, the Marefchall, the Chamberlain, the Chan- 
cellor, and the Treailirer ; with fome others of" leffcr Note. It is 
not cafy at this Day to afcertain, what was the particular Funcftion 
or Duty of each of thefe great Officers. However, fometliing muft 
be faid upon the Subjeft. And for want of more ancient Memoirs, 
I fliall be forced to trench fo far upon my general Method, as to fet 
down fome Things here, which properly fall v/ithin the fecond 

II. The iirft and greateft OlTicer of the King's Court was the Fligh 
Jufticier. Next to the King himfelf, he was chief in Power and Au- 
thority. And when the King was beyond-Sea (which frequently 
happened) he governed the Realm like a Viceroy [a). Next to the 
King, he prefided in the Curia Regis as chief Judge both in criminal 
and civil Caufes ; he prefided likewife in the King's Exchequer; 
having the fuperior Care and Guidance of the regal Revenue. In the 
moll ancient Times, if I have obferved right, he was wont to be ftylcd 
'Jiijiicia Regis, '^ujliciarius Regis, and abfolutely JuJIicia or ^Jtijliciarius. 
Afterwards, he was fometimes ftyled Jiijiiciarius Regis Anglia:, the 
King's Jujiicier of England-, probably, to dilHnguini him from the 
King's Juflicier of /nV(7/?rt', 'Normandy, &c. For which caufe alio, it is 
likely other Officers of State were called Conjiabuiariiis Anglicc, Can- 
cellarius Anglia, Thefaurarius Anglice, Sec. Let us confider this greaf 
Officer the Juilicier in fome Inflances by which it may be feen (in 
fome meafure) of what Nature Iiis Office was, and what Powers he 
exercifed. In or about the Year 1067, K. JFilliam I, upon his go- 
ing into Normandy, appointed Odo Bifliop of Baieux and WiUiam Fitz-r 
0Jhe7-n to be his Cnjiodes Angfue (/;).. As for Odo, it is faid of him, 
that when the King chanced to be in Normandy, he was the chief 
Man in England (c) ; that is to fiy, he was then the King's Jufticier.. 
In the fame King's Reign, there was a great Conteft between Gim- 
dulf Bidiop of Rochcjler, and Pichot Slierift' of Cdmhridgejhire, about 

{a) yj/r. Selden y^f(?-(-i to the fame effcH. Inc:'. firniari prseceult. ILvcd.P. 1.^.450. 

The Chief Jujl'ice of Y.w^2ind.hjiu(d a Viceroy, n. 10. 20. 

ky him in his Note upon the Black Book, fed (c) )5e [Obo] psj- j-pi^e pee hifcop oil 

inde non reccdit nifi, &c. Seld. Office of Nor-mansige, &c. Fuit hie [Odo] admo- 

Chancelkr, p. 4. dum potcns Kpifcopus in NormaniTia, (in 

(i) Anno 1067, Rex Willclinus Baius erat ejus fedes Epifcopairs) & Regi 

Normanniam repetijt, fratremq; fuum omnium maxime fldeiis. Habuit item Comi- 

Odonem Baiocenfem Epifcopum, & Wil- latum [eopl-oome] in Anglia, h quuin 

klmum filium Olburni (quern in Herefor- Rex [erat] in Normannia, fuit ille Primus 

denfi provincia Corr.item conftituerat) [mcejefre] in hau Terra. Chnru Sax. p,. 

Anglise Cuftcdes relinquens, caftella per 190. n. 20. 25. 

? the. 

32 Of the Gv^E AT O F F I c R s Chap. II. 

the Land of Fracenbam : the Bifliop claiming it as belonging to his 
Church, and the Sheriff" alledging it was the King's. The Parties came 
before the King ; who ordered the Matter to be tried by the Country. 
At this Trial the Bifliop of Baieux prefided (^). In the fame King's 
Reign, Lanfrajik Archbifliop of Canterbury, finding the Church of 
Canterbury had been diffeifed of divers Lands and Rights, by Odo 
Bifliop of Baieux Earl of Kent, and by the King's Officers after the - 
Conquefl:, made his Complaint thereof to the King. The King or- 
dered a Trial to be had in the Cafe. At the Trial (which was at 
Pmnende?ie) Goisfrid Bifliop of Conjlance prefided. And there were 
prefent there (befides the Archbifliop of Cajiterbury and the Bifliop 
. of Baieux') Er?2oJi Bifliop of Rochejier, JEgeIrk Bifliop of Chichejier 
(a Man very ilcilful in the Laws of the Realm) Richard de Tunebrigge, 
Hugh dc Montfort, William Dearces, Hamo the Vifcount or Sheriff, 
and many other Barons of the King and of the Archbifliop, with all 
the County of Kent, and many other Perfons of great Authority, both 
French and FngUfimen, of other Counties. At this Trial (which 
lafl:ed three Days) Archbifliop hanfrank recovered to his See, divers 
Lands and other Rights [c). Orderic Vitalis relates, that in this King's 
Reign William de Warenne and Richard de BenefaBa were Chief Jufl:i- 
ciers of England (f) ; and jufl: after he calls them Vicarios Regis (g). 

In the Reign of K. William II, Ranulf Pajejlambard, firfl: the King's. 
Chaplain and afterwards Bifliop of Durham, was for many Years to- 
gether Jufl:icier or chief Ruler, under the King, of all England [h). 


[d) Tempore Willelmi Regis Anglorum runt Golsfridus Epifcopus Conftantienfis, 

Magni, patris Willelmi Regis ejufdem gen- qui in loco Regis fuit, & Jufticiam illam 

tis, fuit quaedam contentio inter Gundul- tenuit ; Lanfrancus Archiepifcopus qui pla- 

fum Hrofenfem Epifcopum& PichotVice- citavit, Comes Cantire, Ernoftus Epifcopus 

comitem de Grendebruge, pro quadam de Hroveceftra, jEgelricus Epifcopus de 

Terra quje erat de Fracenham . Hanc Ciceftra, Ricardus de Tunebrigge, Hugo 

enim V icecomes Regis efle Terram dicebat ; de Monte-forti, Willelmus Dearces, Hamo 

i'ed Epifcopus eandem S. Andrere potius efie Vicecomes, h alij multi Baroncs Regis & 

affirmabat. Qtiare ante Regem venerunt. ipfius Archiepifcopi, & alij aliorum Comita- 

Rex vero prsecepit, ut omnes illius Comi- tuum hoinincs etiam cum ifto toto Comita- 

tatus homines congregarentur, & eorum tu, multae & magns audtoritatis viri Franci- 

judicio cujus Terra deberet redtius ti^z pro- genae fcilicet & Angli, &c. Ex Ernulfi Hlji. 

baretur . Sed cum illis Baiocenfis Epif- apud Angl. Sue. T. i. p. 334, 335. 

copus, qui Placito illi prseerat, non bene ry~) Guillelmus de Guarenna & Ricardus 

crederet, &c. Ex Ernulfi Hiji. apud JngL de Benefadta filius Gifleberti Comitis, quos 

Sac. T. I. p. 339. Rex prascipuos Angline Juftitiarios confti- 

te) De Placito .-ipud Pinendenam, inter tuerat in regni negotijs, rebellantes convo- 

Lanfrancum Archiepifcopum & Odonem cant ad Curiam Regis. Ord. Fit. p. ^^S- ^' 

Baiocenfem Epifcopum. Tempore Magni ad mm. 1073. 
Regis Willelmi, qui Anglicum regnum ar- (^) lb. p. 535. c. 

liiis conquifivit, &c. Huic Placito jaterJue- (A) ~i faep kannulp hij" Eapellane, &c. 


chap. n. of the K i n g's C o u R r. 33 

He is flyled by Henry of Hiintendon and Roger of Houeden, Placitator G? 
Exactor totiiis Angliee fij ; and by Ordericus VitaUs, Regiarum procu- 
rator opum & 'JiijUtiarhis fkj. So that he feems to have been both 
Juftlcier and Treafurer under that King. 

In the Reign of K. Henry I, Roger Bifhop of Sarejbury was Chief 
Jufticier of England (I). To his Care and Rule the King, when 
he went into Normandy, committed all England (m). Ordericus Vi- 
taUs and others mention Richard Baff'et as Chief Jufticier in this 
King's Reign fnj : others are alfo faid to have been Chief Jufticiers 
under this King foj. But I omit them ; it not being my Defign to 
give here a Lift of the Jufticiers ; but to mention fome of them, of 
whofe Power and Authority the Hiftorians take any particular Notice. 
Ordericus Vitalis fays, that Biiliop Roger prefided over England during 
all the Reign of K. Henry I. (p) ; and that he was continued in that 
Office by K. Stephen (q). In the Reign of K. Stephen, Richard de 
Luci was Chief Jufticier, as it feems by the Writ hereunder cited, 
made in Favour of the Dean of St. Martin, London frj. In the 

Ubi Rannulfo fuo Capellano Epifcopatum 
apud Dunholme dedit, qui inultos jam annos 
fuoconfilio univerfam Angliam gubernavit. 
Chron. Sax. ad ann. MXCIX. He is called 
Randidf PaJJeflambard ; Ibid. p. 233. n. 5. 

(;') Anno illo [1099] Rex Ranulfo Pla- 
citatori fed perverfori, hxaftori fed exuflori 
totius Anglias dedit Epifcopatum Du- 
nelmia:. Hunt. L. 7. p. 378. n. i. Et 
parvo tempore adeo crevit [Ranulfus], ut 
Placitatorem ac totius Regni ExutSorem 
Rex ilium conftitueret. Hoved. P. i. p. 
468. r?. 20. 

(i) Summus regiarum procurator opum, 
& Juftitiarius faftus eft [Rannulfus Fiam- 
bardus]. Order. Fit. ap. JDucbefn. p. 786. c. 

(!) pop j-e bij-cop op SDepep-b^jvij;, &c. 
Fult enim Epifcopus de Sx-rcfbyrig potens, 
& gubernavit totam Angliam. Chron. Sax. 
ad. ann. MCXXIII. p. 225. n. 10. Rogerus 
autcm. Jufticlarius fuit totius Angliae & Se- 
eundus a Rege. Hunt. L. 7. p. 3S2. n. 20. 

(?/i) ppa pejibi.": he opeji in-o Nopman&ie, 
&c. Tranfijt ,[Rex] in Normanniam, 
commifitq; totam Angliam curandam ac 
gubernandam [to jeamene ^ to pealben] 
Kogero Epifcopo de Searefbyrig. Chron. 
Sax. p. 226. n. 30. 

(«) Ricardus Baflet, cujus in Anglia vi- 
vente Henrico Rege potentia, utpote Capi- 
VOL. I. 

talis Juftltiarij, magna fuit. Ord. Fit. p. 905. 
d. ad ann. 11 36. 

(«) Diigd. Chron. Series. 

Ip) Rogerius Salefburienfis Prasful, ■ 

utpote qui toti Anglia? omni vita Hcnrici 
Regis prsfuerat. Ord. Fit, p. 919. c, ad 
ann. 1139. 

[q] To him., totius Albionis tutela jamdu- 
dum ab avunculo fuo, & poftmodum ab 
ipfo \_K. Stephcn'\ commifla fuit. lb. p. 904. 
d. ad ann. 1 136. 

(;■) S. Rex Angl. , Ricardo de Luci Ju- 
ftic. & Vicecomiti de Efi'exa falutem. Pras- 
cipio quodHenricus WintonienfisEpifcopus 
frater meus, Decanus Eccleftas S. Martini 
Londonis, & Canonici, ita bene & in pace 
& jufte teneant marifcum fuum de Meal- 
dona, quem Rannulfus de Venjons dedit 
Ecclefite S. Marias de Mealdona pro anima 
fua, de terra ilia quam Rex Henricus illi 
dedit de Dominio fuo pro fervitio fuo, ficut 
idem Rannulfus illam eis dedit, & ficut cai- 
tha ipfius teftatur, & ficut tenuerunt die 
qua Rex Henricus fuit vivus & mortuus, 
& pollea hadlcnus. Et fi quis illis feet rit 
iiijuriam, praecipio quod plenum redlum illis 
facialis inde. T. Roberto do Ver ap\id 
Ecrmundefiam. Ex autogr. in anhivo Eal. 
Coll. ll'ejlmon. Et vid. Form. Angl. num. 

F Year 


4 Of tJye GREAT Officers Chap. II. 

Year 1153, K. Stephen made Henry, Duke of Nonnandy and Son of 
Maud the Emprefs, Chief Jufticier of England; and by him all the 
Bufmefles of the Realm were determined fsj. 

About the Year 1 162 (as M. Fans {t) relates) Robert de Beaumont 
Earl of Leicejier was Jufticier of England. There is ftill extant a 
Writ running in his Name, commanding Reginald de Warenne to do 
Rioht [in his Court] to Robert de Mandevill for the Land of Diganef- 
laell, or elfe that Robert de Valoignes fliould do him Right, or in his 
default, the Juilicier himfelf would do Right in the cafe. 'Tis 
grounded upon the King's Wi'it Deidtramare (the King being, as it 
leems, at that time beyond-Sea) [ic) ; and is fealed with the Jufticier's 
Seal (ii'). In the fame King's Reign Richard de Luci was Chief Jufti- 
cier ; as appears by feveral Records cited in this Volume. In the Year 
1 1 80 (26 Hen. II), Ranidf de Glanvill, who was before, one of the 
Jufticiers of the King's Court, was made Chief Jufticier (x). By 
his wife Counfel feveral ancient Laws for the good Government of the 
Realm were eftabliftied and confirmed. 

K. Richard I, at the beginning of his Reign, conftituted Hugh 
Bifliop of Durham and William Earl of Albemarle Chief Jufticiers of 
England, and joined to them in the Government of the Realm, Wil- 
liam Marefchall, Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, William Brtiere, Robert de Wihte- 
feld, -^iwA Roger Fit z-Remfrey {y). Afterwards, when the King went 
beyond-Sea, he appointed Hugh Biihop qI Durham and William Bifliop 
of Ely Chief Jufticiers of England; to whom he aflbciated Hugh 

(j) Anno Gratise 1153, qui eft annus the Writ, is a Seal of yellow Wax, circular, 

J 8. regni Regis Stephani, pax Angliae red- near 3 Inches large (now a little diminijhed) ; 

dita eft, pacificatis ad iiivicein Rege Ste- Jt Jfiews a Knight tnounled, in warlike Equi- 

phano & Henriro Duce Normannias . page, his Face to the left Hand; otithe Reverfcy 

Rex vero conftituit Ducem Jufticiarium a jmall round Coiinterfeal. 
Angliae fub ipfo, & omnia Regni negotia per (v) Eodem anno Henricus Rex Angliae 

cum terminabantur. Et ab illo tempore Pater conftituit Ranulfum de Glanvilla fum- 

Rex ii Dux unanirnes erant in rcgimine inum Jufticiarium totius Anglias ; cujus fa- 

Regni. Hoved. P. i. p. 490. n. 40. pientia conditas funt leges fubfcript^, quaa 

(?) M. Paris, ad ami. ilium. Anglicanas vocamus. Hoved. P. 2. p. 600. 

(u) R. Comes Legreccftrias, Reginaldo ». 40. 
de Warenna falutem. Prrecipio quod fine (y) In eodem vero Concilio Dominus- 

di'lati(;i>e plenum re£lum teneas Roberto de Rex conftituit Hugonem Dunelmenfem 

Mandevill, de terra quE fm't Willelmi de Epifcopum, Si Willelmum Comitcm Albe- 

Mandevili fratris ejus de Digancfwell cum marliae, fummos Juftitiarios Angliae, & aftb- 

pertinentijs iuis, quam chmat tenere de te. ciavit eis in regimine regni WiUelmum 

Et nifi feceris, Robertas de Valonijs faciat. Marefcallum, & Gaufridum filiuni Petri, Sz 

Et nili fecerit, ego faciam fieri. Teltc Gau- Willelmum Bruuere,&Robcrtum de'W ihte-- 

frido Labbe. Per breve Regis de ultra mare, feld, & Rogerum filium Remfridi. Hoved, 

Ex autographo in archivo S. Petri JVeJimon. P. 2. p, 659. n. 20. 

(w) Upon a Canton cut from ilje bottom of 


Cliap. U. of the K I N g's C o u R T. 35 

Bardolf, WilUam Mivcfcball, Geoffrey Fkz-Pctcr, and William Bniere- 
(z). But William Billiop of Ely, being at this time papal Legate ami 
Chancellor as well as Chief Julticier, executed the whole Power (iji 
effeft) of the Chief Juflicier, and governed the Realm as if he had 
been fole without any Conjufticiers (^i). Afterwards, upon Com- 
plaints that were made to the King (being then beyond-Sea in th:; 
holy War) againft the Bifliop of Ely, the King appointed Walter 
Archbifhop of Koan to be a Conjufticier with the Bilhop of Ely and 
the other four laft above named. But the Bilhop of Ely continued 
ftill to adf as if he had been fole Jufticier {U). He was at laft depofed 
from his Office by Earl 'yohn the King's Brother, and moft of the 
Biihops and Barons oi England, with the Concurrence of the London- 
ers [c). And in his room they made the Archbifliop of Roan Chief 
Jufticier (^). After the King's return into £//^/i?W from his Cap- 
tivity, Hubert Archbifhop of Canterbury v/as Chief Juflicier. At that 
time, the Canons of York complained before him, of certain Wrongs 
which the Archbilliop of York had done them. The Juflicier (faith 
the Hiflorian) by vertue of the King's Authority wherewith he was 
invefled, fent to York Earl Roger Bigot, William de Ware?in, William de 
Stutevill, Hugh Bardolf, William Briiwere, Geoffrey Ha get, and Wil- 
liam Fitz-Richard Clerk, to hear and determine the Controverfy be- 
tween the Archbifhop of York and his Canons. Thefe CommiiTioners 
went down and heard the Caufe, and commanded the Archbilliop's 
Men, who were accufed of Robbery, to be taken and imprifoned. 
They fummoned the Archbifhop to appear and ftand to their Judg- 
ment} and upon his Refufal lb to do, they dilieifed him of all his 
Manors except Ripen. They caufed the Canons to be re-placed in 
their Stalls., out of which they had been ejedled by their Archbifliop. 
They appointed William de Stutevill and Geoffrey Haget to be Ciiftodes 
of York/hire over the Archbifhop of York (who was then Sheriff or 
Cujios of that County) and over his Underflierilf Roger de Batvent ; 
and then they returned (ej. In the fame King's Reign, whilfl the 


(z) Ibid. p. 663. n. 40. {h) Ibid. p.. 687. n. 50. 

(i?) Eodem anno WillelmusElienfisEpif- (c) Ibid. p. 701. n. 50. & p. 702. 

copuSj Apoftolicse fedis Legatus, Domini [d) Ibid. p. 702. n. 10. 

Regis Cancellarius, & totius Anglise Jufti- [e) Interim conquerentibus Cationicis 

tiarius, plebem Angliae fibi commiflam gra- Eboracenfis Ecclefiae Cantuarienfi Archie- 

vrbus cxadlionibus premebat. In primis pifcopo Regis Jufticiario, de injurijs quas 

namq; omnes Socios, qyos Rex fibi in re- Eboracenfis Archiepifcopus eis faciebat, 

gimine Rcgni alTociaverat, fpernebat, & Cantuarienfi; Archiepifcopus, authoritate 

eorum confilia. Socium autem parem fibi Regia, qua fungebaiur, mifit Eboracum 

neminem potabat in Regno, &c, Hovcd. Comitem Ro^erum Bigot, & Willelmum de 
P. 2. p. 680. n. 10. F 2 Wareiina, 


Of th 



F F I C E R S 




King was in his Captivity, Hubert A. B. of Canterbury Chief Jufticiet 
held a Common Council of the Biihops, Earls and Barons, upon the 
Occafion of the Diflurbances raifed by Earl John the King's Brother :. 
in which Council it was ordained, that Earl 'john fhould be dilleifed 
of all his Lands in England, and that his Caftles (liould be beiieged 
(f). Soon after the Archbilhop (being then Juflicier of Ungland and 
papal Legate) went to York; there he caufed Aflizes of all Pleas of 
the King's Crown, and of novel Difleifine and Mortdanceflor, to 
be holden by his Minifters or Subftitutes, and he himlclf and his 
Officials held ecclefiaftical Pleas (g). Afterwards the Pope admo- 
niilied K. Richard I, not to fufFer the Archbifliop to execute the fe- 
cular Adminiftration of a Jufticier any longer, and not to admit any 
other Bifhop or Prieft- to the like fecular Employments. Whereupon 
the Archbhhop was depofed from his Office of Chief Jufticier, and 
Geoffrey Fitz-Peter fucceeded him therein (h). In the Reign of K. 
yohn, Geoffrey Fitz-Peter was Chief Jufticier for feveral Years toge- 
ther ; as appears by many Records quoted in this Hiftory» But in 
what manner he or the Chief Jufticiers before him were appointed to 
their Office, I cannot difcover. K. John by a Writ Patent dated ia 
the 15th Year of his Reign conftituted Peter Bifhop of Winchejier his 
Jufticier of E?igland, to keep the Realm in his flead and to maintain 


Warenna, & Willelmum de Stutevilla, & 
Hugonem Bardulfum, & Willelmum Bru- 
were, hi Gaufridum Haget, & Willelmum 
filium Ricardi clericum, ad audieiidam 
controverfiam inter Archiepifcopum Ebora- 
cenfem & Canonicos fuos, & fecumlum 
quod jus di6laverit terminandam. Qi^ii cum 
venirent, & audirent appellationes Canoni- 
corum &:rerponfum Archiepifcopi &fuorum, 
prcecepcruiu homines Archiepifcopi, qui 
calumniati fuerant de robberia, capi & in- 
carcerari. Et quamvis Archiepifcopus opera 
eorum warantizarec, non tamen potuit eos 
Archiepifcopus plegiare. Deinde fummo- 
nuerunt Archiepifcopum, ut venlret judicio, 
pariturus ; & quia noluit, diflaifiaverunt 
eum de onmibus Manerijs fuis, excepto uiio 
folo Manerio de Ripun, in quo Archiepif- 
copus fe receperat. Deinde fecerunt Ca- 
nonicos introduci in ftallos fuos, de quibus 
Archiepifcopus eos diffaifierat. Et fic re- 
cedentcs, ilatuerunt Willelmum de Stute- 
villa, & Gaufridum Kaget, Cuftodes in 
Eboracenfi firia fuper Archiepifcopum 5c 

fupervicecomitatum [(irvicecomitem] fuum, 
Hoved. P, 2. p. 743. n. 40. 50. 

Galfridus Eboracenfis Archiepifcopus^ 
Rogerus de Batvent pro eo, reddunt compo- 
tum de firma de Everwichfcira de dimidio 
anno. Mag. Rot. 6. Ric. l. tit. Evcrzvicfcira. 

(f) & tradidit ea Cantuaricnfi Ar- 

chiepifcopo. Qiii in crafHno convocatis 
coram eo Epifcopis, Comitibus, & Baroni- 
bus regni, oftendit eis Literas Comitis Jo- 
hannis. Et ftatim per commune confilium 
regni deflnitum eft, quod Comes Johannes 
diilaifiretur de omnibus tenementis fuis in 
Anglia, & ut caftella fua obfiderentur ; & 
factum eft ita. Hoved. P. 2. p. 736. n. 30. 

(^) Venit igitur Legatus ille Eboracum 

die Dominica ; fequenti die Lunae fecit 

ipfe teneri affifas de omnibus placitis Coro- 
na; Regis, & de Nova diflaifma, & de Morte 
anteceflbrum, per Miniftros fuos ; ipfe vero 
& OfRciales fui tenuerunt placita Chrifti- 
anitatis. Hoved. P. 2. p. 755. «. 10. 

{/') Unde Dominus Papa diligenter mo- 

nuit Dominum Ricardum Regem Anglias, 

4 ut^ 

chap. II. of the YiiYi g's, C o u r t. 37 

the public Peace (/) : and commanded the Archbifhops, Bifhops, 
Abbots, Earls, Barons, and all his Liegemen, to be aiding and in- 
tendant to the faid Juiliicier, in the Defence of the Realm and Con- 
fervation of the Peace thereof (/e). In the Reign of K. Henry III, 
Hubert de Burgh Earl of AVw/ Vv^as Chief Jufticier ; as appears by tlie 
Record hereunder cited (/), and by many others. The faid Hubert 
had an Aflignment of ccc/. to be received by him yearly at the Ex- 
chequer, for bis fupport in the Office of Chief Jufticier, Part of it, 
njlz. cc /. was paid or allowed to him out of the Perm of Norfolk and 
Suffolk; of which Counties he was then Sheriff (w). 

III. The Office of Chief Jufticier was alfo an ancient Office in iVor- 
viandy [ft) : and likewife in the kingdom of Naples ; where he was 

ut pro falute animie fuce non permitteret 
prasfatum Archiepifcopum diutius admini- 
ftratione feculari, &c. Et fic Cantuarienfi 
Atchiepifcopo a regimine Regni depofito, 
Gaufridusfilius Petri fucceffit ei in regimine 
Regni. Hoved. P. 2. p. 779. n. 40. 

[i] Rex Archiepifcopis, &c. Sciatis quod 
conftituimus Jufticiarium noftrum Angliae, 
Venerabilem patrem noftrum Dominum 
P. WintonienCem Epifcopum, quamdiu 
nobis placuerit ; ad cuftodiendum loco 
noftro Terram noftram Anglix & pacem 
Regni noftri : Et ideo vobis mandamus, 
quod ei tanquam Jufticiario noftro Anglias 
intendentes fitis 5c refpondentes. Et in hujus 
&c. Tefte meipfo apud Portefmuth, 1 die 
Februarij. Pat. 15. Joh. m. 3. 

(^k) Rex Archiepifcopis, Epifcopis, Ab- 
batibus, Comitibus, Baronibus, & omnibus 
Fidelibus fuis has Literas infpe£luris, Saiu- 
tem. Sciatis quod pro Magnis negotijs 
noftris transfreiamus ad pnefens in Pifta- 
viam, if. Regnum noftrum Anglise in culto 
diam & prote<Si:ionem Dei, & SaniStae Ro- 
mans Ecclefise & Domini papae, & Domi- 
ni N. Tui'cul. Epifcopi Apoftolicje Sedis 
Legati commilimus, & f.oco noftro ad pa- 
cem Regni noftri tiiendam Venerabilem pa- 
trem noftrum Dominum P. ^Vinton. Epif- 
copum conftituimus. Et ideo vobis man- 
damus, quod ei ad defenfionem Regni & 
Pacis confervationem, auxiliantes fitis & in- 
tendentes. Et in hujus rei teftimonium, 
&c. vobis mittimus. Tcfte meipfo apud 

Portefmuth, i die Februarij, Pat. 15. "Joh. 

'«• 3- 

(/) Amerciamenta fadla per H. de Burgo 

Jufticiarium : Idem Vicecomes r c de 
xxix 1. de mifericordijs hominum quorum 
nomina & debita & caufa; debitorum anno- 
tantur in Rotulo quem idem H. liberavit in 
Thefauro : In Thefauro xxvi 1. & dimidia 
marca, Et debet iiij marcas Debita hu- 
jus Itineris non funt in Rotulo fed in piiUo. 
Mag. Rot. 5. H. 3. Rot. 9, a. lit. Item 
Ebor. m. 2. 

(»,') Idem Vicecomes r c de CCl. de Ve- 
teri Cremento, ficut fupra continetur : In 
Thefauro Nichil : Et Huberto de Burgo 
Jufticiario CCl, in parte folutionis CCC I. 
ei afTiLTnatarum ad percipiendum ad Scacca- 
rium Regis, ad fe fuftentandum per annum 
in Jufticiaria Regis ; per breve Regis ; Et 
Q_e. Mag. Rot. 6. H. 3. Rot. 12. a. Norf. 
& Suff. Hubertus deBurgo,Ricardus Duket 
pro eo, Sherijf'i, 

(«) SiCommunia [Rothomagi] prscepto 
Domini Regis vel Juftitiae fuge debeat iter 

facere . In StabUimento Conmmnia Rothom, 

apud Duchefn. Script. Norm. p. 1068. a. 

Et fi aliquis pra;di£lorum defecerit de 
partiendo vel capiendo portionem fuam, 
Juftitia Domini Regis partietur loco purti- 
toris. Et Juftitia Domini Regis faciet ha- 
bere partitores homines Patrire, quos a Juf- 
titia interrogabit. Inter Chartas Duaim 
Norm. ap. Duchefn. ib.p. 1064. ///. Deiaifma 
Paganellij dat. A. D. 121 3. 





GREAT Offices Chap. II. 

ftykd Magijler 'jvjlitiarhis [p). In one of the Neapolitan Conflitutions, 
part of the Oath appointed to be taken by this Majlcr yiiJUcier (and 
etliers), is fet forth hereunder (/>). He was deemed the moft pre- 
eminent OrHcer in Sicily {q). He was alfo called the Grand 'Jiijiicier ; 
and had in that Kingdom the fupreme Adminiftration of Jultice both 
in civil and crimin:!l Caufes (/-). There, in ancient time, they called 
thofe perfons Jujiiciers of the Provinces, who were afterwards called 
Governors of the Provinces, and in modern times Viceroys. And thele 
Jufticiers (in refemblance to the Powers of the grand Jufticier there) 
had the Care of the publick AdminiiTiration of Juftice, and alfo of 
the royal Revenue {/). Thefe Powers may be compared to thofe 
with which the Chief Jufticier in England was antiently vefted : who 
in like manner prclided both in the Court of Law and that of Re- 
venue, But befides Normandy and Sicily, there was another Country, 
the Kingdom oi Aragon, wherein there was a fuperior Officer, flyled 
the yujlicia of Aragon. The Inftitution of this Office of 'Jiijiicia 
there, if we may believe Siirita the Annaliil:, was very ancient. PJe 
hys, it was introduced about the Year 835; and that fome Perfons 
believed it to be more ancient than even the Kingfliip oi Aragon (/). 
But however that matter was in truth, this Jujlicia had in Procefs of 
Time fo great a Jurifdidion and Authority, that Siirita compares him 


(») <— — ut nullus aiiitoritate propria 
debeat fe vindica'/e, — fed coram Magillro 
Juftitiario, & jufticiarijs regionum, vel lo- 
corum camerarijs, vel baiulis & dominis, — - 
caiifam fuam ordine judiciario profequatur. 
Conji. Niap. Tit. 8. apud Lhidenbr. 

(^) Inter caetera capitula quae in facra- 
mento pr.i-ftando a Magillro Juftitiario, feu 
juftitiarijs, cum adminillrationem fufcipiunt 
continentur, hoc fpecialiter & exprefTius 
volumus contineri, ut Deum & Juftitiam 
habendo prx oculis, unicuiq; conquerenti 
juftitiam faciant fme fraude, & quam citius 
poteriint litigantes expedite curabunt. Con- 
ji'it. Neap. L. I. Tit. 43. apud Lindcnbr. 

(q) Eile fue Alaymo de Lentin, a quien 
el Rey en reconociniiento de fus fervicios 
dio gran eftado en aquel reyno. [i. e. de Si- 
cilia j, e hizo Maeftre Jufticier del : que es 
el cargo mas preeminente que ay en la Ifla. 
Anaks de Aragon T. 1. L. 4. fil, 294. a. ad 
min. J285' 

(?■) E dunque il gran Giuftiziere colui, il 
quale ha il fupremoluogo di efercitar la giuf- 
tizia cofi civile come criminale in tutto il 
reame. Dicevanfi anticamente ancor Giuf- 
tiziarij delle provincie quelli che hoggi go- 
vernatori di provincie, & piu volgarmente 
Vicere di provincie fon detti. Ammir. dclle 
Fam. Neapol. P. i.p. 41. £. 

(5) Quefti Giuftiziarij non folodellagiuf- 
tizia, ma per quel che a me pare da tante 
& cofi diverfe fcritture haver raccolto fim- 
pacciavano ancor delle entrate & rendite 
reali ; & quelle rifcuotevano & pagavano a 
miniftri Regij, 6 in altre bifogne fecundo- 
lordine & ii comandamento de i Re. Ibid, 
p. 42. a. 

[t) Por efte tiempo, fegun efta recibido 
comunmente, fe introduxo el magiftrado del 
Jufticia de Aragon, y aun fe perfuadcn al- 
gunos, comoefcriue Juan Ximenez Cerdan, 
tratando de la origen defte magiftrado, que 
fue antes el Jullicia de Aragon, 


chap. II. ^ //^^ K I N c's C o u R T» 39 

to the Roman Tribunes and Lacedemonian Ephori {u). Afterwards, at 
the Inftance of the Grandees of that Kingdom, it was ordained, that 
he fliould be nominated by the King, and not by Vote or popular 
Ambition {w) ; and that if any Difference arofe between the King 
and the great Men, the Jujiicia fhould determine the fame with the 
Advice of the King and of the great Men and Cavalkros who were 
then prefent in his Court, and were not Parties concerned (;c). 

IV. Another great Officer in the King's Court was the Conftable. 
He was ufually ftyled Confiabiilarius Regis ; and fometimes Confiabiila- 
rius AngUcE, in diftindion from the Confrable of Normandy ; and was 
a high Officer both in VV'ar.and Peace. At prefent we confider him 
only under his Charafter in Time of Peace, mz,. as a Minifter of the 
King's Court. Anciently this Office was hereditary. 

As to the Word Conjlabularius, it fignified a Captain or Comman- 
der. In that Senfe it was ufed in England in the Reigns of KK, 
Richard I, and "^ohn. Thus, the Lands of Otuel de Sudley were taken 
into the King's Plands, becaufe OtueTs Knight was not found /« Con- 
Jiabiilaria Jua in the Marches oi Wales [y] : the Lands of Eujlace de 
Baillol were feized into the King's Hands, becaufe he was not found 
at his Poft {in Conjiabidaria fiia) \z) : and the Lands- of Robert dc Pin- 
kenni and William Painel were feized for the fame Caufe [a). The 

que fuefle el Rey eligido. Anales de Aragon. tuarienfi Archieplfcopo apud Infulam de An- 

"T. \. L. I. /. 9. h. ad ann. 835. deli & apud Lundatn : Otuelus de Sudlega 

(k) Ib.fol. 103. a. debet Lx marcas', pro habenda faifina terras- 

(zf) Y feproveyo, queel Juflicia de Ara- fua?, unde diflaifitus fuit quia Miles fuus- 

gon fuefle Cavallero, y fe nombrafle por el hop. fuit inventus in Conilabularia fua in 

Kt-^y y no por votes ni ambicion popular. Marchia. Mug. Rot. 9. R. i. Rot. 8. b. 

lb. T. I. L. 2. fol. 103. a. ad ann. 1213. Glcecejlr. 

{x) Y en lo que inftauan, que el Jufticia (2) Euftacius de Baillol rcdditcompotum 

de Aragon juzgaffe los pleytos con confejo de L marcis, pro faifina terrae i'uae quas- 

delRey y delos ricos hombres ; era el Rey capta fuit in manu Regis quia non fuit 

contento que en quslquier difFerencia entre inventus in Conflabularia fua ; in thefauro- 

el, y los ricos hombres y hijos dalgo, in- liberavit, Et Quietus etl:. Mag. Rot. 9* 

fan^ones, fueffe. el Jufticia de Arasonjuez y Ric. I. Rot. 15. a. Jfllt. 
la determinafTe con confejo del Rey y'de los [a) Robertus de Piakenni r c dc C s, pro 

ricos hombres y caualleros que efluuieflen habenda faifma terrae fuae, unde fuit difiai- 

prefcntes en fu corte, que no fiiefien parte: litus, quia non fuit inventus in Copilabula- 

y atendido que el y los Reyes fus prede- ria fua. Alag. R.oi. 10. R. i. Rot. i. b. 

cefibres fiempre ufaron y acof'tambraron de Buk. (sf Bedif. 

poner Jufticia en Aragon, el de alii adelante Willelmus Painel r c de quater xx libris, 

guardarla aquella coftuinbre, y que feria pro habenda terra iua, unde fuit diflaifitus 

f,auallero y hijodalgo. lb. T, I. L. 3. f. eo quod non fuit inventus in Conftabularia 

182. a. ad ann. 1264. fu%in Normaijma. lb. Rot. 13. b.Oxenef. 

(7) Oblata facia coram Rege & H. Cau- 


40 Of the GREAT Officers Cliap. II . 

commanding Officers in the King's Navy are called Conjialndarij [b). 
And Officers in the Army at Land are called by the fame Name. In 
the third Year of K. John, Provifion was made for the feventy feven 
Welchmen foot-Soldiers and their feven Conftables [or Officers], and 
four mounted Archers that were fent into Norway [c). The Word 
Conejiabile was alfo ufed for a Captain or Leader, in the Kingdom of 
Sicily [d), and in Tujcatiy {e); if we may believe Arnmirato. 

In the Reign of K. JVillia/n I, William Fitz-OJbern was the King's 
Conftable (/). Or perhaps, he might be the King's Marefchall. 
For the Epithet of Magijier Mihtiim will fit either of thofe two Of- 
ficers. I chufe here to take Magijier Militum for the Conftable : be- 
caufe that Style is exprefly given to the Montforts who were, as I re- 
member, hereditary Conftables (o-). But whether William Fitz- 
OJbern was Conftable of England or of Normandy, I do not recolledl. 
In the Reign of K. Henry I, Robert de Ver fubfcribes as Conftable to 
a Charter of that King's (/6). Mr. Camden relates, that Maud the 
Emprefs made Miles (Son of Walter Conftable of Gloucejier) Conftable 
of Englajid {i ) : which Office, he fays, came afterwards by a Mar- 
riage to the Defcendants of Humphrey de Bohiin [k). The faid Miles 
was Conftable in the Reign of K. Stephen; as faith the Conti?iiiator 
of Florence of Worcejler (/). K. Stephen, in the firft Year of his Reign, 
made a Charter to Robert Bifhop of Bathe. That Charter is attefted 


[b] Du£lores & Conftabularij Navigij i Capitani di gente a cavallo incomminci- 

Regis. Moved. P. 2. f. bbb. n. 10. temp, ati a chiamar condottieri. lb. p. 39. b. 

Ric. I. (/) Ubi eft Guillelmus Ofberni filius,' 

{c) Et Lxxvij Walenfibus peditibus & vij Herfordenfis Comes & Regis Vicarius, Nor- 

Conftabularijs corum, & iiij Archerijs equi- mannise Dapifer, & Magifter Militum bel- 

tibus, qui milH fuerunt inNorweiam, xxviil. licofus ? Ord. Vh. ap. Duchcfti. p. 536. a. 

& xiiij d. de liberatione fua de j menfe, per (g) Magiftrum Militum [Robertum de 

breve Regis. Alag. R^t. 2- J. Rot. 11. b. Monteforti.] Ord. Fit. ap. Di(ch. p. '/■^2- ^' 

[d) Coneftabile nondimer.o nel regno di ad A. D. IC98. 

Napoli lignifico Capitano , afterwards Rodbertus de Monteforti princeps Militiae 

jpeak'ing of the grand Conjlabh he faith, II prasceffit. Ibid. p. 1]^. c. ad A.D. 1098. 

quale eflendo de lette maggiori ufici il mag- Rodbertuni autem de Monteforti honori- 

giore, in grandi Signori e ftato fempre col- fice fufcepit. & nefciens qua de caufa natale 

locato. Conimanda di ragione a tutte le folum dimiferit, quia ftrator Normannici 

genti de guerra, cofi da pie come da caval- Exercitus hsreditario jure fuerut, inter 

lo, & ne Parlamenti redi rifiede come fi prsecipuos fublimavit. /i. />. 823. i. ff^yf.i). 

dilFe il prime al lato deftro del Re. Am- 1108. 

mir. delle Fam. Neap. P. \. p. 39. [h) Hie,' cap. 2. SeSi. 8. H. Rex Angiorum. 

i^e) Coneftabile e voce tragli Storici Tof- (j) Camd. Brit. p. 556. 

cani multo ufitata, & figniiico anticament;e (k) Ibid. Et vid. Spelm. Gkff. in vocabulo, 

Capitano dalcuna quaritita di foldati a Ca- Conftabularius, p. 146. col. 2. 

vallo. M?[. in proccflb di tempo Co- (I) Inde eum [viz. K. Stephen) Milo 

neflabile s' intefedi f^nti a piede, effendofi (tunc fuus Coneftabularius) cum honore re- 

chap. II. ^ //^^ K I N g's C o u R T. 41 

by Rodbert de Ver the Conftable, and by Miles de Gloucejlcr Conftable 
(jn). Henry de EjJ'ex was Conftable in the 2d Year of K. Hemj II (??), 
and afterwards. In a Charter of K. Henry II, to the Church oiWin- 
chejier, there are Witnefles, Henriciis de Ef/exa Conjlabidarius., Richar- 
diis de Hw7iez Coiijlabularius (0). [The Hutnets were Conftables of 
Normandy\ (/>). And in a Charter of the fame K. Hen. II, made to 
the Monks of Chrifichiirch Canterbury, Hmry de EJJex is ftyled Con- 
ftable [q). Humjrey de Bohun was Conftable in the 23d Year of K. 
Henry II, (r) ; and, I think, others of the Family of Bohun were 
Conftables afterwards. But 'tis not my purpofe to be curie us about 
the Succeflion or Defcent of tills Office. I would much rather (if I 
could) difcover the Powers which belonged to it in the ancient Times. 
But that is a Subject too obfcure for me to illuftrate, who have met 
with fo few Memoires concerning it. However, one or two Records 
may be here fubjoined. In the iecond Year of K. Henry II, Henry 
de Eff'ex the Conftable held Pleas, either in the King's Court or in an 
Iter{s). But probably, he held thofe Pleas, not as Conftable, but 
as one of the King's Jufticiers. In the 5th Year of K. John, men- 
tion is made of nineteen Knights Pees of the Earl of Perch lying in 
Kent, which belonged to the Conftablefliip of England, as the Sheriff" 
oi Kent alledged at the Exchequer (/). In the 27th Year of K. Ed- 
ward!, the Barons of the Exchequer were commanded to certify to 
the King, what Fees and Allowances Humjrey de Bohun Earl of He- 
reford Conftable o{ England, and Roger le Bigod Earl of Norfolk Maref- 
chall of E77gland, were refpeftively entituled to receive of the King, 
upon account of their faid Offices, and in what manner. Whereupon 
the Barons certify to the King, that having fearched the Rolls and 
Books of the Exchequer, they found amongft the Conftitutions of K. 
Henry the fecond's Houffiold, that the Conftable and Marefchall 
ought to have the Fees and Allowances, in Money, Simnells, Wine, 

giam conducit ad aulam. Contln, Fkrent. (r) Et Hunfiido de Bohun Conftabulario 

JVtgorn. p. 668. ad J. D. 1138. xxviij 1. & vj s. & viij d. in Miileton & in 

{m) Ji.te, cap. I. SeSl. 3. Foreila, de Dote Comitiife. M(7g. Rot. 23. 

(«) Et Henrico de EiTexa Conftabulario, H. 1. Rot. 5. b. tit. Honor Comitis Conani. 

xxiij 1. h xvj s. Mag. Rot. 2. H. 2. Rot. 3 [s) Edwardus de Brentemareis r c de xxx 

a. E£cxa. - marcis, de Flacitis Henrici deEfiexa. Mag. 

(0) Per Infpeximus, Mich. Commun. 12 Rot. 2. H. 2. Rot. 6. a. Sumerfeta. 

Edw. 2. Rot. 19. a. [t) Idem [Fiaxomes] r c de xxxvilj mar- 

(p) Neuji. Pia, p. 427, 761, 762. Ho- cis, de Scutagio xix Militum Comitis de 

vi'd. P. 2. p. 815. n. 10. Pertico in hoc Comitatu, qui pertinent ad 

(q) Teftibus, Epifcopo de Ely, & H. de Conftabulariam Anglias, ficut Vicecomes 

EfTcx Conftabulario, apud Wyntoniam. dicit. Afag. Rot. 5. J. Rot. 2. b. Kent. 
Regljh. C. in Ecclef. Metrop. Cant.fol. xx. b. 

Vol. I. G Candle, 

42 Of the G K E A T O f F I c ft. s Chap. II. 

Candle, and other things, as hereunder is fet-forth (u). Which Cer- 
tificate made by the Barons is, 1 fuppofe, taken out of the Red-Book 
of the Exchequer. 

The Office of the King's Conftable was executed partly abroad in 
the King's Army in Time of War, and partly in the King's Court in 
Time of Peace. He was alfo wont to appoint a Subflitute to adl 
for him at the King's Exchequer; as may appear in Chap, xxiv. 
Vol. II. of this Hiflory. I cannot at prefent find any thing memo- 
rable concerning the Duty and Powers of the Conftable, during the 
firft or fecond Period J and therefore muft trefpafs fo far upon my 
propofed Method, as to cite a Memorial of the Reign of K. Richa7'd\\. 
There was a Statute made in the 13th Year of that King, to declare 
the Power and Jurifdi(ftion of the Conftable oi England ; viz. " That 
" he ought to have cognifance of Contradls touching Feats of Arms 
" and of War out of the Realm, and alfo of fuch Things relating 
" to Arms or War within the Realm as could not be determined or 
*' difcuflied by the common Law ; with other Ufages and Cuftoms 

(«) Certificatio de Officio Conftabularij 
&Mare{calli Angliae. Excellentiffimo Prin- 
cipi, fao Domino Reverendo, Domino Ed- 
wardo Dei gratia Regi Angliae, Domino Hi- 
bernian &Duci Aquitania?, Dcvoti fuiXhe- 
faurarius & Barones de Scaccario fuo fidele 
femperobfequium cumomnimoda reverentia 
& honore. Mandavit nuper nobis veftra 
Serenitas, quod Scrutatis Rotulis Scaccarij 
veftri, Vobis fub Sigillo ejufdem Scaccarij 
diftinile & aperte conftare faceremus. Quid 
& quantum dile£ti & fideles veftri Humtri- 
dus de Bohun Comes Herefordia; ScConfla- 
bularius Anglis, necnon & Rogerus le By- 
god Comes Norfolciae & Marefcalius Angl iae, 
percipere debent & confueverunt de vobis 
nomine Feodi pro officijs fuis, & quo tem- 
pore, & qualiter, & quo modo. Super quo 
veftra fciat Excellentia Reverenda, quod 
Rotulis & Libris diSi veftri Scaccarij per- 
fcrutatis, in quodam Libro inter Conftitu- 
tiones Domini H. Regis Secundi invenimus 
fic. Conftabularij liberationes ficut Dapife- 
rij & eodem modo, & Dapiferij ficut Can- 
cellarij, fi extra Domum comederint, vide- 
licet V s. in die h j fimenellum Domini- 
cum, h ij falata, &j fextarium de vino ex- 
penfabili, & j cereum, & xl fruftra candelas. 
Si intra Domum comederint, iij s. vj d. & 
ij fimetisUa falata, & unum fextarium de 

vino expenfabili, & plenarie candela. De 
Marefcallo fie. Magifter Marefcallus, li 
extra Domum comederit, ij s. in die, & j 
fimenellum fa)., & j fextarium vini expen- 
fabilis, & j cereolum, & xxiiij fruftra caii- 
delas. Si autem intra Domum comederit, 
xiiijd.&dimidium fextarium vini expenfabi- 
lis & candela plenarie. Et praeter hoc. 
debet habere duas de donis & liberationibus 
quae fiunt de Thefauro Regis & de fua Ca- 
mera ; & debet habere duas contra omnes 
officiales Regis ut teftis per omnia. Quatuor 
Mar[efcalli] qui ferviunt P'amiliae Regis, 
tam Clericisquam Militibus quam Miniftris, 
die qua faciunt herbergeriam vel extra Cu- 
riam morantur in negocijs Regis, viijd. in 
die, & j galonem vini expenfabilis, & xij 
fruftra candelje. Si intra, iij d. die homini- 
bus fuis in die & candela plenarie. Quod fi 
aliquis Marefcallus mifius fuerit in negociis 
Regis, viijd. tantum. Servientes Maref- 
callorum, fi fuerint mifli in negocio Regis, 
unufquifq; iij d. in die. Sin autem in Do- 
mo Regis comedent. De praedi£tis autem 
Conftabulario & IVlarefcall. aliud non com- 
perimus. Valeat veftra Excellentia per 
tempera longiora. Scriptum in difto Scac- 
cario apud Eboracum, xij die Decembris 
anno xxvij. Mich, Communia 26 & 27 £ 
I. Rot. 8. b. 

*' appertaining 

Chap. II. of the K i n g's Co u r t. 43 

" appertaining to the fame Matters, which other Conftables before 
" that Time had duly and reafoaably ufed {w)." 

V. The Marefchall was another great Officer of the King's Court. 
This Office was anciently, and is at this Day, hereditary. It is now 
veiled in the moft Noble the Duke of Norfolk. Marefchall, was a 
general Name for feveral Officers that were employed about Horfes, 
Game, &c. For example : ten Marks were allowed to Hugh the 
Marefchall and his Fellows who looked after twenty of the King's 
Palfreys (a;). The Sum of Cxxxij /. was allowed at the Exchequer 
to 'John Palmer, for himfelf and xxj Grooms, and for Hay, Oats, 
and Farriery [marefcalcid] for fifty Horfes of the King's Stable (_y). 
Frere Alan a 'Tetnplar was ordered to buy two good Palfreys for the 
King, and to manage \inarefcallare\ another Palfrey which the King 
then fent to him (z). There was alfo a Marefcakia avium Regis faj; 
and in Ireland a Marefcakia menfurce Regis (b) . 

[w) Item pur ceo que la commune feft 
grevoufement compleynt que la Court de 
Coneftable & Marefchall ad acroche a luy 
& acroche de temps en temps, contraftes 
covenauntes trefpaffes dettes & detenues & 
plufours auters accions pledables per la com- 
mon ley, en graunde prejudice du Roy & 
de les Courtes, & a graunde grevaunce & 
oppreffion du people. 

Noftre Seigneour le Roy voillant ordiner 
remedie encounter les prejudices & gre- 
vaunces fuifdites, ad declare en ceft parle- 
ment, per advis & alTent des Seigneours ef- 
pirituelx & temporelx la poair&jurifdiccion 
du dit Coneftable en la fourme que enfuit. 
Al Coneftable appartient davoir conifaunce 
des contraftes touchantes faites darmes 
& de guerre hors du royalme & auxint des 
chofes qui touchent armes ou guerre deins 
le roialme queux ne poent eftre termines 
ne difcuftes par la common [ley] eve 
autres ufages & cuftumes a ycelles matiers 
appurtenauntz, queux autres Conftables 
devant ore ount duement & refonablcment 
ufes en lour temps, &c. Pym. Stat. 13. 
Rk. 2. caf. 2, 3. 

{x^ Et Hugoni Marefcallo & fociis fuis 
ducentibus xxPalefridos adRegem, x m ar- 
eas, per breve ejufdem H. [i. e. H. Cantua- 
rienfis Archiepifcopi.] Mag. Rot. 10. R 
I. Rot. 12. a. Land. iJ Mldd. 

[y) Et Johanni Palmerio cum xxj Gar- 
cionibus, h pro feno & avena & marefcal- 
cia quinquaginta equorum Regis per duos 
annos, C & xxxij 1. & ij s. & x d, per breve 

Regis. Mag. Rot. 15. /. Rot. 5. b. in Com- 
poio de Tioktjheria. 

(z) Mandatum eft fratri AlanoTempla- 
rio, quod emat ad opus Regis duos bonos 
palefridos, & marefcallari facial palefridum 
quem Rex ei mittit. T R apud Chaftilan 
xxvii die Novembris. 67. Vafcon. 38 & 

39- ^- 3- 

(a) Albreda de Jarpunvill rede dimidia 

marca, ut fcribatur in Magno Rotulo, quod 
ipfa coram Baronibus de Scaccario tradidit 
Radulfo filio Thomae filij Bernardi, totam 
terram fuam de Adinton, in dominicis, & 
vilenagijs, & fervicijs, & redditibus : Ha- 
bendam & tenendam praedifto Radulfo tota 
vita ipfius Albredae ; Salvo jure Aliciae filiae 
fuas & hreredis fui fi illam fupervixerit. Ita 
tamen quod praediiflus Radulfus defendet & 
aquietabit prasdicStani Albredam & prse- 
di<Stam terram de Adinton, & omnes alias 
terras quas praedii£\a Albreda de Domino 
Rege tenet in Capite, tam in Comitatu ce 
Kent quam in Bukingehamfira, de Maref- 
calcia avium Regis, ii de Militia, & de 
Scutagio, & Taillagio, & de omnibus qua 
ad prsdittas terras & ad prasdicftam Albre- 
dam pertinent, & etiam de omnibus fecula- 
ribus fervicijs & exailionibus ; & quod u- 
terque eorum haec omnia praedi£la fidcliter 
tencnJa coram Baronibus affidavit. Mag, 
Rot. 1 3. Job. Rot. 1 . b. Buk. & Bedef. 

(b) officium Marcfcalcias menfurae 

Regis in Hibernia. Pat, 10. E 2. m. 8. 
pars 2. 

G 2 It 

44 O/ifii^GREATOFFicERs Chap. ir. 

It is to be underftood, that there were formerly more Marefchali's 
than one belonging to the King's Court. In the iith Year of K. 
Henry II, a Charter made betw een Robert Abbot of St. Alban and 
others of the one part, and Laurence Abbot of Wejiminjhr of the 
other part, was executed at the Exchequer, before feveral of the Ju~ 
itices, and before the King's Chamberlains and his Marefchalls (<:). 
In the 14th Year of the fame King, William Fitz-Aldelin is ftyled 
Marefchall (^). Which. William certified to that King, that of the 
Land which the King gave to Williatn Fitz-Aldelin his Marefchall 
\vith Juliana Daughter oi Robert Dorjncll, Bahkvin Wifchard held one 
Knight's Fee of the old Feoffment in K[]ex, John Gernun, the fourth 
Part of a Knight's Fee, and he himfelf \JVilliam Fitz-Aldelin'] held the 
Relt in demeane by his Service or Serjeanty of the King's Marihalcey 
{e). At the fame Time [Ralf Son of] Wigan the Marllial certified 
the King, that Henry I. enfeoffed Wigan his Marfhal of certain Fees, 
to hold by the Service of his Marfhalcey ; that K. Henry II. gave 
feifin thereof to Ralfhh Son, as to his [the King's] Marflial ; and that 
he the faid Ralf' now holds them of the King, by the Service of the 
Marflialcey (jy. And in the Catalogue of Serjeanties entred in the 
Red-Book, it is faid that Robert de Venuz held by the Service of the 
Marflialcey, and William de Warblmgton by the Service of the Marflial- 
cey in the King's Houfe (^). 

In the 30th Year of K. Henry II, Richard de Limejie was a Marflial. 
But perhaps he might be Marfhal of ir^/i^W (/6). Walter Fit z-Ro- 


(c) Aflidentibus Jufticijs Regis Nigello net reliquum in dominio fuo per fervicium 
Epifcopo Helienfi, Galfrido Archidiacono fuum, fine aliquo fervicio nominato, ficut 
Cantuarienli, Ricardo Archidiacono Pitta- Marfcaucia Regis. Lib. Rub. fol. 86. a. 
vienfi, RicardoThefauraiio Regis, Widone [f) Carta Wigani Marfculli. H. Rex 
Decano de Waltham, Roberto Comite Le- avus Domini Regis fefFavit Wiganum Mar- 
f^receftrire, Ricardo de Luci, Henrico filio fcallum fuum de tenementis fuis qua: de eo 
Geroldi, Willelmo Alalduit Camerarijs Re- tenuit per fervicium Marfcalcias fuse; Et 
eis, Symone filio Petri,, Alano de Novilla, Dominus Rex ita reddidit ei tenenJa Ra- 
(j-aufrido Monacho, Willelmo filio Andel- dulfo filio fuo ficut Marfcallo fuo; Et Ra- 
[mi] Marefcallis Regis, Philippo de Da- dulfiis filius Wigani fie tenet eade Domino 
vcnceftria. Form. Anglic, in Differt. p. 19. Rege per fervicium Marfcalcis fuae ; Et in 

(d) Willelmus filius Aldel[ini] Marefc- hijs tenementis, PvOgerus de Torlauefton te- 
f.allus] debet xvj s. & viij d. de eodem net de Radulfo ftlio Wigani quartam par- 
Auxilio. Mag. Rot. 14. H. 1, Rot. 12. a. tem j Militis de Novo feffamento poft tem- 
Hantefc. pus Regis H. Lib. Rub. fol. loO. b. 

(e) Carta Willelmi filij Aldelin. De {g) Suthamptefire. Robertas de Venuz 
terra quam Dominus Rex dedit Willelmo [tenet] per fervicium Marifcaciae. Rober- 
filio Aldelin Marfcallo fuo, cum Juliana fi- tus Malduit per Camerariam ad Scaccarium. 
liaRoberti Dorfnelli : Baldewinus Wifcard Willelmus de Warblinton per Rlarefcauci- 
tenet de Veteri feffamento feodum] Militis am in Domo Regis. Lib. Rub. fol. \ib. a, 
in Effex ; Joh.mnes Gernun feodum quartae (A) Et pro j navi, ad transfretandum Ric- 
partis j militis ; Willelmus filius Aldelin te- [ardum] de Limes[ia] Marefc[allum] in 


chap. II. Of the Kin g's Court, 4^ 

bert by his Charter gave to the Church of St. Mary at Dwimoive in 
Frankalmoigne, all the Oblations of his Chapel there : one of the Wit- 
nelfes to that Charter \s Robert Porter the King's Marefchall (/) ; if Sir 
William Diigdale's Copy of this Charter may be relied on. But there 
was a Marefchall who was fuperior to the refl. And that was he, who 
held the Magijira Marefcakia or Magiflratus Marefcalcice of the King's 
Court, and was flyled Magijler Marefcallus {k). Sir Henry Spelman 
writes as if he thought this Office was introduced at the Time of 
the Conqueft (/). And he names William Fitz-OJhern and the Gren- 
temaifneh as perfons who firft bore it in Rngland. Concerning that 
matter the Antiquaries may judge as they fliall fee caufe. Afterwards, 
it feems, this Office was holden by the Family of the Marefcalli. In 
the Reign of K. Stepheti, John Marefchall fined to the King in xxij /. 
6c xiij s. & iiij d. for the Miniftry or Office of his Father : and in xl 
Marks of Silver, for the Magifery [of the Marfhal] in the King's Court 
{m). And the Marefcalli continued to hold it in the Reigns of KKK. 
Henry II, Richard I, and John ; and in the forepart of K. Henry the 
third's Reign. Afterwards, the male Line of the Marefcalli ending, . 
it velted in the Bigots. There feems to have been fome ContePi about 
this Office between the Families of Vemds and Marefcalli. It is cer- 
tain that in the fourth Year of K. Richard I, William de Ve7iins fined 
to the King in C /. that he might have (amongft other Things) 
the Office of the Marefcakia (n). In the 8th Year of that King, 
Williarn made Part-payment of the Fine (0). But K. John by his 

Hyberniam in fervitio Regis, xlvj s. &viijd, (/) GloJJ'.invoce,'W3.reka.\\MS,p. 402. «/. r. 

per breve Regis. Mag. Rit. ^o H. 2. Rot. [m) Johannes Marirc[allus] debet xxii 1. 

2. b. tit. Cejirefcira. h xiij s. & iiij d, pro Terra & Minifterio 

(/)Univeriis S. Matris Ecciefise filijs, &c. P;,tris fui ; Et idem debet xl marcas argenti, 

Wakerus filius Roberti falutem. Sciatis me pro Magifterio in Curia Regis de Liberat- 

dediile, &c. Deo & Ecclefige S. iVlaria; apud [ione] Praebendag ; Et xxx marcas argenti, 

Dunmowe &Canonicis ibidem Deo fervien- pro terra & filia Walteri Pipardi. Mug. 

tibus de me & hseredibus meis in perpetuam Rot. 5 Stcph. Rot. 2. a. IVtltefcira. 
elemnfmam, omnes oblationes Capellre meae («) Willelmus de Venuiz ilebet C libra?,,. 

de Natali & Pafcha i< Pcntecofte, ic in om- pro habenda forefteria de Alfieiholt, U retto 

nibus feftis S. Marije, h. quoticlcunq; ego de Draicote verfus Walterum de Sandio 

vel familia mea in viJla de Dunn awe fueri- Gerniano ; & pro habenda Marefcalcia dc 

mus. Hijs teftibus. Mat. de Bohun uxore Domino Reg'. Mag. Rat. 4. R \. Rot. 

mea, Roberto Porter Marefchaldo Domini 11. a. Sudhantefdra. 

Regis, Simone filio meo, Waltero fiJio meo, \_o) Willelmus de Venuis r c de xxxvj I. 

Toma filio meo, Roberto de Cokef[e]d,] & iij s. & iiij d, pro habenda forefteria de 

&c. Ex CoUeami. MSS. TVilL Dugd. Mil. Alfiefhot, & Redo deDraicote verfus Wal- 

In Libra L. in Muf. Jflmi.' Oxon. fol. jg. b. terum de Sandlo Germano ; & pro habenda 

[^ii dcfttmpftt ex autogr.'\ Marefcalcia de Rege. In thefiuio vj 1. &: 

[k] Fid. the Conftitutio Domus Regis, iij s. & iiijd, Et debet xxxl. Mag. Rot. 8. 

cited above, SeJf. 4. R I. Rot. 5. a. Suihant. 

4 Charter. 


Of the G K E A r Officers Chap. II. 

Charter dated in the firfl Year of his R-cign, granted and confirmed 
to IFilliam MareJcbuU Earl of Fembroc and his Heirs, the Magijiratus 
Marefcaldce of his Court i which Magijiratus or Office, Gilbej-t the 
Marefchall of K. Henry I, and 'John Son of the faid Gilbert did re- 
cover before K. Henry I. in his Court, againft Robert de Fenoiz and 
William de Hajling who claimed the fame, by Judgment given againft 
them by Default. Wherefore K. John by that Charter willed and 
commanded, that the faid William Marefchall and his Heirs fliould 
hold the faid Magijiratus or Office with the Appurtenances, of the 
King and his Heirs (p). Neverthelefs, the Family of Fenuz long af- 
ter held of the King a Serjeanty in Hamjl:ire, by which they were to 
carry a Marfhal's Staft" in the King's Houfe throughout the Year. 
Which Serjeanty in the 34th Year of K. Henry III, was arrented at 
C s. a Year, and changed into Knight's Service (q). , 

The Marefchall was ftyled Marejcallus Regis, Marefcallus Anglia, and 
Coines Marejcallus. Thomas Becket Archbilhop of Canterbury was ac- 
cufed by K. Henry II, for doing Wrong in his (the Archbilhop's) 
Court to 'John, the King's Marefchall (r) : Which John held of the 
Archbiflioprick certain Lands lying in Pageham (ij. K. John, in 


(p) Johannes Dei gratia, &c, Sciatis nos 
conceffifle & praefenti carta noftra confir- 
mafle, diledlo & fideli noftro Wiilelmo 
MarefcalloComiti de Penbroc & hseredibus 
fuis, Magiftratum Marefcalcia Curiae nof- 
trae, quern Magiftratum Gillebertus Maref- 
callus Henrici Regis avi patris noftri & 
Johannes filius ipfius Gilberti difrationave- 
runt coram praedifto Rege Henrico in Cu- 
ria fua, contra Robertum de Venoiz & 
contra Willelmum de Hafting, qui ipfiim 
Magiftratum calumpniabantur, & hoc ju- 
dicio ; Qiiia defecerunt fe de recSo ad diem 
quern eis inde conftituerat praediiius Rex 
iienricus in Curia fua ; ficut Carta ipfius 
Regis quam vidimus teftatur. Quare volu- 
njus & firmiter prascipimus, quod praediftus 
Willelmus h hasredes fui poft eum habe- 
ant & tcneant pr^didtum Magiftratum cum 
omnibus ad ilium pertinentibus, bene it 
in pace, libere &; quiete, integre & hono- 
rifice, de nobis & hseredibus noftris. Tef- 
tibus W. Londonienfi, E. Elienfi & H. 
Sarefberienfi Epifcopis, &c. Datum per 
manus H. Cantuarienfis Archiepifcopi Can- 
celarij noftri apud Weftmonafterium, xx 
die Aprilis anno r n primo. Chart. 1. Joh, 
p. 2. m, 13. 

(q) Suhamton. De Johanne de VenuTi 
attachiato pro ufurpatione fafta fuper Re- 
gem & fubtraftione Servicij Regis. Et 

fcrutatis fuper ijlo A'lemorandis pro ftatu 
Regis, &c. compertoq; in Rotulo de Scr- 
jantijs arrentatis per Robertum Paflelewe & 
focios fuos anno regni Regis H. avi Regis 
nunc xxxiiij', quod*Serjant!a Johannis Je 
Venuz in Eftw^orldham & Nutteie, pro qua 
debuit portare virgam Marefcalcias per 
totum annum in Hofpicio Regis, alienata 
fuit per particulas, & per eofdem Juftici- 
arios Regis H. tunc arrentata ad C s per 
annum, 5c mutata fimiliter in fervicium 
Militate, videlicet quod idem Johannes fa- 
ceret inde fervicium dimidij feodi Militis. 
And John de Venuz here pleading acknotv- 
lidged that John de Venuz named in the faid 
Roll of Serjeanties was his father. Mich. 
Cominun. 2 E 2. Rot. 34. b. 

(r) Dixit ei Rex tu prius refpondebis 
mihi de injuria quam fecifti Johanni Maref- 
callo meo in Curia tua. Moved. P. 2. p. 
494. n. I. 

(s) Homines Johannis Marefcalii de 
Pageham debent xl s. de eodem Auxilia 
[ad maritandam filiam Regis], Mag. Rot. 


chap. II. Of the Yiiri g\ Court. 47 

the fourth Year of his Reign, in a Writ Patent, calls ^yobn Marcf- 
chall, John our Marefchall. We command (faith the Writ) you the 
Knights and Serjeants to whom it appertains, that ye be intendant 
to y. our Marefchall, and that ye do to him your Service as he 
fliall diredl: (t). K. Edivard II. ordered the Barons of the Ex- 
chequer to certify him, what Fees and Dues belonged to the Maref- 
chall oi Englandhy reafon of his Office of the Kings Marefchalcey (u). 
Again, he was fometlmes calltd Marefca//us ^ng/i^e. IV. Earl of Pen- 
broke is ftyled Marefchall of Kngland fwj : Roger Bigod Earl of Nor- 
folk is ftyled Marefchall of England fxj : Maud Countefs of Norfolk 
and Warenne is ftyled Marefchallefs of Englaiid fyj. He was alfo 
ftvled Comes Marejcalliis. In the 14th Year of K. Henry III, the 
Barony of Guifchard Laidet was in the Cuflody of William Earl Ma- 

18. H. 2. Rot. 10. a. tit. Archiepifcopatu'; 

(t) Rex, &c. omnibus Militibus & fer- 
vientibus ad quos, &c. Mandamus vobis, 
quod fitis intendentes fideli noftro J. Ma- 
rcrcallo noftro, & fervicium veftrum facia- 
lis, ficut vobis ipfe dicet. T. me ipfo apud 
Sagium ix die Decembris. Pat. 4. 'J. m. 7. 
(") Quia Rex fuper juribus fcodis & de- 
vcrijs Marefcallo Anglis ratione officij 
Marefcalcias Regis quoquo modo fpedlanti- 
bus, quibufdam ccrtis de caufis vult cer- 
tiorari, Mandat— 6cc. Triii. Breiia i E. 2, 
Rot. 64. a. 

(lu) Conftat Reg! per inrpecflioncm Ro- 
tulorum quos hEredes W. Comitis Pen- 
brokicc quondam Marefcalli Angllse libera- 
verunt ad Scaccarium Regis, quod Homa- 
pium & fervicium Ingeralmi de Abernum, 
de feodis quatuor Militum in Comitatu 
Cantcbrigiae, affignata fuerunt Humfrldo de 
Bohun juniori & Alienorje uxori ejus, in 
proparte fua qua- eandem Alienoram con- 
tingcbat, de terris qu;E fuerunt praedifti Co- 
rnitis. Paf. Cominun. 41. H. 3. Rot. 12. a. 
in imo. 

(x) Recognitio Roger! Bigod Comitis 
Norfolcise & Marefcalli Angliae : Idem venit 
coram Thefaurario & Baronibus & recog- 
novit fe teneri Magiftro Willelmo de Ewell 
& coexecutoribus fuis teftamenti W. de 
Merton quondam Roffbnfis Epifcopi, in Lx 
libris — .Mich. Rccognit. 17. E. 1. fniente. 
Rot. — 0- . 

(y) Baronibus, pro PriorifTa de Thef- 
ford. Ex parte Prioriflae de Theftord Regi 


eft oftenfum quod cum Matill. quondam 
Marefcalla Anglise & ComitifTa Norfolcias 
& Warennae, per Cartam fuam dediflet & 
concefliflet Monialibus loci praedicti, pro 
fuftentatione indumentorum Moniaiium ea- 
rundem, quadraginta folidatas redditus de 
Molendino ipfius Comitiflae in Ceftreford 

annuatim percipiendas &c. Hill. Bre- 

via 2. E. 2. Rot. 48. b. The Charter here 
referred to is enrolled verbatim //; this Bun- 
dle. It begins thus : Omnibus S. Matris 
Ecclefiae filijs ad quos prafens fcriptum per- 
venerit, Matill. Marefcalla Angliae, Co- 
mitiiTa Norfolciae & Warenna:, falutem in 
Domino. Noverit univerfitas veftra me in 
viduitate mea & plena poteftate, Divinte 
caritatis intuitu, pro falute animae mes, 
anteceflbrum & fucceflbrum meorum, de-* 
difl'e conceflifte & hac priefenti Carta mea 
confirmafle Deo & B. Marise & Ecclefise S. 
Georgij de Theford, & Sanflimonialibus 
ibidem Deo fervientibus tres marcatas red- 
ditus argenti annuatim in Molendino meo 
juxta Curiam meam in villa dc Ceftreford, 
in puram & perpetuam elemofinam, ad in- 
dumenta preedidtarum Moniaiium fuftinen- 
da, fcilicet medietatem ad indumenta lanea, 
h aliani medietatem ad indumenta linea 
earundem — &c : and ends thus : Hijs tefti- 
bus. Domino Rogero Bygod Comite Nor- 
folciae, Dominis Radulfo le Bygot, Wil- 
lelmo de Hengham, Ofberto de Cayly 
{iviih 8 ethers by Name) U multis alijs. 
'Tis without Date. Hil. Conmtm. 2. E. 2, 
Rot. 56. a. i^ b. 


48 Of the GREAT Officers Chap. II. 

refchall, by the King's Bailment (-z) : In the 41ft Year of the fame 
King, Procefs iflued, to fummon Reginald de Mohim and Ifabell his 
Wife one of the Co-heirs of William late Earl Marefchall, to anfvver 
to the King for the Debt hereunder mentioned fa). 'Tis true, a 
Diftinftion hath been made in this Cafe : that is to fay, it is fuppofed, 
the Marefchall hath in him both an Office and an Honour : an Of- 
fice, in refped: whereof he is Marefchall of England, Mare/callus An- 
glice; and an Honour, in refpedl whereof he is Earl Marefchall, 
Comes Mare/callus. Concerning this Diihindlion, the Antiquaries may 
enquire, if they pleafe. I am here to fpeak only of the OfBce of Ma- 

It is to be remembered, that the Office of the King's A-Iarfhal or 
Marfbal of England, was wont to be executed partly in the King's 
Army in Time of War, and partly in his Court in Time of Peace. 
Here, we confider him only as an Officer of the King's Court. As 
fuch, it feems to have been his Duty, to provide for the Security of 
the King's Perfon in his Palace, to diifribute the Lodgings there, 
to preferve Peace and Order in the King's Hcufhold, and to affift in 
determining Controverfies arifing there (*). He performed certain 
A(fls by himfelf or his Subftitutes at the King's Coronation, at the 
Marriages and Interments of the Royal Family, at the creating of Ba- 
rons and Knights, and at other great and ceremonious Allemblies in 
the King's Court. After the Divilion of the King's Courts, he ufed 
to appoint a Deputy or Clerk to aft for him in the Court holden be- 
fore the King, and another in the Exchequer : the former was called 
Marejcallus Marefcalcice Curice Regis, and the latter Mare/callus or Cle- 
ricus Marefcalcice de Scaccario. Of the latter we treat elfewhere fbj. 

VI. The Senefchall was another great Officer in the King's Court, 
From the Time of the Conqueft this Office hath been hereditary in 
England. It was hereditary in France; and likewife in Normandy, 

(z) Norhamtefira. Burton quae fuit de cilli, ad refpondendum Regi de CC & 

Baronia Guilchart Ledet eft in cuftodia xvij 1. & x. d. de portione ipfum contin- 

Willelmi Comitis Marcfcalli de ballio D'^- gcntc de CCCC 1. annuls quas Rex folvit 

mini Regis, ad refpondendum de exitibus pro eis. Et eodem modo mandatum eft 

ejufdeni Baroniae Ricardo fratri ejufdem Vicecorr.iti Suflexi^ de Frankone de Bonn 

Marefcalli, quamdiu Regi placuerit. Me- de CC & xvij 1. ij s. x d. ad eundem diem. 

nior. 14. H. ']. Rot. 10. T>. in ivio. Hilar. Contmun. 41. H. 3. Rot. 7. a. in 

(a) Alandatum eft Vicecomiti Wilteflne, itno. 
quod venire facial coram, &c. in o£labis (*) Vid. Spelm. Glojf. aclvocem, Maref- 

Purificationis B. Maris Virginis Reg. de callus. 

Mohun & Ifabellam uxorem ejus unam de {b) Vol. 2. Chap. 24, Scil. 2. 
haeredibus W. quondam Comitis Marel- 


chap. II. of the K i x g's C o u r t. 4g 

before the Union of that Seigneurie to the Crown of France. Whe- 
ther there was anciently a notable Difference, or any, between the 
Sencfchallus and the Dapifer in England, let others judge. In the 
Keign of K. William I. mention is made of two Dapffers, viz. Haimo 
(c) and Rudo fd). But it is generally thought, that Haimo was 
Dapifer of Rngland, and Undo of Normaiidy. 'Tis faid, that quickly 
after the Conqueft, Grentefmcifnill was Steward of England ; and af- 
terwards the Earl of Leicejier fe). And Sir Edward Coke relates, 
that in the Time of the Conqueror, WiUiam Fitz-Eiiftace was Steward 
of England ffj. At the Beginning of that King's Reign JVilliam 
Fitz-Ojhorn was Dapifer of Norjna~ndy fgj. In tlie Reign of K. 
Williarn II. Eudo was the King's Dapifer (b) : He is alfo ftyled Senef- 
cal del Hojiel le Rey fi). In a Charter of K. Hemy I. referred to by Sir 
H. Spelman fk), both Haimo and Eudo fubfcribe as Dapifers ; and he 
there fuppofes (rightly, I believe) that Haimo was Dapifer of Eng- 
land, and Eudo oi Normandy. In the Reign of K. Henry I. Eudo is 
ftyled Dapifer (I) : and likewife WiUiam Bigot is flyled Dapifer Rcns 
Anglorum (m) : and Hugh Bigot, Senefcal le Rey Henri (n). Maud 
the Emprefs by her Charter granted to Geoffrey Earl of E[]'ex (a- 
mongft other Things) all the Land of Eudo the Dapifer in Normandy, 


(c) Conceflio Willelmi Magni Regis. 
VVillelmus Dei gratia Rex Anglorum, Hai- 
moni Dapifero, 6c omnibus fuis teignis in 
Epifcopatu Roffenfi falutem — . Angl. Sac. 
T. I. /.. 338. 

(d) In a Charter of K. IF. I, of Pacif ca- 
tion between the Jvbey of FomaneUe ami WW- 
liam Earl of Evreux in Normandy, dated at 
Honfleur Ji.D. 1074, the Stdfignation is, -[■ 
fignum Willelmi Regis Anglorum, And in 
the 8th Place 4- Signum Eudonis Dapifcri. 
Neujlr. Pia, p. lb . 

(e) Dugd. Bar. V. J. p. 425. col. 2. 

(f) 4. In/lit. ch. 4. p. 58. 

(s) Willelmo Dapitero Normannias Of- 
henii filio infulam Ve£tam & Comitatum 
Herfbrdenfem dedit. Order Fit. ap. Duchefn. 
p. 521. d. ad linn. 1070. 

(h) Rex Willelmus junior Civitatem 
Coleceftrias cum fuis pertinentijs tradidit 
fervandam Eudoni qui erat Major domus 
Regi;e, quern nos vulgariter Senelcallum 
vtJ Dapiierum vocamus. Man. Angl. F. 2. 
p. 889. col. 1. An I a Charter of K. Jf^llliam 

Vvi,. I. 

//. ivas made, Teftibus, Eudone Dapifero 
— . Form. Angl. nn. cclxxxv. 

(i) E meme eel tens [viz. A. D. 
MLxxxv,] fuft funde !e Abbeye de Seint 
Johan de Coleceftre, de Eude Senefchal del 
Hoftel le Rey Will. [i. e. IE]. Ex. Vet. 
Chron. in Cod. MS. R. g. 11. in Bibl. Coll. 
S. Trin. Cantab, p. 32. 

(/:) Gloff. in Foce, Dapifer. 

(I) Teltibus — , Eudone Dapifero, &c. 
— ; Afon. Ang. F. I. p. 319. col. i. 

(m) Sciant praefentes & pofteri, Franri 
& Angli, quod ego Willelmus Bigot Dapi- 
fer Regis Anglorum, pro remedio animarum 
Patris mei Rogerij Bigoti, & matris mcas 

Adelidis . Afon. Ang. F. I. p. 164. 

col. 2. ». 10. Et Fid. Chartam Willelmi 
Bigot Dapiferi Regis Anglorum, lb. p. 

(n) Anno Gratis MCxxxvj, Huue Bigot 
le Senefchal le Rey Henri vint en Engle- 
tere, e jura e aferma par ferment (levant 
Will, le Ercevefke de cantorbire, ke le Rey 
Henri leant il deufl: morir deferita fa filie 
H Malt 

^o (j/'ify^^ GREAT Officers Chap. II. 

and his Office of Dapifer, to hold by hereditary Right (o) : but 
that the Earl of EjJ'ex afterwards enjoyed the Office of Dapifer by 
Virtue of that Charter, I cannot lay. In the Reign of K. Stephen, 
William Martell is ftyled the King's Dapifer (p) : Williain had been 
Fincerna (or Butler) to K. Henry I. And about the i8th Year of 
K. Henry II. Geoffrey Martell had the Office or Serjeanty of the Pin- 
cernaria or Butlerfliip (q). 

In the 5th Year of K. Stephen's Reign, Himifrey de. Bohun fined in 
.xxij /. 6i xs. for [the Arere of his] Relief of his Father's Land,- 
•and in cccc Marks of Silver, that he might be the King's Dapifer 
(r). In the Reign of K. Hen. II. we meet with feveral Dapifers 
belonging [perhaps, at feveral times] to the King's Court. There 
was Mavjcr Bifet (s) ; William Makt ft) ; Ogcr (u) ; William Fitz- 
Aldelm or Aldelin (w) ; Gilbert Makt and William de Curcy (x) ; Hugh 

I\Ia!t la Emperice, pour aucunes chofes ke 
ele out fet centre I3', e fiil cefti Eftevene 
fon. heir del reaum de Engleterre. E kant 
ceo oy le erceveflce, tut fuft il ifll ke il euft 
avant fet ferment e eufi: jure feaute al Em- 
perice el tens fon pere, entre les autres del 
Reaurr.e, nekedent il creufl trop legerement 
le Senefchal, e coruna lavantdit Eftevene 
le jur de Nowel a Weftmuftre. Ex Vet. 
Chron. in Cod. MS. R. g. 11. in BiU. Coll. 
S. Trin. Cantab, p. 39. 

(0) M. Imperatrix, H. Regis filia & 
Anglorum Domina, Archiepifcopis, he. 
Sciatis me rediddifTe & conceffifie Comiti 
Gaufredo Efiexae omnia tenementa fua — . 
Et do ei totam terram Eudonis Dapiferi in 
Normannia, & Dapiferatum iplms ; Et 
haec reddo ei ut reilum fuum, ut habeat & 

teneat ha?reditabiliter . Ex. 

MSS. TViilehni Dugdale Mil. in Muf. Jfimol. 
Oxon. fub ciijhdia V. CI. & EruditiJ. Ed- 
ward! Lhuyd A. M. wz. in lib. L. fol, ig. 

(p) Willelmo Martello, qui quondam 
Pincerna Regis Heniici, tunc Dapifer Ste- 
phani. Malm. HiJI. Nov. L. 2. p. 189. 
n. 30. Hunt. L. 8. p. 393. n. i. Haved. 
P. I. p. 488. n. 10. 

(q) Galfridus Martel r c de iiij 1. & v s. 
de vj Militibus de feodo de Monte Acuto. 
Idem debet xx s. de Veteri FefTamento. 
Sed calumpniatur quod debet efTe inde 
quietus per Servicium Pincernaria. Mag. 
Ret. 18. H. 2. Rot. 6. a. Dorf. fcf Sumcrf. 

(r) Unfridus de Bohun r c de xxij I. & 
X s, pro Relevatione ten re patris fui, Et de 
CCCC marcis argenti, Ut fit Dapifei Regis, 
Mag. Rot. 5. Steph, Rot. 2. a. TViltifcira. 

(s) Manferus Bifet Regis Dapifer, Om- 
nibus hominibus Francis & Anglis falutem. 
Form. Anglic. CCLxxxix. Tefte Manfero 
Bifet Dapifero apud Silveftonam, lb. nu, 

(t) Teftibus, — -Willelmo Malcd Da- 
pifero. lb. nu. Lxxviij. 

Philippus de Tanga r c de quater xx & 
vj 1. 5c xiij s. & iiij d : In donis, per breve 
Regis, Willelmo Malet Dapifero, totuin 
debitum Philippi, Et fie Quietus ell. Mag. 
Rot. 13. H. 2. Rot. 13. a. 

(u) Tefles Ogerus Dapifer ; Form. Angh 

nu. Lxxv. Teftibus Ogero Dapifero, . 

lb. nu. Lxxix. fif CCLxxxviij. 

(w) In Perdonis, per breve Regis, Wil- 
lelmo filio Aldclmi Dapifero, iiij s. Mag. 
Rot. 23. H. 2. Roi. 10. a. Sudhant. 

Teftibus, Willelmo filio Audelmi Dapi- 
fero, Gilleberto Malet Dapifero. Form. 
Angl. LXXXVI. & DF. 

Tradidit autem Dominus Rex Willelmo 
filio Aldelini Dapifero fuo Civitatem We- 

fefordise in cuftodia . Moved. P. 2. p. 

567. n. I. 

(x) Teftibus, Willelmo de Curcy Se- 
neicallo, Gilberto Malet Senefcallo, apud 
Falefiam. Rym. Aila Pub. T. 1. p. 40. ad 
arm. 20. H. 2. 


chap. ir. Cy //^^ K I N g's C o u R T. 51 

de Morewk and Hugh Bardolf (y) ; and perhaps, others. Whether 
thefe were refpedliv^ly Daptfers of Kngkind or of TS!ormandy, it doth 
not clearly appear. In the Year 1184, ^o H. II. (zj, and in the 
Reign of K. Richard I. (aj, William Fitz-Ralf was Senefchall of 
Normandy ; and Anno 20 H. II. Alured de St. Martin was Dapifer [of 
Normandy'\ {b). In the firft Year of K. Richard I. Stephen de 
Longchamp is flyled the King's Dapifer fcj. Afterwards, in the 
Reigns fubfequent to K. Richard \. we do not find Dapijers fo fre- 
quently mentioned in England 2.% before, for ought that I have ob- 
ferved. As the word Senefcallus has been ufually rendered in Englijh, 
Steijcard : fo alfo, anciently, the Word ^'/e-iy^ri;/ was fonietimes ren- 
dered either by Senefcallus or Dapifer. Thus, one William, who iu 
the Reign of K. William II. was Steward to William de On [hiy- ftipanb 
Willelm hatte, as the Saxon Chronicon fpeaks] (d), is ftyled his Dapifer 
by Roger de Hoveden, in relating the fame Story fej : and Eudo, who 
was Dapifer to K. William II. is called Major Donms Regicc, and Se- 
nefcallus (f). And in the 30th Year of K. Henry II. Hugh Bardul is 
ftyled Senefcallus Regis fg), who in the fame Year of tliat King is 
ftyled Dapifer (hj. But I pafs by that Matter. 

It was laid above, that the Office of Senefchall or Steward in 
England was anciently hereditary. It feems, the Earls of Leicefter 
were Scncfcalli Regis defeodo or hereditary Stewards. In the Reign of 
K. John, that Office was veiled in Simon de Montfort Earl of Lei- 
cefer; [and before him, in Robert Earl of Leicejier']. For when a 
Partition was made before the King and his Barons, between Simou 
de Mo7itfort Earl of Leiccfer, and Saiher de ^icnci Earl of Winchfler, 
of all the Lands and Honours which then lately belonged to Robert 
Earl of Leicejier, Simon and Saiher had each of them a Moiety of 
the faid Lands ; but the third Penny of the County of Leicefer and 

(y) Anno XXX regni Regis Henrici Se- (h) Teftibus, W, filio Andel. Senefcallo, 

cundi, coram Rannulfo de Glanvilla, Hu- Aluredo de Sanfto Martino Dapifero , 

gone de Morewic & Hugone Bardolf Dapi- apud Falefiam. Rym. ABa Pub. T. 1. p. 38. 

fcris. Form. Anglic, nu. CCCLFII. ad ann. 20. H. 2. 

Jn a Charter made to Ranulf de Glanvill (c) Teftibus, Stephano de Longo Cam- 

ly K. Henry II. there are thefe JVitneJps, po Dapifero noftro. In Charta data i R. \. 

T. H. Decano Eboracenfi, Hugone de Rym. ASl. Pub. T. 1. />. 65. 

Morewic & Hugone Bardolf Dapiferis, Mi- (d) Ad ann. MXCVLp. 204.. 

chaeleBelet, Stephano de Thurnham, apud (e) Hoved. P. I. p. 466. n. 20. 

Clarendonam. Chart. Antiq. N. in dorfa, (f) In hoc cap. Sed. 11. 

nu. 36. (g) Et Hugoni Bardul Senefcallo Re- 

(z) Hie, Cap. 4. Se:^. 4. bf Ncuji. Pia, gis C marcas de dono Regis, per breve Ra- 

p. 866. nulfi de Glanvilla. Mag. Rot. 30. H. 2. 

(a) Neuf. Pia, p. 855. Rym. Aila Pub. Rot. 8. b. 

T. I. p. 98. ad ann. g. R. 1. (h) Form. Angl. nil. CCCLFII. 

H 2 the 

52 Of the G K z A T Officers Chap. II. 

the Stewardlhip to tlie King were relerved to Shno?: Earl of Leicejler 
fij. In the 49th Year of K. Henry III. the County and Honour 
of Leicejler, the Stewardlliip of England, and other Lands, late of 
mmon de Montfort Earl of Leicejler, being forfeited to the King by the 
Felony [or Treafon] of the faid Simon, the King, by his Letters Pa- 
tent, granted the fame to his [the King's] Son Edmund, to hold to 
him and his Heirs, of the King and his Heirs, by the Service due 
and accuflomed for the fame, (k). Afterwards, Y^.EdivardW. being 
defirous to be informed what Fees the ancient Earls of Leicejler, at 
the Time they were Senefchalls in Fee to his Progenitors Kings of 
England, ufed to receive and enjoy in refpecft of their Office, and 
what Fees did in thofe Times belong to that Office, commands the 
Barons of the Exchequer by his Writ, to fearch the Rolls, Books, 
and Memoranda of the Exchequer touching the Premifes, and to 
certify the King thereof under the Exchequer-Seal (I). But what 
Certificate was made therein by the Barons, I do not at prefent 


(t) Johannes, &c, Sciatis nos concef- 
fifie & prffifenti carta confirmafTe padtioneni 
faflani coram nobis & Baronibus noftrls, 
per Simonem de Monteforti Comitem Ley- 
ceftrias & Saiherum de Quenci Comitem 
Wintoniae de omnibus Terris & Honoribus 
quae fuerunt Comitis Roberti Leyceftriae 
die quo obijt, cum omnibus pertinentijs fuis : 
ita fciiicet quod tota medietas illarum ter- 
rarum & honorum, in dominijs, & feodis, 
& omnibus alijs rebus & locis, remaneat uni 
illorum Comitum, & altera medietas alteri ; 
Salvis pradidto Comiti Simoni tertio de- 
jiario Comitatus Leiceftris & Senefcalcia 
noftra ; ita etiam quod xl libratas terras de 
parte Comitis Simonis remanebunt prEefato 
Comiti Saihero praster partem fuam quoufq; 
fmiiliter deliberaverit eidem Comiti Saihero 
rationabiiem partem fuam de terra quse fuit 
prsenominati Comitis Roberti in Norman- 
nia, l^c. Dat. &c. x die Martij anno r n 
oaavo. Ex Dugd. ColLaann. MSS. Libra 
L.fol. 68. a. in Muf. Jjhinol. Oxen. 

(k) Rex Militibus, Liberis hominibus, 
& omnibus alijs tenentibus de Comitatu & 
Honore Leyceftriae, Senefcalcia Anglice, & 
de omnibus terris & tenementis qua; fue- 
runt S. de Monteforti quondam Comitis 
Leyceftriae falutem. Sciatis quod dedimus 
& conceffimus Edmundo filio noftro karif- 

fmio, praedi(51:a, Comitatum, Honorem, Se- 
ncfcalciam, terras, & tenementa, quae fu- 
erunt prsefati Simonis inimici noftri, excep- 
tis Dominicis noftris : Habenda & tenenda 
de nobis & haeredibus noftris, eidem Ed- 
mundo & hsredibus fuis imperpetuum, Fa- 
ciendo fervicium inde debitum & confue- 
tum. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod eidem 
Edmundo tanquam Domino veftro, in om- 
nibus quae ad prasdiiSta Comitatum, Hono- 
rem, Senefcalciam, terras, & tenementa 
pertinent, de castero intendentes fitis & re- 
ipondentes ficut prasdi£lum eft. In cujus, 
&c. T. Rege apud Cant, xxv die Oftobris. 
Pat. 49. H. 3. m. 2. 

(I) Baronibus, pro Rege. Quia Rex 
quibufdam de caufis vult certiorari, quae & 
cujufmodi feoda quondam Comites Leyce- 
ftriae, temporibus quibus ipFi Comites Se- 
nefcalli Progenitorum Regis quondam Re- 
gum Anglias de feodo extiterint, ratione 
Senefcalcias illius percipere confueverunt, 
& qu32 & cujufmodi feoda ad eandem Se- 
nefcalciam pertinuerunt temporibus fupra- 
dictis : Rex mandat Baronibus, quod fcru- 
tatis Rotulis, Libris, & alijs Memorandis 
de difto Scaccario, per quae fuper praemif- 
fis poterunt melius infor ii.ui, Re^jem de eo 
quod inde invenerint, reddant diftincte & 
aperte fub figillo ejufdem Scaccarij certio- 


chap. II. Of //6^ K I N g's C o u R T. 53 

Vn. As the Senelchall or Stewnrd was an ancient Officer in Kni- 

^ o 

land, fo there was Hkewife an Officer of that Name in feveral other 
Countries oi Europe. I will mention fome few of them. There was 
a Sinijcalciis amongfb the "xnc'itut Alemanns (in). About the Time of 
Hardicnute King of England (as it feemeth) one OJhcrn was DapiJ'er 
of Nortnandy (n). Raif de Montpinpn was Dapifer to William the 
great. King of England (o). In or about the Year 1 1 19, William 
de Piroiir is faid to have been Dapifer to K. Henry I. (p). In or 
about the Year 1 158, Robert de Ncubiirg was Dapifer and Jufticier of 
Normandy (q). In the Time of iV/<r??('^ the Emprels, Stephen de Ti'urre 
was Senefchall oi Anjoii frj ; and in the Time of K. R. I. Robert de 
Torneljam was Senefchall there fs). William Fitz-Rafe was Senefchall 
of Normandy under KK. Hen. II. and Ric. I. (t). Martin Algeis, of 
Gafcony fu) ; W. le Grofs of Normandy (10), and William Fitz-John of the 
fame (x). To them add, if you pleafe, the Dapifer of Pcnthieu (y). 
The Stewardfliip of France was vefled in Geoffrey Earl of Anjou 
by Grant of Robert King of France, and was anciently called Ma- 
joratus Damns Regice (zj. It defcended to Fulk Earl of Anjot/, as 
Hugh de Cleerijs a Knight of Earl Fidk's teftifieth in his Commen- 
tary (a). And afterwards, when King Lewis VI. had diffeifed Fiilk 

rem, hoc breve Regi remittentes. Tcfte 
Rege apud Lenton xxx die Septembris an- 
no primo. Per ipfum Regcm. Muh. Brevla 
I. E. 2. Rot. 16. L 

(m) Herold. Leg. Alemann. p. 79. tit. 80. 

(n) & Ofbernus Dapifer Norniannis 

-. Ord. Fit. ap. Duchcj'n. p. 507 b. 

(0) Radulfiis de Monte pincionis Dapi- 
fer Guillelmi Magni Regis Anglorum — . 
Ord. Fit. hijl. L. 5. p. 585. a. 

(p) Guiilelmus cognomento Bigod, cum 
Guillelino de Pirour Dapifero Regis [H. I.] 
. Ord. Fit. p. 870. b. ad mm. 11 iq. 

(1) Menfe Julio, Robertus de Novo 
Bur^o Dapifer & Juftitiarius Normanniae, 

adverfa valetudine coaftus . Ex Chro- 

nico Normmm. ap. Duchefn. p. 996. ad ami. 

(r) NeufJ. Pia, p. 832. 

(s) Teftibus, Willelmo filio Radulfi Se- 
nefcallo Normanniae, Roberto de Torne- 
ham Senefcallo Andegavenfi, Willelmo de 
Humeto Conftabulario Normanniae. Rym. 
Ana Pub. T. I. p. 98. aiwo g. R. i. 

(t) Paulo /up. 

(u) Rex, &c. Martino Algeis Senefcallo 
Wafconias, &c. Pat. 5. J. m. 9. 

(w) Rex, &c. W. Craffo Senefcallo 
Normanniae, &c ; Mandamus vobis quod 
&:c. Pat. 5. y. m. 2. 

(x) Magi Rot. 10. J. Rot. II. h. 

(y) Et Dapifero de Pontivo xx 1. nu- 
mero in Gummefelva. Mag. Rot. 26. H. 2. 
Rot. 3. b. Siirr. Et Mag. Rot. 2. R. i. Rot. 
12. a. Surr. 

(z) Hanc Senefcalciam, vel ut antiqui- 
tus dicebatur, Majoratum Domus Rcgi.r, 
Robertus Rex Francorum dedit Gautiido 
Grifogonella Comiti Andegavorum. Cbron. 
Norm. ap. Duchefn. Script. Norm. p. 1003. 
ad atin. 1 168. 

(a) Dominus Rex Ludovicus & Fulco 
Comes [Andegavenfis] ad locum conftitu- 
tum venerunt cum focijs confultoribus, ibiq; 
recognita funt jura Comitis, videlicet Ma- 
joratus & Senefcalcia Francia?. Hugonis de 
Cleeriji Commentaritis de Senefcalcia Francies^ 
ap. Duchefn. Hijl. Franc. Scrip. T. 4. p. 
329. c. fiib. Lud, Gnffo. 


54 Of the G R E A T O F F I c E R s Chap. II. 

of his Office, he gave it to An/elm de Garland (b) ; whofe Son 
William de Garland, neverthelefs, recognized the fuperior Right of 
Earl Fulk, and did Homage and Service for it to the Earl 
Fulk (cj. About the Year 1168, the King of France made Hen- 
ry Son of K. Henry 11. of England, Steward of Frattce ; which 
Office (faith the Hiftorian) belonged to the Honour or Fee of An- 
jou (d) : and as Steward of France he ferved the French King at 
Table (e). There was the like Office of Steward in Catalunna. In 
the Year 1055, the Earl and Countefs of Catalunna gave it to a 
principal Baron there, named Ramon Mir. It was an Office (fays 
Siiritci) of fo great Pre-eminence and Jurifdidlion, that the Princes 
there ufed to confer it only on fuch as were moft powerful and near 
to them in Blood. And it had (continues he) the like Jurifdidion, 
Authority, and Power, with the Office of the Mayordomos in the King- 
dom of yiy7zg-(?«, and likewife in the Kingdom oi France ; who go- 
verned in chief both in Peace and War (f). This Office in the 
Principality of C^z/^z/«w/^ afterv»^ards, to wit, about the Year 11 37, 
came to Guillen Ramon (g) ; and about the Year 1263, it defcended 
to Don Pedro de Moncada, from Don Guillen Ramon, his Father ; which 
Don Pedro fat as Steward in a Caufe, wherein the King of Aragon 
being prefent, Battle was adjudged between two principal Cavalleros 
hereunder named. There had been (it feems) iome Doubts con- 
cerning the Rights and Authorities of this Office ; but the Matter 
heing referred to the Determination of four Arbitrators, they de- 
clared and fettled the fame, having Regard to the ancient Ufage of 

(b) Rex Ludovicus dederat Majoratum 
& Senefcalciam Francias Anlelmo de Gar- 
lands — &c. lb. p. 329. <7. 
- (c) Guilleltnus de Garlanda tunc Fran- 
ciie Senefcallus recognovit in illo Collo- 
quio hominium fe debere Comiti Fulconi 
(■j^Anjou) de Senefcalcia Francire ; & inde 

tuit ill voluntate Comitis. Ille enim 

qui Senefcallus erit Franciae, Comiti faciei 
hominium & talia fervitia. Si Comes per- 
rexerit ad Curiam Domini Regis Senefcal- 
lus prsecipit Marefcaliis Domini Regis, ut 
p'sparent 6c libercnt hofpitia Comiti. lb. 
p. 329. c. 

(d) Et conceffit ei Rex Francorum, ut 
eflet Senefcallus FranciE ; quod pertinet ad 
Feudum Andegavias. Chron. Norm. ap. Du- 
chcfn. Script. Norm. p. 1 003. ad mm. 11 68. 

(e) Et fcrvivit Regi Francorum ad men- 
fam, ut Senefcallus Francias. Chron. Norm. 
ib, juxt. 

(f) — en el anno de nueftra redempcion 
de Mil y cinquenta y cinco, el Conde de 
Barcelona, y la Condeffa Almodis, dieron 
la Senefcalia de Catalunna a un Baron muy 
principal, que fe llamo Ramon Mir : que 
era cargo de tanta preeminencia y jurif- 
dicion que no lo acoftumbravan dar los 
Piincipes, lino alos mas poderofos y de fu 
fangre : y efte cargo tenia la jurifdicion y 
autoridad y poder quel officio de Mayors 
domo en el Rcyno de Aragon, que era lo 
mifmo que tenian en el Reyno de Francia, 
defde el tiempo de los Reyes Francos, los 
que lo govemavan todo en la paz en la 
guerra. Anales de Aragon, de Surlta, edit, 
J. D. 1610. T. I. L. \. fol. 24. b. ad Ann. 

{g) e intervino en efto un varon muy 
principal, que era Senefcal de Catalunna, y 
i'e dezia Guillen Ramon. Anales de Aragon., 
T. I. L. i.f. 56. b.adann. 1137. 


chap. II. o/* /^^ K I N g's C o u R T. ^^ 

other Kingdoms in like Cafe, and to the particular Cuftoms of Cata~ 
lunna (b). There was alfo the like Office in the Kingdom of Ara- 
gon (as is hinted juft above). In that Kingdom it was called the 
Mayordoynia fij. There the Mayordomo had a great judicial Power. 
For he had Cognifance of all Caufes and Quarrels ; except in cer- 
tain Cafes referved to the King's own Cognifance (k) : and when he 
was prefent in any City or Town whatever, all Caufes before any 
other Judge were to ceafe, if he fo commanded (^/J. There was 
anciently a Mayordomo in the Kingdom of Cajlilc (m) : and a great 
Officer in the Kingdom of Naples, called the Gran Sinifcalco (71). 
But concerning the Stev/ards and Mayordomos in foreign Countries, 
this may fuffice. 

VIII. In the King of Englands Court there was another great 
Officer, ftyled, the Chamberlain. It is probable, that during this iirfl 
Period there were feveral Chamberlains belonging to the King's 

{h) Eftando el Rey en Lerida, uuo cam- 
po y batalla juzgada entre dos caval'.eros 
muy principales, que eran Ponce de Peralta, 
y Bernaldo de Mauleon : y afliftio a ella el 
S.ey, fiendo fu Senefcal en el Prmcipado 
de Catalunna don Pedro de Moncada, que 
fucedio en efte officio a Don Guillen Ra- 
mon fu padre. Efte officio y la Mayordo- 
niia de Catalunna andavon juntos, y eran 
de la mifma preeminencia y exercicio que 
by es el officio de Condeftable : y por que 
avia duda de las preeminencias y derechos 
que pertenecian a efte cargo, affi en las ba- 
tallas campales, como en los defafios y ba- 
tallas que llamauan juzgadas que avia entre 
Jos cavalleros, a quien el Rey, fi fe defa- 
fiavan conforme a lo que permitian las leyes, 
dava campo feguro : el Rey e Don Pedro 
de Moncada los dexaroii a juyzio y deter- 
minacion de quatro cavalleros, que fueron 
D. Xemen Perez de Arenos, 'Thomas de 
Sanclemente, Guillen Cafala, y Arnaldo 
de Bofcan : y declararon lo que pertenecia 
a! officio de Senefchal, y a la Mayordomia 
en fus preeminencias y jurifdicion, fegun 
ie lee en fu determination y fentencia, que 
es conforme a lo que en otros Reynos 
fiempre fe ufo, guardando lo que acerca 
dcfto eftaua difpuefto por los ufajes de Ca- 
talunna. lb. T. I. L. 3. /. 177. b. ad mm. 

(i) Qiiarellauafe [i. c. D. Guillen de 


Enten^a] tamtien, por que no fe le dauan 
los derechos de la Mayordomia del reyno 
de Aragon, que pretendia fer fuyos ; y 
auia acoflumbrado llevarlos como Mayor- 
domo. //>. T, I. L. 3. fol. 18 J. 6. ad ann, 

(k) Defpues defla jurifdicion Real que 
eftaua fundada con eita orden, auia ctra 
de grande autoridad, que era la de! Mayor- 
domo del Rey, y del Reyno, que tenia en 
el Confejo y juzgado defpues del Rey el 
principal lugar, y podia conocer de todas 
las caufas y querellas, affi dc los infan^ones 
como des otros : faluo en ciertos cafos del 
eftado de los infan^ones, que fe referuauan 
al conocimiento del Rey. Jb. T. 1. L. 2. 
/. 102. b. ad arm. 12 13. 

(/) Pcro fiempre el Mayordomo, en lo 
quejuzgaua, tomaua, por fu acompanado 
el Jufticia mayor del Reyno, o otro Juez, de 
los que eftauan pueftos par el Rey en las 
ciudades y villas Reales :. y tenia efta pre- 
eminencia, que enqualquiere ciudad o villa 
adonde fe hallaua el Mayordomo, auia de 
ceffar el juyzio y determinacion delas caufas, 
fi el lomandaua. lb. T. i. L \. fol. 102. b, 

(ni) Johannes Garfiae Majordomus Curia 
Domini Regis confirmat. Inora SigilU Regh 
Jlfonfi, appenfi Charta dat. A. D. 1 25 4. Rym. 
JSi. Pub. T. I. p. 531. 

(«) Jmmir. dclle Fam. Neap. Parte I. p.. 


56 of t/je G vt-E A T Officers Chap. 11. 

Court. At prelcnt I am not prepared to give a dillincl Account of 
each of them. But there was one who (I think.) was fuperior to 
tiie others. He was moft properly llyled Ciuucrarius Regis, and en- 
joyed tlie Oflice which at that Time was ftyled Magiftra Camerarta, 
the High Chamberlainfiiip. It may be obferved, that fome of the 
great Offices in the King's Court, efpecially thofe which were heredi- 
tary, were diflinguillied from fubordinate Officers of the fame Name, 
by the Epithet of Magijiratus Magijlcnum, &c. For Example : the 
Office of the King's chief Chamberlain was llyled Magiflra Catncra- 
ria. K. Henry I. granted it by the Name of Magiftra Caineraria men 
tot ins AngUce, to Alberic de Ver and his Heirs, to hold of the King 
and his Heirs, with all the Dignities, Liberties, and Honours there- 
to belonging, as freely and honourably as Robert Malet or any other 
had held and enjoyed the fame, together with the Liveries and 
Lodgings of the King's Court, which belonged to the faid Office ol 
Chamberlain. The Tenor of K. Henry the firlt's Charter in that 
Behalf is hereunder recited, as I have it irom Sir William Diigdales 
MSS. Collections, who fays he took, it from the Original Charter 
remaining with the Right Honourable the Earl of Lyndefey foj. 
Th? Office of the King's chief Marefchall was alfo diftinguifhed by 
the flyle of Magiflra Marefcalcia and Magijiratus Marcfcalcice Regis 
(p). The Ufliery of the Exchequer had the like Appellation. K. 
Henry IL by his Charter granted to Roger de Warengefort and his 
Heirs, the Office of Ufher of the Exchequer, by the name of Mini- 
Jleriumde Hoftieria de Scaccario meo and Minijleriurn de Magijlratu Hojli- 
erice de Scaccario fneo {q). So alio, K. Jolm by his Charter granted and 
confirmed to Henry Son of Gilbert Son of Walthave and his Heirs, the 

(a) H. Rex Anglorum, Archiepifcopis, bus & hofpicijs Curiae meae, qure ad Mini- 

Epifcopis, Abb.-itibus, Comitibus, Jullic. , fteiium Caniciaria; pertinent. T. Roirero 

Baronibus, Vicecomitibus, & omnibus fide- Epifcopo Sai'. ^y; Gaufrido Cancellario Epif- 

libus fuis per Angliani conrtitutis, falutein. copo Dunelm. & Nigello Epifcopo Elienfi, 

Sciatis univerli, quoniam dedi & conccffi h Roberto de Sig., & Roberto Coinire 

Alberico de Ver ^ hceredibus fuis port euin, Gloec, & B. filio Comitis, & Roberto de 

de me &de haeredibus meis tencndam. Ma- Ver Conftabulario, & UnfridodeBuhun, & 

giftram Camtrariam mcam totius Anglise, in Hug. Bigot, & W. de Albini Brit., & Ri- 

feodo & hsereditate. Quare volo & firmiter cardo Ballet, fc Willelmo de Pont., apud 

prascipio, quod ipfe h haeredcs fui earn jure Ferncham in Transfretatione Regis. Ex 

haereditaj-io teneant cum omnibus dignitati- Duilg. Collect. AISS. In Bill. Ajhmd. Oxon, 

bus & libertatibus ik honorificentijs ad earn Lih. L, foL 82. b. [ab ipfi difumpt. exiiutogr. 

pertinentjbuSjitabene&libere & honorifice, pmes Rob. Cvniteintle Lyndefey, J.D. 1640.] 

ficut Robertus Malet, yel aiiquis alius ante [p] Chart, i. Job. citai. inhoc Cap. Sed. 5. 

fum vel polt eum unquam melius & liberius {q) Chart. R. Hen, 2. citat. hlc Cap. 24. 

h honorificentius tenuit, cum liberation!- Scit. 4. 

4 Magi' 

chap. ir. of f/je K I ij c's C o u RT. 57 

Magiftram Serjanteriam de Wapentacho, to hold in Fee and heritage (/-). 
And the like Phrafe was ufed by feme Subjedls for the principal 
Offices of their Houfliold. Thus, William Earl of Warivick granted 
to Alan his Cook, the Capitale Minijicriwn ol \\\% Kitchen, which was 
called the Office of Magijkr Cociis, to hold by hereditary Right of the 
Earl and his Heirs {s). Hitherto alfo may be referred the Ufage of 
the Kingdom of Naples. Where the Epithet of Magijler was added 
to fome of the greater Officers, viz. Magijler Jujlitiarius, Magijln 
Ca?iierarij, &c. (/). 


-Dedifle & confirmane Henrico 

fllio Gilberti filij Waltheui & hasredibus fuis 
fex bovatas terras in Waleton, & quatuor in 
Wavertre, & quatuor in Neufum, & Ma- 
giftram Sergentariam de Wapentach, libe- 
ras & quietas, per fervicium Sergentariie, 
pro omni fervicio & confuetudine, in feodo 
& hasreditate, Tenendas de nobis iz hxre- 
dibus noftris libere & quiete, in bofco & 
piano &c. ficut Waltheuus avus fuus eafdem 
terras &pra2di6la Sergentariam integre tenuit 
& habuit temporibus Willelmi Comitis Bo- 
lonis Warrennre & Moretonias, & Henrici 
Regis Patris noflri, & ficut eafdem terras & 
eandem Sergentariam Gilberto patri prasfati 
Henrici conceflimus & carta noftra confir- 
mavimus dum Comes Moretoniae elTemus. 
Teftibus, Rogero Sanfti Andreas Epifcopo, 
Roberto Comitc Leirceftrise, Comite David, 
Willelmo Comite Arundellias, Hugone [de] 
Gornaco, Rogero de Montebegun, Rober- 
to Grely, Gilberto filio Reinfridi. Datum 
per manum H. Cantuarienfis Archiepifcopi 
Cancellarij noftri apud Cenomanniam, xxiij 
die Septembris anno rn primo. Trin. Com- 
mun. jS E. i. Rot. 21. b. 

{s) Willelmus Comes Warr. Omnibus 
Baronibus &; Burgenfibus, & omnibus ho- 
minibus fuis Francis &c Anglis, falutem. 
Sciant tarn futuri quam prsefentes, me con- 
ceflifTe & dediffe Alano Coco meo f.lio Ri- 
cardi Coci, unum Officium in Domo mea, 
videlicet Capitale Minifterium Coquinas 
meae quod diciturMagifter Cocus, quod Ri- 
cardus pater ejus habuit in domo Patris mei 
& in mea &c ; & unam virgatam terra in 
Cotacum omnibus alijs terris quas pradidlus 
Ricardus pater ipfius Alani habuit in Burgo 
meo de Warrewico & extra. Concefli eti- 
am prsediiSlo Alano &; hasredibus fuis, ut li- 
cite Curiam fuam teneat de omnibus proprijs 
Vol. I. 

hominibus fuis qiios Ricardus pater ejus ha- 
buit in Wodelowe & in Warrewico, fine 
aliquacontradiftionemei vel hxredum meo- 
rum. Et tolloneum de illis accipiat quod- 
cunq; mercimonium vendant vel emant in 
prsdiiSto Burgo de Warrewico. Qiiare 
volo & firmjter flatuo, quatinus prasdictus 
Alanus & haeredcs fui habeant &; teneant 
prsedi£l:um Aliniftcrium five prasfatum Of- 
ficium plene & integre cum omnibus feodis 
diiStas Coquince, cum omnibus pertinentijs 
que pertinent ad Magiftrum Cocum, fcili- 
cet in robis & in equis ficut Armigeri mei 
habent in domo mea, eodem modo quo Ri- 
cardus pater ejus habuit in domo patris mei 
Si in mea, de me & hceredibus meis jure hse- 
reditario imperpetuum ; & prsdiilam virga- 
tam terras in Cota, cum omnibus alijs ter- 
ris quas Ricardus pater ipfius Alani habuit 
in Burgo meo de Warrewico & extra, cum 
omnibus pertinentijs fuis &:c. cum Tol Sc 
Team, facha & fochnia infangetheof ; Et 
in fokage omnia antedi(Sla tenebit cum om- 
ni libertate. Reddendo de jamdi<Sis terris 
&€. T/jc Earl makes a General Warranty of the 
faid Office and Land. Hijs teftibus, Waler- 
anno fratre Comitis, Hugone de Ardena — , 
& alijs. Ex Colkaann. AISS. Willelmi 
Dugd. Mil. G. I. in Bibl. Ajhmol. Oxon. p. 
521. \_^n defumpfit, ut ait, ex autogr. fub 

(t) in Sacramento praeftando a Ma- 

giftro Juftitiario . Conjlit. Neap. L. 1. 

tit. 43. (citat. hie Cap. 2. Sect. 3. J 

Quaeftiones omnes inter fifcumnoftrum & 
privatos movendas tarn perfonalcs quam rea- 
les qujenon fint de feudis vel rebus feudali- 
bus, cognitiones atq; judicia, Magiftri Ca- 

merarij accipiant . Conjlit. l^eap. L. i, 

tit. 60. 

I The 

^8 Of the GREAT Officers Chap. II. 

The Office of Camerarius Regis or Camerarius Angllce was, from 
fi.ncient Time, hereditary. At this day it is ftyled the Office of great 
Chamberlain oi England : and is verted in the Right Honourable the 
Earl of Lindfey. Who it was that held this Office of Chamberlain 
under KK. IViUiam I and II, I have not obferved. In the Reign of K. 
Henry I, Robert Mallet was Chamberlain (?/). But K, Henry I. (as 
Di'.^dale relates) difherited Robert Mallet (w); and afterwards granted 
the Office of Magijlra Cameraria to Albertc de Ver and his heirs, by 
the Charter above cited. In the fame King's Reign, William Maudidt 
is faid to have been Chamberlain {x). William de T^ancarvile is alfo 
rtyled Chamberlain to that King (y) : But I fuppofe 'tis to be un- 
oerftood, that he Vv'uS the King's Chamberlain of Normandy. For fo 
the Tancarvills were {z). h\ the fame King's Reign, Geoffrey de 
Clinton was the King's Treafurer and Chamberlain [a). In the Reign 
of K. Stephen, William Malduit feems to have been Chamberlain; for 
Money was paid to him (as hereunder is mentioned), to the King's 
Ufe, ad Cameram Curia [b). However, in the fame King's Reign, 
William de Pontearch fined to the King in M Marks of Silver, for the 
Miniftry [or Office] and the Daughter oi Robert Mauduit, and in xij 
Marks and one Ounce of Gold, for the Miniftry of the Camera Curia, 
and in ij Marks of Gold, for the Miniftry of the Camera Curice, for 
the Benefit of his Brother Ojlnrt (c). Here, the Office purchafed 
lor Ojbert de Pontearch called the Minijlerium Camera Curia, might, 


{it") In Charta R. Hen. I. faBa Ecchfia de ricus Dei gratia Rex pro falute animae mea, 

ThcdforcL Tei\.\hus, (amoiigjl others) 'RoGtv- & pro ftatu Regni mei, & pro animabus 

to Malet Camerario. Mon. Angl. V. I. p. praedeceflorum & fucceflbrum meorum con- 

666. col. I. n. 20. cedo, & figno fancSiae Crucis manu mea: 

(w) Dugd. Bar. P. i. p. iii. col. r. coniirmo. Annuentibus etiam & figno 

• (x) Dugd. Bar. V. 1. p. 398. col. I. Crucis annotantibus, Adeliza Regina, & 

[y) Willelmiis namq; de Tancarvile Archiepifcopis & Epifcopis caeterifq; fiJeli- 

Camtrarius Regis aciebus (latutis confli- bus fubter annotatis. Chart. Jntiq. O. C. 

gens . Hunt. L. 7. />. 382. n. 30. n. 12. 

Mon. Angl. F. I. p. 366. ccl. 2. [b) Robertus de Monteforti reddit com- 

(z) Nettjl. Pia., p. 691. Se£i. 3. potum de j Palefrido &j Fugatore, Utho- 

[a) Henricus Dei gratia Rex Anglorum mines fui de Preflretona faciant ei Confue- 

& Dux' Normannorum, Archiepifcopis, tudlnes fuas, licut fecerunt Patri fuo ; Wil- 

Epifcopis, Abbatibus, Comitibus, Viceco- lelmo Maledodo liberavit ad Cameram Cu- 

niitibus, Baronibus, & Miniftris, & omni- rije, Lxs. pro j Palefrido & j Fua;., per 

bus fidelibus fuis totius Anglia?, falutem. breve Regis ; Et Q^nctus efi. Mag. Rot. ^.. 

Sciatis me coiiceffuTe Gnlirido de Cjlinton Steph. Rot. 14. a. 

Thefaurario &Camerariomeo, fundare Ec- (c) Et idem Vicecomes [Willelmus de 

clefiam Sandtre Maria; in terra de Kenille- Pontearcha] r c de M marcis argenti, pro 

worda, quam ei dedi in feudum & haercdita- Minifterio & filia Roberti Maiedofli : In 

Um, de meo dominio . Quod ego Hen- tliefauroCmarcas argenti; Et debet DCCCC 

marcas . 

chap. II. c/" //^^ K I N g's C o u R T. ^q 

probably, be the Chamberlainfliip of Normandy. For one OJhert dc 
Pontearcha Teems to have been a Chamberlain of Normandy about this 
Time (</). In K. Henry the fccond's Reign, mention is made of le- 
veral Chamberlains. For Inflance j Geoffrey de Clinton (anno incerto) 
is llyled Chamberlain [e). Anno XI of that King, Henry Fitz-Gerold 
and William Malduit are ftyled Chamberlains (J). Anno XII, XIV, 
& XV, Henry Fitz-Gerold is ftyled [the King's] Chamberlain (^•) ; 
and again anno incerto of that King, (/6). In the XlVth Year of the 
fiime King, Willium Malduit is flyled [the King's] Chamberlain (/). 
And again anno XXVI. (/e), and anno XXX (/). In the reign of K. 
Richard I, to v.dt, anno V, and anno VII, WilUa?n Malduit is itylcd 
Chamberlain (;«). In the reign of K. Henry W, anno incerto y William 
Malduit and Warin Fitz-Gerold were [the King's] Chamberlains (?/) .• 
An?io XXX, William Malduit and Ralf Fitz-Stepben are fo ftyled (o) .- 
In a Charter of the fame King, anno incerto, Ralf Fitz-Stephen is ftyled 
Chamberlain (/>). In the Reign of K. Richard I, Ralf Fitz-Godjrey 
is ftyled (by Hovedef2) the King's Chamberlain [q). 

In England, fome of the Chamberlains performed fome A(5ts of 
their Othce in the King's Court and Houlhold ; and other Adls at 
his Exchequer. They took Care of the Receipts and Payments of 
the King's Revenue. In the moft ancient Times they ufed, as it 

marcas argenti. Et idem Vicecomcs debet 
xij marcas auri, & j unciam, pro Miiiiflerio 
Camerse Curije ; & ij marcas auri, pro Mi- 
nifterio Camerae Curix, ad opus Ofberti 
fratris fui. lb. Rot. 4. a. Hamiefcira. 

(d) Cap. 4. Seii. 4. Ricardus BalTet &. 

(e) Form. Anglic, nu. LXXIII. Et vid. 
Hiji. Scacc. cap. ult. Sect. 3. 

{f) Form, Angl. in Dijfert. p. ig. 

(g) Henricus filius Geroldi Camerarius 
r c de Veteri firma de Wicumba. Mag. 
Rot. 12. H. 2. Rot. I. b. 

In Perdonis, per breve Regis, Henrico 
filio Geroldi Camerario, iiij s. & vj d. Mag. 
Rot. 14. H. 2. Rot. 2. b. Norf. fS Sutf. 

Et Henrico filio Geroldi Camerario di- 
midia marca. Mag. Rot. 14. H. 2. Rot. 8. 
b. Gloeccjlr. 

Henricus filius Geroldi Camerarius debet 
xxxvl. &vs. & viij d. de feodo Eudonis 
Dapiferi. Mag. Rot. 15. H. 2. Rot. 9. a. 
Effexa. ds? Hurtf. 

(h) Form. Angl. nu. CCXCI. 

(i) Willelmus Malduit Camerarius debet 
xxiij s, & iiij d. de Veteri Feffamcnto j Et 

de Novo xxxvj s. & viij d. A-fag. Rot. 14 
H. 2. Rot. I. b. Bucking, y Bed. 

(i) Willelmus Malduit Camerarius r c 
de xl. numero, de firma de RotelanJa, 
Mag. Rot. 26. H. 2. Rot. 6. b. 

(/) Hie paulofup. 

(w) Willelmus Malduit Camerarius r c 
de j marca, ut fcribatur in Magno Rotulo, 
quod Johannes Malduitfilius Johannis Mal- 
duit remi^fit, & reddidit, & quietum clama- 
vit, de fe & de hsredibus fuis, totum jus 
& totum tenementum fuum, & totum do- 
minium quod habuit de tenement© quod dc 
ipfoWillelmo'tenuit apud S. Martinumjux- 

ta Strepeigni &c. Mag. Rot. 5. R. i. 

Rot. 7. b. Norhant. 

Willelmus Malduit Camerarius . 

Mag. Rot. J. R. I. Rot. 8. a. Norhant. 

(«) Hie, Cap. g. fci?. 7. 

(0) Pojlhac, Cap. idt. feSi. I. ex Form. 
Angl. nu. CCCLVII. 

(/.) Form. Angl. nu. LXXXVI. 

(^) Et audivit Rex Pctitionem illius; & 
tradidit ilium Radulfo filio Godcfridi Came- 
rario fuo in cuftoJia. Hovtid. P. 2. p. 692. 
n. 10. 

I 2 feems. 


Of the GREAT Officrs Chap. II. 

feems, to afl at the Exchequer fometimes in Perfon, In the fucceed- 
ing Times they adled there by their Subftitutes ; as may be feen elfe- 
where (r). In the Kingdom oi Naples there was the hke Officer call- 
ed the Grand Chamberlain. Whole Duty it was to take an Account 
of all the In-payments and Out-payments of his Sovereign, and to be 
a Judge and Superintendant thereof {/). 

IX. Another great Officer in the King's Court was the Chancellor. 
For a confiderable Time after the Conqueft, he was ufually ftyled 
Cancellarhis Regis ; probably, to diftinguifli him from inferior 
Chancellors ; fuch as were the Chancellors in cathedral Churches, 
and others ; for there were fome others fo called ; as, Godfrey the 
Qu^een's Chancellor, Reinclin the Queen's Chancellor, Stephen Ridel 
Chancellor to the Earl of Moretoft, &c (/). The King's Chancellor 
was ufually, in thofe Times, a Bifliop or other Prelate, or an ec- 
Gicliaflical Perfon. And as in England, fo alfo in feveral foreign 
Countries, the Office of Chancellor was in thofe Days commonly con- 
ferred on Prelates or Churchmen. It was fo in Sicily, and France 
(u), and Germany (w). In truth, in England, the Chancellor was the 
King's chief Chaplain, and had the fuperior Care both of the King's 
Chancery and of his Chapel (.v). In the 55th Year of K. Henry III, 
yoJm le Faiico7ier Receiver of the Money arifmg from the Profits of 
the great Seal, pafled an Accompt of the faid Profits. Upon his Ac- 
compt, he was- allowed (amongft other Things) for certain fmall. 
Expences about the Chancery and the King's Chapel (^y). And even, 


(r) Cap. 24. Sea. lO. 

(^) Significo un uficio propoflo 

a teller conto di tutte 1' entrate & lendite 
di quel Signore, &. efferne giudice H fo- 
praintendeiite. Amm'ir. delle FamtgU Napol. 
P. I. p. 43. c. tit. Del Gran Camarlingo. 

(t) Godfridus Cancellarius Reginae ; 
Hunt. L. 7. p. 382. n. 20. temp. H. I. ^ 
Moved. P. I. />. 477. ». 50. Reiuelmus 
Cancellarius Reginae ; Hoved. P. 1. p. 469. 
n. 50. temp. H. I. Stephanus Ridel Can- 
cellarius Comitis Moritonij ; Hoved. P. 2. p. 
707. n. 20. temp. R. I. 

(u) Quefto uficio era folito darfi da i 
noftri Re Francezi a Prelati ; fi come par 
che fi fofTe anticamente coftumato in Frati- 
cta. Jfn?nir. delle Fam. Neap. P. i .p. 50. c. tit. 
Del Gran Cancelliere. Scip. Ma%%ella Def- 
critt, di Napoli p. 495. tit. Gran Cancelliero, 

[lu] E adonc [/« ^/vj^,3r MCLxij] Tho- 
mas] le Ercevefke de CantorbireJ envea un 
meffager, Meftre Ernolf par noun, al Rey 
en Normundie, erefigna la Chancelerie, e 
le renvea le Seel. E kant ceo oy le Rey, it 
en fuft grevee ; pur ceo ke il aveit oy, ke- 
le Ercevefke de Mngunce en Tyefce terre 
a eel Rey, e k Ercevefke de Coloingne al' 
Emperour de Rome, ferveient de eel mefter. 
Ex Chron. vetvjlo MS. R. g. n. in BibL 
Coll. S. Trin. Cantab, p. 44. 

{x) Fid. CI. Hickefij Thefaiir. Lingg. Sep- 
tent. in Dijprt. Epiji. p. 47, 48. Et vid. 
pojlhac. Cap, 4. Se£l. 10. Haec eft confti- 

(^') Compotus Johannls le Fauconer Re- 
ceptoris denariorum proveniencium de exi- 
tibus Sigilli Regis, a fefto Apoftolorum Si- 
monis & Juds anrjQ Liiij, ufq; ad idem 


chap. II. 

of the K I N g's Court. 


io long after the Conquefl: as in the Reign of K. Edioard II, the 
Chancellor for the Time being was looked upon to be Chief of tlie 
King's Chapel ; he is exprefly ftyled Chef de la Chapele le Roy, in an 
Ordinance made in that King's Time relating to the royal Chapel of 
Wind/or [z). 

The King's Chancellor is frequently named in the Hiftories of this 
Kingdom. But the ancient Hiflorians fay little concerning his Duty 
or the Nature of his Office. A few Memoires may be here added. 
He was wont to furpervife the Charters which were to be fealed 
with the King's great Seal [a). Hence probably, it came to pafs, 
that he is fo frequently named in the Atteftations of fuch Charters : 
and that many Charters had this Claufe in them. Data per mamim N. 
Cancellarij nojiri; as appears by numberlefs Examples in the Charter- 
Rolls. He ufed likewife to fupervife and feal the V/rits and Precepts 
that ilTued in proceedings pending in the Curia Regis and the Exche- 
quer, and (after the Divifion) in the King's other Courts of Law. 
He was one of the King's prime Councellors in Affairs of State : 
and did Ads of divers Kinds in the Palace, as well in judicial Pro- 
ceedings as otherwife. In the ancient Times he was alfo wont to adt 
together with the chief Jufticier and other great Men in Matters of 
Revenue at the Exchequer ; as appears by feveral Inftances produced 
in this Hiftory : and fometimes with the other Jufticiers Itinerant in 
their Circuits. About the Beginning of K. Henry the fecond's Reign, 
there were Pleas, in the County of Kent, holden before the King's 
Chancellor and before Henry de EJJex the King's Conllable [b) ; and . 

(a) The like njhge obtained alfo in foreign 
Countries. A Charter o/' Frederick I, Etnp,- 
ror, concludes thus. Ego Reynaldus Can- 
ccllarius, vice Arnoldi Moguntini Archj- 

epifcopi & Archicancellarij, recognovi . 

Datum Ratifponse A. D. 1166. Goldafl. 
Cviftit. Imper. p. 87. TI.e Golden Bull ef 
?/;^ £«/). Frederick II, eruis thus. Ego Con - 
radus Dei gratia & Apoftolicse fedis, Me- 
tenfis & Spirenfis Epifcopus, Imperialis Au- 
la Cancellarius, vice Domini Sigefridi Mo- 
guntini Archiepifcopi & Apoftoiicas fedis le- 
gati ac totius Germaniae Archicancellarij, 
recognovi. Adla funt ha-c A. D. 1213. 
lb. p. 74. And in other inftanccs. 

[b] Et idem Vicecomes [Radulfus Picot] 
r c de ij marcis & dimidia, dePlacitis Can- 
cellarij & Henrici de Eiiexa; In th 1, Et 
Q_e, 'Mag. Rat. 2. //. 2. Rot. \i^ c. Chcni. 


feftum anno Lv] incipiente, videlicet per 
duos annos. Summa fummarum. 

©CCCC Lxxiij 1. xvj s. In thefauro nichil ; 
And in expenfes ; amongfi others, Et Johanni 
Portejoye cuftodi fumniarum Regis Cancel- 
laria; pro vadi'is fuis per CCCxxx dies, vj 1. 
iij s. ix d. per idem breve [Regis] ; Et in 
gercameno ad opus clericorum Cancellarise 
praedifta;, & alijs ininutis expenfis ejufdem 
Cancellaria; & Capells Regis, xiijl. ij s. 
vj d. ob. per idem breve. Mag. Rot, 55. 
H. 3. Rot. I. a. in Rot. Cotnpotor. 

(z) Et le Chaunceler le Roy qui qail fo- 
il ; pur coe quil efl: chef de la Chapele nof- 
tre Seignour le Roy face chefcun an un tour 
illoeqes fil puit, par congie de noftre Seig- 
nour le Roy, pur veer que la dite chapele 
[i.e. deWyndeforl foit fervie des Orne- 
mentz &c. Ryl. append, ad Plac. P. p. 535. 
(L'ino 6 E. 2, 

62 Of the GREAT OFFICERS Chap. II. 

before the Chancellor and the Y^'^xX oi Leicejler [c). Amerciaments 
were fet upon feveral Perfons in Worceflcrjhire by the Chancellor and 
Stephen de Segrave {d) ; and in the Counties of Notingbam and Derby, 
by the fame Perfons [e). The Chancellorfaip, from a fmall Begin- 
ning, became in Procefs of Time an Office of great Dignity and 
Preeminence. When the Number of royal Charters began to multi- 
ply, when the Picas and Caufes in the King's Courts grew numerous, 
and when the Grandeur of the Pligh Juflicier came to decline, the 
Power of the Chancellor waxed (as it feems) greater than it had for- 
merly been. And (if I have obferved right) the Chancellor's Office 
received a conliderable Acceffion of Power and Dignity from the 
Greatnefs of fome of the Perfons who had borne it. In this Con- 
jefture, I have been fomewhat the more confirmed, becaufe I find 
Paulus Mmylius makes the like Obfervation concerning the Chan- 
cellors of France ffj. And it feems the Chancellors in other 
Countries acquired by Degrees the like Addition of Greatnefs and 
Preeminence [g). 

In Kngland, the Chancellor was wont to be appointed to his Office 
by the King. In the Reign of K. Stephen, Geoffrey the Chancellor 
fined in three Thoufand and fix Pounds and a Mark, for the [King's] 
Seal.(/6). This I underftand to be a Fine then lately made with the 
King, for the Office of Chancellor, or to have the keeping of the 
King's Seal. Which Precedent may juflly feem ftrange to us at this 
Day. But it feemeth that in thofe Times, Things of the like Kind 
with this were fometimes done. For Example : In the fame Year 
of K. Stephen, Richard Fitz-ylhired ^ntd in xv Marks of Silver, that 
he might fit with RalfBaffet at the King's Pleas fij. Again. In the 

7 th 

(<r) Robertas filius Gilleberti de Tadde- [f) Magnitudinem virorum qui eo mu- 
well r c de V marcis, de placitis Cancellarij nere (he is fpeaking of the Chancellor) {un- 
it. Comitis Legrecertrias ; In th 1, et Q__e. gebantur, vires decufq; illi attuliffe credide- 
Mag. Rot. 2. H. 1. Rot. 5. a. Lincol. rim, ut ab exiguis initiis ad tantain majefta- 

[d) De amerciamentis per Cancellarium tern pervenerit. Paul. /Emyl. de rebus gejiis 

& S de Segrave. Idem Vicscomes r c de Francor. p. 104. a. 

xxix marcis &: dimidia, de niifericordijs ho- (g) Effendo nella Corte di Roma, in 

minum quorum nominibus prasponitur Lit- Francia, & nel noftro regno, il 2;ran Can- 

tera t ni Rotu'o quem pra;didli libsraverunt celliere uficio di fi gran preminenza come 

in Tliefauro. Mag. Rot. 14. H. 3. m. i. egli e. Ammirato dclle Fam. Neap. P. i.p.. 

a. JVygorn'ia. 50. d. 

(i?) De amerciamentis per Cancellarium (h) Et idem CancelJarius [viz. Gaufri- 

& S. de Segrave. Idem Vicecomes r c de dusj debet MMM & vj 1. & xiij s. & iiij d. 

XXV 1. & xviij s. & vjd. de mifericordijs ho- pro Sigillo. Mag. Rot. 5. Steph. Rot. 

minum quorum nominibus prasponitur Lit- 14. b. 

tera t in Rotulo quem Hugo le Bel libera- (i) Ricardus filius Aluredi Pincern. de- 

vit in Thefauro fiib figillo Regis. lb. Not. bet xv marcas argenti, Ut federet cum Ra- 

^ Dcrb, m. 1. b. 5 dulfo 

chap. ir. of the YL 11^ g'' s Court. Q^ 

yth. Year of K. Jolm, Walter dc Grey fined with the King in five 
thouland Marks, to have the King's Chancery during his whole 
Life ; and for the King's Charter thereof (k). K. Henry III. by his 
Charter dated the lath Day of February in the iitii Year of his 
Reign, granted and confirmed his Chancery to RalfVi'iiho^ of Chi- 
chejier, to hold during his whole Life ; with all the IlTues, Liberties, 
and other Things thereto belonging, as freely, quietly, entirely, and 
honourably, as the Chancellors of ibrmer Kings his Predeceffors held 
the fame (I). The fame King, by his Charter, dated at Wodejloke 
the 14th day oi June, in the i6th Year of his Reign, did for himfelf 
and his Heirs grant and confirm, to Ralf Bifliop of Chichejier then 
his Chancellor, the Chancery of Fnglajid [or Otlice of Chancellor] 
during his whole Life, with all the Appurtenances, Liberties, and 
free Cuftoms to the faid Chancery belonging. And by another Char- 
ter dated the fame 14th Day of June, in the faid i6th Year, and 
made with the fame Hijs tejiihus, the King granted and confirmed 
to the faid Ralf Bifliop of Chichejier then his Chancellor, the Cuflody 
of his Seal during his [the Bifliop's] whole Life, with all the Appur- 
tenances, Liberties, and Cuftoms to the faid Cuftody belongings 
fo that he might bear and keep the faid Seal, either himfelf in Per- 
fon, as long as he pleafed, or by fome other difcreet, fufficient, and 
fit Perfon his Affignee ; which Affignec fliould be Avorn to the King 
for his faithful Service, and for the true or faithful keeping of the 
faid Seal in the Room of the faid Ralf, before he received the Seaf 
into his Cuftody ; and if fuch Affignee died, or became profefled in 
Religion, or fiiould be put out for any reafonable Caufe either by 
the King or the Chancellor, or if the Affignee himfelf refufed to 
keep the Seal any longer, then the Chancellor, in the Room of fuch 


dulfo BafTet ad Placita Regis. Mag. Rot. pace, libere, quiete, integre, honorlnce, cum 

^ Step. Rot. 11. a Buchingcha?nfcira. omnibus exitibus, libcrtatibus, & omnibus 

(k) Spelin. Ghjf in voce, Canceilarius ; aliis ad earn pertinentibus, ficut Cancellarij ' 

/>. 108. C'A. 2. Regum Aiiglias praedecefforum noftrorum, 

(l) Henricus Rex, &c. Archiepifcopis, earn melius, quietius, liberius, & integrius 

Epifcopis, &c. Sciatis nos dedifle, concef- habuerunt. Hijs teftibus, Eullachio Lon- 

fiiie, & hac Carta noftra confirmafle vene- don. J; Bath. P. Winton. R. Sar. Th. Nor- 

rabili patri R. Ciceftrenfi Epifcopo Cancel- wic. Epifcopis, Huberto de Burgo Comite 

iariam noftram ; habendam h tenendam Cancix Jufticiario noftro, Stephano de Sc- 

toto tempore \itas fuae, cum omnibus exiti- grave, Willelmo de Eynesford, Ricardo de 

bus & libertatibus, & omnibus alijs, ad Argenth. Godefrido de Craucurnb Sencf- 

eam pertinentibus. Quare volumus & fir- challis noftris, Hugone Difpenf. Willelmo 

miter prsecipimus, quod prasfatus Radulfus de Sanfto Johanne, Henrico de CapcUa, 

Epifccpus toto tempore vitae fuas pradiiStam Luca Capellano Dccano Sandi Martini 

Cancellariam noftram habeat, bene & in Londouia-, Henrico de CornhulL Cancel- 

lario • 


Of the GREAT Officers Chap. II. 

Aflignee, was to fubflitute fome other difcreet, fufficient, and fit Per- 
fon, who fhould be Iwora to the King for his faithful Service, in 
hke Manner as the firft Affignee was, before he received the Seal in- 
to his keeping (m). The fame King, by his Charter dated the 4th 
Day of Mivj, in the 17th Year of his Reign, granted and confirmed 
to 7^i?,y Bifiiop oi Cbkhtjier, then his Chancellor, the Cufhody of his' 
Seal during his [the Bifliop's] whole Life, with all the Appurte- 
nances, Liberties, and Cuftoms to the faid Cuftody belonging; fo 
that he might bear and keep the Seal, either in his own Perfon as 
long as he pleafed, or by fome difcreet, fufficient, and fit Per- 
fon, his Affignee ; with the like Provifoes touching the removing 
and the fwearing of the Affignee, as v/ere contained in the above 
cited Charter dated the 14th Day of "June in the i6th Year of this 
King. And by another Charter dated the fame 4th Day of May^ 
in the fame 17th Year, and made before the fame Witneffes, the 
King granted and confirmed, for himfelf and his Heirs, to RalfBi- 
fliop of Chicbcjler, then his Chancellor, the Chancery [or Chancel- 
lorffiip] of England during his [the Bifliop's] whole Life, with all 
the Appurtenances, Liberties, and free Cuftoms to the faid Chancery 


Iniio Sanfti Pauli LondonifE, Waltero de 
Kyrch., Willelmo de Londonia. Dat. per 
manum noflram xij die Februarij. Cart. 
11. H. 3. m. 28. 

(m) Henricus Rex &c. Salutem. Scia- 
tis iios concefllffe & hac Carta noftra con- 
firmafle, pro nobis & hseredibus noftris, 
Vencrabili Patri Radulfo Cyceftrenfi Epif- 
copo Cancellario noftro, Cancellariam An- 
glise toto tempore vitne fuas, cum omnibus 
pertinentijs, libertatibus, & liberis coniue- 
tudinibus ad prasdidam Cancellariam perti- 
nentibus. Quare volumus, &:c. pro nobis 
& h^redibus noftris, quod proediilus Epif- 
copus habeat ipfam Cancellariam toto tem- 
pore vitas iux, cum omnibus pertinentijs, 
libertatibus & confuetudinibus ad eandem 
Cancellariam pertinentibus, ficut prasdiflum 
eft. Hijs Teftibus H. de Burgo &c. Ri- 
cardo de Argenton, G. de Craucumbe, 
Gileberto Bafiet, Johanne filio Philippi, 
Ricardo de Sanfto Johanne Capellano, Pe- 
tro de Rivall. Thefaurario noftro, G. de 
Cauz, Ricardo filio Hugonis, & alijs. Da- 
tum per manum noftram apud Wudeftok, 
x\\\f die Junij, Anno &c. xvj°. Rot. Chart. 
16. Hen. 3. ;;.', 8. 

Henricus Rex &c. Salutem. Sciatis nos 
conceflifl'e & hac Carta noftra confirmafle, 
Venerabili Patri Radulfo Cyceftrenfi Epif- 
Copo Cancellario noftro, Cuftodlam Sigilli 
noftri toto tempore vitre fuse, cum omni- 
bus pertinentijs, libertatibus, & confuetu- 
dinibus ad praediifbam Cuftodiam pertinen- 
tibus. Ita quod Sigillum illud portet & 
cuftodiat in propria perfona fua quamdiu 
voluerit, vel per aliquem virum difcretum 
fufficientem & idoneum affignatum fuum, 
qui quidcm aflignatus nobis fidelitatem fa- 
cial de fideli Servitio, & de Sigillo noftro 
loco fuo fideliter cuftodiendo, antequam cu- 
ftodiam praditSi Sigilli recipiat. Et fi forte 
idem Aflignatus fuus deceflerit vel vitam 
fuam mutaverit, vel ob caufam rationabilem 
per nos vel per ipfum Cancellarium amotus 
fuerit, vel ipfe aflignatus Sigillum illud ul- 
terius portare noluerit, idem Cancellarius 
loco illius aflignati alium virum difcretum 
fufiicientem & idoneum fubftituet, Ita quod 
fidelitatem facial nobis de fideli Servitio, & 
de prasdifto Sigillo loco fuo fideliter cufto- 
diendo, antequam cuftodiam prasdidli Sigil- 
li recipiat, ficut prasdiftum eft. Quare vo- 
lumus, &c. quod didus Cancellarius habeat 


chap. II. of the K i n g's Court. 


belongin? (n). And by another Charter dated the fame 4th Day of 
May in the faid 17th Year, and made before the fame Witneifes, 
the King granted and confirmed, for himlelf and his Heirs, to Ralf 
Bifhop of Chichejier, then his Chancellor of TLngland, the Chancel- 
lorfhip of Ireland, to hold during his [the Bishop's] Life, with all 
the Appurtenances, Liberties, and free Cuiloms to the laid Clian- 

Cuftodiam praedidti Sigilli toto tempore vitse 
fuje, &c. per omnia ut (upra ante quare vo- 
lumus. Teftibus & Dat. ut fupra. lii. viz. 
Rot. Chart. 16 H. 3. m. 8. 

(n). Henricus Dei gratia Rex Anglia?, 
Dominus Hiberniae, Dux Normanniae, A- 
quitaniae, &, Comes Andegaviae, Archie- 
pifcopis, Epifcopis, Abbatibus, Prioribus, 
Comitibus, Baronibus, Jufticiarijs, Vice- 
comitibus, Prapofitis, Miniftris, & omni- 
bus Ballivis & fiJelibus fuis, Salutem. 
Sciatls nos conceffifi'e & hac Carta noftra 
confirmafTe, Venerabili Patri Radulfo Cy- 
ceflrcnfi Epifcopo Cancellario noftro, Cuf- 
todiam Sigilli noftri toto tempore vitse fuae, 
cum omnibus pertinentijs, libertatibus, & 
confuetudinibus ad praedi<£tam Cullodiam 
pertinentibus, Ita quod Sigillum illud portet 
& cuftodiat in propria perl'ona fua quamdiu 
voluerit, \c\ per aliquem virum difcrctum 
fufficientem & idoneum Aflignatum fuum, 
qui quidem Affignatus nobis iidelitatem fa- 
cial de fideli fervitio, & de Sigillo noftro 
loco fuo iideliter cuftodiendo, antequam 
cuftodiam prasdifli Sigilli recipiat. Et fi 
forte idem Affignatus fuus 'deceflerit, vel 
vitam fuam mutaverit, vel ob caufam ratio- 
nabilem per Nos vel per ipfum Cancella- 
rium amotus fuerit, vel ipfe Aflignatus Si- 
gillum iilud ulterius portare noluerit, Idem 
Cancellarius, loco illius Aflignati, alium 
virum difcretum fufficientem & idoneum 
fubftituet, Ita quod fidelitatem faciat nobis 
de fideli fervitio, & de prsedifto Sigillo loco 
fuo fideliter cuftodiendo, antequam cufto- 
diam Sigilli praedidi recipiat, ficut pradic- 
tiim eft, Quare volumus & firniiter pra;- 
cipimus, quod dicius Cancellarius habeat 
cuftodiam pradi«Si Sigilli noftri toto tem- 
pore vitas fuae, cum omnibus pertinentijs, 
Libertatibus & Confuetudinibus ad prsdic- 
tam Cuftodiam pertinentibus : Ita quod Si- 
gillum illud portet & cuftodiat in propria 
perfona fua quamdiu voluerit, vel per alium 

Vol. L 

virum difcretum fufficientem & idoneum 
aflignatum fuum, qui quidem Affignatus 
fidelitatem nobis faciat de fideli fervitio, & 
de Sigillo noftro loco fuo fideliter cuftodi- 
endo, antequam cuftodiam Sigilli pnedicH 
recipiat. Et fi forte idem Aflignatus fuus 
deceflerit, vel vitam fuam mutaverit, vel 
ob caufam rationabilem per nos vel per ip- 
fum Cancellarium amotus fuerit, vel ipfe 
Aflignatus Sigillum illud ulterius portare 
noluerit, Idem Cancellarius, loco illius Af- 
fignati, alium virum difcretum fufficientena 
& idoneum fubftituet, Ita quoJ fidelitatem 
faciat nobis de fideli fervitio, & de prKdidio 
Sigillo loco fuo fideliter cuftodiendo, an- 
tequam cufladiam Sigilli prsedifti recipiat, 
ficut pr^dicSum eft. Hijs Teftibus, Vene- 
rabili Patre P. Wintonienfi Epifcopo, S. 
de Segrave Jufticiario Anglia, Petro de 
Ryval, Capicerio Pi6l., Roberto Paflelewe, 
Radulfo filio Nicholai, Godefrido de Crau- 
cumbe, Johanne filio Pliilippi, Galfrido 
Difpenfatore, & alijs. Datum per manum 
noftram apud Weftm. quarto die Maij anno 
Regni noftri Decimo Septimo. Rot. Chart. 
17. H. 3. ;«. 9. 

Plenricus Dei gratia, ice. Archiepifcopis, 
he. Salutem. Sciatis [nosj concefliile &c 
hac carta noftra confirmafTe, pro Nobis 
& haeredibus noftris Venerabili Patri Ra- 
dulfo Cyceftrenfi Epifcopo Cancellario no- 
ftro, Cancellariam Angliae toto tempore 
vitee fuae, cum omnibus pertinentijs, liber- 
tatibus, & liberis confuetudinibus, ad prs- 
diftam Cancellariam pertinentibus. Q^iare 
volumus & firmiter praecipimus pro Nobis 
& haredibus noftris, quod pj;Bdit5tus Epif- 
copus habeat ipfam Cancellariam toto tem- 
pore vil£ fuse, cum omnibus pertinentijs, 
libertatibus, & liberis confuetudinibus ad 
prasJi6tam Cancellariam pertinentibus, ficut 
prjedidum eft. Teftibus & Dat. ut fupra. 
lb. viz. Rot. Chart. 17.. //. 3. m. 9. 



66 Of the GREAT Officers Chap. II. 

cellorflilp [of In'iand] belonging foj. And the King fent a Writ 
Patent dated at Glouajier the 21ft Day of May in the i8th Year of 
his Reign, to Mauriw Fitz-Gerold his Jufticier of Ireland, importing 
that he had granted to Ralf Bifhop of Chichejier, his Chancellor of 
JLnglmid, the Chancellorlhip of h'cland during his Life ; and order- 
ing, that G. de 'Tiirvill Archdeacon of Dublin fliould be admitted 
Vicechancellor, the BilLop having deputed him thereto fpj. Ralf 
Bifhop of Cbichefter wiJa Chancellor of Enghmd in the 20th Year of 
K. Henry III. (q), and afterwards. In the 22d Year of that King, 
the faid Biihop of Chichejier refigned the great Seal into the King's 
own Hand, by his command (r). 

Now we are fpeaking of the Chancellor's Office, it may be proper 
to fet down feme Inftances, whereby it may appear how the great 
Seal has at feveral Times been committed to Keepers, refigned or re- 
delivered by them to the King, or otherwife laid-up and dilpofed-of. 
When a new Chancellor or Sigillifer was appointed, a Memorandum is 


{0) Henricus Dei gratia Rex Anglise, 
&c. Archiepifcopis, Epifcopis, &c, tjalu- 
tem. Sciatis nos conceffiiTe & hac carta nof- 
tra confirmafle, pro Nobis & hasredibus 
noftris, Venerabili Patri Radulfo Cycef- 
trenfi Epifcopo Cancellario noftro AnglijE, 
Cancellariam Hy bernias habendam toto tem- 
pore vitas fuse, cum omnibus pertinentijs, li- 
bertatibus, & liberis confuetudinibus ad prae- 
di6tam Cancellariam pertinentibus. Quare 
volumus & firmiter praecipimus, pro Nobis 
& haeredibus noftris, quod praedictus Epif- 
copus Cancellarius nofter Anglias habeat 
ipfam Cancellariam Hibernias toto tempore 
vitse fuae, cum omnibus pertinentijs, liber- 
tatibus, & liberis confuetudinibus ad ptcE- 
diiStam Cancellariam pertinentibus, ficut 
prasdidtum eft. Teftibus & Dat. ut fupra 
[viz. quarto die Maij anno regni noftri de- 
cimo ieptimoj. Rot. Chart. 17. H, 3. 
m. 8. 

(p) H. Dei gratia Rex Anglias, &c. M. 
filio Geroldi Jufticiario fuo Hyberniae falu- 
tem, Sciatis quod conceffiinus", & carta 
noftra confirmavimus, pro nobis & haeredi- 
bus noftris, Venerabili Patri in Chrifto 
Radulfo Cyceftr. Epifcopo & Cancellario 
noftro Angliae, Cancellariam Hiberniae, Ha- 
bendam toto tempore vitae fua cum omni- 
bus pertinentijs, libertatibus, & liberis con- 

fuetudinibus, ad prxdiftam Cancellariam 
pertinentibus. Et ideo vobis mandamus, 
quod in omnibus quae diiSum officium Can- 
cellar. Hyberniae contingunt dileftum & 
fidelem noftrum G. de Turvill Archidiaco- 
num Dublin, quern pradictus Epifcopus & 
Cancellarius nofter ad Officium illud attor- 
navit, ad hoc admittatis. In cujus rei tef- 
timonium, &c. T. Rege apud Glouc. xxj 
die Maij. Pat. 18. H. 3. m. 14. 

(q) A. Henry III. made a Charter or De- 
claration, containing feveral Privileges relating 
to Wrecks happening in the four Seas or mari- 
time Coajls, to wit, of England, Poiftou, 
Gafcoigne, and the Ifle of Uleron. This 
Charter is dated per manum venerabilis pa- 
tris Radulfi Cyceftrenfis Epifcopi Cancel- 
larij noftri, apud Merewell viceflimo fexto 
die Maij, anno regni noftri vicefimo. Rym. 
Feed. & Ada Pub.^T. i. p. -^b, 21- It is to 
he noted, that this Charter is erroneoufly placed 
by Mr. Rymer ad ann. Dom. 1 174. h ann. 
20. H. 2. L. B. whereas it ought to have been 
placed at the ^Oth Tear of K. Henry III ; // be- 
ing a Charter of K. Henry the third's, as the 
Witnefj'es Names mentioned in it do fujfficiently 

(r) Die Sabbati in vigilia DecoUationis 
S. Johannis Baptiftx anno 22 Hen. Ill, 
reddidit Regi Dominus Cyceftrenfis Epif- 

Chap. II. 

of the K I N g's Court. 


fometinies made of it in the Charter-Roll or Patent-Roll : for Example : 
in the 7th Year of K. 'jobnt upon the Death of Hubert Archbifhop 
of Canterbury late Chancellor {s) ; and upon the Aflumption of IVa/- 
ter de Gray to that Office {t). So alfo on the 9th Day of OBobcr in 
the 15th Year of K. 'John, Mafter Richard de Marifco Archdeacon of 
Richmond and Northumberland delivered the great Seal to the King at 
OJpreng [ti). And the 2 2d Day of December following, it was de- 
livered at Wind/or to Ralf de Nevill, who was to bear it under the Bi- 
fliop oi Winche/ler {^ic). In the third Year of K. Henry III, it was 
provided by common Council of the Realm, that no Charter or Let- 
ters Patent of Confirmation, Alienation, Sale or Grant of any Thing 
in perpetuity, fliould be fealed with the King's great Seal until his full 
Age : and that if any fuch were fealed with that Seal, they fhould be 
void. And here (faith the Record) the King's Seal began to run [x). 


copus Canccllarius fuus, tunc poftulatus in 
Epifcopum Wintonienfem, Sigillum fuum 
per manuin fuam & per prasceptum fuum. 
Pat. 22. H. 3. m. 2. 

(s) Hie devenit Cancellaria in manum 
Domini Regis port mortem H. Cantuarien- 
fis Arch [iepifcopi]. The firjl Charter next 
after this Entry, is Data per manum J. de 
Bromceftre Archidiaconi Wigornienfis apud 
Windelelhore, xxiiij die Julij anno, &c. 
vij. Chart. 7. J. m. 8. n. 77 i^ 78. 

(t) Hie recepit Dominus W. de Gray 
Caneellariam. ylnd the firji Charter next 
following is. Data per manum Walter! de 
Gray iij° die Oifbobris anno vij. Chart. 7. 
J. n. 51. 

(u) None die Oilobri:; anno regni Do- 
mini Regis quinto decimo, liberavit Ma- 
gifter Ricardus de Rlarifc. Archidiaconus 
Richemundiae & Northumbrize Domino 
Regi Sigillum apud Ofpreng. Pat. 15. y. 
m. 8. n. 28. 

(w) Vicefimo fecundo die Decembris 
liberatum fuit Sigillum apud WindleforRa- 
dulfo de Nbvill, fub Domino Wintonienfi 
Epifcopo deferendum. Pat. IS- J- "■ 18. 
tn. 6. 

(x) Prims Lltcra; Novi Sigilli Domini 
Regis de Cartis vel Litteris patentibus non 
faciendis. Et hie incepit Sigillum Domini 
Regis currere. Henricus Dei gratia Rex 
Angliae, &c.; Omnibus has Litteras infpec- 
turis falutem. Sciatis quod provifum eft 

per Commune Confilium Regni noflri, 
quod nulla Carta, nullje Littera: patentes, 
de Confirmatione, alienatione, venditione 
vel donatione, feu de aliqua re quse cedere 
poflit in perpetuitatem figillentur Magno 
Sigillo noftro ufq; ad xtatem noftram com- 
pletam. Teflibus Gual. titulo S. Martini 
Prefbitero Cardinali & Apoflolicas Sedis 
Legato, Domino S.Cantuar. Archiepifcopo, 
Domino Waltero Ebor. Archiepifcopo, 
Willelmo Marefcallo Comite Penbr. , Hu- 
berto de Burgo Jufticiario noftro Anglian, 
coram W. Londonienfi, P, Wintonienfi, 
R. Dunolmenfi, J. Batonienfi & Glafto- 
nienn, H. Lincolnienfi, S. Exonienfi, 
W. Coventrenfi, R. Sarreftiirienfi, G. 
RofFenfi, H. Herefordenfi, R. Ciceftrenfi, 
W. Wigornienfi, Epifcopis, k. H. Carleo- 
knfi ele<Elo ; H. Abbate S. Edmundi, W. 
Abbate Weftmonafterij, A. Abbate S. Au- 
guftini Cantuarias, W, Abbate de S. Alba- 
no, R. Abbate de Burgo, H. Abbate Ra- 
mefise, R. Abbate de Bello, R. Abbate de 
Walthani, & S. Abbate Radingi ; W. Co- 
mite Sanefbirije, S. Comite Warennae, W. 
Comite ArundelliE, G. Comite Glouceftriae, 
H. Comite Herefordise, W. Comite Albe- 
marllx, V/. Comite Eflexiif, R. Comite 
Oxoniae, H. filio Comitis, Roberto filio 
Walteri, Roberto de Ros, Galfrido de Say, 
Willelmo Briwer, Petro filio Hereberti^ 
Petro de Maulay, W. Marefcallo juniore, 
Willelmo de Cantilupo, Falk. de Breaut., 
K 2 Willelmo 

68 Of the GREAT Officers Chap. II. 

In the 31ft Year of K. Henry III, John Mamifelh^^ the Cuflody of 
the King's Seal, from the 8th Day of November till the Morrow of 
the Decollation of St. John Baptiji fyj : and from the Monday after 
St. Laurence" i, Day in the 3 2d Year of that King, to the Nativity of 
'^t. Mary inclulive in the 33d Year {%): this is certified or declared 
by the King's Letters Patent. In the 37th Year of the fame King, 
a Memorandum is made in the clofe Roll, that on the fixth Day oi Au- 
guj} the King failed to Gafcony ; and that from that Time the Letters 
Patent followins: in the faid clofe Roll were made-forth before the 
King's Council {i.i). K. Henry III. in the 37th Year of his Reign, 
when he went into Gafcoigne, committed the Realm of England and 
the Lands of Wales and Ireland to Alienor his Queen, to be governed 
by her with the Advice of Richard Earl of Cornwall until his Return 
from Gafcoigne, according to the Iiiftrudtions here-under fet-forth (<>}. 


Willelmo de Huntingefeld, Roberto de 
Qardman, Johaniie Marefcallo, Willelmo 
de Albineio, Willelmo de Bello Campo. 
Provifum eft etiam per Commune Confilium 
regni noftri coram praedidlis omnibus, quod 
fi aliqua Carta vel aliquae Liters patentes 
faftae fecund um aliquam prjedidlarum for- 
marum, figillata inveniantur prasdi(5to Si- 
gillo, irritae habeantur & inanes. Teftibus 
prcenominatis & raultis alijs. Pat. 3. H. 3. 
ttt. 6. 

(j) Rex — . Sciatis quod Johannes Maun- 
fel habuit cuftodiam Sigilli noftri, ab 8 die 
Novcmbris anno 31, ufq; ad diem Veneris 
in craftino Decollationis B. Johannis Bap- 
tiftjB anno eodem ; quo die Rex eum in 
Nuncium Regis ad partes deftlnavit tranf- 
marinas.. Tefte 29 Aug. Pat. 31. H. 3. 
m. 2. [<?.v CollcRan. CI. V. Matt. HuttonS. 
T. P.] 

(s) Rex omnibus, &c, Sciatis quod Jo- 
hannes Maunfel Prrepofitus Beverlaci, a die 
Liinas a fefto S. Laurentii anno, &c. 32, 
habuit cuftodiam Sigilli noftri, ufq; ad 
feftum Nativltatis B. MarijE anno, &c. 33, 
utraq; die computata. In cujus, &c, 9 Sep- 
tembris. Pat. 33. H. 3. m. 3. [_ex eifd. 

[a) Memorandum quod vj die Augufti 
anno regni Regis Henrici filij Regis Johan- 
nis xxxvij" transfretavit idem Dominus Rex 
ufq; Vafconiam, & £i(5lre fuerunt heas Lit- 
terae fabfequenies coram confilio ipftus Pve- 

gij in Anglia, & continuate ufq; ad anniini 
ipfius Regis xxxviij. CI. 37. H. 3. m. 3. 

[b) De Provifione facia ad Gubernatio- 
nem Regni. Rex omnibus Jufticiarijs fuis, 
Vicecomitibus, Conftabulariis, & omnibus 
allijs Ballivis & fidelibus fuis Angliae Wallis 
& Hyberni«, falutem. Qiiia in proximo 
transfretaturi fumus in Wafconiam : Vobis 
mandamus in fide qua nobis tenemini, fir- 
miter injungentes, quod dum extra Regnum 
noftrum Anglias fuerimus, intendentes fitis 
& refpondentes dileiflaeReginas noftrae Alie- 
norae, in omnibus qua ad ballivas veftras 
pertinent. Et fi ante reditum noftrum 
de partibus prsdiclis Wafconiae, de nobis 
humanitus contingat, tunc caftra noftra & 
omnes terras noftras in cuftodia veftra exif- 
tentes, & omnes alias ballivas veftras quas 
de nobis habetis, liberetis diledts Reginas 
noftrje Alienoras, cuftodiendas peripfam ad 
opusdile£lL filij noftri Edwardi, ufq; adlegi- 
timam statem ejufdem filii noftri. In cujus, 
&c, 'F. Rege apud Suvvicum ij die Julii. Per 
Regem. Haec littera liberata eft P. dc Sa- 
baudia per manus H. dc Wengham, una cum 
litteris patentibus omnium caftellanorum. 

Rex omnibus, &c. falutem. Cum gu- 
bernationem Regni noftri Angliae, & terra- 
rum noftrarum Wallias & Hyberniae, com- 
miferirnus dileflas Reginae noftras Alienorar, 
una cum confilio dile£ti fratris & fidelis 
noftri Ricardi Comitis Cornubije, ufq; ad 
reditum noftrum de partibus Wafconise : 


chap. II. of the K i n g's Court. 


And at the fame Time, the King left his great Seal in the Queen's 
Cuftody, under his Privy-Seal and the Seals of Richard Earl of Corn- 
w^//and others of his Council; with this Provifo, that if any Thing 
which misht turn to the Detriment or Diminution of the Crown or 
Realm, was fealed, in the King's Name, whilft he continued out of 
the Realm, with any other Seal but that, it fliould be utterly void 
(c). The great Seal being thus difpofed-of, the King delivered the 
Seal of the Exchequer to Willicnn de Kilkenni, to be ufed inftead of 
the great Seal until his return from Gafcoigjie [d). On St. Edward's 
Day in the 29th Year of K. Henry III. Mafter IVi/Iiam de, Kilkenni 
delivered to the King his [great] Seal ; which was delivered the fame 
Day to H. de JVenghaju ; who fealed with it the next Day [e). And 
upon this Occafion, the King granted to William de Kilkenni his Let- 
ter Patent, whereby he declared, that William had long ferved him 

Volumus, quod cum Archiepifcopatus & 
Epifcopatus prxdiiSli Regni noftri Angliie, 
& Epifcopatus Menevenfis in Wallia, vaca- 
vcrint, a nobis petatur liceniia eligendi; & 
faiSlis ele£tionibus, nofter fuper hoc reqiii- 
ratur alTenfus ; & hoc idem fieri volumus de 
Abbatijs Weftmonafterij, Waltham, Sanfli 
Edmundi, Ramefiae, Burgi S. Petri, S. Al- 
baiii, Radingse, Ofeneys, Cyrenceftrise, de 
Hida, Glaftoniae vacante itdz, Malmefbu- 
riae, S. Petri Glouceftrias, Evefliam, S. 
Mariae Eboraci, & S. Auguftini Cantuariw, 
& de Archiepifcopatibus, Epifcopatibus 
terras noitrae Hyberniae cum vacaverint, cum 
facilior aditus live tranfitus de Hybernia in 
Wafconiam, quam de Hybernia in Angliam 
habeatur. Vacantibus autem epifcopatibus 
Landavenfi, de San<3o Afi'aph &de Bangor, 
& omnibus Abbatijs & Prioratibus Anglise 
AValJias & Hyberniae fuperius non expreffis, 
volumus & concedimus quod Licentia eli- 
gendi a praefataRegina noftra ante Elec- 
tionem petatur ; Et factis cledlicnibus, ejus 
fuper hoc requiratur affenfus de confijio 
praefati Comitis Fratis noftri, nobis in p?.r- 
tibus Wafconiae agentibus. Jn cujus, &c, 
T. ut fupra. Per Regem. Quse litters tra- 
ditae funt, per manus W. de Kilkenni, Re- 
gina; &Comiti. Pat. 37. H. 3. m. 6. 

yit this time the ^leen and the Earl were 
Teftes to the JVriis. Teflibus A. Regina 
noftra ii Ricardo Comite Gornubiae fratre 
noftro apud Weftmonaflerium vj die De- 
cembris anno regni noftri x\xviij. Memor. 
39. H. 3. Rot. 4. a. in Cedula. 

{c) De Magno Sigillo commifTo. Rex- 
omnibus, &:c. f^lutem. Noverit univerfitas 
veftra, quod nos in Vafconiam proficifcentes 
dimifimus Magnum Sigillum noftrum in 
cuftodia diletftas Reginas noftra?, fub figillo 
noflro Private & figillis dilciSi fratris ii fide- 
lis noftri Ricardi Comitis Corniibiae h quo- 
rundam aliorum de Confilio noftro ; tali 
conditione adjefta, quod fi aliquid figna- 
tum fuerit nomine noftro, dum extra Reg- 
num Angliae fueriniLis, alio Sigillo quam 
illo, quod vergere poterit in Coronae noftras 
vel Regni noftri detrimentum vel diminutio- 
nem, nullius fit moment!, fet viribus careat 
omnino. T. &c. Put. 37. H. 3. tn. 8. 

[d) Rex diledtae Conforti fure A. eadem 
gratia Reginas falutem. Mandamus vobis, 
quod cum dileftus Clericus nofter W. de 
Kilkenni ArchidiaconusCoventrenfis ad vos 
venerit, liberetis ei Sigillum Scaccarij noftri 
bajulandum & cuftodiendum ufq ; ad redi- 
tum noftrum de partibus Wafconire, loco 
Magni Sigilli noftri, quod claudi faciemus 
ufq; ad reditum noftrum de partibus prs- 
didtis. Pat. 37. H. 3. ?n. 5. [ex CoHeJi^ R. 
V.Matt. Hutton. S. r. P.] 

(e) Memorandum quod die S. Eduuardi 
ill vigilia Epiphanis anno regni Regis Hen- 
rici xxxix, liberavit Magifter VV. de Kil- 
kenni Domino Regi Sigillum fuum ; & eo- 
dem die traditum fuit H. de AVengham ; & 
in craftino figillavit cum eodem. Pat. 39. 
H. 3. ;«. 15. 


70 Of the GREAT Officers Chap. II. 

diligently and acceptably ; and fhould therefore be quit of all Rec- 
konings and Demands in rcfpett of the King's Court or othervvife, 
for the whole Time that he had been Keeper of the King's Seal in 
England {j). In the 39th Year of K. Henry III, the King's Seal, 
which he ufed in Gajcony, was laid up in the Treafury, under the 
Seals of P. Lovcl Treafurer and H. de Wengham (^). K. Henry III, 
in the 45th Year of his Reign, declared by his Letter Patent, that on 
St. Luke's Day in the 44th Year, Nicolas Archdeacon of Ely received 
of him his Seal to keep : that on the Tuefday next after the Tranjhtion 
of St. Thomas the Martyr in the 45th Year, the faid Seal was redeli- 
vered to him [the King] : and that the King recommended him in an 
efpecial Manner for his good Service (Z;). In the 49th Year of K. 
Henry III, an Entry or Memorandum is made in the Patent-Roll, that 
on the Wednefday next after St. Peter in Cathedrain the faid Year, the 
King took his [great] Seal of Mafter John de Chijlmll Archdeacon of 
London, and the fame Day committed it to Mafter 'Thomas de Canti- 
hipe ; who ftraitway fealed with it (/). In the fame Patent-Roll a 
Memorandum is alfo made that on the Thurfday next after St. John 
Port Latin, Mafter Thomas de Cantilupe the King's Chancellor, de- 
livered the King's Seal to Ralf de Sandwich Keeper of the Wardrobe, 
in the Prefence of the King and of Hugh le DeJ'penfer Jufticier of Eng- 
land and Peter de Montfort, to be kept by him until Thomas fhould re- 
turn ; it was to be uled in this Manner: Ralf wis to keep it in the 
Wardrobe under the Seal of Peter de Montfort, Roger de St. John, and 
Giles de Argentin, or one of tliem ; when it was taken out, Ralf was to 
feal Writs of Courfe in the Prefence of the Perfon under whofe Seal it was 

(f) Rex, &:c. Cum Magifter VVillelmus chidiaconus Elienfis die S. Lucae Evange- 
de Kitkenni Elienfis Eledlus diu nobis fer- liftae anno regni noftri quadragefimo quarto 
vierit laudabiliter & devote : Volumus & recepit a nobis Sigillum noftrum cuftodien- 
concedinius pro nobis & hsredibiis noftris, dum ; quod quidem Sigillum die Mar- 
quod iLleiTi R'lagiiler Willelmus fit quietus tis proximo port: feftum Tranflationis 
penitus ^c abfolutus ab omnibus nexibusCu- S. Thomas Martiris atino quadragefimo 
riae noftrae, ratiociniis, & aliis demardis de quinto recepimus ab eodem, ipfum fuper 
tempore quo fuit Cuftos Sigilli iioftri in obl'equio fuo Jaudabili nobis impenfo fpecia- 
Anglia. Prf*. 39. H. 3.'". 15. liter habentes recommendatum. In cujus, 

{g') Memorandum, quod die Jovis in &c, T. xvij Julij. P(?/. 45. H. 3. »/. 7. 
craftino S. Hillarij liberatum fuit Camerar. (/) Die Mercurij proximo poft feftum 
de Scaccario Domini Regis, Sigillum Do- S. Petri in Cathedra anno re^ni Regis Hen- 
mini Regis quod fuit cum eo in Wafconia, rici filii Regis Johannis xlix°, recepit idem 
fub Sigillis P. Love! Thefaurarij & H. de Dominus Rex Sigillum fuum a Magiftro 
Wengham, cuftodiendum in Thefauro Do- Johanne de Chifhull Archidiacono Londo- 

mlni Regis donee aliud inde praeceperit. niae ; & idem Dominus Rex eodem die 

Mcmor. 39. H. 3. Rot. 6. b. Hilar. Com- diclum Sigillum commifit Magiftro Thomse 

munia. de Cantilupo cuftodiendum ; qui fliatim cum 

(b) Rex omnibus falutem. Sciatis eo confignavit. Pat, 49. H. 3. m. 22. 

quod dileiStus Clericus nofter Nicholaus Ar- 


chap. II. o/" /-6^ K I N g's C o u R T. 71 

then laid-up, or in his Abfence if he was not minded to be there ; but 
Writs of Precept, only in the Prefence of fuch Perfon and with his 
AfTent j and when the Writs (either of Courfe or Precept) were 
fealed, then the King's Seal was to be fealed-up under the Seal of one 
of the three Perfons above-named, and to be carried by Ra/f into 
the Wardrobe, to be there kept in Form aforefaid, until 'Thomas de 
CantUiipe returned. Thefe Things were done at Gloucejler {k). In the 
6th Year of K. Edward I, when the Bifliop oi Bath and Wells, the 
King's Chancellor fet-forth towards foreign Parts, the King's Seal was 
delivered into the Wardrobe, under the Seal of J. de Kirkeby, to 
whom the Chancellor committed the Difpatch of the Bufinefs of the 
Chancery (/). In the iith Year of K. Edward \, when the BiHiop 
of Bath and Wells, at that Time the King's Chancellor, went from 
Court to his Diocefe, the King's Seal was committed par hiterim to 
John de Kirkeby [m). In the 26th Year of K. Edward I, "John de Benf- 
tede the King's Clerk came into the Exxhequer, and brought thither, 
under the Seal of John de Langfon Chancellor of England, the great 
Seal which was ufed in England whilft the King was in Flanders, up- 
on the War moved between him and the King of France; during 
which Time Prince Edward was Witnefs to all the Writs that were 
fealed with the faid great Seal : which great Seal, fo fealed-up with the 
Chancellor's Seal, was at the fame Time delivered to the Chamber- 
lains of the Exchequer, to be laid up in the Treafury by the King's 

{k) Memorandum quod die Jovis proxi- fub figillo fuo, & eodcm Sigillo Regis fie 

ma port: feftum S. Johannis ante Portam fignato, idem Radulfus tunc reportet in 

Latinam, hora prima, IVlagifter Tliomas de Garderoba praedifta & fic illud iifq ; ad re- 

Cantilupo Cancellarius Regis tradidit Ra- ditum ejufdem Thomse cuftodiet in Garde- 

dulfo de Sandwico Cuftodi Garderobae Si- roba Regis. Et ifta fafta fiierunt apud 

gillum Domini Regis in praBlentia ipfius Glouceftiiam die prasdifto, anno regni 

Domini Regis, afliftentibus Hugone le Def- quadragefimo nono. /"<?/. 49. H. 3. w. 16. 
penfer Jufticiario Angliae & Petro de Mon- (/) Memorandum quod die Veneris proxi- 

teforti, cuftodiendum ufq; ad reditum ipfius ma port feftum S. Scoiafticas Virginis apud 

Thomae fub hac forma; videlicet. Quod Dovor. Venerabilis Pater R. Bath. Sc Well, 

idem Radulfus Sigiilum in Garderoba Regis Epifcopus Cancellarius Regis, transfretavit 

culTrodiet fub figno alicujus infrafcriptorum, ad partes tranfmarinas, & Sigiilum fuitcunc 

videlicet P. de Monteforti, Rogeri de Sane- liberatum ibidem in Garderoba Regis, fub 

to Johanne, & Egidij de Argentein, vel sli- figillo Domini J. de Kirk., cui Cancellarius 

cujus eorum, & quod figno fignantis fi-adto injunxit in recelTu fuo quod negocia Can- 

fignabit idem Radulfus brevia ilia quae funt cellariae expediret. Lib. 6. E. I. m. 1. 
de Curfu in ipfius praefentia vel abfentia fi (;//) Memorandum quod primo dieMarcij 

abeffe voluerit, ea tamen quae funt de Piae- recefBt R. Bathon. & Well. Epifcopus Can- 

cepto non nifi in praefentia fignantis figilla- cellarius Regis a Curia ufq; partes proprias, 

bit & de ejus afl'enfu; et brevibus tam de quo die Sigiilum Regis liberatum fuit J. de 

curfu quam de praecepto fignatis,-tunc unus Kirk. Lib. ii. E. i. «/. 8. 
prasdidtorum trium figiiet Sigiilum Regis 


7 2 Of the GREAT Officers Chap. II. 

command (;/). In the thirtieth Year of K. Edward, on the Monday- 
after the Aflumption of the B. Virgin about the Hour of Fefpers, in the 
Chamber wherein the King then lodged in the Hoftel of the Arch- 
biHiop of Tork near Wejiminjlcr, quickly after the King rofe from 
Council, 'John de Langeton then Chancellor of England reftored to the 
King his great Seal ; and the King, in the Prefence of Amedeo Earl of 
Savoy, John de Britain, and feveral others of his Council, delivered 
the fame to John de Drokensford then Keeper of his Wardrobe, to be 
"kept in the faid Wardrobe {o). On the 23d Day oi Aiiguft \w the 
faid 30th Year, in the King's Chamber at Kenyngton, in the Prefence 
of Walter Bifliop of Coventry, Oto de Grandifon, Amedeo Earl of Savoy, 
John de Britaigne, and others of the King's Council, the King's great 
Seal was delivered by the King's Order, by the Hands of Jo/jn de 
Drokensjord Keeper of the Wardrobe, to Adam de Ofgodby Keeper of 
the Rolls of the Chancery, who was enjoined to keep it under the Seal 
of Mafter John de Caen, William de Byrlay, and Robert de Bardelby, 
until the King (hould appoint a Chancellor. Adain received the great 
Seal. And then the King fet forward on his Journey towards Dover 
[p). On Sunday the Morrow of St. Michael in the fame Year, in the 

(??) Memorandum quod xix". die Marcij 
anno Regni Regis Edivardi filij Regis Hen- 
rici xxvj°, venit Johannes de BenftedeCle- 
ricus Regis ac Scaccarium, & tulit ibidem, 
fub figillo Johannes de Langton Cancellaiij 
Anglise, Sigillum Domini Regis quo uie- 
batur in Regno Anglire dum Rex erat in 
partibus Flandria?, pro guerra inter ipfum 
H Regem Francorum mota, & unde Ed- 
wardus filius praediili Regis E. filij Regis H. 
fuit Teftis in omnibus brevibus per idem 
figillum figillatis : Qiiod quidem figillum 
fic figillatum fub figillo Didi Cancellarij li- 
beratur diitodecimo nono dieMartij Came- 
rar, de Scaccaiio cuftodiendum in Thefau- 
raria Regis perprseceptum Regis. Hil.Com- 
munia 25 £?' 26. E. i. Rot. 57. a. 

(») Memorandum quod die Lunx proxi- 
ma antcfeftum Afiumptionis B. Mi rise anno 
rewni Regis E, tricelimo, circa horam vef- 
perarum, in Camera djdi Domini Regis in 
Hofpicio Domini Eboraccnfis Archiepifcopi 
prope Weitmon. ubi idem Rex tunc hofpi- 
tabatur, (latim poflquam i.'.cm Rex furrexe- 
rat de Confilio fuo, Dominus Johr.nnes de 
Langeton tunc Caticenariu? Anglias reftituit 
cidem Regi Magnum, Sigillum fuum, qui 

illud, aftantibus Dominis A. Comite Sabau- 
diae, Johanne de Britannia, & multis alijs 
de Confilio ipfius Regis, liberavit Domino 
Johanni de Drokenesford tunc CuftodiGar- 
derobas difli Regis cuftodiend. ibidem. CI, 
30. E. I. m. 8. dorfo. 

(p) Memorandum quod vicefimo tcrtio 
die Augufti anno regni Regis Edwardi tri- 
cefimo, in prsefentia Dominorum W. Co- 
ventrenfis & Lych. Epifcopi Thefaurarij 
Regis, & Ottonis de Grandifono, in Camera 
Regis apud Kenyngton, Dominis A. Comite 
Sabaudiip, Johanne de Britannia, & multis 
aiijs de Confilio Regis ibidem exiftentibus, 
liberatum fuit ex parte Regis per manus Do- 
mini Johannes de Drokenesford tunc Cuf- 
todis Garderobas, Domino Adne de Ofgodby 
tuncCuftodi RotulorumCancellariae Regis, 
Msgnum Sigillum Regis, & injunctum fuit 
ei ex parte Regis quod illud reciperet cufto- 
diendum fub figillo Magiftri Johannis de 
Cadomo Sz Dominorum Willelmi de Byrlay 
Si Robert! de Bardelby, quoufq; Dominus 
Rex fibi de Cancellario providilTet, Qui 
illud recepit ; & eodem diedirexit Rex ver- 
fus Ciceftriam & fic verfus Dovoriam greffus 
fuos. C/. 30. E. I. m. 6. dorfo. 


chap. II. ^ z,^^ K I N g's C o u R T. 73 

King's Chapel at St. Radegund prefently after Mafs, in the Pre- 
fence of yohn de Drokenesford Keeper of the Wardrobe, John de 
Caen, Robert de Bardelhy, Walter de IVinterburn, Henry de Bluntefden 
the King's Almoner, and others the King's Chaplains and Clerks, 
Adam de Ofgodeby delivered the great Seal to the King ; who received 
it with his own Hands, and ftraitway delivered it to Mafter IVUliam 
de Grenejield, Dean of Chkhejler, whom he had chofen for his Chan- 
cellor, to keep ; and the laid Chancellor delivered the faid Seal 
again to the faid Adam, to be carried with him the faid Chancellor 
to Dovor ; and on the fame Day at Dovor the Chancellor received it 
oi Adam, and the next Day fcaled Writs with it in the Ma'ifondieu of 
Dovor fq). On the Tuefday next after All Saints Day in the fame 
Year NIaller IVilUatn de Grenejield Dean of Chichefter Chancellor of B.iig~ 
land, being then about to go beyond Sea as the King's Envoy, delivered 
to the King his great Seal in the King's Chamber at the Hoftel of 
the Archbilhop of York at Wejlminjler, in the Prefence of Amedeo 
Earl of Savoy, He7iry de Lacy Earl of Lincoln, and yohn de Britaigne. 
The King received it with his own Hands, and flraightway delivered 
it to Adam de Ofgodeby Keeper of the Rolls of Chancery, to be kept 
by him in the fame Manner as he had lately kept it, under the 
Seals o^ John de Caen, William de Birlay, and Robert de Bardelby, un- 
til the Chancellor's Return from beyond Sea (r). In the 35th Year 
of K. Edward I. the King's great Seal was brought into the Court 
of Exchequer, and delivered to the Treafurer's Lieutenant and Ba- 

(q) Memorandum quod die Dominica in ibidem eodem die recepit, & die craftina in 

Crartino S. Michaelis anno regni Regis Ed- Hofpitali Domus Dei Dovori» de eodem 

wardi triceflimo, in Capella Domini Regis, Sigillo brevia confignavit. CI. yi. E. l.m. 

ftatim port MifTam fuam apud Sanftam Re- 5. dorfo. 

degundem, in preefencia Domini Johaniiis (r) Memorandum quod die Martis pro- 

de Drokenesford Cuftodis Garderobas, Ma- xima ante feftum Omnium San£lorum, an- 

giftri Johannis de Cadomo, Domini Roberti no regni Regis Edwardi tricefimo, Magifter 

de Bardelby, Fratris Walteri de Wynter- Wiljelmus de Grenefeld Decanus Ciceitrire 

burn, Henrici de Bluntefden Elemofinarij & Cancellarius Anglias in nuncium Domini 

Regis, & aliorum Capellanorum & Cleri- Regis ad partes tranfmarinas tunc profedtu- 

corum de dida Capella Regis, liberavit Do- rus, in Camera ipfius Domini Regis in 

minus Adam de Ofgodeby Domino Regi Hofpicio Domini . . Eboracenfis Archiepif- 

Magnum Sigillum fuum ; qui illud recepit copi apud Weftmonafterium, liberavit eidem 

in manibus fuis proprijs, & illud in conti- Domino Regi Magnum Sigillum iuum, af- 

rienti liberavit Magiftro Willelmo de Gre- tantibus Dominis A. Comite Sabaudi;?, H. 

nefeid Decano Ciceftria;, quem clegerat in de Lacy Comite Lincolnix, & Johanne de 

Cancellarium fuum, cuftodiendum; & idem Britannia; qui quidem Dominus Rex idem 

Cancellarius didtum Sigillum praefato Ad<e Sio;illum in manibus fuis proprijs cepit, & 

• retradidit cum ipfo Cancellario ufq; Dovo- illud ftatim ibidem Domino Adae dc Of- 

xiani deferendum ; qui illud ab eodem Adam godeby tunc Cuilodi Rotulorum Cancclla- 

VoL. I. L rise 


Of the 



F F I C E R S 

Chap. IT. 

rons there, fealed up in a Purfe. With it a Writ of the Privy Seal 
was likewife delivered to them •■, whereby, the King intimates, that 
he had appointed the Bilhop of London to be his Chancellor, and 
commands them to deliver the great Seal to him, and to receive of 
him the Oath belonging to that Office. Hereupon, the Bifhop of 
London, before the Treafurer's Lieutenant, the Barons, and the chief 
Juftices of the two Benches then prefent, in the Exchequer, took the 
Oath for the Office of Chancellor, and had the great Seal delivered 
to him there (s). In the firfl: Year of K. Edward 11. William de 
Melton Controller of the King's Wardrobe, came and brought into 
the Exchequer, the King's Seal which he ufed in England at the 
Time when he [the King] was this Year in foreign Parts ; which 
Seal was ufed for fealing the Writs that iffued out of the King's 
Chancery in England at that Time, under the Tejle of Peter de Gava- 
Jlon Earl of Cornwall, then the King's Lieutenant in England; and- 
the faid Seal, being in a Bag or Purfe of white Leather, fealed with 

rias liberavit, cuftodiendum eodem modo 
quo alias illud cuftodivit, fub figill. Magif- 
tii Johannis de Cadomo & Dominorum 
Willelmi de Birlay & Robert! de Bardelby, 
ufq; ad reditrum ejufdem Cancellarij a par- 
tibus fupradiiSlis. CL 30. E. 1. m. 2. 

(s) Anglia, Memorandum quod modo 
in viailia Afcenfionis Domini videlicet die 
Invencionis Sanflx Crucis, Adam de Of- 
goteby, Magifter Johannes de Cadamo, & 
Robertus de Bardelby Clerici Regis, vene- 
runt hie coram Willelmo de Carleton Ba- 
rone de Scaccario & tenente locum W. 
Coventrenfis & Lich. Epifcopi Thefaurij 
Regis, ipfo Epifcopo exillente cum Rege 
in Marchia Scocia;, Si coram alijs Baroni- 
bus de Scaccario, & tulerunt hie Magnum 
Sigilknn Regis in quadam Burfa confignata 
impreflionibustiium Sigillorum videlicet Si- 
gilli Willelmi de Hamelton nuper Cancel- 
larij Angliae jam defuniSti, Sigilli . . Abba- 
tis de Furneux, & Sigilli dicti Magiftri Jo- 
hannis de Cadamo ut idem Magifter Jo- 
hannes afTerit, & liberaverunt did:is . . te- 
nenti locum Thefaurarij & Baronibus idem 
Sigillum taliter confignatum, quod a tem- 
pore obitus prasdidi.W. de Hamelton futt 
in Cuftodia difti '^oberti de Bardelby ut 
idem Robertus modo fatetur ; & eciam li- 
berarunt breve Regis in hsc verba, Edward 
par la grace de Dieu Roi Dengleterre Seig- 
neur Dirlande & Dues Daquitaine, Au 


Treforier ou a fon lieu tenaunt & as Ba- 
rons de noftre Efcheqer Saluz. Pur ceo 
qe William de Hamelton qui fu noftre 
Chancellier eft a Dieu commandez, & nous 
avoms ordenez qe . . Leveiqe de Londres 
foit noftre Chancellier, par quei nous lui 
avoms mandez, quil viegne fans delay a 
Londres a noftre dit Efcheqer, pur receyvre 
en voftre prefence noftre grant Seal, le quel 
nous enveoms illueqes per noz chers clercs 
Adam de Ofgotby, Maiftre Johan de Caani 
& Robert de Bardelby: Vous mandoms, 
que meifmcs le feal faccz liverer au dit 
Evefq; Si recevez de lui le Serment qe affi- 
ert a faire pur loffice avant dit. Done fous 
noftre prive Seal a Cardoill, le xxj jour 
Daveril Ian de noftre regne xxxv. Et fuper 
hoc evocato praedidlo Epifcopo Londoni- 
enfi, convocatis eciam hie Rogero le Bra- 
banzon Jufticiario Regis ad placita coram 
Rege, & Radulpho de Hengham Jufticiario 
de Banco, idem Epifcopus Londonienfis, 
videlicet MagifterRadulphus de Baldolc, co- 
ram diiStis . . Tenente locum Thefaurarij & 
Baronibus & coram ipfis Jufticiarijs praefti- 
tit Sacramentum de bene & fideliter fe ha- 
bendo in Officio Cancellarii ; & deletis in 
praefencia eorundem Baronum Si Jufticiari- 
orum impreflionibus figillorum prasdiftis, 
extraftoq; prsedifto Sigillo Regis, idem Si- 
gillum ftatim liberatur eidem Epifcopo Lon- 
donienfi Cancellario, cuftodiendum, &c, 
Paf. Commun. '^sE, I. Rot. 46. a. Parte i. 


chap. IL of the K i n g's C o u r t. 75 

the Privy Seal of yohn de Langeton Bifliop of Chichejier, Chancellor 
of England, was by him delivered in at the Exchequer, in the Pre- 
fence of John de Sandale Chancellor of the fame Exchequer, William 
de Carleton, Roger de Hegham, Mafter Richard de Abyndon, and Mafter 
John de Kverdon, Barons, and Walter de Norwich Remembrancer. 
And ftraitway the faid Seal, being in the Purfe fo fealed up, was de- 
livered to the Chamberlains of the Exchequer, to be kept in the 
King's Treafury, to wit, to Henry de Ludcgrejloal Chamberlain, John 
Devery the Treafurer's Clerk at the Receipt, and John de Bukinghani, 
Clerk and Attorney to the Earl of Warwick, Chamberlain in Fee, 
in the Prefence of the abovenamed John de Sandale, Barons and Re- 
membrancer. Afterwards, on the 14th Day of M^j, in the fixth Year 
of the King, at which Time were prefent in the Exchequer, W. Bi- 
fliop of Worcejler, Adonar de Valence Earl of Pembroke, H. le De- 
fpenfer, J. de Sandale the Treafurer's Lieutenant, Walter de Norwich 
Baron, and others of the King's Council, the faid Seal which the King 
ufed in Englarid whilft he was in foreign Parts, was delivered to the 
laid Walter Bilhop of Worcejler to feal Writs withal in England, if 
the King fhould happen to take his great Seal with him into foreign 
Parts (t). 

It is to be underftood, that for the Difpatch both of the Royal 
Charters, and of the Writs ufed in Proceedings at Law, the Chan- 
cellor had under him a competent Number of Clerks, employed in 

(t) De Sigillo Regis liberate in Thefau- burfa fic confignata liberatur Camerarijs de 
raria Regis. Memorandum quod mode xv Scaccario, cuftodiendum in Tiiefaur[aria] 
die Marcij venit hie ad Scaccarium Willtl- Regis, videlicet Henrico de Ludegrefhale 
mus de Melton Contrarotulator Gardcrobae Camerario, Johanni Devery Clerico The- 
Regis, & tulit hie Sigilium Regis quo ute- faurarij ad Scaccarium de Recepta, & Jo- 
batur in Anglia tempore quo Dominus Rex hanni de Bukingham Clerico & attornato . . 
fuit in partibus tranfrnarinis hoc anno ; Sub Comitis Warr. Camerarij &c. in praefencia 
quo quidem figillo confignabantur Brevia di6torum J. de Sandale, Baronum, hi, Re- 
Regis quae emanarunt a Cancellaria ipfius memoratoris. Poftea xiiij die Maij anno 
Regis in Anglia tempore illo, fub teltimo- fexto, Praefentibus in Scaccario W. Wy- 
nio Petri de Gavafton Comitis Cornubiae gornenfi Epifcopo, Adomaro de Valencia 
tunc Tenente locum Regis in Anglia; & Comite de Pembrok, & H. le Defpenfer, J. 
idem Sigilium exiftens in quadam burfa de de Sandale Tenente locum Thefaurarij, W. 
corio albo confignata Privato figillo Johan- de Norvvyco Barone de Scaccario, & alijs 
nis de Langeton Ciceflrcnfis Epifcopi Can- de Confilio &c. prsdiftum Sigilium quo 
cellai ij Anglise, liberavit hie ad Scaccarium, Dominus Rex utcbatur in Anglia dum fuit in 
in praefencia Johannis dc Sandale Cancel- partibus tranfmarinis liberatur praefato W. 
larij de eodem Scaccario, Willelmi de Car- Wyaorncnfi Epifcopo, pro Brevibus inde 
leton, Rogeri de Hegham, Magiftri Ricar- fignandis in Anglia, fi contingat quod Do- 
di de Abyndon, & Magiftri johannis de minus Rex habeat fuum Magnum Sigilium 
Everdon, Baronum, & Walteri de Nor- ad partes tranfmarinas, 3vC. Hil.Cojir'tun. i. 
vvyco Rememoratoris de eodem Scaccario. E. 1. Rot. 40. b. 
tt in continent! idem Sigilium in eadem 

L 2 that 

76 Of the GREAT Officers Chap. IL 

that Serviee. And he had yearly an Allowance from the Crown, for 
his own and their Maintenance. For Example : K. Henry III, in- 
the 49th Year of his Reign, granted to Mafter 'Thomas de Cantelou his 
Chancellor D Marks a year, payable at the Exchequer, at four Terms, 
in the Year, for the Support of him and the Clerks of the King's 
Chancery, fo long as he fliould continue in that Office (u). And in 
or about the 52d Year of the fame King, Godfrey Bilhop of Worcejier 
the King's Chancellor, had D Marks a Year, payable at the Ex- 
chequer, for the Support of him and of the Clerks of the Chancery 
(w). In the 10th Year of K. Edward II. Adam Son of Robert and 
Thomas de DnJio?i Poulterers, whom the Bifliop of Winchcjler the 
Chancellor had lent into divers Parts of the Realm to buy Poultry 
for the Suftenance of the Chancellor and the Clerks of the Chan- 
cery, had the King's Letters patent of Intendance and fafe Con- 
duel (x). 

There was alfo fometimes an Officer in the King's Court, called 
the Vice-Chancellor : who adled (at leaft, in many Cafes) in the 


(u) Rex omnibus, &c. Salutem. Cum 
dileftus nobis in Chrifto Magifter Thomas 
de Cantilupo, per nos & Magnates noftros 
qui funt de concilio noftro, eleftus fit in 
Cancellarium Regni noftri, & nos ipfum 
ad officium illud gratanter admifenmus, nos 
fuftentationi fuas & Clericorum Cancellariae 
iioftrae providere volentes, conceffimus ei 
Quingentas Marcas, fmgulis annis percipi- 
eiidas ad Scaccarium noftrum videlicet Sex- 
cies viginti & quinq; marcas in Quindena 
Pafchje proximo futura, & Sexcies viginti 
& quinque marcas in Quindena Sanfli Jo- 
hanis Baptifta proximo fequenti, & Sexcies 
viginti & quinq; marcas in Quindena Sanfti 
Michaelis proximo fequsnti, & refiduas 
Sexcies viginti & quinq; marcas in Quin- 
dena Sandli Hillarij proximo fequenti, ad 
fuftentationem fuam & Clericorum Cancel- 
lariae noflrae prtediiSae, quamdiu fteterit in 
Officio. In cujus &c ; Tefte Rege apud 
Weftmon. xxvj° die Marcij. Et fciendum 
quod Dominus Rex manu fua propria pli- 
cavit iftud Breve, & in prfefentia fua fecit 
confignari, prsefentibus fimiliter H. le De- 
fpenfer Jufticiario Anglise, Adam de Novo 
Mercato, Rogero de San£to Johanne, Wal- 
tero de Crepping, Magiflro Thoma de Pi- 
welefdon. Pat- 49. H. 3. m, 18. 

(w) Idem S. Vicecomes r c de Lv I. 
viij s. iij d. de debitis diverforum, ficut 
fupra continetur. In thefauro nichil. Et 
Godefrido Wigornienfi Epifcopo Cancella- 
rio Regis, in parte folutionis feodi fui Quin-p 
gentarum marcarum, quod percipere con- 
fuevitad Scaccarium, ad fuftentationem fuam 
& clericorum de eadem Cancellaria, dum 
ftetit in officio prsedido, x 1. per breve 
Regis. Mag. Rot. 52. H. 3. Ite7n Cant. U 
Hunt. m. 2. b. 

Baronibus, pro Egidio de Goufle. Rex 
mandat, quod allocent eidem Egidio nuper 
Vicecomiti Ebor. in exitibus Itineris Juftic. 
ultimo itinerantium in Comitatu praediilo 
XX marcas, quas per prseceptum noftrum 
liberavit G. Wygornienfi Epifcopo quon- 
dam Canccllario Regis de termino Pafchas 
anno &c. Lij°, in parte fojutionis D mar- 
carum quas percepit per annum ad Scacca- 
rium ad fuftentationem fuam & clericorum 
Cancellariae Regis, dum ftetit in Officio 
prasdidto. Tefte, &c. Memor. 55. H. 3; 
Rot. 2. a. The like., inter Memor. i Edw. i» 
Rot. 7. b. 

(x) Adam filius Roberti & Thomas de 
Dufton Puletarij Venerabilis Patris J. Wyn- 
tonienfis Epifcopi Cancellarij Regis, quos 
idem Cancellarius ad puletriam pro fuften- 


chap, II. of the K i n g's Court. 77 

Chancellor's Abfence. Walter de Conjiantijs was Vice-Chancellor to 
K. Henry W. in or about the Year 1177 (y). And Mailer i^o^^r 
Mains Catiilus was Vice-Chancellor to K. Richard I. in or about the 
2d Year of his Reign fzj. At this Time, K. Richard was in Sicily, 
znd William de Longchafnp, was Chancellor in England fa). Mafter 
Roger the Vice-Chancellor was afterwards drowned near Cyprus, and 
the King's Seal loft. So the King ordered all Charters to be new 
fealed fbj. In the fame King's Reign, one Mafter Benet had the 
keeping of the King's Seal in England: for which Caufe William de 
Longchamp, who ftill was, or claimed to be Chancellor, denoun- 
ced him excommunicated fcj : but perhaps he had the Seal commit- 
ted to him by John Earl of Moreton, and the Barons who oppofed 
the Chancellor. John de Alenpn Archdeacon of Lifieux was Vice- 
Chancellor {oi Normandy, as I take it) in the fame King's Reign {d): 
and Mafter Warin, Prior of Locherons, was alfo Vice-Chancellor in the 
fame King's Reign fej. In the 7th Year of the fame King, Mafter 
Eujlachius is ftyled the King's Sigillifer ffj : Williatn Bifhop of Ely be- 
ing then, and till his Death (which happened in the next Year) the 
King's Chancellor fgj. The fame Mafter Eujlachiiis is likewife ftyled 
the King's Vice-Chancellor (hj. This Officer called the Vice-Chan^ 

tatione ipfius Cancellarij & Clericorum Re- 
gis de eadem Cancellaria pro denarijs ipfius 
Cancelarij cmendam & providendam ad di- 
verfas partes Regni mittat, habent Literas 
Regis omnibus ballivis & fidelibus fuis, 
quod eifdem puletarijs in praEmiflis inten- 
dentes fint & refpondentes quociens & 
fiuando, &c. per unum annum duraturas. 
i'. R. apud Weftmon. prime die Junij. 
Pat. 10. E. 2. pars 2. m. lO. 

[y) Et ad audiendum inde refponfum 
Comitis [FlanJriae], mifit ^Valterum de 
Conftantijs Vicccancell.irium fuum & Ra- 
nulfum de Glanvilla. Hovcd. P. 2. p. 561. 
n. JO. 

(7.) Et charta ilia tradita fuit per ma- 
nurn Magiftri Rogeri Mali Catuli Vicc- 
cancelarij Regis, lb. p. 679. n. I. 
, (a) lb. p. 680. n. 10. 

(b) lb. p. 746. n. 1. 

(c) ■ denunciamus excommunica- 
tum, & Magiftrum Benediclum, qui Sigil- 
lum Domini Regis, contra ftatuta Regis & 
Regni, & contra prohibitionem nollram, 
ferre praefumpfit. lb. p. 707. n. 30. 

(d) Teftibus, Willelmo de Hommet 
Conftabulario, Willelmo filio Radulfi Se- 


nefcallo Normannias . Dat. per manum 

Johannis deAlenconio Archidiaconi Lexo- 
vienfis Vicecancellarij noflri, apud Lol- 
dun, 17 die Junij anno r n primo. In 
Charta R. Ric. I. Neuji. Pia, /.. 918. 

Teftibus, — Ranulfo de Glanvill, Ro- 
gero de Pratell. Dapifero noftro, & multi* 
alijs. Datum per nianum J. de Alenc. 
Lexovienfis Archidiaconi Vicecancellarij 
iioftri, xj die Aprilis apud Morct. Regni 
noftri anno primo. In Charta R. I. fa£ta 
VVaukelino de Ferrieres ; Chart. Antlq. 
N. in dorfo. n. 37. 

(e) Dat. per manum Magiftri Guarini 
Prioris Locherons tunc aa^entis vicem Can* 
cellarij ; A. D. 1198. Neufi. P. p. 897. 

(f) Et idem Rex (R. I.) dedit Magiftro 
Euftachio Sigillifero fuo Archidiaconatum 
de Richemund. Ploved. P, 2. p. 767. 
K. 50. 

(s) Willelmus Epifcopus Elienfis Regis 
Cancellarias aegrotavit ufq; mortem — . lb. 
p. 769. n. 10. adann. %. R. i. 

{h) Eodem anno [viz. 8 R. I.] Ricar- 
dus Rex Anglije dedit Magiftro Euftachio 
Vicecancellario fuo Epifcopatum de Ely. 
lb. p. 770. n. 30. 

78 Of the GREAT Officers Chap. II. 

cellor, or Sigillifer, was (if I miflake not) for a long Time only aSubfti- 
tute or Vicegerent to the Chancellor. And there was a like Officer who 
came afterwards to be called the Chancellor's Lieutenant (i). Which 
Office of a Vice-Chancellor, Sigilltfe?', or Locumtenens Cancelhirijy gave 
rife (as one may guefs) to the Office of Ciijlos Sigilli, or Keeper of 
the great Seal. 

X. The Treafurer was another great Officer in the King's Court. 
He was ufually ftyled Thefaurariiis Regis. And was for the moft 
Part a Prelate or Eccleliaflical Perfon. For fome Time after the 
Conquell (if I do not err in my Obfervation) the chief Jufticier ufed 
to do many Aifls which afterwards pertained to the Treafurer's Office. 
By the Account that is given in Hiftory of the Anions of Odo Bi- 
fliop of Bayeiix and William Fitz OJbern chief Jufliciers in the Reign 
of K. William I. it feems that they managed the King's Revenue as 
well as prefided in his Court. The like may be faid of Ranulf 
Flambard in the Reign of K. William II. Henry de Huntendon and 
Roger de Hoveden fay, that RamelfwiLS conftituted by the King, P/a- 
citator ac totius regni Exacior fkj . Where, by Placitator, may be 
meant chief Juflicier j and by ExaBor, Intendant of the Revenue, 
or Treafurer. The fame may be obferved of Roger Biihop of Salef- 
bury, in the Reign of K. Henry I. he feems to have been chief Jufli- 
cier and Treafurer (if not Chancellor too) at the fame Time. He 
had the Care both of the Pleas and Treafure ; and governed the 
Realm like a Viceroy flj. About the Beginning of K. Stephe)is 
Reign, 'tis faid of Roger Bifhop of Salejhury, that for one of his two 
Nephews, he obtained of the King the Office of Chancellor, and 
for the other [viz. A^/^f// Bifhop oi Ely) the Office of Treafurer fmj. 
But, it feems, Nigell had been Treafurer to K. Henry I. fmmj. In 
the fame K. Stephen's Reign, Roger Bifliop of Salejhury and William 

(i) Soitmaunde al Chauncellour ou a Ton morabatur Normannias. Malm. H'lji. Nov. 

lieutenant, quil — &c. Ord'tnatio de Libert, L. 2. p. 184. n. 30. 

perquir. Tot. Vet. Statttta P. i.fol. 126. b. (t/i) in initio regni ejus [viz. R. 

(i) Hunt. L. 7. p. 378. n. i. Hvved. P. Stephani] nepotibus fuis, uni Cancellariain, 

I. p. 468. n. 20. alter! Thefaurariam, impetravit. Malm. lb. 

(I) — ipfum pofiremo Regnum fidei ejus p. 185. ;z. i. 

committere. Cancellarium in initio regni, (mm) Momchis [viz. cf Ely] petentibus multo poft Epifcopum Salcfberia; fecit, conceilit Rex Henricus, ut non alium fed 

Rogerius ergo agebat caufas, ipfe modera- quendam Clericum fuum Nigellum The- 

batiir expenfas, ipfe fervabat gazas. Hoc faurarium fuuni eligerent [i. e. in Epifco- 

quando Rex erat in Anglia, hoc fine focio pum]. Hi/i. Elyen. ap. Angl. Sac. T. 1. p. 

& telle, quando (quod crebro & diu accidit) 618. Dialog, de Scacc. L. 1. c. 8. Movet te ? 



Chap. II. of the K i n g's C o u r t. 79* 

de Pontearch are {iy\&^ Cujlodes Thefaurorum Regalium f^inj. About 
the fame Time, the Earl of Gloiicejier and Brient Fitz-Count are 
found adling as if they were Treafurers (^m) ; and William de Pon- 
tearch acting as if he was Chamberlain fn). In the Reign of K. 
Henry II. the Treafurer is more frequently and exprelly mentioned. 
During that Reign, he is often named amongft the Barons of the 
King's Exchequer (0). There was Richard the Treafurer in the i ith 
Year (pj, in the 16th Year (q), in the 26th Year (r), and in the 
31ft Year of that King (sj. He is ufually called Ricardus Thefaura- 
rius, without a Surname or other Diftin<5lion. And if the Treafurer 
mentioned in thofe feveral Years was one and the fame Perfon (I think 
it was the fame Perfon); he might be Ric/jard Son of A^/^t'// Bifhop of 
Ely. It feenis Bifliop Nigeli bought for him the Office of Treafurer of 
K. Henry II. for four hundred Pounds ftj. In the Annals of Wifi- 
chejier, Richard is ftyled Regis Henrici Apotecariiis, the King's Treafu- 
rer (u). This Richard the Treafurer was one of the Jufticiers Itine- 
rant appointed by K. Henry II, in the 25th Year of his Reign (w) : 
and adted as fuch, together with Nicholas Fitz-Ttirold and Robert de 
Witefeld (x). Richard Son of Nigeli was alfo Treafurer to K. Richard 
I. (y) ; by whom he was made Bifhop of London (^z). 'Tis true. 
Sir W. Diigdale, at the 24th Year of Hen. II, names Warin Fitz- 

(2 m) Malm. Hi/?. Nov. L. i. p. 178. 

(^m) Et in liberationibus Walter! E- 
fpec & Euftacij filij Johannis, duni fuerunt 
ad neceffaria Regis facienda in Epifcopatu, 
xxij s. & ix d. Et in prasterito anno quan- 
do Comes Gloeceftrae & Brientius filius 
Comitis audierunt compotum de thefauro, 
iiij 1. & iiij s. fine talea ad perficiendum 
plenaiium numerum. JUag, Rot. 5. Steph. 
Rot. 13 ^- in compoto de Epifcopatu Dun- 

(ti) Gaufridus Efcollandus r c de quater 
XX 1. & Lviij s. & vj d. de remanente firmae 
Epil'copatus de tempore Epifcopi. Sed de 
jflis habuit Willelmus de Pontearca xxx 1. 
dequibus reddidit compotum, quando Comes 
Gloeceftras & Brientius audierunt compo- 
tum de thefauro apud Wintoniam. lb. Rot. 
13. L 

(0) Pofthac, cap. ult. fell. 5. 

(p) Hie, cap. ult. fen. 5.. 

(q) lb. fea. 5. 

(r) Ib.feii. 5. 

(s) Idem Vicecomes reddit compotum 
de j Accipitre de Triuel ; Ricardo The- 

faurario liberavit ad cuftodiendum ad opus 
Regis, Per breve fuum, Et Q. e. Mag. 
Rot. 31. i7. 2. Rot. 13. b. Hcref. in Wal. 

(t) Cernens vero Epifcopus Nigellus 
Dominum Regem in tanto negocio pecunijs 
egere, condidlum accepit ab eo, atq; mi- 
nifterium inter Curiales videlicet Thefaura- 
rium emit quadringentis libris filio fuo Fran- 
cifco [leg. Ricardo] nomine, apud Monafte- 
riuni in Ely educato. Hijl. Elien. Angl. Sac. 
P. I. p. 627. 

(a) Ricardus Nigclli quondam Elienfis 
Epifcopi filius& Regis Henrici Apotecarius, 
& demum Londonienfis Epifcopus. Jngl. 
Sac. P. I. p. 304. 

(w) Hoved. P. 2. p. 590. n. 50. 

(.v) Nova Placita h Novse Conventiones 
per Ricardum Thefaurarium, ScNicholaum 
Filium Turoldi, & Rodbertum de Witefeld. 
Mag. Rot. 25. H. 2. Rot. 7. a. Et ibid, iir 
Dorfeta ; Rot. 8. a. Et in alijs Com. Ibid. 

(y) Hie, cap. ult. fcH. 6. 

(zj Whart. De Epifc. Loud. p. 70. 


So Of the G ^ z A T Officers Chap. II. 

Gerold as the King's Treafurer [a) ; in regard the King had granted to 
Warin, Cameram de thefaurofuo. But Warin (if I do not err) was the 
King's Chamberlain, and Richard a Clergyman was Treafurer both 
before and after that 24th Year j as is mentioned here above. During 
Part of K. Johns Reign, William de Ely was the King's Treafurer (b). 
It feems to have been the Part or Duty of the Treafurer in ancient 
Time, to adl with the other Barons at the Exchequer in the Go- 
vernance of the King's Revenue, to examine and control Accomptants, 
to diredl the Entries made in the great Roll, to attell the Writs iffued 
for levying the King's Revenue, to fupervife the ifluing and receiv- 
ing of the King's Treafure at the Receipt of Exchequer, and, in a 
Word, to provide for and take Care of the King's Profit. 

(a) Or'ig. Jur. in Chron. Serie p, 3. quod -. Alag. Rot. 3. J. Rot, 19. a. 

(b) Dugd^ Chron. ferles. Form. Anglic, VI. Londonia ^ Midd. 

Hie, cap. ult, fe£t. 7. Wilielmus de Ely Do- Et vid. Lib. Rub. Scacc. citatum inFra^at, 
mini Regis Thefaurarius debet dimidiam ad NobiiiJJ'. Dominwn, Car, D. Halifax, 
eiarcam, ut fcribatur in Magno Rotulo, 


[ 8i ] 


Of the Judicature of the King's Court. 

I. Of the principal Acceptations of the Phrnfe Curia Regis. ^ 

II. Of the fovereign Court of ordinary Judicature called Curia Regis; 

And of the Curia Regis ad Scaccarium. 

III. Of the ancient State of the great Judicature called Curia Regis. 

IV. Of the Original of that Judicature. 

V. Of the Perfons ivhofat and a5led therein. 

VI. Of the Fleas ifually pleaded and judged there. 

VII. Of other Bii/inefs tranfaSled there. 

VIII. Of the Privilege, not to be impleaded except in Curia Regis- 

IX. Of the like Privilege in Normandy. 

X. Of the Lif it ut ion of \ttvs. 

XI. Jiijiices Itinerant in Normandy. 

XII. Of the Iter Regis. 

I. TTJEFORE we come to treat of the Judicature of the King's 
XJ Court, it will be convenient to premife a few Things, in or- 
der to explain and afcertain what we mean by this Phrafe, The King's 
Court. In ancient time the Phrafe Curia Regis had ufually a twofold 
Application. Firft, It was ufed to fignify the King's Palace or Place 
of Refidence. This was its firft and principal Meaning. In this Senfe 
it is taken in many of the Inftances rehearfed in the firft Chapter of 
this Volume, which treats of the King of England's Court. So that 
the Confideration of that Matter need not be refumed here. 

II. Curia Regis fometimes fignified the King's chief or fovereign 
Court of ordinary Judicature. In ancient Records and Memorials 
written in the Times near after the Norman Conqueft, frequent men- 
tion is made of this Curia Regis. At that Time (as it feems) there 
was but one fupreme ordinary Court of Judicature in this Realm : 
which was properly and by way of Eminence ftyled Curia Regis, be- 
caufe it was holden in the King's Palace, before himfelf or his Chief 
Jufticier. By this Name it was diftinguiflied from all other fubordi- 
nate Courts ; whether they were the King's Courts pertaining to any 

Vol. I. M of 


Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

of his Honours or Manours ; or the Courts of inferior Lords, per- 
taining to any of their Honours, Baronies, or Manours ; or the Coun- 
ty-Courts, Hundred-Courts, &c. and even from the Courts holden 
before the King's Jufticiers Errant. In the Reigns of KK. Henry II, 
Richard I, and afterwards, we find innumerable Inftances of Pleas 
and Proceedings mentioned to be had in Curia Regis : many of which 
are to be feen in Books already printed ; and many others in this Vol- 
ume. And whether, in tholc Inftances, the fupreme Court of ordi- 
nary Judicature above mentioned be not in all likelihood meant, the 
Reader may judge when he has confidered the State of the Cafe, and 
the Way of Speaking ufed in thofe Times. Of this Judicature we 
fliall treat more largely by and by. Again j fometimes the Exche- 
quer was called Curia Regis or rather Curia Regis ad Scaccarium. Anno 
\\H. II, the Monks of £^ fined to the Crown in xl Marks, that the 
Barons of the Exchequer might certify to the King being then in 
Normand\', that they (the Monks) had recovered the Manor of Stoke 
againft Roger dc Muntchenefi and his Wife in Curia fua [i. e. i^.-^g'/J'] 
{a). In the 29th Year of K. Henry 11, a final Concord was had in 
the Kings Court at Wejlminjler at the Exchequer, between the Prior 
and Tvlonks of Rochejier-j and Juliaria Daughter of Fulk de Ne-ujeham 
and Robert her Son, concerning the Advoufon of the Church of North- 
tone [b). And in the 9th Year of K. Richardl, a Fine was levied on 
the Sunday next after the Feaft of St. Mark, in Curia Regis apudWeji- 
monajierium ad Scaccarium, before H. Archbifiiop of Canterbury and fix 
others (c). When therefore a Thing was done (in thofe Times) at 
the Exchequer, it might properly be faid to be done in the Kings 

[a) Prior & Monachi Elyenfis Ecclefiae 
dcbent xl marcas, Ut Barones de Scaccario 
inandent Regl in Normannia, quod ipfi 
difrationaverunt Terram de Stoka, vcrfus 
Rogerum de Muntchenefi [&...] uxorem 
ejus in Curia fua. Mag. Rot. 14. H. 2. 
Rot. 7. a. Cbantebrugefclra iff Huntcndone- 

[b) Hsec eft Finalis Concordia fafta in 
Curia Domini Regis apud Weftmonafterium 
ad Scaccarium, in fefto S. Michaelis anno 
vicefimo nono regni Regis Henrici fecundi 
tlie Dominica proxima ante feftum Omnium 
Sanftorum, coram R. Wintonienfi, & G. 
Elienfi, &c J. Norwicenfi, Epifcopis, & Go- 
defrido de Lucy, & Ricfirdo Thefaurario, 
& Rogerofilio Remfridi,& Willelmo Baflet, 
& Rannulfo de Geddyng, & Roberto de 


Wytefeld, & Michaele Belet, & alijs Baro- 
nibus Domini Regis ibi tunc prasfentibus ; 
Inter Priore?-n & Monachos de Roffa, Et 
Julianam filiam Fulconis de Neweham & 
Robertum de Champeynes filium ipfius Ju- 
lianae, de Advocatione Ecclefia; de North- 
tone; Unde recognitio fummonita fuit inter 
eos in Curia Domini Regis ; Scilicet quod 
pr3edi(9:a Juliana & Robertas filius fuus de- 
derunt & conceflerunt prs:di<3:o Priori & 
Monachis Advocaaonem praedidtae Ecclefije 
de Northtone, & conceflerunt Advocatio- 
nemquam Fulco pater praedivSta: Julians eis 
fecit de prsfata Ecclefia. Ex. Regijiro Tem- 
poralium Ecclef. ^ Ep'ifcopatus Roffen.fol. 47, 
y 48. 

(c) Dugd. Chron. Scries ad enn. ill. 


chap. III. ^ /y6^ K r N g's C o u R T. B3 

Court at the Exchequer. For the Exchequer was wont to be holden 
in the King's Palace, either before the King or his Jufticier. Some 
amongft the Moderns (particularly, Serjeant Fleetwood, formerly Re- 
corder of Londo}i) have thought, that anciently there was but one fu- 
perior Court, and that that Court was the Exchequer. This Obfcr- 
vation partly agrees witli v/hat I have above advanced ; but it wants 
fome Explication. The Exchequer is not to be confounded with the 
Curia Regis. For though it was holden in the Kings Court, and was 
in EfFed: a Member thereof: yet it v/as exprefly diftinguiflied from 
the Curia Regis. For Inftance : in Norfolk and Suffolk, there were 
Pleas in the Kings Court before William Fitz-Ralf ■^nd his Com- 
panions [d) ; there were Pleas before Ralf Fitz-Stephen, William 
Fitz-Stephen, Roger Fit z-Reinfrey, and Robert Mantel, Juftices Errant 
in Suffolk [e] ; and there were alfo Pleas at the Exchequer ffj. In thefe 
Citations, the Pleas arifmg in the King's Court, and in the Court of 
the Juftices Errant, and in the Exchequer, are ranked under their 
refpedtive Heads or Titles ; and are evidently diftinguiihed from one 
another. Again ; in Line olnfl Are, there were Pleas in the Kings Court 
(g) ; and Pleas before Juftices Errant (/6) ; and Pleas at the Exche- 
quer (z). The like Method mutatis mutandis of ranging and diftin- 
guifliing the refpedive Pleas of the King's Court, of the Iters, and of 
the Exchequer, is ufed in other Years of K. Henry II {k) ; the En- 
tries whereof need not be here cited at large, in regard they run in 
the lame Words with the Record of the 25 H. II. juft above quoted. 
So that it feems the Curia Regis and the Exchequer are properly to be 
diftinguiflied from one another, though they were both of them hol- 
den in the King's Palace. But in what Manner the Chief Jufticier, 
who prefided Loth in the Curia Regis and in the Exchequer, ordered 
or diftributed between thofe two Courts, the feveral Pleas that were 
brought into the fuperior Judicature, I cannot determine. At pre- 
fent, we will proceed to fpeak concerning the fuperior Court of Ju- 
dicature the Curia Regis : and touching it, we will enquire into thefe 

(d) De Placitis Curias, per Willelmum [h) Nova Placita & Novx Conventiones, 

filium Radiilfi & Socios ejus. Mag. Rot. i^. per ipfum Vicecomiteni [viz. Willelmum 

H. 2. Rot. 2. a. Norf. &Sudf. Baffet], & Robertum de Vallibus, & Mi- 

■ (e) Nova Placita & Novae Conventiones chaelcm Belet, & Bertram de V^erdun. lb. 
per Radulfum filium Stephani, & Willel- (i) De Placitis ad Scaccarium. lb. 

mum filium Stephani, & Rogerum filium (k) Mag. Rot. 26. H. 1. Rot. 4. a. Line: 

Reinfredi, & Robertum Mantel, in Sud- Mag. Rot. 27. H. 2. Rot. 4. a. Line. : Mag. 

folch. 3. Rot.2S. H. 2. Rot. 5. a. Line: Mag. Rot. 

(f) De Placitis ad Scaccarium. lb. 29. H. 2. Rot. 6. a. Line: Mag. Rot. 30. 

(g) De Placitis Curias, lb. Rot. 5. a. Line. H. 2. Rot. 2. a Line. 

M 2 following 

84 Oft^eJvDiCATVR^ Chap. III. 

following Particulars : I. The ancient State of this high Judicature j 
II. The Original of it ; III. The Perfons who prefided and adled 
therein ; IV. The Pleas appropriated or referved to it. 

III. Firft, as to the ancient State of this high Judicature which 
was ftyled the King's Court. It will, no doubt, be found very hard 
to fet forth particularly and diftindtly the Nature of that Court, and 
in what manner Juftlce was difpenfed therein, in the moft ancient 
Times next after the Conqueft; partly through the want of Records 
and hiftorical Memoires, and partly by Reafon of the great Diftance 
of Time. So that I muft content myfelf to propofe fome Conjectures, 
by Way of Effay, in the Cafe. Wherein if I happen to be unaccu- 
rate or miftaken, the Obfcurity of the Subjea will, I fuppofe, pro- 
cure me Excufe amongft candid Readers, Let us then take a fliort 
View of the King's Court with refpeft to its Judicature. We may 
confider the King as fovereign or chief Lord of this Realm (/), and 
the Fountain of Juftice (m), to his Subjects, refiding in his royal Pa- 
lace, and attended by his Barons and great Officers both of the Clergy 
and Layity. The Liege-men of his Kingdom bring their Complaints 
or Caufes before him as fupreme Arbiter and Judge, to be determin- 
ed in his Court or Palace, wherein was the Seat of the fupreme Ju- 
dicature. Thefe Caufes were heard and judged either before the 
King himfelf, or elfe (moft ufually) before his Chief Jufticier, or be- 
fore him together with fome others who were ftyled Jujlicice or Jtif- 
ticiers. When the King went beyond the Sea (which frequently 
happened during the Period of Time we are now confidering), he 
was wont to conftitute fome one or more great Men to reprefent him 
in Government and Adminiftration of Juftice («) ; if one ; that Per- 
fon was ufually ftyled Jtijiicia, Regis Jujficia or Jujiiciarius, Capitalis 
Jujlicia or Jujiiciarius, and Jujiiciarius AngUce ; if more than one, their 
Style was the fame plurally. And fuch Jufticier in the King's Ab- 
fence had a Power refembling the Regal. For he prefided both in 
Government and Adminiftration of Juftice. Howbeit, that Power of 
his, in Point of Adminiftration of Juftice, was fometimes in particu- 
lar Cafes reftrained or fuperfeded, if the King thought fit. For the 
King, whilft he was beyond-Sea, would fometimes interpofe, and 

(J) All lands and tenements are holden de trefilluftre & renomee Roigne Elizabeth, 

either mediately or immediately of the le Fountain de toute Juftice & la Vie de la 

King; for originally all lands and tenements Ley. Cok. Rep. P. i.titkp. Thellke intitlep-,. 

were derived from the Crown. Cok. i Injiit. of P. 2. P. 3. & feqq. 
fol. 98. a. («) Cap. I. & cap. 2. 

l^tn\ durant le treflieureux regiment 


chap. III. (j/' //5^ K I N g's C o u R T. 85 

either by his Writs De ultra mare, or in fome other Manner, diredt 
what fliould be done in fome Caufes, or fufpend the Judgment of his 
Jufticier therein, till his next Return into England, or till fome other 
Time which he thought meet to prefcribe. Of thefe Matters, fome 
Examples may be feen in this Chapter and elfewhere in thefe Volumes. 
And I will here fubjoin two or three Inftances, to fhew in general 
the Nature of thefe Writs De ultra inare. Robert de Rofs was indebt- 
ed to the King in Dxxxiij /. and half a Mark. But the Demand 
thereof was refpited till the King's return into England, by the King's 
Writ de ultra mare {0). Hugh de Lacys Town of Briiford was charg- 
ed with ten Marks, for harbouring an Outlaw. Which Debt was 
remitted by Vertue of a Writ of Richard de Luci Chief Jufticier, 
grounded on the King's Writ de ultra mare (pj. Simon de Beauchamp 
was allowed x Marks for the like Sum paid by him to Philip de 
Haukechirch to the King's Ufe, by Vertue of a Writ de tdtra mare 
fent by the King when he was in Germany, to the Barons of the Ex- 
chequer {q). And William de Bocland Sheriff of Cornwall, being 
amerced at xxx/. for making a Default of fix Days in his Accomptj 
the fame was remitted to him by Writ of Hubert Archbifliop of 
Canterbury Chief Jufticier by Vertue of the King's Writ de ultra mare 
[r). The like Writs de ultra mare (if my Obfervation does not fail 
me) were alfo ufed in the Cafe of Pleas {/). If the King, when he was 
prefent in the Realm and fat in Judgment, did not determine all the 
Caufes that were brought before him, his Jufticier (or Jufticiers) de- 
termined the fame. However, if the Jufticier did not do right 
Juftice, the Party might, as I take it, afterwards refort to the King> 
himfelf. In this Cafe of Application to the King's Court, we may 

(0) Robertus de Rofs debet D h xxxiiji. Per breve Regis de Ultra mare quod venit- 

&vjs. &viiij d. Sed funt in refpe(3u donee Baronibus, decomputandis debitis & finibus 

Rex redeat in Angliam ; per breve Regis de ei folutis dum Rex fuit in Alemannia ; quas 

Ultra mare. Mag. Rot. 6. H. 2. Rot. 3. «. idem Philippus warantizavit fe recepiiTe ; 

Everwicfcira. Quod breve eft in forulo Marcfcalli anni 

{p) Bruford r c de x marcis, pro recepti- noni in Norhantefcira ; Et Q^ e. Mag. Rot. 

one cmufdam utlagati celata & poftea recog- 9. R. 1. Rot. 14. b, Buk. bf Bedef. 
nita ; In perdonis, per breve Ricardi de (r) Willelmus de Bocland r cdexxxl. 

Luci per breve Regis de Ultra mare, Hu- de JVIifericordiaprodefalta vj dierum quibus 

goni de Laci x marcae, Et Q^ e. Mag. non venit ad reddendum compotumfuum de 

Rot. 14. H. 2. Rot. II. a. JVtlt. Comitatu CornubiEe : In Perdonis ipfi Wil- 

[q) Simon de Bello Campo r c de X mar- lelmo xxxl. per breve H. Cantuarienfis 

cis, pro habenda terra quae vocatur La Sele Archiepifcopi per breve Regis de Ultra 

de. Bedeford, & prato quod vocatur Kingef- mare, Et Q. e. Mag. Rot. 7. R. 1. Rot. 16. 

med cum pertinentijs; in Thefauro Nichil ; a. Buk. &' BeJcf.'\ 

Et Magiftro Phiiippo [de Hauekechirche] x (i) Vid. ante. Cap. 2. Seii. 2. ad anil. 1 162. 

marcas ad opus Regis, per Breve Regis ; R^ Comes Legrecelbise. 


86 . Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

fuppofe the Party fuing for Relief, did ufually obtain it in this Man- 
ner. He paid or undertook to pay the King a Fine or Fines, to have 
ynJHtiam or RcSium in his Court: and thereupon he obtained (/) 
Writs or Precepts, by Means whereof he purfued, and recovered or 
fettled his Right. Thofe Writs or Precepts were made out under the 
King's Seal. And for the making and iffuing of them (and for other 
Services), the King ufed to have near his Perfon or in his Court, 
lome great Man (commonly a Bifl:iop or Clergyman) who was called 
his Chancellor, and had the keeping of his Seal. The Chancellor had 
under him certain Clerks, employed in making out thofe Writs. 
W'"hence it came to pafs in Procefs of Time, that in Law-proceedings, 
the King's Chancery was the Spring or firfl Mover, and the. principal 
or original Writs (for the introducing of Caufes) were called Writs 
of the Chancery. Befides the Chancellor, the Kings oi England [fvon\ 
the Time they began to ufe a LelTer or Privy Seal) had another great 
Officer in their Court, to v.'hom belonged the Care of making or 
fealing fome forts of Writs or Precepts, ufed alfo in the King's Courts 
of Juftice after the Divifion of the Courts, called Writs of the Privy 
Seal. And that Officer was the Clerk or Keeper of the King's lefs or 
Privy Seal. But it may fuffice juft to mention him here ; becaufe I 
have met with few Memoires concerning the Privy Seal that fall 
within this firfl Period. However, it appears that a Privy Seal was 
ufed in this Period, to wit, in the Time of K. yohn. For when Phi- 
lipp Marc Sheriff of the Counties of Notingbam and Derby was upon 
his Accompt in the Exchequer, he had the Sums following (amongft 
others) difcounted to him ; to wit, C Marks which he had paid to 
Robert de Viepont by Vertue of* Letters Patent of K. yohn, and xlv 
Marks which he had paid to Geoffrey de Nevill, in Part of CC Marks 
which the fame K. John by Letters Patent fealed with his Privy Seal 
had commanded him to pay to Geoffrey [li). To proceed : the whole 
Juftice of the Realm was primarily and originally the King's {w) -, 


(t) Hence probably fprung the Phrafe (well funt in Thefauro. Mag. Rot. 6. H. 3. Rot, 

known in the Common Law) of Purchafing a 3. b. 
Ip'rit. [w) Cum autem de regimine Sacerdotij 

(«) Et Roberto de Veteri Ponte C mar- nihil pertineat ad traflatuni iftum, ideo vi- 

cas, per Literas ejufdem Regis J. patentes dendum erit de ijs quae pertinent ad Reg- 

quae funt in Thefaiiro; Et Nicholaae de num ; Quis primo & principaliter poffit <?c 

Haya xx marcas, per breve ejufdem Regis dcbeatjudicare : Et fciendum quod infe Rex 

quod eft in Thefauro ; Et Galfrido de Neo- & non alius, fi folus ad hoc fufHcere poflit, 

vill xlv marcas, de CC marcis quas idem cum ad hoc per virtutem facramenti teneatur 

Rex prascepit ei liberari, per Literas ipfius adftridtus. Brail. L. 3. c. 9. §. i. fol, 107 

patentes figillatas privato figillo fuo quas Id. L. 3. c. 10. §. i./o/. 108. 


chap. III. of the K i n g's Court. 


and his Court the Seat of the fovereign Judicature. The immediate 
Relation this Judicature had to the King and his Court, will I fup- 
pofe appear from the Account given of the Kings Court and the Pro- 
ceedings therein, in this Volume. Which exadtly agrees with the 
Account given of it by Glanvill in the Book De Legibus & Conftietudd. 
Anglice. There, in the Writs and Precedents mentioned by him, the 
fuperior Court is ufually. called Curia mea, (or. Regis), Capitalis Curia, 
^nd Principalis Curia {x) ; and is reprefented as holden before the King 
or his JulHciers. The fame thing may alfo appear by the Application 
which was wont to be made, to the King, or the Jufticiers on his Behalf, 
for Juflice in his Court. For fometimes Litigants croffed the Seas, when 
the King was in foreign Parts, to lay their Plaints before him. As 
in the Reign of K. He^iry I. there being a Difcord between William 
Archbilhop of Car.terbury and Alexander Bifliop of Lincoln ; and the 
King being then beyond- Sea, both the Litigants croffed the Sea, to 
lay the Affair in Difpute before the King (yj : and in the Reign of 
K. Richard I; there being a Controverf)' between Geoffrey Archbifhop 
of Tork, and Simon the Dean and the Canons of Tork, the Litigants 
went over and laid the Matters in Debate before the King at A7ideU 
in Normandy {z). But that Application to the King for Juflice may, 

I fup- 

Jiiftic. Itinerantibus. lb. L. 8. c. 5. In- 
quirentur autem hujufmodi purprefturse,vcl 
in Capitali Curia, vel coram Jiifticijs Re- 
gis in diverfas Regni partes tranfmiflis. lb. ■ 
X. 9. c. II. cum non attendam nifi ad 

Omnis Regni juftitia folius Regis eft, & a 
folo ipfo (fi fufliceret ad tantam molem) 
adminiftranda. Spcim. Glojfar. in voce, Can- 
cellarius, p. loj. col. i. 

Pur ceo que nous ne fuffifons mye en nof- 
tre propre perfone a oyer &: terminer toutes 
quereles del people &c. Briton, /hi. i. a. 

(*•) de qua placilum eft inter eos in 

Curia mea, & diem captionis Jufticijs meis 
fcire facias. Glanv. L. i.e. 13. — de qua 
placitum fuit in Curia mea, inter ipfam & 
R, quia feifina iiiius terrse adjudicate eft ei- 
dem M. in Cuiia mea. lb. L. 1. ca. 17. 
Qtiod contingit in Civili ncgocio, de Fine 
faiilo in Curia Domini Regis coram Rege 
vel Jufticijs ejus, non obfervato, & in novis 
difleifinis ; lb. L. 1. <:. 31. — quia idem R. 
dirationavit terram illam in Curia mea. lb. 
L. 2. c. 20. Poteft autem transferri hujuf- 
modi loquela, aComitatu ad Capitalem Cu- 
riam Domini Regis, pluribus de caulis ; Et 
quando fie transtertur loquela aliqua ad Cu- 
riam, tunc fummonenda eft utraquc pars. 
lb. L. 6. c. 8. y L. 12. c. I. Diftinguen- 
dum eft utrum Concordia illafacSa fuerit in 
Capitali Curia Domini Regis, an coram 

ea quE in Capitali Curia Regis fieri foleant 
& debeant. lb. L. 12. c. 23. Defurtis au- 
tem , ad praefens juxta propofili mei 

exigentiam, quod Principalem folummodo 
attendic Curiam, tra^flare non decuit ; lb. 
L. 14. c. 8. 

Et tunc in voluntate Domini Regis vel 
ejus Judic. erit. lb. L. I. c. 33. Et unde 
placitum eft inter eos in Curia ir.ea ; 5c ha- 
beas quatuor ex illis coram me vel Juftic. 
meis eodie; lb. L. 2. c. 2. £3" 11. Rex Ar- 
chiepifcopo; Veniens coram me, W. in Cu- 
ria mea petijt ; lb. L. 7. c. 14. 

(y) Hoc anno transfretavit Archiepifco- 
pus Willelmus, & Alexander Lincollnienfis 
Epifcopus ad Regem, prodifcordia quas in- 
ter eos erat pro quibufdam confuetudinibus 
parochiaruip fuarum. Hunt. L. 7. p. 385. 
n. 10. 

(s) Eodem anno [iig8], GaufridoEbo- 
raci Archieplfcopo & Simone Decano una 


88 0/ ^/^^ J u D I c A T u R E. Chap. III. 

I fuppofe, the moft evidently appear by the Fines ufually proffered 
and given upon Account of Law-proceedings ; many of which Fines 
were made with the King in Normandy, or in his Transfretation thi- 
ther, or in fome Parts of England where he travelled or refided at 
the refpeftive Times of fining. Of which Kind of Fines we fliall 
treat more largely hereafter [a). After Pleas were brought into the 
King's Court, the Judgment given therein, was deemed the Judgment 
of the King himfelf. It was alfo called the Judgment of his Court ; it 
being given or pronounced by the King or his Juflicier, with the Advice 
of his Barons and great Men AffelTors in his Court. In the Cafe of 
Alfonfo King of Cajlile and Sanchez King of Navarre : the Matters in 
Difpute between thofe two Kings were referred to the Judgment of 
Henry II. King of Efzg/and : and when Judgment was given therein 
in the King's Court, it is ftyled by the Hill:orian in one Place, the 
Judgment of the Earls and Barons of the King of England's Court 
(6), and in the next Page in the fame Hiflorian, it is ftyled the Judg- 
ment of the King oi England (cj. If the Caufe brought into thei^/>/^'j- 
Court was of ordinary Importance, 'tis probable, that it was ufually 
xlifpatched by the high Jufticier or other Barons and Julliciers, who 
had Leifure from the King's other Bufmefs to attend upon it : but 
that, if it was of great Importance, it was confidered and judged in a 
fuller Affembly. For as things of Weight were, according to the 
Ufage of thofe Times, generally done with Solemnity : fo it is like- 
ly, that they were done with greater or leffer Solemnity, according 
as they were of greater or leffer Weight. Which I think was alfo 
the ufual Method in thofe Times in the King's Exchequer. 

Let no Man fuppofe it to be a novel Ufage, for Kings to fit per- 
fonally in Judicature. On the contrary, it is a very ancient one, 
and conformable to the Law and Pratftice of Nations in many Ages : 
of this it may fuffice to produce here a few Inffances. Solomon King 
of IJrael, a wife and magnificent Prince, adjudged perfonally in the 
Caufe of the two Women, one of whom had a living Child, and 
the pther a dead one (d). Demetrius Poliorcetes King of Macedon 


cum Canonicis Eboraci in prrefentia Domi- judicio in Curia fua fafto inter Regem Caf- 

ni Ricardi Regis Anglia;, in Normannia telUe & Navarra;. And in the Charter it is 

apud Andeli conflitutis , unufquifq; propo- /aid, plenariam utriq; parti rcflitutio- 

nebat iujurias fibi hinc& inde illatas. Hoved. nem adjudicavimus . lb. />. 565. n. 30. 

P. 2. p. 780. ri. 50. and prefently after vos praedidlum judi- 

(a) Hie, Cap. 3. Se£i. 6. h Cap. 12. cium noftrum obfervaturos. Ih. n. i^o. 
i^c. (d) Then came there two Women that 

(b) Comites & Baroncs Regalis Curiae were Harlots unto the King, and ftood be- 

Anglire adjudicaverunt . Hoved. P. 2. fore him. And the one Woman faid, &c-. 

p. 564. n. 50. And all Ifrael heard of the Judgment which 

(c) Charta Henrici Regis Angliae, de the King had judged, and they feared the 

4 King ; 

Chap. III. of the K i n g's Court. 


" That as he pafied 
and leveral Times 

heard Caufes in Perfon. It is related of him, 
** along, an ancient Woman importuned him, 
** urged him to give her a Hearing. He anfvvered, he was not at 
*' Leifure. She replied. Then be not a King. Her Words ftruck 
** his mind. He pondered them as he went to his houfe. And 
*' ftraitway laying afide all other Things, he begun with the Wo- 
*' man's Bufmefs, and fpent feveral Days upon that and other Caufes. 
*« For there is nothing fo becoming a King as the Work of admi- 
" niflring Juftice. For Mars may be compared to a Tyrant -, the 
*' Law to a King : Kings having the Cuftody of the Laws commit- 
** ted to them by yupiter (e). 

OBavins Ccefar Aiigiijlus heard Caufes in Perfon, " He himfelf 
»' (faith the Hiftorian) heard Caufes with great Diligence, and fome- 
** times fat till Night (which at that Time was unufual). " If he 
*« was indifpofed, his Couch was placed at the Tribunal, or elfe he 
" would do Juftice in his Chamber, or Houfe, lying. He admi- 
*' niftred Juftice, not only with great Induflry, but alfo with equal 
" Lenity, &c. (f)!' Tiberius Clmidhis Ccefar heard Caufes in Perfon, 
in the Forum Aiigujli (gj. Nero Claudius Ccejlir heard Caufes in Per- 
fon (h). So did T^beodofius the Emperor. Sozomen, in his dedicatory 


King; for they faw that the Wifdom of tsV ^acriXar "Oixr^ol; (pflo-iv iy. Wiirohnz 
God was in hiin to do Judgment, i Kings ^^^ ,^-, ;^.«\y.„'paf dWa ^l.airar ^-^ ra' 

3. 16. ad Jin. cap. 

Becaufe thy God loved Ifrael, to 

eftablifh them for ever, therefore made he 
thee [i. e. Solomon] King over them to do 
Judgment and Juftice. 2 Chron. g. 8. 

A divine Sentence is in the Lips of the 
King ; his Mouth tranfgrefleth not in Judg- 
ment. Prov. 16. 20. 

{e) Ka/ TTOTs tirp£C7|3uTsp« yhuaia xott- 
^ov^(^ auTOv oi> Trapat^a Tivi k^ d^icfj^a 
7!oXKa.M; d^ni^bjjai-, (pn'crarjU)] p/oXa^«v, 
ify-payovl©' huava, Jy M»]' liaah^dn 

"j^ip)^©^ avfips-v|/sv Hf tLw lixlav, )y 
Travla Ticinvap}^^ ur£p«, To7f 'dTI'j^^uv 
^aXc/x^Joir, ap^a'jM/^©' ^tto 'f -arpftr- 
(i^licP©^ c/KavKir, ETTf TToXXaf iiV-spar 
jcyoXacsv. ifcTiv yap brcof tzS (iaavXa 
7rpcff«V.oy wj TO -f cf/xrif spyov. 'Apnr p^yj 
}'j TU(0^vv©', cuf (fno-i TipicS-s©*. VO,U©' 

Aiof Xa/.t|3avov1as-. P/iit. Opera T. i.p. 
989. D. hi vita DemetriJ. 

(f) Ipfe jus dixit aflidue, & in nodem 
nonnunquam : Si parum corpora valeret 
lecftica pro tribunali collocata, vel etiam 
domi Cubans. Dixit autem jus non dili- 
gentia modo fumma, fed & Icnitate : Si- 
quidem, &c. Sucton. in vita D. O^. Caf. 
Aug. p. 207. Idem in vita ejvfd. p. 295. 

(g) Cognofcens quondam in Auguili fo- 
ro, itlufq; nidore prandij quod in proxima 
Martis ;edc Salijs apparabatur, defcrto tri- 
bunali, afcendit ad ficcrdotes unaq; difcu- 
buit. Siut. in vit. Claud, drf. p. 553, 554. 

(h) In cognofcendo, morem eum ttnuit, 
ut continuis aftionibus omifTis figillatim 
qujeque per vices agerct. Quoties autcm 
ad confuhandam fecedcret, neq; in com- 
mune quidquam neq; propalam dcliberabat: 
Sed & confcriptas ab unoquoq; fciitentias 
tacitus ac fecreto Ico^ens, quod ipfi libuifFct 

c'^t Trav^cov i3fto-(X4jV xj' n/vcWgv, Ish. k, Yaunde atq; pluribus idem videietur, pro- 
Voi. I. -y ^ 3 ^ nuntiabat. 

9© 0/* //6^ J u D I c A T u R E Chap. III» 

Epiftle to. him, faith thus; "In the Day-time (I hear) you are 
" bufied in Arms and corporal Exercifes, and in regulating the Bu^ 
" fincfles of your Subjeds, fometimes adjudging Caufes, and fomer 
" times ifTuing neceffary Difpatches [or Precepts] (ij." There was 
the like Ufage amongft the Franks, Burgundians, Lombards^ and 
others. In thefe Countries, the Prince's Palace was the chief Seat 
of Judicature 5 and he adminiftred Juftice to his Subjeds, either in 
his own Perfon, or elfe by his Proceres, or by his Mi/Ji Dominict, or 
his Tufticiers of fome Denomination or other. And the Princes of 
thefe Countries ufed to order, if they fo pleafed, certain Caufes to be 
heard or judged before themfelves and no other Judges ; in like Man- 
ner as the Kings of England after the Conqueft fometimes did. In 
or about the Year 68 o, a Woman named Acchildis came before Theo- 
dorlck King of the Franks in his Court at Compeigne, and brought a 
Suit or Plaint againft one Amalgarhis , for Land. Amalgarius pleaded 
that he and his Anceflors had been in PoiTeflion of the Land for one 
and thirty Years part. Whereupon it was adjudged by the King's 
Proceres [in his Court], that Ai.algarms fliould hold the Land, in 
cafe he came by fuch a Time, and made good his Plea by his own 
Oath, and the Oaths of certain Perfons his Confacramentals. Amal- 
garius came within the Time prefixed, and made Oath in the King's 
Palace in Form aforefaid. And thereupon the King, by his Precept 
hereunder cited, adjudged and ordered Amalgarius to continue in 
quiet Poflellion of the Land (k). In many other Cafes, Pleas were 


nuntiabat. Id. in vlt. Neronis, p. 589, netore fuo Gacltramno quondam femper 

59c. tenuerant & poiliderant, Ac ci ob hunc a 

(i) $<ao-| J'i ffi ixi^' riixipj.-) p^J ra. noftris Procerebus ipfius Amalgario fuifiet 

TD^P] raoVXa lAro aii:j.a airxav, K, rd'^J jodecatum, ut de novo denominatus aput 

> p' n o'o , ', n„ J) V fe fua mano feptima dies duos ante iltas Car 

f/-,^^.^, ^ , Vi % r\\ lendas JuJias in Oratorio noltro luper cap- 

cvla Ts -^ a xjr> ye^^cvla. Sozm. Oral. p^„^ ^•;,^;^. ^,i3rti„i^ ^bi ,el,qua facra- 

ad Imp. Theodoflim, p. sg^. A. y,^^.^ percurribant, hxc dibiret conjurare, 

(k) Theudencus Rex trancorum vir in- ^^^^ antedida terra in prxdiaoloco Badi- 

lufter. Cum ante hos dies in nollra vel Hone valle inter ipfo Amalgario vel genetore 

procerum noftrorum prafentia Compendio f^^ Gaeitramno de anno triginta & uno 

in palatio noftro refideremus, ibiq; veniens fem.per tenuiflint & poffediffint, nee eis. 

fimena nomine Acchildis, Amalgario :nter- (Jiger) numquam fuillet, nee alius exinde 

pelavit dum dieerit, eo quod porcions lua i,o„ redibirit, nifi edonio facramento. Sed 

in villa noncubante Bactihone valle quem yeniens ante didus Amalgarius ad ipfo pla- 

de parte genetricis fuas Bertanae quondam (-ito Lufjreca in palatio noftro, una cum 

Icgibus obvenive debuerat, poft fe malo or- heredis fuos ipfo facramento jufta quod ei- 

dene retenirit. Qui ipfe Amalgarius taliter jg^i tuit judicatum, & noftras equalis prse- 

dedit in refpunfis, eo quod ipfa terra in ceptionis locuniur, in quantum inluller vir 

prasdifto loco Baftilione valle de annos tri- Drudoaldus Com. Pahitij nofter teftimoni- 

ginta & uno inter ipfo Amalgario vel ge- a^jt, ligaliter vifus fuit adimpliflit, & tarn 


chap. III. ^ /y5t' Ki N g's Co u RT. 91 

moved before the King or his Nobles (I). In Marculfus there is 
a Formula for a Prologue or Exordium, to be ufed in the Proccfles 
when the King gave Judgment in a great Caufe brought before him. 
It runs thus : •' He to whom God hath committed the Care of Go- 
*' vernment, ought to difcufs diligently the Caufes of Complainants; 
** that fo, according to the Allegations and Proofs, a right Sentence 
*' may be given between the Parties : wherefore, when we, in tlie 
" Name of God, fat in our Palace at fuch a Place, to hear and 
" judge the Caufes of all Men, together with the Lords and Fathers, 
** our Bilhops Jiich, or our Optimatcs fuch. Fathers fuch, Referen- 
*' daries fuch, Domejiici fuch, Scnifcaki fuch. Chamberlains fucht 
" Comes Palatij fuch, or other our Vaffals fuch ; there came before 
*' us fuch a one, who complained againfl; fuch a one, and alledged 
*' fo or fo (mj." The like Formulce, mutatis mutandis, were ufed in 
like cafes. For Example : " Our Subjed: fuch an one came before 
" our Prefence, and fuggefted to us fo." And, " Wherefore do 
" you appear before our Prefence fuch a Day, and anfwer to fuch an 
" Allegation (ji) ." Charles the Great fometimes adjudged in Caufes 
in his Palace, whilft his Shoes and Clothes were putting on (0).. It 


ipfe quam Hamedia fua dilinguas eorum de- 
rexiflint. Propterea jobimus, ut ipfo por- 
cione in prsdiflo loco Baclilione valle, 
unde inter eus orta fuit intencio, niemora- 
tus Amalgarius contra ipfa Acchilde vel fuis 
heredibus omne tempore abiat evindicata. 
Audimbertus recognovit. Datum fub die 
fegundo Kalendas Julias, annum VII. rigni 
r.oftri, Lufareca in Dei nomine feliciter. 
Mab'ill. de re Diplom. L. 6. p. 470. SeSI. 11. 
Notat. ibid. Ex autographo Dionyfiano. 
Anno 680. 

(I) Cum in noftra vel procerum noftro- 
rum prsefcntia, homo nomine llle itemq; 
hominem nomine Ilium interpellaflet quafi 

fervo fuo nomine illo . // end;. Interim 

vero ulq; in ipfo placito, quia nee utra pars 
ex ipfis vi<5la At apparet, unde squales pr.-e- 
ccptiones eis fieri & accipere juffimus. For- 
?mda Vett. Marculfi I2 alior. edit, ab Hiero- 
nymo Bignonio. p. 46, 47. Seil. 38. 

(m) Prologus de Regis judicio, cum de 
magna re duo caufantur fimul. Cui Doiiii- 
nus regendi curam commitiit, cunctorum 
jurgia diligcnti examinatione rimari oportet, 
Ut juxta propofitioncs vel refponfiones allo- 

qula inter alterufrum falubris donetur fcn- 

tentia . Ergo cum nos in Dei nomine 

ibi in palatio noftro, ad univerforum caufas 
re<3o judicio terminandas, una cum Domi- 
nis & Patribus noflris Epifcopis, vel cum 
pluribus optimatibus noflris illis, patribus 
illis, rcferendarijs illis, domcflicis illis, 
vel fenifcalcis illis, cubicularijs, & illo Co- 
mite palatij, vel reliquis quampluribus nof- 
tris fidelibus, refideremus ; ibiq; veniens 
ille ilium interpellavit, cum diceret, & cac- 
tera. Marcul. formula apud Baluz. T. 2. 
eel. 388. tit. 25. 

(n) Fidel is nofter ille ad noftram veniens 

prasfentiam, fuggefnt nobis eo quod 

Marc. Formula of. Balu%. T. 2. col. 3S7, 

389, 390. is'r. vofmetipfi per hunc 

indiculum commoniti nunc ad noftram ve- 
niatis prsefentiam, ipfius lui ad hoc dando 
refponfum. lb. col. 389, 390. Et vid. not. 
Bignonij /« Form, five tit. 25. 

(0) Quum calciaretur aut amiciretur, non 
tantum amicos admittebat, vcrum etiam, ii 
Comes Palatij litem aliquam diccrct qu;e 
fine ejus juflu definiri non poflct, ftatiin 
liti<::;antes intioduci juffit & velut pro tribu- 

K 2 -naii 

Q3 O///^^ Judicature Chap. III. 

was provided by the Longobardick Laws, that if any Man, without 
Licence from the King or the Judge, prefumed to plead another 
Man's Caufe in the Prefence of the King or Judge, he fhould pay 
his lo'idrjgild fpj. And thofe Laws make frequent Mention of Liti- 
gants appeaUng or complaining at the King's Palace (q). Amongfl 
the Franks, there were Pleas or Caufes, which (as it i'eemeth) were 
referred to the Emperor's Judgment (r) . In fine j about the Year 
1 1 1 1, Bcild'wm Earl of Flanders made a Progrefs through his Domi- 
nions, trying Caufes and adminiftring Juftice to his Subjedls fs). 

IV. As to the Second Point of Enquiry, the Original or Rife of 
this Judicature of the Kings Court : though I would not be pofitive 
in a Thing of this Nature ; it feems to me to have been of Norman 
Original or Inftitution. We do not, I think, find any Notices of 
fuch a Court in England, during the Anglofaxon Times : all Pleas or 
Caufes being then determined below (in a plain and fimple Manner),, 
in Courts within the feveral Counties, Towns, or Diftrids, On the 
other fide, amongil the Normans (who afFedted Pomp and Ceremony),, 
there was a Judicature, called Curia Regis, in the early Times, In 
the Year 1080, in a Council at Illebon or Dieppe in Normandy, it was 
ordained, that if the Bifhops could fhew in the King's Court, that 
they enjoyed in the Time of Earl Robert or K. William, any Rights 
not fpecified in the Adls of that Council, the King did allow of the 
fiime ; provided they did not feize or exercifc fuch Rights, until they 
had fliewn in the Kings Court, that they ought to enjoy the fame 
(f). Afterward^-, K. Henry I, in or about the Year 11 13, made a 
Charter of Confirmation to the Abbey of Oufche in Normandy of all 
their PofTeffions ;, an.d in it commanded that the Monks {hould not 


nali federet, lite cognita fententiam dixit, (r) Her. inter Leg. Franc, p. 328, 329. 

Eginh. vit. Cur. Mag. p. 2(). ex edit. Job. (s) Per oppida vicofq; circumvedus [fc, 

Soter. Colon. 1521. oSlavo. Baldwinus cognomentoSecurisComcsFlan-. 

(p) Si quLs cauiam akerius agere aut driic] caufas cognovit, as jus conftantiflime 

caufare praefumpferit in prjefentia Regis aut dixit. A>inal. Fland. p. ^■^. ad Annum Dom. 

Judicis, excepco li Rex aut Judex ei licen- 11 11. 

tiam dederit de viduis aut de orphanis aut Etvid. Pontani orig. Francic. L.b. cap, lb.. 

de tali homine qui cauiam fuam agere non p. 503. Lipfimn in Polit. is'c. 
poteft, componat widrigild fuum, medium (t) Si Epifcopi aliquid quod non fit hie 

Regi & medium contra quern caufavit. He- fcriptum, in Regis Curia monftrare poflunt 

7old. Leg. Longob.p. 255. tit. 6. fe habuifie tempore Rodberti Comitis, vel 

(q) Mulier ipfa ad PaJatium & ad Guillelmi Regis, ejus conceffione : Rex 

Judices habuit proclamare . Herold, eis non toUit quin habeant : tantummodo 

ib. p. 245. tit. lOl. cap, 1. Et ib. p. 237. illud nuUatenus faififcant, donee in Curia 

tit. 77, cap. 2. Et ib, p. 249. tit, 109, ejus monftrent quod habere debeant. Inter 

cap. 4. Statutt. Concilij Illebonenfts, art. 47. Or-' 


Chap. III. <?/■ //^^ K I N g's C o u R T. 93 

be impleaded for their Pofleflions, except in the King's Court (u). 
The fame King made a Charter to the Abbey of Fo?iteneIle in ISlor- 
mandy, that they {hould not be impleaded, except before himfelf {^to^. 
And in the fame King's Reign, Robert Earl of Belefme a Norman was 
condemned for divers Mifdemeanors by Judgment in the Kings Court 
(xj. And as I have been induced to believe the Normans eltabliflied 
this great Judicature in England: fo I find, a learned Gentleman, 
incomparably well fl^illed in the Anglofaxon and Anglonorman Anti- 
quities, concurs in the fame Opinion {yj. However, I leave every 
Man to his Freedom of judging therein as he /hall fee Caufe. Since 
therefore we find there was fuch a Judicature as that of the Kings 
Court in England, at leaf!:, from the Time of the Norman Conquefl 
(which falls within the Period of our prefent Enquiry), let us 
proceed in our Difquifition concerning it. 

V. As to the third Point of Enquiry, viz. of the Perfons who fat and 
afled in the King's Court: the King himfelf was properly Head of 
this Court (yyj ; and next to him, or in his Abfence, the high Juf- 
ticier prefided therein. To the high Jufticier fome of the great Of- 
ficers of the King's Palace were afibciated in Judicature. In the 
Reign of K. He?iry II, there were certain Perfons ftyled Juftitice in 
Curia Regis, Roger de Hoveden relzttth, that in the Year 1179 (25. 
Hen. II.) the King held a great Council at Wifidfor ; and by the Ad- 
vice of the Archbifliops, Bilhops, Earls, and Barons, in the Prefence 
of the young King his Son, divided Englajid into four Parts, and ap- 
pointed Jufticiers for each Divifion (z). For one of the Divifions 
he appointed Godfrey de Luciy John Cumin, Hugh de Gaerjl, Ranulf de 

der. Fit. op. Duchefn. p. 554. c. ad ajin. Thefaur. L'lngg. Septent. Dijfert. Eplft. p. 'i 

1080. _ 4. yc. ^ p. 48. 

(u) Unde Rex prafcriptum teftamentum (yy) Habet enim hoc commune cum 

{he meam the King's Charter juji before men- ipfa Domini Regis Curia, in qua ipfe in 

tio7ied) figillo fuo {ignavit 5 & ne quis ad propria perfona juia decernit, he. 

placitum Monachos de his rebus quas edidlo Scacc. L. 1. cap. 4. Licet eorum qui. 

principally {he means the fame Charter) fanxit, (z) Et poft Pafcha Rex Pater Mag- 

nifi in Curia regali provocaret, generali no celebrato Concilio apud Winciefaorts, 

auftoritate prohibuit. Order. Fit. Hiji. ap. communi concilio Archiepifcoporum, Epif- 

Diichefn. p. S^O. c. ad anil. 11 13. coporum, Comitum, & Baronum, coram 

_ (w) Et quod null us traheret eos in pla- Rege filio fuo, divifit Angliam in Quatuor- 

citum nifi coram eo. Neujl. Pia, p. i-j6. partes ; & unicuiq; partium pr^fecit viros 

"• 2. ^ fapientes ad facieiidam juftitiam in Terra, 

(x) Ord. V'.t. ap. Duchefn. p. 841. a. ad in hunc modum, he. Hoved. P. 2. p. 590. 

ann. 11 13. „. rQ. 

(y) Fid. R. & CI. F. Doaoris G. Hickcfij 

S, Glanvill, 


94 0/" /^^ J u D I c A T u R E Chap. III. 

GlanviU, William de Bendinges, and Alan dc Furnell. Thefe fix (faith 
the Iliilorian) were Jufticiers in the Khigs Court, to hear the Plaints 
of the People (a). In this, I fuppofe, the Hiftorian means, that th'efi 
fix were the principal Jufticiers of the King's Court ; or, that they 
were Perfons moil ulually employed by the King in that Service : 
however, not excluding fome others. For in truth, both before and 
at that Time, there were other Jufticiers in the King's Court as well 
as they. For Example: In the 21 ft Year of that King, there were 
Pleas and Conventions in the King's Court, before William Fitz-Ralf, 
Bertram dc Verdun, T^bomas Baff'et and William BaJJet (b). In the 2 2d 
Year of the l;ime King, there were Pleas in the King's Court before 
William Fitz-Ralf, Bertram de Verdun, and William BaJJet (c). The 
like in .the 23d Year before William Fitz-Ralf znd the Perfons above- 
named, and before Walter Fitz-Robert, Hugh de Creffi, and Ro- 
bert Mantell (d). In the 25th Year, there were Pleas in the King's 
Court before Willam Fitz-Ralf and his Companions (e), and before 
■Roger Fitz-Reinfrey and his Companions (f). In the 26th Year there 
were Pleas in the Kitig's Court before William Fitz-Ralf and his Com- 
panions (g), and before Walter Fitz-Robert and his Companions fh). 


(a) Godefridus de LucI, Johannes Cu- 
min, Hugo de Gaerft, Ranulfus de Glan- 
villa, Willelmus de Bendinges, Alanus de 
Furncllis. Ifti Sex funt Jullitice in Cuiia 
Regis, confiituti ad audiendum clamores 
populi ; & els affignata; erant fubfcriptse 
provincias, Notinghaml'ire, Derebifire, E- 
vervvicilre, Northumberland, Weftmerland, 
Cumberland inter Rible & Merefe, Lon- 
caftre. lb. p. 591. n. 40, 50. 

(b) Placita h Conventiones, per Willel- 
mum filium Radulfi, & Bertrannuin de 
Verdun, h Thomam BafTet, in Curia Re- 
gis. ■ Mag. Rot. 21 H. 2. Rot. 4. b. Norhan- 

Placitn & Conventiones, per Willelmum 
Baffet, U Willelmum filium Radulfi, & 
Bertran de Verdun, in Curia Regis. lb. Rot. 
5. a. BuL & Bed. 

(c) De Placitis Willdmi filij Radulfi, & 
Bertram de Verdun, & Willelmi Bafiet in 
Curia Regis. Alag. Rot. 22. H. 2. Rot. 8. 
a Evcnvichfcira. 

J)e PLicitis Curiae, per Bertram de Ver- 
dun & Socios fuos. lb. P.(,t. 2. a. Buk. 
^^ P ■ 2' 

De Placilis Wniclmi hlij RaJuIli .v Ber- 

tram de Verdun, & Willelmi BafTet, in 
Curia Regis. lb. Rot. 3. a. JVireaJlr. 

Placita Curias, per Willelmum filium 
Radulfi h Bertram de Verdun, & Willel- 
mum Bafiet. lb. Rot. 5. b. Nordf. fcr" Sudf. 

(d) De Placitis Willelmi filij Radulfi & 
Bertranni de Verdun, & Willelmi BafTet in 
Curia Regis. Mag. Rot. 23 H. 1. Rot. 5. 
a. Eve.y-wichfc. 

De Placitia Curis per Bertram de Ver- 
dun & Socios fuos. lb. Rot. 2. b. JVar. i^ 

De Placitis Curltie per prsdidos [viz. 
Walterum filium Roberti, & Hugonem de 
CrefFi, & Robcrtum Mantell.] lb. Rot. g. a. 
EJfcxa bf Hurif. 

(e) De Placitis Curi.-E per Willelmum 
filium Radulfi & Socios ejus. Mag. Rot. 
25 //. 2. Rot. 2. a. Norfolch. tf Sudf. 

(f) De Placitis Curias per Rogerum filium 
ReiniVidi h Socios ejus. //■. Rot. 10. b. Lon- 
donia & Midd'ilfexa. 

{g) De Placitis Curiae per W^illelmuni 
filium Radulfi & Socios fuos. A^ag. Rot. 26 
H. 2. Rot. 2. a. Nordf olch. & Sudf. 

(h) De Placitis W^dteri filij Roberti & 
Sociorum ejus in.Eirex. Tho next Title is, 


Chap. III. (j/* //^^ K I N g's C o u RT. 95 

From hence I fuppofe it appears, that there were many Perfons who 
ufually fat and afted as Jufticiers in the Kings CoiD't ; in the feveral 
Years above referred to. But I fhall fay no more here, either of 
the high Jufticier, or of the other Great Officers of the King's Court ; 
having already fpoken concerning* them in the fecond Chapter. 

VI. As to the fourth Point of Enquiry, viz. The Pleas or Caufes 
appropriated or referved to the King's Court : It is probable, that for 
a confiderable Time after the Conquelt, the ancient Anglofaxonick 
Ufage of determining Caufes below within the feveral Counties, might 
in feme Meafure continue, and that therefore there were not then 
many Caufes brought into the King's Court. Nor was there Occafion 
for being at the Expence and Trouble of applying to the King's Court , 
whilfh Men could have Juftice done them at their own Homes. But 
in regard the Norma?! Lords, who were polfefled of large Seigneuries 
and great Power, carried it with fo high a Hand towards their Vaf- 
fels and Neighbours, that the latter could not have Right done them 
in the ordinary Way, they were conftrained to feek for Juftice in 
the Kings Court. And this was likewife often found neceflary to be 
done, when Contentions arofe between the great Lords themfelves 
(i). In thofe Ages Men dealt very much in Power. And then, the 
King was the great Afylum to protedl the weaker againft the Inva^ 
fions of the more mighty. So that in Time, it became frequent 
and ufual for Men to bring their Plaints to the King's Court; where, 
they found, they could have Juftice when they could have it no 
where elfe, or better Juftice and Relief than they could have elfe- 
where. And as the King's Court was open, according to the Ufagc- 
of thofe Times, to fuch Complainants as chofe to refort thither : fo 
it is likely that Plaints were the more readily received there, be- 
caufe from them there accrued a confiderable Revenue (by Fines) to 
tlie Crown. The Pleas then that were ufually difculTed in the King's 
Court, were fuch as v/ere brought thither by the exprefs Appoint- 
ment of the King, or of the Jufticiers of his Court on his Behalf. 
'Tis probable, indeed, that fome Pleas might be thought- proper for;- 
the Cognizance of this Judicature, in reipedl of the Greatnefs or 

De Placitis Curise per prsediflios. Mjg. tioresquiq;, fi caufam inter fc habuerint. 

Rot. 26 H. 1. Rot. I. a. ac fe pacificare noluerint, ad noftram jubc- 

(i) Thus the Francick Kings ordered, thnt antur venire prafentiam. Neq; illorum con- 

the Caufes of great Men flvAdd he brought le- tentio alibi dijudicctur. Herold. Lcgg. Franc, 

fore the King, and not be decided tlfewhere : t>. 701.. cap. br, 
U.c Epifcopi, Abbates, Cgmitcs, &: poten- 



Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

Weight of them (k). But it fliould feem, that few or rather none 
were brought thither or received there without Permiffion. For 
though the Kings Court was open to Complainants wlio defired to 
refort to it (as is hinted above) ; yet that is to be underftood with 
this Reftritflion (according to the Ulage of thofe Times), namely, 
that the Party fliould make Fine to the Crown to have his Plea in 
the King's Court : and in that, a Permiffion was implied, or (if you 
pleafe) exprelTed. 

It is manifeft, that fome Pleas were referved to this Judicature by 
the fpecial Command or Appointment of the King, or the Jufliciers 
of his Court. Of this I will fet down fome Inflances. In the 15th 
Year of K. Henry II, Edward de South-werk fined to the Crown in 
xl s. that he might fue Roger Fitz-Edward in the King's Court flj. 
In the 1 8th Year of K. Henry II, one Nicolas fined to the Crown in 
V Marks, that the Plea between him and his Wife's Sifter, which pen- 
ded in the Archbifliop's Court, might be [determined] in the King's 
Court fmj. In the 2 2d Year of the fame King, Henry de la Rivere 
fined in v Marks, that his Plea might be in the King's Court fnj. 
In the 25th year, Hervey de Helyon fined, to have his Plea in the 
Ki?ig's Court foj. In the 26th Year of the fame King, Maurice de 
Creon, and Gervaje Painel feverally fined in v Marks, to have a 
Plea in the King's Court (p). In the 27th Year, Henry de Arches 
fined in x Marks, that a Plaint which was in the County, might be 
brought into the King's Court fq) : Mrnifius de Nevill and William 


(k) Juftitiae [viz. the Jitflues Errant) fa- 
ciant omnes juftitias & rectitudines fpec- 
tantes ad Dominum Regem & ad Coronam 
fuam — : nifi tarn grandis fit querela, quod 
non poffit deduci fine Domino Rege, ve] ta- 
lis quam Juftitire ei reponent pro dubita- 
tione fua, vel ad illos qui in loco ejus erunt. 
Hoved. P. 2. p. 549. n. 40. 50. hiter Jjjifas 
"Jujllc. Errant, anno 22 H. 2. 

(l) Edwardus de Sutdwerch reddit com- 
potum de xls, Ut placitet in Curia Regis 
verfus Rogerum fiiium Edwardi. Alag. Rot. 
15 H. 1. Rot. 12. a. Surreia. 

(m) Nicholaus debet v marcas, Ut Pla- 
citum quod fuit inter ipfum 5c fororem uxo- 
ris fuffi, quod fuit in Curia Archiepifcopa- 
tus, fit in Curia Regis. Mag. Rot. 18 i/. 
a. Ret. 10. a. Ghent. 

(n) Henricus de la Rivere reddit compo- 
tuni de V marcis, Ut Placitet in Curia Regis j 

In thefauro liberavlt, Et Quietus eft. Mag. 
Rot. 22 H. 2. Rot. 8; a. Everivichjcira. Sub 
tit. Dc Pladtis TVillclmi filij Radulfi & Ber- 
tram de Verdana & JVillelmi Bajfet in Curia 

(0) Herveus de Helyon re de xx s, Pro 
habendo Placito fuo in Curia Regis verfus 
Petrum de Hakevirdam. Mag. Rot. 25 H. 
2. Rot. 2. h. tit. De Placitis Curix. 

(p) Mauricius de Creon & Wido nepos 
fuus debent v marcas, Ut loquela de Wal- 
tham quam habent verfus Gervafium Painel, 
fit coram Rege. Gervafius Painel debet v 
marcas, Ut habeat placitum in Curia Regis, 
de terra de Waltham, verfus Mauricium de 
Creon. Mag. Rot. 26 H. 2. Rot. 7. b. TFar. 
y Legerc. 

[q) Henricus de Arches debet x marcas. 
Pro habenda loquela in Curia Regis, quae 
erat in Comitatu, inter Gerbertum de Ar- 

Chap. III. (t/* i^/^^ K I N g's C u R T. 97 

fon of Diirand frj ; and Alexander de Rugham and William de Lon^ 
don, fined for the like fsj. In the 30th Year, Richard de Caen fined 
to have Right in the King's Court (t). Rafe de Hertivclle, to liave 
his Duell in the King's Court (u). In the 31ft: Year Ralf de Wekford 
fined, to have his Plaint in the King's Court fiv). The like in the 
Cafe of Rober Revell (x), John de Doior (yj, Robert de Laci (z), 
William de Reigni (a), Gerard de BroBon (b), and others. In the 
Reign of K. Richard I, Pleas were brought into the King's Court, 
upon Fines made to the King for that pLirpofe : Ralf Fitz-Robcrt 
fined in ij Marks, to have his Plea touching half a Knight's Fee 
removed out of the County Court into the King's Court fcj. 
William de Marci fined in a Mark, to have a Recop-nition of 
Mortdanceftor in the King's Court fdj. IVilliam de Flcte gave a 
Mark, to have his Plea in the King's Court touching a Hyde of 
Land fe). John the Grammarian gave C s, to have his Plea in the 

ches patrem fuum & Simoneni de Ouvill : 
Mag. Rot. 27 H. 2. Rot. 4. b. 

(r) Ib.jiixt. 

(s) De Placitis Curias : Alexander filius 
Willelmi de Rugham reddit compotum de 
xl s. Ut placitet in Curia Regis verfus Co- 
mirem de Arundel & Robertum de Morte- 
mer. Willclmus de Londonia reddit com- 
potum de xl s. pro habendo placito in Curia 
Regis, de Dote uxoris (ux, verfus Willel- 
inum de Ncvill. lb. Rot. 6. a. Nordf. iJ 

(t) Nova Placita & Novae Conventiones, 
De Oblatis in Curia. Ricardus de Cadomo 
debet v marcas, pro habendo veQo in Cu- 
ria Regis de terra de Crokefton. Mag. Rot. 
30 i/. 2. Rot. I. h. 

(u) Radulfus de Hertwelle debet xx s, pro 
habendo Duello fuo in Curia Regis verfus 
Willelmum Wandard. //'. Rot. 4. a IFar. 
(J Legercjh. tit. De Placitis Curix. 

(w') Radulfus de Weleford debet ij 
Marcas, Pro habenda lot^uela fua in Curia 
Regis, quae crat in Comitatu, verfus Prio- 
lem de Derheift. Mug. Rot. 31 /:/. 2. Rot. 
10. a. Gloejir. tit. De Oblatis Curia?. 

(x) Robertus Revell debet xl s, pro ha- 
bendis loquelis fuis coram Juftic. , verfus 
Robertum de Waiire & Galfridum Cleri- 
cum, de terra de Suinford. Mag. Rot. 31 
//. 2. Rot. 7. a. JVar, U Legerc. 

V^OL. I. 

(y) Johannes de Doura debet xl s. pro 
habenda loquela fua in Curia Regis, verfus 
Robertum filiuni Willelmi & Willelmum 
de Arden, de quarta parte fcodi j Militis in 
Garcotc & Wittefliage. Ib.juxt. 

(z) Robertus de Laci r c de xl marcis, 
ut loquela de hominibus fuis qui dicuntur 
occidifle utlagatos, fit coram Rege vel Jufti- 
tia ; In thefauro 1, Et Q_e. Mag. Rot. 31 
H. 1. Rot. 5. b. Everivich. 

[a) Willclmus de Reigni re de Cs, Ut 
loquelo qus eft inter ipfum & Willelmum 
de Lacell in Comitatu, fit in Curia Regis. 
lb. Rot. 12. b. Dorfcta & Sumerfcta. 

(b) Gerardus de Broilon debet xl s, pro 
Duello fuo habendo in Curia Regis, quod 
fuerat vadiatum in Comitatu. Jb. juxt. 

[c) Radulfus filius Robert! debet ij mar- 
cas, pro habenda loquela in Curia Regis 
quae eil in Comitatu, verfus Willelmum 
GrofTum de feodo dimldij Militis. Mag. 
Rot. I. Ric. I. Rot. 2. Eji:x & Hurtf. 

(d) Willclmus de Marci r c de j marca, 
pro recognitione habenda in Curia Regis de 
morte aiitecefibris fui. lb. Rot. 2. i. 

(/•) Willclmus de Flete r c dc j marca, 
pro liabenda loquela fua in Curia Regis de j 
hyJa terrse, verfus Radulfum de Jlroy. lb. 
Rot. 2. b. Bid. cf Bcdf. Tit. De Oblatis 




Of the Judicature 

Chap. III. 

fan^s Court for the Land oi Middleton (f), John de Dovor gave xIj, 
to have his Plea in the Kings Court for the fourth Part of a Knight's 
Fee [g). Robert Foliot gave x Marks, for the Hke [h). Ruahlde Calne 
gave a Mark to have his Plea in the Kings Court for half a Knight's 
Fee (/) Gerard de BroBo7i ^"^st y\s, to have his Duell in the Kings 
Court {k). Patric de Ridale fined in xx Marks, to have a Recognition 
of Mortdanceftour in the King's Court, or elfe in the Court of Bracby 
(/). Willimn de Winejianejhn gave xx Marks, to have the rationabilis 
pars of his Wife's Inheritance. But that Affair was put in refpite by 
the King's Writ, until the King had heard the Plea which was 
brought for the faid Land {ni). Geoffrey de Mandeville fined in C 
Marks, to have the Judgment of the King's Court touching his Inhe- 
ritance in England ^nd Normandy, whereof he was deforced hy Hemy de 
Tilli; and was to pay cccc Marks when he had got Seifin thereof \n)^ 
In the Reign of K. ^ohn. Pleas were in like Manner brought into the 
Ki7igs Court : William de Wroteham fined in C /. and ij Hawks, to 
have the King's Confirmation of certain Lands granted to him by 
K. Richard I, fo that William might anfwer in the King's Court to 
any Inquifitioa taken againfl him hy H. de Nevill {o). The Abbot 


(f) Johannes Grammaticus. debet C s, 
pro habenda loquela fua in Curia Regis, 
veifus Willelmum fratrem fuum, de terra 
de A'liudleton. lb. Rot. 5. h. Everwuh. De 
Oblatis Curiae. 

(S) Johannes de Doura debet xl s, pro 
habenda loquela fua in Curia Regis, verfus 
Robertum filium Willelmi de Arden, de 
quarta parte feodi j Militis in Gorcote & 
Wittefhage. lb. Rot. 7. a. War. is' Legerc. 

(h) Robertus Foliot debet x marcas, pro 
habenda loquela fua in Curia Regis, de 
quarta parte feodi j Militis in Buterlea, 
verlus Johel. de Valle torta. lb. Rot. 8. a. 

(i) Rualdus de Calna r c de j marca, 
pro habenda loquela fua in Curia Regis, 
verfus Walterum Maid, de feodo dimidjj 
Militis : In th 1, Et Q_e. lb. Rot. 8. b. 

[k) Gcrardus de Brofton debet xl s. pro 
habendo Duello fuo in Curia Regis, lb. 
Rot. 9. a. Dorf. & Sumerf. 

(/) Patricius de Ridale debet xx marcas. 
Pro habenda Recognitione de Morte Fratris 
fui in Curia Domini Regis, vel in Curia 
Beati Petri de Eraebi, verfus Priorsm de 

Heiftildefham. Mag, Rot. 5.- iJ. i. Rot, 5. 
b, Everwichfcira. 

{?n) Willelmus de Wineftanefton debet 
XX marcas, pro habenda rationabili parte 
haereditatis Agnetis uxoris fuae, verfus He- 
lyam filium Berneri, qui habuit fororem 
Primogeniti[-am]. Sed funt in refpetSu 
per breve Regis, donee audierit placitum. 
Mag. Rot. 5. R. I. Rot. 12. a. Sudfexa. 

(n) Galfridus de Mandeviliadebet C mar- 
cas, pro habenda Confideratione Curiae Re- 
gis, de haereditate fua in Anglia & in Nor- 
mannia, quam Henricus de Tilli ei dcfor- 
ciat ; Et quando habebit inde faifinam, da- 
bit Regi cccc marcas. Alag. Rot. 7. R. i. 
Rot. i^. a. Dorfete (3' Sumerfete, 

(0) Willelmus de Wroteham reddit com- 
potum de C libris & jj Ofturijs, pro ha- 
benda Confirmatione Domini Regis, de ter- 
ris &: tenementis fuis quae habu;t de Rege 
Ricardo, unde habet Cartarn ejus ; Et pio 
habendis ipfis terris & catallis ipfarum ter- 
rarum ; Per fic quod ipfe Willelmus poifit 
refpoiidere in Curia Regis, fecund um Judi- 
cium Curi«e, ad omnem Inquifitionem fuper 
eum faftam per H. de Nevill : Et pro ha- 
benda Confirmatione Regis de rationabilr- 


chap. III. ^ />6^ ICi N g's C o u R T. 99 

o{ Whitby fined in C /, that the Plaint between him and the Burgef- 
fes of Whitby might be heard before the King fp). Alan de St. George 
fined in L Marks, to have the Judgment of the King's Court touch- 
ing certain Lands (y), Wiliia?n di Mandeviil fined in C Marks, to 
have the Judgment of the Kings Court, in a Plaint brought by his 
Father agalnlf Henry de Tilli for the Honour of Merjhwood : if the 
Judgment of the King's Court was again'fl: Wii/iam, he was to pay the 
laid C Marks ; if it was for him, he was to pay D Marks (r). ,S/- 
jjio/2 de Ejhvnld fined, to have his Plaint in the Kings Court, touch- 
ing a Manflaughter and Robbery (j). Warin Fitz-William fined in 
X Marks, to have a Frcccipe for certain Land, and that the Plea in 
that Cafe might be [determined] bifore the King {£). Several others 
fined in like Cafes mutatis mutandis : as John de Mutton (u) ; Robert 
de Secchevill fwj ; Richard Malebijje (x) ; Henry de Longchamp 

bus cartis G filij Petri Comitis Eflexiae & 
Rogeri Stable, quas habet. Mag, Rot. 2. 
y. Rot. 7. a. Dorfde U Siwurfete. 

(p) Abbas de Whitebi debet C marcas, 
re Carta Ricardi de Watervill quondam 
Abbatisde Whitebi & Conventus confirme- 
tur a Rege. Idem Abbas debet C libras, 
Ut loqucla inter ipfum & Burgenfes de 
Whitebi, de Carta Ricardi de Watervill 
& Conventus de Whitebi, audiatur coram 
Jlege, Si difcutiatur ibidem, utrum Abbas 
& Conventus de Whitebi potuerunt dare 
hujufmodi libertates Burgenfibus de White- 
bi. Mag. Rot. 3. J. Rot. 12. I'. Evcr- 

[q) Alanus de Saniflo Georgio debet Ij 
marcas, pro habenda confideratione Curi;E 
Regis de terris quas Rex reddi fecit Briano 
Toliard ; ita quod ultagaria ipfius B. non 
noceat B, nee aliqua difiaifina fafta ci occa- 
fione fervitij Regis dum efiet Comes Mori- 
tonias : Sed habebit confiderationcm de terris 
illis, deficutdicit fehabuifie in uxorem hx- 
jedem terrarum illarum, & de ea lilium ge- 
nuifie. Mag. Rot. 3. J. Rot. 6. bJl-'lltefdra. 

(r) Willelmus de Mandeviil debet C 
marcas, pro hnbendo recordo & rationabill 
judicio Curiae Regis, de loquela qua; fuit 
inter patrem ipfius Wiilelmi h Henricum 
de Tilli, de Honore de Merfwade, ita quod 
ix perdiderit per pr.-edictum recordum & ju- 
dicium, dabit prsedi(£tas C marcas ; & fi lu- 
cratus fuerir, dabit quingentas marcas. Mag. 
Jiot, 3. 7- -^<''- 3- ^- D'orptf y Sumcrf. 

is) Simon de Efwald debet v marcrvs, 

pro loquela fua do mortehominis & roberia, 
habenda in Curia Regis apud Weftmon. 
Mag. Rot. 3. J. Rot. 20. /'. Sal',p. 

[t) Warinus filius Wiilelmi reddit com- 
potum de x marcis. Pro habendo brevi 
quod vocatur Praecipe, de Tcrcia parte fco- 
di j Militis quam Godefridus de Crammavilla 
ci deforciat, in quam idem G. non habet 
ingrefTum nifi per G. filium Wiilelmi & Ro- 
bertum de Cantilupo, qui fuerunt firmarij 
pradiiJti Warini ut dicitur ; Et ut ilia Lo- 
quela fit coram Rege a die Purificationis in 
tres fepiimanas. A'lag. Rot. 6. J. Rot. 1. b, 
EJfex y Hurtf. 

(u) Johannes de A'Tutton debet dimidiam 
niarcam, proponcndo per vadium Herveiain 
Bagot & Milifent uxorem ejus, quod fmt 
coram Rege, oftenl'uri qiiare ipfi intrufcrunt 
f'e in una Hida tcira: cum pertinentijs in 
Lutiwude, unde placitum fuit inter ipfos Si 
Nicolaum patrem ejus. Mag. Rot. 6. j. Rot. 
\b. a. Staff. 

(«•) Robertas de Secchevill debet j mar- 
cam, quod xxiiij Milites fint coram Rege, 
parati facramento recognofcerc, quis Advo- 
catus prsfentavit ukimam perfonam ad Ec- 
clefiam de Twiford. Mag. Rot. 8. 7. Rot, 
I. b. JFar. (jf Lehceflr. 

{:<) Ricardus AdaiebilTe [debet] xxv mar- 
cas, Per fic quod Hugo de Bouton ponatur 
per vades & plegios falvns, quod fit coram 
Rege ad audiendum Judicium fuper hoc 
quod primo denegavit ei Homagium & Scr- 
vicium fuum. Maz. Rot, q. 7- R'-t- ',. a. 

O 2 

Mag. Rot, 9. 7. Rot. , . 


1 00 Of the Judicature Chap. Ill, 

(y) ; 'Turjlan de Mumfort fzj ; Simon Fitz-John (a) ; Sif!:o)i de Roff. 
(b) ; and others. 

It appeareth by the Plea-Rolls remaining in the Treafury of the 
Exchequer, in the Cullody of the Treafurer and Chamberlains there, 
that K. He?2ry III. did feveral Times fit perfonally in Judicature. 
For Example : A Plea or Caufe pending between the King and 
TAomas Pevere// ^nd others, was adjudged or determined before the 
King and his Council ; the King declaring, that he defifted from 
further Profecution in the Cafe fcj. A Plea between James de Au- 
deley and Henry de Lacy, who profecuted for the King, was debated 


(y) Henricus de Longo Campo debet iij 
Palefridos, Per fic quod Jufticiarii Regis de 
Curia non tcneant placitum coram eis inter 
ipfum Hcnricum, Et Henricum de Mara 
& Petronillam uxorem fuam, de Dote 
quam H. de Mara & uxor ejus clamant ad- 
verfus ipfum Henricum. Mag. Rot. 9. y. 
Rot. 15. b. Hcref. in JP^allia. 

(z) Turftanus de Mumfort debet L mar- 
cas. Pro habendis ij Praecipe coram Rege in 
OiftabisS. Michaelis ; j fcilicet contra Euf- 
tacbium de Stutevill, quod reddat ei Medie- 
tatem feodi j Militis in Witton & in Cava, & 
aliud contra Nicholaum de Stutevill, quod 
reddat ei Medietatem Villre de Cotingham 
&Mcdietatem Villas de Butercram, & Me- 
dietatem Villae de Screinghain, & Medie- 
tatem de Langeton, & Medietatem Ser- 
vicij viij Militum in Hefe, & in alijs Villis 
quEe continentur in Original!. AJag. Rot. 
10. 7. Rot. 3. a. TFar. fjf Leircejh. 

(a) Simon filius Jobannis reddit compo- 
tum de xt marcis, Per fic quod tam ipfe 
quam Willelmus de Flamavilla qui clamat 
contra eum in terra de Witlingham, fum- 
moneatur coram Rege. lb. Rot. 7. a. 

[b) Simon de RofF. debet dimldiam mar- 
cam quod Ricardus de Colevill & focij fui 
ponantur per f.ilvos plegios, quod fint coram 
Rege, oftenfuri quare non recognoverunt 
eidem Simoni talem faifmam in Rolf", qua- 
lem ipfi inde dederunt per facramentum 
fuum quod fecerunt vcrfus Willelmum fi- 
lium Rcginaldi. Ih. Rot. -j . h. Norhumb. 

(f) Placlta coram Rege in oftabis 8. Jo- 
bannis B.iptifta; anno xlvij R. Hen. 3, de 
tempore Philippi Bailat tunc Jufticiaiij An- 

Suhamtonia. Dominus Rex per Lauren- 
tium del Brok qui fequitur &c, petit verfus 
Johannem Berenger & Julianam uxorem 
ejus, unum meiuagium 5c medietatem unius 
carucatae terrae cum pertinentijs in villa de 
Mannebrugg, quae debenteffe in manu Do- 
mini F.egis tamquam efcaeta fua de terris 
Normannorum ; eo quod quidam Norman- 
nus eam tenuit die h anno quo Normannia 
fe deperdidit, h fuit inde in feifina, qui 
quidemNormannuspofteaobijt ad fidem Re- 
gis Franciie, & habct h.-eredes fuos in parti- 
bus Normanniae, qui adhuc funt ad hdem 
praediiJti Regis Francias &c. The Defendant 
pleads. That an Englifhman luas infeifm of 
the Pretni£es, and that they ivere not an Ef- 
cheat. Jn Ijjiie tvas joined. The Jury fow^d 
for the Defendants. Poftea die Mercurij 
proxima poftdiem Cinerura annoL° fecun- 
do, venerunt prsedi<3i Thomas Pevere], 
Johannes, & Juliana, per attornatum ipfius 
Julianns, &: petierunt judicium fibi fieri de 
loquela praedifla. Et eadem loquela coram 
Domino P\.ege & toto Confilio fuo recitata 
fuit. Etquia per Inquifitionem praediiftam 
conflabat Domino Regi, quod tam prasdicfta 
mefuagium & terra verfus prrediftum Tho- 
mam petita, quam mefuagium & terra pe- 
tita verfus pr.-ediftos Johannem & Julianam, 
funt jus ipforum '['homae, Johannis & Jii- 
lianre, Dominus Rex fe lubtraxit de brcfi 
fuo, dicens fe amplius nolle fequi verfus cos. 
Ideo confideratum eft,quod prasdidliThomas, 
Johannes, & Juliana, teneant pra;didla tene- 
menta in pace, prout haftenus tenere con- 
fueverunt, & eant inde fine die &c. Rot. 
Phuitor. anni 51, incipiente 52 Hen. 3. Rot, 
I'j b. penes Thef. & Camerar. Scacc. Ad banc 
iff quatuor feqttentes i'njlantias in Rotulis Placi- 


chap. III. £/" //^^ K I N g's C o u R T. loi 

before the King (dj. The Caufe of Gilbert de Clare Earl of Glow 
cejler and Hertford was rehearfed before the King and his Council ; 
the King fitting on his Tribunal at Wejlm'mjier fej. G. Marefchall 
was fummoned [before the King], to warrant to 'John Marefchall the 
Manors of Folejlmm and Norton, which the King claimed againft fohn 
as an Efcheat. The Defendant pleaded, that this Plea ought not to 
follow the King, and that it was againft the Charter of Liberties 
that it fliould follow him ; becaufe Common Pleas ought to be de- 
termined in a certain Place [to wit, in the Common Bench]. It 
was anfwered, that this was not a Common Plea, but a private one, 
and did efpecially touch the King's Perfon ; and that a Plea which 
touched [or concerned] the King, ought to be determined before 


torum invenlendas, facem mih'i pratulit Petrus 
Le Neve Armiger, Norroy Rex Armorwn, 
alter e duobus Deputatis Camerariorum Scac- 

[d) In a long Plea hctivcen James de Aude- 
ley and Henry de Lacy qui fe in hoc dicit 
fequi pro Rege — , the matter was debated in 
Court in this manner : Jacobus dicit, quod 
revera Willelmus feofavit Johannem de Ma- 
jierio de Scaldeford, fed fuit cum confenfu 
Ricardi, infra terminum v annorum praedic- 
torum ; qui Willelmus affignavit Ricardo 
Manerium Hancfterigg in efcambium pro 
Scaldeford, per cartam quam profert. [Then 
the King /poke] Et fuper hoc praecepit Rex 
praefato Jacobo, quod oftendat perquem ha- 
buit ingreffum in prafdi£tis Manerijs, & qua- 
liter & quo modo, five per ipfum Rejem vel 
per fuccefiionem alicujus. [Then James re- 
plii'd] Et prsdiftus Jacobus dicit, quod vi- 
detur ei quod fatis oftcndit & verificavit ip- 
fum Dominum Regem & Curiam fuam, quo 
titulo habuit libera tenementa in praediflis 
durante termino prasdifto, per inftrumenta 
iuaqua: prius protulit de prjedictis Manerijs, 
die quo de eifdem fuitejeflus per Dominum 
Regem. Et petit quod Rex reftituat Ipfum 
prasdidia Maneria, deficut per ipfum Regem 
deeifdem Manerijs fuit ejeftus ; & concedit, 
quod omnibus & fmgulis uUum jus vel cla- 
mium in praeditSis A^Ianerijs vendicantibus, 
in Curia Domini Regis fecundum legem & 
confuetudinem Regni omnibus illis [vult] 
refpondere, Dies datus eis in craftino Na- 
taiis Domini. Et interim Dominus Rexha- 
beat colloquium & traclatum fupcrhoccum 

Confilro fuo. Placit. cor. Rege in oii. S. 
Mich, anno 52 Hen. 3. Rot. 18. a. J great 
part of this procefs is cancelled by the pen ; and 
'tis ivritten in the margin xAcat quia alibi, in 
//;^ Hilary term fcllowing ; but I cannot as yet 
find the Bundle of that Hilary term. 

[e] Matilda quae fuit uxor Ricardi de 
Clare Comitis Glouceflriae & Hertfordiae 
fummonita fuit ad refpondendum Gilbcrto 
de Clare Comiti Glouceftrise & Hertfordia-, 
de placitoquarecum idem Comes nuperquef- 
tus efi'et Domino Regi, quod per extentas 
quas idem Dominus Rex ci fecit, de terris & 
tenementis quas fuerunt Comitis Ricardi pa- 
tris fui ultra Wayam, tempore quo ideni 
Gilbertus fuit infra n?tatcm & in cuftodia 
Domini Regis, plusaflignatum fuit prasdiitaj 
Matildae in dotem fuam de terris & tenc- 
mentis praidiitis, quam ad ipfam pertinet, 
habendum, ll'c King crj?r,inonded the Abbot of 
Tinterne and Mafter William de Poywick 
to extend the faid lands ; and commanded the 
Countefs to admit them thereto. The Counlcfs 
rcfufed to admit them. Et unde pr.-rdictus 
Gilbertus Comes Glouceftrire ic Hertfor- 
dire per attornp.tinn fuum dicit, quod ubi 
prasdiiSta Comitilfa iiondebeiet habere terras 
& tenementa in dotem ultra Wayjm, in 
Neeth, Lantrifran,Lanblethian, Landitu'yr, 
& Lantfweinz, eoquod funt teirru in Wale- 
cher[ia] &: guerrynae, & nulla miilier in. 
partibus illis dotata eft de folo, nee etiam de- 
bet habere Caftrum in dotem, prrrdicTaCo- 
mitiiili habet in dotem in Hufk ad valenciam 
tercis partis pra'dictarum terrarum 5t tene- 
mentorum, & Caftrum de Hufk &:ci; 



Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

him. Whereupon, the Defendant's Exception was over-ruled (f). 
And Pleas were holden before the Queen and the King's Council, 
in the 37th Year of K. Henry III, whilft the King was abroad in 
Gafcoignc. At this Time the Queen was Ciijios regni, and fat iiice 
Regis {g). 


To the' Earl's Damage, Tzvcnty thoufand pounds. 
Et Coniitilia per attornatum I'uum venit 
& defendit vim &:c. quando &c. Et dicit, 
quod ipfa non debet ei hie inde ad hoc breve 
refpondere ; quia dicit, quod terra fua de 
Hulk eft adeo libera & de tali libertate, quod 
breve Domini Regis ibi non currit, nee ali- 
.quod aliud breve nifi breve ipfius Comitis. 
Et petit judicium, fi debeat hie refpondere 
de praedi£lis terrib h tenementis, extra Co- 
mitatum ubi breve Domini Regis non cur- 
jit, nee de aliquo placito debet extra pla- 

Et Comes dicit, that his Father Earl 
Richard died feized of all the faid Lands ; and 
that after bis death, the King feized the fame 
into his hands, by rcafon that Earl Gilbert W(JJ 
then under age and the King's TFard, Is'c. 

Et Comitifla per attornatum fuum primo 
die fecundo & tercio pluries qusefita, fivelit 
, aliud dicere, dicit quod non, ad prsefens. 

Et Comes per attornatum fuum petit ju- 
tlicium de praediita Comitifla tanquam de 
indcfcnfa ; deficut quamplures alij de par- 
tibus illis aftenus in Curia Domini Regis re- 
fpondcrunt coram ipfo Domino Rege. 

Et Comitifla per attornatos fuos venit & 
dicit, quod non videtur ei quod debeat aliud 
ciicere, nee hie relpondere de terris quae funt 
ultra VVayam, & infra libertatem fuam, fi- 
cut pracdidum eft: ; unde petit judicium fi 
debeat aliud dicere. 

Et Comes per attornatum fuum venit & 
dicit, quod Dominus Rex & nullus alius 
adhuc eft in poteftate exhibendi jufticiam 
inter eos de prsedi*3a dote, & ficut ei affij;- 
jiavit (iorem fuam in partihus illis alio moJo 
quam habere debeat, & poteftas brevis terrae 
iliiub adhucefl: in manu fuaficut fuitquando 
dos ejus fuit ei affignnta ; & poteftas ejus 
eft ad exibendum tarn Comiti quam Comi- 
tiflle jufticiam de dote prasdifta quae eidem 
■ijoinitiflae affignata fuit dum idem Comes 
Juit infia aetatem ; petit judicium, ft debeat 
aliud dicjre vcl non, ad dcttnfionsni fuam. 

Et quia Dominus Rex eft in feyfina de con- 
ftmilibus placitis in Wallia de pluribus Ba- 
ronibus fuis, ftcut bene liquet Curias, didtum 
eftpraediftis attornatis, quod dicant aliud, ft 
velint, ad defenftonem fuam. 

Et Comitifla per attornatos fuos venit & 
dicit, quod bene videtur eis quod fatis dixe- 
runt, h aliud dicere nolunt quam prius 

Et Comes venit, & ficut prius petit judi- 
cium de inculpatione fua, & refponfione 
praediftse Comitiflae per attornatos fuos, ft- 
cut de ilia quje indefenfa eft. Poftea recitata 
fuit ifta loquelacoram Domino Rege & Con- 
ftlio fuo, ipfo Domino Rege fedente pro tri- 
bunal! apud Weftmonafterium. fudgment 
was given againji the Comitefs. Placita coram 
Rege termino S. Mich, anno 50. incip. 51 Hen. 
3. Rot. 13. a. 

(f) Bukingeham. Idem G. Marefcal- 
lus eodem modo fummonitus fuit, ad wa- 
rantizandum Johanni Marefcall Manerium 
de Folefham cum pertinentijs in Comitatu 
Norfolcia, & Manerium de Norton cum 
pertinentijs in Comitatu Norhamtonias, qure 
Dominus Rex clamat verfus eundem Johan- 
nem ut efcaetem fuam de terris Flandriae. 
Et unde prnsdiifti Fulco & Johannes dicunt, 
quod cum Willelmus Comes Marefcallus 
frater praedicti Comitis, tempore fuo, voca- 
tus efl'et ad vvarrantiam de praediftis Mane- 
r!Js,infpe£lis cartis illorum Maneria ilia eis 

Primo dicit, quod placituin iftud non de- 
bet fequi Dominum Regem, quia commu- 
nia placita certo loco terminari dcbent, & 
contra Cartam Libertatum eft, quod fequan- 
tur. Refponfum eft, quod iftud commune 
placitum non eft, immo privatum placitum, 
h fpecialiter tangit perfonam Domini Regis ; 
5c coram eo terminari debet placitum quod 
ipfum tangit ; & ideo ifta exceptio nulla. 
Placita de i^o !Var. incerti temp, (forfan 2 1 
H. y) Rot. 3. a. 

(g) Placitu coram Domina Regina ^- 


Chap. ril. of the K i n g's C o u r t. 103 

If we enquire, what fort of Pleas were ufually pleaded and judg- 
ed in the King's Court : I fuppofe it may be anfwered. There were 
all forts of Pleas judged there, both criminal and civil ; that is to 
fay, (in the Phrafe of that Age) Pleas of the King's Crown of all 
Kinds, and common Pleas of all Kinds, that were, reCpectivcly, in ufe 
at that Time. This doth appear from the Inftances cited above in 
this Sedion, and from thofe which I fhall here fubjoin. For exam- 
ple : in the 22d Year of K. Henry II, before William Fitz-Ralf, Ber- 
tram de Verdun, and William Bajjk, who were (amongll others) Juf- 
ticiers in the King's Court, the Perfons following (amongft others) 
entered into the Fines following, viz. William as Gerniins fined in x 
Marks and one Hawk, for imprifoning Gamel of Tork ; the County 
of TorJk fined in C/, for recording a Duell between Simon le Bret and 
Ralf de Rugemunt ; the Canons of Tork in C /, for not coming to 
Tork at the King's Summons ; and Walter de Nevill in xx s, for Leave 
to make a Concord [b). In the 23d Year a Plea was moved hifore 
the King between Richard and William de Cahaignes touching Land (/). 
In the 24th Year, Reginald Bajj'et had a Plea in the King's Caurt 
upon a Writ of Right for Land. Henry de Clinton, William de Ward,. 
and Robert F/te-^a/ZeT had each of them their Plea in the King's 
Court for Knights Fees [K). In the 26th Year of K. Henry U, amongll 
the Pleas of the Kittg's Court, there are thefe mentioned : Beatrfz 
Biikerel fined in j Mark, to have Right in the King's Court for 
certain Land which fhe claimed : Michael de Valecienes, and Godard, 


Confilio Domini Regis, in craftino Nativi- potum de xxs , pro licentio Concordandi 

tatis B. Marias anno 37 Hen. 3. Ex Ligula cum Willelmo filio Fulch. ; In thefauro li- 

Rotulor. anni illius pones Thcf. tf Camerar. beravit, Et Q^iietus eft. Alag. Rot. 22. 

Rot. I. a. H. 2. Rot. 8. u. Tit. Evenvichfcira. 

Placita coram Confilio Regis, in cdtabis (i) Ricardus de Cahaignis redditcompo- 

S. Hilarij anno 38 Hen. 3. Ex bund, illius tum de M marcis, pro fine fafto inter ipi'um 

anni penes eofdt-m, Rot. i.a. & Willelmum de Cahaignis de Particione- 

(/;) De Piacitis Willelmi filij Radulfi, & terrarum, unde Placitum fui'. inter eos co- 
Bertram de V'crdun, & Willelmi Baffet, in ram Rege. Af^ig. Rot. 23. H. 2. Rot. 11. a. 
Curia Regis : Willelmus as Gernuns r.eddit Stidfexa. 

compotum de x marcis & j Accipitre Norr., [k] De Piacitis Curiae per Bertram & So- 

quia incarccravit Gamel de Everwich ; In cios fuos : Alfsi Bedelius r c de dimidia 

thefauro x marcas, Et debet] Accipitreni marca pro defaUa ; Reginaldus BaiTet r c dc 

Norr. Comitatus-Eboraci reddit compotum xxviij 1 & xiij s & iiij d pro redo j 

de C 1, pro record. Duelli inter Simonem le Henricus de Clinton debet C s, pro reiTto do 

Bret & Radulfum de Rugemunt. Canonici feodo dimidij Militis ; Willelmus <ic Warda 

de Eboraco reddunt compotum de C 1, quia debet x marcas pro Recognitione de feodo j 

non venerunt ad Summonitionem Regis ad Militis in Burton verfus VVillelmum de Cy- 

Eboracum; In thefauro liberaverunt, Et rai; Robertus filius Walteri r c dexxxiiij s 

Quieti funt. Walterusde Nevill redditconi- &: viij d, pro recognitione feodi j Militis in 



104 Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

and Roierf'o? Norfolk fined in x\s, for Leave to make a Concord with 
Join le Burgu'mon : Jeremy of London finded in CI, for flying into a- 
Church, and refufing to come forth and fland to Right in the King's 
■Court : and Rulf the Vintner fined in x 1, to have Right in the King's 
Court againfl Odinell de Vmframvill, for Etton and Hamelton which 
were mortgaged to him (/). In the 27th Year, Bartholomeio de Crech 
proffered xx Marks, to have Right for the Land of Southjield [in the 
King's Court] (;;;). In the 28th Year, and other following Years of 
the fame King, feveral other Perfons had Pleas in the Ki?2g's Court, 
as hereafter is mentioned : to wit, Alured Son of Ranulf had Leave 
to accord touching a Duell with Ojhert Seamen ; Ralf the Arch- 
deacon had Judgment given for him in the King's Court, whereby 
he was acquitted of a Mifdemeanor, upon which he had been ut- 
lawed, and had been forced by Earl Reginald to appeal his Father («).- 
Alan Guhier, Richard Malebiffe and Robert de Stapelton had each of 
them a Plea of Land in the King's Court (0). In the 29th Year, 
William Manfel had a Plaint in the King's Court againfl John de Ca- 
irrton for Land in Shenley ; Stephen de Bcauchamp had a Plaint in the 
King's Court for half a Knight's Fee in Efoerg ; Richard Fitz-Hamon 
had a Plaint in the King's Court againfl Oiven de Stokes ; Eujlace dc 
Berkley and his Wife fined to have Right [there], againfl William fpn 

Kerkebi verfus Robertum de Aivilla. Alag. 
Rot. 24 H. 2. Rot. 6. a. War. iS Legerc 

(/) De Piacitis Curiae : Beatriz Bukerel 
reddit compotum de j marca, pro habendo 
Recto in Curia Regis de Terra quam cla- 
mat ; In thefauro dimidiam niarcam, Et de- 
bet dimidiam marcam. Michael de Vale- 
cienes & Godardus & Robertus de Norfolcia 
reddunt compotum de xl s, Pro Liceiitia 
concordandi cum Johanne le Burguignon ; 
In thefauro XX s, Etdebentxxs. Jeremias 
de Londonia reddit compotum de CI, Pro 
fuga quam fecit in Ecclefia, unde noluit effe 
ad Rectum in Curia Regis ; In thefauro 
xxxiij 1 & \'j s & viij d, Et debet C mar- 
cas. Radulfus Vinitor debet xl, pro ha- 
bendo Refto in Curia Regis, de Etton & 
Hamelton Vadijs fuis, verfus Odinellum de 
Uniframvilla. Ahg. Rot. 26. H. 2. Rot. 
II. b. 

(m) De Piacitis Curias per Willelmum 
filium Radulfi & Socios fuos : Bartholo- 
nia?us de Crech debet xx marcas, pro reiflo 
de Sudfeld. Mag. Rot 27. //. 2. Rot. b. a. 
Nordf. y Sudfolcb. 

(n) De Piacitis Curiae : Aluredus filius 
Ranulfi r c de xl marcis. Pro licentia con- 
cordandi de Duello verfus Ofbertum Mari- 
narium. Radulfus Archidiaconus re deCl, 
Pro Judicio fafto ei in Curia Regis, per 
quod fuit quietus dc Retto unde utiagatus 
appellaverat patrem fuum voluntate Comitis 
Reginald!. Ricardus filius Ofulf debet j 
marcam, Pro Recto [de] xl folidatis terra;. 
Mag. Rot. 28. H. 2. Rot. 7. a. Cornubui. 

(0) De Piacitis Curiae : Alanus Guhier 
r c de xliiijs pro redto de iij partibus feodi 
j Militis verfus fororem fuam. Ricardus 
Malebifle r c de xx marcis pro re£to de Et- 
ton cum pertinenti)s, Robertus de Stapelton 
r c de xliii) s & viij d, pro Recogniiione 
verfus Radulfum dc Mungay. Adam de 
Reinervill r c de xxij s & iiijd, pro ha- 
benda pace fua donee Rogerus de Lacellis 
Dominus fuushabeat astatem placitandi. A- 
dam filius Petri r c de L marcis, pro habenda 
Sochade Sneit,falvo jure aliorum. Mag. Rot, 
28 H, 2. Rot, 4. a. EvcrwichJ'c. 


chap. III. of the King's Court. 105 

of Meinfelin for half a Knight's Fee in Morton (p). In the Reign of 
K. Richard I, there were thefe Pleas (amongfl others) in tlic Kinjf's 
Court : Walter fon of Turgis fined for a Retraxit which he had made 
in the King's Court: Robert fon of ^^/// fined in the Kings Court, 
for deflouring a Woman by force : Peter cie Marion iined, to liave 
Right in the King's Court againft the Earl of Warv;ick : Jllbred \\''ife 
of William de Tikehill and others fined, that they might have the 
Debts and Rights of the faid William: the Bilhop o^ Durham was 
amerced D Marks, for holding Plea in Court Chriilian concerning 
the Advoufon of a Church: Ivo Hulband o{ Emme was amerced four 
Marks, for vv'ithdrawing from a Duell : Oio de Barke/lon fined in 
Cvj /. and a Mark, for marrying, without Licence, a Woman that 
was in the King's Gift : Alan Wajlehofe fined in Lxxviij s. viij d, to 
have Right for Lvij Marks due to his late Uncle : Roger fon of Gerard 
fined in xlj /. xvij s. iiij d, to have the King's Favour in Relation to 
a Breach of the King's Peace whereof he was appealed : William fon 
o^ Baldrick fined in x Marks, to have a Recognition of Mortdancefiour 
for certain Land [q) : Stephen fon of David fined in two Marks and 
a half, to have Right againft the Earl of Clare upon an Exchange 
made of a Knight's Fee (r) ; Petronilla de Chelcsfeld fined in xx s, to 
have a Recognition oi Mort du Pere againft the Prior oi Sudiverk, for 
half zjugum of Land : and William Son of Godifrey in xx s, for a like 

(p) De Oblatis Curiae: Willelmus Man- prasdidi Wilklmi ; Epifcopiis Dunclini de- 

fel r c de ij marcis, pro habenda loquela betD marcas, quia tenuit placit-[um](leAd' 

fua in Curia Regis verfus Johannem dc Ca- vocatione EccIefiE in Curia Chriftianitatis; 

verton de terra de Schenlega ; Stephanus de Yvo vir Emmae debet iiij marcas, quia re- 

Bello Campo r c de v marcis, pro habcn- traxit fe de Duello ; Oto de Bai kefton debet 

da loquela fua in Curia Regis de feodo di- C & vj 1 & xiijs & iiijd , quiaduxit uxo- 

midij Militis inEfberga; Ricardus filiusHa- rem qure erat de donatione Regis fine licen- 

monis debet j marcam, pro habenda loquela tia ; Alanus Wafhhofe r c de Lxxviij s & 

fua in Curia Regis verfus Audoenum de viij d, pro re6lo de Lvij marcis de debitis 

Stokes; Euftachius de Berchl. & Alizia avunculi fui ; Rogerus filius Gerardi filij 

uxor ejus debent ij marcas pro redlo de feo- Colling debet xlj 1 & xvij s h iiijd, pro 

do dimidij A4ilitis in Morton verfus Wil- habenda benevolentiaRcgis depacclu.i unJe 

lelmum filium Meinfelini. Mag. Rot. 29 appellatus eft ; Willclnius filius Baldrici dc- 

H. 2. Rot. 7. b. Buk. isf Bed. bet x marcas, pro habenda recognitione de 

{q) De Placitis Curiae : Walterus filius Motrc patris fui de terra de Alltinefwich & 

Turgifi debet xiij 1 & ij s & viij d, quia in Huimo . . Mag. Rot. 3 i2. i. 

retraxit fe ; Robertus filius Afkilli debet Rot. 6, a. Evenachfc. 
xxxviij s & xj d pro femina vi opprefla ; [r) De Placitis Curiae : Stephanus filius 

Petrus de Marten debet v marcas, pro redo David debet ij marcas &; dim., pro redo de 

verfus Comitem Warewici ; fed non habet Efcambio feodi j Militis verfus Comitcm de 

rectum ; Albreda uxor Willelmi de Tike- Clara; Ejyas de Uttefwurda debet xxxiij s 

hill, k Benedidus filius Aldredi, & Hugo & iiij d, pro habenda terra de Cnaueheift, 

filius Leofwini, & uxores eorum, debent lb. Rot. ii. a. Si/yrtya. 
Liij s & X d, pro habendis debitis & redis 

Vol. L P Recognition 

io6 Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

Recognition [s). Margery the Countefs had a Plea in the King's 
Court, and had Jiulgment there to recover Seilin of the Land or Manor 
oi' R/lnilc {t) . Monk hzd 2. Plea in the King's Court agi\n{\: Roger 
Biiche for one Knight's Fee in Walton (u). The Prior and Convent 
of Merton had a Plea in the King's Court againft William de Turevill 
and his Wife for the Town of 'Taplaw {iv). In the Reign of K. 
"Jchn, there were divers Pleas in the King's Court : as, in the Cafe 
of the Abbot of Whitby, concerning Liberties of the Burgh of Whitby 
(x) ; of John de Erley for Land (yj ; of Hawife de St. ^{intin for 
Land [zi); of Henry the Clerk for a Mifdemeanor (a) ; of the Abbot 


(ij De Placitis Curis: Petronilla ,de 
Chelesfeid debet xx s, Pro habenda Recog- 
nitionede Morte patris fui, de dimidiojugo 
terrE, verfus Priorem de Sudwerch ; Wil- 
lelmus hlius Godefiidi debet xx s, pro ha- 
benda Recognitione de Morte patris fui de 
XXX acris terra?, verfus Jordanum Clericum. 
//'. Rot. 12. a. Ghent. 

[t) Margeria ComitifTa r c de C marcis. 
Pro habenda fiiifina de Terra de Rihale, fi- 
cut ei adjudicata fuit in Curia Regis ; &: ne 
jnde diflaifietur nif: per Judicium; Per Ple- 
giutn (thefe ivere her Sureties for the Fine) 
Comitis Rogeri, & Galfridi filij Petri, & 
Willelmi de" Warenna, & Henrici Hofe, & 
Wimari de Baffingebume. Mag. Rot. 7. 
R. I. Rot. 8. a. Norhantefcira. 

[u) Radulfus Abbas de Derham & Con- 
veiitus debent j rrrarcam, ut fcribatur in 
]\I;igno Rotulo, quod cum placitum fuiffet 
in Curia Regis de feodo j IVIilitis cum per- 
tinentijs in Walton, inter Johannem Mona- 
chum "petcntem, pofitum loco Margarets 
Sororis fuss ad hicrandum vel perdendum, & 
Roirerum Buche tenentem, cum non pofTent 
confcntire quod alteruter eorum aliquid in 
Terra ilia haberet, uterq; alterius ad'cnfu 
dedit & quietum claniavit prsdiftis Abbati 
&Canonicis totumjus 5cclamium fuum quod 
habuit in pr?edi6la Terra de Walton cum 
pertinentijs, de fe & haeredibus fuis, in li- 
beram & perpetuam elcmofuiam ; Salvojuie 
Dominorum illius Ftodi, h falvo forinfeco 
feriitio Domini Regis : Et quod pro hoc 
Fine & Concordia U donatione & quieto 
clamio, prxdiclus Abbas h Conventus de- 
deruiuL marcasprx-diflo Johanni Monacho, 
hi L marcas proedido Rogero Buche. AJ(^g. 

Rot. S. R. 1. Rot. 10. a. Norfoleh & Sud- 

(■Lu) Prior & Conventus de Merton de- 
bent j marcam, Ut fcribatur in Magno Ro- 
tulo, quod Willelmusde Turevill &Yfabel 
uxor fua remiferunt& quietum clamaverunt 
Priori & Conventui de Merton, totum jus 
fuum quod habuerunt in Villa dc Tappe- 
lawecum pertinentijs, unde Placitum fuerat 
inter eos in Curia Regis &c. Alag. Rot. 8. 
R. I. Rot. 12. b. Buk. isf Bedef. 

(.v) Abbas de Whitebi debet C marcas, 
Ut Burgenfes de Whitebi non pofiint uti 
Libertatibus fibi conceflis ab Abbatc&Con- 
ventu de Whitebi, & Carta Domini Regis 
confirmatis, donee judicatum fit in Curia 
Regis, fi Abbas & Conventus eis dare po- 
tuerunt illas Libertates. AIng. Rot. I. jf- 
Rot. 4. b. EverwiJ}. 

(y) Johannes de Erleia debet xxv li'oras, 
pro habendo recordo & rationabili judieio 
de loquela qua: eft inter ipfum & Robertum 
de Juveinni, de placito terrae, deficut lo- 
quela deducta efl: in Curia Regis ; 

Robertus de Juveigni debet C bifantia,, 
ut Rex audiat cartas fuas, & coram fe rec- 
tum teneat de loquela qua? eft inter ipfum & 
Johannem de Derleia. Mag. Rot. 3. 'J. 
Rot. 3. a. Dorfete y Sunierfete. 

[%) Hawifa de SanftoQviintino debet xls, 
Ut Mabilia de Grava & forores ejus ponan- 
tur per vadium & plegios, quod fint coram 
Rege, ad capiendum Cyrographum fuum 
de Fine fadto in Curia Regis, inter ipfas & 
ipfam Havvifam, tfe Terra de Cherleton, 
quam clamabant verfus Hawifam in eadem" 
Curia. Mag. Rot. 3.7. Rot. i^.a. Berchfcira. 

(n) Henricus de Rokefbi debet xl s, Pro 


chap. III. of the King's Court, 107 

of RoK'rffbridge for Land [b) ; of Herbert de St. ^int'in for Land (f) ; 
and of many others. From thefe Inftances, and many more fpecihul 
elfewhere in tins Volume, it may in fome Meafurc appear, what 
Kind of Pleas were ufually difcufled and judged in the King's Court. 
in the Reigns of KKK. Henry II, Richard I, and John. 

In the Realm or great Scigneurie of England, there were many fub- 
ordinate Seigneuries, to wit Honours and Baronies; that refembled the 
royal Seigneurie in feveral Particulars. However there was one eflential 
Difference : namely, that the royal Seigneurie was holden of no fu- 
perior Lord : for which Reafon the King of England is commonly 
laid to hold his Crown of God Almighty : whereas Honours and 
Baronies, whilit they were poffeffed in Tenure, were holden imme- 
diately of the King. In this refped: the royal Seigneurie and the 
fubordinate ones differed. But in fundry other Refpedts they agreed. 
The ancient State of the King's Court hath been fhewn in this and 
the two foregoing Chapters. In like manner, a Baron or great Lord 
of the Realm had his Court; particularly the capital Seat of his Ba- 
rony. He had Officers of his Court or Houfe ; his Steward or 
Dapifer, his Butler or Fincerna, Marfliall, Chamberlain, and others ; 
fome of thefe or other Offices in the Houfes of Bifhops, Abbots, 
and great Barons, being alfo hereditary. In Affairs of Weight or 
common Concernment, he confulted with his chief Officers and other 
Peers or Convaffalls of his Seigneurie ; and did many folemn- AtSls, of 
Donation, Inveftiture, and of other Kinds, in their Prefence. He 
had ordinarily within his Fee, the Power of Judicature, and a 
Court or Courts for miniftring Juftice to his Valfals or Men. All 
this in Subordination to the King and the Curia Regis. So it was in 
Normandy. For Example. A Plea was moved between the Abbot 
of St. Peter of yumleges, and the Abbot of St. Maxi/nin of Orleans in 
the Court of Robert de Belefme [Lord of the Fee.] The Parties liti- 

habenda Inquifitione, fi ipfe tradidit ad fir- ad Manerium de Prunhill ficut in dominico 

mam Henrico Clerico de Efton j Molendi- fuo, die qua Abbas de Ponte Roberti movit 

iiuin quod eft in manu Regis, & quando, & inde placitum verfus ipfum Abbatem in Cu- 

ad quern terminum tradidit tenendum ; & ria Regis. Mog. Rot, 4. J. Rot, 10. b, 

fi terminus ille prsterijt ; & fi Molendinum Sudfi'xia. 

illud aliaoccafione devenit in manum Regis, (c) Herebertus de S. Quintino reddit 

quam eo quod prseditStus Henricus Clericus compotum de v marcis, ut Lx folidatae 

noluit ftare redlo in Curia Regis, de malo Terrae quas difrationavit in Curia Regis, per 

retto unde rettatus fuit. lb. Rot, 17. b. Finem Duelli, verrus Afcelinum de Wal- 

tf^ar. y Lcircejlr. tervilla, & Matildam de Diva, & Abbatem 

(h) Homines dePrimhill debent x marcas, de Kierkefted, ei affignentur per praeceptuni 

Pro habenda Inquifitione utrum Abbas de Regis. Magn. Rot. 10. J. Rot, 14. a, Lin- 

Bello fuit faifitusde totoMarifco pertinente collfcira. 

P 2 gant 


Of the Judicature Chap. IIL 

gant came before Robert in his Hall at Belefme, to hear the Judg- 
ment of his Court. And there, Judgment was given in the laid 
Plea, on the Sunday next after IVhitJontidc in the Year 1086 {d). 
Roger Earl of Shreicjhiiry fealed or ratified a Charter before his Pro- 
ceres ic). The fime Earl called together Guarian le Vifcoiint, Picot 
de Say, and his other Norman Proceres (f). Peter de Maulay made 
and ratified a Charter of Donation before his Proceres [g). Goiffred 
Earl of Moreton in Normandy convoked the Proceres or Optimates that 
were fubjedt to his Earldom (/j). In E?2gland, there are many In- 
flances of Adls done by great Lords in the Prefence of their Dapifers^ 
Chamberlains, Marefchalls, and other Ofiicers of their Houfes, and 
of the Vaflals of their Seigneuries (/) ; which Inftances need not be 
here repeated. In or about the Reign of K. Hen. I. or Stephen, 
Geoffrey Earl of EjJ'ex by his Writ commanded his Provoft Aelard de 
Guerris, to do Jufiiice [in his Court] to the Canons of St, Martin in 
London. The Writ imports, that the faid Earl, being defirous to 
make Satisfadion to the feveral Churches which he had wronged, 
and particularly to the Canons of St. Martin in London, commands 
Aelard de Guerris [his Provoft], to make due Reftitution to them ac- 
cordingly ; and to caufe an Inquifition to be taken by the Neigh- 
bourhood and the good Men of the Province, whether the five Acres 
of Land, claimed by the Canons, and whereof Walter Long diffeifed 
them, belonged rightfully to them, and if it was found that the fame 
did belong to them, to give them Seifin thereof (i). In the Reign 


(cl) Nfujir. Pia, p. 31 1. 

(e) — & inde chartacn hujufmodi coram 
Proceribus fuis voluntarie fanxit ; Ego Ro- 
gerius Dei gratia Scrobefburienfis Comes — . 
Hoc itaq; teftamentum Rogerius Comes fe- 
cit . Ord. Fit. ap. Duchefn. p. 579. a, 

tsi'c. ad ann. 1082. 

(f) Rogerius Comes [Scrobefb.] Gua- 
rinum Vicecomitem, & Picotum de Saia, 
caeterofq; Proceres fuos v Kal. Martij feria 

vj convocavit . lb. p. 581. a. tid ann. 


(g) Ille vcro [fcillicet, Petrus Maulienfis 
filius Anfoldi Divitis Parifienfis] donationis 
chartam coram Proceribus fuis confirmavit. 
//'. p. 587. a. y p. 588. a. 

(h) Goiffrcdus Comes Moritoniae vir in 
multisprobitatibusprasdicabilis ufq; ad mor- 
tem jegrotavit, & vocatis proceribus Partici 
& Corboiiiae quifuo Comitatui fubjacebant. 

res fuas folerterordinavit. Beatricem nempe 
Conjugem fuam quae Confulis de Rupeforti 
filia fuir, & Optimates fuos prudenter in- 
flruens rogavit, ut . li. p. 8go. b. 

(i) Fid. Form. Jngl. pajftm ; £3' vid. Mo~ 
naji. Angl. pajjim, 

[k) G. Comes de Effexa, Aelardo de 
Guerris falutem. Prnecipio tibi quod omni 
occafione & dilatione remota, & ficut cor- 
pus meum h animam diligis, reddas Cano- 
nlcis S. Martini de Lundonia totum bladum 
fiium de Godiceftra, & omnes res fuas quas 
Homines mei inde ceperunt, & omnia fua 
qua in terra mea invenire poterint ; & om- 
nes Homines fui & res fuas meam firmam pa- 
cem amodo habeant; quia pro infirmitate 
mea, H pro redemptione animas mese, Cano- 
nicis illis & omnibus Ecclefijs Dei fatisfacere 
promifi. Et fac recognofci per vicinium & 
probos homines illius provincias, fi v acroe 


chap. III. of the K i n g's C o u r t. 109 

of K. Henry I, yohn Bilhop of Bathe held his Court within his Ba- 
rony, upon the Feaft Day of St. Peter and St, Paul. It was a 
Court holden as well for celebrating of the Feftival, as alfo for Ju- 
dicature. The manner of holding this Court is defcribed fo largely 
and particularly in a Manufcript-book (now remaining in the Library 
oi Benet-College in Cambridge) written, as I take it, in a coeval Hand, 
that the whole Tranfadtion feemeth worthy to be inferted here. In 
the Year Mcxxi, ^(jy^w Bifhop oi Bathe xt^\A\\\g in his Court oi Bathe; 
his Friends and Barons who came thither to celebrate the Feftival of 
SS. Peter and Paul, being alfo prefent there ; a Writ under the royal 
Seal was delivered to the Bifliop, running thus, " WilUain the King's 
" Son to 'John Bidiop of Bathe, greeting. I command you to give 
" Sailin juftly to Modbert, of the Land which Grenta of Stoke lately 
** held, and the Inheritance whereof he gave in his life-time to Mod- 
" bert; Witnefs the Birtiop of Salejbiiry." When the Bifhop of 
Bathe had read this Letter or Writ, he fpoke to the Aflembly thus : 
" I am content to do as my Lord the King's Son commandeth, if 
" it be according to Juftice. But you. Sirs, who are now met together 
♦* at this folemn Court to keep the Feflival, do you, I pray, confider 
" and difcufs the Caufe." Then the Lord Vnor 0I Bathe, having con- 
fulted with his Brothers, fpoke thus : " The King and his Son do not 
" command any thing to be done in this Cafe, but what is rightful. It 
*♦ is referred to you, who are Men difcreet and fkilful in the Law, 
♦* to difcufs the Affair. I will flate it to you, that you may the bet- 
" ter difcern the Truth. It is certain, that the Land now in Con- 
*' troverfy was in very ancient Time given to the Monks of Bathe 
*' as their own proper and free Pofleffion, and hath not fince been 
" changed by any King, Bilhop, or Abbot, into military Tenure. 
** Grenta himfelf, whofe Inheritance it is pretended to be, confefi'ed 
" this a little before the Time of his Death. For when in the 
" Prefence of myfelf and others he put his Iloufe in Order, and was 
<' admoniihed by his Domeftics to name by his Teftamcnt the Per- 
<' fon that fiiould inherit his Eftate, then, I fay, he declared that 
♦' Stoke was the Land of the Monks of Bathe ; that he held it only 
" during his Life, by Permilhon ; and that he then left both it and 
♦* himfelf to the Monks, This was his Teftament, thefc his laft 
" Words. And a few Days after he died. I fee fome Perfons here, 
" who were prefent and heard all that I now relate." Hereupon fome 

terroe quas Walterus Longus tenet Sc illos tencant. Ex antogr. in wclivo Ecchf. Cclleg, 

indcdilaifivit, quas illiCancnici calumniant, JViftmon. Siglllum muiiluia ^'ciidet fegmtnti) ab 

fint de eorum tenuera ; & fi recognitum imo brev'i fe^o. 
fuerit, fac iiide cos faifiri, & bene h in pa;e 

2 lawful 

I lo Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

lawful Witneffes Hood up in the Affembly, and confirmed all that 
the Prior hr.d faid. Then was read an ancient Charter of Donation, 
made by •Kcmilf a King of the Saxons, iigned with his own Hand, 
and attefled by the Archbiihops, Biihops, Abbots, and other great 
Men, who, as the Charter imported, ratified it with the Sign of the 
Crofs, and denounced a Curfe on fuch Peilons as lliould dare to 
violate or pervert the Donation. This Charter was deemed a full 
Confirmation of the Right and Title of the Monks. But the Claim- 
ant Moiibi'rt, and fome others gainfayed. Modbert had taken the 
Daughter of Grcnta to Wife ; and was his adopted Son. He alleg- 
ed, that Grcnta held the Land in Quellion, not by Rent but by 
^hereditary Right. Whilft the Caufe continued under Debate, the 
Bifhop Ipoke thus to tlie AlTembly : " In regard the Day pafleth 
" awav, and we have fome other Affairs to difpatch here, I think it 
*' is expedient that fome of you, who are equal and impartial, do 
" weigh diUgently how this Caufe may be determined." Then fome 
Perfons of tlie Company, who were graveft and moil knowing in the 
Law, withdrawing from the croud, confidered maturely and dif- 
creetly ail Things that had been alledged. When they came in 
again, one on behalf of the Reft fpake thus : " We have confidered 
" the whole Circumftance of this Caufe, and do award, that the 
" Perfon who claimeth as Heir, do fully prove what he hath be- 
" fore afferted, either by two Witnefles at the leaft, who are to be 
" of the Family of the Priory, are to be lawful and free Men, are 
'* to be named this Day, and to be produced the eighth Day after, 
•* or Ai^hy cbirographiim 'di\\\^ figned and attefted : and that if he fail- 
" eth therein, he (laall be for ever excluded." The whole Afi'embly 
agreed, that the award was meet and juft. The Claimant had no- 
thing to fay for himfelf. The Court rofe and departed. Thefe 
things were done in the Year Mcxxi. Prefided therein, 'John Bi- 
fliop of Bathe, and Maurice a Bifhop of Ireland: were prelent three 
Archdeacons, 'Johel of Salejbiry, Girbert of Bathe, and Arald, with 
divers Clerks and Chaplains, Atfeline Hofe and five others (/) : were 


[l) De Terra Grants in Stochia Dor's, lius Regis, Johanni Epifcopo de Batha fa- 

MENSCJunio in crailino feftivitatis A- lutem. Prsecipio ut (aifias Modbertuni 

poftolorum Petri & Pauli, refidente in Cu- jufte de terra quam tenuit Grenta de Stoca, 

ria fua Bathre Johanna Epifcopo, cum Ami- ficut ha^reditavit eum in vita fua. Tefte 

cis & Baronibus, qui fimul ad diem feftum Epifcopo Salefberienfi. Leflis litteris, Epif- 

aderant, delatas funt ei Litters cum Sigillo copus dixit. Sicuti per has mihi litteras a 

Regie: quarum forma haec : Willehnus fi- filio Domini mei mandatum eft fieri, fi ta- 


chap. III. of the K i n g's C o u r t. 

II r 

WitnefTes, Patrick de Chaiirz, and eleven others. This Judgment 
given in the Bifliop of Bathes Court was afterwards confirmed by 


men juftum eft acquiefco. Vos autem, vos 
Amici mei & Domini, qui propter Apofto- 
licum diem folennitcr huic adeftis Curis, 
quid in hoc juftius fit difcutere precor digne- 
mini. Ad hac domnus Prior, habitocum 
fratribus confilio, data diligenter ab omni- 
bus audientia, fic locutus eft ; Quoniam 
quidem nonnifi jufte aliquid hie fieri neque 
Rex neq ; Regis filius prxcipit, &: vobis tan- 
quam viris bonis Scjuris peritis utruni juftum 
fit quod prsecipitur difcutere committitur, 
quomodo fe rei Veritas habeat manifeflius 
videbitis, fi me breviter locuturum patienter 
audire velitis. Conftat quidem quod terra 
hasc de qua nobis hie fermo oritur, a diebus 
antiquis hujus fandts domus Domini Fra- 
tribus in ulus proprios & pofteflionem libe- 
ram data, nullius unquam mutatione Regis, 
Epifcopi, vel Abbatis, in jus militate 
tranfijt. Quod ipfe Grenta de cujus haere- 
ditate nunc agitur moriens etiam non tacuit. 
Nam cum, nobis prasfentibus, domui fuae 
difponeret, & rei peculinris partes nomina- 
tim divideret, fecreto monitus a domefticis 
ut teftamentum facienspublicefibi hasredem 
fubftitueret. Ait, Hsc eft hasreditas fer- 
vorum Domini ; quam vice Stipendij non 
hsereditatis lege quoad vivercm tenere per- 
miffus, ipfum me cum terra, Fratribus qui- 
bus id juris eft, nunc moriens relinquo. Hoc 
eft quod fecit teftamentum : & hsec verba 
illius noviflima. Poft quae \'exatus per dies 
aliquot, monachus diem obijt. Prafentes 
hie etiam quofdam video, quos omnibus his 
interfuiftefnnul Sc audilTe gratiilimum habeo. 
Surgentes iiico teftes quidam legitimi ftantes 
in medio conftanter alfercbant, fe modis om- 
nibus probaturos, eum ne uno quidem verbo 
veritatis praeterifie veftigia. Carta nichilo- 
minus donationis antiquos mox ledta eft ; 
quam Kenulfus Rex Saxonum fcribi prs- 
cepit & manu proprio fignavit, confentien- 
tibus & annuentibus Archiepifcopis, Epifco- 
pis, Abbatibus, & omnium dignitatum pri- 
njatibus ac miniftris. Et ut ibi le^ebatur, 
eandem cartam figno Crucis notantes inipre- 
cr:ti funt in ilium irani furoris Domini, qiii- 
cunq; tarn liberale Chriftianiflimi Rcgii do- 

nativum quocunq; deteriorationis genere 
pervertere prasfumpfiflet inseternum. Ledis 
igitur & expofitis quae carta continere vide- 
batur, ratiocinationis jam didas Veritas foli- 
dataeft; alijs bona laudantibus, alijs exad- 
verfo tumultuantibus ; illo prascipue occla- 
mante, qui fe non minus procaciter quam 
mendaciter haeredem contendebat efle ; juf- 
tiffime ; quippe qui filiam dcfundiconjugem 
habuerit; adoptatus ab ejufdem patre duin 
viveret in filium ; patrem vero non ftipen- 
diarie, ut oppofitum eft, fed libere potius & 
haereditarie terram de qua qusftio erat tenu- 
ifte. Cunq; diutius varijs ab alterutrum con- 
tradidionibus caufa protenderetur, dixit E- 
pifcopus. Quia dies prxterit, & ad nos alia 
fpedant negotia, placet ut vos quos nee ad- 
vocates nee partium fautores efle cognovi- 
mus caufam diligenter perpendentes quo 
termino fopiri debeat judicetis. Secedentes 
igitur a turba qui majores natu qui juris pe- 
ritiores elTe videbantur, fingulajuxta quod 
audierant fubtiliter & difcrete peiifantes cau- 
fam dijudicaverunt. Quibusiterumintrogref- 
fis, fic unius ore pro omnibus relatum eft. 
Confiderantes, inquit, totam hujus caufs 
circumftantiam hoc diffinientes ftatuimus, ut 
h^redem jure qui fc nominat id quod in af- 
fertionem fuas caufx paulo ante declamavit, 
teftibus ad minus duobus de ecclefias familia 
liberis & legitimis hodie nominatis & octavo 
produdis, vel cyrographo crcdibiliter fig- 
nato, irrefragibiiiter probet. At in utroq; 
fi defecerit, ne quidem audiatur in reliquum. 
Rcfpondentibus ad haec omnibus dic^num & 
juftum c{\(i, calumpniator obticuit. A Cu- 
ria difcefii.mi eft. Ada funt ha^c anno Do- 
mini M'C-'XXI'' ; Pruideniibus c'v quod 
juftum eft approbantibus Epifcopis duobus, 
Johanne Bathenfi & iMauricio liibernienfi ; 
cum Aichidiaconis tribus, Johele Salcflse- 
rienfi, h Girberto Bathenfi, & Araldo, cum 
Clericis pluribus .S: Capellanis ; Atfelino 
Hofato, Girberto Rut'o, Radulfo Lauduni, 
Henrico de [.idiard, Rotlberto de Betuna ; 
Horiim teftes funt, Patricius de Caurz, Hu- 
bertus de Sanda Sufanna, Winebaldus de 
B.ialun, Alexander de Alnoth, Rcinaldus dc 


1 12 

Of the Judicature 

Chap. III. 

KK. Henry I, and Stephen; as appeareth by two feveral Writs of the 
faid Kings, fet-forth hereunder (;;/). 

Richard de Hanum was to be jufticed in the Court of his Lord the 
Prior oi Bathe (n). Alan Son of Odo recovered Land in the Court 
of the Billiop of Norwich (o). Reginald de Warenne was enjoined to 
do Juftice [in his Court] to Robert de Mandevill fp). Thomas Arch- 
bifliop of Canterbury was accufed for not doing Right in his Court to 
'John the King's Marefchall, touching certain Land, The Arch- 
bifliop pleaded, that his Juftices had done Right to the Marefchall, 
as the Law required (q). Of inferior Seigneuries, hitherto in 

Vn. Befides Pleas, there was fometimes other Bufinefs tranf- 
afted between Parties in the Curia Regis. Many final Concords 
were made there, and Chirographs thereof mutually fealed. Thefe 
were moft commonly made upon Pleas moved. But Feoff- 
ments, Releafes, and Conventions of divers Kinds (not grounded 
upon Pleas, for ought that appeareth) were likewife made there, ef- 
pecially in Cafes that required more than ordinary Solemnity. Seve- 
ral Inftances of Things of thefe Kinds may be feen in printed Books. 

Dunflanvilla, Giffardus de Salforda, Helias 
de Deingt. , Thomas deBacuuil., Rodber- 
tus, Rogerus de La mare, Willelmus Da- 
pifer, Item Willelmus. E Cod. AfS. perve- 
itiflo, Mifcellanea G, penes A'lagiJ}. (J Soc. 
Coll. Corp. Chr'if. Cantab, p. lo8. 

(m) Henricus Rex Anglorum, Epifcopo 
de Batha falutem. Praecipio quod A4ona- 
chi de Batha ita bene h in pace & jufte & 
honorifice teneant Terram fuam de Stoca, 
quam Grenta tenuit, ficut dirrationaverunt 
cam contra Modbertum per Judicium Curiae 
tuae, ne fuper hoc amplius inde clamorem 
audiam. Etnifi feceris, Warinus Vicecomes 
& Durandus de Moiun faciant fieri. T E- 
pifcopo Salefberienfi, apud Weftmonafte- 
rium. Ex eod. Cod. MS. Mifcellanea G, 
p. III. 

Stephanus Rex Anglorum, Rodberto E- 
pifcopo Bathonise falutem. Prscipio quod 
Monachi de Bathonia ita bene & in pace & 
jufte & honorifice teneant Terram fuam de 
Stocha, quam Grenta tenuit, ficut earn dif- 
rationaverunt contra Modbertum, per Judi- 
cium Curiae Johannis Epifcopi ; Ne fuper 

hac ulla fiat eis inde difturbatio. Et nifi fe- 
ceris, Juftitia mea faciat, T. Rodberto de 
Ver, apud Goldintonam. E.x eod. Cod. MS.. 

p. 120. 

(n) De una virgata terrae de Beche. Hcc 
eft Conventio quam Rodbertus Epifcopus & 
Prior ac totus Conventus Bathonias fecerunt 
cum Ricardo de Hanum. Ricardus tenet 
unam virgatam terras de Efcfentona. Pro 
qua debit Priori v folidos pro omni fervicio 
per annum. Et erga omnes fubmonitiones 
Regias cam adquietabit. Quod fi ille, vcl 
alius qui per eum manferit ibi, forisfecerit, 
in Curia Prioris Judicio parium fuorum rec- 
tum dijudicetur& omnino tcrminetur. 

E Cod. MS. prfantiq;. Mifcellanea G, in 
Bibl. Coll. Corp. Chr'iji. Cantab, p. 126. 

(0) Alanus filius Odonis debet x marcas 
argenti, pro conceffione terr;e, ficut earn 
dirrationavit in Curia Epifcopi de Norwic. 
Mag. Rot. 5 Ste. Rot. 10. a. 

(p) Ante, cap. 2. Sell. 7. ad A. D. 1 162. 
R. Comes Legreceftri*. 

(q) Ante, cap, i, Se^. 3. ad A. D. 1 1 65. 
Anno gratiae. 

A few 

Chap. III. (?/" //5^ K I N g's C o u R T. 113 

A few others may be added here. In the 28th Year of K. Henry II, 
A final Concord was made in the King's Court at Wejlminjlcr, before 
R. Bifliop oi JVinton and G. Bifhop of Ely, Raniilf de Glanvill chief 
Jufticier, Richard the Treafurer, G. de Luci, R. Fitz-Renfrey, Michael 
Belet, G. de Cole-vill, R. de Geddinges, Gervafe de Cornhill, OJhert Fifz- 
Hervey, and other Barons and Jufticiers, between Michael Son of Oger 
and Sara his Wife, and Oger Son of Oger and Amy his Wife, touch- 
ing the Rationahilis pars belonging to Sara and Amy of the Land late 
of William de Schejiega their Father fr). 

In the 9th Year of K. Richard I, a final Concord was made in the 
Kings Court, ^XlVeJUninJler, before Hubert h.xc\\\i\^\o^ oi Canterbury \\\^ 
King's Jufticier, Earl Roger le Bigot, WiiUam Brieii:er, Hugh BardulJ, 
Richard Archdeacon of Ely, M after Thomas de Hujjeburn, William ds 
Warren, Richard de Herierd, OJhert Fitz-Hervey, Simon de Patejhill, 
"John de Gcjlling, Jufticiers, and others the King's Barons and Liege- 
Men then and there prefent, between the Prior and Convent of 
Cbrijl-Church Canterbury, and William de Suttchirch, in a Plea depend- 
ing in the King's Court concerning the whole Town of Suttchirch. 
The Prior and Monks, by the Alfent of Hubert the chief Jufticier, 
and in his Prefence appointed Ralf di Orpington and yohn de Doure, 
two Monks of their Cloifter, to be their Attornies in the faid Plaint. 


(r) Ogcrus filius Ogcri r c de dimidia 
marca, pro Cyrographo inrotulando de Fi- 
nal! Concordia qus fadta fuit in Curia Do- 
mini Regis apud Weftmon. in craftino S. 
Andres, anno xxviij regni Regis H. Se- 
cundi, coram R. Wintonienfi & Galfrido 
Elyenfi Epifcopis, & Rannulfo de Glan- 
vill Juftic. Domini Regis, & Ricardo The- 
laurario, & G. de Luci, i< R. filio Ren- 
fridi, k Michaele Uelet, & G. de Colevill, 
cc R. de Geddingis, & Gervafio de Corn- 
hill, ^' Ofberto filio Hcrvei, & alijs Ba- 
ronibus & Jufticiarijs Domini Regis ibi 
tunc prafentibus, inter Michaelem filium 
Ogeri & Sarram uxorem fuam, & Ogerum 
filium Ogeri & Amiam uxorem fuam, de 
rationabili parte fua quam idem M. h Sarra 
cxigebant verfus pru;dictum O. & Amiam 
uxorem fuam, de terra quam Wiilelmus de 
ijcheflega paler earundem Sarrse & Amias 
habuit, unde placitum fuit inter eos in Cu- 
ria Domini Regis, Scilicet quod idem Oge- 
f us & Amia uxor fua remiferunt prasdiito 

Vol.. I. 

Michaeli & Sarrae uxori fuae totam terram 

de R cum omnibus pertinentijs, & 

fevic[ium] Hugonis de Caldecota. De qui- 
bus idem Michael & Sarra fiicient fcrvitium 
feodi unius Militis prsdiftoOgeroSc Amis, 
& ipfi Capitali Domino. Et praeterea re- 
miferunt prffidifti Ogerus Amia praedi£lo 
Michaeli & Sarroe fcrvitium feodi unius 
Militis, quod Radulfus filius maur[itij] eis 
debuit de Stutton in Sudfolch, & xij foli- 
datas redditus in Selvefton, quos Prior & 
Monachi S. Marias de Luffeld debuerunt eis, 
de tenemento quod de eis tenent. Prasdic- 
to autem Ogero & Amire uxori fus re- 
manet tota terra de Schelflega, & de Wal- 
ton, & de Lachebroch, cum omnibus per- 
tinentijs earundem terrarum, pro Lxvij 1. 
de debito Willelmi patris earundem Sarras 
h Amia;, quas idem Ogcrus & Amia red- 
diderunt Abrahte Judaeo Londoniae, & x 
Marcis de debito ejufdem quas ipfi rcdidde- 
runt Willelmo le Franceis, & vj xx [idejl, 
fexiei viglnti'} marcis, unde ipfi intraverunt 
Q_ in 

114 0/ /-6^ J u D I c A T u R E Chap. III. 

The Concord is fet forth hereunder in tlie Margin (s). A Conven- 
tion was made in the King's Court, in the loth Year of i^/r>6^r^ I, 
between Andrew de Belchamp, and Peter de Wingham and William de 
Bofewill (t). In the 4th Year of K. John, William Briewerre paid 
D Marks Pine, to have (amongfl other Things) a Moiety of the 
Land which was Walter Britons, being then in the King's Hand y 
which Moietj' Richard de Hafeciimb came into the King's Court and 
granted to the King and to the faid William ftij. In the tenth Year 


in debitum verfus Willelmiim de Mand 
[evill] Comitem Eflexs pro .... terrae 
praediiita;; unde fumma eft, CC xxix mar- 
cas \_Here etirhlh the Chirograph of the fiual 
Concord.'] In thefanro liberavit dimidiam 
marcam \^the Fine to the King for this Entry 
in the great Roll], Et Quietus eft. Mag. Rot. 
28 Hen. 2. Rot. 8. l>. in imo. 

(s) Hfec eft Finalis Concordia f;i£la in 
Curia Domini Regis apud Weftmonnfteri- 
iim Anno regni Regis Ricardi nono, in 
Craftino Inventionis San<Sae Crucis, coram 
Domino H. Cantuarienfi Archiepifco tunc 
Domini Regis Jufticiario, Comite Rogcro 
le Bigot, Willelmo Briewer, Hugone Bar- 
dulf, Ricardo Archidiacono tlienfi, Ma- 
eiftro Thoma de Hufteburn, Willelmo de 
Warren, Ricardo de Herierd, Oft)erto filio 
Hervei, Simone de Pateftiill, Johanne de 
Geftling Jufticiarijs, & alijs Baronibus & 
fidelibus Domini Regis ibidem tunc prx- 
fentibus, inter Priorem & Conventum 
Ecclefiie Chrifti Cantuarias & Willelmum 
de Suttchirch, per affenfum prasdiiU H. 
Cantuarienfis Archiepifcopi per Radulfum 
de Orpinton & Johannem de Doure Mo- 
nachos ejufdem Ecclefiae, quos idem Prior 
& Conventus pofuerant loco fuo coram 
pradicSo Archiepifcopo in Curia Domini 
Regis ad lucrandum vel perdendum, in lo- 
cjuela qus fuit inter prasdidluni Willelmum 
petentem. Si Priorem & Conventum tenen- 
tes, de tota villa de Suttchirch, quam prx- 
fatus Willclmus clamavit verfus praefatos 
Priorem & Conventum, tenendam de eis 
a'd fcodi firmam, & unde placitum fuit in- 
ter eos in praefata Curia, fcilicet quod pr;e- 
di£li Prior & Conventus, per alTenfum prs- 
didi H. Archiepifcopi concelTerunt prjediiflo 
Willelmo & h?eredibus fuis prtedidtam vil- 
1am de Suttchirch cum pertinentijs, tenen- 


dam hereditarie ad feodi firmam de Priore 
& Conventu Ecclefire Chrifti Cantuarix in 
perpetuum, reddendo fingulis Annis prs- 
di£tis Priori &Conventui viginti libras Ster- 
lingorum, in quatuor terminis Anni, fcili- 
cet ad Natale Centum folidos, ad Pafcha 
centum folidos, ad feftum Sanfl:i Johannis 
Baptiftas centum folidos, & ad Feftum Sanfti 
Michaelis centum folidos ; Ita fcilicet quod 
fi praefatus Willelmus vel h.Ttedes fui infra 
quindecim dies poft aliquem prrediclorum 
terminorum firmam fuam de termino ilio in- 
tegre non reddiderit, erit in mifericordia 
Prioris & Conventus, & de rhifericordia ilia 
dabit centum folidos, quos, prius quam fir- 
mam fuam, reddet ; prxfatus etiam Wil- 
lelmus vel haeredes fui hon poterint vendere 
vel dare vel aliquomodo vaftare quicquam 
de bofco illius villae ; Salvis fibi & hsredi- 
bus fuis rationabilibus Eftovarijs fuis ad fo- 
cum fuum in eadem villa, & ad reparacio- 
nem domoruni fuarum & fepium, nee ho- 
mines ejufdem vills poterint injulle gravare 
vel talliare, ve! quicquam ab eis capere pras- 
ter rationabilia lervicia & debitas confuetu- 
dines fuas, quae de tenementis fuis debent. 
Ex autographo pede Finis in archiva Ecclcf. 
Chrijli Caniuariie. 

(t) Andreas de Belchamp debet j marcam, 
Ut Conventio fadta inter ipfum, Et Petrum 
de Wingeham & Willelmum de Bofevill, 
fcribatur in Magno Rotulo, ficut fada fuit 
in Cuiia Regis &: recordata ; Scilicet quod 
praedifti Petrus & Willelmus remilerunt 5c 
quietum clamaverunt totum jus quod ha- 
buerunt in hsreditate Roberti Baffet, prje- 
di6to Andreas h Evse uxori fuas, pro fe & 
hssredibus fuis in perpetuum. Mag. Rot. 
10 R. I. Rot. 13. b. Lancaftra. 

(h) Willelmus Briewerre reddit compo- 
tum de D marcis, pro habenda hliit Hugonis 


Chap. III. ^ //5^ K I N g's Co u RT. 1/5 

of K. Ht'jir)' III, JVilliam Bricivcrr came into the King's Court before 
the King and his great Men, and there granted to Jofcelm IJilhop 
of Batbe and Wells, the Advowfon of the Church of Meherton in 
Frank-almoigne ; and by his Gloves, gave the Bidiop Seifin of the 
laid Advowfon ^wj. When Conventions were made between the 
great Men, it was of Importance to have them made in the King's 
Court. For Example : in the Reign of K. Henry II, a Convention was 
had between Stittevill and Mubrai touching a Barony. But becau(e 
the Convention was not made in Curia Regis, and confirmed by the 
King's Authority, Stutevilk demanded the Barony again in K. ''Johns 
Court (xj. The Matter in Debate between them was afterwards 
fettled conjilio regni & voluntaie Regis [Johannis] (y). 

It was alfo ufual to make Fines and Qblatas in the King's Court. 
By Ohlatas we may underftand voluntary Fines. The Dialogue ex- 
plains it fo (z). And this explication is confirmed by Records. Of 
Fines and Qblatas made to the King either in his Palace and Court, 
or before his chief JuRicicr, Chancellor, or other Jufticiers of his 
Court, many Inilances may be feen in thefe Volumes. The Qblatas 

de Alorevill cum tota hsereditate fua, quam 
idem H. tenuit die qua fuit vivus & mortuus, 
& pro Maritagio ipfius filiae ad opus Ri- 
cardi filij fui, vel fi parentes ipfius puells ad 
hoc afienferint, ad opus Ricardi Gernun 
Nepotis (lii, fi eidem Willelmo placueiit ; 
& pro habendis cxitibus ejufdcm Terras, & 
catallis qua; fuerunt praediiti Hugonis, qua 
lion funt in manu Regis, vel quae ipfe non 
legavit in Teftamento fuo ; & pro habendo 
officio Foreftre, quod idem Hugo habuit, & 
refpondendo iiide Capitali Forcftario Regis, 
ficut fsspediftus Hugo fecit, 5c ficut inten- 
dere debet : Ita tamen quod ft praedifta Fi- 
lia ipfius Hugonis moreretur, antequam pr.-e- 
diiStus Willelmus D marcas deexitibus prae- 
dicts Terrae percepiifet, hoc quod ipfe de 
praedifto Fine reddiderit, ei locabitur fe- 
cundum quod de exitibus illius Terr« per- 
ceperit ; Et pro habenda Medietate Terrse 
qu£E fuit Walteri Britonis quae eft in manu 
Regis, unde Ricardus de Hafecumb haeres 
ipfius Walteri venit in Curia Regis, in 
conceffit Regi 6c prasdicto Willelmo jus 
fuum quod habuit in prasdicta Medietate 
prsdidtae Terrs, ad opus Ricardi Briewerre 
Jilij ipfius Wiilelmi. Mag. Rot. 4 J. Rot. 
18. b. Cumberland; Nova Oblata. 

(w) Rex omnibus prcefentes Literas in- 
fpctturis Salutem. Sciatis quod dile£lus & 
fidelis nofter Willelmus Briewerre in Curia 
iioftra coram Nobis & Magnatibus noftris, 
dcdit 5c conceffit venerabili patri Jofcelyno 
Bathon. Epifcopo, Advocationem Ecclcfiae 
de Melvertqn cum pertinentijs fuis, in li- 
beram puram & perpetuam Elemofinam ; 
volens & concedens quod ipfe Epifcopus & 
Succeflbres fui imperpetuum, deipfa Eccle- 
fia cum pertinentijs fuis, ficut de alijs Eccle- 
fijs fuis, pro voluntate fua ordinent & dif- 
ponant : Conceffit etiam quod ipfe & hs- 
redes fui, didlo Epifcopo & Succelforibus 
fuis imperpetuum, Advocationem prasdidtae 
Ecclefiae cum pertinentijs fuis contra omiies 
homines Warantizabunt, 5c fuper eo Car- 
tam fuam ei 'fecit. Ipfe etiam Willelmus 
Briwer coram nobis, per Cirothecas fuas, 
diclum Epifcopum de prsedifta faifivit ad- 
vocatione. Et in hujus rci teftimonium has 
Literas iiofiras patentcs fecimus. Telle me- 
ipfo apud Weftmonafterium 17 die Maij. 
Pat. 10. H. 3. m. 5. 

(x) Hovcd. P. 2. p. 803. II. I. 10. 20. 

(y) Ih. V. 20. 

{%) Dial, in append, idi Volum. L. 2. 
c. 23. Noveris igitur. 



ii6 Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

are commonly placed in the great Rolls under the title, De Oblatis, 
Nova Oblata, &c. For Example : Salomoji of Ipfivicb profered or 
made his Oblatwn of one Mark out of every vij Marks which he 
fliould recover againft Hugh de la Hafe. Robert de Hardre profered a 
Mark of Gold, to have a Recognition for ij Carucates of Land in 
Hadley. Benet Son of Richard profered a Mark, that a Convention 
made in Henry de Effex's Court might be recorded in the King's 
Court. Walter Son of Nicholas gave xl s, to have a Recognition of 
Mortdanceftour. William de Wither dal profered x/. for the Relief of 
iij Knip-hts Fees. Herlewin the Prieft profered ix/. for a Default (a). 
William de Lindfey made an Oblatwn in the King's Court of xl Marks, 
to have Right in the King's Court againft Henry the Clerk and the 
Countefs of Albemarle and Nicholas de Stutevill, for certain Manors 
in Cumberland (b). In the fame Year, there were Oblatiims made to 
the King : Adam Son of Elyfant profered xx Marks for recovering 
his Debt againft Earl David ; Reginald Bradfot xlij/. & xiiij^. for an- 
Amercement of his Father's ; the County oi Copland (except the Lands 
oi Reginald de Liici) ij Marks for a Concealment; and others profer- 
ed other Sums, according to their refpedtive Cafes (c). 

Vin. As the Pleas brought into the King's Court were ufually 
brought thither by Licence of the King or his Jufticiers ; fo, it was 
not unfrequent for the King to grant to fome Perfons a Privilege, 

('(7J Nova Placita & Novse Conventiones. Mag. Rot. ^0 H. 2. Rot. i. a. Nordfolch. 

De Oblatis in Curia : Salomon de Gipefwic ^ Siidf. 

debet j marcam de quibuflibet vij marcis (b) De Oblatis Curiae : Willelinus de 

quas difrationare poterit verfus Hugonem de Lindcfia debet xl marcas, pro habendo rec- 

la Hofe. Robertus de Hardre debet j mar- to in Curia Regis verfus Henricum Cleri- 

€am auri, Pro recognitione de ij carrucatis cum de Appelbi & ComitifTam de Albemar. 

terrre in Hadlega, utrum fit liberum feodum & Nicholaum de Stutevill de Hukemannebi, 

Ecclefise, vel laicum feodum Adse & Ger- & Blenherfeta, & Overic, & Leuenton, & 

vafij & Warini. Benedidlus filius Ricardi Lawefwater, & Bikerinet, & Stanelton. 

r c de j marca, Ut Conventio fafta in Cu- Mng. Rot. 3. R. i. Rot. 5. a. Cumh. 

ria quae fuit Henrici de Eflex, inter ipfum (c) De Oblatis Domino Regi : Adam fi- 
fe Paganum filium Huberti recordctur in lius Elyfant debet xx marcas, pro debito 
Curia Regis, In thefauro liberavit, Et Qiii- fuo habendo de Comite David. Reginal- 
etus eft. Walterus filius Nicholai rcdexl dus Bradfot r c de xiijl. & xiiij d. de mi- 
folidis, Pro recognitione de vj Mafagijs in fericordia patris fui : In thefauro xj s, Et 
(jernemua, de morte patris uxoris fuse ; In debet xij 1. & xs. & ij d ; De quibus red- 
thefauro j marcam, h debet ij marcas. det per annum xxs. Comitatus de Cop- 
Willelmus de Widerefdala r c de x 1. de land debet ij marcas, pro concelamento, 

Relevio iij Militum. Herlewinus prefbi- praeter terram Reginald! de Luci. 

ter de Ringefteda debet ix 1. pro Def. Mag. Rot. 3. R, i. Rot. 5. a. Cumb. 

4 that 

Chap. III. of the K i n g's C o u r t. 117 

that they fliould not be impleaded in any other Court or Place, except 
before him or his chief Jufticier. For Example : K. Henry II. took 
the Monks of the H. Trinity of Canterbury into his Protection ; and 
commanded that they fliould not be impleaded for any of their Lands, 
except in his Prefence (d). In like Manner, he took the Monks of 
Bordejley into his protedion fej. In the Reign of the lame King, 
the Prior of Coventry fined in xx Marks, that he might not plead [or 
be impleaded] for his Lands, except bcjh-e the King (f) ; and feveral 
others fined for the like Protedlion or Privilege : As Walter de BaJ- 
chiervill fgj, Simon Son of Nicholas fhj, Aikvard Son of Seric (i), 
Geoffrey le Blund fk), and Robert Son of Buijlard (I). In the Reigns 
of KK. 'John and Henry III, the like Appointment was made, or pri- 
vilege granted to feveral Perllms, that they ihould not be impleaded 
unlefs before the King, or before the King and his chief Jufticier : 
to wit, to William de Wroteham (m), to Robert de Aimouejdal fn), to 
Jerverd, Idthcl, Ojbert, Arkein, . Maddoc, Morgan, and Philipp Son of 

(d) Henricus D. g. R. A., k D. N. & 
A., & C. A., Arthiepifcopis, Epifcopis, 
Abbatibus, Decanis, Archidiaconis, Comi- 
tibus, Baronibus, Jufticiarijs, Vicecomiti- 
bus, miniftris, & oinnibus ballivis fuis tocius 
teirag fuae falutem. Sciatis quod Convcntus 
Cantuarias de ecclefia S. Trinitatis, omnes 
res & pofl'efliones & omnia fua funt in manu 

cuftodia & pioteftione mea . Et pro- 

Jiibco ne ponatur in placitum de aliquo te-' 
nemento fuo nifi in prsfencia mca. X. &c. 

. Regijlr. C. in Ecd. Mctrop. Cant. fol. 

xxj. a. 

(e) nee in placitum ponantur de ali- 

qua tenura fua nifi ante me. Form. Angl. nu. 

(f) Prior de Covintria reddit compotum 
de XX marcis, Ne placitet niii coram Rege 
de Tenementis fuis. Alag. Rot. 12. H. 2. 
Rot. 5. a. 

(s) Walterus de Bafchiervilla r c de xiiij 
marcis", Ne placitet de terra fua nifi coram 
Rege. lb. Rot. 6. a Gloec. 

(h) Simon filius Nicolai filij Nigelli 
debet Cs, pro habcnda pace per breve Re- 
gis, ut non mittatur in placito de tenura 
fua nifi coram Rege, Mag. Rot. 21. H. 2. 
Rot. 5. b. Staff. 

(i) Ailwardus filius Serici r c de xx mar- 
cis, pTo brevi Regis habendo, ne placitet 
nifi coram eo; In th. ],Et Q^e. Mag. Rot. 
22. H. 2. Rot. 10. b. Corm/hia. 

(k) De placitis Curise per Rogerum fi- 
lium Remfiidi & focios fuos. Gaufridus le 
Blund r c de una marca auri, Ut non pla- 
citet de aliquo tencmento fuo nifi coram 
Rege ; In Camera Curis liberavit, Et Q. e. 
Mag. Rot. 25 H. 2. Rit. 10. b. 

(I) Robertus filius Buiftardi debet x mar- 
cas, Pro confirmatione de pcrquifitionibus 
fuis, h ne ponatur in placitum nifi coram 
Rege vel Juftitia fua. Mag. Rot. 31, H. 2. 
Rot. 5. a. Everivkh. 

(m) Willelmus de Wroteham reddit 

compotum de x marcis, pro Prote'fli- 

one ne ponatur in placitum nifi coram Re- 
ge vel ejus Capitali Jufticiario. Mag. 
Rot. 2. J. Rot. 7. a. citat. hie Cup. 13. 
SeiJ. 6. 

(n) Robertus de Aimouefdal debet v mar- 
cas, Pro habendo Brevi de Proteflione, ne 
ponatur in placitum de aliquo tenemento 
i'uo nifi coram Rege vel per Breve Regis, 
Mag. Rot. 2. J. Rot, 17. a. 


ii8 Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

Jagorn the Priefl: (oj, the V nor oi L(mcqJ}er (p), Adam Son of Or;// 
fq), John de GeJUinges (r), the Prior and Canons of Torkefcy fsjy 
the Monks of Scanicburgh of the Cijlercian Order (t), the Abbot 
of Croyland (uj, Walter de Aura and Mafter John de Brideport f'lvjy 
the Archbilhop of Canterbury, and the Bifhop oi Norivkh fx), Jor- 
dan Rujf'us and his Brother David fyj, the Monks of Forde fzj. 

(o) Yerverd 5: alij qui annotantur in Ro- 
tuio primo r c de iiij 1. pro ij Chafcurs, Ne 
quis eos vexet nifi in praifentia Re^is : In 
th. 1, Et Q^ s. Afag. Rot. 3. J. R^t. 20. a. 
Lane. tit. De Obhitis. 

Jerurecl, Tdihcl, Ofbertus Arkein, Mad- 
dnc. Si Morgan, Philippus filius Jagornis 
preibytcri, r c de x marcis & ij Chafcurs, 
Per iic nc quis eos vexet nifi in prasfentia 
Regis. Mag. Rot. 1. J. Rot. 5. 0. Lane. tit. 
Nova Oblata. 

(p) Prior de Lancaftra r c de ij bonis 
palefridis vel de x marcis. Pro habenda 
Protectione ne trahatur in placitum de ali- 
quo tenementoruni fuorum, nifi coram Rege 
vel Capitali Juftici.irio. Afc/g. Rot. 2 'Ji'}- 
Rot. \-]. a. Lane. In a Charter without date, 
made by K. John to the Prior and Monks of 
Lancafter, there is this Claiife, Prohibemus 
etiam ne inplacitentur de aliquo tenemento 
fuo quod teneant, nifi coram nobis vel Ca- 
pitali Jufticia noftra. Chart. Atitiq. D, nu. 

{q} Adam filius Orm r c de vj marcis 
ti j Chafcur, Pro habendo Brevi Patente, 
ne iple rcfpondeat alicui nifi coram Rege vel 
Capitali Jufticiario, de morte Adz Gernet. 
Mag. Rot. 3. J. Rot. 20. a. Lane. 

(r) Johannes de Geftlino;es debet ij Pale- 
fridos, Pro quadam Protetbone habenda ; 
Jit ut fit quietus de Schiris & hundredis, & 
cuftodia Caftellorum, quamdiu vixerit j Et 
quod non ponatur in placitum de aliquo te- 
nemento fuo nifi coram Rege vel Capitali 
Jufticiario quamdiu vixerit. Mag. Rot, 4. "/. 
Rot. 15. b. Kent. 

(s) Prior & Canonici de Torkefeia r c de 
j palefrido, Pro Confirmatione Regis, & ne 
ponantur in placitum nifi coram Rege; In 
fh. 1, Et (V. e. Mag. Rot. 3. J. Rot. 
I. a. 

(t) Monachi de Scardeburc de Ordine 
Ciilercienfi habent Litteras Patentes de Pro- 
tcdione J Et in fine illarum ponitur, ne 

ipfi ponantur in placitum de aliqua re quas 
pertiiiet ad Ecclefiam de Scardeburg, niii 
coram Domino Rege vel coram Qapitali Ju- 
fticia fua. Pat. 4. J. m. 5. 

(u) Et pro habendis Literis Regis Paten- 
tibus de ProteiSlione, ne ponatur in placi- 
tum de aliqua elemofina quam h^.bet de Re- 
ge, vel de Dono Antcctflbrum fuorum, nifi 
coram Rege. Alag. Rot. 4. J. Rot. 17. a. 
Line. eit<7t. Cap. 1 1 . Se^. 2. 

(tv) Walterus de Aura habet Literas Do- 
mini Regis Patentes de Prpteclione ; & in 
fine cartffi ponitur, ne ipfe trahatur in pla- 
citum de aliquo libero tenemento fuo quod 
teneat, nifi coram Domino Rege vel Capi- 
tali Jufticiario iuo. 

Magifter Johannes de Brideport habet 
Litteras patentes de fimplici proteflione ; 
& in fine cartic ponitur, quod non ponatur 
de aliquo tenemento fuo quod de nobis te- 
neat, nifi coram nobis. Pat. 5. 'J. m. 1, 

(x) Dominus Cantuarienfis iiabet Literas 
patentes de Protectione dum fuerit in fer- 
vitio Domini Regis ultra mare, nee permit- 
tant eum inplacitari de aliquo tenemento fuo 
quod in pace polTcdit die quo transfretavit, 
nee Monacos EcciefiK fu.^ Cantuaria?, vel 
aliquos alios de aliquo tenemento unde tra- 
hant ipfum Archiepifcopum in warantum 
& warantus eorum ell'e debeat, quamdiu 
fuerit in prsdiflo fervicio ultra mare. Lite- 
ral iftre triplicatae funt. 

Dominus Norwicenfis habet Literas pa- 
tentes, fub eadem forma, pro fe & Mona- 
chis fuis de Norwico. Pat. 5. J. m. 2. 

(y) Jordanus Ruft'us & frater ejus David 
debent v marcas, pro habendis Litteris Regis 
de Protedlione patentibus, & quod non re- 
fpondeant de terris fuis Briftolli, nifi coram 
Rege. Alag. Rot. 5. J. Rot. 5. a. 

(z) Concedimus etiam eis ex dono noftro, 
quod non ponantur in placitum nifi coram 
nobis ipfis & haeredibus noftris ; Dat. ic. 
Oa. 6° Joh. Chart. Ant. H. 12. 


chap. III. (?/' ^"/^^ K I N g's C o u R T. 119 

Richard de Leicejier fa). Miles le Bret (bj, John de Lideford fcj, 
Godfrey de Crnucumhe (d), the Monks of Hayles fe), and to many 
others. In the fourth Year of K. Henry HI, an Affize was fum- 
moned before the King, to find, what Patron in Time of Peace pre- 
fented the lall Parfon, who lately died, to the Church of BriJ'eley, 
which is now void : the Advowfon whereof William de Stuttevill 
claimeth againft Patidulf B\(ho^ eleft of Norwich. P a?idu If c'Mwt by 
his Attorney, and faith that an Affize ought not to be taken in the 
faid Caufe. Becaufe his Predeceflbr Bilhop fohn, of whom mention 
is made in the Writ, had a Charter of K. John, whereby the King 
granted, that the Biihop and his Succeflbrs Ihould not be impleaded 
for any Matter, except in the Prefence of the King or his chief Juf- 
ticier. Which Charter is enrolled at the Exchequer, Wherefore, 
in regard neither the King nor his chief Juflicier are now prefent, 
he refufeth to anfwer, unlefs the Court fliall award it. Day was 
given to the Parties to hear their Judgment. And the fame Day 
was prefixed to the eleven Recognitors of the Affile who now ap- 
peared in Court (f). In the 25th Year of K. Henry III, Richard 
Scroty appealed Richard Muncelyn and others in the Kings Court, for 
a Battery and Wounding; and offered Combat. Richard Muncelyn 
came and traverfed the Appeal, and put himfelf upon the Combat. 
But forafmuch as the King was abfent, and there were but few of 
the King's Council now in Court, they who v/ere prefent refufed to 
adjudge a Combat, or to give any other Award, in the Abfence of 


(a) Ricardus de Leirceftria debet j tonel- 
luin vini, pro habendis Litteris Regis Paten- 
tibus de Protedlione, tam de Emptibus & 
Vadijs fuis, quam de alijs poiTeflionibus fuis, 
in quibus etiam apponetur, quod non tra- 
hatur in placitum de aiiquo tenemento fiio 
quod in pace teneat nifi coram Rege vel 
Capitali Juftic. fuo. Mag. Rot. 8. J. Rot. 
10. b. 

(l>) Mile le Bret habet litteras Domini 
Regis patentes de proteftione, & quod non 
ponatur in placitum de aliquo tenemento- 
rum (uorum quod teneat in Hibernia, nifi 
coram Domino Rege vel Capitali Jufticia- 
rio fuo Hibernias. Pat. 9. 'J. m. 4. 

(c) Pofthac, Cap. 13. SeSl. 6. ad arm. 10. 

(d) Et quod ipfe & haeredes fui non 

ponantur in placitum nifi coram nobis vel 
coram Capitali Julliciario noftro . T. 

XX die Julij anno r n xv. Cart, 15. H. J. 

'"•5- _ 

(e) Et prohibemus, ne ponantur in pla- 
citum de aliquo tenemento fuo nifi coram 
nobifmetipfis vel haredibus noftris. Datum 
XX die Junij anno xlvj, [viz. R. H. 3. J 
Cl'art. Jntiq. II. n. 13. 

(f) Norfolcia. Aflifa venit rec [ogni- 
tura], quis advocatus tempore pacis prae- 
i'entavit ultimam perfonam quae mortua elt, 
ad ecclefiani de Brirel[ea] quae vac[atj &c. 
cujus advocationem Willclmus de btuttevill 
clamat verfus Pand[ulfum] Norwicenfcm 
eleiStum ; Qui venit per attornatum fuum, 
h dicit quod afTifi non debet inde fieri. 
Quia epifcopus Johannes praedccellor fuus, 
de quo fuit mentio in brevi, habuit Cartam 
Domini Regis Johannis per quam conceflit 
ei, quod ipfe [6c] fuccefiores fui non inpla- 
citarentur de aliquo nifi coram prrefentia 


120 Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

the King or of the greater Part of his Council. Wherefore the Parties 
were adjourned (gj , 

This Piece of Grandeur or Power exercifed by the Crown, to wit, 
in limiting Pleas to the King's own Audience, -was, as it feemeth, 
imitated by fome great Lords within their Seigneuries. Thus, 
William de Alb'im Briio, in his Charter or Writ hereunder cited, com- 
manded his Vaflals of SabrUgeworth, That if any Plaint or Quarrel 
arofe amongll the Monks of ^abridgeworth, it fliould be flayed, until 
it could be brought before him (h). 

It is to he underftood, that the Kings Court was a fure Afylim for 
the opprefled. In the Greatnefs of this Court confifted the Subjeds 
Security. And the more full and folemn this Court was, the greater 
was the injured Complainant's Safety and Allurance of Relief. When 
the Sovereign, or his Vicegerent the chief Jufiicier, fat in Judicature, 
then the Kings Court was full and folemn : when they were abfent, 
it was more private and unfolemn. In their Prefence, efpecially the 
Sovereign's, no Place was left for Injuftice or Wrong. Their 
Judgm.ent was venerable, and not to be fufpefted of Partiality or 
Error. So that it was not a light Privilege, to have one's Caufe de- 
termined in the Prefence of the King the fupreme Judge, or of the 
chief JulHcier, who was next to the King in judicial Power. That 
Privilege was ufually, and moll properly, annexed to important 


Domini Regis vel ejusCapitalis Juft[iciarij]. 
In Rotulo odditur, i'uo. Et Carta ilia irrotu- 
latur apud Scaccariiim ; & deficut Domi- 
nus Rex nee ejus Juft[iciarius] funt prae- 
fentes, non vult reipondere nifi Curia con- 

Dies datus eft eis de audiendo judicio fuo, 
a die S, Hillarij in xv dies &c ; Idem dies da- 
tus eft xj rec[ognitoribus] qui venerunt. Et 
Vicccomcs habeat corpora aliorum, & loco 
Robert! de Daulling [<? finall Blank in the 
Roir\ ; & apponat tot & tales tarn milites 
quam alios qui non funt efibniabiles ; & illos 
habeat &c. Plac'ita coram Rege Term. S. Mich, 
anno i^Hcn. 3. Rot. 22. a. 

(g) Surreia. Ricardus Scroty appellat 
Ricardum Muncelyn [and two others, for a 

Battery and JVounding) . Et hoc ofFert 

difrationare per corpus fuum &c. 

He alfo appealed Jeveral other Perfom per 
eadem verba. 

Et Ricardus Muncelyn venit & defendit 

vim & injuriam, & omnes feloniam & ne- 
quiciam, & quicquid eft contra pacem Do- 
mini Regis, & totum contra praedi6tum Ri- 
cardum Scroty. Et hoc ofFert defendere per 
corpus fuum &c. 

Et quia Dominus Rex abfens fuir, nee 
fuerunt ibi nifi pauci de Confilio Domini 
Regis, noliicrunt illi qui praefentes fuerunt 
aJjudicare diiellum nee aliud, in abfcentia 
iplius Domini Regis vel niajoris Confilij 
fui. Et ideo datus eft eis dies de audiendo 
judicio fuo, in ocSlabis S.Hyllarij. Idem dies 
datus eft omnibus alijs. Placita cor, Rege 
Term. S. Mich. 25 H. 3. Rot. 6. a. 

(h) Willelmus de Albini Brito, Omni- 
bus Miniftris fuis & Hominibus Francis & 
Anglis de Sebridlefwurth falutem. Sciatis 
qucd Ecclefia de Sabrift. & omnia ad earn 
pertinentia funt in manu mea : Et ideo volo 
ut Monachi qui ibidem Deo ferviunt & om- 
nia fua fint in pace ; & nullus eis injuriam 
vel torturam faciat ; Et fi quid ortum fuerit 


chap. III. of the King's Court. 121 

Caufes. And, if I obferve right, it was generally granted either to 
Perfons of high Rank, or to fuch as wanted effedual Protedlion 
againfl: fome powerful Opprefibr. 

IX. It was alfo ufual in Normandy, to grant the like Protedlion or 
Privilege, that men fliould not be impleaded in any Court there, 
fave before the King or his chief Jufticier. It hath been fliewn 
above, in the IVth Section of this Chapter, that this Kind of 
Privilege was granted by K. Henry I. to the Abbeys of Oufche and 
Fontenelle in Norfuandy. K. "John (anno regni 2°) granted the like 
Privilege to Robert de Lijieux and his Heirs : We command, faith the 
Charter, that the faid Robert and his Heirs be not impleaded for any 
Thing, except before us and our Heirs, or our chief Jufticier (ij. 
The fame King, by Writ patent, direfted to the Steward of Nor- 
mandy, the Mayor of Rouen and others, ordered that Ralf de Kailli 
fliould not be impleaded for any Tenement which he held, unlefs 
before himfelf, till the King fliould return from England into Nor- 
mandy (k), 

X. It may be proper here to fpeak briefly concerning the Courts 
of the ancient Juftices errant or itinerant. For though many Kinds 
of Pleas were wont to be brought into the Curia Regis, yet many 


de eis unde calumniari vel implacitari dcbe- 
ant, volo ut renianeat donee coram me que- 
rela fiat ; Et de monachis, & de Homini- 
bus eorum, & de Decimis, & de aliis ledti- 
tudinibus quae jufte^cclefise facere debetis, 
volo ut faciatis, nee aliquid remancat, ficut 
me diligitis, & ut pro vobis faciam & grates 
fciam. Vaicte. Ex Anton', in Archivo Eccl. 


Colleg. IP'eJhnon. 

(i) Johannes D. g. Rex Anglias &c. 
Sciatis nos dedifl'e conccffifie & praefenti 
carta confirmafTe, dile(fto Servient! noftro 
Roberto de Lexovio & haeredibus fuis, qui- 
etantiam de Tallagio, Summonitionibus, 
Exercitu, Auxilio exercitus, & quietanciam 
de omnibus rebus & mercandifis fuis de 
omnibus confuetudinibus ad nos pertinen- 
tibus, per totam terram noftram tarn per 
aquam quam per terram. I'ricterea dedi- 
mus & conceiTimus & hac Carta noflra coii- 
firmavimus eiJem Roberto, totam terram 
quae fuit Adae Tanftin cum omnibus pcr- 
tinentijs fuis apud Cadomum & alibi, ita in- 
tegre iicut idem Adam earn hnbuit 5; tenuit 
anno & die quo earn perdidit propter fclo- 

VOL. I. 

niam de qua conviftus fuit in Curia H. Re- 
gis patris noftri. Habendam & tenendam 
eidem Roberto & hseredibus fuis, & illis qui 
in pra:di(Sla terra manebunt per ipfum Ro- 
bertum & haeredes fuos, de nobis & hasre- 
dibus noftris, liberam & folutam ab omni 
confuetudine, per xx capones nobis &: ha;- 
redibus noftris rcddcndos annuatim & Na- 
tale Domini, pro omni alio fervicio & con- 
fuetudine & tallagio. Et volumus & fir- 
miter praecipimus, quod prasdidlus Rober- 
tus h haeredes fui non ponantur in placituin 
de aliqua re, nifi coram nobis & haeredibus 
noftris, vel Capitali Jufticiario noftro. Pras- 
terea conceflimus & confirmavimus praediclis 
Roberto & haeredibus fuis, omncs terras te- 
nementa & feoda quae adquifierint vel ad- 
quirere poterint, ficut Cartse donatorum ra- 
tionabiliter teftantur vel tcftabuiitur. (^lare 
volumus &c. Rot Chartar. ijf Cyrograf. Nur- 
mannia 2. yoh. m. i. ». 42. 

(k) Rex &c, Senefcallo Normannia;, 
Majori Rothomagi, & omnibus &c ; Pro- 
hibemus vobis quod non permittatis Radul- 
fum de Kailli implacitari dealiquo tenemen- 

R to 

122 0/ if/;g J u D I c A T u R E Chap. III. 

others were determined before the Juftices itinerant in their refpedtive 
Iters. It hath been before obferved, that the whole Juftice of the 
Realm was the King's, and to be adminiftred by him. But it be- 
ing too great a Burden and Avocation, for any Prince to do this in 
Perfon, it was found neceffary that Juftice fliould be adminiflred by 
his Jufticier and other Barons and great Men of his Court, in his 
Stead : which Court of Judicature was the Curia Regis we have been 
fpeaking of in this Chapter. Again, when the Pleas brought into 
the Curia Regis became very numerous, it was (as one may guefs) 
found neceflary, as well in Eafe of the People, as likewife in Aid of 
the Curia Regis, to appoint certain Jufticiers to go Jlers through the 
Realm, to determine Pleas or Caufes within the feveral Counties ; 
faving to the Subjedl their Refort to the Curia Regis. Thefe Juftices 
itinerant were vefted with great Power and Authority. They deter- 
mined Pleas of the Crown and Common Pleas, in like Manner as did 
the Juftices of the Curia Regis. They affefted Tallages and Aids j 
and admitted Men to make Conventions, Fines, and Oblatas, in 
their feveral Iters. In the 2 2d Year of K. Henry II, they were 
fworn, faith Roger de Hoveden (IJ, to execute certain Affizes or Rules 
given them in Charge, which are there by him particularly fet forth» 
And, probably, they had the greater Credit amongft the People, be- 
caufe the fame Perfons who were Juftices in the Curia Regis, were 
alfo (amongft others) wont to be Juftices itinerant. 'Tis not eafy 
to difcover, at what Time the Iters of thefe Juftices began, or were 
firft inftituted. Roger de Houedene tells us, K. Henry II. {anno regni 
22), by the Advice of the young King his Son, and of the Arch- 
bifliops, Bidiops, Earls, and Barons, divided the Realm into fix 
Parts, and fent out three Juftices itinerant to diftribute Juftice in the 
feveral Circuits or Divifions allotted to them (m). He names there 
the Juftices itinerant, and the Divifions for which they were appoint- 
ed. Again, that Hiftorian writes, that K. ii?;zry II. {anno regjii z ^°) 
divided the Realm into four Parts, and appointed Juftices (whom the 
Hiftorian names, together with the Counties allotted to them) to go 
their Iters in each Divifion (n)^ But they who infer from the 

to fuo quod teneat nifi coram [nobis], ('«J Rex divifitAngliam in quatuor partes, 

quoufq; nos Deus reduxerit de Anglia in & unicuiq; partium prsefecit vires fapientes 

Normanniam. T. me ipfo apud Cadomum, ad faciendam juftitiam in Terra, in hunc 

XV die Novembris anno &c. v°. Pat. ^.J. modum. Then he mentions the Jujiices, and 

j/i. 5. Et vid. Neujlr. P'lam, p. 252. the Comities for which they were appointed. 

(I) Honed. P. 2. p. 548, 549, 550. Hoiicd. P. 2. p. 590. n. 50. 

(m) P. 2. p. 548. n. 10. 

4 Words 

Chap. III. ^ />6^ K I N g's C o u R T. 123 

Words of this Hiftorian, that Iters were firfl inftituted in the one or 
other of thofe Years, may fall into an Error through Inadvertency. 
It may be true, for ought that I know, that K. Hen. II. did in each 
of thofe Years appoint new Circuits or Divifions, or perhaps new 
Juftices itinerant. But it is credible, that there were Iters both for 
criminal and common Pleas, and likewife for Pleas of the Foreft, 
before the 22d Year of K. Henry II: and that they continued, for 
feveral Years afterwards, in a Courfe or Method not unlike to that 
which they were in at that Time. Concerning which Matter I fhall, 
by and by in this Seftion, produce fome Precedents or Memoires out 
of the great Rolls of the Exchequer. For the right underftanding of 
which Memoires, this Rule is to be obferved. The feveral Heads or 
Titles containing the Juflices Names, are (as will appear anon) De 
placitis oi Juch Perfons, and again Tie placitis oi fuch, or de AJJifa of 
fuch, or laftly Nova placita & Novce Conventiones per fuch Perfons : 
thefe Heads I have all along fet down in the fame order wherein they 
fiiand in the refpeftive great Rolls. 'Tis therefore (I fay) to be under- 
ftood, that the firfl: De Placitis contains the Names of the Jufliices of 
a pafl: Year ; that the fecond De Placitis contains the Names of the 
Juftices of a Year fubfequent to the other next before it ; and that 
the laft Head, (which is commonly Nova Placita & Novce Conven- 
tiones) contains the Names of the Juftices for the Year which the 
great Roll cited is of. I proceed to the Citations. 

In the 20th Year of K. Henry II, there were Juftices Errant for 
Pleas of the Crown and common Pleas, and for impofing or fetting 
the Aflizes or Tallages upon the King's Demeans : to wit, in Surrey, 
the Archdeacon of Poitiers, Guy the Dean, Reginald de Warrene ; 
Gervafe de Cornhill foj : in Dorfet and Somerfet, Alured de Lincoln and 
Walter de St. ^lintin (p) : in Glouce/ier/Jjire, 'John Cumin and his 
Companions ; Ralf Fitz-Stephen, Philipp Fitz-Ernife, and Alexander 
le Boteler (q) : in Wiltjlnre, Reginald de Warene and "John Cumin ; 

{0) De Placitis Archidiaconi Pi£1:avix, & Alani de Nevil Junioris. lb. Rot.Z.b. Dorf. 

Widonis Decani & Reginaldi de Warenna. y Siimerf. 

De Affifa fafta fuper Dominia Rec;is & fu- [q) De Placitis Widonis Decani & Wil- 

per terras eorum qui receflerunt, per Regi- lelmi BafTet. De Aflifa Dominiorum per 

naldum de Warenna & Gervafium deCorn- Johannem Cumin & Socios fuos. De Nova 

hill. Mag. Rot. 20. H.2. Rot. i.b.Surr. Aflifa Dominiorum fa£l:a per ipfum Vice- 

{p) Nova P. & N. C, de Aflifa Do- comitem [Radulfum filium Stephani] & 

miniorum Regis in Dorfeta, per Ipfum Philippum filium Ernifi, & Alexandrum 

Vicecomitem [Aluredum de LincoliaJ & Pincernam ; per breve Ricardi de Luci. lb. 

Walterum de S. Quintino. De Placitis Rot. 3. a. Gloa. 

R 2 Richard 

1 24 Of the Judicature Chap. III.. 

Richard de Wilton and Robert de Liici (r) : in Norfolk, and Suffolk, 
Robert Majitell, Adame de Gernemue, and Mafter Sefred [s) : in A'b- 
tinghamjlnre and Derbypire, William BaJJet, John Malduit, and yohn 
k Clerk ; Reginald de Luci, and William Fitz-Ralf (t) : in C amb ridge - 
pire and Hunteyidonpire, the Archdeacon of P(9/(J??>rxi Guy the Dean,. 
Reginald de Warenne, and William BaJJet ; Sefred the Archdeacon and 
his Companions [u) : in EJ/ex and Hertfordjlnre, Robert Mantell, and 
Walter de Hadfeld (iv) : in Qxfordjhire, Alard Banajlre and Conjl. de 
Oxenford [x) : in Buckinghamjlnre and Bedfordjlnre, Nicolas Arch- 
deacon of Huntendon and his Companions ; William Fitz-Ricbard and 
Richard Fitz-Nele (y) : in Lincolnjhire, Guy the Dean, Reginald de 
Warenne, and William BaJJet ; John Malduit [z) : in Sbropfdire, Guy 
Lejirange {a) : in Berkpire, Guy the Dean and his Companions ; the 
Slieriff of Berkpire and Leonard a Knight of ThoJtias BaJJ'ets if) : in 
SuJJ'ex, the Archdeacon of PoiBiers and his Companions ; Reginald 
de Warenne Sheriff [c] : in Here/brdpire, John Cumin and his Com- 
panions ; William de Braiofa and Miles de Mucegros [d] : in Hantjjire, 


(r) De Plaeitis Reginald! de Warenna & 
Johannis Cumin. De Nova Aflifa in Wil- 
tefcira per ipfum Vicecomitem [Ricardum 
de Wiltona] & Robertuni de Luci. lb. Rot. 
3. b. JVilt. 

[s) De Affifa Dominiorum Regis per Ro- 
bertum Mantel, & Adam de Gernemue, & 
Magiftrum Sefredum. lb. Rot. 4. a. Norf. 
i^ Swlf. 

(t) De Aflifa Dominiorum Regis in No- 
tingebamfcira & Derbifcira, per Willelmum 
Baflet, & Johannem IVIalduit, & Johannem 
Clericum. Item de Nova Aflifa quoriindam 
Dominiorum Regis in eifdem Comitatibus, 
tjer Reginaldum da Luci, & Ipfum Vice- 
comitem [Willelmum filium Radulfi.] lb. 
Rot. ^.a.&b. 

(u) De Plaeitis Archidiaconi Pi£tavije, & 
Widonis Decani, & Reginaldi de Warenna, 
& Willelmi Baflet. De Aflifa Dominiorum 
Regis in eifdem Comitatibus, per Saffredum 
Archidiaconum & Socios fuos. lb. Rot. 5. 
b. Caniehr. & Hunt. 

[■w) N. P. & N. C, De Nova Aflifa 
fafla fuper Dominia Regis per ipfum Vice- 
comitem [Robertum Mantell] & Walterum 
6e Hadfeld. Ih. Rot. 6. a. Effixa ^ Hurtf. 

(a-) N. p. & N. C. De Nova Aflifa per 
•pfum Vicecomitem [Alardum Banaftre], &. 

Confl. de Oxinefordia, per breve Ricardi de. 
Luci. lb. Rot. 6. h. Oxinef. 

(y) De Aflifa fada fuper Dominia Regis 
in Bukingehamfcira, per Nicholaum Archi- 
diaconum de Huntedon & Socios fuos. De. 
Nova Aflifa fadta per ipfum Vicecomitem 
[ Willelmumfilium Ricardi] & Ricardum fi- 
lium Nigelli, per breve Ricardi deLuci. lb. 
Rot. 7. a. Buk. isf Bedef. 

(2) De Plaeitis Widonis Decani, & Re- 
ginaldi de Warenna, & Willelmi Baflet. 
N. P. & N. C. per Willelmum Baflbt, & 
Johannem Malduit, De Afitfa fa£ta fuper 
.Dominia Regis. lb. Rot. 8. a. Lincolfc, 

[a) N. P. & N. C, De Aflifa fadla fuper. 
Dominia Regis in Salopefcira, per ipfum 
Vicecomitem [Guidonem Extraneum,] per 
Breve Ricardi de Luci. lb. Rot. 8. b. Salop.. 

(b) De Aflifa Dominiorum per Widonem 
Decanum & Socios fuos. De Nova Aflifa 
per Ipfum Vicecomitem & Leonardum Mi- 
litemThomae Baflet, tarn in Dominijs quam. 
in Excaetis. lb. Rot. 9. a. Berch. 

{c) De Plaeitis Archidiaconi Pi<£laviae & 
Sociorum ejus. De Nova Aflifa fa£la per, 
ipfum Vicecomitem [Reginaldum de Wa- 
renna]. lb. Rot. 9. a. Sudfexa. 

(d) De Aflifa Dominiorum per Johannem 
Cumin 5i Socios fuos. N. P. & N. C, De 


Chap. Iir. o/" i'^^ Ki N g's C o u R T. 125 

the Archdeacon of PoiSiiers and his Companions ; Guy the Dean and 
his Companions j Hugh de Gundevill, Hat?ion Morgan [in the Room 
of the Conjiable], William Bajiard, Matthew de Efcurisy and John "jukel 
((?) ; in IVariioickJlnre and LeiceJierJJm-e, John de Dover and his Com- 
panions ffj : Juftice of the Foreft in mofl of the Counties, Alan de 
Nevill {g). 

Again, in the 21 ft Year of K. Henry II, there were Juftices Er- 
rant for Pleas of the Crown and common Pleas, and for impofing 
or fetting the Tallages : to wit, in Ox/hrdjl.v're, Randulf de Glanvill, 
and Hugh de CreiJJi (Jj) : in the Counties oi Dorfet and Somerfet, Wil- 
liam de Lamvallei and Thomas BaJJ'et [i) : in the Counties of Notinghatn 
and Derby, William BaJJ'et and his Companions ; Reginald de Luci and 
WilUatn Fitz-Ralfi Randulf de Glativill and Hugh de CreiJJi [k) : in 
Northampto?iJl:)ire, Hugh de CreiJJi and Randulf de Glanvill (/) .- in the 
Counties of Buckingham and Bedford, Randuf de Glanvill and Hugh de 
CreiJJi {jn) : in Devonjl.nre, William de Lamvallei -i-wA Thomas BaJJet («) :• 
in Stajj'ordjhire, Thojnas BaJJet and WilUatn de Lamvalei ( i*) : in the 
Counties of EjJ'ex and Hertford, Randulf de Glanvill and Hugh de 
CreiJJi (pj : in Sijfex, Thomas BajJ'et and William de Lamvalei fq) : in 


Nova Affifa Dominiorum per ipfum Vice- 
comitem [Willelmum de Braiofe] & Milo- 
nem de Mucegros. Jb. Rot, 9. b. Heref. in 

[e) De Placitis Archidiaconi Piflavias & 
Sociorum ejus. De Affifa fa<3aper Dominia 
de Hantefcira per Widonem Decanum & 
Socios fuos. De Nova Aflifa fadta per ip- 
fum Vicecomitem [Hugonemde Gundevill], 
& Hamonem Morgan qui fuit loco Confta- 
bularii,&WilleImum Baftard, h Math^um 
de Efcuris, & Johannem Juke], per breve 
Ricardi de Luci. 'lb. Rot. 10. a. Hantefcira. 

(f) De Affifa Dominiorum fadta per 
Johannem de Dovra & Socios fuos. lb. 
Rot. 10. b. JVarew. isf Legerceftr. 

(^) Alag. Rot. prad. anni 2C. pcijjim. 

(h) Nova Placita & Novae Conventiones, 
per Randulfum de Glanvill & Hugonem de 
Creiffi. Placita eorundem in Burgo de 
Oxinford. Mag. Rot. 21. H. 2. Rot. 2. a. 

(/) Nova Placita & Novae Conventiones 
per Willelmum de Lamvall & Thoinam 
Bafiet in Dorfeta. Placita eorundem in Su- 
merfeta. lb. Rot. 2. b. 

(i) De Aflifa Dominiorum Regis in No- 

tingehamfcira per Willelmum Ballet t^ So- 
cios ejub. Item de Affifa Dominiorum, per 
Reginaldum de Luci & ipfum Vicecomitem 
[Willelmum filium RadulfiJ. N. P. cV N. 
C. per Randulfum de Glanvill & Hugo- 
nem de Creiffi in Derbifcica. Item de Pla- 
citis eorundem in Notingehamfcira. lb. 
Rot. 4. a, 

(/) N. P. & N. C. per Hugonem de 
Creiffi k Randulfum de Glanvill.^ De Pla- 
citis eorundem in Burgo de Norhantona. lb: 
Rot. 4. b. No7-h(mtcfcira. 

{m) N. P. &N. C. de Placitis Randulft 
de Glanvill & Hugonis de Creifli in Buc- 
kingehamfcira. De eifdem Placitis in Be- 
defordfcira. lb. Rot. 5. a. 

(«) N. P. & N. C. per Willelmum de 
Lamvall. & Thomam BafTet. lb. Rot. 5. b, 

{0) N. P. & N. C. per Thomam Baflet 
& Willelmum de Lamval. lb. Rot. 5. b^ 

ip) N.P. & N. C. per Randulfum de 
Glanvill & Hugonem de Creiffi in Effexa. 
Placita eorundem in Hurtfordfcira. Jb. Rcti 
6. a. 

{q) N. P. & N. C. per Thomam Baflet 


Of the Judicature 

Chap. III. 

Herefordpire, William de Lamvalei and Thomas BaJJet (r) ; in the coun- 
ties of IVarivick and Leicejler, William de Lamvalei and Thomas BaJJet 
is) : in Wiltpire, Thomas BaJJet and William de Lamvalei (t) : in the 
Counties of Norfolk and Siiffhlk, Randiilf de Glanvill and Hugh de 
CreiJJi iii) : in WorceJierJl:)ire, Thomas BaJJet and William de Lamvalei 
(tc) ; in Berkjl:ire, William de Lamvalei and Thomas BaJJet (x) : in the 
Counties of Cambridge and Himtendon, Randulf de Glanvill and Hugh 
de CreiJJi (_)') ; in Lincolnjlnre, Ramilf de Glanvill and Hugh de CreiJJi 
(.?;) •• in Gloucejletjl.nre, William de Lamvalei and Thomas BaJJet (a) : 
in Torkjhire, Hugh de CreiJJi and Randulf de Glanvill [b) : in Hantjhire, 
William de Lamvalay and Tho?nas BaJJet (c) : in Surrey, Thomas BaJJet 
and William de Lamvalai [d) : in Kent, William de Lamvalai and Thomas 
BaJJi't (f) ; Juftice of the Forefl in moft of the Counties, Alan de 
Nevill (/). 

In the 22d Year of K. Henryll, there were the under written Juftices 
Errant for Pleas of the Crown and common Pleas, and for impoling 
or fetting the Affizes : to wit, in the Counties of EjJ'ex and Hertford^ 
Randulf de Glanvill and Hugh de CreiJJi [g) : in the Counties oi Buck- 
ingham and Bedford, Randulf de Glanvill and Hugh de CreiJJi % Walter 
Fitz-Robert and Robert Mantell {h) : in OxfordJhire, Randulf de Glan- 
vill znd Hugh de CreiJJi; Robert Fitz- Bernard, Richard Giff'ard, and 


h Willelmum de Lamval. lb. Rot. 6. b. 

(r) N. P. & N. C. per Willelmum de 
Lamval. & Thomam Baflet. lb. Rot. 6. b. 
Heref. in JFallia. 

(s) N. P. & N. C. per Willelmum de 
Lamval. & Thomam Baffet. lb. Rot. 7. a. 
iFarewic. y Legrecejlr. 

(0 N. P. & N. C. per Thomam Bafiet 
& Willelmum de Lamval. lb. Rot. 7. b. 

(«) N. P. & N. C. per Randulfum de 
Glanvill & HufTonem de Creifli. lb. Rot. 

8. a. Norf. Jff Smlf. 

[w) N. P. & N. C. per Thomam Baffet 
& Willelmum de Lamval. lb. Rot. 9. a. 

{x) N. P. & N. C. per Willelmum de 
Lamval. & Thomam Baffet. lb. Rot. 9. a. 

(y) N. P. k N. C. per Randulfum de 
Glanvill & Hugonem de Creifli. lb. Rot. 

9. b. Cantebr. iif Hunted. 

(z) N. P. & N. C. De Placitis Ran- 
dulfi de Glanvill & Hugonis de Creifli. lb. 
Rot. 10. a. Lincolnefcira. 

{a) N. P. & N. C. De Placitis Wiilel- 
mi de Lamval. & Thomas Baffet. lb. Rot. 

10. b. Gloucejlr. 

[b) N, P. & N. C. per Hugonem de 
Creiffi & Randulfum de Glanvill. lb. Rot. 

11. a. Everwichfc. 

(0 N. P. & N. C. per Willelmum de 
Lamvalay & Thomam Baffet. lb. Rot. 12. 

a. Hantejcira. 

{d) N. P. & N. C. per Thomam Baffet 
& VVillelmum de Lamvalai. lb. Rot. 12. 

b. Surreia. 

{e) N. P. & N. C. per Willelmum de 
Lamvalai & Thomam Baffet. lb. Rot. 13. 
a. Ghent. 

(f) Mag. Rot. prad. aimi 2t. pajjim. 

\g) De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill & 
Hugonis de Creifli in Effexa. Mag. Rot. 22. 
H. 2. Rot. I. a. Effl-xa isf Hurtfordfcira. 

(/;) De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill & 
Hugonis de Creiffi in Bukingehamfcira. De 
placitis eorundem in Bedefordfcira. Nova 
Placita & Novas Conventiones per Walte- 
rum filium Robert! & Hugonem de Creffi & 
Robertum Mantell Jufticias Errantes in Be- 

chap. III. of the K i n g's C o u r t. 127 

Roger Fitz-Renfrey (/) : in Worcejierfljire, Thomas Bajfet and William de 
Lanvalai; Beftratn de Verdun, William Fitz-Stephen, and Turjlin Fitz- 
Simon [k) : in Herefordjhire, William de Lanvalai and Thomas Bajfet ; 
Bertram de Verdun, Ralf Fitz-Stephen, and Turjiin Fitz-Simon (/) .- in 
NorthamptonJJnre, Hugh de Creiffi and Randidf de Glanvill ; Hugh de 
Glanvill [Sheriff], William BajJ'et, and William Fitz-Ralf{;n) : in Rut- 
land, Hugh de Gimdevill, William Baff'et and William Fitz-Ralf' {n) : in 
ShropJJjire, Bertram de Verdun, Simon Fitz-Turjlin and William Fitz- 
Stephen {0) : in the Counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, Robert Mantell 
and his Companions -, Randidf de Glvanvill and Hugh de CreJJi {p) : 
in the Counties of Cambridge and Huntendon, Sefred the Archdeacon 
and his Companions ; Randulf de Glanvill and Hugh de Creiffi ; Walter 
Fitz-Robert, and Robert Mantell {q) : in Lincolnjhire, fohn Malduit 
and William Baffet ; Randulf de Glanvill and Hugh de CreiJJi; Hugh de 
Gundevill, and William Fitz-Ralf {r) : in the Counties oi Notingham and 
Derby, Randidf de Glanvill and Hugh de Creffi ; Hugh de Gimdevill, 
William Fitz-Ralf and William BaJJ'et {s) : in Torkfiire, Hugh de Creffi, 


defordfcira. De Placitis eorundem in Bu- 
kingehamfcira. lb. Rot. 2. a. 

(i) De Placitis Randulli de Glanvill h 
Hugonis de Creffi. N. P. & N. C. per 
Robertum filium Bernardi ; 5c Ricardum 
Giftard, & Rogerum filium Renfridi, Jufti- 
cias Errantes. lb. Rot. 3. a. Oxlncf. 

[k) De Placitis Tomas BafTet &Willelmi 
de Lanval. N. P. & N. C. per Bertram 
de Verdun, & Willelmum filium Stephani, 
& Turftinum filium Simonis, Jufticias Er- 
rantes. lb. Rot. 3. a. IVireccJir. 

(/) De Placitis Willelmi de Lanval. & 
Toms Baffet. N. P. & N. C. per Ber- 
tram de Verdun, & Radulfum filium Ste- 
phani, & Turftinum filium Simonis, Jufti- 
cias Errantes. lb. Rot. 3. b. Heref. inlFalici. 

(rn) De Placitis Hugonis de Creiffi & 
Randulfi de Glanvill. N. P. & N. C. per 
Hugonem de Gundevill, & Willelmum 
Baffet, & Willelmum filium Radulfi, Jufti- 
cias Errantes. lb. Rot. 4- a. Norhantcjc. 
Hugo de Gundevill, Sheriff. 

(«) N. P. & N. C. per Hugonem de 
Gundevill, & Willelmum Baffet, h Wil- 
lelmum filium Radulfi, Jufticias Errantes. 
Jb. Rot. 4. a. Roteland. 

(«) N. P. & N. C. per Bertram de Ver- 
dun, & Simonem filium Turftini, & Wil- 
lelmum filium Stephani, Jufticias Errantes. 
lb. Rot. 4. b. Salopefc. 

(/>) De Placitis Archidiaconi Piilavise, & 

Widonis Decani, h Reginald! de Warenna, 
$i Willelmi Baffet. De Placitis Widonis 
Decani & Ogeri Dapiferi. De Affifa Do- 
niiniorum Regis, per Robertum Mantell Sc 
Socios fuosin Norfolch. De Affifa eorun- 
dem in Sudfolch. De Placitis Randulfi de 
Glanvill & Hugonis de Creffi. Nova Pla- 
cita & Novae Conventiones. lb. Rot. 5. a, 
cV b. Nordf. & Sudf. 

[q) De Placitis Archidiaconi Piclaviae, & 
Widonis Decani, & Reginaldi de Warenna, 
& Willelmi Baffet. De Affifa Dominiorum 
Regis in eifdem Comitatibus, per Sefredum 
Archidiaconum & Socios fuos. Dc Placitis 
Randulfi de Glanvill 5c Hugonis de Creffi. 
N. P. & N. C. per Walterum filium Ro- 
bert!, 6c Hugonem de Creffi, & Robertum 
Mantell. Placita eorundem in Huntoden- 
Icira. lb. Rat. 5. b. Cant, ijf Hunt. 

(r) De Placitis Widonis Decani, & Re- 
ginaldi de Warenna, & Willelmi Baflet. 
De Affifa fadta fuper Dominia Regis, per 
Johannem Malduit& Willelmum Baflet. De 
Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill 5c Hugonis de 
Creffi. N. P. 5c N. C. per Hugonem de 
Gundevill, 5c Willelmum Baffet", k Wil- 
lelmum filium Radulfi, Jufticias Errantes. 
lb. Rot. 6. a. Line. 

(s) De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill 5c 
Hugonis de Creffi. N. P. 5: N. C. per 
Hugonem de Gundevill 5c Willelmum fi- 

128 Cy//6^ Judicature Chap. III. 

RanduJf de G/^«w7/ [the Sheriff ] Robert de Vals, ■&.Xidi Robert Pikenot 
{{) : \\\ Gloiicejlerjliire, PVilliatnde Laiivalci znATbotnas Baffet ; Bertram 
de Verdun, IVilliam F itz-Ralf -indi IVilliam Bajj'et ; William Fitz-Stephen 
I the Sheriff], and Tiirjiin Fitz-Simon {li) : in Berkjliire, Robert Fitz- 
Bernard, Richard Giff'ard, and Roger Fitz-Renfrey [w): in Northum- 
berland, Randulf de Glanvill, Robert de Pikenot and Robert de Vals (x) .- 
\\\ DevonJl'Are, William de Lanvalai ■z.ndi T'homas BaJJ'et ; Ralf Fitz-Ste- 
phen, Gilbert Pipard, and William Rtiffiis {y) : in Cornwall, Ralf Fit z- 
Stephen, William Ruff'us, and Gilbert Pipard [z) : in the Counties of 
Dorfet and Sumerfet, William de La?ivalai and T'homas Baffet ; Gilbert 
Pipard, Ralf Fitz-Stephen, and William Riif'us [a) : in Wiltfire, the 
fame five Perfons laft above named {U) : in the Counties of Warwick 
and Leicejler, William de Lanvalai and 'Thomas Baffet ; Hugh de Giinde- 
vill, William Fitz-Ralf, and Wilham BaJJ'et (r) ; in Ha?itfire, William 
de Lanvalai and Thomas Baffet ; Roger Fitz-Renfrey, Robert Fitz-Ber- 
7iard, and Richard Giffard {d) : in Siijj'ex, Robert Fitz-Bernard, Roger 
Fitz-Renfrey, and Richard Giffard [e) : in Kent, WilUa77i de Lanval. and 
Thomas Baffet ; Roger Fitz-Renfrey, Richard Giff'ard, and Robert Fitz- 

pard, & Willelmum Ruft'um, Juflicias Er- 
raiites. //;. Rot. lo. a. Devenefc. 

(z) De Placitis Pvadulfi filij Stephani, & 
Willelmi Ruffi, k Gilleberti Pipard. lb. 
Rot. 10. /'. Cornnb. 

{a) De Placitis Willelmi de Lanval. & 
Tomje Baflet in Dorfeta. N. P. & N. C. 
per Gillebertum Pipard, & Radulfum filium 
Stephani, & Willelmum RufFum, Jufticias 
Errantes. lb. Rot. il. b. Dorfeta ^' Smncrf. 
{b) De Placitis Toma; Ball'et k Willel- 
mi de Lanval. Item N. P. h N. C. per 
Radulfum filium Stephani, h Gillebertum 
Pipard, & Willelmum Ruffum Jufticias 
Errantes. lb. Rot. 12. a. IVdtefdra. 

(c) De Placitis Willelmi de Lanval. & 
Toms BalTet. N. P. & N. C. per Hugo- 
nem de Gundevill, & Willelmum filium 
Radulfi, & Willelmum Bafiet, Jufticias Er- 
rantes. lb. Rot. 12. b. War. ^ Legcrcejh. 

id) Placita per Willelmum de Lanval. 
& Tomam Baffet. N. P. & N. C. per 
Rogerum filium Renfridi, & Robertuni fi- 
lium Bernardi, & Ricardum Giffard, Jufti- 
cias Errantes. lb. Rot. 13. a. Hantcfcira. 

{e) N. P. & N. C. per Robertum filium 
Bernardi, h. Rogerum filium Renfridi & 
Ricardum Giffard, Jufticias Errantes. lb. 
Rot. 13. b, Sudfexa. 


!ium Radulfi, h Willelmum Baffet, Jufti- 
cias Errantes. lb. Rot. 7. a. Net. if 

(t) De Placitis Hugonis de Crefli 5e Ran- 
dulfi de Glanvill. N. P. & N. C. per Ran- 
dulfum de Glanvill, & Robertum de Valli- 
bus, & Robertum Pikenot, Jufticias Erran- 
tes. lb. Rot. 8. a. Evcrivuhjc. Randulfus 
de Glanvill, Sheriff. 

(u) De Placitis Widonis Decani Si Wil- 
lelmi Baffet. De Placitis Willelmi de Lan- 
val. & Tomae Baffet. De Placitis Bertram 
de Verdun, & Willelmi filij Radulfi, & 
Willelmi Baffet. N. P. & N. C. per Ber- 
tram de Verdun, & Willelmum filium Ste- 
phani, & Turftinum filium Simonis, Jufti- 
cias Errantes. lb. Rot. g. a. Gloec. Wil- 
lelmus filius Stephani, Sheriff. 

{w) N. P. & N. C. per Robertum filium 
Bernardi, S<, Ricardum Giffard, & Rogerum 
filium Renfridi, Jufticias Errantes. lb. Rot. 
9. b. Berrochfc. 

{x) N. P. h N. C. per Randulfum de 
Glanvill, & Robertum de Pikenot, & Ro- 
bertum de Vallibus, Jufticias Errantes. lb. 
Rot. 9. b. Nordhumb. 

(y) De Placitis Willelmi de Lanval. h 
Toms Baflet. N. P. h N. C. per Radul- 
fum filium Stephani, & Gillebertum. Pi- 

chap. JII. of the K i n g's C o u r t. 129 

Bernard [the Sheriff] (f). Juftices of the Foreft, Alan dc Nevill 
and his Companions (_§■). 

In the 23d Year ut K. Heiiry II, the Juftices Errant in Devonfhire 
were, WHIiam de Lanval. and.'Tbomas BaJJl't ; Ralf Fitz.-Stepben, Gilbert 
Pipard and Wiliiam Rujf'us, and Tnijiine Fiiz-Simon fb) : in Coi-n- 
icall, Ralf Fitz-Stephen, William Riijfiis, and Gilbert Pipard (i) : in 
Oxjordjbire, Ranulf de Glarrolllzw^ liugb Creffi; Ricbard Gijf'ardy Roger 
Fitz-Renfrey, and Robert Fitz-Bernard; Ralf Fitz-Stepbe?i, "Ttirjiine 
Fitz-SinioHy and William Rujm {k) : in Dor/ei and Somerfet, Ralf- Fit z 
Stepben and his Companions ; William Rujf'us and his Companions ; 
and liirftiiie Fitz-Shnon (/) ; in Warunck and Leicefter Shires, William 
de Lanval. and Tbomas Ba'Jet; Hiigb de Giindevill and his Companions, 
viz. iVilliam Bafet and William Fitz-Ralf: Micbael Belet {m) : m Gloucef- 
terfiire, William de Lanval. and 'Jbornas Bajj'et; Bertram de Verdun, Wil- 
liam Fitz-Stepben, and Turjline Fitz-Simon ; Ralf Fitz-Stephen, and 
William Ruf us [n) : m Berkjhire, Robert Fitz-Bernard, Richard Giff'ard, 
and Roger Fitz-Retifrey, Ralf Fitz-Stepben, Turjlin Fitz-Simon, and 

(f) De Placitis Willelmi de Latival. & 
Tomae Baflcr. N. P. & N. C. per Rogerum 
filium ReiitVidi, & Ricardiini GifFard h Ip- 
fum Viceomiteni [Robcrtum filium Ber- 
nard!], Jufticias Errantes. lb. Rot. 14. a, 

(g) Mag. Rot. prad. anni 22. pajfmi. 

{h) De Placitis Willelmi de Lanval. & 
Tomse Baftet; De Placitis Rudulfi Filij 
Stephani, & Gillebcrti Pipard, & Willelmi 
Ruffi ; De Auxilio Burgorum & Villarum 
de Dcvenefcira, per Radulfum filium Ste- 
phani, & Turfiinum filium Simonis, & 
Willelmum RufFum. Mag. Rot. 23. H. 2. 
Rot. I. a. Dcvenefcira. Willelmus Ruffus 
& Hugo de Gundevill, Sheriffs this year. 

(:) De Placitis Radulfi filij Stephani, & 
Willelmi Ruffi, h Gillebcrti Pipard ; De 
Auxilio Burgorum & Villarum & Honiinum 
inCornubia, per Radulfum filium Stephani 
& Socios fuos. lb. Rot. I. b. Cornubia. Euf- 
tachius filius Stephani, Sheriff. 

(k) De Placitus Randulfi de Glanvill & 
Hugonis CreiTi ; Nova Placita & Novse 
Conventiones per Ricardum GifF. 5c Roge- 
rum filium Renfr. & Robertum filium Ber- 
nard! ; De Auxilio Burgorum & \ iilarum 
de Oxinefordfcira, per Radulfum filium Ste- 
phani, & Turftinum filium Simonis, & 
Willelmum Ruft'um. lb. Rot. i. b. Oxinef. 
Robertus de Turevill, Sheriff. 

Vol. I. 

(I) De Placitis Radulfi fillij Stephani & 
Sociorum ejus ; Nova Placita & Nov:e Cor- 
vcntiones per Willelmum RufFum & Socirs 
fuos ; De Auxi!io Burgorum & Villarum & 
Hominum in Dorfeta & Sumerfeta, per 
Radulphum filium Stephani h Turftinum. 
filium Simonis & Willelmum RufFum. ///. 
Ret. 2. a. Dorf. y Simerf. Robertus de Bello 
Campo, Sheriff. 

(m) De Placitis Willelmi de Lanval. & 
TomseBafl^et ; De Placitis Hugonis de Gun- 
devill & Sociorum ejus ; Nova Placita&No- 
vas Conventiones per Hugonem dc Gunde- 
vill & Willelmum Bafl:'et & Willelmum f- 
lium Radulfi; De Auxilio Burgorum & 
Villarum & Hominum in Warewirhfcira, 
per Willelmum filium Radulfi, & Willel- 
mum BaiTet, & Michaelem Bclet ; De 
eodem Auxilio in Legerceftrefcira per eof- 
dem. Jb. Rot. 2. ^."Bertram de Verdun, 

(«) De Placitis Willelmi de Lanval. & 
Tomse BalTet ; De Placitis Bcrtranni de 
Verdun, 3: Willelmi filij Stephani & Tu'r- 
ftini filij Simonis ; De Auxilio Burgorum 
& Villarum per Radulfum iilium Stephani, 
& Willelmum Ruffum, Sc Turftinum filium 
Simonis. lb. Rot. 3.-Y?. £3"^. Willelmus 
filius Stephani, Sheriff. 


130 Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

William Ruffus {0) : in ShropJI?ire, Bertram de Verdun, Tiirjiin Fitz- 
Simon, and William Fitz-Stepben ; Ralf Fitz-Stcphen, and William 
Ruffus fp) : in Herefordjlnre, William de Lanval., and Thomas Baffet ; 
Bertram de Verdun and Ralf Fitz-Stepben ; Tiirjlin Fitz-Simon and 
William Fitz-Stepben-, William Ruffus {q): in Notingham 2iX\(S. Derby 
Shires Randulf de Glanvill; Hugh de Gundevill, William Fitz-RalJ, and 
William Baff'et ; and Michael Bclet (rj : in Worcejier^nre, William Fitz- 
Ralf^n6. his Companions; Bertram de Ve7'dun and his Companions; 
Ralf Fitz-Stepben, Tu7Jiin Fitz-Simon, and William Ruffus fsj : in 
Torkjkire, Hugh de Creffi and Randulf de Glanvill; Robert de Vaux and 
Robert Pikejwt ; Hugh de Gundevill, William Fitz-Ralf, and William 
Baff'et; and Michael Belet (t) : '\n Northumberland, Randulf de Glan- 
vill and his Companions ; William Fitz-Ralf Williajn Baffet, and 
Michael Belet (u) : in the Honour of Lancafter, William Fitz-Ralf, 

(0) De Placitis Robert! fillj Bernard!, h 
Ricardi G!fFard, & Roger! filij RenfriJi ; 
De Auxilio Burgorum & Villarum per Ra- 
dulfum fi!!uiTi Stephani, & Turftinum fi- 
lium Simonis, & Willelmum Riiftum. lb. 
Rot. 3. b. Berrochfcira. Hugo de Sanfto 
Germano, Sheriff. 

[p) Nova Plac!ta & Novs Conventiones, 
per Bertrannum de Verdun, & Turftinum 
fil!um Simonis, & Willelmum filium Ste- 
phani : De Auxilio Burgorum & Villarum 
de Salopefcira, per Radulfum filium Stepha- 
ni, Turftinum filium Simonis, & Willel- 
mum Ruftum. lb. 'Rot. 3. a. Salop. Guide 
Extraneus, Sheriff. 

(q) De Placitis Wlllelmi de Lanval. & 
Tomse Baflet ; De Placitis Bertranni de 
Verdun & Radulfi filij Stephani ; Nova 
Placita & Novas Conventiones per Bertran- 
num de Verdun, & Turftinum filium Si- 
irpnis, & Willelmum filium Stephani ; De 
Aflifa fafta fuper Dominia Regis, per Ra- 
dulfum filium Stephani, & 7"urftinum fi- 
lium Simonis, & Willelmum Ruff"um. lb. 
Rot. 4. a. Hertford/lira in JVal. Randulfus 
Poherius, Sheriff. 

(r) De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill & 
Sociorum ejus inDerbifcira ; De Placitis eo- 
rundem in Notinghamfcira j De Placitis 
Hugonis de Gundevill & Sociorum ejus ; 
Nova Placita h Novae Conventiones per 
Huganem de Gundevill, & Willelmum fi- 
lium Radulfi, k Willelmum Baflet ; De 

Auxilio Burgorum & Villarum per Willel- 
mum filium Radulfi, & Willelmum Baffet, 
& Michaelem Belet tam de Comitatu quam 
de Honore de Pech. lb. Rot. 4. a. & b. 
Not. y Derb. Willelmus filius Radulfi, 

{$) De Placitis Willelmi filij Radulfi & 
Sociorum ejus ; De Placitis Bertranni de 
Verdun & Sociorum ejus ; De Auxilio Bur- 
gorum & Villarum, per Radulfum filium 
Stephani, & Turftinum filium Simonis, ii 
Willelmum RufFum. lb. Rot. 4. b.JVire- 
cejlr. Michael Belet, Sheriff. 

(t) De Placitis Hugonis de Crefli & Ran- 
dulfi de Glanvill ; De Placitis [per] Ran- 
dulfum de Glanvill, & Robertum de Valli- 
bus, & Robertum' Pikenot Jufticias Er- 
rantcs ; Item de Placitis eorundem in Weft- 
marieland ; Nova Placita & Novas Conven- 
tiones per Hugonem de Gundevill, & Wil- 
lelmum filium Radulfi, Si Willelmum Baf- 
fet ; De Auxilio Burgorum & Villarum de 
Everwichfcira, per M'illelmum filium Ra- 
dulfi, & Willelmum Bafiet, & Michaelem 
Belet. lb. Rot. 5. a. {5 b. Everwich. Ran- 
dulfus de Glanvill, Shi-riff. 

(«) De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill, & 
Sociorum ejus; De Auxilio Burgorum & 
Villarum &; Drengorum & Theinorum in 
Norhumbcrland, per Willelmum filium 
Radulfi, Sc Willelmum Baffet, & Michae- 
lem Belet. lb. Rot. 5. b. Norhumb. Ro- 
gerus de Stutevill, Sheriff. 


chap. III. o/* //5^ K I N g's C o u R T. 131 

William BaJJet, and Michael Belet fw) : in Northainptonjlnre^ Hugh </(• 
Crejji and Randulf de Glanvill; Hugh de Gundevill, JVilliam Bajfct, and 
William Fitz-Raif; and Michael Belet (x) : mWiltJJ.vre, Thlmas Bajfet 
and William de Lanvalai-, William Ruffiis, Gilbert Pipard, and Gilbert 
de Columbiers ; Ralf Fitz-Stephen ; and Turjlin Fitz-Simon (y) ; in 
LincolnJl:ire, Guy the Dean ; John Malduit and William Ruffus -, Ran- 
dulf de Glanvill and Hugh de Crejji; Hugh de Gundevill, William Fitz- 
Ralf, and William BaJJei ; and Michael Belet (zj : in Cumberland, 
Randulf de Glanvill and Hugh de Crejji (a) : in NorJ'olk and Suffolk, 
the Archdeacon of PoiBiers, Robert Mantell ; Walter Fitz-Robert, 
Hugh de Creffi; Ralf Briton (bj : in Staff or djliire, Hugh de Gundevill 
and his Companions ; William Baffet, William Fitz-Ralf, and Michael 
Belet fc) : in Effex mid Hertfordjhire, Randulf de Glanvill; Walter Fitz- 
Robert, Hugh de Crejji, and Robert Mantell ; Ralf Briton fdj : in 
Bukingham and Bedford Shires, Walter Fitz-Robert and his Com- 

[w] De Auxilio Villarum ejufdem Ho- 
noris, per Willelmum filium Radulfi, & 
Willelmum Baffet, U Michaelem Belet. Ih. 
Rot. 5. b. Lancajha; Radulfus filius Ber- 
nard! reddit compotum de firma ejufdem 

(x) De Placitis Hugonis de Crefli & 
Randiilfi de Glanvill ; De Placitis Hugonis 
de Gundevill, & Willelmi Baflet, & Willel- 
mi filij Radulfi ; De Auxilio Burgorum & 
Villarum in Norhantefcira, per Willelmum 
filium Radulfi, & Willelmum Baflet, & 
Michaelem Belet. lb. Rot. 6. a. Norhant. 
Hugo de Gundevill, & Thomas filius Ber- 
nard!, Sheriffs. 

{y) De Placitis Tomae Baflet & Willel- 
mi de Lanval, ; De Placitis Willelmi Ruffi, 
& Gilleberti Pipardi, & Gilleberti de Co- 
lumbarijs : De Placitis Radulfi filij Stephani, 
& Gilleberti Pipard, & Willelmi Ruffi apud 
Wilton : De Auxilio Burgorum h Villa- 
rum in Wiltefcira, per Radultum filium 
Stephani, & Turftinum filium Simonis, & 
Willelmum RufFum. lb. Rot. 6. h. Wilt. 
Ricardus de Wiltona, Sheriff. 

{z) De Placitis Widonis Decani & Socio- 
rum ejus ; De Aflifa fadla fuper Dominia 
Regis, per Johannem Malduit & Willel- 
mum Ruffum ; De Placitis Randulfi de 
Glanvill & Hugonis de Crefli ; De Placitis 
Hugonis de Gundevill & Willelmi filij Ra- 
dulfi, & Willelmi Baffet > De Auxilio Bur- 

gorum & Villarum in Lincolfcira, per Wil- 
lelmum filium Radulfi, & Willelmum Baffet, 
& Michaelem Belet. lb. Rot. 7. a. Line. 
Drogo filius Radulfi, Sheriff. 

{a) De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill & 
Hugonis de Creffi. lb. Rot. 7, b. Cutnb. 
Robertus de Vallibus, Sheriff. 

{b) De Placitis Archidiaconi Pi£l:. & So- 
ciorum ejus ; De AffifaDominiorum Regis, 
per Robertum Mantell h Socios fuos ; No- 
va Placita & Novse Conventiones, per Wal- 
terum filium Robert!, & Hugonem de Cref- 
fi, & Robertum Mantell ; De Auxilio Bur- 
gorum & Villarum, per Robertum Mantell, 
& Radulfum Brit. lb. Rot. 8. a. Nordf. i^ 
Sudf. Wimarus Capellanus, Sheriff. 

{c) De Placitis Hugonis de Gundevill & 
Sociorum ejus ; De Auxilio Burgorum & 
Villarum, per Willelmum filium Radulfi, 
& Michaelem Belet. lb. Rot. 8. b. Staff. 
Harveus de Stratton, Sheriff. 

(d) De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill & 
Sociorum ejus ; Nova Placita & Novae Con- 
ventiones, per VValtcTum filium Robert!, & 
Hugonem de Creffi, & Robertum Mantell 
in Effexa ; De Placitis eorundem in Hurt- 
fordfcira ; De Auxilio Burgorum & Villa- 
rum, per Robertum Mantell, & Radulfum 
Briton, in Effexa & Hurtfordfcira. Jb. Rot. 
9. b Effexa & Hurt/. Robertus Mant»l- 
lus, Sheriff. 

S 2 pan ions; 


Of the Judicature 

Chap. III. 

panions -, Roger Fitz-Renfrey, and Gervafe de Cornhill (ej : in Hunt' 
Jhircy the Archdeacon of PoiSliers ; Wido the Dean ; William de Lati- 
val. and Thomas Bajfct ; Roger Fitz-Renfrcy, Robert Fitz-Benuird, 
and Richard Giffard; Richard de Luci; Ralf Fitz-Stephcn, Tiirjlit? 
Fitz-Simon, and William Ruffus ff) : in Cambridge and Huntendon 
Shires, the Archdeacon of Poitiers, Sefrcd ; Randulf de Glanvill znd 
Hugh de CreJJi; Walter Fitz-Robert ; Robert Mant ell, and Ralf Briton 
(g) : in Su[l'ex, Robert Fitz-Bernard, Richard Giffard, and Roger Fitz- 
Renfrey ', and Gervafe de Cornhill [h) : in Surry, the Archdeacon of 
PoiBiers, Reginald de Warenne, and Gervafe de Cornhill; Thomas Bajj'et 
and William de Lanval. ; Roger Fitz-Renfrey (i) : in London and 
Middlefex, Richard de Luci (i) ; and in Kent, the Archdeacon of 
PoiSliers, William de Lanval. ; Robert Fitz-Bernard, Richard Giffard, 
and Roger Fitz-Renfrey ; and Gervafe de Cornhill (/). 

In the 24th Year of K. Henry II, the Perfons hereunder named or 
fome of them were Juftices Errant for Pleas of the Crown and common 
Pleas : to wit, in Lincolnjlnre, Hugh de Gundevill and his Companions ; 
William Baffet, Michael Belet, and Robert de Vals ; Bertram de Ver^ 

(e) De Placitis Walter! filij Roberti h 
Sociorum ejus; De Auxilio Burgorum & 
Villarum per Rogerum filium Rentridi, & 
Gervafium de Cornhill. lb. Rot. 9. h. Buk. 
& Bedef. Willelmus filius Ricardi, Sheiiff. 

(f) De Placitis ArchiJiaconi Pift. & So- 
ciorum ejus; De Aflifa per Dominia de 
Hantefcira, per Widonem Decanum & So- 
cios fuos ; De Pkcitis Willelmi de Lanval. 
& Tomas BafTet ; De Placitis Rogeri fillj 
Renfiidi, & Roberti filij Bernardi, & Ri- 
cardi Giffard ; Nova Placita per Ricardum 
de Luci ; De Auxilio Burgorum & Villa- 
rum de Sudhantefcira, per Radultum nlium 
Stephani, & Turftinum filium Simonis & 
Willelmum Ruffum. lb. Rot. 10. a. Sud- 
hant. Hugo de Gundevill, Sheriff. 

(g) De Placitis Archidiaconi Pi£i:. ii So- 
ciorum ejus ; De AfliiaDommiorum Regis 
in eifdcm Comitatibus, per Scfredum & So- 
cios fuos ; Dc Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill 
& Hugonis DeCreffi ; Nova Placita &No- 
V£e Conventiones, per Walterum filium Ro- 
berti, & Hugonem de Creffi in Huntedon- 
fcira ; De Auxilio Burgorum & Villarum 
in HunteJonefcira, per Robertum Mantell 
& Radulfuni Britonem. lb. Rot. 10. b. 
Cantehr. & Huntfd. Ebrardus de Bech, Wa- 
rinus de Baflingeburne, & Walterus filius 
Hugonis, Sheriff's, 

[h) Nova Placita &Novse Conventiones, 
per Robertum filium Bernardi, & Ricardum , 
Giffard, & ipfum Vicecomitem ; De Auxi- 
lio Burgorum & Villarum in Sudfexa, per 
Gervafium de Cornhill & ipfum Vicecomi- 
tem. lb. Rot. II. a. i^ b. Sudfexa. Roge- 
rus filius Renfridi, Sheriff. 

(?) De Placitis Archidiaconi Pifl. & So- 
ciorum ejus ; Idem Vicecomes debet iiij 1, de 
remanenti Aflifje facias fuper Dominia Re- 
gis de Surreia, per Reginaldum de Waren- 
na, & ipfum Vicecomitem ; Idem Vice- 
comes debet XX s. & viij d, de Minutis 
Placitis Tomae Baffet & Willelmi de Lan- 
val. ; De Placitis Rogeri filij Renfridi & 
Sociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 11. a. Surreia. Ger- 
vafius de Cornhill, Sheriff. ' 

(i) Nova Placita & Novae Conventiones, 
per Ricardum de Luci. lb. Rot. 11. f. 
Lund. & Afidd.. 

(I) De Placitis Archidiaconi Picl. & So- 
ciorum ejiis ; De Placitis Willelmi de Lan- 
val. & Sociorum ejus; Nova Placita & Novae 
Conventiones, per Robertum filium Bernar- 
di, & Ricardum Giffard, & Rogerum fi- 
lium Renfridi ; De Auxilio Burgorum & 
Villarum de Kent, per Rogerum filium 
Renfiidi fc Gervafium de Cornhill. lb. 
Rot. 12. a. Ghent, Robertas filius Bernardi, 


chap. III. ^ //6^ K I N g's Co u R T. 133 

dun{m): in Dcvonjkire, William de LanvaLn zndi Thomas BaJJ'et ; RalfFitz^ 
Stephen and his Companions ; Roger Fitz-Rerifrey («) ; in Corniiall, 
Ralf Fitz-Sfephen and his Companions (0) : in the Counties of Nor- 
folk and Suffolk, Robert Mantell and his Companions ; IValter Fitz- 
Robcrt [p) : in Wiltjhire, IVdliam Ruffus and his Companions ; Ralf 
Fitz-Stephen, Roger Fitz-RenJ'rey, Robert Mantell, and William Fitz- 
Stephen {q) : in the Counties of Ejex and Hertford, Randidf de Glan- 
"cill and his Companions ; Walter Fitz-Robert and his Companions ; 
Thomas Fitz-Bernard (r) ; in the Counties of Dorfet and Somerfet, 
Ralf Fitz-Stephen and his Companions ; William Ruffus and his Com- 
panions (j-) -• in Worceflerjlnre, William Fitz-Ralf ■Sind his Companions 
[t) : in Lancajhire, William Fitz-Ralf and his Companions ; Thomas 
Fitz-Bernard and his Companions (11) : in Northampton/l:ire, Hugh de 
Gundevill -And his Companions (w): in Glouceflerjlnre, Bertram de Ver- 
dun and his Companions; Ralf Fitz-Stephen and his Companions [x] : 
in Northumberland, Ranulf de Glanvill and his Companions ; William 
Baffet and his Companions (_y) ; in TorkJl:ii'e, Alan de Nevill junior 
and William Baffet; Hugh de Creff and Ranulf de Glanvill; William 
Fitz-Ralf ^iXxA. his Companions; Hugh de Gundevill and his Compa- 
nions; William Baffet, Robert de Vals, zxidk Michael Belet {z): in the 


{in) De Placitis Hugonis de Gundevill & 
Sociorum ejus. N. P. & N. C. per Wil- 
lelmum Baflet, & Michaclem Belet, & Ro- 
bertum de V-illibus. N. P. & N. C. per 
Willelmum Baffet, & Robertum de Valli- 
bus, & Michaelem Belet, & Bertram de 
Verdun [in Civitate LincolireJ Mag. Rot, 
24. H. 2. Rot. I. a. Lincolfcira. 

(n) De Placitis Willelriii de Lanval. & 
lomse Baffet. De Placitis Radulfi filij Ste- 
phani & Sociorum ejus. N. P. & N. C. 
per Rogerum iilium Renfridi, h Radulfum 
filium htephani. lb. Rot. i. b. Devencfdra. 

{0) N. P. k N. C. per Radulfum filium 
Stephani & Socios fuos. lb. Rot. I. b. Cor- 

(/)) De Affifa Domrniorum Regis per 
Robertum Mantel! & Socios fuos. De Pla- 
citis Walteri filij Roberti. lb. Rot. 2. a. 
Nordf. & Sudf. 

(q) De Placitis Willelmi Ruffi k Socio- 
rum ejus. N. P. & N. C. per Radulfum 
filium Stephani, & Rogerum filium Renfridi, 
& Robertum Mantell, & Willelmum filium 
Stephani. lb. Rot. 2. b. JViltefcira. 

(r)-De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill & 

Sociorum ejus. De pbcitis Walteri filij Ro- 
berti & Sociorum ejus. N. P. & N. C. per 
Tomam filium Bernardi. lb. Rot. 3. a. 
Ejjix. &■ Hurtf. 

{s) De Placitis Radulfi filij Stephani & 
Sociorum ejus. De Placitis Willelmi RufH 
& Sociorum ejus. N. P. & N. C. per 
Radulfum filium Stephani & Socios fuos. 
lb. Rot. 3. a. cif b. Dorf. bf Sumerf. 

(t) De Placitis Willelmi filij Radulfi & 
Sociorum ejus, lb. Rot. 3. h. JVirccejir. 

[u) De Auxilio Villarum cjufdem Honoris 
per Willelmum filium Radulfi k Socios 
iiios. De Placitis Tomae filij Bernardi & 
Sociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 3. b. Lancajira. 

[w) De Placitis Hugonis de Gundevill k 
Sociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 4. a. Norhnntefc. 

(x) De Placitis Bertranni de Verdun k 
Sociorum ejus. N. P. k N. C. per Ra- 
dulfum filium Stephani & Socios fuos. lb. 
Rot. 4. b. Gloec. 

[y] De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill & 
Sociorum ejus. N. P. & N. C. per Wil- 
lelmum Baffet & Socios fuos. lb. Rot. 4. 
b. Norhumb. 

(z) De Placitis Alani de Nevill Juniorfs 

134 O/M^ Judicature Chap. III. 

Counties of Warivick and Leiccjlert William de Lanvalai and 'Thomas 
BaJJ'et ; Hugh de Gundcvill and his Companions ; William Fifz-Rafe 
and his Companions (^) j in Sbropjlnre, Bertram de Verdun and his 
Companions {b) : in the Counties of Notingbam and Derby, Hugh de 
Gundevill and his Companions (<:) : in SiiJ^ex, Robert Fitz-Bernard 
and his Companions {d) : in the Counties of Buckingham and Bedford, 
Walter Fitz-Robert and his Companions [e) : in Herefordjhire, William 
de Lanvalai and I'homas BaJJ'et ; Bertram de Verdim and his Compa- 
nons ; Roger Fitz-Renfrey and his Companions (f) : in Berkjl.nre, Ralf 
Fitz-Stephen and his Companions {g) : in Hanteflnre, William de Lan- 
valai and Thomas BaJJ'et ; Roger Fitz-Renfrey and his Companions; 
Robert Fitz-Bernard and his Companions [h) : in the Counties of 
Cambridge and Huntendon, Walter Fitz-Robert and his Companions 
(/) : in OxJ'ordJljire, Ranulf de Glanvill and Hugh de Crejji; Richard 
G-^^r^ and his Companions ; Ralf Fitz-Stephen, Roger Fitz-Renfrey, 
Robert Mantell, and William Fitz-Stephen {Ji) : in Kent, Richard Gtf- 
fard and his Companions (/) : in Cianberland, Ranulf de Glanvill and 
Hugh de CreJJi ; William BaJJ'et, Robert de Vals, and Michael Belet (m) : 

& Willelmi Baflet. De Placitis Hugonis 
de Crefli & Randulfi de Glanvill. De Pla- 
citis Willelmi fiiij Radulfi & Sociorum ejus. 
De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill & Socio- 
rum ejus. De Placitis Hugonis de Gundc- 
vill & Sociorum ejus. N. P. & N. C. per 
Willelmum Baffet, & Robertum de Valli- 
bus, & Michaelcm Belet. lb. Rot. 5. a. 
Everwichfc. Randulfus de Glanvill, Sheriff'- 

(a) De Placitis Willelmi de Lanval. & 
Tomse Bafiet. De Placitis Hugonis de 
Gundevill h Sociorum ejus. De Auxilio 
Burgorum & Villarum per Willelmum fi- 
lium Radulfi & Socios fuos. lb. Rot. 6. 
a. JVar. fa" Legerc. 

(b) De Placitis Eertranni de Verdun & 
Sociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 6. a. Salop. 

(c) De Placitis Hugonis de Gundevill & 
Sociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 6. b. Not. & Derb. 

(d) De Placitis Robert! filij Bernardi & 
Sociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 6. b. Sudfexa. 

(e) De Placitis Walter! filij Robert! & 
Sociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 7. a. Buchingha/nfc, 
ijf Bedcf 

(f) De Placitis Willelmi de Lanval. & 
Thomae Baffet. De Placitis Bertrann! de 
Verdun & Sociorum ejus. N. P. & N. C. 
De pl-acitis Rogeri filij Renfridi & Sociorum 

ejus. lb. Rot. 7. b. Heref. in IValia. 

(g) De Placitis Radulfi filij Stephani & 
Sociorum ejus. /b. Rot. 7. b. Berchfc. 

(h) De Aflifa Dominiorum Regis in Han- 
tefcir.t per Widonem Decanum & Socios 
fuos. De Placitis Willelmi de Lanval. & 
Tomne Baffet. De Placitis Rogeri filij Ren- 
fridi & Sociorum ejus. De Placitis Roberti 
filij Bernardi & Sociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 
S. ^. 

(i) De Placitis Walteri filij Roberti & 
Sociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 8. i. Cant, is' 

(k) De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill & 
Hugonis de Crefli. De Placitis Ricardi 
Giffard & Sociorum ejus. N. P. & N. C. 
per Radulfum filium Stephani, & Rogerum 
filium Renfridi, & Robertum Mantell, & 
Willelmum filium Stephani. lb. Rot. 8. b. 

{I) De Placitis Ricardi Giffard & Socio- 
rum ejus. . lb. Rot. 9. a. Chent. 

(m) De Placitis Randulfi de Glanvill & 
Hugonis de Crefli. N. P. & N. C. per 
Willelmum Baffet, & Robertum de Valli- 
bus, & Michaelem Belet. lb. Rot. 9. a, 


chap. III. o/* />6^ K I N g's C o u R T. 135 

in Surry, Roger Fitz-Renfrey, and his Companions («). In this Year, 
Thomas Fitz-Bernard [and his Companions] were Juftices of the 
Forell ((?). 

In the 25th Year of K. Henry II, the Perfons named here under- 
neath, or fome of them, were Jufticiers itinerant for Pleas of the 
Crown and common Pleas : to wit, in Norfolk and Suffolk, Walter 
Fitz-Robert and his Fellows ; Ralf Fitz-Stephen, William Fitz-Stepben, 
Roger Fi(z-Renfrey, and Robert Mantell fpj : In Devon/hire, William 
de Lanvalein and Thotnas BaJJ'et ; Ralf Fitz-Stephen and his Fellows; 
Tiujlin Fitz-Simon fqj : In Torkpire, Alan de Nevill junior and Wil- 
liatn Bafet ; Hugh de Crefi zv\d. Ranuf de Glanvill ; William Fit z-Ralf 
and his Fellows ; Hugh de Glanvill and his Fellows ; William BaJJ'et, 
Robert de Vals, and Michael Belet frj : In Northumberland, Randulf 
de Glanvill and his Companions ; William BaJJ'et and his Companions 
(s) : In the Counties of Cainbridge and Huntendon, Walter Fitz-Robert 
and his Companions ; Rdf Fitz-Stephen and his Companions (tj : 
In SuJJ'ex, Robert Fitz-Bernard and his Companions, Raf Fitz-Stephen, 
William Fitz-Stephen, Roger Fitz-Reinfrid, and Robert Mantell fuj : 
In Herefordjlnre, William de Lanival and Thomas Bajfet ; Bertran de 
Verdun and Ralf Fitz-Stephen ; Roger Fitz-Reinfrey and his Com- 
panions (w) : In Lincoln/hire, Hugh de Gu?idevill and his Fellows -, 
William BaJJ'et and his Fellows ; the Sheriff [viz. William Baff'etl, Ro- 

rjf^ bert 

(n) De Placitis Rogeri filij Renfridi & 
Sociorum ejus. 3. Ret. g. b. Surreia. 

(o) A'fag. Rot. 24. II. 2. pnjim. 

(p) De Placitis \Valtcn filij Robert! & 
Sociorum ejus. N. P. & N. C. per Ra- 
dulfum filium Stephaiii, & Willelmum fi- 
lium Stephani, & Rogcnim filium Reinfre- 
di, & Robertum Mantell in Sudfolch ; De 
Placitis prsediftonim in Norfolch. Mag. 
Rot. 25. H. 2. Rot. ?. a. Nor/, isf Sudf. 

(q) De Placftis Willelmi de Laiival. & 
Thumae Ballet; De placitis RaJulH filij 
Stephani & Sociorum ejus ; Johclus dc tl- 
preton r c de xxs de Tallagio per Radul- 
fum filium Stephani & Turfhnuni filium Si- 
monis ; In th. 1, Et Q^ e. lb. Ret. 2. i. 
Devenejdra. Hugo de Gundevill, Sheriff. 

(r) De Placitis Alani de Nevill junioris 
& Willelmi Bafi'et ; De placitis Hugonis de 
CreifTi & Rannulfi de Glanvil! ; De placitis 
Willelmi filij Radulfi h fociorum ejus ; Dc 
placitis Rannulfi de Glanvill & fociorum 
ejus; De placitis Hugonis de Gundevill 6c 

fociorum ejus ; De placitis Willelmi BafTet, 
& Roberti de Vals, & Michaelis Belet. lb. 
Rot. 3. a. Everwijchfcira. Randulfus dc 
Glanvilla, Sheriff. 

(s) De placitis Randulfi de Glanvilla & 
fociorum ejus ; Dc placitis Willelmi Baflet 
& fociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 3. b. Norhum- 

(i) De placitis W.dteii filij Roberti 5: 
fociorum ejus ; NoA'a Placita & Nova; Con- 
ventioncs per Radulfum filium Stephani & 
focios ejus. lb. Rot. 4. a. dint. & ILmted. 

(u) De placitis Roberti filij Bcrnardi & 
fociorum ejus; N. P. & N. C. per Ra- 
dulfum filium Stephani, & Willelmum fi- 
lium Stephani, & Rogeium filium Rcin- 
fridi, & Robertum Mantell. lb. Rot. 4. a. 
Sudfex. Rogerus filius Reinfridi, Sheriff. 

(lu) De placitis Willelmi de Lunival & 
Tomse Baflet ; De placitis Bercranni de 
Verdun & Radulfi filij Stepliaiii ; De placi- 
tis Bertriinni de Verdun & foe. ejus ; Dc 

,. placiti.? 


Of the Judicature 

Chap. III. 

bert de Vaux, Michael Belet, and Bertram de Verdun (xj : In tlie 
Counties of E/Jex and Hertford, Alan de Nevill ; Ranulf de Glanvill and 
Ills Fellows j Walter Fit^-Robcrt and his Fellows j Ralf Fit z- Stephen, 
Wiiiiam Fitz-Stephen, Robert Mantell, and Roger Fitz-Reinfrey fyj : In 
WiltJJnre, IVilliam Riiff'us and his Companions; Rolf Fitz-Stephen and 
his Companions (z) : In Northamptonjl.nre, Hugh de Gundevill and his 
Fellows ; IVilliam Baffet, Robert de Vaux, Bertram de Verdun, and Mi- 
chael Belet (a) : In the Counties of Dorfet and Sumerfet, Ralf Fitz- 
Stephen and his Fellows; Thomas Fitz-Bernard fbj: In Rutland, PVil- 
liam BaJJi't and his Fellows fc) : In the Counties of Buckingham and 
Bedford, Walter Fitz-Robert and his Fellows ; Ra'f Fitz-Stephen, 
William Fitz-Stephen, Roger Fitz-Reinfrey, and Robert Mantell (d) : 
In the Counties oi Notinghatn and Derby, Hugh de Gundevill and his 
Fellows ; William Baffet, Robert de Vaux, Bertram de Verdun, and 
Michael Belet (e) : In Berkjhire, Ralf Fitz-Stephen and his Fellows 
(f) : In Glouceferfloire, Bertram de Verdun and his Companions ; Ralf 
Fitz-Stephen and his Companions fgj : In Comical, 'Thomas Fitz-Ber- 
nard [but I think he was Juftice itinerant for the Foreft] (h) : In 

placitis Rogeri filij Reinfridi & fociorum 
ejus. lb. Ret. 4. b. Hercfordfcira in JVallia. 

(x) De placitis Hugonis de Gundevill & 
fociorum ejus ; De placitis Willelini B.ifl'et 
& fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per ip- 
fum Vicecomitem, & Robertum de Vallibus, 
& Michaelem Belet, & Bertram de Verdun. 
lb. Rot. 5, a. Lincclfcira. Willelmus Baffet, 

(y) De placitis Alani de Nevill ; De 
placitis Rannulfi de Glanvill & focionim 
ejus ; De placitis Walteri filij Roberti & 
fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per Radul- 
fum Filium Stephani, & Willelmum filium 
Stephani, & Robertum Mantel, & Rogerum 
Filium Reinfridi in Effexa ; Item de pla- 
citis eorundem in Hertford fcira. lb. Rot. 5. 
b. Effexa & Hertfordfcira. Robertas Man- 
tel, Sheriff. 

(z) De Placitis Willelmi Ruffi & focio- 
rum ejus ; De placitis Radulfi filij Stephani 
& fociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 5. b. fFiltifcira. 

(a) De placitis Hugonis de Gundevill & 
fociorum ejus. N. P. & N. C. per Wil- 
lelmum Baffet, & Robertum de Vallibus, 
& Bertram de Verdun & Michaelem Belet. 
lb. Rot, b. A Norhantefcira, 

(b) De placitis Radulfi filij Stephani & 
fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per Tho- 

mam filium Bernardi. 
ft-'ta ij Sumerffta. 

{c) N. P. & N. C. 
fet & focios fuos. lb. 

lb. Rot. 6. b. Dor- 

per Willelmum Baf- 
Rot. 6. b. Rotelanda. 

(d) De placitis Walteri filij Roberti & 
fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per Radul- 
fum filium Stephani, & Willelmum filium 
Stephani, .V Rogerum filium Reinfridi, & 
Robertum Mantell. lb. Rot. 7. a. Buckingh. 
£3" Bcdef. 

(f) De placitis Hugonis de Gundevill 
& fociorum ejus; N. P. & N. C. per Wil- 
lelmum Baffet, & Robertum de Vallibus, 
& Bertram de Verdun, & R'lichaelem Belet. 
li. Rot. 7. i. Not. y Dereb. AVillelmus 
filius Radulfi, Sheriff. 

(f) De placitis Radulfi filij Stephani & 
fociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 7. b. Berkefcira. 

(g) De placitis Bertram de Verdun & 
fociorum ejus ; De placitis Radulfi filij Ste- 
phani & fociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 8. a. 

(h) Cornubia. N. P. & N. C. per Tho- 
mam filium Bernardi. lb. Rot. 8. a. 


Chap. III. of the K i n g's C o u r t. 137 

Worcejlerjlnrey WiUiam F itz-RaJf zwA. his Companions (i) : In Oxford- 
J7j>ire, Ranidf de G/anvill d^nd Hugb dc CrerJ/i ; Richard Giffard ^nd h\s 
Companions (k) : In Stajfhrdjhire, IVilluvn Baffct, Robert de Vatix, 
Bertram de Verdun, and Michael Bclet (/) ; In Hantjhire, William de 
Lamvalei and 'Thomas Bajj'ct ; Roger Fitz-Reinfrcy and his Com- 
panions ; Robert Fitz-Bernard and his Companions (w) : In the 
Counties of JVarwick and Leicejier, WiWam de Lamval. and Thomas 
Baff'et ; and the Jufticiers (n) : In Kent, Richard Giffard and liis 
Companions ; Raff and William Fitz-Stcphen, Roger Fitz-Reinfrey, and 
Robert Mantel [o) : In Surrey, Roger Fitz-Reinfrey, and William and 
Ralf Fitz-Stephen (/>). In this Year Thomas Fitz-Bernard and his 
Companions were Juftices of the Forefl [q). 

In the 26th Year of K. He?iry II, the Perfons named here under- 
neath, or fome of them, were Jufticiers itinerant for Pleas of the 
Crown and common Pleas : to wit, in Ej'ex and Hertfordfl:ire, Walter 
Fitz-Robert and his Fellows j Michael Belet, Richard de Pek, and their 
Fellows : Ranidf de Glanvill (r) .• in Shropfljire and Staffordfl:>ire, 
Randidf de Glaiivill, Godfrey de Ltici, and their Fellows [s) : in Nor- 
folk and Suffolk, Ralf Fitz-Stephen and his Fellows ; Richard de 
Pecco, Michael Belet and their Fellows [t) : in Oxfordfhire, Ranidf de 
Glativill and Hugh de Crei/fi; Richard Ruffus and his Companions ; 

(i) De placitis Willelmi filij Radulfi & 
fociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 8. a. JP'ireceJirefclra. 
Michael Belet. Sheriff. 

(k) De Placitis Rannulfi de Glanvill & 
Hugonis de Creifli j De placitis Ricardi 
Gift'ard & fociorum ejus. lb. Rot. 8. b. 

(I) N. P. & N. C. per Willelmum Baf- 
fet, & Robertum de Vallibus, & Bertram 
de Verdun, & Michaelem Belet. lb. Rot. 8. 
i. Staff. 

(m) De placitis Willelmi de Lamvalei 
& Tomae Baflet ; De placitis Rogeri filij 
Reinfridi & fociorum ejus ; De placitis Ro- 
bert! filij Bernardi. lb. Rot. 9. a. Suclhaiite- 
fcira. Hugo de Gundevill, Sheriff. 

(n) De Placitis Willelmi de Lamval. & 
TomasBaffet ; De placitis Jufticiar. lb. Rot. 
9. b. IVarewichfc. iS Legecejirefc. Bertrannus 
de Verdun Sheriff. 

(0) De placitis Ricardi GifFard & focio- 
rum ejus; N. P. & N. C. per Radulfum 
& "Willelmum filium Stephani, &Rogerum 
filium Reinfridi, & Robertum Mantel). lb. 

Vol. I. T 

Rot. JO. a. Ghent. Robertus filius Bernardi 

(p) N. P. Si N. C. per Rogerum filium 
Reinfridi & Willelmum & Radulfum filiuiu 
Stephani. lb. Rot. 10. b. Surreia. 

(q) Mag. Rot. anni 25. H. 2. paffim. 

(r) De Placitis Waheri filij Robcrti & 
Sociorum ejus ; Nova Placita & NovasCon- 
ventiones per Michaelem Bclct & Ricardum 
de Pek & Socios fuos ; De Oblatis [Curiae] 
per Rannulfum de Glanvill. Alag. Rot. 26. 
H. 2 Rot. 1. (7. Ej/exa & Hurt/or dfcira ; Ro- 
bertus Mantellus Sheriff. 

(s) N. P. & N. Conventiones [in Sa- 
lopefciraj per Randulfum de Glanvill & 
focios fuos ; N. P. & N. C. [in Stafford- 
fcira] per Rannulfum de Glanvill & Gode- 
fridum de Luci & focios fuos. Jl^Iag. Rot, 
26. H. 2. Rot. I. b. Salop, is Staff 

(t) De Placitis Radulfi filij Stephani & 
fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per Ri- 
cardum de Pecco, & Michaelem Belet, & 
Socios fuos. lb. Rot. 2. a. Nordfolch. l^ 



Of the Judicature 

Chap. III. 

Ranulf dc Glattvill, and Godfrey de Luci, and their Companions {u) : 
in Suffcx, Robert Fitz-Bernard, and his Companions ; Richard de 
Pech, Michael Be/et, and their Companions (ic;) ; in the Counties of 
Cambridge and Hiintendon, Walter Fttz-Robert and his Companions ; 
Gilbert Pipard, Geoffrey Hofe, and their Companions (at) : in Berkjhire 
Alan de Purnelles, Robert de Witcfcld and their Fellows (_y) : in Surrey, 
Michael Relet, Hugh Murdach, Richard de Pecch, and their Fello\^'S [z) : 
\\\LlncolnJl.Hre,Iiugh de GimdenjUHxid, his Fellows ; Gilbert Pipard, Geoffrey 
Hofe, and their Fellows ; Bertram de Verdun, William de Bendeng, and 
Michael Belet [in Axiholm] {a) : in Cumberland, Ranidf de Glanvill 
and Hicgh de Crejjt {b) : in Yorkjhire, Hugh de CreJJi and Randulf de 
Glanvdl ; William Fitz-Ralf ^^nd his Companions ; Randidf de Glan-oill 
and his Companions; Hugh de Gu7idevill Ti^nd. his Companions; Wil- 
liam Baffet, Robert de Vaux, and Michael Belet ; Randulf de Glanvill^ 
Godfrey de Luci, Hugh de Gaherft, and their Companions [c) : in Wor- 
ce/lerfljire, William Fitz-Ralf and his Fellows ; Randulf de Glanvill, 
Godfrey de Luci and their Fellows [d] : in Nor thamptonf hire, Hugh de 
Gundevill and his Fellows ; Gilbert Pipard, Geoffrey Hofe, and their 
Fellows {e\ : in Rutland, Gilbert Pipard, Geoffrey Hofe, and their Fellows 

(f) : 

(u) De pkcitis Randulfi de Glanvill & 
Hugonis de Creiili ; De placitis Ricardi 
Ruffi & fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per 
Rannulfum de Glanvill, & Godefridum de 
Luci, & focios fuos. lb. Rot. 2. b. Oxinef. 
Galfridus Hofe Sheriff. 

(w) De placitis Roberti filij Bernardi & 
fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per Ricar- 
dum de Pech Sc Michaclem Belet & focios 
eorum. lb. Rot. 2. b. Sudfexa. Rogerus 
iilius Renfridi Sheriff. 

(x) De placitis Walteri filij Roberti & 
fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per Gille- 
bertum Pipard & Galfridum Hofe & focios 
fuos. lb. Rot. 3. <?. Grantebriggfcira, isf 
Hun tcdonefcira . 

(y) N. P. & N. C. per Alanum de Fur- 
nell. & Robertum de Witefeld & focios 
fuos. , lb. Rot. 3. b. Berrochfcira. 

(z) N. P. & N. C. per Michaelem Belet, 
h Hugoiiem Murdac,& Ricardum de Pecch. 
& focios fuos. Ih. Rot. 3. b. Surreia. Ger- 
vafius de Cornhill Sheriff. 

(a) De placitis Hugonis de Gundevill & 
fociorum ejus ; Nova P. & N. C. per Gil- 
lebertum Pipard, &: Galfridum Hofe, & 
focios fuos ; De placitis Bertranni de Ver- 


dun, & Willelmi de Bendeng, & Micbaells 
Belet. lb. Rst. 4. a. & b. Lincolfcira. Wil- 
lelmus Baflct Sheriff. 

(h) De placitis Ranulfi de Glanvill 
& Hugonis de Creffi. lb. Rot. 4. b. Cumb. 
Robertus de Vallibus, Rogerus de Legrece- 
flria pro eo, Sheriffs. 

[c) De placitis Hugonis de Crefli & Ran- 
dulfi de Glanvill; De placitis Willelmi filij 
Radulfi & fociorum ejus; De placitis Ran- 
dulfi de Glanvill & fociorum ejus ; De pla- 
citis Hugonis de Gundevill £c fociorum ejus ; 
De placitis Willelmi Baffet, h Roberti de 
Vallibus, & Michaelis Belet; N. P. & N. 
C. per Randulfum de Glanvill, & Gode- 
fridum de Luci, & Hugonem de Gaherft, 
& focios fuos. lb. Rot. 5. ei. y b. Ever- 
wichfcira. Randulfus de Glanvill Sheriff. 

(d) De placitis Willelmi filij Radulri & 
•fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per Rannul- 
fum de Glanvill, & Godefridum de Luci, 
& focios fuos. //'. Rot. 6. a. IFireceJirefcira. 
Michael Belet Sheriff. 

{c) De placitis Hugonis de Gundevill & 
fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per Gille- 
bertum Pipard, & Galfridum Hofe, & fo- 

chap. III. of the K i n g's C o u r t. 139 

(f) : in DcvouJJ.iire, William de Lanvalki and Thomas BaJJ'et -, RalfFitz- 
Stepben and his Fellows -, Richard the Treafurer, Nicolas Fitz-Turold, 
and Robert de Witcfeld{g) : in CorNicall, Richard the Treafurer, Robert' de 
Witefeld, Nicolas Fitz-'Turold, and their Fellows (/>) : in the Counties 
of Warwick and Leicejler, William de Lanvallei and Thomas Ba£et ; 
Hugh de Giindevill and his Fellows ; Gilbert Pipard, Geoffrey Hofe, 
and their Fellows (/) ; in the Counties of DorJ'et and SomerJ'et, Ralf 
FitZ'Stephen and his Companions ; Richard the Treafurer, Nicholas 
Fitz-Turold, Robert de Witefeld {£) : in Gloucejlerjlnre, Bertram de Ver- 
dun and his Companions ; Ralf Fitz-Stephen and his Companions j 
John Cumin, Alan de Furnell, and William de Bendeng (/) .- in Hereford- 
Jhire, Bertram de Verdun and Robert F it x- Step hen ; Ranulf de Glanvill, 
Godfrey de Luci, and their Companions [m) : in Wiltjhire, William 
Rufus and his Companions ; Ralf Fitz-Stephen and his Companions ; 
Richard the Treafurer, Nicolas Fitz-Turold, and Robert de Witefeld (n) : 
in the Counties of Buckingham and Bedjord, Walter Fitz-Robert and 
his Companions ; Ralf Fitz-Stephen and his Companions ; Hugh 
Murdach, Michael Belet, Richard de Pech, and their Companions (0) .: 


cios fuos. lb. Rot. 6. a. $3" b. Nurhanle- 
fcira. Thomas filius Bernardi Sheriff. 

(f) N. P. & N. C. perGillebertum Pi- 
pard, & Galfriduni Hofe & focios fuos. lb. 
Rot. 6. h. Rotc'Lindi. Willelmus Malduit 
Cameraiius Sheriff. 

(g) De placitis Willelmi de Lanvall. & 
Tomse BaiTet ; De placitis Radulfi filij Ste- 
phani & fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per 
Ricardum Thefaurarium, & Nicholaum fi- 
lium Turolui, & Robertum de Witefeld. 
lb. Rot. 7. a. Devenejcira. Willelmus 
Briwere Sheriff. 

[h) N. P. & N. C. per Ricardum The- 
faurarium, & Robertum de Witefeld, & 
Nicholaum filium Turoldi, h focios fuos. 
lb. Rot. 7. b. Cornubia. Alanus de Furnell. 

(i) De placitis Willelmi de Lanvall. & 
Tomse BaiTet ; De placitis Hugonis deGun- 
devill& fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per 
Gillebertum Pipard, & Galfiidum Hofe, & 
focios fuos. lb. Rot. 7. /'. IVarewichfcira bf 
Legerc. Bertrannus de Verdun, iErnaldus 
de Barton & Adam de Aidcdelega pro eo. 

(k) De placitis Radulfi filij Stephani & 
fociorum ejus j N. P. & N. C. per Ricar- 

dum Thefaurarium, & Nicholaum filium 
Turoldi, & Robertum de Witefeld. lb. 
Rot. 8. a. Dorfeta iff Sumerfeta. Robertas 
de Bello Campo Sheriff. 

(!) De placitis Bertranni de Verdun & 
fociorum ejus ; De placitis Radulfi filij Ste- 
phani & fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per 
Johannem Cumin, & Alanum de Furnell, & 
Willelmum de Bendeng. lb. Rot. 8. b. 
Gloec. Willelmus filius Stephani Sheriff. 

[m) De placitis Bertranni de Verdun ic 
Radulfi filij Stephani ; De placitis Bertranni 
de Verdun & fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. 
per Rannulfum de Glanvill, & Godefriduni 
de Luci, & focios fuos. Ih. Rot. 8. b. Hc- 
refordfdra in JFalia. Radulfus Puheiius 

(n) De placitis Willelmi RufH & fociorum 
ejus ; De placitis Radulfi filij Stephani &c 
fociorum ejus ; N. P. & N. C. per Ricar- 
dum Thefaurarium, & Nicholaum filium 
Turoldi, & Robertum de Witefeld. lb. 
Rot. g. fl. IFiltefiira. Robertus IVlalduic 

(0) De placitis Waltcri filij Robert! & 
fociorum ejus; De placitis Radulfi filij Ste- 
phani h fociorum ejus ; N. P. &N. C.per 
Hugonem Murdac, ii Michaelem Kelec, & 
T 2 Ricardum 

140 Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

in HantjVire, the Juftices for this 26th Year are not named (p) : in 
the Counties of Noting/jam and Derby, Hugh de Gundevill and his 
Companions ; Hannulf de Glativill, Godfrey de Ltici, and their Com- 
panions fq) : in Northumberland , Ranfuilf de Glanvill and his Com- 
panions (r) : in A'tv?/, Ht^gh Murdac, Richard de Pech, and Michael 
Belet, and their Companions (j) : in Middlefex, Michael Bekt, Richard 
de Pek, and their Companions (/). In this Year Thomas Fitz-Bernard 
was Juftice of the Foreft {u). 

Moreover, there is another Hiftorian, to wit, Gervafe of Canter- 
bury, who lays, that K. Henry W. [A. D. 1170, and amto Regtii \b), 
by Advice of his great Men appointed Abbats and Clerks, Earls and 
Knights, to go Circuits through the Realm ; giving them a 
Form to aft by. For Kent, Surrey, Middlefex, Berkjlnre, Oxfordjhire, 
BiikingharnJIiire, and Bedfordflnre (fays he) were appointed, the Ab- 
bot of St. Anfin of Canterbury, the Abbot of Chertfy, the Earl of 
Clare, William de Abrancis, Manefier de Dammartin, Gerold Fitz Ralf, 
Gilbert de Pinkeni, William Son of Helt, William Fitz-Niel, William 
Fitz-Martin, Ralf del Hofpital and Ralf de Dene. And that in liice 
manner, Inquifitors were fent into the other Counties of Rjigland. 
And then he fets forth the Articles upon which they were to en- 
quire; wherein thefe Inquifitors are ftyled Barones Err antes (iv). But 

Ricardum de Pech.&focios fuos./i. Rot. g. 
b. Bilk, is Bedcf Willelmus Ruftus Sheriff. 

(p) De placitis Willelmi de Lanvall. i?£ 
Tomce Bafi'et ; De placitis Rogeri filij Ren- 
fredi &: fociorum ejus ; Nova placita ik No- 
vae Conventiones ; De Oblatis Curiae. lb. 
Rot. 10. a. Sudhantefdra. 

(q) De placitis Hagonis de Gundevill & 
fpciorum ejus; N. P. & N.C. per Rannul- 
fum de Glanvill, & Godefiidum de Luci, 
^- focios fuos. Ih. Rot. 10. b. Not. is' Derb. 
Willelmus filius Radulfi, Serlo de GrenJon 
pro eo, Shinffs. 

[r) Dc placitis Rannulfi de Glanvill & 
fociorum ejus ; De placitis Curiae. lb. Rot. 

10. b. Nor'tjU7nb. 

{s) N. P. c^ N. C. per Hugonem Mur- 
dac, & Ricardum dc Pech, & Michaelem 
Belct, & focios fuos. lb. Rot. il. a. Ghent, 
Robertus iilius Bernardi Sheriff. 

(t) N. P. & N. C. per Michaelem Belet, 
& llicardum de Pek, & focios fuos. lb. Rot. 

11. b. Land, y Middelj: 

(u) Mag. Rot. 26. //. 2. paffim. 

[v;) mCLXX. Rex autem convocatis 

optimatibusfuisinftituit Abbates & Clericos, 
Comites & Milites qui circuirent terram,— 
formani infcriptam quo modo eis effet agen- 
dum. InCantiam, Suthreiam, &Middelfexe, 
& Berkcfcyre,&Oxincfordfcire, &Bukinge- 
hamfcire, & Bedefordfcire, mifli funt Abbas 
S. Aguftini Cantuaris, Abbas de Chertefeie, 
Comes de Clara, Willelmus de Abrancis, 
Manefier de Dammartin, Geroldusfilius Ra- 
dulfi, Gilebertus de Pinkeni, Willelmus filius 
Helt, Willelmus filius Nigelli, Willelmus 
filius Martini, Radulfus de Hofpitali, Ra- 
dulfus de Dene. Hi omnes fimul fupradic- 
tos Comitatus circuierunt. In huiic mo- 
dum per alios Comitatus Angli^e inquifitores 
miff; funt. Et hfec inquirere debuerunt. 

In pfimis exigent Barones errantes vadium 
& plegium ab omnibus Vicecomitibus, qui 
fuerunt Vicecomites pofiquam Rex tranf-, 
fretavit in Normanniam he,, to be before the ' 
King at a Day to be prefixed to them, ad rec- 
tum faciendum & addretiandum ei & ho- 
minibus fuis quod adJretiare debuerunt; 
with fever al other Articles. Gerv. Dorob. inter 
X Scrip, col. 1410. ad A. D. MCLXX. 


Chap. III. of the King's Court. 141 

if I take this Matter right, the Perfons here named by Gervafe were not 
Juftices Errant (of the Kind we are here fpeaking of) but Commif- 
lioners fent out by the King to enquire into Mifdemeanors and Abufes 
committed by Sheriffs and Baihffs, Stewards of great Lords, Foreflers, 
and other Officers. The Articles upon which they were to enquire 
(which are rehearfed by Gervafe and may be viewed by tlie Reader at 
his Leifure) make this appear probable. And we find by Records, 
that about the Time mentioned here by Gervafe, comm.on or general 
Inquifitions were taken upon the Sheriffs of England [whereby their 
Behaviour in their Office was enquired into; and they who appeared 
to be faulty, were puniflied by Fines or otherwife]. At the Time 
of this common Inqullition, an Enqueft was taken upon V/ilUam 
£^t'/ Sheriff of the Counties oi IVarioick 2.x\A Leicefer ; and there- 
upon he was fined C Marks fx) ; this Enqueft was taken before IFal- 
ter de Life and Euface Fitz-Stephcn fyj. It may be objefted, that 
thefe Inquifitors are ftyled, in the Articles, Barones Errantes ; which 
may feem to import, that they were either Barons [of the Exchequer] 
or Jufticiers. In truth, it does not appear to me, that they were Ba- 
rons of the Exchequer : but Jufticiers they might be ; if by Jufticiers 
we underftand CommilTioners at large, and not Jufticiers Errant for. 
holding of Pleas. For in ancient Time, Commiffioners of divers 
Kinds were ftyled frftic'ics or frficiarij, and Barones. Thus in the 
Reifrn of K. William I, the Perfons commiffioned to make the general 
Survey of England [contained in Domefday-book], are ftyled yi/fices in 
an ancient Chronicle hereunder cited {z). And in an ancient Book con- 
taining a Breviary of the Towns and Lands belonging to the Abbey 
of Ely, the Perfons who took the Inquifitions which are let down in 

{*•) Willelmus BafTet r c de C marcis, fa<fta fuper eum, de Inquifitione Vicecomi- 

pro Fine quem fecit cum Regede Juratafac- turn Anglla;, per Walterum de Infula & 

ta fuper cum de Communi Inquifitione Euflachium filium Stephani. Mag. Rot. 

Vicecomitum Angliee: In Operatione j Do- 19. H. 2. Rot. 5. b. War. is' Legerc. 
mus in Mota de Warewich tz j Bretefchis (z) Anno gratiae MLxxxv, il [K. "\Vil- 

C & vij s. & xj d, per breve Regis h per liam I.] fiflenquere par fes Juft:ifcs en chef- 

vifum Ricardi de Sudlegi & Willelmi filij con conte de Engleterre par ferement, com 

Godefridi : Et in liberatione v Militum & ben des acres do terra fufient en chefcuiie 

X Servientum rcfidentium in prsdiclo Caf- vile fufHfanz a une charus paran, e com. 

tello de C & Lxx diebus xlij 1, 5c x s, per ben dts beilcs. E fift aufi enquere decinef- 

breve Regis : Et in liberatione ij R'lilitum cone cite e chaftel 8 vile e rue e revere e 

quos ipfe accrevit prscepto Baronum ad mareys e boys com ben il p;Kil e deuiirendre 

Cuftodiam pr:edi(£li Cartelli pr3:ter prfedic- paran. E kant ceile chole tuil enquis, fult 

tos V Milites iiij Ij de xl diebus, per idem mis en efcrilt e porte au Rcy, efont unkoic 

breve. Mag. Rot. 20. H. 2. Rot. 10. b. gardcz cum en Trefor. Chro't. MS. in Cod., 

ff^arew. is" Lcgcrcefr. ^MS. F.. c). ii. in Bibl, Coll. S. Trin. Cantah. 

( y) Willelmus Baffet debet C marcas, p. 30. 
pro fine queni fecit cum Rcge de Jurau 


1:^2 Of the. Judicature Chap. III. 

Domefday-hodk relating to that Abbey, are ftyled Barones Regis [a). 
In the 5th Year of K. RLbard I, the King's Commiirioners who 
refided in his Army at fVind/ore, to difpatch his Bulinels there, are 
ftyled Jiijiida Domini Regis [h). In the Reign of the fame K. R. I, 
the Perfons who had the Command of the King's Navy are ityled 
yujiiciarij Navigij Regis [c). In the Reign of K. John, the King's 
Commifiioners appointed to affefs and levy the Aid mentioned in the 
Patent-Roll hereunder cited, are called Jiijliciarij [d) : and the Com- 
milTioners appointed to aflefs or levy the King's T'ertiadecima, are 
c^Wsd. yujliciarij Terciadecinfce {e). 'Tis true, feveral of thefe Perfons 
named by Gervafe are found in the Records coeval to the Time he 
mentions : viz. Manefer de Dammartin (f), Gilbert de Pinkenni [g) 
William Fitz-Martin ijj) Sec. And perhaps fome of them might be 
employed in the King's Service ; as it feems V/ilUam Fitz-Martin was. 
A very worthy and induftrious Antiquary took thefe Inquifitors for 
Juftices Itinerant, and has fet them down in his Catalogue as the 
moft ancient Juftices Itinerant that he had met with (/). ^ut (I 
think that is v/rong both Ways. For I fuppofe it will appear, before 
I have finifhed this Sedlion, firft, that they were only Inquiiitors, 
and tliat fome others were Juilices Itinerant in the i6th Year of K, 
Hen. II., for the Counties which Gervafe mentions : and next, that 
the Iters were not firft inftituted in the i6th Year of K. Hen. II., 
or (if you pleafe) that there were Iters for Pleas of the Crown 
and common Pleas before that Time. As to the firft Point ; I have 

(a) Hie fubfcribitur inquifitio terrarum, tat; ita tamen ut Rex loquatur cum Jufli- 
quomodo Barones Regis iiiquirunt, videli- ciarijs Tertiadecimae, fuper quorum Recor- 
cet, &c. Scld. in Prof. Eachn. p. 15. dum Inde fe pofuit, ad faciendum inde ni- 

(b) Nicholaus iilius Roberti r c de C & hilominus quod recordati fueriiit. Mug. Rot. 
Lv marcis, Ut pofTit tenere in pace Terras 9. 'J. Rot. 3. b. Line. 

quas fucruiit Widoriis filij Tiece, quas Re- ( f) Maneferus de Dammartin r c de j 

ginaldus de Argentoemclamat adverfus eum marca, de eodem Auxilio [Matilda; filia; 

ufq; ad Reditum Domini Regis de Jhero- Regis] proj Milite ; In th 1, Et Q. e. Wil- 

folima ; qui requirebantur in CantebrigGra: elmus de Albeneio Pincerna debet Lxxvj 

In thefauro Lxvi s. & viij d ; EtdebetC,!. marcas, de Militibus fuis. Mag. Rot. 14. 

Idem r c de eodcm debito ; Jufticijs Domini H. 2. Rot. 2. a. Norf. is Suif. 

Regis refidentibub apud Windrei'ore in ex- (g) Gillebertus de Pinlceinni r c de ix 1 

ercitu, ad expedienda negocia Regis, vj 1 & pro Militibus fuis ; In th 1, Et Q^ e. lb. 

j marcam, Kt debet quacer xx & xiij 1 & Rot. i. b. Btubingeb. & Bedef. 

dimidiam marcam. Alcig. Rot. 5. R. I. ('/;) Et in opcratione Caftelli de Roffa iiij 

Rot. 9. a. Gtocc. tit. De Novis Promiiris. marcas, Radulfo fllio Bernardi, per breve 

(fj Hovcd. P. 1. p. bbb. n. 20. Comitis Legrcceftrise ; Et Willclmo filio 

(d) Pat. 9. y 10. Job. m. 2,- dorfo ; Brad. Martini ij marcas, quando ivit ultra mare 
H'J). in Append. N. 83. ad Regem ; per breve Comitis Legreceftrias. 

(e) pulco de Oyri debet xx marcas, Ut Mag. Rot. 13. H. 2. Rot. 13. a. Chent. 

de CC marcis quae :-,b eo exiguntur occa- (i) Diigd. Orig. Jurid. Chron. Scries, ad 

fione Tertiasdecimse pacem habere permit- ann. 16. H. 2. 


chap. III. of the K i n g's Court. 143 

already faid fomething to render it probable, that the Perfons named 
above by Gervafe were only Inquilitors. Now I will fliew you, who 
were Jullices Itinerant, in the i6th Yearof K. H. II, for the Coun- 
ties mentioned by Gervafe, and the other Counties of the Realm. 
To prevent Fallacy or Miftake in point of Time, I will cite the Re- 
cords of the 16th Year and likewile of the 15th and 17th Years of 
that King. And if the Perfons named by Gervafe are not found in the 
Lift I am going to produce for thofe Years, it may <be fafel^' con- 
cluded they were not Juftices Itinerant for Pleas. 
, In the 15th Year of K.i/tvzry II, : Guy the Dean, William Bafjet, 
and Reginald de JVarenne, were Juftices Errant in LincolnJInre (k) : in 
Warwick and Leicejler Shires, the Archdeacon of Poicliers, Guy the 
Dean [of Walthani], Reginald de Warenne, and William Ea£et fl) ; 
in Su^l^x the fame Perfons (mj ; and in the Counties of Cambridge 
and Hiintendon, the fame Perfons fn) ; in Surrey, London and Mid- 
dlefex, the Archdeacon of PoiBiers, Guy the Dean, and Reginald de 
Waren7ie ( 0) j in Torkjlnre, Earl Geoffrey and Richard de Liici (pj ; 
in Nortbamptonfl:)ire, the fame Perfons (q) ; in Stafford/hire, Guy the 
Dean and William Baffet fr) ; in Gloiicejlerjlnre, the fame Perfons [s) ; 
in Norfolk and Suffolk, the Archdeacon of PoiBiers, Guy the Dean, 
Reginald de Warenne, and William Baffet {f) ; in Dorfet and Somerfet, 
Reginald de Warenne and fohn Cumin fuj ; the fame Perfons in Wilt- 
jhire (w) ; in Devonfoire the fame Perfons, with Gervafe de Cornhell 
(xj ; Juftice of the Foreft this Year, in all or moft of the Counties 
in England, Alan de Nevill fyj. 

In the 1 6th Year of K. Henry II, the Perfons hereunder named 

[k) De Placitis Widonis Decani, & (r) De Placitis Widonis Decani & 

Willelmi Baffet, &Reginaldi de Warenna, Willelmi Baffet. Ih. Rot. 5. b. Staff. 
■Mag. Rot. 15. H. 2. Rot. I. h. Nicholi-fcira. (s) De Placitis Decani de Waltiiam & 

('// De Placitis Archidiaconi Pidavienfis, ■Willelmi Baffet. 16. Rot. 8. a. Glotwc. 
& Widonis Decani, & Reginaldi de Wa- ('/j De Placitis Archidiaconi Pidavienfis, 

renna, & ipfius Willelmi Baffet {ivho was & Widonis Decani, & Reginaldi de War- 

iheiiff that Tear of lyar. and Leic), in Le- 'renna, & Willelmi Baflet. lb. Rot. -i.b,. 

gerceflrefcira. Item de Placitis eorundem Norf. fff Sudf. De Placitis Comitis Gau- 

in Warewicfcira. lb. Rot. 2. b. fiidi, & Ricardi de Luci, de Hominibus de 

(m) Ih. Rot. 4. b. Lenna. lb. Rot. 7. a. 

(n) lb. Rot. 10. b. (u) De Placitis Reginaldi de Warenna &. 

(0) Tit Placitis Archidiaconi PiA. & Johannis Cumin in Sumerfeta. Placita eo- 

Widonis Decani, & Reginaldi de Waren- lundem in Dorfeta. lb. Rot. 1. b. 
na. lb. Rot. 12. b. Surreia. Et ib. tit. (lu) lb. Rot. 2. a. 

Lundonia (3 Midd, (x) De Placitis Reginaldi de Warenna,^ 

(p) De Placitis Cotnitis Galfridi & Ri- & Johannis Cumin, h Gervafij de Corn- 

cardi de Luci. Ib. Rot. 3. a. EvertvUfcira, hell. Ib. Rot. 2. b. DrJcnefcWa. 

(q) Ib. Rot. 5. b, (y) In Mag. Rot. pad. anni i^.pafftm. 


144 Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

were Juftices Errant in the feveral Counties: to wit, in Norfolk and 
Suffolk, the Archdeacon of PoiBiers, Guy the Dean [of Waltha7n\ Re- 
ginald lie TVarenn, William BaJJ'et ; Oger the Dapijer [z) : in Middle/ex, 
the Archdeacon of PoiBiers, Regmald de Warenn, and Guy the Dean 
(</) : in Northamptonjl.nre, the Archdeacon of PoiBiers (b) ; in Cum- 
berland, William BaJJet, Alan de Nevill Junior ; Robert de Stutevill and 
Hw^h de Morevill (c) : in Torkjljire, Alan de Nevill Junior and WiViam 
BaJj'et (d) : in Northumberland, Williafn BaJJ'et and Alan de Nevill Ju- 
nior j Robert de Stutevill and Hugh de Morvill fej : in Wiltjlnre, Alan 
■de Nevill; Reginald de Warenn and John Cumin ffj: in Berkjl.iire, 
Alan de Nevill Junior fgj : in Gloucejlerjhire, Alan de Nevill; Guy 
the Dean and William BaJJet ; Alan de A't'^'/// Junior (h) : in the Coun- 
ties of Notingham and Derby, Alan de Nevill ; William BaJJ'et and 
Alan de Nevdl Junior fi) : in the Counties of Warwick and Leicejier, 
William BaJJ'et and Alan de Nevill Junior {k) : in the Counties of 
Cambridge ■i.v\di Huntendon, the Archdeacon oi PoiBiers, Guy ihe. Dean, 
Reginald de Warenne, and William BaJJ'et (/) ; in Devonjl.nre, Reginald de 
Warenne, John Cumin, and Gervaje de Cornhell (m) : in the Counties 
of E//ex and Hertjord, the Archdeacon of PoiBiers, Guy the Dean, 

(z) De Placitis Comitis Galfridi k Ri- 
cnrdi de Luci de Hominibus de Lenna. De 
placitis Archidiaconi PiflaviE, & Widonis 
Decani, & Reginaldi de Warenna, & Wil- 
le'.mi JJailet. De Placitis Widonis Decani 
5c Ogerij Dapiferi. Mag. Rot. i6. H. 2. 
Rot. I . a^ h. Norfokh. & Sudfokb. 

(a) De Placitis Archidiaconi Piclaviae, 
& Reginaldi de Warenna, & Widonis De- 
cani, lb. Rot. I. b. Lundonia W Middel- 

(b) De Placitis Comitis Galfridi & Ricar- 
di de Luci. Item de Placitis Archidia- 
coni Pi(5lavi3e. De Placitis Alani de Nevill 
\f:r the Foi;^L] lb. Rot. 2. fl. Norhamtefcira. 

(c) De Placitis Willelmi Baffet k Alani 
de Nevill Junioris. De Placitis Roberti de 
Stutevill & Hugonis de Morevill. Nova 
Placita & Nova Conventiones ; De Placitis 
Alani de Nevill Junioris [for the ForeJl.'\ 
lb. Rot. 1. b. Carkoliuyn. 

id) De Placitis Comitis Galfridi & Ri- 
cardi deLuci. De Placitis Alani de Nevill 
juni'-ris & Willelmi Ballet, lb. Rot. 3. a. 

{e) De Placitis Willelmi Baffet & Alani 
de Nevill Junioris. Placita Roberti de Stu- 
tevill & Hugonis 3e Morvill. De Placitis 

Alani de Nevill Junioris \_for the ForcJ}.'\ 
lb. Rot. 3. b. Norhumberhnd. 

(f) De Placitis Alani de Nevill {for the 
Fore/?]. Item de Placitis Alani de Nevill. 
De Placitis Reginaldi de Warrenna & Jo- 
hannis Cumin. lb. Rot. /\. a (jf b. JVilt. 

(g) De Placitis Alani de Nevill [for the 
ForejL] N. P. &N. C. De Placitis Alani de 
Nevill Junioris. lb. Rot. ^. ai^ b. Beroch- 

{h) De Placitis Alani de Nevill. De 
Placitis Widonis Decani h Willelmi Baffet. 
De Placitis Alani de Nevill Junioris. lb. 
Rot. 5. i. Gloec. 

{i) De Placitis Alani de Nevill. De Pla- 
citis Willelmi Baffet & Alani de Nevill Ju- 
nioris. lb. Rot. 6. (J. Notingeh. tsf Derb. 

{k) De Placitis Willelmi Baffet & Alani 
de Nevill Junioris. lb. Rot. 6. a ^ b. 
TVarewkfc. & Legerec. 

(I) De Placitis Archidiaconi Piftavias, & 
Widonis Decani, & Reginaldi de Warenna, 
& Willelmi Baffet, lb. Rot. 6. b. Cuntebr. 
tf Hunted. 

(m) De Placitis Reginaldi de Waren- 
na, & Johannis Cumin, & Gervafij de 
Cornhell, De Placitis Alani de Nevill 
[for the ForeJ}.] lb. Rot. 7. tf. Devencjc. 


chap. III". of /-^j K I N g's Court. - 145 

"Reginald de Warenne, and Wi/liatti Bq/fet («) : in the Counties of Dorjk 
and Sotnerfet, Reginald de Warenne, and ^Jolon Cumin ; Alan dc NeviU 
junior (oj -, in Hantejloire, the Archdeacon of PoiEliers, Reginald de 
Warenne, the Dean of Waltham, and William BaJJ'et ; John Cumin (pj : 
in Staffordjhire, Guy the Dean and William BaJJet (q) : in Si/Jex, the 
Archdeacon of Poitiers, Guy the Dean, Regi?iald de Warenne, and 
William BaJJet frj : in Lincolnjhire, Guy the Dean," Reginald de Wa^ 
renne, znd William Bajet ; Alan de Nevill {s) ; in Kent, the Arch- 
deacon of Poitiers, Guy the Dean, Reginald de Warenne, and Henry 
Fitz-Gerold the Chamberlain (/) : in Surrey, the Archdeacon of Poic- 
tiers, Guy the Dean, Reginald de Warenne; and Alan de Nevill {ti). 

In the 17th Year of K. Henry II, there were the Juftices Errant 
following : to wit j in Norfolk and Suffolk, the Archdeacon of Poic- 
tiers, Guy the Dean, Reginald de Warenne, and William BaJJet; Oger 
the Dapif'er fw) ; in Hantejcire, the Archdeacon of Poitiers, Reginald 
de Warenne, the Dean oi Waltham, and William BaJ/i't fx) ; in the City 
of Winton, Reginald de Warenne, and John Cumin (y) ; in Northamp- 
tonJl:ire, the fame four Perfons named jufl above for Hantejcire fzf, 
in the Counties of Noting/jam and Derby, William BaJJet and Alan de 

(11) De Placitis Archidiaconi Piclaviae, 
& Guidonis Decani, & Reginaldi de Wa- 
reniia, ^- Willelmi BalFet. De Placitis A- 
lani de Nevill [for the Forejl], lb. Rot. 8, 
<7. EJ/cxa is' Hurtf. 

(o) De Placitis Reginaldi de Warenna 
& Johannis Cumin. N. P. & N. C. De 
Placitis Alani de Nevill Junioris. lb. Rot. g. 
b. Dorjeia (s Sumerf. 

(p) De Placitis Archidiaconi Pictaviae, 
& Reginaldi de Warenna, & Decani de 
Waltham, k Willelmi Baflet. De Placitis 
Alanide Nevill [for the Foreji.] lb. Rot. g. 
a. Hantefcira. De Placitis Reginaldi de 
Warenna & Johannis Cumin, lb. Rot. 9. a. 
Civitas JVhitonia. 

{q) De Placitis Widonis Decani & 
Willelmi Baffet. De Placitis Alani de Ne- 
vill [for the Fore/i.] De Placitis Ricardi 
de Luci. [Theje hjl I think were old Pleas, 
tr Pleas of a former y'ear.] lb. Rot. 9. b. 

(r) De Placitis Archidiaconi Piftavia?, 
& Guidonis Decani, & Reginaldi de Wa- 
renna, h Willelmi Bafiet. De Placitis 
Archidiaconi Piftaviae & Widonis Decani. 
Jb. Rot. 10. a. Stidfexa. 

Vol. I. 

(s) De Placitis Comitis Galfridi & Ri- 
cardi deLuci. De Placitis Widonis Decani, 
& Reginaldi de Warrenna, & Willelmi 
••Baftet. De Placitis Willelmi Baflet h 
Alani de Nevill. lb. Rot. 10. a i:f b. Ni- 

(t) De Placitis Archidiaconi Piftaviae, 
& Widonis Decani, & Reginaldi de Wa- 
renna, & Henrici filij Geroldi Camerarij. 
lb. Rot. II. a. Ghent. 

(u) De Placitis Archidiaconi Piftavias, 
& Widonis Decani, & Reginaldi de Wa- 
renna. De Placitis Alani de NevHl. //'. 
Rot. II. b. Surreia. 

[w) De Placitis Archidiaconi Piftavienfis 
h Widonis Decani, h Reginaldi de Wa- 
renna & Willelmi Baflet ; De Placitis Wi- 
donis Decani & Ogeri Dapifcri. Mag. Rot, 
17. H. 2. Rot. I. a. Norf i^ Sudf. 

(x) De Placitis Archidiaconi Pidtavienfis, 
& Reginaldi de Warenna, & Decani de 
Waltham, & Willelmi Baffet. Mag. Rot. 
17. H. 2. Rot. 3. (7. Hantefcira. 

{y) De Placitis Reginaldi de Warenna 
& Johannis Cumin. Jb. Rot. 3. b, Civit, 

(z) lb. Rot. 3. b. 

U Nevill 

14-6 Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

A'i"u/7/ junior ((j) J in Staffhrdfiire, Richard de Luci [b) : in Torkjlnrey 
Alan de Nevil/ junior and IVilliam Bafet [c] ; in iSiorthtimberland, the 
laid Alan de Nevill, and William Baffct [d) ; in Carlile or Cumberland, 
Robert de StutevHl {e) ; in Glouce/ierjhire, Guy the Dean and William 
Baffct (f) ; in the Counties of Warwick and Leicejier, William Baffet 
and Alan de Nevill jwnioi: {g) ; in LincolnJJnre, Wido the Dean, Regi- 
nald de Warenne, William Baffet , and Alan de Nevill junior (h) ; in the 
Counties of Cambridge and Huntendon, the Archdeacon of PoiBiers, 
Guy the Dean, Reginald de Warenne, and William Bajj'et (z) ; in the 
Counties of Eff'ex and Hertford the fame Perfons {k) ; In Sujfex the 
fame Perfons (7) ; in Kent the three former laft abovenamed, and 
Henry Fitz-Gerold Chamberlain (/«) ; in Surrey, and hkewife in 
Lojidon and Middicjex, the three former of the lall-named («). Juf- 
tice of the Foreft, Alan de Nevill io). 

In the next Place, I will vouch fome Records which make it ap- 
pear credible, that there were Iters for Pleas of the Crown and 
common Pleas before the i6th Year of K. Hemy II. For Example : 
In the Reign of K. Stephen, the Perfons hereunder named were Juf- 
tices Itinerant, to hear and determine criminal and civil Pleas in the 
feveral Counties hereunder fpecified : to wit, in the Counties of 
Notingham and Derby, G. de Clinton and Ralf Baffet (p) ; in Wiltjbire, 
the fame Perfons {q) : in Torkjlnre, W. Efpec and Eujlace Fitz-john 
G. de Clinton : in Northumberland, W. Efpec and Eujlace Fitz-John 

fsj : 

(a) De Placitis Willelmi Baffet & Alani renna, & Willelmi Baffet. lb. Rot. 7. k 
de Nevill Junioris. II). Rot. 4. a. Not. (if Cmitebr. bf Hunt. 

Dab. (k) lb. Rot. 8. a. EJfcxa (jf Hurt/. 

(b) De Placitis Ricardi de Luci. lb. (I) lb. Rot. 8. b. Sudfexa. 

Rot. 4. a. (fn) De Placitis Archidiaconi PiiSlaviae, 

(c) De Placitis Alani de Nevill Junioris & Widonis Decani, & Reginaldi de VVa- 
& Willelmi Baffet. lb. Rot. 5. a. renna, & Henrici filij Geroldi Camerarij. 

(d) lb. Rot. 5. b. Norhun:hrela?id. lb. Rot. 9. a. Ghent. 

(e) De Placitis Roberti de Stutevill. lb. {n) lb. Rot. 9. b. Surrcla. And, Lun- 
Roi. 5. b. CarleoUum. donia llf Midd. 

(f) De Placitis Widonis Decani & Wil- {0) Mag. Rot. pradiiii annl 17. pajfim. 
lelmi Baffet. lb. Rot. 6. a. Ghece/lrefciva. [p) Robertus filius Toll debet xxx mar- 

(g) De Placitis Willelmi Baffet & Alani cas argenti, de placitis G. de Clintona. 
de Nevill Junioris, lb. Rot. 6. b. War. is" Mag. Rot. 5. Steph. Rot. i.b. Not. iff Dereb. 
l,egrec. Sueinus de Porta debet C s, de placitis 

(h) De Placitis Widonis Decani, & Re- Radulii Baffet. lb. paul inf. 
ginaldi de Warenna, U Willelmi Baffet. (y) Etde x marcis argenti, de placitis G. 

De Placitis Willelmi Baffet & Alani de Ne- de Clintona. lb. Rot. %. a.Wiltfctra. Hu- 

vill Junioris. lb. Rot. 7. a. Lincolefira. bertus de Wiltona r c de Lxij 1. de placitis 

//) De Placitis Archidiaconi PiiSlaviae, Radulfi Baffet pro thefauro. lb. paul.iufr. 
& Widonis Decani, & Reginaldi de Wa- (r) Homines Willelmi de Warenna de- 

chap. III. (p/* //^^ K I N g's C o u R T. 147 

fs) : in HuntendonJJiire, Surrey, and Effex, G. de Clhiton (t) : in 
Hertfordjhire, Kichard Baff'ct (u) : in Kent, G. de Clinton (w), and 
Henry de Port (xj : in SuJJex, Richard BaJJ'et and G. de Clinton fyj : 
\n Stafordjlnre, G. de Clinton, Miles of Gloucejier, and Pain Fitz-jobn 
fzj : in Gloucerjlerjlnre, Miles of Gloucejier and Pain Fitz-John (a) : 
in Leiceijlerjljire (bj, Norfolk {c), and Siiffolk fdj, G. de Clinton and 
Rickard BaJJ'et : in Bukinghamjhire and Bedjordjhire, Raf Bajfet and G. 
de Clinton {e) : in Warivickjhire, G. de Clinton ( /') ; in Lnicplnfire, G. de 
Clinton, tV. de Albini, RalfBaJj'et, and Richard BaJJ'et {£) : in Berkjljire, G. 


bent Lx marcas aigenti, de placitis Eufta- 
chij filij Johannis. lb. Rot. 3. a. Ever- 
vjicfcira. Burgenfes de Everwic r c de 
xxiiijl & xiij s & iiij d, de placitis G. de 
Clinton & Soc. ejus. lb. Rot. 3. a, Ac- 
cha fil. Ernebrandi r c de v marcis argen- 
ti, de placitis VV. Efpec & Euftachij filij 
Johannis ; In Operibus Regis de Everwic 
liberavit, Et Quietus eft. lb. Rot. 3. a. 

(s) Hugo filius Eudonis r c de xx s, 
de placitis W. Efpec & Euftachij filij Jo- 
hannis. lb. Rot. 3. b. Norhumb. 

(t) Robertus & Alwoldus de LeiSona r c 
de V marcis argenti, de placitis G. de Clint. 
lb. Rot. 5. a. Hunted. 

Et idem Vic. r c de Lxviij s, de placitis 
G. de Clint. lb. Rot. 5. b. Siidreia. 

Aluredus Clericus prjepofitus de Stan- 
ford r c de j marca argenti, de placitis G. 
de Clint. ; In th 1, Et Q. e. lb. Rot. 6. a. 

(u) Gaufridus de Ou r c de j marca ar- 
genti, de placitis Ricardi BafTet. lb. Rot. 
t. b. Heortfordfcira. 

(iv) Et idem Vic. r c de xvij 1 & iij s 
&iiijd,de placitis G. de Clint, de Jurato- 
ribus Comitatus : In thefauro xv 1 & iij s & 
iiij d. lb. Rot. 7. a. Chent. 

(x) Burgenfes de Doura debent Lx mar- 
cas argenti, de placitis Henrici de Port & 
Soc. ejus. lb. Rot. 7. a. juxt. 

[y) Et idem Vic. re de xx marcis ar- 
genti, de placitis Ricardi BaiTet. lb. Rot. 7. 

b. Sudfexa de placitis G. de CJint. 

de Juratoribus Comitatus. lb. Rot. 7. a, in 
imo. Sudjcxa. 

(zj Hugo Malus Vicinus r c de iiij 
marcis argenti de placitis G. de Clint, lb. 

Rot. 8. a. Staff. Et idemGotfo [Dapifer] 
r c de V marcis argenti, de placitis Mi- 
lonis Gloec. & Pagani filij Johannis. lb. 
Rot. 8. a. Staff. 

(a) Giflebertus de Miner, r c de v mar- 
cis argenti, de placitis Milonis Gloec. & 
Pagani filij Johannis. lb. Rot. 8. a. Gloe- 

(b) Robertus de Strapetona r c de 
xxxiij s & iiij d, de placitis G. de Clint. 
lb. Rot. 9. a. Norhamt. Brichtwius pref- 
biter r c de x marcis argenti, de placitis 
Ricardi Baffet. IL. Rot. g. b. Legrec. 

(c) Radulfus de Carun r c de iiij 1 & 
xiij s & iiij d, de placitis G. de Clint, lb. 
Rot. 10. a. Nortfolc. Fulcherus Ruffus r c 
de xl s, de plac. Ricardi Baflct. lb. infra. 

(d) Ricardus Efturmit r c d ij marcis 
argenti, de placitis Ricardi Baffet. Ful- 
chardus Praepofitus de Tietford debet xxxvl 
& ij s & viij d, de placitis G. de Clint. lb. 
Rot. 10. b. Sudf. 

(e) Et idem Vicecomes r c de Lvij s 
& vj d, de veteribus placitis Radulfi Baffet : 
In th 1, Et Qi e. Et idem Vic. r c de 
xl s, de placitis G. de Clint, de Judicibus 
Burgi de Buchingeham : In th 1, Et Q. e. 
lb. Rot. II. a. Buching. Et idem Vic. re 
de xl s, de placitis G. de Clint, de Jurato- 
ribus h minutis hominibus Comitatus. lb. 
Rot. 11. a. Bedef. 

(f) Goifbertus Dapifer Rogeri de Mol- 
brai r c de j marca argenti, de placitis G. 
de Clint, lb. Rot. 11. b. Warwic. 

(g) Siwardus de Cantorp r c dc x mar- 
cis arijenti, de placitis G. de Clint. Alanus 
de Creon rede . . marcis argenti, pro ho- 
minibus fuis, de placitis W. de Albin. Ala- 
nus filius Johelli Line, debet Cs, de placitis 

U 2 Radulfi 


Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

de Clinton (h) : in Carlile [or Cumber/and], W. Efpec &n6. Etijlace Fitz- 
yohn (/). And in the fame Year, the Perfons hereunder named were 
Jufticiers of the Foreft in the Counties hereunder mentioned : viz. 
in Do7-fi'tJ].vre, Robert Arundel and his Companions (k) : in Torkflnrcy 
Walter Efpec (/) : in Huntcndonjhire, G. de Clinton [m) : in Ejjex, W. 
de Albini and his Companions (w) .- in Staffordjlnre, Miles de Gloucef- 
ter {0) : in Norfolk, Ralf BaJJet {p): in Devonjhire, Robert Arundel 
(y) ; and in Cornivall, Robert Arundel a.nd his Companions (r). 

In or about the 12th Year of K. Henry II, the Juitices Itinerant 
for criminal and common Pleas were, Earl Geoffrey and Richard de 
Luci, in the Counties of Lincoln {s) ; Bukingham and Bedford [t), 
Norfolk and Suffolk (u), Tork (w), Notingh'am and Derby (x), Stafford 
(j/), War'wick and Leicefer [z), Northumberland, [a), Cambridge and 
Jiwitendon [b), Surrey [c), Kent {d), Effex and Hertford (e) : and 
Richard de Luci in Carlile [f) : and in the fame Year, Alan de Nevill 
was Jufticier of the Foreft in all or moft of the Counties of England 
{g). In the 13 th Year of K. He?iry II, Earl Geoffrey and Richard de 
Luci were Jufticiers Itinerant for Pleas of the Crown and common 

Radulfi Baffet. 3. Rot. 12. a. Line. Et 
idem Vic. r c de Lxxiiij marcis argenti & 
dim. de placitis Ricardi Bafiet de minutis 
hominibus. Jb. Rot. 12. /'. Line. 

(h) PeiiTon homo Patricij de Cadurc. 
debet x marcas argenti, de placitis G. de 
Clint, dum cuftodivit terram Patricij. lb. 
Rot. 13. a. Bereh. 

(/') Et idem Vic. debet Lvs, de minutis 
placitis W. Efpec & Euftachij filij Johannis. 
lb. Rot. 14. b. ChaerlcoUiim. 

[k) Et idem Viceomes r c de vij I & vj s 
& viij d, de placitis Roberti Arundell & 
Soc. ejus de Forefta. Mag. Rot. 5. Steph. 
Rot. 2. a. Dorfeta. 

(/) Waltcrus Efpec r c de CC marcis 
argenti, de placito Cervi ; In thefauro L 
marcas argenti, Et debet CI. lb. Rot. 3. A. 

(«) Et idem Vicecomes r c de xxvi s &; 
viijd, de placitis G. de Clint, de Forefta. 
lb. Rot. 5. a. Hunted. 

(n) Et idem Vicecomes r c de C & xxx 
marcis argenti & dimiilia, de placitis W. de 
Albini & Soc. ejus de Forefta. lb. Rot. 6. 
a. EJfex. 

(a) Gotfo Dapifer debet xxv marcas ar- 
genti, de placitis Milonis Gloec. de Forefta 

de Epifcopatu Ceftrse. lb. Rot. 8. a. Staf- 

(p) Rannulfus Parcarius r c de xxv 1 & 
j marca argenti, de placitis Radulfi Baftet. 
lb. Rot. 10. a. Nortfole. 

{q) Et idem Vicecomes r c de x 1 & 
iij s & iiij d, de placitis Roberti Arundel de 
Forefta. lb. Rot. 16. a. Devenejc. 

(?) Et idem Vicecomes r c de x 1 & vs, 
de placitis Roberti Arundel & Soc. ejus de 
forefta. lb. Rot. lb. b. Cornuaha. 

(i) De Placitis Comitis Gaufiidi & Ri- 
cardi de Luci. Mag. Rot. 12. H. 2. Rot. i. 
a. Line. 

(t) lb. Rot. I. h. Buehing.^Bedef. 

(a) lb. Rot. 2. a. Nordf. iS Suthf. 

(w) lb. Rot, 3. i. Everiviehfe. 

{x) lb. Rot. 4. a. Not. ^ Derb. 

(y) lb. Rot. 4. i. 

(z) lb. Rot. 5. a. IFar. ^ Legrec, 

(a) lb. Rot. 5. b. Norhwnb. 

(b) lb. Rot. 6. b. Cantebr, & Huntend. 
{c) lb. Rot. 8. b, Surr. 

(d) lb. Rot. 9. a, in imo. Ghent, 

(e) lb. Rot. 10. a. EJfexa, (ff Hurtfortfc. 

(f) lb. Rot. 6. b. Caerleolium. 

(g) Mag. Rot, 12. H, 2. pajjim. 


Chap. III. (j/" //6^ K I N g's C o u R T. 149 

Pleas, in the feveral Counties following, to wit, Norfolk and Suffolk {b), 
SuJJt'x (/), Lincolnjhire (^), Northwnbcrhmd (/), Tork {fii), Bnkingham 
and Bedford fn), Northampton (0), Notingham and Derby (p), Ffj'ex 
and Hertford fq), Warivick and Leicefer (r), Cambridge and Hunten- 
don (s), Kent ftj, and Surrey (nj ; in Carlile, Richard de Luci (wj : 
in the fame Year, ^/a/i de Nevill was Jufticier of the Foreft, in the 
Counties oi Berk {x')^ Lincoln (y), Stafford [-z), Salop (a), Worcefer 
(b), Hereford fcj, Northumberland (d), Tork (ej, Biikingham and 
Bedford ffj, Northampton (g), Rutland [h), M'^iltes (ij, Notingham and 
Derby {k), Gloucefler {I), Warwick and Leicefler {in), Cajnbridge and 
Hiintendon (n), Southampton {oj, and Devon (p). In the 14th Year 
of that King, there were Juftices Errant : to wit, in EJJ'ex and Hert- 
fordjhire, the Archdeacon of PoiSliers, Guy the Dean, Reginald de 
Warenne, and William Baffet (q) : and in Lincobijlnre, the three Per- 

(h) De Placitis Comitis Gaufiidi &: Ri- 
cardi de Luci, de Hominibus dc Lenna. 
Mag. Rot. 1 3. H. 2. Rot. 3. a. Norf. iJ 

(i) De Placitis of the fmnc perfons, utfupra. 
Ih. Rot. 3. b. Suthfexa. 

[k) De Placitis, utfupra. lb. Rot. 4. a. 

(I) De Placitis, nt ftpra. lb. Rot. 5. b. 

[m) Utfupra; lb. Ret. 6. a. Everwich. 

(«) Utfupra ; lb. Rot. 7. a. Buching. is" 

{0) Utfupra; Ib.Rci.S.a. Norhaniifc. 

(p) Ut fupra; lb. Rot. g. b. Not. & 

{q) Utfupra; lb. Rot. 10. b. EJfcxa U 

(r) Ut fupra, lb. Rot. 11. a. TFar. (J 

{s) Ut fupra, lb. Rot. 11. a. Cant. & 

{t) Utfupra, lb. Rot. 13. a. Ghent. 

(u) Utfupra, 15. Rot. 13. b. Surr. 

\w) De Placitis Ricaidi de Luci ; lb. 
Rot. II. i. CarleoUum. 

[x) Nova Placita & Novs Conventiones : 
De Placitis Alani de Nevilla. Mag. Rot. 
13. H. 2. Rot. 2. a. Berrochefcira. 

(y) N. P. & N. C : De Placitis Alani 
dc Nevilla. lb. Rot. 4. b. Lincol. 

(z) Utfupra; lb. Rot. 4. b. Staff. 

\a) Ut fupra ; lb. Rot. 5. a. Salope- 

(b) Ut fupra; lb. Rot. 5. a. JVireceftr. 

(f) Ut fupra; lb. Rot. 5. b. Heref. in 

[d] Utfupra; lb. Rot. ^.b. Norhumb. 

{e) Ut fupra ; lb. Rot. 6. b. Everwich. 

(f) Ut fupra; lb. Rot. 7. a. Buching. tf 

is) Ut fupra; lb. Rot. 8. a. Norhante- 

(/;) De Placitis Alani de Nevilla. lb. Rot, 
8. b. Rotcl. 

(i) Utfupra ; lb. Rot. 9. a. Tr,lt. 

{k) Ut fupra; lb. Rot. 9. b. Not. ^ 

(/) Utfupra; lb. Rot. 10. a. Glocc. 

\m) Utfupra; lb. Rot. 11. a. War.l^ 

(«) Ut fupra; lb. Rot. 11. a. Cunt. (S 

(«) Ut fupra; lb. Rot. jz. a. Hantc- 

(p) Nova Placita & Novas Conventiones 
de Foreftis, per Alanum de Nevilla. lb. Rot. 
il. b. Devencfcira. 

(q) De Placitis Archidiaconi Piftavienfis, 
& Guidonis Decani, & Reginaldi de Wa- 
renna, & Willelmi Baffet. lb. Rot. 3. b. 
"Efcxa ^ Hcrfordfcira, 


150 Oy /fi^^ J u D I c A T u R E Chap. III. 

fons lafl: above named (r) ; and others in other Counties. In the fame 
Year, Alan de Ncvill was a JulVice of the Foreft (s). 

XI. They had their Juftices itinerant likewife in Normandy. K. 
John, by his Cliarter (quoted here underneath) granted to William de 
Braiofa, that no Sheriff or Serjeant of the King's Ihould enter into 
the Lands of WilUam pertaining to his Honour of Braiofe, to do any 
Part of their Office there ; But William's own Serjeant was to fum- 
mon the Pleas of the Crown : and that the King's Juftices itinerant, 
when foever they went into the Bailywick of Faleije, fliould come to 
Braiofe, and there determine the Pleas of the Crown ; and then 
Williafu was to find them with Neceffaries for one Day at Brai- 
ofe (t), 

XII. I think it is to be underftood in general, that wherefoever 
in England the King refided in Perlbn, the fupreme ordinary Judica- 
ture was there ; efpecially when he pleafed to appear in the Splen- 
dour of a Soveraign. In truth. Judicature was in a Sort infeparable 
from his royal Perfon. He adminiftred Juftice iibicunque fiierat in 
Anglia; either folemnly or unfolemnly, as he thought fitj or if you 
pleafe either in Curia or in Itinere. Of the King's judging in his Court y 
I have fpoken already. Now I will fpeak briefly of his judging in 
Itinere. In the 6th Year of K. John, WilUam de Tiirlaiiejlon fined in 
a mark, that the twelve Knights who made a View of certain Land 
by Virtue of the King's Writ, might appear before the King at 
Worcejler, at his next coming thither, to teftify whether WilUam had 
committed any Wafte or Deftruftion upon that Land (whereof he 
had the Cuftody) fo as that he ought to lofe or forfeit the fame by 


(r) De Plncitis Widonis Decani de Wal- 
tbam, & Willelmi Ballet, & Reginald! de 
Warenna. lb. Rot. 5. b. Line, 

(5) De Placitis Alani de Nevilla : Ra- 
dulfus de Ferrarijs debet x marcas, pro fe- 
flinando Judicio fuo de Ricardo Fabro, qui 
eum & homines fuos appellavit de Cervo 
quem eos capere vidit, <x poftea fe inde 
retraxit. lb. Rot. 9. /'. Devenefdra. 

(t) J. Dei gratia Sic. Sciatis nos con- 
cefllffe & prasfenti caita confirmaffe Wil- 
lelmo de Braiofa & hajredibus fuis, quod 
Vicecomes vel Serviens nofter iicn intrabit 
in terram ejufdem Willelmi de Honore de 
Braiofa ad aliquod oflicium Vicecomitis vel 

Servientis faciendum. Sed Serviens ejuf- 
dem Willelmi fummonebit placita ad nos 
pertinentia. Et quod Jufticiarij noflri Iti- 
nerantes quando ibunt in Ballia de Falefia 
debent venire apud Braiofe, 3c ibidem trac- 
tare placita quae ad nos pertinent. Et tunc 
idem Willelmus inveniet eis necefiaria ra- 
tionabiliter una die apud Braiofe. Concef- 
fimus etiam eidem Willelmo quod Homines 
fui de Honore de Braiofe quieti fint de 
Carriagio & Summagio & de Auxilio Vi- 
cecomitum Sc de Auxilio Prspofitorum de 
Falefia. Concefllmus etiam Militibus de 
Honore de Braiofe, quod quieti fint ab om- 
nibus confuetudinibus de omnibus rebus 


chap. III. of the K i n g's Court. 


the Law of 'England {li). In the 10th Year of K. 'John, in an Iter 
of the King's in the Counties of Warwick and Leicejler, divers Fines 
and Amercements were fet upon feveral Perlons. WilHara Falconer 
was amerced at half a Mark, for the unlawful raifing of a Ditch ; Robert 
de Liiceles was amerced xx Marks for a Dilfeifin ', John de Bracebridg 
fined in xx Marks and a palfrey, to have a grand Allize againft Iho- 
jnas de Ardern, and to have Jurors out of the two Counties : Robert Son 
of Helene gave half a Mark for Leave to accord (w). In an Iter of 
the fame King in Northamptonjjyire, feveral Perfons were amerced 
and feveral fined for divers Caufes : The Names of fome of them 
were contained in a Roll which Simon de PateJI.nill the Jufticier de- 
livered into the Treafury ; and probably they were in Number 
Seventeen ; their Debts being paid in xvij tallies. Befides them, 
Alexander Son of Eve was amerced ij Marks for a Diffeifin, Richard 
Son of Ive half a Mark for a falfe Glamour, and Walter de Prejlon 
cc Marks, for a Defed: ; Richard de Clendon fined in xiiij Marks, and 
William de Clendon in vj Marks, for Leave to accord (x). In Corn- 
wall, Amerciaments were fet by the King : viz. Margaret de Penpol 
was amerced L j for a Diffeifin, and three other Perfons their re- 
fpedive Sums fy). In Torkjlm-e, the Abbot of Roche was amerced 


quas ad viilum fuum emerint vel vendide- 
rint apud Falefiam. Quare volumus &c. 
Ret. Chart. & Cyrogr. Norm. 2. J. m. 2. 

»■ 39- 

(u) Willelmus de Turlauefton debet j 
marcam, ut xij Milites, qui fecerunt vifum 
terrae quae fuit Ricardi de Turlauefton in 
Turlauefton per prseceptum Regis, fmt co- 
ram Rege apud Wigorniam in prime ad- 
ventu fuo, ad teftificandum juxta vifum 
fuum, fi praedidlus Willelmus qui terram 
illam habuit in cuftodia de Henrico de Pre- 
arijs, fecit vaflum vel exilium in prasdi(5la 
terra, quare debeat terram illam amittere vel 
perdere fecundum confuetudinem Anglias. 
-Mag. Rot. 6. J. Rot. \j. b. 

(w) Fines & Amerciamenta de Itinere 
Regis : Ricardus de Barefwurd debet iij 
jTiarcas, per pleg. Radulfi de Martiwaft. 
Willelmus Falconarius debet dimidiam mar- 
cam pro fofiato injufte levcto. Robertus 
de Luceles [debet] xx marcas pro DiiTai- 
fma, per pleg. Rogeri de Kiuelefwurd & 
Ivonis de Brauntefton. Johannes de Brace- 

bridg [debet] xx marcas & j palefridum, 
pro habcnda Magna Affifa verfus Tomam 
de Ardern, & pro habendis Juratoribus de 
ij Comitatibus. R.obertus filius Helenas r c 
de dimidia marca, pro licentia concordandi. 
Szc. Mag. Rot. 10. y. Rot. 3. (7. Wareuiic. 
isf Leicejlr. 

(x) Amerciamenta de Itinere Regis : 
Idem Vicecomes r c de xiij marcis & dimi- 
dia, de Amerciamentis hominum quorum 
nomina annotantur in Rotulo quem S. de 
Patcftiull liberavit in Thefauro ; In The- 
fauro liberavit in xvij taleis, Et Q. e. Alex- 
ander filius Evas r c de ij marcis, pro dif- 
faifina. Ricardus de Clendon r c de xiiij 
marcis, pro licentia concordandi. Willel- 
mus de Clendon r c de vj marcis pro codem. 
Ricardus filius Yvonis debet dimidiam mar- 
cam pro falfo clamore. Walterus de Pref- 
ton [debet] CC marcas pro defeflu. A'l/g. 
Rot. 10. J. Rot. 12. b. Norhamtefcira. 

(y) Amerciamenta per Regem : Idem 
Vicecomes r c de j marca de Willelmo de 
Trekemet, Et j marca de Rogero dc Wa- 


'5^ Of the Judicature Chap. III. 

by the King at x Marks for a Difleifin, and tlie Abbot of Kirkeftal 
at XX Marks for a falfe Plaint [x). Sinmi de Lindon gave xx j- that 
Maud de Bihamel might be attached to appear before the King, at his 
next coming to Northamtoit, to anfwer unto Simon touching a Felony 
whereof he appealed her (^z). In like Manner Amerciaments were 
fet in Torkjhire by K. Henry III [amto regni 5') ; viz. Ingelram Son of 
William the Clerk and others were amerced for a Diifeifin ; and 
William de Frifebois for a falfe clamour {b). In the 22d Year of K. 
H. Ill, in Norjolk, feveral Amercements, and Fines for Aflizes of 
Novel DiiTeifm, were fet and taken before the King upon his Iter 
towards Bromholm (c). But whether, in this latter Cafe, the King 
admitted thefe Fines extrajudicially, upon Application made to him 
whilft he was upon his Progrefs through the Counties, I will, not 
determine. Afhzes of Novel DiiTeifm were taken before K. Henry 
III, in his Journey towards Scotland, in the 28th Year of his Reign 
(</). In the 30th Year of K. Henry III, Amercements were impofed 
on Walter de Godardevill and others before the King in Wiltjhire (e). 
In the I 8th Year of K. Edward I, Robert Page was to fiiid Manu- 
captors, to appear before the Juftices Itinerant in Suffolk, to aufwer 
concerning certain Treafure trove, and to fland to Right, unlefs the 
King fhould in the mean Time either come himfelf into that Country 

netir, Et de dimidia marca de Roberto filio 
fuo : In thefauro liberavit in iij taleis, Et 
Quietus eft. Margareta qua fuit uxor 
Warinide Penpol r c de L s, pro dilTaifina ; 
In thefauro xx s, £t debet xxx s. lb. Rot. 
12. b. Cornnbia. 

(z.) Amerciamenta per Regem : Abbas 
de Rupe r c de x marcis pro difTaifina ; In 
th. 1, Et Q^ e. Abbas de Kierkeftal r c 
de XX marcis pro falfo clamore ; In the- 
fauro nichil, Et ipfi Regi in Camera Regis 
XX marcas, per breve Regis, Et Q. e. lb. 
Rot. i"]. b. in hno. Everiuicfcira. 

fa) Simon de Lindon debet xx s, Qiiod 
Matilda de Bihamel atachietur, ita quod fit 
coram Rege in proximo Adventu ejus apud 
Norhantonam, refponfura eidem Simoni de 
Felunia unde earn appellat. Meg. Rot. 12. 
J. Rot. 2. a. 

('^^ Amerciamenta faiSta per Regem : In- 
gelram filius Willelmi Clerjci re de dimi- 
dia marca proDiiTaifina, In th. 1, Et Q. e. ; 
Willelmus Buri re de dimidia marca pro 

eodem. In thefauro xl d, Et debet xl d ; 
Willelmus de Karlton r c de dimidia mar- 
ca pro eodem, In thefauro xl d, Et debet 
xl d ; Willelmus de Frifebois debet dimi- 
diam marcam pro falfo clamore; per ple- 
giagium Willelmi Clerici de Langetorp. 
The like upon Others. Mag. Rot. 5 . //.J. 
Rot, g. a. Item Ebor. m. 2. 

(c) De Amerciamentis & finibus de Af- 
fifis Novae DilTaifinse captis coram Rege 
itinerando verfus Bromholm. Mag. Rot. 22. 
H. 3. Norf. y Suf. ?n. 2. b. 

(d) Aflifas Nova; diflfeifinae captae coram 
Rege in itinere fuo verfus Scotiam, anno 
regni Regis Henrici filij Regis Johannis 
xxviij. ExRot. penes Tbej'. b" Camerar. Scacc. 
in forido de NotitighatnJInre, 

(e) Walterus de Godardevill [debet] Lx 
marcas pro Difiaifina, per plegiagium Wa- 
rini filij Giroldi, Johannis de Nevill, & alio- 
rum annotatorum in Rotulo de Amercia- 
mentis coram Rege. Mag. Rut, 30. H. 3. 
WilteJ. m. 2. a, in imo. 


Chap. III. of the King's Court. 153 

try and try the faid Fadl, or fend thither his Juftices Itinerant to 
try it (fj. Of the Kings Court and of the Iters hitherto. 

(f) Tercio die Junij. Gilbertus le Chaf- 
teleyn manucepit coram Radulpho de Sand- 
wico Conftabulario Turris Londonias, ha- 
bere coram Baronibns xvj die Junij Rober- 
tum Page and feveral others, ad inveniendos 
manucaptores quod fint coram Jufticiarijs 
Itinerantibus in Comitatu SufFolcia, ad re- 
fpondendum de Thefauro invento apud 
VValdjngf. in Comitatu Suff., & ad ftan- 

dum re6lo, Nifi Rex prius venerit in par- 
tibus illis, pro eodem fadlo, vel Jufticiarios 
Aios afli2;natos ibidem mandaverit pro eo- 
dem. Trin. Commiin. 1 8 E. i. Rot,—, 

Tfjere was the like manucaption to have John 
le ThrefTere, ut fupra. Trin. Comnun. ib. 
Rot. — a. 

Vol. I. 



1 54 0/ i/je E X c H E q,u e k of Chap. IV. 


Of the Exchequer of the Kings of England, from the 
Norman Conquefi to the End of the Reign of K. 

I. Of its Relation to the King's Court. 

II. Of the Frince' sTreafury in Foreign Countries. 

III. Of the Word Scaccarium. 

IV. Of the Exchequer o/" Normandy. 

V. Of the Injiitution or Original of the Exchequer in England. 

VI. Of the Duo Scaccaria. 

VII. Of fome fubordinate Exchequers. 

VIII. T^hat the King, when he pleafed, fat and aSled in Perfon at the 

IX. Where the Exchequer was holden. 

X. That the Kings Chancery was kept in his Court and in his Ex- 

N the foregoing Chapters we have viewed the Court of the 
Kings of England in its ancient State ; we have taken Notice 
of the principal Officers or Minifters there, and of fome of their 
Funftions ; we have confidered the Judicature of the King's Court, 
and the Manner of diflributing Juftice therein : Let us now proceed 
to fpeak of the King's Chamber of Accompts, his Court and Repo- 
fitory of Revenue, that is to fay, of his Exchequer, during the Pe- 
riod above mentioned. Next after the King's Court, his Exchequer 
comes naturally to be confidered. For his Exchequer was anciently 
a Member of his Court, and was wont to be held in his Palace. It 
was a Sort of a fubaltern Court, partly refembling in its Model that 
which was moft properly called the Curia Regis : for in it the King's 
Barons and great Men, who ufed to be in his Palace near his royal 
Perfon, ordinarily prefided and fat ; and fometimes the King him- 

felf : 

chap. IV. the Kings (?/'England. 355 

felf: in it, the King's Chief Jufticier, his Chancellor, his Treafurer, 
his Conftable, his Marefchall, and his Chamberlains, performed fome 
Part of their feveral Offices -, as will be hereafter obferved more at 
large, when we come to fpeak fa) of the Perfons who prefided and 
fat in the Exchequer during the firfl: and fecond Periods. 'Tis true, 
before the Divilion and Settlement of the King's Courts (concerning 
which Matter we treat in the XVIIIth Chapter) the Phrafe Curia 
Regis was commonly ufed, in a general Senfe, for that great Court or 
Place of Judicature the King's Palace, which was properly called 
Curia Regis. But the Exchequer is alfo fometimes exprefly joined 
with the King's Court as a Member or Part of it. In the 29th Year 
of K. Henry II, a final Concord was made in the King's Court at 
JVeJiminJier at the Exchequer, between the Prior and Monks of Ro- 
chejler, and "Juliana de Newham and Robert de Champeynes (b). In 
the ift Year of K. Richard \, Richard Son of Mein fined in iij Marks, 
to have his Plaint in the King's Court, or in the King's Court at 
the Exchequer, againfl: William de Salcey for the Land of Bekebrccb 
(cj. In the fame Year, William de Eifiesford releafed to the Church 
of Wejlminjier the Town of Benjiet, and furrendered to them a Char- 
ter of Convention, in the King's Court before the Barons of the Ex- 
chequer (d). In the 4th Year of K. Richard I, Margaret de Perci 
releafed the Town of Rokejhy to the Knights Te??iplars, in the 
King's Court before the Barons of the Exchequer (e). If it be ob- 
jedled, that no man ever doubted but the Exchequer, or the Court 
holden before the Barons there, was the King's Courts and that 
therefore its being called the King's Court does not import much, 
one Way or other; the Exchequer being fo called in like Manner as 
the other Courts were, to wit, the Curia Dojnini Regis Coram ipfo 
Rege, and the Curia Domini Regis de Banco. I anfwer : That is true, 
according to the way of fpeaking which came into Ufe after the Re- 
partition of the King's Courts. But before that Repartition, we do 
not (for ought that I know) meet with the Phrafe Curia Regis corafn 
ip/o Rege, or Ctiria Regis de Banco. Then, the Style of the King's 
great Court was general, viz. Curia Regis. And at that Time (to 
the beft of my Obfervation) we hear of no other ordinary Court of 
Judicature at Wejlminjier, befides the Curia Regis and the Scaccarium. 
But of this I have fpoken before (f). 

(a) Poflbac, Cap. 5, hujus Vol. £5f 21. %di. (d) Form. Anglic. Dijfert. p.zi. [g). 

(b) Ante cap. 3. Sc^. 2. Hasc eft Fi- {e) lb. Dijert. p. 20, (;)• 
nalis. (f) Cap. 3. 

(c) Mag. Rot. 1. R. I. RrA. 6. b. 0x1- 

ntfordfc. chat. Cap. 6. Seif. 2. X 2 (2) 


Of the E X c H E Q^u E R (9/^ Chap. IV. 

Again, the Exchequer of Normandy feems to have been in like 
Manner a Member or Adjuncl of the King's Court there. For Ex- 
ample : final Concords and Chirographs were fometimes made in 
Normandy, in the King's Court, at the Exchequer. Hugh Tibert^ 
in Curia Domini Regis apud Cadomwn ad Scaccarium, enfeoftcd Robert 
de Montegomcri of the Fee of Fontance belonging to the Barony of 
Oilky : to hold to Robert and his Heirs, of Hugh and his Heirs, at 
the yearly Rent of ij s Anjouvins. This Feoffment was made in con- 
fideration of xv) I xs Anjouvins, which Robert paid when Hugh re- 
ceived of him his Homage (g), Robert de PontCy in the King's 
Court at Caen, at the Exchequer, fold to Robert de Montegomcri, his 
Half-Vavailbry at Bouiler, to hold to him by hereditary Right. 
Robert de Route releafed the faid Half-Vavallbry upon Oath to Ro- 
hett de Montegomcri. This Sale was inade with the Allent of the 
Lord of the Fee (h). Simon dc Peilleue, in the King's Court at Caen 
at the Exchequer, before William Fitz-Ralf Steward of Normandy, 
Ralf Labbe, Richard de Argentoin, Geoffrey de Corton, Ralf de Lijieux, 
Geoffry de Rappendon, Sell, de Efcorchebou, Peter de Fraxino, John Pi' 
gace, and the other Jufticiers and Barons who were then prefent, 
enfeoffed Gilbert de Filers of his whole Moiety of the Vivary and 
Mill of Meffuneel, with their Appurtenances (/). And feveral other 


{g) Sciant p & f , quod ego HugoTiber- 
tus in Curia Domini Regis apud Cadomum 
ad Scaccarium, dedi & conceffi Roberfo 
fjlio Barth[olomaEi] de Montegomcri, pro 
lervicio & homagio fuo, totum feodum 
meu-n de Fontibus, quod habebam apud 
Oilleiam la Ribaut de feodo Domini de Oil- 
leia. Habendum h tenendum eidem Roberto 
& haeredibus fuis jure haereditario, de me h 
ha-redibus [meis] quiete de omnibus ad me 
vel haeredes meos pertinentibus, per ij foli- 
dos Andegavenfes, reddendo inde annuatim 
niihi & hneredibus meis ad feftum S. Mi- 
chaelis, Et pro ifta donatione & concef- 
fione, prjefatus Robertus dedit michi xvj 1 
Andegavenfes & x folidos Andegavenfes, 
quando inde recepi Homagium fuum. Rot, 
Chart, is Cyrogr, Norm. 2. J. m. 5, n. 15. 
hi Turre London'ia. 

(A) Sciant p & f, quod Ego Robertus 
de Ponte, in Curia Domini Regis apud Ca- 
domum ad Scaccarium, vendidi pro nego- 
cio meo integre, totam illam meam dimidiam 

Vavafibriam quam habebam apud Bouiler, 
Roberto filio Bartholomaei de Montegomeri, 
Habendam & poflidendam eidem Roberto 
& hxredibus fuis jure hoereditario, fine ali- 
qua reclamatione amplius de me vel hsre- 
dibus meis, pro xj 1 Andcgavenfibus quas 
prsfatus Robertus proinde mihi dedit, 
quando ego Robertus de Ponte de me H 
ha-redibus meis prxfato Roberto h ha;redi- 
bus fuis forisjuravi illam dimidiam Vavaf- 
foriam. Et hoc feci afTcnfu Domini fcodi ; 
falvo jure fiio feodi iliius ; & falvo taiiturn 
uno redditu de vj denarijs AnJegavenfium, 
quos Walterus filiusFromondi capit in feo- 
do illo annuatim ad feftum S. Johannis Bap- 
tiftae. Rot. Chart. Cjf Cyrogr, Norm. 2. J. m, 
5. n. 16. 

(/) Nofcant omnes prasfentes & futuri, 
quod ego Simon Peilleue in Curia Domini 
Regis apud Cadomum ad Scaccarium, co- 
ram Willelmo filio Radulfi tunc Senefcalio' 
Normannise, Radulfo Lafbe, Ricardo de 
Argenc[onioJ, Gaufrido de Corton, Radulfo 


chap. IV. the Kings of England.. 157 

final Concords and Deeds of Feoffment were in like manner made in 
the Kin^s Court at Caen at the Exchequer ; as may be feen in this 
Chapter {k). 

II. And as in England and Normandy, the King's Exchequer was 
anciently annexed to his Court : fo, one may luppofe, there was 
fomething not unlike, in other Countries where the feudal Laws 
and Ufages did obtain ; particularly, amongft the Lombards, Franks, 
Germans, and Neapolitans of the Norman Race. For amongft thefe 
feveral Nations, the Prince's Treafury was frequently denominated by 
the Name of his Court : it was called Palatiiim Regis, or abfolutely 
Palatium (/) ; Curtis Regia (m) ; Curia Regia {?i) ; and Camera Regia 
(0). Amongft the Feudifts, the Word, Camera, (ufed with Relation 
to the Prince's Revenue) has been interpreted a 'Treafury or Repofi- 
tory of Money (/>). And in that Senfe it has been in feveral Coun- 

de Lexovio, Gaufrido de Rappend[on], 
Sell, de Efcorchebou, Petro de Fraxino, Jo- 
hanne Pigace, caeteris Jufliciarijs & Baro- 
nibus qui tunc ibl aderant, dcdi & concefTi 
& hac praefenti carta mea coiilirmavi Gil- 
leberto de Vilers, pro Hominagio & fervlcio 
fuo, totam'illam medietatem meam quam 
habebam in vivario & molendino de Mcf- 
funeel, & quicquid ibi habebam, cum molta 
praefati molendini integre, cum alijs perti- 

iiencijs . 'Tis dated Anno ab Incarna- 

tione Domini M''C°xc°viij''. Rot. Chart, b" 
Cyrogr. Norm. 2. "J. m. 6. n. 6. 

(k) Sea. 4.. de temp. R. Job. 

(I) fit culpabilis in Palatium Regis, 

folidis XII. Heroldi Leg. Loiigob.p. 189. tit. 
C. cap. 14. 

— componat in SacroPalatio folidis CCC. 
Ih. Leg.Longob.p.21 1, tit. Fill. Etib. p. 220. 
tit. XXV. Et ib.p. 231. tit. LIX. cap. 5. 

— illam tertiam partem ad eorum reci- 
piant opus, duas vero ad Palatium ; Id. Leg. 
Franc, p. 310. cap. 49. 

Sciat fe compofiturum auri optimi libras 
triginta, medietatem Palatio noftro, & me- 
dietatem parti ejufdem Ecclefiae ; Vg- 

hclli JtaL Sac. T. 3. col. 36, in charta Lani- 
berti Imp. dot, Ravemite A. D. 898 : The 
j'ame wards, lb. juxt.col. 37, in charta Btren- 
garij Regis, dat. Rapine A- D. 899. 

Centum libras auri optimi componereco- 
gatur, medietatem Palatio noftro, & ; 

JJgh. It. Sac, T. 4. col. 623, in charta Othon, 
Imp. dat. A.D.()6B. 

Mille libras auri optimi componat, me- 
dietatem Paltatio noftro, & medietatem Ca- 
meras Abbatis ; lb. T. 4. col. 1358, in charta 
Otton. Imp. dat. A. D. 999. 

[m) Et fi parentes proximi non fuerint, 
tunc Curtis Regia fufcipiat ipfas IIII uncias ; 
Herold. Leg. Longob. p. 174, tit. LVlII.cap. 
13. y capp. 14. 15. 16. Et ih. Leg. Long, 
p. 178. tit. LXV. cap. \2.i^tit. LXVIIL 

tunc res ipfius Curti Regias focicn- 

tur; lb. Leg. Longob. p. 182. /;'/. LXXIX. 
cap. 4. 

componat in Curte Regia ; lb. Leg. 
Long. p. 236. ///. LXXII. 

(n) quod qui fecerit, expenfas va- 

fallo fuo viftori refarciat, & ablati duplum 
Curia noftrae componat. Conjlit. Neap, 
apud Lindenbrogiutn, L. 3. tit. 12. 

quadruplum etiam fruclu-um vel 

reddituum proculdubio Curia noftras perfol- 
vet ; lb. L. 3. tit. 4. 

unum auguftalem Curis noftrs com- 
ponat ; and again, dimidium Curia; noftraj 
componat; lb. L. ^.tit. 35. 

(o) medietatem Camerae noftra?, 

& medietatem cui damnum illatum fuerit. 
Herold. Leg. Franc, viz. in Lege Conradi I. 
p. 345. parag. 11. 

(p) Camera ufurpatur pro fifco five the- 



Of the E X c H E Q,u E R of Cliap. IV, 

tries cuftomarily ufed, even from the ancient to the modern Times. 
For Inllance, in the Year 1245 (?)^ ^" ^^^^ ^^'^'^ ^3'^' ^^^ ^^ S^"~ 
tence of the Emperor Henry VII, againft Robert King of Sicily (/•) ; 
In or about the Year 1505 {/) ; and afterwards [t). And 'tis ufed in 
the fmie Senfe at this Day. The Prince's Treafury has been Ukewife 
ufually called by other Names than thofe abovementioned, viz. by 
the Names of Fifais, and JErarium : both which Words were ufed 
for the Prince's Treafury, as well before the feudal Laws were intro- 
duced [li), as afterwards (w) ; efpecially the former; which was 
anciently a Word of general Ufe, and is fo flill in many Countries. 

fauro Regis. Hotom. Comment, de Feudisy 
/.. 315. «. 25. 

Camera pro conclavi in quo pecunia 
fervatur. Unde Feudum de Camera, pro 
ftipendio quod Vaflallo datur a Domino. 
Id. de verbis Feiuhd. ad lioccm. Camera. 

Cameram vocat locum in quo pecuniae 
Principis reconduntur. Duaren. in Confue- 
tudd. Feudor. c. 5. §. 2. 

(q) Qiiod qui prrefumpferit, indignatio- 
nem noltri Culminis, & pcenam mille li- 
brarum auri fe noverit incurrifl'e : quarum 
medietas Camera, reliqua vero parti paflie 
injuriam applicetur. Pri-vikg. Frid. 11. Imp. 
concejf. Duci Aujir. dat. Veronce A. D. 1245. 
ap. GoldajL Conjht. Imp. p. 87. 

(r) vel alioquin tantundem Cameras 

noftrje perfolvat . Gold. ib. p. 97. 

(i) incurran en perdimiento de todos 

fus bienes, & fean aplicados a nueftra Ca- 
mara & fifco. Las Leyes de Toro, L. 49. 
fol. 31. a. dat. ib. fol. 50. a. 

(t) fopena de la nueftra merced, y 

de cinquenta mil marauedis para nueftra 
Camara. Dada en Madrida tres dias del 
mes de Enero, de mil y feyfcientos y onze 
annos. Capitulos Generates de las Cortes, fol. 
1 3. a. Et ib. pajpm. 

& fi chiama Teforiero, percioche fi 

ripone appo lui tutto il danaro ch' entra 
nelb Camera Apoftolica. Fr. Sanfovi?io del 
Governo, tit. Corte Romana, fol. 87. b. 

Dopo il Governatore, fegue un altro che 
noi chiamiamo Prefidente della Camera 
Apoftolica, il cui carico e di fopraltare alle 

ragioni di tutto 1' Erario . Ib. 

(«J fuum enim haeredem habere non 

potell [fc. perduellionis reus], cum Fifcus 
ei fuccedat. Juji, Injlit. L. 3. tit. 26. n. 5. 

EdiiSto Divi Marci cavetur, eum qui a 
Fifco rem alienam emir, ft poft vcnditionem 
quinquennium praeterierit, poffe Dominum 

rei exceptione expellere. Adverfus au- 

tem facratiiTimum asrarium ufq; ad quadri- 
ennium liceat intcndere. Ib. L. 2. tit. 6. n. 8. 

Ta\j]i)i a-uTcJ^i\\xQv a'vng aTrsS^ave,, 
:c, T' iala^ ■oira tb Cp/cni» y.cdaKn^^eian?., 

:c »<^£V riw;Tiv' dW' a> rij d^iy-r) 
sj-a d-n-iSraviV. Hujus vir apud exteros 
perc2;rinus mortuus eft, & bonis ipfius in 
fifcum relatis in contentionem venit, & liti- 
bus divexata nihil profecit, fed dum adhuc 
litigaret mortua eft. Jrtim. Onirocr. L. 4. 
<:. 6i./>. 237. 

The like Laiv obtained in the Grecian Em- 
pire of C. P. as in the Roman. 'Oti la'v 
Tii vEfxiiS'fl ■nrpdyiJ.a d^nixcaicv Ix/ rtosa- 

'f nr^illa^ tD^y^(pLw. Si quis rem 
fifci per quadriennium poflederit, adverfus 
fifcum quadriennij praefcriptionem habet. 
Bao-iXty.wv T. 6. p. 618. L. 50. tit. 13. 

Oi VTTiu^ujjci TzS iJ^njXoai(i>f avuTrsp- 
S-sTwr ^£9oc/*£usc3'a)crav' ty fXi^o TrXnpto- 
aaat to d^njjiccricv, tcts tou? W/sr 
^ftajrar <x7r«iTf(Ta)3"av. Qui fifco funt 
obnoxij, fine mora conveniantur: & ubi 
fifco fatisfecerint, turn deinde adverfus cre- 
ditores fuos experiantur. Ib. T. 6. L. 56. 
p. 706. 

[iv) Heroldi Leg. Salic, p. 33. tit. 65. Id. 
Leg. Ripuar. p. 56. tit. ji. Id. Leg. J/em. 
p. 62. ///. 3 is" 4. Et p. 69. tit. 40. Id, 
Leg. Franc, p. 302. c. 70. U' p. 303. c 2 


chap. IV. the Kings ^England. 159 

'Tis true, there has been a Difference made between the JErarium 
and theF//^«i'j of which feveral Perlons (;c) have taken notice. How- 
ever, it feems, many of the Jurifconfults pafs by that Difference, and 
take the one for the other (j)/). In foreign Countries, the Word 
Fifcus was alfo fometimes ufed, not only for the Prince's Treafury, but 
likewife for Lands and Revenue in general belonging to the Prince. 
K. Pipin and other Kings gave to the Church of St. ViSlor the Toll 
of a certain Town, and therein all that belonged ad eoricm Fifciim 
{z). And in the Reigns of other Francick Kings, we read of Fifcian 
Atoniacum [a), and Fifciim Fontigonem [U), for a Town or Territory. 
Again, Fifcus was fometimes ufed to fignify the Poffeffions or Re- 
venue of private Perfons, Rothbert and his fuperior Lord reftored to 
the Church of St, V{£ior and to the Bifliop of MarJ'cilks, and all that 
had been unjuftly taken from their Fijhcs or Polfelfions [c). And 
Sugerius Abbat of St. Denis fets down in his Hiftory the feveral Fees 
which that Abbey had bought ex jifco propria y with their own Money 

auri examinati libi'as centum com- 

ponat, dimidium fifco noitro, & refiduum 
Bremenfi Ecclcfias. Ex Privil. PhUippi 11. 
Imp. concefj'. Eccl. Bremenfi, dat. A. D. J 199. 
ap. Lindenbr. de reb. Germ. p. 195. 196. 

Forjudicatorum bona, veluti damnato- 
rum, liberos vel parentes ufq; ad tertium 
gradum nifi habeant, fifci noftri commodis 
volumus applicari : nifi feuda fint ex con- 
cefllone noftra, vel alio jufto titulo acquifita, 
in quibus afcendentes liberis non fuccedunt. 
Conji. Neap. L. 1. tit. 6. 

quamfacro noftro aerarioprjecipimus 

plicari. Conjh Neap. L. 2. tit. 41. 

■ in dimidiam libram auri puriflimi 

fentiant fe fore damnandos ; cujus medietas 
noftro Erario, reliqua medietas damnum 
paffis volumus applicari. lb. L. 3. tit. 6. 

[x) Hotom. ,Comm. in Jifi. Injlit. L. 1. 
tit. 6. w. 8. Brijfon. de Verbor. fignific. advo- 
cabulum, Fifcus, col. 699. 700. Jndr. Al- 
ciati de Officiji apiid Gelen. p. penult, is'c. 

(y) A folo el pueblo Romano competia 
tener publico erario, el qual, fegun un lu- 
gar de Plinio, Alciato, y otros, era cofa 
deftinta del Fifco ; porque el erario era di- 
nero publico del Principe y Republica, y 
fl Fifco era Patrimonial del Principe : pero. 
efi efto ay confufion, y los Jurifconfultos 

toman lo uno por lo otro, y declaran los 
autores por que razon era mas el Fifco del 
Principe que el erario de la Republica. 
Politico de Bovadilla T. 2. p. 782. 

(z) ficut prseftantiiTimus Pipinus 

Rex, vel Carolus pius Auguftus, vel etiam 
Ludovicus — , ad ipfam pradictam Cafam 
Dei S. Vidtoris, ad luminaria condonave- 
runt, ipfum Theloneum de villa Leguino 
vel quicquid ibidem ad eorum fifcum perti- 

nere debebat concefl'erant. Gall. Chrijl. 

T. if p. 649. col. 2. in Indicia five Notamine 
fub. Ann. D. 840. 

[a) Fifcum quoq; Atoniacum fuo domi- 
niofubdidit. Chrcn. Frod. ap. Duchejn. Hiji. 
Franc. Script, p. 617. b. A. D. 951. 

[b) Necnon Pontigoncm fifcum, queni 
Heribertus invaferat, aliamq; munitionem 
Rex contra VicSturiacum inftruit, lb. p. 
618. a. A. D. 952. 

[c) — quod quantum de ipfo teloneo vel 
fifco injufte abftultum fuerat, ipfi uterqj 
Rothbertus & fuus Advocatus pro eorum 
gadio fecundum legis ordinem, Alexandrio 
Advocato S. Vidloris, vel Albuino Epifco- 
po [of Marfeilles) in omnibus fuos gadios 

condonavcrunt. Fafta notitia baec viij 

Kal. Aug. anno v Imp. Domni noftri Lo- 
tharij Imp. Gall. Chrijl, T. 4./1. 650. col. i. 


1 60 Of the E X c H E Q^u ^^ of Chap. IV. 

or Revenue {d). But I forbear to enlarge on thefe Things; and 
leave them to the GloJJ^iriJls. 

III. It is not abfolutely certain from vi'hat original the Word Sac~ 
carium is deduced. Divers Conje<fl:ui"es have been made about it [e). 
Perhaps the mofl: likely Derivation of it is from Scaccus or Scaccum 
a Chefsboard, or the Indus Scaccorum, the Game of Chefs (f^ ; a 
Game of great antiquity (g). And the Exchequer of England was 
in all probability called Scaccarium, becaufe a chequered Cloth (figur- 
ed with Squares like a Chefsboard) was anciently wont to be laid on 
the Table in the Court or Place of that Name. Which Cuftom of 
laying a checquered Cloth there, continues to this Day. In truth, 
a checquered Cloth itfelf was fometimes Scaccarium. At the Co- 
ronation of K. Richard I, fix Earls and Barons carried unum Scac- 

{d) Feodos vero quos ex fifco proprio 
emimus, fubter intitulare curavimus. Su- 
gcrij Abbath S. D'tonyf. de rebus fuis gejUs, ap. 
Duchefn. Hijh Franc. Script. T. 4. p. 337. b. 
fub Lud. GroJJo. 

(e) The Exchequer which is Fifcus princi- 
pis or ararium publicum ; and I cannot tell in 
what language it is called Scaccarium. Some 
think it was firft called Statarlum, becaufe 
that there was the ftable place to account 
for the revenues of the Crown, afwell that 
which came of patrimony which we call the 
demeafnes, as that which commeth of other 
incident requifitions. Sir Tho. Smith's Com- 
monw. of England, p. 144. 

Uthers thinkis that Scaccarium is fo 

called a fimilitudine ludi fcacchorum that is the 
Playe of the Chefs ; becaufe mony perfones 
conveenis in the Checker to pleye their 
caufes contrare uthers, as gif they were 
fechtand in ane arrayed battell, quhilk is 
the forme and otdour of the faid playe. 
Skene de verbor. fignijic. ad verbum Scacca- 

(f) From what original the word Scaccus 
comes, it Is not certain. Some have fuppofed 
it comes from the Arabick or Perfick woi-d 
Schach figynifying a King : by ivhlch name the 
chief nilor in the game of Chefs is called. Fid. 
Dufrefn. Gloff. advocem, Scaci, «/. 71 3, 7 14. 

(g) This Game is called by Artimedorus to 
-yil?ci7rai>in«v, ludus calculorum five latrun- 

culorum. •^nqjoTraixlav (faith he) o^okhv 
sx. sTris-a/jiJJyov, ■jicWci wfsX/iSluuai cm/jtatva 
'^jfXoyi^'JfX^ov ^4 •\'^uc'op^o)i d^ia. to 
TToXXaj •.[//i^isj xXs7r1«v, &c. Calculis 
five latrunculis ludere fibi videri eum qui 
non fcit, multam utilitatem fignificat ex 
deceptione & mendacio, propterea quod 
multos calculos furetur &c. Artimed. Onei- 
rocr. L. 3. cap. 56. p. 187. ///. rispt ts 


By Achmetyono/" Seirim [who writes of the 
Onirocriiicks according to the tradlti-.i of the 
Perfians i7»i!/ Egyptians) It is called Zatri- 
cium. E'av i'c^ij Tif (faith he) 'in xa'i- 

xepc/^sf TPQxaisxsriv aXXriXoif, &c. Si 
quis Zatricium cum alio fibi noto ludere 
vifus fuerit, lucri caufa dimicant inter fe 
&c. Achmet. Oneirocr. cap. 241. />. 218. ///. 
'Ex. rw) n?p(7cov Htti AiyuTrl/wv t;^ 
^arpiKtis. 1^2 zatricio ex Perfarum 6z 
j^gvptiorum difciplina. 

The Perfians (it feems) called it Santratz 
and the Latins Scacum : and one of the Men 
or aSfors whom the Perfians called Siachruch 
or Schach ruch, ivas called by the Italians, 
Scacco zocco ; if we may believe Ducas 
/;/ his Byzantine Hijiory. 'Q Tsuu? oi/cuTia- 
S";!? oTi riayia^rir ov X'i'^''^'' ^1 '''■-'^''^'^'^^ 

chap. IV. the Kings (s/* E n g l a n d. i 6i 

carium, upon which were laid the royal Infigtiia and Robes [h). And 
In the holy War, there were found in the Field after a Battle, Spices, 
Gold and Silver, Eleduaries, Scaccaria, and other rich Implements 
(/). From the Latin, Scaccariiim, cometh the French, Ejcbequier or 
Excheqiticr, and the EngUJli Name from the French. Or, if any one 
thinks it more likely, that the French Word was the ancienter, and 
the Latin one formed from it, I do not oppofe him, nay, I incline 
to believe it was fo. The Exchequer took its Name from the 
chequered Cloth which was wont to be laid upon the Table there. 
I need not vouch the Moderns {k) for this. Richard Fitz-Nigell, 
Author of the ancient Treatife or Dialogue concerning the Exche- 
quer, confirmeth it (/). Indeed Polydore Virgil, fpeaking of tlic 
Exchequer, as inflituted in England by K. William I, intimates that 
it was corruptly called Scaccarium, but ought to be called Statarium ; 
from its Stability, and as it was the firm Support of the Crown or 
Kingdom ; nothing being of greater Force to eftabliili a Kingdom 
than Revenue {fn). And when he has Occaiion afterwards to men- 
tion the Exchequer, he flill calls it Statarium {nj. I can only fay. 

01 riifffai Sa'vTcaT^\iiai, 6i <^k 
AoLTivoi <T>idx.ov. And a little after : x6t£ 
Kf Tf/au^ n'rlnS-aj li/ toJ t5 s-Ad/.a 
•jTcuyv'tM fS^ tS i^S duT^, cSs a\ni2 
rispc-is-i ^ioL^f^^vx, Xiy^l) 7ra^' 'iTokc't; 
Sxaxct) Qoyy.b), c/ndXiffi to ovo/aa k'utb 
ly.ToTs '2.ia.-)(^oa\)-^. Temyr cum audiflet 
Bajazetem ia manibus efie, jufTit figi ten- 
torium, in, quo cum filio fedebat ludens 
Zatrichium. Quod Perfae Santratz, Latini 
Scacum vocant,r— ^ — -Tunc Temyr in ludo 
Scaccorum a filio viclus, dedit ei nomen 
Siachruch (ita Perfice efFertur, Itaiis autem 
dicitur, Scacco zocco) & deinceps vocavit 
earn Siachruch. Diic^ Htjl. Byzant, p. 36, 
37. Et vid, Ifmaells BulUaldi tiotas ad Du- 
cam ib. 

Others fuppofe Scacus is derived from Schach 
a Germanick word. Germanis Schach la- 
trocinium : Inde Schachfpil ludus Schacho- 
rum id eft latrunculorum ; Gallis, lejeu 
des Efchecs. Lindenbr. in Glojf. ad Cod. 
Legg. Antiq. i-i voce, Schacho. Et vid. CI. 
Pezronij Antiq. des Celtes, p. 32. 

{h) Et poll illos veniebant fex Comites 
& [fex] Barones portantes unuin Scacca- 
rium, fupra quod pofjta erant infignia Re- 

VOL. I. 

galia & Veftes. Et poft illos ibat Willel- 
mus de Mandevill Comes de Alba Maria &: 
de Eflexia, portans Coronam Auream in 
manibus fuis. Chron. y. Brompt. inter X 
Script, col. 1158. Et Hovcd. P. 2. p. 656. 
«. 50. 

(/') Portabant autem diverfi generis fpe- 
cies pretiofas, aurum & argentum, pallia 

oloferica, purpuram , papiliones & ten- 

toria pretiofiflima, eleiSuaria plurima, 

pelves, utres & fcaccaria, ollasargcnteas & 

candelabra . Brompt. ib. col, 1245. ?/. 

50. temp. R. Ric. i. 

{i) Spelm. Glojf. ad voccm, Scaccarium. 

[I) Dialog, in cake Iiujus eperis. Vol. 
viz. L. I. cap. I. Scaccarium tabula eft. 

(w) Pofuit Scfifcum, fecit praefeftos cum 
poteftate magna, qui client Regis Procu- 
ratores, qui omnia vecSigalia caperent, qui 
aerarium curarent : hos Barones, Lo- 
cum autem quod corrupta voce Scacariutn 
dicitur, Statarium appellavit ; quod eflet" 
ftabilis, & ibidem firma Regni fedes ; quaii- 
do nihil asque regnum ftabilit quam ipfa re- 
gina pecunia. Pol. Virg. Hiji. I. 9. p. 154. 
n. 20. 

(n) Ib, L, 14. ^, 244. n, 10. y p. 403. 
n. 40, 

Y that 

i62 Of the "E X c II E. Q.U E ^ of Chap. IV. 

that ia the early Times after the Conqueft and from thence forward, 
it was conllantly called in Records Scaccarhwi ; but never (for ought 
that I know) Statarium. 

IV. In this Sedllon we will recoiled; fome MemoireSj by which 
it may be made credible, that there was in Normandy a great and 
ancient Court called the Exchequer ; and that there was a fimilitude 
between the ancient Exchequer of Normandy and that oi England 
in feveral Particulars. In the firfl: Place, let us fee, what Account 
the grand Cujhimier gives of the Norman Exchequer. It fays, that 
in Normandy, from Time immemorial, as well before the Union of 
that Duchy to the Crown of France, as afterwards, there was a Court 
and foveraign Jurifdidion ; wherein all Caufes arifing within that 
Duchy were decided, as in the laft and higheft refort : and that the 
faid Court was anciently called the Court oi Exchequer (o). By the 
Defcription he here gives of the Norman Exchequer, it appears to 
have borne a Refemblance to the Exchequer in England confidered 
in its moft ancient State. It was (fays he) a Court that could not 
be held without afTembling together the Prelates, Earls, Barons, 
Judges, and other Officers, of the Duchy, nor without Solemnity, 
Ceremony, and Expence both to the Prince and People (p). For 
which and other Reafons there mentioned, it was in Procefs of Time 
changed into a Court called la Court de Parlement de Norme?2die (q). 
That Change was made (as MeJJieurs SainBe Marthe relate) by Francis 
T, A. D. 151 5 (r). But before that Change, the Norman Exche- 
quer remained, for ought that appears, in its ancient State. In it 
affenibled the high Jufticiers, to whom it appertained, to correct 
the Defedls and falfe Judgments of Bailiffs and other inferior Jufticiers, 
and to do right to every Man without delay, as it were from the 


(0) En pays de Normendie, perpetuelle- i/nprime a Rouen 1515. In prolog, al. i. po/l 

mem & infeparablemcnt uny & incorpore a fol. 1 24. \ 

la couronne de France, de temps immcmo- [p] Et pour ce que ladifte Court defchi- 

rial, tant au precedent ladiifle union h in- quier neftoit ne tenoit continuellement & 

corporation faille par le roy Philippe Au- ordinairement : & que a icelle fairc feoir & 

gufte du temps dicelle, que depuys, y a eu tener, eftoit requis faire convocation & af- 

Court & jurifdidtion fouueraine. £n la femblee des Prelatz, Contes, Barons, Juges, 

quelle toutes les caufes & matieres des horn- Officiers, bi praticiens du pays, & obfer- 

mes & fubgetz dudit pays h des chofes fi- vees autres grandes folemnites laborieufes& 

tuees & aflifes es fins & limittes dicelhiy, penibks, & de grande mife pour le Roy h 

ont efte traiftes, diffinies, & decidees en tout le pays de Normendie . Jb. in 

dernier & fouuerain reflbrt. Eta efte la- prol. col. i. 

difle Court anciennement appellee Court (y) lb. col. 2. 

deichiquier, Le Grant Coujlum, de Norm, \r) Hie veronotandum, ScacariumNor- 


Chap. IV. //5^ K I N G G O/" E N G L A ND. I 63 

Prince's Mouth, and to take Care of the Prince's Rights and Dignity 
CsJ. In it affembled the Prelates, Barons, Knights, &c; to judge 
of Caufes {tj. And the greal Caufes were to be determined either 
in the Affizes, or in the Exchequer, or before the Prince fuj. This 
is in fhort the Account given, in the great Qf/iiwiier, of the Norman 
Exchequer. In the next Place, let us fee what Account concerning 
it nnay be gathered elfevv'hcre. In the Year 125S, Louis K. o France 
granted feveral Polleflions at perpetual Perm to the Monks of St. 
O'llen at Roan, for 60 / Tournois, to be rendered by Moieties at the 
two Exchequers, viz. the Exchequer of E after and the Exchequer of 
St. Michael (w). In the Year 1281, the Liberty of the Prior dj 
Free was declared in plena Scacario Pafcba, before the Mafters of the 
faid Exchequer at Roan, and Judgment given for him by the faid 
Mafters prefiding in the fame Exchequer (x). In the Year 1208, 
Nicholas de Monteigny and Ifabel his Wife made a Grant in Frankal- 
moigne to the Church of Bonport, and confirmed it by an Oath ta- 
ken in the Exchequer at Roan, before Walter the Chamberlain and 
others (y). In the Year 1374, a Compofition was made in the 
Norman Exchequer, between two religious Houfes, touching Tithes 

(z) : 

manniae factum fuifie perpetuum 1499. a 
Lud. Xll.inftante Georgio Cardinal! deAin- 
bafia; qui fupremus Judicum confefTus abo- 
lito Scacarij nomine titulo Parlamenti deco- 
ratus eft a Francifco 1, anno 1515, ut tunc 
numerabant. Sammarth. Gall. Chrtjiian. T. 
I. p. 555. col. I. de Archiepp. Rotom. 

{s) Len appelle efchiquier affemblee de 
haulx jufticiers, a qui 11 appertient amendcr 
ce que bailifz & les autres mendres jufticiers 
ont malfaicl & mauvaifement jugie, & ren- 
dre droit a ung chafcun fans delay, ainfly 
comme de la bouche au Prince ; & a garder 
ces drois, & rappeller les chofes qui ont efts 
mifes mauvaifement hors de fa main ; & a 
regarder de toutes pars, ainfy come des yeux 
au Prince, toutes les chofes qui appartie- 
nent a la dignite & honneftete au Prince. 
Tout ce que len fai£t en efchiquier par fo- 
lenneljugementjdoit eftre garde fermement. 
Nous appellons folennel jugement ce qui a 
efte jugie par accord en plain efchiquier, 
quant Ten a ouy loppinion de chafcun. 
Rouill. Grant Couji. de Norm, cap, 56. fol. 72. 
a. Et ib. dejur, (J Conf. Norin.c. 56./, 10. 
a. Col. 2. 

{t) Tempore quo fub Scacario regeban- 
tur Normani, talis erat Patriae confuetudo, 
quia prslati, barones, miiites, &c. qui de- 
bebant fui prasfentiam in Scacario, judica- 
bant caufas, ficut hodieadhuc fit in Scaca- 
rio Alenconienfi. Ib. de Jur. {3* Conf. 
Norm. c. 9./. 17. a. Et h'lc paulo flip. (p). 

(u) Nulle grant querelle ne peult eftre 
terminee fors en laflife, ou en lefchiquier, 
ou par devant le Prince, par quoy la fin en 
puifTe eftre recordee. Grant Coufl. c. 54. f. 
yt. a; Et ib. de jfur. & Conf. Norm, c. 54.- 
f, 10. a. col. 2. J 

{w) — annuatim nobis ad duo Scacaria 
folvendis, medietate videlicet ad Scacariurn 
Pafchse, & alia medietate ad Scacarium 
S. Michaelis. Neiijlr. Pia, p. 15. 

(x) Anno Domini 1281 declarata fuit 
libertas Prioris de Prato, in pleno Scacario 
Pafchae, coram Magiftris ejufdem Scacarij 
apud Rothomagum, de quodam equo qui 
occiderat mulierem in nundinis dc Ermen- 
truilla ; & adjudicatus fuit diiSlus equus Pri- 
ori de Prato, per magiftros in eodem Scaca- 
rio praefidentes. Ib. p, 616. r.v chron. Bccci. 

(y) Hanc donatiopem ego N. & Y. uxor 
Y 2 me* 

164 Of the E X c H E Q_u E K of chap, IV. 

(z) : and afterwards, a Suit which arofe touching the faid Compofi- 
tion, A. D. 1386, was determined in the Exchequer (aj. In the 
Year 1376, Robert Abbot of Tnfport compounded in the Exchequer 
of Normandy for the alternative Patronage of Eiiureville (b). In the 
Year 13^6, in the Exchequer at Roan, an Inquifition was ordered 
to be taken concerning fome of the PoffelTions of FontaneUe fc). 
Thus the Exchequer of Normandy was a great and confiderable 
Court; not a Place of Revenue only, but alfo a juridical Court. 
Again ; the Name, Exchequer, was fo well known and fomuch ufed 
(as it feems) in that Duchy, that other juridical Courts befides that 
of the Duke were called Exchequers. The Canons of Roa?i (if we 
may believe McJJieurs SanSie Mar the) had an Exchequer or juridical 
Court, to which Appeals were made from inferior Jurifdidlions. And 
the Archbifhop of Roan had likewife an Exchequer or juridical Forum, 
which at ftated Times was holden in his Palace, and was much more 
iplendid than that of the Canons (d). 

It appeareth alfo from fome Records ilill preferved in England, 
that the Exchequer of Normandy was an ancient Court, and like, in 
many refpefts, to the Exchequer of England. There was, I fuppofe, 
an Exchequer in Normandy in the Reign of Stephen King oi England. 
In the 5th Year (as 'tis fuppofed) of that King, Richard BaJJ'et 
and Aubrey de Ver Sheriffs of E(]ex and Hertfordpire accompted for 
M Marks of Silver the Surplufage of thofe Counties. They paid 
cccc Marks of Silver (Part thereof) at the Treafury in England, and 
the Refidue, to wit, D Marks of Silver in Money, and C Marks 
of Silver in Plate, at the Treafury In Normandy. The Payment in 
Normandy was made to the Hands of Nigell Nephew of the Billiop 

mea in Scacnrio Domini Regis Francorum. quod inquifitio fieret ea de re. lb. p. 176, 
apud Rothomagum, coram Domino Wal- [d) Mutli quoq; Canonici [^of Roan'lrz- 

teroCsmerario, & Odone Clementi Archi- tlone dignitatum & praebendarum habent 

GJacono Parifienfi, & Fratre Guarino, jura- prasrogativam Majoris juftitias in diverfis 

mento confirmavimus tenendam. lb. p. 898. locis ; a Judicibus Lundinariarum &CIeita- 

(z) Porro in Scacario compofitio fit inter rum, fiunt provocationes ad Scacarium, hoc 

Abbatiflam de Ebroicis, & Abbatem Fonta- eft temporaries Conventus juridicosCapituli, 

nelienfem, pro decima totius venditionis lig- quasfuprema jurifdi£tio excrcetur per aliquot 

norum [aiiuo 1'1,'ji).) lb. p. ^q^. ex Canonicis aucStoritate Capituli deputatos. 

(«) Hinc lis oboila inter — anno 1386. At longe illuftrius eft Scacarium Metropoli- 

Aiper hiijufmodi compofitionc, in Scacario tani, cum agit forum & conventum fuum, 

terminatur. Ih.juxt. cujus jurifdictio in omnes Archicpifcopalis 

{b) Qui [Robertus] ftipulante pro eo F. ditionis partes, quas inter eminent memo- 
Henrico Marc, in Scacario Normaniae anno randa duo oppida Dieppa & Locoveris, ex- 
1576 ccmpofuit pro alternativo patronatus tenditur, necnon in palatio Pontificiij ftatis 
d' Euurevills. lb. p. 591. diebus exercetur. Call, Chrjjh T. i. p. 555. 

(t) in Scacario Rothomagenfi anno 1336, col, Z, 
ad aliquorum initantiam, ordinatum fuerat 

5 t«f 

chap. IV. /-^6' K I N G S <?/' E N G L A N D. I 65 

[of SalefLury], who might be then Treafurer of Normandy, and of 
Ojhert de FoJitearcb (c), who was (if I guefs right) a Chamberlain of 
Normandy at that Time. The Record I am fpeaking of is placed 
underneath ffj. Again ; there was an Exchequer in Normandy m 
the Reign of Henry II, King of England. Hugb de Gurnay paid 
his Relief for his Land in England at the Exchequer of Normandy. 
Which Payment is certified by Writ to the Barons of the Exchequer 
in England {g). And William de Mandevill Earl of Effex, Cnjlos or 
Committee of the Lands which the Earl of Flanders then had in Eng- 
land, paid Part of the Ifi'ues of thofe Lands to the King in his Trea- 
fury of Normandy [in I'/jeJduro Normamtice] (b) . 

At that Time the two Exchequers (of Normandy and England) 
were in their Model very like to one another. There is a Record 
extant in the Tower of Lo?idon, which is in this refpedl curious and 
remarkable : it was lately recovered by Mr. Holmes out of the Heap 
of Records that lay confufed in the White Tower there, till her Ma- 
jefly, at the humble Inflance of the Houfe of Peers^ commanded them 
to be put in Order. It is a Fragment, confifting of three large 
Membranes of a Norman great Roll ; which are all that are yet found 
of that Kind. The Membranes are near twelve Inches wide, written 
on both Sides in the like flately Hand with the Englijh great Rolls 
[of the Pipe'] of K. Henry the Second's Reign. Thefe Norman Mem- 
branes are fo like in Charadler, Method, and Manner of Entry to 
the Englijld great Rolls [or Pipe-Rolls] of the Exchequer of the fame 
Age, that they are hardly to be diftinguiflied from one another. 
Neverthelefs, it appeareth that thefe are Part of a Norman great Roil, 
as well by the Contents of them which fliew they relate only to 
Normandy, as likewife by the Infcription written upon the Dorle of 
one of them. That Infcription is, in fair Capitals, in thefe Words, 

{e) Vid. Cap. 2. SeH. 8. Et idem Vice- de terra fua Anglis, pro quo promifcrat C 

comes. libras, per breve Rannulfi de Glanvilla per 

(f) Ricardus BafiTet & Albericus de Ver breve Regis, Et Quietus efl. Alag. Rot. 

reddunt compotum de M marcis argenti, de 32. H. 2. Rot. 5. a. Nordfolch. (J Sudf. 
fuperplus Comitatuum quos habent in Cuf- (h) Terra Comitis Flandrise in Anglia 

todia : InThefauro CCCC marcas argenti; quam Comes Willelmus habet in cuftodia. 

Et in Thefauro Normannias, Nigello Ne- Willelmus do Mandevill Comes de EfTexa, 

poti Epifcopi, & Ofberto de Pontearcha D Ricardus de Pertehale pro eo, r c de CC 1 

marcas argenti in denarijs, & C marcas Bl[ancis] de firma de Kyrketon &c. In 

argenti in vaiflella : Et omnino Quicti fuiit Thefauro So much, in Terris datis So much, 

de toto fuperplus hujus anni. Mag. Rot. 5. In decrements So much, Et ipA R'gi in The- 

Steph. Rot. 6. b. E£ex (J Heortf. fauro Normanniae C & xxij 1 & xj s & jd 

{g) De Placitis Curias. Hugo de Gur- numero, per breve Rannulii dc Glniviil, 

ray r c de C 1 pro Fine terrae fuae; ad Et Q; e. Mag. Rot. 34. H. 2. Rot. I. a. 
Scaccaiium Normannis; reddidit Releviuia 


i66 0/ ^/5^ E X c H E Q.U E R o/* Chap. IV. 

NORMANNIE. I will here publilh fome of the Entries in this 
Norman Fragoient for a Specimen. Which Entries, the Reader inay 
pleafe to compare with thofe (taken out of the Englip gnat Rolls) 
which are cited in this Volume in the Chapters of Fittes, &c. and 
elfewhere. As to Fines and Law-proceedings : Dcxlefalt the Jew 
fined in C s, to have Right for his Debt againft Ivo de Spada. Robert 
de Roue?! fined in xl s, to have Right for a Debt. Engeran de Mon- 
iellcs gave xxvj /, v s, that his Judgment might be fpeeded. Geoffrey 
Deldrcvill gave one Mark of Silver, for Expedition in his Plaint. 
Thomas de Agerney gave one Befant, that he might have the Tefti- 
mony of the Jufticiers, concerning a final Concord made between 
him and Thomas de Gotranvilh about the Right of Prefentation to 
the Church of that Town, according to the Import of the Chiro- 
graph made concerning the fame; he paid his Money into the Trea- 
fury [of Nonnandy], and was quit. Jofcelin and his Brother Geoffrey 
gave one Befant, to have the Teftimony of the Jufticiers, concerning 
a Houfe which he bought of William de St. Vedaji : he paid his Fine 
likewife into the Treafury, and was quit. Robert de Houfey gave 
XX s, to have a Recognition touching the Right of Prefentation to 
the Church of St. ViBor. Maud de Coiiverill's Son gave xl j-, for a 
Recognition upon the Seifin of his Father (/). As to Amerciaments 
upon divers Occafions : Robert de Daienvill was amerced xx /, for 
not coming according to the Summonce of the Jufticiers. Eudo at 
the River flood charged with xv /, for a Mifericordia formerly fet up- 
on him. Henry de Reiner was amerced xx s, for a Trefpafs : one- 

(i) Dexlefalt Judaeus debet C fo., pro Jofcelinus, & Gaufrldus frater ejus, red- 

Reifto de debito \erfus Ivonem de Spada. dit compotum de j bifancio, pro habendo 

Ex Fragm. Magni Rot. Siaccarij Norm. m. I. teftimonio Jufticiar. de quadam dome quam 

<?. in Tune Londonia. emit de Willelmo de San£lo Vedafto ; In 

Robertus de Rothomago reddit compo- thefauro liberavit, Et Quietus eft. 
turn de xl fo., pro refto de debito. Ih. m. I. Robertus de Houfeio debet xx fo. pro. 

a. Et de xxvi 1 v s de Engeranno de Mon- recognitioneprasfentationis Ecclefias S. Vic- 

cellis, pro juditio feftinando. lb. m. I. a. toris. lb. m. i. b. 

Gaufridus Deldrevill debet j marcam ar- Filius Matilda; de Cuverill debet xl fo. pro-, 

genti, pro feftinanda loquela. Ib.m. i.b. Recognitione de faifina patris fui. lb, m. 

Thomas de Agerneio reddit compotum I. a. 
dej bifantio, pro habeiido teftimonio de fine Fines were aJfo paid in Normandy, Pro. 

inter eum & Thomam de Gotranvill de pleg., Pro Concordia, Pro falfo clamore,, 

prsefentatione Ecclefias ejufJem villae, ficut pro Concordia duelli, Pro Recordo dueliij, 

Cyrographum inde factum teftatur; in the- lb, m, I. i^ Z- pojfim. 

fauro liberavitj Et Quietus eft. lb. tn. i. a. 


chap. IV. //5^ K r N G s 0/ E N G L A N D. 167 

Richard, x/, iox z Stidttloquhim : Avice de Gijler'vill xx s, for a DilTei- 
fine, and Maud de Pratellis, x 1, for the fame. Gilbert de Crcffbncrie 
was amerced at Lxx /, for being prefent at the Wedding of Robert de 
Sakenvill's Wife. Wakhclin de Ferrers was amerced C /, becaufe a 
Duell upon a Robbery was ill kept in his Court : and ... de Sahroil, 
L/, for the ill-keeping of a Duell in his Court {k). In line, in this 
Norma?! Fragment we find the like Allowances of Elecmojyna Jlatuta, 
and for Executions of Malefadlors, and other Expences, as were 
ufual in England; and likewife the fame Terms of Art in the En- 
tries for Charge and Difcharge, which were ufed in Englafid: fuch 
as, Debet, reddit compotum, in perdonis, ^ietus ejl, fiiperplus, De re~ 
manante of fuch a Debt, In thejauro liberavit, in perfolta, and the like. 
For Example : There were allowed to the two Priefts of Lijicux, 
Lx s, de elemofmajlatiifa : and to the Church of St. Taurus of Evreiix 
xIj- for the fame; and the like to others. An Accomptant was al- 
lowed xxiij s for the Executions of Malefadors within the Time of 
his Accompt. Alvered de St. Martin accompted for a hundred four- 
fcore and twelve Pounds, fifteen Shillings, for the Remanent of the 
Tallage of Drincourt. The Abbat of Cormeilks anfwered x/, the 
Remanent of Do7iiun which he made to the King : he paid it, by 
Vertue of the King's Writ, to William de St. Marie-Church, and was 
quit. The Abbat of Bernay anfwered xl /, v s, the Remanent of his 
Donum : Part of it was difcompted to him, for fo much difburfed, by 
Vertue of the King's Writ, in the Corrody of John Son of K. Heniy 
II at Rouen ; the Reft was difcompted to him for like Value laid out, 
by Vertue of the King's Writ, upon the Works in the Caftles of 
the Marches, and fo the Abbat was quit. Clemence de Montfort an- 
fwered C /, the Remanent of a certain Fine fhe had entred into : 

{k) Robertus de Daienvill reddit com- Et dex 1 de ipfo Ricardo proStultiloquio. 

potum de xx 1, quia non venit ad fummo- Ih. m. i. h. 

nitionem Jufticiar. In Recepta Alueredi de Avicia de Gidervill [debet] xx fo. pro 

Sanflo Martino x 1, Et debet x 1. diiraifina. Matillisde Pratellis debet x 1 pro 

Alueredus deSando Martino reddit com- diflaifina. lb. m. \. a. 
potum de x 1 quas recepit de Roberto de Gillebertus de CrefToneria reddit compo- 

Daienvill. In fuo fuperplus fuperioris com- turn de Lxx 1, quia interfuit fponfaliis uxo- 

poti XV 1, X fo., ij d. Et Qiiietus eft. Et ris Robcrtide Sakenvill ; In thelauro xl — . 

habet fuperplus C & v fo. ij d; qui compu- lb. m. i. b. 
tantur ei inferiu3. lb. m. \. a. Wache! [inus] deFerrarijs debet CI, pro 

Eudo de fuper Aqua debet xv 1 de Veteri Duello Latrocinij male fervato in Curia 

mifericordia. lb. m, 1. a. fua. lb. m. 1 . b. 

De Henrico de Reineri xx fo. pro molta . . de Sabrolio [debet] L 1, pro duello de 

disforciata. lb, tn, i, b. combuftione male fervato in Curia fua. Ik. 

m, I. !). 

1 ih<i 

i68 Of the E X c H E Q_u E a of Chap. IV. 

llie paid Part of it at the Receipt ; and ilood charged with the Re- 
lidue. Another Accomptant anfvvered for feveral Sums of Money, 
which he had received of feveral Perfons, towards the Works to be 
done in Caftles in the Marches : to wit, DC / received at the Trea- 
fury of Caen,. C/ flerling at the Treafury of £//^-Az«</, and fundry 
other Sums ; in the whole MMMM CC Lxx /. ''Walter de Cacegai 
accompted for CLx /, that he might have his Land of Pacey which 
was mortgaged to William Painell: he paid Part of it into the Trea- 
fury, and had Allowance of the Refidue for fo much paid by him 
towards the Maintenance of certain Knights who ferved under him 
in the lail War in PoiBou; and was quit. Hugh Moreivic and Hugh 
Bardolf, were allovv'ed C /,. by Vertue of tlie King's Writ, for fo 
much difturfed by them for the King's Expence when he was at 
Giforz. William Son of Adam was difcharged (by Way of in perdonis) 
of CL / by Vertue of the King's Writ ; and Louis de Giirnay of xl / 
in like Form. An Accomptant was allowed xiij / vj s in Part of 
XX Marks, by him paid {in Perjoltd) to Earl Williamy for Money, ad- 
vanced by Earl William for the Equipage and Maintenance of the 
Knights who kept Ward iu die Caftle oi Array. (I). In this Norman 


(I) Duobus prefblteris de Lexovio Lx fo., 
de elemofina ftatuta. Ex eodein fragm. Mag. 
Rot. Norm. jn. i. a. 

S.inflo Tauro de Ebroico xl To., de ele- 
mofina ftatuta. [The like to feveral othiis}. 
Jb. 911. 2. a. 

Injuftitijs faciendis, xxiij fo. lb. m. I. a. 

Alveredus de San£lo Martino reddit com- 
potum de C 1 quater xx 1 xij 1 xv s, de re- 
mancnte taillagij de Drincourt. lb. m. i. a. 

Abbas de Cormelijs reddit corapotum de 
X 1, de remanente Doni quod fecit Regi : 
Willelmo de Sandse Maria Ecclefia, x 1, 
per breve Regis ; h Quietus eft. lb. m. i.b. 

Abbas de Bernaio reddit compotuin de 
xl 1 V s, de remanente Doni quod fecit 
Regi : in Conredio Johannis filij Regis apud 
Rothomagum xxl, per breve Regis ; Comiti 
AVillclmo ad operationes Caftrorum de Mar- 
chia XX 1, V s per breve Regis ; Et Quietus 
eft. lb. 7n. I. b. 

dementia de Monte forti reddit compo- 
tum de C 1. de remanente finis fui : In the- 
fauro XXX libras k L fo. fterling. pro xl 
Ar.dcgaven. Et debet Lx 1. lb. m. I. a. 

Idem reddit compotum de Receptis fuis 
quas habuit ad operationes Caftrorum de 
Marchia, fcilicet de thefauro Cadorai DC 1 

per Herbertum de Argent. & Willelnium de 
Calniz, De thefauro Anglias C 1 fterlingo- 
rum pro CCCC 1 Andegavenfium per eof-,' 
dcm, De thefauro Rothomagi de focagio 
M 1 DCC 1 per Radulfum Epifcoputn 
Lexovienfem Thefaurarium Regis & Her- 
bertum de Argent., De Camera Rfgis C I 
fterling. pro CCCCl Andegavenfium, De 
Walterode Cantilupo CC 1, Dejohannede- 
Botell. Prapofito de Dieppa CC I, De 
Alveredode Sanclo Martino C 1, De Ra- 
dulfo filio Math, de Loriol CI, De Ricarda 
Beurel C 1, De Richardo Silvani CC 1 Lx I, 
De Sehero de Quenceio LI, De Radulfo de 
Frellancort xl 1, De Roberto Pratario C 1 
xxl ; Summa ~^\ CC 1 Lxxl. lb. jn. 2. a, 

Walterus Cacegai reddit compotum de 
CI. Lx 1 pro habenda terra fua de Paceio 
quam Willelmus Paganelli de Alta Ripa 
habebatin vadio ; In thefauro Lxl; Hugoni. 
de Crcfleioad faciendas liberationes Militum 
quos duxit ad ultimam guerram Pictavia?,, 
C 1, per breve Regis, Et Quietus eft. lb. 
m. I. a. 

Hugoni de Morwic h Hugoni Bardulf 
ad Conredium Regis apud Giforz C 1, per 
breve Regis. Ih, m, i, a, 


chap. IV. the Kings ^England. 169 

Fragment it appears that an Accomptant had Allowance made to 
him upon his Accompt rendered at the Exchequer of Caen, of xxj / 
xj s xj d, by Vertue of the King's Writ, for fo much by him dif- 
burfed (out of the Revenue within his Receipt) for the Corrody or 
Expence of the Duke of Saxony when he was at Dr'mcourt upon his 
Journey into Saxony (;;;) : that at the fame Exchequer of Nor?nandy 
an Accomptant was allowed (by Vertue of the King's Writ) iiij /, by 
him difburled in fome fmall Accoutrements of two Knights (belong- 
ing to the Duke of Saxony) who fojourned in the Abbey of Bemay ; 
and Cs laid out by the Accomptant in the Corrody or Subfiftence of 
fome of the King's Men and Horfes at Eiireux fn) : and again, xxxv / 
xs, for the like Sum expended by the Accomptant for Horfes for 
the Ufe of the Duchefs of Saxony when ilie went upon her Voyage 
foj. And I fuppofe there was z. great Roll of the Exchequer of Nor- 
mandy in the Reign of K. John. In the Cafe of Roger de Punchardon, 
Reference is made in the great Roll of the Exchequer in England, to 
the [great] Roll of the Exchequer in Normandy (pj. In the Reign 
of K. Richard!, of England, Williajn Marefchall paid CC Marks into 
the Treafury [of the Exchequer] of Normandy: which Payment was 
certified to the Exchequer of England by the Chancellor's Writ, and 
by Teftimony of WUliani Fitz-Ralf Steward of Normandy, and by the 
King's Writ De idtra mare (qj. Roheife de Bourn fined in CCC Marks, 
for the Cuftody of her late Hufband's Land and Children ; and was 

In Perdonis Willelmo fill Adas pro Co- quando transfretavit, xxxv 1 x fo. ; per 

mite Wilklmo C 1 L 1, per breve Regis, breve Regis, lb. m. \,h. 
- In Perdonis Ludovico de Gornaio xl 1 per (p) Rogerus de Panchardoh r c x 1 & 

idem breve. lb. m. \. a. xs & vj d, ficut continetur in Rotulo Se- 

In perfolta Comiti Willelmo de xx mar- cundo Normannorum. Mog. Rot. lo. y. 

cis, quas commodaverat ad iiberationem Rot. 5. a. Dcvenefchira, tit. De Oblatis. 
Militum qui cuftodiunt Caftrum de Arraio, (j) Willelmus Marefcallus r c de DC 

xiij 1 vj fo. lb. tn. 1. a. Et vid. hicpaulofupra. & xxxviij I & viij d, pro habendaMedietate 

{m) In Conredio Duels Sauxonias apud de terra Comitis Giffardi : In Perdonis, 

Drincourt quando ivit in Sauxoniam, xxj 1 per breve Regis, eidem Willelmo D marcas 

xj fo. xj d, per breve Regis. Ex Fragm. argenti, de illis duabus Mille marcis argenti 

Magn'i Rot. de Scacc. Norm, repofiti in Turre quas promiferat pro habenda parte fua de 

Lond. m. i. a. terra Comitis GifFardi ; Et debet CCC & 

(n) Robertus de Caorces [debet] C fo. de iiij 1 & xiiij s ; Idem r c de eodem debito; 

Dono. Per breve Regis. In minuto her- In Thefauro Normannias CC marcas, per 

nefioad opus duorum Militum DucisSaux- breve Cancellarij, & per teftimonium Wil- 

[oniae] quiperhendinant in Abbatiade Ber- lelmi filij Radulh Senefcalli Normannice, & 

naio, iiij 1 ; Per idem breve Regis. In Con- per prasceptum Domini Regis de Ultra 

redio hominum & equorum Regis apud E- mare : Et debet C & Lxxj 1 & vij s &; iiij d. 

broicam C fo., per idem breve. Et Quie- M^g- R^H- 2. R. i. Rot. 11. b. Bui. CS" Bed. 

tus eft. lb. m. i. b. i)i into. 

(e) Pro equis ad opus Ducifl3ESaux[oni2eJ 

Vol. I. Z fo 

1 rQ Of the E X c H E Q_u ^ ^ of chap. IV. 

to pay-in the Fine at the Exchequer o'i Normandy (r). The forepart 
ot the Reign of K. 'John lupplieth us with feveral Memoires concern- 
ino- the Exchequer of Normandy. By which we may difcern in 
fome Meafure, what Sort of a Court or Place that Exchequer was, 
and what kind of Bufinefs was tranfaftcd there. Some of thofe 
Memoires (taken from Records) fliall be here produced. In the firfl: 
Place, it appears, that Charters and final Concords were wont to be 
made between Parties, at the Exchequer in Normandy, before the 
JuAiciers and Barons then prefent, much after the Manner fome- 
times ufed in England in like Cafes. For Example ; A final Con- 
cord was made at Caen, at the Exchequer, in the fecond Year after 
the Coronation of "Jobn King of England, before Warin de Glapplon 
Steward of Normandy, Sam/on Abbat of Caen, Peter de Linos, Hugh 
de Chaucumbe, and other Juftieiers and Barons then prefent, between 
John de Manerbie Tenant, and Robert Monk his Brother Claimant. 
It was a Partition of their Inheritance, made with the AfTent of the 
Lords of the Fees {/). A final Concord was made between Ra//' 
Tejfon and Fidk de Preez, concerning the Honour of St. Saviour late 
the PoffefTion of Roger the Vifcount, and the Honour of Spiney late 
of Engelram de Port, and the whole Inheritance of their Mothers 
who were Sifters [and Coheirs] ; whereof Plea was moved between 
the Parties. It was made at Caen, at the Exehequer, ^nno Dom. 
J 202, amo 3° Regis Jshannis {t). This Concord was made by Way 


(r) Roheifia quae fuit uxor Franconis de 
Bouin debet CCC marcas, reddendas ad 
Scaccarium de Normannia, pro Cuftodia 
Terrae Viri fui & Puerorum fuorutn. Mag. 
Rot. 7. Ric. I. Rot. 18. b. Sudfexx. 

(i) Hxc eft Finalis Concordia fafta in 
Curia Domini Regis apud Cadomum ad 
Scaccarium, anno fecundo Coronationis J. 
Regis Anglije, coram Gar[ino] de Glapp- 
f ionj Senefcallo Normannrae, Sanfone Ab- 
bate Cadomi, Petro de Lions, Hugone de 
Chaucombe, caeterifq; Jufticiarijs qui tunc 
ibi aderant & Baronibus, Inter Johannem de 
Manerbio tenentem, & Robertum Monach- 
um fratrem ejus clamantem, fcilicetde pro- 
portione terrarum hsreditatis eorum, unde 
contentio crat inter eos, videlicet, &c. yohn 
qiiit-daimed to Robert the Lands here men- 
tioned; Et hoc fecit affenfu Dominorum feo- 
dorum illorum. Et per hoc praefatus R. 
clamavit tjuietam de Is k de hsredibus fuis, 

totam aliam haereditatem praenominato Jo- 
hanni & fuis hasredibus. Et pro ifla quieta 
clamancia, h pro quietancia omnium catal- 
lorum & aliarum rerum, dedit Johannes 
prxdidlo Roberto fratri fuo xl libras Aiide- 
gavenfes, & duos modios ficci bladi. Et fi. 
Johannes morietur fine hasrede de Conjugio, 
hsreditas ejus redibit ad Robertum & ad 
hreredes fuos. Et fimiliter, fi Robertus mo- 
rietur fine hserede de Conjugio, hjereditas 
ejus redibit ad Johannem pr.-ediftum & ad 
fuos haredes. Rot. Chwt. is' Cyrogr, Norm. 

2. y. 711. 4. «. 22. 

[t) Nofcant prafentes & futuri, quod 
hasc eft Finalis Concordia fatSla inter Ra- 
dulfum TefTon & Folkeium de Pratis, de 
Honore Sanfti Salvatoris cum pertinencijs 
qui fuit Roger! Vicecomitis, & de Honore 
de Spineto qui fuit Engerralmi de Portu, &. 
de tota Hsreditate fuarum Matrum quae So- 
rores fweruntj unde placitum erat inter eos. 


chap. IV. the Kings o/'England. 171 

of Cirograph, and was infpedled and confirmed by K. "John, by his 
Charter cited underneath (?/). Another final Concord was made at 
Caen, at the Exchequer, in the fecond Year after the Coronation of 
K. John between Lohout de Flafnencvill Tenant, and Ralf dc Montibus 
Claimant, for the Moiety of a Mill at Flamencvill belonging to the 
Fee of Ralf TaiJJon ; whereof Plea was had between them in the 
King's Court. Ralf de Montibus quit-claimed to Lohout znA his Heirs. 
For that Quitclaimer Lohout gave to Ralf L/ Anjouvim {%v). lu 
Sum : A final Concord was made in the King's Court at Caen, at 
the Exchequer on the Feafl: of St. Matthias in the fecond Year ot 
K. yo/iw'j Coronation, before Warinde Glappion Steward o^ Normandy, 
Samjon Abbat of Caen, Hugh de Chaucumbe, Ralf Labbe, Majier Peter 
de Lions, William de Waude, Geoffrey de Cor ton, RalJ' de Lijieux, Wil- 
liam de Livet, Richard de Funten[ei], and the reft of the Jufticiers and 
Barons who were then prefent, between Claria de LungueviHe and her 
four Sons Tenants, and Robert de Mara Claimant, for the Land of 
Pla'ichis de Airel, belonging to the Fee of William de Semille ; whereof 
Plea was had between them in the King's Court. Claria and her 
Sons releafed to Robert and his Heirs. And for that Releafe Robert 
gave Claria and her Sons fourfcore Pounds Anjouvins (a-). The 


Ita viiielicet quod totus Honor 5cc ; 'Tis 
in nature of a Partition. It concludes. Hoc 
autem facSlum eft apud Cadomum ad Scac- 
carium Anno ab Iiicarnatione Domini 
MCCij°, Regni Regis Johannis anno Ter- 
cio & castera. Rot. Chartar. i^ Cyrogr. 
Norm. 2. y. m. 3. n. 32. 

(u) J. Dei gratia &c. Sciatis nos in- 
fpexiffe Cyrographum fa£tum inter Radul- 
fum Taifon & Fulc. de Pratis in Curria 
noftra, quod fuperius fcribitur, utraq; parte 
concedcnte. ft quia volumus quod ea quae 
fiunt in Curia noitra rata iint & ftabilia, 
Concordiam iftam praefenti Carta noftra 
duximus confirmandum. T. W. Albrin- 
cenfi Epifcopo, Willelmo Comite Sar., Ro- 
berto de Harecurt, Petro de Pratellis, Ro- 
gero de Mortuo mari, Petro de Stok., Ri- 
cardo de Rever. Datum per manum Simo- 
njs Archidiaconi Wellenfis apud Monfort 
jdie Aprilis anno RnTercio. Ih. m.2.n. 36. 

{w) Hxc eft Finalis Concordia fa<3a in 
Curia Domini Regis apud Cadomum ad 
Scaccarium, anno iecundo Coronationis J. 
Regis Angliae, Inter Lohoudum dc Fla- 

mencvill tenentem, & Radulfum de Mon- 
tibus clamantem, fcilicet demedietate Mo- 
lendini de Canteraicne apud Flamencvill, de 
feodo Radulfi TaifTon ; Et unde placitum 
erat inter eos in Curia Domini Regis ; fcili- 
cet quod praefatus Radulfus dimifit & cla- 
mavit quietam de fe & hsredibus fuis, fine 
aliqua reclamatione amplius, totam prajfa- 
tam medietatem praefati Molendini apud Fla- 
mencvill, & totumMolendinuni intcgre, & 
quicquid juris in eodem Molendino fibi ven- 
dicabat, praenominato Lohoudo & hxredi- 
bus fuis jure haereditario poffidendum. Et 
pro iftaquieta clamancia prasfatus Lohoudus 
dedit prasfato Radulfo L iibras Andegaven- 
fium. Rot. Chart, iff Cyrogr. Norm. 2. J. m. 
3. 71. 24. 

(x) Haec eft Finalis Concordia fafta in 
Curia Domini Regis apud Cadomum ad 
Scaccarium, die fefto S. Mathise Apoftoli, 
anno fecundo Coronationis J. Regis Aiigliae, 
coram Garino de Glappion tunc Scncfcailo 
Normannis, Sanfone Abbate Cadomi, Hu- 
gone de Chaucumbe, Radulfo Labbe, Ma- 
giftro Petro de Liuns, Willelmo dc Wauda, 
Z 2 Gaufrid© 

172 Of the E X c H E Q^u E R (5/" Chap. IV. 

Roll out of which I have cited thefe Charters and final Concords, is 
entitled at the Head of it thus, in the fame Hand with the Roll it- 
felf; " This is the Roll of Charters and Chirographs oi Normandy ^ 
" made in the Time of Giiarin de Glapion Steward of Normandy, 
" in the fecond Year of the Reign of K. John ; Sam/on Abbat of 
" Caen, Ralf Labbe, and Peter de Lions the King's Clerk, then fit- 
" ting at the Exchequer (y). 

They had in Normandy Summonces of the Exchequer there. 
William de Scranz fined to the King by way of Oblatum in three 
Marks of Gold, to have Right againll: Henry de la Pomeray. He 
was to pay the three Marks at the next Return of the Summonce of 
the Exchequer (2). They had in Normandy the Diftinftion of the 
Duo Scaccaria, or principal Terms of Payment and Receipt. K. 
John gave to the Church of Rouen two thoufand Pounds Anjouvinst 
payable at the four next Exchequers : and commanded the Senef- 
chall of Normandy and the Barons of the Exchequer to caufe the 
Payments to be made accordingly (tf). The fame King gave to John 
Malerbe the yearly Fee of C / Anjoicvins payable at the Exchequer of 
Caen at the two Terms, viz. at the Exchequer oi Eajier L./, and at 
the Exchequer of St. Michael L /: and commanded the Steward of 
Normandy and Barons of the Exchequer, to caufe the fame to be paid 


Gaufrido de Corton, Radulfo de Lexovio, tentibus ad ScaccarJum Sanfone Abbate 

Willelmo de Livet, Ricardode Funten[ei], Cadomi, & Radulfo Labe, Petro de Lions 

cjeterlfq; JulHciarijs & Baronibus qui tunc Clerico Domini Regis. Rot. Cart. (J Cyr. 

jbi aderanr. Inter Claiiani de Lungueviiie & Norm. m. 7. 

filios fuos Philippum Petrum Willelmum (z) Willelmus de Seranz dat Domino- 

Johannem tenentes, Et inter Robertum de Regi iij marcasauri,computata marca quatn 

Mara clamantem ; Videlicet de terra de antea dedit Domino Regi & inrotulatam in 

Planchis de Airel, fcilicet de Buiflbne Ha- Rotulis Cadomi, pro habendo redo de Hen- 

mel. cum peninencijs de feodo Willelmi de rico de la Pomeray. Termini, Ad Sum- 

Semille ; Et unde placitum erat inter prsefa- m[onitionem] Scaccarij. Oblat. Norm. 2. 

tos in Curia Domini Regis, videlicet quod J. m. 4. 

prsfata Claria & prsefati filij fui dimiferunt {a) Rex he. G. de Glappion Senefcallo 

de fe & de haeredibus fuis, fme reclamatione, Normannias & Baronibus de Scaccario he. 

h quietam clamaverunt totam praediflam Sciatis quod dedimus Ecclefiae Rothoma- 

terram cum pertinencijs, praefato Roberto genfi, ad reparationem ejus, duo millia lib- 

& hseredibus fuis pofTidendam jure haeredi- rarum Andegavenfium, perfolvendas ad qua- 

tario. Et pro ifta quieta clamancia Ro- tuor Scaccaria. Et terminus folutionis in- 

bertus dedit prasfataeClariae & filijs fuis qua- cipiet ad hoc feftum S. Michaelis proximo 

ter XX libras Andegavenfium. Rot. Chart, futurum. Et ideo vobis mandamus, qua- 

ts* Cyrogr. Norm. 2. J. m. 6. n. 7. tinus ad idem primum Scaccarium de fefbo 

(y) Hie eft Rotulus Cartarum & Cyro- S. Michaelis, facialis eidem Ecclefiae habere 

graforum Normannire faftus tempore Gua- Quingentas libras, h ad Pafcha fequens 

1 mi de Glapion tunc Senefcalli Normanniae, quingentas libras, h ad feftum S. Michaelis 

anno fecundo Regui Regis Johannis, Affil- fequens quingentas libras, & ad Pafcha fe- 

chap. IV. //55 Kings ^England. 173 

in Manner aforefaid [b). Difburfements were wont to be made by 
the King's Officers in Normandy and A?tJou by Virtue of the King's 
Writs J wherein was contained (as in England) the ufual ClauTe, 
that they Ihould be allowed the fame at the Exchequer. The King, 
bv Writ, commanded the Provoft of Barbefiet to find Paflage [and 
Neceflaries] gratis for Peter de Ely and his Fellows and their Horfes, 
wlio brought into Normandy the Money arifing by the Carucage of 
England: and the Provoft was to have the fame allowed to him at 
the Exchequer (c). Another Writ iilued to the fame Provoft, com- 
manding him to find Paftage gratis for Alexander the Clerk and others, 
who brought with them fome Treafure into Normandy for the King's 
Ufe : and his Difburfement was to be allowed to him at the Ex- 
chequer (d). The King by a Writ ordered Samfon Abbat of Caen 
a Baron of the Exchequer in Normandy, and the Chamberlains there, 
to fend to him [out of his Treafury] two hundred Marks, by William 
Pidngnard fej : and by another Writ, ordered William Pimgnard to 
convey the fame Sum of Money to him [the King] at his own Coft ; 
which Coft ftiould be allowed to him at the Exchequer ff). Writs 
were wont to iflue to the Steward of Normandy and the Barons of 
the Exchequer there, commanding them to make Allowance at the 
Exchequer, of the Sums of Money therein mentioned to have been 
laid out or paid in the King's Service. This was done after the 
Manner ufual alfo in England in like Cafes. For Example : a Writ 
of Computate was awarded to the Steward of Normandy and the Ba- 

quens D libras. T. me ipfo apud Valon. Et computabitur tibi ad Scaccariuin, T.. 

xxiiij die Septembris anno rn fccundo. iJsi. me ipfo apud Fayam xxviij die Augufti. 

Contrabrev. Norm. 2. J. m. 2. Rot. Co?itrabrev. Norm. 2. y. Jii. 5. 

{b) Rex &c, Senefcallo Normaiiniae & [d] Rex &c Praepofito de Barbeflet &c ; 

Baronibus he. Sciatis quod conceffimus Inveni PafTagiuin Alexandre Clerico & Ro- 

diledo ii fideli noftro Johanni Malerbe, berto [dc] Wintonia & Aluredo qui attule- 

Cl Andegavenfuim de feodo per annum, runtthefaurumnoftruminNormanniamcum 

recipiendas ad Scaccarium noftrum de Ca- vj equis. Et computabitur tibi ad Scacca- 

domo ad duos terminos, fcilicet ad Scacca- rium. T. me ipfo apud Pidtaviam xxviij 

rium Pafchae LI, & ad Scaccarium S. Mi- die Augufti. Ib.juxt. 

chaelis L 1, quoufq; ei illas in maritagio [e) Rex &c S. Abbatl de Cadomo & Ca- 

aut alibi aflignaverimus. Et ideo vobis merarijs de Scaccario &c. Mandamus vobis,, quod illas ei habere facialis, quod fine dilatione mittatis nobis dueentas 

T. W. de Breofa apud Gafcy xj die Janua- marcas argenti per Willelmum Puingnard. 

lij. Pat. 4. J. 711. b. T. me ipfo apud Valon. xxiij die Septem- 

(c) Rex Uc. Praepofito de Barbeflet &c. bris. Rot. Contrabrev. Norm. 2. J. m. 2. 
Inv, 1 PaiTagium fine precio Petro de Ely (f) Rex &c. Willelmo Puingnard &c. 
& Sccijs fuis qui duxerunt Carrucagium no- Mandamus tibi, quod ad Cuftum tuum no- 
ftrum deAnglia in Normanniam ad vj equos. bis venire facias [ducentas] marcas argenti, 


1 74 Of the E X c H E Qj] E P. of Chap. IV. 

rons of the Exchequer, whereby they were ordered to allow Wi/liam 
Pi/hiard Shtnft of Caen -al Anjowvins and vs and viij ^, which he 
had laid out in Accommodations for the King's Carriages fg). A 
like Writ ilFued for R. the Abbot, by Virtue whereof he was to be 
allowed fix thoufand three hundred feventy five Marks of filver, 
which he had paid into the King's Chamber, of Moneys arifing out 
of the King's Revenue in England [h). A like Writ ifilied for Ri- 
chard de la Tiom-e, for Allowance of certain Moneys by him laid out 
in providing Necellaries for fome of the King's Horfes and Grooms 
(/). The Provoft of C/'/«z^/z laid out xxv/ and odd, about making 
certain Engines for the King's Ufe : and was to have the fame dif- 
compted or allowed to him by Virtue of a Writ of Computate di- 
redled to William de Rupibus Steward of Arijou {k). The King by 
Writ commanded the Steward of Normandy [and Barons of the Ex- 
chequer there], that according to the Cullom of the Exchequer of 
Normandy, they Ihould make due Allowance to 'Jordan de Saukevill of 
all that he had laid out in repairing the Hay of Arches, and upon 
the Caftle of Arches and the Foreft of Awy ; the Items of fuch Ex- 
pences being verified by the Teftimony of lawful Men (/). And a 
like Writ iflued for making Allowance in like cafe, mutatis mutandis. 

quas Camerarij de Scaccario Cadomi nobis 
funt miffuri. £t computabitur tibi ad Scac- 
carium. T. me ipfo apud Valon. xxiij die 
Septembiis. lb. juxt. 

[g) Rex &c Senefcallo NormanniE 5c 
Baronibus de Scaccario &c. Computate 
Willelmo Puinard Vicecomiti Cadomi, De- 
cern libras Andegavenlium & v s, viij d, 
quos pofuit in expenfis & paffagio Careta- 
riorum noftrorum. T. me ipfo apud Gune- 
vill xxviij die Septembris. Rot. Contrabre- 
vium Norm. 2. Joh. m. 2. 

(h) Rex &c Senefcallo & Baronibus de 
Scaccario &c. Computate R. Abbati vj 
mille CCC Lxxv marcas argenti, quas li- 
beravit in Camera noftra ante excercitum 
Gafconias, de Thefauro noftro Angliae, an- 
no Regni noftri fecundo. T. me ipfo apud 
Barbeflet xv die Septembris. Per Clericos 
Camerx. Rot. Contrabrev. Norm. 2. J. 

Kl. 3. 

(i) Rex &c, Senefcallo Normannix & 
Baronibus Scaccarij &c. Computate Ri- 
tardo de Turri viij 1 & ij s Andegavenfium, 

quos ipfe pofuit in tribus equis noftris & 
uno runcino, & pro j efquir. h ij Garcio- 
nibus per iij feptimanas, & in tribus cami- 
fijs ad equos illos, & ij Huflijs, & ij frasnis, 
per prasceptum noftrum. T. me ipfo apud 
Arg[entomium] x die Septembris. Rot. Con- 
trabrev. Norm. 2. y. m. 3. 

(k) Rex &c Willelmo de Rupibus Senef- 
callo Andegavis falutem. Computate Prae- 
pofito de Chinun xxv I & vij fol. ij d quos 
ipfe pofuit in ingenijs noftris faciendis per 
Magiftrum Urricum. T. me ipfo apud 
Chinun xxv die Junij. Rot. Contrabrev. 
Norm. 2. y. m. 5. 

(I) Rex &c Senefcallo Normanniae &c. 
Mandamus vobis, quod fecundum confue- 
tudinem Scaccarij noftri Normanniae, faci- 
atis computari Jordano de Saukevill, id 
quod ipfe pofuit in reparatione Haije de 
Arches, & in Forefta noftra de Awy, & in 
Caftro noflro de Arches, per bonum tefti- 
monium legalium hominiim. T. me ipfo 
apud Sudbir. xx die Marcij. Rot. Contra- 
irevium Norm, 2. y, m. l. 


chap. IV. //'<? Kings c/'England. 175 

to yohn de PrateUis {m). It was alfo ufual for the King by his Writs 
to order the Steward of Normandy or Barons of tlie Exchequer tliere, 
to give Refpites for Debts or Pleas in Agitation. A Writ illued ta 
the Barons of the Exchequer of Normandy, commanding them to 
put in refpite a certain Debt which Hugb dc Chancumbe owed to the 
King, for fo long as Hugh ihould be in the King's Service in Nor- 
mandy {?i). And a Writ iflued to the Steward of Normandy, order- 
ing that a Plea between the Parties hereunder named, in an Appeal 
for Breach of the Peace, (hould be refpited till the King came into 
Normandy (0). Payments were wont to be made out of the Trea- 
fury in Normandy, by Virtue of Writs of Liberate directed to die 
Treafurer and Chamberlains, or to the Steward and Barons of the 
Exchequer there. A Liberate ilTued to IV. the Treafurer and the 
Chamberlains of the Norman Exchequer, commanding them to pay, 
out of the King's Treafure, xxv s to Eujiace the Chaplain and Am- 
brofe, who fung the Hymn Chrifliis vicit at the King's fecond Coro- 
nation, and at the Undion and Coronation of Q^ Ifabell [p). The 
King granted to Roger de Munbray the yearly Fee of C / Anjoiivins 
payable at the Exchequer of Caen at the two Terms : and by his 
Writ commanded the Steward of Normandy and Barons of the Ex- 
chequer there, to make Payment thereof accordingly [q). A like 


(m) Rex &c Senefcallo Normannias &c. 
Mandamus vobis, quod fecundum Confi- 
derationem Scaccarij, computari facialis Jo- 
hanni de Pratellis, id quod ipfe rationabili- 
ter pofuit in reparatione domorum noftra- 
rum, per Vifum & teflimonium Legalium 
hominum. T. me ipfo apud Sanftum Ead- 
mundum xix die Marcij. Rot. Contrahrev'min 
de Normann'ia 1. "J. m. i. 

(n) Rex &c Baronibus de Scaccario &c. 
Sciatis nos dediffe refpedtum dilefto <*; fide- 
li noftro Hugoni de Chaucumbe de debito 
in quo nobis tenetur, & unde Summonitio- 
nem Scaccarij habuit, quamdiu fuerit in 
fervicio noftro in Normannia per prxccptum 
noftrum. Et ideo vobis mandamus, qiiod 
refpe(5tum ilium ei inde h;ibere facialis. Per 
G. filium Petri. Rot. Obkt. Norm. 2. J. 
m. I. dorfo. 

(o) Rex &c Senefcallo Normanniae cvc. 
Mandamus vobis, quatinus ponatis in re- 
fpedlum loquelam qa?e eft inter Thomain 

. . . & Willelmum de Roffa, & Radulfum 
& Robertum de Roffa, & Radulfum Hofti- 
arium, & Silveftrum Widecot, de pace 
noflra infrafta, imde idem Tomas eos ap- 
pellat, quoufque in Normanniam venerimus.. 
T. me ipfo apud Line, xij die Januarij. Per 
G. filium Petri. Ol'lat. Norm. 2. J. m. I. 

(p) Rex &c W. Thefaurario & Camera- 
rijs de Scaccario &£C. Liberate de thefauro 
noftro xxv folidos Luftacio Capellano &C 
Ambrofio Clericis noftris, qui cantaverunt 
Cbrijhis vicit, ad Secundam Coronationcm 
noftram, & ad uniStionem &; coronationcm 
J. Regins uxoris noftrre. T. me ipfo apud 
Weftmon. x die OiStobris. Rot. CcnuabriV. 
Normannia ?.. 'Joh. 7ii. 2. 

(j) Rex &c, R. Taxoni Senefcallo Nor- 
maiini:e & Baronibus &c. Sciatis quod nos 
conceifimus dileito & iideli noftro Rogeio 
de Munbray, Centum libras Andegaven- 
ftum de teodo per anniim, recipiendas ad 



Of the E X c H E CLU ^^ of Chap. IV. 

Writ iflued for paying to Hervey de Pratis his yearly Fee (r). K. 
yohfi by the Writ hereunder cited, commanded the Treafurer and 
Chamberlains of Caen in Normandy, to pay unto William Cumin and 
'John de Salmur certain Sums of Money hereunder mentioned for the 
Caufes and Purpofes fpecified in the faid Writ (j). The fame King, 
by Writ Patent, commanded the Barons of his Exchequer of Caen 
bcCy that out of the firft Money received at his Exchequer there, or 
from the Treafury of E?7gland (except, or next after the Money al- 
ready affigned to Peter de Pratellis) they fliould pay to haiirence de 
Dujigion Ql Anjouvins, and other Sums (therein mentioned) to others 
(t). The like Writ mutatis mutandis was fent to the Steward oi Nor- 
mandy and Barons of the Exchequer of Caen, for paying to John Luc. 
(out of the iirft Money that came from KnglandJ C / Anjouvins which 
he had lent to the King (uj. In fine, Writs of Quittance or Dif- 
charge were alfo ufed in Normandy, in like Manner as in England. 
K. "John discharged William de Lafte of a Debt which he owed to the 
King : and by Writ commanded the Steward of Nortnandy and Ba- 
rons of the Exchequer to put him out of Charge ('wj. A like 


Scaccarium noftrum de Cadomo ad duos 
tenniiios, quoufq; eas illi in maritagio aut 
alibi afllgnaverimus. Et ideo vobis manda- 
mus, quod illas ei habere facialis. T. me 
ipfo apud Bretollium vij die Januarij. Pat. 
4. y. in. 6. 

(r) Rex &c, Senefcallo Normanniie & 
Baronibus de Scaccario Cadomi &c. Man- 
damus vobis, quod facialis habere Herveo 
de Pratis feodum fuum ad Scaccarium no- 
ftrum, ficut illud ei dedimus, & ficut illud 
habere debet. T. me ipfo apud Chambr. 
iiij die Januarij. Pat. 4. y. m. 6. 

(s) Rex &c, Thefaurario Si Camerarijs 
Cadomi Sec. Mandamus vobis quod fine 
dilatione facialis habere Willelmo Cumin, 
ad opus Militum k. Servientum de Arches, 
Quingentas & Qu^.draginta Septem libras 
Ande^avenfium, & xij s iij d de Thefauro 
noftro Angliae, pro reragijs liberationum 
fuarum de quibus cum eis fmem fecimus, Et 
prasierea facialis habere Johanni de Salmur, 
ad opus Baiiftariorum noftrum de Arches, 
quater viginti Sz decern libras Andegavenfi- 
num de eodem Thefauro, de arreragijs fuis, 
& pro liberationibus fuis xv dierum, fcilicet 
ufq; ad fecundum diem Februarij, illo die 
computato. Item liberate priedidlo Willel- 

mo Cumin, ad opus v Militum apud Archis, 
quaterviginli & ix libras Andegavenfium de 
eodem Thefauro, pro reragijs fuis. Tefte 
meipfo apud Alcnconium xix die Januarij. 
Per P. de Rupibus. Rot. teirarum liberata- 
rum IS Contrabrevhwi de 'Normannia Andega- 
via ilf Piiiavia, de anno 4. yoh. m. 6. 

(/) Rex &c Baronibus de Scaccario Ca- 
domi &c. Mandamus vobis quod de primis 
denarijs quos recipietis de Scaccario noftro, 
vel de Thefauro noftro Angliai, praeter the- 
faurum quem liberari prascepimus Petro de 
Pratellis, facialis habere Laurentio de Dun- 
giun Centum libras Andegavenfium, and 
other Sums to others., quas eis debemus. T. 
me ipfo apud Aquilam xxviij die Julij per 
eundem. Pat. 4. y. in. 11. 

(«) Rex &c, Senefcallo Nonnannias Si 
Baronibus Scaccarij Cadomi &c. Manda- 
mus vobis, quod habere facialis Johanni 
Luc. de primis denarijs qui venerint de 
Thefauro noftro Anglis, C 1 Andegaven- 
fium, quas ipfe nobis commodavit. T. me 
ipfo apud Rothomagum vj die Marcij. Per 
S. de Stole. Pat. 4. J. m. 2. 

(lu) Rex &c, Guarind de Glapion Se- 
nefcallo Normanniae Sec. Sciatis, quod nos 
quietavimus diledlo & fideli noftro Willel- 

chap. IV, ^/je K I N G s ^England. 177 

Writ iflued for difcharging Robert de Loges of a Debt which he owed 
to the King (xj. 

V. Next j let us enquire after the original or firfl Inftitution of 
the Exchequer in England. This may well be looked on as an ob- 
fcure Ditquifition at this Day ; feeing it was thought obfcure by the 
Author of the Dialogue concerning the Exchequer. That Author 
propofes the Doubt, but is not pofitive in the Cale ; though (if I 
underiland him rightly) he inclines to think the Exchequer was fet 
up in England at or about the Time of the Norman Conqueft. " The 
" Inflitution of the Exchequer (faith he) is confirmed as well by its 
" Antiquity, as alfo by the Authority of the great Men that fit 
" there. For it is faid to have been erefted by K. William at the 
" Time of the Conqueft of this Realm, its Model being taken from 
" the tranfmarine Exchequer : but they [the Exchequer of England 
" and that of Normandy^ differ from one another in feveral and very 
" confiderable things. Again ; there are fome who think there 
*' was an Exchequer under the Anglofaxon Kings. And they go 
*' upon this Ground : becaufe there were Farmers (very ancient Men) 
*' who had lived upon fome of the Crown Lands, that could re- 
*' member, or had been told by their Fathers, how much de Albo 
" Jinna Men were obliged to pay for every Pound. But this relates 
" to the Manner of paying .the Fermes, not to the Seflion of the 
*• Exchequer. Befides, if a Man alledges that the Album jirm<x be- 
" gan in the Anglofaxon Times, it may be urged againft him, that 
** in Domefday-Book (which contains an exaft Defcription of the 
" Lands of the whole Realm, and mentions the Value of all Mens 
" Lands as well of the Time of K. Edward, as alfo of K. William 
" under whom it was written) there is no Mention at all made of 
" the Album firtnce. From whence 'tis reafonable to fuppofe, that 
" after the Time of making that Survey in the Reign of the King 
" juft above named, the Conftitution concerning the Album Jir?narum 
" was made by Perfons intelligent in that Affair ; for the Reafons 
" which I fhall mention by and by. But at what Time foever the 

mo de Lafte, L libras Andegavenfium de vimiis Roberto de Loges x libras Andega- 

termino S. Michaelis, de debito quod nobis venfium, qure ab eo exiguntur ad Scacca- 

debet. Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod inde rium noftrum Cadomi. Unde vobis manda- 

iit quietus. T. me ipfo apud Turon. xxix mus, quatinus inde eum quietum facialis, 

die Junij. Rot. Cantrabrev. Norm. 2. J. T. me ipfo apud Aigent[onium] ix die 

m. 5. Septembris. Per Dominum Regem. Rot, 

(x) Rex &c G, de Glapion Scnefcallo Contrabrev. Norm. 2. jf. m. 3. 
Normanniae &c. Sciatis quod nos quieta- 

VoL. L A a " Exche- 

17B Of the E X c H E CLU I. V. of Chap. IV. 

" Exchequer began, 'tis certain it is founded on fo great an Autho- 
" rity, that no Man ought to break the Statutes of the Exchequer, 
" or to be fo hardy as to oppofe them. For this the Exchequer hath 
" in common with the King's Court (wherein the King perfonally 
" fits in Judgment) that 'tis not lawful for any Man to contradid: 
*' what is recorded or adjudged there fyj." Here we fee, this wor- 
thy Author, having mentioned the Opinion of fome who held there 
was an Exchequer in England before the Time of the Conqueft, re- 
futes the Reafon upon which their Opinion was grounded. And on 
the other Hand, having mentioned the Opinion of fome others, who 
held that the Exchequer began at the Time of the Conqueft, and 
took its Model from the Exchequer of Normandy, he only fays that 
thofe two Exchequers were very different in many Rcl'pedls from 
one another. And if they were in many Refpedls different, I fup- 
pofe it appeareth from the 4th Sedlion of this Chapter, that they 
■were in many Refped:s like to one another. But feeing this learned 
Gentleman has not delivered his Opinion pofitively upon this Quef- 
tion, we will now make fome further Eifays upon it, with a Modefty 
fuitable to his Example. 

If we look into the Hiftories and Memoires written in England in 
the Times which preceded the Norman Conqueft, we fliall not (I 
fuppofe) find there any Footfteps of a Scaccariiim or Exchequer. For 
my Part, I have not ittw the Word Scaccarium or Exchequer in any 
Monument written in the Anglofaxon Times. However, I do not reft 
upon my own Obfervation in the Cafe. Two learned Gentlemen ex- 
tremely well acquainted with the Anglofaxon Antiquities of this King- 
dom (I mean, Mr. Sojnner and Dr. Hicks) feem to be of the fame Opi- 
nion. They both refer the Original of the Exchequer in England 
to the Normans fzj. And the learned Bifhop Stillingfeet concurs 
with them in his Opinion about this Matter (a). But from or foon 
after the Time of the Norman Conqueft, the Scaccarium or Ex- 

(y) L. I. cap. 4. Licet eorum. King's Revenue, which 'WWW-aml. brought out 

~(%) Vocem [Scaccarium] cum Norman- o/" Normandy, and had its mime 0/" Exche- 

nis, a quibus accepimus, ad Tribunal illud quer from thence ; in this the great Officers of 

txtendimus quo res Fifci tratlantur, quod State and other Barons fat : The other ivas 

nobis vul go The Exchequer. Somneri Gloff. the fupreme Court of fuflice commonly called 

ad X Script, in voce Scaccarium. Curia Regis, wh^re all greater Canfes and 

Antiquae efle originis earn partem Can- Matters of Appeal were heard ; and the King 

cellaris fatcor, ut quae Scaccarij primo pars tuns not only often prefent, but there judged ivith 

fuit, quod Curiarum omnium apud Anglo- his Minijlers and Lords fitting in Court. This 

normannos antiquiffima eft. Hickefij Anti- was then the Supreme Court both of Law and 

quitat. Septentr. in Difert. Epiji. p. 48. Equity. Bijh. Stillingfl. Ecclef. Cafes, P. 2. 

(a) After the Norman Conquejl there were p. 14, 25- 
tivo Supreme Courts j one relating chief y to the cheqUCr 

chap. IV. //^^ K I N G S ^ E N G L A N D. 179 

chequer of England is frequently mentioned in the Englifi Hiftorians 
and Records; as will hereafter appear. There was an Exchequer in 
England in the Reign of K. Henry I, Son of K. William I; which 
has continued ever fince. The Judges or Governors of it were at 
that Time ftyled Barones Scaccarij, and adminiftred Juftice to the 
Subjefts. This appears by a Charter of K. Henry I. made to the 
Canons of the H. -Trinity in London, cited verbatim in this Hiftoiy, 
viz. in Chap. IX. JeB. 2. Which Charter is diredled to Roger Bi- 
fhop of Sarejbury (then, I luppofe, chief Jufticier) and to the Ba- 
rons of the Exchequer. It runs thus, Henricus Rex Angl., Rogero 
Epifcopo Sarejbericv & Baronibus Scaccarij falutem. And tiie fame 
Thing (to wit, that there was an Exchequer in England in the Time 
ofK. Henry!) appears alfo by a Writ made in Favour of the Church 
of We/iminjier ; which Writ is cited in Chap. VI. feB. 2. out of a 
Cottonian MS. in Faitjlina A. III. (for I cannot, upon diligent 
Search, find the original Writ in the Repofitory of the Church of 
IVeflminJler). There were alfo Rotuli Afinales or great Rolls of the 
Pipe in that King's Reign, if we may believe Alexander de Swerefordy 
a very worthy Man, who fays he had ieen fome of them fh). But 
thofe Rolls are periflied by the Injury of Time. And (excepting 
Domefday-Book) the oldeft Record or Roll now remaining is that 
which commonly pafleth for the Great Roll of the 5th Year of K. 
Stephen, which lieth in the Repofitory of the Pipe-Office at Wejlmiu' 
Jicr, amongft other great Rolls, of ineftimable Value, of the Reigns 
of KKK. Henry II, Richard I, and 'John. Alexander de Swereford 
feems to fuppofe, that Annalia or Rotuli Annales were made in the 
Reign of K. William the I, like as in the Reigns of the fubfcquent 
Kings ; but fays, there were none remaining in his Time (c). And 
he flourifhed in the Reigns of KK. John and Henry III. Since 
therefore, in this Want of ancient Records, we cannot get clear Evi- 
dence concerning the firll Inllijtution or Original of the Exchequer 
of Efigland: I will propofe a Conjediure, which the Reader may be 
at Liberty to refufe, if he does not think it fufficiently fupported : 
namely, that the Exchequer was ercfted in England by one of the 
Anglono7-man Kings, after the Model of the Exchequer in Normandy. 
To fupport this Conjedure, two Things may be offered : I. That 

(i) Temporibus enim Regis Henrici pri- [c) Nee annalia fua [Regis fF. I.] tcm- 

mi, licet ejufdem paucos infpexerim An- poribus meis a quibufquam vifa fint. Lil>. 

nales, nee infpexl vel audivi fuiile Sou- Rub. fol. notato xlvij. a.Videfu Praf. ad No- 

tagia aflifa. Lib. Rnb. fol. notato xlvij. a. hilijf. Dam. Carolum Dim. Halifax. 

col, 2. 

A a 2 the 

i8o Of the E X c H E q_u ^ ^ of Chap. IV. 

the Norman Kings made great Alterations in the old Laws and 
Ufages of 'England. II. That the Erection of an Exchequer was^ 
part of thofe Alterations. 

Firft, it is probable that the Norma7ts, at or foon after the Con- 
queft, made great Alterations in the old Laws and Manners of 
England, and introduced new ones of their own. Eadmer, a Writer 
coeval with the Conquefi: (d), and likewife the Compiler of the Dia- 
logue de Scaccario (ej, tell us the Normans did fo. And the' Thing 
hath in itfelf great Probability. For Example : after the Conqueft, 
the great Officers of the King's Court in Engla?td came to have 
Norman Names, and different Fundlions from what they had before. 
The Terms of Law for the moll Part were Norman. The Writs 
and Forms of Procefs were generally of a Norman Original. Many 
particular Norman Cuftoms and Ufages came to obtain, which were 
not (for ought that appears) known in England before. Infomuch, 
that any Man who compares the great Norman Cujliunier with Glati- 
vill the mofl ancient Law- Book written in England after the Con- 
quefi that is now extant, will find a near fimilitude between them. 
It is faid indeed, that K. William I. liked the Englijh Law fo well, 
that he caufed it to be written in the Norman tongue, and eftablifli- 
ed it or great Part of in Normandy ffj. But doth any coeval Hiflo- 
rian or other Writer, either of England or Normandy, tell us that 
any fuch Thing was done } If K. William I. had carried the Englifli 
Laws into Normandy, the Law Terms ufed thenceforth in Normandy 
might have been Norman : But the Law-Terms ufed in England 
would have continued Eitglijl:) or Anglofaxon, as they were before K. 
Williajn I. (as is fuppofed) introduced the Englifi Law into Nor~ 
mandy. Whereas, it appears to be in Fadt quite contrary ; that is to 
fay, a general Vein of Norman Language hath from the Time of 

(d) Ufus ergo atq; leges quas Patres fui Le£i. i. in Jlatut. de Finibus, p. 2. ad calcem 
& ipfe in Noimannia habere folebant, in \. 

Anglia fervare volens, de hujufmodi perfonis William le Rouille Licentiate cf Laws., in 

Epifcopos Abbates & alios Principes per his Prologue to the grand QuAum'ier of 'Nor- 

totam Terram inftituit, de quibus indignum mandy intimates that Edward the ConfefTor 

judicaretur, fi per omnia fuis legibus, poft- King ^/"England brought into Normandy the 

pofita omni alia confideratione, non obedi- Laws of which that Cuftumier confjis ; and 

rent &c. Cun£la ergo Divina fimul & Hu- quotes for it a Book called Chronica chronico- 

mana ejus nutuni expedtabant. Eadm.HiJl. rum. But, I doubt,V^\\X\-\m.\e.^o\x\\\t was 

Novor. L. I. p. 6. n. lO. 20. too eafy of Belief in this Cafe. Of which, the 

(e) Dial, L. I. cap. 16. Cum infignis Reader will better judge, when he has read 
ille. what is offered upon this Subject by the learned 

(f) V. CI. Edw. Coke Equ. Aur. quon- Dr. Hickes, in his Jntiquitat. Sepienir. Dif- 
dam Protojujlic. ad placita coram Rege tenenda, fert. Epijl. p. i^iif. 


chap. IV. the Kings o/" England. i8i 

the Conquefl, or foon after, run through the whole Body of the Laws 
of England. In Truth, it is marvellous to fee fo great an Altera- 
tion in the Courfe of Law-Proceedings in England wrought in fo 
fhort a Time; and that fo little in Effedl of the Anglojaxon Laws 
and Ufages was retained. This will in great Meafure appear to be 
true, if we compare the Laws of the Anglojaxon Kings, with the 
Forms of Law-Procefs which are colledled by Ranulf de Glanvill, 
who flourilhed in the Reign of K. Henry II : which Laws and 
Forms of Law-Proceedings are (if I miftake not) as different from 
one another, as the Laws of two feveral Nations. Thefe Matters 
have, within the Conipafs of a few Years pail, been made a Subjedt 
of much debate ; with great Feeblenefs, at leaft with great Inequality 
of Force on one Side. But in regard they are purely Ipeculative, it 
is not neceffary to have them finally decided one Way or other. It 
may fuffice to ftate or ballance them, and lb leave them to the Judg- 
ment of fuch Perfons as are curious and well feen in the Englijh Hi f- 
tory and Records. 

Upon this Occaiion, I will take Leave to fet down an Obferva- 
tlon or Conjedlure, which I had once the Honour to hear propofed 
by a very learned Gentleman, in this Manner. He laid, it feemed 
to him, by the Courfe of the Englijlo Hiftory and otherwife, that 
after the Norman Conqueft, there enfued a great Alteration in the old 
Englifl:) Laws, Manners, and Ufages : that neverthelefs, that Altera- 
tion with reference to the Laws, was not completely brought about 
and fettled till the Reign of K. Henry II : that the Reign of K. Wil- 
liam I. was moftly employed in quelling the Difcontents and Infur- 
redtions of his Englifli Subjecfts, and in getting and fecuring to him- 
felf and his Heirs, a full and faft Poffeffion of the regal and other 
Revenues of Efigland : that the next King (viz. William II) reigned 
under a Title controulable by the jull Pretenfions of his elder Bro- 
ther Robert ; yet being a ftately, refolute, and fubtile Prince, partly 
by Power, and partly by Policy, he kept the Engli/Jj under the 
Yoke, and continued to ftrengthen himfelf in the new Acquefts, and 
to form the Laws and Manners of this Country after the Norman 
Fafliion : that the next King (viz. Henry I.) was a mild book-learned 
Prince, and reigned likewife for feveral Years under a difputed TitI; ; 
that he continued, as far as his Affairs would permit, to eftablirti the 
Norman Laws and Cuftoms, as KK. Williatn I. and William II. had 
done; that in his Time many of the Anglonorman Lords, who had 
great Effates in Normandy as well as in England, might probably be, 
and were, inclinable to favour the Title and Interefts of Robert Earl 


i82 0/ t/je E xcuEQju EK of chap. IV. 

of Normandy, which might give Umbrage to K. Henry 5 that K. 
Henry, to win the Affecflions of the Englljh Natives who made the 
Bulk of the People, and thereby to check or balance the ylnglonor- 
man Lords, commanded a Body of Laws to be compiled, which 
were agreeable to the Laws of the old E?igJIJJ} or Anglofaxon Kings, 
and were called the Laws of King Henry \. fg) ; that however 
thefe Laws of K. Henry L relate chiefly to criminal Matters, 
and were never, for ought that appears, duly publifhed, much 
lefs put in Practice amongrt: the Englijh : that the Reign of 
the next King (viz. Stephen) was nothing elfe in EfFed: but a State 
of War : that K. Henry IL the next Succeilbr, came to the Crown 
by an undoubted Title, and furpalTed all his Ancell;ors in Power 
and Extent of Dominion ; for he was King of England, Earl or 
Duke of Normandy, Lord of Ire/and, Anjou, and the Acquitanick 
Traft of Land; infomuch that he was the greateft King at that 
Tims in Chrifi:endom : that this Prince did iiut the lail or finifliiup- 
Hand to the Norman Eflablifhment, and in fpecial to the Alteration 
thereby made in the EngliJIo Laws : as will in fome Meafure ap- 
pear from thefe Confiderations following, namely ; the Statutes or 
Conllitutions of Clarendon, made in or about the eleventh Year of K. 
Henry II, are, both for Phrafe and Subftance, more entirely Nor- 
mannlck than any Laws or publick Acfts from the Conqueft to that 
Time ; and Thomas Becket Archbilliop of Canterbury, who was the 
firft native Englijhman that had been Archbifhop of that See fince 
the Conqueft, oppofed certain Articles of thofe Conftitutions, as 
they were, in his Opinion, prejudicial or derogatory to the fuppofed 
Rights of the Clergy, and to the old Laws and Ufages of the Fjii^liJJ} 
Nation ; add hereto, that the Norma7i Laws and Cuftoms were fet- 
tled by conftant Ufe during the Reign of K. Henry II; and that at 
the latter End of his Reign, Ranulf de Glanvill, a great Man in the 
Law and a Jufticier, drew up a Compendium of the Laws of Eng- 
land, fitted for publick \J[t ; which he probably did by the King's 
Command (/jj, that it might ferve as a Code or Syftem for the Di- 

(g) Vid. append. Savil'ian. poji Bedam. Example: Ex hoc {faith the MS) liquet 

(h) This CotijcSfure is favoured by a certain quod non poteft vallallus dominum fuum in- 

MS Book (if we may give Credit to it in this feftare falva fide homagij fui, nill forte fe 

Cafe) remaining in the Library ij/" Corpus defendendo, & nifi ex praecepto Principis — , 

Chrifti College in Cambridjfe. ATreaiife in and fo forth. JVhich Paragraph, with the rcji 

that Book is intituled. Leges Henrici fccundi ; thai follows in the MS, is found in Glanvifl, 

and is the fame in mcny Paff.^-.i tvith the viz. Lib. 9. cap. 1. p. 68. Ex. Cod. MS. 

printed Copy of Glajivill de Le;^ibus. For T. 6, in Bibl. Coll. Corp. Chrif. Cuntabr. 

2 ytu 

Chap. IV. the Kings f?/" England. 1S3 

re<5lion of fuch as dealt in Law-Proceedings ; and this Syftem of 
Glanvill's, is in EfFe<!l nothing ehe but a Tranfcript of the Norman 
Law ; as will readily appear to any Man who pleafes to compare it 
with the grand Cujlumier of Normandy. In fine, tliat this Norman- 
nick Model of Laws continued, and indeed firmly fettled in 
'England, during the Reigns of K. Hairy II, and his two Sons Ri- 
chard and "John, and of the fucceeding Kings ; bating the Altera- 
tions that were made therein, at the End of the Reign of K. Jobut 
in the Reign of K, Henry III, and in the fubfequent Ages. 

Having faid this, I relume the Thread of my Difcourfe. Let us, 
if you pleafe, try a parallel Cafe abroad, in another Climate. As 
the NormanSy when they won England, made great Alterations there, 
they did the fame Thing in another Country which they alfo won 
by their Arms ; that is, in the Kingdom of Naples. When they 
planted themfelves in that Country, and by divers Succefles ob- 
tained the Soveraign Power there -, they introduced many of the 
Norman Laws and Cuftoms, forming that Court and Country after 
the Norman Model : which Laws and Cuftoms were not before in 
Ufe there; for the Normans won that Country after it had been pof- 
fefi"ed by Greeks and Saracens, whofe Law and Ciovernment were 
very different from thofe of the Normans. In Naples they eftabliflied 
the like great Officers of their Court as were in Normandy (and 
after the Conqueft, in E?igla?id) and with the like Powers : namely, 
the grand Jufticier (ij ; the Conftable (kj ; the Senefchall fl) ; the 
Marefchall (mj ; the Camarlingo or Chamberlain (?;) ; the Chancel- 
lor (0) ; the Admiral (p) ; and the Ho/liar io or Ufher fq). Thefe 
were ancient Officers in the Kingdom of Naples. And fome of 
them were (if I am not millaken) hereditary. Several of the fame 
Officers fubfcribe as Witneffes to the Charter of William King of 

This MS Book is written in a Hand of the {k) Ih. Se,^. 4. 

Age of K. Edward 2 ; as appeareth by a Re- (!) Auunirato dcMe Fam. Neap. P. t. p. 52. 

/i;mk in red Letters at the Top of one of the tit. Del Gran Sinifcalco. 

Pages not far from the Beginning : It is vi- (m) Id. ib. p. 40. ///. Del M.ilifcalco. 

tiouJJy written. [n) Hie cap. 7. feet. 8. 

This CoHJeiiwe is alfo favoured by the A^an- {0) Ib. Se£l. g. 

ner of Glanvill's writing, efpeciaUy in the (/>) Ammirato ib. p. 42. tit. Del Grande 

Prologue; where he begins, Regiam Potefta- Ammiraglio. 

tein &c ; with a maniffl Imitation ef ]u{\i- (q) — quindi molti congettnrano altro 

nian in his Inftitutions of the Imperial Law. non efler I'Hoftiario, che quello che hoggi 

£t. vtd. hie ante. Cap. 1. S(£l. 2. (x), in Napoli fi chiama I'Ufciere. Ammir. ib, 

Eodem anno Henricus. p. 54. tit. Del Maeftro Hoftiario dell' Hof- 

•(/) Hie ante. Cap. 2. Se£l. 3. pitio Reale. 



Of the E X c H E a.u E R of Chap. IV. 

Sicily made to K. Henry II, of England. Amongfl: them are the Vice- 
chancellor, the Admiral, Senefcall, Conftable, and Jufticier (r). In 
or about the Year 1144, Roger King of Sicily or Naples held his 
Court at Capua; whereat were prefent, the Princes his Sons, Arch- 
biihops, Buhops, Abbots, Earls, and Barons. And there, a great 
Conteft or Law-fuit between John Bifliop of Averfa and Walter Ab- 
bot of St. Laurence of Averfa, was accorded ; which Accord the 
King confirmed by his Charter, which was made Bipartite, and one 
Part of it delivered to the Bifliop, the other to the Abbot (s) : they 
had there their Aflizes, taken in the fame Senfe as anciently in Nor- 
mandy and England ft) ; their Baronies and Fees held in Capite fuj -, 
Aids to be rendered by Tenants to their Lord, for ranfoming his 
Perfon, for making his eldeft Son a Knight, and for marrying his 
Daughter or Sifter fiv) ; and Reliefs fx) : with them a feudal Inhe- 
ritance could not afcend (y) : and Treafure-found belonged to the 
King (zj : amongft them alfo we find anciently feveral No?-man Law- 
terms; fuch as, Baliiim fa), Paragiwn (b), Corredum or Corredium fcj, 

(r) Houn/. P. i.p. 552. Etvid. Con/lit. 
Neap, apud Llndenbr. pajftm. 

{s) Interfiiit etiam Marinus [Archiep. 
Neap.j generalibus Comitijs, five, ut vo- 
caiu, Parlameiito, quod Rogerius idem Rex 
Capuae celebravit, ad quod Archiepifcopos, 
Epifcopos, Abbates, Comites, h Barones 
regiii Rex idem afcivit, quorum confilio 
quas ad Regni regimen pertinerent modera- 
letur, multafq; graves difTenfiones ac lites 
inter Epifcopum Averfanuni & Abbatem S. 
Laurentij compofuit; quibus omnibus Ma- 
rinus hie interfuit, ut ex hoc diplomate — 
clareperfpicitur: " InNomineDei — , Roge- 
" rius divina fa\ente dementia Rex Sicilia;, 
" Ducatus Apulia?, & Principatus Capuae. 
" — Cum igitur apud Capuam Curiam te- 
" neremus, nobifcum refidcntibus dilectif- 

" fimis filijs \V. Principe, necnon 

Archiepifcopis, Abbatibus, Comitibus, 
& alijs Baronibus quampluribus, ante no- 
ftram venere praefentiam Johamies Aver- 
fanus Epifcopus & Gualterius Abbas S. 
Laurentij de Averfa, ad invicem de Pifca- 
tione patrise & Portibus & plateatico al- 
" tercantes — ," And the Matter was ac- 
corded betiveen them, as above. Dat. Capua; 
A. D. 1 144, anno 13. Regis Rogcrij. JJg- 
helli Ital. Sac, Tom. 6. col. i/i^i. 

(/) Volumus infrafcriptas aflifias [viz. re- 
rum venaliumj obfervari. Coiijiit. Neap. L, 
3. tit. 26. n. 5. Et ib. L. 1. tit. 63. 

— praedeceiiorum noftrorum affilijs com- 
prehenfa. Ib. L. i. tit. 41. 

— fecundum generalem aflifiam regni no- 
ftri. Ib. L. 2. tit. 7. 

(;/) Ut nullus Comes, Baro, vel Miles, 
vel quilibet alius qui Baronias, Caftra, vel 

feuda in Capite a nobis tenet . Ib. L, 

3. tit. 21. lege I. 

(iv) Hie, Cap. 15. 5c(.7. I. &fegq. 

(x) — recepto veruntamen aliquo relevio 
(ut eft moris), quod quantitatem decern un- 
ciarum auri non excedat — . ConjL Neap, 
L. 3. tit. 22. 

(y) Nifi feuda fint ex conceiTione noftra, 
vel alio juflo titulo acquifita, in quibus af- 
cendentes liberis non fuccedunt. Cori/f, 
Neap. L. 2. tit. 6. 

(z) ConJ}. Neap. L. 3. tit. 30 bf 31. 

[a) — ipfarum Balium noftra excellentia 
recipiat. lb. L. 3. tit. 23. Et ib. tit. 27, 
De jure Balij. 

(^) — fecundum paragium debeant ma- 
ritare. Ib. L, 3. tit. 23. 

(V) — vel corredo noftro, cum in tern's 
eorum nos hofpitari, vel corredium ab eis 
recipere contigerit. Ib. L, 3. /;'/. 1 8. 


chap. IV. the Kings f?/" England. 


Dijfaifire fdj, and the like. It is moft probable then, that the Nor- 
mans carried into Sicily thofe Cuftoms and Ulages wherein there was an 
Agreement or Similitude between them, as hath been above fliewn : 
and that thole were the Cuftoms and Ufages of the Normans, ab 

Again ; let me, if you pleafe, put you one other Cafe abroad, to 
wit, in the Duchy of Burgundy. In that Country alfo, there were 
feveral Cuftoms, Manners, and Law-terms, agreeing v/ith thofe of 
Nonnandy, and of Rngland after the Conqueft. For Inftance : In 
'Burgundy, the full Age of male Children (to fome Purpofes) was 14 
Years, and of female 1 2 Years (e) : if a Baftard died without law- 
ful Heirs of his Body, all his Goods came to the Duke of Burgundy 
(f) ; nor could a Baftard fucceed ab intejlato to his Father or Mo- 
ther (^) : A Widow after her Hufband's Death was to be endowed 
of the Moiety [in Normandy and Eftgland of the third Part] of the 
ancient Inheritance of her Hufband whereof he died feifed, to enjoy 
the fame during her Life fh) : Minors were not to do Homage to 
their Lord till they were out of wardfliip or tutelage (/") : An Inheri- 
tance could not afcend in a right Line ; that is, in a Paternal or 
Maternal Heritage the Father or Mother could not fucceed to his or 
her Son or Daughter or to their Children (kj : Inheritances, as to the 
Defcent of them, followed the Line of the Trunk or Stock from 

{d) Diffaifiri, lb. L. 3. ///. 14.. kg. 2. 
Difl'aifire, Jb. L. 3. tit. 17. 

(e) — jufques a ce que lefdiiSs enfans 
foient en aage fuffifant, ceft afi'avoit, le flls 
de 14 ans, & la fille de 12 ans. Chnjf. 
Confuet. Ducat, Burg. Rub. 6. §. 4. col. 847. 

(f) Si un baftard ou baftarde va de vie 
a trefpas fans hoirs legitimes de fon corps, 
Monfeigneur le Due luy fuccede en tous fes 
biens. lb. Rub. 8. §. i. col. 1121. 

(g) Le baftard ou baftarde ne vient ab 
inteftat a la fucceflion de pere ne de mere. 
lb. Rub. 8. §. 3. col. 1125. 

[h) Femme mariee felon le generale cou- 
fiume du Duche de Bourgongne, eft douee 
apres le trefpas de fon mari fur la moitie des 
lieritages anciens de fon mari, dont il eft 
mort veftu & faify, pour en jouyr fa vie du- 
rant. lb. Rub. 4. §. 6. col. 580. 

(;) Et quant les didz pupilles feront hors 
de tutelle, ilz feront tenuz de faire hom- 
mage, & ferment de feaute au did Seigneur 

Vol. L 

dedans un an apres ladifte tutelle finie. lb. 
Rub. 3. §. 2. col. 409. 

(k) Succeflion en ligne dire£le ne monte 
point, ceft aflavoir, que le pere ou la mere 
ne fuccede point a fon filz ou fille, ne aux 
enfans de fon filz ou fille, quant aux heri- 
tages anciens paternelz ou maternelz. lb. 
Rub. 7. §. 6. csl. 984. Tins was according to 
the ancient Feudal Law, in point of Inheri- 
ting. SuccefTionis feudi talis eft natura. 
Quod afcendentes non fuccedunt : verb! 
gratia, pater filio : inferius vero, filius patri 
fuccedit, & non filia nifi ex pafto, vel ni(i 
fit foemineum. Tunc enim fuccedit filia 
matri & patri : fecundum quofdam fuccedit 
nepos ex filio folus ; & fie ufq; in infini- 
tum : ex latere omnes per mafculos defcen- 
dentes, ufq; in infinitum, fi feudum fit pa- 
ternum. Feudor. Lib. 2. tit. 50, De natura 
Succeflionis feudi. viz. In Corpore Juris Civ. 
edit, Amjlel, 1663. Et vid. hie paulum fupra 


B b 

^' whence 

1 86 Of the E X c H E q_u ek of Chap. IV, 

whence they iflued fl) : Amortization turned a Fee into a Kind of 
Allodhim (in) : Partition of a Thing holden in Fee did not prejudice 
the Lord of the Fee, but each Parcener was to continue Vaflal of 
fuch Lord for his feveral Part or Portion (n) : a married Woman 
remained in the Power of her Hufband, fo that flic could not plead 
or be impleaded without him, nor make any Teltament or Difpo- 
fal of her Goods by Lad Will, without his Licence and Authority ; 
nor could make any Contraft inter vivos without him, unlefs flie was 
^ publick Trader; and in th^at Cafe, only in Things touching her 
Merchandife (a) : tlie Hufband without the Wife might appear and 
adl as Demandant or Defendant in the pofleflbry Rights of his Wife 
and in perfonal Aftions (pj : Men profefled in Religion could not 
fucceed to Father or Mother or other Collaterals ; [but the Ci/lerci- 
iins (it feems) claimed a Privilege and Ufance to the contrary (q)~\ : 
in a word, they had in Burgundy their haute Jujiice fr), their Men 
that were talliable haut & bas^ and jufticiable en toutes Jujiices (sj, 
their Tallia, Fra:Jlanticc or Emprunts, and Fouages (t), and their 
Forefts and Parks («). The Biirgundian Cufloms and Manners being 
formerly not unlike thofe of the Normam, and of the EngliJ]:> after 

(I) Les heritages enfuyuent en fucceflion 
la ligne du tronc de la quelle ils font ilTus — , 
Chajf. lb. Rub. 7. §. 8. col. 1 00 1. 

(?n) Amortizatio efficit res feudales allo- 
diales. Chnjf. comment, ib. col. 1231. 

(«) Partage ou Divifion de chofe feodale 
lie prejudicie point au Seigneur du fied, ains 
demeurera chefcun homme feodal & vaflal 
du diil Seigneur pour fa part & portion, 
Confiutud. Due. Burg. ib. Rub. 3. §. 7. «/. 

(0) La femme, foit qu'elle ait ou pere ou 
ayeul paternel ou non, apres la confumma- 
tion du mariage, demeure en la puilTance 
de fon mari, tellement qu' elle ne peut faire 
contrafts entre les vifs, n' eftre en juge- 
ment, n' auffi par teftament n' ordonnance 
de derniere volonte difpofer de fes biens, 
fans la licence h. authorite de fon mari, fi 
elle ncft marchande publique ; au quel 
cas pour faifl de marchandife feulement — . 
11. Rub. 4. §. L. col. 499. 

(/>) Le mari fans procuration de fa femme 
peut eftre en jugement en demandant & en 
defendant es droicts polTeflbires de la femme 
& en adions perfonelles. Ib. Rub. 4. §, 5. 
id. 558. 

(q) Et pour ce qu' on veut dire que par 
ordonnance & couftume du royaume, gens 
de religion profez ne peuuent fucceder a 
pere ne a mere, a autres collateraux, & que 
les religieux de 1' ordre de Cifteaux dient a- 

voir privilege & ufance au contraire . 

Ib. Rub. 7. §. 14. col. 1 1 15. 

(?>) Quand le figne de haute juftice e{t 
cheut a terre, le feigneur haut jufticier le 
peut faire redrefl'er dedans I'an & le jour 
apres ce qu'il eft cheut — . Ib. Rub. I* 
§. 8. 

(i) Gens de condition mainmortables, 
taiUables haut & bas, corueables a volunte, 
jufticiables en toutes juftices, ne font point 
receus en tefmoignage pour leur Seigneur, 
du quel ils font hommes & fubje<5ts des def- 
fufdi£tes conditions, ou de trois ou de deux 
dicelles. Ib. Rub. 9. §. 18. col. 1289. 

(t) Chaff. Ib. col. J 292. 

(u) Forefta dicitur latum nemus fine 
claufura fine aqua ; Sylva vero dicitur 
quando eft prope fluvium, fed quando in- 
ctuditur muro vel palis, vocatur Parcus. Ib. 
col. 1444. •^^ ''^'^' ^^ Antiq. fore/ia, Ib. coL- 


chap. IV. the Kingsij/'England. 1^7 

<he Conqueft, in thefe and fome other Particulars ; fliall we there- 
fore fay, the Burgiindians, received the fame from the Normans, after 
the Normans had received them of the Englijh f Or is it not far 
more probable, that they vi'ere the Cuftoms and Ufages ab antiquo 
both of the Normans and Burgiindians (two neighbouring Coun- 
tries, whofe Vicinity might produce a Similitude of Laws and 
Cuftoms) ? 

Secondly, let us fee, whether it be not probable, that the Ex- 
chequer in England was erefted by the Normans. It hath been ihewn 
in this Seftion and the next before it, that the Exchequer of Nor- 
mandy and That of England were ancient Courts ; and, though they 
might in fome Things differ, were in many Refpedls fo like to one 
another, that 'tis natural to fuppofe, that either the Exchequer of 
Normandy was the Original and Pattern to the Exchequer of England, 
or elfe the Exchequer of England to it. By the Records which have 
been preferved in England referrible to this Subjedl, one would at 
iirft be inclined to think the Englijh Exchequer was the more an- 
cient, and the Pattern to the Norman. For it evidently appears fron; 
Records, that there was an Exchequer in England in the Reign of 
K. Hairy I. not lb evidently from Records, that there was one in 
Normandy at that Time or before. Neverthelefs, if we come to look 
more narrowly into this Matter, perhaps we may find this Objecftion 
much overbalanced. In the 4th Sedion of this Chapter, a Record 
relating to Richard BaJJet and Aubery de Ver has been produced, to 
jfhew that there was an Exchequer in Normandy in the 5th Year of 
K. Stephen : between whofe Reign and that of K. Henry I, the Dif- 
ference in Point of Priority is not worth mentioning. But if the 
Great Roll wherein that Record is contained, fliould prove to be (in- 
flead of 5" Steph.) a Great Roll of fome Year in the Reign of K. 
Henry I (iv) ; then this Objecftion will vanilh. Again; fuppofe it 
could not be evidently proved from any Records now extant in Eyig- 
land, that there was an Exchequer in Normandy before the Reign of 
K. Henry 11. next Succeffor to K. Stephen : there would hardly be 
Room enough to conclude from thence, that the Exchequer of 
England was more ancient than that of Normandy, and the Original 
or Pattern to it. Let it be confidered : if we fuppofe the Norman 
Exchequer to be an Eftype or Derivative from the Englift} Exchequer, 
how comes it to pafs, that there is no Mention made (for ought we 
know) of a Scaccarium or Exchequer in any Anglofaxon Hiftory or 

(w) Vid. Dijcept. de Mag, Rot. 

B b 2 Monu- 

1 8 8 Of the "E X c II 'E Q_u e k of Chap. IV^ 

Monument of Antiquity written before the Conquefi: ? How comes 
it to pafs, that the very name of it, Scaccan'm/i and Exchequer, and 
likewife the Officers and Perfons adting at the Exchequer, and in 
effect all the Terms of Art ufed there, are Nortnannick f^ On the 
other Hand : if we fuppofe that the Exchequer of Ejigland was 
formed or derived from that of Normandy (amongft other Altera- 
tions introduced into England by the Normans) there feems to be 
nothing abfurd or harfti in the Suppofition. It was not till after 
the Conquefl that we hear of an Exchequer in England. The 
great Officers, who prefided in the Exchequer of England were 
all or moil of them new, that is, had different Fuiidtions or 
Powers from thofe which the great Officers of the King's Court 
or Palace had in the Englifi or Anglojaxon Times : namely, the 
King's chief Jufticier, his Conftable, his Marefchall, his Chamber- 
lains, his Treafurer and Barons. Some of thefe, together with the 
Ofiiarius or JJJher, were hereditary Officers in the Exchequer of 
England: which was according to ihe Frenclj and Nortnan Cuflom : 
whereas (I think) we do not find thefe hereditary Officers about the 
King's Court in the Anglojaxon Ages. Befides ; moft of the folemn 
and emphatical Words ufed in the Exchequer appear to be of Nor- 
man Extraction : fuch are, yujllciarms, Compotus, Fim's, Mifericordia, 
Amerciamentnm, ForJtfaSiuray 'Tallagium, Cujluma, Prija, Balliva, 
Comitatiis, Feffamcntum, Serjanteria, Tenura and Tenementum, Homa- 
gium, Relevatio or Rekvium, Francum plegiiim, Maritaghim, Waran- 
tiim, ^lietantja, 'Talea, Argentum blancwn, Catallum, AJJifa, Liberation 
Conredium., Loqtiela, Breve, Rectum, Saifina, Disfortiare, Siimmonitio, Vijus, 
Superphis, with many other : to which may be added moft of the Terms- 
of the Foreft-Law, which were often ufed in the Exchequer. So that 
the Exchequer, if we confider its Name, its Officers, the Method 
of proceeding and the Terms of Art ufed there, appeareth to bear 
evident Marks of a Normannick Original and Inftitution. In this En- 
quiry, I have no defign to derogate from the ancient Anglojaxon Na- 
tion, or precarioully to afcribe to the Normatu what does not right- 
fully belong to them. But as I have an equal Veneration for our 
Anceftors of the Saxon and of the Norma?! Race, it had been equal to- 
me in that refpeft, whether the one or the others of them had been 
entituled to the Glory of being the firft Contrivers and Inftitutors o£ 
the anciently great and noble Court of Exchequer. However, I have- 
been the more copious in this Enquiry, becaufe I found it would 
give me Occafion to lay before the Reader certain Things, which I 
thought might tend to illuftrate the Subjedt, and be proper for An- 
4, tiquaries 

Chap. IV. the Kings <?/ E n g l a n d. 289 

tiquaries to recoiled:. And fo I leave this Matter to the Reader's 

VI, It may be obferved, that in England\\\ ancient Times (after 
the Norman Conqueft) a Treafury, Receipt, or Place ot Revenue, 
was often defigned by the Word, Scaccariiim, or Rxchcqiur. And as 
the King's Exchequer, holden in his Court, was the chief or highefl 
Treafury in this Realm : fo, the Cuflom of fpeaking has taught us 
to underlland ordinarily by the Word Exchequer^ his great or royal 
Exchequer; including the Receipt j which came afterwards to be 
called inferius Scaccarium, as will be noted in its due Place. In the 
Exchequer there were, from ancient Time, two notable Terms or 
Periods of the Year, called the Duo Scaccaria ; one of them the Scac- 
carium Pafcha, and the other the Scaccarium S. Michaclis. As in the 
Inflances following ; viz. In the Cafe of Hugh Bardu/f (x), in the 
Cafe of the Citizens of Norwich (y), of Hugh de Fokinton and his 
Wife {z) of Godfrey Spigurnel (a), of Geoffrey de Licci, (b) of Philipp 
de Luci (cj, of Saier de ^lenci (d), Richard de Mucegros (e), Earl 


{x) Hugo Bardul debet x marcas, Pro 
Refpe£tu de Recognitione inter eum & W il- 
lelmum &; Johannem Burdun, ufq; ad Scac- 
carium de hoc Termino. Mag. Kot. 15. 
H. 2. Rot. 5. a. Not, bf Deri. 

(y) Cap. XL Seii. 2. ad am. 6. Rk. 1. 
Gives de Norwico. 

(z) Hugo de Fokinton & Egelina uxor 
ejus debent L libras, ultra finem quern prius 
cum Rege fecerunt pro debito quod debent 
Judasis, fcilicet pro CC & L libris tarn de 
Catallo quam de Ufuris ; & illas L libras 
Reg! reddcnt ad feftum S. Hilarij anno Regis 
vto, h refiduum prioris finis nondum ibluti 
reddent infra duos annos proximo fequentcs ; 
ita quod ad Scaccarium proximum Pafchs 
reddent inde quartam partem, & ad Scac- 
carium S. Michaelis proximum quartam par- 
tem, Etfic de Scaccarioad Scaccarium, quo- 
ufq; totum finem ilium periblverint, Mag, 
Rot. 5. J. Rot. IS. b. Oxenef. 

[a) Reddendo inde (for Lands in Sceggebi) 
per annum xx folidos Numero, pro omni 
fervitio, per manus Vicecomitis, fcilicet ad 
Scaccarium Pafcje x s, & ad feftum S. Mi- 
caelis xs. Mag. Rot. 9. J. Rot. 11. L 

(b) Galfridus de Luci reddit compotum 
de MMM marcis, pro habcnda in uxorem 
Juliana quae fuit uxor Petri de Stokes cum 

tota terra fua, & cum omnibus quaecamjure 
hjereditario contingunt ; ita quod inde red- 
det M marcas infra feftum S. Micaelis anno 
Regis nono, & quolibet anno CCCC mar- 
cias ad duo Scaccaria, quoufq; totum de- 
bitum rcddlderic. lb. Rot. 14. b. 

(c) Philippus de Luci r c de M marcis, 
pro habenda benevolentia Regis, & ut fit 
quietus de omni prseflito quod Rex ei fecit,- 
& de omnibus receptis quas recepit dum ef- 
fet in Camera Regis, & de omnibus Arera- 
gijs compoti fui, & de omnibus debitis qus 
unquam debuit Regi uiq; ad diem S. A4ar- 
gareia Anni Regis ix : Termini ; ad Scac- 
carium S. Micaelis anni ix, CC marcas, 6c 
ad Scaccarium Pafchs CC marcas, ik item 
ad Scaccarium S. Micaelis C 1, Et fie de 
Scaccarioad Scaccarium, quoufq; M marcsr 
perfolvantur. Jb. Rot. 14. b. 

{d) De quibus debet reddere per annum 
CCCC marcas ad iJuo Scaccaria: Idem red- 
dit compotum de eodem debito. In thefauro 
CC marcas, Et debet MM & D marcas, De 
quibus debet reddere per annum CCCC 
marcas ad Duo Scaccaria. Lb. Rot. ig. b. 
War. isi Leircefir. 

[e) Ricardus de Mucegros [debet] CC 
& L marcas, pro habendo Comitatu Gloe- 
ceftriae per antiquam firmam & per C libras 


I QD Of the E X c H E CL'U ^ ^ of Cliap. IV, 

Roger le Bigot ffj ; and in many other Inftances. Thefe Terms, de- 
noted by the Exchequer of Eajler and the Exchequer of Mkhaelmafs, 
were the Times at which the Summonces ilfuing out of the Exche- 
quer for levying the King's ;Debt-s were wont refpedively to be re- 
turnable : for which Reafoa, as the Dialogue {g) informs us, thefe 
two were appointed te be the general or principal Terms for making 
of Payments into the Exchequer. 

VII. Befides the great Exchequer, the King had fome fubordinate 
Receipts or Places of Revenue, which were called Exchequers. 
There was an Exchequer fet up at Worcefter for Receipt of the King's 
Money ('Z'j. At t^Vih Receipt , William de Bcauchamp received Part of 
the King's Revenue, and particularly Scutage-money for that County 
(i). There was Scaccarium Redemptionis [/. e. Regis Ricardi.'\ Here, 
■Henry Archdeacon of ^'/cT^or^ paid-in LI, a Fine made to K. Richard 
for his Favour [k] ; and the Sheriff of Cumberland paid-in xxl, a Fine 
which he had promifed to K. Richard (I). This I fuppofe was the 
Place appointed for Receipt of the Money railed for the Ranfom of 
K. Richard I. There was a Scaccarium Aronis. And there were two 

dc Cremento fingulis annis quamdiu ilium 
habuerit : Termini de Firma, ad feftuin 
S. Michaelis anni ix L libras, & ad Scac- 
carium Pafchas fequens L libras, & ad feftum 
S. Michaelis fequens L marcas, & ad Pafcha 
fequens L marcas : Item Termini de prre- 
difto Cremento, Ad Sccacarium S. Michae- 
lis hujus anni L libras, & ad Pafcha fequens 
L I, Et fic fingulis annis. lb. Rot. 21. a. 

(f) Comes Rogerus le Bigot reddit com- 
potuni de MM marcis, pro habenda refpec- 
tu tota vita fua de Servitio C & xx Militum 
pro Servitio Lx Militum, & pro habendo 
refpeftu tota vita fua de demanda quam Ba- 
rones ei faciunt de areragijs Scutagiorum. 
Termini, Ad Natalem Anni xiij, D mar- 
cas ; ad Scaccarium Pafchse D marcas ; & 
ad Scaccarium S. Mi. haelis fequens CCC & 
xl marcas ; & ad Scaccarium Pafchae CCC 
& XXX marcas ; & ad Scaccarium S. Mi- 
chaelis CCC & XXX marcas : Et inde Regi 
V Obfides liberavit, & pro iideli Servitio fuo. 
Mag- Rot. 15. J. Rot. I. a. 

i^g) FiuntautemSummonitiones ut Scac- 

carium fiat &c, L, 2. c. I. Et ib. L. 2. c. 
2. Magnum tuas. 

[h) Et pro uno Scaccario apud Wirecef- 
triam ad faciendam Receptam Regis, iijs& 
iiij d. Mag. Rot. 12. H. 2. Rot. 6. a. 

(/') Idem [Ricardus deLuci] reddit com- 
potum de C & xxij 1 & xvij s & iij d, 
de remanenti de DCC 1 de Scutagijs, quas 
recepit a Willelmo de Belcampo ad Wire- 
ceftriam, & quas idem Willelmus habuerat 
deThefauro. Mag. Rot. 15. H. 2. Rot. 9. b. 

(i) Henricus Archidiaconus de Stafford 
debet L libras & vj s & viij d, de Fine fuo 
pro habenda benevolentia Regis Ricardi. 
Sed reddidit inde L libras ad Scaccarium Re- 
demptionis ; ficut Magifter Willelmus de 
Bulcingeham teftatus eft coram Baronibus 
fuper Scaccarium. Mag. Rot, I. y. Rot. 18. 
a. War. isf LeWceJir. 

(/) Idem Vicecomes debet xx 1 pro fine 
quern fecit, ficut continetur in Rotulo x" ; 
qu» ideo non redduntur, quia redditas fue- 
runt ad Scaccarium Redemptionis, ficut 
Vicecomes dicit. Mag. Rot. 3. J. Rot. 18. 
a. Cumb. Et vid. Mag. Rot. 3. J. Rot. 12. 
a. Everwichjc. b" alibi. 


chap. IV. //$^Kings(9/'England. 191 

Clerks, 'Jofeph and Roger, employed there for the King(w). By the 
Exchequer oi Aaron might be meant the Place for Receipt of the 
Revenue accruing to the Crown from the forfeited Eflate of Aaron 
the 'Jeio of Lincoln. Of which, feveral Accompts may be {ttw in 
the great Rolls of K. Richard I. («). There was a Scaccariiun Hugonisr 
de Nevill: Peter de Briis was ordered to pay DCC / which he owed 
to the Crown, at the Exchequer of Hugh de Nevill ; and Hugh was^ 
to pay it in at the Exchequer oiWeJlminJler (o) : Hugh was accompt- 
able to the King for his Receipts : one of his Accompts may be feen- 
in the tenth Year of K. John fpj: about this Time he was Jufticier 
of the Foreft for feveral Years together [q). In fine, there was alfo 
a Scaccariiun Judieorum. But of that I fliall ipeak hereafter in its 
Place. Probably, thefe Places were called Exchequers for one or 
both of thefe two Reafons. Firil:, as they were Places for Receipt 
of Revenue. Next, becaufe in Places of Receipt or Revenue it was 
cuftomary to lay upon the Table a Scaccariwn or chequered Cloth : 
which, by Realbn of the Chequering or Diverfity of the fquare 
Spaces wrought upon it, was more commodious for counting of 
Money, according to the Way ufed in thofe Times, than a plain. 
Board or a Cloth. all of one Colour (r).. 

VIII. The King, if he pleafed, fat and acfled in his Exchequer.. 
About the nth Year of K. Henry II, when Thomas Archbifliop of 
Canterbury was called to an Account for his Receipts of the King's 
Revenue during his Chancellorlhip, he pleaded, that he was dif- 
charged of all thofe Receipts and Accounts by K. Henry the Younger, 
and all the Barons of the Exchequer, and Richard de Luci Juflicier 
oi England {s). And in the fixth Year oi K.. John, William Mare/-' 


[m) Et Jofeph & Rogero Clericis Regis of Sums retched of feveral Perfans in feveral ^^ 

de Scaccario Aaron, ij marcas & dimidiam Counties. Mag. Rot. lO. J.'Rot. 4. L. 

de Dono, Per breve Regis. Mag. Rot. 3. (q) Ih. Mag. Rot. 10. j. (J alibi. 

R. I. Rot. II. b. Land, isf Midd. (r) Fid. Dialog, de Soacuir. L. z^^cap. 27, 

(n) Mag. Rot. 3. R. I. Rot. 2. a. Line. Licet fcriptum fit. 

l^ Ebor. Et ib. alibi. (i) Dominus meus Rex fcit, quod ego 

{0) Petrus de Brus debet DCC libras, fgepiuseireddidi computationem de omnibus 
pro habenda Villa de Danebi, ficut contine- hijs qua ipfe modo a me petit, antequam 
tur in Rotulo prscedenti. Sed prsceptum eledus fuilTem ad Archiepifcopatum Can- 
eft ut refpondcat inde ad Scaccarium H. de tuarienffem.- Sed in cledtione mea, Henricus 
Nevill, & ipfe H. ad bcaccarium Weftmo- filius ejus, cui Regnum adjuratum fuit, St 
nafterij. Mag. Rot. 4. J. Rot. 4. a. Ever- omnes Barones Scaccarij, & Ricardus de 
vjich. tit. De Oblatis. Luci Jufticiarius Anglias, clamaverunt mc 

[p) Compotus H. de Nevill de Recepta quietum Deo & fandse Ecclefias, de omni- 

fua. That is the Title. The Particulars are bus Receptis& Computationibus Scab omni- 

4 exadtionc- 



E X c H E Q^u E R o/" Chap. IV, 


cball Sheriff of GhucejlerJInn being charged with xxxl Increment 
for certnin Manours in that County, the King who was then prefent 
at the Exchequefj diredled what Ihould be done in the Cafe (/). 
The King fat perfonally in the Exchequer during the fecond Period 
alfo, as may be i^zw in Chapter XX, feet. 6. Vol. II. 

IX. When the King's Exchequer was holden at Wejlminjier, there 
were two principal Rooms for the Barons to fit in. One was called 
Scaccarium, or Scaccarium Baronum: fo it was called in the 2 2d Year 
of K. Henry W (u), in the 3 ill and 33d Year of the fame King (w), 
in the firft (at), and other fy) Years of K. Richard I, in the Reign 
of K. John (c), and of Henry III [a) : the other was called Thala- 
mus or Thalamus Baronum , to wit, in the Reign of K. Richard I {b), 
and K. John (c). And fometimes the greater Scaccarium was called 
Scaccarium ifi SoUoy the Throne-like E.xchequer (perhaps becaufe it 
was framed like a Throne or Court) to dillinguiih it, as one may 


exatSione feculari, ex parte Domini Regis. 
Moved. Pars i. p. 495. n. 20. 

[t) Idem Vicecomes [Willelmus Maref- 
callus, Tomas de Rochesfoid pro eo] debet 
XXX 1, de praedidla Emendatione Manerio- 
rum. Sed quia Maneria ilia, fcilicet Dim- 
moc 5c Menftrewrda creverunt ufq; ad xiij 1, 
Pra;ceptum eft per Regem qui prasfens fuit 
fuper Scaccarium, quod nee prasdidls xxx 1, 
nee Antiquum Crementum fcilicet de vj 1, 
quae folent requiri fmgulis annis, ulterius 
non exigantur. Mag. Rot, 6. y. Rot, 12. 
a. Tit. Gloecejirefcira. 

(«) Et pro iiij ulnis Panni ad Scaccarium 
Baronum, vj s ; Et pro iij Scamnis ad 
Scaccarium Baronum, iij s &jd. Mag. 
Rot. 22. H. 2. Rot. I, b. Land, l^ Midd, 

(w) Et pro Panno laneo ad Sacccarium 
Baronum x s & viij d, per breve Regis ; 
Et pro Linea tela ad feneftras ij s & j d, 
per idem breve. Mag. Rot. 31. H, 2. Rot, 
14. b. Londonla i^ Midd. 

Et pro viij ulnis panni lanei ad Scaccari- 
um xij s ; Et pro x ulnis lines telae xxv d. 
Mag. Rot. 33. H. 2. Rot. 3, b. Lotid. y 

{x) Et pro Laneo panno ad Scaccarium 
Bironum xij s, Et pro Linea tela ad fenef- 
tras ij s & j d. Mag. Rot, I, R. I. Rot, 13. 
tf. Lond. £3" Midd. 

(y) Et pro Panno ad Scaccarium Baro- 
num, & Linea tela ad feneftras xij s & iij d. 
Mag. Rot. 3. R. I. Rot. II. a. Lond, i^ 
Midd. Et alibi. 

(z) Et pro Panno empto ad Scaccarium 
Baronum xxxiij s & vj d, per breve Regis. 
Mag. Rot. 12. J. Rot. 16. b. Lond. & 

(a) Et pro panno ad Scaccarium Baro- 
num xl s ij d. Mag. Rot. 49. H, 3. Rot. 3. 
a, Lond. & Midd. 

(b) Et pro panno empto ad Scaccarium 
in Tlialamo Baronum, & pro linea tela po- 
nenda fuper feneftras xvj s. Mag. Rot. 9. 
R. I. Rot. II. a. Loml. & Midd. 

Et pro Panno empto ad Scaccarium in 
Talamo Baronum, x s & viij d ; Et pro 
linea tela ponenda fuper feneftras iij s ; Et 
pro ij Banccis pofitis ad Scaccarium Baro- 
viij s & V d. Mag. Rot. i. R. I. Rot. 

Lond & Midd. 
Et pro panno empto ad Scaccarium 
in Thalamo Baronum, xxxs. Mag. Rot, 
4. J, Rot, 20. b. Lond, & Midd, 

Et pro panno empto ad Scaccarium in 
Thalamo Baronum, xxxs & ixd. Mag. 
Rot, 5. J. Rot. I. b. Lond, £ff Midd. 

Et pro panno empto ad Scaccarium in 
Thalamo Baronum Regis, xxxij s & j d, 


23. b, 


chap. IV. />$^Kingso/'England. 193 

guefsirom the T'hala7niis fd), which was a fort of a Council-Chamber 
\e). The Pannus Laneus mentioned in the Inftances above-cited was, 
probably a chequered Cloth. It was wont to be provided for the Ex- 
chequer twice a- Year jC/J/'. The Sheriffs oi Londomw^ MiddUjcx iox the 
Time being ufed to provide it at the King's Charges; as appears by 
the Records here cited and by many others. Beiides the two principal 
Rooms which I have been fpeaking of, allotted to the Barons of the 
Exchequer to fit in, the Barons liad (it feems) certain Chambers in 
the King's Palace or Exchequer. The Chambers of the Barons are 
mentioned above in the great Roll j R. i. [g). But whether thele 
Chambers v.'ere for Lodgings or other Ufes, I cannot tell. Although 
the Exchequer was wont to be holden at Wejhninjler (the ufual 
Place of the King's Refidence) yet it was fometiines holden in other 
Places if the King pleafed {h). In the Reign of K. Stephe??, it was 
held, as it feems, at IVinckejter. For at that Time Geoffrey de Clin- 
ton fined to the Crown in ccc and x Marks of Silver, for the Miniftry 
of the Treafury of Winton (J) : and about that Time, the Earl of 
Gloucejier and Brien Fitz-Count heard the Accompts of the Treafury 
at Winton (k). In the Reign of K. Henry II. an Exchange v/as made 
at Winchejler at the Exchequer, before K. Henry Son of K. Henry II. and 
his Barons, between William Earl oi Effex, and Roger Fitz-Richard (^l). 
In orabout the loth Year of K. yohn, the Exchequer was held at North- 
ampton from Michaelmafs to Cbrijlmafs [ni). Accordingly, Allowance 
was made to the Sheriffs of London and Middle/ex for the Charges of 
conveying the Rolls and Exchequer of the Barons, and the Exchequer 
and Rolls of the Jews, from London to Northampton («). Of the 


per breve Regis. Mag. Rot. 8. J. Rol. 6. a. (h) Fid. Cap. 20. SeSl. 5. Vol. 2. 

Land, y Midd. (i) Et idem Gaufridus [de Clintona] r c 

(d) Et pro ij pannisemptis ad Scaccariurn de CCC & x marcis argcnti, pro Minifte- 
Baronum in Thalamo Regis, & ad aliud rio Thefauri Wintonise : In Thefauro C- 
Scaccariurn in Solio ; Et proBanccis Scac- niarcas argenti, Et debet CC & x marcas 
cario illi circumponendis, Et pro Jiiiiccis argenti. Mag. Rot. 5. Stefh. Rot. 11. b. 
emptis ad Cameras Baronum, xxxijs & vijd. TVar. 

A4ag. Rot. j.R. i. Rot. 9. a. Loadonia isf {i) Cap. 2. Seii. 16. 

MIdd. (I) Cap. 6. fe^i. 3. 

(e) Fid. Dialog, de Scacc. L. I. cap, 7. (m) MCCIX" ; A fefto S. Michaelis 
Oftium Domus illius. fedit Scaccariurn apud Norhampton ufq ; ad 

(f) Et pro primo panno ad Scaccariurn Natale. E. Chronica in Fet. Cod. AIS. in- 
Baronum xxxiij s & vj, Et pro fecundo fcripto Under D. 8. in Bibl. Coll. Corp. Chrif- 
panno ad idem Scaccariurn, xl s & j d. ti Cantabr. fol. 50. h. 

Mag. Ret. 2. H. 3. Ret. 5. a. Londonia b" [n) Et in cariagio Rotulorum & Scacca- 

Midd. Cives Londoni:^, Rad. Elinant & rij Baronum, & Scaccarij Sc Rotuioium Ju- 

Thomas Bukerel pro eis, \'icecomites. daeorum, a Londonia ufq; ad Norhantonam, 

(g) Paulo fup. C & j s. Per breve Regis. Mag. Rot. fi. 
Vol. I. C c Joh. 

1 94 Of the E X c 11 E q_u e r c/" Chap. IV. 

Removal of the Exchequer from Wejlmmjler to other Places during 
the fecond Period, I fliall fpeak hereafter {o). 

X. Anciently the King's Chancery was, as it feemeth, ordinarily 
kept and executed at his Court (/>). But the King's Chancellor per- 
formed Part of his Duty' in the Exchequer alfo. He attended ex 
officio upon the Affairs of the Revenue at the Exchequer, and afted 
of Courfe together with the Jufliciers and Barons employed there ; 
as may be feen elfewhere in this Volume (^). The King's Seal (or 
the great Seal) was commonly laid up in the Treafury of the Exche- 
quer (r). Writs of the Chancery were fometimes made forth at the 
Exchequer J namely. Writs of Liberate, Computate, and Perdono. 
When they were made at the Exchequer, it was faid, Tejlibus his 
apud fuch a Place ad Scacariiwi, to diftinguifh them from the Writs 
made in the Kings Court [s). And thefe Writs v/ere feaied at the 
Exchequer with the great Seal ; which was often by the Jufticiers 
command, from the lower Exchequer [or Receipt] to the upper Ex- 
chequer, in order to difpatch the BufinefTes of the Exchequer, and 
then was returned into the Purfe, and the Purfe fealed-up by the 
Chancellor, &c {t). The Writs of Summonce that iffued for the 
King's Debts and Rights, and the Writs to call Councils and to fum- 
mon Barons and Knights ad habendum fervitium, were fometimes made 
at the Exchequer, and were feaied there by the Spigurnell or Chafe- 
wax [of the Chancery], and afterwards tranfmitted through Etigland 
by the Ufher of the Exchequer («). And there was a Clerk con- 
ftantly attending at the Exchequer, called Clericiis or Magijier Scrip- 
torij, who was, as it feems, a chief Clerk of the Chancery (tc) ; and 

Joh. Rot. 3. b. Tit. London. & Middel- fpeahhig of Domefday-book j Sigilli Regij 

Tex; Gives Londonise, Petrus le Due & comes eft indiviJuus in Thefauro. Ib.L.l. 

Tomas Aldermannus pro eis, reddunt com- c. 15. Et ib. cap. 13, fef 14. 

potum de CCC 1 BI. dc firmaComitatuum. (j) Ib. L. i. cap. 6. tit. Quis fit tenor 

(o) C.ip. 20. fcLl. 5. Vol. 2. Brcvium Regis fadtorumad Scaccarium 5;c. 

(p) This ufage may fcrve to explain, as it [t) Sed inde non recedit [the great Seal 

might peradventure give rife to, the phrafe co- was not removed out of the Exchequer^ nih cum 

ram Rege in Canccllaria fua, praecepto Juftitine ab Inferiore ad Superius 

{q) Cap. 5. feil. 4. Scaccarium a Thefaurario vel Camerario 

(r) Propter Reglje imaginis excellentiam defertur, ad explenda folum negotia Scac- 

qua in Sigillo ejus de Thefauro individua carij &c. Ib. L. 1. cap. 4. tit. Q^iid ad 

lege fervatur. Dialog, inter Magijl. I3 Dif- Cancellarium. 

cip. in Jppend. L. I. cap. 4. (ti) Cap. z\.fe£l. 4, ad ann. 5. i^ 6. Ric. 

Ad ipfum [Cancellarium] pertinet cufto- I. Et Laurentio. 

dia Sigilli Regij quod eft in Thefauro &c. {w) In fine fcdilis illius refidet Clericus 

lb. L. I. cap. ^. tit. Quid ad Cancella- qui Scriptorio praeeft; & hie ex officio. Jb, 

rium. L, 1. cap, 5. Ut noveris quo. 

Porio Liber ille de quo qusris {he is 

a Clerk 

chap. IV. if,^^ Kings <?/* England. 


a Clerk called Scriptor Rottili tfe Cancellaria [x). The Dialogue fets 
forth the Duty of this Clericus Scriptorij, or the Nature of his Office. 
" He was to find fit Perlons to write the Rolls of the Chancery, 
" and the Writs that were made at the Exchequer, and likewifc 
" the Summonces ; and to take Care that the fame were done well 
(y). And in a very ancient Memorid concerning the Conftitu- 
tion of the King's Houfe, which by the Care of Alexander dc 
Swereford [z) was regiftcred in the Red-Book, this Clerk is taken 
Notice of amongft the Officers of the Chancery; and is placed next, 
in Order, to the Chancellor. " This is, faith that Book, the Con- 
" ftitution of the King's Houfe. The Chancellor has v Shillings a- 
" Day, and fo much in Simnells, Wine, and other fmall Things. 
Then it immediately follows ; " The Magljler Scriptorij had at 
" firll: X Pence a-Day, and one feafoned Simnell, and half a Sextarv 
" of the Vinum expenfabile, and one large Candle and xij Pieces of 
" Candle : but K. Henry (faith he) raifed Robert de Sigillo's Allow- 
" ance fo much, that at the Time of that King's Death he had ij 
" Shillings and one Sextary of the Houfhold Wine, and one feafoned 
" Simnell, and one Taper, and xxiiij Pieces of Candle. Then it 
immediately follows ; " The Chaplain [under the Chancellor] who 
•* has the care of the Chapell and Reliques : to him and to the other 
under-Officers of the Chapell an Allowance was made in the Man- 
ner hereunder exprefl!ed [a). In the 14th Year of K. Henry III, 
Robert de St. Medard Clerk was appointed by the King by a clofe 
Writ, to write at the Exchequer for Ralf Bifhop of Chichejler the 
King's Chancellor [U). One would be apt to think, the Chancery 


Capellanus Cuftos Capellae & Reliquia- 
rum. Conridium duorum hominum & iiij 
Servientes Capellae unufquifq; duplicem ci- 
bum. Et duo Summarij Capellae unufquifq; 
denarium in die & unum denarium ad fer- 
randum in menfe. Ad fervicium Capellae 
ij Cereos die Mercurij & ij die Sabbati. Et 
unaquaq; no£te j cereum coram Reliquijs, & 
XXX fruftra Candel. & j Galon, de vino claro 
.^d miflam & un. fextar. de vino expenfabili 
die Abfolutionis ad lavandum Altare. In die 
Pafchas ad Communionem j fextar. de vino 
claro & j de expenfabili. Lib. Ruh.fol. mtato 
XXX, a. col. 2. 

(b) Rex mittit Baronibus de Scaccario 
Robertum de Sanfto Mcdardo Clericum, ad 
fcribendum ad Scaccariuin Regis, loco Ni- 
cholai de Nevill, nomine R. Cyceftrenfis 
Epifcopi Cancellarij Regis. Et mandatuin 
Cc 2 eft 

(jf) Poft hunc alius Scriptor Rotuli de 
Cancellaria. lb. L. i. c. 5. Utnoveris quo. 

(y) lb. L. I. cap. 5. Tit. Qiiid ad Cleri- 
cum qui prseft Scriptorio. 

(z) Concerning him, fee the Epijile to the 
Lord Halifax, prefixed to the Dialogue. 

(a) Haec eft conftitutio Domus Regise. 
Canccllarius v fol. in die. Et in Simenell. 
Dominic. & ij Sal.. Et j Sextar. de vino 
claro, & j fextar. de vino expenfabili & u- 
num Cereum, &: xl fruftra Candel. 

Magifter Scriptorij. Primo x den. in 
die & j Siminell. fal. & dim. Sext. de vino 
expenfabili & j groffam candelam h xij fruf- 
tra Candel. Scd Rex H. crevit Rob. de 
Sigill. intantum quod die mortis Regis habe- 
bat ij fol. & i fext. vini expcnfabilis,Et j Si- 
minell. Sal. & j Cereolum & xxiiij fruftra 

196 Of the E X c H E Q^u E R, 6cc. Chap. IV. 

M'as feparated from the Exchequer at the latter End of K. Richard 
the firfVs Reign, or at the beginning of K. John's: becaufe about 
that Time they began, as it leems, to make diftind: Rolls of the 
Chancery in a Series of Years, to wit, Charter-rolls, Patent-rolls, 
Fine-rolls, and Clofe-rolls ; and to eftreat or certify the fame into 
the Exchequer. I cannot find, that in the preceding Times that 
Method was ufed. Nor indeed doth there feem to have been a Ne- 
celTity for eftreating the Chancery-rolls, whilfl the Chancellor with 
the great Seal was ufually refident at the Exchequer, and whilft the 
Adts of the Chancery cognifable in the Exchequer were tranfaifled 
at the Exchequer. Let me propofe a Conjedure. It appears [c)y 
that when K. Richard I. was in foreign Parts, William de Longchamp 
the King's chief Jufticier and Chancellor, was put out of his Office 
of chief Juflicier by the Power and Intrigue of John Earl of More- 
ton. After which, although he continued Chancellor for fome fliort 
Time, it is likely he did not attend and ad at the Exchequer as 
before. By which Means, the Bufinefs of the Chancery which ufed 
to be done at the Exchequer might, probably, be done in another 
Place, or might be put into a new Method. In which new or fe- 
parate Method it might afterwards continue -, as in Truth it hath 
ever fince continued, in this particular. I cannot fay, that the Se- 
paration of the Chancery from the Exchequer was brought about 
purely by the Means or in the Manner here mentioned. However, 
it is, I fuppofe, a happy Thing in the Event : becaufe thereby the 
Public have gained many Bundles of Chancery-rolls, which are very 
hiftorical and inftrudive. 

eft eifdem Baronlbus, quod, acceptaabeo- Weftmon. viij dieNovembris. CLi\. H.t^. 

dem Roberto debita & confueta fecuritate, m. 22. 

ipfum ad hoc recipiant. T, Rege apud {c) Fid. Cap. 2. fe^. 2, 


chap. V. Of the Barons of the Exchequer. 197 


Of the Pe?fons ivho fat in the Exchequer during this 

firfl Period. 

I. Explication cf the 'Terms here ufed^ 

II. Of the chief Jiijiicier. 

III. Of him and the other Barojis. 

IV. Of the Kings Chancellor.. 

V. Of the Treafurer.. 

I.y TAVING, In the IVth Chapter, confidered the ancient State 
J~J. of the Exchequer, from the Time of the Norman Conqueft, 
to the End of the Reign of K. John : let us now proceed to fpeak 
of the Perfons who prefided and fat in the Exchequer during the 
fame Period. At that Time, in propriety of Speech, the chief 
jufticier (in the King's Abfence) prefided at the Excliequer. For 
which Reafon the Dialogue ufually ftyleth him Prefident (a). But 
with him feveral others ufed to fit there. Sitting at the Exchequer is 
here to be underftood of the Barons or fuperior Officers ; whofe Ser- 
vice or Attendance there, was commonly (during this Period) fignified 
by the Phrafe, Sedendi ad Scaccarium (b). In Procefs of Time, the 
Phrafe fedendi or refidendi ad Scaccarium came to be ufed with more 
Latitude, and to fignify the Service not only of the fuperior Officers, 
but alfo That of others of a lower Rank : which Latter were then 
frequently ^^\&^ Kejidentes ad Scaccarium; as may appear hereafter 
(cj. At prefent, I am to fpeak of thofe Perfons only, who fat at 
the Exchequer as the King's great Officers : who were ufually called 
Barons of the Exchequer. It is to be underftood, that the Word 
Baro, Baron, hath been in feveral Ages ufed in many and different 
Significations. Sometimes Baro, in foreign Countries, fignified a 

(a) Dialog, in cake hujus operis, L. j.cap. (b) Pojihac, Cap. 20. fe£i. 8. Vol. 2. 

6. Cerno, quod te. Ibid, Porro Miles. (c) Cap. 20. fe^. 8. Vol. 2. 



Of the Barons 

Chap. V. 

Man (d). So alfo the Majorcs vajj'alli or VaJJaUi capkales of a Prince 
have been commonly called Barones ; probably becaufe they were 
the Princes Seigneurial Men or Hommes dc Foy ; his principal or chief 
Tenants ; who held Baronies or large Scigneuries of him, and were 
Peers in his Court. And in Eng/and thefe greater Vaffals were niofl 
properly or ufually denoted by the Word Barones : which is a Thing 
fo well known, that one need not produce Authorities in Proof of it. 
Again ; the greater Vaflals or Tenants of Earls Barons and Prelates 
were fometimes ftyled Barones- fej. The Word Barones was alio ufed 
in a lower Senfe, for Perfons of comparatively mean Condition. 
The Men of Cities, Towns, and Burghs, -are ilyled Barones, the 
Barons of fuch a City, Town, or Burgh. The Citizens of London 
■dveiiylcd Honuncs, Ches, Burgen/es, and Ba?'0?2esy Londonice (f). The 


{d) Sive fie b.-iro five fcemiiia. Hcrold. 
hegg. AUmar.n. p. 78. ///. 77. (J fcjfmi alil>i. 

Amongft the Franks or Saliques, certain 
Lawyers voere called Sachibarones ; hecaiife 
they were (fay the Gloffarijli] facharuin i. e. 
caufarum periti, Meti Jkilful in CanJ'es or 
Fleas. Sachibarones, tit. LVII. alijs Sagi- 
barones & Salcbarones. Saech five faeck 
caufTa eft de qua collitigatur. Sunt ergo 
Sachibarones, Jurifperiti, viri cordati ac 
prudentes, facharumfeu controverfiarum di- 
rimendarum fi:ientes. IVendelin. Glojjcir. Su- 
liciim, p. 175. 

Que fue varon de gran fantitad y reli- 
gion (a man of great fanSIity). Anal de Arag. 
de Surita, T. l. f. 29. a. ad ami. 1089. 

— per la muerte del Infante Don San- 
cho fu hermano, y no quedar hijo varon, 
[no Man-child furviving). lb. f. 35. a. ad 
ann. 1 106. 

Varon de Dios, [a man of God, that is, a 
prophet). El vieio T'eflam. 1. de Ics Reyes, 
cap. 17 ■u. 18, 24. t?V. 

Omnes hi ao exequiasfamofi Baronis (v/z. 
cf K. William the Conqutrot) convcnerunt. 
Ord. Fit. ap. Duchefn. de Script. Norm. p. 662, 
ad ann. 1087. 

(e) Form. Anglic, nu. II. LXXXIII, &c. 

R. Dei gratia Lundonfienfis] Epifcopus, 
Dileclis in Chrifto filijs Decano c{ Archi- 
diaconis & toti Capitulo S. Pauli, & omni- 
bus Baronibus'ti P.iuli, & omnibus fi- 
delibus & filijs S. Ecclefia per Epifcopatum 
Lund[onienlemj conflitutisj falutein. Sci- 


ant omncs tam prKfentes quam futuri, quo- 
niam in audicntia & praefentia noiira per 
barones noflros Si per legales hoinines Ec- 
clcfias nollrs Clericos & Laicos, evidcntcr 
& fine omni ambiguitate inquifitum & re- 
cognitum eO:, quoniam Ranri[u]fus] Peu- 
rellus, cujus corpus in noftra rcquiefcii Ec- 
clefia, dedit Deo 6i S. Paulo, pro falate aiii- 
mas fuae, in perpetuam elemoi'ynam terrani 
quae vocatur Edburghetona, ad ufum lumi- 

naris Ecclefis- : terram praefatam Deo 

& S. Paulo & Decano & Capitulo, ad eun- 
dem ufum luminaris ad quod d.ita eft, tan- 
quam fuam propriam grataiiter concedi- 

mus . Datum Lund[onias] anno incar- 

nacionis Dominicae MCXLIi°, Epifcopatus 
noftri primo ; prasfentibus, fratribus & filijs 
noftris Radulfo Decano, & Ricardo Rufl^o, 
&RicardoBelm[eis],& Ailwordo Archidia- 
conis, Rogero Bruno Dapifero, Willelnr.o 
de Hoccend., & Willelmo filio ejus, & Of- 
berto Mafculo, & Laurentio Bucc[uinte], 
in folempnitate Pafchali. Ex MS. penes De- 
can. & Cap. S. Pauli Lond., notato l^.fol. 39. 
[Mihi copiam fecit R. tf CI. V. Matthatus 
Hutton rf^ Aynho S. T. P.] 

(f) Wibertus Prior & Conventus Eccle- 
Cix Chrifti Cantuarise, probis hominibus 
Lundoniae Francis & Anglis, falutem. Form. 
Angl. nu. CCLXXXVI. 

Gives appellantur in niemhranis authcntieis 

H. Rex AngI[orumJ, Epifcopis , 

& Burgenfibus Londonia?, falutem. Form. 


chap. V. of the E x c h e q_u e r. iq9 

Men of the Cinque Ports were ftyled Barones and Homines qimiqi 
portnum (g) ; tiie former Name continuing in Ufe at this Day. la 
hne, as the Word Baron (ignified Dignity, fo it was fometimes taken 
in an evil Senfe. In Ita/y, that Name was given to certain Vaga- 
bonds (the Baroni di campo dijiore) who being dcflitute of Fortunes 
or Employment, lived by Robberies and Outrage [h). Thus the 
Word Bciron, had anciently an equivocal Meaning, and was ufed for 
Perfons of a very different Rank and Condition. But I leave this 
Matter to the Gloffarifls. 

It may be obferved, that feveral of the great Men or Peei'S were 
wont to affift, by the King's command, at the ordinary Pleas and 
Judgments m his Court; and were ftyled, fometimes yw/?/V/rt? and 
yujliciarij Regis, and fometimes Baro7ies or Barones Regis. So it was in 
the King's Exchequer. The fame Perfons (or many of them) who 
were employed as Jufticiers in the King's Court, were ufually employed 
as Jufliciers or B.nons of the Exchequer. But when they acfled at the 
Exchequer, they were moft generally ftyled Barones Scaccarij. Ne- 
verthelcfs fometimes Ba70 and Jujiiciarius have been ufed without any 
perceivable Difference. Thus K. Stephen by his Charter granted and 
rendred to Miles de Gloitcejler and his Heirs, the Honour of Gloucejier 
and Brecknock, and all his other Lands and Tenements, in Sheriff- 
wicks and other Things, as fully as he held the fame on the Day of 
K. Henry the Firft's Death : and I have covenanted (faith the King 
in that Charter) with Miles, ficut Baroni ^ yiijiiciario meo, that I will 
not implead him for any of the Lands which he held at the Time of 
K. Henry the Firft's Death (/). Robert de Tat t ejhal devzincd the Town 


jfngl. num. Z„yF. Recognitio Robert! le Baud 
Militis & Michaelis de Golofa Burgenfis 
Lonuonias. HiL 18. E. 1. Rot. — b. 

Gaufridus Martel Baronibus Londoniae, 
& omnibus hominibus &c. Formul. Angl. 
nu. CCXC. Major Londoniae & alij Barones 
Londoniffiattornaverunt&c. jW^OTor. b. H. 3. 
Rot. 5. a. 

(g) Barones dkimUtr pajfim, 

inifericordia hominum quinq; por- 

tuum . Mag. Rot. 4. H. 3. Kancia. 

[h) Come queita voce fignitica dominio 
& dignita, cofi volgarmente e qiiafi per 
tutta Jtaliaprefa molte volte in cattiua parte ; 
onde baroni di campo di fiore fi chiamano 
in Roma una certa forte di mafcalzoni, i 
quali non havendo arte alcuna vivono di 

rubberie & di triftizie. Ammir. delle Fam,. 
Nob. Nenp. P. I. p. 27. c. 

Ei vid. annot. ad Dialog, de Scacc. L. 2. 
cap. 19. [pp.) 

(i) Stephanus Rex Angl., Archiepifcopis 
Sic. Sciatis me reddidifle & conceflille Mi- 
loni Gloccftri.-E & hrredibus fuis port eum, 
in fcodo & hiereduate, totum Honorem fuum 
de Gloceftiia & Brechenion, & omnes terras 
fuas & tenaturas fuas, in Vicecomitatibus & 
alijs rebus, ficut ens tenuit die qua Rex Hen- 
ricus fuit vivus & mortuus. Quarevolo&c. 
Et fciatis quoniam ego ut Dominus & Rex 
conventionavi ei ficut Baroni & Jufticiario 
meo, quod eum in placitum non ponam 
quamdiu vixero de aliqua tenatura quam te- 
nuiflct die qua Rex Henricus fuit vivus & 


200 Of the Barons. Chap. V. 

of IVutton againft: William Fitz-Hervy, in the King's Court, before 
^W/fr Archbifhop oi Roan, Richard Bxiho^oi Lojjdon, Geoffrey Fit z- 
Pierre, and others fhe King's Jufliciers [& alijs JuJIiciarijs Domini 
Regis;) and the faid Wiitidm acknowledged before them [coram prcc- 
diBis Baronibiis) that the faid Town of Wutton was the Right and 
Inheritance of the faid Robert (Ji). The Perfons then, who prefidcd 
and fat at the Exchequer during this firfl Period, were the King's 
Jufticier and Barons ; or (if you pleafe) his great Officers of State 
andjuftice both of the Clergy and Laity. There, fat the King's chief 
Jufticier, his Chancellor and Treafurer, with feveral of the Jufticiers 
of his Court: and there, fome other great Officers of the King's Pa- 
lace, to wit, his Conftable, Marlhall, and Chamberlains, adted, 
either in Perfon or by their Subftitutes. And when they fat at the 
Exchequer, they have been comprehended under the general Name 
of Barons of the Exchequer. 

In the ancient Times, the feveral Perfons who were employed by 
the King as Jufticiers in his Court or Jufticiers Itinerant, ufed in 
their relpeftive Spheres or Places to take Care of the King's Reve- 
nue. They demifed or let-out the King's Manors; they affifed the 
Aids, Efcuages, and Tallages; they feized and certified Efcheats ; 
they admitted Fines and Ohlatas ; they eftreated Amerciaments and 
other Debts ; and the like. However, the Care and Management of 
the Crown-revenue did principally and ultimately belong to the 
chief Jufticier, Treafurer, Barons, and other great Officers, who 
were by the King's command appointed to adt at the Exchequer ; 
as appeareth by feveral Inft:ances in this Hiftory. 

II. Firft, there was the King's chief Jufticier. Concerning him, 
as a great Officer of the King's Court, we have already difcourfed (/), 
And fomething muft be fpoken of him here, with Referenc to the 
Exchequer : at which Place he ordinarily prefided, as chief of the 

mortuus, neq; hseredem fuum. Teftibus, Galfrido filio Petri, & alijs Jufticiarijs De- 
Arch. Cantuar., & Epifcopo Wint., & E- mini Regis, Villain de Wutton veifus Wil- 
pifcopo Sar., & H. Bigot, h Roberto filio lelmum rilium Hervei ; h quod idem VVil- 
Ricardi, & Ing. de Saf, &W. dePont., & lelmus recognovit coram prasdictis Baroni- 
N \or S] filio Johannis, apud Radingum. bus, praefatam Villam de Wutton rum per- 
ExTV. Dugd. Colleilan. MSS. in Bibl. JJhmo!. tinentijs efle jus & haereditatem iphus Ro- 

Oxon. L. fol. iq. a. {ex Mag. Regi/lro Car- berti . Mag. Rot. b. R. i. Rot. ii. b. 

tar. in Offic. Due. Lane']. tit. Everwichfcira. 

(k) Robertus de Tattefhala r c de una Habet etiam [fc. Rex] Curiam fuam & 

marca, ut fcribatui in Magiio Rotulo, quod Jufticiarios fuos refidentes apud tjcaccarium. 

dilrationavit in Curia Regis apud Weftmo- Fleta L. 1. c. 2. §. 6. 

nafterium, coram W. Rothomagenfi Archie- [I) Chap. 2. Seli. 2. 
pifcopo, Ricardo Londonienfi Epifcopo, 

2 Barons 

Chap. V. 

of tJje E X C H E Q_U E R. 


Barons there. Geoffrey Torchard fined in iiij Marks, for not appear- 
ing before the Juflicier at the Exchequer (/;;). The Jufticier let to 
ferm the King's Manors (;z). He held Pleas at the Exchequer (o). 
He made the due Allowances to Accomptants at the Exchequer. For 
Example : The following Allowances were made to feveral Ac- 
comptants, either by Writ or Award of the chief Jufticier : to the 
Sheriffs of London and Middlefex for the Corrody and Equipage of an 
Approver (/>) ; to the Sheriff of Hantfiire, for Provifion for the King's 
Horfes (qj ; to the Sheriff of Kcnf, for providing of Arms and 
Utenfils (r) ; to Bartholomeiu de Glanvill, for his Expences, and to 
Stephen de Ely for his Livery (j) ; to the Sheriff of Worce/ierJJ.nre, for 
bringing the Head of an outlawed Perfon to IVeJhninJier (tj. He 
granted Difcharges, according to Law and Reafon, of fuch Debts as 
were demanded of Parties on behalf of the Crown. William ^zr\o^ 
Arundel was difcharged of xxxviij /. by Vertue of thfe Writ of Hubert 
Archbifhop of Canterbury grounded on the King's Writ de Ultra 
mare fu). Henjy de Wichenton was charged with a Fine of Lx 
Marks, for the Cuftody and Marriage of the Daughter of Philipp de 
Niewebote with her Inheritance j but by the Writ or Precept of Hu- 
bert Archbifhop of Canterbury chief Jufticier, he was difcharged of 
that Fine; and it was fet in Chzvge n^on Ralf de Gernemue ; the 
King having granted to him the faid Cuftody and Marriage for the 

(m) Gaufridus Torchard debet iiij mar- 
cas, quia defecit venire coram Jufticia ad 
Scaccarium. Mag, Rot. 12. H. 2. Rot. 4. 
e. Not. & Dab. 

(n) Walterus de Conftancijs r c de xlj I 
& xiiij s & j d, de firmis Maiieriorum Ho- 
noris de Arundel, quse miffa fuerunt ad fir- 
mam per Juftic. Mag. Rot. 26. H. 2. Rot. 

(e) Nova Placita & Novae Conventiones 
per Juftic[iarium] ad Scaccarium : Idem 
Vicecomes r c de dimidia marca, de mife- 
ricordia Radulfi de Bakemora ; Et de xx s 
de mifericordia Ricardi filij Brieni ; And for 
the Mifericordias of other ferfons named in the 
Roll. Meg. Rot. 23. H. 2. Rot. i. a. 

(p) Et in corredio & apparatu Robert! de 
Ticheham probatoris Regis, xv) s, Per 
Juftitiam. Mng. Rot. 9. H. 2. Rot. 7. a. 
Londonia (jf Mldd. 

(q) Et lid corrcdium equorum Regis, ix 1, 
per breve Comitis Lcgreceftris & Ricardi 
de Luei. Mag. Rot. 9. H. 2. Rot. 5. I/. 

Vol. L 

(r) Et pro portandis armis Coterellorum 
de mari ad Cantuariam & retro, xviii d ; 
Et pro CC Picoifis, xxiij s. & ix d ; per 
Ricardum de Luci. Mag. Rot. 13. H. 2. 
Rot. 13. a. Ghent. 

{s) Et Bartholomseo de Glanvill xx mar- 
cas, ad Cuftodiam Caftelli deOreford ; per 
breve Ricardi de Luci : Et Stephano de Ely, 
X s, de liberatione fua ; per breve ejufdcm. 
lb. Rot. 3. b. tit. Honor Eyae. 

(<) Et Thomas de Prcftewude qui attulit 
apud Weftmonafterium Caput Willelmi de 
Elleford utlagati, ij marcas, Per breve H. 
Cantuarienfis Archicpifcopi. Mag. Rot. 7. 
R. I. Rot. I. b. IVireceJhtfdra. 

(u) In Perdonis ipfi Comiti [Willelmo de 
Arundel] xxxviij 1, per breve Cantuarienfis 
Archicpifcopi per breve Regis de Ultramare, 
de DCC & Lx marcis, quod Comes attulit 
Archiepifcopo define fuo, Et Q^ e. Ala^, 
Rot. -J.R. I. Rot. 6. a. Norf. y Suff. lit. 
De Scutagio WalliK. At this time the Anb' 
bijhop xvai chief "Jujiider, 

D d 



Of the B A R o N s 

Chap. V. 

fame Fine (w). Robert de Hareccntrty being charged with half a 
Mark for Scutage, was acquitted thereof by Writ of Hubert Arch- 
biiliop of Canterbury Jufticier (x). The Archbifliop was at this 
Time abroad with the King at the Ifle of ^W^/z and at Liindy fy). 
A Debt of cc Marks was fet-ofF from Gundred late Wife of Geoffrey 
Hofe, and charged upon Robert de Tn^goz, by Writ of the JuiUcier 
(2;). Peter de Schidimor Sheriff of £)or/^/ and Sotnerjet, being charged 
with an Increment of the Ferm of one of thofe Counties, fined with 
the Jufticier to be acquitted of the Increment ; and was acquitted 
accordingly [a). Richard de Leicejlre was charged with x /. Fine for 
the Office of Controller in the Town of Southampton : but the Debt 
was fet-ofF from him by the Jufticier [b). Robert de Harecoiirt was 
charged with xxxix/, and x j-. for the Tallage of the Bilhoprick of 
Lincohi ; whereof he alledged that only vj /. and xl d. were to be 
charged on hin>, and that L Marks were to be charged on Henry 

{vj) Heiiricus deWichenton debet Lxmar- 
«;is, pro habenda Cuftodia h Donatione filias 
Philippi de Nievvcbotc cum hsereditate fua. 
ScJ poftea prEceptum eft per Breve H. Can- 
luarieiifis Archicpilcopi, quoj idem Henri- 
cus attulit Baronibus, ut nomen Radulfi de 
Gernemu fcribatur pro nomine Henrici, cui 
prxdidla Cuilodia & Donatio concefla eft 
per praediiflum finem, per Plegios quos in- 
vcnit, fcilicet Tomam filium Simonis de x 
niarcis, & Johannenide Cornherde dex mar- 
cis, <?i Walterum filium Walteri de x mar- 
tis, & Oft)ertum de Lone;o Campo de x 
marcis, & Johannem Monachum de x mar- 
cis, h fuper prxdidi^um feodum x marc. Et 
debet amodo prrediflus Fitiis apra;di£to Ra- 
duHo requiri, Miig. Rot. 8. R. I. Rot. 4. 
ti. JFarnvh. is' Lelrcejlrefcira. 

(.v) Robertus de Harecurt debet dimidiam 
nurcam de Scutagio. Sed habet Quietan- 
tiani per Breve H. Cantuarieniis Archiepif- 
eopi, quod eft in foruio Marefcalli de Leir- 
ceftrefcira & Warewicfcira deanno prseteri- 
to; quia Wiilclmus iilius ejus fuit ultra mare 
J ro ipfo in fervitio Regis. Mag. Rot. g. R. 
I. Rot. 3. b. Oxencfordfcira. 

(y) Mag. Rot. 9. R. 1. Rot. 8. b. Tit. 
GlocaJIrefcira, & Tit. Oblata fa£ta coram 
Rege ii H. Cantuar. Archiepifcopoapud In- 
lulam (!'■ Andeli & apud Lundam. 

(z) Gundreda quondam uxor Galfridi 
Hofc debet CC marcas, pro habenda cufto- 


diaGalitidi haeredis fui, cum tota terra fua, 
donee a,'tatis fuerit ; & pro matitagio ipfiu« 
ha;redis per conhlium parentum ^ arnico- 
rum fuorum perDominum Cantuarienfem : 
Sed requirendss funt a Roberto de Trefgoz, 
per Breve Jufticiarij, quod eft in foruio Ma- 
refcalli, quia habet cuftodiam iilius Tern« 
cum haerede. Alag. Rot. i. J. Rot. 13. b-. 

[a) Petrus de Schidimor debet L marcas 
de Cremento Comitatus de dimidio anno ix, 
Et C marcas de anno prsterito, Et L 
marcas de hoc dimidio anno : Sed poftea 
fmivit cum Jufticiario per x marcas, ne prx'- 
didia Crementa exigerentur ab eo, quia 
quando recepit Comitatus ncluit ullo modo 
praediftum Crementum reddere, fed femper 
contradixit : Et ita confideratum eft, quod 
ampliusde prasdit-Tiis Crementis non fummo- 
neatur. Mag. Rot. i. J. Rot. 17. a. Dor- 
fete & Suinerfete. 

(b) Ritardus de Leirccftria debet x libras, 
pro Officio fuohabendo in Villa de Suthan- 
ton, quoJ antecefiores fui habuerunt, fci- 
licet de tailliando contra Prspofitum Vills 
de hoc quod captum fuerit ad opus Regis. 
Sed recordatum eft per Jufticiarium, quod 
non debet inde fummoncri, quia Robertus 
Hardwin finivit cum Rege pro prasdiifto Of- 
ficio. Mag. Rot. 2. J. Rot. 14, b. Sud~ 

Cojieln : 

Chap. V. 

of the E X c n E c^u e r. 


Cojlcm : but the King's Jufliicier declared and certified by his Writ, 
that the faid Henry was tallaged at no more than v Marks for the 
Fee which he held of the BiHioprick of Lincoln, and upon piying the 
V Marks, ought to be difcharged {c). The Abbat and Monks of Bl'c 
were charged with C Marks, for a Fine which tht-y made before 
the Jufticier of Efig'aiid, for certain Liberties of the Forelt : but 
the Jufticier declared, that Hugh dc Nevill had received the laid 
A'Toncy ; and therefore it was to be required of him, and to be 
let-oft from the Abbat and Monks (J). Geoffrey Fitz-Feter chief 
Jufticier, by his Writ (grounded on the King's Writ diredled to him) 
commanded the Barons of the Exchequer, to difcharge Robert Fitz- 
IValter and his Wife, and their Anceftours and Heirs, according to 
the Cuftom of the Exchequer, of all Debts due from them to the 
Jeu^s (e). 

III. But though the Jufticier was chief Man in the Exchequer, That 
did not exclude the other Barons. They had their Part alfo in the 
Affairs tranfafted there. They recorded (as the Phrafe was) at the 
Exchequer, when prefent, and fent their Writs, when abfent, to the 

{c) Robertus de Harecurt [debet] xxxix 
libras & x s, de Tallagio Epifcopatus Lin- 
collienfis de anno prsterito; De quibus, vj 1 
& xl d, funt fupcr ipfum Robertum, Et L 
niarcas funt fuper Henricum Coftein, ficut 
idem Robertusdicit : Sed recordatumcft per 
Jufticiarium, & per Breve fuutn quod eft in 
ibrulo Marefcalli, Qiiod praedirtus Henricus 
non fuit tailliatus nil! ad v maicas, de fcodo 
fcilicet quod tenet de Epifcopatu, & perillas 
V marcas debet ellc quietus. Ma^. Ret. ^-'J- 
Rot. 20. n. 

[d) Abbas & Monachi de Bccco debent 
C marcas, perquas Finem fecerunt cuin Juf- 
ticiario Ang]iae, pro habendis xlviij acris 
de Novo Eil'arto ad pcrticam Regis, & ij a- 
crisde Veteri Eflarto, in Manerio deWeden, 
hberis & quietis de Afl'arto, & leguardo, & 
vifu Foreftarioruin, h quod homines ftii de 
praedicto Manerio fint liberi & quieti de 
Swanimot inperpetuum, & pro habenda iiide 
Carta Regis. Sed recordatum eft per Juili- 
ciarium, quod Hugo de Nevill eas recepit ; 
De quibus ipfe debet rdpondere, Mag. 
Rot. 5. 7- R^t- 10. b. EJJex y Hurtford- 
fcira. Item Nova Oblata. 

(f) Robertus filius Walter! debet dimidi- 
^m marcam, ut Muiidatum quod G. filius 

Petri Jufticiarius Regis fecit Baroiiibus de 
Scaccario fcribatur in Magno Rotulo, quod 
fuit in ha;c verba. G. tilius Petri Comes 
Effexias, Baronibus de Scaccario falutem ; 
Mandatum Domini Regis in hcec verba fui- 
cepimus : J. &c G. he falutem ; Sciatis 
quod qiiietavimus dilcfto &: fideli noftroRo- 
berto filio Walter! omnia debita quae pater 
ejus vel antecefTores fui vel ipfe Robertus 
debuerunt Judaeis & debent ; Omnia etiam 
debita quse uxor ejus vel pater & antecef- 
forcs uxoris fuse debuerunt & debent Judaeis, 
unde idem Robertus tenctur refpondere; Et 
idco vobis mandamus, quod ipfum inde 
quietum efTe faciatis (\nt dilatione, & Car- 
tas & Cyrographa de prsedi£tis dcbitis, five 
fint in manu noftra five in manu Judreorum, 
ei fine dilatione reddi faciatis &c : Et idea 
vobis mandamus, quod fccundum formatn 
prsfcriptam M;:ndatum Domini Regis exe- 
quainiiii ; & piaedi£los R. & uxorcm ejus, 
iiecnon 3j anteceffores & hasredcs illorum, 
depra'dJctiidebitis fccundum con fuctudincm 
Scaccarij quietos inrotulari faciatis. T. G. 
de Boclandc ij° die Maij. Marefcallus hubct 
breve. Mag. Rot. 4. 7. R.^t. b. b. NorfoLh. 
&■ Sudfilch-. 

D d 2 



Of the Barons 

Cliap. V. 

Reft of the Barons, touching fuch Things as were within their Cog- 
nifance. They awarded Relpites or Dilcharges of Debts, as Jufticc 
nnd Rcafon required; and in Sum, did what pertained to their Office, 
in the Exchequer, for the Service of the Crown and Relief of the 
People. Some few Inftances of this may be recolledled. Ernald Son 
of Fromund had two Marks of Silver allowed or remitted to him, by 
Judgment of the Barons of the Exchequer (f). Turjlin Sheriff" of 
Hantpire had Allowance made to him at the Exchequer, of feveral 
Sums by him difburfed, for the Livery of the King's Wolf- 
hunters, Hawkers, and Falconers, and other Things [g). Gervafe 
de Cornhell one of the Sheriffs of London had Allowance of Money 
paid to William Cade., and for the Livery of the King's Son, by Order 
oi William Fitz-Aldelin {h). Nicolas de Magena had a Debt of CC 
Marks refpited during the King's Pleafure by Order of Manfir BiJ'et 
(i). Certain Land of one Atheliza, which fhe held of the Priory 
of Chrijlchurch Canterbury by hereditary Right, was taken-in to for- 
tify the [King's] Caftle there; and thereupon, the King's Jufticiers, 
to wit, Richard de Luci, Richard Archdeacon of PoiSiiers, and Henry 
Fitz-Gerold, ordered an Exchange fliould be given to her, of certain 
Lands, or Rents belonging to the King in the City of Canterbury, 
equal in Point of Value and Freedom to her faid Land : which was 
accordingly done {k), Stephen Ridel undertook at the Exchequer to 


(f) In perdonjs, per confiderationem 
B.ironum de Scaccario, Ernaldo filio Fro- 
mundi de Gepefwic, ij marcse argenti. Mag. 
Rot. 5. Ste. Rot. 10. b. 

{g) HanteCcira. Turftinus Vicecomes 
r c de firma dc Hantefcira ; In thefauro CC 
& qiiater xxl Bl. ; Et in Elcmofina noviter 
conftituta Militibus de Templo j marca ar- 
genti ; Et in liberatione Lupariorum C s, 
per bjevc Baron. Scaccarij ; Et in corredio 
Reginae xlj 1 & viii s & vij d, per breve e- 
jufdem Rcginas ; Et in liberatione Laidetti, 
(Sc in profternendo Caftellum Epifcopi Win- 
tonieiifir., vj 1 & xij d, prscepto Regis j 
Et in liberatione Accipitrarioram & Falco- 
nariorum Regis, xxij I, per Willelmum 
Cumin ; Jnd in other things. Mag. Rot. 2. 
H. 2. Rot. l\. a. 

(h) Gervafms de Cornhella r c de C & 
XXX 1 & iiij s & vijd, de Dono Civitatis : 
In Soltis WillelmoCade C & xvj 1 ; Et in 
liberatione Filij Regis, xiiij 1 & jiij s &vij d, 

per Willelmum filium Aldelinij Et Q. e» 
Alag. Rot. 6. H. 2. Rot. 2. a. 

(i) Nicolaus de Magena debet CC marcas 
dc placitis Willelmi filij Johannis. Sed funt 
in refpeclu per breve Regis quamdiu Regi 
placuerit, per Manefferum Bifet. Mag. Rot^ 
10. H. 2. Rot. I. a. Heref. in IVal. 

(k) Conventus Ecclefias Chrifti Cantua- 
rias. Omnibus Fidelibus S. Matris Ecclefia» 
falutem. Notum efle volumus pra;fentibus 
& futuris, quod conceflimus huic Atheliz» 
Corredium unum in Curia noftra quamdiu 
vixerit, videlicet fmgulis diebus duos pianos 
panes & duas juftas ad menfuram Lanfranci 
de cervifia Milltum, & unain fcutellam pifa- 
rum, & alteram de cibo Laiteo quando Con- 
ventus ilium habebit ; Et de uno generalL 
ferculo quod ipfo die Conventus habuerit 
dabitur ei quantum unus Moiiachus habere 
debet. Conceffimus etiam ei beneficium & 
focietatem Ecclefia noftrae, & Sepulturani 
ad obitum fuum ficut Sorori noftrse. Ipfa 


Chap. V. of the E x c h e q_u e r. 205 

pay a Sum of xxix/ xiij s. for Earl 'John. And Stephen was accord- 
ingly charged therewith by Award of the King's Chancellor Trea- 
furer and other Barons (/). About the Year 1198 [9. Ric. I.] there 
were Bifhops, Abbots, and Barons, adling at the Exchequer. At 
that Time, the King took an Aid of v / for every Carue or Hide of 
Land in England. And the Money arifing thereby was to be ac- 
compted for at the Exchequer, before the Bifhops, Abbots, and Ba- 
rons, appointed to manage that Revenue [m). Fulk Painel flood 
charged with a Fine of CCC and Lix /. for the Honour of Banton. 
But it appearing to the chief Jufticier and other Barons, that this 
Fine was comprehended in another greater Fine wherewith Fulk was 
charged in the Roll of this Year, they difcharged him of the faid 
lefler Fine («). Robert Adam/on had a Debt of one hundred fourfcore 
and eighteen Pounds fix Shillings and lix Pence fet-off from him 


vera dedit nobis in perpetuum redditum tres 
iblidos quos habebat de Forgable dc quinq; 
manfuris quas tenebat de nobis pro quatuor 
lolidis annuatim. llloe autem v manfurie 
funt in angulo retro Clocarium iioftium 
qux datae fuerunt nobis & huic miilieri in 
concambium pro quadam terra extra Wiver- 
gate juxta fofl'atum Turris quam praedidta 
JVlulicr & anteceffores ejus de nobis tcnere 
Iblebant haereditario jure, Reddcntes nobis 
inde fmgulis annis quatuer folidos, & babe- 
bant infuper ad opus fuum valentiam trium 
folidorum. Et quia eadem terra aflumpta 
tuit ad effbrciandain Turrim extrinfecus, 
praeceperunt Jufticix Regis, fcilicet Ricar- 
dus de Luci, & Ricardus Archidiaconus 
Pictavienfis, h Henricus filius Geroldi, dari 
praedi£tae Mulieri Concambium in Civitate 
de redditu Regis, ad valentiam fa?pcdi<5tae 
terrip, & ejufdem libertatis, ad tenendum 
de nobis hereditario jure pro quatuor foli- 
dis annuatim, ficut aliam terram tenebat. 
Et fic per confiderationem & juranientuni 
proborum hominum Civitatis, affignatae no- 
bis ii huic Mulieri fuerunt in coiaunibium 
V ilia; manfurae, quse reddebant ad firmam 
Regis vij folidos & j denarium : videlicet 
terra filiorum Wlnodi de Chert reddebat 
xvj denarios, terra Everwaker h Camei xx 
dcnarios, terra Piffebolle xvii denarios, 
terra Willelmi filij Gregorij xij denarios, 
terra Lifwini Kenthing xx denarios : ita 
quod quantum remanebat huic Mulieri de 

vij iftis folidis, id eft res folidos quos habe- 
bat de Forgable dedit ipfa Ecclefioe noftrae 
ficut diximiis in perpetuam poffeflionem, 
Jiberam femper h quietam ab omnibus hae- 
redibus fuis — . Ex autogr. in archivo Ecclef. 
Metrof. Gantuar. 

(/) Lancaftra : Gillcbertus Pipardus r c 
de CC 1 numcro, de firma dc Lancaftra : 
In Thcfauro xll & xiijs numero: Et in 
Tcrris datis Willelmo dc Valeines x 1 in 
Cofho ; and the rejl ti others : Et debet 
xxix 1 & xiij s. Sed requircndi funt a St€- 
phano Ridel, qui cepit in manu coram Can- 
cellario, & Thelaurario, & alijs Baronibus 
Scaccarii, ad reddendum illos pro Comite 
Johanne qui eos habuerat. Mag. Rot. i. 
R. I. Rot. I. b. m. 2. 

(m) Eodem anno Ricardus Rex Anglia 
accepit de unaquaq; carucata terrae fiv& 
hyda totius Angliic, quinq; folidos de Auxi- 
lio. Houcd. P. 2. />. 778. n. 50. Hxc 
pecunia recipiebatur per nianus duorum le- 
galium Militum dc fino;ulis Ilundicdis, & 
per manum Ballivi de Hundredo ; &L ipfi 
inde refponderunt Vicecomiti ; h per pr*- 
diflos Rotulos refpondebat Vi(ecomcs inde 
ad Scaccarium, coram Epifcopis, Abbati- 
bus & Baronibus ad hoc aflignatis. //'. />. 
779. n. I. 

(n) Folqueius Painel debet CCC & 
Lix 1 & viij s & ix d, pro fine Honoris de 
Banton. Sed recordatum eft per G. filium 
Petri & W. BrJwcre & alios Baroncs, quod 

1' inii 


of the Barons 

Chap. V. 

by the Jufticier and Barons at the Exchequer (o). Oliver de 'Tract 
was acquitted by the Barons, of xxviij / Scutage-money (p). Regi- 
nald de Argentoem was acquitted by the Jufticier and Barons, of a 
Fine of X Marks (q). The Sheriff of iiuj]ex having unduly levied 
iij Marks and a half upon Ralf de la Hulle-, the fame was refiored to 
him by Command of the Barons (r), 

IV. Another great Officer in the Exchequer v/as the King's Chan- 
cellor, lie was one amongil the Jufticiers and Barons that ufually 
fat there. We find him tranfafting feveral Things in the Exchequer 
in fuch Manner, as that we may take -it to have been anciently Part 
of his Duty to aflift there. In the fifth Year of K. Stephen, Geoffrey 
the King's Chancellor was allowed, in his Accompt rendered of the 
Ferms of the Bifliopricks of Coventry and Hereford, and of the Abbey 
of Chertfey, x.1 and xv s, for his Livery, for the forty three Days in which 
he had not attended at the Exchequer, with the King's other Barons 
(s). Here (I think) 'tis implied, that he ufed to be at the Ex- 
chequer at other Times. The Chancellor by his Writ certified con- 
cerning a Debt of William Fitz-Robert, that it was to be charged on 
the Earl of Lciafer {at that Time Accompting-SherifF for Leicejler- 


Finis tfle comprehenfus eft in fine fub- 
fcripto ejufdem ; Et ideo non debet fum- 
inoneri. Ali^g- Rot. 3. J. Rot. 16. a. De- 

(0) Robertus filius Adae debet C & qua- 
tcr XX & xviij 1 & vj s & vj d, de debitis 
qtiK debebantur patn fuo ; De quibus Rex 
dfcbuit facere diftrictionem, ficut annotatur 
in Rotulo Regis fecuiido. Sed poftea fini- 
vit cum Jufticiario & Baronibus fuper Scac- 
carium per xl mnrcas, ut Rex faciat diftric- 
tionem & ptrquirat debitum prasdidlum, ita 
qruod pra;Ji<Stus Robertus a modo fe non in- 
tFomittat de praedi(£ta pccunia perquirenda ; 
h llberavit taleas Jufticiario fuper Scaccari- 
um qua; erant contra debitores patris fui : 
£t ita quietus eft de przediftis C & quater 
XX h xviij 1 & vis & vj d. Mng. Rot. 3. 
J. Rot. 18. b. fVejhncruland. 

(p) Oliverus de Traci debet xxviij I de 
Scutiigici. Scd record cit'jiri eft per Barones, 
quod de hoc fciitagio fiiiivit per C (iilid s, 
ficut conlinetur in Rotuln viij Regis Ricar- 
di ; quem finem icieo reddidit pro mora quam 
i'ecit de transfietando in fcrvitium Regis Ri- 

cardi, & quod port finem faflum transfre- 
tavit ; Et ita Qiiietus eft. Mng. Rot. 4. y. 
Rot. 18. a. Devenefdra, 

{q) Reginaldus de Argentoem debet x 
marcas de Done. Sed recordatum eft per 
Jufticiarium t'c per Barones, quod nunquam 
habuit Comitatus prredi6los, pro quibus ha- 
bendis tanquam Capitalis Vicccomes pro- 
mifit praediftas x marcas ; Sed poftquani 
promifit prsediiflos denarios, (emper rcfpon- 
dit ut Subvicecomes pro Cancellario ; Et 
ideo non debet fummoneri. Mag. Rot. 5. 
J. Ret. I . a. Cant: isf Huntend. 

(r) Et Radulfo de la Hulic iij marcas k 
dimidiam quas Vicecomes ei reddidit pra- 
cepto Baronum ; Quia ab eo eas receperat 
contra Libertatem Fratrum S. Lazari de Je- 
rufalem, quorum Homo ipfe eft. A/ag. Rot. ' 
6. y. Rot. 8. a. Su'ifcxla. 

(s) Et idem [Gaufridus] Cancelhrius 
reddit compotum de iiijl 5i xvjs i^^c viijd,' 
de Vetcri firma Epifcopatus de Coventre ; 
Et de iiii 1 & xij s & vj d, de Veteri firma 
Epifcopatus de riereford ; Et de xxvj s & 
ix d, de Veteri firmn Abbatia de Certefeia; 


chap. V.i of the Excheq^uer, 207 

Jliire) (t). The Sherlfts of London were allowed xIj for the King's 
Huntl'men and his Dogs, and xxj for a Palfrey for 'Thomas le Clerks 
by the Chancellor (u). The Sheriff" of Devon was allowed Lxxij / 
xix s and x d, for the Corrody of the King of Scotland, by the Chan- 
cellor and the Earl of Lekcjlcr (icj. The Sheriff of Dorjit had Al- 
lowance made to him for the Livery of Riiald de Calm, by order of 
the Chancellor grounded on the King's Writ [by Vertue whereof 
the Siierift' had paid the Money] (x). Alexander Fitz-Warin had -As 
fet-oif from him (y) ; and Hugh de Bojco v Marks fet-off from him 
{z), by Command of the Chancellor. The Sheriff" of Surrey was 
allowed x Marks [for one Robert a Meflenger or Nuntius] by Writ 
of the Chancellor produced before the Burons ; and ij Marks for a 
Robe, by the fame Writ [zx). At this Time William de Longchamp 
was both chief Juflicier and Chancellor. 

V. Tlie Treafurer alfo was a Perfon of great Power at the Ex- 
cliequer. Concerning him I fpeak largely elfewhere {z%z). 

In Liberatioiie ejufdem Cancerr'arij de xliij 
diebus in quibus non fuit ad Scaccarium 
cum alijs Baronibus Regis, xl & xv s, Et 
Ciuieius eft. Mag. Rot. 5. Steph. Rot. 
14. b. 

(^) Et idem [Comes Lercc-[eftri3e] de- 
bet L marcas argcnti, pro Willclmo filio 
Roberti fecundum breve Cancellarij. Mag. 
Rot. 5. Steph. Rot. g. l. LcgrcceJhefcWa. 

(u) Et Venatoribus Regis & canibus ejus 
xl s, per Cancellarium. Et pro palefrido ad 
opus Thomae Clerici, xx s, per Cancella- 
rium. Alag. Rot. 4. H. 2. Rot. I. a. Lun- 

(w) Et in Corredio Regis Scotiae Lxxij 1 
& xix s & X d, per Cancellarium & Comi- 
tem ]>egreceftri^. Ahg. Rot. 3. H. 2. Rot. 
4. i7. Lincolufc. Jordanus de Bloflevilla, 

. ^jt) Et in Liberatione Rualdi de Chains. 

vij 1 & vj s & viij d, per Cancellarium, per 
breve Regis ; Et Q^ e. Mag. Rot. 5. H. 2. 
Rot. 6. b. Dorfeta. 

(y) Et idem Vicecomes re de xx 1 de 
Militibus Rogeri Britonis : In thefauro 
xviij 1, Et in Perdonis, per breve Regis, 
Alexandre filio Warini, x! s, prascepto 
Cancellarij, Et Q^ c. Mug. Rot. 7. H. 2. 
Rot. 7. b. Sumerfeta. 

(z) Hugo de Bofco re de v marcis ; In 
perdonis pra-cepto Cancellarij v marcx, Et 
Q^e. Mag. Ret. 7. H. 2. Rot. i . a. Norfohh. 
y Snthfolch. 

(zz) Roberto Nuntio Domini Regis x 
marcas, per Breve Cancellarij ; Et eidem 
ii marcas, ad Robam, per idem Breve. Mag. 
Rot. 2. R. I. Rot. 12. a. Suireya. 

(zzz) Cap. 2. Seii. 10. isf Cap. 20. Je£1. 
8. Cap. 21. [eft. 2. iif vid. Cap. 2^., palfm^. 
Vol. z. 


2o8 0/ t/je Bv s iNE s 5 Chap. VI. 


Of the Bujtnefs of the E x c h e qjj e r, durt?ig the faid 

Jirjl Period, 

I. Of Revenue. 

II. Of Caitfes or common Pleas. 

III. Of Bujinefs of divers Kinds. 

IV. Of Affairs of Policy. 

LE T us, for Order's Sake, reduce the Bufinefs ufually tranf- 
adled at the Exchequer during this Period, under thefe three 
general Heads, viz. I. AfFairs of Revenue with their Incidents ; 
II. Caufes ; III. Common Bufinefs : and then let us fee, how the 
Cafe will iland. 

I. Firft, as to AfFairs of Revenue. There can be no Doubt 
made, but that thefe were tranfadled and ordered at the King's Ex- 
chequer. To fupervife, manage, and improve the regal Revenue, 
was the principal Bufinefs of this Court j and the proper Care of 
the chief Jufticier and Barons there. And this adminiflred to them 
a great Variety of Bufinefs as incident thereto. For the King's Re- 
venue being fome Way or other concerned in the Fees, Lands, Te- 
nures, and Chatells of the Subjedl, and in almoft every Thing elfe : 
from that Root a Multiplicity of Bufinefs fprung. It is true, all the 
King's Courts were in fome Meafure concerned in his Revenue. 
The Jufiiiciers who held Pleas of the Crown, Pleas of the Forefi:, 
and common Pleas, either in the King's Court or in their refpeiflive 
Eyres, recorded in their feveral Places the Fines, Amercements, 
Tallages, Aids, Scutages, and other Things arifing before them, 
from whence Revenue or Profit came to the Crown. But fuch 
Things as arofe before them were foon after fent or certified by 
them into the King's Exchequer ; to which Place, the Affairs of the 


chap. VI. of the E x c h e q^u e r. 209 

royal Revenue tended as to their Center. But I forbear to fpeak 
here concerning Keveniie and Accompts, becaufe they will be treated 
of hereafter in dillindl Chapters. 

II. Secondly, as to Caufes : 'tis probable, that during this firfl 
Period the Exchequer was a Court having Jurifdidtion in Civil Caufes, 
or (as we ufually call them) common Pleas. Which Caufes or Pleas 
might be of the fame Kind with thofe, which according to the 
Ufage of that Age were referved to the King and his Barons. But 
there being fome Obfcurity in this Matter, I fhall venture no further 
than to eflay upon it, and fo leave it to the Reader's Judgment. K. 
Henry I, by his Writ commanded Richard Bifliop of London to do 
full Right to the Abbot of JVc/immJler, againft thofe who forcibly 
broke his Church of Wiitton in the Night Time : faying, that if he 
(the Bifliop) did not, the King's Barons of the Exchequer (hould, 
do Right in the Cafe (a). In the Reign of K. Henry II, or per- 
haps before, a Writ iflued in the Name of Nigell Bifhop of Efyt 
Baron of the Exchequer (he was then, I think, the King's Treafu- 
rer) directed to the Sheriff of Gloiicejier, commanding him to caufe 
the Monks of Bordejley to hold peaceably their Land or Manor of 
Ciimbe, whereof they were feifed by the King's Writ j and to jufti- 
ciate fuch Perfons as difturbed them in their faifm, contrary to the 
King's Writs (b). In the 14th Year of K. Henry II, Robert de Hajling 
fined in C and vj s and viij d, that the Plea between him and Rolf 
Moin might be [delayed till, or] adjourned to the Exchequer (c). 
In the 1 6th Year, Hugh Bardul fined in x Marks, that a Recogni- 
tion between him and "^ohn Burdun might be refpited till the [next] 
Exchequer (d). In the i8th Year, Robert Son of Ernis fined in v 


(a) Henricus Rex Angl., Rlcardo Epif- fiti funt per breve Regis. Et vide ut ha- 
copo de Lundonia faluteni. Mando tibi ut beas ad opus Regis quod RecSum eft de illis 
facias plciuitn re(5lum Abbati Weftmoiiafte- qui vim intulerunt prsediiSlis Monachis fuper 
rij, de Homiiiibus qui frcgerunt Ecclefiani Brevia Regis. Teftibus Willelmo Cumin & 
fuam de Winton[ia] noitu & arinis. Et Johanne Marefcailo apud Weftmonafteri- 
nifi feceris, Barones mei de Scaccario faci- uin. Ex autogr. in Bibl. Cott. Nero C. 3. 
ant fieri, ne audiam clamorem inde pro pe- (<:) Robertus de Halting reddit compo- 
iiuria refti. T. &c. Ex Chartiilar. Ccemhij turn de C & vj s & viij d, Ut Placitutn 
lVeJ}mou. fol. 63. a. in Bihl. Cott. Fauftina quod fuit inter eum & Radulfum Moin dif- 
A. III. fcratur ufq; ad Scaccarium. Mag. Rot. I ^. 

(b) Nig[ellus] Elienfis Epifcopus & Bar H. 2. R'it. 1 3. «. Sutfexn. 

[o] de Scaccario, Vicecomiti de Glowe- (^d) Hugo Baidul r c de x marcis, pro 

ccftrcfcira faiutem. Pr.-ecipimus tibi, ut refpcflu de reco^^nitione inter eum & Jo- 

tacias Monacos de Bordefleia tenere fuam hanncm Burdun. ufq; ad Scaccarium. In 

tcrram de Cumbe bene ^ in pace, ficut fai- Thefauro v marcas, Et debet v marcas. 

Vol. I. E e Mag. 

2IO Of the Bvsmn Si Chap. VI. 

Marks, that the Plea depending between him and Hug& Makbifje 
might be brought before die chief Jufticier at the Exchequer [e). 
In the 23th Year of that King, there were feveral Pleas at the Ex- 
chequer. And feveral Perfons hereunder named were amerced there, 
for Difleifines, and for other Caufes relating to the faid Pleas : Henry 
dePirarijs fined or was amerced in v Marks, for a Default in an Appeal. 
William Son of AiHc and others were amerced there, at half a Mark, 
for an unjuft Difleifine, Robert de Montfort at x Marks for the like, 
and others at other Sums; and divers other Perfons were amerced 
[upon the faid Pleas] at divers Sums and for divers Caufes (f). But 
fame will fay, by de Placitis here, we are to underftand only pecu- 
niary Pains or Mulds which Offenders incurr : for fo the Dialogue 
explaineth the Word Placita {g). To which, I anfwer, that in thefe 
Revenue-Rolls Placita does in Part fignify pecuniary Matters, fuch 
as Fines and Amercements. For as fuch (that is, as Revenue) they 
came to be entered in thefe Rolls. But we muft add, that thefe 
Placita were Fines and Amercements fet or entered-into upon the 
Occafion or Ground of Pleas depending : as may be well colledled 
from the Records here cited touching the Placita ad Scaccarium, and 
likewife from tlie ordinary import of the Word Placitum ; which fig- 
nified primarily, not a pecuniary Pain, but a Plea. Hence in the 
Revenue-Rolls, by Nova Placita and de Placitis is meant, the Re- 
venue or Profit that arofe from Pleas. And in that Senfe Placita is. 
ufed in other Cafes. Thus by the Phrafe Tertius denarius (that is, 
de placitis) Comitatusy is meant the third Part of the Profit arifing 
from Pleas in the Country ; and by Placita & ferquifitiones Curiarum, 
is meant the Profit arifing by Pleas, and the other Perquifites of 
Courts. So that the Words de Placitis ad Scaccarium fignify here, fo 

Mag, Rot. 16. H, 2. Rot, 6. a. Not. i5f mifericordijs hominum quorum nomina & 

Z)er/>. debita & caufae annotantur in Rotulo quern 

(e) Robertus frlius Ernifi debet v marcas, liberaverunt in tiiefauro : in thefauro libe- 
Ut placitum quod eft inter ipfum & Hugo- ravit in x tallijs, Et Q^ e. Mag. Rot. 23. 
aem Malebiffe fit coram Juftic[ia] ad Scac- H. 2. Rot. 2. k War. fef Legerceft. 
carium. Mag. Rot. iS. H. 2. Rot. 5. a. Item de Placitis ad Scaccarium : Rober- 
Everwuhfcira. tus de Munfort debet x marcas, pro diiTai- 

(f) De Placitis ad Scaccarium : Henri- fina injufta. Willelmus de Eton debet iij. 
cus de Pirarijsrcddit compotum de v marcis, marcas pro eodem. David de Tachefbroch 
pro def. appellationis. VVillelmus filius Ail- debet dimidiam marcam, pro pleg, Roberti, 
lici & Hafcuil h Galfridus frater ejus red- lb. Rot. 2. b. War. (Sj Legerc. 

dunt compoturn de dimidia marca, pro dif- (g) Placita autem dicimus poenas pecuni- 

faifina injufta; In thefauro liberaverunt, Et arias in qiias incidunt delinquentes. L,2. 

Quieti funt. Idem Vicecomes reddit com- cap, 12. 
potum de iiij 1 & xilj s & iiij d, de minutis 


Cliap. VI. of the E x c h e ci_u e r. 211 

much in Revenue arifing from Pleas depending at the Exchequer. 
To proceed. In the fame 23d Year, there were Pleas at the Ex- 
chequer before the Jufticier : Ra/f dc Bakcmore was amerced there at 
half a Mark, Richard Fitz-Brien at xx s, and others in other Sums of 
Money (/->). There were Pleas at the Exchequer before Bertram de Ver- 
dun, William Fitz-Stephen, and Turjiin Fitz-Simon. There, Hugh, Son of 
Waldin was amerced at xl s for a Diffeifine againft the Aflife (i). In 
the fame Year, amongft the Pleas at the Exchequer there were Thefe : 
The Prior of Durham was amerced xx Marks, for an unjufl Dif- 
feifine ; William de Colvill was amerced xx Marks for a retraxit in an 
Affife brought againft Earl Simon ; Robert Fitz-Hiigh x Marks for a 
Difleifme ; Robert de Mortemer iij Marks, for an unjuft Diffeifme and 
a Default [k). In the 24th Year of that King there were Pleas at 
the Exchequer; and therein feveral Fines made and Amercements 
impofed : Baldnvin Wach fined in DCCCL Marks in a Plea between 
him and Bartholomew de BuiJJ'ei ; Jordan Tolebu fined in xxx Marks, 
to have Judgment and Seifm of the Land oi Chainejhery, Adatn'Tifun 
fined in x/ xj-, to have his Judgment againft Jordan 'Tolebu; Hugh 
Son of Ral/' xx /, for a Fine for Land againft Roger de Candos ; 
Bafilia de Siimerton was amerced Cxiijj- and iiij ^for Breach of the Aflize; 
Robert Son of Brien gave xx /, to be quit of the Judgment of the hot 
Iron ; and William Fitz-Roger gave xl Marks, to have Right ioxHoSiort 
and Horthorp (/). In the 25th Year, there were Pleas at the Ex- 

{h) Nova Placita & Novae Conventiones pro diflaifina injufta ; In thefauro liberavir, 

per Juftic[iam] ad Scaccarium ; Idem Vice- Et Quietus eft. Willclmus de Colevill r c 

conies [VVillelmus RufFus] r c de dimidia de xx marcis, quia retraxit le de alfila ver- 

marca demifericordia Radulfide Bakemora, fus Comitem Simonem. Robertus fiiius 

Et de XX s de mifericordia Ricardi filij Hugonis r c d x marcis, pro diflaifina ; 

Brieni; aud for other fums the Amercements In th. 1, Et Q. e. Robertus de Mortemer 

of about feven other perfons ; In th. 1. in ix re de iij marcis, pro diflaifina injufta & de- 

tallijs, Et Q. e. Mug. Rot. 23. H. 2. Rot. falta. lb. Rot. 7. a. Lincolfcira. 

1. a. Deveuefcira. [l) De Placitis ad Scaccarium : Baldwi- 

(/■) N. P. & N. C. per Bertram de Ver- nus Wach r c de DCCC & L marcis, pro 

dun & Willeimum filium Stephani & Turl- fine fadto inter ipfum & Bartholomaeum de 

tinum filium Simonis : Burgenfesde Briftou Buiflei. Jordanus Tolebu r c de xxx mar- 

r c de quater xx marcis de mifericordia pro cis, pro Judicio& faifina de terra de Chai- 

Sturmi foeneratore ; In th. 1, EtQ^f. Jor- nefberia. Adam Tifun r c dexl & xs, 

danus Dapifer Comitis Giocceftriae debet pro Judicio fuo verfus Jordanum Tolebu. 

L marcas pro dcfedlu. Item de Placiti,^ eo- Hugo fiiius Radulfi r c de xx 1, pro fine 

rundem ad Scaccarium : Hugo fiiius Wal- terras verfus Rogerum de Candos. Bafilia 

dini debet xls pro Di.Qaifina contra AfRfam. de Sumerton r c de C & xiij s & iiijd pro 

Mag. Rot. 23. H. 1. Rot. 3. b. Gloec. aflifa infrada. Afzelinus de Nodton r c de 

(k) De Placitis ad Scaccarium : Prior xx marcis pro pleg[iagio] Jordani de Wal- 

Dunelmcnfisrcdditcompotum de XX marcis, tervill. Robertus fiiius Brieni r c de xxl 

E e 2 pro 


Of the Business 

Chap. VI. 

chequer. There, Thomas le Fleming and OJI>ert Son of WiiTiam were 
refpedlively amerced for a Difleifine (w). There alfo, Roger Son of 
H-verard was amerced for not having-forth his Vouchee to warrnnt, 
Edward Son of Robert for the fame, Odo de Dammar tin for dilfeifing 
Reginald de Ltici (n). In the 29th Year of the fime King, there 
■were Pleas at the Exchequer; there Beneit the Jeiv oi Canterbury was 
amerced xx Marks, for demanding a Debt upon Charter for his Bro- 
ther's Ufe, which had been paid to him before ; and IJ'aac the "Jew was 
amerced xx Marks, for denying a Thing which he had before affirm- 
ed in the King's Court. Again, Jacob and IJ'aac of Canterbury fined 
in a Mark of Gold, to have a Debt which Pulk Folet owed them. 
Robert de Hegjlede fined in xxj, for Right againft Henry de Shornes 
for a Tenement j Eiijlace Son of Lcfwin, in a Mark, for Seifin of 
Land, and Si7non de Chelfeldm a Mark, for leave to accord (<?). In 
fame Year, a final Concord was made in the King's Court at Wejl- 
minjier at the Exchequer, between the Prior and Monks of Roche/ter, 
and 'Juliana de Neweham and Robert de Champeynes, touching an Ad- 
voufon of a Church, whereof a Recognition was fummoned between 

pro quietantia Judicij ferri. , Willelmus fi- 
ifus Rogeri debet xl marcas, pro habendo 
re£lo de Hodon h Hortborp. Mag. Rot. 
24. H. 2. Rot. I. a. Line. Mag. Rot. 26. 
H. 2. Rot. 4. a. Line. 

(m) De Placitis ad Scaccarium : Idem 
Vicecomes [Wimarus Capellanus] r c de 
i mnrca de TomaFlandrcnfi, pro difTaifina : 
"£t de ij marcis de Rogero de Herleberga, de 
mifcricordia pro Jordano filio Ricardi ; Et 
<je dimidia marca de Ofberto filio Willelmi, 
pro diffaifina ; In th. 1. in iij Tallijs, EtQ. 
e. Mag. Rot. 2$. H. 2. Rot. 2. a. Norf. i^ 

(n) De Placitis ad Scaccarium. Idem 
Vicecomes reddit compotum de j marca de 
Rogero filio Everardi de Surreia, quia non 
habuit warantum fuum ; Et de j marca de 
j^dwardo filio Roberti pro eodem ; Et de 
jij marcis de Odone de Danmartin, pro dif- 
faifina quam feci Reginaldo de Luci ; Inthe- 
fauro liberavit in iij tallijs, Et Q^ e. Mag. 
Rot. 25. H. 2. Rot. 10. b. Surr. 

(0) De Placitis ad Scaccarium: Maurici- 
us de Wadenhala reddit compotum de ij 
marcis, quas cognovit fe recepifle depecunia 
Willelmi filij Hubert! ; In praedi6la Opera- 
tione [i. e. Caftelli de Doura] ij marcas per 
prsdidtum breve, &pervifum praediftorum, 
Et Q; e. Johannes filius Viviani debet LxxJ, 

&j Zonam pretij vj marcanim quas cogno- 
vit fe habuifie de pecunia ejufdem . 

Reginaldus filius Rogeri Blundl re de x 1 
pro mifericordia Patris fui, h ut fit quietus 
de xxxij marcis, quas Willelmus filius Hu- 
berti dixit fe liberafle Rogero Patri fuo ; In 
th. L 1, Et debet L 1. Benediftus Judxus 
de Cantuaria r c de xx marcis, quia qua- 
fivit debitum ad opus fratris fui per Car- 
tam fuani, quod ei Solutum fuit. Yfaac 
Judseus r c de XX marcis, quia negavit 
quod prius dixerat in Curia Regis ; In th. 
V marcae, Et in operatione prsedidla v mar- 
cae, per prsedi(£lum breve & per vifum prae- 
dictorum, Et debet x marcas. Jacob & 
Yfaae de Cantuaria debent unam marcain 
auri, pro habendo debito quod Folqueius 
Folet eis debuit. Robertus de Hogftede r c 
de XX s pro Re(5to verfus Henricum de Shot- 
nes, de tenementoquod idem Henricus tenet. 
Euftachius filius Lefwitii de Weftgate debet 
unam marcam, pro faifina de xv acris terrae 
in Weftgate-hundredo. Simon de Chel- 
feld r c de j marca pro licenlia concordandL 
cum Willelmo de Refebelle. Willelmus 
de Dalee r c de xl s, pro habenda terra de 
Hebinton. M.ig. Rot. 29. H. 2. Rot. 13. 
a. Client. Et vid. Mag. Rot. 30. H. 2. Rot, 
11, a. Ghent. 


Chap. Vr. of the E x c h e ci.u e r. 213 

them in the King's Court (p) : and Gilbert Foliot fined in a Mark, to 
have his Plaint at the Exchequer againft Robert Foliot [q). In the 30th 
Year of the fiime King, John EJchclling fined in a Mark, to have his 
Phiint at the Exchequer, for the Land o'i jUlcworth [r] : and Peter 
(ie Cojhcm fined in a Mark, for the hke [s). In the 31ft Year of the 
iame King, Pbilipp de Keyme gave C j-, that a Plaint moved between 
him and Bcnet Brother of Aaron might be delayed till the Excliequer 
of Eajier [t). In the firll Year of K. Richard I, Richard Son o'i Meiiie 
gave iij Marks, to have his Plaint in the King's Court againfl: William 
de Salcey, for the Land of Bekebroch. The fame Richard gz^t a Mark, 
to have the iame Plaint in the King's Court at the Exchequer fu). 
[The fame] Richard Son of Meifie gave a Mark, to have his Duell 
ill the Kiiig's Court againft William de Salcey (ic). And in the 3d 
Year of K. Joh?:, Robert Baggard gave xl Marks, that the King 
would once more order a Recognition to go forward, which was 
fummoned befure the Jufticier at the Exchequer by Writ of Mort- 
danceftour, between him and Thomas Noel and others touching one 
Knight's Fee {x). And it is likely, this Ufage of holding Pleas at 


(p) Hxc eft Finalis Concordia, fafla in 
Curia Domini Regis apud Weftmoiiafter'ium 
au Scaccarium, in fefto S. Michaelis anno 
vicefiimo nono rcgni Regis Heiirici fecundi, 
die Dominica proxima ante f'eftum Omnium 
San£torum, con-.m R. Wintonienfi Epif- 
copo, G. Elienfi Epifcopo, J. Norwicenfi 
Epifcopo, Godefrido dc Lucy, Ricardo 
Thefaurario, Rogero filio RemtVidi, Wil- 
lelmo BaiFet, Rannulfo de Geddyng, Ro- 
berto de VVytefcld, Michaele Belet, & alijs 
Baionibus Domini Regis ibi tunc praefenti- 
bus, Inter Friorem & Monachos de Roff'a, & 
Julianam filiam Fuiconis de Neweham, St 
Robertum de Champeynes, de Advocatione 
Ecclefiz de Northtone, unde Recognitio 
fummonita fuit inter eos in Curia Domini 
Regis, fcilicet quod preedicSta Juliana & Ro- 
bertas filius fuus dederunt & conceiTerunt 
prsediiSo Priori & Monachis Advocationem 
praeditSlas Ecclefiae de Northtone, & concef- 
ferunt Advocationem quam Fulco pater 
prcediiSa Julianje eis fecit de prxfata Ec- 
cleiia. Ex Regtjlro Temporal, Ecdef. & Epif- 
R0ff.f0l.4j, 48. 

{q) Gillebertus Foliot debet j marcam, 
pro habenda loquela fua ad Scaccarium ver- 
ius Robertum Foliot. Mtig. Rot. 2^. H. 2, 
Rot, 9. a, Oxinef. 

(r) Johannes Efchelling reddit compotum 
de j marca, pro habenda Loquela fua ad 
Scaccarium, de terra de Ailewurda verfus 
Aviziam ; In thelauro liberavit, Et Qiiietus 
eft. Mag. Rot. 30. H. 2. Rot. 5. It. Glocejir. 

[i) Petrus de Cofliam reddit compotum 
de j marca, pro habenda Loquela fua ad 
Scaccarium, verfus Ricardum dc Coftiam ; 
In thefauro liberavit, Et Q^ e. lb. Rot. 4. b. 

(t) Philippus de Kyma reddit compotum 
de C s, ut Loquela inter ipfum & Benedic- 
tum fratrem Aaron, de falfa Cuppa, difFc- 
ratur ufq; ad Scaccarium Pafchu;. Afag. 
Rot. 31. H. 2. Rot. 5. b. Lincol. 

(u) Ricardus filius Meini r c de iij mar- 
cis, pro habenda loquela fua in Curia Regis 
verfus Willelmum de Salceio de terra de 
Bekebroch : In thefauro xxvij s & iiij d ; 
Et debet xij s & vij d. Idem Ricardus de- 
bet j marcam, pro habenda eadem loquela 
in Curia Regis ad Scaccarium. Mag. Rot. 
I. R. 1. Rot. &. b. Oxinef. tit. De Oblatis 

(w) Ricardus filius Meini debet j mar- 
cam, pro habendo Duello fuo in Curia Regis 
verfus Willelmum de Salceio. lb. paul. infr. 

{x) Robertus Baggard debet xl marcas, 


214- 0/"//;^ Business Chap. VI. 

the Exchequer, continued till the Time when common Pleas were 
feparated from the Kifig's Court, by the great Charters of KK. Jo/m 
•and Henry III ; and that both the King's Court and the Exchequer 
ceafed to hold common Pleas at or about the fame Time, and by 
Vertue of the fame Prohibition. For there are feveral Records fyj, 
which fay, it was forbidden by the great Charter (of K. Henry III) 
to hold common Pleas in the Exchequer, unlefs they related to the 
King, or to the Refidents and Minifters of the Exchequer. Now , 
the Claufe in that great Charter relating to Pleas runs in general 
Words, Communia placita non fequantiir Curia?n nojiram ; and the Ex- 
chequer is not there named. But it feems, the Exchequer was un- 
derrtood to be forbidden to hold common Pleas, by thofe general 
Words in the Claufe, which appoint that from thenceforth common 
Pleas fliould not follow the King's Court, but be held in a certain 
Place, to wit, the Bank. And until that Prohibition, common Pleas 
were holden both in the King's Court and in the Exchequer. 

III. Thirdly, as to common Bufinefs ; feveral forts of Things, 
during this Period, were wont to be done at the Exchequer, which 
had not relation either to Revenue or Pleas. Sometimes Charters of 
Feoffment, Confirmation, and Releafe ; or other Charters, were made 
and fealed at the King's Exchequer before the Barons there. And 
fometimes Conventions of divers Kinds; and final Concords, be- 
tween Party and Party, were made at the Exchequer, with the Ra- 
tifications thereof by Oath or otherwife according to the Cuflom of 
thofe Times. Of Charters fealed and Conventions or Concords made 
between Parties at the Exchequer, feveral Infl-ances may be feen in 
Books already printed (z). And to them I will add a few other In- 
ner fic quod Rex faciat procederc alia vice Exchequer, zuhere he often received Gifts from 
recofrnicioneni Summonitam coram Juftic. each of the Parties litigant. Ad Scaccarium 
ad Scaccarium, per breve de Morte antecef- enim Regis refidere confueverat, ubi ab u- 
foruin, inter ipfum & Tomam Noel & M. traq; litigantium parte dona frequenter acce- 
uxorem ejus, & Ricardum de Wappinbiri & perat. Matt. Par. ad arm. 1206. 
Julianam uxorem ejus, & Griffinum de Sud- Et vide, ft placet., Glanvillam de Legib. 
ion & Matildam uxorem ejus, de feodo j in frorztifpicio (fi verbis frontifpicij fides danda), 
Militis. AJag. Rot. 3. J. Rot. 20. b. Salop, viz. Illas folam leges coiitinet & confuetu- 

To thtfe precedents may be added., if you dines fecundum quas placitatur in Curia 
fleafe, the Story told by Matthew Paris. A Regis, ad Scaccarium, & coram Jufticijs 
certain Lawyer who lived in the beginning of ubicunq; fucrmt. 

A". John's Reign is reprcfcnted by that Hi/h- (y) Some of thefe Records are cited hereafter, 
rian as fujfering grievous Punifonients after his Chap. 22. [eH. 2. Vol. 2. 
Death for his Rapine and other Mfdeeds. He (■z.) Form. Angl. i?t Dijfert. p. J I. 12. 1 3. 

njtd (faith Matthew j to refide at the King's 19. 20. 21. 22. 

2 ftances 

chap. VI. of the E x c h e q_u e r. 215 

ftances taken out of Records or MSS. About the Beginning of the 
Reign of K. Henry II, Mahd de Orgcrs made a Concord (importing 
a Sale and Releale of Land) with Rog^r de Brai, before the King's 
Juftices [Itinerant] at Dunjlapk ; and afterwards granted and con- 
lirined the fame at the Exchequer, before Richard de Luci and the 
other Barons of the Exchequer [a). In the Reign of the fame King, 
William Earl of EJJ'ex granted to Roger Fitz-Ricbard and his Heirs, the 
Town oi Aynho, in exchange for Cwnton : the Charter is without 
Date, and concludes thus, Rt notumjit oinnibus, quod ijlud Rfchambium 
faSlumfuit apud Wyntoniam ad Scaccarium, coram Domino Rege Henrico 
jilio Regis H. Secundi, & Baronibus frns, 'Tejlibus feveral of the great 
Men of that Age [b). In the fame King's Reign {a7ino 26.) Hawije 
de I/ejham and Ralf' her Hufband and their two Squs, fold and quit- 
claimed to IVilliam Briicere the Land of Ilefimm ; the faid Sale was 
made in the full County of Devon, and afterwards confirmed and 
recorded at Wejhninjler at the Exchequer, on the Thurfday next af- 
ter St. Luke's-day in the abovefaid Year, before Richard of Winton^ 
Geoffrey of Uly, and "John of Norwich, Bifliops, Ramilf de Glanville, 
Richard the Treafurer, William Baffet, Alan de Funiell, Robert Alan- 
tell, and other Barons there prefent fcj. In the 30th Year of the fame 
King, Matthciv Mantel came and acknowleged before the Barons of 
the Exchequer, that he claimed no Right in the Meadow of Tiivol- 
detun called Hohn : there were then prefent at the Exchequer Ranulf 
de Glamnll, Geoffrey Bifliop of Ely, and others hereunder named fd). 


{a) H^c eft Conventio inter Rogcrum de dulfo de Glanvill, Hugone de Bellocampo, 
Brai & Mabiliam filiam Guilklmi de Orgrs, Nicolao de Treili, Simone Celerario, Ro- 
de terra de Maldone : quod ego Mabilia fe- berto de Haubcni, Hugone de Lea, Rober- 
ci ftabilem conccrdiam Rogero de Brai de ' to fratre fuo, Raduifo Pirot, & pluribus 
terra Maldonias, quam ei vendidi & quietam alijs. Ex ColhSian. AISS. JV. Dugd. Mil. 
clamavi, h abjuravi Rogero de Brai, ftbi & in Libro'L. fol. 44. a. in Mufeo AJhmol. Oxon. 
fuis hasredibus de me&meis haeredibus, pro (b) Charta freed, irrot. inter Mich. Com' 
xvj marcis quas miiii dedit pro ventioneprae- 7nun. ^. E.I. Rot. ig. a. 
dida, coram Jufticijs Regis, fcilicet Ricardo (c) Dugd. Orig. Jurid. p. 50. col. 2. 
Pidavienfi Archidiacono & Reginaido de [d) Anno ab incarnatione Domini 
Guarenne, apud Dunftapliam. Et ego Ma- MCLXXXIIIT, anno regni Regis Hcnrici 
bllia & haeredes mei guarantizabimus banc Secundi XXX'^, Mathajus filius Roberti 
praedidtam terram Rgero h haeredibus fuis Mantel & hasres ejus futurus, praefentibus 
contra omnes homines. Hanc cartam etiam, Magiftro Ricardo de Storteiord magiftro 
quam figillo meo confirmavi, conceffi & Scolarum Lundonias, & Ofberto de Came- 
confirmavi apud Scaccarium, coram Domi- ra, Canonicis mlfTisaDecanoS. Pauli& Ca- 
no Ricardo de Luci, & alijs Baronibus de pitulo, recognovit ante Barones Scaccarij, 
Scaccario. Teftibus, Reginaido de Guaren- quod nullum jus clamabat in prato de Ti- 
na, Widone Decano de Gualltham, Hen- wondetun quod dicitur Holm . Pr;E- 

rico filio Geroldij Willelmo Baflet, Ran- fejjtes fuerunt tunc ad Scaccarium, Ranul- 



Of the Business 

Chap. VI. 

In the Reign of K. Richard I, Ifaac the "Jew acknowledged before 
the Barons of the Exchequer, that Hugh Je Alnou and his Father 
were quit againft the faid Jew and his Heirs, of all that they owed 
to him, according to the Import of a Charter made between them i^e ) 
In the Reign of K. Jolm, Robert Fitz-Torold made a Grant to Richard 
de Hcrierd, before the Barons of the Exchequer, of the Moiety of 
the Town of Bcdcfont ; which Grant was reduced into writing be- 
fore the faid Barons ff). Simon de Baldedone came and declared be- 
fore the Barons of the Exchequer, that Herbert the Prior and the 
Convent of Noyon had granted to him all their Land of Baldedone, to 
hold of them for his Life, at Lx j yearly Rent fg). Ralf de Halton 
made a Feoffment or Confirmation before the Barons of the Exche- 
quer, to Robert Fitz-Payne^ of one Hide of Land in Goldore [h). 
Michael de Cnoel acknowledged before the Barons at the Exchequer, 
that he with the Aflent of his Brottier E-verard, granted to the Ab- 
bey of Stanley his Land of Childecnol in fee Ferm, at two Marks 
yearly, in lieu of all Service, faving the Rent of the chief Lord of 
the Fee, and faving the foreign Service; and both Michael and 

fus de Glanvilla Jufticianus Domini Regis, 
GaufndusElyenlis&: Johannes Norwiccniis, 
Epifcopi, & Ricardus Decanus Lincolnenfis 
Regis Thefaurarius, Willelmus Anglicus 
frater Thefaurarij, Hubertus Walter! Hugo 
Murdac Clerici, Radulfus Murdac, Radui- 
fus de Wircceftria, Hugo de Morewic, Wil- 
lelmus Malduit Camerarius, Rogerus de 
Glanvilla. Ex Liiro MS. peratitlquo in Fo- 
lio penes Dec. U Cap. Londojine, iiotaio ^.fol. 
S3, [rlefump/i ex Collcclan. MSS. Rev. & CI. 
y. Afeiltbiti Hutton de Ayuhce S. T. P. ] 

(fj Hugo dc Alnou debet dimidiam mar- 
tam, ut Iciibatur in Rotulo, quod Ylaac 
filiub Bonenfant de Bedeford Judieus, recog- 
iiovit coram Baronibus de Scaccario, quod 
pra.'dictus Hugo& pater ipfius H. lunt quieti 
ciga ipfum & haercdes ipiius Judaei, dc om- 
nibus debitis quae unquam ei dcbuerunt, per 
xxiiij marcas, quas Hugo ci debet reddere 
per (I'artam quam indc ei fecit. Afeig. Rot. 
7. Ric. 1. Rot. 16. a. Bui. y Bea'ef. 

( /"j Ricardus de Herierd debet dimidiam 
marcam, ut fcribatur in Magno Rotulo con- 
relTio, quam Rodbertus filius Toroldi de 
Bedefont ei fecit coram Baronibus de Scac- 
cario, de medietate Villa; de Bedefonte cum 
pertinentijs ; qus concelTio in fcriptum red- 
ilaiti-i luit coram ipfis Baronibus in hxc ver- 

ba : Sciant tarn p quam f, quod ego Rober- 
tus filius Turoldi de Bedefonte, redcJidi & 
conceffi & quietum clamavi, & h.-ec prse- 
fenti carta mea confirmavi, Domino meo 
Ricardo de Herierd, medietatem Villae de 
Bedefonte cum omnibus pertinentijs fuis — 
— . A:/ag. Rot. i. % Rat, 9. i. ex intefvallo 
pojl Londoniam W Midd. 

(g) Herebertus Prior S. Martini de Nu- 
gione reddit compotum de dimidia marca, 
ut fcribatur in Magno Rotulo, quod Simon 
filius Hugonis de Baldedone recognovit co- 
ram Baronibus de Scaccario, quod praediftus 
Herebertus & Conventus du Nugione con- 
cefTerunt ei totam terram fuamde Baldedone, 
tenendam de eis quamdiu vixerit, reddendo 
annuatim Lx s, fcilicet xxx s ad feftum 
S. Michelis, & xxx s ad terminum Paf- 
chse. Mag. Rot. i. J. Rot. 16. L Oxcue- 

(h) Robertus filius Pagan! debet dimidiam 
marcam, ut fcribatur in Magno Rotulo, 
quod Radulfus de Halton filius Willclrui 
Confl.ibularij, conceflit & reddidit coram 
Baronibus de Scaccario, Roberto filio Pagani 
pro Homagio & fervitio fuo, unam Hidam 

ttrrje in Goldore . Mag. Ret. 2. J. 

Rot. 2. a. Oxcuef. 


Chap. VI. 

of the E X C H E Q_U E R. 


Everard fwore [in the Exchequer] before Hubert Archbifliop of Can- 
terbury, that they would firtnly hold the f^iid Convention (/). Henry 
de Heriz made a Feoffment of certain Land to Richard de Trekaric 
before the Barons of the Exchequer (/<•). Several Conventions by 
Way of Settlement of divers Lands were made between Hetiry BiJ'et 
and Achard de Sproxton and his Son before the Barons of the Exche- 
quer, and the Charters thereof read before the faid Barons (/). Wil- 
iiain the Archdeacon came upon the Exchequer before the Barons, 
aaid granted in Fee to his Brother Ralf, all his Right in the Inheri- 
tance of Roger and Reinfrid their Father and Brother (/«). Adam de 
Siimeri came upon the Exchequer, and before the Barons gave and 
granted by his Charter, to the Priory oi Ledes, the Chapel of Boiton, 
and other Lands («). Gilbert de GilUng came upon the Exchequer, 
and before the Barons gave and granted by his Charter to Ranidf, all 
his Land in the Parilh of St. Clement Danes [o). Mirable Pii'evel came 
before the Barons of the Exchequer, and quitclaimed to Richard de 
Belh Vario and his Wife and their Heirs, all her Right to the Land 

(i) N. Abbas & Monachi dfi Stanlega 
juxta Chipeham redduiit compotum cJe di- 
midia marca, ut fcribatur in Magno Rotu- 
lo, quod Micael filius Reginaldi de Cnocl 
jrecognovit coram Baronibus ad Scaccarium, 
quod ipfe aflenfu Everardi fratris fui con- 
ceffit hi. tradidit prsdidlis Abbati & Moiia- 
chis totam terrani fuam de Childecnol cum 

pertinentijs ad feodifirmam ; Et quod 

ipfe AI. & E. frater fuus affidaverunt in 
manu H. Cantuarienfis Archiepifcopi, banc 
Conventionem fideliter tenendam. Miig. 
Rot. 3. J. Rot. b. h. mitejclra. 

[k) Richerius de f Trekjarl debet 
diam marcam, ut fcribatur in Magno Ro- 
tulo, quod Henricus de Heriz ei dedit & 
conceflit coram Baronibus de Scaccario, & 
carta fua confirmavit, pro Homagio & fcr- 
vitio fuo — &c. Mag. Rot. 3. 'J. Rot. 14. I/. 

(/) Henricus Bifet & Johannes filius A- 
chardi de Sproxton debent j marcam, ut 
fcribantur in Magno Rotulo Conventiones 
fada: & recordatie coram Baronibus de Scac- 
cario, inter prasdidos & Patrem prsedifti 
Johannis, ficut continetur in cartis eorum, 
quse coram Baronibus Icdtse fuerunt ; Vide- 
licet quod praedidtus Achardus concelTit — 
&c. Alag. Rot. 4. J. Rot. 17. b. 

{m) Radulfus de Brueria [debet] j mar- 

Vol. I. 

cam, ut fcribatur in Magno Rotulo, quod 
Willelmus Archidiaconus frater fuus Primo- 
genitus venit fuper Scaccarium coram Baro- 
nibus, & cbnceilit eidem Radulib totum jus 
fuum quod habuit in haereditate Rogeri Pa- 
tris eorum & Reinfridi Fratris eorum, & 
totam haereditatem quas fuit prsedidli Rogeri 
& Reinfridi, in terris, & redditibus, & ho- 
magijs, & in omnibus alijs rebus ad eandem 
haereditatem pertinentibus, fibi ik hasredibus 
fuis inpcrpetuum. Alag. Rot. 9. J. Rot. 10. 
b. Cunt, is Hunt. 

{>i) Prior de Ledes [debet] dimidiam 
marcam, ut fcribatur in Mao-no Rotulo, 
quod Adam de Sumeri venit fuper Scaccari- 
um, & coram Baronibus dedit & conceffit 
&i Carta fua confirmavit, Ecclefiae S. Ma- 
rias & S. Nicholai de Ledes, Si Canonicis 
ibidem Deo fervientibus, Capellam S. Jo- 
hannis Ewangeliftae deBoitone &c. 

Mag. Rot. 10. J. Rot. I. b. Kent. 

{0} Gilebertus de Gilling. debet dimidiam 
marcam, ut fcribatur in Magno Rotulo, 
quod ipi'e venit fuper Scaccarium, &: co- 
ram Baronibus dedit & conccflit & carta fua 
confirmavit Rannulfo Alumpno fuo totam 
terram quam habuit in parochia S. demen- 
tis Dacorum Sic. Mag. Rot. 10. J.. 

Rot. 3. b. Lond. as" Midd. 

F f in 

Of the Business 

Chap. VI. 


in Orfde fpj. Sir Gilbert de Finemere Knight came upon the Exche- 
quer, and before the Barons quitclaimed to the Abbey of the Mount 
of Koan, all his Right in the Manour of 'Tinge-voic {q). 'John de 
Horfindon came upon the Exchequer, and before the Barons enfeoffed 
Robert de Braibroc of the Land of Horjindon and the Advoufon of the 
Church of that Town (r). Adam de Tjhii came upon the Exche- 
quer, and before the Barons there granted to the Hofpital of Sim- 
pUngeham certain Land in Wellingour in Frankalmoigne (j-). Wil^ 
liiim de Ordlaiiejlon came to the Exchequer, and before the Barons 
gave and granted by his Charter to Hugh de Ainefmere, all his Land 
in Gucefton in Fee limple [t). Walter Ruffus granted before the Ba- 
rons of the Exchequer, by Charter of Feoffment in Fee, to John 
Wakmfis, a Tenement in Gyng Mountney [u) : and Alice de Hepnaorth 
granted before the Barons of the Exchequer, to Robert de Abendon all 
her Land in Boclande (li-'J, 

(p) Ricardus de Bello Vario debet dimi- 
dlam marcam, ut fcribatur in Magno Rotu- 
lo, quod Mirable filia Johannis Pilevel venit 
coram Baronibus de Scaccario, & quietum 

clamavit totum jus & clamium &c. 

Mag. Rot. 10. J. Rot. 15. b. EJJex & Hurt/. 

(y) Abbas S.Trinitatis de Monte Ro- 
thomagi [debet] dimidiam marcam, ut fcri- 
batur in Magno Rotulo, quod Gilebertus de 
Finerriere Miles venit fuper Scaccarium, & 
coram Baronibus quietum clamavit, pro fe 
& hffiredibus fuis, praedifto Abbati & Mo- 
xiachis Ecclefias S.Trinitatis totamquerelam 
& totumjus quod habuitin Manerio de Tin- 
gewic, quod clamavit tenere de eifdem Mo- 
nachis ad feodifirmam ; Et quod pro ilia 
quieta clamantia Radulfus Abbas praedicftae 
Ecclefias dedit eidem Gileberto xx marcas 
argenti. Mag. Rot. 11. J. Rot.i^. a. Fines 
de Bilk, b" Bedef. 

(r) Robertus de Braibroc [debet] dimi- 
diam marcam, ut fcribatur in magno Rotulo, 
quod Johannes de Horfindon venit fuper 
Scaccarium, & coram Baronibus dedit & 
conccflit & carta fua confirmavit Roberto 
de Braibroc, pro Homagio & Servitio fuo, 
& pro Lx marcis argenti de quibus idem 
Robertus ipfum Johannem acquietavit ver- 
fus Regem de debitis Judieorum, totam ter- 
ram de Horfindon quod eft de feodo Johan- 
nis de Monte Acuto &c. Mag. Rot. 

12. J. Rot. 2.h. 

[3) Celerarius Hofprtalis Lincolniae debet 
dimidiam marcam, ut fcribatur in Magno 
Rotulo, Qpud Adam de Yfeni venit fuper 


Scaccarium, & coram Baronibus de Scac- 
cario dedit & conceflit & carta fua confir- 
mavit Deo & Fratribus Hofpitalis S. Sepul- 
chri Lincolnite Ordinis de Simplingeham, & 
ejufdem Loci Pauperibus, pto xl marcis 
quas ei dederunt ad fe acquietandum ver- 
fus Regem de debito quod ei debuit, qua- 

tuor bovatas terras Sec. Mag. Rot 

12. J. Rot. 6. a. Tit, Fines ifti debebant 
fcribi poft Lincoll. 

(/) Hugo filius Willelmi de Ainefmere 
reddit compotum de dimidia marca, ut fcri- 
batur in Magno Rotulo, quod Willelmus 
filius Johannis deOrdlauefton venit ad Scac- 
carium, & coram Baronibus dedit & concef- 
fit & carta fua confirmavit praedifto Hugo- 
ni, pro Homagio & Servitio fuo, totam ter- 
ram quam habuit in Gucefton — &c. Mag. 
Rot. 13. J. Rot. 5. l>. Kent. 

(u) Johannes Walenfis debet dimidiam 
marcam, ut fcribatur in Magno Rotulo, 
Quod Walterus Ruffus dedit & conccflit & 
carta fua confirmavit, coram Baronibus de 
Scaccario, eidem Johanni pro homagio & 

fervicio fuo, tenementum • &c. Mag, 

Rot. 13. J. Rot. S'b. 

(w) Robertus de Abendon Clericus debet 
dimidiam marcam, ut fcribatur in Magno 
Rotulo, Quod Alicia filia Petri de Hep- 
wurh, coram Baronibus de Scaccario dedit 
& conceflit & carta fua confirmavit eidem 
Roberto, totam terram quam habuit in villa 

de Boclande &c. Aiag. Rot. 13. J. 

Rot. 5. l>, 

IV. Be- 

chap. VI. of the E x c h e q_u e r. 219 

IV. Befides Affairs of Revenue, Caufes, and common Bufinefs : 
there was (as I take it) Ibme Bufinefs of an extraordinary Kind lome- 
times tranfadled at the Exchequer both during this firft Period and 
afterwards : that is to fay, the Barons of the King's Exchequer did 
fometime? deal in Affairs relating to the State, or public Service of 
the Crown and the Realm. This will not feem flrange to any Man 
who confiders, that the Exchequer was anciently holden in the 
King's Court, before the King, if he was pleafed to be prefent : that 
the chief Jufticier (who was not only the chief Judge, under the 
King, in all Caufes, but was alfo a kind of Viceroy and Governor of the 
Realm in the King's Abfence) prefided as fuch as well in the Exche- 
quer, as in the Khigs Court: that the Affeffors at the Exchequer 
were fome of the King's Barons and great Officers of State, who 
were his ordinary Councellors ; that in particular, thefe Latter were 
exprelly flyled the King's Council, even when they adled at the 
Exchequer in the ordinary Caufes or Affairs to be confidered or ad- 
judged there : and laftly, that the Exchequer was a Place where the 
King's Council frequently met together about the King's Bufinefs : I 
fay, he that confiders thefe Things, will not think it ffrange that 
the Barons of the Exchequer fliould fometimes be concerned in Af- 
fairs relating to the Government and Defence of the Realm, and to 
the Confervation of the public Peace. And this Conjedure is fup- 
ported by the TeiHmony of the Treatife Magijler & Drfcipidus, 
which is printed at the End of this Work. That Author Ipeaks 
thus ; " 'The Authority of this Court [viz. the Exchequer) is very 
" great, as well in refpecft of tlic King's royal Image ihining forth 
" in his great Seal which is kept in the Treafury there, infeparable 
*' from his other Treafure, as alfo in refpedl: of them who fit 
" there ; by whofe Wifdom the whole Realm is preferved in order 
" and fafety. For at the Exchequer refided the King's chief Juf- 
** ticier, who is next to the King in Authority and Jurifdicftion. 
" And there alfo do refide other great Men of the Realm, who arc 
" of the King's private Council, &c (x)." It is not to be underftood, 
that Affairs of Policy were the ordinary Bufinefs of the Barons or 
Majores at the Exchequer : but that they attended upon thofe Affairs 
as Occafion required ; and then probably they retired to the Thalamus 
Secrctorum, the Council-chamber near the great Exchequer, Avhcre 
they took Advifement together upon fuch Things as were proper to 
be confidered privately amongft themfelves (y). To the Tefti'mony 
of this famous Author, I will add a few other Mcmoires. \v\ 

{x) Dialog. L. I. cap. 4. Licet eorum. torum. AJ hunc accedunt B.iiones, cum 
\y) Cultodit idem oftiumThalami I'ccie- pioiioiiitur tis \erbum ambiguuni ad Scac- 

I' .f 2 carium, 

2 20 Of the Business, &c. Chap, VL 

In the Reign of K. Henry II, William Bajjet Sheriff of Warwick' 
Jl.nre, by command of the Barons [of the Exchequer], added two 
Knights to the five Knights, and ten Serjeants who before kept 
guard in Warwick-Cajlle (z). In the fame Reign, Henry de Cornhill, 
being charged with xxxj / ijj & v d. for the old Ferm of Kent and 
other Things, alledged that his Father [Gerva/e] had laid out far 
more than that Sum, by the exprefs command of the Barons [of the 
Exchequer], in Liveried or Appointments for Ships, and for Knights, 
and Serjeants, and others joined with them by Order of the King's 
Court, in the Time of the late War (a). And it appears, that Ger- 
•vafe de Cornhull ^2.6. been employed in fitting-up of Ships, and pro- 
viding Neceffaries for Knights in the Caftles that were within his 
Bailywick {^b). In the Reign of K, Richard \, when the Archbifhop 
of Roan was made chief Jufticier, he would do nothing (faith R. de 
Hoveden) in the Government of the Realm, but with the Confent of 
his Conjufliciers, and with the Advice of the Barons of the Exche- 
quer (f). Of the Bufinefs and Proceedings in the Exchequer during 
this Period, hitherto. 

canunr, de quo malunt feorfum traflare 
quam in auribus omnium. Dialog. L, i.eap. 
7. Oftium domus. 

(z) Et in liberatione ij Militum quos ipfe 
accrevit prsecepto Baronum ad cuftodiam 
prasdidti Caftelli &c. Mag. Rot. 20. H. 2. 
Rot. 10. b. JVar. Legerc. 

[a) Henricus de Cornhill debet xxxj 1 & 
ij s & V d de Veteri firma de Kent, & ter- 
Y-x Epifcopi Baiocenfis & Proprefturarum, 
ficut annotatur in Rotulo annl praeteriti : 
Set dicit Patrem fuum haec & longe plura 
mififTe, de proprio praecepto Baronum, in 
liberationibus Navium, & Militum, & Ser- 
vientum, cum aflignatis fibi de Curia Socijs, 
tempore Hoftilitatis. Mag. Rot. 32. H. 2. 
Rot. 13. a. Client. 

[h) Gervafms de Cornhull non reddidit 
compotum hoc anno de firma de Ghent, 
neq; de Terra Epifcopi Baiocenfis, neq; de 
proprefturis, neq; de debitis Regis in hoc 
Comitatu: QuiaClerici & MarefcalH Regis 
nondum venerant, qui mifTi fuerant cum 
e& ad liberationem Navium & Militum de 
Caftellis Ballias fuas faciendam. Mag. Rot.^ 
20. H. 2. Rot. I. (7. Ghent. 

(f) Et in loco illius inftituerunt Rotho- 
raagenfem Archiepifcopum, qui nihil gperari 
voluit in regimine Regni, nifi per volunta- 
tem & conl'enfum Sociorum fuorum afligna- 
torum, & per confilium Baronum Scaccarij. 
Hoved, P. 2. p. 702. «. 10^ 

G H A P, 


chap. VII. Of the Exchequer of the '^kws. 221 


Of the E X c H E CLU ^ ^ of the Jews. 

I. Of the Revenue p/' Judaifm. 

II. Of the Exchequer of the Jews. 

III. Of the Jtijiices of the Jews ; their Appoint^nent to their Office y 
their Privilege, and furiJdiSlion. 

IV. Of the fewTjli CharaSlers and Stars. 

V. Of the Chirographers and Cofferers of the Judaifm. 

VI. Certain Laws or AJizes of the JvLAziim. 

VII. That the Revenue of Judaifm and the Exchequer of the Jews 
were under the DireSiion and Contrail of the Treafiirer ajid Barons. 

VIII. The Conclufion. 

I. X E T us now fpeak briefly concerfting the Exchequer of the 

J J Jews. The King of England was wont to draw a confidera- 

ble Revenue from the Jews refiding in this Realm : namely, by Tal- 
lages, by Fines relating to Law-proceedings, by Amerciaments im- 
pofed on them for Mifdemeanors, and by the Fines, Ranfoms, and 
Compofitions, which they were forced to pay, for having the King's 
Benevolence, for Protedion, for Licence to trade and negotiate, for 
Difcharges for Imprifonment, and the like. He would tallage the 
whole Community or Body of them at Pleafure ; and make them an- 
fwer the Tallages for one another. If they made Default at the At- 
terminations or Days of Payment prefixed to them, they were charg- 
ed with great Fines or Compofitions for it. In Sum, the King 
feemed to be abfolute Lord of their Eftates and Efifedls, and of the 
Perfons of them, their Wives and Children. "Tis true, he let them 
enjoy their Trade and Acquefi:s : but they feemed to trade and acquire 
for his Profit as well as their own : for at one Time or other, their 
Fortunes or great Part of them came into his Cofi-ers. They were 
a numerous Body (being fettled in many, efpecially the great Towns 
©f the Realm) : and by Traffic, and taking of Ufuries and Mortgages 
of the King's Subjedts, they became very wealthy both in Money 
and Land. But as they fleeced the Subjedls of the Realm, fo the 
King fleeced them. Thefe Particulars afford a great Variety of 
Matter: which I mufl draw into as narrow a Compafs as I can. In 
4 order 


Of the E X C H E Q.U E R 

Chap. VII. 

order to that, I muft be content to mention fome Things that occur, 
i-elating to the Tallages laid upon the Jeivs, and the Amerciaments 
and Fines which they were wont to pay upon divers Occafions. In 
the ijth Year of K. Henry II, the Jews paid to the Crown a Tallage 
or Donum. The Sheriff" of Lincolnjhire ^zidi into the Exchequer xl/, 
which he had levied on the Jews in his County (aj. The Sheriff 
of Oxfordp.nre paid-in xx Marks, which he had levied on the Jews 
in his County fbj. The Sheriff of CatnbridgeJIdire paid-in L Marks, 
for the Donum of the Jeios of Cambridge (c). The Sheriff" oi Nor- 
folk and Suffolk paid-in the feveral Sums hereunder mentioned, levied 
on the Jews of Norwich, Thetford, and Bongex, for their refpedlive 
Donums (dj. The fame K. Henry II, anno Regtii 33 circiter, took 
of the Jews a fourth Part of their Chatells by Way of Tallage fcj. 
In the firff Year of K. Richard I, Ifaac Son of Rabbi fined in CC /, 
that he might be quit of [his Part of J the Tallage impofed upon the 
Jews by K. Hoiry II. at Geldeford (f) : he anfvvered great Part of 
this Tallage in the next Year fgj. In the third Year of K. Richard 
I, Jo/ce Son of Lie paid C s. towards the fecond Donum of M Marks 


(rt) Idem Vicccomes [Walterus de A- 
mundcvilla] r c de xl 1, pro Jiidxis ; In 
thelauro liberavlt. Et C^. e. Afug. Rot. 5. 
H. 2. Rot. 9. b. Lincolicfcira. 

[h) Idem Vicecomes [Henricus de Oilli] 
r c de XX marcis, pro Judseis ; In thefauro 
C & vj s & viij d, Et in perdonis per breve 
Regis Judaeo filij Regis xxvj s & viij d ; Et 
in Sokis, per breve Regis, cifdem Judisis 
X marcas ; Et Q; e. lb. Rot. 5. b. Oxi- 

ic) Idem Vicecomes r c de L marcis, 
de Dono Judasorum de Cantebrigia. lb. 
Rot. %. a. 

(d) After the Donums of the Knights and 
of the Towns in Norfolk and Suffolk, it fol- 
lows. Idem Vicecomes r c de xliilj 1 & vj s 
& viij d de Judseis de Norwico ; In thefauro 
xxxvij 1 & V j s & viij d in ij tallijs ; Et in 
perdonis per Cancellarium, Sanfoni xl s ; Et 
Benediclus reddidit C s pro Morello fratre 
fuo ; Et Qi, e. Idem Vicecomes r cde xxxl 
de Jud;eis de Tetford ; In th. i. in ij talJijs 
Et Q; e. Idem Vicecomes r c de xv 1 de Ju- 
daftis de Bongeia ; In th. 1. in ij tallijs, Et 
Q. e. Idem Vicecomes r c de xxxiij 1 & vj s 
& viij d, pro Monctarijs de Norwico, In th. 1. 
in ij tallijs, Et Q^ e. Idem Vicecomes r c 
de V marcis de Monetarijs de Tetford j In 

th. 1, Et Q^ e. Mag. Rot. 5. H. 2. Rot. 2. 

a. Norf. iJ Suthf. 

[c) After feveral Debts Jianding in Charge 
this Year upon the fnvs, it folloivs, De prae- 
diclis debitis Juda;orum fuftinemus ad prie- 
fens, Q^iia Dominus Rex cepit Quartum de 
Catallis fuis. Mag. Rot. 33. H. 2. Rot. 3. 
h. ad imu!n. 

To jeveral Debts Jlanding in Charge upon the 
Jews anno 34. H. 2, the like Award is fub- 
joined : Dc prsdiiStis debitis Judjeorum fufti- 
nemus ad prjefens, propter Tallagiumquod 
Dominus Rex capit ab eis. Mag. Rot. 34. 
H. 2. Rot. 2. a. 

(f) Yfaac filius Rabbi debet CC 1, ut fit 
quietus de toto Tallagio quod Rex Henri- 
cus Pater fecit apud Geldford, poft Suf- 
ceptionem Crucis ; De quibus debet reddere 
C 1 Dominica qua crmtatur L^etare 'Jerufalem, 
Et de refiduo, xxx 1 per annum, donee il- 
las prasditfas CI perfolverit, fcilicetad fef- 
tum S. Michaelis XV 1, Et ad Pafchaxvl. 
Alag. Rot. I. Rie. I. Rot. 13. l>. 

(g) Debita Judaeorum de 1 allagio de 
Geldeford, pofita per Cancellarium in Ro- 
tulo : Yfaac filius Rabbi r c de CC 1 de Re- 
ragio Tallagij de Geldeford ; De quibus fi- 
nivit cum Cancellario ad reddendum xxx 1 
per annum ad ij 'Ferminos : In thefuuro So 


Chap. Vir. 

of the Jews, 


charged on \\\t 'Je'ivs (b). Anno Domini 12 10, K. y(3/6« I'mprifoned 
the ^ews throughout England, and took from them 66,000 Marks 
(i). In the 12th Year of K. 'John, at Brijiol in the Feafl oi All- 
Saints, a Tallage was affefled upon the Jews. To this Tallage, 
Jfaac the Chirographer fined in five thoufand one hundred Marks, 
for himfelf his Wife and Children ; and other Jews in their refpedlivc 
Sums. Part of this Fine, together with fcveral Sums due from other 
yews, was anfwered by John Fitz-Hiigh in the thirteenth Year of K. 
John [k) : and other Part, together with other Sums due from the Jews 
for the fame Tallage, was anfwered by the find John Fitz-Hiigh in the 
fifteenth Year of the fame King (/). And in the 14th Year of that King, 
XX / and odd was paid-in for an Arrerage of the faid Tallage afiefied at 
Bri/Ioll upon the y^wj- of London {m). In or about the nth Year of K. 
Henry III, a Tallage was impofed on the Community of the Jews. 
The Jews of Cajiterbiiry made a FromiU'um or Fine for their Contin- 
gent of it, by the Hand of Walter de Kyrkeham and Simon de Hales 
(n). In the 14th Year of K. Henry III, the Jews had Refpite given 
them till the Ocftaves of St. John Baptiji, for Payment of the Re- 
fidue of the Tallage lately afi^efled on them j provided, that at that 
Time they paid three Parts of the faid Refidue, under Pain of doub- 
ling it; and as to the other fourth Part, for fecuring the Payment of it. 

much : and fo much allowed as paid to others ; 
Et debet Lxxvl. Mag. Rot. 2. R. 1. Rot. 

12. h. 

(h) Jofce filius Lie de Briftou r c deCs, 
de fecundis M marcis quas Judaei Anglias 
promiferant Domino Regi : In thefauro li- 
beravit, EtQiC. Mag. Rot. 2- R.i. Rot.S. a. 

(/') Anno Domini M CC X. Hoc anno 
captivavit [Johannes Rex]omnes Judaeosper 
totam Angliam, & fpoliavit eos catallis fuis 
ad valenciam Lxvj mille marcarum. ExVett. 
Annal. Mcrton. MSS. in Bibl. CCCC. (D. l). 
ad ami. ill. 

(k) Idem J. [Johannes filius Hugonis] 
r c de CCCC & xxx 1 & xiiij s & ob. , de 
Taillagio Judasorum fatSo apud Briftou, 
quas ab eis recepit; quod Taillagium faftum 
fuit in fefto Omnium Sandlorum anni prae- 
teriti ; Et de xvij 1 & xviij s & xj d, de 
Tail i agio Meir filij Samfonis de Stamford de 
eodem Taillagio ; Et de M & CCC k 
xxxvj 1 & ix s & vj d & ob. de fine Yfaac 
Cyrographe & uxoris fuae & puerorum fiio- 
rum, fcilicet de finede v mille & C marcis; 
and the Tallage of the other Jews. Mag, Rot, 

13. J. Rot. 22. a. 

(/) Idem [Johannes filius Hugonis] r c 
de CCCC & xxx 1 & xiiij s & ob. , de 
Taillagio Judaeorum fa£to apud Brifto, quas 
ab eis recepit ; quod Taillagium fadtum fuit 
in fefto Omnium Sandlorum anni praeteriti; 
Et de xvij 1 & xviij s xj d, de Meir filio 
Samfonis de Stanford de eodem taillagio ; 
Etde XX s de Meir de Abbendon & eodem ; 
Et de viij 1 de Yfaac de Wintonia ; Etde 
M & CCC & xxxvj 1 & ix s & vj d & ob. 
de fine Yfaac Cyrographarij &r uxoris fuse 
& puerorum fuorum, fcilicet de v Mille 
& C marcis ; and of others ; Summa, MM 
&C& Lixl &xjs. Mag. Rot. 15. J. 
Rot. 9. a. 

(m) Et XX 1 & iiij s & X d, de taillagio 
Juda;orum Londonias fa£fo apud Briftou. 
Mag. Rot. 14. J. Rot. 5. a. 

{)i) Vicecomes debet refnondere de Pro- 
mifTo fadfo Domino Regi de Communa Ju- 
daeorum Cantuariae, per Walterum de 
Kyrkeham & Symon de Hales ; Et dicit 
quod habet penes fe x marcas de illo pro- 
mifTo. Memor. 11. H, 3. Rot. 6. a. 


Chap. VII. 

2 2/\. Of the L X C H E Q^U E R 

they were to have the Bodies and Chatells of tlie reft of the 'JeiDs {o) . 
Aaron the Jew of Tork gave Lx Marks, to be quit of the Tallage aflefled 
in xxjft Year of IC. Henry III, and four hundred and fourfcore Marks 
for his Areres [of Tallage] for eight Years paft (p). In the 25th 
Year of K. Henry III, a Precept was fent to certain Jews oi Exeter, 
to take Care, at their Peril, about levying and anfwering to the Crown 
their Contingent of the Tallage of twenty thoufand Marks affeffed on 
them, at the Terms appointed for that purpofe [q). The like Precept 
was fent to the "Jeiv-s oi IVinton ; and to the Je^os in Wiltejlnre, Dor- 
fetjhire, and other Counties (r). For the affeiring of this Tallage, an 
Extrad: or Tallage-Roll was delivered out by the King's Order to the 
Perfons to whofe Care that Affair was committed {s). In or about 
the 28th Year of K. Henry III, the Jews made Fine with the Crown 
in twenty thoufand Marks ('^_^. About this Time, there was alfo im- 


(«) Jud.-si habent refpedlum ufq; in ocla- 
bas S. Johannis Baptiflae de refiduo talliagij 
•fex mille marcarum ultimo fuper eos affiii ; 
per lie quod tunc reddenc tres partes totius 
refidui, fub pcena dupli nifi tunc folveiint ; 
& de quarta parte habebunt corpora Judseo- 
rum & catalla, ad (ixtisfaciendum de ilia 
quarta parte. Pas.Commun. i^.H.^-Rot.b.b. 

(p) Aaron de Eboraco [debet] Lx mar- 
cas, Ut fit quietus de taillagiode anno xxj, 
Et CCCC & quater xx marcas de viij annis 
praeteritis. Alag. Rot. 30. H. 3. £^5?-. m.i.a- 

(y) Devon. Mandatum eft Jacobo de Ex- 
onia, & alijs Jud.ieis quorum nomina anno- 
tantur in quadam Cedula, quod Rex con- 
ftituit ipfos Baillivos fuos, una cum Vice- 
comite Devoniae cui idem mandatum eft, ad 
diftringendum omncs Judjeos villE fuac ad 
J'olvendum Regi Taillagium fuum de parte 
qua; ipfos contingit de hoc ultimo Tailiagio 
Kegis XX millium marcarum. Et ideo prae- 
ceptum &c, quod ficut corpora fua uxorum 
h. puerorum fuorum & omnia catalla fuadi- 
ligunt, taiemdiftriiStionem faciant quod pras- 
di<Sum Taillagium Regis terminis ftatutis 
tarn ab ipfis quam ab alijs de villa fua per 
manus ejufdem Vicecomitis, Regi ad Scac- 
carium Regis plenarie folvatur, fecundum 
extraftam quam eidem Vicecomiti mittit 
cis oftendendam ; Et quod ab eis requiret fi 
quid de diiSo Tallagio in terminis Regi de- 
fuerit, &tamgraviter contra ipfos manuni 
fuam aggravabit, quod pcena eorum erit om- 
nibus ad terrorem. T. Rege. Manor. 25. 
H. 3. Rot. 7. a. 

(/■) Ebdem modo mand.itum eft Juda^is 
Wintonias, Wiltef. & Dorfetse ; And to the 
Jews of feveral other Counties. lb. jtixt, 

(i) Baronibus pro Ifaaco filio Eiyse. Rex 
eifdem ; Quod li Ilaacus filius'Elya; Judzus 
Lincolni-.B terminos fuos obfervaverit,de de- 
bito in quo Regi tenetur ad Scaccarium — , 
nuUam inde faciant diftriilionem ; Ita quod 
Taillagium affideatur fuper ipfum fecundum 
quantitatem &; valorem catallorum fuorum, 
in forma quae continetur in rotulo taillagij 
Judaeorum. Alemorand. 25. H. 3. Rot. 10. b. 

[t) Baronibus pro Slema Judaea Londo- 
v\\x. Rex eifdem ; Sciatis quod perdona- 
vimus Henrico de Trublevill xiij marcas, 
quas debuit Slemas Judrea Londonia? fuper 
Jocalia fua quas ei inpingnoravit. Et ideo 
vobis mandamus, quod in debito quod nobis 
debet in fine xx mille marcarum, quern 
Judai ultimo nobifcum fecerunt, prsdiclas 
xiij marcas ei aliocari faciatis. Breve eft 
in forulo Marefcalli. Memor. 28. H. 3. 
Rot. 4. b. 

Cant. & Hunt. Mandatum eft Vicecomiti 
ficut alias, quod habeat coram Baronibus — 
omncs tallias quas ipfi Judiei habent de fo- 
lutionibus faftis ad Scaccarium, de Tallagio 
XX mille marcarum ; ut eifdem tallijs ibidem 
tunc allocatis, Rex fcire pofTit evidenter, 
quantum & a quibus Regi debebatur de 
Tallagio praedicSo. lb. Rot. 5. a. The like 
TFrit ivasfent into many other Counties ; Ibid. 

Wiltef. Eodem modo mandatum eft Vi- 
cecomiti, quod habeat coram Baronibus — , 


chap. VII. 

of the J E w s. 


pofed upon the Jews a Tallage of fixty thoufand Marks (u). And be- 
caufe fome of themhad not paid their Contingent of this Tallage, the 
King commanded, that they, their Wives, and Children fliould be 
arrefted, and their Lands, Rents, and Chatells feized {w). In or about 
the 29th Year of K. Henry III, Elyas Son of Chere was arrefted by 
the King's Command, for [his Part of] the Tallage of Lx thoufand 
Marks impofed on the Jcuis (x) : and all his Chatells were feized, 
and delivered to the Jullices of the Jews fyj. In the 49th Year of 
K. Henry III, Abraham Son of Vives was in arrere for feveral Tal- 
lages impofed on the Community oi \k\t Jews 0I England (z). 

Many Fines and Amerciaments were impofed on the Jeies for 
Trefpalfes. In the 23d Year of K. Henry II, Jiirnet the Jeiv fined 
in MM Marks, Benct the Jew in D /, for an Amercement, and Brun 
the Jew in MMM Marks; the Community of the Je-ws were Surety 

corpora Salomonis hlij Jofcei & triiim alio- 
rum de ditioribus Judreis de balliva fua, ad 
refpondenduni Regi de arreragijs tallagij xx 
mille marcaruin de Communa Judaeorum 
Wiltonix . Ib:d. Rot. 5. b. 

hi) Baronibus pro Samuele filio Leonis 
Judsi de Eboraco. Rex eifdem ; Sciatis 
qucd Sainuel filius Leonis Judrei EboraLi 
iinem fecit nobifcum per vij millia marca- 
) um, pro relevio catallorum prxdicli Leonis 
patris fui, & pro catallis prasfati patris fui & 
liiii inventis extra arcliain, & ut quietus fit 
de tallagio fcxaginta mille marcarum, quod 
fuper Judieos noftros Anglia affideri facie- 

mus : £t maiidatum eil Jufticiarijs 

Judaeorum. lb. Ret. 6. b. 

(w) Suhamton. Rex Vicecomiti ; Quia 
El)'»$ filius Cherse non folvit nobis portio- 
nem ipfum contingentem de tallagio Lx 
Mille marcarum, fecundum tenorem Starri 
quod Judaei noflri Angliae nobis fecerunt : 
Tibi praecipimus, quod capias corpora uxo- 
ris & infancium pra?di<3;i E, & ea habeas co- 
ram Baronibus a die , ut tuncdeeis fa- 

ciamus voluntatem noflram fecundum teno- 
rem prxdi£ti Starri. Cape etiam in manum 
noilram omnes terras, domos, redditus, & 
catalla fua in pr.tdidlis tcrris inventa, & ea 
falvo cuflodias donee aliud inde praeceperi- 

mus . Accedas etiam ad archam Ciro- 

graphariorum Wintoniae, & onirics cartas & 
catalla in eadem archa inventa fub nomini- 
bus praedictorum Elyse iixoris & puerorum 

Vol. I. 

fuorum, habeas coram Baronibus ad eundem 
diem, fub figillo fuoic Cirographariorum, ic 
breve. ALtnor. 28. //. 3. Rot. 14. a. 

Ebnr. Pro Regina. Mand.itum eft Vice- 
comiti, quod diltringat Aaronem de Kbor.i- 
co Juil.^-um per corpus fuum, uxorem, libe- 
ros, catalla, & omnibus modis quibus pote- 
rit, ad reddendum Dominas Reginae quater 
viginti iij 1 dimidiam marcam de Tallagio 
Lx Mille marcarum de Termino S. Triiii- 
tatis proximo pr.eterito, & Lxxvj I x s & 
iiij d de eodem Tallagio de pluribus termi- 
nis praeteritis, & omnia alia debita qua: de- 
bet eidem ReginE, ita quod habeat dena- 
rios per aliquem de fuis in craflino S. Mar- 
garetas. Trin. Commun. 32. H. 3. Rot. 9. a. 

(at) Loquendum. Memorandum quod 
Conftabularius Turris Londonisedeliberavit 
corpus Elyas filij Cherse fine prascepto Regis, 
Baronum de Scaccario, vel Jufliciar. Judae- 
orum ; qui Elyas captus fuit propter Tal- 
lagium Lx mille marcarum. Mich, Com- 
mun. 29. H. 3. Rot. 4. a. 

[y) Memorandum quod omnia catalla 
quae fuerunt Elyae filij Cherae, & quae capta 
fuerunt in manum Regis propter Tallagium 
Lx mille marcarum, liberata fuerunt oflavo 
dieMarcij Jufliciarijs Judaorum. Hil. Com- 
mun. 29. H. 3. Rot. 7. a. 

(z) Abraham filius Vives [debet] Lxiijl 
xiiij s iijd, de pluribus Tallagijs fuper Com- 
muniam [Judaeorum] Anglis. AIe/mr.j\.g. 
H. 3. Rot. 18. a. EJJix & Hertf. 

G g for 


Of the E X C H E Q_U E R 

Chap. VII. 

for and anfwered Part of Bruns Fine («). In the 27th Year of that 
King, Bi-un had paid all the faid Fine except CCCC / [b) : and in 
the 29th Year, he anfwered xl /, pro lacco for the lacciim of the faid 
CCCC/. (that is, I conceive, either for Default of Payment, or ra- 
ther for fo much lacking or falling fliort by his making Payment in 
bad Money) fc). In the fame 29th Year, SanBo the 'Jcia of St. 
Edmiindjhiiry fined in v Marks, that he might not be punifhed for 
taking in Pledge certain Veflels that were appointed for the Service 
of the Altar (d). In the Reign of K. Jolm, IJ'aac \.h.& Jew oi Norwich 
made a Fine with the King in ten thoufand Marks, to be paid at a 
Mark a-Day during Life. And in the great Roll of the 4th Year of 
K. Henry III, Hubert de Burgh Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk accompt- 
ed for DCiiij /, arerages of the faid Fine (e). In the 3 ifl Year of K. 
Henry III, the Heirs of Ifaac a few oi Norwich flood charged with four 
thoufand eight hundred feventy nine Pounds and odd, the arerages of 
the faid Ifaac s Fine ffj. In the 27th Year of the fame King, the 
Community of the Jews of London flood charged with Liij /. and 
odd, an arere of the Debts owing to the King by the Jews (gj. In 
the 35th Year of K. Henrylll, the whole Body of the fews of England 
Hood charged with MMMMM Marks of Silver andxl Marks of Gold, 
for a Fine (h). In or about the 3 ifl Year of King Henry II, iheyews of 


{a) Jurnet Judseus r c de MM marcls, 
unde finivit cum Rege apud Wintoniam in 
Transfretatioiie fua. Benediiftus Judaeus r c 
de D ], de Fine qiiem fecit cum Rege in 
Tranfitu fuo, de Mifericordia fua. Brunus 
Judreus r c de A'IMM marcis, de Fine quem 
fecit cum Rege in Tranfitu fuo ; In the- 
fauro C & xxiiij 1 per manum uxoris fuae, 
Et D 1 & Liijs & iiij d de Communi Juds- 
orum pro plegiagio ejus, & Willelmo de 
Ver & Waltero de Gant xl 1 ad operatio- 
nem Ecclefiae de Waltham, per breve Ri- 
cardi de Luci, per manum uxoris fuse, Et 
debet MM marcas. Mag. Rot. 23. H. 2. 
Rot. II. b. 

{b) Brunus Judajus debet CCCC 1 de 
Finequemfecitcum Regein Transfretatione 
fua. Mag. Rot. 27. H. 2. Rot. tilt. h. 

(c) Brunus Jud?eus r c de xl 1, pro lacco 
prasdiifbarum CCCC 1 ; In Thefauro x 1 ; F.t 
debet XXX 1 : Idem r c de codem debito ; In 
Thefauro x L ; Et debet xx 1. Mag. Rot. 
29. H. 2. Rot. 13. b. 

[d) Sando Judceus de Sandlo j^dmundo 

r c de V marcis, Ut fit quietus de hoc quod 
recepit in vadio vafa deputata obfequio al- 
taris ; In th. 1, Et Q. e. Mag. Rot. 29. H. 
2. Rot. 2. /'. Nordfolch &• Slid/. . 

(e) Idem H. [de Burgo] r c de DC & 
iiijl, quas recepit de Yfaac de Norewico 
Judaeo, a termino xv dierum a fefto S. Jo- 
hannis Baptifts anno Regis fecundo ufq; ad 
terminum Pafchas anno regni ipfius v°, de 
Fine unius marcie qualibet die Regi redden- 
das a pr.-ediiSto Yfaac quamdiu vixerit, do- 
nee de fine decern millium marcarum quem 
fecerat cum Rege J. patre Regis fit quietus. 
Mag. Rot. 4. H. 3. Rot. 4. b. 'Norf. isf Suf. 

(f) Ha;redes Ifaac de Norwico [debent j 
MMMM, DCCC, Lxxixl vij s Si x d, de 
arreragijs finis didi Ifaac. Mag. Rot. 31. 
H. 3. No7f. i^ Siiff. 711. 2. a. tit. De Ju- 

(g) Communia Judaeorum Londoniae de- 
bent Liijl ij s vij d de debitis Judaeorum. 
A-Iemor. 27. H. 3. Rot. 14. a. 

(/;) Univerfitas Judaeorum Angliae debent 

MMMMM marcas argenti, &"xl marcas 

2 auri. 

chap. VII. of the ]^\v %. 227 

England flood charged with 5,525 Marks and half a Mark, for the 
Amercement oi'Jurnet of Norwich. This Debt was required of the 
whole Body of the "Jews, and they were to have Jurnet's Effeds and 
Charters to enable them to pay it (ij. 

Again ; the Jcivs were wont to pay Fines to tlie King for Law- 
proceedings. Of this, a few Inftances, out of many, may fuffice. 
Abraham and Deujlrfalt gave a Mark of Gold, tliat they mio-ht re- 
cover their Debts againll: Opert de Leiccjler (k). Rubi Gotjce and 
other Jews, to whom Earl Raim/f was indebted, gave x Marks of 
Gold, that the King would help them to recover their Debts againft 
the Earl fl). Copin the Jew of St. Edmonds gave xx Marks, to 
have Right for the Chatells which Slema his Mother committed to 
Santon the Jew (m). Jofce ^latrebuches gave xl Marks, that his 
Son Hakelin might be dealt with according to Juftice, in the Plea be- 
tween him and Adam de Colebroke fnj. Abraham Son of Rabbi gave 
ij Ounces of Gold, that a certain Recognition for the Manour of 
Malefwurd, which was fummoned before Juflices Errant, might be 
brought before the chief Jufticier (0). Benet Son of Jojle \uatre 
Buches gave xx/, that the King would hear the Plea which he had 
againft Abraham oi London (p). The faid Benet fined in CC Marks, 
that he might have the Charters and Chatells of his Father, and an 
Accord between him and Ifaac and Abraham Sons of Rabbi ; and that 
he might not (without fpecial Diredlion from the King) be im- 
pleaded for concealing his Father's Chatells (q). Benjamin and 


auri, de Fine. Mcmorand. 35. H. 3. Rot. mater fua commendavit Santoni Judso. 

23. b. Londoma& Midd. Mag. Rot. 31. H. 2. Rot. 3. b. 

[i] Judxi Angliae debentMMMMM & {n) Jofce Qiiatrebuches debet xl marcas, 

D & XXV marcas. & dimidiam, de Miferi- Ut Hakelinus rilius fuus jufte deducatur de 

cordia Jurnet deNorwico, cuj us Cartas ha- Loquela quas fuit inter eum & Adam de 

buerunt ad ipi'um acquietandum. Alag. Colebroch. Alag. Rot. 1. R. i. Rot. i^. b. 

Rot. 32. H. 2. Rot. 4. a. [0) Abraham hlius Rabbi [debet] ij un- 

{k) Abraham & Deuflefalt Judsi r c de cias Auri, Ut Recognitio de Terra de Ma- 

j marca auri, Ut habeant debita ("ua de Of- lefwurda quamRobertus Cufm petit, & qu.-e 

berto de Legieceftria ; In thefauro Lxs pro fummonita fuit coram Jufticijs errantibus, 

dimidia marca auri, Et debent dimidiam veniat coram Capitali Jufticia. lb. 

marcam auri. Mag. Rot. 5. Stc. Rot. 15. «. (p) Benedidus filius Jofce Quatre Buches 

Londonia. [debet] xx 1, Ut Rcxaudiat loquelamfuam 

(I) Rubi Gotfce & Judxi quibus Comes verfus Abraham Judsum Londonias. Alug. 

Rannulfus debebat, debent x marcas auri. Rot. 1. R.. 1. Rot. 13. b. 

Ut Rex juvet eos erga Comitem de debitis [q) Benedidus filius Jofce Quatrebuch 

fuis. Et de his, . . . . : vj marcas auri, & debet CC marcas, Pro habendis cartis & 

alij Judasi iilj marcas auri. Ib.juxt. catallis Patris fui ; & Pace inter eum & 

(m) Copin Judsus de S. vEdmundo debet Yfaac h Abraham filios Rabbi; & quod non 

XX marcas, pro redo de catallis qu;e Slema pojuturinplacitumdehocquoddiciturremo- 

G g 2 ville 

228 0/" ^y6^ E X c H E a.u E R Chap. VII. 

other Jews gave xx Marks, that William de Scbclford and his Brother 
might be diftreined to render to them xlij /. Principal and Intereft(r). 
Moroever, the y("zrj- were wont to be fined and amerced to the King 
upon divers Occalions. For Example : La Coiinteff'e the Jewefs of 
Cambridge and her Sons, and the Jews of Lincoln, fined in vij Marks 
of Gold for a Trefpafs, committed by a Son oi la Countefje, in marying 
a Jeiicfs of Lincoln without the Kmg's Licence (j). Benet Son of 
Deodate a Jew fined xx /, for taking certain confecrated Veftments in 
Pawn (/). The 'Jeivs oi Norwich who were imprifoned for circum- 
cifing a Chrijiian Child, fined in C Marks, to have Refpite touching 
the fame (n). Jurnet of Norwich gave MDCCC Marks, that he 
might refide in England with the King's good Will fwj. Mtireil the 
Jeivefs fined in C /, that jQie might be permitted to marry Ifaac the 
Jew oi Oxford fxj. Aaron of York and Aaron Son oi Abraham, for 
themfelves and other Jews, gave xl Marks, to have the Verdidl of 
Bertram de Criol fy). In the fecond Year of K. John, the Jews of 
England gave the King MMMM Marks, for Confirmation of their 
Charters. Accordingly, Charters were prepared, and fent to Geoffrey 
Fitz-Pterre and Stephen de Pertico, who were to caufc the fame to be 
read before them two, and the Bifliops of London and Norwich, and 
to be delivered to the Jews as foon as they had given Security 
for Payment of this Fine (z)^ So alfo, \he.Jews of London fined in 

. MM 

v.ifle catalla Patris fui nifi Rex nominatim 
hoc prsceperit. Mng. Ret. 4. R. i. Rot. 
II. b. Land, i^ Midil. 

(>■) MagifterBenjamin & Jacob filius Ma- 
nafles, & Abraham & Manail'es filij Benja- 
min, & Samuel filius David, h Santo de 
Gurn?J,Qebent xx marcas, Ut Willelmusde 
Schelford & Mathaeus frater ejus diftringan- 
tur, ad reddendum eis xlij libras de Catalio 
& Lucre. Mng. Rot. 5. J. Rot. i. a. Cant. 
tf Hunt. tit. Nova Oblata. 

(s) Comitiila Judaa de Cantehr. & filij 
ejus & Judaei dc Lincolia r c de vij marcis 
auri, pro Judaea Lincolix quam filius Co- 
mitifis duxit uxorem fine iicentia Regis, 
In Thefauro xxiiij 1 pro iiij marcis auri, Et 
debet iij marcas auri. A-Iag. Rot. 15. H. 2. 
Rot. 12. b. Lund. & Midd. 

{t) Benediclus Jiida;us filius Deodati r c 
•de XX 1, pro vtflimentis benediflis quas fuf- 
cepit in vadium ; In th. 1, EtQ^ e. Mag, 
Rot. 17. H. 2. Rot. I. a. Norf. ts" Sudf. 

(«) Judaei Norwici capti & detenti in pri- 
fona Regis, pro tranrgreflione quam fece- 

runt de quodam puero Chriftiano circumci- 
dendo, [debent] C marcas pro habendo re- 
fpedu. Mag. Rot. 31. i/. 3. Norf. isf Sufi 
m. I. a. 

(w) Jurnetjudaeus de Norwico debet M 
& DCCC marcas, Pro habenda refidentia 
fuain Anglia cum benevolentia Regis. Mag. 
Rot. s- R- I. Ret. 2. a. Nordfilch. isf Sudf. 

[x] R^uriel Judaea debet C libras, Ut 
habeat in virum YfaacJuda;umOxenefordix, 
ficut prolocutum eft inter eos. Mag. Rot. 
5. J. Rot. I. b. Londonin (jf Midd. tit. No- 
va Oblata. 

(y) De Oblatis : Aaron de Ebor. & 
Aaron filius Abraha* pro fe & focijs fuis [de- 
bent] xl marcas, pro habendo veredifto B. 
de Cryol. Mag. Rot. 30. H. 3. Lend, fef 
Midd. m. 2. a. 

(z) Judasi AnglixdantDomino Regi quar 
tuor Mille marcas, pro Cartis fuis confir- 
mandis. Et mifloe fuerunt Cartae Gaufrido 
filio Petri & Stephano de Pertico, ut eas fa- 
cial legi coram le & coram Dominis Londo- 


Chap. vn. 

of the J E w s. 


MM/; for a Manflaughter (a). Abraham Son of Rabbi owe A MM/, 
for an Amercement (<:;!'). Samue/ was amerced at v Marks of Gold, 
for a Bill of Divorce [c). Benet of Norivicb fined in xl/. and a Mark, 
becaufe he was prefent at a Concord made touching the King's 
Peace ; and that he might be difcharged of a Mifdemeanor he had 
committed in felling his Chatells to certain Jews (d). Abraham Son 
oi Aiiigay paid a Mark of Gold, becaufe it was not mentioned (as 
it ought to have been) in a Charter which he had from the Earl of 
Arundel, that die Manour oi Rowell wi.% mortgaged to him [e). Leo of 
Gloucejier gave xx Marks, for that he was accufed of being of the 
Society of Outlaws (f). And numberlefs other Fines and Amercia- 
ments were impofed on the Jev-'s ; which need not be here rehearfed. 
If the Jews failed in paying the Debts they owed to the King, he 
treated them with great Severity. For Example : The Jews of 
England being indebted to the King in five thoufand Marks, the 
King by his Writ commands the Treafurer and Juftices of the Jeivs, 
to diftrain them for the fame Debts, by their own Bodies and the 
Bodies of their Wives and Children, fo that the Money might not 
fail of being levied, and fent fpeedily to the King into Gafcony fgj. 

nicnfi & Norwicenfi Epifcopis ; & cum ac- 
ceperitfecuritatemde illisquatuor mille mar- 
cis reddendis, tunc eis illas Cartas coram 
pr£edi£tis liberet. Ohlata 2. J. tn. 3. 

{a) Judsi Londoniae reddunt compotum 
de MM 1, pro Infirmo quern interfecerunt ; 
In thcfauro DC &: xx . . . . Et in foltis per 
breve Regis, Rubigotfce C marcas argent), 
Et Manaffero Judao quater xx marcas ar- 
genti & Lxiiij s & ij . . . pio Willelnio fi- 
lio . . . . Et Abraham Judaeo xv marcas ar- 
genti, Et item Rabigotfce quater xx mar- 
cas argenti ; Et dtbent M & CLxvj 1 & 
xiij s & iiij d. Mag. Rot. 5. Stcph. Ret. 15. a. 

(i) Abraham filius Rabbi debet MMl 
de Mifericordia. Rex pracipit ne amplius 
exigaiitur ab eo per hunc Rolulum, fed ab- 
radantur de Rotu;o; Per breve fuum. Mug. 
Rot. 12. H. 2. Rot. 10. b. 

(i) De placitis Curiae : Samuel Juda-us 
debet V marcas auri, de mifericordia pro Li- 
bello Repudij. Mag. Rot. 26. H, 2. Rot. 6. 
h. Norhant. 

(d) Benedi*Slus Judaeus de Norwico debet 
xl 1 & xiij s & iiij d, quia interfuit Placito 
Concordias de Pace Regis ; & ut habeat pa- 
cem de catallis fuis quae vendiderat Aaron & 

Abrahae 5: Yfaac de Coleceftria & Jofcio de 
Everwich. Mai;. Rot. 31. H. 2. Rot. 3. a. 
Nordfokh & Sudf. 

{e) De Oblatis Curiae : Abraham filius 
Avigay debet j marcam auri, quia non con-- 
tinebatur in Carta fua de Coraite de Arun- 
del, quod Manerium de Rov/ell effet Vadi- 
um fuum, ficut effe decebat. Mag. Rot. i; 
R. I. Rot. 13. Z-. 

(/) Leo Judaius de Gloeceftria debet xx 
marcas, quia rettatus fuit de Societate Utla- 
gorum. Mag. Rot. 7. R. i. Rot. 13. 

{g) Philippo Luvell Thefaurario, &Juf- 
ticiarijs Judreorum ; Rex mandat eifdem, 
quod omnimoda diftrictione qua fieri poterit, 
fine dilatione diftringant JudEos Aiisjliae, 
ad foivendasei quinq; mille marcai, mitten- 
das ad Regem in Wafconiam ; h ad hoc 
pisdidtos judxos diirringant, tarn per cor- 
pora fua quam uxr)rum & puerorum fuo- 

rum, &etiam per vend : Ita quod 

nullatenus omittatur quin diftam pccuniam 
habeant cum teltiiiatione ad ipfum Re- 
gem ad partes praeditftas. Breve liberatuni 
eft Jufiiciarijs Judicorum. Mcmor. 38. Hi 
3. Rot. 14. b. ill ims. 

A Writ 

230 Of the E X c H E Q_u E R chap. VII. 

A Writ ill'iicd out of the Exchequer to the SherifFof GloiiccJlerJJjirc, 
commanding him to bring before the Barons on the Morrow of St. 
Aiuireiv, the Bodies of Michael Son of Ifaac and other Jews, to hear 
their Jutlgment dc corporibus fids, (according to the Starrs they had 
made to the King) for not obferving the Days prefixt to them for 
Payment of their Fine of twenty thoufand Marks. And the Sheriff 
was ordered to bring before the Barons at the laid Day, all the Chi- 
rographs and Tallies made to the Jews for Debts, that could 
be found in the Chirographers Chefls, and to feize into the King's 
Hands all the Lands, Houfes, and Chatells of the Je^vs, the fame 
having been forfeited by their Default of Payment of the faid Fine 
(/jj. K. Hcmj III. borrowed of Richard Earl of Cornis^all five thou- 
iand Marks fterling : and, for fecuring the Repayment thereof, 
afhgned and fet-over all his 'jevos of England to the faid Earl ; and 
bound them to pay the Earl three thoufand Marks which they owed 
to the King, at certain Terms or Days, under pain of forfeiting five 
hundred Pounds for every Default of Payment ; and gave the Earl 
Power to diflrain them by their Chatells and Bodies for the fame (i). 
K. Edward I. granted Cok Agyn a ^eia of London with all his Cha- 
tells X.O Alienor Queen Conlbrt {k). The fame King, having granted 

(/^) Glouc. Mandatum eft Vicecomiti, 
quod habeat coram Baronibus in craftino 
S. Andrese, corpora Michaelis filij If., Meyr 
filij If., Ifaac filij If., & Lunibardi filij 
Lumbardi, ad recipiendum judicium de 
Corporibus fuis, fecundum Scarra fua 
quae Regi fecerunt, eo quod non tenue- 
j unt Terminos fuos, de FinexxMille mar- 
carum quem cum Rege fecerunt ; & quod 
habeat ad praedi<5lum diem & locum, omnia 
CyrogrSpria & tnllias fub nomine eorum 
confeclas, & in archa Cyrographariorum 
inventas, de dcbitis qua eis debentur, fub 
SigiUis Cyrographariorum, & quod capiat 
in manum Regis omnes terras domos & om- 
nia cntalla priedidtorum Jud;torum ; Qiiia 
omnia foris fecerunt pro pra?dicto Fine non 
cbfervato ; Et Icire faciat diilinfte & apcrte 
prsdicfis Baronibus valorem dicfarum domo- 
rum & catallorum. prsedidtorum Judreorum, 
Et Breve. T. A Thcfaurario S. Pauli Lon- 
donis decimo die Novembris. Mkh. Com- 
jHun. 27. H. 3. Ret. 4. (I. 

(;') Rex omnibus &c. Noveritis nos mu- 
tuo accepifle a dile£fo fratre & fideli nollro 
R. Comite Cornubiae, quinq; millia marca- 

rum fterlingorum novorum & integrorum, 
ad quorum folutionem affignavimus & tra- 
didimus ei omnes Judasos noftros Anglia?. 
AlTignavimus etiam & obligavimus eofdem 
Judasos prasdi£lo Comiti, ad folutionem tri- 
um millium marcarum in quibus nobis te- 
nebantur, de tallagio eidem Comiti flicien- 
do in hunc modum, videlicet, that the Jnvs 
Jhoidd pay to the Earl, his Executors or Jf- 
fignes, in Quind. Trin. Anno 39, looo 1 ; 
in Quind. S. Mich, tbc fame Tear locol 
&:c ; i^ that the 'Jnvs Jhould forfeit 500 I for 
every default of payn.ent. The King grants 
the Earl power to dijlrain thetn hy their cha- 
tells and bodies ; tvith other Covenants. T. 
Rege apud Weftmon. xxiiij die Febr. anno 
&c. xxxix. Pat. 39. H. 3. 7n. 13. 

[k) nee idem Robertus [de Percy] 

aliquam adhuc indc acquietanciam fit afie- 
cutus ut Rex accepit, eo quod eundem Cok 
cum omnibus bonis & catallis, karilTimae 
Conforti Resris Alienorje Rectinae Anoliie 
conceffit, ita quod ipfe nuUam fui vel bono- 
rum fuorum habeat poteltatem acquietan- 
ciam aliquam faciendi — . Trin. Commun. 6. 
E. I. Rot. 7. e. 


Chap. vn. 

cf the Jews. 


Aaron Son of Vlves a "Jew, with all his Chatells, to his Brother Ed- 
mund, fo that the King or his Heirs or their Minifters (liould not in- 
termeddle with Aaron or his Chatells without the Confent of Ed- 
mund, Commands the Barons by Writ, not to \\\q\^^ Aaroii or meddle 
with his Chattels, contrary to that Grant, for any Tallage that fliould 
be affefTed upon the 'jeijss (I). About the 13th Year of K. Edward 
I, certain Com-mifiioners were appointed to difcover and feize, at 
Winchejler, Brijio!, and Devizes, the Goods and Chatells of the Jeivs 
who were condemned for certain TrefpafTes, and to fell and dilpofe 
of their Houfes, Lands and Rents. The Executors of William de 
Bray beof one. of theie Commiflioners rendred an Accompt in the Ex- 
chequer, for the IfTues of the faid Forfeitures {m). 

II. The Receipt or Place appointed for the Management of this 
Revenue of the Judaifm, was called Scaccarium yudceorum or 'Judaifmi. 
It was a Part or Member of the great Exchequer. And they had 
there Rolls or Records, wherein the Writs and Proceedings of the 
'Judaifm were entred. And Summonces iffued out of the Exchequer 
of the ' for the King's Debts, like as out of the great Exche- 
quer. William de Hajlings flood charged, in the Roll of the great 
Judaifm, amongft the Fines of the Jews, with a Debt of xxvij /. 
due from MoJJe Son of Ifaac de Colechejier. He anfwered it in the 

(/) Baronibus & Jufticiariis ad cuftodiatn 
JudsEorum aflignatis. Cum Rex dederit & 
conceflerit Edmundo fratri fuo, Aron fili- 
um Vives Judasum Londonise, cum omni- 
bus bonis & catallis fuis, ita quod Rex & 
hseredes i'ui feu miniftri fui quicunq ; de ipfo 
Judaeo aut bonis& catallis fuis, fine licentia 
& voluntate ipfius Edmundi, non intromit- 
tent quoquomodo : Rex mandat Baronibus, 
quod ipfum Aron, occafione alicujus Talla- 
gij fuper Judasos aiTidendi, non moleflentin 
aliquo feu gravent, nee de bonis & catiUis 
fuis intromittant, contra doniitionem &con- 
ceffionem Regis prsedittam. T. Regc apud 
Weftmon. ix° die Julij anno xviij". Trin. 
Commun. 18. E. 1. Rot. b. in in:}. 

(?n) Compotus Johannas qua fuit uxor 
Willclir.i de Braybeof, unius executorum 
teftamenti praefati Willelmi, per Fratrem 
Ricardum de Brikevill attornatum fuum, & 
Johannis Randolf alterius executorum tefta- 
menti prxdidl ^Viilelmi, CuiRex commifit 

officium de bonis & cattallis Judaeorum 
dampnatorum per duo brevia Regis Patentia, 
In quibus continetur, quod Rex affignavit 
ipfiwii Willelmum loco Johannis le Fauco- 
ner qui diem claufit extremum, ad officium 
de bonis & catallis Judaeorumdampnatorum, 
quod idem Johannes habuit ex commiffione 
Regis apud Wintoniam, Briftollum, & De- 
vifas, exequendum, & ad pecuniam & ad 
omnia alia bona & catalla quae executores 
teftamenti prsfiUi Johannis eidem Willelmo 
per praeceptum Regis liberabunt recipienda, 
& inde difponendum prout ad commodum 
Regis magis viderit cxpedire, Et etiam quod 
Rex dedit cidem Willelmo poteftatcm ven- 
dendiomnes demos terras & reduitus praedic- 
torum Judaeorum dampnatorum pro tranf- 
grefTionibus eis inpofitis, in locis in quibus 
idem Willejmus affignatus eft per Regem ad 
inquirendum de tranfgreffionibus prxdidtis. 
Idem reddunt compotum Sec. Mag. Rot, 
13. E. I. in Rot. Cnnpotoi-. m. i. b. 


232 Of the E X c H E CLU E R Chap. VII. 

Roll of the Jiidtiifm for Warn'ickfinre («). In the 33d Year of K. 

Henry \\, the Debts and EfFe<5ls of Aaron the Jeiv being then, as it 

feems, feized into the King's Hands, Writs of bummonce to levy the 

faid Debts pro Rege, were ilTued out of the Exchequer fo) : and 

again in the next Year fpj. The Sheriff of Lincolnfl^ire upon his 

Profer at the Exchequer, paid-in xxv/ and odd, levied by the Sum- 

monce of the Exchequer of the Jews (qj. The Sheriff of the 

(bounties o( JVar-JDick and Leicejler paid-in Money levied upon the like 

Sunimonce (r) ; and other Sheriffs in other Years. In the loth 

Year of K. Edward I, a V/rit was fent to the Barons, intimating that 

the Kins was defirous to know, how the Affair touching; the Eftreats 

of the yudaifm \ycnt forward; and commar ling the Barons, to caufe 

all the Money arifing by tiie fiid Eftreats to be kept in a Cheft in the 

Treafury by itfelf, and the Proffer which any Sheriff fiiould make 

out of thofe Eftreats to be written and enrolled in a Roll by itfelf; 

and that the Money (o put by itfelf fliould not be removed without 

the King's Order (j). Neverthelefs, Debts of thtjudaifm were fome- 

times charged in the Rolls of the great Exchequer, and Proceedings 

were had there touching the fame. For Example : The Effcils of a 

yewefs named tbe ^een being feized into the King's Hands, feverrl 

X)ebts due to her were anfwered to the King at his Exchequer (/). The 


(«) Willelmus de Haftiii2;s debet xxvij 1 
pro Mofieo filio YCaac de Coleceftria, ficut 
continetur in Rotulode Magno Judaifmode 
finibus Judseorum ; Sed relpondet in Ju- 
daifmo de Warewik. Mag. Rot. j. H. 3. 
Rot. 5. a. 

(0) Et Helyx Oftiario j marcam, ad por- 
tandas Summonitiones de Debitis Aaron Ju- 
dsi per Angliam ; Et eidem xij d pro Cera 
ad eafdem Summonitiones figillandas. Afag. 
Rot. 33. H. 2. Rot. I- b. Et ib.juxt.toti- 
dem vcrbi;. 

(p) Mag. Rot. 34. H. 2. Rot. 2. a. 

\q) Lincoln. Vicecomes venit per Wal- 
terum le Venur clericum fuum, & tulit 

(i) Rex mandat Baronibus ; Qiiiamodi'; 
omnibus Icire vult per qucs, quaiiter, & 
quomodo negocium de Extraclis Judailmi, 
quod nuper de diverfis debitis expediri prsf- 
cepit, fiat &expediatur, Quod totam pecu- 
niam provenientem de eodem Judaifmo per 
Extraflas praediiflas, maxime faftas per Ma- 
giftrum Henricum de Bray, in quadam Cifta 
in Thefauraria per fe poni faciant, falvo 
cuftodiendaufqiAdventum Regis apudWeft- 
monafterium. ProfFrum autem fingulorum 
Vicecomitum de Extraftis illis, quantum vi- 
delicet quilibet per fe proferat & folvat, & 
quade caufa, & ad quam fummam proftVum 
hujufmodi attingat, & de quo tempore, in 

CCCCvj 1 iiij s iij d : De quibus CLxvj 1 quodam Rotulo per fe confcribi h irrotulari 

de firma, & xxv 1 xvs viij d de Summoni- 
tione Scaccarij Juda;orum, & refiduum de 
alijs Summonitionibus. Paf. Adventus 15. 
E. I. Rot. 24. a. 

(r) War. & Leyc. Vicecomes venit h tu- 
lit CCxlix marcas. De quibus Cxxix mar- 
cas de firma, Et Lxxv 1 xv s viij d de Sum- 
monitione Scaccarij Judaeorum, Mich. Ad- 
cjent. 14. £5" 15. E. I. Rot. 25. a. 

faciant. Provifo eciam, quod pecunia pra;- 
difta fie per fe pofita falvo cuflodidtur, 
nee aliquid inde quoquo modo amoveatur, 
donee aliud inde dederit in mandatis. Paf. 
Commun. g. cf 10. E. I. Rn. 4. a. 

(t) Idem Vicecomes re de iij marcis, de 
Regina Jud»a, pro debito quod Walterus 
de Weflberia debebat ei ; Et de j marca de 
eadem Judsa, de debilo quod Radulhis de 

Clin ten 

Chap. VII. 

of the Jews. 


Debts due to Aaron of Lincoln were charged in Rotulo for the King's 
Benefit j as appears by the great Roll of the fifth and other Years of 
that King {14). Robert Earl of Leiajler owed feveral Debts to Aaron 
the 'Jew of Lincoln, which were fecured by Mortgages of feveral of 
the Earl's Lands fpecified hereunder. When Aaron's Eftate was 
feized, thefe Debts amongft others, were put in Rotulo for the 
King's Profit {%v). Aaron of York fined with the King in C Marks 
a- Year to be paid at the Exchequer, that he might during his Life 
be quit of Tallage. Afterwards, the King was pleafed to order that 
Lx Marks a- Year fliould be accepted of him for that Fine : the 
fame to be paid at the Exchequer of Eajler and the Exchequer of 
Michaelmafs yearly (.v). A Writ ilfued out of the Exchequer, where- 
by the '^Sxtx'y^i oi Nortbamptonjtyire was commanded to diftrain Richard 
de Warenne Son of K. John, or his Terretenants, for xl Marks, a 
Debt which he owed to Jofce the Prieil a Je^-.v of London (y). In 
fine, there was alfo a Wardrobe of the Judaifm near the Exchequer 
of the Jews. In the 44th Year of K. Henry III, it was broke open^ 
and feveral Books and Rolls ftolen away (zj. 

III. Certain Perfons were afligned to be Curators of this RevenuCi. 
They were ufually ftyled Ciijlodes and Jujliciarij Judaorum. In the 
more ancient Times, they were commonly Chrijlians and Jews ap- 
pointed to ad: together in that Office. Afterwards, they were, for 
the mofl Part, Chrijlians only. They were ufually put into their 

Clinton & Willelmusfilius Ricardi debebant 
ei: In thefauro liberavit in ij taljijs, Et Q. 
C. Mag. Rot. 29. H. 1. Rot. 9. a. Oxinef. 

(u) Rotulus de Debitis Aaron Judaei Lin- 
collis. Mag. Rot. 5. Ric. i. Rot. 3. b. in 
Ima ora Rotuti : Tlie Hie in other great Rolls 
cfK. Richard I. 

(w) De Debitis Aaron : Robertus Comes 
LegerceftrJEe debet CCCC & Lij 1 & vj s 
& viij d fuper Bleneford h Kingefton in 
Dorl'eta, & Sepewich & Hakeneft. & Cump- 
ton, & Colingeburn, & Everlega, Wikin- 
gefton, & Turmodefton, h Belegraua, ^ 
Schepeheued, & Androdefbi, & Norman- 
ton, & Seldton ; Et xxxix I per aliam Car- 
tarn. Mag. Rot. 5. R. I. Rot. 8. «. IVar, 
isf Legerc. 

(x) Rex conceflit Aaron Judaeo Ebor. , 
qui prius finem fecerat cum Rege ut tota 
vitaiua quietus effet de Tallagio per Centum 
marcas annuas ad Scaccarium Regis redden- 

Vol. L 

das, [quod] reddat Regi de CTtero ad idenj 
Scaccarium Lx marcas pro eadem quietantia, 
videlicet ad Scaccarium Pafchas xxx marcas, 
ad Scaccarium S.Michaelis xxx marcas. Et 
niandatum eft Jufticiarijs ad cuftodiam Ju- 
daeorum alHgnatis, quod fic fieri & ita inro- 
tulari faciant. T. Rege apud Merleberg 
xix die Februarij. ExOrig. 20. H. 3. m. 4. 

(y) Norhamton. Mandatum eft Viccco- 
miti, quod diftringat Ricardum de VVaren- 
na filium Regis Johannis, vel tenentcs ter- 
ras ipfius, ad reddendum Regi xl marcas 
de debitis Jofcei Prefbyteri Judasi Londoni'K. 
Mcmor. 25. H. 3. Rot. \\. a. 

(%) Memorandum quod die Jovis fcilicet 
die S. Johannis ante Portam Latinam, circa 
horam meridiei, nunciatum fuit Baronibus 
de Scaccario, quod hoftia de Garderoba dc 
Judaifmo juxta Scaccarium Jud^orum in- 
venta fuerunt fra<3:a, & libri Si rotuli afpor- 
tati. Paf. Communia iSf\. H. 3. Rot. 10. a. 

H h. Office 

234 ^f ^^^^ E X c H E Q.U E R Chap. VII. 

Office by the King, by Letters of the great Seal. William Briton 
was made a Jullice of the Javs by a Writ of the great Seal recited 
hereunder [a). "John le Moym and Robert de Fulicham were made 
Juflices of the Je%vs by the Patent hereunder cited {b). But fome- 
times the Treakirer and Barons have appointed a Juftice of the Jczas., 
and other Clerks of the Juda/fm ; by the King's Direcflion. K. 
Henry III, commanded the Barons of the Exchequer to furvey the 
Tallage aifeffed upon the Jews by Thomas de Ippegrave ; and to yq- 
xnovc Adam de Wintoii from his Office of Juftice of the yeios, and 
fubflitute in his Room William de Hafelbech [c). And K. Edward I. 
having made William de Middleton Cujlos Brevium of the comm.oii 
Bench, commanded the Barons to take of him the Key of the Chell 
for the Jewijl:) Tallage, and to commit it to the keeping of fome 
other trufty and prudent Perfon [d). Thefe Juftices of the Jeivs 
exercifed Jurifdidion in the Affairs of the Judaijhi ; namely, in the 
Accompts of that Revenue, in Pleas upon Contrails made with the 
"Jeivs, in Caufes or Queftions touching their Lands or Chatells, their 

[a) De Jufticiarijs ad Scaccarium JuJaeo- 
rum. Rex Hugoni de Bathonia &; Elyas de 
Sunninc;e falutem. Sciatis quod aflbciavi- 
mus vobis di & fi n Willelmum Britonem, 
lit alTiftat vobis ad ea expedienda quae Scac- 
carium noftrum Judsorum tangunt; Etideo 
vobis mandamus, quod i plum ad hoc admit- 
tatis, T. Rege apud Keninton vj die Juiij. 
'CL 18. H. i'm. 16. dorfo. 

(b) Rex omnibus &c, Salutem. Sciatis 
quod affignavimus diledtos & fideles noftros 
Johannem Ic Moyne & Robertum de Eul- 
leham, Jufliciarios noftros ad cuftodiam Ju- 
djeorum noftrorum, quamdiu nobis placue- 
rit. In cujus Jcc ; 7"eftc Rege apud VVeft- 
mon. v° die Dccembris. Ptit. 50. H. 3. 
»i. 40. 

(fj Baronibus pro Rege. QuiaEadwar- 
dus filius Regis cui Rex. Judaifmum fuum 
commifit. Regis prorfus & IVIagnatum ac 
Fidelium fuorum fpreto confilio, fubito & 
ex inopinato jam receffit, ad quofdam Re- 
belles Regis fe transterendo, qui Regem gra- 
vare & pacem Regni fui perturbare propo- 
nunt ; Rex diiftum Judaifmum cepit in ma- 
num fuam : Et ideo Rex mandat, quod af- 
fumpto iecum Magiftro Thoma de Canti- 
lupo Cancellario fuo, fi adhuc Londonias 
exillat, h tallagiym nuper afieiTum fuper 
Judaifinupi prje4i<^l|inni P?r Thomam de Ip- 

pegrave ad hoc affignatum per prrediiStuni 
filium fuum, videri, & illud ad opus Regis 
colligi 5c (alvo cuftodiri faciant, donee R^x 
aliud inde pneceperit : Adam vero de Wyn- 
tonia focium Roberti deCrepping ab officio 
fuo amoveant, & loco fuo Willelmum dc 
Hafelbech fubftituant ; Ita quod ijdeni Wil- 
lelmus & Robertus officio Jufticiarirejud.-eo- 
rum amodo intendant, donee Rex aliter in- 
de duxerit ordinandum ; Eteifdem Jufticia- 
rijs firmiter injungant ex parte Regis, ne 
praefato filio fuo vel fuis in aliquo intendant, 
& quod omnibus Judaeis Angliae hoc idem 
fcire faciant ; Et hoc non mittant. 7". &c. 
Trin. Communis 49. //. 3. Rot. ll. b. 

(d) Rex avertens quod dile£lus clericus 
fuus Wijlelmus de Middleton, cui Rotulos 
& Breyia fua coram Jufticiarijs de Banco cuf- 
todienda commifit, eodem Officio taliter 
oneratur, quod levationi arreragiorum Tal- 
lagij Judaeorum fuorum commode vacare noii 
poteft: Mandat eifdem, quod clavem fuam, 
quae penes ipfum reftdet de archa Tallagij, 
ab eo recipiant, & earn alteri committant qui 
fideliter ac prudenter ea facial & confervet 
quae pertinent ad Officium Tallagij prse- 
diiti, prout ipfeWiliehnus facere confuevit. 
Tefte &c. Mich. Communia 4 isf 5. y?. 
Rot. i.b. 

. Tallages, 

Chap. vir. 

of the Jews. 


Tallages, Fines, Forfeitures, and the like. For Inflance : in the 
9th Year of K. Richard I. the Juftices of the Jews fettled an Ac- 
compt between Richard de Bitebroc and Samuel the Jew of Stanford, 
touching a Mortgage long before niade of the Land of Bitebroc by 
Richard to Samuel; and adjudged, that Samuel \w3iS fatisfied his Mort- 
gage-Money by Perception of the Profits from the Time the Mort- 
gage was made, and fo Richard had his Land again in the laid 9th 
Year, and Robert de Braihroc who was charged as Debtor to the 
Crown in x Marks for the Ferm of Bitebroc for the loth Year of 
K. Richard, was dilcharged of the x Marks {e). Benet de Talemimt 
a Juflice of the "Jews yielded an Accompt of the Ilfues of the Ju- 
daifm that came to his Hands. Particularly, he accomptcd for D 
Marks due from Aaron the JeiD of Lincohi (Jj. And in the Reign 
of K. yohn, Geoffrey Fitz-Peter recovered certain Houfes in St. 
Laure72ce Jury in London, before Simon de PateJIndl and his Fellows 
then Juftices of the Jews fgj. The Jullices of the Jews recorded 
in the great Exchequer, as there was Occafion, Things within 
their Cognifance, relating to the Judaifm. They made their Re- 
cord or Declaration before the Barons of the Exchequer in the 
Cafe hereunder mentioned ; and the Barons adjudged thereup- 

(f) Robcrtus de Braibroc r c de x mar- 
cis de firma dc Bitebroc ; In thefauro Nichil, 
Et in Pcrdonis ipfi Roberto x marcs, Per 
breve Regis ; Quia recordatum eft per Si- 
monein de Patefliull & Benediftum t!e Ta- 
Jemunt Cuftodes Judsorum, quod Ricardus 
Miles de Bitebroc, qui pradiclam Terrain 
de Bitebroc invadiaverat Samueli de Stan- 
ford Judaso, finivit cum prasdictis Simone 5c 
Bciiedifto anno prreterito per xv marcas (de 
quibus prneJiiHus Benediclus debet refpon- 
dere), ut Compotus fuus audiretur, utrum 
ipfe effet quietus de dcbito fuo fcilicet de 
L marcis, pro quibus invadiaverat piredic- 
tam Terram prasdiflo Judso, pcrpecuniam 
jeceptam a prsdifto Vadio, a tempore quo 
fuit invadiatum ; Et ita faclo compoto co- 
ram praedidtis & alijs, Judicatum fuit ut 
praediftus Ricardus eilet quietus ; quia ficut 
proedifti dixerunt, plus receptum fuit a prae- 
di6to Vadio, a tempore fcilicet Re2;is Hen- 
lici quo invadiatum fuit, ufq; ad tempus 
praedidti compoti, qiiam quinquaginta mar- 
cne; Et ita prsedictus Ricardus recepitanno 
praeterito quietum pradiiftum Vadium ; Et 
prsedidus Robertus prasdiflum Vadium non 

habuit hoc anno, Et ita Qiiietus eft. Mag. 
Rot. 10. R. I. Rot. 8. b. Rotclanda. 

(f) Aaron Judasus Lincollis debet D 
marcas, ficut ibidem [i. e. in Rotulo viij°] 
continetur. jSed BenediiStus de Talemunt 
refpondet inde in compoto fuo. Alag. Rot. 
10. R. 1. Rot. 12. a. 

(g) Londonia. Mandatum eft Majori &• 
Vicccomitibus, quod conftat Regi per in- 
fpeclionem Rotulorum Regis de Judaifmo, 
confideratum fuifle anno regni Regis xv% 
quod Galfridus fdius Petri & hrcredcs fuifint 
quieti dc debito quaterviginti marcarum & 
diinidiw, quas exigebantur fuper domes quas 
fuerunt Roberti iilij Waltcri in Londonia, in 
Judaifmo inparochia S. Laurentij; qur.s qui- 
dem domos prasdictus G. difrationavit ficut 
jus fuum, coram S. de Patefliull & Socijs 
fuis tunc Jufticiarijs Judseorum. Confide- 
ratum eft eciam, quod illi qui decKterodic- 
tas domos cum peninentijs tenebunt, fint 
quieti de cifdem debitis ; Etquod Mathaeus 
Bukerel & hseredes fui inperpetuum fint 
quieti de eifdem debitis : So the King corn- 
ina7ids, the Demand ?nade upon the Tenants of 
thofe hotifcs to ceafc. Ex Meinor, 25. //. 3. Rot. 
4. b. 

II h 2 on 

236 Of the E % c ii V. QJ5 E R Chap. VII. 

on (/6), In fine, the Juftices of the Jews were looked upon to be Mem- 
bers or Officers of the great Exchequer ; and entitled to the Privileges 
belonging to Perfons reiident there. Hugh de BaJJing z Juftice (or Of- 
ficer) in xhtyudaijm was privileged to be Tued in the Exchequer only,, 
like as other Refidents in the Exchequer were wont to be : and accord- 
ingly, a Procefs begun againft him in the common Bench, was or- 
dered to be tranfmitted into the Exchequer to be determined there 
(i). Robert dc Fu/bam a ]u{\:ice of the Jeivs came into the Exche- 
quer, and complained of a Violence done to his Perfon in We/f- 
minller-hall by Robert dc Cokvill a Sergeant at Law : and becaufe the 
JulHces of the Jews were (as the Record exprefleth it) de gremio 
Scaca7-ij, the Treafurer and Barons fummoned the Serjeant to appear 
before them in the Exchequer: and there, in Prefence of the Trea- 
furer and Barons, and of Gilbert de Prejion and Roger de Mejjlnden 
Juftices of the Bank then fitting in the Exchequer, the Sergeant 
made an entire Submifiion to the Juftice of the Jews: whereupon, 
by Mediation of the other Sergeants of the Bank, they were re- 
conciled [k). In the 18th Year of K. Edward I, William de Carleton 


(h) Kancia. Rex Vicecomiti. Scias 
quod confideratum eft per Barones de Scac- 
caiio, quod Alicia quondam uxor Thomas 
de. S. pacem habcat omnibus diebus vltaefure 
de demanda quani ei facis per Sunimonicio- 
nem Scaccarij de debito xj 1 & vs, quod 
idem Thomas nobis debuit pro Judsis ; quia 
recordatum eft per Jufticiarios ad Cuftodiam 
Judaeorum affignatos, quod terra quae fuit 
vadium noftrum pro praediiSbo debito eft de 
ha?reditate prajdiiStae Aliciae, h quod innul- 

lo contin^ebat prasdiclum T . T. H. 

de Burgo Jiiftiriario noftro apudWeftmonaf- 
terium, xvj die Aprilis anno r n vj°. Ex 
Memor. 6. H. 3. Rot. i. a. 

(i) Nicholao de Turri & Socijs fuis Jufti- 
ciarijs. Quia refidentes in Scaccario & co- 
ram miniftri qui compotis Regis ibidem au- 
diendis intendunt per praeceptum Regis, non 
debeiit, fecundum confuetudinem Scaccarij, 
placitare nee implacitari alibi quam in eodem 
Scaccario : Et Hugo de Bafing, quern Wal- 
terus le Forefter attachiari fecit coram eis 
per breve, necefie habet jugiter intendere 
prasceptis Baronum, pro negocijs Regis ex- 
pediendis in Judaifmo, & inde coram eis re- 
fpondere : Rex mandat, quod prasdictum 
bieve & procefTum loquelse habitum coram 
eis, cum omnibus loquelam illam ungea- 

tibus, mittant coram praefatis Baronibus in 
craftino Cinerum, Et dicant praefato WaF- 
tcro, quod tunc fit ibi loquelam illam pro- 
fecuturus, fi voluerit. Alfmor. 51. //. 3. 

Rot. 5. (7. 

(k) A-Iemorandum quod die Mercurij 
proximo ante feftum S. Martini, venit Ro- 
bcrtus de Fulham Jufticiarius ad Cuftodiam 
Judsorum affignatus, ad Scaccarium, & 
oftendit Thefaurario & Baronibus, quod 
cum iret in Aula Regis apud VVeftmonafte- 
rium pro quibufdam negocijs Officium. I'uum 
tangentibus, venit quidam Robertus deCole- 
vill Narrator de Banco, & manus injecit in 
ipfum violentas, ipfum per pectus trahcndo ; 
& pecijt emendas fibi fieri ; co quod ipfc 
& focij fiii Jufticiarij funt de gremio Scacca- 
rij. Propter quod pra;dii5li 'i'hefaurarius & 
Barones venire fecerunt coram eis praediftum 
Robertum de Colevill ; Qui tandem, aJ 
inftantiam fociorom fuorum Narratorum, 
concordatus eft cum prajfato Roberto de 
Fulham in forma fubfcripta : videlicet 
quod idem Robertus de Colevill venit co- 
ram diclis Thefaurario k Baronibus, & 
coram Gilberto de Prefton & Rogeio de 
RIeflinden Jufticiarijs de Banco tunc feden- 
tibus in ipfo Scaccario, in tunica difcinctus, 
capite difcooperto, li fuppofuit fe voluntati 


Chap. VII. 

of the Jews. 


and Peter de Leyccjlre Jufticcs of the "Jews had each of them xl 
Marks a-Year Salary (/). There were alfo Cnjfodes 'Judceorum in 
Normandy, K. "John by Writ Patent commanded the Senefchall of 
Normandy and the Cujtodcs of the Jeias there, to forbear vexing 
wrongfully Morell the 'Jew, faving to the King his Rights and Du- 
ties (mj. 

IV, The "Jewijl:! Charters (like as the Charters of other Men) 
were ufually called Chart<^ and Chirograpba. Some of them were 
called Starra, Starrs; a Name of iffi^r^/W original (n). When the 
Lands and Chatells of Aaro?i the "Jeio of Lincoln were taken into the 
King's Hands, Robert Earl of Leicejier was charged with CCCCLij /. 
and odd, which he owed to Aaron; but he was difcharged of CCxl/ 
and odd, Part thereof, upon fliewing-forth fix Starrs of Acquittance 
for that Sum under Aaron s Seal (0). William de Colevill produced 
before the Barons certain Starrs of Acquittance made to him by the 
faid Aaron fp), and Hugh de Nevill produced at the Exchequer a 
Starr of Acquittance made by Aaron to Hugh's Anceftours [q). Moft 
of the Starrs that I have met with were Releafes, or Deeds of that 
Sort. The Starrs were written fometimes in Hebrew, fometimes in 

praedidi Robert! de Fulham, tam de vita 
& membris, quam de terris, tenementis, & 
omnibus bonis & catallisfuis : Et idem Ro- 
bertus remifit ei pradiiSam tranfgieflionem, 
& admifit eum ad ofculum in forma prse- 
AiSta, Et concordati funt. Ex Memor. 52. 
H. 3. Rot. 2.b. 

(/) Liberate de thefauro noftro dileiflis 
& fidelibus noftris Willelmo de Carleton & 
Petro de Leyceftre nuper Jufticiaiijs noftris 
ad cuftodiam Juda^orum aflignatis quadra- 
ginta marcas, videlicet utriq; eorumviginta 
marcas, de termino S. Michaelis anno r n 
decimo o£tavo, quo termino Judaei in regno 
noftro extiterunt, de annuis feodis fuis quse 
eis conceflimus percipienda in officio prae- 
di<£to. T. R. apud Norham iiij die Junij. 
Lib. ic). E. I. m. 3. 

(in) Rex &c Senefcallo Normannias & 
Cuftodibus Judajorum in Norniannias &c. 
Prohibemus vobis ne injufte vexetis Morel- 
Jum Judaeum de Wclla, nee ab aliquo in- 
jufte vexari permittatis. Salvo nobis jure nof- 
tro & confuetudinibus noftris. T. meipfo 
apud 'likehuU xix die Februarij. Pat. 5. 

y. m. 2. 

[n) Seld. Tit. Hon. p. 643. 

[0) Robertus Comes Leirceftriae r c de 
CCCC & Lij 1 & vj s & viij d, de Debitis 
Aaron : In thefauro nichil ; Et in Qiiietan- 
tijs quas habet per fex Starra de Sigillo ipfius 
Aaron, CC & xl 1 & vj s & viij d. Mag. 
Rot. 3. 7. Rot. 17. b. 

(p) VVillelmus de Colevill debet Lij mar- 
cas, de fine fuo de debitis Aaron. Sed re- 
cordatum eft per Barones, & per infpeilio- 
nem fcriptorum Ricardi Britonis, & per 
Starra ipfius Aaron quae non habuit prae 
manibus quando finivit cum Cancellario, 
qua ipfe VVillelmus attulit, quod prsdiflum 
debitum reddidit: Et inde Quietus eft. 
Mag. Rot. 3. J. Rot. 2. a. Line. 

(q) H. de Nevill, qui habet filiam & hae- 
redcm Henrici de Cornhull uxorem, r c de 
C 1, quae requirebantur a Gervafio de Corn- 
hull h pracdiiSlo Henrico, de debitis Aaron; 
In thefauro Nichil ; Et in Quietantia, quam 
pr«di(Si G. & H. filius ejus habuerunt de 
praediflo debito, per Starrum quod praedic- 
tus Hugo protulit fuper Scaccarium coram 
Baronibus,quater XX & xl per breve Regis, 
Et debet xl. Mug. Rot. 4. J. Rot. 20. b. 
in imo. 



Of the E X c H E Q.U E R chap. VII. 

Zjat'in, and fometimes in French. Some were written all in Hebrenv : 
others bad only an Hebrew Subfignation. Of tlie former Sort was 
that made between the Priour of Dover and Jacob Son of Mclk (r) ; 
and Mr. Seldcn hath publifhed two others [s). Befides which, fe- 
veral of that Sort may be feen in Repofitories. Again ; fome of them 
were in French {t) ; and others in Latin. The moft ancient jfewi/h 
Charter that I have met with (to my Remembrance) is that of 
Aaron the Jew of IJncohi, made about the Year 1 176 (22 Hen. II.), 
the Tenour whereof is entred in the great Roll of the 9th Year of 
K. Richard I. It is a kind of a Releafe j and may be {z&w in the 
Margin (u). 

V, When the Jeins made any Charter or Contract, one Part of it 
was to be laid up in a public Cheft provided for that Purpofe, called 
the Cheft of the Chirographs or of the Chirographers. This Part of 
the Chirograph was called Fes Cirographi. Of this I fliall fpeak by 
and by (10). In the mean Time, let us mention the other Officers 
of the judaifm. Befides feveral Clerks who were employed in writ- 
ing the Rolls and MetJioranda of the Judaifm, there were certain 
Officers called Chirographarij, Chirographers, and Coff'rarij, Cofferers ; 
who had the Cuftody of the Chefis above mentioned, and of the 

{>•) Kancia. Memorandum quod ix die 
Oiitobris vcnit Prior S. Martini de Doura, 
& protulit ftarrum Jacob filij Melk. ebraico 
fermone fcriptum, fa£lum coram W. de Sanc- 
to Edmundo & alijs Jufticiarijs ad cufto- 
diam Judjeorum affignatis, in quo contine- 
batur quod idem Prior & Conventus quieti 
lunt de Milk, matrc fua & de ipfo Jacob & 
hx-redibus eorum, de omnibus debitis, que- 
rclis, & demandis, quae unquani debuerunt 
pra;di(3;o Milk, a creatione feculi ufq; ad 
linem, & de ipfo Jacob a creatione ieculi 
ufq; ad feftum S. Martini anno regni H. 
tercij xxix. Mich. Cotnmun. 29. H. 3. Rot. 
2. a. 

(s) Tit. Hon. p. 644, 645. 

(t) Form. Juglic. num. DCLXXXIX. 

(u) Alexander Abbas & Conventus de 
Mealfe debent j marcam, iit fcribatur in 
Magno Rotulo, quod recordatum fuit per 
Barones, quod ipfi attulcrunt aliquando car- 
turn Aaronis Judaei, de quietantia debiti 
Willelmi Foffard ; quae carta liberata fuit 
prsediftoWillclmo coram Baronibus; Cujus 
cartas haec funt verba. Sciant omncs lep-entes 

h audientes Litteras has, quod ego Aaron 
Judausde Lincollia, atteftatitme hujiis mere 
cartae quietum clamavi Willelmum Foffard 
de toto debito quod ipfe vel pater ejus mihi 
debuerunt ; Etteftificor, quod ipfe eitquietus 
de debito quod debuit vel mihi vel Jofceo de. 
Eboraco, vel casteris Judaeis fubfcriptis, fci- 
licet, Kerfun, Elyae, Samfoni, Yfaac Judseo 
Pulcelle vel ipfi Pulcelle, vel Deulecrcffe de 
Danemarchia, ufq; ad feftum S. Michaelis 
anni incarnationis Domini Millefmii cente- 
fimi Lxxvj. Hanc quietam clamantiani feci 
ei pro Mille & CC & Lx marcis, unde 
Monachi de Mealfe adquietavcrunt eum ver- 
fus me. Et fciendum quod quafdam cartas 
hujus debiti jam reddidi, & eas fi quas ad- 
huc penes me habeo quamcitius potero red- 
dam : Et quod fccundum hcic recordumju- 
dicatum fuit per prasdi<3os Barones, quod 
nichil debet exigi a pra;di61:is Abbate& Mo- 
nachis, de debito quod exigitur a praediiSo 
Willelmo de debitis Aaronis, fcilicet de I> 
& X 1 & xiiij s. Mag. Rot. <). R. i. Rot. 4. 
b. Everwichjcira. 
(lu) Sal. 6.- 


chap. VII. of //je J E w s. 239 

Chirograplis and Charters made between the yt"ias, or between them 
afid Chrtltians. It is likely, they made Lifts or Dockets in Writing 
of all the Chirographs that were put-into or taken-out of the Chefts. 
In the Archive of the Collegiate Church of Wejimhijlcr., there is a 
Roll containing Dockets or Memorandums of divers Chirographs or 
Securities made to the yews. It conflfteth of lix Membranes : and 
beginneth at the Top with the Year of the King: being digefted by 
the Days of the Month ; as appeareth hereunder in the Margin. 
It begins at the ninth Year of K. Henry III, and fo goeth forward 
(x). This Roll was, probably, a Roll made by fome Jurtice of the 
Jeivs, or by fome Chirographer, or Clerk of the Judaijm. In the 
Jfifth Membrane of it, there is this Entry, <' On fuch a Day (faith 
" he) in the eleventh Year [of K. Henry III] we took out [of the 
Chefr] fuch a Chirographum, and laid-up there fuch a Chirographum" 
(y). In the Dorle of the fame Membrane, there is this Entry, 
*' Mafter William de Kentewell took a Chirograph of twenty five 
■" Pounds out of the King's Cheft ; and put a Chirograph of twenty 
*' two Pounds ten Shilling into the King's Cheft, the vij Day of 
*' April in the twelfth Year of the Reign of K. Henry Son of K. 
" yohn {z)." And on the Dorfe of the fixth Membrane, there is 
this Memorandum, *' A Chirograph of xxx s under the Name of 
■*' Roger de Swerdejlon is to be taken out [of the Cheft j] but as yet he 
«' hath paid nothing for it {a)." One would guefs that this Roll was 
written by Geoffrey de ^velueth\_am'\ or belonged to him : becaufe in 
one Part of it, he fpeaks of himfelf in the firft Perfon [b). But who 
this Geoffrey was, I do not know. The Chirographers were com- 

(a-) Annus R.egni Regis Henrici filij Regis dc viginti du3[bu]s libris & decern folidis, 

Johannis Nonus. Menfis Aprilis ; iiij° die ; vij die Aprilis anno R. R. H. filij R. J. duo- 

SafFridus cap[ellanus]deAbbeton debet red- decimo . lb. ni. 5. in dorjo. 

dere Moileo filio Abrahas xvj folidos argenti (a) Extrahcndum eft Cyrographumxxxs 

ad feftum Omnium Sanftoium anno R, R. fub nomine Rogeri filij Johannis de Swer- 

H. filij R. J. x°. And fo for the rejl. Ex dellon ; fed nihil adhuc paccavit pro illo. 

Rot. aiitogr. in archivo S. Petri Ipyimon. jtf, Jl. m. 6. in dorfo. 
\. a. _ {b) Julius; xxviij die; Galfridus de 

f^j Januarius ; Annus xj. Dieanimaruin Qvvelueth[am] Ifac filio Jurn[et] xxxvrijl, 

anno xj° extrahimus quoddam Cyr[ogra- ad feftum S. Johannis Baptift2e anno ix°, 

phumjxl fub nomine Domini Willeimi primus terminus Sec ; & conventum 

filij Roberti de Reydon ; & repofuimus aliud eft, quod prsedidlus Ifac nee hferedes fui po- 

yl ; die fcilicet quo obijt Simon Mercerus. tcrunt me diftringere nee hseredes meos, de 

Exeod. Rot. viz. m. 5. a. xl 1 nee de lucro quod inde emerget de v 

(z) MagifterVVillelmusde Kentewell ce- primis ajinis, in quibus ego fui principalis 

pituaum Cyrografunidevigimiquinq; !i- j^^,;^^^ ;„ ^^^^^ -■■,. CI & •="! & xvj ], 
bris de area Uommi Kesis, & pofuit unum ,,, , , ^ , , ?^ ■ 

Cyrosrraphum infra arcam Domini rRcisI T"*' Walterus dc Qwcluctham debet ei — . 

4 monly 

240 Of the E X c H E CLU E R chap. VII. 

monly Chrijlians and 'Je'ws acfting together ; and were planted in thofe 
Towns wherein there was a conliderable Number of yt^'j, as at Lincolny 
Oxford, &c. In the Reign of K. Henry l\\, there was a Cheft at Oxford 
ior the feivijh Chirographs, and the Chirographers there were Chrf 
tians and Jews (c). At Loudon there was a Cheft for the Jewijh Chiro- 
graphs, and the Cofferers there were Chriflians andy^wx (d). K. Rd- 
ward!, appointed Rafde Berners and the Sheriffof Ox/or^^/j/rt', to place a 
Cheft in the Town of Oxford, and to choofe certain. Chirographers 
Chrijlians and Jews, and in their Prefence to put into it all the 
Charters, Writings, Tallies, and Securities which they had then in 
their Cuftody ; wherein the fame were to be kept under the Locks of 
the faid Chirographers ; and other Chirographs were to be made for 
the future according to the Aflife of the "Judaifm, and to be laid-up 
therein, for the Safety and Indemnity of the Parties concerned (e). 
One Part of each of thefe Charters or Chirographs was wont to be 
put into the Chell: of the Chirographers of the Place where it was 
made ; and afterwards (in Cafe the King feized the Chatells of the 
yew as forfeited) to be brought into the Exchequer and there to 
be laid-up pro commodo Regis. The Chefts of the Chirographs were 
kept with great Care. At certain Times they were locked up ; and 

(c) Cyrographarijs Chriftianis & Judneis 
Oxonix. Mandatum eft eifdem, quod Pe- 
des Cyro2;raphorum quorundam Judasorum 
Oxonis, quos Rex capi fecit in manum fu- 
am per prseceptiim fuum, & quos eis mittit 
inclufos fub Sigillo fuo, ponant in archam 
Cirographorum Oxonis. Tefte &c. Paf. 
Commun. 27. //. 3. Rot. 10. b. 

(d) Baronibus & Jufticiarijs ad cuftodiam 
Judsorum affignatis, pro Aaron filio Vives 
Judaei Londoniae. Cum Rex nuper mifcrit 
dileiSos & fideles fuos Johannem dc Wefton 
& Walterum de- la Croce, ad quasdam ne- 
gocia Judaifmum Regis tangencia Londonis 
expedienda, Et Rex eifdem Baronibus & 
Jufticiarijs mandaverit, quod Coffrarios Ar- 
chr.ram Cirographorum Judasorum Londo- 
niffi tarn Chriftianos quam Judseos coram eis 
venire facerent, & denarios quos percipiunt 
poftquam Rex Archam praedidtam claudi 
fecit, liberarentprsefatis Johanni & Waltero 
XX 1, viz. unicuiq; eorum x 1, in partem fa- 
tisfacSionis expenfarum fuarum circa pras- 
miffa — . Ex Memor. 55. H. 3. Rot. 9. b. 

{c] Oxon. Cum Rex affignaverit Ra- 
^ulplium d€ Berners ad ordinandUm una cum 

Vicecomite de quadam archa ponenda in 
certo loco infra Villam Oxoni;e, & ad eli- 
gcndos Cyrographarios, Chriftianos & Ju- 
dffios, fideles & legales, Ita quod indc co- 
ram eis ponerent in archa praedidta, fub fe- 
ruris Cyrographariorum praediftorum, om- 
nes Cartas, obligationes, Scripturas, tallias, 
& alias fecuritates, quas penes fe habent, & 
in depofitofeu in aequa manu vel alio modo, 
Ita quod ex tunc fierent fecund um aflifam 
Judaifmi cirographa de bonis & mobilibus 
Judaeis invadiatis, ad fecuritatem partium 
earundem & veritatem faciendum in hac 
parte ; Ac idem Radulphus nichil inde fe- 
cerit, ficut Rex accepk ; propter quod ne- 
gocium praedidlum adhuc remanet infeftum, 
in dampnum Regis non modicum : prscep- 
tum eft Vicecomiti, quod aflumpto fecum 
R. de Colefhull, cui Rex fuper hoc fcripfit, 
prasmiffa fimul cum eo faciat in forma prae- 
dicfta ; Et quod fcire faciat Baronibus in quin- 
dena Purificationis, qualiter praemifTa fuerit 
cxecutus ; Et mandatum eft Ricardo dc 
ColeftiuU in forma praedi£ta &c. H'tl. Bre- 
'uiapro Ri'ge ij. E. i.Rot. 22. a. 


chap. VII. of th J EW s* 241 

not to be opened again, except at fuch Terms, or by Precept fVonl 
the King or the Barons of the Exchequer or Juftices of the Je%i's. 
When the Chefts were opened, they were to be opened publickly, 
to wit, in the Prefence of the Sheriff of the County (if it was in the 
Country) and of the Chirographers and Cofferers, or (if it was at 
London) in the Prefence of the Barons of the Exchequer, or 
Juflices of the "Jews, or other principal Officers of the Jiidaifm. 
The King by Writ commanded the Sheriff of WiltJJnre to go in 
Perfon to the Chefl of the Chirographers at Wilton, and to take-out, 
in their Prefence, all the Pedes whereby any Debt was fecured to 
Salomon the yew ; and to bring them before the Barons of the Ex- 
chequer (f). Baldwin de Lijle Heir of Margaret de Riparijs paid-off 
the Money due upon a Charter made by her to Aaron the ^Jew of 
Tork ; and thereupon the faid Charter was delivered-up to Baldwin 
(gj. Roger Son oi William del Park, having fatisfied a Debt due from 
William to Aaron a yew, the Charter given to the yew for Security of 
the Debt was taken-out and delivered to Roger (h). The King, by 
Writ running in general Terms, commanded the Barons and Juflices 
of the yews, to give Robert de Percy full Acquittance at the Exche- 
quer againfl the yews; the Barons could not, as they alledged, give 
him fuch Acquittance, unlefs all the Charters of Robert were taken 
out of the Chirographer's Chefls throughout England and quafhed, 
and they could not take-out and quafh them without a fpecial Writ : 
whereupon a fpecial Writ was awarded for that Purpofe (/). Accord - 


(f) Wyltef. Mandatum eft Vicecomiti, filius Willelmi del Park fatisfecit ei dexxs 
quod perfonaliter accedat ad archam Giro- quos idem Rogerus Regi debuit de debitis 
graphariorum apud Wylton, & in praefen- Aaronis filij Jacob Judsei, cujus debita Rex 
tia Cirographariorum extrahat omnes pedes conceflit eidein Magiftro Samuel. Et idco 
per quos aliquoddebitum debeatur Salomoni pradifta carta extrahitur & eidem Rogeio 
de Ivenceftria Judaeo, & eos habeat coram liberatur. Mcmor. 55. H. 3. Rot. 7. a. 

Baronibus in odabis S.Martini; & habeat {}) per quod Rex mandavic Baro- 

Breve. Tefte &c. Mich. Commttn, 27. H. 3. nibus, quod convocatis fecum ad hoc Jufli- 

Rot. 3. a. ciarijs fuis ad cuftodiam Judasorum affigna- 

(g) Memorandum quod qusedam Carta tis, prasdifto Roberto [de Percy] plenam ac- 
quam Marger. de Riparijs Comitiffa Inful^ quietanciam inde fine dilationc fieri facercntj 
fecerat Aaroni de Eboraco Judaeo, liberata ac Barones id facere non potucrunt ut dice- 
fuit Baldewino [de InfulaJ haeredi ipfius bant, nifi omnes cartse prsedidli Roberti ab 
Marger. per Haginum & Crefie Judsos At- archis Cyrographarijs per Angliam extrahe- 
tornatos R. Regis Alemannise, qui una cum rentur & dampnarentur ; quas extrahere & 
eodem Aarone recognoverunt quod idem B. dampnare recufant, eo quod mandatum Re- 
plene acquietavit eandem cartam. Memor. gis fpeciale fuper hoc nondum recepcrunt, 
42. H. 3. Rot. 10. a. ut Rex intellexit : Rex indempnitati ipfius 

('/'jRecognitio Maglftri Samuel deLouun Roberti in hac parte providcri cu[.icns, 

Judsei : Idem recognovit, quod Rogerus niandat eildem ficut alias, quod convocatis 

Vol. I. I i fecum 

243 0/ the ExcnzQjj E^ Chap. VIL 

i'ogly tlie Chlrographer's Cheft was opened* by Vertue of the King's 
Writ, in the Prcfence or by Diredlion of the Treafurer and Barons 
and a Jullice of the Jews (k), Robert de Herejh'd owed to Benet 
Son of Col a Jew, a certain Debt of fixfcore Pounds, by two feveral 
Charters. Benet ailigned the Debt to Aaron Son of Vives a Jeiu, as 
appeared by the Rolls of tlie Jiidaifm. Adam de Crokedak Guardiart 
to Roger Son and Heir of Robert de Hereford paid the Debt to Aaron 
on Roger's behalf, as appeared by a Starr of Releafe made by Aaron 
and enrolled in the Rolls of the yiidaifin. Hereupon, the Juftices of 
the Jews were commanded to deliver up the faid Charters ta Adatn. 
And in regard one of the faid Charters lay in the old Chefl of the 
Jiidaijni, the King now commands the Barons of the Exchequer, 
to open that Chcfl, to take out the Charter, and to deliver it to 
Adam on Roger s Behalf (I). Whereas William le Brun and Ifolde his 
Wife had fatisfied for certain Debts which they owed to the JewSf 
the King by his Writ commanded the Barons of the Exchequer and 
the Juftices of the Jews, to caufe all the Writings and Starrs relating 
to thofe Debts, that could be found in the Chlrographer's Chefts, to 
be taken out and delivered cancelled to the faid William and 

fecum ad hoc prsdiclis Jufticiarijs fuis,onT- 
nes cartas fub nomine praediifti Robert! & 
quorumcumq; Judaeoruni confeitas, ubi- 
cumq; in archis Cyr[ographariorumJ cxif- 
tant extrshi faciant & dampnari, h, eid'ein 
Roberto plenam acquietanciam, proutjuf- 
tum fuerit, fine dilatione fieri faciant in 
prxmiflis. T. &c. Breve eft in f. M. Trin. 
Co7nmun. 6. Edw. I. Rot. 7. a. 

[k) Thefaurario & Baronibus, pro Ro- 
berto de Percy. 'Tisa IVrit on behalf of Ro- 
bert. T. Rege &c XX die Junij anno r n 

Prjetextu vero hujus brevis fuperius irro- 
tulati, Thefaurarius & Barones, h Robertus 
deLudham JufticiarLus adcuftodiam Judaeo- 
runi affignatus, extrahi fecerunt quandam 
Cartam de Archa Eboraci continentem Du- 
centas libras, fub nomine Benedidi Crifpin 
Judai Ebor. h praediiSi Robert!, &: libera- 
verunt eidem Roberto quietain & canceila- 
tam ; in qua quidem Carta irrotulata fuerunt 
haec verba in dorfo, Ilia Carta eft quinq; 
Judsorum & didi Benedifti, fcilicet Joe. 
Nep. Aaron, Deudonefti Crefpin, Bonam. 
gen. Joe, Joe. fi. BcnediiSli, Habraham Levy. 
Mich. Commun. Incip. 7% E. I. Rot. 2. /'. 

(/) Baronibus & Jufticiarijs ad cuftodiam 


Judaeorum a-flignatis, pro Magiftro Ada de 
Crokedak. Cum Benediftus filius Col Ju- 
daeus Londoniae in fua ligia poteftate, quod- 
dam debitum fexies xx librarum, in quo Ro- 
bertus de Hereford Miles defunftus, per 
duas Cartas, quarum una continet Lxxij I, 
& alia xlviij 1, eidem Benedifto fuerat o- 
bligatus,. Aaron fiiio Vives Judaso Londo- 
niae vendidiflet, ficut per Rotulos Regis de 
Judaifmo liquet evidenter ; & Magifter A- 
dam del Crokedal, nuper Cuftos Rogeri filij 
& hseredis prxdifti Robert!, diiSo Aaron 
pro codem Rogero de praediiSlo debito fatif- 
fecerit, prout in ftarro cjufdem Aaron in Ro- 
tulis Judaifmi irrotulato plenius continetur; 
Ob quod Rex pluries diftis Jufticarijs man- 
davit, quod fcrutatis rotulis, fi ita invenerint 
efte, tunc Cartas prjediftas prsdicflo Adae ad 
opus prjedi<£li Rogeri iiberari facerent : 
Cumq; unaCartarum illarum ficut Rex diflo 
Aaron referente didicit, fit in veteri Archa 
Judaifmi, Rex mandat Baronibus, quod a- 
perta Archa ilia, Cartam illam extrahanr, 
& eam praefato Adae, de aflenfu praedidti 
Aaron, ad opus dicti Rogeri, fine dilatione 
liberent. T. Rege apud Weftm. feptimo 
die Februarij anno decimo odlavo. Paf 

Commun. 18. E. i. Rat, b. 


Chap. VII. 

of the Jews. 


Ifolde (w). If a Charter made to a 'Jetu (was lofl, or) could not be found 
in the Chefl : it was ufual for the "jeio to whom it was made, when 
he was fatisfied the Money due upon it, to come and make an Ac- 
knowledgment in the Exchequer by Way of Releafe to the Party. 
Thus, Leo Son of CreJJ'e came before the Barons of the Exchequer, 
and declared that he had cancelled a certain Charter of Mortgage 
iiiade between him and Richard de Wejhnylne, and had releafed the 
Debt to Richard and his Heirs ; and granted withall, that if the faid 
diarter happened to be found in the Chefl of Chirographs or elfe- 
where, it (liould be of no Force ffij. For this Method of having 
one Part of the JewiJ}.^ Charters or Chirographs laid up in the King's 
Treafury, there feems to have been two principal Reafons : one, to 
prevent the Falfity of the yews ; the other, to enable the King to 
recover the Eftates and Credits of the Jeivs, and get them into his 
Coffers, whenever they fhould become (as they often did) forfeited or 
devolute to the Crown. 

It hath been faid before (0), that there were feveral Clerks in the Ex- 
chequer of the y^ie'j, for expediting the Bufinefs there, befides the Chi- 
rographers. The Juftices of the Jews had Clerks under them fpj. 
There was a Ctijios Rotiilorum. William de Middleton was Cujios Rotii- 
Jorum & Brevium in the yudai/i?!, and received of the King ten Pounds 
a-Year for his Salary (qj. William de Derby and Nicolas de Kyngefton 
officiated in the Judaijin, about levying the Tallage aflefled upon the 

(?/;) Baronibus & Jufticiarijs ad cuftodiam 
Juda^orum aflignatis, pro Willelmo le Brun 

& Ifolda uxore fua. ^ Volens quod 

Scripta & Starra quae in Archis CyrografFar. 
feu alibi de praefatis debitis inveniri contige- 
rlnt, extrahantur h penitus adnullentur; 
Et ideo mandat Baronibus & Jufticiarijs ad 
cuftodiam Judseorum aflignatis, quod Lite- 
ras Regis Patentes conceflionis praediftae co- 
ram eis legi & irrotulari, Ac Scripta & btarra 
prsedidta in Archis CyrografFar. vel alibi de 
prffidi<?tis debitis cxiftencia extrahi, h ea 
di(£tis Willelmo & Ifoldae cancellataliberari, 
& eos de prxdiflis debitis quictos efie faci- 
ant. 1". Rege apud Weftmon. xxvj die 
Januarij anno xviij°. Hil. Coinmun. iH. E. 

J. Rrjt.—i. 

(n) Memorandum quod Leo filius CreiT. 
Juditus venit coram Baronibus de Scaccario 
die Luna; in fefto S. Bi(rtor., & recognovit fe 
dampnari teciile quandam Cartam continen- 
teni X 1 dc feodo, fub nominibus ipfius Lco- 

nis & Ricnrdi de Weftmylne dc Comitatu 
Hcrcfordijc, & ipfum Ricardum & hsredes 
fuos de toto praedi(3o debito quietos clamafl'e 
inperpetuum ; & conceflit quod fi carta pr?e- 
di6ta in archa Cyrographorum vel extra in 
manu ipfuis feu cujufcumq; altcrius invenia- 
tur, nullius fit valoris & tanquam nulla te- 
ncatur. Manor. 55. H. 3. Rot. 7. a. 

{0) Sea. 5. 

(p) Hie, Cap. 7. fea. 7. 

[q) Rex Thefaurario & Camerarijs fuis 
falutem. Liberate de thefauro noftro dilec- 
to Clerico noftro Willelmo de Middelton, 
Cuftodi Rotulorum & brevium noftrorun) de 
Scaccario Judaifmi, viginti libras ; videlicet 
de anno rcgni nofiri fecundo decern libras, 
hi de anno rcgni noftri tercio decem libras ; 
quas ei conceflimus, percipiendas fmgulis 
annisa nobis, ad fuflcntationem fu»m,quam- 
diu fteterit in officio prx'diifto. T. R. apud 
Kenynton xiij die Julij. Lib. 3. E. i. in. 5. 

I i 2 

, rm's 

£44 ^f ^'^^ E X c H E Q^u E R Chap. VII. 

Yc'icj by Frere 'jofep dc Chau7icy and Fain de Chaivorth ; and had four 
Pounds nineteen Shillings paid them at the King's Exchequer, in 
Recompenle of their Service (r). Adam de Winton was Ciijlos Rotu- 
lorum of the yudaifin, and had a Salary of ten Pounds a- Year for 
that Office [s). And it is likely there were feveral other Officers em- 
ployed in the Exchequer of the yews. 

VI. The ytidaifm feems to have been guided in general by the Law 
and Ufage of the Exchequer : fave that in fome Cafes there was a 
peculiar Law or Rule, which was called the Law, Affife, or Cuftom 
of Judaif}n. Some of the Cuftoms and Laws that obtained as well 
amongft the Community of the Jews, as alfo in the Judaifm at the 
Exchequer, may be colledted from the Precedents which I ffiall offer 
in this Sedion. The Jews had certain Chapters or Meetings for 
Affairs relating to themfelves. Lia the Jetvefs of Brijiol fined in x 
Befants, that a Convention, made between her and her Children be- 
fore the yeivs, might be holden (/) ; and Judas a Jew of Bnjiol fined 
in two Ounces of Gold, that it might be found, by Inqueft in a 
Chapter of the Jews, whether a Jew might take Ufury of a Jew fuj, 
Benet the Brother of Aaron the Jew of Lincoln fined in xx Marks, to 
have a Verdidl or Declaration upon Oath according to the Cuftom of 
tlie Jews, to find whether Urfell the Jew of Lincoln was a Forger or 
not, in fuch Manner as it was ufual to convidt Jews of Forgery fw). 


(r) Rex Thefaurario & Camerarijs fuis fa- quod ei conceffimus annuatim percipiendum 

lutem. Liberate dethefauronoftro Willelmo pro cuftodia rotulorum prxdidtorum ; vide- 

tle Derby & Nicholao de Kyngefton, fer- licet a die Natalis Domini anno Regni nof- 

■( ientibus in Judaifmo circa tallagium Judze- tri feptimo, ufque ad feftum San£li Michae- 

orum per Fratrein Jofep de Chauncy & lis proximo fequens ; Nifi didia allocatio 

Paganum de Cadurcis afl'efl'um deputatis, eidem Johanni de eodem tempore vel alio, 

quatuor libras & decern & novem folidos, in toto vel in parte, prius fa<5la fuerit per 

pro fcrvicio fuo a fefto S.Michaelis proximo Breve noftrum. Tefte Rege apud Wyn- 

prasterito, ufq; ad diem Dominicam proxi- defhore xxiiij die Julij. Rot, Liberat.anno., 

mam poft feftum Afcenfionis Domini proxi- y°. Edvj. i. m. 5. 

mo feqiientem. T. R. apud Weftm.xxviij [t) Lia Judsa de Briftou debet x Bizan- 

eie Maij. Per Frati em Jofep de Chauncy. cia, pro habenda Conventione fada inter 

per billam. Lib. 3. E. i. m. 7. earn h Pueros fuos coram Judaeis ; Et xx 

(f) Rex Baronibus fuis de Scaccario, Sa- marcas pro Rationabili parte fua de CatalJis 

lutem. Allocate Johanni de London nuper & debitis Viri fui. Mag. Rot. 5. R. i, 

tfcaetori noftro citra Trentam, in Exiiibus Rot. g. a. Gloec. 

.15alliv2e fua; dc tempore pr.iediito, feptem (';;) Judas Judseus de Brifto debet ij uncias 

libras & decern folidos, quos per prsceptum auri, pro Inquifitione facienda in Capitulo 

noftrum liberavit dile£to Clerico noftro Ad£ Judsorum fi Judaeus debet capere ufuram a 

de Wynton Cuftodi Rotulorum noftrorum Judaeo. Afag. Rot. 4. R. 1. Rot. 10. b. Gloec. 
de Scaccario Judaifmi noftri, qui eidem Adae (w) Benediftus Frater Aaronis Judsei 

are tro fuerint de feodo fuo decern Librarum LincoLnias debet xx marcas, pro habenda 


Chap. VII. of the Jews. 245 

Bimon de Kyme gave xx Marks, to have a Jury of lawful Chriftians 
and 'jeivs^ to find, whether or no Philipp de Kyme, Simon's Father 
ovi^ed, at the Time of his Death, to Deodonate Bifliop of the Jews, 
and to other Jews a Debt which thofe Jews demanded of Shnon, 
upon certain Charters which they pretended were made to them 
by Philip de Kyine (x). In the Reign of K. Richard I, certain Rules, 
entituled Capitula de Jiidais, were made and given in Charge to the 
Juftices Errant. They contain feveral Iteins, for Regulation of the 
Jews, their Debts, Imprefts, and Charters ; together with other 
Things relating to the Judaifm : and being already printed in Houedene 
(yj, need not be here fet-forth at large. Anno 22 Hen. 3, the Jews 
of England flood charged with a Fine of C/, that all Jews, who 
by Inqueft taken upon the Oath of lawful Chj-ijlians and Jews, or in. 
other due Manner, fhould be convid:ed of Clipping, Robbery, or 
harbouring of Clippers or Robbers, might be baniflied out of the 
Realm never to return thither again fz). To proceed : as to the 
Affifes of the Judaifm. Where a Contrail was made by Chirograph 
between a Chrijlian and a Jew, if a Foot (or Counterpart) of the 
Chirograph of fuch Contradl was not found in the Chefl of the King's 
Chirographers, the Jew was to lofe the Debt accruing upon fuch 
Contrad. This was, it feems, a Vtovi^xon Xiiz^o. per commune Jlatii- 
tum Regni. For Inllance : Bonefey the Jew of Brijlol demanded of 
Matthew de Columbers xl j a Debt of Eudo de Morevill, one of whofe. 
Daughters and Heirs Matthew had married : whereas Bonefey could 
not produce any Chirograph or Tally, nor was there any Foot of a 
Chirograph in the Chirographer's Chefl, to juftify his Demand j alL 
which appeared by Certificate of the Sheriff and the Chirographers 
who were fent by the Barons to enquire concerning the fame, and 
likewife by Bonefey s own Confeflion, And thereupon, by Judgment 
of the Barons of the Exchequer, Matthew was difcharged of the faid 
Debt, and the Jew was difabled to make any further Demand of the 

J^iiratione fecundum confuetudinem Judae- per Cartas quasdicuiit fe habere de pr^dic- 

orum, ad convincendum fi Urfellus Jiidaeus to Philippo patre prxdidti Simonis vel noii. 

Lincolniae fit falfonarius, tali videlicet jura- Mag. Rot.,^. J. Rot. 9. n. Liuccllfc. 
tione quail alii Judasi falibnarij convinci (y) Honed. F. 2. p. 745.//. 3D. 

lolebanr. Mag. Rot. 5. J. Rot. 9. a. Line. (z) Judcei Anglia [debentj CI, Ut Ju- 

{x) Simon de Kyma debet xx marcas, dtei Retontores, Lairones, ik corum Recep- 

pro habcnda Jurata legaliurn Chriftianorum tatores, per inquiikionein fadam j-er la- 

5c JudaGorum, utriim Philippus dc Kyma cramentum legaliurn Chriftianorum vel Ju- 

pater praedicli Simonis, debuerat die qua djeorum, vel alio modo de praedid^a malicia 

obijt Deodonato Epilcopo Judseorum, & convidi,a Regno ejjciantur inedituri ; ficut, 

Yfaac filio Rabi, & Abrahamo filio Rabi, continetur in Original;. Mag. Rot. 21. H.. 

& Jacob JudffiO Lincolniae, debitum illud 3. Londonia is' Muld. 
quod idem Judseiexigunt ab eodem Simonc, Debts 


Of the E X c H E CLU E R Chap. VII. 

Debts of Fiudo dc Morevill, upon Matthew and his Heirs, or the 
other Heirs of Eudo, for or in refpedl of the Vvtm\Gt% fa). Boncfey 
of Briftol demanded alfo of Elias Harong C s principal-Money with 
the Intereft : but in regard Bonefey produced no Chirograph or Tal- 
ley for the faid Debt, and no Pes Cbirograpbi thereof was found in 
the Chirographer's Chefl, as appeared by Certificate of the Sheriff 
and Chirographers, Elias was fully difcharged of the faid principal 
Money and Intereft by Judgment of the Barons (b). If a ^eiD made 
a Stair oi Releafe fecretly, it was held Invalid. Peter the Go/df?nith, 
being indebted to a Jew, produced before the Barons a Starr made 
by the Jew in Difcharge of the Debt (to which Debt the King was 
now entituled). But becaufe the Starr was made fecretly, and Peter 
could not prove by Jews and Chrijtiatjs that he had bonajlde paid the 
Debt, nor that the faid Starr was made according to the Law and 
Cuftom of the Judaifm, it was adjudged at the Exchequer, that the 
King fliould have the fiid Debt (c). By the Aflife and Statutes of 


Cs, nee pes Cyrographi eiTet in archa Cy- 
rographorum, quod conrtitit per mandatuni 
Vicecomiiis & Cyrographorum qui ad hoc 
inquirendum miffi fusrunt per Baroiies de 
Scaccario ; Et confi .eratum eft per diflox 
Barones, quod idem Elyas recedat quietus de 
diftis C s, cum ufura proveniente, Et quod 
idem Bonefey Judasus nee haredes fiii, 'ncc 
aliquis pro eis, aliquid cxigere poterunt de 
prjediclis C s cum ufura in perpetuum, de 
oi6to Eiya vcl hjeredibus fuis occafione pra?- 
didla ; Et confideratum eft, quod difti C s 
noil debent allocari in debitis praedidi 
Judsei : In th. 1, Et Q^ e. Mag. Rot. 27. 
H. 3. IVilt. 

Glouc. Et cum per commune Statutum 
Regni provifuni lit, quod Judasus perdat 
dcbitum fuum, nifi pes inventus fuerit in 
archa Ciiographariorum, confideratum eft: 
}>er Barones, quod &c. Ex Memor. 28. H. 
3. Rot. 3. a. Etib. Rot. 3. b. Sumerf. 

{c) Petrus Aurifaber de Wyitonia venit 
coiam B.ironi'bus ; & iiide pro- 

[a) Mathsus de Coliimbers r c de xl s, 
Ut fcribatur in Magno Rotulo, quod cum 
queftus efl'et Baronibus de Scaccario, quod 
Bonefey Judaeus de Briftollo exigeret ab eo 
xl s de debitis Eudonis de Morevill, cujus 
filiam unam de haeredibus ejufdem Eudonis 
habet in uxorem ; <k hoc injufte exigebat, 
eo quod nullum protulit cyrographum ncc 
talleam, nee pes cyrographi effet in ar- 
cha cyrographorum ; quod conftitit per 
iTiandatum Vicecomitis & cyrographorum, 
qui ad hoc inquirendum milli fuerunt per 
Barones; Et etiam idem Judaus rccogno- 
vit coram ditSis Baronibus, fe nullum hahere 
cyrographum, nee etiam talleam fuptr dicSlis 
debitis i Idem Mathaeus per Judicium Baro- 
iium quietus receflit de cifdem debitis ; ita 
quod di6lus Bonefey Judjeus nechsereJcs fui, 
nee aliquis pro eis, aliquid exigere pofl'unt 
inperpetuum de dictis debitis de diifto Ma- 
thseo vtl harcdibus fuis, vel aliquibus haere- 
dibus Eudonis de Morevill, occ.ifioae prae- 
di£la : in Thel.iuro liberavit-, Et Q^ e. 
.Mag. Rst. 26. //. 3. Dorj'ate isf Sumcrjhte. 
(i) Elyas Harang r c de C s, Ut fjriba- 
tur in Ma'jno Romlo, Qiiod cum queftus 
cllct Baronibus de Scaccatn>, quod Bonefey 
Jidaeus Briftolli exigeret injufte ab eo C s 
cum ufura, dc debitis cjuldem Ehx, eo 
tjuod n;;llum protulit coram Baronibus prs- 
diclis CKDgraphuni nee tailieam de diCiis 

tulitquoddain ft.urum diifti Judxi, interip- 
fum iV diclum Judasum fccretius factum ut 
diccbat, coram Baronibus. Et quia non po- 
tcft probare folutioneai fartain, per ]uda;os 
t: Chi iiii.uios, ncc etiam ihirrum factum 
debito modo fccunJum legem & conliietu- 
dines Judiiilmi, Cc>nh<lcratumelt,qui)d prx- 
diduin debitum C s. Domino Rcgi icmar.e- 

chap. VII. of the ] v,\Y s. 247 

the yudaiffn, the ycivs might have a Moiety of the Lands, Rents, 
and Chatells of their Chrijlian Creditors in Execution, until they 
were fatisfied the Debt due to them (d). The "Jews paid to the 
King Relief ioK their Lands and for their Chatells; or, if you pleafc, 
Money inftead of, or under the Name of. Relief. K. Henry IIL 
commanded the Barons to commit LIcoricia Widow of David the 
Jenv of Oxford, with all David's Chatells and Securities, to fix of 
the richer and difcreeter fenvs of England willing or nilling : tliey to- 
anfwer to the King a Fine of MMMMM Marks entered into by her 
for her Hufband's Chatells, &c (e). Koc Son o^ Aaron a Jew, fined in 
4 Marks of Gold, and 2000 Marks of Silver, to have all the Lands, 
Rents, and Chatells (except herein excepted) of his Father (f). The 
King had the Wardfliip of a Jeiv's Heir and his Lands aiid Chatells. 
King Henry IIL granted to Aaron Son of Vives the Cullody of the 
Son and Heir of Saulot Son of Samiel, with the Houfes, Debts, and 
Chatells of Saulot, which belonged to the faid King by Means of 
Saulot' s Death j to hold until the faid Heir's full Age, together with 
the Marriage of the faid Heir, according to the Law and Cuftom of 
the Judaifm: and commanded the Jufliices of the fews by his Writ, 
to let Aaron have the faid Cuftody and Marriage in form aforefaid 
fgj. A Jew's Wife might have Dower or Thirds out of her Huf^ 
band's Credits and Chatells. K. Edward I. commanded the Barons 
of the Exchequer and the Juftices of the Jews, to ailign to Rofe late 
Wife of Mafter Samuel de Loiin a Jew of London, her reaionablc 
Dower according to the Cuilom of the Judaifm, out o? Samuel's Debts, 
Goods, and Chatells ^ and when they had afligncd her the faid 


at tanquam jufte detitum ; Et quoJ prse- dida Licoricia nobifcuin fecit pro habendis 

didtus Petrus nichil inde recuperet. Memor. catallis &c. Mcmor. 28. //. 3. Rot. 14. i. 
42. H. 3. Rot. 7. a. (f) Mich. Manor. 40. /«.//>. 41. H. 3. 

(d) Cum fecundum Aflifam & flatuta Ju- Rot. i. a. 

daifmi Regis, Judaei lui in Regno I'uo habere {g) K. Henry III, anno rcgni 41, gratited 

debeantaChriftianiscreiiitoribus niedietatem /jAronhlio V'ives Judaso Londonite, cufto- 

terrarum, reddituum, & catallorum fuorum, diam filij & hasredis Saulotifilij Samiel Judxi, 

quoufq; debita fua perceperint . Ex domonim, debitorum, & catallorum qua-. 

Alewor. 3 y 4 £■. I. Rot. 8. a. fuerunt difti Sauloti, & qux ad ipfum Do- 

(e) Rex Baronibus. Mandamus vobis, minuni Regem Hem icum pc r moi tcm ejui- 
quod Licoriciam qua fuit uxor David Ju- dcm Sauloti pertinebant: Habendum & te- 
daeiOxonise, cum catallis 8i vadijs quae fue- nendum ulque ad legitimam astatcm hsredis 
runt praedidti David, prster tres libros quos prsdidti, una cum maritagio ejufdem haere- 
retinuimus ad opus noftrum, liberetis fex dis fecundum legem & confuetudinem Ju- 
de ditioribus & difcretioribus Anglise velint deifmi. Et idem Dominus Rex Henricus 
nolint ; qui nobis refpondeant terminis i\z- per breve fuum mandavcrit Roberto de Ful- 
tdtisfine de v Mille marcarum, quem prse- bam tuncjufticiario adcuflodiam Judxorum 


248 Of the E X c H E CLU e r Chap. VII. 

Dower, to aflift her in recovering Pofleffion thereof {J3). Befides the 
Affifes or Statutes. made concerning the Judaifm, and the Debts and 
Contrails of the yews, and Things incident thereto : there were fe- 
veral other general Provifions made^r*? re nata for the Regulation of 
the yews. For Example : In or about the 37th Year of K. Henry 
III, it was provided, that no yew fhould remain in England without 
doing the King fome Service, that there fliould be no Schools for 
yeivs in England, except in Places where fuch Schools were wont to 
be in the Time of K. yohn, that all yews in their Synagogues fliould 
celebrate with a low Voice, according to the Rite of their Religion, 
and Cbriflians were not to hear them celebrating, that every yew 
ihould be anfwerable to the Retflor of his Parifli for all parochial 
Dues chargeable on his Houfe, that no Chrijiian Woman fliould fuckle 
or nurfe the Child of a yew, nor any Chrijiian Man or Woman ferve 
any Jew or ye-wefs, nor eat with them or abide in their Houfe, that 
no yew or yewefs fliould eat or buy Flefli-meats in Lent, that no 
yew fliould detrad: from the Chrijiian Faith, or difpiite publickly 
concerning it, that no yeiv fliould have fecret Familiarity with a 
Chrijiian Woman, nor any Chrjlian Man with a yewejs, that every 
yew fliould wear a Badge upon his Breafl:, that no yew fliould enter 
into any Church or Chapell, unlefs haply in pafling to and fro, nor 
fliould ftay there to the Diflionour of Chrijl, that no yew fliould 
hinder another yew who was willing to embrace the Chrijiian Re- 
ligion, and that no yew fliould be fuffered to abide in any Town 
without the King's fpecial Licence, fave in thofe Towns wherein yews 
were formerly wont torefide. Thefe Articles were to be obferved by 

nfli2;nato, quod eidem Aron Cuftodiam & bilem dotem fuamquse ipfam inde oontingit, 

Maritagium hsredis praedidli, & contraro- fecundum legem Scconfuetudinemjudaifmy, 

tulos debitorutn bonorum h catallorum pras- affignari h habere faciant. Et hoc prop- 

diiSorum, & aJminiftrationem eorundem ter aliquod Starrum acquietancias, quod fub 

fecundum legem & confuetudinem Judeifmi nomine alicujus alterius inde quam praedidii 

habere, & hseredem praediftum liberari fa- Samuelis,quod in Rotulis Judaifmi aut Scac- 

cerent. Et quod ad mandatum illud fecit carij praedifti irrotulatum inventum non fu- 

ut dicitur — . Trin. Comtmin. 13 y 14 erit, aut alio modo legali effe doceri poterit, 

E. I- Rot. II. (7. coram eifdem, nullatenus omittant. Et 

(/;) Baronibus & Jufticiarijs ad cuftodiam cum dotem illam fibi affignaverint, fint in 

Judaeorum affignatis, pro Rofa quae fuit ux- auxilium eidem ad dotem illam recuperan- 

or Magiftri Samuelis de Loun. Rex man- dam, prout de Jure & fecundum legem & 

dat eifdem, quod de omnibus debitis bonis confuetudinem Judaifmi fuerit faciendum., 

& cattallis quas fuerunt Samuelis de Loun &c. T. &c. xxviij" die Maij &c. Qusere re- 

(udaei Londonia; defiinfti, five in Thefau- fiduum hujus irrotulationis in Memorandis 

rariofuolu'e alibi exiftentibus die quo obijt, anni fequentis in Termino Sandi iVIichaelis, 

JRof^ qua; fuit uxor ipfiusSamuelisj rationa- Paf. Commun. b. E. 1. Jiot. 5. b. 

c the 

Chap. VIL 

of the Jews. 


the Je'ws under Pain of forfeiting their Goods (i). K. Eckcr.rd I. 
made certain Statutes for Regulation of the Judaffm', and willing 
the Juftices of the Jews to put them in Execution, he tranfmitted 
them to the Barons of the Exchequer, ordering them to caufe the 
fame to be written and fealed with the Exchequer Seal, and then to 
be delivered to the faid Juftices {k). 

VII. Though the Exchequer of the Jews was, to fome Purpofes, 
diftindl from the great Exchequer: yet both the Exchequer of the 
Jeivs, and the A6ts and Proceedings of the Juftices and Chirogra- 
phers of the Jews, were fubjedl to the Control and Authority of the 
chief Jufticier and the Treafurer and Barons of the Exchequer, as 
fuperior Diredors or Governors of the Crown-Revenue. The Debts 
due from Chrijiians to Jews were fubjedt to fuch Orders and Diredlions 
as the King thought fit to make concerning them. Sometimes the 
King would grant Atterminations or Refpites for the Payment of fuch 
Debts, and fometimes would difcharge the Debtor thereof i or elfe 
would make fuch Order concerning the fame as to him feemed meet. 
Several Afts of this and other Kinds relating to the Debts of the 
Jews were done in the great Exchequer, and entred in the Rolls 

(;') Rex providit & ftatuit, quod nullus 
Judneus maneatin Anglia iiifi fervitiumRegi 
faciat. Et quam cito aliquis Judaeus natus 
fuerit, five fit mafculus live toeniina, fer- 
viat nobis in aliquo. Et quod nulias Scolas 
Judneorum fint in Anglia, nifi in locis illis 
quibiis hujufmodi Scolae fuerunt tempore 
Domini Johannis Regis patris Re2;is. Et 
quod Univerfi Judasi in Sinagogis fui ce- 
lebrant fubmifl'a voce, fecundum ritum eo- 
rum; ita quod Chriflani hoc nonaudiant. Et 
quod quilibet Judasiis refpondeat RecSori 
Ecclefis in cujus parochia manent, de om- 
nibus parochialibus ad domum ipfius Judaei 
fpeftantibus. Et quod nulla nutrix Chrifti- 
anadecaetero la6let aut nutriat puerum ali- 
cujus Judsei, iiec aliquis Chriftianus vel 
Chriftiana ferviat alicui Judxo vel Jud^eas, 
nee cum ipfis comedat vel in domo fua com- 
moretur. Et quod nullus Judsus ve! Judaea 
somedat aut emat Carnes in Quadra2;efima. 
Et quod nullus Judaeus detrahatfidei chrif- 
tianae, ve! publice difputet de eadem. Et 
quod nullus Judsus habeat fecretainfamilia- 
ritatem cum aliqua Chiiftiana, ncc aliquis 

Vol. I. 

Chriftianus cum Judsa. Et quod nullus 
Judseus ingrediatur aliquam Ecclefiam vel 
aliquam Capellam, nifi tranfeundo, nee in 
eis nioretur in vituperium Chrifti. Et quod 
nullus Judaeus impediat aliquo modo alium 
Judaium volentem ad fidem Chrifti conver- 
tere. Et quod nullus Judseus receptetur in 
aliqua Villa fine fpeciali licentia Regis, nili 
in Villis illis in quibus Judasi manere con- 
fueverunt. Et mandatum eft Jufticiarijs ad 
Cuftodiam Judseorum affignatis, quod fie 
fieri & fub incurfionebonorum praedidlorum 
Judceorum firmiter teneri faciant. Tefte rege 
apud Weftm. xxxi°. die Januarij per Re- 
gcm& Concilium. ClaiiJ. 37. H. 3. m. i8. 
(,{■) Baronibus pro Rege. Quia Rex vult 
quod ftatuta quae de Judaifino nuper fecit 
pupplicari i^- eifdem Baronibus tranfiiiitti, 
per Jufticiarios ad cuftodiam Judasorum af- 
fignatos teneantur & firmiter obfcrventur : 
Et ideo Rex mandat Baronibus, quod ftatuta 
ilia fcribi & figiilo Scaccarij prredifli fignari, 
& ea fie fcripta & fignata prnet'atis Jufticiarijs 
^iberent &c. T, 5cc. Ml:h, Commun. 4. E. 
I. Rot. 4. a. 

K k there 


Of the E X C H E Q_U E R 

Chap. VII. 

there. Of which Matters you may take thefe Inftances following. 
Hervey Bagot fined in a Mark, that the yews to whom he was in- 
debted might be fummoned to appear at the Exchequer and receive 
the Moneys which were juftly due to them (/). Rei?ifrey Fifz- Roger, 
for a Fine of four Palfreys, had leave granted him, to pay CCCC /. 
(which he owed to JacoA of Norhamton and other Jews) within the 
Space of four Years, to wit, xxv Marks at Eafter in the fifth Year 
of the King, xxv Marks at Midfummer, xxv Marks at Michaelmafs, 
and xxv Marks at St. Hilafj, and fo by like Payments every Year till 
the whole Debt was paid-ofi^ f"^)' K.. John by his Charter or Writ, 
releafed to William Earl oi Arundel all Debts which he owed to the 
Jews at and until the Feaft of St. Laurence in the fourth Year of 
his Reign. And commanded the Jufticier of E?igland and Barons of 
the Exchequer to acquit him thereof accordingly ; and to deliver-up 
to him all his Charters and Chirographs (nj. Robert de Gay fined to 
the King, that he might be acquitted of xxx /. Principal-money and 
ij Marks Interell:, which he owed to Chera a Jewefs of Oxford ; and 
Robert was to affign to her a hundred Shillings yearly Rent, to be 
received by her till fuch Time as {he was fatisfied the faid Principal 
and Intereft foj. Richard Defcriipes fined in xx Marks, that he might 
be releafed of xxx Marks and the Intereft-Money thereof which he 
owed to certain Jews of Gloucejier, and that he might affign to thofe 
Jews Cj in Land or Rent, in Satisfa6tion of the fiid xxx Marks 
Principal-Money, till the fame was fully paid (pj. Roger de Berkeley 

(/) Herveius Bagot [debet] j marcam. 
Pro Juda;isfummonendisquibus debet debita, 
vitfint ad Scaccarium ad recipiendum ratio- 
nabile debitum quod eis debetur. Mag. 
Rot. 2. J. Rot. 1 8. a. Staf. 

(m) Reinfridus filius Rogeri debet iiij Pa- 
lefridos. Per fic quod poflit CCCC marcas, 
quas debuit Judaeis fubi'criptis, fcilicet Jacob 
de Noihanton, Merianx filio Yfaac &c, 
reddere infra iiij annos : fcilicet, ad Scac- 
carium Pafchre anni Regis quinti xxv mar- 
cas, in fefto S. Johannis Baptillae xxv mar- 
cas, in fefto S. Michaelis xxv marcas, in 
feflo S. Ylarij xxv marcas, Et fic de Termi- 
no in Terminum quoufq; totum perfolverit. 
Mdg. Rot. 5. J. Rot. 1. a. Cant. & Hunt. 

(n) Johannes Die gratia Rex Angliae 
D. H.D. N. A. Comes A., Jufticiario An- 
gliae & Baronibus de Scactario Londonias fa- 
lutem. Sciatis quod quietum [clamavimus] 
fidelem noftrum Willelmum Comitem Arun- 
dellix, de omnibus dcbitis quae ipfe debuit 

Judaeis ufq; ad feftum S. Laurentij anno reg- 
ni noftri quarto .... damus quod cum inde 
quietum effe faciatis. Et Cartas & Cyrc- 
grafa fua inde ei reddi faciatis. T. me ipfo 
apud Alencun viij die Augufti. Chart. Ant. 
in Turri Loml. N. in dorfo nu. 50. 

[0) Robertus de Gay debet xl. Pro ha- 
benda quietantia de xxx 1 de Catallo h de 
ij marcis de ufuris, quas debet Cheras filias 
Yfaac Judaei Oxonise, ita quod attornabit 
prsediftae Judaese C s redditus per Annum, 
quoufq; ipfe inde perceperit pra?di£las xxxl 
& ij marcas. Mag. Rot. 6. y. Rot. g. a. 
Oxenef. tit. Nova Oblata. 

(p) Ricardus Defcrupes r c de xx marcis. 
Pro habenda Rclaxatione de xxx marcis & 
ufuris quas debuit Judasis Gloeceftrise, & ut 
poiTit ailignare Judaeis illis C folidos Terns 
vel Redditus in folutione praedidti catalli, 
quoufq; perfolvatur. /!>. Rot. 12. a, Gloec, 
tit. Nova Oblata, 


chap. VII. of t/je J Ey^s. . 251 

had mortgaged certain Lands to the Jcivs. He obtained leave of tlie 
King to pay the Debt in this Manner : viz. That it fliould be en- 
quired what value thofe Lands were of by the Year ; that he might 
hold the Lands in his own Hands, and might pay yearly to the Jews 
the amount of that yearly Value, till the whole Debt was fatisfied ; 
provided, that if any royal Service was to be done to the King for the 
faid Land, Roger fliould do the fame, and fliould pay fo much lefs to 
the Jews that Year, but afterwards the Jews were not to be Lofers 
by it fgj. Henry Luvel fined to the King in fourfcore Marks and a 
Palfrey, and was admitted to the following Contrad: : Henry was to 
be quit, againfl: Fives the yew of Lincoln, of the whole Debt which his 
Father his Brother and he owed to Fives, at the Rate at which Fives 
was rated for that Debt to the Tallage of the Dilme, to witj at CC 
Marks ; Henry was to acquit Fives againfl the King of Lxxviij / xvj d 
ob. which Fives owed the King ; and Henjy was to be quit againft 
Fives, de tanto of the CC Marks, and for the Refidue he and Fives 
were come to an Agreement by Chirograph ^ Henry was to render 
[to the King] C Marks a-Year, as well for the faid Debts, as for all 
other that he owed the King, for himfelf, his Father and Brother j 
he was to have Refpite for all Debts of the Jews, till all the above- 
faid Debts were paid, and was to be quit of their Ufuries in the 
mean Time (r). Several yews hereunder named came into the Ex- 
chequer, and acknowledged that Fulbert de Dovor had fatisfied them 
their feveral Debts. Whereupon Fulberfs Difcharge thereof was en- 

{q) Rogerus de Berkcle [debet Lx mar- quod H. Luvel pater fuus & R. Luvel frater 

cas, Ut inquiratur quantum valeat per an- fuus ii ipfe debuerunt eidem Vivoni, per 

num terra ejufdem Rogeri in Derelega, & preciuni quod apreciatus eft: debitum illud 

Stanlega, & Dodintoii, cum pertinentijs, ad taillagium decimae, fcilicct per CC mar- 

quae eft vadium Judaiorum BriftoUias & cas ; & idem H. aquietabit ipfum Vivouem 

Gloeceftriae pro debito quod eis debet ; Et verfus Rtgcm de Lxxviij I & xvj d & obolo, 

quod ipfe in manu fua teneat terram illam, quas idem Judsus debuit Regi ; Etde tanto 

h pradiclis Judaeis valorem illius terras fin- eft quietus erga ipfum Judajum de prjedidis 

gulis annis reddat, quoufq; prEediclun debi- CC marcis ; Et de rcfiduo fecit gratum ip- 

tuni fuum eis perfolvatur ; Et ita quod fi fius Judasi per Cirographumintereos fadtum ; 

interim acciderit quod de terra ilia Regi Re- Per praedidum ctiam finern reddet idem H. 

gale fervitium fieri debeat, [ipfe] illud Regi per annum C marcas, tam de prajdiiStis de- 

faciat, & de tanto minus prsefatis Judneis bitis, quam de omnibus alijs quas debetRcgi, 

reddet eo anno de debito illo ; ita tamen pro fe k patre fuo & fratre fuo, & habebit 

quod ipfi Judaei poftmodum inde non fuit refpeclum de omnibus debitis Judaeorum, 

perdentes. Mag. Rot. 9. J. Rot. 21. c. donee omnia debita pra;fcripta perfolvanturj 

Gloeceftr. tit. Nova Oblata. & quietus erit de ufuris eorundcm dcbitoruin 

(rj Henricus Luvel debet quater XX mar- qua: interim inde poflent provcnire. Itiag. 

cas&j palefridimi, Ut fit quietus erga Vi- Rot. 10. Job. Rot. 11. I. DorfeU i^ §u- 

voneiii Judseum LincoIniK de toto debito msrfiu. 

K k 2 tercd 

252 0/ if/5^ E X c H E a.u E R Chap. Vir. 

tered in the great Roll of the Exchequer (sj. Two Tallies of Pay- 
ment of certain Money due in the "yiidaifat were allowed to William 
de San£lo Lniido, by H. de Burgh chief Jufticier, before the Barons of 
the Exchequer ft). King Edward I, being informed, that the Je-xvs 
oppreflcd Robert Siiirmy with great Ufury and Exadlion for certain 
Debts which he owed them, commanded the Barons and Juftices of 
the Jews by his Writ, to give Robert Attermination for thofe Debts 
(u). Again ; the Juftices of the Jews were wont to Accompt be- 
fore the Barons of the Exchequer, for the IfTues o^ xh^Judaifm. And 
if they miibehaved themfelves in their Office, they were anfwerable 
for the fame before the Barons ; who, if there was Caufe, annulled 
their A6ts or Judgments, and punirtied them for Mifdemeaner in 
their Office. For Inftance : K. Hen?y III. commanded the Barons, 
to hear the Accompt of the Juftices of the "Jews, for the Iffiies of the 
Judaijhi fince the Time thofe Juftices came into their O'Sxct : and the 
Juftices were to come at the Day which the Barons fhould prefix, 
with their Rolls, Tallies, and other Things, to render the faid Accompt 
(w). In the 56th Year of K. Henry III, Fulk Peyforer and others 
became Sureties for William de Watford, for his rendring an Accompt 
of the Iftues of the Judaifm, whilft he was one of the Juftices of 

(ijFulbertiis de Doura [debet] j marcam, 
Ut fcribatur in Magno Rotulo quod ipfe 
quietus eft de oronibus debitis qua; Johannes 
de Doura Pater fuus debuit Judasis fubfcrip- 
tis, fciiicet Haicclino tilio Jurnetti de Nor- 
wiz & hwrcdibus fuis pro xx marcis, Avi- 
gaiffi Judes pro xx 1, Murieli de Londonia 
pro C folidis, excepta parte fuade debito A- 
l^rahffi filij Rabi, Item proediftae Murieli & 
Samueli Multun pro xxxv marcis, Benediclo 
Qiiatrebuche pro L 1 {andto fveral other Jews 
here tiamed), licut prredifti Judaei cognove- 
runt coram Baronibus de Scaccario. Mag. 
Rot. 10. R. I. Rot. 14. i. Hirefordia in 

(/) Willelmus de Sanfto Laudo r c de 
xvj 1 de debitis Judsorum ; qui requireba- 
tur in Judaifmo : In thefauro xxs, per ij ta- 
leas de ante guerram, allocatas per H. de 
Burgo Jufticiarium, coram Baronibus de 
Scaccario : Et debet xv 1. Mag. Rot. 9. H. 
3. Rot. 13. a. Line. 

(ti) Baronibus & Jufticiarijs ad cuftodiam 
Jud^orum affignatis, pro Roberto Sturmy. 
Cum Robertus Sturmy tenebatur Ifaac filio 
Deulecres Judaeo Norwyci in xv marcis, ac 
idem Judceus panas k ufuras multimodas 
prseter principalc debitum exigat ab eodem ; 

Rex ipfius indempnitati obviate volens in 
hac parte, fibi pcenas & ufuras hujufmodi re- 
mifit & pardonavit ; & mandat, quod eidem 
de didto debito reddendo didlo Judfeo, Ba- 
rones terminum faciant alTignari in fefto 
Omnium Sanftorum proximo future, de 
gratia Regis fpeciali. Trin. Commtin. 14. is" 
15. E. I. Rot. 7. l>. 

(w) Rex mandat Baronibus, quod ad cer- 
ium diem quern duxerint alTignandum, audi- 
ant compotum Jufticiariorum ad cuftodiari- 
am Judseorum affignatorum, de exitibus e- 
jufdem Judaifmi, a tempore quo Rex dicftis 
Jufticiarijs cuftodiam ejufdem Judaifmi 
commifit, cuftodiendi ufq; ad feftum SancSti 
Martini anno &c Liij° : tt cum prjedi£tum 
[compotum] reddiderint, ficut prasdiftum 
eft, Regi fignificent qualiter Regi refponde- 
runt, & in quibus finibus fteterit compotus 
eorundem: Aiandatum eftenim eifdem Juf- 
ticiarijs, quod ad diem quern Barones eisfcire 
facient, coram cis accedant cum Rotulis, 
tallijs, & alijs compotum fuum tangcntibus, 
ad compotum fuum reddendum in forma 
prsedicta. T.&c. Breve eft in forulo Martf- 
calli. Miih, Ccmmiinia 52, incip. 53. H. 3. 
Rot, 4. (7, 



Chap. VIL 

of the Jews. 


the 'Jeios {x) : the like was done for William dc Thiirlacjlon another 
Juftice of the Jews fy). In the fame Kuig's Reign, Thomas Spcrim 
and others Juftices of the Jeias fet an Amerciament of x/. upon the 
Sheriffs of X(?W(j;z. But it being fet without J uft Caufe, it was dif- 
charged by Judgment of the Barons [■z). Dionyfa Daughter of Ro- 
land brought a Writ of Right before the Juftices of the Je%ds againft 
Mafter Ifaac of Oxford and Slcyna his Wife, for a MelTuage in London. 
Ifaac and Slcyna vouched to waranty Abraham, Jacob, and Joce, Sons 
and Heirs of Ifaac a former Hufband of Sleyna. The Vouchees 
ellbigned once in the fud Plea. Afterwards, Joce elfoigned again 
in the faid Plea, and Dionyfa challenged the EiToigne becaufe he had 
been eifoigned before. But the Juftices of the Jews, contrary to 
Law, allowed the Eilbigne, and gave the Parties Day in the Quin- 
zime of St. fohn BapiiJL At that Diy Abraham elfoigned, Dionyfa 
challenged the Eftbigne;. and the faid Juftices allowed itj and gave 
the Parties Day in the Quinzime of St Michael. Upon Complaint 
made to the King by Dionyfa in this Cafe, he commanded the Barons 
of the Exchequer by his Writ, to call the Parties before them, and 
to do full and fpeedy Juftice to Dionyfa according to the Law of the 
Land and the Cuftom of the Judaifn ia). In the Reign of K. 


{x) Fulco Peyforer, Simon de Infula, & 
Walterus Wolleward manuceperunt coram 
Baronibus, habere corpus Magifliri Willel- 
mi de Watford coram eifdem Baronibus, die 
Luna; proximo poft feftum Tranflationis B. 
Thomas Martiris, ad reddendum compotum 
fuum de exitibus Judaifmi, de tempore quo 
fuitjufticiarius Judairmi,prredidli cum Wil- 
Jelmo de Thurlaefton h Roberto de Ful- 
ham ; Et eciam ad habendum corpus didi 
Willelmi coram eifdem, die Veneris proxi- 
ma poft, ad refpdndendum fi quis verfus cum 
loqui voluerit. Trin. Comnmn. 56. //. 3. 
Rs>. 7. a. 

f^'j'^Ianncaptio "Willelmi de Thurlaefton. 
Henricus Malemeyns & Fulco Peyforer ma- 
nuceperunt habere corpus ejufdem Willelmi 
coram Baronibus de Scaccario, die Lunae 
proximo poft Fcftum TranP.ationis Beati 
Thomas Martiris, ad reddendum Compotum 
fuum de exitibus Judaifmi, de tempore 
quo fuit Jufticiarius Judaeorum, una cum 
Roberto de Fuleham & Magiftro Willelmo 
de Watford. Trin. Commttma 56. H. 3. 
Rot. 7. a. 

(z) Q^iia conviftuin eft coram Baroni- 
bus &c, (^uod Thomas Sperun & focij fui 

Jufticiarij ad cuftodiam Judasorum afllgnatl, 
amerciavcrunt Ricardum de Ewell &z Wil- 
lelmum ElTewy Vicccoiiiltes Londonirs ad x 
libras, & non affignaverant juftam caufam 
coram eifdem Baronibus, quare de jure fuif- 
fent amerciandi, Confideratum eft, quod- 
pr^diiti Ricardus & "Willelmus quieti fmt 
de priedictis x libris. Ex jMemcr. 42. H. 3.. 
Rcf. 7. a. 

[a) Ex parte Dionifr filise Rolandi, gra- 
viter conquerendo Regi eft oftenfuin, quod 
cum ipfa coram Jufticiarijs ad cuftodiam Ju- 
dsorum afGgnatis,pctierit verfus Magiftruin 
Ifaac de Oxonia Judasum & Sleyna uxorem 
ejus, unum Mefuagium cum pertinientijs in 
Londonia, ut jus fuurn, prs-fati Magiftcc 
Ifaac cz Sleyna inde vocavcrunc ad Waian- 
tum Abraham Joreum & Jacobum fil. & 
hx-red. Ifaac quondam viri prasdiiEtasSleynae; 
prxtati Abraham Jacob & Joceus de pnt- 
didto placito feme! efToniavcrunt, Sc poftea 
prajdiitus Joceus alias fe efToniavit, fcilicet 
in Oftabas S. Trinitatis proximo prseteritas^ 
de placito prsdicto, h pnefata Dionifa dic- 
tum efTonium calumpiiiavit, co quod alias 
fuit cftbniatus ; Tamcn prasfati Jufticiarij-, 
contra le^em Terrse, didlum Jiflbnium adju- 


254 Of the E X c H E clu e r Chap. VII. 

Edward I, Hugh de D'lgneneton rendred an Accompt in the Exche- 
quer, of the Chevage of the "Judaijin (b). In the fame King's Reign, 
the Matter of a certain Falfity committed in the yiidaifmt was, at 
the Inftance of the Queen's Attorneys, brought before the Treafurer 
and Barons to be examined and redlifyed. They went and fat in the 
Exchequer of the Jczvs. And finding that Robert de Ludham a Juf- 
tice of the 'Jews had committed the Falfity, they put him out of his 
Office, and committed him to Prifon (c). At the fame Time, Ha~ 
mond Haiiteyn another Juftice of the Jews was called to an Account by 

dicaverunt, & diem partibus prasfixerurtt ad 
quindenam S.Johannis proximo pi'ietcritam ; 
ad quern diem prsdiflus Abraham fe cflbnia- 
vit per Attornatum fuum, Et praediiSlaDio- 
iiifa, per Attornatum fuum,pr.Tdi£f:um ElFo- 
iiium calumpniavit, prout fecit Eflbnium 
prsedicti Jocei ; Et praefati Jufliciarlj, non 
obftante reclamatione praediftx Dionifae, 
praediftum EiTonium contra Legem Terrs 
adjudicaverunt, & diem prsefixerunt partibus 
ufq; ad quindenam Sandti Michaelis proxi- 
mo futuram : Et quia Rex noluit eidem 
Dionifc in liac parte injuriari, fet potiusfibi 
fubvenire, Mandat Baronibus firmiter in- 
jungens, quatinus, fi ita eft, tunc partibus 
convocatis loquelam illam coram eis venire 
faciant, & eidem Dionifae plenam & celerem 
Jufticiam iecundum Legem Terras & Con- 
fuetudinem Judaifmi faciant exiberi ; & hoc 
nullatcnus omittant ; ita quod non oportet 
Regem inde amplius &c. Mich. Comiruinia 
52. hicip. 53. H. 3. Ret. r. b. 

(h) Rex TheAiurario & Baronibus fuis 
'de Scaccario falutem. Allocate dilefto 
Clerico noftro Hugoni de Digneneton, in 
compoto fuo de collciftione chevagijjudaifmi 
noftri, ad Scaccarium prcediftum decern li- 
tras, pro cxpenfis fuis quas fecit circa col- 
lettionem chevagij pra;di6ti ; Nifi pecunia 
ilia eidem Hugoni prius fuerit allocata. Da- 
tum per manum Vencrabilis patris R.Batho- 
nienfis& Wellenfis EpifcopiCancellarij nof- 
tri, xvj die Oftobris. Lib. 5. E. 1. m. i. 
He accounted for Cheuage ofjudaifm again in 
■the bthycar; Lib. 6. E. i. m. 2. 

[c) Prsefati vero Thefaurarius & 

Earones, a praedidis Attornatis rcquifiti, ve- 
■nerunt ad Sccacarium Jud.xorum, die Mar- 
tis proximaante fcftum B. Jacobi Apoftoli — . 
ylml all the Parties being bfffught before them, 
upon Ex:J,7:iru7ii:n, the Falfty iv:!s fixt upon 

Robert de Ludham. Quia eciam cor- 

rcccio excefiuum Jufticiariorum Scaccarij 
JudaeorumSi aliorum Miniftrorum de eodem 
Scaccario, pertinent &femper pertinere con- 
fueverunt ad Thefaurarium & Barones fu- 
perioris Scaccarij : Quia eciam Officium 
prasdictorum Juiticiariorum, de praccpto 
ipfius Domini Regis, ex certis caufis cap- 
turn fuit in manum Domini Regis die Vene- 
ris proxima ante feflum Apoftolorum Petri 
& Pauli anno decimo quarto; quod Feftum 
Beati Jacobi antecedit ; & Rotuli Jufticia- 
riorum praedidtorum qui funt in Thefauraria 
Regis, & in Thefauraria Regis per ipfos li- 
berati praedifto die Veneris poftquam ijdem 
Jufticiarij fun£li fuerunt Officio fuo, miitari 
non poflunt necdebent: Concordatum eft 
per eofdem Thefaurarium & Barones, quod 
praedidus Robertus abfolvatur ab Officio 
prasdiiSo ex caufa praedifta; Et confidera- 
tum eft, quod eat ad Prifonam. Poftea idem 
Robertus fubmil'it fe voluntati Domini Re- 
gis, de corpore fuo, & de terris & tenemen- 
tis fuis, necnon de omnibus bonis &catallis 
fuis, pro tranfgreffioneprasdicla. Et Hamo 
Hauteyne de Comkatu Norfolciae, Petrus de 
Huntino-feld de Comitatu Kanciae, Ofbertus 
Giftard de Comitatu Dorf. Walterus de 
Amundefham de Com. Buk. Henricus de 
Brouli de Com. Oxon., & Walterus de La- 
ton de Com. Buk. manuceperunt ad haben- 
dum ipfum Robertum ad vohintateni Regis 
in forma praediiSta. Poftea idem Robertus 
finem fecit cum Rege per M marcas, pro 
tranfgreffionepr.'Edifla. Sed finis ifte conti- 
netur in fine fuo M librarum quern fecit 
cum Rcge pro quibufdam alijs tranfgreffio- 
nibus, iicut continetur in ultimo Rotulo in 
Termino S. Trinitatis. Inter Mcm:raiid. 
13. b" 14. E. I. iJs/.'34- b. 


Chap. VII. of the J e \v s. 255 

the Treafurer and Barons. And being convidled before them of fcve- 
ral Mifdemeaners, he was by them fufpended from his Office {d). 

VIII. Before I conclude, I \yill tai^e leave to mention a few Things 
relating to theyt"zc'j-j which were not well reducible to thctoregoing 
Heads of this Chapter, and may therefore be fet down here in a 
mifcellaneous Way. In general, the King was wont (as hath been 
faid before) to ufe the ^ews with Severity ; efpecially when they 
were refractory : howbeit, when they were obedient and complyant, 
he fliewed them Favour, and gave them Proofs of his Lenity. K. 
'John^ in the fecond Year of his Reign, granted a Charter of Liberties 
to the yeios of Eng/af2il and Normandy: to wit, that they might re- 
fide in the King's Dominion freely and honourably; that they might 
hold of K. Jo/jf2 all Things which they held of K. Hcjijy I, and 
which they now rightfully hold, in Lands, Fees, Mortgages, and 
Purchafes ; and that they fhould have all their Liberties and Cuftoms, 
as amply as they had them in the Time of K. Henry I ; that if a 
Plaint was moved between a Chrijlian and a Jeiv, he who appealed 
the other fhould produce Witneffes to deraigne his Plaint, namely a 
lawful Chrijlian and a lawful 'Jeuo ; that if a 'Jew had a Writ con- 
cerning his Plaint, fuch Writ fliould be his Witnels j that if a 
Chrijlian had a Plaint againft a Jetv, the Plaint fhould be tried by the 
yew's Peers; that when a Jew died, his body fliould not be detained 
above-ground, and his Heir fhould have his Chatells and Credits, in 
Cafe he had an Heir that would anfwer for him and do right touch- 
ing his Debts and Forfeitures ; that the Jews might lawfully receive 
and buy all Things which were brought to them, except Things 
that belonged to the Church and except Cloth ftained with Blood ; 
that if a Jew v/as appealed by another without a Witnefs, he Ihould 
be quit of that Appeal by his fingle Oath taken upon his Book ; and 
if he was appealed for a Thing that appertained to the King's Crown, 
he fhould likewife be quit thereof by his fmgle Oath taken upon his 
Roll ; that if a Difference arofe between a Chrijlian and a Jew about 
the lending of Money, the Jew fhould prove the Principal-money 
and the Chrjlian the Interefl-money ; that a Jew might lawfully and 
quietly fell a Mortgage made to him, when he was certain he had 
held it a whole Year and a Day; that the Jews fhould not enter in- 
to Plea except before the King [in his Court or his Exchequer], or 
before the Keepers of the King's Caftles in whofe Bailywicks the 

{d) Tr!n. Cotnmun. 14. E, I. Rot. 38. a, ^ b, in bund. 13 ^ 14 E. i, Thh Procefs 
is too long to be recited here, 



Of the E X c H E CLU E R chap. VII. 

"Jews lived j that the Jews, wherever they were, might go whither 
they plealed, with their Chatells, as fafely as if they were the King's 
Chatells, nor might any Man detain or hinder them : and the King 
by this Charter commanded, that they fliould be free, throughout 
JLngJand and Normandy, of all Cufloms, Tolls, and Mediation of 
Wine, as fully as the King's own Chatells were ; commanding his 
Liege-men to keep, defend, and proteft them j and charging, that no 
Man fliould implead them touching any of the Matters aforefaid, un- 
der Pain and Forfeiture, as the Charter of IC. Henry II. did likewife 
import (e). K. Henry III, anno regn'i 17, granted by his Letters 
Patent to the 'Je-jos of England, except Ifaac of Noj-wich and Urfell 
and his Brother's Heirs of Hamon of Hereford, that they might pay 
the laft Tallage of ten thoufand Marks impofed on them, at the 
Terms hereunder limited ; provided they were pundual in pay- 
ing that and their other Areres. And the King granted, that they 

{e) Johannes Deigratia &c. Sciatis nos 
concefline omnibus Judxis Anglis & Nor- 
manniae libere h honcrifice habere refiden- 
tiam in terra nollra, & omnia ilia de nobis 
tenenda qua; tenuerunt de Rege H. avo Pa- 
t-ris noftri, & omnia ilia quse modo ratio- 
nabiliter tenent, in terris, & feodis, & Va- 
dijs, & Akatis fuis, & quod habeant omnes 
Libcrtates ^: Confuetudines fuas, ficut eas 
habuerunt tempore prredifti Regis H. Avi 
Patris noftri melius & quietius & honorabi- 
lius. Et fi querela orta fucrit inter Chriftia- 
num & Judseum, ille qui alium appellaverit, 
ad querelam fuam dirationandam habeat 
Tefies, fcilicct legitimum Chriftianum & 
legitimum Judaium. Etfi Judasus de querela 
fiia breve haliuerit, breve I'uum erit ei teftis. 
£t fi Chriftianiishabuerit querelam adverfus 
Judasum, fit judicata per pares Judtei. Et 
cum Judsus obierit, non dctineatur corpus 
fuum fuper t?rr;im, fet habeat hxres fuus 
pecuniam fuam & debita fua, Ita quod inde 
lion diliurbetur, fi habuerit hreredem qui pro 
ipfo refpondeat & re^lurn faciat de debitis 
fuis & de forisfacto fuo. Et liceat Judasis 
omnia qu<E eis apportata fuerint fine occa- 
fione accipere & emere, exceptis illis qus de 
Ecclefia funt & panno Sanguinolento. Et fi 
Judsusab aliquo appcUatUofueritfine Tefte, 
de illo appellatu erit quietus folo Sacramen- 
to fuo fuper librum fuum. Et de appellatu 
illarum rerum qua; ad Coronara noftram 
pertinent, fimilitcr tfuietus erit folo Sacra- 

mento fuo fuper Rotulum fuum. Et fi in- 
ter Chriftianum & Judasum fucrit difienfio 
de accommodationcalicujus pecuni.-s, Juds- 
us probabit Catallumfuuin fc Chrirtian us lu- 
crum. Et liceat Judaeo quiete vendere va- 
dium fuum, poftquam certus erit eum illud 
unum annum integrum U. unum diem tenu- 
iffe. Et Judaei non intrabunt in placituni 
nifi coram nobis, vel coram illis qui Turres 
noftras cuftodierint, in quorum Ballivis Ju- 
dasi manferint. Et ubicunq; Judsei fuerint 
liceat eis ire quocunq; voluerintcum omni- 
bus Catallis eorum ficut res noftrae propriae, 
& nulli liceat cos retinere neq; hoc eis pro- 
hibere. Et praecipimus quod ipfi quicti fint 
per totam Angliam & Normanniam de om- 
nibus Confuetudlnibus, & Theloiiijs, & 
Modiatione Vini, ficut noftrum proprium 
Catallum. Et mandamus vobis & prsci- 
pimus, quod eos cuftodiatis, & defendatis, 
& manutencatis. Et prohibemus nequis 
contra Cartam iftam de hijs fupradifiis eos 
in placitum ponat, fuper forisfafturam nof- 
tram, ficut Carta Regis H. patris noftri 
rationabiliter teftatur. Teftibus Gaufrido 
filio Petri Comite Efl'exine, Willelmo Mare- 
fcaflo Comite de Penbroc, Henrico de 
Bohun Comite de Hereford, Roberto de 
Turnham, V/illelmo Briwer he. Datum 
per manum S.Wellcnfis Archidiaconi apud 
Merleberg, decimo die Aprilis anno Regni 
noftri fecundo. R'>t. Cart. 2. Job. n. 45. 
titulo. Carta Judxorum Anglia;. 


chap. VII. 

of the Jews. 


(except the 'Jeii's above excepted) fliould in the mean Time be 
quit of Tallage. Provided, that thofe 'Je^ws who undertook for 
all the 'Je'ws of England to pay the late Tallage of eight tliou- 
fand Marks, fhould make lull Payment of the Areres thereof; 
and that every 'Jeiv fhould anfwcr for himfelf, as well for the 
Areres of the late Tallage of liv thoufand Marks (to which the 
'Jews were tallaged per Capita) as alfo for all other Debts 
due from them to the King; notwithflanding the prefent Fine ff). 
The fame King granted to Elias k Evejk the yew, that for four 
Years then next following, he fliould not be tallaged at above C/. 
by the Year (g). The King had caufed Proclamation to be made ia 
the feveral Counties ol England, that all Perfons who owed Debts in 
the yudaijh, fliould come before him, and make a Reprefentation of 
their Cafe, in order to obtain Relief and Favour therein. This Pro- 
clamation v/as ifllied, to the intent that the Jeivs of England, being 
terrified with the King's Difpleafure, might the m.ore willingly and 
fpeedily pay-in their laft Tallage. But in regard Mafter Elias the 
Jew had acquitted himfelf to the King by puniftual Payment of his 
Proportion of that Tallage ; the King by his Writ commanded tlie 
Barons to caufe Proclamation to be made, that Elias's Debtors 
fhould not come to the Exchequer, to have their Debts either 
compounded or transferred to others, but fliould pay their refped:ive 
Debts to Elias himfelf; and ordered the Barons, not to intermeddle 

(/) Rex concelTit Judaeis Anglise, excep- 
to Ifaac de Norwico & Urfell k fratribus 
iuis hasredibus Hamonis de Hereford, quod 
de X mllle marcis quas Regi ticbent de ulti- 
mo tallagio, folvant ad Scaccarium Regis 
ad feftum S. iVIichaelis anno xvij" quingeii- 
tas libras, & ad Pafcha proximo fcquens 
quingentas libras ; & fi bene refpoiideant 
Regi de didlis Milie libris ad prsdiitos ter- 
minos, &dealijs arreragijs quse Regi de- 
bent, tunc folvant fimiliter de eifdem x mille 
marcis anno proximo fcqucnte mille libras 
ad eofdem terminos, fciliceL ad feftum S. 
Michaelis anno xviij" D libras, 5c ad Pafcha 
proximo fequens D libras, Sc p-jftea per an- 
num duo millia marcarum ad eofdem ter- 
minos, donee didlae x mille marcag fic Regi 
plene folvantur. ConcefTit etiam Rex eifdem 
Judjeis, praeter diftos Ifaac, Urfell, & fratres 
ejus, quod interim quieti fint de Tallagio, 
Itilicet quoufq; diiStae x mille marcje perfolu- 
tae fucrint ficut prsdiiSum eft ; Ita tamcn 

Vol. r. 

quod illi Judoei, qui manuceperunt pro om- 
nibus Judaeis Anglia: tallagium viij mille 
marcarum, Regi plene rcfpondeant de arre- 
ragijs cjufdcm tallagij, & quilibet Judsus 
refpondeat pro fe de arrcra2;ijs tallagij vj 
mille marcarum, quia tunc talliati fuerunt: 
per capita, & de alijs debitis & finibus quas 
Regi debent, non obftante hoc fine, interim 
Regi refpondeant. In cujus &c. 7". P. 
Winton. Epifcopo apud Wcftmon. ij die 
Martij, per eundem & Jufticiarium. Pat. 17. 
H. 3. m. 6. 

(^) Pro Elya le Eveflc Juda;o Londonia;. 
Rex concefTit eidem E, pro fideli obfcquio 
fuo, & pro X marcis auri quas Regi dedit, 
quod a fefto S. Michaelis anno xxxiiij", 
ufq; in iiij annos proximo fequentes com- 
pletos, nontallietur per annum nifi ad C 1 ; 
Ita quod per prsefatum terminum iiij an- 
norum, ad majorem pecuniae fummam 

non tallietur . Memoranda 35. H. 3. 

Rot. 3. b. 

L I with 


Of tide E X c H E Q^u E R Chap. VIL 

with his Debts or Chatells under Colour of the flril Proclamation (/6),. 
K. Edward I. by his Writ commanded the Barons to atterminate 
certain yews, in refpedt of their Poverty, for the Debts they 
owed to the Crown (/). In the fame King's Reigii, Bella the Jeivtjs 
complained to the King, that whereas the Community of the Jewi 
had fined to his Majefty in twelve thoufand Pounds, the Afleffors of 
that Fine had tallaged her fo rigoroufly, that flie had nothing left 
to live on, and that her Sons and Daughters were likewile imprifon- 
ed for the fame Caufe. Hereupon, the King, compaflionating her 
Cafe, commands the Barons by his Writ, that if they found her to 
be aggrieved in that Manner by the faid Tallage, they fhould at their 
Difcretion moderate the fame according to Right and Equity (k). 

(/>) Baronibus pro Magiftro Elya Judaeo. 
Licet nuper per diverfos Regni Regis Comi- 
tatus Rex proclamari fecerit, quod finguli 
«]ui aliqua dcbita dcbcbant in Judaifmo Re- 
gis, coram Rcge accederent, ipfa debita fua 
Regi oftenfuri, & Rex gratiam fibi faceret, 
•ut Judsei Regis Angliae inde perterriti, Regi 
de praefenii Tallagio fuo libentius fatisface- 
rcnt : Tamen quia idem Magifter Elyas 
Regi fatisfecit de prasfenti Tallagio fuo ; 
propter quod Rex volens quod debitores ip- 
ilus Eliae de praediftis debitis fuis integrere- 
fpondeant& intendant: Rex mandateifdem 
Baronibus, quod proclamari faciant, quod 
liebitores ipfius Elias, ad eos pro aliquibus 
debitis in quibus eidem tenentur, non acce- 
dant, fet ipfi eadem debita fua eidem Elyae 
& non ajijs folvant, & inde refpondeant & 
intendant ; & quod ipfi Barones de debitis 
aut bonis fuis eos non intromittant occafione 
prsdicla ; Siiialiquid inde areftaverint, id 
eidem Elyas fine dilatione faciant retaxari. 
T. he. 7r!n. Cam?mt?iia, ^6. H. 3. Rot. 7. b. 

(/) Cum Ifaac le Evefq; Judasus Londo- 
iiiae niiper impetraverit a Rege, quod de de- 
bito Trefcentarum & xliiij 1 & vj s & viij d, 
in quo Regi tenebatur ad Scaccarium, pro 
quibufdam debitis qusefuerunt Ifaac de Nor- 
wico Judsei, tempore Domini H. Regis per 
ipfum Ifaac le Evefq;, Aaron de Ebor. , 
Coc filium Aaron filij Abraas, & Samuelem 
de Norwico, a di<3o Henrico Rege emptis 
anno regni fui xxxiiij, folveret Regi per an- 
iium ad Scaccarium praediftum C s, videli- 
cet unammedietatemad Scaccarium Pafcha?, 
hi aliam medietatem ad Scaccarium SancSti 

Michaelis ; Et idem Ifaac le Evefq jterminos 
fuos obfervaverit ufque modo, per quod ad 
tantam paupertatem jam devenit, quod ter- 
minos illos obfervare non poteft : Rex man- 
dat eifdem Baronibus, quod vifis allocatio- 
nibus fuis quas ha£lenus habuit per brevia 
Regis, & quae refident in eodem Scaccario, 
allocationes illas eidem fieri in debito illo, 
prout de jure h fecundum legem & confue- 
tudinem Scaccarij praedidti fuerit facien- 
dum, & folutiones inde prius faftas fibi allo- 
cari, & de eo quod de debito illo fuperfuerit 
reddendum, eidem tales terminos habere 
faciant, ad quos juxta facultates fuas refi- 
duum ejufdem debiti Regi folvere poflit, & 
Baronibus conft:abit per legalem inquifi- 
tionem inde faciendam, prout difcretioni e- 
orum magis videbitur expedite. Trin. Com- 
mun. 9. y 10. E. I, Rot. 4. b. 

{k) Baronibus, pro Belia Judaea Glou- 
ceftriae. Eadem Belia intimavit Regi gra- 
viter conquercndo, quod occafione cujufdaiu 
Finis xij Millelibrarum, quern Communitas 
Judseorum fecit cum Rege, ipfa per afleflb- 
res Finis ejufdem adeo graviter talliatur, 
quod nichil fibi remanet unde vivat ; Etni-- 
chilominus filij & filias fui in prifona detinen- 
tur ex hac caufa : Rex volens eidem Judaeje- 
fuper hoc remedium impertiri, mandat Ba- 
ronibus quod audito & plenius examinato. 
negocio fupradiflo, fi invenerint ipfam in- 
debite praegravari per afleflum Tallagium.. 
fuper earn, id juxta difcretionem eorum fa- 
ciant taliter emendari, prout dejure fuerit 
faciendum. T. Rege apud S. xxij die Julij 
annoxvij. Trin. Record. iB, £. i. Rot. — b. 

K. Henry 

Chap. VII. of the ] ■£. w z, 259 

K. Henry III, out of his royal Grace to the Jeivs, and for the fup- 
port of I'uch of them as embraced the Chrijlian Rehgion, and were 
deftitute of livelyhood, founded a Houfe at London, called Dotmis 
Converforum, The Hoiije Jor the Converts ', and endowed it with a 
competent Revenue. Which Houfe was wont to be committed by 
the King to the Care and Rule of fome Clergyman of Diftindion, 
who was ftyled Cujlos Domiis Convej-forum and Gardein des Converfes. 
It was fituate in Chanceller-lane near the Neiv Temple; and hath been 
called in the modern Times the Rolls. I have not met with the 
Charter or Inftrument of Foundation of this Houfe. But K. Henry 
III, by Patent, granted to Nicholas the GoUjmith and Maud his Wife, 
Converts, eight Pence per Week, out of the Rents of the Houfe of 
Converts, which the King had founded de proprijs bonis & elemojinis 
fuis (I). And in the fubfequent Times, in divers Patents and other 
publick Ad:s, mention is made of K. Henry the Third's Foundation 
of the Houfe of Converts. K, Edward I. granted to the Citjlos and 
Converts of the faid Houfe fourfcore Marks, to be received yearly at 
the Exchequer during his Pleafure, out of the Fines, Amercements, 
Forfeitures, and other Iffues of the ytidai/m, for the Support of tiie 
faid Converts and of the Fabrick of their Chapell (m). And K. 
Edward II. granted to William de Ayremynne, then Clerk or Keeper 
of the Rolls of the Chancery, the Cuftody of the Houfe of Converts 
at London, to hold during his Life : and the Converts of the faid 
Houfe, and all the Tenants of it, were commanded to be intendant 
and refpondent to the faid William as Keeper of the Houfe and Con- 
verts aforefaid, in all things relating to the faid Cuftody (nj. 

Although the "Jews were permitted to fettle in feveral populous 
Towns in this Realm, it is likely they were not welcome to the In- 
habitants there. One of the Liberties granted by a Charter of K. 

(■/) Pat. 56. Hen. 3. m. 15. fabricam Capellae fuas ibidem, qiiamdiu no- 

\m) Rex Thef. & Camerarijs fuis falu- bis placuerit, vel donee eis alitor duxerimus 

tem. Liberate de thefauro noftro dileiS^o providendum. T. R. apud Dolindjlan xxiij 

Clerico noftro Johanni de San£to Dionifio die Maij, Ad mandatum Cancellarii. L'tb. 

Archidiacono RofFenfi, Cuftodi Domus 11. E. i. m. 6. 

noftrae Converforum Londonias, quadra- (k) Rex omnibus ad quos cVc falutem. 

ginta marcas de termino Pafchae proximo Sciatis quod concefTinuisdiiefto C'erico nol- 

praeterito, de quaterviginti marcis quas rvu- tro Willelmo de Ajremyiine, CurtoJiaiu 

per eifdem converfis conceffimus, percipi- Domus Converforum Londonia'.H;il>eiidain 

endas annuatim ad Scaccarium noftrum, de cum omnibus ad Cuftodiam illam fpcclan- 

«xitibus finium & amerciamentorum & fo- tibus ad totam vitam fuam. In cujus &:c. 

risfafturis Judaeorum, &dedebitis noftris & 1\ Rege apud Ebor. xx die AicniRi. Per 

alijs certis exitibus Judaifmi noftri, ad fuf- ipfum Regem. 
tentationem eorundem Converforum, & ad 

L 1 2 Henry 

26o Of the E X c n E Q_u E R Chap. VII. 

Henry III, to the Men of Ne\vcajlle upon Thze and their Heirs, was 
this, v'fz. That no 'Jew (hould dwell or ftay in their Town (o). 
The like privilege was granted to the BurgeiTes of Derby (p) ; and to 

V/e frequently find in Records mention made of an Epifcopus and 
Prejlyler judaonim. What the meaning thereof was, may in fome 
Meafure be difcerned by the Inflance hereunder fubjoined. The cafe was 
this : King Henry III, appointed Philipp Love/ and others Jullices of the 
yeivs, to try E/ias the BiJJjop a Jew of London for a Trefpafs commit- 
ted by him againft the King and his Brother the King of Almaigne. 
Elias being convidted thereof before the faid Juftices at the Exche- 
quer, was by them adjudged to be deprived of his Priefthood of the 
Community of jd'tcj in England, and of all other Offices and baily- 
wicks which he ha-d obtained from the King. Hereupon the King, 
for a fine of three Marks of gold paid to him by Crejfe and Hagin 
Brother of Ellas, on Behalf of the Community of the Jeivs, granted 
to the faid Community, that Elias fliould never afterwards have or 
recover the faid Priefthood ; that for the future no Man fliould be 
[chief] Prieft of the Jews without being chofen to that Office by 
general Confent of their Community ; and that the faid Community 
should have free Power, after the Deceafe of any [chief] Prieft io 
chofen, to eleft another at their Pleafure, and to prefent him to the 
King for his Approbation. And the Jews had Day given them to 
chufe a Prieft accordingly [q). 


Et mandatum eft Converts Domus prae- tatu fuo leg! & clamari faciat, & pra;- 

ditSae, & omnibus h fingulis tenentibus de didlam Libertatem eis habere permittat, 

eadem Domo, quod eidem Willelmo tan- ficut praedidium eft. T. Rege apud Ken- 

quam Cuftodi Domus prsedidtae & ipforum inton iiij die Julij. CI. i8. H. 3. m. 16. 

Converforum, in omnibus quae ad Cuftodi- (p) Kex omnibus he falutem. Sciacis 

am illam pertinent, intendentes fint & re- quod per finem quem Burgenfes noftri de 

fpondentcs. In cujus &c, T. ut fupr.1. Derbia fecerunt nobifcum, conceffimus eis 

Pat. 10. E. 1. Pars 1. m. 25. pro nobis & hasredibus noftris, quod ipfi 

(0) Rex Vicecomiti Northumberlandize & eorum hseredes imperpetuum habeant 

falutem. Sciatis quod concelUmus & carta banc Libertatem, fcilicet quod nullus Ju- 

iioftra confirmavimus, probis hominibus daeus vel Judsea, per nos vel hasredes nof- 

noftiis de Villa Novi Caftii fuper Tinam tros, aut per alios, de castero maneat aut 

h haeredibus eorum, quod habeant banc commoretur in villa pra:di(Sta. In cujus 

Libertatem, videlicet quod nullus Judaeus &c. T. Rege apud S. Paulum Londoniaj 

de cjEtero, tempore noftro vel hsredum xxj die Maij. Pat^ 45. H. 3. m. 12. 

noftrorum, maneat vel refidenciam aliquam (q) Rex mandat Philippo Lovel & Ju- 

faciat in eadem villa ; Sicut plenius conti- fticiarijs ad Cuftodiam Judaeorum afllgnatis,^ 

netur in Carta Regis quam eis inde fieri fe- quod cum Elyas Epifcopus Judaeus Lon- 

cit. Et mandatum eft eidem Vicecomiti, doniae pro tranfgreflione quam fecit tam 

quod praedidtam Cartam in pleno Comi- Regi quam fratri fuo Regi Alemanniae, a 


Chap. VIL 

of the J E w s. 


In or about the Year 1290 {ay^no 18. £. I.) the growing or re- 
newing Revenue of Judaifin, and the Exchequer of ths Jews, ceafed: 
tlie Je-ias having been- about that Time expelled out of England (r). 
But by the Expulfion of the yews (which was then commonly cal- 
led exiUiim Juiheoriwi) many Efcheats both of Lands and Chattels 
came into the King's Hands (j-) 
on that Head. 

It is not needful for me to enlarge 

facerdotio Communitatis Judreoruni An- 
gliae, coram praedicSis Philippo & Jufticia- 
lijs quos ad tranrgreirionein illam convin- 
cciKiam aflignavit, per judicium eorundem 
ad Scaccarium, fuerit abjuJicatus, & de 
ciufJem faccrdotij officio, ik etiam de om- 
nimodis alijs ofHcijs & ballivis quas a Rege 
optinuit, fit dcpofitus : Rex de eorundem 
Jufticiariorum confilio, conceilit prrtdiiSla; 
Communitati Judjeorum Aiigline, per finem 
trium marcarum auri, quern Crefl'e & Ha- 
ginus frater ejufdem Judaji cum Rege pro 
eadem Communitate fecerunt, quod prae- 
diflius Elyas I'acerdotium illud nunqi^am in 
pofterum habeat & recuperet, & quod de 
cstero nullus facerdos fit de ilia Commu- 
nitate nifi per communem ele£lioiiem Com- 
munitatis ejufdem, & quod ilia Communi- 
tas port decelTum cujuflibet Saccrdotis tali- 
ter cle£li, alium quandocunq; voluerit fa- 
cerdotem eligere iiberam habeat faculta- 
tem, & ipfumRegi praefentandijUt affenfum 
Regis fuper hoc optineat & favorem. Et 
datus eft eis dies ad eligendum facerdotem 
fuum citra feftum S. Petri ad Vincula, 
Trin, Commun. 41. H. 3. Rot. 20. b. 

(>■) Eodem anno [fc, MCCLxxv] con- 
ftitutum eft in Parlamento Londoniae ha- 
bito, inter caetera, quod Judrei pecuniant 
amplius non praeftabunt ad ufuram ; & fi 
aliquod furtum penes eofdem inventum fu- 
erit, fufpendantur ut casteri Latroncs. E. 
Cod. Vet. MS, A. 7, aii titulus, Anndes 
Ecclefia; Auguftini Cantuaria:, in Blbl. Csll. 
Corp. Chrif. Cantab, p. 95. 

IVICCLxxxx, Eje£li funt Judsei ab An- 
glia cum facultatibus fuis ; falvis cartis 
Chriftianorum penes Dominum Rcgem re— 
fidentibus. Ex eod. Cod. MS, A. 7, p. 

(s) Et illam vacuam placeam cum perti- 
nentijs in eadem Civitate [CantuariaeJ quae 
fuit Communitatis Judaorum ejufdem Ci- 
vitatis, and other Tenements there, per exi- 
lium eorundem Judasorum a regno noftro 
tanquam efcaeta noftra in manu noftra 
exiftencia. Thefe things K. Edward I. 
granted to the Priory of Chriftchurch there. 
Tefte 7 Aug. anno regni 19. Regiji. C. 
in Ecclef. Mctrop. Cant. foL xxiiij. a iB b.. 


262 K)f the Receipt Chap. VIIL 


Of the Receipt (p/'Exche q_u e r. 

i. Of Payments in Thefauro. 

II. Of Payments in Camera Curia;. , 

III. Of the Scaccarium Receptae. 

IV. Of Payments in the Wardrobe t the tower of London, and the 
New Temple. 

I. T7^ X C H E QJJ E R, was at firft a general Name, fignifying as 
\j_j well the Place where the King's Revenue was fupervifed 
and managed, as That where it was wont to be paid-in. In the early 
Times, that Part of the Exchequer, where the King's Treafure was 
told, repofited, or iffued, was ufually called Thefaurus. When a 
man paid Money into the Exchequer, it was faid. In Thefauro libe- 
ravit fo much. Which phrafe was conftantly ufed to fignify aftual 
Payments made at the Exchequer; as may be feen in numberlefs 
Inilances : and the fame Phrafe continueth in Ufe at this Day. 
Again ; fometimes when Rolls were delivered into the Exchequer, 
containing Debts to be put in Charge pro Rege, or as Records to be 
repofited there, they were faid to be liberati in Thefauro, delivered 
into the Treafury or Exchequer. Many Inflances hereof may be 
found in thefe Volumes j particularly, as to the Rolls delivered in 
by Sheriffs and Juftices Itinerant. In Procefs of Time, the Receipt of 
Exchequer was ufually called, Inferius Scaccarium, Scaccarium de Re- 
cepta, Recepta Scaccarij y as will hereafter appear. 

II. Although the Exchequer was the great or principal Place, 
at which the King's Money was to be anfwered and paid : yet we 
find that anciently, the King's Money was fometimes paid into the 
Camera Curice or Camera Regis; and was fometimes iffued thence- 
Of this I will give fome Examples ; and then confider, how they 
are, probably, to be underilood. Robert de Montfort paid Lxj to 

J William 

chap. VIII. of E X c H E q_u e r. 


William Malduit, ad Cavieram Curia (a). The Sheriff of Kent paid 
x/. to IVarin Fitz-Gerold, in Camera Curia (b). Simon Fitz-Williani 
paid C and xlvij /. and odd into the Receipt, and xxviij /. to Ralph 
Fitz-Stephen, in Camera Curia (cj. The Bifliop of Durham paid v 
Marks of Gold to the King himfelf in Camera Curire (d). Richard 
Son of Turjlin paid vij /. and xv) d. at the Treafiiry, and x Marks 
to the King himfelf /« Catnera Curia (<?). Payments were made in 
die Camera Curia or Camera Regis, in like Manner j by Ralf Briton 
(f), Gilbert Son of Fergus fgj, Geoffrey le Blund fh), Jurnet the 
Jew (ij- William de St. Mary's Church (k), Hugh de Fokington (I), 
Henry de Oili (m), the Executors of Philipp Bifliop of Durham (njr 
Nevill (0), Robert de Viepont (p), Ralf Ajwi (q), Reginald de Paris 

(a) — Willelmo Maledodlo liberavit ad 
Cameram Curias, Lx s. Mag. Rot. 5. Steph. 
Rot. 14. a. 

(b) Et in Camera Curice, Warino filio 
Geroldi, xl. Mag. Rot. 2. H. 2. Rot. 12. b. 

(c) Simon filius Willelmi r c de CC & 
quater xx & xiiij 1. de Terra Comitis Cef- 
trias : In thefauro C & xlvij 1 & xvj s & ij d 
in iij taleis : Et in Camera Curiae Radulpho 
filio Stephani xxviij 1, per breve Regis. 
Mag. Rot. 5. H. 2. Rot. 9. b. 

(d) Epifcopus Dunelmenfis r c de xj 
marcis auri, pro Pecunia Afchil Brun : In 
Camera Curiae ipfi Regi v marcas auri, 
per breve Ipfius ; Et debet vj marcas auri. 
Mag. Rot. 12- H- 2. Ret. 6. a. Everwuh- 

(e) Idem [Ricardus filius Turflini^ re 
de xxj 1 & XV s & iiij d, de Auxilio Civita- 
tis Wintoniae ad maritandam filiam Regis, 
In thefauro vijl & xvj d; Et in Camera 
Curias ipfi Regi x marcas, per breve Regis ; 
quas Ricardus Fufor debebat. Mag, Rot. 
15. H. 2. Rot. 11. a. H.intefcira. 

(f) — In Camera Curias CCC & xiij 1 
h vij s, per breve Rf gis. Mag. Rot. ij. H. 
2. Rot. 8. b. tit. Honor Boloiiije. 

(g) Gillebertus filius Fergufi r c de M 1, 
Pro habenda Benevolentia Regis : In Ca- 
mera Curiae quater xxl & xj s, per manum 
Roberfi de Vallibus, Et debet DCCCC k 
xixl & ixs. Mag. Rot. 25. H. 2. Ret. 3. 
b. Cumberland. 

(b) Gaufridus le Blund r c de j marca 

auri ; In Camera Curise liberavit, per 

breve Regis. lb. Rot. 10. b. 

(i) In Camera Regis, Turpino de Ca- 
mera, CC & xl ], per breve Regis. Mag. 
Rot. 27. H. 2. Rot. ult. b. 

[k) Willelmus de Sandtae Mariae Eccle- 
fia re deL marcis, pro habenda cuftodia — ; 
In Camera fua L marcas, per breve Regis. 
Mag. Rot. 6. R. I. Rot. 6. b. 

(I) Hugo de Fokinton & Egelina uxor 
ejus debent CC libras, unde ipfe ftatim de- 
bet pacare in Camera Regis L libras. Mag. 
Rot. 5. J. Rot. 15. b. 

[m] Et ipfi Regi in Camera fua L mar- 
cas, per breve Regis. Mag. Rot. 10. 'J. 
Rot. 16. b.. 

(«) Et ipfi Regi in Camera fua CC & 
xij 1 & xiij s & iiij d, per breve Regis, fb. 
Rot. 7. b. 

(«) Rex omnibus &c, Sciatis quod rece- 
pimus in Camera noftra de Hugone de 
Nevill de Thefauro noflro Merlebergiae 
quingentas marcas. Et ut idem Hugo de 
prsedidlis quingentis marcis fit quietus, ei 
inde has Litteras noftras Patentes fieri feti- 
mus. ipfo apud Wintoniam, ix die 
Junij anno r n x°. Per Ricardum de Ma- 
rifco. Pat. 10. y. m. 5. fcf ib. m. 2. 

(/)) Et ipfi Regi in Camera fua M mar- 
cas. Mag. Rot. 10. J. Rot. 10. a. in 

{q) Et ipfi Regi in Camera fua, D mar- 
cas, per breve Regis, Et (^Hiietus eft. Mcg^ 
R.ot. 12. 7. Rot. li. b. 

264 Of the Receipt Chap. Vllf. 

(r), 'John Birk'in fsj, CoHnus dc Breatitee ft), and others. So alfo, 
the Sheriff' of Doijk and Somcrfct received Money de Camera Regis 
{uj. Next, let us enquire, what was, probably, meant by the 
Camera Curice or Regis. By it may be meant, in thele Inftances, 
either the King's Court and Palace, or his Treafury. We have ob- 
ferved before in another Place (w), that Camera has been fomctimes 
ufed in much the fame Senfe with Palatimn or Curia Regis. In that 
Senfe it is ufed by- WiiUam of Mahnejbiiry, who fays, that the Bi- 
fliop of SaUJbury was arrefted iji Camera Curia:, in the King's Court 
or Palace, and the Bilhop of Lincohi in his own Hoftel [x). And 
even in the modern Ages, Camera hath been fometimes ufed to fig- 
nify one's Houl'e (y). Again, by Camera was fometimes meant a 
Treafury, ccrarium, or tbefauraria : from whence the Officers called 
Camerar'ij, who dealt in Revenue, had their Name ; as it hath been 
obferved by Sir H. Spelman (s) ; and may be confirmed feveral other 
Ways. The Queftion then may be, Whether by Camera Curice and 
Regis in thefe Inllances, was meant, the King's Treafury, and that 
Part of the Exchequer which was afterwards, in the Reign of K. 
Hem-yWl. and downwards, called the Receipt : or whether by it was 
meant the King's Palace or Court. Perhaps, it may be thought 
that by this Phrafe Camera Curice, the Receipt of Exchequer may 
be meant ; becaufe in fome of the Inftances juft above cited, the 
money mentioned to be paid in Camera Curice or Regis was paid to 
the King's Chamberlains, who had in Part the Care of the King's 
IVIoney at the Receipt : for William Maiiduit and Ralf Fitz-Stephe?i 
were refpedlively Chamberlains (a) ; and I think, Turpin de Camera 
abovenamed {b) was alfo one of the King's Chamberlains. But upon 
the whole Matter, I prefume, we fliall judge moft rightly, if we 

(r) quas X marcas pacavit in Ca- quas recepit de Camera Regis. Mag.Rot. 

inera Regis in Normannia. Mag. Rot. 5. 6, 'J. Rot. 14, bis, b. 
J. Rot. I. a. {w) Cap. 4. SiSf. 2. 

[s] Johannes Birkin re de CCC marcis, (x) — de indignatione captionis Epifco- 

pro Relevio fuo de terris Matillidis de porum, quorum Salefbericnfis in Camera 

Kauz, Si pro habenda fimiliter cuftodia fo- Curis, Lindecolnienfis in diverforio fuo in- 

reftarum Notingamix & Derebire: InThe- tercepti effent. Malm. Hiji. Nov. L. 2. />. 

lauro nichi!, Et ipfi Regi in Camera fua i2i2. n, 10. fuh Ann. 1139. 
apud Bedeford, L marcas, per breve Regis. (y) Dicit fe educalTe quandam avem 

Mag. Rot. 8. H. 3. Rot. j6. b. Not. i^ quas vulgo dicitur Eftourneau, per ofto & 

Dcreb. novem menfes in domo, qux ibat & redi- 

(i) Et ipfi Regi in Camera fua, xl bat per Cameram fuam. Chaffcn. Comment, 

ir.arcas, per breve Regis. Mag. Rot. 8. H. in Conflict. Due. Burgunil. col. 1445. 
3. Rg*. 12. a. Norf. 6" Suff. (z) Glojf. in Voce, Camera. 

^u) Idem Vicecomes re de C marcis, [a] P-aulo pipra. 

\b) Pcndojupra. 

2 take 

chap. VIII. of E X c n E q^u e r 265 

take the Camera Curice here for the King's Court or Palace. For firfl-, 
Ibnie of the Payments in Camera abovecited being made to the King 
himfelf: it feemelh moil natural to fuppofe, they were made in his 
Palace or Court ; efpecially confidering that the Payment in thofe 
Cafes is certified to the Barons per Breve Regis ; which was accord- 
ing to the Courfe of certifying Things done at the King's Palace; 
whereas the ufual Courfe of getting a Payment which had been 
made at the Receipt, to be allowed at the Exchequer, was by pro- 
ducing a Tally before the Barons. Secondly, it is oblervable, that 
in fome of the Inftances abovecited, the Camera Curies is exprelsly 
diftinguidied from the T'hefaunis or Treafury : as where it is faid (f), 
that Richard Son of Turjlin paid fo much in Thejauro and fo much /;/ 
Camera Ciirice. Thirdly, we find Revenue was fometunes anfwered 
in Camera Regis, as a Place diftindt from the Exchequer or Receipt, 
even long after the Times wherein there is frequent mention made 
of the Recepta and Scaccariian de Recepta. As in the Reign of K. 
Edward II, in the Cafe of Geoffrey de Wejion : who paid Money in 
Camera Regis, and had received two Tallies teftifying his Payment : 
but thofe Tallies being loft, he vouched the Countertallies ; which 
were produced in the Exchequer by the Clerk of the King's Cham- 
ber (^dj : and in the Cafe of Richard Sqiiier ; who rendered an Ac- 
compt and fully anfwered in the King's Chamber, the IfTues of a 
Manor committed to him by Privy Seal (e) : and in the Cafe of the 
Perfons who had the Cuflody of certain Lands forfeited or efcheated 
to the Crown -, who anfwered the IfiTues thereof in the King's 

{c) Paulo f up. " eo receptis Londonia primo die Maij 

\d) Wiltef. Audito Compoto Gnlfridi de " anno quarto pro exitibus Manerij de 

Wefton, de exitibus terrarum & tenemen- " Cheryton de anno tertio, cent, viij 1 ;" 

torum quae fuerant Templariorum in Villa & fuperfcriptio alterius eft, " Contra Ga!- 

de Chyryton in Comitatu Wiltefis, a fefto " fridum de Wefton de denarijs ab eo re- 

Pafchs anno fecundo, ufque xxviij diem " ceptis Londonis, primo die Maij anno 

Novembris anno vij°, quo die liberavit eaf- " quarto, de exitibus Manefij de Cheryton 

dem terras &: tenementa Hofpitalarijs, de- " eodem anno, contin. viij 1." Etdidlumcft 

bet xvj 1 ; Set dicit fe folvifle in Camera ei quod fequatur de allocatione habenda 

Regis Rogero de Wyngefeld clerico, per jnde &c. Paf. Jhius o" vlftis comp. 9. E. 

praeceptum ipfius Regis, xvj 1 j unde dicit 2. Rot. 143. a. 

fe habuifle duas Tallias de liberatione quas — (e) & noftre bien amez Ricliard 

amifit ut dicit ; Set vocat inde Recordum Squier, qi en avoit la garde par commifllon 

Memor. Camerae Regis : Et Ricardus de de noftre Prive Seal, nous ad rendu/, a- 

Lufteftiull nunc clericus Camerae Regis counte & pleinement refponduz en noftre 

praefens hie, oftendit duas contratallias, Chaumbre, des iffiies de mcifme le Manoir 

quarum fuperfcriptio unius eft, " Contra du dit an — . Mich. Bnvia 12. £. 2. R^^t. 

»' Galfridum de Wefton, de denarijs ab 65. a. 

Vol. I. M m Chamber 

566 Of the Receipt Chap. VIII. 

Chamber (f), Befidcs ; it appeareth, that anciently there were cer- 
tain Clerks belonging to the King's Chamber, who were flyled Cle- 
rici de Camera fgj : and that there was then alfo a Treafure or 
Treafury called 'TAe/aurus Camerce (h). So that upon the Matter, it 
is likely the Payment m Camera was a more private and unfolemn 
Payment than That which was made at the Receipt of Exchequer, and 
dilFerent from it. And according to this Conftruftion, a Payment de 
Camera is fomctimes ufed, as it feems, to fignify a Payment, out of a 
Man's private Purfe, in Diftindlion from a Payment to be made out of 
Land or a like vifible Fund, So, William de Braiofa granted to Oliver 
de'Traci 'ii.s.l. Sterling, to be received yt2ix\y oi William and his Heirs, 
de Camera fiia, during the Life of Oliver and no longer (/). And 
Richard de Standford, by his Deed, granted to Simoji de Chelefcld a 
Penfion of half a Mark, payable de Camera fiia {k), 

in. During the fecond Period, the Receipt was fometlmes called 
Scaccarium Receptee or de Recepta fij, Recepta Scaccarij (m), and hi- 
ferius Scaccarium (n). In the 5th Year of K. Edward II, Walter de 
Langeto'n Biihop of Coventry and LichJieldTYtzinvtv and the Barons, fit- 
ting at the Receipt to take the Profers of Accomptants in the Utas 
of Eafter, feveral great Men came thither, and with Threats enjoined 

(f) Rex Thefaurario & Baronibus fuis 
de Scaccario falutcm. Cum mandaverimus 
Cuftodibus terrarum & tenementorum quas 
fuerunt inimicorum& rebellium noftrorum, 
5; aliorum, in diverfis Comitatibus Regni 
Roflri in manu noftra exiftencium, quod 
ipfi de exitibus aliquorum terrarum & tene- 
mentorum pra;di£torum, de quibus ha£te- 
ni:s nobis refponfum fuit in Cameram nof- 
tram, ex nunc nobis refponderi faciant ad 

Scaccarium noftrum . T. me ipfo 

apud Ebor. xxiiij die Julij anno rn xvj. 
T'rin. Bi-evia 15, E. 2. Rot. 63. a. 

(g) Et pro una Navi ad opus Philippi 
Cierici de Camera & fociorum ejus, L s, 
per breve Regis. Mug. Rat. i Ric. i. Rot. 
12. h. Hantonia. 

(I?) Et pro thefauro Cameras Regis car- 
riando ufq; Sudhantonam, C s, per idem 
breve [fc. Regis]. 3. Rot. 13. a. Sw- 

This may perhaps anfwer to, or refemhle that 
which at this day is called the Privy Purfe. 

(i) Form, Anglic, p. 75. nu, CXL, ad ann. 
7. R. I. 

[k) Idem [Ricardus de Stanford] venit 
coram Baronibus, & recognovit quod re- 
mittit Simoni de Chelefeld feniori in perpe- 
tuum, Penfionem quam ei debebat de Ca- 
mera fua per fcriptum fuum, videlicet di- 
midiam marcam, cum omnibus arreragijs 
di£tae Penfionis ; Et fi aliquod fcriptum 
penes ipfum Ricardum vel fuos de prasdiiSla 
Penfione inveniatur, pro nullo habeatur. 
Paf. Recognitiones g. ^ 10. E. i. Rot. 
10. b. 

(/) Pro S. Comite Leyceftrias. Memo- 
randum quod XXV die Octobris anno xP, 
fcrutatis Rotulis de Scaccario Receptas Do- 
mini P.egis, fuit inventum quod in Ter- 
mino S. Michaelis anno &c — . Mich. 
Memor. 40 isf 41. H. 3. Rot. 3. b. 

(m) — per breve de Private figillo refi- 
dens ad Receptam Scaccarij inter brevia de 
Mandamus de Termino Pafchas difto anno 
nono. Paf. Brevia Irretornab. 9. E. 2. Rot. 
162. a. 

(n) Dialog. L, I. cap, 2. Non efl enim j 
Uf alibi pajfim. 


Chnp. VIII. 



the Bifliop not to a^fl any longer in the Treailirer'.s Office. TJie 
Barons thereupon certified the King of the whole Matter at large, 
and prayed the King to let them know his Pleafure therein. The 
whole Proceeding in this Cafe appears in the Record hereunder 
cited ((?). 

IV. It is to be underftood, that the King had fevcral Treafuries. 
For though the Receipt of Exchequer was the principal Place where 
his Trealure was to be paid in : yet it was fometimes paid and re- 
pofited (at leaft for the prefent) in fome other Places : for Inftancc, 
in the King's Wardrobe, in the Tower of Lo?idon, and in the New 
'Temple at London. Many Payments were made at the King's Ward- 
robe. T'he Men of the Town of Southampton paid C/. Part of 
their Tallage into the King's Wardrobe, and had Allowance thereof 

- made 

(0) Anglia. Die Lunae modo in craf- 
tino Claufi Pafchas fupervenerunt fuper 
profFrum V'icecomitum ballivorum & alio- 
rum in pleno Scaccaiio, Adomarus de Va- 
lencia Comes Pembrochiae, Humfridus de 
Bohun Comes Heiefordiae, J. Botetourt 
Miles, & alij in comitiva eorum, minantes 
W. de Langeton Coventrenfi & I/ich. E- 
pifcopo Thefaiirario, fi amplius fe intro- 
mitterit de OfEcio Thefaurarij. Super 
quo Barones Scaccarii certificarunt Regi 
in forma quas fu'ofcquitur. Sire yce Lundij 
lendemeyn des oytaves de Pafqes, Lefvffq; 
de Ceftre vynt par matyn a Weftmonfteir 
a voftre Efcheqier de la Refceite, & aflem- 
bla alij nous & les Chaumberleyns & les 
autres de Lcfcheqier, & mouftra Commif- 
fion de voftre Grant Seal, par la quele vous 
lui aviez commys loffice de Treforier, & 
fafift ove nous & ove les autres de Lefche- 
qier, a refcevire le profFre des Vifcontes 
& des BaiilifFs ; & devers la fyn du proftVe 
vyndrent devant nous les Countes de Pen- 
brok, de Hereford, & Monfieur Johan Bu- 
tetourt, & plufors autres, & meifme celi Sire 
Johan Oyauntz Vifcontes, Baillifs, & autres 
gentz, qe feurent venues pur le dit proftVe, 
dift qe les avantditz deux Countes & li y 
\'vndrcnt depar Lercevcfq;, Evefqcs, & au- 
tres Prclatz, ii. Countes & Barons, & dcpar 
toute la Communalte du Roiaunie, & re- 
hercea cement vous meifmes nadgaircs gran- 


taftes as certeines gentz poiar a ordenier fur 
leftat de voftre Roiaume, & les Ordenances 
qe celes gentz avoient faites aviez acceptez 
& fait publier ce 2 yceles fermement garder 
& tenir auflibien Prelatz come Countes & 
Barons & autres furent fermentcz ; & de- 
manda del dit Evefq; de Ceftre fil euft fait 
le ferment en meifme la manere ; & Lef- 
vefq; dit qe oyl ; & donq; dit meifme celi 
Monfieur Johan depar la dite Communaftre, 
qe Levefq; feuft parjurs, defi come il fift la 
fefant office de Treforier contre les dites 
ordenances, qe velent qe Treforier foit 
fait par affent du Barnage, & ce en Parle- 
ment ; & a ce li dift qe hom li tient ahers 
as enemys du Roiaume, & quil fen ouftaft, 
& mes ne fe entremeift de eel Office ; par 
quel pys ne li avenift. Et meifmes cet lui 
rehercerent les ditz Contes de Penbrok & 
de Hereford, & difeint plus outre h char- 
gerent les Chaumberleyns de voftre dit Ef- 
cheqier, qe eux ficome 11 fe voufiflent 
garder fanz damage ne livraflent nuls de- 
ners ne autre Trefor del voftre a nul hom- 
me, par qui ils dcvenifl'ent a les moyns Lc- 
jiemy du Roiaume. Et meifmes les Coun- 
tes apres ce difoient, qe lour entencion ne 
feuft mye ne lour volunte, qe voz bu- 
foignes de la place fe delaiafient tn nul 
poynt, eijiz fe preiifent a voftre profit & a 
deliverance du pueple par tout en due ma- 
nere. Et ceftes chofcs dites, ils difoient a 
m ■?. dieux 


Of the R E c E IP T 

Chap. VIIT. 

made to them at the Exchequer by Writ of Allocate (p). The Men 
of Navcnjhy paid Part of their Tallage into the Wardrobe, and had 
AJIowance in like Manner (q). William de Hakford paid into the 
Wardrobe a certain Fine for a Charter of Waranty (r). The Prior 
of Wot ton paid into the Wardrobe, his Aid for the King's Voyage 
into Gafcoigne {/). The Sheriff of Cumberland paid his Prefer into 
the King's Wardrobe (/), and fo did Roger de Lancajier Sheriff of 
Lancajim-e (u). The Men of Gedingtoji paid into the Wardrobe, by 


dieirx homines qi eftoient illoeqcs ovefqes 
eux dcvant nous, Vous Tabellions tef- 
moignez les chofcs qe vous avez ci 
oy & les mettcz en inftrument publik ; 
& enfi. Sire, fen departirent. £t len- 
demeyne venifmes nous a Lefcheqier, & 
come nous feuffoms entrez en voftre Petit 
Efcheqier por confeiller fur voz bufoignes 
les deux Countes & le dit Monfieur Johan 
y vyndrent & rehercerent en partie ce quil 
avient dit le jour devaunt, & quant a ce 
quils avient avant dit qe voftre Trefor ne 
foit livrez a tie) par quoi ii peuffe deveniren 
meyn del enemy du Roiaume, ils difoient 
que ce eft a entendre qe nulle livree ne fe 
face a Sire Ingelard de Warlee, ne au autre 
qe vous meifmes a la requefle des ditz or- 
denours faiftes ouftier des offices quil tyn- 
drent & dentour vous. Eftre ce. Sire, le 
dit Lundy vynt devant nous Sire Johan de 
Sandale nadgaires voftre Treforier, & fe- 
foit une demonftrance qe il feuft faitenten- 
dant a vous qil feuft mort, & qe vous par- 
tant avjez fait prendre en voftre meyn fes 
terres h fes chateux, & fe dit eftre preft da- 
conter, & de gre faire fi rien vous dei\e, & 
pria deliverance de fes terres & fes chateux, 
de quoi nous lui deifmes qe rien ne poioms 
faire, pour ce qe nous ne faivens mye la 
eaufe del feifr, fur ceftes chofes avant dites 
pleife a voftre Seignorie commander vos vo- 
hintez. Sire, noftre Seignour vous doint 
bone vie h lunge, & encreffe voz honurs. 
Efcrit a Weftmonfter le iiij jour de Averil. 
Paf. Coinmun. 5. E. 2. Rot. 45. a. 

JVhat anfiuer the King returned to this Cer- 
iificaie, the Record here cited doth not mention. 
But there is a clofe Writ, direSied to the /aid 
Bijh-)p the Treafwer, printed by Ryley, viz. in 
append, ad Plac. Pari p. 531, which, as one 
tniy gwfs, contains the King's anfwer. For 
the Certificate is dated 4 Jj>rilis, and this 

TViit bears Tejle at Newrajlle upon Tine 1 3 y/- 
prilis 5. E. 2. In it the King fays, he much 
winders the Trecifurer Jhould omit doing the 
hufinejs of the Exchequer for the threats or al- 
legations of any men : andJlriSily charges him . 
to execute bis offce, according to the tenour of 
his Commijfton. 

(p) Baronibus. Allocate probis homini- 
bus noftris Suthamfoniae in Tallagio CCC 
marcarum, CI, quas liberaverunt in Gar- 
deroba noftra perpraeceptumnoftrum, Wil- 
lelmo Hardel Clerico ejufdem Garderobae, 
apud Clarendon die A'lartis proxima poftna- 
tivitatem B. Johannis Baptiftas anno r n 
XXX ; Breve eft in forulo Marefcalli & man- 
datum eft Vicecomiti. Miclj. Communia ^l- 
Hen. 3. Rot. 1. b. 

(q) Rex Baronibus. Allocate probis ho- 
minibus noftris de Naveneftjy, in Tallagio 
luo quinq; marcarum, duas marcas & dimi- 
diam, quas liberaverunt in Garderoba nof- 
tra per prafceptum noftrum, Willelmo 
Hardel Clerico ejufdem Warderobie, a- 
pud Wintoniam, die Lunas proxima poft Apoftolorum Petri & Pauli anno 
r n xxx° Breve eft in forulo Marefcalli & 
Mandatum eft Vicecomiti. Mich . Communia 
31. Hen. 3. Rot. 2. a. 

(?•) Willelmus de Hakford folvit in Gar- 
deroba Regis prasdicTto Arcaido [de SancSo 
Romano] Lijs fterlingorum pro xxvj Bifan- 
tijs auri, pro Carta de Warantia habenda; & 
quietus eft. Orig. 40. H. 3. m. 4. 

(j) Mandatum eft Vicecomiti VVarewich, 
quod de demanda v marcarum quam facit 
Priori de Wotton, de Promiflb ad ultimam 
transfretationem Regis in Wafconiam, quas 
idem Prior folvit in Garderoba, pacem ha- 
bere permittat. Memor. 42. H. 3. Rot. 4. b. 

(t) Memor. 51. H. 3. Rot. 2. b. 

(u) qui folvit in Garderoba Regis 

Chap. Vlir. 



the King's Command, the Ferm of their Town (iv). Giles de Goujle 
paid into the Wardrobe xx Marks, for a Fine to be admitted to 
his Purgation {x). The Weavers of Oxford, by the King's Com- 
mand, paid into the Wardrobe their yearly Rent due for their Gild 
and other Liberties (y). The Taxors and Colledlors of the Vintifme 
and Qiiinzime for Hcrefordjhire and other Counties, were command- 
ed to pay the fame into the King's Wardrobe ; and upon producing 
Letters of Acquittance from the Keeper of the Wardrobe, were to 
be allowed the fame at the Exchequer (z). Again ; the King's Mo- 
jiey was fometimes paid-in at the Tower of London; to be kept 
there (as it feems) till further Order. The Colleiflors of the ^la- 
dragefiina for the Counties of Oxford, Berk, and Surrey, paid the 
fame by the King's Command to tiie C