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H I S T O 








Freebridge Lynn, Freebridge Marfh- 
land, and Callow. 

Pro me: fimerear, in me. 







O F 


FREEBRIDGE Hundred and Half. 

that grand national record made by the 
Conqueror, and called by him Doomfday 
Book, this hundred and half was wrote 
Frednebruge, or Fredebruge, and compre- 
hends what is now called Freebridge Lynn hundred, 
and Freebridge Maiihland half hundred. It is fup- 
pofed to have taken its name from the Bridge crofs 
the river Oufe at St. German's, which was at that 
time, according to Dugdale, but 12 perches, or 198 
feet over. 

As frequent reference is made to Doomfday book 
in this Hiflory, it may not be improper to give a 
fhort defcription of it, 

A William 



William the Conqueror, foon after his coronation 
at Weftminfter, December 26, ic66, ordered a ge- 
neral furvey to be taken of all the lands in the king- 
dom ; their extent in each hundred or diflricl ; their 
proprietors, tenures, and value ; the quantity of mea- 
dow, pafture, wood, and arable land, which they 
contained ; and, in fome counties, the number of 
tenants, cottagers, and vaffals of all denominations 
who lived upon them. He appointed commiffioners 
for this purpofe, who entered every particular in their 
regifler " by the verdict of juries ;" and after a labor 
of many years, they brought him, in 1085, an exact 
account of all the landed property in the kingdom. 
This monument, called DOOMSDAY BOOK, the 
moft valuable piece of antiquity pofleiTed by any na- 
tion, is flill prelerved in the Exchequer. 

William the Conqueror, with a few exceptions 
only, gave to his Norman followers all the lands and 
eflates of the Saxons throughout the realm, and par- 
ticularly in this county of Norfolk, thus difpofed of 
the principal manors : 

To Hugh de Abrancis - .12 manors 
Odo, bifhop of Eayeux , f >-: 22 

Alan Rufus - 81 

Walter Giffard - 28 

Ralph Waker 9 

William, earl of Warren 139 lordfliipj 

Cado de Rye - 9 manors 

William de Albini, pincema 4 manors 

Humphry de Bohun i manor 

Ralph de Limefi - i manor 

Peter de Valoincs - 20 lordfliips 

Ralph de Baynard. 3*0. 44 manors 

Ralph de Tony 1 9 lordfliips 



William the Conqueror gave the lordfliip of Brooke, 
in the hundred of Loddon, to the abbey of Bury St. 
Edmund's, when he firfl fupplicated that faint's favor 
and protection, falling proftrate before him, and 
placing a fmall knife, wrapped up, on the altar, in 
the prefence of many of his chief nobility. 

Odo, bifhop of Bayeux, in Normandy, and earl 
of Kent, had a grant of this hundred, as alfo of 
Smithdon, of his half-brother, the Conqueror, in 
1066; but it was afterwards taken from him, and 
given to William de Albini, the king's butler, whofe 
heirs male enjoyed it till the year 1 242, when the 
lord Tatefliale, in right of his wife, Mabel, eldeft 
daughter of Hugh de Albini, the laft earl of Suffex 
and Arundel, held it by fervice, of being in like 
manner king's butler. 

By marriage it came to fir Ofbert de Gaily, and 
from his heirs to fir Roger Clinton, in whofe family 
it remained till the i6th of March, 1465, when 
Robert Clifton, efq. of Denver in Clackclofe hun- 
dred, let it by deed to Thomas Playters, efq. 

Thomas Grey, marquis of Dorfet, conveyed it to 
Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, in the reign of 
Henry VIII. on whofe death it was granted to lady 
Anne of Cleves, fourth wife of. that libidinous mo- 
narch, from whom fhe was divorced July 10, 134* 

It was held in the crown in the reign of queen 
Elizabeth, and Richard Hovell, efq. had a grant of 
it, with the courts, leets, fines, rents, Sec. from 
James I. June 15, 1612. 

The hundred court was anciently held at Flitcham- 

burgh, then called Flieceham-burgh, at which place 

there is a remarkable hill or tumulus, f unrounded 

A 2 with 


with a ditch in the form of a fquare, where it is 
faid, the bufmefs of this hundred-court was done. 

The cuftom of holding courts on a hill, under a 
tree, or in a booth creeled pro tempore, feems to 
have been firft eftablifhed by the Saxons in England, 
and from them continued down to the laft century. 
Juftices in Eyre (jufticiarie itinerantes, or errantes) 
were inftituted, according to Camden, in the reign 
of Henry II. whofe bufmefs it was to decide fuch. 
caufes as were too high for the county courts, for 
which purpofe they were fe'nt by commimon into 
the different counties. Juftices of the foreft fat to 
determine offences committed in the king's foreft, 
and their court was called " The juftice feat of the 

The hundred-court ,was afterwards held under an 
oak tree at Gay wood near Lynn, and till about the 
year 1710, was alfo held at a tree called Fitton-oak, 
in the manor of Fitton and parifh of Wiggenhall St. 
German's, Thomas Howard, eighth duke of Nor- 
folk, being then lord. 

Freebridge hundred and half is fituated at the 
weftem extremity oi the county of Norfolk; is 
bounded by Lynn channel and the wafh on the 
north-weft, by part of Lincolnfhire and Cambridge 
on the weft, by the hundreds of Clackclofe and 
South Greenhoe on the fouth, has Launditch and 
Gallow hundreds on the eaft, and Smithdon on the 
north. The extent from Maffingham on the eaft to 
Wifbech river ori the weft, may be about 22 miles ; 
and^ the breadth, from Pentney-abbey to Darfmg- 
Jiam, ui. 

The whole of this hundred and half conftitutes 
tfce deanery of Lynn ; is in the archdeaconry and 



diocefe of Norwich, excepting Emneth, which be- 
longs to the bifhoprick of Ely, and contains 49 pa- 
r-idles . 

The number of freeholders in the hundred and 
half of Freebridge, that polled at the great contefted 
election at Norwich, May 23, 1768, between fir 
Armine Wodehoufe, bart. of Kimberley, and Tho- 
mas de Grey, efq. of Merton, and fir Edward Aftley, 
bart. of Melton-Conftable, and Wenman Coke, efq, 
of Holkham, were as follows : 









Afhwicken >,.'' 



Bilney, Weft $$$,$ 





Caftlc-Acre -i;>! 

2 l 



1 1 






Congham ' - 










Flitch am V 




Gayton 4i ' 


























Lynn-Regis - ; "I 



J5 1 


Maffingham, Gr. &; Little 









3 - 

Newton, Weft 















Run&on, North 





















Walton; Eaft 




Weft-Acre - - 2 




Winch, Eaft and Weft i 




Wooton, North Sc South 3 









Clenchwarton o 



Emneth - 1 5 




Iflington - o 




Lynn, Weft o 



Terrington, St. Clement ) 
and St. John J * 




Tilney All Saints and St. ) 



Lawrence $ 

Walpole St. Andrew and ) 
St. Peter ] 9 




Walfoken 5 




Walton, Weft I 4 



Wiggenhall St. German, "J 

St. Mary, $c St. Marv > 3 




Magdalen ' 3 





Total hundred and half 159 


2 57 


Seats, and noted Houfes, in FREEBRIDGE Hundred 
and Half. 

Anmer, James Coldham, efq. 
Belmount. iir James Johnftone, bart. 
Bilney lodge, Francis Dalton, efq. 
Emneth, or Haekbcch hall, fir Henry Peyton, bart. 




Emneth, Flewer Oxborough, efq. 
Killington hall, fir Martin Browne Folkes, bart. 
Hillington, Mr. John Rofe. 
Iflington, Thomas Dixon, efq. 

Pentney, Lloyd, elq. 

Run&on, North, Robert Cony, efq. 

Sandringham, Mrs. Henley. 

St. German's, Rev. John Towers Allen. 

Walpolc, Robert Cony, efq. 

Walpole, James Townfend, efq. alderman of London. 

Walpole Eaft-Drove, Mr. Wright, of London. 

Ditto Weft-Drove, Mr. Falconar. 

Weft-Acre, Richard Hamond, efq. 

To defcribe the fituation and natural hiftory of 
this, by much the largeft diftricl in the county, with 
that perfpicuity which is necelFary in a work of this 
kind, we will confine our obfervations feparately to 
Freebridgc Lynn hundred, and Freebridge Marili- 
land half hundred. 

Freebridge Lynn, or Freebridge with Lynn, is a 
tracl of country, the features of which are varioufly 
marked with many gentle rifmg eminences, a pro- 
portionate fhare of champaign and fertile lands, and, 
a lefs valuable part of heath and warren grounds. 
For a more particular eftimation of the foil, culture, 
and price of labor in this part of the county, we re- 
fer our readers to the quotation from Mr. Arthur 
Young's " Farmers Tour," given in pages 103, 104, 
8cc. of Smithdon hundred 

Befides the Oufe, there are feveral rivulets of lefs 
note, which " trickle down the cheeks of this ruftic 
vale," and influx themfelves with the fea at or near 
Lynn. A fmall brook rifcs, and palfes into the 
Lynn channel in Dai fingham parifli : By Flitcham, 
Hillington, Caftle-Rifing, and Babingly, a confide- 



rable ftream runs into the fame channel near Wol- 
ferton. This river is faid to have been navigable 
for large veflels up to Caftle-Rifing, and fir H. Spel- 
man calls it " a famous port/' Another rivulet 
rifes in the village of Grimftone, and meandering 
by Leziate, Bawfey, South Wooton, and Gaywood, 
pafles into the Oufe river clofe to the town of Lynn. 
The river Nar, by fome called the Setch, Sandring- 
ham, and Lynn flu, fprings out of the bowels of 
Launditch hundred, and running by Caflle-Acre, 
Pentney, Setch, &c. throws its contents into the 
Oufe at Lynn;'" as does alfo a tributary ftream, 
which flows from the parifh of Gavtonthorp, wind- 
ing its courfe through Middlcton, Mintlyn, &c. 

This hundred, as well as Smithdon, is delightfully 
fituated on the verge of the Lynn channel, forming, 
with the coaft of Lincolnfhire, the appearance of an 
amphitheatre round thewafh, or bay, called META- 
RIS ^ESTUARIUM. The country from the fliore 
rifes gradually to the confines of the hundred, and 
the profpecl each way is very extenfive, and beauti- 
fully diverfificd : churches, ieats, woods, hills, and 
other pleafing objects, fucceed each other in the ratio 
of landfcape ; and when contrafted with the (hip- 
ping paffing, in oppofitc courfes, and at various dif- 
tances from the eye, muft imprefs the beholder with 
an exalted idea of the divine wifdom in the formation 
of nature, and of the inftruclion and power given us 
to improve. 

" Go, wond'rous creature ! mount where fcience 

" guides, 

Go, meafurc earth, _weigh air, and flate the 
" tides." Pope's Effay on Man. 


* The courfe of the Nar, as well as of moft other river* in the county, 
are erroneoufly laid down in Corbridge's i arge m^ of w hich, his lead- 
ing this river into the Oufe afyve St. German's bridge is an inftance. 


The navigation of Lynn channel is rendered ex- 
tremclv difficult and perilous, on account of the 
continual fhifting of the fands in the mouth of the 
harbour, which has proved fatal to many veflels and 
mariners t. This evil, it is affirmed, has been oc- 
cafioned by the ereclion of Denver fluke in 1651, 
on the river, 1 7 miles above Lynn, above which 
fluice the tide formerly flowed about 20 miles : thus 
the flood-tide being checked in its lunar courfe, and 
the ebb-tide oppofed by the remaining flow, without 
the affiftance of the frefh waters in their natural 
courfe, the force of the tides are languid, and, of 
confequence, the channel not being fcoured by the 
regular influx and reflux of the fea, the fands be- 
come lefs durable, and the navigation lefs certain. 
The bed charts and maritime furveys that have been 
made, are totally ufelefs at prefent ; the eaftern chan- 
nel, now chpaked up, was formerly a fafe and well- 
known paffage, but at prefent veffels are' navigated 
through the weflern. Notwithflanding the difficulty 
and danger of this navigation, the imports to Lynn 
arc immcnfe ; from which port, and the river Oufe, 
the inland communication with the counties of Nor- 
folk, Suffolk, Cambyidge, Huntingdon, Bedford and 
Northampton, conveys fait, coal, wine, fifh, timber, 
B ftone, 

f Great numbers of fhips have been loft in attempting to run into Lynn 
or Bolion ; particularly in the year 1696, when near two hundred fail of 
colliers and coafters, being too far embayed to weatheY Winterton-nefs, 
flood away for Lynn Deeps ; but, miffing their way in the night, they 
were all diiven on ihore, daflied to pieces, and near a thoufand peifons 

At Two o'clock on Sunday morning, Auguft 31, 1 7 77, tbe brig*, Geojge 
and Mar>, Andrews, with coals, from Newcaftle to Lynn, and lying ac 
anchor in the channel, was drove on the find called Pinque-way. On a 
fignal from the (hip in the forenoon, the mafter and two men, who had 
been on (hore all night, in attempting to return to the relief of thofe on 
board, in crofting the fands on foot, were furrounded by the tide, and all 
three unhunpily perifhed. The crew faved themfelves in the boar, but the 
veffei went to pieces. 


flone, and other neceffaries ; and the exports from 
Lynn are chiefly of fuch commodities as arc brought 
down from thofe counties by water. Its foreign trade 
is very confiderable, efpecially with Holland, Nor- 
way, the Baltic, Spain, and Portugal, and is thought 
to import more wine than any other town in England, 
London exceptcd.- 

This hundred abounds with the fame variety of 
foil and natural productions, for which the county, 
in toto, is fo eminently noted : com, cattle, wool, 
and rabbits, are the ftaple. The higher grounds, 
with fome few exceptions, are of a light fand or gra- 
vel ; the lower grounds and lands near the villages, 
fertile . and well inclofed, and thofe which are under 
the neceffity of drainage, are of a flat filty rich paf- 
ture, extremely well adapted for fattening neat cattle 
and fheep. 

The air is healthy and pleafant towards the inland 
parts, though frequently piercing ; but the autumnal 
fogs, or damps, which evaporate from the fen-lands 
near the fea-coaft, are aguifh, and otherwife unfalu- 

MARSH-LAND is fo termed, in allufion to its origi- 
nal and prefent flate. Whether Marfhlaud, and the 
fen-lands in Holland and the Ifle of Ely, were ori- 
ginally a part of the ocean, which the waters provi- 
dentially left, or that this extenfive plain was at fome 
time fwallowed up by an inundation from the fea, 
and afterwards drained, or otherwife cleared, admits 
of a doubt ; more efpecially as the mod learned wri- 
ters on the fubjecl: have differed in opinion. Sir 
William Dugdale, in his Hiftory of Embanking, is 
of opinion, " that the Romans were the perfons who 
originally gained from the fea this part of Norfolk, 
called Marfhland, where the Saxons were alfo invited 

L to 


to fettle, from the extraordinary fertility of the foil ; 
and that they did fo, is evident from the authentic 
furvcv taken by the Norman conqueror, which fhew- 
eih that the towns now in being there, were alfo ex- 
tant in trie days of king Edward the Confeffor." 

From the fame venerable author, and others, we 
m:ike the following extracts : 

" This vaft level was originally a firm dry land, 
not overflown by the fea, or any flagnating frefh 
writers, which is plain from the great number of 
timber-trees that have been found in feveral parts of 
it. Now it is certain, that fuch will not grow in 
watery moorifh places ; befides, it is obfervable, 
that where they have been found, as in digging of 
channels and drains, their roots have been always 
obferved to ftand in the firm earth below the moor. 
Dugdale fays, he himfelf faw great numbers of oak 
and fir-trees taken up in the fens near Thorney. 
Great numbers were alfo dug up at the cutting of 
that large channel called Downham Eau. In Marfh- 
land likewife, about a mile weftward from Magda- 
len bridge, at the fctting down of a fluice there were 
found, 17 feet deep, , feveral furze-bufhes, as alfo 
nut-trees preffed flat down, with nuts found and 
firm lying by them, the bufhes and trees (landing in 
iolid earth below the filt, which the fea had brought 
up, and in time raifed to that thicknefs. Great 
numbers of oak and fir-trees were" found likewife 
at the making of the ditches and fewers for draining 
the Ifle of Axholme, in Lincolnfhire. 

"It is highly probable, that fome great earth- 
quake was the occafion of the fea's breaking in and 
overflowing this country with fuch violence, as to 
tear up the woods by the roots ; which inundation 
of the fea brought in fuch a prodigious quantity of 
B 2 filt, 


filt, as not only, for feveral miles towards the fea, 
to cover the ground to an extraordinary depth, but 
even to the remoteft parts -near the hi^ri lands ; as 
is evident from fir Robert Cotton's finding, upon 
making a pool near Conington in Cambridgefhire, 
the fkeleton of a large fea-fifh, near 20 feet long, 
lying above fix feet deep in filt. At what time this 
happened we cannot fay." That there have been fuch 
like changes we have undoubted teflimony. 

" In tre time of the confulfhip of Valeminian 
and Valcns, there was an earthquake, which not 
only overthrew divers cities, but altered the very 
bounds of the fea ; which fo flowed in fome parts, 
that men might fail in thofe places where before 

they did walk : and forfook others, that thev became 
j y , j ,, J 

dry land. 

Ghent in Flanders, 900 years ago, was a haven- 
town ; St. Omer's a fea-port ; as was alfo Romncy, 
Limne, and Richborough in Kent; Eye in Suffolk ; 
Shegnefs in Lincolnfhire, and Caftle-Rifing in Nor- 

" At the digging of a foundation for the Saffe at 
SalterVlode, there were found firfl 10 feet depth of 
filt, then three feet of firm moor, then blue gault, 
then three feet of moor, and at laft whitifh clay. 

" At the fetting down a fluice a little below Mag- 
dalen fall, a flone eight feet long, and a cart-wheel 
1 6 feet in the earth, were taken up by the workmen 
of Mr. Emerfon. 

" At the fetting down of Skirbeck fluice near Bof- 
ton, there was found at 16 feet depth, covered with 
filt, a fmith's forge, with all the tools thereto be- 


longing, with horfe-fhoes and other things made of 

To thefe obfervations of Dugdale we may add, 
" that near the river Welland, which runs through 
Spalding in I incolnfhire, anno 1696, at the depth 
of about ten feet there were found jetties (as they 
are called) to keep up the old river s bank, and the 
head of a tunnel, that emptied the land-water into 
the old river; and at between 20 and 30 yards dif- 
tance from the prefent river, there were dug up 
(about the like depth) feveral old boats; which 
things fhew, that anciently the river was either much 
wider than it now is, or ran in another place, or 
both. On the other, viz. the north-weft fide of the 
river, and more upwards in the town, were dug up 
(at about the forementioncd depth) the remains of 
old tan-vats or pits, a great quantity of ox-horns, 
and fhoe-foles of a very flrange unufual form, with 
fharp-pointed toes turning up. Which things fhevv, 
that the furface of the country lay ancicntlv much 
lower than now it does, and has been raifcd up by 
the fea's throwing in its fand in the maritime pans 
(now moft inhabited) and by the moor or rottec( 
fedge in the fenny parts next the high country. 

" At the laying of the prefent new fluicc or gote 
(as they call it) at the end of Hamond beck, at its 
fall into Bofton haven, taking up the foundation of 
the old gote, they met with the roots of trees, many 
of them uTuing from their feveral boles or trunks 
fpread in the ground, which when thev had taken 
up (the roots and the earth they grew in) they met 
with a folid, gravelly and flony foil, of the high- 
country kind, (but black and difcoloured by the 
change that had befallen it) upon which hard earth 
they laid the foundation of this new gote, where 



thefe roots were dug up, which was certainly the 
furface of the old country." 

We have been informed, that William -Greaves, 
efq. of Beaupre hall in Outwcll, is in poffeflion of 
an ancient document, wherein mention is made of 
wood growing at a place called Hcdgehirne wood in 
that parifh, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, which 
place is now ft. deep fen. 

All thefe forementioned inftances clearly prove, 
" that (to make ufe of Dugdale's words) fbme great 
land-flood, many ages fmce, meeting with an ob- 
flru&ion at the natural outfall to fca, by reafon of 
much filt, which after a long drought had choaked 
them up, did then fpread itfelf over the face of the 
whole level ; and that the waters till this general 
draining, ever fmce covering the fame, have pro- 
duced a moor now grown to fo great a thicknefs." 

The following tranflation, by Dryden, of Ovid's 
defcription of the changes in the terreflrial fyftem is 
finely imagined, and a-piopos to the prefent purpofc. 

The face of places and their forms decay ; 

And that is Iblid earth, that once was fea: 

Seas in their turn, retreating from the fliore, 

Make folid land, what ocean was before ; 

And far from ftrands arc fhells of fifhes found, 

And rufly anchors fix'd on mountain-ground : 

And what were fields before, now wafh'd and worn. 

By falling floods from high, to valleys turn, 

As crumbling ilill defcend to level lands ; 

And lakes and trembling bogs are ban-en fands. 

Freebridge Marfhland half hundred is bounded by 
the fea on the north ; by Crofs-keys Wafh and Wif- 
river, which divides Norfolk from Lincolnfln're 


and the Ifle of Ely in Camjridgefhirc, on the weft; 
by the old Podike, dividing this with Clackclofe 
hundred, on the fouth ; and by the river Oufe, on 
the eaft, which is the boundary, (Wiggenhall St. 
German's and St. Peter excepted) with part of Clack- 
clofe and Frccbridgc Lynn -hundreds. The country 
has a gentle and almoft imperceptible afcent from its 
limits, as above defcribed, to its centre; and many 
of its lofty churches command extenfive profpecls 
into Norfolk, Lincoln and Cambridge (hires. 

Marfhland comprehends what is properly called 
*' the feven towns of Marfliland," viz. Emneth, Tcr- 
rington, Tilney, Walpole, Walfoken, Walton, and 
Wiggenhall. T'hcfe townfhips e-njoy a mutual right 
of inter-common on the Smeth and its appurtenances, 
which are faid to contain about 3000 acres of fu rai- 
nier paflure : a piece of land fo fruitful (as was re- 
ported by a courtier to James I. at his firft coming 
to the crown of England) " that if over night a wand 
or rod was laid on the ground, by the morning it 
would be covered with grafs of that night's growth, 
fo as not to be difcerned." To which that king is 
faid, in a jocofe manner, to reply, " that he knew 
fome grounds in Scotland, where if an horfe was put 
in over night, they could not fee him, or difcern him 
in the morning. 11 Of this plain, or fmeth, there is 
a tradition, which the common people retain, that in 
old time the inhabitants of thefe towns had a contell 
with the lords of the manors, about the bounds and 
limits of it ; when one Hickifric, a perfqn of great 
ftature and courage, affifting the faid inhabitants in 
their rights of common, took an axel-tree from a 
cart wheel, inftead of a fword, and the wheel foi 1 a 
fhield, or buckler, and thus armed, loon repelled 
the invaders ; and for proof of this notable exploit, 
they to this day fliew (fays fir William Dugdale) a 
large grave-ftone, near the caft end of the chancel, 



in Tilney church-yard, whereon the form of a crofs 
is fo cut or carved, as that the upper part thereof 
(wherewith the carver haih adorned it) being circu- 
lar, they will therefore needs have it to be the grave- 
flone of Hickifric, and to be as a memorial of his 
gallantry.* But this ftory, like that of " Sir Tho- 
mas Erpingham and the Monk," in Mr. Blomefield's 
EfTay, is better calculated for the reader of a " Penny 
Hiftory" than for the perufal of a lefs credulous or 
fuperflitious mind. 

The parifhes of Clenchwarton, Weft and North 
Lynn, though lying in Marfhland, are excluded from 
any ufe of pafturage, &c. on the Smeth common. 

Camden fays, " Marfhland is, as it were, cut to 
pieces, and it is imagined there are an hundred 
bridges over the dikes which drain the lands." The 
roads, which are numerous, arc very irregular and 
difagrecablc to travel on. The crops arc generally 
very good, and well got in ; and the price of labor 
in harveft-time is from as. 6d. to 55. a day, or 
js. 6ct. per acre reaping. 

The contaminated air here is not fo prejudicial to 
the conftitution of aithmatic people as it is in the 
lower fens, but the ague prevails at every period of 

Vaft improvements have been made towards the 
lea-coaft of Marfhland, by embanking, especially in 
the parifhes of Tcrrington and Clenchwarton, where 
the late captain Bentinck, at a confiderable expence, 
took in 900 acres of falt-marfh ; now rendered ara- 
ble by the perfeverance and public fpirit of that 
worthy gentleman. A like enclofure is going to be 


* Parkin, 

OF F R E E B R I D G E. 17 

made in Wai pole, by alderman Townfcnd, of Lon- 
don, and. others concerned. 

The old fea-bank (in many places called Roman) 
is yet entire, and the towns of Walpole, Walton and 
Walfoken, fituated on it, take their names from this 
barrier. Each town in Marfhland were mutually 
obliged to fupport a proportion of the great banks 
raifed to defend their own property, and not (as is 
the cafe in the Bedford Level) veiled in the power of 
a body corporate, who may be ignorant of the value 
and means of that fupport. Gommiflioners have 
been appointed in different reigns, " to fee that the 
banks in Marfhland were in repair," but the interefl 
of each landholder being to preferve his property 
from the inundations of the tide, effected more than 
even a royal mandate., In 1277, we find each town 
in Marfhland maintained about fix furlongs of the 

The principal out-fall of the feveral cuts which 
drain the fen-lands of the great Bedford Level being 
at Lynn, through the prefent channel of the river 
Oufe, which empties itielf into the bay called ME- 
TARIS /ESTUARIUM, the prefervation of this 
out-fall and navigation has been the primary object 
of the commiifioners of the " Corporation of the 
Bedford Level. 1 ' 

To trace minutely the origin and progrefs of the 
many improvements which have been made or at- 
tempted, and the fuccefs or failure of each effort to- 
wards fo defirable a purpofe, would lead us into a 
labyrinth of opinions, in which men of fuperior 
judgment and experience have loft themfelves : We 
will, therefore, reft our information on the fhoulders of 
others, and give, in as brief arid explicit a manner as 
we are able, a general feries of occurrences, collected 
G from 


from the various reports, fchemcs, furvcys, &c. that 
have been publifhed, without intruding a imgle hint, 
or fu2;geftion of our own ; well knowing, that thofe 
opinions (which are as various as the reports, &c.) 
have contributed in fome degree to difturb the coun- 
fels, and impede the operation of every meafure 
propofed or adapted by the Hon. Board of the Cor- 
poration of the adventurers of Bedford Level. 

The river Oufe, formerly called Ufa, or Ifa, fprings 
from a gentle rifmg ground near Brackley, 13 miles 
above Northampton, in the fame county, and pafiing 
by Buckingham, Stony-Stratford, Newport-Pagnel, 
Bedford, St. Neot's, Huntingdon, St. Ives, Erith, 
Ely, Littleport, Downham, and St. German's, di(- 
charges itfelf (after a courfe, according to Badeflade, 
of 160 miles) mto the fea below Lynn-Regis. Be- 
fides a number of brooks and final ler rivers upwards, 
it receives the Grant, or Cam, above Ely; Milden- 
hall river a little below Littleport ; the Little Oufe, 
or Brandon river, above Southery ; the WifTey, or 
Stoke river, at Denver lluicc ; the Ncne at Salter's 
Lode, and the Nar at Lynn, where the Great Oufe 
is about 300 yards wide. 

"The rivers Oufe, Grant and Mildcnhall, in anci- 
nt times had their united courfe by Littleport, Well- 
ney and Well, through Wifbech outfall to fea ; and 
then the waters of Brand and Stoke rivers only ran 
together by Salter's Lode, Magdalen and German's, 
through Lynn haven to fea. 

44 When Wifbech outfall decayed, (deftroyed) faith 
Mr. Richard Atkins, chiefly by incroachments upon 
the river, and buildings on its banks, w r hich made it 
too narrow to vent the high country waters, and die 
fens in confequence thereof became hurtfully fur- 
rounded, the comminloners of fcwers cut a canal 



from Littleport to Brand river, to give the waters of 
Oufe, Grant and Mildenhall rivers, the fame courfe 
with Brand and Stoke, through Lynn outfall to fea ; 
tjie defcent of all the fens being that way. 

" This abundance of frefh waters having now this 
courfe, and this only, gave the fea a more fpacious 
inlet; the one as it were preparing the way, and the 
other maintaining it with great increafe, faith Mr, 
Atkins; and fir Clement Edmonds faith, " the frefh 
waters, with the afliflance of the tides from fea, wore 
the river wider and deeper." 

" But it was not poffible for the tides and in 
their operations, to wear and grind in a few ages this 
river and outfall deep and wide enough to receive 
and convey through it to fea, the waters of fo many 
rivers that had their courfe given this way, in de- 
fault of their former outfall ; therefore thole waters, 
for want of a fufficient vent, conftantly overflowed 
the fens in winter time, and kept them drowned molt 
part of the fummer, notwithstanding the many works 
made within the bounds of the fens towards draining, 
before the undertaking for a general draining com- 

" And as the river Oufe, from the bounds of the 
fens to feaward, has been hindered from growing 
deeper by fluices, and from growing wider by bridges, 
the fens ft ill continue hurtfully furrounded ; and muft 
continue fo, until the river be enlarged. 

" The rivers Grant, Brand, Mildenhall, Stoke, New 
Bedford, and Well-Creek, all their widths added to- 
gether, is near 300 feet. The river Oufe below Sal- 
ter's Lode, which fhould be a receptacle for the wa- 
ters of all thefe rivers, and fhould convey them thro' 
its banks to fea, is but 120 feet wide, (but 105 at 
.G 2 the 


the bridges) therefore cannot vent above one-third 
of the high country waters that defcend thefe rivers, 
exclufive of the downfall waters of the great level of 
the fens. This truth is confirmed by woeful experi- 
ence ; elfe, why when die river Oufe was fo deep 
that low water mark was i o feet under foil of the 
fens from Salter's Lode to feaward, (as it was before 
Denver fluices were built) and after works had been 
made by the lord Popham, &c. to lead the fen wa- 
ters into the Oufe at Salter's Lode ; why, I afk, if 
the Oufe had been wide enough to convey thofc wa- 
ters to fea, was the fens then fo hunfully fuirounded 
as to occafion the general undertaking to drain them ? 
Why after die New Bedford river was made, and 
Denver fluices built, did the floods, that defcended 
that new river, rife high againfl the fluice doors, and 
keep them fhut weeks together, and alfo rife high 
between the New Bedford banks, fometimes breaking 
them and overflowing the fens ; but that the Oufe 
was not wide enough to receive and convey the floods 
to fea that came down the New Bedford river only, 
exclufive of die waters of the rivers Grant, Milden- 
hall, Brand and Stoke, which were all pent into the 
ibuth level by Denver fluices, r.ntil the New Bedford 
floods were run off to fea, or had broke their banks, 
and dilated themfelves over the face of the fens ? 
Why was St. John's Eau and Tong's Drain of little 
or no ufe to draining, but becaufe the river Oufe, 
below the mouths of thofe drains, could convey no 
more water to fea than it could before thofe drains 
were made ? And why doth the floods of the New 
Bedford river revert into the foutli level (now Den- 
ver fluices are deflroyed and away) to the total drown- 
jng of that country, but that the river Oufe (though 
the natural bottom is 14 feet deep below the foil of 
the fouth level) is no\. wide enough to convey to fea 
the Bedford river floods only ? 



" And that it is impoffible for the fens to be drained 
through fo narrow a river as is the Oufe, (even tho' 
by natural means, or artificial fcours, its ancient 
depth be regained) will farther appear, if we compare 
the Oufe with our other great rivers that have their 
outfall into as great feas. 

" And as the river Oufe is inferior to no one river 
in the extent of its inland navigation, it is fuperior 
to any one in rcfpecT; of draining ; it being the fewer 
and outfall of the great level of the fens, called Bed- 
ford Level, of near 400,000 acres; of the province 
of Marfliland, of 40,000 acres; of the hundred of 
Clackclofe, and parts adjacent, of 10,000 acres of 

" I fhould have faid the river Oufe was thus fa~ 
mous for navigation and draining: indeed it is far, 
very far from being fo now, having for fcveral vears 
Jaft paft gradually decayed, infomuch that it is ren- 
dered incapable of draining any of the aforefaicj. 
lands, and will be loft ^navigation in a very ihort 

When the Little Oufe, or Brandon river, Stoke 
and the Nar, were the only Avaters that had their in- 
flux with the fea at Lynn, the channel of that haven 
was not above fix poles broad, and the river from 
Denver downwards, then called Wiggenhall Eau, 
proportionately narrow. Formerly the Great Oufe, 
Grant and Mildenhall rivers, meeting at Littleport, 
had their, courfe by Welney to Upwell, where they 
were joined by the Nene ; and running by Outwell, 
Emneth, and Elnie, to Wifbech, had their outfall 
into the wafh between Walpole and Sutton : but the 
outfall by Wifbech being decayed, or deflroyed, as 



Badeflade will have it, the Oufe and Nene changed 
their courfe at Outwell, and running by Mullicourt 
and Nordelf, through \Vell-creek, into Stoke and 
Brandon rivers at Salter s Lode, with them formed 
what is now called the Great Oufe, to Lynn. 

On account of the great encreafe of waters, and 
natural apprehenfions of the people of Marfhland 
for the country's fafety, a cut of three miles and a 
half from the Great Oufe at Littleport to the Little 
Oufe near Littleport chain was made, by which the 
courfe of the Grant and Oufe was turned into the 
Nene at Salter s Lode. The ancient ftate of the ri- 
vers, is confirmed by various authorities. The out- 
fall by Wifbech, or Oufbeach, was fometimes called 
the Well river, as appears by a regifter at Peterbo- 
rough ; Wifbech caflle founded fuper flumen illud 
famofum, quod Well-flreame appelatur, &c. And 
fome writers fay that king John, in pamng the wa- 
ters of We.ll, 1216, loft mull of his baggage and 

In 1292, a commiffion from the king, bearing 
date June 1 9, was procured for making a proper en- 
quiry into the waters of Well, when it was ordained. 
by the confcrit of the country, that three dams fhould 
be made in Upwell and Outwell, to turn the Nenc 
into its ancient and due courfe, to its outfall below 
Wilbech. The inhabitants of Marfhland made a 
flop of the faid waters at Little Lode in Upwell. 

The bifhop of Litchfield and Coventry, treafurer 
to Edward I. caufed a dam to be made at Outwell ; 
but a prefentment being exhibited to the juftices iti- 
nerant, then fitting at Northampton, the 5th of Ed- 
ward III. May 12, 1332, letting forth how prejudi- 
cial this flop to the navigation between Peterborough 


OF F R E E B R rSD G E. 23 

and Lynn was to trade, 8cc. and that by this hin- 
drance great part of the low lands of the middle le- 
vel would be drowned, the high fheriff of Norfolk, 
and others concerned, were empowered to pull the 
faid dam down. 

Thus the weight and rapid force of the waters 
did '.vear and grind the river Oufe and Lynn haven 
to fuch a width, that the parifhes of Clenchwarton, 
Tilney, Iflington, and Wiggenhall in Marfhland, 
Holm, Watlington, and South Runclon in Clack- 
clofe, Setchy and Weft Winch in Freebridge Lynn, 
preferred a petition to the king, fhewing, " That 
whereas the river going to Lynn ufed to run between 
banks diftant 1 2 perches afunder, but was now a full 
mile in breadth, whereby a great part of thofe pa- 
riflies were overflown, they humbly pray that the faid 
river might be confined to its ancient width/' But 
the inhabitants oT Lvnn, and a part of Marfhland, 
promoted a bill in the parliament of 1342, in op- 
pofition to the abovementioned petition, which they 

In 1378, the aforefaid pariflies prefented a petition 
to Richard II. imploring the fame, in effecl, as the 
former to his predeceflbr ; whereupon a commiffion 
of view was granted, who reported, that the river at 
South Lynn, then 40 perches, or 640 feet, ought to 
be reduced to its original width, fix perches ; and 
the Setch or Nar, from five perches to one : but it 
does not appear that any advantage was taken of this 
report ; for petitions of the fame requeft were pre- 
fented to Elizabeth in 1596, and to James I. 1618, 
in the latter of which the inhabitants of Marfhland 
are faid to have fuffered a lofs of 30,000!. by an 
inundation of the fea in 1613. This prayer was alfo 
referred to a commiffion of view, and in like man- 


ner neglefted, although fir Clement Edmonds certifi- 
ed to the board of commiflioncrs, Auguft 12, 1618, 
" that the haven of Lynn was, through the violence 
of the tides, and great fall of frefhes, grown much 
wider than it had been, to the endangering of Marfh- 
land." Mr. Richard Atkins, of Outwell, who was an 
eminent commiffioner of fewers, and flouriflied the be- 
ginning of James I. gave his opinion to the fame effect. 

About this time fomc improvements were made in 
carrying off the waters from Outwell through Right- 
forth Lode into the Oufe at Stowe bridge, and from 
Elme, crofs Marfhland, into die fame river at Knight's 
Gool, an. 1640. Sir William Dugdale faith, " that 
theSmeth common, which ufed to feed 30,000 fheep, 
now lies under water, on account of the outfall at 
Knight's Gool being filled up with fand lodged 
againft the fluice doors. 

Dugdale obferves likewife, " that anno 1662, at 
Wiggenhall St. Mary's, at a place called Wathden, 
there were then to be feen fome remains of a church, 
as alfo bones that appeared at a low ebb upon the 
river fide, about eight feet below the prefent furface 
of the earth. The like alfo was obfervable at Wig- 
genhall St. German's, the floor of the church there 
being at leaft feven feet lower than the high water 
mark of the river Oufe." He obferves, " that the 
rifmg of the tides to fo great a height was what oc- 
cafioned the channel of Lynn to widen fo much, 
that the inhabitants were forced to remove one of 
their churches to a further diftance from it, as is yet to 
be feen in that part of it now called Old Lynn, where 
the bones of the dead, which were buried in St. Ed- 
mund's church-yard, are now (or however were but 
very lately) daily waflied at every tide, by reafoii that 
part of the fame church-yard is confumed away with 
the violence of that current." 


OF F R E B R I D G E. 2^ 

Upon a view, the haven at Lynn was thought 
the moft eligible outfall for the Ncrze. Grai: 
and, were it not for w infer waters, would utter! v de- 
cay. And Mr. Goddard, who was recorder of Lynn, 
faith, " That though the channel to feaward below 
the haven was near half a mile wide at low water, 
yet it was of a depih fufficient for a fhip of twelve 
feet water to be brought up in any one tide without 
any wind/' 

The fame gentleman obferves, '* that the tides 
flowed up into the Oufe about 48 miles. 
Into the Grant 5")- 

Mildenhall 8 f 

T, , 1 which is Irom ; 

Brandon 10 >- 

Stoke 6 I 

X* 7J 

The tide putting up fo far into all thefe rivers, 
and filling them twice in every twenty-four hours. 
thex- were not only competently .fupplicd with xvatcr 
from fea in the drieft feafons to fervc for the inland 
navigation, which by means of fo many branches is 
the moft extenfive in England ; fo that commerce 
and trade was conftautly maintained up ihs river 
Nene to Well, March, and Peterborough, above 
fifty miles from Lynn, into Northampton, Rutland, 
Lincoln, Nottingham, and Leicefterihire, with vef- 
fels of fifteen tons, which eaiily paifed loaden in the 
drieft feaf- 

And up die river Oufe they could fail with fornr 
tons freight thirty-fix miles at leaft from Lynn at or- 
dinary neip tides ; and great and conftant commerce 
was held to Cambridge, Bedford, Sec. and between 
Cambridge and St. Ives, Huntingdon, St. Xeot's, 
D Bed- 


Bedford, and places adjacent, with a burden of fif- 
teen ton, which is ninety miles from Lynn by wa- 

Sir Cornelius Vermuyden obferves, that " the 
outfall of Lynn hath fufficient water to keep open 
his channel, and although in fummer the fands in 
Lynn haven overcome the ebbs fomcwhat, yet they 
do not lie long, but the firft land-waters, or next 
fpring tides, carry them away again." 

How far the 'imbanking of fait marfiies may affect 
a navigation, Mr. Badeflade makes the following re- 
marks. " Since a confidcrable number of acres of 
ialt-marfh have been imbanked and taken in, adjoin- 
ing to the port of Wells, and feveral creeks' have 
had banks run crofs them, which hinders the neip- 
tide from putting up into thofe creeks, as they were 
wont to do, and alfo the fpring-tides from overflow- 
ing the quantity of marih they ufed before to cover, 
the faid harbour of Wells, its channel and pool, 
have very fcnfibly decayed, as have done all chan- 
nels that have been any ways deprived of their an- 
cient flock of back-waters. Thus Mr. Atkins writes, 
<! Spalding of old time was beft of three outfalls, 
"now the worfl; loft by winning certain feveral 
*' marfhes to die feaward." 

" Thus the honourable Corporation of Adventu-' 
rers fet forth to the parliament in their reafons, why 
Sutton Marfh below Wifbech fhould not be inned, 
A. D. 1719. " That it is found by .experience, that 
" the imbanking the falt-marflies, or gaining land 
" from the fea, has been the principal caufe of the 
" channels being choaked up, and have juft reafbi* 
" to be apprehenfive, that the imbanking any more 

' will 

* Badeflade. 


" will entirely deflroy that outfall to fea, 8cc." 

Thus alfo the petition of Rye in Suffex to the par- 
liament, 1701, fcts forth, " That of late years, feve- 
" ral pcrfbns have inned feveral acres of land which 
" belong to the faid harbour, and have built flood- 
" gates to flop the flow and reflow of the' tide up 
" the river Roiher, and thereby die faid harbour 
" grows worfe every year." 

Of this opinion is fir Cornelius Vermuyden; he 
faith, " The Oufe, from Littlcport to, Lynn, keeps 
his depth by reafon of the back-waters." .. 

That Marfhland, and the great level of the fens 
were originally good lands, we have already given 
iome proofs, and fhall only add a few other authori- 
ties before we proceed on the bufmefs of the Ad' 

" The' fens that are now, were forrietimcs of the 
nature of land meadows, (fays Mr. Atkins) fruitful, 
healthful, and very gainful to the inhabitants, and 
yielded much relief to the high countries in time of 
great drought. The truth of this is diiputed by ibme 
people, but they feem plainly to have been fo ; for 
Peterborough of old was called Medehamfted of the 
meadows there, and not Fenhamfted of the feng 
that now are ; and yet unto it did moft of the fens 
belong. And Ely fen, or Peterborough great fen 
was foreft, whofe keeper had in it, in the new 
marines, now called Marfh Fen, an inclofure for 
keeping of fheep, and for mowing of hay ; and in 
Wryde Croft, a manfion-houfe and a large dairy- 

Leland and other ancient writers are lavifh in the 
praife of this once fruitful country, 

D 2 Jn 


In a lav/ of fewers made the sgtli of September, 
1596, called Neatmoor Law, the commiffioners, af- 
ter enumerating the caufes why " thefe fenny grounds 
*' did lie long furrounded, and fo became unprofit- 
" able, which in former time have been dry and 
"" profitable, it is faid And fo they may be hereaf- 
" ter, if due proviiion be made." 

And fir Henry Hobart, attorney general to king 
James I. fays, "That the grounds now fought to be 
" drained, are fuch as naturally and anciently weir. 
*' dry grounds. ' 

" How this country, fays Mr. Badeflade, which 
though lying flat and low, (yet was not originally 
annoyed with any conftant flop of the frefli waters, 
which miglit by overflowing and flagnation make it 
fenny) came to be furrounded in the manner it was 
before the general undertaking to drain it com- 
menced, I (hall here endeavour to manifeft. 

" It may look like a paradox to fay that it was 
occafioned by imbanking: but certainly it was,. and 
by the not putting the laws of fewers afterwards in 
execution; by neglecl whereof the principal drains 
became ufelefs to convey the downfall water into the 
rivers, and thereby the outfall of thole rivers them- 
felves were by degrees loft. 

" The plainer to make this appear, I {hall em- 
ploy this feclion in tracing the flate of the level from 
diftant times e'er yet it was imbanked, to the time 
of the general undertaking for the draining thereof. 

" I have proved that the greatefl part of the level 
was anciently firm and dry ground ; but as the 
courfe of the rivers fiiew that this vail plain has a 


O F F R E E B R I D G E. a 9 

hanging level and gradual defcent to the ocean, the 
fpring-tidcs did overflow the loweft part of it, fo as 
that it was in nature fak-marfh,' till they were im- 
banked and defended from the fea by a colony of 
the Romans that had refidence in thefe parts. 

" Thefe colonies were fo excellently difciplined, 
that for avoiding the mifchief which idlenefs pro- 
duccth, they were always exercifed in fome necelfary 
employment, or public work. 

41 Thefe aclive and induftrious Romans, who made 
ufe of all art and ikill to the advancement of their 
profit, obferving thefe falt-marfhes to be very fertile, 
and to lie above the reach of the ordinary tides, 
bcdowed the pains and cofl (fays Dugdaie) to raife 
a flrong^bank of earth on that fide the level towards 
the ocean, to defend it from the overflowing of the 
fpring- tides ; by which means, the countries of Hol- 
land and Marfnland were won and gained. 11 

" Succeeding ages following the example of the 
Romans; more and more of this level hath been 
continually taken in and imbanked, and by thofe 
banks the high-country waters were kept from the 
fea, whither the very defcent of the country would 
carry them, if thefe banks were not: which our 
good commiffioners of fewcrs of old time forcfeeing, 
did enjoin the makers of thofe banks to make, keep 
and maintain gooles or helps, both for the fafety of 
their banks, and for the better conveyance of the 

And the like efFe&s thefe banks have wrought 

upon the fans now (meadows once) : " The banks 

to be made, may in time to come woi-k upon the 

upland mcadcws (fays Mr. Atkins). This experience 

D 3 hath. 


hath (hewn,- for before the Old Podike was made 
to fend off the land waters (jth of Henry III. anno 
1223) from Marfhl and, the lower part of that pro- 
vince was no better than maiih, For the banks that 
defended Marfliland from the fea, hindered the down- 
fall from getting to fea ; fo that the waters defcend- 
ing, the higher flagnated in the lower grounds for 
want of gooles ahd helps to pafs it away to the 

Sir William Dngdale faith, "By an ancient plead- 
ing it appeareth, that before the a/tli of Henry I. 
(fix hunched years ago) there was neither habitation 
nor ground that yielded profit within that part of 
Wiggenhall, from Buftard's Dole unto the fouth fide 
of the faid town, except the monafteiy of Crabb- 
houfe, with fome lands belonging thereto, all being 
then wafle, and in the nature of fen." And we find 
that when the old Podike was much torn and 
broken by the weight of the land waters on the fouth 
fide agaiuft it, that great part of Marfliland was over- 
flowed by the frefh waters : and bccaule the faid 
Podike was judged by the commirEoners of fewers, 
i Hen. VI. incapable of being mended, on account 
of the weaknefs of the ground whereon it flood : 
therefore A. D. 1422, the New Podike was ordain- 
ed and decreed to be made ; and accordingly it was 
made, and extended itfelf from Salter's Lode to Wcll- 

Hereupon the land fouth of this new bank be- 
came overflowed : for we find, April 2, anno 1423, 
" That Thomas duke of Exeter, 8cc. (becaufe feveral 
lands in Upweli and Outwell were furroundcd, caufed 
by the new Podike) gave leave to Henry Wells, 
archdeacon of Lincoln, and others, to convey the 
waters by tunnels under the faid Podike through 



Rightforth Lode into Wiggcnhall Eau, which carries 
idelf towards Bifliop's Lynn. 1 ' 

'Tis certain that the river, by thefc encroachments, 
was made fo narrow, that the land-floods when they 
came down in the winter feafon could not find 
paffage to fea ; fo that for want of room to get 
away, they were enforced to overflow the level dur- 
ing that feafon ; and in very wet years, continued to 
fuiround it all the fummer, becaufe all the fewers, 
drains, petty drains, &c. (faith Mr. Atkins) within 
the fens, were ruinous and utterly decayed, which 
were the principal conductors and guiders of the 
waters into the main flreams ; which have grown up 
for want of diking and fcouring, and the waters 
have been obftrucled by placing of wears, flamps, 
and divers fuch impediments, to the general hurt of 
the whole country, net only in thele petty drains, 
but even in the very main flreams ihemfelves.* 

And Atkins faith, fpeaking of Wifbcch, " This 
pitiful outfall proceeded! of neglecl, in not fcouring 
and dyking the river, nor preferring and maintain- 
ing the petty lewers and drains which anciently fed 
the fame, by enforcing the waters thereof, and keep- 
ing them in their proper courfe ; whereby the lea 
finding but little refinance (nor ftrength of a follow? 
ing head of water to fcour the channel continually) 
lilted up the river and outfall ; fo that though of 
ancient times fhips of great burden reforted to Wif- 
bech, yet for thefe caufes the outfall fo filted up, 
that as long fince as king John's time, above five 
hundred years ago, the channel was fo (hallow, that 
people could pafs over at low water. 

P 4 This 

* Badefladei 


This outfall thus decayed, the waters of Great 
Oufe, which patted through the Ifle of Ely in two 
branches, the firfl branch, called the Weft-water, 
from Erith by Chattel is to Ecn'vick, where it met a 
part of Nene, descending under Horfey bridge, thro' 
the Meres, to Benwick aforefaid, and they concurred 
in one courfe to March bridge, and fo to Upwell ; 
where they met with the other branch of Oufc, 
which fell from Erith to Harrimcrc; and after re- 
ceiving the river Grant, (from Cambridge) paffed 
united to Ely, thence to Littleport-chair, and fo by 
Wellney to Upwell afordaid, and from thence both 
branches ran united to the north fea, by Wifbech, 
while that outfall was good and perfect. But that . 
decaying, and Wifbech river being neither deep e- 
nough nor wide enough to receive and pafs away 
thefe great bodies of water ; the Weft-watcr, or firfl 
branch of Oufe, with Nene united, which fell down 
. partly by March to Well, not finding pafiage thro' 
Well to WiPoech, did at Shrewfnefs and Well mo ft 
part thereof turn towards Littlcport and SalterVlode, 
overflowing in its way all the low grounds in the Iflc 
of Ely." :.',', : 

Then faith Mr. Atkin, " As it feemcth there was 
not any river between Littleport-chair and Rebeck, 
but all the lodes, lakes ajid dykes, as St. Edmund's- 
lode, Gnat-lode, Dockey-lode, &c. took their natu- 
rall iall into a great mere near Well, called the 
Wyde; and from the Wyde, by divers tracts, as 
Webwjnch-lake, Aidy-lode, Small-lode, 'Chefaelbeech, 
W r axbech-lode, Sec. into the river at Upwell, and 
thence with the branch of Oufe from Littleport to 
the north fea by Wifbech." 

This was the courfe of thofe waters while the out- 
fall was good; but that decaying, and in confe- 



rjiience thereof great part of the level being over- 
flowed in times of floods, and kept for the moft pare 
furrounded; " Means were found, faith Mr. Atkins, 
- ro let Great Oufe fall from Littleport-chair to Re- 
beck, (by a lode, which at firfl feemed to be called 
Hemmlngs Eau) into Oufe Parva, which has its 
cotirfe to Saltcr's lode, and thence to the north fea 
bv Lynn, wliofe haven and channel before that time 
was not above fix poles wide." J3ut after Wifbech 
outfall decayed, Lynn haven was woni wider by de- 
grees, by the aclion of the tides, and force of the 
frefli waters dcfcending that v/ay ; for befides the 
waters of Old Oufe having this new paffage given 
them to fea, the river of Nene led its waters alfo this 
way, i: e. from Peterborough to Ramfey, thence to 
a decavcd river in March, called Great Crofs, thence 
To a decayed fewer called New Leame, thence to a 
certain place in Upwell, called Shrewfnefl Point ; 
and there the faid river divided itfelf into two branch- 
es, whereof the one returned fouth-eaft, and was 
"called the South Branch, unto a certain old decayed 
fewer in Wclney hamlet, called Maid-lode, and from 
thence to another old decayed fewer between Wcl- 
ncy and Littleport, called Newdike, and from thence 
into Oufe at Liuleport-chuir, after a circuit of fifty- 
four miles. 


The north branch defcended from the faid place 
called Shrewfnefl Point, unto a certain place in Out- 
well, called Outwell-fh.or.1, and from thence fouth- 
ward unto a certain place called Nordelph, and 
from thence eaflward unto Salter's lode, and there 
into the greaf river, and by that courfe to fea thro' 
Lynn haven. 

Thus the waters of Nene were forced to take in 
a manner their full Low and whole courfe contrary 


to their wonted avoidance, at Wifbech, by reafbn of 
the decay of the fewers, called the Great Crols, the 
New Leame, &c. The decay of which faid feveral 
fewers, with the rivers, lodes and drains from them, 
extending unto the faid town of Wifbech; and in 
confequence thereof, the decay of Wifbech outfall 
itfelf, was the caule of drowning arid deftroying the 
adjacent country: and thus the waters of Ncne, in 
default of their proper outfall defcending to fca by 
Lynn, Wifbech channel, and fo low as the Crofs- 
keys, thereby utterly decayed.* 

From the rrign of Edward I. to James I. many 
inefficacious attempts were made to remove thofe 
prejudices the country laboured under, either on ac- 
count of the imbankments towards fca, altering the 
natural c6urfe of rivers, or ncglecl of {ewers, Sec. 

At* this time, July 15, 1605, fir John Popham, 
Jord chief juftice of England to king James I. much 
affecting the good of this country, procured an aft 
of parliament ior making new drains, Sec. which 
was mtitled, 

An Aft for the Draining of certain Fens and low Grounds 
within the IJle cf Ely, and Coitnties adjoining, Jubjecl 
to hurt by Jurrounding : and ran thus, 

" Whereas it is affirmed by fkilful and expert 
men, Sec. that the fens and low grounds, lying and 
being within the iflc of Ely, Sec. may be drained, if 
iufTicient authority be given: And whereas fir John 
Popham, and others, have undertaken to do their 
beii endeavours, Sec. Be it therefore enacled, &c. 
that the faid fir John Popham, Sec. fliall have power, 
Sec. to make works for that purpoie, &c. 

" And 
* Badeflade. 


" And to caufe to be made a fnfficicnt convey- 
ance for Oufe, either by enlarging the channel, or 
bv imbanking in fuch places, or doing any thing 
eife, bv them thought needful, from Erith bridge to 
Salter's lode ; fo as they debar not the towns and 
commons of convenient paffage and accefs to the 
river over the banks, in convenient places, for ne- 
ceffary occafions. 

" And to make two new rivcr^, to begin about 
Erith bridge, where fix commiffioners, whereof four 
inhabiting within the ifle fhall think fit, to fall into 
Oufe about Denver hithc ; with Jujjicient banks and 
indikes, as well of old Oufe, as of the new rivers, 
to be laid fo far off one from the. other, as fix com- 
miffioneis, whereof four of the ifle of Ely, &c. or 
of the counties of Cambridge or Norfolk refpeclive- 
ly, where the work fhall be done, fhall think fit ; 
with fnjfuimt Jhtices at the upper end of the new rivers 
and Weft-water, in Juch Jort as the navigation in Old 
Oufe and Grant be not impaired. 

" And to imbank in all places needful, Grant, Mil- 
dcnhall, Brandon, and Stoke rivers, viz. 

" Grant, from or near a corner below Clay hitlie 

" Mildenhall and Brandon rivers, from their cn^ 
trance into the fens, or from foine more convenient 

" Stoke river, from Stoke caufey, unto the places 
where they fall into Oufe. And to do any thing elfe 
needful for the prefervation of the faid banks ; and 
to amend and enlarge the faid rivers where need is : 
And the banks and indikes to be laid" fo far afunder 



as fix commiffioners of f ewers ftia.ll think fit, (four 
of the ifle of Ely, or rcfpeflivdy where the work is 
done) with convenient accefs to the rivers, as afore- 

" And to make fufficicnt land-eaus and banks in 
all places needful, fo near the fkirts of the upland, 
as fix commiffioners fhall think fit, to convey the wa- 
ters to the rivers. 

" And if any perfon (hall malicioufly cut, break 
up or caft down any bank made, or hereafter to be 
made, for this draining, and fhall not within four- 
teen days after publication made in the parifli church 
where the offence fhall be done, furrender himlelf to 
a juflice of the peace, and in fourteen days after 
pay the fine the faid juilice {hall think fufBcient for 
the amending the damage, and double damages to 
the party indamaged, that then the offenders fliall be 
adjudged felons. 

" And that the undertakers, their hcrrs and afllgns, 
for draining, and preferving, and perpetual mainte- 
tenance of the fame draining, fh,all have for ever in 
feveralty one hundred and twelve thoufand acres fta- 
tute meafure, to be taken and proportioned out of 
every particular manor, or out of any other fen or 
low grounds wuhin the limits, 8cc. by c'ommifTioners 
thereto affigned, according to their difcretion, and 
to diftinguifh what number of acres fhall be fo tukeu 

" And that the undertakers fliall have all the foil, 
ivatcrs and fifhings of all die new rivers. 

" And the undertakers to take no profits of the 
grounds, but as they fliall finifh the draining of every 



manor, fo to enter into the grounds proportioned 
within the Tame manor. 

" But if any of the fans, Sec. fall out to be .again 
overflown, then there fhull be rrafonable rccompencc 
made to the parties damnified, by the governor, out 
of the one hundred and twelve thoufand acres af- 
fiffne'd for the perpetual maintenance and prefcrvatiorx 
of the faid draining ; to be arTeffed by any fix 
of the peace (whereof two to be of the Quorum} 
where fuch furrounding fliall happen, payable when ' 
they (hall appoint; and an aftion of debt' to lie 
againfl the governors for the fame, with damage for 
non-payment, Sec. And if all the profit of the one 
hundred and twelve thoufand acres will hot make fa- 
tisfaclion, then the whole muft ; and the parties 
damnified, according to their fevcral eftates, (hall 
enter into all again, until the fens fhall be recovered. 
again by new draining or repairs at the undertakers 
coil, &c. 

; 1 he undertakers to fmifh the works within three 
years next after this parliament. 

" And after the faid draining, there fhall be a 
Corporation, body politic, or a company of thiny 
known, difcreet, and fufficicnt perions, bv the name 
of the Governors of the Fens within the Ille of Ely, 
and tta Counties adjoining: And they fhall be en- 
abled to purchafe and part with lands, &c. and to 
fue and be i'ucd by that name. And the firft to be 

thefe : * Martin, bifhop of Ely. Sir Anthony 

Mildmay. '" Sir John Peyton, governor of Guern- 
fey. Sir Oliver Cromwell. '" Sir Robert Bevel. 
Sir Edward Coke, attorney. * Sir John Cutts: * Sir 
John Heigham. * Sir Robert Wingfkid. * Sir Ro- , 
beit Cotton. * Sir Edward Apelly. * Sir Henry 



Warner. * Sir Miles Sandes. * Sir Simeon SfuarL 
* Sir Thomas Lambert. Sir William Ruinney, knts. 
Humphry Tyndal, dean of Ely. * Anthony Irby. 
Thomas War. Thomas Rawlync. Henry Totnal, 
efqrs. Jdhn Eldred. Roger Offield, of London, 
merchant, '"John Fincham, and John Hunt, gents. 

Tliofe mark'd thus * were Coinraiflioncrs of Sewers. 

" And as thefe do die, new to be chofen by the 
rneft voices Out of fuch lords or undertakers, as fhall 
have one thoufand acres at tile leaft of lands afligned 
to the undertakers as afore fuid." 

The new Podike being found tod narrow for 
.patting the waters through into the Oufe, lord chief 
jiiftice Popham ordered a new river to be made, 
eighty feet wide, from March river to the Podike 
at Nordelph, ahd the Well creek below that to be 
diked fixty feet wide 1 , and funk as deep as the Oufc, 
that thereby the fens in the ifle of Ely might be 
drained, and the extreme floods received. The fall 
at Salter s lode, from the foil of die fens to the lovr 
water mark in the rivet Oufe, was then ten feet. 

The yth of Augufl, 1605, this new river was be- 
gun, Mr, Richard Atkins then by ; and the work 
was profecuted fo well, that upon the 2 1 ft of De- 
cember following the waters were let through it to 
cafe the iflc, and help Well riven 

But Mr. Atkins faith, (my lord Popham dying) it 
-was flopped up, in regard of the infufficiency of 
the banks.; till four years after, June 7, 1609, it 
was again purfued to be perfected, and was caft two 
feet deeper, for the benefit of molt part of die Ifle of 



But this river being hotly purfuccl at the firfl. 
making, went on /without any fatisfaclion made for 
the feveral grounds which were' cut through to make 
it, or the commons, by which it pafied. Hereupon 
Sinolphus Bell, efq. of Be'aupre hall iri Outwell, 
having much ground adjoining yearly drowned by 
this new river, (called Popham lode) obtained by d 
view of the commiffioners, a law to keep .the upper 
doors thereof (hut, until the country would, fatisfy 
the parties injured; and alfo, fo fortify the banks, 
that his grounds fliould not thereby be hurt. 

And the doors at the upper end were accordingly- 
kept fhut, fo that no waters could pafs through thi;> 
new river. "Which river (faith Mr. Atkins- wad- 
a worthy one, and well placed, having from Well 
town-end to Salter's lode, which is a little above four 
miles, more fall than there is thought to be between 
Peterborough and Well, which is lorty miles auci 
more, as the water comcth. 

41 This famous new rivet being flopped, the coun- 
try lay in its former condition; and my lord Pop- 
ham dying, his whole project was rejected: and id 
nothing was done. And the level, by reafon of the 
divifion there was between the commiffioners of 
(ewers, Sec. who had no power to make new Vvc*r-ks,' 
and becaufe the country wanted proper drains. &c. 
continued to be greatly annoyed with water, which 
gave occafion to the undertaking for a GENERAL 

The oppofition which prevailed, and the undeter- 
mined {fate of affairs, at this time, feenied to threaten 
total deftruUon to the great level. The power of 
the commiffioners of fewers to make new works by 

* Eaddlade. 


tax or rate, was even queftioned, 'till the opinion of 
fir Henry Hobart, attorney-general, was obtained by 
the privy-council, 1616: but notwithftanding their 
power received this force, things remained in the 
fame diftra&ed and perilous condition. 

In a petition from the commiffioners to the lords 
and others of his majefiy's privy-council, June 19, 
1618, they confine the means of effe&ing a general 
drainage to thefe two confiderations : 

L That it be provided, that the three ancient ri- 
vers of Nene, Wclland, and Oufe, may be convey- 
ed to the fea by their feveral paffagcs, with fuch con- 
venient outfaijs, as (hall be fitted for the feveral 
good and lately of all parts. 

II. That care be taken of the town of Lynn, the 
country of Marfhland and Wiggenhall, the hundred 
of Wifbech, and part of Holland. 

On this reprefentation fir Clement Edmonds, knt. 
was appointed to accompany a committee of the 
commiifioners of fewers on a view, who made the 
following report with regard to the Oufe i 

'* My Lords, The river Oufe coming along by 
the town of Bedford, Huntingdon, and St. Ives. and 
fo paffing down to his outfall at Lynn, is a goodly 
fair river throughout; and from below Ely downward 
runneth with Juch a current, that as it is absolutely the 
be/I fewer of all that country, fo it is by the great fall 
of waters thereinto, as well from the river of Grant 
out of Cambridgefhire, as from the drains which 
come out of the Ifle of Ely, much overcharged in 
winter, and in time of floods, to the prejudice of 
the adjacent parts : For remedy whereof former times 



have provided fome by-fcwers or flakcrs, and among 
others the Well-water at Erith bridge below Si. 
Ives, to receive part of the overcharge of water, and 
to eafe the river where it is narrow and knarc, and the 
country apt to be overflowed ; and to carry it through 
the ifle of Ely (though otherwife to their prejudice) 
down again into the fame river by divtrs drains, and 
inlets, where the channel for breadth and depth affords 
better paffage and conveyance to thefea: but now 
the faid Well-water doth run a contrary courfe for 
want of cleanfmg and diking^ and falleth into Oufe 
at Erith bridge, where it fhould take his courfe out, 
as appeared upon view of the committees, to the over- 
charging of the faid river, inflead of flaking or dif- 
burthening the fame." 

In purfuance of an order from the lords, the earl, 
of Arundel, fir William Ayloff, knt. bart. Anthony 
Thomas, efq. and others, took a view of the fens, 
and caufed Mr. Hoxham, furveyor to the earl, to 
make a map thereof. " And they (to ufe their own 
words) having the afliflance of fome rare engineers 
which met them, and receiving and making fpccial 
obfervations of thefe countries, refolved (by God's 
help) at their own and their friends charges and ex- 
pences, without raifmg or levying any taxes, contri- 
butions, or fums of money, of or upon the inhabi- 
tants of thofe countries, or any his majefly's fub- 
jecls, to venture the entcrprifing of the draining or 
all, or the moft part ; yea, of many thoufand acres 
of the fens, or furrounded grounds, and to make 
them dry, and to be good and profitable meadows 
and paftures, and fo to continue." 

They laid this defign before the privy-council, at 
the court at Greenwich, the lyth of May, 1619, 
and defired to have thefe following conditions or con- 

e trafls 


trach to be made to them, and confirmed by good 
"and lawful affurance. 

< Of all the kings majeflfs lands drowned with frefi 
1 or fait water injeveral. counties, which we fttalL 

* recover and make dry, the fee-farm rent of four - 
' pence per acre', over and aboi>e all rents or reve- 
' nues now in- being, or coming to his majc/ly. 

* Of all the prince's highnefs lands, the like contract 

1 refpeftivcly. 

Of all the fubjcch lands ' I . Which are Jo drou-n- 

* ed or furrounded all the year, to have two third 
' parts of all the fame lands to us and our heirs, to 

* be allowed and ajjigned to hold in fcvtraUty and 
' perpetuity for ever. 

4 2. And all thofe lands which are by half the year ^ 
'fpace, or more than half the year drowned; to 
*have l)ie one half of the fame lands to us and our 

* heirs in perpetuity . 

* And we hope, by God's grace, fpeedily to drain 
4 a great part of the faid fens ; and all, or the moft 

* pan, within three years after the contracts made 

* with his majefty and his fubjecls.' 

The king and council approving thefe offers, 
wrote to the commiffioners, defiring them to co-ope- 
Tate with the laudable endeavours of the undertakers. 
But the court of fewers let them know, that before 
they begun any works, they fhould give fecurity that the? 
would not impair the navigation in the rivers of Oufe, 
Nene, be. And \vhen they had given fecurity, they 
fliould (hew the country the means they intended 
in the draining of the level, that they might be fatif- 



fied there would be no prejudice of navigation in the 
rivers Oufe and Grant, or hurt done to Maryland. If 
it was believed there would, all farther proceedings 
U'ere to be ilaved, 

But the undertakers defiring that they might not-be 
prefled to difcovcr the me^ns in every particular, 
until their agreement with the country was made per- 
fect and furc; and the commifTioners having no 
power to give the undertakers any man's land with- 
out his voluntary confent, and of agreeing with them ; 
and on this occafion many.debates arifing, that made 
cither fide unable to come to a conclufion, the un- 
dertakers reprefcnted thefe difficulties to the privy- 
council, and thereupon letters were written from that 
board, Feb. 29, 1720, " to the lords, knights, and 
gentlemen concerned in the fens, commanding them 
to attend his majefty," 

Accordingly they did attend, when the undertakers, 
were ordered to exhibit fatisfa&ory proofs in writing, 
" What it was they promiled jo efteft, and what 
they demanded as a recompente for their labour," 
which they did, in propofals delivered to the com- 
miHioners April 13, 1621, as alfo their demand or 
proportion of each fen. 

After fome time fpent in fruitlefs altercation, as to 
tHe terms, mode, and fecurity, his majefty, who was 
not willing to let the country fuffer by any further 
delay, did himfelf undertake (by a law of lewers) 
that great work. 

But, as fir William Dugdale fays, whether it wajS 

the great difiurbance his majefty had about this time, 

and after, till the end of his reign, for the regaining 

die Palatinate, Sec. or what elfe was the impediment, 

E 2 >v 


we fhall not take upon us to fay ; but certain it is, 
nothing was done during that king's reign, nor un- 
til the 5th of Charles I. Then Francis earl of Bed- 
ford, who was owner of near twenty thoufand acres 
in Thorney and Whittlefey, was importuned by the 
country, and by the commiffioners of fewers, to un- 
dertake this great work of draining. And to fecure 
the faid earl in his reward for fo doing, to provide 
for the fecurity of navigation, See, a law of fewers 
was made at Lynn, Jan. 13, 1630, fpecifying the 
conditions and reftri&ions at large ; to which forty- 
one comrniffioners prefent put their hands and feals. 
(See this law in the fourth fedion of Badcflade's Hif- 

This law being made, the earl of Bedford fell in 
hand with the work; and the better to purfue this 
noble undertaking, he took in divers participants^ 
viz. Oliver earl of Bolingbroke, Edward lord Gorges, 
fir Robert Heath, fir Miles Sandys, fir William Ruf- 
fcl, fir Robert Bevill, fir Thomas Terringham, fir 
Philip Vernat, William Sams, doclor of law, An- 
thony Hammond, efq. Samuel Spalding, Andrew 
Burwell, gent, fir Robert Lovet, &:c. who were to 
raife money, for carrying on the work proportionable 
to the number of fhares each had, each (hare being 
four thoufand acres. And they began the work ; and 
in order to carry off the fuperfluous water wherewitli 
the fens was much annoyed, caufed thefe feveral ca- 
nals to be made, viz. 

Bedford river (now called Old Bedford) extending 
from Erith to Salter s lode, feventy feet wide, and 
twenty-one miles long, to take off the high floods 
from the river Oufe, and placed at each end thereof 
a fluicc of great firength. ' 




Sam's cut, from Feltwell to Oufe, twenty feet 
broad, and fix miles long. 

A cut to drain MildenhaH river in Burnt fen pear 
Littleport, forty feet wide, and two miles long. 

Bevil's learn from Whittlefey mere to Guyhirn, 
forty feet wide, and ten miles long, 

And likewife made a great fafs at Well creak-end, 
at Salter's lode, to keep the tides out of that river. 

And to the end they might accomplifh this fo great 
undertaking, and preferve the works after coinpleated ; 

The laid earl and his participants did, the loth 
of Charles I. obtain letters patent of incorporation, 
bearing date March 13, 1634, which being accom- 
plifhed, the works afbrefaid were carried on ; and 
about .three years after, in a feffion of fcwers holden 
at Peterborough, Oclob. 12, Car. 13. the level was 
adjudged drained; and ninety-five thoufand acres 
were fet out by fix or more commiffioncrs unto the 
faid earl of Bedford, his heirs and affigns. The 
charge of the faid work to the faid earl and his par- 
ticipants having been one hundred thoufand pounds. 

. But notwithstanding this great expence, it was evi- 
dently difcerned, that though the lands were much 
improved by thofe works, yet were they fubjecl: to 
inundation, efpecially in the winter feafon ; and 
therefore in a feffion of fewers held at Huntingdon, 
April 12, the year enfuing, the faid earl of Bed- 
ford's undertaking was adjudged defective. 

Hereupon king Charles I. taking this bufmefs into 

Iiis princely coniideration, and forefeeing that if this 

E 3 level 


level of four hundred thoufand acres could be made 
winter lands, they would be of extraordinary benefit 
to the commonwealth, viz. of 6oo,oool. per' ann. 
value, according to the eflimation of fir Cornelius 
Vcnnuyden, as alib a certain and great revenue to 
all perlons interefted; his majefty was therefore 
plcafcd to undertake, at his own charge, to make the 
level winter grounds. 

And for the better performing thereof, he com- 
Branded divers perfons, expert in iu-ch adventures, to 
give their advice how thefc lands might be made win- 
ter grounds. 

Amongft thefe artifls was fir Cornelius Vermuy- 
den, a Dutchman, who had purchafed of the king 
the level of Hatfield chacc; one half of which 
chace, viz. ninety thoufand acres were hurtfully 
drowned, and he undertook to reduce it to con Ham 
arable and pafture grounds, and which he at laft 
did, at the incredible labour and charges of above 
four hundred thoufand pounds. They all agreed that 
ic was feafible/ but differed much in the manner or 
way to accomplish it. Sir Cornelius Vermuydcn's 
fcheme had the preference. And July iS, 1638, the 
king was declared undertaker. And was to have 
not only thofe ninety-five thoufand acres, which had 
been fet out for the earl of Bedford, but alfo fifty- 
leven thoufand acres more from the country, his ma- 
jefty's defign being to make the land good winter 

.And the earl of Bedford, in confideration of the 
co ft he had,been at, was to have forty thoufand of 
the ninety-five thoufand acres. 



The king, to manifcft his earneft and real purpofes 
for the fpeedy draining, caufed feveral works to be 


But here, fays Dugdale, we come to a period of 
this excellent prince's defign. For he being forced 
to raife an army againil the Scots in 1638, and con- 
tinuing the I'eft of his life involved in an unnatural 
war at home, the level lay neglecled, and the coun- 
try complaining they had received no benefit by the 
draining, they entered upon the -ninety-five thou- 
fand acres again, which had been taken from them. 

. Soon ^ as the king was dead, (viz. anno 1641} 
Francis earl of Bedford, and his participants, made 
their application to the then parliament, and had 
their cafe committed: but the civil war hindering 
them from any further profecution of this undertak- 
ing, it occafioned the works made by him and by 
the king, to decay and become in a great meafure 
ulelefs, nor were there any new works made 

Until 1649, William earl of Bedford, fon and 
heir to the late Francis, being willing to profecute a 
work, wherein his father had been fo great an adven- 
turer, made his addrefs in behalf of himfelf and 
others his participants, to the, convention. parliament 
at Weftminflcr. And he obtained an act (the agth of 
May in the year aforefaid) entitled, An Aft for Drain- 
ing the Great Level of the Fens, Sec. which declared 
the faid William earl of Bedford, and his partici- 
pants, to be the undertakers of the work of drain- 
ing the faid great level, and ordered, " That they 
fliould at, or before the loth day of October, which 
fliould be in the year of our Lord 1656, caufe the 
i'ame to be drained and imbanked without prejudice to 
navigation in the rivers or parts adjacent; and all the 
E 4 'Jaid 


Jaid level Jhould be made winter ground, in Juch manner 
as the Jaid rivers, or any of them, Jhould not overjloiu 
the grounds within the Jaid level And for bear-ing the 
charge of draining, and maintaining the works from time 
to time, Jlwuld have and enjoy he Jaid whole ninety-Jive 
t'.oufand acres, as the fame had heretofore been fet 
forth in O&ober, in the 13th year of the reign of 
the late king Charles I. or hereafter fhould, by vir- 
tue of this act, be allotted, Sec." 

And as Charles I. preferred fir Cornelius Vermuy- 
den's fcheme for draining, and followed it. when he 
imbanked Morton's-leam, fetting the banks in fome 
places a mile afunder, for the waters to bed in ; fo 
did the earl in making the New Bedford river and 

But this praclice Van Wefterdyke, who was font 
for to view the fens, fays, fir Cornelius could give 
him no reafons for. And John Barents Wefterdyke, 
who viewed the fens in 1650, farther fays, " Expe- 
rience will fhew, that waters kept together in a body 
pafs fwiftly, and mend their channel ; but divided 
and difperfed pafs away very flowly, and in time lofe 
their channel." Atkins is of this opinion. 

Col, Dodfon, who writ a piece for draining, (and 
was director of the Corporation of 1 Adventurers works) 
faith, p. 7, " But I wifh that thofe banks which are 
upon Bedford river and Morton's-leam had not been 
placed at fo great diftance one from another." And 
indeed many arguments were printed againft Ver- 
muyden's fcheme, and againft fetting banks of rivers 
at a great diftance afunder, about the time of the 
undertaking die draining. 



Mr. Edmund Scotton wrote a piece, intitled, " A 
defperate and dangerous dcfign difcovered concerning 
the fen countries," in anfwer to fir Cornelius Ver- 
muyden's " Difcourfe touching the draining of the 
great fens," S:c. And lord Gorges declared in writ- 
ing, " That it was ever his opinion, that *he better 
way of draining this South Level (for whofe benefit 
alone the fluices were intended) is by banks without 
any fluices at all at Denver, according to the certain 
rules of draining, which is to imbank all rivers and 
brook waters ; and never to put fluices upon fuch 
waters as have a continual body to preferve theif 
channels or outfalls from filting up by tides." 


There were alfo feveral pieces printed about this 
time againft fir Cornelius Vcrmuyden's fcheme by 
the inhabitants of the fens ; and others who endea- 
voured to prove how prejudicial his fcheme, if car- 
ried into execution, would be to drainage and navi- 
gation; notwithflanding which, A. D. 1650, the un- 
dertakers for draining the fens did execute that fcheme, 
and fluices were by them decreed to be made neaf 
Sailer's lode, crois the river Oufe, beneath the mouths 
of Stoke, Brandon, Mildenhall, and Grant rivers, t(T 
flop the tidal flood from putting into any of diem; 
and alfo the New Bedford river was decreed to be 
digged from Salter's lode to Erith, in length twenty- 
one miles ; and fluices were alfo by the faid corpo- 
ration decreed to be fet down crofs the old channel 
of Oufe at the Hermitage near Erith, to turn the wa- 
ters out of their ancient courfe down the faid New 
Bedford river, according to fir Cornelius Vermuy- 
den's project. 

\Ve cannot help obferving, that the expence of 
executing this artificial fcheme was calculated at but 
Soool. lefs than the charge would have been of im- 



banking the natural rivers, .and following the known 
Jure rules of draining ; and there was fo great a di^ 
vifion amongft the adventurers which method to fol- 
low, that the majority for fluicing the river Oufc was 
but one vote ; and that majority was occafioned by 

the private imercft of who had fome lands in 

$ie South Level. 

As foon as the corporations of the univerfity and 
town of Cambridge, and of King's Lynn, had know- 
ledge of this decree of the adventurers to erecl: 
fluices crofs the great river Oufe, they being appre- 
nenfive that fuch fluices would utterly deftroy navi- 
gation, they petitioned the commiflioners that were 
appointed by the acl in 1649, to judge between the 
country and the adventurers, in- the inoft moving 
terms againft fuch fluices being built. 

And. continues Mr. Badeflade, " Notwithflanding 
all thefe reftraints, remonftranccs, and rcafons to the 
contrary, yet in oppoffdon to the laws of their coun- 
try to the rules of draining to ihcir own acl: of 
parliament, they did build fluices crofs the river of 
.Great Oufe, at Erith, and ax Denver h;the." 

Befides repeated petitions from Lynn Regis and 
Cambridge, the town of Brandon and borough of 
Thetford remonftrated againft the erecting of Den- 
ver fluke, Sec. 

The adventurers,, to juflify themfclves againft the 
petitioners complaints before the parliament, made 
the following obje&ions: 

' That inftead of die old little rivers, they have 
* given another new river, called Bedford River, 
" which is as large and open, and a receptacle at 


" leaft equivalent, if not better than what they have 
14 taken away : that the tides do flow as high into 
" the the country as formerly, with this advantage, 
" that they flow and return now by a flrait channel 
" inftead of a crooked. 

" It was the diyncfs of the feafon, and not the 
<: undertakers works, diat had prejudiced navigation ; 
" for if the fprings are dry, the ft ream muft needs 

41 fail. That the city of London do not petition 

" in regard the navigation of the Thames was never 
" fo bad. 

" The commimoners hearing all objections, and 
" after examination of witnefles upon oath, and af- 
" ter their own view upon the place, have adjudged 
" the fens drained according to the acl. 

" It was proved upon the adjudication, that full 
*' as much, if not more, frefli water did run out at 
" Lynn haven as formerly. 

<c The raifmg the price of water-carriage was a 
" contrivance of watermen, and fome of ability of- 
" fered to carry as cheap as ever. 

" In former times there never was any conftant 
" fummer navigation to Cambridge: This lafl fum- 
** mer there was. 

" In regard the petitions of Lynn and Cambridge 
" tend to .the overthrowing the whole work of drain- 
" ing, and call in_queftion matters of fa6l adjudged 
" by the commiffioners upon their view; therefore 
" the petitioners are not to be relieved c\;en in par- 
" I lament/ 1 



When Charles II. was rcflored to the crown, the 
a&s of the late lord protector became invalid ; con- 
fequently that of 1 649, under colour of which the 
works complained of were made, was no longer in 
force : fo that the undertakers for draining flood 
upon the foot of the law made by the cornmimoners 
of fewers, anno 6 Car. I. and became fubjecl to the 
general commiffion of fewers: which perplexing the 
faid undertakers, they procured an aft of parliament 
the 1 5th of Car. II. entitled, An Aft for fettling the 
Draining of the great Level of the Fens, called Bedford 
Level; by which they were incorporated by the name 
of " The Governor, Bailiffs, and Commonalty of 
' the Company of Confervators of the Great Level 
" of the Fens, called Bedford Level, to have pcrpe- 
" tual fucceffior* for ever." And it is therein en- 

' That the Governor, fix Bailiffs, and twenty 
" Confervators, or any five or more, fhould be Com- 
" miffioners of Sewers within the faid Level, and 
" the works without the faid Level, for conveying 
c< the Waters of the faid Level to fea. 

" That no other Commiffioners of Sewers fhall 
" intermeddle, 8cc." 

Upon paflmg this a&, the town of Lynn did, by 
their representatives, oppofe the continuing of the 
dam and fluices made crofs the river Oufe at Den- 
ver and at Erith, and they procured fome favourable 
daises to be inferted in the faid aft. 

The corporation of Lynn complained to thefe 
commimoners, anno 1669, 1676, and 1677, of the 
prejudices done to their navigation by the faid cor- 
poration of fen-drainers, and reprefentcd their in- 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. - 53 

rivaling danger of total lofs of it ; but could obtain 
no relief, while the commifiioners that were named 
in the act lived. And as they died, for want of no- 
mination in fucceflion, as mentioned in the aforefaid 
act of parliament, this judicature became extinct, and 
i he remedies prefcribed by the faid act confequently 

Several affidavits, and other evidences, were ad- 
duced, to convince parliament how much Denver 
iluice, 8cc. had effected the decay of the river, haven 
and channel, at and below Lynn. 

Edmund Hooke, efq. mayor of King's Lynn, ad- 
tlrelied a letter, dated Jan. 6, 1695, to the duke of 
Bedford, then governor of the adventurers, befeech- 
ing his grace to ufe his influence and aiuhoritv witli 
the corporation in behalf of the navigation. This 
letter was delivered by fir H. Hobart, of Blickling, 
K. Walpole, efq. of Houghton, dr John Turner, of 
Lynn, and fir Charles Turner, of Warham ; but 
receiving no {satisfactory anfwer, a bill was brought 
into parliament by fir Charles Turner, " For the 
better preservation of the port of King's Lynn." As 
alfo petitions from' Marfliland, univerfity and bo- 
rough of Cambridge, borough of Thetford, St. Ed- 
mund's Bury, Brandon, Stoke, and many towns ia 
and by the fouth level. The bill was twice read, 
and oppofcd by petitions from the county and bo- 
rough of Huntingdon, Ely, the adventurers, See. 
when, after council and witnefs had been heard oa 
both fides, the motion for committing the bill palled 
in the negative. 

The ilate of draining remained in a precarious 
uncertainty from the^'time of erecting Denver fluices, 
at 7000!. expence, 1651^. 'till they were undermined 



firft, and afterwards blown up and deftroyed by 
tides from fea, anno 1713. Badeflade fays the Oufe 
at Denver hithc was formerly one hundred and fifty 
feet wide, whereas the water-way through the flukes 
is now only eighty feet. The fame writer, after 
enumerating various caufes and confequences, adds, 
*' By that power (meaning a claufe in an a6l of 
parliament, authorifmg the adventurers to extend 
their works without the level) were Denver fluiccs 
built, and St. John's Eaii and Tong's drain made * 
which works have almoft deftroyed the outfall of the 
river Oufe/ the draining in the fens, and the navi* 
gation of Lynn."'* 

Befules the works of draining maintained by the 
adventurers in the north and middle level, the cor- 
poration charge themfelves with the following in the 
ibuth level, which comprehends all the fen-lands end 
of the Old Bedford river, in Norfolk, Suffolk, and 
Cambridgefhire, and bears a proporion of one icvcn- 
teenth to the draining taxes 

South bank of the river Oufe, from the hard lands 
of Swacey, 8cc. to die Hermitage, and the iafs or 
fluke there.' 

The ri\er called New Bedford River, from the 
Hermitage to Salter's lode, with the banks, forelands, 

wear-dikes and flukes thereof. 

The drajn that leads from Ewel fen to Audrey 
eaufeway, and from thence into the Old Oufe at Au- 
di ey bridge. 

Grunty fen drain, from Gninty fen to the Old 
Oufe; at Liuleport chair, \vith its banks. 

? Badeflade. 

OF F R E E B R 1 D G E. 55 

Part of Old Wclney river. 

Littleport drain. 

Maid lode and Modney drain, with the fluices to 
jnc fame. 

The drain that carries away Hogginton brook, 
with the banks to be raifed. 

The river Grant, from Clay hithe to Harrimere, 
with the banks, forelands, wear-dikes, and fluices 

The banks of Old Oufe, from Harrimere to Chit- 

The new long drain from \Vickcn-h igh fen to the 
tunnel, under Soham new river, and fo to the tunnel 
under Mi Idcnhall river ; from thence to the tunnel 
under Brandon river, and fo to the tunnel under 
Stoke river ; and from thence through Downham Eail 
to the fluke, at the lower end thereof near Stow 
bridge. />>$ ?l \-> 

The eaft banks of Oufe, from Harrimere to the 
Brick fluke, at Prick-willow, within the Wear-dike 

The new bank on the weft fide of the river Oufe 
from Harrimere to Ely high-bridge. 

Th'e drains from the eaft end of the Adventurers 
lands,, taken out of Soham common, to the wear- 
dike of Mildenhall river. 

Mildenhall river, with the banks, forelands, and 
wear-dikes thereof. 


The eafl banks of the river Oufe, from Mildenhall 
river to the fluke at the lower end of Mildenhall 
drain, near Littleport chair. 

Mildenhall drain, from the laft-mentioned fluke 
to Mildenhall common. 

The river Oufe, with the banks, forelands, wear- 
dikes, flukes, and tunnels thereof from Littleport- 
chair to Denver dam, excepting the flukes, tunnels, 
and water-works heretofore made and maintained by 
Edmund Skipwith, efq. deceafed, and other particu- 
lar owners of lands within or near the faid great le- 
vel, for his or their own private benefit. 

Lakenheath drain, from Wainsford brook to the 
tunnel under Lakenheath new lode, and fo to the 
tunnels under Brandon river. 

Brandon river, with the banks, forelands, and, 
wear-dikes thereto belonging. 

Feltweli drain, to its outfall into die river of Oufe 
at Palmer s houfe. 

f Sam's cut, from Feltweli to the river Oufe. 

Stoke river, with the banks, forelands, wear-dikes 
and flukes. 

A tunnel under Methwold lode for the draining 
of Northwold fens. 

Roxham drain, with the banks thereof. 

Thefe works and drains are, from time to time, 
preferred and maintained at the coils and charges of 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. * 57 

the faid corporation and their fucceffors, owners of 
the faid ninety-five thoufand acres mentioned in the 
acl: of the 1 5th of Charles II. and not by the owners 
of any of the lands within the faid great level, other 
than of the faid ninety-five thoufand acres ; except 
in cafes where particular contracts have been made 
by the faid corporationt. 

The only poffible means, fays Badeflade, of male* 
ing the tides and frefhes capable (as they heretofore 
were) of working thefc ufeful and clefirable effects, is 
to give nature her way, and to affift her where need- 
ful; as is advifed by the honourable Col. John 
Armflrong, his majefty's now engineer-general, in 
the report he made to the Right Hon. Robert Wai- 
pole, efq. and to the Right Hon. Henry earl of Lin- 
coln, the 12th of May, 1724,' viz. 

" i. To open the Old Oufc from Harrimere to 
Hermitage, near Erith, to its ancient breadth and 
depth ; and with the earth that comes out of it, to 
form banks on the/ides thereof, to prevent the land* 
floods or frefhes overflowing the adjacent lands in 
the winter. 

"2. To remove the gravels near Stretham, or 
tvhercvcr elfe they are to be' found in the" river Oufc, 
or other impediments, to the end the land-floods, 
whenever they defcend, may find out a quick paffagc 
to lea, and carry off all the filt and fand they meet 
in dicir way. 

"3. To take up the remains of Denver flukes, 

or make a new cut juft by them, to render the river 

(now but eighty feet wide) in this place one hundred 

and fifty feet wide, as it formerly was ; fo that the 

tides may have full liberty to flow up by the Oufe 

f into 

t Fortrey, vino 1 68 j. 


into their ancient receptacles, viz. the rivers Stoke, 
Brandon, Mildenhafl and Grant, which will contain 
a fufficient indraught of back-water for deepening 
the Oufe upon its return, and thereby reftoring its 
navigation within land; as well as giving the land- 
floods, when they defcend, a fwifter paflage to dif- 
charge themfelves by the port of Lynn into the lea, 

"4. To take up the fluice, or fafs, now at the 
Hermitage upon the river Oufe near Erich, and if it 
fliall be thought neceffary, to fet it down again in 
the New Bedford river, or one hundred feet cut near 
the faid Hermitage, for the benefit of navigation 
only. And thereby to fend the land-floods down 
the river Oufe, their natural channel, which muft as 
afore-mentioned have good efrccl ; and prevent their 
dcfcending for the future by the New Bedford river, 
and running unnaturally, as they for fome years pad 
have been obferved to do, (for many days together) 
to the great damage of the river Oufe ; and if not 
timely remedied, will be the total deftrudlion of na- 
vigation upon that river, and the other rivers up- 
ward towards Cambridge, as it is already that of 

" By this method, I am humbly of opinion, that 
the land-floods, or freflies, being turned into the ri- 
ver Oufe, their natural channel, joined to the reflux 
of the tide ; which will now have a much larger in- 
draught for a back-water, than it hadi had for many 
years before; will infallibly deepen the Oufe in a 
very little time to its ancient depth, by driving out 
to fea the land and filt with which it is now very 
near choaked up ; and thereby not only render all 
the fens capable of being drained effectually, but all 
the rivers that fall into it, will be, by being deepened, 
made capable of carrying as large barges or boats as 



ever they did heretofore ; and befides, it will deepen 
and clear out the haven of Lynn, and the channel 
from thence down to fea. 

May 10, 1724* 

And it is Mr. Badeflade's firm opinion, " That 
thefe fens, though now they be totally drowned, will 
ibme few ages hence (if the method propofed by 
Col. Armflrong be executed) become good meadow 

A deputation from Lynn waited on the corporation 
of adventurers at Ely, Auguft 17 24s with Col. Arm- 
flrong's report : at the fame time Mr. Charles Bridg- 
man ptefented a report and fcheme on the part of 
the adventurers* which they foon after gave up, yc6 
did not adopt the other. 

Mr. Badcflade's fcheme, printed in 1729, " The 
method to drain the fens I humbly conceive mull 

" To do with the Oufe, what nature hath done 
to all other rivers, and what (hie would have dene to 
this new one, if flie had had as many ages for her 
operations here, as (he hath had on the old rivers. 

" To make the Oufe wide in proportion to its 
length, and in proportion to the waters that fhould 
be conveyed through it to fea. 

" To make this river that hath not had this vaft 

confluence of waters lead to it above fix or feven 

hundred years, and great part of that time hath been 

ebflruclecl by flukes, and not only confined from 

f a being 


being worn wider by the water at the four bridges, 
but hath been encroached upon and made narrow, 
and is the narroweft river in the world for its length. 
To make this river as wide in fome meafure, as it 
would have been if all thefe waters (that have this 
courfe in default of their former outfall) had had 
their courfe through it originally. 

" To make this river that hath more land to 
drain, and hath more frefli water to convey to fea 
than hath the Thames, in fome meafure capacious 
like the Thames. 

" To make the river Oufe, from Denver to fca- 
ward, wide enough to receive and convey through its 
banks the high-country frcflies, which for want of 
room to get to fea in reafonable time, do overflo\r 
and hurtfully furround the Great Level of the Fens.'* 

Meflrs. Chicheley, Kinderlev, Sec. in a fchcme 
publiflied in 1721, propofcd making the outfall nar~ 
rower, in order to drain the fens. 

Capt. Perry propofed, Feb. 6, 1729, fluicing the. 
Oufe in many places, in order to drain the fens by 
artificial J ewers. 

According to a furvey delivered by Mr. William 
Hayward, upon oath, July 13, 1605, the whole of 
the fen-lands in the Great Bedford Level amount to 
three hundred and feven thoufand two hundred and 
forty-two acres. 

The particular quantities and qualities of the 
eighty-three thoufand acres, forted, rated and valued, 
by the commimoncrs under the aoth of Charles II. 
Brewing the quantity of land of each of the eleven 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. *6i 

forts, and how much each fort raifes on a fmgle tax. 
The' other twelve thoufand acres, called the King's 
Land, and the two thoufand acres, called the Eari 
of Portland's Lands, are taxed at" fifteen pence per 
acre, when the eighty-three thoufand acres are rated 
at a fmgle tax and a quarter of a fmgle tax ; but that 
fum is increafed in proportion with the eighty-three 
thoufand acres, when they are taxed higher than a 
tax and a quarter ; decreafed, in the fame proportion, 
when they are taxed lower. 

Sorts Tax. A. R. P. 

D. . s. d. 

1. 4 7591 o o 126 10 4 

2. 8 17710 2 o 590 7 o 

3. 12 26715 1 O 1335 14 O 

4. 16 22628 o o 1 5S 10 8 

5. 20 4642 2 O 386 17 6 

6. 24 1670 3 o 167 i 6 

7. 28 789 o o 92 i o 

8. 3 2 447 3 3 2 $9 H 
9- 3 6 368 oo, 5.5 4 o 

10. 40 53 o o 8 16 8 

11. 44 384 08 70 8 o 

4401 5 8 

The amount of a whole tax on the 
eighty-three thoufand acres, exclu- 
five of the twelve dioufand acres 440 1 

f 3 At 


At a meeting held the third of November, 1774, 
at the Shire-hall at Ely, purfuant to advei tifemem, 
to take the fenfe of the country refpecling the diftref- 
icd ftate of the Middle and South Levels ; the coun- 
try then prefent did requefr the corporation to 
make an application to the parliament, to im- 
pofe a temporary tax, not exceeding fix-pence per 
acre, to continue not longer than feven years, upon 
all tht adventurers and free-lands in the Middle and 
South Levels, together witji a tax on the tonnage of 
navigation carried through the faid levels ; for the 
effectual draining and prcferving the fame, by fuch 
ways and means as fhould be agreed on between the 
country and corporation, to be fpccified in the acl 
to be obtained for that purpofe : which faicl rcfolu- 
tion was taken into confideration at the annual April 
meeting of the corporation, holden at Ely this day, 
and it was then agreed, that a fum ihould be raifod, 
equal to the amount of fixpence per acre, upon the 
free-lands within the Middle and Soudi Levels, (com- 
mons excepted) to be proportionably affeffed, accord- 
ing to the different value thereof, to be eflimatcd by 
the general acre tax, to which the adjacent adventure 
lands are now fubjecl ; and alib that two-pence an 
acre ihould be raifed upon the commons, without 
any regard to their value. Which taxes fliall be 
continued for feven years, and no longer; and be 
applied to the GENERAL DRAINAGE. 

The terms upon which the above taxes are agreed 
to be raifed, are as follows : 

Fir/1, That the corporation fliall aflefs the adven- 
ture-lands, at a tax and an half, during the conti- 
nuance of the aforefaid new taxes. 

Secondly, That a further tax, equal to the amount 
?f fix-pence per acre, (hall be railed upon all the 



adventure-lands, by a gradual acre tax, in the like 
manner as their prefent taxes are raifed. 

T^i'-dh'. That a tonnage be laid upon all goods 
carried to Lynn and Wifbech by water, out of the 
country, and from Lvnn and Wifbech up into the 
country. The quantum of which tonnage is pro- 
pofed to be fettled between the corporation and the 
merchants and others interefted therein. 

Four 'My, That the taxes to be raifed on the free- 
lands fhall be applied to the purpofes of this aft, 
under the direction of a committee to be chofen by 
the owners of fuch free-lands. 

The works intended to be done will be fet out 
and particularly defcribed in the bill to be offered to 
parliament, copies whereof will be timely diitributcd 
throughout the country. 

The great works propofed to be done are, 

Firft, To obtain a fufficient outfall to fea, near 
Lynn, by fuch methods as was formerly propofed by 
Mr. Kinderley, or by fuch other means as ihall be 
judged more advifable, by able engineers: next, to 
deepen the great rivers, to wit, the river from Wif- 
bech to Standground; the Old and New Bedford; 
the rivejs Nene, Oufe, Mildenhall, Brandon, and 
Stoke ; and afterwards to do fudi other works, as 
fiball be for the " benefit of navigation and drainage." 

Each level to have the benefit of its own taxes, and 
the tonnage for making good the great outfalls. 

Publifhedby order of die Board, April 20, 1775. 


Mr. William Elftobb, in his - obfervations on the 
foregoing refolutions, printed in 1776, fays: "And 
as thefe ninety-five thoufand acres were allotted up- 
on thofe conditions, it became neceflary to cliarge 
them with an annual taxation, and as ai firfl the 
whole was confidered as one fingle " plot, the land 
was promifcuoufly rated by an acre-tax ; but after- 
wards for the more ordeny management and 
regulation, the whole tract was divided into ihicc 
diftind diftri&s, or levels, viz. the North Level, the 
Middle Level, and the South Level.. And, in the 
taxation, the lands were rated according to th 
veral different qualities, by a gradual and prop 
al acre-tax, of eleven different Jons or dcgn 
fuch a manner, that when the annual tax upon the 

. *, *. 

95000 acres amounts to 5O5 1 7 2 
It is called a fingle tax, out of which 

the North Level paid 621 14 Si 

And the Middle and South Levels 4429 12 5! 

And when the faid lands are rated in 
fuch a manner as they call a tax 
and one-fourth, the whole amount 
is 6314 3 

Out of which the North Levci paid 777 3 

And the Middle and South Levels 5537 o 6i 

And this is faid to have been a pretty 

ufual tax. 
When the aforefaid lands are rated at 

a tax and a half, which is fome- 

thing more than common, the whole 

amount is 757/09 



L . s < d - 

Out of which the Nortji Level paid 932 12 of 

And the Middle and South Levels 6644 8 8$ 

Thefe taxes ufed to be employed to 
the fupport and maintenance, and 
making fuch new works as were 
thought neceCluy, in any or all the 
levels indifferently, or as occafioii 
might require, and the fecurity of 
money borrowed relied upon the 
whole revenue indi'fcriminately, 'till 
about die year 1728, the North Le- 
vel was put upon a feparate manage- 
ment from the other two, at which 
time it is faid the corporation bond 
debts amounted to 16300 

And that from that time to Lady-day, 
i -.- ; 2, there was borrowed for the 
fervicc of the Middle and South 
Levels 15840 

Sp that the whole of the corporation. 

debt at Lady-day, 1732, was 3 21 4 

" What the flate of their finances may have been 
fince that time, I cannot take upon me to determine. 
I (hall only obferve, that though the North Level 
was then under a feparate management, yet its taxes 
were not under any particular appropriation till about 
the year 1753, when an acl ol parliament was ob- 
tained for appropriating them to the fole ufe of thai 
level, to fix diem at a certain determinate limitation 

of a tax, or and to di fen gage them from all 

obligations for money borrowed, or that had been 
borrowed by the corporation before that time ; and 



from that time, the faid level was to be entirely taken 
from the direction of the corporation, and to be put 
under the direciion of certain commiffioners nomi- 
nated for that purpofe, under which direciion it now 

" In all ordinary cafes of contract, it is looked 
upon, that the work undertaken, fhould be com- 
pleted for the reward flipulated and the recompence 

" But after more than an hundred years enjoy- 
ment of the reward, the country are now told by 
the undertakers, that the work cannot be corapleated 
without further aid and amflance. 

" Perhaps it may be faid, that one of the great 
tvorks intended to be done, is the making of a new 
/trait cut from fome where near St, Germans, or St. 
Peter's, to Lynn, as was formerly propofed by John 
Chicheley, efq. and lately by Mr. Kinderlcy, which 
it is apprehended will be of advantage to trade and 
navigation, for which rcafon all perfons interefted iu 
trade and commerce ought to be contributors. 

"All this appears to be equitable and right, pro- 
vided they could be fully fatisfied they fliould ob- 
tain the advantage which Mr. Kinderlcy and fome 
others are of opinion, would arii'e from it ; but fome 
able engineers, as Badeflade, 8cc. Sec. arc of a con- 
trary opinion, and think fuch a cut would be preju- 
dicial : and fome are of opinion that it is unneccffa- 
ry, and that the prefent channel might at a lefs ex- 
pence be fo amended, as to anfwer the pr.rpoie of 
draining as well as navigation/' 



The fame writer infifts, that the improvement 
and fecurity of the great level of die fens, *.' depends 
upon two principal circumftances. 

" The firft is the coin-eying the high-land and 
foreign waters through them, as much under foil, 
as calmlv, and as expeditiouilv as poffible. 

** This can only be done by large and deep ri- 
vers, with banks fet at moderate diftanccs. to fcreen 
and flicker the water running between them, from 
the violent force of the wind, according to the. fcnti- 
jnents, and upon the fame principles, as thofe ad- 
vanced by Van Scotten, Weiierdyke, and almoft all 
the engineers that have wrote fince dieir time upon 
the fubjett. 

' The fecond way, is to make feparate drains, 
channels and tunnels, where necellary to lead away 
the downfall waters, to fome lower part of th^ prin- 
cipal rivers, or to fome feparate outfall by them lei ves." 

" As to die intended new cut, I have only to add. 
that in my humble opinion, the bringing it into the 
old river a little below Germans, as propofed by 
Mr. Kinderley, would anfwer all the expected pur- 
pofes, as well, as carrying it up to St. Peter's ; will 
cut through lefs land, and be attended v, iih lefs ex- 
pence, and the old channel may be almoil as cafily 
darned over there, as more upward; for in my 
humble opinion, darned up it muft be, or otherwife 
in a little time the two channels will fpoil each 

February 10, 1777, the petition, which is now 
the fubje& of public controverfy, was prefented to 
the Houfe of Commons by fir John Hinde Cotton; 


the prayer of -which runs thus: " Your petitioner* 
" humbly pray this honourable houie, that leave 
'* may be given to bring in a bill, for preferving the 
" drainage of the Middle and South Levels, and 
*' the feveral navigations through the fame ; and for 
" impofmg taxes on the lands within the faid levels, 
" and laying tolls on goods conveyed by the faid 
' navigations, in order to raife further neceffary funds 
" for that purpofe." 

The committee, to wham the petition was refer- 
red, having examined records, eftimatcs, &:c made 
their report the 2ift of March following. Amongft 
the many evidences brought before them, 

' Mr. Thomas Hogard, an engineer, being exa- 
mined, faid, that the rain and fpring waters, out of 
part of the counties of Northampton, Norfolk, Suf- 
folk, Lincoln, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Bucking- 
ham, Hertford, and Eflex, have their couife by na- 
tural rivers to the fea at Lynn and Wifbech, thro' 
the Bedford level. 

,!>i>rt O'l -' '"'' .' .. 

" Mr. John Wing, being examined, faid, that the 
adventure-lands and the free-lands are equally liable 
to be overflowed ; and, 

" Charles Nalfon Cole, efq. regifler to the Bed- 
fora -Level Corporation, informed your committee, 
that, fmce the parling of the acl of the i^th year of 
king Charles II. above five hundred thoufand pounds 
have been expended on the three levels by the faid 
corporation, and that a fingle tax produces about 
four thouiand pounds a year. 

*' Your committee then examined Mr. John Brown ; 
who informed them, that the laii tax, which was 


one \vhole tax and an half, was laid on the adven- 
ture-lands within the middle and Couth levels for 
6628!. 75. but he could not fay how much it pro 1 - 
duced ; that the corporation are not limited in re- 
gard to taxation ; that the taxes on the adventurers 
lands have been fo high, as to induce the proprie- 
tors of near one-lixth part of the whole to abandon, 
their property rather than pay the fame ; that, in the 
year 17,50, upwards of four thoufand acres were 
fo abandoned, and upwards of eight thoufand thrown 
up before were vefted in the corporation, and in 
1763 upwards of ten thoufand acres were in the in- 
verted roll, and put up by the corporation to be lett 
for a year ; that in i 763 die tax was laid for 55231.- 
1*25. 6d. and was one whole tax and an half ; that 
the ten thoufand acres were not put up in one lot ; 
that the inverted lands are lett by public auction at 
each April, and for one year only ; ihat no lands arc' 
ever vefted in the corporation when they will pay 
the taxes on them ; and that, when they are fo in- 
veiled, tlie corporation cannot fell them without the? 
aid of parliament; that he has heard from one of 
the members of the Bedford Level Corporation, and 
has good reafon to believe, that there will be a great- 
er number of acres thrown up at the next April 
meeting than ever was known.' 1 And being afked. 
" Whether the corporation had contracted any debts 
on account of the middle and fouth levels ;" lie 
laid, " They had, amounting to 38,000!. bcfidei 
expending the taxes ; that the faid debt has been 
ever fince the commencement in contracting, and is- 
over and above feveral fums given up to the corpo- 

" Mr. Cole being aiked, " Whether the corpora- 
tion, by letting and felling inverted lands, had reim- 
themfelvcs the fums laid thereon in taxes ?" 



faid, " They had not, and that he did not know 
the number of acres at prefcnt vefted in the corpora- 
tion for non-payment of the taxes." 

" Mr Thomas Hogard being further examined, 
faid, " That, by improvements in agriculture, the 
downfall is communicated to the fevcral brooks and 
rivers, and by the amendments of the roads great 
quantities of water arc conveyed through the level 
to the lea." And being afked, " Whether that ad-' 
ditionai water from the upland country would not 
increafe the ftream, and deepen the rivers ; he faid, 
*' It would, if the banks were kept up ; but that, 
if they are broke down, the. adjacent country would 
be overflowed." 

'* In order to Chew the flate of the navigation on 
the feveral rivers running through the faid level, Mr. 
James Golbome was examined ; who gave your com- 
mittee an account, " That, between the 4th of May, 
1776, and the 30! of February, 1777, there had 
patted, on the Hundred-Foot River, two thoufand 
fix hundred and nine-two boats and lighters, carry- 
ing together twenty-four thoufand five hundred and 
fixty-four tons of goods ; and that altogether one 
thoufand two hundred and fixty-five pretty large 
horfes had paffcd along the banks, employed in hal- 
ing the fame ; that, in the fame time, there had 
paffcd through Denver fluice, on the Oufe, feven 
thoufand and feventy boats and lighters, conveying 
fifty-four thoufand five hundred and eighty-two tons 
of goods, and haled by three thoufand fix hundred 
and ninety-four horfes ; and on the Nene and Old 
Bedford rivers in the fame time, four thoufand one 
hundred and one boats and lighters, conveying thir- 
ty-two thoufand two hundred and thirty-nine tons 
i goods, and haled by two thoufand and fifty-nine 

horfe* j 


horfi s ; that there had patted Standground fluice on 
tlie Nene, from die i6th of May, 1776, to the sd 
of February, 1777, three thoufand fix hundred and 
feventecn boats and lighters, conveying twenty-three 
thoufand five hundred and three tons of goods, and 
haled by one thoufand fix. hundred and eleven 
horfes." And being afked,, " Whether the banks 
of the faid rivers arc damaged by the horfes employ- 
ed in haling vellels going upon them ;" he faid. 
' They are, very greatly; that the horfes do not 
draw in a right hue one behind the other, but oblique- 
ly, and fo cover a larger fpace, and do more damage 
than would be done by common drawing ; and that 
there is not to his knowledge any comp'enfation made 
to the Bedford Level Corporation for the damage fo 

" Mr. Hogard being defired to defcribe the length 
of each particular bank, of which the faid one hun- 
dred and' feventy miles is compofed, he gave the 
committee the following ftate of them: 


The fouth bank and Morton's leam 1 2 

The Oufe from Denver lluice to the Hermitage v 29 
The river Cam from Clay hithe to Harrimcre 9 

Well creak 7 

From Well creak to Ramfey lode 20 

Whittlefey dike 9 

The Forty-foot drain lo 

The Old Bedford 21 

The New Bedford 21 

Swafey bank - 3 

Stoke river bank 9 

Brandon river bank 10 

Mildenhall bank , 10 



" Mr. Knowles, and Mr. Cole, being further ex- 
amined, faid, " That the mills have been the caufc 
of almoft the definition of the country." 

' " Mr. Hogard being afked, " Whether lie con- 
ceived it to be neceffary to embank all the rivers in 
the level ;" he faid, " He did ; and that he had 
made an eflimate of the whole expence. 1 ' And be- 
ing afked, " Whether, if the rivers were imbanked, 
it would be neccllaiy to have drains' to convey the 
Water into them ;" ' he faid, " It certainly would, 
but whether thofe are works to be done by the cor- 
poration, or particular land-owners, he did not 
know." And being afked, " What would be the 
expence ;" he faid, " His eflimate amounts to one 
hundred and eighty thoufand pounds including the 
fum of twenty-eight thoufand pounds for making 
Kinderly's cut ; that, if the rivers were imbanked, 
the floods might rife higher in them than they do 
i-ictv, but they would run off fooner ; that, if the 
banks were to be, calculated merely for the ufe of 
the navigation, and not to keep out die floods, they 
might be made at Icfs expcncc ; but that fuch banks 
would certainly be loon waflied away. 1 ' Being afk- 
ed, " What he thought would be the confequencc 
to the level, if the great river banks were to be loft;" 
faid, " The low-lands would be drowned, and the 
navigation loft." And he then delivered in to your 
committee, eftimates of the expence of executing 
the works propofcd to be done in the middle and 
fouth levels, being part of the Bedford great level ; 
and alfo an eftimate of the expence of deepening the 
New Bedford or Hundred-Foot River, and repair- 
ing the fouth bank thereof, from Hermitage to Den- 
ver iluicfT; and likewife a plan of the intended 
works, all figned by himfclf. And being afked, 
* Whether he thought Denver lluice an obftruclion 
to .the paifage of the waicrs of the fouth level ; he 


OF FREfcBRlDGE. '"73 

faicl, " He did not ; that he could not tell how low 
the ancient bottom of that fluice was, but that it is 
now lower than the bed of the river ; that he judged 
io from having feen a great many roots of trees 
dragged out of the Oufc above the lluicc, which ap- 
peared to him as if they had grown upon the bot- 
tom of the river." 

Mr. Hogard being further examined faid, " That, 
if all the works of the great level fhould be furfered 
to go to decay totally, he apprehends, the expcnce 
ncceffary to recover them would be a great deal 
more than is neceffary to preferve them ; he fup- 
pofcd, ten times as much, fpeaking of the middle 
and fouih levels only." 

Mr. Cole being aikcd, " What he had obferved 
in the conducl of the gentlemen who compofe the 
Bedford Level Corporation, in difcharge of their 
duty as truftces for that level;" he faid, "It is a 
trull of a ' great deal of bufmefs, and confequently 
great trouble ; that the execution of it is attended 
with expcnce to the truftees J and from the time he 
had known any thing of the matter, they have dif- 
charged it with the greateft fidelity, juftice ad atten- 
tion ; when he went to the April meeting in 1 7 73 v 
he paffed through a country almofl overflowed, from 
Cambridge to Ely, and found in general, from the 
converiation he had with people who came to the 
latter place to attend the bufmefs of that meeting^ 
that nothing could equal the general diftrefs of the' 
country ; that he found the receiver general had ex- 
haufted all . the revenues in his hands , and that 
there were confiderable outstanding debts unprovided 
for ; that the ftreets were crouded with labourers fo- 
liciting the payment of their wagea, for the main- 
tenance of their families ; that it was the general 
g opinion 


opinion of the country, that, from the firft of- the 
undertaking to the 15th year of king Charles II, 
hot Icfs than four hundred thoufand pounds was ex- 
pended ; that from the 151!! of Charles II. to the 
year 1776, the expenccs of the Corporation on all 
the three levels, had amounted to at lead five 
hundred thoufand pounds, betides which, they 
have contracted debts on account of the middle 
and fouth levels, to the amount of thirty-eight thon- 

' fand five hundred pounds." And being aiked, 
" Whether all the ad venture -lands are not anfwera- 
ble to their lull value for the expcnce of the drain- 

, age;" he faid, " The Corporation have, by the act 
of the 1,5th of Charles II.. a power of taxing them, 
without limitation, for the fupport and maintenance 
of the great level." And being alkcd, " Whether 
all the perfons who have figncd the petition are 
owners of free-land ;" he faid, " He could not ipeak. 
to all; but that many of them were, and that he does 
not know of their confent to the application being 
fignified in any other way than by their figning the 

From thcfe, and the depofitions of nine other cor- 
roborating witncffcs, we may readily conclude, " that 
the drainage and navigation of this vaft country 
muft inevitably be loft, unlefs the free -lands and 
commercial imerefl contribute towards the relief of 
the adventuters." 

Mr. Soame Jenyns, in his "Remarksf on the Bill 
prefented to Parliament" obferves, " It was the lay- 
ing of a great mimfter, (fir Robert Walpole) that the- 
landed men of this country were like fhcep who pa- 
tiently fubmit to be fleeced in filencc, while the trad- 
ing intereft, like the hog, will not fuflfer a brittle of 

t Printed at Cambridge In 1*77, 

OF F R E E B R I D G E. * 75 

theirs to be touched without alarming the whole 
parifh with an outcry. The truth of this obfcrvation 
was never more clearly exemplified, than in the fate 
of a bill, brought into parliament during the laft f<?f- 
fions, which through the ignorance and inattention 
of the proprietors pf fome thoufand acres of laud, 
who would have been ruined by it, would have 
palled quietly through the houfc, had it not been vi- 
goroufly oppofed by the merchants, apprehenlivc 
that it might affect their interefls." 

Further, " Thus we plainly fee that this bill is 
Introduced in the name of the adventurers, and un- 
der the pretence of their diftrefs, but is in fact' an. 
artful fcheme of the owners of the free-lands, de- 
figned to procure a fund fufhcient for draining them- 
feives by doubling that diftrefs by a double tax, fix- 
ing a perpetual toll on the navigation, and then flip- 
ping oft between them unobferved, at the trifling 
expence of fix-pence an acre for fevcn years only, 
on their own lands hitherto untaxed ; whilft fome 
of the adventure-land:; already exhaufted, were to be 
loaded with fix or feven fhillings." 

Again, " But under their prefent cvafive conftj- 
tution, I am of opinion, they have no right to tax 
them at all ; although they now publicly avow, diat 
it is not only their right but their duty, to exhauft 
them to the laft farthing of thejr value ; whiclj in 
other words, is telling the adventurers, that tjaey 
have no property in them. 

44 The only refource which appeared, was a toll 
on the navigation ; for this they apply, and apply 
with juftice: for as the commerce of the country 
depends on the preservation of the banks and river?, 
it is iurcly reafonable, chat the navigators, who do 
g 3 fo 


fo much damage to them, and receive fo much be- 
nefit from them, fhould contribute their fliarc ; but 
is both unreafonable, and ineffe&ual, whilft thofe 
who are principally concerned offer nothing, or next 
to nothing, themfelves. 

" The owners of the free-land may perhaps al- 
ledge, that they have done more than their fhare, by 
fubmitting to heavy taxes impofed on their lands, by 
many private als of parliament, for afllftmg the 
adventurers, by making bank's, and creeling mills, 
in the feparate diflricls of this great level. To this 
I anfwer, in a few words; that thefe are private 
agreements, with which the public has no concern, 
and that by all thefe acls the adventurers are equally 
burthcned with themfelves, that thefe very mills have 
choaked up the rivers, and rendered the taik of the 
adventurers ftill more impracticable, that they arc 
clear acknowledgments of their inability, and a ma- 
nifeft renunciation of the original bargain. 

" Nor will parliament ever* confent to mortgage 
the trade of eight or ten counties for one or two 
hundred thoufand pounds, appropriated before-hand 
to a lift of works, the expediency of which fcarcc 
any two able engineers have ever agreed on ; and to 
be placed in the fame hands, that have already ex- 
pended double that fum in vain. 

" What then is to be done ? Is this cxtenfivc 
and fertile country, its produce, commerce, and na- 
vigation to be given up as loft and irrecoverable? 
By no means. Would the owners of the free -lands, 
the adventurers, and the merchants, all equally in- 
terefted in its prefcrvation, unite in one fingle a& of 
parliament, containing the three following claufes, 
the whole midu be retrieved. 



" Be it enabled firft, that in confideration that the 
original agreement between the owners of the free- 
lands, and the adventurers, was even at firft; unfair, 
and now impracticable, the faid agreement be de- 
clared to be henceforth null and void. Secondly, 
that a new corporation be conftituted, confiding of 
the proprietors of the free and adventure-lands indif- 
criminately, vetted with all the powers and privileges 
enjoyed by the prefent body, particularly that of 
taxing all thefe lands to any extent, which they fliall 
judge neceffary for preferving the country and navi- 
gation ; thefe taxes to be impofed equally on all thefe 
lands in proportion to their real value, by fome mode 
to be fixed upon by mutual agreement of all parties 
concerned. Thirdly, that a toll be laid on the na- 
vigation not exceeding one {hilling per ton, and that 
a certain number of traders be admitted into this 
corporation in proportion to the revenue which fliali 
accrue from this toll. v 

" By thefe regulations, a certain annual income 
would arife of above thirty thoufand pounds; as 


By a tax and half on the 95,000 acres 7 r /77 

By a tax in proportion on the 200,000, 

at is. 6d 15,000 o o 

By a toll of is. per ton on the navi- 
gation 10,000 o o. 

32,577 o o 

" This income, without any power to anticipate 
it by mortgaging, is more than can be expended in, 
thefe works in a year, and fully (ufficient, if well 
employed, to reftore this country to a flourifhing 
Hate, and 10 preferve it in fuch to all future ages. 



But if the owners of the two hundred thoufand acres 
fhall be abfurd enough to reject this propofal, and 
ftill wait for falvation from the adventurers, who 
cannot, and the navigators, who will not diain them, 
they mufl fuffer that jufl. punifhment of the Dutch; 
that is, if they refufe to work, they mitjl be drowned. ' 

" The merchants from it would receive equal ad- 
vantage, becaufe when the rivers are deepened, and 
the banks made good, their commodities would be 
carried at lefs expence than at prefent, notwith Hand- 
ing the toll, and the navigation will be prefervcd, 
which without it will be entirely loft. 1 ' 

In confcquence of this eminent gentleman's opi- 
nion being made publick, a meeting was held at Ely 
in November, but nothing conclufive propofed or 
agreed to. 

Captain Page, and Mr. James Crcafly, at the re- 
queft of lord vifcount Townihend. took a view of 
the fens, works, and outfall, in the ftmimer of 1777. 

The noble lord, in an addrefs " To the gentle- 
men of landed and commercial intereft in the fens,"' 
annexed to the opinions of Capt. Page and Mr. 
Creafly, " thought it right to fubmit thefe {heets to 
your confideration, for the following realons : 

*' Firft, becaufe you who are now called upon for 
fo large a fum, and who, from the injudicious ap- 
plication of your former heavy taxes, have derived 
fo little benefit. 

?' Another motive which induces me to communi- 
cate thefe obfervations to you is, becaufe the gentle- 
man who wrote the firfl is not only allowed to be a 


OF. F REE B- RIDGE. * 7 g 

man of fcience, and whofe abilities have been proved 
by his fuccefs in the mod difficult undertakings of 
tliis nature ; but his impartiality may be relied on, 
as he neither is, nor would be, a fharer in the exe- 
cution of what he recommends. The other little 
treatife is the work. of a perfon who "has been em- 
ployed wich fuccefs in the fens ; and, being on the 
point of embarking for the Eaft-Indies, can have no 
other view than afiifting the public on this occaHon 
tvith his beft opinion. 

" The fyflems of thefe gentlemen do not entirelv 
coincide : None of you are riveued to any propoli- 
tion ; you will coniider them both ; each may con- 
tain much ufeful matter, and you will adopt what 

Speaking of the works propofcd by the bill, " I 
will prefume that the united and reciprocal iuterefts 
of tl}e landholder and the merchant will oppofe fucU 
a project with equal firmnefs and candour." 

Of the levels and fections of the Oufe, " I mean 
neither to charge Mr. Elilobb with any neglect, or the 
members of the corporation with any finifter views ; 
yet, furely, the hiftory of fen-government, for many- 
years pall in the hands of delegates, undertakers, and 
a fpecies of men ftiled engineers, and the example of 
fo many families impoverifhed by their blunders and 
jobs, are fufficient to authorife us to be extremely 
circumfpect upon new proportions and extenfive 
powers ; without entertaining the leaft fufpicion inju- 
rious to the gentlemen of influence in die corpora- 


To a lift of " ill-placed, ill-proportioned, ftupen- 

dous, tottering conftruftions," his lordfhip adds, 

S 4 


" and above all that long-noted nuifance, the Den- 
ver Sluice, (that #LRA OF THE FENS) which like an 
ill-fhapen gigantic bully, pofted in the avenue of a 
public place, infults the public merely becaufe no 
one has courage to remove him. 

" The drainage cannot be abandoned, and the 
river loft, without fuch obftacles and expence falling 
on the trade, that in fuch cafe the trade of Lynn 
would hardly wifh to trample under foot the feeble 
fence of the poor occupier of land, which prote&s 
his precarious crop and ftarving family againft a fud- 
den inundation, without paying a fair proportion for 
the advantages the trade would receive.'* 

" It is certain (fays lord Townfliend) the country 
is in a moft deplorable ftate ; the caufes are obvious. 
There can be little doubt but you have about thirty 
feet fall from the junction of the Gram and the Oufe 
to Lynn ; poflibly the remedy may be as clear and 
$he means as certain."' 

Extracts from " Obfervations by Capt. Page." 

Of the Thames, " Nothing further being required, 
as nature has been only affifted ; whereas, in the 
fens, nothing has been done that does not tend to 
cbftruft her in the moft complete manner. 

" Wefterdyke, a Dutchman of experience, gave 
his opinion, " That the unreftrained overflowings of 
the rivers was the principal caufe of the furrouuding 
EASE, therefore the confining of thefe rivers within 
fufficient banks muft confequently in reafon be the 

44 Lord 



" Lord Gorges, then furveyor-general of the fens, 
obferved, that " The better way of draining the 
fouth level (for vvhofe benefit alone fluices were in- 
tended) is by banks, without any fluices at all at 
Denver ; according to the certain rules of draining, 
which is to imbank all rivers and brook-waters, and 
never to put fluices upon fuch waters as have a con- 
tinual body to preferve their channels or ouifailb from 
filling up by tides." 

" We find the reverfe of thefe rules followed in 
niofl of the fen-works to the prefent time, which 
conform exactly to the* project of fir C. Vermuyden. 

*' Since that period, (Denver fluke* 1651) die 
whole fouth level has been in a ftate of decay, and 
inevhably muft be loft, if fome proper projeci for a. 
general drainage fliouid not be adopted. The foun- 
dation of it [Denver fluice) is likewife a manifeft 
obftruclion, it being many feet above the hanging le- 
vel of the river. 

" The Tong's Drain and Popham's Eau are equal- 
ly to be objected to, as indeed are all divifions of 
great rivers ;" and a French author concludes his 
philofophical difquifition on the courfe of the Rhine, 
with refpecl to its dangerous divifions, " It has been 
" explained, that the bottoms of -the three brancheg 
44 filt up from the want of fufficient velocity in the 
*' ftream, which fufFers an accumulation of fand and 
*' foil carried down by the fudden thaws of fnow, 
*' and by heavy rains. 

" By re -uniting thefe three branches into one 
" ftream, the water would acquire a velocity three 
" times greater than it has in three divifions. 



" By thefe means alfo, the -effect. of fcourin~ out 
41 the bottom would be tripled. This is a fun pie, 
" true, and efficacious remedy; and will not only 
".prevent obflructions in the bed of the river, but 
'* by degrees remove them." 

" It may be here obferved, that whilft it (Denver 
fluice) remains as it is, the fouth level cannot be 
benefited by any works the corporation may under- 
take : fo as to be what it originally was, no great 
benefit is to be expected. 

" Conid the obflruclions be removed, the water 
in the river might be lovver'd, as the channel, by 
being deep, would admit of it without injury to the 
na\ igatian, which othervvife it would put a total flop 
to. This is clear from the (late of the river in July, as 
at that time there was not water enough a feu* hun- 
dred yards above the Denver fluice to float the 
barges ; notwithstanding which, the middle fen was 
then totally drowned. There is the grcateft reafon 
to exped (nay, it fcems to be certain) that the em- 
bankment of the rivers would alone $ni\vcr every 
defirable end, 

" The river from Lynn to Littleport is pretty well 
embanked (excepting the improper width at Ger- 
mains) ; but higher ' up, towards Ely, it is totally 
neglecled ; there every kind of obftruclion to the 
running -of the water is fuffered to remain, and the 
breadth in many places is twenty times, at leaft, 
greater than it ought to be. From Ely to the Her- 
mitage, near Erith, it is in as bad a Hate ; and is 
equally fo oppofite Soham Mere ; it is the fame a 
coufiderable way up the Grant. 


OF F.R E E B R I D G E. *S 3 

" It has always been agreed, that the outfall of 
the river Oufe fhould be firft confidered, as from irs 
prefent bad fhite, any worjyi higher up in the coun- 
try would be ufelefs." 

Of Kinderly's cut, " It is not eafy for any one 
to aflert pofitively that this work will anfwer ; the 
corporation are led to hope that it will, becaufe a 
funilar thing has been done at Wifbech, and found 
beneficial to the drainage of that country. We 
may infer from it, diat, provided the cut at Lynn, 
can be made to bear the fame proportion to the 
Oufe, as the other does to the Wifbech river, that 
it MAY IN STCH CASE aofwC as well. The new cut 
at Wifbech is pretty near the fame dimenfions that 
is the channel of the old river; it therefore was only 
giving the water a new direction, equal to what had 
been quitted, and of comfe it was rcafonable that it 
fljould snf'wer. 

" Whereas the width of the prcfcnt outfall at 
1,-ynri, at the narro well place, being near tlu - ee hun- 
dred yards, we ought, agreeable to what nature will 
require, to give at leaft the fame width to the lower 
end of the propofed cut; and the upper part ol it 
fhould be equal to the old channel at Germain* 
bridge: then it may be fafe to make it, but not 

" It will be of very little ufe, if, at the fame 
time, they do not execute works that may reflore 
proper levels to the other parts, quite to the High- 
lands beyond Ely ; as they cannot take the water 
from the rivers, and leave them navigable, without 
at the fame time making them deeper ; and that 
cannot be done by what is propofed in die intended 

" After 


" After the provifion for the outfall it is propofcd 
bv the a$, that St. John's Eau is to be opened; 
alfo a parallel drain to be made for the wafte way 
by the old Bedford river, and a cut by Mr. Savory's 
land into Well-creek ; which are works of little con- 
fequence, in the idea of a plan of a GENERAL 


4i The bad conftruction of Denver fluke fhould 
iiave been attended to in this acl ; the mod inexpe- 
rienced engineer in the king's fervice would be able 
to give the corporation a plan of a proper fluke (if 
-they muft have one there) that would anfwcr every 
purpofe intended by the prelent, and be without 
any of its objections. 

" Could the proprietors of the fens once diveft 
themfelves of dieir local ideas and interefts upon 
draining, and concur in a general plan formed on 
the fame principles laid down in the embankment 
of that river, (Thames) they would foon find the 
inutility of either flukes, flakers, or windmills, to- 
v ards the drainage of their country." 

Extracts from " The Report and Opinion of Mr, 
James Creafly." 

" I am of opinion, that the attempting- to run the 
waters off the low lands in the fame canal or river 
with thofe that flow from the high country in time 
of floods, is inconfiflent with, and contrary both to 
rcafon and experience. 

' The water in the river Oufe, and feveral other 
rivers, were confiderably higher than the furface of 
many thoufajid ac.res of low lands at the time 1 view- 


ed the levels, which was in the middle of July, par- 
ticularly near the high country ; and therefore thofc 
lands that lie remote from the outfall, become almofl 
perpetually drowned. 

' It muft appear demonftrative, that two or more 
rivers may be made parallel to each other, and yet 
have different falls in a given diflance: and fliil thefc 
rivers may be united, and the waters run together at 
a given point. 

" It is evident, that the waters coming from the 
high country (which I conceive to be nineteen parts 
out of twenty of all the waters that drown the low 
lands in queftion) may, if they are confined in their 
courfes by (Irong banks, be higher by feveral.feet 
than the low lands adjoining, and yet thofe lands 
may be well drained, by having drains cut parallel 
to die laid rivers, and cam-ing the low-land waters 
down to a lower pan of the outfall, without letting 
ihem commanicate at all with thofe coming from the 
high lands, till the inclined plain formed by the run- 
ning of the high-laud waters is lower than the low 
lands to be drained. 

The plan that I would recommend for the more 
effectual draining of die abovementioned part of die 
country, is, firft, to build two- fluices a little above 
Lvnn, one on each fide the river Oufe ; to be each. 
fixty feet clear water-way, and the floors thereof to 
be five feet below low-water mark at Lynn, with 
pointing doors to ftem the tides, and to be ereded at 
fuch points of the river, as that both ebb and flood 
may pafs clofe by their mouths, in order to fcour 
Away the Clt : Sec. and keep the paflagc clean. 

* I re- 


" I recommend a drain to be cut from the fluice 
of the weft fide parallel to the river Oufc, up to 
Sailer's Lode, eighty feet at the top, and to flope a 
foot and a half on each fide for every foot in depth, 
and to be. made a$ deep at the Jovvev end as the floor 
of the fluice, and to lay half the earth arifing there- 
from on the bank of the Oufe. and the remainder 
on the oppofite fide the drain in bank faflrion, and to 
cut a drain from the iluice on the caft fide, in as 
itraight a direction as the nature of the country will 
admit of, to the lower end of St. John's Eait, and to 
icour out the faid St. John's Eau, and cut from the 
upper end of the fame to Stoke river, parallel to the 
Oufe, of the dhneniions and in the fame manner as 
the drain recommended on the weft fide. 

41 I alfo recommend a drain to be cut parallel to 
the river Oufe, on the caft fide, from the laid Stoke 
river to the Grant or Cambridge river, and from 
thence up the fide of the faid rives to the high-lands, 
forty feet wide at top, and to flopc a foot and an half 
on each fide for eveiy foot in depth, and to be feven 
feet deep at the upper end, and the bottom to form 
a regular declivity from thence to the fca iluice, re- 
commended to be built near Lynn ; all the earth 
aiifmg from the faid drain, to be applied in height- 
ening and ftrengthening the bank of the Oufe and 
Grant/' Sec, 

" I recommend a funken tunnel to be laid under 
the river Oufe, immediately above Denver fluice, fo 
that all the focage and downfall waters of the fens 
lying between the Hundred-Foot river and the Ouic 
may pafs freely down the fide drain to Lynn, with- 
out communicating with the high-land waters. 



" The next thing I recommend is, to collect al 
the high-land waters that can poffibly be collected, 
bv cutting catch-w&ter drains along the (kirt of the 
high lands, but high enough up to difcharge part of 
the waters into one imbankcd river, and part into 
another, fo that no high-land waters be fuffercd to 
flow into the fens and low grounds, to be draindcL* 

There are maJiy other works which Mr. Creafry 
recommends, the whole expence of which mufl ex- 
ceed any that has hitherto been recommended. He 
concludes, " Thefe are the great works which I 
conceive neceffary towards compleating a general 
drainage of this extenfive and fruitful country. 
There are feveral other works of an inferior kind 
needful ; but I look upon thofc as fecondary, and 
ol a local and private nature. 

"I am perfuadcd the works here recommended 
will be executed at leis expence than thoie of fcour- 
ing and widening, deepening and embanking, the 
feveral rivers that bring down the flood waters. 

" The next tiling is, the country will be rendered 
dry as .the works advance upwards, and as fuch will 
become cultivated and improved, and the inhabi- 
tants will be fatisfied of the utility of the undertak- 
ing, and profecute it with more vigour. 

-" Another thing is, the navigation and trade o 
Lynn, Sec. will be prodigioufly increafed by having. 
lo many more thoufand acres of land cultivated and 
inhabited, that now is, comparatively fpcaking, k 
loft and undone country. 

" I therefore would humbly advife the noblemen 
ajid gentlemen interefhd in draining the middle and 



fouth levels of the fens, to take experience for their 
future guide, and no longer depend upon the falla- 
cious and ill -grounded reports of felf-interefled and 
defigning men, vvhofe bufmefs has ever been to mul- 
tiply the difficulties of a GENERAL DRAINAGE." 

The Rev. Mr. Thomas Stona, in an addrefs " To 
the Gentlemen of the Corporation of Bedford Level, ' 
dated April 8, 1776, endeavours, by a comparative 
view of the reports and opinions of able engineers, 
to prove that the cut propofed by Mr. Nath. Kin- 
derlev, in. 1751, would not anfvver the defign " for 
making and maintaining a fufficient outfall to fea 
near Lynn-Regis." 

Mr. Kinderley, in his own words, " Not only to 
confine the river by jetties againil the town, but to 
confine it upwards likewife, by calling up a new- 
river or channel for it two hundred feet wide, (which 
is as wide as it is at Germains) and to be as deep a 
it is at Lynn: and that in a flraight line from half 
a mile below Germains, viz, at a place called Eau 
Brink, to half a mile above Lynn, which would be 
a courfe of but two miles in length, and fo to defert 
the prefent broad, unconfined, fhaliow, and crooked 
courfe (which the river now takes) of between fix 
and feven miles in length, and near one in breadth, 
always fhifting amongft the broad fands, for which 
reafon it can get no depth, and by this means four 
miles of its prefent crooked courfe would be cut 


f- Mr. Kinderley had another propofal for draining the fens 
and prefcrving the navigation of Lynn, Wifbech, Spalding, 
&c. ' by bringing the Wilbech river in a new cut near St. An_ 
Jrew's Walpole, through Mainland, to the Lynn river, and 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. *Sg 

The eff eels that this plan wo\ild have upon navi- 
gation and drainage are thefe, (as the author ex- 

" The channel would be fhorter, deeper, and 
fafer ; the indraught of the tide would be quickened, 
and the ebb returning in the flood channel with 
greater velocity, would prevent any lodgment of the 
foil. The fall of the fen water would be feven feet 
more than at prefent, and the pafiagc of the waters 
to fea be quicker. The expence of engines would 
be prevented, The waters thus drawn off under 
the furface, they might have earth near to make good 
their banks, and the Hundred-Foot water would be 
prevented from returning at Denver." 

Upon the inefficacy of this fcheme Mr. Stona ad- 
duces many convincing reafons. -Tides, at the equi- 
noxes and by certain winds, which rife twenty-fix 
feet and upwards at common ftaith, inuft pals 
through this channel. By deferting the prefenc 
courfe of the river from Eau-brink to the World's- 
end, Barn's gool, Knight's gool, Tilney gool, ancV 
Clenchwarton gool mufl be Hopped. 

The fame author (on the principles of navigation 
and drainage) remarks on the effects produced by tbfi 
ieveral works of the Bedford Level Corporation-*- 1 
Of Denver fluke Of ancient and modern drain- 
age Of the equity of paying tonage in lieu of tii 
injury done to the banks. " Engineers, fays he, 
h indeed 

by carrying tbofc rivers in a cut from the Crutch through Woo 
ton and Wolferton marlhes into the deeps of Lynn channel, 
over-againft Snettilham, and by a darn to be made crbfs the ri- 
ver's mouth, from the Crutch to the weft point," The money 
to be raifed by a fca lottery* 


indeed may have uncommon fcnfe, and much fe- 
fpecl is due to it; but able engineers, like able 
phyficJans, will affift nature, but not obftrucT: her. 

" If they offend this rule, we have a right to 
fufpe& them of quackery ; who endeavour to make 
you worfe, that they may take the more fees/' 

In 1775 and 76, Mr. William Elflobb was em- 
ployed by the commiffioners to take the levels of 
the Oufe from Clay-hill, above Ely, to the bar- 
beacon in Lvnn channel. 

M. F. 

Denver fluke to German's bridge 9 3 
German's bridge to Lynn - 67 

Lynn to the bar-beacon - . 53 

F. I. 
5 & 

7 9 

8 o 

The whole diflance from Denver fluke to the 
bar-beacon being twenty-one miles five furlongs, 
and the fall twenty-one feet three inches, the pro- 
portional average is nearly twelve inches in each 
mile: "But, fays Mr. John Golborne, in his re- 
port published Dec. 12, 1777, finding that no con- 
fidence could be placed in thefe levels, I applied 
to Mr. Whitworth, who levelled from the crutch- 
beacon to Denver fluke, from whence there was a 
fall of fix feet feven inches, viz. One foot fall from 
Denver iluice to Eau-brink, near eleven miles ; and 
from thence to above Lynn, nearly in the line as 
formerly propofed by Mr. Kinderly, four feet nine 
inches in fpring tides ; which in the courfe of this 
river is fix miles, but in a flrait line over the land, 
'two miles and three quarters, and from thence to 
the crutch-beacon (being three miles) ten inches fall. 



"In order therefore to give the utmoft relief to 
thefe levels, it will be necefTary to cut a new chan- 
nel through the marflies, two miles and three quar- 
ters long, from Eau-brink to half a mile above 
Lynn, to form a bank on each fide of it with pro- 
per forelands, and to turn the river down this chan- 
nel by a dam made over the old one ; and there 
being a fall of four feet nine inches in that diflance, 
the current will run with great velocity, and foon 
grind down a deep channel ; and the river upwards 
being already very deep, the furface of low water 
will be lowered at lead four feet at Saltefs lode 
fluice, at Old Bedf jrd fluke, at Denver fluice, and 
at the mouth of the New Bedford river. This can- 
not fail to give immediate relief to both thefe levels, 
and thefe four feet will be inftantly felt in middle 
fen, in Ramfey, and in Whittlefey. 1 

By Mr. Elftobb's line of levels, we find a fall of 
five feet fix inches, in nine miles three furlongs : 
Mr. Golborne, on the fame line, and one mile five 
furlongs- below, makes the fall only one foot in eleven 
miles. Mr. Elftobb afleits, that Mr. Golborne has 
the low-water mark at Denver fluice three feet higher 
than the wharf at Peterborough bridge j Mr. Gol- 
borne, op the contrary, affirms it to be fix feet ten 
inches lower. Were the obfervations of thefe |$J|e- 
men within a trifling difference of each other, 3. me- 
dium might be drawn to fatisfaclion, but in fo wide 
a matter, no concmfion can be made. Ignorance, 
or deceit, may be demonftrated to a mathematical 
certainty in almofl every bufinefs of the corporation, 
where engineers have been employed. Truth obliges 
us to make this remark. 


Mr. Elftobb has publifhed an elaborate defence of 
his fedion of the Oufe, Sec. Amongft a variety of 
k 2 pro's*- 


pro's and con's, he proves the fall from Peterborough 
lo Denver fluice to be at kail eight feet. 

The Rev. Mr. Thomas Stona alfo publifhed " Re- 
marks upon the Report of Mr. John Golbome, En- 
gineer;" in which, amongft many ingenious and in- 
controvertible remarks, he fays : 

' The inflancc you produce to fhow that no con- 
fidence can be placed in Mr. Eiftobb's level of the 
Oufe, apparently militates againfl this very level taken 
by Mr. Whitworth," 

An cflimate of the charge of cutting a new chan- 
nel from near Eau Brink, to the fouth end of Lynn, 
fevcn hundred and twenty-fix rods in length, two 
hundred feet wide at the top, ten feet deep, with a 
foreland on each fide of the channel one hundred 
and twenty feet in breadth with banks, one hundred 
feet in the feat, forty feet at the top, and ten feet 


To fpade and barrow work at the cut 10335 o o 

To a dam crofs the river near Eau Brink 1500 o o 

To horfe-milling and locking the work 700 o o 

To purchafc of land for the cut 9 ,3oo o o 

"l^ ditto for the cover 3300 o o 

To" flagging the banks 726 o o 

To fuperimending tl;c work 300 o o 

26126 o o 

Per contra Cr. 

To the prefent courfe of the river, which 
is to fill up and become good land (as 
. by Mr. Golborne's report) confifling of 
two thoufand acres, or nearly, at Ijs. 
per acre (the common price of good 

land) at 20 years purchafe, is 34000 o o 

OF F R E E B R I D G E. * 93 

To the Board of Adventurers (if they fliould be 
inclined to purfue this plan) the merchant and land- 
owner will lay, " Gentlemen, why will you purfuc 
" a plan thus (apparently) pregnant with dangers 
" that human experience cannot forcfee, and which 
'' human art, perhaps, may not be able t& refift, 
" when a removal of the obftruclions in the prefait 
" channel will anfwer the end of drainage." 

An Ai'Jlracl of fuch Statutes as have been made for avoid- 
ing all annoyances and oltftrutfions in navigable Rivers. 

June 19, 1215. Magna Charta, cap., 23, provides, 
That all wears from thenceforth (hall be utterly put 
down thro' all England, but only by the fea coafts. 

1352. 25 Ed, 3. cap. 4. fets forth, That whereas 
the common paflages of boats and (hips in the great 
rivers of England be oftentimes annoyed by inhanfing 
gores, wears, flakes, &c. in great damage of the peo- 
ple ; it is eflablifhed, the lame fliall be cut and ut- 
terly pulled down, without being renewed. And thit 
writs be fent to the fheriffs to do execution. 

1372. 45 Ed. 3. ^ap. 2. Reciting the flatute laft- 
mentioned ; and that fliips and boats were difturbed, 
that they could not pafs as they were wont. And at 
the grievous complaint of the Commons, by their 
petition, that the fame flatute was not executed nor 
kept. It is eftablifhed, that the fame ftatute fliall 
be kept. Joining thereto That if any (uch annoy- 
ance be done, it fliall be pulled down, 8cc. And he 
that fliall repair the fame, incur one hundred marks 

1398. 21 Rich. 2. cap. 19. The fame ftatutes laft 
above-mentioned, are recited, and again confirmed. 

1399. i Hen. 4. cap. 12.. The fame flatutes arc 
again recited and confirmed in all points ; joining 



thereto) That commiffioners fhall be made to fubfli- 
tute perfons to fur\-ey and keep the great rivers, and 
corred and pull down, and amend the defaults, and 
to hear and determine, and make decrees touching 
the fame. 

1403. 4 Hen. 4. cap. 11. Reciting the fad mif- 
chiefs whereby the common paCfage of fliips and 
boats is difturbed : It is ena&ed, That the former 
ftatutes be holden and kept, and put in due execution. 
Joining to the fame, That the commifTioners (hall 
enquire thereof, and punifh offenders by fines, at 
their difcretions, 

1473. 12 Ed. 4- cap. 7. fets forth, That the for- 
mer flatutes xvere made for the great wealth of the 
land, in avoiding the flraightnefs of all rivers, fo that 
fhips and boats might have in them tlieir large and 
free paffage. That fuch annoyances in rivers are 
contrary to Magna Charta, upon which the great fen^ 
tence and apoftolic curfe was pronounced againlt the 
breakers of the fame. And reciting the whole tenors 
of all the faid former flatutes. And that contrary 
t.o -thcfe flatutes, in disturbance of the paffage of 
fliips, barges, boats, and other vefiels, divers locks, 
wears, "flakes, flood-gates, anddiflurbances were daily 
inlarged, to the great damage of the king and his 
people. It is ordained, That all the faid former 
flatutes fhall be duly obferved and kept, joining 
thereto other great penalties to the king and informer. 

1532. 23 Hen. 8. cap. 5. Repeating the damages 
and loffes by gates, flood-gates, locks, and other im- 
pediment's and annoyances on rivers, flreams, and 
floods, whereby the paflage of boats and fliips be let- 
ted and interrupted. Directs the form of the gene- 
ral commifiion of fewers, whereby the commiflioners 
have power 10 caufe fuch annoyances and impedi- 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. *g 3 

inents to be corrected, put down or reformed, accord- 
ing to the afore-inentioncd ilatuies. And to proftrate 
and overthrow the fame, with large powers to make 
liivvs and ordinances, and compel obedience there- 
unto : Reviving and confirming all the faid former 
fhitutes in all points. 

1 55- 3 Edw. 6. cap. 8. The lafl-mentioned and 
former ftatutes confirmed and made perpetual. 

1601. 43 Eliz. cap. 11. An ac"l patted for draining 
great part of this level, wherein provifion was made 
that it fiiould not extend to the draining any lands, 
whercbv, or by means whereof, any of the havens or 
ports of this realm may in any fort be annoyed, im- 
paired or hindered, nor any grounds in fix miles of 

Upon the whole, we (the Editors of the Hiflorv 
of Norfolk) have difcharged the duty we owe the 
public on this Subject with that candour and impar- 
tial retrofpecl, a matter of fo mucli importance and 
intricacy requires. \Ve have already obferved, that the 
opinions of thole who have wrote, are as oppofite in the 
more effential points in .queftion, as if pitrpojcly meant 
to contradict each other, and confound the Comniif- 
lioners. If a " fcalc of talents" could be formed, 
and the integrity of the parties afcertained, fome 
harmony might be produced; but whilft the country 
continues to be kept under an inundation of pro and. 
wn, no mealuie, either for the preservation or im- 
provement of the landed and commercial interefls, 
can be 'adapted. 

\* A corrccl map of the Great Bedford Level 
is Subjoined to thelc enquiries. 



Having fmifhed our general defcription of Free- 
bridge Lynn and Marfhland, and of the works on 
the Bedford Levels, we now proceed to the feveral 
f)aiiOies in this hundred and half, which will be 
found arranged in alphabetical order, as follows : 







Bilney, Weft 







Gayton Thorpe 






Maffingham, Great 
Maftingham, Little 
Newton, Weft 

Runclon, North 
South Lvnn 
Walton/ Eaft 
Winch, Eaft 
Winch, Weft 
Wooton, North 
Wooton, South 


Lynn, Weft 
Terrington St. Clement 
Terrington St. John 
Tilney All Saints 
T ilney St. Laurence 

Walpole St. Andrew 
Walpole St. Peter 
\Valton, Weft 
Wiggenhall St. Germain 
Wiggenhall St. Mary 
Wiggenhall St. M. Mag- 



ANMER, is fituated about two miles weft of 
Houghton hall and plantations, four miles fouth-eafl 
from Snctdiliam, and eleven miles north-eaft ironi 

This village lias been greatly improved, and or- 
namented with different plantations, by Jaines Cold- 
ham, efq. the prefcnt lord of the manor, whofe 
feat is in this town, and who generally refides .here, 
a circumftance of great advantage td the country 
round him, being an a6Hve and judicious magi- 
fhate, and ever ready to execute the duties of that 
office, which if properly attended to, entitles a 
country gentleman to the honour, the applaufe, thef- 
thanks of the public. An active, intelligent juflice' 
of the peace is one of the moil ufeiul members of 
fociety, who gives up bis time to the benefit of his 
country, and has no reward but that of confcious 
virtue, and a fecret fatisfa&ion of doing good ; a 
reward indeed greatly above all pecuniary compen- 
lations, though not fought after in this degenerate 
age with the fame avidity. This attention as a ma- 
giftrate is among the many virtues of Mr. Coldham, 
which has acquired him that much refpected cha- 
racter he has io long bora in this county. 

There are two manors in this town, Anmere-hall 
manor, and Bereford manor. . 

Ax ME HE HALL. This manor in the reign of 
Edward I. came into the family of the Calthorpes. 
Sir Walter de Calthorpe was lord in 1284, and in 
1303 fir William de Calthorpe, knight, prefented 
as lord and patron to the church of Anmer ; and iri 
the <jth of/Edward III. a fine was levied, whereby 
jit was fettled by fir William de Cahhorpc of Burn- 
.ham, on himfelf for life, remainder to fir Walter 
F hi* 


his fon, and Alice his wife in tail, after to Oliver 
and his other fons; and fif Walter dying fans iffue, 
it defcended to fir Oliver Calthorpc, brother of fir 
Walter, who presented tcf the church in 1374: this 
fir Oliver built on the fouth fide of this church, ;i 
chapel, wherein he founded, a chauntry, endowing 
it with forty-eight acres of land in the town of An- 
mer, appointing one of the canons of the priory o'f 
Flitcham to officiate therein, and to pray for the 
fouls of his anceftors and his own ; and the prior 
of Flitcham had a patent for it in the 45th of Ed- 
ward III. 

In 1420 the king prefcnted to this church, ort 
account of the minority of John, fon of fir William 
Calthorpe ; in 1432 William Calthorpe, efq. and in 
if) 5$ Elizabeth Parker, widow, which Elizabeth 
was daughter and heir of fir Philip Calthorpe, and 
married fir Henry Parker, knight of the bath, of 
Erwarton in Suffolk, who being afterwards married 
to William Wodehoufe, efq. they prefcnted to this 
rectory in 1534, and 1560; and cm his death to 
Drue Drurv, efq. and they prefented in 1567. In 
the 2^d of Elizabeth fir Philip Parker had livery of 

After this, Thomas Norris was lord, and pre- 
fented in 1624,, and Cuthbert Norris, efcj. in 1678, 
\vho conveyed it to the Coldhams ; James Coldham, 
efq. was lord in i 705, and in this family it remains, 
Jarucs XJoldham, efq. being the prefent lord. 

At the embodying of the militia in the late war, 
and their being called out into different counties, 
Mr. Coldham ferved as captain in the weftern batta- 
lion of the militia for the county of Norfolk, which 
regiment had the honour of being firfl ordered out, 



tipon their own petition, and marched down to 
Hilfea barracks near Porifmouth. As the regiment 
pafTed through Hyde Park, it was reviewed by the 
late king arid his prefent majeily, who were pleafed 
to exprefs their approbation of the warlike appear- 
ance of the officers and men, and of their fpirit in 
defirmg to be employed againfl the common enemy, 
then threatening an invafion upon this kingdom, hav- 
ing fitted out a great naval force under the command 
of M. de Conflaiis at Brcft, and lined their coafls 
near Quiberon Bay with thirty thoufand troops, un- 
der the command of the duke d'Aguillon, ready for 
embarkation. Thefe great preparations were foon 
after happily counteracted, under the bleffing of 
providence, by the bravery of fir Edward Hawke, 
and many of the capital fliips of France taken, 
funk, and deflroyed, in Quiberon Bay near Betleifle, 
in November 1759. The militia of Norfolk, and 
of mo ft of the counties in England, flill continued 
embodied and encamped during the remainder of 
that glorious war, when Englifh colours were feerjr 
flying, triumphantly flying in every quarter of tha 
known world. 

HEREFORD MANOR. This manor in the reign of 
Edward 1. was in John de Hereford and fir Walter 
de Calthorpe. 

Afterwards, in 1496, Henry t-'Eftrange of Hun- 
ftanton, died feifed of it, as appears by his will; 
and in the 30th of Henry VIII. by a fine between 
fir Thomas L' Eft range, km. John Wodehoufc, of 
Hereford, gent, and Cicjlia his wife, Francis Be- 
dingfield, and Elena his wife, it was conveyed to 
fir Thomas, with ten meffuages, and lands in An- 
mer, Derfmgham, 8cc. and in the following year fit 
Tkoxnas, and his lady Ann, conveyed it to Tho- 
F 2- mas 


mas Houghton, clerk, and Thomas Houghton died 
lord in the 35th of that king; and Robert Hough- 
ton was then found to be his brother and heir ; and 
George lioughton in 1570 was lord: after this, it 
came to the Norris's, and was joined to their other 
lordfhip, and fo to the Coldhams, in which family- 
it remains at prefent. 

Tf he church of Anmer is dedicated to St. Mary. 
The Rev. Charles Buckle is the prefent reftor. 

APPLETON. Probably fo / called from Aba, 
who held this manor under Stigand archbifhop of 
Canterbury, and ton or tun, a town. 

After different proprietors, the tradition of which 
is uncertain, it clefcended in 1571 to the Paflons. 

In 1571 Clement Pailon enjoyed it, the famous 
fca captain who built Oxnead-hall, lately the feat 
of the earl of Yarmouth ; he was fourth fon of fir 
William -Paiton, of Pafton in Norfolk, by Bridget 
his wife, daughter of fir Henry -Heydon ; Clement 
left it by will to fir Edward Pafton, and died in 
1597 ; fir Edward was his nephew, fon of fir Tho- 
mas Paflon, (fifth fon of fir William Paflon afore-" 
faid) and his lady Agnes, daughter and heir of fir 
John Leigh, of Addington in Surrv, knight. This 
fir Edward built Appleton-hall, and married Mar- 
garet, daughter of Henry Berney, efq. of Reedham 
in Norfolk, by whom he had Thomas, his ekleft 
fon, from whom the Paftons of Bamingham in Nor- 
folk are clefcended. William, his fecond fon, had 
this manor, and married Agnes, daughter and co- 
heir of William Evcrard, of Lyngftead in Suffolk, , 
efq. by whom he had William his fon, lord of Ap- 
pleton in 1664, who by Mary, his wife, daughter of- 


OF F R E E E R I D G E. 6* 

James Lawfon, of Brough in Yorkfhire, had Wil- 
liam Paflon, of Appleton, e(iq. In this family it 
remains at prefent, and Wm. Paflon, efq. of Hough- 
ton in the county of Wilts, is the prefent lord. 

The feat of this family was burnt to the ground 
in 1707, and the family was in great danger of be- 
ing burnt in their beds, if a fhepherd had not wa- 
kened them : on this they removed to Houghton in 
Wiltfhire, and in 1720 John Paflon, efq. refided 
there, and was lord alfo of that place. The hall 
fccms to have been built in 1.596, that date being; 
on the gatchoufe, or lodge leading to it. 

Another lordihip in this village of Appleton, ifi 
pro eels of time and after many unknown proprie- 
tors, descended and was held by the Cobbes of 
Sandringham; from the Gobbes it came to J tunes 
Hofle, efq. and fo to Henry Corniih Henley, efq. 
by marriage with Sufan, daughter and fole heirefs 
of the faid James Hofle. On the deceafe of Henry 
Comifh Henley it reverted back to his widow, the 
prefent Mrs. Henley of Sandringham. 

This town now confiding of a few houfes only, 
is in forne meafure by cuflom united with the pariih 
of Flitcham, to which it adjoins ; all affefiments 
and parifli rates and duties running in the name of 
Flitcham cum Appleton. The church is in ruins. 

At the eafl end lies a graveflone, In memory of 

Frances, widow of Edward Pti/ion, of B , Efq; 

who died Feb. 15, 1665, daughter to Sir John Syden- 
ham, of Bnmpton in Somerfetjhire. On another, Ag- 
nes 'Pnflon, Gidielmi Everard, de Linjlead, Jilia, vidua. 
Gulidmi Pqfion, armig. mundanis vere vidua, in chari- 
We dara. obt. xi. die Apr. A. D. 1676, atat pice 73. 


On a third, Hie rc.quie.Jdt corpus. Tho. Fajlon, inililn, 
obt. apud Congham. 

HOLT. In Wyken were two lordfhips granted by 
the Conqueror to two different families. 

Thcfe two lordfhips alfo extended into two little 
Adjoining towns, Lefiate and Holt; lefiate is flill a 
diflant feparatc parifli, and has a church belonging 
to it, but Holt, or Hokhoufe, has none, and is now 
efleemed as part of the parifli of Lefiate. 

In the 6th year of Hcnrv TIL Hugh de Noiun or 
Nugun, was lord of Wykc, Lcfiate and Holt ; and 
conveyed part of the faid townfhips, by fine, to Odo, 
abbot of Caen in Normandy, lord of the manor of 
Wells, or Wells priory in Gey ton, icferving to him- 
felf, and hi* men of \Vyke, common of pafluie in 
the town of Holt. 

The priory of Wells, in Gey ton, appears alfo to 
have a lordfhip here. This vvv.s afterwards granted, 
on the diifolution of the priories alien, together with 
that priory, to John Wodehoufc, efq. who had the 
rent of ailize in Lefiate and Holt, as lord, in the gth 
year of king Henry VI. 

.After this John Jenkin, Gent, conveyed, by fine, 
in the 2 8th of Henry VIII. the third part 'of the 
manor of Glofthorpe, 'with lands in Wykcn, Lefiate, 
Holt, Geyton, Sec. to Thomas Thorefby, efq. and 
the faid Thorefby died feifed of the manor of Afh- 
wyken, with its appurtenances, in the 361!! of Henry 
VIII. The Thorefby s leem to have lived here at 
this time. Edmund Thorefby, efq. fun of Thomas, 
by his laft will, dated Dec. so, 1.547, defires to be 



buried in the church of Afhwyken, appoints Urfula 
his wife executrix, and mentions his brother Francis 
Thorefby, efq. proved January 9 following. 

In the beginning of queen Elizabeth's reign, Tho- 
mas Thorefby, efq. had livery of the manors of 
A/hwyken, Bawfey, Gloflhorpe, 8cc. being fon and 
h,eir of Edmund. In this family it remained till 
about the year 1 600, when Francis Thorefby, efq. 
of Gay wood, fold it to John Drury, efq. who in 
1673 prefcnted to the reclory as lord. 

The faid John Drury, efq. (a brancji of the 
.Drurys' of Rougham in Suffolk) married Elizabeth, 
>ne of the daughters and coheirs of George Fowler, 
efq. of Weeting, and was lord of Holt : from the 
Drurys it was conveyed to the hon. Roger North, 
efq. of I^ougham in Norfolk, about tl^e year 1700. 

In 1754, George Wright, efrj. died feifed of the 
manors of Afhwykcn, Leiiatp, Gloflthorpe and Jiolt, 
with the advowfon of Afhwyken and Lefiatc ; and 
were advertifed to be fold by a decree of chancery 

on Jan. 29, 1754. He was fon of Wright, 

efq. of San-dy Downham in Suffolk, and married 3 
daughter of Roger Nortli, cq. 

Thefe manors were purchafed by the late John 
Spencer, efq. brother to the Jme and uncle to the 
prefent duke of Marlborough, but have within thefe 
ft\y years been fold by his fon, the prefent carl Spen~ 
er, to James Crowe, efq. of the city of Norwich, 
who is the prefent lord, 

Afliwyken lies upon the right of the turnpike- 
road running from Lynn, at the diftance of five miles 
Jiom that port. Formerly the road to Lynn from 
y 4 Norwich^ 


Norwich, near this place, was extremely dangerous, 
and that part particularly which patted near Bawfey, 
called Bawfey Bottom, was remarkable for being, 
perhaps, the word piece of road in England, and 
was much dreaded by all travellers in carnages from 
Norwich to Lynn. 

The church of Aflnvyken is dedicated to All Saints, 
and was appropriated to Weftacre priory. 

The church of Lefiate was dedicated to All Saints, 
and appropriated to the priory of Weftacre. Service 
is performed in this church every third Sunday, and 
two Sundays at Afhwyken. 

BABINGLEY. Sir Henry Spelman obferves, that 
the town is feated in an angle, or nook of land be- 
tween two rivers, (called by him the Ifis and the 
Gong) and the town feems to take its name from 
Bab, cr Ee, a fine winding river ; thus Bavenburc, 
now called Bauburgh, in Norfolk, Babworth in Not- 
tinghamfhire, Babington in Somerfetfhire, &c. and 
Ing and Ley, as lying in the meadows. 

of Henry I. fir William de Rndham held it ; from 
him it came to John de Boteler, whofe name it dill 

In 1369, fir Adam de Clifton was lord, and pre- 
ferited as heir to Gaily, and fo to Tatcfhale ; and 
in the 45th of king Edward III. Joan, late the wi- 
dow of John Botder, was found to hold the manor of 
Botelers in Babingley, of the manor of Weft-hall in 
the faid town, and that John was her fon and .heir, 
and of age, as appears from an inquifition taken at 
Babingley on Wednefday after the feaft of St. Simon 


OF F R E E B R I D G E, 65 

and Jude, and that fhe died on Thurfday after the 
feafl of St. Margaret, in the 4gd of the faid king. 

This John Rotclcr, fon of John Boteler and Join 
his wife, was the lafl heir male of his family, and 
\vas afterwards a knight, and his daughter and heir 
Margaret, being married to JelFery Cobbe, of San- 
dringham, their eflate here came into that family, 
vvherein it continued till fold about 1686" to fir Ed- 
ward Atkins, who conveyed it foon after to James 
Ho fie, .efq. and from the Hofles it came to Ilcnrv 
Cornifli Henley, efq. of Sandringham. 

nor, the defcent of which is very uncertain, either 
by inheritance or purchafe, came at lafl to the fa- 
mily of the Cobbes, in which family it remained till 
fold about the year 1686, and afterwards paffed to 
die Holies, and fo to Henry Cornifh Henley, efq. 
jn right of his wife, Sufan, daughter and fole hcir- 
efs of the late James Hofle, efq. of Sandringham, 
#nd upon his deceafe reverted to his relict, the pre- 
ient Mrs. Henley of Sandringh 

This church of Babingley is fuppofed to be the 
firft church that was built in this county. The river, 
or more properly the channel, parts it from Cattle- 
Rifmg, which was formerly a iea-port town: though 
the fea has left it, the tide flill flows up the river. 
The woods of Babingley and Woolferton, adjoining 
to it, are very valuable, and abound in game. 

The prefent rcclor of this parifh is the Rev. James 
Sharp, prefcntcd in the year 1732 by the late James 
Hofle, efq. of Sandringham. 



Of late years a turnpike-road has been made from 
J_vnni through Gavwood and Caftle-Rifing, to the 
end of Babingley lane, a diflance of about fix miles, 
the road before being almoft impaffable from the 
depth of mud in the winter time. 

villages at the furvey, called Glprefthorpe and Bou- 
fjda, or Bowefeia ; the firft was the capital manor, 
and the other, Bawfcy, a beruitc to it, both held by 
Robert Maier, a Norman baron, lord of Eye in 

Glorcflhorpe may take its name from the Briton?, 
being by a Gloy-Re, that is a fair water; thus 
Glouchefter or Glofler, from Gloy, in Welfh, fair, 
and Chefter., 

Bawfey takes its name from its fcite, on a wind- 
ing fkeam or water. 

William, lord Malet, was with the Conqueror at 
the decifive battle of Haflings, and fent with the 
body of king Harold, there ilain, to fee it decently 
interred. In the Conqueror's charter to the dean 
and canons of St. Martin's le Grand, London, he 
figned next to the earls, and .had then the title of 
Princeps. By Hefilia his wife he had Robert, to 
whom the Conqueror gave the honour of Eye, in 
Suffolk, and about two hunched and twenty manors 
in tii at county, thirty-two in Yorkfhire, three in Ef- 
fex, one in Hampfhire, two in Nottinghamfhire, 
eight in Lincolnshire, and the following in Norfolk, 
bcfides Gloilhorpe and Bawfcy : Kilverfton, in 
Shropham hundred ; Saxlingham and Shoitifham, 
in Henftead hundred : Scoteibrd, in Eaifham hun- 
<lred ; GifHiig, BurPton, Thorpe, Roydon, Shimpling, 


Thelton, and Semerc, in Difs hundred ; Woodton, 
in Loddon hundred; Horsford, Horfham, Beeflon, 
and Sprowfton, in Taverham hundred ; Ballon and 
Dilham, in Tunftcad hundred ; Fretton and Hart'- 
wick, in hundred, 

This Robert was great chamberlain of England, 
under king Henry I. but in the sd year of that 
king was banahetl, and deprived of his poiTefTiohs 
in England, for adhering to Robert Curtois, that 
kings eldefl brother, duke of Normandy. 

After a variety of pofTefTors under different princes, 
ihc lordfhip of Bawfey was held by John Conyers, 
efq. (Ton of fir Robert Conyers, and Maud his wife, 
daughter of fir John Fitz-Ralph) who married Elia- 
nor, lifler and coheir of William, foa of fir William. 
Yelverton, (knight of die bath at king Edward IV's. 
coronation, and one of the juflices of the king's 
bench) but having no iiiue, it defcended to Thomas 
Conyers, brother of John, who left two daughters 
and coheirs ; Ann married to Thomas Spelman, 
efq. of Ellingham Magna ; and Ela married to fir 
Robert Lovell, fecond fon of fir Ralph Lovell, of 
Barton Bendilh in Norfolk, and brother to fir Tho- 
mas Lovell, knight of the garter, which Robert was 
knighted at Blackheath field in 1497. 

About the 6th year of queen Eli/.abeth, Thomas 
Thorefby, fon and heir of Edmund Thorefby, had 
livery of a moiety of die manor of Bawfey, and 
two third parts of the manor of Glollhorpe; and 
Francis Mountford, efq. had livery of a third part 
of that manor, about the 2sd of the faid queen, held 
of the honour of Eye; and Jane Thorefby prefent- 
cd, as lady of Bawfey, in iGbi, and William Tho- 
rciby, Gcat. in 1719. 



The fituation of this town is very indifferent, be- 
ing placed in fwamps, and furrounded with fands. 
Jt lies about three miles to the north-call of Lynn. 

The prefent reclor is the Rev. Samuel Beatniffe, 
who was prefented in 1728 by Edmund Hill. 

HOUSE'S : fo called from Thomas de Beihoufe, who 
was lord in die reign of Henry III. 

After ^various defcents in the family of Bclhoufe, 
under different princes, this manor was conveyed, in 
the reign of Edward VI. to Thomas Mildraay, efq. 
from him it defccnded to his fon, iir Thomas Mild- 
may, who conveyed it to Francis Windharn, a judge 
of the King's Bench, in die reign of queen Eliza- 

Thomas Windham, efq. fop of fir Herv Wind- 
ham, of Felbrigge, fold it to fir Edward Bullock; 
knight, of Effex ; and afterwards it came to the fa- 
mily of the Ereakes in Hants, who removed into 

Sir Ralph, Freake was created a baronet, June 4, 
1713, and his youngefl fon, fir John Freake, Ibid 
it about the year 1751 to Mr. Francis Dalton, of 
Swaffham in this county, whofe only fon, Francis 
Dalton. dying, in confequence of a violent fall from 
his horfe, by which his thigh was broke, left this 
cltate and manor to Mr. William Dalton, of Swa'fF- 
ham, the prelent proprietor. 

MOXPTN/OUN'S MANOR. This manor, in the reign 
of Edward II. was held by the family of Monpin- 
, from which ic derives its name, and in procefs 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 69 

of time came, like the manor of Belhoufe, to the 
families of Mildmay, Wmdham, Bullock, Freake, 
and to Mr. \Villiam Dal ton,' the prefent proprietor. 

The church is dedicated to St. Csecilra. 

This town is fituated about eight miles from 
Lynn, in the road to Swaffham. 

CASTLE-ACRE. Called in Doomfday-book, 
Acre, from its fcite by a river or running water, was 
ibe lordfhip of Toche, a Saxon diane, in king Ed- 
ward's time, and granted at the conqueft by .king 
William I. to William earl Warren in Normandv, 
ind after of Surry in England, who attended him in 
his expedition into England, and was rewarded alia 
,with thcfe following lordfhips in Norfolk : Walton, 
Gevton, Grimftonc, Conghatn, Hillington, Mailing- 
ham, Harplcy, Anmer, in Freebridge hundred. - 
Stanhoe. Shernbourne, Banvi.k and Fring, in Dock- 
ing hunched. Hcacham and Snettifham, in Smith- 
don hundred. Wikon, Feltwcll, Methwold, North- 
wold, Mundford, Colvefton, Kcbum, Santon, Otc- 
ringcy, Weeting, and Cranwife, in Grimflioe hun- 
dred. Thexton, Gallon, Tofts, Ellingham, Seoul- 1 
ton and Griilon, in \Vayland hundred. Marham, 
Fincham, Helgay, WimbottiHiam, Denver, Dereharn 

and Outweil, in Cl:ickclofe hundred. Stinton, 

Kerdiftone, Hackford, Dalling, Thurning and Elnng, 

in Evnsford hundrc-tl. "I'averharn in Taverham 

huiicircd. Coltilhall, Mortolt, Wickmere, W(>oi- 

terton, Bamingham, Manningion, Irmingland, Cor- 
puftey, Tuttington, Branipton, Cawftcm, Hautboys 
and Crakeford, in South ErpingKam hundred. 
Paflon, Witton, Burton, Waiiharn and Riflo,*, in 
Tunftead hundred. Filby in Eaft Flegg hundred. - : 
Carleton in Depwade hundied. Lulling, Rock- 


land, Roudham, and Illington, in Shropham hun- 
dred. Norton, Wike and Banham, in Guiltcrofs 

hundred. Greffenhall, Seaming, Lcxham, Wea- 

fenham, Kempfton, Franfham, Rougham, Tittle- 
fhaii, and Stanfield, in Launditch hundred.- 
Wymondham, Morley, Wicklewood, Deopham, 
Welborne, Colton, Barnharn and Tochcthorpe, in 
Forehoe hundred. Mattifhall, Burgh, Letton, Ship- 
dam, Thuxton and Rifmg, in Mitford hundred. 
Dudiington, Cley, Hilburgh, Bradenham, Palgrave, 
South-acre, Bodney, Piekenham, in South Greenhoe 

hundred. Sculthorpe, Bafliam, Kettlcftone, Wa- 

terden, Fulmerflone, Croxion, Creak, Snoring, Ry- 
burgh, Stibbard and Burnham, in Gallow hundred. 
Rudham. Bagthorpe, Syderflone, Houghton, Tat- 
terfet, Hclhoughton, Scirford, Hempton, and Bar- 

inere, in Brothercrofs hundred. Wiverton and 

Brifton, in Holt hundred. Holkham and Egmcre, 
in North Grcenhoe hundred. -Gimingham, Knap- 
ton, Thorpe, Mundelley, Repps, North and South 
Grefham,A]dborough,Aylmerton, Barninghain, Plum- 
Jlcad, Suftcad, Wooherton and Tiunch, in North 
Erpingham hundred. 

EARL'S MANOR< In the year 1206, earl William, 
the fecond earl Warren, owed king John a palfrey, 
as a fine for not being v a juiticiary of the Cinque 
Ports : and in the gtli of that king, he and the arch- 
bifhop of Canterbury paid a fine that their knights 
ftiould not go over into Poiclou. In the ift of 
Henry III. there being fome differences between the 
king and him, a truce was made between them for 
eight days, from the feai't of St. Tiberius and Vale- 
rius, before the pope's legate, and feveral noblemen 
of die kings council, at Chichcfter; and he was 
appointed, in the 4th of that king, to meet the king 
oi Scots at Berwick, and to conducl him to York, 



xvhere the king of England would meet him : and in 
his gth year, he accounted for the profits of the 
county of Surry, as fiieriff. 

tie married two wives ; firfr, Maud, daughter of 
the earl of Arundel, who died without ilfue ; fe- 
condly, Maud, filler of Anfclme Marefchal, earl of 
Pembroke, widow of Hugh Bigod, earl of Norfolk, 
and left by her John Plantagenet, his ion and fiw> 
cefibr, in 1240; in which year, Maud his mother, 
had five knights fees and an half in Burnham, of the 
fee of this carl, affigned to her; eight held by Ralph, 
de Menney, one by Geffrey Ghmvile, and four bv 
Peter de Kenct, as part of her dower; and in the 
fa id year, the king ordered the barons of the exche- 
quer, that this earl fhould have the third penny of 
tJli- profits of the county of Surry, which his ancei- 
tors held. 

This manor was called Earl's Manor, mofl: pro- 
bably, from the earl Warren, whole family was long 
in pofiefiion of it. 

John, earl Warren and Surry, foon after his grand- 
father's death, married, in the cj^d of king Edw. I. 
Joan de Barr, daughter of Henry, carl of Barr in 
France, by Eleanor his wife, daughter of the afore- 
faid king, and was deputed by the earl of Hereford 
Con liable of England. 

In the gth year &f Edward II. he gave great part 
of his eftate, with hie caftle and manor here, to tho 
laid king, who in the iext year regranted it to him, 
and had in the lame yx-^r licenfc to purfue his di- 
vorce from the above-mentioned lady his wife, be- 
fore certain ecclcfiaftics ctelcgated for that purpofe, 
and fold about the lame time this iordfhip and caflle, 



xvith that of Caftle-acre Wyken, to Adomarus de 
Valentia, earl of Pembroke, who was found to die 
ieifed of it (by the efcheatdr, John de Blomefield) on 
June 23, in the ijth of Edward II. and David de 
Strabolgi, earl of Athol, and Joan his wife, (lifter 
and coheir to the earl of Pembroke) were found to 
hold it in the i ft of Edward III. 

Soon after the aforefaid John, earl Warren, Sec, 
was poffelfed of it, and in the nth of Edward III. 
granted it to that king and his heirs, who on the 
ylb of June, in the (aid year, rcgranted it to the 
earl for life ; remainder to Richard earl of Arunclel ; 
and on an inquifition taken at Caftle-acre, July 18, 
in the sift of that king, by William dc Middleton, 
the king's efcheator, it was found Jnat John Warren, 
late earl of Surry, died on the eve of St. Peter and 
St. Paul laft paft, feifed of this manor and caftle for 
life, of the king's graui ; remainder to Richard earl 
of Arundel, and his heirs ; that the herbage within 
die caftle, and in the ditch", was worth 55. per ann. 
that there were three hundred acres of arable land, 
valued at 755. at 3d. per acre, eight acres of mea- 
dow at 1 2d. per acre, fifteen of pafture at 4d. per . 
acre, rent of affiie 13!. per ann. a market and fair 
135 4d. pleas and perquifites of court, with the lete, 
6os. per ann. 

Dugdale relates, that Joan, cWntefs of Warren, 
xvife to this earl, being to go beyond fea, in the 
igth of this king, on fome fpe/jial employment for 
the" king, had prote&Jcn for all 'her lands, Sec. and 
that icon after me died, and* the earl married a fe- 
cond wife ; but it appears tVat the firft furvived him. 
He was married indeed tc Ifabel de Houland, as is 
proved by an indenture made between him and the 
king, in his soth year, June 2, and by his laft will, 



wherein he gives a ring with a ruby, Sec. to the faid 
Ifabel his wife, and died June 30, 1347, in the aift 
of Edward III. 

Richard Fitz-Alan, fon of Edmund Fitz-Alan, earl 
of Arundel, by Alice, lifter and heir to John earl 
Warren, Sec. fucccedcd him, was lord of this ma- 
nor, and carl of Surry and Arundel, on whofe 
death, in 1375, Richard his fon and heir, by Alia- 
nore, daughter to Henry earl of Lancafter, relicl of 
Henry lord Beaumont, inherited the faid honours* 
to whom king Richard II. in his nth year, and to 
Henry earl of Derby, Thomas earl of Warwick, 
Thomas earl Marfhal, and Thomas duke of Glou- 
cefter, granted twenty thoufand pounds out of the 
fubfidy raifed for the king, as charges and expences 
they had been at for the honour of the crown, and 
the fafety of the kingdom, in acling again ft the duke 
of Ireland; but in the 2ift of the faid king, he 
was beheaded, and his eftate and this manor granted 
to Thomas Mowbray, earl marfhal and earl of Not- 
tingham, and afterwards duke of Norfolk, who mar- 
ried his daughter, and is faid to be fo inhuman, as 
to bind up his eyes and become his executioner. 

On the acceflion of king Henry IV. to the crown, 
Thomas, fon and heir of this Richard, earl of Surry 
and Arundel, by Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Bohun, earl of Northampton, was reftored in blood, 
made knight of the Bath, on that king's coronation, 
and earl of Surry and Arundel : he married Beatrix, 
an illegitimate daughter to the king of Portugal, but 
dying without illue, left three fifters and coheirs, in 
1416 ; when this manor and caftle came, by virtue 
of an entail made by Richard Fitz-Alan, earl of 
Arundel, in the 21 ft of Edw. III. to fir John Fitz- 
Alan, commonly called fir John Arundel, coufin 
G and 


and heir male to the hft earl Thomas, and gfanct- 
fon to car-l Richard, who dying in 1421, king Hen- 
ry V. granted the cuftody of this manor and caftle, 
then in the king's hands, (as guardian to John, fon 
of John, earl of Arundel and Siirry, by Alianore, 
daughter of fir John Berkley) to fir John Cornwayl, 
knight, with the marriage of the faid minor, who 
was afterwards retained by king Henry V. in the 
wars of France, where dying, in the igth of Henry 
Vl. was buried in the church of the Friers Minors 
at Beauvois, leaving by Maud his wife, daughter 
of Robert Lovell, Humphrey his fon and heir, 
which Humphrey being a minor, died in the i6th 
#f the faid king feifed of this lordfriip and caflle, 
when William Fitz-Alan, his father's brother, inhe- 
rited the eftate and honour; which William had, 
by Joan his wife, daughter of Richard Nevill, earl 
of Salifbury, Thomas his heir and fucceflbr, in the 
3d of Henry VII. who had livery of all his father's 
manors and lands on May the 21 ft, was earl of 
Arundel ; and on his death, in the the 1 6th of Hen- 
ry V1TI. left William, lord Matrevers, his fon and 
heir, by Margaret, daughter of Richard Widvilc, 
earl Rivers, and filler to king Edward IV/s queen, 
which marriage was fettled in October, 1464, at 

This William, earl of Arundel, married , 

daughter of Henry carl of Northumberland, and on 
his death, in 1543, was fucceeded by Henry Fitz- 
Alan, his fon and heir, who married Catherine, 
daugluer of Thomas Grey, marquis of Dorfet, by 
who^fc he had two daughters and coheirs ; Jane, 
who married John lord I.umley, and Mary, to Tho- 
mas- Howard duke of Norfolk, by whom the earl- 
dom of Arundel was brought into that family, but 
the manor of CafUe-acre was fold by the aforefaid 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 75 

Henry, in the ifl year of queen Elizabeth, to fir 
Thomas Grefliarh, knight, from whom it was con- 
veyed to Thomas Cecil, who was afterwards earl of 
Exeter; and fir Edward Coke, lord chief juftice, 
bought it of William Cecil earl of Exeter, whofc 
fifter Elizabeth he married, and in this family it re- 
mained, the right honourable Thomas Coke, earl ol 
Lciccfter, the late lord, dying poffeffed of it in 1759. 

Fox's MANOR. John Fox of Caftle-acre, by his 
will, dated on the feaft of St. Michael, 1434, died 
leifed of it, and left it to his.eldeft fon Thomas, and 
was buried in the priory church. 

From the above John Fox this manor probably 
took its name* 

By an inquifition taken at Norwich, Oclober 23, 

in the 14th of king Charles I. Becke, Gent. 

was found to die leized of the manor of Foxes, Au- 
guli 21, 1636, held of fir Robert Coke, in foccage, 
of his manor of Caftle-acre, and Jeremy was his fon 
and heir. 

After this it was porTerled by the Doves, of Upton 
in Northamptonfhire, and fold in the reign of king 

George I. by Dove, cfq. to fir Thomas Coke, 

earl of Leicester. 

It probably came to the Doves by the marriage of 
Mrs. Frances Becke, in 1633, (to Thomas Dove, 
efq.) daughter of William Becke of Caltle-acre. 

The church is dedicated to St. James, and was 

formerly a reclory, but is now a vicarage. It is a 

large regular building, confifting of a nave, a north 

and fomh ifle, covered with lead, and a chancel 

G a thatched 5 


thatched ; at the weft end is a lofty four-fquare tower, 
with five bells. 

The prcfent vicar is the Rev. Mr, Langton, of 
Longford in Dcrbyfhire, who was prefented in the 
year 1775 by the late Wenman Coke, efq. of Long- 
ford, on fucceeding to the earl of Lciceftcr's e(latc 
on the deniife of the countefs of Leicefler in the 
beginning of that year. 

In the eaft window of the church are the arras of 
the earl Warren, checque, or, and azure; and about 
the church alfo in the windows, were the arras of 
the earls of Arundel, gules, a lion rampant, or; Lc 
Grofs, quarterly, argent and azure, on a bend, fa- 
^le, three martlets, or ; Mortimer, earl of Marfh ; 
Bohun, earl of Northampton ; Haftings and Valen- 
tia, quarterly, earls of Pembroke ; Beauchamp, earl 
of Warwick, See* 

Thomas Candelcr of Caftleacre, by his will dated 
in 15*4, was buried in the church, and gave two 
doles, called Coding and Weflgate, to Thomas 
March and his heirs, " on the condition of keeping 
" a light in the bafon before our Lady in the cha- 
" pel, with 5 waxe capdels to be light at ev'ry prin- 
" cipai fefte, in every dobil fefte 2, and every fin- 
*' gle fefle i ; on a neglecl whereof, then the church 
" reeves to take the clofes, and to keep the fame." 

on the following occafion. William de Warren 
(the firft earl Warren, alfo earl of Moreton and 
Surry) being on a pilgrimage to Rome with his 
countefs, in their way vifited many of the foreign 
monafteries, and being received with particular re- 
fpccl by the prior and convent of Cluni in Bui gun- 


dv, were admitted into their fraternity ; and having 
long before determined to found ibinc religious 
houfe for the welfare of their fouls, they now came 
to a refolution to found it for the order of Clunial 
Monks : accordingly they obtained of the prior and 
convent four of their monks, of whom one Lanzo 
was chief; and the earl on his return to England 
granted the church of St. Pancras, {landing under 
his caflle of Lewes in Suffex, to the order, and en- 
dowed it with lands and poflefllons for the fupport 
and maintenance of twelve Clunial Monks, and 
confirmed the fame to them by charter. This hap- 
pened about the year 1078. Not -long after, fb 
great was his devotion and attachment to this order, 
that he annexed the church of Caflleacre, and ma- 
nor, given him by the Conqueror, with two cara-. 
cutcs of land, to the monks of St. Pancras, and 
determined on founding another monaflery at Caflle- 
acre, which fhould be iubordinate to that at Lewes. 
This lie accomplifhed accordingly, and dedicated it 
to God, St. Mary, and the holy apoflles St. Peter 
and St. Paul, giving the monks the name of the 
Clunial Monks of St. Pancras at Lewes, ferving 
God at Acre. Herbert, bifliop of Norwich, conf^i-i 
tuted tl)e church and monaflery here, and placed 
therein Clunial Monks, under the rule of St. Bene- 

In a charter granted to this priory, William fliles 
bimfelf, earl of Surry, and for the falvation of hi$ 
own foul, and that of his father and his mother, 
and his heirs, gives to this priory the church of 
Acre, the church of Methwold and advowfon there- 
of, the church of Leaden Roding (in Effex) and 
( dvowfon, with thofe of Wickmcrc and Trunch, 
and two parts of the tithes of his demeans in Grim-? 
Hone in Norfolk. Witnefies^William his fon, Wi- 
G 3 incr 


mer his fewer, William Blanche, Walkelin de Rofet, 
Hugh de Wanci, Robert de Mortimer. 

Herbert, bifhop of Norwich, confirmed the grant 
of this founder, and certified that the monks of 
Hacra had entered on that church with his confent, 
and that the monaflery there built, was built by his 

William, the fecond earl of Warren and Surry, 
confirmed the aforefaid grant, and gave himfelf ma- 
ny other grants of lands and revenues to this priory, 
\vhich bifhop Everard appropriated and confirmed to 
them. Several others of this family of Surry gave 
churches and large endowments, fo that in procefs 
of time the priory of Caftleacre became one of the 
richeft and moll confiderable in England. 

Henry I. confirmed the grants of earl Warren as 
follows : No turn fit p'Jcntib ; e.1 futuris qd. Ego Hen- 
ricus, Dei gratia Rex Anglo r. p. falute dice mea et an- 
tecejjor. meor. etp.jlatu, et p. projpe.ritate regni, conce- 
de Deo ct fees Maria de. Achra et f'cis ap'lis Pertro et 
Paulo, et nicnachis de fco. Pancratio ibm. Deo Jcrrien- 
lib; quicquid Will, de Warrenna dedit ds fcil. in ip'a 
Achra duns carucatas terre, et hocq fregerunt de bruenis 
cjus, et culturam cum mora ubi ecc a fundata eji Sig- 
num Had. Regis, J. Rogeri epi.f. Robti cpi. -/. Wilii. 
Comitus -J. Hen. Comitis /. Ran. canceil. -J. Gilbi. 
de Aquila. -J. Herberti epi. -J. Wilii. de Aibeni. f. 
Willi. de CurcyJ. Wilii. McfchinesJ. Wilii. Piperelli 
/. StowcrJ. Jordani de Saiaco -J. Rog. Jil Ric. 

\Villiam, the third earl Warren and Surry, on 
th dedication of the new church of this priory, 
confirmed ail the donations of his anceftors and 
barons, that is, lords of towns under him. 



Everarcl, bifhop of Norwich, confirmed about 
the year 1140, the right of prefentation, or right of 
tidies belonging to this priory, in thefe following 
churches : Acre, Newton (by Caftle-acre) Eaft and 
Weft Lexham, Dunham Magna, with St. Mary's 
chapel, Kcmpfton, Whirfqrifet, Weafenham St. Pe- 
ter, and St. Paul, Sengham, (Shinghanj) Otringhee, 
and Methwold, Wiggenhall St. Mary Magdalen, 
Haverhill, Depden, Hafpaie, Barton, Trunch, Wick- 
mere, Iteringham, Hailedune, Fulmondcftone, Eaft 
Bafham, Weft Baiham, Tatterfet St. Andrew, Cong- 
ham, and die patronage of the inonaftery of St. An- 
drew de Bromholm. 

King Henry II. confirmed to the priory the 
churches of Newton by Acre, South Creak, and 
Flete, and gianted them to be free fiom all toll. 

John Plantagenet, earl of Warren, by his deed 
reciting that, Whereas his ftevvards and others his 
officers in Norfolk, had demanded of this priory 
certain penfions of meats and drinks as their right, 
given at firft by the monks out of their free will 
and reflect to the iervants of the earls of Warren, 
belonging to their manor of Wike in Cafllc-acre, 
he by this deed quits claim to the f^me, and charges 
his officers not to demand or receive it for the fu- 
ture, dated May 10, Edward II. 9. 

Symon, bifhop of Norwich, confirmed to the faid, 
priory the churches of Eaft Acre, Newton, Souili 
Creak, Weft Bafham, Kempftone, Methwold, Su 
Mary Magdalen Wiggenhall, with many other do- 

Numberlefs we;e the benefactors and benefactions 

given to 'this priory ; churches, lands, and revenues 

G 4 without 


without end by the laity of thofe times. The arch- 
bifliop of Canterbury contented himfelf with grant- 
ing indulgences, 

Walter de Grancourt gave by fine, in the 4th of 
Henry III. the church of Fulmondeftone, which 
they had of the grant of Hugh his anceftor. 

Adam Talbot gave by fine, 37th of Henry III. 
the church of St. Michael of Fincham. 

William Bardolf gave the church of St. Peter of 
North Burlingham. 

John Peckham, archbifhop of Canterbury, granted 
an indulgence of thirty days to all who would pray fur 
the foul of William, the third earl Warren, and fif- 
teen days for that of Ela his countefs, and twenty 
days for the fouls of William, the firfl earl Warren 
and Surry, and Gundrede his wife, dated at South 
Mailing, the 3d of the ides of July, 1283. 

About this time the prior was found to hold four 
hundred and fixty acres of arable land, twenty of 
pafture, ten of meadow, five water mills, with the 
liberty of fifhing therein, in pure alms, and divers 
other lands in this town, held by thirty-fix tenants, 
a court baron, two folds, two free boars, and two 
bulls of the earl Warren. 

In the 4/th of Edward III. this priory was made 
indigena, and not fubjecl, as a cell, to the prior of 

The monks certified to the king that the prior 
and convent of Callle-acre were all Engliflimen, 
and not aliens, or the fubjetl of any foreign power, 



nor paid any rents or penfions, or owed obedience 
to die abbot of Cluni, except only when he came 
into England to vilit the priory, whereupon the 
houie was allowed to be indigena, native, and not 
alitnigena, alien, and was privileged accordingly. 

Several fmall priories or cells belonged to this. 
Bartholomew de Granvile confirmed it to the priory 
of Bromholm in Norfolk, founded by his father 

William de Huntingfeld gave the priory of Mend- 
ham in Suffolk ; William, the' third earl Warren, 
the priory of Slevefholm in Methwold; William de 
Lifewis, and Godfrey his fon, that of Normanf- 
burgh in South Rainharn. The prior of Coin in 
Effex paid an annual penfion of 263. per ann. a 
penfion of 263. 8d. per ann. out of the church of 
Afpal in Suffolk, and five marks out of that of 
Gayton in Norfolk, and a penfion out of Barefield 
Parva in Lilex. 

Rut the time was approaching in which this proud 
and wealthy monaftery, which had fhook off de- 
pendence upon its original order and church, was 
to refign its honours, and give up its riches to the 
hand of power. 

On the 2sd of November, 1533, Thomas Mall- 
ing, prior, and his convent, furrendered this priory, 
with the manor of Caftle-acre Priors, and all its ap- 
purtenances, to king Henry VIII. In the furrender 
deed it is exprefied, " for certain caufes, juft and 
" reafonable, them, their fouls and confcicnces 
" efpecially moving, together with the fcite of all 
" the manors, melluages, lands and tenements, rents 
" and ieivices, 8cc. advowfons, and all manner of 

" things 


' things thereunto belonging, in Norfolk, Suffolk, 
" Effcx, Middlefex, Cambridgefhire, &c. in England 
" and Wales ;" and figned by Thomas Mailing, 
prior, and ten monks, viz. John Hounfword, Wil- 
liam Burgullion, Robert Daniel, Robert Fifke, Wil- 
liam Elis, John Bets, Edmund Wadenowe, John 
Lowe, Robert Saaiy, and Robert Halraan. 

The king, on December 22, in his 3Qth year, 
granted the fcite of this priory, the prior's manor, 
the impropriated reclory, and advowfon of the vica- 
rage, to Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk ; and 
in the sd of Elizabeth, the duke of Norfolk alie- 
nated it to Thomas Grelham, who in the preceding 
year had purchafed al'fo of Henly, earl of Arundel, 
the lordfhip, or the earl's manor of Caftle-acre. 
The duke is faid to convey his part for 2000!. 
Grefham conveyed his right in both thefe lordfhips 
to Thomas Cecil, afterwards earl of Exeter ; and 
his fon William, earl of Exeter, fold them to fir 
Edward Coke, lord chief juflice of England, who 
married his fifter. Sir Edward foon after fell under 
the difpleafure of the king and nobles, was forbid 
the court, and flruck off the council, and lived in 
great , forrow and difgrace : he was feparated from 
his wife, his fon died childlefs, and his daughter, 
the vifcountefs Purbeck, lived an open and fcanda- 
lous adulterefs. Sir Henry Spelman gives this among 
many other inftances, of the misfortunes of thofe 
families that have dealt in church lands ; and it 
muft be acknowledged the lord chief juftice dealt 
pretty largely in them, efpecially in the county of 
Norfolk. He was a great lawyer, but very rapa- 
cious, as the vafl poffeffions left behind him to his. 
defcendants evidently fhew. 


OF F R E E B R I D G E, 83 

The late earl of Lcicefter was lord of the manor 
of Arundel or Earl's, Prior's and Fox's, and impro- 
prietor and patron qf the vicarage. His lordfhip 
left no iffue, but died childlefs like his anceftor 
abovementioned : x he had a fon, the late lord vif- 
count Coke, . a man of great abilities, who died 
childlefs alfo; he reprefented this county in parlia- 
ment for one parliament. On his dcceafe the fa- 
mily eftate was entailed by lord Leicefter to a colla- 
teral branch, Wenman Roberts Coke, of Longford 
in Derbyfhire, efq. tbf eldcft fon of his filler, -who. 
fucceedcd to it on the demife of lady Leicefter in 
1775, and died himfelf foon after in April 1776, 
having been elected reprefentative of the county at 
the general election in 1774. 

The fcite of the priory church lies weft of the 
caftle, was a venerable large Gothic pile, of free- 
ftone, flint, See. and built in a cathedral or conven- 
tual manner ; great part of the front or weft end of 
it, is ftill remaining, where the principal entrance 
was through a great arch, over which was a (lately 
window ; on each fide of the great door were doors 
to enter into the north and fouth ifles, under the 
tower, as the grand door fcrved for an entrance into 
the nave or body ; at the north and fouth end of 
this front, or weft end, flood two towers lupported 
by flrong arches and pillars ; the nave or body had 
twelve great pillars, making feven arches on each, 
fide, the loweft joining to the towers; on the eaft 
end of the nave flood the grand tower, fupported by 
four great pillars, through which was the entrance 
into the choir ; on the fouth and north fide of this 
toner were two crofs ifles or tranfcepts, and at the 
end of the north tranfcept there teems to have been 
a chapel or veftiary ; the choir was of equal breadih. 
iviih the nave and iiles, but much fhorter, and at 



the eaft end of it was in form of a chapel, and here 
flood the high altar. 

The cloifter was on the fouth fide of the church, 
and had an entrance into it at the weft end of the 
fouth iHe, near to the tower, and another at the 
eaft end of the faid ifle, near the grand tower ; the 
chapter houfc feems to have joined to the eaft fide 
of the cloifter, and the dormitory to have been over 
the weft part of the cloifter. Weft of the cloifter, 
and adjoining, was the prior's apartment, now con- 
verted into a farm hovife : in a large room above 
flairs, called now the prior's dining room, is a cu- 
rious bow window of ftone, confiding of nine pan- 
nels : in the firft were the arms of the priory, paint- 
ed on the glafs ; in the fecond the arms of the earl 
of Arundel, and earl Warren, quarterly, bat now 
broke and gone ; in the third, Mowbray. duke of Nor- 
folk, gules, a lion rampant, argent; 4th, the red and 
white rofe united, and a crown over it ; 5th, France 
and England quarterly ; 6th, the rofc, 8cc. as above ; 
yth, eail Warren's arms; 8th, quarterly, the earl of 
Arundel in the firft and fourth quarter, and in the 
fecond and third Matrevers, fable, fretty, or, and 
JFitz-Alan, baron of Clun, p. fefs, azure and argent, 
quarterly ; gth, argent, a crofs compony, or, and 
azure, between twelve crofs crofslets, fitche, fable; 
the priory arms, as we take it, and thefe letters 
/. W. joined together by a knot, and under it, 

By this it appears, that this window was built by 
John Winchelfey, prior in the reign of Hen. VII. or 
VIII. afterwards it might be convened into a dining 
room ; but that it was originally a large chapel, and 
this room was only the weft end of it, is apparent ; 
it extended to the fouth tower of the church, where 


at the eaft end of it is a large window, as in a cha- 
pel, and a ftep or afcent here, as to an altar : and 
on the fouth wall, near to this afcent, is an arched 
carved feat of ftone, riling in form of a pyramid, 
with the fhield of the earl Warren alone, which tef- 
tifies it to be an antique pile, built in their time, 
before the patronage ot the priory came to the earls 
of Arundel ; and at the north eaft corner, near to 
the altar place, is a door place with a ftone arch; 
and here was a ftone ftaircafe which led down into 
the cloifter. 

In another room was, a few years paft, in a win- 
dow, the broken portraiture of one of the earls of 
Arundel, in armour, with a broad fword in his 
hand, and on his furcoat the arms of Amndel, Ma- 
trevers and Clun, as above, and part of a legend, 

My tntjt ys ; alfo on a chapeau, gules, an 

oaken Hip, vert, acorned or. 

There are two prints of the ruins of this priory, 
one by Mr. Buck, who dedicated it to the lady 
Margaret, lady baroncfs of Clifford ; and the other 
by Mr. Millicent. The fcite of it took in feveral 
acres. The grand entrance was north of the priory 
church, where is now Handing a large and ftately 
gate-houfe of free-ftonc ; over the arch as vou enter 
are the arms of the earl Warren, of Arundel and earl 
Warren quarterly, France and England, and lliofe 
of the priory. 

The whole fcite was inclofed with a lofty ftone 
wall, good part of which is itill (landing. 

A little towards the eaft of the priory flood the 
caftle, in a rifmg ground, from the fouth to the 
north, including, with all its outwork^ and fortifica- 


dons, about eighteen acres of ground, in a circular 
form ; through this there is a way, or flreet, called 
DOW the Bailey-flreet, vviih houf'es on each fide, run- 
ning direclly north and fouth ; at the entrance of this 
ftreet, on the north, Hands a (tone gate-houfc, with 
two round baflions, and had two ddors, an inward 
and outward one, with a portcullis in the middle; 
and no doubt there was another at the entrance of 
this flreet, on the fouth fide, as you come from 
Swaffham, as appears from fome marks flill remain- 
ing. Near the north gate, on the eaft fide of the 
llreet, was a chapel for the caftle, the walls of which 
are flill fta'nding, and is now a dwelling-houfe ; and 
on the eafl fide of the faid ftrcet, near the middle 
of it, was a flrong {lone gate-houfe, leading into 
the outward court of the great caflle, which was cir- 
cular, inclofed with a flrong and lofty wall of free- 
ftone, flint, &c. and embattled {even feet thick, a 
confiderable part of which is flill remaining, with a 
deep ditch, or entrenchment, and a lofty embattled 
wall round it; within this was the keep; and crols 
this deep ditch or entrenchment are three lofty walls 
at proper diftanccs, which join the caflle wall, as 
buttreffes, &c* The whole area of this caflle, with 
its entrenches and ditches, and an outward wall em- 
battled as aforefaid, includes about eighteen acres of 
ground, and reaches near the river ; where, under 
this embattled outward wall, is a terras walk, which 
affords a pleafant and agreeable profpecl over the 
country, and water to fupply and fill the ditches. 
The other part of the fortifications, lying on the weft 
fide of this Bailey-flreet, is called the Barbican, and 
contains above ten acres of land, and was enclofed 
by deep ditches, entrenchments, and high ramparts. 

This caflle, no doubt, was as agreeable for its 
apartments as its flrcngth, and it appears that king 



dw. I. was entertained herein by earl Warren, irt 
January 1297 : and one thing is further remarkable 
of it, that the earl Warren, the founder, though he 
had one hundred and forty lord/hips in Norfolk, 
chofe this for his chief great honour, or lordfhip, 
and rcfidence ; and his other lordfhips were depeii- 
dent on it ; and in this caftle was a chapel, with 
monks therein, before the' death of the firli eari 
Warren, in 1089. 

The Romans feem to have had a Ration 
where the callle now flands, which might have in- 
duced alfo the firft earl Warren to make choice of 
it : and from the north part of the prefent entrench- 
ments, .there runs a way which goes to CafUe-acre 
W'icken, and from thence it proceeds over the coun- 
try, leaving Mafllngham and Houghton on the right 
and Anrner on the left hand, and is commonly call- 
ed The Pcdder's Way, and between the two laft- 
mcntioned towns, on the faid way, may be obferveJ. 
many tumuli; hence it tends in a direcl courfe, leav- 
ing Fring a little on the right, hand, and fo for Ring- 
ftcad, &c. the fea coaft, and Brancafter. 

Several Roman coins have been found here, and 
fome lately of Vofpafian, Conftantine, &c. And 
not many years paft, a cornelian leal, or ring, with 
the imprefs of an emperor, his head radiated, was 
found in a clofe called Arundel Clofe. 

From the beauty of the fituation of Caftle-acrc,' 
and the noble ruins at prefent remaining, of which 
the femicircular wall of the caftle is a very grand 
and finking ruin, the late earl of Leicefler at one 
time entertained an idea of building there : a fitua- 
tion no doubt every way fupcrior to thai of Hoik- 
ham, where he afterwards railed Ib enormous a pile : 

a pile 


a pile confifling of many detached parts ; and cnof- 
mous as it is, there are few grand rooms in it, not 
^ a fecond dining-room ; the whole houic fccms taken 
- up and crowded with winding alleys and paffages, 

f@ that it is difficult to find the way from one apart- 
ment to another ; but a more particular dcfcription 
will be given when we come to the hundred it is fi- 
tuatcd in. Inflead of a fine command of country 
as at Caftle-acrc, with a river winding through the 
meadows to the fouth, the houfe at Holkham ftands 
in a hole, with a lake of water running to the north. 

" Two cupids fquirt before : a lake behind 
*' Improves the keennefs of the northern wind." 


Lord Leicefler had a noble opportunity at Cafllc- 
acre to have thrown the ruins and church into a 
park, to have formed the mofl extenfive pieces of 
water to the fouth, and to have built a palace upon 
a commanding eminence, that might have attracled 
the admiration of the whole world. His reafon for 
not doing it is faid to have been, the creeling the 
new houfe on the fpot where the old one flood: 
however reprehenfible the reafon, it has had its 
weight in many great flrudures in this kingdom. 

CASTLE-RISING. Next to Lynn and Yar- 
mouth, this was formerly the mofl confiderable fea- 
port town in Norfolk. It was diftinguifhed and 
claims the fuperiority over all other towns in this 
hundred, by a famous caflle that, as Camden fays, 
vies with the caflle of Norwich. By this hundred 
we mean the hundred of Freebridge Lynn, (indepen- 
dent of Marfhland) which is bounded on the Eafl 
by the hundreds of Launditch and Callow, on the 
north by Smithdon, on the fouth by Clackclofe and 


OF F R E E B R I D G , 89 

South Greenhoe, and on the weft by Lynn Deeps 
and the channel. This hundred was granted in 
fpecial tail by king Richard III. to John earl of 
Norfolk, whom he created duke of Norfolk, and 
earl marflial of England at the fame time, for his 
fidelity to the York Family, and who was killed 
with him at the battle of Bofworth near Leicefter. 

Auguft 22, 1485, the night before the battle, the 
following couplet was thrown into his tent. 

" Jockey of Norfolk, be not fo bold, 

" For Dickcn thy mailer is bought and fold." 

Thefe verfes were evidently intended to give the 
duke an hint of fome unknown defection or confpi- 
racy amongft Richard's troops, and to prevent his 
expofmg his perfon too much in the action expected 
the next day: probably it was done by order of 
king Henry VII. who might have an inclination to 
fave the duke. The defection alluded to was that 
of the lord Stanley, whofe forces, led on by fir 
William Stanley, when they faw their time joined 
thofe of the earl of Richmond, and falling upon 
the king's troops, defeated them with great flaugh- 
ter, and turned the victory in favour of the earl, 
near whom Richard was flain fighting with great 
bravery. That king Hemy might probably be in- 
clined to preferve the life of the duke of Norfolk, 
as honouring him for his Heady though miftakcn 
loyalty, is in fome meafure confirmed by his afking 
his fon, the earl of Surry, who was taken prifoner, 
" How he dare to bear arms in behalf of that ty- 
' ' rant and ufurper Richard ?" to which the earl re- 
plied with great fpirit, ' He was my crowned king, 
" and if the parliamentary authority of England fat 
"' the crown upon a Jtock, I will fight for that Jlock ; 
H " and 



" and as I fought then for him, I will fight for you, 
" when you are eftablifhed by die faid authority. 11 

This proves that die idea of hereditary indcfeafi- 
ble right was by no means entertained by the iiobi- 
lity of that age. 

This lordfhip, which formerly was a beruite to 
the great lordfhip of Snettifham, was granted upon 
the rebellion of Odo, to William de Albirii, king's 

From the Albinis, in procefs of time, this lord- 
fhip came with the caftle to Roger de Monte Alto, 
lord of Montalt or Mohaut, who made it his chief 
feat and place of reiidence here. 

Roger, '(called Robert by Dugdale) lord Montalt, 
died in the 441)1 of Henry III. and left John his foil 
and heir. 

Robert lord Montalt fucceeded his brother John, 
about the 5-26. of the aforefaid king. 

He was fucceeded by Roger, his fon and heir, by 
Ifabel his wife, who married Julian, daughter of 
Roger Clifford, and was impleaded on account of 
the rights of his chace, in the i8th of Edward I. 
by William Rufleng, lord of Congham, a dog of 
his tenant having his claws cut otf by this lord's 
fen-ants. He dying in the 251!! of the laid king, 
aged 27, without ilTue, was fucceeded by his bro- 
ther, Robert lord Montalt, who was the eighteenth 
lord of parliament who fealed the famous letter fenc 
to the pope, in the 2gth year of Edward I. denying 
the kingdom of Scotland to be of his fee, or that 
he had any jurifdiclion in temporal affairs, dated at 
Lincoln, February i2 ? 1301. 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 91 

In the ift of Edward II. lie was furnmoned 
amongfl other nobles to attend the king s coronation, 
to be folemnized the Sunday next after the feaft of 
St. Valentine, by writ dated at Dover, January 8. 
In the 12th of the faid king, the charter of wreck 
at fca, in all his lands in this county was confirmed 
to him : Snettifham, Heacham, Hunftanton, Thorn- 
ham, TitchwclJ, Sec. arc particularly mentioned. 
William de Albini, earl of SulTex, having one in 
the time of Henry III. through the whole hundreds 
of Freebridge and Srnithdon. 

In the i8th of the faid king, on September 30, 
the king fent a precept to this lord, 2nd Thomas 
lord Bardolph, to inform them of Mortimer's ap- 
proach, and to be careful of the country hereabouts. 

This Robert appears to have inherited large pof- 
fefiions, as heir to his brother. 

Robert lord Montalt, died on Tuefday next aftef 
the feaft of the nativity of our Lord, in the year 
1329, in the gd of Edward III. without iliue, and 
was buried in the priory of Shouldham in Norfolk, 
being the laft heir male of that family, who took 
their name from a hill in Flintfhire in Wales, whcra 
they anciently rcfided and had a caftle. 

The lady Emma, his widow, by deed dated a.c 
London, Decembet 3, in the ^th of the aforefaid 
king, furrendered up all the aforementioned cadles, 
manors, Sec. with all her rights in London, (for 
400!. per ann. annuity) to the queen dowager of 
Edward II. queen Ifabcl, then regent of the king- 
dom during the minority of the king her ion, Ed- 
ward III. 

H o Soon 


Soon after this flie died, and was buried in the 
body of the church of Stradfet in Norfolk, a large 
grave-ftone of black marble lying over her at this 
day. Whofe daughter (he was does not appear : 
flie was probably a daughter of De Stradfete, a fa- 
mily of great antiquity, lords of Stradfet. 

At her death the queen Ifabel took poffeiTion of 
this lordfhip and cafile. 

King Edward III. in his nth year, October t, 
fettled the reverfion of this manor and cafile on his 
eldeft fon Edward, after the death of his mother; 
John of Eltham, earl of Cornwall, (his brother) be- 
ing dead, and leaving no iffue, on whom it was be- 
fore fettled. 

Iii the year 1327, king Edward II. having re- 
figned his crown to his fon, Edward III. who was 
then only fixteen years of age, w<as foon after put to 
death at Berkeley caftle in Gloucefterfhire, by the 
contrivance of Mortimer, the favourite of queen 
Ifabel, and on the following equivocal and ambigu- 
ous warrant, laid to be wrote by Adam de Torleton, 
bifhop of Hereford. 

" Edwardum Occidere Nolite. Timer c Bonun eft" 

After the death of Edward II. Ifabel his queen 
ailumed the reins of government, on account of the 
youth of her fon, king Edward III. and having de- 
legated almofl abfolutc power to her minion Morti- 
mer, he behaved with that infolence to the nobles, 
and oppreffed the kingdom to fuch a degree, that a 
cohfpiracy was formed by the king's uncle, the earl 
of Kent, againft queen Ifabel ; and the young king 
being properly informed of the too great familiarity 



between his mother and Mortimer, furprized and 
feized him in the prefence of the queen, at Notting- 
ham caftle, where flie redded, and where Mortimer 
had accefs to her through a fubterrancous paflage, 
the entrance of which is vifible at this day, and at 
this day called Mortimer's Hole. Lord Mortimer 
was executed at Tyburn in the 4th year of Edward 
III. 1330. The queen was confined, and by a par- 
liament held at Nottingham, her dowry was taken 
from her, and changed to an annuity of loool. 
King Edward III. then nineteen years of age, took 
the government into his own hands. Thus much 
was neceflary to mention of the hiftory of this queen, 
for the elucidating her confinement in this caftle ojF 

This queen had her residence here the greateft 
part of her widowhood, after the execution of her 
great favourite Mortimer, earl of March. 

Grafton tells us, that the king, by the advice of 
his council, committed his mother, as prifoner, to 
be kept clofe in a caftle, (but does not name it) 
where (lie remained during her life: her commit- 
ment was in king Edward's fourth year, 1330, 

In the year 1340, in the 14th year of his reign, 
the king and his queen were at this caftle, paying 
a vifit to his mother, and made fome ftay here, as 
appears by the account rolls of Adam de Reffham 
and John de Newland, of Lynn by Rifmg, fending 
a prefent of wine to him. 

In Auguft 1340, (i4th of Edward III.) queen 

Jfabel fent her precept from this caftle to John dc 

Cokesford, mayor of Lynn, to fend her eight car- 

Ji 3 penter* 


penters to make feveral preparations therein, pro- 
bably for the reception of the king and queen. 

In his iSth year, the king on the ^d of Auguft 
was lodged here, as appears from feveral letters da- 
ted i r rom this place, and fent to William bifhop of 
Norwich, at Avignon, to be prefented to the pope. 

On April 4, in 1357, (the 3-1 ft of Edward III.) 
a fafe conduct was granted to William de Leith, a 
Scotchman, to wait on her here, and in the next 
year following, 1358, fhe died at this caftle, on 
Auguft 22, and was brought from hence about the 
end of November following; on the soth of which 
month the king directed, by letter, the fherifFs of 
London and Middlefex to cleanfe the ftreets of Lon- 
don called Bifhopfgate and Aldgate, from dirt and 
dung, againft the coming of the body of his mo- 
ther ; and directs by another, dated December i fol- 
lowing, the treafurer and barons of the exchequer 
to allow 9!. which the fheriffs had expended for that 
purpofe. She was buried in the midft of the choir 
pf the Grey Friers church in London, and had a 
tomb of alabafter creeled to her memory. 

It may be here obferved that Mortimer, her great 
favourite, was buried here, as Stow in his Annals, 
p. 350, quarto. 

On the death of queen Ifabel this lordfhip, and 
honor as it is called, defcended to her grandfon, 
Edward prince of Wales, and was valued, as ap- 
pears from an account of his revenue, at 90!, per 
ann. and at the death of this prince, to his fon 
Richard, foon after king of England, by the name. 
of Richard II. 



In the ad year of his reign, king Richard II. 
granted to John Montfort, firnamed the Valiant, 
duke of Britain and earl of Richmond, and to Joan 
his wife, called by the king in his grant, his filler, 
in exchange for the caftle of Breft in Britany. 

Of this Joan a query arifes : Godfrey, in his hif- 
tory of king Charles VII. of France, fays that he 
married to his fecond wife a daughter of Edward the 
Black Prince, father of king Richard II. but as 
none of our genealogifls have mentioned this, he 
muft be miftaken. Philip L'Abbe, in his Tableaux 
Genealogiques, obferves that the fecond wife of the 
aforefaid John, was Joan, daughter of Thomas Hol- 
land, earl of Kent, .by Joan his wife, called the Fair 
Maid of Kent, daughter of Edmund Plantagenet, 
earl of Kent ; and afterwards married to Edward the 
Black Prince, and fo was, as he words it, Socur 
Uterine de Richd. Ic IL Roy d'Atigleterre, that is, fifter 
by her mother, to Richard II. 

On Mont fort's defection from the crown of Eng- 
land, (and depofitiqn from all titles of honour in. 
England, by acl: of parliament in the i^th of -the 
faid king) it was feized into the king's hands, who 
in the faid year gave it to Thomas de Woodftock, 
duke of Gloucefter, fixth fon to king Edward III. 
who being murdered at Calais, in the aid year of 
king Richard, Edmund de Langlcy, duke of York, 
fifth fon to king Edward III. obtained a grant of it, 
with the manors of Beefton and Milcham, &c. in, 
Norfolk, and died pofTefled of it in the 4th of king 
Henry IV. when it dcfcended to his eldeit fon, Ed- 
ward duke of York ; who being flain in the famous 
battle of Agincourt in France, in the 3d of Henry 
V. it came to his brother, Richard de Coningfbergh, 
Carl of Cambridge, who being beheaded in the faid 
H ^ year, 


year, it fell to the crown, where it remained till the 
36th of Henry VIII.' when an acl of parliament 
pafled, ratifying an exchange between the king, 
Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk, and Henry his 
fon, earl of Arundel and Surry; they giving to the 
king the manors of Walton, Trimlev, Falkenham, 
with the reclories of Walton and Felixton in Suf- 
folk, for the caflle, manor, and chace of Riling and 
all its appurtenances, with the manors of Thorpe, 
Gay wood, South Waif ham, Halvergate and Ditch- 
inghanv in Norfolk, Doningworth, Cratfield, Hoo, 
Staverton and Bromefwell in Suffolk, to be held of 
the king in capite, by the thirtieth part of a knight's 
fee, and the rent of 26!. per ann. payable at St. Mi- 
chael, into the court of Augmentations. Henry 
the fon, earl of Arundel, Sec. being attainted in his 
father s life time, the duke enjoyed this manor, Sec. 
till his death, in the ift and ad of Philip and Ma- 
rv, when an acl: of parliament pafled for the reftor- 
ing of the fon of the attainted earl. 

In the accounts of fir John Arundel, knight, re- 
ceiver of the dutchy of Cornwall in the reign of 
king Henry VIII. he had allowances for 405. per 
aim. paid to fir Henry Marny, knight, as fteward of 
this lordfhip ; ] 3!. 8s. as conflable of the caftle ; 
4!. 115. 3d. as ranger of the chace; and for two 
under forefters, called Walkers, ^35. 4d. per ann. 
At this time fir Thomas Lovel, knight of the garter, 
%vas farmer of the demeans and the warren. 

On the attainder of Thomas duke of Norfolk, in 
the 15th of Elizabeth, it came again to the crown, 
and flic granted it to Edward earl of Oxford, with 
the demeans of Gaywood ; but this grant was foon 
revoked, and it was granted to Henry Howard, earl 
of Northampton, brother to the duke of Norfolk, 

attainted ; 


attainted; who held it to his death, in 1616, and 
having no iffue it defcended to Thomas Howard, 
earl of Arundel, his heir; which Thomas was 
grandfon to Thomas duke of Norfolk aforefaid, 
and brother to the earl of Northampton; and in 
this family it remained till it was bought by Tho- 
mas Howard, efq. (one of the tellers of the exche- 
quer, {on and heir of fir Robert Howard, knt. au- 
ditor of the exchequer, ,fixth fon to Thomas How- 
ard, earl of Berkihire) of Henry duke of Norfolk, 
in 1693. 

After this it came to the earl of Berkfhire, as 
heir to the aforefaid Thomas Howard, efq. The 
carl of Berkfhire dying s. p. it defcended to the earl 
of Suffolk, the prefent lord, one of his majefty's 
principal fecretaries of flate, knight of the garter, 
and one of his majcfly's mofl honourable privy 
council, 1778. 

The duke of Norfolk has the title of lord How- 
ard of Caftle-Rifing; Henry Howard of Caflle- 
Rifing, heir of the faid family, being fo created 
bv letters patent, March 27, in the aift of Charles 

Two members of parliament are chofen by the 
free burghers, their reprefentatives therein. 

The town takes its name from its fcite, (Rye is 
the name of a river, in Yorkfhire, &c. and of a bo- 
rough town in Suffex) by a river, on a hill, which 
affords a fine profpecl, overlooking a large arm of 
the fea ; and from Ing, a meadow, or marfh ground. 

Sir Henry Spelman, who lived at Gongham, in 
the neighbourhood of it, fays it has been a famous 



port, but being flopped up with fands, was the 
caufe of its great decay. 

The (aid author obferves, that it is a burgh of 
fuch antiquity that the royal archives and records 
give no account of it ; the fcite of it fuch, that he 
thinks the Romans had a place of defence here, 
fome of their coin being found here, and a Con- 
flan tine being brought to him. 

That the fea had formerly its courfe near to, and 
came up probably to the town, appears in fome 
meafure from its being drowned in winter, fre- 
quently on fpring tides the fait water overflowing 
the banks, between this town and Babingly; and 
from the name of a fireet, that comes up to this 
town from the low ground, called by the inhabi- 
tants at this day, Haven-Gate Lane, which is very 
oufy, and in this lane there was fome years paft, in 
digging, taken up a piece of an anchor belonging 
to fome fhip. 

In the 31 ft of Elizabeth, on the ifl of Auguft, a 
furvey of this lordfhip was made by fir Nicholas 
Bacon, knt. John Hill, efq. one of the auditors of 
the exchequer, Robert Buxton, efq. and Robert 
Shepherd, gent. commifTioners appointed by that 
queen to furvey this manor, part of the lands of 
Philip earl of Arunclel, attainted and ponvicled; 
who on die oaths of Henry Mordant, gent. Thomas 
Winde, gent. Thomas Spratt, gent. Jofeph Wright, 
gent, and fifteen others, prefent and affirm, that the 
town of Caille-Rifing is an ancient burgh, and 
hath in it a mayor and burgeifes : and many an- 
tient privileges, franchifes and liberties have been 
granted to Hugh de Albini, earl of Suffex and 
fbjne time lord of the manorj which pri- 

OF F R E E B R i;D G E. 99 

vileges have been heretofore found by diverfe in- 
quifidons, viz. 

Firft, 'Tis granted to this faid earl and his heirs, 
ihis ftewards and tenants, from this time to be quit 
and free of pannage, tallage, paffage, payage, laft- 
age, ftallage, portage, peiage arid terrage, through 
the parts of England. Alfo that they fhall have a 
mayor, that by them fhall be chofen, and be prer 
iemed to the earls and his fleward. 

They fhall fell, or give their burgages to whom 
they will, without any gain-laying. 

If a burgcfs die, the next heir fhall enter into 
burgage without any gain-laying. 

The lord fhall not have the cuflody or the heir of 
a burgager, but his kin, or next coufin by the ino* 
thcr's fide. 

Their heirs fhall marry themfelves wherefoever 
they like. 

If feizure of a burgage be made, it fhall be by 
the bailiffs, and keepers of the market. 

They fhall take for their debts, in the town of 
Riling and without, as far as the warren flretches. 

They fhall diftrain no burgefs within his burgage. 

If actions, or flrife, fhall happen between bur- 
gefs and burgefs, in the town or without, the mayor 
fhall have them attached ; fipll let them a day un- 
til the Monday next, and before him fhall their 
tale? be told and brought. 



If their tales happen not to "be appeals of felony, 
or of a deadly wound, or fuch other as longeth to 
the crown. 

Alfo full amercement, in court, the burgefs that 
is guilty and hath trefpaffed, (hall make to the may- 
or ; and that fhall he prefent to the fleward, or 
lord's bailiff, and they (hall do therein their wills, 

If the.; lord will have any burgefs in his fervicc, 
he (hall find him reafonable expences. 

They fhall not ferve to the hundred, or (hire, 
they fhall not be put upon afTize. 

They fhall not be diflreffed by bailiffs of the 

They fhall not be accufed at the view of frank^ 
pledge for anfwer, but he that trefpaflcs for that 
pledge fhall make amends. 

If the fon of a burgefs fliall enter into frank- 
pledge, that is to fay the "lete, he fliall not pay, 
and he fhall have free entry into the common paf- 
tures of the town. 

The burgeffes have grant of a fair, or free mart, 
from the feafl of St. Matthew, during fifteen days ; 
and two markets in the week, Monday and Thurf- 

They fliall give no cuftom in the market of Ri- 
fmg, of their corn that comes out of their barns; 
or any other thing that they buy to their proper ufe 
in the faid market, and they fhall do no fuit. 



If any burgcfs be a merchant, and put any thing 
to the market of Rifmg to fell, he fliall give half 
cuflom, except bakers, who fliall give whole cuftom 
to the lord. 

Alfo they fliall give no cuftom, or ufage, in the 
'havens of the lord in the marfli. 

If any burgefs be fummoned before the lord, or 
his fleward, his fummons fliall be made by the 
mayor, and by none other. 

If the lord makes his eldeft fon a knight, or hi* 
eldeft daughter be married, then the burgeffes fliall 
give him reafonable help, elfe not. 

The fervants of the lord fliall not take the gecfe, 
capons, or fifh or flcfli, meat or drink, at their wills, 
without leave of the burgeffes, and without their 
ton lent. 

Alfo they fliall have all their meafures the fame 
as at Norwich. 

That the warren hath be.en by the fpace of two 
or three years pail greatly furcharged, the Xvarrencr 
being covenanted to leave for his view, three thou- 
fand eight hundred coneys ; he has killed the laft 
year feventeen thoufand, and may kill for this year 
as many, or more, his number for view being treble 
referved; and by this the caftle flock of fix hundred 
weathers is utterly overthrown, and the inhabitants 
and tenants of the towns adjoining injured, which 
will be an occasion of impairing her majefty's rent, 
and the undoing of the inhabitants, Sec. and that by 
the increafe of thefe ^conies by the warrener, and 
their breeding in the callle ditches and banks, the. 



fame are decayed, and the walls are already in part, 
and' the reft in danger of overthrowing ; that the laid 
banks and ditches are no parcel of the warren, and 
that the con fl abler y of the c a file is no part of the 
warren of Riling, and that the burgh, and the clofcs 
belonging, Sec. are alfo no part of the warren. 

By this prefentmcnt it appears that Hugh de Albi- 
ni, earl of Arundel and Suffex, had a chartes for 
many royal privileges and liberties, with that of a 
mayor, in this lordfhip, and this muft be in fome 
year between i 233, (the earl being then a minor) 
and 1242, in which year he died. 

This ancient burgh, the mayor of which is al- 
ways called over firft 'and before the mayors of any- 
other borough in the county, at the reading the 
king's cominiiiion of the peace before the judges of 
the affize, a ftrong proof of its luperior antiquity, 
was formerly governed by a mayor, recorder, high 
ftcward, twelve aldermen, a fpeaker of the com- 
mons, and fifty (fome fay fcventy) burgeffes ; at 
prefent the corporation confifls of two aldermen, 
who are alternately mayors. The burgeffes who 
elecl the two reprefentatives in parliament with the 
mayor and aldermen, the mayor returning officer, 
are feldom upon the poll more than five or fix, and 
the burgage tenures are the property of the earls of 
Suffolk and Orford. 

The mayor is chofen annually, the day before St. 
Michael, by the free burghers, or voters, who were 
about fixty or feventv in number in 1716, but he is 
not fworn into his office till the court lete, which is 
held about All Saints Day, and has a mace carried 
before him to church on Sundays by a ferjeant, and 
on other public occafions. 


OF F R E E B R I D C E. 103 

The teal of the corporation, or mayor, is a caf- 

The caftle of Rifmg was built after the grant of 
the town and lordfliip by king William II. to Wil- 
liam de Albini, that king's pincerna, or butler, and 
probably bv his fbn William, the firft earl of Sal- 
lex, who died in 1176. It (lands upon a hill, ori 
the iouth fide of the town, from whence is a fine 
profpecl over land, and an arm of the fea : great 
part of the walls of the keep, or inward tower, are 
(till (landing, being a Gothic pile, much rcfembling 
that of Norwich, and little inferior, the walls being 
about three yards thick, confiding chiefly of free- 
ftone, with iron, or car ftone, encompaffed with a 
great circular ditch and bank of earth, on which 
flood alfo a ftrong ftone wall, as appears from the 
presentment above mentioned in the gift of Eliza- 
beth, when the wall on the faid bank is {'aid to be 
in part, and the reft in danger of being overthrown 
by the warreners conies. This ditch, now dry, was 
probably formerly filled with water; there is but 
one entrance to it, on the eaft fide, over a ftrong 
(tone bridge, about thirty paces long, (with a gate- 
houfe thereon) about eight or nine paces broad, and 
is Supported by one arch. 

The inward part of the caftle, or keep, is all in 
ruins, except one room, where the court lete of this 
lordfliip is held ; no doubt the apartments here were 
grand and fumptuous, when queen Ifabel here re- 
fided, and' when the great king Edward 111. with 
his queen and comt were often entertained, and 
lodged here. 

On the walls which are decaying, having no do-^ 
\tv> were towers, or turrets, which the lord? of the. 



manors of Hunftanton, Roydon, and the WoottonS, 
were by their tenures obliged to guard and defend/ 
The compafs of the ditch that inclofes the whole is 
above one thoufand and eighty paces. 

It feems to have been by its fcite a place of 
flrengtli and confequence. In the i 8th of Edward 
II. September 22, that king fent his precept to the 
lord Montalt, the lord of it, to have great care and 
guard of it, on account of the approach of Morti- 

Mortimer, the great favourite of the queen, mak- 
ing his efcape out of the Tower of London in the ' 
preceding month, was then with her in France, and 
both preparing to land with an army in England, 
to dethrone this king, which they foon after effecled, 

Perfons famous for their gallantry in military af- 
fairs and aclions, appear to have been honoured 
with the conftablefhip and government of it. 

Queen Ifabel, dowager of England, gave it, be- 
ing lady of the manor and caftle, to John de Her- 
lyng, as appears by her patent. 

" ISABEL, by the grace of God, queen of England t 
"lady of Ireland, couiUefa of Pontiff c, &c. tor 
" whom thejt prejcnts Jliall come greeting." 

" KNOW ye, that We, for the good and faith- 
" ful fervice which our beloved fervant John of 
" Herlyng, hath long lincc performed to our thrice 
*' dear fon the king, and likewife to Us, have grant- 
u ed to the faid John, for the term of his life, the 
" conftablefhip and guard of our caftle of Riling, 
" and to be furveyor of our chace there, he receiv- 


" ing of Us the faid offices during his life, every 
" day iad. of the profits of our manor there, by 
" the hands of our bailiff and provoft for the time 
" being; wherefore we command all them whom it 
" fliall any ways concern, that to the faid John, as 
" to our conftable, guardian, and furveyor there, 
" they be attending and refpondent in the manner 
" as appertains to the faid offices. In teftimony of 
" which, we have caufed thefe our letters patent to 
" be drawn. 1 ' 

" Given at our caflle of Hertford, the 6th day of 
" November, in the aoth year of the reign of our 
" aforefaid deare fon the king." 

After this, Edward prince of Wales confirmed the 
fame in the following manner. 

" WE, for the affeclion we beare to the perfon of 
" the faid John Herlyng, 8cc. at his requeft confirm 
" to him the grant which our faid lady and grand- 
" mother hath made, See. and befides, in confidera- 
" tioii of the contumelies and hardfhips the faid 
"John hath, from day to day, in the fervice of our 
4 faid lord and father, the king; and being there- 
" fore willing for that caufe to fliew him more efpe- 
" ciai favour, W r e do, and grant, &c. to the faid 
"John, in cafe the faid cattle and manor fhould 
" come into our hands, by the deceafe of our faid 
" lady and grandmother, 8cc. the reverfion. being in 
" Us, the faid conftablelhip, &c. to hold for the 
41 terme of his life, See." 

" In witnefs whereof, We have caufed thefe our 

11 letters to be made patent. Given at London tin- 

" der our privy feale, the 21 ft day of July, in the 

I 4( reign 


" reign of our faid lord and father the king of 
" England, the syth, and of France the 14th." 

King Edward III. alfo approved and ratified the 
faid letters patent ; witneffes, the king, at Weftmin- 
tier, &c. 

The aforefaid John de Herlyng, knt. was a fa- 
mous foldier, remarkable for his {kill in maritime 
affairs, and had the cuftody of the fea coafls about 
Briftol in 1342: he was lord of Eafl Harling in 

In the 6th year of king Henry IV. John Wode- 
houfe occurs conflable, who was remarkably famous 
in the following reign at the battle of Agincourt in 

Ralph lord Cromwell, was conflable in the reign 
of Henry VI. The faid king, in his syth year, 
granted to Thomas Daniel, efq. the office of con- 
ftable, keeper of the foreft, chace, or warren, then 
held by Ralph lord Cromwell, on the death of the 
faid lord, or on rendering up his letters patent, or 
any other way, when they fhall be vacant, to him 
the faid Thomas, and to his heirs lawfully begotten, 
to receive .the fame fees and perquifites, 8cc. as the 
faid Ralph holds ; dated at Canterbury, the 8th of 
September. This Thomas was afterwards made a 
knight, and married Margaret, daughter of fir Ro- 
bert Howard, and filler of John, the firft duke of 
Norfolk of that family. He is faid to have been 
attainted in the ift of Edward IV. but was after- 
wards reftored in blood and poffeffions, in the -i 4th 
of that king. 

The date of this patent feems to deflroy the tra- 
dition that queen Ifabel was clofe prifoner for life, 



t the cattle of Rifmg, by the words recited there* 
in : 

<l Given at our caftle of Hertford the 6th day of 
" November, ih the soth year of the reign of our 
" aforefaid deare fon the king." 

'Tis probable the queen refided alternately at dif- 
ferent caflles, though fhe might continue a flate pri- 
ioner during life; By this queen our iovereign de- 
rives the honorary title of King of France, her right 
to the crown of France being not to be controvert- 
ed, but on the principle of the Salique Law, " that 
" the crown fliould not dcfcend to females.-' 1 

Queen Ifabel was daughter to Philip the Fair, 
king of France,, arid fifler to Lewis Hutin, Philip 
the Long, and Charles the Fair, all kings of France 
fucceffively, and all her three brothers died without 
iffue ; but the French would not admit her to the 
crown on pretence of an old fundamental law, men- 
tioned before, the Salique Law, but advanced to the 
crown Philip Valois, whofe father was younger bro- 
ther to Philip the Fair, thereby excluding king FZd- 
ward III. to whom, in right of his mother Ifabel, 
the crown of France- regularly devolved: in main- 
tenance of which right king Edward III. made war 
upon the French, and failing firft to Antwerp, there 
alfuined the title of king of France, and quartered 
the Jlcurs de Us with the lions and arms of England. 

In the 34th of Henry VI. Thomas lord Scales 
had a patent to be governor, or conftable, and ap- 
pointed to there for its better fafcguard. 

In the firft of Henry VII. John Vere, earl of Ox- 
ford, was made conftable of the caftle, fleward ol 
1 2 the 


the honour of Rifing, and ranger of the chace for 
life, who commanded the vanguard in the battle of 
Bofworth, wherein king Richard III. was {lain. 

In the time of^ king Henry VIII. fir Henry Mar- 
ny, lord Marny, was conftable, and had 13!. 8s. 
per ami. fee allowed him: it is reafonable to fup- 
pofe, it was at that time in a good flate and condi- 
tion. This lord Marny was- one of the chief com- 
manders under Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, 
on his taking Montdidier in France, in the 1 5th of 
Henry VIII. He had alfo 405. per ann. as fleward 
of this lordfliip, and 4!. us. 3d. per ann. as ranger 
of the chace, and 535. 4d. per ann. for two under 
foreiiers, or walkers. 

Near to the caflle on the fouth fide flood a cha- 
pel, for the fervice of the lord, 8cc. now in ruins. 

The town is remarkable alfo for an hofpital built 
by Henry Howard, earl of Northampton. In the 
accounts of Owen Shepherd, gent, in the 6th of 
king James I. receiver of the lands, Sec. of the faid 
earl, he accounts for 451!. 145. 2d. ob. paid in that 
year to Richard Ho veil, junior, efq. for building 
this alms-houfe. 

It flands near to the eaft end of the church-yard, 
and is a fquare building, containing twelve rooms 
or apartments for twelve poor women, and one 
good room for the governefs, with a fpacious hall 
and kitchen, and a decent chapel, which projects 
from the reft on the eaft fide. The letters patent for 
the foundation bear date June i, in the igth year 
of the aforefaid king. 


It is endowed with lool. per arm. out of lands 
lying in Riling, Roydon, South and North Wootton, 
and Gavwood ; alfo with 5!. every fifth year from 
an hofpital in Greenwich, founded by the faid earl, 
for a flock or fund to repair it. 

Their monthly allowance is eight (hillings each, 
and the governefs has twelve (hillings ; but on cer- 
tain feflival days appointed by the founder, viz. All 
Saints, Chriftmas, New Year, Epiphany, Purifica- 
tion, St. Matthias, (which is the founder's birth- 
day) Annunciation, Eafter Day, Afcenfion, Whit- 
Sunday, Tiinity Sunday, St. John Baptift's and St. 
Michael's day, they have an addition of one (hil- 
ling to the governefs, and eight-pence to every poor 
woman. Every year each poor woman, and the 
governefs, have for their conftant apparel a gown of 
ftrong cloth, or kerfey, of a dark colour ; and every 
(eventh year a livery gown, (and a hat) of blue broad 
cloth, lined with bays, with the founder's badge or 
cognizance fet on the bread, being a lion rampant, 
argent, embroidered. The governefs is allowed two 
chaldron of coals per ann. and the reft one chal- 
dron each. They are obliged to be regularly and 
conftant at the church of Rifing on Sundays, and 
at their own chapel every day at nine in the morn- 
ing and three in the afternoon, by the toll of a bell, 
where the governefs reads prayers: they are alfo en- 
joined to ufe certain prayers, appointed by their 
founder, morning and evening, in their own apart- 
ments, and not to go out without the leave of the 

The qualifications required on admiffion are :- 

They mult be of an honeft life and converfation ; 

religious, grave, and difcreet ; able to read, if fuch 

a one may be had j a (ingle woman, her place to be 

I 3 void 


void upon marriage ; to be fifty-fix years of age at 
leaft; no common beggar, harlot, , fcold, drunkard, 
haunter of taverns, inns, or ale-houfes ; to lofe 
their places if, after admiflion, any lands defcend to 
them of the value of .5!. per ann. or goods to the 
value of 50!. To go to prayers three times every 
day, and to fay the Lord's prayer, the creed, and a 
prayer ordered by the founder; to go to church 
morning and evening every Sunday and holiday, 
and Wednefday and Friday. 

On being guilty of atheifm, herefy, blafphemy, 

faction in the hofpital, injury, or difgracing the af- 

, liftants, neglecl of duty, or mifbchaviour in the 

performance of duty, to do any thing to the hurt or 

prejudice of the hofpital, is expulfion. 

The duty of the governefs is to preferve the 
houfhold fluff of the hofpital, to take care of the 
ftck, to caufe the gates to be fhut morning and 
evening at due hours ; to deliver out the blue gowns 
every Sunday and holiday morning, and to receive 
the fame back again at night ; to ring the bell every 
morning and evening for prayers, to fliut the gates 
at prayer time ; to look to the reparations of the 
hofpital, that not fo much as one ftone be miffing, 
either in the walls or upon the hofpital, by the 
fpace of a month ; to keep the piece of ground on 
the north weft fide of the hofpital next adjoining to 
the walls, and to preferve the trees ; to keep her 
garden plot fair and handfome, to refide conflantly 
there, not to lie abroad without licence, nor above 
feven days (with licence) in any one year ; to give 
fecurity in 20!. penalty upon her admiifion, for the 
performance of duty, the fecurity to be given to the 
mayor 'of Riling. She is alfo to read prayers ap- 
pointed in the chapel twice every day, not to per- 


mit any flranger to lie in the hofpital, to dine and 
fup with the poor women in the hall on feflival 

The offences of the governefs, by the flatutes of 
the founder, are to be certified to" the earl of Arun- 
del, or his heir, (who is now the earl of Suffolk) 
by two of the aMiftants, and then the earl to take 
order therein, by expullion, or otherwife, as he fliali 
think fit. 

If the earl of Arundel, or his next heir, within 
fixty days after a certificate fent to him of a death 
or removal, does not appoint a new governefs, or 
poor woman, then the mayor of Lynn is to do it. 

Here was alfo a famous chace for deer, and a 
warren belonging to this lordftiip. 

In the 39th of Elizabeth great dilputes arofe 
about the bounds and limits of them, between Ann 
countefs of Arundel, widow of Philip earl of Arun- 
del, and William Gobbe, efq. Henry Spelman, 8cc. 
and other neighbouring lords of manors, this lord- 
fliip being part of her jointure; and in the faid 
year depofitions were taken at Lynn, on the 26th of 
July, before Thomas Fermer, Richard Stubbs, John 
Willoughbyc, and William Guybon, efq. 

John Jeffrey, of Rifing caftle, labourer, aged 76, 
then depofed that he had known Rifing chace and 
warren fixty years ; that he dwelt in Wootton and 
Rifing all his life, and boundeth the limits, purlieu, 
or walks of the chace, thus : 

From Rifing to Eabingly mill, from thence to 

Raitlemans Lane, fo to Hell Lane, fo to Butler's 

I 4 Crofs v 


Crofs, fo in a green way leading to Newton, fo to 
Wade's mill, fo fouthward down a way leading to 
Capp mill, fo to Pcdders lane, or way, fo to Gat- 
ton, fo to Hillington bridge, fo fouthward over the 
moor to Homeilon, fo into Rufton's Lane, fo to 
two lanes the names he remembereth riot, fo fouth- 
\vard to Bone's bridge, fo along the river to Weyve- 
linge houfe, fo along the river to Bawfey dike, fo 
by the old river to Bawfey \vater, and fo along the 
river to Gaywood bridge. 

And further faith, that fo much of the ground as 
lieth in the towns of Rifing, North and South Wool- 
ton, Ryffiye, Grimflon, Wyvelingham and Roydon, 
arc within the limits of the chace, and have been 
reputed, ufed, lett, Sec. as parcel of the faid chace. 

He faith alfo that the bounds and limits of the faid 
warren, extend from Roydon to Hall-Hill, and fo 
near to Roydon church, and thence down a way to 
Hillington Cawfey, thence to Querne Hill, and fb 
to Wardyke ; and he faith, that the keepers, 8cc. 
have at their wills, ufed to chafe and rechafe the 
deer within the faid limits ; that in the nine acres 
there were burrowing a ihoufand conies and divers 
falls ; that the warreners have at their wills, until 
now 7 of late, quietly and peaceably hunted, hayed, 
ierited, digged, killed, and carried away all fuch co- 
nies as bred and burrowed upon the nine acres, 
Congham Lyings and Moor; and that the warren- 
ers always paid tithe conies thereon to the parfons 
of Congham, and he never heard any farm conies 
to Mr. Spilman, or any other for the nine acres and 
Congham Lyings. He faith Mr. Waller's grounds 
begin at King's Thorn, where fome time was great 
ftore of conies, and fo fouthward to the faid pits, 
fo to Hall-Hill, fo to the hangings of Goldworthy 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 113 

Hill, unto the fouth fide thereof, and never knew it 
ploughed but by Mrs. Waller: he knoweth the 
grounds in Mrs. Wallers occupation in Roydon, 
extending Lo Shepherd's Hill, with all Roydon Ly- 
ings, and fo to Skegney Fen, and thence to Roydon 
Shrubbs, and fo to Eleven Hcrne, called Roydon 
Common; and faith in both thefe places lafl bound- 
ed in Roydon, the warreners ufed like liberty as be- 
fore in Congham nine acres and Lyings ; and paid 
tithe conies to the parfon of Roydon; that in Wvvc-' 
ling grounds ufed the like liberty as in any other 
part of the warren, without any interruption, until 
now of late years; he depoleth 'the fame of South 
Wootton grounds, and of Great Cramer's clofe, and 
Little Cromer's clofe, both which lie in Riling. 

The church of Rifmg is an antient pile, built in 
a conventual manner, with a tower between the bo- 
dy of it and the chancel, which lafl is now in ruins, 
the walls only of part of it being flanding ; alfo a 
fouth crofs ille joining to the tower, which is en- 
tirely in ruins. The weft end is adorned with an- 
tique carving and fmall arches ; in the tower are 
three bells, but one is fplit ; the roof of the church 
is fiat, covered with lead, long but narrow, and is 
dedicated to St. Lawrence. 

There are no infcriptions in the church. 

In the porch was a grave- (lone, with part of an 
infcription, viz. Ifabdlce Regintf, in memory no doubt 
of iome of that queen's fervants, or retinue, which 
induced fome perfons to fancy that (he herielf was 
here buried. 

It pays no procurations, only fynodals ; being ex- 
empt from all epifcopal jurifdidion, and archidiaco- 



nal, except induction by the archdeacon of Norwich, 
and the patronage is in the lord of the manor. The 
reclor has the probate of wills, not as reclor, but as 
commiffary, nominated by the lord of the manor, 
derived as 'tis faid from a Norman cuflom, rather 
claimed by the lord, in right of his caftle. 

CONGHAM. That is, a ham or dwelling by 
the river Cong, as called by the antient Britons ; 
thus Congleton alfo, a town in Chefhire. 

CONGHAM MANOR. After various defcents this 
manor came to the Paftons, and John Pafton, foil 
and heir of William Pafton, in 1446 releafed to 
Thomas Daniel, efq. and his heirs, all his right 
herein; the faid Thomas prefented as lord in 1448, 
and in 1475. Henry Wodehoufe prefented as lord, 
and fir Edmund Wodehoufe in 1479 ; after this fir 
Henry Colet in 1482 and 1487, probably as a truftee 
or morgagee, (he was a citizen and lord mayor of 
London) for in 1504, and 1522, fir Thomas Wode- 
houfe was lord and patron ; and in the 3 1 ft of Hen, 
VIII. this manor was conveyed by Thomas Wode- 
houfe, efq. to H;- Jordon, gent, who prefented in 
1552; and from him to Humphry Baftard, who 
was lord in 1580, Humphry, in the 26th of Eli- 
zabeth, releafed to William Bladvvell, of Thurlow 
Magna in Suffolk, all his right herein ; but in 1595 
Henry Spelman, efq. was lord and patron, and af- 
terwards his fon, fir Henry Spelman, who was born 
here, a gentleman of eminent worth and fame at 
this day, for his learning and knowledge in antiqui- 
ty ; as appears from his works that are published by 
Dr. Gibfon, bifhop of London, with his life, Sec. 

He was fon of Henry Spelman, efq. of this town, 
by Frances, his firft wife, daughter of William Saua- 

OF F R E E B R I D G E. 115 

ders, of Ewell in Surry, efq. fecond fon of fir John 
Speiman, knight, of Narborurgh, fecond judge of the 
king's bench, by Elizabeth, daughter and heir of 
Henrv Frowick, of Gunnerfbury in Middlefex. Sir 
Henry, bv his wife Eleanor, eldefl daughter and co- 
heir of John L'Eftrange, of Sedgeford in Norfolk, 
had fir John Spclnian, his fon and heir, and Cle- 
ment Speiman, his fecond fon, a curfitor baron, &c. 
Sir John, his elde'ft fon, married Ann, daughter 
of fir John Tovvnfhend, of Rainham in Norfolk ; 
was educated at Cambridge, (probably in Trinity 
college, where his father was a ftudent) and wrote 
feveral learned treatifes, as may be feen in Wood's 
Alh. Ox. vol. 2 ; and when king Charles I. retired 
to Oxford about 1642, he followed him, died there 
in Brazen Nofe college, of the camp difeafe, July 
24, and was buried on the 26th of the faid month, 
1643, ln t ^ ie cnurcri f St. Mary, at Oxford, leav- 
ing this character, that he was 

Vir acerrimi judicii, Jummi ingenii, et prolatiffinHZ 
morum Juavitatis. 

In 1638 fir John prefented to the church of St. 
Andrew, as lord and patron; and in 1674 Roger 
Speiman, efq. of Holme, who was his eldeft fon, 
and had a brother, Charles, who prefented in 1 684'; 
from whom it came to Charles Speiman, redor of 
the church of St. Andrew. 

After this the manor was conveyed to the Mor- 
daunts, fir Charles Mordaunt, bart. of Maffingham 
Parva, being the prefent lord. 

nor was in pofleffion of Henry Speiman, efq. in the 
reign of queen Elizabeth. 



Anthony Hammond, of Wootton, efq. who mar- 
ried the fitter of fir Robert Walpole, firfl earl of 
Orford, was lord in 1750. After him Richard 
Hammond, efq. of Weftacre, and the prefent lord 
is Anthony Hammond, of Weflacre, his nephew. 

family of Cromwell, as heirs to Orreby, were capi- 
tal lords of the fee ; and Ralph de Cromwell, lord 
Tatifhale, prefented to St. Mary's church in 1391 ; 
and in the gd of Henry IV. Edmund Belzctter alias 
Belytter, Richard Chappe, and Richard Holditch, 
held half a fee of the lady Maud Cromwell. 

The principal part or fee was, in 1487, in fir 
Robert Ratclyff, who then prefented to the church 
afoicfaid; in 1517, in Thomas Windham, and Ro- 
bert Drury, and continued in the Windhams feve- 
ral years, and came afterwards to fir Henry Spel- 
man, in whofe family it remained. 


But though the principal part was thus conveyed, 
yet a part of the Tatifhale manor which was in the 
Thorps in the reign of Edward I. remained till con- 
veyed by them to the L'Eflranges. 

Henry L'Eflrange, of Hunftanton, efq. died pof- 
feffed of the manor of Congham, and Maffingham 
Parva, in 1483. John L'Eftrange, his third Ion, 
died lord in 1517, and by the marriage of Barbara 
his only daughter, came to Robert Mordaunt, efq. 
in which family it flill remains ; fir Charles Mor- 
daunt, bart. being the prefent lord. Barbara was 
his daughter by Margaret, daughter and coheir of 
fir Thomas L'Eftrange, of Walton D'Eivile, in War- 



This manor is called corruptly at this day Pete- 
gar's, probably from Beleter, who was lord in Hen. 
IV's time. 

The church of St. Andrew is a fmgle pile, cover- 
ed with lead, and has a tower four-fquare, embat- 
tled, and two bells. On the north lide is a cha- 
pel, covered with tile ; on the north wall of it is 
this infcription: 

Paterno ji'JJu Henri, et Johs. Spelman, milit. alam 
hanc pie injiituit Rogs. Spelman, abjolvit autem Carolus 
Spelm. Inijus cedes, tandem rt&or, Ao. Dni. 1686. 

The chancel is tiled ; and within the rails of the 
communion table lie feveral marble gravellones : 

H. S. E. Carolus Squire A. M, Jchola Lennnijis p. 
annos nor cm preceptor Celebris, ecdefue hujns et de Maj- 
Jingham Pa. reftor digniffimus, Jacerdos dottits, pins, 
probus, vir varia et perpolita eruditione ornalus, hijto- 
rids et humanioribus in Litens maximc verfatus, amicus 
plane fimplex, comes jucundijfimils, defideratiffimus obt. 
20 Aug. 1752, atat. 56. Marito Optimo, uxor mar ens 

On one with a brafs plate, Hie requiefcunt Henri* 
cus Spelman, armiger, et Frandfca, uxor ejus flia Gu- 
lieli. Sounder, armigi. qui habuerunt exitum inter cos. 
darijjimum dottij/imumq; virum Hen. Spelman, mill tern, 
Erafinian Sp. generojum, et Elhab. filiam ; dicioq. Hen- 
rico Jiiio naii fuerunt p. Elianoram Le Strange u\or 
(jus unam Jdiarum et coheredum Johan Le Strange, ar- 
migeri, 4 Jilii 6" 4 Jilice, viz. jolts. Spclm. miles, qui in UKorem Annam, Jiliam unicam Jok. Toivtijcnd, 
mihtis, Henr. et Francis. Spelman qui vbierunt in vita 
patris Jine exitu, et Clem. Spelm. qui duxit in iixorcm 



Martham Mafon, unam Jiliarum et cohered. Francixi 
Mafon, armigi. et Dorothea nupia Rano. Whitfcld, 
militi, uni fervienfum Dm. Caroli Regis ad legem, An- 
na nupta Tho. More, armigero, Kath. nupia Robo. Ra- 
worth, armigero, et Alicia nupta Johi. Smith, generojo; 
diflus Hair. Spel. avus obt. 7 Oct. 1581, ditto, Fran- 
cifca ova, 15 Ocl. 1622. Below this, Here aljo lies 
the body of Roger Spelm. EJq; Jon and heir of the 
abovenamed Sir John Spel. knight, who married the 
daughter and heirefs of Robert Strutt, of Lincoln s-lnn, 
EJq; and died Novr. 27, 1678. On the brais the 
arms of Spelman ; fable, platee, between two flaun- 
ches, argent, impaling, fable, a chevron, ermine, be- 
tween three bulls heads, argent, Sanders. 

One In memory of Charles Spelman, Jon of Roger 
Spelm. EJq; who died March 3, 1684; with the arms 
of Spelman. 

Another For Barbara, relicl of Henry Mordaunt t 
EJq; who died Deer. 23, 1690. 

On one with a brafs plate Hie et hac pro tempore 
quiefcunt reliquia Tho. Bendijh Rid. de EJfex, armigeri i 
ct Rid. Barb. Edwi Thomtz liber, quorum oj/ibus et me- 
morice Elizabetha Dudleyorum projapia marens relitla 
P. E. obt. Junii 13 Ao. Dni 1632 cetat. fu<e 33. 

On the fouth fide of the chancel, a graveftonc 
with the arms of 'Mordaunt, impaling L'Eftrange, 
In memory of L Strange Mordant, Jon of Hemy Mor- 
dant, a grandfon oj Sir L Strange Mordant of Norff. 
bt. by Barbara his wife, daughter of Richd. Catlyn, 
EJq ; he had iffue Henry and a daughter Barbara, and 
died Deer. 4, in the 6^d year of his age, 1691, here 
aljo lieth Barbara his relict, who died Apr. 4, 1729, 
aged 86. 



In the church yard a monument In memory of 
Richd. fon of Rd. Catiyn, Ef<]', of Kirby Cane, in 
JVorjf. who died July 12, 1711, born May 8, 1636, 
and was one of the Jocicty of Lincoln* Inn ; with the 
arms of Catlyn. 

The prefent reclor is the Rev. Edmund Nclfon. 
His predeceffor was the Rev, Charles Squire, maf- 
ter of the free grammar fchool at Lynn, and fon of 
Benjamin Squire, formerly re&or of Great Maffing- 
ham. A man of learning, and a polite fcholar, and 
whofe character is defcribed with as much truth as 
elegance in the epitaph upon his ftone in Cofigham 
church. (fee p. 117.) 

There were formerly three churches, Congham, 
Congham St. Andrew, and Congham All Saints. 

This reflory was confolidated to Congham St. 
Andrew, in 1684; the church is dilapidated, the 
reclor receives all the tithes of the three Conghams, 
and pays sol. per ann. to the impropriator of AH 


DERSINGHAM. The town takes its name 
from Der, or Dur, a Britifh word, fignifying water, 
as Derby, Dereham, Durham, &c. and the Saxon 
words Ing, a meadow, and Ham, a dwelling, all 
which aniwer to its fcite. 

PAKENHAM MANOR. In the ^d of Henry VII.' 
fir John Windham granted by Hue the manor of 
Pakenham-hall, to John Fox and Catherine his wife, 
for the ufe of John Fox his fon ; and William Ro- 
gers had an intereft herein, and held it in capitc, in 
the ift of queen Mary, and gave it, as is laid, by 
his laft will to the poor of Norwich; and before 



this, in 1425, John Church, of Baffingbourn, efq. 
and Joan his wife, confirmed to Henry Walpole, of 
Houghton, and William Yelverton, gent, the ma- 
nor of Pakenham in Derfinghanv, which came to 
them by the death of William Adderton, efq. her 
father, and Joan his wife. 

Afterwards it came to the Cobbes of Sandringham, 
who were lords in the ;th of Elizabeth, and to the 
Hoftes, Dixon Hofte, efq. fon of Theodore Hofte, 
efq. iecond fon of James Hofte, efq. of Sandring- 
ham, is the prefent lord, and alfo of Snaringhall 
and has the lete of the town. 

BINHAM PRIORY MANOR. Peter de Valoins, on 
his foundation of this priory, when he gave lands 
and two parts of his tithe to it, gave rife to this 
lordfhip, to which gift Hugh de Derfingham, and 
Picotus his brother, were witneffes. 

Chrifliana de Mandcville, countefs of EfTex, for 
the fouls health of William de Mandeville, earl of. 
EfTex, and of Reymund de Burgo, her late hufband, 
gave 405. rent per ann. in land and heath, with cer- 
tain homages, &c. and flie demifed to perpetual 
farm, a capital meffuage, with fixty acres of land 
here, to the priory ; the prior agreeing to pay fe- 
venteen marks per ann. to the chaplains of St. Ni- 
cholas, in the court of Shering, in Elfex, where fhe 
then lived. Edward I. granted licence to alien the 
lands to that chapel which Alexander de Baliol, foil 
of Henrv, had granted to Chriftiana Valoins, his 
aunt, after the death of the lady Lora, his mother, 
and Guy his brother, in exchange for lands in Hey- 
ham and Walthamftow, in Effex ; Alexander's deed 
is dated at Ware A. ^6th of Henry 111. and Dug- 
dale obferves, that this lord was one of the coheirs 



ro Chrifliana aforcfaid, who died about die asd o* 
Henry III. 

William, foil of William de Derliam, gave a 
marfli called Chefliolm, and Thomas Lording, of 
Dcrfmgham, lands. Ifabella de Derham held the 
third part of a fee of Valoins, in Henry Ill's time. 

Richard de Secford, prior of Binham, and the 
convent, exchanged lands here with -fir Thomas de 
Gelham, lying near the chapel of St. Andrew in 
Derfmgham : in the deed is an account of eighty-fix 
acres. Sec. of land, one hundred and eight of paf- 
turc, eight acres, &c. of meadow, demean lands be- 
longing to the prior, with rents and cuiloms, by 
deed Jans date; and in the 9,qth of Edward III. a 
eonfidetible part of the manor of Pakenham was 
conveyed to it, 

The tcmporalties of this priory in this town were 
valued, in 1428, at 4!. 135. Sd. At the diilblutiou 
king Henry VIII. granted it, in his c^d year, to fir 
J homas Pailon, who had licence to alienate it in hi* 
36th year, to John Rokewood and his heirs ; but in 
the following year, iir Thomas Pafton, and Agnes 
his wife, Richard Heydon, efq. and Nicholas Roke- 
wood, gent, conveyed by line this manor, with four 
hundred acres of land, fixty of meadow, two hun- 
dred of paflure, fix of wood, two hundred of iiKirfh, 
with liberty of a fold in Derlingham and Ingoldeflhorp^ 
with loos, rent per aim. and the advowfon of the 
vicarage, to Robert Read, gent, who dying Febru- 
ary 27, ao. i. Mary, Thomas Read his fon fucceed- 
cd, who had licence ijth of Elizabeth, to alienate 
a UK-linage, one hundred and eighty acres of land, 
uith a foldage called Ellling Courle, to Chriflopher 
Wulpole, andihc inanoi tojelliey Cobbe, eil|. andfoic 
K came 


came to the Hoftes ; and Dixon Hoflc, cfq. of In- 
goldefthorpe, is die prefent lord. 

GELHAM HALL. So called from a family who 
held lands of the capital lords, the Valoins, and in' 
ancient deeds are found witneffes to feveral of their 

Sir Thomas de Gelham of this town, had licence 
to build a free chapel in Derfingham church-yard, 
in May 1264, and to appoint a matter or chaplain, 
from Adam de Mota, then prior of Binham. John 
de Gelham had a quietus, in the 56th of Henry 111. 
for two years, when he was to take the order of 
knighthood : and one of the fame name was lord in 
the gth of Edward II. William de Gelham fccms 
to be the laft of that family, and died in the reign 
.of Edward III. when it was divided amongft his 
daughters and coheirs. 

In the syth of the faid king, a fine was levied 
between fir Richard Walkfare, knight, and John de 
Repps and Elizabeth, who conveyed to Richard a 
third part of this manor. 

Sir Richard Walkfare, fome time before his death, 
gave his right herein to certain feoffees; and on his 
death it came to fir Thomas Fclton, and the lack- 
Joan his wife. Sir Thomas died poflefled of it 
about the 5th of Richard II. then knight of the 
garter, and left three daughters and coheirs ; Mary, 

wife of fir Edmund Hengrave ; Sibilla, wife of 

de Morlay ; andAlianbre, wife of ffr JohnL'Edrange, 
of Hunflanton, which fir John L'Eflrange and hi* 
lady, conveyed to Joan her mother this manor, with 
thole of Ryburgh Magna and Parva, in the 8th of 
that king, by fine. Soon after this, the lady Cathe- 

OF FRfcEBRlDGE. 123 

rme Brews, a nun, daughter and heir of fir Tho- 
mas de Norwich, had an intereft in it* 

From the time of Henry VIII. there is fid certain 
account of the defcent of this manor, till it came to 
Jeffrey Cobbe in the 21 ft of Charles I. and fo to the 
late Theodore Hofte, efq. as heir male to his bro- 
ther, James Hofte, efq. of Sandringham, and Dixon 
Hofle, efq. his eldeft fon, is the prefent lord. 

SHOULDHAM PRIORY MANOR. Chriftiana countefs 
of Mandeville, gave confiderable lands and poffef- 
fions in this town, to this priory. 

At the diflblution it xvas granted, May 5, in the 
3 6th of Henry VIII. to John Dethick, efq. who in 
the 38th had licence to alien it to John Pell and 
his heirs ; and by an inquifition taken at Lynn, 
October 8, in the 2d and 3d of Philip and Mary, 
on the death of John Pell, gent, of Derfingham, 
who died April 4, in the faid year, he was found 
to die feifed of it, held by the twentieth part of a 
fee ; ami that of Brookhall, held of the hundred of 
Freebiidge, by fealty, and 1 2d. rent per ami. with 
fix meffuages, three hundred and twenty acres of 
land, one hundred and twenty of meadow, forty of 
pafture, fifty of furze and heath, in Derfingham, 
Shernbourne, and Ingoldeflhorpe, held of the ma- 
nor of Pakenham-Hall, by 3d. rent and fealty ; and 
John was his fon and heir by Margaret his wife. 

The aforefaid John Pell, gent, by his will, dated 
September 16, 15541 requires to be buried in the 
church of Derfingham. John his fon and heir married 
Margaret, daughter and heir of William Overend, 
efq. and dying in 1607, left William Pell, efq. his 
eldeft fon, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Wil- 
K 2 


Ham Drury, of Fincham, efq. his firft wife was Eli- 
zabeth, daughter of Richers, of Swannington ; 

Jeffrey Pell, his brother, married Catherine, daugh- 
ter of Edward Read, of Eaft Rudharn : there was 
alfo another brother, Valentine, an attorney at Lynn, 
who died in 1623. Jeffrey Pell died in 1615, and 
left iffue John Pell, cfq. who married Urfula, daugh- 
ter of Gawfell, of Watlington, efq. by whom, 

as fome fay, he had fir Valentine Pell, &c. others 
made Valentine to be fon of Jeffrey, who dying in 
1658, left by Barbara his wife, daughter of fir 
James Calthorpe, John Pell, his fon and heir, who 
married Elizabeth, daughter of William Pert, of 
Mountneys in Effex, who died without iflue ; and 
captain William Pell, who married Ann, daughter 
of John Drury, of Holt-Houfe in Leziate, bv Lynn, 
by whom he had John Pell, efq. who married Ann, 
daughter of Thomas Wood, of Bracon-afh in Nor- 
folk, who died 1686, without iffue ; and Valentine 
Pell, efq. who married Elizabeth, daughter of Ifaac 
Lane, of Walfingham, and on his death, fans iffue, 
gave this lordfhip by will, to Robert Waipole, efq. 
. father of fir Robert Walpolc, knight of the garter, 
and earl of Orford, whole grandion, the prefent earl 
Orford, is lord of it. 

There alfo appears to have been a little lordfhip 
called Snaring-Hall, held of Valoins, in the reign 
o*f Henry II. by Jeffrey de Snaring ; and Philip, 
one of the family, in the reign of Henry III. held 
lands here. This manor is now in Dixon Ho fie, 


WEST HALL MANOR. The antient family of 
die Derfinghams, who lived here, probably held 
lands of this lorclfliip. 



Sir Robert de Tatefhale was found, in the 31(1 of 
Edward I. to have held in capite, one fee, which 
the prior of Binham held of him ; and in the ggd 

of the faid king, * Pakenham held the third 

part of a fee of the heirs of fir Robert. 

Of fir John de Pakenham, who was fie ward to 
the bifhop of Ely, there is a remarkable account 
That coming into the exchequer court, where the 
king (Henry HI.) himfelf was fitting, in the 3gth of 
that king, he claimed a monftrous fifti taken on the 
land of one of the bifliop's wards, whofe anceftors 
claimed wreck at fea : the king himfelf made anfvver, 
and ordered him to produce the charter by which he 
claimed, which being done, it was then afked, if 
the fifli was taken on the land or in the fea, and it 
was anfwcrcd in the fea. not far from the land, and 
taken alive, fix boats being overturned in the fea be-^ 
fore he could be caught: then the king replied, that 
fince. it was acknowledged that the h'fh was taken 
alive in the fea, h could not be wreck, and he 
would further confider of it ; and the caufe was ad^ 
journed to the parliament, 

We mention this, as it contains fome things wor- 
thy of our obfervation. Firft, ihat the king himfelf 
fat in the exchequer at this time, afked queitions, 
gave anfwers and judgment ; fecondly, that no per- 
Ion could claim wreck but by charter ; and thirdly, 
that the caufe was adjourned to the parliament: 
qucre may be made, if this word parliament o.ccurs 
in anv record before this time. 

In records before this, and till the reign of Edvv. 
I. the word was Concilium et Magnum Concilium ; but 
Matt. Paris fays, this king called Parliamentum Gene- 
ralijlimum, ao. so. p. 696. ' 

K In 


In the reign of Henry VIII. this manor was held 
by fir Thomas Paflon, from which time no account 
till it came to the Cobbes, and fo to the Hofles 
and Dixon Hofte, efcj. is the prefent lord. 

BROOK HALL or OLD HALL. The family of 
Brokedifli were antiently lords of this, under the 
Tatefhales. Thomas de Brokedifh poffeffed it in 
the beginning of king Henry Ill's reign; and in 
the 3 lit of that king, Richard le Butler had the 
cuftody of lands here, belonging to Stephen dc 

This manor was granted afterwards to fir William 
Capel, lord mayor of London, and anceftor to the 
earl of Eflex, who died (eifed of it November 8, ao. 
7th of Henry VIII. and fir Giles Capel was his fon 
and heir; he conveyed it, in the gsd of the faid 
king, to John Pell, gent, by fine, in which family 
it continued as in Shouldham priory manor, "till kit 
to the Walpoles, the earl of Oriord being the pre- 
fent lord. 

f N 

The church of Derfingham was dedicated to St, 
Nicholas, and was at firft a redory, 

On die diffolution of the priory of Binhain it was 
granted to die fee of Norwich, where the impropria- 
tion of the great tithes remain ; the prefent countefs 
of Orford has a leafe of them from the bifliop, pay- 
ing 20!, a year out of it to the vicar of Derfingham, 
which was fettled for ever by bifliop Reynolds, for- 
merly bifliop of this diocefe. 

The advowfon of the vicarage is in Dixon Hofle, 
efq. the prefent patron. 


O F F R E E B R I D G E. 12 ; 

The church is a very large pile of flint, boulder, 
Sec. as mod of the churches of Norfolk are, with a 
large chancel ; the nave and two ifles covered with 
lead, and the chancel with tile. At the weft end of 
the nave is a ftrong four-liquare tower, with five 
bells, on that a lantern^ with a bell, and a little 
(haft covered with lead. 

On the fouth fide of the chancel is a mural mo- 
nument, with the arms of Pell, in a lozenge, ermin, 
on a canton azure, a pelican vulning itfelf, or, im- 
paling, p. pale, azure and gules, three faltjres, ar- 
gent, Lane. 

Beneath in a vault re/I the remains of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Pell, lady of Booters-hall manour, at Cranworlh, in 
this county, widow, and relict of Valentine Pell, Efq; 
graiiflfon of Sir Valentine Pell, Kt. the only daughter 
and heirefs of IJaac Lane, late of Walfingham, Gent : 
a lady worthy of imitation^ adorned with ail the orna- 
ments oj vcrtue, her perjvn and excellent qualifications 
rendered her greatly ejlccmed by all that had the happi- 

nefs of her acquaintance. Her great 'charity in her lift 
and at her death will caufe her name to be had in cver- 
lajiing remembrance, fhe departed this life worthily la- 
mented, the 22d of May in the year of our Lprd 1732, 
to whnfe pious and lq/1-ing memory, Mrs^ Margaret 
Hodgfon, her dearly beloved friend and executrix, dedi- 
cated this monument. She gave loo/, to this pari/Ji, 
which is laid out for land in the parijli, and given to the. 
poor in bread and coals, and the fame fum to South 
Creake, where her father had gave the like fum. 

Another mural monument with the arms of 
Hodgfon, in a lozenge gules, three falcons, in a 

Iv 4 This, 


This monument is ercclcd to the memory of Mrs. Mar~> 
garet Hodgfon, late of Booter s-hall, at Cranwtirtfi in 
this county, where JJie departed this life the id of Dec. 
J 743 a ( d 67 ytars, and according to her own defirc 
lies interred in the fame vault iuith Mrs. Eliz. Pell. 
She gave 5/., per ai.n. lo .this parijk, to the church- 
wardens and overfeers, lo take care cf the vault and 
monuments, and keep them clean, and in repair, and 
what overplus annually to be difiribittcd to objects of cha- 
rity living in the- faid parifh, and charged the ej'alc in 
Cranworth with it. 

On an altar tomb, at the caft end of the fouth ille, 
Memorise Sacrum 

Hie facet Johannes Pell de Darfingham, armiger, 
quonda" major Linna Regis, qui uxorem duxit Marga- 
relam, filiam unicarn Gulielmi Overend, armigeri, annos 
61 f<iliciter una vi\erunt, fex jilios el trcs jtlias ui'er 
fe habuerunt, Ille vero cum annos 80 ccmpleverat qninto 
die Fchinarij, A?. Dni. 1607, matnra feneciule, mar- 
^tem cbijt et cctavo die eiujdem nitrifis corpus Jepiilchro 

. ; 

An atchicvement, Jn memory cf the late wife of the 
late Dr. Kerrich, and thefc arms, fable, on a pile 
argent, a callrap of the firfl, Kcrrich, and in an 
,efcutchcon of pretence, a bugle horn, fable, ftringcd 
gules, in bafe, a chevron of the fecond, and in 
chief indented of the third, Pofllethvvait. She was 
daughter of archdeacon Poftlethwait : her hufband, 
the Rev. Samuel Kerrich, D. D. was many years 
vicar of Derfingham ; a clergyman much refpecled 
for his learning and amiable qualities. The prefent 
vicar is the Rev. Mr. Hey, fellow of Magdalen col- 
lege, Cambridge. 




John Pell, Efq. died 1607. William, his ' Me/I fon 
,635. J hn Pdl, nel)hew ( f William, 16**. 
Sir Valentine Pell died in 165$. -John Pell, Eft. cldtjl 
fon of Sir Valentine, 1649. 

On his grave-done, Pell impaling , on a 

bend, three maiclcs, died s. p. 

John Pell, Efq. his fen, dud 1686. Vahntint Pell, 
Efq. brother of John, died in 1690, and gave his ma- 

nor here to Robert Walpole, Efq. of Houghtcn. r- 

Elii. Pell died in 1732. 

FLITCHAM, or Pliceham, Plicham and Flicham, 
as it is wrote in Doomfday-book, taking its name 
not from Felix, bifliop of the Eaft Angles, (as forae 
ha\ e conceived) but from its fate, ii not being the 
cuftom of the Saxons to give names to towns from 
their lords, or any perlon ; the ground here, as Spel- 
iiian obferves, abounds with fp rings and water; the 
priory was filled on this account, St. Mary de Fon- 
tibus, at the fprings ; (hiod ab oriente jon>es 
-apnco inter dum mcatu, inlerdwrv fubte rranco ludentes; 
tlierefore, from thcfe flete ices, or waters, it takes its 
name ; thus Flixton in Suffolk, &c. - This is allb 
called Flicefwell in Doomfday-book. 

The chief manor, and the grcateft part of this 
town, was granted to Roger Bigot, anceftor of the 
carls of Norfolk. 

Fulk de Beaufoe, who was lord in the reign of 
Henry II. dying without ilfue male, left four daugh- 
ters and coheirs ; Emmc, who married Gilbert de 
Norfolk; Agatha, who married fir Robert Aguillon; 
Joan, wife of Thomas de Irigaldefthorp, and Mar- 
gery, wife of Robert Scales. The two firft of thefe 
-had only an intereft in this town. 



Agatha, by fir Robert Aguillon, left alfo four 
daughters and coheirs, between whom her moiety 
was divided ; Agatha, wife of fir Adam de Cock- 
field ; Ifabel, of Luke de Poynings ; Margery, of 
Jordan de Sackville, and after of fir Giles de Argen-' 
ton; and Joan, of fir Ralph Fitz-Bernard. 

POINING'S MANOR came to fir Luke de Poynings, 
on his marriage with Ifabel, daughter and heir of 
Aguillon ; and about the end of the reign of Henry 
III. Thomas de Poynings, Andrew de Sackville, Wal- 
ter de Barnardeflon, and John de Rocheford, were 
found to hold in this town and Appleton, two fees 
of the honour of Arundel ; and in the 8th of Ed- 
ward I. a fine was levied between Luke de Poynings 
and Roger de Somcrcotes, and Maud his wife, relict 

of Poynings, father of Luke, as we take it, 

whereby Luke granted them the manor of Flitcham, 
. for the life of Maud, with an annuity of one hun- 
dred {hillings. 

It continued in the family of the Poynings to the 
reign of Henry III. it was then dcmiied to the fa- 
mily of \Vodehoufe, where it remained till the reign 
of Henry VI. 

In Henry VIII. it was conveyed to fir William 
Holies, lord mayor of London, anceflor of the 
Holies, dukes of Newcaftle, who left it to his (on 

Sir Thomas, in the gd and 4th of Philip and 
Mary, paffed it by fine to Henry Ward, with the 
lordfhip of Barnefton, or Barnardifton, for 2900!. 
but his lady being jointured therein, 'and her father, 
Richard Payne, not agreeing to it, it came into that 
family, and from diem to Thomas duke of Norfolk, 



before his attainder in the reign of queen Eliza- 

Philip earl of Arundel, his fon and heir, demifcd 
it, in the 28th of that queen, to Richard Hovell, 
of Flitcham, gent. Flitcham houfe, late the {'cite ef 
the priory, with all the appurtenances, and the ma- 
nors called Poyning's, Cockfield's, Barnardifton's, 
Eaft-hall, and Snoring, the lands, fold-courfes, wa- 
ter-mills, Sec. thereto belonging, in the tenure of 
the faid Hovell, for fifteen years, at the annual rent 
of 257!. 6s. Sd. he paying alfo to the bifhop of 
Norwich 6s. 8d. rent; to the dean and chapter gs. 4d. 
find to the archdeacon gs. yd. ob. per ami. alib to 
provide a curate for the church of Flitcham. 

This earl being found guilty of, high treafon, and 
dying a prifoner in the tower of London, it came to 
the crown, and king James I. on February 14, in 
his ftrft year, granted the priory houfe, and all the 
. aforefaid manors, with the impropriated rcclory, to 
Richard Lockfmith and Robert Bolleyn, they pay- 
ing 170! us. 5d. fee-farm rent per ami, In his 
6th year, it was granted, on February 12, to Henry 
Beck,' Robert Bolleyn, &c. on the requcfl. of fir 
Chriftopher Hattori. After this the faid king gave it 
to the earl of Suffolk, in fee-farm, and the lord 
chief juftice Coke purchafcd it of him, and the fee- 
farm rent of the crown, and io it defcended to Tho- 
mas Coke, the late earl of Leiceuer, who entailed 
it on his nephew, Wenman Roberts Coke, efq. of 
ILongford in Derby {hire. 

SACKVILLF/S MANOR. Jordan dc Sackville, who 
married Margery, one of the daughters and coheirs 
of fir Robert Aguillon, gave name to it ; his fbn 
Andrew occurs lord in the 2 8th of Edward I. 


Tn the 2ifl of Henry VI. John Spendlove, and 
Margaret his wife, and John, fon and heir of Adam 
Snoring, conveyed it by fine to John Bertram, of 
Sax ingham, by Holt, in Norfolk, who by his will, 
on July i '), 1461, devifed it to John his fecond fon 
for life, with the advowfon, or until he fliould be 
preferred to a greater benefice ecclefiaflical, and then 
to go to the priory of Walfingham ; and thus it 
was afterwards partly united to the manor of Snoring 
in this town, and part came to fir Richard Williams, 
and fo to fir William Holies, and the late earl of 
Leicefler, as aforefai'd. 

There are three other manors in this town, called, 

All, except the lad, in poITefTion of the Holkham 
family, and purchafed by lord chief juftice Coke. 

SNORING MANOR. Bcfides the lordfliips above 
fpecified, Emma de Beaufoe, daughter and coheir of 
Fulk de Beaufoe, and filler of Agatha, had her right 
or part of a moiety in this town. She married Gil- 
bert de Norfolk, who had a patent, in the ill year 
of king John, to ejijoy all her inheritance for life, 
and dying foon aftjr without iffue, fhe obtained for 
600 murks a licence not to be diilrained to marry, 
and to enjoy all her own inheritance, and alfo to 
have her dower in that of her hufband. 

Emma had a niece, Damietta, on whom (lie fet- 
tled great part of this lordfihip, and mapied ,firfl, 
Thomas Avenel, by whom (lie had a fon, ReginaU, 
,\vho died without iffue. 



Her fccond hufband was Peter de Fuldon, by 
whom fhe had a fon, Richard. 

Damietta, in her widowhood, gave to the prior, 
Sec. of Walfingham in Norfolk, thirty acres of land, 
with half a fold-courfe in this town ; and her aunt 
Emma gave two acres of land, sSd. rent per ann. 
which Thomas Avenel was to pay her for .lands flic 
granted him on his marriage. 

This went by the name of Snoring manor in the 
reign of Edward IV. and on the diilblution of Wal- 
fingham priory, was granted June 19, anno 6th of 
Edward VI. to Thomas (Thurleby) bifhop of Nor- 
' \vich, and his fucceffors, and fo continues. 

To thofe who fearch truly and deeply into facred 
antiquity, it will frequently appear how the church 
of Rome has for many centuries paft, even in the 
Saxon times, impofed on the credulity, 'the weakness 
und ignorance of mankind, by their pice fraude.s, in- 
ventions, and traditions, falfe and fpurious to the 
laft degree, as will appear. in the following inflance. 

Felix:, who is faid to be firft Chriftian bifliop of 
the EafV Angles, to have his feat at Dunwich in Suf- 
folk, and to have died in or about the year 647, is 
made by the church of Rome to be the founder of 
this town, to give name to it, to have converted 
thefe parts, and to have ereckd the firfl Chriltian. 
church at Babingky, (a town adjoining to Flitchaui) 
and that he was afiifted in this building, Sec, by 
Thoke, a powerful man, lord of many townfhips 
in the neighbourhood, whom he had made a con- 
vert to the Chriftian i'aith. 



In anfwer to this, it is to be obferved, that all 
towns in the times of the Britons, (many centuries 
before the time of biiliop Felix) took their names 
from their fcite, as this did from 'the flices, that is, 
the fleet ices, fprings, and ouzinefs of its foil, as we 
have already obferved. Many of thefe ancient Bri- 
tifh and old Saxon names were changed by die Ro- 
mifh church, for the names of their fictitious faints * 
thus Slepe in Huntingdonfhire was changed and 
called St. Ives ; thus Eynfbury was called St. Neots : 
thus old Verukm was changed to St, Alban's, and 
thus Bevderickfworth to St. Edmund's Bury. As 
lor Thoke, laid to be a convert of St. Felix, he was 
lord of Weft Walton, Harpley, Greflinghall, Scul- 
thorpe, Burnham Thorpe, and many other towns ; 
was a noble Saxon lord, or thane, in king Edward's 
rck-n, and deprived of all on the conqueft, as the 
book of Doomfday will teflify. 

The church of Flitcham confifts of a nave, a fouth 
ifle, with a porch, and a fquare tower in which hangs 
one bell, and is dedicated to the Virgin Mary ; there 
has been a chancel and a north iilc, now in ruins ; 
the fouth ifle is covered with lead, and the nave and 
the porch arc tiled. 

At the weft end of the nave lies a black marble 
grave-ftone, with the arms of Bendifli ; argent, a che- 
vron, between three rains heads, crazed, azure, attired, 
or. Sub hoc lapide. pojilum ejt corpus Francifci Bendyjh, 
genero/i, in adverjis viri infigni paticntia, in amicos t 
non minor e benigmtate, qui ' cxpiravit 7 die'Jfyvanb. Ao. 
Dm. 1647, eetat. 63; Plurimh quondam opprc/Jus, jam 
eananms, opprejjionibus, malis omnibus dormit Jccurus; 
btatij/imam expectant rcfurretfionem. 

This church was anciently a re&ory. 


OF F R E B R I D G E. 135 

Afterwards, the rec"lory was appropriated to the 
priory here, and a vicarage fettled, and that was 
united and confolidated to the reclory, for which the! 
prior had a patent in the i yth of Richard II. Upon 
this the cure was probably ferved by one of the ca- 
nons here ; and on the diffolution it was granted, 
with the priory, Sec. to Edward lord Clinton, Janu- 
ary 9, in,the 3oth of Henry V11I. and foon after tcr 
Richard Williams, alias Cromwell, who in the next 
year alienated it to fir William Holies, and fo palled 
as the manor of Poynings, and is an impropriatiori 
belonging to the late earl of Leicefter, and from him 
it came, after the deceafe of his countefs in 1775, 
to his nephew Wenmari Roberts Coke, efq. 

It is now a donative of 20!. a year, paid by tlitf 
tenant of the abbey farm to the officiating clergy- 
man. Ttmpora mutantur. 

FLIT-CHAM' PRIORY. This priory was fiibordinattf 
to the priory of Walfingharn. It was founded in 
the reign of Henry III. by fir Robert Aguillon, pro- 
bablv anceftor of the dukes d'Aquillon in France. 
It was furrendered to Henry VIII. the fame day with 
that of Walfingharn, Auguft 4, 1539: in which 
year, or foon after, fix hundred and forty-five mo- 
naitcries, ninety colleges, and two thoufand three 
hundred and feventy-four chapels were fuppreffed 
and furrendered to the king. 

Some time after the fuppreffion this priory came to 
fir Thomas Holies, who was taken up by the ihcriff of 
Norfolk in execution for debt, and his goods fold. 
Afterwards it came to the duke of Norfolk, who 
was attainted and beheaded. It then reverted to the 
crown, and king James gave the abbey lands and 
sftate, and fcite of the priory, to Thomas Howard 

car i 


carl of Suffolk, who was tried in the Star-chamber, 
turned out of his office as treafiirer, and fuffered 
great affliction by the attainder of his daughter, the 
countefs of Somerfet. The lord chief juftice Coke 
bought the abbey and the abbey lands of this earl, 
and foon after he was difgraced and forbid the court, 
and was unhappy during the remainder of his life. 
Theie feems to have been a fatality that hung over 
the heads of all thole who were too bufy in church 
lands, and over the heads of their fucccffors ; and 
thi$ has been remarked by many hiflorians. In- 
flances might be produced at this day in many fa- 
milies, which confirm the truth of the hiftorian's 

This abbey, now a farm, containing about ele- 
ven hundred acres of land, many of the old walls 
flill remaining, which fhew the priory to have been 
large and extenfive, defcended to the late earl of Lei- 
cciter, and his only fon, lord Coke, dying without 
iliac, lord Leicefler entailed it, with the abbey of 
Caflle-acre, and many other church revenues, upon 
Wenman Roberts Coke, efq. who lived to enjoy 
the great acquifitions of lord chief juflice Coke from 
the church but one year, acceding to them in 1773, 
and dying in 1776. 

This abbey of Flitch am was dedicated to the Vir- 
gin Mary, and was called alfo St. Mary de Fontibus, 
becaufe it flood near fome fountains and fprings, 
which fomctimes flowed plentifully, and at oilier 
times did not appear. From thefc fprings a dream 
arifes, that gliding through the meadows, where the 
remains of this once venerable abbey flill exift in 
the unhallowed form of barns and (tables, paries on 
to Hillington, and running weflward, winds along 
the park of fir Martin Folkes, bart. ana falls into 


the channel near Rifing caftie^ and thence empties 
itfelf into the fea. 

The eflate at Flitcham, in the Holkharri family, 
amounts, to three thoufand acres of land and up- 
wards, the whole property of the town (excepting a 
fmall part belonging to fir Martin Folkes, bart.) hav- 
ing been from time to time purchaied into that fa- 

In this parifh was the remarkable hill or tumulus, 
where, in the Saxon age, the hundred court was 
held in the time of William Rufus, in order to de- 
cide a controverfy about lands at Holme, who iffued 
out a commifhoii to H. his chamberlain, to call to- 
gether three hundreds and an half at this place, 
called Flicceham Burch. It is upon an hill about 
a mile above the town of FJitcham, in the hundred 
of Freebridge citra Lenne, on the weft fide of the 
way, leading from that town to Shernbourne. being 
a Iquare piece of ground about an acre, ditched 
about with an old large ditch, about eight miles 
from Holme, where the lands lay which were then, 
claimed by the abbot of Ramfey* 

GAYTON. The town takes its names from Guy, 
a Britifti word, and occurs frequently for the name 
of rivers, or water. 

It is probable that foon after the furvey, William 
dc Scohics granted it to the abbey of St. Stephen's, 
Weftminfter, with the church of Gayton, which was 
appropriated to the priory of W r ell, and the patron-^ 
age of the vicarage was in the priorv. 

Thomas Cobbe, fon and heir of Jeffrey, had li- 
very of the manor of Gayton, alias Egerton, with 
L iht 


the appurtenances, one meffuage, and a fold-courfe, 
in Gavton Thorpe, Grimfton, and Eaft Winch, in 
the 6th of queen Elizabeth, held of the faid queen, 
as of the caftle of Dover ; alfo the manors of Wy- 
kenhale, Brecham's, and Perfon's. 

It appears by an inquifition taken the ssd of 
April, in the ill of Edward VI. at the caftle of Nor- 
wich, that his father Jeffrey died May 18, 1544, 
poflefled of the fame manors, Gavton and Egerton, 
held of Dover caftie, paying ten (hillings rent per 
ann. Wykenhale, Brecham and Perfon's manors, 
held of the manor of Grimfton, paying twelve dril- 
lings per ann. and that Thomas his fbn and heir was 
of the age of five years, by Margaret his wife, 
daughter of Thomas Thorefby, efq. and that Ralph 
Gavton was Jeffrey's great grandfather; this Tho- 
mas is faid to die without iffue ; and William Cobbe 
(his brother) had livery of the aforefaid manors about 
the 22d of the faid queen. 

From the time of queen Elizabeth the proprietors 
are very uncertain, but it feems as if it remained for 
many years in the family of the Cobbes of San- 

Richard Jackfon, efq, of Weafenham, one of his 
majefty's council learned in the law, has a confider- 
able property in Gayton at prefent. 

ren, Ion of Roger,, con firmed all the donations of 
his father, grandfather, and of Walter his uncle, to 
the monks of Acra ; and himfelf gave to them ele- 
ven (hillings and four-pence rent in land in Gayton. 



There was an agreement between the abbot and 
convent of St. Stephen, of Caen in Normandy, on 
one part, and the prior and convent of Caflle-acre, 
on the other, for all the tithes belonging to the fed 
of the earl Warren in the village of Gayton, which 
belonged to Caftle-acre priory; that the abbot of St. 
Stephen's, and his fucceffors, fhould hold all the 
laid tithes, paying five marks of good fterling per 
aiin. and fealed with the fcals of both convents. 

Wendling had a lordfhip. On the diffolution of 
the religious houfes it came to the crown, and re- 
mained there fome time ; and was granted by queen 
Elizabeth, on the loth of Auguft, in her 13th year, 
to Thomas Jennyns and Edward Forth, gent, by the 
name of Gayton manor, alias Gayton Abbots, with 
concealed lands belonging to it in Tilney, Iflington, 
Clenchwarton, Walpole, and Emneth ; and king 
James I. on January g, in his 8th year, granted it, 
lor the fum of 26!. 175. 3d. with all the wood and 
underwood, valued at 3!. i6s. gd. late the poffeiTi- 
ons of Wendling abbey, to fir Edmund Mundeford, 
and he, on the 2oth of July, in the i6th of the 
laid king, conveyed it to Sampfon Hopes, clerk. 

After various fucceffions, it came to the family of 
the Longes in Suffolk, who poffeffed it in 1700; 
then it paffed to Robert Jacombj efq. formerly mem- 
ber of parliament for Thetford. 

There are two other manors, 


Of the regular dcfcent of which very little is known 
with certaintv, 

L a The 


This town lies eaft of Lynn, in the road to Nor- 
wich, at the diftance of fix miles : to this town is a 
turnpike road from Lynn, which ends at the feven 
mile flone. 

The church is a regular pile, has a nave, a north 
and fouth ifle covered with lead, and a four-fquare 
tower with three bells ; the chancel is covered with 

It is a vicarage, and the patronage is in the lee 
of Norwich. 

GAYTON THORPE, A moiety of the advow- 
fon of this church was appropriated by fir Thomas 
de Hafling, fteward to king Henry II. to the abbey 
of Weft Dereham. 

At the diflblution it was granted to Thomas MiK!- 
may, efq. February 26, ao. 4, Edward VI. and after 
came to fir Edward Barkham, bart. and by the mar- 
riage of the heirefs, to the Yallops. 

In 1761 it was conveyed to Philip Cafe, efq. of 
Lynn, by Edward Spelman, efq. of High Houfe, 

Philip Cafe, efq. the prefent mayor of Lynn, for 
the third time, having ferved that office twice before 
with great reputation, and particularly in the time 
of the Scotch rebellion againft one of the beft of 
Icings, his late majefly, George II. is the prefenc 
lord of this manor. 

It was formerly in the family of the Thorpes, 
which probably gave name to the town, the differ- 
ent lords of manors, fometimes giving their own 



name to a town, and fometimes taking their name 
from it. 

The church of Gavton Thorpe is dedicated to St. 
Mary, and is a (ingle antient pile, covered witl> 
lead, has a round tower, at the weft end, (with two 
bells) and is covered with a cap. 

On a grave-flone, with the arms of Wall, argent, 
on a crofs, fable, five lioncels, rampant, or, impal- 
ing Barkham. In fpe beatce refurreftionis, hie jacet 
Lucia r ditto, Francijci Wall, armigeri, Jilia Edvardi 
Rarkham, de Tottenham High Crofs, in comit. Middle- 
Jcxiti, mililis et baronttli, au<z obt. 50 die Junij^ Ao. 
Dm. 1681. 

Alfo on one Here, lieth the body of Judith Swift, 
daughter of Dr. Beckham, loho departed this life \Jl 
of Januaiy, 1718, aged 42 years. ' 

In charijjimorum parentum memoriam Edvardus Bcck~ 
ham, Jilius mcerens, D. C. II. S. E. Edw. Beckham, 
S. T. P. ecclefiarum de Gayton Thorp, et de South Pick-, 
enham, rcttor, qui obt. Apr. die 1 ao. atatis 76, Dm 
M. i). ccxiv. Jttxta pojita funt e\uvice Jana conjugis 
dicli Edwardi dileftijfimce t qiiae obt. die pojl maritum 
quarto. Ao. tetalis LIX. 

In 1755 the Rev. George William Lemon, a man 
of learning, and late head matter of the free fchool 
at Norwich, was prefented to this church by the 
late Edward Spelman, efq. whom he affifted during 
many years in his (Indies. The late Edward Spel- 
man, efq. was a gentleman well known in the lite- 
rary world by his writings ; he built High Houfe at 
Weflacre, now the property of Anthony Hammond, 
efq, where he refided many years : he was aji excel- 
L 3 len 


lent and indefatigable magiftrate, and was thorough- 
ly verfed in the laws of this realm, and the policy 
of it; on his deceafe the feat and eflate at High 
Houfe, came by purchafe to the late Richard Ham- 
mond, efq. and from him by his will, to the prefent 
Anthony Hammond, efq. of High Houfe, Weftacre. 

GAYWOOD is a village adjoining and within a 
mile of the borough of Lynn Regis, and is a kind 
of fuburb to that town. 

This town and lordlhip belonged to the bifhops 
of the Eaft Angles, in die time of the Saxons, and 
was given by fome of iheir kings. In die reign of 
king William I. Wi!iiam (Beaufoe) bifliop of Thet- 
ford, held it in right of that fee ; and Almar bifhop 
of Elmham, held it in king Edward the Confedbr s 
time, by the fame right : this Ahnar was brother to 
Stigend, and fucceeded him in this fee, on his 
tranflation to Winchefter, in 1047. 

In the 24th year of Henry II. the bifhop of Nor- 
wich was found to hold this lordfhip, with 'Lynn, 
in capifc; and in the 34ih of that king, he would 
not fufter the king's bailiff or coroner to enter into 
it, ha\ ir.g a coroner of his own ; and in the follow- 
ing year, had a charter of free warren here, &c. 

William de Raleigh, bifhop, made a park here, 
and a warren. 

In the 3d of Edward I, the bifhop of Norwich 
was found to have the return of all writs, a gallows, 
affife of bread and beer, and other royalties ; and 
in the gth year of that king, he was prefented, on 
account of his water-mill here having drowned thq 
high way, to the damage of the people paffing by. 



Henry Spencer, biftiop of Norwich, had licence 
in the 1'ith of king Richard II. to embattle his pa- 
laces of Gaywood. and North Elmham. 

It continued in the fee of Norwich till it was 
granted by an act of parliament, February 4, in the 
ear of Henry VIII. to the crown, with other 
of the bifhop's manors and barony, by way ot ex- 
change for the abbey manors and lands belonging 
to St. Bennet of Holme. 

William Rugg, the laft abbot there, being nomi- 
nated bifhop of Norwich, this manor being thus in 
the crown, it was conveyed away on January i, in 
the 36th of king Henry VIII. under the great feal of 
England, having the king's mark at the top, and un- 
derneath figned by the duke of Norfolk, lord Ruf- 
fell, lord Rich, Richard Southwell and Walter, of- 
ficers of the court of Augmentation, by way of ex- 
change for other lands, to Thomas duke of Norfolk, 
for life, without impeachment of wafte ; remainder 
to Henry earl of Suny, his fon and heir, and the 
lady Frances his wife, and their heirs, to be held 
by the twentieth part of a fee, and die rent of 4!. 
1 8s. per ami. pax -able at St. Michael, into the court 
of Augmentation. 

Henry earl of Surry, was afterwards attainted in 
his father's life time, but on his death in the reign 
of queen Mary, an acl pafied to confirm it to fir 
Thomas Howard, knt. fon of Henry, late earl of 
Suny, who being reftored alfo to the dukedom, was 
beheaded in the 1 5th year of queen Elizabeth; and 
it being again in the crown, that queen in her 2oth 
year, by letters patent, dated at Hampton Court, 
January 15, granted it, with the advowfon and de- 
means, the manors of Eaft and Weft Rudham, and 
L4 the 


.the fcite of the priory of C oxford in Norfolk, (parts 
alfo of the late duke's poffeflions) to Edward earl of 
Oxford, who, in her 22d year, had licence to con- 
vey this manor of Gaywood, with the advowfon, 
to John Pepys, gent, and he foon after fold it to 
Thomas Thorefby, of Havelefs-hall in Minding, 
efq. in which family it continued till fold by Francis 
Thorefby, efq. about 1697, to fir Cyril Wyche, 
km. of Hockwold-hall in Norfolk. 

Sir Cyril Wyche was fecrctary of Rate of Ireland 
in the reign of king William III. 

The late fir Cyril Wyche was refident from the 
court of England to the Hans Towns in Germany 
and knight of the order of Holftein, - 

Sir Cyril had a grant in the loth of William III. 
for two fairs in the year in this town, on the iith 
and ) 2th of June, and on the 6th and yth of Octo- 
ber, for cattle, and all mcrchandife. 

The church is dedicated to St. Faith, the Virgin 
and Martyr ; it confifts of a fquare fteeple of brick, 
in which hang three bells ; a nave, with north and 
fouth crois illes, covered with thatch. 

It was antiently valued with the vicarage belong- 
ing to it, at fix marks, and was not vifited by the 
archdeacon, being a peculiar of the bifhop of Nor- 
wich, and in his patronage and manor: the pre- 
fcnt value in the king's books is 5!. 1 35. 4d. and 
the patronage has always gone with the lordfhip. 

The Rev. Samuel Beatniffe is the prefent rector; 
he fucceded the Rev. Mr. Wright of Eaft Marling, 
xvho iucceeded the Rev. Dr. Stedman, reclor of 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 145 

Denver, archdeacon of Norfolk, and prebendary of 


On a grave-flone with a brafs plate, in the chan- 
cel, Here lyeth T/w. Hares, a man always peaceable, 
and religious, ever defirous of doing good, and to Ids 
power did it, he died a good old man, full of days and 
(if faith, his foul is returned to God that gave it, and 
his body thus rejlcth in hope. 

Qui fuit dtrntR Chrijlus mihi ca.ufa falutis, 

Exuvijs rurjus vejliat ojfa meis. 

Ejujdem reditu mihi vita, falujq; paratur, 

Intaclo tumulo molliier ojfa cubent. 

Vixit annos 84, olrijt Apr. 13, 1617. Tho. Hares, 
illius jilius, et hujus ecclejitz reclor, dejlevit. 

One alfo thus infcribed. Hie jacet Tho., Thurlin, 

S. T. P. S. Jolt. coll. Cantabrigice prcefcs, hujus ecck-* 

fia 50 annos rc&or, vir pietate, docirina, et animi c#n^ 

dore inclytus, bene-ficij memor, injurife cbliviofus, o&Oge- 

naiius obt. Aug. 11, 1714. 

manor in this town was held by Stigand, archbifliop 
of Canterbury, (as a temporal fee) in the reign of 
the-Confeffor; but the Conqueror deprived him of 
it, and gave it to his half brother Odo, bifliop of 
Bayeux in Normandy, and created by him earl of 
Kent. This Odo held it at the furvev, but being 
in arms againfl king William II. and taking part 
with Robert duke of Normandy, the Conqueror's 
eldefl fon, in his claim to the crown of England, 
againft his brother king William II. he was deprived 
of this, and all his other eftates in England ; and 
this lordfliip was granted by that king to William dc 
Albini, anceflor to the earls of Suffex and Arunclel. 



This lordfhip was held foon after the conquefl by 
a family who took their name on being enfeoffed 
herein : Godfrey de Grimflon (probably lord) was a 
vvitnefs to a deed, fans date, of Richard Aguillon, 
and Ela his wife,, to the monks of Caftle-acre. 

In the 34th of Henry III. a fine was levied be- 
tween Peter de Kailly and Mary his wife, Ralph, 
fon of Simon le Counte, and Joan his wife, of the 
moiety of two hundred and thirty-two acres of land 
in this town, Rudham, Tittlefhall, Sec. claimed by 
Peter and Mary, of the inheritance of Roger de 
Grimfton, father of the faid Mary and Joan, by 
Alice his wife, deceafed, whofe heirs they were, which 
was then divided between them. 

In the 27th of Henry III. Thomas de Grimfton 
held two fees of the honor of Rifing, which were 
affigned to Ifabel, widow of Hugh earl of Arun- 
del, for her life ; this Thomas was married, but 
died without ilfuc ; and on the death of Agnes his 
widow, Alice or Elizabeth, daughter of Godfrey de 
Grimfton, his brother, was his heir : fhe married 
John de Breccles, who in her right was lord, in the 
j 6th of Edward I, and from him the manor took its 

In the iyth of Edward I. it was adjudged that 
Robert de Tatefhale (who married one of the fillers 
and heirs to Hugh, earl of Albany) iliould have the 
men and refidents of this town, come to his hun- 
dred court of Freebridge ; but John de Breccles, and 
Alice his wife, pleaded that they ought to eome to 
his court lete. He was fucceeded by Benedicl dc 
Breccles his fon and heir. 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 147 

Though this title abovementioned to this lordfhip 
js warranted by authentic records, yet Benedict de 
Breccles derived his right and pedigree very different 
from this, as appears from an old parchment, wrote 
in his own time in. Latin, and funs date, .called a 
Memorandum of the names of the- ancellors of John 
Benedict de Breccles, viz. 

Thomas fon of Godfrey, fon of Aldric a French 
man, to whom William earl of Suflex gave Grim-* 
fton, Brunham, (Burnham) Breccles, 8cc. after whole 
death, (Thomas's) Peter fucceeded, his fon and heir, 
and a knight ; after fir Peter, Thomas his fon and 
Jieir, a knight ; then fir Peter, his lori and heir, after 
him ; fir Thomas his foil and heir ; Thomas his fon 
- and heir fucceeded, who died without iffuc ; and 
Chriftian was his filler and heir. v who dying with- 
out iffue, Peter her uncle was her heir; which Peter 
was brother to fir Thomas, father of Thomas and 
Chriftian ; which Peter dving without iffue, Bardio- 
lomew his brother, was his heir; he had Alice, his 
daughter and heir; and from the faid Alice, the 
right defcends to Benedict her Ion and heir, now 

It is to be obferved, that great confufion often 
arifes in pedigrees, &c. from one and the fame fa- 
mily's, and often ope and the fame perfon's taking 
different names from the different towns that they 
(or he) were lords of. An inllance of this we have 
in this family, who were called fometimes De Grim-* 
flop, and fometimes de Breccles, of both which 
towns they were lords ; and this fir Benedict dying 
lord of both thefe towns, in the reign of king Edw. 
' II. was fucceeded therein by John de Breccles, his 
fon and heir, who in the gth of that king appears 



to be lord; and in the 1 4th of Edward III. John 
de Breccles was a witnefs to a deed. 

In the time of fir Benedict abovementioned, we 
have this account of his lordfhip from an old parch- 
ment roll : BenedicT: de Breccles holds in cdpiie of 
the earl of Arundel, the manor of Grimflon, with 
the advowfon of the church, and the manor of 
Brunham, with the advowfon of a moiety of the 
church of St. Mary, of Burnham Weilgate, and 
the manor of Little Breccles, by the fervice of two 
knights fees, by the deed of William earl of Anm- 
del ; and he hath the manor of Grimflon, by the 
church, with feveral pieces of land thereto belong- 
ing, together with a moor, called Derby Moor, a 
heath and two water-mills ; and there belong to the 
faid manor waif and flrays, found within the pre- 
cincls of Grimflon ; a bull, and a lete of all his te- 
nants, to be held in the faid manor, by the king's 
bailiff, without any profit to be carried off; and 
the bailiff of the faid Benedict fhall bring all amer- 
ciaments of the faid iete, by the oadi of lawful men, 
&c. and if the. bailiff fhall be unwilling to keep the 
faid lete, as it happened in the time of John Brec- 
cles, the faid lord of the manor to have a brief of 
the chancellor, to the faid bailiffs, to hold the faid 
lete, as they ought ; and there belongs to the faid 
manor a profit called Lovebcne, to wit, that all re- 
fidents in Grimflon, having horfes with a cart, fhall 
work for the lord, for the redeeming of the common 
of Grimflon, one day's journey of barley feed time, 
and he fhall have for his breakfaft one penny half- 
penny ; and all keeping cows on the common, fhall 
do a day's work in harveft, and at three o'clock 
they fhall have flefh to eat, and ale to drink, and 
three loaves every evening ; and if they refufe, then 
it fliall be lawful to diflrairr on the faid common,, 


Sec. But fir Robert de Montalto, the prior of Weft- 
acre, the lady De Thony, the priorefs of Black- 
borough, the reclor of Grimfton, Nicholas Coflyn, 
Nicholas Norman, Agneys Waceneys, Richard Be- 
ncyt, the tenants of the meffuage of John Spylra, 
Hubert de Bumftead, Robert de Berton, Walter 
Oldman, John Skot, fir Ralph le Botiler, Roger 
Skot, fhall not do the day's work in barley feed 
time, nor the day's in harvefl, becaufc their tenants 
\\ ork for them ; and likewife that no man fell the 
common of Grimfton to ftrangers, without leave of 
the faid Benedict, and his heirs ; and if any ftranger 
in Congham, or in any village, is willing to have 
common in Grimfton, he fhall do die work as the 
others do. 

In 1402 Benedict de Breccles, fon of John de 
Breccies, was loid; foon after, it fcems to have been 
out of this family, in the 2 jth of Henry VI. 

John Pafton, fon and heir of William Pafton, 
releafed to Thomas Daniel, efq. all his right in tlie 
manor of Grimfton, (which we fuppofe to be this 
of Breccles) with lands, See. in Roydon, \Vell-hall ; 
and in the aSth of the faid king a fine was levied 
between Thomas Daniel, efq. and Henry Wode- 
houfe, efq. of the manor of Grimfton, with that of 
Well-hall, in Gayton, 8cc. twenty meiTuages, five 
hundred acres of land, one hundred of meadow, 
live hundred of pafture, twentv of wood, two hun- 
dred of moor, and lol. per ami. rent conveyed to 

In the loth of Edw. IV. Auguft 4, John Wode- 
houfe, efq. fenior, and Arnold Snoring, confirmed 
to Edward Wodehoufe and James Tyrell, knights, 
William Tindale, and Richard Southwell, efq. all 



tlieir manors of Grimflon and Roydon, with a full- 
ing-mill in Rifing, and all other their lands, tene- 
ments, rents, and fervices in the faid towns, with 
all other profits which they had of the grant of the 
aforefaid Edward Wodehoufe : and fir Thomas 
Brews, knt. William Tindale, and Richard Hoi- 
ditch, efq. releafe to John De la Pole, duke of Suf- 
folk, and Edward Wodehoufe, knt. in the 15th of 
the faid reign, the manor of Grimflon, called Brcc- 
cles, with the advowfon of the church of Grimflon, 
by deed dated April 10. 

After this it was poffeffed by the lord Rochford ; 
brother to Anna Bolein, queen of England, who 
being attainted in the year i -^36, it came to the 
crown, and king Edward VI. granted it to fir Willi- 
am Brooke, knt. fon and heir to the lord Cobham, 
on the 26th of June, in his yth year. Sir William 
conveyed it for 250!. in the ift of queen Mary, to 
William Yelverton, efq. in the 3d of Elizabeth he 
was lord, and it appears to be part of the jointure! 
of Jane his wife ; which William died feiied of it 
Auguft 28, in the 2Sth of Elizabeth. 

Edward Yelverton, gent, his fecond fon, to whom 
he bequeathed it, kept his court for the manor on 
Monday May 22, in the agth of that queen ; and 
in the 31 ft year of the faid reign, Robert Hill, bai- 
liff, accounted for 7!. 35. ob. rent of affife of the 
free tenants of the manors of Breccles, Blackbo- 
fough, and Weflacre in this town. 

In 1521 Edward Yelverton and Nazareth his wife, 
let this manor to farm. He was a doclor of phyfic 
and a popifh recufant, and lived at this time at 
Rougham, and Ibme times at Appleton, &c. and on 
his obtaining a pardon for his forfeiture on account 



of his recufancy, granted twenty marks per ann. 
out of his manor of Breccles, for fo long a time ai 
lie fhould not conform to the laws ; and on the 12th 
of April, 1615, he fold to William Bladwell, efq. 
this manor, with the lete, and thofe of Morleys, 
Downham-hall, Cofleyns, Weftacre, Blaekborough, 
&c. in this town, containing twenty-fix meffuagcs, 
ten tofts, 26 gardens, eight hundred acres of land, 
one hundred of meadow, three hundred of paflure, 
twenty of wood, three thoufand of heath and furze, 
with 5!. rent per ann. and liberty of two folds. 
This Bladwell was of the family of Bladwell of 
Thurlow Magna in Suffolk, and bore per pale ar- 
gent and gules, a lion rampant, fable. 

Bladwell was lord, and fold it to Brown, 

\vhofe widow held it in 1693. 

After this William Bagge, cfq. was lord, and fold 
it to fir Robert Walpole, earl of Orford, and his 
grandfon now poffeffes it. 

C OXFORD PRIORY MANOR. In the reign of Edw. 
II. the prior of Coxford had lands in Grimfton. 

On the dillblution of religious houfes it was 
granted to fir Thomas Wodehoufe, of Waxham in 
Norfolk ; afterwards it came to William Bladwell, 
of Thurlow Magna in Suffolk, and it appears to 
be held in that family to the lyth of James I. 

fon of Walter Cordel, purchafed lands, by fine, in 
the 5th year of king John; and John Mode, or 
Ode, of Lynn, and Robert Cordel, or Cordwell, 
held in this town and Congham, the tenth part of a 
<oe of John de Vaux, in the reign of Henry III. 
I In 


In the i6th of Edward I. this tenth part was afiign-* 
ed to Petronilla, wife to William de Narford, as 
eldeft daughter of John de Vaux, being in the te- 
nure of Jeffrey Cordei; and in the (aid year John 
Dunham was found to hold part of a fee of Willi- 
am de Roos and Maud his wife, the other daughter 
of John de Vaux. 

In the ytli of Edward II. a fine was levied bc- 
txveen Simon, fon of Robert Cordei of Grimfton, 
and Robert the father, of lands fettled on Simon: 
and in the soih of Edward III. John Ode, and the 
heirs of Robert Cordei, and their tenants, held here 
and in Congham, as appears by an inquifidon, half 
a. fee of the heirs of John de Vaux. 

From the above proprietors the manors took their 

It afterwards came to the Wodehoufes, and Ro- 
ger Wodehoufe, efq. and Elizabeth his wife, kept 
their firft court of Downham-hall, on the feaft oF 
St. Prifca the Virgin, January 18, in the 2d of 
Henry VIII. and it came from Wodehouie, in the 

1 ;th of Elizabeth, to John Holditch, efq. of Ran- 


On December 20, in the i gth of Elizabeth, Wil- 
liam Yelverton, efq. purchafed die manor of Down- 
ham of John Holditch, efq. of Ranworth ; and 
Edward Yelverton, his fecond fon, executor to his 
father, kept his court on Monday May 22, in the 

2 gth of Elizabeth. 

GOSTEYN'S MANOR. Nicholas Cofteyn occurs 
lord in the gth of Edward II. and William Cofleyn, 
in the firli year of Richard II. held it of the honor 



of Arundel ; and in the igth of Henry Vllt. Tho- 
mas duke of Norfolk, Thomas marquis of Dorfet, 

Fitz Walter, fir Roger Townfliend, John Cref- 

fener, and John Whitby, feoffees of this lordfliip, 
for the ufe of Roger Wodehoufe, efq. fon and heir 
of fir Thomas, held a court on Monday next after 
the Paflion of our Lord. Roger Wodehoufe, cfq. 
conveyed it by fine to John Holditch, efq. in the 
lyth of Elizabeth. After this it came to William 
Yelverton, efq. in the i gth of Elizabeth, and fo to 
his ion Edward, and to William Bladwcll. 

GAYTON, alias WYVEL ING'S, alias REED-HAL!. 
Robert Bozoun, of Thornage in Norfolk, by an. in- 
denture made March 24, in the g^d of Elizabeth, 
for 70!. covenants to levy a fine of the manor of 
Grimflon,' alias Congham, alias Gayton, alias Wyve- 
lingham, alias Reed-hall, with 4!. 145, yd. rent, 
late Roger Bozoun's, fon of the faid Robert, to An- 
thony Bedingfeld, gent, to the ufe of Anthony, and 
Roger Bozoun, for their lives ; and then to the ufe 
of Edward Yelverton and Margaret his wife, and his 
heirs. The rents of the free tenants of Bozoun'g 
manor, about this time, were si. ys. 4d. and the 
copy-holders i6d. per ann, From Yelverton it was 
Conveyed to William Bladwell, efq. as in BreccleS 

MORLEY'S MANOR, &c. In the lyth of Edward 
IIL fir Robert Morley was lord, and Joan his wife 
joined in fettling of it in tail, and he is faid, in th 
soth of that king, to hold it by the fourth part of a 
fee of the heirs of Huntingfeld, which John de St. 
Cleer and his tenants formerly held. In the 341!! 
of the faid reign, fir Robert Morley was found to 
die beyond fea, feifcd of this lordfliip, and fir Wil- 
M liaia 


liam Morley was his fon, aged 30, by Hawifia his 
firft wife, daughter and heir of fir William Mare- 
fhall, knt. and Henry Morley, aged 15, and Ro- 
bert, were his fons by his fecond wife. 

After this it was in the Wodehoufes. Roger 
Wodehoufe, of Kimberley, efq. fettled it on the 2d 
of May, in the 36th of Henry VIII. on his fon 
Thomas and Margaret his wife, daughter of iir John 
Shelton ; and Roger Wodehoufe, efq. fon of. Tho- 
mas and Margaret, held his firft court on the i-tli 
of March, in the 15th of Elizabeth: in the i jth 
year of that queen he conveyed it, with the manors 
of Downham-Hall and Cofteyn's, to John Holditch, 
efq. of Ranworth, who, with Elizabeth his v.-ife, fold 
the faid manors for 540!. on December 20, in the 
igth of Elizabeth, to William Yelverton, efq. and 
from him they came to his ion, Edward Yelverton ; 
and from him to William Bladwell, efq. as in Brec- 
cles manor, Sec. 

Cattle-acre held lands here. 

In the 33d of Elizabeth it was fettled by Robert 
Eozoun, of Thornage, efq. together with the ma- 
nors of Bozoun, Wyvelingham, Reed-hall, 8cc. as 
in Bozoun' s manor, from which family it came to 
Edward Yelverton, and fo to William Bladwell, efq. 

of Blackborough has a fmall lordfhip here. 

William Bladwell purchafed it of the Yelvertons, 
after many proprietors at prefent unknown in the 
different reigns from the diflblution, on April 12, 
1615, in the reign of James I. 


OF F R E E B R I D G . 155 

WEST AC RE PRIORY MANOR. In the i6th year of 
Henry III. a fine was levied between Bartholomew, 
fon of Simon, and Robert prior of Weftacre, when 
Bartholomew conveyed two meffuages and forty- 
four acres of land, in Grimfton, to the prior. 

After its diffolution it was granted, on the 2;th 
of June, in the 2d and gd of Philip and Mar}', to 
fir Henry Bedingfield. Sir Henry fold it to Robert 
Coke of Mileham, and Coke conveyed it, in the 
reign of Elizabeth, to William Yelverton, of Rough- 
am, efq. and his fon Edward fold it to William 
Bladwell, April 12, 1615. 

In the gth of Richard I. a fine was levied be- 
tween Peter, fon of Richard, and Alan, fon of Rei-< 
ner, or Reinham, of the moiety of a capital mef- 
fuage, and a carucate of land, 8cc. here, and in the 
fields of Congham, not of the beft nor worft land, 
conveyed to Peter, to be held by the fervice of a 
pair of gilt fpurs, of the value of three-pence. 

In the 1 Gth of Edward I. Thomas de Weyland 
purchased by fine, of Nicholas, fon of William, 
Ion of Reiner, meffuages and lands in Grimfton, 
Congham, and Gayton: this was the judge, fir 
Thomas de Weyland, who was banifhed, and his 
eftate confifcated, as we have obferved in Mafling-- 
ham, and was found to hold one hundred (hillings 
rent per ann. in this town, Congham and Gayton, 
of Nicholas, fon of Reiner, by the fervice of two 
fhillings per ann. 

Berner, captain of the crofs-boxv-mcn, had the 
grant of a lordfhip, of which Ulueruna, a free wo- 
man, was deprived. 

M a Hut 


Tills lordfhip came from Bcrncr to the Picots, 
and on the death of Euftace Picot, was inherited by 
his daughter Lauretta, who married Hugh de Bur- 
delvs, who died about the 3oth of Henry II. The 
family of de Burdelys were allo lords of Seoul ton, 
Congham and Hillingtbn, in Norfolk ; of Mading- 
ley and Comberton, in Cambridgefliire ; and bore 
ermin, on a chief, gules, a lion paflant, or, as ap- 
pears from a roll of king Edward I. knights iu 
C ambridcrefhire. 


John, the laft heir male of this family, died a 
minor, in 1396. 

The church of Grimfton is dedicated to St. Bo- 
tolph, and is a rectory. Near" two hundred acres 
of glebe are faid to belong to this rectory, with a 
manor, lete, and a fheep walk. 

The church is a regular pile, with a nave, two 
ifles, and a chancel covered with lead ; a large four- 
fquare tower, and five bells. 

The patronage of this church is in the matter 
and fellows of Queen's college. The Rev. Mr. 
Cowper, prefident of that college, was the late rec- 
tor : he fucceeded the Rev. Morley Unwin, who likewife prefident of Queen's, and was killed 
by a fall from his horfe as he was riding out to take 
the air> in the ftrect of Godmanchefter near Hunt- 
ingdon, where he was lecturer, and kept a fchool 
with much reputation. 

In i 703 here was a fchool, endowed with a houfe 
and 2ol. per ann. by the gift of. William Brage, tic], 
of Hatfield Peverell in Elfex, lord of Grimflon. 



This town is wrote in Doomfday-book, Grimef- 
. tuna, Grunefluna, and - Ernefluna, and takes its 
name from a rivulet that arifes by the church. 

The rivulet aforcfaid arifes on the north fide of 
the church-vard, from which it is -parted by. a litdc 
road, in a bottom, where it makes a little pool, arid 
runs hence to Lynn. 

Grimflon is to the eaft of Lynn about fever; 

HARPLEY, is fituated on a pleafing eminence, 
within a mile of Houghton-hall, the magnificent 
feat of the earl of Orford. The church affords a 
beautiful profpecl, or landfcape at a diftance, being 
built on a hanging hill, and feen at fome diftance. 

This town was one of thofe granted by the Con- 
queror to William, de Warren. 

CALTHORPE'S MANOR. In the jyth of Edward 
II. fir Walter de Cahhorpe was lord, and held here, 
in Fulmondefton, Hackford and Burnham, five fees 
and' an half of the earl of Pembroke, of the caftlc 
of Acre j but in the get of Edward III. fir William 
cle Cahhorpe, knt. of Burnham Thorpe, fettled it 
on himfelf for life, and Walter his fon, and Alice 
liis wife, in tail ; remainder on his younger ions, 
John, Oliver, William, Sec. 

In 1360 fir Oliver cle Cahhorpe was lord and in 
the i4th of Henry VII. Clement Anger had it in 
farm, of fir Philip Callhorpe: in this family it con- 
tinued, till Elizabeth, filler and heir of Philip Cal- 
thorpe, efq. and only daughter of fir Philip, brought 
it by marriage to iir Henry Parker, who had livery 
MS Of 


of it in the 3d of Edward VI. Sir Calthorpe Par- 
ker died pofiefled of it in the igth of James I. and 
fir Philip his fon fucceeded him. 

From the Calthorpes, after many defcents, it 
came to the earl of Orford. 

GOURNEY'S MANOR. This manor in the reign of 
Henry II. came into the family of the Gourneys. 

Sir John de Gourney was lord in the reign of 
Henry JL 

John Gourney, efq. of Hartley, releafed in the 
ad of Henry IV. to Hugh Bavent, all his right in a 
mcfiuagc, and forty-lour acres of land in this towri- 
fhip, formerly Alice Bevant's, wife of Richard Be- 
vant, and died in the gth of the faid king. 

The Gourneys remained in pofleflion till the reign 
of Henry VII. 

The Curfons enjoyed it in the reign of queen 
Elizabeth; from the Curlons it came to the Yelver- 
tons, and fir William Yelverton, bart. fold it about 
1642, to John Walpolc, ciq. of Bromeflhcrpe, who 
married Abigail, daughter and heir of Froximcr 
Corbet, pf Bromeflhorpe. 

This John was brother of Robert Walpole, efq. 
of Houghton in Norfolk, and father of fir Edward 
WaJpofe, knight of the bath, who inherited it as 
heir to his uncle John ; and in this family it re- 
mains, the earl of Oriord being the prefent lord. 

UPHALL MANOR. In the gd of Edward I. Laur- 
ence de Manors was lord, and had a lete belonging 



to him, for which he paid eightteen-pence to the lord 
of the hundred : he was fucceeded by his fon William 
de Manors, who with Margaret his wife, was living 
in the 351.11 of that king. 

After this, by a deed dated November 26, in the 
i8th of Edward II. at Harpley, Walter fon of Ro- 
bert de Meleford, grants to his lord, fir John de 
Gourney, re<fior*of the church of Harpley, his mef- 
fuage called Uphall, with all the homages, and fer- 
vices of his free tenants, view of frank-pledge, free 
bull and boar, all perquifites of court, and all other 
liberties late Ralph's, fon of Walter de Manors, 
with wards, reliefs, efcheats, &c. with all the lands 
that Mariona, late wife of the faid Walter, holds for 
life, being of his right and inheritance ; and all the 
tenements which fir Henry de Walpole, knt. God- 
frey fon of Acelina de Harplee, and Thomas Elwyn, 
of Houghton, hold ojf the faid Mariona, during her 
life, and which, after lier deceafe, ought to defcend 
to the faid Walter and his heirs, the faid John de 
Goumey paying one clove per arm. \VitnefTes, fir 
Henry de Walpole, Thomas de Eeltham, Edmund 
Laurence, Oliver de Maffingham, Ralph de WaI- 
fmgham, William de Harplee. 

And the faid manor, tenements, See. were by deed 
of the faid John de Gourney, dated on Monday the 
fie aft of St. Thomas the Apoflle, in the 6th year of 
king Edward III. granted to his nephew, John de 
Gourney, and Jane his wife, and their heirs. 

Here is an annual fair kept on the 25th of July, 
granted in the 35th of Edward I. to John de Gour- 
ney, lord, patron and relor of the town j and it 
belongs to the redor for the time being. 


The church is dedicated to St. Laurence the Mar-* 
tyr, and is a.reclpry. 

The church has a nave, a north and fouth ifle, 
and a chancel ; and was built by fir Robert Knowls, 
a famous general in the reigns of Edward IIL and 
Richard II. in the wars in France ; who was knight 
of the garter, aud bore gules, on a chevron, argent, 
three roies of the firft, which arms are painted on 
fcreens on the left hand as you enter the chanc 
and en the right hand argent, a fefs dauncy, be- 
tween three leopards faces, fable, the arms of fir 
Robert s wife, probably a Beverley. 

In the windows of die church were the arras of 
Gourney, argent, a crois, ingrailed, gulea ; of B 

Cngboume, gyrony of eight, or, and azure ; of 

Noiers, vairy, argent and gules ; of Calihorpe, 

checque, or, and azure, a fefs, ermine. 

On the pavement of the chancel lies an old mar-r 
ble grave-florie, whereon was the portraiture or c . 
gies of a pricft, with two fhields and a rim of brafs, 
now torn otF : by the iiicifion of the ftone made to 
let the letters in on the rim, it appears jo be Hie 
jacet corpus Johis dt Gournar, qucnda retforis tt patro- 
xi htijus cctlcjic. cuj; aic. fpitidur Dcus t Amen. ^Hc 
died rector in the 6th of Edward III. 

Hie jacet Hcnricus Cclmcm, S. T. P, Rcf: - 
Harplcr, et Fculfnam in agro MarfoU. Jilius Ricardi 
Cobnan, armigtri, et Anna uxoris Jiuf, Jilitf Edwardi \ 
fydt dt Hatch in com. WyU. S. T. /*, vir admodum 
vcvcrtiidus, btncvoleiitia, literis, ct pictatc egregic c;. 
*<mo die men/is Oft. ap. 1715. 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. i6l 

In the upperraoft window but one of the north 
ifle, was the hiflory of St. Laurence, painted on the 
glafs, as appears from forae fragments, and the in- 
iignia of that faint, a grid-iron, or. 

The earl of Orford is the chief proprietor of this 
pariili : the college of Chrifl College hold fome 
lands in this as well as many other pariflies in this 
county, which are upon leafe to the prefect earl of 


Henry Bland, D. D. dean of Durham, held thi* 
living, with that of Great Bircham, from the year 
1715 to the year 1744, when he refigned it, and the 
Rev. Horace Hamond, D. D. was inftituted on the 
prefentation of the late earl of Orford, and is the 
prefem reaor. 

HILLINGTON. This town is fituated near the 
river, but on the oppofite fide, that rifes in the 
fprings of Flitchain abbey, and derives its name from. 
that circumftance of lying near the water. In 
Doomfday-book it is called Helingetuna. 

Sir Martin Folkes, bait, has a feat here, -which 
he has lately much improved, and it is now equal 
to moft of the family, feats in this county. The 
gardens are planted with the choiceft trees, and the 
hot walls and pinery being finiflied in much tafte an4 
propriety, produce annually great quantities of fruic 
3nd grapes in the higheft perfection. 

AUBYN'S, or ALBON'S MANOR. In the 25th of 
Edward I. Robert, fori of Albon, of Stamford, con- 
v eyed by fine to John, (fon of Albon of Stamford) 
of Hillington, and Sibill his wife, lands and meflu* 

s:es here. 



In the 2 8th of that king, John AJbon or Aubyn, 
and Sibill his wife, had conveyed to them by a fine, 
from Sarah, daughter of Richard de Merley, lands, 
Sec. in Hillington, with the moiety of the advowfon 
of the church. 

From this Jonn Albon the manor feems to take 
its name; and in the scl of Edward III. a fine was 
levied between John Aubyn of Hillington and Mar- 
garet his wife, and Vincent, fon of Philip of Wood- 
Norton, of meffuages and lands here, and in Cong- 
ham, with the advowfon of a moiety of this church, 
fettled on John, Sec. in tail. 

In 1412, this manor was in the family of Irming- 
land, and after this it came to the lord Scales ; and 
in the igth of Edward IV. it defcended to John de 
Vere, earl of Oxford, in right of Elizabeth his mo- 
ther, daughter and heir of John Howard, efq. grand- 
fan and heir to fir Robert Howard and Margaret his 
wife, daughter and heir of Robert lord Scales; 
which John dying without iflue, was fucceeded by 
his nephew, John Vere earl of Oxford, who left on 
his death, in 1526, his three fitters, Urfula, married 
to fir Edward Knightly ; Dorothy, to John Nevill 
lord Latimer; arid Elizabeth, to fir Anthony Wing- 
field, his co-heireiTcs. 

Urfula having no iffue, this lordfhip came to the 
lords Latimers, and the W 7 ingfields family ; and foon 
after the lord Latimer conveyed his moiety to the 
\Vingfields ; and fir Robert Wingfield had livery of 
it about the ift of queen Elizabeth ; and in the 241!! 
of the faid queen conveyed it to William Walpolc, 
cfq. who had in the faid year a pardon for purcha- 
ung it without licence ; and wa* luld by the execu- 

OF F R E E B R I D G E. 163 

tors of the faid William, to Richard Hovell, efq. 
who prefented to the church as lord in 1610. 

In this family it- continued many years, and on 
the death of fir William Hovell, km. it came to 
his three daughters and co-heirs, and their defcend- 


Martin Folkes, efq. by the marriage of the fe- 
cond daughter and co-heir, had an intereft in it, as 
his fon Martin had, on whole death it came to his 
brother, William Folkes, efq. and his ion fir Mar- 
tin Folkes, bart. is the prefent lord. 

nor of Uphall was formerly granted to the conven- 
tual church of Campfey priory in Suffolk. 

On the diffolution it was granted to John Eyre, 
efq. by king Henry VIII. on February 20, in his 
36th year, from whom it came to the family of 
Stede. William Stede, and William Play foot held 
it in the 4th of Elizabeth, 

William, fon and heir of William, was lord of 
Uphall and Hillington (and it extended into Flitch- 
am, Congham, Grimfton and Roydon) in the 21 ft 
of Elizabeth, Playfoot conveying his right to Willi- 
am Stede in the 6th of the faid queen ; and W r illiam 
Stede his fon, by his will dated April 23, 1613, be- 
queathed it to Thomas his fon. It was after united 
to the other lordfhip. 

The manor of Netherhall was poflefTed by Wil- 
liam Barker, gent, of Edgefield, in queen Elizabeth's 
reign, and purchafed of him by Richard Hovell, 
efq. and fo it came to fir Martin Folkes, bart. the 
prefent lord. 



BURY'S HALL was purchafed of William Walpole. 
cfq. by Richard Hoveil, efq. and fo became united 
to the other lordfhips Jield by fir Martin Folkes, bait; 
the prefent lord. 

WEST DEREHAM MANOR was alfo purchafed about 
1580, of William Walpole, efq, by Richard Wai- 
pole, efq, 

Warren and Surry, gave in the reign of Henrv II. 
two pans of the tithe of his fee to Caftlc-acre pri- 

There is alfo another manor in this parifh, of 
which fir James Johnftone, bart, is the prefent lord, 
in right of his lady, the widow of the Rev. Mr. 

Sir James has built a feat on the top of a hill in 
this parifh, which commands a mod extenfive fUAiH 
peel over Lynn channel and to the Britifh oceai 
and north, and over all the country to the fo 
far as Downham, ten miles to the fouthward oH 

The family of Hoveil is of great antiquity. RicW 
ard Hoveil held of Baldwin, abbot of Bury, in the* 
time of the Conqueror, a lordfliip at Wivt 
in Suffolk ; and five free men held lands un< . 
faid Richard. 

Sir John Hovell, of Wratting Parva in Suffolk, 
was living in 1370. 

William Hovell, of Rifhangles in Suffolk, 
i !43;ji ^ by Beatrix his wife, daughter of fir 


OF F R E B R I D G . 165 

John Thorpe, of Afliwell Thorpe, was father of 
Richard Hovell, who married Frances, daughter of 
Arthur Hopton, efq. of Weflwood in Suffolk, wi- 
<low of fir Thomas Nevill, and left William his fon 
and hdr, of Afhfield in Suffolk, who died July 7, 
15 ',-! By Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Rowland 
Huriike, of Ldpham, efq. he was father of William 
Hovell, of Aihtleld, who married Ann, daughter of 
Thomas Gawdy, of Harlefton, efq< and Ann Ba- 
fmgborne his wife, by whom he had a fon, William, 
of Stratfield-hall in Hadleigh, Suffolk, who tooK to 
wife Ann, daughter of Richard Turner, of Norton. 

. The church is a fingle pile; that and the chancel 
; are covered with tile, and has a fcmaie tower, with 
one bell. 

'V-'-U 1 * 
Oil the north wall of the chancel is a mural mo- 

j mmient, with the effigies of a gentleman in his 
gown, and his wife, on their knees, thus iufcribed : 

T"/ie monument of Ricliard Hovell, of Hillington- in- 
the countie of Norfolk, Efq; being of the age of 77 
years and upwards, finiflied his courfe' the 30^/1 of No- 
vember, 1611, in peace with God, in chanty with all 
men, and now rejlejt here with expectation of the Refur- 
reciicn, in ajfurance of eternal glorification. Margery 
L -fi^dl, wife of the ajorejaid Richard Hov'cll, Efq ; de~ 
\ eeafed, and one of the daughters and heyres of John 
Ford, of Prating, in the wuntie of EJJex, Efq; who 
htfunig lyved vertuoufly and comfortably with her faid 
hujband, 44 years, did btare. unto him 4 founts and 9 
daughters, whereof there are yet twdve alive to her 
great comfort, being all growne to the perfecl jlate of 
, -men and women. On the fummit is the fhield of 
Hovell, fable, a crefcent, or, impaling Ford, argent, 
a, wolf falient, fable. 



On another mural monument are the effigies of a 
man in armour, and his wife, kneeling at a defk, 
with the arms of Hovell, and Ford, quarterly, im- 
paling, or, on a bend, vert, three bucks heads, ca- 
bofhed, argent, Fernley. 

At the north eaft comer of the chancel is an altar 
tomb of marble, and iron rails before it, with the 
arms of Folkes, vert, a fleur de lis ; and Hovell, in 
an efcutcheon of pretence : the creft, an arm ereft, 
holding a fpear. 

Here lyes the body of Martin Folkes, late, of Hilling* 
ton, in the county of Norfolk, Efq who was born the 
sSth day of Augujl, 1640, and died the 17 th day of 
February, 1705. 

On a grave-ftone Lillius Hovell, Jilius Guli. Ho- 
veil militis, et uxoris ejus, Etheldrcdtf, obt. die Maij 
Ao. Domi. 1664, atatis fua die 24/0. 

Thomas, the fecond fon of Sir Will. Hovell, and 
.Dame Ethcldreda his wife, born the lajl day of Febr.' 
1667, and died the ith day of October, 1668. 

flic jacet corpus Gulielmi Hovell, militis, qui obt. 4 
die Martij, ao. 1669, atatis fu<s 33 ; and the arms 
of Hovell. 

William Pojlhumus, the younger fon of Sir William 
Hovell, knight, and Dame Ethcldreda his wife, born the 
8 of Augujt, 1670, and dyed the 12 of April, 1671. 

Maria conjux Johis. Novell, rctforis hujus ecclefia, 
obt. Nov. 28, 1706. 

Richard Hovell, Efq; fon to Sir Richard Havell, 
of Hillington, died Qttr. 23, in 1715, aged 70. 



OF F R E E B R I D G E. 167 

There are elegant marble monuments in the chan- 
eel to the memory of fir William Browne, knt. and 
lady Browne ; and to the memory of the fate Wil- 
liam Folkes, efq. and his lady, daughter of fir Wil- 
liam and lady Browne, mother to fir Martin Folkes, 
bait, the prelent lord of the manor. 

The prefent reclor of Hillington is the Rev, Wil- 
liam Nelfon, prefemed in 1758 by fir Simeon Stu- 
art, bart. The next prcfentation is in fir Martin 




NEAR the mouth of the Great Oufe, and the 
wafhes, called ALftuarium Metaris, probably 
from the Britifli word Makraith, according to Cam- 
den, a name by which the Britons called fuch /Eftu- 
aries or Tides in other places, and importing no 
more than an uncertain ./Efluary or Tide, Hands 

In the book of Doomfday this town is wrote Le- 
na and Lun. Camden was of opinion, that it took 
its name from its fpreadiiig waters, that being im- 
plied in the Britifh word Lhyn ; but Spclmau af- 
lirrns that the right name is Len, from Len in Saxon, 
a farm or tenure in fee ; f'o Fandhen among the Ger- 
mans, is the tenure or fee of a baron, and Len 
ptfcopi is the bifhop's farm : We have no doubt that 
thii is the true derivation of ihe name to this cele- 


brated town. Spelman farther obferves, that tlitf 
word Len is ufed alfo in a more limited fenfe by" 
the Saxons to fignify church lands, and appeals to 
the feveral names of places wherein that fcrJe of 
the word holds ; and farther Ter-lkn in the Welch 
language is Terra Ecdefice, or land belonging to the 

Gamden was of opinion that the town was not of 
fcny antiquity, but fprung out of the ruins of what 
is called Old Lynn, or Weft Lynn, which lies on 
the weft and oppofite fide of the great river Oufe, 
and, with fir Henry Spelman, fuppofes it to be call- 
ed in the time of the Saxons, Maydenburgh, im- 
poiting, the Maiden's Iknvre, Virginh Sacrarium ef 
velut Thdlamus, the chapel, or retiring place of the 
virgin, that is, of St. Margaret the Virgin, the tute- 
lar faint or patronefs of the town. 

Etymologifts have been very deficient on this fub-f 
jecl : they relate that this town aflumed its name 
from the head of one of thofc eleven thoufand vir- 
gins, or maidens heads, who fuffercd with St. Ur- 
iula, which head was had in great veneration anJ 
worfhipped in the faid town of Maidenhead : but 
Sirmondus, a learned jefuit, has expofed this {laid 
monkifh tradition and ficlion, and flicwn that Urfular 
and Undccimilla were two virgin faints.and martyrs, 
and the name of Undecimilla came through the ig- 
norance of fome tranfcriber to be wrote and changed 
into Undccon Millia, that is in Englifh, eleven thou- 
fand ; and thtls by one flroke of the pen fo great X 
number of virgins were canonized. 

The name of this town is not only a proof of its 
antiquity, but the principal lordfhip of the town 
coiiiums it, which wus at the furvey, and in the 1 



feign of the Confeflbr, in the fee of Elmham, or the 
Eafl Angles. What king gave it to that fee, does 
not appear, but it is highly probable that Felix, the 
firft bifhop of the Eaft Angles, was in pofTeffion of 
it and of Elmham about the year 630, and Bedvvin 
was bifliop of Elmham in 673. 

That its fituation anfwers its name and derivation 
appears from its real fcite, on a great level or Hut 
filty foil, clofe to the eaft fide of the great river Oufe, 
which brings with it to this port, from its rife in 
North amptonfhire, the waters of Buckingham, Bed- 
ford, Huntingdon and Cambridgefhire, with thofe of 
Norfolk and Suffolk, and empties itfelf below this 
port into the great Britifh ocean. 

The river Nar, or Sechy river, falls alfo into the 
Oufe near the fouth gates of Lynn^ 

The river that comes from Afhwicken, Minding, 
Sec. runs crofs the town, and empties itfelf at Lady 
Bridge, as does the river from Gay ton and Lefiate, 
by Purflcet Bridge. 

To this we may add that the fea meeting all thefe 
waters with great rage' and violence on- fpring tides 
and tempefluous, windy weather forces them back, 
and at times occafions inundations, and more fre- 
quently in former times, before the many banks, 
mounds, 8cc. were raifed, which now guard and 
defend it, which if removed or neglected, would re- 
duce it to its original ftate, and render it again as a 
pool or lake, 

The country alfo on the weft fide of the Oufe', 

called Marfhland, is fubjecl from its fcite, furround- 

ed on every fide with water, to be overflowed both 

N by 


by frefh and fait waters. Before the year 1-181, it 
was fo drowned, that there was no dwelling-houfe, 
or land, that any profit could be made of in the 
town of Wiggenhall St. Mar)- Magdalen, from Buf- 
tard Dole to the fouthern bounds or end of it, except 
the monaftery or hermitage of Crabhoufe, or Crab- 
Oufe, but all was a fea. 

The river Nene alfo ufed to flow direclly from 
Peterborough to Lynn ; and in the c>d of king Ed- 
ward III. it was found to do fo, till Walter de 
Langton, bifhop of Litchfield and Coventry, lord 
treafiirer to king Edward I. had twenty-eight years 
laft paft flopped up the paflagc of it at Upwell, to 
drain his manor of Coldham ; the waters that then 
bounded Lynn were called the waters of Lynn, and 
the marfhes on that fide, as far as Weft Walton, 
were called the marfhcs of Lynn. 

In the i ith year of king Edward II. a commifTion 
of Sewers was directed to John de Ingaldeflhorpe, 
and Richard de Walfmgham, reciting that in South 
Lynn, above five hundred marks damage was done, 
on account of the defecl of gutters, fewers and drains ; 
and in the nth of Edward III. the faid townfliip 
was greatly damaged and impoverifhed, by inunda- 
tions from the fea, and the lofs in the country about 
Lynn was fo great, that the king in companion re- 
mitted their taxes. 

In the 2d of Richard II. a commiffion was di- 
rected to William Ufford, earl of Suffolk, &c. on 
complaint of the towns of Wiggenhall, Iflington, 
Tilney, Clenchwarton, Watlington, Run&on, Holme, 
Setchy and Weft Winch, that the river Oufe, which 
ran through thofe townfhips into the fea, and was 
within thirty years paft not above twelve perches 



broad, by the breaches in, and decay of the banks, 
was growmfto the breadth of a mile ; upon which, 
by an inquifition at Wiggenhall, it was found that the 
banks on both fides of the faid river were fo much 
broken, that not only thofe townfhips, but alfo South 
Lynn and Hardwick were in danger of being de- 
ftroyed: and in 1570, on the ad and gd of O6io- 
ber, all Marfhland was fo drowned by the fea wa- 
ters, that there were not ten rods of whole fea bank 
from Old or Weft Lynn to Magdalen Bridge in 
Wiggenhall; and on November i, 1613, the fea 
broke in with fuch violence on Marfhland, that the 
damage was euimatcd at thirty-fevcn thoufand eight 
hundred and fixty-two pounds, and many inundati- 
ons have been fince that time. 

On the fouth-eaft parts of this town, from the 
hamlet of Hardwick, (which fignifies a turn of wa- 
ter at the point of hard land) to the fouth gates of 
Lynn, is railed a long and broad fubftamial caufe- 
way over the marfli, as a fecurity (as well as a road) 
againft the waters on that iide; and between Hard- 
wick and Weft Winch is a confiderable ditch and 
bank (antiently called Green Dike) joining to the 
aforefaid caufevvay ; and like banks, See. may be ob- 
ferved to the call and north-eaft parts of the faid 
town, as far as Gaywood bridge. 

Such a fituation as this was particularly made 
choice of, on account of the difficulty of accefs in 
time of danger, or approach of an enemy; being 
eafily fortified and defended: and on account of 
trade, eafe and convcniency of importing and ex- 
porting all manner of goods and merchandife, to and 
from foreign countries. Such a fituation as this, 
Camillus, the Roman Dictator, applauded and boaft- 
cd of in his fpeech to the citizens of Old Rome, 
N 3 and 


and encouraged them to keep poffefTion of it, and 
not to defert it, when the Gauls had "Sicked it. 
Non fine, cauja Dij, Homittejq; hunc urbi condendce lo- 
cum elegemnt, Jlwnen tnim opportunum, quo ex mediter- 
rarifis locisfruges devebantur, quo maritimi commeatns ac- 
cipiantur. Mare vicinum ad eommoditates, nee expojilum 
nimia propinquitate ad pcriculum dajjium exteraram. 

Having thus treated on the name and fcite of this 
burgh, the next particular that offers itfelf, will be 
to confider the ancient tenures or lordfliips of it ; 
the moil ancient and authentic account of this is 
from the Conqueror's book of Doomfday, made in 
the year 1085, at which time, and in the Confeflbr s, 
this town, with the townfhips or hamlets of Weft, 
North and South Lynn, we find to be all included 
under the general name of Lena, and Lun, the dif- 
tinclion of Weft, North and South not being till 
fome centuries after, as will appear under the hiftory 
of thofe places. 

In this moft valuable book we leam, that Ralph, 
lord Tony, had a lordfhip in Lena, which Harold 
held in king Edward's time, and which he loft wirii 
his crown at the battle of Haftings ; this was South 

Ralph, lord Baynard, had in Lena a lordfhip-; 
this was alfo in South Lynn, and extended into the 
other hamlets. 

Hermer de Ferrari] s had in Lun a lordfhip ; this 
was in Weft Lynn, and alfo extended into the other 

Rainald, fon of Ivo, had a lordfhip in Lena, 
which extended into all the hamlets, 



The abbot alfo of Bury had in Lena a lordfhip j 
this was North Lynn. 

Thefe are the only lordfliips (with fome few par- 
ticulars that are to be found relating to them) that 
occur under the name of Lena, or Lun. 

But none of thefe lords were the chief, or capital 
lords of that part of Lena or Lynn which is now 
called the burgh : the two great lords of that, in 
the Gonfeffor's reign, were Agelmare bifhop of Elm- 
ham, as lord of Gaywood, in right of that fee, and 
Stigand, as lord of the manor of Rifing, and of 
the hundred of Freebridge, which Stigand was arch- 
bifhop of Canterbury, but held this and many more 
lordfliips in his own right, as a lay fee. Agelmare 
and Stigand are not exprefsly named under the 
name of Lena, to be lords of the town, though Sti- 
gand is mentioned to have the fuc of the lordfliips 
of Ralph loid Baynard, Hermer de Ferrarijs, and 
Rainold, fort of Iva, probably as lord of the hun- 
dred : and the reafon of their not being mentioned 
as lords of this part, (the burgh part) is, becaufe 
that was included, valued and accounted for under 
the lordfliips of Gaywood and Rifing, and the burgh 
part was as beruites, or little manors, depending 
on thofe great and capital ones, which extended in- 
to that part. Many towns are not mentioned in the 
book of Doomfday, which has induced hiftorians 
to conclude, that they were not in being at that 
time, and has been the occalion of great miftakes, 
they not reflecting on the true end and defign of the 
book, which was to fet forth every tenure, under 
the capital manor to which it belonged, in the town 
where that capital manor had its icite : fo that the 
town wherein fuch a tenure lay is not often men- 
tioned, aud when it is, it is named to be a beruita 
N 3 to 


to the faid capital manor. Many examples of this 
are to be found, and fuch is the cafe now before us. 

LYNN BISHOP'S MANOR. One part or moiety, at 
leaft, if not more, was, as we have obferved, in 
Agelmare, or Ailmar, bifhop of Eimham, a Saxon 
married prelate, in the time of king Edward the Con- 
feiTor, in right of his capital manor of Gaywood, 
which extended into this town, and being deprived 
of his fee of Eimham, of which Gaywood was a 
member, in 1070, was fucceeded by Herfaft, or 
Arfaft, who removed his fee from Eimham to Thet- 
ford, and was lord. On whole death William de 
Beau foe was preferred to it, and was bifhop when 
the grand furvey was made, in 1085, when it ap- 
pears from the laid book, that he was lord of Gay- 
wood, and confequently of this manor, in right of 
his fee of Thetford. Herbert his fucceffor tranflated 
the fee to Norwich, and on his foundation of the 
priory of the Holy Trinity in his church of Nor- 
wich in 1101, gave the church of Lynn, with a 
manor, all his {alt-works, and marfhes, at Gaywood 
and Lynn, to the priory aforciaid, to hold them as 
freely, quit and exempt of all cuftoms and fen-ices, 
,as he himfelf, Arfaft and William, his predeceffors, 
enjoyed them; and erected alfo a priory as a cell to 
that of Norwich, on the fouth fide of St. Margaret's 
church which he had built. 

That it was a place of trade and confequence, 
before and in the reign of the Conqueror, and the 
capital manor in Lena, appears from its enjoying 
the privilege of certain duties and cuftoms, with a 
toll-booth in this town, and before the Norman con- 
queft, payable on the arrival of any goods or mer- 
chandiles by fca or land; and the bifhop was then 
in full poffeilion of a moiety, which the Conqueror 



on his deprivation feized on, and gave to his bro- 
ther Odo, bifliop of Baieux in Normandy .; and on 
his rebellion againft king William II. that king 
granted it to William de Albini, his butler, called 
Pincerna Regis. How long before this the bifhops 
of Elmham enjoyed this, we cannot determine, or 
when they had the firft grant of this manor, but it 
is highly probable, it was very early in the Saxon 
age ; and at that time they had the grant of the 
towns of Dunwich and Elmham, about the year 
630, and Bedwin on a divifion of the fee of Dun- 
wich, held the fee of Elmham in 673. 

William of Newburgh, whey lived in the reign of 
Richard I. calls Lynn Urbs commeatu tt commercijs no- 
biiis, a city noble or of note, for its trade and com- 
merce ; and the Jews, a people in all ages famous 
on this account, had great numbers (as he relates) 
of them fettled here, and being enraged on the con- 
verfation of one of their body to Chriiiianity, they 
let upon him, in order to have flain him ; who, to 
prevent it, took fancluary in a church : they broke 
open the doors, and would have taken him out by 
force. On this noife and uproar a number of the 
Chriitians came to his refcue, but the inhabitants 
being in fear of the king, who had taken the Jews 
under his protection, acled on the referve ; on which 
many young ftrangers and foreigners, who were in 
the town on account of their trade, fell on the 
Jews, killed feveral of them,, burnt and plundered 
their houfes, and thefe foreigners, to avoid the king's 
anger, took lliipping diredly with their fpoil. At this 
day there is a ftreet called from them, Jews Street, 
where they lived together : they had then great, in- 
dulgences, which they paid the government for; 
bought houfes and lands, which rendered them hated 
by the natives and Chriitians ; and in many ancient 



deeds may be feen a form of warranty againft fell- 
ing land, &:c. to them, viz. Et cuicunq; dare, vcn* 
dere, ft ajjignart voluent, praterquam domuj religiojas 
'ft Judaifmo, vd Judais. 

John de Grey, bifhop of Norwich in the year 
1 204, being defirous of poflefling thofe lands, pri- 
vileges, &c. in this town, which Herbert his prede- 
ceffor, Sec. had conveyed to the priory of Norwich, 
made an exchange with them ; and the priory re- 
igned to him and his fucceflbrs, all their rights and 
profits in the fairs of Lynn and Gaywood, and all 
their rents and perquifites which they had in Lynn, 
or without. 

And the faid bifhop by another deed, then dated, 
appropriated to the faid priory the church of St. 
Margaret, with all its fpiritualities, tithes, oblations 
.and obventions, with the chapels of St. Nicholas 
and St. James ; alfo the church of Minding, with 
all its appurtenances ; with ail the tithe belonging 
to the demean lands of his lordfhip of Gaywood ; 
on condition that they take care to have the faid 
churches and chapels ferved by their chaplains, to 
be removed or admitted, on any juft caufe, at the 
will of the bifhop ; and that it fliould be lawful for 
him only to ere& any chapel in the aforefaid pa- 
rifhes, and if any was erected, the priory fhould 
have the fole profit of it. 

The town by this exchange being for the greatefl 
part again in the bifhops of Norwich, obtained the 
name of Biihop's Lynn, and was fo called in all 
deeds and writings, till alienated to the crown in 
the reign of king Henry VIII. , 



This bifhop, John de Grey, built a ftately palace 
at Gay wood, and having certified to king John the 
exchange made between him and the priory of Nor- 
wich, he obtained a grant from the king of a free 
burgh for this town. 

The king in his charter fets forth, " That on the 
" requeft of John, the fecond of that name, bifhop 
" of Norwich, he had granted that the village of 
" Lenn fliould be a free burgh for ever, and have 
" all the liberties and free cuftoms, which free 
*' burghs have in all refpecls, faving to that bifliop 
" and his fucceffors, and to William earl of Arun- 
" del and his heirs, thofe liberties and cuftoms, 
" which they Jiave of old held in the laid village, 
" Sec." 

JOANNES Dej gratia, be. rNoveritis Nos ad in- 

Jlantiam, et pelitionem venerabilis pairis no/tri, Job. 

Norwic. Epifci. Jccundi, concejjijfc, et hac p" fenii char- 

ta no/Ira coit/irmajje, qd. villa de Lenn, Jit liber Burgus 

in pcrpetuum, et habcat omnes libertates et liberas conjuc- 

(udutes quas liberj biirgi habcnt in omnib; falvis ipjo 

Epijc . et Jucceffor. fuis, et Will . Comitj Arundcl, et 

ha-cdib. Juis, liber tdtib; et ccnfuetudinib ; quas ipfi in 

p'dicJa villa antiquttus habuerunt. Quart volumus, et 

Jinniter p'cipimus qd. fidifla villa de Lenn, fit liber 

Burgus in p 1 petuum, et habcat omnes liber tales et con- 

Juetudines hberas quas liberi burgi nojtri habent in omni* 

bus, bent, et in pace, libere et quiete et integre, pUnaric 

ct honorijice, ficut p'ditfum eft. 

It is to be obferved here, that as the king had by 
charter granted Lynn to be a free burgh, fo it was 
neceflary that the bifhop, as lord of the burgh, 
fliould do the fame, and was undoubtedly obliged 
alfo to certify his confent, and approve of the fan;e. 



The following is the charter of John de Grey, 
bifhop of Norwich, to the burgeffes of Lynn. 

CHART A Jon. LE GREY, Epifci. Norwic. 

OMNIB; ad quos presfens fcriptum p"venerft Jo- 
han. Dei gratia Norvicenf. Epifc. jalut. in Dno. fempi- 
ternam Noverit univerjitas vcjlra nos conceffijje et f 
fentj charta confirmaj/e ville no/ire de Lenn, viz. Toll 
parochie eccl'ie See. Mar garde in eadem villa, etcnmib; 
hominib ; in tad. parochia manentib ; omnes ct eafdem h~ 
lertates quas habent burgenjcs de Oxeneford, quia Domi- 
nus Rex nolis p. char tarn Juam concej/it, ut di^crcmiis 
burgum in Anglia quern cunq; vdlcmus, ut eafdem hber~ 
tales quas fatrgus ille habet, haberet ct villa nojlra dc 
Lenna, et nos elegimus Oxenefordiam. Et ideo volumtts, 
qd. eadem villa liber fit burgus, et eafdem libertates habf.- 
at, quas habet burgus de Oxeneford in omnib ; falvis no* 
bis et fuccejforibus noflris in perpetuum, omnib; liber ta- 
tib ; et confueiudinib ; quas h'abuimus et habemus in villa 
nojlra de Lenna, fecundum quod charta Dm Regis An- 
glie Johannijt ejlatur, quam nobis fait de libertt,tib ; ei~ 
dem bur go collatis. Qua re volumus et p'cipimtis, nt p'dicli 
Inrgenfes habeant el tencant omnes res et pojfeflioius ft/as 
liber e et quisle, honorijice, plenarie et integre fecundum 
quod Jupradiximus. Hijs tejlib ; Galfrido, Archidiacono 
j\ r orwic. Thome Fratre fuo, Magr. Will , de Lenna, 
Magr. Rob. dc Gloucejlre, Ran , de Harpel, Jordano 
Ctipdlano, Joh. de UJjinch, Hen -Jilio Simeonis, Rob . 
Grey, JVich . de Linfey, Ric. Bajfet, Regin . dc Not- 
tingham, et multis aim Dat. apud London, p. inanum 
Mag. Galfridi de Derham 9. kalend, Apr. Pontifecat^ 
ntijlri A 9 . Quarto. 

To this was the bifhop's feal, his effigies in pon- 
tificalibus, and Joh. Dei gratia, epifcop Norwiccnf. 



the reverfe the Holy Lamb, with the crofs, and 
Eae Agnus Dei qui tollit peccaia mundi. 

Agreeable therefore to this choice, and requeft of 
the bifhop, king John grants what is called the Grand 
Charter of Lynn, in his 6th year, September 14, by 
which it became a free burgh for ever, with foe and 
fac, tholl, theam, infangthief and outfangthief, free 
through all his land and ports, of tolls and tallage, 
paifage, payage, pontage, laftage, lione and Dane- 
geld, and all other cuftoms, excepting th^e liberties 
of the city of London, and from all fuit of country 
or hundred court, for tenures within the burgh of 
Lenn ; an4 that none of them fhould be impleaded 
out of the burgh in any plea, but in thofe of fo- 
reign tenures ; and that all trials of murder fhould 
be in the faid burgh, and the burgefles freed from, 
all trials by combat or duel, and if impleaded in, 
any, except a foreign one, they might traverfe the 
fame, according to the law and cuftom of Oxford j 
that no one fhould have dwelling or entertainment 
there by force, or affignment of the earl marflial; 
that no mifkenning be allowed ; that they keep a 
hu fling court once a week, and have a merchant's 
guild, See. according to that of Oxford, and all pleas 
thereto belonging to be held at Lenn. And if any- 
one throughout all England fliould take toll or cut- 
torn from any burgefs, except the citizens of Lon-r 
don, the provoft of Lenn may recover damages by 
the writ of JVamium. That all merchants whatever 
may come to the faid burgh with their merchandife, 
and depart freely and fafe, having paid the juft cuf- 
toms and dues of the faid burgh ; and no one is to 
offer any injury to, or moleft the faid burgeffes, un- 
der the penalty of ten pounds ; and if the burgefles 
(hould be in any doubt in any point what to do, 
(hey fhould fend mcfTcngers to Oxford, and what the 



burgefTes of Oxford fhould determine, fhould be firm 
and valid, faving to the faid John, bifhop of Nor- 
wich, and his fucceflbrs for ever, and to William 
carl of Arundel, and his heirs, the liberties, &c. 
which they have held, and ought to hold in the faid 
village of Lenn, for ever. 

Witnefles Jeffrey Fitz Piers earl of Effex, Wil- 
liam earl of Salifbury, William Briewer, Thomas 
Baffet, Alan Ballet, Simon de Patefhull, William de 
Cantilupe, James de Poterna, John de Stokes, An-* 
drew de Beaucham. 

Given under the hand of Hugh, archdeacon of 
Wells, at Lutgerfhall, 14 September, anno 6. 

Jfohannis Dei gratia Rex Angl. D'ns. Htb. 

Norm. A quit. Com. Andeg. Archiep. Epifc. Abbat. 
Comit. Baron. Jujiic. Vicccomitib; PrcpoJiUs, Minm 
tt Omn. Ballivis el Fiddib; Juis, Salut. 

*' NOVERITIS NOS ad inflantiam et petidonem 
' venerab. patris noflri J. Norwicenf, Epis. fecundi, 
' conceffirTe et p' fenti charta noftra confinnaffe 
' Burgenfib; de Lenna quod burgus de Lenna fit lib, 
4 burgus in p'petuum, et habeat focc. et face, tholl, 
' theam, iniangenethief et utfangeneth, et quod ipfe 
' per totam terrain hoftram, et per omnes portus ina- 
1 ris quieti fint de tholon. ftallagio, paffagio, paag. 
' pontag. leftag. et de line, et de Daneg. et oinnia 
' alia confuetudine, faiva libertat. civitatis London. 
' et cjd. nullam fcftam comit. vel hundredor. faci- 
' ant de tenuris infra Burgum de Lenna. Conceffi- 
' mus autem eifd. burgenf. ct hac charta nofha con- 
' firmavimus qd. nullus eor. placitet extra Burgum 
'' de Lenna dc ullo placito, pretcrplacita dc tenuris 

" exterioribu^ 


* 4 exterioribus. Conceflimus et eis qtiietantiam mur- 
" dri infra burgum dc Lemia ; et qd. nullus eottim 
" faciat duellum, et qd. de placitis ad coronam p\i- 
" nentib; fe poffint difrntionare fecundum legem et 
" conluetud. Oxori. et qd. infra Burgum p'dift. nc- 
" mo capiat hofpitium p. vim, vel p. libetationem 
" marefcallorum ; et qd. in Burgo illo in nullo pla- 
" cito fit mifkenninga, et qd. hufteng femel tantuin 
" in Edomada teneatttr. Conceflimus etiam eis 
" gildam mercatoriam, et qd. terras et tenuras vadia 
" fua et debita fua omnia jufte habeant quicunq; 
" eis debeat, et de terris fuis et tenuris que infra Bur- 
" gum p'dicl. funt reclum eis teneatur fecund. Ic- 
" gem et confuetud. Burgi Oxon. et de ornnib; de- 
" bitis fuis que accommoda fuerint apd. Lennam, el: 
/' de vadiis ibidem fa&is placita apud Lennam tene- 
" antur; et ii quis in tota Angiia theolon. et con- 
" fuetud. a Burgenf. dc Lenna ceperit, exccpta ut 
" fuperius civitatc London, poflquam ipfe a reclo 
" defecerit, prepofitus de Lenna Namium inde apud 
-" Lennam capiat. Infupcr ad emendation, p'dicli 
" Burgi de Lenne conceffnnus qd. quicunq: merca- 
* tores petierint Burgum de Lenna cum mercato iuo, 
i; de quocunq; loco fuerint, five extranei, five alij 
<: qui de pace noflra fuerint, vel de licentia noflra in 
" terrain noftram venerint, veniant, morentur, etre- 
*' cedantur in falva pace noftra reddendo reclas con- 
" fuetudincs illius Burgi. Prohibcmus ct nequis 
" p'dicl, Burgenfib; injuriam vel dainpnum vel ino- 
" lefliam faciat, fuper forisfacluram decern librarum. 
14 Preterea concemmus eifd. Burgenf. qd. fi de ali- 
" quo judicio dubitaverint vel contcndeiint quid fa- 
" cere debeant, de hoc mittant nuntios fuos Oxon. 
" et qd. inde Burgenf. Oxon. judicaverint, ratum et 
" firmum habeatur. Salvis in p'petuum p'dido J. 
" Norwic. Epifco. ct fuccefs. fuis, et Willo, Go- 
" miti Arundell et hered. fuis, libcrtaiib; et confue-? 

" tud. 


" tud. quad in p'dicla villa de Lenna antiquhus ha- 
" buerunt et habere debuerunt. Quare volumus 
" et firmiter percipimus qd. p'dicli Burgenf. dc Len- 
" na ct heredes eor. hec omnia p'dicta hcreditarie 
' in p'petuum habeant et teneant, bene et in pace, 
" iibere quiete integre plenarie, et honorifice ficut 
*' p'di&um eft. 

" Teftib; Gaufrido Fil. Petri Com. Effcx,- Willo. 
" Com. Sarum. Willo. Brievver, Tho. Baffet,. Si- 
" mone de Patefliull. Willo. de Kauntilup. Jacobo 
" de Potern. J. de Stoke, And. de Bellocampo. 

" Dat. p. manu' Hugonis Archidiac. Wellcnf. 
*' aptid Lutcgarefhal decimo quarto die Septemb. 
" anno regni noftri fexto." 

And what privileges could not this powerful and 
rich prelate obtain of his king, who in his 5th year 
had pawned to him his regalia, the great crown of 
England, the gilt fword, furcoat, tunick and dalma- 
tick of Edward the ConfefTor, with his girdle, fan- 
dais, gloves, fpurs, 8cc. all which he received by 
the hands of John dc Uffbrd, the king's chaplain. 
To this we may add, that all or moft of this king's 
prime minifters were natives of this county. Hubert, 
archbrihop of Canteibury, Sec. was born at Weft 
Dereham; Hubert de Burgh, earl of Kent, lord juf- 
ticiaiy of England, governor of Dover caftle, Sec. 
at Burgh in Flegg hundred, as was his brother Jef- 
irev, bifhop of Ely ; and John de Brancafter, and 
Jeffrey Fitz Pier, earl of Efiex, judiciary of Eng- 
land, Sec. was founder of Shouldham abbey. 

The town of Lynn had alfo the privilege of coin- 
ing money. How long it held this privilege is not 
clear. King Edward III. in his 1 8th year, reduced 



to the ftandard of the Tower of Lon- 
don, and enjoined all other mints to take their coin- 
ing tools or {lamps from the Tower, allowing them 
but one pound and five fhillings profit in the coin- 
age of one hundred pounds, fo that other mints grew 
weary, and left it off; and probably from this time 
the mint here became ufelefs. 

Hiflorians differ much in their opinions as to the 
king who firft granted to the borough of Lynn the 
honour of a mayor; forne afferting that it was king 
John, others that it was his fucceifor Henry III. Jt 
is certain the firft or chief magiftrate of Lynn, while 
under the bifhop, till the reign of king John was a 
pr<zp(>fi(us or provoft, but that there was a mayor in 
the reign of king John is equally as certain, as ap- 
pears by his letters patent, dated June 7, 1216, ht 
the 1 8th year of his reign, at the Devizes in Wilt- 
Ihire, directed 

"To (he Mayor and good men of Lynn. 

At what time king John granted their charter ii 
not with certainty known : thefe letters are however 
a iufiicient proof, that king John was the king that 
granted this honour, and not king Henry III. and. 
that it was a mayor town of fome continuance i 
the year 1233. 

King John underwent great diftrefies for the fpace 
of above four months before his death, flying froia 
one place of defence to another for refuge, in eonflant 
dread and fear of his rebellious barons, being truely 
pcrfecuted and hunted by them, as a partridge pn 
the mountains : taken from the authority of the pa-* 
tent rolls. 



On the 3d of June, in his iSth year, 1216, he 
was at Winchcfter; on the 7th at Lutgerfhall in 
Wiltfhire ; at the Divizes in Wiltfhire on the fame 
dav, as by his patent to the mayor of Lynn above- 
mentioned, alfo an the gth ; at Wilton the i4th, at 
Sherminfter the 150*1, and at Bere in Dorfetfhire the 
soth ; at Corf Caftle the 24th of June and 4th of 
July: at Warham July 7, at Corf Caftle the i6th; 
at Hay, on the edge of Brecknockfhire in Wales, 
and Hereford the 21 ft, at Hereford the 301)1, and at 
Lempftcr the 3ift ; at Blaunchminfter Auguft 7, 
at Whitchurch 9, at Shrewfbury 14, at Bruges or 
Bridgenorth 16, at Worcefter 17, at Gloucefter 18, 
at Berkley in Glouceflerfhire 19, at Briftol si, at 
Corf 25, at Wells 27, at Bath 28, and on the faid 
day at Sherborne in Dorfetfhire, at Bradford 29, 
and Chipenham in Wiltfliire 30 ; at Cirencefter in 
Gloucefterfliire September i, at Burford in Oxford- 
fliire die 2d, at Oxford the 3d, 4th and 5th, at 
Reading the 7th, at Sunning the 8th ; after this at 
Wallingford, Aylefbury, Buckingham and Bedford ; 
at Cambridge September 16, at Clare in Suffolk 18, 
at Clive or King's Ciiffe, in Northamptonfhire, 20, 
at Rockingham 21, at Lincoln 22, at Scoter in Lin- 
colnfhire 25, at Lincoln 28, and October the ifl 
and s.d ; at Louth October the 4th, at Grimfby the 
7th and at Spalding the 8th, at Lynn October 9 and 
10, at Wifbeach the 12th, at Lafford (Sleford) the 
15th, on the i8th at Newark, where he granted that 
day a patent to F. de Breant, of the honor of Lu- 
tin, late Baldwin's, earl of Albemarle ; and on Oft. 
1 9 he died in the night at this town; 

Some hiftorians relate that he was poifoned by a 
monk of Swinftede abbey ; but he feems by this 
journal not to have gone by Swinefhead : it is cer- 
tain that he was paft that town on the 15th, and 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. i5 

w?is at Sleford; and it is not to be conceived, had 
lie been there poifoned, he could have proceeded ta 
Newark, and died there about five days at leaft after 
he had taken the poifon, which killed (as is faid) 
the monk who took the fame, in a very fliort fpace 
of time. 

The places above-mentioned where he took refuge 
were places of ftrength, and had their caflles, where- 
as Swinefhead was no' place of defence of fecurity : 
the dailv fuccefs of his rebellious barons, with Lewis 
the French king's fon at their head, his many loffes 
and conftant fatigue, had fo much impaired his 
health, that it is no wonder if they haRencd his 
death, and that he was no longer able to bear them. 

Swinefhcad was a very rich and fpacious abbey 
in Lincolnfliire, the ruins of which are flill remain- 
ing. Some hiftorians relate, that king John on his 
march from Lynn, in order to attack the a'rmy of 
Lewis, dauphin of France, aided by the rebellious 
barons, loft, on his eroding the waflies at an impro- 
per time of the tide, all his baggage, provifion, and 
treafures, fcarcely e leaping with himfelf and his 
troops. On his arrival at the abbey of Swinefhead, 
(or as it was formerly wrote Swineflead) he was re- 
ceived by the abbot and monks with great hofpitality, 
who made fumptuous entertainments for him, which 
the king obferving, condemned their prodigality, and 
fwore " if he lived one year longer, he would make 
" one halfpenny loaf as dear as twelve." Being 
overheard by one of the monks, it is faid he pre- 
fented him with an envenomed cup, firft tafting 
of it himfelf, by which he became the wicked in- 
flrument of his own and his fovereign's death, Oc- 
tober 19, 1216. But this account is looked upon 
as fabulous. It is very unlikely the king fhoulcl en- 
O tenain 


tertain fuch ungrateful fentiments towards the abbot 
and friars, who had fo nobly received him: ic is 
more unlikely that he fhould give fuch fentiments 
utterance, when in diftrefs, and taking refuge amongft 

Before the king left Lynn, on this his lad- vifit, he 
prefented the corporation with a moft curious cup, 
called at this day King Johns Cup, a moft admired 
piece of antiquity of fiiver, gilt with gold on the in- 
fide, adorned with beautiful imagery and enamelled 
work, in the keeping of every mayor, ufed on cer- 
tain folcmn occafions, and fhewn to gentlemen as a 
ere at curiofity, in memory of their founder and great 
benefactor, filled with fack. 

As for the fword, it is believed that the king gave borne before the mayor; and Spelman 
has given a very good reai'on for it. It \vas, fays 
he. an epifcopal burgh, the bifliop of Norwich be- 
ing lord of it, and not a royal burgh or demefne, and 
there feems to be proof that no fuch infignia belong- 
ed to it in Henry IWs time, but was a grant from 
king Henry V. 

The mayor is annually elecled on the fcaft of St. 
John, Auguft 29, and fworn into his office on Sep- 
tember 29 ; at which time he gives an elegant enter- 
tainment to the corporation and the county gentle- 
men and ladies in the neighbourhood. At this feaft 
king John's cup, after dinner, is handed to the mayor, 
who prefents it to his predeceffor ; he takes off the 
lid, and drinks the king's health ; the late mayor 
then places the lid on 'the cup, and after certain ce- 
remonies of turning the cup round, the mayor deli- 
vers it to the late mayor, and with the fame cere- 
monies it pa lies down the mayor's table ; from thence 



it is carried to the mayorefs and the ladies. This 
form is alone fanclified by cuftom immemorial ; for 
politenefs would didate to have the cup carried to 
the ladies nrft. 

As to the fvvord now carried before the mayor, 
and fuppofed to have been the gift of king John, 
taken from his own fide, as the infcription upon it 
imports , 

Enfi s hie Domim fuit Regis Joannis a Juo ipjius la- 
tcrc datum. 

Various are the opinions of hiftorians, but the 
mod; probable is, that it was given to the corpora- 
tion by king Henry VIII. when the town coining 
into his poffeflion, and ever fince called Lynn Regis, 
or King's Lynn, he granted them a charter, and al- 
lowed them many privileges. 

Sir Henry Spelman fays, that he was allured bV 
the town-clerk of Lynn, in the year 1630, that the 
fword-bearer of Lynn in the reign of queen Eliza- 
beth, 1580, procured the above infcription from the 
fchoolmafter of Lynn, as one fide of the hilt was 
plain, and had it engraved thereon. 

It cannot be fappofed that any king could wear 
fuch a fword by his fide, but it might have been 
brought him, and put to his fide, for the exprefs pur- 
pole of prefenting it to the mayor 011 fome particu- 
lar occauon, and thereby rendering the gift more 
honourable to the corporation. 

Befides this fword of antiquity, four filver maces, 
gilt, are carried before the mayor on all procefnons, 
and in thefe, with the fword, the prefent regalia. 

O 2 On 


On the sgth of Anguft the mayor calls a hall for 
the ele&ion of a fuccefibr, who is chofe by the com- 
mon council, as the common council are by the 
court of aldermen ; but if any difpute fhould arife, 
and the mayor fliould break up the hall afftmbly, 
the common council may fit down upon the fteps of 
the hall and choofe a mayor, if ten out of the eigh- 
teen are unanimous, and this eledion the court of 
aldermen carinot controvert. 

The corporation confifts of a mayor, a recorder, 
twelve aldermen, and eighteen common council 
men. The election for reprefentatives in parliament 
is in the whole body of the freemen at large, and 
the mayor fox the time being is returning officer. 

The following i* a correci lift of mayors of this 
antient borough from Henry III. the mayors in the 
reign of king John being uncertain. 

'MAYORS, fans date. 

OBERT, fon of 


Adam L'Efpie, 
\Viiiiain de Carleton, 

John Coftyn, 

de St. Omer, 

Robert de London, 
James de Beauvreys, 
James de Bevate, 

H E x n r w. 

A. R. A. D. 

52 1268 

53 1269 

54 Andrew 1270 

55 James de Bel vaco 1271 

56 Robert de London 1272 

This prince died A'wcmber 26. 




A. R. . A. D. 

i - - 1273 

o -- - 

3 Adam - - - 1275 

4 - - - 1276 

5 -- 

6 -- - 1278 

7 - . > 1379 

8 Adam de Sco' Edmundo i?So 
John de Hifpania - 1281 
William de Lindfeye 1282 

- 1283 

Adam de San6lo Ed. Homero 1284 

John de St. Omer 1285 

Adam de San&o Edmundo 1286 

- 1287 
Peter de Thurendine 1288 

- 1289 

John de Hifpania - 1 290 

Hugh de Maffingham I2 9i 

John de Hifpania 1 292 

Hugh de Maffingharn 1 293 

Thomas de Wainflet 12 94r 

John de Merlowe 1295 

- de Hifpania 1 296 

Hugh de Maffingham - . 13 97 

Thomas de Wainflet 1 298 

John de Merlowe 1 299 

The fame 1 3<5t> 

Richard de Gervefloii 1301 

John de Leycefter 1302 

- de Thurendine, or Thomdeyn 1303 

Thomas de Wainflet J 3o4 

Jeffrey Drew 1305 

Thomas de Sedgeford 

This prince died July 7. 


This prince died January 


A. R. A. D. 

1 Lambert de St. Homero !37 

2 Thomas de Sedgeford 130 8 
5 Peter de Thurendine, or Thornden 139 

4 Richard Houpman 13 10 

5 John de Merlowe J3 11 

6 Lambert de St. Homero J3 12 

7 The fame 1313 

8 The fame 1314 

9 John de Thornhegge J 3 ! 5 
i o The fame 1 3 1 6 

1 1 Peter de Elmham 

12 Robert de Walfingham 131 

13 Peter de Elmham 

14 John de Thornhegge 

15 William de Frauncys 

16 The fame 

1 7 John de Swerdefixm 

1 8 The fame 

19 John de Thornhegge 

20 de Burghard 

3 2 3 

;V 2 4 


John de Swerdefton . 1 3 2 7 

-deMaffingham, or John deCocksford 1328 







1 1 

John de Thornhegge 

At* Qi4'/3v/1^1r/-\-- 

de Eur~hard * 

The fame 
William de Sedgeford 
Adam de Walfoken 
William de Sedgeford 
John de Swerdefton 
John de Burghard 
Thomas de Mekheburne 



A. R. A. D. 

13 John de Cokesford 

William de Bruiton, or Bririton 1340 

Hugo dc Beale, or Bctcle'y 1341 

Adam de Walfoken 1342 

John de nf&ffinghaia J 343 

Thomas Drue 

John de Cokesford 

dc Swerdcflon 1 S4^ 

de Maflingham i 347 

deCoutfliall, and Robert de Cocking 1348 
Robert Braunch 
Thomas Rightwis 

William de Bittering 

The fame J 35 2 

The fame, and John de Coutfhall 

\Villiam de S wanton 

John de Coutfhall J 355 

Thomas de Botchefham 

John Urey 1 357 

William Bittering 1358 

Robert Braunch 

Simon de Gunton l'^6o 

Thomas Drue 136* 

Thomas de Botehcfliam 1362 

Simon de Gunton ! 363 

John de Coutfhall '364 

William de Bittering J 365 

John de Fincham ^ 1366 

Thomas Drewe 1 5^>J 

Thomas de Botehefham 1^68 

John de Brunham, or Burnham 1369 

Henry de Cove 1 37o 

Jeffrey Talboth 1 3jl 

John de Docking ! 372 

Edmund de Franfham J 373 

Robert Attelathe 1374 

49 Richard 


A. I 


















A. D. 







J 39 


J 392 
J 393 




J 399 

TTiis Prince died June 21. 

The fame 
Teffrpv Talhnfh 

Roger Paxmari 

Thomas Curflion, or Curfon 

Thomas de Coutfhall 


Robert Botehefham 
John Wace 
Thomas Waterden 

This Prince died September 29. 

H E J\ r R T W. 
Edmund Belletere 

The fame 

Robert Botehefham '" 
Thomas Waterden 

OF F R E E B R I D G E. 193 

A-. R. A. D. 

7 John de Wentworth 1405 

8 Robert de Brunham 1406 
g Thomas Brigge 1407 

10 John Brandon 1408 

1 1 The fame 1405 

12 Robert de BotehePuam 1410 

13 Roger Gallypn 1411 

14 Bartholomew Pettipas 1412 

This Prince died March 20, 


" H E jV R T V. 

Bartholomew Pettipas ! 4*3 

John Lakenhithc, ol)L Robert Brunham 1414 

Thomas Hunt T 4*5 

John Weafenham 1416 

William Hundcrpound 14 1 7 

Thomas Hunt 14 1 S 

John Weafenhanv J 4 1( ) 

The fame 1421 

This Prince died Auguji 3 1 . 

^ H EN R T VI. 

John Spicer 1422 

Permenter 1423 

The fame I 4 2 4 

John Thorilby 

Philip Frank 1426 

6 John'Permenter 1427 

7 The fame 14 2 3 

8 Richard Waterden, ob. John Weafenham 1429 
g Thomas Warftead J 43o 

lo John Permenter 

11 Breckupp, or Brighteyve M*} 2 

12 Thomas Botehcfliam 

13 Burgh 

P H- 14 John 

A. I 





2 3 

2 4 


2 7 


2 9 





3 . 



A. D. 







i 14 8 


J 455 




William Palmer, ob. John Permcnter 

The fame 
Henry Thorii n oy : 

Sim. Scotland 

The fame 
William Kirton, ob. John Waryn 

Thomas Talboth 
Richard Frank 

William Lewis 
The fame 
John Gedneye 

Sim. Pygot 

Thomas Talboth 

The fame 
Walter Cony 
This Prince died March 4. 


William Pilton 
Sim. Baxter 

William Cawes 
The fame 
Henry Birmingham 
Ralph Geyton 

OF F R E E B R I D G E. 195 

A. D. 

146 g 

J 47 2 

14 7 7 



This Prince died June 23, 


1 Robert Pilly 1483 

2 Thomas Wright ) 1484 

This Prince died November 22. 

H E J\" R T VII. 

1 John Tilly : - 1485 

2 Richard Goodwyn 1486 

3 Robert Pilly 1487 

4 John Tego - 1488 

5 - Gryndell - 1 4&9 
The fame .* J 490 

7 Robert Powditck - - . i4gi 

8 Thomas Wright 






ir ) 







William Pilton 
Walter Cony 
Edmund Wefthorpe 
Henry Bermingham 
The fame 
William Wales ^ 
Walter Cony 
William Nicholfon 
Thomas Leighton 


Edmund Wefthorpe 
John Burbage 
William Marfh * 
The fame 
Thomas Thorifby 
This Prince died 

April g. 

Edward Rowfey . 14 g$ 

jo William 


A. R. A. D. 

10 William Arafiys 1494 

1 1 The fame J 495 

12 John Palmer * 1496 

13 Robert Trew - 1497 

14 John Taylour I 4Q8 

15 Thomas Deye * 1499 

16 Andrew Wuley 1500 

17 Sim. Baxter J 5 01 

18 Thomas Thorifby J 5 02 
ig John Palmer I 53 

20 William Trew 1504 

21 William Gervy . I 55 

22 Andrew Wuley . JjoS 

23 Robert Gerves . . I 57 

24 John Burcly 1508 

This Prince di(d April 22. 


1 John Grendell 1509 

2 Thomas Wych 1510 

3 The fame 151 1 
4- John Davy 

5 Richard Bewfhere 

6 Robert Soame 

7 John Grendell, fen. 

8 Robert Amflet, fen. 
g Thomas Leighton u. 

ao William Gerves,. alias Caftle 

1 1 Robert Gerves 15 1 g 

12 Thomas Miller or Milner I 5 20 

13 The fame 1521 

14 The fame 1522 
15, The fame 1523 

16 John Grendell 1524 

1 7 Thomas Leighton 15 25 
18^ Chriflopher Brokebank 1526 

ig Robert 


A.R. A.D. 

19 Robert Soarae - I 5 2 7 

20 John Water * J 5 2 8 

21 Thomas Miller . J 5 2 9 

22 Richard Bewfliere 1530 

23 John Power 1531 

24 Robert Amfles 1532 

25 Parmytour 

26 Seagrave 

27 Thomas Water 1535 

28 Leighton 

William Hall 1537 

30 Richard Bewfliere J 53& 

31 William Hall 1539 

32 Edward Baker, ob. Edward Newton 1540 

33 Henry Duplack 1541 

34 William Kenette 1542 

35 Richard Hunftaii 

36 Robert Soame 1544 

37 Jeffrey Stele, alias Style 1545 

38 Thomas Miller J 546 

This Prince died January 28. 


1 William Overend 1547 

2 John Macanter i 548 

3 Ralph Downes 

4 Edward Baker 

5 Thomas Waters 

6 Greg. Revely 

This Prince died July 6. 

Queen MART. 

i Robert Palmer J 5.53 

Henry Duplack 

3 Robert Mowthe 1555 

4 Ralph Downes 1 55& 

5 Henry 


A. R. A. D. 

Henry Bleifby, ob. William Overend, ob. 

or Overton ^557 

6 William Overton, ob. Thomas Waters 1558 
This princejs died November 1 7 . 

I Robert G*rvis, oh. Chriftopher Graunt 
5 John Pen 



15 6 .5 

157 2 
J 573 





5 , Grebby 
6 Robert Hulyer 

S Robert Gervis 
9 Thomas Grave 

12 Edward Waters 
13 Robert Hulyer 
14 John Kynne, ob. John Grebby 
i^ Thomas Clavborne -, 

i 7 Chriflopher Graunt 

l Q Tohn Ditchiicid 

01 Thomas Overend. 

22 Francis Shaxton 

25 Richard Clarke 
26 Thomas Grave 

28 Thomas Boflon 

30 John Nelion 
3 1 

3 1 
3 2 
3 6 













U * fKfcliBKlDGE. 


A. A 

i5 8 9 



161 1 

Peter Cartvvright 

Thomas Bofloii 

John Batfet 

Henry Vilett 
William Gurlyn 
Thomas Sandill 
Thomas Gibfon 
This Pr'mctp died, March 24. 

J A M E S /. 


Tnlm \V^M'^ 


Matthew Clarke 
John Spencer 


Richard Stonhara 

Thomas Soame 
Thomas Gurlyn 



A, 1 

















2 4 




Thomas Snelling, ob. John Wallis 

A. D. 






i 6 59 



4 Jofhua 

Gregory Gurnall 
This Prince dial March 27. 


Thomas Grinnell 


Bartholomew Worniell 
\Villi3xn. Doughty - 

Tliomns Grinncll 

Thomas Mylner, ob. John Perceval 

Thomas Nelfon 

Edmund Hudfon 

Edward Robinfon 
Thomas Toll 

Thomas Slany, cb. Nathaniel Maxey 
DccoUatur January 30. 

Thomas Revet _. 
Bartholomew AVormell 
Jonas Scott 


A.R. A.D. 

4 Jofhua Greene 1652 

5 John Baflett 1653 

6 Thomas Greene 1654 

7 Toll 1655 

8 Robert Thomnvgood > 1656 

9 Benjamin Holly 1657 

10 Henry Bell 1658 

1 1 Joihua Greeri 1659 

12 John Baflet 1660 

13 Walter Kirby 1661 

14 John Bird 1662 

15 \ Villiam Wharton 1 663 

16 Thomas Greene 1664 

17 Benjamin Holly 1665 

18 Matthias Twells 1666 

19 Thomas Robinfon . 1667 
520 Walter Kirby 1668 

21 Edmund Abbot 1669 

22 Henry Bell 1670 

23 Daniel Goodwin, 1671 

24 Seth Haw ley 1672 

25 John Hamond 1673 

26 Thomas Greene, ob. Simon Taylor 1674 

27 Edward Bromly '- 1^75 

28 Thomas Thetford 1676 

29 Arthur Eveiing 1677 

30 John Turner 1678 

31 Gyles Bridgman 1679 

32 Edmund Taflell 1680 

33 Simon Taylor 1 65 1 

34 Henry C hennery 1682 

35 Benjamin Keene ^83 

36 Edmund Hooke 1684 

37 Edward Bodham 1685 

This Prince died February 6. 




A. R. A. D. 

1 JohnKidd - 1686 

2 Robert Sparrow, expelkd per mandate. John 

Dav - - 1687 


Cvprian Anderfon 



Robert Pavne 

i6S 9 

'This Prince abdicated. 



Henry Framingham 



WiHiam Lrnftead, ob. Sir John Turner 



Henrv Bell 



William Holly 



Charles Turner 



Edmund Hooke 



Robert Sparrow 



Tnhn ViHH 



Cyprian Anderfon 



"D /-\l-k<*-r* A Y*-lwk*n 



Henry Framingham 

1 700 

This Prince died Marck 4t*l 

Queen A W Ji E. 


Benjamin Keen 



11 *r~ rr- 



Hrnrv Rpll 

J 73 


John Turner 



Charles Whaits 



John Turner 



William Holly, ob. Robert Awbom 



Henry Chennrry 



Tr>^n flTr-fnf* 



1 i 

R^rn/Mr ... 


1 *T 1 t 

1 1 


Charles Greene 



J 3 

Edmund Roife 


This Princefs died Avgujt 

OF F R E B R I D G E. 2203 







1 1 

1 2 







i i 







Charles Keen 
John Turner 

A. D. 


1 725 

; 1728 


173 6 

11 1741 



James Boardman 
Daniel Scarlet 
Thomas Robotom 
Edmund Rolfe 
John Goodwin 

William Allen 


This Prince died June 1 1 . 


Thomas Allen 
John Goodwyn 

Charles Harwick 

John Farthing 
Samuel Browne 

William Exton 
John Goodwyn, jun. - 
John Turner, jun. 
John Goodwyn, fen. 
William Bagge 
John Gary 
Samuel Browne, ob. Benjamin Nutha 

Wilrrr Kirhv ,. ,,,-,., 

Philip Cafe 

O 2 20 


A. R. A. D. 

20 'Andrew Pi gge *74^ 

21 Walter Robertfon 1747 

22 Sir John Turner. *74^ 

23 John Good wyn J749 

24 .William Exion !75 

25 William Bagge 1751 

26 . William Mixibn 1752 

27 John Wilfon 17,53 

28 John Gary J754 

29 William Langley ] 755 

30 George Pattefon . 1 15& 

31 Benjamin Nuthall J 757 

32 Edward Everard J 75^ 
=33 , Charles Turner 1759 
34 Thomas Sommerfby 1760 

This Prince died October 25. 


1 Walter Robertfou 1761 

2 Thomas Aldei ion 1762 

3 James Robertfon 1763 
. 4. Philip Cafe , 1764 

5 John Gary 1765 

G William Langley 1766 

7 Charles Turner !?^7 

8 Sir John Turner 1768 

9 Samuel .Browne ^69 

10 George Hogg 1770 

1 1 , Maxey Allen 1771 

1 2 Edward Evcrard 1772 

13 Thomas Sommerfby, jun. J773 

14 John Gary, jun. 1774 

15 William Bagge 1775 

1 6 Thomas Alderfon i 7 7 6 

17 Philip Cafe . 1777 

18 Thomas Bagge 1778 



Lynn was always a town of great commerce, as 
it is at this day : the harbour is capable of contain- 
ing two hundred fhips. It has been alfo a place of 
great flrength, and is capable of being made fo 
now. It is fortified by a deep ditcji, and walls for 
the grcateft part of it, and there are remains of en- 
trenchments all around it. Preparatory to the re- 
floration' of king Charles II. it was fortified afrefh 
by fir Horatio Towndiend, anceftor to the prefent 
lord viicount Townfhend, of Rainliam, who was 
created a baron by king Charles II. for his loyal . 
fervices, by the iUle and title of baron of King's 
Lynn, to which the motto born in their arms by 
this noble family alludes : 

^ H<zc Geiicri Incrementa Fides" 

In the grand rebellion againft Charles I. in the 
year 1643, die ma'yor and burgeffes defended the 
town againft the earl of Manchefter for fome time, 
and held it for the king againft an army of eighteen 
thoufand men, and fuftained a feige of three weeks 
with great bravery ; but not being fupported by the 
earl ol Ncwcaftlc, who lay near Lincoln with an 
equal number of troops, and having applied to him 
in vain for relief, they were obliged to lurrender and 
make the bed terms they could. It does not appear 
that the garrifon, which confilied of the burgelfes 
and inhabitants, reinforced by the country gentle- 
men in the neighbourhood, with eight troops of 
horle and eight companies of foot, could amount tQ, 
more than five thoul^nd men in arms. 




This church and priory were founded by Herbert 
bifliop of Norwich, in the reign of king William II. 
and dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen, St. Margaret, and 
all the maiden faints. In the regifter of Hoxne pri- 
ory, in Suffolk, it appears by the deed and grant of 
this bifliop, that the faid church and priory were 
built by him at the requefl of the men of the town 
of Lynn, and to perform this the better, he granted 
an indulgence of forty days pardon to all who fhould 
contribute to it ; appointed that all tithes and eccle- 
fiailical dues of the whole village, fliould be paid to 
this church, which he appropriated to the priory, 
and had it confirmed by the pope. 

This priory was fubordinate to the priory of the 
Holy Trinity at Norwich, founded alfo by Herbert, 
and was a cell to it. 

This being made a cell to the priory of Norwich, 
that houfe appointed a monk of their body to be 
prior here at Lynn, who appears to be refponfible 
to the priory of Norwich for the rents and profits he 
received, and feems to be removable at pleafurc. 

John de Grey, bifliop of Norwich, confirmed to 
the monks of Norwich, the church of St. Margaret, 
with the chapel of St. James and St. Nicholas, and 
the church at Minding, and his tithes of Gaywood, 

The priory of St. Margaret's was on the fouth 
fide of St. Margaret's church. After the diffolution 
of it, it was partly pulled down, to enlarge 
church-yard: part of it is ftill ftanding, and tl 
lane adjoining retains the name of the Priory * 



John de Grey, bifliop of Norwich, by deed dated 
on the fame day and year with the exchange of 
lands between him and the prior and convent of 
Norwich, appropriated the church of St. Margaret 
to the convent of Norwich, vk. 

OWNIB; fantttf cccleficK matrix Jilijs, Jokannis Dej 
gratia Norwictnfis epijcopus, falutem: Noverit univer- 
Jitas vejlra nos divina pietatis intuitu concej/ijfe, et p'fcn- 
ti charla conjirmajfe dilefffs Jiliis no/Iris Manachis Nor- 
ivic. ecclefiam Stee. Margarets de Lenn, cum omnib; 
Jpirilnalib ; ad earn pertinentib ; tarn in decimis, quam in 
oblationib ; et allijs omnib ; obventionib ; Jpiritualib; cum 
capdlis Juis, JciL St. Jacobi et St. jYicolaj, in pro- 
prios ujus in perpctuum poffidmdam, &c. Et ecclefiam 
de Minding, cum omnib; ad earn pertinenfib; et onines 
decimas de dominio nojlro de Gay wood, pr ester illas quas 
ad ecclefiam Sttz Fidis de Gaywood pertinent, ita ut fa- 
ciani in prceditlis ecclejijs et capellis minijtrari competen- 
Icr p. capellanos Juos, p. rationabili volimtale fua amo- 
vendos et admittmdos, et ila qd. nulli, niji foli epifcopo 
in curia Jua propria [i voluerit and ujus Juos (Jicuti in 
alijs manerijs Juu habet) liceat infra parockias p'dic~lar. 
ecclejiarum de Lenn et Mintling, capcllam aliquam prac- 
Ur authcritatem epifcopalem, & conjenjum prioris, et con-> 
vent us monachor. ct ft quce conjlrucl a fuerit in proprios 
ujus cedat monachor um. 

The church of St. Margaret was built, probably, 
on the icite of fome old church there, but whether 
that old church was alfo dedicated to St. Margaret 
is not certain. 

An order from the mayor, Sec. anno gGth of 
Henry VI, to build the bell tower of St. Margaret's 

O 4 The 



The impropriatioii of this church being purchafed 
by the corporation of Lynn, from the bifihoprick of 
Norwich, at the general diflblution of the rnonaftc- 
ries, there is now no revenue belonging to it, fave 
only fome few annuities, which are applied to the 
repairs thereof, and are as follows : 

. 5. d. 

An annuity granted to this churcli by the 

corporation 368 

Another granted out of ParaHice Garden 600 

Another granted out of certain houfes at 

the north end of Codlin Lane - o 6 S 

Another granted out of certain tenements 
near Littleport Bridge, (now demolifh- 
ed) the gift of Mr. Kennet, to the 
church 050 

Notwithftanding this -the dean and chapter of 
Norwich ilill retain their ancient right, and privi- 
leges as formerly, of prefenting a curate or minifler 
to this church, who" as Inch, is obliged to perform, 
or caufe to be performed, all divine offices, both 
here and at die chapel, for which fervices he is en- 
titled to receive the furplice fees for chriftenings, 
marriages, burials, Sec. as alfo all other perquifites 
thereunto belonging, as herbage, dolefiih, Sec. 

But the preachers (who are fliled and accounted 
lecturers) are chofen and appointed by the corpora- 
tion, who gencroufly allow, to each a certain falary of 
lool. per ann. which is paid them by the chamber- 
lain for the time being, without any trouble or in- 
cumberance whatfoever : and note, they have this 
further advantage in it, which makes it 'the more 
valuable, that this preferment does no ways difqua- 
lify or incapacitate them from holding other livings, 
with, the cure of fouls. 



The prefcnt le&urers are the Rev. Charles Bagge, 
D. D. and the Rev. Briggs Gary, who alternately 
preach every Sunday* at St. Margaret's and the cha- 
pel of St. Nicholas, 

St. Margaret's church before the year 1741, was 
one of the largeft parochial churches in England, 
having a nave and three very fpacious ifles ; w : ith a 
lanthorn over the crois iile : there were two. towers, 
one of which was ornamented with a lofty fpire, 
the other contained a ring of eight bells. This laft 
tower is flill remaining, but the fpire was blown 
down in a violent gale of wind -in September 1741, 
and falling upon the body of the church deftroyed 
the middle ille, leaving the chancel only (landing. 
This fpire was two hundred and fifty-eight feet high, 
and the breadth of the old church was one hun- 
dred and thirty-two feet. The church is rebuilt, 
but the new church is contracted; there are {till 
three illes, and a handfome gallery over the north 
iile. A new organ has been creeled at the weft 
end, with many harmonious flops in it, one in par- 
ticular a vox humana. 

Having faid thus much with refpecl: to this great 
parochial church in particular, we come now to thofc 
monumental inscriptions and funeral epitaphs which 
were extant in and about the quire, fide ifles, and 
chapels, anno 1725. Notwithstanding, we cannot 
but regret the lofs of fo many beautiful, rich, and 
coflly pourtraitures in brafs fixed here upon the 
graves and tombilones of our anceftors, in order to 
perpetuate their memories to pollerity, which have 
been fo impioufly and facrilegiouily torn away and 
defaced, of which fome few now only remain, not 
iimvoithy the observation of the curious, for exqui- 
fite and rare workmanftiip of fine engraven figures, 



and other decorations delineated thereupon, and thofe 
only but five in number. 

And we cannot omit taking notice of one remark- 
able article which we meet with in the church-war- 
dens account for the year 1645, where it is thus in- 
fcrted, viz. " Item, to William King for defacing 
" fuperftitious epitaphs, 55." Too great a reward 
for fo bad a fervice. 


On the north fide of the church-yard ftands an 
ancient pile, a chapel, adjoining to the weft end of 
the north ifle of the old church of St. Margaret ; the 
upper part of this pile was a chapel, and the lower 
part a charnel houfe, where the bones taken out, on 
the digging of the many graves were depofited. 
Every abbey and priory feems to have had one be- 
longing to them,' and a chapel over it as at Norwich, 
Sec. The upper part, or chapel, was turned at the 
diffolution into a free fchool, and fo continues. 

On an inquifition taken, in the gd of Elizabeth, 
by certain commiflioiiers, the jury prefent, that there 
was a charnel houfe in St. Margaret's church-yard, 
which is now a fchool-houfc ; the founders thereof 

were Thomas Thurfbye, Walter Coney, and 

Locke, merchants of the faid town, but to what ufe 
it was founded they knew not ; to which there be- 
longed one bell, taken down by the mayor fince the 
death of Henry VIII. in what year they knew not ; 
and that there did belong to the charnel houfe, cer- 
tain lands and tenements, lying and being in King's 
Lynn, Wiggenhall St. Mary, and Gavwood, in the 
tenure of divers men, whofe names they knew not, 
to the value of lol. per aim. 


This jury may with great propriety be faid to have 
found an ignoramus, 

TRINITY CHAPEL, in St, Margaret's Church. 

On the north fide of the chancel of St. Margaret's 
church is the chapel of the Holy Trinity, belonging 
to the guild or fraternity of the Holy f Vinity. 

In the sGth of Henry VI. this guild had a patent 
for a meffuage and [even acres of meadow in South. 


This chapel of St. Nicholas is fuppofed to 
been founded by Turbus, or de Turbe, bi(liop,of 
Norwich, in the reign of king Stephen, who, alter it 
was built and confecrated, gave it to the monks of 
the priory of Norwich cathedral, with all its profits. 

The chapel of St. Nicholas is one of the largeft 
chapels in England, as large as moll parochial 
churches : it has three ifles, from eafl to welt is two 
hundred feet long, and in breadth feventy-eight. It 
has a tower with a ring of eight bells, and, like St. 
Margaret's, was ornamented with a lofty fpire, which 
fhared the fame fate with the fpire of St. Margaret's, 
and on the very fame day, in September 1-741, but 
being lighter, or falling in a different direction, did 
not equally damage the body of the chapel. 


In the mavoralty of Jeffrey Talb, 1374, the pope's 
bull \vas granted to build this chapel. 



In this chapel was the guild of St. George. To 
this guild the jurors report, in the ^d of Elizabeth, 
that there appertaineth a hall, called St. George s 
Hall, with houfe and buildings thereunto annexed, 
with certain tenements, cellars, curtilages, and gar- 
dens to the fame belonging, lying and being in 
King's Lynn afore faid, in the tenure of the mayor 
and brethren of the faid town, to the yearly value 
of 405. 

Item. There did belong to the faid guild fixteen 
acres of pafture in \Viggenhall St. Peters, late in 
the tenure of William Pers, to the yearly value 
of 405. 

Item. More in Wiggenhall St. Mary's, twelve 
acres and an half of pafture, in the tenure of Tho- 
mas Feime, to the value of 305. by the vear. 

Item. There belongs to this chapel a great bell, 
containin b eilimaiioii twent hundred weiht. 

Item. There doth belong to the faid chapel cer- 
tain houfes, lands, tenements, and paftures, lying 
and being in the faid town of King's Lynn and Gay- 
wood, to the yearly rent of 61. 6s. 8d. in whole te- 
nure we know not, nor to what ufe they were given. 

That this chapel was an ancient one, appears by 
king John s appropriating St. Margaret's church, 
with this chapel, to the monks of the .cathedral of 
No \vich. An ancient deed was executed in it, of 
which the following is an authentic copy. 

Ego Lemarus de Walpole, el Beatrix uxor mea, 
wus et conceffimus priori de Lewis el conventuijito, trc. 
ei ad hanc vmditionem; Jirmiter (t inconcujje Uneridum 



el centra natos d non natos luarranlhandum, primo in 
ecckfia St. Nicho'lai de Lenna in manu Herberti de He- 
tinge at njfidamus, et pojlea in camKcrio St. Jacoli de A- 
Cfc, Jtip. quatu-or. Evangdia juravimus. 

John Alcock, bifiio.p of Ely, June 3, 1490, grant- 
ed forty da\s pardon , or indulgence, to all the bre- 
thren and filters of the guild of St. Etheldreda, in 
iS . Nicholas's chapel of Lynn, at the altar of St. 
Etheldreda the moft holy virgin, there founded, and 
to all who fliould hear mafs at the faid altar, and to 
all who laid quinquies before the faid altar, the Lord s 
Prayer, and the Salutation quinguics. 

Ilcnry IV. by his letters patent, gave and grant- 
ed licence to John Brandon, Bartholomew Siftern,. 
and John Snailwell, of Lenne Epifcopi, that they 
might make, found, and eilablifh to the honour of 
God, and the glorious martyr St. George, a certain 
fraternity, brotherhood, and perpetual guild of them- 
f elves and others, who out of their devotion were 
willing to be of the faid fraternity and guild: and 
that brothers and fiflers of the fraternity and guild, 
for the time being, might choofe, make and ordain, 
one alderman and four cuflodes of the faid fraternity 
and guild, yearly, for the good and profit of the 
fame, and out of the brethren of the faid fraternity 
and guild ; and that the laid alderman and cuftodc.s, 
and their fuccefiors, by the names of the alderman 
and cuflodes of the faid guild, fliould have power, 
and be able to take, receive, ai\d hold any lands, 
tenements, rents, and poffeffions whatfoever, or fhould 
be by any ways or means granteed to them, and to 
do in all other refpecls, 8cc. and to a& as the reft of 
his liege fubje&s, or perfons do, and have power, 
and are enabled to aci. 



Many other grants of lands and tenements were 
given by Henry V. and king Edward VI. when he 
granted, the sift of May, in his 2d year, and Tho- 
mas Leyton, alderman, to the mayor and burgeffes 
the lands, tenements, Sec. belonging to the guild of 
the Holy Trinity, granted alfo to the mayor, Sec. 
one capital mefluage or hall, called St. George's 
Hall, with the houfes, 8cc. thereunto annexed. 

This St. George's Hall was a long time ufed as a 
court to hold the quarter feffions in for the peace of 
the county of Norfolk, but of late years it has been 
converted into a theatre, and is lett to a com- 
pany of comedians who perform in it annually at 
the time of the mart, which is proclaimed Feb. 14, 
and by the charter of king Henry VIII. who granted 
it, is to continue for fix days after. The comedians- 
however, are ufually permitted to make a longer 
Hay in the town. The booths of the London tradci- 
men, creeled in the market-place annually during 
the mart, are not allowed to remain Handing above 4 
fourteen days, as being thought to injure the trade 
of the inhabitants^ 

This mart is annually proclaimed on Feb. 14, in 
great form, the mayor and corporation attending, 
when the town-clerk reads the charter, and the booths 
are immediately opened. The mayor afterwards gives 
an entertainment at the town-hall. King Hen. VIII. 
granted to th/ corporation another annual fair on July 
16, which was afterwards revoked. 


This little fociety had an alderman to prefide over 
it, and met ufually once or twice a year to dine and 
fup together j but little of their cuftoms is known 



with certainty at this day, or what their benefactions 
and contributions were. 

Concerning the Antiquity of St. NICHOLAS '3 

We can neither fpeak pofitively as to the founder 
of this chapel, nor the precife time of its founda- 
tion and building, as is much to be wiflied ; but 
thus far we may reafonabiy conclude, that without 
all doubt it muft be above four hundred years (land- 
ing, if the following evidences may be allowed of. 

Firft, it is very remarkable that upon the front, 
on the top of the porch, which is the only one, but 
that very neat, adjoining to this lacred flruclure,- 
are placed the figures of a lion and an eagle, cut in 
Hone, and fixed on pedeftals, the two fupporters of 
the arms of king Edward III. which, if we may be 
permitted to conjecture, gives fome reafon to believe 
that this chapel was firft founded before, or at leafl 
finiihed in fome part of that king's reign, which be- 
gan in 1326, and continued above fifty years. 

Secondly, again we find here the fepulture and in- 
terment of William de Bittering, (who was divers 
times mayor of this corporation in that king's reign) 
together with his wife Julian, to be both in this cha- 
pel, in the fouth ifle towards the eaft, under a very 
large fair flone, ten feet long and fix broad, all co- 
vered over with brafs, having their effigies cut in the 
middle upon the fame, neatly engraven and embel- 
liflied with fine decorations round the verge, which 
is ftill to be feen almofl entire, and wAofe mark or 
fymboi (which we find in divers places on the plate 
of his tombflone) is alfo Hill remaining, fairly de- 
pitted or Itained, in a fouth window near his grave. 



Thirdly, Moreover 'tis recorded that in the year 
*379 pope Urban VI. fent his bull hither (which 
was received with great veneration) to auihorife and 
allow the baptifmg of infants and other adult per- 
fons in this chapel, which before were always initi- 
ated in the parifh church of St. Margaret : that part 
of the old font called the bafon, then made ufe of 
in this holy place, (before 'the ere&ing that now 
{landing, granted and confecrated by S. Harfnell, 
D. D. and biihop of Norwich, in the year 1627, and 
which rcfembles that at St. Margaret's) we are in- 
clined to believe is the fame which we obferved to 
lie upon the ground (with the pedeftal at fome dif- 
tance from it) among the rubbidi and lumber, in a 
certain place on the north fide of the quire, perhaps 
formerly fome oratory, chapel, or chauntry. 

It is of free-flone, one hundred and fixty-four 
inches in diameter, upon the fuperfices within the 
verge, and nine inches deep perpendicular from the 
bottom, carved on the outfide. 

Laflly, the fourth and lafl evidence which offers 
itfelf to our observation, concerning the antiquity of 
this> elegant chapel, though of much later date, is 
that fome time fince, in a window next to the north 
door, w ? e found there the year of our Lord, fairly 
depicled or ftained in the-glafs, in very beautiful and 
yellow characters, but it is now demolifhed and 
gone, not with (landing having taken care to preferve 
a tranfcript of it, we have endeavoured to imitate 
it as near as we could, and given you as follows : 

anno Dom, m. cccc f 




In the certificate and prefentment of William 
feutts, Chriftopher Walpole, gent. &c. taken the 
sgth of September, in the gd year of queen Eliza- 
'beth, before fir -Nicholas L'Eflrange, knt. Thomas. 
Guybon, Henry Mynn, and Henry Spelman, efq^ 
cemmifli oners to the queen, the jurors find that 
there was a chapel dedicated to St. James, then de- 
faced by the mayor and his brethren, faving one 
crofs ifle, which was then re-edifying and^epairing 
by the mayor of the faid town ; which chapel con- 
tained in length five fcore feet, and in breadth 
twenty-four feet 5 the cemitary or church-yard of 
the faid chapel containeth three acres, and is ufect 
to bury the dead : it was a chapel of eafe, and the 
founder thereof was bifliop of Norwich, whofe 
name we. know not ; there did belong to it four 
bells, taken down by the mayor of the town fince 
the death of Henry VIII. but in what year we know- 
not, which were worth by eftimation, with the bell 
of the chancel houfe, ccl. 

This chapel of St. James being in part demolifli- 
ecl, the fpire and part of the flone tower taken off, 
and the reft becoming ruinous, in the 22d of queen 
Elizabeth the body of it was quite pulled down, and 
the crofs ifle and chancel were fitted up for a work-, 
houfe for the poor, for drefflng hemp, and making 
firings and txnves for fiiheimen, and other manufac- 
tures. The building lay afterwards a long time 
neglected, but bv the liberal benefactions of the 
mayor, burgcffes, and principal inhabitants, was re- 
built, and again converted into a workhoufe or hof- 
pital, as it continues at this day, under the direction 
of the corporation, and one of the aldermen is al- 
guardian or governor, as fettled by the al of 
R th 


the 1 2th of William III. Upon a frontifpiece it 
this infcripdon : 


Cape!l<e St. Jacob! 
Orphano trcphium Hoc 


S. P. O. L, 
Simonc Tajlcr Major c. 

Ii is nfcw commonlv called the Spinning Houfr. 

The arms of queen Elizabeth, a lion and dragon. 
fupporters, now over the town hall, were taken 
from this chapel. 

In this tomi there were formerly many priories, 
oratories, and religious houfes for Friars, Cam 
or White Friars, in South Lynn, the church of 
which ilill remains, and is ufed as a pariih church : 
Black Friars, Dominicans, Auguftin Friars, Grey 
Friars, all which came hither about the reign of 
king Henry III. and fettled here, building them- 
fjlves convents in feverai parts of the town ; but 
they are now almoft all demoliihed, excepting a 
lofty hexangular tower of the Grey Friars, oppofitc 
the free grammar fchool-houfe in Mixfon's flrect, 
lo called from many new buildings creeled by ihe 
late William Mixfon, efq. mayor of Lynn, a magi- 
ftrate of an open and enlarged mind, and a mer- 
chant of extenfive knowledge in trade. This tower 
of the Grey Friars is at this day an ufeful fea-mark 
for guiding fhips into the harbour. 

Near the walls of this town are the remains of 
an ancient oratory, wirh feverai vaults and cavities 
under ground, commonly called the Lady's Mount, 


as being dedicated to the Virgin Mnry ; or the Red 
Mount, where the pilgrims to the holy wells and 
monaftery of our Lady, of Wallingham, ufed to 
pay their devotions. 

The names of thefe religious houfes, for moil of 
them are deflroyed or defaced, are as follows : 

Our LADY's CHAPEL on the Bridge, 
Our LADY on the Mount, 

(Near which is a fort flill remaining, mounted tili 
lately with cannon, to command the entrance of the 



It was called the Great Guild of the Holy Trinity 
in Lynn, in refpecl to other lefs guilds in the faid 
town. The head or chief perfon of this guild was 
fliled the alderman or cuftos, and was chofe by the 
commonalty of the laid town, and continued fo on 
that choice for life, unlefs upon account of fomc 
very great infirmity or inability, or fome other rea* 
fonable caufe he was let afide and removed. 

This guild had many grants and pofleffions, 

amongft the reft the common flaith ; and the mayor 

and aldermen for the time being had the govern- 

R 2 ment 


ment oF this community, as exprefled by the letters 
patent of Henry III. 


caufeway between Gaywood and Lynn. 

This ancient hofpital was founded by one Petrus 
Capellanus, in the reign of king Stephen, in honour 
of St. Mary Magdalen, and confifted of a prior, 
twelve brethren and fillers, in all thirteen; of whom 
ten (the prior being one) were found, and tbrce un- 
found, or leprous ; fome ecclefiaftical and fome fe- 
cular, bound to perform fuperftitious rites, and 
prayers for the fouls of men departed this life, viz. 
for the foul of Petrus Capellanus their founder, the 
fouls of popes, bifhops, abbots, priors, kings, queens, 
and others their benefactors, as appear by their an- 
tient books of Obits and ' Orifom, and by the antient 
inftrument of articles which the brethren and fitters 
were bound to obfcrve. And all or moft of the 
lands given to the faid hofpital, were for the main- 
taining of prayers for the dead, as appears by di- 
vers deeds and charters, without date, of the fiiil 
donations of the laid lands. 

Petrus Capellanus, their founder, died upon St. 
Pauls day, being the 2 5th of January, anno 1174, 
in the aoth of Henry II. 

This hofpital is under the direction of the mayor 
and corporation, and is kept in good repair by them 
for the maintenance and fupport of poor women, 
elected into it at their difcretion upon every vacancy 
that occurs. 




Was in the patronage of the bifhop of Norwich, 
who had a houfe at Lynn. 

The bifhop's houfe flood on the fea bank, near 
the chapel of St. Nicholas. 


Was an office of the bifhop, granted by patent. 
In the Saxon age he was called Capitalis Senefcallus 
Epjfcopi, and as fuch received all the revenues of the 
bifhop, held all the courts belonging to his lordfhips, 
and paffed the accounts of the inferior officers, as 
bailiffs, &c. He often fat in court with the mayor, 
on trials, and grants of places, and officers in th$ 
town, Sec. who was often (worn by him, &c. and 
it was held, by the bifliop till Henry VIII. 's charter 
to the town, when it was granted to the corporation. 
The like office ac Yarmouth and Norwich j and other 
corporations have the faid office. 

The right honourable the earl of Orford, lord 
lieutenant of this county, is the prefent high fiewarcl 
of Lynn Regis, 1778. 


I. The firft charter of liberties granted to the 
town was by king John, at Lutgerfhail, 14 Septem- 
ber, anno reg. Jui '6, 1204. 

II. The fecond was that of king Henry III. his 
fon, dated at Weftminfter the 6th of February, anno 
reg Jui 17, which fully confirms what his father ha"d 
granted: this was 1233. 

R 3 III. The 

2-2 H U N D R E D A N D H A L F 

III. The third was that of the afore faid king 
Henry Ill/dated at Weftminfter the 26th of March, 
anno reg. Jui 52, wherein he not only confirms all 
former grants, but further, for the laudable and faith- 
ful fervice and valiant afTillance, (as the words are) 
which the burgeffes of Lynn had done for him in 
his troubles and civil wars, granted them by this 
charter, to choofe themfelves a mayor, inftead of 
their prcpofitus, which was anno Dom. 1268. 

This charter was firfl founded upon bifliop John 
de Grey, and the dean and chapter's charter of Nor- 
wich, for a mayor, and was confirmed by king Hen- 
ry III. aforefaid. 

The firft mayor, by this charter, was elected into 
that office on St. Michael's day, anno Dom. 1268. 

Having done with the religious houfes and eccle- 
fiaftical Hiftory, we come now to a description of 
other remarkable buildings in this large and popu- 
lous town, fituated on the eaft fide of the river Oufe, 
and by much the mofl confiderable of all the towns 
of the Iceni, Norwich alone excepted. It extends 
about a mile and a quarter from north to fouth, and 
is half a mile broad from the eafl gate to the river, 
or channel," which is the broadeft part; contains 
about three thoufand houfes, and near fifteen thou- 
fand inhabitants. 

The river, at fpring tides, flows more than twenty 
feet perpendicular, and if at thofe times there hap-, 
pens to be a north-eaft wind, it brings the tide up 
with fuch rapidity, as to force the fliips from their 
moorings, though they lie at ten miles diflance from 
the ocean, and has been known to flow a confidera- 
ble way into the Tuefday market-place, which is a 



fpacious fquare area of three acres, having, on an 
a-fcent of four fleps, a very handfome market crofs 
of free-ftone, of modern architeclure, adorned with 
ilataes and other embellifhments, with a periflyic 
round below, fupported by fixteen pillars of the 
Ionic order ; as alfo another walk above, encompaf- 
ied with an iron pallifade, enriched with curious 
tracery work and foliage, inclofmg a neat oclangular 
room : the upper part is finifhcd with a cupola and 
turret, wherein hangs the market bell, the whole be- 
ing about feventy feet in height. On each fide 
ftand, inafemicircular form, the butchers fhambles in 
two divifions, the frontifpieces being lupported with 
Doric columns, and the pediments enriched with a 
decoration of paintings appropriated to the fubjecl ; 
and behind is another building, ereaed and fitted 
for a iifh-market, which, with fome handfome houfcs 
inclofing all behind, form the whole into an agreea- 
ble and charming profpech 

St. Margaret was the tutelary faint and patronefs 
of this town, and accordingly the corporation has 
for its public and common leal the effigies of St. 
Margaret (landing in a triumphal manner, w r ounding 
the dragon with a crofs, and trampling upon him 
with her feet. The motto circumfcribed around the 
leal is, 

Sub Margareta teritur Draco, Jiat Cruet l<ztd. 

From which the honorary coat of arms of this town 
is derived, being on a field azure, three dragons 
heads transfixed, with three croffes, croflet fitchee, 

Here is a theatre very convenient and neat, neither 

profufely ornamented, nor difguitingly plain ; and 

R 4 although, 


although not free from faults, yet has none but what 
refulted from the architect being confined to fill up 
the fhell of an old building which was raifed for 
another purpofe. 

The afTemblv-rooms are capacious, and handfome- 
ly fitted up: th^y confift of three on a line: the 
firft an old town-hall, fifty-eight feet by twenty-ieven, 
and of a well proportioned loftinefs, would be a very 
good ball-room, had it a boarded floor, but at pre- 
fent forms a very noble anti-room. It opens into 
-the ball-room, fixty feet by twcmy-fcven, and twen- 
ty-two feet high, which would have been a proper 
one, if the architect had given his mafic gallery a 
hitch backwards ; for at prcfent it is a mere fhelf 
fluck in between the chimnies, an eye-fore to the 
room. If he did it through confinement for want 
of fpace, he fliould undoubtedly have formed his 
mufic-feats upon the plan of thofe at Almack's, at 
the end of the room ; they might have waved in a 
fcroll round the door of the card-room, mingled 
with branches of candles, which might eafily have 
been rendered a great ornament. 

The card-room is twenty-feven feet by twenty- 
ieven, and twenty-two feet high. 

As the three are upon a line, it would have 
given them an uncommon elegance, had the open- 
ings from one into another been in three arches in 
die centre fupported by pillars, inftead of the prcfent 
glafs doors, w r hich are mean. 

The eye would then have commanded at once a 
fuit of one hundred and forty-five feet, which, with 
hundfome luflres properly difpofed, would have ren- 
dered thefe rooms inferior to few in England, 



In the year 1683, fir John Turner, knight, three 
times mayor here, and for many years one of their 
rep re fenta lives in parliament, erected, at his own 
expence, a handfome building of free-flone, with 
two orders of columns, intending it for an exchange 
for merchants. 

Upon the fecond floor, in a nich in the front, is 
a Itatue of king Charles II. and within is the cuftom- 
houfe, fitted up with fevcral commodious apartments 
for that purpofe : on the platform above is railed 
an open turret, upon pillars of the Corinthian or- 
der, with an exchange bell therein, being finiflied 
with an obelifk and ball, whereon Hands Fame, in- 
ftead of a weadier-cock, the whole being ninety feet 

The fituation of this town, near the fall of the 
Qufe into the fea, gives it an opportunity of ex- 
tending its trade into eight different counties, fo that 
it fupplies many confiderable cities and towns with 
its heavy goods, not only of our own produce, but 
imported from abroad. 

It deals more largely in coals and wine than any- 
other town in England, except London, Briflol, and 
Newcaftle. In return for thefe articles of merchan- 
dife imported, it receives back for exportation all 
the corn produced in the feveral counties which it 
fupplies ; and of this one article, Lynn exports more 
than any one port in the kingdom, except Hull in, 

Its foreign trade is very confiderable, efpecially to 
Jiolland, Norway, the Baltic, Spain and Portugal. 




At the furvey no diftin&ion is made of the townfhips 
of Great and Little Maffingham, fo that it fceras to be 
undivided at that time, and occurs under the name 
of Mafmcham and Marfmcham, being feated on a 
tvet or marfhy meadow or common. The principal 
manor was then in king William the Conqueror. 

This extenfive parifh, containing near four thou- 
fand acres of land, remained in the crown till king 
Henry I. granted it away. 

Befides this lordfliip, the Conqueror had in the 
hundred of Docking, Southmcre, Titchwell and Stan- 
hoe ; in Weyland hundred, Saham, Griflon, Caf- 
ton and Breccles ; in Forehoe hundred, Hinghaiii ; 

in Mitfbrd hundred, Flockthorpe ; in Gailow 

hundred, Fakenham, Althorpe, Thorpland, Creak, 
Stjbbard and Kettlcftone ; in Brothercrofs hundred, 
Dunton and Norton ; in Holt hundred, Holt, CJey, 
Sniterley, Hempflead, Bathley, Burfton, Hunworth, 
Stody, Bay-field, Glanford, Gunthorpe, Scarnton and 
Morfton ; in North Greenhoe, Wighton, Hough- 
ton, Holkham, Quarles, Egraere, Wells, Warham, 
Stifkey, Hindrmgham, Walfingham and Dalling; 
iri Walfliam hundred, Moulton and Bailwick ; in 
Weft Flegg hundred, Martham and Clippefby ; in 
Heriftead hundred, Framlingham ; in Difs hun- 
dred, Watlingfet and Burflon ; in Eynsford hun- 
dred, Foulfiiam, Whitwell and BrandiRon ; in 
Taverham hundred, Taverham and Felthorpe ; in 
South Erpingham hundred, Gallon, Oulton, Strat- 
ton, Colby and V^ickmere; in Tunftcad hundred 

Felmingham ; in Eafl Flegg hundred, Ormefby 

and Runham ; in Clavering hundred Rildincham : 
allb poffeiTions and lordfliips in Norwich, Yarmouth 
and Thetford ; there were alfo many other lordfliips 



which Godric, his bailiff, took care of, and alfo 
William de Noiers for the Conqueror. 

John ]ord Fitz John, in the 3d of Edward I t 
granted to Roger bifliop of Norwich, and to the 
church of the Holy Trinity of Norwich, the ad- 
vovvion of the church of St. Mary of Maffingham, 
belonging to this lordfhip. On his death it came 
10 his brother, Richard Fitz John, anno 4" of Edw. 
I. a baron of the realm, who granted it by his deed, 
dated at London an the feaft of St. Peter and St. 
Paul, in the 6th of the faid king, to fir Thomas de 
Weyland, the judge. Stowe calls him the king's 
chief juflice: he was in the lyth of the faid reign, 
found guilty of notorious bribery and corruption ; 
his whole eftate and his goods were confifcated, and 
Jie was baniftied the kingdom. 

The aforefaid hiftorian relates, " that being con- 
*' vicled, and fearing to yield himfelf to the king's 
" mercy, he went to the Friars minors, at. Badwell 
" in Suffolk, took on him the habit of a Grey Friar, 
" but being difcovered by fome of his fervants, he 
" was watched and guarded, and after two months 
" fiegc, went out, forfaking his friar's cowl, and 

was taken and fent to the Tower.". 

In the 8th of Edward III. fir John de Norwich 
was lord, and had a grant of a weekly market on 
Friday, and of a fair for three days yearly, on the 
vigil, day, and day after St. Simon and Jucle, dated 
June 10, at Newcaflle upon Tvne. Witnelfcc, 
William archbifliop of York, Richard bifhop of Dur- 
ham, treafurer, John de Eltha'm, earl of Cornwall, 
the king's brother, John de Warren, earl of Suriy, 
Henry de Percy, William de iMomacute, Ralph de 
Nevill, fleward of the houfliold. 



At the difiblution it was farmed by Henry Bedine- 
field, efq. and on January 21, in the 26. and 3d of 
Philip and Mary, granted with the advoufon of the 
church, by the name of Maflingham Magna, alias 
Dertford, alias Lady Manor, to Thomas Grefham, 
efq. afterwards a knight, and founder of the Royal 
Exchange in London, who died lord of it. 

On the death of the lady Ann Grefham, his re- 
licl, at Ofterley houfe in Middlefex, November 23, 
in the 3gth of Elizabeth, fne was found to die feifed 
of it, held by the twentieth part of a fee ; and fir 
William Reed was her fon and heir, aged fifty. 
She was a daughter of William Fernley, gent, of 
Weft Greeting in Suffolk, and had to her fiift huf- 
band William Reed, a merchant of London, of the 
family of the Reeds of Beccles in Suffolk, and was 
iather of fir William, who kept a court here as 
lord July 21, in the gth of James I, 

After the Reeds it was in the family of the Bark- 
hams, of Southacre and Weflacre, who refided at 
High Houfe, now the feat of Anthony Hammond, 
efq. by purchafe from the late Edward Spelman, 
efq. who built the prefent houfe, and called it after 
the old name of the family feat, High Houfe. 

Sir Edward Barkham was lord mayor of London 
in 1621, and was created a baronet June 28, 1623: 
his only daughter and heirefs, Helen, married Charles 
Yallop, efq. Ion and heir of fir Robert Yallop : the 
late Edward Spelman, efq. was fon of this Gharles 
Yallop and Helen daughter of fir Edward Barkham, 
and took the name of Spelman from Glemerit Spelr 
man, efq. one of the barons of the Exchequer, 
whofe daughter Dorothy married fir Robeit Yallop. 
Hence it was that Charles Yaliop, efq. father of 



the late Edward Spelman, became lord of the ma- 
nor and abbey eftate, and patron of the church of 
Great Maffingham, and in the year 1698 prefented 
the Rev. Benjamin Squire to the rectory, who dying 
in 1731, was fucceeded by Dr. John Gardiner, on 
the prefentation of iir Robert Walpole, who had 
purcliaied the advovvfon of the late Edward Spel- 

Sir Thomas Reed married the daughter of Tho- 
mas Cecil, earl of Salifbury, and his youngeft fon 
fold the Maffingham eftate, and that of Weftacre, 
to fir Edward Barkham, bart. and from him this 
lordfhip, as before obferved, came to Charles Yal- 
lop, efq. (only fon of fir Robert Yallop, knt. of 
Bowthorpe by Norwich, and Dorothy his wife, 
daughter of Clement Spelman, efq. of Gray's Inn, 
London, a baron of the Exchequer) on l^is marriage 
with Helen, only daughter and heir of fir Edward 
Barkham, bart. of Weilacre ; whofe fon and heir 
Edward Yallop, alias Spelman, e!q. conveyed it to 
iir Robert Walpole, carl of Grford, and in that fa- 
mily it remains, George earl of Orford, lord lieu- 
tenant of this county, being the preient lord. 

manor was called after the monks of the abbey of 
Maffingham, being iubordinate, and a cell to that 
of the cluniac monks at Caftleacre. 

Great part of this, manor, with many other landi 
md revenues, were at different times and in different 
reig'<s given by the feveral proprietors, as they fuc- 
ceeded, to the priory and monks of Caftleacre ; the 
times of fuch donations, as well as the names of the 
donors, are very uncertainly related by hiftorians, 
though a chartulary of the priory of Caftleacre is 



faid ftill to exift, and is to be found in the library 
of the late earl of Orford, probably now in the pof- 
feffion of the earl of Hardwicke, at Wimple near 
Cambridge, but it has no date. 

On the diffolution of the priory of Caftle-acre, 
this manor was granted to Thomas duke of Norfolk, 
to be held of the king in capitc, December 22, in 
the agth year of king Henry VIII. From the duke 
of Norfolk it came to the Walpoles, and John Wai- 
pole, ferjeant at law, was found to hold it, whofc 
fon and heir, William, had livery of. it in the 8th 
bf Elizabeth. 

This manor is now in the prefent earl of Orford, 
the countefs his lordfhip's mother holding it only in 
jointure, and being tenant for life. 

Great Maffingham was a cell, or fmall priory, be- 
longing to Caflleacre prioiy, dedicated to the Virgin 
and St. Nicholas, and often called in old writings 
the hofpital of St. Mary; it was founded by Nicho- 
las le Syre, of Maffingham. 

Many grants were made and donations given to 
this priory of Maffingham, and many lands purchafed 
by the prior and monks, fo that the priory of the 
Virgin and St. Nicholas at Maffingham became in 
procefs of time very cdnfiderable for its poffeffions, 
and notwithftanding Maffingham abbey was a cell 
to Caflleacre abbey, and the cluniac monks, it was 
neverthelefs very powerful and rich in itfelf. 

On its diffolution it was granted, January 21, in 
the 2d and ^d of Philip and Mary, with the manor 
and rectory of Langham, and advowfon of the vica- 


fage, the manor of Mbrflon, and the advowfon of 
the reftory, the manor of Walfingham, the manor 
of Combs, and advowfon of the re&ory, and the 
manor of Narford, to Thomas Gfefham, efq. 

On the death of fir Thomas Grefliam, in 1579, 
it came to his lady Anne, and on her deceafe to her 
ion lit William Reed, by her fiift hufband, who' 
held it with his lordfhip of Mafflngham Magna, or 
Dertford's ; and fo to fir Edward Barkham, the Yal- 
lops, the late Edward Spelman, efq. and is now in 
the poifeiiion of the prefent earl of Orford, 1 7 7 8i 

This priory has met with the fame fate as the pri- 
ory of Caftleacre, to which it was fubordinate, and 
is now converted to" a farm-houfe, nothing remaining 
but old walls, that appear and mark it to be the 
inins of a religious houfe. 

This eftatc, with manv others in this town, are 
the property of the earl of Orford, patron of th 

FF.LTHAM'S MANOR. This manor, after being in; 
podefhon of the Wodehoufe family and many others, 
came in the reign of queen Elizabeth to the Walpolei 
family, and William Walpole, efq. died ieifed of it; 

Sir Edward Coke was poffeffecl of it in the rcigii 
of king James I. and his defcendants, the right hon. 
Thomas Coke, earl of Leicelfer, died lord of it in 
1759, and it remains in that family at prefent. 

To the poor of the parifh of Great Maflingham 
many charitable bequefts have been made. 



Dr. Pierce, formerly matter of Gonville and Caius 
college in Cambridge, left one pound ten (hillings, 
to be paid yearly at Michaelmas by the mailer and 
fellows of that college. 

Twenty marks, or 14!. was given by a Mr. Wright, 
formerly an inhabitant of this parifh, which is put 
into the hands of one of the principal parifhioners, 
and the interefl paid annually at Chriflmas and dif- 
tributed to the poor. 

A houfe and fmall piece of land given by Dr. Ber- 
ridge, and lett at al. los. a year, the rent to be dif- 
-tributed every Ghriflmas. 

Seven acres and one rood of land given to the 
town, fpr repairing the church clock, and for ringing 
a bell at four o'clock in the morning and at eight in 
the evening, from All Saints Day to St. Matthias. 
This has been neglected many years. 

Six white penny loaves are given to the poor every 
Sunday, according to the will of Charles Calthorpe, 
efq. payable out of his eflate in this town purchafcd 
by the late carl of Leicefter ; alfo out of the fame 
eftate three (hillings and four-pence yearly, for the 
repair of the town well. 

The plate in the church is, 

One large filver flaggon, weighing fifty-fix ounces 
2nd a half. 

One filver cup with a cover, weighing fixtcen 

One filver plate, weighing twelve ounces. 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 233 

In tliis town is a free fchool, endowed with 20!. 
per ann. for a mafler, to be chofen by the redors of 
Maffinghain Magna and Parva, and of Harptey, 
who is to have no preferment in the church. 

This free fchool was founded by Charles Cal- 
thorpe, efq. who tied an eft ate in this purifh for the 
annual payment of sol. for c\er, which cRate was 
purchafed by lord Leicefter, and is how in the 
Holkham family. Mr. -Calthorpe in his will men- 
tions, that he left this 2oh as a beginning only, and 
to encourage others to encreafe and enlarge the 
foundation, of which he exprelfed his hopes ; but 
his hopes and wiflies have been vain, and he Rands 
the firft and only benefactor to the fchool. The 
mafter is bound to teach twenty-Five boys, if there 
are fo manv, of the pariflics of Great and Little 
Maflingham. and Harpley ; and in cafe they cannot 
fupply the number, then the paiiih of Rougham is 
entitled to fend children. 

There are above one thoufand acres of common 
in this parifh, and formerly the poor kept a herd of 
fixty or icventy cows upon it, and paid a herdfinan 
for attending them ; but this valuable cuftorn has 
been long laid afide, and the commons made no 
other itfe of by the poor but to cut firing, and to 
turn a horfe upon occafionally ; and the commons- 
are become fheep-walks, and feed the numerous 
flocks of the capital farmers. 

The church is a regular pile, cOnfi'fting of a nave, 
a north and fouth ifle, with a chancel covered witk 
lead ; at the weft end is ,a four-fquure tower. 

On a grave-ftone with a brafs plate in the chancet, 

Per vario* cafus, hie jacet (tt iniurbatum jaceat) cor- 
S pus 


pus Johs. Beregij D. D. qid fuit Jilius J-ohs. Bcrcgif 
,S. T. D. hujus icclefia reclcr y obt. 9 die menfis JVovemb. 
Ao. Dni. 1690. Sacrijicmm Deo; with thefe arms, 
argent, a faltire ingrailed between four efcallops, 

The church of MaiTingharn All Saints was fland- 
ing in 1392. 

Sir Robert Sygon, of Lynn Bifhop, prieft, by 
his will in 1505, " bequeaths his body to be buried 
in the church of St. Mary of Maflingham ; gives a 
legacy to St. John BaptifVs guild there, 7 acres of 
laud to the common profights of the faid town, to 
pay and difcharge the leytc money of 35. by yere, 
and to pay the holy brede loofe, and the mo- 
ney longyng evVy Sunday for ever; a clofe called 
Ryfmg-Yard, with half an acre of land, and 2 i ^ 
acres of land in the fields of Mafiinghain, in di- 
vers pieces. 

" Item, to the commonalty of Maffingham, with 
the Croft, an acre of land and an, half, lying in Len 
Way, with all the appertenances, and implements 
theicto belonging, to make their common drinkyngs 
of the plow day, and odyr times at their pleaiure, 
Ib that they every yere kepe myne obit, ringing a 
peale for my foule, and fing a mafs for ever, and 
do odyr good deeds." 

John Berridge, D. D. died relor of this parifli in 
1698, to whom Benjamin Squire (father of the late 
Charles Squire, rector of Congham and Little Maf- 
fingham ; and of the late John Squire, re&or of La- 
'vcnha-m in Suffolk, both eminent for their learning) 
fuccccded on the preientation of the Yallop family, 
of riSgh Hoiifc, \\ r c-ftaci-c. 



In i 731, John Gardiner, L. L. D. re&or of Brun- 
tiftead, and minifter of St. Giles's and St. Gregory's 
in the city of Norwich, was prefentcd by fir Robert 
Walpole, knight of the garter, firfl lord couimit- 
iioner of the trcafury, and prime minifter to king 
George I. and II. univcriaJly acknowledged the 
grtatcft ftatcfman of the age he lived in. Dr. Gar- 
diner lived the much refpccled reclor of this church 
near forty years, until the i^tli of November 1770, 
when to the unfpeakablc grief of his family and 
friends, he -departed this -life, it- tat. 68. He was 
ion of John Gardiner, efq. of Aldburgh in die 
county of Suffolk, who was captain in lord Cutt'i 
regiment of foot, and died at Minorca in the reign 
of queen Anne. His remains were interred in the 
chancel of Great Maffingham, by the altar, next to 
the grave of his late affectionate wife, and tender 
parent to her children, who died October lo, 1759- 
A grave-Hone is over both, and a hatchment over 
the grave-Hone, with the arms of Gardiner and 
Turner: fhe was the daughter of John Turner, cfq. 
of Saffron Waldon in Eflex, and was married to tjie 
late Dr. Gardiner October 6, 1722. They had 
many children, of whom only four lived to the age 
of twenty-one years, and of which two only fur- 
vivcd their much lamented parents. 

1. Richard, born at Saffron Walden in Effex, 
Odlober 4, 1 723, who fervcd as -captain of marines, 
on board the Rippon man of war of fixty guns, at 
the fiege of Guadalupe, one of the French Caribbe* 
illands, in the year 1759. He married Ann, the 
only daughter of Benjamin Bromhead, of Thurleby, 
near Lincoln. 

2. John, who died at fea in the command of the 
Bedford man of war of feventy guns, and was bu- 
ried oft' the Rock of Liibon, February 8, 1747. 

S * 3. William 


3. William, who ferved with his eldeft brother 
at the fiege of Guadalupc, in the Weft Indies, and 
was lieutenant in the 4th regiment of foot : he died 
at fea, on his paflage home from the Englifh garri- 
fon in the citadel of Baffe Terre, Guadalupe. and 
buried off the ifland of St. Kitt's, in July 1761. 

4. Margaret, married to the Rev. Thomas Mo- 
ney, re&or of Braken-Afh near Norwich. 

The late Dr. Gardiner was a man univerfally re- 
fpecled throughout life ; a man of learning, and a 
"gentleman: his excellent difcourfes in the pulpit 
proclaimed him to be the firft, his addrefs and affa- 
bility out of it to be the laft. He was a moft ten- 
der parent to his children, an affectionate hufband, 
a humane good man to all ! The tears of his parifh- 
ioners at his funeral, bore an honorable tcftimony 
to his virtues. His pall was fupported by fix of 
the neighbouring clergy, whofe concern in that laft 
melancholy office, was alone exceeded by the poig- 
nant feelings of thofe more nearly allied. 

In 1771, James Trivett was prefented to this rec- 
tory by the earl of Orford. In 1772, Cock Lang- 
ford, prefented by the earl of Orford. 

Over the grave-flone, near the altar, is the fol- 
lowing infcription : 

H. S. E. 

L. L. D. 
Per triginta anno* 

tt Amplius 

Hujus Ecdtfitf 



OF F R E E P> R I D G E. 237 

The foregoing was found after Dr. Gardiner's de- 
ccafc, in his own hand wriiing, and was therefore 
put upon the ftone in preference to any other in- 

Ob. Xovem. 15 Die 1770, atat. 6S. 


CariJ/imo Pair? 

Ricardits Filius Superjlcs. 

Mar en 5 Pojuit. 


MASSIXGHAM PARVA. Great Maffingham 
and Little Maffingham, as before o.bferved, were un- 
divided before, and at the grand furvey making one 
townfhip, the greater! part of which was in the 
Conqueror's hands, being the poffeffions of Harold, 
the late king, who was killed at the battle of Haft- 
ings. Another part of Maffingham was the lordfhip 
of Euilace, earl of Bologne; this was what is now 
called Maflingham Parva. 

This manor came to fir Robert de Thorpe, and. 
continued, in the family of the Thorpes for many 
generations ; thence tq the familv of the Timers at 

- Frederick Tilney, of Boflon, was lord of this ma- 
'nor in 1454, fix years before the death of Hen. VI. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of Laurence Chey- 
ncy, efq, of Ditton in Cambridgefhire. By her he 
had one only daughter, Elizabeth, who married fir 
Humphrey Bourchier, knight, (eldeit fon of John 
lord Berners) who was flain at Barnet field, on the 
part of king Edward IV. on Eafter-day, 1471, arid 
was lord of this manor in right of his wife : flie afr 
tenvards married Thomas Howard, fon and heir of 
S a John 


John lord Howard, (who was created earl of Sum-, 
and after was duke of Norfolk) and dying in 1507, 
-was buried in the nuns choir of the Mmories, with-* 
out Aldgatc, Condon ; but this manor was held for 
life, by the courtefy of England, by her hufband. 

Sir John Bourchicr, fon and heir of fir Humphry, 
was fummoned to parliament as lord Berners, in the 
lith and i2ihpf Henry VII: Sec. and died deputy 
general of the town and marches of Calais, Marcli 

He married Catherine, daughter of John Howard 
duke of Norfolk, who furvived him, and died March 
". 15S5- 

In the yth year of king Henry VIII. the jury find, 
ton the death of fir William Capel, knight, that long 
before his death, fir John Bourchier, lord Berners, 
had fold his reverfion of this manor and advowfon 
to fir William Capel, who gave it to his grandfon 
Edward, fecond fon of fir Giles Capel, fon and heir 
to fir William, being then held, as it is (aid, of the 
prior of Caftleacre. This Edward, (afterwards a 
knight) fold it in the 26th of Henry Mil. by fine, 
with Ann his wife, to John Jenour and Anthony 
Brown : foon after this it came to the Mordaunts fa- 
mily, who before this had an intcreft in the laid town. 

Henry UEftrange, of Hunftanton, efq. by his 
will, dated November 13, 1483, appears to be lord 
of it; and his third fon, John L'Eftrange, efq. who 
married Margaret, daughter and coheir of fir Tho- 
mas L'Eitrange, of Walton Deyille in Warvvickfhirc, 
fcfq. died feiied of this lordfhip. 

OF F R E E B R I > G E. 239 

By his will, dated December 16, 1516, he be- 
queaths his body to be buried (if he died within five 
miles of MafTingham) before our BlefTed Lady, in 
the chapel on the fouth fide of the chancel of this 
church, and that a tomb be made lor him, and let 
up there in the laid chapel, after the manner ol fir 
Henry Heydon's tomb in Norwich, with the arms of 
him, his wife, and his anceflors, and a fculpture of 
him and his wife, with an orate, Sec. and if his corps 
lies in any other place, he wills that a plain Hone, 
with his arms and his wile's, be laid over him, bu], 
that a tomb be neverthelets erected here. 

To the church of Maffingham Parva he gives a 
vcftment and tuniclc, after the rate of fir Robert 
RatciyfPs cope, with orate, Sec. of white damafk, 
price eight marks, to be made after the rate of the 
green veftment at Hunftanton, with the Strangcs 
arms, but that his three efcutcheons have his father's 
arms on the one fide, his father-in-law's on the 
other, and his and his wife's at the tail. To Bar- 
bara his daughter, all his books of law, except the 
boarded books, to be giveii to her fon, if file have 
the fortune to have one : his boarded books to the 
library of Lincoln's-Inn, every one of them to have 
a fcripture of his gift, being a fellow, twice reader, 
and twice treafurcr of that fociety ; and to the chap- 
ter of that houfe, a vpilment and an altar cloth, 
price ten marks : to his wife the manors of Maffiug- 
ham and Congham, and after her deceafe to her 
daughter Barbara; and in default to Richard L<? 
Strange, the fon of Thomas Le Strange ; Mafter 
William Mordaunt and Barbara his daughter, &c. 
executors. Proved October 23, 1517. 

This John is faid to have been one of the king's 

S 4 This 


Barbara, his daughter and heir, married Robert 
Mordaimt, cfq. lord of this manor and Congham in 
her right, which Robert was elded ion of William 
Mordaunt, prodionotary of the common pleas, by 
Jane his wife, daughter and coheir of Thomas 
Huntington, efq. of Hempflead in Effcx. It ap- 
pears that in the 21 ft of Henry VIII. he and his 
wife held this manor, and lands called Elingham\s, 
Walcote's, Rufteyn's, Geffrey's, Pettygard's, and 
Alexander's, with thirty mefluages here and in Cong- 
ham St. Ann's, St. Andrew's, and All Saints, &:c. 
and in this family it Mill remains, fir -Charles Mor- 
daunt, bart. of Walton Deville in Warwickfhire, 
being the prefent lord, defcended from fir Ofbert dc 
Mordaunt, a Norman knight, lord of Radwill in 
Bcdfordfhirc, by the gift of his brother Euftachius 
de Sanclo /Egidio, which he had by the gift of the 
Conqueror, lor his and his father's ferviccs at the 

The church is dedicated to St. Andrew. 

On a marble grave-flone Orate p. a fa. D"ni. 

Jacobi Bajlard, quondam rccloris ijtius ccci'ic, qnl lot a- 
liter tectum hujus cancdli fieri fecit, et obi. Av. Dai. 
1530, cvj. <bc. 

Between the arch at the upper end of the nave 
and the fouth ifle, is an altar monument of grey 
marble, railed above a yard from the ground, on 
which have been the portraitures of a man and wo- 
man, and that of our Saviour on the crofs, with 
the fhields of arms, and a rim of brafs running 
round it, now all reaved and ftolen ; probably in 
memory of John L'Eurange, efq. and Margaret his 
wife, before mentioned ; and in a window near to it 
were the arms of the faid John, gules, two lions 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 241 

pa (Taut guardant, argent, quartering his wife's, wliicl}. 
were the fame, \yiih a bendlet over ail, or. 

Againft a pillar, a department of marble witfy 
die arras pf Mordaunt, impaling Talmarlh ; argent, 
a frett, fable. Sir CiiarLs Mordaunt, knight and ba- 
ronet, d)'td at London, July 10, 1648, aged p,g, he 
was married to Catherine, daughter of Sir Lionel l'alk- 
machc, of Hdmingham in Suffolk, knight a baronet, by 
whom lie had Sir Charles, Ids eldejl Jon, Kath. TalU- 
mache, (dying before her father) John, Henry,, (departed 
aljo) Elizabeth and Amy. 

Here remains in civill trujl 
His beloved bcwayled dii/t, 
Whofe goodnefs is fccure from fear 
Of finding any fepylchrer. 

On a marble gra\ 7 e-Rone at the earl: end of the 
nave Hie fublocantitr reliqnue Dni. Caroli 'Mordant 
de Mdffingham, militis et baronnetti, filij et karedu 
RoUti Mordant militis, de quo D'no Carolo plura ad> 
wurum oj'icntalem le^antur, 1648. 

On another, with the arms of Mordaunt, Carolus 
Mordant baronettus, Caroli Mordant, baronetti, et Ka- 
thtriiiic Talamach /iliits, humanitatis et virtitiis exemplar, 
obt. Ao. Dni. 1664, die 24 Apr. 

Anno tftat. 25, in ateinum doloris et amoris monu- 
mentum Eiiiabetha Tlwri. confers integernma rnarmor 
hoc pojuit. 

On another M. S. Una Anna W. Rijley de Bed- 
ford gen. filia et hceres D'ni. Johs. Mordaunt 'de Walton 
in com. Warw. bar. uxor amans et amaia, cajla^ pia, 
Jidelis, affabilitate, pudidtia, el morum fuavitate, pera- 

mabilis ; 


wiab'dis; rnriolis wili^nh occic'i: 1 ^, -mortis cxirui'is {cfr~. 
ta Jpc rcnajcendi ad glonam) hoc jubicr thannor depojuit, 

Ql)ijl prid. non Jvruj anno falutis nojlree 1692, arid- 
its Jiue bis gravida ci feme I puerpera, he.u 

nullam rdiquit Joholem, quippe aUeram in imitnahilis, at- 
teram in utero cum matre ademptiim fagemus, Penelope 
quam foLvn pepcrit, matrcm prctfccdcns, eod.rn quicjcit 
Jepulckro, Et Jic inmaterrits amplexibus dorrnirc vidca- 
tnr. Vila vix inchoaia reccjjit, j)rid. non. Janur. Ao. 
Chrijli incarnali 1690. 

In 1760, on the refignation of the Rev. Armine 
Stylcman, rector of Ringdead, and brother of Ni- 
colas Styleman, efcj. of Sncttifliarn, the Re\-. Charles 
Mordaunt, lecond Ion of fir Charles Mordaunt, vva 
prefented to this reclory by his father. 

MIDDLETON, lies about three miles caft of 
Lynn, in the road to Swaffham, on a turnpike road. 

SCALES HALL. This lordfliip was under many 
ibvereign princes of this kingdom, in the noble fa- 
mily of lord Scales, one of the mofl powerful barons 
not only in Norfolk but in all England. 

1. In the reign of Henry II. Roger dc Scales was 
lord of this manor. 

2. In Richard I. RobciL dc Scales his fon. 

3. In Henry III. Roger de Scales his fon. 

4. The fame reign, Robert his fon. 

5. In Edward I. Robert his fon. 

6. In Edward II. Robert his fon. 

7, Iu 


l! ,'i" ! ' W\ 

., " liiii' V .ft" 

?iii!. iiiii 


O F F R E B R I D G E, 2.13 

( In Edward III. and ) , 
7" { Richard II. } Robert lus fon " 

8. In Henry IV. Robert his fon. 
g. In Henry V. Robert his fon diecju nmanicd. 
In the fame, Thomas his younger brother. 

10. In Henry VI. the faid Thomas was lord. 
He was killed the latter end of the reign of Henry 
VI. His fon Thomas died before him, and his daugh- 
ter married the ion and heir of earl Rivers, in the 
reign of Edward IV. who was fummoned to parlia- 
ment by the title of lord Scales. 

11. In Edward IV. Anthony lord Scales, in whn m 
the title of Scales was extinguifhed. He was be- 
headed at Pomfret by order of Richard duke of 
Gloucefter, on the death of Edward IV. to whofc 
queen fie was brother. 

The title of Scales, and great poficiTions, thus 
continued in a lineal defcent, almoft from fadicr to 
fon. from the reign of Henry II. to the death of 
Edward IV. a fpace of three hundred years and up- 

In the ^^d of Edward I. it appears by the ef- 
cheat rolls that he died feiied of this lordihip. 

Robert lord Scales, fon of Robert and Ifabel his 
wife, was in the ^4th of Edward I. created knight 
of the Bath with prince Edward, and in the ifl <>f 
Edward II. fummoned to attend his coronation, to 
be folemnized after the feafl of St. Valentine, by writ 
dated at Dover, Jan. 8. The lady liabel his mo- 
ther, in the (jth of that king, icttled on her ion Ro- 


their entry into London on July 2, in the 3 8th of 
the faid king, he took poffeilion of, and fecurcd the 
Tower of London, with other lords, for the king ; 
but after the battle of Northampton, on the gth of 
that month, wherein the king was taken, many in 
the Tower furrendering them (elves, this lord endea- 
vouring to make his efcape, entered a wherry or 
boat, late in the evening, with three others, and 
rowing towards Weftiiiinfter to take fanclvtary, was 
defcried by a woman, and the wherry men falling 
Upon him, killed him and cafl him on land, (as 
Stowe lavs) befide St. Mary Overy s. 

Hall relates, that on king Henry's entering into* 
London after the aforefaid battle, with the carl of 
March, Sec. on July 16, the Tower of London was 
Ueliveied to the faid earl by coinpofition, but the 
lord Scales fufpecling the fequel of the delivery, en- 
tered a wherry, privily intending to have fled to the 
queen, but was efpied by divers watermen belong- 
ing to the earl of . Warwick, who waited for his 
forth coming on the Thames, and he was fuddenly 
taken, and fhortly llain with many darts and dag- 
gers, v and his body left all bloody and naked at the 
gate of the Clynke, which after was buried in the 
church adjoining, that is, in St. Mary Ovcry's, in 
Snrry. He is faid to have had a fon, Thomas, who 
died before him ; fo that he left a daughter and folc 
heir, Elizabeth, then married, as is laid, to fir Hen- 
ry Bourchier, knight, fecond ion of Henry Bour- 
chier, earl of Effex, aged 24. 

On the 2yth of May, in the ad of king Edward 
IV. we find the faid Elizabeth to be the wife of An- 
thony Wbbdvi'lle, fon and heir of Richard Wood- 
viile, earl Rivers, lord treafurer to that king, and 
father of Elizabeth his queen; and in February fol- 


lowing was fummoncd to parliament by the title of 
lord Scales. 

Sir Anthony Woodvi!le had no children by the 
lady Elizabeth, Co that the lineal defcent of the ia~ 
tnily of lord Scales ended iri her. 

Sir Anthony, \vhofe titles were carl of Rivers, lord 
of Scales and Nevvcells, upon the death of Edward 
IV. was fcized and arrefled by the duke of Clou- 
cefler, at Northampton, about the end of the faici 
month, coming to London with the young king, 
Edward V. of whom he had the governance, and 
forthwith committed to the cafllc of Shcrift-Hulton 
in Yorkfhire, where he made his lafl will, on June 
12-] following, the day before the cruel murder of the 
Voung king and his brother in the Tower of Lon- 
don, as Dugdale relates, which was to tUuPffapolbt 
as follows : 

" I, Anthony Woodviile, in the caflle of SheriiT- 

" Hutton, bequeath all my lands that were my f;v 

" ther's to my brother fir Edward Woodviile, and 

" his 'heirs male; my heart to be buried (if I die 

*' fouth of Trent) before our Lady of Pcwe, bcfide 

" St. Stephen's college at Weflminfter, alfo the lands 

" that were my firll wife's, the lady Scales, and 

" Thomas lord Seales"*s her brother, to my brother 

" lir Edward, and his licirs male ; but he to whom 

** it fliould come, before he took poffelikm thereof, 

" to dcducl five hundred marks to be employed ior 

" the fouls of the laid lady and her brother, and 

" the fouls o'f all the Scales'^ blood, fcc. and to fin*i 

" a prieit for one year to prav ftn 1 than, his own 

" foul, and all Chriftian fouls, at our Lady of Pewe.; 

" and another priefl to ling at the chapel of thv. 

*' Rodes in Greenwich, ior Im own iGtil, and -all 

t% Chriflian fouls." 


Soon after the date of this will, he was carried to 
Pontefraft cattle in Yorkfhire, and was there brought 
on a fcaffold by fir Richard Ratcliff, one of the 
duke of Gloucefter's chief confidents, and not fnf- 
fercd to fpcak any thing in vindication of himfeLf, 
fir Richard telling the people he was a traitor. 

We find this fir Edward his brother, in his laft 
xviil, dated February 20, 1490, and proved March 
23 in the faid year, to Rile himfelf earl Rivers, and 
gives his body to be buried in the abbey of St. 
James at Northampton. 

Hall favs he was beheaded at PontefracT:, with the 
lord Richard Gray, (the queen's fon by her firfl 
huFoand) fir Thomas Vaughan and fir Richard 
Haute, the lame day the lord Haftings was behead- 
ed in the Tower, and their bodies were buried na- 
ked in the monaflery there. 

Dugdale fays, that in the ad of Richard III. 
John duke of Norfolk had a grant of this lordfhip, 
and foon after, on the death of Richard, was for- 
feited: this grant was dated February i, anno 2d of 
Richard IIL 

On the accefTioii of king Henry VII. Elizabeth, 
daughter and heir of fir John Howard, wife of John 
de Vcre, earl of Oxford, was found one of the heirs 
of Elizabeth, late lady Scales, abovemefitioned, as 
great grand-daughter of Margaret Scales, daughter 
of Robert lord Scales, wife of fir Robert Howard, 
and filler of Roger lord Scales. The other heir was 
fir William ,Tyndal, knighted on the creation of 
Arthur, prince of Wales, deicended from Elizabeth 
Scales, lifter of the afbieiaid Margaiet, which Eliza- 
beth, married fir Roger Pclbrigg, and Lad fir Simon 


Felbrigg, whole daughter and lieir, Alana, married 
fir William Tyndal, grandfather to fir William above- 

On a divifion of the Scales's cftatc, this tcfwnfhip 
was affigned to the family of the earls of Oxford ; 
and John de Vcre, earl of Oxford, fon of the above- 
mentioned Elizabeth, was lord of this manor, and 
dying without iffuc, it defccndcd to his nephew, John 
de Verc, earl of Oxford, fon of his brother fir George 
de Vere ; and on the death of the faid John, his ei- 
tate was divided amoncrtl his three fillers and coheirs 

Dorothy, who married John Nevill, lord Latimef> 
and Elizabeth, who married fir Anthony Wingfield> 
of Letheringham in Suffolk, knight of the garter, 
vice-chamberlain, See. to king Henrv VIII. had each 
a moiety of this lordfhip. 

John lord Latimcr, fon of John lord I.atimef, by 
(Dorothy, had livery of his part or moiety in the be- 
ginning of queen Elizabeth, who dying in 1577, his 
estate was divided amongft his four daughters and 
coheirs ; and his right in this town came to fir The-' 
mas Cecil, afterwards earl of Exeter, by the marri- 
age of Dorothy, one of the faid four daughters and 
coheirs, who purchafed alfo the Wingfield part or 
moiety, and fold the whole to fir Thomas Holland, 
by a licence for fo doing, (it being held in capite) on 
January l, igth James I. 

In 1635, fir John Heveningham is faid to be lord ,> 
In 1649, nr "William Pafton, bart. was lord. 

Richard BerncV, efq. died lord in 1699, and this 

manor was ordered by a decree iu chancery to be 

'T fold 


fold (1709) to pay his debts, being mortgaged by 
him to Mrs. Martcll. 

Ifaac Lehetip, efq. was lord, and on his death it 
came to his two daughters and coheirs. 

Man-, one of them, married fir Edward Williams, 

ban. of Wales ; the other, Elizabeth, to 

Lloyd, efq. of Epping in ElTex. 

Sir Edward was lord of this manor in her right, 
and fold it to vice-admiral Savage Moftyn, who dy-.; 
ing in 1757, left it to fir Roger Moftyn, bait, hia 
nephew, who fold it to a tenant of the late lord Lei- 

Edward Evcrard. cfq. alderman of the corporation 
of Lynn, has a plcaiant houfe and gardens in this 
village, with a mount which looks over the town, 
and channel of the harbour. 

There were three other manors in this town, which 
were probably all united in the family of the lord 



In this town the lords Scales had their feat, part 
of which is ftill remaining, the gate-houfc or tower. 

The church of Middleton is dedicated to the Vir- 
gin Mary, and is a regular pile, confifting of a nave, 
a north and fouth ifle, with a chancel, die nave and 
north and fouth ifles arc covered with lead, and the 



crianccl vviLh reed, and has a fquare tower with one 

In the Windows of the norm ifle thcfe arms ar? 
on painted glafs, gules, fix efcallops; argent, lord 

A grave-Rone, In memtity of JameS tvtrerd, A. AT 
iiicar of this parijh, who died May 29, l 722, aged 50. 

On the diffolutiori of Blackburgh priory in this 
town, the appropriated rectory came to the crown, 
kith the patronage of the vicarage, and were grant- 
ed, in the fjth of James I. to Francis Morris and 
Francis Phclps, and in the December following con* 
Veyed by them to fir Henry Spclman* 

The prefent vicar, the Rev. John Dovrfing, \va* 
prefcnted in 1758, by Elizabeth, daughter of liaac 
Leheup, cfq. widow of Lloyd, cfq. 

BLACK BURGH PRIORY. This priory was endowed 
tvith confiderable revenues by the lord Scales and 
other families : there is nothing now remaining of it, 
except a part turned into a dove-houfc. 

MINTLING. This lordfliip is adjoining to Gay- 
Kood, is called in Doomfday-book Meltinga, and 
was then the lordfliip of William de Beaufoe, bifhop 
of 1'hetford, which he held in his own right. 

This bifhop, on his death, gave this and many 
other lordfhipi; to his church, and it continued in the 
fee of Norwich till granted, with Gaywood, by king 
Henry VIII. to the duke of Norfolk, and fo came 
(as is there obferved) to the Thurfbys, and was fold 
by Francis Thurfby, efq. to fir Cyril Wyche. 

T a Sonic 


Some conceive that it takes its name from a mint 
that the bifhops of Norwich had here for coining 
of money, a privilege which many great fees, both 
in England and beyond fea, were endowed with ; 
but this is a miftake, it being fo called long before 
the fee at Elmham, Thetford, or Norwich, had any- 
right or interefl in it ; Mel is to be met with in 
many towns, as Melford, Melburn, Melton, &:c. from 
Mel, a river, and Ing, a meadow; we find alfo a 
priory at Minding in Lincolnfhire. 

Bifhop Beaufoe had a grant from the Conqueror 

of this town, Sedgeford in Smithdon hundred 

Eccles in Shropham hundred Langham in Holt 

hundred Gunton and Shipdam in North Erping- 

ham hundred Walfham in Walfham hundred 

Blofield and Plumflead in Bloheld hundred Hemef- 
by in Well Flegg hundred Rockland in Hcnflead 
hundred Mendham in Earfham hundred North 

Langley in Loddon hundred Helmingham and 

Thurning in Eynsford hundred Taverham and At- 
tleburgh in Taverham hundred Blickling, Barning- 
ham, Eaft Beckham, Mafham and Stratton in South 
Erpingham hundred Horiey in Happing hundred 
Scratby, Onnefby and Thrigby, in Eaft Flegg hun- 
dred Stration in Depwade hundred Raveningham 
in Clavering hundred Creflingham Magna in South 
Greenhoe hundred Hunftanton in Smithdon hun- 
dred Stanford in Grimfhoe hundred Gateley in 
Launditch hundred Colkirk in Brothercrofs hun- 
dred Saxlingham in Gallow hundred Snetterlcy, 

Burningham and Melton, in Holt hundred Hin- 

dringham and Thorpe in North Greenhoe hundred 
Houghton, Barningham and Beckham, in North 
Erpingham hundred Hemlington in Walfham hun- 
dred Plumflead in Burlingham, Freethorpe and 

Litcham, Bradifton, Catton and Bucham, Brundall 



and Witton in Blofielcl hundred Winterton, Somer- 
ton, Afhby Martham, Rollefby, Burgh, Baftwick, 
Hadefcoe, Billockby and Clippefby in Weft Flegg 
hundred South Bui lingham and Tivetfhall in Hen- 
ftead hundred, and the lands of St. Michael in Nor- 
wich, and Taverham in Taverham hundred. 

All thefe lordfliips were granted to him, to be held 
by him in fee, in his own right. 

GAYTON-WELL-HALL. Near to Gayton (and now 
included in Gayton town) when the book of Dooml- 
day was made, was a town called Welle, from its 
watery fcite, 

Of this town or lordfhip, Stigand (who held it as 
a lay fee) was deprived by the Conqueror, who gave 
it to William de Efchoies, or Scohies, who poffeffed 
it but a fliort time, and gave it to the abbey of St. 
Stephen's at Caen in Normandy. 

King Richard II. in his 5th year, granted this 
priory and manor to fir John Devereux and Mary 
his wife, and Joan their daughter, for their lives ; 
and on the 225 th of June, in the 3d of Henry V. 
John Wodehoufe, efq. (the renowned warrior) had 
a grant of it by the name of the priory, or houfe of 
Wells, with the manor of Wells, to be held by the 
fervice of a rofe, to be paid on Midfummer-day. In 
1421 he obtained licence to appropriate the reclory 
which belonged to the priory, and was now veftcd 
in him, to the chauntry prielt of the Holy Trinity, 
and the five wounds of Chrifl,' in the lower chapel 
of the charnel houfe at Norwich, near to the cathe- 
dral church, wherein he was afterwards buried, which 
pricft was to officiate there for his foul. The manor 
was at this time valued at 23!. ios. 2d. per ann. 

T 3 Roger 


Roger Weft, efq. prcfented to the vicarage in 
1694, as lord of Weil-Hall, and in 1699: after this 

Sharrock, efq. was lord, and by his la ft will 

gave the patronage of the vicarage of Gayton to the 
fee of Norwich ; the bjfliop of Norwich prefentcd in 
1707 and 1740. 

Robert Sharrock, efq. of Gately in the hundred 
of Launditch is the prefent proprietor and lord of 
the manor, 

NEWTON WEST. (Wrote Nivetuna in the 
grand furvey, that is, a Tuna, or Town, nigh to a 
water, or river, as this is, and not as fome may 
conceive from its new fcite, or ereclion.) It was abe- 
ruite to the manor of Snettifliam, and held by the 
archbifhop Stigand, in the Confeflor's time, in hi* 
own right, who being in arms againft the Conque- 
ror, he fcized on it, and gave it to Odd bifhop of 
Baieux .in France, his brother in law, lord at the 

There are two manors in this town, which ad- 
joins to Sandringham, and is about fcvcn miles 
from Lynn. 


In 1297, the 25th of Edward I. Hugh de Buck- 
enham kept his court here, and gave name to the 
manor of Buckenham. 

Both thefe manors, after many defcents, came to 
the Hoftes, and by marriage of a daughter to the 
late Henry Cornifli Henley, eiq. whofe only fon is 
a minor, 1778. 



The church of Newton is dedicated to St. Peter 
and St. Paul, and is a rcclory. The Rev. James 
Sharp is the prefent rector, and was prefented by 
the late king in 1732, 

PENTNEY, MANOR and PRIORY. The priory 
founded in this town was dedicated to the Virgin. 
Mary and St. Mary Magdalen, and had confidcra- 
fcle endowments. 

Sir John de Thorpe gave, in the i'6th of Edward 

II. a lordfiiip in Gay ton Thorpe, with a mefluage, 
one hundred acres of land, four of paflure tin-re, 
and in Walton, Wykes and Bekefwell, and the ad- 
vow fon of a moiety of the church of Gayton 
Thorpe, with twenty-eight acres of land in Tiljiey ; 
and before this, in the nth of the faid king, the 
prior had licence to purchafe a merfuage, twenty-two 
acres of land, two roods of paflure, and feven DiiU 
lings rent of Amicia, wife of John Bmtenvick, in 
Fincham and Stradfet ; and in the 4gd of Ed\v;u4 

III. had a patent for the manor of Belhoufe, in 
North Tuddenham. 

In the 44th of Edward III. the prior had a grant 
of free warren in this manor, Weft Bilney and 
Thorpe; and in the lath of Richard II. the men of 
Pentney were allowed to be toll free, it being efleem- 
ed anticnt demeans, 

This houfe had alfo a manor in Kctteringham, 
with the rectory appropriated, and the patronage of 
the vicarage, to which Richard de la Rokele added 
land ; and Alice de Kangham, who in 1 249, gave 
twenty-eight acres of land, eight of wood, and five 
ihillingb rent per ann. 

T 4 Shottifham 

* 5 6 H U N D R E D A N D HALF 

Shottifliam All Saints, and St. Botolph's re&orie* 
were appropriated, and they prefented to the vica- 
rages of thofe churches. Shottifliam St. Mary's 
church was alfo appropriated, to which they prefent- 
ed a vicar, and was granted by William de Roos, 
with a carucate of land, in 1311, who married 
Maud de Vaux. The churches of Pentney, Thur- 
fton, Weft Bilney, Shernbourne, and Reepham, 
alias Whitwell, appropiated alfo ; and the prefenta- 
tion of the vicar of Shernbourne, Whitwell and 
Thurflon, in Norfolk, was in this priory, with the 
patronage of St. Mary's church of Warham. 

About the time of the fuppreflion, here was a 
prior with thirteen canons. 

King Henry VIII. on the nth of March, in his 
goth year, granted to Thomas Mildmay, efq. audi- 
tor of the Exchequer, the fcite of this diflblved pri- 
ory, with a water-mill, the manor of Pentney, cal- 
led Afhwood, a foldcourfe for two hundred fheep f 
ftnd all the meffuages, lands, &c.- belonging to the 
faid priory in this town ; and king Edward VI. in 
his 4th year, February 26, granted him the impro- 
priated redlory. Sir Thomas Mildmay, his fon, 
conveyed all the aforefaid prernifes to Francis Wind- 
ham, efq. a judge of the King's Bench; and on 
April i, in the 2oth of James I. fir Henry Wind- 
ham had licence to fell it to fir Edward Bullock, 
Jvnt. of Falkbourn-hall in Eflex, from whom it was 
conveyed to fir Thomas Richardfon, knt. lord chief 
juftice of the King's Bench, who died feifed of it 
October 24, 1631; and fir Thomas, his fon, inhe- 
rited it. 

The family of Violet in Norfolk, had after this 
an intereft herein. 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 2 ,- 7 

Charles Nowys, efq. of Wood Ditton in Cam- 
bridgefhire, was lord about 1710. 

This manor is now in the heirs of the late 
Lloyd, etq. of Epping in Effex. 

Robert Jodde was prior in 1526. He was the 
laft prior, and with Richard Lynne, and twelve 
other canons, fubfcribed to the king's fupr<*macy 
September 9, 1534, and furrendered this priory to 
the king, and had penlions for life. 

The fcite of this priory is about a mile weflward 
of the church ; die gate-hcmfe, which is a curious 
building of frce-ftone, is flill Handing, and covered 
ivith lead: a print of it was publifhed a few years 
iince by Mr. Milliccnt. 

The church of Pentney was dedicated to St. Ma- 
ry Magdalen, and appropriated to the priory. 

ROYDON, or REYDON, or RYDON, was in 
king Edwards time a beruite, or berwick, appertain- 
ing or belonging to the great or capital lordfhip of 

It takes its name from Rye, or Rei, (river) of 
which lee in Ryfing ; and Don, or Dun, a hill. 

In the reign of Edward III. this town was in the 
Wodehoufe family. 

Sir Richard de Wodehoufe, fon of fir William, 
lived in the reign of Edward III. and was lord of 
Roy don, and by virtue of this lordfhip, &c. held of 
the cadle of Rifing, was obliged to repair and 
maintain a, tower of that caille called Wodehoule's 



tower, and paid a fum of money yearly for the caf- 
tle guard, and as we prefume lived here. 

John Wodehoufe, efq. of the body to king Henry 
V. famous for his gallant behaviour at the battle of 
Agincourt, had his refidencc here, and was confla- 
ble of the caftle of Rifing. 

It appears from a manufcript of William de Wor- 
cefter, alias Botoner, who lived in the reigns of 
Henry VI. and Edward IV. that he was in the reti- 
nue and family of fir John Faflolfe, knight of the 
garter, (his herald, and one of his executors) that 
this John Wodehoufe built here a large and moft 
royal and beautiful manor-houfe, called the Rev, 
on the river hereby, which cofl him above two thou- 
fand marks flerling, with {lately offices, &c. about 
a mile from Rifing, in which he died 1430 ; and that 
this noble edifice was entirely deflroyed, and pulled 
down to the ground, by the advice and affi (lance of 
Thomas lord Scales, about September 21, 14.54, 
by the content of the heir of the founder, and his 
particular friend: the reafon afligned is, that Tho- 
mas Daniel, efq. of Lancafhire, late fherirf of Nor- 
folk, by the afliftance and power of John Mowbray, 
fluke of Norfolk, on account of his marrying a 
kinrwoman of the faid duke, pretending a right and 
title to the faid lordfhip, falfly aiTcrting that Wode- 
houfe, the heir to his father, the founder, had given 
it to him. On this pretence he feveral times entered 
the fame by force, and a great army of the duke. 
And this the lord Scales did out of a good intention, 
though much to the lofs and damage of Wode- 
houfe 1 s heir. 

Upon this we prefume the faid Thomas Daniel 
became lord, and was alfo conftablc of Rifing caf- 

O F F R E E B R I D G E. 259 

(le, &c. but on the accefTion of Edward IV. the laid 
'I'homas is laid to have been attainted, and it was 
then mo ft likely granted to Anthony Woodville, 
who was created lord Scales, having married Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heir of Thomas lord Scales 
abovemcntioned : on the death of this lady, in the 
J 3th of Edward IV. it was found that flic held this 
manor of Roydon ; and Anthony lord Scales, Sec. 
in her right prciented to this recloiy in 1473 and 

On the death of Anthony lord Scales and earl 
Rivers, it probably came again into the Wodehoufe 
family: in 1552 and 1561, Margaret, widow of 
Thomas Wodehoufe, cfq. eldefl' foil of fir Roger 
Wodehoufe, (who died in 1547, be (ore his father) 
being jointured herein, prefented to the church ; 
and Roger Wodehoufe, cfq. was lord in the gbth of 
Henry VIII. 

Soon after this it was poflefled by Ralph Waller, 
cfq. who prefented to the church in 1564 and 1572; 
afterwards Richard llovcll, cfq. was lord of it. Iu 
the 2d year of king James I. the receiver of Henry 
Howard, earl of Northampton, accounted for i lool. 
paid to Richard Hovell, efq. for the purchafe of 
the manor of Roydon ; and in the next year a fine 
was levied thereof, and of lands bought there of 
Thomas Fofter and Edward Callow, &c. ' 

The faid earl, by deed dated April 13, in the 
Sth of king James, granted to Owen Shepherd, the 
next prefentation of this church, to which is his feal 
of arms, four coats, viz. Howard, Brothcrton, War- 
ren and Mowbray, within the garter ; and died pof- 
feffed of it in 1616, and then came to Thomas 
Howard earl, of Arundtl, his heir, and afierwault 



to the Howards, earls of Berkfhire, and to the prc- 
fent lord, the earl of Suffolk. 

The church is dedicated to All Sahits, and is a 

The prefent re&or is the Rev. Philip Pyle. 

RUNCTON, NORTH. This lordfliip was in 
trie lords Bardolf of Koo, and in this family it con- 
tinued till the death of Thomas lord Bardolf, who 
was attainted and beheaded, being in rebellion againfl 
king Henry ]V, and that king granted it to his bro- 
ther, Thomas Beaufort, duke of Exeter. 

In the ifl of king Edward VI. Chriftopher Co- 
ningiby, efq. of Wallington, was found to die feifcd 
of it, and left it to his three daughters and coheirs, 
Elizabeth, Ann, and Amy. Francis Gawdy, efq. 
by the marriage of Elizabeth, the eldeft, had a third 
part of the fame: Thomas Clark, efq. of Hamp- 
fhiie, who married Amy, and Alexander Balam, efq. 
who married Ann, held the other two parts in the ill 
of Elizabeth, which were purchafed by the faid 
Gawdy, afterwards a knight, and lord chief juftice 
of the common pleas. At his death in, or about 
1605, it came to his daughter and heir Elizabeth, 
who by fir William Hatton, alias Newport, had a 
daughter and heir Frances, married to Robert Rich, 
Carl of Warwick, lord of this town in her right, 
and was fold by him on the ift of June, in the iath 
year of king James I. to George Cremer, alias 
Skryme, which George was third ion of John Cre- 
iner, of Snettifliam in Norfolk. 

This lordfhip is now by marriage in the family of 
lord Fiu-\Y illiams in Ireland. 


O F F R E E B R I D G E, 261 

To this town the hamlets of Setchy Magna and 
Hardwick belong. 

SANDRINGHAM, called Sant-Derfmgham In, 
tlie book of Doomfday, from Sand and Dcrfmgham. 
This town adjoins to Deriingliam to the north, and 
to Weft Newton fouth; lies about eight miles north- 
can: of Lynn. The diftances mcafured with the 
wheel from Lynn, through Caflle-Rifing, over San- 
driiigham heath, and through" Derfingham, to Snet- 
tifham and Hunflanton Gliif, St. Edmund's Point, 
are as follow : 

From the fouth gate at Lynn to the crofs in the 

market i 

To the toll-gate at Gaywood - -2 

To Caftle-Rifmg 3 

To Babingley Lane over the bridge - t 

By Sandringham lodge to the fliip at Derfingham 3 
To Mr. Ho Re's plantations - i 

To Ingoldillhorpe common by Mount Amelia l 
From IngoldiRhorpe fall-gate by Newbridge and 

Mrs. Styleman's plantations, to Sncttifham I 
From Snettifliam to Mr. Rolfe's plantations at 

Heacham - ~ 3 

From Heacham to Hunflanton Cliff 

Total 1 9 

WOOD HALL, probably the name of the houfe 
formerly, as well as' the manor. 

In the soth of Edward III. Roger de Sandring- 
liam held it : it came not long after into the family 
of the Cobbcs by the marriage of the daughter and 
heirefs of Rivet. 



It continued in die familv of the Cobbes till tntt 
year 1686, in die reign of James II. 

The lad of the Cobbe family in poffcffion was 
Jeffrey, who married the daughter of Ifaac Aftlcy, of 
Melton-Conn 1 able, efq. He fold this lordfhip about 
the vear 1686 to fir Edward Atkins, lord chief baron 
r( die exchequer, who fliortly after conveyed it tu 
James Hoite, elq. Ion of Theodore Hofte, and Jane, 
daughter of James Dcfmurftres, a rich merchant of 
London, who by Elizabeth, daughter of Edward 
Sley, alderman of London, had James Hofte, efq. 
who married Elizabeth, daughter of fir Edward Wai- 
pole, knight of the Bath, of Houghton in Norfolk, 
by whom he had James Hofte, clq, whofe foil and 
heir, James, married Sufan, daughter of Anthony 
Hammond, efq. of South Wotton by Lynn, leaving 
a daughter and heirefs, Sufan, who married Henry* 
Cornifli Henley, efq. 

The arms of Hofle, azure, a bull's head, cabofcd^ 
argent, winged and horned, or. 

William Cobbe, grandfon of William, and Mary 
his wife, daughter of fir Henry Bedingfield, of Ox^ 
borough, hurt, and who was only ten years old at 
the death of his father Jeffrey Cobbe, July 14, 1623, 
was a great loyalift, and a colonel in the army : he 
diftinguifhed himfclf much in the civil wars, and 
fuffered confiderably for his attachment to the king * 
caufe ; probably he was rewarded, like moft other 
loyalifls, after the refloration of Charles II. as we 
find him felling his cflate in the fecond year of the 
next reign. 

On Sandringham heath is dug up great plenty of 
ftone, called carr or iron Uone. A great quarry of 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 263 

ttiis carr floiie may be feen at Sncttifham, in a clofe t 
ihe property of Nicolas Styleman, efq. which is by 
far fuperior to that found on Sandringham heath: 
the flones dug ont are larger and more durable. Sir 
Robert Walpole built the {tables at Hougliton of this 
carr flone, taken from a clofe adjoining to Mr* 
btyieman's quarry. It is foil and crumbling at firft, 
and has the appearance of brown fugar, and is of- 
ten iudicroufly called fo, but it hardens by being ex* 
poled in the air, and grows durable by age, 

The church of Sandringham (lands upon an emi- 
nence, -is dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen, and is 
a rectory. The Rev. James Sharp is the prefcnt 

On a grave-Hone near the font, with a brafs plate i 
Here under lycth William Cobbte, of Sandringham in 
(fit county of Norfolk, who married Dorothy, one of the 
dowghters of Syr John Spclman, JCnyght, and had yjjuf. 
btiwc\\t them iiii font and viii dowghtcrs, and the fayd, 
William decefjed the xviii day of January in the. xxxviii 
ytrt of fyng Henry the viii. A*. Dni. M.CCCCC.XU. 
Alfo on brals plates the arms of Cobbe, per chevron, 
fable and gules, in chief, two iwans, proper, repec- 
tant, and in bale, a herring cobb, naiant, or; and 
Jioteler quarterly, impaling Spelman and Nurburgh, 

In the church-yard, on the north fide, arc thefc 
altar tombs, covered with black llabs. 

One In memory of Theodore Hojle, Efy. who maf-> 
fied Elizabeth, daughter of Buridgh, Efq. impal- 
ing argent, a lion rampant, fable^ and a ibis wavy, 
azure, over all, and died in 1725. 



Another of James Hrjle, efq. loho died 1729, im- 
paling Walpolc: he married , a daughter of 

fir Edward Walpole, of Houghton. 

Alfo one for Js. Hojle, Efq. who died 1744, im- 
paling Hammond: he married Sufan, daughter of 
Anthony Hammond, of South Wotton, efq. azure, 
three doves, between two chevronels, or. 

There alfo lies interred on the north fide, two fons 
of the late major James Hofle, both of whom died 
minors : by their deceafe, the Sandringham eftatc 
devolved to their fifter Sufan, the only daughter of 
the major, who became heirefs, and married Henry 
Cornifh Henley, efq. of Leigh in Dorfetfhire, who 
died highfheriff of that county in the year 1774. 
His father was reprefentadve in parliament for Lymc 
Regis, and on Augufl 28, 1740, married Catherine, 
daughter and heirefs of the Rev. Hugh Charles Hare 
of Docking: he died May 8, 1748: his relict Ca- 
therine died October 15, 1778, having furvived Mr, 
Henley thirty years. At her deceafe, fhe left her 
cftates at Docking and Southmere to John Henley, 
efq. youngefl fon of her late hufband, and brother 
to the late Henry Cornifli Henley, efq. of Sandring- 
ham, alfo brother to the lady of Nicolas Styleman, 
tiq. of Snettifham. 

By the death of the two fons of major Hoflc, the 
family eftates at Derfingham and Ingoldiflhorpe, for 
want of iffuc male, devolved to the late captain 
Hofle, and at his deceafe in April, 1778, to Dixon 
Hofle, efq. his eldefl fon. 


two hamlets belonging to North Runc^on : Setchy 
Magna is on the great road from London to Lynn, 


O F R E E B R I D G E. 265 

en a navigable river, called (higher up) the Nar; 
but in an old record we find the river here called 
the Eye, and fo probably takes its name, as fet on 
that river, over which there is here a bridge. 

It was part of the lord BardolFs manor of Rune- 
ton, and that lord had a charter of free warren at 
Magna Setchy, anno 33d of Henry III. with a 
weekly market on Monday, and two fairs in the 
year. From thofe lords it parted as above, and was 
part of the earl of Warwick's manor of Runclon, 
who in the reign of king James I. had the grant of 
a market here every fortnight on Tu-efday, for fat 
cattle ; and butchers from Norwich, and all parts 
of this countrv refort to it. 

The church of North Runclon is dedicated to All 
Saints. In 1701, Auguft 15, the old church was 
deltroyed by the fall of the tower upon it, and 
about 1710, rebuilt, the following gentlemen, Sec. 
being the principal bcnefaclors to it. 

William lord Fitz \Villiams gave lool. Rowland 
Okeover, efq. 50!. Trinity College, Cambridge, sol.- 
fir Ralph Hare, bart. lol. fir John Turner 2!. Ro- 
bert Walpole, etq. 5!. John Turner, efq. 5!. 133. 
4d. Henry 'Bell 15!. Henry Towers 17!. Charles 
Wright, rcclor, sol. William Adamfon, clerk, $1... 
James Everard, clerk, 3!. 

The prefent reclor is the Rev. Philip Bell, who 
was prefcnted in the year 1777. 

Robert Coney, efq, late lieutenant colonel of the 
Norfolk militia, and while that corps was embodied 
in the late war and marched out of the county, has 
a handfome feat in this town. 


266 H U N D R E D A N D H A L F , 

SOUTH LYNN was a lordfhip at die time of 
the Conqueror, and had feveral manors in it. It 
was a diilind village from the borough of Lynn, as 
appears by the following prefentment. 

In the 38th of Henry III. the jury prefent, that 
there was a common way from this village to Lynn 
Bifhop's, beyond the bridge called South Bridge, 
which bridge wanted to be repaired, and they lay that 
the men of the burgh always, from time immemorial, 
ufed to repair and build anew that part of the bridge 
called the draught, and that they ought not to repair 
any other part. 

GODSCROFT or WESTACRE MANOR at the diffolu- 
tion-came to the crown. 

MANOR of SCALES How. Sir Edmund Thorpe 
was lord in the gd of Henry IV. in right of the 
lady Joan his wife, relicl: of the lord Scales : in this 
family it continued till Elizabeth, daughter and heir 
of Thomas lord Scales, brought it by marriage to 
Anthony Woodville, lord Scales ; and on her death 
the families of Howard and Tindale were her heirs. 

On a divifion of the eftate of the Scales's, on the 
accefhon of king Henry VII. to the crown, this ma- 
nor, &c. (as may be feen in Middleton) came to the 
earl of Oxford, as one of the heirs; and on the 
death of John de Vere, carl of Oxford, without if- 
fue, to his fillers and coheirs. 

Edmund Mortimer, earl of March, Sec. was ca 
pital lord of this manor in the 3d of Henry VI. 

SETCHY PARVA was a hamlet in the pariih of 
South Lynn. In this Setchy Parva, on the banks 



of the river, and near the Oufe river, was HALL 

In the nth year of king Edward III. Matthew 
Herlewine conveyed by fine and iruft to Thomas 
Duraunt, parfon of Clenchwarton, William Du- 
ra-tint of South Lynn, and John Kervyle of Wig- 
genhall, feven meffuages, a faltwork, fcventy-fivc 
acres of land, twenty-nine of meadow, a turbary, 
fdrty (hillings rent, a fifhcry at Setchy hithe, with 
appurtenances in South Lynn, Weft Winch, Wig- 
genhall, and North Runclon, and the advowfon of 
the hofpital of St. Laurence at Hardwick dam, to- 
gether with the rents, homages, fervices, Sec. of the 
mailer of the laid hofpital, of the prior of Worme- 
gay, the prior of Weitacre, and of John de Lenri* 

This manor continued hi the family of the Du- 
raunts from the time of Edward III. till the reign of 
Henry VI. Afterwards it came to the Waltons and 
the Bedingfields. ' 

In the lyth of Edward IV. Edmund Bedingfield 
was lord; and in a court held of this manor, grants 
to John Norris, vicar of South Lynn, the fate of 
the hofpital of St. Laurence, which was then burnt, 
till it was rebuilt. 

In the family of the Bedingfields, of Oxburgh, 
in .remained till fir Henry Bedingfield, bart. fold it 
in the reign of king George I. to the lord Fitz Wil- 
liams, in which family it remains. 

This village of South Lynn was always a diflincl 
and fcparate place from King's Lynn, till in the 4th 
and 5th of Philip and Mary, it was granted to be 
annexed as a member of that burgh for ever, under; 


the fame government, and to enjoy the fame privi- 
leges, and to be exempt from any power or authori- 
ty of the fherifF of Norfolk. 

Several religious houfes had poffefTions here. 

Here, was alfo a houfe called the White Houfe, 
or the Dairy, with one hundred and (Seventy-three 
acres of pafture and meadow, held by fir George 
Kemp, knt. of Pentlow hall in Elfex, in the gth of 
Charles I. 

The church is dedicated to All Saints, and ir, a 
vicarage. It is a regular pile, built in form of a 
crofs, with three ifles and a chancel, covered with 
lead, the whole being about one hundred and forty 
feet long; the breadth of the ifles forty-eight feet, 
the crofs ifle eighty-three feet long; at the weft end 
was a flrong tower, four fquare, with battlements of 
ftone, and thereon a fhaft, with the weather-cock ; 
the tower being about eighty-two feet high, and the 
fhaft thirty ; and five tuneable bells. 

The tower fell down in i 763, and part of the end of 
the church, which is now repaired with a ftrong brick 
wall ; on the top of which is a kind of cupola, of 
wood, &c. in which hangs one fmall bell. 

In the chancel lies a marble grave-ftone with the 
arms of Baron ; in chief, a crefcent, and decrefcent, 
and in bafe, a mullet. 

Juxta pain's tumulum chariffimi et medicines docioris 
tximii, hie fitus efl Andr. Baron, M. A. collegium Pe- 
trenje apud Can tab rig. utrofq; alumnos fovebat, ulrofqf 
Jociorum titulo mcrito adornavit, mater Jumma cum amo~ 
re Jilios . amplfxa eji t et Jilij matrem. Virtutes mode/lia 



fen per vetitit refonari, fdet itaq; menamcntum. Patris 
obi turn proximus indicat lapis, kic Jilij qui fuit 
mortale depqfuit Aug. 14, A. D. 1719, &tat. 74. 
Utriq ; hie juxta pace requiejcant, ulriq ; ad gloriam 
jnxta refurgani. Kic jacet Sam. Baron, M. D. qui 
pojl hanc vitam quam bonis operibus^ et t-era piciatc or- 
navera't, coelo donatus ejl 29 Apr. A. D. 1673. 

The plate belonging to the communion is confi- 
clerable, in the whole one hundred and fifty-four 
ounces ten penny weights ; ^about one hundred and 
thirty oiinces of it was the gift of the lady Ethcldre- 
da Hovell, relift of fir William Hovell, of Hilh'ng- 
ton, fole daughter and heir of Thomas Lilly. 

At the diffolution this impropriate recloiy being 
in the crown, was affigned to the lady Mary, before 
flic came to the crown, and was valued at ill. gd. 
per arm. 

In the soth of James I. it was poffefled by fir 
John Jolleys. 

In the year 1718 the Rev. Thomas Pyle, (mini- 
fler of St. Margaret's afterwards) was presented to 
this vicarage by the Bifhop of Ely : on his deceafe 
the bifiiop prefented the Rev. Charles Phelpes, the 
prefent vicar. 

WALTON, EAST, The principal part of this 
town was in the hands of Roger Bigot, a Norman 
chief, anceftor of the carls of Norfolk. 

This town is in the hundred of Freebridge Lynn, 

and is called Eaft Walton to diftinguifh it from Weft 

Walton in Frecbridge Marfhland. It borders upon 

\VeIlacre, and was a bcruite formerly depending up- 

U 3 on 


on the lordfhip of Pentney. It lies eafl from Lynn 
about ten miles, and north-weft from Svvaffham 

given to the abbot and canons of Weft Dereham, in 
the reign of Richard I. and the abbot held it in tlic 
reign of Henry IV. 

On the 5th of July, in the 29th of Henry VIII. 
Robert Forman, abbot of Weft Dereham, leafed to 
William Baker, yeoman, of Eaft Walton, for iixty 
years from Michaelmas before the date, the fcite of 
the faid manor, with all the houfes, clofes, mea- 
dows, demefne lands, liberty of foldage, profits of 
courts, fines, amerciaments, wards, marriages, re- 
liefs, efcheats, &c. and on the iith of April king 
Edward VI. in his 4th year, granted it to Thomas 
Jfoifhop of Norwich, and his fucceflbrs, and it is. held 
of t.he bifhop, by leafe, at this day. Bifhop Scam- 
bier leafed it for eighty years, In 1588, to queen 
Elizabeth, at 81. per ann. 

LANGLEY ABBEY MANOR. The abbot of Langlev 
lield lands here in die reign of Henry III. 

PRIOR of PENTNEY'S MANOR. Part of this lord- 
fhip was held by the prior of Pentney. 

RICHMOND FEE, or MANOR. Alan, earl of Rich- 
mond in Yorkfhire, had a part of this townfhip 
conferred on him by the Conqueror, for his eminent 

In the 14th of Henry VI, John duke of Bedford 
died feifed of this fee, as part of his honour of Rich- 
mond; and in the 35th of that king, Edmund earl 



of Richmond was found to have it, and George lord 
Latimer hx-ld it under him : and Richard lord Lati- 
mer held it of the faid honour, in the gth of Hen- 
ry VII. 

gave lands to the priory of Wcftacre, and the prior 
held lands here in the reign of Henry III. 

After the diiTohuion this manor was conveyed to 
the Howards, and in the time of queen Elizabeth to 
fir William Dean. 

HOWARD and STRANGE' s MANOR. Ralph de Beau* 
foe, a Norman baron, had alfo a lordftiip in this 

This lordfhip aiTumed the name of Strange's, from 
William le Strange, who held it in the reign o 
Henry III, by the fourth part of a fee, of the heirs 
of Beaufoe ; but in the 2oth of Edward III. Robert 
L'Eftrange held it of Hubert de Rye : the prior of 
Caftleacre had part of it ; and in the 25th of the 
faid king, fir John Howard was found to hold it on 
his death of the aforefaid Roger, by the fervice of 
2s. per aim. and it was valued at 13!. per ann. 

William Walton, of Eaft Walton, had it convey- 
ed to him by fine, in the 2 1 ft of Richard II. from 
William Curfon and Maud his wife. 

But in the 2d of Henry VI. Peter Prior, reclor of 
Hcllefden in Norfolk, (being a truftee for it as we 
take it) derailed it to Alice, widow of fir John How- 
ard, in fee: and in the i6th of that king, fir John 
Howard, fcnior, died feifed of it, leaving it to his 
grand-daughter Elizabeth, wife to John de Vcrc earl 
1/ of 


of Oxford, and it was in the Oxford family in the 
reign of king Henry VIII. 

The other moiety was in fir Robert Southwell, 
who was found to hold it of the lord Morley, in the 
6th of Henry VIII. and Richard Southwell, efq. was 
his coufm and heir. 

In an account of the eftate of that family, it ap- 
pears that fir Richard granted it to fir Thomas Grt> 
fliam, knight. 

Here was alfo a lordfhip granted by king Henry 
VIII. to fir Richard Southwell, in^ the 38th of that 
king, and after regranted to that king on an exchange 
for other lands in the faid year, December 1 1 , given 
by the king to ChrifVs college, Oxford, and held of 
that college by fir Edward Barkham, ban. and after 
by the Spelmans, his-heirs, and now by Philip Cafe, 

The church of Eaft-Walton is dedicated to St. 
Mary, and, together with the chapel of St. Andrew, 
was a reclory formerly : afterwards it was appropri- 
ated to Weflacre prior}', and a vicarage was fettled. 

In the chapel, at the eaft end, lie feveral marble 
grave-ftories. On one the arms of the lord Richard- 
fon, or, on a chief, fable, three lions heads erafed, 
of the firft, impaling Barkham, urgent, three pallets, 

gules, a chevron over all, or.- In memory of Eli- 

labeth, daughter of Robert Barkham, of Southacre, 
Gent, wife oj the honourable Lord William Richardjon, 
baron of Cramond, who died September 28, 1712, in 
ihe ^ihyear of her age. 



On another, with the faid two impaled coats, an 
efcutcheon of pretence, argent, a pale .fufily, fable, 


In memory of the Honourable William, Lord Richard* 
Jon, who died, 'March 7, 1719. 

The arms of Richardfon in a lozenge, with the 
efcutcheon of pretence.- 1 In memory of Elizabeth, fe- 
cond wife of the Honourable William, Lord Richardfon, 
who died December 8, 1722.,' in the 31 th year of her 

On another, lord Richardfon in the firft and fourth 
quarter, and in the fecond and third, ermine, on a 
canton, azure, a faltire, argent, fupported by two 
horfes, ermine ; crefl, an unicorn's head, ermine, 
(filling out of a ducal coronet,; the motto, Virtutc 
Gcquiritur honos. 

In memory of the Rig/it Honourable William, Lord 
Richardfon, baron of Cramond in North Britain, -why 
died July 28, 1735, in the sift year of his age. 

. Alfo fable, five wings in faltire, or ; creft, a demi 
eagle, wings difplaycd. 

Hie jacet Robertus Purland, A. M. coll. Geno. et Caij 
Cantab, dim alumnus mox vicarius de Eajl Walton, tan- 
dem reclor de Southacre, vir pie! ate, pariter ac probitate, 
et prudentia injignis; paflor vigilanli/fimus, amicns f- 
di//imus, martins amantiffimus , pcJer mitijjitnm qui pejl-, 
quam gregi kuic per L. annos, et quod e\currit invigi- 
laveral, tandem obdorrnivit in Domino Maij 21, 1725, 

The title of Richardfon, a very old barony, be- 
came exiinft in this William lord Richardfon, who 



was educated at the free gramrrmr fchool of Nor- 
wich, under the. Rev. Mr. Reddington, a man of 
great learning, and an excellent fchool-mafter, in 
whofe time the fchool at Norwich flourifhed, and 
was in great repute. 

Lord Richardfon's family feat was at Weft acre, 
and called, as at this day, Weftacre High-houfc ; a 
name probably given to it from its fituation. It is 
at prefent in the poffefjion of Anthony Hammond, 

Lord Richardfon left a filler, heirefs to his fortune 
though not his title, who was married to William 
Jermy, efq. fon of her guardian, counfellor Jenny, 
of the clofe in Norwich. She has been dead many 
years, and left no children. 

-The prefent vicar is the Rev. Mr. Lemon, prefent- 
fd by Edward Spelman, efq in 17-5, who built the 
prefent houfe at Weftacre called High-houfe, and of 
whom Philip Cafe, efq. purchafed this eftatc at 
Walton, adjoining to Weftacre. 

to\vn is thus called in refpect of its fcite on a river, 
as Southacre, Caftte, or Eaftacre, all which towns 
occur in the Conqueror's book of Doomfday, by 
the name of Acre, without any adjunct or diftino 
tion, being all feated on the lame ftream, or run- 
ning water, as Acre fignifies in the Saxon tongue - 
(fee Caflleacre.) 

At the furvey it was the lordfhip of Ralph de 
Tony, defcended from Malahulcius, uncle to Rollo, 
grandfather to William the Conqueror, and fon of 
Roger tie Tony, by Alice his wife, daughter of Wil- 

OF F R E E B R I D G E. 275 

Ham Fitz Ofborn, one of the Conqueror's lords and 
generals, and created by him carl of Hereford, 

Roger de Toriv was flandard-benrcr of Norman- 
dy, and Ralph the fon inherited the lame office, 
xvas a Norman baron, and attended duke William 
in the decifive battle of Haflings ; and for his great 
fervices was rewarded with many lordihips in Berk- 
{hire, Hertfordfhire, Gloucefterfhire, Herefordfhirc^ 
and with thefe following in Norfolk : 

Neclon, Braclenham, Pickenham, Cremngham 
Parva, Caldecote, Culeflhorpe and Bodney, in 
South Greenhoe hundred Ickburgh, Sturton and 
Carbrooke, in Grimfhoe hundred r-Franfham, Dun- 
ham and Godwick, jn Launditch hundred Shing- 
ham in Clackclofe hundred Walton, Acre, Thorpe, 

J.ynn and Eail Winch, in Freebridge hundred-* 

Breccles in Weyland hundred Wretham Magna 
and Parva, in Shropharn hundred. 

Ralph de Tony was the founder of the priory of 
\Veflacre, dedicated to St. Mary and All Saints, and 
with his wife, his fons Roger and Ralph, granted 
for their own fouls and their anceftors, his manor of 
WeAacre, with the parifli church dedicated to All 
Saints, to Oliver the prieft, or reclor of it, and 
Walter his fon ; to which deed were whnelles Gil- 
bert Blond, William de Portis, William dc Lira, 
George Gros, Sec. with all the foe of Noienton. It 
was a cell of tr;e priory of Lewes. 

On this grant, Oliver and Walter his fons entered 
into the order of Cluniac 'monks of this prior.-, 
Not only priefts, but even bifhops, were in this age 
.married, and no reflraints in this re f peel were laid 
upon them. The popes, Bonifice J. and Fcelix. HI. 



were fons of priefls ; and Gelarius was the fon of a 
bifhop, &c. 

The founder gave them alfo the manor and ad- 
vowfon of Godwick. 

The prior)' had the patronage of the following 
churches, or vicarages, their rectories' being appro- 
priated to it : Breccles, Rougham, Weft Bafliam, 
Marham, Narford, Appleton, Afhwicken, Lefiate, 
Wiggenhall St. Mary's, and South Lynn, with two 
parts of the re&ory of Narborough, and the rectory .< 
appropriated of Necton, 

The churches of Wcftacre and Runhall were 
wholly appropriated, and ferved by a curate. 

The church of Bodney was in their patronage. 

A portion of the reclory of Necton belonged to 

The laft prior of this convent was William Wing- 
feld, who occurs in 1526, and with fifteen monks 
of this priory, on Auguft 31, 1.534, fubfcribed to 
the king's fupremacy; and on January 14, in the 
agth year of king, Henry VIII. with eight of his 
monks, furrendercd this priory to the king, who 
granted to them penflons for life. 

The convent boafled that they had a piece of St. 
Andrew's finger, fet in filver, which they had pawn- 
ed for 40!. but the vifitois did not think lit to re- 
deem it at that price. 

On the feal of the priorv was the following le- 




On the reverfe is a (mall head couped, and 
round it 


Above this head is a flar, below it a crefcent, 
We are inclined to think this head is to reprefenC 
Thomas of Becket, archbHhop of Canterbury. 

The priory church flood a little fpace eaftward of 
the prefent farm houfe, and was a large pile, built 
in a cathedral or conventual manner, as may be 
traced out from its fcite and foundation ; only part 
of the tower at the weft end of the fouth ifle is now 
remaining : the cloiller joined to this fouth ifle, 
and there was a door here leading into the weft end 
of the fouth ifle, and another out of it into the 
church, by the great tower that flood between the 
church and the choir. On the eaft fide of the cloi- 
fter was a way leading into the chapter-houfe, the 
north and fouth walls of which are partly ftanding, 
as is part of the dormitory, which was either over 
part of the weft fide of the cloiftcr, or joined to it. 

The gate-houfe, leading out of the town into the 
outward court, or fcite of the priory, is ftill fland- 
ing ; over the center of the arch as you enter, are 
three fhields carved in ftone : Quarterly in the firft 
and fourth, gules, a fefs, between fix crofs croflets, 
or, Beauchamp earl of Warwick ; in the fecond and 
third, checque, or, and azure, a chevron, ermine, 
Tarquin earl of Warwick ; and in an efcutcheon of 
pretence, argent, a maunch, gules, lord Tony. On 



the right fide of this is the fliield of Tony, and on 
the left fide that of Beauchamp ; by the firft (hield, 
bearing Tony in an efciucucon of pretence, it ap- 
pears that this gate-houfe, which is of ftone, was > 
built by Guy de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, 
who married Alice, fifter and. heir to Robert lord 
Tony, which Guy died in 1315. 

King Henry VIII. in his cjoth year, March 15, 
granted to Mary duchefs of Richmond and Somer- 
kt, for life, the fcite of this priory, with the manor 
and appropriated reclorv ; and (he by deed, dated at 
Kenninghall, confirmed to Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas Holland, of Swinefhead in Lincolnfhire, 
elq. an annuity of 20!. out of it. King Edward VI. 
in his 7th year, July 1, granted the reverfion to fir 
Thomas Grefharn. 

After the death of fir Thomas, it was fold to 
Thomas Cecil, afterwards earl of Exeter, who con- 
veved it to Horatio Palavicini, an Italian, who be- 
fore his coming into England, had dipped his fin- 
gers very deep into the treafures of the church, as 
Spelman relates ; that is, being treafurer, or having 
fome office in the pope's treafury at Rome, had rob- 
bed it and fled. 

Sir Toby, his youngefl fon, inherited it, and after 
many fuits, Sec. with his eldeft brother Edward, 
having confumed his eftate, fold it to fir Edward 
Barkham, alderman of London, and lord mayor 
hi 1621, created baronet June 28, 1623; from which 
family it, came to Charles Yallop, efq. fon and heir 
of fir Robert Yaliop, by the marriage of Helen, 
daughter and heirefs of fir Edward Barkham, bait. 
whofe fon, Edward Spelman, efq. taking that name 
from his grand-father, fir Robert Yallop's marriage 



with Dorothy, daughter of Clement Spelman, efq. 
of Gray's-Inn, one of the barons of the exchequer, 
conveyed it, in 1761, to Richard Hammond, efq. 
of South WoOtton ; and the ruins of this venerable 
priory, now converted into a farm-houfe, are in the 
pofiefTion, with all the abbey lands, of Anthony 
Hammond, efq. of High-houfe, nephew of the late 
Richard Hammond, and elddl fon of Robert Ham- 
mond, efq. late of Swaffham in this county. 

The church of Weflacre is dedicated to All Saints, 
and built moflly of flint Hones, and embattled. It 
\vas a reclory, and appropriated to the priory. 

The tower is four-fquare and embattled, has one 
bell, and both church and chancel are covered witli 

On the battlements of the church and tower are 
die arms of fir Edward Barkharn, the firft baronet 
of that name, who repaired and ornamented it, 
argent, three pallets, gules, overall, a chevron, or; 
impaling the arms of his lady ; argent, on a pale, 
fable, three croffes pattce, or, in a bordure ingrailcd 
of the fecond, Crouch. 

He had a large manor houfe, or hall, in this pa- 
rifh, called High-houfe, which he built. 

Sir Edward creeled feveral feats of oak in the 
church, with a pulpit and reading defk, wainfcotting 
the. chancel and feating it, inclofmg the communion 

His defcendant, fir Edward, gave in 1672 a filver 
cup, gilt, weighing ten ounces, with his anus, and 
a cover of five ounces ; a filver patten, gilt, of about 



nineteen ounces, with a filver flaggon, gilt, about 
Jixty-one ounces. 

CUSTHOF.PE, was a village in the Saxon age, and 
at the furvey called Culeftorpa, and Sculatorpa, as 
feated on a ilioal or fhallow water : it flood on the 
fouth fide of the river Nar, directly oppoiite to Weft- 
acre, but was in South Greenhoe hundred; the lord 
Tony being lord of it at the furvey, and fo being as 
a beruite to Wefiacre, we have here accounted for 

This was rriofr, likely given by the lord Tony to 
his priory on the foundation of it, and at the diffo- 
lution was granted to the duchefs of Richmond, and 
fo came to Edward Spelman, efq. the late lord, and 
to Richard Hammond, efq. 

On this part the convent, as we take it, built a 
large chapel, now in ruins, called Becket's chapel, 
dedicated to that archbifhop, where on July 7 was 
an annual fair ; at the north-eait point of this cha- 
pel was an houfe or cell, wherein a cuflos and a 
monk or two dwelt, and performed fervice ; by this, 
not only pilgrims ufed to pafs to the Lady of Wai- 
iingham, but many alfo came on purpofe to pay their 
devotion here, where likely there might be fome par- 
ticular relicl of that archbifhop. 

View and report of the commiffioners appointed 
by king 'Henry VIII. at the diffolution. 

*' Tile vyew of the account of Richard Layton, 
Doclor of the Lawcs, and Archdeacon of Bucking- 
ham, Robert Sowthwell, attorney for the augmenta- 
tions of your grace's moil noble crowne, arid fir 
1 homas L'Eflraungc, knight, commiflioners by your. 

OF FREER R I D G E. 281 

higncfs afTigned for the viewing, valewing and fell- 
ing of all the jewelles, plate, belles, lead, goods 
and chattels, apperteyning to the late monaftery of 
Weflacre, in the countie of Norfolk, made and de- 
dared to fir Edward North, knight, chancellor of 
the court of Augmentations of the revennues of the 
kinge's crowne, and others the counfaii of the 
layd court, upon dyverie perticulcr bookcs thereof, 
to them fhewed and delyvered the xiiiith day of No- 
vember, in the xxxvith yere of the rcigne of 
lovcraigne Lord Kinir Henrv the Eighth. 


Juds and plate. 

One lyttle erode plated with fylver, two chal- 
leffes, one lyttle fait with the cover, parcell gilt, 
and xi fylver fpones, all valewed by indifferent per- 
fbnes, at vil. xvs. iiiid. and fold by the iayd corn- 
mi iiioners, to Richard Sturges, fox viiil. xvs. 

Belles VI. 

Weying MV< DCCC Ib. i quarter, every lum- 
dreth valewed at xxis. amounten to the fome 
of Ixil. iiis. vi d. 

Lead in fowes, ccccxl. 

Weying cxxxvi flooders and a half, every ffooder 
valued at iiiil. amouuten tc> cixvil. 

Ornaments of the church of the monajlery. 

Vieved and pry fed by indifferent p-fones byn folde 
by the fayd connniffioners, for xxxil. vid. 

Goodcs, cattalk and other movable*. 

Vieved and pryfecl by indifferent pTones at ccxil. 

xviis. iiid. and fold by the favd commiilioners nere 

'X fur 

2S 2 H U N D R E t> AND HALF 

for the fame and xxiil. over in gayn, which in~ the 
hoole amounteth to the fome of ccxxxiiil. xviis. gd. 

Iron, glafse, Jlone, and diverfe old buildings. 

Sold by the fayd commiffioners to dyverfe and 
fondrye p'fones, as by a perticular booke of the 
fame, may appeare, for Ixviil. iis. vid. 

Debts owing to the Jayde. late, monajlery. 

Thomas Wingfeld, as by his reconings apper- 
cth clxviiil. 

The fame Thomas for xl fliepe to him delivered 
by the late prior at xvid. the pece, - liiis. iiiid. 

William Alyfon of Cambridge,, for 
plate to him fold over and befides xvl. to him remit- 
ted by the late prior. xiiiil. 

William Calybutte, for fix ewers to him fold by 
the fayd late pryor, to be paid at Midfomcr next xl. 

Redye Monje received. 

Of the aforefyd Thomas W^ingffeld, as by his 
fayd recoiling appereth clx 1. 

'Of fir Thomas le Strauiige, knight, as by his rec- 
oiling appereth viil. xvs. vid. 
Of dyverfe tenants for the arreragies of their rents 
and fermes due at Mighelmas and Chriflmas Jaft f 

viiil. xvs. 

Paid to 

Dyverfe p'fones for fundric fomes of monye to 
them due by the late prior, for wagies and debts, as 
by a book of the particulars of the fame doth ap- 
pere Ivl. xixs. viid. ob. 

Dyverfe other perfons for taking downe of the 
belles and vvayein of the fame, plucking downe of 



tlic leade melting and weyng of the fame, and de- 
fafyng, and pulling downe of the church dortre and 
other howfes, as by the boke appereth xxiiil. xiiis. 
The commiffioners for their coftes and expenfes 
tyding from London to the fayd late monaftery, and 
there being with dyverfe with them for the fuppref- 
ling, diffolving, and defafyng of the fame by five 
weekes, and for their coftes arid expences in return- 
ing to London agayn, xxviiil. xiiiis. viid. 

And Jo Remayneth in 

Belles unfold remaying there in the hands of 
Richard Sturges, fermour to the king's majeftie's 
ufe Ixil. iiis. viid. 

Lead unfold, likewyfe remayning in the hands of 
the fayd Richard Sturges, to his kighnefs ufe, 

Ornaments of the church delivered by the fayde 
commiflioners to the rnajeft. owne handes, at White- 
hall in London, amounting to the fome of - , ixl. 

Debt owing to the late monaftery as afore appereth 
xiiiil. xiiis. iiiid. 

Monye owing for part of the goddes, catalles, and 
other moveables folde as a fpecialtie with the fayd 
commiflioners remayning appereth cxxl. 

Redye monye in the handes of the faid Rd. Lay- 
ton cclxxixl. xiiis. xid. 

WINCH, EAST, In the book of Doomfday it 
is called Winic, from Win, which in the Britiih lan- 
guage fignifies water, and Ic or Ife, a general name 
in thefe parts for any ilream or .rivulet, the inhabi- 
tants of this part of the heptarchy or Eaft Angles, 
being called by the Romans the Iceni; alfo Wininc, 
as fcated in a weft meadow. 

X 3 The 


The principal lordfhip at the furvey was in the 
crown. Godric farmed it, or had the care of it for 
the king. 

In king Edward's time it was a beruite to Spoil c. 
a confidcrable lordfhip belonging to the crown, in 
the huiklred of South Greenhoe. 

GRANCOURT'S MANOR. This manor, with Sporle, 
which was royal demefne, was given (as fome fay) 
by king Edward to Ralph \Vaker, or Gauder, earl 
of Norfolk, but Dugdale more truly fuppofes him 
to be of feritanny in France, and to be made earl by 
the Conqueror, and was taken. as a beruite or lord- 
ihip of Sporle. 

On his rebellion, it is certain, if he ever was in 
poifefiion of it, (which does not clearly appear} ir. 
was forfeited to the Conqueror, and after the making 
the book of Doomfday, was granted by the Con- 
queror to Alan, fon of Flaald. 

The firfl that we meet with upon record to be 
lord after this, is fir Ralph L'Eflrange, who lived in 
the reign of Henry II. and gave the rectory of this 
church to the priory of Carrowe by Norwich, which 
was afterwards appropriated to that houfe by Robert. 
Shewing, bifhop of Norwich. 

Sir William de Calthorpe, who married Cecilia, 
daughter of Philip de Burnham, fitter and coheir of 
William de Burnham, had a right herein; and in 
the 4.5th of Henry III. they granted it by fine to 
William de Grancourr, and his heirs, to be held of 
them ; and Walter de Grancourt, fon of William, 
was lord in the 14th of Edward I. 



William Howard purchafed it of Thomas de 
Grancourt in the 26th of Edward I, 

This was fir William Howard, the famous judge, 
founder of the noble family of the Howards, ancef- 
tor to the dukes of Norfolk, &c. It appears that he 
refided here in the 34th of the aforefaid king, from 
the accounts of the chamberlains of Lynn, in the 
laid year, when feveral prefents were fent to him and 
his lady from the corporation, for his good fcrvices, 

Item in itno cnrcos. bom's miffo D'ne Alice Howard 

ujq\ V/rnch vi fid. //. in vino p. duas vices jniff. 

D'no Willo. Howard cum fiuobus carcos. vitnl. tt uno 

jcn f o apri. xiii fol. vmd. It. in duob; Jalmon. mijf. 

D'no. Willo. Howard vigil, pajcht xi/o/. 

This fir William was found to hold it by the 
fourth part of a fee, of Richard earl of Arundel. 

He was an eminent lawyer, and before he was a 
judge, a counfei lor retained by that corporation, with 
an annual penfion. 

In the <jth of Edward III. fir John Howard, fen, 
was found to hold of Hamon L'Eiirange the manor 
of Eaft Winch. 

Sir Roger Langley, hsut. was lord of this manor 
in the year 1716, and it is now in the family and 
heirs of fir John Tyrrell, bait, of Effex. 

PENTNEY PRIORY MANOR. . Roger Bigot had the 
grant of a lordfhip in this village from the Conqueror. 

X 3 Tliis 


This manor was granted to the prior o.f Pentney 
in the year 1250. 

In 1428, the temporalities of this convent were 
valued at SI. iSs. 2d.l per ann. King Henry VIII. 
at the dUTolution, granted it, February 14, in hi$ 
Qfjth year, for a certain term of years, to Thomas 
earl of Rutland, and John Dethick, gent, farmed it 
pf the faid earl at lol. 2s. 5d. per ann. King Ed- 
ward VI. in his 4th year, April 11, gave it to the 
fee of Norwich, and it is held at this time, by Icafe, 
of that bifhop. 

It is faid to be called in the grant of king Edward 
VI. Grancourt's manor, lately belonging to the pri- 
ory of Pentney, but without any rcafon, as far as we 
have feeri, and was leafed to queen Elizabeth in. 
1588, for eighty years, by Dr. Scambler, bifhop of 
Norwich, at ipl. ys. 6d. per ann. 

The church is dedicated to All Saints. 

In the chancel eaft window are the arms of Vere, 
carl of Oxford, of Howard, Vere and Howard im- 
paled, aHb p. pale, or, and gules, a lion paffant, ar-, 
gent, Plaiz. 

Again/I the north wall is a mural monument of 
marble, with the arms of Barnes, argent, two bars> 
coumei embattled fable, in chief, three pellets. 

Here lyeth under the foot of this wall, the. body of 
Oicen Barns, Gent, third fon of William Barns, the el- 
der, of this place, efq. after he had lived the fpace of 
1 years, changed this life for a better , 1670. 

Quisjim, nofce anus caro putrida, nil niji vermis, 
Qutfquis cs, hoc de me fit libijcircfa'is. 



On the north fide of this chancel is the old cha- 
pel and burial place of the Howards, dedicated to 
St. Mary, as appears from the will of fir Robert 
Howard, who died in 1388, and was here buried, 
according to his dcfire. In Weaver's time, his en- 
arched monument again ft the fouih wall of the faid 
chapel, with fome of the efcutchcons wherewith it 
was ornamented, were to be diftinguifhed, and this 
part of the epitaph remained, 

aiab; Dm. RoblL- Howard, tt Margentc, 

But this part of the epitaph, with the fliields and 
arms, is defaced, and great part of the monument 
itfelf cleftroyed many years part ; alfb the two gravc- 
ftoncs mentioned by him, and the effigies of one 
of the Ho\vard family in the eaft window, (the found- 
er ol the chapel) have met with the fame fate. 

Tliis chapel, in Weaver's time, was much defaced, 
the lead that covered it being taken off and fold, 
but was then repairing by Thomas Howard, earl of 
Arundel and Surry, and at this time is in a worfc 
ftate than in We^vjr's. 

Sir Robert Howard aboyemcntioned married Mar- 
garet, daughter and coheir of Robert lord Scales, 
who was buried by her hufband : they refided, and 
died in this town, arid it is probable that this cha- 
pel was creeled by fir William Howard, the judge, 
who (as we have obfeYved) was lord, and refide4 
here with his family, where it is likely he and others 
o] the family were interred 

On the weft wall of this chapel is a neat monu- 
ment of marble^ with the arms of Barnes, impaling 
^. 4 Sheplierd, 


Shepherd, argent,' on a chief, gules, three Danifli 
hatchets, or; and Earnes impaling Hoveil, fable, a 
crcfcent, or. 

Near unto this place lyeth the body of William Barns, 
efq. Jon of Edward Barns, of 'Sahaiu in Cambridge/lure, 
Efq., who firjt married Tliomafine, daughter of Richard 
Hovell, of fhllington, cfq. by whom he had Jive daughters, 
after whcfe death he. took to wife Thcmajine, the daughter of 

'Owen Shepherd, of Kirby in this county, Efq. and (removed 
his feat to this place) had by her five fons and eight daugh- 
ters, and did for mam years with great prudence and fide^ 
lity, feme his king and country, in the office of jnftice of 
the peace; at length, fuch -was the iniquity cf the times, that 
loyaltywas efteemcd a crime, when not allurements, or threats 

from him who nfurped the. highcjl power, could feduce him 

from his conftant adherence to his abandoned prince, and 
tkS persecuted church cf England ; he retired to a pri- 

-vatc life, devoting himfelf wholly to the fcrvice of God 
and religion, and peaceably departed hence, in the i^th 
year of his age, 1657, expecting a jorjnl refur.reclion. 
To wlwfe memory, Frances Stanion, his jecond daughter, 
out of her tender lave and dutijul afjeclion, creeled this 
monument. Semper Idem. 

The church was anciently a reclory. The Rev. 
Charles Phelps is the prefent vicar. 

Eaft Winch is about two miles eafl of Micldleton 
and live from Lvnn. 

nald, fon of Ivo, held the chief lordfhip of this 
town at the time of the grand furvey, by a grant 
from the Conqueror, which Godwin, a freeman, earl 
of Kent, and father of king Harold, held in the 
reign of the Confcffor. 



In the 6th of Henry VIII. fir Robert Southwell 
was found to die feifed of this manor, which ex- 
tended into Hard wick, Setchy, and South Lynn, held 
of the honour of Clare, and ten melluages, five hun- 
dred acres of land, forty of meadow, one hundred 
of paflure, fixty of wood, and ten {hillings rent; 
and left it to his coufin and heir Richard, fon of 
Francis, brother of ]B? Robert: but in Trinity term, 
in the 29th of Henry VIII. Richard Southwell, efq. 
conveyed it to William Coningfby, efq. and it came 
after that to fir Francis Gawdy, and fo to the earl of 
Warwick, and was bought of him, in the loth of 
James I. by John Pell, Gent. 

On the 22d of September, in the i8th of king 
James I. the jury find that Richard Shebbs, of Sedge- 
ford in Norfolk, elcj. was porTeffcd of this manor of 
Weft Winch, called Fincharn s, and that he had cn- 
feoffed therein fir Philip Wodehoufe, bart, Edward 
Paflon, efq. See. by deed dated the loth of June, 
in the 1 sth of the faid king, to the ufe of himielf 
for life, remainder to William Yelverton, jun. (Ibif 
of fir William, and Dionyfia his wife, eldeit daugh- 
ter of the faid Richard) and on Urfula his intended 
wife, daughter of fir Thomas Richaidfon, Sec. and 
was after in the Pells. 

From the family of the Pells it came to the Wai- 
poles, and the earl of Orford is the prcient lord. 

W r efl \Vinch is fituated about two miles fouth of 
Lvnn, on the London road and turnpike. 

WOLFERTON. This town is not named in the' 
book of Doomlday, being a hamlet to the town of 



The prior of Shouldham had lands in this town. 

On the diflblution of the priory, this was granted 
May 7, anno 3 6th of Henry VIII. to William 
Cobbe, efq. to be held by the soth part of a fee 5 
from the Cobbes it came, with Sandringham, to the 
Holies, and fo to Henry Cornifh Henley, efq. 

The church is dedicated to St. Peter, and is a 
reclory. The Rev. Henry Crowe is the prcfent rec- 
tor, prefented by the late Henry Cornifli Henley, 
qfq. of Sandringham, 

There is a harbour at Wolferton for finall veffels, 
which annually bring coals here in the fummer. 

An extenfive brick wall, to keep out the fea from 
the marfhes, was built by major Hofle of Sandring- 
liam, at the expence of iSooL but being ill con- 
itrucled, has not prevented the fea from breaking 
over it, and frequently overflowing the neighbouring 
lands, to the great lofs of the late proprietor Henry 
Cornifli Henley, efq. and to the prefent Mrs. Hen- 
Icy, his relict, who has expended fince his deceafe 
confiderable fums towards the repair of the breaches^ 
made in the fea banks, 

Wolferton lies upon a point of the Lynn channel^ 
bout feven miles north-eafl of Lynn. 

WOOTTON NORTH. This and South Woot- 
lon, made at the furvey one town, and belonged to. 
one lord. 

This town jn the reign of queen Elizabeth Was ir\ 
the duke of Norfolk. 



Thefe two towns of North and South Wootton 
lie upon the Lynn channel, about three and four 
miles diftant from Lynn, on the left of the road to, 
Caflle-Rifingj South Wootton, or what is called 
\Vootton Gap, is jibout a mile from the toll-gate a$ 

WINDHAM PRIORY MANOR took its 'rife from 
lands granted by the Albinis to the priory of Wind- 
ham, who in the reign of Edward 1. claimed free 
warren. In the 2d of Edward II. the priory pur- 
chafed thirty-fix acres of land, three of meadow, 
fix (hillings rent per ann. and twenty-fix acres of 
marfh, fo that their temporalities were valued at 4!. 
8s. 4d. per ann. in 1428; and the prior held in 
Wootton and Congham the fortieth part of a fee of 
the earl of Arundel. 

After the diflblution it was granted, February 1 2, 
in the 5th of Elizabeth, with the impropriate recto- 
ry and advowfon of the vicarage, to Thomas duke 
of Norfolk, and afterwards to Henry Howard, earl 
of Northampton, and paffed as in Rifing, to the 
earls of Berkfhire, who were lords and patrons ; and 
now is in the earl of Suffolk. 

The church is dedicated to All Saints, and was 
formerly a rectory. 

Thomas de Blundevile, bifliop of Norwich,, ap- 
propriated it, and a vicarage was fettled. 

In a wood near Wootton Gap is a fpring called 
Rilfley Spring, a place of great refort during the 
fummer leafon to the inhabitants of Lynn, who 
every Sunday meet in parties to drink tea and pais 
the afternoon there. There is a pcdeflal or obelilk 


erected In this wood, called Rifflcy Wood, near the 

This wood is about a mile and a half from the 
toll-gate at Gaywood towards South Wootton, as 
by menfuration of the wheel of the diftances from 
Lynn to Snettifham, which began at Snettifiiam dial, 
and was taken through Anmer, Caftlcacre, Swaff- 
ham, Downham and Lynn, to Snettifham again : 
the diftances from Lynn to Snettifiiam have been 
mentioned in the account of Sandringham, the 
other diftances taken at the fame time were as fol- 


From Snettifiiam through Sliernbourne to An- 
mer well - 5 
To the guide-poll on Pedder's road i 
Along Pedder's road to Harplcy-dam's fhep- 

herd's houfe 2 

Along the fame road to the 30 mile-flone from 

Norwich to Lynn 4 

Along the fame to Caftleacre river - 3 

To Swaffham crois - 4 

Road to Dovvham, to Devil's Ditch 4 

To Fincham fall-gate - 4 

To Stradfet fall-gate - - i 

To the crown at Downham - "4 

To Winbotfham I 

To oppofite Stow. hall - 2 

To Scichy toll-gate - 3 

To South-gate and Lynn crofs 5 

Total 43 

WOOTON SOUTH. At the time of the fur- 
vey, it appears that this town, and that of North 



Wootton, as we have obfervcd before, was but one 
iordlhip and one town. 

In the yth year of Henry VIII. fir William Ga- 
pel, knt. lord mayor of London in 1503, died fei- 
led of this lordfhip, held of the caftle of Rifing; 
and by his laft will and teflament, gives this and all 
other his manors in Norfolk, for life, to Margaret 
his wife, remainder to his ion and heir, fir Giles. 

In the 44th of queen Elizabeth, it was held by- 
Thomas "VVinde, gent, of Arthur Capel, efq. 

The laft of this family was the late William 
\Vinde, efq. who for many years attended 011 the 
princefs Sophia, mother to king George 1. and on 
her death came into England, and was a commif- 
iioner of the fait duties. 

About the year 1700, it was pofTeircd by Mr. 
Haniot, goldfmith, in Fieet-ilrect, London, and af-* 
tcrwards by his ion, Dr. Harriot, L. I,. D. and in, 
1762 the widow Harriot poffeifed it. 

Anthony Hammond, efq. who married the fiftcr 
of fir Robert YValpole, had a feat and a considerable 
eftate in this pariih. The family houfe was pulled. 
clown by his eldell fan, the late Richard Hammond, 
eiq. on his removing to High Houic, \Veflacre, an 
efiate he purchafed of the late Edward Spelman, elq. 

HOWARD'S MANOR. Sir Robert Howard had 
poffeflion of this manor in the reign of Richard II. 
and gave his name to the manor. 

The church is dedicated to St. Mary. 




CLENCHWARTON, was originally divided in- 
to two different towns, North and South Clench- 

It is one of the firfr. parifhes over the river, weft 
of Lynn, in Marfhland, a peninfiila almoft fur- 
rounded with navigable rivers and an arm of the 
fea, being a low, marfliy, little traft, as the name 
implies, every where interfe&ed with ditches and 
drains to draw off the waters, which have over them 
no lefs than one hundred and eleven bridges and up- 
wards, and containing about thirty thoufand acres of 
land. The foil is exceeding rich and fertile, but 
the country and roads with great difficulty paffable 
in the winter leafon, and the water extremely bad. 
From Lynn ferry, through Clenchwarton and Ter- 
rington, to the Crofs-Key Waflies, or what is called 
the Metaris JEfhiarium, into Lincolnshire, is a diftance 
of about (even miles: the wafh over to the Lincoln- 
fiii re fide is about two miles. 

The EARL of CLARE'S MANOR, was formerly in 
the Veres, earls of Oxford, afterwards in the Tyn- 
dals, Southwells, and Calthorpes. 

The prior of Walfingham had alfo a manor, or 
confiderable eftate here, of the honour of Clare. 

x The prior of Shouldham had alfo a manor held 
of the laid honour of Clare. 

The prior of Norwich had alfo temporalities, and 
the prior of Caftleacre had polfemons. 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 295 

Many other priories had temporalities in this pa- 
rifli, and may families had rights extending into it. 
It is now in the hands oi different proprietors* 

The church of Clenchwarton is dedicated to St. 
Margaret ; it coniifts of a fingle ide, or a nave, a 
chancel covered with lead, and has a fquare tower, 
with four bells. 

In the chancel is a grave-flone In memory of 
Thomas Trije, Alderman of Newark in Nottingkamfliirc, 
who died in this toiun, May 19, 1647. 

On another Hie jacet (una cum quinq; ipfi'i.s libe- 
ris, patre Jiipcrjtiic,, def/niciis) vcneralniis vir Marcus 
forfter, A. M. hujiis ecdejitf re.clor, qui cum annos qua- 
draginia in agro Domini Jirmue, laborajfet ad mtrcc.dc.rti 
recifciendam in cakjian pnradifum evocatus, obijt die Ja- 
nuaiij ultimo, A, 1J. 1719, asUiiis Jucs 70. 

Alfo one In memory of Roger Spenjlty, Gent, bur, 
16, March, 1650, aged ^g. 

On the wood work of the church are the arms of 
Scales and Inglethorpe. 

On a monument in the church-yard Maria cha- 
rijfima conjux Rid. Trife Generofi hie jlta ejl Ocl. 24, 
A. D. 1660, a tat. Jute 28. 

Moribus in/ignis, forma, pitfaie, pudore, 
Exemplumfc.\us, atq; corona viri. 

J\Tcc -pudendis fnit ?iatalibus, filia ncmpe unica Henri. 
Williamjon et Marth/z, uxoris futf, quorum omnium re- 
iiquias, hie tumulus habct. On it, ermine, on a che- 
vron fable, a lion rampant, or. on a chief, gules, three 



mullets of the fir/I Trife, impaling argent, on a che- 
vron ingrailed, azure, between three trefoils flipped, 
fable, as many crefcents, or, Wiliiamfon. 

EMNETH, or ENEMETH, fo called as lying 
in the meads or meadows, is an hamlet in the pa- 
rifh of Elm in Cambridgefhirc, and the ifle of Ely ; 
but this hamlet being in Freebridge hundred and in 
the county of Norfolk, it is neceflary to mention it 

HACKBEACH MANOR. In the ^th of king John 
it appears that there was a place in the aforefaid 
hamlet called Hagcbech, which gave name to a fa- 
mily then lords of it. 

It continued in this family till the reign of Rich* 
aid II. 

But this lordfliip, on the death of the lafl fir Ro- 
bert Hackbech, in king Henry VI. 's time, fcems to 
have come to fir Andrew Ogard, km. who was 
found to die poffeffed of it, Buckenham caflle, &c. 
in the cjgd of that king. 

Sir Andrew Ogard was a famous general in the 
wars of France, baron of Denvalc, of Beaufoe, Caux, 
lord of .the caftlc of Favillers in Anjou, of the c;if- 
tle of Meivyle, by St. Savory, of Yffe, by Towke 
in France, and had to the value of loool. per ann. 
in lands, fcc. and in a chcft of French gold, at the 
houfe of Robert Whitingham, about {even thoufand 
marks of Englifli : he married Margaret, only daugh- 
of fir John Clifton of Buckenham caflle. 

Afterwards it came to the family of Hewar, and 
on an inquifition taken September 2, 1579, Tho- 
mas Hewer, cfq. was found to- die fcifed of this 



manor on May 15 in tlie faid year; which extended 
itfelf into Walfoken, Upwell and Outvvell, held of 
Philip carl of Arundel, of his manor of Weft Wai- 
ton in foccage, and the rent of 5!. 53. 6d. ob. per 
ann. and of eighty-feven acres of land, meadow 
and pafture, held of the king, Sec. in foccage, and 
the tent of 445. 6d. per ann. by Wincfred his wife, 
daughter of John Repps, efq. of Weft Walton, re- 
licl of William Ogard efq. of Etimeth, he had fir 
Thomas Hewar, This lordlhip came to the Hew- 
ars on the marriage of Ogard's widow : fir Andrew 
Ogard abovcmcntioned, left at his death Henry 
Ogard, his fon and heir, aged four years ; and An-* 
drew Ogard, efq. and George and Henry, fons of 
Andrew, were feoffees to fir Andrew aforefaid ; from 
feme of thefe this manor palfed and came to Willi- 
am Ogard, efq. 

Sir Thomas Hewar, by his will dated January a-r, 
in the 5th of king Charles. I. left it to his nephew, 
Lawrence Oxburgh, (and died May 15, in the 6th. 
of that king) who was fecond fon of Thomas Ox- 
burgh, (by Eiheldreda his wife) who was the Ion of 
Thomas Oxburgh, who died in 1.628, and Thoma'- 
fme his wife, lifter of fir Thomas Hewar. 

In this family it remained till Hewar Oxburgla, 
efq. fold the manor-houfe to fir Thomas Peyton, 
bait, of Hackbeach-hall, and his fon conveyed the 
manor to the faid fir Thomas. On his deceafc it 
came to Henry Dafhwood, efq. his nephew, who 
took the name of Peyton, according to the will of 
fir Thomas, and has fince been created a baronet. 


ancient family of Ingaldefthorpe held a manor here 

of the prior of Lewes. In ihe iCJth of Edward L 

Y Thomas 


Thomas'fon of John dc Ingaidefthorpe, fettled the . 
manor of Bdlafis. in Emneth, on Thomas bifhop ^ 
of Rochefter. for life, which Thomas was of the] 
name and family. 

In the aoth of Henry VII. a fine was levied be-t 
n%en fir James Hobart. & Richard Southwell, fir! 
'Henry Ogard, I aights, and Richard Braunchc, efq. ! 

BISHOP of ELY'S MAXOK. The manor of Elm 
belonged to the fee of Ely, but the manor which 
die biihop held in this hamlet of Emneth, was that 
which belonged to his capital manor of Weft Wad 

To this hamlet belongs a large chapel, larger 
than mod churches, having a nave, north and fouth* 
ifle, and a chancel, dedicated to St. Edmund the] 
King and Martyr. 

Ehn is the mother church, has a rector and a vi- 
car, both in the patronage of the fee of Ely; the- 
rector)' is a finecure. 

At the eaft end of the fouth iflc of this chapel of 
Emneth, inclofed with iron rails, is a fumpoiou* 
monument eroded altanvife. on which lie the effigies 
of fir Thomas Hewar and his lady, at full Icngih, 
and at their feet that of a child, his fon, who died 
young. Over this monument is a canopy of marble, 
ice. fupponed by marble pillars. 

M. S. Thomas Hcwar, cgiu* t auratvs. .vir I 
hcntfth moribiu pradilu*, dc palria et prinape op&jm 
naritas, hoc juxta paraUcs Jiuts hie JepuUo* 
worth Jua nan manor J&i propoput. 


Duxit in uxorem Emmam Willi. Laurence, de villa 
Sti. Ivonis in agro Huntingdonienfi, armigi. Jiliam, 
Jpeclntce Jidei et viue intcgerrima fctminam, de qtfa uni-* 
eum Jilmm Thomam teneris annis ablatum Jujcitavit. 

Fixa fides calo, dijperjaq; fama per orbem, 
Tc prohibtnt Hewar, te. morientc mori. 

In the faid chapel, against the wall, is a neai 
mural monument of marble, on the fummit of it is 
Hewar, quartering as above, and Ano. Dni. i/jS6; 
below that, Alter a pars nojlri adi, pars altera terra. 

Alfo thefe fhields, Hewar with his quarterings, 
impaling _ Repps and Smith, quarterly, as' in Weft 
Walton ; Hewar, Sec. impaling argent, two bend- 
lets, iable, Kay. 

Anniger en Thomas Hewar, Winefredaq; conjux 
Arifligcri faUx Joharmis Jilia Repfi, 
Ou< prius injigm Gulielmo nupfit Ogardo, 
Luminc nunc cajji tumulo dauduntur in ijlo. 
Hccc T/wmam, Thoma, Thomafina, ac Elizabeths 
Fecerat hac triplici gaudentcm prole maritum 
Margeriam Tiwmas ducebat pofl Winefredam, 
U\orcm fatis extinclam, qua fuit orta 
Edvardi patris generofo fanguint Kaij, 
Sed Gidielmi erat hac primo JidiJJima conjux, 
Laurentini armegeri, fie bis fuit orba marito. 

\Vinefreda obi. 9 Feb. Ao. Dni. 1576, ao. etat. fax 
47, Thomas obt. 12, Martij A. D. 1585, ao. #tat. 
Jua 66. 

The prefent rector is the Re\v Henry Southwell^ 
D. D. 



ISLINGTON. This village is wrote in Doomf- 
day-book, Iflingetuna, Efingatuna, Ifingetuna, and 
derives its name from its fcite, near to the river 
Oufe, (called by die Britons life, or lie) on mea- 

SCALES MANOR. This manor derived its name, 
from the great lord Scales of Middleton, one of the 
moft antient and powerful barons in the county of 
Norfolk, in former reigns. 

This noble. family lived for many generations ia 
great fplendor and power at the caftlc of Middleton 
near Lynn, holding under different princes the 
higheft offices of ftate. Of this caftle fome ruins 
are flill to be feen, a plate of which is given in this, 

The gate-houfc or tower remains pretty pcrfecr. 
and appears to have been the grand entrance into a 
fpacious fquarc or quadrangle, moated round ac- 
cording to the tafle prevailing in times of antiquity, 
as may be feen at this day at the feat of fir Richard 
Bedingfield, bart. at Oxburgh near Stoke ; io that 
every great building in ihofe early ages feems to 
have been defigned as much for defence, and to 
command and controul the country round it, as for 
magnificence and grandeur. Few of our modern 
buildings come up to thefe noble reliques of anti- 
quity : they convey to us no ideas but what luxury 
inipires ; befpeak no family ; imprefs no awe upon 
the mind ; nor bring back to our remembrance the 
dignity and power of the founder. Houghton-hall 
alone in this county 'of Norfolk, ftands unrivalled 
in this particular, and is an exception to the general 
rule. Houghton flrikes the eye with every idea that 
magnificence can infpire, and fills the mind at one 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 301 

view with the flrongeft images of grandeur, power 
and wealth, that could poffibly have diflinguifhed 
the illuftrious founder. 

This fuperb palace will carry clown to poflerity a 
memorial of fir Robert Walpolc, that can be ex- 
ceeded only by the immortal page of an hiftorian, 
who fhall record hereafter with truth and impartiali- 
ty, the greateft aclions of {he grcateft minifters ! 

The gate or tower of the caftle of Middleton (till 
remaining, is eighteen yards in height, and is orna- 
mented with turrets about feventeen yards long and 
nine in breadth: over the arch is the fliield of 
Scales ; and this caftle was probably built by Tho- 
mas lord Scales in the reigh of Henry VI. The 
infide of it is much decayed : the area or quadran- 
gle of the court within is about eighty-four paces 
long, and forty -fix broad. 

John Devereux, conftable of Dover caftle, and 
keeper of the Cinque Ports, on the 5th of January, 
in the 12th of Richard II. received of William 
Tydeman, receiver of the caille, twenty-five fliil- 
lings of the ward of Robert de Scales, in this 
town, Middleton, Howe, &c. for two knights fees 
and an half; and for default of payment for twenty- 
eight day, feventy (hillings at ss. 6d. per day : and 
in the 4th of Henry VI. Robert lord Scale was 
found to have died feifed of it, leaving Robert his 
ion and heir, aged fix years ; and the laid Robert 
dying unmarried it came to his brother, Thomas 
lord Scales, and by his only daughter and heir, Eli- 
zabeth, to Anthony Woodville, (by marriage) earl 
Rivers, and lord Scales ; and having no iffue, to 
the Oxford family, (John de Vere, earl of Oxford) 
and to the family of Tyndale, on the acceffion of 
Y 3 king 


king Henry VII. to the crown, as heirs to the late 
lady Elizabeth Scales, as may be feen in Middleton: 
but Richard III. on the attainder of Anthony lord 
Scales, Sec. alorefaid, had granted it to his great fa- 
vourite, John cluke of Norfolk, in his 2d year, 
which grant was then fet alide, that duke being at- 

In the 9,d and 4th of Philip and Mary, John 
Tyndale had licence to alienate it to William Tyn- 
dale and his heirs; afterwards it came to the South- 

Francis Southwell and Barbara his wife, held in 
the gth of queen Elizabeth, the manor of Iflington, 
forty mcfTuages, twenty cottages, two hundred acres 
of land, three hundred acres of paflure, one hun- 
dred of meadow, ten acres of wood, with the ap- 
purtenances in this town, Clenchwarton, and Til- 
ney, in cap'ite ; and died the loth of November, in 
the 24th of Elizabeth. 

Miles Southwell, efq. held the fame in the r>oth 
of the laid reign, in which year, about Eafler, it 
was conveyed by him to fir John \Villoughby, knt. 
of Riflcy in Derbyfhire, anceftor to the prefcnt lord 
Middleton; which Miles was fon of Francis South- 
well, efq. aforefaid, aged eighteen on his father's 
death, and had livery of it in or about the 2;th of 

Sir John Willoughby was fon of fir George Wil- 
loughby, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter and heir 
of Richard Neale, of Wiggenhall St. "Mary Magda- 
len; which fir George died January 10, 1598, aged 
80, and Elizabeth his lady, Augurt 24, 1592, aged 
76. Sir John, by Frances his wife, daugher and 


OF F R E E B R, I D G E. 303 

heir of Henry Hawes, of Hilgay in Norfolk, had 
fir Henry Willoughby, who by licence 
November 19, in the gth of king James I. to Wil- 
liam Guybon, efq. and was held bv fir Francis 
Guybon in i 700, whole fon and heir, William Guy- 
bon, efq. of Thursford in Norfolk, conveyed it to 
Anthony Dixon, and Jofcph Dixon gave it to his 
nephew, Thomas Dixon, efq. the prefent lord, 1778. 


thorpe was lord in the 3d year of king Edward I. and 
in the 1 1 th of that king died feiied of it, and f eve- 
ral rents of affize. 

In the jft year of king Edward III. Thomas de 
Ingaldeflhorpe held it by the third part of a fee, as 
of the honor of Hawley, and the fervice of 4od. per 
ami. to Dover caflle. 

Oil the inqm'fition after his death, in the fecond 
year of the laid king, he is faid to have held it in 
capitc of the laid honour, and it extended into Til- 
ney and Clenchwarton. 

- In the 8th of that king, John his fon and heir 
paid 333. 4d. relief, for this manor. 

Sir Edmund de Ingaldeflhorpe was the lafl heir 
male of this family, and dying in or about 1456, left 
one daughter and heir, Ilabel, married to John Ne- 
ville, marquis Montacute, by whom (lie had two 
fons, John who died young, and George Neville duke 
of Bedford, who dving without iffue, the eftate of 
the Ingaldeflhorpes was divided amongfl his five fiflers 
and coheirs. 



BISHOP of ELY'S MANOR. Saint Audry, or Ethel* 
reda, the mona&ery of Ely, had lands here. 

In the reign of queen Elizabeth, it was by act of 
parliament conveyed to the crown, and in the 2 1 ft 
of James I. was part of the pofleffions of Charles, 
prince of Wales. 

EARL of CLA TIE'S MANOR. This lordfhip v 
Walter Gififard, firfl earl of Buckingham. Walter the 
fecond of that name, earl of Buckingham, was lord 
in the reign of king Stephen, and on his founding 
the abbey of Nutley in Buckinghamfhire, gave 4 
portion of tithe, belonging to his lordfliip here and 
in Tilney, to that houfe, as he did likewife L 
dleton ; and from this earl, by the marriage of a 
daughter, (as is faid) it came to the earl of Clare. 

LORD BARDOLF'S MANOR. The chief lordfhip' 
was held by the lord Scales, but the principal te- 
nures and lands belonging to it lay in Tilney, and 
not in Iflington, and moftly in the lord Bardolf $ 
manor of Tilney, from whom it took iu name. 

RICHMOND'S FEE. Alan, earl of Richmond 
lands here at the time of the conqueft. 

Tue bifhop of Baieux (Odo) had this on the for- 
feiture (rebellion) of Ralph earl of Norfolk, and 
Alan, the earl, had half of it for his part, 

Thii lordfliip alfo extended into Tilney. John, 
fon.of Wygenhale, John Hackbech, and their te- 
nants, held three parts of a fee here, in Tilney and 
Wiggenhall, of the honour of Richmond, in Henry 
III.'s reign; and in that of king Edward III. Tho- 
mas Fitz-George, John de Wigenhale, the abbot of 



: m, and the prior of Wcftacre, held the fourth 

part of a fee in the aforefaid tou*ns end South Lynn, 
of Ralph Neville. John duke of Bedford died feized 
of it in capilc, in the 14th of Henry VI. held by- 
George lord Latimer, as part of Richmond honour, 

abbot of Bury, or St. Edmund, had a lordfhip here 
before the reign of the ConidTor. 

Sampfon, abbot of Burv, on the foundation of 
the hoiphal of St. Saviour's, without the town of 
Bury, in the reign of Henry II. gave to that hofpital 
two parts of the tithes of his lordfliip here and in 
Tilncy ; and in the gth of Edward I. John, abbot 
of Bury, demifed to William de Sahara, clerk, for 
life, one meffuage, with the demefne lands, meadow 
and pafture, a \yindmill, ftiit of the abbot's tenants 
toil; faving to the abbot, the homages, rents, fer- 
vices, of his free men and villians, paying 20!. fter- 
ling. \Vitncffcs, fir Ralph de Alneto, iir William. 
de Walpole, fir Robert de Northwold, fir William 
de Terrington, fir Philip de Fenne, fir Ralph de Wir- 
ham, fir Adam de Talbot, knights, Robert Rulfell. 
William de Bradenham, James de Fenne, Alexan- 
der de Walpole, Sec. And in the regifter of the 

Sacrift it is obferved, diat the monks had no deeds, 
or memorandum, of the time or perfon who gave 
this lordfliip. 

In the j jth of Edward IV. John Broughton, efq. 
and Ann his wife, conveyecL in truft to Thomas 
bifhop of Lincoln, John bifliop of Rochefler, and 
Horwode, clerk of the privy-feal, this lordfiiip here 
and in Tilney, with the fern- between Old and New 
and the faid Anne died feifed of it anno 20, 
then a widow ; and in die 5th of Henry VII. Joha 
Broughton died feifed, held of the abbot of Bury. 


On the feaft of St. Peter and St. Paul, anno 21 ft 
of Henry VIII. 'John, fon. of John Broughton, cfq. 
dying a minor, Catherine and Ann, his fitters, had 
livery of it, with Saxling'ham manor in Norfolk. 

Ann, their mother, remarried fir John Ruffell; 
and Thomas Strange, efq. by the marriage of Ann, 
one of the fifters, had a moiety of it. 

In the 3oth of Henry VIII. Sir Walter Hobart 
demifed it to Humphry Carvile, gent, for ten years, 
paying id. per ann. and John Hobart had an inte- 
reft in it, anno gad of Elizabeth. After this it was 
in the ThurPiohs, and John Thurfton, efq. of Iloxnc 
in Suffolk, conveyed it to fir Richard Brown, bart. 
who died fcifcd of it, and in that, family it remains, 

The church is dedicated to St. Mary, has a nave, 
a crofs ifle and a chancel covered with reed; the 
tower is four-fquare, and (lands at the fouth part of 
the church, arid thro' it is a paffagc into the church, 
arid there arc two bells. 

It was anciently a reel ory valued at eighteen marks. 
It was appropriated to the priory of Blackburgh, on 
a grant of die lord Scales, in the 22d or 241!! of Ed- 
ward III. 

In a window was the pourtraiture of Roger lord 
Scales, on his knees, in complcat armour, with a 
fcroll in his right hand, thereon Jefu Fili Dei mi- 
ferer. with his arms ; gules, fix efcallops, 
argent, impaling, ermine, a crols ingrailed, gules, the 
arms of his lady Joan, daughter of fir Robert Nor- 
wood, with Scalcs's crefl, a plume of oftrich .> !.;> 
ihers. argent 3 ilfiiixig out of a coronet, or. Alfo the 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 337 

arms of UfFord, earl of .Suffolk, fable, a crofs in- 
grailcd, or. 

The Rev. John Daville was prefented to the vica- 
rage of Illington, by the king, in the year 1775, 

LYNN, NORTH. Of this parifh very little is 
known with certainty, excepting that the family of 
the Guybons, an antient family, hud a confiJerable 
tflatc here. 

Thomas Guybon, efq. was living in the reign of 
queen Elizabeth, and married Eleanor, daughter of 
Richard Colville, of Newton in the Ille of Elv. 

Humphry Guybon was the lafl of the family in 
North Lynn: he married the daughter of lir Philip 

The prefent proprietor of North and Weil Lynn 
is Thomas Pownall, efq. formerly governor of Maf- 
fachufet's Bay, in which government he preftded 
many years with great 'reputation. 

The church has for many 1 years paft been de- 
ftroycd by the waters, and the redor preaches an- 
nually a fermon upon the lands. 

The prefent reclor is "the Rev. Philip Pyle, who 
was prefented in 1756, the voungeft fon of that ve- 
ry learned divine the Rev. Thomas Pyle, who was 
for many years minifter of St. Margaret's church, 
and was a celebrated preacher : he was alfo diftin- 
gui fhed by his writings, and was in great cflecm 
with the moft learned men of his time. Pie was 
one of the prebendaries rcfidcniiary of the cathedral 
church of Salifburv. 



LYNN, WEST, It has been an idle tradition, 
that this was, In ancient days, the grand port, or 
chief town : and on that account is frequently called 
Old Lynn. I have obfervcd, that in the book of 
Doomfday, Lena was the name of what is now call- 
ed the burgh of Lynn, of South Lynn, and of Weft 
and North Lynn ; and that the chief port was then 
at the burgh, is certain, from the cuUouis and laft- 
age of that port, which then belonged to the b if hop 
of Ely, and the lord of Rifing, and which continued 
fo for many centuries, and Hill belong to the faid 
burgh ; this place was only an hamlet belonging to 
the faid burgh. 

In a pleading, anno 411!. of Henry III. it occurs 
by the name of We ft Lcnne ; and in the year 1300, 
Alan de Lindeicy, burgcfs of Lena, gave by deed 
to William de Goufele, farrier, of Lenn, the liberty 
of a pafiagc or ferry-boat, over the water of Lenn, 
which he had bought of Alan, ion of John Codling 
nf W'efl Lenn, to the faid William and his heirs, 
&c. paying to the capital lord of the liberty, the fer- 
vicc of right due and cuftomary, for which the faid, 
Wiiliam gave 10 him a certain fum of filver in hand, 
paid. Wimeffc-s, John de Merlowe, then mayor, 
Peter de Thundrcyn, John de St. Omcr, Sec. bur- 
geffcs, dated at Lynn, anno 1300. 

This John de Merlowe was fiifl mayor in 1295; 
then occurs mayor again in 1 299, and in the fuc- 
ceeding year 1300. In thofe early ages it was no 
uncommon thing for a mayor to continue in his of- 
fice two years running, and fometimes three years. 
Jn the reign of Edward II. Lambert de St. Homcro, 
was mayor m the years 1312, 1313, 1314. 



The ferry-boat and paflage over the water is flill 
private property, and not in tlie corporation. \Ve 
believe it belongs at prefent to the Rev. Mr. William 
Young, in right of his wife. 

The church is dedicated to St. Peter. It is co- 
vered with lead, the chancel with reed, and has a 
fquare tower with three bells. 

The Rev. William Evcrard is the prefent reclor, 

TERR1NGTON. This town though very confi- 
dcrable in its bounds and lands, is not mentioned 
in the book of Doomfday, and the reafon is, that 
there was at that .time no independent manor of 
lordlhip, with its lands here, held of the king; all 
the kinds herein belonged to, and depended on fome 
neighbouring lordfhips and towns, where they had 
their fcke, and extended themfclves into this ; and 
were under thofe lordfliips arid towns., valued and 
extended and accounted for. 

The fubjecl and defign of that moft valuable re- 
cord, the book of Doomfday, being to fet forth and 
afcertain thofe lands only which were held in, capite, 
and that in the proper place, where the heads of 
iuch fees and tenures lay, and immediately apper- 
tained and belonged. Many indeed have maintain- 
ed, that if a town was not to be found in that book 
it was not at that time in being ; not confidering 
and reflecting rightly on the true fubjecl and defign 
of that book: this led Cainden, and after him 
others, to affert Royfton, -in Hertfordshire, not to 
have a being in the time of the Conqueror, the cafe 
being the fume with that town as with this of Ter- 



BARDOLPH'S FEE. Hermerus de Fcrrariis, who 
held a manor in Tilncy and Iflington in the Con-> 
queror's time, was alio lord of part of this town, 
into which the faid manor extended : this came af- 
ter to the lords Bardolphs, and was a member of 
the honor or baronv of Wormegav ; part of this was 
held by the anticnt family of Tcrrington, who af- 
fumcd their name from this town. 

HOWARD'S MANOR. William Howard purchafcd 
lands here, in Walpole and Tilney, in the soth of 
Edward I. of John de Hoyland and Sibil! his wife. 

In the ^d of Richard II. a fine was levied of the 
manor of Howards, in Terrington, with that of 
Wiggenhall, &c. between William Uffbrd, earl of 
Suffolk, fir John Lovcll* fir John Tudenham, knts. 
Sec. feoffees, querents, and fir Robert Howard and 
Margaret his wife, deforciants : and in the v,d of 
Henry IV. fir John Howard was lord, which fir 
John, on his death in 1437, left to Henry Howard, 
his fecond fon, by the lady Alice, daughter of fir 
William Tendring, his fecond wife, the manor of 
manor of Terrington Howard's, and Kafl Walton, 
Sec. whofe daughter and fole heir, Elizabeth, brought 
it by marriage to Henry, fecond fon of Roger Went- 
tvorth, efq. of Nettleflead in Suffolk, (who died 
feifed of it in the 22d of Edward IV.) by whom he 
had Roger Wentworth, of Coddcnham, Suffolk, knt. 
who died in the ggd of Henry VIII. and by Ann 
his wife, daughter and heir of Humphry Tyrrell, of 
Warley in EffeX. (fecond fon of fir Thomas Tyrrell, 
f Heron iriEfTex] had fir John Wentworth, of Cod- 
denham and Gosfield, who had livery of this manor in 
the 31 ft of Henry VIII. and dying September 3, 
1567, was buried at Gosfield in Eflex, leaving by 

.Ann his wife, daughter of Bettenham, of 



Pluckley in Kent, efq.. two daughters and ^coheirs, 
Mary, married to Thomas lord Wcntwor;h, who 
died without ilfue, and Ann, married firft to fir Hu'jji 
Rich, ion and heir to Richard lord Rich, afterwards 
to Henry lard Matrcvers, ion and heir to Henry Fits 
Alan, earl of Arundcl. 

Bv an inquiiition taken, po/l mortem, Jan. 14, ifl 
the 7 th of Charles I. at Ipfwich, it was found that 
fir Edward Villiers, knt. died feized of the manor of 
Terrington Howard's, Ovcrhall, and Netherhall ia 
PoRingibrd ; the manors of Impeys and Bully-hall, 
&c. in Suffolk ; and that by Barbara his wife, daugh- 
ter of fir John St. John, he had a fon and heir, 
William Villiers, aged 20, in 1625: the will of fir 
Edward bears date Auguft 3, 1625, but he died Fe- 
bruary 2, 1626. 

After this it came to the Hovells, and fo to the 
Folkcs's, and iir Martin Folkes, ban. of Hillington, 
is the pro! cut lord of Terrington Howard's. 

I)u\ro.\'.s alias MARSHALL'S MAXOR, 
Hugh deDuiitone was lord in Hen. III.'s time. 

GODDARD'S MANOR. In 1233, Thomas, fon of 
Goddard, held, the third part of a fee in Middleton, 
of the lord Bardolph, and lands here. 

Robert Goddard, efq. was living in the 1 2th of 
Henry VI. fon and heir of Walter, and held a lord- 
fhip here and in Walpole, of Joan abbefs of Elnef- 
tow, in Bedfordshire, and was buried in Terrington 
church in 1448. 

After this, William Goddard, efq. a judge of the 
King's Bench, had an intcrcft herein, and Catherine 



his wife, who died in 1464; and in the isth of 
Edward IV. John Well, of Wifbeach, and Agnes 
his wife, daughter and heir of John Goddard, con- 
veyed lands to Henry Balding, efq. and Gregory^ 
Guybon, of Weft Lynn, eiq. 

BISHOP of ELY'S MANOR. This was the princi- 
pal manor of this town, and belonged to the bi- 
fhop's great lordfhips of Weft Walton, Wifbeach, 
Sec. which extended into this town. 

In the 31 ft of Henry III. a fine was levied be- 
tween Hugh bifliop of Ely, patent, and John fon of 
Wace, deforciant of cuftoms and fervices, which 
the bifliop demanded for the free tenement, held of 
the bifhop, in Terrington, with forty-five acres, for 
which he was to pay 205. ftcrling yearly, granted to 
him by the bifliop, on the payment of 155. 4d. per 
ami. laving to the bifliop the general aid, when it 
was to be levied through the bifhoprick, upon his 
freemen, by the king's precept. 

In the 5th of that king there was an extent made 
of this manor, as appears from the regifter of the 
bifliop of Ely, in the Cottonian Library, now in 
the Mufeum : the jury prefent it to be in J.he liber- 
ty of that bifhop in Marfliland, that his bailiff 
might hold pleas of all that the fheriffs might, with 
writ and without, affife of bread and beer, and 
amercements of his tenants, wreck at fea, the pa- 
tronage of the church of Terrington, and of the 
chapel of St. John's, towards the marfh, with all 
the tithes, except tw6 p"art of the tithe of the land 
of William, fon of William here ; and the fee of 
fir William Bardolph, called Knight's Land: the 
demeans of the manor confiftcd of four hundred 
and niucty-fevcn acres, one rood and an half, by 



the leffcr hundred, and the perch of feven -feet, 
.which might be plowed with fix oxen, and fix Scots 
to harrow, and carry the corn and dung ; the mea- 
dows were two hundred and fixty-nine acres and 
half a rood, frefh paflure forty-fix acres, three roods 
and a half, fait paflure one thoufand two hundred 
and ten acres, all held by feveralty. 

The towns of Terrington, Tiiney, Walpole, Wal- 
ton, and the Soke of Walfoken, were to common 
and dig turfs, &c. in the marfh called Weft Fen, 
but none could fell, of give any turfs away without 
leave of all the lords, having common within the 
boundary thereof, being three miles long and two 
and a half broad. 

It remained in the fee of Ely till the death of 
Dr. Cox, in 1581, when it came'to the crown by 
an acl of parliament made in the 4th of Elizabeth, 
which empowered her to grant and convey the im- 
propriatc tithes, glebe lands,- &c. of reclories lodged 
in the crown on the diilblution of religious houfes, 
to feveral epifcopal fees ; and for her to take into 
the right of the crown, on the vacancy of any fee, 
any part of the honors, cailles, manors, lands, Sec. 
of the faid fees, as fhould amount to the yearly va- 
lue of luch redorics irripropriate, to be fettled on 
them for ever; and thus this goodly manor, with 
many other belonging to the fee of Ely, came to 
the crown, on the death of bifhop Cox aforefaid. 

King James I. granted this manor, with all itf 
appurtenances, to his eldeft fun Henry, and after to 
Charles prince of Wales, 

After this, it was afligned to queen Catherine, 

conform of king Charles II, ajj part pf her cTowry, 

Z and 


and was farmed by fir James Chapham Fuller, bait, 
and in the year 1 696, was granted to William Ben- 
tinck, earl of Portland, by king William III. 

Count Rentinclc, a younger fon of this family, 
who lives in Holland, is lord of it, and of the 
greatefl part of this town. 

Count Bentinck was captain of the Niger man of 
war in the Englifh fervice during the laft war. In 
the year 1773 and 1774, ^ c raifcd a very remarka- 
ble fea bank upon Terrington falt-mai flies, and 
took in a confiderable number of acres by keeping 
out the fea and fpring-tides -from overflowing them. 
This has been a great improvement upon the eflate, 
but it coft captain Bentinck his life, who by expo- 
fmg himfelf at all feafons by his clofe attention to 
this work, contracted a fen fever, which carried him 
pff about the end of the year 1774. He was a 
member of the Houfe of Commons till the unex-' 
peeled diffolution of the parliament in Oclober 1774, 
.when it was faid he was loliched to Hand candidate 
for the borough of Lynn. His farms within the 
old bank, as may be.feen in Mr. Armflrong's fpeci- 
men of his new map for the county of Norfolk, 
are called after the titles of the family in Holland, 
" Bentinck farm, Welbeck farm, Roon farm." The 
counts Bentinck are lords of Roon in Holland. 

PRIOR of LEWES'S MANOR. This was part of 
the faid prior's manor of Weft Walton, and ex- 
tended into this town. 

Walter Terrington, L. L. D. was a celebrated wri- 
ter and author, and born in this town, as was John 
Colton, firfl mafter of Gonvile hall in Cambridge, 
and preferred to the. primacy of Ireland by king 
Henry IV. archbifhop of Arjnagh in Ireland. 


The church of Terrington ii dedicated to St. 
Clement, and is a very beautiful, large, and noble 
building of freeflone, in the form of a cathedral 

On a pillar here, a compartment of marble, with 
the arms of Afcham, gules, a fefs, or, between 
three dolphins embowed, argent, impaling Bury, 
ermine, on a bend, azure, between two cottifes, 
gules, three lys, or; creft, a dolphin embowed. 

Near to this 'place lyeth John Afcham, EJq. born at 
Bojlon in- LincolnJJiire, and Mary his wife, one of the 
daughters of Sir William Bury, of Grant/torn in Lin- 
colnjhire, knighi, and Jifter to the Lord Chief- Baron, 
Bury; he departed, &c. May 3, 1675, fo c died Juric 
, 1704, 

On a grave-ftone in the chancel, with the arms of 
Upwood, quarterly, in the firfl and fourth, a chev- 
ron, between three heads, crafed, fable, quartering, 
argent, three cocks, gules ; Gockain the feeond and 

In memory of Samuel Upwood, Efq. who died Scp 
7, 1716, in his 38 year. 

Againft the north wall of the chancel is a fmaii 
mural monument for Dorothy, wife of Mr. John Ed- 
wards, daughter of fhorowgood Upwood, Efq. who died^ 
Feb. 15, 1721-2, aged 40; with the arms of Ed- 
wards ; ermine, a lion rampant, guardant, azure, on 
a canton, an eagle difplayed, fable, impaling Up- 

Here was alfo formerly buried in this church, 
Dudley, defcended from ilie lord Dudley, 
Z 2 wick 


with tins epitaph: Hie facet Thorn. Sutton, Jitius 
Thomce Sutton, nuper de Milton, Jilij D'ni Johs. Sut- 
ton, Dni de, Dudley. 

Alfo a gravc-ftone for Elizabeth Sutton, wife, as 
tve fuppofc, of the aforefaid Thomas Sutton, efq. 
Hie jacd Elii. Suttcn, Jilia Roberti Goddard ; with the 
arms of Sutton, impaling Goddard and Denver 

On the wood-work of the roof of the nave, is an 
anchor carved, the infignia' of St. Clement, to 
whom this church is dedicated. Alfo a plain crofs. 

The prefent reclor is the Rev. Dr. Brooke, Ladv 
Margaret's profeflbr of divinity in the univerfity of 
Cambridge, to which profefforfhip this rectory was 
annexed for ever, in the year 1605, by king James I. 

The prefent vicar is the Rev. Mr. Upwood. 

There is a chapel dedicated to St. John, belong- 
ing to this church, where the vicar of Terrington is 
to perform duty and fervice ; and {eems to be built 
in 1423, licence being then granted to John Billing, 
Vicar, to build a chapel in the lordfliip of the bi- 
fhop of Ely, at the crofs called Pcykes-crofs, to the 
honor of God and the Holy Crofs; and in 1428, 
mention is made of a pilgrimage to Terrington St. 

It is faid to be made parochial and free from the 
church of St. Clement, by Thomas archbifhop of 
Canterbury, in 1530, but we find no inftitution to 
it as a parochial church, and remains at this time a 
chapel to the faid church, for the fervice of the pa- 
rifhioners, being three miles from the mother 

OF F R E E B R I D G E. 317 

It is a regular pile, with a nave, two ifles and a 
chancel covered with lead ; a fquare flone tower 
with four pinnacles, and four bells Handing at the 
fouth weft corner. 

TILNEY. The lord Bardolf's manor of Ming- 
ion extended here. 

LORD BARDOLF'S FEE. It was a part of the ho- 
nor of Wormegay, the barony of ihe lords Bardolf ; 
and _being a confidcrable lordfhip, levcral perfons 
were enfeoffed therein ; from whence fprung up ma- 
ny lordfliips, held by different parts of fees and te- 
nures here, and the prefentation to the church of 
Tilney belonged formerly to the lords Bardolf's, as 
capital lords. 

CHERVILLE' s MAYOR. The family of Cherville, 
or Kervile, was early enfeoffed of part. In the 
loth of Richard I. a fine was levied between Simon, 
Ion of Roger dc Cherville, petent, and Roger, fon 
of Walter de Cherville, of lands in Tilney. 

Sir P>edcrick dc Cherville held two fees in Til- 
ney, Illington, Wiggcnhall, and Clenchwarton, 
(when an aid was granted, on the marriage of king 
Henry III.'s fifter to the emperor of Germany) of 
the honor of Wormegay ; and was found in the 
34th of that king to have a gallows in Tilney, .and 
the liberty, or power of trying and hanging offen- 

In the 4th of Edward I. William lord Bardolf, 
was found to die fcifed of a manor here, held in ca- 
pile, by the fervice of paying caftle guard to the 
caflle of Norwich, leven {hillings .per month, and 
half a mark per ann. 

Z 3 From 


From the Chervilles, it came partly to the Mar- 
munds, and to the Tilneys, probably by fome mar- 
riage, fir John Tilney having a lordfhip here in Ed- 
ward III.'s time, who was fon of fir Thomas de 
Tilrfey: fir John was (Hied of Whaplode, in Lin- 
colnfhire, and left two daughters and coheirs, Ifabel 
married to Jeffrey Folvile, by whom he had Maud, 
a daughter and heir, married to fir John Woodford, 
whofe ion, fir Robert, of Sproxton in Leicefterfhire, 
gave his grandfoa John, in the 26th of Henry VI. 
lands here. Alice, another daughter and coheir of 
fir John Tilney, married Edmund Kcrvjle, of Wig- 
genhall St. Mary's 

confiderable poflemons in this town. 

On the diffolution of this abbey it came to the 
crown, and was granted July 3, in the 2d of Eliza- 
be'th, to Richard Nicholls, of Tilney, with all its 
appurtenances in Tilney, Terrington, Iflington and 
Clench warton, with the rectory of Rougham in 
Norfolk, belonging to Weftacre priory, and the 
reclory of Dunton in Norfolk, belonging to the 
priory of Marmound ; and George Nicholls held it 
in the ayth of that queen. 

FENN'S and NOON'S MANOR. In the reign of 
Henry IJI. Philip de Fenn, and his tenants, were 
found to hold the third part of a knight's fee here, 
and in Wiggenhall, of the lord Bardolf ; and the 
heirs of John Noon held alfo, with the abbot of 
Dereham, two fees of the faid towns of the fame 

Sir Edmund Noon occurs lord in the 3d of Hen, 
IV. and in the 5th of Henry VI. Thojaas Noon 



held the eighth part of a fee in Tilney, Wiggenhall 
and Clenchwarton, of Thomas Beaufort, duke of 
Exeter, lord of the honor of Wormegay. 

MARSHALL'S MANOR. William, fon of John le 
Marefchalk, had a loidfhip held of the honor of 


Henry III. the abbot held in this town and in Wig- 
genhall, the eighth part of a fee of the honor of 


On the difTolution of the religious houfes in the 
time of Henry VIII. this monaftery came to the 
crown;, and on the goth of Augufl queen Eliza- 
beth, in her igth year, granted it, with all the lands 
and tenements, &c. belonging to it, in the towns of 
Tilney, Hlirigton, Clenchwarton, Walpole, Emneth 
and Gay ton, to Thomas Jenyns and Edward Forth. 

WESTACRE PRIORY. Jeffrey Sutton alienated 
lands in this town, Terrirjgton, Wiggenhall, Sec. to 
this priory, in the 6th of Edward II. 

EARL of CLARE'S FEE. In the fines of lands ly- 
ing in this town, frequent mention is made of the 
Tilney family. Robert de Tilney lived in the reigti 
of king Henry III. and Godfrey his fon, was, found 
to have a manor here in the 3d of Edward I. 

Philip, fon of Frederick de Tilney, who lived at 
Bcjfton in Lincolnshire, efq. was pollened of a mai- 
nor, or lands here, as appears by his will dated on 
the feafl of St. Ambrofe, in the iitji year of king 
Richard II. and Frederick had fifty acres of land 
here, conveyed to him by fine, which Nicholas 
Z 4 Blower 


Blower held for the life of Agnes, widow of John, 
fon of William Noon, of Tilney. 

In the 47th of Edward III. and in the 43d of 
that king, John, fon of Jeffrey de Tilney and 
Agnes, his wife, had lands conveyed to them by 

Weaver, in his Funeral Monuments, gives an 
extract from a book, then in the hands of Thomas 
Tilnev, of Hadlcigh in Suffolk, efq. which belonged 
(as in a note of the faid book is faid) to fir Frederick 
Tilnev, of Boflon in Lincolnfhire, who was knight- 
ed at Aeon in the Holy Land, by king Richard I. 
in his 3d year ; a knight remarkable for his great 
ftature, and flrength of body ; and was buried with 
his anceftors in the church of Terrington, by Til- 
ney, whole height was to be feen there at that time, 
viz. 1556. 

After him fixteen knights fucceeded, (of the name 
of Tilney) and in the eflate; who all lived at Bof- 
ton, till it came to Thomas duke of Norfolk, by 
the marriage of a daughter and heirefs of an elder 

The laft of this knightly family, was then fir 
Phil. Tilney, of Shellcigh in Suffolk, father of Tho- 
mas Tilney, of Hadlcigh. * 

The book here mentioned, in 1727 was in the 
hands of Peter Le Neve, Norroy, but the note 
abovementioned, appears by the hand to be written 
long after the fiege of Aeon, and about the reign of 
king Henry VIII. or Edward VI. and there was no 

iuch fucceffion of knights as here mentioned. 



part of the capital lordfhip of that prior in Weft 
Walton, and granted by the name of Kenwick in 
Tilncy, in the reign of king Richard I. with the con- 
jfcnt of the abbot of Clugny, of Burgundy in France, 
(to which abbey Lewes was a cell) to Alan, fon of 
Robert de Snctfham, alias de Inglcthorpe, in fee- 
farm, at twenty inarms per ann. mod of the demcfne 
lands belonging to it being exempted from tithe. 

Thomas de Ingaldefthorpe was lord in the 8th of 
king John, and in the gd of Edward I. John de In~ 
galdefthorpe was found, to hold a knight's fee in this 

This town gives name to a. famous common, call- 
ed Tilney Smeeth, whereon thirty thoufand, or more, 
large Marfhland fheep, and the great cattle of feven 
towns, to which it belongs, ait conftantly faid to 
feed; about one mile in breadth, and three in length, 
viz. Tilney, Terrington, Clenchwarton, Iflingtoi\ 
Walpole, Weft Walton, Walfoken and Emneth : a 
piece of land fo fruitful, (as was reported by a cour- 
tier to king James I. at his firft coming to the crown) 
" that if over night a wand, or rod, was laid on the 
" ground, by the morning it would be covered with 
" grafs of that nights growth, fo as riot to be dif- 
" ccmed;" to which that king is faid, in a jocofc 
manner, to reply, " that he knew fomc grounds in 
" Scotland, where if an horfe was put in over 
" night, they could not fee him, or difcern him in 
*' the morning." Of this plain or fineeth, there is 
a tradition, which the common people retain, that 
in old time, the inhabitants of thefe towns had a 
contcft with the lords of the manors, about the 
bounds and limits of it; when one Hickifric, a 
pcrfon of great flature and courage, aflifling the 



faid inhabitants in their rights of common, took an 
axel-tree from a cart wheel, inflead of a fword, and 
the wheel for a fhield, or buckler, and thus armed 
foon repelled the invaders ; and for proof of this 
notable exploit, they to this day fhew, fays fir Wil- 
liam Dugdale, a large grave-done, near the eafl 
end of the chancel, in Tilney church-yard, whereon 
the form of a crofs is fo cut, or carved, as that tjio 
upper part thereof, wherewith the carver hath adorn- 
ed it, being circular, they will therefore needs have 
it to be the grave-flone of Hickifric, and to be as a 
memorial of his gallantry, 

The ftone coffin which {lands out of the ground 
in Tilney church-yard, on the north fide of the 
church, will not receive a perfon above fix feet in 
length, and this is (hewn as belonging formerly to 
the giant Hickifric ; the crofs, faid to be a repre- 
fentation of the cart-wheel, is a crofs pai^c, on the 
fummit of a flafF, which flaff is fliled an axle-tree ; 
fuch croffes pattee on the head of 'a fluff, were em- 
blems, or tokens, that fome knight templar was 
therein interred, and many fuch are to be 1'een at 
this day in old churches. 

Til, is the name of a river in Northumberland, 
and many towns take their names from Til ; as Til- 
brook in Bedfordfhire, Til ford in Surry, Tilbury in 
Effex, &c. * 

The church of Tilney is dedicated to All Saints, 
and is a large building, confifling of a nave, north 
and fouth ifle, with a chancel covered with lead ; 
at the weft end (lands a fquare tower, with pinna- 
cles ; on the tower, a fpire of freeflone. 


* Parkin. 


The church arid town ftantls at the diftance of 
four miles from Lynn Regis over the channel into 

The old ilory of Hickifric, or Hickathrift, is 
that he took up a great hammer from a forge at 
Lynn, and threw it acrofs the river into Tilney 
church-yard, faying, " wherever it fell he would be 
buried. 1 ' 

In the 20th of Edward III. a fine w?s levied be- 
tween Mary de St. Paul, countefs of Pembroke, 
and John lord Bardolf, of the patronage of this rec- 
tory, and an acre of land, viz. the church-yard held 
in capite, and conveyed then to the countefs for for* 
ty-eight marks, the fine being levied by a fpecial 
precept. The family of Bardolf is, by ail accounts 
that we have feen, laid to have purchafed it of fif 
Frederick de Cherville in the reign of Henry III. 
but as the Chervilles manor in this town was held of 
the lords Bardolf, who had the chief fee in it, it is 
moft probable that it was always an appendix to 
their capital manor. 

King Edward III. in his 32d year, granted a pa- 
tent to appropriate it ta Pembroke Hall in Canir 
bridge, by the gift of the foundrefs, the laid coun- 
tefs of Pembroke, and a vicarage fettled. 

The Rev. Mr. Peele, now upper minifter of St. 
Peters of Mancroft in the city of Norwich, was 
prefented to this vicarage in 1 748, on the death of 
the reverend and very learned divine Dr. John 
Whaley, late mafler of Peterhoufe College, in Cam- 
bridge, and regius profeifor of divinity in that uni- 



WALPOLE takes its name from the great wall, 
or fea bank raifed to defend it, and from a poal, or 
deep water near Jto that wall. Of this great parifh, 
only this account is to be found in ihc grand fur- 
vey, or book of Docmfday. 

John nephew of Waleran, held lands in Walpoie. 
\Valcran was fome officer of the Conqueror, and 
earl of Millant in Normandy. 

EARL of CLARE'S MANOR. How long it conti- 
nued in this John's poffeffion does not appear ; pro- 
bably on his death it was granted to the Giffard's 
family, earls of Bucks, who had coniiderable pof- 
ieffions in this tract and neighbourhood ; and by 
the marriage of a daughter and heirefs of Giitard, 
the fecond earl, was brought into the family of the 
carls of Clare. 

In the 47th of Henry III. Richard de Clare, earl 
f Clare, was found, as appears from the efcheat 
rolls, to have held lands in Walpoie, by knight's 

In the ^sd of that king, Hamon Moynftrail had 
a manor here, which we fuppofe to be this ; and 
then gave licence of diftrefs for rent due to the pri- 
orefs of Carrowe, for lands in Heacham ; and in the 
7th of Edward I. Adam Muflroil fettled lands here, 
and in Hunflanton, on Hamon his fon, by fine. 

In the 21 ft year of king Edward I. John Lovell 
and his tenants held this manor by the third part of 
a fee, of the earl of Gloucefter; and in the lit of 
Edward II. John Lovell of Titchmarfh, fettled it 
with that of Hunftanton, on William Lovell, and 
and the heirs of his body by fine then levied : the 



faid William was found in the 8th of that king to 
"die feifed of it, held of the honor of Glare. 

It appears in the soth of Edward III. from the 
inquifuions, that William Lovell and his tenants, 
I held in Walpole the third part of a fee of the earl 
! of Gloucefter, which John Lovell formerly held, 
and had a charter for free-warren in all his demean 
lands here, and in Hunftanton ; and 'in the 22d of 
Richard II. Roger Mortimer, earl of March, was 
found to hold in capite, one fee in this town, Hun- 
ftanton and Walton, held by William Lovell, as 
parcel of the honor of Clare ; and John Lovel held 
the third part of a fee of the earl of March, in 
Walpole, and was under age ; and the kings .ward 
in the gd' of Henry IV. 

Edmund Mortimer, earl of March, was found to 
hold one fee in Walpole, Hunftanton and Walton, 
held by William Lovell in the 3d of Henry Vi- 
and in the 15th of Edward IV. the jury prefent 
that Robert Fitz-Symon, held the day he died the 
manors of Hunftanton and Walpole, Mocking in 
Effex, Lillingfton, Lovell in Oxfordlhire, the moiety 
of the manor of Archefter in NorthamptonQiire, 
and that Joan, the wife of Robert Timperley, was 
his daughter and heir, then twenty-two years old. 

John Pell was lord of Lovell's manor, with mef- 
fuages, lands and tenements, in the i^th and in the 
of Elizabeth. 

John Richards, alias Glover, and Joan his wife. 
had a praecipe to deliver to John Moore, the manor 
f Lovells, in this town and Terrington, &c. 


By an inquifition taken at Norwich, O&obef 1, 
in the ^th year of king Charles I. after the death of 
Henry Reppes, efq. who died the 2$d of March, 
1628, it was found that he died poffefied of this 
manor of Lo veils, held of the king, of his honour 
of Clare, by knight's fervice; and is called a decay- 
ed and reputed manor. 

Valentine Upwood, efq. lord, and Samuel Up- 
wood in 1716. 

Befides this little lordfliip, there were two very 
confiderable ones in this townfhip of Walpole, one 
belonging to the* church of Ely, another to the earl 
Warren, at the time when Doomfday-book was 
made ; and yet no account occurs, or is to be found 
in Doomfday-book of thefe, or any mention made 
of Walpole, (excepting the account of John, nephew 
of Waleran's manor before obferved) and the rcafon 
is, that the manor of the aforefaid John, was the 
only independent manor, held in capitc of the king, 
in this town, and had its fcite herein : whereas the 
lordfhips of the church of Ely, and the carl War- 
ren, though held alfo in capite, were dependent ma- 
nors on the church of Elys capital manor of Weft 
Walton and Wifbech, and the earl Warren'* capital 
manor, in the laid town of Walton, which had their 
fcites there, and extended into Walpole, Terrington, 
Sec. and fo were valued and accounted for under 
the capital manor of Weft Walton, &c. where no 
doubr. all duties and fervices of thofe who held lands 
in \Valpole, and Terrington, of the aforefaid bifhop 
and earl, were conftantly performed and due. 

ELV MANOR. Ofwi, a noble Saxon, and Leoflcda 
his wife, father and mother of Alwyn, gave on the 
3tcUniffk>n of their foil Alwvn into the monaftery of 



Ely, (vvliere lie became a monk, and was after bifliop 
of Ehnham, in Norfolk, in 1021) the manors of 
Walpole, with tliofe. of Wifbech, Walfoken, Weft 
VV 7 alton, and TVrrington, in Norfolk. 

MARSHE'S, or COLVILLE'S MANOR- In the reign 
of king Richard II. fir William Marfh had lands 
here, and gave his name to the manor. Afterwards 
it came to fir John Colville, and then took a fecond 
name. In the reign of Henry VIII. (ir John Col- 
Yille held it of the bilhop of Ely. 

WALPOLE'S MANOR. The trulv ancient family 
of the Walpoles, of Houghton in Norfolk, earls of 
Orford, were many ages paft enfeoffed in lands, and 
;t lordfhip in this town, from which, according to 
the Norman cuflom, they aflumecl their Name. Of 
this family was Jeffrey de Walpole) fon of Reginald, 
as appears by deed Jans date. 

Amongft the names of thofe knights who owed 
fervice to the bifliop of Ely, as appears from an ex- 
chequer-book, 'Jocelinus de Walpole is named to hold 
half a fee in Walpole, Walton and Hackbech ; and 
among the free tenants of the faid bifliop, Adam de 
Walpole is faid to hold half a virgate, and a piece 
of pallure, paying one mark per ann. and Joceli- 
nus de Walpole half a virgate ; Ofbert de Straclfett 
the fourth part of a virgate, John Norman, William 
de Schuldham, Alan fon of Algar, Ralph fon of Jo- 
celine, and Roger his brother, Andrew de Tetfing- 
ton, and William de Camera, 8cc. 

Ralph fon of Joceline, appears to have three ions, 
Thomas, Alan, and Richard de Walpole, from a 
pleading in the 34th of Henry III. when Peter and 
William de Walpole were fons of Thomas de Wal- 


pole. And before this, in the 1 2th of the faid 
lung, a fine was levied between Claricia, daughter 
of Alan de Walpole, Thomas de Cheyle and Chrif- 
tian his wife, Robert Chamberlain and Mariona his 
wife, petents, and Henry de Walpole, tenant, of 
forty acres of land in this town, granted to Henry ; 
and in the igth of the faid reign, Richard de Wal- 
pole was petcnt in a fine, and Walter Ion of Alan, 
and Catherine his wife, tenant of lands here.- A 
fon of Joceline was benefa&or to the priory of 

About this time lived fir Henry de Walpole, knt. 
who by deed fans date, granted to Thomas de Spald- 
ing, burgefs of Lynn, for his homage and fervice, 
and for twenty marks flerling, certain lands in Ter- 
rington, to be held of him and his heirs, paying to 
the lords of the fee the accuflomed fervices and 
dues, viz. fixpence (de cenfu) at the feaft of St. Mi- 
chael, and to him and his heirs one clove at the 
feaft of St. John Baptift. Witnefles to this deed, 
Jans date, are fir William de Terrington, fir John 
de Wygenhale, knights ; Hugh de Dunftone, Ni- 
cholas de Hecham, Walter Marefchal, William dc 
Mundeford, Nicholas de Burgh. John de Baufey, 
clerk, &c. 

To this is affixed his feal, a fefs between two 
chevrons ; which arms are borne at this day by the 
carl of Orford ; of the fame family was Ralph de 
Walpole, who was bifhop of Ely in the reign of 
Edward I. and bore the fame arms. 

Before this, it is faid that the family removed 
from Walpole to Houghton in Norfolk, on the mar- 
riage of Richard, fon of Reginald de Walpole. 
xvith Emme, daughter of . Walter, fon of William 



de Havelton or Houghton ; but they ftill continued 
to have an interefl and a manor here. For in the 5th 
of Edward II. Henry de Walnole, (and Alice his 
wife) appears to be lord both of Houghton and 
Walpole, by a fine then levied. 

In the 3d of that king lands in Tilney and Wig- 
genhall were fettled on John ion of Alexander de 
Walpole, by Alexander his father ; and in the 6th 
of the faid reign Bartholomew de Walpole. (on of 
John dc Walpole, and Catherine his wife, hold 
lands in Walpole. 

Henry, ion of Henry de Walpole, by his will, 
dated 1442, orders his trufte'es of this manor, to 
enfeofT Henry his fon, in tail, in the fame ;-. arid 
Thomas Walpole, gent, fon of John Walpole, efq. 
by his deed, dated March 30, in the 12th of Henry 
VII. granted to Thomas Aleyn of Walpole, a met- 
fuage, lands, and a fah-woik with the grains, Sec, 
in this town. 

John Walpole, of Houghton, efq. by his will, 
dated February 28, in the 3<Dth of Elizabeth, and 
proved in April following, bequeaths to Catherine 
his wife ail his lands in Walpole and Walton, to 
her and her heirs, towards the preferment of the 
marriage ot his daughters. 

ROCHFORD'S MANOR. The ancient family of cte 
Rochford had alfo a manor in this town, held as ic 
feems of the fee of Ely. 

This manor continued irl the family of the &och- 
fords under many fovereigns, till in the reign o 
Henry IV. fir Henry Rochford conveyed it to the 
vica.r of Walpole.. 

A a The 


The Rochfords took their name from a village in 
EfTex they porfeffed foon after the Conqueft, and 
from which the prefent earl of Rochford probably 
derives his title. 

The Rochfords were fuch a numerous family, and 
of fo many branches, that it is not eafy to difiin- 
guifh, or make a regular defcent of them, and we 
find that they varied on this account their arms : 
fome bore quarterly, or, and gules, in a bordure 
fable, bezanty ; others the fame quarterly, in a bor- 
dure indented, uncharged : we find alfo an annulet 
bore in the firft quarter, alfo a de lys, bore by 
fome. The creft of the Rochfords was a man's 
head, with a prolix beard, thereon an high almaiu 
cap, on a wreath, mantelled ermin. 

In the ^th of Henry VI. fir William Mailory and 
Margaret his wife, conveyed meffuages and lands to 
fir Ralph Rochford, and Richard Leak, efq. in 
North and South Stoke in Lincolnfhire ; and in the 
faid year he furrendered his right in the manor oi 
Wychampton in Dorfetfhire, to fir Gilbert Kyghley. 
He was living at Walpole in 1446, and died before 
1455. In the ledger-book of Bofton, Margaret, 
late the wife of fir Ralph Rochford, is faid to die in, 
that year. 

In the eaft window of the north iile of St. Peter's 
church of Walpole, is to be feen the effigies of this 
knight in armour, and that of his lady, on their 
knees; OP his furtout are the arms of Rochford, 
quarterly, or, and gules, in the fecond quarter an 
annulet fable, in a bordure of the fame, bezanty. 

Ralph Rochford, efq. fon and heir of Henry, 
was by fome called a knight. Thomas Rochford, 



efq. his brother, by his will dated January 30, 1438, 
and proved February 25 following, requires to be 
buried in the chapel of St. Mary, in the church of 
St. Peter of Walpole ; names Margaret his wife exe- 
cutrix, to whom he gives his lands in Ringflcad and 
Holme, to pay his debts, and if flie fhoulci be with 
child, the iffue to have them, and flie her dower 
in his lands at Walpole. 

In the 33d of Henry VI. in a deed of this 
Ralph, of lands in Caflle-Rifmg, dated September 
26, at Walpole, he fliles himfelf Ralph Rochford, 
late cfquire, now clerk, (nup. Armiger modo Clericus) 
by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of fir Marmaduke 
Cbnftable, he had three fons ; Henry, the eldeft, 
Ralph, of Langholm, and Saier, of Barton. 

Henry had a lordfhip in Boflon, called Fenn's* 
and that of Rochford in Shirbcck; and in the jth 
of Henry VII. fir Henry Rochford, knt. was one of 
the jufticcs of the peace, and of the gaol delivery, 
within the bifhop of Ely's liberty in Norfolk. 

After this we find nothing more of the Roch- 
fords ; as the bifhop of Ely was the capital lord, 
and their eflate was held of him, it was vefted in 
that fee, and fo continued till granted by an acl of 
parliament, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, to the 
crown, on an exchange of lands with the bifhop. 

DENVER'S MANOR, or GODDARD'S, had its rife 
from a divifion of that lordfhip. which Henry de 
Walpole, fon of Ofbert de Walpole held, who dy- 
ing without iffue, his two aunts, Ifabel and Alice, 
lifters to Olbert, were heirs to it. 

A a a From 


From the Walpolcs it came to the Delivers; 
from them to the Goddards, and from the Goddards 
to the Hunftons. 

Henry Hunflon, of Walpole, efq. was living in 
the reign of Henry VIII. and married Jane, daugh- 
ter of fir John Audley, of Swaff ham, knt. 

Thomas Hunflon, efq. fold it to John Hare. efq. 
fon of John Hare, citizen and mercer, of London ; 
with feveral mcfluages, lands, 8cc. that came to the 
Hunflons from the Goddards, Walpoles, and Roch- 
fords, called in the conveyance the manors of Den- 
vers and Walpoles ; and Henry Hare, lord Colrainc, 
his direct heir, died poffeffed of it in 1749, and on 
his death descending to an alien, was in the king's 

It is now in the poffeflion of James Town fend, 
efq. by grant of the king. James Townfend ferved 
the office of lord mayor, and is an alderman of the. 
city of London 1778. 

PRIOR of LEWES'S MANOR was a part, or mem- 
ber of the prior s capital manor in Weft Walton, 
given by William the firft earl Warren. 

Henry Hare, lord Colraine, died poffefled of it in 
1749; on his death it came as an efcheat to the 
crown. It is now in the poffeflion of James Town- 
fend, efq, alderman of London, who married the 
heirefs of lord Colraine. 

PANN-EL'S MANOR. The Wclbys of Lincolnshire 
had a confiderable interefl in this town : Joan 
Welby, widow, of Moulton, poffeffed it, and on 
her ion Richard Wclby's marriage widi Elizabeth, 



daughter of fir William Calthorpe, of Luclham in 
Norfolk, fettled it on them September 10, in the 
8th of Edward IV. Chriftophcr Langholme, efq. 
011 the death of his brother, had livery of it in the 
apth of Henry VIII. held, as is faid, of the prior 
of Lewes in the ^d and 4th of Philip and Mary, 
Chrift. Langholme conveyed it to Richard Good- 
rick ; and Thomas Hcwar had prascipe, in the 3d 
of Elizabeth, to deliver it to Andrew Ogard. 

After this it came to the Coneys. John Coney 
lived here in the reign of Henry VIII. and Thomas 
Coney, efq. of Sutton in Lincolnfhire, was father 
of William Coney, efq. of Walpole, who bore fa- 
ble, a fefs between two cottifes, or, and three co- 
neys fejant, argent: the creft, a talbot's head coup- 
ed, HRiing out of a mural coronet, or, 

This William was a juftice of the peace, and by 
Abigail his wife, daughter of Tilfon, of Ged- 
ncy, had a fon Robert, who married Alice, daugh- 
ter of fir Robert Baikham, kut. of Waynfleet in 
Lincolnfhire, and was father of Robert, a minor in 
1 664, who dying fans iflue, William Coney, efq. his 
brother was his heir, and by Edith daughter of fir 
Humphey Edwin, lord mayor of London in 1 697, was 
father of Edwin Coney, efq. high fheriff" of Nor- 
folk in 1734, whofe fon, Robert Coney, efq. for- 
merly a captain of the army, and lieutenant colonel 
in the Norfolk militia while on fervice in the late 
war, and ope of the comniiinoncrs of appeals, is 
the prefent lord. 

St. Peter's church is one of moft beautiful parifii 

churches in England, built of freeflone, confifKng 

of a nave, two iflcs and a chancel, all covered with 

A a 3 lead. 


lead. At the weft end {lands a n6ble, {lately tower 
of ftone, embattled. 

On the (lone work of the fouth porch, as you 
enter, are the arms of Goddard, and Denver, quar- 
terly, with Goddard's crefl, an eagle's head ereci ; 
and on the ftone-work towards the eaft end' near 
the greaj: arch, the arms of Rochford. Thefe fami- 
lies were the chief benefactors to the building of the 
church, which was about the beginning of the reign 
of king Henry VI. In the year 1425 we find the 
windows to be glazed and fet up. 

At the eaft end of this fouth ille lie feveral mar- 
ble grave-ftones. 

Hie jacet Robertas Coney, Anniger, de Walpole, in 
comit. Norf. qui ex uxore Alicia, Jilia Rob. Barkharn de 
Wainjleet, iu comit. Lincoln. Equitis au.aij ; 8 Jilios a 
6 Jilias [ujccpit, JVorfolciam, A. 1673, Vicecomes luc- 
latur, vir in patriam devotus, in Deu/n devotiffimus, in Jidelis, in fuos liber alts, in alias btncvolus, in 
probosjuavis, in malos Jeverus, in omncs humanus ; obt. 
j, Apr. 1707, <ztat. 72. 

On the fummit are the arms of Coney, fable, a 
fefs between two cottifes, or, and three coneys fe- 
jant, argent, impaling Barkham, argent, three pal- 
lets, gules, and a chevron over all, or. 

Another In memory of Robert Cony, Jon of Robert 
Cony, EJq. and Alice his wife, be. who died j\ov. 8, 
1683, aged 21. 

One In memory of Alice, wife of Robert Cony. Efq, 
who died Oft. 3, 1676, cetat. 41. 


OF F R E E B R I D G E, 333 

Alfo one In memory of William Cony, Efy. Jon of 
Robert Cony, EJq. and Alice his wife, <L~c. who died 
Jan, 6, 1742, aged 82: who married Edith, daughter 
of Sir Humphrey Edwin, Kt. of the city of London : 

With the arms of Coney, impaling , a crofs 

floiy engrailed between four birds. 

On the windows of the north ifle are the arms of 
Goddard, Denver, Howard, of the Eafl Angles, 
and the fee of Ely, the triangular emblem of the 
Trinity, St. George's arms, and argent, a faltier, 
vert, Noon. Alfo argent, a chevron between thiec 
wolves heads erafed, gules, Lovell. Here were al- 
fo, argent, a chevron, between three griffins heads 
erafed, gules, Tilney, Rochford and Goddard, im- 
paling Denvers. 

The eaft end of this ifle is taken in by a fcrcen, 
and was the chapel and burial place of the Roch- 
fords. On the pavement lies a large marble gravc- 
flon'e, whereon has been a long great crofs of brafs, 
Handing on a pedeftal of four Reps, with a crofs 
on the head of it/ and fix fhields, three on each 
fide, all reaved, as is the infcription, which was on 
a rim of brals round it, of which this only remains ; 

Hie jacet Willm. filius r- conjlalularij 

cajlri de Wi/beacke January A. I)ni. Miii . 

This is faid to be in memory of William, only 
fon of fir John Rochford, who left three daughters 
and coheirs. 

South of this flands a large altar monument, or- 
namented with curious brafs work, and the effigies 
of a knight in armour, a lion at his feet ; with that 
of liis lady, and 3. dog at her feet ; over his head 
A a 4 are 


are two fhields, with RochforcTs arms and a ficur 
de lys, in the firft and fourth quarter; the two 
fhields over the lady are gone, and fo is the rim of 
brafs that went round it, with its inscription, this 
only remaining; 

- Domino, 
Matilda, uxor ej. qne obijt Anno Dai. 
Millcfimo, tricentejimo, fcxrtgefima nono. 

Weaver fays this is the monument of fir Ralph 
Rochford, knt. This fir Ralph, as we have before 
obferved, was fon of fir Saier dc Rochford, and mar- 
ried Matilda, daughter and coheir, as is laid, of a 

The eaft window of this chapel is beautified with 
the effigies of many faints, &c. at the 'bottom of the 
pannels are the portraitures of a man in armour on 
his knees ; on his furtout, argent, a bend ingrailed, 
azure, and a chief gules : this we take to be for 
Ralph lord Cromwell, lord Tatefhale, governor of 
Rifing caftle in the time of Henry VI. and that of 
his wife, who appears by her arms, on her veft or 
inward garment, to be a Rochford, quarterly, or, 
and gules, 8cc. and on her outward garment, the 
arms of Cromwell. Alfo the portraiture of a Roch- 
ford in armour, with the fliield of Rochford, and 
an annulet fable, in the fecond quarter; and his 
lady with the arms of Goddard, on her inward veil, 
with an annulet, azure, on the breafl of the eagle. 
Another portraiture of a Rochford, and a lady with 
the arms of Rochford on her outward veft, and of 
tsromwell (though obfcure) on her inward veft. 

On a brafs plate, Si quceris advena, fuas hie dcpo- 
Juit tdiqmas Barnabas Frenchamus, juvcnis ultra annos 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 


phis, fuprq vires fcdulus, cujus in interitu, duplex, hof 
potuit malum, heredc patrem orbart tt conjuge. Prok 
jltbile fat urn conjumhlio rapuitjilium et Iriftitia conjiigem. 
Tarn diari pignons damnum, non priua dejlere de Jiitii 
lucluoja pwens, quam cundejn cum Jilio tumulum habuet, 
tt in cttlo, folium, audijt Deus, tt dcdit; obijt films 
Augiijii 25. mater Mwcmb. 15, ^4. 1652, A. //. 87. 

On a marble grave-Hone argent, three lozenges, 
azure, each charged with an efcalop, or; crcit a 
flag s head erafecj, with a branch in his mouth, 

H. S. E. Gulielmus Hart, clcricus, re&or tt vicarius 
de Walpole, dignifjunm, refloris mwtus, per nnum ft 
4]ninqiutgi}it<t, vicarij per duos tt quadra^in'a armos fi- 
ddikr (\cc.ntus eft, ojficio fali.sfectt; Theologus ad pn- 
miKva religionis norman fide, moribufq; incorrutytijji- 
mns, ittg?n:j. facimdicS, pistatis laudt jtore.niijfimus, va- 
riceq ; entditionis elcgantia, ornatiflunus vir. Vita ad, 
ftmvjjin dijpofitu atq ; ordinatc? fax&UflS, fumma comitas, 
par ab omnibus dtligebatur, coltbatur, probijjimus, gra- 
nijjimus, vencrabilis fenex. Amicilia ejus nihit Jiddws^ 
fermonibus nihd jucundius, nikii doctius, perpetua mentis, 
corporifq; janitate tt vigore ufus (ft, et in ipjb fere tfta- 
tis /lore tftntum non oftogenari'its dccfffit. In altijjiina 
tranquillitate, pariq; venerations ad mortalitatis jinem 
pcrvmit mentis Maij die 2d. A. D. 1726, cctat. fiuc 
LXXIX Jux'a jacent Alicia Hart, Gulidmi et Sujanna 
Jilia, qua dccem annos nata, animam Deo reddidit, ct, 
Gulidmus corund. ncpos, Gulidmi tt Maria Hart dr. 
Boflon, in com. Line, filius primogcnitus ad calum redi- 
de maturavU quinq; menjes natus, infaniulus. 

The afcent to the communion table confids of 
many ftcps, under it is an arch, which will contain 
many horfcs, for the ufe of thole pariflioners who 



are obliged by the badnefs and length of the ways, 
io come on horfeback to church. 

The prefent reclor is the Rev. William Everard, 
of Lynn, prefented by the crown in 1743. 

St. Andrew's church is a regular well built pile, 
confifting of a nave, a north and fouth ifle, a chan- 
cel, with a fouth porch, all covered with lead. At 
ihe weft end is a fquare fteeple, with four bells. 

The fea bank at this town from St. Helen's cha- 
pel next Terrington, to Novech gate in Weft Wal- 
ton, is three miles in length. 

At a place called Crofs Keys in this parifh, is a 
pafiage over the wafhes, at the mouth of the river 
Nene, to Long Sutton in Lincolnihire, (when the 
tide is out, and before its reflux) for horfes and car- 
riages, and king John palling over here into Lin- 
colnfhire a little time before his death, not obferving 
this, loft moft of his baggage, or carriages, by the 
reflux of die tide. 

The paflage over the wafhes from fide to fide is 
two miles, but at a proper time of the tide the wa- 
ter to be eroded is of no great breadth ; the channel 
being very narrow. 

MANOR. The principal manor of this town was 
given to the abbey of Ramfey, in Huntingdon/hire, 
by Ailwin, duke of the Eaft Angles, alfo ftiled, 
Alderman of the Eaft Angles, on his founding of 
that abbey in 1069, by the name of Five Hides, in 
Walioken, and was confirmed to that houie by king 
Edgar. The faid abbey held it at the grand furvey 


OF F R E E B R I D G E, S3 g 

hy the name of The Land of St. Bennct of Ram- 
fey ; the abbey being dedicated to that great patron 
of the monadic order. 

On the diflblution of this abbey it came to the 
crown, and was granted by king Henry VIII. Fe- 
bruary 26, in his ^Sth year, by the name of Popen- 
how, alias Walfoken manor, with the advowfon of 
the rectory, to fir Thomas Wrotheilcy, and fir Ri- 
chard Southwell, (which fir Richard was one of the 
king's vifitors of the abbeys, priories, 8cc.) with all 
the rights and privileges enjoyed by the abbots, and 
as fpccified in the 14111 of Edward 1. by a Quo 

On the 25th of January, in the 24th of Elizabeth, 
it was conveyed by fir Richard Southwell to Tho- 
mas Barrow, efq. of Cramvorth in Norfolk. 

It was conveyed July ir,, 1669, to John Colville, 
efq. and his Ion J'ofiah (old it in 1685 to John Creed, 
efq. of Oundle in Northamptonfhire, in whofe fa- 
mily it remains, 17/8. 

MARSHE'S, or ELY MANOR. Here was a manor 
called Marine's, from the family of DC Marifco, who 
held lands of the ice of Ely, and of the abbot of 

In the year 1277, the biftiop of Ely was the ca- 
pital lord, had die lete, return of writs, cognizance 
of all pleas, when it is faid that the whole town en- 
tered commoners in Weft Fen, and were to clean 
their portions of the Podike, five furlongs and fix- 
teen perches. The bifliop, and the abbot of Rara- 
ley, had each a ir.oicty of the lea wreck, royal fiflie- 
ries, &c. with free warren. 



In the Sill of Henry VI. fir John Colville, of 

Newton, had an inquifition. ad quod danm*-:m, on his 
fettling five meffuages, one hundred and ten acres 
of land, in Newton, Leveringion, Wifbech, Elme, 
and a fifhcrv called Depewear, in Wifbech, on a 
chauntry in the church of Newton, and died as is 
faid about the 24th of Henry VI. leaving fir John 
Colville his fon an4 heir, who married Ann, daugh- 
ter of fir Henry Ingels, of Dilham in Norfolk, and 
died in the 4th year of king Henry VII. and in the 
pth of the (aid king it appears fhe was re-married to 
lir Robert Brandon. 

Francis Colville, efq. fucceeded his brother fir 
John, and died feifed of this manor in the gth \ ear, 
and then a knight, leaving Richard his fon and heir, 
hv Catherine, daughter of John Town(hcnd M of 
Rainham in Noifolk, efq. which Richaid, by an in- 
quHition taken at Thetford. November 2, in the 
lyth of Henry VJII. was found to die September 5 
in the faid year, feifed of this manor, an^l that of 

John Colville, efq. is faid to have been a gold- 
fraith of London, and purchafed the manor of Po- 
penhow in this town, and had by Dorothy his wife, 
daughter of , bifliop of London, Johah Col- 
ville, efq. of Lincoln's-lnn, London, in 1685, t ^ iCn 
aged 27, died at Wifbech December 25, 1705, 
and was buried at Newton, leaving Ann his filter 
and heir. Richard Colville, efq. of Newton in the; 
Hie of Ely, is the preient lord. 

The church of W'alfoken is dedicated to All Saints, 
uid has a nave, north and fouth iflc, with a chancel 
covered with lead ; at the weft end is a tower, with 
a ipirc of frec-ftoiic, 


OF F R E E B R I D G E, 541 

Againft the wall of the fteeple, facing the nave 
of, the church, is the effigies of king Solomon, fitting 
in a chair, or throne, in royal robes, projecting from 
the wall, and on each fide of him, a large piece of 
painting, rcprefenting the hi (lory and judgment of 
that king, on the two harlot- ', and at the caft end 
of the nave that of king David, with his harp ; and 
under it the piclure of king Charles I, 

On the pavement here a grave-done: M. S. Pe- 
tri Wenjley, Gaierofi, Rob. Wenjley, cUrici, Jilii, qui 
vbt. i&*. Marti}, A. D. 1711, al. 28, hec non Elea- 
rwrce (orijugis, ipjius qua morti ccjjit 13, Julij <t 25. 
Jii\ta hos 'iithuina't'ltr Rob. Petn fraler, ob. Oct. 4, 

1 733. set. 49, and this fliield, ^-, four efcallops, 

with their heads fnccting in the fefs point, , 

impaling , a chevron between three mullets, on 

a chief, three bucks heads cabofed. 

Near this, one In memory of Elnabeth Wen/ley, 
widow, and only daughter of Pe'er Rcbertfon, of CheJ- 
hunt in Htrifordjliire,. EJq. rdicl of Robert Wenjley of 
the ja'ul town, clerk, who dyed*. Sept. 26, l(>97, aged 

The font is curioudy ornamented With imagery 
work of many faints, our Saviour's paffion, and the 
ievcn lacraments of the church of Rome ; and 
round the foot of it 

Remember the foul of S. Honyte.r and Margaret hi\ 
wife, and John Beforth, chaplain. 

A grave-ftonc In memory of Thomas, fun of Edw. 
Southwell, Gent, and Alice, his wife, grandson to Rob. 
Wenjley, who died March n, 1692. aged 25 yuirs. 



One for Rob. Wcnflcy of Walfoken, Gent, buried 
November 3, 1 69 1 , aged 77. 

Alfo for Alice -wife of Rob. VSenjUy, Gent, who 
dyed Nw. 9, 1678, aged 65. 

One for -Mary, wife of John Gardener, of Wif- 
beach, Gent, daughter of Rt. Wcnjley, Gent, died Nov. 
4, 1691, aged 40 years. 

Grave-flones alfo In memory of William Edwards, 
of Walfoken, Gent, who Hied May 29, 1680, in his 4& 
year; and for Sieph. Edwards, his f on, who died Jan. 
30, 1709, aged 34. For Elh. late wife of William. 
Edwards, Gent, who died May 31, 1701, aged 53. 

Alfo for Thomas Edwards, Gent, who dyed Aug. 
13, at. 73. 

On a mural monument Near this place lye inter-- 
red the bodies of John Herring, M. A. thirty-fix year* 
reftor of this parijli, aged 75, buried June 2, 1717, 
and of Martha his wife, daughter of Thomas Potts, of 
the parijli of St. Gregorys, London, aged 44, buried 
Jan 3, 1704. 

This monument is eretted in gratefull memory of ///* 
excellent parents, by their only Jon Thomas, Lord Arch- 
bijhop of Canterbury, 1730, 

Dr. Thomas Herring, was firft archbifliop of 
York, where in the year of the Scotch rebellion, | 
1 745, he greatly diftinguifhcd himfelf for his loy- 
alty and fpirit, and was afterwards tranflated to the ! 
fee of Canterbury. He was born at Walfoken, in ' 
the reign of king William III. 1693 ; was an amia- 
ble prelate throughout life, and died greatly regret- 


ted by the clergy in general, and in particular by 
the clergy of the city of London. His grace was 
educated at Bennet College in CambiUge, which 
has given many bifhops, nominated from matters of 
that college, to the fee. of Norwich. Amongft the 
reft in the lafl century Dr. Richard Jagon, who was 
iwelve years matter of that college, and who died 
bifliop of Norwich, and was buried at Aylfham in 
1617. He was a man of learning, and a man of 
humour: while matter of Bennet he punifhed the 
under-graduates for fome offence, and with the fine 
he laid upon them whited the hall of the college,, 
upon which one of the fludents wrote upon tke 

" Dr. Jagon, Bennct-college mailer, 
44 Broke the fchoiais heads, and gave the hall a 
' plaifttr" 

The doclor on reading it wrote under, 

" Knew I biu the wag, who writ thefe varies in 

" a bravery, 
"I would commend him. for his wit, and whip him 

" for his knavery. 

In this parifh was a chapel, dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity, at the place called the Stahh-Dhch, in 
which was a famqus guild, or fraternity, with cuf- 
tos, or mafter. 

In 1461, Eborardus was cuftos, as he ftiies him- 
felf, of the chapel and hoipital of the Holy Trinity 
of Walfoken. 

Pope Urban VI. Boniface IX. Martin V. Paul II. 
and Sixtus V. granted to the brothers and fillers of 



this" fraternity, and to all who were benefaclors to it, 
furprifmg indulgences, as will appear from what we 
have here fubjoined, taken from a rude and imper- 
rccl copy of a deed of admiffion of t\vo perfons into 
this fraternity, under the feai of the aforefaid Ebo- 

" Univerfis S'ce matris eccl'ie nlijs ad qnos p'fcn- 
" tes litter, p'venerint, Eboratd. cuftos capcllc ct 
" hofpiialis S'ee Trinitatis de Walioken, Norwic^ 
4f dioc. et ejufd. loci confratres et conforores falut. 
" in D'no. fe pitern. voverit univerfkas veflra vene- 
* randa qd. piifumus in Xto. pater et Dominus nof- 
" ter D'nus Urban, divina miferatione Papa Sextus, 
J dc plenitudine fue pictat. nobis indulfit qd. ds qui 
" de facultatib ; fuis, 8cc. nobis iubverierit, et in 
" ft'anftam focictatem noftram ftatuerunt fe collegas, 
" nobis que bcneficia prasfliteiint, 
*' annuatim fepd'am partem poenitent. relaxa- 
44 vit tres annos et centum dies venie totiens quoti- 
*' ens hoc feccrunt vel meruerint, conceffit ac eciam 
" plcnariam participate omnium miffar. et aliar. ora- 
" tion. fpiritual. que fiunt ct de cet. ficnt in univer- 
* fati ecclefia. ad quas p'tin. fucrint interdict, ipfis 
" qu. mori contigerit nifi excommuni. vel no'iati in- 
" terdicli aut publici ufurarij fuerint ecclefiaftica fe- 
" pultura eis non negabitur et curati eor. qui ha- 
** bent curas a'imarq; fuar. poffint eos abfolvere ab 
*' omnib; eor. peccat. contritis et cotifeffis, ac etiam 
" oblitis, nifi forte talia conuferint p'pr. que fedes 
* apollolica fit raerito confulenda, quas quidem con- 
' " cefliones fancliffi. in Xto, patres Bonifacius Papa 
' non. Martinus quintus, Paulus fecund, et Sixtus 
" papa quintus mifericorditr. p. arnpli. confirmat, 
" confirmavi et qd. dilecti. nobis in Chrifto Tho. 
" Hutton - Dekkys, caritat. iubfidia 
' nobis donaver. in dictain confiatGnuutcm 


" eos aflumimus, ct intr. noftros confratres Xti. pau- 
*' peres amus eos in Deo pofiumus 
" omnium honor, fpiritualium intr. nos confratres 
" habitor. et in pofterum habendor. millar. et alior. 
" oinn. jejunior. vigiliar. abftincntiar. elemofmar. et 
" peregrinat. participes effe volumus p. p'ientes. In 
" cujus rei tefthnon.Tigill. cuftod. hofpital. noftri 
" p'dicli p'fcntib ; eft appenfura. Dat. apd. Walfo- 
" kenin capella n'ra, feclo die Oclob, Anno. D'ni. 
" Millefimo cccc. LXXXL." 

The feal is oblong, having under an arch, the 
effigies or reprefentation of God the father, fupport- 
ing our Saviour on the cfofs, as was frequently and 
profanely ufed in the church of Rome ; below that 
the cuflos at prayers, with a legend, " Sigill. 
" confiat. et conforor. Trinit. de Walfoken." 

The abfolution on the admiffion of a brother, 

Sec. was 

" Aucloritate Dei Omnipot.- et beator. Petri et 
" Pauli ac aucloritate apollolica mihi in hac partc 
" commifla, Ego Te abfolvo ob omnib ; peccatis p. 
" te vere contritis et mihi confeffis, nee non ab om- 
" nib ; peccatis tuis oblitis de quib ; velles confiteri 
" fi tue occur rerit memorie ac feptimam partem pas- 
" nitent. ' Audoritate literer. et poftclicar. conceffar. 
" relaxo, in nomine patris, Sec." 

By a like deed, John Berners, efq. was admitted 
in 1476, who was fecond fon of Thomas Berners, 
efq. fecond fon of fir John Berners, lord Berners, 
who married a daughter and coheir of fir Henry 
Bruin, of South Okendon in EfTex. 

Bb The 


The title of Berners, an old barony, is now in 
obcyance. It was claimed and allowed by the 
Houfe of Peers to the late Catherine Knevett, lady 
Berners, who many years refided at Heigham neat 

Norwich : her daughter married Wilfcm, efq. 

brother of John Wilfon, efq. . of Stanhoe, and fa- 
ther to Henry William Wilfon, efq. of Dudlington 
in the hundred of South Greenhoe, formerly an of- 
ficer in the late fir Robert Rich's regiment of dra- 
goons, and ferved in the war of 1744, in Flanders. 
The Hon. Mrs. Wilfon his mother is ftill living: 
She had a brother in the army, captain Knevett, 
who would have fucceeded to the title had he out- 
lived the lady Berners his mother, but he died be- 
fore her, the baronefs living to a great age. 

Walfoken fea bank from Newgate-flough to Em- 
neth fea dike, was three miles in length. 

WALTON, WEST, that is, a town by the wall 
or mound which was to defend it from the tides, 
c. and called Weft in refpecl to another W r altou in 
this hundred, Sec. lying eafl of it. 

The PRIOR of LEWES'S MANOR. On the diffb- 
lution of the priory of Lewes, Robert the lafl prior, 

t ranted this lordfhip, that of Walfoken, &c. by 
ne, paffed in at St. Michaelmas term, to king Hen. 
VIII. in his agth year; and on the' 2sd of Decem- 
ber in the faid year, the king granted it to Thomas 
Howard, duke of Norfolk, together with the medi- 
ety of the church belonging to the faid priory, to 
be held in capitt by knight's fen-ice ; but was for- 
feited to the crown afterwards, on the attainder of 
the duke of Norfolk ; and was granted July i , by 
queen Elizabeth, in her 2$d year, to Philip Howard, 
carl of Arundel, fon of Thomas the late duke, 



tvnich Philip being alfo attainted, it came to the 
crown, and was granted November 22, in the 6ih 
year of king James I. to Thomas earl of Suffolk. 

And on December 1, in the loth of king James 
I. this lordfhip with that of Walibken and Walpole, 
late belonging to the prior of Lewes, was conveyed 
to John Hare, efq. fon of John Hare, mercer of Lon- 
don, (brother of fir Nicholas Hare) by Dorothy his 
wife ; which John Hare, by Margaret his wife, 
daughter of John Croch, of Cornbury in Hertford- 
fliirc, efq. had Hugh Hare, who was created lord of 
Colraine in Ireland, Auguft 3, 1625, and by Lucy, 
daughter of Henry earl of Manchefter, had Henry 
lord Colraine, who by Conftantia, daughter of fir 
Richard Lucy, of Broxbourn in Hertfordftrire, ban* 
had Hugh Hare, efq. who died before his father, 
and left by Lydia his wife, daughter of Matthew 
Carleton, of Edmunton in Middlefcx, efq. Henry 
Hare his fon, born May 11, 1693, lord of Colraine, 
who married Conftantia, daughter of Mr. Hanger, 
of London, merchant. 

On the death of the late Henry lord Colraine, in 
1 749, it came to the crown, as an efcheat, his heir 
being a minor and an alien. 

James Townfend, efq. alderman of London, it 
the prefent lord. 

BISHOP of ELY'S MANOR. St. Adeldreda, or St. 
Audrey, that is the church of Ely, held in the time 
of king Edward, and at the furvey, a lordfhip. 

This manor is now held by fir Martin Folkes, of 
Hillington, Bart, on a leale from the crown. 



LOVELL'S MANOR, 8cc. CLARE FEE. The family 
of Repps had alfo lands in this town, held of fevc- 
ral lords. 

Thomas de Repps was a commiflloner of few- 
ers, to view the fea walls, bridges, and caufeways 
along the fea coafts, between Wiggcnhall, Ten ing- 
ton and Lynn, and to levy money for their repairs, 
in the 2d year of Edward III. and in the 38th of 
Henry VI. 

In the 24th of Henry VIII. Robert, prior of St. 
Pancras of Lewes, and the convent demifed to John 
Repps, late of Weft Walton, gent, their manor of 
Weft Walton, the fcite of the manor, houfes, de- 
mefne lands, meadow, feeding paftures, (except the 
hall, and two chambers at both ends of the hall) 
with the garden, the meadow called Bromftoven, and 
the new hall, at the yearly rent of 26!. 133. 4d. 

Repps was to farm the fame, to find the prior's 
offigers, when then they came, oats, hay and beans, 
as long as they ftaid ; the prior to repair the lea- 
banks, fea dikes, fen dikes, and to pay the king's 
dues: And in the gift of Henry VIII. the manor 
of Sybelis, or Syblys, with meffuages and tenements 
in Weft Walton and Waipole, was conveyed to him 
by fine from Thomas Holland, gent, which manor 
was late Henry Smith's, Margaret, one of his daugh- 
ters and co-heirs, being married to this John Repps, 
another daughter and co-heir to Holland. 

By an inquifition taken at Norwich, October I, 
in the 5th of Charles I. it was found that Henry 
Repps, efq. died in the 4th of Charles I. on the 
2^d of March, fcifed of a capital mefluage, three 
liundrcd aixl twenty-four acres of land, of which 



the meffuage, with fifty-eight acres, was held of the 
king's manor in Weft Walton, in foccage, and paid 
12S. id. I per ann. alfo of fixteen acres held of Col- 
ville's manor, in foccage, of fifty-four acres held of 
Hunfton's manor, in foccage, and of one hundred 
and ninety-fix acres held of the manor of Weft 
Walton, in foccage; and the manor of Clare, in 
Walpolc, held of the king, of the honour of Clare, 
by knight's fervice, and John was his fon and heir, 
aged 18, Sept. 16, in 1629, by Ann, daughter of 
Cottcrell, efq. 

John Repps, efq. died poffefTed of it about 1750, 
leaving three daughters and co-heirs, viz. 

Frances, married to the Rev. Mr. James Bald- 
win, formerly of Trinity college in Cambridge, rec- 
tor of Lyng and Brandon ; a clergyman much re- 
fpecled by all who have the pleafure of knowing 

2, Dorothy, married to George Schutz, efq. fon 
of the late Right Hon. Auguftus Schutz, one of the 
privy-counfellors to their majefties George I. and II. 
a gentleman of an amiable character, like his father, 
and a groom of the bed-chamber to the late king. 

3. Vertue, married to Edward Hafe, efq. of Sail, 
yourigeft fon of Mr, John Hafe, of Eaft Dere- 

This John Repps, efq, of Mattifhall, on the death 
of his father in 1723, paid his fine for this manor, 
which extended into Walpole, and held of the honor 
of Clare. 

B b 3 The 


The late John Repps, efq. of Mattifhall, (by whofc 
death the male line of the family became extinct) 
married Vertue, daughter of James Boardman, efq. 
mayor of Lynn in 1717: Margaret, his youngeft 
daughter, married his youngeft daughter and co^ 
heirefs, married Benjamin Bromhead, efq. of Thurc- 
by near Lincoln. 

The church of Weft Walton is dedicated to St. 
Mary; it has a curious free-ftone tower, {landing 
fouth of the church about twenty-two yards, in which 
are five bells, a nave, a north and fouth ifle, all co- 
vered with lead, with a chancel, arid confifts of two 

In the north ifle is a monument to the memory 
of John Reppes, efq. who died Mrch-'ajj, 1561, in 
the 3d year of queen Elizabeth, with the following 
infcription : 

Here lyeth John Reppes, of Weft Walton in the county 
of Norfolk, Efq; who deceffcd the 2$th day of March 
m the year of our Lord God M.CCCCCLXI. which had 
two wyves, the whichc was Margaret, eldefl daughter, 
qnd one of the he) res of Henry Snythe, by whom he had 
yffue Henrye Reppes, that now ys, and fcuen daughters ; 
and hysfecond wife was Thomafen, daughter to Thomas 
JDerham, by whom he. had Ela and John. 

About this are feveral fliields ermine, three che- 
vronels, argent, Repps, with a creft, a plume of fea- 
thers, ermine, ifluing out of a coronet, with a pair 
of wings, or. Repps, impaling Heveningham, quar- 
terly, or, and gules, in a bordure engrailed, fable, 
of eight efcallops, argent. Jenny, argent, a leopard 
falient, guardant, gules, with his creft, a griffin paf- 



fant, gules. Jermy, impaling Mountenoy, azure, a 
bend between fix martlets, or. Jenny, impaling 
Worth, argent, ON a bend, fable, three lions heads 
erafed of the firft, crowned, or. Repps, impaling 
Jermy; Repps, impaling Holditch, argent, on a 
chevron, or, two feapies proper. Repps and Smith, 
(quarterly) or, a bend, azure, between three trefoils 
fliped, vert.- Repps, impaling Derham, azure, a 
buck's head cabofed, or. 

There is another monument to the memory of 
Henry Repps, efq. fon of the above John, who 
married firft, Dorothy, the daughter of fir Chriflo- 
pher Jenney. knt. and fecondly, Elizabeth, the daugh- 
ter of fir Francis Lovell, knt. By the firft he had a 
daughter, Margaret, afterwards married to Francis 
Wodehoufe, efq. and a fecond daughter who died 
an infant. By Elizabeth he had four fons and two 
daughters ; two of his fons alone furvived him. 
The Latin infcription is as follows : 

Monununtum mrimultipUci erudition* infmgis,fmcer$ 
pietatis, veraq; jujlitiae, cultoris cgregij, Henrici Reppcs, 
Armigeri, cujus corpus in cineres rej'olutum, anima vero 
in Dei manu Juperjles diem rejlitutioyis omnium placide, 
expeclat. Qui dum patrite charus in vivis ageret duas 
fominas virtutc Jpeflahiles, et origine illnjtres uxores dux-< 
if, nempe Dorptheam Jiliam Chrijtopheri Jenny, Militis, 
ct Elizabethan, Jilmm Francijcij Lovell, Mililis : Doro~ 
thea duas tantum filias partu dedit; Margaretam qua 
nuptui tradita fuit Francifco Woodehowfe, Armigero, et 
Eliiabetham, qua natures debitq citijjime Jolvit j Eliza- 
be I ha, vero in Dorothea viccm parens facundior Jiiccedens, 
hiffejex liberis Henricum auxit, Henrico, Anna, Johannc 
Jeniore, Thomajina, Francifco, Joanne junior e; exjqutbus 
Joh. Jeniqrc, c{ Frandjcus hujus lucis ujura modo fru- 
B b 4 untur: 


untur : Joannes duas ftbi virgmes lefliflimas uxores ad- 
junxit, primum Annam,, Jiliam Hcnr, We/ton, Militis, 
deinde Mariam, Jiliam Richardi Lambert, Armigcrj ; 
Francifcus locatam accept t Janam Jiliam Humfridi Guy- 
bon, Armigeri, tandem arumnojae vita melam pertingens, 
Henric. carport's hujus tabcrnaculo terrejlri de.pojito e\- 
equiarumjujlis potitus cjl 10, die Ociob. A. fib Incarnate 
Mejiah, 1566. 

About this are the fliiclds of Repps and Smith, 
impaled, and the creft of Repps ; Wodehoufe, of 
Waxham, quarterly, ermine and azure, a leopard's 
head, or, impaling Repps. Repps and Smith, quar- 
terly, impaling Jenney, ermine, a bend, gules, cooti- 
fed, or. Repps and Smith, &c. impaling Wefton, 
ermine, on a chief azure, five bezants. Repps, Sec. 
impaling Lovell, argent, a chevron, azure, between 
three fquirrels, fejant, gules. Repps, Sec. impaling 

Lambert, on a bend engrailed, between two 

lions rampant, three annulets. Repps, &c. impaling 
Guybon, or, a lion rampant, fable, over all, on a 
bend, gules, three efcallops, argent. 

The church qf Weft Walton confided of two me- 
dieties, one in the patronage of the bifliop of Ely, 
the other in the prior and convent of Lewes. 

James Townfend, efq. alderman of London, is 
patron of one mediety, and the other is in the crown. 
The Rev. Robert Say, of Swaffham, chaplain to the 
earl of Orford, and reclor of North Pickenham, 
was prcfented to the mediety in the crown, by the 
Lord Chancellor Henley, earl of Northington, in, 
j 762, and is the prefent redor. 



The Rev, Richard Whifli was prefcntcd to the 
other mediety by James Townfend, efq. 1777. 

" Walton fea bank, from Novcchc Gate to Newton 
Slough, was tw 7 o miles and an half long. 

About a mile weft of Walton church is a ferry 
over \Vifbech river to the Ifle of Ely fide, and a 
ibid which may at certain times of the tide be crof- 
fed.on horfeback. The ferry-houfe on the Ifle of 
Ely fide, is half a mile eaft of the turnpike-road 
from Wifbech to Long Sutton, and near the parifh 
of Newton, the eflate of Richard Colville, efq. and 
about fcven miles from Dunton, the eftate of fir 
Clement Tfaflbrd in Lincolnfhire, crofs the Shire 

On. the wejl fide of Wiibech river, and in the 
Hie of Ely, are two hundred acres of land belong- 
ing to the parilli of Weft Walton and county of 
Norfolk ; and, on the eajl fide of the fame river, 
next to Walpole falt-marfhes, are feverity acres, cm- 
banked, called Tid-marfh Farm, which belong to 
the parifli of Tid St. Giles in the ifle of Ely and 
county of Cambridge, which may be teen accurately 
delineated in Mr. Armftrong's map of Norfolk. 

Scohies had coniiderable lordlhips in Iflington, and 
in Clenchwarton at the furvey, that extended, as it 
feems, into this town, and foon after came to Wal- 
ter Giffard, earl of Buckingham, whofe ion Walter, 
and his countefs, gave to the monks of the church 
of Norwich, ferving God at Lynn, the church of 
St. Germain's of Wiggenhail, together with a cer- 
tain payment of 5$/per aim. which their chaplains 
received out of the fame. 



FITTON'S MANOR. The antient family of Fitton 
vvcre very early enfeoffed herein. 

The manor of Fitton 1 s is now in the corporation 
of Lynn, and the hundred-court is laid to have been 
antiently held at Fitton oak in this manor. 

Part of the manor of Fitton' s in this town came 
to fir William Howard, by the marriage of Alice, 
one of the daughters of fir Edmund, and fifter and 
co-heir to fir John de Fitton, which fir William had 
confiderable eflates in thefe towns, as defcended 
from the antient family of De Wigenhale, who took 
their names from thefe towns. As the noble family 
of the Howards, dukes of Norfolk, earls of Suffolk, 
Beikfliire, Carlifle, Stafford, Effingharri, &c. derive 
their defcent from this truly great and eminent pet- 
fon, it will be excufable in us if we mention iome 
things relating to this family, which, as far as we 
have feen, have not been obfcrved by other au^ 

The firfl that we meet with of the ancient family 
of de Wigenhale, is Peter, whofe fon, Simon de 
Wigenhale, was found to owe half a mark for ex- 
porting corn without a licence, in the 24th of Henry 
II. 1178; and at the fame time Robert Paffelew 
owed half a mark, Alured and Surerd de Lenne, 
half a mark on the fame account. 

In an old pedigree of the family of the Howards, 
in Caius College, Cambridge, Fulco or Fulk, ftands 
at the head of it. Of this Fulco we find no ac- 
count or voucher, that he bore the name of Wi- 
genhale ; but that Jeffrey was fon of Fufco appears 
from certain deeds, ajfo that Alan was fon of Jeff- 


rey ; that William was fon of Alan, appears alfo 
from an dent deeds. 

In the 8th of Richard I. 1197, a fine was levied 
between Peter, fon of Richard de Wigenhale, que- 
rent, and William, fon of Alan de Clenchwarton, 
tencnt, of four carucates of land in Wiggenhall, 
Clenchwarton, Tilney, Lynn, Iflington, 8cc. granted 
to Peter, who re-convcycd them to Alan. 

This confiderable parcel of land is faid to belong 
to the fees of feveral lords, viz. of Sjmon Fitz- 
Richard, who held of the earls of Clare ; of Peter 
de Bexwell, who held of the church of Ely; of 
the abby of Bury ; of the priory of Lewes ; of the 
carl of Britain's fee ; of the earl Warren's ; of God- 
frey de Li(ewjs, (that is, the earl Montfort's fee) 
Sec. and William grants to Peter and his heirs, the 
tenement which Richard his father held of him in 
Wiggenhall, with lands in Tilney called Potter's 

It is very probable that this Peter, fon of Richard 
de Wigenhale, was fbme near relation to William, 
fon of Alan de Clenchwarton, by this trull repofed 
in him in this fine. 

This William is faid to have affumed the name 
of de Wigenhale ; but by the fine above he rather, 
at that time, feems to bear the fame name with his 
father, viz. de Clenchwarton; but this is no objec- 
tion, or argument againft his taking up afterwards 
the name of cle Wigenhale, 

They who are converfant in very antient deeds, 
&c. may often obferve, that perfons who held dif- 


fcrent tenures or lordfhips, often varied their names 
according to die names of the towns wherein thofc 
their lordfhips Jay, and their fons followed the fame 
praclice, not always taking the name of their father, 
but from the lordfhip of fome town wherein they 
were enfeoffed. 

This therefore makes a great difficulty in the fet- 
tling of antient pedigrees, when tlicfe practices and 
cufloms were fo prevailing and common. 

Richard Everard, by his will dated May 20, 
1569, gave the manor of Fittons, to John Everard; 
and by an inquifition taken at Hoxne the laft day 
of March in the l^th of Elizabeth, on the death of 
John Everard, the jury find that he died feifed of 
it, twelve meffuages, three hundred acres of land, 
one hundred of meadow, two hundred of pafture, 
ten of wood, one hundred of moor, two hundred 
of marfh, and forty (hilling rent in Wiggenhall St. 
Germain's, and Iflington, on December 15 laft part, 
without uTue, and that Henry Everard, of Linltead 
in Suffolk, was his coufin and heir, all which were 
held of the lord Latimer and fir Robert Wingfield, 
by fealty, and the payment of i s. per ann. 

This manor was lately poifeffed by fir Robert 
Brown, bart. 

The church is dedicated to St. Germain, was for-* 
merly a re&ory, but being appropriated to the office 
of the cellarer in the church of Norwich, by John 
de Grey, bifhop of Norwich, a vicarage was fettled, 
which was in the prcfentation of the priory of Nor- 
wich, and is now in the dean and chapter, and the 
great tithes were let to fir Robert Brown, bart. 


OF F R E E B R I D G E. 557 

It confifts of a nave, and a fouth ifle covered 
with lead, and a north iflc with tiles, and a chancel. 

Some time, paft the floor of the church was found 
to be at leaft eight feet below the high water mark of 
the adjoining Oufe. The tower is lour fquare, and 
there are four bells. 

Here is a bridge over the river Oufe into MarHi- 
land. St. German's is fituated about four miles 
from Lynn, on a turnpike-road that is carried on to 

The Rev. Thorogood Upwood was prefented to 
this vicarage by the dean and chapter of Norwich in 
1 749- 

WIGGENHALL ST. MARY. Hermerus de Fer- 
rariis, who had, by the gift of the Conqueror, lord- 
fliips in Tilney and Iflington, was allb lord here ; 
thofe manors extending here, which came after to 
the lords Bardolph, 

The ancient family of Capravllf, or Kervile, held 
the chief manor in this town of the lords Bardolph, 
and had their feat, or refidencc, here. 

Thomas Kervile, efq. was lord in the year 1407,, 
and Mary his wife was daughter and co-heir of 
Gilbert Haultoft, of the Iflc of Ely, baron of the 
exchequer in the time of Henry VI. Humphry was 
his fon and heir, who married Alice, or Ann, daugh- 
ter of John Fincham, efq. of Fincham, by whom he 
had Humphry his fon and heir, who married Ann, 
daughter of Jeffrey Cobbe, efq. of Sandiingham in 
Norfolk, and had three fons and feven dau^h'.cr.s. 


Thomas liis deleft, William his feconcl, and Ed- 
mund the third, who married Catherine, daughter of 
William Saunders, efq. She married to her fecond 
hufband John Spelman, efq. of Narburgh, and to 
her third Miles Corbet, efq. 

Alice Kervile, a daughter, married firft John Bc- 
dingrieid, efq. and afterwards fir John Suiyard, kiit. 
Elizabeth married Robert Bozoun, efq. of Whiffon- 

fett, efq. Eleanor to Neal, efq. Joan to John 

Shouldham, efq. Catherine to Gawfell, efq. 

Margaret, firft married Nicholas Dean, of Wiggen- 
hall, gent, and afterwards John Shorditch, alias 
Bexvvell, efq. of Be&well, and Mary to . 

Thomas Kervile, efq. the eldeft fon, married 
Alice, daughter of fir Henry Bedingfield, of Ox- 
burgh, by whom he had Henry Kervile, efq. who 
by Winefred his wife, daughter of fir Anthony Tho- 
rold, knt. and relicl of George Clifton, efq. of Not- 
tinghamfhire ; her third hufband was fir Edward 
Gawfell, knt. and fir Henry Kervile, who married 
Mary, daughter of Franc. Plovvden, efq. by whom 
he had two children, who died in their infancy. 
He was a bigoted papift, and about November 1620, 
was accufed by fir Chriftopher Heydon, knt. that the 
papifts met at his houfe, in order to fubfcribe to aid 
and affift the emperor, againfl the king of Bohemia, 
ivhen king James I. requefted a loan (for the reco- 
very of the Palatinate) from the nobility and gentry 
of England, whereupon he was fent for to the coun- 
cil table, imprifoned fome time, and his papers fei- 
zed, but was afterwards releafed. 

Sir Henry Spelman fays, that on his death (1624) 
the eftate of the Kervile* came into the family of 


OF F R E E B R f D G E, 359 

the Cobbes, of Sandrlngham, but 'tis certain it did 
not continue long fo. 

In the sift of king Charles I. John Wtlliamfon, 
gent, had a pra?cipe to deliv-er it tcr Gregory Gawfell, 
efq. who was elded fon of Thomas Gavvfell, efq. of 
Watlington, and dying unmarried in 1656, this 
lordfhip came to Hatton Berners, efq. (fon of Ar- 
thur Berners, efq. of Finchingfield in EfTex, by Eli- 
zabeth his wife, eldeft fifter of Gregory Gavvfell 
afbrefaid) who was high fheriff of Norfolk in 1 666, 
and on his death in 1713, it defcended to Gregory 
his eldeft fon, who dying unmarried in 1715, his 
brother William was his heir, who married and had 
feveral children, and dying in 1727, this eftate was 
foon after fold in order to pay his debts, to fir Ro- 
bert Brown, bart. who was his maj city's refident or 
conful at Venice, and created a baronet in the 5th 
of king George II. was a member of parliament for 
llchefter in Somerfetfhire, and in the year 1741 
appointed pay mafter of all his majefty's works, 
and lord of this town. His arms, gules, a chevron, 
between three fleurs dc lys, or creft, on a wreath, 
a demy lion rampant, gules, in his dexter paw a 
fleur de lys, as before motto, " Gaugeo." He 
died Oclober 5, 1760, leaving a widow and two" 

At a place called Wathden, or Waterden, in this 
pariih, Serjeant Goddard obferves there was to be 
feen in his time fome remains of a church, alfo bones- 
that appear at a low ebb upon the river fide. 

The old hall, or manor-houfe, was a large build-* 1 
ing of brick, with a good tower, or gate-houfe, em- 
battled and built by the Kerviles, with their arms 



thereon ; the greater! part of it is pulled down, and 
inhabited by a tenant. 

WESTACRE PRIORY MANOR. -In die 14th of Ed- 
ward I. Hubert, prior of Weilacre, held lands here. 

On the diffolution it came to . the crown ; and in 
the 30! and 4th of Philip and Mary, lands belong- 
ing to this houfe, in the tenure of John Saunderfon, 
were granted to fir John Perrot, on July 2 ; but the 
appropriated re&ory was granted by queen Elizabeth, 
in her sd year, July 2, to John Harrington and 
George Burden, and the patronage of the vicarage 
remained in the crown. 

The bifhop of Ely had a little homage here of 
fcveral free tenants, probably belonging to his manoi 
Weft Walton, which extended here, but it had not 

The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a very re- 
gular pile, having a body, a north and fouth ille, 
and a chancel ; the nave, or body, is thatched, the 
ifles, and a fouth porch, covered with lead : in the 
fleeple, which is four-fquare, are five bells. 

On a black marble wall-piece this infcription : 

" Hie deponitur corpus Henrici Kervilj, equitis 
' *' aurati, filij et hceredis Henrici Keryillj, Armig. de 
" Winefreda conjuge fua, Antonij Thorold, militis, 
" filia procreati ; uxorem duxit Mariam, Francifcj 
" Plowden, Armig. gnatam, e qua prolem binam, 
41 fed in cunabulis extinclam fufcepit,- Gervaiium 
*' fcilicet et Mariam ; fororem habuet unicam, An- 
'/ nam Rob . Thorald, Armig. nuptam, fine exitu 

" defunclam, 


" defunclam, 26 Junij, 1624, obijt, et in illo anti- 
" qui fui ftemmatis Kervillorum nomen ; Quam rc- 
" liquit conjux vita, eum fequuta eft, confers mortc 
" Martij 6to eodem anno. 

On a marble ftone lying near the eaft end of 
this ifle : 

Here lye. the bodies of Grace and Katherine, daughters 
of Nation Berners, Efq; and Bridget his wije, the only 
Jijler of Sir Simon Leach, of Devort/hire, Kt: of the 
Bath ; Grace dyed the i6th of July 1682, aged above 
4 years, the other the loth of November 1680, aged 4 
months. Alfo the bodies of William and Mary, the fon 
and daughter of William Berners. Efq; he dyed i$th 
of April 1718, aged 4 months; fie the ijl of April 
1719, aged 4 months. 

In the chancel eaft window is gules, a fefs be- 
tween fix crofs crofslets, or, Beauchamp ; and on a 
canton, a maunch, gules, the arms of Tony, and 
amiently fable, a chevron, ermine, between three 
crofs crofslets botony fitchee, and the lord Scales. 

On a marble grave-done in the chancel, with the 
arms of Berners, quarterly, vert and or, impaling 
ermine, on a chief indented &ules, three ducal co- 
ronets, or, Leach : 

Here lyetk the body of Hatton Berners, Efq; who 
dyed November 23, 1713, ^g"^ 73. 

Another with the arms of Berners : In memory of 
Simon, Jirjl fon of Hatton Berners, Efq; who dyed 
''18, and Bridget his wife. 

C c Alfo 


Alfo one for Bridget, wife of Hatton Berncrs, 

enly jijler to Sir Simon Leach, of Dcuonjhire, blight of 
the Bath, fhe dyed January 15, 1705. 

One In memory of William Berners, Efq ; who \ 

dyed June g, 1727, aged years, and of Jane his 
wife, who dyed April 10, 1725, aged 41: with the 
arms of Berners, impaling three lions paffant, two 
and one. 

Another with the arms of Berners, for Gregory- 
Berners, Efq] who dyed Fcbr nary 14, 1715, aged $4 

On the diffolution it came to the crown, and 
queen Elizabeth, in her 2d year, July 2, granted 
ihis rectory to John Harrington and George Burden. 

In 1755, the Rev. John Daville was prefcnted, 
by the king, and is the prefent vicar, 1779. 

SADLEBOW is an hamlet near the river belonging 
CO the parifti of St. Mary Wiggenhall. 

Robert Apreece, Efq. on July 7, 1662, fold his. 
manor here to Mr. Daniel Rawlinfon, citizen of. 
London, who by his laft will in 1667, left it to his 
eldeft fon, fir Thomas Rawlinfon, afterwards lord 
mayor of London, by whom it was fettled in join- 
ture on Mary his wife, daughter of Richard Taylor,. 
fefq. of Chifwick in Middlefex, 1680; and on her 
death, in 1 7 24, it came to her eldefl fon Thomas ; 
and on his death, to his brother Richard Rawlinfon,. 
L. L. D. of London, who fold it in November i 735, 
to fir Robert Brown, bart, a fee farm rent of five 
pounds per ann. free from all charges. See. being re- 



fcrved out of it, and granted to the dodor and his 
heirs for ever. 


The principal lordfliip in this town was in the fami- 
ly of Caprevill, Cherville or Kervilc. 

We have feen a memorandum wrote by Guybon 
Goddard, efq. ferjeant at law, and recorder of Lynn, 
who was a curious collector of antiquities, and died 
in 1671, wherein he obferves in his time, in dig- 
ging to fet down a new fluice a little below Magda- 
len-fall, which is about half a mile from Magdalen- 
bridge, on Marfhland fide, there was found, about 
fixtecn feet within foyl, a grave-ftone, of about eight 
feet long, and a cart-wheel near to it ; the grave*- 
flone is now in Magdalen church yard, Mr. Emer- 
fon, from whom, lays he, I had this relation, was 
the man that employed the workmen. Many oaks 
and firs are daily taken up, and they lie about two 
cr three feet deep under the foyl. 

All the land in this parifli is faid to be freehold, 
and certain freehold rents are paid to the lord Fitz- 
Williams, lord of Ken wick in Tilney, and to fir 
Richard Brown, who is lord of Wiggenhall St. Ma- 
ry's. William de Lifewife, who was founder of the 
priory of Crabhoufe in this town, had a lordfhip 
here in the reign of Henry II. and in Iflington and 
Clenchwarton ; by a daughter and co-heir of his 
grandfon, it came by marriage to the Ingaldef- 
thorpes, and fir Edmund de Ingaldefthorpe died 
feifed of lordfhips in the aforefaid towns, 1456, 
leaving Ifabel his only daughter and heir, married 
to John Nevill, marquis Montacute, whafe cflate 
being afterwards divided amongft his five daughters 
G c 2 and 


and co-heirs ; this came by Lucy, one of die faid 
daughters and co-heirs, to the family of Fitz-Wilii- 
ams, by her marriage with fir Thomas Fitz-William^, 
of Aldwark in Yorkfhire, in the reign of king Hen- 
ry VII. 

The church of St. Mary Magdalen of Wiggen- 
liall, is a regular good building, confiding of a 
nave, a north and fouth iile, with its porch, and a 
chancel, all covered with lead; at the weft end 
{lands a four-fquare tower of flone. 

In this monaftery the re&ory remained, with the 
patronage of the vicarage, till the diffolution of it, 
when in the sgth of Henry VIII. Thpmas the prior, 
conveyed them by fine to that king, and on the 226. 
of December in the faid year, the king granted 
them to Thomas duke of Norfolk; and the faid 
duke, on the fiifl of November in the firft year of 
queen Elizabeth, granted by deed to Thomas Welles 
of this town, the reclory and the advowfon of the 
vicarage, and Welles prefented in 1565, Sec. 

By an inquifition taken at Norwich, January 14, 
in the I. it was found that Thomas 
Qxborough, efq. died December 8, in the sift of 
that king, poffefTed of this reclory, lixty-fix acres of 
land, the advowfon of the vicarage, three meffuages, 
one cottage, fifteen acres of pafture, and thirty of 
marfh, in this parifh and St. Germain's, late parcel 
of the priory of Caflleacre, held in capitc by knight'* 

Thomas was his fon and heir, by Thpmafine his 
wife, who held the fame, and had by Audrey his 
wife, Hewar Oxborough, his ion and heir, and 



I^awrence his fecond fon ; Hewar dying in 1628, it 
came to his brother Lawrence, then aged 18. 

Mr. Batefon died pofTeflfed of tl>e re&ory and ad r 
yowfon of the vicarage, and his daughter and heir, 
Sufannah, being married to Mr. Garforth, vicar, 
poffeffed them in her right. 

In 1756, the Rev. Roger Wilfon was preferred 
by Sufan Garforth, widow. 

CRABHOUSE NUNNERY. In this parifh of Wig- 
genhaU St. Mary Magdalen, on the bank of the ri- 
ver Oufe, fouth of the town, was this houfe, (dedi- 
cated to St. John the Evangelift) of nuns of the or- 
der of St. AugufUne. 

It was founded by Roger, the prior, and convent 
of Rainham, about 1181, with the confcnt of Wil r 
liam de Lifewife, who was lord of the (cite, and the 
founder of the little priory called Normanfbergh, ill 
South Rainham. 

This William lived in the reign of king Henry II. 
and held lordfhips in Gately, Rainham, Sec. under 
the Montforts, which family defcended from Hugh 
de Monteforti, who was lord alfo of Iilington, Clench- 
warton, 8cc. (towns adjoining to this) of the gift of 
the Conqueror, and Lilewife held under him. 

On the 28th of June, queen Mary in her ifl 
year granted to fir John Gage, knt. of Suffex, the 
fcite of this priory, gardens, orchard, and demean 
lands appertaining to it, with the moiety of the 
tithe of *a field called Peter's Field, and a moiety of 
the re&ory of St. Peter's Wiggenhail, with all the 


rneffuages, lands, &c. belonging to it in Wiggenhall, 
Tilney, Iflington, Setchy, Weft Winch, Clenchwaiv 
ton, Lynn, Wimbottifham, Thorpe, Elme," Emneth, 
Sec. to be held by knight's fervice. 

Sir John by his will, dated February 20, 1555, 
and proved June 10 following, gives to the vicar of 
St. Mary Magdalen, Wiggenhall, the tithe of a field 
here, called part of the demeans of Crabhoufe ; 
the vicar and his fucceflbrs praying for him by- 
name, in the parifh church every Sunday at high 
mafs, for evermore. 

Sir Edward Gage, his fon, died feifed of it in 
1568; and after him John Gage, efq. poffeffed it;. 
but in the i.2th of Elizabeth, Thomas Guilford had 
licence to alienate the manor of Ciabhoufe, with 
the appurtenances, to Thomas Low ; and in the 
ift of that queen, William Chapman and Robert 
Wythen, had a pardon for purchafing it of Low 
without licence, and in that year Thomas Hamnef 
had licence to alienate it, with the moiety of St. Pe- 
ter's Wiggenhall rectory, to Roger Powell. 

After this it was poffeffed by Mr. John Wright, 
Sir H. Spelman fays his fon confumed his eilate, 
and fold it to Mr. William Guybon, of Watlington, 
who held it about 1640. 

Of this family was Mrs. Guybon, who married 
taptain Pamplin, of Wallington, by Mildenhall, 
who furviving him, and dying without iffue, gave 
it by will to Mrs. Howlet, her companion, who 
Jived with her, and fhe left it to her nephew, whofe 
daughter, or niece, brought it by marriage to Mr, 
ThoroJd, the late owner. 



of Wiggenhall St. Mary Magdalen, and St. Mary's. 
with their churches, ftand on the weft fide of the 
great river Oufe, in Marfhland, fo the towns of St. 
Peter's and St. Germain's Wiggenhall, with their 
churches, (land on the eafl fide of the faid river, next 
that part of the hundred that is called Frcebfidge 
citra Lynn. 

king John, Jeffrey Fitzpiers, earl of Effex, who. 
held large poffeffions of the honour of Clare, gave, 
on his foundation of Shouldham priory, all his land% 
here, with a moiety of the advovvfon of this church, 
.which was appropriated to it, and William de Wy- 
genhalc, who held considerable lands of the faid ho- 
nour, aliened to the aforefaid priory fix acres in 
Wiggenhall, and many acres in feveral other towns. 

Sir Robert Brown, bart. late lord, his manor ot 
St. Mary's Wiggenhall extended here, and now u im, 
his lady. 

The church of St. Peter's has a nave, or body, 
covered with, tiles, a fouth ifle covered with lead, & 
Cancel with reed, and a fquare tower with one beiL 

It confifled anciently of two reclories, or medic- 
ties ; one in the earl of Clare's fee was very earljf 
appropriated to Shouldham priory, and a vicarage 
endowed, of which the prior was patron; but the 
bifhop of Norwich for the mofl part prefented. This 
on the diffolution came to the crown, and the vicar 
is prefented by the lord chancellor, valued in the 
king's books at gl. and is difdiarged from the pay-, 
of firft fruits. &c. 



The other mediety in Montford's fee was appro- 
priated to Crabhoufe prior}-, and no vicarage was' 
fettled, and called the mediety of Robert the reclor, 
in the id year of Richard II.) but the patronage ap- 
pears to be in that hotife in 1310. 

The prefent irnpropriator is Mr. Edwards. 

The Rev. Thorogood Upwood was presented to 
the vicarage of Wiggenhall St. Peter by the crown, 
in 1771. 

The towns of WIGGENHALL in MARSHLAND. Sir 
Wi Dugdale, in his Hiftory of Imbanking, is of opi- 
trion that the Romans were the perfons who origi- 
nally gained from the fea this part of Norfolk, called 
Marfhland, where the Saxons were alfo invited to 
fettle, from the extraordinary fertility of the foil; 
and that they did fo is evident, fays he, from the au- 
thentic furvey taken by the Norman Conqueror, 
tvhich fhewcth that the towns now in being there^ 
were alfo extant in the days of king Edward the Con- 

That this is a juft observation is not to be denied, 
fo which we may add, that thofe towns have alfo 
Saxon names, and the lords of many of thofe town* 
are accounted for with their fees and tenures, in the 
faid furvey, as they were held both in the reign of 
king Edward the Confeffor, and in that of the Con- 
queror; but the account of the Wiggenhalls, which 
make four diftinft townfliips and parifhes, is npt fo 
particular as fevcral of the other townfliips. 

Wigrehale is undoubtedly a Saxon name, and 
feem* to fet forth and lignify that at this place was 

a great 


a great force or prefs of water, both from die fea 
and river Oufe, expreffed by the word Wigre, Hy- 
gre or Eager, (as it is generally called at this day) 
which denotes a raging fvvel! or roll,of water, en- 
creafed by the opposition of any bank or fence againft 
-it, and Hale, which does not fignify a hall, or man- 
fion-houfe, (as many antiquaries interpret it) Hale is 
the fame as Ale, that is, All-water: thus, Alclham, 
Alesford, Halefworth/''" 8cc. or it may be derived 
from Wick or Wicken, and Halewkk, Sec. being a 
turn of water or a river. 

And it appears from an ancient pleading, that 
before the year 1181, (ayth of Henry II.) that there 
was neither any habitation, or ground that yielded 
profit within that part of Wiggenhall, (St. Mary 
Magdalen) from a place called Builard's Dole, to 
the ibuth fide of the (aid town, except the monaftery 
of Crabhoufe, all being then waRe, and in the na- 
ture of a defolate fen. 

But afterwards divers inhabitants in the neigh- 
bourhood came, and by draining and banking, gain- 
ed as much by their ihduftry as they could, and that 
they might the more fccurely enjoy the lame, were 
content to be tenants for it under fuch grdit men (or 
lords) of whom they held their other lands ; and 
Upon this agreement and occafion, by a common 
confent was made the old Podike, firfl railed about 


In the 2d cf Henry III. 1217, it appears that 

this good work of draining had been fuccefsful; for 

Hugh de Burgo, earl of Kent, and lord chief juftice 

of England, and Euflachius, bifhop of Ely, had then 

D d a grant 

* All thefe towns lie near fomc river, &c. Parkin, 


a grant, or writ of feifen, of all the marfh between 
Wiggcnbali and Well, Hackbeach, Tilney, and 
Terrington ; no doubt on fome dffurances of their 
better imbanking and fecuring it, and that what they 
had performed, might very probably induce the 
neighbouring lords, tenants, and others, to proceed 



O F 



I. gave 'this hundred with 
Brothercrofs to earl Warren and 
Surrey, holding of the caftle of 
Norwich on payment of two marks 
per ann. In the general furvey 
? !' made by William I. feveral lord- 
fhips now in Brothercrofs were 
comprehended in Gallow, and, vifc verja, others 
were flated in Brothercrofs which are now in the 
hundred of Gallow. 

They were afterwards, by Edward II. conveyed 
to Henry duke of Lancafler, whole daughter Blanch, 
married John of Gaunt, and fo became a part of the 
dutchy of Lancalkr, now belonging to the crown. 



The hundred court, it is fuppofed, was antiently 
held in fome fields near Dunton, then known by 
the name the hundred now bears, Galchow or Gale- 
flow, fignifying a hill near water. In the $d and 
loth of Elizabeth, the hundred court was held at a 
place called Lorigfield-flone. 

This hundred comprehends a tracl of rich coun- 
try, extending fifteen miles in length from eaft to 
weft, and about eight from north to fouth : In it 
there are twenty-nine parifhes, eighteen of which 
belong to the deanry of Burnham and eleven to 
Toftrees ; the former in the archdeaconry of Nor- 
folk, and the latter in that of Norwich. 

There are feveral fine feats, particularly Hough- 
ton and Rainham, which will be fully defcribed in 
this hundred, and the whole of the lands have un- 
dergone a fyflem of improvement equal to any other 

part in the county. The features of the country 

are bold and finking, and afford" many profpecls 
not lefs extenfive than picturefque. The only mar- 
ket town in this hundred is Fakenham. 

* The number of votes in the hundred of Gal- 
low, that were polled at the great contefled elec- 
tion for the county of Norfolk, at Norwich, May 23, 
1768, between fir Armine Wodehoufe, bart. of 
Kimberley, Thomas de Grey, efq. of Merton, fir 
Edward Aftley, bart. of Melton-Conflable, and 
Wenman Coke, efq. of Holkham, were as follows : 

W. G. A. C, 

Bagthorpe i i o* q 

Banner, -olio 

Bafliam, N. and W. -3 4 5 4 
Dunton with Dough ton 0022 

Fakenham - - 7 8 10 g 


G A L JL O W. 

W. G. A. C. 

Fulmondefton with Croxton i 12 2 
Helhoughton o i 1 o 

Hempton 112-2 

Hough ton - 2 2 o o 

Kettleflone -1551 

Norton Pudding o o 1 l 

Penf thorp e l x l o o 

Rainham, E. S. and W. 12 12 i i 
Rudham, E. and W. 10 10 o o 

Ryburgh, Great and Little 8800 
Sculthorpe ~ 3 3 

Sherford i i o o 

Snoring, Little - 1265 

Stibbard ~ 2 4 5 3 

Tatterford i l o o 

Tatterfct alias Gatefend 2210 

Toftrecs 3 3 o o 

57 68 45 33 

Scats, and principal houfes in GALLOW hundred. 

Bagthorpe, lion. Charles Vane. 

Bafham Weft, John Raiders, efq. 

Fulmondefton, John Brown, efq. 

Houghton hall, Earl of ORFORD, lord lieutenant 

of the county of Norfolk. 
Raynham hall, lord vifcount TOWNSHEND, maf- 

ter general of the prdnance. 
Sculthorpe, Cranmore, Daniel Jones, efq. 

BAGTHORPE, placed under Brothercrofs hun- 
dred, a lordfhip of the earl Warren in Doomfday- 



Frevil was very early enfeoffed of this manor, by 
the earl Warren. It was afterwards in the family 
of dc Ba*gthorpe. 

Mr. Stringer was lord and patron in 1 740. 

Mr. Robert Barber is the prefent lord of this ma- 
nor, and patron ; who prefented the Rev. Mr. Ed- 
ward Waller to this rectory in 1771. 

In this town the honorable Charles Vane, uncle 
to the prefent earl of Darlington, has built an hand- 
fome feat, called MOUNT IDA. The gardens, 
hot walls and pineries here are much admired. 

The church is a reclory, dedicated to St. Mary, 
and is a very little, mean edifice, without any mo- 
nument, Sec. 

BARMER,- called Benemare in Doomfday-book, 
when it was the lordfhip of William earl Warren. 

Cox FORD PRIORY MA NO a. The temporalities of 
the priory, in 1428, were valued 314!. 135. 4 d. at 
the diffolution, king Henry VIII. on May 9, in his 
sgth year, granted it to Thomas Howard, duke of 
Norfolk, with the abVowfon, all its liberties, courts 
lete, and view of frank pledge, foldcourfe, &c. for 
one thoufand years ; and the duke of Norfolk 
granted it to Robert Bozoun, efq. of Stody Ao. g, 
Elizabeth, a pepper corn per arm. if demanded : 
Bozoun conveyed it to Roger Townfhend, efq. Jan. 8, 
in the 12th of Elizabeth, with lauds in Berwick, in 
exchange for lands in \Vhiffonfet 7 in which family 
it remains, the right honorable George lord vifcount 
Townfhend being lord. 


G A L L O W. . 5 

TRE PRIOIT MANOR. At the diflblution 
q, in the sgth of Henry VIII. 

to Thomas, duke of Norfolk^ and Thomas duke of 
Norfr - it in the qth of Elizabeth to Robot 

Bozoun, efq. who conveyed it to Roger TowrJhend, 
efq. From the family of Townfhend it came to 
r John Chaplin, bait, and from him i 
Edward Glover. - - ^nd his widow, fifter of 
Charles Turner, eiq. late collector of Lynn, is now 
in pofleffion: Mr. Glover left an only daughter, 
the prefent Mifs Glover, who is hearefs to the eftate. 

The church of Banner is a iittie pile, :ftands on 
a hill, and is covered wii tiles ; the chancel and 
the north ifle are in ruins ; it is dedicated to All 
Saints, and has a ronnd tower or fteeple. 

There have been no inftitutions to this church, 
fince.the year 1404, according to Parkin, and it is 
at prefent held as a curacy in the patronage of 
the earl of Orford. In the diocefe : . . Rev. 

Dr. Charles Bagge is inferted as incumbent, 1760. 

BASHAM, EAST. There are three towns of 
the name of Baihain, or Barfham, tbat is. a ham by 
a bar, that is on, or by the hills : In Doomfday- 
book they are not diftinguiihed by the appellation 
of Eaft, North, and Weft, but included under the 
general name of Barfham. 

In the fame village, (Bafham) as we are informed 
from Doomfday-book, Reiner held of the earl War- 
ren, a lordfhip which belonged to Toke, in king 
Edward's reign. 

WOOLTERTOX s MAxox. Reiner, who held this 
lordfhip under the earl Warren at the furvcv, was 


6 H U N D R E D O F 

probably, Reiner de Grancourt, who gave to the 
priory of Caftleacre. the patronage of this church, 
when Herbert was bifhop of Norwich ; his defcen- 
dant,s either took the name of De Barfham, or a 
family of that name held it foon after. 

Maurice de Barfham, in the gift of Henry II. 
was fined 40). becaufe he gave his daughter in mar- 
riage to William de Bellemonte, and William was 
alfb fined 23!. 6s. 2d. becaufe he married againft 
the agreement that he had made to marry the daugh- 
ter of Ralph de Gedding. This Maurice began his 
journey or pilgrimage to St. James of Compoftella 
in Spain, on the feaft of St. Dunftan, and gave to 
the priory of Caftleacre for the profperity of his 
journey, all his corn in his granges of Eaft Bafham, 
and Weft Bafham, fixty-four fheep in his foldcourfe 
of Eaft, ancl fixteen in that of Weft Bafham, with 
all his tenements which he held of them, if he 
fliould not return again. 

After this it was pofTeffed by Roger de Woolter- 
ton, who, with Alice his wife, conveyed by fine, in 
the 4th of Edward I. to John de Albiiiiaco, and 
Joan his wife, a meffuage, mill, and lands here. 
Roger Iealed with, quarterly, or and azure, a bend, 

Thomas Gournay, efq. and John Hunt, fon of 
William Hunt, of Eaft Bafham, confirmed to John 
Wode, of Brifton, efq. and his heirs, Sec. the ma- 
nor of Eaft Bafham, formerly Roger de Woolterton's, 
and John de Bryfton, of Bryfton, efq. releafed to 
John Wode aforefaid, all his right in this manor, 
April 2, in the ibth of Henry VI. and Catherine, 
widow of William Hunt, releafed to him all her 


G A L L O W. 7 

This John Wode farmed the hundred of Callow 
and Brotherton, of Elizabeth, queen confort of king 
Edward IV. in the yth of that king. 

After many pofleffbrs this eftate came to the fa^ 
mily of the Fermors, September 14., in the nth of 
Henry VIII. 

In the 24th of the faid king, Sir Henry Fermor^ 
knt. was high flieriff of Norfolk. 

Thomas Fermor, Efq. was killed ifi Rifmg chnce, 
by the Norfolk rebels, in the sd of Edw. VI. and 
Nicholas Fermor, efq. brother of this Thomas, was 
attainted for treafbnable practices in coining,, in the 
1 yth of Elizabeth. 

Thomas Fermor, efq. wafted in a great degree his 
eflate, and fold many lorclihips. 

William Fermor, efq. fon and heir of Thomas, 
held his firft court in the lyth of James I. on March 
25, and married Anne, daughter of Robert Brooke, 
alderman of London, and fifter of Sir Robert Brooke, 
of Blythborough, in Suffolk, by whom he had 
a daughter and heirefs, Mary, who by marriage, 
brought the manors above-mentioned to James Cal- 
thorpe, efq. about the ^d of king Charles I. by the 
marriage articles dated then, January 17, it was en- 
tailed on the faid James and Mary, and their heirs, 
and for default, on the heirs of James Calthorpe. 

By the faid Mary, he had iflue, who died before 
her ; his fecond wife was Catherine, daughter of 
Sir Edward Lewkner, of Denham, in Suffolk, by 
whom he had fir Chriftopher Calthorpe, knt. of the 
Bath, lord of this town, who by Dorothy his wife, 
B daughter 


daughter of fif William Spring, of Pakcnham in 
Suffolk, knt. father of Chriftopher Calthorpe, efq, 
who died in 1713, (before his father, who died in 
jTi8. Feb. 7) leaving by Ann-Maria, daughter fcf 
VVilliarn de Grey, efq. of Merton, Chriftopher Cal- 
thorpe, who died in November i 720, aged 13 years* 

On the death, of this youth, his two aunts, Eli- 
zabeth and Ann, daughters of fir Chriftopher Cal- 
thorpe, inherited, the eftate ; Ann, being the wife 
of fir Thomas Le Strange, had a moiety of it in 
her 'right, and Elizabeth, who was fmgle, at her 
death gave her part w the faid fir Thomas, on whofe 
death it came to fir Henry Le Strange, bart. of Hun- 

The Calthorpes of this town are defcendcd from 
fir William Cahhorpe, of Bumham-Thorpe, &c. by 
Elizabeth his fecond wife, daughter and coheir of 
iir Miles Stapleton, of Ingham in Norfolk. 

Sir William Fermor built on this manor of Wool* 
tcrton a very large and ftatdy manor-houfe, or hall, 
of brick, in the reign of king Henry VIII. now very 
much decayed and ruinous. Some years paft were 
found thefe remains of antiquity : over the great 
gate-houfe, leading into the court-yard, on the out- 
fide, are the kings arms of France and England, 
quarterly, fupported by a lion and a griffin; * on 
the right fide of it the arms of Fermor; argent, on 
a faltire fable, between 4 lions heads erafed, gules, 
a martlet of the firft between four bezants, on a 
chief azure, an anchor between two pallets, or, im- 
paling argent, three pallets, gules, and on the 

left, Fermor impaling, argent, a lion rampant, fable, 


* The arms of king Henry VIII. 

G A L L O W. 9 

Below thefe are two wild men, or giants, in two 
nitches, one on each fide of the gate, as janitors, 
armed with clubs. Over the door of the porch, 
leading into the hall, are the arms of France and 
England, with a griffin and a greyhound fupporters, 
king Henry VII. s arms, and Fermor, impaling. 

In the bow window of the hall, this motto on fe- 
veral fcrolls, Audaces foriuna Juvat. Howard, duke 
of Norfolk, quartering Brotherton, carl Warren, and 
Mowbray, in a garter. Percy, earl of Northum- 
berland, with his quartering*. 'Lucy Poynings. 
Fitzpayne, r Bryan, 8cc. in a garter. Knevet quar- 
tering' Cromwell, Tattefliale, Clifton, BafTet, &c. 
Alfo, a'rgent, on a pale, fable, a conger's head, or 
J.ucies, or Gafcoine ; and here is this date in the 
window, 1538, in which year it is probable the 
houfe was built. Alfo barry of fix, argent and 

In the great parlour window : Fermor impaling, 
argent, a fahire between four ftaples, fable, Wood. 
The arms of the old lords of this manor; Fermor 
impaling Stapleton, Berney impaling Fermor. YeL- 
verton. Fermor impaling Knevet (alfo Fermor im- 
paling Fromond, p. chevr. 3 de lys counterchanged) 
with his quarterings on the chimney-piece; alfo 
impaling Coote, See. and this motto, Fortior ejl qui 
fe, qnam quiforlijffima vincit. On a piece of oak, in 
the center of the cieling, are the Quinque vulnera 
carved, and round it, The pajfion of God help me. 

In a room called the nurfery, and above flairs, 
are fevcral antique heads of men and women, in an- 
tique dreffes, on the wainfcot ; under the heads of 
one man and woman, the arms of Fermor and 
W T ood ; under others, Fermor and Knevet, Yelverton 
and Fermor, and Berney and Fermor. 

B * Lady 


Ladv Le Strange, of Greffenhall near Eafi-Dere- 
ham, relief of fir Henry Le Strange, of Hunftantori, 
now poffcffes this eftate. 

ROCHFORD'S MANOR. Sir Jaer de Rochford, of 
Stifkey, conveyed, by fine, to Ralph de Rochford 
his fon, and Maud his wife, this lordfliip, in the 
2 8th of Edw. III. 

In the 22d of Henry VII. George Kirkham held 
a court here on Friday after the feaft of St. George, 
who had the cuftody of the lands, &c. of Thomas 
Welby, lord, and under age. 

Nicholas Mynne, efq. and Catherine his wife, 
granted this manor by fine, in the 4th of Elizabeth, 
to William Mynne, gent, quit of the heirs of Ca- 
therine ; and on May 26, in the igth of Elizabeth, 
Nicholas Mynne, of Walfmgham Parva, reieafcd it 
to Thomas Fermor, efq. of Eafl-Bafham ; fo it was 
joined to Woolterton s manor. 

14th of Edward III. it was polfeffed by fir John de 
Bardolf, of Maple-Durham, held by him of the lord 
Bardolf, and he of the honor of Caftleacre. 

This manor became united with Woolteiton's m 
the 25th of Edw. III. 

Befides the lordfhips above-mentioned, part of this 
town of Eaft-Bafham was a beruite, at the furvey, 
to the Conqueror's manor of Fakenham, which was 
held by Harold, king of England, who was flain in 


r. RAVE'S. John de Berningham, in the 31 ft of Ed- 
ward I. was lord of this fee. 

Sir Richard Waldgrave, by deed, dated at Bures 
in Suffolk, on January ift, in the nth of Rich. II. 
i.old and confirmed it to Auguftine Keeling, See. 

In the 25th of Henry VI, March 3, John Hunt, 
gf Sjyaffham in Norfolk, fells to John Wode the 
manor of Berningham for fifty marks and on the 
Joth of the faid month, Robert Mompynfon, of 
Wifbich, and Catherine his wife, late wife of Wil- 
liam Hunt, of Eafl-Bafham, enfeoffed John Wode, 
of Honingham, and Margery his wife, 8cc. in four 
meffuages, four tofts, &:c. called Berningham's, in 
this town, a^id Snoring, with the reverfion of other 
meffuages, neld by John Lynge for life ; and, at the 
faid time, appointed Thomas Gurriey, efq, their at- 
torney, to deliver feifin to John Wode and Margery, 
apd to Robert, (on of the faid John and. Margery ; 
and on the loth of May, in the lame year, John 
Hunt, of Swaff ham-Market, fon and heir of Wil- 
liam Hunt, rclealed to John Wode tjie faid pre- 

Qn the 2 8th of Ju/ne, in the 30th of the faid king, 
fir TJioruas Kerdeflon, fcc. enleoffed John Wode, 
&c._ of the manor of Waldgrave ; and on the 6th of 
March, in the 3^d of that king, John Lathum, 
mailer or cuflos oi the holpital of the Holy Trinity 
of Pontelra6t, called Knolle's Alms-houfe, in York- 
fhire, re.ealed to John Wode all his right in the 
manor of BerninghanVs ; and thus BerninghanVs 
and Waldgraye's manor were united, to that of Wooj^- 



CHILD'S MANOR. This feems to have been a part 
of Waldgrave's manor, and was confirmed to Tho- 
mas Child in the 1 4th of Richard II. 

William Leyre confirmed to Humfrey, duke of 
Gloucefter, and Alianora his wife, and William Per- 
kins, efq. this lordfhip, October 6, in the iith of 
Henry VI. and the faid William by his deed, dated 
October 20, in the faid year, releafed all his right 
herein to the faid duke ; and feaied with, or, a fefs 
dauncette, between eight billets ermin. 


William Wake, of Holkham, confirmed to Ri- 
chard Wake his brother, and Catherine his wife, all 
his tenement which he had of the gift of fir John 
Daubenys, with the lands, 8cc.,in the igth of Ed- 
ward II. 

The church is dedicated to All Saints, and the 
Rev. Mr. William Pretheroe was prefented to this 
vicarage in i 7422, by fir Thomas Le Strange of Hun- 
ftanton, and Mrs. Elizabeth Calthorpe. 

On the north fide of the church, at the weft end, 
is the fteeple, with one bell, dedicated to St. Tho- 
mas ; the church is covered with lead. Here were 
formerly feveral bells, which being taken out of the 
church, and put on fhip board, were loft (as is faid) 
on Hunitanton fands. 

Againft the north wall is a fmall mural monument, 
In memory of Simon Lombe, A, M. for 4 years God's 
faithful minifter of this parijh, who died May^th, 1689 ; 
and of Margaret his wife, daughter of Mr. Thomas 
Seggefwick, merchant of Norwich, both interred in the 
middle alley of this church. Eretfed by C. C. M. B. 


G A L L O W. 13 

On the pavement of the chancel are fcveral black 
marble grave-ftones. Barbara Strut, fecond daughter 
of Robert Strut, of Plai'ey in Suffolk, and Grace his 
wife, daughter of Chriftopher Cahhorpe, of Cockl/icrpe, 
fjq. dud May \, 1714, Ao, jEtat. Si. with the 
arms of Strut, fable, a chevron between three crafs 
crofslcts, fitch'je, or. Joints Calthorpe, efq. third fan 
of James Calthorpe, efq, and Catherine h?'s wife, (';rd 
January 19, aged 73, Ao, Dni. 1/17, with die arms 
of Calthorpe. Charles Gqfahorpe, Gent, younge/l fon' 
of James Calihorpe, efq. and Catherine his wife, died 
j\"t:vcm!;er 8, 1677, aged 27, with Calthorpe" s arms. 
Catherine, fecojid daughter of Sir Edward Lew in i, i ', of 
Denham in Suffolk, Knt. fecond unfe, and relicl of 
James Calthorpe, of EaJl-Barfl;am, Efq; who remained 
a widow 25 years, and died November 17, 1677, aged 
61, with the arms of Calthorpe, impaling Lewkner, 
azure, three chevronells, argent. -Alfo one, In me- 
mory of James Calthorpe, Efq; late of EaJl-Barjliam, 
here interred, who died April 19, 16,5 sf, aged 48, with 
the arms of Calthorpe impaling Fermor, and Cal- 
thorpe impaling Lewkner. 

Againfl: the fouth \\all of the prcfent chancel, 
which is taken out of the nave 'of the church, is a 
very fumptuous monument of alabafter, black mar- 
ble, 8cc. with the effigies of a woman in her wind- 
ing flieet, as railing hcrfelf with her left hand out of 
her coffin, her right hand arid eyes elevated in a poftui e 
of adoration, and on the coffin. Come Lord Jcfu quickly, 
Over her are two arches, fupported by pillars of the 
Dorick order ; in one of them is an angel offering her 
a crown of glory, and in the other an angel offering 
her a crown of laurel ; and, above thefe, an angel 
as founding the lafl trumpet. On the cornifh of the 
monument are two effigies, one reprefentiug Wiidom 
or Knowledge, with the fun, the other with a Dove, 
reprefendng Innoccncy. Gn the bafis of the mofiu- 
B . ment, 


ment, the arras of Calthorpe, and, James Calthorpe, 
Efq; dedicates this monument to the pious memory of Ma,y 
his wife, <bc. daughter and jolt heir of IMltiam Fer- 
nwiir, EJq; and <f Ann his uife, daughter of Robert 
Brook, late alderman of London, by whom he had ijfuc 
two fom, who died : , 1640. 

Died. \ Aged. 

Andreio Fetmour - - ^Tclruary i, 1627^ 
William Fermeur - - }j\ r ovm. 24, 1635 ( 
Fermour Calthorpe, feniorj March 2, 1635 ^5 years, 
Ftrmour Calthorpe,juniot^December i, 1637 ^ 18 days. 

This church in forne writings is called the Holy 
Trinity of Eaft-Bafham. 

Thomas Wright, vicar, S. T. B. Sir Chriftopher 
Calthorpe, lord and patron, by his will in 1718 
gives to him during his life and continuance to per- 
form divine fervice here, and after his death, or re- 
move, to the vicar of Eaft-Balham, and his fuccef- 
fors for ever,, that houfc, outhouics, yards, and oir 
chards, in Eaft-Bafham, in which the faid Mr. Wright 
now lives, together with the feed of the church-yard, 
and vicarage tithes of all my lands in \Veft-Ba- 
fham, he and they anfwering to the vicar of Weft- 
Bafliam 55. per ann. being, by ancient determina- 
tion in chancery, defired to be by curtain the dues 
to him only for the fame. 

BASHAM, NORTH. Hugo had of the Earl 
Warren a caracute of land, held by a freeman in 
king Edward's reign, for a manor in this village. 

was lord of Weft-Bafham, was anceftor of the fa- 
mily of de Wauci, and held this lordfliip at the fur- 
vey under the Earl Warren. 


The family of Suthale, or Southwell, had fome 
intcreft herein under the Wauci. In the reign of 
Edw. III. it came to Edmund Gurnev, by the mar- 
riage of Catherine, daughter of fir William Wauci, 
and remained in that family. 

BRANCH'S MANOR. This WPS the principal ma- 
nor, and held by a family that gave name to it, un- 
der the Wauci's ; Ralph Branch was lord, as appears 
from the regiiter of Walfmgham, and Richard was 
his fon, but fans date. 

In the 26th of Henry III. a fine was levied be- 
tween William Braunche and Joan his wife, impedi- 
entf., Thomas Trivet and Aiianore his \vife, que- 

This Thomas is faid to have been a knight, one 
of the king's juflices, and father oF Nicholas Tri- 
vet, the hiftorian, who wrote the reigns of fcvcral 
kings of England. In the 5yth of Henry III. lie 
was a judge of Norwich, and in the yth of Edw. I. 
a commidionc.r to enquire after the authors of the 
quarrel between the monks and citizens of Norwich, 
which begun in king Henry's time ; but flill it ap- 
pears that, the family of Branch had an intercft in. 
this manor. 

By an inquifition taken at Norwich, April i, in 
the 1 6th of James I. Philip Ruffcll, efq. was found 
to die poffeifed of this manor.. 

This family is derived from Thomas Ruffcll, of 
Littieport in the Ifle of Ely, whofe fon William had 
Henry Ruffell, of Weft Rudham in Norfolk, Gent, 
who by Margaret his wife, daughter and heir of 
John Bachelor, of Welt Rudham, and likbel his 



\vife, daugliter and heir of Thomas Ferrers, of the 
faid town; left Henry, his fon and heir, who bv 

Elizabeth, daughter of Wallis, had William 

Rufiell, .of Weft Rudham, Gent, and by Agnes hii 
wife, daughter of Thomas Walpole, of Houghton, 
efq. he had Thomas Ruffel], his fon and heir, Wil- 
liam and Edmund, which Edmund died September 
13, 1589, and by Catherine his wife, daughter cf 
Nicholas Bowry, of Stone in Hertfordfiiire, was fa- 
ther of Thomas, his fon and heir, who died with- 
out iffue, and of Philip Ruffel, efq; above-mention- 
ed, who died in 1617, and was buried (as his elder 
brother Thomas was) in the church of North Ba- 
fham, leaving by Catherine his wife, daughter of 
John Walpole, of Houghton, efq. Thomas afore- 
faid, who died without iffue. 

William Rootley, efq. who was high fheriff of 
Norfolk in 1722, and his ibn, fold it to the honor- 
able Horace Walpole, efq. and his fon, the prcfcnt 
lord Walpole of Woolterton, now poffeffes it. 

CHtrRCHF.'s MANOR. Godfrey de,LevingdaIe, of 
Eaft-Bafham, by dtddjam date, gave thefe lands to 
Maud Attc Church. 

CALEY'S MANOR. William Caley had this manor 
in Edward IV s time. Thomas Sefoule, by his will 
in the 4th of Elizabeth, appears to be poffeffed of 
it. Richard Percy foon after hek| it, and fo was 
united to Branch's manor. 

Mr. John Borage, of North-Bafham, gave by will, 
dated Oclober 2 7 , 1636, to the mafter, fellows, and 
fcholars of Clare-Hall in Cambridge, where he was 
fome time a fcholar, a rent charge of 35!. per ami. 
out of his meffuages, lands and tenements, in North 



and Weft-Bafham, towards the maintenance of a fel- 
low, to be held only until the non-regency, or five 
vears after the faid fellow's commencing mafter of 
arts ; capable of being elecled when he fliall be fo- 
philier of two years ftanding in the faid hall ; to be 
chofe out of the founders name and kindred in that 
hall, or in any other college in Cambridge, as fliall 
be found capable thereof, and for want thereof, any 
Norfolk or Norwich man may be elecled. 

The church is a reclory, dedicated to All Saints, 
and was in the patronage of the Braunch's, lords in 
the reign of Edward I. 

The prefent reclor of North-Bafham is the Rev. 
Mr. John Dowfing, prefented in i 762 by lord Wal- 
pole of Woolterton. 

Jofeph Lawfon died reclor in 1643. There is a 
very remarkable entry in the parifli regifter, under 
Mr. Lawibn's own hand, as follows : 

Deo Gratias, 

Quod JVos Satias, 

Bonis Rti/ticorum, 

Contra Voluntatem Eorum. 

Againft the north wall of this church is a mural 
monument, with a fhield Quarterly, argent, a lion, 
rampant, in a bordure, gules, in the ift and 4th 
Rurfell, hi the 2d and 3d or, a chevron, gules, and 
a chief vairy, or, and azure, and impaling Walpole. 
In memory of Phil. Ruffell, EJq; who married Cathe- 
rine, daughter of John Wa'pole, of Houghton, EJq; and 
dyed December 26, 1617, aged 66. The faid arms 
are carved on the wainfcot in the manor-houfe. 


i8 H U N D R E D O F 

On the pavement of the chancel, a grave-Hone 
in memory of Jojeph T/iomfon, rector, who died in 

BASHAM, WEST. Hugo dc Wauci held this 
manor of the Earl Warren, and it remained with 
his defcenclents till the 4/th of Edw. Ill, \vhen it 
came to Edmund Gurney by marriage. 

This eftate was Ions; in the family of the Gur- 
neys. Edmund died fcifcd of it in the vear 1641, 
and his fon Henry fold it to the family of Calthorpe, 
From the Calthorpes it came to Dr. Charles Morley, 
M. D. who was lord in 1720, and his fon, the late 
Charles Morley, efq. of Bafhafn, left it to his ne- 
phew, John Balders, efq. the prefent lord. 

This family of de Gourney was of great antiqui- 
ty, and lords of Harpley. Matthew de Gourney 
lived in the reign of Henry II. and married Role, 
daughter and heir of Reginald de Burnham, Wil- 
liam de Gourney was his fon and heir, and had fir 
John de Gourney, who was in arms againft king 
Henry III. and one of the fame name was lord in 
the beginning, and 2jth of Edw. I. and John de 
Gourney was rcclor, patron, and lord alfo, of Harp- 
ley, in the 31 ft of the faid king; and in the gth of 
Edw. II. fettled on John de Gourney, his nephew, 
{fon of Catherine) and Jane his wife, the manor of 
Harpley, remainder to William and Edmund, bro- 
thers of John. This Edmund was he, who by the 
marriage of Catherine, daughter of fir William, and 
filler and heir of fir Edmund de Wauci, brought 
this lordfhip of Weil-Bafham into the Gurney family. 

The arms of Gurney were argent, a crofs ingrail- 
ed, gules, and impaled the arms of Wauci, gules, 


G A L L O W. 19 

Ihree dexter hands creel, argent; alfo Calthorpe, 
Heydon, Lovel!, Holdick, Blennerhaffet and Lewk* , 
nor; alfo they impaled Jernegan, and fable, a che- 
vron between three leopards heads, &c. proba- 
bly Wentworth. 

\VILKIN T 'S MANOR. Ralph, or Robert, fon of 
Robert Wilkin, and his tenants, held in the' reign 
of Henry III. one knight's fee of the earl Warreii; 
in this town. 

Thomas Fermor pofleffed it, with mefTuages and 
lands in Weft and Eafl Bafham, with the advowfon 
of the church of this town, in the 12th of Eliza- 
beth ; and on the i6th of April, 1603, John Kemp,, 
of Antingham St. Mary in Norfolk, eiq. releafed to 
Thomas Fermor, efq. and William Fermor, eiq. all 
his right in it. William Fermor, efq. fon of Tho- 
mas, was lord of it. in 1627 ; and a pardon of ali- 
enation of it was granted, lyth of November, 8th 
of king Charles I. to Henry Calthorpe, efq. and 
Valentine Pell, eiq. for taking it from William Fer- 
mor, by fine, levied in Hillary term, in the 3d of 
Charles I. 

Sir L'Eflrange Calthorpe, knt. and ferjeant at law, 
\vas lord in 1675, foil of Philip Calthorpe, of Gref- 
fenhall, efq. and Elizabeth his wife,, who by Ann 
his wife, daughter of Arthur Turner, ef Pamdon- 
Magna in Eflex, ferjeant at law, had James Cal- 
thorpe, efq. drowned at fea in 1691, and left by Eli- 
zabeth his wife, daughter of James Cooper, and inter 
of fir William Cooper of London, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter and heir, married to Charles Morley, M. D. 
whofe fon Cha. Morley, efq. married the daughter of 
Richard Dafhwood, efq. of Cockley-Cley near Swaff- 
ham, and dying without iiTue, left it to his nephew, 
John Balders, efq. the prefent lord. 


this church is in John Balders, efq. who on the de- 
ceafc of the Rev. Morgan Powell, formerly of Ca- 
therine-Hall, Cambridge, an ingenious and deferv- 
ing man, prefented the Rev. Mr. Wm. Fiflier, vicat 
of South Creak, to this vicarage in 1774. 

In 'die chancel, a grave-ftone with a brafs plate; 
Caducum hoc aUrnaL Marmor Edwardus Gourncy, Jilins 
et her-es Tho. Gourney Arim'g. ct Martha Jilitz Edvi. 
JLezokenor de Denham, in Com. Stiff. Mililis, obiit Aug. 

On a black marble ftone : Here lycth the lody ff 
Sr. L Ejlrangf Calthorp, Kt. fcrjemit at lam to king 
Char If s II. Departed this life April 5, 1678. 

BROOMSTHORPE, or Brunfthorpe, fo called 
as featcd by a burn, or bourn. This village was 
given (as we take it) to the abbey of Ely, by Ethel- 
wold, bifhop of Winchefler, in the reign of the 
Saxon king Edgar. At the furvev it was in the te- 
nure, and accounted for as the lands of St. Audrey, 
or Adeldrcde, the foundrefs of that monaftery. 

This eflate was long in the family of the Cock- 
ets. In the year 1570, Thomas Cocket, efq. bought 
it of Thomas, nephew to fir William Fermor. 

Abigail, daiighter and heir of Froximere Cocket, 
efq. brought this lordfhip by marriage to John Wal- 
poU, efq. fecond fon of Calybut Walpole, efq. of 
Houghton, who dying December 8, 1654, was bu- 
ried at Tatteriet, and left three daughters and co- 
heirs ; Elizabeth, who married to Edward Pepys, 
eiq. had one daughter, who died in 1665, and her 
hufband in 1663 ; and the laid Elizabeth dying Sep- 


tcmber 10, 1668, was buried by her hufband and 
daughter in the church of Tatterfet. By her will, 
fhe gave her right in this lordfhip to her two fitters, 
Bridget and Sufan. John Hare, efq. purchafmg 
Bridget's right in 1669, became fole lord, and left 
it to his fon, John Hare, efq. Richmond herald, 
who, in 1698, fold it to Philip Bedingfield, efq. 
who married his fitter Elizabeth. Philip was fon of 
Edmund Bedingfield, rector of Bifhops-Cleeve in 
Gloucefterfhirc, fon of Robert, and brother to fir 
Thomas Bedingficid, of Darftiam in Suffolk ; and 
on December 24, 1615, it was fold by the aforefai'J 
Philip to colonel Horace Walpole, a younger fon of 
fir Edward Walpole, knight of the Bath, for 2200!. 
and an annuity of 6ol. clear, for life. 

- Here is only the manor-houfe remaining, which 
the colonel died feized of, Oclober 17, 1717, and the 
earl of Orford is now lord. Colonel Horace Wal- 
pole built fome additional rooms in front, but they 
have been pulled down lately, having been long out 
of ule,. and it is now a farm-houfe. 

Here is no church, and it appears to have been 
deftroyed before the reign of queen Elizabeth. 

DUNTON with DOUGHTON, or Doketon. 
Dunton, fo called as feated on a hill, was a beruite 
to the king's manor of Fakenham at the furvey, be*- 
longing to Harold in the Confeffor's time, and when 
he was king of England. In this account Doketon, 
or Doclon, is included as an hamlet, or part of the 
manor of Dunton, and fo not mentioned in the fur- 
vey, or Doomfday-book. 

King Henry II. is faid to have given this town, 
with Doughton and Kettlefton, to Ralph dc Hauvilc, 



to be held by petit' Jerjeant)- , the keeping of the 

king's hawks or falcons ; and in another record it is 

by keeping of two ger-falcons for the king. 

This Ralph was a knight, and had a fen fir Ralph, 

rote hiniielf fometimes De Hauvile, and fome- 

times De Dunton, according to die practice and cuf- 

tom of that age. 

In the ^d of king John, fir Ralph had lol. per 
ann. towards keeping the king's hawks ; and in the 
sd of Henry III. .Henry de Hauvile was lord, foil 
of fir Ralph ; in which year Ralph de Jernemue 
(Yarmouth) conveyed to him by fine all his right iri 
the lafiage of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Lincoln ; and 
in the following year, Gilbert and Ralph de Hauvile 
had a mandate to bring the king's ger-falcons in, 
their cuftddy fafe to court, figned by Hubert de 
Burgo the chief juftice. 

Hugh de Dunton impleaded, in the j4th of that 
king, Henry de Hauvile for taking his fwans fiord 
his pool in Doughton, and carrying them to Dun* 
ton ; and it was adjudged that he fhould make fatif- 
fadion, and permit Hugh to have the fifhery in the 
water of Doughton, from Hugo's mill to the mill 
of Henry. 

In the 30th of Edward III. fir James K 
with the king in Gafcoine, and had letters of pro- 
tection, and about this time is faid to have fold this 
Jordfhip to fir Robert Tyffour. 

Thomas Fermor, of Eafl-Bafham, efq. was in 
porfeffion of this manor in ihe time of queen Eliza- 
beth, and on September 8, 1558, fold it to Edward 
.Coke, attorney- general to the queen, afterwards lord 
chief juflice, 'from whom it defcended to the late 



lord Leiccfter; iince vvhofc deceafe the whole eftate, 
containing upwards of feventeen hundred acres, moft 
of it rich and fertile land, has been lett upon an ar- 
ticle for twenty-one years, at the rent of 68ol, 123. 
8d. per aim. It is fuppofed to be worth a rent of 
1 200!. or thereabouts. The article is at prefent 
contefted, and the validity of it doubtful. 

In the chancel a marble grave-Hone, In memory of 
Matthew Lancafier, of Dunton, Gent, eldejl fen and 
heir of Matthew Lancajlcr, defcended from John Lan~ 
cajler, the Jirjl of that race in England, and Jirji found- 
er of Lancq/ter, from whom ifjiied fifty, or more, Knights, 
Efqrs. and Gentlemen of Quality, fome dignified by their 
honorable marriages into noble families, the reft, or mojl 
of them, in their feveral marriages, equalising, if not 

exceedhig their own rank and pedigree, died , 


It is a little extraordinary we fliould know no 
more of this illuurious Lancafter than what is recited 
in the above pompous infcription ; efpecially as he 
lived in times of public commotion and public dan- 
ger, during the commonwealth of England, and died 
only two years before the reiteration of Charles II. 

The church of Dunton is a redory, but in the 
nature of a donative, the prefent redor, the Rev. 
Chriftopher Selby, relor of Rougham, prefe'nted by 
lord Lo veil (afterwards earl of Leicefler) in 1736, 
receiving only a certain itipend, and that very fmall. 
Was this modus, if we may call it fo, abolifhed, as 
thefe modi or moduffes have been lately fcouted and 
fet afide by the houfe of peers, the law lords, parti- 
cularly lord Camden and lord Mansfield, being 
ftrong againft them and their validity, this reclory 
of Dunton would become one of the moil confider- 
C able 


able and valuable livings in the county of Norfolk. 
'Tis wonderful, indeed, the clergy of Norfolk fit 
down fo tamely by thefe arbitrary encroachments 
upon the church : this is certainly the age to exert 
themfelves in, and to recover their long loft rights : 
there is ro fenfc in the forbearance of receiving 
half-a-crown for what is worth five pounds, efpeci- 
aliy when the laity are fo ready to harrafs them with 
aclions of non-refidence, forme4 upon an old obfo- 
lete acl of Henry VIII. which neither judge nor jury 
underftand. For can any thing be more abfurd or 
ridiculous than to profecute a clergyman for not 
refiding on a living where he has no houfe to 
rcfide in? or any thing more oppreffive, tyranni- 
cal, and favage, than to compel a clergyman by 
threats of profecution to build a houfe where one 
was wanting, who has always attended the duties of 
his parifli, Sunday and weekly, from a diflance of 
no more than four miles in the neighbourhood, and 
this peihaps in the decline of life? Yet we know 
that fuch things have happened in the memory of 
us all. We have been told that a new parfonage- 
houfe has been lately creeled at Lyng, near Lenwadc 
bridge, by the prefent worthy and ingenious reclor, 
the Rev. Mr. Baldwin, late of Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, perhaps his fole inducement might be to pre- 
vent litigious and malicious people, men of bad 
heads and bafe hearts, from bringing aclions upon 
the old ftatute of Henry VIII. againil him : for thitf 
at prefent remains a formidable battery againfl the 
church, and is always ready to be opened and played 
upon it by the engineers of Weft minfter-hall, when 
properly taken into pay. 

FAKENHAM, at the compiling of Doomfday- 
book, was in the king's hands. Harold was lord of 
it in king Edward's reign, and alfo when he was 


G A L L O W. *5 

Icing of England ; but being flain in the battle of 
Haflings r it came to William the Conqueror. Se- 
veral beruites belonged to it, or it extended into thefe 
following townfhips, &c. Althorpe, Thorpland, 
Stanhoe, Stibbard, Creak, Bafliam, Snoring, Ket- 
tleflon, and Pudding-Norton. 

Probably the river on which this town (lands, 
might, in the Saxon age, be called Fa ; Ken always 
denotes a flream of water or river: thus, Kennet, 
Kenfoi'd ; and frequently occurs, as Ham does for 
a dwelling. There are two towns in Suffolk called 
Fakenham, and Fakenhurfl in Kent. 

Some ancient records fav, that William II. called 
Rufus, gave this great lordflnp to Hugh Capcl, to 
be held by two knights fees, and that it defcended 
to his Ion Hugh, and grandfon Walter, and fo to 
his daughters. Others fay that his name was Hugh 
Symired, that he was enfeoffed of it by king Hen- 
ry I. and that on the death of Walter Symired his 
fon, it reverted or efcheated to the crown, and king 
John granted it to William de Albini, earl of Arun- 
del, who was lord about the yth of that king. 

In the 25th of Henry HI. Hugh earl of Arundel 
was iurnmoned 10 reflore to the king this lordfllip, 
as an efcheat belonging to the Normans. 

King Edward II. on the nth of October, in his 
3d year, gave it to Gilbert earl of Clare, who dy- 
ing without iifue in the yth of the faid king, it was 
granted in the following year to David de Strathbo- 
gie, earl of Athol, with the advowfon, till the lands 
of the laid earl in Scotland could be reftored to 

C z On 


On. the 8th of February, In the 5th of Edw. III. 
Robert de Ufford, earl of Suffolk, had a grant of 
it ; but foon after, about the 6th of that king, Ifa- 
bel, queen dowager, who died feifed of it in his gsd 

King Edward III. in his 46th year, June 25th, 
gave 7 this town to his fon John of Gaunt, duke of 
Lancafter, and on his death it came to his fon Hen- 
ry IV. king of England, and duke of Lancafter, and 
continued in the crown till granted, about the reign 
of king Charles I. to the Fcrmors of Bafham-Eaft, 
or the Calthorpes. 

Sir Chriflopher Calthorpe died feifed of it, and 
by his heirs it came to the L'Eftranges, fir Henry 
L'Eftrange, bait, being the late lord. 

Sir Henry Spelman is furprifed to find that a fa- 
Una, or falt-pit, fhould in Doomfday-book be men- 
tioned as a part of this lordfhip, being nine miles 
from the fea ; buT it is to be obferved, that this fa~ 
Una lay in fome place on the fea belonging to Ha- 
rold, and after to him when 'king : thus Ne&on, a 
town above twenty miles from the nearefl part of 
the fea, had a falina, which lay at Lynn. Harold 
was lord of Neclon. 

In the 3yth of Henry VIII. lands here belonging 
to Hempton priory were granted by the king, Sep- 
tember gth, to fir William Fermor, and the lady Ca- 
therine his wife. 

The church is a large regular pile, having a nave, 
a north and fouth ifle covered with lead, and a chan- 
cel covered with tiles ; at the weft a tower with eight 
bells, and is dedicated to St. Peter, 



Round the cover of the font is, Orate pro aia. 
Ade P owryte, et Alicie uxoris ejus, ei omnium benefaffpr. 
Jnor. qui ijlud opusjieri fccerunt in honore Dei omnipo- 
tentis. Amen. On the eight fides of the flone bafon, 
or font, are feveral religious emblems, viz. of an 
angel, ox, lion, and eagle, to reprefent the four 
evangelifts ; alfo that of the Trinity, a crofs, crown 
of thorns, the kings arms ; alfo on the pillar of it, 
the letter H or L, in an old character, and a crown 
over it, to reprefent it as being in the dutchy of 
Lancafter, or built in king Henry the Vlth's reign. 

On a black marble grave-flone, with the arms of 
Cakhorpe in a lozenge : Catherine, ^d daughter of 
Sir Chrijlopher Calthorpe, of EaJt-Barjliam, Knt. of 
ike Bath, and dame Dorothy, died igth of September, 
1717, aged^j. Near this a grave-ftone, In me- 
mory of James Calthorpe, Efq. eldejlfon of Sir Chrijto- 

pher, born June g, 1673, ^^ June 24, 1696. 

Alfo on a grave-flone ; quarterly, Calthorpe and 
Leukenor, argent, three chevronels, azure, impaling 
Spring, argent, on a chevron, ingrailed between three 
mafcles, gules, as many cinquefoils, or: In memory 
of Sir Chrijlopher Calthorpe, Knt. of the Bath, and the 
lajl furvivor of 68 knights, companions cf that honor- 
able order, eldejl fon of James Calthorpe, and Katherine 
his wife, daughter of Sir Edward Lukenor, of Denham 
in Suffolk, Knt. he died Febr. 7, 1717-18, aged 75 
years. Adjoining, one, In memory of dame Dorothy, 
daughter of Sir William Spring, of Pakenham in Suf- 
folk, Bart, wife of Sir Chrijlopher Calthorpe, from the 
igth of September, 1664, to the ith of February, 1715; 
mother cf 14 children, of which fiK daughters, and all 
thefons, deceajed before her. Agamft the north wall 
is a mural monument, with the arms of Calthorpe. 
Oppofite to this monument, on the fouth lide of 
the ifle : Lyeth the body of Chrijlopher Calthorpe, EJq. 
C 3 grandson 


grandfon cf Sir Chrijlopher CaWiorpe, Knt. of the Bath. 
The. lofs of a youth of fuch promifing parts and inge- 
nuity, and the la/I heir male of this elder branch of that 
anticnt family, can never be enough lamented. He died 
of a violent fever at the fchool of St. Edmunds, Bury, 
the 6(h day of November, 1720, aged thirteen years and 
one day, 

The following elegant Latin infcription is on an 
altar tomb in the church-yard, on the fouth fide: 
Hie jacet Johannes, quern prope dilecla fua Catherina 
Worlley, quos amor et ecdejia; feparavit, tt 
rerum, et hominum edax, temp us, et tumulus, rapuit. 
Hanc anno Domini 1665, estate am. Hunc anno 
Dni. 1695, fcnettute fracium vicit, fad Us viaoria. Ve- 
niet, veniet tamen dies, qua rap tarn dahit, qua viflum, 
invictum rtddet. Vis plura lector, fcias honejtis ortas pa- 
i entibus, et quondam hujus loci, nunc beatioris incohs. 

We find the church porch to be ufed as a maga- 
zine for the hundred of Gallow in 1602; and on 
the 2^d of June, in that year, tvventy-feven pounds 
of powder,- twenty-nine pounds, and twenty-four 
pounds to be lodged there, with quantities of matches, 
pick-axes, axes, Sec. 

Fakenham is now a large village, and a market 
town: the market .is held on a Thurfdav, and the 
merchants from the fea-port town of Wells, in its 
neighbourhood, conftantly attend to buy com of the 
farmers for exportation. It is a neat town, and well 
built. There is a court-houfe, which is now ufed 
as a fchool-room ; and occauonally concerts of mu- 
fic are held in it : it was intended for a feffions- 
houfe, the quarter-feffions of the peace being for- 
merly held alternately at Fakenham and Waifing- 
Jiam, but of late years at Walfindiam and Holt. 



The mafter and fellows of Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, are patrons of the living, which is a reclory 
of confiderable value. The prefent reclor is the Rev. 
Mr. Moore Meredith, fellow of Trinity, who was 
prefented Auguft 30, 1770. 

The river Wcnfum, which flows through the mea- 
dows of this town, lias been fuppofed to be capable 
of being made navigable to Norwich, and of courfe 
to Yarmouth, and fome meetings have been held 
for that purpofe; but whether through the contend- 
ing interefts of the proprietors of eftates through 
which the river glides, or the great expence attend- 
ing the work, all attempts to cany the fcheme into 
execution have unfortunately been dropped ; and 
this is the more furprifmg, after the fuccefs of the 
great deiigns projected and finrfhed by the prefent 
duke of Bridgewater, to his immortal honour, near 
Manchefter, and in other parts of this kingdom. 

ALTHORPE, was at the furvey a beruite belonging 
to the king's manor of Fakenham. 

This is now a fmall hamlet, lying about two miles 
to the north-eaft of Fakenham, and continues part 
of that lordfhip at this time. 

The inhabitants pay both great and fmall tithes to 
the reclor of Fakenham, and come to that church ; 
formerly we find there was a chapel dedicated to All 
Saints belonging to it, ilanding in 1419. 

In Edward I's reign, here were thirty houfes with 
their families, and they baptifed and buried here. 

THORPLAND. This alfo at the furvey was a be- 
ruite belonging to the king s lordfhip of Fakenham. 
G 4 This 


This little hamlet lies about two miles north of 
Fakenham ; and we meet with old evidences men- 
tioning Thorpland-hall, a fmall lordfhip, depending 
on that of Fakenham. 

In a record of the loth of Henry IV. it appears, 
that by an inquifition taken before the efcheator, fir 
John Le Strange, knt, it was found, that Roger de 
Lenne gave a mefluage, one hundred acres of land, 
ten of meadow and pafture, and los. rent, with a 
fold-courfe in Fakenham, Thorpland, and Althorpe, 
to be amortifed to Thorpland chapel, on condition 
to find a chaplain to pray for the foul of the faid 
Roger, which was done (as was faid) without the 

Afterwards the Fermors pofleffed Thorpland-hall, 
and Thomas Fermor, efq. held it in fee-farm of O . 
Elizabeth, as part of the dutchy of Lancafter, as did 
fir Chriflopher Calthorpe, who lived here in 1680, 
as appears from feveral of his letters here dated, and 
fo came to the L'Eilranges. 

The chapel of Thorpland was dedicated to St. 

On the 3oth of July, in the gth of king James I. 
the king grants to Francis Morice, of Weftminfter, 
efq. "and Francis Philips, of London, Gent, this 
chapel, then a barn, in the tenure of Jerome Alex- 
ander, Gent, and in the faid year, November 28, 
they conveyed it, with half an acre of land whereon 
it flood, to Robert Bumpftead, of Walfmgham Parva. 

The inhabitants of this hamlet go to Fakenham 
church, and pay great and fmall tithes to the reclor. 


G A L L O W. 31 

In the reign of Edward I. it is faid there were 
ninety parifhioners in this hamlet, when there was a" 
chaplain to ferve the cure, but no fepulture or bap- 
tifm belonged to it. 

lordfhip of William earl Warren, and held of him 
by Walter Toke, a great Saxon thane, who held it 
in the reign of the ConfefTor, and was difpofic-ffed at 
the conquefl 

The family of the Grancourts were early enfeoft 
of this manor. Walter, fon of William de Gran- 
court, was lord in the nth year of king John, when 
lie gave to the king a good hawk, to be exempted 
from being put on any affize, except between .barons. 
William de Belleniont gave to the king fixty marks, 
to have the cuftody of the faid Walter dc Gran- 
court, who was indicted for killing a man, 

William de Grancourt was lord in the 45th of 
Henry III. and in the 5 ad of that king, was a wit- 
nefs to feveral writs, (being then chief baron of the 
Exchequer) dated November 2 1 , directed to the flie- 
riff of Norfolk, and feveral other flieriffs, reciting, 
that whereas the king had great occafion for money, 
by reafon of his foreign and domellic affairs, that 
as he would avoid corporal punifhment, lots of his 
goods, and the king's anger, he fliould fpeedily pay 
four hundred marks of the money, due on the fum- 
mons of the laft Itcr of the juflices in that county, 
otherwife he fliould know that the king would' chaf- 
tife his neglecl; in fuch a manner, that his gunifhment 
fliould teach others how to perform the king's com- 

Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, Sec. in 
the 46th of Edward III. died poifelfed of it, and left 



two daughters and coheirs, Eleanor, afterwards wife 
to Thomas of Woodflock, duke of Gloucefler, 6th 
fon to king Edward III. and Mary, wife afterwards 
to Henry earl of Derby, who was king of England 
by the name of Henry IV. which Thomas, duke of 
Gloucefter, died lord in the 21 ft of Richard II. 
when it fhould have defccnded to Edmund Stafford, 
earl of Stafford, who married Ann, one of the two 
daughters, and at length fole heir to the faid duke, 
but Henry earl of Derby, Sec. pofiefled it in right 
of Mary his wife, and king Henry V. and VI. were 
jilfo lords. It remained in the crow r n till king Ri- 
chard III. in his firft year, granted it to Henry Staf- 
ford, duke of Bucks, on July 131!!, who being foon 
after beheaded (as a rebel againft the faid king) at 
Salifbury, it was again in the crown. 

On the yth of March, in the ift of king James I. 
fir Edward Coke had a grant to farm it at 37!. per 
ann. and the manor has been fome time in that fa- 
mily, the earl of Leicefler being the late lord. 

The church of Fulmondefton is dedicated to St, 
Mary. In the reign of Edward I. the prior of Caf- 
tleacre had tlie putronagc of this reclory, with the 
chapel of Croxton. 

The patronage of this living is at prefent in the 
mafter and fellows of Rennet or Corpus Chrifti col- 
lege in Cambridge. Dr. John Bamardifton, the late 
mafter of Bennet, was prefented by the college to 
it in, the year 1759. 

There is a manor in this parifii of Fulmondefton 
independent of the manor in the Holkham family, 
belonging to John Brown, efq. of Fulmondefton. 



CROXTON. In the reign of king Edward, this 
Was a village held by Toke, who being ejected, it 
was granted at the couqueft to the earl Warren. 

It had always the fame lords as FulmondePion: 
William de Grancourt held it in the gd of Henry 
III. and in that year William, fon of Roger de 
Huntiiigfeld, gave lands here to the priory of Caflle- 
acre, on his founding the monaflcry of Mendham 
in Norfolk. 

It is now, and has been for many years, account- 
ed as an hamlet to Fulmondeiion, and the earl of 
Leicefler died lord of it. 

On May 17, in the 3d year of Edward VI. fir 
William Fermor, knt. and lir Richard Fulmoclefton 
had a grant of the advowfon of Fulmondefton and 

The chapel, or church, is a {ingle pile, with a 
chancel covered with thatch, without a ftecple, and 
dedicated to St. John the Baptift ; and the prior of 
Caflleacre, as patron of the re&ory, was patron of 

The following very elegant infcription is on the 
north wall of the chancel, upon a mural monument. 
of white marble, with this fliield ; argent, a crofs, 
ingrailed gules ; creft, a buck trippant, proper, 

with a laurel branch in his mouth, and 

' P. M. S. Daniel Green, A. M. Coll. S. S. Trin. 
' apud Cantab,, quondam focius nuper eccles. dc 
' Fulmodeflun cum Croxton, annos plus quadragin-r 
' ta reclor, omni litcrarum geaere exornatus, fingu- 
4 lis provincial quadruplicis muneribus, in officinis 
'jure fuis pneclare funclus, facerdotis, paidogogi, 

' inaiiti 


mariti et patris, pofleris imitandum. Maximis in 
Deum pietatis, et optimis in hominem virtutis, li- 
matum officiis edidit exemplar. Et cum indigno 
de mundo bene diu meruiffet, magno perdignus 
honore, in ccelum, alumnos, conjugem et.fobolem, 
charus, cceleftem, fpretis mundanis benediclionem 
obnixe precatus, ultimum amicis dixit vale, et mi- 
gravit dcfletus. Interim autem Deo clementimmo, 
ingrato orbi et terrac fcecundse, ad refurreclionem, 
tandem aliquando fperans meliora, animam hu~ 
millime, famarri provide, corpus libenter, foris jux- 
ta depofitum, commifit, impertivit, reliquit, p. 
J. H. S. A. Dom. 1700. jEtat. 71.' 

CLIPSTON. This was an hamlet to Fulmondefton, 
held alfo by Toke, and after by the earl Warren. 
Walter de Grancourt was lord in the $d of Hen. III. 

of this town was a beruite to the king's manor of 
Ralnham, farmed of the king, at the furvey, by 

HALO AT UN, as this town was wrote, is compound- 
ed of Hal, or AL and Ga, which fignifies in Saxon, 
a town, all by the water. 

This lordfliip remained in the crown till king Ste- 
phen gave it to William de Cheyney. The faid 
king afterwards granted it to the Hauviles. 

It was poffefled by Roger Townfhend, formerly 
by fir John Snoring, knt. It came to the Townfhends 
probably on the marriage of the heirefs of Hauvile, 
with the manor alfo of Rainham, and fir Roger 
Townfhend died pofTofTed of it in 1551 : in this fa- 
mily it continues, the lord vifcount Townfliend be- 
ing the prcfcnt lord. 


the gth of Edward II. the. prior of St. Faith's was 
found to have a lordfhip here. 

King Henry VIII. in his 35th year, December 3, 
granted it to Robert Townfhend, ferjeant at law, 
and Gyles Townfhend, efq. together with the ap- 
propriated reftory of this church, and the advowfoii 
of the vicarage; and on the loth of that month 
they conveyed it to fir Roger Townfhend, with the 
patronage of the vicarage, in which family it remains. 

A family who afTumed their name from the town, 
was early enfeoffed of this, under the earl Warren. 
Alan de HeJgheton held part of a fee of the earl, 
about the i Sth of Henry III. and in the faid reign, 
Walter Bernardiflon had the third part of a fee. 

Sir William de Kerdefton died lord in the 36th of 
Edward III. 

The principal manor (late Payne's) was in the 
Townfliends ; and in the reign of Henry VIII. fir 
Roger Townfhend poffeffed it. It came, probably, 
into the family by the marriage of fir Thomas Town- 
fhend, in the reign of Hen. VI. with Agnes, daugh- 
ter of William Payne. 

The church is dedicated to All Saints. 

Lord vifcount Townfherid is patron of this vica- 
rage, with Rainham St. Martin, confolidated 1 748 ; 
and the prefent vicar, the Rev. Charles Allen, for- 
merly of Trinity college, Cambridge, was prefented 
to this church by the late lord Townfhend in the 
year 1 748. 


$5 H U N D R E D O F 

HEMPTON. William earl Warren was lord of 
this village at the furvey. 

The Britons called many rivers by the name of 
Anton, or Avon, and it is probable that the river by 
which this town flands was alfo fo called : and the 
Saxons retaining many of the' faid names, called them 
by corruption, or contraction, An and Han, thus 
Hampfhire, in Doomfday-book, is wrote Hantfhire, 
and thus South-Hampton, 8cc. 

Roer de St. Martin was lord in the rein of Hen- 

In the ^d of Edward III. fir John Bardolf and 
his parceners were found to hold one fee in this town, 
Waterden, Bafham, See. In the faid reign, Thomas 
de Mileham is faid to have bought a little manor 
here, which by the marriage of his daughter and 
heir, came to William Durrant, efq. 

John de Woolterton, of Bafham, &c. aliened in 
the ift of Richard II, the manor of Hempton, with 
lands in Waterden, to the prior of Damfend. 

On the gth of September, in the 3;th of Henry 
VIII. that king granted the prior's manor, with lands 
iri Toftrees, Sculthorpc, Fakenham, Pudding-Nor- 
ton, 8cc. to fir William Fermor and the lady Cathe- 
rine his wife. Thomas Fermor, efq. his nephew, 
held it in the 6th of Edw. VI. in capite, and fold 
it to Mr. Richard Benion, together with the priory. 

A church, dedicated to St. Andrew, was {landing 
in the isth of Henry VII. and was a reclory appro- 
priated to the prior)'. 


G A L L O W. S7 

In the 4th of Edw. I. Roger c!e St. Martin i in- 
pleaded the prior, on account of the patronage of 
this church, and the prior pleaded that William de 
St. Martin gave it to the priory. 

HEMPTON PRIORY, was at firft an hofpital, and 
aftenvards a priorv, founded by Roger de St. Mar- 
tin, in the reign of king Henry I. for black canons 
of the order of St. Auflin, and dedicated to St. 
Stephen. In the sd year of king John, the arch- 
deacon of Worcefter (probably John de Brancafter) 
gave a palfrey to the king, for a fair to be he^d year- 
ly, on Tuefday in Whitiun week, for the profit arid 
ufe of the brethren of the hofpital of St. Stephen, 
(as then called) by the caufey of Fakenham ; which 
fair is held at this time on Hempton Green, and in 
a confiderable one. 

There are two great fairs annually held on Hemp- 
ton Green, one on Whitfun-Tuefday, and the other 
on the 22d of November; in the latter of which 
great herds of Scots lean cattle are expofed to fale, 
which are bought up by the farmers to be fed and- 
fatted [upon their turnips, and are aftenvards drove 
to Smithueld market in London, to fupply the me- 
tropolis. This fair was firfl held in the i4tli of 
Edward I. 

John occurs prior about the i^th, and Richard 
occurs prior in the iyth and 2 8th of Henry VI. 
when, on the feaft-day of the conception of the 
bleffed virgin, he, with the convent, granted lands 
in Toftrces, under the common feal of the priory, 
in the chapter-houfe ; which was of an oblong form, 
(of red wax) as mod religious feals, and the image 
of St. Stephen flanding in an arch, between two .ta- 
pers, with this legend round it ; Sigillxm Commune 



Stephani de Hempton; and under this the prior, 
in an arch, kneeling. 

The fcite of this priory, with the reclory appro- 
priated, and the manor, was granted (a$ before-men- 
tioned) by king Henry VIII. to fir William Fermor, 
and the lady Catherine his wife; and Thomas Fer- 
mor, his nephew, conveyed them to Richard Beii- 
fon, Gent, in the 14th of Elizabeth, andBenfonto 
j\latthew Gofnald, Gent, and he left it in jointure 
to his wife. Henry Gofnald, his fon, fold the re- 
verfion to fir Thomas Holland, of whom Nicholas 
Timperly, Gent, bought it. 

George lord vifcount Townfhend is the prefent 

HOUGHTON, fo called from its fituation, which 
lignifies High Town, was a bcruite to the earl War- 
ren's manor of Rudham. It is alfo called Hough- 
ton near Harpley, to diflinguifh it from Houghton, 
near Walfingham, or in the Dale, in North Green- 
hoe ; and Houghton on the Hill, in South Greenhoe. 

From the family of Cheyneys it came by marriage 
to the Belets, and feems to be held under them firft 
by the De Haveltons, or Houghtons, and after by 
the Walpoles. 

This ancient family of Walpole take their name 
from the town of Walpole in- Marfhland, in Norfolk, 
where they were enfeoffed of lands belonging to the 
fee of Ely. Joceiine de Walpole was living at Wal- 
pole St. Peter in the reign of Richard I. and in the 
id of king John held the fixth part of a fee in Wif- 
bich, with half a knight's fee in Walpole, Walton, 
and Hackbich, with one hundred acres of marfli 



land in Wifbich, (paying los. rent per ann.) of the 
bifhop of Ely, and 6s. sd. rent in fait ; and Adam, 
de Walpole paid the fame rent in fait for lands, 8cc. 
Ralph, fon of Joceline, and Roger his brother, held 
a virgate and an half in Walpole, paying 55. 4d. 
and twenty- fix combs of fait, rent per ann. to the 
bifhop ; and Adam de Walpole held half a virgate 
in Walpole, paying 1 ss. 

Reginaldus de Walpole, who lived in the reign 
of Henry I. feems to be lineal anceftor of the pre- 
fent family, father of Richard de Walpole, who mar- 
ried Emma, daughter of Walter de Havelton, or 
Houghton, fon of William dc Havelton, (who was 
lord of this town) where this family of Walpole re- 
fided after the marriage; and Henry de Houghton 
had an intereft here about the end of Henry Ill's 

From Reginaldus defc ended fir John de Walpole, 
knt. who in the 14th of Henry III. on the king's 
failing into Britanny, had letters of protection, be- 
ing in the family or retinue of that king, was, by 
Ifabel his wife, father of fir Hemy de Walpole, knt. 
who held lands in Houghton, and was knighted by 
Edward I. About the ^oth of Henry III. he was 
a juflice of gaol delivery, and fold lands by deed, 
Jans date, to John de Spalding, (burgefs of Lynn) 
in Tyrington, and fealed, as by his deed appears, 
with a fefs, between two chevrons ; the arms of the 
prefent earl of Orford. He married Ifabcl, daugh- 
ter of fir Peter Fitz-Ofbert, of Somerley town, fitter 
and heir to fir Roger Fitz-Ofbert, and was living in 
the 14th of Edward I. when a fine was levied be- 
tween him and Afceline, daughter of Hugh Lound, 
or Lovard, of Houghton by Rudham : and at the 
faid time lived Ralph de Walpole, bifhop of Ely, 
D third 


third fon of fir John de Walpole, who after being 
bifhop of Norwich ten years, was tranflated to the 
fee of Ely, which he held only three years, and died 
March 20, 1302. 

In the 34th of Edward I. Ifabella de Walpole 
was found to be one of the coufins and heirs of Ro- 
ger Fitz-Peter Fitz-Ofbert, and John, fon of Alice 
Negoun, was the other: fhe was afterwards the wife 
of fir Walter Jerningham : fir Henry de Walpole 
was his fon. To him and Alice his wife, Mr. Ro- 
bert de Saham, and others, truftees, granted No- 
vember 30, in the 4th of Edward II. two parts of 
this lordfhip, with lands in Walpole and Walton, 
and all the lands purchafed by fir Henry, his father, 
of Afceline aforefaid, with the third part of this 
manor in reverfion, which Ifabel Jerningham, for- 
merly the wife of fir Henry his father, held in dower. 
Sir Henry died about the gth of Edward III. and 
Henry was his fon and heir. 

In the iith of that reign, William le Grofs, par- 
fon of the church of Bendy Parva in Effex, as a 
truftee, fettled this manor on Henry de Walpole and 
Maigaret his wife, who was daughter of fir Oliver 
le Grofs, of Croflwick. 

In the yth of Richard II. Henry de Walpole and 
Edmund his fon, were witneffes to a deed, and 
Henry was found to be coufin and heir of fir John 
le Grofs, knt. and as fuch releafed all his right in 
his manors: and in the 3d of Henry IV. Henry, 
fon of fir Henry de Walpole, held one fee of the 
dutchy of Lancafler, and one quarter of a fee of the 
lord Bardolf. In 1407, anno 9 Henry IV. he was 
living, and filled Henry de W'alpole, fenior, efq. 
and died about the soth of Henry VI. 



In the loth of Henry VI. Henry de Walpole, his 
eldeft fon, and Margery his wife, were poffefTed of 
ten marks rent ifTuing out of the manor of Hales- 
hall, near Loddon: fhe was daughter of fir John 
Harfike, knt. of Southacre, and by the name of 
Henry Walpole, efq. of Hoiighton, made his will 
on the feafl of the invention of the holy crofs in 
1442; "Gives to Catherine his daughter 40!. to- 
" wards her marriage, and the faid fum to Alice his 
" daughter, out of the profits of the manor of 
" Houghton ; to Martin his fon, under age, four 
" marks per ann. for life, and to have all the lands 
" which Catherine his father's fifter had of the gifts 
" of his father Henry, deceafed, Appoints Henry 
" his foil, Edmund Percy, William Marchale, efqrs. 
" his executors, to hold the manor of Houghton, 
" to perform his will, aild after the performance of 
" it, to Henry his fon, in-tail male, remainder to' 
" John his fon; to Henry his fon, his manor in 
" Walpole, with the appurtenances, and to John 
" his fon the manor of Iftede in Suffolk." He had 
three other fons, William, Martin and Thomas, and 
was buried according to his will in the church of St. 
Martin, of Houghton, by his wife ; and his will was 
proved June 27, 1442. Henry his eldeft fon, in the 
34th of Henry VI. fettled riis manor of Walpole 
on tru flees. He married an Etchingham, who bore 
azure, fretty, argent ; which arms, impaled by Wal- 
pole, were painted on the fcreens of this church, 
next to thole of Walpole and Harfike. 'Tis proba- 
ble that he died without iffue, his brother or fon, 
John de Walpole, efq, granting, in the the 2 1 ft of 
Edward IV. to William his brother, the manor of 
Iftede in Weybrede, Suffolk; and in the gth of 
Henry VII. an inquifition was awarded into this 
county, and that of Suffolk, on the death of John 
Walpole, efq. who was found to have died feifed of 
D 2 this 

42 H U N D R E D OF 

this manor, held of the manor of Wormegay bv 
knights fervice ; and Thomas was his fon and heir, 
by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Robert Shavvc, 
efq; of Derby. 

Thomas Walpole, gent, fon and heir of John 
Walpole, efq. late of Houghton, deceafed, gives in 
the isth of Henry VII. to Thomas Allen of Wal- 
pole, a meffuage, with fifteen acres of land, alfo fc- 
ven acres, and a falt-work, with all the grain be- 
longing lately to his father John Walpole, efq. ly- 
ing between the land of the chantrey of St. Mary, 
which his father had of the gift of John Walpole, 
late 1 of London, fon of Martin Walpole, late of 
Walpole, and the land of Robert Brandon, late oi 
Newton, efq. Thomas Huiiflon, gent, and Philip 
Sutton, efq. He married Joan, daughter of William 
Cobb, of Sandringham, efq. by whom he had John 
his eldeft fon, who died before him without iffue, 
Edward and Henrv. 

By the name of Thomas Walpole, of Lynne-Bi- 
fliop, efq. he made his will. May 24, 1512, where- 
in he gives " to his fon Henry all his purchafed 
" lands (his manor of Howeton to remain ten years 
" in his feoffees hands, to perform his will) and his 
" manor of Weybrede, five years after the deceafc 
" of his wife; his executors to receive the profits of 
" his lands, tenements, &c. in Walpole, four years 
" and an half, for the making of his tumbe, and 
" for making the north ylde of the parifli church of 
" Howetone, and that done, the faid lands, tene- 
" ments, Sec. in Walpole, to be delivered to the 
" brodirhood of the holy Trinity in Lynne-Bifhop, 
" to the intent that the alderman andfkyvens of the 
" faid gylde fhall find and pay yerly eight marks to 
<: the wages of an abil prill to fynge mefs perpetu- 

_" ally 


" ally for his fowl, and the fowl of Jone his wyfe, 
" in the chapel of our Lady, in the chapel of St. 
" Nicholas in Lynne. And more, I will that the 
" faid prefle fhall b.e at commons and lodging in 
" the college of the holy Trinity, fo that he be or- 
" dered by the flatutes of the place, and to have 
" 6s. 8d. of the faid college yerly ; and if the faid 
" alderman and fkyvens, or fucceffors, refufe to per- 
" form the fame, fee. I will the faid lands, Sec. to 
" be fold bv my executor Jeff. Cobbe, my brother- 
" in-law, and my fon Henry Waipolc." This was 
proved April 7, 1 ', 13. He was found to die Janu- 
ary 24 following, Edward his fon being then aged 30. 

Edward Walpole, efq. his eldeft fon, married 
Lucy, daughter of lir Terry Robfert, filler of fir 
John Robfert of Syderftonc, and heir to Amy, firft 
wife to fir Robert Dudley, the great earl of Leicefler 
in queen Elizabeth's time, daughter and heir of fir 
John Robfert. 

Edward was buried January 2, 1558, and Lucy 
Feb. 1, 1559, at Houghton. Tl>ey had three fons 
and one daughter. 

John Walpole, fon and heir of Edward and Lucy, 
married Catherine, daughter and heir of William 
Calybut of Coxford, gent, and was buried in Hough- 
ton church, March 29, 1585, and Catherine Sep- 
tember 25, 1612, and left Edward Walpole, efq. his 
fon and heir, who was attainted for treafonable prac- 
tices at Rome, and died abroad without iffue, being, 
as fome fay, a Romifli prieft. Calybut Walpole, 
efq. was his twin-brother and heir, who by Eliza- 
beth, daughter and coheir of Edmund Bacon, of 
Heffet in Suffolk, efq. had feveral children, and died 
May 4, 1646. 

P3 TO 


To this Calybut, John Walpole, efq. his father, 
by his will dated Feb. 28, in the 3<jth of Elizabeth, 
gives the manor of Syderftone, with that of Bircham- 
Newton, after the deceafe of the right honourable 
Robert earl of Leicefler, with his fold-courfe and 
lands which he had of Roger Townfhend, efq. in 
Bircham-Magna, and all the fheep going on the fame. 
Catherine his wife to have all his lands in Walpole 
and Walton, to her and her heirs, towards the pre- 
ferment of his daughter's marriage, and to hold the 
manor of Houghton for life. Edward, his eldeft foil 
and heir, (as above) was indicled in the King's Bench 
for fuppofed' treafon, (in the 3oth of Elizabeth, 
March 10) done at Rome; and on May 26, 3gdi of 
Elizabeth, again indicled. After this on Auguft 3, 

in the faid year, the queen granted to Huffey 

and Goodman, the forfeited lands of Edward, 
and they grant them, Sept. 2yth following, to Ca- 
lybut his brother. 

Robert Walpole, efq. fon and heir of Calybut, 
married Sufan, daughter of fir Edward Barkham, 
knt. lord mayor ol London, and died May I, 1663, 
and Sufan Nov. 9, 1622, and buried at Houghton. 

Sir Edward Walpole, knight of the Bath, and 
member in parliament for King's Lynn, fucceeded 
him as fon and heir; and by Sufan his wife, daugh- 
ter and coheir of fir Robert Crane, ban. of Chilton 
in Suffolk, left at his death, March 9, 1668, Robert 
Walpole, efq. his fon and heir, member of parlia- 
ment for Caftle-Rifing, and deputy lieutenant of 
Norfolk, who took to wife Mary, only daughter and 
heir of fir Jeffrey Burwell, knt. of Rougham in 
Suffolk, by whom he had nineteen children. 



r ^i77<*.fa MJfrrfh yc 


Robert Walpole, efq. his third fon and only fur- 
v'ving heir, was born Aug. 26, 1674, fucceeded to 
the eftate of Houghton in November 1700, 

He was firft chofen member for Lynn-Regis the 
fame year, and ferved in parliament for that bo- 
rough till 1742, excepting one feffions (1711). 

In 1705 he was a lord commiftioner of the admi- 
ralty, and in 1707 fecretary of war; likcwife trea- 
furer of the navy, January 1709. In the fame year 
he was chofen one of the managers in the houfe of 
commons, to make good the articles of impeachment 
againfl the Rev. Dr. Sachcveral. 

On the change of the miniftry in 1710, fir Robert 
was removed from his employments during oucen 
Anne's reign; but George I. on his acceffion to the 
throne, made him paymafter of the guards and gar- 
rifons at home, and of the forces abroad in 1714. 
He w r as fworn of his majefVy's privy-council, Oct. 
i, 1715, and conftituted firft lord commifTioner of 
the navy, and chancellor of the exchequer, the loth 
of the fame month ; both which he refigned in April 
1717, but held the fame offices again, April 4, 
1721. May 27, 1725, he was invefted with the en- 
ligns and dignity of Knight of the Bath and on 
the 26th of May, 1726, was elected a Knight Com- 
panion of the noble order of the Garter. In 1727, 
he was chofen a govcrner of the Charter-houfe ; and 
in July 1738, unanimoufly elected high fteward of 
Lynn-Regis. He was feveral times appointed one 
of the lords juftices during his majefty's ftay in 

In December 1741, he refigned all his places at 

court, and was created, Feb. g following, Earl of 

D 4 Orford 


Orford in Suffolk, Vifcount and Baron Walpole of 
Houghton in Norfolk. His lordfhip died, much 
affli&ed with die ftone, in the yoth year of his age, 
at his houfe in Arlington-ftreet, London, on Sunday 
March 18, 1746. 

By his firft lady, Catherine, daughter of John 
Shorter, efq. of Bybrook in Kent, (fon .and heir of 
fir John Shorter, knt. lord mayor of London) who 
died Auguft 20, 1737, his lordfhip had 

i. Robert, created baron Walpole June 10, 1723, 
In confideration of his father's great fervices, the an- 
tiquity of his family, &c. and took his place in the 
houfe of lords accordingly. He had the dignity of 
the'military order of the Bath conferred on him by 
George II. was afterwards ranger and keeper of 
Richmond park, clerk of the pells, lord lieutenant 
and cuftos rotulorum of the county of Devon, mafler 
of the harriers and foxhounds, and auditor of the 
exchequer. He married Margaret, daughter of Sa- 
muel Rolls, of Heynton in Devonfhire, efq. by 
whom he had George, the prcfcnt earl of Orford. 
She died the 2oth of Auguft, i 737, and her young- 
eft fon, the honourable Horatio Walpole, erected a 
monument in Henry the Seventh's chapel, Weftmin- 
fler abbey, with the following infcription : 


G A L L O W. 47 

To the Memory 


Eideft Daughter of John Shorter, Efq; 
Of Bybrook, in Kent, 


Firft Wife of Sir Rober Walpole, 
Afterwards Earl of Orford. 


Her youngeft fon, 
Confecrates this Monument. 

She had Beauty and Wit 

Without Vice and Vanity; 

And cultivated the Arts 

Without affectation. 

She was devout, 

Tho 1 without Bigotry to any Se^l^ 

And was without Prejudice to any Party, 

Tho' the Wife of a Minifter ; 

'Whofe Power (lie efleem'd, 

But when fhe could employ it 

To benefit the Miferable, 
Or to reward the Meritorious. 

She loVd a private Life, 

Tho' born to fliine in public: 

And was an Ornament to Courts, 

Untainted by them. 
She died Auguft 20, 1737. 


It is fomewhat remarkable that the two ladies of 
fir Robert, firft and fecoiid, were both buried at 
Houghton within the year. 

2. The right honourable fir Edward Walpole, of 
Frogmore near Windfor, Knight of the Bath, clerk 
of the pells, and mailer of the office of pleas in the 
exchequer, and one of his maj city's honourable 
privy council in Ireland. 

3. The honourable Horatio Walpole, of Straw- 
berry-hill, near Twickenham in Middlefex, fellow 
of the royal and antiquary fociety ; ufher of his 
majefty's exchequer, comptroller of the pipe office, 
and clerk of the eitreats in the cqurt of exchequer. 

Sir Robert Walpole's fecond lady was Maria, 
daughter and heirefs of Thomas Skirfet, of Dover- 
ilreet, elq. who died June 4, 1738, by whom his 
lordfhip h?d lady Mary, married to Cha. Churchill, 
efq. Ion of the late lieutenant-general Churchill, 
who ferved under the duke of Marlborough in Flan- 
ders and Germany, in the reign of queen Anne. 

Robert, the fecond earl of Walpole, died April i, 
1751, and was fucceecled by his only fon George, 
the prefent earl, \vhofe hereditary and temporary ti- 
tles are as follow: Earl of Orford, Vifcount and 
Baron Walpole of Houghton, Ranger of St. James's 
and Hyde Parks, and a Lord of his Majefty's Bed- 
chamber; Lord Lieutenant and Cuftos Rotulorum, 
and Vice- Admiral of the County of Norfolk, and of 
the City and County of Norwich ; Colonel of the 
Norfolk Regiment of Militia, a Brigadier-General, 
and High Steward of the Corporations of Great 
Yarmouth and Lynn-Regis. 



In the year 1722, fir Robert began the foundation 
of a moft noble hall, or palace, of free ftone, which 
he finifhed, and furnifhed in a moft elegant tafte, 
and fumptuous manner. 

HOUGHTON-HALL is enriched with the moft valu- 
able collection of pictures to be feen, perhaps, in 
any houfe in England. 

The common approach to the houfe is by the 
fouth end door, over which is engraved this in- 
fcription : 

Robertus Walpole 

Has jdes 
Anno S. M.D.CC.XXII. 


Anno M.D.CC.XXXV. 

At the entrance on the right hand is the breakfaft 

Over the Chimney. 

1. Hounds,^ (a very good picture) by Wooton, 

On the oppofitejide. 

2. The return of the prodigal fon, by Pordenone. 
A very dark picture ; the architecture and landfcape 
very good. It belonged to George Villiers, the great 
duke of Buckingham. 

Over one door. 

3. Sir Edward Walpole, grandfather to fir Ro- 
btnt : he was made Knight of the Bath at the coro- 
nation of king Charles II. and made a great figure 
in parliament. Once on a very warm debate in the 
houfe, he propofed an expedient, to which both par- 


ties immediately concurred ; on which Waller, the 
poet, moved that he might be fent to the Tower, 
for not having compofed the heats fooner when he 
Jiad it in his power. He married Sufan, daughter 
to fir Robert Crane, and is buried in Houghton 
church, with this plain epitaph, 

Here lies SirEdward Walpole. 

Ctfteraji qutfras, narrabit faina Juperjles. 

Over the other door. 

4. Robert, fon to fir Edward, and father to fir 
Robert Walpole. 

Over the Jcrutoire. 

5,, Horatio, firfl lord Townfliend, and grandfather 
to the prefent lord. 

Over the glafs. 

6. Old Harrold, gardener to fir Robert, by John 

Oppcjite to the chimney. 

7. A greyhound, half length, by Old Wyck, 
Wooton's matter. 

$. An horiVs head, a fine {ketch, by Vandyke. 

Oppojite to the window. 

g. Concert of birds and fowls, bv Mario di Fiori. 
A very uncommon picture ; for he feldom painted 
any thing but flowers. It belonged to Gibbins the 

In the Dining Parlour. 

Over the chimney. 

i. His excellency Horatio Walpole. brother to fir 
Robert, three quarters length, by Richardfon. He 
was ambaffador in France and Holland, cofferer of 
the houfhold, and, laftly, one of the tellers of the 
exchequer. He was created lord Walpole of Wool* 
tmon by George II. in the year 1756. 



Oppofite to the chimney. 

2. Charles lord vifcount Townfhend, fecretary of 
ilate, by fir Godfrey Kneller. 

3. Dorothy lady Townfliend, his fecond wife, by 

On one fide. 

4. Sir Charles Turner, one of the lords of the 
.treafury: he married to his fir ft wife Mary, eldefl 

lifter to fir Robert Walpole, three quarters length, 
by Richardfon. 

5. Sir Robert Walpole (when fecretary at war to 
queen Anne) and 

6. His lady ; both by Jervafe. 

On the other fide, 

j. The battle of Conftantine and Maxentius; a 
copy, by Julio Romano, of the famous picture in 
the Vatican, which he executed after a defign of Ra- 
phael. The ftory is thus told by Zofimus, hift. 
lib. 2. " Tantis cum ambo copijs iiiflructi effent, 
&c. Tignis autem minime fuftinentibus earn vim one- 
ris, adeoq; ruptis, cum castera multitudine MaxefiH 
tius etiam fluminis impetu abripiebatur." 

Over doors. 

Four ladies belonging to the Walpole family, viz. 

8. Ann Walpole, aunt to fir Robert Walpole. 
She was wife to Mr. Spelman, of Narborough in 

g. Dorothy Walpole, ditto, died unmarried. 

10. Mary Walpole, ditto, married to John Wil* 
fon, cfq. of Leicefterfhire. 

11. Elizabeth Walpole, ditto, fecond wife to James 
Hoftc, efq. of Sandringham in Norfolk. 



The hunting hall.' At the upper end. 

1. An hunting match, by Wooton This picture 

reprefents three harriers, formerly belonging to lord 
Orfoid, afterwards to the lare duke of Cumberland, 
and three buck-hounds belonging to king George II, 
Confidcrablc wagers were laid on both fides, but the 
latter were remarkably defeated < 

Oppofile to it. 

2. An hunting piece, by Wooton. Sir Robert 
Walpolc is in green, Col. Charles Churchill in the 
middle, and Mr. T. Turner on one fide. Sir Ro- 
bert is drawn upon a white horfe which formerly be- 
longed to the Pretender, and was taken in the re- 
bellion in 1715. 

Oppojitc to the chimney. 
3> Sufannah and the two elders, by Rubens. 

Through the arcade you come at the coffee-room, 
at the upper end of which is, 

1. Galatxa, by Zimeni. 

Oppofite to it. 

2. Jupiter and Europa, after Guido, by Pictro da 

Over the chimney. 

3. A landfcape, with figures dancing, by Swani- 

On the right hand of the chimney. 

4. Horatio Walpole, uncle to fir Robert, and 
commonly called the Black Colonel: he married 
lady Ann Olbome, daughter of Thomas, firft duke 
of Leeds, and widow of Robert Coke, efq. of Hoik- 
ham in Norfolk, grandfather to the late earl of Lei- 


G A L L O W. 53 

On the left hand. 

5. Galfridus Walpole, efq. younger brother to 
lir Robert, and one of the general poftmafters ; by 
Richardfon. He was captain of the lion in queen 
Anne's wars, and was attacked by five French (hips 
on the coaft of Italy againft three Englifh, two of 
which deferted him ; but his own he brought off, 
after fighting bravely, and having his arm (hot offi 

In the Bed-chamber. 
i. The converfion of St. Paul, by Paul Veroneze. 

Upon the grand floor ; in the Anti-chamber. 

i. A landfcape, in the ftile of Claude Lorrain, 
by Wooton. 

The blue daraafk Bed-chamber : it is hung with 

Over the chimney. 

i. Sir Robert Walpole, afterwards earl of Orford, 
m his chancellor's robes, by Vanloo. He was prime 
minifler to king George I. and king George II. 

Ouem neque Tydides, nee Larijfe us Achilles, non Anni 
Domnere decem. 

Over three doors. 


3. \ Landfcapes, by Wooton. 

The Drawing Room. 

'Tis hung with yellow cafFoy. Over the chimney 
Is' a genteel buft of a Madona in marble, by Ca- 
millo Rufconi : above is carving by Gibbins, gilt ; 
and in it a fine pi&ure by Vandyke. 

i. Of 


1. Of two girls, daughters of lord Whartoti. . 
'thefe came out of the Wharton colle&ion, with alt 
the other Vandykes in this room, and fome others 
now at lord Orford's at the Exchequer. 

On the right hand of the chimney. 

2. King Charles I. in armour, by Vandyke. 
fey a miftake both the gauntlets are drawn for the 
right hand. 

3. Henrietta Maria of France, his queen, by ditto. 

On the left hand of the chimney. 

4. Philip lord Wharton, by ditto. 

5. Archbifhop Laud, by ditto, The univerfity 
of Oxford once offered the Wharton family 400!. for 
this piclure. 

Over the door. 

6. lord chief baron Wandersford, by ditto. 
He was head of the Caftle-Comer family. 

Over the fettee. In the center. 

7. Lord Wai pole, the fecond earl of Orford, by 

On tlu right hand. 

8. Sir Edward Walpole, fecond fon to fir Robert, 
by ditto. 

On the left hand. 

g. Horatio Walpole, efq. third fon, by ditto. 
On the right hand. 

10. Lady Cholmondely, (not finifhed) a profile 
Jketch, byjervafe. 

On the left hand. 

11. Lady Maria Walpole, by Pond, (now lady- 
Maria Churchill). 



On the fide next the bed-chamber. 

12. A fleeping Bacchus, with nymphs, boys, and 
animals, by Luca Jordano. 

Cher the door. 

15. Jane, daughter of lord vifcount Wenman, by 
Vandyke. The hands, in which Vandyke excelled, 
are remarkably fine in this pi&ure. 

On the oppofite fide. 

14. The judgment of Paris, companion to Nd. 
1 2, by Luca Jordano. There is an odd diffufion of 
light all over this picture. The Pallas is a remark- 
able fine figure. 

Over the door, 

15. Lady Wharton, by Vandyke. 

The cieling is exactly taken, except with the alte- 
ration of the paternal coat for the ftar and garter, 
from one that was in the dining-room of the old 

The Saloon, 

The hanging is crimfon (Towered velvet. On the 
great table is an exceeding fine bronze of a man and 
woman, by John of Boulogne ; given by Horace 
Mann, efq. king's refident at Florence. 

On the other tables are two vafes of oriental 

Over the chimney. 

l. St. John baptifing Chrifi, by Albano. His 
large pieces are feldom good ; but this is equal, both 
for colouring and drawing, to any of his mailer Ca- 
racci, or his fellow fcholar Guido. It belonged to 
Mr. Lawes, firft minifter to the regent of France. 

E Over 


Over the door on the right hand. 

2. The adoration of fhcpherds, by Morellio'. 
All the light comes from the child. 

Over the door on the left hand. 

3. The affumption of the Virgin, its companion, 
by Morellio. 

On thejlde ne\t the Drawing-room, 

4. The ftoning of St. Stephen, by Le Sceur. 

A capital picture : it contains nineteen figures, and 
is remarkable for exprefling a mofl maflerly variety 
of grief. The faint, by a remarkable anacronilm, 
is in the habit of a modern prieft at high mafs. 

Over the floor on the right hand. 

5. Daedalus and Icarus, by Le Brun, The flory 
is taken from Ovid. 

Over the door on the left hand. 

6. The Cyclops at their forge, by Luca Jordano. 
This belonged to Gibbins. 

On the fide next the Hall, on the right hand cf the doer. 

A capital picture. 

j. Mary Magdalen wafhing ChrifVs feet, by Ru- 
bens. Our Saviour is reprefentcd at an entertain- 
ment given him at the houfe of Simon die Pharifec ; 
three Apoflles arc drawn with him, four Pharifees, 
and feveral attendants, men and women; in all 
fourteen figures, large as life. 

On the left fide of the dcor. 

A capital picture. 

8. Holy Family, with a dance of angels, by 
Vandyke. This pi&ure was twice fold for 1400!. 



fmce that it belonged to the houfe of Orange. The 
princefs of Friefland (mother to the prefent prince, 
of Orange) fold it during his minority, when fir Ro 
bert bought it. It coft him ipool. 

The fix uppcrmoft pi&ures, three of which are on 
the left hand of the door, viz. 

9. Holy Family, (in a round figure) by Cantarini. 
The child is learning to read. 

10. Ditto, by Titian. A very fine piclure. 

1 1 . Simeon and child, by Guido. From Monfi- 
cur de Morvile's collection. 

On the right hand, 

1 2. Virgin and Child afleep, by Aug. Caracci. 

13. Old woman giving a boy cherries, by Titian. 
'Tis Titian's fon and nurfe. 

14. Holy Family, by Andrea del Sarto. There 
two laft were from the colletlion of the marquis 
Mari at Genoa. 

The deling, 

Apollo driving his chariot of the fun, in chiaro 
ofcuro, by Kent. 

The Carlo Maratt Room. 

The hangings are "green velvet : there is in it a 
table of lapis lazuli, and at each end are two fconces 
of maflive filver. 

Over the chimney. 

i. Pope Clement IX. of the Rofpigliofi family J 
a moft admirable portrait, by Carlo Maratti. This 
picture was bought by Jervafe, the painter, out of 
-the Arnaldi palace at Florence. Nothing can be 
finer than this : the boldnefs of the pencilling is as 
E 2 remarkable 


remarkable as his delicacy in his general piclures,. 
Carlo Maratti was fo pleafed with this pi&ure, and 
it was fo much admired, that he did feveral of them. 
One in particular is at lord Burlington's at Chifwick. 
It coft three hundred guineas. 

The four uppermod pictures on the chimney fide, 

2. The pool of Bethefda. 

3. Chrift's feraion on die mount. 

4. Apollo and Daphne. 

5. Bacchus and Ariadne ; all by Giofeppe Chiari, 

a fcholar of Carlo's. The befl of the four, the 

Bacchus, feems to be taken from the Apollo Belve- 
dere ; as the ideas of the Ariadne and the Venus 
evidently are from the figures of Liberality and Mo- 
deny in the famous pi&ufe of Guido's, in the col- 
lection of the marquis del Monte at Bologna. There 
are four piclures about the fize of thefe in the Spada 
palace at Rome, by the fame hand : two jult the 
fame with thefe two lafl ; the other two are likewiie 
itories out of the Metamorphofes. 

6. The marriage of St. Catherine, by Carlo Ma- 

7. The Affumption of the Virgin, by ditto. She 
has a deep blue veil all over her. 'Tis on the left 
hand of the chimney. 

8. Its companion, ditto, on the right hand, by 
Nicholo Beretoni. 

g. The Virgin and Jofeph, with a young Jefut, 
in the manner of his mailer Andrea Sacchi, by Car- 
lo Maratti. 

At the end next thejaloon. 
In the center, a capital picture. 

10. Galataea fitting with Acis, Tritons and Cu- 
pids, by C. Maratti. 


G A L L O W. 59 

Under the Galatsea. < 

il. The Virgin, our Saviour, and St. John, (un- 
fmifhed) large as life, by C. Maratti. 

On the right hand, 

1 2 f Flight into Egypt, by Morellio, In the man- 
ner of Vandyke. 

13. The head of St. Catherine, (profile) by Guido 

14. St. Coecilia with four angels playing on mu- 
fical iniirumerits, by C, Maratti. This was in the 
Pallavicini collection. 

Over the door. 

15. A naked Venus and Cupid, in a very parti- 
cular flile, by G. Maratti. 

On the left hand of the fame fide. 

16. A crucifix, by Morellio. 

1 7 . The head (with a glafs before it) in a great 
fUle, by Raphael. 

1 8. Virgin teaching the child to read, by C. Ma- 
ratti.- Giofeppe Chiari has executed this thought 
in the Barberini palace at Rome; but with alterati- 
ons. In this the Virgin is in red, Giofeppe's is in 
white ; and inflead of St. John, St. Elizabeth, and 
the angels, he has drawn a cardinal reading. This 
was alfo in the Pallavicini colle<ftion. 

At the end next the bedchamber. 
In the center. 

19. A capital picture, companion to Galataea, viz. 
the Judgment of Paris, king Priam's fon, by Carlo 

Maratti. C. Maratti was then eighty- threey ears 

old; yet has none of the rawnefs of his latter pieces. 
It came out of the Pallavicini collection. The earl 

E 3 of 


of Straffbrd has a veiy good copy of it by Gio- 
feppe Chiari. 

Under it, " 

20. The Virgin Mary, our Saviour and St. John, 

by Nicholo Beretoni, Carlo's beft fcholar. This 

picture is equal to any of his mailer's. The grace 
and fweetnefs of the Virgin, and the beauty and 
drawing of the young Jefus, are incomparable. 

On the right hand. 

21. St. John the Evangelift, by C. Maratti. 

22. Diana, in crayons, by Rofalba. 

23. The prefentation of the Virgin in the Tern-. 

pie, by Luca Jordano. This and its companion 

(the birth of Chrill) are finifhed defigns for two large 
pictures, which he painted for the fine church of the 
Madonna della Salute at Venice. 

On the left hand. 

24. Two faints worfliipping the Virgin in the 
clouds, by C. Maratti. 

25. Apollo, in crayons, companion to No. 22, by 

26. The birth of Chrift, by Luca Jordano. 

Over the door. 

27. Hercules and Omphale, by Romanclli. 

The deling. 
Ornaments in chiaro ofcuro, by Kent. 

The Velvet Bed-chamber. 

The bed is of green velvet, richly embroidered 
and laced with gold; the ornaments defigned by 
Kent. The hangings are tapeftry, reprefenting the 
loves of Venus and Adonis, after Albano. 


G A L L O W. 61 

Over thejirjl door. 

1. A landfcape, by Griffier. 

Over the chimney. 

2. Alexander hanging up a garland upon the tomb 
of Achilles, by Le Mer. Vid. Q ? Curtius, sd book, ' 
4th chap. The head of Alexander is taken from 
his medals ; the figures are in the true antique tafte, 
and the buildings fine. 

Over the other door. 

3. A fea-port, by Greffier. 

The deling. 
Aurora rifing, chiaro ofcura, by Kent. 

The DrefTmg-room. 

This room is hung with very fine gold tapeflry, 
after pictures of Vandyke. There are whole-length 
portraits of king James I. queen Anne his wife, 
(daughter of Frederick II. king of Denmark) Charles 
the Fir ft and his queen, and Chriflian IV. king of 
Denmark, brother to queen Anne. They have fine 
borders of boys, with feftoons, and oval pidures 
of the children of the royal family. ' 

At the upper end of this room is a glafs-cafe fill- 
ed with a large quantity of filver philegree, which 
belonged to Catherine lady Walpole, 

Over the chimney. 

The books of the Sybils found in the tomb of 
Numa Pompilius, by Le. Mer. The painter has 
miftakcn and reprefented a large number of books ; 
whereas the hiftorics fay, that when the Sybil offer- 
ed them at firft to Tarquinius Superbus, there were 
but nine ; and on his twice refufing them, flie burnt 

E 4 fo, 


fix, and then made him pay the firft demanded price 
for the remaining three, which were kept in a ftonc 
vault with the greateft care, and only confulted upon 
extraordinary occafions by two of the nobility, who 
had the charge of them. There is a remarkable 
anacronifm in this picture : the painter has thrown 
in among the buildings the Septizonium Severi ; 
now Sylla's diclatorfhip began in the year 672 U. C. 
and Severus did not begin his reign till 945 U. C. 
or 1 93 A. D. 

Some authors fay there were only three at firft ; 
two of which were committed to the flames by her 
that fet them up to fale to Tarquin, who not com- 
ing up to the price of the three volumes, bought the 
third for as much as was demanded for all three. 

The trueft account is nine, vid. Prideaux's Con~ 
neclion, vol. iv. .page 880. 

"The pieces of Dogs over doors. 
2 ' ( Byjervafe. 

The deling. 
Spring with flowers, chiaro ofcuro, by Kent. 

The Embroidered Bed-chamber. 

The bed is of the fineft Indian needle-work. His 
highnefs Francis duke of Lorrain, afterwards Grand 
Duke of Tufcany, and fmce Emperor, lay in this 
bed, which flood then where the velvet one now is. 

Over the chimney. 

i . Holy Family, large as life, by Nicholo Pouffin. 
- Tis one of the moft capital pictures in this col- 
lection. The airs of the heads, and the draperies, 
are in the fine tafte of Raphael ; and the antique 



Elizabeth's head, is taken from a flame of an old 
woman in the Villa Borghefe at Rome. 

Cattle over doors. 

2 ' ' ~ Rofa de Tivoli. 


The deling. 

Luna and Endymion, chiaro ofcuro, by Kent. 

In the Cabinet. -Over the chimnev, 

A celebrated picture of Rubens's wife, by Van- 
dyke.- -She is in black fattin, with a hat on. 

On the Jide oppofite to the chimney. 

1. Rubens's family, by Jordaens of Antwerp. 
Rubens is playing on a lute: his firft wife is fitting 
with one of their children on her lap, and two others 
before her. There are feveral other figures and ge- 
nii in the air. This picture belonged to the duke 
of Portland. 

2. A winter piece, by Giacomo Baffan. 

3. A fummer piece, by Lionardo Baffan. 

4. Friars giving meat to the poor, by John Miel. 

5. St. John, by Carlo Dolci". 

6. Dobfon's father's head, by Dobfon. 

7. Head of Innocent X. by Velafco. Velafco 

was fent by the king of Spain to draw this Pope's 
piclure. When the Pope fent his chamberlain to 
pay him, he would not receive the money, faying, 
the king his malter always paid him with his own 
hand. In which the Pope humoured him too. 
This Pope was of the Pamphilii family, was reck- 
oned the uggliefl man of his time, and was raifed to 
the Papacy by the intrigues of his lifter-in-law Don- 
na Olimpia, a raofl beautiful woman, and his mif- 

8. Boy 


8. Boy with a flute, by Cavalier Luti. 

9. A banquet ; companion to No. 4, by John 

10. Dying officer at confeffion, by Bourgognone. 
Very bright colouring and fine exprei^ion, 

11. Boors at cards, (fmall) by Tenicrs. 

12. Cluiil in the fcpulchre, by Giacomo Baflan. 
A very particular piclure. The lights are laid on 
fo thick, that it fee ins quite baiTo relievo. 'Tis a 
fine defign for a great altar-piece which he has paint- 
ed at Padua. This picture was a prefent from lord 
Waldegrave, embaflador at Paris. 

13. Virgin with the child aileep, by Sebaflian 

14: Virgin and child, painted on black marble, 

by Morellio. It was given by Benjamin Kcenc, 

eiq. embaffador at Madrid. 

15. Lanclfcapc, with officers, by Bourgognone. 

16. Holy family, by Rottenhamer. 

17. Judgment of Paris, by And. Schiavone. 

i 8. Chrift in the fepulchre, by Parmcgiano.- - 
This is one of the fined pictures he ever painted ; 
and for which there is a tradition that he was knight- 
ed by a duke of Parma. There are eleven figures: 
the expreffion, the di awing and colouring, the per- 
fpeclive and chiaro ofcuro, are as fine as poffible. 
The figure of Jofeph of Arimathea is Parmegiano's 
v own portrait. 

i g. Wife mens offering, (fmall) by Velvet Brur 
eghcl. There are a multitude of little figures, all 
finiilicd with the greateft Dutch exactnefs. The 
ideas too are a little Dutch : for the Ethiopian king 
is dicffed in a mrplice with boots and fpurs, and 
brings for a prefent a gold model of a modern (hip. 

20. Boors at cards, (large) by Teniers. 

21. Chrift in the garden appearing to Mary Mag- 
dalen, by Pietro da Cortona. An exceeding fine 


G A L L O W. 63 

22. Judgment of Midas, by And. Schiavone. 

23. Virgin and child, by Baroccio. 

24. Naked Venus deeping, bv Annibal Caracci. 
A moft perfect piclure ; the contours of die colouring 
exceifivcly fine. 

25. Holy family, with St. John upon a lamb, by 
Williberts, a fcholar of Rubens, who has made a 
large picture, from whence this is taken, now in the 
palace Pitti at Florence. This is finely finifh'd, and 
the colouring neater than Rubens. 

26. Virgin and child {landing, (painted on black 
marble) by Alexander Veronefe. 

27. Boors drinking, by Oilade. 

28. Landfcape, with foldiers, companion to No. 
15, by Bourgognone. 

29. Battle piece, companion to No. 10, by ditto. 

30. Three foldiers, by Saivator Rofa. 

31. King Edward VI. by Hans Holbein. This 
was in the royal collection, and upon the difperfion 
of king Charles's pictures in the rebellion, fold into 
Portugal ; where it was bought by lord Tyrawley, 
embaffador at Lifbon, 'and given to lord (Moid. 

On the fide oppofite to the window, 

1 . Landfcape, with 'a waterfall and fheep, by Sc- 

baflian Bourdon. 'Tis Laban fearching for his 

images. When Jacob with'drew privately from La- 
ban, Rachel flole her father's idols, which he pur- 
fued them to demand. Gen. xxxi. 33. 

2. Holy family, by John Bellino. It belonged 
to Mr. Lawes. 


4. Six drawings for triumphal arches, dcfigned 

5. I for the entrance of Albert, archduke of 

6. ,' Auflria, into Antwerp. 




Albert married the Infanta Ifabella, Philip the 
Second's daughter. 

Mr. Walpole, in his book, fays, " They were 
" defigned for triumphal arches on the entry of the 
" Infant Ferdinand, of Auftria, into Antwerp. 
*' They are printed with a defcriptron of that fefti- 
" val." Rubens. 

In the center. 

g, Cieling of the banquetting-houfe, by Rubens. 
'Tis the original defign of Rubens for the middle 
compartment of that cieling, and represents the af- 
fumptibn of king James the Firft into Heaven. It 
belonged to fir Godfrey Kneller, who fludied it 
much, as is plain from his iketch for king William's 
picture in the parlour. 

10. Bathfheba bringing Abifhag to David, ift 

Kings i. by Vanderwerffe.- Given by the duke of 


11. A flower-piece, ) , , r , .. r 

A r . . y by Vanhi jvlam. 

12. A fruit-piece, j J 

Vanhijyfam's brother lived with lord Orford, and 
painted moft of the pictures in the attic ftory here. 

|3- ( Landfcapes, by Gafper Pouffin. 

15. Chrift appearing to Mary Magdalen, by Phi- 
lippo Laura. 

Over three doors. 

16. Holy family, by Matteo Ponzoni. A moft 
uncommon hand, and a very fine pi&ure. 

17. Murder of Innocents, by Sebaftian Bourdon. 

18. The death of Jofeph; our Saviour and the 
Virgin attending him, by Velafco. 



On the fide of the Chimney. 

ig. A Chriftopher, by Elfheimer. A very fmall 
piclure. Here is a common error among the Roman 
Catholic painters. In the diftant landfkip is an her- 
mit, with an oratory of the Virgin Mary, at the time 
that. St. Chriflopher is carrying Jefus, yet a child. 
At Bologna there is an old picture of the Salutation, 
where the angel finds the Virgin Mary praying be- 
fore a crucifix, with the Officium Beatie Virginis in 
her hand. 

The deling. 
Minerva trampling upon Envy, by Kent. 

The Marble Parlour. 
On the fide next the cabinet. ' 

1. Henry Danvers, earl of Danby, whole length, 

by Vandyke. This lord was created a baron by 

James I. and made Knight of the Garter and earl by 
Charles I. 

On the fide next the hall. 

2. Sir Thomas Wharton, Knight of the Bath, by 
ditto. From the Wharton collection. 

Over two doors. 

3. 7 Two fruit-pieces, by Michael Angelo Cam-. 

4. j pidoglio. 

From Mr. Scawen's collection. 

Over another door. 

5. The Afcenfion, by Paul Veronefe. 

Over the other. 

6. Thq Apoftles after the Afcenfion, by ditto. 


68 * II U N D R E D O F 

One entire fide of this room is marble, with al- 
coves for fide-boards, fupported with columns of 
Plymouth marble. Over the chimney is a fine piece 
of alto relievo in flatuary marble, after the antique, 
by Ryfbrack ; and before one of the tables, a large 
granite ciftern. 

The Grand Hall. 

The hall is a cube of forty feet, with a (lone gal- 
lery round three fides. The cieling and the frieze of 
boys are by Altari. The bafs-rcliefs over the chim- 
ney and doors are from the antique. 

The figures over the great door, and the boys over 
the leffer doors, are by Ryfbrack. 

In the frieze are bafs-reliefs of fir Robert Wai pole 
and Catherine his riifh lady ; and of Robert lord 
Walpole (their eldcfl. fonj and Margaret Rolles his 

From the cieling now hangs a very fine chande- 
lier, in the room of a gilt lanthorn, which was fold 
to the earl of Cheflerficld. The chandelier was 
bought at lord Cholmondeley's fale, 1748, by the 

preient earl of Orford. Party gave out at the 

firfl putting up the lanthorn in fir Robert Walpole's 
/time, that he gave a ball upon the occafion, and 
eighteen couple danced in it : this was circulated in 
the Craftfman and other political papers of the day. 
The lanthom was far unequal to, the grandeur of 
the hall, and was therefore with great judgment taken 
down by the prefent earl of Orford. 

Before a nich over-aga-infl the chimney is a fine 
flatuc of Laojoon and his two Ions, Hung to death 


G A L L O W. 69 

by ferpsnts ; caft in bronze by Girardon. It was 
bought by lord Walpole at Paris, and coft a thou- 
fand guineas. 

Over the chimney is a bufl of lord Orford, by 

On the tables, the Tyber and the Nile, in bronze, 
from the antiques in the capitol at Rome. 

Two vafes in bronze, from the antiques in the 
villas of Medici and Borghefe at Rome. 

The buft of a woman, a mod beautiful antique. 
The bull of a Roman emprefs, antique. 

On Terms and Conjoles round the Hall, are the fallowing 
Bujls and Heads, 

Marcus Aurelius, antique. 
Trajan, ditto. 
Septimius Severus, ditto. 
Coinmodus, ditto 

The two lafl were given to Gen. Churchill by 

Cardinal Alboni, and by him to fir Robert. 
A young Hercules, ditto. 
Baccio Bandinelli, by himfelf. 
Fauflina fenior, antique. 
A young Commodus, antique. 
Homer, modern. Hefiod, ditto. 

Jupiter, antique. A philopher, ditto. } 
Hadrian, ditto. Pollux, ditto. ) 



In the Paffage to the Gallery arc, 

Rome Minerva Antinous Apollo Belvedere, 
by Camillo Rufconi. 
A philofopher's head. 
Julia pia Severi, antique. 

In die veftibule,. in niches, are fix vafes of Vol- 
terra alabafter. 

Cieling of the Hall. Arms of the family.. " 

The great Stair-cafe. 

Dpon four Doric pillars is a fine caft, in bronze, 
of the Gladiator, by John of Boulogne. Given by 
Thomas late earl of Pembroke. 

Huntings, with proper ornaments, by Kent. 

The Dining Parlour above Stairs. 

Over the chimney is fonie fine pear-tree carving, 
by Grindelin Gibbins ; and in the middle hangs 

1. A portrait of him by fir Godf. Kneller. 

'Tis a matter-piece, and equal to any of Vandyke's. 

On the right hand of the chimney. 

2. King William on horfeback, by ditto An ex- 
ceeding fine (ketch for the large equeflrian picture, 
which fir Godfrey afterwards executed very ill at 
Hampton-Court, and with feveral alterations. 

3. Holy family, with St. Francis and Catherine, 
by Raphael da Reggio, fcholar of Zucchero. 

4. Architecture, by Stcenwych. A fine piclure, 
in perfpective. 



On the left hand of the chimney. 

5. King George I. 011 horfeback, companion to 
No. 2. but ill finifhed. The figure is by fir Godfrey 
Kneller, which he took from the king at Guildford 
horfe-race. The horfe is new painted by Wooton. 

6. Stud of horfes, by Woovcrmans, 

7. Venus bathing, and Cupids with a carr, &C. 
by Andrea Sacchi. 

Over one door. 

S. Mrs. Ann Lee, daughter to fir Henry Lee, by 
fir Peter Lely. She was married to Mr. Wharton, 
afterwards created a marquis ; and was herfelf a ce* 
lebrated poetcfs. Vid. Waller's poems. 

Over the other door* 

9. Mrs. Jane Decring, miftrefs to the marquis of 
Wharton, by fir Peter Lely. 

At the end next the Hall. 
In the center. 

1 . A Cook's Shop, by Martin de Vos, who was 
Snyder's matter, and in this piclure has excelled any 
thing done by his fcholar: it is as large as life. 
There is a greyhound fnarling at a cat, in a moft 
mailerly manner. 

Under it. 

2. The fchool of Athens, by Le Brun. After 
Raphael's fine piclure in the Vatican. 

On the right hand. 

3. A man in his fliirt, by Salvator Rofa, 

4. Inigo Jones, by Vandyke. 

5. Rembrandt's wife, by Rembrandt, 

F 075 


On the left hand. 

6. Rubens" s wife, by Rubens. 

7. Mr. Lock, bv fir Godfrey Kncller. This is 

the only original pi&urc of Mr. Lock, and wai 
bought of one Geechy, brother to the doclor. 

8. A SpaniOi poet writing, by fir Godfrey Kncller. 
His name was Jofeph Carreras. 

At the, End next the Library. 
In the center. 

1. A Cook's Shop, byTeniers. 'Tis in his veiy 
belt manner. There are feveral figures ; in particu- 
lar his own, in a hawking habit, with fpaniels ; and 
in the middle an old blind fifherman, finely painted. 

Under it. 

2. A Bacchanalian, by Rubens. 'Tis not a very 
pleafant piclure ; but the flefh of the Silenus and 
the female fatyrs are highly coloured. There is 
a fmall defign for this picture, ,revers'd, in the great, 
duke's tribune at Florence. 

On the right hand. 

3. Erafmus, by Holbein. 

4. Francis Halls, matter to fir Godfrey Kncller, 
by Halls. 

5. Sir Thomas Challoner, by Vandyke. An ad- 
mirable portrait. Sir Thomas was governor to Hen- 
ry prince of Wales. Vid. Strafford papers, vol. i. 
page 490. 

On the left hand. 

6. Sir Thomas Grefham, founder of Grcfliam col- 
lege, by Arttoiiio More. 

7. A 


7. A friars head, by Rubens. 

8. The Nativity, by Carlo Cignani. The thought 
of this pifture is borrowed, as it. has often been by 
other painters, from the famous Notte of Coreggio, 
at Modena, where all the light of the piclurc flows 
from the child. 

Over doors. 
Two landfcapes of ruins, by Viviano* 

In the LIBRARY. 

Over the chimney. 

King George I. full length, in his" coronation 
Tobes, by fir Godfrey Kneiler. Tis the only piduie 
for which he ever fat in England. 

The little Bed-chamber. 

This room is all wainfcotted with mahogony, and 
the bed, which is of painted taffety, flands in an 
alcove of the fame wood. 

Over the chimney is an half length, by Dahl, of 
Catherine Shorter, firft wife of fir Robert Walpole, 
elded daughter of John Shorter, cfq. of Bybrook in 
Kent, by Elizabeth, daughter of fir Erafmus Philips, 
of Piclon Caftle in Pernbrokefliire. This is an ex- 
cellent good portrait. 

Oppofitc to it. 

A portrait of Maria Skerrett, fecond wife to fir 
Robert Walpole, by Vanloo. 

The Gallery. 

'Tis feventy-three feet long by twenty-one feet 
high ; the middle rifes eight feet higher, with win- 
dows all around ; the cieling is a defign of Serlio's 
F 2 ' in 


in the inner library of Sti Mark's in Venice, and was 
brought from thence by Mr. Horace Walpole, jun. 
The frieze is taken from the Sibyl's temple at Tivo- 
li. There are two chimneys, and the whole room 
is hung with Norwich dsmaik. It was intended ori- 
ginally for a grcen-houfc, bat on fir Robert Wai- 
pole's resigning his employments, Feb. 9, 1742, he 
brought down all his pictures from Downing-ftreet 
houfc, which belongs always to the firfl lord of the 
trcafury ; and the year following this room was fitted 
up for them. 

On the fouth fide. 

1. A fruit-market, by Rubens and Snyder. 

2. Horatius Codes defending the bridge, by Mo- 
la. Thus defcribed by Livy, lib. ii. cap. 10. 

" Quum hoftes adeflent, pro fe quifq; &c. Grata 
" erga tantam virtutem civitas fait : flatua in comi- 
" tio pofita: Agri quantum uno die circumaravit, 
" datum; privata quoque inter Publicos Honores 
" fludia eminebant : namin magna inopia pro do- 
" mefticis copiis unufquifque ei'aliquid, fraudans 
" fe ipfe viftu fuo, contulit." 

3. Two women, (an emblematical picture) by Pa- 
ris Bourdon. From Mr. Flinck's collection. Some 
fay 'tis Harry the 4th of France, and two favourite 
miftreffes, fitters to each other, The late lord Or- 
ford himfelf was at a lofs about it. 

4. Holy family, by Old Palma, From Monfieur 
Flinck's colleclion. 

5. A Bacchanal, (companion to Cyrus, No. 20) by 
Caftiglioni, The fubjccl:, which at firft feems to 
be the ilory of Orpheus, but certainly is not, from 
the principal figures being thrown into the diflant 
landfcape, was guefs'd by lord Orford to be taken 
from, this ilanza of the igth ode, lib. 2. of Horace. 



Bacchum in remotis carmina Rupibus 
Vidi docentem : (Credite pofteri,) 

Nymphafq; difcentes, et auves 
Capripedum Satyrorum acutas. 

6. A cart overturning by moonfliine? by Rubens. 
It was lord Cadogan's. 

7. Africa, a landfcape, by Paul Brill. 

8. An old woman fitting in her chair, by Rubens. 
-Bought at Mr. Scawen's fale. 

9. Cupid burning armour, by Elizabetta Sirani, 
Guido's favourite fcholar. 

10. Ufurer and wife, by Ouintin Matfis, the black- 

fmith of Antwerp. This piclure is finiflied with 

the greateft labour and exaclnefs imaginable, and 
was painted for a family in France. It differs very 
little from one at Windfor, which he did for king 
Charles I. 

In the center. 

11. Lionefs and two lions, by Rubens. Nothing 
can be livelier, or in a greater flile, than the attitude 
of the lionefs. 

12. Architecture, by Julio Romano. : Tis a 

kind of a ftreet, with various marble palaces in per- 
ipeclive, like the Strada Nuova at Genoa. The 
buildings and bafs-reliefs arc extremely fine ; the 
latter, efpccially, are io like the hand of Polyciore, 
that we fhould rather think that this picture is by 
that mailer than by Julio Romano, whole it is called. 
There are fome fjgures, but very poor ones ; and 
undoubtedly not by the fame hand as the rell of the. 
piclure. There is an officer kneeling by a woman, 
who (hews the Virgin and Child in the clouds fitting 
under a rainbow. About the year 1525, Julio Ro- 
mano made defigns for Aretine's Putana Errante, 
which were engraved by Marc Antonio, for which 

F 3 the 


the latter was put in prifon, and Julio fled to Man- 
tua. Two years after Rome was fack'd by Charles 
V. who made public proceflions and prayers for the 
delivery of the Pope, (Clement VII.) whom he kept 
in prifon. 'Tis iuppofed the figure kneeling in this 
piclure is Charles V. who is prompted by religion 
to afk pardon of the Virgin (above in the clouds) 
for having fo ill treated the Pope, The figure fit- 
ting on the flcps is certainly Aretine, and the man 
in prifon in the corner Marc Antonio. Vid. Bayle 

;n artic. Aretine.-^ This picture was a prefent to 

lord Orford from general Charles Churchill. 

13. Old woman reading, by BolJ. An 
fine protrait, bought at the duke of Portland's fale 
when he went governor to Jamaica. 

14. The Holy Family, by Camillo Proccacino. 
A groupe of heads. 

15. Job's friends bringing. him prcfents, by Gui- 
do. A fine piclure, which he has executed in large, 
and in his bri glued manner. In the church of the 
Mendicants at Bologna, this is dark ; but there is 
mofl mafterly fldll in the naked, arid in the difpofi-. 
tk>n of the figures. 

16. Marcus Curtius leaping into the gulph, by 

Mola. An exceeding fine piclure. There are 

multitudes of figures, fine attitudes, and great ex- 
prcffions of paffion. To ornament the diftant prof- 
peel, he has committed fome anacronifms, bv plac- 
ing among the buildings an amphitheatre, which was 
of far later invention, and the pantheon with the 
portico of Agrippa. Now Pompey was the firft who 
made a lafting theatre: before him they were tem- 
porary, and often deftroyed by publick authority. 
Statilius Taurus built the firft amphitheatre, in the 
fourth confulfhip of Auguftus. This aclion of Cur- 
tius happened in the year 391 U. C. and the portico 
was built by Agrippa (who died 741 U. C.) in his 



third confulfliip, as appears by the infcription ftill 
remaining: M. Agrippa L. F. Cof. III. fecit. The 
flory of this exploit is thus told by Livy : " Eodem 
" Anno (viz. U. C. 391) feu motu terras, &c."_ lib. 
7. cap. 6. This piclure, arid its companion, be- 
longed to Gibbins the carver. 

17. Fowl market, by Rubens and Snyder. 

18. Europe, a fine landfcape, companion to No. 7, 
by Paul Brill. The figures by Dominichino. 

19. Dives and Lazarus, by Paul Veroneze. 

There are few of him better than this : the building 
is particularly good, It belonged to Monfieur dc 
Morville, fecretary of flate in France. 

20. Expofing of Cyrus, by Cafliglioni. This 

fubjed is taken from Juflin, lib. i. cap\ 4, 

21. Adoration of fhepherds, (companion to No. 

4.) by Old Palma. This is taken from the col: 

leclion of Monfieur de la Vrillierc, fecretary of flate 
in France. It coft 300!. 

22. Shepherd and fliepherdefs, by Carlo CignanL 

On trie Weft. 

1. Abraham's facrifice, by Rembrandt. Abra- 
ham's head and the naked body of Ifaac are very 
fine. The painter has avoided much of the horror 
of the ftory, by making Abraham cover the boy's 
face, to hide the horror from himfelf. 

2. Scipio's continence, by Nicola PoufTin. 

Painted with all the purity and propriety of an an- 
cient bafs-relief. The flory is told by Livy, lib. 26. 

cap. 50. " Captiva deinde, 8cc." This picture 

likevdfe belonged to Monfieur de Morville. 

In the center. 

3. Abraham, Sarah, and Hagar, (Gen, xvi.) by 
Pietro Cortona. The sreat duke has a frnall fketch 

F'4 fcf 


for this, but reverfed, and v;ith the Sarah and other 
figures at a diflance : the Hagar is much fairer than 
in this. 

4. Child in the manger, by Guido Reni) or the 
adoration of the fhepherds, octagon. A mofi pei% 
feel and capital piclure, not inferior to the Doclors. 
The beauty of the Virgin, the deh'cacy of her and 
the child, (which is the fame as in the Simeon's 
arms in the faloon) the awe of the fhepherds, and 
the- chiaro ofcuro of the whole piclure, which is in 
the finefl prefervation, are all incomparable. You 
fee the fhepherds ready to cry out one to another, 
" Deus, Deus i lie, menalca!" There is one of this 
fame defign in the church of the Chartreufe at Na- 
ples, large as life, oblong, with many more figures, 
but unfinifhed. This belonged to M. dc Morville. 
It cofl 500!. 

5. Old man, and flicks, by Salvator Rofa. 

6. Mofes flriking the rock, (companion to No. 2.) 

by Ni'cola Pouffin. There is a great fault in this 

piclure. Mofes is by no means the principal figure ; 
nor is he finking the rock angrily, and with a great air, 
but feems rather fcraping out the water. The thirfl 
in' all the figures, the piety in the young man lifting 
his father to the flream, and the devotion in others, 
arc extremely fine. It was painted for Stella, and 
bought of a French nobleman in the beginning of 
the lafl war between France and the emperor Charles' 
VI. \vho declared he fold it to pay for his campaign 

On tlifrXortli, or Chimney Side. 

1 . FifH market, by Rubens and Snyder. 

2. A fea-port, by Claude Lorain. A very fine 

piclure. There is a bright fun playing on the wa- 
ter, and the whole fliine of the picture is in his 




very befl manner. It belonged to Monfieur de 

3. A landfcape, by Gafper PoufTm. 'Tis in his 
dark manner, but fine. This and No. 14, its com- 
panion, were in the eolle&ioii of the marquis di 

Over the chimney. 

4. Is that capital piclure, and the firfl in this col- 
Jeclion, the Dodors of the church. They are con- 
fulting on the immaculate conception of the Virgin, 
who is above in the clouds. This has been a moft 
controverted point in the Romifli church- 

In the year 1387, the Dominicans were expelled 
the univerfity of Paris for oppofmg the doclrine of 
the immaculate conception, and' many of them were 

In 1438 the Council of Eafii declared it imma- 
culate ; and, laftly, in 1655, Alexander VII. pe- 
remptorily determined it to be fo. 

In this pi&ure, which is by.Guido, in his bright- 
eft; manner, and perfectly preferved, there are fix old 
men as large as life. The expreflion, drawing, cle- 
fign and colouring, wonderfully fine. In the. clouds 
is a beautiful virgin all in white, and before her a 
iwcct little angel flying. After fir Robert had bought 
this piclure, and it was gone to Civita Vecchia to be 
iliipped for England, Innocent XIII. then pope, re- 
manded it back, as being too fine to be let go out of 
Rome ; but on hearing who had bought ft, he gave 
perrniffion for its being fent away again. It was in 
the collection of the marquis Angeli. This picture 
coft yool. 

5. Jocunda, a fmith's wife, reckoned the hand- 
fomeft woman of her time, by Lionardo de Vinci. 
She was miftrefs to Francis I. king of Fiance. She 
would often fit half naked, with muuck, for feveral 


So H U N D R E D O F 

hours together, to be drawn by him. Mr. Richard- 
fon has another of them. This was Monfieur de 

Mezeray calls her La Ferroniere, and fays, her 
hufband being enraged at the king's taking her, 
caught on purpofe a very violent diltemper, which 
he communicated through her to the king, who ne- 
ver recovered it. The fame ftory is told of lord 
Southefk and king James II. when duke of York. 

6. Holy Family, with angels, by Valerio Cof- 

7. Virgin and child, by Dominichino. Bought 
out of the Zambeccari palace by H. Walpole. It 
coft 230!. 

In the center. 

8. Meleager and Atalanta, by Rubens. A car- 
toon, larger than life, brought out of Flanders by 
general Wade. It being defigncd for tapeftry, all 
the weapons are in the left hand of the figures. Vid. 
Ovid's Metamorpji. lib. 3. 

g. Apollo, by Cantarini, contemporary with 

10. Eagle and Ganymede, by Michael Angelo 

Buonoretti. A fubjecl: often repeated, but with 

alterations. The king has one larger, and the queen 
of Hungary another, painted in Teniers's gallery. 
There is another in the Alticri palace at Rome. 

11. The Salutation, by Albano. A fine finiflied 
piclure. The angels are much the. fame with thofe 
in the great pidure by this mailer in the faloon. 

Over the other chimney. 

12. The prodigal fon, by Salvator Rofa. This 
fine piclure was brought out of Italy by fir Robert 
Geare, and carried back by him wlien he went to 


iivc there. Upon his death it was fent back to Eng- 
land to be fold. It coft lord Orfefll 500!, 

13. Herb market, by Rubens and Snyder. 

N. B. Befides thcfe four markets by Snvder, viz. 
fowl, fifli, fruit and herbs, there are two more of 
them at Munich, an horfc and flefli market. 

14. A landfcape, by Gafper Pouffin. Companion 
to No. 3. 

13. A calm fea, by Claude Lo rain, Companion 
to No. 2. A mo ft pleafmg piclure. There are two 
figures on the fore ground, Apollo and the Sybil. 
She is taking up an handful of land, for every grain 
of whjch flie was to live a year. Apollo granted 
her this boon as the price of her perfon, which af- 
terwards (he refuted him. The promontory is de- 

figned for Curmr, the refidcnce of the Svbil. 

Among the buildings are the ruins of the Caftellurn 
Aquae Martian, with the trophies of Marius, which 
arc now placed in the capitol. 

On the Eajl. 

1. Motes in the bullruflies, by Lc Socur. Given 
by the duke of Montague. 

2. Sheep and cows, by Teniers. In his befl 


3. The Laft Supper, by Raphael. It was in 

the Arundel collection, and is printed in the cata- 
1 jgue of thofe pictures : from thence it carne into 
the poffefhon of the earl of Yarmouth, and from 
him to fir John Holland, of whom lord Orford 
bought it. It is in fine prefervation. 

Oner the door. 

4. A dead Chrift, by Ludovico Caracci. 

5. Wife mens offeriiig, by Carlo Maratti. He 



has painted another of them in the church of the 
Venetian St. M'9/k at Rome. 

6. A landfcape, with- a cafcade and fheep, by 
Gafper PoufTm. A very fine piclure. It was bought 
at the late earl of Halifax's fale. 

7. Solomon's Idolatry, i Kings xi. by Stella. 
'Tis painted on black and gold marble, which is left 
untouched in many places for the ground. There 
are many figures finely finifhed, and feveral beauti- 
ful airs of womens heads. 

Upon the marble table, a dead Chrifl. 

The prefent earl of Orford has mofl generouliy 
given leave to Mr. Boydcll to take drawings of the 
mofl capital pictures in this collection, to be engraved 
for the infpedion of the public, and thefe drawings 
have been executed in a moft maflerly manner by 
thofe two ingenious artifls, Mr. Jofeph ( and Mr, 
George Farrington, who are greatly deferviiig die 
patronage of all noble encouragers of arts and fci- 
cnces, like the prefent earl of Orford. 

The arms of this earl are ; topaz, on a fefs, be- 
tween two chevrons, diamond, three crofs croflets of 

the field, the creft on a. wreath, the buft of a 

man fide-faced, couped proper ; on his head a ducal 
coronet, and therein a long cap, ruby, charged with 
a Catherine wheel, and taffeiled at the top, which 
was the creft of the Robferts. Supporters, on the 
dexter fide, an antelope, pearl, attired proper; un- 
guled, topaz, and gorged with a collar exchequcttc, 
topaz and fapphire, with a golden chain affixed 
thereto, parting between his fore legs, and reflcxed 
over his back. On the finiftcr, an hart, pearl, at- 
tired proper, un guled and gorged with like collar 
and chain. Motto, " Fari quas fentiat." 


CALLOW. s s 

It is to be obferved that this account of the fami- 
ly is taken chiefly from ancient records, and for a 
larger account, Mr. Collins on the peerage, may be 
, confulted. 

The church of Houghto'n is a regular pile, hav- 
ing a nave, a north and fouth ifle covered with lead, 
with a fteeple, and is dedicated to St. Martin. 

This church was rebuilt by fir Robert Walpole, 
and in the middle of it was made a vault for the 
family, and fir Robert, with his e!deil fon, the late 
carl of Oxford, are interred in it. 

At the weft end of the nave is a monument, raifed 
about a foot from the pavement, in form of a cof- 
1m ; on the lid or cover, which is an entire piece of 
grey marble, is carved a curious antique figure of 
a prior, or abbot, in his robes, his hands fpread on 
his breaft, above them a crofs, his head fliaven, a 
dcemon couchant at his feet. It appears to have 
been made in the reign of Edward I. in memory of 
a prior of Coxford, from whence, as tradition re- 
ports, it was brought here after its diffolution. 

Near to this, on a marble grave-Hone, with a 

plate of brafs, Orate, p. da. Packard 

de Howeton, qui obi. xvii Die. Januar. A. Dm. 
M. vc. x. 

On the pannels of the fcreen, between the nave 
and chancel, are the arms of Walpole, impaling 

Harfike ; or, on a f'efs, between two chevronells, 

three crofs croflets, fable, Walpole ; and or, a chief 
indented fable, Harlikc ; alfo Walpole impaling, 
azure, fretty argent, Echingham. 


84 ft U N D R E D O F 

At the call end of the fomh iflc lie feveral mar- 
bk grave-Hones, viz \Valpole, in a lozenge, and 
.M. S. Catkcrina, filia natu inaxima pra'honorabilis 
Roberti Walpole et Dondna Gather, uxoris, nala 30, 
Mail 17 03, dcnata 11, Oct. 1722. Edwardus Wal- 
pole Armiger, filius natu maximus Roberti el Maritf, fc~ 
pulius ejt, 9. febr. 1697 ALlat. 22. with the arms 

of W,alpole. Maty Turner, born April zftth 1693, 

buried 'January 21, 1694; and Mary Turner, born 
"July 19, 1696, both daughter* of Sir Charles Turner t 
Jut I. and Mary his u>z/e. 

Hie jacet Robertus Walpole Anri^; juxta Sufannam 
tixorem, Jiliam Edv. Barkham de Soul/mere in com. 
Ncrf. Miiilis, quce obt. A t Dni. 1622; natus fuil 2; 
Sept. A. Dni. 1593, denatus Juit Jejio Sancli P/iilippi 
ft Jarobi A. D. 1663, with the arras of Walpole, 
impaling, argent three pallets gules, and a chevron 
over all, or, Barkham. 

In the chancel lie feveral marble grave-flones. 
Maria uxor Robti. Walpole Armiger ; quam Jiliam Jta- 
buit unicorn Galfridus Burwell, miles, de Rougham^ in 
agro Sujfolc. Annos nala ad oclo et quinquaginta mor- 
tem, obt. 14 Martii 1711. With the arms of Wal- 
pole, and in an efcutcheon of pretence; or, a 
chevron ermine, between three burdock leaves pro- 
per, Burwell. Robertus Walpole Armig; filius naiu 

maximus, Edw. mililis Balnei et S-uJannce, hie Jcpuhus 
eft decimo oftavo die J\ r oa. A. Dni. 1700, ALtat. Jucs 
Q^uinquage.funo, Ex decem quos genuit filiis, fuperjue- 
runt Robertus, Horatio, Galfridus; c\ Jiliabus jcptem, 
Maria, Dorothea et Sujanna. With the arms of Wai- 
pole and Burwell. 

H. I. Horatio Walpolc Armig; Jilhts natu minor Edit). 
, Balnei militis, qui cbt. Qvtnquagenarius, i ^ 



Oct. A. D. 1717, with Walpole impaling, quarterly, 
ermine and azure, a crofs or, Ofborn, 

Hkfitus (ft Edv. Walpole, Balnd Miles, Roll Wal- 
pole, armig. fdius, qui Sufannam, Robii. Crane, Baro- 
net ti df, Chilton, in agro Siiff. Jiliam connubio fibi junx- 
it, major quadraginta quinq. annos, i$> die Mart ii, 1667, 
nwrte pia iLluJlravit. 

Cceteraji qutsras narrabll faina Juperjlcs. 

Walpole, and in an efcutcheon of pretence, argent, 
a fefs between three crofs croflets fitchee, gules, 

Domina Sufanna a latcre Edv. Walpole, Balnd Ml- 
litis, hie conditur, quct obt. 7 Julii, A. Dem. 1667, 

The patronage is in the prcfent earl of Orford, 
and the vicar, prefented by his lordfiiip in 1768, is 
the Rev., Anthony Carr, vicar of Shernborne. 

KETTLESTON, called Katefluna, and Kettle- 
fluna, in Doomfclay-book. Kat, or Cat, is the name 
of a river, or water; thus Catwick in Yorkshire, 
Catworth in Huntingdonfhire, Sec. and C alter, or 
Catre, a river in Rutlandshire. 

Part of this town was a bcruite to the king's ma-* 
por of Fakenham, at the furvey, and held by king 
Harold before the conqueft. 

granted to Ralph de Hauvile by king Henry II. to 
be held of the crown by pctit it jerje.antv, the keeping 
the king s falcons, together wich Dunton. 



After this it v. as poffeffed by fir Robert Knollvs, 
and was fettled on his hofpital, or college, at Pom- 
fret ; and in the gd of Henry V. John Stedman, 8cc. 
as matter of that houfe, was feiied of a moiety of 
this town, anciently royal demefne, and no part of 
the dutchy of Lancafter. 

After the diffolution of the aforefaid hofpital, it 
was granted May 17, in the gd of Edward VI. to 
fir William Fermor and iir Richard Fulmerftone, and 
fir William died feifed of it in 15.5$; on whofe 
death Catherine, his lady, poffeffed it, and brought 
it by marriage to Nicholas Mynnc, efq. 

Sir William Drury was lord in the 2 ad of Eliza- 
beth, and aliened it, with the queen's licence, to 
Thomas Taverner, who by his will, dated April lo, 
44th of the laid queen, grants the manor of Pom- 
fret's to his wile Mary for life. Robert was his 
fon and heir, aged 31, who dying September 5, 
1612, left by Ann, his w r ife, a daughter and fole 
heir, Mary, being married to Francis Shouldham, 
efq. fon and heir of William Shouldham, efq. who 
died April, 1655, aged 84, whofc immediate heir 
and deicendent, Robert Shouldham, M. D. fucceed- 
ed to it, and his heirs at prefent enjoy it ; the prin- 
cipal of which is the Rev. Mr. Robert Rolfe, rec- 
tor of Hilborough near Swaff ham, who was his ne- 

Francis above-mentioned was fort of William 
Shouldham, efq. and brother.. to Humphry Should^ 
ham, efq. the ions of John Shouldham, efq. lord 
of Marham and Shouldham, which John died in 
1551, and Humphry dred lord in 1566; this Wil- 
liam married Dorothy, daughter of John Smith, of 
Blackinore in EfTex, efq. 


ROCHFORD'S MANOR. Part of this town belong- 
ed to the earl Warren's lordfhip of Eafl-Bafliam, 

The family of De Hyndryngham had antiently ail 
interefl herein: Ralph and William de Hauvile 
confirmed by deed, fans date, to William, fon of 
Hamon de Hyndryngham, all the rent, Sec. which 
they were to receive of their tenants in Kettleflon. 

In the 2 8th of Edward III. fir Saier de. Roch- 
ford conveyed it to Ralph de Rochford, his fon, 
and Maud his wife, from whom it came to the 
Welbys, &c. 

Sir William Fermor died poflefled of it in the ifl 
of Elizabeth, and his ladv Catherine brought it to 
Mynnes, and fo came to Tavemer and Shouldham, 
as is above fliewn, being united to the manor of 
Hauvile's or Pomfret's. 

The lordfhip of Fulmondefton extended into this 
town, and was held by the Grancourts. ^ 

It went with the lordfhip of Fulmondeflon, and 
was in the crown, on the death of Henry Stafford, 
duke of Bucks, in the reign of Richard III. 

The church is dedicated to All Saints, and is a 

In the year 1721, the Rev. Joho Branthwayte, 
brother of Miles Branthwayte, efq. of Hethel near 
Norwich, and father of the prefcnt Miles Branth- 
wayte, efq. of Taverham, was prefented to this liv- 
ing by the late king George I. The prefent reft'or 
is the Rev. Mr. James Cory, prefented in 1766. 



PENSTHORPE, takes its name from its fcitc, a. 
thorp or village, by a river or water, called Pen. 
In Doomfday-book it is wrote Peneftorpa, and was 
then the lordfhip of Rain old Fitz-Ivo, who had 
many lordfhips granted to him by the Conqueror, 
all which came into the family of the earls of Clare. 

In the gd of Edward I. Simon Fitz-Richard was 
found to have the affize of bread and beer, free 
warren, and a gallows. 

In 1351, fir Hamon de Felton prefented to the 
rectory of this church, as lord. 

John Spoo was lord after this, in right of Nicho- 
laa, daughter and heir of Richard Fitz-Simon, who 
in the 131!! of Richard II. conveyed it by fine, with 
the mandr of Bawfey, to fir Robert Carbonel, knt. 

ir Richard Carbonel, by his will, dated Nov. 4, 
1429, fettled it in order to pay his debts ; and Tho- 
mas Brigge, efq. of Salle, lord of this town and 
Wood-Dalling, died poffeffed of it in 1444." 

Thomas Heydon, efq. a younger fon of fir John 
Heydon; was lord in 1572: in the 2gth of Eliza- 
beth, William Heydon had a praxipe to deliver it 
to fir John Cotton, knt. and in the 33d of that 
queen, Thomas Croft, efq. had one, to render it to 
Edmund Stubble, efq. 

In the 3d of James I. Edward^Sulyard, efq. foil 
and heir of fir John Sulyard, was found to die lord 
of this manor. 


Iri the 5th of Charles I. Francis Houghton was 
found to die icifed of it, held of the honour of 

G A L L O W. 89 

In 1720, Anthony Hamond, efq. of Wooton, was 
lord, and in that family - it remains; Richard Ha- 
mond, efq. his Ton and heif, poffeifed it, and the 
prefent lord and patron is Anthony Hamond, efq. 
of Well-acre High Houfe. The Rev. Mr. Richard 
Hamond was prefented to this living in 1768. 


hamlet or beruite, at the furvey, belonging to the 
king's manor of Fakenham. 

It is fuppofed to take its adjunct name of Pud- 
ding from its dirty fcite, or by a ftream of water ; 
as Puddington, and Puddlebridge, in Devonshire j 
Puddlemere in Somerfet, &c. 

Edmund de Lexham, fon of John de Lexham, 
was lord in the 6th of Edward I. and in the 26th of 
the faid king, John dc Lexham, as lord, held a court 
baron, had free bull and boar, and the affize of 
bread and beer. 

In the 2ift of Edward II. John de Mundeford* 
as heir to the de Lexhams, held this manor of the 
lord Scales, and he of the king. 

By marriage it came to fir William Tindale, Knt. 
of the Bath, who died lord in die 1 2th of Henry 
VII. His grandfon fold it to Richard Benfon, efq. 
in the 131!! of Elizabeth, who alfo fold it five years 
afterwards to Fcrdinando Paris, efq. of Linton in 
Cambridgeshire, in which name it remained till 1698. 

Sir Francis Andrews, one of the coheirs, purcha- 

fing the rights of Mary, wife of Charles Hacon, of 

Frances, wife of Peregrine Short, and of Philippa, 

the wife of John Haftmgs, became lord of iliis ma* 

G a nor, 


nor, and lived (.here in the year 1700, Sir Francis 
defccnds from Thomas Andrews, efq. who was high 
fheriff of Northamptonshire in 15^7, and attended 
at the execution of Marv queen of Scots, at Fothe- 
ringay. He was fucceeded by Robert Andrews, efq. 
of Harleflon in the faid county, who by Elizabeth 
his wife, daughter of William Gent, efq. was father 
of fir William Andrews, of Denton in Northamp- 
tonfhire, created baronet, December 1 1 , 1 64 1 ; who 
by Catherine his lady, daughter of John Flamflede, 
of Denton, had two fons ; fir John, the eldcft, dy- 
ing without iffue, was fucceeded by his brother fir 
William, who (by Eleanor, daughter of Edward At- 
flow, efq. of Downham-hall in Eifex, and his wife 
Eleanor, daughter and coheir of Philip Paris, efq.) 
left at his death, Auguft 15, 1684, fir Francis An- 
drews, bart. who by his lady Bridget, daughter of 
fir Thomas Clifton, of Latham in Lancafliire, had a 
fon, William, a lunatic, and a daughter, Bridget, 
married to Philip Southcote, efq. of Weybridge in 
Surry, a younger fon of fir Edward Southcote, of 
William in Effex, who was the late lord, fir Francis 
having refigned it to him. 

HEMPTON PRIORY MANOR, extended into this 
town. The lord Bardolf held it of the earl Warren. 

After the diffolulion, king Henry VIII. granted it, 
Sept. 9, in his 3/th year, to fir William Fcrmor, and 
Thomas Fermor, efq. his nephew, fold it to Richard 
Benfon, efq. from whom it came to the Paris's, 
8cc. and was united to the capital manor abovemen- 

In the 24th of Edward III. Thomas Berte, of 
Wadeton, and Elizabeth his wile, confirmed to Ha- 
mon de Wodenorton, and Joan his wife, and the 



heirs of their bodies, all the lands, tenements, and 
fold-courfe in Pudding-Norton. 

In the 5th of Henrv V. it appears that there were 
two manors, called Newhall and Pekhall, and the 
fcite of Newhall was by the church. 

William Lamming conveyed it to Richard Ben- 
fon, and io this came alfo to the Paris's, 8cc. anct 
to fir Francis, and to Soiuhcote, who was lord of the 
whole village. 

The church, which is now in ruins, was dedicated 
to St. Margaret. 

The Rev. Michael Bridges was prefcnted to this 
rectory in the year 1744, by Charles Cooper Mor- 
ley, efq. of Bafham, formerly high fherilF of the 
county of Norfolk. 

RAINHAM, (or Rcineham, as it is wrote in the 
book of Doomfday) EAST, SOUTH and WEST, 
takes its name from being feated near a running 
flream of water, or river ; Rye and Rey, fignifying 
as much in the Saxon tongue ; thus we find a town 
in ElFex, in the hundred of Chaflfard, Rainham, 011 
a river near its falling into the Thames ; and thus 
Braintree, in Eifex, occurs in Doomfday by the name 
of Raine, being by a river. Thus the river Rhine, 
and Reineburgh, a city in Germany, on that river. 

At the grand furvey it is placed in the hundred 
of Brothercrofs, but at this time (and for feveral 
centuries pan 1 ) is accounted as a part of the hun- 
dred of Callow ; and great part of this town was 
then one of the lordlhips which the Conqueror be- 
llowed on Hugh de Montfort, one of his Norman 
p 3 chiefs 


chiefs and barons. Bond, a noble Saxon thane of 
great pofleflions, held it in the Confeffor's time, to- 
gether with many other lordfhips in Norfolk. 

South Rainham was then a beruite, that is, a Jeffer 
manor, and depending on this. 

This lordihip, held by Hugh de Montfort, was 
afterwards divided, and held by two different fami- 
lies, the Inglethorpes, and the Scales. 

INGLETHORPE'S MANOR, takes its name from its 
lords, who appear from ancient records to be feifed 
of it in the reign of king John and Henry III. a fr- 
mily of great eminency in the county of Norfolk. 

Sir Thomas de Ingaldeflhorp was fon and heir of 
Alan, and is termed in old records the Red: he is 
mentioned in the pipe rolls of the 8th year of king 
John, and in the 3d of Henry III. and was fheriff 
of Norfolk and Suffolk in or about the 8th or gth 
of that king ; as was Hubert de Ingaldeflhorp in the 
5th of the faid king. Sir Thomas was acceffary in 
a murder in the gth year of king John. 

Thomas, fon of the abovementioned fir Thomas, 
was alfo a knight, fheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk in 
1272, and died foon after. Thomas de Ingaldef- 
thorp, bifhop of Rochefter, was one of his fons, and 
fir John de Ingaldeflhorp was his fon and heir, and 
was fummoned amongft the barons to attend the 
king in the Welfh wars. 

On the death of fir John de Ingaldeflhorp, in or 
about 1282, Thomas was found to be his fon and 
heir, aged 22. In the 1301 of Edward II. he ap- 
pears co be a knight, and a commifnoner for th e 

bank s 

GALL O W. 93 

banks and fewers of Marfhland in Norfolk, as lord 
of Wimbotfharn. 

He was fucceeded by liis fon fir John, who lived 
at Rainham, and the family before him, for many 

Among the mortuaries received by the convent of 
Marham, about the year 1407, (in which year ihe 
is laid to have died) we find this : Received for the 
lady Alianores mortuary, late wife of Sir William In- 
galde/thorp, a mantle Jurr d with grey. 

Ifabel, only daughter and heirefs of fir Edmund 
Ingaldcflhorp, who died in 1456, married John Ne- 
vill, created marquis Montacute, (and Knight of the 
Garter, fecond fon of Richard earl of Salifbury, 
and brother to Richard the great carl of Warwick) 
and afterwards on the attainder of the earl of Nor- 
thumberland, had that honour alfo conferred on him 
by king Edward IV. which lafl title he was obliged 
foon after to refign, the attainder aforefaid being 
taken off. The marquis, w\th. his brother Guy, earl 
of Warwick, were both killed in the battle of Bar- 
net, April 14, 1471, fighting againft king Ed-s 
vvarti IV. 

Upon a divifion of the eftate of the Ingaldef- 
thorpes, &c. which was not till in pr about the nth 
pf Henry VII. this manor of Rainham, with that 
of \Vimbotftiam in Norfolk, Sauflon, Sec. in Cam- 
bridgefhire, came to Ifabella, married to fir William 
Huddleflon, of Millum Cattle in Cumberland. 

In the year 1543, fir John Huddlefton, her grancl- 
fon, appears to have been lord of this manor t and 
|p have fol$ it to fir Roger Townfhend, knt, 



This lordfhip being thus conveyed into the fami- 
ly of Townfhend, wherein it remains at this time, 
it will be proper in this place to treat of the fame, 
from ancient records and authentic evidences. 

It is undoubtedly a family of great antiquity in 
this county : Collins, in his hiftory of the peerage, 
fays, that Lodowic, or Lewis, a Norman, furnamed 
Townfhend, foon after the conqueft, married Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heir of Thomas Haywell, (rather 
Hauviie) and was fucceeded by fir Walter de Town- 
fhend, who took to wife Maud, daughter of fir Ro- 
ger Scogan, knt. But this will appear to be a 

great miftake. The family is wrote in old deeds, 
&c. Ad Exitum Villas. William ad Exitum Villa, that 
is, Townfhend, or Tunnefend, held confiderable 
lands of the prior of Norwich's lordfhip in Taver- 
ham, in the reign of king John. 

Stephen, fon of Walter Atte Townfhend, lived 
in the reign of Henry III. and about the fame time 
lived Thomas Atte Townfhend, of Weft Harling, 
pofleffed of a valuable eftate, Sec. and fealed then 
'with a chevron, between three efcallops, the arms of 
the family at this day. 

Thomas, fon of William Atte Townfhend, of 
Snoring Magna, lived in the faid town, fettled all 
his eflates in that town, Snoring Parva, Thorpeland 
and Bafliam, in Norfolk, on John his fon and heir, 
by deed, dated July 11, 1377, wherein he mentions 
Roger, his brother. 

John, fon of*John aforefaid, was living at Snoring 
Mag r '3 in 1378 and 1396; he added much to the 
family eftate, and held part of a fee in Rainham 
Magna and Parva, of Roger Mortimer earl of March, 


G A L L O W. 9 

of the honour of Clare, in 1398, and was the firft 
of the family that fettled at Rainham, or had any 
intereft therein. 

About the year 1400, fir Walter de Townfhend 
was living, fon of fir Lodowick de Townfhend, 
whom Collins places at the head of this family, and 
fays that he married Elizabeth, daughter and heirefs 
of Thomas Hauvile, and to have lived foon after the 
conqueft : that Collins is miflaken, in refpecl of the 
time that fir Lodowic lived, appears from this proof; 
fir Walter aforefaicl married Maud, daughter of fir 
Roger Scogan, knt. by whom he had a fon Roger. 

Roger, fon of fir Walter, took to wife Catherine, 
daughter of John Atterton, efq. of Suflex, and was 
father of fir Thomas Townfhend, whofe wife Agnes 
was daughter of Willian Payne, Gent. 

This fir Thomas was buried in the choir of White 
Friers church, in Fleet-ftreet, London : and on the 
ift of April, 1421, letters of adminiftration were 
granted to Agnes, relief of fir Thomas Townfliend, 
and Roger Townfhend, of Rainham, (fon and heir 
of fir Thomas} of the goods of Thomas Payne, pro- 
bably brother of Agnes, (Collins fays Eleanor) which 
family held a lordfhip in Helhoughton, and their 
eflate came to the Townfhends. The faid Roger 
Townfhend, efq. was a feoffee for the manor of 
Welborne, in Forehoe hundred, in 1444., and mar- 
ried Eleanor, daughter of fir Thomas Gigges, of 
Rollefby in Weft Flegg. 

John, his fon and heir, fucceeded. Joan, his 
wife, was daughter and heir of fir Robert Lunshrd, 
of Rumford in Effex, and was buried in the miJdlc 
of the body of the church of St. Mary in Rain- 

gQ H U N D R E D O F 

Roger Townfhend, e{q. Con and heir of John 'and 
Joan his wife, was entered a ftudent of Lincoln's-. 
Inn, elected a governor of that fociety in the firft 
year, See. of king Edward IV. and Lent reader. In 
'1461, the third part of the manor of Hauvile's in 
Rainham, \yy fine levied, was conveyed to him by 
Henry Algernon. He was member of parliament 
for Calne in Wiltfhire ; and in 1476, purchafed by 
line of Roger Oliver, o* London, Sherman, and 
Elizabeth his wife, their interefl or part in Hauvile's 
lordfliip, fo that the whole was now in this family. 

In the i yth of Edward IV. he was called to the 
degree of ferjeant at law; in 1480 fummoned to be, 
an affiftant to the houfe of lords in parliament ; in 
the ift of Edward V. king's ferjeant at law; and, 
in the following year, was appointed a juftice of the 
common pleas. King Henry VII. renewed his pa- 
tent, and knighted him in his chamber at Worce-fler^ 
on Whitfunday before his coronation. 

He married Anne, daughter and coheirefs of fir 
William Brews, of Stinton-hall in Norfolk, who 
brought him that manor, and a great inheritance in 
land: by this lady he had fix ions and fix daughters, 
Roger, John, Robert, George, Thomas and Giles ; 
of the daughters, Thomafine was the wife of fir 
Thomas Wodehoufe, of Kimberley, knight of the 

Bath ; to Anthony Caftell, of Raveningham, 

efq. Anne betrothed to Philip Creffener, of Attle- 
burgh, efq. Sufan wife of iir Edward Windham, 
of Felbrigg; and Catherine, of fir Henry Beding- 
field, of Oxburgh. 

Judge Townfhend died Nov. 9, 8th of Hen. VII. 
and his lady fome years after. They were buried i$ 
the chancel of St. Mary's church, Ea.fl Raiuham. 


. G A L L O W. 


Roger, eldefl fon of the judge, was bred to the 
law, and, among other gentlemen of worth and dig 
nity of this county, was appointed a commiffioner 
by acl of parliament, for afl'cffing, Sec. a fubfidy of 
one hundred and fixty- three thoufand pounds, by a 
poll-tax, in the 5th of Henry VIII. 

In the loth of the faid king, he covenanted to 
ferve the king with ten men at arms ; was thrice 
flieriff of Norfolk; in 1525 received the honour of 
knighthood; (Collins fays it was on the king's re- 
turn from Bulloign, anno 37di of Henry VIII.) was 
one of the mafters in the court of requefls in 1529; 
and in the faid year one of the king's council, with 
the bifhop of Lincoln ; and a feoffee of the manor 
of Kilverfton for the duke of Norfolk, and had of 
the manor of Scales, in Rainham, from the king. 

In 1543. h e purchafed of fir John Huddleflon 
the lordfhip of Ingoldefthorpe, in this town, and in 
the following year, in commifTion with the duke of 
Norfolk, Sec. to raife a benevolence for the king; 
and knight of the fhire in parliament, anno 33d of 
of the faid king ; and by a letter from the duke of 
Somerfet, dated at the Tower, Feb. 12, anno ift oF 
Edward VI. required, with the earl of Sutfex, fir 
William Pafton, Sec. on the death of Henry VIII. 
to take care of the peace of the faid county. 

He died Nov. 20, 1551, and was buried in th$ 
chancel of Eaft Rainham church. He con dilutes 
Roger, the grandlon of his brother John, heir to his 
lordfhips, lands, Sec. in Eaft, South and Weft Rain- 
ham, Helhoughton and Banner; lands, Sec. in Over 
and Nether Guilt, Twyford, Wood-Norton, Bintre, 
Broomfthorpe, Tofts, North Bafham, Shereford and 
Saham ; the rcclory of Barwick ; lands. Sec. in Stan* 
koe, Ryburgh Parva, and 'Oxvvick. 


John Townfhend, efq. fecond fon of the judge, 
lived moftly at Brampton in Suffolk; by Eleanor 
his wife, daughter of fir John Heydon, of Bacanf- 
thorpe, knight of the Bath, he had Richard his el- 
deft fon. This John died Auguft 4, 1540, before 
his eldeft brother fir Roger. 

Robert, the third fon, married Alice, daughter 
and heir of Robert Poppy, efq. of Lincolnfhire ; 
was ferjeant at law, a knight, juftice of Chcfter, 
fteward of Pentney priory, had a penfion on its dif- 
folution, lord of South-Hall, in Over and Nether 
Guift, of Wood-Norton, Twyford, and Foxleys, 
had the re$ory of Guift and'advowfon of the vica- 
rage, feifed alfo of the Auguftine friery of Ludlow, 
in Shropfhire ; died in the gd and 4th of Philip 
and Mary, leaving Thomas his fon and heir, (as 
was found by an inquifition taken at Salop, Aug. 11, 
1556) aged 22: from him defcended the Town- 
friends of Bracken-afh in Norfolk, of Gloucefterihire 
and Shropfhire, 

^ George Townfhend, efq. was the fourth fon, and 
married a daughter of fir Richard Thurfton, fheriff 
of London in 1516, and had a fon Giles. George 
was executor to his brothers Thomas and Giles, and 
living in 1554. 

Thomas, the fifth fon, from whom defcended the 
families at Tefterton, Cranworth, and Wretham. 

Giles was the fixth fon : to him fir Robert his 
brother, on December 3d, in the 35th of Henry 
VJII. then ferjeant at law, granted the relories of 
Whitwell and Barwick, the manor of Guift, the 
reclory and manor of Ryburgh Parva, with the ma- 
nor and reclory of Helhoughton in Norfolk, their 



court leets, in all which (except Whitwcll) they en- 
feoffed their brother Roger. 

Richard Townfliend, efq. fon and heir of John 
Townfhend, efq. (fecond fon of the judge fir Roger, 
and brother to fir Roger Townfliend, who died in 
1550) was aged 22 at his father's death in 1540 ; he 
married Catherine, third daughter and coheir of fir 
Humphry Brown, of Ridley in Chefhire, a juftice 
of the common pleas; died May 9, 1552. Hig 
wife furvived him, and re-married John Roper, efq. 
of Eltham in Kent, rnafler of the king's bench of- 
fice. Richard had by her Elizabeth, married to 
Thomas Godfalve, efq. of Buckenham-Ferry, and 
a fon Roger, his heir, and heir to his great uncle fir 
Roger, appointed by his will in 1550. This Ri- 
chard lived alfo, as his father, at Brampton. 

This Roger, fon and heir of Richard, was a mi- 
nor at his father's death, and proved his age in 1564. 
In the year 1588, we find him i i the Ejnglifh fleet, 
in the fight againft the Spanifh armada ; and on the 
26th of July, in the faid year, was knighted by the 
lord high admiral, Charles Howard, at lea, with the 
lord Howard, lord Sheffield, John Hawkins, and 
Martin Frobifher ; and as the aforefaid lords had a 
principal command in the ^id fleet and engagement, 
fo no doubt had this Roger, who is named next to 
them, and before Hawkins and Frobifher. 

He died at Newington by London, June 30, 1590, 
and was buried in the church of St. Giles, Cripple- 
gate, at London. By Jane his lady, youngeft 
daughter of fir Michael Stanhope, of Shelford in 
Nottinghamfhire, (anceflor of the earls of Chefter- 
'field and Stanhope) he left John, his eldeit fon, and 
Robert, created a knight in 1603 f and married Am^ 


loo H U N D R E D OF 

"daughter of William lord Spencer, who died: frf 
Roger's lady furviving him, re -man led Henry lord 

John Townfhend, fon and heir of fir Roger, mar- 
ried Ann, daughter and coheir of fir Nathaniel Ba- 
con, of Stif key, or Stuky, in Norfolk ; was lord of 
that town, of Langham and Merfton. In a duel 
' "with fir Matthew Brown, died of his wounds on Au- 
guft 2, 1603, leaving Roger his eldefl fon, and 
Stanhope his fecond fon, who died alfo of his wounds 
in a duel in the Low Countries, and unmarried 1 . 
His lady furvived him many years, dying May 20, 
1630, and was buried at Rainham. Ann, their 
daughter, married fir John Spelman, fon and heir of 
the renowned fir Henry Spelman. 

In 1591, we find John Townfhend, efq. of Nor- 
folk, to give the fenior pro&or's ftaff to the urjSyerfitr 
of Cambridge, of which he had been a member, hi 
Trinity college; and probably was this fir John, 
who was knighted for his valour by the earl of ErTex. 
at Cadis, in Spain, in 1596, 

Roger, his fon and heir, was a minor, aged eight 
years on his father's death, created a baronet April 
16, 1617: on the 2otV. of May, 1620, he had li- 
'cence to travel for three years, with three fervants,. 
and necefTaries, but riot to go to Rome, as appears 
by the council boolc. He built the prefent feat of 
Rainham-hall, and was knight-of the fhire for Nor- 
folk. By Mary his wife, daughter and coheir of 
Horatio Vere, lord Vere of Tilbury, of the noble 
family of the Veres, earls of Oxford, he had Roger 
and Horace, his two fons, and five daughters : Mary, 
married to Thomas lord Crew, of Stene in North- 
amptonfhire; Jane,- to John Windham, elcj. Ann, 


G A L L O W, 101 

to William Cartwright, of Aynhoe in Northampton- 
[hire ; Elizabeth, who died (ingle ; and Vefe," to fir 
Ralph Hare, bait, of Stow-Bardolph. He died Ja- 
nuary i, 1637-8, aged 41, having granted three or 
four of his appropriations to the church. 

The lady Mary, his refict, married Mildmay Fane 
earl of Weftmoreland, by whom fhe had Vere Fane, 
earl of Weftmoreland, and dying in 1673, was bu- 
ried at Rainham on the 2sd of May, 

RAINHAM-HALL, built by the laft -mentioned fir 
Roger Townfhend, bart. is perhaps the molt de- 
lightful fituation in the county of Norfolk, and has 
been greatly improved by the prefent lord. The 
park and woods are beautiful, and the lake below an 
object peculiarly finking. Extenfive lawns, and open- 
ing views into the country, enrich the enlivening 
profpecl all around. The country cultivated, and 
teaming in the fummer months with fruitful crops 
of various hues, while the blended fliades of green* 

d yellow diitinguiilied through the trees, difplay 
ie., Bounties of nature in its moft enchanting pridd 


The houfe was built by that unrivalled artift Inigo 
Jones. There are feveral very valuable pictures in> 
it; amongit the reft, a picture of Belliarius, the 
Roman general, diftinguiflied by a reverfe of fortune 
fcarcely ever experienced but by himfelf : this pic- 
ture was given to Charles lord vifcount Townfhend, 
fecretary of ftate, by the late king of Pruflia. Some, 
connoiffeurs are of opinion, that it is not the picture 
of Belifarius, hut of Caius Marius. 




In the common Dining Parlour. 

Sir John Townfhend, .tat. fuse 28, 1599. 
Captain Townfhend and Mr. Pelham, by Jervafe. 
Three pieces of fowls, Very good, 
Lord Townfhend, when young, by fir Godfrey 

Withdrawing Room. 

Lord Townfhend's fecond lady, 1722, (half length) 
by fir G. Kneller. 

Col. Townfhend's lady, (half length) byjervafe r 

Governor Hanifon, (whole length) by ditto. 

His lady (whole length) by ditto. 

Lady Wefhnoreland, Lord Townfhend's grand- 

Two landscapes of beafls, exceeding good. 

Grand Dining Room. 

Oueen Anne, whole length, by fir G. Kneller, 
King George I. (ditto) by ditto. 
King George II. (ditto) by Jervafe. 
Queen Caroline, (ditto) by ditto. 
Mr, Thomas Townfhend, by ditto. 

Withdrawing Room. 

Two fons of Lord Townfhend, in one picture, 
by fir G. Kneller. 

Dutchefs of Newcaflle, by Jervafe. 

Dutchefs of Dorfet, by ditto. 

Family pi&urS of Lord Townfhend's fcven chil* 
dren, by ditto. 

Two ladies, (half lengths) by fir Peter Lely. 

6 A L L O W. 103 

In the Saloon. 

Whole lengths of Officers. 
Over the chimney. 

1. Lord Vere, commander. 

2. Sir Simon Harcourt, ferjeant-majon 

3. Sir John Burroughs 

4. Sir William Lovelace 

5. Capt. Febel 

6. Sir Michael Everard 

7. Sir John Borlace 

8. Sir Thomas Wynne 

9. Capt. Milles 

10. Sir Thomas Gates rj 

11. Sir Jacob Aftley 

12. Sir Henry Peyton 

13. Sir Robert Carey 

14. Sir Andrew Lewkener J 

Some of them are drawn much better than the 
reft, viz. No. i, 3, 4, 12, which feem to be by Cor- 
nelius Johnfon ; No. 14 is laid to be by Lawfon ; the 
reft are veiy uncertain. 

Summer Parlour. 
Whole lengths of Officers, 

1. Sir Gerard Herbert. 

2. Sir Edward Narwood, captain. 

3. Sir Thomas Button, captain. 

4. Sir Thomas Conway, captain. 

. Sir Edward Vere, lieutenant-colonel. 
6. Sir John Borlace. 

Thcfe are not near fo good as the other j but like 
thole, all in the drefs of the times, 

H Dining 


Dining Room above Stairs. 

Lord Townfliend, (whole length) by Kneller. 

Lord Townfhend 1 s firfl lady, by ditto. 

His lordfhip's fecond lady, copied after a picture 
of fir G. Kneller's. 

Horatio lord Townfliend, (whole length) by fir 
Peter Lcly. 

Horatio Townfhend, fecond brother to my lord, 
(half length) by Richardfon. 

Horatio lord Townfhend's lady, (half length) bjr 
fir Peter Lely. 

Sir Roger Townfhend' s lady. 

Over two dcors. 

Lord Lynn, (half length) by fir G. Kneller. 

Lady Lynn, (ditto) by Jervafe. 

Lord Vere, (whole length) by ditto. 

Belifarius, (a prefent from the king of Pruflia. 
by Salvator Rofa. 

Sir Roger Townfhend. 

Col. Townfhend, third brother to my lord, (half 
length) by Riley, or Cloflerman. 

Horatio lord Townfliend, (half length) by fir Peter 
Lely, or Zouff. 

Sir Jofeph Aflie, (half length) by fir Peter Lely. 

Sir Jofeph Aflie's lady, a copy after fir Peter Lely. 

Col. Townfhend, third Ion to lord Townfhend, 
by Jcrvafe. 

Lady Cornwallis, by d^to, 

Sir Robert WalpoleJhJif length) by firG. Kneller 

Sir Robert's lady, t^jpfto. 

King Charles II. by Riley. 

Galfridus Walpole, efq. (half length) by Hudfon 
or Jervafe. 


CALLOW. 103 

Lady Stinderland, (half length) byjervafe. 
King of" Sweden. 
Lord Fairfax, by Lov. Bois. 
Sir William Jones and his ladv. 
Achilles difcovercd in Lycomedes's palace* 
Lord Scarborough, in garter robes, by Kneller, 
King of Sardinia, a prefent from the king himfelf 
to commodore Townftiend. 

Some of thefe are now in other rooms* 

Sir Roger Townfhcnd, bart. eldefl foil of fir Ro- 
ger aforefaid, (fee page 100) was a minor at his fa- 
thers deceafe ; and, dying in his minority, was fuc- 
ceeded in honour and eftate by his brother fir Ho- 
ratio, a minor alfo, in ward to the King, born in, 
1630, created baron Townfhend, of Lynn-Regis in^ 
Norfolk, April 20, 1661, and vifcottnt Townfhcnd 
of Rainham, December 11, 1682, was in great fa- 
vour with Charles II. who paid him a vifit at Rain- 
ham in 1671; was made lord lieutenant of the 
county of Norfolk, and city of Norwich, in 1662. 

He married, in 1649, Mary, daughter and heir 
of Edward Lewkener, efq. fon and heir of fir Ed- 
ward Lewkener, of Denham in Suffolk, km. who 
brought into the family that town, and other valua- 
ble eftates. She died, in 1673, without iflue, and 
was buried at Rainham on the 2sd of May. His 
fecond lady was Mary, daughter of fir Jofeph Afhe, 
of Twickenham in Middlelex, bart. by whom he 
had his fon and fucceffc^ Charles, and Roger Town-* 
fhend, efq. member oFJjbarliament for Yarmouth in 
Norfolk, who died unmarried, May 22, 1709, and 
was buried at Rainham. His third fon was Horace, 
member of parliament for Heytefbury in Wiltfhire, 
and one of the commiffioners of the excife. 

H a Charles, 


Charles, lord vifcount Townfhend, was born in 
1675 ; king Charles and the duke of York were his 
godfathers. He was a nobleman of great honour, 
worth, and ability, as the pofls that were conferred 
on him teitify ; a governor of the Charter-houfe, 
one of the privy-council, knight of the garter, fent 
ambaffador by queen Anne to the States General, 
captain of the yeomen of the guard, a commifiioner 
for the union, chofe by king George I. one of the 
regency in his abfence, principal fecretary of ftate, 
appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland, (which he de- 
clined) prelident of the council, and again fecretary 
of ftate, in which office he continued till he refigned 
it in May 1730: his lordfhip was alfo lord lieute- 
nant and cuitos rotulorum of the county of Nor- 

His firft wife, was Elizabeth, fecond daughter of 
Thomas lord Pelham, by whom he had four fons ; 
Charles, who fucceeded him ; Thomas, member of 
parliament for the univerfity of Cambridge, one of 
the tellers of the exchequer; William, aid-dc-camp 
to king George I. member of parliament for Yar- 
mouth ; Roger, member for Yarmouth on his bro- 
ther's death, and captain of a troop of horfc. Eli- 
zabeth, the .daughter, married the lord Cornwallis. 

By Dorothy, his fecond wife, daughte^.of Robert. 
Wai pole, efq. of Houghton, arid fii^^r'to Robert 
Walpole, earl of Orford, he left George, lieutenant 
of a man of war; Auguflus, captain of <an Eail- 
India fliip ; Horatio, commiffioner of the victualling 
office; and Edward, re&or of Pulham in Nor- 
folk, deputy clerk of the 'king's clofet, D. D. pre- 
bendary of Weftminfter, and dean of Norwich. 
This lord died OR June 21, 17^8, Dorothy, one 
of his daughters by this lady, married Spencejr Coo- 

CALLOW. 107 

per, D. D. dean of Durham ; the other, Mary, 
man-led the Hon. Edward Cornwallis, efq. member 
lor Weflminfter. 

Charles, his eldefl foil and heir, was fummoncd 
to parliament May 24, 1723, as lord Lynn, in the 
life of his father ; was lord of the bed-chamber to 
king George I. commiffioner of trade and the plan- 
tations ; mafter of the jewel office; died at Rain- 
ham March 13, 1764. He married Audrey, daugh- 
ter and heirels of Edward Harrifon, efq. governor 
of Fort St. George in the Eaft-Indies, and of Balls 
in Hertfordshire ; by whom he had, 

1 . George, (king George I.) being his godfather. 

2. Charles, who married the Hon. the countefs 
of Dalkeith, relict of the earl of Dalkeith, fon and 
heir to the duke of Buccleugh, member for Yar^ 
mouth, and paymafter of the king's forces. 

3. Roger, a lieutenant-colonel, killed at Ticonder 
rago in America. 

4. Edward, who died young ; and, 

5. Audrey, an only daughter. 

George, the prefent lord vifcount Townfliend 1 , be- 
ing bred to arms, was colonel of the 28th regiment 
of foot, brigadier, and gained much honour on the 
taking of Quebec, when the command of the army 
devolved to him by the death of Gen. Wolfe, who 
was killed in the heat of the a&ion, and the fecond 
in command, Gen. Monckton, was carried off the 
field wounded. His lordfhip, after filling the im- 
portant poll of lord lieutenant of Ireland, was ap- 
H 3 pointed. 


pointed matter general of the ordnance, is a lieu- 
tenant-general, colonel of a regiment of dragoons, 
and one of his majefty's moft honourable privy- 
council. He was knight of the fliire for Norfolk, 
from 1747 till his acceffion to the peerage in 1764, 

His lordfhip married the right hon. lady Charlotte, 
(only daughter and heir of the earl of Northampton) 
and lady baronefs Ferrers of Chartley in her own 
right. Her ladyihip died in Ireland, during the go- 
vernment of lord Townfhend: her remains were 
brought to England, and interred in the family vault 
at Rainham, and her eldeft fon, George, iucceedeci 
to the barony of de Ferrers, baron of Chartlcv, 
and has taken his feat as lord Ferrers in the houie 
pf peers.. 

Lord Tmmfhend has fince married a daughter of 
Mr. Montgomery in Dublin, agent to moR of the 
regiments on the Irifh euablifhment, member of par- 
liament for the borough of Ballynakfll, and lately 
created fir William Montgomery, bart. of Macbie- 
liill, Peeblefhire, North-Britain. The prefent lady 
Townftiend, with her two fillers, one married to 
Luke Gardiner, efq. member of parliament for the 
county of Dublin, and the other to the right honour- 
able John Beresford, member of parliament for the 
county of Waterford, are efleemed amongft the moft 
beautiful and accomplished women of the age. 

His lord/hips arms are, azure, a chevron, er- 
mine, between three efcallops^ argent, Townfhend ; 
and quarters, ift. gules, a chevron, between three 
fleurs de lys, or, Hauvile, or Haywell ; 2d. ar- 
gent, a lion rampant, and crufily of crofs croflets, 
gules, crown'd, or, Brewfe; 3. fable, a crofs in- 
grailed, or, Ufford; 4. gules, a crofs, argent, in 

a bot- 

CALLOW. 109 

a bordure, engrailed, or, Carbonel; 5. argent, a 
chevron, gules, between three crofs croflets, fitchee, 
azure, Shardelovv; 6. gules, a chevron, between 
three lions gambs, creel: and erafed, in a bor- 
dure, argent, Brown; 7. per bend, fmifter, or, and 
fable, a lion rampant, counterchanged, Francis ; r 
8. quarterly, ermine, and gules, Stanhope; g. gules, 
on a chief, argent, two mullets, fable, Bacon ; 
10. quarterly, gules and or, in ift quarter, a mullet, 
argent, Vere;~i i. azure ? three chevronels, argent, 
Lewkener.- - Creft, a buck paffant, diamond, at- 
tired, or: -fupporters, on the dexter fide, a buck, 
diamond, on the finifler, a greyhound, argent.* 
Motto, Hcec ge?tcri, incremcnta, 

SCALES MANOR. Another part or moiety of Hugh 
rle Montfort's Jordlhip came to the family of lord 
Scales. This moiety, or lordfhip, was that of South 

In a cmnpiituj of the bailiff of this manor, anno 
5th of Edw. III. we find wheat fold at gs. 4d. per 
quarter, and about Lent at 8s. per quarter. Barley 
at 35. 4d. Peafe at 6s. 8.- Oats at 45. 6d x - A 
bufhel of hemp feed, 25. Six long hurdles, (claiis) 
6d. A Scot (bought in to fat) 6s. 6d. For the 
making of twelve capons, id. For ten geefe, as. ,- 
Four ftone. of cheefe, 35. 8d.-. One bufhel of fait, 
4d.- - Paid for threfliing of wheat, gd. per quar-r 
ter. Barley, id. ob. Oats, id. Peafe, 3d. - - 
For the fanning, or cleaning, (ventilation^ of nine. 
quarters of corn, 26.. For the mowing 22 acres 
of paflure, 95. 2d. per acre, ^d. 

Paid a carpenter for three days work, lod.^ A 

fliepherd's, or neatherd's wages for one year, gs. 

A carter's, 4od. A fwineherd's, isd. For tjae 

H 4 carriage 


carriage of a fvvan from this town to Wilton, by 
Brandon, with, 8cc. 2d. 

For the farm of twenty-one new milch cows, and 
their calves, for one year, 61. 6s. every cow valued 
at 6s. and ten calves were exceptcd of the bell for 
the lady of the manor, (lady Scales ;) and for the 
farm of nine hens, as. 30!. each hen at 3d. 

In this family of the lord Scales it continued, till 
Elizabeth, the only daughter and heir of Thomas, 
lord Scales, the lafl of that ancient family, brought 
it by marriage to Anthony Woodvile, earl Rivers, 
and lord Scales, who being attainted and beheaded 
in the reign of king Richard III. that king gave it, 
with many other lordfhips, to his great favou- 
rite, John Howard, duke of Norfolk; but on the 
acceflion of Henry VII. to the crown, that duke 
being attainted, it remained in the crown, till grant- 
ed, in the 2gth of Henry VIII. to fir Roger Town- 
fhend, and fo continues, being united to the other 
lordfhips in this town. 

HAVILE, or HAUVILE'S MANOR, This was the 
next capital manor in this town. At the furvey it 
was in the hands of the Conqueror, and Godric took, 
Care of it, or farmed it of him. 

r This lordfhip remained in the crown many years, 
till king Stephen gave it, with other manors, 
to William de Caineto, or Cheyney, in exchange for 
Mileham ; on condition, that if he or his fon fhould 
like Mileham better, that they might renounce it, 
which Cheyney did foon after, and fo was again 
lodged in the crown ; and the faid king granted it to 
the Hauviles, in whofe poffeffion it remained till the 
Townfhends had it by marriage. 


G A L L O W, in 

In 1333, James de Hauvile gave the king ten 
marks, for licence to have a fine to grant to 
Robert Tifiour and Maud his wife, the manors of 
Rainham and Dunton, and that they might regrant 
them to the faid James, and Ann, daughter of 
of James Wace, and the heirs of James and Ann ; 
and in 1345, fir James Hauvile was lord; and in 
1354, Roger de Cafton, who was reclor of Rain- 
ham St. Mary, was found to hold it in truft. 

Soon after, this lordfliip of Rainham-Hauviles 
came into the family of the Towhfliends, by the 
marriage of Elizabeth, daughter and heir of fir Tho- 
mas de Hay well, or Hauvile, knt. to Lewis de 
Townfhend ; as Collins, in his peerage, obferves ; 
but this does not appear from any records, or evi- 
dences, that we have met with ; and if an heirefs 
of Hauvile was married, as is above obferved, only 
fome part or portion of this manor came to the 
Tovvnfhends by that marriage. 

The Scogans, a family of good account, were 
about this time poiTeffed of the principal part of 
this lordfliip, and had their refidence here. Robert 
Scogan, of Rainham, was a witnefs to a deed of 
fir Thomas de la Rivere, knt. lord of Sporle, in 
1361. Thomas Scogan, efq. was in the retinue of 
the great Norfolk commander, fir Robert Knollcs, 
in 1378, and attended John, king of Caftiie and 
]Leon, and duke of Lancafler, in his expedition into 

John Scogan, of Eaft-Rainham, clerk, was lord 
of Hauviles in 1379. 

In 1391, John Scogan, (Capellane) aforefaid, died 
feifed of the manor of Hauviles, and Henry his 



brother was found to be his heir. TJiis was, as we 
prefume, that Henry Scogan, famous for his wit and 
humour in the time of king Henry IV. who wrote 
a ballad directed (as Stow informs us) to prince 
Henry, the king's Ion, Thomas duke of Bedford, 
and Humphry duke of Glou.ceiler, .at (upper with 
the merchants of London ; an author out of whom 
the faid hiilorian (as he teils us) gathered materials, 
and was buried in the clojfters of Weftminfter ab- 

In 1420, William Champneys, of Oxwick, corir 
firmed to William Marchall, efq. of Eaft-Rainham, 
Thomas Scogan, 8cc. feveral lands in aft-Rain- 
ham field and 

About this time lived Walter de Townfhend, who, 
is faid to have married Maud, daughter of fir Roger 
Scogan, who probably brought with her all Sco- 
gan' s right in this manor. After this we find nq 
mention made of any of that family as lords here : 
but in Edward IV. 's reign lived John- Scogan, de- 
fcended moll probably from this family, a celebrated, 
poet. Bale fays, he was by nature a jocofe and a 
witty man, profited fo much in philofophy, and 
other liberal arts, that he was A. M. at Oxford, and 
was fo greatly efteerned for his fmart and wittv 
expreffions, that he was fent for by king Edw. IV. 
to court ; where, as another Democritus, he turned 
all into jokes, mirth and laughter; publifhed cer- 
tain comedies, and a book, Ad proceres Curia, 8cc. 
Sir Richard Baker alfo mentions him as a learned 
gentleman, and a ftudent fometime at Oxford : from, 
him came the proverb, What Jays Scogane * 

John Townfhend, efq. who lived in the reign of 
Henry VI. was undoubtedly lord of the manor of 


CALLOW. 113 

Hauvilcs, died feifcd of it in 1465, from which 
time it has remained united to that of Ingolclef- 
thorpe, &c. 

had alfo at the furvey a fmall lordfhip here. 

This Roger Bigot was a principal commander un- 
der king William I. and attended him in his expe- 
dition into England, and was anceftor to the earls 
of Norfolk of that name ; but on the marriage of 
his daughter Maud with William de Albini, the 
king's chief butler, anceftor to the earls of Arundel, 
it came to the faid William, and feems to be held 
of the Albini's by the ancient family pf Rainham, 
who took their name from this town. 

Sir Edmund de Reynham, knt. was living irj 


After this we find no mention of the family of 
Rainham in this town. 

In the reign of Henry VI. it came into the fa- 
mily of Townfliend. Sir John Townfliend held it 
in queen Elizabeth's time, and was found to die 
feifcd of it in 1603, and it remains united with the 
other manors in the faid family. 

The EARL OF CLARE'S FEE, Rainald, fon of Ivo, 
had this lordfliip given him by the Conqueror, 

In 1176, Pope Alexander III. by his bull, con- 
firmed to John, bifhop of Norwich, the lands which 
William Fitz-Boteri gave to him in Weft-Rainham. 

John Atte Townfliend was found to held it of 
Roger Mortimer, earl of March ; and in the family 


U4 H U N D R E D O F 

of Townfhend it appears to be in the years 1424 
and 14.59, ar) d remains fo at this time, being united 
to the other lordfhips. 

Befides thefe lordfliips which were at the time of 
the conqueft, there were alfo fome little ones, or 
free tenements, which arofe afterwards out of thefe 
principal ones, viz. Hall's, PavneY and Morehoufe, 
found on the death of fir Roger Townfhend, bart. 
to be held of the manor of Ingoldeflhorpe, Staple's 
manor in Rainham, held of the manor of Hauvilcs, 
by foccage, and paying as. per ami, 

Here was alfo the manor of Roufc's. In 1407, 
it was pofleffed by Henry Scogan ; and in 1409, 
Robert Scogan enfeoffed certain perfons in the ma- 
nors of Routes and Hauvilcs, and afterwards came 
to the Townfliends, tocrecher with Hauviles ; and 
John Townfhend, efq. died feifed of them in 1465. 

NORMANSBURGH PpioRv. At a place fo called iu 
South-Rainham, William de Lifewis founded a little 
priory, about 1160, for the health of his own foul, 
that of Maud his wife, and Godfrey his fon, dedi- 
cating it to the blefled Virgin, and St. John the evan- 
gelift, appointing it for a cell to the priory of CafUe- 
acre, and endowing it with lands. Several donati- 
ons were afterwards given to this priory. 

This manor came from the Lifewifes, by two. 
daughters and coheirs, to the Ingaldefthorpes and 

The duke of Norfolk had a grant of it at the difr 
folution, and in 1554, on March 4, died feifed of 
it ; but in the 330! of Henry VIII. it was in the 
kings ha.nds, and farmed of the king, called the 


G A L L O W, 113 

manor of Lewfewifs : afterwards it came to the 
Townfhends, and in 1564 Roger Townfhend held 
all thofe, late the duke of Norfolk's, called Nor- 

RAINHAM ST. MARY'S Church, In this town 
were three churches, of which this was the chief, 
called alfo Eaft-Rainham, and is a reclory, 

It confiils of a nave, with two ifles, and a chan- 
cel covered with lead, and has a four-fquare tower, 
and four bells. On the fouth fide of it is a curious 
large dial, with a clock, creeled at the charge of the 
late Charles, lord vifcount Townfhend, and on the 
north fide of the church and chancel, a dormitory, 
but no monuments. 

Againft the north-eaft part of the chancel is a 
very fair tomb, but without any infcription, ere&ed 
to the memory of fir Roger Townfhend, the judge, 
agreeable to the will of the lady Elianore, his wife, 
with a canopy, Sec. of ftone work. On it were the 
arms of Townfhcnd ; azure, a chevron, crmin, be- 
tween three efcallops, argent, and that of Hauvile's, 
quarterly ; gules, a chevron, or, between three de 
lys, argent, impaling, quarterly, azure, a chevron, 
between three boars heads, couped, or, Lunsford, 
and argent, three chevronels, gules, a file in chief 
of three points, azure, Barrington. 

On a marble grave-ftone : Orate p. aia. Jo/is, 
Townjhcnd, Jilii Rogeri ct Elianore, qui obiit im die 
Oftob. Ao. Dm. MJCCCC.LXV. 

Orate p. aia. Gecrgii Town/hmd, Jilii Rogeri 'Town" 
JJiend, Armigeri. 



Robert Wolvey, of Rainharn Magna, buried here 
in 1524, gave by will to the repair of this church 
3!. and a crofs of filver of the price of lol, and 
makes his fpecial, and moft trufly in after, fir Roger 
Townfhend, fupervifor of his will. 

This chufch' has a nave, and a north iile, covered 
with lead, and a chancel with tiles. 

The patronage was anciently in the manor of 
Hauviie's, and was given by fir Thomas Hauvile, 
with one acre of land, to the priory of Miremond, 
in the ifle of Ely, by fine, in 1316. 

The Rev, Mr. Robert Adkin is reclor of Rainham 
St. Mary's with St. Margaret's, confolidated Dec. 
29, 1721, prefented by lord Townfhend in 1770. 

the diffolution of Blackburgh priory, the reclory, 
and advowfon of the vicarage, were granted May 5, 
anno 3d of Edw. VI. to fir Roger Townfhend. 

Soon after this it became a reclory again, and 
Henry Baldwin was reclor. 

This reclory was annexed to Helhoughton in 1 748, 
and the Rev. Charles Allen was prefented to the 
living by the late lord Townfhend, the fame year. 

RUDHAM, EAST, was the lordfhip of the earl 
Warren, held by Ralph, anceflor of John de Chey- 
ney, who founded C oxford priorv, and whofe daugh- 
ter, Emma, brought it to Michael Belet 7 in 1150, 
by marriage. 


CALLOW. 127 

This Michael was a judge in the 320! of Henry 
II. and high fheriff of Leicefterfhire, in the 2gth, 
3oth, 8cc. of that king. 

In the iGth of king John, Hervey Belet was lord, 
and had a grant of a fair to be held yearly. This 
Hervey gave to the priory of Coxford this lordfliip. 

COXFORD PRIORY MANOR, takes its name from 
its fcite on a fmall ftream, or rivulet, in this parifh.> 
Cock, or Cocker, occurs as the name of a river, as 
Cockermouth in Cumberland, Cockley, and Cock- 
fteld, in Suffolk. 

John de Cheyney was a great benefaelor, or found- 
er of it, for canons of the order of St. Auftin, who 
gave them the churches of Eafl and Wefl-Rudham, 
with their appurtenances. 

Hervey Belet gave them the lordfliip of Eafl Rud- 
ham, with lands in Geyton, Maiham, Syderllone, 
Barmer, and Croftwick, &c. for the maintenance of 
an hofpital at Boycodefwade, ' built by him, and a 
iecular chaplain to ferve therein for ever. 

In the nth of Henry III. the prior had a grant 
of a fair, which was confirmed in the 35th of the 
laid king, with piccage, ftallage, &c. 

In this priory were an abbot and nine black ca- 

King Hen. VIII. on the gth of May, in his 2gth 
year, gave the manor of Eaft Rudliam, with the 
fcite of the priory of Coxford, the impropriate rec- 
tory, and patronage of the vicarage, to Thomas 
Howard, duke of Norfolk. 



In the 21 ft of Elizabeth, Philip Howard, earl of 
Arundel, fon to the faid duke, had licence to alien 
it to fir Roger Townfhend, vvhofe immediate heir, 
the Right Hon, George, lord vifcount Townfhend, 
is the prefent lord. 

The abbey church was (landing (as fir Hen. Spel- 
man relates) in the reign of king James I. and in 
part of the abbey lived Henry Cornwallis, efq. (in 
the time of queen Elizabeth) and in a parlour here 
were the arms of the duke of Norfolk, in a garter ; 
and in a chamber, azure, a chevron, between three 
croffes, pattee, or; Calybut, quartering, or, a fal- 
tire vert: creft) a greyhound, paflTant, azure, pierced 
on the ftioulder with a martlet, argent. 

Ann Calybut, daughter and] coheir of Edgar Ca- 
lybut, ferjeant at law, was fecond wife of the laid 
Henry Cornwallis, efq. 

A parcel of Roman coins, in a little pot, were faid 
to be found in the ruins of the priory in 1719. 

The church of Eaft Rudham is dedicated to St< 
Mary, and was appropriated to the priory of Cox- 

In a fouth window of the chancel are the arms 
of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancafter, France and 
England, quarterly, with a label of three points, er- 
mine, impaling Caftile and Leon, quarterly. 

The prefent vicar is the Rev. Mr. Lancafter Fram- 
ingham, prefented by the prefent lord Townfhcnd in 


G A L L O W. 119 

RUDHAM, WEST. Rudham, at the furvey, 
included both Eaft and Weft Rudham, being not at 
that time diftingiiifhed by the name of Eaft and 
Weft, both which belonged to the earl Warren, the 
capital lord. 

FERRER'S MANOR. This lordfhip was in the fa- 
mily of de Cheney, and came by the marriage of 
Margaret, daughter and heir* of William Cheney, 
fbn of Ralph de Caineto, to Hugh de Crefii, a Nor- 
man, in the reign of Henry II. whofe fon', Roger 
de Crefli, married Ifafjel, daughter and coheir of 
Hubert de Rie, and widow of Jeff, de Chefter. This 
Roger being with the barons in i arms againft king 
John, his lands were feifed, and given to Robert de 
Ferrers ; and Henry de Ferrers was found to hold 
the fourth part of a fee in the reign of Henry II. 
Sir Guy de Ferrariis was living in the 15th of Ed- 
ward I. as was Edmund de Ferrers, of Weft Rud- 
ham, in the gift of the faid reign, and John de Fer- 
rers in the reign of Edward II. and one of the fame 
name occurs in the 2oth of Edward III. 

William Ruffe), Gent, lord of this m'ano'r, mar- 
ried Agnes, daughter of Thomas Walpole, Gent, of 
Houghton, and had by her Thomas, his fon and 
heir; and by Edith his wife, daughter and heir of 
Thomas Auftin, of Weft Rudham. left Henry his 
fon and heir, who took to wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of William Calybut, of Coxford, cfq. and was liv- 
ing in the reign of queen Elizabeth, and lord. 

The Right Hon the earl of Orford is the prefent 


tiort, Thomas, the prior of Caftle-acrc, conveyed 

I thus 


this manor to king Henry VIII. in his sgth year ; 
who foon after, December 22, in the faid year, con- 
veyed it to Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk ; and 
Philip, earl of Arundel, in the sift of Elizabeth, 
had licence to alienate it to fir Roger Townfhend, 
whofe direcl heir and fucceffor the Right Hon. 
Charles lord vifcount Townfhend was lord, and now 
George, lord vifcount, his fori. 

family of Valoins it came to the lord Robert Fitz- 
\Valtcr, (by the marriage of Gunnora, daughter and 
heir of the lord Robert de Valoins, who w r as lord 
of it in the reign of king John) and he granted it 
to the priory of St. Faith's, of Horfham. 

King Henry VIII. on Feb. 16, in his 35th year, 
granted it to his beloved counfellor, fir Richard 
Southwell, and Edward Elrington, efq. together \\iili 
the fcite of the priory of St. Faith's, in confideratioii 
of the nunnery of Denney, Sec. 

Richard Southwell, efq, was lord in the 8th of 
Elizabeth, and in the 15th of Elizabeth had a pra- 
cipe to render to fir Thomas Cornwallis his manor 
of Northall in Weft RudLam. 

It was afterwards united to the manor of Ferrers, 
and was poffeflTed by fir Roger Townfhend in 1580. 
in which family it remains. 

The temporalities of Coxford priory here, valued 
at 325. 4d. per aim, in 1428. Thefe were granted 
to the duke of Norfolk, with the impropiiated rec- 
tory, the patronage of the vicarage, and afterwards 
came to the Townfhends, as above. 


CALLOW. 121 

The church of Weft Rudham is dedicated to St. 
Feter, and was given by Hcrvey Belet to the priory 
of Coxford, and appropriated thereto. 

The patronage of this vicarage, as well as that of 
Eaft Rudham, which were confolidatcd October 18, 
1720, is in lord Townfhend : the prefent vicar, be- 
ing Mr. Lancafter Framingham, was prefented to the 
living in 1771. 

The chapel of All Saints, in the church-yard of 
t. Peter of Well Rudham, is mentioned in 1493. 

Thomas Auften, of Wfft Rudham, by his will 
in 1557, was buried' in the church. A grave-ftone 
with a brafs : In memory of Henry RuJJell, of Wejt 
Rudham, Efq. who died September 3, 1606; and in 
the chancel a grave-ftone for, Elizabeth Daniel, wife 
of Robert Daniel of London, merchant, tuho died 1626. 

On a grave-ftone lately put down, in 1778, to the 
memory of Mr. William Money, farmer, and tenant, 
to the lord vifcount Townfhend, his father and grand- 
father, who died in 1 7 7 7 : 

Titles and trophies deck the Jlatemans grave, 
And pompous tombs immortalize the brave: 
Tet rural virtue Jinds the road to fame, 
And boa/Is no title but an hone/I name. 
A plain good man lies here. -Heralds fay morf^ 
Who ufher pageants at the abbey-door! 
The path of honejly Will. Money trod: ~ 
*' An honejl mans the noblejt loork of God" 
Vain epitaphs the authors genius Jlww, 
While all is dujl, mere dujl, that lies below! 
*27s all mere duft ! the reft the poet's wit, 
Or whether 'tis Will. Money or Will. Pitt. 



RYBURGH MAGNA, fo called from its feite by 
the river, as Ryfing, &:c, \vas at the furvey the lord- 
fhip of Peter de Valoins ; and Ralph Facto was en- 
feofTed of it by his lord, Peter de Valoins. 

John de Munpinzun had a charter for free war- 
ren here, and in Ingoldefthoi pe, in the gth of Ed- 
ward I. 

In the i Sill of Edward II. it was forfeited by Ro- 
bert de Walkefare, probably on his taking part 
with the queen Ifabcl, and many of the barons, &c/ 
againft her hufband. 

It appears that the faid Robert was reflcred on 
the acceffion of king Edward III. 

In the 8th of Richard II. a fine was levied be- 
tween Joan, widow of fir Thomas Felton, (who died 
in or about the 4th of that king) and fir John 
UEftrange, knt. and Alianore his wife, daughter of 
fir Richard Walkefare, of this manor, thofe of Der- 
iingham and Ingoldefthorpe, who for 500!. convey- 
ed the fame to the lady Joan, appearing by this to 
be a moiety of the faid manors, &c. 

In the 6ih of Henry VI. this lordfhip feems to 
be in the Cokerells and Catherine, widow of John 
Cokerell, fenior. of Afhfield in Suffolk, poffcffed 
it ; whofc fon John dving before her, left a daughter 
and heir, Catherine : fhe died poflTeffed of it and the 
advowfon, in the loth of the faid king. 

On the diffblution, king Henry VIII. on the loth 
of March, in his goth year, granted it to fir William 
Butts, knight, and Margaret his wife, daughter and 

heirefs of Bacon, of Cambridgefhire, for life. 


CALLOW. 123 

Me was doclor of phyfic, educated at Cambridge, 
chief phyfician to the king, one of the founders 
of the college of phyficians at London ; in whofe 
records he ftancls highly characterized for his emi- 
nent learning and knowledge, fmgular judgment, and 
great experience, and is much extolled for his learn- 
ing by many authors, who lived in his time ; was 
knighted by the name of William Butts of Norfolk, 
and dying the lyth of November, 1545, was buri- 
ed in the church of Fulham, by London. He kit 
three fons, 

Sir William, the elder}, was lord of Thornage in 
Norfolk, who married Joan, the eldeft daughter and 
coheir of Henry Buers, of Aketon, or Aclon in Suf- 
folk, efq. he was eminent for his valour, and had 
an augmcntatioh of honour on a canton in his arms, 
and \vas llain at Mufleburgh Field in the ill of Ed- 
ward VI, 

Thomas Butts, efq. the fecond fon, was lord of 
this manor, and married Bridget, fecond daughter 
and coheir of Henry Buers, efq. aforcfaid, but dy- 
ing without iflue, as his elder brother fir William 
did, Edmund Butts, efq. of Barrow in Suffolk, the 
third brother, was his heir, arid lord of this town ; 
and by Ann, third daughter and coheir of the afore- 
faid Henry Buers, had Ann, his only daughter and 
heir ; who brought this lordfhip by marriage to fir 
Nicholas Bacon, of Redgrave in Suifolk, eldeft frn 
and heir of fir Nicholas' Bacon, lord keeper of the 
great leal, by Jane his firft wife, daughter of Wil- 
liam Fernley, efq. of Cretyngc in Suffolk, who was 
created the firft baronet in England, May 22, 1611, 
and fir Edward Bacon, bart. his defcendent, died 
poffeffed of it. 

I * Butt* 


Butts bore, azure, on a chevron, between three 
efloils or, as many lozenges, guks. 

The church of Ryburgh Magna is a reclory, de- 
dicated to St. Andrew. 

On the north fide of the chancel, an altar tomb 
xvith feveral arms, but no infcription. On a grave- 
ftone near it : Sir Robert Bacon, of Redgrave in the 
county of Suffolk, Bart, dcceafed Dec. 16, 1655, and 
Dame Ann his wife, the sjth of Sept. 1640. 

The patronage of this reclory is in Mrs. Mary 
Bacon, eldeft daughter of fir Edmund Bacon, late 
of Garboldifliam, premier baronet qf England, and 
many years knight of the fliire for the county of 

In the year 1761, the prefent rector, the Rev. 
Charles Mordaunt, fon of fir Charles Mordaunt, 
bait, (knight of the fliire for Warwickfhire) and rec- 
tor of Little MafTmgharn, was preierited to this liv- 
ing by Mrs. Bacon. 

RYBURGH PARVA, feems to have been held 
pf the carl Warren by Peter de Valoins. 

PAVELI'S MANOR. This feems to have been held 
by the ancient family of De Paveli, in Richard I. 

In the 46th of Edw. III. Elizabeth, wife of Ri- 
chard Talbot, anceftor of the earls of Salifbury, held 
In demean eight fees. She was daughter of John 
Comyn, of Badenagh, heir to Valence, earl of Pem- 
broke, and held them of the cattle of Acre. 

Befides the family of Paveli, the family of 
VVood-Dalling held a part of this manor of the earl 


CALLOW. 125 

Warren, and had a right in the patronage of the 
church, as will afterwards appear. 

In the 4th of Henry VII. Roger Townftiend, efq. 
and Ann his wife, held this lordfhip: in this family- 
it remains, the right honourable George lord vifcount 
Townfhend being the prefent lord. 

BINHAM PRIORY MANOR, The lord Valoins had 
a lordfhip aifo in this tc,wn, granted to, him by the 

Tyrus. -who was enfepffed of this lordfljip under 
the lord Valoins, was anceflor of the family of Wood- 
Dalling, and is fometimes called (as we take it) Tu- 
rald de Baling. 

At the diflblution, it came to the Paftons of , 

.and after to the Bacons ; and fir Edmund Bacon 
died polfeffed oi it in 1755, 

the 6th of EdvvaicJ. I, the prior held a part of the 
barony of Valoins, 

At the diflblution it was granted, Dec. 3, anno 
35th of Henry VIII. to Robert and Giles Town- 
ihend, efqrs. on the payment of sgs. 3d. ob. per 
ann. They \vere younger ions of fir Roger Town- 
fhend, who foon after had licence to alienate it to fir 
Roger, their brother; and fir John Townfhend was 
found to die poffeifed of it in the ill of king James 
I. in which family it remains, the right lion. George 
lord vifcount Townijierid being lord, 

WOOD-HALL MANOR. It was in the priory of 
Walfmgham, in the 3d of Henry IV. 


125 H U N D R E D O F 

At the diffolution it was granted to fir William 
Butts, M. D. from whofe family it came to the 

The church is dedicated to All-Saints. 

The reftory was granted by king Henry VIII. in 
his 334 year, to fir Thomas' Paflon, km. with the 
patronage of the vicarage. 

The Rev. Charles Mordaunt is the prefent reclor 
of this and Great Ryburgb, confolidated June 18, 
1750, being prefented by Mrs. Bacon in 1761. 

SCULTHORPE, was a lordfhip belonging to the 
earl Warren. It is called in the book of Doomfday 
Sculetorpa, a thorp on a flioal, or ihailow dream, or 

The family of De Pavili, or Pavilley's, were foon 
after the conqueft enfeoMed of this lordfhip. 

John, earl Warren and Surrey, by deed, dated at 
Lincoln Auguft 5, in the loth of Edward II. gave 
to fir Walter de Norwich this manor and advowfon, 
in exchange for that of Skredington in Lincolnfliire. 

In the reign of Richard II. fir Robert Knolles, 
knight of the garter, arid Conftantia his lady, were 
pofleffcd of this manor. 

As this fir Robert was a perfon of remarkable 
merit and eminency, for his conduct and valour in 
his time, and as he lived and died at his manor- 
houfe in this town, we fhall take the liberty of in- 
ferring feveral occurrences of his life, that v/e have 
rnet with from old evidences. 


G A L L O W. *i>7 

-He is by moft authors faid to be born of mean 
parentage in the county of Chefhire, though Dug- 
dale feems to fuggeft the contrary, as if defcenc'ei 
from a family of note, or account, in their times : 
he was at firft however a perfon of low fortune, but 
betaking himfelf to a military life, he became an 
eminent commander under king Edward III. in the 
wars in France, from being a common foldier, and 
acquired great fortunes ; had a grant of White-caflle, 
and that of Fenchery, in Britany; and in the o > 2d 
of that king, took the city of Auxerre, Sec. for the 
king of Navarre. 

In 1560, Conftantia, his wife, failed over into 
Britany, and carried to his affiftance twenty men of 
arms, fourteen archers on horfeback, &:c. and had 
provided for him at her own charge, three fhips and 
two crays; and in 1365, John duke of Britany, for 
Jiis fervices, gave him many lands, Sec. 

In the 44th of the faid reign, he was retained to 
ferve the king again in the wars of France for two 
years, from the nativity of St. John the Baptift, in 
1370, with two thoufand men of arms, and two 
thoufand archers ; none of the men to be railed out 
of Northumberland, Durham, or Weftmoreland; 
and fo great was the deftruclion he made, that the 
fharp points, and gable ends of the houfes, Sec. that 
lie overthrew, were called Anowles's Miires. 

In the 2d year of king Richard II. he was with 
John, duke of Lancafter, in his Spanifh expedition, 
and had letters of protection then, dated July 16, 
being a knight of the gaiter. 

In the 4th of Richard II. he had a grant of the 
jnanor of St. Pancras, in Middlefex, to him and 



his vvife Conftantia, and for his good fervices in fub- 
duing Wat Tyler's rebellion, was enfranchized a 
member of the city of London in the laid year; 
and having made a vpw to go to Rome, had, in the 
igth of that king, a licence for himfclf and twelve 
p j'ons, and for what money he would by a bill of 
ex change, and to flay there as long as he would, 
with protection for all his lands, tenants, and fer- 
vant, during the time of his abfence. 

In the gd of Henry IV. John Gerneys releafed to 
him, and fir Hugh Brown, knight, two meffuages 
and thirty-four (hops, in the parifti of St. Mary at 
Hill, in Billingfgate ward, London, to be fettled on 
fir Robert's college, or hofpital, at Pontefracl in 

He died full of years, aged 92, at his manor-houfe 
in this town, (Grafton lavs at London) on Auguft 15, 
1407, and was honourably buried in the body of 
the church of the Carmelite Friers, fn Fleet-ftrcet, 
London, by his lady Conflantia. Who this lady 
was does not appear from any hiftorian that we have 
fcen. In the church of Harpley, and in this of 
Sculthorpe, are the arms of fir Robert, who bore, 
for the moft part, gules, on a chevron, argent, three 
rofes of the firll ieeded, or, impaling argent, a fefs 
daunce, between three leopards faces, fable, bore by 
Beveriey, a family of good account in Yorkfhire, 
which we prefume was her name. Leland fays fhc 
was of mean birth, and born at Pontefracl; in York- 
fhire, and prevailed on her hufband to found the 
college there, and not at Sculthorpe, as he intend- 
ed. As a knight of the garter, he had fupporters to 
his arms; two naked favages, ftanding by two 
trees ; the crefl, a ram's head, as appears from his 

G A L L O W. 

1 29 

He obtained }n the wars of France f'uch immenfc 
wealth, that king Richard II. pawned feveral of his 
mo ft valuable jewels and filver veffels to him and 
as liis fortunes were great, (b were his charitable acls 
and works equal to them. He built the flately 
bridge at Rochefler over the Medway, with a chapel, 
and a chauntry a:: the eaft end of it ; ' the churches ojf 
Sculthorpe and Harpley, and re-edified the conven- 
tual church of the White Friers, for the mod part, 

In the 4th of Richard II. he had licence to amor- 
tife to the Carthufian priory, in London, 40!. per 
ann. out of the manor of Dunftall in Kent. 

In the 8th of that king, licence was granted to 
him, and Conftantia his wife, to found the college 
of Pomfret, in a houfe of theirs, and the king then 
incorporated them; and on June 11, in the loth 
of Richard II. fir Robert granted to Robert Bray- 
brook, bifhop of London, fn John Cobham, knight, 
John Drew-, clerk, and John Seymour of London, all 
his manors, lands, tenements, advovvfons, Sec. in 
Norfolk. This was in order to fettle them on the 
aforefaid college. 

In the 8th of Henry IV. fir Robert conveyed by 
fine to his truftees, John Drew, and John Se\- 
rnour, of London, this lordfhip, with thole of Dun- 
ton, Kcttleftone, Tatterford, Tatterfet, Burnham, Sec. 
and by an inquifition taken at Eaft Rudham in Nor- 
folk in the faid year, on Tuelday after the Annun- 
ciation of the Virgin, before William Roos, the 
king's efcheator, it was found that it would not be 
to the king's lofs, Sec. if he granted licence to John 
Drew, parfon of Harpley, and John Seymour, of 
London, to give and affign to John Stedman, matter, 
or cuflos, and the chaplains of the college of the 


130 H U N D R E D OF 

Holy Trinity, called Knolles's Alms-houfe, in Pan- 
tcfracl, and their fuccedbrs, the manors of Scul- 
thorpe, Dunton, Kettleftone, Tatterford, Burnham- 
Overy, with the appurtenances, and the advowfons 
of the churches of Dunton cum Doketon, Tatter- 
ford, and Sculthorpe, for their maintenance, and 
that of the poor men therein, ferving God ; and it 
was then found that this lordfhip was held in capitr, 
by the third part of a fee, and valued at 20!. per 
ann. beyond all reprifes. 

Leland obferves, that it was a college, with an 
hofpital joined to it ; in the college was a mafler, 
yvith fix or feven priefts, and in the hofpital thirteen 
poor men and women, and was valued at iSol. per 
ann. Befides the mefluagcs, Sec. in London, Sec. 
above-mentioned, there was alfo one in Darlington 
jettled on the faid hofpital. 

On the diflblution of the faid hofpital, this lord- 
fliip, with the advowfon of the rectory, was granted 
May 17, in the 9 } d of Edward VJ. to fir William 
Fermor, and fir Richard Fulmerflon ; fir William 
dying feifed of it, it came to his nephew, Thomas 
Fermor, efq. of Eaft Bafham, who, in the 24th of 
Elizabeth, aliened by licence five mefiuages, fix tofts, 
two hundred acres of land, and one hundred and 
forty-feven of pafture, in this town and Fakenham, 
to Salathiel Kynderfley, clerk. 

William Fermor, efq. ion of Thomas, was lord 
In 1627, whofe daughter and heir, Mary, being 
married to James Calthorpe, efq. he was lord in her 
right, and flie dying without any furviving iffue, it 
came to his fon, fir Chriftopher Calthorpe, who died 
feifed of it in 1717, and by his daughters and co- 
heirs, to fir Thomas L'Eftrange, bart. and on his 


CALLOW. 131 

death to fir Henry, his brother, as in Eaft Bafiiam, 
and 011 his death to his two fillers and their heirs. 

The church is dedicated to St. Marv, or All Saints. 

In the chancel, on a brafs, 


Here lytth Sir John Brown, 
Smnetyme Parijli Priift .cf this -town. 

This church is a re&ory, and the patronage is in! 
Daniel Jones, efq. of Cranmer, and his cldefl fon^ 
Mr. Matthew Jones, is" the prefent reftor, prefented 
in 1767. 

During the life of the late lord Townfhend, the 
prefent lord Townfhend refided at Cranmer for many 
years, and greatly improved and ornamented the 
lioufe and buildings,- 

day-book it is wrote Sciraforda, that is, a ford over 
a clear water, and was the lordfhip of the earl War- 

Sir Richard de Plays wsrs lord of this manor in 
the time of Henry VI. whofe daughter and hcirels 1 
married John earl of Oxford. 

The Wingfielcls, and lord Latimcr, were lords of 
of it in the reign of queen Elizabeth. 

The family of the Townfhends were after lords of 
Plays manor in Sherford, in the reign of queen Eli- 
zabeth ; and fir Roger Townfhend, bart. in 1630, in 
which family it remains, the right hon. George lord 
vifcount Townfhend being the prefent lord. 



In this town was a water-mill, with twentv 
acres of land, held of fir John Howard's manor, 
which belonged to Knolles's hofpital at Pontefraclj 
and at the diffolution of it were granted to fir Wil- 
liam Fermor, and fir Richard Fulmerflon, anno gd 
of Edward VI. May 14, and was part of the manor 
of Tattei-ford. 

The church is dedkated to St. Nicholas. 

The patronage of Sherford is in lord To'wnfliend, 
who prefented the Rev: Mr. James Cory to the rec- 
tory in 1766. 


king's manor of Fakenham extended into this village. 

This was porTeffed by the family of De Hauviles; 
by petit flrjednty ; after them Thomas de Mileham, 
in the 8th of Edward III. and afterwards by Nicho- 
las de Attechurch. 

The earl Warren had alfo two focmeri, with lands 
here, belonging to his manor of North Bafham. 

But the principal lordfliip was, at the furvey, in 
Peter de Valoins. 

WALCOTE and BOLES MANOR. Ralph, -,vho held 
this lordfliip under the lord Valoins, was probably 
the anceftor of the family of De Snaring, of this 

Ralph Le Strange was found to be heir in the 3$d 
of Edward I. 


CALLOW. 133 

Robert de Berney, and Margaret his wife, one of 
the daughters and coheirs of of fir Walter de Wai- 
cote, had this manor. 

Catherine, widow of John Cokerell, of Albergri- 
Wykes in Suffolk, died feifed, the 6th of Hen. VI. 
of the manor of Walcote's and Bole's in this town. 

In the sgthof Henry VI. George Heath, of Mil- 
denhall, rcleafed to Humphry duke of Bucks, all 
his right in Walcote's and Bole's manor ; but in fhc 
i8th of Henry VII. Chriftopher Conyers conveyed 
it to the Hey dons. 

About 1570, fir Chriftopher Heydori was lord; 
and fir William Heydon fold it to fir George Kingf- 
mill, who was lord in 1 603 ; after this it was fer- 
jeant Gwin's ; and Mr. Matthew Helcotte poffeffed 
it ; then fir Jacob Aftley, bart. was lord, and fit 
Edward, his fon, now pofeffes it. 

The church is dedicated to St. Andrew, and a 
rec~lory ; it is covered with lead, the chancci is tiled, 
has a round tower, with three bells, and (lands dif- 
tant from the church about eight feet. 

The Rev. Mr. William Heme is patron of this 
reclory, and prefented Mr. John Herne in 1774. 

in Doomfday-book Eflanbyrda, and Stabyrda. The 
family of De Pavili was, foon after the conqueft, 
enfeoffed, by the eaii Warren, of this lordftiip, and 
Was alfo feifed of the king's manor here belonging to 

In the 5th of Edward II. Robert de Repps was 
lord and patron, 


IQ H U N D R E. D O F 

In the gth of Henry IV. Henry Scogan was lord; 
ajid in the i 2th of Henry VI. Richard Bofoun, efq. 
John Champneys, clerk, .See. releafe to Thomas 
Champneys, clerk, by deed dated July 10, all their 
right in this manor. 

Roger Townfhend, efq. and Ann his wife, held 
it, with the advowfon of the church, in the 4th of 
Henry VIII. and by an inquifition taken Novem- 
ber 1, .in the ift year of king James I. fir John 
Townfhend was found to die feifed of the manor of 
Stibbard, held of the king's manor of Fakenham, 
in foccage, and paying 35. 4d. per arm. and that of 
Pavili's, held of the manor of Sculthorpe, in free 
foccage, and in this honourable family it continues. 

The church is dedicated to All Saints, and is a 
feclory, confolidated with Col kirk in Launditch hun- 
dred. It has a nave, with a north ifle, and a fquare 
tower with two bells. 

The patronage of this reclory is in lord Town-' 
fhend, who prefented the Rev. Mr. Thomas Martin 
in i 769. 

This town belonged principally to Alan, earl ot 
Richmond, at the grand furvey. 

This Alan was alfo earl of Britany in France, a 
principal commander in the deciiive battle near 
Haft ings, and married Conftance, one of the daugh- 
ters of William the Conqueror. By this family the 
Kerdeftons were enfeoffed of this iordfhip, of the 
manor of Richmond in Yorkfhire. 

CALLOW. 155 

In the 12th of Henry VII. May 25, Edmund de 
la Pole, earl of Suffolk, granted to Elizabeth Rob- 
fcrt, widow of fir Terry Robfert, for life, and to 
William Robfert, her fon and heir, all his right and 
title in this lordfhip. 

John Robfert, fecond fon of fir Terry Robfert, 
was lord of this manor, and fheriff of Norfolk and 
Suffolk, in the ift year of Edward VI; 

Soon after this he died, leaving by Elizabeth hi* 
wife, daughter of John Scot, of Camberwell, efq. 
in Surry, a daughter and heir, Ann. 

Ann, his daughter, married fir Robert Dudley, 
afterwards earl of Leicefler, who had a grant of this 

This lady came to an unhappy death at Mr. 
Fofter's houfe at Cumnore, near Oxford, by a fall 
from the flairs, and was buried in St. Mary's, the 
univerfity church at Oxford. The earl held this 
manor for his life, dying lord of it in 1588, when 
it came to John Walpole, efq. for* and heir of Ed- 
ward Walpole, efq. of Houghton, and Lucy his 
wife, daughter of fir Terry Robfert, and in this fa- 
mily it remains, the right hon. George earl of Or- 
ford being lord. 

Henry IV. the prior held the manor of Sydeftera 
Wyks of the earl of Arundel. 

In the sgth of Henry VIII. the prior .conveyed it 
by fine to the king, and the king to the duke of 


136 H XJ N D R E D O F 

C OXFORD PRIORY. This was granted May g, 
anno sgth of Henry VIII. to Thomas duke of Nor- 

The church is dedicated to St. Mary, and has a 
nave, and a fouth ifle, covered with lead, (the north 
ifle is down) with a round ileeple, and one bell. 

On a mural monument of ftone, in the chancel, 
with the arms of Corbet ; or, a raven proper, im- 
paling Thornton ; argent, a chevron between three 

holly branches, vert. In memoriam Maria JpeElata 

probilatis, uxoris nuper Edwi. Corbet, redoris hujus ec- 
clejitf Jdia Rogeri Thornton, equitis aurati de Snailwell, 
in com. Cantabr. qua uniquam poji Je relinqucrts Jdiolam 
Mariam nomine, fanclijffime obiit in Jide cultuq. Jcju, 
Ao. Dni. 1630, Aug. 27. 

Jane Peyton, daughter of fir Edward Peyton, of Ijle- 
ham in Cambridgejhire, Knt. and Bart, by dame Jane 
his wife, living virtuoujly, and dying comfortably, was 
buriid February 8, A. D. 1632. Her picture is on 
the wall, kneeling, and an angel flanding at each 

The earl of Orford is patron of this rectory, and 
the Rev. Charles Bagg, D. D. minifter of St. Mar- 
garet's in Lynn Regis, the prefent redor, prefented 
to the living in i j:6o. 

TATTERFORD, fo called from the river Tat. 
Humphrey de Bohun had a grant of it at the con- 

Humphrey de Bohun was a kinfman to William 
duke of Normandy, and attended him on the con- 
queft of this realm, and is called Humphrey with 


CALLOW. 137 

the Beard, moft of the Normans then (having their 
faces. It does not appear that he was pofleifcd of 
any other lordfhip in Norfolk, at the general furvey, 
than this of Tatterford ; and was anceflor to the 
Bohuns, earls of Hereford and Effex. It is proba- 
ble this lifrdfhip remained not long in this family. 

In the gth of king John Henry de Hauvile was 
lord, who granted to Pagan de Tatterford his right 
of prefentation to this church, with zjalvo jure. 

Afterwards it was in fir Robert Knolles, who had 
free warren here in the sd of Richard II. His right 
herein came from fir James Hauvile and fir Robeit 
Tyffour, and was fettled by him on his college, or 
holpital, of PontefracT: in Yorkfhire, with the advow- 

On the diffolution of this hofpital, it was granted 
May 17, in the 3d of Edward VI. to fir William 
Fermor and fir Richard Fulmerfton. Thomas Fer- 
mor, efq. of Eafl-Bafham, fold it to Thomas Grave t 
cfq. of Lynn, whofe daughter and heir brought by 
marriage to Henry Vilet, efq. this Iqrdfhip, with that 
of Tatterfet. 

The prior of Coxford had lands here, farmed by 
Henry Fermor, efq. in the 7th of Henry VIII. 

The church is dedicated to St. Margaret, and is 
a rectory. 

TATTERSET, fo called as being feated on a ri- 
vulet, or ftream, called anciently the Tat. In an- 
cient and modern writings it is frequently wrote Tat- 
terfet, alias Qatefend. 

K 2 Remerus 


Rcmerus held it under the earl Warren, the capi- 
tal lord at the furvey. 

Remerus feems to be the anceftor of the family 
of De Pinkenye, lords of this town. 

PINKENY'S MANOR. William de Pinkeni by deed, 
Jam date, confirmed to Ralph the prieft, his kinf- 
man, and to his brother John, the lapds here. - 
Ralph was once in the year to attend on, and ride 
out with William, at his charge, &c. 

James de Pynkeney was lord in the gth and 
of Edward III. About this time feveral of this fa- 
mily had an intereft here. 

After this it was poffeffed, in part, by fir Robert 
Knoll cs, who fettled it on his college or hofpital of 
Pomefraft, as in Sculthorpe: and, on the diffolution 
of that houfe, was granted May 17, in the gd of 
Edward VI. to fir William Fermor and fir Richard 
Fulmerflon. Thomas Fermor, in the i6th of Eli- 
zabeth, had licence to convey them to Thomas 
Grave, Gent. 

Catherine, daughter and heir of Thomas Grave, 
merchant, and mayor of Lynn in 1567, 1574, and 
1584, brought it by marriage tp Henry Vilet, of 
Kings Lynn, merchant, and mayor in 1590 and 

Henry, by Catherine his wife, was father of Grave 
Vilet, of Pinkeny hall, efq. who by Jane, daughter 
of William Butts, of Shouldham-Thorpe, efq. and 
Jane his wife, daughter of - Cocket, of Brunf- 
thorpe, had Thomas Vilet, his fon and heir. Grave, 
Vilet, fon of Thomas, married Frances, daughter 
of John Brown, of Brilley, Gent. 


CALLOW. 139 

George Vilet, efq. was the laft heir male of this 
family, and left, by Frances, feveral daughters and 
coheirs ; Diana, married to fir Robert Drury, bart. 
who died without iflue ; Ann, married to Charles 
Wright, efq. of Kilverflone ; and Frances, to John 
Harris, elq. of Burnham. The lady Diana Drury 
died pofTefTed of this town, and then it came to the 
Wrights of Kilverflone, and Charles Wright is the 
prefent lord. 

Tjie prior of Coxford had a manor here, which 
was granted, May 9, by king Henry VIII. in his 
year, to Thomas duke of Norfolk. 

SENGHAM, was an hamlet belonging to Tatterfet. 
In thi$ town were two churches, St^ Andrew's and 
All Saints. 

The church of All Saints was a reclory, in the 
patronage of the priory of Caftle-acre, in the reign 
of king Edward I. as was alfo St. Andrew's church. 

The Rev. Mr. John Wright, jun. was prefented 
to the united rectories of Tatterfet St. Andrew, with 
All Saints, alias Gatefend, and Tatterford, by Tho- 
mas Wright, efq. in 1767. 

Ju the church of Tatterfet are grave-ftones : 7 
memory of John Walpolc, efq. who died Dec. 1 i , 1 654. 
Edw. Pepys, ejq. who died 2*d Dec. 1663, aged 46, 
Pepys, daughter of Edward, who died Sept. 8,, 

TES TEUTON, was the lordfliip of Peter dc 
Valoins at the furvey, out of which Toka, a free- 
man, was expelled at the conqueft. 


It is called in Doomfday-book, Eftretuna, being 
feated by a running water, or river, that comes from 

The family of De Snaring, lords of Snoring- 
Parva, enjoyed it under the family of De Valoins. 

In the isth of Henry VI. July 10, Thomas 
Champney, clerk, was lord. 

Roger Rawlyn was lord in 1395, and prefented 
to the church. 

Agnes, the daughter of William Rokewode, efq. 
of Warham, jun. fettled this lordfhip on her huf- 
band, fir Nicholas Appleyard, of Bracon-afh in Nor- 
folk, who died lord in 1511. 

John Appleyard, efq. was lord in the 2d of Ed- 
ward VI. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Ro- 
bert Hogan, efq. of Eaft Bradenham, was high fhe- 
riff of Norfolk and Suffolk in 1558, and bore for 
his arms, azure, a chevron or, between three ow- 
lets, argent. This John fold to Thomas Townfhend t 
efq. this lordfhip; and in 1572 John Stanley, Gent, 
is faid to hold it in right of his wife, (probably re- 
lict of this John) the reverfion being in Thomas 
Townfhend, then a minor, fon of Thomas Town- 
fhend, who purchafed it of Appleyard, and was a 
younger fon of fir Roger Townfhend, knt. of Rain- 
ham, by Ann his wife, daughter and coheir of fir 
Thomas Brewfe; which Thomas Townfhend, efq. 
married Elizabeth, daughter of John Calybut, of 
Caflle-acre, efq. and left Thomas, his fon and heir, 
who by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Richard Cat- 
lyn, of Honingham, ferjcant at law, had Thomas 
Townfliend, efq. and by Elizabeth his wife, daugh- 

CALLOW. 141 

tcr of Richard Timperly, of Hintlefham in Suffolk, 
efq. left Dorothy, his daughter and heir, who brought 
this manor by marriage to Thomas Bedingfeld, efq. 
whole fon and heir, Anthony, married Ann, daugh- 
ter of , who was his widow in 1621.4 Thomas 

Bedingfeld, efq. his fon, died in , and left An- 
thony Bedingfeld, efq. lord of this town, and of 
Holm-Hale, and dying in 1707, Francis, his fon 
and heir, fold it to John Curtis, efq. of Wells. 

Mr. Benoni Mallet, of Dunton, is the prefent 
lord, 1757. 

The church of Teflerton is dedicated to St. Re- 
migius, and is a re&ory. . 

The Rev. Mr. Anthony Carr was prefented to this 
reclory in 1 749, by Melfrs. William Lake, Thomas 
Waterhoufe, and John Curtis. 

TOFTREES, or TOFTES. Part of this town 
was a beruite to the earl Warren's manor of Scul- 

It is called in Doomfday-book, Tofsas and Toftes, 
and feems to take its name from toft, a dwelling, and 
Jas or cs, by the water : fome conceive it to take its 
name from Rys, (being called afterwards Toftrys) 
from a family that lived here in the reign of Ri- 
chard II. 

The noble family of De Playz were, foon after the 
conqueft, enfeofTed of many lordfhips by the earl 

Sir Hugh de Playz was lord in the reign of king 
John, and one of the. rebellious barons a gain ft him. 


142 HUNDRED Ofc" 

Richard de Playz, in the 53d of Henry III. as 
one of the nephews and heirs to the lord Richard 
Montfitchet, paid his relief for the third part of 
Montfitchet's lands, and was lord of this manor in 
the 4oth of Henry III. 

Sir Richard de Playz, had a fummons to parlia- 
ment in the nth, &c. of Edward II. and paid to 
the hundred court of Brothercrofs. 

Richard, his heir, by his wife Margaret, daughter 
of fir Walter de Norwich, left John, his fon and 
heir, aged eighteen years, who married Joan, daugh- 
ter of 'fir Miles Stapleton, of Ingham ifi Norfolky 
and by her had a daughter and heir, Margaret, mar j 
ried to fir John Howard, anceflor of the dukes of 

Sir John Howard, by Margaret, daughter and heir 
of fir John Plaiz, had a Ion, fir John Howard, 
who died in 1410, and bv Joan his wife, daughter 
of fir Richard Walton, left Elizabeth, his daughter 
and heir, who married John Vere, efq. earl of Ox- 
ford, beheaded in the firft year of king Edw. IV. 
whofe grandfon John, earl of Oxford, dying with- 
out iflue, this lordfhip came to his three fitters and. 
coheirs ; ; Elizabeth, married to fir Ant. Wingfieid ; 
Dorothy, to John Nevill, lordLatimer; and Urfula 
to fir Edward Knightley ; and Urfula dying without 
iflue, one moiety of the manor was vefied in the 
lord Latimer, and the other in Wingfieid. 

HEMPTON PRIORY MANOR. Henry, fon of Roger 
de Warham, releafed by fine to Richard, prior of 
Hempton, his right in a meffuage here. 


G A L L O W. 143 

In the 2oth of Henry VII. this lordfhip was 
charged with an annuity of sos. per ann. payable to 
Henry Fermor, efq. of Eaft Bafham, for life ; and 
on the gth of September, in the 3yth of Henry VIII. 
granted to fir William Fermor, and the lady Cathe- 
rine his wife, and after, came with the patronage of 
the vicarage and the rectory, from the duke of Nor- 
folk, to Rothwell, Clifton, and the lord !_ ownfliend. 

The manor of Hauvile's, in Rainham, extended 
into this town,; and Thomas de Hauvile held it in. 
the 30th of Edward I. Henry Scogan held it in the 
gth of Henry IV. foon after it came to the Town- 
fhends ; and in the ayth of Henry VI11. was poflefled 
by fir Roger Townfhend, as may be feen in Rain- 
ham, and fo was joined to the capital manor; the 
whole town being now in the lord Townfliend. 

The Cliftons of this town were a family of good 

In the 43d of Elizabeth, one Evans took the fon 
of one Clifton, a gentleman of Norfolk, who was 
taught to fing for his recreation, by virtue of a com- 
miflion to take children for the king's fervice in his 
chapel, but he being a gentleman's fon, Evans, for 
that offence, was grievoufly puniflied. 

The church of Toftes is dedicated to All Saints, 
and was a rectory. 

Peter, lord Valoins, founder of Binham priory, 
confirmed to it, in the reign of Henry I. two pares 
of the tithes of this lordfhip. 

Robert, prior of Lewes, and the convent, grant- 
ed the appropriated rectory, and portion aforefaid, 
"K L with 


with the patronage of the vicarage, to the king, bv 
fine, anno 29th of Henry VIII. and the king, ort 
December 22, in the faid year, granted them to Tho- 
mas duke of Norfolk. 

In the chancel, againfl the north wall, is a mar- 
ble compartment, on the fummit of which is the 
arms of Clifton ; cheque, or, and gules, a bend over 
all, ermine, and in an oval, below if a globe, with 
an arm over it, iffuing out of the clouds, holding a 
lilly, and this motto, Mihi minus in lubricum ; in the 
center, on a black marble ; 

Sijle vivcns, qma niorili-rns cs, et medltare moriucs 

Tutri HEXRICUS CLIFTON, Armiger, ft uxor 
Maria, Jilia Thomte Crofts, de Fdmingham, Armig. qui 
quondam ttinj unius JJcj ct fide, ct timore Jrai vixerc ; 
dune vellefuo et pace manumijji, rccrjjere. I lie, A. D, 
1620, jEiat. 57, Ilia A. D. 1603, ^.36. Qjtorum 
jam nomina mcmoritf ct pice ct humane et ojjiciojtf, non 
ingratc ddnia, lie cito nimis evadcrent, out Tu illorum 
ncfcius abires, hoc nulio quafi, (Jed quali potuu) mnemo- 
Jjno curavit jilius. 

(hied tcntum potv.i pofilis pro nomine, fignh 
Filius (unus tnim Una de prole, rdiclus 
Hue tifq; e^i/lo) lacrymas ct Junera Jolvo. 
Sic ezo InJTatam (non duru tramite) vitam 
Deponam placidc, Jic me vixiffe bonorum 
Confenjus memoret, nam non bene vivcre, non tft. 
Sic tandem JLihcrium moritiirus udire partntem 
{His ego priralm) nu (liter dumjkbiis uliro 
Circurnjiei proles, qu<z nojlrum nomen et omen, 
J\"umiae . pmpi'ij cotififa et nomine Ckrijh, 
Prcmoveat, pladdas, Jic, ji>: juvat ire fab umbfas. 



CALLOW. 145 

The foregoing is a fine compofition ; the verfes 
ire eafy and claffical, and the 

" Non bme vivere, non (ft."* 

a fcntiment truly noble : A flrain of filial affe&ion 
and piety runs through the whole, and flrongly re- 
commends and marks the character of the young 
gentleman, who wrote the above, to the notice of all 
pofterity. Had Mr. Clifton kept twenty packs of 
fox-hounds, and built twenty noble houfes, his me- 
mory had never been half fo honoured, as by the 
above grateful arid elegant eulogium to his deceafed 

The deanry of Toftrees comprehends twelve pa- 
lifhcs, one of which, Colkirk, is in Launditch hun- 

The Rev. Mr. William Fifher was prefented to the 
vicarage by the prefent lord vifcount Townfhend in 

Not to live well is not to live at all/' 


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