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THE GIFT OF 



.^C^^J^,V Jr\-jU\. V^t' ' 



The 

History of Arizona 

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES KNOWN TO 

THE PEOPLE OF EUROPE 

TO 1903 

SIDNEY K DeLONG 




([i.co.po..»d} 

PUBLISHERS 



Copyright^ igos 

by 

The Whitaker & Ray Company 



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t9orft iB be^icafeb. 

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ifit fiBi of ctb ^Honeerfi xb famxftat, cinb m igeir 
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come. nQ9e t^eiT ftnoD9 ifiai in fit course of 
nafure an muBi ptt^ soon f o(fot9 i9cm. 

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bone more for me tQan 3 0ab reason io ttftd, 
anb io ifitm ifjiB Booft %b resf»edfuffB bebicaieb. 

tJeGJui^or. 



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17c>3\^ 



PREFACE 

Often the preface to a book becomes a public declara- 
tion of what the author does not do, and in many instances 
never intends to do. What is wished to be presented in 
this work is a history of Arizona from the time it first 
became known to Europeans down to the present time. 
A glance at the antiquities show it to have been inhabited 
at one time in the distant past, by a race that carried the 
arts of agriculture beyond that known by the Indian races 
in the Territory of the present day. 

The design of the work is to show the progress made 
under 250 years of Spanish rule, when the priest and the 
warrior ruled absolutely. Mexico, from 1821 until 1856, 
exercised merely nominal sway, and from that time until 
the present, the United States have exercised jurisdiction, 
and much has been done to civilize the wild Indian tribes 
and develop the agricultural and mineral resources. 

The object of the historian should be to write truth re- 
gardless of whom it may please or displease. In the past, 
historians of empires and of states have allowed themselves 
to be partisans, therefore, much that we have been taught 
to revere as truth, some as Divine, reads like fiction and 
will not bear analysing at cold Reason's tribunal. The en- 
deavor in this work has been to present the history of 
Arizona, not particularly in an attractive form, but in a 
truthful one. 

The work has been written under the auspices of the 
Arizona Historical Society, and to that Society the author 
offers his sincere acknowledgments for their consideration 
and universal kindness. 

Another great object of this work is to draw attetvtvcyx 
to the vast resources of Arizona, >NVv\cVv\va^\i^^^ c^^xNsv^^-t^^ 



1 



6 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

by many people a desert. Novels have been written, and 
obtained quite extensive circulation, of "The Country that 
God Forgot/' in which the scenes were located in Arizona. 
Truth must brush away such cobwebs. 

The author acknowledges his obligations to the Hon. 
Samuel Hughes, to Charles A. Shibell, Hon. William J. 
Osborn, Charles Connell and to Governor Brodie, for im- 
portant documents, public or private, and to the citizens of 
Arizona generally, for their kindness and consideration. 

The book is put forth, — the reading public must be the 
judges. Well wishes and happiness to all. 

The Author. 



CONTENTS 

Introduction 9 

PART I 

CHAPTER I 

The Acquisition of Arizona — The Gadsden Pur- 
chase — Topography and Resources of Arizona 
— -The Apache Indian 13 

CHAPTER II 

Exploring Expeditions — Territorial Organization 
and Government — Governmental Surveys — 
Emigration 37 

CHAPTER III 

The Oatman Tragedy — Early Means of Transpor- 
tation — Establishment of Military Stations 
— Scientific Explorers — Crabb Massacre 52 

CHAPTER IV 

Missions and Building of Churches — The Grand 
Canon of the Colorado — Montezuma's Well. . 75 

List of Governors of Arizona and Length of Ser- 
vice 85 

PART II 

CHAPTER V 
Apache County 89 

CHAPTER VI 
Coconino County 94 

CHAPTER VII 
Cochise County ^"^^ 



8 CONTENTS (Continued) 

CHAPTER VIII 
Gila County 105 

CHAPTER IX 
Graham County iii 

CHAPTER X 
Maricopa County 117 

CHAPTER XI 
MojAVE County 125 

CHAPTER XII 
Navajo County 128 

CHAPTER XIII 
Pinal County 130 

CHAPTER XIV 
Pima County 138 

CHAPTER XV 
Santa Cruz County 161 

CHAPTER XVI 
Yavapai County 167 

CHAPTER XVII 
Yuma County 178 

CHAPTER XVIII 
Closing Remarks 190 

List of Original Members of Arizona Pioneer His- 
torical Society 195 

List of Members of Arizona Pioneer Historical 
Society Who Came to the Territory After 
January i, i8yo 199 



INTRODUCTION 

In writing the " History of Arizona " the same ground 
has to be gone over that has been gone over before, and of 
its early history, Mr. H. H. Bancroft, in his exhaustive 
work, "Native Races of the Pacific Coast," has said about 
all that can be said; the form may be changed somewhat, 
but details must be the same. In describing the productive- 
ness of the country, especially the mines, there could be no 
real guide; only from personal observation could that be 
found out. While there are desert wastes in Arizona that 
no industry can render productive, there is a vast amount of 
land, which, if water can be gotten upon it, can be made 
productive and serviceable for the uses of mankind. 

Arizona is a vast country, comprising nearly 114,000 
square miles, and at least one-fourth of this vast area is fit 
for cultivation, so it is evident this Territory can support a 
great population. The writer remembers when, in the East- 
em world, California was looked upon as mostly desert; it 
was thought there were a few spots where something 
might be done in the way of stock-raising, and the rest was 
given over to coyotes, wolves and bears. About 1852 there 
was a work published in Germany in the German language, 
in which the author could see no good in California, and 
he, evidently, had traveled over it. I do not know whether 
the work was ever published in English ; if it were it would 
prove a contradiction now, in face of the great strides Cali- 
fornia has made, is making, and will continue to make in 
spite of carpers. 

The great majority of people is strongly inclined to be 
gregarious, and this, in connection with the prejudice in 
favor of the country in which they have been reared, kee-^"5. 
many from going into new coutv\.T\es». \\.\% o^-^ "Cs^^V^c^^ 



lo THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

and venturesome that go first; then, when it is learned they 
have made a success, others will timidly follow. Had the 
Spaniards realized what a country California was to be, they 
would have left Spain in a body for the new El Dorado. 
Had the people cultivating the bleak and stony hills of New 
England realized what the Western States really were ca- 
pable of, they would have left all to go to the great West ; 
but it was not to be. Only as necessity drives populations 
will the great mass seek new homes. The West, however, 
and the Pacific Slope, in particular, will eventually control 
the world's commerce. 



PART I 



CHAPTER I 

The Acquisition of Arizona — The Gadsden Purchase 
— Topography and Resources of Arizona — The 
Apache Indian. 

That portion of the United States now known as Ari- 
zona Territory was acquired from Mexico by two separate 
and distinct treaties. By that of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the 
close of the Mexican War, February 2, 1848, was acquired 
all territory north and west of a line that left the Rio 
Grande some eight miles above El Paso, runs west three 
degrees on a parallel, and thence north on about the 109° 
meridian to the first branch of the Gila River, thence down 
this branch and along the main river to its junction with 
the Colorado of the west, at the town of Yuma as it is now. 

The boundary commission which made this survey was 
in charge of Major John R. Bartlett on the part of the 
United States, and John C. Cremony was Spanish inter- 
preter. At that time Cremony had not acquired the Apache 
language, in which he afterwards became so proficient that 
he wrote a glossary and grammar, which is believed to be 
buried in the archives of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington, and attributed to the erudition of General 
James H. Carleton, who commanded the military department 
of New Mexico and Arizona at that time, but who never 
understood a word of Apache language. 

Among the first acts of 'President Franklin Pierce, after 
his inauguration in 1853, was the sending to Mexico, as 
minister plenipotentiary, Hon. James Gadsden. The object 
of his mission was to obtain from Mexico a concession for 
a feasible route for a railroad to the Pacific Oc^'axv^ -^^ "^^ 
more northern routes, which have smceX^eexv nxnI^^vl^^, "^^^^ 

13 



14 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

not deemed practicable, or at least only by men like the 
Hon. Thomas H. Benton, of Missouri, and a few others. 
On December 30, 1853, the treaty was ratified by the United 
States Senate by which, for the sum of $10,000,000, Mexico 
relinquished all claim and jurisdiction over that portion of 
territory, the southern line of which was as follows, viz.: 
Commencing at a point in the center of the Rio Grande, 
north latitude 31° 37', thence west one hundred miles; 
thence south to north latitude 31** 20'; thence west to iii** 
meridian west from Greenwich; thence to a point in the 
center of the Colorado River, twenty miles below the mouth 
of the Gila River; thence up the Colorado to southeast 
corner of the State of California. The Gadsden Purchase 
embraced that portion of New Mexico west of the Rio 
Grande and all of Arizona, situated south of the Gila River. 
The 111° meridian of longitude is about twelve miles west 
of the present town of Nogales, the county seat of Santa 
Cruz County. 

The American portion of this boundary commission was 
in charge of Major Emory, afterwards a major-general of 
the United States army. The late Hon. Peter R. Brady, 
our brother pioneer, was with the expedition as Spanish 
interpreter, but left it when it reached the angle point at 
III® meridian of west longitude — ^the rest of the line was 
not run by compass and chain for a year, or so, and when 
it was surveyed it was from the Colorado River principally, 
as the party from the angle monument did not get over 
seventy-five or eighty miles before meeting the party from 
the west, and, as the first lines did not meet, it was neces- 
sary to go over the whole work to find the error, which was 
finally found and rectified, and the boundary line stands 
today as it was finally left, as the re-survey of a few years 
ago did not alter it. 

There was a draft of three treaties brought back from 
Mexico by General Gadsden from which the President and 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 15 

Senate of the United States could choose. The most south- 
ern was to start from a point in the center of the Rio Grande 
and run west on the parallel of latitude 30° north to the 
Gulf of California, and thence take in the whole of Lower 
California for which the United States were to pay 
$25,000,000. This would have embraced about one-third of 
the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora and all of the 
peninsula of Lower California. The second proposition 
was to start as now from the center of the Rio Grande some 
eight miles above El Paso, north latitude 31** 37'; thence 
west one hundred miles; thence south to north latitude 31° ; 
thence west to the Gulf of California, and this, also, was to 
include Lower California, for which the United States were 
to pay Mexico the sum of $15,000,000. Third and last was 
the Skeleton Treaty, which embraced the country within the 
boundaries as already described and known as the Gadsden 
Purchase. 

The treaty for the most northern portion of Mexico and 
for the smallest monetary consideration, after much wrang- 
ling and friction in the Senate at Washington, was finally 
agreed upon. When the necessity of a port upon tlie Gulf 
of California was urged by some of the Senators of broader 
views upon national questions, it was answered that a port 
at Yuma on the Colorado River, where a camp of soldiers 
had just been established, hardly permanent yet, would 
answer all purposes. The real fact even at that early day 
was. that the subject of slavery was looming into view — a 
subject that a few years later swallowed up all other politi- 
cal questions. This will account for the sensitiveness of 
northern and eastern senators as to the extension of terri- 
tory to the south being then considered, that all southern 
territory would be slave territory. As it has since turned 
out that all which was then slave territory in the United 
States has become free territory, it may be questioned 
whether those men who so strongly opposed the. ^-xX'^wsk^si^ 
of our possessions to the sout\\, vj^te TvoVXXvcAfc^^.^*^^'^^^ 



i6 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

public interest by their prejudice against an institution in 
its very nature evanescent and fleeting. 

The admission of Texas into the Federal Union as a 
State was opposed by quite a strong party, principally in 
the northern and northeastern States, for no other real rea- 
son than the fear that it would strengthen the slave power. 
All men are not philosophers, had they been so the great 
strife over this institution, which in its nature was doomed 
to extermination through natural causes, would never have 
taken place. In some parts of the country this oppo- 
sition to the admission of Texas was the issue that 
divided the political parties in 1844 and made it possible 
to elect James K. Polk of Tennessee over the unrivalled 
orator and statesman of Kentucky, Henry Clay. The elec- 
tion of i860 was deemed by the secession leaders the aus- 
picious moment to plunge the country into a fratricidal 
war under the pretext that the institution of slavery was 
in danger, and the extreme Southern States commenced 
arming and taking forcible possession of Federal forts, 
arsenals, mints, etc. The Federal government urged on, 
perhaps, by the impetuosity of some of the States called out 
troops to suppress rebellion or rather to enforce its author- 
ity, until finally both sides had powerful armies in the field, 
and it was left to gigantic veteran armies under most 
efficient captains to decide the question. It was decided 
after over four years' of struggle that the general govern- 
ment was supreme. Slavery was forcibly eliminated but 
left roots of bitterness, from which have sprung up crops 
of hatred even to the present day. 

Arizona embraces that portion of the earth's surface in- 
cluded within a line from east to west between meridian of 
109° on the east, to about 114° on the west, and from the 
parallel of 31° 20' north to 37° north. The actual square 
miles of territory in Arizona are 113,916, or nearly three 
times the size of the State of New York. At the time of 
the acquisition of that portion of Arizona known as the 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 17 

"Gadsden Purchase," there were but few Americans settled 
within its boundaries; some few came in soon after and 
settled about Tubac and Tucson and at the mines then 
working or about to start up : as the Mowry and Cerro Colo- 
rado. There being no organized territorial government, 
Arizona was, by act of Congress, attached to New Mexico, 
or rather, perhaps, to Donna Ana County of New Mexico, 
for governing purposes — so any violators of law had to be 
taken to Mesilla, New Mexico, for trial. The result, prac- 
tically, was that for some years in Arizona every man was 
a law unto himself, and men went about their daily avoca- 
tions armed to the teeth and doing what seemed good in 
their eyes. There were soon a few hardy spirits, who could ^ 

hardly be called settlers, encamped along the Colorado 
River upon the western boundary, mostly within the limits 
of what is now Mojave County. 

Arizona has been greatly misunderstood by people out- 
side its borders and misrepresented as well ; and it is largely 
held even at this present writing, to be a vast, sand plain, 
with here and there an oasis in it and these, only, at long 
intervals. This false opinion has been largely catered to 
by a class of writers, who have, perhaps, been here, wish- 
ing to make themselves appear as heroes and martyrs, and 
who indulge in fairy tales of their own exploits and deeds 
of daring, as well as sufferings and privations endured upon 
those sun-scorched, sirocco swept, desolate plains of what, 
in reality, is beautiful Arizona. Much was said in the halls 
of Congress and outside about the arid wastes of the new 
purchase; especially by those of opposite politics, to the 
party in power at the time of the acquisition. It is a curious 
freak of human nature that is unable to see anything 
good in whatever opponents may advocate and carry 
out, throwing every obstruction in the way to prevent an 
honest execution of wholesome acts. Such has ever been 
the case in this republic from its inception down to the 
present hour. 



i8 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

During the administration of George Washington the 
obstructionists and fault-finders were clamorous, denounc- 
ing him as an imperialist seeking to found an empire on the 
nation's ruins, yet these spot-finders have passed from the 
memory of men, while the name of Washington and his 
acts of unselfish statesmanship shine brighter and brighter 
as the ages recede from his day; an example of a perfect 
character for the world to wonder at. 

Some of those who have written what they denominated 
a "History of Arizona," have displayed as much ignorance 
of the topography of the country as the romantic tale writ- 
ers. Samuel W. Cozzens, for instance, in "The Marvelous 
Country," gets to Tucson from Mesilla, on the Rio Grande, 
in New Mexico, and comes over the one direct wagon route 
and does not discover the San Pedro River or the Cienega 
de los Pimas, thirty miles southeasterly from Tucson. The 
inference would seem to be that he was at Mesilla on the 
Rio Grande now in Donna Ana County, New Mexico, but 
there was an attempt made in or about i860 to organize a 
territory out of what is now Arizona, up to latitude 
33° 45' north, and run east to the western line of Texas, 
and a full set of officers were appointed, mostly self-ap- 
pointed. (Cozzens was one of the "Supreme Court" judges 
of this "Provisional Government.") A map was gotten 
out in i860 under the supervision of Sylvester Mowry, 
showing this new "State" as has been indicated, but that 
was as far as the scheme proceeded. Cozzens seems to have 
been quite intimate with matters upon the Rio Grande, but 
probably took much of his description of what is Arizona 
now from the writings of others; therefore, when he at- 
tempts to describe scenery at different points en route, he 
shows an utter lack of knowledge of the real conditions, 
and what mountain peaks are or are not visible; as an 
instance he tells us that Dos Cabezas was visible in the west 
and Cook's Peak to the eastward, neither of which are visi- 
ble from the point indicated, viz. : in Doubtful Canon. From 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 19 

the top of Stein's Peak, the points mentioned could be seen, 
but he does not state that he ascended that precipitous peak, 
and doubtless did not as it would take a day of hard labor, 
besides being considered dangerous. 

That portion of New Mexico upon the map referred to, 
of the contemplated "State" lying east of the Rio Grande, 
and between it and the west line of Texas, was designated 
as the county of Donna Ana, and from the Rio Grande 
west to a line passing north and south at about the western 
side of the Chiricahua Range of mountains, at the western 
mouth of Apache Pass, through the said range of moun- 
tains, was called the county of Mesilla, and from that point 
west to the 112° 30' meridian of west longitude was called 
Ewell County, in honor of Major Ewell at that time United 
States army commander of the troops then in Arizona, after- 
wards Major-General Ewell of the Southern Confederacy. 
From the 112° 32' meridian of west longitude to the west- 
ern boundary was called Castle Dome County, from the 
most prominent mountain peak to be seen north of Yuma, 
some thirty miles, and is principally embraced in what is 
now the county of Yuma. This map is certified to by Syl- 
vester Mo wry, who signs it as "Delegate to Congress from 
Arizona," though he was never allowed to take the seat of 
a delegate as the territory was not organized. 

The advance of the California troops, known as the "Cali- 
fornia Column," reached Tucson on May 20, 1862. The 
small body of Confederates, under a Captain Hunter, who 
had occupied Tucson about four months, left upon the ap- 
proach of the California troops, as they were not in suffi- 
cient force to make a successful resistance, withdrawing to 
the main body of their army under Sibley at Mesilla, New 
Mexico. On June 8, 1862, Colonel James H. Carleton, 
commanding these volunteer troops from California, by gen- 
eral orders placed the whole Territory under martial law 
until such time as a civil government should be organized 
under the jurisdiction of the United States. For the few 



/■ 



2a THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

people then in Arizona, perhaps, a military government 
was the best attainable, as under its direct methods every 
man knew his duty and the consequences of a violation of 
that duty, and governed himself accordingly. 

On February 20, 1863, the United States Congress 
passed an act organizing the Territory of Arizona and ap- 
pointing civil officers. The first governor appointed was 
Hon. John Gurly, but as he died in New York City before 
the officials got ready to leave for their post of duty, Hon. 
John N. Goodwin received the appointment to fill the va- 
cancy; Richard C. McCormick, secretary; William F. 
Turner, chief justice; William F. Howell and Joseph A. 
Allyn, associate justices; Almon Gage, district attorney; 
Levi Bashford, surveyor-general; Milton B. Duffield, 
marshal and Charles D. Poston, Indian agent, or rather 
superintendent of Indian affairs. The Territorial govern- 
ment was formally organized on December 29, 1863, at 
Navajo Springs, forty miles northwest of the famous Zuni 
pueblo. Richard C. McCormick, secretary, upon the rais- 
ing of the flag announcing the sovereignty of the United 
States, made an appropriate speech. The party remained 
but a short time at the springs, moving on westward, and 
early in 1864, they reached the site of the city of Prescott, 
where a permanent halt was made, as this town was des- 
tined for some years to be the seat of government for the 
Territory. If, to get the capital in the geographical center 
of the Territory were the object, it could not have been 
bettered. Shortly after the capital was located at Prescott, 
the publication of the Arizona Miner was commenced by 
Secretary R. C. McCormick, and has been published ever 
since, now as the Journal Miner. The capital was removed 
from Prescott in 1868 to Tucson and was moved back in 
1877, l?ut did not long remain as it was transferred to 
Phoenix where it is at this present time, and where it will 
probably remain in permanence, as a fine capitol has been 
erected there, and the railroad facilities make it easv of 
access to all. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 21 

Arizona is entirely upon the Pacific slope of the conti- 
nent and the drainage of the whole Territory is into the 
Gulf of California. Arizona in its physical aspect consists 
of a series of table-lands that rise up from a few hundred 
feet on the southwest, to some six to eight thousand feet 
above sea level on the north and east, and mountain ranges 
run from three thousand up to eight and nine thousand 
feet and a few isolated peaks to a much higher elevation. 
The valley land along the streams is very productive when 
cultivated, and with water gotten out upon the plateaux 
or table-lands much of that can be rendered as remunera- 
tive for certain products as the valley lands. Rains cannot 
be depended upon to afford a sufficient moisture to make 
certain or reasonably so, a remunerative harvest. What 
Arizona requires and must have before she can become a 
great producer of the necessities of life is a thorough and 
extensive system of irrigation. There is enough water go- 
ing to waste each year to answer the end desired could the 
surplus be saved during the flood season, in large reservoirs, 
and in the dry season let out as needed, to moisten and 
vivify the vast plains, which need only water to make them 
^'blossom as the rose." Artesian water has been brought 
to the surface in several localities, which will greatly assist 
in fertilizing the soil when obtained and no good reason can 
be given why it should not be obtained at many more points 
than it has been up to this time. The mountains are filled 
with minerals: gold, silver, lead, copper, iron and many 
more. Some of the great producing mines of the world 
are in Arizona, and her vast mineral resources have but 
been glanced at. There are in Arizona, also, vast forests 
of the finest timber, mostly north of the Gila River, al- 
though considerable lies south of that stream in the large 
mountain ranges in the southeastern portion. We have 
also a petrified forest of great extent, — the largest known 
upon the globe. 



\ 



22 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

In the year 1857 ^ ^^^^ of stages was put on to run from 
San Antonio, Texas, to San Diego, California, via El Paso, 
Texas, Mesilla, New Mexico, Tucson and Pima villages, 
Arizona and Fort Yuma, California (then there was no 
settlement on the Arizona or eastern bank of the Colorado 
River opposite the fort newly constructed.) This mail line 
ran twice a month each way, with a subsidy from the 
United States of $125,000 yearly. Some of the employees 
of this pioneer stage line across the continent are still liv- 
ing, among whom may be mentioned John G. Capron, of 
San Diego, California, and a Mr. St. John, who visits Tuc- 
son occasionally. This line brought the first regular mail 
into Arizona and was finally taken off or merged into the 
Overland Mail Company, which began operations in 1858, 
starting from St. Louis, Missouri, with a branch line from 
Memphis, Tennessee, to Fort Smith on the Arkansas River 
at the western boundary of the State of Arkansas. The 
line ran twice a week each way, starting simultaneously 
from St. Louis and Memphis, and connecting at Fort Smith, 
through San Antonio and El Paso, Texas ; Mesilla, New 
Mexico; Tucson, Pima Villages, Yuma and crossing the 
great desert via Alamo Mucho, Indian Wells, Sackett's 
Well, Carizo Creek, Warner's Ranch, Oak Grove to Los 
Angeles and up the Coast via Santa Barbara, San Luis 
Obispo, Salinas and San Jose to San Francisco, carrying 
the United States mail, with a subsidy to start upon of 
$600,000 a year, which was increased to $1,200,000. The 
schedule time allowed from St. Louis was twenty-four days, 
but it was generally ended on the twenty-second day, so 
it kept the steamers via both Panama and Nicaragua busy 
competing. Of course while it ran the Tehuantepec route 
from New Orleans via the Coatzacolcas River and Tehuan- 
tepec Isthmus could get mails through from New Orleans 
to San Francisco in twelve days, but this company was too 
weak to continue and failed early in 1859. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 23 

The Overland Mail line did Arizona much good, open- 
ing a safe, and, for that day, a speedy line of communica- 
tion with the commercial centers east and west. This line 
continued to make its semi-weekly trips with regularity 
until the breaking out of the Civil War in 1861, when the 
property of the company was forcibly taken possession of 
by some of the States through which the line ran, notably, 
the State of Texas ; such property of the company as could 
be controlled was moved to the more northern route via 
Salt Lake, and Arizona was left without mail or any public 
facilities for communicating with the outside world for 
several years. The first public mail that reached Tucson 
after the Civil War came from California on horseback, 
arriving September i, 1865, and the first through mail from 
the Eastern States, Barlow Sanderson and Company, arrived 
in Tucison, August 25, 1866. 

• The great impediment to Arizona's progress has been 
the Apache Indian, who has always been at war even when 
at peace, paradoxical as it sounds. These Indians have 
always shown themselves the determined foe of all civiliza- 
tion, and have never, so far as is known, had other means 
of living than by plunder, — a band of the human race who 
have ever plumed themselves upon the amount they could 
steal and rob from others, yet who perfectly comprehended 
the law of right and wrong when applied to themselves; 
for no one could proclaim his wrongs more vociferously 
than an Apache Indian were the least thing taken from 
him. The Apache Indian, as a whole, is one of the worst 
characters that has ever been brought forth upon this earth, < 
unless it may be said that all races have passed through the 
same phases in their advance from the lowest stage of bar- 
barism up to civilization. It could not be said that the 
Apache Indians inhabited any country. They roamed over 
the country and by their ruthless, exterminating wars pre- 
vented more peacefully inclined tribes, even of their own 
race, from settling down to cultivate the soil. Cruel, 



24 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

rapacious, indolent, with no redeeming quality, except pa- 
tience to lie in wait and attack weaker parties when least 
expected, and at most advantageous points, these Indians 
were for centuries a terror and a scourge to all northern 
Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico and even extended their 
raids into Texas. 

These freebooting Indians had succeeded by the time of 
the close of the Mexican War, in 1848, in driving from 
what is now Arizona, every vestige of civilization, and 
were fast depopulating the Mexican State of Sonora and 
much of New Mexico. After the Gadsden Purchase in 
1853, ^"d between that time and i860, some Americans 
came into Arizona and two military posts were established 
by the United States Government, which afforded as much 
protection to the settlers as the paucity of numbers per- 
mitted. These posts were Buchanan upon the Sonoite, 
near which the post of Crittenden was established soon after 
the close of the Civil War, and in 1859, ^ P^^st was estab- 
lished upon the lower San Pedro River and just below 
where the Aravaipa stream enters that stream from the 
east, called Breckenridge, in honor of the Vice-President 
as the former post was named in honor of President Bu- 
chanan. The great Overland Mail Company's stages were 
put on in 1858, fully opening up communication with the 
outside world. Some mines were opened and worked to a 
limited extent, notably the Mowry, Cerro Colorado, Ajo ^ 
and a few others, all in southeastern Arizona; the great 1 
mining region about where Prescott now is and the west- 
ern portion of the Territory were unknown. This same 
year of 1858 Superintendent James H. Leech and Lieu- 
tenant Hutton with a strong party opened up what has 
been since known as the "Leech" wagon route, coming west 
from the Rio Grande in New Mexico ; leaving it at La 
Mesilla and following the old trail of the '49ers to a point 
west of what is known as Cook's Pass, thence west, in- 
stead of deflecting to the southwest, through Guadalupe 



/ 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 25 

Canon on the boundary line of Mexico, crossing the Rio 
Miembres, thence via Ojo de Vaca (Cow Springs), and 
Leidendorf Wells and Picacho de Gabilan (Hawk Peak), 
now called Granite Peak, to Cienega de Sanz, Willow 
Cienega, in the valley of the San Simon, then down this 
valley to a point where it is now or about that "San Simon" 
Station on the Southern Pacific Railroad, thence across the 
valley about west to what was then and is yet known as 
Railroad Pass at the northwesterly end of the Chiricahua 
Mountains and through the pass some seven miles, thence 
southwesterly to Croton Springs, across the valley of Sul- 
phur Springs, thence about west some forty miles to San 
Pedro, touching that river at a point some nine miles below 
Tres Alamos, or some eighteen miles below the present 
town of Benson upon the Southern Pacific Railroad, thence 
down the San Pedro River about forty-five miles to a point 
where afterwards was located Fort Breckenridge, thence 
westerly through a long, sandy canon and over hard, rocky 
mesas, sandy plains and arroyos to the Gila River, a dis- 
tance of about fifty miles, striking that stream some ten 
miles below where the town of Florence now is, following 
on down that river and coming into the main traveled road 
just above where now is the Sacaton Indian Agency. From 
this point the expedition followed the traveled road via 
Pima Villages, Gila Bend, Oatman Flat and Yuma, where 
it crossed the Colorado River, Pilot Knob, Alamo Mucho, 
Indian Wells, Sackett's Wells, Carizo Creek, Warner's 
Ranch and Oak Grove to Los Angeles, California, where 
the expedition was broken up, as the object for which it 
was brought together had been accomplished. 

In 1861 the Civil War broke out, caused by the attempted 
secession of some of the Southern States from the Federal 
compact, which led to the withdrawal of all the United 
States troops from Arizona and nearly all from New 
Mexico, so that the dreaded Apache Indians were again in 
the ascendancy, a position which they were not slow to 



f 



26 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

take advantage of to the fullest extent, deeming in their 
egotism and ignorance that the troops were withdrawn out 
of fear of Indian prowess. Near the close of the year i860 
and before the troops were withdrawn from Fort Buchanan, 
an event happened which greatly aggravated the atrocities 
of the Indian war which swept over the Territory of Ari- 
zona until 1872. The events leading up to this war, have 
not been published as far as the author is aware, in any 
work giving a history of those times, and were about as 
follows : 

There lived upon the Sonoite, some distance below the 
Post of Buchanan, at that time, an Irishman, known as 
Johnny Ward, who had a Mexican woman as housekeeper. 
This woman had a son, at that time a small boy, whose 
paternal ancestor was an Apache Indian, as the mother had 
been a captive among them and the boy was a result of this 
captivity. In the absence of Mr. Ward the mountain 
Apaches, as it was afterwards ascertained, visited the ranch 
and packed off everything of value to them, including the 
boy. The mother they did not take along or kill, they had 
not then got to killing unarmed people as they did a little 
later, and, perhaps, she was looked upon as too old to be 
worth taking off, at any rate she was not taken. When 
Ward returned to his ranch and found the Apaches had 
visited the place and taken the boy, he at once proceeded 
to Fort Buchanan some twelve miles distant, and reported 
what had been done and asked that steps be at once taken 
to recover the woman's boy. 

The commanding officer of the fort sent out a new 
lieutenant named Bascom, accompanied by twelve men 
under Reuben F. Bernard, then sergeant, who after- 
wards became a captain in the First Cavalry, and was 
retired a few years since as lieutenant-colonel of the 
Ninth Cavalry, with orders to proceed to Apache Pass 
in the Chiricahua Range of mountains, that being an 
overland stage station, where he would likely find Indians 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 27 

who could give some information regarding the lost 
boy and what band of Indians had committed the 
depredation. The lieutenant, who was not long out from 
West Point, upon arriving at the station with his party 
found there Chief Cochise and another Indian. Cochise 
professed entire ignorance of the depredation or what band 
of Apaches had committed it, but said he would find out 
and see that the boy was returned. This explanation and 
promise did not satisfy Lieutenant Bascom and he at once 
made prisoners of the two Indians and he, with his com- 
mand, proceeded about two miles from the station to near 
the mauth of the Apache Pass canon on the northern or 
San Simon side, and there pitched camp giving his two 
captives a Sibley tent to themselves, stationing a guard in 
front and rear of the tent but with unloaded muskets. 

Cochise, not relishing the confinement, and not having com- 
mitted any hostile act was looking for an avenue of escape, 
and as he had been left his sheath knife, which every In- 
dian carries in his belt, he slashed a long cut in the tent and 
darted through, followed by his fellow-prisoner. The 
guard in the rear of the tent struck Cochise with his gun 
and knocked him down, but Cochise, having the agility of 
a cat, arose and upon his hands and feet slid off like a flash 
into the bushes and among the rocks, and in a moment was 
gone beyond hope of pursuit; the other Indian was se- 
cured. Lieutenant Bascom with his command and remain- 
ing prisoner returned to the station in the Apache Pass 
where he found there more Indians and took them into 
custody also. The next day the stationkeeper named Wal- 
lace, who spoke the Apache language fluently and had 
always been on friendly terms with those Indians, thought 
by his influence he could arrange matters and make peace 
and in this confidence ventured too near or too far among 
the hills surrounding the station and the Indians made him 
a prisoner but did not put him to death at that time. In 
the course of the day two more Indians came in who had 



28 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

been on a stealing expedition into Sonora and they, also, 
were made prisoners by Lieutenant Bascom. About 4 p. m., 
of the same day, Cochise, in full war paint and mounted, 
appeared upon the hill within gunshot of the station and 
with an imperial haughtiness demanded that the Indian pris- 
oners be set at liberty, and stated that those he held would 
be liberated and sent in as he had captured three Ameri- 
cans, besides Wallace. This was done through Wallace, 
who acted as interpreter, and who begged that it be ac- 
cepted as he stated they would be all killed were it re- 
jected. Lieutenant Bascom would not accede to the. propo- 
sition and the Indians disappeared from the vicinity of the 
station, at least their hailing cries were no longer heard. 
During the night another Indian, who turned out to be a 
half brother of Cochise, came in from Sonora, and he was 
made prisoner by the orders of Lieutenant Bascom, who 
now had seven prisoners. The next morning no Indian 
signals ; no Indians were to be seen. The command of Lieu- 
tenant Bascom, with the seven prisoners, started to return 
to Fort Buchanan. Upon reaching the mouth of the Apache 
Pass, some three miles west from the station, where it 
opens out into Sulphur Spring Valley, on the side of the 
road were the bodies of four Americans, and that of Wal- 
lace was one of them, showing how clearly he had under- 
stood matters the night before. Lieutenant Bascom halted 
his command ; about one hundred yards north of the road, 
an oak tree, which is yet standing, was selected, trimmed 
up to suit the purpose, and without ceremony the seven 
Indian prisoners were hanged and the command proceeded 
on to Fort Buchanan. It is but justice here to state that 
Sergeant Reuben F. Bernard refused to have anything to 
do in the proceedings and was placed in arrest by the lieu- 
tenant, but released by the commanding officer at Fort Bu- 
chanan upon investigation. This was the commencement 
of one of the most lengthy and cruel Indian wars that have 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 29 

ever broken out in this country, and it could have been en- 
tirely obviated had an officer of judgment and discretion 
been in command. The captive boy was never recovered, 
but was adopted into the White Mountain Apache Indian 
Tribe, and became in after years known as "Mickie Free," 
the worst Indian of a bad lot. From this failure of Lieu- 
tenant Bascom to retain Cochise, the war was carried on in 
Apache style and with relentless vigor. Small parties trav- 
eling through the country were ambushed and ruthlessly 
murdered; lone ranches were attacked and all killed ex- 
cept young women and children, who were reserved for a 
fate, in comparison to which death would be a kindness. 
Outlying settlements were broken up and terror ruled the 
country. Arizona was reduced, the greater part of it, to 

its original wild state; only a few inhabitants remaining at 

« 

Tucson, Tubac and some of the mines. A few hardy ranch- 
men like Peter Kitchen, King S. Wolsey, Max Grinell and 
one or two more, made fortifications of their residences and 
braved it out, attacked every few days and, perhaps, en- 
joyed the fierce excitement of battles. Surely the Indians 
were causing every trace of civilization to disappear from 
Arizona and northern Sonora. 

In 1862 the California Volunteers, known as the Cali- 
fornia Column, came in but their business was to drive out 
the Confederates who had come into New Mexico in force, 
and, through weakness, or worse, of the Federal commander 
at Fort Fillmore on the Rio Grande, some eight miles from 
Mesilla, occupied all southern New Mexico except Fort 
Craig. One troop of cavalry under a Captain Hunter got 
as far west as Tucson in February, 1862, and only with- 
drew as the column was approaching in force falling back 
upon their main body at Mesilla, New Mexico. The in- 
structions given the troops of the column were, not to fire 
upon Indians unless fired upon by them: a forbearance of 



30 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

which the Apache Indians were not slow to take advan- 
tage; however, the Confederates soon abandoned the Ter- 
ritory of New Mexico, and from that time until the vol- 
unteer troops from California were discharged or taken 
from the Territory to be discharged, good service was 
done against the Indians, now more formidable than ever, 
as, early in 1863, Mangus Colorado, (Red Arm), an able 
chief of the Hot Springs or Miembres Indians, was killed 
at or near old Fort McLain in New Mexico, in a manner 
that might be considered most treacherous — he was invited 
in under the pretext of making a treaty and deliberately 
killed while under the protection of a military guard and 
by them. Upon the death of Mangus Colorado, Cochise, 
being a near relative, succeeded to the absolute command 
of all these fierce tribes, who considered they had personal 
grievances against the white race to avenge, and for the 
succeeding nine years exercised over Arizona and New 
Mexico in the United States, Chihuahua and Sonora, in 
Mexico, such a reign of terror as rendered it unsafe any- 
where outside of a military garrison or in the larger towns ; 
all trains with stores and supplies traveled with military 
escorts; also stages with the United States mail and even 
they were frequently attacked, men killed and animals ran 
off. After the California Volunteers were withdrawn from 
the Territory and their places supplied by regulars in 1866, 
and for some years, the commanders, though personally 
brave men in regular warfare did not seem to understand 
how to organize expeditions against an enemy always 
hiding and who never made an attack except from ambush. 
Subordinate officers made dashing expeditions and in a 
few instances succeeded in punishing the Indians, as wit- 
ness some expeditions of Captain Reuben F. Bernard, Cap- 
tain Gerald Russell, Lieutenant Winters, Lieutenant Cush- 
ing, Captain Smith, Captain Tidball, Major Sanford and 
some others, but until General George Crook, in 1871, 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 31 

came to the command no thoroughly organized expedition 
against the Apache Indians was carried out. 

To show the indifference of some of the officers of the 
army, who have commanded here, to the sufferings of* the 
people at the hands of these human fiends. General George 
Stoneman was heard by the author to declare that the news 
of any Indian outrage should be suppressed and that it was 
not the business of the army to pursue depredating Indians, 
but that such pursuit should be left to the civil authorities. 
With officers in high command, holding such views, what 
wonder that the army was inefficient or the people restless 
and dissatisfied. 

After great suffering and much loss, both of life and 
property, and many fruitless endeavors to enlist the general 
government in their behalf, the citizens were driven to 
desperation and in 1871 an event took place that compelled 
the general government to take notice of these outrages and 
to take these Indians under her immediate control, viz., 
what has since been known, as the Camp Grant Massacre, 
April 30, 1 87 1. 

The circumstances that immediately led up to the on- 
slaught upon these Indians may be worthy of a place in 
these records and they will be related as succinctly as pos- 
sible. About the month of February, 1871, the band of 
Apache Indians known as Aravaipa or Pinal Apaches be- 
ing short of rations came into what is now known as old 
Camp Grant, situated upon the lower San Pedro upon the 
eastern bank about fifteen miles above its point of junction 
with the Gila River, then occupied as a military station, and 
made a sort of verbal treaty whereby they were to be sup- 
plied with rations and were to live in the vicinity of the 
camp. It was expected by the people, generally, that In- 
dian depredations around Tucson and San Pedro would 
now cease, but on the contrary, the Indians were more ac- 
tive than ever and the trail of the depredators led to the 
Indian camp in the vicinity of old Camp Grant whenever 



32 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

followed. When these facts became known a number of 
public meetings were held in Tucson, resolutions were 
passed; petitions were sent to military headquarters, then 
at Los Angeles, California, setting forth facts in the case, 
but all resulted in no action being taken by those in au- 
thority to stop the outrages. Parties were attacked, robbed 
and killed upon the traveled roads, and ranchmen were 
driven from their ranches into the towns in all directions; 
stock was driven off from near Tres Alamos, upon the San 
Pedro River, and four men killed; a man named Wooster 
and his wife, from the upper Santa Cruz, near Tubac, were 
killed and the trails led direct to the Indian rancheria 
near old Camp Grant in the canon of the Aravaipa. To 
settle the matter past all dispute a party of three Papago 
Indians were hired to follow each trail of depredators and 
find where they led, without its having been explained to 
them why this was wished to be ascertained. Three dif- 
ferent trails of depredators were followed and three re- 
ports made and all agreed that the trails led to the Aravaipa 
Canon, where this Indian encampment was, drawing ra- 
tions from the United States and using it as a base of sup- 
plies to depredate upon the peaceful citizens of the sur- 
rounding country. It was claimed and the question was 
ably argued to be the duty of the United States to protect 
the citizens pursuing their lawful avocations to make a liv- 
ing, but the Government though repeatedly solicited, 
seemed to turn a deaf ear and some of her arrogant and 
selfish officers even went so far as to ^ay if the citizens 
could not protect themselves here they best go where they 
could do so. 

So this expedition to exterminate, as nearly as possible, 
this nest of vipers whom the United States Government was 
unwittingly nourishing was in silence organized, the thinking 
ones well understanding that if it was made at all, it really 
should be upon those who had them in charge and guarded 



I 



) 



I 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 33 

them so loosely. The expedition consisted of some fifty Pa- 
pago Indians under their head war chief, forty-five Mexi- 
cans and five Americans; and was entirely successful com- 
ing upon their camp just at break of day, Sunday, April 
30, 1871, an entire surprise, slight, if any resistance, was 
made. Some eighty-seven Indians were killed and not a 
man of the expedition even wounded. 

If any doubts had existed in the minds of any persons 
as to the fact of these Indians having been committing the 
recent depredations, as charged, upon the inhabitants while 
living under the protection of the United States military 
authorities at Camp Grant, it was now set at rest as among 
the plunder of their camp was found the dress of murdered 
Mrs. Wooster and a pair of long legged moccasins with Mr. 
Wooster's initials upon them, and identified by sworn testi- 
mony, also, seven horses recently taken from the vicinity 
of Tucson and among the rest, one that was identified as 
belonging to Don Leopoldo Carillo, so recently taken that he 
had not missed it. This killing of Indians made a great 
commotion in the Eastern States and General W. T. Sher- 
man, then commanding the army, recommended that all the 
parties engaged in the affair be taken from the Territory 
and tried for their lives. Of course General Sherman 
knew nothing of the depredations these Indians had been 
continually making upon the settlers, all this had been sed- 
ulously kept from bim, and he had nothing to guide him 
but the one-sided lying reports of Lieutenant Whitman, 
who had these Indians directly in charge. All the partici- 
pants in the Camp Grant affair were finally arrested and 
tried in our Territorial Court, Judge Titus, presiding, and 
acquitted as no jury at that time in Arizona would convict 
parties for killing Indians known to be hostile. This kill- 
ing of Indians at Camp Grant, whether strictly in accord- 
ance with law or not, led to the sending of General George 
Crook here to command and he arrived in the Territory 
in the month of June, 1871. 



34 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

One Vincent Collier, an agent of the ultraphilanthro- 
pists of the East was sent out soon after to try the sooth- 
ing method upon the hostile Indians, but all the visible ef- 
fects his negotiations seemed to have was to delay the 
movements of General Crook, who finally, with troops and 
scouts, had to settle the question by punishing the Indians 
until they humbly begged to be allowed to come in upon 
reservations. 

In this way, step by step, a few at a time, as they became 
tired of being hunted from one watering place to another, 
and after many failures and outbreaks, the Indians were 
gathered upon reserves but the well meaning but mis- 
guided philanthropists have always to be counted upon as 
a counteracting influence that is on the Indian's side 
throughout all our Indian troubles. In 1872 General O. 
O. Howard was sent out from Washington and made peace 
with Cochise, but this only embraced the original Chiri- 
cahua Apaches, and two or three small bands of others 
who were inclined to embrace the opportunity of living 
upon a reservation and being fed at the expense of the 
United States. The reserve upon which these Indians were 
placed was known as the "Chiricahua Reservation," and 
embraced the larger share of what is now Cochise County. 
The terms of the treaty between General Howard and 
Cochise were peculiar in this respect, that while Cochise 
and the Indians over whom he exercised jurisdiction were 
bound by its terms to keep the peace and commit no dep- 
redations in the United States, nothing was said in re- 
gard to Mexico, and from this reservation, parties were 
continually going into the neighboring Mexican States of 
Sonora and Chihuahua and even farther into Mexico and 
committing all kinds of depredations of which the Mexi- 
can Government justly complained. Permission was given \ 
our Government for its troops to pursue hostile bands of 
Indians into Mexican territory, and for a short time such 
a privilege was likewise accorded to Mexico, but the writer 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 35 

can find only one instance where it was taken advantage 
of and the privilege on the part of the United States was 
soon withdrawn as it was on the part of Mexico. How- 
ever, in 1876, a portion of the Indians tipon the Chiricahua 
Reservation broke out and committed several murders, 
starting in with the killing of Rodgers and Spence at Sul- 
phur Springs, and this disturbance led to the breaking 
up of the Chiricahua Reservation, and the removal to San 
Carlos of aU the Indians that could be induced to leave. 
Those who would or did not go, took to the mountains 
under Jeronimo and Hoo and for several years by their 
lawless acts of atrocity terrorized over southeastern Ari- 
zona, southwestern New Mexico and northern Mexico. 

Arizona was settled through many privations and much 
slaughter. The advancing tide of civilization has borne in 
its front a windrow of human bones. A large part of the 
most venturous and hardy of the advance guard of pio- 
neers were sacrificed to the ruthless spirit of the savage 
by the tender hearted and self-styled philanthropists of the 
older communities of the United States, who could sympa- 
thize with the savage, but had no feeling for the suffer- 
ings of their own race. There seems to have been, from 
the time of the first settlements along the shores of the 
Atlantic up to the last upon the coasts of the Pacific, a 
great sympathy for the "poor Indian" among those who 
did not come in personal contact with him. 

The savage man has ever been misjudged by civilized 
races until they have come in personal contact with him, 
then as a general thing the civilized or partially civilized 
man goes as far the other way and judges the savage man 
not to be capable of improvement, but wholly corrupt. 
The fact seems to be that all savages are but children in 
intellect, but not in innocence. 

It has been found necessary to use force to bring sav- 
age nature into the ways of civilization and many times 
this force has been used in all the brutality characteristic 



36 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

of savage warfare. Had the United States announced the 
declared policy of extermination to the Indian race, and 
carried it out, they could not have more directly reached 
the end in view, than by the vacillating, halting policy 
that has been pursued, in its results cruel to both races. 

Troubles with the Apache Indian for a long time kept 
the bulk of immigration from Arizona; turning it aside 
to other and more peaceful fields, and although organized 
as a Territory many years, yet in population she seems to 
lag behind later Territorial organizations. 



CHAPTER II 

Exploring Expeditions. — Territorial Organization and 
Government. — Governmental Surveys. — Emigration. 

The name Arizona is of doubtful origin and has been 
given by different writers to mean various things, more 
or less fanciful. One has it "silver bearing," and becomes 
poetical over it, another has it to mean a "dry zone," etc. 
The probability seems to be that it is a whole sentence in 
the Papago language and really means, to give it a liberal 
interpretation, "a place where the innocent children were 
tormented and slaughtered," from "ari," children, "zona," 
where scourged and slaughtered. 

In 1695, or about that time, in the vicinity of Tubutama, 
now Sonora, a Lieutenant Solis of the Spanish army 
committed and ordered committed some great atrocities, 
punishing the innocent for acts of the guilty; among the 
acts putting to death at one time fifty who had come in 
as peaceful. After this, as great numbers of children 
had been butchered, the Indians, especially the squaws, 
upon coming into that vicinity kept repeating, "Ari-zona, 
Ari-zona" (this is the slaughter ground), until it was 
designated and known by that name, and it gradually 
spread and has named this Territory, and wrongfully per- 
petuates the infamous acts of a subaltern of the Spanish 
army of occupation. 

The first European that set foot within what is now 
Arizona is believed to have been an Arabian negro slave, 
known as Estevancio, a man of gigantic stature and her- 
culean personal strength, who, with his master, belonged 
to the Coronado expedition of 1540 in search of the seven 
cities of Cibola. Estevancio was continually roaming 



38 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

ahead of the command and crossed over the Colorado 
River, above where Yuma now is, and thus became the 
first human, except Indians in Arizona. On the return 
of this exploring army of Coronado one of his captains 
discovered the Grand Canon of the Colorado that prob- 
ably was not looked into again for another century. The 
name of this lieutenant of Coronado was Cardenas, and 
he was styled "Maestro de Campo," in the place of one 
Samaniego, whom he succeeded. Estevancio^ the slave, 
the first of the expedition to set foot upon Arizona soil, 
never j"eturned,. but was killed by the Moqui Indians as a 
witch, he being far in advance of the expedition. The 
claim was that he bewitched and killed their women. The 
probability is that this brave, bold man lost his life through 
jealousy of the' Indians of his mental and physical quali- 
fications. . 

Many of the exploring expeditions of these early days 
seem to have been led by Catholic priests, in their zeal 
anxious for the spreading of Christianity, but the lasting 
effect was to make known to the nations of savages the 
emblem of the cross. Some of these • expeditions . to the 
north were to discover a fancied strait through the con- 
tinent, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, even 
some old maps of the sixteenth century show this strait, 
and the first explorers of Hudson Bay thought they had 
struck upon. it. The . continent of North America had to 
be exploded on both oceans before this idea of a short pas- 
sage to India through it was abandoned, and then attempts 
were made for two centuries, and many valuable lives lost, 
in attempting to get around the north end of the North 
American continent by what has .been known as the "north- 
west passage.". A route has finally been found, but it is 
not practicable, as it is generally blocked up with ice. In 
1520 Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the globe, 
or rather the first who had the daring and hardihood to 
attempt it. His proposition was to sail west continually 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 39 

from the starting point (Cadiz, in Spain), and eventually 
come round to the same point. The voyage was accom- 
plished by the good ship San Vittoria, though Magellan 
did not live to return. He was killed by the savages on the 
Ladrone Islands in the vast Pacific. He discovered the 
straits near the south end of South America, and named 
them "San Vittoria'' after his staunch ship, but a grateful 
posterity has insisted on calling those straits by the name 
of their discoverer, so, till the end of time his name will be 
handed down, by the straits that bear his name. 

It was left for a man named McClure to finally dem- 
onstrate, in 1852, that there was a northwest passage 
through a narrow waterway among islands north of the 
main land of the continent of North America, but it was 
too much among the snow and ice of that high latitude 
to be of any value. 

The Spaniards of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries appear to have been the most adventurous 
and enterprising of any of the nations of Europe, though 
they colonized their vast possessions, obtained by conquest 
during these centuries, but slowly, and it would seem but 
little attempt was made to colonize. Could the inhabitants, 
not only of Spain but of all Europe^ have been made to 
comprehend the great possibilities for the downtrodden 
and oppressed peoples to better their condition in life in 
the Americas, they would have emigrated in a body from 
those king and priest-ridden shores to the new land of 
promise. The Spanish possessions upon the western con- 
tinent were at one time very extensive, embracing most 
of South America, all of. Central America and Mexico, 
including what is now Texas and what is known as the 
Louisiana Purchase in North America, and adjacent 
islands. The adventurous spirits of Spain went out from 
her and overran distant and barbarous nations, extermin- 
ating many, to spread the knowledge of the Christian re- 
ligion and to gather gold to be spent in Spain. Spain had 



40 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

occupied, and, to a considerable extent, explored her vast 
possessions before France or England became really alive 
to the importance of the Americas and made permanent 
settlements in the new world, as it was called. 

The French for a time exhibited a greater energy in the 
matter of colonizing their new possessions than the Eng- 
lish, and their colonies seemed to be firmly bound by con- 
sanguinity to the parent country. England did not take 
much interest in the first settlements within what is now 
the United States. Only after they had fought their way, 
cut down the forests, subdued the aborigines in a measure 
and became productive and able to protect themselves, did 
the English government manifest interest in the Ameri- 
can possessions, and then she became interested enough to 
be willing to extend the British flag over the colonies and 
claim the right of taxation without representation, which 
caused much dissatisfaction in the colonies, arid on that 
issue the War of the Revolution was fought to the bitter 
end. The Jesuits were the first to carry the emblem of the 
Christian religion, the cross of Qirist, into these newly dis- 
covered lands supported by the armed power of Spain. 
When the Society of Jesus was finally abandoned or 
abolished by Pope Clement XIV., in the eighteenth century, 
the Order of Franciscans came in, but it may be considered 
a matter of doubt whether they succeeded as well in con- 
trolling the red man as the expelled society had done; but 
Spain, ever faithful to the commands of the Pope, saw that 
through the whole extent of her vast possessions the priests 
of the society ceased to exercise their priestly functions. 
The Jesuits were not restored to their functions as priests 
until the pontificate of Pius IX., late in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and within the memory of living men. 

After the Gadsden Purchase, several efforts were made 
by different statesmen in the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives to have a Territorial organization for Arizona. 
Several efforts were made within the Territory by the few 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 41 

citizens within its boundaries, but without success. The 
first attempt of this kind was in 1856, soon after the United 
States, by having troops stationed at different points, had 
formally taken possession of the then new purchase. A 
mass meeting was called at Tucson, August 29, 1856, as 
Tucson was then, as it has remained since, the important 
point in Arizona. At that time there were no settlements 
north of the Gila River. One Nathan P. Cook, was 
chosen as delegate to Washington, he was not admitted to 
a seat, but his mission was brought to the attention of the 
House of Representatives in 1857, and referred to the Ter- 
ritorial Committee, who reported adversely to allowing a 
Territorial Government, on account of the sparse popula- 
tion, but acknowledged the unfortunate condition of the 
people without any recognized government and recommend- 
ing a bill be passed organizing a judicial district south of 
the Gila River; to appoint a surveyor-general and to pro- 
vide for representation at Santa Fe, New Mexico, as well 
as for the registration of land claims and mining titles. 
Such a bill was passed by the United States Senate in Feb- 
ruary, 1857, but was not reached in the House of Repre- 
sentatives before final adjournment. President Buchanan, 
in his message of 1857, recommended a Territorial Gov- 
ernment. Senator Gwin in December, 1857, introduced a 
bill to organize such a government for the Gadsden Pur- 
chase under the name of Arizona. The legislature of 
New Mexico in February, 1858, passed resolutions in favor 
of the measure, but recommended a boundary line north 
and south on the meridian of 109° west from Greenwich, 
also the removal of all New Mexican Indians to northern 
Arizona. Several petitions from various people and from 
different States were received favoring the organization 
of Arizona into a separate Territory. In an election held 
at Tucson, September, 1857, the people had gotten up a 
new petition and chosen Sylvester Mowry as Delegate to 
Congress. Mowry was not admitted to a seat in Congress 



42 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

as Delegate from Arizona, nor did the bill of Senator 
Gwin for a Territorial organization pass. The bill of Sena- 
tor Gwin did not include all of what was finally settled 
upon as Arizona, but only went north to 33° 45', and in- 
cluded all southern New Mexico up to that parallel through 
to the western line of Texas. Mowry got out a map in 
i860 of this "Arizona/' dividing it into four counties, but 
not attaching to them generally the names by which they 
are now designated. On the west, about what is Yuma 
County, was called "Castle Dome" County ; then came 
"Eweir* County, now Pima, which extended east to the 
western base of the Chiricahua Range of mountains at 
Apache Pass. Mesilla County extended eastward to the 
Rio Grande and Donna Ana County from the Rio Grande 
eastward to the line of Texas. The remainder of what is 
now embraced in Arizona, north of 33° 45', was left to 
New Mexico; being at that time inhabited by the wild 
Indians. 

Sylvester Mowry was elected delegate to the United States 
Congress and Congress memorialized in 1858- 1859, but with 
no success as far as Territorial organization is concerned. In 
i860 a self-styled constitutional convention met in Tucson, 
which held session from April 2 to 5, inclusive; composed 
of thirty-one delegates, who proceeded to "ordain and estab- 
lish a provisional constitution to remain in force until 
Congress shall organize a Territorial Government and no 
longer." This convention chose a governor in the person 
of Dr. L. S. Owings, of Mesilla; three judicial districts 
were created; Judges were to be appointed by the Gov- 
ernor as were also a lieutenant-governor, attorney-general 
and some other officials. A legislature, consisting of nine 
senators and eighteen representatives, was to be elected 
and convened upon the proclamation of the Governor. Steps 
were to be taken for organizing the militia, and an elec- 
tion for county officers was called for May. The general 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 43 

laws and codes of New Mexico were adopted, and the rec- 
ords of the convention, schedule, constitution, and Gov- 
ernor's inaugural address were printed at Tucson in what 
was, so far as is known, the first book ever published in 
Arizona. 

The Governor's appointments, under this provisional 
regime, were as follows: Lieutenant-Governor, Ignacio 
Orahtia; Secretary of State, James A. Lucas; Controller, 
J. H. Wells; Treasurer, Mark Aldrich; Marshal, Samuel 
G. Bean; District Judges, Granville H. Oury (chief jus- 
tice) ; Samuel H. Cozzens and Edward McGowan (as- 
sociate justices) ; District Attorneys, R. H. Glenn, Rees 
Smith, Thomas J. Mastin; Major-General, W. C. Words- 
worth; Adjutant-General, Valentine Robinson. Nothing 
seems to have been done by this self-constituted list of 
officials beyond the election of themselves, at least no rec- 
ords have come to light of their transactions. In Novem- 
ber of that year one of the associate justices, Edward Mc- 
Gowan, better known as "Ned" McGowan, of unsavory 
fame and record in San Francisco, was elected under the 
new regime as delegate from the State of Arizona to the 
United States Congress to succeed Mowry, but it does not 
appear that he went on to Washington to participate in 
National affairs. 

Public sentiment in Arizona at this time was largely 
with the South in its attempt to set up a separate govern- 
ment by breaking up the United States, and no secret was 
made of the feeling in this respect. Those who still clung 
to the old flag had little to say and it was openly asserted, 
perhaps, with some shadow of truth, that Arizona's mis- 
fortunes were in a great measure due to the neglect of the 
Federal government, and that this neglect arose from Ari- 
zona's patriotic devotion to the Southern cause. In 1861, -, 
a self-styled "convention" at Tucson formally declared the 
Territory a part of the Southern Confederacy, and in 
August of that year Granville H. Oury was elected delegate 



44 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

by a small vote to the Southern Congress. Many of the 
military officers serving at army posts in the southwest 
were of Southern birth and made haste to lay down their 
commissions and join the army of the Confederates, 
though to their honor be it said the enlisted men of the 
United States army, with rare exceptions, remained true 
to the government and flag they had sworn to uphold. 
Captain R. S. Ewell, who had commanded in Arizona, be- 
came prominent as a Confederate general. In time of rev- 
olution the promises and agreements of men became as 
unreliable as ropes of sand, and men, too, who in private 
life have been above reproach. 

One of the associate justices in this provisional govern- 
ment scheme, Samuel W. Cozzens, published a book on 
Arizona, which came out in 1874, called "The Marvellous 
Country." From its careful perusal one can hardly avoid 
the conclusion that the author was never in what now is 
Arizona, but only in that portion along the Rio Grande at 
Mesilla, and Donna Ana, which finally fell to New Mexico ; 
so his "book" is largely made up of fancied adventures and 
descriptions of scenery that are fictitious or taken at sec- 
ond-hand from descriptions of others. Cozzens' descrip- 
tion of the country he traversed in company with Cochise, to 
visit the stronghold, or residing place of this remarkable In- 
dian chief, describes such a country as does not exist either 
in Arizona or New Mexico, showing it to be a fancy sketch. 
To point out some of his inaccuracies as to topography, he 
gets to Tucson over the old stage route from the Rio 
Grande at Mesilla, without noticing the San Pedro River 
or Cienega de Los Pimas, some thirty miles southeast of 
Tucson; makes the Miembres River forty miles from Me- 
silla, when it is a good seventy; passes "Ajode Vaca," 
(Cow Springs), a noted watering place that never dries 
up ; has Colonel C. D. Poston killed by Indians in 1859, 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 45 

when the facts are he represented Arizona one term in 
Congress since that time and died in Phoenix in 1902, at an 
advanced age. 

In i860 a Mr. Green, of Missouri, introduced a bill in 
the House of Representatives of the Federal Congress to 
organize the Territory of Arizona, but this, also, failed. 
Several other attempts were made to have Congress grant 
a Territorial organization, among others the Governor of 
California called attention to the peculiar condition of the 
Territory, but with no avail, as the minds of the states- 
men of that day had already begun to be engrossed with 
the absorbing question of slavery that was soon to plunge 
the Nation into a war, which, while it lasted was the most 
destructive the world has ever known — a war that will go 
down through all time as remarkable for the number of its 
great battles; the magnitude of the armies engaged; the 
ability with which vast bodies of troops were handled, and 
the importance to the world of the results. For some years 
before the final outbreak of the War of the Rebellion the 
statesmen of the north and more especially of New Eng- 
land, looked with a suspicious eye upon any extension of , . 
territory towards the south or southwest ; had this not been ^ \ 
the case the Gadsden Purchase would have included much 
more of Mexico than that finally settled upon. 

Mr. Gadsden returned to Washington from Mexipo with 
the skeleton of three treaties, either of which if accepted 
by the United States the others were to be of no effect. 
These treaties are numbered according to their importance 
or size as to acquisition of territory, viz. : 

First. From latitude 30° center of the Rio Grande, di- 
rectly west to the Gulf of California and then including 
the whole peninsula of Lower California, at that time 
deemed but a barren rock; all north of line indicated, to 
belong to the United States, for which $25,000,000 was to 
be paid. 



46 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Second. All north of a line from head or most northerly 
point of the Gulf of California directly east to the Rio 
Grande, which would have been at or near the present city 
of El Paso. This would have embraced about the same 
extent of territory as the one finally adopted, but with this 
point its favor, the United States would have procured a 
seaport at the head of the Gulf of California. For this 
concession of territory the United States were to pay 
Mexico $15,000,000. 

Third. The one agreed upon after much debate gave 
to the United States about the same extent of territory as 
the second, but afforded no seaport upon the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia ; for this the United States paid Mexico $10,000,000. 

In the discussion of the treaty it was remarked by a 
Senator that the United States could have her port of en- 
try at Yuma; thereby showing himself to be deficient in 
information as to the navigation of the Colorado River 
from the Gulf of California up to that point. The osten- 
sible reason given to the country for the necessity of the 
Gadsden Purchase was, that the United States required a 
feasible country over which to build a railroad upon our 
own territory to the Pacific Ocean, as the more northern 
routes over which railroads have been since constructed, 
were at that time not considered practicable. By this treaty 
the United States gained two important points. First, by 
Article 11 a release was gained from the responsibility for 
outrages committed by Indians from United States terri- 
tory upon the inhabitants in Mexico; Article 12 of the 
treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo being abrogated. Second, by 
Article 8 for a railroad to be built across the Isthmus of 
Tehuantepec of which no advantage was taken and the 
concession lapsed. 

A line of stages in connection with weekly steamers 
was put in operation in 1858 to run from the head of canoe 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 47 

navigation on the Coatzacolcas River, to the city of Tehuan- 
tepec and the Pacific shore, a distance of about one hun- 
dred and forty miles ; from New Orleans to the town of 
Minititlan, upon the Coatzacolcas River, twenty miles above 
its mouth on the left bank. From here passengers and the 
United States mail were taken in small boats to the head 
of canoe navigation, to a place called Suchil, where they 
took stages connecting on the Pacific shore with a small 
steamer, which transported them to Acapulco where con- 
nection was made with the San Francisco and Panama 
steamers. This route was abandoned about May, 1859, 
as under the management it could not be made remunera- 
tive, though there is now a railroad across that isthmus, 
under the supervision of the Mexican government, which 
it is claimed does a fair business. 

Explorations and surveys looking to a transcontinental 
route for a railroad were made through Arizona as early 
as '1 85 1. During that year the first governmental survey 
was made across northern Arizona by Captain L. Sit- 
greaves, who had instructions to follow the Zuni, Colorado 
Chiquito and Colorado Rivers down to the Gulf of Califor- 
nia. In September of that year he left the Zuni Villages with 
a party of twenty men to execute instructions, but found it 
impracticable with the means at his command to follow the 
river through the great canons, so turned oflf to the west 
on the 8th of October, crossing the country just north of 
the 35° north latitude, being substantially the route trav- 
eled by Pedro Garcis in 1776, reaching the Mojave region 
on the Colorado River, November 5th, and following down 
the main river south to where Fort Yuma was later estab- 
lished, arriving there at the end of November, 1851. The 
scarcity of supplies and the poor condition of his animals 
did not permit this expedition to accomplish as much as 
had been anticipated of it, but the result of this first ex- 
ploration was an interesting itinerary, and a map of the 
route traveled and various scientific reports upon a new 



48 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

and intensely interesting region of our country. The en- 
tire party consisted of Captain L. Sitgreaves, Lieutenant 
J. G. Parke, Dr. S. W. Woodhouse, physician and natural- 
ist; R. H. Kern, draughtsman; Anton Leroux, guide; five 
American and ten Mexican packers, etc. ; an escort of thirty 
men of the Second Artillery was commanded by Major 
H. L. Hendricks. (History of Arizona and New Mexico, 

The exploration and survey of Captain Sitgreaves was 
followed in 1853-54 by the 35"* parallel Pacific railroad sur- 
vey under Lieutenant A. W. Whipple. Lieutenant J. C. 
Ives was chief assistant in a corps of twelve, and an escort 
of the Seventh Infantry, under Lieutenant John M. Jones. 
Lieutenant Whipple, having completed the survey from 
Fort Smith, on the Arkansas at the western boundary of 
that State, across the Indian Territory and the State of 
Texas and across New Mexico, left Zuni Villages on No- 
vember 23, 1853. The route followed by the Whipple 
Expedition was somewhat south for the most of the way 
of that gone over by Sitgreaves, though his survey em- 
braced the same region. Going down the Zuni and Colo- 
rado Chiquito, the Santa Maria and Bill Williams Fork, 
they reached the greater Colorado River in latitude 34° 51' 
north, and in March continued the survey across the State 
of California. The resulting report, as published by the 
United States Government, though of similar purport, is 
much more elaborate and extensive than the report of Sit- 
greaves, containing an immense amount of the most valu- 
able descriptive, geographic and scientific matter on north- 
ern and central Arizona, extensively illustrated wJth colored 
engravings and maps of great accuracy. 

The government of Mexico, having given permission a 

little in advance of the confirmation of the Gadsden Treaty 

then being considered, a survey for a railroad south of the 

then boundary line. Lieutenant John G. Parke and a party 

0/ some thirty men, with an escort of foity men under 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 49 

Lieutenant George Stoneman, left San Diego, California, 
January 24, 1854, and began a survey at Pima Villages on 
the Gila River. This party reached Tucson on the 20th of 
February, proceeding thence to the San Pedro River and 
eastward a part of the way by a route north of Cooke's 
wagon road; then known as Nugent's Trail, coming into 
Cooke's wagon road on March 7th, at or near the Miem- 
bres River and following it to the Rio Grande. Again in 
May, 1855, Lieutenant Parke with another fully equipped 
party started from San Diego, California, for the Pima 
Villages, and by several routes made a more careful sur- 
vey of that portion of the country stretching eastward 
from the Rio San Pedro.* 

It is in place here to note that all these surveys made by 
government officers through Arizona were made at the sug- ( 

gestion and under the orders of Hon. Jefferson Davis, then / 

Secretary of War. Even at that day there was no excuse, / 

at least no well founded excuse among our statesmen for \ 

the utter ignorance shown as to this newly acquired terri- 
tory. Arizona, notwithstanding the fact that entire and 
elaborate reports have been made topographically and other- 
wise, has been generally, and is yet, considered as com- 
posed of bare, bald mountains and desolate plains of wind- 
swept sand, which changed positions like light snow with 
the varying currents of air over these silent wastes. How 
different is this generally received opinion of the territory 
abroad from the facts of the case. The Territory has riv- 
ers and valleys equaling the famed valley of the Nile of 
Egypt, which, since the dawn of history, has been cele- 
brated in "song and story," sacred and profane, and for- 
ests of timber, more extensive in area than many of the 
States, and only surpassed upon our globe by the great 
tropical forests of Africa and of South America. 

• See Parke's Report of Explorations from. Pircv^. N'VWaj^^'a \5^ ^i^cw^ 
Rio Grande, 1854-55, in Pacific Railroad "RftpoTla. 



so THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

After the discovery of gold in 1848 in California, emi- 
grants in great numbers commenced to cross what is now 
southern Arizona from Sonora and other states of Mexico, 
and from the southwestern parts of the United States as 
well. The routes followed by the stream of Mexican 
emigration were either to strike the Santa Cruz River near 
where the boundary line now is, and follow that stream 
down to Tucson and the old wagon road to Yuma, or to 
go through the Papagoria, striking the Colorado River and 
crossing it at Yuma. Those emigrants from the States 
who struck the Rio Grande at various points in New 
Mexico and Texas, concentrated largely at Donna Ana in 
the county of that name, crossed the Rio Grande at what is 
yet known as California, crossing some miles above Donna 
Ana, and struck west for Cook's Pass following General 
Philip St. George, Cook's wagon road of 1846, on to the 
headwaters of the Santa Cruz River and down it to Tuc- 
son and so into the Colorado at Yuma. These different 
streams of gold-searchers all met at this crossing of the great 
Colorado at Yuma and at once made of it an important 
point. 

In these early days before the Gadsden Purchase was 
accomplished, from the time the emigrant left the Rio 
Grande until he crossed the Colorado at Yuma, he traveled 
for about six hundred miles upon Mexican soil, yet to their 
credit be it said no depredations were committed, and as 
far as could be done with the limited means at their com- 
mand, protection from hostile Indians was afforded the 
emigrant by Mexican officials. After leaving the Colorado 
either for San Diego or Los Angeles in California, much 
of the way across the great Colorado Desert was still upon 
Mexican territory. It was a journey of much hardship, 
as well as perils from hostile Indians, though, perhaps, not 
more so than other routes at that time. The experiences 
of those who joined in the great race for gold in any of 
the processions of emigrants crossing the plains in those 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 51 

days, would supply material for many a fascinating volume. 
There are but few diaries extant and fewer still of the 
thousands that traveled over these routes thought of such 
things as diaries, their attention was wholly engrossed with 
the duties of the hour, and the feverish anxiety to get on, 
— to reach this new El Dorado before its precious treasures 
had been gathered in by those in advance. 



i 



CHAPTER III 

The Oatman Tragedy. — Early Means of Transporta- 
tion. — Establishment of Military Stations. — Scien- 
tific Explorers. — Crabb Massacre. 

Both exploring and emigrant parties occasionally had 
trouble with the Apache Indians, who could not resist the 
temptation to steal animals or to attack weak parties and 
kill them if out of all danger of detection and punishment. 
Their chief animosity seemed to be against Mexicans, and 
they often professed friendship for Americans and even 
aided them on their way, but expected to be well compen- 
sated. Large, well armed parties, who exercised due dili- 
gence in traveling through the Apache land, were not in- 
terfered with, but companies that were confident and care- 
less or small, learned there were hostile Indians in the 
country. After 1854 the depredations of these hostiles 
seemed to increase. The most noted, or at least best re- 
corded, of these Apache outrages before that date, was the 
massacre in 185 1 of the Oatman family, which occurred 
upon the Gila River route, some one hundred miles east of 
Yuma, upon a steep hill on the western side of a small 
valley, since known as "Oatman Flat," and where the bodies 
of the murdered family are buried. As far as is possible 
this work will endeavor to present a succinct history of the 
sad affair. 

Roys Oatman and his wife, together with seven children, 

left Independence, Missouri, in August, 1850, with a party 

of some fifty other emigrants bound for California, "The 

Land of Gold." When their band arrived at Tucson a 

larg-e portion oi them concluded to stop for a time, at least, 

52 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 53 

until their jaded animals could be recruited. The re- 
mainder of the band went on to Pima Villages, where all 
except the Oatmans concluded to halt for a time with the 
hospitable and friendly Pima Indians. Unfortunately for 
themselves, the Oatmans at once pushed forward, it being 
now February, 1851. 

On February isth the Oatman team was passed by John 
Le Count, by whom Mr. Oatman sent a letter to the com- 
manding officer of Fort Yuma, who at that time was Major 
Heintzelman, asking aid. Three days later, February i8th, 
while under way, they were visited by a party of Indians 
who appeared to be friendly and helped push the wagon 
up the steep hill before mentioned. The Indians were given 
tobacco and some trinkets and seemed satisfied, but 
without warning they commenced their murderous attack 
upon the family, killing father, mother and four children, 
leaving the son, a boy of fourteen years, named Lorenzo, 
stunned, presumed by them to be dead. They threw his 
body over a bluff, at least twenty feet, and carried off as 
captives the two daughters, Olive, aged sixteen and Mary 
Ann, aged ten years. This outrage was attributed to the 
Tonto Apaches, though it has never been ascertained who 
the miscreants really were ; these murders have never been, 
avenged. Lorenzo Oatman, the boy, recovered from his 
stupor and after great suffering, at last succeeded in get- 
ting back to the Pima Villages, and went on with the other 
families to Fort Yuma and finally to San Francisco. 

The post-commander at Yuma on receipt of the letter sent 
by Mr. Oatman, despatched two men with supplies, but on 
learning of the massacre did not feel at liberty to pursue 
the savages, as the depredation had been committed upon 
Mexican territory, and Mexican authorities might protest 
against any armed party of another nation coming within 
their jurisdiction. By whatever Indians the outrage was 
committed, the captives were iomv^ V£\ >Ocsfi. \vaxA^ ^^^ *^^ 
Mojaves, who claimed to have putdcv^sedi >(>cvexcv Vtoxcv •sv.V^sx^ 



54 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

of Tontos. The younger, Mary Ann, after a few years 
of most degrading slavery, died in captivity. The elder, 
Olive, was kept as a slave and captive until 1857, when 
she was ransomed through the strenuous exertions of Mr. 
Grinnell and brought to Fort Yuma, where she joined her 
brother, Alonzo, and the two soon went to New York. Be- 
ing considered a war captive and under the jurisdiction of 
a man whose word was law and whose power might mean 
death, her sufferings were intense, yet strange to say the 
most vindictive treatment she received was from her own 
sex, and more than once during her captivity she would 
have been sacrificed to the envious rage of the squaws had 
not her more humane master interfered. Once in particular 
the squaws had firmly bound her to a tree and surrounded 
her with pine fagots piled high and about to ignite this 
combustible material, when her master discovered the situa- 
tion and with a howl of execration and a slash of his keen 
knife released her from her perilous position. After that 
episode the chief never trusted her to the ferocious "kind- 
ness" of the squaws, but kept her near him.*' 

The crossing of the Colorado River by all emigrants 
who entered California by the southern route at Yuma, 
made that point for the time being one of the most import- 
ant business points in the country, as it has been estimated 
that for the year 1851 some 60,000 people crossed into Cali- 
fornia, probably an exaggeration, still it was a very import- 
ant point, and the numbers crowding into the new El Do- 
rado were very large and continued its importance for 
several years. 

The Yuma Indians were not hostile though they required 
constant watching to keep them from stealing all animals 
that should inadvertently be left within their reach, and the 
different tribes along the Colorado and Gila Rivers were 

*See Straton'8 Captivity of the Oatman Girls. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 55 

constantly at war; plundering each other and making pris- 
oners of each other's women. The Yuma Indians fre- 
quently rendered valuable aid to bodies of emigrants in 
crossing the river, and required a fair remuneration, but 
were not extravagant in charges. They established a ferry 
of their own across the Colorado (a little below where the 
railroad bridge now is), and had in charge of the boat a 
white man, said by some to be a deserter from the United 
States army; this could hardly have been the case with the 
military post of Yuma so close, be that as it may, there 
was an opposition ferry established by one John Glanton, 
sometimes known as "Doctor," who originally came from 
Tennessee at the head of some thirty of as precious and as 
select a gang of desperadoes as the world ever saw together 
outside a pirate ship. After committing many high- 
handed extortions and many murders and robberies, which 
they laid upon the Indians, one night they made a descent 
upon the Indian ferry killing the white man in charge and 
two Indians, and destroying the ferry boat. After this out- 
rage upon the Indians not an Indian was to be. seen, un- 
til one morning just at break of day they gathered in upon 
the Glanton party in battle array and exterminated the 
whole party with the exception of one boy whom the 
avengers did not wish to kill, or who may have shown them 
some kindness, for which he was allowed to escape. The 
acts of brutality committed by this Glanton band are al- 
most too outrageous for belief, but were passed over with 
little comment in the whirl of events, until they had aroused 
the hatred of the Yuma Indians, who executed upon them 
savage justice. Glanton, some years before had been 
released from the Tennessee penitentiary through the in- 
tercession of some influential friends who had known him 
in younger years, when he gave promise of becoming a use- 
ful man ; but he had chosen the evil side ; had been a mem- 
ber of the "John A. Murrill" band of outlaws, ^nVvo vow- 
fested the lower Mississippi VaWey aXoxv^ m 'Ccv^'*'^'^ "^^^ 



56 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

early '40's of the nineteenth century, and for which he was 
sent to the penitentiary, but was past reformation as he 
did not wish to reform. 

In November, 1849, there arrived at Yuma, the mouth 
of the Gila River, a flatboat which had made the voyage 
down the Gila River from the Pima Villages with a Mr. 
Howard and family and two men, a doctor and a clergy- 
man on board. During this trip down the river, a son was 
born to Mrs. Howard, undoubtedly the first child of 
American parents born within the limits of Arizona, i, e,, as 
we understand the term "American," as all born upon the 
western continent are "Americans,'' and the Indian above 
all, as far as any evidence we have to the contrary may go. 
He is indigenous to this continent, he sprang from the soil. 
This child was named "Gila," after the river upon which 
it was born and a few years ago was living in Lake County, 
California. * 

A little later in the year another company composed of 
L. J. F. Jaeger and Hartshorne, established a ferry at 
Yuma across the Colorado River, hauling lumber from San 
Diego, across the desert, suitable for the construction of a 
good sized, strong, ferry boat and continued the business 
with profit for over a year, at least Jaeger did. 

On November 27, 1850, Major Heintzelman of the 
United States army arrived from San Diego, California, 
at the junction of the Gila and Colorado Rivers for the 
purpose of establishing a garrison of strength to protect 
the great stream of emigration then rolling into California 
by this avenue, as all the southern emigration was crossing 
the Colorado River at this point. This post was first called 
"Camp Independence," but in March, 1851, was transferred 
to the site of the old Spanish mission upon the rising 
ground on the California side of the Colorado River and 
soon was named "Fort Yuma." There was considerable 



*See Diary of X/ieu tenant Cave J. Coutta. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 57 

trouble about getting supplies, but the Indians were not 
hostile, and in June the fort was left in charge of Lieutenant 
L. W. Sweeney with ten men. It might have been that the 
Yuma Indians seeing the weakness of the garrison were 
emboldened to commit depredations, at least they soon be- 
came troublesome; killed some emigrants and even at- 
tacked the post; scurvy made its appearance among the 
troops and the supplies were exhausted. A Captain David- 
son took command in November; in December, post and 
ferry were abandoned. 

Fort Yuma seems to have been unoccupied from De- 
cember, 1851, to February, 1852, when Major Heintzelman 
returned to rebuild the fort and permanently re-establish 
the garrison. Indian hostilities, mostly on the California 
side of the Colorado, continued until late in that year when 
a treaty was made, still the Cocopas and Yumas would oc- 
casionally, among themselves, have a war dance. Fort 
Yuma was upon the western bank of the Colorado River, 
on the Arizona side of the same stream, there was no per- 
manent settlement until 1854. Temporary structures were 
erected at different times, but either were washed away by 
high water of the river or taken away for other more profit- 
able purposes, at least those that were deemed so to be. In 
1854 a store building was erected and a townsite called 
"Colorado City," was laid out in Arizona, upon the eastern 
bank of the Colorado River, just below where the Gila and 
Colorado unite, but in 186 1 there was but a building or two 
and these were washed away by the floods of water com- 
ing down the Colorado in the winter of 1861-62, so the 
growth of a town later called "Arizona City," and finally 
"Yuma" seems really not to have been commenced in 
earnest until about 1864. 

When Major Heintzelman was ordered to establish a 
military post at Yuma, an exploration oi. iVs^ COsss^-^^^ 
River was ordered to detetimtve >i\\e ^x^c'Cvci^^^ ^^ *^^ 



58 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

river being utilized for transportation of supplies. Lieu- 
tenant George H. Derby, later famous as a humorous 
writer, known by the signature of "John Phoenix," 
was in charge of the party and sailed from San Francisco, 
November i, 1850, on the schooner Invincible, Captain A. 
H. Wilcox. The month of January, 185 1, was spent in 
the Colorado River, up which the schooner, drawing eight 
or nine feet of water, could ascend only some twenty-five 
miles to north latitude 30° 51', but in his boat Derby went 
sixty miles further up the river, meeting the commanding 
officer, Major Heintzelman, and a party from Yuma. 

In the spring of 1851 George A. Johnson arrived at 
the mouth of the Colorado River on the steamer Sierra Ne- 
vada, with supplies for the garrison at Yuma, and lumber 
for the building of flatboats to be used for the purpose of 
bringing supplies, etc., up the Colorado River from the 
ocean-going streams which could come up the Gulf of 
California to the river's mouth, but could not get up the 
river on account of their requiring deeper water to float in 
than prevailed in the Colorado, except in time of floods, 
which were too infrequent and irregular to be depended 
upon. 

In 1852 Captain Turnbull brought the first steamer, called 
the Uncle Sam, on a schooner to the head of the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, where it was put together for the river trip. The 
Uncle Sam reached Fort Yuma early in December, but dre>v 
too much water to get up her cargo in the then stage of 
water, so took out her loading and left it on the bank some 
distance below Yuma, and it was gotten up in flatboats 
some days later. After running upon the river for some 
eighteen months the Uncle Sam grounded and sank and the 
General Jessup, Captain Johnson, was put upon the river, 
but exploded the following August. The Colorado, a stern- 
wheeler, 120 feet long, was put on the river late in 18^5, 
and from that time on steam navigation of the River Colo- 
rado up to Fort Yuma at all times, and V\\g\veT, \i \h^ sta^e 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 59 

of water in the river admitted it, seems to have been con- 
tinuous. Besides the boundary surveys there have been 
several official surveys other than those of prospectors, 
trappers and Indian fighters, so the country was pretty well 
explored as to its general topography during the decade 
from 1850 to i860. 

In 1857 Edward F. Beale opened a wagon-road nearly 
upon the 35th parallel, following in the main the route of 
Whipple and Sitgreaves; leaving the Zuni Villages in 
August and reaching the Colorado River in January, 1858. 
The steamer General Jessup was waiting in the Mojave 
region to transport this party across the river, but Beale 
with twenty men returned on the route explored, thus 
demonstrating the practicability of the route for winter 
travel. There was another important exploration made 
about this time by Lieutenant Joseph C. Ives. Lieutenant 
Ives arrived at the head of the Gulf of California in Novem- 
ber, 1857, o" ^ schooner from San Francisco, which brought 
an iron stern-wheel steamer, built in Philadelphia, for the 
trip. Lieutenant Ives and party left Fort Yuma January 
II, 1858, and had passed up the Colorado on March 12, 
through the Black Canon, and reached the mouth of Virgin 
River. From this point Lieutenant Ives returned to the 
Mojave villages, where he quit the steamer, ordering it to 
proceed down the river to Fort Yuma, while he, with a 
portion of his scientific corps, being joined by Lieutenant 
Tipton with twenty enlisted men as escort, started eastward 
by land. His route soon deflected to the north of that fol- 
lowed by former explorers, and included an exploration of 
the canon of the Colorado Chiquito and other streams, and 
for the first time since the occupation of any portion of 
Arizona by the United States the villages of the Moqui 
Indians were visited. Lieutenant Ives arrived at Fort Defi- 
ance in May, and his report, amply illustrated by engravings 
of scenery, is the most fascinating of all tiNe. Gcsvi^'t^Mx^^^s^ 
reports of various explorations. 



6o THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Besides the Beale wagon-road through and across the 
central portion of Arizona from east to west, another, gen- 
erally known as the Leach route, was made through the 
southern portion by James- B. Leach, superintendent, and 
W. H. Hutton, engineer. This wagon route corresponded 
much of the way from the Rio Grande west to Cook's route 
of 1846, but struck the San Pedro some nine miles below 
what is known as Tres Alamos, thence down the San Pedro 
to the mouth of Aravaipa Canon, where it crosses the river, 
striking west through a canon of heavy sand for some miles, 
coming out upon a high table and continuing on west some 
forty miles to the Gila River, some twenty miles, about east 
from Pima Villages, thus saving, as was then calculated, 
some forty miles over the route via Tucson. At that time 
Tucson was considered a point of small importance. Over 
much of this route through Arizona ran the Butterfield 
stage line from Marshall, Texas, through to Los Angeles 
and San Francisco, but via Tucson, carrying the United 
States mails and passengers twice a week each way, until 
broken up by Apache Indian hostilities, and the action of 
the Confederates in Texas taking possession of their live 
and rolling stock in 1861. So the mail route was changed 
to the more northern one, about where the Central and 
California Pacific Railroads now run. 

The United States took formal military possession of the 
Gadsden Purchase in 1856 by sending four companies of the 
First Dragoons, who were first stationed at Tucson, after- 
wards at Calabazas. A permanent station or post was 
selected in 1857 upon the Sonoita, a stream coming into the 
Santa Cruz River from the east, some fifteen miles above 
Tubac, and named Buchanan after the President of the 
United States at that time. The site was deemed to have no 
special advantages of location, with the exception that it 
WBS in the center of a fine grazing region; and the troops 
were, it was found, subject to malariaV ievets (^ci^^TsJevw^i^ , 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 6i 

especially during the rainy season in summer; so no build- 
ings worthy of the name of fort were erected. Late in 
1858, near Beal's crossing of the Colorado, Fort Mojave was 
established and garrisoned by three companies of infantry, 
and in 1-859 Fort Breckenridge, just below the junction of 
the Aravaipa and San Pedro, was established and garrisoned 
by taking a part of the garrison from Fort Buchanan. The 
establishing of these military stations did much good for 
the country, and the soldiers under their exceptionally able 
and energetic officers had many fights with the Apache 
Indians, but the force allowed was altogether too small to 
protect such an extensive territory against an untiring and 
stealthy foe. On the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, 
these posts were abandoned and troops withdrawn to other 
fields, where more effective service could be rendered, and 
Arizona was left to her own resources. The Apaches inter- 
preted this withdrawal of the troops as being done out of 
fear of them, and became more active than ever in hostili- 
ties and very nearly succeeded in driving out every vestige 
of civilization from Arizona, as well as from a large part of 
Sonora and Chihuahua. 

That portion of Arizona embraced in the Gadsden Pur- 
chase was claimed to be rich in the precious metals. Hardy 
and enterprising Americans had long been more or less con- 
versant with Mexican traditions of immensely rich mines, 
discovered and worked by the Jesuit priests, and abandoned 
in consequence of Apache raids — traditions that were as 
baseless as antique fables, in their details, and as far as 
priests were concerned as miners, but truthful to the extent 
that prospectors had actually found many rich deposits of 
silver and some gold, Copper, lead and iron were hardly 
noticed those days, though some of the richest discoveries 
since found upon more thorough and systematic investiga- 
tion, have been found beneath those neglected iron cap- 
pings. The elaborate reports of various Government ex.- 
plorers, who had noted indications oi mYcv^T?\ ^^^-s^iCcvKw -^ 



62 . THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

directions, corroborated the traditions current among the 
then inhabitants; as every town and ranch had somewhere 
in the vicinity its "lost mine." These mysterious traditions 
made Arizona a most attractive country for the bold and 
adventurous, and all the more so because of the recent suc- 
cesses of the gold-seekers in the neighboring State of Cali- 
fornia, where the life's hope was gathered up in a single day. 

In 1854, Col. Charles D. Poston, a private citizen, landed 
at Wanachisto, on the Gulf of California in the Mexican 
State of Sonora, and explored the country as far as western 
Sonoita and thence through the Papagoria, to the big bend 
of the Gila River and down that river to its junction with 
the Colorado at Fort Yuma, and thence to San Diego. 

Among the scientific explorers who, with Poston, com- 
menced mining at this early day of American occupation 
of the territory, was Herman Ehrenburg, a civil engineer 
and scientist of more than ordinary learning and ability. 
He remained in the Territory while Poston visited the East 
and Washington City and returned through Texas in the 
spring of 1856, with a colony of Germans and Americans, 
who settled at the old presidio of Tubac on the Santa Cruz 
River and engaged in working the silver mines in the Santa 
Rita Mountains, Aravaca, the Cerro Colorado and else- 
where in the southern portion of the Territory. Ehrenburg, 
as before stated, was a native of Germany and came to the 
United States at an early age, made his way to New Orleans, 
at which place he was when the war broke out. between 
Mexico and the American settlers of Texas, and he at once 
with several others joined those who were struggling for 
independence for Texas. He enlisted in the "New Orleans 
Grays," and was in the battles of Goliad and Fanriing's 
Defeat, and was one of the few who survived the barbarous 
and inhuman massacre of prisoners, who surrendered on the 
pledged word of the Mexican authorities that not a man 
who surrendered his arms should be hurt. At the 
triumph of the Texan struggle he retutned lo GeYm^.tvy and 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 63 

wrote an account in his native language of that interesting 
period, giving much information of Texas, which induced a 
large emigration of his countrymen to that great and fertile 
State. Soon after the publication, in Germany, of his book 
on Texas he returned to the United States and in 1840, at 
St. Louis, joined a party crossing the American continent 
for Oregon. From there he proceeded to the Sandwich 
Islands, and after wandering for some years through and 
among the islands of the Polynesian Archipelago, returned 
to California in time to join Colonel Fremont in the effort 
to free California from Mexican rule. He remained in Cali- 
fornia until the Gadsden Purchase was made from Mexico, 
awakened his roving, restless nature once more and he came 
fo Arizona, where, after years of useful service, he became a 
victim of the treachery of the Apache Indian at Palm 
Springs, in Southern California, where his mortal remains 
are buried. The little town of Ehrenburg perpetuates his 
memory. 

The mining company, organized through the efforts of / 
Colonel Poston, expended nearly a million of dollars in > 

development of the mines that had been discovered through 
the activity and energy of Poston and his able engineer, 
and were in a successful condition of development when, 
in 1861, the exigencies of the Civil War, then breaking out, 
caused the withdrawal of the Government troops and tem- 
porary abandonment of the Territory by armed forces. 

Raphael Pumpelly was another savant whose reports in 
relation to Arizona and her resources were of a valuable 
character. In the autumn of 1854 a company was started 
from San Francisco, California, under Superintendent 
Edward E. Dunbar, to work the Ajo copper mines in the 
Papagoria, about forty miles from the Sonora line and some 
forty-five miles south from Gila bend. Through scarcity 
of water and fuel and the great cost of transporting supplies, 
the venture was not a success, and many of the AJ^q> ^-^^^^^ 
remained permanently in lV\e TeTvvVoT^. TV^ cyt'^^2c«a-^^ 



? 

f 



64 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

of the company, Edward E. Dunbar, died at Pemambuco 
in 1868, and was buried upon an island near the Coast of 
South America. 

I now proceed to give the history of a matter not strictly 
appertaining to the early history of Arizona, still much 
interest was evinced at the time, as it seemed to demonstrate 
the hatred with which Mexicans regarded Americans, and 
which exhibited itself in cruelty and murder whenever and 
wherever they had the power. Probably the real reason 
which instigated that base and cowardly act was the 
innate hatred of the white race. In 1856 Signor Gandara 
was legally elected governor of the Mexican State of Sonora, 
if any election can be legal where no opposition is allowed 
to the people to express their opinion in the matter. Ygnacio 
Pesquirie "pronounced" against him and raised an "army" 
to vindicate his rights of plundering characteristics. 

Henry A. Crabb, an American, of California, a man of 
education and refinement, but of adventurous disposition, 
had married a member of the influential and respected family 
of Ainsa of Hermosillo, Sonora, and while on a visit to the 
relatives of his wife, he first met Pesquirie, who was then 
engaged in his struggle with Gandara for the governorship 
of Sonora. Pesquirie proposed to Crabb that he bring 
down one thousand armed Americans to assist him in wrest- 
ing the governorship of Sonora from Gandara. Crabb's 
reward for himself and followers was to be a broad strip 
of country across the northern portion of the State of Son- 
ora ; and to satisfy the scruples of the Mexican federal gov- 
ernment, as well as his own people, ever jealous of American 
colonists, they were informed that the strip was given in 
consideration of their protecting the State from depredations 
of the Apache Indians, then very troublesome. Crabb raised 
at once a portion of the one thousand men in California, 
and marched with about one hundred, as soon as they 
could be equipped and provisioned. The rest were to follow 
In detachments as they could be fitted out. Th^y entered 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 65 

Sonora from the north and came in across the Colorado 
Desert from Los Angeles via Warner's Ranch, Carizo 
Creek, Indian Wells, and crossing the Colorado River at 
Fort Yuma, and halted for a time at a camp on Gila River, 
long known as "Filibuster" Camp, to recruit the animals 
before crossing Papagoria and its desolate plains into the 
State of Sonora. 

In the meantime Pesquirie had succeeded in expelling 
Gandara from the State, the defeated governor taking refuge 
in Tucson, thus securing the governmental machinery ; Pes- 
quirie now could dispense with the services of Crabb and 
followers. In fact the idea, of bringing in foreigners of a 
hated race had a tendency to render him unpopular. A 
condition of things was at once seized upon by the opposite 
party to break down the revolutionary government set up 
by Pesquirie, who denied in a grandiloquent style all com- 
plicity or knowledge of Crabb's movements. The people, 
who were aroused against him as a filibuster and robber, 
had him besieged by an overwhelming force in the little 
town of Caborca, and as Crabb's ammunition gave out, and 
the roof of the building in which he was entrenched was on 
fire and many of his men killed and wounded, the surrender 
was secured upon the official promise that if they surrendered 
their arms they should not be hurt, but be given safe con- 
duct to the American boundary in Arizona. 

Pesquirie left for Oures, but sent back an order to the 
commandant to have all who defied the agreement shot. 
The commander, more humane than his cowardly, bloody- 
minded chief, refused to carry out the cruel order, but re- 
signed the command to Gabalondi, the next in rank, who 
had the prisoners taken out in detachments of ten and shot, 
excepting one boy, about fourteen years of age, who re- 
mained for some years in Pesquirie's family and apparently 
became a great favorite with the General. Thus were one 
hundred and four brave men put to de^.VVv, ^-aX. '^^ ^<:s^^^ 
dealing of one be kept from the \\g\vt. \\. \v^s\i^^^ ^''cA. "^ieaX 



66 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Pesquirie sent Crabb's head to the City of Mexico as evi- 
dence of the sincerity of his hatred of the white race. The 
execrations . of unborn millions will follow the Pesquirie 
name for centuries yet to come. 

The friends of this Sylla in miniature may attempt to 
gl6ss over his acts, but the fact must ever remain that he 
lived by assassination and robbery and had crimes committed 
of such enormity as to designate him the "scourge of Son- 
ora." Years after matters had settled down to a peace basis, 
those persons who had opposed his usurpations were, most 
of them, singled out and murdered in cold blood by his 
hired bravos, in witness of which is pointed out the cold- 
blooded assassination of Signor Martin Ainsa in Hermo- 
sillo in his own store, attending to his business affairs; 
true, the murdered man was a brother of Crabb's wife. 

The perpetrator of this dastardly act, though well known, 
was not apprehended, as the word of Pesquirie was above 
all law for years in Sonora. The nine hundred of Crabb's 
followers, who were to come forward in detachments after 
him, learning of the bloody reception he and party met with, 
gave up the expedition as too hazardous. Our federal 
government, during the senile administration of James 
Buchanan never inquired into the matter. Charles W. Tozer, 
now a member of this society, learning of Crabb's situation, 
organized and equipped a party of twenty-seven to proceed 
in all haste to Caborca for Crabb's relief, but they were 
too late, and had to fight their way back to boundary line 
against great odds. Tozer is living at this writing in San 
Francisco, California, at 143 1 Webster Street. 

Here are introduced some documents that will elucidate 
this subject more fully than any arguments drawn from 
the appearance of the acts of bloodthirstiness perpetrated 
by these fiends in wantonness of power, and must forever 
fasten these wholesale murders upon Ygnacio Pesquirie. 
(Translated from the Spanish by George D. Tyng, Editor 
^/ Vuma ""Sentinel/') 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 67 

Crabb, when he and party arrived at the Mexican frontier, 
sent the following letter ahead, which was published in 
"La Voz de Sonora," Ures, March 30, 1857, Supplement 
to No. 61 : 

"SoNOiTE, March 26, 1857. 
"To Mr. Jose Maria Redondo, Prefect of the Department 
of Altar, Sonora: 

"In conformity with the colonization laws of Mexico and 
upon positive invitation of some of the most influential citi- 
zens of Sonora, I have come within the lines of your State 
accompanied by one hundred companions and in advance of 
nine hundred others, with the expectation of finding happy 
homes with and among you. I have come without intention 
of injuring any one, without intrigue, public or private. 
Since my arrival at this place, I have given no indication of 
sinister purposes, but on the contrary have made only 
friendly propositions. 

"It is true that I am provided with arms and ammunition, 
but you well know that it is uncommon among Americans or 
any other citizens to travel without arms; besides that 
remember that we have been obliged to pass through a coun- 
try continually harassed by Apache depredations ; and from 
circumstances I imagine to my surprise that you are taking 
hostile measures against us and are collecting a force for 
exterminating myself and my companions. I am well aware 
that you have given orders for poisoning the wells and that 
you are prepared to resort to the vilest and most cowardly 
measures against us. 

"But have a care, sir ; for whatever we may be caused to 
suffer shall return upon the heads of you and those who 
assist you. I had never considered it possible that you 
would have defiled yourself by resorting to such barbarous 
practices. I also know that you have endeavored to rouse 
against us our very good friends, the tribe of Papago In- 
dians ; but it is most probable that in the i^o^Vdcsrcv \ V^^^ 
your efforts will fail. I have cottve to ^o>\x: c.ovyxvVx-^^ X^fc^-jcc^s*^ 



68 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

I have a right to follow the maxims of civilization. I have 
come, as I have amply proved, with the expectation of being 
received with open arms; but now I believe that I am to 
find my death among an enemy destitute of humanity. But 
as against my companions now here, and those who are to 
arrive, I protest against any wrong step. Finally you must 
reflect ; bear this in mind : if blood is shed, on your head be 
it and not on mine. Nevertheless, you can assure yourself 
and continue your hostile preparations; for, as for me, I 
shall at once proceed to where I have intended to go for 
some time and am ready to start. I am the leader, and my 
purpose is to act in accordance with the natural law of self- 
preservation. 

"Until we meet at Altar, I remain, 

"Your obt. servt., 

"Henry A. Crabb.^^ 

"This communication is given to the warden of Sonoite, 
to be forwarded to the Prefect of Altar without fail or delay. 

"H.A.C." 

"A true copy of the original translation. 

"Altar, March 28, 1857. 

"Jose M. Redondo." 

"Ures, 1857, Government Printing Office, in charge of 
Jesus P. Siqueires." 

The treacherous and bloody-minded military despot and 
self-styled governor of Sonora, Pesquirie, at this time 
issued the following "manifesto" to his deluded people, viz. : 



''PROCLAMATION, 

"I, Ignacio Pesquirie, Substitute-Governor of the State 
and Commander-in-Chief of the forces of the frontier: 

"To His Fellow Citizens : To Arms All ! ! 

"Now has sounded the hour I recently announced, in 
which you must prepare for the bloody struggle you are 
about to enter into. You have just heard in this most arro- 
£:ant letter a most explicit declaration oi vj^.t, ^towomtv^^^ 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 69 

against us by the chief of the invaders ; what reply does it 
merit? That we march to meet him. Let us fly, then, to 
chastise, with all the fury that can scarcely be contained in 
a heart swelling with resentment against coercion, the sav- 
age filibuster, who has dared, in an unhappy hour to tread 
our nation's soil and to arouse, insensate, our wrath! 

"Nothing of mercy; nothing of generous treatment for 
this canaille! Let it die like a wild beast, which, trampling 
upon the rights of man and scorning every law and insti- 
tution of society, dares invoke the law of nature as its only 
guide and to call upon brute force as its chosen ally. Sonor- 
anians, let our reconciliation be made sincere "by a common 
hatred for this cursed horde of pirates without country, 
without religion, without honor. Let the only mark to dis- 
tinguish us and to protect our foreheads, not only against 
hostile bullets, but also against humiliation and insult, be the 
tri-colored ribbon, sublime creation of the genius of Iguala. 
Upon it let there be written the grand words, Liberty or 
Death, and henceforth shall it bear for us one more sig- 
nificance, the powerful, invincible union of the two parties, 
which have lately divided our State in civil war. We shall 
soon return all loaded with glory, after having forever 
secured the prosperity of Sonora and established in defiance 
of tyranny this principle : The people that wants to be free 
will be so. Meanwhile, citizens, relieve your hearts by giv- 
ing free course to the enthusiasm which now burdens them. 

''Live Mexico; death to the filibusters ! 

"Ures, March 30, 1857. 

"Ignacio Pesquirie.'^ 

"Ures, 1857, Government Printing Office, in charge of 
Jesus P. Siqueires." 

This last document settles the matter forever upon Pes- 
quirie and proves beyond all cavil that he incited those 
murders of the Crabb party at Caborca vtv Sotvox'Sw. "X^-n^r.^^^ 
inHammatory utterances did not iaW upoxv ^v^X o\ ^^xvnn-C^^^* 



70 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

ears. No apology or labored explanation will be considered 
after his explicit and brutal proclamation over his official 
signature and published in his official organ, and the only 
paper at that time published in the State. 

No other attempts were made to "colonize" Sonora until 
i860, when a puny affair caused some little excitement. 

The Mexicans attempted retaliation when the exigencies 
of our Civil War had caused the withdrawal of the few 
troops that had been allowed Arizona, and before the Cali- 
fornia Volunteers arrived. An Opita Indian led a party of 
freebooters across the boundary line into United States ter- 
ritory and committed a few robberies, but the report of 
advancing troops sent them back into Mexican jurisdiction, 
not standing particularly on their order of going; but as 
their hands were in for plunder, they continued to depredate 
upon their own countrymen for some months, when the 
troops of Pesquirie, under General Altimirano, surprised 
them one evening, killing and capturing many, among whom 
was the leader. All the captives were shot at sunrise next 
morning. This affair of the Crabb massacre has been par- 
ticularized that the treachery and falsehood of Pesquirie 
may be placed upon record before all evidence shall be oblit- 
erated by lapse of time, as even now there are few living 
witnesses and actors in preliminary proceedings. Crabb's 
widow never married, but devoted all her energies to rearing 
and educating her children, and at this writing, 1902, resides 
in San Francisco, California. She has one son, a fine busi- 
ness man, named Henry A. Crabb, after his ill-fated father. 

The first mining machinery was brought into Arizona 
to be used at the famous Cerro Colorado Mine, sometimes 
known at that time as the "Heintzelman" Mine. Some set- 
tlements, though small and at long distances from their 
base of supplies and from each other, were commenced along 
the Colorado River, in what is now Mojave County, in 1857, 
and efforts were made to secure a civil government for the 
Territory about this time. No courts were otg^^mx^^ ^x'Ccaw 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 71 

the territorial boundaries, and Santa Fe, N. M., was a long 
distance to go to obtain at least a semblance of justice, or 
at least judicial forms. The people depended upon their 
own strong arms and resolute hearts in these times, when 
practically each man was a. law unto himself. After the 
United .States troops were withdrawn, no military protec- 
tion was. afforded to Arizona until a company of Confed- , 
erate cavalry came in from the Rio Grande under a Captain 
Hunter in February, 1862, and there were not enough of t 
them to dp much more than to protect themselves. 

Brigadier-General James ,H. Carleton cornmanded the 
California column arriving in Tucson with the advance com- 
mand of his troopg. May 20, 1862, the Confederates under 
Hunter retiring almost, within hearing of Car.leton's advanc- 
ing trumpets.. General Carleton, in his proclamation of 
June 8, 1862, defined the boundaries of Arizona, and. in the 
absence of civil law declared martial law, and for the suc- 
ceeding eighteen months, or a little more, the Territory was 
fairly governed, and in most cases substantial justice was 
impartially administered. The military rule gave place to 
the civil in Arizona on or about January i, 1864, with John 
N. Gopdwin, Governor, and seat of territorial government 
fixed at Prescott. At this point it may be well to state how 
it came about that the capital of Arizona was first located at 
Prescott in Yavapai County, a new town started by a few 
hardy miners and the party of officials that accompanied the 
new governor to his field of government. The governor 
and nearly, all of his officials ,(with the exception of Milton 
B. Duffield, the marshal) came across the plains, starting 
froni St. Louis, Missouri, via Independence, to Santa Fe, 
New Mexico, where General James H. Carleton had estab- 
lished his headquarters as department commander. The 
department consisted then of New Mexico and Arizona. 

When these officials left Washington, they were expected, 
in fact ordered, to proceed to Tucson direct, as that was at 
the time the only known town m vYve T^xTStox^ o\ -jck^ '4vu^ 



f 



\ 







72 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

and standing. It had been headquarters of the Arizona 
District under Carleton's command, but the general was 
sensitive to criticism and hated a man or men who did not 
appear to justify his acts, although he might have doubts 
of their justice himself. Some of the citizens of Tucson 
had ventured to criticize the arbitrary and unwarranted act 
of his military government, notably the order of banishment 
of Sylvester Mowry from the Territory, for which there 
would seem, even by the documentary evidence presented to 
the military commission, to be no justification. So the 
commanding general had determined in his own mind to 
humiliate the free-thinking town which, at that time, De- 
cember, 1863, was exciting considerable attention on account 
of gold discoveries around where Prescott now is. 

The Weaver diggings had been discovered early in the 
spring before ; therefore now was an opportunity not to be 
neglected to pay off old scores with Tucson and establish a 
rival city among and in the center of a vast mining region ; 
besides the possibility, if not probability, was dwelt upon that 
it would open an avenue whereby each and all would attain 
vast wealth and influence. These two causes led to the aban- 
donment of Tucson as the capital and the establishment of a 
new one in a virgin field, where all would have an equal 
chance for gold and glory. 

As it has turned out after nearly forty years of trial, the 
gold has been no misnomer; around Prescott, in all direc- 
tions, is a great mineral country, hardly surpassed in any 
section of the world. While some other regions may be 
higher grade to the ton, the climate and surroundings are 
such that the yearly profits equal those of any other part 
of the world today, and at this time the mining prospect of 
that section is increasing, and new developments are of 
frequent occurrence and will no doubt continue for many 
years to come. 

General Carleton, to further humiliate Tucson, had the 
Military Depot of Supplies broken up at Tucson in August, 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 73 

1864, and all troops taken from there and distributed among 
other posts; but early in 1865 Arizona was taken from 
Carleton's department and attached to California, and the 
new district commander re-established the department at 
Tucson. 

By a proclamation of May 8, 1864, an election was called 
by Governor John N. Goodwin, to be held July 18, 1864, 
for the election of a Delegate to Congress and members of 
a territorial legislature. The first delegate from Arizona to 
the Federal Congress was Hon. Charles D. Poston. The 
members of Legislative Council first chosen were Coles 
Bashford, Francisco G. Leon, Mark Aldrich, Patrick H. 
Dunn, George W. Lehi, Jose M. Redondo, King S. Woolsey, 
Robert W. Groom and Henry A. Bigelow. Members of the 
lower house were as follows : W. C. Jones, John G. Capron, 
Gregory P. Harte, Henry D. Jackson, Jesus M. Elias, Daniel 
H. Stickney, Nathan B. Appel, Norman S. Higgins, Gilbert 
W. Hopkins, Louis G. Bouchet, George M. Holaday, 
Thomas H. Bidwell Ed. D. Tuttle, William Walter, John M. 
Baggs, James Garvin, James S. Giles and Jackson 
McCrackin. Coles Bashford was chosen president of the 
council or upper house, and Almon Gage, Secretary. Jones, 
generally known as Qaude Jones, was appointed Speaker 
of the lower house and James Andrews Clerk, translator, and 
H. W. Fleury, chaplain. In both branches of this legislature 
were some very able men, who would have appeared in the 
front of any assembly. Coles Bashford was a very able 
lawyer, had been governor of Wisconsin, and was a man 
of mark wherever placed. In the lower house, W. C. Jones 
(Qaude) was a distinguished lawyer and linguist, able to 
address a jury in English, German and Spanish. Nathan B. 
Appel spoke and wrote with facility in English, German, 
French and Spanish. People in the older States are apt to 
estimate the public men of the new territories as raw and 
new, because the country is new, forgetting that it is the 
boldest, most enterprising and bto^-d'^VrcCvcA^^ ""^^^ V»n;^ 



74 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

the old communities and come to new countries, to pave their 
way to fortune in new fields. This legislature divided, the 
Territory of Arizona into the following four counties, viz. : 
Yuma, Mojave, Pima and Yavapai. 



CHAPTER IV . - . 

, ■ * » - . . . . . ■ 

Missions and Building of Churches. — The Grand 
Canon of the Colorado.^-Montezuma's Well. 

The first teaching of: the principles of Christianity to the 
Indians of Arizona was by the Jesuit fathers, when Spain 
held all of South and much of North America .and being 
ardently Catholic allowed no heresy to be taught in her 
dominions, and the Jesuits at that time, being a new order, 
entered zealously into the work. of baptizing and gathering 
into missions the wild Indian tribes. How much of. true 
Christianity was imbibed by these savages it is hard to say, 
but they were taught to lea^d more gregarious lives ; to some 
extent cultivate the soil ; to listen to the holy sacrifice of the 
mass; and in a manner forget war,: the normal state of all 
savages. 

The first mission started in Arizona would appear to have 
been at Tubac in 1698, and in 1700 at Huababi by Padre 
Eusibio Kino. In May, 1700^ he laid the corner-stone of a 
church upon the site of San Xavier del Bac, perhaps the 
present church itself. The church at Tumicacori .appears to 
have been begun later, but was completed first. The records 
become very obscure, and though the Indians at the time 
seemed anxious to proceed with the building of the church 
at San Xavier del Bac, for some reason, perhaps because 
the priests could not attend to it, the building of the church 
did not then proceed ; at least, there is no authoritative 
record that this church was ever completed under Jesuit 
administration, though it probably was so far completed 
that one room was used for service of the mass about 1732. 
The church, or what there was of it, was partially destroyed 
by the Indians themselves m sitv owJi^T^sJ^. *vcv ^t^.^. "^Nnr. 

•75 



76 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Jesuits themselves, after the issuing of the order of Pope 
Clement XIV., breaking up the Society of Jesus, were 
expelled from all their missions in Spanish Americas in 
1767, and the missions and all property considered as 
belonging to the Jesuit order taken possession of by the gov- 
ernment. 

The order of Franciscans came in after some years had 
elapsed, and such of the mission property as had not been 
sold, appropriated or destroyed, was turned over to them. 
The Christianized Indians had carried off and secreted much 
of the sacred belongings of the church, which, when the 
priests appeared, was gladly brought forth and turned over 
to them by these faithful custodians, who knew nothing of 
these different religious orders. All to them were alike, 
"Soldiers of the Cross." 

In 1783 the present church of San Xavier del Bac was 
virtually begun upon the site selected by the Jesuit Kino, 
who laid the corner-stone in May, 1700. The church was 
completed in 1797 by the Franciscans. 

In 1776 the Christianized Indians in the vicinity of Tucson 
were found in a pueblo adjoining the presidio, called at this 
time San Augustine del Pueblo de Tucson, where religious 
instruction was imparted to the Indians, Apaches as well as 
Papagoes, and the children were instructed in the catechism 
and Spanish language. This "pueblo** was upon the left, 
or western, side of the Santa Cruz River, and most of the 
old walls are yet standing (August, 1903), though in a 
dilapidated condition. 

Not far from the site of the present city of Tucson was an 
Indian rancheria that evidently had been a place of residence 
of Indians, at least for a large portion of the time, from a 
period long anterior to the appearing of Europeans upon this 
continent. Some writers of histories are disposed to ascribe 
great age to Tucson, and, taken back to the time the first 
Indian wickiup was pitched in the valley, it no doubt goes 
far back into the shadowy past ; but ii t\ve tvwv^ \ie^ ^^^^ ^t 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 77 

the first settling of Europeans at Tucson, there seems to be 
no evidence that anything permanent was fixed at Tucson 
until 1776. It has been the practice with many of the 
writers of the history of Arizona to assert that the Jesuit 
Father Kino, in his travels in Arizona through a wild and 
desert country, inhabited only by nomadic savages, was on . 
a mission founding missions, though it is well ascertained 
that at that time there were no missions founded in what is 
now the limits of Arizona until long after the good father 
had been laid in his grave. 

From the Spanish names, on early maps, corresponding 
with those of Kino and Venegas, the conclusion has been 
arrived at that up the Gila Valley and other streams the 
whole country available for settlement was dotted with 
Spanish pueblos and missions that were later abandoned on 
account of the raids of hostile Apache Indians, but the truth 
seems to be there was no Spanish occupation, excepting a 
narrow strip of Santa Cruz Valley, and there were only 
two missions, San Xavier del Bac and Huababi, with a few 
Indian rancherias de vista under resident priests from 
about 1720, and protected by the Tubac presidio from 1752 
in their precarious existence. The names of patron saints 
were applied by Father Kino to Indian rancherias, in their 
itineraries and maps, where he and his party stopped over 
night, or for a few days, to recuperate men and animals, 
and perhaps the Indians at these points were told that a 
priest would be sent to them and preparations were made to 
some extent for the reception of the promised missionaries, 
who failed to come, through inability to supply the demands 
for these holy men. 

There does not appear to be any evidence of more than 
two missions having been established in the Spanish occu- 
pancy within the limits of what now is Arizona, and these 
were at no time prosperous. As before noted, these mis- 
sions were San Xavier del Bac ^.tvd Ytw-sfek^S^x, ^"^^^ "^ ^s^i^ 
rancherias under priests residing ^X >iv^ x^^aNax tcsn^^nss^^i 



78 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

who visited these ranchprias at stated times to baptize chil- 
dren, Say mas3, perform marriage ceremonies and perform 
such other duties as appertain to their calling. 

The rich mines and prosperous haciendas in the vicinity 
of these missions that the Jesuit fathers are said to have 
managed so successfully for themselves, upon closer examin- 
ation seem to partake largely of the fabulous; but hunting 
for these visionary mines has engaged the attention of many 
a hardy prospector, and even yet, every now and then we 
hear of "the lost mine" having been found. The Spaniards, 
it would appear, started in Mexico after the Cortez con- 
quest and gradually extended into the interior and to the 
north, and did not at once get up to what is now called 
Arizona, though some of the expedition under Coronado, or 
even Goronado himself, may have visited the rancherias in 
1540, but that did not constitute a Spanish settlement. The 
Indian rancheria sometimes called old Tucson was about a 
mile southerly from the present site of the city of Tucson, 
and doubtless had been from time to time occupied by the 
nomads from time immemorial. 

Mark Twain, in one of his inimitable works, in his free 
and easy style, tells his readers that the oldest city in the 
world is Damascus. Rome, he says, is called for some 
reason the "Eternal City," yet Damascus was a flourishing 
city "ere Romulus and Remus had been suckled." So 
Tucson (Tuczon or Tuigson, as it has been variously 
spelled), counting from the time the first wickiup was 
erected upon or near its present site, may rival Damascus in 
antiquity, but Tucson really was not settled by Europeans 
until well into the eighteenth century, and the first starting 
of settlements seems to have been the Jesuit fathers. After 
a time pueblos, or military posts, were established for their 
protection. In every instance, however, in these northern 
settlements the self-sacrificing Catholic priests led the ad- 
vance. After Mexico had thrown off Spanish rule, the mis- 
sion, through want of funds, declined and \\\X\e rcvvWtait'^ 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 79 

protection was afforded them until finally the breaking out 
of the Apaches drove them entirely out of the sparsely 
settled country of Arizona, and when the United States took 
possession in 1856, there really was no mission sustained 
within the limits of the Territory, with the exception, per- 
haps of a resident priest at Tucson, who kept up the weekly 
service of mass, baptized children and attended burials, mar- 
riages also, when called upon, though that ceremony was in 
many instances dispensed with, not deeming it material when 
couples wished to live together. 

There was a church established quite early some three 
miles below where Tucson now is, on what is known as 
Grosetti's Ranch, which has been known among the Spanish- 
speaking people of this vicinity up to a recent date as "Casa 
de los Padres." There is but little, if any, evidence of a 
church there at the present day. 

The Grand Canon of the Colorado. 

In addition to the vast natural resources of Arizona, the 
Territory possesses great natural wonders that must ever 
attract the attention of the tourist, the man of the world 
and the scientific investigator. The Grand Caiion has no 
known peer on the face of the earth; the rivers of Asia, 
whose sources are in the mighty Himalaya Range, present 
nothing to be compared to it in sublimity and grandeur. 

The river channel at many points of its course is over 
6,000 feet below the point of view, and though the waters 
of a great river are rolling and tumbling over a rocky bed 
with a continual roar like Niagara, at the surface not a 
sound can be heard. This wonder of the world was first 
beheld in 1540 by a party of Spaniards consisting of twelve 
men, led by one of Coronado's lieutenants, named Garcia 
Lopez de Cardenas, over three hundred and sixty years ago, 
and was not looked into again by a white man for £\ilbj 
forty years. 



8o THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

From accounts given by geologists we may understand 
something of its vast dimensions. 

What is known as the Grand Canon lies principally in 
northwestern Arizona; its length in a straight line, from 
northeasterly to southwesterly, being about one hundred 
and eighty miles; its width, one hundred and twenty-five 
miles, and its total area some 15,000 square miles. The 
canon, proper, commences at the high plateaus in southern 
Utah, in a series of terraces, extending for many miles on 
each side of the stream, dropping like the steps of a stair- 
way to lower geological formations, until in Arizona the 
platform or formation is reached which borders the real 
chasm, extending southward near the central part, north 
and south of the Territory. 

Geologists have advanced the theory that some 10,000 
feet of strata have been eroded from the surface of this 
entire platform; the present uppermost formation is the 
carboniferous. Such a theory is based upon the fact that 
the missing Permian, Mesozoic and Tertiary formations, 
which, where the formations have not been disturbed, be- 
long above the carboniferous in the series, and are found 
in place at the commencement of the northern terraces 
referred to. The climax in this most extraordinary erosion 
is the Grand Canon, which, were the missing strata re- 
stored to the adjacent plateau, would be 16,000 feet deep. 
To the majority such a statement is apt to be considered 
as but the dream of an enthusiast, as a theory, and until 
the question has been studied in all its various aspects and 
without prejudice in favor of early teaching or precon- 
ceived opinions, it does not seem credible that water should 
have eroded such a trough for itself through solid rock. 

That section of the world's crust seems to have under- 
gone great changes in the distant past. It would appear to 
have been hove up and again submerged beneath the ocean 
more than once, and lastly, it was a fresh water sea and 
/n the era of this last convulsion the met cuV. \\.^ ^ot^e. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 8i 

Being the drainage system of a large extent of territory, 
it forced its right of way, and as the plateau rose slowly 
before the mighty pressure of internal forces, through a 
period almost of infinity, the river wore its bed to the 
level of erosion; or if it has not done so yet, is still wear- 
ing, sawing, its channel free. 

Beginning at the plateau level on the brink of the canon, 
the order of formations above the river, according to Cap- 
tain Dutton, is as follows, the vertical depth being over a 
mile. 

1. Cherry limestone, two hundred and forty feet. 

2. Aubrey limestone, three hundred and twenty feet. 

3. Cross-bedded sandstone, three hundred and eighty 
feet. 

4. Lower Aubrey sandstone, nine hundred and fifty feet. 

5. Upper red wall sandstone, four hundred feet. 

6. Red wall lime sandstone, one thousand, five hundred 
feet. 

7. Lower carboniferous sandstone, five hundred and 
fifty feet. 

8. Quartzite base of carboniferous, one hundred and 
eighty feet. 

9. Archaean, three hundred and fifty feet to water, or 
surface of stream at low water. 

The Grand Canon is not far from four hundred miles 
long in its many windings, but from where the river first 
commenced to cut its way into the strata is fully six hun- 
dred miles. In this distance the river receives about two 
hundred tributaries, each of which, as it neared the 
Grand Canon, has cut for itself a canon forming a great 
net work of canons, some of them approaching in sub- 
limity the Grand Canon itself. 

In this system of canons will yet be developed the most 
extensive bodies of copper in the world, in fact, rich indi- 
cations of most of the known minerals are here exposed 
to view, strata above strata. 



82 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Montezuma's Well. 

This celebrated well is fifty-five miles northeast of Pres- 
cott, and about twelve miles nearly due north of Camp 
Verde. It is situated in a formation of limestone, on a 
bare, rocky and level mesa or table, one hundred feet above 
the creek and seventy feet above the water, which is clear 
and pure, and in depth about one hundred feet. The open- 
ing to this well is circular, and about six hundred feet in 
diameter. The walls on the northwest side are about per- 
pendicular. Something near midway between the water 
and surface of the mesa are three or four caves, evidently 
once used by the cave-dwellers of prehistoric times, hav- 
ing a frontage of from twelve to twenty feet, and similar 
depth. The eastern and southeastern borders of this well 
are within thirty to one hundred feet of Beaver Creek, 
from which it is separated by a rim of limestone rock, 
which was built up with stone buildings its entire width, 
and nearly one hundred feet in length; the walls of these 
old buildings still remaining are in places twenty feet high. 
Broken pottery in the vicinity is abundant Lava dykes are 
abundant on the flat and what is known as the well has 
been, in the distant past, the crater of a volcano. 

There is a tradition said to be among the Indians in that 
vicinity that once in one thousand years this well of water 
overflows and for a thousand years becomes the source 
of a mighty river, then subsides and remains within its 
prison walls until at the end of another period it again 
overflows. Since the last subsidence, by the same tradition, 
some 400 years have past away, so that none alive now 
will see it again overflow, — one of nature's calendars, but 
who can read it and account for the variations? What 
planet rules these tides, as our moon rules the semi-daily 
tides of ocean? 

In the same vicinity, also, is the Tower of Montezuma, 
a peculiar formation, a circular rock t\vat mes \3lp ixorcv \V& 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 83 

rugged surroundings in a vast desert to the height of some 
eighty feet, gradually tapering from some forty feet in dia- 
meter at the bottom, to about sixteen feet at the top, and on 
top of this rock a giant cactus runs up to a height of forty 
feet more and at a distance, when in bloom, the tower seems 
crowned with flowers. 

From Flagstaflf, in Coconino County, the great natural 
curiosities of Arizona are within easy reach. There is 
the Natural Bridge, over Pine Creek, one of the great 
wonders of its kind, far surpassing the famed Nat- 
ural Bridge of Virginia. This bridge is in Coconino 
County, formerly Yavapai, and is an arch carved by 
nature's forces, and will yet be the objective point of tour- 
ists and scientists from the world over. It is situated some 
seven miles from the small settlement of Mazatzal City, and 
nearly the same distance from the Pine lumber camp. 

The bridge, though very extensive, is hidden from view 
from nearly all points upon the hills around it, and not . 
until one arrives upon the brink of the gorge does the 
cavern come in sight, with a stream of pure water cours- 
ing along over its rocky bed. The top of this bridge em- 
braces nearly ten acres of fine soil for cultivation, and is 
utilized by the owner as a garden and orchard. From the 
bed of the stream to the roof is about one hundred and 
sixty feet ; the arch will average eighty feet and the tunnel 
is somewhere near five hundred feet. Up near the roof, 
reached by ladders, is a large cave extending far to the 
west into the hills. The action of water through long 
lapses of time may be seen in the wearing and scouring of 
the rocks into many fantastic shapes. There are upon the 
lower side of the bridge many caves as interesting, per- 
haps, as the bridge itself. These caves have never yet been 
sufficiently explored, but are known to extend a long dis- 
tance into the hill. 

Chalcedony Park, generally known as the Pe,tt\.^<^d ¥c^^- 
est, consists ot a tract of land oi ^\>o\\\. Xn^o >(^o>5s>';^xA ^^^^'^^ 



84 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

which has once in its history been heavily timbered. This 
Petrified Forest is classed today as the most astonishing 
natural curiosity in the world. In the life of the human race 
man has reared wonderful structures that have come down 
to our own day, such as caves to live in; the monumental 
Pyramids of Egypt, so vast as to require a nation to labor 
many years erecting those useless fabrics for tombs 
in which royalty might repose in their final slumbers; 
the Sphinx, a monument of granite, surmounted by a hu- 
man head of vast proportions, being one hundred and two 
feet in circumference, — all these are as nothing when it 
comes to transforming a great forest of living trees into 
not only stone, but precious and costly gems, chalcedony, 
topaz, onyx, cornelian, agate and amethyst. What specific 
change has taken place in the earth, air, and water of this 
particular spot of the earth's surface that should chemically 
change a living forest into not one, but many of the earth's 
precious gems? There are millions of tons here that if 
divided up into suitable sizes, which can easily be done, 
and placed in the hands of a lapidary, would in their beauty 
embellish a crown. Many of these prostrate trees are from 
one hundred to one hundred and fifty feet in length, and 
at the largest part, ten feet in diameter. Generally from 
their great weight when falling they are broken into sec- 
tions, but this is not always the case. One of these trees 
fell across an arroyo in which still runs water, the length 
of the span is fifty-five feet, over which is this petrified 
tree about two feet in diameter, — ^a bridge of jasper and 
agate. In this petrified forest are precious gems enough to 
supply the world. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 



85 



LIST OF GOVERNORS of ARIZONA 
AND LENGTH OF SERVICE 



John N. Goodwin 1863- 

RlCHARD C. McCoRMICK 1866- 

A. P. K. Safford 1869- 

JOHN p. HOYT 1877- 

JoHN C. Fremont 1878- 

Frederick a. Tritle 1882- 

C. Meyer Zulick 1885- 

Lewis Wolfley 1889- 

JoHN N. Irwin 1890- 

N. Oakes Murphy 1892- 

Louis C. Hughes 1893- 

Benjamin J. Franklin 1896- 

Myron H. McCord 1897- 

N. Oakes Murphy 1898- 

Alexander O. Brodie 1902- 



866 
869 

877 
878 

882 

885 

889 

890 

892 

893 
896 

897 
898 

902 



PART II 



CHAPTER V 
Apache County 

This county has a superficial area of 11,520 square miles, 
or nearly one-fourth that of the Empire State of New York. 
St. Johns is the county-seat, and is a Mormon town, not 
on the line of any railroad, but is a nice town of some 600 
inhabitants and a place of considerable commerce. Much 
of this county is mountainous, and is well adapted to the 
raising of cattle, sheep and goats, and. along the streams is 
some fine land for farming. As yet it is but sparsely settled, 
and the altitude is so great that the winters are as severe 
as more northern locations. A large part of the northern 
portion of the country is taken up by the Navajo Indian 
Reservation. This county was set off from Yavapai by the 
tenth session of the legislature in 1879. 

Until March, 1895, this county embraced what is now 
(1902) Navajo County, but at the former date that was set 
apart and established as a separate county. Apache County 
is justly noted for its great natural resources and advan- 
tages. In the future this county is destined to have a large 
population. As before stated, Navajo Indians occupy the 
northern portion of the county ; in fact, much of the whole 
county, as they care but little for reservation boundaries, 
driving their flocks and herds where they please and where 
grazing is best. 

The southern part is fine grazing land, while the more 
northern is cut up into gorges and canons by floods of past 
ages. The population of this county, by census of 1900, waS 
4,200. 

There are something over two Vwvxvdt^d tcJX^'s* ci^ \x^\sg8i:^?cf^j^ 
canals taken out oi an average wAAv oTv\iO\X53wv ^S.\^k<^ V^^ 

S9 



90 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

and a depth of water running one foot. The average fall 
of water in these canals is nine feet per mile. This county 
has undeveloped water resources sufficient to reclaim large 
bodies of land that are now practically unproductive, which 
will eventually be rendered fruitful and serve the purposes 
of man in the matter of rendering homes possible for an 
industrious and thriving population, where now are but 
arid wastes abandoned to the coyotes, lizards, horned toads 
and other beasts and reptiles. Coal is found in the moun- 
tains in this county in vast quantities, but until better trans- 
portation facilities are afforded, the deposits cannot be suc- 
cessfully worked, and for the time are of no value. At some 
future day this portion of Arizona will rival Pennsylvania or 
England in the production of coal. 

The population of Apache County by census of 1900 was 
8,297, and now would probably reach fully 10,000. There 
are fifteen public schools in the county, employing thirty- 
two teachers; number of pupils, 1,244; average school 
months per year, six. There are nine churches in the county, 
four Catholic and five Mormon, or Latter-day Saints. 

Over much of this county, but more especially along the 
valley of the Colorado Chiquito, are to be found numerous 
ruins of a pre-historic people. 

In the vicinity and just south of the town of St. Johns 
can be traced the ruins of two towns of considerable size, 
that probably contained a population of from three to four 
thousand each. These ancient people, from undoubted evi- 
dence found in the ruins, were in their earlier stages phal- 
lic worshipers, and in their more advanced stage worshipers 
of the sun, showing that the different branches of the human 
race in their upward progress from cannibalism, savageism, 
etc., have in all climes and in all ages traveled over about 
the same track; some are yet upon the scene, struggling 
toward an ideal higher civilization, whilst others have passed 
out into eternal night and are known only by a few molder- 
ing relics left behind. The religions of later ages, as 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 91 

humanity has progressed have endeavored to stamp out 
knowledge of these early forms of worship, through an idea, 
perhaps, that it might lead to the tracing of some of their- 
cherished, sacred and original forms and ceremonies to 
these primitive beginnings, and cast a suspicion that all 
these stately forms of now overshadowing religions can be 
traced to the same primitive root. Wherever such ruins are 
found, in either Arizona or New Mexico, their main entrance 
faces east, and all are built of stone with mud for mortar. 
Other ruins are to be found some twelve miles south of 
St. Johns, on the west bank of a stream called by the Mexi- 
can people "San Cosmos," and from all indications of like 
antiquity indicating that in their day these must have been 
flourishing towns. 

Farther south, near the village of Springerville, are other 
ruins, exhibiting same characteristics, which show that at 
least some among these ancient peoples possessed engineer- 
ing skill, as here were large reservoirs for the storage of 
surplus waters of the Colorado River. What is now known 
as Becker's Lake was one of these reservoirs, and the ace- 
quia leading from the river to the lake can yet be traced. 
(Prof. A. F. Banta.) 

As a matter of fact, there are many ruins to be found 
scattered over most of Apache County, not only on the 
plains and along the valleys of the various streams, but up 
among mountain peaks the dwellings of the cave-dwellers, 
the autochthon of the human race, are to be found. These 
are the mute records of the earliest of the human race, — ^who 
shall translate their story for the knowledge of later gen- 
erations ? 

The altitude of this county is such that all streams flow 
rapidly, being from four to ten thousand feet; and in con- 
sequence all vegetable and animal matter is washed away, 
rendering the country free of all malarial diseases; asthma 
and scarlet fever are not known. 



92 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

The undeveloped resources of the county are lumber and 
the precious minerals. 

The hills and mountains abound in black-tailed deer, 
antelopes, bears and mountain lions. Grouse, wild turkeys, 
etc., are plentiful, and the mountain streams are filled with 
trout of the finest variety. 

St. Johns, the county-seat and principal town, was first 
settled by Mexicans coming from the Rio Grande in New 
Mexico in 1872. Ten years later the Mormons, or Latter- 
day Saints, began to come in and settle in the valleys in the 
vicinity, and continued to come in until they became quite 
numerous, and engaged in growing fruit, grain, hay and 
vegetables of many kinds. The raising of cattle and sheep 
was gone into extensively, therefore wool and beef cattle are 
largely exported. The fruit consists of peaches, pears, 
apples and grapes. The production of honey is large and 
increasing. 

By means of ditches, canals, aqueducts, or acequias, water 
is brought from the Colorado Chiquito (little). Several 
irrigating companies, among them the "St. Johns," supply 
water at fair rates. The reservoirs of this company cover 
some sixty acres. 

The town of St. Johns has an altitude of 5,700 feet, and, 
therefore, no extreme heat can be looked for. Nights are 
always cool, and a thick blanket is pleasant to sleep under 
in the warmest of weather. 

Springerville, situated about thirty-five miles southeast 
of the county-seat, has an altitude of 6,500 feet above sea- 
level. It is in a round valley and is one of the most flourish- 
ing settlements on the Colorado Chiquito. Around it is a 
fine country for agriculture, where grains, fruits, vegetables, 
etc., grow in abundance. Canals from the Colorado supply 
water in abundance. Becker Lake, one and one-half miles 
in length by half a mile in width, and twenty-five feet in 
depth, furnishes an excellent natural reservoir. Fine fish, 
trout and carp, are found in abundance t\vetem. TVv^t^ ^t^ 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 93 

other considerable towns, as Concho and Nutrioso, sur- 
rounded by beautiful farms and room for many more. 

Alpine, in the extreme southeastern part of the county, is 
surrounded by a fine tract of soil, but as the altitude of this 
place is about 9,000 feet, they in ordinary seasons need but 
little irrigation, as the rainfall is sufficient to supply the 
necessary moisture for wheat, oats, barley, etc. This is the 
northeastern county of Arizona, being bounded on the east 
by New Mexico; on the south by Graham County; on the 
west by Navajo County, and on the north by Utah. For 
about 250 miles this county borders New Mexico on the 
east, and Navajo County on the west, and is about sixty 
miles wide. Taxable property of 1903 amounted to $1,003,- 

905-38. 



CHAPTER VI 
Coconino County. 

Coconino County contains an area of 19,322 miles; 
its greatest length is 180 miles, and its greatest width 140 
miles, — larger than the combined States of Massachusetts, 
Vermont and Delaware. It is bounded on the east by 
Navajo County ; on the south by Yavapai and Gila Counties ; 
on the west by a portion of Yavapai County and Mojave 
County, and on the north by the State of Utah. 

Flagstaff is the county-seat, being situated upon the Santa 
Fe and Pacific Railroad, and is a place of much commercial 
importance. 

Much of the county is mountainous, and considerable is 
desert ; still there are large tracts where sheep and cattle can 
be grown in vast flocks and herds. The mountains, like 
most of Arizona mountains, are ribbed with mineral-bear- 
ing ledges, and much mining is being done and will continue 
to increase for a century to come, as yet it is in its infancy. 
The great Petrified Forest of the world is in this country, 
and it would seem from the beautiful specimens seen from 
there, that a large commerce in petrified wood ought to be 
built up, as it is fine and will take the polish of the most 
beautiful marble. 

A large portion of the Grand Canon of the Colorado, 
one of the greatest natural wonders of the world, is in 
Coconino County, and the Santa Fe and Pacific Railroad 
has run a branch road out some sixty miles to it, so that 
people anxious to see the wearing effects of running water 
upon solid rock, through the lapse of revolving centuries, 
having worn down into the earth's crust o\ti: ■&. "m\\e,, cw^ 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 95 

gratify their curiosity with little hardship or expense. 
There is an Indian reservation in the county, the Yavapai- 
Supi. reserve. 

Coconino County was set off from Yavapai in the ses- 
sion of 1893. The population by census of 1900 is 5,514, 
and that of the town of Flagstaff, by same census is 1,271 
— Indians in county, 1,113. There is a large body of land 
in this county yet belonging to the United States Govern- 
ment, and a fine opportunity is thus offered to the indus- 
trious and intelligent farmer to acquire a home for him- 
self and family. All farm products find a ready market 
near home and at remunerative prices. Within the bound- 
aries of this county somewhere near two million acres are 
covered with a fine growth of pine timber, and it has been 
estimated that cut into inch boards would produce some 
eight billion feet. The lumber business of this county is 
of great proportions and gives steady employment to many 
hundreds of men at remunerative wages. A large propor- 
tion of the land upon which this vast forest grows is yet 
public land and open to actual settlers under the Home- 
stead Act. 

The general government has set apart in the north- 
western portion of the county for a National Park, an 
area of 2,893 square miles known as the "Grand Cation 
Forest Reserve," — the Colorado River flows through it, and 
it embraces the most striking features of the world- 
renowned Grand Canon of the Colorado, which attracts many 
tourists from every country upon the globe. Here are 
ruins of the ancient cliff and cave dwellers, also a natural 
well in solid rock called the Well of Montezuma, which, 
perhaps, was opened when this portion of the earth's 
foundations was laid, and numerous other wonders are 
now on the great lines of travel. The climate is healthful 
and the summers cool and invigorating, as the altitude of 
6,000 feet and upwards gives \t iVve cVvrcsaXfc cA -a. \ii!:oiocs.5sR- 
much farther from the equator at ^ \o\q^x \^n^. 



96 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Much of the country is rich in a great variety of minerals, 
but as yet only the surface has been scratched and that in 
only a few places. There are vast deposits of coal, also 
black onyx, and in the Grand Canon, itself, is the largest 
deposit of copper ore in the United States, perhaps, in the 
world. Gold and silver in paying quantities are also found 
in many places. The Arizona sandstone, which is found in 
the vicinity of Flagstaff and is the material of which many 
of the finest buildings in many of our large Western cities 
are constructed, is an important industry. 

The San Francisco plateau is a great natural curiosity 
resembling a gigantic whaleback humped up above the sur- 
face of the MogoUon watershed in northern Arizona; dif- 
fering entirely from the rest of the system. On either hand 
the desert comes up to its sides; on the east are the lofty, 
barren plains of the painted desert, while on the west are 
the lower deserts of the Mojave; yet here it is surrounded 
by these vast plains of desolation ; this body of land rounds 
upwards like a fertile island from a surrounding ocean. 
On either side the desolate plains have no timber, if sage 
brush be excepted, while here is the most splendid forest 
of Arizona and among the finest of the southwest. On the 
plains are sand, sage brush and heat, while on this elevated 
plateau is the vivifying breath of ancient pines and cooling 
breezes from snow-cloud peaks; fresh green grasses, knee 
high; glades and ponds and clear, beautiful streams filled 
with the finest trout. Some day, and that not very distant, 
this beautiful country will be thickly settled, and. made to 
administer to the necessities of civilized man. 
>r The Arizona pine belt where the Atlantic and Pacific 
Railroad crosses is fully sixty miles wide from east to west, 
and a little over two hundred miles long from north to 
south, or a little over one-fourth of the area of the State 
of New York, 

Some fifty miles north of the line of the railroad the 
Grand Canon crosses this forest but does not terminate it; 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 97 

about fifty miles south of the railroad the great plateau 
breaks off into Tonto Basin, but the forest continues on up 
the sides of the mountain range, Mazatzals, and other 
ranges giving out at last where the great plateau of north- 
ern and central Arizona finally breaks down to the valley 
of the Gila River. This great table is the Arizona Divide, 
the culmination of the watershed of the Mogollon Moun- 
tains. The average elevation above sea level is about 7,000 
feet. Like sentinels guarding this treasured country, the 
San Francisco peaks rise to between twelve and thirteen 
thousand feet, the most lofty mountains of Arizona. 

This region of Coconino County is unique, — the most 
wonderful area of the United States. The health-giving 
and invigorating qualities of the air of this pinery plateau 
is truly wonderful, its sweet perfume is that of the pine 
woods of Maine, but there is a tonic in it that does not ap- 
pertain to the pine forests of Maine even in early summer 
nor to other lands of humid skies. The winters are quite 
severe, and heavy snows fall at times on account of the 
great altitude, the mercury getting down to eight and ten 
below zero. 

Flagstaff, the principal town of this vast plateau and the 
county-seat, has an elevation, above sea level, of 6,935 ^^^^y 
and for this reason is not subject to extreme heat. The 
town gets its peculiar name from the fact that a govern- 
ment expedition, camping there one Fourth of July, trimmed 
up a tall pine tree for a flagstaff and floated the flag of 
our country from its top, and before a house was erected 
there the point was known as Flagstaff. Flagstaff is a 
prosperous city nestled among the pines at the foot of San 
Francisco Mountains, whose serrated peaks are covered 
much of the year with a snowy mantle, which has much to 
do in modifying the climate of surrounding plains that lie 
in vast stretches on each side. Flagstaff, in the near future, 
will not only be a great summer resort, but will be renowned 
as the center of the greatest scenic wonders of the world. 



98 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

as it is not only on the natural approach to the Pine Creek 
Natural Bridge, Montezuma's Castle, Montezuma's Well, 
Walnut Creek Canon, with its cliff and cave-dwellings, 
and other great natural curiosities in that region, but it is 
also the main entrance to that most stupendous of natural 
wonders of the world, — the Grand Canon of the Colorado. 

Here, also, is another wonder: a tribe or remnant of a 
tribe, of Indians reside amid the wild beauties of what is 
known as Cataract Canon; veritable cliff and cave dwellers 
arid not to be found in any other part of the world. To see 
the wonders enumerated is of more interest to the observ- 
ing naturalist than many transcontinental journeys. Here, 
in countries that have advanced to a comparative civiliza- 
tion, is to be found primitive man as he existed before the 
age of history. Where else can be seen the living picture 
of what our ancestors were, perhaps, fifty thousand years ago? 

The population of Flagstaff by census of 1900 is 1,271. 
The leading industry of Flagstaff is its lumber; another 
natural product that has added, and for centuries must con- 
tinue to add, to the natural wealth of that region is the 
immense deposits of red sandstone, the handsomest and 
most substantial building material, so far as is known, in 
the United States. Some of the finest buildings in the 
great cities are of Coconino stone, which can be quarried 
out in perfect blocks of such sizes as may be required. 

The Arizona Lumber Company owns of this great forest, 
upon the edge of which is Flagstaff, nearly 1,000,000 acres; 
there is still left somewhere near 6,000,000 acres that be- 
longs to the United States. 

The best fire brick known is made from the volcanic tufa 
found in large quantities in this vicinity; light, yet a pres- 
sure resistant and so complete a non-conductor of heat, 
that one end can be heated to a red heat and the other end 
held in the fingers. 

The largest area of splendid grazing land in Arizona is 
upon this plateau and this portion of the county is a great 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 99 

producer of wool; cattle also is a very important item in 
swelling the aggregate wealth of products. There is much 
mining going forward, and new developments are being 
made almost daily, but product from mines now is a mere 
bagatelle to what it will be in the future, when capitalists 
will have become awakened to the vast mineral wealth 
buried in the hills and mountains of Coconino County, 
awaiting the hand of intelligent industry, and in the walls 
of the Grand Canon and tributary canons. 

Of the various stock, horned cattle rank first, they are 
found in every section of the country but especially upon 
the great wooded plateau. The dry, pure air of this plateau 
is conducive not alone to the health of the human species, 
but also of the more inferior animals. There are no cattle 
diseases, and stockmen have only accidents to contend with. 
The finest of cattle and sheep are raised here and the com- 
mon herds improve greatly in the course of a few months. 
Careful and conservative estimates give the yearly increase 
of horned cattle at twenty-five per cent; horses rank third 
in value as assessed and all are as widely distributed as 
horned stock. 

As a rapid producer of capital, sheep are far in advance 
in this county; fully half the sheep of Arizona are within 
the boundaries of Coconino County, and the wool produced 
ranks with the best in the world. Time was, and not long 
ago, when it was considered that the sheep of southern 
France and the Spanish merino of northern Spain were the 
best producers in the world, but in the last few years sheep- 
men have discovered that on the uplands of Arizona, in 
Coconino County, a superior blooded sheep has been pro- 
duced, equal to any in the world. With care and attention 
seventy-five per cent per annum increase on the ewe por- 
tion of the flock is not an overestimate, and then there is 
the double-fleece yearly, which of itself will pay for the 
whole flock and care of herding them. 



loo THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Church denominations represented in this county are the 
Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist, Episcopal and Latter- 
day Saints (Mormons), the latter at Tuba City only. 
There are several well-edited papers published in the 
county: the Flagstaff Democrat; Coconino Sun; William's 
News and several others. The attention of the people is 
very earnest in the matter of educating the rising genera- 
tion, and the schools are of superior quality and well sup- 
plied with competent teachers. At Flagstaff is the great 
Normal school of the Territory with an able corps of teach- 
ers. Assessed valuation of property in 1903 amounted to 

$3,677,959-54. 



CHAPTER VII 
Cochise County 

The area of Cochise County is 6,972 miles, being about 
the size of the combined areas of Rhode Island and Con- 
necticut. This county is bounded on the east by New 
Mexico, on the south by the northern line of the Mexican 
State of Sonora, on the west by Pima County, from which 
it was taken entire, and on the north by the county of Gra- 
ham. By census of 1900 the population of this county was 
9,251. Tombstone, the county-seat, by same census had a 
population of 646, though, in its palmy days, it boasted of 
a population of over 7,000; in the last few months it has 
revived somewhat and a railroad is in process of construc- 
tion, which will go through the place striking the Arizona 
and Sonora road at Fairbanks, upon the San Pedro River. 

This county has three great yalleys almost entirely within 
its limits, which include a vast body of fine agricultural 
land. Two of these valleys run directly across the whole 
of the county from southeast to about northwest, viz., that 
of the San Pedro and Sulphur Springs, while the valley of 
the Rio de Sauz, or, as better known, San Simon, crosses 
the northeastern corner. These valleys with their laterals, 
embrace a large amount of fine agricultural land. What is 
needed in all these valleys to render them great producers 
of agricultural products is the development of water for ir- 
rigation. Upon the San Pedro, some seven miles south of 
where the Southern Pacific Railroad crosses that stream, 
the colony of industrious and energetic Mormons at St. 
Davids commenced boring an artesian well and have suc- 
ceeded in fully fifty places itv W\tv^\tv^ ^ ^c>Ki\ ^^^^n \si "^^ 
surface; others seeing what iVvese etv\fcx^x\%\s\s^ \»fcxv\>aM'?- 



I02 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

accomplished set to work and now for more than sixty 
miles along this stream there are flowing wells at different 
points. 

There are two distinct mountain ranges that run the en- 
tire distance across the county with the trend of the valleys, 
that is, from southeast to about northwest, the great Chiri- 
cahua Range is the most easterly; and there is mineral at 
many points and on both sides of this great upheaval. From 
the vicinity of what is known as Railroad Pass, where the 
Southern Pacific passes through the range from the Sul- 
phur Springs Valley into that of the San Simon, to, and 
a little beyond, what is known as Apache Pass, may be 
called a gold formation, as that is the predominating min- 
eral. This portion of the range is frequently called the 
Dos Cabezas Range, though it is part of Chiricahua 
Range. In this section are many valuable gold claims, both 
in ledges and in surface washings. The great drawback 
to the full development of surface diggings is the scarcity 
of water most of the year, but if the boring now in process 
is a success that difficulty is obviated. In proceeding along 
the range southeasterly from the Apache Pass, silver, cop- 
per and lead are encountered in many places, and there are 
some valuable deposits of copper ; about fifteen miles nearly 
east from Apache Pass, over quite an extent of country on 
the San Simon slope of the mountain range, is quite a show- 
ing of coal, but sufficient work has not been done to really 
show it up. 

In detached hills about seven miles south from Sulphur 
Springs is the great Pearse Mine, which has produced 
within about eight years a net profit to the fortunate owners 
in gold and silver, and is still in successful operation, run- 
ning a mill of eighty-stamps' capacity after having yielded 
in dividends something over $15,000,000. Some thirty 
miles west of the Chiricahuas is the Dragoon Range of 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 103 

mountains in which are many mines of great value and in 
the continuation southerly, sometimes called Mule Moun- 
tains. 

'The great copper camp of Bisbee is in the southern por- 
tion of this county some eight miles from the boundary 
line of Sonora, Mexico, and a railroad from the camp enters 
Sonora at the town of Naco and is already in operation. 
There has been taken from the mines of this company, in 
about twenty years' operations, a vast amount of treasure; 
over $20,000,000 have been paid in dividends, and all im- 
provements, amounting to many millions more, have been 
paid for. One item of improvement is a railroad of sixty 
miles, built by the company to connect with the Southern 
Pacific Railroad at Benson at the crossing of the San Pedro. 

♦ Tombstone is a great mining producer of silver and has 
yielded in the various mines fully $15,000,000. The miners' 
great strike of 1884 caused a suspension of work for a 
time, and before they were ready to resume, silver had so 
depreciated in value in the world's markets that it was 
deemed resumption would be bad policy, and they have 
practically remained idle ever since; though within the 
last few months much work is being done, and new ma- 
chinery going in looking to a full resumption. East of 
Tombstone, some sixteen miles, is a flourishing camp called 
Turquoise, which must eventually be a great producer. 
There is the thriving town of Douglas, established upon 
Blackwater, at the boundary line that has only been in ex- 
istence for a few months, and bids fair to become a place of 
large commercial importance in a very short time. 

From present indications it would appear that Cochise 
County must stand well to the front as a producer for many 
years to come, though Arizona throughout her hills and 
mountains is so ribbed with mineral lodes that it is hard to 
tell what portion will eventually prove of the most value, 
but Cochise County for years to come will astonish the 
world. 



I04 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Besides the great mines there are many others being 
worked in a quiet way making the mine pay all expenses, 
and the owners are, without ostentation, saving up com- 
fortable fortunes. 

The school census shows there are 2,122 children of school 
age and an average attendance at public schools of 1,826, 
and forty-two teachers who would compare favorably with 
any corps of teachers in any of the old States. The average 
school term is a little over six months in each year. 

Almost every town has its different denominational 
church, and all are fairly supported. Tombstone has Catho- 
lic, Methodist, Episcopal and Baptist. Bisbee, Episcopal 
(at the expense of the mining company). Catholic, Metho- 
dist, Presbyterian, Congregationalist, Baptist. St. Davids, 
one church of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) ; Benson, 
Catholic, Methodist and Episcopal. Willcox, Catholic, 
Methodist, Baptist, — so it may be said, no man need suffer 
for lack of spiritual food, though not always easy of 
digestion. 

At Tombstone is published the Prospector; and at Bisbee 
there are two papers, also, the rising town of Douglass, 
though only a few months old, has two papers striving for 
patronage. Willcox has one paper, the Range News; so 
Cochise may be said to be well supplied with newspapers. 



CHAPTER VIII 
Gila County 

Gila County has an area of 7,247 square miles, about 
equal to that of the State of New Jersey. This county is 
quite irregular in shape, and is bounded on the north by 
Coconino and a portion of Apache Counties; on the east 
by Apache and Graham Counties ; on the south by Graham 
and Pinal Counties; on the west by Pinal, Maricopa and 
Yavapai Counties. The county-seat is Globe, the center of 
a large mining region, and the terminus of the Gila Valley 
and Globe Railroad, which connects with the Southern Pacific 
Railroad at Bowie Station in San Simon Valley, Cochise 
County. Gila is almost exclusively a mountain county, 
and the great industry for many years will be mining and 
work in connection with mines. 

The population by census of 1900 was 4,973 ^"^ ^^ Globe, 
the county-seat, by same census, 1,495. This county was 
created in 1881, at the eleventh legislative session of the 
Territorial legislature, by taking territory from Yavapai 
and Pinal Counties, its name is derived from the River Gila, 
which forms a portion of its southern boundary; after its 
first formation some 965 square miles were added from 
Yavapai County. 

Much of the best agricultural lands of this county are 
embraced in the San Carlos Indian Reservation. The county 
is largely mountainous and in many places abounds in min- 
erals, mostly copper, though the more precious minerals, as 
gold and silver, are found, also. 

The Salt River flows through the northern portion of the 
county and farther in are some flourishing settlements, de- 
pendent upon the land they cultivate for their subsistence. 

105 



io6 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

The Rio Solado or Salt River receives its name from the 
salty or brackish taste of its waters, and many statements 
have been put forth to account for this peculiarity of a 
mountain stream. Some who would wish to have others 
think they knew all things, and could give reasons off hand 
for everything, have told of a vast bed of salt that the river 
ran over on its course from the mountains to the valley, 
and that the constant scouring and erosion wears off enough 
of the rock salt to give all the waters of the lower stream 
a saline taste. Upon investigation, however, it has been 
ascertained that about north of the city of Globe is a small 
mountain or hill of pure rock salt from which flows quite 
a stream of very salt water, this stream flows into Salt 
River and impregnates its waters from this point, as above 
this junction the main stream is fresh. This stream of 
salt water ought, if possible, to be diverted from flowing 
into Salt River, as it may be that so much salinity in water 
used for irrigation may impregnate the soil to such an ex- 
tent as in time to render it unproductive. One great 
remedy after land has become sterile through the salinity 
of water used for irrigation is to grow beets for several 
crops, though it might be very inconvenient to many to do 
this. 

This county has many natural wonders: in the northern 
part the natural bridge, which spans Pine Creek, far sur- 
passes the world-famed Natural Bridge of Virginia.^ 
Beneath this bridge are numerous caves, some not yet 
explored. In this portion of the county many beautiful water- 
falls are found, and springs from which flow a sufficiency 
of water to drive heavy machinery. There are warm springs 
upon the San Carlos Reservation, believed by the Indians 
to possess almost marvellous curative qualities. There is 
much, also, to interest the scientist: evidences of a race of 
humanity having lived here in the ages long past, the cliff 
dwellers; and as for beautiful and imposing scenery, it 
is here mapped out in rocky splendor for his admiration. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 107 

The Pinal Mountain Range crosses the county south and 
west and is heavily timbered; the Sierra Ancha and Ma- 
zatsal Ranges on the north are covered also with a heavy 
growth of pine, oak and juniper. 

The main industry of this county is mining and from its 
southern to its northern boundary minerals abound. The 
/Globe Copper Mines have paid largely from the start when 
everything in connection with the mines had to be hauled 
by mule wagons to and from Willcox upon the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, a distance of about one hundred and fifty 
miles. There is also within the bounds of this county the 
San Carlos coal fields though but little has been done 
towards developing this deposit. 

The San Carlos Indian Reservation embraces much of the 
county and probably fully one-half of the agricultural land ; 
small portions are tilled by the Apaches in a desultory man- 
ner. Down Pinal Creek about twelve miles from Globe, at 
a point where is living water at all seasons, is what is known 
as the wheat fields. This land was cultivated, to a con- 
siderable extent, by the Apache Indians, who here planted 
corn, pumpkins and beans long before there were any 
white settlers in the vicinity. The land now by reason of 
its productiveness and nearness to market is valued at a 
higher figure. Within sight of this mountain divide lies 
nearly all the farming land of the county. From the mouth 
of Pima Creek it is about fifteen miles to the Box Caiion 
of Salt River. There are about four thousand acres of 
land fenced in, and of this some two thousand acres are 
devoted to the raising of grain. Much attention is also 
given to the raising of stock. Tonto Creek joins the Salt 
River just above the Box Caiion from the north ; the valley 
of Tonto Creek is broad and is occupied for some twenty- 
five miles by stockmen, who raise little produce excepting 
hay. 

There are many evidences of a pre-historic race having 
inhabited this country long before the advctvt ot ■E>ax^^^^'i»xsR. 



io8 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

upon this continent. Upon many of the hilltops there are 
to be found the remains of stone structures, circular in 
form, which seem to have been used either as a watch 
tower or temple for sun worship, maybe for both purposes. 
Is it to be wondered at that these primitive inhabitants 
should worship the sun, to them the great creative power, 
their darkened minds not having risen to a comprehension 
of the Invisible, — "Him who kindled and who quenchest 
suns.*' Upon many of the jutting cliffs are remains of 
what were undoubtedly fortresses, constructed so as to over- 
look the valley below and exterior defences which com- 
manded all approaches. 

A short distance below Greenback Creek are the remains 
of an immense ruin on the mesa or plateau. The walls of 
this ruin are yet standing to the height of six or eight feet 
and are covered with debris. This structure was built of 
gypsum; a large deposit of which underlies the country in 
the neighborhood, cropping out when the upper covering 
has been eroded sufficiently either through the action of 
wind or water. Several irrigating canals can be traced 
which must have required no mean engineering skill to 
bring the water to the top of the table lands. Along the 
small streams in the vicinity are marked out in cobble stones 
long stretches of connected enclosures that must have been 
rooms of houses. Some of these houses are as long as 
half a mile, though narrow. Here in the long past must 
have existed the inhabitants of a populous city. The wash- 
ings of centuries have mostly covered these antique dwell- 
ings until the sites now are but slightly marked on the 
edges of the lowest plateau. Some very interesting re- 
mains, evidencing that there have been here an ancient peo- 
ple, are to be found to the south a few miles from Armer 
Postoffice. 

Far up a narrow canon and reached only after an ex- 
haustive climb, a number of cliff dweWmgs ^it^ iovxiv^. TV^evj 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 109 

are all constructed after much the same plan. In the con- 
tact between the sandstone stratum and more ancient for- 
mation which underlies it, several large caves have been 
worn out by action of wind and water. Across the wide 
mouth was built a wall of cement, somewhat the shape of an 
open oyster shell, and the interior was divided off into 
rooms by partition walls of the same material. The man- 
ner by which the primitive inhabitants entered their dwell- 
ings was by means of a ladder or notched stick or log, up 
the face of the cliff maybe fifteen or twenty feet to the 
level of the roof, then through a hole in the roof by draw- 
ing up the ladder and placing it down this aperture, a de- 
scent could be made into the dwelling, then by letting down 
and fastening the trap door and removing the ladder all 
would be secure against external foes. Nothing short of 
heavy ordnance would prove effective against these forti- 
fied dwellings, even up to the present day. The largest 
cave of this group is about one hundred feet long, by forty 
feet deep, and twenty feet in height at the face ; there were 
within, some dozen rooms arranged upon three floors; the 
floors were of neatly dressed cedar logs upon which were 
laid, crosswise and close as they could be together, ribs of 
the giant cactus, and upon these, flags and a clay dressing. 
The woodwork in these caves is in an excellent state of 
preservation, the condition for preserving relics of a long 
past era could nowhere be found nearer perfection. 

The climate is free from humidity and through the long 
lapse of ages not a drop of moisture has reached the in- 
terior of these caves. The probability seems to be that they 
were used as a place of refuge, a dernier resort by those 
people who cultivated the valleys, and these fortresses were 
kept victualed and guarded so that on the approach of a 
foe too strong for them to encounter in the open field, the 
inhabitants withdrew into these strongholds until the storm 
oi invasion should pass on. 



no THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

The mountain scenery of this county is very grand and 
fully equal to that of Switzerland which has been the theme 
for ages of the historian, the tourist and the poet. The 
schools are good and well attended, showing that education 
is not neglected by her energetic and prosperous people. 
The churches, also, are well attended and supported. When 
Gila was first created a county organization (1881), 
there was not a single church within its boundaries, though 
the Latter-day Saints (Mormons) held meetings in pri- 
vate houses. Since that time many of the different de- 
nominations have erected houses of worship, until the re- 
ligious requirements of the people are fairly well attended 
to. There are some thirty-three public schools within the 
county, employing about forty competent teachers. At 
Thatcher is located an academy maintained by the Mormon 
Church organization; so a fair business education can be 
obtained by every child without leaving the Gila Valley. 

The secret orders are ably represented and have many 
valuable buildings and their humanizing influence, as al- 
ways, has a powerful effect for the good of society. The 
most prominent are, perhaps, in about the order named: 
Masons, Odd Fellows and Elks. Of benevolent societies 
the A. O. U. W. stands prominent. There are two weekly 
papers published at Globe and both seem to be doing well. 
Assessable valuation of property of this county for 1903 
amounted to $1,541,924. 



CHAPTER IX 
Graham County 

Graham County has an area of 6,500 square miles, nearlj- 
the size of Massachusetts, and is bounded on the north by 
Gila, Navajo and Apache Counties; on the east, by New 
Mexico ; on the south by Cochise, and on the west by Pinal 
and Gila Counties, and is bisected from east to west by the 
Gila River. 

Solomonville, the county-seat, is situated on the south 
side of the Gila River, and a line of railroad connects it 
with the Southern Pacific at Bowie Station. This line of 
road strikes into the valley of the Gila at Solomonville, and 
continues on down the same to the San Carlos, some fifty 
miles, where it crosses the Gila to the north side, and is 
finished as far as Globe in Gila County. At some future 
day this road will be extended from Globe to connect with 
the Atlantic and Pacific system at some point which may 
then be deemed most advantageous to the interests of those 
who may then be concerned. 

Along the Gila River from Solomonville, down to the 
San Carlos Indian Reservation, are thriving towns and 
many fine farms; a very thriving settlement, principally 
Mormons, who by their industry and thrift, have made this 
valley to blossom as the rose. This is a great mining 
county; the extensive mines of Clifton and Morenci are 
within its boundaries. These mines produce, and have been 
producing for several years, a revenue to the fortunate 
owners which many an eastern principality might deem 
to be a sufficient cause of congratulation. 

There is a railroad from these mvtves c.oxvxv^Oiav^^^i^'^^ 



112 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Southern Pacific at Lordsburg, in New Mexico, some forty- 
one miles of this railroad are in this county. There will, 
eventually, be many other mines in this county worked at 
a large profit as the mining interest is in its infancy, ex- 
cepting at two or three points. This county was created 
into a separate county by the eleventh legislature in 1881, 
by taking a part from Pima and Apache Counties. 

The county is mountainous, with many rich valleys and 
fertile tracts along the foothills. The Gila River rims en- 
tirely through the county with many windings, but a gen- 
eral west course, and along it is much fine land well adapted 
to the raising of fruits and cereals, and much of it, in the 
last twenty years has been highly cultivated. 

Fort Goodwin, some thirty-five miles below where Solo- 
monville now is, was established by order of General James 
H. Carleton in 1864 for the purpose of overawing the Chiri- 
cahua and Pinal and White Mountain Apache Indians under 
their renowned leader, Cochise, who during those years, 
and up to 1872, kept the whole country in a state of terror. 

The first settlers upon the Gila in this county were of 
Mexican descent and pitched their camp at San Jose about 
one and one-half miles above Solomonville, and the same 
year a settlement was commenced at that place. The set- 
tlement was first called Munsonville on account of William 
Munson starting a little store there. Munson soon sold 
out to I. E. Solomon and the place changed the name to 
the present one. 

The Latter-day Saints (Mormons) came in from Utah 
and settled in the valley in 1880, and formed several set- 
Ktlements upon the Gila River below Safford; dug irrigation 
canals and began developing the resources of the valley 
until at the present time, by their thrift and industry, they 
have that portion of the Gila Valley as productive as any 
portion of the West. The valley of Salt River about Phoe- 
nix is larger in area but not more productive per acre. The 
population of this county by census oi iq^ \^ ^^I't^a, axi 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 113 

increase of two hundred and fifty per cent in a decade. 
Mount Graham which is but a continuation of the Chiri- 
cahua Range on the northwest, is at the highest portion, 
10,318 feet above sea level. Mount Turnbull, a separate 
peak, but a prolongation of the range upon the northwest 
trend is nearly as lofty. The elevation of the valley of the 
Gila is, at the San Carlos, about three thousand feet, while 
at the eastern line of the county, some seventy miles to the 
eastward the altitude will reach about four thousand feet. 
In hottest summer the weather gets quite warm and at mid- 
day or a little later in the day the thermometer frequently 
indicates in the shade 100° or even a few degrees over that, 
but high mountains being so close at hand on every side 
nights are cool and pleasant even at this season of the year. 
In winter, snow sometimes covers the ground, though it 
does not lie on any great length of time. 

Graham County is well supplied with schools, and the Lat- 
ter-day Saints have paid particular attention to this requisite 
of an intelligent people. They not only have public schools 
at short intervals along the Gila Valley, but have estab- 
lished an academy in the valley under able instructors, 
where a classical education can be obtained at a reasonable 
cost. Of churches there are many; the different sects be- 
ing well represented ; perhaps, the Mormons in the agri- 
cultural portions predominate. Of newspapers there are 
several ably edited. Secret societies as Masons, Odd Fel- 
lows, and Elks, are well represented and W. C. T. U. is in a 
flourishing condition. This county bids fair to be the ban- 
ner county of Arizona in population and productive wealth 
at the next census decade. Assessed valuation of property 
in 1903 for taxation, $3,953»255-i5- 

There are in Graham County great possibilities that are 
but beginning to be developed. There is considerable fine 
land for agricultural purposes up the San Simon from 
where it enters the Gila River near Solomonville to the 
north line of Cochise County. NS[Vva.\. \s t^^w^Ws^ \sN:^b«^ 



114 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

it very productive is that artesian water be developed as the 
San Simon River itself will not afford water in sufficient 
quantity oftener than one year in five to irrigate the bottom 
lands along it. 

The main agricultural land of this county lies along the 
Gila River commencing some miles above Solomonville 
and extending down the river some forty miles, where it 
enters Gila County. For some twenty miles down the river 
from Solomonville, the Latter-day Saints (Mormons), have 
made of lands along the river an agricultural paradise. 
Land that was deemed of little value but a few years 
ago, has been reclaimed and rendered fertile by bring- 
ing water from the Gila River in sufficient quantities in 
aqueducts or ditches to irrigate the thirsty soil as needed. 
This has been done by these energetic and industrious peo- 
ple without asking aid of the Federal Government. Fine 
roads have been constructed; tumpiked, and wherever 
ditches or water channels crossed the line of road good and 
substantial bridges are put in. Trees have been planted on 
each side of the roads through their whole distance. 

The fields are separated from each other by substantial 
fences and are kept in fine repair. Immense crops of grain 
and hay are raised every year, and have generally brought 
remunerative prices, so, as a general thing, these sturdy 
farmers are in independent circumstances. They live prin- 
cipally in fine brick houses, large and commodious, sur- 
rounded by gardens and flowers, and in almost every in- 
stance in a grove of beautiful trees. 

There are several important towns along the river, the 
principal of which are Pima, Thatcher, Safford and Solo- 
monville. Solomonville is, at present, the county-seat and 
has a population of about two thousand people. Safford, 
probably, has about the same number. 

The old, reliable firm of Solomon, Wickersham & Com- 
pany is much in evidence along the Gila River from Solo- 
monviUe down to the county boundary. TVvVs ^tm Vvsl-^ ^ 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 115 

wholesale house at both Safford and Solomonville and a 
bank in both places of which the firm owns the main por- 
tion, one partner, Mr. Wickersham, being president and 
Mr, Solomon, vice-president. 

This county has some very valuable copper mines in the 
northeastern part, on some tributaries of the Gila River, 
that come in from the north, viz., the mining town of Mor- 
enci, upon the San Francisco River, and Qifton, where are 
the smelting works, upon the east branch of El Tularosa. 
These towns are about seven miles apart. Qifton is reached 
by a regular graded railroad from Lordsburg, Nfew Mexico, 
and a narrow-gauge road through a canon up ^o Morenci. 
Morenci is the great business town of fully six thousand 
people. The company store here among the mountains, 
inaccessible a few years ago by other than pack animals, is 
as fine as any in the southwest, excepting Los Angeles, and 
it may be doubted if surpassed there; it carries a stock of 
fully $500,000. The hotel here is fine and prices to match. 
In these two towns of Qifton and Morenci there are fully 
10,000 people. Sometimes more in one town than in the 
other, as labor is required. 

The sole dependence of this large population is upon the 
output of the mines as there is practically nothing else, there 
being no agricultural land in that vicinity. Metcalf is an- 
other flourishing town some miles further in the mountains, 
and the whole depends upon the mines. The capital ex- 
pended in smelters, hoisting works, machinery of the 
most expensive kind, railroads, etc., would mount up to 
several millions, — all depending upon copper. The ore is 
of low percentage in copper, but to compensate there are 
vast bodies of it. To make it remunerative to the stock- 
holder requires the utmost economy in management, still 
the company has expended money upon a liberal scale. 
The mining companies have been having much difficulty 
with their workmen through strikes; laborers demanding 
the same pay for eight as ior \.e.tv \vo\rc^ ^^otV. ^^<^":Ss^ 



ii6 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

in a short time this matter will be adjusted satisfactorily 
and matters move on as usual. 

A legislature, perhaps, had the legal right to say what 
number of hours should constitute a day's work, but the 
whole thing would seem to be one of those sumptuary laws 
not at this day considered as appertaining to the duties of 
law givers, and likely to be of more harm than benefit, even 
to those whom it was intended to favor. The valuation of 
assessable property in this county for the year 1903 was 

$3,953,255.15. 



V 



\ 



CHAPTER X 
Maricopa County 

This county has an area of 8,8i6 square miles, and is a 
little larger than the State of Massachusetts, with her great 
history. This county is bounded on the north by Yavapai 
County, on the east by Gila County and a portion of Pinal, 
on the south by a portion of Pinal and Pima Counties and 
on the west by Yuma County. At the census of 1900 the 
population of this county was 20,457, t)ut now it must very 
nearly come up to 30,000 as the registration of voters this 
current year (1902), is within a few of 5,000, which shows 
a very heavy increase. 

Phoenix is the county-seat, as well as the capital of the 
Territory, and is pleasantly situated in the valley of the 
Salt River, some twenty miles above where the Salt and 
Gila unite. Phoenix is a rapidly growing city, and one of 
great possibilities, being the center of the most extensive 
agricultural valley in the Territory, and has an extensive 
and rich mining region tributary to it. 

This city is upon the site, or much of it, of an ancient 
prehistoric city inhabited by an agricultural people away 
back in the past, long before Europeans set foot upon the 
American continent. 

Great aqueducts can be traced for miles that the Indians, 
as we have known them, never dug and of which the 
modern Pimas have no tradition. The Pimas say these 
things were there when they came to the country. There 
can be ho doubt but that this portion of Arizona was once 
inhabited by a people partially civilized, who carried the 
engineering art to at least considerable perfection, as far as 
conducting water from streams lot \tT\^^>LVcv^ "^^ ^Cjnc^*^ 

117 



y 



/^ 



/ 



/ 



ii8 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

soil is concerned. The remains of canals and aqueducts 
for irrigation would indicate an engineering knowledge to 
equal that of the ancient Egyptians, but of whom all rec- 
ord except these aqueducts and some ruined walls, are lost 
in the night of time. 

Maricopa County was created by taking that portion of 
Yavapai south of latitude 34** and west of the San Carlos 
at the sixth session of the territorial legislature; at the 
seventh legislative session a portion of Pima County, north 
of 32° 34' and west of longitude 112° 6', was made a por- 
tion of this county. The county is somewhat in the shape of 
an "L." Since its creation into a county parts have been 
cut off. When Pinal County was formed, in 1875, a slice 
was taken off and another in 1881 was taken off and given 
to Gila County. 

This is the great agricultural county of the Territory, as 
a large part of it is a vast plain sloping towards the Verdi, 
the Salt and Gila Rivers, being an amount of irrigable land 
greater than in all the rest of the counties of the Territory 
put together. The Verdi River runs through quite a por- 
tion of the county from the north and joins the Salt River 
some thirty-five miles above Phoenix, while the Salt and 
Gila Rivers unite about twenty-five miles below or south- 
westerly from Phoenix. In the valleys of these three streams 
are some 3,000,000 acres and all that is requisite to make 
it very productive is water and proper cultivation to pro- 
duce the necessary moisture. The valley of Salt River 
contains nearly a million of acres in one body, one vast 
plain. 

The soil is of the richest, and as fast as canals or aque- 
ducts can be gotten out to conduct the water upon the land 
all fruits, vegetables and cereals are produced in great 
abundance, as well as grasses, equal to the fertility of the 
JViJe ValJej of Egypt, which away back in the dim past, 
was called the granary of the then cwWized -wotVdi. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 119 ' 

The water used for irrigation seems to have a renewing 
influence upon the soil as much of the land has been used 
for nearly thirty years and yet no decrease in the per acre 
yield. 

Two crops a year, in many instances, are produced upon 
the same land, viz., barley or wheat, sown about November, 
and harvested the following June; then a crop of corn or 
beans, with pumpkins galore and harvested and out of the 
way in time for next crop of wheat or barley. Of alfalfa, 
hay, fine cuttings each year of about an average of two 
tons to the acre each cutting can be produced and the 
average price to be obtained fully six dollars per ton at the 
farm. Everything grown in the temperate zone is pro- 
duced in lavish abundance in the semi-tropical climate of 
this great valley. Among fruits produced are the follow- 
ing: oranges, lemons, quinces, figs, apples, pears, necta- 
rines, peaches, apricots, olives, almonds, strawberries, 
grapes, plums and dates. 

Of cereals and grasses there are produced wheat, oats, 
barley, rye, corn, buckwheat, cotton, tobacco, broomcorn, 
hemp, flax, sugar cane, alfalfa, blue gjass, timothy and 
clover. 

Vegetables give a most prolific yield, except potatoes ; as 
the climate of summer is too warm for the tubers. This 
valley of Salt River is capable of an almost unlimited va- 
riety of productions, but in fruit cultivation it must look for 
its greatest prosperity. With the exception of some fa- 
vored spots in the Colorado Desert, as around Indio, upon 
the Southern Pacific Railroad, there is not a region be- 
tween the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans which possesses the 
natural advantages for the successful prosecution of this 
industry that these great valleys of Gila and Salt River 
in the vicinity of Phoenix do. Owing to earlier spring, or 
more rapid growth of vegetation, the fruits in these valleys 
are ripe and ready for market from two to three weeks 
earlier than those grown about l-os» Kxv^?\^%. 'Wnx^ ^^s* 



' I20 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

the Arizona fruit-raiser a great advantage, being enabled 
to dispose of his entire crop without competition. The fig 
yields two and not unfrequently three crops a year; the 
white adriatic variety is most popular and as much at home 
here, as on the hills of its native Dalmatia. Figs grown 
here have been pronounced by competent judges, to be the 
equal in all respects to those grown at Smyrna. There are 
but few places on the globe where the fig can be success- 
fully cultivated, and the success attending its raising here 
will render this gjeat valley in Maricopa County, Arizona, 
celebrated throughout the civilized world. Figs are a 
more profitable crop than oranges for the producer. The 
largest fig orchards in the United States are probably in 
this Salt River Valley, though within the last few years 
Southern California has largely cultivated this delicious 
fruit. 

Water brings life and productiveness to the soil. By its 
agency the barren desert is made to bring forth grasses, 
flowers and forest trees, while cultivation makes it yield 
fruits and all grains requisite for the wants and sustenance 
of the human race. The prosperity of nations is and al- 
ways has been resting upon the prosperity of agriculture, 
and, therefore, the wisest statesmen have always protected 
the agriculturalist — the producer from the ground — and it is 
a fact, beyond cavil, the producer has to bear the brunt of 
the exactions of government, be that government autocratic, 
theocratic or republican in form. 

Irrigation is the bringing of water onto the land as gen- 
erally understood to take the place of rains, and is only 
necessary in countries and sections of countries where rains 
are not to be depended upon. 

Canals, ditches, aqueducts or acequias are constructed 
for the purpose of conducting water from springs or streams 
out upon the land requiring moisture, in many instances 
from a portion oi the surplus waters oi tweis ^\. ^oo^. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 121 

Artificial ponds or lakes are filled up; stored as it were, in 
reservoirs, to be used upon the thirsty land during the dry 
season. 

To irrigate is, correctly speaking, to water, but as gener- 
ally understood, it means, by artificial appliances to bring 
water upon land to moisten it for the purpose of rendering 
land productive which otherwise would remain barren ex- 
cepting for a short time when rains might visit that section, 
and these rains coming at such long intervals or in such 
small quantities as to be practically of little value. Could the 
great valley of the Gila and Salt Rivers be thoroughly ir- 
rigated, a sufficiency of grains, fruits and vegetables could 
be produced to supply a population of a million inhabitants. 

Phoenix has communication by railroad with the South- 
ern Pacific road at Maricopa, via Wickenberg, and 
Prescott, with the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad at Ash Fork 
and soon will have a railroad direct to El Paso and the 
east via San Pedro, Benson, Bisbee and Douglass, and an- 
other railroad direct to the Colorado River and connect- 
ing with the California system and Pacific ports. An en- 
terprise is now contemplated that will place a dam across 
Salt River just below where Tonto Creek empties into it 
which will create a reservoir or lake capable of placing one 
foot of water over three hundred thousand additional acres 
in the valleys of Salt and Gila Rivers each year, which 
would vastly increase the output of these valleys. It is 
highly probable that artesian water will be developed in con- 
siderable quantities which would be used to swell the amount 
of land that is irrigated. 

The city of Phoenix was formed and received its name in 
1870. The name was believed to have been given or was 
selected by Barrel Dupper, an Englishman by birth, a 
valuable and enterprising citizen and a highly educated 
man. He explained that the Phoenix was a bird of 
wondrous plumage and vocal powers; not perpetuated in 
the usual manner, but wVucVv Y\n^^ icix ^^ \ociSN.^^^ 



122 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

years; then after singing its funeral chant, in a voice of 
great sweetness, it prepared its charnel house and entered; 
the house took fire by spontaneous combustion and it, with 
contents, were consumed; from the ashes arose a new 
and glorified bird to pass through its allotted course ; a self 
life-sustaining bird which knew not death, a shadow of im- 
mortality to which all of woman born are aspiring. The 
name of Phoenix and the explanation of Barrel Dupper 
were received with shouts of approval, and the name of 
Phoenix adopted for the new city as it would be upon 
the site where had been a city in prehistoric times ; remains 
of an ancient civilization that has passed down the stream 
of time and left no record. Barrel Dupper, although a 
younger son of an English aristocratic family when he 
came to Arizona, lived to inherit the title of Lord Dupper 
in his native country, though he never returned to England, 
but died in the beautiful valley he had helped to settle and 
adorn. 

The patent for the townsite of Phoenix was not received 
until 1874 from the United States Government. The first 
town lot sold was for one hundred and four dollars, and 
purchased by Judge Berry and the first house erected within 
the townsite limits was an adobe structure built by W. A. 
Hancock. 

The capital of the Territory was removed from Prescott 
to Phoenix by the legislature of 1889, and this gave Phoenix 
an additional importance. A fine Capitol has since 
been erected which is an honor, not only to Phoenix, but 
to the whole Territory as well. In addition to the great 
agricultural possibilities of Maricopa County, its mountains 
are filled with minerals. The valley of the Gila and Salt 
River is one vast amphitheatre surrounded by mountains. 

As early as 1863 the Vulture Mine, some sixty miles 
northwesterly from Phoenix, was discovered and opened 
when there was no Maricopa but all Yavapai County. Since 
that time some ten millions of doWats m ^o\d Vva.N^ \i^^w 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 123 

taken from that mine, and it is barely opened yet. From 
the Harqua Hala Mines, also, large values have been taken. 
It is not deemed necessary in this work to go over the dif- 
ferent mines and mining camps of this county in detail. 
Were the rest of Arizona a desert still from the great pro- 
ductiveness of the valley of Salt and Gila Rivers, within 
the county limits, together with its mines and other natural 
facilities would make a great and self-supporting, populous 
State by the industry and energy of its inhabitants. 

The different religious denominations are well repre- 
sented showing that its people are moral and law-abiding, 
and are looking forward to a life beyond this transitory 
world. Some fine church edifices have been erected. There 
are Catholics, Episcopals, Presbyterians, Lutherans, Metho- 
dists (north and south), Free Methodists, Baptists, Con- 
gregationalists. Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Salvation 
Army. There are three Indian reservations within the 
county, viz., Papago, at Gila Bend, the Pima and Maricopa, 
near Phoenix. These Indians show an eagerness to adopt 
civilized ways and habits and have ever been friendly to 
the whites. Of schools the wants of the people are well 
supplied, and are constantly on the increase, both in num- 
bers and efficiency, as wealth and population increases. 

As now conducted there are several institutions of learn- 
ing where young persons can be fitted to enter and compete 
for the prizes of scholarship at Yale or Harvard Colleges, 
or other similar institutions. Many of these preparatory 
schools are in charge of instructors of the highest mental 
attainments and are not excelled for efficiency by any in the 
land. There is an able corps of doctors that for skill in their 
profession are ranked with the ablest in the country. The 
lawyers are among the ablest of any country as expounders 
and judges in jurisprudence. Of newspapers, Phoenix, her 
county is well and ably supplied, and some of her papers 
rank with the mammoth papers oi ttv>\c?cv\ax^<5LT oJc^fc.'s.. 



124 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Maricopa County in some respects may be called the 
banner county of Arizona. In natural agricultural facili- 
ties it is unequalled, in fact, hardly understood or ap- 
preciated. What the next fifty years will develop in the 
Salt River Valley can not now be realized. 

This county contains other flourishing cities besides 
Phoenix. Tempe is a beautiful city on the Salt River's 
southern bank where the railroad to Maricopa crosses that 
stream, and has a population of about 3,000 people, and bids 
fair to be a city of importance. 

Mesa is another fine city and with the railroad facilities 
that are building and the fine agricultural country sur- 
rounding it, must continue to grow in importance. In as- 
sessable value of property this county stands away ahead, 
being nearly double that of the heaviest of the other coun- 
ties of Arizona, viz., $10,315,111.47 for the year 1903. 

There is at Phoenix, in this county, or within about four 
miles from the state-house or Capitol, one of the finest Indian 
schools in the Territory, if not in the southwest. 

There is something near six hundred Indian children at 
this school under an efficient corps of teachers, and the 
whole vast establishment is managed with the regularity 
and precision of a military camp. I saw here some young 
ladies of pure Indian blood graceful and accomplished who 
would preside with grace in any drawing room. 

Education will do much, but to learn to have the patience 
to labor and save the products of that labor is the road that 
leads up from a savage state to civilization for earth's chil- 
dren. It is the one thing needful for savages to learn, and 
without it the accomplishments of civilized life amount to 
nothing, as whenever the hand of government is with- 
drawn, and these wards are left to themselves, they relapse 
to the savage state. 



CHAPTER XI 
MojAVE County 

This county has an area of 13,421 square miles, or a little 
over one-fourth the size of the State of New York. This 
county is one of the original counties into which the Ter- 
ritory of Arizona was divided by the first legislature that 
met at Prescott, in 1864, excepting a small portion, a remnant 
of Pai Ute County, which was added later. The main por- 
tion of the Pai Ute County was, by act of Congress, attached 
to Nevada. 

This county is bounded on the north by a portion of the 
State of Nevada and Utah, on the east by the counties of 
Coconino and Yavapai, on the south by the county of Yuma 
and on the west by the states of California and Nevada. 

The population of this county by census of 1900 was 
3,426. The county-seat is Kingman, which is a place of 
considerable commercial importance, situated upon the line 
of the Santa Fe and Pacific Railroad. From this point a 
road puts off to the north or nearly so, some thirty-five 
miles to a town called Chloride, which road will eventually 
be continued on into Nevada and connect with the Pacific 
Coast system. Up to the present time this is almost ex- 
clusively a mining county and some of the great producing 
mines of the Pacific slope are within its boundaries, yet 
her mountains have only been scratched over. Labor, ju- 
diciously applied, will yet make Mojave County one of the 
richest gems of earth as far as producing the precious metals 
will go toward such a result. 

The Hualapi Indian Reservation lies partially in this 
county, and the lower portion of the Grand Canon of the 
Colorado, This county was amoxv^ >j£\fc ^'3y.x\\^^V ^^^'^^^ 

^3& 



126 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

for the precious metals which may be attributed to its prox- 
imity to the Colorado River, as for a long distance that river 
separates it from California on the west and finally nearly 
bisects the county from east to west. 

The Hualapi Indians were very troublesome in an 
early day, and even after Americans began to come in and 
locate for the purpose of working the mines, many were 
butchered and their bones left to bleach on hill and plain. 

Mining in this county has been continuously conducted 
since 1864 at an immense profit to the fortunate owners. At 
or about this time the California Volunteers succeeded in 
subduing the Indians and placing them upon reservations, 
thus permitting the entrance of settlers, however, active 
settlement did not really commence until 1871 owing to the 
sullen hostility of these Indians. 

The fame of the mines then began to be bruited abroad 
and in a short time many were opened and permanent set- 
tlements were assured. The earliest prospecting done in 
the limits of what is now Mojave County was in 1857-8, 
when many very important discoveries were made in the 
Sacramento Valley, but no great progress was made be- 
fore 1863-4, owing to before mentioned Indian hostility. 

The first settlements of American miners were in the 
Hualapi, Peacock and Cerbat Mountain Ranges, just be- 
fore the outbreak of the Civil War. Since its organization 
as a county it has been the scene of active mining opera- 
tions and in fact much mining was carried forward in this 
county when but little was done in any of the other coun- 
ties of Arizona, and for some years the only communica- 
tion with the outside world was by the long, tedious and 
uncertain route of the Colorado River and its development 
was in consequence slow. 

There is in the county an immense amount of land, say 
600,000 acres, that could be rendered productive by bring- 
ing- water upon it, which can be done by means of irrigat- 
/ng- canals from the Colorado Rivet. T\ve\^.Tvd% oi'^u-A-a.^x 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 127 

Valley, of which there are something over 400,000 acres, 
will produce small grains without irrigation, and if irri- 
gated will raise all crops known to this latitude. 

Of minerals, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, 
and turquoise are the principal ones of value. It is a cause 
of regret to many that there is only one church within the 
limits of the county, says one historian, but in making such 
a statement the author shows his views of "church" to be 
narrow, as when that passage was written the Methodists 
had a church at Kingman. The self-styled Latter-day 
Saints (Mormons) had a settlement in a valley up next 
the Utah line, and wherever they had a settlement or stake, 
was a place of worship. Of schools the county is well sup- 
plied, well taught and well attended. 

In Kingman is a fine brick schoolhouse capable of ac- 
commodating two hundred pupils and at Kingman two good 
papers are published. 

This county will, at no distant day, support a large popu- 
lation, but at present it takes too large an outlay of capital 
to bring water upon her uplands, and to open up her vast 
mineral deposits, to be available for men of limited means. 



CHAPTER XII 
Navajo County 

Navajo County has an area of 9,826 square miles, and 
is nearly the size of the State of Maryland. By the census 
of 1900 the population was 8,829 or less than one to each 
square mile of territory. The boundaries of this county are 
as follows : on the north by the State of Utah, on the east 
by Apache County, on the south by Graham and Gila Coun- 
ties, on the west by Gila and Coconino Counties. 

There are parts of two Indian reserves in this county, 
viz.: Moquis and Navajos. Nearly the whole county is 
mountainous and it is claimed there are fine prospects of 
coal, as well as most of the other minerals. Holbrook is the 
county-seat, and is a place of some considerable importance, 
being situated upon the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. This 
county was formed out of Apache County by act of the 
Territorial legislature, March 21, 1895. The county proper 
or so much of it as is not included in Indian reservations, 
is about one hundred miles long north and' south, by some 
fifty east and west. The main industries are cattle and 
sheep raising and cultivating the soil. 

Scattered throughout the county are many points of 
special interest, such as the world famous Petrified Forest, 
the Painted Desert, the great Natural Bridge in the north- 
ern part, while scattered from one end of the county 
to the other are ruins of prehistoric cities. North 
of the line of the railroad that crosses the county are in- 
dications of a heavy deposit of coal. Coal is also found 
near Show Low and in the White Mountains, but so far 
not in Quantity and only of inferior quality. There are 
several salt lakes some thirty miles so\x\.\v oi "H^n^^o ^iV-aJdovi 

128 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 129 

on the Atlantic Railroad, where an excellent dairy and table 
salt are produced. 

The people pay great attention to schools and upon an 
average have their public schools taught by efficient teach- 
ers, seven months in each year. There are a goodly num- 
ber of places of religious worship, mostly of the Latter- 
day Saints (Mormon) persuasion. So far there is but 
one newspaper published in the county, styled Winslow 
Mail. With the hardy, industrious, economical and honest 
population, this county will, in a very short time, be a great 
wealth producer. 



CHAPTER XIII 

Pinal County 

Pinal County was organized in 1875 from portions of 
Pima, Maricopa and Yavapai and contains an area of 5,368 
square miles, and had, by census of 1900, a population of 
7,779 exclusive of Indians. The boundaries of this county 
are as follows: on the north, Maricopa and Gila Counties; 
on the east, Gila and Graham Counties ; on the south, Pima 
County, and on the west by the County of Maricopa. 
Every county of Arizona is very important on account of 
some product or products useful and beneficial to the human 
family, either in arts, commerce or subsistence. Pinal 
County has, within its boundaries, the elements to be of 
great use to the world. There are fully six hundred thou- 
sand acres of land, and all that is lacking to render it as 
productive as any in the world is water, which can be sup- 
plied by a system of reservoir storage of what now is al- 
lowed to run to waste. The Gila River runs directly through 
this county from east to west, and at times carries a vast 
body of water. At such times a sufficient amount should 
be deflected to fill the necessary reservoirs to spread over 
the land as needed when the river has receded. It is tra- 
versed from west to east by the Southern Pacific Railroad 
and a road puts off from the Southern Pacific at Maricopa 
and runs about north to Phoenix in Maricopa, and on via 
Wickenburg and Prescott in Yavapai County to the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Railroad at Ash Fork. 

Florence, the county-seat, is in the fertile valley of the 

Gila on the southern side and is a flourishing town of about 

1,500 inhabitants, some twenty-seven m\\^s tvottlv £rom the 

130 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 131 

Southern Pacific Railroad, with which it is connected by a 
daily stage at the station of Casa Grande. 

In making the trip to and from the railroad to Florence 
the stage passes in sight of the old Casa Grande ruins, which 
have stood in the desert like the sphinx of Egypt watch- 
ing earth's slowly revolving centuries from times anterior 
to written records of America. 

This evidence at least of the partial civilization of a pre- 
historic people stands in the midst of a great plain that 
might be rendered very productive if only a sufficiency of 
water would be gotten to it. The ancient builders of the 
structure brought water from the Gila by means of an 
acequia or canal, some thirty miles in length, the course of 
which can be traced today. The water would not flow in 
the canal at all times, though the supposition is the river 
then carried a larger flow of water than it now does. 

A reservoir was constructed inside the enclosure of the 
Casa Grande, where quite a body of water could be im- 
pounded for emergencies, showing that the structure was 
erected for defensive purposes. From the construction of 
this old building it must be inferred that it was intended 
for defense against the assaults of a primitive enemy, for 
while the works would be impregnable to an enemy armed 
only with spears and bows and arrows, they could not long 
hold out against the ordnance of this day. 

Arizona is at once the oldest and newest country now 
composing a portion of the United States. Something over 
three hundred and sixty years ago Alvar Cabeza de Vaca, 
Andres Durantly, Alonzo del Castillo Meldonado, and 
Estevan, a negro slave, were the first Europeans to set foot on • 
Arizona soil. From what can be gleaned from the old rec- 
ords it would seem probable that the African slave, Estevan, 
was really the pioneer into Arizona, as he seems to have 
been a man of great physical strength and energy, who 
kept mostly in the advance, driven on by his temperament, 
and love of adventure ; maybe his ^assiotv fet l\NJt ^^ioe^^ 



132 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

women urged him forward, as an attempt to gratify his 
passion cost him his life among the jealous Zuni Indians. 
This party was shipwrecked in 1527 on the coast of 
Florida; made captives by the Indians and held for seven 
years. Upon escaping from captivity they made their way 
over great plains, through forests, over mountains and 
across rivers to New Mexico and Arizona, and thence to 
Culiacan in Mexico. 

De Soto is credited with discovering the Mississippi 
River, yet this party crossed that stream ten years before 
he stood upon its banks; visited the Moqui and Zuni vil- 
lages, where was found a peaceful, semi-civilized people, 
a full quarter of a century earlier than the first settlement 
of St. Augustine, Florida, and nearly a century earlier than 
the vaunted landing of the Pilgrim Fathers upon the 
canonized Plymouth Rock. 

After leaving these peaceful villages of Indians, Cabeza 
de Vaca and his party proceeded south and visited the Casa 
Grande, even then in ruins. An inquisitive mind cannot 
look upon this ancient building, knowing its history for 
over three hundred years and that it was a ruin at that 
time, without asking himself the question, "By whom was 
it erected and what has become of the builders?" No 
written records have come down to us, we know only from 
their irrigating canals and methods of defense that they 
ever existed. Who were those enemies it was necessary 
to fortify against and where did they come from ? The 
Indians of today, Pimas, Papagoes or Maricopas have no 
traditions of the builders of these fortifications, but say the 
ruins were there as now when they first came into the 
country. 

Does it not appear to be a fact, demonstrated by the ruins, 
that there have been many attempts to struggle toward 
civiHzation, on the part of different , portions of the human 
race at different times and in different portions of the 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 133 

world. Some have been destroyed by convulsions of na- 
ture; others by invasions of savage, but more warlike peo- 
ple, while others have slowly decayed by the lapse of time 
and the changing of commercial centers. Egypt is the great 
example that carried the arts and sciences far, in fact we 
can never know how far; her monuments that have falsely 
been styled everlasting attest her knowledge of geometry 
and astronomy equal, where applied, to anything now 
known, while we are driven to her monuments and her 
tombs to ascertain her hoary history. O Egypt, thy sphinx 
is emblematic of thee! Thy stony eyes have looked out 
over the Egyptian deserts for more than sixty centuries 
known to written history; hast seen empires rise and go 
down through the lapse of time, yet keepest thine own 
secrets. Our most profound thinkers discovered amid the 
mass of fable regarding the past, a few broken threads of 
truth, but how much of the history of the world and its 
inhabitants is shrouded in impenetrable darkness and must 
ever so remain. 

The human race has passed through many changes in its 
progress from savagedom towards civilization. Each body 
of land of any size found in the oceans that occupy much 
of the earth's surface has had human beings, or at least 
animals having the human form upon them, many of them 
in the lowest state of savagedom; some so low as to eat 
their food raw, not having advanced to the use of fire ; and 
the natives of the Andaman Islands have just now arrived 
to the use of fire. 

Asia, Africa, Europe, America, have all had their cave- 
dwellers, and, where practicable, lake-dwellers. Away 
back in past times and in parts of Africa today are found 
the cave and lake-dwellers and through a great extent of 
Central Africa, the natives are yet cannibals. Whether the 
human race became scattered over all the earth as is re- 
corded in the rather legendary Semitic records, when lan- 
guages were confounded at the Tower of Babel, or 
whether separate continents devdopedi ^^^^x"aXfc ^A•^^xv% -^sv^ 



134 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Eves matters little in the discussion; each appears to have 
started from lowly beginnings and pursued about the same 
course toward civilization; some have become more ad- 
vanced than others. Some are today in the full fruition of 
an advanced civilization, others have disappeared and left 
only broken and decaying evidences that they have ex- 
isted. 

While it is true that there are large bodies of low-grade 
ores in Pinal County at this writing, there are few mines 
producing. This may be in part owing to the low price of 
silver in comparison with what it was some years ago. The 
Great Mammoth Mine that has in the past produced largely 
would now be lying idle were it not for the tailings that 
were considered of no value now being worked over for 
the metal known as molybdenum by a distinguished metal- 
lurgist to good advantage to himself as he continues to 
work some forty men. 

I find the following description of a mining region now 
within the boundaries of this county embraced in an official 
report made to the Federal Government by one of its com- 
petent engineers as long ago as i860. Deeming that this 
report will be more likely to meet the eye of some one who 
will be interested, I insert below the main portion of the 
report upon a particular location: 

"Maricopa Lode. — This lode sometimes called Gray's 
Mine, situated about seventy miles north of Tucson and 
four miles south of the Gila River, is considered one of 
the best copper deposits in southern Arizona. Mr. Gray 
thus describes the. vein in a general report made in i860: 

" 'The formation of the district is primitive, chiefly 
granite, and sienite, with metamorphic and sedimentary 
rocks, and injected dikes of trap and quartz. The lode 
was traced and measured 1,600 feet, having a width of from 
eight to twelve feet plainly marked by its walls and out- 
cropping ore. The veinstone is quartz >N\ttv seams of ar- 
gentiferous copper ore, at the suriaee a iew vcvOcv^^ ^N\^^, 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 135 

but which at six feet down appears nearly solid, covering 
the greater part of the lode. The copper-glance and gray 
ore predominate, though at top the carbonates and silicates 
were intermixed. A branch vein shows itself near the place 
of greatest development. Here it traverses an elongated 
hill intersecting it lengthwise, and protruding above the 
surface from one end of the hill to the other, a distance of 
seven hundred feet. The hill is sixty to one hundred and 
twenty-five feet higher than the valleys and ravines sur- 
rounding it, and slopes for half a mile in the direction of 
the lode to the west, when the ground descends northward 
towards the Gila at a rate of two hundred and fifty feet to 
the mile. The course of the lode is very regular, north 
84y2° east or SJ/^° north of true east and SJ/^° south of 
true west. The dip is to the north, and about 75° from the 
horizon, very nearly vertical as far as could be observed. 
The elevation of the Maricopa Mine determined by me with 
a fine cistern barometer, is 3,378 feet above the level of the 
sea, and 1,497 feet higher than our camp established on the 
Gila River, six miles off, selected as a good site for smelt- 
ing works.' " 

W. R. Hopkins, civil engineer, in connection with the 
same report, speaks as follows: 

"We have traced the copper lode by distinct pieces of 
heavy ore for 1,600 feet about east and west; also three 
other veins. The lode appears to be from eight to twelve 
feet wide on the surface. The shaft we have commenced 
is on the main lode and on a hill that rises from sixty to 
one hundred feet above the surrounding gullies. It is now 
seven feet square and six feet deep. The ore is increasing 
in richness, and the veins widening. The vein contain- 
ing the copper-glance, specimens of which you will receive, 
is now twenty inches wide, and occupies the south side of the 
lode. Next to this come gray and green ores and red 
oxide of copper. The lode is now occupied with the. ote^ 
so that nearly all that is thrown om\. %o^% vdX^ *^^ ^^^ ^^"^ 



136 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

be smelted. The dip of the lode is now slightly to the 
north, and we suppose that it will run into another lode 
twenty-five feet north of it, and form a wider bed of ore 
than we now find. We would express to you our confi- 
dence in the extreme richness of the mine, both from our 
own observation and the opinion of experienced miners 
throughout this section of country. We find water-power 
on the river abundant (at times). Mesquite is in sufficient 
quantities to furnish charcoal, which is of the best quality." 

Frederick Brunkow, assayer and mining engineer, made a 
report in January, i860, upon some selected specimens 
from this mine, from which this extract is taken : 

"The specimens consisted of the outcrop ore of a power- 
ful vein and bore unmistakeable signs of a true vein. * * 
As commonly by all outcrop ore so here carbonates and 
silicates make their appearance, while the main body of the 
vein, to some extent below the surface probably, will con- 
sist in general of gray sulphurets of copper, and other ores, 
which already, in large quantities, appear upon the surface. 
*** I divided the ores into different classes and assayed 
them accordingly: i, sulphurets, mixed with carbonate, 
contained to the ton 50 per cent copper and 104 
ounces silver; 2, gray sulphuret containing to the ton 
60 per cent copper and 93 ounces of silver; 3, silicate of 
copper containing 20 to 25 per cent copper and 20 to 25 
ounces of silver to the ton ; 4, carbonate of copper contain- 
ing 25 to 50 per cent copper and only a trace of silver, as 
carbonates and silicates are secondary formation, a large 
yield of silver could not be expected. The ore of this vein 
would be the quickest and cheapest way to reduce in a 
blast 'furnace and run into copper ingots, which could be 
shipped and afterwards be stripped of their silver. Iron 
crushers for breaking the ore, as well as the necessary 
blast, could be driven by water-power of which there is an 
abundance (at times) in the Gila Rwer." 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 137 

The immense resources of Pinal County must ultimately 
rest upon her vast bodies of agricultural land, and to render 
this land productive, water must be gotten upon it, as the 
natural rainfall is not sufficient or at least could not be 
relied upon, and, therefore, it becomes necessary that res- 
ervoirs be constructed upon a large scale in the seasons of 
rains, when the streams are at floodtide, to be filled and 
taken out over the soil through canals and aqueducts when 
needed in seasons of drought or as long as shall be neces- 
sary for the maturing of crops. 

There is an excellent school at Florence, employing an 
able corps of fine teachers. There are several churches and 
a number of secret societies, a commercial club and two 
weekly papers edited with much ability. 

The northwestern portion of the county along the Gila 
River is occupied by the Pima and Maricopa Indian Reser- 
vation. This reserve embraces much fertile land, consider- 
able of which is tilled by these industrious people, who 
have ever been at peace with the whites, and in the first 
settlement of the Territory were a wall of defense against 
the plundering, murderous Apaches. The United States 
Government has supplied schools for these Indians, and 
the rising generation of the race has now adopted many 
of the methods and customs of an advancing civilization. 
Many of them live in comfortable houses, have American 
plows and other farm implements, wagons, etc. In their 
houses the women have sewing machines, and in many an 
Indian farmhouse the piano is heard. They are getting 
up to a higher plane of civilization and a higher life. Thus 
has it been demonstrated that the Indian race is capable of 
higher development if once started upon a higher plane by 
honest hands. Assessed value of property, $2,898,347.25 
for 1903. 



CHAPTER XIV 
Pima County. 

Pima County has an area of 9,424 square miles, making it 
about equal to the States of New Jersey and Rhode Island 
combined. Pima County is one of the original counties 
into which Arizona was divided by the first legislature that 
met at Prescott in 1864, and is the portion of the Territory 
first settled by Europeans. This county is bounded on the 
north by the counties of Maricopa and Pinal ; on the east by 
Graham and Cochise Counties ; on the south by Santa Cruz 
County and the Mexican State of Sonora, and on the west 
by the County of Yuma. 

Tucson, the oldest and at this time most populous town in 
the Territory, is the county-seat. This county has a large 
amount of fine land for agricultural purposes along the 
Santa Cruz River, which crosses the county from southeast 
to about northwest. There are several tributaries of the 
Santa Cruz, along which there is fine land for cultivation. 
Much of the tableland or mesas would produce well if water 
were gotten upon them. What is necessary is that artesian 
wells should be developed, or that the great amount of water 
that runs to waste during the periodical floods of the Santa 
Cruz River and its tributaries, the Rillito and other streams, 
should be gathered into reservoirs for use upon the land 
during seasons of drought. 

There are several mountain ranges lying partially or 
wholly in this county, and there have been many mining 
claims taken up in all of them. Some few have been pat- 
ented, but most are held by possessory title. Some are 
being successfully worked, while on others only enough 
TvorA- IS being done as development work lo \vo\dL >i^^ c\alvKv 

138 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 139 

under the mining laws of the United States. Many consid- 
erable fortunes have been made from working the mines and 
from the sale of mines. 

Some settlements were made by the Spaniards within the 
limits of Pima County, or what was Pima County, as early 
as 1687. The Mission of San Xavier del Bac, some nine 
miles southwest of Tucson, was started by the Society of 
Jesus in that year; also a sub-mission near Tucson for a 
school for the Indian children, and visited by a priest at 
stated periods. 

The presidio of Tucson was occupied by Spanish soldiers 
as a military protection to the mission soon after. The 
Indian rancheria, or as some call it, "Old Tucson," was about 
a mile a little west of south from where the city of Tucson is 
today. 

Pima County as originally constituted included all of the 
Gadsden purchase, from the 109th meridian of west longi- 
tude to the county of Yuma upon the west. Since that time 
there have been taken from the county of Pima two entire 
counties, viz. : Cochise and Santa Cruz, and those parts of 
Graham, Pinal and Maricopa lying north of the Gila River. 

The light of Christianity for Arizona first shone, though 
faintly, through the night of barbarism within the limits of 
Pima County, and though many times nearly extinguished, 
again blazed forth, until it has illuminated the dark caves 
of superstition with life-giving light, and the inhabitants 
stand forth in the full blaze of the regenerating Gospel. 

Rich in mines, in grazing land, in soil for raising grain 
and vegetables, in timber, in purest air and almost perpetual 
sunshine, Pima County offers great and varied inducements 
for the capitalist, the merchant, the mechanic or the hardy 
tiller of the soil, or whoever seeks an ideal home which can 
not be surpassed in any part of the world. 

This county takes its name from a once-numerous tribe of 
Indians, who dwelt within its limits atvd \»a.dj^ \3?ns^^ ^^x^s!^ 
by agriculture. 



I40 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Tucson, the county-seat, from its position in the Santa 
Cruz Valley, is the great center, commercial and social, and 
source of supply for a vast domain. 

In Pima County are many mountain ranges and detached 
peaks, some rising to a considerable altitude, though hardly 
assuming the majesty of great mountains. To the east and 
northeast of Tucson are the Santa Catalina Mountains, 
whose culminating point is Mount Lemon, nearly ten thou- 
sand feet above sea-level ; while to the southeast from same 
point is what is generally called the "Rincon." The apex 
or highest point is called by the Spanish-speaking people, 
"Santa Rosa," whose altitude is about eight thousand feet 
above sea-level. South from Tucson, some thirty-five miles, 
is the Santa Rita Range of mountains, crowned by "Old 
Baldy," or Mount Wrightson, with an altitude of 11,400 
feet ; but the major part of this range lies in the adjoining 
county of Santa Cruz. West, about fifty miles, is the Babo- 
quiveri Range, with the apex rising up to the altitude of 
10,600 feet above sea-level in massive and rocky grandeur. 
It has generally been considered that the foot of man had 
never trodden this lofty summit, but in 1898 Professor 
Forbes of the University at Tucson, by the aid of ropes and 
grappling hooks, made the ascent and spent a day or more 
upon this elevated rock, leaving a fire burning, which at- 
tracted the attention of the people of the surrounding country 
for a circuit of thirty or forty miles ; and among the super- 
stitious Papago Indians it at first created great consternation, 
they thinking their mountain god had commenced to burn. 
One of their chiefs, more venturesome or less superstitious 
than his people, ventured to the mountain and saw Professor 
Forbes upon the summit, saw him come down, and his evi- 
dence served to dispel the illusion. There is a tradition 
among these Indians that many moons before the white man 
appeared in the country one of their great chiefs had a beau- 
tlful daughter, so beautiful that even as a child ^wVv^tv^ver 
s/ie appeared great crowds followed her and v^^te cn^t t.a^vc 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 141 

to gaze upon her exquisite face and form. From the charm 
of her voice she had been named in their language "The 
Heavenly Vision." 

As this bewitching princess approached womanhood, 
her hand was sought far and near by princes and the 
sons of princes ; but the wayward beauty turned with a joy- 
ous laugh from their blandishments. Finally, when in the 
full flush of her resplendent beauty, came the son of a great 
chief, with whom her people had long been at war, as the 
head of a peace embassy. A peace was concluded finally 
from the exhaustion of both parties, and not from any love 
for each other. The young brave found such favor in the 
eyes of the Indian maiden that she consented to be his and 
to repair to his wigwam if he would ascend Baboquiveri 
peak unaided and return to claim her within seven suns. 
The young man ascended the peak, witnessed by the whole 
tribe, amid shouts of congratulation; but in descending he 
became careless, perhaps his eyes were too much occupied in 
gazing upon his beloved. So he stepped upon a rolling stone, 
lost his balance and fell from a great height and was dashed 
to pieces before and in the presence of his beloved. As 
he fell, the maiden uttered a despairing cry and fell to the 
ground in a death-like swoon, and though from that she 
recovered, she never spoke more ; but on the anniversary of 
the fatal day would repair to the spot where he fell and 
chant the Indian death-song over the resting place of her 
departed lover, until there came a time when she returned 
not. When sympathizing friends repaired to the spot, it was 
found her broken spirit had flown to join her heart's choice 
in that silent world where there are no sorrows. Even 
among the old Indians of the tribe today their folklore 
has it that up to within the last few years, upon the anni- 
versary of that day the death song is sublimely chanted 
there by spirit voices in the stillness of the night : "Adieu, 
beautiful ones; sleep on, ev^i i"3cWcvi>A V^'^^X.^? 



142 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

To the north and east of Baboquiveri Range of moun- 
tains is the lower range of the Tucson Mountains, and to the 
west are the Cababi and Quijotoa Ranges. Southeast of the 
Baboquiveri are the Las Gijas, Pajarito and Tumercacavi 
Ranges. 

From these vast belts of rock-ribbed mountains the scenery 
is grand beyond description. Their granite heads, bold and 
destitute of other vegetation than scrub oak, pifion pine and 
the giant cactus (suj.aro) can be seen on clear days for 
hundreds of miles. Beneath the shadow of lofty heads and 
up their steep sides are to be found great forests of pine, 
juniper, quaking asp, ash oak, cherry and walnut. Streams 
of pure water rush down the mountain sides and are swal- 
lowed up by the thirsty plains below. Locked in these moun- 
tains, as in a vast treasure house, are mineral deposits of 
gold, silver, copper and lead, and many other metals of 
recent discovery in Arizona, to greatly enhance the riches of 
the world; awaiting the touch of labor, backed by judg- 
ment and capital, to develop into great wealth producers. 

And of the plains, what shall be said of them ? They, like- 
wise, possess every element requisite for advancing an 
industrious and enterprising people to prosperity and great- 
ness. The Santa Cruz River runs through this county, 
with many windings, nearly from south to north for some 
fifty miles, and there are fully fifteen hundred square miles 
of fine land for agriculture in this river bottom and its 
tributaries that will produce largely all the products grown in 
semi-tropical countries. 

The great problem which has met the farmers face to face 
has been how to get water upon the land; how can a 
sufficient quantity be obtained to render the fine soil of this 
county productive and insure to a reasonable certainty a fair 
crop each year without too great an expense. Later develop- 
ments made within the past year have in a great measure 
solved this question, as it has been demonstrated that a 
/arg-e How of water can be obtained a\\ a\otv^ t\ve ^^xvX.-a. Cx^^x 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 143 

River by boring, and at no great depth. The policy has not 
yet been acted upon, though often talked of, of constructing 
reservoirs and having them filled when the streams are 
flooded in seasons of heavy rains, to be run out over the 
parched land in the dry season. When such a policy is 
adopted, Arizona will be a great producer of the necessaries 
of life. Arizona has the soil, now it remains for the moisture 
to be gotten upon that soil, and by the sun's aid cause the 
life-giving plants to spring forth. 

The resources of Pima County are mining, stock-raising 
and agriculture. At this present time probably stock-raising 
is most remunerative. Various reasons are given why min- 
ing is not receiving more attention than it is at present. 
Among others, the low price of silver affords a convenient 
willow on which to hang the sorrowing harp. It is dwelt 
upon as though some one is to be blamed for the result, 
forgetting or not willing to understand that silver is but a 
product, and that what any product shall be worth in the 
markets of the world is not a matter to be regulated by law 
or at the behest of any one government or of all combined, 
for that matter. Supply and demand regulate the price 
of necessary commodities, or such as are deemed neces- 
sary, either for comfort, convenience or luxury, and gold 
and silver are no exceptions to the rule. 

The old church of San Xavier del Bac, erected by the 
Jesuits and Franciscans as a mission church for the Papago 
Indians, is now in a good state of preservation, having 
been thoroughly repaired in the last few years. The exact 
age of this structure, built in the moorish style of architec- 
ture, is not known definitely, but the year 1797 is marked 
upon the vestry door, and it is generally considered that 
the church was completed that year. A temporary chapel 
was dedicated in the presidio of Tucson, perhaps for the 
convenience of the military and the few inhabitants occupy- 
ing the same. 



144 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

The church of San Augustine, now a hotel of that name, 
is a later structure, having been erected in 1863. 

The evidences of the cultivation of the soil by the Papago 
Indians and the mission priests are very plain, even at this 
date. From their old ruins, the foundations of buildings 
and ruined aqueducts are still discernible, also reservoirs, 
with a part of their embankments still in place, together with 
a vast amount of broken pottery on both sides of the Santa 
Cruz river, also on the Rillito, some six miles northeast 
and east of Tucson. 

At the date of the transfer from Mexico to the United 
States (1853) of that portion of the Gadsden Purchase 
included in what is now Arizona, there were only two vil- 
lages within those limits that contained other inhabitants 
than Indians, and these villages were Tucson and Tubac. 
Near each place were a few small ranches, under cultiva- 
tion by the inhabitants. 

The old name of Tucson, Tulqueson, Tuqueston, is an 
Indian appellation, but it is not easy to find from what 
derived. 

There was a garrison of forty Mexican troops at Tubac 
in 1840, and the place then contained a population of about 
400. In 1 86 1 it was the restored ruins of an old village, 
and occupied by a mixed population of Americans and Mexi- 
cans, and near at hand were camped about one hundred 
Papago Indians, but in 1863 the place was again abandoned 
and in ruins. 

In order to preserve the chain of history of the country, 
it may be well to state that the Spanish records of those 
times show that during the eighteenth century something 
near two hundred silver mines were worked in what is now 
Arizona and Northern Sonora, many of them being within 
the limits of Pima County. The King of Spain arbitrarily 
claimed a large share of the silver produced, as property of 
the Crown, which, pretension on the part of Spain's ruler 



c 4 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 145 

• 

caused much indignation, not only among the silver pro- 
ducers, but the whole people as well, and after that time the 
proceeds of the mines were concealed as far as could be 
done and smuggled out of the country. It would seem to 
a certainty that in the vicinity of missions it was necessary 
to have the protection of troops, at least part of the time. 
It probably was the case that the Papagoes and Pimas, with 
the assistance of the priests did manage to struggle along 
and repel the often-repeated attacks of the Apaches, but 
between those tribes of Indians was perpetual war, and 
wherever and whenever one was caught by the opposing 
tribes, he was killed without mercy. As a matter of 
history, by the scanty records then kept, about the year 
1800 Tucson was garrisoned by about one hundred regular 
Spanish troops. 

The town consisted of about one hundred and fifty adobe 
houses, and had a population of three hundred and fifty 
persons, many of them discharged soldiers, who made a 
precarious living by cultivating small tracts of land in the 
river valley near the fort and selling the product to the 
troops and few citizens. No extensive cultivating of the 
fine bottom land could be done owing to the frequent and 
fierce raids of the ever hostile Apache Indians. Several 
times the old records state the Apaches made well-organized 
and desperate attempts to capture Tucson, under their 
bravest and ablest leaders and over one thousand warriors 
strong, but were always repulsed. The presidio of Tucson 
was the most northerly Spanish settlement, and was a 
constant hindrance to the raids of these Indians upon the 
settled portion of Sonora where prisoners, of whom slaves 
were made, and cattle could be obtained, and, therefore, 
the most strenuous efforts of Indian ingenuity and power 
were exerted through long years for its destruction — a 
second Tyre, but the Apaches developed no Alexander 
to break down its walls. In 1856 the place had some four 
hundred inhabitants, some \im\^ oi -^Vvotcv ^^x^ ^:ccsKrss-«s>s., 



146 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

• 

On the 2 1 St of March of that year the. first American 
store in the place was opened by Solomon Warner, who 
came from California with thirteen pack mules loaded with 
merchandise. Don Solomon, as the Mexicans called him, 
came only eleven days after the Mexican troops had been 
withdrawn, in pursuance of the terms of the Gadsden Treaty 
of purchase made in previous years. At this time Tucson 
had a flour mill and soon had another store. 

In 1857, the first mail arrived from San Antonio, Texas, 
succeeded, in 1858, by the great overland tri- weekly mail 
line from St. Louis and Memphis, via Fort Smith, Fort 
Chadborne, El Paso, Mesilla, Tucson, Yuma, Indian Wells, 
Warner's Ranch, Los Angeles, and over the Coast route to 
San Francisco, California. This line was generally known 
as the "Butterfield" line, and did good and prompt service 
up to the breaking out of the Civil War, in 1861, when the 
Confederate authorities, or those pretending to act in their 
name, took possession of all of the stage company's prop- 
erty within their reach. The establishing of this mail and 
stage line put southern Arizona in easy communication 
with the outside world, which, with a few petty settlements 
along the Colorado River, was all there was of Arizona not 
dominated by the Apache. 

The annals of Tucson, though of most absorbing interest 
to the student of history, are indistinct as to her past. For 
a period of time, approximating one hundred years, it was 
a walled fortress guarded by vigilant, armed and drilled 
Spanish soldiers. Up to within the last sixty years, or say 
up to 1840, Tucson was a military post — a walled town 
protected by a regular fort constructed in such a manner 
as to be a guard over the whole place, an immense wall in 
the shape of a square enclosed the entire place, shutting 
in the inhabitants and shutting out the Apache Indians — 
the hostile portion of them. The rear end of every house 
was built into and against this wall, and the only openings 
in the houses were the doors which opetved m\.o \\\^ c^\\lta.l 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 147 

plaza. A heavily ironed gate, which was guarded con- 
tinually, and which remained open in the daytime when 
there was no alarm from Apaches, afforded ingress and 
egress to this plaza. At night the gate was closed, locked 
and bolted. The wall at the back of the houses was some 
four feet higher than the house roofs, thus affording an 
excellent breastwork behind which, from their flat roofs, 
the inhabitants could with comparative safety fire upon 
an attacking force. These flat roofs were used almost uni- 
versally during the summer season as the family bedroom. 

The first establishing of Tucson seems to have been 
solely for military purposes, and its walls were built so 
strongly and so well fortified that no body of Apache war- 
riors which could be assembled against it stood much chance 
of success. The result was that Tucson for at least one 
hundred years stood against all Apache wiles and machina- 
tions, though they were constantly on the watch to be able, 
in some unguarded moment, to strike a fatal blow, and de- 
stroy the place. The existence of this stronghold of the 
hated white race so far within their claimed jurisdiction, 
was a thorn in their side, and expedition after expedition 
was organized by their ablest war chiefs for its destruc- 
tion, only to fail at immense loss of blood and energy to 
themselves. 

It is clear from Spanish records that the Fort of Tucson 
was established in 1694 by them to protect the Catholic 
missions of San Augustine and San Xavier del Bac, at 
which date Tucson -may be said to have been permanently 
settled by Europeans. Before that time its occupation by 
whites was upon sufferance of the Apache Indians — a suf- 
ferance liable to be terminated by Apache treachery at any 
time and the priests with most of their following murdered. 
The Papago Indians, who early became converts to at least 
the forms of the Catholic religion, have, from the earliest 
times, been friendly to the whites, and it can be said to their 
credit that many times they have \o\xv^d ^SnJcv nJcnr. s^^vsski^ 



148 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

at Tucson and rendered valuable assistance in beating off 
these marauders upon their raids. This was particularly 
the case in the great raid of 1720, when it seemed at one 
time as though the native race would sweep the whites into 
southern Mexico. 

During Spanish occupancy of Tucson as a military post 
there were no outlying settlements owing to the frequent 
and ferocious incursions of the Apaches, there not being 
a sufficient number of soldiers in the country to overawe 
them. Movements of the inhabitants outside the walled 
town were made under the protection of troops. Over all 
the surrounding country and far south into the Mexican 
State of Sonora constant incursions were made by the ac- 
tive and fierce Apaches, who slaughtered many of the in- 
habitants, made captives of the young women and children 
and drove off whole herds of cattle and mules. The nec- 
essary supplies of the settlers around the post for many 
years came in from Guaymas and Hermosillo, under the 
protection of the troops. The Apaches for many years kept 
the military authorities in a state of constant watchfulness. 

In 1847, during the Mexican War, a small force of United 
States troops and a battalion of Mormon Volunteers under 
command of Philip St. George Cook, en route for Cali- 
fornia, captured the town, but as they were pressed for time 
did not attempt the fort but left it with its brave garrison 
unmolested. The Mexican commander did not attempt pur- 
suit, but congratulated himself on his "victory" in an "of- 
ficial" report to his government. 

In 1849 t^^ national boundary line was defined under the 
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of February 2, 1848, which 
closed the Mexican War, the garrison was largely increased 
and Tucson had trebled in population. The Gadsden Pur^ 
chase was accomplished in 1853 and the boundary line of 
the new purchase ran out and settled in 1854-5, and in 1856 
the United States took formal possession of the purchase 
by sending four troops of the Yitsl Di^^ootvs mto it, — this 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 149 

force was stationed first at Tucson and later at Calabasas. 
In 1857 a permanent site for a military post to be called 
"Buchanan" was selected on the stream called Sonoita, 
about twenty-five miles east of Tubac and fifty miles south 
from Tucson. During the Civil War quite a military force 
was kept at Tucson and many of the citizens of enterprise 
became contractors for furnishing such supplies as the 
quartermaster and commissary branches of a military force 
might require, and that the surrounding country could furn- 
ish, even calling largely upon the Mexican States of Chi- 
huahua and Sonora. This gave Tucson a great impetus 
and she became almost at once a commercial center to a 
vast extent of country. 

In 1868 the capital was removed from Prescott to Tucson, 
and at that day this also was considered a great promoter 
of a permanent prosperity; goods of all descriptions were 
brought in from the East and West. 

From the Eastern marts of commerce, New York, Phila- 
delphia, St. Louis and even from Europe, goods came by 
railroad and steamer to Independence, Missouri, and from 
there by ox or mule trains, across the great plains via Cim- 
arron, Raton Mountains, Santa Fe, down the Rio Grande 
via Albuquerque, Soccoro, Fort Craig, across the dreaded 
Jornado del Muerto (journey of death), and crossing the 
Rio Grande at Roblero or farther down stream in the vicin- 
ity of Las Cruces, then west through mountain canons and 
across wide plains three hundred miles from the Rio 
Grande to Tucson. Traveling by train frequently occupied 
from three to four months and nearly the whole distance 
a vigilant lookout had to be kept for either Apache or Co- 
manche Indians, who, if in sufficient force, would attack 
a train and endeavor to capture it or some part of it, and 
at least stampede and run off the animals on every oppor- 
tunity. So it was absolutely necessary to have a sufficient 
force to guard the whole train with military precision, 
night and day, as though trave\m^ \5cvtow^ *C«\^ ^^n^x^^"^ ^^ 



ISO THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

an enemy — in fact such was the case. Every man was well- 
armed and trained more or less in the use of arms, so that 
when a train was attacked the first business of teamsters 
under direction of the wagon-master was to park the train ; 
that is, form a hollow square with the wagons, animals 
were driven into this square and the wagons used as a 
fortification. Old hands would park a large train in a few 
minutes, ^ven the animals seemed to understand. One fierce 
old bull, part buffalo, which had been born on the plains 
and used as a draught animal seemed to have a spite against 
Indians and whenever they were around he was in a perfect 
fury and frequently gave the first alarm. Brave old "Buff," 
he was called, as it was known that he killed at different 
times three Comanche Indians; two he impaled upon his 
horns, tossed and stamped them to death, a third gave the 
old fellow a mortal wound with a spear, but as he fell he 
succeeded in ripping the Indian open with his sharp horns, 
then stretched out and died with a look of triumph in his 
dying eyes, that his foe was dying, too. His owner, Gen- 
eral Otero, after the Indians were driven off, had the faith- 
ful animal buried with the honors of war and declared that 
over the grave of that old ox more tears were shed than he 
ever saw at a funeral; old bronzed teamsters and Indian 
fighters broke down and cried like children, and to restore 
order, he was compelled to give the order to "hitch up" and 
move on. 

From the West, goods were shipped by steamer from San 
Francisco to the mouth of the Colorado River, then up the 
river by barge or the light draught steamers to Yuma, and 
from these transferred to wagons upon the Arizona side of 
the river and hauled to Tucson mostly by mule teams, two 
hundred and fifty miles. 

Freight on goods those days was an important item as 

from the Colorado River alone, the charge was from nine 

to ten cents per pound, so that it can be seen on such articles 

as salt and iron it enhanced tV\e vaXue Net^ \x«Ll^t\ally. Much 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 151 

of the salt used was packed on mules and burros from the 
Gulf of California in sacks of about twenty-five pounds 
each, and not very clean at that. This packing of salt from 
the Californian Gulf was entirely engrossed by Papago In- 
dians, male and female. 

The advent of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which 
reached Tucson in 1880, changed the order of business 
very materially, and now the commercial affairs of Tucson 
and the country generally are conducted upon the princi- 
ples of other large mercantile centers. The population of 
Tucson now (1903) is about twelve thousand and steadily 
increasing. Of churches the Catholics have an $80,000 
cathedral; the Episcopalians, a church; Presbyterians, a 
church, (to be built); Methodists, a church; Baptists, a 
church; Congregationalists, a church; the Salvation Army 
have a hall and the Latter-day Saints (Mormons) have 
a foothold or a "stake'' as they style it. All are prospering 
and instructing the people according to their light, how to 
live better here and reach a "better world" beyond "life's 
fitful fever." 

Of schools, there is a large parochial school under the 
supervision of the Catholics, well attended and ably con- 
ducted. There are five public schools within the corporate 
limits of Tucson, and good, substantial buildings have been 
provided in every instance, together with all the modern 
appliances for teaching up-to-date. The Territorial Uni- 
versity of Arizona is located at Tucson, where a first-class 
university education may be obtained at a slight cost. 

There is also at Tucson a very flourishing Indian school, 
mostly under the supervision of the Presbyterians, which 
has done more for the elevation of the rising generation 
among the Papago Indians in the few years of its exist- 
ence than all others have done in the three hundred and 
more years that have passed, since those professing Chris- 
tianity first came among them. John Wannemaker, the 
merchant prince of Philadelphia, is understood to \^aj\^ 



152 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

contributed largely from his ample resources to forward the 
school and make it a success. 

Of newspapers, there are three; two Democratic in poli- 
tics, The Star, a morning daily issue, and the Citizen, an 
evening issue; The Post, a weekly issue, is Republican in 
politics. 

Pima County's great industry and that which must, in 
the future be the chief reliance for supporting a large popu- 
lation, is agriculture. She has large bodies of fine land, 
which with water upon it, and properly tilled, would pro- 
duce enough of the essentials of life to supply the wants of 
a dense population. At this time, January, 1903, there are 
but about three mines being worked within the county 
boundaries, and these not in an extensive manner. Of min- 
ing locations there are many, but the holders seem con- 
tent to do the work required to hold a possessory title and 
wait for the boom that has been dancing upon the horizon 
of the future for these many years, when a fortune can be 
realized at once, and for the rest of their lives, freed from 
all care, they can enjoy a long life of unalloyed happiness. 
These are Life's dreams, which most indulge in, yet how 
few, how very few arrive at the reality. As a rule the in- 
dividual who has accumulated a fortune or a competency 
by mining has earned it and is entitled to enjoy it. 

Tucson has a free public library, the finest library build- 
ing in the Territory, costing twenty-five thousand dollars, 
for which she thanks the Hon. Andrew Carnegie, who 
donated that princely sum for that purpose to the city. This 
leads to a few words upon the accumulation of riches: 
many holding that an individual ought not to be allowed 
by law to accumulate beyond a small competency. Those 
holding these views lose sight of the great incentive prin- 
ciple which causes men to struggle to accumulate property 
that is but the surplus product of labor. Were it not for 
the hope of accumulating for themselves and those who 
may come after them, how many would strive to carry on 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 153 

extensive business — call it by any name one will it is the 
incentive, the love of gain for himself, that first starts the 
savage on the road to civilization, and without it there 
never has been, nor could there be, progress in the world's 
history. The very people who most vociferously cry out 
against this accumulation of property are themselves in 
the race; to accumulate is the great incentive to labor, and 
when there can be no individual reward of industry, then 
will nations retrograde from civilization toward barbarism 
— so much for Socialistic theories. 

St. Joseph's Academy, under the supervision of the Cath- 
olic sisters, affords for female children all the advantages 
of a thorough English and Spanish education. Though 
this institution is Catholic, yet pupils of every religious 
denomination, or maybe of none, from all parts of the coun- 
try, are made welcome. The course of instruction embraces 
Christian Doctrine, orthography, reading, writing, gram- 
mar, composition, arithmetic, bookkeeping, algebra and 
geometry, modern topographical and physical geography, 
with use ' of globes, astronomy, chemistry, history, and 
biography, rhetoric, literature, physiology, botany, natural 
philosophy and French, music on the piano, guitar and 
violin, drawing and painting in oil and water colors; plain 
and ornamental fancywork, etc. 

Of secret and benevolent societies, there are Masons, 
Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Elks, Red Men, Ancient 
Order of United Workmen and several other distinguished 
orders, and all seem to be in a flourishing condition. The 
Grand Army and Pioneers will go out with this generation. 

Assessed value of property, $3,898,347.25 for 1903. 

I will now proceed to give some personal history from an 
old resident of Tucson, whose memory of events extends 
back near a century, and who died here but a few years 
ago and was well known to some members of this society : 

"We met an old lady this week, who is supposed to be 
over one hundred years old, and was bCitw vcv Tx^sL'SRi^. '^?isx 



154 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

name is Mariana Dias, and from her we obtained several 
historical items relating to old times, which were very in- 
teresting to us. She says as long ago as she can remem- 
ber Tucson consisted of a military post surrounded by a 
corral, and that there were but two or three houses out- 
side of it. The country was covered with horses and cattle 
and on many of the trails they were so plentiful that it was 
quite inconvenient to get through the immense herds. They 
were valuable only for the hides and tallow, and a good 
sized steer was worth only three dollars. This country then 
belonged to Spain and the troops were paid in silver coin, 
and on all the coin the name of Ferdinand I was engraved, 
and money was plentiful. Goods, such as they required 
were brought from Sonora on pack animals. They had in 
those days no carts or wagons. The fields in front and below 
Tucson were cultivated and considerable grain was also 
raised upon the San Pedro. With an abundance of beef 
and the grain they raised they always had an ample supply. 
They had no communication with California and she never 
knew there was such a country until she had become an 
old woman. San Xavier was built as long ago as she can 
remember, and the church in the valley in front of town, 
and there was also a church on Court House Square, which 
has gone to ruin and no trace is left of it. The priests were 
generally in good circumstances, and were supported by 
receiving a portion of the annual products, but for mar- 
riages, burials, baptisms and other church duties, they did 
not ask or receive any pay. 

"Among the leading and wealthier men who lived here 
^t that time, she mentioned the names of Epumusena Lo- 
reles, Santa Cruz, Ygnacio Pacheco, Rita Soso, Padre 
Pedro, and Juan Dias. On inquiry about the Apaches she 
spoke with considerable feeling and said that many efforts 
had been made for peace with them, but every attempt had 
resulted in failure; that whatever promises they made, but 
a few days would pass before they proved treacherous and 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 155 

cx)mmenced murder and robbery again ; that they murdered 
her husband in the field about two miles below Tucson and 
that most of her relatives had gone in the same way; that 
she was now left alone and would be in want but for such 
men as Samuel Hughes. 

"She related the circumstances of one peace that was 
made about ninety years ago. It seems the Apaches got the 
worst of a fight on the Aravaca Ranch ; several were killed 
and the son of a chief was taken prisoner and brought to 
Tucson, and the Indians at once opened negotiations to 
obtain this boy. Colonel Carbon, in command of the Span- 
ish forces, agreed with them that on a certain day the In- 
dians should all collect here, and to prevent treachery and 
being overpowered, he brought in at night, and concealed 
within the walls of the fort, all the men he could get from 
all the towns within one hundred and fifty miles. On the 
day appointed the Indians came in vast numbers; all the 
plains around were black with them. The colonel then 
told them if they had come on a mission of peace they must 
lay down their arms and meet him as friends. They com- 
plied with his request, and then all the people inside the 
walls came out and went among them unarmed. The col- 
onel gave them one hundred head of cattle and the boy 
prisoner was produced and turned over to his father and 
they embraced each other and cried and an era of recon- 
ciliation and peace seemed to have arrived. The boy told 
his father that he liked his captors so well that he desired 
to live with them and in spite of the persuasions of the old 
man he still insisted upon remaining and the Indians were 
compelled to return to their mountain home without him. 
The boy was a great favorite with the people. Sometime 
afterwards he went to visit his people, but before leaving 
he saw everyone in the village and bade them good-by, 
promising to return, which he did in fifteen days. A few 
days after his return he took the small ^ok axvd dv^^i.M'^xv^ 



156 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

soon after his death the Apaches commenced to murder and 
rob the same as before. 

"The aged lady then remarked with apparently much 
feeling, that since her earliest recollection she had heard 
it said many times, 'We are going to have peace with the 
Apaches,' but every hope had been broken and she did not 
think we would have any peace as long as an Apache lived. 
When she was a girl the Apaches made two attempts to 
capture Tucson. The first time nearly all the soldiers and 
men were away. The Apaches, learning of this, took ad- 
vantage of the absence of the defenders and attacked the 
town and would have taken it and murdered everyone in 
it, but for the timely assistance of the Pima and Papago 
Indians, who came to the rescue in large numbers, attack- 
ing the Apaches on two sides, driving them off and killing 
many. The next time the sentinel on the hill west of town 
discovered them coming, he gave the alarm, and after a 
severe fight the Indians were driven off. The Apaches had 
no firearms in those days and were armed with spears, 
bows and arrows. 

"She referred to the pleasant times they used to have 
when their wants were few and easily supplied and told 
how they danced and played and enjoyed themselves. We 
asked her if she thought the people were happier then than 
now; she did not seem inclined to draw comparisons, but 
remarked that if it had not been for the Apaches they 
would hardly have known what trouble was. Crime was 
almost unknown and she never knew anyone to be punished 
more severely than being confined for a few days. The law 
required all strangers, unless they were of established rep- 
utation, to engage in some labor or business, within three 
days after their arrival, or leave the town, and to this regu- 
lation she attributes the exemption from crime. On in- 
quiry as to whether they had liquor in those days, she said 
that she never knew a time when there was not plenty of 
mescal, but it was only on rare occslsiotvs* \i>cv^\. ^\V3 ou^ 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 157 

drank to excess, and then they acted to each other as 
brothers." 

(The extract is taken from Tucson Citizen, June 21, 

1873). 
We here have a view of times in this country a century or 

so ago and it does not differ much from Greece as pictured 

in the days of Homer, some twelve centuries before the 

time of Christ. 

It appears the town of Tucson was not the point first 
chosen as the residence of settlers, but was at first only a 
presidio or military post. The first church was some three 
miles down the Santa Cruz River, upon what is known as 
Grosetta's Ranch, where the old Padres lived, and it is 
within the memory of persons now living when an old ruin 
down there was styled "Casa de las Padres," Priest's 
House. 

The following is a translation of an old document written 
in Tucson in 1777: 

"Senor Capitan Don Pedro Allande y Savedra : 

"In virtue of your order, dated the 20th of current month, 
to the effect that two citizens of the most eminence, well- 
known in the country and reliable, should appear in your 
presence to give you information concerning this locality as 
to watering places, lands for corn fields, pasture for horses 
and cattle, minerals, and, also, as to points of ingress and 
egress of the inimical Apaches, and where they make their 
abodes, I, Don Manuel Barragua and Antonio Romero and 
Francisco Castro (who are the individuals that possess the 
requisites which you demand), most respectfully obey, and 
affirm that the town of Tubac is situated between two 
mountains which are distant from each other six leagues. 

"In the valley there is much land, fertile and suitable for 
corn fields; there is sufficient water for wheat growing but 
scarcely enough each year for corn ; but if that which is at 
Tumicacori be distributed, one week to the Indian laborers, 
and another, for Tubac, it vj\\\ s>3ffivd^xv>\^ \i^w^^ *^^ ^-5^^^ 



158 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

laborers and there will be an abundance of water; in this 
manner was it disposed of by our former capitan, Don 
Juan Bapt Anza, and recently this same disposition has 
been sanctioned by your honor. 

"There is as much pasture, with an abundance of suste- 
nance for horses and cattle as well, on the hills and in the 
dales, as on the mountainless plains. In the same valley 
there is a great deal of cottonwood and willow, and in the 
Santa Rita Mountains there is an abundance of excellent 
pine of easy access, six leagues distant. 

"Of provisions alone there is raised every year, by the 
inhabitants, six hundred or more fanegas of wheat and 
com ; one-third of the land not being occupied. There are 
many mines, very rich, to the west in the vicinity of Aribac 
at a distance of seven leagues. There are three, particularly 
in the aforesaid vicinity, one of which yields, according to 
rule (de sopotable ley), a silver mark from one arroba 
(twenty-five pounds) of ore, the other yields six marks 
from a load (one hundred pounds) of ore, and the third 
yields a little less. 

"Three leagues beyond this vicinity, in the valley of 
Babacomri, there are fine gold placers, examined by Don 
Jose de Tarro, and this whole population. 

"After three visits, which these people made with Don 
Jose at great risks, and by remaining there over three days 
each trip, it was verified by their having brought away 
and spent with two traders, who at this time have it, as 
much as two hundred dollars in gold. In the Santa Rita 
Mountains and its environs, which is distant from Tubac 
four leagues, there have been examined five silver mines — 
two have been tried with fire and three with quicksilver with 
a tolerable yield. 

"All of this is notorious among this entire population, 

and they do not work them because there are Apaches in 

3]} these places, because they live and have their pastures 

t/iere and pass continually by tVus mo\mVi\tv \\.^^\i, \.o ^ 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 159 

place a little more than four leagues off called Hot Springs, 
(Agua Caliente). 

"Daily experiencing more violence from the enemy, be- 
cause he is aware of the few troops that we possess, we 
have desired to break up our homes and sell our effects, 
and you being aware of it, we received the order, which 
you were pleased to send us, imposing heavy penalties 
upon us if we should remove or sell our goods, and have 
punctually obeyed it; and now finally, the last month, the 
Apaches finished with the entire herd of horses and cattle 
which we had guarded, and at the same time, with boldness, 
destroyed the fields and carried away as much com as they 
were able. Since the fort was removed to Tucson these 
towns and missions have experienced great calamities and 
they have been obliged to burn the town of Calabasas, a 
calamity it had never before experienced. 

"Also but a few days ago, the cavalcade, which the 
Apaches brought from the west, was grazing for three 
days in the vicinity, falling every day upon the fields to 
load with corn, and to run away with those whom they 
found there, and lastly, their not leaving the neighborhood, 
we momentarily expect that they may serve us and our 
families as they have served our property, there being noth- 
ing else left for them to do. 

"We trust in God that by the numerous petitions of the 
poor people this fort may be restored to its ancient site, 
and, if necessity requires it, there shall be more troops to 
protect the herds by remaining at the several points of in- 
gress and egress, which the enemy have established through- 
out this entire region, and that they may be continually 
watching from the hills and the adjacent mountains. 

"We humbly beseech you, in the name of the whole com- 
munity, that you will pity our misfortunes and listen to our 
petition, that you may remove the continual misfortunes 
that we have suffered, being in continual expectation of our 
total destruction. 



i6o THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

"We live in great confidence, from the knowledge that 
some of us have of you, that by your exertion and by your 
conduct and by that of the military commandant, we shall 
receive the benefit to which we are entitled, since no one 
is better known than Senor Savedra, and he knows that we 
exaggerate nothing, considering the many years we have 
been under his orders." 

'Your humble and obedient servant, 

'Manuel Barragua, 

Trancisco Castro, 

"Antonio Romero/' 

San Augustin de Tucson, November 24, 1777." 



"xour numoie ana oDt 



CHAPTER XV 
Santa Cruz County. 

Santa Cruz County is the last county set off up to this 
date and was taken entirely from Pima County. It has 
an area of 1,212 square miles, about equal to the State of 
Rhode Island, and is bounded as follows: On the north, 
by Pima; on the east, by Cochise; on the south, by the 
Mexican State of Sonora, and on the west by Pima County. 
It was organized as a county in 1899. Nogales is the 
county-seat, situated upon the line of railroad running from 
Benson on the Southern Pacific, to Guaymas in Sonora, 
and upon the boundary line. The name Nogales is walnut, 
from the fact that long ago walnut trees grew upon the 
site. 

This county possesses, in the aggregate, considerable 
agricultural land mostly confined to narrow valleys along 
the streams; perhaps the largest body is along the Santa 
Cruz River, which is the whole width of the county. The 
Sonoita, also, has considerable agricultural land and some 
about the head of the Babacomri Creek. There is consid- 
erable land being cultivated in the Soperi Valley also. There 
is much fine grazing land in this county and some of the 
cattlemen have succeeded in having large herds of cattle; 
between the Santa Rita Mountains on the west and Whet- 
stone on the east and the northern end of the Huachucas 
is a great cattle range; also farther south at La Norio or 
"Lochiel,'' is, perhaps, the finest cattle range to be found in 
the Territory. 

Much of the county is mountainous, and the mountain 
ranges are filled with minerals, principally gold, silver, 
copper and lead. Silver, probably, ^T^torcC\Ys.'^\&^^'C^^N^^'^ 



i62 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

is not easy to judge of that as many of the mines are but 
slightly developed. At the present time the Oro Blanco 
Mining District and mines are coming to the front as pro- 
ducers, and it is found upon going down that mines which 
had been for years abandoned as played out, or, as miners 
say, petered, are found to be of great value as depth is 
reached, say from four to eight hundred feet. One, the 
Oceanic, which has more than once been abandoned as 
"petered," is now working successfully, though I think that is 
in Pima County, being over the mountain west from Oi^o 
Blanco. 

In other portions of this county are extensive mines, as 
in the Patagonia Mountains. The old Mowry; among the 
first worked in the Territory ; those of the Harshaw District 
named after David Tecumseh Harshaw, who formerly had 
been a sergeant in the California troops. The name Te- 
cumseh is a family name in the Sherman family and was 
one of the names of General Sherman. In the latter '30's 
and early '40's of the nineteenth century, a celebrated steam- 
boat captain, on Lake Champlain, was Richard Tecumseh 
Sherman, for that day commander of the palatial steamer 
Burlington; "Dick" Sherman, as he was familiarly called, 
was an uncle of David Tecumseh Harshaw, hence his mid- 
dle name. The Ohio Shermans are of same family. 

The whole population of the county by census of 1900, was 
4,545. Nogales, the county-seat, by same census, had a 
population of 1,761. It is on the international boundary 
line, and when first started was known as "Line City." 
There is a Nogales on the Mexican side of the line, also, 
with about the same population, principally Mexicans. 

The street running along division line, separating the 
two countries, is called International Street. Nogales is the 
southern terminal of the New Mexico and Arizona Rail- 
road, also, the northern terminal of the Sonora Rail- 
road, which runs in nearly a direct line south to Guaymas 
on the Gulf of California, two \\vit\At^^ ^xvd ^vxfcv-iour 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 163 

and seven-tenth miles or four hundred and twenty-six kilo- 
meters and gives Nogales daily a direct communication 
with a seaport. Both the United States and Mexican Gov- 
ernments have located custom-houses and warehouses for 
goods in bond and have consulates at this point. 

The mineral region tributary to Nogales is very exten- 
sive and must materially aid in building up at this point a 
large city at no distant day. The grazing interest is also 
large in this vicinity. 

Nogales, owing to its altitude, has a beautiful and health- 
ful climate and is quite a summer resort. 

The town in the county next to Nogales is probably Pata- 
gonia, a new town upon the Rio Sonoita and railroad, just 
in the mining center in the Patagonia Mountains and in the 
Santa Rita Mountains. The old adobe town of Tubac, at 
one time the principal town of Arizona, is within the limits 
of this county. In 1850, and for several years before that 
time, the Mexican Government kept a small garrison of 
troops there. 

Tubac was for several years headquarters for all the 
large mining operations in what was then Southern Pima, 
viz., Salero, Cerro Colorado, Arivaca, Santa Rita and 
other active camps. Tubac was a presidio during the time 
the country was controlled by Mexico, after that country 
had thrown off Spanish domination. It was probably 
chosen as a settling point, as at seasons of the year the Santa 
Cruz River was a clear, running stream of quite a body of 
water, and there is considerable agricultural land near 
there; also it is the center of quite a mining region, whose 
richness was known even in far off Spain. Since cattle have 
been largely introduced into the country and considerable 
irrigation going on above Tubac, the water that formerly 
flowed above ground in the dry season near Tubac, disap- 
pears entirely. The Catholic Mission of St. Gertrudes was 
located here in 1750. 



i64 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

At the present day it may be said of Tubac, "Its glory 
hath departed," in all probability never to return. The 
railroad station at the site of the old Mexican rancho of 
Calabasas, is some fifteen miles up the river from Tubac 
and about twelve miles north from Nogales. Here the 
Sonoita joins the Santa Cruz. At present it is a very 
small town, though its natural advantages are great. There 
is considerable water in the two streams for irrigating pur- 
poses, and with no large outlay of capital, sufficient water 
could be developed to irrigate the fine valley in proximity 
below. 

Some fifteen miles westerly from Calabasas a peculiar 
mountain peak is visible called "Thumb Butte," from its 
resemblance in shape to a large human thumb. It stands 
fully sixty feet in height and about ten feet in diameter at 
what would be the base of the thumb. Calabasas is the 
nearest point to touch the Arizona and New Mexican Rail- 
road for a large extent of country, both grazing and mining. 
A wagon road has been laid out and made practicable much 
of the way through the mountains west, direct to Oro 
Blanco, distant thirty-five miles; the cost would be but a 
small matter to render this road entirely practicable, so that 
instead of the long haul of seventy-five miles, Calabasas 
or Tucson Railroad can be reached in thirty-five miles from 
Oro Blanco. 

A route for a railroad is now in contemplation from Tuc- 
son to the Gulf of California through the Baboquiveri Val- 
ley, that, should it be constructed, will give to the great 
mining region of Oro Blanco and Arivaca a still nearer 
railroad communication, also, the mines in the Baboqui- 
veri Range of Mountains. 

Camp or Fort Crittenden is almost historical ground, as 

the first military post established by the United States 

within the boundaries of the celebrated Gadsden Pur- 

chase (made in 1853, the treaty having been confirmed 

by the United States Senate onDecetrfoet '>p'Ocvoi\?cv'a.\.N^'a.t'\, 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 165 

was here established in 1857 and called Fort Buchanan, 
after James Buchanan, then President, who had been in- 
augurated March 4th of that year. Fort Buchanan was 
abandoned upon the breaking out of the Civil War, in 1861, 
1. e,, the regular United States troops were withdrawn to 
take part in other more active fields, and not again occupied 
until 1868, when it was re-established and called Crittenden, 
in honor of Thomas L. Crittenden, a son of Hon. John J. 
Crittenden of Kentucky, who then was in command of the 
military district embracing this portion of Arizona, south 
of the Gila River. At and around where was camp Crit- 
tenden, which is now upon the line of the Arizona and New 
Mexico Railroad, is one of the lovely spots of Arizona. The 
beauty of the scenery is hard to surpass, and the altitude 
is such that fruits of more northern climate, as the apple 
and the peach, ripen to perfection. At one time within the 
memory of oldtimers still living a band of wild horses, of the 
wild and free breed, roamed over these beautiful mesas, but 
with the advancing tide of civilization these horses have dis- 
appeared, being either frightened off or caught and broken 
to the uses of man. In the neighborhood of Camp Critten- 
den is an inexhaustible supply of limestone from which lime 
is supplied to the vicinity. 

Mount Wrightson (Old Baldy), the highest point of the 
Santa Rita mountain range, with an altitude of fully 10,000 
feet, is in this county about forty miles almost directly south 
from Tucson, in Pima County. There are fine schools es- 
tablished at the various points as required, and at Nogales 
is a fine schoolhouse. The schools are well managed and 
liberally patronized. There are no churches outside of 
Nogales, and there the Catholics predominate. 

Of papers, there are two at Nogales, both lively sheets, 
the Oases and Vidette. The county, though at this time the 
youngest and smallest in area, cotvtam^ n^^V ^^^^x^tsS. 't^- 



i66 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

sources that must, in the near future, make it the home of 
an industrious and rich people. The value of assessable 
property, $1,560,307.55 for 1903. 



CHAPTER XVI 
Yavapai County 

Yavapai County is one of the four counties into which the 
Territory of Arizona was originally divided, and at one 
time embraced about one-third of the Territory, or all north 
of the Gila River, excepting that part of Yuma which lies 
north of that stream, and the county of Mojave. . This 
county as it now is, is bounded on the north by Coconino 
county ; on the east, by Coconino and a portion of Gila ; on 
the south, by Maricopa, and on the west, by a portion of 
Yuma and Mojave Counties; and has an area of 7,863 
square miles, and is a little larger than the State of New 
Jersey. 

The population of this county, by census of 1900, was 
13,799. It was called upon to contribute territory of which 
to form other counties, as follows; Maricopa County in 
1871, part of Pinal in 1875, Apache County, which embraced 
the County of Navajo, in 1879, and the great County of 
Coconino in 1893. 

Prescott, the first Territorial capital where the first legis- 
lature met in 1864, is now the countyseat and is a beautiful 
city, its altitude being over 6,500 feet, and situated among 
the pines, it has one of the finest summer climates in the 
world. Prescott is a place of great commercial importance, 
being the center of a large mining region, and extensive 
transactions in the mining world are carried through here, 
as there are three heavy banks that have reliable connections 
with the world's money centers. 

There is considerable fine agricultural land in the moun- 
tain valleys of this county, but rains are too uncertain to 
make it altogether reliable for the farmer to d^^^^\s5i. xij;^^xv 



i68 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

raising crops without artificial irrigation. Whether water 
in sufficient quantities can be developed by artesian wells, 
or gathering of surplus from rain or snow in reservoirs, to 
be of much use in agriculture has not been sufficiently tested. 
Arizona is such a great mining region that it may be wrong 
to discriminate, but if any county can be said to stand at 
the head in this industry, it must be Yavapai. Some of the 
greatest producing properties of the Pacific Coast, if not 
of the world, are in this county. 

The great camp of Jerome, incorporated as United Verde, 
about thirty-five miles northeast of the city of Prescott, is 
one of the world's wonders. This system of mines, now 
mostly, if not entirely, in the hands of Senator Clarke of 
Montana, yields a revenue almost fabulous; they will be 
described in detail further on. 

The city of Prescott is as near the geographical center of 
the Territory as it well can be, and, with its unexcelled 
climate, fine buildings, hospitable and generous people, its 
railroad facilities, all combined, it would be pointed out as 
the spot for the Capitol, but the politicians and selfish inter- 
ests of other sections took it away from Prescott and placed 
it in a city perhaps less suitable at all seasons of the year. 

As a sanitary location, Prescott has no rival, and the 
United States Government is now re-establishing Fort 
Whipple for a sanitary camp, to which to send invalid 
soldiers and other military attaches. 

As early as 1847 ^^^ 1848 Joseph Walker and Jack Ral- 
ston, hunters and trappers, discovered gold upon the Little 
Colorado River, a short distance below the falls, but did not 
know what it was. In Oregon, in 1856, they saw the same 
yellow metal called gold and realized it was the same as 
that which they had found along the Little Colorado. Late 
in the 50's Ralston died, but Walker and a party, among 
whom were George D. Lount, John Dickason, Joseph R. 
Walker, Oliver Hallett, Arthur Qothier and Robert For- 
sythe, left San Francisco, in 1861, for the Little Colorado 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 169 

River, and arrived at the spot where some of the party had 
been before, but found no gold, as the gravel bed in which 
the gold had been found had been washed away by the 
high water of the river. The company went to Denver, 
Colorado, and the next spring another party was organized 
that went first to Albuquerque, New Mexico, and from there 
to the Gila and San Francisco Rivers in Arizona. The 
party divided at, or near, where afterwards was established 
Fort Wingate, and the smaller party went by Santa Rita 
copper mines, New Mexico, and Pinos Altos, where they 
were recruited by Jack Swilling, W. T. Scott, now of 
Tucson, and some others, and passed through Tucson and 
Pima Villages and on to the Hassayampa Creek ; and in the 
vicinity of where Prescott now is, made important gold 
discoveries. Joseph Walker, Pauline Weaver, Jack Swilling, 
Henry Wickenburg, Mr. Peebles and others made many dis- 
coveries of precious metals in the Hassayampa Lynx Creek, 
Granite Creek, Big Bug and elsewhere, and in July, 1863, 
the rich placers of Weaver's Gulch were discovered. 

The great "find" of gold at Antelope Peak was made the 
same year. There was a rush of miners and adventurers 
for these localities, and the Apaches made bloody raids on 
travelers in all directions. The Apache was sure to find 
them when too weak to resist, or if too careless or neg- 
ligent. These Apache raids interfered very materially with 
the development of the country. 

On the 30th of May, 1864, a meeting of citizens 
was held on Granite Creek, a town was located, 
and named Prescott in honor of the eminent Ameri- 
can writer and standard authority upon Aztec and Spanish- 
American history. The streets of the new city were laid 
out wide, straight and with the cardinal points of the com- 
pass ; many of them were named after governors and other 
prominent men. 

Nature has been most prodigal in distributing minerals 
throughout this county, and while thet^ \s» cow^xAfex'^k^^ sgL-six^ 



I70 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

and fruit raising, as well as grazing lands in the county, 
yet for many years, perhaps for generations to come, min- 
ing for gold, silver and copper will be the prevailing indus- 
try. The mines of this county have passed through the many 
stages to which a mining community are subject. For 
some years lack of transportation facilities prevented large 
extents of valuable mining country from being opened, or 
from being known, except to the most hardy prospector. 
Years after Americans began to come to the Territory and 
much mining was being done, it was considered that 
ore which would not yield thirty dollars per ton was too 
poor to be of value ; in fact, the law passed by the legisla- 
ture to tax net proceeds of mines in 1875 exempted thirty 
dollars per ton from taxation, as it was considered that it 
took about that amount to pay expenses. With the introduc- 
tion of railroads, the vast body of minerals of this county 
commenced to come into the world's markets, and now there 
are many men who have within the last ten or twelve years 
rolled up for themselves princely fortunes, while adding 
largely to the material wealth and happiness of the world. 
The most celebrated mines of the county are the "Jerome" 
group, or United Verde, near Jerome, and the "Congress," 
and these as producers may be termed world-beaters, but 
there are within the county many others that are steadily 
producing year by year and rolling up a handsome fortune 
for their energetic owners. 

Some thirty miles south of Prescott, at and near My(»rs 
Station, on the route of travel between Southern and North- 
ern Arizona, is a great bed or quarry of Mexican onyx, 
cropping out over at least one hundred acres in extent. 
This stone is scientifically called travertine, and takes its 
name from the Latin appellation of Lapis Tiberius, which 
was given to it from having been used by the Emperor 
Tiberius as the building stone in the Coliseum, erected at 
his instigation in the city of Rome, when that city was the 
center ot the world. From whence tVve haughty Roman 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 171 

obtained his building material has not come to light up to 
the present time. To the modern world the existence of 
travertine has been unknown outside of some rather small 
quarries in the Mexican State of Pueblo, until the discovery 
of this large body near Myers Station in this county. The 
great demand for this beautiful stone for building purposes 
within a few years has nearly exhausted the Mexican mines ; 
so much so that a scarcity has been feared and the value has 
advanced nearly twenty dollars per cubic foot for the clear 
and well-colored material. To the man who has not made 
geology a study, this quarry presents almost as many inter- 
esting subjects as it does to the geological professor. Its 
beautiful colors of black, white, red, emerald, pink, opaline, 
translucent old gold, russet, purple and all their varying 
tints and shades, make up a combination never, perhaps, 
surpassed in stone, while the vagaries that nature has shown 
in various and ever-changing combinations produce an 
exquisite effect. Some day this onyx claim will be of great 
value. 

Next to mining comes stock-raising. While the valley 
regions and the mountains are not altogether lacking in 
this respect, many of the mountain valleys that have not 
been brought under cultivation for the raising of cereals 
are fairly adapted for the raising of stock, and water is» 
being developed more and more every year; the lack of a 
sufficiency of water has been the drawback to its being a 
great stock county. 

The mountains are filled with minerals, but in addition 
are covered with nutritious grasses, and the climate is such 
that stock rarely need be sheltered or winter- fed. 

Hardy enterprising men are settling in, and each year 
water is developed at points heretofore considered to be 
waterless, and wells at depth produce the life-giving fluid 
in abundance. At small expense reservoirs might be con- 
structed and filled with the surplus water that is allowed 
to run to waste during the periodical Ta\w%. ^^ ^Jek's. \ssr»s>s* 



172 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

enough water could be impounded to supply the require- 
ments of a larger amount of stock than is now done ; or the 
water can be used for irrigating the soil for agricultural 
purposes; in either way, very remunerative for the indus* 
trious and thrifty farmer. 

In this section of the Territory, including this county, all 
grasses and forage plants cure standing, and they are con- 
stantly increasing in variety. In the higher altitude, even 
up to an elevation of 9,000 feet, is found the pine grass. 
This is a bunch grass; it grows thick and high, affording 
an excellent range in summer, and is of great fattening 
qualities. This grass grows green in winter under the 
snow, and is a main dependence at that season as food for 
stock. The bunch grass of these elevated table-lands of this 
county is the same as that of Montana, which is the chief 
dependence of the stockmen of that State for their vast herds 
through winter and summer. 

On the lower table-lands these grasses do not grow, but 
their places are taken by the white and black grama. The 
white is the hardier, and in most places the more prevalent, 
though in some localities, and on a rather lower level, the 
black grama grows luxuriantly. The black mesa is given its 
name from the abundant growth of this peculiar grass there. 
Both the white and the black grama are very nutritious, and 
are superior foods for all kinds of stock. The white grama is 
used most extensively for making hay. There are many 
other excellent forage plants besides these "stand-bys" that 
contribute largely to the sustenance of stock in an Arizona 
winter. The white sage, the chief dependence of Nevada 
stockmen, is also largely distributed over the vast stock 
ranges of this county, and forms no insignificant part of 
the stock food in winter. There is another variety of grass 
called Mormon tea, a good food-plant, having medicinal 
qualities of a high order. The green sage usually grows 
near the white sage, but is mostly a food for sheep. The 
wanzanita is much fed upon by sheep, >N\v\\e \.Vve dvvtvca^in. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 173 

with a rabbit-ear leaf, may be considered equal to the white 
sage for winter feed for sheep. There is a peculiar grass or 
weed, found mostly in the valley of the Verde River, called 
elm weed, which derives its name from having something of 
the taste of slippery elm bark. Sheep fed upon it get fat 
in a short time. When rains commence, the "six weeks" 
grass at once starts up and matures in that time ; hence the 
name. 

The grass probably of greatest importance in stock-raising 
for this county is of California importation, brought in with 
the sheep that came from that State with the seeds of this 
valuable grass, alfileria, in their fleece. This grass grows 
as a vine, from six to eight feet in length, with shoots put- 
ting off from the main vine ten or twelve inches, making a 
perfect mat of the finest feed in the world for stock of all 
kinds, and in this dry climate it lasts until rains commence 
again. Another excellent forage plant seldom mentioned 
by writers is the wild pea, growing in patches of an acre or 
so in mountain regions, where other plants seldom grow. 
It forms no sod, but is hardy and very nutritious. It grows 
at higher altitudes than bunch grass, and has been found 
over 9,000 feet above sea-level. The pea itself has as many 
nutritive qualities as corn, and horses and sheep will leave 
their accustomed ranges to get at the pea fields after frost 
has killed the vines. 

A grass known as blue-stem is more world-wide, being 
much in evidence over the Southwest, forming the basis of 
the heavy hay exports of Kansas and of Las Vegas, New 
Mexico, from which points it is shipped over a large por- 
tion of the West and Southwest and even to Eastern points. 
This grass properly cured makes the most nutritious hay, 
and grows anywhere it once takes root, finding sustenance 
on lava-covered hills where other plants will not flourish. 
It is a grass that propagates itself rapidly when once intro- 
duced. Where a few years ago there was but little of it, 
now vast stretches are coveted, ^xvd ^\vexv "Ccsfc ^^^*^ ^>s. 



174 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

matured it makes a good hay or feed, as with rain, even 
after the greatest drouth, it turns green again. This is 
the hardiest and perhaps most useful of all the native 
grasses. 

The first regularly organized body of mining men to put 
foot in what is now the county of Yavapai was the historical 
Walker party. They met in Contra Costa County, Cal., 
May 7, 1863, leaving for Arizona soon after, and took up 
their residence on what is now known as Groom Creek. 
Twenty-five composed this party, and all are believed to have 
passed over the great divide at this writing (1903). 

In November, 1863, a party of twenty- four men arrived 
from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Among them were Ed Peck 
and Lew Walters, who afterwards became residents of 
Prescott. As soon as the lumber for sluice-boxes could be 
whip-sawed out and the sluices gotten ready, members of 
this party commenced operations upon Granite Creek, wash- 
ing for gold. This creek, now generally a "dry" stream, 
at that time carried considerable water for four or five miles 
above where Prescott now is, and many men were soon at 
work washing for the precious gold. Another feature of 
this stream in those pioneer days, at which persons who have 
only known it in recent years, may indulge in an incredu- 
lous smile upon hearing, is that it afforded a fine variety 
of mountain trout, which contributed materially to the luxury 
of many a miner's table, in those days when luxuries were 
scarce. The waters seem to have withdrawn from the face 
of civilization, as at this time there is no water in Granite 
Creek, except when a heavy rain falls, and then only for a 
few hours. 

This county, in her early settlement by civilized man, 
had the same difficulties to contend with as other sections 
of Arizona, from the warlike and treacherous Apache In- 
dian ; and very many of the first settlers were cut down in 
their prime by these inveterate foes to all civilization. Where 
one brave man fell another took \us p\aLC^, ^xv^ Vo^-a.-^ ^\% 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 175 

county stands well to the front,, with the foremost in the 
Territory, in the production of the precious metals, besides 
being well up in other products, both useful and necessary. 

Prescott, the county seat, and former capital of the Terri- 
tory, is now a very beautiful city of fully 5,000 inhabitants, 
and is an important mining center ; and owing to the banking 
facilities heavy mining transactions are frequently accom- 
plished at this place, without having to call upon greater 
money centers. Prescott has as fine hotels as can be found 
in the Southwest, except Los Angeles, and it is doubtful if 
they can be excelled there. There are electric lights, but no 
street cars yet. The water-works are unsurpassed by any 
other town or city in the Territory or elsewhere. Owing 
to the energy of the enterprising population, water is brought 
in pipes 22 miles from springs in Chino Valley. 

The city has numerous church edifices, and the people 
are devout in proportion. Denominations are. Catholic, 
Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Methodists (North and 
South), Baptists (Hard and Soft-shell), Congregational- 
ists. Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Salvation Army, Sev- 
enth Day Adventists, Divine Healers, etc. The county is 
liberally supplied with schools, so much so that every child 
who wishes to do so can acquire a liberal education without 
leaving the county. There are three newspapers published at 
Prescott, both daily and weekly, — Journd-Miner, Repub- 
lican, and Courier, Democratic, and one neutral. 

The great interest of this county now, and for many years 
to come, will be mining for the precious metals. The 
development in this respect in the last few years has been 
phenomenal. This county alone has sent into the world's 
markets as much gold and silver as far-off frozen Alaska, 
and yet it has been demonstrated that what has been pro- 
duced is but a small fraction of what will be produced in 
the future. 

This county is largely in the mountains of Central Ari- 
zona, and consists of mountam awd To\\vcv^N'a5\^N'$.,xs«c«vi o^K 



176 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

them of considerable extent. Much of the soil of these 
valleys is very fine, and in years, when that section is fav- 
ored with sufficient rains, they produce magnificently; but 
such years are too uncertain for farming purposes, and the 
remedy must be in artesian water, which can be obtained in 
almost any of these valleys by going to a depth not to exceed 
2,000 feet. Each well will flow water enough to irrigate 
ten acres of land, maybe a little more; so it is easy to see 
what a vast body of land, in this county alone, can be ren- 
dered a certain producer by the expenditure of a little money 
and labor. Even now considerable is done in the way of 
raising cattle, though in the long drouths to which Arizona 
is subject whole herds perish for want of water. 

The great industry upon which reliance is placed for the 
subsistence and prosperity of the people is mining, and the 
mines of this county stand high in the financial marts of the 
world as producers. 

The great mining camp of Jerome yields heavily in gold, 
silver and copper. This camp is thirty-five (fifty-two by 
wagon-road) miles northeast of the city of Prescott, and the 
amount of money expended here in development work and 
machinery is something almost marvelous, running up 
into millions of dollars. This mine, or system of mines, 
now belonging to Senator Qarke of Montana, yields a net 
revenue that is princely, and exceeds that of many European 
kingdoms. The net revenue from these properties has been 
over nine millions of dollars a year for several years, so 
that Senator Clarke may be put down as the richest private 
individual in the world. The enormous sum of eighty mil- 
lions of dollars in gold coin was offered by an English 
syndicate for this property, a few months since, and de- 
clined. 

It almost staggers belief when one realizes the immense 

wealth that has been taken out of the ground in Yavapai 

County within the last twenty years, and thrown into the 

channels of the world's commerce*, >^e\., ^le^V ^?> vVVsajs* been. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 177 

it is but a small fraction of what it will be in the next 
few years. 

The altitude of Jerome is about 6,000 feet above sea-level, 
which gives the place a cool and pleasant climate in summer 
and not excessively cold in winter. The Congress mine, 
while a great producer, is second to Jerome. There are 
many other mines in the county, at different points, that 
have been, and are being, operated with great profit to their 
fortunate owners, and benefit to the community at large, 
enabling the county to have a tax-roll of over $5,000,000 
of assessable values, and this while mines are not taxed, — 
only the improvements. 

The city of Prescott is 136 miles, by railroad, nearly 
north from Phoenix, and is the old and first capital of the 
Territory. It is a pleasant and beautiful city among Yavapai 
hills, at an altitude of 6,400 feet, which gives it a delightful 
summer climate. The town has a population now of about 
4,500 people, and is mathematically laid out, — wide streets, 
crossing each other at right angles and upon the cardinal 
points of the compass, well paved and kept in good order. 
There are many fine buildings in the city, all of brick. There 
are three heavy banks that are rendered necessary by the 
great mining transactions here accomplished, and with the 
proper security almost any amount of money can be raised 
at short notice. 

This county, with resources sufficient for an empire in a 
former age of the world, is but one of the thirteen counties 
of Arizona, and it is hard to say which has the greatest 
natural resources. — "Where all are kings, who shall take the 
precedence ? " 

The assessed valuation of this county for taxation was, to 
be exact, fc" the year 1903, $5,801,017.99. 



CHAPTER XVII 

Yuma County. 

Yuma is one of the original counties into which the Terri- 
tory of Arizona was divided by the first legislature of the 
Territory, which met at Prescott in 1864. This county is 
bounded on the north by Mojave County; on the east by 
Yavapai, Maricopa and Pima Counties ; on the south by the 
Mexican State of Sonora ; on the west by Lower California 
and California ; and contains an area of 9,783 square miles, 
or over one-fifth of the area of the great State of New York. 
Yuma County in one respect may be styled the "Banner'' 
County of Arizona. Other counties have as much, maybe 
some have more, fine land, capable of a high state of cul- 
tivation ; climate as fine, and all that ; but this county has the 
land and has the water which it can not be deprived of, 
except by a convulsion of nature. She has the grand Colo- 
rado River on her whole western border, and the Gila River 
crosses the county from east to west and enters the Colorado 
at Yuma City, some twenty miles from the southern boun- 
dary, affording much of the year a supply of water sufficient 
to irrigate the bottom lands alongside it. The climate of the 
whole southern portion of Yuma County is such that nearly 
all kinds of fruit which are grown within the tropics can be 
produced in abundance. The first settlement by Europeans 
made in this county was opposite the old Fort of Yuma, on 
the Arizona side of the Colorado River, where the town now 
is. Two missions were established in 1778 by the Fran- 
ciscan fathers. These missions were destroyed by the In- 
dians, who rose against the priests three years later, killed 
several and drove the rest away. 
In i8^g, so great was t\\e ttaveV Vo C^\\Iotxv\^, >(Jc\fcxv v\ve. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 179 

new Eldorado, that a ferry was established across the river 
by a discharged soldier from the United States army in 
conjunction with, and protected by, the Yuma Indians. A 
party of renegades, under one John Glanton, known as "Dr." 
Glanton, arrived at the river about this time, having come 
from Texas through the Mexican States of Chihuahua and 
Sonora, committing all sorts of depredations en route, rob- 
bing ranches and churches and leaving desolation in their 
track. This band of worthies soon discovered that the ferry 
across the Colorado River at Yuma was a steady producer, 
and determined to have control of the business; one 
night they attacked the Indian's boats and destroyed them, 
killing the American ferryman and two Indians. For a 
short time after this "victory" this party enjoyed a mon- 
opoly of the ferry and were fast getting rich, for, if a 
party crossed with good teams rather weak-handed, they 
were waylaid a few miles from the crossing and all re- 
morselessly murdered and the property appropriated. The 
Indians kept quiet, none were seen around, or to use the 

euphonious expression of " Dr " Glanton, " The d 

dare not show their faces in the presence of * honest ' 
white men." "Lo" bided his time. This precious band 
of cutthroats had a hilarious night over a fortunate rob- 
bery, but at daybreak, when all were in drunken slumber, 
the avenging Indian pounced upon them in force and 
slaughtered all of the party but a boy whom, perhaps, the 
Indians were willing should escape. Whether the Indians 
rendered God a service in exterminating this precious band 
of worthies is a question, but they certainly rendered a 
service to the toiling emigrant who was striking for Cali- 
fornia by the Yuma crossing of the Colorado River. 

The Yuma City of today was first laid out and called 
Colorado City in 1854, and sometime in the '6o's was 
changed to Arizona City, and still later to Yuma. Yuma 
is now the county-seat, and by census of 1900, had a pot^u- 
Jation of 1,519, but now \t \\as, pTO>a^Vj, ivKc^ 'i^^^^* 



i8o THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

In 1858 rich placer diggings were discovered by Jacob 
Snively and others at what was, and is yet, known as Gila 
City, some eighteen miles east of Yuma, and soon a 
heterogeneous population of 3,000 persons gathered there. 
Something like $3,000,000 were taken from the ground in 
about two years. Gila City is now almost abandoned, 
but occasionally an Indian will stumble on a place and get 
out a few dollars in placer gold. Along the range of 
mountains southerly from old Gila City, there have been 
discovered some very valuable gold ledges, and one called 
the "Fortuna" is worked now by C. D. Lane ; it has yielded 
somewhere near to half a million dollars net per year for 
several years. 

In the year 1862 Captain Pauline Weaver made the dis- 
covery of gold placers some few miles easterly from La 
Paz, and during that year as many as twelve hundred per- 
sons were at work there arid it has been estimated that 
somewhere near a million dollars in gold was taken out 
that year. La Paz was the first county-seat of Yuma 
County, but in 1871 it was changed to Yuma, where it is 
at present and will probably remain. 

In 1852 Fort Yuma was established upon the right or 
west bank of the Colorado River, opposite the mouth of 
the Gila River in the State of California. The Yuma In- 
dians were held in check to such an extent that the ferry 
across the Colorado was again established, and continued 
in operation with fair profit to owners until the river was 
spanned by the bridge of the Southern Pacific Railroad. 
The coming of this railroad into Arizona in 1878 caused 
new life to enter into the Territory. The lethargy of ages 
was shaken off and a new order of events took place. Prob- 
ably the town of Yuma since the Southern Pacific Railroad 
crossed the Colorado, and continued on up the Gila River 
and across the Territory, did not for a number of years 
enjoy the prominence in comparison to other points of com- 
mercial activity that it had enpyed Xieioie. >i?»cv^ ^^n^w\. c>i 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA i8i 

the railroad, as it had been for some years for all south- 
western Arizona, and it took some time for the business 
methods to adjust themselves to the changed conditions. 
The act which established the Territorial Prison at Yuma, 
was passed by the legislature which convened at Tucson in 

1875. 

There is considerable agricultural land in this county 
along the Gila River, which runs, in all its windings, nearly 
one hundred miles through the county from east to west, 
and there also is a large body upon the Colorado which 
will be very remunerative when water in sufficiency shall 
be gotten upon it. At present, probably, the greatest part 
of the revenue of this county comes from mines as in her 
barren mountains wherever one goes are found leads of 
great richness and extent and in the near future Yuma 
County will be a great producer of precious metals. 

The Gila River rises in the vast mountain range west of 
the Rio Grande in New Mexico, through which runs the 
continental divide, with an eastern trend. The Gila River 
enters Arizona at north latitude, about 32° 40', and runs 
nearly a west course through Graham, Pinal, Maricopa and 
Yuma Counties and joins the Colorado in nearly the same 
latitude on the west, as it crosses the east line ; so its many 
meanderings north and south have not deflected its current 
from a west course. Considerable attention has been paid 
to the agricultural lands of the Gila River, which winds its 
way through some of the finest agricultural land of the 
county, maybe the river with its life-giving moisture causes 
the adjacent lands to be so fruitful. This valley is from 
one to five miles in width, but probably for the whole dis- 
tance across the county it would be equivalent to a valley 
of two miles wide and one hundred miles long. When 
once brought under cultivation, with a sufficient amount of 
water, what sustenance for a vast population would so 
much soil afford. 



i82 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Until some general system of building reservoirs is 
adopted, whereby the surplus of streams in times of high 
waters can be impounded and saved to be distributed over 
the land during the dry season, Arizona will remain sub- 
ject to great droughts and great floods by turns, and with 
cultivated land in abundance only a small fraction of this 
land can be tilled to a profit. 

Fruit culture has so far been prosecuted upon a limited 
scale and in a small way, but it has been learned from actual 
experiments that it is possible to produce an excellent fruit 
ready for market from four to five weeks earlier than from 
the great fruit orchards around Los Angeles in California. 
The climate and soil is congenial for the orange, lemon and 
lime; the fruits yield in abundance. The fig and pome- 
granate also do well, producing fruit of such character 
as if they were the native fruit of the country. The pome- 
granate is not recognized to be of much value in the United 
States, though in Mexico it is quite highly esteemed. Of 
the fig it is not easy to say which is the more desirable 
variety. For eating, as the fruit comes from the tree, per- 
haps, the blue-black variety will afford as much satisfaction 
as any, but for commercial purposes, to dry and transport 
long distances, probably the white fig of Smyrna or the 
Ionian Islands in the Grecian Archipelago, may be con- 
sidered the universal favorite. Its yield would be prodigi- 
ous as in the climate of Yuma the tree will produce two and 
has been known to produce three crops in a single year. 
Grapes, when cultivated properly, become hardy and thrifty 
and all kinds mature from four to five weeks earlier than 
in the vineyards around Los Angeles. Heavy wines and 
brandies of a superior character can be manufactured 
from these grapes. For refining wines the climate is unsur- 
passed anywhere. The olive grows luxuriantly and is a 
proBtab\e fruit to raise. The mulberry matures rapidly and 
when rooted withstands great \\eal 2Li[vd\a.ck oi ^^ler. Most 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 183 

other semi-tropical fruits grow in great abundance when 
cultivated properly. 

The raising of cotton has been tried for some years with 
satisfactory results. When watered and pruned properly 
it grows to a large tree being in flower, ball and cotton 
throughout the year. These bushes or trees have in known 
instances borne steadily for several years, surpassing the 
most favored section in our cotton-growing States, where, 
on account of frost, it has to be planted yearly, and tenderly 
cared for. Hemp grows wild, indigenous to the country, 
growing to a great height, in many instances from fifteen 
to seventeen feet; it has a long and strong fibre and is 
worked into fishing nets and lines by the Yuma Indians. 
It seeds itself annually and. after the receding of an over- 
flow of the Colorado River, shoots up in every nook and 
corner and excludes all else by its rank growth. It covers 
not less than one hundred square miles of territory, com- 
mencing near the southern boundary line of the Gadsden 
Purchase, twenty miles below Yuma City extending south- 
ward following the river to Hardy, where the tides 
of the gulf force back the flow of the Colorado, causing a 
great tumble of waters. Ramie, a fibrous plant, has also 
been tried with success. 

Sugar-cane has been tested with Sonora cane — the growth 
was immense and the percentage of juic-e was much in- 
creased by the transplanting process. The sugar beet yields 
well; two crops each year. Wheat produces wonderfully; 
as an instance, four hundred and eighty-three pounds were 
sown upon twenty acres, which lay some nine miles east of 
Yuma City on the Gila River, and the yield an acre was 
52,750 pounds, or nearly forty-four bushels of sixty 
pounds to the bushel. This crop, which was irrigated three 
times, was sold in San Francisco, and on account of its 
plump appearance, being almost like a berry, brought fifty 
cents per hundred over the best wheat in that market. Barley 
does well, two crops a year, the first ^l^ldvcv^ -jikiCiNiJ^ '<^'^\>i 



i84 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

bushels to the acre, and the second fully two tons to the 
acre of excellent hay. Corn can be raised in quantities and 
when there is no frost can be grown the whole year. The 
Cocopa corn is noted for sweetness, plumpness, and for its 
solid grains and the rapidity with which it matures. In 
five weeks after the time of planting, roasting ears are 
plentiful. 

When the land is sufficiently irrigated all kinds of grasses 
grow rapidly. Alfalfa can be cut from five to seven, and, 
in instances not rare, eight times each year, yielding fully 
two tons per acre at each cutting. A field of eight acres 
yielded in one year, with, perhaps, extra care, eighty tons 
of hay or ten tons to the acre, and hay that whole year 
brought not less than ten dollars per ton, most of it twelve 
dollars. Perhaps the most prolific and valuable crop that 
can be produced is sorghum or Chinese sugar-cane. This 
plant is not only valuable for its saccharine qualities from 
which a valuable syrup is distilled, but as forage for mules, 
horses and cattle, it is much sought after and yields from 
fifteen to twenty tons per acre and has a value in the 
markets of from twelve to fourteen dollars per ton. Vege- 
tables of all kinds grow in abundance the year through. 
From fifteen pounds of potatoes, planted in bottom land, a 
Gila farmer gathered seven hundred pounds of fine pota- 
toes, a yield of forty-six and two-thirds for one. The 
sweet potato yields largely and equals the finest grown in 
South Carolina. 

There is some placer mining done in the county, but the 
yield of precious metals is mostly from quartz mining, 
though the barren mountains have not been thoroughly 
gone over, and there is but little doubt that many a "For- 
tuna" mine will yet be brought to light, which for years 
will throw into the world's markets every month a million 
or more dollars of the precious yellow metal. 

The large amount of fertilizing matter brought down 
the Colorado will ever be a source oi vje^XtVv \.o lV\s, ia.Ttriers 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 185 

upon those bottom lands along this river in Yuma County. 
The River Nile is often called "Father of Egypt/' and is 
known to have fertilized and supplied for fully fifty cen- 
turies the moisture for that hoary country, yet it is well 
known that the Colorado River water carries more than 
double the fertilizing matter in its bosom than old Nile 
does. Perhaps it may be owing to the fact that the water 
is continually scouring and eroding fertilizing material 
from the rocks in the bottom of the Grand Canon, while 
the Nile denudes mountains and washes plains for its 
material. 

Yuma City is upon the eastern or left bank of the Colo- 
rado River, just below the junction of the Gila and Colo- 
rado Rivers and is the county-seat of Yuma County. The 
Colorado River is the dividing line, from the boundary of 
the county, to the center of the mouth of the Gila from 
the Territory of Lower California. 

The southeastern corner of the State of California is the 
center of the mouth of the Gila (old mouth), and from 
there to the southwest corner of Arizona, which is in the 
center of Colorado River is twenty miles below the old 
mouth of the Gila. The right, or western bank of the 
Colorado River, is Mexican territory. I have said "old 
mouth" for the reason that the point where the Gila River 
now enters the Colorado River is some three miles farther 
up the Colorado than it was when the boundary line be- 
tween the United States and Mexico was established, as 
per treaty of 1853. 

This county possesses within itself great natural advan- 
tages, perhaps in one respect ahead of any of the other 
counties of Arizona, viz. : she has the Colorado of the West 
occupying her whole length upon her western boundary, 
while along this river at many points are large bodies of 
the finest agricultural land to be found in the world, and 
sufficient water in the river, even when at its lowest stage, 
to irrigate it all. 



i86 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

Below the City of Yuma the Colorado River runs nearly 
west some distance, say ten miles, and the general course 
to the boundary line is west of south; and along the river 
of the left bank in this county is an extensive bottom, for 
say fifteen miles in length by eight miles in width, much of 
it inundated in very high water, but of the richest quality 
of soil, and with such levees as the Mississippi has, there 
would be a vast body of fine agricultural land permanently 
reclaimed from the turbulent river. 

This great body embraces fully 70,000 acres and there 
are many fine farms now producing. Probably now there 
are ten thousand acres that are partially farmed but this 
is only a small matter to what will be brought into the 
producing column when the great works in process of con- 
struction shall have been carried to completion. 

The whole of this vast bottom land has been formed 
from sediment or overflows brought down at different times 
through past ages and spread over the land until now, ex- 
cept in the highest stages, it is above overflow. For farm- 
ing purposes this bottom land upon the Colorado River is 
not surpassed by any in the world. The farmers now pro- 
duce wheat, barley, corn, most luxuriantly and from two 
to three crops each year as there are no frosts to interfere 
with the growth of products the year through. Of hay, 
alfalfa produces wonderfully, and in many instances pro- 
duces eight cuttings in a year of at least two and a half 
tons to the acre each cutting. Judging from the price of hay 
for several years past, each acre would net the owner at 
least seventy-five dollars, if sold. Some farmers consider 
it more to their advantage to raise cattle and horses and 
particularly mules, thus using up their hay. Hogs are also 
found to be very profitable and some farmers are now ex- 
tensively engaged in that branch of business. 

Of fruits, all varieties that can be produced within the 
tropics are grown here, and of a quality equal to the best in 
the world — oranges as fine as those oi SVdV^ , ^xv^ ^\. ^.11 sea- 
sons of the year, as there is no co\d >Ne3Lt\veT \.o coxv\fcxv^NN\N:^, 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 187 

so that at all times and often upon the same tree oranges 
may be seen from flower to full maturity. Figs, equal to 
those produced in Western Asia, that are marketed at 
Smyrna, in Asiatic Turkey. Dates that have heretofore 
been considered a product of Mesopotamia and Syria, 
Western Asia, are found to do as well here as those to the 
manor born. Lemons, equal to those of Sicily, do extremely 
well and limes grow almost wild. Olives are produced in 
great quantities ; although not cultivated much as yet, pine- 
apples will do well. Apricots, of an extra fine quality, grow 
so luxuriantly as absolutely to become a drug. 

Garden vegetables grow almost spontaneously; all that 
needs to be done is to plant the seeds and they will fight 
their way with the weeds and produce well. Of course 
they do better when cared for. 

Private parties are making several attempts to irrigate a 
small portion of this tract of land, but the most exten- 
sive is a syndicate or corporation from the State of Wash- 
ington, under the superintendency of Mr. Ludy, who is an 
able engineer. This company takes out of the Colorado 
River, some five miles below Yuma City, quite a body of 
water by means of a canal or aqueduct which extends al- 
ready some eight miles to a large reservoir which will hold 
millions of gallons of water. When this company shall 
have finished their aqueduct with the laterals run, they can 
irrigate fully 50,000 acres of as fine producing agricultural 
land as there is in the world. The reservoir has been con- 
structed and filled with water so that should any accident 
happen at the head of the canal to the machinery or other- 
wise, adjacent farms can be irrigated until repairs can be 
made. 

There are already in this valley, separate from the town 
of Yuma, two churches, one Methodist and one Baptist, 
and there are some six school houses, so religion and edu- 
cation are not neglected. Crime is unknown among this 
industrious and thriving people. 



i88 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

There is another extensive plan for irrigating what 
may be considered second bottom land below Yuma 
City, which, if carried out successfully, will open up a 
large body of land to cultivation, say 50,000 acres, in fact, 
some of it is already through what water can be gotten to 
the surface by pumps and windmills, and it is found that 
with water this land produces equally well with the bot- 
tom lands, especially fruits. 

The plan is to take the water from the Colorado River, 
some distance above Yuma City, pass it under the bed of 
the Gila River in pipes, so that it will have a sufficient 
head to irrigate this land. It may require pumping power 
to get the volume of water to the proper altitude to irrigate 
this second bottom land. When this is done, Yuma Citv 
will have nearly 150,000 acres of the finest land for agri- 
culture at its very door, which must make Yuma City one of 
the first cities of the southwest. 

The mining camps of this county are numerous, as here 
generally barren mountain ranges, are filled with leads of 
the precious metals. There is the Castle Dome District, 
that has been a heavy producer; the Harqua Hala, that is 
a great gold region. The "Fortuna" Mine, some twenty- 
seven miles southeast of Yuma City, that has paid net for 
several years some $50,000 per month; the Old Gila City, 
never thoroughly prospected, but which yielded largely as 
placer ground in the gulches many years ago. Some day 
an energetic mining company will drive a tunnel into and 
through the mountain and the "find" will astonish the 
world. The new camp of Picacho, some thirty miles above 
Yuma City, is a wonderful producer of gold, but if the 
writer is not mistaken, it is in California. Yuma City has 
now a population of fully 3,000 people, and is fast increas- 
ing, and will, at no distant day, be one of the large cities 
of Arizona, as Arizona is destined to have more than one 
hrg-e city. The Southern Pacific Railroad crosses the 
Colorado River from Calif orma at \\v\s po\tv\.. 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 189 

Yuma City is a fine business point and the merchants 
are apparently doing a flourishing business. Many costly 
structures are being erected and the place wears an air of 
prosperity. 

The Territorial Penitentiary is located here upon what 
is known as the "Hill," on the bank of the Colorado River, 
and at this time has about three hundred occupants, among 
them five women, under the management of Colonel Wil- 
liam Griffith, and it must be said the prison is well man- 
aged. Perfect order is maintained and all about the place 
is as neat and tidy as the best kept hotel. 

Of hotels, Yuma City has several, and well conducted. 
Of papers, there are two, weeklies, the Sentinel, established 
in 1871, and the Sun, both ably edited. 

Of churches, there are. Catholics and Methodists. The 
schools are first-class, with an able corps of teachers. The 
city is well lighted by electricity. Total valuation of property 
for taxation, $1,277,571.69 for 1903. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
Closing Remarks. 

This history of Arizona commences with the earliest 
data attainable, and the endeavor has been to show what 
possibilities there are for all parts of Arizona to become 
habitable for civilized man. 

When the United States acquired from Mexico by the 
treaty of 1853 that portion of Arizona known as the Gads- 
den Purchase, it was understood to have been made not 
with an intention of getting land for settlement, but to ac- 
quire a feasible route for a railroad through to the Pacific 
Ocean, as the more northern routes, where roads have 
since been constructed, were not deemed at that day prac- 
ticable. When the Gadsden Purchase was first acquired, 
for some years it was not considered available for set- 
tlers, notwithstanding the elaborate reports of the country, 
which were, and are as reliable as any made since, un- 
der the supervision of the general government, especially 
those made during the administration of Franklin Pierce, 
from 1853 to 1857, when the Hon. Jefferson Davis was Sec- 
retary of War. It was considered there was very little 
land susceptible of agriculture, even too much desert for 
stock ; the fact, if ever known, was lost sight of that Span- 
iards had at least one hundred years before vast herds of 
cattle upon those desolate plains. After its acquisition the 
attention of settlers for a time was directed to mining, but 
transportation for all kinds of mining machinery or sup- 
plies was extremely high and not certain. Many times 
needed machinery would be from the Eastern States fully 
a twelve month en route, then {teqv\et\tly there was a wreck 
by land or sea, and it never came lo \v^xvd\ vV^^e^ ^T^Mq\i-a.O«Si 

190 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 191 

made mining in those days an uncertain quantity. The 
Apache Indian, also, figured largely in the list of impedi- 
menta to successful mining, as frequently the miners' ani- 
mals were stolen and maybe half the party killed ; some in- 
stances all were killed. For some years mining was practically 
abandoned except in a few isolated cases, and of these 
fewer still made the business a success. 

There were several years when the main business of 
the few people in the Territory was more or less in con- 
nection with the troops sent in to the Territory to subdue 
the hostile Apaches. 

Arizona embraces a large extent of country, being larger 
than all New England and New York combined. Eastern 
people have been very ready to speak in a commiserating 
fashion of "your desert wastes," perhaps, not realizing the 
vast extent of Arizona. The valley of the Salt and Gila 
Rivers contains as much agricultural land of the finest qiial- 
ity as the State of Vermont. The valley of the Gila con- 
tains as much agricultural land as the State of Rhode 
Island. There are many valleys throughout the Territory 
that contain bodies of fine land. AH that is required is water 
to be developed, to cause these valleys to bring forth their 
. richness. On the Colorado River, which is upon the west- 
ern line of the Territory, is as much fine agricultural land 
and plenty of water to irrigate the same as is embraced in 
the State of Delaware. 

Arizona has been supposed to be a treeless desert, when 
the fact is she has one forest that in extent will compare 
favorably with the great forest of Central Africa, described 
so graphically by Stanley in his "Darkest Africa." 

Arizona has in herself everything required to make a 
great, rich and populous State. The great and indispen- 
sable article lacking is water. Once develop that and the 
question as to the greatness of Arizona at no distant day 
is assured. The minerals oi A.t\zotv3l m \?cv^ xxvovaxvVsLvcv ^-^cesj^^^ 



192 THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 

are of the greatest possible importance, not only to the in- 
habitants, but to the whole commercial world. The moun- 
tain ranges are all, without exception, filled with minerals, 
among which gold and silver largely predominate in value. 
There are immense deposits of copper and the output even 
now is colossal, but is not to be compared with that of a few 
years hence. 

The great copper mines about Bisbee, in Cochise County, 
are now turning out one hundred tons daily of pure copper, 
and will soon double that unless copper from any cause was 
to decline below cost of production. At Jerome, in Yava- 
pai County, or Clifton and Morenci, in Graham County, 
the supply is practically unlimited. There are vast 
amounts of iron, but such ore is only worked as a flux in 
smelting unless it contains, as it frequently does, the more 
precious metals, gold or silver. Some of the analyzers are 
doing well, in fact, making fortunes by having the tailings 
of old mines worked over for the molybdenum that can be 
gotten out. This is a rare metal that has been known only 
a few years, or if known no practical use made of it, but 
is now much sought for and used in hardening steel. Coal 
exists in our mountains in large quantities, but up to this 
time, too far from the railroad to be of any great value. 
Not far from Fort Apache, in the White Mountains, is a 
large deposit of coal and some of it has been brought out 
and used in blacksmith's forges and found to do well, still 
it lays there undisturbed, as it has done for many ages. Of 
salt there is at least a mountain of the pure rock salt, some 
forty miles nearly north from the mining city of Globe, 
in Gila County, from which issues quite a stream of clear 
water as strongly impregnated with salt as the ocean, and 
which causes the salinity of the water of the Salt River 
which must afford the water for irrigating the great valley 
surrounding Phoenix, in Maricopa County. From what has 
been disclosedy Arizona has great capabilities for support- 
ing a large population, and as popv\\a\AOTv ^i?cv\ck^'^% vcv ^^ 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 193 

older States and capital is accumulated, the tide will come 
into our favored land, and our numberless valleys will be 
turned into valuable producers for the necessities of a dense 
population. 

Arizona is advancing with giant strides from its lowly 
position as almost a "desert waste," and the day is not far 
away in this nation's history when she will be by virtue of 
her products, the keystone of the arch in the galaxy of 
States. 

There are two classes of individuals that are enemies of 
prosperity and a millstone upon the necks of the producer. 
The first, and probably most deadly, is the politician. As a 
class they are unscrupulous, always prating of the rights 
of the people, *'the dear people," but really considering the 
people as fair game to be plucked. The other is known as 
the "walking delegate," who, as far as he can, is endeavor- 
ing to break up the productive industries of the country, 
whatever pretenses may be put up by interested parties, 

"By their works ye shall know them," was said of old, 
and is applicable today. Men can and do lie as to their 
intent, but their acts tell with unerring certainty what they 
intended to do, and those acts are written with an iron pen 
upon adamantine tablets not to be effaced. 

Citizens of Arizona, look out for the politician! Poli- 
ticians are insatiable and would absorb your life-blood, 
while the "walking delegate" would paralyze your indus- 
tries, the very source of your national life. 



LIST OF ORIGINAL MEMBERS OF ARIZONA 
PIONEER HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Anderson, John Deceased 

Appel, Nathan B Deceased 

Appel, Horace B 

Los Angeles, Gal. 

Alsop, John T Deceased 

Aguirre, Pedro Buena Vista 

Austin, Frederick L. . . Deceased 

Aguirre, Pedro J Tucson 

Abadie, Paul Tucson 

Aguirre, Mariano Tucson 

Aguirre, Eugineo .... Red Rock 

Aguirre, Filiberto Tucson 

Aldridge, A. M Deceased 

Brunier, Eugene Tucson 

Brady, Peter R Deceased 

Bartlett, John Oro Blanco 

Bartlett, John G. ...Oro Blanco 

Barnes, Marshall Deceased 

Burrow, David J Tucson 

Brichta, Augustus Tucson 

Burke, Wm. H. H .... Deceased 
Burke, Thomas A. D. . . Deceased 
Burke, Platine R ...... Deceased 

Burke, Frank J Deceased 

Burke, Peter F Deceased 

Buckalew, Oscar .... Helvetia 

Brickwood, J. F Nogales 

Boland, Peter J Deceased 

Bailey, J. E Deceased 

Behan, John H Phoenix 

Brannan, John 

Residence unknown 

Bossing, Adam Deceased 

Baker, Charles 

Residence unknown 

Brady, Peter R., Jr Tucson 

Brady, Richard Garnett. Florence 
Bradley. William F. . . Fairbanks 
Brodie, Alex. O 

Governor of Territory 

Barnard, Geo. W Deceased 

Brichta, Bemibi C Tucson 



Baker, John Tucson 

Burgess, John D Tucson 

Blake, Wm. P 

Prof, in University 

Caballero, Augustus 

New Orleans 

Carillo, Leopoldo Deceased 

Chattman, Thomas B 

Dos Cabezos 

Calderwood, M. H Deceased 

Crook, General Geo.. .Deceased 
Carpenter, Sidney W.. Deceased 
Coler, Geo. ...Soldiers' Home 

Santa Monica 
Carillo, Emilio. . .Tanque Verde 

Caballero, Manuel Cochise 

Casey, John Deceased 

Capron, John G 

San Diego, Cal. 

Cargil, Andrew H Yuma 

Culver, W. H Tucson 

Contzen, Fritz Tucson 

Contzen, Philip Tucson 

Davis, Wm. C Deceased 

DeArmett, Berry Hill 

Deceased 

Dougherty, John O . . . Deceased 
Drachman, Philip .... Deceased 
Drachman, Samuel H . . . Tucson 

Drachman, H. A Tucson 

Drachman, Moses Tucson 

Devine, J. J Deceased 

Devine, J. C Florence 

De Long, Sidney R Tucson 

Dorrington, John W....Yuma 
De Course, Albert E.. Deceased 

Dennis, John T Phoenix 

Dunn, Wm. C Tucson 

Dunn, Wm. C, Jr Tucson 

Dennis, Samuel Phoenix 



195 



196 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 



Elias, Jesus M Deceased 

Elias, Juan Deceased 

Elliot, J. McC Deceased 

Edwards, Edward L... Deceased 

Etchell, Chas. T Deceased 

Engasser, Michael . .Greaterville 

Etchell, John C Tucson 

Etchell, Pedro M Tucson 

Elias, Francisco Deceased 

Elias, Juan Soperi 

Frazer, Robert Deceased 

Foster, Geo. F Deceased 

Ferguson, William C. Deceased 

Fairbanks, Benj. D Deceased 

Francis, Ferdinand . . . Deceased 

Fish, Edward N Tucson 

Fish, Franklin W Tucson 

Foster, Geo. H Tucson 

Frank, Abraham Yuma 

Finley, James Deceased 

Felix. W. E Tucson 

Ferrin, Joseph Tucson 

Felix, E. R Tucson 

Goldberg, Isaac Deceased 

Gates, Thomas Deceased 

Goodwin, Francis H . . . Deceased 

Gibson, Henry Deceased 

Gird, Richard Pomona, Cal. 

Goodwin, Charles C. Yuma 

Goldtree, Joseph ..... Deceased 

Gabriel, J. S Deceased 

Grijalba, Antonio. Tres Alamos 

Goodwin, Leander P Yuma 

Gibson, Pleasant M . . San Pedro 

Gonzales, Ejen Phoenix 

Goldbaum, Julius Tucson 

Goldwater, Joseph .... Deceased 
Goldberg, Aaron ...Deceased 
Guthrie, James E Tucson 

Hughes, Samuel, Sr Tucson 

Hughes, Samuel, Jr Tucson 

Hughes, Thomas Tucson 

Hughes, Stevens S Tucson 

Hufirhes, David L Tucson 

Hughes, Thomas E Deceased 

Hughes, James F. S Tucson 

Hughes, Fred G Tucson 

HarshsLw, David T Deceased 

Handy, John C Deceased 

Hand, Geo. O Deceased 



Holland, Patrick Deceased 

Hart, John B Deceased 

Huckie, John G Pima Co. 

Hancock, Wm. A Deceased 

Haines, Edwin C Deceased 

Hooker, Henry C Willcox 

Hunter, T. T Safford 

Hill, John. .Residence unknown 

Hubbard, Anthony G 

Residence unknown 

Henderson, David Deceased 

Hinds, Hugh M Deceased 

Holt, Joseph B Tucson 

Hovey, John H Ajo mine 

Holmes, William A... Deceased 

Jeffords, Thomas J 

Owl Heads 

Johnson, Matthew R Mesa 

Jacobs, B. M Tucson 

Jacobs, Lionel M Tucson 

Jameson, James Deceased 

Jeris, Jose. .Residence unknown 

Jaeger, L. J. F Deceased 

Jaeger, Hendrick John Lewis 

Tucson 

Johnson, Henry W.Daggett, Cal. 

Johnson, Ulrich Daggett, Cal. 

Junior, E. S Bradshaw 

Kitchen, Peter Deceased 

Keen, Andrew J Tucson 

Kirkland, William H.. Congress 
Keen, James Qark Tucson 

Lacy, Henry E Deceased 

Lazard, Alfonso Deceased 

Leatherwood, R. N.... Tucson 

Levin, Alexander Deceased 

Levin, Henry Nogales 

Lorette, Antonio 

Residence unknown 

Lyons, Isaac Deceased 

Layton, Christopher Deceased 

Luke, Charles A Deceased 

Linn, Adam Deceased 

Lopez, Peter P Tucson 

Madden, Daniel (Col. U. S. 

A.) Los Angeles, Cal. 

McKenna, Michael Deceased 

MsLTlm, (j^o. T 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 



. 197 



Martin, Fritz W Deceased 

McDermott, Wm A... Deceased 
Mitchell, Richard M . . Deceased 
Mansfield, Jacob S... Deceased 
McGowan, Edward . . . Deceased 

Meyer, Chas. H Deceased 

Miller, Thomas Deceased 

Martin, George Tucson 

Matthews, Peter 

Residence unknown 

Maish, Fred ...... Canoe Ranch 

Mansfield, M. M Tucson 

Mansfield, S. S Tucson 

Ming, Daniel H . . . Manila, P. I. 

Markle, John Yuma 

Macholz, Oscar Deceased 

Moyer, J Deceased 

Montgomery, Thomas 

on San Pedro River 

Moreno, Miguel Tucson 

McCormick, R. C Deceased 

Micheleno, Pedro. . Solomonville 

Miller, Charles Deceased 

Miles, General Nelson A.... 

Washington, D. C. 

Naylor, Charles H 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Oury, William S. (First Presi- 
dent of Society) . .Deceased 

Oury, Granville H Deceased 

Oury, Francis W Deceased 

Ochoa, Estevan, Sr. . .Deceased 

Ochoa, Estevan Jr Deceased 

Osborn, William J., Sr. .Tucson 
Osborn, William J., Jr. Deceased 

Otero, Sebino Tucson 

O'Reilley, Michael Deceased 



Palm, Barnibi 

Proctor, William C... 

Parker, Ben. C 

Poindexter, William G. 

Phy, Josephus 

Purdy, Sam 

Polhamus, Isaac '. 

Pasre, B. H 

Palmer, Horatio B 

Peralta, Miguel L 

Paxton, Chas. D 

Pool, Josiah 

Pheby, James 

Pacheco, Jesus M 



Deceased 
Deceased 
Deceased 
Deceased 
Deceased 
Deceased 
. . . Yuma 
Deceased 
. .Tucson 
Deceased 
Deceased 
Deceased 
Deceased 
. .Tucson 



\ 



Pacheco, Refugio Tucson 

Pacheco, Mateo Tucson 

Pacheco, Nabor Tucson 

Quinlan, James Deceased 

Ross, William J Tucson 

Redding, Michael 

Residence unknown 

Rogers, Benino B Deceased 

Robertson, Robert M.. Deceased 

Rusk, Theodore G Tucson 

Rusk, Robert E Nogales 

Romero, Francisco Tucson 

Stevens, Hiram S Deceased 

Sanford, Denton G Deceased 

Smith, Horace B Deceased 

Scott, Wm. F Tucson 

Smith, Edward J 

New Orleans, La. 

Samaniego, Mariano G.. Tucson 

Sanders, Adam Cananea 

Safford, Gov. A. P. K. .Deceased 
Shibelli, Charles A.... Tucson 

Sullivan, W. O Deceased 

Stevens, Geo. H 

Residence unknown 

Sampson, A. B Tucson 

Spring, John A.. Soldiers' Home 
Santa Monica, Cal. 

Stevens, James Graham Co. 

Smith, Lyman A Tucson 

Speedy, James Deceased 

Shibell, Charles B. . San Francisco 
Sullivan, Frank 

Residence unknown 

Skinner, Wm Soldiers' Home 

Washington, D. C. 

Stevens, Thomas H Tucson 

Steel, Thomas Willcox 

Tool, James H Deceased 

Tully, P. R Deceased 

Tully, Charles H Tucson 

Townshend, Oscar Francis... 

Yuma 

Thurlow, George M Yuma 

Tennier, Joseph 

Residence unknown 

Tidball, Thomas J. . . .California 
Tozer, Charles W 



198 



THE HISTORY OF ARIZONA 



Vanalstine, Nelson 

Tanque Verde 

Velasco, Demetrio Deceased 

Velasco, Carlos Y Tucson 

Velasco, Louis Tucson 

Vanalstine, Nicholas . . . Deceased 
Viel, Charles H Phoenix 

Witfeld, Gustave Deceased 

Waltermath, John H. C. Deceased 

Warner, Solomon Deceased 

Warner, Solomon John . . Tucson 

Walters, James Deceased 

Williams, Wheeler W... Tucson 

Wood, Erasmus D Deceased 

Wilkins, A Tucson 

Whalen, Wm Graham Co. 

Walker, N. Barthero ... Deceased 
Weringer, William A.. Deceased 



Wharton, Gabriel C ... Deceased 

Weldon, Albert Deceased 

Williams, R...Los Angeles, Cal. 

Wood, Miles L Benito 

Warlamont, Nicholas J 

Deceased 

Wharton, W R 

Residence unknown 

Warmsey, Michael Deceased 

Wasson, John. . .Pomona, Cal. 

Yerkes, Thomas M 

. . . Santa Ana, Sonora, Mex. 
Yerkes, Edwin A Deceased 

Zabriskie, James A Deceased 

Zeckendorf, William. New York 

Zeckendorf, A W New York 

Zeckendorf, Louis 

Tucson and New York 



LIST OF MEMBERS OF ARIZONA PIONEER HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY, WHO CAME TO THE TERRITORY 

AFTER JANUARY 1, 1870 



Anderson, J. Claude Tucson 

Blankenship, James Wm 

Nogales 

Bailey, Stephen M Tucson 

Barnes, W. H Deceased 

Bernard, Allen Cunningham. 

Tucson 

Bernard, Noah W Tucson 

Babcock, Kendrick C. (Presi- 
dent of University) .Tucson 

Black, John A Tucson 

Bayless, H. C Tucson 

Corbett, J. Knox Tucson 

Conly, Andrew Tucson 

Clanberg, Chas. Robert. .Tucson 
Chilson, L. D Tucson 

Drake, Charles R 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Drake, Jean Gerard 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Drake, William L 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Drake, A. Garfield 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Eber, Saly Tucson 

Fenner, Hiram W., Dr. Tucson 

Fleishman, Fred Tucson 

Francis, Will E Tucson 

Freeman, Merrill Pingree .... 

Tucson 

Field, B. P. W Tucson 

Graves, E. W Tucson 

Goodrich, Ben 

Tombstone or Tucson 

HoflF, Charles F Tucson 

Hoff, A. Gus Tucson 

Hereford, Frank H Tucson 

Hall, J. Howard. Tucson 



\ 



Kirkpatrick, W. J Tucson 

Kent, Judge Edward. . . .Phoenix 
Kengle, Slump William. Tucson 

Lully. Mark Nopales 

Lovell, Wm. McC. N . . . Tucson 
Lord, Frank H Seattle 

Manning, L. H. (City Mayor) 

Tucson 

Martin, John H New York 

Minty, General Robert H. G. 

Jerome 

Magee, John E Tucson 

Murray, Inernay M Tucson 

Perry, Jas. C Phil., Pa. 

Proctor, Louis Frank. . .Cananea 

Rosenfeld, Bronath Tucson 

Reid, William Tucson 

Ronstatd, Jose M Tucson 

Rockridge, James George. . . 

Tucson 

Russell, E. Frank Tucson 

Schumacher, C. F Tucson 

Steinf elt, Albert Tucson 

Sturgis, William Spencer 

Tucson 

Schofield, Geo. P Tucson 

Sheldon, R. K Tucson 

Smith, Marcus A Tucson 

Scolari, John Tucson 

Tenney, Herbert B Tucson 

Treat, Frank S Tucson 

Trippel, Eugene J Tucson 

Van Kuen, Elihu P Tucson 

Woodward, Sherman Wm. . . . 

Tucson 

Wetmore, Edw;v.^d \^ . . . .'X.xsk^.^^ 



1^